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Title: ASCE 1193: The Water-Works and Sewerage of Monterrey, N. L., Mexico - The 4th article from the June, 1911, Volume LXXII, - Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. - Paper No. 1193, Feb. 1, 1911.
Author: Conway, George Robert Graham
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "ASCE 1193: The Water-Works and Sewerage of Monterrey, N. L., Mexico - The 4th article from the June, 1911, Volume LXXII, - Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. - Paper No. 1193, Feb. 1, 1911." ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note: Words in italics are indicated like _this_. Subscripts
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replicated faithfully except as listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


          INTRODUCTORY.                                    475
          THE CONCESSION.                                  476
          GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY.                          476
          POPULATION, AREA, AND MORTALITY.                 479
          RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE.                        480
          AVAILABLE SOURCES OF SUPPLY.                     484
          MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE.                          491
          ESTANZUELA SUPPLY.                               494
          SOUTH DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIR.                    506
          SAN GERONIMO GRAVITY SUPPLY.                     514
          DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIR AT OBISPADO.              525
          COMPARISON OF SOUTH AND OBISPADO RESERVOIRS.     530
          ANALYSES OF ESTANZUELA AND SAN GERONIMO WATERS.  532
          CITY WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.                  532
          MAIN SEWERAGE SYSTEM.                            539
          MAIN OUTFALL SEWER.                              542
          SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AND IRRIGATION LANDS.      545
          QUALITY OF AND RATES FOR LABOR.                  552
          COST OF WORKS.                                   552
          TARIFFS AND SANITARY REGULATIONS.                553
          ENGINEERS, ETC.                                  556
          DISCUSSION.                                      557
          JAMES D. SCHUYLER.                               557
          DAVID T. PITKETHLY.                              559
          V. SAUCEDO.                                      563
          GEORGE T. HAMMOND.                               567
          RUDOLF MEYER.                                    576
          GEORGE ROBERT GRAHAM CONWAY.                     580



                   AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS

                           INSTITUTED 1852

                             TRANSACTIONS

                            Paper No. 1193

                    THE WATER-WORKS AND SEWERAGE OF
                       MONTERREY, N. L., MEXICO.[1]

            BY GEORGE ROBERT GRAHAM CONWAY, M. AM. SOC. C. E.

     WITH DISCUSSION BY MESSRS. JAMES D. SCHUYLER, DAVID T. PITKETHLY,
         GEORGE S. BINCKLEY, VICENTE SAUCEDO, GEORGE T. HAMMOND,
             RUDOLF MEYER, AND GEORGE ROBERT GRAHAM CONWAY.



                              INTRODUCTORY.


[1] Presented at the meeting of February 1st, 1911.

Monterrey, the Capital of the State of Nuevo León, Mexico, is built on
the site of the old village of Santa Lucía de León, which was
established in 1583 by the Governor of the Kingdom of León, Don Luis
Carabajal. Four years later Carabajal was imprisoned by the Inquisition,
and the village of Santa Lucía was abandoned by its few inhabitants.

In 1596, Captain Diego Montemayor, a resident of Saltillo, in the
adjoining State, wishing to render a service to his king, Philip II of
Spain, assembled his friends, and on September 20th of that year,
proceeded to establish a town on the site of the old village on the
northern side of the principal spring at the place. The town was named
"Nuestra Señora de Monterrey" (Our Lady of Monterrey), after the Count
of Monterrey (Ojos de Santa Lucía y Valle de Extremadura), the ruling
Governor of New Spain, as Mexico was then called.

Monterrey is approximately in the center of the State of Nuevo León, 1°
12´ west of Mexico City, and in latitude 26° 40´ N. It is a distributing
railway center on the main line of the National Railroad, 270 km. from
the Rio Grande at Laredo, 1,022 km. from Mexico, and 520 km. from
Tampico by the Mexican Central Railway. It is the center of many large
industries, and is the second largest manufacturing city in the
Republic.



                            THE CONCESSION.


The works described in this paper were carried out under a guaranteed
concession granted by His Excellency, General Bernardo Reyes, Governor
of the State of Nuevo León, to Messrs. James D. Stocker and William
Walker, of Scranton, Pa. The concession is dated October 19th, 1904, and
is for 99 years from that date; the works for a complete water and
drainage system were to be finished in 3 years from the time of their
commencement. Before the works were designed and begun, the concession
was acquired by Mr. William Mackenzie, of the firm of Mackenzie, Mann
and Company, Limited, of Toronto, Ont., Canada, who, on May 4th, 1906,
organized the Monterrey Water-Works and Sewerage Company, Limited
(Compañía de Servicio de Agua y Drenaje de Monterrey, S. A.), under the
laws of the Dominion of Canada, of which company he is President. Mr.
Mackenzie is also President of the Monterrey Railway, Light, and Power
Company, Limited, which was constructing the street railways of
Monterrey concurrently with the water-works. Under the provisions of the
concession, the Government appointed a Financial Interventor, who had
authority to examine and check the company's expenditures, and also a
Technical Inspector to examine and report on the construction. The
duties of these officials also apply to the operation of the system when
the construction is finished. The Government has the right, after the
system has been operated 40 years, to purchase the entire property,
subject to 6 months' notice, for a sum equal to 16-2/3 times the average
annual net proceeds during the 3 preceding years. This right may be
exercised at the end of 40 years, or at the end of any 10-year period
thereafter, up to 99 years from the commencement of operations.



                         GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY.


Monterrey lies in a plain at the foot of the Eastern Sierra Madre
Mountains which constitute the eastern margin of the Mexican Cordilleran
Plateau, and is surrounded by the magnificent mountains of that group,
among the most notable of which are the beautiful Mitra and Silla
Mountains. In the neighborhood of Monterrey these mountains attain
heights of from 2,000 to 2,400 m., and are noted for their broken and
jagged sky-lines. The leading geological characteristics of the district
are the uplifted limestones of the older cretaceous age which form the
main mass of the mountains.

Primarily, the mountains are compressional folds which, in the Sierra
Madre, near Monterrey, are close and vertically compressed.[2] The
drainage areas of the Santa Catarina River, which flows through
Monterrey, and of the Estanzuela and Silla Rivers, its tributaries, are
of limestone and shale; originally the shales were above the limestone,
but the convulsion which formed the Sierra Madre as an anticlinal fold,
left the originally horizontal strata standing nearly upright, and
subsequent erosion in the upper part of the anticline has exposed nearly
vertical strata in many places. The limestone being hard and resisting
erosion, there is generally, along the line of contact, an abrupt drop
vertically on the face of the limestone to the shale below. In many
places this abrupt drop is broken by a limestone talus, but the line of
contact can generally be traced. Mining operations in these mountains
have revealed the presence of large caves at a considerable elevation,
many of which contain large reservoirs of water, delivered to them
through numerous faults. The river valleys are formed of masses of
limestone conglomerate and coarse gravels, re-cemented in many cases by
the lime deposits of the flowing waters. One of the chief
characteristics of the subsoil of Monterrey itself is a local rock
called "sillar," which is a superficial deposit of carbonate of lime
from the evaporated waters. In some places the "sillar" is largely mixed
with a conglomerate called "tepetate," or "impure sillar."

[2] _Transactions_, Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., Vol. XXXII (1902), pp.
163-178.

[Illustration: PLATE II.--GENERAL PLAN OF THE WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE
WORKS FOR MONTERREY, N. L., MEXICO.]

Topographically, the region around Monterrey is distinguished by the
drainage area of the River Santa Catarina, which rises in the Sierra
Madre near the Laguna de Sanchez, at an elevation of 1,850 m., as shown
on Plate II. From this Laguna it follows a tortuous course between
precipitous mountains through the Boca of Santa Catarina to Monterrey,
for a distance of 90 km., eventually finding its way to the San Juan
River, a tributary of the Rio Grande. Throughout its course it
disappears, flows underground, and again appears; and, except in flood
time, it has a subsurface flow for a distance of 16 km. above the city.
In the Cañon of Santa Catarina it appears at the surface, having a
normal flow of about 1,415 liters (50 cu. ft.) per sec., and its waters
at that point are divided into two parts and carried into irrigation
canals. The drainage area of the river above Monterrey is 1,410 sq. km.,
and its bed at Monterrey is between 518 and 545 m. above sea level.

Southward from Monterrey the country rises along the valley of the Silla
for a distance of 19 km., where the Silla is separated from the San Juan
by a low divide, the former flowing northward to Monterrey and the
latter southeastward toward Allende. The Silla Valley is bounded on the
east and west by the steep ranges of the Silla and Sierra Madre
Mountains. The floor of this valley is gently rolling, but is cut by
many arroyos which carry little or no water during the greater part of
the year. The chief feeder of the Silla River is the Estanzuela, a
stream which derives its waters from several springs coming to the
surface near the line of contact between the limestone and the shale, at
elevations of about 800 and 900 m.[3] above datum. The water-shed of
this stream is rich with abundant vegetation due to the precipitation
being greater than on the Santa Catarina water-shed. To the south of the
divide the country is well wooded, and El Porvenir, 35 km. from
Monterrey, is the garden spot of the State of Nuevo León. Here the
rainfall is much greater than at any other point near Monterrey, and
there are many streams which are used for irrigation purposes. Monterrey
is built on a plain, chiefly on the north side of the Santa Catarina
River. This plain has a general fall toward the northeast, and beyond
the city it slopes gently northward for several miles toward the Topo
Grande River, and then southeastward to join the great coastal plain of
the Gulf of Mexico. The general elevation of the city lies between the
519- and 550-m. contours. The Plaza Zaragoza, in the center of the city,
is 533.90 m. above sea level; the elevation of the highest part of the
city, at the western boundary, is 550.05 m., and of the lowest part, at
the northeastern boundary, 518.0 m. above sea level.

[3] Throughout this paper datum refers to the height in meters above the
mean sea level of the Gulf of Mexico at the Port of Tampico.

[Illustration: PLATE III, FIG. 1.--GENERAL VIEW OF LINE, ESTANZUELA
AQUEDUCT.]



                    POPULATION, AREA, AND MORTALITY.


The population of Monterrey has increased as follows:

                  Census of   1851      14,621
                    "  "      1861      26,000
                    "  "      1871      33,811
                    "  "      1881      39,456
                    "  "      1891      41,154
                    "  "      1901      73,508
                  (Estimated) 1909      86,000 to 90,000

The greatest progress, it will be noted, was between 1891-1901, with an
increase of more than 22,000 in 10 years. In designing the new works,
provision has been made for the future requirements of a city of 200,000
persons.

The actual area within the city limits proper is 960.5 hectares (2,374
acres), forming the area to be provided with water and drainage, but the
municipal district extends to many surrounding suburbs, and covers an
area of 33,758 hectares (83,426 acres).

        TABLE 1.--POPULATION AND DEATH RATE OF MONTERREY, N. L.,
                  MEXICO, FROM 1901 TO 1909, INCLUSIVE.

  ============+========+=========+========+=========================|
              |        |         |        |DEATHS FROM TYPHOID FEVER|
              | Popu-  | Deaths  | Rate   +----+----+----+----+-----+
     Year.    |lation. |from all |  per   |    |    |    |    |     |
              |        | causes. | 1,000. |Jan.|Feb.|Mar.|Apr.|May. |
              |        |         |        |    |    |    |    |     |
  ------------+--------+---------+--------+----+----+----+----+-----+
  Census 1901 | 73,508 |   2,965 |  40.3  |  0 |  2 |  1 |  3 |  4  |
  Estim. 1902 | 74,500 |   3,338 |  44.8  |  1 |  4 |  2 |  3 |  6  |
     "   1903 | 76,000 |   3,825 |  50.3  |  3 |  2 |  4 |  1 |  0  |
     "   1904 | 77,500 |   2,905 |  37.4  |  0 |  1 |  1 |  5 |  3  |
     "   1905 | 79,000 |   2,951 |  37.4  |  2 |  0 |  0 |  3 |  3  |
     "   1906 | 80,000 |   2,935 |  36.7  |  1 |  2 |  1 |  3 |  3  |
     "   1907 | 82,500 |   3,269 |  39.6  |  4 |  6 |  3 |  3 |  5  |
     "   1908 | 84,000 |   3,188 |  37.9  |  5 |  2 |  5 |  3 |  8  |
     "   1909 | 86,000 |[4]3,477 |  40.4  |  5 |  1 |  4 |  5 | 13  |
  ============+========+=========+========+====+====+====+====+=====+

  ============+=========================================+==============+
              |  DEATHS FROM TYPHOID FEVER. (Continued) | Deaths from  |
              |----+----+----+----+----+----+----+------+ Typhoid fever|
  Year.       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |Total | per year per |
              |Jne.|Jly.|Aug.|Sep.|Oct.|Nov.|Dec.|for   | 100,000      |
              |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |year. | population.  |
  ------------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+------+--------------+
  Census 1901 |  3 |  6 |  6 |  3 |  6 |  4 |  2 |   40 |     54       |
  Estim. 1902 |  5 |  3 |  1 |  1 |  2 |  3 |  5 |   36 |     48       |
     "   1903 |  5 |  3 |  5 |  6 | 16 |  3 |  1 |   49 |     64       |
     "   1904 |  3 |  3 |  4 |  1 |  5 |  1 |  0 |   27 |     35       |
     "   1905 |  7 |  6 |  3 |  2 |  7 |  2 |  2 |   37 |     47       |
     "   1906 |  6 |  5 |  3 |  2 |  1 |  2 |  3 |   32 |     40       |
     "   1907 |  6 |  4 |  4 |  9 |  3 |  0 |  3 |   50 |     61       |
     "   1908 |  5 |  9 |  7 |  2 |  7 |  4 |  0 |   57 |     68       |
     "   1909 | 11 | 15 | 12 |  6 |  8 |  3 |  4 |   87 |    101       |
  ============+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+======+==============+

[4] Excluding deaths due to drowning in the great flood of August 27th
and 28th.

Table 1 gives particulars of the death rate for 1901 to 1909, inclusive,
and data relative to the mortality due to typhoid fever. The high death
rate is caused by the excessive infantile mortality, which is so
prevalent throughout the whole of Mexico. The climatic condition of
Monterrey, with its exceptionally healthy subsoil, ought to make it one
of the healthiest of cities, if proper care were taken to enforce
sanitary laws. The data regarding typhoid mortality are probably
understated, as they were compiled by the writer, in the absence of any
official publications, from the actual death certificates, but no
special care is taken by the authorities to insure accuracy in such
certificates. Attention is called to the typhoid rate in May, June,
July, and August, 1909; this high rate coincides with a scarcity of
rainfall and the greatest period of drought experienced in 30 years, and
immediately precedes the great flood of August 27th. It was probably due
to the lowering of the ground-water throughout the city and the
consequent contamination of the private wells, which were largely in use
during that time. Throughout the city the wells are sunk to a depth of
about 12 or 15 m., in order to reach the subterranean waters, and the
cesspools are often in dangerous proximity to them and at a much higher
level. The nature of the subsoil, which is often much fissured and open
in the conglomerate and sillar strata, would make the passage of
contamination an easy matter, and this alone would account for a high
mortality due to water-borne diseases.



                       RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE.


The precipitation records of Monterrey and its neighborhood are very
meager, and cannot be relied on for a longer period than from 1894 to
1909, inclusive. The records are available from 1886, but in the early
years there are many apparent discrepancies, and they are probably
inaccurate. The average rainfall for the 15 years (1894-1908) is 21.94
in.; the driest years for this period are as follows: 1894, 14.14 in.;
1902, 15.29 in.; 1907, 15.23 in.; 1908, 15.11 in. Assuming the early
records to be correct, the average rainfall for the period, 1886-1908,
would be 19.86 in.

At Saltillo, which is 50 miles due southwest, at an elevation of about
1,520 m. above sea level, the average rainfall for the 23 years,
1884-1908, inclusive, is given as 21 in. The maximum year was 1889, with
33-1/2 in., and the minimum 1903, with 7-1/2 in.

At Carmen, in the State of Tamaulipas, 144 km. southwest of Monterrey,
at an elevation of about 310 m. above sea level, the average fall for 12
years is 24.70 in., the maximum year being 1897, with a fall of 34.09
in., and the minimum year, 1905, with 13.41 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--ANNUAL RAINFALL IN MONTERREY COVERING THE PERIOD
FROM 1894 TO 1909.]

Fig. 1 shows the annual variation of rainfall at Monterrey for
1894-1909. Fig. 2 shows the monthly variation during the same period,
and gives the minimum, average, and maximum for each month.

From these diagrams it will be seen that the months of least rainfall
are December, January, February, and March, with averages of 0.66, 0.59,
0.79, and 0.93 in., respectively. The months of greatest rainfall are
August, with an average of 4.39 in., and September with 4.87 in. The
maximum in any month prior to 1909 was 16.75 in., during September,
1904.

_Rainfall in 1909._--The rainfall in 1909 was unprecedented, causing the
disastrous flood in the Santa Catarina River, which will be referred to
when describing the works. Fig. 3 shows the monthly rainfall for 1906 to
1909, inclusive, and has been plotted to show the variation of rainfall
prior to the great precipitation of August, 1909. In that month there
were two heavy falls, one beginning at midnight on August 9th, and
during the following 42 hours a fall of 13.28 in. was recorded by the
gauge at the Water-Works Company's general offices, 10.20 in. of which
fell, during the first 24 hours. From 6 P. M. to 11 P. M., on August
10th, 5.019 in. were recorded, or an average of 1 in. per hour.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--MONTHLY RAINFALL IN MONTERREY COVERING THE
PERIOD FROM 1894 TO 1909 INCLUSIVE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--MONTHLY VARIATION OF RAINFALL AT MONTERREY
1906-1907-1908-1909.]

After 13 dry days, another rainstorm began, at 4 P. M., on August 25th,
and continued more or less intermittently until August 29th. During this
98-hour period there was an additional fall of 21.61 in., 11.27 in.
falling in 24 hours.

The total precipitation during the month amounted to 36.00 in. The
highest previous record for the month of August was in 1895, with a fall
of 6.61 in. Fig. 4 gives the details of the two heavy precipitations in
August. As no automatic recording gauge was available, the maximum
intensity could only be computed approximately, owing to the
intermittent character of the readings taken from the ordinary rain
gauge on the roof of the Water-Works Company's office in the city. From
the readings thus obtained, it was shown that the maximum intensity
occurred early on the morning of the 28th, and was nearly 2 in. per
hour. Above Monterrey, in the Santa Catarina water-shed, it is believed
that the precipitation was considerably greater, but no gauges were
accessible during the month.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--CURVE OF RAINFALL AT MONTERREY DURING AUGUST
10TH & 11TH AND FROM AUGUST 25TH TO 29TH - 1909.]

The total rainfall for 1909 amounted to 47.46 in., of which 75% fell in
August. This is 50% greater than the previous highest annual record
(31.65 in. in 1900) for Monterrey.

_Temperature._--Fig. 6 gives a record of the temperature at Monterrey
from 1901 to 1909, inclusive. These records were taken at an altitude of
520 m. It will be noted that the lowest recorded temperatures are in
January and February. The lowest during these years was 24° Fahr., in
January, 1905. The monthly maxima vary between 80 and 110° Fahr. The
mean annual temperature is 72.65° Fahr. (The mean annual barometer is
28.2 in.)

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--DIAGRAM OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION AT MONTERREY,
1901-09.]



                       AVAILABLE SOURCES OF SUPPLY.


The question of the best sources from which Monterrey should be supplied
with potable water was one that had been long under discussion, and was
the subject of many investigations prior to the granting of the present
concession. Several of the original schemes called for an impounding
reservoir in the Cañon of Santa Catarina and it was on the assumption
that a dam would be built that a clause was inserted in the concession
for the purpose of making its construction obligatory. The general
character of the physical and geological conditions surrounding
Monterrey has already been referred to. A thorough study of these
conditions proved that no suitable site for impounding the Santa
Catarina River could be found, apart from the fact that periodically
this river is subject to enormous floods which tear through the steep
cañon with tremendous velocity.

At the site originally proposed for the dam, a considerable underflow
was found, and later investigations, carried out under the present
concession, proved that, although borings were carried to a depth of 54
m., bed-rock could not be found, the strata being composed of gravels,
conglomerate and sand. Assuming that such a dam could have been built,
the quality of the water draining from a comparatively barren
water-shed, on which many thousands of goats are pastured, would have
made its filtration an absolute necessity before it could be delivered
to the consumers.

The various available sources from which water could be delivered to the
city by gravity were investigated by Mr. F. S. Hyde, in the autumn of
1905, and also by J. D. Schuyler, M. Am. Soc. C. E., who was afterward
retained as Consulting Engineer for the Company. The various
investigations made from time to time showed that the question of a
satisfactory supply was one of extreme difficulty, requiring prolonged
observation and study, more particularly into the character of the
underground sources of supply.

One of the chief characteristics of many of the streams in the State of
Nuevo León, is their disappearance and reappearance at different points
along their routes, and the Santa Catarina River, under normal
conditions, as already remarked, is a very notable example of a river
which is very dry at the surface for many kilometers of its length. In
the writer's opinion, the waters of this and similar rivers in the State
pass through many open caverns underground, so that experience gained in
the investigation of underflow waters in other places would be
insufficient to determine the quantity passing at any point along the
river if ascertained by merely computing it from the velocity of the
underflow and the area of the water-bearing gravels. The rainfall on the
water-shed of the Santa Catarina River is probably 25% greater than at
Monterrey, and all ordinary rains sink rapidly into the limestone soils
and quickly disappear. In another water-shed of a very similar
character, namely, that of the Rio Blanco, in the southern part of the
State, the underflow waters appear at the surface at a place called
Mezquital, where a metamorphosed sandstone barrier prevents them from
disappearing underground. At this point the normal quantity of water is
about 5,660 liters (200 cu. ft.) per sec., but it gradually disappears,
and a few kilometers below it has sunk to an insignificant stream,
finally disappearing altogether for about 20 km. In the neighborhood of
Monterrey similar conditions exist with regard to the surface-water
supplies, and investigations, therefore, were directed toward obtaining
unpolluted supplies from springs and underground sources.

_Santa Catarina Sources._--The chief points from which it was thought
desirable to obtain underflow supplies were (1) at the barrier of San
Geronimo, and (2) at the Cañon of Santa Catarina, both shown on Plate
II.

Conditions at San Geronimo, which is only 6-1/2 km. west of Monterrey,
were investigated by the State Government in 1892, to determine the
depth of bed-rock, the rock on either side of the valley being shale,
with its original bedding planes standing almost vertical. To determine
this depth, borings were made by driving 2-in. tubes until it was
assumed that bed-rock had been reached, a method which, in strata
containing so many boulders, was obviously unreliable. These borings
indicated that bed-rock was from 12 to 15 m. below the surface. If these
had proved to be correct, there is no doubt that a development of the
underground water at this point, by constructing a submerged dam
combined with an infiltration gallery, would have yielded a large
supply.

In March, 1906, the Company commenced operations at San Geronimo by
sinking a well a few meters north of the then dry bed of the river.
Water was found in considerable quantities a few meters below the
surface, practically at the level of the river, that is, 570 m. above
datum. This supply was used for provisional purposes, and will be
referred to later in describing the San Geronimo gravity supply works.

Between August, 1906, and January, 1907, 4-in. bore-holes were sunk in
the river bed and on the high ground to the north with a "Keystone"
driller outfit. These borings showed bed-rock immediately under the
river bed, at a depth of from 15 to 45 m., but dipping gradually as the
borings were carried northward.

Boring operations were also carried on at Santa Catarina, during
November and December, 1906, and in January, 1907, to determine the
geological conditions, and the results are shown on Fig. 7. From the
area of water-bearing gravels found, it was proposed to tap the
underflow water at the 630-m. level by an infiltration gallery. This
would have necessitated a gravitation tunnel 3,000 m. long, and an
aqueduct of 14 km., which it was proposed to carry to one of two
distributing reservoirs at Guadalupe, on the south side of the river,
opposite Monterrey. In May, 1907, the writer, after making a study of
all the available data which had been accumulated, had additional
borings sunk farther across the valley to the north, and these revealed
a considerable area of water-bearing gravels, and proved that, in former
geological times, the Santa Catarina flowed about 500 m. north of its
present position, and to the back of Obispado Mountain, instead of
through the city. This aspect of the subject was discussed with Mr.
Schuyler, who agreed with the writer that, in the interest of economy,
it was better to tap this supply by an infiltration gallery at the
560-m. level, and bring the water thus obtained to a reservoir to be
placed at the western limits of the city, dividing the city, for
distribution purposes, into two interchangeable systems, a high- and a
low-pressure, the high-pressure system being supplied from Estanzuela,
18 km. south of the city. One advantage to be gained from this change
was that the scheme was capable of considerable extension, and any
future developments at Santa Catarina Cañon would form part of the works
to be constructed for both high- and low-pressure districts.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--CROSS-SECTION OF SANTA CATARINA RIVER AT SANTA
CATARINA.]

The future extension of the Santa Catarina sources, the writer believes,
can be developed best by driving an infiltration gallery 10 m. below the
surface of the Santa Catarina River, a little west of the village of the
same name, and then conveying the water through a comparatively short
gravitation tunnel and pressure conduit to a main reservoir near San
Geronimo having a top water level at an elevation of about 590 m. above
datum.

_Southern Sources of Supply._--The available sources of supply southward
from Monterrey include a number of springs at various points in a
distance of 40 km. Many of these springs are of uncertain quantity, and
some are quite dry during periods of drought. The chief perennial
springs near Monterrey are those which contribute to form the Estanzuela
and Diente Rivers, both tributaries of the Silla, while farther south,
at the Potrero Cerna, near El Porvenir, there are excellent springs, at
a considerable elevation, with a minimum flow of from 170 to 200 liters
(from 6 to 7 cu. ft.) per sec. The total quantity of water available
from all these springs during the driest season would probably not be
less than about 560 or 700 liters (from 20 to 25 cu. ft.) per sec.

The Estanzuela springs issue at the foot of the Sierra Madre Mountains,
and have a normal flow of from 56 to 85 liters (2 to 3 cu. ft.) per sec.
in an ordinary dry year; they probably derive their water, through the
limestone formation, from the neighboring water-shed of Santa Catarina,
as the catchment area of the stream is only 910 hectares, and the stream
has never been known to fail, even in the driest periods of prolonged
drought. The rainfall on the area is about 30 in. per annum, and the
catchment area is well wooded and covered with abundant vegetation. The
El Diente springs have an ordinary dry-weather flow of about 28-1/2
liters (1 cu. ft.) per sec.; but part of the water is carried
underground, and the real quantity is much greater and could be
developed by a small submerged dam carried down to bed-rock.

The elevation and the extreme purity of the water of the Estanzuela
River made its acquisition very desirable, and the Company, therefore,
purchased the Federal water rights owned by various members of the
Estanzuela community, amounting to 91 liters per sec., and has since
acquired a Federal concession to all the flood-waters of that river. It
was decided, therefore, to adopt the Estanzuela River as the first step
toward developing the water to the south of Monterrey for a
high-pressure supply, the advantage of the scheme being that from time
to time extensions could be made to tap other sources by gravity, as the
demands of the city required. The Estanzuela scheme, therefore, is a
preliminary step toward future extensions which will be necessary in
this direction as the city grows. The springs near El Porvenir, and
others which contribute to the San Juan River, can be tapped at a
sufficiently high level to convey them by a gravity pressure line to the
Estanzuela Aqueduct near Mederos.

The two sources definitely decided on in July, 1907, were those from
Estanzuela and San Geronimo. The works were designed to supply
40,000,000 liters daily, which it was assumed would be sufficient for
all future developments for a population of 200,000 at a per capita
consumption of 200 liters per day. The present requirements of the
city's population, assuming that all the water was supplied by the
Company, would be, at that rate, which is a very liberal one, only
18,000,000 liters daily. This, it was thought, would be easily met by
the San Geronimo source alone, as it was estimated that it would provide
not less than 20,000,000 liters, if the infiltration gallery was driven
far enough into the water-bearing gravels.

The question of a high-pressure water supply for domestic use in a city
like Monterrey is not a serious one, as practically nine-tenths of the
houses are of one story. The increase in the number of large commercial
buildings, however, will make the demand greater in the future, and this
point has been kept in mind in arranging the division of the
distribution systems.



                         MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE.


_Cement._--In the early stages of construction the cement for the work
was obtained from the Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers, Limited,
of London, which supplied the "Pyramid" brand, from the Knight, Bevan,
and Sturges Works, but later the supply was obtained from a new factory
at Hidalgo, near Monterrey. The total quantity of Portland cement used
was 42,500 bbl. of "Pyramid" and 32,500 bbl. of "Hidalgo." The English
cement was tested for the Water-Works Company in London before shipment
and again at Monterrey, to conform to the British Standard
Specifications; the "Hidalgo" cement was required to pass the Standard
Specifications advocated by the Special Committee of the American
Society of Civil Engineers. The quality in each case was of the very
highest, no difficulties being experienced at any time.

_Sand and Rock._--One of the chief difficulties in connection with the
construction work in its initial stages was in procuring satisfactory
sand for the concrete. An investigation of the quality of all the
available sands in the neighborhood of Monterrey resulted in the
decision to use a manufactured sand obtained from the calcareous shales
in the foot-hills opposite the city, on the south side, and near the
site of one of the proposed reservoirs. A quarry was opened, and the raw
material was delivered by a gravity plane to a crushing plant, 230 m.
from the quarry and at a level about 50 m. lower.

The plant consisted of a No. 5 Austin gyratory rock-crusher, fitted with
elevators and revolving screens of various dimensions, driven by a
150-h.p. Erie steam engine; two sets of Traylor's heavy-duty crushing
rolls, one having 30 by 16-in. and the other 18 by 12-in. rolls; and a
Niagara sand disintegrator. This plant, except during a short period
when the requirements were beyond its capacity, was able to produce all
the sand and rock required for construction purposes. More than 40,000
tons of rock were quarried, the greater part of which was converted into
crushed stone and sand.

Table 2 gives the chemical analysis of the chief constituents of the
various sands examined.

   TABLE 2.--ANALYSIS OF SANDS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF MONTERREY.

              KEY:

              A: Percentage of silica (absolute), SiO_{2}
              B: Percentage of alumina, Al_{2}O_{3}
              C: Percentage of sesquioxide, Fe_{2}O_{3}
              D: Percentage of lime carbonate, CaCO_{3}

  ===+============================+=======+=======+=======+=======+
  No.| Location.                  |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |
  ---+----------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
   1.| Arroyo Seco, near          |       |       |       |       |
     |   brickyard at Monterrey   | 60.10 |17.95  |  2.89 |  8.01 |
   2.| Arroyo Seco, near          |       |       |       |       |
     |   brickyard at Monterrey,  |       |       |       |       |
     |   No. 2                    | 42.92 |14.26  |  4.66 | 34.58 |
   3.| Near Garcia Station,       |       |       |       |       |
     |   Mexican National R. R.,  |       |       |       |       |
     |   Chiquito River, No. 1    | 50.22 | 9.72  |  1.44 | 34.62 |
   4.| Near Garcia Station.       |       |       |       |       |
     |   Mexican National R. R.,  |       |       |       |       |
     |   Chiquito River, No. 2    | 48.7  | 4.92  |  8.28 | 35.43 |
   5.| San Luis Potosí            | 85.02 | 5.00  |  7.38 |  2.21 |
   6.| Topo Grande, Pesquería     |       |       |       |       |
     |   River                    | 40.20 | 5.15  |  4.25 | 46.50 |
   7.| Hornos, near Torreón       | 77.9  | 13.1  |  2.4  |  4.9  |
   8.| Salinas River, at Salinas  | 41.5  |  5.7  |  1.4  | 48.2  |
   9.| Pits near Caballeros, on   |       |       |       |       |
     |   Tampico Branch of        |       |       |       |       |
     |   Mexican Central R. R.    | 73.4  |  5.6  |  4.4  | 10.1  |
  10.| Santa Catarina River,      |       |       |       |       |
     |   near San Geronimo        |       |       |       |       |
     |   (washed sand)            | 12.40 |  2.06 |  1.14 | 81.70 |
  11.| Santa Catarina River,      |       |       |       |       |
     |   at Monterrey             | 17.4  |  2.50 |  2.00 | 77.00 |
  12.| Composition of rock, quarry|       |       |       |       |
     |   in foot-hills opposite   |       |       |       |       |
     |   Monterrey, Monterrey     |       |       |       |       |
     |   Water-Works and Sewer    |       |       |       |       |
     |   Company's property       | 40.44 | 15.70 |  2.20 | 34.30 |
  13.| Manufactured sand from     |       |       |       |       |
     |   above quarry             |       |       |       |       |
     |   (run of crusher)         | 51.80 | 12.14 |  8.7  | 32.6  |
     |                            |       |       |       |       |
  ===+============================+=======+=======+=======+=======+

The chief sands used for ordinary building purposes in Monterrey are
Nos. 10 and 11, which are procured from the bed of the Santa Catarina
River. As these sands contain large proportions of lime carbonates,
which make them very undesirable for important structures, their use was
limited to relatively unimportant work. The best sands procurable were
Nos. 5 and 9, but the long distance of the pits from Monterrey, and
consequently the heavy freight rate, made their use prohibitive on
economical grounds. The best of the available sands, although it was
very fine, was No. 7, from Hornos, near Torreon, as it could be depended
on for uniformity and could be obtained f. o. b. cars at Monterrey for
3.18[5] pesos per ton.

[5] All costs given in this paper are in Mexican pesos, one peso being
equivalent to 50 cents in U. S. currency.

The bulk of the sand and crushed rock used was similar to Nos. 12 and
13, and reference to the cement sand tests in Table 3, will show that
the manufactured sands gave very satisfactory results.

Table 3 gives the average tests made with the "Hidalgo" cement and
various sands, alone and in combination, for the purpose of obtaining
comparative results; the mixtures tested were composed of 3 parts of
sand to 1 of cement.

        TABLE 3.--TESTS OF "HIDALGO" CEMENT WITH VARIOUS SANDS.

      =====================================+============+============
                     Sand.                 | At 7 days. | At 28 days.
      -------------------------------------+------------+------------
      Ottawa (Standard)                    |  305 lb.   |  414 lb.
      Monterrey, 1-1/2 parts, }            |            |
      Hornos, 1-1/2 parts     }            |  188  "    |  313  "
      Monterrey                            |  253  "    |  365  "
      Hornos                               |  202  "    |  301  "
      Manufactured sand, Company's crusher |  372  "    |  566  "
      Hornos, 2 parts,     }               |            |
      Crusher sand, 1 part }               |  231  "    |  352  "
      Hornos, 1-1/2 parts,      }          |            |
      Crusher sand, 1-1/2 parts }          |  265  "    |  346  "
      Hornos, 1 part,        }             |            |
      Crusher sand, 2 parts  }             |  248  "    |  328  "
      =====================================+============+============

The Hornos sand was used during a few weeks in the latter part of 1908,
when the crusher was unable to produce all that was required. Its use
was restricted to thick walls which were required to be water-tight, and
it was always used in equal proportions with the crusher dust.



                           ESTANZUELA SUPPLY.


[Illustration: FIG. 8.--LOCATION PLAN OF ESTANZUELA DAM.]

_Intake Works._--The intake (Fig. 8) is about 1 km. below the lowest
spring and at a point where the maximum flow of the stream was observed.
The works consist of a small monolithic concrete dam, placed obliquely
across the stream at an angle selected for the purpose of obtaining a
foundation running parallel to the direction of the strata, which at
this point were lying almost vertically across the bed of the stream.
Above these strata the stream bed was formed chiefly of large cemented
limestone blocks and smaller conglomerate. No storage being possible in
this valley, which has a very precipitous fall, the height of the dam
was fixed merely to obtain a small settling basin for sand and débris
brought down in time of flood. The dam foundation was excavated to
bed-rock, from which the upper disintegrated portions were carefully
removed; the rock was then stepped, and dovetailed recesses were left
for properly bonding the concrete.

The dam is carried well into the banks. Its extreme length is 52 m., its
maximum height 4.50 m., and its greatest thickness 2 m. The up-stream
face has a batter of 1 in 12, and the down-stream face, 1 in 8. The top
of the wall is 1 m. thick. For the discharge of flood-water there is a
weir 10 m. long, and it was calculated that with a depth of 1 m. it
would discharge about 400 times the ordinary flow, or about 23,000
liters per sec., but, in addition, the whole length of the dam
(excluding that occupied by the gate-house) was arranged for the
discharge of abnormal floods, one of which, on August 27th, reached the
enormous quantity of 82,070 liters (2,900 cu. ft.) per sec., or 825 cu.
ft. per sec. per sq. mile of drainage area, a remarkable run-off from so
small an area as 910 hectares. The concrete forming the dam is a 1:3:5
mixture. The overflow sill is 692 m. above sea level. When the dam was
completed it was filled to the overflow level, in order to test the
water-tightness of the basin, which, when cleared, was found to be
slightly fissured on the north side. The leakage was sufficient to cause
a serious loss during periods of drought, and it was then decided to
line the basin with concrete, so that the stream would enter it without
being under a head greater than its own depth. The length of the basin,
measured along the center line of the original stream surface, is 85 m.,
and its area is 1,100 sq. m. At its upper end it is merely a lined
channel, 5 m. wide at the entrance. The floor of the basin has a fall of
4 m. The lining was formed in two thicknesses totaling 30.5 cm. (12
in.) of 1:2-1/2:3-1/2 concrete, laid in panels approximately 3 m.
square, the upper panels breaking joint with those immediately below; in
this way a very satisfactory and water-tight lining was obtained. A
parapet wall, 45.7 cm. high, surrounds the basin. For scouring out the
basin a 30.5-cm. (12-in.) cast-iron pipe was taken through the dam at
the lowest point, this pipe being provided with a gate-valve encased in
concrete on the down-stream face.

The gate-house was built in connection with the dam at the north end of
the overflow weir, its inner dimensions being 4.34 by 2.80 m. The
substructure, to the level of the dam, is of concrete founded on the
solid rock, and the superstructure is of brick rendered with cement
plaster. The roof is of framed timber with red French tiles.

The intake pipe is of cast iron. 40.6 cm. (16 in.) in internal diameter,
fitted outside with a movable copper screen which is further protected
by a wrought-iron hinged screen to prevent damage from stones, floating
timber, etc., during times of flood. Inside the gate-house the outlet
pipe is provided with a 40.6-cm. (16-in.) sluice-valve, operated from
the floor level by a vertical head-stock with worm-gearing. The
gate-house has a scour-out pipe (also operated by a head-stock) and
duplicate copper screens fitted to iron frames. From this house the
water is conveyed to the upper portion of the conduit, which is a
45.7-cm. (18-in.) cast-iron pipe.

Of the total area of land, 885 hectares (2,187 acres), owned by the
company, 392 hectares (970 acres) have been fenced in, to prevent any
contamination of the springs. This fence is formed of five lines of
barbed wire protected with stout hog netting at the bottom, in order to
prevent more particularly the entrance of goats, many thousands of which
pasture in the adjoining mountains.

On the high ground immediately below the intake, a 3-roomed stone house
has been constructed for the inspector in charge of the intake works,
who also keeps in daily touch with the general office and records the
condition of the stream, particulars of rainfall, etc.

_Aqueduct._--The total length of the aqueduct, from the intake dam to
the South Reservoir, is 18,700 m., made up as shown in Table 4.

                      TABLE 4.--ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.

  +===========================================================+==========+
  |              Description.                                 |Length,   |
  |                                                           |in meters |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+----------+
  |                                                           |          |
  |Cast-iron pipes, 45.7 cm. (18 in.) in diameter, along      |          |
  |                   the stream bed of the Estanzuela River  |   110    |
  |                                                           |          |
  |Concrete tubes, 55.9 cm. (22 in.) in diameter,             |          |
  |                  to Mederos (including 281 m. of tunnel)  | 4,473.81 |
  |                                                           |          |
  |Cast-iron siphons, 45.7 cm. (18 in.)                       |          |
  |                          in diameter:  Calabozos    239 m |          |
  |                                        South Virgen 124 " |          |
  |                                        North Virgen 177 " |          |
  |                                        Mederos      426 " |          |
  |                                                     ----- |   966    |
  |                                                           |          |
  |Concrete tubes, 63.5 cm. (25 in.) in diameter,             |          |
  |                               Mederos to South Reservoir. |12,039.19 |
  |                                                           |          |
  |Cast-iron siphons, 50.8 cm. (20 in.) in diameter:          |          |
  |                                        Necaxa       315 m.|          |
  |                                        San Augustin 796 " |          |
  |                                                     ----- | 1,111    |
  |                                                           |          |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+----------+
  |              Total                                        |18,700    |
  +===========================================================+==========+

The gradient of the concrete pipes is 0.43% from Estanzuela to Mederos,
and 0.53% from Mederos to the South Reservoir. The calculated
discharging capacity of the conduit when running full is 364 liters (13
cu. ft.) per sec. for the upper, and 465 liters (16.4 cu. ft.) per sec.
for the lower section. For these pipes, the coefficient, _n_, in
Kutter's formula, was taken at 0.013. At present the line has been
limited by overflows to discharge three-quarters full.

The increase in the size of the pipes from Mederos is for the purpose of
receiving the waters of the Mederos River and other springs in the San
Pablo and Aqua Verde catchment areas, as shown on Plate II.

The invert of the concrete conduit where it leaves the Estanzuela River
is 684.25 m. above datum, and at the valve-house of the South Reservoir
it is 589.00 m.

The concrete pipes were manufactured and laid under contract with Mr.
Arthur S. Bent, of Los Angeles, Cal., the Company providing all
materials, labor, etc. The contractor was paid 10 cents per lin. ft. of
pipe manufactured and 10 cents per lin. ft. laid. He was also
responsible for the satisfactory completion of the work.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--ESTANZUELA PIPE LINE STEEL FORMS FOR THE
MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE PIPE.]

Fig. 9 shows the details of the joint recommended by Mr. Schuyler and
adopted for these pipes. The 63.5-cm. (25-in.) pipes were 61 cm. long
and 76 mm. (3 in.) thick. The 55.9-cm. (22-in.) pipes were of the same
length, but 70 mm. (2-3/4 in.) thick. For the purpose of strengthening
these pipes while hauling them over very rough roads they were
reinforced with four rings of No. 6 galvanized-iron wire.

_Manufacture of Pipes._--The pipes were manufactured under the
Supervision of Mr. H. Stanley Bent, at a pipe yard established below
the crushing plant, from which the crushed rock and sand were delivered
by gravity in bogies run on narrow-gauge rails. The area of the pipe
yard was approximately 1-1/4 hectares, and it was laid out with parallel
lines of 76-mm. (3-in.) galvanized-iron piping with hose couplings for
sprinkling purposes. After trials with aggregates of various sizes, the
concrete for the pipes was proportioned by volume as follows:

  Crushed rock broken to pass through a 19-mm. screen   0.136 cu. m.
  Manufactured sand (run of rolls)                      0.119  "  "
  Portland cement                                       0.090  "  "
                                                        ------------
  Total                                                 0.345 cu. m.=
                                                       (12.2 cu. ft.)


[Illustration: PLATE III, FIG. 2.--STEEL FORMS FOR MOULDING CONCRETE
TUBES, ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.]

The above quantity manufactured two 63.5-cm. pipes; a 55.9-cm. pipe
required 0.1415 cu. m. (5 cu. ft.) of the material, in the same
proportions. Fig. 9 shows the forms for these pipes, and Fig. 2, Plate
III, illustrates the process of moulding. The forms consist of cast-iron
bottom rings, to the proper section of the joint, and inner and outer
steel forms of 3-mm. plate, provided with inner and outer locking
arrangements. The concrete was poured through a cast-iron hopper which
fitted to the top of the outer form.

The concrete, which was mixed very dry, in a 1/2-cu. yd. batch, "Smith"
mixer, was thoroughly tamped with a 22-lb. tamper, and worked until it
was of a stiff jelly-like consistency, the wire rings being added as the
concrete was placed. The best results were obtained with the minimum
quantity of water. The upper joint was moulded with a heavy cast-iron
ring. The jacket and core forms were loosened immediately, and placed
over other rings, a sufficient number of bottom rings being used for a
day's work. For the pipes required for curves, special forms were used
to give the necessary bevel to the joint. After 24 hours the finished
pipes were lifted from the bottom ring with a special lifter, and ranged
in position for coating internally with a Portland cement grout to which
a little freshly slaked lime was added. The pipes were all numbered, and
were kept moist for 10 days by constant sprinkling. They were not hauled
to the work until 28 days after they were moulded, although this rule
was sometimes broken, to the detriment of the pipes. More than 32,000
pipes were manufactured, but some were used for purposes other than the
Estanzuela Aqueduct.

_Cost of Pipes._--The contractor brought with him experienced concrete
pipe makers from California, and these were afterward assisted by
Mexican labor. In a day two tampers could manufacture from 45 to 50
pipes of the larger (63.5-cm,), and from 55 to 60 of the smaller
(55.9-cm.) size.

The cost varied from 2.75 to 3.25 pesos per pipe for the smaller, and
from 3.50 to 4.00 pesos for the larger size.

The approximate cost of manufacturing is as follows: Taking, as a fair
example, one week's work during March, 1908, the wages paid to the 74
men comprising the total pay-roll (though part of this labor was
intermittent) amounted to 981 pesos. This includes a general foreman at
10 pesos per day, four American tampers at 7.50 pesos, and Mexican labor
varying from 4 to 1 peso, and all labor necessary to handle and finish
the pipes, including coating the interiors. During this week there were
made 1,126 of the 63.5-cm. and 1,095 of the 55.9-cm. size. The pay-roll
includes 520 pesos for the larger pipes (46 cents each) and 461 pesos
for the smaller pipe (42 cents each). Table 5 shows the quantities and
cost of the materials used in the manufacture of these pipes.

                    TABLE 5.--COST OF CONCRETE PIPE.

  ========================================+===============================
                                          | FOR 1,126 PIPES 63.5 CM.
                                          | IN DIAMETER.
            Materials.                    +-------------+-----------------
                                          | Quantities. |  Cost.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
  Portland cement, at 8.00 pesos per      |             |
    bbl., delivered at pipe-making yard.  |   401 bbl.  | 3,208.00 pesos.
  Sand, at 2.65 pesos per cu. m.          |    85 cu. m.|   225.25  "
  Crushed rock, 19-mm. (3/4-in.), at 2.65 |             |
    pesos per cu. m.                      |    62 cu. m.|   164.30  "
  No. 6 galvanized-wire hoops. 4 rings    |             |
    to each pipe.                         | 4,504       |   203.00  "
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
            Totals.                       |   ...       | 3,800.55 pesos.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
            Cost per pipe.                |   ...       |     3.37 pesos.
  ========================================+=============+=================

  ========================================+==============================
                                          | FOR 1,095 PIPES 55.9 CM.
                                          | IN DIAMETER.
            Materials.                    +-------------+----------------
                                          | Quantities. |  Cost.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
  Portland cement, at 8.00 pesos per      |             |
    bbl., delivered at pipe-making yard.  |   303 bbl.  | 2,424.00 pesos.
  Sand, at 2.65 pesos per cu. m.          |    68 cu. m.|   180.20  "
  Crushed rock, 19-mm. (3/4-in.), at 2.65 |             |
    pesos per cu. m.                      |    50 cu. m.|   132.15  "
  No. 6 galvanized-wire hoops. 4 rings    |             |
    to each pipe.                         | 4,380       |   183.00  "
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
            Totals.                       |   ...       | 2,919.45 pesos.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
            Cost per pipe.                |   ...       |     2.66 pesos.
  ========================================+=============+================

From Table 5 it is seen that the cost of the 63.5-cm. pipes was 3.37
pesos for material plus 0.46 peso for labor = 3.83 pesos per pipe, or
6.26 pesos per lin. m. (1.91 pesos per lin. ft.).

The cost of the 55.9-cm. pipes amounted to 2.66 pesos for material plus
0.42 peso for labor = 3.08 pesos per pipe, or 5.05 pesos per lin. m.
(1.54 pesos per lin. ft.).

The cost of cement included hauling from the bodega to the yard, a
distance of about 5 km. At a later date, after the Company had commenced
using the "Hidalgo" cement, some additional 55.9-cm. pipes were
manufactured, so as to have them on hand as a reserve in case of
emergency. In this work only Mexican labor was used, as the previous
gang had been dispersed, but the tampers had previous experience. Taking
the cost of 418 pipes made during one period of 9 days, the detailed
cost was as given in Table 6.

                  TABLE 6.--COST OF 55.9-CM. CONCRETE PIPES.

  ========================================+===============================
                                          | FOR 1,126 PIPES 63.5 CM.
                                          | IN DIAMETER.
            Materials.                    +-------------+-----------------
                                          | Quantities. |  Cost.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
  Portland cement, at 8.00 pesos per      |             |
    bbl., delivered at pipe-making yard.  |   401 bbl.  | 3,208.00 pesos.
  Sand, at 2.65 pesos per cu. m.          |    85 cu. m.|   225.25  "
  Crushed rock, 19-mm. (3/4-in.), at 2.65 |             |
    pesos per cu. m.                      |    62 cu. m.|   164.30  "
  No. 6 galvanized-wire hoops. 4 rings    |             |
    to each pipe.                         | 4,504       |   203.00  "
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
            Totals.                       |   ...       | 3,800.55 pesos.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+-----------------
            Cost per pipe.                |   ...       |     3.37 pesos.
  ========================================+=============+=================

  ========================================+==============================
                                          | FOR 1,095 PIPES 55.9 CM.
                                          | IN DIAMETER.
            Materials.                    +-------------+----------------
                                          | Quantities. |  Cost.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
  Portland cement, at 8.00 pesos per      |             |
    bbl., delivered at pipe-making yard.  |   303 bbl.  | 2,424.00 pesos.
  Sand, at 2.65 pesos per cu. m.          |    68 cu. m.|   180.20  "
  Crushed rock, 19-mm. (3/4-in.), at 2.65 |             |
    pesos per cu. m.                      |    50 cu. m.|   132.15  "
  No. 6 galvanized-wire hoops. 4 rings    |             |
    to each pipe.                         | 4,380       |   183.00  "
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
            Totals.                       |   ...       | 2,919.45 pesos.
  ----------------------------------------+-------------+----------------
            Cost per pipe.                |   ...       |     2.66 pesos.
  ========================================+=============+================

_Excavation for Pipe Line and Siphons._--The excavation for the pipe
line and for bridge works, etc., was let by contract to Messrs. Scott
and Lee, of Monterrey, under three classifications:

      (1) "All material which in the judgment of the Engineer can
      be economically loosened with picks and handled with
      shovels."

      (2) "Indurated earth or gravel, shale or rock which can be
      loosened without blasting, and 'sillar', locally so-called,
      whether pure or mixed with other substances, and whether it
      requires blasting or not."

      (3) "All rock not included in the above which requires
      drilling or blasting."

Locally, this classification is well understood, particularly No. 2, as
it covers the sillar soils which are common in the neighborhood of
Monterrey. The contract prices were: No. 1, 50 cents; No. 2, 1.50
pesos; and No. 3, 2.50 pesos per cu. m. These prices were over and above
the clearing and grubbing of the line, which was paid for at the rate of
100 pesos per hectare.

The route of the pipe line being along broken country, at some points
difficult of access, service roadways, about 3 m. wide, for hauling
material were constructed, and, for about 7 km., a roadway was made
along the line of the trench.

The prices for the roadway, under the above classification, were: For
No. 1, 35 cents; No. 2, 1.50 pesos; and No. 3, 2.50 pesos per cu. m.

The trenches were excavated 5 cm. below the required finishing depth, to
allow for grading the pipes in selected material, and were taken out to
an average width of 40 cm. greater than the outside diameter of the
pipe, to allow for their proper jointing, and also to give sufficient
room to roll the pipes in the trenches.

The final quantities of excavation were:

          TRENCH:   No. 1             11,115 cu. m.
                    No. 2             18,096  "  "
                    No. 3              6,650  "  "
                                    --------------
                    Total             35,861 cu. m.

          ROADWAYS: No. 1             4,165 cu. m.
                    No. 2             1,999  " "
                    No. 3                30  " "
                                     -------------
                    Total             6,194 cu. m.

The route of the pipe line was laid out so as to obtain an average fill
of not more than 1 m. over the tops of the pipes, but in some cases the
cuts, for short lengths, were 3 m. deep. The excavation for this work
began in June, 1907.

_Hauling Pipes._--The pipes were hauled to the site of the work with
ox-carts and mule teams. The cost of hauling varied from 25 cents per
pipe at the lower end, to 1 peso per pipe at the upper and,
comparatively speaking, inaccessible portion of the line. The weight of
each 55.9-cm. pipe was about 182 kg.; that of each 63.5-cm. pipe was
about 216 kg.

The breakages in all the pipes cast at the pipe yard amounted to about
1%, due chiefly to unloading them carelessly near the pipe line.

_Pipe Laying._--The pipe-laying gang was composed of 7 Mexicans under
the direction of an American foreman, who was in charge of several
gangs. One gang could lay daily from 60 to 73 m. (from 100 to 120
pipes). The following was the ordinary pay-roll for one gang:

       1 Foreman at 8 pesos (proportion).         2.00 pesos.
       1 Pipe layer at 3 pesos.                   3.00  "
       1 Pipe layer's assistant at 2 pesos.       2.00  "
       1 Cement mixer at 2 pesos.                 2.00  "
       2 Outside plasterers at 2.50 pesos.        5.00  "
       2 Inside plasterers at 2.25 pesos.         4.50  "
       1 Water boy at 0.50 peso.                  0.50  "
                                                  -----------
       Total.                                    20.00 pesos.

This brings the average cost of laying the pipes to 32.8 cents per lin.
m.

The pipes were jointed with 1:2 cement mortar, the outer joint being
rounded over both pipes for a width of 12-1/2 cm. (5 in.) and a height
of about 19 mm. (3/4 in.). In making these joints the pipe layers wore
rubber gloves. The joints were kept moist, and the trench was
back-filled with fine, screened material to a depth of 10 cm. above the
top of the pipe. Inside, the joints were carefully caulked with cement
and rendered smooth, the plasterers working continuously along with the
pipe layers, doing from 20 to 35 m. at a time. Water had to be conveyed
to the trenches by barrels on burros, and during the dry season it was
sometimes carried 5 or 6 km.

[Illustration: PLATE IV, FIG. 1.--TYPICAL REINFORCED CONCRETE GIRDER
BRIDGE, ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.]

[Illustration: PLATE IV, FIG. 2.--ELLIPTICAL ARCH BRIDGE CARRYING
ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.]

_Bridges._--The line as laid out passed over many gulches and dry
arroyos, and these were crossed with reinforced concrete bridges of
varying spans and heights, two being shown on Plate IV.

These bridges were formed of continuous horizontal girders, 1.10 m. deep
and 1 m. wide, with a cantilever overhang at the abutments, varying in
length from 1 to 2 m., so as to avoid settlement between the pipes and
the bridges. The bottom reinforcement consisted of from 2 to 6 twisted
bars of mild steel, varying in different spans from 12.7 to 19 mm. (1/2
to 3/4 in.) in diameter. The turned up bars were 28-1/2 mm. (1-1/8 in.)
in diameter; they were placed on either side, carried over the upper
part of the beams, and continued along the end for the overhanging part
of the girder. These bars, when not obtainable of the full length, were
spliced with a lap of 1.2 m. with No. 6 galvanized-steel wire. The
vertical stirrups were 4.7 by 25.4 mm. (3/16 by 1 in.), of mild steel;
they were equally spaced 30.5 cm. (12 in.) apart, and carried all around
the girders, lapping at the center about 15 cm. (6 in.), all the steel
being carefully wired together before placing the concrete.

The general type of the piers and abutments is shown by Fig. 1, Plate
IV, and varies in height with practically every bridge, the foundations
in every case resting on hard rock. The concrete for the girders was a
1:2-1/2:3-1/2 mixture, the crushed stone used having all passed a mesh
of 19 mm. (3/4 in.). The piers were of 1:3-1/2:5-1/2 concrete, and heavy
"displacers" were embedded within them.

The concrete was placed after the pipes had been laid through the form
by the pipe contractor, the joints being kept clear of the bottom to the
required distance by small moulded concrete blocks. The tops of the
girders were moulded to a slightly segmental form. The bridges were all
kept watered for about 15 days, and the forms were not struck for 28
days after placing. At Station 13.4 the pipes were carried over a
picturesque arroyo on an elliptical arched bridge (Fig. 2, Plate IV) of
11 m. clear span.

The abutments of all bridges were protected by rubble walls in cement
mortar carried up 60 cm. above the tops of the girders.

The contract price for the concrete work of these bridges, the Company
furnishing the steel and cement, was 14 pesos per cu. m., and for
placing reinforcing steel 35 pesos per metric ton (2,204 lb.).

There are 49 single-span bridges, the larger spans being 9.10 m.; 8
two-span, and 11 three-span bridges, their total length, including the
overhang, amounting to 870.50 m., or 4-1/2% of the whole length of
aqueduct.

_Concrete Aprons._--At 76 points there were small depressions which did
not necessitate the construction of bridges, and at these places the
pipes were encased in blocks of concrete carried up the hillside in the
form of an apron having small abutment walls from 1 to 2 m. apart. This
also served to protect the pipes from scouring action during rainstorms.
At the upper end of the line, near the intake, the pipe had to be
protected by concrete continuously for a distance of about 300 m., in
order to prevent damage from falling rocks.

[Illustration: PLATE V, FIG. 1.--VENTILATING COLUMN AND ENTRANCE
MANHOLE, ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.]

_Ventilators and Manholes._--Along the route of the concrete pipe there
are 27 ventilators, one of which, together with an entrance manhole, is
shown by Fig. 1, Plate V. They consisted of simple concrete columns,
3.35 m. high, above the ground line, the interior of the shafts being
formed of fire-clay pipes, 15 cm. (6 in.) in diameter. At each
ventilator the pipe was cut and a block of concrete, the width of the
trench, filled in as a foundation. Entrance manholes were also placed at
49 points, at 27 of which they immediately adjoined the ventilating
columns.

_Estanzuela Tunnel._--At 1,560 m. from the intake at Estanzuela, the
conduit is laid through a tunnel 281 m. long. The tunnel was driven
through hard calcareous strata from the open cuttings at each end. The
inner dimensions were trimmed to approximately 2 m. high and 1-1/2 m.
wide. At the ends of the tunnel the rock was moderately easy to take
out, but the inner section was very hard and difficult to blast.
Ordinary hand drilling was adopted, and the actual cost of driving
varied from 28 pesos per lin. m. at the ends to 50 pesos in the center.

The pipes were laid through the tunnel in the ordinary way, and
back-filled from the center, so as to give a cover of about 45 cm. above
to protect them from falling pieces of shale.

[Illustration: PLATE V, FIG. 2.--PLACING CONCRETE PIPES IN FORMS FOR
BRIDGE CROSSING AT NORTH END OF TUNNEL, ESTANZUELA AQUEDUCT.]

_Siphons._--It has already been mentioned that there are 6 cast-iron
pipe siphons. The head on these varies between 10 and 38 m. All are
provided with special inlets and outlets, forming combined overflow and
ventilating chambers, and have wooden hand-sluices to divert the water
when necessary. The bottoms of all siphons are provided with 20-cm.
cast-iron scour-out pipes, fitted with valves, and carried down to a
lower point to obtain a free outlet. The valve-boxes are protected by
being placed in heavy concrete chambers carried up above the level of
ordinary floods.

The siphons are formed of cast-iron socket pipes, 3.65 m. (12 ft.) long,
caulked in the ordinary way with lead joints. The thickness of the
45.7-cm. (18-in.) pipes is 19 mm.; that of the 50.8-cm. pipes is 21 mm.
On the steep hillsides the pipes are anchored securely to the rock in
concrete blocks reinforced with heavy iron chains. In some cases these
siphons were difficult of access, but ox-teams hauled the pipes in a
very efficient and satisfactory manner.

_Overflow Chambers._--The ordinary overflows, of which there are 14, are
similar in design to the siphon inlets.

_Testing, etc._--When the line was completed it was tested for
water-tightness, and the loss was found to be about 5%, part of which
was probably due to absorption. At a later date it was found that the
waters of the Estanzuela River, which contain 150 parts of calcium
carbonate (CaCO_{3}) per million, deposited a very fine film of lime on the
interior of the pipes, completely filling any pores there might have
been. At the present time there is no measurable leakage, thus proving
that the character of the work is very satisfactory.

The water was turned into the conduit on June 11th, 1908, and delivered
to the city on the following day through a by-pass, before the reservoir
was completed.

The pipe line is patrolled daily by an inspector with the authority of a
gendarme, so as to prevent the unlawful abstraction of water, a very
necessary precaution in so dry a country.



                       SOUTH DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIR.


The distributing reservoir for the Estanzuela supply is at Guadalupe, on
the foot-hills to the south of the Santa Catarina River, about 2 km.
from the center of the city. The reservoir is a covered one, of
reinforced concrete, and its capacity is 38,000,000 liters (10,000,000
U. S. gal.).

[Illustration: PLATE VIII, FIG. 1.--GENERAL VIEW OF EXCAVATION AND
EMBANKMENT FOR SOUTH RESERVOIR BEFORE LINING.]

_Excavation and Embankment._--The heavy slope of the ground at the
selected site made the circular form the most desirable. On the low side
the ground was excavated about 2 m. below the original ground line,
while the excavation at the upper part of the slope was about 12 m.
deep. The excavated material consisted chiefly of sillar and limestone
conglomerate, which when broken up forms a calcareous clay of an
excellent character for the formation of embankments, when proper care
is taken. The dimensions fixed for the internal diameter of the finished
concrete work of the reservoir were: 81 m. (265.68 ft.) at the top, and
a depth of water of 9 m., with sides sloping 55 in 100.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--SOUTH RESERVOIR PLAN OF EXCAVATION.]

Fig. 10 is a plan of the reservoir, with a cross-section of the
excavation and embankment. On the lower side the original ground line
was cut down in steps, and all loose earth, roots, etc., were carefully
removed. The floor of the reservoir was chiefly sillar conglomerate, a
hard material that required a considerable amount of blasting for its
removal. The embankments were formed in 10-cm. layers of sillar and
conglomerate broken into small fragments and then rolled with 3-ton
sectional rollers drawn by teams of 4 and 6 mules, which assisted in
disintegrating the mass thoroughly, and produced by constant wetting a
homogeneous and compact clay. The excavation and embankment were left so
that 15 cm. of trimming could be done at a later date, immediately prior
to the lining of the reservoir. The excavated material amounted to about
34,000 cu. m., and, of this quantity, 31,500 cu. m. were used to form
the embankment; the remainder was taken to a spoil bank immediately
adjoining, the black earth stripping being separated and reserved for
covering the reservoir, etc. The contract prices for the excavated
material placed in the embankment were:

                                                                     Pesos
                                                                     per
                                                                     cubic
                                                                     meter

  Class 1.--Material which could be removed by plows and scrapers    0.60
  Class 2.--This consisted chiefly of "sillar"                       1.09
  Class 3.--Limestone conglomerate (requiring blasting)              1.65

The prices (for the same classification) for material taken to the spoil
bank, were 0.40, 0.80, and 1.40 pesos, respectively. Of the material
taken out, 15% came under No. 1 classification, 80% under No. 2, and 5%
under No. 3.

The excavation was begun at the end of May, 1907, and completed in
January, 1908, by Scott and Lee, the contractors. The embankments were
then allowed to stand until the beginning of July, 1908, to permit the
whole to become thoroughly settled and consolidated prior to beginning
the lining. In July the work of trimming the embankments and excavating
for the foundations of the reservoir columns was commenced, under the
Company's own administration, which completed the entire work.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.--DETAILS OF BEAMS AND COLUMNS FOR SOUTH
RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE VIII, FIG. 1.--DETAILS OF FORMS FOR SOUTH
RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE VIII, FIG. 2.--VIEW OF WESTERN HALF OF SOUTH
RESERVOIR, SHOWING FINAL SETTING UP OF DERRICK ON CENTRAL COLUMNS.]

_Concrete Lining and Roof._--The general arrangement and details of the
side-walls, columns, and roof are shown on Plates VI, VII, VIII and IX.
The principal feature consists in dividing the reservoir into radial
sections and supporting the roof on 135 primary and 670 secondary beams,
from 135 columns, spaced as follows:

           Outer ring, at 34.25 m. from center    40 columns.
            2d    "    "  27.88 "   "             40  "
            3d    "    "  21.51 "   "             20  "
           4th    "    "  15.41 "   "             20  "
           5th    "    "   8.77 "   "             10  "
           6th    "    "   2.40 "   "              5  "
                                                 ---
               Total                             135 columns.

The inner bottom diameter of the reservoir is 70.32 m. (230.64 ft.); the
upper inside diameter is 81 m. (265.68 ft.); the water depth at the
overflow level is 9 m. (29-1/2 ft).

The roof was designed to carry a dead load (the earth cover) of 150 lb.
per sq. ft., and a live load of 100 lb. The maximum compressive fiber
stress in the concrete was assumed at 550 lb. per sq. in. for the beams,
and at 350 lb. for the columns, a low figure, because of their eccentric
loading. The tensile strength of the steel was taken at 14,500 and
16,000 lb. per sq. in. The twisted steel used for the column
reinforcement was made at the local steel plant, but for the beams,
etc., a twisted lug bar, of higher quality and greater permissible
tensile stress, was used. The total quantity of steel used was 178 tons.
It was calculated that the load on the column foundations would not
exceed 1-1/4 tons per sq. ft. With the exception of the side-wall and
floor, all the concrete was reinforced with steel, of the sizes and
spacing shown on Plate VI.

_General Construction and Erection Scheme._--The question of ordinary
forms, requiring very heavy timber work, was a serious one, as suitable
lumber is very expensive in Mexico; and the necessity of finishing this
reservoir before the end of the first term allowed under the concession,
which expired on December 31st, 1908, led to the adoption of what the
writer believes is an original scheme for so large a structure. This
scheme was to cast the columns in short sections, mould the radial and
secondary beams as separate members, and then place them in position
with derricks. At the same time, in the case of the beams, it was
important not to sacrifice either the benefit of that part of the slab
which is ordinarily assumed to act as a part of the beam, or the
additional strength due to continuity; and, in case of the columns, the
strength due to the reinforcement extending from the foundation to the
beams.

The T-beam section was secured by notching the tops of the moulded
members, with notches 10 cm. deep, throughout the lengths of the beams,
as shown on Plate VI. A computation of the maximum flange increment
shows that these notches are sufficient to transfer the flange stresses
to the stem, but, for additional security, flat steel bars were bent to
a Z-shape and embedded in the top of the beam, about 60 cm. apart.
Continuity in the beams was secured by carrying the steel to the tops of
the beams over all supports, and, after erection, concreting them into
the roof slab. The secondary beams, after casting, were dropped into
recesses left in the radial beams for the purpose.

_Concreting, Mixing, etc._--The radial beams and column sections were
cast as nearly as possible under their ultimate positions; the secondary
beams were cast outside and immediately adjoining the reservoir.

The rock and sand was brought from the Company's crushing plant, in
3-cu. yd., side-dump cars, running on a 30-in. track by gravity a
distance of 1 km., the last 150 m. requiring hauling with 6 mules. The
cars returned all the way to the crusher by gravity. These cars dumped
the material into bins on the high ground above the reservoir; from
there it was hoppered into cars which carried to the mixer all the
material for one batch of concrete. Two No. 1 Smith mixers were used,
and from 25 to 30 batches per hour could be handled in each machine.

The concrete was transported from the mixers to place in 1/2-cu. yd.,
18-in. gauge, swivel, steel dump-cars pushed by two men. All the
concrete used in the bottom of the reservoir, for the main beams,
columns, and floor, amounting to about 2,460 cu. m., was dumped through
a chute into smaller cars. The chute had so many baffle-plates and bolts
that it resembled a gravity mixer, but, although it was 12 m. long, it
effectively prevented the separation of the materials.

_Concrete Placing and Moulding._--The square foundations for the columns
were deposited _in situ_, a recess being left for the reception of the
pedestals, which were moulded in place afterward. The capitals and
pedestals were cast in one piece, and the columns in 1.21-m. (48-in.)
sections, eight 5-cm. holes being left in them by using wrought-iron
pipes, held in place by templates and removed when the castings were
about 3 hours old. The columns were erected by threading them on the
15.8-mm. (5/8-in.) reinforcing rods, which extended from the pedestals
up through the capitals. The rods were in two lengths, arranged to lap
alternately at one-fourth, the center, and three-fourths of the height
of the columns. In erection, a light timber frame was used in
conjunction with the derrick, and, as the columns were placed, the
reinforcing steel was grouted solid with 1:2 cement mortar.

All the erection was done with a combined stiff-leg or guy derrick,
having an 80-ft. boom and a 50-ft. mast, and fitted with a 30-h.p.
Lambert hoisting engine. The derrick was erected seven times at the
circumference, and its final position was on top of the center columns.
The moving of the derrick a distance of about 45 m. and its subsequent
erection occupied usually about 48 hours. The erection work was carried
on continuously, day and night, the placing of the whole of the radial
and secondary beams and columns occupying 2-1/2 months.

_Forms._--As the erection scheme was designed to reduce the cost of
forms, economical construction was of considerable importance. The wall
was formed in 40 panels, about 6 m. wide and 11.27 m. high. The chief
object in arranging them in this manner was to permit an expansion
joint, 30 cm. wide, at each panel; this joint was not filled until after
the completion of the roof, when the temperature inside the reservoir
was uniform and not subjected to such great fluctuations as if exposed
alternately to the hot sun and comparatively cool nights. The range of
temperature during the construction period sometimes amounted to 80°
Fahr. in 24 hours.

The expansion joints were left to the last, when a uniform temperature
of about 70° inside permitted the filling of the joints, thus avoiding
all trouble from expansion cracks.

The forms are shown in detail on Plate VII. They consisted of shutters
stiffened with four trapezoidal trusses. The bottom posts of the trusses
were fixed in holes formed in the foundation block; they were propped
back from the embankment at the top, and secured to anchorages by iron
rods.

Six sets of these forms were used to construct the whole wall. The
concrete was placed in position through stove-pipe chutes, 20 cm. in
diameter, in continuous layers, the workmen treading and spading it well
as it was deposited. The forms were allowed to remain 4 or 5 days, and
were then struck and removed to another section. The pedestals and
capital forms were of lumber, and five of each were used to cast the
total number required. In the column sections the outer steel forms used
in the manufacture of the Estanzuela pipes were adapted for this
purpose. The radial beam forms, shown on Plate VII, were arranged with
internal wedge-shaped blocks to mould accurately the recess for the
secondary beams. The bottom forms were left attached to the beams for 28
days, but the sides and ends were removed after 24 hours. Eight forms
were sufficient for the whole 135 beams.

For the secondary beams, 29 forms were used for the 670 beams, the
bottom lumber also being left until they were mature for handling.

By referring to the cross-section of the secondary beam, it will be
noticed that it is jug-shaped, shelves being left on either side for the
support of the roof forms, which were placed after the secondary beams
had been properly grouted to the radial ones. The lagging was laid
diagonally, so that the short diameter was slightly greater than the
distance between the beams. This greatly facilitated the removal of the
lagging, as it was merely necessary to strike the wedge-shaped fillets
beneath, and turn them clockwise, after tearing out the end lagging.

[Illustration: PLATE IX, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF SEPARATELY MOULDED SECONDARY
BEAMS IN YARD BELOW SOUTH RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE IX, FIG. 2.--SETTING PRIMARY BEAMS, SOUTH
RESERVOIR.]

The writer believes that the adoption of forms of this type, rather than
the ordinary kind, led to a saving of lumber of about 400,000 ft. b. m.
During the erection and placing of the concrete, all the joining
surfaces were carefully picked and cleaned, particular care being taken
at the junction of the secondary with the radial beams, and the upper
surfaces of all beams before laying the roof slab.

After the greater part of the roof was completed, the floor was laid in
those sections where it was protected from the sun's rays. The concrete
was placed in two 15-cm. thicknesses, and the work was carried on night
and day, without any joints. The laying of the floor occupied 8 days, or
an average of nearly 100 cu. m. daily.

[Illustration: PLATE X, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF COMPLETED SECTION OF SOUTH
RESERVOIR. EXPANSION JOINTS IN SIDE-WALL NOT YET FILLED.]

_Proportions of Concrete._--All the concrete work was brought to a
smooth face by careful spading, no plastering being used throughout the
reservoir, except in the superstructures. The work was kept well watered
in every case for about 15 days. The whole of the concrete work in
connection with the reservoir was completed in 5-1/2 months. The
concrete for the columns and foundations was a 1:3:5 mixture, the
aggregate consisting of equal parts of 19-mm. (3/4-in.) and 38-mm.
(1-1/2-in.) crushed stone. The remainder of the concrete, except that
for the roof, was a 1:2:4 mixture, the aggregate also consisting of
equal parts of 19-and 38-mm. stone. With the exception of a short length
of the side-walls, the sand used was that manufactured by the Company.
When the crushing plant was unable to produce all the sand required, the
Hornos sand (see Table 3) was used in the side-walls in equal
proportions with the crusher sand.

_Reservoir Outlet and Entrance Tower._--The outlet, 61 cm. (24 in.) in
diameter, leads from a well in the center of the reservoir and passes
under the floor and embankment to an outside valve-pit, 89 m. from the
center. This pipe was laid in a trench in a solid cutting before the
construction of the embankment, and was encased in 1:4:8 concrete.
Where it passes under the embankment a 1:2:4 concrete cut-off wall, 3.6
m. wide, 2.5 m. high, and 1 m. thick, was placed across it at right
angles. The cast-iron pipe is curved upward in the central well, and has
a bellmouth on which rests a movable circular copper screen.

Above the outlet well, and on the roof of the reservoir, there is a
central tower, giving access to the interior by a steel stairway. This
tower also serves as a main ventilating shaft, and in it are arranged
the guide-screens and gearing for raising them for cleaning purposes. In
addition to the ventilation provided in the tower, 20 circular openings,
30 cm. in diameter, are carried through the roof of the reservoir at the
circumference and into the parapet walls.

_Inlet Gate-House, etc._--The inlet gate-house is above the reservoir
and about 54-1/2 m. from its center. The conduit enters at 589.00 m.
above datum, and the gate-house contains the valves for controlling the
inlet pipe to the reservoir, the by-pass, overflow, scour-out pipe, and
the copper screens. The inlet, which is 45.7 cm. (18 in.) in diameter,
is of cast-iron flanged pipes, carried on iron hangers on the side-wall
of the reservoir, and, at a point 90 cm. above the floor level, it is
turned at right angles to the side-wall and carried on concrete piers to
the center of the first row of columns. The end of the pipe is closed by
a blank flange, and the water is deflected at right angles through two
30-cm. (12-in.) branches, for the purpose of setting up a slight
circular motion as it enters the reservoir.

The valve-pit is clear of the embankment, and in it are brought together
the main supply and by-pass pipes on which are placed two 61-cm.
(24-in.) sluice-valves; and between them there is a 20-cm. (8-in.)
scour-out pipe, for emptying the reservoir into an adjoining arroyo. The
arrangement of the valves gives complete control over the contents of
the reservoir.

_Venturi Meter-House._--Fig. 11 shows the arrangement of the Venturi
meter and its automatic register in a house over the main supply pipe.
This house is designed to form a feature of the entrance gateway of the
reservoir grounds, which cover an area of 12 hectares.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--VENTURI METER-HOUSE.]

_General._--The roof of the reservoir has been laid out as a garden, and
the embankments are turfed. The intention is to develop the Company's
land as a public park, as it commands fine views of the city and the
surrounding mountains. An inspector's house has been built, and a
private telephone line provides for communication with the Estanzuela
intake and also with the general offices in the city.

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF SOUTH RESERVOIR, LOOKING
TOWARD THE CITY.]



                       SAN GERONIMO GRAVITY SUPPLY.


_Provisional Supply._--It has already been stated that the Company began
operations at San Geronimo in March, 1906, by sinking a well on the
north bank of the Santa Catarina River at San Geronimo. At this point, a
little later, a small steam pumping plant, sufficient to handle about
8,000 liters per min., was installed. The lowest depth to which this
well was ultimately sunk in water-bearing strata, was 7 m., the normal
level of the water during 1906 and 1907 never falling lower than 569 m.
above datum. Tests made from time to time during 1907-08, showed that
this well was capable of supplying nearly 10,000,000 liters (264,000
gal.) of water daily.

The excellent supply yielded by this well made it desirable to adopt it
immediately as a provisional measure, pending the completion of the
larger works forming the western source of supply. To utilize the well
to its fullest extent, a reinforced concrete reservoir, of 3,000,000
liters capacity, was constructed on the south bank of the river, the top
water level being 585 m. above datum, that is, at the same elevation as
the proposed reservoir for the Estanzuela supply. The reservoir is 53.80
m. long, 21 m. wide, and has a water depth of 3.25 m. at the overflow
level. It is excavated on a steep hill slope, and has an earth
embankment on the lower side. The lining is of concrete, 20 cm. thick,
and the roof is of reinforced concrete composed of flat arches springing
from beams carried on 46 by 35-cm. reinforced columns. There are 68 of
these columns, and they are 3 m. apart longitudinally and 5 m. apart
transversely. The roof was not constructed until October and November,
1907, and prior to that time the necessity of covering the reservoir was
amply demonstrated by the growth, during hot weather, of considerable
quantities of green algæ, which had to be skimmed from the surface of
the reservoir every few days.

The delivery pipe from the pumping plant was originally of riveted steel
and was asphalted. It was 30 cm. in diameter, 2 mm. in thickness, with
slip joints, and where it crossed the river it was encased in concrete.
This pipe was afterward replaced by a cast-iron pipe of the same
diameter. The supply pipe to the city was also of sheet steel, 30 cm. in
diameter. For a part of its length it was laid in the high ground of the
south bank of the river, which it crossed near the western limits of the
city, and was then connected to a 30-cm, cast-iron pipe in the
distribution system. The total length of the pipe from the reservoir to
the city distribution system was 2,850 m.

This provisional pipe continued in service from October, 1906, until
August 27th, 1909, when the river portion was completely swept away,
together with the provisional pump-house at San Geronimo, during the
great flood in the Santa Catarina River. Fortunately, the permanent
supply works were completed at the time, so that the destruction of this
pipe line, which had already served its original purpose, had no effect
on the supply of water to the city.

[Illustration: PLATE XI.--SECTION OF INFILTRATION GALLERY, SAN GERONIMO
GRAVITY SUPPLY.]

_Infiltration Gallery._--The chief feature of the San Geronimo gravity
supply is the infiltration gallery. By referring to the profile on Plate
XI it will be seen that at this place there is a considerable area of
what is undoubtedly water-bearing gravel. The main conditions were
revealed by the borings previously carried across the valley, but the
profile has been corrected to show the actual conditions as established
at a subsequent date by shafts. Practically, the water-bearing strata
are not limited merely to the sand and coarse gravels, as the clay
formation lying above and below them is full of small gravel deposits
containing considerable volumes of water. The main direction of the
underflow is toward the east, and the hydraulic gradient, which was
established from wells sunk farther west, was found to be approximately
1%, or practically the same as the average surface of the bed of the
river above the line of the infiltration gallery.

The general scheme for tapping this underflow was to drive a main
gallery at the 560-m. level on a grade of 0.05%, which was sufficiently
high to take the supply by gravity to the western reservoir, having a
top water level at 558.75 m. above datum. This elevation is sufficient
to give an excellent pressure over about 60% of the city, and a fair
pressure to reach the upper stories of the highest houses, if required,
over the whole supply district. From this gallery it was proposed to
sink shafts at frequent intervals, for a total distance of 300 m.,
carrying them below the gallery level, to tap any water-bearing gravels
there might be in the clay formation underlying the gravels and sands.
From the main gallery it was proposed to construct branch galleries up
stream on a flat gradient, so as to obtain the advantage of an increased
head due to the steep hydraulic gradient of the underflow water.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--DIAGRAM SHOWING VARIATION IN WATER PLANE 1905
TO MARCH 1910 AT SAN GERONIMO.]

In investigations of this kind, it is of first importance to have a
continuous record of the level of the water plane, and Fig. 12 has been
plotted to show its variation at San Geronimo from the beginning of
1905 to March, 1910. From January, 1909, to March 31st, 1910, these
levels are averages of daily readings taken in 9 shafts sunk along the
proposed line of the infiltration gallery. In 1902 the water plane was
standing at 570.18 m. above datum, but from that date until 1905 the
writer has been unable to find any records. This diagram should be
examined together with the rainfall diagram, Fig. 3, and it will be
noticed that the fall in the water plane drops with the general scarcity
of the rainfall during 1907-08, and until July, 1909. The year previous
to July, 1909, is regarded, by many competent local observers to have
been the longest period of extreme drought in 30 years in Nuevo León,
and the evidence which the writer has been able to gather regarding
stream flow in the neighborhood of Monterrey supports this view. The
total rainfall at Monterrey for the year prior to July 1st, 1909,
amounted to 9.98 in., or 4.16 in. less than the lowest record for any
calender year since 1894, or, in other words, about 45% of the average
annual rainfall.

The lowest point to which the water plane dropped was during June and
July, 1909, when the levels stood slightly above 565.00 m., or 5 m.
above the level of the floor of the infiltration gallery. During this
period pumping tests were made in the various wells, and from these it
was quite clear that the infiltration gallery, if carried far enough to
meet them all, would yield a supply of from 25,000,000 to 40,000,000
liters daily. During the great rainfall of August, 1909, the water
levels rose very rapidly; the heavy precipitation between August 9th and
10th caused the level to rise to 568.00 m. in about 4 days, and 6 days
after the great flood of August 27th, the water level, which had
continued rising gradually, reached 571.40 m., and then fell gradually
until at the end of March, 1910, it was practically the same as it had
been from 1902 to 1905.

[Illustration: PLATE XII.--SAN GERONIMO GRAVITY SUPPLY.]

It should be noticed that the readings were taken in the shafts on the
high ground to the west of the present river bed, and were independent
of any flow there might be in the river. During times of ordinary floods
in the river, it was very noticeable that, notwithstanding the fact that
the river water might be turbid to an extreme degree, the well even in
immediate proximity to the river bed did not show the least sign of
discoloration.

_Design of Works._--Plate XII shows the general design of the gravity
scheme, which consists of a main tunnel 550 m. long and a concrete
aqueduct, 1.06 m. (42 in.) in internal diameter and 2,311 m. in length,
discharging into a low-service distributing reservoir at the extreme
western limits of the city. The tunnel and aqueduct were laid on a
gradient of 0.05%, and the latter was designed to discharge 55,000,000
liters per day (22.8 cu. ft. per sec.) if flowing to its full capacity.

_Gravitation Tunnel._--This tunnel, shown on Plate XII and Fig. 13, was
completed prior to driving the infiltration gallery into the
water-bearing gravel, so that the water encountered in the gallery could
be easily drained off by gravity, thus avoiding a heavy outlay for
pumping. The tunnel passes through various strata, the principal ones
being calcareous shale, conglomerate, and gravels. The tunneling
operations were carried on from 5 shafts, No. 1 being 23 m. deep, and
the others varying from 20 to 10 m. The shafts in loose ground were
timbered in the usual way, having clear inside dimensions of 2 m. Shaft
No. 1, which was entirely in shale, was taken out approximately to 3.35
m. in diameter, so as to permit it to be lined with concrete having a
finished internal diameter of 2.43 m.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--GENERAL DETAILS SAN GERONIMO GRAVITY PIPE LINE.]

Fig. 13 shows the details of the tunnel, which was lined with concrete,
the bottom and sides being approximately 23 cm. (9 in.) thick. The
interior dimension is 0.91 m. at the invert level and 1.016 m. at a
height of 1.22 m., the corners between the side-walls and the floor
being slightly curved. The arch is formed of two rings of brickwork in
cement mortar, this thickness being increased in some lengths to three
rings. Where the rock was in good condition, and not likely to
disintegrate easily, the arch, for a distance of 90 m., was left
unlined. Of the total distance of 550 m., careful timbering was required
for 300 m. In lining the timbered portion of the tunnel with concrete,
all the timber was removed, except in loose ground, where the laggings
were left in position.

While the tunnel was being driven, a start was made to drive the north
end of the infiltration gallery, which was in rock for a distance of 44
m. Water appeared at about 35 m., and then the work was temporarily
suspended until the gravitation tunnel was completed and a length of the
aqueduct had been constructed far enough down stream on the north bank
of the river to permit of draining direct to the river. This point was
reached at 1,170 m. from Shaft No. 1, and there a temporary overflow
chamber was constructed.

When the tunnel was completed, the two intermediate shafts were filled
up, the remaining three being retained permanently. Shafts Nos. 2 and 3
were lined with concrete, 76 cm. (30 in.) in internal diameter, and 23
cm. thick. They were domed at the top to form circular openings to
receive cast-iron covers. Progress on this tunnel was slow, taking from
December, 1907, to November, 1908, to complete, owing chiefly to
difficulties with an incompetent contractor. The contract was
subsequently transferred to Mr. John Phillips, of Mexico City (who was
also the contractor for the aqueduct), who completed it satisfactorily.

_Continuation of the Infiltration Gallery._--When the aqueduct (to be
referred to again) was completed as far as 1,170 m. from Shaft No. 1,
the driving of the infiltration gallery, which was 2 m. high and 1-1/2
m. wide, was continued until gravel was encountered in the roof, at 44
m. from the shaft. At this point the rock dipped at an angle of 45°,
and the gravels contained quantities of large boulders mixed with fine
sand; immediately after encountering the gravel, a flow of about 90
liters per sec. was met, evidently coming through from a pot-hole in the
shale. This quantity diminished in about 10 days to about one-fourth,
but gradually increased again as the driving proceeded. The operations
of driving the tunnel from 44 m. forward were begun in the dry season,
in February, 1909, and the gravel was encountered for a distance of 24
m., or up to 68 m. from the shaft. The center of this gravel bed was
about 30 m. south of the old river channel, which had been continuously
dry at the surface for several years. Up to 68 m. the work was very
difficult, owing to the upper part being of loose gravel and the lower
in very contorted shale. The timbering of the tunnel in the full gravel
section consisted of heavy square settings, 1 m. apart. At 68 m. the
clay and gravel formation was met, and the rate of progress then was
about 4 or 5 m. a week. A short branch gallery was also driven about 7
m. up stream near Shaft No. 2. The total distance the infiltration
gallery was carried from Shaft No. 1, was 100 m., when the floods of
August, 1909, caused its suspension.

During the progress of the gallery, attempts were made to sink a 3-1/2
by 2-m. shaft at a point along the line of the infiltration gallery,
about 130 m. from Shaft No. 1, but water in such abundance was
encountered that it was practically impossible to sink it in the
ordinary way more than about 6 m. deep, the quantity of water to be
dealt with amounting to about 20,000,000 liters daily. Seven shafts were
then sunk in the high ground to the north of the river, five of these
being on the line of the gallery and two 30 m. westward. They were sunk
during the dry season prior to July, 1909. These were ordinary timbered
shafts, 2 m. square between the walings, and were carried to the depths
shown on Plate XI. In Shafts Nos. 5, 6, and 7 the water was flowing with
considerable velocity, while Shaft No. 9 seemed to have penetrated a
different water plane and one which was probably independent of that
showing in any of the other shafts, in which the water was practically
at a uniform level. The evidence obtained showed that if the gallery
could be carried to Shafts Nos. 6 or 7 a great abundance of water would
be intercepted. Owing to the difficulties of sinking ordinary shafts in
the wide river channel, circular shafts were put down. These were 1.37
m. in internal diameter and 23 cm. thick, and were of concrete
reinforced with No. 10 vertical rods, 19 mm. in diameter, tied together
with No. 6 wire. These shafts were provided with steel cutting edges.

Shaft No. 2 was sunk to a depth of 1 m. below the infiltration gallery
level, No. 3 within 2 m., and No. 4 within 4 m., before August, 1909.
The shafts were sunk by digging them out and loading them at the top,
the top of the shafts being kept generally 3 m. out of the ground. Shaft
No. 3 encountered great volumes of water, and, in order to enable
sinking operations to proceed, a pumping shaft, 2-1/4 m. square, was
sunk a little west of it to draw off the water. Notwithstanding the fact
that the prolonged period of drought had lowered the general water plane
in all the shafts to 565.00 m. above datum, the difficulties of handling
the water even at that level were considerable. At the beginning of
August the work was progressing very satisfactorily, but the
extraordinary rainfall of that month caused the work to be shut down
temporarily.

_Effect of the Floods in the Santa Catarina River._--The area of the
water-shed of the Santa Catarina River above Monterrey is about 1,410
sq. km. (544 sq. miles), and its area at San Geronimo, owing to its
configuration, is practically the same. Its general character has
already been referred to. On the night of August 10th and early on the
morning of August 11th, a big flood came down the river, flowing at its
maximum about 1,130 cu. m. (40,000 cu. ft.) per sec., due to the heavy
rainfall (Fig. 4). This flood carried away all the temporary staging
around the shafts, seriously wrecking the temporary pumping station, as
well as destroying the 30-cm. cast-iron pipe, notwithstanding the fact
that it had been encased in a block of concrete 3 m. wide and 1-1/2 m.
thick right across the river; but no damage was done to the infiltration
gallery or to the shafts in the river channel. The effect of the flood
on this pipe is shown by Fig. 2, Plate XXXI.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXI, FIG. 2.--PROFILE SKETCH, LOOKING UP STREAM ON
LINE OF 24-INCH MAIN SUPPLY PIPE.]

Following this flood, which had caused the loss of 14 lives in the city,
3 miles below San Geronimo, there was practically no rain for 13 days.
Then, on August 25th the second heavy precipitation began and continued
until August 29th, the details being shown on Fig. 4.

This precipitation, therefore, fell on a water-shed which was completely
saturated, as it had already absorbed a large proportion of the 13.38
in. of rain which fell during August 10th and 11th; and at every point
along the river, prior to August 25th, springs were issuing forth, and
there had been very little evaporation during the intervening dry spell.

The writer has calculated that at Monterrey this flood reached the
enormous quantity of 6,650 cu. m. (235,000 cu. ft.) per sec., a rate
equal to 432 cu. ft. per sec. per sq. mile of water-shed.[6] The effect
of this flood was to demolish completely about 1,200 "sillar" houses
(without taking into consideration the numerous wooden houses) at
Monterrey, and to cause a fearful loss of life, variously estimated
between 3,000 and 5,000 persons; the lower figure the writer believes is
approximately correct. At San Geronimo the original pumping station was
carried away entirely, leaving practically no trace whatever.

[6] The writer, in a brief article contributed to _Engineering News_
soon after the flood (September 23d, 1909), gave this figure as 271,500,
or approximately equal to a run-off of 500 cu. ft. per sec. per sq.
mile; but, from a later and more complete study of the conditions for
many miles above Monterrey, he believes the above quantity to be
approximately correct.

Shaft No. 2 was apparently destroyed, while No. 3 was turned at an angle
of about 50° down stream and filled up completely with sand. The
infiltration gallery, near Shaft No. 2, was completely blocked with fine
sand and gravel, and access could only be obtained as far as 54 m. The
profile, Plate XI, shows the change which had taken place in the river
bed. The original course of the stream was changed to the north bank, 50
m. distant, the effect of the scouring action of the flood being to
lower the general level at this point about 3.65 m., while the southern
portion of the channel was slightly raised. At present (April, 1910),
the end of the driven portion of the infiltration gallery is about 35 m.
from the center of the stream, which is still carrying about 2,270
liters (80 cu. ft.) per sec.

Immediately after the flood the flow in the gallery was 450 liters (16
cu. ft.) per sec., and this quantity has remained constant since that
time. The probable effect of the flood was to disturb the whole
subsurface above the infiltration gallery and put it in motion,
completely cleaning the gravels of their surrounding clay, which would
account for the large infiltration of water in so limited a distance.
The water has always been limpid and pure, but its hardness remains the
same as it was prior to the flood.

With the copious supply of water from this source, due of course to
abnormal conditions and not likely to be permanent, the operations of
tunneling have been suspended temporarily; but it is proposed to
continue the driving of the gallery, from a new shaft west of No. 3.
The water encountered will be drained off by pumping until the main
water-bearing gravels, in the neighborhood of Shaft No. 5, are reached.
It is also proposed to reconstruct the 30-cm. high-level pipe line, from
San Geronimo along the high road on the north bank of the river, so that
by pumping water can be delivered to the city system from Shafts Nos. 5,
6, and 7, in the event of a shortness of supply from the Estanzuela
River.

_Shaft No. 1._--Shaft No. 1 is designed to connect the infiltration
gallery with the gravitation tunnel. This shaft has an inner diameter of
2.43 m. (8 ft.) and is fitted with a special gate-valve. In the bottom
of the door of this valve there is a smaller valve, 30 cm. in diameter,
so that, when the infiltration gallery is closed for cleaning out the
sump, the smaller door, which is operated through the same spindle by a
bevel-geared head-stock at the top of the shaft, can be opened first.
Space is also left for screens if these should be found necessary.
Access to this shaft is gained by a reinforced concrete stairway in nine
stages. The superstructure is to be supported on reinforced concrete
column foundations carried to the firm rock, owing to the loose
condition of the strata at the top of the shaft.

_Aqueduct._--The construction of the concrete conduit was begun in
April, 1908. Fig. 13 shows the general types. Type _A_ was adopted in
gravel and conglomerate formation, and Type _B_ where the excavation was
in "sillar," the soft nature of this rock permitting it to be excavated
exactly to the required external diameter of the concrete lining.

The concrete which was without steel reinforcement was a 1:2-1/2:3-1/2
mixture, the sand being from the crusher and the aggregate from the
river bed, screened to pass a 25-mm. mesh. Where the conduit crossed the
river obliquely, immediately below the gravitation tunnel, it was
strengthened with mass boulder concrete of Type _C_. During the great
flood this heavy section withstood its effects without damage of any
kind, but beyond this point, where the conduit had been laid in compact
cemented gravels, the scouring action of the flood on the north bank
lowered the level of the gravels from 2 to 3 m.; the only damage,
however, was the scouring away of the gravels at the south side of the
conduit. To prevent such an occurrence in the future, the conduit at
that point was strengthened with additional concrete for a distance of
195 m., as shown on Fig. 13. The extra concrete, amounting to 733 cu.
m., was a 1:3:5 mixture, in which was embedded 20% of heavy boulders.
The top of this special length now forms a weir for the present river
flow. Where the conduit enters the bluff on the north side of the river,
at 1,200 m., there is an overflow chamber which has a sluice-gate 76 cm.
wide, arranged so that the conduit can overflow at the present time when
running 76 cm. deep. To deflect the flow in the conduit, a wrought-iron
plate, provided with a balance weight, is dropped into a groove on the
lower side. The outlet is a 61 cm. concrete tube, having its invert
above ordinary flood level, and arranged to be closed by a gate.

At 1,963 m. the conduit is carried over an arroyo on a segmental arch of
8 m. clear span, as shown on Fig. 13. There are 5 ventilating columns
and 5 manholes on the aqueduct.

[Illustration: PLATE X, FIG. 2.--SETTING FORMS FOR SAN GERONIMO
CULVERT.]

The aqueduct terminates in the Obispado distributing reservoir
valve-house, at a level of 558.50 m. The work in connection with this
aqueduct was completed by December, 1908.



                   DISTRIBUTING RESERVOIR AT OBISPADO.


The main distributing reservoir for the San Geronimo gravity supply is
immediately below the historic Obispado (Bishop's Palace), at the western
limits of the city. The general arrangement and lay-out is shown on Plate
XIII.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.--GENERAL PLAN AND SECTIONS, OBISPADO
RESERVOIR.]

_Valve-House._--The invert of the conduit from San Geronimo, where it
enters the valve-house, is 558.50 m. above datum. The valve-house, which
is built in the center of the reservoir, is shown on Fig. 2, Plate XVIII.
One of its special features is the provision of the main overflow at this
point instead of within the reservoir proper. The inlet, main supply
tunnel, independent by-pass overflow, scour-out pipes, gate-valves, and
screens, are all controlled within the valve-house.

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII, FIG. 2.--VIEW OF ROOF OF OBISPADO RESERVOIR,
LOOKING NORTH.]

_Reservoir._--The reservoir is rectangular, 126 by 81 m. (413.28 by
265.68 ft.) at the top, and has a water depth of 4 m. (13.1 ft.). In the
design it was necessary to limit it to the lowest economical depth, so
as to increase the static pressure over the low-pressure district as
much as possible.

_Excavation and Embankment._--The excavation, except for a depth of
about 1 m. which was in black soil, was chiefly in a disintegrated
"sillar" stratum of a heavy clayey nature, the greater part of which
could be handled conveniently with plows and scrapers; the actual
foundation on the eastern half required blasting for the final depths.

The total excavation amounted to 56,479 cu. m., of which 7,255 cu. m.
were placed in the embankment, the remainder being deposited in the
immediate neighborhood of the reservoir. The final trimming of the
banks, which were left 30 cm. full, was not undertaken until the lining
was begun. The work was done under contract with Mr. J. S. Nickerson, of
Monterrey. The excavation had only one classification, and the contract
prices were 0.50 peso per cu. m. for material carried to spoil banks,
and 1.00 peso for material placed in the embankment. The excavation was
begun in December, 1907, and completed in April, 1908. The work was then
left standing until the end of 1908 to allow the banks to consolidate
thoroughly prior to lining, which was begun on January 4th, 1909.

_Concrete Lining and Roof._--Plate XIII shows the general plan and
sections, the main feature being the simple division of the reservoir
into 24 rows of columns longitudinally and 15 rows transversely, making
a total of 360 columns, less the four left out at the central tower. All
the columns are 5 m. apart both ways. The roof was designed for a live
load of 100 lb. and a dead load of 150 lb., the same as at the South
Reservoir. With the exception of the floor, all the concrete work was
reinforced with twisted steel lug bars. The foundation load on the
columns for the eastern half of the reservoir is 0.9 ton per sq. ft.;
that on the columns for the western half, where the foundation is of
very hard sillar and conglomerate, is 1.95 tons per sq. ft.

_Under-drainage of the Floor._--To provide for proper drainage in case
of seepage, the floor was underdrained with rubble drains, 30 cm. wide
and 23 cm. deep, filled with large round gravel carted from the bed of
the Santa Catarina River. The total length of these underdrains is 1,160
m. In order to facilitate the detection of any seepage, they were
conducted to a permanent inspection pit outside of the reservoir.

_Main Distributing Conduit._--The main distributing conduit is laid
along the inside of the reservoir, at the inlet end, and carried on
elliptical arches of 2 m. span to a height of 71 cm. above the finished
floor level. This conduit is 76 cm. high and 45.7 cm. wide, and it
branches in two directions from the inlet tunnel to each side of the
reservoir, its total length being 69 m. In order to prevent any
stagnation and to give a continuous circulation, the water is delivered
at eight points, in the length of the distributing pipe, through square
openings with semicircular tops, the areas of the openings increasing
toward the ends. These inlets are placed so that the current will not
strike the roof columns.

_Outlet Tunnel and Valve-House._--The outlet tunnel is at the north end
of the reservoir, and was excavated in hard sillar rock. The tunnel is
lined with concrete 30 cm. thick, the finished internal dimensions being
1.52 by 0.91 m. The length of the tunnel is 22.5 m. to the point where
it enters the outlet-house. This house is divided by a wall 45 cm.
thick, which supports a 76-cm. (30-in.) penstock-valve. The supply pipe
to the city leaves this chamber in the west wall, and is also fitted
with a 76-cm. penstock-valve. The supply pipe has a copper screen of the
same design and dimensions as those in the inlet-house. A 30-cm.
(12-in.) scour-out pipe in this chamber provides for draining the
contents of the reservoir to a neighboring irrigation ditch, when
necessary.

The superstructure of the valve-house is of concrete, and at the floor
level there are bevel-geared head-stocks to raise the valves, etc.

_By-Pass and Supply Pipes._--The by-pass and supply pipes are carried
below the reservoir embankment to join the main 76-cm. (30-in.)
cast-iron distributing pipe to the city. For this short distance they
were constructed of concrete, 76 cm. in internal diameter, 10 cm. (4
in.) thick, reinforced with 6-1/2-mm. square steel longitudinal rods, 30
cm. from center to center in the circumference, and hooped with
6-1/2-mm. square steel rods spaced 30 cm. apart. The concrete forming
these pipes was a 1:1-1/2:2-1/2 mixture.

_Parapet Walls._--The parapet walls have 12 piers at each side and 8 at
each end. In these piers there are ventilating openings branching at the
top to each side of the parapet, with outlets provided with cast-iron
screens. This arrangement gives 4 sq. m. of ventilating space (exclusive
of that provided in the central tower), equally distributed at 40 points
around the walls of the reservoir.

_General Construction Scheme._--The concrete mixing plant, which
consisted of two No. 1 Smith mixers, was arranged in connection with the
bins and hoppers for the rock and sand on the high ground to the west,
and from there the material was conveyed on a framed timber gangway
carried right across the center of the reservoir, as shown by Fig. 1,
Plate XVII. From this central platform the concrete for the columns was
filled from stages placed on the top of traveling towers, 5 m. high,
which were run between two rows of columns on standard-gauge rails laid
on the floor of the reservoir. By this arrangement 24 columns could be
filled from each length of track. A main narrow track was also laid
right around the reservoir, with the necessary turn-outs.

[Illustration: PLATE XVII, FIG. 1.--FILLING PRIMARY BEAMS FROM TRAVELING
TOWER, OBISPADO RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE XV, FIG. 1.--CONSTRUCTION OF WEST SIDE-WALL OF
OBISPADO RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE XV, FIG. 2.--PRIMARY BEAMS AND COLUMNS, OBISPADO
RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.--DETAILS OF FORMS FOR CONCRETE WORK, OBISPADO
RESERVOIR.]

The forms for the columns, primary and secondary beams, are shown on
Plate XIV. The side forms for the primary beams were struck in 24 hours,
so as to economize lumber; but the bottom lumber was left in position
for 28 days. To avoid much unnecessary timber, the secondary beam forms
were supported at the ends on reinforced concrete corbels cast on the
primary beams.

For placing the side-walls, a special traveling form was used, the
details of which are shown clearly on Plate XIV. At the end of each form
an expansion joint of 25 cm. was left to be filled after the roof was
placed in position. The concrete was delivered to the wall through
stove-pipe chutes, and carefully spaded by workmen in the limited space
between the forms and the embankment. The wall form was removed after 36
hours, by loosening the jacks and pulling forward the hooked tie-rods.
This form is also shown on Fig. 2, Plate XVI.

[Illustration: PLATE XVI, FIG. 2.--TRAVELING SIDE-WALL FORM, OBISPADO
RESERVOIR.]

[Illustration: PLATE XVI, FIG. 1.--PREPARING FLOOR FOR CONCRETING,
OBISPADO RESERVOIR.]

The concreting of the roof slab was carried on continuously, and, when
partly completed, the floor was laid in the shade. The bottom layer of
the floor, 13 cm. thick, was laid in continuous panels between the
columns, and brought to a fairly smooth surface. On this surface, after
keeping it wet for 10 days and then allowing it to dry thoroughly, a
layer of asphaltum, supplied by the American Asphaltum and Rubber
Company, of Chicago, was placed. The work was done by ordinary Mexican
laborers after they had received a few days' instruction from one of the
Asphaltum Company's superintendents. The surface of the lower layer was
kept perfectly clean, and then received one coat of "Pioneer" paint. The
asphaltum, heated in a boiler inside the reservoir to a temperature of
approximately 425° Fahr., was then poured over the floor from buckets,
in a layer approximately 4 mm. thick. Where the floor joined the column
pedestals, and at each new panel section, a double thickness was used.
The labor cost of water-proofing, including superintendence, etc.,
amounted to 3.3 cents (Mexican) per sq. m. for painting with "Pioneer"
paint, and 5.4 cents for the asphaltum coating, or a total labor cost of
8.7 cents per sq. m. for the complete water-proofing. This cost is based
on a rate of 8.00 pesos per day for a foreman, and 1.00 peso for each
laborer. It required 50 U. S. gal. of the paint to cover 265.2 sq. m.,
and an average of about 6 lb. of asphaltum for 1 sq. m.

The upper concrete layer of the floor, 10 cm. thick, was placed so as to
break joint with the lower, and was brought to a smooth surface with
wooden floats sheathed with steel and reaching across the panels. In
this way a perfectly smooth surface was obtained without any plastering.

[Illustration: PLATE XVII, FIG. 2.--CENTRAL TOWER AND STAIRWAY, OBISPADO
RESERVOIR.]

The concrete for the beams, columns, side-walls, and floor, was a
1:2-1/2:4 mixture, crushed sand and stone being used throughout. In the
roof slab the mixture was 1:2:3.

The whole of the concrete work of the reservoir was completed in 6
months, by the Company's own administration, and the reservoir was first
put into service a few days after the great flood of August 27th, when
the Estanzuela supply main, crossing the Santa Catarina River, was
partly destroyed. Since that time frequent examinations of the
inspection pit, which is connected by a pipe to the rubble drains under
the floor, have never revealed the slightest leakage.

_Lay-Out of the Reservoir Roof and Grounds._--The Company owns about
11-1/2 hectares of land, which includes that occupied by the reservoir
and its surroundings, and as this property is in an attractive
situation, commanding fine views of the Sierra Madre Mountains, the
whole of the works have been given a pleasing architectural character,
and the grounds laid out to form a public park for the citizens of
Monterrey.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--SKETCH PLAN OF LAY OUT AT OBISPADO RESERVOIR.]

The general plan of the scheme is shown by Fig. 14 and Fig. 2, Plate
XVIII. The roof, which has an area of 1 hectare, has been laid out with
walks and grass plots, and the surrounding embankments have been
converted into driveways. Above the reservoir a small plazuela of 1/2
hectare has been laid out with a space above it for a band-stand. The
whole of the ground has been encircled with carriage drives, on which it
is the intention to plant shade trees. The lay-out of this land also
embraced the scheme for protecting the reservoir by draining the
surface-water away to the irrigation ditches.



               COMPARISON OF SOUTH AND OBISPADO RESERVOIRS.


The two reservoirs are practically of the same capacity, the only
difference being the level of the overflows in their relationship to the
roof, which gives the Obispado Reservoir a slightly greater capacity.
Some comparative figures may be of interest, owing to the differences in
type and construction. Table 7 gives the comparative quantities of
material in each reservoir proper, that is to say, exclusive of the
valve-houses, lay-out of grounds, etc.

  TABLE 7.--COMPARISON OF MATERIALS IN SOUTH AND OBISPADO RESERVOIRS.

  ==========================+===============================+============
                            |    SOUTH RESERVOIR.  | _OBISPADO RESERVOIR._
                            +--------+-------------+--------+------------
                            |        | Quantities, |        | Quantities,
                            |   No.  | in cubic    |   No.  | in cubic
                            |        | meters.     |        | meters.
  --------------------------+--------+-------------+--------+------------
  _Earthwork:_              |        |             |        |
      Total excavation      |  ...   |   34,000    |   ...  |   56,479
      Placed in embankment  |  ...   |   31,500    |   ...  |    7,255
      Placed in spoil banks |  ...   |    2,500    |   ...  |   49,224
                            +--------+-------------+--------+------------
  _Concrete:_               |        |             |        |
      Columns (including    |        |             |        |
               foundations) |  135   |    1,240    |   356  |      543
      Primary beams         |  135   |      440    |   374  |      462
      Secondary beams       |  670   |      515    | 1,252  |      576
      Side-walls            |  ...   |    1,255    |   ...  |      710
                            |        |             |        |
                            | Square |             | Square |
                            | meters.|             | meters.|
      Roof slab             | 5,140  |      520    | 10,206 |    1,020
      Floor                 | 4,070  |      780    |  9,200 |    2,120
      Parapet walls         |  ...   |       90    |   ...  |      165
                            +--------+-------------+--------+------------
           Total concrete   |  ...   |    4,840    |   ...  |    5,596
                            +--------+-------------+--------+------------
                            |        |  Pounds.    |        |  Pounds.
  Reinforcing steel bars    |  ...   |  387,000    |   ...  |  380,000
                            |        |             |        |
                            |        |  Square     |        |  Square
                            |        |  meters.    |        |  meters.
  Expanded metal in roofs,  |        |             |        |
                slabs, etc. |  ...   |    5,691    |   ...  |   10,490
  ==========================+========+=============+========+============

The total cost of these reservoirs, including valve-houses, by-passes,
and the length of supply pipe where the by-pass joins, and including all
engineering expenses, etc., but exclusive of the cost of lands,
planting, fencing, and special work in connection with the formation of
parks, was as follows:

South Reservoir: 394,000 pesos, or 10,368 pesos per million liters.

Obispado Reservoir: 375,000 pesos, or 9,375 pesos[7] per million liters.

[7] Mexican currency.

These rates may be regarded as reasonable when taking into consideration
the special difficulties of construction in Mexico, and the high cost of
all imported material, on which heavy duties are levied.

The value of the materials alone in these reservoirs amounted to more
than 70% of their total cost.



              ANALYSES OF ESTANZUELA AND SAN GERONIMO WATERS.


Table 8 shows analyses of the Estanzuela and San Geronimo waters, made
in February, 1910, by Messrs. Ledoux, of New York City. The Estanzuela
sample was taken at the valve-house of the South Reservoir, while that
of San Geronimo was taken in Shaft No. 1 of the infiltration gallery
when flowing at the rate of about 450 liters per sec. Both waters are
absolutely free from turbidity.

         TABLE 8.--ANALYSES OF ESTANZUELA AND SAN GERONIMO WATERS.
                          In Parts per Million.

  ==================================+================+===============
                                    |                | San Geronimo
                                    | Estanzuela.    | Infiltration
                                    |                | Gallery.
  ----------------------------------+----------------+---------------
  Total solid matter in solution    |     209.00     |    305.00
  Organic and volatile matter       | Not weighable. | Not weighable.
                                    |                |
  ANALYSIS OF SOLIDS:               |                |
      Silica                        |      10.5      |     12.0
      Iron and Alumina              |    Traces.     |   Traces.
      Lime                          |      85.4      |    112.6
      Magnesia                      |       3.8      |     22.6
      Soda (Na_{2}O)                |      13.3      |     20.2
      Potash (K_{2}O)               |       2.0      |      1.9
      Sulphuric Acid                |      24.4      |     11.5
      Chlorine                      |       2.0      |      2.8
                                    +----------------+---------------
  PROBABLE COMBINATION OF BASES &   |                |
    ACID RADICALS IN THE SOLIDS:    |                |
      Silica                        |      10.5      |     12.0
      Iron and Alumina              |    Traces.     |   Traces.
      Sodium Chloride               |       3.3      |      4.6
      Potassium Sulphate            |       3.7      |      3.5
      Sodium Sulphate               |      26.3      |     40.8
      Calcium Sulphate              |      13.3      |     22.1
      Calcium Carbonate             |     142.7      |    184.8
      Magnesium Carbonate           |       8.4      |     49.8
                                    +----------------+---------------
                                    |     208.2      |    317.6
                                    |                |
  Nitrogen as Free Ammonia          |       0.004    |      0.032
  Nitrogen as Albuminoid Ammonia    |       0.006    |      0.022
  Nitrogen as Nitrites (N_{2}O_{3}) |       0.002    |      0.002
  Nitrogen as Nitrates (N_{2}O_{3}) |       0.100    |      1.85
  Total Hardness (as CaCO_{3})      |     155.0      |    220.0
  Alkalinity (as CaCO_{3})          |     121.0      |    180.0
  ==================================+================+===============



                     CITY WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.


[Illustration: PLATE XIX.--DIAGRAM OF THE MAIN WATER PIPES OF MONTERREY.]

The distribution system was begun in September, 1906, but the general
lay-out of the mains was modified in July, 1907, in view of the division
of the system into two services, for high and low pressure. Plate XIX
shows in skeleton form the lines of the cast-iron mains. These are laid
at the present time along routes containing houses (excluding wooden
shacks) which can be served immediately. The distribution system is
arranged to serve as follows:

               Estanzuela supply              4,150 houses.
               San Geronimo supply            8,600   "
                                             --------------
                   Total                     12,750 houses.

This represents, at the present time, a division of the city of 32-1/2%
for the Estanzuela, and 67-1/2% for the San Geronimo supply. Of the area
of the supply district north of Santa Catarina River, 57% will be
supplied from San Geronimo and 43% from Estanzuela. The real development
of the city, however, is northward in the area of the low-pressure
supply.

The static pressure over the city in the two sections varies as follows:

                Estanzuela supply             85 to 50 lb.
                San Geronimo supply           55 to 29 lb.

The main supply pipe from the South Reservoir is 61 cm. (24 in.) in
internal diameter, and this size allows ample provision for future
extensions. The supply pipe from the Obispado Reservoir is 76 cm. (30
in.) in internal diameter. On this main, in Calle de Cinco de Mayo, at a
distance of 320 m. from the reservoir, has been placed a 76-cm. (30-in.)
Venturi meter, the recording apparatus being in the house on the side of
the road. Both these supply pipes are carried well into the city, and
from them the distribution mains are laid; these are 45.7 and 30 cm. (18
and 12 in.) in internal diameter, with intermediate sections of 15 and
10 cm. (6 in. and 4 in.). Along Calle de Cinco de Mayo, where the
division between the two services takes place, two lines are laid, a
30-cm. for high pressure and a 38-cm. (15-in.) for the low pressure. A
duplicate pipe, 30 cm. (12 in.) in diameter, is also laid in Calle de
Dr. Coss. On Calle de Alvarez the low-pressure pipe is 61 cm. (24 in.),
and the high-pressure, 45.7 cm. (18 in.) in diameter. Provision is also
made for extending the range of the two services to other districts.
Practically every block is provided with gate-valves to cut off the
supply in any direction. On the 76-cm. main, 61-cm. (24-in.) valves are
used, and are connected by tapers to the pipe. On the 61-cm. mains,
45.7-cm. (18-in.) valves are used. The actual frictional loss by
reducing the valve being small, this method permitted the use of valves
of a more convenient size. On all the larger valves there are 15-cm.
by-passes fitted with independent gate-valves.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--CONNECTION BETWEEN HIGH-AND LOW-PRESSURE AREAS
AND THE INTERSECTION OF CINCO DE MAYO AND ALVAREZ STREETS.]

Scour-out pipes, 10 cm. (4 in.) and 15 cm. (6 in.) in diameter, are
placed in various parts of the system, draining to the sewers.
Air-valves, both double and single, are also placed at high points in
different parts of the system.

_Reducing Valves._--At four points in the system the mains are arranged
so that the supply can be interchangeable. Fig. 15 shows the arrangement
of the mains at the junction of Cinco de Mayo and Alvarez Streets, and
is typical of the arrangement at the other points.

Each reducing valve is placed on a 30-cm. (12-in.) branch main between
the two services. These valves adjust themselves automatically to the
pressure required, after they have been properly regulated to the
different pressures on either side. To allow repairs to be easily made,
there are ordinary gate-valves at each end enclosed in the same pit. If
necessary, as in case of fire, any part of the system can be changed
into high pressure temporarily by closing the valves against the San
Geronimo supply.

Table 9 gives the length of the mains as laid, and the number of valves.

                    TABLE 9.--LENGTH OF WATER MAINS.

      =========================+=====================+=============
            DIAMETER:          |                     |
      --------------+----------+ Length, in meters.  | Number of
       Centimeters. |  Inches. |                     | gate-valves.
      --------------+----------+---------------------+-------------
           10.2     |     4    |     49,831.68       |    677
           15.2     |     6    |     31,918.31       |    306
           30.5     |    12    |     14,461.31       |    117
           38.1     |    15    |      1,661.98       |     11
           45.7     |    18    |      4,522.61       |      5
           61.0     |    24    |      2,826.54       |     10
           76.2     |    30    |      1,454.40       |
      --------------+----------+---------------------+-------------
                 Totals        |    106,676.83       |  1,126
      =========================+=====================+=============

The pipes were all cast according to the British Standard Specification,
in 3.65-m. (12-ft.) lengths, and were supplied by Messrs. D. Y. Stewart
and Company, and Messrs. Dick, Kerr and Company, of Kilmarnock and
London. The valves were all of standard design, faced with gun-metal,
and were supplied by Messrs. Glenfield and Kennedy, Limited, of
Kilmarnock, Scotland.

In the distribution system it is proposed to provide 200 fire-hydrants,
by arrangement with the municipality, but only a few of these have been
placed. The general type is a double hydrant for two 63.5-mm.
(2-1/2-in.) streams. These are to be placed at the corner of every block
in the business portion of the city; single-way hydrants will be used in
the residential districts.

_Laying Cast-iron Pipes._--Table 10 has been prepared to show what can
be accomplished with Mexican labor in laying pipes. In this kind of work
the labor was particularly efficient; after the gangs were once drilled
into shape, the work proceeded systematically, and at very good speed.
All the pipes, after being laid, were tested to 150 lb. per sq. in. in
the presence of the Technical Inspector.

Table 11 gives the details of the excavation, the material, and the
average cost, of laying about 106.6 km. of pipes.

_House Connections._--The ordinary house connections, which are of
19-mm. (3/4-in.) galvanized-steel pipe, are connected to the mains by
lead goosenecks and brass corporation cocks. The Company's obligation
under the concession extended to the edge of the sidewalk, and at this
point curb-boxes, chiefly of the Hays pattern, were placed; but,
subsequently, owing to the metering of every house service in the city,
the control of the Company extended to the meter, which, as a rule, is
placed immediately inside of the house. Owing to the rapid deterioration
of the house service pipes in some districts of the northern part of the
city, where the soil is formed of decaying organic matter, it has been
decided to use lead pipe entirely from the main to the meter.

_Damage Due to Floods._--During the night of August 27th, the main
61-cm. pipe, under the river bed of Santa Catarina, at the point where
the main entered the city, was destroyed for a distance of 130 m., due
to the scouring away of a whole block of city property. The Venturi
meter register chart at the South Reservoir showed that the break
occurred a few minutes before midnight. The location of this pipe is
shown by Fig. 5; its broken end was in proximity to an old bridge pier.
Fortunately, at the time of the flood, the Obispado Reservoir works were
completed, and the whole city was supplied with water from San Geronimo
within 48 hours. As only about 1,500 services had then been connected,
this delay was not serious; in fact, in the lower part of the city, the
water in the mains was sufficient until the San Geronimo supply could be
connected. To make a temporary connection to conduct the high-pressure
water to the city, a 15-cm. steel pipe was placed above ground, on the
line of the main, for a distance of 100 m. This pipe was supported by a
cable, 30 mm. in diameter, and by timber trestles. By limiting the
supply district, this pipe was of sufficient capacity to serve until the
large main could be safely restored.

   TABLE 10.--COST OF LAYING AND JOINTING CAST-IRON PIPES, EXCLUDING
   LOWERING AND TESTING.

  +--------------+----------+----------------------------------------+
  |              |          | 76 CM. (30 IN.)                        |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Employees.   | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  |              | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |  4.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |  4.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |  1.50      |  20    | 0.498    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |  2.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     | 12    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |  0.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              | ...      | 22    | 36.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 61 CM. (24 IN.)                        |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Employees.   | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  |              | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |   4.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  5    |  15.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |   4.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |   1.50     |  25    | 0.410    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |   2.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     | 10    |  10.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |   0.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              | ...      | 21    |  37.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 50 CM. (20 IN.)                        |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  | Employees.   | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |  4.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |  4.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |  1.50      |  35    | 0.287    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |  2.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     | 12    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |  0.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 22    | 36.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 45.7 CM. (18 IN.)                      |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  | Employees.   | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |   4.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    |  12.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |   4.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |   1.50     |  40    | 0.221    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |   2.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     |  8    |   8.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |   0.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 18    |  32.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 38 CM. (15 IN.)                        |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  | Employees.   | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |  4.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |  4.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |  1.50      |  45    | 0.196    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |  2.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     |  8    |  8.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |  0.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 18    | 32.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+-------------------+
  |              |          | 30.5 CM. (12 IN.)                      |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  | Employees.   | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |   4.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    |  12.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |   4.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |   1.50     |  60    | 0.147    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |   2.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     |  8    |   8.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |   0.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 18    |  32.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 15 CM. (6 IN.)                         |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Employees.   | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  |              | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |  4.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    | 12.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |  4.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |  1.50      | 100    | 0.082    |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |  2.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     |  6    |  6.00      | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |  0.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 16    | 30.50      | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  |              |          | 10 CM.  (4 IN.)                        |
  |              |          +-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Employees.   | Rate for | Total | Total cost | No. of | Cost per |
  |              | 10-hour  | No.   | of labor.  | pipes  | linear   |
  |              | day.     | men.  | Pesos.     | laid.  | meter.   |
  |              | Pesos.   |       |            |        | Pesos.   |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+
  | Foreman      | 4.50     |  1    |   4.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Caulkers     | 3.00     |  4    |  12.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead pourers | 2.00     |  2    |   4.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Lead melter  | 1.50     |  1    |   1.50     | 150    | 0.0574   |
  | Pipe cutter  | 2.00     |  1    |   2.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Peons        | 1.00     |  6    |   6.00     | ...    |   ...    |
  | Water boy    | 0.50     |  1    |   0.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  |              |          |       |            |        |          |
  |              |          | 16    |  30.50     | ...    |   ...    |
  +--------------+----------+-------+------------+--------+----------+

                TABLE 11.--CAST-IRON WATER PIPES.--COST
                 OF MATERIALS AND LAYING AT MONTERREY.

                 MATERIALS PER STANDARD LENGTH OF PIPE .

 Key: cm = centimeter in = inch mm = millimeter kg = kilogram m = linear meter
 +-----------+------+-------+--------+-------------+--------+--------+-------+
 |   PIPE    |      |Weight |Cost/   |    LEAD     |  OAKUM |CHARCOAL| Total |
 | DIAMETER  |Thick-|  of   |piece   +------+------+--------+--------+ Ma-   |
 +------+----+ ness | Pipe  |fob Mon-|Weight| Cost |  Cost  | Cost   |terial |
 |      |    |      |       |terrey  |      |      |        |        | Cost  |
 |  cm  | in |  mm  |  kg   | pesos  |  kg  |pesos | pesos  | pesos  | per m |
 +------+----+------+-------+--------+------+------+--------+--------+-------+
 | 10   |  4 | 10.3 |   109 |  11.65 |  2.0 | 0.37 | 0.025  | 0.0525 |  3.30 |
 | 15   |  6 | 11.1 |   163 |  15.74 |  3.7 | 0.67 | 0.0675 | 0.065  |  4.51 |
 | 30.5 | 12 | 15.8 |   463 |  76.50 |  7.9 | 1.44 | 0.1225 | 0.1    | 21.35 |
 | 38   | 15 | 17.4 |   680 |  79.36 | 10.6 | 1.94 | 0.175  | 0.12   | 22.30 |
 | 45.7 | 18 | 19.0 |   871 |  90.28 | 13.4 | 2.42 | 0.2375 | 0.1375 | 25.42 |
 | 61   | 24 | 22.2 | 1,261 | 117.60 | 18.8 | 3.42 | 0.335  | 0.175  | 33.20 |
 | 76   | 30 | 25.4 | 1,946 | 199.05 | 24.5 | 4.42 | 0.44   | 0.2125 | 55.77 |
 +------+----+------+-------+--------+------+------+--------+--------+-------+

                           LABOR.

  Key: cm = centimeter, in = inch, m = meter
  +-----------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+----
  |           |      |      |      |      |       |Total  |
  | DIAMETER  |      |      | Cubic| Cost |Back-  |cost,  |
  | OF PIPE:  | Width|Depth |meters| of   |filling|exca-  |
  |           |  of  |      | per  |exca- |and re-|vation |
  +------+----+trench|      |linear|vation|moving |back-  | Continues
  |      |    |      |      | meter| per  |surplus|filling|
  |  cm  | in |  m   |  m   |      |lin. m|Pesos  |etc.   |
  |      |    |      |      |      |      |       |Pesos  |
  +------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+----
  | 10   |  4 | 0.55 | 0.90 | 0.50 | 0.60 | 0.18  | 0.78  |
  | 15   |  6 | 0.60 | 1.00 | 0.60 | 0.72 | 0.22  | 0.94  |
  | 30.5 | 12 | 0.65 | 1.20 | 0.78 | 0.94 | 0.29  | 1.23  |
  | 38   | 15 | 0.70 | 1.30 | 0.91 | 1.10 | 0.34  | 1.44  | Below
  | 45.7 | 18 | 0.80 | 1.40 | 1.12 | 1.34 | 0.41  | 1.75  |
  | 61   | 24 | 1.00 | 1.50 | 1.50 | 1.80 | 0.55  | 2.35  |
  | 76   | 30 | 1.10 | 1.60 | 1.76 | 2.11 | 0.65  | 2.76  |
  +------+----+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+----

  --+----------------+--------+--------+--------+
    |  HAULING PER   |  Cost  | Total  | Total  |
    |                |  of    |hauling |excava- |
    |  LINEAR METER  | laying | and    |tion and|
    |                |  per   |laying  |laying, |
    +--------+-------+ linear | per    |labor,  |
    | Haul-  | Misc. | meter  |linear  |complete|
    |  ing   | Pesos |        | meter  |        |
    | Pesos  |       | Pesos  | Pesos  | Pesos  |
  --+--------+-------+--------+--------+--------+
    | 0.0275 | 0.005 | 0.06   | 0.0925 | 0.8725 |
    | 0.45   | 0.005 | 0.825  | 0.1325 | 1.0725 |
    | 0.18   | 0.0075| 0.1475 | 0.335  | 1.565  |
    | 0.2725 | 0.01  | 0.19   | 0.4775 | 1.9125 |
    | 0.2725 | 0.01  | 0.245  | 0.5275 | 2.2775 |
    | 0.825  | 0.08  | 0.41   | 1.315  | 3.665  |
    | 0.83   | 0.10  | 0.53   | 1.46   | 4.22   |
  --+--------+-------+--------+--------+--------+

NOTE.--The above costs of earthwork are based on the following rates and
percentages over the whole city:

              Earth, per cubic meter      | 0.35 pesos | 50%
              Soft sillar                 | 0.75   "   | 20%
              Hard sillar                 | 1.50   "   | 20%
              Rock (chiefly conglomerate) | 4.00   "   | 10%

                          SUMMARY OF TABLE 11.

   +------------------------+-------------+------------+------------+
   | DIAMETER               | Total labor | Materials. | Total cost |
   | OF PIPE :              | cost.       | Pesos.     | per linear |
   +--------------+---------+ In pesos.   |            | meter, in  |
   | Centimeters. | Inches. |             |            | pesos.     |
   +--------------+---------+-------------+------------+------------+
   | 10           |  4      | 0.8725      |  3.30      |  4.1725    |
   | 15           |  6      | 1.0725      |  4.51      |  5.5825    |
   | 30.5         | 12      | 1.565       | 21.35      | 22.915     |
   | 38           | 15      | 1.9125      | 22.30      | 24.2125    |
   | 45.7         | 18      | 2.2775      | 25.42      | 27.6975    |
   | 61           | 24      | 3.665       | 33.20      | 36.865     |
   | 76           | 30      | 4.22        | 55.77      | 59.99      |
   +--------------+---------+-------------+------------+------------+

The flood destroyed about 1,200 houses in the neighborhood of the river.
In a number of blocks the smaller mains were scoured away, but
considerable salvage was done afterward, and, as it is the intention of
the authorities not to permit rebuilding along the flood-path of the
river, these mains do not require reconstruction.



                          MAIN SEWERAGE SYSTEM.


The Company's obligations, as far as drainage is concerned, were limited
to the removal and disposal of sewage, no provision being required for
storm-water, which is allowed to find its way to the natural
watercourses. Apart from that fact, however, the best system for a city
like Monterrey, where rainfall for many months at a time is very scarce,
is the strictly "separate system." In the design advantage was taken of
the natural topography of the drainage district, which is almost an
ideal one for a gravitation system of sewers, the general fall in all
directions being northeast; it was also in this direction that the best
available land could be obtained for disposal purposes.

[Illustration: PLATE XX.--DIAGRAM OF THE MAIN SEWERS OF MONTERREY.]

Plate XX shows in skeleton form the general lay-out of the sewers. Two
drainage districts are arranged, divided by Calle de Washington, which may
be regarded as practically the center of the city, and each of these
districts has an independent main collector connecting to the outfall
sewer at the northeast extremity of the city.

The system has been designed so that extensions may be made and may cover
any part within the city limits; the main collectors are large enough for
the whole area when fully built up.

The sewers are designed on a very liberal basis, namely, on the assumption
that when flowing half full the quantity to be dealt with will be 380
liters per capita per day, with a maximum rate of flow of 200 per cent. It
was assumed that each house would be occupied by 7 persons and have a
frontage of 12-1/2 m. The minimum velocities in the sewers, when running
full, vary between 0.91 and 1.5 m. per sec., with the exception of a few
blocks.

The minimum size adopted was 24.3 cm. (8 in.) in internal diameter. The
sewers of diameters between 24.3 and 50 cm., are 0.91 m. (36 in.) long,
and are of salt-glazed vitrified clay, imported from San Antonio, Tex.

Table 12 gives the details of the length of the various sewers laid.

                      TABLE 12.--LENGTH OF SEWERS.

   +----------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
   |DIAMETER: |                                          |           |
   +-----+----+        Kind.                             | Length,   |
   |  cm | in.|                                          | in meters.|
   +-----+----+------------------------------------------+-----------+
   |24.3 |  8 |    Fire-clay                             | 38,332.85 |
   |25.4 | 10 |       "                                  | 16,400.69 |
   |30.5 | 12 |       "                                  |  7,953.15 |
   |38.1 | 15 |       "                                  |  4,850.56 |
   |45.7 | 18 |       "                                  |  2,023.40 |
   |50.8 | 20 |       "                                  |  1,450.53 |
   |55.9 | 22 | Reinforced concrete tubes, 6.9 cm. thick |  3,134.20 |
   |61.0 | 25 |     "         "       "    7.6 "     "   |    357.40 |
   |68.6 | 27 |       Brick and concrete                 |    484.05 |
   |76.2 | 30 |         "    "     "                     |    662.69 |
   |     |    |                                          |           |
   |     |    |                                 Total    | 75,649.15 |
   +-----+----+------------------------------------------+-----------+

The greater number of the manholes are of brickwork, 23 cm. thick, and
have concrete inverts. They have a diameter of 1.2 m., which is reduced to
0.61 m. at the top, and each is provided with a heavy cast-iron frame and
closed cover weighing about 190 kg. There are 521 manholes, and they are
placed at every block and on long lines about 80 m. apart.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--STANDARD 300-GAL. FLUSH TANKS.]

The sewers are flushed with 15-cm. (6-in.) automatic flushing siphons of
the Miller pattern with 20-cm. (8-in.) discharge pipes. There are 278 of
these siphons, and they are placed in flush-tanks (Fig. 16) built of
brickwork and plastered with 1:1 cement mortar. Their capacity varies from
800 to 1,200 liters, and they discharge from 22-1/2 to 28-1/2 liters per
sec. They are timed to flush once in 24 hours.

The system is at present ventilated by 23-cm. (9-in.) steel ventilating
columns (Fig. 16), with ornamental cast-iron bases. There are 220 of these
columns. Most of them are 7.85 m. above the level of the edge of the
sidewalk, and are connected to special 15-cm. branch pipes leading from
the sewer on the outside of the flush-tanks. In the center of the city
they are provided with extension lengths, giving a total height of 12 m.

Table 13 gives the particulars of the average distributed cost of laying
the 75.6 km. of sewers.

        TABLE 13.--AVERAGE COST, PER LINEAR METER, FOR 75.6 KM.
            OF SEWERS, FOR MATERIALS AND LABOR COMPLETE.

  +----------+-----------+--------+-----------------------------+--------+
  |          | INTERNAL  |Cost of |    EARTHWORK AND LABOR:     | Total  |
  |          | DIAMETER  | mater- |-------+------------+--------| cost of|
  |          |   OF      | ials   |       | Cost of    |Cost of | sewer  |
  |          |  SEWERS.  |includ- |Average| excavation,|labor   |complete|
  |Kind of   +------+----+ ing    | depth | including  |  in    |  per   |
  |  Sewer.  |      |    |10-cm.  |  of   | back-      |laying  | linear |
  |          |      |    |(4-in.) | sewer | filling,   |(includ-| meter. |
  |          |  cm. | in.|branches|       | removing   | ing    |        |
  |          |      |    |every   |   m.  | surplus,   |hauling,|        |
  |          |      |    |4-1/2 m.|       | etc.       | etc.). |        |
  |          |      |    |Pesos.  |       | Pesos.     | Pesos. |        |
  +----------+------+----+--------+-------+------------+--------+--------+
  |Fire-clay | 24.3 |  8 |  2.00  |  2.10 |    3.46    | 0.21   | 5.67   |
  |    "     | 25.4 | 10 |  2.78  |  2.25 |    3.97    | 0.2625 | 7.0125 |
  |    "     | 30.5 | 12 |  3.64  |  2.50 |    4.705   | 0.305  | 8.65   |
  |    "     | 38.1 | 15 |  6.14  |  2.75 |    5.50    | 0.4375 |12.0775 |
  |    "     | 45.7 | 18 |  8.80  |  3.00 |    6.745   | 0.645  |16.19   |
  |    "     | 50.8 | 20 | 11.30  |  3.50 |    8.275   | 0.815  |20.39   |
  |Concrete  | 55.9 | 22 |  5.93  |  3.50 |    9.19    | 1.325  |16.445  |
  |    "     | 61.0 | 25 |  7.30  |  3.75 |   11.245   | 1.685  |20.23   |
  |One brick}|      |    |        |       |            |        |        |
  |thick on }| 68.6 | 27 |  7.17  |  3.75 |   11.735   | 3.93   |22.835  |
  |concrete }| 76.2 | 30 |  7.925 |  4.00 |    14.53   | 4.515  |26.97   |
  |founda-  }|      |    |        |       |            |        |        |
  |tions    }|      |    |        |       |            |        |        |
  +----------+------+----+--------+-------+------------+--------+--------+

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--SKETCH SHOWING DISCONNECTING TRAP ON HOUSE
DRAIN.]

The house connections are chiefly of 10-cm. (4-in.) pipes, laid on a
minimum gradient of 2-1/2%, from oblique branches on the sewer to siphon
intercepting traps near the house, as shown by Fig. 17. From this trap a
10-cm. fire-clay inspection pipe is carried up and capped at the sidewalk
level with a cast-iron box having a locked cover. From this inspection
pipe a branch is connected to a cast-iron fresh-air inlet, in most cases
set in the wall of the house, the inlet being 30 cm. above the level of
the pavement.

_Effect of the Flood on Sewers._--The flood of August 27th and 28th, 1909,
partly destroyed one of the main collectors, which was laid along the
banks of the river and encased in concrete. This has now been relaid
farther north, and out of the way of any future floods. The total length
of the new sewers replacing those damaged amounts to 1200 m., and they
vary in internal diameter from 20 to 55.9 cm. (8 to 22 in.).



                          MAIN OUTFALL SEWER.


The direction of the main outfall sewer was determined after a thorough
study of all the available land lying to the north and northeast of the
city, as it was the intention of the Company to utilize for irrigation
purposes the sewage and any surplus waters that might be developed. The
best available site was found to be about 12 km. north of the city, a
little northwest of the village of San Nicolas de los Garzas, as shown on
Plate II. The long length of outfall required was justified by the cheap
cost of the land and its excellent character for sewage irrigation. The
sewer was designed for a capacity of 90,000,000 liters a day (36.76 cu.
ft. per sec.) in order to allow for conveying surplus waters as well as
sewage.

[Illustration: PLATE XXII.--OUTFALL SEWER: PLAN OF GROUND SHOWING SEWER;
ALSO DETAILS OF VARIOUS SECTIONS.]

The outfall intercepts the two main branches of the city sewers at Calle
de Allende and Calle de Tapia, and its total length is approximately
11,900 m. The chief type adopted is shown on Plate XXII. It is formed
with an invert of radial bricks laid in 1:2 cement mortar, on a foundation
of 1:3:5 concrete approximately 7 cm. thick. As the ground was chiefly in
hard sillar, only a little concrete was required to mould the bottom to
the correct shape. The arch was formed of special radial bricks, 15 cm. (6
in.) deep, laid in cement mortar. These bricks were adopted in preference
to concrete, owing to the heavy cost of sand and rock, due to the long
haul, and for the purpose of obtaining rapid work. Plate XXI shows the
sewer arch, and one of the ventilating columns and manholes. The bricks
were obtained from the local brick plant, and form a very satisfactory
material for sewers, being well burnt, thoroughly hard, and absorbing not
more than 7-1/2% of their weight of water. The contract prices for the
labor on the brickwork were 1.25 pesos per sq. m., and 1.38 pesos for the
arch.

[Illustration: PLATE XXI, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF ARCH, OUTFALL SEWER.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXI, FIG. 2.--VENTILATING COLUMN AND MANHOLE, OUTFALL
SEWER.]

The general route of the sewer is very direct, long straight lines of
several kilometers being possible, and these were joined by curves of
approximately 30 m. radius. The gradient of the sewer invert is 0.2% (1 in
500) which is approximately the general fall of the ground northward from
Monterrey.

The total quantity of excavation was as follows:

                 No. 1, soft earth          8,960 cu. m.
                 No. 2, sillar             18,492  "  "
                 No. 3, conglomerate rock   9,822  "  "
                                           ------
                 Total                     37,274 cu. m.

The contract prices for this excavation were: for No. 1, 32 cents; No. 2,
85 cents; and No. 3, 2.17 pesos per cu. m.

All the excavation was in perfectly dry ground. Where the sewer was partly
out of the ground it had a foundation of concrete, 1.75 m. wide, from 15
to 23 cm. thick, below the bottom of the brickwork, and carried up to the
springing of the arch, and a well-tamped embankment, with slopes of 1-1/2
to 1, to protect the sewer to a height of 30 cm. (12 in.) above the arch.
For 342 m. at the Monterrey end of the line, the sewer was constructed in
tunnel, from, the open end and from two intermediate shafts. The tunnel
throughout was in sillar, and the contract price for excavation was 24.50
pesos per lin. m. This work was done without timbering of any kind, except
at the shaft lengths. Plate XXII shows the lining of the tunnel, which
was of concrete with a brick invert. At four places the sewer passes under
main railway tracks, which at these points were carried on steel girders
supported on concrete abutments, the sewer being carried under the tracks
in the ordinary way.

_Bridges._--At three points the sewer was carried over arroyos on
reinforced concrete girders. No. 1, at Station 5,600, consisted of four
10-m. spans; No. 2, at Station 8,365, over the Estanscia Arroyo, consisted
of nine 10-m. spans; and No. 3, at Station 8,960, over the Topo Chico
Arroyo, consisted of three 10-m. spans. One of these bridges is shown on
Plate XXIII. They were designed as two parallel continuous girders with
connecting top and bottom slabs. The concrete for the girders was a
1:2-1/2:3-1/2 mixture, the sand being from the crusher and the rock gauged
to pass a 19-mm. (3/4-in.) screen. The inside was rendered with a coat of
1:1 cement mortar, 7 mm. thick, for water-tightness.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIII, FIG. 1.--FORMS FOR MAIN GIRDERS, ESTANSCIA
BRIDGE, OUTFALL SEWER.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXIII, FIG. 2.--VIEW OF ESTANSCIA BRIDGE, COMPLETED.]

The piers of the Estanscia Bridge (Plate XXIII) were carried down through
soft earth to a stiff clay from 4-1/2 to 6 m. below the surface, and the
foundations were spread so that the pressure would not exceed 1 ton per
sq. ft. The ends of the bridges were protected by rubble wing-walls
supporting the embankment over the sewer. A 1:3:5 concrete was used for
the upper part of the piers, and the lower part was of the same mixture
with 30% of large boulders. There are 70 manholes (Fig. 19) along the line
of the sewer, and they vary from 150 to 230 m. apart. The sewer is
ventilated with 30 concrete towers (Fig. 18, and Fig. 2, Plate XXI), 2.9
m. high, having 20-cm. (8-in.) shafts.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--DETAILS OF VENTILATORS ON OUTFALL SEWER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--DETAILS OF MANHOLES ON OUTFALL SEWER.]

The works for the outfall sewer were carried out satisfactorily under a
contract with Mr. John Phillips, of Mexico City, the Company supplying the
greater part of the materials. The work was begun on March 16th, and
finished on November 12th, 1908.



                SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AND IRRIGATION LANDS.


For the purpose of disposing of the sewage and using it profitably, the
Company purchased 909 hectares (2,246 acres) of land from the Community of
San Nicolas de los Garzas, the outfall sewer being carried to the
southwestern boundary of the land acquired. This area has a general fall
in all directions to the northeastern boundary, with a gradual fall of
about 25 m. across the diagonal of the land. The area purchased was
practically virgin land, only small portions having been cultivated. The
greater part was covered with a growth of mezquite trees and small shrubs.
The quality of the land is excellent, if properly irrigated, and capable
of yielding abundant crops of every description. The limits of this land
are shown on Plate II.

_Sewage Purification Tanks._--For the purpose of obtaining a satisfactory
effluent to discharge on the land without causing nuisance, the Company
built a system of detritus chambers and liquefying tanks at the end of the
outfall sewer. One difficulty to be faced, in designing these works, was
the fact that there were no data regarding the probable quantity of
dry-weather sewage, nor any particulars as to its general character;
there was also the probability that the outfall sewer would have to carry
large quantities of surplus water. Therefore, the system was designed so
as to be capable of extension if necessary, and the sizes of the various
tanks were limited at present, because of the septic processes which would
be set up in the long length of outfall sewer. The tanks were designed to
deal with 10,000,000 liters of sewage proper per day, and the channels,
etc., were proportioned to take the full flow of the sewer if necessary.
Provision was also made for discharging large volumes of surplus water
directly on the land, independent of the tanks. To do this a by-pass was
taken from the sewer a short distance before reaching the site of the
tanks. By properly timing the flow, arrangements could be made to
discharge these waters in the early hours of the morning, by allowing the
scour-pipes in the distribution system to be opened at night when the
domestic sewage flow was at its minimum. As the area of land available is
very great, the degree of purification in the tanks was relatively
unimportant; the object to be obtained consisted chiefly in distributing
on the land an effluent which would be innocuous and clear.

The general design of the works is shown on Plate XXIV, and they consist
essentially of a screen chamber, duplicate detritus tanks, and three
liquefying tanks. There is also a sludge-pit 629 m. from the tanks.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIV.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AT SAN NICOLAS DE LOS
GARZAS; GENERAL PLAN OF DETRITUS AND LIQUEFYING TANKS, WITH DETAILS OF THE
LATTER.]

_Screen Chamber and Detritus Tanks._--Enlarged details of the screen
chamber are shown on Plate XXV. The invert, where the sewer enters the
screen chamber, is 489.45 m. above datum. This chamber has duplicate
screens which are fully detailed on Plate XXX. For cleaning purposes the
screens are raised by a steel-framed head-gear, which is arranged so that
they may be lowered to a small traveling bogie, out of the way of the
screen chamber.

[Illustration: PLATE XXV.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AT SAN NICOLAS DE LOS
GARZAS. DETAILS OF DETRITUS CHAMBERS AND INLET CHANNELS.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXVI.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AT SAN NICOLAS DE LOS
GARZAS DETRITUS AND LIQUEFYING TANKS; DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTING CHANNELS.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXX.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AT SAN NICOLAS DE LOS
GARZAS. DETAILS OF SCREENING APPARATUS.]

From the screen chamber there are two main channels, 1.22 m. wide,
branching to the two concrete detritus chambers. Each channel has a square
penstock, so that the sewage can be diverted into either chamber when
necessary.

The detritus chambers are octagonal in plan, 4 m. in diameter, and each is
provided with an outlet weir 1.50 m. wide. At the weir level the chambers
have a depth of 1.75 m., with drainage channels below that level. The
coping is 1 m. above the outlet weir of the detritus tanks. To drain off
these chambers, each has a scour-out pipe, 30 cm. in diameter, controlled
from valves with spindles carried above the coping level. Each of these
pipes is connected to a central chamber, and leads to a 56-cm. (22-in.)
sludge-pipe. The chambers as designed are of smaller capacity than those
usually provided, but, as all surface water is strictly excluded from the
sewerage system, the quantity of detritus reaching the chambers may be
small. The velocity through them when both are in use will be
approximately 0.082 m. (0.27 ft.) per sec.

From these chambers the sewage is carried to the three liquefying tanks by
a main channel, 11.5 m. long and 1.50 m. wide.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVII, FIG. 1.--CAST CONCRETE BEAMS BEING PLACED IN
POSITION, LIQUEFYING TANKS.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXVII, FIG. 2.--INLET WEIRS TO LIQUEFYING TANKS,
DURING CONSTRUCTION.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXVIII, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF LIQUEFYING TANKS, FROM INLET
END.]

The tanks are of concrete and have reinforced concrete roofs. Each is 66
m. long and 6 m. wide; the minimum depth for the sewage is 1.50 m. at the
outlet end, and 2.25 m. at the inlet, increasing to a maximum depth of
2.75 m. at the lowest depth at the scour-out channel. Their combined
capacity is 2,500,000 liters, which is equivalent to 6 hours' flow of the
quantity of sewage for which they were designed. The sewage passes from
the main channel, through penstock-valves which control the flow, into one
or the other of the tanks. From these valve openings it flows over
concrete weirs, 5 m. long, and is deflected to the bottom of the tank by a
reinforced concrete scum-plate, extending across each tank, with a
clearance of 15 cm. at each end. This scum-plate is 1.5 m. deep and 10 cm.
thick, and is placed 40 cm. from the end walls.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIX.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS AT SAN NICOLAS DE LOS
GARZAS; DETAILS OF OUTLET CHANNELS AND WEIR BOX.]

The details of the concrete division and outside walls are shown on Plate
XXIX. The floor was constructed in two layers, and its surface is divided
into 6 channels formed by small walls, 20 cm. wide and 15 cm. deep, the
object of these channels being to facilitate the cleaning of the floor by
scouring it out to a specially arranged channel at the deepest point of
the tank, near the inlet end. Each scour-out channel has a 30-cm. (12-in.)
gate-valve, controlled from the roof of the tank, the three scour-pipes
meeting in a concrete chamber outside of the tanks, from which a 56-cm.
(22-in.) concrete pipe discharges the contents of the tanks to the
sludge-pit during cleaning operations. The velocity through the tanks,
when they are used in combination, is 0.0253 m. (0.083 ft.) per sec., the
tanks being made as long as economically possible, in order to obtain this
low velocity and thus permit the proper sedimentation of the suspended
matters. The roof of each tank is 1 m. above the weir level. Each tank has
four ventilating columns, 3.7 m. high and 30 cm. in diameter, vitrified
clay pipes, with an exterior casing of contrete, being used for the
shafts. The roof is enclosed within parapet walls, and is covered with a
layer of earth 25 cm. thick.

The outlet channel from the tanks leads to a measuring chamber, 3 m.
square, as shown on Plate XXIX. This chamber is fitted with penstocks,
1.83 m. wide, and measuring weirs. From this chamber the sewage is
delivered to two main irrigation ditches, which distribute the sewage in
two directions, one northward and the other to the western extremity of
the lands.

_Construction of Tanks._--The excavation for the tanks was in soft earth
for a depth of 1-1/2 m.; the lower depths were in a firm foundation of
sillar and calcareous clay. The total excavation in the tanks, channels,
etc., was 8,335 cu. m., and the actual cost was 45-3/4 cents per cu. m. To
facilitate the construction, about six-tenths of the concrete beams were
cast as single monoliths and placed in position by sliding them across the
tanks on temporary timbers. The remainder of the beams, the roof, and the
slab were placed in position in the ordinary way with timber forms. The
total quantity of concrete placed was 1,360 cu. m. A 1:2-1/2:4-1/2
concrete was used for the walls, channels, etc., and a 1:2:3 mixture for
the roof slab and beams.

Table 14 gives the average cost per cubic meter for all the concrete work.

    TABLE 14.--AVERAGE COST PER CUBIC METER FOR CONCRETE IN TANKS.

   +-----------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
   |                                         | Pesos per | Pesos per |
   |                                         | cubic     | cubic     |
   |                                         | meter.    | meter.    |
   +-----------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
   | LABOR :                                 |           |           |
   |  Mixing and placing                     |  5.20     |           |
   |  Carpenter work in forms, framing, etc. |  4.20     |           |
   |                                         |  _____    |           |
   | Total labor cost                        |           |  9.40     |
   |                                         |           |           |
   | MATERIALS :                             |           |           |
   | Screened gravel                         |  4.04     |           |
   | Sand (from neighboring arroyo)          |  4.98     |           |
   | Cement (including hauling)              | 15.19     |           |
   | Lumber, nails, and other supplies       |  1.90     | 26.11     |
   +-----------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
   | Total cost of concrete per cubic meter                35.51     |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

_Sludge-pit._--The sludge-pit, used when cleaning out the tanks, is
carried 639 m. northward, far enough to get the available fall to drain
the bottom of the detritus chambers and liquefying tanks. The drainage
pipe was formed of 56-cm. (22-in.) concrete tubes. The sludge-pit is
merely an excavation in the earth 20 m. square and 2 m. deep, the sides
having a slope of 1-1/2 to 1. An overflow drains the pit to an irrigation
ditch, the solid matter being allowed to settle and the liquid to drain
off. From time to time it is proposed to dig out the solids and plow them
into the land.

_General._--To the east of the tanks a 3-roomed house has been built for
the inspector.

In order to provide a good supply of water for cleaning operations, a well
22 m. deep has been sunk and is fitted with pumps operated by an Eclipse
windmill, 4 m. in diameter, on a tower 22 m. high, which delivers the pump
water to a circular wooden tank of 20,000 liters capacity.

The work in connection with the purification tanks was carried out by the
Company's own staff; it was begun on September 10th, 1908, and practically
completed by the first week in January, 1909.

At the time of writing, the tanks have to deal with the sewage from a
population of only 10,000 persons, as only from 15 to 20% of the
connections have been made. The sewage, therefore, has been diluted with
several times its volume of surplus water, and the necessary scum on the
top of the sewage in the tanks has not yet assumed the usual thick matty
condition observed in most systems. As there are no available means in
Monterrey of having proper determinations made of the degree of
purification which takes place in the passage of the sewage through the
liquefying tanks, a few simple tests have been made. These tests were
limited to the determination of the amount of oxygen absorbed in 4 hours,
and show a purification of 50% in passing from the detritus chambers to
the outlet. The sewage, although very black and full of suspended matter
as it enters the tanks, leaves them in a very clarified condition.

Of the total area of land acquired by the Company, 904 hectares (2,234
acres) have been leased to the Monterrey Railway, Light, and Power
Company, for 99 years, the Water-Works Company reserving 5 hectares (12
acres) absolutely for future extensions of the sewage works. By giving 12
months' notice, the Company also reserves the right to utilize any part of
145 hectares (358 acres) near the tanks, should it be required at any time
in the future for sewage purification purposes.



                    QUALITY OF AND RATES FOR LABOR.


All the work was practically under the direction of English-speaking
superintendents and general foremen. For the ordinary skilled and
low-skilled labor, Mexicans were employed exclusively, and, on the work,
which was quite new to them, they proved entirely efficient and
satisfactory; throughout the work, on which at some periods between 2,000
and 3,000 men were employed, chiefly under the Company's direct
administration, they were very tractable and willing to do their best, and
no trouble was experienced at any time. The Mexican "peon," and also the
ordinary skilled workman in the north of Mexico, is intelligent, and is
excellent for purely routine work, but he is not adaptable or resourceful
in cases of emergency. Under intelligent and careful supervision, however,
it is quite possible to get as good results as could be obtained anywhere.

The daily rates of wages for a 10-hour day were approximately as given in
Table 15, these rates being varied in special cases.

                       TABLE 15.--RATES OF WAGES

      +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
      |                                   | Pesos per day.    |
      +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
      | General foreman                   |  8.00  to 10.00   |
      | Foreman                           |  6.00  "   8.00   |
      | Cabos                             |  2.00  "   4.00   |
      | Masons                            |  3.00  "   4.00   |
      | Bricklayers                       |  3.00  "   4.00   |
      | Masons and bricklayers helpers    |       1.50        |
      | Cast-iron pipe jointers (foreman) |       4.50        |
      |  "   " caulkers                   |       3.00        |
      |  "   " helpers                    |  1.50  to  2.00   |
      | Fire-clay pipe layers             |       1.75        |
      |  "   " helpers                    |  1.25  to  1.50   |
      | Drillers                          |  1.25  "   1.50   |
      | Carpenters                        |  2.00  "   2.50   |
      | Blacksmiths                       |       2.50        |
      | Crane men                         |       6.00        |
      | Peons (laborers)                  |  1.00  to  1.25   |
      | Boys (watering concrete)          |  0.37-1/2 to 0.50 |
      | Watchman                          |       1.00        |
      | Timekeepers                       |  22.00 per week.  |
      +-----------------------------------+-------------------+



                             COST OF WORKS.


Table 16 gives the main items of the approximate expenditure. These
include all expenses for preliminary location, engineering,
superintendence, purchase of lands, water rights, etc., but do not include
other heavy expenditures chargeable to the concession, such, for example,
as general expenses, interest at the rate of 6% during the construction
period, preliminary expenses for investigations, etc., items which would
increase the total by nearly 25 per cent.

              TABLE 16.--PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF EXPENDITURE.

  +---------------------------------------------+--------------------+
  |                                             | Pesos,             |
  |                                             | Mexican currency.  |
  +---------------------------------------------+--------------------+
  | ESTANZUELA SUPPLY :                         |                    |
  |  Aqueduct and dam                           | 502,000            |
  |  South Reservoir                            | 429,000            |
  |                                             | -------    931,000 |
  |                                             |                    |
  | SAN GERONIMO GRAVITY SUPPLY :               |                    |
  |  Aqueduct, tunnel, and infiltration gallery | 223,000            |
  |  Obispado Reservoir                         | 436,000            |
  |                                             | -------    659,000 |
  |                                             |                    |
  | SAN GERONIMO PROVISIONAL SUPPLY ,           |                    |
  |  including boring operations, etc.          |            130,000 |
  |                                             |                    |
  | CITY WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM              |          1,195,700 |
  |                                             |                    |
  | CITY SEWER SYSTEM                           |          1,036,000 |
  |                                             |                    |
  | OUTFALL :                                   |                    |
  |  Main outfall sewer                         | 425,000            |
  |  Sewage purification works                  |  75,000            |
  |                                             | -------    500,000 |
  +---------------------------------------------+--------------------+
  | Total                                                  4,451,700 |
  +---------------------------------------------+--------------------+

As a general statement, the actual cost of labor is about 33-1/3% of the
total cost of the construction work, including materials. Fig. 20 shows in
graphic form the amount of the labor pay-rolls and the progress of the
work during the whole construction period from 1906 to 1909, inclusive,
comprising also that done under contract.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--PROGRESS DIAGRAM SHOWING MONTHLY LABOR PAY-ROLLS
DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD.]



                    TARIFFS AND SANITARY REGULATIONS.


_Tariffs._--The tariffs charged for the water and drainage service (Table
17) were approved by the State Government (which accepts the
responsibility for their collection), under a compulsory State law which
came into force on March 1st, 1910, for the southern portion of the city,
and on July 1st, for the northern half, the penalty for non-compliance
being a tax of 10% on the monthly rental value of the property, as
assessed by the State officials.

The basis of the tariffs (which were published on February 22d, 1909) is a
charge for water varying between 12 and 16 cents (Mexican) per 1,000
liters, with a minimum monthly rate for each different class of property
connected to the system. The rate for house drainage is fixed at 80% of
the minimum water rate levied on the consumer. The minimum rates have been
fixed so that the poorer classes of the community will not be overtaxed,
while at the same time the rate is actually levied on the quantity of
water used, as indicated by the meter. All the services at the present
time are metered, and the meter system will be used throughout.

                        TABLE 17.--THE TARIFFS.

  +-----+------------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+--------+
  |     | Monthly    | Liters  | Price for | Minimum | Rate for | Total  |
  |Class| property   |   of    | 1,000     | monthly | drainage | rate   |
  |     | rental.    |  water  | liters.   | rate.   | service. |payable.|
  |     | Pesos.     | allowed.| Cents.    | Pesos.  | Pesos.   | Pesos. |
  +-----+------------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+--------+
  |   I | Up to 20   |  7,800  |   16      | 1.25    |   1.09   |  2.25  |
  |  II | 21 to 40   | 12,500  |   16      | 2.00    |   1.60   |  3.60  |
  | III | 41 to 60   | 18,750  |   16      | 3.00    |   2.40   |  5.40  |
  |  IV | 61 to 120  | 23,350  |   15      | 3.50    |   2.80   |  6.30  |
  |   V | 121 to 300 | 30,000  |   15      | 4.50    |   3.60   |  8.10  |
  |  VI | 301 upward | 33,350  |   15      | 5.00    |   4.00   |  9.00  |
  +-----+------------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+--------+

    "Notes: (1st) The rental for the water meters 5/8-in. size
    (15-1/2 mm.), which shall always be considered the property
    of the Company, will be 20 cents per month. Houses of the
    first and second classes shall be exempt from paying such
    rental for one year's time, counting from this date.

    "(2d) All excess consumption of water over that allowed by the
    tariff will be charged for at 2 cents less than the price
    shown in the tariff per thousand liters.

    "(3d) Extra large houses, large establishments, such as
    colleges, hotels, etc., etc., having a consumption of 50,000
    to 60,000 liters of water per month, will pay at the rate of
    14 cents per thousand liters. The drainage rate for such
    buildings will be arranged in proportion to the water tariff,
    or 80% of the value of the water.

    "(4th) The laundry establishments, bath-houses, etc., when
    using 50,000 liters or upward, can arrive at some agreement so
    as to pay 12 cents per 1,000 liters.

    "(5th) Groups can be formed of two or more small houses so as
    to obtain a joint service under the proportion shown in the
    tariff.

    "(6th) Any other combination that cannot be entered into under
    the basis of this tariff, will be arranged by specially agreed
    upon prices, such agreement being as much as possible subject
    to the basis mentioned."

_Sanitary Regulations._--The State Government, on March 1st, 1909,
published regulations for the proper installation of the water and
drainage services within the houses.

At the Government's request, a draft of the proposed regulations was
submitted by the writer, who prepared it, after a study of American and
British sanitary by-laws, to suit the special conditions of Monterrey.
These regulations were afterward modified by him in collaboration with the
Government Technical Inspector and Financial Interventor, and, in their
final form, though not as stringent as those adopted in many northern
cities, are probably more complete than those in any other Mexican city.
Under these regulations only registered plumbers can undertake plumbing
installations, and they have to execute a bond to the satisfaction of the
_Alcalde Primero_ (City Mayor) for the sum of 2,000 pesos as a guaranty of
responsibility. For defective workmanship or any infraction of the
plumbing regulations, they are liable to heavy fines, and can be called on
to make good all defects in workmanship, without extra charge to the owner
of the property. The provisions of the regulations are carried out under
the supervision of the Government Technical Inspector, the Company's
obligations extending only to the sidewalk and to the meters placed within
the houses.



                             ENGINEERS, ETC.


G. S. Binckley, M. Am. Soc. C. E., was Chief Engineer of the Company from
February to December, 1906. The writer was Chief Engineer from May
1st, 1907, until April, 1910, and is responsible for the design and
construction of the works carried out during that period. Mr. J. D.
Schuyler advised the Company throughout all preliminary studies and
investigations, and acted as Consulting Engineer until February, 1908. The
Technical Inspector, on behalf of the Government, throughout the whole
progress of the works, has been Rudolf Meyer, M. Am. Soc. C. E., and the
writer wishes to record the valuable assistance the Company has received
from him.

In conclusion the writer may be permitted to pay a tribute to the devoted
public spirit shown by his Excellency, General Bernardo Reyes, the
Governor of the State of Nuevo León from 1885 to February, 1910, and who,
untiring in his devotion to the interests of the city, was primarily
responsible for the inception of the works and their successful
completion.



                               DISCUSSION.


JAMES D. SCHUYLER, M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--For completeness of
detail and wide range of subjects of general interest to engineers, this
paper is certainly one of the notable contributions to recent engineering
literature. It is a minute and painstaking record of the successful
accomplishment of construction work under unusual climatic conditions and
difficult circumstances, and reflects credit on the author, not only in
his capacity as an engineer, but as a faithful recorder of facts. It was
particularly fortunate that he was an eyewitness of the disastrous and
extraordinary flood which swept through Monterrey, destroying many lives
and much property, and has thus been able to give an intelligent estimate
of the maximum discharge of the river during the height of the flood wave
of August 27th-28th, 1909, when the rate of run-off per unit of area of
water-shed drained reached an amount which has seldom been equalled or
exceeded, as far as reliable records extend. It is worthy of note that
works deriving their water supply from the source of such torrential
floods should have survived with so little actual damage, and with
scarcely any interruption of service. The repair of all damages to the
system was estimated to have cost not more than $20,000.

As Mr. Conway did not assume charge of construction until May, 1907, he
was spared the responsibility of deciding on the general plan of securing
an abundant supply of pure water from sources permitting of delivery by
gravity under adequate pressure for fire protection--a responsibility
which devolved on the writer, assisted by G. S. Binckley, M. Am. Soc. C.
E., Mr. Conway's predecessor, as Chief Engineer. Not only the water-works,
but the system of sewerage and sewage disposal by broad irrigation were
subsequently carried out on the plans submitted to the State Government by
the writer in 1906, and given provisional acquiescence at that time.

There was no lack of water at hand for the supply of a city of that size,
as there are large perennial springs which flow out of the travertine of
the plain, and are used for irrigation in the valley below the city. One
of the largest of these, near the civic center, has a normal flow of
nearly 30 cu. ft. per sec.; another nearby, also within the city limits,
flows some 10 or 12 sec-ft., while both the Estanscia and Robalar springs,
but a few miles below (shown on Plate II), discharge more than 20 sec-ft.,
as nearly as memory serves. Besides this supply, the water to be developed
by sinking shafts in certain parts of the plain, as demonstrated at the
brewery and elsewhere, was apparently a reliable source of large volume.

To utilize these sources, however, would have involved condemnation of the
water-rights in the case of the springs, depriving present owners of the
use of the water, and this Governor Reyes wished to avoid. Besides, it
would have necessitated pumping the water for the city in perpetuity, an
expense which the Governor was equally anxious to save; hence a gravity
supply was made the prime requisite of the plans.

Until the concession was granted, and for a year or more afterward, it was
assumed that an adequate supply could only be obtained by the storage of
the flood-water of the Santa Catarina River in a large reservoir; and the
earlier plans of the concessionaires were based on the construction of a
high masonry storage dam at the upper end of the "narrows," where the
river turns from a western direction to a course almost due east, between
high vertical cliffs of limestone. The concession distinctly provided for
such a dam, and among the plans on file in the State Capitol is one
prepared by the late E. Sherman Gould, M. Am. Soc. C. E., for a masonry
weir across the gorge. Samuel M. Gray, M. Am. Soc. C. E., also filed a
plan and report proposing a capacious, shallow, storage reservoir near the
city, to be filled by a large flood-water canal from the Santa Catarina
Cañon.

Although the writer could not have anticipated the occurrence of floods of
the magnitude of the one of August, 1909, which would surely have
destroyed any reservoir built in the Cañon, he was unable to endorse the
storage plan of water development, chiefly because of the uncertainty of
the water-tightness of the reservoir in a cavernous limestone formation,
and also because of the probable impurity of water draining from such
extensive goat pastures. He, therefore, urged the development of the
underflow of the river, which was manifesting itself in the springs
referred to. Mr. Binckley secured two Keystone drilling machines and
proceeded to profile the bed-rock at Santa Catarina Cañon and at San
Geronimo, the two places on the stream where the river flows between walls
of rock _in situ_. At both sites the strata were standing nearly vertical
across the channel, and, by careful sampling and testing, it was found
that in both locations there were thick strata of limestone so highly
silicious as to be insoluble, and hence free from caverns. From this
determination it was concluded that all the water which appeared in the
valley below must pass through the sections where the borings were made.
The results of this drilling, however, proved conclusively that the depth
to bed-rock at either place was too great to permit of a masonry dam being
considered as practical, and demonstrated the inadequacy of methods which
had been used in the earlier investigations when dams were regarded as
feasible.

The results have also shown that the subterranean supply at the lower
cross-section of the river, at San Geronimo, is abundant, and can probably
be increased to an indefinite degree by continuing the filtration gallery;
while at Santa Catarina the same type of development can be made for a
high-source supply, although requiring a long and expensive tunnel and
conduit.


DAVID T. PITKETHLY, ASSOC. M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--Having been
engaged on the design of sewerage systems for some years, the writer finds
this paper of peculiar interest, particularly the sewerage portion. There
are some points in the design, however, which do not appear to be clear.

The system is described as "strictly separate," and yet the sewers are
designed to run half-full, providing a capacity of 200%, the 100% basis,
or 380 liters per capita, being 90%, or 180 liters, in excess of the
calculated water supply of 200 liters per capita.

It has been the writer's practice to design sanitary sewer systems on the
basis of the water consumption, and to assume the whole daily amount to
reach the sewer in 16 hours, thus providing capacity sufficient to care
for the maximum or wash-day flow without causing the sewers to run above
the calculated hydraulic gradient, which should be placed within the pipe
so as to provide air space for ventilation under all circumstances.

The practice of calculating sanitary sewers to run half-full is a good one
when ground-water is expected in sufficient amount to fill the remaining
portion of the sewer, but when no ground-water, or roof-, or surface-water
is allowed to enter the system, or all precautions are taken to exclude
such, then the system may be designed so that the expected maximum, or
wash-day flow, will fill the sewer to the desired hydraulic gradient.

The method of ventilating the sewers does not seem practicable. The houses
are principally of one story, and yet the stand-pipes on the sewers have
openings 25 ft. 9 in. above the sidewalk. Are the ventilating or vent
pipes of the house plumbing carried to a height to balance this, or will
these chimneys draw the air from the house drains and fresh-air pipes,
breaking the seal in the so-called disconnecting traps, thus causing the
circulation of air in the house piping to be downward through the sewers
instead of upward through the fresh-air inlets and vents, as designed?

It is interesting to note that crude sewage, as well as the liquefying
(septic) tank effluent, is to be applied to land for irrigation purposes,
but the application of crude sewage without any attempt at removing the
suspended matter, or the effluent from the septic tanks where only a
partial removal occurs, seems to be bad practice.

The author states that:

"The degree of purification in the tanks was relatively unimportant; the
object to be obtained consisted chiefly in distributing on the land an
effluent which would be innocuous and clear."

How he expects to obtain such an effluent by passage through screens,
detritus tanks, and septic tanks only, is more than the writer can
understand.

The removal of suspended matter in a septic tank depends on the strength
of the sewage, the time of retention, the time elapsing between cleaning,
the presence of trade wastes, etc., and seldom exceeds 38 per cent.

The subject of septic tanks and their effect on sewage is discussed in the
"Fifth Report of the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal" (England, 1908),
and the following extracts, relative to the application of crude sewage to
land and the effect of septic tanks on sewage, seem apropos:

    "23. * * * There are also many cases in which crude sewage has
    been passed over land, but the evidence shows that land treatment
    of crude sewage is liable to give rise to nuisance by the
    accumulation of solids on the surface of the land. Moreover, in
    some cases these solids are apt to form an impervious layer,
    which interferes with the aeration of the soil, and so impairs
    the efficiency of the treatment."

    "31. * * * At that time it was claimed that the septic tank
    possessed the following, among other, advantages:

    "That it solved the sludge difficulty, inasmuch as practically all
    the organic solid matter was digested in the tank.

    "That it destroyed any pathogenic organisms which there might be
    in the sewage."

    "32. As regards the first of these claims, it is now clearly
    established that, in practice, all the organic solids are not
    digested by septic tanks, and that the actual amount of digestion
    varies to some extent with the character of the sewage, the size
    of the tanks relative to the volume treated, and the frequency of
    cleansing."

    "At Huddersfield, Mr. Campbell estimated that about 38 per cent.
    of the solids were converted into gas or digested; * * * while at
    Birmingham, Messrs. Watson and O'Shaughnessy say that the figures
    available indicated a digestion of not more than 10 per cent. of
    the suspended matter entering the tanks."

    "33. As regards the second claim, we find as a result of a very
    large number of observations that the sewage issuing from the
    septic tanks is, bacteriologically, almost as impure as the sewage
    entering the tanks."

Messrs. Winslow and Phelps, in their interesting paper, "Investigations on
the Purification of Boston Sewage,"[8] quote a suggestion made by
Stoddart (1905):

[8] Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 185, p. 125.

    "He finds, in a septic tank of several compartments, a
    considerable deposit of sludge in the first compartment, giving
    a fairly clear supernatant liquid, which in the last chamber of
    all undergoes a secondary decomposition, leading to the
    throwing down of an additional precipitate of offensive
    sludge."

What took place in the case referred to by Stoddart corresponds to the
author's observations of the liquid leaving the tanks in a clarified
condition, but the secondary decomposition must take place in some manner,
and, when it does, a nuisance seems to be unavoidable where no provision
is made to care for it.

In view of the experience of others, some further treatment seems to be
necessary. Such treatment should include disinfection, as no method of
disposal yet devised has succeeded in reducing materially the pathogenic
germs usually to be found in sewage and tank effluents.

If the crops to be irrigated are to be eaten, uncooked, by mankind, then
disinfection at least is imperative.


GEORGE S. BINCKLEY, M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--Mr. Conway's admirable
paper is of special interest to the writer, as the entire general design
of the system, as well as the extensive hydrological studies and final
selection of the sources of water supply, was completed during 1906
through the joint labors of the writer, as Chief Engineer, and James D.
Schuyler, M. Am. Soc. C. E., as Consulting Engineer.

In this work, Mr. Schuyler and the writer had the rare privilege of
dealing from its inception with the problem of designing a complete and
somewhat extensive system of municipal water supply and drainage,
unhampered by any existing works to which the new systems would have to be
adapted. It would probably be difficult to find in the United States a
city of 85,000 inhabitants, previously totally lacking either a water
supply or sewerage system, which, under a consistent and harmonious
design, has been provided with both in the degree of completeness and
structural excellence exemplified in the works at Monterrey.

The few important changes or amplifications made in the original design,
and the manner in which its detail has been executed is naturally most
interesting to the writer, and this excellent paper should be of very
substantial value, particularly to engineers engaged on similar work in
Mexico or Spanish America.

The very novel construction method adopted by Mr. Conway in the roofing of
the South or Guadalupe Reservoir, seems to the writer rather to invite
criticism, and the fact that in the subsequent construction of the roof
over the rectangular Obispado Reservoir the customary monolithic concrete
construction was apparently reverted to after experience with the
separate-unit plan previously used, would indicate that Mr. Conway reached
the same conclusion.

The original design of the circular Guadalupe Reservoir contemplated just
about the same arrangement of columns and roof support as that actually
used, but the writer had expected that the columns would be cast in place,
and that the system of primary and secondary beams would be filled at the
same time as, and integral with, the roof slab, the reinforcement being
placed in accordance with what may be described as conventional practice.
The writer believes that the efficiency of the concrete and steel placed
in this manner would be notably higher than under the system actually
adopted, which, in effect, is pretty much the same as constructing the
supporting system of units of cut stone. If, with all the elements of
structural weakness involved in the multiplicity of mortised joints,
discontinuous reinforcement, etc., this construction is strong enough, it
would seem that an important reduction in the dimensions of the members
could have been effected by monolithic construction and continuous
reinforcement, without sacrifice of strength.

The comparison, in Table 7, of the costs of these two reservoirs, is
interesting, but very moderately illuminating, as the comparative unit
cost of the most important element in their construction--the concrete--is
not given. The total excavation cost for each reservoir is practically the
same, and the general expense, engineering, and cost of fittings and
accessories presumably so, but the total cost of the Guadalupe Reservoir
as given is $19,000 (pesos) in excess of that of the Obispado Reservoir,
while, in the latter, there were 756 cu. m. more concrete. This certainly
indicates a much higher cost of concrete per unit as laid in the South
(Guadalupe) Reservoir. An actual comparison of the cost per unit of
concrete laid under the two systems would be instructive.

The writer is interested to observe that the same system of sub-drainage
used by him in the construction of the reservoir for the provisional
supply of water from San Geronimo, has been used by the author in the
Obispado Reservoir. This arrangement of drains under the floor of the
reservoir at San Geronimo was devised as a safeguard against damage to the
lining through the accumulation of water inside the impervious bank
against its back.

It was realized that, in such a climate as that of Monterrey, perfect
water-tightness of the lining might be difficult to secure or maintain,
and, if leaks existed, a sudden draft on the contents of the reservoir
might result in serious damage through the static pressure exerted against
the lining of the sides or upward thrust against the floor. In the
writer's opinion, such a system of drains is an important element, as not
alone the fact but the quantity of leakage may be determined, and danger
of saturation of the supporting bank avoided--a matter of importance
where, as is sometimes the case, the material of such a bank is unfit to
resist the effects of saturation. The author does not state whether or not
this safeguard was omitted in the Guadalupe Reservoir. Incidentally,
however, the matter of saturation of the bank is not important in either
reservoir, as the material of which these banks are constructed is such
that settlement or failure through saturation is out of the question. It
may be remarked, however, that in fixing the angle of the sides of the
Guadalupe Reservoir at 60° the writer contemplated the same system of
constructing the bank as he used in that of the San Geronimo Reservoir. In
this case, the bank was built up by spreading the material in thin layers,
wetting down, and rolling and puddling by the passage of the ox-carts used
for the transportation of the material, the wheels of the carts, and
especially the cloven hoofs of the animals, producing a most excellent
effect. The inside slope was built up in this fashion to a much lower
angle, and with a top width considerably in excess of the finished
dimensions. The excess material was then picked off to the line, and
exactly to the slope. Thus the finished slope presented a surface which
was compacted to a degree impossible to attain at or near the surface of
the bank as built, and presenting a support of the best possible character
for the concrete lining and coping.


V. SAUCEDO, ASSOC. M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--The author's
description of the water-works and sewerage of Monterrey, one of the most
extensive schemes in Mexico, will be of general interest to engineers,
especially those engaged in hydraulic and sanitary problems. The writer,
having been connected with the works for four years, knows the local
conditions well, and presents herewith some complementary data on what he
considers an important feature, the subject of floods, mentioned by the
author on different occasions, especially as certain developments in the
works show the importance of such occurrences as a factor in designing.

Abnormal rainfalls of long duration and high intensity are common in the
semi-arid region of Mexico. They come at irregular intervals, though
tending to coincide with the early fall. The floods of August, 1909, were
a repetition of similar occurrences in the past; and, though there are no
numerical records of previous cases, local traditions and historical state
documents describe them as having occurred since the foundation of the
city, at intervals of from 15 to 40 years. The graphic descriptions of the
places flooded are in accord with the character of the floods of August,
1909, and September, 1910.

The diagram, Fig. 21, is a record of the rainfall during the latter flood,
and was plotted from intermittent readings of standard gauges. It
demonstrates that the intensity increased toward the mountains on the
south, which form the tributary water-shed of the Santa Catarina River,
showing a difference of 10.54 in. between the city and the Estanzuela Dam,
which is not quite 12 miles to the southeast.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--RAINFALL DURING FLOODS OF SEPTEMBER 14TH-16TH,
1910, IN MONTERREY.]

An estimate of the volume of discharge of the river at the time of maximum
flood is only a reasonable conjecture which (without special reference to
accuracy) aims to impress those who have not witnessed such occurrences
with the tremendous volume coming from barren steep surfaces previously
saturated.

The original computation, referred to by the author, was obtained from the
average of two different methods which gave results close to each other.
In one method the extent and nature of the water-shed were considered,
together with the maximum period of precipitation that occurred,
sufficient to gather a maximum volume of water in the river. In the other
method the volume was derived from a cross-section of the wetted perimeter
of the river at the time of maximum flow, in combination with velocity
approximations obtained by using rough floats. This gave 271,500 cu. ft.
per sec. The figure submitted by the author, 235,000 cu, ft. per sec., is
in accord with the proposed formula[9] for impervious surfaces by C. E.
Gregory, M. Am. Soc. C. E. In the first and last methods, the intensity, a
governing factor, is more or less of an assumption, and the
cross-sectional method is also unreliable, as the river-bed was greatly
disturbed, due to the high velocity of the water, which deepens the
channel to a considerable extent at times of maximum flood, the gravels
being redeposited during the period of subsidence. Such was the case
during the flood of September, 1910, when the depth of gravel above the
roof of the San Geronimo Infiltration Gallery was diminished to such an
extent that it was so inefficient as a filter for the flood as to permit
the percolation of turbid water into the underground supply.

[9] _Transactions_. Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LVIII. p. 458.

During the floods of August, 1909, Shafts Nos. 2 and 3 were damaged beyond
repair, and sand and gravel, entering through them, blocked up the
gallery to within about 150 ft. of Shaft No. 1. The interior timbering
probably collapsed, due to cavings and disturbance in the river-bed during
the period of maximum flood, but no explorations have been possible on
account of the great quantity of water still coming through (at present
more than 650 liters per sec.). For this reason the work of driving the
gallery, as well as lining Shaft No. 1, has been suspended.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVIII, FIG. 2.--VIEW OF SANTA CATARINA RIVER IN
FLOOD, ON AUGUST 28TH, 1909.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXI, FIG. 1.--FLUSH-TANK CARRIED DOWN BY FLOOD OF
AUGUST 27TH-28TH, 1909.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXI, FIG. 2.--VIEW SHOWING SCOURING EFFECT OF FLOOD
ON SAN GERONIMO AQUEDUCT.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXII, FIG. 1.--VIEW OF SANTA CATARINA RIVER AFTER
THE FLOOD.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXII, FIG. 2.--VIEW OF SANTA CATARINA RIVER FLOWING
THROUGH LOW-LYING STREETS, 8 DAYS AFTER THE FLOOD.]

On reaching the city, the flood of August, 1909, swept away two streets
adjoining the river. These streets had been built on made ground, in what
was originally the river-bed. The sewers and water mains laid in them were
destroyed entirely, and some 460 ft. of the 24-in. cast-iron pipe, buried
under the river-bed at a depth of 8 ft., were carried away. In relaying
this portion of the main, and for protecting the remainder of it across
the river, it is now proposed to encase it in a solid rubble concrete
block, 8 ft. square, which will impart weight and stability against the
scouring effect of floods.

The South Reservoir is circular in shape, with an interior diameter of
165.68 ft. at the top, and is partly excavated in the ground and partly
completed by an embankment of vast proportions (Fig. 10). Right after the
flood of August, 1909, a wet spot appeared on the northeastern toe of the
embankment, and it was supposed for some time that it was the effect of
the saturation produced by the preceding rains, but, as it persisted for
several months, it was obvious that its origin was in the interior of the
reservoir, which was emptied when the writer took charge of the work. The
first inspection revealed a horizontal crack in the concrete lining, about
310 ft. long and extending about 153° around the circumference on the
north side. Throughout its length it coincided with the line of cut and
fill. Vertical cracks, coinciding with the panel points in the lining, had
also developed, and extended from the main horizontal crack to the roof.
The circumstances originating this development can be conjectured by
considering the position of the main crack, its characteristic features,
and the conditions that preceded its formation. The coincidence of the
crack with the joint of cut and fill, points to this line as a source of
danger. An examination showed, besides, that the fracture was clean and
sharp, ranging in thickness from a hair line at the ends to 3/16 in. at
the center, and that its upper border projected over the lower one
perceptibly, a proof that horizontal motion had taken place. The vertical
cracks were a secondary effect, the consequence of the displacement
immediately after it was scoured. A fracture was discovered in the floor
of the reservoir. It started at the center and branched out into two
diverging lines in a radial direction.

The circumstance of two abnormal rainfalls, giving 35 in. in 9 days, the
precipitation being concentrated in two periods, not far apart, of 42
hours and 98 hours, respectively (Fig. 4), together with lack of provision
for shedding the water from the roof of the reservoir and from the
surrounding embankment, lead to the inference that the latter became
saturated, increasing thereby in weight and decreasing in stability,
especially in its steep inner face. A settlement and the consequent
horizontal displacement, under these conditions, was natural. The concrete
lining, only 16 in. thick at that height, was not sufficient to sustain
the resulting strain, and the main fracture developed, permitting the
stored-up water to leak into the bank. In time this seepage found its way
under the bottom of the reservoir, softening the ground and producing a
slight settlement which caused the crack in the floor. Had under-drainage
been provided, as at the Obispado Reservoir, the actual conditions would
have been noticed earlier. However, as the embankment is of vast
proportions, stable in itself to sustain with a large margin of safety the
weight of the stored-up water, there was no actual danger of failure,
except for the fact that the material forming the structure, on account of
its calcareous nature, is dissolved by water. Long exposure to this
condition would, in time, open passages in the embankment, and it is
certain that there would be cavings in its interior.

The necessary grouting has been done, and provision is being made for
water-proofing the interior of the reservoir and shedding the water from
the roof and from the embankment, thus relieving the structure of the
consequent strain.

Another place in the works where floods have had a damaging effect is the
Estanzuela intake basin, which, when the dam was completed, was filled to
the overflow level in order to test its water-tightness. As this basin,
when cleaned, was found to be slightly fissured on the north side, it was
decided to line it with concrete. As shown in Fig. 8, the lining does not
cover its entire area, but only the central portion, leaving a strip on
either side without protection. The flood of September, 1910, coming in
greater volume than the previous ones of August, 1909, in passing through
the narrow gorge at the entrance, undermined the lining in those places
where it was not founded on solid rock. Figs. 1, 2, and 3, Plate XXXIII,
show some of the damage caused by this flood. The buoyant effect of the
water and the impact of large rolling boulders caused fractures all over
the surface, and lifted the concrete lining bodily; but the dam proper,
being founded on rock bottom, did not suffer any injury. In the future, in
order to avoid the seepage of the ordinary supply, alluded to by the
author, the water will be carried to the valve-house in an open rubble
concrete channel, lined with cement mortar and built high up against the
western hillside. The remainder of the basin will be paved with large
boulders.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIII, FIG. 1.--ESTANZUELA DAM: BROKEN CONCRETE
BASIN LINING.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIII, FIG. 2.--ESTANZUELA DAM: BROKEN CONCRETE
BASIN LINING, EAST SIDE.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIII, FIG. 3.--ESTANZUELA DAM SEPT. 26, 1910: VIEW
OF SHEARING FRACTURES OF WALL AND LINING AFTER FLOOD SEPT. 14-17, 1910.]

In conclusion, the writer wishes to emphasize the point that,
notwithstanding the severity of the test, relatively small damage was
inflicted on the extensive works carried out under the author's design and
direction. A test so severe that it caused serious damage and immense
losses in the entire region, washing away kilometers of railroad track and
destroying practically all the bridges within reach of the flood, is an
occurrence of paramount importance, and should be remembered as a leading
factor in the design of engineering works.


GEORGE T. HAMMOND, M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--In a country, such as
that described in this paper, where water is valuable, and a shortage is
at times possible, where the majority of the population is very poor, and
water and sewage discharge are both to be paid for on a basis of volume,
the question of the expected quantity of daily water supply and sewage
flow per capita is of primary importance. This question, notwithstanding
its difficulty, should be given a first place in the studies for
water-works and sewerage projects, and should never be lost sight of in
the design, which should be such that, while proper for the expected
future flow for a reasonable time, should also be proper and economical
for conditions which at present obtain and may change but slowly.

It is desirable, of course, to get as much capacity in works as one can
for the outlay, but there are instances where one can get too much for the
money, as where a larger pipe than is necessary is used for a sewer,
merely because it costs about the same as a smaller one, and as a result
the cost of maintenance is permanently increased.

The water-works were designed to supply 40,000,000 liters (10,582,000
gal.) daily, which it was assumed would be sufficient for all future
developments in Monterrey for a population of 200,000 at a per capita
consumption of 200 liters (about 53 gal.) per day. The present population
of the city is given as less than 90,000, there having been an increase of
22,000 in ten years (1891-1901), but it is evident that in the last ten
years (1901-1911) this rate of increase has not continued. Taking into
account all the data known to the writer, it does not seem that the city
will attain a population of 200,000 in a great many years, if it ever
does; but this is a matter of personal opinion, and is only stated as
such.

The present requirements of the city's population, assuming that each
person uses 200 liters (53 gal.) per day, would be, at that rate, which is
a very liberal one, only 18,000,000 liters (4,762,000 gal.) per day, or
less than half the amount which may be provided.

If the water were not to be metered and the sewage discharge paid for by
measure, it is possible that the free use of water might lead to the usual
waste with which all are fairly familiar; but the use of meters, and the
rates charged, will reduce the water consumption to a minimum. This end
will especially result from Section 5 of the Tariffs which provides that:

"Groups can be formed of two or more small houses so as to obtain a joint
service under the proportion shown in the tariff."

This provision will keep down the per capita supply, among the majority of
the people, to about 37-1/2 liters (10 gal.) per day. A similar provision
led to abuse in Santiago de Cuba, as well as in other Cuban cities, where
one householder, taking water, frequently delivers it to adjoining houses
and tenements through rubber hose. As many as ten or twelve families are
sometimes found to be supplied from one tap in this manner. Indeed, it may
be stated as a rule, having but few exceptions, that where water is paid
for by meter its use is always restricted.

The water mains and distribution system, however, are so well laid out,
and the whole design is so good, that the writer would not anticipate much
difficulty because it is on rather too liberal lines for the present or
probable future. It may, perhaps, be argued that it may cost more to keep
the mains in such a system clean; but this extra cost will scarcely be of
much moment, and will be offset by the greater lasting quality of the
larger pipes. There is another feature of the problem, however, which is
not affected favorably by a too liberal forecast of the per capita water
supply, namely, the sewerage system.

If it is assumed that, using 200 liters per capita per day, the total
water supply of the city for the present population will be 18,000,000
liters, and that this may double in fifty years, or even amount to
40,000,000 liters in that time, it would seem that a rather liberal
provision has been made for the water supply, and that this will scarcely
be exceeded by the sewage, for the latter must come from the water supply,
there being little or no ground-water and no storm-water taken into the
sewers. Designing the sewers to flow half full for all diameters less than
18 in., and seven-tenths full for all larger sizes, it would seem that
this would give ample capacity for all time to come in such a city, and
that good practice would not exceed these figures, it being more desirable
that the sewers should not be too large to work well, than that they
should be large enough in all places to meet every possible contingency.
If all the sewers of a system are too large, the condition is incurably
bad; while, if a few miles prove to be too small, on account of growth and
prosperity not anticipated by the designer, it will be easy enough to
relay such parts when this becomes necessary.

Mr. Conway states that:

"The sewers are designed on a very liberal basis, namely, on the
assumption that when flowing half full the quantity to be dealt with will
be 380 liters [100 gal.] per capita per day, with a maximum rate of flow
of 200 per cent."

If the writer understands this statement correctly, it means that the
sewers, flowing half full, will carry 380 liters per capita in 12 hours,
or are designed with 200% of the capacity required to take the assumed
flow in 24 hours.

It was assumed that each house would be occupied by 7 persons and have a
frontage of 12-1/2 m. (about 41 ft.), that is, about 700 gal. per day per
house, the maximum flow rate being 200%, or at the rate of 700 gal. per
house in 12 hours.

It is to be remembered that nearly all the houses are of one story, and
that, as a rule in tropical and sub-tropical countries, the per capita use
of water diminishes with some function of the increasing number of
inhabitants in one house. Most of the water is used in the kitchen, and
where there are 7 persons instead of 5, the quantity used by the smaller
number will generally serve the larger.

The writer is unable to understand how this quantity of sewage will be
produced, especially as the author states that, as far as the company is
concerned, it is limited to the removal and disposal of the sewage, and is
not required to provide for storm-water. He also states that:

"Apart from that fact, however, the best system for a city like Monterrey,
where rainfall for many months at a time is very scarce, is the strictly
'separate system'."

The minimum velocities in the sewers, when running full, vary between 0.91
and 1.5 m. (from 3 to 5 ft.) per sec., and will be the same flowing half
full.

From the foregoing data it will be observed that:

    (1) The water supply is the only source from which sewage flow
    is anticipated;

    (2) The water supply is very liberally estimated at 200 liters
    (53 gal.) per capita daily;

    (3) For purposes of sewer design, the daily flow of sewage
    expected (all of which is derived from the water supply of 200
    liters per capita) is estimated at 380 liters per capita, with a
    maximum rate of flow of 200% (or at the rate of 760 liters per
    capita), and with this quantity the sewers are designed to flow
    only half full;

    (4) The gradients are such that a velocity of from 3 to 5 ft.
    (0.91 to 1.5 m.) per sec. will be secured in the sewers flowing
    half full with the above quantity of flow per capita.

The writer does not agree with this method of computation, as he feels
sure that it will give sewers which are too large, with grades too steep
for the best obtainable results. His experience, extending over more than
twenty years in sewer design and hydraulic work, convinces him that the
method pursued is wrong in principle.

The principles involved in sewer design are first of all hydraulic. The
quantity of flow, in the nature of things, cannot be forecasted
accurately; success depends on getting the nearest possible approximation
to average conditions. If 200 liters per capita per day is a liberal
allowance, and 40,000,000 liters per day is a liberal expectation at this
rate for double the present population, and the sewers are designed to
flow half full only, why should this again be doubled?

The design of a sewer system for a city such as Monterrey is, in fact, a
very difficult problem, especially as the quantity of sewage will be very
limited, flush-water will have to be used in considerable quantities, and
water in that part of the world is precious at all times and often scarce.
Under these circumstances, the size or shape of the pipes selected for the
lateral sewers, should have been such as would more nearly agree with the
requirements than does the 8-in. circular.

A. P. Folwell, M. Am. Soc. C. E., writing of the 8-in. circular size,
states:[10]

[10] "Sewerage," by A. P. Folwell, M. Am, Soc. C. E.

    "To secure a flow in this pipe having an average depth of 4
    inches would require the sewage from a population of 6,500. In
    general it may be said that the ordinary depth of flow in any
    sewer should not be less than 2 inches, nor should it be less
    than 1/2 the radius of the invert, since if it is so there is
    much more danger of deposits forming along the edges and even in
    the center of the stream. It will sometimes be impossible to
    meet this requirement fully, but it should be kept in mind as
    extremely desirable."

Sewers of small size should be proportioned throughout the system so that
the depth of the minimum daily flow in the invert, and the velocity of
flow, will be the best possible to prevent deposits. The transporting
power of water is dependent mainly on the depth of flow, a minimum
velocity being selected rather than a minimum depth of flow. To those who
have had charge of the maintenance of sewers, as well as of their design
and construction, this principle seems so obvious that it is always a
surprise to see it disregarded by designers, who in these days seem
inclined to consider sewerage as a system of grades and sizes of pipes
installed for ideal, rather than for actual, conditions. Messrs. Staley
and Pierson have well stated the principle involved as follows:

"A stream having a depth of flow sufficient to immerse solid matter held
in suspension, to a certain extent lifts it and carries it forward. The
entire surface is also exposed to the action of the current. A stream
having an equal velocity but a less depth in proportion to the diameter of
the solid matters to be transported, evidently has less transporting
power. * * * An amount of sewage which can be properly transported by a
circular sewer of a given size, cannot be as efficiently transported by
one of larger diameter."

From some strange idea, which is apparently without foundation in logic or
based on any actual justification from experience, it has of late years
become the practice of designing engineers to make the 8-in. circular
pipe the smallest size for sewers; and it is not improbable that the
designer of the Monterrey system has merely followed this example. It has
also become the frequent practice of designers to give every length of
sewer all the grade possible, regardless of the fact, taught both by
hydraulics and experience, that the best grade is that which will give as
much depth of flow as is consistent with a scouring velocity.

Some years ago it was the standard practice, in the "strictly separate
system" of sewers, to use the 6-in. pipe as the minimum size, and, as far
as the writer has been able to discover, after giving the matter a rather
extensive investigation, the 6-in. size has given excellent results
wherever its use was proper. In places where it has not succeeded there
were excellent reasons why it should not have been selected, and these
could easily have been observed at the time the designs were made. The
best sizes for the sewers in a given system is always a matter to be
determined by local conditions; but there seems to be no reason why the
6-in. size should not be used where the flow is so slight that the 8-in.
will not work well; or where the velocity must of necessity be so great
that a flotation depth of flow cannot be maintained in the larger size. As
to likelihood of clogging and stoppage, the writer's opinion, based on the
maintenance of three rather extensive systems in different parts of the
United States, in each of which the 6-in. size comprises more than 75% of
the whole length of pipe, and of three other systems, one having 12-in.
and two having 8-in. as the minimum sizes, is that the 6-in. size, where
properly used, is less likely to become clogged than either of the others
used improperly. The cost of maintaining the 6-in. pipe lateral, under
these circumstances, is much less than that of maintaining the 8-in.
lateral.

The 6-in. pipe is not being used now as much as the 8-in., and in most
cases this is probably because the capacity of the latter is nearly double
that of the 6-in., and costs only a few cents more per foot. If there is a
sufficient population per acre, or if, within 30 or 40 years, such a
population is anticipated as will fill the 8-in. pipe half full, its use,
of course, is justified and necessary; but where it is quite evident that
this will never occur, its use is counter-indicated.

In Monterrey, where the building lots have a frontage of 41 ft., where the
houses, as a rule, are only one story high, where the water service is
metered and paid for, and the sewage flow is also paid for, there seems to
be no reason to justify the use of 8-in. pipe for the upper reaches of the
smallest sewers. The sewage flow to be anticipated will probably never be
sufficient to keep an 8-in. pipe sewer in a good clean condition at the
upper ends of the lines of sewers without excessive flushing; and the
sharper or steeper the grade on which it is placed, the worse will be the
result, because the sharper the grade, the thinner the flowing thread of
sewage will be drawn out in the invert; on the other hand, if the grades
are flat, the slight quantity of sewage flow will be spread out in a
sluggish stream, without sufficient depth, on the bottom of the 8-in.
pipe.

Where a wide surface is given to a small quantity of flowing sewage, it
stagnates slowly along the bottom of the sewer, leaving frequent deposits
to undergo decomposition and create foul air, if not to choke the sewer, a
result often produced; and where a circular sewer which is too large for
the ordinary flow is given a strong velocity by using steep grades, the
stream, though flowing rapidly, is drawn out to such a thin thread that it
will not effect the flotation of the solid masses in the sewage brought in
at house connections, and the shallow and thin stream simply flows around
such masses until a dam or obstruction forms and the sewage is backed up
sufficiently to force the obstruction farther down, to form another
obstruction in a larger pipe below. Flushing may possibly keep such a
sewer fairly clean; but, as usually practiced, it is effective only for a
few hundred feet from the flush-tank; and the quantity of flush-water
required by an 8-in. pipe is more than twice as much as that required to
keep the 6-in. pipe clean. Ventilation is better in the smaller sewer than
in the larger, as there is less air to move; but the elaborate ventilating
stacks provided at Monterrey may take care of this; and it is evidently a
place where ventilation will be needed.

The ideal size and shape of cross-section for a sewer is such as will give
the best flotation to moving solids which are being carried along by the
flow; and this means the sewer that, with the expected ordinary or average
flow, will give the best depth in the invert, when the velocity of flow is
sufficient to keep suspended solids, grit, etc., moving at a rate of from
2 to 3 ft. per sec. The size, however, is limited by practical
considerations. The circular pipes cannot well be less than 6 in. in
diameter, because the house connections cannot well be less than 4-in.
pipe, and the sewer should be larger than the house connections, for
various practical reasons; but, in order to secure flotation and a
scouring flow, the smallest pipe, or the pipe having the smallest invert
radius, that practical considerations permit, should be selected. The
grade should be such, and the collecting system so laid out, that the flow
may be conserved as far as possible, and the sewage flow should be kept of
as great a depth in the invert, or bottom of the sewer, as safety in
self-cleansing velocity will permit. This will save flush-water and
prevent stoppages, and thus reduce the cost of maintenance to a minimum.
For good sanitary practice, the sewers should be designed, first of all,
to comply with the requirements of the present, or immediately expected,
ordinary flow, with some reasonable allowance for the future. They should
be neither too large nor too small, and the grade should neither be too
great nor too little, to secure the best flotation and scouring effects
and the best flush-wave action under all circumstances.

The use of cement concrete pipe for sewers seems to be growing in favor;
nor is this surprising, in view of the many improvements made in their
design and manufacture. The excellence of the concrete pipe used in
Monterrey and its success, suggest the query: Why was it not used still
more extensively?

Table 13 shows that the cement pipe cost much less than the vitrified
tile, or "fire-clay" pipe. Thus, the 38.1 cm. (15-in.) fire-clay cost 6.14
pesos per lin. m., the 45.7 cm. (18-in.) cost 8.80 pesos, and the 50.8 cm.
(20-in.) cost 11.30 pesos. Compared with this, the concrete pipe was much
the cheaper; the 55.9 cm. (22-in.) cost 5.93 pesos, which is less than the
cost of the 38.1 cm. (15-in.) fire-clay; and the 61.0 cm. (25-in.)
concrete pipe cost 7.30 pesos, which is less than the 45.7 cm. (18-in.)
fire-clay.

The writer's experience with concrete pipe, derived mainly from a long
service in sewer design and construction in Brooklyn, N. Y., leads him to
believe that at Monterrey the whole sewer system might, with advantage,
have been built of concrete pipe, using an egg-shaped pipe with an area
slightly larger than an 8-in. circle, designed for a discharge equal to an
8-in. pipe for all the smaller sewers. The invert of such an egg-shaped
pipe would fulfill the present requirements in carrying a very small flow
with good flotation depth, better than would a 6-in. circular pipe, and
the reserve capacity of the 8-in. pipe would be secured without
interfering with good present service. Egg-shaped pipes, similar to those
used in Brooklyn, the writer believes, would have given far better
satisfaction throughout the Monterrey sewerage system than circular
fire-clay pipe, and would have cost no more, but probably less. The
egg-shaped pipe referred to is made with a flat base and a self-centering
joint, thus insuring perfect alignment, and a smoother interior surface
than can be obtained with fire-clay pipes.

Brooklyn has about 450 miles of concrete pipe sewers, of all sizes less
than 24 in., the greater part of which is egg-shaped. There are also about
250 miles of vitrified stoneware circular pipe sewers of similar sizes,
and the cost of repairs and replacing pipe, over a period of years is
about the same per mile for each kind. Incidentally, it may be stated that
the annual cost of repairs per mile on both kinds of pipe is very small,
and is only about one-fifth of the cost of repairs per mile on the brick
sewers, of which there are about 200 miles.

The principal advantages and disadvantages of cement concrete pipe sewers
may be summed up as follows:

                      ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE PIPE.

  (a) Cement concrete pipe is usually less costly than vitrified
      pipe.

  (b) It can be formed in any shape desired.

  (c) It is not cracked by vibration, and resists impact better than
      vitrified pipe, for which reason it is a better material to
      lay near the surface of a street in which there is heavy
      traffic.

  (d) It is not affected by ordinary sewage.

  (e) The cost of repairing and maintaining is about the same as for
      a vitrified pipe sewer.

  (f) It can be made in the city or town where it is to be
      installed, thus giving the locality the advantage of having
      some of the money paid for labor in its manufacture spent in
      the place where the sewers are being put in, where it is
      raised as a tax, etc.; also saving freight charges, etc.

  (g) It can be made under the most careful local supervision and
      inspection, of selected material, by the engineer who is
      responsible for the success of the work. Vitrified pipe can
      seldom be made in this way.

                      DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE PIPE.

  (a) If not carefully made and of the best of materials, it is
      subject to failure by disintegration, etc.

  (b) It will not stand strong chemical action, and therefore the
      smaller sizes should not be used where they are likely to be
      exposed to trade wastes containing strong acids. In the larger
      sizes the quantity of flow mixes so quickly with the trade
      wastes that this danger is minimized, and it is very seldom
      that even the smaller sizes become affected; but vitrified
      pipe may be used in places where chemical action is
      anticipated.

  (c) If not properly made, it will be attacked by steam and hot
      vapor, and by animal fats in the sewage; but, if properly
      made, it is not affected by these.

  (d) Unless reinforced or made very thick, it will not stand as
      great a crushing load as the best vitrified stoneware pipe;
      but, as sewers are not intended to be used under very heavy
      pressure, this is not so very important. It is amply strong to
      withstand any internal pressure or any external crushing load
      to which it probably will be submitted.

  (e) Under a considerable head of ground-water, it may permit water
      to infiltrate through its walls for a considerable time after
      it is laid, thereby temporarily increasing the flow, which, if
      the sewage is to be pumped, will increase the cost of pumping.
      This difficulty can be met by using a carefully selected mix
      of materials in making the pipe, and by making the joints
      carefully. Infiltration through concrete diminishes rapidly
      after the sewer is in use; it occurs in vitrified pipe, also,
      to some extent.

The house connection drain adopted in Monterrey, with the disconnecting
trap, is very much like one which the writer has seen introduced with very
bad result. These are being removed as rapidly as possible by one of his
clients, a sewerage company, in the Southern States. It has been a
fruitful cause of stoppages and bad smells; the ordinary method now in
general use is much better. In the design shown, it would seem that there
may even be some danger that the ventilation of the sewer by the
stand-pipes in the streets may force the traps.

One is rather surprised to learn that the main outfall sewer is designed
with a capacity of 90,000,000 liters per day, the present sewage being
estimated as not more than 18,000,000 liters, and the far future being
thought to require only 40,000,000 liters. Why this excessive size?
Possibly the surplus water which it is to carry is to be discharged into
the sewers from the water supply system direct, and is intended for
irrigating the land at the disposal area, when the sewage is insufficient
for this purpose. The author states that all surface water is strictly
excluded.

The method of sewage disposal gives rise to several questions. It is
proposed to use an extensive area for growing crops, which are to be
irrigated with sewage. The paper states that the underlying strata at
Monterrey contain numerous caverns, and the first question is: What will
be the effect on the water supply of other towns lower down the valley?
The writer recollects a serious outbreak of typhoid fever in Bluefield, W.
Va., caused by the pollution of the water in similar strata finding its
way through unknown underground caverns and channels to the city's water
supply.

The next question is: What crops will be grown? It is a well-known fact
that vegetables grown by the use of sewage as a fertilizer, are unsafe in
a raw state for human consumption. This is well-known to European
travelers in China and Japan, where the use of fecal matter as fertilizer
renders the various water supplies (where not filtered and disinfected)
and all green vegetables, unsafe, on account of typhoid germs. Moreover,
crops not intended for human consumption, which are grown on lands
irrigated by sewage bearing typhoid germs, etc., are unsafe for men to
handle; even to store them may cause a dissemination of disease. It is
evident, therefore, that the whole sewage flow should be in some manner
disinfected at least, if not filtered, before it is used.

The method of sewage disposal and the use of merely settled septic sewage
for irrigation seem to be open to objection. The disposal plant is not
sufficiently effective to meet the present requirements of sanitary
science; and the sludge-pit will be certain to breed a pest of flies, if
it is not also an intolerable nuisance on account of foul smells.
Monterrey would seem to be a proper place for the introduction of the
Imhoff tank, with percolating filters, and a final settling tank, the
effluent being disinfected, before entering the latter tank. The flow
might then be used safely for irrigation purposes for crops not to be
eaten uncooked by man. The writer does not see how the method provided can
possibly fulfill the object stated, to distribute on the land an effluent
which will be "innocuous and clear," or how any consequential degree of
purification can be obtained in the tanks provided.

While there are described in this paper many things to find fault with,
there are also many things to commend. The water supply system, with its
reservoirs, etc., seems to be admirable; and the methods of construction
by which the expense for forms was reduced is very interesting. The
parking and ornamentation of the grounds over the reservoir roofs cannot
fail to benefit the people and popularize the work.


RUDOLF MEYER, M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--The writer, as Engineer for
the Government (guaranteeing the concessionaires a gross return of 10% per
annum on the capital invested), and as inspector of the various works has
had exceptional opportunities to become acquainted, not only with their
construction, but also with events leading up to the granting of the final
concession under which they were built and will be extended. In order to
judge of the extent to which the different engineers, in their turn
contributed toward the design of these works, the writer has thought it
desirable to submit a complete statement of all matters relating to the
inception, investigations, surveys, tests, etc., previous to the adoption
of the present plans.

Data regarding former investigations, plans, and concessions which have
since lapsed, have been obtained from the Government archives. These refer
to periods prior to Mr. Conway's engagement, and anterior to the retaining
of Mr. Schuyler by the concessionaires, and Mr. Binckley's connection with
the scheme, and they are presented here as complementary to the
information in the paper.

Samuel M. Gray, M. Am. Soc. C. E., acting in the interest of some American
capitalists (who had been induced by Col. J. A. Robertson, of Monterrey,
to look into the merits of a concession acquired by him, for building
these works), being guided by the Government's proposition to supply the
city with water by damming the flood-waters of the Santa Catarina River in
the narrow gorge through which the stream emerges from the Sierras, some
eight miles from the city, had several soundings made and reservoir sites
surveyed in the first two box cañons up the river, and prepared and
presented to the Government several alternative projects, besides the one
mentioned by Mr. Schuyler. Several different dam sites were designated by
Mr. Gray, whose investigations extended over some two years, and were
finally abandoned after he had designed the general outlay for a complete
network of water mains and sewers for the city, on account of the
unwillingness of the Government at that time, about 1897, to grant any
guaranties as to bonds or income to the concessionaire or his assigns. Mr.
Gray did not favor the general scheme of storing flood-waters as a water
supply, but strongly recommended to the attention of the Government the
greater advantages of deriving the supply from subterranean flow in the
river, by an infiltration gallery driven into the water-bearing gravels in
the Santa Catarina Cañon (only a short distance above the place where Mr.
Binckley afterward established his bore-holes across the river). He
proposed to take advantage of the steep slope of the river at a turn in
the cañon, and from the lower end drive a tunnel through a projecting rock
spur, which tunnel, though starting well above the ordinary reach of
floods, would terminate in water-bearing gravel, at a sufficient depth
below the surface of the river-bed to intercept part of the underflow. Mr.
Gray, through investigations made under his direction, by Nathaniel
Turner, M. Am. Soc. C. E., had ascertained that there was an abundant
subterranean flow, and work had actually been started on the proposed
tunnel.

The results of Mr. Gray's investigations were put at the disposal of
Messrs. Mackenzie, Mann & Co. by Mr. Robertson, at whose offices Mr.
Binckley prepared the first plans submitted by him for the approval of the
Government.

After Mr. Gray's investigations, Messrs. Mackin and Dillon (F. H. Dillon,
Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E.), under contract with the Government, prepared
the following plans: For a dam in the Santa Catarina Cañon; for a pipe
line, similar to the one proposed by Mr. Gray, to a reservoir and settling
basin on the left bank of the river (a short distance above where the
provisional pumping station was established afterward by Mr. Binckley),
but on the flat above the bluff skirting the river, practically at the
same elevation as the present high-pressure reservoirs; for a complete
network of water mains and sewers in the city, indicating the approximate
direction in which the sewage would be disposed of, either by turning it
into the river or by spreading it over suitable lands, the location of
which was to be determined later; and also a complete set of
specifications.

On these data bids were invited by publication, and inquiries were
received from several parties. Finally, Messrs. Stocker and Walker, of
Scranton, Pa., entered into negotiations with the Government, and the
present concession was agreed upon and granted.

Messrs. Stocker and Walker engaged the late E. Sherman Gould, M. Am. Soc.
C. E., to prepare a plan for a storage dam in the Santa Catarina Cañon,
and submitted plans for water distribution and sewers in the city,
slightly modifying the original plans of Messrs. Mackin and Dillon.

In the fall of 1905, the concession was acquired by Messrs. Mackenzie,
Mann & Co., of Toronto, Canada, together with all plans, etc.,
presented by the original concessionaires. The new concessionaires stated
that they would examine the whole situation again, for the purpose of
presenting modified plans for works.

Mr. Schuyler, in the interest of the new owners, had paid one flying visit
to Monterrey when Mr. Gray's projects were brought to his notice, and the
writer had an opportunity to show him the tunnel which had been started.
Mr. Schuyler left for Brazil and did not return until February, 1906, when
he was accompanied by the Chief Engineer appointed by the concessionaires.
Messrs. Schuyler and Binckley then prepared plans for the water
distribution and sewer systems in the city and for a provisional water
supply to be pumped at San Geronimo, some two miles up the river. The new
plans for the city work followed closely the general disposition by Mr.
Gray, the principal difference being that the main reservoirs for the
permanent water supply were located to the south instead of to the west.
This change was due to the results of an investigation, made during Mr.
Schuyler's absence in Brazil, by Mr. F. S. Hyde, late Hydraulic Engineer
of the Necaxa Water Power plant, who, accompanied by the writer, visited
the whole water-shed of the Santa Catarina River in October, 1905, in
search of suitable dam sites and prospects of power development. Mr. Hyde
extended his studies to the Santiago Cañon, southeast of the city,
recommending finally that the water be brought from that cañon, and that
wells be dug in different points of the Santa Catarina River between San
Geronimo and the entrance of the cañon, and tested by pumping, for the
purpose of establishing levels and ascertaining the available amount of
underflow, with a view of determining the location for an infiltration
gallery high enough up the river to permit of a gravity delivery and under
good pressure in the city.

In view of Mr. Hyde's report, and as the result of a visit to the Santiago
Cañon, Mr. Schuyler decided to locate the reservoirs south of the town,
intending to bring in water from the southeast, from springs in the
Santiago Cañon, and also by infiltration from Santa Catarina, his and Mr.
Binckley's scheme of water supply being for the same pressure throughout
the city.

To supply water during construction, and partly meet the demands of the
city, Mr. Binckley, on his arrival, decided to establish a provisional
pumping station at the well in the river nearest to town, started by
direction of Mr. Hyde at San Geronimo. This well was situated within the
bed of inundation of high floods, on a low bank, at the foot of a
conglomerate bluff some 20 ft. high, limiting a flat which was above the
reach of any flood. It was on the same side of the river as the city, and
there was plenty of good ground on the flat above for the establishment of
a reservoir.

A slightly shorter pipe line was secured by crossing the river, building
the reservoir (a substantial concrete-lined and vaulted-over structure) on
the opposite bank, laying out the pipe line to follow that bank nearly to
the city, and finally crossing back again; but the result has been that
since the flood of August, 1909, in which the river crossings were
destroyed, the reservoir remains isolated on the other side of the river
from town, though intended to form part of the permanent works and act as
a compensating reservoir for equalizing the pressure of the high-pressure
system. Fortunately, the pumping station, the larger pumps, and the
boilers, had been moved up the bank (after a rapid rise in the river on
August 10th, 1909) to the new wells established by Mr. Conway on the line
of the proposed prolongation of the infiltration gallery. The reservoir,
however, is left to stand alone on the other side of the river, and its
usefulness will not be restored until a new line is laid across the river,
re-establishing its connection with the new pump line and the new and
permanent pipe line to be laid along the north bank from the pumping
station to the city. This will free Monterrey from the constant menace of
a water famine. At present its two main water supplies may be cut off by
unexpected floods like those of 1909 and 1910, as both supplies are
carried across the river, and though only the cast-iron pipe connecting
with the water supply from Estanzuela was carried away by the flood, the
concrete conduit of the San Geronimo low-pressure supply was seriously
threatened. Such risks are too great to be carried for any length of time;
besides, a succession of dry years would cause such a reduction in the
Estanzuela supply as to require an additional reserve in the way of
pumping stations drawing on the under-flow of the river, such as already
exists in San Geronimo.

Afterward, Messrs. Schuyler and Binckley submitted preliminary plans and
profiles for the projected concrete gravity conduit from Estanzuela to the
reservoir south of the city, and Mr. Binckley submitted excavation plans
for two reservoirs, only one of which was built, and from designs by Mr.
Conway.

Stephen E. Kieffer, M. Am. Soc. C. E., was intrusted by Mr. Binckley with
the revision of the plans of the water distribution and sewers. The
southern half was approved by the Government and executed according to his
plans; the northern part was afterward revised by Mr. Conway and has been
partly built.

The final maturing of the project of an infiltration gallery in San
Geronimo as a low-pressure gravity supply, the division of the city into
high- and low-pressure districts corresponding to the two supplies, with
one reservoir, instead of two to the south of the city, and the other to
the west at the Obispado, the entire details of both these gravity
schemes, and of the whole sewage disposal scheme, as well as the
modification introduced into the city work for the northern half, are
unquestionably due to Mr. Conway, independently of the general views which
may have been held on those points by other engineers.

In March, 1910, Mr. Conway left Monterrey, all the principal works being
finished. Since that time Vicente Saucedo, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., has
put in many additional water mains and sewers in the northern part of the
city, and is finishing the _force majeure_ work caused by the destruction
wrought in the districts along the river banks by the extraordinary
floods.

The writer, having had an opportunity to watch the earnest efforts of the
several engineers connected with these works, in the course of their
design and construction, resulting without doubt in being the first of
their kind built in Mexico, has been induced to contribute this discussion
in order to bring out clearly the share of each.

Mr. Pitkethly's apprehensions as to the adequacy of the system of
ventilation adopted have not been realized, in part perhaps because the
houses, though generally of only one story, have such high ceilings that
the tops of their vent pipes are generally higher than the ventilating
columns at the heads of the branch sewers.


GEORGE ROBERT GRAHAM CONWAY, M. AM. SOC. C. E. (by letter).--The writer
regrets that some features of the works described in this paper have
failed to call forth the many useful criticisms which he expected, and his
remarks, therefore, are limited to the few points which have been raised.
He is particularly indebted to Messrs. Schuyler, Meyer, and Saucedo for
adding supplementary information of value to the paper, but regrets that
he cannot support Mr. Binckley in his claim that "the entire general
design of the system, as well as the extensive hydrological studies and
final selection of the sources of water supply, was completed in 1906,"
etc. On May 1st, 1907, when the writer assumed responsibility as Chief
Engineer, he was unfortunately confronted with the fact that very little
data and only a few preliminary and incomplete plans were available. His
first duty was to report upon the final sources of supply, and the
recommendations made in his report (dated July 12th), received Mr. (now
Sir William) Mackenzie's approval during the same month. The final plans,
upon which the approval of the State Government was definitely obtained,
were prepared by the writer during the summer of 1907, were submitted to
the Governor of the State, Gen. Bernard Reyes, on October 19th, and
received his approval on December 12th, 1907. No works, with a long
preliminary history, such as those at Monterrey, can rightly be said to be
due to any one individual; many engineers contributed to the final result,
and the writer willingly acknowledges his indebtedness to the able men,
who, for ten years prior to the construction of the works, investigated
the particular problems which were met--problems which were not only of an
engineering and physical nature, but racial and financial. The
responsibility of constructing the works in their present form, and
leaving them practically complete, did, however, fall on the writer's
shoulders.

Messrs. Pitkethly and Hammond have criticized the basis of the
calculations upon which the sewer system was laid down. In considering
this problem, it is necessary to remember that, in designing this system,
there was practically no information upon which to base the calculations;
and the writer believed that the wisest course was to anticipate a liberal
growth, and provide a large margin of safety. In designing a sewer system
in older and well-established communities, the engineer is generally able
to compile considerable information regarding the probable sewage flow for
which it is necessary to provide. In Monterrey this quantity was
absolutely unknown. The writer's practice in other places has been to
assume that about 8% of the total daily discharge of sewage will flow off
in one hour; and, from many curves which he has plotted regarding sewage
flow in British towns, this rate appears to him to be approximately
correct. In Monterrey, however, the old Mexican traditions are rapidly
changing, and the city is now becoming one of the most Americanized in
Mexico; the old one-story houses will give way in time to buildings of
several stories--a change, already noticeable, which has occurred during
the past few years, particularly in the business portion of the city.
Taking these facts into consideration, it is believed that it would be,
not only bad engineering, but bad business, for a company whose concession
lasts 99 years, to provide sewers as small as 6 in., as Mr. Hammond would
recommend, and then be called upon, under the terms of the concession, to
relay larger sewers at a future date, thus incurring further capital
expenditure upon which no Government guaranty would apply, and no further
revenue be obtained. In matters of this kind, not only the engineering,
but the commercial, aspect of the question must be kept in view, and this
point, the writer must frankly admit, he has always seriously considered.

The writer's experience with reference to the method of ventilating sewers
by tall columns extends over many years, and he still maintains that no
other system gives such satisfactory results. In this view he finds
considerable support in a recent paper on "Salisbury Drainage," by Mr. W.
J. E. Binnie,[11] written since the system at Monterrey was installed, in
which the result of a series of experiments carried on during 1906-07 are
given. At Salisbury, England, 68 ventilators, 6 in. in internal diameter,
30 ft. high, were connected to the main sewer by 6-in. stoneware pipes.
They were placed about 540 ft. apart, and, from careful anemometer
readings, the following conclusions were reached:

[11] _Minutes of Proceedings_, Inst. C. E., Vol. CLXXXI, p. 317.

  "(1) That four ventilators all lying in the lower portion of the
       town acted sometimes as air-inlets and sometimes as
       air-outlets, and that the other sixty-four acted as
       air-outlets.

  "(2) That the average velocity of the air escaping up these
       columns was 3.2 feet per second, representing the circulation
       of 3,600,000 cubic feet of air per diem, or sufficient to
       change the air in the sewers every 10 minutes.

  "(3) That the average velocity of the current of air in the
       ventilating-column increases with the size of the sewer to
       which it is connected, averaging 2.4 feet per second with the
       7-inch sewer, 3.6 feet per second with the 9-inch sewer, 3.7
       feet per second with the 12-inch sewer, and 4.1 feet per
       second with the 15-inch sewer in these experiments.

  "(4) That the draught in the column is very largely dependent on
       the wind, being at its minimum on a still day, and could
       therefore be readily increased by the use of a suitable cowl.

  "(5) That the draught is very little affected by the
       sewer-gradients. It was expected that, in ventilating-columns
       placed in connection with the upper end of a sewer laid at a
       steep gradient, a strong draught would have been obtained. No
       direct connection, however, was traceable."

As the result of these experiments, Mr. Binnie rightly came to the
conclusion that this system of ventilation was efficient.

Mr. Hammond anticipates that the house connection trap system at Monterrey
will lead to bad results, but the writer has seen the system at work in
many widely different cities with excellent results. He believes that it
is in accord with the best practice of the most eminent sanitarians during
the last 20 years, and has no apology to make for introducing that system
in Monterrey.

Regarding Mr. Hammond's summary of the advantages of concrete pipes for
sewer construction, the writer is in entire agreement, and would willingly
have introduced them throughout the whole of the Monterrey system, but for
the fact that it was an exceedingly difficult matter to obtain suitable
sand for their manufacture during the early days of construction, and
considerable delays would have arisen if a complete network of such pipes
had been used. His later experience at Monterrey, when the sand difficulty
had been solved, clearly showed that concrete pipe could be laid down at
much less expense than fire clay.

Both Mr. Pitkethly and Mr. Hammond refer to the system of liquefying tanks
used at Monterrey preparatory to turning the sewage on the irrigation
lands, and both express doubts as to their efficiency. The writer is now
separated from his library and notes by many thousands of miles, and
cannot quote "chapter and verse" as accurately as he would like, in order
to support his views that the system adopted was adequate for dealing
with a system such as that at Monterrey. It must be pointed out that not
only was it intended to prevent the sewage from becoming a nuisance, but
that the sewage flow plus a large quantity of surplus water was intended
to be used profitably for irrigation purposes. With that object, the
Company--or rather its allied Company, the Monterrey Railway, Light, and
Power Company--obtained the control of 2,246 acres of the very finest
arable land, with almost perfect natural drainage conditions, so that this
land could be utilized to create a profitable revenue from the use of the
sewage. The outfall sewer was accordingly designed to carry sufficient
water and sewage to irrigate about 2,500 acres of land, which area could
be considerably extended if necessary at any future time.

Most authorities now agree that before turning sewage upon land, a
preliminary treatment is required to remove as much as possible of the
suspended matter, and then reduce the latter by subsidence in liquefying
or septic tanks, so that the quantity remaining in the effluent is so
small and finely divided that it may be readily decomposed and oxidized by
bacterial action without risk of clogging the surface or interstices of
the land upon which it may discharge.[12]

[12] See Raikes, "Sewage Disposal Works," pages 97-98.

Mr. Pitkethly quotes Messrs. Watson and O'Shaughnessy as saying, in their
evidence before the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal, that not more
than 10% of the solids are digested in septic tanks, but it must be
remembered that in many other places evidence was given before the same
Commission showing that from 25 to 30% was actually obtained.

Mr. J. D. Watson, in his paper, "Birmingham Sewage-Disposal Works,"[13]
read in March, 1910, points out that:

[13] _Minutes of Proceedings_, Inst. C. E., Vol. CLXXXI, p. 259.

    "The much-maligned sewage-farm still may be allowed (where the
    conditions are favourable) to rank as one of the best methods
    of sewage-disposal. Diverse opinions may be held as to what are
    favourable conditions, particularly as conditions are sure to
    vary widely with locality; but it may be assumed that where
    there is 1 acre of suitable land per 100 persons, as in Berlin
    and several other important cities, the efficiently-worked
    sewage-farm, when judged solely by the standard of the effluent
    produced, is still in the front rank. Effluents from such a
    farm are remarkable for their paucity of micro-organisms, their
    low albuminoid ammonia, and their unvarying character."

Assuming that not more than 2,000 acres of the irrigated land at Monterrey
were available for sewage purposes, this area would represent the sewage
treatment of the present population of not more than 45 persons per acre,
and on the basis of the design, that is, for a population of 200,000
persons, this represents not more than 100 persons per acre. In many
sewage farms on the continent of Europe, the number treated per acre
varies between 80 and 200 persons; for example, at Breslau it is 187, at
Berlin 105, at Brunswick 88, and at Steglitz 185.

Regarding the crops to be grown on the land, very satisfactory results
were obtained from growing Indian corn, and two excellent crops per annum
were taken from an area of 500 acres during the period in which the writer
was responsible for the works. It was also his intention to grow alfalfa,
and turn a part of the land into a pecan grove, and, although he does not
share the apprehensions of danger of either Mr. Pitkethly or Mr. Hammond
as to growing root crops, he believes the growth of alfalfa, Indian corn,
oats, barley, and pecan and fruit trees is eminently suitable for the
land, which is a deep rich loam, from 4 to 8 ft. deep, overlying the
"sillar" formation referred to in the paper. The writer has seen many
sewage farms during the last 18 years, upon which root crops of excellent
quality have been grown, and not the least suspicion has ever been raised
regarding their use.

In reference to the adoption of the monolithic form for constructing the
South Reservoir, the writer is so convinced as to its economy that had he
to build this reservoir again, he would adopt the same method. Mr.
Binckley, in drawing attention to the method of construction, has
overlooked the fact that the cost of forms for a reservoir 30 ft. deep was
a very serious item, and warranted the adoption of this new method, not
only on account of economy but because of rapidity of construction; while,
in the case of the Obispado Reservoir, which is very much shallower,
simpler forms could be and were adopted.

Mr. Saucedo's remarks regarding the repetition of the extraordinary floods
of August, 1909, in September, 1910, are particularly interesting, and
show how abnormal conditions are in so dry a section of Mexico as the
State of Nuevo León. These two floods, the writer believes, are among the
most instructive in North America, particularly when one remembers that
prior to 1909 the average rainfall during a period of 15 years, was less
than 22 in. per annum.

             TABLE 18.--COMPARISON OF VOLUME OF FLOODS, ETC.

  +------------------------------+-----------+----------+-------+--------+
  |                              |           | Maximum  |Cu. ft.| Annual |
  |                              | Drainage  | recorded | /sec. | amount |
  | River.                       | area, in  | flow, in | per   |   of   |
  |                              | square    |  cu. ft. |square |  rain- |
  |                              | miles.    | per sec. | mile. |  fall. |
  +------------------------------+-----------+----------+-------+--------+
  | Santa Catarina, Monterrey,   |           |          |       |        |
  |   August 27th, 1907          |      544  | 235,000  | 432   |  22    |
  | Estanzuela, near Monterrey,  |           |          |       |        |
  |   August 28th, 1909          |       3.5 |   2,900  | 825   |  25    |
  | Tansa, India                 |      52.5 |  35,000  | 666.7 | 101    |
  | Krishna, India               |     345   | 118,000  | 342.6 | 258    |
  | Coquitlam River, Vancouver   |     100   |  12,000  | 120   |147-189 |
  | Sweetwater, Cal.             |     186   |  18,150  |  99   |  ...   |
  | Delaware, Lambertville, N. J.|   6,820   | 250,000  |  36.5 |  45    |
  | Colorado, Austin, Tex.       |  37,000   | 123,000  |   3.3 |  24.5  |
  | Ohio, Cairo, Ill.            | 214,000   | 700,000  |   3.3 |  54.9  |
  +------------------------------+-----------+----------+-------+--------+

Table 18, compiled by the writer, shows how very extreme the floods of
1909 were compared with those on other rivers, while those of 1910,
referred to by Mr. Saucedo, although not so great, would appear to have
reached a rate of flow of about 300 cu. ft. per sec. per sq. mile of the
drainage area.

The writer agrees with Mr. Saucedo that in the semi-arid regions of Mexico
and the Southern States, and also in India, the possibility of these
abnormal floods is an important consideration in the design of hydraulic
works.

       *       *       *       *       *

                       Changes To This Document

Transcriber's Note: The table of contents has been added. Blank pages
have been deleted. Illustrations may have been moved. Discovered
publisher's punctuation errors have been corrected. Some wide tables
have been re-formatted to narrower equivalents with some words replaced
with commonly known abbreviations and possibly a key. Some ditto marks
have been replaced with the words represented. In addition, the
following changes or corrections were made:

 p. 501: but the tampers had had[del 2nd had] previous experience
 p. 508: shown on Plates VI to IX[VI, VII, VIII, IX[to accomodate links]]
 p. 516: at this place there is a considererable[considerable] area
 p. 538: based on the following rates and and[del 2nd and] percentages
 p. 579: by crossing the river, build-the[building the] reservoir
 p. 550: [For Table 14: added "Total materials cost"]
 p. 566: respectively (Fig. 5)[(Fig. 4)], together with lack of
 p. 584: [Table 17 renamed to Table 18 to avoid duplication.]
 p. 584: Table 17[18], compiled by the writer, shows how very extreme

       *       *       *       *       *





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