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Title: Narrative of the Circumnavigation of the Globe by the Austrian Frigate Novara, Volume III - (Commodore B. Von Wullerstorf-Urbair,) Undertaken by Order - of the Imperial Government in the Years 1857, 1858, & 1859, - Under the Immediate Auspices of His I. and R. Highness the - Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Commander-In-Chief of the - Austrian Navy.
Author: Scherzer, Karl Ritter von
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of the Circumnavigation of the Globe by the Austrian Frigate Novara, Volume III - (Commodore B. Von Wullerstorf-Urbair,) Undertaken by Order - of the Imperial Government in the Years 1857, 1858, & 1859, - Under the Immediate Auspices of His I. and R. Highness the - Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Commander-In-Chief of the - Austrian Navy." ***

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(This file made from scans of public domain material at
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       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note: The original publication has been replicated
faithfully except as shown in the List Of Corrections at the end of the
text. Words in italics are indicated like _this_. Superscripts are
indicated like this: S^ta Maria. Footnotes are located near the end of
the chapters. [oe] represents the oe ligature. [)u] is a 'u' marked with a
breve.

       *       *       *       *       *



                               NARRATIVE

                                 OF THE

                      Circumnavigation of the Globe

                        BY THE AUSTRIAN FRIGATE

                                 NOVARA,

                (COMMODORE B. VON WULLERSTORF-URBAIR,)

           _Undertaken by Order of the Imperial Government_,

                   IN THE YEARS 1857, 1858, & 1859,

          UNDER THE IMMEDIATE AUSPICES OF HIS I. AND R. HIGHNESS

                  THE ARCHDUKE FERDINAND MAXIMILIAN,

              COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AUSTRIAN NAVY.

                                   BY

                           DR. KARL SCHERZER,

  MEMBER OF THE EXPEDITION, AUTHOR OF "TRAVELS IN CENTRAL AMERICA," ETC.

                                VOL. III.


                             [Illustration]

                                LONDON:
                       SAUNDERS, OTLEY, AND CO.,
                   66, BROOK STREET, HANOVER SQUARE.

                                 1863.

                [THE RIGHT OF TRANSLATION IS RESERVED.]


                     JOHN CHILDS AND SON, PRINTERS.



                                CONTENTS.

                                                                      PAGE


                             CHAPTER XVIII.

                                 SYDNEY.

    The politico-economical importance to England of her colonies.--
    Extraordinary growth of Sydney.--Public buildings.--Expeditions
    of discovery into the interior of Australia.--Scientific
    endeavours in Sydney.--Macleay's Seat at Elizabeth Bay.--Sir
    Daniel Cooper.--Rickety Dick.--Monument to La Pérouse at Botany
    Bay.--The Botanical Garden.--Journey by rail to Campbelton.--
    Camden Park.--German emigrants.--Wine cultivation in Australia.
    Odd Fellows' Lodge at Campbelton.--Appin.--Wulongong.--Mr.
    Hill.--The Aborigines.--Kangaroo hunting.--Coal mines in the
    Keira range.--An adventure in the woods.--Return to Sydney.--The
    Australian club.--Excursion up Hunter River as far as Ash
    Island.--"Nuggets."--The _Novara_ in the dry dock at Cockatoo
    Island.--Reformation among the prisoners in the colony.--
    Serenade by the Germans in Sydney, in honour of the expedition.--
    Ball on board the frigate.--Political life in Sydney.--Excursion
    for craniological purposes to Cook-river Bay, and Long Bay.--
    Intercourse with natives.--Wool growing.--Attempts to introduce
    the Llama and Alpaca from Bolivia.--The gold-fields of the
    colony of New South Wales.--Is Australia the youngest or oldest
    part of the globe?--The convict-system and transportation as a
    punishment.--Departure from Sydney.--Barrier Island.--Arrival at
    Huraka Gulf, New Zealand.                                            1


                              CHAPTER XIX.

                                AUCKLAND.

    Request preferred by the Colonial Government to have the
    coal-fields of the Drury District thoroughly examined by the
    geologists of the _Novara_.--Geographical remarks concerning New
    Zealand.--Auckland.--The Aborigines or Maori.--A Mass meeting.--
    Maori legends.--Manners and customs of the Aborigines.--The
    Meri-Meri.--Most important of the vegetable esculents of the
    Aborigines before the arrival of the Europeans.--Dr. Thomson's
    anthropological investigations.--Maori proverbs and poetry.--The
    present war and its origin.--The Maori king.--Decay of the
    native population and its supposed causes.--Advantages held out
    by New Zealand to European emigration.--Excursion to the
    Waiatarna valley.--Maori village of Oraki.--Kauri forests in the
    Manukau range.--Mr. Smith's farm in Titarangi.--St. John's
    College.--Intellectual activity in Auckland.--New Zealand silk.--
    Excursion to the coal-fields of the Drury and Hunua Districts.--
    New Year's Eve at the Antipodes.--Dr. Hochstetter remains in New
    Zealand.--The Catholic mission in Auckland.--Two Maories take
    service as seamen on board the _Novara_.--Departure.--The
    results of the explorations of the geologist during his stay at
    the island.--Crossing the meridian of 180° from West to East.--
    The same day reckoned twice.--The sight of the islands of Tahiti
    and Eimeo.--Arrival in the harbour of Papeete.                      93


                              CHAPTER XX.

                                TAHITI.

    State of the island at the close of last century.--The London
    Missionary Society and its emissaries.--Great mortality among
    the native population.--First arrival of Catholic Priests in
    Oceania.--French Protectorate and its consequences.--The
    Tahitian Parliament and Tahitian debaters.--William Howe.--Adam
    Kulczycki.--Scientific aims and achievements.--The Catholic
    mission.--_Pré Catalan_ and native dances.--Prisoners of war
    from New Caledonia.--Point Venus.--Guava-fields.--The fort of
    Fautáua.--Lake Waiiria.--Popular _Fête_ at Faáa.--Ball given by
    the Governor.--Queen Pomáre.--Geographical notes on Tahiti and
    Eimeo.--Climate.--Vegetation.--The Kawa root, and the
    intoxicating drink produced from it.--Great expense of the
    French Stations in Oceania.--Projects of reform.--Results of
    English and French colonization.--Two Convicts.--Departure.--The
    Whaler _Emily Morgan_.--Attempt to fix the zero point of
    magnetic declination.--"Colique végétale."--A victim.--Pitcairn
    Island.--A fire-side tale of the tropical world.--An accident
    without ill results.--Humboldt's Current.--Arrival at
    Valparaiso.                                                        199


                              CHAPTER XXI.

                              VALPARAISO.

    Importance of Chile for German emigration.--First impressions of
    Valparaiso.--Stroll through the city.--Commercial relations of
    Chile with Australia and California.--Quebrada de Juan Gomez.--
    The roadstead.--The Old Quarter and Fort Rosario.--Cerro Algre.--
    Fire Companies.--Abadic's nursery-garden.--Campo Santo.--The
    German community and its club.--A compatriot festival in honour
    of the _Novara_.--Journey to Santiago de Chile.--University.--
    National Museum.--Observatory.--Industrial and agricultural
    schools.--Professor Don Ignacio Domey Ko.--Audience of the
    President of the Republic.--Don Manuel Montt and his political
    opponents.--Family life in Santiago.--Excursion trip on the
    southern railroad.--Maipú Bridge.--Melepilla.--The Hacienda of
    Las Esmeraldas.--Chilean hospitality.--Return to Valparaiso.--
    Quillota.--The German colony in Valdivia.--Colonization in the
    Straits of Magellan.--Ball at the Austrian Consul-general's in
    honour of the _Novara_.--Extraordinary voyage of a damaged
    ship.--Departure of the _Novara_.--Voyage round Cape Horn.--The
    Falkland Islands.--The French corvette _Eurydice_.--The Sargasso
    sea.--Encounter with a merchant-ship in the open ocean.--Hopes
    disappointed and curiosity excited.--Passage through the Azores
    channel.--A vexatious calm.                                        280


                              CHAPTER XXII.

   AN OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM VALPARAISO TO GIBRALTAR, VIÂ THE ISTHMUS OF
                                PANAMA.

    Departure from Valparaiso.--Coquimbo.--Caldera.--Cobija.--
    Iquique.--Manufacture of saltpetre.--Arica.--Port d'Islay.--
    _Medanos_, or wandering sand-hills.--Chola.--Pisco.--The Chincha
    or Guano Islands.--Remarks respecting the Guano or Huanu beds.--
    Callao.--Lima.--Carrion crows, the principal street-scavengers.--
    Churches and Monasteries.--Hospitals.--Charitable institutions.--
    Medical College.--National Library.--Padre Vigil.--National
    Museum.--The Central Normal School.--Great lack of intellectual
    energy.--Ruins of Cajamarquilla.--Chorillos.--Temple to the Sun
    at Pachacamác.--River Rimac.--Amancaes.--The new prison.--
    Bull-fights.--State of society in Peru.--The _Coca_ plant, and
    the latest scientific examination respecting its peculiar
    properties.--The _China_, or Peruvian-bark tree.--Departure from
    Lima.--Lambajeque.--Indian village of Iting.--Païta.--Island of
    La Plata.--Taboga Island.--Impression made by the intelligence
    of Humboldt's death.--Panama.--"Opposition" Line.--Immense
    traffic.--The Railway across the Isthmus.--Aspinwall.--
    Carthagena.--St. Thomas.--Voyage to Europe on board the R.M.S.
    _Magdalena_.--Falmouth.--Southampton.--London.--Rejoin the
    _Novara_ at sea.--Arrival at Gibraltar.                            337


                             CHAPTER XXIII.

                       FROM GIBRALTAR TO TRIESTE.

    First circumstantial details of the War of 1859.--Alterations in
    Gibraltar since our previous visit.--Science and Warfare.--
    Voyage through the Mediterranean.--Messina.--The _Novara_ taken
    in tow by the War-steamer _Lucia_.--Gravosa.--Ragusa.--Arrival
    of H.I.H. the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian at Gravosa.--
    Presentation of the Staff.--Banquet on board the screw-corvette
    _Dandolo_.--Pola.--Roman Amphitheatre.--Porta Aurea.--Triumphal
    return to Trieste.--Retrospect of the achievements and general
    scientific results of the Expedition.--Concluding Remarks.         449


                       APPENDIX--Vol. ii       461


                       APPENDIX--Vol. iii      494


                       INDEX                   519


                       ERRATA                  543



                        LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

                               VOL. III.


                                                       PAGE

              1. Denizens of an Australian Forest         1

              2. Maori                                   93

              3. Native Fête to the Governor            199

              4. The Lasso                              280

              5. Station on the Panama Railway          337

              6. The Austrian Eagle                     449


           [Illustration: Denizens of an Australian Forest]



                                 XVIII.

                                 Sydney.

              Stay From 5th November To 7th December, 1858.

    The politico-economical importance to England of her colonies.--
    Extraordinary growth of Sydney.--Public buildings.--Expeditions
    of discovery into the interior of Australia.--Scientific
    endeavours in Sydney.--Macleay's Seat at Elizabeth Bay.--Sir
    Daniel Cooper.--Rickety Dick.--Monument to La Pérouse at Botany
    Bay.--The Botanical Garden.--Journey by rail to Campbelton.--
    Camden Park.--German emigrants.--Wine cultivation in Australia.--
    Odd Fellows' Lodge at Campbelton.--Appin.--Wulongong.--Mr.
    Hill.--The aborigines.--Kangaroo hunting.--Coal mines in the
    Keira range.--An adventure in the woods.--Return to Sydney.--The
    Australian club.--Excursion up Hunter River as far as Ash
    Island,--"Nuggets."--The _Novara_ in the dry dock at Cockatoo
    Island.--Reformation among the prisoners in the colony.--
    Serenade by the Germans in Sydney, in honour of the expedition.--
    Ball on board the frigate.--Political life in Sydney.--Excursion
    for craniological purposes to Cook-river Bay, and Long Bay.--
    Intercourse with natives.--Wool growing.--Attempts to introduce
    the Llama and Alpaca from Bolivia.--The gold-fields of the
    colony of New South Wales.--Is Australia the youngest or oldest
    part of the globe?--The convict-system and transportation as a
    punishment.--Departure from Sydney.--Barrier Island.--Arrival at
    Huraka Gulf, New Zealand.


Whoever wishes to form an accurate idea of the power and might of the
British nation, and is desirous to discover the sources of the
all-important influence the "island race" exercise over the destinies of
humanity, should visit, not England, but her colonies in America, Africa,
Asia, and Australia. In these he will see in full and beneficial
operation, that system which one of the greatest of German political
economists, the ingenious Fredrick List, recommended more than thirty
years ago to the German Government, when he spoke of the serious detriment
the Northern country sustained year after year by the emigration _en
masse_ of skilled German labourers, and when he repeatedly urged to make
agriculture under the tropics reciprocally beneficial to the manufacturing
industry of the temperate zone.[1]

England has comprehended better than Germany how to utilize the energies
of such of her children as emigrate to distant quarters of the globe, and
to make them subservient to her own advancement as well; she evinced the
most anxious solicitude for these pioneers of progress, extended her
protection to them, flung the aegis of her own power over their adopted
home, regarding each new settlement as but an extension of the limit of
her empire, as an enlargement of the sources whence she drew the materials
for her industrial handicrafts, as a new market for her manufactures! In
all parts of the inhabited earth English activity has thus displayed
itself, busily engaged in supplying the demand for raw materials in her
home market, by exchanging for them her own manufactures, till English
ships have become the all but universal carriers of the commerce of the
globe, while the English language has been adopted as the medium of
intercommunication of all seafarers.

Australia, or New Holland,[2] as it was originally termed by its first
discoverers, proud of their nationality, furnishes of all the British
colonies the most conspicuous and instructive example of this policy.
England has not merely thrown open this immense continent to European
civilization, peopled it with hundreds of thousands of her sons, and
created a new market for herself and all navigating nations,--she has also
in this colony furnished the solution of a psychological problem, namely,
that it is by no means an innate natural propensity to do evil, but rather
the force of circumstances which drives man to vice and crime, and that
the diviner portion of his nature forthwith re-asserts itself, so soon as
he is provided with another more favourable sphere of action, and a fair
opportunity is offered to him of earning his livelihood in an honourable,
independent manner by the free, unshackled development of his mental and
physical powers.

Originally founded as a penal settlement for convicts sentenced to
transportation for long periods of years, and in fact composed at first of
such unpromising elements, this splendid country is at present one of the
wealthiest and most important colonies of the British Crown, and close to
that spot where, on 28th January, 1788, 850 criminals were landed, there
to take up their involuntary abode, there now rises in one of the numerous
coves of the splendidly situate Bay of Port Jackson, a city of such
magnificence, so large and so beautiful, that it has been called the
"Queen of the South," or even, with more enthusiasm than accuracy, "Little
London." The population of the city and environs is estimated at 93,000,
that of this single colony at 350,000, while its trade has increased to
such an extent that it keeps employed 1000 ships and 18,000 men, the value
of exports of raw, and import of manufactured products, amounting for this
one port to upwards of £12,000,000 per annum. The discovery of abundant
gold-fields in the adjacent colony of Victoria has undoubtedly materially
contributed to this enormous expansion, and has perceptibly increased the
immigration, but the development of the capabilities of the land itself
has not been less steadily increasing, wherever the population have
pursued the surer and more solid occupation of agriculture and
cattle-rearing. The wool growth of Australia, which in 1820 was barely 50
tons, has since then risen to nearly 25,000 tons, rivalling in bulk and
quality that of the Cape, and rapidly becoming a dangerous competitor with
those countries of Europe, whose wools have hitherto commanded their own
terms in the English market.

A continent of such immeasurable natural resources, with a climate,[3]
especially on its southern coasts, remarkable for its mildness,
equability, and salubrity, and a population so limited[4] in proportion to
the extent of surface, was naturally an object of deep interest for the
members of the _Novara_ Expedition. Accordingly during their stay of
thirty-two days they set diligently to work, not only to enlarge their
acquaintance with the scientific idiosyncrasies of this vast portion of
the globe, but also to examine minutely the prospects it holds out to
German commerce and German emigration, and to investigate the influence
which has been exercised on the development of the colony by the system of
transporting convicts thither. And it is not less significant of the high
repute enjoyed by the Imperial Expedition in foreign countries, as
honourable to its members, to record, that the then Governor-General of
New South Wales, Sir William Denison, who has since been transferred to
the much more important and lucrative post of Governor of the Madras
Presidency, and who enjoys no slight reputation in scientific circles as a
conchyliologist, expressed his anxious desire that the geologist of the
_Novara_ should thoroughly examine the geological formation of the
province of Auckland in New Zealand, and exerted himself vigorously to
forward the accomplishment of this project.

From the German residents in Sydney, as well as from all the officials and
the inhabitants generally, we received the utmost assistance and most
cordial co-operation in our various inquiries. The former received the
Expedition with a most enthusiastic welcome, and it was truly gratifying
to learn that some of the more keenly susceptible of home-influences had
weeks before made the beach their favourite promenade, in order that they
might be the first to see and welcome the long-expected German man-of-war
at her arrival! The German newspaper "_Australische Zeitung_" (published
by a native of Grätz, named Degotardi) of November 6th was quite filled
with advertisements and notices relating to the _Novara_, and the
festivities which had been prepared in her honour. Every member of the
staff received a copy on board, so that before even we set foot on shore,
we were apprized of the old German hospitality which awaited us on our
arrival in this the fifth quarter of the globe. As, however, it was
imperatively necessary to have the frigate taken to the Government dock,
in order to repair the damages she sustained in the typhoon, the
contemplated rejoicings had to stand over for the moment, till the
_Novara_ could come forth in renewed splendour, and was fit to give a
proper reception to the homage intended to be offered in her honour. These
rather extensive repairs would require three weeks to complete, and after
the first few days had passed in making and receiving official visits, as
also in sight-seeing in the city and environs, the greater portion of
their stay was employed by the scientific staff in excursions into the
interior of the colony.

Sydney at present has with its suburbs attained already to the dimensions
of a European city. Only thirty years ago there stood but a few herdsmen's
huts, where now the visitor beholds block after block of handsome stone
private residences, or magnificent shops. There is not one article of
luxury or comfort which cannot be supplied here. The chief building stone
of the locality, sandstone, is chiefly used in the erection of churches,
public buildings, and private dwellings. The Exchange, the Bank, the
Houses of Assembly, Government House, &c., are stately buildings erected
in a solid, massive style, and if "Hyde Park," a treeless meadow in the
centre of the city, by no means answers to its sounding title, the Botanic
Garden, on the other hand, the park known as "Lady McQuarrie's Chair,"
"Kissing-Point," and "Lovers' Walk," form promenades as delightful as any
capital of Europe can show in such immediate proximity. Sydney, moreover,
is amply supplied with gas and water, as well as with every means of
conveyance that can facilitate intercourse in a large town, such as
omnibuses, cabs, steamers, &c.

The theatres hitherto, whether as regards scenery or performance, have
hardly exceeded mediocrity, but on the other hand educational
establishments, public libraries, and hospitals, are of singular
excellence. It is truly marvellous, and especially makes a profound
impression upon the denizens of old Europe, to observe what handsome,
imposing, costly buildings have been run up among this comparatively
youthful community. The Sydney University, founded in 1851, is built in
the Gothic style, at an expense of £50,000, and is maintained by an annual
grant of £5000. It is far the finest memorial erected by European
civilization in honour of science, throughout the southern hemisphere. Its
internal organization is somewhat analogous with that of those of the
mother country. All the high schools of Sydney accord academic degrees in
the various branches, and by a Royal Patent of 27th of February, 1858,
holders of honours are raised to the same rank with those in the other
universities of the Empire. Although only secular education is provided by
the University, there have been founded four colleges in immediate
proximity with each other, for the four principal religious denominations
in the colony, Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and Methodist, in
which the scholars may, without prejudice to the secular character[5] of
the University proper, receive instruction in their various beliefs. The
erection of these four adjuncts cost about £40,000 more. At the period of
our visit there were only 38 scholars enrolled, whose instruction cost the
state a rather round sum. A commencement had been made with a library, a
museum of natural history, and a numismatic collection.

Besides the University, there are in Sydney a considerable number of very
important educational establishments and public schools. The most
strenuous exertions are made to keep the public schools in a high state of
efficiency, and there is scarcely a hamlet, where the rising generation
may not be instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and
geography.[6]

An observatory is also in course of erection, but meteorological
observations had long since been carried on in the principal places of the
colony, and from the favourable natural conditions of the continent for
conducting such investigations, the results must greatly contribute to our
acquaintance with the laws regulating atmospherical phenomena.

One very deserving institution dedicated to the noble object of awakening
a sense of the beautiful, and furthering the interests of science, is the
Australian Museum. All that this glorious country presents of interesting
and useful in the three great divisions of nature is here being gradually
classified in scientific order, and displayed in elegant cases in spacious
handsome apartments, the whole thrown open to the public for amusement and
instruction, free of cost. Already an excellent start has been made with
valuable collections of conchylia and birds, as well as numerous
ethnographical specimens and fossil remains. The management of the Museum
has been confided to the most distinguished scientific men of the
colony,[7] and owing to the deep interest taken by these gentlemen in this
truly national undertaking, the sphere of its activity is likely ere long
to be extended to scientific publications, the appearance of which will be
doubly valuable and important in a country which presents so many
different objects for investigation and elucidation.

If, however, our knowledge of Australia and its black aboriginal tribes is
as yet very scanty, it has not assuredly been due to any cold indifference
on the part of the new settlers for the history of a country and a race of
men who are rapidly disappearing from the face of the country. It is
rather to be found in the physical conditions of the continent, and
especially in the great scarcity of perennial springs. In fact, there is
hardly any country, with the exception of Africa, the exploration of which
has cost the lives of so many scientific travellers as this fifth quarter
of the world. What manly devotion, ardour, and perseverance, characterize
such names as Leichhardt, Oxley, Kennedy, Eyre, Mitchell, Cunningham,
Strut, Babbage, Warburton, Stuart, Gregory, Selwyn, MacDonnell, &c.! And
it may fill a German with honest pride, that one of his race has attained
the pinnacle of scientific eminence here! The name of Leichhardt is the
most popular and most highly honoured of the learned names in Australia.
Repeatedly we heard him spoken of as the Australian Humboldt. Rendered all
the more eager by the success of his first enterprise, and stimulated by
the splendid Governmental reward of £10,000 for his last discoveries, the
indefatigable explorer started from Sydney in 1848, on a second journey,
in which he intended to examine Western Australia, by crossing from
Moreton Bay overland, to the West Coast and Port Essington. This proved to
be the close of his earthly career. All trace of the lamented traveller
has been lost, and even the admirably equipped expedition sent out by the
Colonial Government, in March, 1858, under the experienced conduct of Mr.
Gregory, on the track of Leichhardt, spent long months in fruitless
wandering, and returned without any more positive information as to the
destiny of the sorely missed naturalist, except the conjecture that
Leichhardt and his companions had fallen a victim not to the murderous
hand of the natives, but to the inhospitable nature of the region they
were traversing. They seemed to have left the Victoria at its junction
with the Alice (where it was thought a trace of the travellers was
discovered in some incisions made in the bark of some trees),[8] and then
attempted, favoured by heavy storms and showers of rain, to get into the
flat desert country on the north-west. As, however, the rain shortly
afterwards ceased, the unfortunate travellers not merely ran short of
water in prosecuting their dismal journey, but were prevented from
returning, as the small quantity precipitated by a mere meteoric
phenomenon would be exhausted in a few days, and it is not easy to suppose
that such hardy, zealous, and experienced explorers would have failed to
extricate themselves, had not their courage and physical powers been
broken down and destroyed by privations of the most terrible nature.

Despite the tragic fate of Leichhardt's expedition and those of other
explorers,[9] new expeditions are continually being set on foot for
exploring the unknown regions of Australia in every direction, and
although by far the larger part of the information collected consists
rather of ghastly recitals of misery and privation endured than positive
scientific results,[10] yet some of the more recent ones, especially those
of Stuart and Burke, have made also important discoveries in the
interior; and in view of the impulse which the lamentable state of
American politics threatens to impart to cotton-growing everywhere, the
highly fertile banks of the Murray, which with a very little labour might
be made navigable far into the interior, may at no distant period be
covered with numerous cotton plantations.

While the younger and more adventurous spirits enter with all their heart
and soul upon these dangerous experiences of rude hardship, there is in
the capital of the colony a not less marked scientific vitality, and the
valuable libraries and private collections of the Governor-general, Sir
Wm. Denison, Mr. W. Macleay, the botanist, Dr. George Bennett, physician
and geologist,[11] Dr. Roberts, microscopist, Messrs. W. B. Clarke and
Selwyn, geologists, as well as their various and valuable contributions to
science, exercise a doubly important and beneficial influence upon a
number of contiguous states so peculiarly organized as those of Australia,
which, first penal settlements, and then gold-fields, seemed to have been
deprived of all those favourable conditions, which elsewhere are usually
supposed to be requisite for the development of intellectual and
scientific activity.

Much has also been done already in Australia for the diffusion of the
principles of social economy and the diffusion of political and linguistic
knowledge; and the historical writings of Dr. J. D. Lang,[12] and the
philological works of Dr. Threlkeld, both men of high attainments and of
similar zeal in promoting the welfare of their fellow-men, furnished us
with profound information as to the political history of the country, as
well as the original language of the aborigines.

Since the appearance of the first ethnographic works of Count Strzelecki
there has appeared little that is new respecting the origin, migration,
and history of the black races of Australia, and what we have to say on
this momentous topic, whether in the result of personal intercourse or of
information derived from other sources, we shall reserve for the narrative
of our excursion into the interior of the colony, and our foregathering
with the primitive inhabitants of the back settlements.[13]

Among the excursions in the immediate neighbourhood of Sydney we at once
selected a visit to the well-known naturalist Mr. Macleay, who resides at
a beautiful estate near Elizabeth Bay. In his beautiful garden one sees
the most interesting plants of Australia side by side with splendid
specimens from all other parts of the world. A stroll through the
extensive grounds derives a double interest when in company with its
highly-cultivated proprietor, and we are the more grateful for this good
fortune, as the venerable old gentleman lives in strict seclusion.

Another very interesting visit was that paid to Sir Daniel Cooper at his
residence on Rose Bay (_Wullurah_).[14] Sir Daniel is of humble parentage,
but fell heir to property which made him the wealthiest man in the colony,
and which he now dispenses with the most noble and hospitable profusion.
During the Crimean war he subscribed £1000 per annum towards defraying the
costs. Lately he has been elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly,
when he was knighted by her Majesty. His villa in Rose Bay, when
completed, promised to be surpassed by few mansions of the English
nobility in elegance and comfort.

Close to the palatial residence of the wealthiest resident of Australia,
and clad in a filthy woollen coat, with an old hat on his head, crouches
Rickety Dick, a wretched crippled native, the sole survivor of his tribe,
once the lord of all this country, who now stretches out his horny hand to
receive charity. Rickety Dick, who can only talk Australian, lives under a
bark thatch, and leads a mendicant life, and this not owing to downright
destitution, but because such a lazy mode of existence suits him better
than a residence within the walls of a Poor's House. He finds himself more
comfortable here, and cannot bear to quit the soil on which he has passed
the greater portion of his miserable existence. Sir Daniel lets this last
scion of a decayed race want for nothing, and gratifies every wish that
the poor half idiot can form.

One excursion which no stranger omits to make is a ride to the monument
erected to La Pérouse at Botany Bay, a pretty good road to which passes
through beautiful woods full of magnificent oaks, as also of _Eucalyptus_,
or gum tree, so characteristic of Australia, _Casuarina_, or cabbage tree,
_Xanthorrhea_, _Acacias_, and various descriptions of _Epacris_. The
monument itself stands on an open cleared space, in what is known as
"Frenchmen's Gardens" (because, according to tradition, the soldiers had
raised a few vegetables here), and is a plain sandstone obelisk about 30
feet high, standing on a pedestal and crowned with an iron globe, within
an enclosure about 35 feet square, bounded by a parapet wall of from three
to five feet high.

The inscription, which is in French, and on the south side facing the sea,
runs as follows:

    A la Mémoire de M. de La Pérouse. Cette terre, qu'il visita en
    1778, est la dernière d'où il a fait parvenir de ses nouvelles.
    Erigé au nom de la France, par les soins de M. M. de
    Bougainville et Ducampier commandant la Fregatte "La Thétis" et
    la corvette "Espérance" en relâche au port Jackson en 1825.

On the north side is an English translation of the above, and on the west
a French translation of the English inscription on the east side.
"Foundation laid 1825. Completed 1828."

Close by this simple monument, more interesting owing to the subsequent
fate of the renowned French navigator than by its merits as a work of art,
is Botany Tower, a sort of look-out for the whole coast-line. This
octangular tower stands quite by itself, and commands a magnificent and
extensive view over Botany Bay. To the N.W. one perceives a flagstaff of
Banks's establishment, a pleasure resort of the Sydneyites, which, on
account of its small zoological garden, is likewise of some scientific
interest. S.E., on the opposite side of Mud Bay, is visible the point of
land where Captain Cook, accompanied by Banks and Solander, first trod the
soil of Australia. Among the sandstone rocks adjoining, a brass tablet,
with a suitable inscription, commemorates this interesting fact.

The botanical garden attracted very much of the attention of the
scientific staff. It possesses, next to that of Buitenzorg (see vol. ii.
p. 204), the largest and most valuable collection we saw throughout our
voyage. In addition to its splendid specimens of _coniferæ_ and the
incomparable Dammara pine-tree; it also enjoys well-merited celebrity for
its successful rivalry with that of Java in rare specimens of palms. The
climate of Sydney is admirably adapted for experimenting on the
cultivation of plants from the most various parts of the world; and while
in one part of this garden we find the plants of every clime, which
flourish here in great luxuriance, another portion is dedicated
exclusively to the cultivation of Australian trees and canes. At the
entrance stands a magnificent _Araucaria excelsa_, like a sentinel on
guard over this singular vegetable world. A gigantic _Grevillea robusta_
attracts the eye by the striking tint of its luxuriant orange-yellow
blossoms, shining with indescribable charm through the dark green of the
foliage. _Banksias_, _Casuarinas_, different species of _Callitris_,
_Xanthorrhea_, _Proteaceæ Eucalypti_, the beautiful _Telopea
speciosissima_, the giant lily (_Doryanthes excelsa_), and many others
indigenous to the Australian continent, such as never meet the European's
gaze, or, at all events, only very rarely in forcing houses, here arrest
the attention by their towering forms, their elegant foliage, and their
grand proportions, as compared with their brethren of northern climes. One
species of weeping willow (_Salex Babylonica_), which grows here in the
utmost luxuriance, has a special historic interest, as it was a shoot from
the well-known willow that overshadowed the grave of Bonaparte at St.
Helena. Through the obliging attention of the superintendent of the
garden, Mr. Charles Moore, who spared neither trouble nor pains to afford
us all the assistance in his power, our collection of Australian flora is
exceedingly plentiful and valuable. It consists not merely of a
comprehensive collection of Australian seeds and useful woods, but also of
some species of living plants, forwarded to Europe in what is known as
Ward's chest. At the same time we were successful in procuring and
sending, in accordance with his request, to Professor Rochleder, in
Prague, a Fellow of the Imperial Academy of Science, some 50 or 60 lbs. of
the raw _Epacris Grandiflora_, as also a small quantity of _Casuarina
equisetifolia_, for the purpose of chemical experiments, especially with
regard to the relations of chemistry with the geographical distribution of
plants.

At last, on 16th November, we were able to make out our long-projected
excursion to Campbelton, 33 miles distant, over a tolerably good, usually
somewhat flat, country, traversed by railroad in about two hours.

On our arrival at this small but most industrious village we found,
awaiting our arrival, our hospitable friend, Sir W. Macarthur, who took us
to his estate adjoining, called Camden Park. Sir William belongs to one of
the most distinguished families in the colony, and enjoys the double
reputation of being at once the most important wine-grower of Australia,
and of having the best wine in his cellar.

We drove to our host's house through very pretty scenery, and thus had a
fresh opportunity of satisfying ourselves of the strange inaccuracy of
former travellers, who related that the leaves in Australia were of wood
and the stems of iron, that the bees had no stings, the birds no wings,
and hair instead of feathers, the flowers no fragrance, the birds no
melody, and the trees, like so many Peter Schlemils, no shadow. Although
Nature has been guilty of some few freaks both in Australia and in New
Zealand, and has created some extraordinary animals, such, for example, as
the duck-billed platypus (_ornithorrhynchus paradoxus_), the ant-eater,
the kiwi, &c., these are but exceptions, and there are here but few
differences to be remarked in either the animal or vegetable world, such
as should distinguish it for extravagance beyond all other countries. In
Australia there are birds that sing, and odoriferous trees and flowers in
great profusion, and the forests, at those places whither the axe of the
busy settler has not yet penetrated or imparted to it a park-like aspect,
are as dense, as thickly clothed with underwood, and as difficult to make
one's way through, as in any other quarter of the globe under a similar
latitude.

Close beside the elegant residence of Sir William are extensive vineyards,
to superintend which he imported German vine-dressers from the Rheingau.
Each of these families has his own hut, a plot of garden ground, and in
addition to rations of milk, bread, and butter, receives £25 per annum
wages. When these good folks heard that strangers, compatriots of theirs,
were among them, with whom they could converse in their mother-tongue, a
dozen or so at once assembled to bid us welcome. Most of these betrayed a
certain amount of hesitation in expressing themselves in their own
language, and, like the same class in Pennsylvania, whenever they were at
a loss for a word supplied it by its English equivalent. There resulted
from this a most comical jargon, sometimes most grotesque in its
eccentricity, as, for instance, when, on our remarking to one of these
vine-dressers who had been in Australia for ten years that he seemed to
have quite forgotten his German, he replied, with an air of outraged
national dignity, "Oh no! _wir_ keep it _immer_ in exercise."

The entire number of Germans in New South Wales is estimated (in 1858) at
7000. They are usually settled on the larger rivers, such as Hunter,
Clarence, Brisbane rivers, where they have small farms on the alluvial
soil, or are engaged in agriculture, or vine cultivation. Their industry,
perseverance, and frugality soon make them independent and well-to-do. We
were told of one poor peasant of the Rhenish districts, named
Frauenfelder, who arrived here from Germany, in 1849, with twelve
daughters, and settled on Clarence river as a vine-dresser. After ten
years of unwearied activity he became a prosperous man, got all his
daughters well married, and now owns one of the most flourishing
settlements in the entire colony.[15] A German enjoys in Australia, after
five years' residence, the same political rights as the English. After
twelve months he becomes naturalized and may possess land; after three
years he may vote; and after five years' residence he may become a member
of Parliament. Should there be anything specially affecting German
interests in the colony, they can at least influence one vote in
Parliament. The reason why the number of Germans in Australia is yet so
small is undoubtedly owing to the high price of land. The same quantity
which can be purchased in the United States for one dollar costs £1 here,
and this solely because the Colonial Government contracted a loan in
former days with the wealthier colonists, for which they pledged the land,
which was taken at £1 per acre; this has never been paid off, so that the
mortgagee is virtually the proprietor of the soil, without Government
being in a position to profit by its contract or get rid of its
liabilities. It thus has become necessary for them to enhance the value of
the land, and this seems to be the chief difficulty in the way of lowering
the acreage price, to the manifest encouragement of emigration and the
cultivation of the soil.

Sir William conducted us, now on horseback, now on foot, now in his
carriage, over his extensive domain, and did not fail to acquaint us with
the details of everything that could be interesting or useful. Wine
cultivation in Australia, though only first raised into importance in
1838, has made such rapid strides, and has proved so profitable, that in
no long time England, hitherto so deficient in wines, will be enabled
through her colonies to vie with the choicest vintages of Europe; for
those of Australia and the Cape are little inferior even now in body and
_bouquet_ to those of Spain, and it is only the smallness of the quantity
hitherto manufactured, and almost entirely reserved for private
consumption, that has stood in the way of their being much more
extensively dealt in European markets. The entire product of wine in 1858
was 60,000 gallons, but the reason why the quantity is so limited is not
in the unsuitability of the land devoted to it, but the great difficulty
of procuring labour, and of getting it at the precise moment when it is
most wanted. As often as the journals launch forth upon the discovery of
some fresh gold-field, the field hands forthwith strike work, and make off
to the "diggings." On such occasions many thousand men are suddenly
smitten with the gold fever, and their ordinary avocations are at once
abandoned. We saw on one occasion a number of half-finished houses, which
had been left in that incomplete state by the thirst for gold of the
labourers, who are omnipotent here. "There are no greater tyrants than the
labourers of this country," was Sir William's pithy remark, as he looked
sadly on their work, abandoned unfinished, and the half-cultivated fields
around.

Our host made us taste various descriptions of wine, which in every
respect greatly resembled sherry, while a redder sort strongly reminded us
of Muscat. Even in Australia, the grape has already been attacked by that
mysterious disease which has done such mischief in various parts of
Europe, and especially in Madeira, but its noxious effects have as yet
been confined to a few species only. Much damage is occasionally done by a
species of worm, for the extirpation of which boys are engaged at from
1_s._ to 2_s._ per diem. The vintage in Australia usually begins in March
and lasts till far on in April.

We passed a short hour very agreeably in Sir William's study, which
comprises a library full of valuable particulars as to the history of the
country. At every moment the traveller from long-settled countries, feels
an emotion of surprise at the numerous and costly collections of rare
works and valuable cabinets of natural history he finds in a country where
he might expect that the universal rush after earthly dross must render
such pursuits valueless. The fact is, that in forming an estimate of the
country he is almost certain to omit taking into account that, in addition
to the convicts and gold-diggers, there have come out hither a
considerable number of young men of the highest circles of English
society, who, provided by Government with tracts of land for settling
upon, are in hopes of more speedily attaining fortune and position than in
England, where the younger sons of the aristocracy are in too many
instances apt to lead a sauntering life of dependency. Such cadets of
leading families have, since the commencement of the present century,
settled in considerable numbers in various parts of Australia, and have
introduced with them that taste for combined elegance and comfort, which
the foreign traveller in that country has such reason to feel surprise at,
as well as to be thankful for.

After our visit to Camden Park we spent the rest of the day at Campbelton,
making preparations to continue our excursion as far as Appin and
Wulongong, in the district of Illawara. From Campbelton to Appin is a
distance of 12 miles, by a tolerably wide level road, partly through
cultivated farms, partly through forest scenery. We encountered but one
vehicle the whole distance, containing a family dressed in their best, to
accompany a body to the grave--probably some father or sister. "A funeral
in the bush," said our driver to us with a somewhat serious face, as he
called our attention to the cart moving on slowly through the stillness of
the wood. In a simple little forest hut, whose inhabitants are engaged in
avocations that necessarily imply the closest daily intimacy, the stroke
of death must fall with redoubled severity, as he strikes down some of the
dearest and best beloved.

When we reached Appin the day was already too far spent to admit of our
reaching Wulongong, the end of our journey, the same evening. Uninviting
as was the filth of the little village ale-house where we alighted, we had
to make the best of its accommodations, as it was the only inn in the
place. The dialect which now saluted our ears unmistakeably proved that we
were domiciled in an Irish house. The people were by no means poor, they
possessed an extensive "run" near the hotel, but it is part of the
character of Irish settlers to be superior to the virtues of cleanliness
and order. Quite close at hand began the forest, a visit to which was
rewarded by the capture of several species of birds peculiar to New South
Wales, among others the laughing jack-ass (_Dacelo gigantea_) and the
beautiful blue-black atlas bird (_Kitta holosericea_).

The following morning we resumed our journey through lofty, dense, and
magnificent forests, in which the vast trunks of gum trees imparted their
special character to the scenery. One of the most beautiful points of view
in this delightful drive was when we crossed Sir Thomas Mitchell's, or
Broughton's, Pass, which has been cut through the gigantic rocks of a
mountain-range at considerable expense and labour, presenting at every
turn a fresh and more beautiful grouping of rock and mountain fringed with
fir and gum, reminding us somewhat of the romantic savage solitudes of the
Alps.

On our way to the coast we passed but one solitary farm, consisting of a
couple of wretched wooden huts, thatched with bark, standing on a clearing
named Bargo, where the mail-boy on his way from Appin changes horses, and
remains for a few hours over-night. We merely took some coffee, and were
not a little surprised at finding it presented to us in a fashion in
strong contrast with the rude exterior of this forest hut. Sheffield and
Wedgwood wares in the bush, and English ships constructed of Australian
timber--such is the secret of English political economy!

Not far from Bargo we enter upon troublesome sand wastes, at one point of
which the traveller enjoys a wonderfully extensive prospect over the
Illawara lake, the Keira range, and the sea, especially if, as was our
case, he is accompanied by intelligent _ciceroni_ acquainted with the
country, otherwise he is likely to pass this little elevation, only a few
paces from the road, little dreaming of the magnificent landscape which he
is missing.

As soon as we got to the coast we once more encountered fan-palms,
tree-ferns, and other representatives of tropical vegetation, the last few
hours of our road towards the little port lying through scenes of
Eden-like loveliness. About 3 P.M. of the 18th November we reached
Wulongong.

We again fell in here with Sir William Macarthur, who had undertaken a
very arduous ride through the forests around Wulongong for the purpose of
collecting some tree-ferns, which he intended sending to England. Few
nations have such a thorough appreciation of nature as the English, or
exert themselves so unselfishly, by personal observation and indefatigable
energy, to enlarge the acquaintance of mankind with natural history in all
its different ramifications. Men in every grade of life take a pleasure in
hunting out rare species of plants, animals, or minerals, in the remotest
districts of the globe, which they transmit to their own country, or
publish such observations respecting them as may make them available for
science, handicraft-industry, or commerce. By these incidental voluntary
contributions to the general stock, England now possesses scientific
collections such as hardly any nation can hope to keep up short of an
enormous expense. These endeavours, it is true, are considerably favoured
and supported by the fact of British colonies being scattered over the
entire earth, but even in this respect it must be conceded that it is
through her own meritorious, unselfish policy that circumstances thus
combine to aid her efforts in this peculiar direction.

Wulongong is a hamlet consisting of a few streets, and its principal
resources seem to be in the visits of the Sydneyites, who come hither for
sea-bathing. Already the existence of several hotels, which, considering
the size of the place, are unusually elegant and extensive, but at the
same time extremely costly, shows that Wulongong must be rather
extensively patronized by the inhabitants of the capital, with which it
has regular communication by small steamers, making the voyage in a few
hours. Unfortunately Wulongong has no convenient harbour, but only a small
exposed roadstead, rendered barely safe for a few small vessels by a stone
bulwark, so that in the event of rough weather the landing and embarkation
of visitors is attended with much discomfort.

We alighted at the Brighton Hotel, prettily situated on the sea-coast, and
met here our newly-acquired Australian friend, Mr. Edward Hill, a
brother-in-law of Sir D. Cooper's, who, with his usual kindness and
forethought, had made all possible preparations for ensuring that our
further flying visit to the Illawara district should be one of the most
memorable episodes of our stay in the colony. Mr. Hill, an Australian by
birth, may, through the peculiar circumstances of his life, his striking
observations on and profound sympathy with the blacks, be considered one
of those most profoundly acquainted with that remarkable race, whose
idiom, as spoken in this district, he can converse in with the utmost
fluency. For this gentleman's attention we were indebted not merely for
repeated opportunities of intercourse with the natives, but also for the
excitement, to us thoroughly novel, of a kangaroo-hunt.

A number of natives were living in an improvised sort of settlement
outside the town, and camped around the forest under low sheds of bark. At
a little distance off Mr. Hill uttered a sharp, shrill whistle, which was
immediately responded to from the forest. Presently two young natives made
their appearance, and shook hands with Mr. Hill. An old man with grey hair
remained cowering upon the ground without stirring. There were altogether
four men, two women, and two children, all pretty well made, their skin of
a black or dull brown hue, broad nostrils, and black crisp hair, which,
however, had nothing woolly in its texture. One of the women carried a
child, whose features and complexion were obviously the result of white
parentage on one side. However, she did not seem, as is the case with
other races that are proud of their colour, to be looked down upon on that
account by her own race, who, so low is their standard of morality, rather
consider it an honour for a black woman to bear a child to a white. Men
and women alike showed on their skins the protuberant cicatrices of
artificial incisions, two or three inches long, chiefly on the breast,
arms, and back.

All the male natives with whom we conversed had had the upper central
teeth knocked out, such being one distinguishing mark of their having
attained the dignity of manhood!

The abundance of mustachio and beard of the Australian savages is a marked
peculiarity, which none of their cognate races east or west have in common
with them. We were also told that they value the beard as their highest
ornament, and make it one of the great objects of their life to tend it.
No man of their race dare marry or kill an emu till he can show a beard,
to which also great virtue is attached in battle. None of these natives
understand the use of the Boomerang.[16]

The natives around Port Jackson and in the Illawara district have,
generally speaking, little of the aboriginal about them, and their abject
misery and addiction to drink make them pitiable and disgusting objects;
for their present hopeless state is in great measure attributable to their
contact with civilization, which has made them neither intelligent nor
industrious. The natives, however, of the banks of the Murray, Clarence,
and Brisbane rivers, though of the same race, are of a very different
appearance. They keep up the habits of their ancestors, and seldom come in
contact with civilization, and even then only with its pioneers, the
squatters and shepherds. Among these the customs of circumcision and
unlimited polygamy are universal, each man having as many wives as he can
steal or support. Owing, however, to their nomad life, this system is
practised to but a limited extent. Infanticide, especially of female
children, is of very frequent occurrence. Abortion is also so frequently
practised that they have a word (_Mibra_) to express it! On the other
hand, we read in Count Strzelecki's valuable work that "the female natives
after illicit commerce with a white man become barren for their own race,"
which, according to all unbiased observers, is a complete delusion.

In no part of Australia do the natives cultivate the soil. Nomad as is
their mode of life, they live almost exclusively on the products of the
chase, or of the deep, according as they live in the interior or on the
coast. Lizards, snakes, and insects, and some few roots and resinous
substances, form the delicacies of their primitive cookery.

Their dwellings are either natural cavities in the rock, or a few pieces
of bark fixed into the ground at either end, and arched upwards in the
middle. Throughout New South Wales the custom prevails, when a native dies
young, of burying him under a shallow mound of earth, only the elders
possessing the privilege of being consumed with fire. In the latter case
the corpse of the deceased, with his hunting and fishing implements, is
placed on a pile of dry wood about three feet high, with his face towards
the rising sun. This is covered by the surviving relatives with straw and
wood, who then set fire to the funeral pyre. Some days later the ashes and
calcined bones are collected and burnt. The name of the dead is never
again pronounced, any individual of the same tribe, who may also happen to
bear it, being compelled to exchange it for another.

The prevalence of cannibalism is a well-established fact among the natives
of the north. M. Angas, amongst other interesting particulars, mentioned
one case, where a boy died in the vicinity of Moreton Bay, whose head and
skin, according to the savage habits of the natives, were separated from
the rest of his body and dried over a fire. The father and mother were
both present and uttered loud cries. The heart, liver, and entrails were
divided among the warriors, who carried away with them pieces stuck on
their bone-pointed spears; while the upper part of the thigh (apparently
the tit-bit) was roasted and eaten by the parents themselves! The skin,
the skull, and the bones were, on the other hand, carefully packed up and
taken away with them in their grass sacks. It is not unusual for a mother
to devour her own child, that she may thereby regain the strength which
the fruit of her womb has abstracted from her! When a warrior of a hostile
tribe falls into their hands they celebrate his sacrifice with savage
glee, by rubbing their bodies with the fat around their victim's kidneys,
by which means they believe they strengthen their muscles and inspire
their hearts with courage. In the southern parts of Australia the natives
use human skulls as drinking cups, and one instance is on record where a
portion of a human skeleton was habitually used by an entire race as a
tool. Each woman has one of these bone calabashes, which she usually has
hollowed-out and manufactured herself. In the tolerably comprehensive
ethnographic collection of the Australian Museum we saw several examples
of these hideous drinking vessels! With respect to the idea of a future
life, or the immortality of the soul, the natives seem to have very
contracted notions, principally confined to a superstitious dread of evil
spirits, and to the very singular notion that after death they are
converted into whites, and that the Englishmen who now people their
hunting grounds are the spirits of their ancestors thus transformed!

At various parts of the colony, especially among the outlying mountains
and bare rocks adjoining Middle Harbour, Camp Cove, Point Piper, Mossman's
Cove, Lang's Cove, &c., the eye is attracted by numbers of rude sculptures
hewn in the stone, which usually represent terrestrial objects, such as
kangaroos, emus, flying-squirrels, fish, tortoises, and, above all,
numerous representations of natives performing the _Coróborry_. This is a
sort of war-dance, in which those who participate usually paint their
bodies with white lines, like a skeleton, and seen through the obscurity
of night, leaping around a faint fire, have the appearance of a set of
dead bodies dancing.

If we ask any of the black men of the present generation the significance
of these rock sculptures, they usually reply, in their broken English,
"Black fellow make 'em long time ago," and on being pressed more
particularly as to their age, they throw up their hands and faces, shut
their eyes, and say, "Murrey, murrey, murrey, long time ago!"

The great variety of theories commonly received as to the supposed origin
of this singular race of men have done little to dispel the obscurity
which prevails as to the real _stirps_ of which the Australian race is a
branch. Writers who are fond of squaring facts with pre-conceived theories
maintain that the first inhabitants of Australia came from Eastern Asia or
the Indian Archipelago, and passing Torres Straits gradually overspread
the entire Australian continent. Nay, some even go so far as to maintain
that there exists to this time in the interior of some of the islands of
the Malay Archipelago a race of men identical with the aborigines of
Australia. And it certainly is a remarkable fact, that most of the
Australian war-songs, dances, &c., have been diffused from north to south,
although it does seem venturesome to deduce from this single circumstance
a migration from Eastern Asia. Others again hold (such, namely, as
Prichard, Wappaus, Burdach, &c.), that the aborigines are of the same race
as that inhabiting New Guinea and New Caledonia, and thus make them of the
same stock as the Australasian negro. Lastly, a modern naturalist, Mr.
James Brown, who lived sixteen years amongst the blacks, considers it not
improbable that some Malay crews (for since time immemorial it is known
that the Malays have been acquainted with, and visited the northern
shores of, Australia) had been, by shipwreck or some similar calamity,
cast away on the coast of the mainland, or on some of the islands near
Torres Straits, and had thus become the first involuntary settlers of the
north of Australia. This increasing population gradually spread over the
interior, and when after some centuries this people had traversed the
continent and arrived at the ocean on its further side, they had already
lost all recollection of their Pelagic origin, and were no longer capable
of deriving any advantage from the sea spread before their astonished
gaze. Strange to say, the black populations of Australia seem to be the
sole savage race inhabiting the coast of an ocean, who possess no means of
transport by water, and are unable to swim! Very possibly the recent
expeditions into the interior, undertaken with such ardour and attention
to details, may throw some new light upon these aborigines, but equally,
if not more, probable is it, that the entire race may have disappeared
from the earth before any reliable facts can be ascertained respecting
their origin, their migrations, or their history.

The morning after our arrival at Wulongong, and our first acquaintance
with the natives, we made an excursion, under the tutelage of Mr. White,
to Balgonie Farm, to hunt kangaroo in the forests of the neighbourhood. It
was not, however, the large species (_Macropus Major_) we were to hunt,
which sometimes attains a height of six feet, or even more, but a smaller
kind known as the Wallaby (_Halmaturus ualabatus_). The kangaroo proper
have long since retreated before civilization, and are now only found in
the recesses of the forest, hundreds of miles inland. The various
participators in the hunt were posted at certain distances in one of the
splendid forests, stretching between the Bellambi-Keira and Kemla ranges
of hills, while the blacks who accompanied us set forth to drive the game
towards us, assisted by their Dingoes, a kind of dog usually supposed to
be originally of European race. The blacks use the term "Dingo"
promiscuously for every description of dog, whereas the regular wild dog,
or rather the dog that runs wild in Australia, is called in the native
tongue "Warrigul," and is of no particular breed, but seems rather a
mongrel descendant of the sheep dog.

The hunt was not very successful, and of some ten or twelve started by the
"beaters," only two were killed. Although one can discern the Wallaby at
some distance by its plashing tramp, so that it seems but to need a glance
of the eye to bring it down as it flies past on its hind legs, followed
close by the dogs, it yet needs great activity and precision of aim to hit
the nimble animal as it hops swiftly past.

Yet though we were rewarded with such poor sport, our stay among the
splendid woods of the Keira range sufficiently repaid us. The most varied
and luxuriant forms of vegetation, changing at every step, almost
transcend the wanderer's power of description by their marvellous and
enrapturing beauty. Some portions of the forest landscape, where splendid
tree-ferns and gigantic gum trees, enveloped in the folds of the Liana,
from which in its turn depended exquisite parasitic plants, reminded us of
the brilliant profusion of the tropics. Not less peculiar and uncommon
than the vegetation were the sounds that struck our ear from amid the
semi-obscure green covert, without our eyes being able to distinguish the
singers. And so deceptive are some of these, that one almost involuntarily
starts as the loud crack resounds close to his ear of the _Phsophodes
crepitans_, known to colonists as the "Coachman's whip," or the _Myzantha
Garrula_, or bell-bird, sounds its bell-like note.

During our stroll we came upon several farms, plain wooden huts covered
with the glutinous bark of the gum tree, whose impoverished exterior gave
little promise of the comfort to be found within, and pleasantest of all
was the ready and heartfelt hospitality. Hardly had we set our foot within
a hut, ere all the members of the family bestirred themselves to bring
milk and butter, eggs and bread, of which they pressed us to partake. In
each we visited there was no lack of beautiful china, elegantly carved
wine glasses, and Sheffield table cutlery, while the walls were decorated
with elegant engravings and wood-cuts. The bread was usually the national
institution, known as "Damper," which is simply some meal and water well
mixed and heated in warm ashes. It is very palatable, and besides the
simplicity of its preparation, the meal well kneaded being baked for an
hour as aforesaid, it possesses the advantage of continuing for a
considerable time fit for use.

Our return to Sydney was fixed for the following morning. We were desirous
of catching the steamer which plies from Wulongong every second day, as
our Commodore, and several of the scientific staff, had received an
invitation for the evening at Sydney. As the steamer would first of all
start towards noon from Keiama, we employed the hours of morning in a
visit to the coal mines of the Keira, and hunting in the adjoining
forests. Coal is very abundant in these mines, and is wheeled along a
level shaft in small waggons as far as the high road, whence it is
conveyed by regular carts to the city. About 200 of these are brought up
every day.

Unfortunately our plan for returning by the steamer fell through, as a
high wind and heavy sea rendered the entrance of the boat into the harbour
a very problematical business. Accordingly, as the boat had not made her
appearance by 4 P.M., there was nothing for it but to return by coach to
Appin, so as to enable us to reach Sydney in time for our invitation. The
cool of evening began now to be felt among the lofty steep hills, over
which lies the road to the interior. At first all went well, and the early
part of our journey was performed in all comfort and at a rapid pace. But
we soon came to some very steep parts of the road, where our tired horses
gave out, and could not proceed one step further. By this time we had left
the coach, and went on on foot, shooting and collecting as we proceeded,
and admiring the beauty of the landscape around. The coach had stuck fast
half-way up a steep ridge, while the horses took no heed of the servants'
flagellation. The coarse language in which Mr. Croker, the very type in
this respect of an English driver, exhorted Billy and Sam (so were our two
steeds named), and the frequent song of the whip, availed nothing; the
animals would not budge a step; so we had to lend our assistance in
person, and move the vehicle a few paces farther to a less dangerous
position.

Further progress, under the circumstances, was out of the question. It was
resolved to send man and horse back to Wulongong to engage additional
horses, and continue our walk as far as the huts at Bargo, the next
station, 18 miles distant. _En route_, or at Bargo, it was supposed our
coachman would overtake us with fresh horses. As we were by no means sure
of our road, we took the precaution of carrying our most necessary
effects, in the event of our having to pass the night in the bush.

It was 6.30 P.M., and the sun was going down, only the extreme summits of
the trees catching and reflecting his golden beams. On we went, our
excitement stimulated by the prospect of an adventure. Gradually the
darkness of night enveloped the wood. Our path became uncertain. Even the
full splendour of the moon, as she rose in the east, and darted her silver
rays through the gloom of the _Eucalypti_, casting gigantic shadows on the
sandy soil, rather tended to confuse us amid this labyrinth than enable
us to extricate ourselves. We held on however till 1 A.M., and were just
on the eve of camping for the night to await the break of day, when all at
once we saw before us the stately fence which surrounds Bargo. With
quickened steps we made for the lonely little farm, and hammered at its
closed door. A tremendous chorus of barking dogs was the not very
propitious welcome of guests arriving at such an unseasonable hour. After
repeated knocking the door of the hut was opened; an old man appeared in
his night-shirt on the threshold, and gruffly inquired who we were and
what we wanted? The reply was not difficult. Our having passed that way
before, when we had scraped acquaintance with the old gentleman, likewise
stood us in good stead. We were most cordially received, and, despite the
lateness of the hour, preparations were at once made to prepare something
for us to eat. Tea, coffee, eggs, fresh butter, and damper were carried
into the sitting-room, and as far as was practicable sleeping quarters
were prepared in the little hut.

The only ill result of our nocturnal fatigues was that we rose late, the
sun being high in the heavens ere we awoke. We were just about to ask for
our driver, when he made his appearance, and told us he was ready to
proceed. He had paid hire for fresh horses at Wulongong, and hoped to make
the rest of the journey without further interruption. While they were
being put to, we re-entered the hut, and now perceived the small space
within which ourselves, three persons, had passed the night on benches,
chairs, and tables. The light of day did not belie the hospitality of our
reception. The furniture was rude but clean. What most surprised us was
the number of massive books which stood on a small shelf, carefully
arranged. They were by much the most valuable part of the furniture, and
the proprietor seemed to be aware of this. The books had been the property
of a schoolmaster, who had exchanged their spiritual contents against
spirits of another nature. The host gave "tick" to the schoolmaster, and
thus gradually possessed himself of the entire collection, no
inconsiderable number, of interesting works, which now passed from hand to
hand on holidays or after the day's work was over; the desire for
knowledge of the settlers in this primitive Australian forest thus finding
ample room to expand itself in many useful and learned particulars of
foreign lands and peoples.

Towards 1 P.M. we reached Campbelton. At the hotel where we alighted was
installed a lodge of Odd Fellows, newly instituted. The first visible
result of its organization was almost universal intoxication! In the
streets and the public-houses, everywhere crowds of drunken men were
staggering about. Every third house in Campbelton is a whisky shop!
Throughout the colony the consumption of ardent spirits has reached an
alarming height, being estimated at £6 per head of the entire population
annually! Besides the spirits manufactured in the colony itself, New South
Wales imports annually £1,000,000 of wine, beer, brandy, and other
descriptions of liquor; a greater consumption of spirits than in any
other country of the globe![17]

The rest of our return journey being by rail was performed in two hours.
The telegraph is in full activity between Campbelton and Sydney, the
charge for a message of ten words being two shillings, and two-pence for
each succeeding word. Towards 6 P.M. we reached Sydney, driving in the
present instance to the Australian club, where accommodation had in the
kindest manner been provided for us.

While one section of our staff had been making the excursion southwards
which we have just described, among the forests and barrens of the
Illawara district, another party visited the sources of Hunter River and
the Newcastle coal-fields, whence they returned laden with botanical,
mineralogical, entomological, and palæontological collections, samples of
coal, fossil plants, and specimens of the Silurian formations.

The most interesting episode in their excursion was their stay on Ash
Island, a small isle in the Hunter River, the property of A. W. Scott,
Esq., M.L.A., who has settled there with his family. Two of his daughters
are hardly more conspicuous by their loveliness and grace than by their
profound acquaintance with entomology, which they pursue with the utmost
zeal. In addition to geological and conchyliological collections, they
have also a carefully classed collection of insects and butterflies, and
at the time of our visit were about publishing a large work upon
Australian butterflies. They also have the lepidopterous _fauna_ of New
South Wales in great variety and in every stage of metamorphosis, in many
cases from the very _ovum_, all copiously explained, and their
distinguishing characteristics placed beneath in a series of above one
hundred tables, which the two ladies, who are accomplished artists both in
drawing and painting, have themselves lithographed and coloured.

An excursion was also made from Ash Island to the Sugar Loaf, 3288 feet
high, the loftiest mountain in the district. As they had to do 40 miles in
one day, the party sprang to their horses as soon as day dawned, and,
accompanied by two settlers of Ash Island, laid themselves out for the
day's work. First they ascended Hunter River for about a couple of miles,
which a little further on headed to the northward, while the cavalcade
kept to the left towards the hills. The forest was so clear of underwood,
that one could almost ride along as though in a park. Despite the numerous
traces of extensive fires, it seemed to have been but little altered by
these from its primitive wildness. Occasionally huts and cultivated land
were passed; the great proprietors usually give these runs to be
cultivated as farms, or make them serve for their cattle, under their own
drovers. In winter the cattle run at will in the "Bush," as the settlers
call this characteristic scenery, wherever they can find the best pasture
for themselves. In summer again, when the great heat dries everything up,
they are foddered with hay under shelter. The sunny forest consists of
_Eucalypti_, _Melaleuca_, and other _myrtaceæ_, splendid _casuarinas_,
_Grevilleæ_, _Banksiæ_, the native pear (_Hylomelum_), the highly prized
Warratah (_Telopea speciosissima_), the all but shadowless _Acacia_, the
indigenous cherry (_Exocarpus_), beautiful _Papilionaceæ_, and very
peculiar _Stylidiæ_, &c. All these were old acquaintances however of the
Austrian naturalists, who greeted them in this their native soil with
redoubled interest and astonishment. Covered with blossoms they grew in
wild unchecked profusion all around their path, so that the very horses
frequently trod them under foot, scenting the air with an aroma which in
Europe can only be obtained by lavish expenditure. Numerous birds, chiefly
parrots, circled round the tops of the trees; the crow-like _Strepera
graculina_, the bald-headed _Tropidorhynchus corniculatus_ the "Jack ass"
(_Dacela gigantea_), so highly regarded and carefully tended by the
colonists on account of its admonishing them of the presence of poisonous
serpents, quantities of chaffinches (_frigellidæ_), the fan-tailed
flycatcher (_Muscipiada_), the _Climacteris_, which runs up and down the
trunks of the trees like our own wood-pecker, the monitor lizard, four or
five feet in length, which flits rapidly to and fro among the trees, the
prickly chameleon, and beautiful specimens of fossil helix, all furnished
a rich reward for the zoologist.

After a ride of three hours the party began to approach a steep wall of
rock, where the horses were left, as they had now to prosecute their
journey on foot, till at length they came to a confused mass of coarse,
breccia-like sandstone, constituting what is known as the Sugar Loaf,
whence they had to toil laboriously among the rocks till they reached the
summit. A marvellous panorama was spread out before them; the whole county
of Northumberland, with its green forest clothing, was stretched out at
their feet in all its sunlit splendour. To the left far in the distance
was visible the township of Maitland, and the navigable part of the Hunter
River, which wound along like a silver band till it was lost in the
distance, where it fell into the Pacific, on whose seething billows the
stately ships looked like small white specks on a confused, uncertain
back-ground. Far in the distance to the right, half concealed by the
forest, was Lake Macquarie. The colonial members of the party described
the latter as very difficult of access, but as a veritable paradise for
the sportsman, since it is frequented by black swans in hundreds, the
Australian stork, curlews, the hook-billed creeper, cormorants, and an
infinite variety of water-fowl. The Blue Mountains formed the back-ground
of this splendid landscape. The whole neighbourhood is pretty well settled
and cultivated. Here and there wreaths of blue smoke indicated where the
huts of industrious colonists lay concealed in the forest. Their
conductors were not a whit behind the strangers in their appreciation of
the panoramic effect; they had never scaled the summit before, although
the elder had lived 15 years at Ash Island, and had often been as far as
the top of the first rocky ascent in search of strayed cattle.

Lost in delighted contemplation of the beauties of nature, no account was
made of the passage of time, so that part of the return journey had to be
made in the twilight. It was a delightful, clear, moonlight night. The
deep stillness in nature was only occasionally broken by the shrill cry of
the curlew (_Numenius arquata_), from the neighbouring swamps, or the
rustling of Wallabies disturbed by the tread of the advancing horsemen.
Buried in a sort of dreamy charm that could find no utterance, the riders
left their horses to choose their own pace over the sward, hardly able to
realize that they were indeed under the unclouded brilliancy of an
Australian sky, traversing the forests haunted by the timid kangaroo and
the swift but shy emu.

Unfortunately it was found impossible, owing to want of time, to visit the
Blue Mountains and the gold regions around Bathurst. We had to content our
curiosity as to the products of the gold-fields by examining the nuggets
exhibited by the fortunate finders in the jewellers' shops of George
Street, Sydney, and the particulars furnished in the daily papers of the
well-authenticated riches of the gold-fields of the oldest colony. During
our stay a lump of gold was discovered in the Western district weighing
150 lbs., and worth £6000. Such instances of good fortune only tend to
raise fallacious hopes of being equally fortunate in the breasts of
thousands of men. Shortly before our arrival, on the news being
promulgated of the new Eldorado in the north near Port Curtis on the
Fitzroy, not less than 16,000 men flocked thither from New South Wales
and Victoria. This enormous influx of human beings to a district totally
unprovided with either shelter or provisions for such a horde resulted in
unutterable suffering. People had sold their goods in Sydney for whatever
they would fetch, in order to be the first in the gold-field with the
requisite implements. Many lost their entire means of support, having even
sacrificed the most favourable prospects in the eager thirst for gold and
sudden prosperity. The streets of Melbourne and Sydney were filled with
gold-seekers, who, laden with blankets, household utensils, axes, and
spades, were laying down their last farthing for passage tickets, and
rushed breathlessly to the ships which were to convey them to the
newly-discovered gold-field. The voyage began under the most rose-coloured
anticipations of brilliant success. But scarcely a month later came most
depressing intelligence from Port Curtis. Here was a set of lawless
desperadoes, deceived in their expectations, without food, clothing, or
even the object of their search, in a remote part of the country, with the
hot season coming on, and no means of returning! Men were seen selling for
a few shillings implements that had cost pounds. The whole road from the
supposed gold-fields to the landing-quay was strewed with diggers, who,
footsore and fainting under the heat, were toiling towards the coast,
where they rushed in wild confusion on board the ships which were to
convey the victims back to the colonies they had left at so much sacrifice
and with so extravagant expectations!

It was only the energetic measures taken by Government, by whom provisions
were forthwith despatched to the wretched make-shifts of settlements
improvised on the spur of the moment, and gave numbers free passages to
Sydney and Melbourne, that prevented some serious disaster. A few months
later the place so suddenly populous had become once more a despised
solitude, and Rockhampton had resumed its wonted state of a hamlet
consisting of two or three houses. In Sydney, however, the famished crowd
seeking after work kept wandering about, thankfully accepting the soup
which the charity of their fellow-citizens supplied free of charge.

During these various excursions of the scientific staff, the frigate had,
thanks to the kindness of H.E. Sir Wm. Denison, been taken into the
Government dry dock at Cockatoo Island in order to facilitate her
extensive repairs. The _Novara_ was, as the chief engineer himself
allowed, the largest man-of-war which had ever been docked, not merely in
Port Jackson, but anywhere in the Eastern hemisphere.

The Fitzroy dry dock, which had not long been completed, is 300 feet in
length (since lengthened another 100 feet), 60 feet wide, and will
accommodate vessels drawing 19 feet water. In preparing this splendid
structure, which took eight years to complete, a huge rock 50 feet high
was first blasted, the excavation began on the land-side, and on its
completion a gate opened towards the sea. All being right thus far, a
subaqueous mine was sprung by means of large diving-bells, the
excavations being charged with two or three lbs. of powder. A steam-engine
of 40-horse power pumps the dock dry,[18] besides being geared to set in
motion the various machinery in the shops, such as lathes, iron planes,
&c. The dock gates are iron-plated. Although constructed entirely by
convict labour, the expense was enormous, since to overcome the
extraordinary difficulty presented by the soil, the entire machinery, down
to the very smallest tool, had to be imported from England.

The frigate lay about a week in dock. Besides the usual handicraftsmen
there were upwards of thirty caulkers employed, each of whom was paid
14_s._ per diem, net, but the entire cost was 17_s._ a day, as each man
was conveyed to and fro, morning and evening, at Government expense. But
as provisions are high, the workman can save by the end of the week little
if at all more than the English labourer who does not receive one-third of
his wages. At present there are on the island 360 prisoners, all such as
have been sentenced to ten years penal servitude at least. This
establishment was, however, to be broken up, and the convicts distributed
among other prisons, so soon as the dock was quite completed.

The main features of a prison reform, contemplated by Sir Wm. Denison,
with the praiseworthy object not merely of prevention of crime, but of
ameliorating the moral condition of the criminal, consisted in the
classification of criminals according to the nature of their
crime--co-operative labour during the day, solitary confinement at night,
and a certain amount of remuneration for work performed, so as to
stimulate to habits of industry by a visible reward, and a scale of
dietary barely sufficient to maintain life, any additional delicacy being
paid for out of the man's own earnings, yet not so as to entirely exhaust
his wages, the balance of which thus went on accumulating, so as to give
him a small sum of money in hand, when, his sentence expired, he was set
at liberty with, it is to be hoped, freshly-acquired habits of industry.
To facilitate this benevolent plan, Sir William bethought him of erecting
the prisons in the neighbourhood of Sydney, where there is more of a
market for convict labour, and recommended the construction of roads. The
number of prisoners at present in New South Wales is about 1260, whose
support costs on an average £36,000 per annum. In order to adapt to the
existing prisons the new system put in operation by the late
Governor-general, and extend it to 1600 men,[19] there would be required a
further outlay of £69,000, but one-third of the present annual outlay for
sustenance would be saved.

On 25th November the _Novara_, thoroughly overhauled and rejuvenated,
returned to her former anchorage near Garden Island, and the following day
commenced a series of festivities, which the German residents at Sydney
had got up to welcome the Imperial Expedition, commencing with a
serenade, given by the German Singing-Club, who hired a large steamer, the
_Washington_, for the occasion, which they had gaily decorated with
foliage and coloured lamps. Amidships there was a splendid transparency,
with the word "Welcome" inscribed in letters of light, above which was a
very neatly executed Austrian eagle. Upwards of 300 guests shared in the
fête. At 8 P.M. the vessel got under weigh from Circular Quay. With the
first plash of the paddles the music struck up, and the ship glided off,
as though on the wings of Harmony, towards the grand-looking _Novara_.

Unfortunately the weather proved very unfavourable. To an oppressingly
hot, close, sultry day of entire calm, the thermometer marking 109° Fahr.
in shade, there had suddenly sprung up a "Brickfielder,"[20] that dreaded
south wind, which may be considered one of the worst plagues of Sydney,
owing to the clouds of dust. It now put German patience and German
good-humour to a severe proof. At each tack of the steamer it blew out a
whole row of variegated lamps and illuminations, which, however, were as
perseveringly relit. It had been firmly resolved, however, to let nothing
mar the success of the festival, and the old indomitable German "pluck"
came out victorious in its contest with the "Brickfielder." Amid the full
clangour of the bands of music were heard shouts of jubilant mirth,
mingled with the howling and whistling of the wind, and the rush and roar
of rockets, while the occasional firing of Bengal lights shed their magic
effect over the parti-coloured crowd on board, the ships in harbour, and
the agitated waters below. At last the steamer got near the frigate, which
she swept round in a wide graceful curve, and dropped anchor at a little
distance away. At that moment a considerable number of port-fires were lit
on board the _Novara_, bathing the entire scene, including the stately
ship herself, in an absolute deluge of light, guided by which a number of
boats put off with the company, who despite the weather were all enabled
in safety to gratify their curiosity as to the effect of nocturnal
festivities.

One of the frigate's boats was manned and despatched to the steamer, to
bring on board the _Novara_ the committee who had been entrusted with the
presentation of an address.

On board the _Novara_ the utmost excitement prevailed, almost all the
officers and petty and warrant officers being on deck, the band playing
nothing but German music. The evening ended as it began, with music and
melody, such a thoroughly German welcome making a profound impression upon
the English of Sydney.

The following day the German clubs of Sydney invited the staff to a
ceremonial banquet, the saloon in which dinner was served being elegantly
decorated with the flags of the various German states, between which were
excellent likenesses of the Emperor and Empress. Upwards of seventy guests
sat down to a sumptuous repast, after which free flow was given to the
expression of the warmest wishes for fatherland and the German nation.

While these festivities were going on, the English mails brought the
intelligence of the birth of an heir to the throne! So signal a cause for
thankfulness on the part of Austria was duly observed at the uttermost
ends of the earth, and on 27th November the thunder of the _Novara's_
cannon announced the glad tidings to the colonies of the southern coasts
of Australia! Salutes of 21 guns were fired at morning, noon, and sunset,
while on board our ship, which was decorated with all her colours, a
solemn _Te Deum_ was sung, after which the crew were mustered on parade.
The English ships of war also "dressed," and returned our salute by one of
a similar number of guns. On the 30th there was a ball on board, to which
400 guests were invited, many of the _élite_ being overlooked through
sheer want of space or accommodation!

The hospitality extended to the Austrian officers was not however confined
to these public receptions, when they were thoroughly "lionized" during
their stay, but also included a constant round of invitations among
private circles, among which, without making invidious selections, where
we can but feel a lasting recollection of the cordial kindness we
everywhere experienced, we may specify those of H.E. Sir Wm. Denison, Sir
D. Cooper, Speaker, Stuart A. Donaldson, Esq. Chief Secretary, Dr. G.
Bennett, the eminent physician and naturalist, M. W. Sentis, French
Consul, and Captain Mann, chief engineer of the docks.

Here also our thanks are due to an estimable Austrian lady, a native of
Vienna, who, wafted on the pinions of Hymen to Australia, has not a little
contributed to uphold in that distant region the gentle dignity of the
Viennese ladies, and the renown of Germany for musical supremacy. This
lady, widely known in artistic circles as Mlle Amalie Mauthner, is now
Madame R----, having a few years since married a German gentleman settled
in Sydney. Quitting her home under the most auspicious anticipations for
the future, the newly-married lady arrived in Sydney just in time to see
her husband's house of business succumb under the first of the great
financial crises. Instead of a life of affluence and ease in the
gold-country, the sorely-tried lady was compelled to display her
irresistible energy and activity by availing herself of her eminent
musical attainments. The charming artist was speedily recognized and
cordially supported in Sydney. The wealthiest and most distinguished
families considered it an especial favour to be permitted to place their
children under Mad. R----'s tuition. Her concerts became the most
fashionable of the season, and the dark cloud which had gathered above the
young inexperienced wife on her arrival in Australia, had, thanks to her
marvellous energy and activity, gradually been dispelled, leaving a bright
sunny horizon of felicity and content.

We had but little opportunity of observing the phases of political life in
Sydney, our arrival being coincident with the "dead season" of politics.
We were just in time to be present at the spectacle of the prorogation of
Parliament. This ceremonial took place in the chamber of the Legislative
Council, the Governor-general officiating in person. The second chamber,
or Legislative Assembly, was, as in England, represented simply by a
deputation. Punctually at noon Black Rod threw open the doors and
announced in grave but loud tones, "His Excellency the Governor-general of
New South Wales," upon which Sir William Denison entered the apartment
with much dignity, and assumed his seat under a sort of canopy. By his
side stood the Ministers, his private secretary, and an aide-de-camp.
Before him sat the President of the Legislative Council, and other high
dignitaries. Sir D. Cooper, Speaker of the Assembly,--whom we scarcely
recognized in his strange official costume, a black silk single-breasted
coat, richly laced with gold, and an immense full wig,--delivered a short
address, to which the Governor-general briefly responded, and the ceremony
was over and the Parliament prorogued. Australia now enjoys such a free
constitution, modelled after the English form, the administration of the
various colonies is so entirely autonomous, their duty to the mother
country so insignificant (so far as outward form goes), that the
colonists seem quite content with their present administration, and the
mal-contents, who once advocated separation and independence, even to the
length of ventilating the subject in Parliament, have now been reduced to
utter insignificance.

Each colony has, by the "New Constitution Act" of 1851, been provided with
the utmost freedom of self-government, the British Government only
reserving the right of veto in those cases where the colonial laws should
happen to run counter to the common law of the Empire. One hears, it is
true, many prognostications as to the result of dividing the country into
so many independent colonies, and having so many parliaments, especially
as to the immense preponderance that the inhabitants of the cities must
have over the scattered country population. A few even seem to be of
opinion that they must contain many elements eminently unsuitable to the
vitality of a mutually reliant, cohesive, law-abiding confederation. But
although some passing blots and temporary defects may be dragged to the
light of day, it must not be overlooked that the Australian continent is
almost as large as Europe, and that each of these colonies covers more
superficial area than most of the European states. As the laws and
administration are the same for all these, it is more probable that the
anticipated break up of moral power will rather take the form of
developing true political life, so that the masses will more honourably
and surely be enabled to appreciate their constitutional rights and
duties.

A few days before our departure some of the scientific staff had further
opportunity of communicating with the "blacks." It was important to extend
our collection of craniological specimens for that branch of study, by
comparing the various races of men with each other, so as to enlarge our
knowledge of the physiological peculiarities of either sex and every race;
and as we had been told that numbers of skulls could be procured among the
_Gunyahs_, or sandstone cavities of Cook-river Bay, which had been a
favourite burial-place of the aborigines, we made an excursion thither,
still accompanied by our staunch friend, Mr. Hill.

Our light vehicle rattled merrily through the suburbs of New Town, a sort
of suburb of Sydney, thence over the Cook-river Dam, 1000 feet wide by 200
feet in length, to Coggera Cove, where several of the aborigines had
pitched a temporary camp. These were two Mestiza women with their
children, and Johnny, the last of the Sydney blacks, who might be about
40, and was a cripple in consequence of an injury sustained in childhood.
In 1836 there were 58 still alive; now Johnny is the last remaining
survivor!

We set off from Coggera Cove in a small, but safe, and well-built boat,
rowed by Johnny and some white colonists, bound for Cool-river Bay, but
our search in the sandstone caverns was unfortunately fruitless. Johnny
then conducted us to a spot where Tom Weiry, one of the last of the
chiefs, who lived at the mouth of Cool River, and died about twelve years
previous, had been buried. Tom Weiry, or Tom Ugly, as the English named
him, was a very athletic man, whose skeleton was a real prize for the
purposes of comparative anatomy. Close to the spot where, according to
Johnny, the last remains of the Australian chief reposed, were large
quantities of empty oyster-shells, indicating that the place in question
had once been a favourite resort of the "blacks," attracted thither by the
prolific yield of this place in those shell-fish, one of their most highly
appreciated articles of food. At various spots traces of fires were
visible. The aborigines of the coast usually bury their dead clothed in
the woollen blanket they wore in life, with the heads seaward, and near
the coast, with but a few feet of earth over them. Unfortunately we had
our pains for our reward, although Johnny repeatedly assured us he had
himself, in picking up shell-fish, on that very spot seen projecting from
the sand human bones, that frightened the superstitious fellow from
prosecuting his search in that direction. Indeed, Johnny was positive some
other exploring naturalist had been there and walked off with our
contemplated anthropological prize.

We returned, our object unachieved, to our boat, and so back to Coggera
Cove, where we found tea and chocolate prepared in the renowned "black
pot," that figures so much in bush life, off which we made an excellent
repast. With true kindliness Mr. Hill shared what we had brought with us
with the aborigines, who, on their part, showed themselves very obliging
and attentive.

A second excursion, still in Mr. Hill's company, was made after
craniological specimens to Long Bay, twelve miles distant, among whose
thickets a few natives had been residing for some weeks. The road thither
passed through gum tree forests, varied by wide grass plains covered with
the many-blossomed _Metrosidero_, with its long deep red stamens, and
brilliant _Melaleuca_, its twigs also nearly covered with white flowers,
among which rose the tapering flower-stem, ten or twelve feet high, of the
_Xanthorrhea_, something like reed-mace, surrounded by flights of
humming-birds, which were imbibing its delicious nectar with their long
bills. Great quantities of little birds were swarming about the brushwood
and rushes, occasionally coming quite trustfully so close to us that we
could have caught them with a butterfly net. We had been riding perhaps an
hour or two when Mr. Hill suddenly began to call in the native manner.
Those forthwith summoned by this quite unique sound replied from the
thicket, as if recognizing the approach of a friend, and in a minute or
two more we found ourselves in the midst of a number of aborigines of both
sexes, mostly naked, or with a coarse woollen cloth around them, lying at
full length on the ground in listless ease. Close by was a fire, over
which was suspended a kettle filled with water. A couple of mangy hounds
covered with sores were basking in the sun, heedless of the footfall of
our horses, lying as indifferent as their masters till we had dismounted
and seen our beasts attended to.

It is extraordinary to see how few necessaries these people seem to have,
and how little ambition they have to better themselves, so long as they
can indulge their vagabondizing propensities. There is assuredly no nation
on earth that so aptly illustrates Goldsmith's words,

    "Man wants but little here below,"

as the black race of Australia.

Those we were now visiting had come from the districts of Shoal Haven,
Port Stephens, and Illawara. There were three men and as many women, one
of whom, a Mestiza, named Sarah, with two half-blood little children. One
of these, which, although above two years of age, was still at the breast,
had a skin quite white, red cheeks, and light-blue eyes, and could
scarcely be distinguished from the child of white parents. These presented
so characteristic a type of the race, that we could not resist an attempt
to make with them some of those admeasurements of the body already alluded
to, while the artist attached to the Expedition delineated their
appearance.

The skull of the Australian black is tolerably regular, the forehead broad
and high, the bridge of the nose pretty high, the eyes dark, brilliant,
and sunken; the nose and cheek-bones well marked. The mouth generally is
broad, the upper lip overhanging the under, and the upper teeth also
project beyond the under. The face, like the entire body, is hairy in an
unusual degree; the hair of the head is black, thin, often very fine in
texture, and slightly crisped without being woolly. The skin is usually
dark or dirty brown, or brownish black. The custom of marking the outer
arm from the shoulders downwards with three or four marks, from 1 to
1-1/2 inch long, and rather thick in the cicatrix, and continuing over the
back with similar incisions, is pretty universal, and seems to be
considered as a personal decoration. The elder people have the nasal
cartilage bored through, and wear in the orifice kangaroo bones, or other
bones, or even pieces of wood as amulets. We did not however remark this
among the younger generation; this hideous custom seems to have died out,
apparently on account of its discomfort.

The stay of the _Novara_ in Australia was, as already remarked, so brief,
that it did not admit of the scientific staff making more distant tours to
the great cattle "stations," or gold districts. At the same time it
appears to us important to make some few observations on these two
products, to which Australia is indebted for her present prosperity, and
the former of which is fraught with even more of its future destiny than
the latter. At the commencement of the present century England used to
procure all her wool from Spain, and somewhat later from Germany[21] and
Hungary. Since that period the production of wool in the Cape, the East
Indies, and Australia, has so enormously increased, that Great Britain is
enabled to get from her colonies the entire consumption she requires for
her woollen manufactures, averaging from 60 to 70,000,000 lbs., thus
utilizing the agricultural energies of her emigrating children for the
behoof of the mother country and her industrial classes.

New South Wales produces at present (1858) above 17,000,000 lbs. of wool,
the whole of Australia about 50,000,000. The number of sheep has increased
from 29, imported by the first colonists in 1778,[22] to 8,139,160 in New
South Wales alone, the total for all Australia being about 15,000,000.
Some proprietors have upwards of 100,000 sheep, which they divide into
flocks of from 2000 to 3000, which are in charge each of its respective
shepherd, who keeps them in their own special "runs."

The most suitable place for breeding sheep is Moreton Bay, lately raised
into a new independent colony by the name of Queen's Land. The sheep there
need but little attention, and the maladies to which they are subject in
the west and south never occur in that colony. Were it not for the
ravages of the wild dogs, the rearing of sheep would be attended with
hardly any expense. These are pastured on the crown lands, for the use of
which each squatter pays £10 per annum for every 4000 sheep, or 800 head
of cattle. In the north, "Darling Downs" are considered the best,
consisting of an open undulating table-land, broken here and there by
occasional clumps of trees, and much resembling the States of Minnesota
and Iowa, north and west of the Mississippi. On these Downs from 3000 to
4000 sheep can easily be kept by a single shepherd, whereas in Bathurst
800 would call into play all the watchfulness of a single individual. On
Darling Downs the annual increase of a flock of 100 ewes is 96 per cent.;
in Bathurst it is only 80. The value of a sheep is about 15_s._ to 20_s._,
and the shearing usually begins in October and lasts till December, the
average weight being 2-1/2 lbs. to the fleece. Innumerable teams of oxen
carry the wool in bales of 200 or 300 lbs. from hundreds of miles in the
interior down to the seaports, where the oxen and carts are usually sold,
as, owing to the low price of cattle, it would not be remunerative to take
them back without a freight. While we were in Australia an attempt had
been made, at much cost of time, trouble, and expense, to import from
their native Cordilleras a large number of Llamas or Alpacas, with the
view of increasing the value of Australian wool by a cross with the
Peruvian. An enterprising English merchant of Valparaiso, named Joshua
Waddington, who had been 40 years resident in Chili, was a chief promoter
of the undertaking. In 1852 another Englishman had undertaken to convey
500 alpacas to England, but, despite the utmost care during the voyage,
only three were landed alive. Waddington attributed this disaster to the
want of fresh food, and therefore hit upon the expedient of accustoming
those animals which he intended to send to Australia to the use of dry
fodder, such as barley, bran, and hay, for some time before their
embarkation. As soon as they had become somewhat inured they were shipped
at Caldera, near Copiapó, and entrusted to the care of Mexican Indians
accustomed to their habits, for transport to Australia. The vessel was of
800 tons burthen, and was chartered at 6000 dollars for the voyage. The
fitting up of the vessel for her novel cargo cost about 300 dollars. Each
animal, in addition to its ration of dried food, had a quart of water per
diem. The voyage from Caldera to Sydney took 70 days. Of 316 llamas
shipped or born on the voyage only 36 died, 280 arriving in excellent
health at Sydney, and were with all speed turned into a large pasture on
the Government domain.[23] For weeks the negotiations remained in an
anxious suspense, in consequence of the original projector of the
undertaking, an adventurous Yankee, named Ledger, who had purchased the
animals in the interior of Peru, and after four years of unwearied
assiduity had accompanied his charge hither, standing out for a large sum
by way of reward. Long after we had left Sydney we learned that the 280
llamas were sold to a company of sheep-breeders at £25 a head, or for
£7000 sterling the entire herd, the value of an animal in Peru being two
or three dollars.

The yield of the various gold-fields[24] in the west, north, and south of
the colony, though nothing like so great as in the neighbouring colony of
Victoria, yet contributes in no inconsiderable degree to the annual
revenue of the state, and maintains a considerable commerce with other
countries. According to official reports, the amount of gold taken out
since its first discovery in March, 1851, to the end of July, 1860, was
2,587,549 oz., worth about £9,600,000. Besides this, however, a
considerable quantity of money was brought to the coast by private
conveyance, where it was smelted down, since the entire yield of New South
Wales in nine years was £12,696,231, besides £3,096,231 in the State
Treasury and Mint, according to official returns.

The rumour that gold was to be found in Australia was first set on foot by
the Rev. H. F. Clarke, a Protestant missionary and well-known geologist,
who so far back as 1841 found gold in the hills W. of Vale of Clyde, and
had even then proved to several influential personages by unmistakeable
evidence the existence of gold-quartz, with the remark that in Australia,
especially the province of Victoria, all scientific indications were in
favour of there being a great amount of gold. But the learned country
parson found at that time little attention or interest, as well in
consequence of its then being still a penal colony, as of the ignorance at
that period universally prevalent as to the value of such indications.

Ten years later a certain Mr. Hargrave adopted the rational course of
visiting California, where he made himself master of the various means of
obtaining gold, after which he returned, and commenced to wash for gold in
Summer Hill Creek, Victoria, and thus became the practical discoverer of
the gold-fields, the special contributor to the development of the
resources of the country. The committee of the Legislative Council, to
whom was entrusted to examine and report upon the claims of individuals as
to the honour of having discovered the Australian gold-fields, added to
the minute of 10th March, 1841, that Mr. Hargrave, who had so
disinterestedly thrown open to all this inexhaustible mine of wealth,
ought to receive £5000, and Rev. W. H. Clarke £1000 in recognition of his
mineralogical researches, which had conduced to the same result. The first
Australian gold, 18 oz. in weight, was landed in London by the _Honduras_
on 20th August, 1851. Thenceforward the importation increased with each
month, the amount by the end of the year having reached 240,044 oz., worth
£871,652. The following year the amount extracted was 4,247,657 oz., value
£14,866,799.

The crowd of gold-seekers and adventurers, attracted by the discovery, was
something tremendous. From the commencement of Sept. 1851, when 29 men
were engaged in washing at Anderson's Creek, to the end of December, only
four months, the population of the diggings reached 20,300; in 1852 they
numbered 53,500, in 1853 75,626.

Shortly after the discovery of the gold-fields, the Colonial Government
appointed special officers, the well-known "Gold Commission," to watch
over these improvised settlements. They published "Regulations for the
management of the gold-fields," and sold licenses, at 20_s._ or 40_s._
according to yield, for the privilege of digging within certain limits;
the localities most in favour being Ballarat, Mount Alexander, Castlemain,
Sandhurst, Beechworth, and Heathcote.

The gold obtained in 1852 was valued at from 58_s._ to 60_s._ per ounce.
The banks made advances at the rate of from 40_s._ to 55_s._ per oz., or
exchanged the gold-dust at from 8-1/2 to 10 per cent. discount for coined
money. The freight was 4-1/2_d._ per oz. In 1858 the value of the ounce
had risen at the "diggings" to from 70_s._ to 77_s._, and the discount had
fallen to 1 per cent., and the Insurance Company charged for gold
transport a premium of from 1-3/4 to 2-1/2 per cent.

Since that period gold has repeatedly been discovered in fresh localities
of the adjoining colony of Victoria, the "yield" and the number of
diggers being also steadily increasing. Many thousands at present leave
New South Wales annually to try their fortune in other fields than those
of agriculture. In 1857 upwards of 26,000 persons left this colony for
Victoria. Consequently, the price of labour has risen throughout
Australia, and while it has thus increased in expense it has become more
uncertain and unreliable. A large number of buildings, especially in the
country, have been left unfinished, and the clearing and cultivation of
numerous tracts of land have been abandoned. These temporary evils,
however, cannot be permitted to outweigh the enormous advantages derivable
from the discovery of the gold-fields of Australia. It has attracted the
attention of universal mankind to a distant British colony, hitherto
almost unnoticed, it has peopled the country with magic celerity,
centupled the value of the land, made its results appreciable in the
remotest districts of the globe, and raised the colony of Victoria within
a few years, in national prosperity, increased trade, and extended
cultivation, to a degree of importance usually the slow growth of
centuries of industry.

The discovery of the gold-fields had at the same time important scientific
consequences, chiefly in the way of geological researches, which resulted
in proving that the widespread popular opinion, that the Australian
continent belongs to the latest geological era, and had comparatively
recently emerged from the sea, is entirely erroneous. Rich palæontological
collections confirm the opinion that Australia is not the latest, but
rather the earliest, continent. In several parts of the colony the fossil
remains of various colossal animals have been discovered, which, as since
measured, must have stood from 10 to 16 feet in height, and correspond to
our diluvial Pachydermata in Europe. In like manner, with the exception of
some quite insignificant tertiary strata of small extent, only crystalline
rocks and primary formations (from the Silurian upwards) form the chief
bulk of the continent. The entire series of secondary strata seems to be
absent. From this fact it necessarily results that Australia has been a
continent since the end of the primary epoch, that it never has been
covered by the sea, but remained ever since the beginning of the secondary
formations, through all those countless ages during which Europe was being
convulsed by the most tremendous geological revolutions, a habitable soil,
on which plants and beasts, undisturbed by change in the inorganic world,
might have continued to flourish down to our own times. Viewed in this
light the fauna and flora of Australia would be the most ancient and
primitive in the world.

Another Austrian naturalist, the well-known botanist Professor Unger of
Vienna, has come to the same conclusions from the fossil remains of some
Australian plants, accompanied by the further singular deduction, that
Europe must have been at one period in much closer accordance with this
remote region. Many forms of plants, especially _Proteaceæ_, which at
present form such a peculiar feature of its vegetation, seem to have been
similarly prevalent in Europe at that remote age of the globe. But if
even it be accepted that during the Eocene or earliest tertiary period
there existed in Europe under similar climatic conditions flora of
_Coniferæ_, _Proteaceæ_, _Myrtaceæ_, and _Casurinæ_, such as Australia now
possesses, the question still arises as to how the vegetation of a
locality so remote should have been transferred to antipodean Europe?
Making all due allowance for the astonishing influence exercised by winds,
waves, and the migration of animals over the diffusion of vegetable
species, yet the means of transport by the ocean or by currents of water
is confined within narrow limits, and under the most favourable conditions
is limited to the very few plants which can maintain their powers of
reproduction uninjured by immersion in water, and those on the other hand
which, on being transported to a strange shore, find there the means of
existence and increase. As, moreover, the observations which Professor
Unger has made upon the diffusion of species of plants at that remote
period, and their very accurately circumscribed limits, run directly
counter to the opinion of those naturalists who hold to a variety of
centres of development, (instancing a case where one species of plants is
found in two widely separated regions,) have never been satisfactorily
refuted, the learned botanist thereupon proceeds to the conclusion, that
during the Eocene period Australia was united to the mainland through the
Moluccas. This land route has been followed at one period by _Araucarias_,
_Proteaceæ_, sandal wood, and a hundred other varieties of tree and
shrub, which till that connection was made could not diffuse themselves,
so as thus to reach the European continent, where they are even now found,
despite the lapse of myriads of years, in the shape of well-preserved
fossils. Thus too, for similar reasons, the geologist to our Expedition,
like Professor Unger, regarded Australia as not a youthful, lately-born
continent, but a country decaying with antiquity, which had played its
part in the physical history of the globe, and had spread its scions far
and wide. Some alteration of level is not merely indicated by the numerous
coral reefs encircling Australia and its island groups, pointing to a
similar sinking among them as that already noticed among the smaller
Polynesian islands:--The whole characteristics of the soil, the wastes of
the interior, the innumerable salt lakes, the rivers which lose themselves
in these, &c. &c., tell of a coming geological transformation, which
however--we mention this for the consolation of the settlers--may yet be
postponed for myriads of years.

The system of transportation, concerning which so loud an outcry has
recently been made, has so materially assisted in developing the resources
of the country, that it would hardly be right to quit Botany Bay without a
few remarks on the penal colony which was in existence there till 1840.
For there is no spot on the globe better adapted than New South Wales to
serve as a stand-point, whence any one might accurately study the
advantages and drawbacks of the English transportation system, as also its
influence upon a strongly recalcitrant society. In brief, we purpose to
subject the system as it subsisted for half a century in Australia to a
thorough analysis, inasmuch as it seems to us that, in our present
unnatural social conditions, transportation, i. e. the sudden transference
of the criminal to totally new conditions of external life, seems to
furnish the much-desired turning point whence we may expect a lasting
moral improvement of the individual. Our Austrian prisons, especially
those in which the cell system has not been introduced, are simply houses
of detention, not penitentiaries, still less reformatories. The
incarcerated criminal is a burden to himself and to society, to which he
is only in the most exceptional cases restored improved by confinement.
The charge of maintaining him increases year by year, without any return
being made by utilizing the labour of the prisoner. In penal colonies, on
the other hand, the convict works as much for his own benefit as for that
of society. He throws open new immeasurable tracts of land to
civilization, trade, and industry. The evil effects of certain climates
upon the health of the convict can be corrected by proper ordinances, till
it is reduced to a barely appreciable minimum. The free settler is also
exposed in unsettled countries to dangerous illnesses, but as his
circumstances improve these disappear before the cleared forest, the
cultivated patch, the drained swamp.

We do not believe that were the option left them there is one solitary
individual in our Austrian prisons, condemned to periods of imprisonment
of ten years and upwards, who would not willingly exchange his sojourn at
home for one in even the insalubrious islands of the Indian Ocean, if the
prospect were held out to him after a series of years of steady labour and
honest activity, that he might make his new-found activity available to
secure his liberty. What may be made, however, of a valueless wilderness
by means of compulsory labour, we have at this day an example of in the
case of the first penal colony of New South Wales. Even the objectionable
manner in which the system was administered during more than fifty years
in Australia and Van Diemen's land could not entirely destroy its
beneficial effects upon the criminal, or blind an unprejudiced observer to
the advantages and general utility of transportation as a means of
punishment. In 1787 the eastern coast of Australia, chiefly in consequence
of the too glowing accounts of the suitability of the harbours, and the
fertility of the soil of Botany Bay, was selected by the British
Government as the site of a penal colony, and on the 26th January, 1788,
the first batch of convicts was landed there. These consisted of 600 males
and 250 women, and were accompanied by an escort of 200 men. Forty of the
latter were married men, who were accompanied by their wives and children.
The whole expedition was under the command of Captain Phillip, the first
Governor of the new settlement.[25]

The colonists had scarcely settled down after their arrival on, as was
speedily found, the anything but safe or fertile shores of Botany Bay, ere
they were removed to another harbour, lying about seven miles further
north, beautifully situate, and fulfilling every requirement, which they
named Port Jackson.

The first free settlers did not make their appearance till 1794. The
officers of the garrison were merchants also, and trafficked in whatever
merchandise they could find. Rum especially was a chief article. A
Government regulation required every ship which should put into Port
Jackson, to deliver a certain proportion of her spirits to the officers
according to their rank!! They also received a list of the merchandise
brought by each ship, from which they selected whatever seemed most
profitable, which they disposed of again at retail to the soldiers,
settlers, and convicts at an immense profit. Further, the officers enjoyed
the entire monopoly of importing spirits, as also the exclusive privilege
of selling them to the retail merchants. By these devices many of them
amassed considerable fortunes by trade, and thus the repeated efforts made
by a succession of Governors to effect a reform in the colony were
rendered fruitless. During the administration of Captain Bligh, so widely
known in connection with the tragic fate of the mutineers of the _Bounty_,
rum was the most valuable article of exchange, and the colonists found by
bitter experience that there were no other sellers of this destructive
drink than the privileged few.

The utmost anarchy and violence reigned supreme throughout New South
Wales at that period; the power of the Government was set entirely at
nought, license and violence usurped the place of law and order; the
convicts found they were not under any effective control or supervision;
whole bands of them infested the country as "bush-rangers," till they grew
so bold as to enter the dwellings of peaceful settlers in broad day, where
they perpetrated the most cruel excesses.

In 1807 Mr. McArthur and Captain Abbot of the 102nd introduced the first
distilling apparatus into the country for cheapening the production of
ardent spirits. The Governor forthwith confiscated the apparatus, and
forbade distillation in any part of the colony. This prohibition gave rise
among those interested to dissensions, which gradually rose to such a
height, that about a year thereafter it led to Bligh being placed in
confinement by some of his own officers. The English Government however
now began to perceive that such a state of carelessness could no longer be
endured, and not only reinstated Bligh, but promoted him to the rank of
Admiral.

On their arrival in the colony the prisoners were sent to barracks in
Sydney, where the Government selected from their number such
handicraftsmen as they required for the public works, while the remainder
were distributed as land cultivators, labourers, artisans, &c., among such
private individuals as had made themselves agreeable to the Government. As
free labour was rare and expensive in the colony at that period, the
requests for such allocations of forced labour were greatly in excess of
the number of workmen so available.

Those consigned to private individuals were taken into the interior in
charge of a constable or overseer, where they were required to build a
shelter for themselves, which, owing to the mildness of the climate, could
be very speedily accomplished. The hours of work were from 6 A.M. to 6
P.M., and the main feature was that the convict durst not leave his
employer, whether kind and good-tempered, or harsh and cruel. When there
was no further occasion for their services they were remitted to
Government, who found another employer for them.

All land-holders in the colony were entitled, on preferring a request to
the Governor to that effect, to have assigned them, according to the
current quantity of disposable labour, in the proportion of one workman to
every 320 acres of land; but no settler, no matter how extensive his
holding, could "take on" more than 75 convicts. Each employer had to
engage to keep the convict assigned him one month at least, and provide,
at his own cost, food and clothing according to a scale fixed by
Government.

The weekly rations consisted of nine lbs. wheaten flour, or at the option
of the employer, three lbs. Indian corn, and seven lbs. of wheat flour,
seven lbs. of beef or mutton, four lbs. salt pork, two oz. salt, two oz.
soap. The clothing consisted of two jackets annually, three shirts of
canvas or cotton, two pairs of drawers, three pairs of shoes of stout
leather, and a hat or cap. Each labourer was also allowed the use of a
counterpane and mattress, which however remained the property of the
employer. These legal privileges had however been extended through custom
or the favour of the employers to various little articles of luxury, such
as tobacco, sugar, tea, grog, &c. In particular, with the object of
ensuring the utmost zeal on the part of the workman during the harvest
season, it was almost imperative at that season to show him those little
relaxations and favours which at length became customary, and in no slight
degree enhanced the cost of his maintenance.

On the arrival of a convict ship a crowd used to hurry down to await the
moment when the convicts were to be allotted to applicants. As no special
memoranda were made during the voyage of the offence for which each man
had been transported, or his subsequent conduct on the voyage, the
administration were not in a position to make such a selection as should
classify the prisoners, and assign them according to nature of crime and
subsequent behaviour to a determined or a more gentle employer. Hence
resulted the most lamentable injustice; the most truculent of these men
occasionally were assigned to the gentle masters, while a less hardened
criminal came under the yoke of a hard-hearted task-master, and thus had
an infinitely more severe lot to bewail than he in fact deserved.

Such a harsh, and in too many cases unjust, method of dealing with them,
drove the convicts to the commission of fresh offences, or even crimes,
and, in desperation at the wrongs to which they were exposed, they not
merely neglected utterly the interests of their temporary masters, but in
many cases, impelled by a fierce thirst for vengeance, they burned house
and property over his head at the harvest time!

The chronic alarm and anxiety of the colony during a long period was not
however traceable to the principle of the system itself, but to the method
in which it was worked by self-seeking natives, greedy of gain. No sooner
had the most glaring of the evils been rectified, and by means of a
powerful government law and order resumed their wonted sway, ere the young
colony began to make most unexpected strides in developing its
capabilities, and both in the unfolding of its natural resources and in
its trade and commerce ere long attracted the attention, not merely of
England and her manufacturers, but of all Europe.

In 1840 New South Wales ceased to be a convict settlement, at which period
there were 130,856 souls in the colony, 26,967 of whom were convicts. In
1857, when the last census was taken, there were in all 305,487, of whom
171,673 were males, and 133,814 females, who inhabited 41,479 houses, 1725
huts, 50 waggons, and 75 ships, and subsisted chiefly by pasture and
agriculture.

The morality of this population diffused over 321,579 square miles has
greatly improved, thanks to the unlimited freedom of individual power to
develope itself, and the opportunities afforded for leading an
independent, comfortable life, and in the interests of Truth we must add,
that in no part of Europe would any one be left so unfettered to travel
about alone and unarmed, or require less precautions, as in this once
penal colony.

The number of criminal cases of all sorts in the colony during the last
ten years, during which the population has increased from 189,600 to
266,189, is as follows:--

  1848 ... 445 accused, of whom were executed 4
  1849 ... 534   --         --      --        4
  1850 ... 555   --         --      --        4
  1851 ... 574   --         --      --        2
  1852 ... 527   --         --      --        5
  1853 ... 604   --         --      --        2
  1854 ... 637   --         --      --        6
  1855 ... 526   -- (one of these a woman)    5
  1856 ... 461   --         --      --        0
  1857 ... 395   --         --      --        4

One must not forget to take into account that by far the larger portion of
the population are recruited from the lower class, as measured by
education. On the whole we may assume that of the 305,487 souls, 30,000
men and 20,000 women _can neither read nor write_.

As to the intimate connection between crime and ignorance, most striking
confirmation is obtained from investigations made in England and Wales in
1842-44, in the case of 69,616 criminals, of whom 21,799 or 31.3 per cent.
could neither read nor write, 41,620 or 59.8 per cent. could read and
write imperfectly, 5909 or 8.5 per cent. could read and write well, and
only 308 or 0.4 per cent. had received a good education.

The present population of New South Wales, despite all their burdens and
difficulties, furnish an instructive and cheering example of what may be
made of even hordes of fallen man under certain conditions, if they can be
afforded the opportunity of working and showing their powers.

Confined in gloomy cells between high walls, chained hand and foot with
heavy iron fetters, condemned in their wretched state to life-long
inaction, the convicts sent out to Botany Bay during fifty years would
have cost the State directly, and society indirectly, an enormous sum;
while their existence would have passed in silent brooding over their
fate, and speculations as to the means of avenging themselves on mankind.

Placed on a remote, healthy, fertile shore, with the cheering prospect of
inaugurating for themselves a new era of existence by labour and industry,
and thus being enabled to attain competency and respectability, these very
same men raise themselves, at but little cost, to the position of valuable
subjects to the state and to society, by causing to smile, under the gold
crop of agriculture, lands hitherto all but unknown, and thus becoming the
founders of a community, which bears within itself the germ of such a
marvellous development in the future, that political seers even now
designate it as "THE GREAT BRITAIN OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE."

A system which, despite the many serious deficiencies caused by individual
selfish short-sightedness, has produced such results, cannot be considered
by any unprejudiced inquirer as altogether objectionable or aimless;--on
the contrary, it seems to us it has proved its utility in founding new
oversea colonies in portions of the earth as yet little visited, the
first colonization of which is attended with local difficulties. We have
but to avail ourselves of the experience acquired at Botany Bay, avoiding
the canker under which the system has hitherto been worked in the British
colonies (with the exception perhaps of that pattern convict settlement at
Singapore, which we have already described), and draw up such regulations,
keeping in view the sole object of transportation, viz. PUNISHMENT BY
EXILE, AND REFORMATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL THROUGH LABOUR, as shall
facilitate its being carried out in an efficient manner, and suffer
ourselves neither to be diverted from our course by the selfish warnings
of interested administrators, nor by the objections of ill-advised
philanthropists.

With respect to the carrying out of a system of transportation, such as
formerly existed in the British colonies, especially Australia and Van
Diemen's Land, the following modifications seem to be advisable:--

1. The abandonment of the convict to the employer, i. e. the "assignment
system," must be entirely given up, as the prisoner by such an arrangement
degenerates into an article for speculation, out of which it must be the
task-master's interest to get as much as he can, so as to be able to
return him upon the hands of the State so soon as his capacity for labour
begins to fail. The convicts who were thus "assigned" in New South Wales,
stood to their employers in the same position as negro slaves in the
Southern States of North America, or the island of Cuba. They were fed
like beasts of burden, without the slightest remuneration for the heaviest
work. The State had, it is true, a right to punish the criminal, but it
seems to us unjust in the extreme to make him the slave of his fellow-man.
Accordingly this practice was the source of unutterable mischief, and was
followed by most deplorable results as regards the moral development of
the colony.

2. The case is very different when the labour of the criminal, instead of
being devoted to the aggrandizement of a private individual, finds its
expansion in forwarding parochial or national public works, in clearing
and cultivating tracts of land, and preparing them for the future labour
of free colonists, in the laying out of roads, in the erection of
churches, schools, hospitals, and barracks, in the construction of docks,
quays, &c. &c. So soon as private interest disappears,--so soon as the
energies of the criminal are no longer made available to put money in the
pockets of private speculators, but are utilized for the general good, by
far the greater number of those minor drawbacks will disappear, which
press with all the more force on the compulsory labourer, in proportion as
he feels conscious that he is regarded by him who has purchased his labour
not as a FELLOW-MAN, but as a CHATTEL, to be employed while he is of any
value, and then to be cast aside, as one might throw a dried twig into the
fire. What may be accomplished in this direction, even in colonies of
comparatively recent foundation, is evidenced by the splendid roads of
Cape Colony, traversing mountain passes 6000 to 8000 feet high, the
numerous public buildings in Singapore, Hong-kong, Sydney, &c. Edifices,
which in consequence of the high price of free labour, might not have been
erected under the lapse of many years, actually at present rear their
imposing forms like so many ornamental memorials, now of the worship of
the loving Saviour, now of our charitable duties to the sick and
afflicted, but all serving to instruct and civilize the rising generation!

3. As to the subsistence of the criminals, we do not believe that the
principle of giving them the same descriptions of rations, no matter
whether they worked much or little, would be found conducive to the
attainment of the great object of making them feel an interest in their
labour. We would rather see the present system departed from in this
particular, and a marked difference made in the food provided for the
industrious, as compared with their more indolent companions.

4. Of great importance in penal colonies, as tending to produce a lasting
and decided improvement of the individual, is the FAMILY TIE. What is
independence or even affluence to the exile, if he has no one to care for,
or think of, but himself? His slow and laborious earnings would greatly
tend to plunge him once more into excesses, till he quickly sank back into
his former state of war with civilization.

5. It seems to us imperatively necessary in the interests of this great
design of a penal colony, that provision should be made for a certain
proportion of female population, which might consist partly of female
criminals, and partly of the wives of such of the male criminals as
should, after a sufficient probation, be permitted to have their wives and
children conveyed at the cost of Government to their place of exile.
Lastly, the nucleus of a female population thus already formed might be
added to from time to time, by sending out such discharged female
criminals as had no visible means of making an honest livelihood in the
mother country. It were a noble object for Christian activity and
religious harmony to provide the means for sending these wretched outcasts
to the new home that was thus being formed.

6. The importation of spirituous liquors, that fruitful cause of so much
crime, must be confined within the narrowest limits. One cannot believe
that even in unhealthy places, where the water frequently is very impure
and unhealthy, owing to vegetable matters held in solution, the use of
strong spirituous liquors must needs be unavoidable. Tea and coffee will
in such places, as I experienced myself during several years' residence in
unhealthy climates, be found excellent substitutes.

7. No official of the colony, civil or military, should be permitted to
trade in any article except the natural products of the soil. On the other
hand, it would be advisable that each _employé_ should have assigned him
by Government, a tract of land for cultivation corresponding to his rank.

There can be little doubt, and it may well be advanced as an argument on
the other side, when the rapid progress made by the Australian colonies
under the influence of this transportation system is adduced as an example
in point, that nowhere probably on the earth would external circumstances,
position of the country, and development of the colony to such a pitch of
prosperity, combine so wonderfully to produce such a result, as was the
case with New South Wales. But even the clumsy method of carrying out this
form of punishment, and the immense use made of it for selfish ends by men
who had every opportunity for studying close at hand the influence it
might have been made to exercise upon the development of the Australian
colonies, could not weaken the conviction that, under more judicious
management, it would have answered every anticipation that could
reasonably be formed of any mode of punishment, and that it is better
calculated than any other to prove conducive to the amelioration of the
criminal himself. We might, while upon this subject, specially refer to
the valuable and comprehensive work of Dr. Holtzendorf upon transportation
as a means of punishment,[26] which embraces all that can be said on
either side of the question, all put together in an attractive and
exhaustive manner, and who, contemplating the great example presented to
the world by Australia, has arrived at a similar conclusion, "that the
working power of the criminal may, under proper management, be made to
produce results, able to accelerate the progress of a generation, while
furnishing at the same time a lever by which to effect a moral reformation
in the disposition of criminals." He foresees the time "when the colonists
of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land need no longer feel ashamed at
the historic recollection of their original convict associations, but
might rather, viewing the prosperity of their country, and the tone and
extent of their civilization, feel grateful to the criminals who landed in
1788 to become the pioneers of the country, and do them the justice of
believing that the good which they were compelled to do to the soil still
existed, while the evil they might have done was left undone of their own
accord, or was gradually assimilated under substantial progress."

The greatest obstacle to be encountered by the transportation system will
be found in the difficulty of hitting upon suitable localities. When we
consider the many conditions which must be satisfied, some referring to
the general objects aimed at in all punishment, some to considerations of
humanity and utility, when selecting a site for a penal colony, such as
climate, soil, distance, importance of the country as a market for the
products of the mother country, &c., it will be found that the number of
unclaimed or unbespoken territories, in which a scheme of compulsory
colonization could be carried out on a large scale, is exceedingly
limited.

For Germany, however, at least under her present political composition,
the foundation of penal colonies oversea seems all but entirely
impracticable. She must, in the first place, have her maritime power more
developed. On this subject the agreement is of importance which was
entered into in 1836 between Mr. James Colquhon, Consul-General for the
city of Hamburg, and the agents of the Australian Agricultural Society on
the other, as, although nothing resulted from it, it nevertheless
indicates how States that have no colonies can set about the system of
transportation. The gist of that scheme was the subscription of a sum for
the passage of such convicts as voluntarily accepted the offer, on their
engaging to remain for a certain period at compulsory labour in Australia
on the same terms as those of English convicts.[27]

Once the wish and the necessity shall arise in Germany, owing to the
expansion of her population, for possessions beyond sea, and her navy
shall increase on a scale adapted to their protection and defence, then,
although the choice of locality may be limited, the idea will no longer
remain impracticable. In the Indian Ocean as well as the Pacific there are
numbers of island groups, which, by their hypsometric conditions,
geographical position, and fertility of soil, are admirably suited for
settlement by white labour. The prejudice against the climatic
adaptability of the majority of these falls to the ground, when we
recollect what entirely altered conditions in that respect have been
brought about by the industry and energy of the colonists of Singapore and
Pulo-Penang, on islands which, from being in the worst possible repute
for their deadly climate and dreaded forest malaria, are now favourite
invalid resorts of the wealthy white residents of the islands of Eastern
Asia. But German statesmen must no longer hesitate, or continue to
sacrifice the future to the exigencies, even the most pressing in
political eyes, of the present, for England noiselessly but systematically
is possessing herself one after the other of all the islands that are as
yet untenanted by the white man, as, for instance, quite lately of the
Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, or, as in the case of the Feejee
Islands,[28] accept a suspicious protectorate got up by an influential
missionary; while the Emperor of the French, with his irresistible
inclination for annexation, is incessantly occupied in seizing on points
important either by geographical position or for trade purposes, of which
New Caledonia furnishes the latest example. Too long delay and expectation
may have for the contemplative German results similar to those which in
Schiller's beautiful poem, punished the dallying of the son of the Muses,
whose fate, as compared with the actual political circumstances of
Germany, suggests but too many painful analogies!

On 6th December the frigate was made ready for prosecuting her voyage, and
the same evening all was ataunto. The following morning we were to be
towed out of the many-coved port, till quite clear of "the Heads." The
steamer, however, sustained an accident to her machinery, and we had her
services little more than half a day. Early on the 7th, a breeze had
sprung up from S.W. by S., accompanied by squalls and rain, which
gradually freshened into squally weather from the S., and determined the
Commodore to make all sail at once. Already, even while we were still in
the port, the weather began to be stormy; we had to take in a reef in the
mainsail, and by 9 A.M. found ourselves outside of "North Head." By the
afternoon the low flat coast of Australia had sunk below the horizon, and
the south wind had now become a gale. It seemed as though winds and waves
had conspired to put to the severest test the operations of the caulkers,
carpenters, and sail-makers of Sydney. But although the frigate rolled
tremendously, and the frequent squalls propelled the sea against her hull
with frightful violence, she did not ship a drop of water below. The
repairs in dock had been most effectually performed. After a couple of
days both wind and sea fell, the sun shone out with the mildness of early
spring, and we bowled along in the most delicious weather and with every
stitch of canvas set, swiftly careering towards our next goal, New
Zealand.

On the 9th at 5 P.M. we buried the corpse of one of the gunners, who had
died the same morning of dysentery, the remains being committed to the
deep with the customary ceremonies and marks of respect.

On the morning of the 19th we sighted Barrier Island off Cape Butt,
distant 35 miles. The more we neared the land, the more balmy did the
atmosphere become. Innumerable Albatrosses and _Procellariæ_ swarmed
around us, and the result of half an hour's shooting from a small boat
dropped over the side for the purpose, resulted in our securing eleven
different species of storm-birds. A whale about 50 feet in length also
came close under our quarter, and only retreated after he had been
repeatedly fired upon and had received a number of balls in his carcase.

We steered for the South Point of Barrier Island, the outline of which is
very beautiful, relieved as it is by two hills, of which that to the south
is about 2000 feet in height, running up into a sharp peak, while the more
northerly rises gradually, being only precipitous on the northern face.
The broken conical rocks which ascend out of the sea near the northern
point of the island unmistakeably indicate their volcanic origin.

Our arrival off New Zealand was signalized by most unusual calms, which
indeed materially delayed our entrance into Huraka Gulf, a sort of lateral
bay, entering from the harbour of Auckland. A bark, which had sailed from
Sydney three days before us, had, as we were informed by our pilot, been
one day in harbour. We now had to tack slowly up under faint puffs of wind
towards the anchorage, which we reached finally at 5.30 P.M. of the 22nd
December, 1858.

The country round Auckland has none of those majestic features which are
presented by New Zealand further south. The enormous volcanic peaks, such
as Mount Egmont, 8000 feet high, have dwindled down in this region to
numerous but small extinct cones, rarely rising above 800 feet. Instead of
the hills covered with perpetual snow of the central island, one sees here
only low chains of hills, about 2000 feet high, and a rolling country,
which dips into the sea in steep cliffs of sandstone. In the various bays
and channels of the wide gulf might be seen numbers of natives in their
elegant canoes engaged in fishing. We found but five ships in harbour, and
here also the _Novara_ was the largest man-of-war that had ever entered
the port. The population of Auckland turned out on the beach as we
approached, and began to exchange the usual salutes with the little fort.


                               FOOTNOTES:

[1] A National System of Political Economy. Stuttgart, 1840. (J. C.
Cotta.)

[2] In an old map of the year 1542, the Australian continent is named New
Java.

[3] The mean of thermometrical readings on the north coast is 80°.6
Fahr.;--at Port McQuarrie, in S.E. Australia (31° S.), 68° Fahr.; at Port
Jackson (34° S.) 66°.5 Fahr.; at Port Philip on the south coast (33° S.),
61°.3 Fahr.; at Perth on the west coast (32° S.) 62°.6 to 64°.4 Fahr. The
annual rain-fall in New South Wales is 45 inches.

[4] The total superficial area of the somewhat oval-shaped continent lying
between 10° and 45° S. and 112° and 154° E., is about 2,100,000
geographical square miles in extent, the coast outline of which is about
7000 miles, so that for each mile of coast there are about 300 square
miles of surface, or rather more than double the proportion in Europe. The
united English population of the different colonies founded in Australia
(exclusive of Tasmania or Van Diemen's Land) and New Zealand amounts to
about 1,400,000 souls. Within twenty years the population has increased
six-fold, and the value of the exports twenty-fold.

[5] The fundamental principle of the University is, "The association of
students without respect of religious creed, in the cultivation of secular
knowledge." (See Sydney University Calendar for 1858, p. 15.)

[6] The fixed salary of the teacher varies from £120 to £140 per annum.

[7] At the period of our visit to the colony, the post of secretary was
filled by Mr. G. French Angus, distinguished as an artist, and widely
known for his valuable ethnological studies upon the Caffers, New
Zealanders, and South Australian aborigines. Unfortunately his health gave
way, owing to his exertions, and he now lives in retirement at
Collingwood, in South Australia, where however he is still animated by the
most intense zeal for science.

[8] The expedition discovered on the 21st April, 1858, in 24° 35' S. and
146° 6' W., an ash tree, two feet in diameter, on whose huge trunk the
letter L had been deeply cut. Close by there were everywhere traces of a
regular encampment, and an impression pretty universally prevailed that
Leichhardt and his companions had camped here, and had cut this mark to
indicate it. One of the oldest missionaries of Western Australia, the
venerable Mr. C. Threlkeld, objected, however, to this view that the
letter L, of which so much was spoken, had in all probability been made by
one of the youthful natives, who when learning to read and write are in
the habit of cutting the letters on the trees. We present here the precise
passage of the text of a letter of Dr. Threlkeld's to us:--"I send you a
spelling-book, that Billy Blue, one of the black boys, used to have, when
he was learning to read and write. He and others used to go into the bush,
and cut the letters of the alphabet on the barks of the trees, and Brown,
an aboriginal lad, who _went with the unfortunate Leichhardt_, used to do
the same. _I suspect that he cut the celebrated L on the tree about which
there is so much talk at the present time._"

[9] One of the most appalling of these was that undertaken in April, 1848,
by surveyor E. B. Kennedy, along the strip of land between Cape York and
Rockingham Bay in Northern Australia, whose melancholy fate is described
by one of the survivors, Mr. Carron, a botanist, in a not less simple than
affecting manner. "When we first started everything went on well, and the
most brilliant anticipations were indulged, although there were numerous
obstacles to be overcome, and the few natives we encountered were
invariably hostile. Gradually, however, provisions began to fail; sickness
and loss of strength succeeded, while the prospect of reaching our goal
grew less and less. The further north we got, as the hot season was now
setting in, the more frequently did we find the forest rivulets dried up,
so that we had for days to bear up against an almost maddening thirst. The
horses which accompanied the expedition gradually sank from exhaustion."
Almost every day Carron's journal mentions one or the other horse giving
in of fatigue, when they were compelled for want of further provision to
eat its flesh during the next two days. That of the last was conveyed
along by the travellers in sacks, made from the skin of the animal itself.
Whenever they encountered natives, these proved hostile, and assailed the
little caravan with spears. Some of them indeed were more friendly, and
traded with the travellers, but less out of sincere hospitality than with
the hope of taking them in, and getting them unawares into their power.
Thus, on one occasion a number of tall, well-made, powerful men and women
made their appearance, and offered them some fish, which they themselves
refused to eat owing to its putrified state. Hardly had the travellers
approached it, unsuspicious of evil, when a cloud of spears cleft the air
with a whistling noise, and the scene, hitherto so friendly and peaceable,
became at once a scene of blood and confusion. However, the spear-men
seemed to have no great dexterity; they usually missed their mark, whereas
the flints and double-barrels of the whites did deadly execution. One
however proved more fatal than the rest, and killed Mr. Kennedy, the chief
of the party. They were now only a few days distant from Cape York, the
goal of their labours, whence a Government ship was to convey the leader
and his party back to Sydney. But the survivors were also all but
exhausted with the terrible fatigues of their journey. Only three out of
the fourteen survived, and these were reduced almost to skeletons.
Carron's elbow-bone of the right arm, and also the bone of the right hip,
were through the skin! (Narrative of an Expedition undertaken under the
direction of the late Mr. Assistant Surveyor, E. B. Kennedy, for the
Exploration of the Country lying between Rockingham Bay and Cape York; by
W. Carron, one of the survivors of the Expedition. Sydney, 1849.)

Still more lamentable was the fate of the last and most important of these
expeditions, which in 1861 succeeded in crossing the Australian continent
from the north frontier of South Australia to Carpentaria, and back to
Cooper's Creek, in which, unfortunately, the travellers missed the dépôt
troop that had been sent to their assistance, and the entire party,
including Messrs. Burke, Wills, and Gray, lost their lives, only one of
their number, King, escaping to tell their sad fate. (Vide Appendix.)

[10] Government has bethought itself of a plan for facilitating
discoveries in the interior, and rendering them more profitable by
importing from Egypt into Australia camels and dromedaries, chiefly of the
breed known as El Hura, as these animals can easily get over 60 to 80
miles per diem, and can moreover dispense with water for weeks together.

[11] During a visit which our naturalists paid to Dr. Bennett they were
shown a young pair of the Morok (_Casuarius Bennetti_), discovered not
long since at New Britain, which he intended to present to the Zoological
Society of London for exhibition at the Regent's Park. What is very
remarkable in this singular bird is the shape of the bill, which is curved
in the male, but almost straight in the female.

[12] This distinguished gentleman, conspicuous alike as a theologian and a
politician, who plays a by no means insignificant part in the legislative
assemblies of the colonies, presented an address to the Parliament of
Frankfort in 1848, in which he set forth the advantage of founding a
German colony in the Pacific. Owing to the ignorance prevalent on the
subject this _brochure_ passed unnoticed, and New Caledonia, the island
which the worthy Doctor had designed for a German colony, was taken
possession of by the French. He has since published a most interesting and
valuable work on Queensland, in which he gives some very curious details
about the native practice of skinning their dead, when the true skin being
of a white colour, the corpse has a most ghastly appearance. He says this
is the reason some of the tribes so highly reverence the _white_ man, whom
they regard as their own ancestors restored to life, but in an improved
nature!!

[13] The depopulation of the natives is advancing so rapidly that one of
our Sydney friends writes, "An expedition similar to your own, which shall
visit us some years hence, will find little more than a scant remnant of
the aborigines. That of the _Novara_ is probably the last of a scientific
nature, which will have been successful in seeing living specimens of the
once numerous blacks of Australia."

[14] _Wullurah_ in the native language signifies "the place of
deliberation," because in former times this place had, on account of its
commanding position, been selected by the aborigines for assembling the
various tribes by means of watch-fires, or blasts of a horn, to decide
upon peace or war.

[15] On the Clarence river there has been for several years past, in full
activity, a stearine candle-factory, which pays well, owing to the demand
at the "diggings" for these candles. In 1856 the value of those
manufactured was £600,000.

[16] According to English writers this instrument, the peculiar properties
of which are so well known that we need not enlarge upon them here, has
also been found in the Sarcophagi of Upper Egypt. In some of the frescos
now in the British Museum, which illustrate the manners and habits of the
Ancient Egyptians, a figure is represented in the act of launching the
Boomerang against a covey of ducks, which are flying out of a thicket.

[17] In Prussia, the annual consumption of spirits would fill a basin one
mile long, 33 feet wide, and 10 feet deep. In England, the annual quantity
of _wine_ drunk per head is 0.267 gallon; in France it is 19 gallons! The
British nation pays annually £70-74,000,000 taxes, and £74,000,000 for
spirits!!

[18] The rise and fall of the tide at Port Jackson is very small, not
above four or five feet.

[19] Viz. 1400 men, and 200 women.

[20] This is the nickname given to the violent S. or S.W. wind,
fortunately of short duration, which so frequently springs up towards
evening from the "Brickfields," because it brings with it such volumes of
sand and dust from the eminence known as the Brickfield lying S. and S.W.
from Sydney, enveloping the entire city in murky clouds of dust. The
"Brickfielder" is a pretty safe guide as to the weather, as soon as it
blows the whole sky becomes suddenly covered with clouds, and cool rainy
weather follows upon the previous heat.

[21] The imports of wool from Germany had, in 1836, risen to 31,766,194
lbs., but it has since then rapidly receded, owing mainly to the increased
production in the English colonies.

[22] We present an official account of the live stock in the settlement at
Port Jackson, May 1st, 1788, which forms an interesting contrast with the
development of its resources since that period:

                     | S | M | C | B | C |
                     | t | a | o | u | o |
                     | a | r | l | l | w |
                     | l | e | t | l | s |
                     | l | s | s | s | . |
                     | i | . | . | . |   |
                     | o |   |   |   |   |
                     | n |   |   |   |   |
  TO WHOM BELONGING. | s |   |   |   |   |
                     | . |   |   |   |   |
  -------------------|---|---|---|---|---|
  Government         | 1 | 2 | - | 2 | 2 |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
  Governor           | - | 1 | 3 | - | 2 |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
  Lieut.-Governor    | - | - | - | - | - |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
  Officers & men   } | - | - | - | - | 1 |
  of the detachment} |   |   |   |   |   |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
  Staff              | - | - | - | - | - |
                     |   |   |   |   |   |
  Other individuals  | - | - | - | - | - |
  -------------------|---|---|---|---|---|
       Totals        | 1 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 5 |

                    |  Sheep.   | G | H | P | R | T | G | D | F | C |
                    |           | o | o | i | a | u | e | u | o | h |
                    |           | a | g | g | b | r | e | c | w | i |
                    |           | t | s | s | b | k | s | k | l | c |
                    |           | s | . | . | i | e | e | s | s | k |
                    |           | . |   |   | t | y | . | . | . | e |
                    |           |   |   |   | s | s |   |   |   | n |
                    |           |   |   |   | . | . |   |   |   | s |
  TO WHOM BELONGING.|           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | . |
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  ------------------+-----------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
  Government        |{Ram     1 |  1| 20| - | - | - | - | - | - | - |
                    |{Ewes   12 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
                    |{Wethers 3 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Governor          |{Ewe     1 | - | 10| - |  3|  5|  8| 17| 22| - |
                    |{Lamb    1 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Lieut.-Governor   |   -       |  1|  1|  7| - |  5|  6|  4|  9| - |
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Officers & men   }|   -       | 12| 10| 17|  2|  6|  9|  8| 55| 25|
  of the detachment}|           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Staff             |   -    11 |  5|  7|  1| - |  2|  6|  6| 36| 62|
                    |           |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  Other individuals |   -       | - |  1| - | - | - | - | - | - | - |
  ------------------+-----------|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
       Totals       |        29 | 19| 49| 25|  5| 18| 29| 35|122| 87|

At present there are in this colony, 180,000 horses, 2,148,660 cattle, and
109,160 pigs.

[23] The sheep-breeders of the colony competed for the honour of
purchasing these valuable animals.

[24] The distance of the various gold-fields from Sydney and the various
harbours of the colony is as follows. _Western Gold-fields_,--Bathurst 110
miles, Sofala 140, Orange 141, Ophir 146, Mudgee 155, Tambaroora 157,
Meroo 160, Louisa Creek 176, Tuena 190. _Southern_,--Goulburn 125,
Queanbeyan 182, Braidwood 184, Bill's Creek 190, Araleun 200, Sundagai
244, Cooma 254, Tumut 264, Adelong 273, Albury 286, Obin's River 410,
Kiandra or Guoroy River, over Twofold Bay and Bambula, 240 miles.
_Northern_,--Hangus Rock 304, Bingera Creek 365, Rocky River 357, Tamworth
280, Timbarra 67 miles from Clarence River, _viâ_ Grafton, overland. The
other gold-fields of the Clarence River District, such as Lubra, Toolam,
Emu Creek, Pretty Gully, Sandy Creek, Table Land, Nelson's Creek, &c., are
80 to 100 miles from the river.

[25] The colony of New South Wales consisted at that period of the entire
land comprised between Cape York in 11° 37' S. to South Cape, 43° 30' S.,
and as far as 135° E. in the interior to the westward, including all
islands adjoining, comprised within those degrees of latitude.

[26] Die Deportation als Strafmittel in alter und neuer Zeit, und die
Verbrecher-Colonien der Engländer und Franzosen in ihrer geschichtlichen
Entwickelung und criminal-politischen Bedeutung. Dargestellt von Franz v.
Holtzendorf, &c. Leipzig, A. Barth. 1859.

[27] The cost of transport of each convict was to be reckoned at £18.

[28] This Archipelago, remarkable by the size and loftiness of its
islands, extends from Batoa or South Island in the S.E. (19° 47' S. by
179° 52' E.), to Thicombea to the N. (15° 47' S.), and Biva to the W.
(176° 50' E.), and contains 225 islands and islets, of which about 80 are
inhabited. The entire superficial area is about 5700 square miles, and
upon a superficial estimate it contains 150,000 souls. The climate seems
to be eminently suitable for cotton culture, besides which sugar-cane,
coffee, tobacco, arrow-root, and most probably rice and indigo, may be
advantageously cultivated. Berchthold Seemann, the well-known botanist,
who made a scientific exploration of some of the Feejee Islands at the
expense of the English Government in the Autumn of 1860, discovered in the
valleys of Naona forests of the sago palm, whose nutritious flour might
become an important article of export. Dr. Petermann published in the
latter half of 1861, at page 67 of his valuable "particulars of certain
important recent discoveries in geography," an interesting synopsis of all
the latest scientific information respecting the Feejee Archipelago.


                          [Illustration: Maori]



                                  XIX.

                                Auckland.

         Stay from 22nd December, 1858, to 8th January, 1859.

    Request preferred by the Colonial Government to have the
    coal-fields of the Drury District thoroughly examined by the
    geologists of the _Novara_.--Geographical remarks concerning New
    Zealand.--Auckland.--The Aborigines or Maori.--A Mass meeting.--
    Maori legends.--Manners and customs of the Aborigines.--The
    Meri-Meri.--Most important of the vegetable esculents of the
    Aborigines before the arrival of the Europeans.--Dr. Thomson's
    anthropological investigations.--Maori proverbs and poetry.--The
    present war and its origin.--The Maori king.--Decay of the
    native population and its supposed causes.--Advantages held out
    by New Zealand to European emigration.--Excursion to the
    Waiatarna valley.--Maori village of Oraki.--Kauri forests in the
    Manukau range.--Mr. Smith's farm in Titarangi.--St. John's
    College.--Intellectual activity in Auckland.--New Zealand silk.--
    Excursion to the coal-fields of the Drury and Hunua Districts.--
    New Year's Eve at the Antipodes.--Dr. Hochstetter remains in New
    Zealand.--The Catholic mission in Auckland.--Two Maories take
    service as seamen on board the _Novara_.--Departure.--The
    results of the explorations of the geologist during his stay at
    the island.--Crossing the meridian of 180° from West to East.--
    The same day reckoned twice.--The sight of the islands of Tahiti
    and Eimeo.--Arrival in the harbour of Papeete.


Great was the interest excited at the Antipodes by the arrival of the
_Novara_, for besides the importance for European emigration of a country
possessing a healthy climate, a fertile soil, and but thinly peopled, it
was most gratifying to the members of the first Austrian Expedition to see
much hitherto unsuspected natural wealth made known to the inhabitants by
one of their scientific staff, and thus to prove of use to a nation which
in almost every part of the globe has so incontestably borne away the palm
in advancing the interests of science and the development of the treasures
of the earth.

Immediately after our arrival in Auckland, the Governor of the colony,
Colonel Gore Browne, renewed the request, previously made in his name to
our Commodore while at Sydney by Sir William Denison, that he would permit
our geologist to make a proper scientific examination of a portion of the
Drury District, in which there were certain indications supposing to point
to the existence of coal-fields. Upon his report would depend the
exploration and the establishing of a regular system of working the mines.
The little Expedition to the coal-fields, which was most munificently
equipped by the Government, proved successful beyond all expectation, so
much so as to induce the Governor to beg of our Commodore the further
favour of permitting our geologist to make a still longer stay on the
island, for the purpose of more accurately and completely surveying the
dependency. The negotiations upon this subject, fraught with such happy
results for both parties, will be found in the Appendix, while at the end
of this chapter we shall give a succinct sketch of what was accomplished
in the interests of science by the activity of Dr. Hochstetter, our
geologist, during his stay in New Zealand, the more copious details of his
eight months' stay at the Antipodes being reserved for a special volume.

New Zealand consists of two large islands separated from each other by
Cook's Straits, a splendid channel, 150 miles long by 50 in width, and the
two smaller islands, called Stewart's and Chatham Islands, about 50 by 20,
separated by Foveau Straits, the latter lying in the ocean about 400 miles
south-west of the province of Canterbury.

The entire group extends from 34° to 48° S., and 166° to 179° E. The
greatest extent of land, from N.E. to S.W., i. e. from Cape Maria Van
Diemen to South Cape, is over 1000 miles. The greatest breadth, along the
parallel of 38° S. is about 200 miles, while the coast-line is several
thousand miles in extent. By the constitution of 1853, New Zealand is
divided into six chief provinces:--Auckland, New Plymouth (Taranaki), and
Wellington in the north island, and Nelson, Canterbury, and Otago, in the
central islands, since which period two new provinces have been
added,--Hawk Bay in the north island, and Marlborough in the middle
island.

None of the remaining seven, however, is so important or possesses such
geographical advantages as Auckland. Its coast-line is upwards of 900
nautical miles, while its more important rivers, such as the Waikato,
Waipa, Waihó (called also the Thames), Piako, and Wairao, are navigable
for small boats far into the interior. Of its 28 harbours, four, viz. Bay
of Islands, Auckland, Wangaroa, and Middle Harbour, are accessible
throughout the year for large ships, besides offering secure anchorage;
but of the remainder only eight will admit vessels of 400 tons, while the
balance can only be used by small brigs and schooners.

Auckland, the capital, lies on an isthmus about six miles in width,
dividing Waitemata Harbour from that of Manukau, the first being beyond
all question the best harbour on the east side, the former on the west.
These two harbours furnish moreover, by the numerous streams and creeks
that disembogue into them, most excellent means of communication with the
interior. The products of the country through a region of 100 miles are
conveyed to Waitemata by the Waihó and Piako rivers, while on the other
hand the Waikato and Waipa rivers bring to the harbour of Manukau the
natural products from 120 miles inland. At a comparatively small cost a
cut might be carried through the isthmus, at a point where it is only a
mile and a half wide, and direct water communication be thus effected
between the two harbours, to the manifest advantage of the country and
capital. At present the mail steamer, which comes from Sydney once a month
with the European letters, berths in Manukau Harbour, near Onehunga, on
account of the greater convenience of that harbour, and its being at a
much less distance, whence the mails are transported in coaches across
the isthmus to Auckland. Onehunga is a flourishing settlement, with
interesting volcanic formations. The road thither lies through a fertile
rolling country, which is, for the most part, reclaimed and under
cultivation, or else depastured by large herds of handsome, powerful oxen.
The three land-marks of the landscape are:--Three King's Hill, Mount Eden,
and One Tree Hill. All these, of moderate elevation, were formerly crowned
with _páhs_ or native fortified villages, and were once inhabited by a
large population, as is evidenced to this day by the quantities of human
bones found in the lava below, and by several singular terrace-like
artificial earth-works. The cottages of the settlers are handsome and
clean, but of singularly small dimensions, very much the result we suppose
of the dearness of building material and the high price of labour near
Auckland.

According to the census of 1857 the entire population of New Zealand
amounted to 108,204,[29] the white European population numbering 52,155,
of whom 16,315 persons inhabited Auckland (9038 men, and 7277 women).

The aborigines (Maori in the native tongue) are officially returned at
56,049, of whom by far the larger number, above 38,000, inhabit the
province of Auckland. Of all the savage races with whom England has come
in contact in the course of her mighty struggles to open trade and raise
humanity, the New Zealanders have hitherto proved themselves to be the
most susceptible of European civilization. More than five-sixths of their
number are already Christians, and have been baptized, and, settled down
in comfortable residences, maintain themselves by agriculture or
sailoring. More than one hundred vessels built in the colony are owned by
natives, who not alone have in their hands a considerable portion of the
coasting trade, but carry on business with the adjoining islands, as also
with New South Wales. While Bushmen, Hottentots, Caffres, Australian
negroes, all, like the Indian tribes of Canada and the United States,
present the helpless type of misery and decay, all the indications here
seem to promise that the splendid spectacle will be presented of one of
the most savage, yet highly gifted, races of the globe being raised in the
scale of humanity by education and culture, and brought permanently within
the scale of civilization. Whoever has followed with critical eye the
immense increase of this colony during the last twenty years, must indulge
this cheering anticipation not less confidently than the traveller who has
traversed the entire island totally unmolested, has been cordially
welcomed in every hut, has encountered everywhere schools and Christian
missions, and has seen the natives occupied solely with the avocations of
peace. Those native chiefs, who from contact with civilization had already
adopted the outward deportment and mode of life of the European settlers,
omitted no opportunity of confessing in language of fire the
consciousness of their former moral degradation, and of holding the
European up for admiration, as the founder of a new era of morality and
humanity in their country; nay, one Maori, who is now a zealous missionary
in the interior of the island, once avowed to his hearers that he had
himself as a boy eaten human flesh, and had first learned through the
influence of Christianity to comprehend the abominations and wild-beast
ferocity of his previous state, after which he had begun to lead a life
more worthy of the dignity of manhood.

The members of our Expedition also enjoyed the opportunity of attending a
Mass-meeting of Maories in the Takapuna district on the north shore of
Waitemata Harbour, where they gathered, from the orations of the most
influential chiefs and speakers, the liveliest conviction of their
fidelity and attachment to the Queen of England and her government. We
insert here a pretty full description of this remarkable meeting, as well
as a brief sketch of the most interesting manners and customs of the
aborigines of New Zealand, in order to enlighten the reader as to the
justice of the universally expressed distrust of the capacity of the Maori
for civilization, and the more readily to form an idea of the alarm and
astonishment of the English Government, on being suddenly informed that
the entire native population had rose in arms against the European
settlers.

A wealthy and much-respected chief, named Patuóni, has been in the habit
for many years past of inviting all the friendly tribes residing in his
neighbourhood, as well as the most distinguished of the white settlers,
to a great popular fête every Christmas. The intelligence that on the
present occasion the "Kavana" (Governor), or Commander of one of Queen
Victoria's allies, would attend with a numerous suite, had caused much
agreeable excitement among the Maori, and they offered to send some
war-canoes and two whale-boats to the coast opposite in order to convey
the guests. The staff of the Expedition were however already at the place
of meeting in the Takapuna district, when the war-canoes arrived at the
usual place of embarkation in Auckland. Here we saw a number of large
tents pitched on an eminence, and gaily adorned with English and other
flags, under which were very long narrow tables, about two feet high,
covered with neat little baskets elegantly woven of the leaves of the New
Zealand flax, in which were cooked potatoes, roast-pork, and fish. The
guests, 300 or 400 in number, sat on the ground, which was thickly covered
with fern freshly gathered, some sitting cross-legged, others squatting on
their heels, zealously excavating the food with their fingers, for the use
of forks has not yet become a fashion among the Maori. The chief beverage
was tea, and all around on the grass adjoining the tent might be seen
improvised fire-places, on every one of which a huge kettle of boiling
water was singing. The gait and extravagance however of but too many
indicated that less harmless drinks were being supplied close by. Each as
soon as he had finished his repast lighted his pipe, and mingled with the
groups that were chatting about. Tobacco smoking has become a positive
passion with both sexes, and even among the children of the poorer classes
it is no unusual thing to see the infant carried in the arms coolly take
the pipe out of its mother's mouth and begin to smoke it! The earthen
pipe, broken off so short that there is barely sufficient to enable the
teeth to take hold,--in one word, summing up everything to English
ears--the "cuttie"--is most in favour.

Scarcely was it rumoured that the Commander of the Austrian frigate with
his staff were at hand, ere the whole crowd, which up to that moment had
been abandoning itself to enjoyment, suddenly dispersed _pêle-mêle_ in
wildest confusion. The gay flags were removed from the tent-peaks, and
made to veil the scene of uproar; a quick but monotonous song, alternating
with measured stamping with the feet, was droned out, the chiefs
brandishing aloft and swinging with wild gesticulations their costly clubs
(_meri-meri_, literally "Fire of the Gods"), made of primitive rock. Each
Maori who had a club beside him swung it with wild gesticulation, while
the rest tossed in the air the ends of their woollen garments. In order to
give us a more complete idea of their ancient customs, a war-dance
succeeded to this, in which men, women, and children took a part. Although
this is nothing but a confused advance and retreat of two bodies of people
arranged opposite each other in regular order, who suddenly rush towards
each other with impetuous vehemence and loud discordant cries, yet the
wild shrieks, the rapid motions of those who took part in it, the rolling
of the eyes, the protrusion of the tongues, combined to make a formidable
impression, and to give some idea of the frightful appearance of these
warriors, when, instead of simulated rage, they were animated by the
ferocity of real warfare with the foe! As soon as symptoms of lassitude
and fatigue began to be visible among the war-dancers they arranged
themselves, at the command of the old chief, Patuóni, on both sides, three
ranks deep, and permitted the strangers to pass from end to end of the
camp. Here we were once more welcomed in genuine New Zealand fashion by
the various chiefs, some of whom endeavoured to strike up a conversation.
Mr. W. Baker, Government interpreter, and Secretary to the Native
Department, who had been desired by Government to attend the _Novara_
staff to the feast, was so kind as to translate.

The first to emerge from the ranks was Paora Tuhaera of Oraki, who spoke
as follows: "Welcome, O chief from a foreign shore, messenger of a king
and a nation of which we only lately have heard tell! Our English friends
explained to us that your countrymen have long been friends and allies of
the British people, whose Queen is our protectress, and under whose laws
we live in undisturbed tranquillity on our own lands. You are a stranger
among us! You for the first time behold a race whose fathers passed their
lives in ignorance, in war, in the practice of every evil custom. You have
been present at this place and witnessed how we sought once to give vent
to our passions and to scare our enemies. This spectacle you saw in
peace, and no man ventured or even thought of lifting the hand against
you! Yet had you come among us at the period of which I spoke, our arm
would have been raised to inflict the deadly blow upon you, or your hand,
which I have just pressed, would have been striking at me to compass my
destruction! You have seen many lands, many perhaps fairer than this
island of ours; but here there is nothing to injure us or to make us wish
to live in other countries. The laws of England shield us from the hand of
the aggressor, we live happy and at peace, and rejoice to welcome those
who, like you, come to us on a mission of good will!"

This speech and the two following, the Commodore responded to in English,
in terms of warm cordial thanks, and enlarged on the material and
intellectual progress of the aborigines, all which was duly translated by
Mr. Baker to the Maories.

After this Cruera Patuóni of Awataha, an elder brother of
Tamati-Waka-Néni, advanced and said: "Welcome! welcome! The young men have
welcomed you, and I, an old man, a friend of the Europeans from the
earliest days in which they planted foot in New Zealand, I also bid you
welcome! What can I say more? You have heard what we were,--you see now
what we are! It needs not that I should add to what has been said by those
who spoke before me. Welcome then to the land of the Maories, friends of
the white man."

After several more of the younger chiefs had greeted the Commodore and
staff in the most hearty manner, Hui Haupapa, of colossal stature and
frank expression of countenance, made with his powerful arm a passage for
himself through the compact crowd, placed himself in a somewhat theatrical
position, and began in a loud voice, and in evident excitement,
brandishing his meri-meri as he spoke:--

"The chiefs of this neighbourhood have welcomed thee. My tribe lives far
from here, but _I_ am here, and I bid thee welcome! Thou hast said we are
happy and live at peace. It is true the laws of our Queen have contributed
to this fortunate state of things. Formerly, war, murder, and spilling of
blood formed our chief occupation. Even now troubles arise, which it is
often difficult to smooth over. Just as thou wert landing we were engaged
reading a letter informing us that a dispute of long standing between the
Ngatiwhatua and the Uriohare threatened to give rise to a war. Were we
still in our old Maori state we should assuredly have had recourse to arms
for its settlement, but the two tribes will remember that the laws do not
permit one family of our Queen's children to make war against another, and
they will therefore restrain their anger in the hope that their
differences may be amicably arranged. But what interest have these things
for you? You came to us in peace and friendliness, take with you the love
of the entire assembly, which is proud of having been visited by an
officer of the great king, who is a friend of Queen Victoria and her
children."

The natives, who were standing closely packed on either side, and listened
in breathless silence, expressed their acquiescence by head and hand at
the end of each oration. The manner in which they are accustomed to
express themselves at these assemblies is quite unique. The speaker plants
himself at a distance of about ten steps from his audience, whom he
gradually approaches in his speech till within three feet, when he turns
round in silence, resumes his former distance, and begins anew. This
custom has several advantages; it gives the orator time to collect his
thoughts, while his eloquence has time to sink into the heart of his
hearers. Each speaker advances his opinions and sentiments with singular
calmness and dignity. Only at certain "points," which seem to him to be of
importance, does the orator throw up his right hand, while on his left
arm, hanging by his side, lies his stone club, without which no chief
would think of addressing a meeting.

During these speeches we had drawn near the groups surrounding us. The
majority were dressed in European clothes, the chiefs usually wearing a
black cap with gold band, the rest in the most various costumes,
apparently as accident or caprice had dictated their choice. The old men
were tattooed more or less, according to their rank, strongly contrasting
with their European habiliments. The elder women, except that they were
bare-footed, were mostly clad in European dress, some even in elegant
silks and muslins, and had their lips and chins tattooed, whereas the
young folk of both sexes no longer followed that custom, and hence we
frequently had occasion to remark exceedingly agreeable features. Only a
very small number of aborigines seemed to be contented with their own
national dress, and wore either the universal blanket, or else the Cacahu,
a handsome kind of cloak, very artistically made by the Maori women from
the fibres of the New Zealand flax. All had the flaps of their ears
pierced, and a piece of oval-shaped rock passed through the orifice, or
were adorned with shark's teeth, which are usually made fast to a narrow
black silk ribbon. As we inspected some of these groups, and especially
were admiring their splendid figures, we came upon two individuals who had
hid their heads under their blankets, and were weeping bitterly. To our
inquiry as to the cause of their uncontrollable grief amid such a festive
gathering, we were told that they were two relatives who had long been
separated, and were thus celebrating their meeting again. Friends and
relations usually express their joy at seeing each other again by sitting
for hours together, according to their friendship or esteem, rubbing noses
and sobbing bitterly, and weeping over each other the while! If unobserved
this will go on with uncovered head; otherwise they will draw a blanket
over themselves. Kissing and hand-shaking have only become a fashion among
the New Zealanders since their more intimate intercourse with Europeans.

As we withdrew from this singular never-to-be-forgotten people's festival,
and were on our way to our boats, the entire merry multitude assembled on
the slope in front of the tents, and to show, it may be supposed, that
they were not unacquainted with the usages of other countries, gave, with
genuine English good-will, three rousing hurrahs in honour of the
departing guests!

The study of the language and history of the traditions, habits, and
morals of the aborigines of New Zealand, must necessarily be of special
interest on account of our presumed acquaintance with the race they are
descended from, and the important conclusions thence deducible as to the
settlement of Polynesia at large.

A Maori legend relates that their first progenitors came in seven canoes
from the island of Hawaiki (i. e. cradle of the race), one of the Sandwich
Islands, 4000 miles to the N.E. of New Zealand.[30] These canoes had
outriggers to prevent foundering, and were called Amatiatia, whereas those
they now use, which are also of very simple construction, are named Wakka,
and have evidently borrowed their form from the dried seed of the New
Zealand honey-suckle (_Rewarewa_). The first canoe that came from Hawaiki
was named Arawa. It brought over Honmaitawiti, Tamakekapua, Toi, Maka,
Hei, Jhenga, Tauninihi, Rongokako, and others, and these were the first
settlers from whom the New Zealanders are descended.

One of the earlier authors respecting these isles of the Antipodes,
Richard Taylor, the missionary, relates that in 1840 there was living in
the village of Para-para, on the road from Kaitaia to Doubtless Bay, an
aged New Zealand chief named Hahakai, who was thoroughly conversant with
the history of his native land, and used to enumerate twenty-six
generations since the first arrival on the island of the ancestors of his
tribe. Taylor is of opinion, however, that a number of these generations
must be considered as divinities, and that hardly more than fifteen
generations or five hundred years can have elapsed since the first
vagrants from the north settled in New Zealand.[31] At that period they
knew neither the custom of Taboo (the sanctity and inviolability of all
things) nor cannibalism, both of which customs they first began to
practise in their adopted country. As the aborigines before the arrival of
the Europeans possessed no written language, these traditions were usually
handed down from father to son, while one or more relatives of the more
influential families of each tribe were duly set apart to study their
traditions, as well as their laws (_tikanga_) and religious ceremonies.
The persons thus educated supplied for them the place of annals, books of
laws, or written precedents.

Both Taylor and Dieffenbach incline to the opinion of older authors
respecting these twin islands, namely, that at the period when these
immigrants from the north arrived there, they were inhabited by another
dark race of a different descent. Against this hypothesis, however, there
is to be urged that not the slightest vestige of any such race can be
produced, in addition to which there is but one language spoken throughout
the extent of the islands, with dialects few in number and hardly
differing from each other. In none of the many Maori legends is any
mention made, either express or implied, of any such circumstance, which
one would think would hardly have been passed over in silence, had the
islands at the first landing of the emigrants from Hawaiki been inhabited
by another race. The great disparity in physical frame between
individuals, recalling now the Malay, now the Chinese type, and even the
African and Jewish as well, is much more probably explained by the
intermixture of the New Zealanders with the inhabitants of the various
island groups, which they visited at the period of their migration.

The Maories are on the whole a handsome race of men, well-built and
powerful, generally not less in stature than the Europeans, whom they
resemble somewhat in their complexion, which gives the idea rather of
being embrowned than naturally brown, by their thin, weak hair, sometimes
black, sometimes of a chesnut brown, and whom they closely approach in
their features. Indeed full-blood Maories sometimes have such a European
aspect, that even the numberless tattoo marks upon their faces do not
destroy the impression, but have rather the appearance of those "painted
faces" we are accustomed to see in actors, when they wish to give their
countenances a more effective cast upon the boards.

The custom of tattooing, or "Moko," is one of those most characteristic of
this remarkable people, and is worth being described in detail, inasmuch
as it has been almost entirely discontinued since the diffusion of
Christianity, for, according to the sentiments of the missionaries, every
native, henceforth, who submits to this operation is held to have
renounced Christianity, and to have openly dubbed himself a heathen. It
has been suggested as the most probable explanation of the rapid spread of
this painful practice, that the "Moko" imparts to the countenance a
sterner expression in presence of the enemy, and that the Maori women
attach more importance to the caresses of a tattooed man than of one whose
visage is unmarked. Possibly tattooing was a symbol of puberty in both
sexes, and a token of their being of marriageable age.

At first they contented themselves with marking the face with certain
straight lines, called by the natives Moko-Kuri, which was the stage it
had attained when Cook visited these islands. The present complicated
system of tattooing was first introduced by one of the tribes of the east
coast by a certain Mataora, and the first man whose face was thus tattooed
was named Onetunga.

Usually this painful operation is performed by a priest (_Tohunga_), who
paints, or rather sketches out, one of the many different models with
black colouring matter upon the face of the person to be tattooed, having
first obtained his opinion, by showing him his visage reflected in a
tub-full of water for lack of a mirror. As soon as the latter has
signified his assent to the design selected, the further process is begun.

The instruments used were the following:--

The "Uhi," a small piece of wood, one extremity of which is armed with a
small piece of sharp-edged bone, set in a vertical direction. This
needle-like tool, which was formerly made either of human bones or of
those of the albatross, has been since supplanted by proper steel
instruments.

The "Ta" or "Tuki," a stalk of fern, which is pressed upon the Uhi in
order that it might enter the skin, and bring out the desired pattern.

The necessary colouring stuff (_Ngarahu_) is made from the soot of the
wood, when burnt, of the Kauri fir (_Dammara Australis_), which is
collected in the leaves of the Ti-reed (_Cordyline Australis_), and is
prepared with an infusion of the bark of the Hináu (_Elæocarpus Hinau_),
in the form of small cones.

Immediately before the tattooing begins, the colouring matter thus
prepared is moistened with the juice of the fruit of Tupa-kihi (_Coriaria
Sarmentosa_). The complete "Moko" comprises the face, the hips, and the
upper surface of the thigh as far as the knee. Every separate tattooing
has its appropriate name and its special position. Dieffenbach counts 17,
and Richmond Taylor 19 of these, distinguishable by their several
markings.

The operation is of so severe a nature, that very frequently it cannot be
completed without endangering the life of the individual. Only one
instance is on record, in which a native sat out the whole formidable
process at one sitting, and he died just as the last line was finished.
Usually the first tattooing took place at the 18th year, and was continued
at various intervals. During the process, the patient lies on the ground
with his head reposing on the bosom of the _Tohunga_, who holds the "Uhi"
in his left hand, and the "Ta" or "Tuki" in his right, which he strikes
upon the former with a rapid constant motion. As soon as an incision is
made, the blood is wiped off with a piece of fine flax, and the colouring
matter rubbed in. While this is going on the priests and the friends
standing by keep up a continual chant, in order to cheer the patient and
stimulate his courage.

After the operation the face swells, and for some time presents a
downright hideous appearance, and instances have occurred in which it has
been permanently distorted. Usually, however, the wounds heal after ten or
twelve days, when the incised lines made by the "Uhi" present a
bluish-black appearance.

With the women the operation is much more simple, being confined to one
or two vertical or horizontal lines upon the lip and chin. This tattooing
occasionally, however, takes place twice, in order to bring out a black
colour, as the New Zealanders consider a black lip as the very ideal of
beauty. It also figures as such in the songs chanted by the Tohunga on
such occasions, of which the following stanzas may be presented as a
specimen:--

    Be ready, my daughter, to have thyself marked,
    To tattoo thy chin!
    That, when thou crossest the threshold of a strange house,
    They may not say, "Whence cometh this ugly woman?"

    Be ready, my daughter, to have thyself marked,
    To tattoo thy chin!
    That thou mayst have a comely aspect,
    That when thou art bidden to a feast,
    They may not ask, "Whence cometh this _red-lipped_ woman?"

    To make thyself beautiful
    Come and be tattooed!
    That when thou dost enter the circle of dancers,
    They may not ask, "Whence cometh this woman with the ugly lips?"

The Tohunga is usually well remunerated, and frequently in the course of
his chant makes allusion to the amount of reward he expects, and indeed
sometimes stimulates the generosity of his patient by singing amongst
other ditties, something like

    "The man who is paid well
    Tattoos beautifully!
    The man who receives nothing
    Does not tattoo well!"

The marks, when completely brought out, are so manifold and various that
hardly any two New Zealanders are to be found who are tattooed entirely
alike. Accordingly these markings serve neither to indicate variety of
tribe, nor difference of rank. A slave, if he possess the means, may have
his face tattooed with the same ornaments as his master. However it
appears, as we were informed by Colonel Browne, that on the occasion of
the chiefs ratifying the treaty with the English, they superscribed the
various documents with the lines upon their faces, like so much heraldic
blazonry, instead of writing their names.

Another remarkable custom of the Maori consists in the right of the priest
to declare certain persons and things _taboo_, that is, consecrated and
inviolable. This custom, which is nothing else than a religious ordinance
instituted for political purposes, is frequently most beneficial in its
consequences. So great and universal was the respect paid to the law of
_taboo_, that even hostile tribes were in the habit during war of leaving
unharmed all persons and things thus protected. A plot of ground planted
with esculents, a fruit tree, a sick person, a "lady in the straw,"--all
these were so many objects declared holy and inviolate.

Formerly polygamy was tolerably frequent among the Maori, although
instances were by no means rare in which a man had but one wife to whom he
continued faithful. At present this custom, incompatible with the
Christian notion of the family tie, is confined to those few chiefs who
are still heathens.

Usually the young men and girls marry very young. English travellers state
they have seen a mother only 11 years of age! Usually the first wife of a
young chief is much older than himself, but, on the other hand, instances
were frequent of old men marrying young girls. The daughters of men of
very high rank frequently remained unmarried.

The mortality among infants under a year old is very great. At present not
more than three children are reckoned to each family, and the number of
barren marriages is much greater than those that prove fruitful.

Infanticide is at present as rare as in Europe. In former times,
especially during the wars of the interior, it was by no means unusual for
a mother to put her children to death, especially if females, in order to
spare herself the trouble of nursing and bringing up. Male offspring, on
the contrary, were taken more care of, because they would increase the
aggressive power of the tribe, and were looked upon as the avengers of
injuries sustained and not yet compensated. Illegitimate children they
almost always put to death, either by strangling them or compressing the
mouth and nostrils. The practice of infanticide among the weaker sex took
its rise chiefly in the life of slavery which was the normal state of the
women during their heathen condition. Such was the reasoning once avowed
by a murderess of her child:--"Why should my child live? to be brought up
as the slave of the wives of my husband, to be beaten and kicked by them!"

There seems to be some mistake in the assertion of several writers upon
the customs prevalent in New Zealand, to the effect that on the death of a
Maori it is customary to sacrifice his nearest relatives. Only when a
great chief dies, are some of his slaves occasionally put to death at the
same time, that their spirits may accompany him who has preceded them to
the shadowy land, to serve him there, and execute his commands as they did
while on earth.

So too it occasionally happened that, on the death of a much-esteemed
chief, a hostile incursion was made by a number of warriors, in order to
provide a victim from another tribe, and thus make it feel the same pang
as that which they were suffering in the loss of their chief. Suicide, on
the death of a near relative, is even at present far from uncommon as a
token of inconsolable grief. A low estimate of the value of life seems to
be a leading feature in the character of the New Zealander; it needs but a
slight cause to make him take his own life or plunge into some abyss.

Slavery, to the extent that existed among the aborigines in former times,
is no longer to be found, though many prisoners taken in war are still
held as slaves by their captors. In many cases the slaves prefer to stay
with their present masters, if they have been well treated, rather than
return among their own race, from whom they feel themselves estranged,
and by whom it is probable they have long been forgotten.

The introduction of Christianity was immediately followed by the
manumission of all slaves throughout the islands. Under the old laws, the
owner of a slave was undisputed master of his person and property, and
might put him to death, or sell him,--in short, do with him as he pleased.
Everything that the slave possessed belonged to his master. Slaves were
usually made in battle, either during the storming of a fortified village,
or _páh_, or during flight before a victorious enemy. Each warrior might
take as many prisoners as he could, who thereupon became his incontestable
property. Chiefs, however, and youths of rank were usually put to death on
the spot.

The offspring of such prisoners of war were also slaves, and equally the
property of their masters. However, it frequently happened that a young
slave married a girl of the tribe of his conqueror, in which case their
offspring were no longer considered as slaves, although they were reputed
of low rank. According to the old Maori laws, there were no slaves other
than those taken in war and their descendants.

Among the free Maori, there are a number of varying grades; but the
principles on which they are bestowed do not seem as yet to have been
accurately ascertained by any European observers. Any individual who is
able to trace his descent from distinguished parentage of either sex, has
the right to assume the title of a chief. As a rule, the elder branch of a
family takes precedence over the younger. The heir-male was always
regarded as the head of the family, and in the olden times was its priest
or _tohunga_.

The wars of the Maori were chiefly carried on with spears and clubs of
various shapes and sizes, but since the arrival of the Europeans the use
of fire-arms has become almost universal. Hángi, one of the most renowned
and formidable chiefs, who visited England in 1826, on his return
exchanged all the splendid presents made him by George IV. for European
fire-arms and ammunition, in order the more readily to subjugate all the
races on the island by means of these new and dangerous weapons, and make
himself omnipotent. Since that period the older warlike implements
(_taiaha_, _paki_, _ehi_) have only been kept as objects of curiosity for
the various chiefs to show.

But the most remarkable weapon of the New Zealanders, which was held by
the chiefs in high honour as an emblem of rank, a sceptre so to speak, and
which descended from generation to generation, is a piece of nephrite
beautifully polished, from 10 to 20 inches long, 4 to 5 inches broad, and
half an inch thick, called by the natives Meri-meri, "the fire of the
gods," which is pierced at one end, and is usually attached to a cord
passed round the hand. In the days of heathenism the Meri-meri was used
occasionally as a weapon of defence, as also to scalp prisoners.

The various weapons of nephrite that we had an opportunity of examining
were of a pale green colour, which became transparent at the sharp edge,
which ran all round, and had a peculiar flame-like glow.

The stone from which these costly weapons are made (the manufacture of
which, in consequence of the dearth of suitable instruments before the
arrival of the Europeans, was often the work of several generations), is
found in loose fragments among the various mountain-streams along the west
coast of the central island. The places where they are found in greatest
abundance are Arahura and Ohonu on the N.W. coast, beyond Wakatipu, an
inland lake, one of the sources of the river Matan, and Piopiotahi, a
mountain-torrent on the S.W. coast. At the last-mentioned place, which,
although we have little reliable information concerning it, has long been
known to seal-hunters, a gigantic block of nephrite, many tons weight, was
found in the middle of the current, which owing to its size was valueless,
because useless to the aborigines. A sealer, who visited this coast once
during a flying visit to Sydney, overheard a remark that this description
of stone was much prized in China, and being aware of the existence of
this colossal block of nephrite at Piopiotahi, he already beheld himself
the possessor of considerable wealth. A company was quickly got up, with a
merchant from Manila at the head, and a number of miners were forthwith
sent to the spot, in order to blast the huge, unshapen rock into fragments
admitting of easy transport. After immense labour and incredible hardships
a few tons of the rock thus blasted were dispatched by the labourers to
Manila for the purpose of being tested and examined. The workmen remained
some months at Piopiotahi, anxiously awaiting intelligence of the results
of their toil. At last, when they had about exhausted their provisions,
and were still without intelligence, they buried the fruits of their
exertions, and dispersed themselves among the small Maori settlements
adjoining Foveau Straits.

The samples of nephrite were duly sent from Manila to China, where they
proved to be of very poor quality, being disfigured by small black specks.
For some years after small quantities of nephrite were annually brought
for sale from the Piopiotahi to Wellington, where they found plenty of
purchasers among the natives of that district at about 1_s._ per lb.

In former days the Maori used to make long and difficult journeys from the
east to the west coast of the island, in search for the much-prized stone.
When found it was usually shaped and polished by rubbing it upon a flat
sandstone block; this operation was so long and arduous that its
completion was often the work of two generations; and this is probably the
main reason why such value is attached to it. The extraordinary hardness
of the stone, which admits of its being ground to a very sharp edge, also
made it an excellent substitute for iron in the manufacture of hatchets
and chisels, the New Zealanders having only become acquainted with that
metal since their intercourse with the Europeans.

The shape which the Maories gave the Meri-meri when completed, resulting
from the absence of implements with which to manipulate this stone, which
is so hard that even iron does not bite it, probably gave rise to the
notion that when found the stone is in a soft state. Sandstone, however,
is found efficacious in the process just as it polishes iron also, and the
holes requisite for suspending it, are made by the very simple process of
drilling with a piece of pointed hard wood, with fine sand and a little
water.

Cannibalism may be said to have entirely ceased in New Zealand. Any
allusion to this revolting practice is very painful to the New Zealander
of the present day, as reminding him of his former low position in the
scale of nations. Every time that we endeavoured to make any inquiry of
the natives respecting this custom, they withdrew with an ashamed look.

In like manner dog's flesh has ceased to be an article of food, ever since
the introduction of pork by Captain Cook. Formerly the native or Maori
dog, which at present is very scarce, was eaten on certain occasions,
while its blood played a somewhat conspicuous part in Maori pharmacy.

The vegetables most extensively used for food before the arrival of the
Europeans were:--

1. Raorao (_Pteris esculenta_), a fern three or four feet high, which
covers vast tracts of land, and the root of which, before the introduction
of the Peruvian potato, formed the chief subsistence of the Maori.

2. Kumara (_Convolvulus Batata_), or sweet potato, the most valuable of
New Zealand products. Various legends of adventure exist among the natives
respecting its first introduction. The harvest-time for this plant is
accompanied by a grand festival, and the fields in which the Kumara is
grown, as well as the labourers engaged in raising it, were declared by
the priests _taboo_, or consecrated. Of the varieties of the Kumara, one,
the size of a yam-root, is named _Kai-pakeha_, or "white man's food," and
is exceedingly palatable. The common potato (_Solanum tuberosum_) was
first brought hither from the Cape of Good Hope, by Captain Cook, who
planted it here.

3. Mamaku (_Cyathea Medullaris_), one of the most elegant tree-ferns in
the country, whose whole stalk, sometimes 20 feet high, is edible, and is
sufficient to maintain a considerable number of persons. The pith of the
Mamaku, when cooked and dried in the sun, is an excellent substitute for
sago.

Fermented liquors, like the Kawa of the South Sea Islanders, or the Chicha
of the Indians of Southern and Central America, seem never to have been
known to the New Zealanders.[32] The only fruits from which liquors are
occasionally prepared are the Tawa (_Laurus Tawa_) and those of the
Trepa-Kihi (_Coriaria Sarmentosa_), the latter of which, however, when the
stamens of many are mingled together, is apt to be followed by symptoms of
poisoning, resulting in violent convulsions and death.

Although their short stay at Auckland, coupled with other indispensable
business, did not admit making an adequate number of measurements of the
physical proportions of both sexes of natives, we nevertheless had an
opportunity of measuring some individuals, whose appearance seemed to
present a very fair average.

Here we ought to remark that many years ago, Dr. A. Thomson, surgeon of
the 58th regiment, impressed apparently with the value of these
experiments as aiding the diagnostics of various races of men, had made a
great number of measurements of the natives during a long residence on the
island. These, however, were mainly confined to height, weight, magnitude
of chest, and physical strength of individuals, but which are of much
value, having been compared at the time with similar results obtained from
an equal number of British soldiers, thus furnishing most interesting
standards of comparison for the two races. Dr. Thomson measured, for
instance, the height of 147 natives, and found them to average 5 ft. 6-3/4
inches. Of these, 35 measured 5 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft. 7 in.; 20 from 5 ft. 5
in. to 5 ft. 6 in.; 2 from 5 ft. 11 in. to 6 ft.; one 6 ft. 1 in.; and one
who measured 6 ft. 5-1/2 in. Of 617 men of the 58th regiment, the average
height was 5 ft. 7-3/4 inches.

Like the English, the Maories attain their full stature after they have
completed their 20th year, the average height of 46 individuals between 16
and 20 being 5 ft. 6 in., whereas of individuals between 21 and 25 it was
5 ft. 6-3/4 inches, the average height of the human race in the temperate
climes of Europe being 5 ft. 5 in. to 5 ft. 6 in., according to Haller.

The weight of New Zealanders, as compared with that of English soldiers,
gave the following remarkable result in the case of 150 men of both races
who were examined at Auckland:--

   8 Maories weighed more than 112 lbs., but less than 126 lbs.
                                                              avoirdupois.
  25   "       "      "    "   126 "     "    "    "   140  "       "
  54   "       "      "    "   140 "     "    "    "   154  "       "
  41   "       "      "    "   154 "     "    "    "   168  "       "
  19   "       "      "    "   168 "     "    "    "   182  "       "
   3   "       "      "    "   182 "     "    "    "   196  "       "

The average weight of a Maori, deducting their mats and clothes, is about
141 lbs.; of 617 Europeans (both English and Irish), who were weighed, the
average weight was 143 lbs. Dr. Thompson found the natives under 21 less
fully developed than soldiers of the same age, but after that the Maori
began to turn the beam as regards weight.

The girth of the chest, measured above the nipples, gave as the average of
151 natives 35.36 inches; of 628 soldiers of the 58th regiment, 35.71
inches. Between 16 and 20 the chest of the native is more than half an
inch less than that of the European; a little later it is found to be
about the same.

In order to test the physical and muscular strength of the Maori, Dr.
Thompson made them lift the utmost weights they could from the ground,
with the following results from 31 individuals on whom he experimented:--

  6 New Zealanders lifted 410 to 420 lbs.
  2      "          "     400 "  410  "
  5      "          "     390 "  400  "
  3      "          "     380 "  390  "
  6      "          "     360 "  380  "
  5      "          "     340 "  360  "
  2      "          "            336  "
  2      "          "     250 "  266  "

The average of the foregoing gives 367 lbs., the highest being 420 lbs.,
the lowest 250 lbs. A similar experiment made with 31 soldiers of the 58th
regiment (averaging in weight 144 lbs.) gave the following figures:--

   2 soldiers lifted 504 lbs.
   6   "        "    460  " to 480 lbs.
  14   "        "    400  " "  460  "
   9   "        "    350  " "  400  "

Thus the average weight which the British soldiers could lift from the
ground was 422 lbs., or 55 lbs. more than the Maori.

Perron in his "Voyage des Découvertes aux Terres Australes," observed as
the result of numerous experiments, that the weakest Frenchman had more
muscular strength than the most powerful native of Van Diemen's Land, and
that the weakest Englishman was stronger than the strongest native of New
Holland. Judging by that standard, the Maories are of a far more powerful
build than the Australian aborigines.

What appears to us most interesting in the results of Dr. Thomson's
observations, is the immense disparity of the muscular strength of the
Maori as compared with that of the Anglo-Saxon race, although in height,
weight, and girth they so closely resemble them. The main reason of this
astonishing dissimilarity is undoubtedly due in the main to the
exclusively vegetable diet of the New Zealanders, which it is well known
promotes the deposition of fat in the system, without proportionately
increasing the amount of muscular tissue. Moreover the uniform,
uneventful life of the Maories by no means tends to the development of
muscular strength.

Dr. Thomson justly remarks that the foregoing facts completely demolish
the arguments of those who find a pleasure in representing the world as
degenerating, and mankind as much less powerful and free from blemish than
in former ages, ere trade and civilization had exercised their
unpropitious influence upon the habits and manners of mankind. For here we
have the New Zealanders, living up to the present century a life of the
most primitive simplicity, yet evidently in respect of mere corporeal
strength lagging far behind the denizens of a country, where culture and
machinery have brought about social changes of such magnitude, as no other
civilized people on the globe can show.

Of few races inhabiting the southern hemisphere, have the proverbs,
poetry, songs, and traditions been the subject of such zealous study as
those of the Maori, and no one has made more careful investigation into
this interesting feature than the present Governor, Sir George Grey, who
set on foot most minute inquiries into the older history of the Maori,
which he published in a variety of valuable works,[33] although several of
the missionaries, as also educated settlers of many years' standing in the
colony, have extended our acquaintance with the Maori race, by the
publication of a grammar and dictionary of the Maori language, as also
many valuable works upon the natural history of the New Zealand
Islands.[34]

To this most honourable and widely-diffused activity, science is indebted
for a specimen of literature which furnishes an excellent sample of the
high cultivation of the native race, and makes us acquainted with moral
axioms and pieces of poetry which would do honour even to a poet of
Caucasian descent.

We subjoin a few adages and short poems of Sir George Grey's valuable
collections, which more especially indicate the dignified character and
originality of thought of this singular people, and are taken from a
larger number embraced in Sir George Grey's collection of "Proverbial and
Popular Sayings" already mentioned.

    Canst thou still the surf that breaks on the Shoal of
    Rongo-mai-ta-kupe? (Alluding to the difficulty of allaying a
    revolt.)
       *       *       *       *       *
    The little child grows, but the little axe remains for ever
    little (i. e. manhood is more valuable than any other
    possession).

    Capricious as a salmon in the stream or a girl on shore.

    The flounder flies back to hide itself in the water it has
    mudded.

    You can search the dark corner of a house, but not the heart of
    a man.

    Bad food will not make a man mean, but a noble man makes mean
    food respectable.

    Kokowai or red ochre sucks up oil when you mix them. (If a chief
    visits you, he and his followers soon absorb all your property!)

    A smooth tree you may climb, however tall it is; but how can you
    pass over the sea, glassy as it looks?

    Perhaps, although I am little, you will find me troublesome as a
    sandfly.

    Although hidden from us, we know there are plenty of roots of
    the wild convolvulus running under the ground there; so with the
    evil thoughts of our hearts.

    You won't care to look long at the good food you have before
    you, but a face you love you can often look at (a pretty wife is
    better worth getting than a rich one).

    A girl's beauty is like a fine day, a storm soon follows it; so
    old age and ugliness follow close upon loveliness.

    There are a multitude of stars in the heavens, but a very little
    cloud covers many of them (meaning that a small band of resolute
    men may defeat a large number).

    If he had taken refuge on a mountain-top we could have climbed
    it; if he had taken refuge amidst ocean's surge our canoes could
    have contended with it; but having taken shelter under the
    protection of a _mighty chief_, who can reach him there?

    If you have a sperm whale's tooth, you must also have a sperm
    whale's jaw to carry it!

    Quick in speech, slow to act; promises are quickly made, the
    body is slow to move.

    A fathomless throat, but no industry; a monster's appetite, but
    no perseverance in labour.

    He is ascending the snow-capped mountains of Ruahmi (i. e. he is
    growing old).

    Rangipo and Raeroa started together on a journey. Rangipo
    carried his god _alone_ with him; Raeroa carried his god on his
    back, and _food_ in his hand; Rangipo died,--Raeroa lived.

    The block of wood has no business to dictate to the artist who
    carves it.

    I can scarcely look out eagerly from the hill-top!

    A mouth, ready as a salmon, to spring at its prey.

    He is a descendant of Ki-ki, who was so skilled in magic that
    his shadow withered trees and plants if it fell on them.

    The grasp of a chief's red hand cannot be loosened, but the
    grasp of a slave, what strength has it?

    Few are the friends that aid at planting, but when the crops are
    gathered they come in shoals.

    An old broken canoe may be mended, but youth and beauty cannot
    be restored:--

    A fat man has been fattened by food, not by active thought; you
    will find him full, but not wise.

    Women and war are the two dangers of men.

    A woman probably hears the foe sing as they sacrifice to their
    gods the bodies of her slaughtered relatives (i. e. it is of
    little use to have a daughter, she will perhaps raise up heirs
    for your foes).

    Women and land are the causes which destroy men.

    The Moa-bird (_Dinornis gigantea_) trampled down the Rata tree
    (_Metrosidero Robusta_) when it was young; how then can you
    expect it to grow straight now? (i. e. it is difficult to
    overcome early influences.)

    It is from food that a man's blood is made, and it is land which
    grows his food and sustains him. (Never part with your own land,
    and do not yield a fertile district.)

    Persist in all as resolutely as you persist in eating.

    Be firm as the surf-beaten rock in the ocean!

    Another man's food you must eat little bits of; food won by your
    own labour you may eat plenty of, and satisfy your hunger well.

    An axe, though very little, can do as much as a man in clearing
    away a forest.

    A fish begins nibbling gently upwards before he bites, and you
    begin a steep ascent from the bottom (from trifling disputes
    fierce wars arise).

Not less conspicuous is the vigour displayed in the poetical conceptions
of the Maori. There is in them a depth of sentiment, a vividness of
imagery, which would almost make us doubtful of their true origin, if the
original were not at hand to compare with.

Thus, for example, how beautifully do the following lines, borrowed from a
dirge for the chief Te-Huhu, describe the wild anguish of a warlike
people, mourning the loss of a beloved leader:--

                            DIRGE OF TE-HUHU.

    Behold the glare of the lightning!
    It seems as though it had cleft in twain the steep hills of Tuwhare.
    Dropped from thy hand thy weapon,
    And thy spirit, it vanished
    Behind the lofty ridges of Raukawa!
    The sun hid his face, and hasted away,
    As a woman hurries from the strife of battle!
    The waves of ocean mourn as they rise and fall,
    And the hills of the south melt away!
    For the spirit of the chieftain
    Was winging its way to the dwellings of Rona;[35]
    Open, ye gates of heaven!
    Tread thou the first heaven! tread thou the second heaven!
    And when thou dost traverse the spirit land,
    And its dwellers shall ask thee, "What meaneth this?"
    Tell that her wings were torn from this our world,
    When _he_ died, the strong one,
    Our leader in the roar of battle!
    Atutahi and the stars of the morning
    Look pitifully down from their fastnesses,
    The earth reels to and fro,
    For the mightiest support of her children lies low!
    O my friend! the dew of Hokianga
    Shall penetrate thy body;
    The waters of the brooks shall dry up,
    And the land become desolate:
    I see a cloud rising afar
    Above the head of Heke the renowned!
    May he be annihilated, for ever
    Brought low to nothingness! so may the heart,
    Now mourning in its depths, ne'er think of evil more!

As deeply imbued with the spirit of true poetry is the following dirge of
a mother, a heartfelt effusion of maternal affliction for the loss of an
only daughter:--

                          A LAMENT FOR NGARO.

    Slow wanes the evening star.[36] It disappears
    To rise again in more glorious skies,
    Where thousands hasten forward to welcome it.
    All that is grand and beautiful has no more value to me,
    For thou wast my sole treasure! O my daughter!
    When the sunbeams played above the waves,
    Or glinted through the waving palms,
    Secretly, but with joy, we marked thy sportive gambols
    By the sandy shores of Awapoka.
    Oft in the dawning twilight
    I beheld thee, girt in thy simple robes,
    And accompanied by the daughters of thy people,
    Speed forth, to see gathered the fruit of the Main,[37]
    While the maidens from Tikoro[38]
    Sought for thee the mussels hid among the rocks,
    Braving the blinding surf, and caught for thee
    The callow brood of the screaming sea-fowl.
    And when at even the tribes
    Assembled for the repast,
    Beloved companions sought to have thee by their side,
    Eagerly contending who should bestow on thee dainties,
    That they might win a smile from thy lips;--
    But where art thou now? Where now?
    Thou stream which still dost ebb and flow,
    Flow and ebb no more,
    For she that did love thee is gone!
      Well is it for the people, as of old,
    To assemble at the feast of pleasure!
    The canoe still cleaves the air,
    And dashes aside the foam of the heaving sea.
    As of yore, hovering above the rocky cliffs,
    The sea-fowl in clouds obscure the sky!
    But the beloved one comes not!
    Not even a lock of thy waving tresses
    Is left us to mourn over!

The truly paternal interest and attention bestowed by the Government on
the destinies of the New Zealanders, and on the means being adopted to
raise them morally and materially, as also the repeated asseverations of
loyalty, fidelity, and gratitude towards the British nation, which were
constantly in the mouth of the New Zealanders (the Gascons of the South,
as an English author nicknames them), gave no reason to anticipate that
the colony was about to become the scene of a war, which can hardly have
any other result than the total extinction of the small remnant of the
Maori; for although the English troops have hitherto encountered a severe
and protracted resistance, and the Maori, intrenched in their _Páhs_,
required Armstrong guns, bombs, and heavy artillery to be brought against
them ere they yielded, yet to the impartial observer the issue of the
contest cannot be for a moment doubtful. This unhappy contest originated
in the sale of some land in the province of Taranaki, or New Plymouth, on
the S.W. shores of the Northern Island. A native, named Te Teira (John
Taylor), had sold to Government, under the provisions of the treaty of
Waitangi, a small piece of land adjoining New Plymouth. Rangitakí, or as
he is better known by his Christian name, Wiremu Kingi (William King), a
resolute and powerful chief of the Ngatiawa tribe, opposed the sale, on
the ground that Te Teira had in fact no right to dispose of this land
without his consent, and obstructed the surveyors sent by Government to
measure the piece of ground. On their being reinforced somewhat later,
Kingi took up arms to resist them, and intrenched himself on the property
in dispute. How little the Colonial Government intended to encroach upon
the Maori privileges, is best shown by the circumstance that the Ngatiawa
tribe, and their allies of the Taranaki, are but 3000 in number, men,
women, and children all told, who claim as their property districts
covering an area of 2,000,000 acres, and during the last twenty years have
only cultivated some small patches along the coast. The white settlers
also number about 3000, and with the consent of Government have, during
that period, purchased 40,000 acres, of which hardly one-fourth part is
devoted to agricultural purposes. On 17th March, 1860, Kingi was at last
attacked by the English troops under Colonel Gold. This was the
commencement of a series of sanguinary combats, carried on with the most
desperate obstinacy,[39] and the more serious, as it stands out in
singularly bold relief, that the majority of the missionaries, Bishop
Selwyn and Archdeacon Hadfield at their head, take part with the Maories,
and that the learned justice, Dr. Martin, endeavours to prove that the war
has broken out entirely in consequence of a breach of the rights of
property by the Colonial Government, and therefore that the conduct of
the recusant chief, so far from being a rebellion, was a bare vindication
of right! Nay, it has even been openly stated (and it throws an
interesting light upon certain political complications in Europe) that the
Protestant missionaries and certain former _protégés_ of the Government
are chiefly to blame for the difficulties now existing between the English
and the natives. Amongst these adversaries a certain Mr. Davis, formerly
official translator and interpreter, a highly-educated but calculating
man, who once sung the praises of Sir George Grey, and among other works
has published the Maori Mementos,[40] so interesting in a historical point
of view, hit upon the clever notion, in company with a Maori named William
Thompson, or "The King-maker," of instigating the natives to rebellion.
With this object in view, they organized far in the interior, among the
tribes hitherto but little civilized, immense popular gatherings, at which
in long speeches they always contrived to come back to the assertion that
the Maories and not the English were the real lords of the soil, and that
they therefore were entitled to be governed by a king selected from among
themselves. Thompson, thoroughly versant in the foibles and vanities of
his countrymen, and supported by ambitious, crafty, intriguing
foreigners, was speedily master of the situation, and it is much less
matter of surprise that in 1858 a king was chosen in the person of
Potatáu[41]-te-Whero-Whero, one of the most renowned of the Waikato tribe,
than that the Government, from the year 1854, suffered this conduct to go
unpunished, and with cool indifference beheld the movement grow in
proportion without taking the slightest precautionary measures!

Only by such indulgence, not to say negligence, did it become possible for
the native league against the sale of land, and the accompanying King
movement, to have attained their present importance, the number engaged in
them having risen to a total of 15,000 able-bodied warriors. Since the
restrictions recently placed on the importation of weapons and ammunition,
there have been imported during the last three years fire-arms, powder,
lead, and caps to the value of £50,000, so that we may estimate their
present supply of gunpowder at 100,000 lbs. at the least, and the
fire-arms, exclusive of those imported at the time of Hongi, at about
20,000 stand.

Already, at Christmas, 1858, when the staff of our Expedition were passing
a week or two in Auckland, there was a noticeable amount of political
agitation in various parts of the interior, and we ourselves witnessed
some chiefs, friendly to the Government, who before starting for a great
Maori meeting near Drury offered to the Governor their good services, and
asked his orders. The Maori chiefs, whom Colonel Browne received in his
study, could only be distinguished from white men by the wonderfully
copious tattooing on their faces, and were in all other respects attired
exactly like Europeans. Some wore black round hats and blouses, others
wore caps. Only in the flaps of their ears they carried small pieces of
green nephrite, while suspended round the neck by a thick chord was the
inevitable club-shaped _meri-meri_, that renowned stone weapon which
descends as an heir-loom in families, and is so highly prized that a New
Zealander will pay as high as £100 for one. The chiefs candidly remarked
that at this gathering the selection of a Maori king would come up for
decision, and they therefore wished, as loyal and true subjects of the
Queen of England, which they said they always had been and wished to
continue, to know from the lips of her representative how they ought to
act in such a case. Colonel Browne, who like most of the British settlers
in New Zealand seemed to attach but little importance to the whole Maori
movement, or, if so, did not like to make it known, simply thanked the
chiefs for this renewed expression of their loyal sentiments, adding in
the spirit of Maori oratory that "he had already considered them as good
friends both to himself and the Government, and therefore left them to act
as they saw best without further pledge, for he felt fully assured, if the
chief (who had addressed him) should go to this gathering he might feel as
if his own right hand were there, and everything therefore would result
entirely as he could wish." Unhappily these anticipations were not
realized, but on the contrary a war burst forth out of the long-despised
movement, of such dimensions, and of such terrible cruelty, that the
results of the civilization of the last twenty years have been seriously
imperilled, and the original Maori, divesting himself of the whitewash of
superficial Christianity, has become suddenly visible in all his savage
thirst for blood. We do not indeed believe that the whole race have been
seized with this much-to-be-lamented proclivity towards their old
barbarism, nor that the application of the proverb (parodied from the
celebrated _mot_ of Napoleon), "Scratch the Maori and you will find the
savage beneath," receives its full illustration here; but neither, on the
other hand, can we resist the conviction that a long continuance of
hostilities will foster old customs, and that a war waged with
ever-increasing animosity must ultimately result in the decay and
extinction of the New Zealand aborigines.

Independently of this, there was visible, even during the former days of
peace and tranquillity, so marked a falling off of the Maori population,
that the Colonial Government felt called upon to institute most minute
inquiries as to the supposed causes of this lamentable feature. In a very
exhaustive work upon this subject, by Mr. F. D. Fenton,[42] we find for
example that the proportion of births and deaths among the entire
population--the former of which in England is 1 : 59, and the latter 1 :
34, and among the white settlers of New Zealand is 1 : 136 and 1 :
25--gives among the aborigines the following startling results,--deaths 1
: 33.04, births 1 : 67.13. The cause of this appalling decay of the Maori
race, which has been steadily going on since 1830, is not alone due to the
contact of the natives with civilization, but chiefly to the sanguinary
wars between the various races, of which New Zealand was the theatre for a
series of years, and the natural results of those wars. For it was not
merely that in their constant battles the flower of their respective
tribes lost their lives,[43] but the mothers, to facilitate their own
escape, put to death most of the female infants at the breast. Upon this
followed, apparently in consequence of the great privations of their
wandering life, through hard work and want of nutritious food, a serious
sterility among the female sex. Whereas, according to Muret, out of 487
women only 20 (or 1 in 24) are barren on the average, the proportion among
the Maori amounts to 155 in every 444, or 1 in 2.86.

The want of nutritious and wholesome food, their diet consisting mainly of
salt-fish, roots, and fruits, the absence of clothing, or any care for the
body, their wretched abodes, and exposure to the weather, all these causes
must greatly contribute to the diminution of the race, as affecting the
conditions of sound health of the present generation, and tending to
produce those forms of disease, such as scrofula, pulmonia, phthisis, &c.,
by which the Maories and their offspring are at present decimated. Dr.
Fenton also adduces the intermarriage of near relations among the New
Zealanders as one prominent cause of their disease and physical
degeneracy. These near alliances, however, at least among the lower
classes, do not seem so frequent as Dr. Fenton imagined, as is apparent
from the surprising diversity of physiognomy and colour of skin. The
chiefs indeed of the tribes, who migrated from the north some four
centuries since, may indeed have so frequently intermarried that they now
constitute little other than a large family connection, but the populace
have most undoubtedly made frequent alliances with the inhabitants of the
adjoining island groups, as they are to this day accustomed to do with the
whites, from which latter cross results the unhappy bastard race
Paketa-Maori, which, like the quadroons of Louisiana and the mulattoes of
Hayti, or the mestizoes of the Indian races of South America, despising
the pure blacks and looked down upon by the whites, are the sworn foes of
both.

It seems to us too hazardous a speculation to go into minute
investigations as to the decay of the Maori race, and the most suitable
means of averting that disaster, at the very moment when their foreign
conquerors, in order to strengthen their power, are actually engaged in a
war of annihilation with the aborigines.[44] It is much more important,
and will better repay our time, to enumerate the advantages which must
accrue to European, especially German, immigrants into a country where the
natives have played out their part.

As already remarked, there are few countries beyond the limits of Europe
which are so favoured as regards climate, fertility of soil, natural
wealth, and geographical situation,[45] or hold out such excellent
prospects of ultimate comfort and prosperity, as New Zealand. The mean
temperature of the whole islands for the year is 56° Fahr., and is 5° less
at the south, and in the north about 4° higher, so that, for example,
Auckland possesses the same temperature as Florence, Rome, Marseilles, or
Toulon.[46] Gales are frequent along the coast, and the damp south winds
known as "bursters" are exceedingly disagreeable and oppressive, but they
do not on the whole affect the health of the inhabitants. According to Dr.
Thomson's observations, it would seem that of every 1000 soldiers in the
various British military stations 8.25 die in New Zealand, 14 in Great
Britain, 18 in Malta, 20 in Canada.[47]

Of the superficial area of New Zealand, which, if we include Stewart's and
Chatham Islands, may be estimated at 75,000,000 acres, one-third consists
of forest and bush capable of being reclaimed for agricultural purposes,
one-third of meadow, grass-pasture, and valley, well adapted for
cultivation, and the remaining one-third of barren rock, or sandy desert,
besides lakes and rivers.

The amount of land, in various holdings, reclaimed and made fruitful
throughout New Zealand for the year 1857 was 190,000 acres, of which
121,648 were arable land, sown with esculents (chiefly wheat, oats,
potatoes, and grass for fodder) and fruit. Of late years the annual
increase of land reclaimed has been 40 per cent. It is calculated that
each new arrival from Europe is equivalent to the cultivation of four
acres of land, and the breeding of 30 cattle. The cost of clearing amounts
in New Zealand to from £2 to £5 per acre.

Hence it is that the Colonial Government are straining every nerve, by
holding out certain material advantages and inducements, to attract
land-purchasers and handicraftsmen to a country, which, inhabited at
present by not more than 130,000 human beings, is quite capable of
supporting 30,000,000. The "Auckland Waste Land Act," besides giving every
necessary information as to the unreclaimed districts (where land is sold
at ten shillings per acre), also contains certain arrangements, by virtue
of which intending emigrants of the labouring classes, who shall come out
at their own expense, receive some assistance to enable them to settle on
certain proportions of the land which the Government presents to them by
way of indemnification for the expenses of their voyage, in the proportion
of 40 acres to each person above 40 years of age, and 20 acres to all
between 5 and 17 years.[48] The sole condition attached by the Government
to this land-indemnity is that the emigrant bind himself to remain five
years in the province; which period once elapsed, he may dispose of the
land at his pleasure. In order to encourage persons accustomed to tuition
to settle in Auckland, all persons who are fitted to instruct children in
elementary knowledge and English grammar, on their having discharged such
duties for five years to the satisfaction of Government, are entitled to a
grant of 80 acres of land.

The most important products and articles grown for export are, all sorts
of cereals, wool, and ship-timber. A marked increase has taken place in
potato cultivation, of which in 1857 there were exported 4430 tons, value
£23,328, and in 1858, 6116 tons, value £33,056. Of building timber of all
sorts there were exported in 1857 £12,205, and in 1859 £34,376 in value.

One of the most valuable trees of the New Zealand forests is the Kauri
pine (_Dammara Australis_). This elegant tree, 80 to 120 feet in height,
furnishes the English ship-building yards with a large number annually of
rounded logs, 74 to 84 feet in length, of better quality as well as more
lasting than those of the Norwegian or American pines.[49] The Kauri or
yellow pine also produces the kind of rosin so well known as Dammara
rosin, of which this valuable tree produces such quantities, that in those
districts where the Kauri tree has long since yielded to the axe of
civilization, it has been found in immense masses on the soil, in a
high-dried state. The Kauri rosin of commerce is not therefore procured,
as with us, by making an incision in the tree, but is actually dug out of
the earth, into which to the despair of the farmer it has often percolated
for several feet, rendering the soil barren. During our excursions we came
repeatedly upon whole tracts of rosin-fields, which were covered several
feet thick with this substance. The Dammara pine only grows on the
northernmost island, and chiefly in the northern parts.

In Auckland we saw several pieces of Kauri rosin weighing 100 lbs. In
1857, 2521 tons, worth £35,250, of this substance were exported, chiefly
for its valuable properties as a varnish, and for "fixing" certain colours
used in the calico manufacture. It has also of late been extensively used
in the manufacture of candles.

The cultivation of the Harakeke, or indigenous flax (_Phormium tenax_),
might be made to conduce greatly to the wealth of the country, if some
mechanical process could be invented which should without too much expense
liberate the fibres from their hard envelope, which is the only obstacle
in the way of its competing successfully with Russian flax. Impressed with
the importance of developing the cultivation of _Phormium tenax_, the
Colonial Government has offered a reward of £1500 for the invention of
such a machine as shall bark the native flax, and prepare it for and make
it saleable in the European market. At present no more than 50 or 60 cwt.
of the flax, worth about £800, is exported from Auckland. The New Zealand
flax surpasses almost every known plant in the strength and toughness of
its fibres, its ratio as compared with the fibres of European plants of
the same species standing as high as 27:7. For Great Britain the
cultivation of this flax is not alone of great interest in an economic
point of view, but is even politically of importance, as the amount of
flax annually imported from Russia for her industrial energies averages
£3,000,000.

Sheep-farming has of late years made an enormous advance in New Zealand,
the export for 1857 being 2,648,716 lbs., value £176,581, that for 1859,
5,096,751 lbs., value £339,779, averaging 1_s._ 4_d._ per lb. The list of
articles suitable for export must continually increase with immigration,
and the consequent spread of population through the interior.

The entire commerce of New Zealand, both import and export, is at present
about £2,000,000, the value of imports having risen from £597,827 in 1853
to £1,551,030 in 1859, while the exports, which in the former year were
only £331,282, had risen in 1859 to £551,484. The last-mentioned year
employed 836 ships, of which 438, representing 136,580 tons and 7594 of
crew, were engaged in the import, and 398 of 120,392 tons and 6483 of
crew, were employed in the export trade. The net revenue of the Government
for the same period was £459,648.

The majority of the colonists are emigrants from Great Britain, only a
small fraction coming from the continent.[50] A large Irish population
lives in the neighbourhood of Auckland, while the Scotch cling together
about Taranaki and the southern parts of the island. The European
population was 52,155 in 1857, and 73,343 in 1859, the proportion of sexes
in the latter year being 42,452 males, and 30,891 females.

While most of the naturalists of the _Novara_ staff went on the invitation
of Government to examine the coal-beds lately discovered in Drury
district, others made frequent excursions in the environs of Auckland,
three of which deserve special mention.

The first was to the picturesque Judges and Oraki Bays, the latter formed
by the ruins of a crater. Here for the first time we beheld what is called
the New Zealand Christmas tree, _Metrosideros Tormentosa_, which at the
festive season comes forth pranked in all its gay blossoms, and is
extensively used in decorating churches and dwelling-houses. Its large
deep-red, umbellate blossoms are visible from afar gleaming among the
green vegetation along the coast. The natives call this tree the
Pohútu-Káwua; it is most extensively found on the slopes along the coast.
The wild pepper, Kawa-kawa (_Piper excelsum_), is very common in the
country round Auckland, but is not brewed into an intoxicating drink like
the _Piper methysticum_ of the Southern Ocean. The natives indeed are
exceedingly temperate, and, unlike other half-civilized races, are very
little addicted to drink; this however may be partly due to the wise
precautions of the Government, which under a heavy pecuniary penalty
forbids all tavern-keepers throughout the province from selling the Maori
any drink except beer. Two species of grass eminently characteristic of
the country, which often overrun vast tracts of land, and are used by the
natives for thatching their huts, are the Toi-toi (_Lepidosperma elatior_)
and the Kekaho (_Arundo Australis_). There are also the Puka-puka, or
paper-seed (_Brachyglottis repanda_), an object which, where it is found,
imparts a peculiar aspect to the landscape, like the silver poplars on the
flanks of Table Mountain at the Cape. The name of the plant is derived
from the under side of the leaves being as white as paper.

We also during this excursion saw great quantities of Raorao or Aruhe
(_Pteris esculenta_), and were told that the roots (_roi_) of this fern,
baked and ground, were highly prized by the Maories as a specific against
sea-sickness. No native makes a sea-voyage, at least to any distance,
without carrying with him a piece of this root, using it when baked as an
antidote against that most depressing of maladies, from which even
primitive races are not exempt. The efficacy of this remedy is however
rather reputed than actual, the experience of Europeans, who have availed
themselves of its supposed virtues, tending to show that it is absolutely
worthless.

While at Oraki Bay we also visited the Maori village of Oraki. Here we
found some 80 natives, men, women, and children, who had encamped on a
hill outside the village. They were clothed partly in European style,
partly in clothes made of native flax. The diversity of feature was most
remarkable, as was also the great difference in the hair of the head. Some
had thin black, others crisp, hair; many had it of a dark brown colour,
while yet others had regular fox-coloured locks. The elder men had their
faces and hands beautifully tattooed; the women on the lip only, and the
younger generation were not tattooed at all. After the customary
salutation of "Tenákoe, Tenákoe" (which in fact means literally nothing
more than "Here you are," or "I recognize you"), they were little
communicative, and showed little disposition to enter into closer
conversation with the foreigners, although some of our companions spoke
their language fluently. As our instructions were to ship on board the
_Novara_ any handsomely tattooed natives who should of their own free will
wish to enter our marine, we let slip no opportunity, and accordingly
endeavoured to induce some of the natives we now saw to ship with us.
However, they could not be persuaded to make a cruise with us to see other
lands and nations, as they could not comprehend what motive Austrian
voyagers could have in inviting the natives of such a distant quarter of
the globe to join them on such favourable terms. Their chief hesitation
arose in the idea which they, the offspring of cannibals, firmly believed,
that we wished to take some of their companions with us instead of fresh
provisions, with the ultimate intent, so soon as we ran out of victuals,
to put them to death, and banquet on Maori flesh! Thereupon we showed them
some Caffres who had been 15 months on board, and were perfectly well
treated. "Who knows," replied one of the most cautious of the Maori, "very
possibly the Caffres have only been spared because the necessary moment
has not yet come!" We returned to Oraki, our efforts vain to induce any
Maori volunteer to make a cruise.

A not less interesting excursion was made to the Kauri forest in
Titarangi, among the Manukau hills, to which we were conveyed in a couple
of dog-carts. It was an exquisitely beautiful sunny morning. The air was
so invigorating yet so mild that we immediately felt how well Sir Humphrey
Davy's celebrated remark about Nice, "mere existence here is luxury," may
also be applied to Auckland. After a drive of three hours through charming
fields and meadows, we entered upon the forest at a spot where an Irishman
named Smith has erected a block-house and a saw-mill, which seemed to do
an excellent business. The whole appearance of the farm and its residents
made a most favourable impression. Old Smith accompanied us in person to
the forest, which consisted principally of the lofty, slender,
broad-leaved Kauri pine. These have much more the look of chestnut trees
than fir. The whole forest displayed a luxuriance and beauty of vegetation
such as we had not anticipated in these latitudes. Creepers, parasites,
and tree-ferns, gave it quite a tropical character. There were a charm and
a voluptuousness about this green garb of nature, as displayed in New
Zealand, such as the virgin forests of even the Nicobars or Java could
hardly surpass in grace and majesty.

The slender trunks of the Kauri pine, the Rimu (_Dacrydium_
_Cupressinum_), and the Kali Katea (_Podocarpus excelsa_), are here
sliced into planks and boards, and so transported to the port. 100 cubic
feet are worth about 15_s._, and 100 cubic feet of the beautiful Rimu
wood, which is much used for furniture, fetches about 30_s._ A saw-mill
labourer is paid from £7 to £8 per month, besides rations.

On our return, thoroughly fagged out and overheated with three hours of
climbing and rambling, to the hospitable residence of our worthy Irish
friend, we found an elegant carpet spread on the floor of the room, and
everything clean and neat, to welcome the unexpected guests. His entire
family was waiting to receive us, and after a comfortable meal we took our
leave, doubly impressed with the glories of New Zealand forest scenery,
and agreeably surprised to find in such close proximity with
half-reclaimed nature such a peaceful picture of contentment, and such
sterling results of well-directed human industry.

While our eyes were still dazzled with the beauties of the New Zealand
forests of the Manukau range, a visit to St. John's College gave us an
excellent and cheering glimpse of the admirable zeal displayed by various
philanthropists to impart instruction in the great truths of Christianity
to the coloured race of this and the adjacent groups of islands, and to
educate missionaries. St. John's College has been set on foot with this
praiseworthy object in view by the Church of England Missionary Society.
Of the forty lads who attended it while we were there, the majority came
from Loyalty Islands, the Solomon Group, and New Caledonia. Many only
remained at the institute during the warm summer months, and for health's
sake returned before winter set in to their own milder climate. Some had
thus returned to school for the fourth time. The management of this humane
undertaking is entrusted to Mr. Patterson, a gentleman of remarkable
ability and perseverance, who speaks with fluency most of the Polynesian
languages, and annually faces much privation and danger during his visit,
in a schooner provided by the Missionary Society, to the various islands
of the Southern Ocean, where he communicates with the natives, urging them
to give their children the benefits of a certain amount of education. The
course of instruction consists of reading, writing, arithmetic, and
religion. It is unfortunate that no provision is made for their
instruction in mechanical employments, as such knowledge would go far to
make their heathen kindred appreciate the advantages of Christian
civilization. The pupils seem to be warmly attached to Mr. Patterson, and
regard him with the child-like reverence paid to a father. The results are
surprising, and demonstrate what splendid germs of capacity for education
lie slumbering in even the rudest primitive people, if only care be taken
to awake them sufficiently early, and foster them judiciously.

As in all English colonies, there is much intellectual activity in
Auckland. Several English journals,[51] some really well written and
digested,--such, for instance, as "_The Southern Cross_," "_The New
Zealander_," &c.,--not only discuss the most important political events,
but also endeavour to enlarge the views of their readers upon all
questions of political economy and commercial and industrial progress.[52]

A few months before our arrival a paragraph appeared in several English
and German journals, one of which accidentally fell into our hands at
Shanghai, to the effect that "in April, 1858, considerable excitement had
been created in England by intelligence of a peculiar species of silk-worm
having been discovered growing wild in New Zealand in immense quantities."
The London correspondent added that the worm inhabits a cocoon which is of
a dull brown externally, under which however is a particularly fine
quality of silk, with which some Glasgow houses had made experiments that
induced them to value it much more highly than the qualities hitherto
procured in Europe. Owing to the great alteration in the prospects of the
silk trade, generally held out by the march of events in China, we deemed
it advisable to inquire minutely as to the existence of a worm, which, as
reported, not merely enjoyed advantages of climate similar to those of
several parts of the Austrian domains, but seemed to require but little
attention, living, as was said, "wild" in the "bush." After protracted
investigation, however, it turned out that the silk procured in New
Zealand was furnished by the ordinary mulberry-fed silk-worm, and that the
extraordinary delicacy attained in the fabrics made from it at Glasgow was
only due to its very superior quality.

The little expedition to the coal-beds of Drury already mentioned was
accompanied by results so valuable, that considerable excitement arose
among the settlers of the district, and a society was formed for the
exploration of this mineral wealth. The excursion, however, was not
confined to visiting the coal-fields, but was intended to give the
naturalists of the _Novara_ an opportunity of seeing part of the interior
of New Zealand, by traversing the forest, 9 to 15 miles wide, between
Auckland and the river Waikato, and thus visit the lovely shores of that
river and the native villages of the neighbourhood.

The expedition was under the conduct of Capt. Drummond Hay, aide-de-camp
to the Governor, and thoroughly acquainted with the country, and Mr.
Heaphy, chief engineer of the province; Mr. Smallfield, editor-in-chief of
the _New Zealander_, accompanied it as historiographer, while the
Government invitation was extended to several of the scientific
inhabitants of Auckland, among others the Rev. Mr. Purchas, and a
recently-arrived German named Haast. The following is an extract from a
journal, kept by one of the party from the _Novara_, of all the most
interesting episodes of this excursion:--

"On 28th December we set out in five waggons, and advanced among extinct
craters and volcanic cones, on which in former times _Páhs_ or intrenched
villages had been erected by the natives, as is plain from the succession
of terraces of three or four feet high, rising in regular order, and cut
into the side of the hill. The villas and farms on either side of the
road, or at the foot of the hills, buried in their splendid
flower-gardens, formed a charming contrast with the ancient lava currents,
stretching in every direction and over-grown with tree-ferns and dense
coppice. Now and then horses were rolling about upon the velvet-like
meadows, or herds of cattle and flocks of sheep were passed feeding and
ruminating, and bearing ample testimony to the advanced stage of material
progress so quickly attained by one of the youngest of English colonies.

"Already we had found banners waving from the houses of Otahuha, a little
village closely adjoining a very interesting extinct volcanic peak with a
crater, and during a brief halt we made here, crowds of well-dressed
inhabitants came flocking in to welcome the German guests of the
Government, who were to develope the natural wealth of the country. From
Otahuha the road lay across the plains of Papa Kura (red levels) to
Tamaki. It is a wide paved road well ballasted, the bridges solidly built,
everything, in short, betokening the fostering care of an enlightened
Government, making it a point of duty to open up as speedily as possible
convenient means of communication between the capital and the interior.
The farms and country-houses were not so numerous in this section, though
the rolling country seemed of excellent quality.

"At last, about 1 P.M., we reached Drury, a rather large settlement 29
miles from Auckland, where we were most cordially welcomed. Young's Hotel,
which had been engaged for the Expedition, was gaily decorated with
flowers, rare forest plants, and ferns, while from the gable floated side
by side the British and Austrian standards.

"Drury is situate in a fertile rolling plain, the country is everywhere
fenced in, corn-fields and meadows give variety to the landscape, and the
well-to-do, fresh-looking countenances of the settlers, the groups of
rosy-cheeked children, and the herds of splendid cattle, amply attest the
salubrity as well as fertility of the neighbourhood. The party now split
into two. Our geologist, with several companions, went forward about a
mile and half from Drury into the forest, there to commence his
investigations at a spot where a coal-bed 12 feet thick had been laid
bare. The rest of the naturalists strolled about, engaged in botanical and
zoological researches among the soft, beautiful woodland scenery of the
almost _soul-enchaining_ primeval forest.

"A couple of days were passed in such little excursions in the environs of
Drury, in the course of which a trip was made in a Wakka or New Zealand
canoe to the Tahike springs, near a Maori village of the same name. Our
craft consisted of a single hollowed-out trunk of a kahika tree
(_Podocarpus excelsa_), about 25 feet in length by 2-1/2 in breadth. For
such a boat a native pays about £5, and it lasts from 20 to 30 years,
whereas a canoe of red Totara (_Podocarpus Totara_) costs when complete
about £30, but lasts much longer. Canoes are frequently pointed out
prepared from these giants of the forest, 70 feet in length and from five
to six in breadth, which were used in old times as war-canoes
(Wakka-wakka), and could accommodate 100 warriors. Ours was covered at
either end with fresh-gathered ferns, and was provided with four paddles
tapering to a point, one of which was used by one of the Maories who
accompanied us, while we applied ourselves to learning the management of
this novel mode of propulsion by seizing on the rest, and by imitating his
motions speedily mastered its difficulties. Unfortunately, owing to the
distance, we could not reach the village itself, and, after a variety of
curious adventures with the natives, found ourselves compelled to return
when about half-way, in order to husband our strength for the exertions of
the ensuing day.

"By dawn the noise in the hotel drove away all further thought of sleep,
and presently came flocking in from every quarter the horses, both saddle
and pack, which had been engaged for the expedition. The morning broke in
uncommon splendour, and the whole landscape lay bathed in a rose-coloured
flush, whose exquisite tints recalled the immortal beauties of Claude
Lorraine. The winding road that leads over the intervening hills begins at
this point to be impracticable for wheeled vehicles, although it is
possible to advance a few miles farther in country cars. For upwards of an
hour we rode along through beautiful rolling pasture land, for the most
part neatly fenced, and covered with herds of noble cattle. Now and then
we came upon a stately mansion, buried in flowers and foliage, whose
appearance sufficiently attested that the proprietor had long since left
behind the struggles of the early days, when the hardy settler inhabited a
wretched log-hut (whari), a "clearing" cut with incredible labour amid an
almost impenetrable forest, the soil of which he had to prepare for the
reception of corn-seed.

"At last we reached the forest, which extended from where we were to the
banks of the Waikato. The deeper we penetrated into it, the closer and
more majestic grew the trees, and the denser and more impervious was the
underwood. Gigantic trees, 150 feet in length of stem, were entwined,
trunk, limbs, and summits, with flexible lianæ and other parasitical
creepers, while birds of the strangest descriptions were flitting hither
and thither among the trees, alarmed by the tramp of our horses, which
echoed strangely loud through the silent depths of the forest. The most
frequently visible of these feathered denizens of the forest is the Tui
(_Prostemadera novæ Zelandiæ_), called 'the parson' by Captain Cook, in
consequence of its having two white feathers in the lower part of its neck
resembling bands. In colour and shape it is very like the kingfisher, and
its melodious notes present great variety. In addition to the Tui, the
forest is frequented by the Kakariki (_Platycercus N. Z._), a small green
parrot, which, stealing softly through the mysterious greenwood shade,
emits its singular shrill shriek. We also fell in with a solitary specimen
of the New Zealand cuckoo (_Endynamys Taïtensis_), called by the natives
Koekoea, which was eagerly bagged by the zoologists.

"After riding half an hour into the forest we came to Rama-Rama, a
settlement founded about three months previously by a rich English
colonist. About 70 acres English were already reclaimed, and in some parts
of this patch of land, so lately arrested from the wilderness, peas,
turnips, beans, potatoes, and other kitchen vegetables were already
peering above the surface. Two small huts, constructed of the stem of the
tree-fern, and thatched with reeds, had been extemporized as kitchen and
sleeping apartment for the occupier of the soil, a highly-educated,
well-informed, gentlemanly man, named Martin, and his labourers, while on
an eminence at a little distance preparations were being made to erect a
handsome dwelling-house of wood, whence this skilful shepherd-prince will
be able to overlook his flocks and herds, and delight his eyes with the
prospect of his rapidly multiplying horned stock.

"The road now became narrower and more difficult, the horses too began to
find their footing less secure, and it was only by great vigilance that we
contrived to ride over the marshy soil, thickly covered with massive roots
of forest giants. Enormous trunks of trees that had fallen across the path
had to be scrambled over, and the baggage removed from the pack-horses and
carried forward on men's shoulders. Some of the horses, inured to similar
expeditions, clambered nimbly over these obstacles, while for others, more
restive or less practised, bridges had to be constructed, which are formed
by laying two trunks of trees parallel with each other across the chasm or
brook, upon which fern or reeds are placed transversely, and the whole
tied together with twigs of liana, so as to afford the animals a firm
footing. Occasionally this frail apparatus would break through, when the
poor horses would disappear below, whence they were only extricated with
considerable trouble.

"Towards evening the forest began to get less dense, and we entered upon
an undulating table-land, covered with ferns. Some columns of smoke,
curling upwards at the foot of a hill on the further side, indicated that
we were approaching a Maori village. In front of us lay the valley
through which flows the Mangatawhiri, which falls into the Waikato a
little lower down. The course of the latter was traceable by a range of
hills whose elegant outlines bounded the horizon. We experienced a most
friendly reception from the natives of this village, and were lodged in
the newest _whari_ or New Zealand hut. This is constructed in the shape of
a quadrangle with elliptic sides, about 20 feet in length by 14 feet in
breadth, and consists of stakes of palm driven in close to each other, and
tied together. The roof, which is 15 feet high in the centre, gradually
sloping to about 8 feet at the side walls, is of thin slips of wood, and
is covered over by a dense layer of native flax, so ingeniously woven that
it is impervious to water, which accordingly runs off. The roof is for the
most part supported simply by an upright pole in the midst, but
occasionally several of these are used, so as to impart greater strength
to the roof. The side walls are usually covered with large mats made of
woven rushes. In the middle of the two longer side walls are two doors
placed exactly opposite each other, between which a species of corridor is
made, which divides the hut into two apartments as it were. In the event
of bad weather, a small whari close at hand serves as a kitchen, the Maori
usually following all culinary avocations in the open air in front of his
hut.

"The village consists of some 15 huts scattered at random, among which
some of the inhabitants of both sexes, clothed in European attire, were
sitting or lounging upon the ground, or crouching upon their hams.
Around, in sympathetic glee and full security, sprawled a squad of pigs
and children, some naked, others half-clothed. Most of the adults
stretched out their hands in the most friendly manner. Here we had again
occasion to remark the extraordinary diversity of physical appearance in
various individuals, no two of these Maories being like each other in
complexion, hair, or figure. In front of one of the huts a native oven was
standing uncovered, the mid-day meal being just over; after the earth and
other matters had been removed there appeared, each lying on a
cool-looking cabbage leaf, some splendid potatoes and eels from the river.
The Hangi-Maori, or Maori oven, is nothing but a hole some three feet long
by one and a half deep excavated in the earth. In this a strong fire is
made of dried timber, and when fully alight stones are placed over the
flames, and kept there till they are in a state of incandescence. As soon
as the wood has been consumed the ashes are carefully removed, and a
little wet flax thrown upon the hot stones, above which again is placed a
layer of fresh cabbage leaves. These form as it were a bed for the food to
be cooked, be it meat, vegetables, fish, or fruit. The viands are then
covered with another course of leaves, two mats of rushes being placed on
the top, after which the earth excavated is heaped over the pile and
pressed firmly down, so as to prevent the escape of the steam thus
generated. If there are no cabbage leaves handy, a substitute is made of
the leaves of the Tuakura (_Dicksonia Squamosa_), a species of fern which
grows in great luxuriance among the moist spots. These leaves impart to
the meat a peculiar and agreeable flavour, whereas other plants are apt to
alter the ordinary taste of the food.

"The women and girls were busily engaged during a few minutes in weaving
little baskets of rushes, in which the potatoes were served up garnished
with eel. A plateful was handed to each of our party, which we were
courteously pressed to eat. In every Maori household there is always a
sufficient quantity cooked to admit of any casual traveller or a neighbour
partaking with the family; for the Maori possesses in perfection the
savage virtue of hospitality, as we frequently experienced.

"The master of the hut in which we passed the night had suddenly
disappeared, and was busily engaged, as we witnessed through the open
door, in arranging his hair, which he combed carefully, after which he
anointed it with eel-fat, which he also plentifully smeared over his face,
neck, and arms. This curious toilette completed, he wrapped a clean mat
round him, and presented himself in full fig, to bid us all due welcome.
The mode of salutation among the New Zealanders is unique. The party
saluting draws his head rapidly backwards, and winks a couple of times
with half-closed eye and laughing face!

"Our bivouac suddenly received an unexpected accession of new arrivals.
From the mountain ridge which we had just passed six horsemen were seen
descending at full gallop and making for the village; they proved to be
young Maories, mounted on handsome horses, who, having been apprized by a
relative, whom we had met in the forest, of the arrival of _Pakehas_
(white men), had come hither partly out of curiosity, partly to do us
honour and show us hospitality. They all wore European clothes, rode in
good English saddles, and bestrode powerful horses, which they seemed to
manage with much grace. There are numerous Maories who have from 50 to 60
head of horses, and whole herds of cattle, besides several thousands of
pounds lying in bank.

"In the course of a stroll through the village we not only observed fields
planted with the customary rotations of wheat, oats, maize, potatoes,
cabbage, and so forth, but on the banks of the river came upon a new mill,
constructed on the English system, almost ready for work, which had been
erected by an Englishman at a cost of £500, to be repaid by the tribe. The
erection of this grinding machinery is the more indicative of the
speculative turn of mind of the Maori of the present day, that they use
none of the flour for their own primitive household, but manufacture it
solely for the purpose of selling it advantageously at Auckland market.

"Towards noon we again entered our canoes on our return, and descended the
Mangatawhiri, the navigable channel of which is so narrow that even our
narrow craft could with difficulty make its way. Gradually the hills began
to slope backwards, and the river to grow wider, till it expanded on
either side into a swampy morass covered with reeds and lofty elegant
water-plants, while at a short distance away we could descry magnificent
trees springing from the high-lying but fertile soil. It was a most
delightful day. Throughout our entire excursion the thermometer ranged
from 71° 6 Fahr. to 77° Fahr., so that, our strength not exhausted by
oppressive heat, and our attention not distracted by the hum or the sting
of insects, we were free to indulge those mingled feelings of which the
variety and magnificence of the landscape were so well calculated to
elicit the manifestation. Presently the river became once more very
narrow, the hills again closed in, covered with a thick belt of forest,
which extended down to the water's edge, occasionally forming a canopy of
indescribable grace above our boat, as she glided noiselessly below. At
last the Mangatawhiri, which hitherto had pursued a westerly direction,
made a bend to the southward, and debouched into the Waikato. The
impression made upon each of our party by the scenery at this point was so
overpowering, that all, as though smitten by one common impulse, broke
into expressions of delight. Its course lying between mountains of
magnificent outline and thickly wooded, the majestic stream presented many
points of resemblance to the Rhine and Danube, to which it was little if
at all inferior in point of width. A holy calm brooded over its clear
brown ripples, only broken by the flight of birds from time to time, which
in those undisturbed solitudes, far from the murderous weapons of man,
passed their existence in happy security. That we might enjoy in all their
plenitude the exquisite charm of the forest and its luxuriant vegetation,
we coasted along now on this side, now on that, as though we could never
weary of the mingled grandeur and beauty of this magic scene. Still
further to enhance the magnificence of nature in her present mood, a
tremendous thunder-storm broke over us in the course of the afternoon,
when the forked lightning played like arrows of fire above our heads, and
the thunder rolled in deafening peals, which were taken up again and again
by hundreds of mountain echoes.

"In the evening the sky cleared, and we reached the Maori village of
Tuakan, where we were made welcome, and the best hut in the place assigned
us. The evening was one of peculiar interest, it being that of Sylvester's
day, or the eve of the New Year of 1859, which will scarcely soon again be
spent by Austrians at the antipodes. Our entire party camped upon the
floor of the hut, two torches, stuck into the mouth of a couple of empty
bottles, shed an uncertain light, while an iron kettle served as
punch-bowl, in which a "brew," something resembling "Punch," was, by dint
of the joint experience of the English and German members of the
excursion, compounded out of the spirits we had brought with us. Ere long
the chorus went round, and we had German songs, alternating with English,
Irish, and Scotch melodies, and even melancholy New Zealand love-songs,
sung by some of the Maories present.

"As the evening, and with it the dying year, wore on, some little
difficulty, natural enough under the circumstances, arose, how to
ascertain the precise moment of its departure, as most of those present
had left their watches behind, as a something more than superfluous
article in the course of a forest excursion, and the few which had been
brought differed so much, that it was impossible to depend upon them for
the correct moment at which the old year sank to his rest, and the new
began his course of alternate hopes and alarms, joys and griefs.

"Suddenly Captain Drummond Hay rose, and opening the door, which, as in
most Maori huts, faced the south, exclaimed: 'Well, we have neither church
clock nor night watch to tell us the exact moment when the year changes,
but a bountiful Providence has suspended for us in yonder firmament
another and an unerring sentinel of night and time:--the constellation of
the Southern Cross! During how many sleepless nights, among the forest or
fern-covered plains of New Zealand, have I lain gazing at that
never-failing time-piece of the Almighty's own handiwork! See, the Cross
begins to bend to the west! It must now be midnight. A happy new year to
one and all!' Once more the glasses clinked against each other, and hand
locked in hand, after which the shades of night were left to gather round
our wearied party, who sunk into sound repose, relieved probably by many a
cheering vision of distant friends.

"The following morning, 1st January, 1859, we all rose early, refreshed
for the day's work, and found the entire population of the village
collected around us. There were also a couple of English carpenters who
joined the crowd, and welcomed us to the interior. They were employed in
constructing for the natives, at an expense of £400, a wooden chapel, as
the Maories attach great importance to having a place of worship, where
those resident on the spot, or any occasional European stranger, may unite
with them in spending the sabbath in a becoming manner. The majority of
the New Zealanders are Christians, and belong almost exclusively to the
High Church of England. Service is performed partly by missionaries, who
traverse the country up and down, partly by itinerant spiritual teachers,
regularly engaged for the purpose, the latter of whom have occasionally to
struggle against severe privations and obstacles of various kinds. Many
natives educated by the missionaries travel through the country preaching
and praying, and by their exemplary conduct must greatly influence their
fellow-countrymen. In almost every hut in the village we found a Bible, or
a hymn-book and prayer-book, in the Maori tongue.

"Notwithstanding their undoubted capacity, the natives will not apply
themselves to any handicraft pursuits, which indeed they attach so little
value to that they regard the shoemaker and the tailor, for example, as
inferior to them. On the other hand, the merchant or the seaman stands in
high esteem; and the warrior holds the chief place in their estimation,
while they themselves consider them not inferior to the Europeans, with
respect to courage, firmness, and love of war.

"About noon we set out on our return. The route chalked out for us, by
the only road which exists between Tuakan and Drury, was constructed
partly by the land-holders along its course, partly by the surveyors, only
intended for cattle, and to facilitate survey. We found it in such a rude
state that it was only with much trouble we got our horses over the trees
which lay felled across the road, or could induce them to put a foot on
the bridges of loose planks by which the water-courses were crossed. In
every direction the path was over-grown with roots, between deep pools,
into which one stepped over the knees, while the boughs of the trees
overhead rendered any attempt at progress a matter of considerable
difficulty.

"We could now form a pretty correct estimate of 'life in the interior of
New Zealand,' and of the obstacles the settler has to encounter in a
climate, the vegetation of which grows in rank luxuriance almost rivalling
that of the tropics. As, however, the Colonial Government attaches the
utmost importance to this matter, and expends large sums in laying out
good roads throughout the interior, many of the impediments to traffic at
present existing will be obviated in a few years. About 9 P.M. we were
once more in Drury, and on the following morning, 2nd January, 1859, the
little party returned to Auckland, when the geologist of the Expedition
made a comprehensive report to Government on the coal-fields of the Drury
district, which had first been noticed by the Rev. Mr. Purchas of
Onehunga, who employed his leisure in geological studies."

According to the geological researches of Dr. Hochstetter, it would appear
that the province of Auckland abounds in good coal that would repay
working, especially a brown coal occurring in the tertiary period, which
greatly resembles that of Bohemia and Styria. The plains of Papakura and
Drury on the eastern shore of Manukau Harbour are part of a rolling
country, and are but little above the level of the sea. S.E. and S. they
are bounded by a thickly-wooded range of hills from 1000 to 1500 feet in
height, running in a direction from S.W. to N.E., or from the Waikato to
the Wairoa; it is only in the vicinity of Drury that a portion of this
chain trends nearly N.E., rising with a gentle slope from the level land
below. At various points on these acclivities strata of coal have been
discovered partly by the action of water, partly by human labour, the
extent of which, owing to the impenetrable forest vegetation and the
consequent lack of natural indications, can only be ascertained by boring.

The coal is of the best quality of that kind of brown coal generally
called cannel coal, and is occasionally met with in immense seams. The
average thickness of the seam is about six feet. The Drury and Hunua
coal-fields seem indeed to be but a part of a far more extensive tertiary
formation, which occurs pretty universally throughout the province of
Auckland. The obvious practical value and commercial importance of this
New Zealand coal can only however be definitely proved, when the various
manufacturing processes in which it is used have been fairly set a-going.
It might at all events be worth the experiment to erect in the vicinity of
the coal mines some manufactories of porcelain, as the utmost variety of
clay has been met with in the course of the different borings, all
admirably suitable for every branch of that manufacture.

In like manner the brown coal might be made available for the supply of
gas, besides being called into requisition for fuel for numerous
industrial pursuits. On the other hand, it is not suitable for ocean steam
navigation, as its volume would prevent its being shipped in sufficient
quantities, so long as black coal could be procured, even at a somewhat
higher price.

The proposals of the geologist of our Expedition as to the best mode of
exploring the wealth of the Drury coal district, were so well received by
the Government, and so eagerly caught up by the proprietors of the various
plots of land--the benefits likely to result to the colony from such an
undertaking seemed so important, that there was not merely a rush to open
up the coal district, but a formal request was made to the Commander of
our Expedition that he would permit Dr. Hochstetter to remain behind to
aid the work, and prosecute further researches in this little-explored
island. This proposition, originated by a number of respectable and
influential persons, at last found official expression in an official
letter despatched by the Governor of the colony to our Commodore, in which
the farther geological exploration of the island by Dr. Hochstetter was
asked as a particular favour.[53] As the request was a high compliment,
and it was impossible the scientific objects of the Expedition could be
more obviously fulfilled than by the thorough geological examination of a
country never hitherto subjected to a similar scrutiny, Commodore Von
Wüllerstorf consented on condition that all the collections made, and the
observations and literary matter published, by Dr. Hochstetter during his
residence on the island, should without exception form part of the results
of the _Novara_ Expedition, and that all expenses incurred during his stay
on the island, or on his passage back to Europe, should be defrayed by the
Government of New Zealand.[54]

All these proposals were at once approved, and Dr. Hochstetter was
moreover handsomely remunerated, and every facility given him to devote
himself to the extension of science while contributing to the welfare of
the country at large. On the 8th January, our estimable travelling
companion disembarked from the _Novara_, intending to remain in Auckland
provisionally, and to make preparations for his arduous task, which was to
be inaugurated by a geological survey of Auckland Province, after which,
in the course of some weeks, he hoped to proceed into the interior.
Several officials, as also a photographer, a draughtsman, and 15 Maories,
were selected to accompany Dr. Hochstetter into the interior, each of whom
strove to contribute to the utmost of their power to the success of an
undertaking fraught with such important results.

During our stay in Auckland we had the misfortune to lose our boatswain,
who died suddenly of serous apoplexy, and was interred in the Catholic
burial-ground. The deceased was so universally beloved, that a collection
was started on board, which resulted in a sufficient sum being raised to
admit of a suitable tombstone being erected to the memory of this worthy
man.

In no part visited by the _Novara_ was she received by the Catholic clergy
with such lively demonstrations of delight as at Auckland. On new year's
day a special high mass was celebrated in the Catholic cathedral in
presence of all the seamen of the vessel, followed by a sermon from Dr.
Pompallier, the venerable R.C. bishop of the province. The gray-headed
prince of the Church, accompanied by his Vicar-General, and several Maori
chiefs, afterwards came off to the frigate, when he paid a visit to the
Commodore. As the Catholic mission at Auckland is anything but well
endowed, our chaplain, by orders of the Commodore and in the name of
H.I.R.M. the Emperor, presented various altar furniture and vessels for
the celebration of mass, which were accepted with many expressions of
gratitude and delight.

For several days a continuance of heavy gales from the northward prevented
the departure of the frigate, which gave our friends in Auckland a further
opportunity of renewing their warm-hearted hospitality. During this delay,
we also shipped as part of the crew two Maories, who at the last moment
declared their wish to accompany us. The official correspondence on this
subject between the Colonial Government and the Commodore is especially
interesting as illustrating the watchful care taken by the New Zealand
authorities in protecting the interests of the Maories. The most
favourable terms were sought to be secured for them, and a special clause
was inserted providing for their return to their native country free of
expense, should they express a wish to that effect at the conclusion of
our voyage. At first four Maories and a half-blood had resolved on making
the voyage, but when the time for embarkation came, only two adhered to
their determination, Wiremu Toe-toe Tumohe, and Te Hemara Rerehau Paraone,
both of Ngatiapakura, and belonging to the powerful Waikato tribe.
Toe-toe, himself a chief of two small tribes of Ngatiapakura and
Ngatiwakohike, about 32 years old when he shipped with us, had been
baptized at 15 by the English missionaries, by whom he had been instructed
in reading and writing. He had also been trained to agricultural pursuits,
and at 20 he married the _mestiza_ daughter of an Englishman and Maori
woman, who had presented him with a son. In his 26th year he entered the
service of the Colonial Government as post messenger, in which capacity he
proved himself so useful that he had been for two years postmaster of his
district, which position he still filled when the _Novara_ arrived.
Toe-toe was the first to display his willingness to assist Government in
constructing roads, and by his influence and example not alone induced
several chiefs to abstain from interposing obstacles in the way of that
much-needed improvement, but even prevailed upon several of his relatives
to take a part in their construction. His determination to accompany the
_Novara_ was solely the result of a long-cherished desire to see foreign
lands and races. Hemara Rerehau Paraone was fired with a similar wish. He
was the son of a wealthy relative of Toe-toe, and had been baptized at an
early age. From 12 to 18 he had frequented a school founded by the English
missionaries, where he learned to write his mother-tongue, and a little
English, arithmetic, geography, and history, besides the accomplishments
of sowing, corn-growing, grinding flour, and baking bread.[55]

At last, on 8th January, the frigate left the harbour of Auckland. Just as
the sails were let fall, some boats made their appearance crowded with
friends, who presented us with a last bouquet, ere we went on our way.
There was also a boat with several natives, and the Vicar-General, who
wished to saddle us with some wonderfully tattooed Catholic Maories,
anxious apparently that Protestant Maories should not alone be shipped.
The zealous father brought with him a letter from the Catholic Bishop,
Pompallier, and was so intent upon his mission that despite the somewhat
rapid rate at which the frigate was now cleaving the water, and the
difficulty which his long black cloak interposed to his movements, he
would not let go his hold, but held on to the Jacob's ladder in order to
get personal speech with the Commodore. It was, however, obviously
impossible to grant his request without further delaying the departure of
the frigate, and the poor Vicar-general, a warm-hearted Irishman, had to
make his way down the slippery ladder again into his little boat, and
return with his _protégés_ to Auckland, his praiseworthy object
unaccomplished.

As, favoured by fair winds, we sped gaily along to the next object of our
travels, the Island of Tahiti, our thoughts and wishes were repeatedly
reverting to New Zealand, where one of our number had remained behind, to
undertake the solution of so difficult but important a problem. The
information obtained by our colleague during his eight months' residence
only came to hand long after the frigate had been safely laid up in
ordinary in Trieste harbour. However, in order to show more fully the
activity displayed in surveying this little-explored island, we avail
ourselves of the following condensed narrative of his labours, drawn up by
Dr. Hochstetter himself.

"My first field of employment was the province of Auckland. The ample
assistance placed at my disposal by J. Williamson, Esq., the very
deserving superintendent of Auckland, enabled me within the short space of
five months to travel over the greater part of this province, which
constitutes nearly the whole of the northern island, while pursuing my
researches for the most part upon a definite plan.

"During the first two months, January and February, Auckland was my
head-quarters, as the season was not yet suitable for pedestrian
excursions in the interior. The heat during the summer months is so great,
and the annoyance caused by the mosquitoes, who during those months
frequent the forest in millions, is so intolerable, that travelling
becomes all but impracticable. Neither of these drawbacks exists to any
great degree in the vicinity of Auckland. The fresh sea-breezes, which
continually blow across the isthmus, temper the summer heats, and the
environs being cleared of forest are but little infested by those
blood-thirsty insects.

"I accordingly applied myself next to those works which during the stay of
the _Novara_ had been set on foot by myself among the brown-coal-fields
near the capital, and adjoining the remarkable volcanic formations of
Auckland, with the view of getting some definite result, in order that I
might provide for myself a detailed geological sketch of the volcanic
district, since even the portion in close vicinity to the capital,
notwithstanding the previous labours of my friend Mr. Heaphy, was, so far
as regarded geological formation, as much a _terra incognita_ as the
interior itself.

"The basis of such a geological chart of the Auckland district was
conveniently supplied by some topographical plottings on the scale of one
inch to the mile, with which I was provided by the Surveyor-general's
office. Unfortunately, these sketches almost entirely omitted any notice
of the description of land surveyed, and, in fact, comprised merely the
outline of the coast and the net-work of the rivers, so that it became
necessary to examine for myself the physical features of the country.

"On a closer examination, the variety of geological formation proved to be
much greater than I had at all anticipated. What chiefly took up my time
was the investigation of the remarkable extinct volcanic caves of the
Isthmus of Auckland, which, so far as regards the great number comprised
within a small space, and the peculiarities of their cave and crater
configuration as modifying the lava streams, must be pronounced unique of
their kind. Within a circuit of only ten miles from Auckland I had to mark
down 61 different points of eruption! An excursion southwards to Manukau
Harbour, and the mouth of the Waikato westward, led to our finding
important petrifactions at the south source of the Waikato, and along the
west coast to the discovery of belemnites and fossil ferns in excellent
preservation. Thus for the first time the secondary strata of New Zealand
were bared to view. Further excursions to the Drury and Papakina
districts, as also to the Wairoa River, were rewarded by the confirmation
of the extension thither of the brown coal formation, after which I
extended my investigation northwards to the Waitakeri, and the peninsula
of Wangaparoa.

"My map, so far as completed, and sent to the Colonial Government for
their use and to be copied, embraced by the end of February the whole of
the environs of Auckland for a distance of 20 miles. It brought to light a
district abounding in most important and remarkable geological features,
besides a stratum of sedimentary deposit of all the geological periods
(primary, secondary, tertiary, and diluvial), including numerous volcanic
phenomena. My collections however embraced a quantity of splendid
petrifactions, and an immense number of interesting rocks, while the
botanical and zoological collections were greatly added to through the
kind assistance of well-wishers of all degrees of the community.

"The question now to be solved was, 'Should I make the northern or the
southern portion of the province the scenes of further exploration?'
Properly to examine both was impossible within the short period I could
remain. I did not hesitate to decide in favour of the southern district,
and that for a variety of reasons. The southern portion of the province is
inhabited almost exclusively by natives. Only missionaries, tourists, and
a few Government officials had hitherto traversed these interesting
regions. The north of the island, on the other hand, is much better known.
Numbers of European settlers inhabit the shores of the numerous bays of
the northern Peninsula. The colonists themselves, by word of mouth, or
written information, could furnish me with all the information I required
respecting the natural history of those regions, not to speak of the
specimens that were constantly being sent me.

"Dieffenbach had already visited every point of importance in the north,
which he had very fully described in all other essentials, if not
geologically. The renowned American geologist, Dana, when attached to the
great expedition despatched by the United States to the Southern
Ocean,[56] landed at the Bay of Islands, the most important harbour in the
north, and had given full geological details of that neighbourhood.
Moreover, my friends, the Rev. A. G. Purchas and C. Heaphy, Esq., during
my stay in the country, visited several districts in the north, whence
they brought me collections and specimens of every kind, so that I was by
no means unacquainted with the north. On the other hand, the broad
interior of the southern part of the province seemed to me to be almost
entirely unexplored. Since Dieffenbach's remarkable voyage in 1840, no
naturalist had visited the remarkable volcanic peaks of the interior, the
beautiful inland lakes, the boiling springs, the Solfataras and Fumaroles.
The geological information respecting these conveyed by Dieffenbach's
narrative of travel, seemed to me very meagre, while topographically the
interior was a blank. Accordingly, a visit to it seemed to promise the
most important results.

"Towards the end of February all necessary preparations had been made;
Capt. Drummond Hay, well known as one of the best Maori scholars, was
commissioned by Government to lay out my route and act as interpreter. The
Government, however, forestalled my utmost wish by furnishing me with a
photographist, as well as an assistant to aid me in meteorological
observations, and generally to make himself useful in collecting and
sketching. The latter was a young German, M. Koch, who proved himself a
most invaluable ally, while M. Hamel took charge of the photography. There
were also an attendant, a cook, and fifteen natives, to transport baggage.

"I was likewise accompanied by my friend Mr. Haast, who had but recently
come to New Zealand, sent out by some mercantile firm in London to explore
the country for colonizing purposes. On the 6th March I set out with my
numerous company, intending to proceed first from Auckland to Mangatawhiri
on the Waikato, the chief river of New Zealand that flows from the
interior. Crossing the Waikato in a native canoe, and afterwards its
tributary the Waipa, I directed my steps westward from the Mission Station
on the last-named river in the direction of Whaingarva, Aotea, and Kawhia,
on the west coast. From Kawhia I struck landwards towards the upper course
of the Waipa, as far as the Mokan district. Thence, after crossing
frequent mountain-chains thickly wooded, I reached the source of the
Wanganui in the Tuhua district, and on 14th April arrived at the majestic
Lake Taupo, surrounded on every side by the most magnificent volcanic
caves. Here I was at the very heart of the country, at the foot of the
still smoking volcano of Tongariro, and its extinct neighbour Ruapahu,
9200 feet high, and covered with perpetual snow. At the southern
extremity of the lake is a mission-house, where I received a most
hospitable welcome, while my Maories received at the hands of Te Heukeu,
the great Maori chief, a most cordial reception, in conformity with the
excellent customs of the country. After I had laid out the chart of the
lake, and examined the springs along its banks, I followed up the Waikato
by its outlet from the lake, till I reached the very singular chain of
boiling springs, Solfatare, salt-springs and Fumaroles, which extend in a
N.E. direction between the active crater of Tongariro and the still active
volcano of Whakari or White Island on the east coast. On a longer stay,
the country adjoining the sea along the prolongation of this line
furnishes the site at Lakes Rotorua, Rotoiti, and Rotomahana (or Hot
lake), for the _Ngawhas_ and Puias, i. e. boiling springs and geysers with
siliceous sintu-deposits, as in Iceland, which there display their
greatest activity. I look upon this locality as presenting the most
remarkable and extensive chain of hot-springs in the world, Iceland itself
not excepted.

"By the first week in May we gained the east coast at Maketu, whence we
kept along the coast as far as Tauranga harbour, and thence once more
turned our faces towards the interior at the Wai Ho valley, or valley of
the New Zealand Thames, and thus once more reached the Waikato at
Maungatautari. I now wandered through the fertile plains of the central
Waikato basin, to Rangiawhia, the central point of the Maori settlements,
paid a visit to the Maori king, Potatáu te Wherowhero, at his residence,
Ngaruawahia, at the confluence of the Waikato and Waipah, and so by the
end of May reached Auckland from the Waikato, by way of Mangatawhiri.

"The results of this expedition, of almost three months' duration, were
most satisfactory to myself. The weather had been singularly favourable,
so that I found no insurmountable obstacles, although our route led
through districts difficult of approach, owing to the frequent recurrence
of flood, swamp, and almost impervious primeval forest. As my travels were
undertaken about the period of the New Zealand harvest-time, both of the
potato and corn crops, there was no lack of provisions. At the various
missionary stations scattered throughout this region we received the most
heartfelt hospitality, and even the native chiefs did not fail to receive
into their tents, and welcome in right hearty fashion, the Te Ratu
Hokiteta, as I was named in the Maori tongue, with all his numerous train.
My Maories had proved themselves so willing and obliging, as well as
cheerful, over the work, and my friends Haast, Hay, Hamel, and Koch, had
so zealously co-operated with me, that the results achieved were quite
beyond my most sanguine expectations. I now had complete geographical,
geological, botanical, and zoological materials in my hands, nor was there
any lack even of ethnographical specimens.

"My chief object had been to obtain a correct notion of the geography and
geology of the country. In order to be in a position to make geological
deductions, I had at the same time to get up the topography, for all that
was set down in the maps of the interior had not been taken from regular
hydrographic data, but were mere jottings, which had been laid down from
the hasty and necessarily imperfect sketches which travelling
missionaries, public officers, and other casual travellers had brought
with them. The imperfect charts which the Colonial Government had supplied
me with, to guide me in pushing to the eastward, only gave the inhabited
points along the coast, and even a few miles distant from Auckland were so
much waste paper. To remedy this I had recourse, from the very
commencement, to a system of triangulation, by means of an Azimuth
compass, based upon the nautical survey of the coast made by Capt. Drury,
which I prosecuted, with the invaluable assistance of Capt. Drummond Hay,
from the west coast to the east. The natives, who, in their profound
distrust of the government land speculations, always threw every possible
obstacle in the way of the land-surveyors and provincial engineers, so
soon as they made their appearance, theodolite in hand, on any land not
yet purchased, never once disturbed us. They knew I was a stranger, who
was only going to stay a few months in the country, and accordingly made
it a point of honour that I should carry home with me as high an opinion
as possible of the country. At every remarkable point the chiefs stationed
guides, and accompanied me to the summits of the mountains, whence I made
my observations, and with great readiness furnished me with the name of
every hill and stream visible, as well as the valleys and lakes within
sight, and explained in their own way the geography of the district. On my
side I collected carefully all the information I could glean respecting
the natives, and in this fashion I believe I have rescued from oblivion a
number of beautiful and highly-characteristic names. The configuration of
the soil I always sketched off on the spot, and thus brought away from my
tour materials sufficient to enable me to prepare during my stay in
Auckland a topographical chart of the southern part of the island on a
large scale, reserving for more mature consideration, at a future day, the
preparation of a carefully revised edition of this provisional map.

"The barometrical observations made during this tour were reduced by
comparison with those of the Royal Engineer's Observatory at Auckland, the
tables used in which were obligingly put at my disposal by Colonel Mould,
R.E.

"There are also to be noticed an immense number of drawings and
photographs, taken during the Expedition, as also some very valuable
landscape sketches, made for me by Mr. Heaphy.

"There still remained, however, a most interesting object for examination
in the vicinity of Auckland, namely, the Cape Colville peninsula on the
eastern shores of Hauraki Bay. The discovery of gold in Coromandel Harbour
on this coast, had some years before created great excitement. I devoted a
few days of fine weather in the month of June to visiting these
gold-fields; a projected visit to the copper-mines of Great Barrier
Island, and the Island of Kawau, had unfortunately to be abandoned, owing
to bad weather.

"With this, the period of my stay at Auckland was drawing to a close. At
the request of the members of the Mechanics' Institute, I delivered on the
24th June, shortly before my departure, a lecture in the hall of the
society, upon the geological capabilities of the province, in which I
threw together the chief results of my investigations, and illustrated
them by means of roughly-executed charts, plans, sketches, and
photographs. As I had neither time nor complete material for a more
extended report, it was on this lecture that Government relied for an
account of my various operations. The arrangement and careful packing of
the collections, and the drawing the maps, delayed my departure for some
weeks, and after my days of labour followed others, still more impossible
to forget, of agreeable society and festive meetings, ere I could tear
myself away from the inhabitants of Auckland. Thousands of mementos of New
Zealand were thrust into my hands. My collections comprised treasures of
all sorts, such as must for ever engrave on my memory the forests and
mountains of New Zealand. But I had yet again to thank the good people of
Auckland for a last souvenir of their kindly feeling and generosity to
myself. On the 24th July I was invited to a banquet in the name of the
province, at which I was presented, in terms far too flattering, with an
address,[57] accompanied by an elegant and valuable testimonial.

"Unfortunately, owing to want of time, I could not respond to the cordial
invitation extended to me to make a lengthened stay, accompanied by
further surveys of Wellington and New Plymouth (Province of Taranaki), and
Ahuhiri (Province of Hawke's Bay). So, too, I was compelled gratefully to
decline a kind invitation from the Governor to accompany him on an
expedition to the Southern Island, on board H.M.'s frigate _Iris_,
preferring to accept a previous invitation from the Superintendent of the
Province of Nelson, as a visit to Middle Island seemed of special
importance, however short my stay. It not alone satisfied me of the
justice of the name assigned to Nelson, of being the 'Garden of New
Zealand,' but also kept me fully occupied in examining its variety of
mineral treasures, such as copper, gold, coal, &c., which have made the
province the chief mineral and metalliferous district of New Zealand. And
how was it possible for me to come back to Europe without having seen the
splendid chain of the Southern Alps, and their summits crowned with
perpetual snow?

"Accordingly, on 28th July, I embarked on board the steamer _Lord Ashley_,
bound for Cook's Straits. The voyage gave me the opportunity, as the
vessel called at Nelson and Wellington both (anchoring at the latter),
before entering Blind Bay, of paying a flying visit to both those
localities. Thus, on 30th of July I had a splendid view of the lofty
Taranaki mountain (Mount Egmont), 8270 feet high, and was enabled to
study, among the sugar-loaf rocks of the Taranaki coast, the peculiarities
of the trachytic lava of this the most regular in shape of the volcanic
peaks of New Zealand. After a stormy passage through Cook's Straits, we
landed on 1st August at Wellington, and reached Nelson on the 3rd.

"I was received in the most cordial manner by the denizens of Nelson, who,
while the _Novara_ lay at anchor at Auckland, had extended to the members
of the Expedition a most cordial invitation.

"The provincial Government, under the advice of the excellent
superintendent, J. P. Robinson, Esq., had already issued the requisite
instructions to enable me to make the utmost possible use of the time at
my disposal for geological survey, and had chartered for me the steamer
_Tasmanian Maid_, so as to enable me to visit with all possible dispatch
the most important formations on the shores of Blind and Golden Bays.

"The geological field which is opened up on the Middle Island, was
entirely new as compared with the Northern Island. In the neighbourhood of
Nelson, the Southern Alps send off outliers, in the shape of
mountain-chains, 5000 and 6000 feet high, covered in winter with deep
snow, as far as Cook's Straits. The western chains are composed of primary
crystalline rocks, granite, gneiss, micaceous and hornblend slate,
quartz, and clay slate, whereas sedimentary sandstone, chalk, and almost
vertical stratifications, constitute the chief formations observable in
the eastern chain. Between these older formations, however, among the
valleys and depressions, occur later stratifications, including brown coal
or peat.

"A succession of splendid weather was gladly hailed as an evidence of the
renowned climate of Nelson, and my very first excursions opened to me such
interesting subjects of inquiry, that I was fain to decide on prolonging
till September the month's visit I had originally determined on
restricting myself to. I was thus enabled to examine more minutely the
various gold and coal-fields near Nelson, as also the copper-mines on the
Dun Mountains, and at all events to represent on a chart the geological
features of the northern part of the province.

"The results of the investigations into the mineral wealth of this
province were on the whole eminently favourable. I could not indeed
confirm the sanguine anticipations of some mining speculators, of the
inexhaustible, though as yet unrevealed, treasures of copper in the Dun
Mountains, although, adjoining the rather meagre copper-bearing strata,
there were instances of abundance of chromate of iron, which promised a
considerable return. Above all, however, there still remained to be
visited the gold-fields of the Aorere and Tetakaka valleys at Golden Bay,
the quantity already extracted from which, as well as its purity,
satisfied me that capital might secure a splendid return here by a more
extended and systematic mode of working, and that the discovery of this,
the first of the New Zealand gold-fields, is but the commencement of a
series of such along the range of hills which traverses the Middle Island;
discoveries which, though perhaps not on so extensive a scale as those of
Australia and California, must nevertheless tend to raise higher and
higher the rank of New Zealand among the gold-producing countries of the
earth. Lastly, it was found that in the province of Nelson, side by side
with the ordinary strata in which the brown coal occurs in North Island,
were beds of coal of a very superior quality. The excellent but
unfortunately very limited coal-fields of Pakawau give ground for
anticipating that in other localities it may very probably be possible to
discover larger and more easily-worked beds, and my friend Haast has, in
fact, since my visit discovered such on Buller-and-Grey river, on the
Western shore of the province of Nelson.

"During my stay in Nelson my collections waxed in amount to an unusual
degree. In vain had I attempted while in North Island to discover remains
of the gigantic extinct bird of New Zealand, or the bones of the
_Dinornis_ and _Palapteryx_, Moa of the natives. These researches met with
far greater success in Middle Island. The chalk valleys of the Aorere
valley furnished us with splendid specimens of these singular and rare
remains of birds. Not merely were individual bones daily discovered,
through the indefatigable exertions of my friend Haast, but from time to
time entire skeletons more or less perfect. Besides these, I was
presented with a very valuable complete skeleton of the _Palapteryx
ingens_ (Owen), from the Nelson Museum, so that the collection of
remains[58] of the Moa, which I brought back with me to Vienna, is
scarcely, if at all, inferior to the valuable series of relics of an
extinct race of birds which at present adorns the British Museum.

"I must express my thankful sense of the kindness with which my friends
Dr. Monro, Capt. Rough Travers, Messrs. Adams, Curtis, and many others,
contributed minerals, plants, and zoological specimens to the enrichment
of my collections of natural history. I am also deeply indebted to Messrs.
Campbell and Burnett for several exquisite landscape sketches, and the
Provincial Government for a variety of interesting photographic pictures
of the environs of Nelson.

"It was with regret I tore myself from a region where so much remained to
discover, and so much hitherto unexamined to explore. In the higher and
more remote regions of the Southern Alps, never yet trodden by human foot,
there was nothing left for me to do. From the shores of the Rotoito lake
(Lake Arthur) I could see the southernmost point reached by me, where the
lofty pinnacles of the southern range, crowned with perpetual snow, rose
grandly before me. I could but picture to myself the majesty and sublimity
of those hills, which my friend and travelling companion, J. Haast,
succeeded in ascending in 1860-61, after indescribable difficulties and
hardships, which redounded to the credit of German 'pluck' and
perseverance, as the results did honour to German science.

"My time had now been stretched to its utmost limit, and I had to prepare
for my return to Europe. In a lecture upon the geology of the province,
which I delivered at Nelson on 29th September, I presented in a succinct
form the results of my observations. An extract from this lecture,
accompanied by a copy of my geological map, I presented to the Provincial
Government of Nelson and the Colonial Government of Auckland.

"I cannot conclude without recording the numerous instances of
consideration and unexpected kindness which I received at the hands of the
inhabitants of Nelson, and especially for their flattering and gratifying
appreciation of my labours, which at the close of the lecture already
mentioned took the form of an address,[59] accompanied by an elegant and
appropriate souvenir, consisting of a beautifully-finished cabinet,
composed of the various coloured woods of New Zealand.

"On 2nd October, 1859, I embarked for Sydney, on board the steamer _Prince
Alfred_. After a short sojourn in the capital of New South Wales, I went
on to Melbourne, whence I visited the most important of the gold-fields of
the colony of Victoria, and by the middle of November returned _viâ_
Mauritius and the Red Sea to Europe."

       *       *       *       *       *

Such is the account given by our geologist of his proceedings while the
_Novara_ was steering homewards. The voyage to the Society Islands
Archipelago promised at first to be very speedy, but ere long was
seriously delayed by strong contrary winds, and while, on the one hand, we
could make but short tacks, we had on the other not merely to forego the
pleasure of clear sunny weather, but had the miserable prospect of nothing
but squalls and rain. Our additions to our natural history collections
were likewise very scanty, and even our most important capture, a shark 10
feet 4 inches in length, and weighing 174 lbs., was much more of a treat
to the sailors than an acquisition to science.

The only circumstance throughout the voyage which made a certain
impression was the passage of the meridian of 180°, about 11 P.M., on the
10th of January, so that we had now entered upon W. longitude again.
Accordingly, there was no small astonishment among the sailors, when a day
seemed suddenly to be dropped out of our reckoning, and orders were issued
that Monday, 10th January, should be entered twice in all journals and
reckonings, that is, should be entered for that and the following day
also, so as to prevent our returning to Europe with the log one day ahead
of the calendar. Of course a little explanation soon satisfied all
landsmen of the necessity of the alteration, but their amazement reminds
me of the dismay of earlier Catholic navigators, when they found they had
been keeping irregular fast days. Thus, when the first circumnavigation of
the globe was made by Magelhaen, who sailed in the _San Lucas de
Barrameda_ on 20th September, 1519, he found on his return, after a three
years' cruise, to Santiago, one of the Cape De Verd Islands, that the
Portuguese there were keeping Thursday, the 10th July, 1522, whereas his
log marked Wednesday, the 9th, he having doubled the Horn and sailed from
east to west. The idea of having lost a day of their lives disquieted the
worthy and pious mariners far less than the fact that they had observed
Lady-day erroneously, and had eaten meat on fast days! On their return to
Spain they could not get credit for the lost day, which was set down to an
error in reckoning, the meaning being that they had omitted the
intercalary day in February, 1520. Peter Martyr spoke concerning this to
the renowned Venetian ambassador, Contarini, who at once pointed out that
a day must necessarily be lost in the course steered by the _Victoria_,
while, on the other hand, a day would have been gained by sailing from W.
to E. One consequence of this proof of the sphericity of the earth was,
that it at once became obviously necessary to draw a line of demarcation
between the Spanish and Portuguese settlements. Thus, too, Captain Steen
Bille relates, that when he sailed from Tahiti he logged his departure as
on Friday, 18th December, whereas on the adjacent island of Borra-Borra
they were already reckoning it the 19th. The mode of reckoning at Tahiti
corresponded with his own, but only, it would seem, in consequence of an
alteration which had been made a few weeks previously. In short, the mode
of reckoning time among the South Sea Archipelagoes depends solely upon
whether they have been approached in the first instance from the west or
the east by the navigator who has introduced among them the Christian
Calendar. However, so long as the discrepancy is not too great, a
conventional mode of computation is employed, and one general epoch is
used for all groups of islands in or near the meridian of 180°. In any
case, it is a matter of indifference to the brown natives of these island
groups whether or not they correspond with Greenwich at a given hour of a
given day.

On 4th February the look-out man at the mast-head sung out "Land on the
lee-bow!" This proved to be the small island of Tubuai, of the Rorutu
Archipelago, the inhabitants of which at present seem to be likewise under
the "careful" protection of France.

At length, on 11th February, we came in sight of Tahiti and the outlying
Island of Eimeo or Morea, after which we tacked towards the latter, which
we approached so closely that we could quite plainly distinguish its
singular serrated outline, its precipitous crags, and its crater-like
depressions, as well as the thick, gloomy forests that clothe its secluded
valleys. Many of these pinnacles and steep rocky declivities presented all
the appearance of a series of colossal ruins of cities and palaces,
protected by towers, battlements, and embrasures. About 4 P.M. we hove to
off Papeete. The entrance into this harbour, surrounded by coral reefs
which indeed form the haven, is exceedingly narrow, the fair way for the
frigate not exceeding half a cable's length. As no pilot boat was visible,
a blank shot was fired, and a certain signal hoisted, upon which a small
boat pulled off with the long-looked for pilot. At 6 P.M. we cast anchor
in 11 fathoms water, in clay ground. In the harbour were three whalers, a
French transport, and the dispatch steamer _Milan_, which had left Sydney
twelve days before us, had remained three days at New Caledonia, whence it
had been 54 days on the voyage to Papeete, only making use of its steam in
the most urgent cases. We ran up the flag of the French Protectorate at
the main-mast-head, and saluted the city with the customary 21 guns, which
were replied to by a field battery, which had to be brought down to the
beach for the purpose. Much astonishment was expressed that we should have
ventured to run the frigate through the narrow channel between Eimeo and
Tahiti, which has a very bad repute, and is very rarely attempted by
vessels of large size, but, as we ourselves experienced, is perfectly
practicable with a favourable wind, and greatly shortens the approach to
the harbour.

With the consent of the Governor, who received us with much cordiality (no
intelligence having as yet reached these waters of the diplomatic
misunderstandings which at our antipodes were forming the prologue as it
were of the war that broke out somewhat later), we were permitted to use
the islet of Motu-Uta, lying in the harbour, for the purpose of carrying
on, free from interruption, our astronomical, meteorological, and magnetic
observations. A simple wooden hut which we found upon the island served
for an observatory, while quantities of slender-stemmed cocoa-palms,
waving their rustling green canopies overhead, invited us to welcome
repose after the exhaustion of the day's labour. To this smiling islet,
which rose in the midst of the bay like a basket of flowers, King Pomáre
II. once retired, there to translate the Holy Scriptures into Tahitian.
Here, too--probably in the very hut which now served us as an
observatory--it was that the same sovereign, when old, spent whole days,
and occasionally, according to tradition, indulged so freely in cognac
that he was frequently heard, when in that state, to say to himself,
"Pomáre, Pomáre! thy _puan_ (pig) were now better fitted to reign than
thou!"


                              FOOTNOTES:

[29] We are indebted to C. W. Stafford, Esq., Under Secretary of State to
the Colonial Government, for copies of the latest statistical documents,
from which we learn _inter alia_ that at the end of 1859 the population
amounted to 129,392, the aborigines numbering 56,049, and the foreigners
73,343.

[30] According to the tradition handed down from the chief
Te-he[)u]-he[)u], their forefathers emigrated first from
Hawaiki-Tawiti-Nui, to Hawaiki-Patata, where they sojourned some
time, and thence went to Hawaiki-Ki-te-Maite[)u], whence they came
to New Zealand.

[31] According to Dr. Thomson ("The story of New Zealand past and present,
savage and civilized." London. John Murray, 1859), who lived eleven years
at Auckland prosecuting his duties as a surgeon in the army, the Maori
came to New Zealand, passing by Rarotonga, from Sawaii, the largest of the
Navigators' Islands, about the year 1419. This opinion, which is not
devoid of probability, is not however incompatible with the Sandwich
Islands being the original cradle of the New Zealanders, and Sawaii only a
sort of intermediate station. (See United States Exploring Expedition
1838-42. Ethnography or Philology, vol. vii., by Horatio Hale,
Philadelphia. Lea and Blanchard, 1846.--The Traditionary Migrations of the
New Zealanders and the Maori Legends (_Die Wundersagen der Neu-Seeländer
und der Maori Mythos_), by C. Schirren. Riga. N. Kymmel, 1856.)

[32] The sick were formerly made to drink the fluid contained in the
shells of fresh and salt-water _Conchyliæ_.

[33] Of these the most important are:--"Polynesian Mythology, and ancient
traditional History of the New Zealand Race, as furnished by their Priests
and Chiefs. London, 1855." "Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the
Ancestors of the New Zealand Race. Capetown, 1857."

[34] New Zealand: being a Narrative of Travels and Adventures during a
Residence in that Country, between the years 1831 and 1837. By J. S.
Polack, Esq., member of the Colonial Society of London. In two volumes.
London, Rich. Bentley, 1838.--Travels in New Zealand, with contributions
to the Geography, Geology, and Natural History of that Country. By Ernest
Dieffenbach, M.D., late Naturalist to the New Zealand Company. 2 vols.
London, J. Murray, 1843.--The Southern Districts of New Zealand; a Journal
with passing Notices of the Customs of the Aborigines.--By Edward
Shortland, M.A., London, Longman and Co. 1851.--A Dictionary of the New
Zealand Language and a concise Grammar; to which is added a Collection of
Colloquial Sentences. By W. Williams, D.C.L., Archdeacon of Waiapú.
London, 1852.--The Ika-a-Mauí, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants. By R.
Taylor. London, 1855.--A Leaf from the Natural History of New Zealand. By
R. Taylor. Wellington, New Zealand, 1848.--New Zealand, the "Britain of
the South." By Charles Hursthouse. London, E. Stanford, 1861. Of purely
scientific works relating to botany, Dr. Hooker's "Flora of New Zealand"
may be mentioned as the most comprehensive.

[35] Rona is a Maori maiden of whom a legend relates that the moon,
irritated at her petulant disposition, carried her off to the upper
regions.

[36] The dead is here spoken of as the evening star, which is supposed to
rise in another world, where on its arrival it is welcomed with great
rejoicings by the thousands that have preceded it.

[37] Main is the same as the Kumera, or sweet potato.

[38] Tikoro is the name of a race or tribe of the Hokianga district.

[39] A Maori, who maintained his neutrality, though he evidently views the
victories of his countrymen with partial eyes, wrote us only a few months
ago, "that in the combats which marked the first outbreak of hostilities,
the English lost 2000 and the Maories only 1000!"

[40] Maori Mementos, being a series of Addresses presented by the Native
People to H.E. Sir George Grey, Governor and High Commissioner of the Cape
of Good Hope, and late Governor of New Zealand, with introductory remarks
and explanatory notes; to which is added a small Collection of Laments,
&c., by Charles Olivier B. Davis, translator and interpreter to the
General Government. Auckland, 1855. Also, "The New Zealand chief Kawiti,
and other New Zealand warriors." Auckland, 1855.

[41] Potatáu (i. e. shriek by night) was so far back as 1833, during the
bloody contests of the Waikatos against the Taranaki, a renowned warrior
and cannibal, who at that period, according to undoubted authority, had
with his own hand slain 200 of the foe, and had returned home from the
battle-field satiated with human flesh, and rich in slaves. In the evening
of his days he was an advocate of peace, and a friend of the whites. When
he died, in 1860, his son, second of the name, was declared his successor.

[42] Observations on the State of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of New
Zealand. By F. D. Fenton, the compiler of the statistical tables of the
native population. Auckland, 1859. "The object of the publication by the
Government of this paper is to draw attention to the state of the native
population, especially to the decrease in numbers--_with a view to invite
inquiry as to the cause, and suggestions of a remedy_."

[43] Of the enormous waste of human life caused by these wars some idea
may be formed from the fact that at the storming and capture of the single
_páh_ of Matakitaki on the river Waipa 2000 warriors were killed; a larger
amount of killed than that of the English army at Waterloo!

[44] Of the bitter feelings excited by the Maori revolt among the
inhabitants of Australia, an idea may be formed from the fact that Dr.
Mackay, a well-known personage in political circles at Melbourne,
seriously proposed to the Government of Victoria to send a volunteer
expeditionary force to the seat of war, to assist in suppressing the
rebels. The expenses, which Dr. Mackay estimated at £15,000 to £20,000,
were to be repaid by sales of land in the conquered portion. Nay, this
learned expounder of the "law" went so far as to pronounce the subjugation
of these "savages" as imperatively necessary. The men were to be shipped
off to Melbourne, to work as "SLAVES" for seven years; the females to be
carried away and disposed of as wives for the Chinese and well-conducted
white convicts! Dr. Cairns, Bishop of Melbourne, and other ministers of
the gospel, adds this humane philanthropist, to be at liberty to use "_all
fair means_" (!!!) for their conversion.--Compare _Sydney Morning Herald_,
Saturday, July 21st, 1860.

[45] The most important American, Indian, and Australian markets may be
reached by screw steamer from Auckland as follows:--

                     Miles     Days
  New Caledonia      1250       5
  Tahiti             2380       9
  Sandwich Islands   4060      14
  Valparaiso         5420      20
  San Francisco      5950      22
  Batavia            4750      17
  Manila             4650      17
  Singapore          5050      18
  Calcutta           6820      26
  Sydney             1260       5
  Melbourne          1420       6
  Adelaide           1780       7
  Hobart Town        1250       5
  Panama             5320      20

If the contemplated route _viâ_ Panama be made available (with a coaling
station at Gambier Islands), some 3500 miles or 14 days' sail would be
saved, so that New Zealand would be reached in from 41 to 48 days, and
Sydney and Melbourne in about 53 and 54 days respectively.

[46] According to Dr. Thomson's meteorological observations, the following
are the averages for the town of Auckland (36° 50' S.), temperature
59-1/2° Fahr.; rain-fall 45-1/2 inches; days on which rain falls 160;
barometer 29.95 inches.

[47] Not less interesting are the returns as to the number of soldiers
attacked with consumption and who died of it at the various garrisons,
which are as follows: Of 1000 soldiers there were

                        Attacked  Died
  In New Zealand           60     2.7
  At Cape of Good Hope     98     3
  In Australia            133     5.8
  At Malta                120     6
  In Canada               148     6.7
  In Great Britain        148     8

[48] These grants, however, are only made to the person who actually
defrays the expenses of the passage: thus they are not made to children,
but to their parents; not to the servant, but to the master, who has paid
the passage of the former.

[49] Besides the Kauri pine, there is abundance of Rimu or red pine, the
Kahi-Katea or white pine, the Tanakaha or pitch pine, the Matan or black
pine, as also the Puriri or New Zealand oak, all trees of great utility.

[50] At the period of the _Novara's_ visit to Auckland the proportion of
the various nationalities and religions were as follows:

               Nations.
  Irish                        11,881
  Scotch                       11,881
  English                      35,644
  Germans and other nations       594
                               ------
                               60,000

              Religions.
  Catholics                     7,500
  Presbyterians                 7,500
  Wesleyans and Dissenters     15,000
  Episcopalians                30,000
                               ------
                               60,000

[51] The Government also publishes at its own expense a Maori paper
weekly, Te Karere Maori, the Maori Messenger, the subscription to which
is 5_s._ 6_d._ per annum, and is intended to keep the coloured
population informed of the most important political and social events,
as also to tend to their civilization. We subjoin the contents of a
single number now lying before us. "The laws of England.--Remarks upon
ship-owners.--Official notices.--Letter from the chiefs of Chatham
Island.--Farming, commercial, and maritime news.--Price current.--Speech
of some brown chiefs at a meeting at Mongonui.--Letter from Bay of
Islands.--Deaths.--The Auckland infirmary.--Government orders, &c."
Colonel Brown deserves special praise and acknowledgment for the
publication of the laws of England in Maori, accompanied with the
original text, although the fruits of this arduous but important labour
may only gradually become apparent.

[52] It is especially worthy of remark, that wherever the Anglo-Saxon race
colonize, the newspaper and the post-office follow the footsteps of the
first settlers. After these come the church and the school-house.
Newspaper perusal and dispatch of letters are among the first necessities
of life to the Englishman. In the whole of New Zealand there were, in
1858, 64,357 copies of the various journals struck off, and 482,856
letters received and dispatched. The province of Auckland alone figures
for 239,367 papers and 133,121 letters.

[53] See Appendix III.

[54] See Appendix IV.

[55] These two Maories, who at first were very much depressed, soon got
reconciled to their new sphere, and by their excellent conduct and
obliging disposition, presently became great favourites among the crew.
Only during our rough passage round the Horn, the tremendous storms and
the unaccustomed severity of the cold caused them great uneasiness; they
thought, as they themselves said, that "they must have died then;" and
great were their longings for their native country. When at last they
arrived safely and in excellent health at Trieste, they travelled to
Vienna in company with one of the members of the Expedition, where,
through the kindness of Privy Councillor von Auer, they entered into the
Imperial-Royal Printing House, and were also instructed in the most
important and interesting particulars of European civilization. Mr.
Zimmerl, a member of that Institution, who had made the Maori idiom a
special study, taught them English and German, as well as the manipulation
of types and lithography, besides copper-plate engraving and drawing from
nature. So intelligent and anxious for improvement did they prove
themselves to be, that the Imperial Government were requested by the
Directors of the State Printing Office to present the two Maories on their
return to their native country with the necessary implements to enable
them to avail themselves at home of the knowledge they acquired under such
creditable circumstances. During their nine months' stay in Vienna, they
were made acquainted with all the "lions" of the metropolis, and all the
manners and customs of European civilized life. Of all the numerous sights
that must have astonished their unaccustomed senses, there was none that
seemed to have made a more powerful impression than the Railway, "the most
splendid evidence of the powers of the foreigners, compared with which all
others are unimportant, and which they earnestly trust will soon be
introduced into New Zealand." The culmination of their visit to Vienna
consisted in a visit they paid to their Majesties in the Imperial Palace,
by whom they were received with the most gracious consideration, and
orders issued that they should receive a handsome present, and have their
return to their native country defrayed at the Government cost. On 26th
May, 1860, the two New Zealanders quitted Vienna, and travelled through
Germany to London, where they stayed several weeks, were presented to the
Queen, and embarked at Southampton for Auckland direct. They arrived in
safety at home, and have since then repeatedly written to their friends
and associates in Vienna. The style of these epistles is in the highly
figurative style peculiar to New Zealand. They abound in repetitions, and
are not very inventive in rounding their sentences or giving their
impressions, though they occasionally surprise the reader by the
tenderness and poetic fervour of their thoughts. Thus, for example,
Toe-toe writes once from Vienna to one of the Expedition resident at
Trieste: "Thou art at Trieste, on the sea-shore! We climbed the Leopold
Berg,--thence to descry the clouds which floated over Styria. Trieste we
could not see, for our eyes were veiled by the tears which flowed from
them!" The news we have received of Toe-toe since have been rather
distressing. He issues from the press, presented to him at Vienna,
stirring publications, comparing the Maories to Pharaoh (?) and exciting
them to declare their independence!

[56] Commanded by Captain Wilkes, recently so notorious by his conduct
with reference to the English mail steamer _Trent_, in Nov. 1861.

[57] See Appendix V.

[58] Of this wonderful bird a cast was moulded in gypsum, and has been
sent to the great International Exhibition, 1862.

[59] See Appendix.


               [Illustration: Native Fête to the Governor]



                                   XX.

                                 Tahiti.

            Duration of Stay From 11th To 28th January, 1859.

    State of the island at the close of last century.--The London
    Missionary Society and its emissaries.--Great mortality among
    the native population.--First arrival of Catholic Priests in
    Oceania.--French Protectorate and its consequences.--The
    Tahitian Parliament and Tahitian debaters.--William Howe.--Adam
    Kulczycki.--Scientific aims and achievements.--The Catholic
    mission.--_Pré Catalan_ and native dances.--Prisoners of war
    from New Caledonia.--Point Venus.--Guava-fields.--The fort of
    Fautáua.--Lake Waiiria.--Popular _Fête_ at Faáa.--Ball given by
    the Governor.--Queen Pomáre.--Geographical notes on Tahiti and
    Eimeo.--Climate.--Vegetation.--The Kawa root, and the
    intoxicating drink produced from it.--Great expense of the
    French Stations in Oceania.--Projects of reform.--Results of
    English and French colonization.--Two convicts.--Departure.--The
    Whaler _Emily Morgan_.--Attempt to fix the zero point of
    magnetic declination.--"Colique végétale."--A victim.--Pitcairn
    Island.--A fire-side tale of the tropical world.--An accident
    without ill results.--Humboldt's Current.--Arrival at
    Valparaiso.


Of all the innumerable islands of the vast Pacific, there is none which at
various periods has attracted the attention and aroused the interest of
the civilized world in the same degree as that in whose harbour we were
now lying at anchor. At first it was the inimitable grace of Cook's
narrative of his stay in Otaheite,[60] and the simplicity and felicity of
its inhabitants, that left a deep and permanent impression on the mind of
the educated reader; in after-times occurrences of a political nature
riveted the sympathy of Europe upon this distant island and its queen.

Before entering upon a description of the present condition of Tahiti we
may be permitted to cast a hasty retrospect as to the state of the group
when the first English missionaries arrived on the Society Islands.

It was in March, 1797, about 18 months after the foundation of the
Missionary Society in London, that eighteen ministers of the everlasting
gospel landed in Tahiti, with their wives and children, from the renowned
ship _Duff_. This small community dispersed itself among the various
islands, and had to make head against obstacles of unwonted magnitude
during a series of years. At length, about 1803, shortly after the death
of King Pomáre I., who had raised himself from the position of a mere
chief to the sovereignty of the island,[61] Christianity began to take
root and spread abroad through the country. In 1812 Pomáre II., the eldest
son and successor of Otu, declared himself of the Christian faith. Five
years later a further accession of missionaries arrived in a merchantman
from New South Wales, who, among other things, brought with them a small
printing press. Then for the first time the natives of the Society Islands
learned to comprehend the blessedness of the greatest discovery of all
time. On 30th June, 1817, after much preliminary instruction by the
missionaries, the first proof of a catechism was struck off by King Pomáre
II. In the course of the same year there were issued from the missionary
press at Papeete 2300 copies of a little alphabet book.

It was the same ship that brought the first horse to the island, a present
from the owner of the vessel to King Pomáre. The natives could not conceal
their amazement when they saw the captain astride of the splendid animal.
Very striking was the remark made by King Pomáre on the occasion: "King
George of England," said he, "rides on a horse; but King Pomáre, a yet
mightier king, sits at public solemnities upon the neck of one of his
subjects!"

The labours of the missionaries were crowned with the most splendid
success. To them is due the merit of having abolished the hideous custom
of human sacrifice, of having introduced law and order into the native
administration, and of having extirpated various odious vices from their
social habits. By their representatives, King Pomáre II. was induced to
prohibit all distilleries and places where the kawa-drink was fabricated.
Schools and chapels were erected, Bibles and spelling-books were printed
and disseminated, till within ten years not alone did all the natives
profess Christianity, but the majority of the younger population had
learned to read and write.

The cheering spiritual influence exercised by these Protestant
missionaries over the aborigines was not unfortunately accompanied by a
simultaneous elevation of their physical condition. In consequence of
early debauchery and the spread of diseases of a certain class, which
appear to be the inevitable concomitants of the first contact of the white
man with primitive races, there has been a marked falling off among the
population. It almost seems as though the Tahitians had attained the
utmost pitch of their civilization, and thence, in obedience to a
mysterious natural law, have been compelled, like so many other coloured
races, to surrender this lovely abode to a more energetic and
self-developing race, till the appalling doom befalls them of being erased
from the list of nations!

Thirty-nine years had elapsed since the first missionary had set foot in
Tahiti, and Christianity had spread far and wide, before the first
Catholic priest appeared in Oceania.

Etienne Rochouse, a young priest of the so-called association of Picpus,
founded at Paris in 1814, had been named "Vicar Apostolic of Eastern
Oceania," with title of Bishop of Nelopolis _in partibus_, and about the
close of 1833 embarked at Bordeaux with four missionaries[62] bound for
Valparaiso, where the holy brethren arrived on 13th May, 1834. Their
design was, wherever practicable, to forestal the Protestant missionaries
in their zeal for conversion among the tribes of the South Sea Islands,
whence they might diffuse themselves over the neighbouring countries, and
thus gradually introduce themselves among the remotest populations, in the
hope "that all, whom heresy has led astray and brought under its iron
yoke, may be freely brought under the mild and gentle yoke of Catholic
doctrine."[63]

In 1836, the catechist Columban Murphy was dispatched to the Sandwich
Islands, with instructions to stop at Tahiti on his way, and to make on
the spot all possible inquiries as to the probable prospects of
establishing a Catholic mission there. This was the first representative
of the Romish Church that had visited Tahiti during the thirty-nine years
this island was evangelized; and, carried away by the blind religious
fanaticism which in former centuries led the Spanish monks so lamentably
astray, Murphy believed that "hell itself must have been moved and puzzled
by such an event!"[64] Murphy, or Columban, as he now called himself,
travelled as a working carpenter, wore a thick beard, smoked a "cutty"
pipe, and might have been taken for anything else under the sun than a
Catholic priest. Although serious misgivings were felt by the native
authorities as to his real quality, he nevertheless received permission to
settle upon the island. He accordingly spent a couple of months here, and
laboured with great zeal to pave the way for a Catholic settlement at a
future period. In November of the same year, two more missionaries,
Fathers Caret and Laval, came on to Tahiti. The circumstances under which
they arrived aroused the suspicions of the authorities and of the entire
population. For they did not land at Wilks's Harbour, at that time the
only accessible harbour on the island, but secretly, on the opposite side.
According to the law of the country, however, no captain or owner of a
ship was permitted to land a passenger without having previously obtained
the permission of the Queen or Governor of the island. After the two
Catholic priests had gone the round of the island and had visited nearly
all the native villages along the coast, they at last came to Wilks's
Harbour, now Papeete, where they received a most cordial welcome from a
Belgian settler, the then American consul, Mr. Moehrenhout.

In the course of an interview which Laval and Caret had with the Queen,
they remarked that they had only come to teach the word of God, and
presented the youthful and at that period pretty-looking Queen Pomáre with
a silk shawl. The Queen did not however seem disposed to accede to their
wishes, but ordered the laws of the country to be read before them. The
priests however declined listening to them, and took their departure.

A notification was hereupon conveyed to the two strangers that the Queen
could not permit them to stay any longer upon the island, and a similar
intimation was made to Mr. Moehrenhout. As the schooner which had brought
Laval and Caret was preparing to set sail again, the opportunity was
seized to dismiss them by the same conveyance which had landed them. They,
meanwhile, had blockaded themselves in a house, to which they refused all
admission. The schooner thereupon was detained for twenty-four hours, and
the Queen's officers surrounded the house, awaiting the moment when the
two missionaries were to leave the place. They never made their appearance
however. Ultimately the officers of the law were compelled to tear off the
roof from the house, while others, forcibly seizing the priests, conveyed
them with their paraphernalia on board the schooner, which at once made
sail, and carried them back to Gambier Island, whence they had last come.
Notwithstanding the ill-success of this first venture, Pater Caret made
his appearance off Tahiti a second time seven weeks later, on board of an
American brig, accompanied on this occasion by another priest, Father
Maigrat. The captain of the brig, a man named Williams, wrote the Queen a
letter requesting permission to land his two passengers. The answer was a
firm refusal, and so continued, despite the repeated representations of
the captain, as also of the above-mentioned M. Moerenhout. Upon this the
captain went to work in true Yankee fashion with the view of landing the
two Catholic missionaries by force on the island, but had to give way
before the prudent but decided attitude of resistance adopted by the
natives, who crowded down to the water's edge and prevented the boats from
landing. This last attempt to carry matters with a high hand having
failed, the captain set sail and carried off with him the two
missionaries.

France, though no longer openly claiming the specific character of a
Catholic monarchy as in the days of Louis XIV., but, on the contrary,
proclaiming herself, by her laws at least, a free state for all forms of
religious worship, apparently thought herself compelled to interfere in
this quarrel, with all the weight of a great European power, two of whose
subjects had been treated with unmerited indignity. Accordingly in
September, 1838, the French frigate _Venus_, commanded by Commodore Du
Petit-Thouars, appeared off Tahiti to demand satisfaction for the
ill-treatment of the French missionaries Laval and Caret, which they
assessed at 2000 Spanish piastres. At the same time a treaty was
concluded between the French Government and Queen Pomáre, by which from
that time all subjects of the King of France were to be at liberty to
visit and reside in the Society Islands without molestation, and were to
enjoy similar privileges with the English.[65]

To this treaty the French captain, La Place, who, in April, 1839, anchored
in Papeete harbour for repairs to his frigate, the _Artémise_, added
another article, which was countersigned by the Queen and the principal
chiefs, and authorized the free celebration of the rites of the Catholic
religion.[66]

Had these demonstrations on the part of France had for the sole object the
protection of the interests of Catholicism and French subjects, no
civilized power could have objected to an act which, in entire consonance
with the more humane and enlightened spirit of the 19th century, asserted
the equal rights of every form of religious worship.

But she was not content with removing obstacles or asserting rights;
political aims, as it proved, were being advanced under cover of a
struggle on behalf of the Catholic Church; and the events which speedily
ensued are but a series of acts of violence and humiliations inflicted, so
entirely unjustifiable, that even the French Government found itself in
the end compelled to disapprove and condemn the acts of its
representatives in Oceania.

In September, 1842, M. Du Petit-Thouars came on a second visit to Tahiti.
He had by this time been promoted to his flag, and had been appointed
Captain-general of the French stations in the Southern Ocean. He had
already taken possession of the Marquesas Islands in the name of France,
and appeared to have come to Tahiti with similar intentions. This second
visit terminated after the Queen and her subjects had been submitted to
the most cruel humiliations, in the establishment of a French
protectorate, which several chiefs demanded in a document addressed by
them to Louis Philippe, and which the Queen was compelled to subscribe. In
November, 1843, Du Petit-Thouars came once more to Papeete, and now took
possession of the entire island, on the flimsy pretext that an intentional
insult had been given to France, in the shape of a flag which he saw
waving above the Queen's residence, and which he mistook for that of
England! The Tahitian flag was forcibly struck by the French soldiers, and
replaced by that of France, while Tahiti itself was declared a French
colony. Queen Pomáre protested against this new high-handed insult; she
wrote a letter of complaint to the French monarch, relating the
extravagances of his officers, and in a dignified and simple address,
implored the sympathy and support of Queen Victoria.[67]

The violent proceedings of the admiral were not endorsed by the Government
of Louis Philippe, which recalled Du Petit-Thouars, and restored to Queen
Pomáre the islands of Tahiti and Eimeo, but the French protectorate
remained unaltered, since which the two islands have remained, if not _de
jure_, at all events _de facto_, a French colony. The administration is
vested in the hands of a proportionately increased staff of French
officials, and import and export duties are levied by the French
authorities, while the Queen herself receives her civil list of £1000 at
the hands of the "Trésorier et payeur des Etablissements français en
Océanie."[68]

Papeete or Papéïti (_Pape_, water, _Iti_, little), which derives its name
from a rivulet which falls into the sea here, lies at the bottom of a
semi-circular bay, seven miles west of Point Venus, the northernmost spot
of the island. It is the chief town on the island, the residence of the
Queen, and the seat of government, all which is not incompatible with its
being of very limited dimensions, not rising above the grandeur of an
ordinary village. The dwellings of the Europeans, constructed for the most
part of wood, covered with palm-leaves, partly extend along the shore,
partly help to make pretty regular streets, amid which rise up on every
side bread-fruit trees, cocoa-palms, and orange-trees, which make up in
cheerfulness for any deficiency in stateliness of aspect. Southwards of
the bay lie a belt of police barracks, the Protestant place of worship
(_Fare-pure_, house of prayer), and the prison (_Fare-auri_, house of
iron); eastward it is bounded by the promontory of Fare-Ute, forming a
sort of dock-yard, where ships of 300 tons can be repaired. Not far from
the place of disembarkation, and near the centre of the township, rises
one of the most elegant buildings in Papeete, namely, that where the
various stores for the troops are housed. The mansion of the Governor
closely adjoins the residence assigned to the Queen, from which it is only
separated by a garden hedge. Both are extremely simple and unpretending
edifices, built of wood, and impress the visitor much less than another
large quadrangular building, built of stone in the Oriental style, and
surmounted by a cupola--this is the Fare-Aporaa, or "House of Big Words,"
which has numerous congeners among more civilized communities. Here, for
the future, are to be held the sessions of the Legislative Assembly, and
here the laws of the country are to be debated. Ever since the protecting
hand of the French Protector has extended itself likewise over the
unfortunate inhabitants of the Society Islands, the Tahitian parliament is
opened with all that pomp and tinsel splendour which your true Frenchman
cannot dispense with, even among the primitive islands of the Pacific. The
Queen, accompanied by the Governor, proceeds, escorted by a long retinue,
to the Chamber, and opens the assembly in person, which solemnity is
announced to the gaping crowd outside by a salvo of twenty-one guns. The
French Governor, however, plays the most conspicuous part, as in him is
vested the right of deciding whether the convocation of the chosen of the
people be requisite or not. Hence it happens that many a year passes when
it does not suit the wishes of the Governor that parliament should meet.
On such occasions (such was the case while we were there) the Governor
promulgates a simple edict to that effect.[69]

The Tahitians, long before the arrival of the French, had a code or
charter of their own. The last was drawn up in 1823 by the Protestant
missionaries, upon the model of that of England, and was revised in 1826.
Its provisions were that the throne should be inherited by either male or
female descendants of the reigning dynasty. By it the island was divided
into seven districts; the legislative power was vested in an assembly of
fourteen members, viz. two from each district, who were to be re-elected
every three years by the people. This constitution underwent divers
mutilations at the hands of the French Protectorate, till it had lost all
importance. At present, however, it is the subject of lively debate, and
the Tahitian parliament at Papeete can reckon some really distinguished
speakers; but its solution depends much less upon the conviction of logic
than the influence of the French officials.

We heard a very remarkable speech from Ravaai, one of the most gifted of
the native orators, on the occasion of a debate as to whether a law should
be passed admitting beer and French wines, duty free, into the island.
Several speakers were of opinion, considering the terrible spread among
both sexes of drunkenness, with all its attendant evils, that every
description of spirituous liquor should be prohibited to be sold to the
natives; Ravaai, on the other hand, spoke in favour of the enactment, and
in the course of his speech remarked: "If the use of spirituous liquors
were in itself criminal, as some persons maintain, we should not see it in
every-day use by the Europeans living amongst us, our pioneers in the path
of civilization. It is only excess, abuse, that are punishable. This we
must expect to have to punish, but do not rob us of an inherent right by a
sumptuary and unnatural prohibition. Your declarations concerning murder,
incendiarism, ruffianism, all which you adduce as the results of the use
of brandy, are but oratorical flourishes: spirituous liquors, the misuse
of which I equally with yourselves deprecate, have, no doubt, produced
disorders, but these have been suppressed, and if our island had no
further ills to encounter we might rejoice this day over a future of such
prosperity and promise! Such, unfortunately, is _not_ the case! People
tell us of murders and robberies! Go the round of the island! go from
Mahaéna to Punaruu, from Papenoo to Taapua, and a variety of other
places--climb the mountain to the very summit of Fautáua; ask at these
abodes of sorrow, baptized with noble blood, and covered with honoured
graves! Say what has filled the graves of Mahaéna with human bones? Is it
the unlimited use of spirits, or is it not rather the ignorance begotten
of fanaticism run mad, which disloyally put weapons into your hands? But
the graves are dumb; and certain persons present may at this moment
rejoice at that repose. If it is your wish sincerely, and with hope of
definite results, to forbid the sale of intoxicating stimulants in Tahiti,
begin by forbidding those mighty nations who trade with our island, and
are interested in this traffic, from bringing and introducing the
destroying liquids in their vessels!! But your voices, ye unhappy
Tahitians, are too feeble to make themselves heard in England, in France,
in Spain, in America! Well, then, renounce it, deny yourselves!" The law
was passed by ninety-five votes against thirteen, and, in consequence, not
merely French wines, but all sorts of liquors, may be sold in Tahiti
unchecked by license. The penalties for drunkenness have since then formed
an important source of revenue!

Among the foreigners settled in Papeete our Expedition had reason to be
especially thankful to Mr. W. Howe, member of the London Missionary
Society, and M. Adam Kulczycki,[70] director of the administration of
native matters, two gentlemen, of whom the former has, during a residence
of twenty-two years in Tahiti, employed in spreading the gospel and
raising the morals and religious standard of his little flock, proved
himself as useful a servant, as the latter by his valuable contributions
to our knowledge of the physical condition of the island. Dr. Nadaud,
botanist and physician, also laid the Expedition under deep obligations
by the cordiality with which he placed himself at the disposal of the
naturalists, to accompany them on their various excursions, and imparting
to them his own valuable experience, while the splendid and comprehensive
work of Dr. G. Cuzent[71] upon Tahiti, contributed greatly to assist our
personal impressions, experiences, and observations. Mr. Howe, the sole
English missionary now resident in Tahiti, received us with much kindness,
and escorted us through the various missionary buildings, in which,
unfortunately, the spiritual energy of bygone years has dwindled away
under the baleful French Protectorate. The institute for the education of
teachers and pastors is quite closed,--in the printing establishment,
which formerly kept ten compositors and two iron hand-presses in constant
employment, only small religious tracts are now permitted to be sold, and
these exclusively in Tahitian, a work which one man can easily get
through. In the missionary library we saw several interesting works and
manuscripts, mostly of a religious cast. One was shown us which seemed to
be highly esteemed, and consisted of a thick manuscript treating of
Tahiti, the author of which was a Mr. Orsmond, the oldest Protestant
missionary upon the island, who died in 1857. It is said that M.
Moerenhout, the former Belgian and American consul at Papeete, in his work
upon Tahiti, availed himself largely of this manuscript, which has also
been translated into Swedish.

Mr. Howe spoke highly of the liberality of the present Governor, M.
Saisset, as compared with the intolerance displayed by his predecessors,
with respect to celebrating Protestant worship. Then, he told us, he was
not permitted to preach elsewhere than in his chapel, and then only in
English, whereas now he can perform religious service in other districts
whenever the natives request him to do so. Moreover, in the dissemination
of religious tracts and books of prayer, there is much more relaxation
than formerly, and during the last tour of inspection of the Governor,
that gentleman himself took with him 500 copies of a translation of the
Bible, for distribution among the Protestant natives of the districts he
was about to visit. The want of elementary religious books in the interior
was so great, that even Catholic teachers had to sue for some, preferring
Protestant Bibles to having none at all.

Although Mr. Howe is the only one of the fourteen missionaries once
resident here to whom permission was accorded to remain behind on the
island, there are nevertheless a great number of native teachers who
preach and celebrate worship on the Sunday. The _Canakas_,[72] as it is
the custom to call the natives, on such occasions bring with them to the
chapel their Bibles and little hymn-books in a small case made of plaited
palm fibre, a modern department of Tahitian industry, and, in the interior
more especially, observe the Sabbath with much strictness.[73] It may be
reckoned that by far the larger number of the inhabitants of Tahiti and
Eimeo, or Morea, profess Protestantism, whereas the number of native
Catholics does not exceed 100 in both islands. Notwithstanding the
numerous advantages which the Catholic Church has enjoyed since the
establishment of the French Protectorate, it has not succeeded in
acquiring any great influence among the natives, or in enlarging its
boundaries. The Bishop, Monseigneur Tépaud Jansen, Bishop of Axieri, who
resides at Papeete, is also the sole priest and teacher in the colony.
This spiritual guide has every day to celebrate mass in his wretched
little chapel of bamboo walls and palm thatch, and has never yet succeeded
in getting the half-ruined church close by finished for his reception; the
8000 francs per annum (£320) paid by Government as long as the church is
being built seem rather to postpone than hasten its erection. Moreover,
there is not as yet any public school in Papeete, a want which is the more
sensibly felt and the more permanent in its effects, as the majority of
the Protestant schools are closed, and consequently a large proportion of
the rising generation[74] are growing up in utter ignorance. In four
districts in the interior out of thirty-three, live two or three French
missionaries who instruct the natives in French. There is neither lack of
energy among these zealous labourers, nor of the requisite funds,[75] to
extend the field of their labours, so that if the Catholic mission in
Tahiti makes no progress, and after twenty years' exertion can only reckon
100 neophytes, the explanation must be sought in the existence of
conditions, which neither the self-denying zeal of Catholic missionaries
nor material protection can affect.[76]

While in the interior of the island Sunday is thus observed with much
strictness, there is great indifference, if not worse, in its observance
in the seaport; indeed, it is the French official who sets the example of
disregarding it. For nowhere does one witness more utter shamelessness
than at what is known as the Pré Catalan, a lawn-like meadow, which
extends directly in front of the Governor's palace, and, in fact, is one
of its dependencies. Here, in presence of the French gens d'armes and
soldiers, under the very eyes of the Protectorate authorities, and in
entire defiance of the native laws,[77] dances of the most dissolute kind
are executed by half-drunk Tahitian girls. One must have seen the Upa-Upa
danced by these lascivious Tahitians, with all the impassioned vehemence
of a sensual nature, in order to comprehend the mingled shame and
indignation with which it fills any but a French by-stander. Singularly
enough, the Upa-Upa, or Hiva, has a marked resemblance to the well-known
Can-can, as it is, or used formerly to be, danced in the Quartier Latin at
the Chaumière, by the students and grisettes, with the sole difference
that in the Upa-Upa the grace of the Parisian dances is entirely lost
sight of, so that there remains nothing but a series of obscene gestures,
most unblushingly presented. The musicians sitting on the ground strike
with the flat of the hand a little kettle-drum (_pehu_), and beat time as
well with their feet. Suddenly, a dancer of either sex springs into the
inclosure, goes through a number of extraordinary animated movements,
which are the louder laughed at and applauded in proportion to their
indecency, after which he or she mingles once more with the crowd,
exhausted and breathless.

The Tahiti women have almost invariably beautiful black hair, and
singularly small hands and feet. Their figure is on the average that of
the middle stature of European women. Their dress is simple, but very
clean and neat. They wear a long white gown with plaits, which gives them
somewhat the appearance of vestals, and wear a coronal of flowers on their
head, or entwine the flaming blossoms of the _Hibiscus rosasinensis_ in
their thick black tresses. The more coquettish also affect an exceedingly
elegant head-dress (_rewarewa_), which they make of the young tender
leaves of the cocoa-palm, the satin-paper-like epidermis being converted
by the manipulation of their skilful hands into an exquisitely fine-wove,
rustling tissue, which they arrange among their luxuriant locks with
genuine idealistic grace.

The men, like the women, are tall, slim, and well-proportioned. The face
usually is far from ugly, and betokens no little intelligence; the lips
are full, the complexion a yellowish-brown, but on the whole fairer than
that of the New Zealanders. The occipital region of the head seems to be
artificially flattened, the forehead well-formed, the chin and lower
maxillary bones are broad. Some wear European clothing, others a wide
piece of blue calico (_paréu_), wound round the loins and reaching to the
knees.

The dancing in the Pré Catalan continued from afternoon till far on in the
night, although only a faint gleam of light shone on the green floor, so
that the darkness threw a convenient veil over both dancers and
spectators. Quite close to the crowd of pleasure-seeking natives was a
group of natives of New Caledonia. These had been made prisoners of war
during the recent campaign of the French on that island, and had been
transported hither to undergo a term of _travaux forcés_ on the public
works. On the whole, however, they were kindly enough treated, and on
Sundays were permitted to "dance," such as the performance was, in the
presence of their custodian. On our presenting them with a few small
silver coins they went through their most renowned national dances for us,
which are much ruder and more natural than those of the Tahitians, but
apparently are not of so frivolous a character as the Upa-Upa, and other
similar cancanized contortions of the limbs as indulged at Tahiti. The New
Caledonians arranged themselves with spears and sticks in a circle, rushed
violently at each other, leaped impetuously about in a state of artificial
excitement, uttering the most singular sounds and the most appalling
yells, then dispersed and reunited repeatedly, the leader of the dance all
the while muttering very fast, but in perfect time, some unintelligible
words, apparently to fire their ardour by recalling to them the memory of
some national victory. The obscene Tahitian dances on the Sundays in
Government gardens had been resuscitated five months before, and for this
reason Pré Catalan, the only public promenade in Tahiti, is avoided by the
Europeans resident in Papeete. The Protestants feel themselves sorely
aggrieved by having such a spectacle openly sanctioned on the Lord's Day
by the French authorities, and a collection having been set on foot about
the time of our visit for raising sufficient to maintain a permanent band
of music, a number of Protestants and missionaries declined to subscribe,
on the ground of disapproving of money being expended in promoting such
amusements.

Among the excursions made by the members of the Expedition, a double
interest attached to that made to Point Venus. It was on this promontory
that Captain Cook first made the astronomical observations by which he
determined the position of the island. The ride thither lay through
delicious groves of cocoa-palms and bread-fruit trees, mingled here and
there with citron and orange-trees, as also bananas and guavas. Near the
Point lies the village of Matavai, inhabited by several white settlers,
each in his little cottage with its blooming garden around it. The
tree-like _Oleander_ and the beautiful red flower _Hibiscus rosasinensis_
towered above in full bloom, the entire scene being almost sufficient to
captivate a European. The native governor of the district is a pretty
well-educated man, who has spent nine months in Paris, and on the occasion
of the capture by the French of the fort of Fautáua had been rewarded for
his not very patriotic services by the cross of the Legion of Honour,
besides being appointed chief of the militia. His farm is very nicely
managed, and his daughters, elegant, well-mannered brunettes, speak a
little French, an accomplishment in which the Tahitian ladies,
notwithstanding their intimate relations with the sons of "_la grande
nation_," are usually entirely deficient. At Point Venus is a lighthouse,
with an intermittent light, visible about 14 miles seaward, in charge of
an aged French veteran (_invalide_). The tamarind tree is still pointed
out, which Captain Cook planted close to the spot where he completed those
renowned labours, which still single him out as the greatest of Pacific
discoverers.

With the exception of those to Point Venus on one side, and to the large
villages of Faáa and Papeuriri in the opposite direction, there are no
practicable roads on the island. On the whole, there are about 36 miles of
road suitable for wheeled carriages,--all travels beyond must be performed
on horseback, by which means the entire island can be traversed in a few
days. One of the most agreeable excursions, and which well repays the
trouble, is undoubtedly a drive to the beautifully situate hill-fort of
Fautáua, renowned in the annals of the island. The first part of the road
leads over unsightly fields of guava (_Psidium guava_), first imported
from South America in 1815 by an American missionary, with the laudable
object of increasing the number of useful plants upon the island, but
which has since so entirely over-grown large tracts of land, that its
systematic extirpation begins to be discussed. Wherever the guava takes
root it destroys all other vegetation. It has already extended over the
loveliest spots, where its seeds have been dropped in human or animal
excrement. Its apple-shaped fruit, red-fleshed inside, is in the raw state
anything but pleasant to the taste, and is not readily eaten even by the
natives, but a sort of jelly prepared of it could be made an important
article of export, as it is already along the west coast of South America.
The fruit is also valuable for provender, as animals foddered with it
speedily get quite fat, while its wood, growing with great rapidity, is in
much request for fuel.

After riding a few miles through these guava-fields, we were astonished at
finding a sugar plantation close by the road, which here ran through a
lovely little valley. This is the property of an Englishman named Johnson,
who, once a whaler, and afterwards a sandal-wood trader, has resided for
more than thirty years in Tahiti, and has married a native woman. Johnson,
in partnership with a Frenchman named Le Rouge, had planted 23 acres of
land with sugar-cane, and when we saw him in February, 1859, expected a
crop of from 100 to 110 hogsheads of sugar. The whole property is a
perfect model farm, and receives every encouragement and assistance from
Government, with the view of extending sugar-planting.[78] Immediately
adjoining the plantation, the river Fautáua flows past, here about five
feet deep, and furnishing a most excellent bathing-place. Johnson, like
many another, lamented the appalling rapidity with which the native
population was falling off, which he ascribed to the daily increasing
prevalence of the vices of drunkenness and debauchery. He related to us
how many valleys, now lonely and abandoned, were pretty densely peopled
only twenty years ago! Then the population was estimated at 15,000, now it
is only 5000.[79]

The aspect of the sugar plantation is remarkably fine, and an occasional
glimpse of the surrounding hills, bathed in the sunlight, imparts a
sublimity that at once arrests the attention, the crags rising in close
proximity, and appearing much more precipitous and inaccessible than they
are in reality. The Diadem (the name given to several peaks which have a
striking resemblance to a crown) displays itself from this point in all
its wondrous loveliness, above which tower lofty mountain-peaks, 6000 or
7000 feet in height, which have never been trodden by the foot of the
naturalist.

Close behind the hospitable dwelling of Mr. Johnson begins the primitive
forest, under the delightful cool shades of which one can ride almost to
the goal of the excursion, surrounded on every side by luxuriant green
canopies that seem to scale the very clouds, under whose domes play
grateful currents of air.[80]

The path, although always a steep ascent, was in very fair condition; only
at the point where it was necessary to ford the river Fautáua, which every
year swells into an angry torrent during the rainy season, did we find any
serious impediment to our further advance. The bridge across the stream
had been swept away, and there was nothing for it but to lead the horses
through the water, an achievement of no little difficulty and waste of
time, owing to the strength of the current and the terror and obstinacy of
some of our horses.

After a ride of several hours in a sort of green twilight, the forest
began to open, and there before our astonished gaze was the most important
waterfall on the island, imparting an inconceivable freshness and
animation to the landscape around. The Fautáua makes at this point a leap
of about 200 metres (650 feet), into a huge basin, which lies at the foot
of a lofty precipice, 420 metres (1450 feet) above the level of the sea;
the temperature of the water in the basin itself being about 70° Fahr.

The steep crags, which tower overhead on all sides, and like a gigantic
wall impede the view of the peninsula of Taiarapu, which lies behind them,
are as marvellous in the luxuriance of the vegetation that covers them, as
they are strategically important by their impregnability, the French
having only succeeded in gaining footing upon them by treachery, and not
by fortune of war. Some chiefs favourable to the French had acted as
guides, and had led them by secret and dangerous paths up to these
heights, for which service they to this day receive an annual pension paid
in gold out of the state treasury. Formerly the rough, steep, almost
inaccessible precipices formed of themselves a natural fort, and by their
peculiar form, their position, and their strength, might be called the key
of the entire island. The French conquerors immediately converted this
spot, 630 metres (2052 feet) above the level of the sea, into a small fort
with the usual tricolor flag, and, on the limited flat surface at their
disposal, on which alone it was possible to build, erected a barrack and a
few huts, besides laying out a kitchen-garden, which supplies with fruit
and vegetables the residents of this solitary but lovely abode.

The officer on guard within the fort received us with that fascinating
friendliness and _bonhommie_ characteristic of the French in all parts of
the world, and which makes them everywhere such "jolly" companions. The
provisions we had brought with us were speedily improved by the addition
of everything that the garrison mess could set before us, and there was no
lack even of delicacies, as they might be considered in these latitudes,
for the little kitchen-garden contiguous furnished plenty of water-cresses
and strawberries. The temperature was at this season singularly delicious
and elastic, but in July, when the thermometer occasionally sinks to
46-1/2° Fahr., the little garrison suffers much from cold and inflammatory
attacks.

Another excursion, not less charming but far more arduous, is that to the
Waiiria Lake, far in the interior of the island. This was achieved by Mr.
Frauenfeld, one of the zoologists of the Expedition. From Papeuriri in the
south of the island, which is easily reached in one day from Papeete by a
road winding along the coast, the Waiiria valley leads in a S.S.E. to
N.N.W. direction, up to the central peak, whence the deep valleys and
water-courses radiate towards the coast like the spokes of a wheel. The
valley is at first tolerably wide, but so densely covered with trees and
shrubs, interlaced in wild confusion, that the horses had to be left
behind at Papeuriri. A rather wide mountain-torrent rushes throughout its
length, and, a little further on, when the valley contracts into a
pathless defile, has not merely to be crossed so frequently as to baffle
all count, but leaves the tourist to scramble up its rocky course by
leaping from stone to stone. After four hours' toil the valley suddenly
closes in, and it becomes necessary to scramble up an almost perpendicular
precipice 1000 feet in height. It was a tight bit of work, struggling
upwards under a tropical rain over the slippery moss-grown blocks, every
cranny and projection thickly studded with creeping plants. The crest of
the pass, from 60 to 80 feet wide, hemmed in by precipices impossible to
scale, was fortified by the natives during the war; that is to say, a
breastwork of stones was thrown up, thus converting the depression on the
other side of the mountain, in which lies the lake, into an inaccessible
lurking-place. Not far distant is the deep narrow defile of Ruotorea,
which played so conspicuous a part in the older history of Tahiti, as it
was customary to fling into it all prisoners of war. At length, about two
P.M., the lake itself was reached, lying in a sort of mountain cauldron,
the sides of which descend steeply, while two of the loftiest peaks, those
of Tetuero and Anaori, rise sheer out of the lake to a height of 5000
feet.[81] Except at the narrow strip of ground, on which M. Frauenfeld
found himself standing, and which was nothing but a beach of small extent,
there was no other spot within sight at which it would have been possible
to land. The distance to the opposite shore, when visible, seems about
half a mile. The whole basin, even where the enclosing rocks are steepest,
indeed, almost perpendicular, and thence up to the summits of the
loftiest peaks, is densely covered with trees, reeds, and creepers,
especially _scitamineæ_, the brilliant green hues of which are reflected
in the mirror-like surface of the lake below. All the forests here are of
wild plantain, and the sugar-cane is found growing wild in a variety of
places. A few ducks, a swallow, and a couple of parrots were all that was
seen of animal life. A strange silence brooded over the entire
landscape,--not a leaf trembled, not a sound broke the solemn stillness,
and a depressing feeling of loneliness and utter abandonment seized on the
traveller. The spot for the night's encampment was selected close to a
large stone, against which a sort of penthouse was erected of banana
leaves, which promised welcome shelter during the night. The exceedingly
unfavourable weather prevented an adequate investigation being made of the
environs of the lake, and as the following morning was ushered in with, if
anything, an accession of bad weather, the plan which had been projected
of constructing a boat with which to explore the lake was abandoned, and
the party set out on their return to Papeete.

During our stay at Tahiti, a grand national festival took place at the
little village of Faáa, about an hour's walk from Papeete. In fact, it has
latterly become the custom, on every change of Governor, to have a feast
of welcome in his honour in every district. On such occasions speeches are
made, presents are prepared, dances are practised, and long tables,
groaning under all sorts of food and drink, are set out in the open air
for the invited guests. Governor Saisset, who had been seven months in
office, and had already made the circuit of the island, visiting all the
districts, was, however, not yet welcomed with the customary festivities
of the inhabitants of Faáa. This solemnity accordingly passed off with all
pomp on 22nd February. By eight A.M. some twenty cavaliers had assembled
in front of the Government Palace, whence, with the Governor at their
head, and accompanied by the native militia, also mounted, they took the
road to Faáa. Only one lady, Madame de la Richerie, wife of the
_Commissaire Impérial_, accompanied the cavalcade. On our arrival at Faáa
we found the native females, attired in their gayest national dress,
formed into line, and the men, partly clothed in the European manner,
partly in the "_Paréu_," a broad scarf of printed muslin wound round the
loins, shaking their variegated plumes, and carrying banners and flags of
bark specially prepared for the feast, some Pandanus leaves being also
handed to the guests.

As soon as the Governor had taken his seat in the verandah of the large
and elegant residence of the chieftain, or warden of the district (for in
Tahiti every office, with all rights pertaining thereto, descends among
the female members of the chief's family likewise),[82] a number of girls,
dressed all in white and wearing elegant garlands of flowers, stepped
forward and began to sing a national Tahitian hymn; after which the orator
of the day, a handsome man, dressed partly in the European, partly in the
native manner, wearing a black round felt hat and feathers, and a
variegated bark shirt over a black coat(!) delivered a very pathetic
address. His delivery and his gestures recalled strongly to mind the New
Zealand orators, but, unlike the latter, he was considerate enough not to
tax unduly the patience of his foreign guests, to whom not one word of his
very moving discourse was intelligible. This preliminary over, a number of
girls presented themselves one after the other to the Governor, and in
token of allegiance presented their garlands and the nicely prepared upper
robe of bast. In this manner about 100 crowns and bast-mantilles were
delivered, the most elegant of which the Governor kindly presented to the
members of our Expedition.

In the reception-court a perfect mountain of bananas had been piled up,
together with an immense heap of cocoa-nuts; these were also presented to
the Governor and his suite, with the remark that every inhabitant of the
district had contributed his mite to the festival, and bade the foreign
guests a cordial welcome. "We may stay days, weeks, ay! months," exclaimed
the orator, "and every house and all that was in it will be placed at our
disposal; every one will take a pleasure in doing our bidding and
forestalling all our wishes!"

After this hearty, idyllic ceremonial, the inhabitants of Punataná, an
adjoining district, came up, amid a flourish of drums and trumpets, and
arranged themselves on the wide road right in front of the chieftainess of
Faáa, in consequence of Maheanú, their chieftainess, a zealous Protestant,
not permitting on her grounds the execution of any improper dances, or the
singing of broad songs. In fact, neither the Upa-Upa nor any other of the
numerous Tahitian "_Cancans à la Chicard_" were suffered to be danced; the
consequence of which was that they danced it all the more eagerly on the
road. Six drummers, each with his little kettle-drum, squatted
cross-legged on the floor, the right hand being employed to strike the
instrument. To this primitive music, enlivened at times by a shrill cry,
both men and girls now began to go through the most indecent gestures,
accompanied by leaping on and toying with their partners till they had
worked themselves up to such an artificial frenzy of excitement, that each
couple at last retired exhausted and bathed in perspiration, under a
flourish of drums and a loud shriek from the orchestra.

The French Governor, the representative of European decorum, was one of
the most animated of the spectators, and gave full swing to the
recklessness of the Tahitians, who are accustomed to push the law of
hospitality to the extent of prostituting their daughters, remarking, with
much _naïveté_, that the natives would take it exceedingly ill were any
one to refuse to take part in certain old habits and customs, or were to
declare themselves openly opposed to their continuance!

At the close of the fête the Governor ordered some French wines, "the
cocoa milk of the Europeans," to be set before the inhabitants of Faáa. A
_déjeûner à la fourchette_ was laid out under tents, where, at twenty long
tables covered in the European manner, the most distinguished personages
took their seats. Every family had contributed something, the whole having
the appearance of a regular pic-nic.

On each table were displayed flowers, bananas, bread-fruit, and other
delicious products of the vegetable world. The European guests were seated
at a large table erected at the upper end of an alley of trees. The
chieftainess and her husband sat beside the Governor. Next in order was
the Government interpreter, a Mr. Darling, the son of one of the oldest
English missionaries sent out to Tahiti, on whom devolved the
interpretation into Tahitian or French, as the case might be, of the
various speeches and toasts.

The dinner-service, at our table at least, was entirely in the European
manner, which seemed to me a pity; a meal without knives or forks, as is
the custom among the natives, would have been infinitely more interesting
and peculiar. The husband gave the health of the ruler of France,
and--evidently in honour of the guests from the banks of the Danube--that
of the Emperor of Austria! Immediately thereafter the Governor rose
suddenly and left the table, with the intention, it would seem, of
escaping some untimeous speeches of the natives. The company presently
broke up, and while a few of the guests returned straight to the port, the
majority, the French Governor himself mingling with the excited populace,
did not reach Papeete till far in the night.

The fête at Faáa was followed, a few days later, 24th February, by a
dashing ball at the Governor's. The _Pré Catalan_ was gaily festooned with
coloured lamps, and various devices for illuminating the festivities. The
Tahitians, accustomed to dance only in the darkness of night, or at most
under the light of a few paltry suet candles, flocked hither in crowds to
revel in the brilliant light, and witness the Europeans dance the
"_Upa-Upa_" after their own fashion. Within the Palace was assembled all
that was ultra-fashionable in Tahitian society. All the authorities and
notabilities of the country were present. More than 200 persons thronged
the apartment, where, out of courtesy to our host, the band of our frigate
played a succession of polkas, waltzes, and quadrilles. Queen Pomáre,
accompanied by her consort and several princes and princesses of her
house, was also present. The Governor received her at the threshold of the
apartment, offered her his arm, and escorted her to seats already reserved
for the royal family. Pomáre is now almost fifty years of age, stout and
under the middle size, with a full inexpressive countenance, and a
waddling gait. Her toilette was simple but thoroughly European. She wore a
white ball-dress of the latest French _mode_, and flowers in her hair. In
her hands she also carried a gigantic bouquet. Her youngest son, a boy of
twelve years, named after Prince de Joinville, showed spirit and
vivacity; the heir to the throne seemed feeble, sickly, and too soon
matured.

This happened to be the first presentation of the members of the
Expedition to the Queen--the first opportunity they had had of conversing
with her. Hitherto there had been apparent on the part of the French
authorities a reluctance to bring about a meeting, which the Queen might
possibly regard as a triumph. In fact, Queen Pomáre was not at liberty to
receive any one in her house, except members of her family, without first
obtaining the permission of the French authorities. Two incidents, which
had occurred to arouse the French authorities shortly before our arrival,
had still further contributed to sharpen the Queen's watchfulness, and to
limit her receptions to her own nearest relatives. The poor woman had,
after much pressure, and without communicating with M. Saisset, signed in
his absence a document which fairly ran counter to a previous ordinance on
the same subject. A territorial squabble, which had long before been
decided by law, had, through the exertions of one of the parties
interested, been once more brought up for trial, before the native bench,
as it was thought that the result of the opinion of several judges might
be productive of some more favourable result. The Governor refused his
assent to this proceeding. The Queen, notwithstanding, under bad advice,
issued a written mandate to the native Court to try the case over again.
As the Court was being assembled, however, it was dismissed by the
Governor, the chief judge banished to an adjoining island, and the Queen
compelled herself to abrogate the ordinance. A somewhat similar affair had
occurred a few weeks before at the village of Papaoa, near which Queen
Pomáre possesses a country-house, in which some of the royal family were
implicated. Some native feasts, which in Tahiti are always accompanied
with the wildest Bacchanalian license, had excited the crowd to an unusual
degree. A few of the Tahitian nationality-mongers drank death to the
whites, and pretty openly declared their hostility to a foreign yoke. The
excess of a couple of drunken patriots was magnified by the excited fancy
of the French officers into the dimensions of a political _émeute_, and
seemed to present the long-coveted opportunity of showing their authority,
and of acquiring with little trouble the credit of having nipped in the
bud a formidable insurrection. As soon as the news of these seditious
speeches and exclamations reached head-quarters, the Governor marched in
the night with 150 well-armed soldiers to Papaoa, distant about an hour's
march from the capital. Pomáre and her family were just assembled to
evening prayers, when the Governor made his appearance, and ordered her
forthwith to accompany him to Papeete. An Englishman resident in the
harbour was ordered to convey the Queen to her town residence in his small
one-horse waggon. Her two sons, however, were escorted to Papeete as
prisoners on foot, and their hands bound behind their backs, their ears
saluted by the oft-repeated threat of the soldiers that their lives should
answer for any intentional injury which the Europeans might sustain at
the hands of the natives. As the procession approached the harbour, the
Queen bent forward to her driver, and asked him in a low voice whether it
was intended to carry her to the _Carabus_.[83] The driver turned off
towards her own residence. As he turned the corner, the Queen suddenly
started forwards, and seizing the reins from the driver with both hands,
stopped the horse, and looked whether her two sons were by her side. She
feared they would be taken to the prison, but they were likewise conducted
to her house. However, Queen Pomáre and all her family and attendants were
cautioned not to leave Papeete till the matter had been thoroughly
inquired into. An intimation was even conveyed to the Protestant
missionary Mr. Howe that he must discontinue his visits to the Queen till
further orders.

Under these circumstances it is more than probable that the persecuted
Queen only made her appearance at the ball in deference to the Governor's
commands, and hence possibly she confined her conversation with the
strangers to the most common-place topics. The Queen was described to us
as a clever, well-educated woman, who spoke English with considerable
fluency, as also a little French, and in public affairs displayed a
surprising degree of shrewdness and tact. With the French authorities she
conversed exclusively in Tahitian. She appears much to dislike the
intervention of an interpreter or secretary, preferring greatly to place
herself directly in communication with the official concerned, as an
autograph letter exhibits, which she addressed to the Treasurer
Receiver-general, requesting him to send her a carriage in which to drive
on business from her estate at Papaoa to Papeete.[84]

It is very surprising to find in the course of conversation with natives
of every grade, that notwithstanding the French Protectorate has now
lasted upwards of twenty years, the French language has hardly made the
slightest advance. We met but two natives who could speak French. The
knowledge of English even is confined to the few individuals who live
entirely on the coast, and come frequently into contact with foreigners. A
law was in contemplation, however, at the period of our visit, by the
provisions of which no native after the lapse of 10 years, that is to say,
by 1869, would be eligible for any Government employ, not even that of a
_murtói_ (police sergeant, literally "one who listens secretly to the
words of the people"[85]), unless he has a thorough acquaintance with
French.

On the whole, the Government of the Second of December appears to regard
Tahiti simply as a military outpost and naval station, and to attach
little value to the evident future commercial importance of the island.
If, however, there are behind this ostensible indifference no secret
views, or political _arrière-pensées_ involved, it must undoubtedly be
pronounced most unjust and unwise. True, Tahiti possesses but a small
proportion of surface suitable for cultivation; true, with the exception
of oranges,[86] there is hardly any natural product exported,[87] the
produce of the island barely sufficing to support its own population; but,
apart from its extremely favourable geographical position, and the
vegetable profusion of this and the adjoining islands, Tahiti might, under
able administration, be made a sort of general emporium for the
interchange of the products of Polynesia against the fabrics of Europe.

The total superficial area of Tahiti amounts to 104,215 hectares, 79,485
of which form Tahiti proper and the isthmus of Taravao, while the
peninsula of Taiarapu comprises the remaining 24,730. The greater portion
of this surface is occupied by mountains, only a very small proportion
being devoted to tillage. At the mouths of several of the rivers are small
strips of arable land, of which the plains of Taunoa (near Papeete), Point
Venus, Pusenaura, Papara, Papeuriri, and Papeari, as also the delta of the
river Fautáua, on the peninsula of Taiarapu, are the most important.

All these level grounds put together do not amount to more than from 2200
to 2500 hectares, while the swampy state of much of even this small area
renders many portions fit only for the cultivation of taro and rice.[88]

The climate of Tahiti is uncommonly salubrious and delightful; the
temperature is tolerably uniform, and is sensibly moderated by the
alternate land and sea-breezes. Only about mid-day, when there usually
sets in that profound calm, which the French, in their elegant
epigrammatic way, style _l'immobilité des feuilles_, the heat becomes
absolutely oppressive, but the mornings and evenings are cool, and the air
very refreshing. The average maximum temperature during the rainy season
is 84°.4 Fahr., the average minimum 74°.6 Fahr. Only immediately prior to
the outbreak of a storm does the fluctuation of the thermometer become
strongly marked. In the dry season the temperature averages 80°.6 Fahr.
during the day, and 68° Fahr. during the night. When, however, as
occasionally happens, the temperature at Papeete sinks to 57°.2 Fahr. and
at Fautáua to 46°.4 Fahr., or even lower, even the Europeans are compelled
to adopt certain precautions against taking cold, which the natives for
the most part disregard, and are accordingly liable to acute inflammatory
disorders.

With such a temperature, combined with the fertility insured by the
volcanic tufa soil, it is perfectly evident that the majority of the
tropical and sub-tropical nut-bearing and other alimentary plants might be
extensively grown upon the island without much difficulty. The sugar-cane,
the coffee-tree, the cotton-shrub, the vanilla, the cocoa-tree, the indigo
plant, the sorgho[89], rice, maize, &c., flourish here in a marked degree,
and their persistent cultivation would realize a splendid profit for the
landowner.

Of fruits there are bananas, bread-fruits, mangoes, ananas (pine-apples),
papayas (carica papayi), pandanus fruit, cocoa-nuts, oranges, lemons,
anonas (a kind of custard apple), guavas, &c. The chief sustenance of the
natives consists of the following:--

I. The féi, or wild plantain (_Musa Féi_, or _Musa Rubra_), of which there
are five varieties. It is first encountered at an elevation of from 600 to
800 feet above the sea, grows most luxuriantly between the zones of 1000
and 1500 feet, is of a very peculiar saffron-yellow colour, and is usually
either roasted or boiled.

II. The haari, or cocoa-palm (_Cocos nucifera_), whose trunk, bark,
leaves, and fruit are pressed into their service by the natives. The
fruit, however, is the most important, as it is used as meat for man and
beast, as well as a beverage, and to obtain oil from it. Mixed with fine
sandal-wood shavings and other aromatic substances, the oily liquid
pressed out from the cocoa-nut is used by the Tahiti women as a
much-prized cosmetic (_monoï_), with which to lubricate their long
beautiful black hair. Here, as among the other South Sea islands, the
cocoa-palm begins to bear after the first seven or eight years only, after
which, however, it becomes so abundant that the fruit of each tree is
valued at five francs annually. It takes 20 to 25 cocoa-nuts to make a
gallon of oil.[90]

III. The urú (also called _Maioré_), or bread-fruit tree (_Artocarpus
incisa_), is, after the cocoa-palm, the most useful tree on the island.
The fruit, baked in a canak (or native) oven, (_vide ante_, p. 162),
between two heated stones, is the substitute for bread to the Tahitians.
At the period of the war, or in consequence of a short crop, the natives,
like the New Zealanders and the aborigines of the Caroline Archipelago,
buried the fruit of the urú in the earth, and ate it in the putrefied
state. The bread-tree is productive thrice in the year. The first crop,
the best and largest, ripens in March, the second in July, the third,
Manavahói, at the end of November. The fruit varies from eight to twelve
pounds in weight.

IV. The fara, or _pandanus_, the fruit of which is treated in the same
manner as that of the urú, while the leaves serve as a thatch for the
bamboo-cane huts of the aborigines. Of the red seeds of the _pandanus
odoratissimus_, the ornament-loving Tahitian women prepare exceedingly
fine coronals and necklaces. The leaves of another species, called irí by
the natives, are used for enveloping tobacco, and making cigarettes, as
also in the manufacture of house mats, and mats on which to sleep.

V. The taro (_Caladium esculentum_), a sort of tuber, which at certain
seasons supplies any deficiency in the bread-fruit, and is very carefully
cultivated by the natives. Of this plant there are in Tahiti thirteen
varieties.

VI. Pia (_Tacca pinnatifida_), a sort of tuber resembling the taro, the
mealy substance of which is chiefly used as nutriment for children and
convalescent persons, and which in commerce is erroneously confounded
with arrow-root, the latter being chiefly procured from the Antilles and
India, more especially from _Marantha Indica_ and _Marantha arundinacea_.
The pia is also much used in Tahitian households in the preparation of
small sweet cakes (_Poe-pia_), and is a not unpalatable substitute for
wheaten flour.

VII. Hói, or yams (_Dioscorea alata_), of which useful tuber a variety of
species are extensively used on the island.

VIII. Umará, or sweet potato (_Convolvulus Batata_), preferred by the
natives to the European potato, and widely cultivated, though it has
somewhat degenerated in Tahiti.

IX. Fare-rupe (_Pteris esculentum_), a kind of fern, the root of which was
in former times much used for food here, as also in New Zealand.

There still remain to be noticed two plants of much interest, from the
roots of which the Tahitians, prior to the arrival of the Europeans,
obtained strong intoxicating beverages.[91] These are the ti-plant
(_Cordyline Australis_) and the kawa, or ava (_Piper methysticum_), of
which latter fourteen varieties are known to the natives.

The cultivation of this species of pepper is at present prohibited in
Tahiti, and kawa-drinking has accordingly fallen into entire disuse. Only
on the peninsula are a few aged Tahitians to be found, who appear
obstinately opposed to the use of our alcoholized liquors, who on special
festivities will face every privation for the luxury of boozing over their
kawa, for which they sometimes pay five francs for a small piece.

Formerly the process of chewing the kawa was performed by the young girls,
and then only by those who had the finest teeth. Before beginning this
delicate task, they were required carefully to rinse their mouths and
purify their hands, for which purpose they made use of special vessels.
When the roots had been slowly and equally chewed, and had been changed
into little cones held together by saliva, they were mingled with water in
a large wooden vessel (_Umeli_), standing upon a tripod, and gently
squeezed by hand. In many of the islands this process of dilution is
performed by mixing cocoa-nut juice instead of the customary water. The
kawa is a very fluid substance, not very inviting in appearance at any
time, but still less so when one has witnessed the mode of preparing it.
Usually it is of the colour of _café au lait_; but occasionally, when some
of the leaves of the plant have been mixed with the root, the beverage
assumes a greenish tinge, something like wormwood, although to the palate
it has nothing in common with that substance.

Kawa is drunk out of the half of the cocoa-nut shell, which in the hands
of a native skilled in carving becomes a really elegant beaker. Only
families of high birth, the Arii and Raatira,[92] who are exempted from
toil, are however able to indulge in the luxury of a daily draught of
kawa. The symptoms of intoxication are very similar to those of opium. In
the kawa-drinker, like the opium-eater or Samshoo smoker, there is a
nervous tremulousness perceptible, followed by utter exhaustion, and an
overpowering necessity for sleep. After its effects have passed off, there
is a sensation of weariness in the limbs, to remove which the regular
kawa-drinkers are accustomed to plunge into the cold waters of the nearest
mountain stream. A very peculiar cuticular disease, the infallible result
of the daily use of this beverage, is called by the natives _Arewarewa_.

A German chemist, M. Nöllenberger, who was resident at Papeete during our
visit to the Archipelego, had succeeded in September, 1858, in
crystallizing the essential principle of the kawa root, which he called
Kawaïn, the powers and properties of which he was about to investigate
more minutely. As we have since then been favoured with a copy of the very
valuable work of Mr. G. Cuzent upon Tahiti, already alluded to, we learn
therein that that zealous naturalist had already, in 1857, found in the
kawa root an organic base, which he termed Kawahine, and which is fully
described in his interesting Monography (p. 99).

Owing to kawa-drinking having been prohibited in Tahiti, chiefly through
the influence of the missionaries, the use of brandy and other spirituous
liquors is beginning to exercise a not less baneful influence in that
island upon the physical and intellectual powers.

In agriculture, as in commerce, the effect of the French Protectorate has
been visibly to slacken the rate of progress. The number of ships that
visit the island does not exceed 60 to 80 annually, representing an
interchange of merchandise to the value of about £64,000 per annum, of
which about five-eighths, or £40,000, may be estimated as the amount
exported.[93] What is most surprising, is the small number of whalers who
visit the island for provisions and repairs. In 1836, the total number was
fifty-two; at present not more than five or six in the year enter the
harbour of Papeete. In the official reports this falling off is ascribed
to the fish having forsaken these regions, while the stagnation of trade
is generally ascribed to the reduction of the French garrison (!) in
Tahiti, and the rise of late years of the Sandwich Islands and California.
But the _true_ cause of the decay is to be sought for in a very different
direction. It lies chiefly in a very defective system of administration,
which is constantly being transferred from one hand to the other, having
at its head to-day a ship-captain, and to-morrow possibly an officer of
gensdarmes or an engineer. A letter[94] addressed to the Emperor Louis
Napoleon by an English merchant long resident at Tahiti, unsparingly
unveils the present disorders of Tahiti with respect to rights of
property, administration of justice, legislation, and social state, and
draws a shocking picture of the actual state of the island, once in such
high estimation for the felicity of its inhabitants.

On the other hand, the very benefits the mother country is supposed to
derive from its Protectorate are at least problematical. While the
establishment of French stations in Oceania has required about £240,000,
the annual cost of keeping them on foot has never cost less than £100,000,
and of this the Protectorate of Tahiti figures for from £24,000 to
£28,000.[95] This by no means trifling sum is not however employed in
promoting commerce or advancing trading interests; for not more than two
or three ships in the year come direct to Tahiti from France, while the
majority of the fabrics used there are English, which are imported from
Valparaiso, the only port with which Papeete has regular communication.

The military colony of Taiohái on the island of Nukahiwa, one of the
Marquesas, has been entirely abandoned since 1st January, 1859, on account
of the too great cost of keeping it up, although Uté-Moána, the king of
the Marquesas, and the chiefs of the island of Nukahiwa, were desirous of
retaining the French Protectorate, and had drawn up a formal address of
submission, while, on the other hand, New Caledonia (Dum'mbia) can only be
kept up at very considerable cost.

Lately great reforms have been everywhere inaugurated, in order to
diminish the heavy administrative expense hitherto incurred. The French
colonies of eastern and western Oceania are to be provided with entirely
independent administrations. The Governor of the French establishments in
Oceania Oriental is to reside in Papeete, while his colleague of Oceania
Occidental is to have his seat of Government at Port de France in New
Caledonia. This subdivision, however, must add materially to the cost of
maintenance, while it is difficult to see how it can augment the prospects
of any increase of revenue.

The French, in a word, have no success in their attempts anywhere at
colonization; they are not practical colonists. The absence of this
faculty, if one may call it so, is doubly apparent in the Southern
hemisphere, where they are surrounded on all hands by English colonies.
True it is, the English also have usually acquired by the strong hand
their possessions in Oceania, in Australia, in Asia, &c., and from the
stand-point of humanity it is impossible always to defend the means by
which they have made themselves masters of the fairest and most fertile
countries on the globe. But what have been the results directly springing
from these high-handed acts, these political _faits accomplis_? England
has thrown open to the unrestricted enterprise of all trading and
seafaring nations those islands and continents so highly favoured by
nature, with their feckless fast-disappearing aboriginal races; she has
striven, by giving free institutions, to attract diligent colonists, to
develope the natural wealth of these countries by means of scientific
exploration, for the benefit of all; she has wafted to the remotest
corners of the earth the seeds of Christian civilization, and by her
energy, her capacity for labour, and her earnestness of purpose, has
impressed all, even the most savage races, with a feeling of envy and
astonishment at the intellectual superiority, the power, and the greatness
of the white man!

Under the influence of liberal but more morally stringent laws, Tahiti
might speedily be raised to the position of a great emporium of the
Southern seas, the Singapore of Oceania. Under the French Protectorate, on
the contrary, the island, with its population long since renowned for
indolence and sensuality, has become, in fact, what a French captain once
jocularly termed it, "La Nouvelle Cythère!"

Although the Society Islands are by no means a French penal settlement
(the climate being possibly _too healthy_), there are, nevertheless, both
at Tahiti and Nukahiwa, a few men, rather politically discontented than
downright dangerous, whom a merciful interpretation of French martial law
has exempted from banishment to Cayenne, (that name of terror![96]) and
whom we might almost say that a beneficent destiny has transported to the
shores of the South Sea. One of these political offenders, named
Longomasino, has to thank the visit of the Austrian frigate to Papeete for
his restoration to liberty. He had been a journalist at Toulouse in 1851,
and maintained a zealous correspondence with some of the most intimate
hangers-on upon Louis Napoleon, till the _coup d'état_ revealed the French
ruler's projects, and Longomasino joined the camp of the opponents of the
new empire. His contumacious agitation against the new order of things led
to his imprisonment and ultimate banishment. He was first transported to
Nukahiwa, one of the Marquesas Islands, and afterwards received permission
to settle at Papeete in Tahiti. Starting as a farrier, then an advocate,
and finally a tavern-keeper, he was unable in any of these capacities to
earn a subsistence for himself and his numerous family; the less so, that
political intrigues deprived him of the right to practise at the bar, and
this compelled him to have recourse to a business for which he had neither
taste nor turn. If we understood matters aright, Longomasino, in the
course of his juridical labours, had been able to do many a good turn to
the Catholic bishop of Tahiti in his dispute with the French
administration, and it was therefore less sympathy with the unfortunate
political convict than the desire to play an adversary a trick by
depriving him of an able adherent, which induced the Governor to ask our
Commodore permission to give a free passage to Longomasino, who had been
condemned to transportation for life. The request was willingly granted,
and on the eve of our sailing Longomasino came on board the frigate, while
his wife and family were to follow by a merchant-ship. The unhappy man,
who had not words enough wherewith to express his gratitude for the
friendly reception he experienced, still further gained the sympathies of
all on board, with his melancholy fate, by his manly reticence on the
subject of the injustice he had sustained.[97]

Another convict, who had excited universal attention at Papeete, was M.
Belmare, a well-educated young man, who in 1850 avowed he had shot at
Louis Napoleon while at the Tuileries, and, in consequence, been
transported to Tahiti. The fact that Belmare has since then been taken
into the employ of the treasury at Papeete, where he receives a salary of
£100 per annum, gave colour to the most whimsical reports as to the
clemency displayed by the French Government in this case; yet we
repeatedly heard the opinion expressed that Belmare was solely put forward
as a tool for carrying out--which was to be used as a blind by giving the
Government of Louis Napoleon opportunity for new stretches of arbitrary
power. Whether, however, a residence at Tahiti, even with a handsome
salary, be sufficient recompence for such services, M. Belmare alone is in
a position to say.

A succession of bad weather, such as so frequently occurs in the tropics,
delayed our departure for several days. Now it was a heavy gale,
commencing in the north and gradually veering round to W. and S.W.; now it
was a series of calms, while the surf swept in unbroken masses on the
beach, and so heavily, that it seemed the height of imprudence to take the
frigate out through the narrow channel which constitutes the mouth of the
harbour of Papeete, and is nothing but a cleft in the coral walls which
surround Tahiti, and protect it from the ocean swell.

At length, on 28th February, at day-break, we got under weigh. One of our
own boats, as also a boat from the French steamer _Milan_, which was
courteously placed at our disposal, towed the _Novara_ outside the reef,
and materially aided the efforts of our men, a barely perceptible catspaw
of wind just filling the sails. Piloted by a native lootse, we steered out
so close to the projecting coral reefs, that the frigate all but touched
them.

We now had a parting view of Tahiti and the little island of Motu-Uta,
where stood our improvised observatory, and where so many sleepless nights
had been passed in observations for the purpose of defining astronomically
the exact position of the island.

We found the breeze freshened once we were outside the reef, and steered
northwards, beautiful Tahiti, with the imposing and irregular outline of
its hills, and the richness and variety of its vegetation, recalling, in
some aspects, the glowing loveliness of the tropics, in others, the still
sublimity of some of our Alpine landscapes, till it lay behind us like a
shadowy vision of dream-land.

Almost simultaneously with the departure of the _Novara_, the American
whaler _Emily Morgan_, Captain Chase, stood out from the harbour of
Papeete. This vessel had been whaling in the southern seas during five
years, without any adequate return for her perseverant exertions. Her
entire take was as yet only four barrels of train oil!! She was now making
for the Sandwich Islands, and thence home to Boston. Latterly, the North
American whalers have formed themselves into partnership, so as to divide
profit and loss. If his companions had encountered no better fortune than
Captain Chase, they might safely aver they had worked five years for
nothing. The crew of the _Emily Morgan_, who were as usual almost entirely
dependent for their remuneration on their tenth share of the oil, had
begun to despair, and six of their number deserted from the ship, to stay
behind at Tahiti. Throughout the voyage, Captain Chase had had his wife
with him, a spirited energetic American woman, who on occasions could take
her trick at the helm, or even direct the ship's man[oe]uvres. So
completely had she fallen into the ways on board ship, that even in
ordinary conversation she frequently let slip a few sea-phrases, and
recounted, with much pride, how, when the boats had been away in pursuit,
she had kept her watch like a regular officer.

On 8th March, Shrove Tuesday was celebrated on board. Several sailors had
disguised themselves as Invalids, as Tahitians, as Nicobarians, &c., and
played off all manner of pranks. Dolce, our cook, the merry-andrew of the
vessel, figured as a troubadour, in which capacity he sang several
heart-thrilling melodies. In the afternoon the band played on deck, and
in the evening the jolly tars, to their great gratification, received each
a double allowance of grog.

It was our Commodore's intention to cross the shorter diameter of the
almost elliptical curve of equal magnetic declination, which occurs in
this vicinity, with the view, if possible, of ascertaining by observation
by what law the "local variation" of the needle is diminishing within the
curve of 5°, the latest indicated in the most recent magnetic charts.

This curve of 5° easterly magnetic declination lies, according to F.
Evans,[98] between the parallels of 5° 30' N. and 13° S. lat., and 120° W.
and 134° 30' W., north-eastward from the Marquesas Islands.

The magnetic needle, as is well known, does not point to the geographical
poles, but is deflected from the due north and south meridian, in a
direction eastward or westward according to locality, at an angle which,
in the measure of the easterly or westerly magnetic variation of the
plane, is called eastern or western declination or variation, and which
not only gradually alters at every place with the lapse of time, but also
is universally found to assume different values at different places, so
that in certain lines, known as lines of equal declination, the variation
remains the same for all places under that line during a certain given
period.

As the compass is the sole reliable guide of the seaman while traversing
the ocean, and it is of the utmost importance to investigate and
accurately lay down the ship's course for the port which is her object to
make, it appears necessary to explain to the uninitiated how the local
variation of the magnetic needle is determined, as thereby one can readily
find the precise angle at which the magnetic meridian of any place is
deflected from the true meridian.

The determination of this divergence is effected by means of observations
of the sun, by the aid of which one can calculate at any moment its actual
bearings, as seen from the deck of the ship, and this, compared with the
true position of the sun, gives the amount of variation.

This apparently simple method of determination encounters in practice,
owing to certain local influences, a variety of obstacles, for it is
executed on board of a ship, which frequently contains within itself, at a
greater or less distance from the binnacle, large superficies of iron,
operating less or more prejudicially upon the needle, by deflecting it
from the direction which it would actually have but for these masses of
iron. Hence the variation is not even the same in all parts of the ship,
nor does it follow the same direction, but varies according to certain
laws, founded upon the intensity and direction of the magnetic attraction
of the earth. It is therefore necessary to make allowance for these local
deflections of the needle, in order to find the true variation of the
needle.

So far as regards the last-named, many thousand observations, both by land
and sea, have resulted in furnishing us with a rule for empirically
finding the amount of variation, for short periods at least, according to
which the magnetic needle is found to vary from year to year at every spot
along certain given lines, which it has been found possible to delineate
upon the charts; thus showing at a glance the amount of variation to be
allowed for at any given spot. As this is sufficient for all practical
purposes of navigation, the seaman is, in most cases, relieved of the
necessity of making for himself these observations and calculations, if
only he can ascertain with anything like accuracy the position of his ship
on the earth's surface, and has determined the amount of local variation
on board.

These iso-magnetic lines are, however, susceptible of great improvement,
and if they are ever to become practically and universally useful,
repeated observations must not be neglected by such navigators as have the
means and the requisite scientific knowledge to pursue such investigation.

On board the _Novara_ not a single sunshiny day was suffered to pass
without the variation being frequently determined, or such observations
repeated as related to the determination of local attraction on board.

Under such circumstances, an unusual value attached to our ascertaining
and following up so far as practicable the decrease in declination of the
magnetic needle till it reached the zero point assigned to it, and
comparing our own observations with the amounts stated on the charts.

It was, however, at least as regarded nautical matters, of by no means
special importance, that we should reach the very point of minimum
declination,--it sufficed to ascertain that the observed diminution, as
marked upon the charts, corresponded with our observations, which proved,
in fact, to be the case.

This confirmation proved the more satisfactory, that when we reached the
N.E. side of the Paomotu group (also called Pakomotu, lying between
13°-22° S., and 135°-150° W.) we found a fresh north-easter blowing, a
phenomenon which during the fine season is due to the high temperature of
these islands, and of course interposed a serious and persistent obstacle
to our intended N.E. course.

Another impediment to our attempt to get nearer to the zero point of
minimum declination presented itself in the far from healthy state of the
ship's crew. A peculiar endemic colic,[99] called by the French at Tahiti
_colique sèche_, or _colique végétale_ (dry or vegetable colic), was
rapidly extending among the men, and had already carried off one victim, a
sailor, who died after a short illness on the morning of the 9th March,
and was committed to the deep the same day with the customary solemnities.

By 17th March, in 15° 52' S., and 137° 23' W., the declination of the
magnetic needle had diminished to 5-1/2° E., and thus far agreed pretty
accurately with that indicated by the charts; it is not, however, likely
that it actually falls to a zero point, but rather diminishes gradually
as the central point is approached, which would hardly be the case if the
declination actually fell to zero.

By 25th March we found ourselves about the latitude of Pitcairn Island,
from which we were barely one hundred miles distant. This island, so
singular alike by its physical features and its remarkable history as the
retreat of the surviving mutineers of the _Bounty_ with their families,
has latterly had its interesting population removed to Norfolk Island,
where there was room for the simple God-fearing community to increase its
numbers without the risk of an excess of population over the resources of
the soil, as there appeared reason to apprehend had they been left on
Pitcairn Island.

The story of the mutiny itself, the escape and subsequent career of
Captain and Admiral Bligh, the extraordinary change that came over Adams
when, ere ten years had passed, he found himself the sole survivor of the
mutineers, all but one of whom died a violent death, and the hardly less
marvellous manner in which this primitive community was discovered, after
the lapse of nearly thirty years, are themes that need no recapitulation
here. Much less known however is their subsequent, hardly less singular,
destiny, and it will not, therefore, be out of place if, in the interests
of the general reader, we vouchsafe a passing notice of their strange
career.

In 1814, twenty-five years after the mutiny, Sir Thomas Staines in H.M.S.
_Briton_ visited the island, at which time the little colony consisted of
46 individuals, 38 of whom had been born thus far from all civilization.
Nevertheless the little community were living contented and happy in all
the simplicity of a patriarchal family, and in the cultivation of the
cardinal virtues of Christian morality, inculcated by the now venerable
Will. Adams, such as thankfulness to the Creator of all things, patience,
gentleness, and neighbourly love.

The very singular origin of this exemplary race repeatedly attracted
passing ships to this little-known island, and this intercourse did not
fail to exercise a pernicious effect upon the spiritual-mindedness of the
islanders, the more so that there were among these numbers of desperate
adventurers, who did all in their power to mislead this simple-minded
race.

When Captain Beechy, in 1825, approached the island in his ship _Blossom_,
he perceived a small boat standing off towards him under full sail. On
board were Adams himself and several of his pupils. They requested
permission to come on board, and hardly waiting for an answer, the little
active lads had clambered up and stood on the quarter-deck. Adams had lost
his youthful agility, and for a moment seemed to hesitate. The sight of a
man-of-war, it may well be conceived, made a deep impression upon him. It
called up too many mournful recollections, and when he beheld the cannon
and all the "circumstance of war," with which in his youth he had been
familiar, he could no longer restrain himself, and tears of emotion
flowed down his wrinkled cheeks and silvery beard. At this period the
island boasted 66 inhabitants, and the old man felt deep anxiety lest the
little spot of earth to which he was banished apparently without hope of
reprieve, should ere long prove insufficient to provide adequate support
or even space for its rapidly-increasing population.[100] He spoke to the
excellent Beechy upon the subject, and implored the English Government to
provide his little flock with a more comfortable abiding-place under the
English sceptre, and better adapted to the wants of his rapidly-increasing
posterity.

On 5th March, 1829, Adams expired at the age sixty-five, surrounded by his
children and descendants. In the latter days of his illness, during the
short intervals of ease which his intermittent agony left him, he
expressed a wish that the community would during his life select some one
to be their head; however, out of respect for the venerable sufferer, this
was not carried out officially, but after the death of Adams, Edward
Johnny, son of one of the seamen of the _Bounty_, assumed the Presidency
of the little colony, while renouncing the honorary title.

Under him the Anglo-Tahitian settlers enjoyed visible prosperity, when an
unexpected event destroyed for ever the placid tenure of their existence,
and compelled them to leave their beloved island. On his return to Europe,
the gallant Beechy, intending to confer a real benefit on the gentle
people in whom he felt so lively an interest, had laid before the British
Government Adams' dying request, in consequence of which an English
man-of-war and a transport made their appearance from Port Jackson,
Australia, in March, 1831, to transport the whole of the inhabitants to
Tahiti, which European nations regarded as the most suitable spot for them
to be settled in. The Pitcairn Islanders were in despair, for, when made
aware of the steps taken by "Father Adams" through Captain Beechy to get
them placed under the British Crown, the good folks had long before
written to England and urgently entreated that they would not remove them
from their own hearth; but their entreaties seem not to have reached the
proper quarter, or else to have received no attention, and now that the
two ships lay off the island, evincing the interest taken by the English
Government in their future destiny, they could not venture on refusing to
embark. They had to content themselves with the assurance that they should
be restored to Pitcairn Island, in the event of their not finding
themselves comfortable in their new asylum.

By the end of March, 1831, they reached Tahiti. Although Queen Pomáre had
set apart a certain tract of land for them to settle in, and manifested
the warmest interest, and though the usually frivolous but hospitable and
kindly Tahitians received the new arrivals in the most cordial manner,
the pure minds of the latter were so disgusted and revolted with what they
saw at Papeete, that the very day after they disembarked, they loudly
declared that under no circumstances would they remain there, and
therefore claimed to be taken back to Pitcairn's Island. When it was found
that all representations failed to induce them to make any stay at Tahiti,
a few Protestant missionaries got up, in conjunction with some English
residents, a fund of some £400, with which they chartered a schooner, for
the purpose of restoring the Pitcairn Islanders to their rocky paradise in
the solitudes of the Pacific, for which they felt such an irresistible
homesickness. In August of the same year the return voyage took place.
During their short stay at Tahiti, fourteen had died of sheer grief and
anguish of mind, like plants that had been transplanted into a foreign
soil. Although only six months absent in all from Pitcairn Island, there
was not one single family but had to regret the loss of some beloved
member!

Despite their bitter experience hitherto, the old terror of
over-population again arose in the bosoms of the Pitcairners, after a
series of prosperous and peaceful years, and a wish began to be frequently
expressed that at least a portion of the inhabitants could be drafted off
to some other island. In order to comprehend and do justice to this
feeling, one must place oneself in the position of a resident on an
extremely small solitary island in the ocean, which is often for years
cut off from any communication with the outer world, and every corner of
which has already been cultivated to the utmost: would it not be a
pardonable anxiety, which in view of such circumstances should fill with
gloomy forebodings the heart of every prudent head of a family, and make
him hesitate between love for his native soil, and the desire to preserve
independence and comfort to his family?

A second attempt at acquiring a settlement beyond their own confined
limits was not more fortunate than the first. The Government of England,
with the meritorious care for the interest of even the poorest of her
subjects in the most remote regions of the globe, which is one of her
noblest characteristics, once more dispatched a ship of war to Pitcairn,
with orders to transport the inhabitants to Norfolk Island between New
Zealand and New California, of the marvellous climate, vegetation, and
fertility of which the most glowing accounts were in circulation. A few
plants which had been conveyed thence by English navigators to Europe had
excited universal astonishment--such exquisite forms of vegetation, it was
thought, could only form part of some landscape of marvellous beauty and
richness. And one must, in fact, have seen the _Araucaria excelsa_, the
well-known Norfolk Island pine, in order rightly to understand these
raptures. Such an island, it was thought, with an equable climate,
fertile, and of adequate extent, must be the very thing for the idyllic
life of such a people as the Pitcairn Islanders. Adams' descendants and
their kinsmen accordingly suffered themselves to be persuaded into trying
this change, the more so that their own island was beginning, as had long
been foreseen, to prove too small for them, and the possibility of a
deficiency of food began to assume an appalling air of probability.

In May, 1856, the British Government expended £5000 in sending another
ship from Sydney to Pitcairn, to carry out the wishes of the inhabitants
and their advocates in England, by transporting the entire community to
Norfolk Island. There were in all 193 souls, viz. 40 men, 47 women, 54
boys and 52 girls, who now said farewell to the land of their birth. But
on this occasion also the elder seemed to feel an anticipation of their
speedy return, and before they embarked they took every possible
precaution to ensure their finding their dwellings in the same order in
which they were leaving them. They placed written bills on the doors of
their houses, in which they requested all visitors to abstain from
injuring their property, as they were only leaving the island for an
indefinite visit, and would very speedily return to their old quarters.
They killed all the pigs and dogs upon the island, lest the first should
violate the sanctity of the grave, and the latter injure their flocks and
herds.

By the ensuing harvest-time they were installed in their new home.
Provided for the first time by the English Government with the requisite
means of subsistence, as well as agricultural implements, &c., they seemed
to feel themselves quite at home, and their friends and well-wishers in
England began to indulge hopes that they had at last found at Norfolk
Island the long-wished-for asylum, and as energetic and industrious
landowners would at once benefit themselves and develope the resources of
the island. These pleasing anticipations were the more natural, as for a
number of years nothing more was heard of the "Pitcairn Islanders," except
that everything was going on prosperously and quietly in the new colony.

While the _Novara_ was lying at Sydney, in November and December, 1858,
intelligence was received respecting these colonists, in whom, on account
of their singular history, the deepest interest was felt there as
elsewhere. In the (then) Governor-general's (Sir W. Denison's) residence
we saw a photographic group of the islanders, male and female, whose
pleasing expression involuntarily excited profound sympathy for the
persons thus represented. Since their arrival in Norfolk Island there had
been no more definite news concerning them.

At New Zealand, in like manner, nothing was known of what they were doing.
At St. John's College, Auckland, we quite accidentally fell in with two
young well-grown men, who we were told were Pitcairn Islanders in the
course of education for missionaries. There was in their faces a mild,
half-melancholy expression; they spoke perfectly good English, but in the
most ordinary conversation used Scriptural phraseology. It was known that
when he began to instruct the younger members of the community Adams
possessed only a Bible and some religious books. Thus they not only were
instructed in the Book of books, but even in ordinary life the biblical
phraseology and peculiarity of expression still clung, even to the fourth
generation.

During our visit to Tahiti we heard one day that the schooner _Louisa_,
Captain Stewart, had just arrived from Pitcairn Island, whither he had
transported a number of its former inhabitants from Norfolk Island. We
resolved to get speech with this gentleman, in order that we might gather
from his own lips the details of his voyage. It so chanced that he stayed
in the house of an English settler, who had let to us a small palm-hut
during our stay at Papeete. We very soon struck up an acquaintance.
Captain Stewart, a genuine Englishman in appearance, character, and
expression, explained to us in brief terms that he had at their own cost
transported a number of the Pitcairners from Norfolk Isle to their old
home, and, during the voyage, which lasted some weeks, had kept a pretty
full journal. "But," continued the truth-loving captain, "I am not at
present in a position to give you any circumstantial details respecting
them. Business compels me to go over to the island of Eimeo, and by the
time I return hither the _Novara_ will be well on her way to Valparaiso. I
am likewise bound, however, for the west coast of South America, in fact
to Valparaiso, and shall probably arrive there a few weeks after you. I
promise you, during my voyage thither, to jot down the most important data
I can recall respecting these islanders, and they shall be placed at your
disposal immediately on my arrival in Valparaiso." We thanked Captain
Stewart for his kindness, and we parted with a vigorous "shake hands" of
genuine English cordiality.

The reader will see in the subsequent chapter how honourably the worthy
skipper kept his word. Two months later, after we had sailed over 5220
nautical miles, we were handed the promised information; but to preserve
uniformity we shall present the reader at once with this comprehensive
sketch of the present state of Pitcairn and its amiable inhabitants, as
furnishing the latest particulars of the islanders, which are now for the
first time published in Europe.

"Captain Stewart had been in communication with the inhabitants of
Pitcairn in November, 1858. Landing at Norfolk Island, in the course of a
voyage in the South Sea, the community chartered his schooner to convey
certain of their number back to Pitcairn Island. They declared they had
only quitted Pitcairn in consequence of the glowing description given them
of Norfolk Island. Instead of the promised superabundance, they could only
by dint of severe labour provide themselves with the ordinary necessaries
of life. Their staple of food was sweet potatoes and a small quantity of
meat, in fact, a single bullock, which by permission of Government they
slaughtered once a week, and the flesh of which served the entire
community.

"Besides all this, the rudeness of the climate did not seem to suit them,
and diseases seemed to become more and more frequent among them. In fact,
it turned out that the natural advantages of Norfolk Island had been
persistently overrated by early visitors, the consequence being that the
poor Pitcairners found themselves woefully disappointed in the
expectations they had formed of their sojourn in this terrestrial
paradise.

"The scenery of the island is everywhere lovely, and the peculiarity of
its vegetation, especially when seen from seaward, exercises a kind of
fascination over the beholder; but the ground, which is the most important
consideration for the settler, who is bound to the soil, not by the
sublime and beautiful, but by the useful, is very far from being fertile,
and the sole descriptions of produce extensively raised are maize and
sweet potato. Wheat and barley are so exposed to frost and mildew that
only one crop out of several proves remunerative, and the potato makes so
small a return, in consequence of the amount of seed and labour required,
that it is only cultivated as a rarity. Even the commonest vegetables are
scanty and of poor quality, and under these circumstances it is at least
probable that the cultivation formerly carried on by the English convicts
and criminals, in which the results would naturally exceed expectation,
had led to the mistaken idea that Norfolk Island was fertile. It is about
9000 English acres (14 English square miles) of superficial area, of which
about 1500 acres only are cleared, and but one half of that, or
one-twelfth of the whole, suitable for cultivation.

"It is just possible to land on either the south or north sides, if _the
water be smooth_; the little village is situated near the former, and
consists of about 100 'block-houses' of various dimensions. There are also
a number of stone-buildings upon the island, which speak of the times when
the island was a penal settlement, and comprises a large prison for about
2000 convicts, besides the necessary barracks for the military guard; a
church, a hospital, magazines, and dwelling-houses for the Governor, the
chaplain, the inspector, the officers, &c., buildings which, taken in
conjunction with the grave-mounds and frail tombstones of the adjoining
churchyard, tell a mournful tale to the visitor of the earlier
inhabitants, and of the tragic fate of many thousands who must have toiled
and sunk under their hopeless doom in Norfolk Island.

"The Pitcairn Islanders occupied the houses constructed for the Government
officials, and had not shown the slightest attempt to settle upon spots
suitable for agriculture. When the British Government made the island over
to them to be cleared and reclaimed there were about 2000 head of sheep,
several hundred cattle, 20 draught horses, and a large number of swine and
poultry. In addition to this handsome present, Government gave them
provisions for six months, besides agricultural implements, seeds of
various useful plants, and vegetables of every description. There were
also two sloops, of about 15 tons each, left at the island, besides a
complete stock of household necessaries. All the above were made a free
gift of to the islanders by the British Government, which merely reserved
to itself a part of what used to be the prison-buildings, in case it
should wish to devote them to its former purposes at some future period.

"When Captain Stewart visited Norfolk Island, in 1858, the population
consisted of 219 Pitcairn Islanders, and two English soldiers with their
families, employed as surveyors by Government.

"On the day of his arrival a public meeting was held, at which the chief
magistrate of the community presided, and the females played a not
unimportant part. It was arranged that for a certain sum Captain Stewart
should convey 60 of the Pitcairn Islanders to their old abode. A special
motion for the purpose was put to the meeting with all due form, seconded,
and reduced to writing on either side. At the same time it was
imperatively ordered that all should be ready to embark on the fourth day
thereafter, and as there is but one, and that not a very safe, anchorage
off the whole coast of the island, the Captain stood off and on in its
neighbourhood.

"The eve of the fated fourth day found the delicate question still
unsettled of who were to be the happy 60, so many had set their hearts on
forming part of the expedition. A second meeting was convened, this time
under the presidency of their chaplain, but the only result was to defer
for one day the embarkation. During this entire period the poor people
were in the utmost excitement. The place of embarkation was covered with
the baggage of all who were desirous of returning to Pitcairn's Island;
but, as in consequence of their original descent there have been such
frequent intermarriages, and hence such close relationship, reminding one
of the clans of Scotland, it was impossible to decide who was to go and
who to remain. At length, on the expiry of the last day left them to
decide, it was arranged that in the event of Captain Stewart proving
unable to take off two entire families or clans (about 100 persons), only
one should be taken to Pitcairn. The Captain hesitated at venturing on so
long a voyage with such a number of souls in so small a vessel. He
therefore took on board only 17 of the islanders, men, women, and
children, whom he landed at Pitcairn Island, after a voyage of 42 days,
amid tears of rapture at finding themselves on the well-remembered spot.
The notifications they had attached to their doors on leaving had not
entirely answered their expectations. During their absence several of the
huts had been gutted, and a large number of the oxen had been carried off.
However, it was not altogether malice or wanton destruction which had
diverted to other purposes their cherished household gods. Shortly before
their arrival, in a wild night of storms, the American clipper _Wild Wave_
had been wrecked on a coral reef, not far from Pitcairn, and a part of the
crew, having succeeded in reaching the island, were compelled to avail
themselves of the building material, thus collected to hand for them, with
which to construct a boat, in which, with true sailor-like hardihood, to
face the winds and waves once more. For this purpose the church and some
twenty huts came handy, while a plentiful stock of goats, sheep, and
poultry were roaming at large about the island. A considerable quantity of
valuable tropical fruit was hanging ripe upon the trees, and seemed only
awaiting the return of the former owners to be plucked for use.

"The baggage was speedily landed, and an unusual activity prevailed, with
the view of getting housed as speedily as possible. It was plain these
poor people had never expected again to get possession of a domain which
they had abandoned through ignorance and misrepresentation. The reverent
air with which they entered their huts and gazed around with keen
scrutinizing glance to see if all had been left in its former state,
showed with what love and veneration they clung to this gloomy possession
of their progenitors, with all its melancholy traditions, which seemed to
exercise over them a deeper attraction than the majestic ruins of a
princely ancestral castle, with all its world-famous memories, sometimes
does upon the youthful representative of its pristine glories.

"The important part played by the women during the consultations held at
Norfolk Island seemed anew to be claimed by the fair sex at Pitcairn, and
Captain Stewart could not sufficiently wonder at the high social position
they occupied in the little community. The ladies for their part made the
most of this privilege, and their utmost efforts were directed towards
justifying it by their activity in household matters."

Such is the latest that is known as to the Pitcairn Islanders and their
singular destiny. It is not at all improbable that the majority of their
kindred will gradually find their way back to the original seat of their
race, there to end their days.

Making all allowance for their aptitude and their natural preferences,
their innate timidity and lack of decision must leave a painful impression
upon every impartial mind; but this prominent trait of character seems to
have a deep-seated physiological basis. The "Mutiny of the _Bounty_" was
followed by a natural reaction. The ever-present dread of discovery, which
constantly haunted Christian and his criminal associates, and to their
dying day deprived them of all tranquillity of mind, was transmitted, but
in a milder form, to their descendants, and struck root in their bosoms in
a feeling of dependence and excessive timidity, which prevented even their
grand-children from attaining tranquillity, and from becoming not to say
intellectual, but even useful, members of society. Will, courage,
independence, seem for ever to have fled from the breast of the Pitcairn
Islanders, who, on the other hand, have many virtues well calculated to
excite our sympathies, and of whom especially the founder of this
simple-minded community, the energetic, clear-sighted Adams, has, by his
actions, proved anew the truthfulness of the saying, "Whoever has the
power to WILL (a thing) can perform miracles!"

       *       *       *       *       *

Our voyage to the west coast of America was speedy, though rather stormy.
Seldom were the heavens clear, and alternately with violent rains, we felt
that discomfort arising from constant motion, the result of heavy seas and
tremendous rolling, to which the voyager is so frequently exposed.

On 4th April, at night, while shortening sail, owing to the violence of
the wind and the threatening aspect of the weather, one of the crew was
precipitated from the main-top-gallant-yard, a height of 125 feet above
the deck. Being caught as he fell among the shrouds and rigging, he
succeeded in catching hold of one, and so with diminished force fell into
the main-top, a fall of 69 feet, upon which some of his comrades, going to
his assistance, rescued him from further danger, when he was found to have
suffered so little, that he returned to duty the following day!

On the 11th, without any particularly heavy weather, the main-yard
suddenly snapped in two. On a more minute investigation it was found that
it had become greatly weakened by dry rot, so much so that it could no
longer be used. It was fortunate this took place during ordinary weather,
so that the two fragments could be lowered without much difficulty. In a
high sea and heavy weather, such an accident is often attended by most
lamentable results, for two pieces of timber, each above 40 feet in
length, measuring 21 inches at the thickest, by 8 inches at the smallest
diameter, and several thousand pounds in weight, can hardly come rattling
down upon the hull of the ship without inflicting serious injury, and
endangering the lives of numbers of men.

As we had no spare main-yard, we had to sling a smaller one till our
arrival at the nearest port, giving rather a singular appearance to the
vessel, but without perceptibly affecting her speed.

In 34° S. and 76° W., the temperature of the ocean was observed suddenly
to fall 3°.1 Fahr., and we now, for a distance of about 200 nautical
miles, were in what is known as Humboldt's current, which carried us
towards N. by W. at a velocity of from half to three-quarters of a mile
per hour. Our experience of this renowned current, so far at least as
regards the season of the year, and the latitude and longitude in which it
is fallen in with, are widely different from those statistics which
represent it as sensibly felt at a distance of from 800 to 1000 miles off
the W. coast of South America.

On the 16th, the faint outline was visible of Aconcagua, the highest of
the Chilean Andes, and a few hours later we made the lighthouse of
Valparaiso. A light breeze with a heavy sea made it seem advisable not to
run in during the night, the result of which was that on the following
morning it was only by the efforts of some tow-boats dispatched to our
assistance by the commander of H.B.M. ship of the line "_Ganges_," and the
French corvette "_Eurydice_" that we were enabled, by 3.30 P.M., to reach
Valparaiso in the midst of a profound calm, when our anchor was let go in
25 fathoms, good holding ground, in an excellent roomy berth, away from
the bustle of the merchantmen.

The voyage from Tahiti, 5000 nautical miles, was accomplished in 48 days,
and although a considerable portion must be marked as "lost," owing to our
having steered for the zero point of magnetic declination, we yet arrived
at our destination sooner than merchantmen which left Papeete before us,
or in company, but had steered south of the Paomotu group.

Mr. Flemmich, the Austrian Consul-general at Valparaiso, immediately sent
our letters on board, but the regular packet, which we had expected to
find here before us, had not come in, and the delay served to double the
anxiety of all on board, in view of the political clouds that were
hovering over our native land.


                               FOOTNOTES:

[60] The original spelling of the name of this island arose from ignorance
of the language. To the question, "_Eaha tera fenúa?_" (What is the name
of this island?) the natives replied, "_O Taïti Oia._" The article was
thus taken for the first syllable and the island was called _O Taheite_.
Since then the thorough knowledge we have acquired of the language has
rectified the mistake. In Tahitian the two verbs "to be" and "to have" are
altogether wanting. _O_ is simply the nominative of an article which very
frequently is placed before a proper name to give it emphasis, or even for
the sake of euphony. _O_ accordingly is used in the above sentence merely
to imply "it is." A literal translation from Tahitian into any European
language is in most cases impossible. Occasionally one finds Tahiti
mentioned by the names of _La Sagittaria_, _King George the Third's
Island_, _Nouvelle Cythère_, and _Amat_.

[61] The derivation of the name Pomáre, which has since become that of the
Tahitian dynasty, is purely accidental. The father of Otu was once
travelling among the mountains, and had to camp out in the open air. The
bad weather gave him a violent cold with hoarseness, which induced one of
his companions to name the night spent in such discomfort _Po-mare_, i. e.
a night (po) of cough (mare). The chieftain so acutely felt the pertinency
of this name that he adopted it as his _own_ name.--(Vide _Ellis,
Polynesian Researches_, vol. ii. p. 70.)

[62] These four missionaries were named Chrysostome Liansu, François
d'Assis Caret, Honoré Laval, and Columban Murphy, an Irish catechist.

[63] Vide Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, No. xli. p. 31.

[64] "It is not surprising," he writes in a letter to his superiors, "that
on the arrival in this country, so long given over to the evil spirit of a
child of the _Sacré c[oe]ur_ (Divine heart), that enemy of all which is
good should have raged with redoubled fury, and that the Protestant
emissaries should have believed I came to overthrow their empire!!"--Vide
_Annales de la Propagation de la Foi_, No. lvi. p. 204.

[65] "I am," wrote Queen Pomáre, to the then King Louis Philippe, "only
the ruler of a small, insignificant island. May wisdom, renown, and power
ever attend your Majesty! Cease then your anger, and pardon the error I
have committed."

[66] This additional article ran as follows: "The free exercise of the
Catholic religion is permitted in the Island of Tahiti, and in all the
other possessions of Queen Pomáre. The French Catholics shall enjoy all
the privileges accorded to the Protestants, _but they shall nevertheless
not be entitled to meddle, under any pretext, in the religious affairs of
the country_. Done at Tahiti, 20th June, 1839."

[67] These two letters are dated, "Waiáu, on the Island of Raiatea, 24th
Sept. 1844," whither Queen Pomáre had withdrawn after the events of
November, 1843, and whence she only returned to Tahiti in 1847.

[68] According to the laws of the country, each married resident
contributes one franc per annum to the civil list; a widower with one
child, one franc; a widower without children, two francs; an unmarried
adult, two francs; an adult female unmarried, one franc; boys under
sixteen, and girls under fourteen, as also criminals and persons
incapacitated for labour, pay nothing. This is the only direct tax the
inhabitants are called upon to pay. The revenues of the island do not,
however, suffice to defray the expenses of the French occupation. Before
the arrival of the Europeans the Tahitians had no description of currency,
but had recourse in all business transactions to barter. The Protestant
missionaries were the first to introduce about £2000 of copper money,
which they had got struck in England for the purpose. This currency was
based upon a coin of the value of one half-penny. On one side was a ship,
and on the obverse the words "COPPER PREFERABLE TO PAPER." When the French
came to the island they flung this money into the sea, and forbade their
circulation under heavy penalties! At present the only coins used are
francs and _réra_ (about one-third of a franc=3-1/4_d._ nearly).

[69] This State paper is couched in very brief and intelligible terms in
both French and Tahitian, and runs as follows:--

"Her Majesty, the Queen of the Society Islands, and H.E. the Governor of
the French possessions in Eastern Oceania:--

"1st. Considering that there are no 'projets de loi' (Bills) to be
submitted for legislative enactment during 1859, and that assembly has
further no budget to vote;

"2nd. Considering moreover the considerable expenses to which the members
of the said assembly are put for their sojourn at Papeete during its
session;

"3rd. Considering Article 7 of the Ordinance of 28th April, 1847;

"Decide,--

"The Legislative Assembly of the States of the Protectorate will not meet
in session during the year 1859. Papeete, 10th February, 1859.

                                             (Signed)       "Saisset."

A similar notification drawn up in Tahitian, is countersigned by Queen
Pomáre. One Tahitian, who was a member of the Legislative Assembly,
remarked to us, after reading the foregoing announcement in the _Moniteur
Tahitian_, "How then can any one say beforehand whether or no there are no
important questions to discuss?"

[70] M. Adam Kulczycki, who was at that period entrusted with the
management of native affairs, and is an accomplished Tahitian scholar,
besides occupying himself with astronomical and meteorological
observations, and geological investigations, has been for seventeen years
in the French service, and, a Pole by birth, served not without
distinction in the struggles of his native land for liberty.

[71] "_O Taïti (Tahiti), par G. Cuzent, Pharmacien de la Marine, &c. &c.
Paris, Librairie de Victor Masson, 1861._" It is a most valuable book, the
result for the most part of personal examination and illustration, and
arranged with much care and method.

[72] _Canaka_, in the Tahitian dialect, as in that of the Sandwich
Islands, is equivalent to MAN.

[73] At one service which we attended in Mr. Howe's chapel there were
fifty "communicants" present; a pupil of the missionary played the organ.
The Queen, too, and her family, who are strongly attached to the services
of the Evangelical Church, are frequently present at these Sunday
gatherings.

[74] Several of the girls who live in Mr. Howe's family are Catholics,
whose parents prefer they should be educated in a Protestant school rather
than not at all.

[75] The cost of the Catholic missions in Eastern Oceania amounts on the
average to frs. 100,000 (£4000) per annum. "The Society for the
Propagation of the Faith" (French) subscribes annually from frs. 3,000,000
to 4,000,000 (£120,000 to £160,000) for the races of heathendom. Of this
Oceania and Australia get from frs. 400,000 to frs. 500,000 (£16,000 to
£20,000).

[76] With reference to this, the following remarks are especially
noteworthy, made by M. Guizot at a time when France still possessed a
tribune and a parliament: "What particularly strikes me is that our
missionaries do not make new conquests for a Church already powerful; that
they do not extend the sphere of supremacy of the ecclesiastical
government. The Roman Catholic missionary arrives alone, ignorant of the
actual state of affairs, having none of the affections common to
humanity--in a word, better fitted to acquire an ascendant than to enlist
sympathy. The Protestant ministers are, on the contrary, family missions,
so to speak; so that a pagan population will more readily be led to regard
as brothers men who are husbands and fathers like themselves. Thus these
missions instruct by presenting specimens of Christian society side by
side with precepts of faith; the example of all the relations and
sentiments of domestic life, regulated according to the morality of the
Gospel they are sent to teach; a mode of instruction most assuredly not
the least efficacious, if not absolutely perfect." (Discours de M. Guizot
dans l'Assemblée Générale, du 11 Avril, 1826.)

[77] In the "_Lois Revisées dans l'Assemblée Législative au mois de Mars
de l'année 1848, pour la conduite de tous, sous le gouvernement du
Protectorat dans les terres de la Société_," is the following stringent
passage, "The dance, known as Upa-Upa, is interdicted in the islands under
the Protectorate. On fête days and public festivals dancing is permitted,
but no indecent gestures will be tolerated." The Upa-Upa dates from the
period when the secret society of the Arréois, whose chief tenets were
drinking feasts, polygamy, and infanticide, existed over the greater part
of the islands of the Pacific. Moerenhout, in his "_Voyages aux íles du
grand Océan_" (Paris, 1837, vol. i. p. 484), gives a very complete account
of this singular society, which has since entirely disappeared before the
zeal of Protestant missionaries.

[78] Experiments have also been made quite recently with coffee, which the
Government likewise fosters. The largest plantation is the property of a
Frenchman named Bonnefin, who, in 1859, grew as much as 8000 lbs. The high
price of labour, however, renders its production so dear that Tahitian
coffee costs 100 fr. (£4) the centum (100 lbs), or about ten pence the
pound, on the spot, whereas the best Costa Rica coffee costs only from £2
to £2 8_s._ the centum, or five pence to six pence the pound. The
Protectorate officials hope to supply this very perceptible lack of labour
by introducing into Tahiti, as field workers, the prisoners of war they
take in New Caledonia.

[79] Mr. Wilson, a missionary, estimated the population of Tahiti in 1797
at 16,000 souls. In 1848, when the French administration took its first
census, the native population amounted to 8082 (viz. 4466 males, 3616
females), the number of Europeans being 475 (428 males and 47 females). In
1858 it had fallen to 5988, or 2580 fewer than it had been 30 years before
(1829), when, according to a census taken by the English missionaries, the
population of Tahiti was 8568 of both sexes and all ages.

[80] Among the splendid specimens of the forest flora of Tahiti we
remarked, in addition to the cocoa-nut palm, the bread-fruit tree and
Pandanus, of which we shall presently speak more at length, on account of
their economic, industrial, and therapeutic qualities. The _Calophyllum
Inophyllum_ (Ati), _Inocarpus edulis_ (Masse), _Aleurites triloba_
(Tu-tui), _Rhus Taïtense_ (Apape), _Ficus tinctoria_ (Máti), _Ficus
prolixa_(Ora), _Gleichenia Hermanni_ (Eanúhe), _Hibiscus tiliaceus_ (Puráu
or Fáo), _Lagenaria vulgaris_ (Hue), _Pisonia inermis_ (Puna tehea),
_Spondias dulcis_ (Bri), _Arundo Bambus_ (Ofé), _Tanghinia Maughas_
(Ruva), _Morinda citrifolia_ (Nono), _Guettenda speciosa_ (Tafano), _Boxa
Orellana_, &c. &c.

[81] According to Kulczycki's measurements the lake lies 430 metres (1401
feet) above the sea, and is 400 metres (1304 feet) in circumference, while
the precipitous peaks around are 1800 metres (5865 feet) above sea-level.

[82] According to the laws of Tahiti, whenever the entire male descendants
of a chief have become extinct, his eldest female offspring becomes chief
of the district, sits as such in the legislative assembly, and has a voice
in the administration of justice. At present there are five
chieftainesses, who are members of the Tahitian parliament. Their husbands
have no political influence whatever, except as the husbands of these
ladies!

[83] _Carabus_ (Anglicé Calaboose) is a corruption of the Spanish word
_Calabozo_, a prison. The _Carabus_ of Papeete is a sort of pound in which
drunken people or mischievous vagabonds are confined, and whence they are
released on payment of 5 or 10 francs. These mulcts or convictions form a
not unimportant source of revenue, and are of twofold demoralizing
operation; for while it is the interest of the police on the one hand to
make as many arrests as possible, so as to insure a larger sum for
division, the wretched, sensual Tahitian girls find in the prosecution of
the filthy trade that has brought them within the clutch of the police the
best means of procuring their release!

[84] Queen Pomáre finds herself entirely dependent upon the French
Protectorate. On the slightest symptom of asserting her position she is
met by a stoppage of her allowance, and as, in consequence of the rather
opulent mode of life adopted by the generous-hearted lady, the incomings
and outgoings are apt not to square, her pecuniary straits are not
infrequently made use of for political purposes.

[85] Obviously a corruption of the French "mouton," the popular name for a
spy.

[86] Of this expensive fruit, which grows in large quantities on the
island, and only needs to be gathered, there are exported annually some
five or six ship-loads, worth about fr. 200,000 (£8000), all which find
their way to California, where 1000 oranges are worth from $40 to $60 (£8
8_s._ to £12 12_s._), whereas, a similar quantity is worth in Tahiti at
the outside £1 to £1 4_s._

[87] Besides the cocoa-nut oil and arrow-root, which are at present
exported from Tahiti and constitute its chief trade, the produce of the
neighbouring islands might be conveniently passed through Tahiti. The
pearl oysters (_Meleagrina Margaretifera_), which are usually dredged for
in the months of January, February, March, and April, come chiefly from
the Paomotu and Gambier groups. The latter-named group, however, only
sends about 500 tons of these annually, worth about fr. 500 to fr. 600
(£20 to £24) per ton. In the year 1859, the entire importation of these
was contracted for by a merchant of Papeete at $140 (£29 10_s._) per ton.
The natives of Gambier, accustomed to dive, use to bring up the pearl
oysters from a depth of from 150 to 180 feet.

[88] On the island of Eimeo, or Morea, lying off Tahiti, the area of which
is 13,237 hectares, there is a table-land about the centre of the island,
surrounded by a semi-circular range of lofty precipices, which would be
found thoroughly fit for cattle pasture. The cultivation of the grape and
of European vegetables might also be profitably undertaken.

[89] Here also we encountered this useful plant, which was first
introduced into Tahiti in 1851, by means of seeds from Paris. Of these
twenty-five were sown, which within three months gave a sufficient return
of seed to admit of the cultivation of the sorgho being extended through a
number of districts. One year later, the crop amounted already to about
2100 kilogrammes (4900 lbs., or two tons and a quarter), which were
disposed of at 1-1/2d. per kilogramme (somewhat under a penny per lb.).

[90] A gallon of cocoa-nut oil is worth, by way of barter for goods, about
one franc and a half, and for specie one franc. The adjoining islands
abound in cocoa-nuts, Anaa, one of the Paomotu group, being capable of
delivering from 300 to 400 tons of oil per annum.

[91] The fermented juice of the orange, the pine-apple, the _pandanus_
fruit, the _spondias dulcis_, and the wild bananas, were also used in
former times for the preparation of intoxicants. Since the introduction of
European spirits, the natives discriminate all foreign drinks as
_Ava-papáa_, their own being named _Ava-maóhi_.

[92] Before the arrival on the island of the Europeans, Tahitian society
was divided into three classes: viz. Arii, or chiefs; Raatira, or
land-holders, of whom the most distinguished in each district were called
Tataui; and, lastly, Manahune, or Tenantry at will. To the latter class
belonged all prisoners of war. Between the Arii and Raatira there was a
middle class, the Eiétoaï, corresponding to the European title of
Honourable. Latterly the name _Tacana_ has come into almost universal use
for the Arii, being in fact nothing but a corruption of the English word
"Governor."

[93] These calculations are merely approximative. The Custom House at
Papeete has sufficient documents, but it keeps them secret, apparently for
political reasons, if we may credit the remark of a Tahitian. "It is not
wished to let all the world know that we are _not_ in a prosperous state."

[94] Letter concerning the actual state of the island of Tahiti, addressed
to H.M. the Emperor Napoleon III., by Alexander Salmon. London, Effingham
Wilson, 1858.

[95] The French garrison in Tahiti and Eimeo (Morea), including the
administrative officials, numbers about 400 men. The Governor receives,
besides extras, £1200 pay; the _Commandant particulier_ draws other £800,
in addition to which both these officers draw _allowances_ as officers in
the Imperial navy (13_s._ 4_d._ to £1 per diem.)

[96] We had an opportunity while at Papeete of obtaining some particulars
of this renowned French penal settlement from the mouth of a person whom
no one will be likely to accuse of exaggeration. M. de la Richerie, who,
while we were at Papeete, filled the position of Imperial commissary, and
is the present Governor of Tahiti, was for four years (1854-57) director
of the penal settlement at Cayenne. During the period of his authority the
entire population consisted of from 5000 to 6000 prisoners, 1500 garrison,
200 free settlers, and from 16,000 to 18,000 negroes. The expense of
keeping on foot this small colony was not less than from £160,000 to
£200,000. The mortality among all classes, free as well as prisoners, was
perfectly appalling, averaging from 28 to 33 per cent.!! Of 6000
prisoners, 2000 died in one year; out of 36 medical men, 18 died in the
discharge of their duties. The number of fever-stricken in the hospital
was never less than from 500 to 600!! The director once entered an
apartment in which above 250 of the unfortunate political criminals lay on
their sick beds. He inquired of the physician in attendance how long they
were likely to live? Possibly a year, was the reply. "_Dépêchez-vous
donc_," said the director, as he turned from the unhappy wretches, who had
no resource except the hospital, and, sick in mind and body, longed
earnestly for the day which should see their wretched couches vacated for
the calm tranquillity of death. M. de la Richerie was of opinion that no
political convict lives more than four or five years in Cayenne, and that
even the free settler cannot withstand the deadly influence of the climate
above ten years. But the government founded on the 2nd December gives
itself little concern. The utility of the system of deportation has been
fully understood, and is unsparingly carried out. The time seems to be at
hand when all Frenchmen who venture to challenge the Napoleonic ideas,
will be banished their native country, nay, exiled from Europe.

[97] Shortly after his arrival in Valparaiso, Longomasino went to Serena,
a city in Chili of 20,000 inhabitants, near some rich copper-mines, where
he occupied himself with editing a newspaper in Spanish.

[98] Chart of curves of equal magnetic variations, 1858, by Frederick
Evans, Master, R.N.

[99] This colic stuck to the ship for nearly eight months, and out of 36
cases, the shortest time it took to run its course was nine days, the
longest 94.

[100] One main source of anxiety, which determined Adams to request the
good offices of the British Government, was the scanty supply of
drinking-water. There was at this time only one available spring of fresh
water, and this supply was so small that two quarts of water were all that
each family could be allowed during the day.


                        [Illustration: The Lasso]



                                  XXI.

                              Valparaiso.

                Stay from 17th April to 11th May, 1859.

    Importance of Chile for German emigration.--First impressions of
    Valparaiso.--Stroll through the city.--Commercial relations of
    Chile with Australia and California.--Quebrada de Juan Gomez.--
    The roadstead.--The Old Quarter and Fort Rosario.--Cerro Algre.--
    Fire Companies.--Abadie's nursery-garden.--Campo Santo.--The
    German community and its club.--A compatriot festival in honour
    of the _Novara_.--Journey to Santiago de Chile.--University.--
    National Museum.--Observatory.--Industrial and agricultural
    schools.--Professor Don Ignacio Domey Ko.--Audience of the
    President of the Republic.--Don Manuel Montt and his political
    opponents.--Family life in Santiago.--Excursion trip on the
    southern railroad.--Maipú Bridge.--Melepilla.--The Hacienda of
    Las Esmeraldas.--Chilean hospitality.--Return to Valparaiso.--
    Quillota.--The German colony in Valdivia.--Colonization in the
    Straits of Magellan.--Ball at the Austrian Consul-general's in
    honour of the _Novara_.--Extraordinary voyage of a damaged
    ship.--Departure of the _Novara_.--Voyage round Cape Horn.--The
    Falkland Islands.--The French corvette _Eurydice_.--The Sargasso
    sea.--Encounter with a merchant-ship in the open ocean.--Hopes
    disappointed and curiosity excited.--Passage through the Azores
    channel.--A vexatious calm.


The free State of Chile enjoys a higher degree of tranquillity than any of
the former Spanish dependencies of South America, and in climate, in
fertility, and in liberal institutions, transcends all others in affording
the European emigrant the best prospects of a prosperous future.

Chile possesses a constitution which many a European state might envy, the
civil freedom, which forms the basis of all laws, and just now is so
eagerly debated and investigated in some parts of Europe, having been in
practical operation here for upwards of a quarter of a century, during
which it has materially contributed to develope the resources of the
country and the prosperity of its inhabitants. Owing to the disturbed
state of the American Confederation, hitherto the El Dorado of European
emigration, countries such as Chile, of an extent similar to that of
England and Greece together, and with a population barely exceeding one
million of men, possess the very highest attraction. True, at the period
of our visit the long-enjoyed political tranquillity was for a while
disturbed by a revolutionary convulsion, but it has cost neither time nor
trouble to suppress it, upon which the leaders, more ambitious than
patriotic, took to flight, and public order and safety were reinstated
upon the broad basis of a constitution, which was wisely drawn up so as to
admit of keeping pace with the times.

We beheld Chile under anything but its normal favourable aspect; many of
the leading families of the country had been plunged by political troubles
into grief and mourning; trade was falling off; the ordinary buoyant
disposition of the Chileno had given place to painful anxiety; yet all we
heard and saw during our stay at so unpropitious a period, only served to
strengthen our conviction that a great and splendid future awaits this
delightful country.

He who merely lands at a seaport such as Valparaiso, and wanders through
its lengthy but elegant streets, carries away with him no just conception
of Chile and the life of the country beyond the Andes. Everything about
the town, houses, shops, and population, has quite a European aspect, so
that the stranger walking through some of the streets with their lofty
grey edifices, gay signs, and large and splendid magazines, abounding in
everything that can minister to human luxury, might readily fancy himself
transported to some northern European capital. Nothing is here to tell of
its being the native country of the Araucanian, nothing recalls that
singular national aboriginal type, and it is only when contemplating the
majestic forms of the surrounding landscape that he can realize that he is
actually in the proximity of Andes, "giant of the Western Star."

One of our first walks through the city, the buildings of which extend,
row after row, for a considerable distance along the bay, and surmount the
hillocks (_Quebradas_) which rise at a short distance from the shore,
brought us to the _Aduana_, or Custom-house, one of the most extensive,
beautiful, and commodious buildings in the city, which, commenced in 1850
by a Frenchman, was finished six years later by an American, named John
Brown. The ground on which the various buildings are erected was quite
recently gained from the sea by embankment, as was also done in the case
of the existing _Plaza de Armas_, and the wide and graceful _Calle de
Planchada_, both which sites were under water less than twenty years
since!

The Custom-house buildings, including the vast solid warehouses, cost the
State more than 1,000,000 Spanish piastres (£210,000), but form the finest
and most convenient edifice of the kind throughout South America. An
enormous quantity of the most valuable merchandise, which used to be
scattered about among private houses or disposed of, are now stored in
large, dry, well-lighted apartments, and can without much trouble or delay
be got at and taken away. About 200 officials are at work in spacious
offices registering the trade of the State, which is in a very flourishing
state, owing to the immense importation of the most various foreign
fabrics, paid for in a not less extensive export of Chilean products,
chiefly corn and precious metals. The start taken by the country in
commerce and agriculture, as also the development of its natural
resources, dates from the period of the discovery of the Californian
gold-fields. Chile, so admirably suited for agriculture, very speedily
became the granary of the gold-country, and set about making the most of
its manifold advantages. Wheat, barley, beans, increased so much in value,
that many fields which, on account of comparative poverty, had been
suffered to lie fallow hitherto, now got under cultivation, and the former
scanty means of the majority of the proprietors of the soil was at once
exchanged for unexampled prosperity. The influx of specie did not fail to
stimulate activity in every other occupation as well, and was mainly
instrumental in working the mines more systematically, and thus making
them more productive than hitherto.

The exportation to California speedily increased ten-fold, and within two
years had increased nearly 2,500,000 piastres (£525,000).

When the gold fever had a few years later abated somewhat in California,
and the settlers there began to grow grain for themselves, the Chilean
exports thither dwindled away, till, about 1857, they had sunk to a
minimum hardly worth mentioning. But meanwhile a second, though rather
more distant, market was found for Chilean exports, by the discovery of
not less productive gold-fields in Australia, the imports into which from
Valparaiso, despite the enormous distance, proved so immensely
remunerative that the ventures of former years to California were quite
eclipsed.[101]

Leaving the Custom-house buildings, we climbed up the Quebrada de Juan
Gomez, one of the numerous narrow valleys or clefts which, spangled on
both acclivities with villas, usually thatched with shingle, impart to the
environs of Valparaiso so peculiar an appearance. The most extraordinary
of these is the _Cerro de Carretas_, a hill from 200 to 300 feet high, to
the slopes of which cling a variety of filthy wicker huts of the poorest
sort, which, regarded from a distance, have a picturesque effect. On a
closer inspection, however, they exhibit utter destitution and degraded
poverty. At the highest point of the steep Quebrada de Juan Gomez are some
fortified lines recently thrown up, together with the artillery barracks
(_Cuartel de Artilleria_), with accommodation for 800 men. The Chilean
troops are pretty well equipped, but have a by no means imposing air; they
appear to be patient and persevering, fit for encountering great
privations and overcoming obstacles, rather than courageous, or eager for
the fray. There is, in short, a total absence of "dash" about them. From
the barracks one enjoys a magnificent view over the city and the environs,
hemmed in on all hands by the ocean. The roadstead greatly resembles that
of Trieste, and, like the latter, suffers much from N.W. winds. The
merchantmen lie at anchor in pretty regular order, with the double object
that, in case of a sudden "norther," they may not suffer from ships
dragging their anchors, and may be able at once to make sail if necessary.

Although at the commencement of the winter season (May to October) of the
southern hemisphere, when frequent storms from north and north-west make
the roads of Valparaiso, if not dangerous, at least hazardous, the
majority of sailing vessels make for other better-sheltered harbours along
the west coast, yet there were still about 180 vessels of all sizes and
every flag lying at anchor off the town. The most unpleasant and severe
months are June and July, although it is at that period less the violence
of the gales than the tremendous sea, which occasionally hurls a ship, if
not properly made fast, into a position of danger, and occasionally
interrupts all communication with the shore for days together. A season
sometimes passes over, however, without the occurrence of any elemental
strife. It would be of the highest interest to be able to ascertain the
periodicity of the return of severe winters, which there can be little
doubt obeys some natural law.

The barometer is, at Valparaiso, a pretty correct index of the wind that
may be expected. The more the mercury sinks, the more perceptible will be
the N. or N.W. wind. Rain and foggy weather usually precede these winds,
and continue till the wind draws somewhat to the west, upon which the
mercury rises and the weather improves. North or north-west winds are,
however, as a rule never of long continuance, and indeed frequently
continue only a few hours, because so soon as the first burst is over, the
trade-wind, upon whose limits it has encroached, soon begins to drive it
before it, under the influence of an air-wave from the southward, and
ships which, with the view of suffering as little as possible from north
or north-west winds, keep as far from the lighthouse as possible, have
nothing to dread from even a heavy "norther," if all proper precautions
are taken, and their anchors and cables hold.[102]

In the harbour were the screw steamers _Maipú_ and _Esmeralda_, and the
paddle screw steamer _Maule_, belonging to the very insignificant navy of
the Chilean Republic. From the barracks we passed up several Quebradas to
the ancient "Cuartel" and Fort Rosario, two buildings remarkable enough in
their way, the erection of which dates back to an early age, as they in
fact belong to the period when Valparaiso had only 400 population, and was
part of the assize-circuit of Casa Blanca. The latter, however, which we
pass on the road to Santiago, is still an insignificant settlement, while
Valparaiso has become the wealthiest and most important commercial
emporium along the whole west coast of South America, and boasts a
population of above 60,000 souls. There are also in this vicinage numbers
of small filthy one-storeyed huts or _ranchos_ built of cane, which seem
as though hanging to the acclivities, and are not intended to last any
time. As it rarely rains at Valparaiso, and then but little, and the
temperature being tolerably mild throughout the year, the poor have little
occasion to provide themselves shelter against cold or boisterous weather,
or to build strong and solid habitations. Moreover, there is perceptible
among the Chilean populace, as among all other Spanish Americans, an
innate trait of character, in the shape of indolence and indisposition to
labour, as they usually strike work for the day as soon as they have
earned enough for the daily necessaries of life, which they can supply for
a trifle. Nay, we are told that it is by no means unusual for
day-labourers, as soon as they have earned their day's wage for their
principal want, to reply in an indifferent tone to the offer of farther
work, "Tengo mis dos reals" (I have my two reals)![103]

Not all the Quebradas, however, round Valparaiso are infested with
wretched huts; some are occupied by tasteful and comfortable residences,
especially the Cerro Algre, where at present a considerable number of
Germans reside, and which is conspicuous for the number of elegant little
villas, as also by the cordiality and hospitality there lavished upon
strangers. Cerro Algre is one of the most charming, delightful, and
salubrious spots in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso, with a magnificent
panorama, although not so fashionable a resort as the Almendral, which,
since the recent appalling conflagration of 1858, reducing within a few
hours the finest portion of the city to ashes, has been rebuilt with
numbers of handsome edifices, and has at the same time been widened and
extended.

The frequency of fires, and the totally inadequate means and appliances
for their extinction at the disposal of the authorities, led to a number
of foreigners settled in Valparaiso organizing a Fire-brigade
(_Pomperos_), in which the _élite_ of the community shortly after were
enrolled. The founders and first company were the English, after whom came
the Germans, French, Spaniards, Italians, and lastly the Chilenos
following suit. A hook and ladder company, consisting of English, Germans,
and North Americans, was set on foot in 1850. All the arrangements are
modelled after the Fire Companies of the United States. The engines were
imported from New York, and cost over £800 a piece. The French displayed
the greatest luxury in the splendid uniforms of their company and the
elegant fittings of their very beautiful engine; the Germans, on the other
hand--not always the case with them--show but a very simple attirement,
but are behind no other nation in the zeal and courage with which their
fire company performs its self-imposed duties.

Valparaiso is sadly deficient in suitable promenades, and consequently
strangers must not be surprised, should they be invited to take a walk to
the Cemetery (_Campo Santo_), in order to promenade there among cypress
alleys, and pretentious-looking memorials of the departed.

The Campo Santo is situated on one of the rising grounds behind the city,
and with its clumps of trees and flower-plots, looks in fact much more
like a promenade-garden than a grave-yard. Each Catholic fraternity
(_hermandad_) has its own place assigned it for interment of the dead.
Beautiful and costly monuments are raised over some of the recent graves,
like so many testimonies in marble of the influence exercised even upon
the resting-places of the dead, by the accumulated wealth of the last
twenty years. Close beside the Catholic cemetery is that of the
Protestants, which, like the other, is neatly laid out and kept in
excellent order, but on the whole impresses the visitor less by the
splendour of the monuments and the elegance of the inscriptions, than by
its air of solemn simplicity.

Not far from the spot where repose their dead is the place of worship of
the Protestant community, a slight but neatly-finished edifice of wood,
somewhat like the "chapels" of the English colonies. This is a pleasing
evidence of the tolerant spirit of the Chilean Government, in strong
contrast with most other Catholic states in South America, where religious
intolerance of heterodoxy goes the length of prohibiting all public
profession of their faith.

Valparaiso is as badly off for fine open squares and monumental erections
as for promenades. The Government Square, with its neat Exchange, and
Victoria Square, with its Theatre, are neither by their antiquity, nor
their general appearance, calculated to make any impression upon the
traveller. There is great need of large, good hotels upon the European
plan; and as there are no cheerful, comfortable cafés, to serve as a
rallying-point for the male sex after the business of the day is over, the
traveller is usually dependent for society upon being introduced at the
different clubs, founded by the various nationalities. Of these the German
was the finest; but, in consequence of their beautiful, spacious club
having fallen a sacrifice to the recent conflagration, the members had to
seek temporary accommodation in rather confined apartments, which greatly
hampered their desire to show all due honour to our Expedition. Not less
cordial, however, was our reception, nor the warm interest taken by the
entire German community of Valparaiso in the scientific attainments of
certain of its members.[104] Nowhere did the old German hospitality shine
forth with more serene lustre than among the Germans of Chile, nowhere is
there a more splendid manifestation of the vigorous intellectual life of
the good old stock, nowhere a more thorough expression of German unity in
foreign countries! Exercising a powerful influence in society, as
merchants, physicians, professors, naturalists, astronomers, chemists,
engineers, architects, &c., the activity of the German in Chile in every
avocation of life has not been without a permanent influence on the
destinies of this free State, and has already left in its institutions
many a trace of German origin.

One of our most pleasing reminiscences is undoubtedly that of the
magnificent natural fête got up by the German residents of Valparaiso in
honour of the _Novara_ one heavenly Easter morning, which came off at the
beautiful Quebradas of Quilpué, about twelve miles from the port. Quilpué
is a station on the railroad which runs from Valparaiso into the
interior, and is intended to form the communication between it and
Santiago de Chile, 110 miles distant, but of which at present only the
first 40 miles have been completed.

A special train, its locomotive neatly decorated with garlands of flowers
and banneroles, conveyed the guests, 150 in number, to Quilpué. From this
station the joyous party marched with the German flag at the head to one
of the neighbouring dells, which seemed intended by nature to serve as the
site of pic-nics in the open air. Here, under a number of spacious and
elegant tents, we found long tables set out, which a cloud of waiters and
cooks seemed engaged in loading with every delicacy that could tempt the
palate.

The company wandered through the adjoining glades, or lay stretched out in
the shade, in a delicious ecstasy of music and song. The alarm of war,
which at the moment was booming through Europe, had found its way even to
the foot of the Chilean Andes, and imparted to the festival a political
feeling. Although the then state of political matters in Austria was by no
means such as to fill the mind with enthusiasm for it, yet all the
feelings of the German of Valparaiso were enlisted on the side of Austria
in her struggle with France; less out of sympathy with her policy as then
displayed than out of hatred of Napoleonic assumption.

Thus, in some of the after-dinner speeches which followed in due course,
as well as in the inspiring songs with which the entertainment was
enlivened, there was free expression given to this sentiment. A Bavarian
physician and pharmaceutist, Dr. Aquinas Ried, whose house we found one
of the most pleasant points of cordial re-union for the members of the
Expedition, had composed a chorus for male voices, called "Welcome to the
_Novara_," which he led himself with some of the members of the German
Choral Union, the closing strophe of which,

    "Sei einig nur Germania,
    So stehest du auch einzig da,
          Das grosse Vaterland!"

was received with enthusiastic applause, and was greeted with deafening
cheers.

This widely-expressed sympathy for German nationality found expression in
various other ways, not the least conspicuous being the marked courtesy to
the Expedition manifested by the natives of Chile itself, and in an
especial degree at Santiago, the capital, where public officers,
naturalists, and lovers of science vied with each other in welcoming such
of our number as went over to spend a few days there, and in aiding them
to carry out the object they had in view.

With these scientific aims were united others of a political nature, our
Commodore having been honoured with H.I. Majesty's commands to enter into
a commercial treaty with the free Republic of Chile. For this purpose
Commodore von Wüllerstorf had gone to Santiago in company with the
Austrian Consul-General, M. J. F. Flemmich, and the author of this
narrative, the two geologists and the draughtsman of the Expedition having
set out thither some days before.

The journey to the capital of Chile is not among the most inviting. There
are numerous crests of mountains (_questas_) to be crossed _en route_,
which at many points are steep, not to speak of the bad construction of
the roads, and the little care taken to keep them in order. Frequently the
carriage rolls along the very verge of a profound abyss; the soil seems
about to give way, gravel and stones plunge thundering down, while neither
wall nor wooden railing intervenes to prevent the traveller from following
them. Moreover, the vehicles in ordinary use are not calculated to
diminish the perils of such a journey, especially if it is an object to
arrive speedily at one's destination, when the regular national coach, the
Birloche, as it is called, must be used. It is a sort of double-seated
two-wheeled cabriolet drawn by two horses, while five or six horses trot
alongside, which furnish the change of horses when required. The driver
rides one of the horses, as in Havannah, and is wonderfully skilful in his
way. He usually wears the national brown-covered _poncho_ (a quadrangular
piece of cloth with an opening in the centre through which the head
passes), a small straw hat, linen pants, and on his bare feet enormous,
heavy spurs, sometimes fastened by a piece of leather, sometimes with a
mere cord.

We pushed forward without stoppage as far as Casa Blanca, one of the most
ancient settlements of Chile, which, however, as previously remarked, has
always preserved its village-like aspect. Here we fell in with several
very handsome ladies, elegantly dressed, each sporting a gigantic
crinoline. They had come from the neighbouring _haciendas_ to Casa Blanca
to be present at a race-meeting. Having dispatched a hasty meal, we pushed
busily forwards, and reached the village of Curacavi, where travellers to
the capital usually pass the night. No great provision is made here in the
shape of good inns, for considerable as is the traffic of loaded waggons,
conveying merchandise and produce, the number of travellers is very
limited, and even the few whom business or pleasure induces to visit the
capital are for the most part natives of the country, or Europeans long
resident, who usually take up their quarters with acquaintances or
business connections, and are therefore exempt from all necessity to look
after their comfort. Travellers who spend the night in such inns generally
carry with them insect-powder, as the number of fleas and other
troublesome insects is legion!!

At the capital, Santiago, the traveller is somewhat better off as regards
houses of entertainment, and the Hotel Ingles (English Hotel), kept by a
Frenchman, may not only boast of elegant apartments and an excellent
cuisine, but surpasses all European hotels in expensiveness.[105]

Santiago de Chile lies in a beautiful fertile valley, and would present a
much more imposing appearance, were it not that, owing to the frequency of
earthquakes, the majority of the houses were built only one storey high.
The long straight streets intersecting each other at right angles, are in
a state calling loudly for sanitary regulation; uneven, badly ballasted,
with huge ruts at the sides, so that it is difficult to say whether the
foot-passenger or the charioteer is the worst off. Much of this is due to
the number of heavy two-wheeled _carretas_ or country waggons, drawn by
six or eight oxen, in which all produce is conveyed from the interior of
the country to the harbour, and foreign merchandise transported from the
sea-board to the capital. On our journey hither we counted 124 of these
lumbering vehicles, creaking and rattling on their way; but there are on
the average 300 such on the road between Santiago and Valparaiso. A good
deal of the less bulky merchandise is also carried on horse or mule-back.

Of striking public buildings Santiago is almost as destitute as
Valparaiso, the Mint,[106] which dates from the time of Spanish Supremacy,
being the sole building worth noticing. The city also boasts of a Plaza, a
large quadrangular, open spot, of no special elegance, although it has on
one side the Cathedral, still in process of erection, on the other a range
of private dwellings with arcades beneath, in which nestle swarms of
stall-vendors, besides several Government buildings which are concentrated
here. Of public promenades, the Alameda, a long, wide poplar-alley, is,
beyond all question, the finest, as well as most frequented, especially on
Sundays and holidays. The period of our visit, the winter of the Southern
Hemisphere was not favourable to our carrying away a correct impression of
the public walks at their gayest, especially when, as in our case, the
weather is raw and gloomy, and the mournful rustle of dead leaves sounds
like the elegy of departed gaiety. Thus, for example, the dam along the
sides of the river, the waters of which in the rainy season swell into a
furious torrent, but the bed of which was now quite dry, forms in summer a
delightful walk; whereas in winter it is only visited by students,
preachers meditative of their next discourse, or lovers oblivious of the
elements.

There is in Santiago a surprising degree of intellectual activity, and
great readiness in promoting scientific discovery. The philosophical
works, which have of late years made their appearance, are deserving of
the highest praise. The educated foreigner is not regarded askance here
with envious eye, nor, because he happens not to be a native, kept in the
back-ground, and refused admission to positions of public trust and
influence; he is rather encouraged in his exertions by the example of such
men as Domeyko, Philippi, Pissis, Moesta, &c. The well-known costly work
in 24 volumes, describing the physical and political history of Chile, was
composed by a Frenchman named Claudio Gay,[107] the expense of printing it
in Paris being borne by the Government. The annals of the University of
Chile appear in regular publication each year from 1843, and comprise
choice though miscellaneous information upon almost every topic of
scientific interest.

One of the leading and most highly informed professors in this principal
seat of education, Don Ignacio Domeyko, a Pole by birth, but who has made
Chile his second home, very kindly acted as cicerone to our Expedition,
and furnished us with most valuable details as to the present state of
public instruction.

The University of San Felipe was founded in 1738, but the present system
of instruction has only been in operation since 1842. The joint Council of
the five professors of the faculties of philosophy and the humanities,
physical and mathematical science, medicine, judicial and political
instruction and theology, are intrusted with the supervision of the entire
national education, each faculty having also the privilege of naming
corresponding members, and in other respects occupying the position of
similar institutions in Europe. The President of the Republic is the chief
patron. The amount expended by the State annually in public instruction,
is upwards of £120,000, an enormous amount considering the small
population.[108]

The University is also charged with the custody of the national library of
32,000 volumes, embracing works upon every subject of scientific
inquiry,[109] and the museum of natural history, in which are very
complete ethnographical and geological collections. The most remarkable
object in the latter is undoubtedly the native stag, _Huemul_, or _Guamul_
(_Cervus Chilensis_), which figures conspicuously on the Chilean
escutcheon, and was long regarded as a fabulous animal, as it had never
been seen alive. However, in the year 1833, the specimens (male and
female) at present in the museum were shot in the Cordillera de Campania,
within a short period of each other.[110]

The observatory was in temporary quarters on an eminence in the midst of
the city, but within a few years the new building would be completed,
which was being constructed by Government for astronomical purposes,
outside the town not far from the school of agriculture. The instruments
in use were chiefly provided by the well-known North American traveller
Gillis, who for many years carried on astronomical observations for the
American Government in South America, especially in Chile, and when his
labours were completed, left his instruments with the Chilean Government
by way of indemnity. The management of the observatory is intrusted to
Dr. Moesta, a German astronomer well-known in astronomical circles.

The school of Technology (_Escuela de Artes y oficios_), founded in 1845
by a French gentleman named Jariez, and, like the preceding, assisted by a
grant from Government, has met with great support and success. In this
eminently practical institution upwards of a hundred pupils are being
taught the construction of machinery, and the various processes connected
therewith, the children of poor parents having a preference. The pupils
are boarded, lodged, and clothed gratuitously, and have therefore nothing
to do but to remain four years in the establishment, after which they
serve Government six years longer, assisting in the public works at a
given remuneration, or if there should be no need for their services in
the latter department, they are at liberty immediately on the expiry of
their apprenticeship to follow what occupation they please. One young
Chileno was pointed out to us who had risen from being a pupil to the
position of foreman, and was now engaged in imparting instruction in
drawing and mathematics.

As important in its way as the Escuela de Artes, and equally useful in the
interests of science and industry, is the _Quinta normal_ for the landed
proprietary. This model farm, founded in 1851, and arranged upon the
French system, is situated outside the town, and consists of a tolerably
extensive plot of land, which includes within its limits the new
observatory and the botanical gardens. The present director is a graduate
of the Ecole Centrale of Paris, and his indefatigable activity speedily
insured the prosperity of the undertaking. It is divided into two
departments, a school of agriculture proper, and a veterinary college. The
course, which comprises agriculture, botany, and treatment of diseases of
animals, besides the elements of chemistry, physiology, geology, zoology,
and geometry, besides geography and drawing, extends over three years,
every pupil educated at the expense of the State being required to devote
six years to the public service. Government has reserved to itself thirty
free presentations, which it may increase to sixty.

The small but well-arranged museum contains an admirably selected
collection of the most important esculents and grasses suitable for
foddering cattle, as also the conditions of soil which are best suited for
growing these, besides a number of different fruits, executed in _papier
maché_, with remarkable fidelity to nature, belonging to trees and plants,
cultivated at the Institute, with the purpose of ultimately selling them
at the proper time to farmers, and thus not only do justice to agriculture
as a science, but increase its own revenue, not to speak of the benefits,
direct and indirect, to the country at large. The purchaser is thus
enabled to judge for himself what description of fruit will be likely to
prove most remunerative to him, while the establishment at the same time
realizes a considerable sum by this sale of seedlings, plants, and seeds,
in a country where hitherto so little attention has been bestowed on
high-class agriculture.

The zealous and far-seeing director is also endeavouring to induce the
Chilean landowner to grow turnips, and other tubers, which might be used
for foddering the cattle in winter, and so lead to a more economical
system of cultivation, and consequent improvement of the race of farmers
themselves. At present, where this kind of farming is utterly unknown, as
soon as winter sets in, many a landowner finds himself compelled, year
after year, to sell or kill his cattle owing to want of fodder, while he
himself goes out as a day labourer, till the return of spring. The
introduction and extension of such a system, which would enable him to
maintain his herds and flocks all the year round, would put a stop to his
present unsettled mode of life, improve his farm, and impart increased
comfort and security to every relation of his business.

At this _Escuela normal_ we likewise found the sorgho, or Chinese
sugar-cane, in course of cultivation with great success. Though the
temperature is occasionally so low in Santiago as to form, during the
winter, ice[111] about two lines in thickness, the sorgho does not seem to
suffer any damage, but gives its three crops each year, besides being much
used for fodder. The first seeds of this species of grass, which has
within four years made the circuit of the globe, and is now profitably
cultivated in almost every part of the world, were imported into Chile
from the free States of North America.

Professor Domeyko, who possesses a most admirable geological and
mineralogical collection, presented the Expedition with a choice selection
of interesting and costly ores from the copper, silver, cobalt, and
quicksilver mines of the country; and although the rich stores of
publications and geological specimens with which the director of the
Geological Institution of the Austrian Empire, Counsellor Haidinger, had
provided for the purpose to present them to scientific institutions in the
different foreign countries visited, was already exhausted and done away
with, yet we had at least the satisfaction of learning that the Imperial
Institute of Geology,[112] whose eminent director has extended throughout
the world the renown of Austria, as a pioneer of geology, maintains
already an active correspondence with the managers of the museum of the
Chilean Republic.

Very soon after our arrival at Santiago, our Commodore was honoured with a
special audience by the President of the Republic, H.E. Don Manuel Montt.
The Commodore was accompanied by the Austrian Consul-general and the
author of this narrative. The reception came off in a plain but
elegantly-furnished apartment of the palace-like Government House, the
style of which is quite modern. Don Manuel Montt, a short, under-sized
gentleman, with dark strongly-marked features, and straight, somewhat
bristly, hair, had during the recent troubles displayed more courage and
energy than his external appearance would have led one to expect, and used
his dictatorial authority with such discretion and prudence, as to excite
the astonishment and respect of all well-wishers of his native land. He
was attended at the interview by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Don
Jerónimo Urmeneta, a man of frank, attractive manners, whose youth was
spent in the United States, and who speaks English fluently.

The conversation turned chiefly upon the proposed commercial and
navigation treaty projected by the Imperial Government, a sketch of which
in the Spanish language was read over to the President by the Commodore.
Don Manuel (as the highest authority in the free State of Chile was called
by the people) expressed the utmost readiness to carry out this
arrangement, and repeatedly avowed his wish to enter into intimate
relations with the Austrian Government, and execute all necessary papers,
which could assist an object fraught with such benefits to both nations.
He also spoke of the desirability of endeavouring to increase the
intercourse between the scientific institutes of Chile and Austria, and in
token of the interest he took in the objects of the Expedition, presented
a copy of Gay's splendid work, as also an extensive collection of all the
historical and statistical papers illustrative of Chilean history during
the last ten years.

The hope indulged by the Commodore of being able to get the preliminaries
of the Treaty signed before our departure, were unfortunately frustrated
by the serious political events which then entirely occupied the attention
of the various members of Government. It was necessary by moderate
measures and an energetic policy to crush out the Revolution, which had
broken out about two months prior to our arrival, before it had attained
uncontrollable dimensions. The insurgents in this case were not vehement
hot-headed Republicans, desirous of further liberty, but reactionary
Ultramontanes (of whom there always are some, even in a Republic), who
wished to overthrow the existing Liberal Government, and substitute in its
place a more flexible cabinet, more dependent upon party tactics. The
dread lest the insurrection should spread till it resulted in civil war,
which would throw back for years the prosperity of the country, proved to
be well-grounded. For several of the most prominent and distinguished
citizens of Chile, as also the clerical party always so powerful in
Spanish American colonies, had united with the insurgents, whose youthful
and ardent leader, Don Pedro Gallo, belonged to one of the wealthiest and
most influential families in Chile. He had already assumed a threatening
attitude in the northern provinces, where his family was held in high
consideration, and had cut off all communication with the mining city of
Copiapó. His mother, a lady some sixty years of age, harangued her son's
troops from the balcony of her house, and repeatedly excited her auditory
by shrieking out the thrilling assurance, that "she would sacrifice her
last farthing would it but ensure the downfall of the existing Government,
and the return to power of the party of the _Peluqueros_" (literally
wig-makers, or Whigs, who in Chile are regarded as adherents of the
Conservative, or rather reactionary party).

Of the immense sums which ambition and party rancour are willing to
sacrifice in Chile, some idea may be formed from the fact that the Gallo
family, at the commencement of the insurrection, engaged to devote their
whole fortune, estimated at more than £600,000, in promoting the aims of
the revolutionists. Fortunately for the pecuniary interests both of the
family and the State, it was nipped in the bud, before any enormous
expenses had been incurred, although it must be confessed that also in
Chile making war is a most costly pastime. The Intendant of Valparaiso,
Don Joaquim Novoa, informed us that the cost of maintaining the
highly-paid Chilean army, which does not number above 8000 men, amounts to
500,000 dollars (£100,000) A WEEK!!! considerably more, proportionally,
than four times the estimated cost of the highly-trained British army.

Our evenings in Santiago were usually spent in private circles, and we
found ourselves in no small degree astonished at the elegance and luxury
which were visible, both in the fitting up of the reception-rooms and the
toilettes of the guests. It is true, we associated with the wealthiest
and most distinguished families in the country, but we had not expected to
find the subdued but exquisite French taste so universally prevalent. The
external aspect of the houses of the Chilean patricians is rather massive
than elegant. The heavy iron grating which surrounds the wide lofty
windows leave a disagreeable gloomy impression. The large quadrangular
court, or Patìo, enclosed by the bed-chambers, and which is common to
every Spanish American house from Chile to Mexico, is intended less for
the passage of air and light to the various apartments than as a place to
fly to in case of an earthquake (which, however, within the last 20 years
were of rare occurrence in Chile and of no great importance), whence it
would be easy to escape. Usually the reception-room has no cost or pains
spared to embellish it; every object or article of furniture in it being
designed to produce a certain effect. The expense and risk attending the
transport of a large mirror or pianoforte, or other article of similar
value, from the factory at Paris to its destination in Chile, is enough to
make the visitor open his eyes with amazement at beholding them there!

Conversation, which, owing to the limited information of the ladies,
usually turns in South American drawing-rooms upon the most common-place
subjects, is marked in Chile by all the interest and vivacity consequent
on the important influence exercised by the fair sex over the politics of
the country, which prefers debating important political events to idle
chatter and ordinary talk.

Even more agreeable than the evenings we spent among the patrician circles
of Santiago, were those which we passed with an Austrian gentleman, Dr.
Herzl, settled here some ten years, and with some German-Spanish families.
Here everlasting politics, or rather party squabbles, had not, as in the
native _salons_, banished music and song, the latter being cherished as a
means of rising out of the hurly-burly, and keeping the annoyances of
public life, for the moment at least, at arm's length.

In Chilean salons nothing was talked but politics; here the bent of
conversation was towards literature and art, and, climax of the evening,
the beloved melodies of our native land. Madame Z----, a native of Madrid,
a second time married to a German, is a downright musical prodigy. In her
youth she had studied at the _Conservatoire_ in Paris in company with
Madame Malibran, and although now 54, and the mother of 16 children, she
still entrances by her clear ringing voice, and the charm of her
exquisitely appreciative intonation.

The chief engineer and director of the southern railway (Ferro Carril del
Sur), a North American gentleman named Evans, a graduate of West Point,
had the kindness to invite some members of the Expedition to visit the
Maipú Bridge, distant some 17 miles from Santiago, and accompanied them in
person on their excursion to this the most interesting engineering work of
the line. We set off at 1 P.M. by one of the ordinary trains. The road is
intended to unite Santiago with the very productive district of Talca, a
distance of 180 miles, and is destined to exercise a most beneficial
influence in improving the position of the peasantry.

The drive through the valley of Santiago is exceedingly interesting, as
the line keeps close beneath the Cordillera through nearly its entire
length, thus revealing to the gaze of the astonished traveller a
succession of Alpine landscapes, such as one might behold in crossing the
Semmering Alp. The ordinary rate of travelling in Chile is 25 miles an
hour, but the expresses occasionally run at the rate of 60 miles per hour.
As the splendid pastures on either side are grazed by innumerable herds,
some of which were constantly straying upon the line, the item for injury
done to cattle used to assume serious proportions, owing to the negligence
of the drivers, till the directors, under the advice of Mr. Evans, offered
a premium of 30 dollars a quarter to any engine driver who should during
that space avoid killing any of the cattle: a singular regulation, but
which put a stop to the evil. The line is solidly constructed, but very
simply equipped, the waiting-rooms at the different stations being
entirely deficient in that luxury which the traveller is accustomed to on
first-rate European lines. But it tells in favour of the dividend.[113]

The splendid and substantially-built iron bridge thrown over the Maipú
here, 1500 feet wide, at an elevation of 1822 feet above the level of the
sea, was like everything used on the line, with the exception of the wood,
imported from North America. Of the difficulty and expense attending
land-transport in Chile, some idea may be formed from the fact that the
freightage of one ton of goods from New York to Valparaiso, 10,000 miles
by sea, is but £1 1_s._, whereas the conveyance of the same quantity from
Santiago to Valparaiso, only 100 miles, costs £7 7_s._!!

Although evening surprised us ere we returned to Santiago from Maipú, and
a dense mist hung over the landscape quite precluding all views for the
greatest part of the road, we were so fortunate, shortly before our
arrival at the city, as to be favoured with a glimpse of the majestic
range of the Cordillera, lit up by the declining rays of the sun, a
spectacle resembling the sunset splendours of the Alps in Switzerland; but
the novelty of the details of which, coupled with its suddenness and
brevity of duration, greatly deepened the impression of awe and admiration
with which we regarded it.

At noon of the 30th of April we set out on our return to Valparaiso. On
this occasion we availed ourselves of a different kind of vehicle, an
American mail-coach as it is termed, from its having been first organized
by a North American, which admitted of our seeing a different range of
country. In this journey we were fortunate enough to be accompanied by Mr.
James Volckmann, a young German gentleman, who is an active colleague of
the renowned geologist, Mr. Pissis, and has already himself contributed
many valuable additions to our acquaintance with the geology of Chile. The
coach stopping at Melepilla, the next station, a neat little town nestling
on a level surface at the foot of a lovely valley, whence it was to
proceed the following morning to the port, we took advantage of the
opportunity to pay an _impromptu_ visit to a Chilean family in the
neighbourhood, to which we had introduction. We rode out accordingly to
the _hacienda_ of Las Esmeraldas, about two miles distant from Melepilla,
where we were received like old friends of the hospitable family Lecaros.
Most of the wealthy landowners of the country pass only a few months of
each year in their splendid houses at Valparaiso or Santiago, and spend
the rest of their time in affluent retirement upon their properties. The
small, externally unsightly, mansion was furnished within with all that
could minister to that genuine English notion of COMFORT; and the ladies,
though the hour was so late that they could scarcely have expected any
further visitors, received us in full Parisian toilette. This surprised us
the more, inasmuch as the national costume is very much more graceful than
that of Europe,--even an elderly female, dressed in sombre-hued silk, and
with a long black coif around the head, the left ribbon of which is turned
over the right shoulder, having quite a unique, piquant, and attractive
appearance.

Even here the conversation took a political tone, and it speedily came to
light that the stay of the ladies at Las Esmeraldas at the present
inclement season was attributable less to any admiration of the beauties
of nature than to some political disagreement; for the Chilean ladies,
like all their sex of the Latin stock, delight in political
demonstrations. However, they are mainly taken up with keeping the
Ultramontane element, the influence of which is everywhere apparent,
within the limits assigned it by the Constitution itself. The head of the
family, Don José Antonio Lecaro, an excellent energetic old gentleman,
told us a great deal about his property, of the improvements he had made
and was still projecting, and we regretted that the advanced hour
prevented our examining this well-managed _hacienda_, which is so large
that the pasturage can maintain several thousand horned cattle and horses.
Nevertheless, so far as regards numbers of farm-animals, it is probable
that the proprietor of Las Esmeraldas is very far from being among the
most extensive land-holders of Chile.

In the evening we adjourned to the elegant drawing-room, where time flew
away in the most delightful manner with music and singing; the music,
chiefly German, being selected, if we were not mistaken, quite as much
through genuine appreciation of the great _maestros_ whose works were
chosen, as to do honour to the nationality of the guests.

During the night we returned on horseback to Melepilla, and the following
morning, 1st May, 1859, continued our journey to Valparaiso, where we
arrived about four P.M., full of the most delightful and varied memories
of our trip.

When we reached Valparaiso the frigate was ready to sail, but her
departure was delayed, as our Commodore resolved to await the arrival of
the next European mail, in case he should receive further instructions as
to his route. In every social circle at this place, men hoped against hope
that a European Congress would be convoked, which should devise a peaceful
solution of existing differences. If, however, there was to be war, then
amongst all, especially the Germans resident here, it was a foregone
conclusion that Germany ought to make common cause with Austria. The
disappointment was not long waited for--* * * *!

The uncertainty of our stay did not admit of any more excursions being
made to a distance, and the naturalists accordingly redoubled their
activity in searching for subjects in the environs of the town. The
Directors of the railroad from Valparaiso to Santiago, which, however, is
as yet only completed as far as the little village of Guillota, were so
kind as to invite the members of the Expedition to make free use of their
line, and the chief engineer, Mr. Lloyd, had also issued instructions to
the various station-masters to give all manner of facilities to the
foreign guests, and assist them in their collections to the utmost of
their power. Unfortunately we found no time to avail ourselves of this
very friendly invitation, and thus had to forego an excellent opportunity
for examining the line itself, and studying its interesting geological
features.

We succeeded once in getting as far as Guillota, the Spa of Chile. This
portion of the road, 30 miles in length, is much travelled over, the fares
being 1, 2, and 3 dollars according to class, and the monthly receipts
amount to from 20,000 to 25,000 dollars (£4200 to £5250).

The little village of Guillota, lying in a valley laid out in orchards and
vineyards, is of enormous extent; the _Calle larga_, or Long Street, being
six English miles in length. The houses are usually one storey, very plain
and unpretending but scrupulously clean. The stranger who wanders though
Guillota, and becomes sensible of the filth and dust in the streets, and
the entire absence of comfort within-doors, is apt to puzzle himself how
the place came to be selected for a summer resort of the fashionable
world, as indeed he may marvel how the Spanish navigators, to whom
Valparaiso is indebted for its name, contrived to associate the idea of
the Vale of Paradise with its sandy hills and glades bare of vegetation.
Possibly the summer guests, who flock hither from October to March, may be
sufficiently enthusiastic in their admiration of natural scenery, to feel
themselves indemnified for discomfort within-doors by the charm of the
surrounding landscape. The environs are exceedingly beautiful, the valley
abounds in luxuriant vegetation and beautiful distant prospects, and from
the little hill of Mañaca, 150 to 200 feet in height, on the summit of
which a large wooden cross was set up by missionary preachers in 1849,
there is stretched at the feet of the beholder a magnificent picture of
unrivalled interest and beauty, especially when the sun is near his
setting, and lights up the magnificent peaks, from 3000 to 4000 feet in
height, called, from their form resembling that of a bell, Campaña and
Campañita. More probably, however, the visitors from the port are at that
hour busily employed at the "green tables," where, at faro and roulette,
enormous sums are frequently lost and won.

One marked peculiarity, which it is impossible to avoid noticing, is the
vast disproportion here between the sexes. One hardly ever sees any but
ladies in the streets, or sitting elegantly attired on low stools in front
of the open door, their hands busy with their work, their eyes watching
the passers-by. The numerous hard-working male population is much more
profitably employed in working at the city, rather than staying at home
engaged in agriculture; whence it results that at Guillota, just as in
some European fishing villages along our sea-coasts, the male portion of
the household are often absent for weeks together, and the little hamlet
has the appearance of being the head-quarters of a tribe of Amazons.

From Guillota we went on to a large hacienda, about nine miles further,
called La Calera, the property of a native of Bolivia. Part of this is
planted with almond trees, but by far the larger portion is devoted to
wine-growing. One of the _Mandadores_, or overseers; begged us to enter a
large, handsome building where the process of wine-preparing was being
carried on, and gave us some new wine, here called _Chicha_(pronounced
Tchitcha), which tasted very sweet and palatable. The Chicha is used in
enormous quantities in Chile, and is even sent abroad in large
bottle-shaped skins, but, owing to this mode of keeping it, the wine,
which is set down much as cider is in Normandy, acquires a villanous twang
that is anything but agreeable.

In Valparaiso we were so fortunate as to fall in with Mr. Kindermann, one
of the founders of the German settlement of Valdivia, who has been long
resident there, and has large landed property in that direction. We also
made the acquaintance of Dr. Philippi, who, although attending to his
duties as Professor of Natural History in the University of Santiago,
finds time to take an active part in the colony of Valdivia. It would
appear from the inquiries instituted by competent persons, that the main
obstacle to the permanent success and extension of the German colony
consists in the want of roads, and that the fertility of the soil
justifies the most sanguine hopes, so soon as more ready means of
communication are provided, that the numerous products raised by this
industrious community will no longer want either a steady market or
extensive buyers.

Another German colony, which was organized with extensive privileges
established at Punta Arenas in Magelhaen's Straits, and now numbers some
150 colonists, not only displays the most cheering signs of vitality, and
that in a climate which has acquired, most unjustly however, an unenviable
reputation, but promises to be of great importance both to Chile itself
and to the vessels of all nations navigating the Straits of
Magelhaen[114]. This will be more particularly the case, so soon as the
scheme projected by certain Chilean patriots is realized, of which there
is an early prospect, of placing a number of steamers upon the
Magelhaen-Straits' line, for the purpose of towing vessels through.

In order to form an adequate conception of the importance of this
undertaking, both for Chile and all seafaring nations, it must be borne in
mind, that by thus making the Straits available, vessels will not alone
escape the storms of Cape Horn, but will effect a great saving in time.
Maury estimates the time required by a vessel to pass from the eastern
entrance of the Straits around Cape Horn to the western entrance at 25
days. They could be towed through in from four to five days, thus saving
some 20 days. The tonnage passing round Cape Horn to Valparaiso alone
cannot be much short of 120,000 tons of merchandise, valued at about
16,000,000 dollars (£3,200,000), so that the pecuniary returns realized by
the saving of time in the voyages of these vessels promises to realize to
the company a net profit of 257,776 dollars (£53,600)[115].

Of course the estimate will become very much larger, if all the sailing
vessels be included which pass annually round the Horn from E. to W.,
amounting to some 500 in number, with a tonnage of 400,000, and cargoes
valued at 53,000,000 dollars (£11,000,000). The projectors also propose to
erect a lighthouse and telegraph station, both at Cape Virgin on the East,
and Cape Pilar at the Western entrance, as also in Possession Bay, 40
miles W. of Virgin's Cape, at the Eastern entrance, and to have the dépôt
buildings for the requisite materials at the entrance of Smythe Channel,
35 miles east of Cape Pilar. Four or five steamers of at least 500 tons
are to perform the towing service, for which they propose to charge
sailing vessels 1.50 dollars (6s. 3_d._) per ton, less, in fact, than the
charge for towing in China, Australia, &c.

The carrying out of this scheme, which must exercise an incalculable
influence on the commerce of the Pacific slope of the Indies, is mainly
dependent on the disposition of the Chilean Government to guarantee a
given interest, and accord certain facilities to the company which is to
undertake so important and heavy an enterprise. Its requirements are by no
means extravagant. During a period of fifteen years, it asks for an annual
subvention of 125,000 dollars, for the first five years,[116] during the
next five years of 100,000 dollars, and in the last five years 75,000
dollars, after which all aid from the State is to be withdrawn. Further,
the company seeks to be secured in the exclusive right during those
fifteen years of working the coal-fields,[117] which are known to exist in
the Straits, to be presented free of expense with the land required for
the various buildings and stations, and, lastly, permission to fell wood
all along Magelhaen's Straits, and in the divergent bays, gulfs, and
channels, but on the condition that one half of the soil so reclaimed
shall remain the property of the State, the other half to remain in
perpetuity the property of the adventurers. From the day on which this
project is ushered into existence by the munificence and under the
auspices of the Chilean Government, a new era will commence for the
shipping interest along the west coast of South America! The difficulty is
in securing a monopoly of the Straits. At present any captain may run the
Straits if he will, and this is occasionally done. An English man-of-war
passed through in the spring of 1862.

At last, on 8th May, the European mail came in, but failed to bring the
letters we expected, giving us instead only news of several months back,
our bag having been sent to Lima instead of Valparaiso. However, the news
received direct from Europe left no doubt that a war was imminent between
France and Austria, and this circumstance at once determined our
commander, like a true patriot, to return immediately home, so as to make
his own services as well as those of his subordinates available in
protecting our native land from the dangers impending over it. The
original plan of sailing to Lima, and thence, after visiting the
Galipagos, to Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, was under the prevailing
circumstances totally abandoned. In a few days more the vessel was to sail
for Gibraltar direct round Cape Horn.

As this decision involved a sea-voyage of some 10,000 miles, which must
naturally be almost barren of ethnographic or statistical interest, and as
the arrival of the _Novara_ at Gibraltar could scarcely be expected under
from 80 to 90 days, the author of this narrative requested permission of
the commander of the Expedition to devote the time required for the
frigate to make her voyage, in prosecuting a journey overland to Lima and
Panama, with the intention of catching at Aspinwall the next British royal
mail steamer to Europe, and thus again fall in with the _Novara_ at
Gibraltar about the beginning of August. The paramount motive for this
proposal was the wish expressed to dedicate all this time to visit Lima,
Panama, and the intermediate ports, and thus to forward to the utmost the
objects of the Imperial Expedition, even when it was in fact homeward
bound. It was also his intention to institute certain inquiries while
residing in the capital of Peru, respecting the actual condition of those
Tyrolese families, who, misled by alluring prospects of all sorts, had
resolved on emigrating to Peru in 1851, and had since then sunk into a
most wretched state, according to indirect accounts received of their
unhappy case. Commodore Wüllerstorf, always ready to assist, whenever it
is in his power, in promoting and advancing scientific aims, at once
acceded to this request, conceiving that it was a deviation quite within
the scope of his instructions for the Expedition, and compatible with the
objects aimed at by its illustrious projector.

Before the departure of the _Novara_, the Austrian Consul-General gave a
splendid entertainment. This had been repeatedly postponed, as, under
existing circumstances, it was not certain whether Chilean society could
well be present. The intelligence, however, which a few days previous had
been received from the Northern provinces as to the attitude of
Government, the suppression of the insurrection, and the flight of the
leaders, had produced a vehement reaction in the public mind, and, at
least among governmental circles, had given hope of a happy solution.

Accordingly the ball came off, and very gay it was. The spacious and
elegant residence of M. Flemmich (the head of the distinguished English
firm of Huth, Grüning, & Co.) was richly adorned with flowers in every
apartment, and the whole brilliantly lit up, while a bevy of graceful
ladies swept through the salons, whose natural charms were enhanced by
their agreeable geniality, not less than by an elegance of toilette such
as Parisian salons themselves could not have surpassed.

A few days before the _Novara_ sailed, a merchantman dropped anchor in the
roads, which on her voyage from Melbourne to Europe had, while running 11
miles an hour, come into collision with an iceberg in 60° S. and 149° E.,
by which she had lost bowsprit, foremast, and all her topmasts, besides
carrying away her cutwater and figurehead, and damaging the hull, and, sad
to relate, sacrificing the lives of sixteen persons! The spectacle
presented by this mere ruin of a ship, as she ran in half dismasted under
jury-rig, created profound emotion even among the seafaring portion of the
community, which was still further deepened, when the full particulars of
their sufferings were detailed by the passengers. The captain, fully
expecting that a ship so seriously damaged must go to the bottom, formed
the unworthy resolution of escaping in a boat with fifteen of the men. The
whole perished, it is supposed, as nothing was ever heard of them, while
the vessel, which owed her truly marvellous preservation to the fact that,
having struck stem on, she had sprung no leak, though so terribly injured,
was enabled to pursue her voyage to Valparaiso, where she arrived, the
wind proving favourable, after a passage of 55 days.

On the 11th May all was ready for the departure of the _Novara_, and the
officer on duty only waited a favourable breeze to weigh anchor and set
sail. Unfortunately, however, none such sprung up, and when towards 7 A.M.
a gentle breeze at last rippled the water, it did not last long enough to
enable the vessel to clear the roads. The captain of H.M.S. _Ganges_ (80),
who, as also Admiral Baines, the venerable Commander-in-chief of the
British naval forces on the Pacific station, had already in a variety of
ways cordially coöperated with and aided the Austrian Expedition, sent
some of his boats to tow the frigate out of the roads, in which the French
corvette _Constantine_, which had arrived the day before, politely
assisted. Thus towed along by no less than 14 boats, the _Novara_
succeeded in getting into the open ocean. Favoured with a gentle breeze
from the northward, she was soon able to lie her course, and towards
evening, when a rather fresh S.W. sprang up, she was rapidly leaving the
hospitable shores of Chile.

The Commodore thought it advisable to make an offing of from 100 to 200
miles parallel with the coast, and to keep increasing his distance even
against contrary winds, so as to permit of his rounding Terra del Fuego,
running free before the S.W. winds, prevalent at that season off the Horn.

The weather was from time to time heavy and unfavourable, besides being
cold and rainy, but on the whole it was a very fair passage for the winter
season. But few observations could be got, though there were enough to
admit of keeping the ship on her course. Only once did it happen that no
observations could be got for several days, till, during the night of
23rd May the sky suddenly cleared. No sooner, however, had the officer of
the watch selected a star by which to calculate his position, than he
found himself involved in no small perplexity. The Southern Cross and
Centaur were close to the zenith, and when the seamen directed their
wondering gaze to the magnificent aspect presented by the southern stellar
hemisphere, they could with difficulty recognize the old familiar European
constellations as they now shone forth along the northern horizon, with
sadly diminished brilliancy.

The further south the _Novara_ ran, the more melancholy grew the aspect
both of the sun and the moon. Fog, clouds, and rain obscured a great
proportion of the feeble light left, and although the clearness of the
night occasionally made some compensation, yet to sailors long accustomed
to the warm, smiling tropical skies, they seemed doubly cold and gloomy.

The frigate rolled heavily, her oscillations increasing the general
discomfort, although the fetch of ocean was less than off the Cape of Good
Hope. Impelled by favourable winds, the good ship rapidly neared the
southernmost point of her voyage, and every one on board watched with
ever-increasing interest the alterations in the natural phenomena of these
inhospitable latitudes.

Several days were lost in calms and easterly winds, and partly to catch
the southerly breezes which might drive her N.E. into the zone of constant
winds, partly for the purpose of scientific investigation, the vessel was
carried as far south as the parallel of 60°.

On 28th May, the thermometer was observed to indicate a strongly-marked
and speedy decline in the temperature of the water, whence it was
conjectured that polar winds would be found following the course of the
cold current, or else that icebergs were near. The ship's head was now
laid for Terra del Fuego, the wind blowing very gently from the N.E., but
a S. wind springing up later, she began to work merrily along. Of several
ships which for some days had been in sight, steering the same course as
the frigate, none had ventured so far south; they now were all left
behind, having lost way by over-caution. Among these was the French
corvette _Eurydice_, which left Valparaiso Roads two days before the
_Novara_, and was overhauled on the 29th May.

With the polar wind snow fell during the night; and when day broke, about
9 A.M., the singular spectacle was presented of a ship all in
white,--white masts, white yards, white cannon. This appearance was
repeated the two following days only, but the weather remained for a much
longer period cold and disagreeable. The lowest reading, however, of the
thermometer only indicated 3° Celsius below freezing (26°.6 Fahr.).

On 29th May, about noon, the _Novara_ crossed the meridian of Cape Horn,
and was once more in the Atlantic Ocean. Notwithstanding the uncertain
conditions of wind and weather, a variety of interesting observations
were made during the passage of the ship round Cape Horn, and numbers of
valuable results obtained for the benefit of navigators in those high
latitudes. Thus, for example, the fallacy was established of the assertion
of certain navigators that "the fluctuations of the barometer off Cape
Horn did not depend on the state of wind and weather." In like manner by
ascertaining the mean of a variety of collated data, it was found that the
temperature of the surface of the ocean demands the most careful
attention, inasmuch as the alterations in it from hour to hour may be
relied on to indicate corresponding changes in the wind and weather.

The low reading of the barometer off the Horn seems to be a sort of
compensation for the great pressure of the air in what are known to seamen
as "the Horse latitudes," and, in point of fact, the barometrical readings
at 56° S. betray a drooping tendency, which corresponds with the movements
of the sun, as the latter also does with that of the zone of greatest
atmospheric pressure. Hence it is obvious that from this parallel the
atmospheric pressure will increase as we advance to the Pole, and this law
is farther confirmed by the prevailing winds further south. Hence, while
we find north-west or strong west winds blowing off Cape Horn, at the
South Shetland Islands, still further south, the prevailing winds are N.E.
or E., thus producing contrary atmospheric currents, almost resembling
chronic whirlwinds, and consequently that both north and south of the
central zone, the barometer will be found to indicate a greater
atmospheric pressure.

For this reason vessels intending to round the Horn from E. to W. usually
keep further to the south than those sailing in the opposite direction. On
the other hand, during the winter season of the southern hemisphere, the
east wind must blow more frequently at the Cape itself, in consequence of
the influence exercised by the zone of least atmospheric pressure, and the
weather be less likely to prove stormy. And such is found in fact to be
the case.

Hitherto, with the exception of Cape Horn, so few observations have been
made in high southern latitudes, that it is impossible to arrive at any
definite conclusion, important as the subject is to science as well as in
the interests of commerce, and which must exercise so much influence upon
the whole system of atmospheric changes over the entire surface of the
earth. To attain this object, an expedition consisting of but one ship
cannot suffice. It would be necessary to employ several, each provided
with instruments carefully compared, and which should sail simultaneously
to the southern waters at definite distances from each other, and at given
times make precisely similar observations and devote their entire
attention to investigating the laws which regulate this puzzle to the
scientific student.

Under more favourable political auspices, a joint expedition by the
various naval powers would be the best means of solving the problem, and a
fleet of some ten or twelve ships commencing upon a definite plan, might
obtain results such as might hand down the scientific renown of our age
and century to all future generations.

While sailing in these southern latitudes, the Commodore hit upon the idea
of ascertaining the increase of gravity as the poles were approached, by
the comparison of simultaneous observations taken with the mercurial and
Aneroid barometers. Both instruments, in fact, gave a regular rule for
calculating the weight of the atmosphere at the points of observation,
with this single difference, that the ordinary barometer gives the weight
by the pressure of the air upon a column of mercury, representing the
weight of a similar column of air; while in the Aneroid barometer, the
weight of the atmosphere is measured by an exhausted receiver, which, in
resisting this pressure, indicates the amount by the tension of a spring.

The indications of the Aneroid are moreover independent of the influence
of universal gravity and the disturbing conditions it introduces into the
instrument, to which the column of mercury is of course subject. Assuming,
for example, that the ordinary barometer and the Aneroid gave the same
readings, the similarity will no longer exist at a given distance from the
Equator--the Aneroid, owing to the elimination of the disturbing element
of gravity, indicating an increased pressure of the column of air, whereas
the ordinary barometer will continue to indicate the same pressure as at
the Equator. The difference between the two readings will, however, be
directly proportionate to the amount of gravity thus got rid of, and is
consequently susceptible of calculation. Although the data collected
during the voyage for widely different purposes, and those now collected
by means of the Aneroid, do not realize the anticipations that had been
formed, to the length of utmost precision, the result has shown that much
may be achieved in this direction by observations easily made in the
course of a voyage even by ordinary navigators, such as would greatly
benefit science; and captains of all grades, who in the course of their
voyages have occasion to traverse these special latitudes, and are able to
use good, reliable, thoroughly-tested instruments, might by a series of
such observations add materially to our acquaintance with physical
phenomena.[118]

The _Novara_ sailed into the Atlantic with fair strong winds, and on 1st
June was about the latitude of the Falklands,[119] that interesting group
of islands, which have belonged to England since 1842. The few colonists
at present resident there, not exceeding some hundreds in all, are
maintained here at the expense of the British Government, and trade in
skins and salt provisions. However, the annual cost of keeping up the
colony does not amount to above £5000. Should the project of cutting a
canal across the Isthmus of Central America, which has been the dream of
centuries, ever be realized, the Falklands will become one of the most
solitary spots on the face of the globe, owing to the entire abandonment
of the route round Cape Horn, and as such would become admirably adapted
for a penal colony. Judging, however, from the information respecting the
southern parts of South America furnished by Admiral Fitzroy, so well
known in connection with meteorological science, the eastern side of Terra
del Fuego presents much greater advantages for such a project, and we
cannot but feel surprised that England has not already founded an
establishment there, where so many advantages are obvious at a glance,
especially those relating to navigation.

From the Falkland latitude, the _Novara_ steered nearly a great circle
course, or, in other words, followed the shortest line of distance, to the
point where she must pass through the "Horse latitudes," about 25° W. of
Greenwich, and with favourable west winds, sometimes rather stormy, sped
along at from 200 to 250 knots per diem on her homeward voyage. On 5th
June, about 9 P.M., a sudden squall from W.N.W. struck the ship about the
latitude of the most northerly part of Patagonia, so violent that had not
the sails been taken in with all despatch, the very masts must have been
blown out of the vessel, or at all events have sustained serious injury.
Notwithstanding her being short of upper sails, the frigate heeled over
more at this time than at any other period throughout the voyage.

On 7th and 8th June, the _Novara_ encountered a severe tornado, about the
latitude of the mouth of the La Plata. A violent wind, which blew from the
N.N.E., on the 7th, hauled round by N. and N.N.W. to W.S.W., and reached
its greatest power on the 8th, about 9 A.M., the wind being N.W. At this
moment the motion of the ship was so great, and she laboured so heavily in
the high short waves, that the boats on her lee quarter were in imminent
danger of being swept overboard. By observations made it was found that
she heeled over 38° to starboard and 12° to port, so that the entire
amount of oscillation was 50°.

Unfortunately one of the barometers got broke on this occasion; the
officer, while observing it, being precipitated against it by a sudden
roll of the ship. It was the most trustworthy instrument on board, and,
albeit near the end of the voyage, it was not the less vexatious to have
the series of admirable observations made with this instrument suddenly
interrupted.

The 11th June possessed an interest of its own for those on board the
_Novara_, as on that day she crossed the course which she had followed
two years before, in sailing from Rio to the Cape of Good Hope. Thus the
actual circumnavigation had been successfully completed, and at least the
material portion of the undertaking happily achieved.

Meanwhile the wind, though still always favourable, had abated greatly
from its first strength, and each day saw the barometer steadily rising.
Even the sea-birds, those constant attendants of vessels, so long as they
are in the extra-tropical latitudes of the Southern Ocean, now gradually
began to cease flitting around the ship, as she approached the hot zones.

On 15th June, in 25° 40' S., by 25° 9' W., the ship reached the S.E.
trades. The weather was divine; the deep blue sky above, the exquisite
tints of the atmosphere and the ocean, and the calm beauty of the long
full-moon nights, exercised a most marked and beneficial influence upon
the spirits and bodily health of the crew. Huge whales disported about,
"blowing," as it is termed, immense masses of water into the air, like so
many springs leaping from the bosom of the deep, or rushing upwards till
half of their immense bodies emerged vertically from the water, into which
they slowly plunged once more with a tremendous splash, the whole surface
of the sea boiling and undulating as they fell back, athwart which might
be seen dolphins gambolling about, or cleaving the blue depths with
unmatched velocity. The S.E. trade blew with unbroken regularity, usually
in its normal direction, but occasionally hauling up a little towards
N.E., till, as we approached the Equator, it gradually blew steadily from
the S.E.

On 23rd June the Equator was reached and crossed for the sixth and last
time in 26° 13' W. In 25 days the frigate had run in a direct line 3800
nautical miles, or an average of 6-1/3 knots an hour.

The very strongly-marked westerly current which prevails near the Equator
materially lengthened the voyage, its strength in 2° 39' N. and 26° 14' W.
being such that while the ship made 213 knots in the 24 hours upon her
direct course, she was carried within the same period no fewer than 65
miles in a direction of W. by N.

The S.E. trade remained as such as far as 4° 36' N., 25° 38' W., when
fresh N.E. breezes were encountered, and stayed by the ship till she
reached 9° 54' N. by 29° 42' W. She now had to make her way slowly forward
through a belt of calms, rain-squalls, and occasional puffs of wind from
W. and S.W., till, at length, on 2nd July, the wind came on to blow from
N.N.E., in 11° 47' N., by 29° 29' W.

The French corvette _Eurydice_, which had laid her course for St. Helena,
had on that account kept more to the eastward, and had crossed the line in
about 22° W., and had in consequence lost so much more way than the
_Novara_ that she took three days longer than our frigate to get from St.
Helena to lat. 20° N., to which this other circumstance contributed, that
the N.E. trade does not blow so strongly or so steadily in the vicinity
of the Cape de Verd Islands as a little further out.

On 7th July, in 22° 58' N., 36° 51' W., the _Novara_ reached the
well-known Mar de Sargasso, a portion of the Atlantic Ocean, in which the
current, setting from the coast of Africa, encounters a branch of the
great gulf stream, and forms a basin of still water, in which is collected
an immense mass of seaweed (_sargassum bacciferum_, etc.) which is
propelled slowly forward in long ranks by the action of the wind.

The 9th July was a day of mourning on board. One of the sailors, who for a
year past had been ailing and almost constantly in sick bay, died, and was
committed to the deep, the last victim during the voyage.

Next day, in 37° 37' N., 39° 1' W., the N.E. trade began to draw to the
eastward, and gradually became more favourable, but at the same time lost
in strength, till on the 14th it failed entirely.

Several ships now hove in sight, and as one of these by her course must
obviously approach the frigate pretty close, it seemed a good opportunity
to get news from Europe, which the voyagers had for 54 days been
speculating upon with anxious hearts. Accordingly a boat was lowered from
the frigate and sent to board the merchantman, which proved to be the brig
_Hero_, Captain Williams. He had left Barcelona 50 days before, and was
bound for New York. The captain accordingly was not in a position to
satisfy the very natural curiosity of those on board the _Novara_ as to
the turn affairs had taken in Europe, or to give them late intelligence
of public events especially in Austria. A few half-torn newspaper leaves
round some bottles of cognac was all that the most earnest wish to oblige
could furbish up in the way of information. In the course of conversation
with the captain, it was only casually elicited that war had broken out
two months before. More than this the honest seaman did not know, feeling,
in fact, much greater interest in securing a profitable freight for his
ship than in the political state of Europe.

As soon as the frigate's boat had returned, the officer in charge was met
with a storm of questions and inquiries. His reply was very
unsatisfactory, and little consolatory. Among the fragments of papers
there was little that was important, still less that could give
satisfaction, and, as usually happens under such circumstances, precisely
at the spot where some news of our own country had been printed, the leaf
was torn across, and the rest missing. Thus the anticipations formed of
obtaining intelligence from the merchantman which should allay the anxiety
on board had not merely failed to do so, but had in fact increased it in
intensity, and the excitement caused by this episode on the minds of all
on board reached almost fever heat. One would far sooner have encountered
a tempest than such uncertainty, especially if it could have driven the
frigate more rapidly towards her goal!

On the 19th July, at midnight, with favourable west winds and a lovely
moon, the _Novara_ passed between Flores and Corvo, through the narrow
channel of the Azores Islands--the first land that had been sighted since
the frigate left the west coast of South America, 71 days before! The fact
that it was hit so accurately, also furnished satisfactory proof, in a
scientific point of view, that the seven chronometers in use on board,
despite 27 months of constant handling under the most varying and
frequently unfavourable conditions, were still in perfect order, and
indicated with admirable accuracy the longitude of the ship.

Unfortunately--a circumstance to be expected in such latitudes in the
height of summer--the ship now lost entirely the favouring gales which
hitherto had filled her sails, and sped her rapidly on her course. When
not above a few hundred miles distant from Gibraltar, those on board had
to toss about for a number of days in calms that seemed as though they
would never cease. Anxiety was at its height.


                               FOOTNOTES:

[101] In one single year (1854), the imports into Australia of Chilean
grain amounted to £630,000. In a good year Chile produces 2,500,000
fanegas (920,755 quarters) of wheat, 4,500,000 fanegas (1,855,054
quarters) of barley, and 180,000 fanegas (16,071 tons) of beans. The
_fanega_ varies in weight according to the article measured; thus a fanega
of wheat is 165 lbs., of barley 155 lbs., and of beans 200 lbs.

[102] That ships in good holding ground and with sound tackle are in no
great danger riding out even a heavy storm in the roads, is best proved by
the fact, that in the inner harbour there is a floating dry dock in use
throughout the year, which, notwithstanding the occasionally severe
weather while we were there, had a three-masted ship, full-rigged, masted
and tackled upon it, with repairs of all sorts going on upon her sides.

[103] About 1_s._ 1_d._; a dollar is about 4_s._ 4_d._, and a dollar has 8
reals.

[104] We must especially remark the large and valuable zoological
collection with which our natural history stores were enriched by a German
gentleman, Dr. C. Seget of Santiago de Chili. With similar liberality
another gentleman, Mr. Friedrich Leybold, a Bavarian by birth, now
resident in Santiago, where he practises as a chemist, presented the
Expedition with several valuable geological and botanical specimens.

[105] The charge for apartments of three persons (two sleeping and one
drawing-room), including board, was 30 Spanish piastres=£6 6_s._ per diem!

[106] The Chilean Mint is entirely arranged on the French system, and is
provided with French machinery.

[107] "Historia fisica y politica de Chile, segun documentos adquiridos en
esta Republica durante doze años de residencia en ella, y publicado bajo
los auspicios del supremo Gobierno por Claudio Gay, &c., Paris, 1844,
8vo.;" besides two large quarto volumes, "Atlas de la historia fisica y
politica de Chile."

[108] The results of the great attention bestowed on public instruction
have not been inadequate, as is apparent from the latest statistics on the
subject, according to which the average proportion of the inhabitants, who
can read and write, is 100 out of every 561 of the male population, and
100 in 1095 of the females, or an average of 100 in every 828. In 1858,
there were on the whole State 950 schools, attended by 39,657 scholars
(viz. 27,288 male and 12,369 female). There is, however, a difference in
these two statements of 6 per cent. The proportion of females to males
_attending school_ is 45 to 100; of those able to read and write, of 51
females to 100 males.

[109] There are in the whole country 37 public and 12 private libraries
(including in the latter only such as are really worthy of the name).

[110] See Gay's History of Chile, Zoology, vol. i, p. 161.

[111] The whole consumption of ice used in Valparaiso and Santiago is
supplied by American ships, which take in their cargo at Boston, and sell
it here at about 2-1/4d. per lb. It is cheaper to import the ice from
America round the Horn than from the Andes, though the latter are only 50
or 60 miles distant, and though ice is found on these at certain seasons
at an elevation of only 6000 feet.

[112] Mr. Haidinger, who at the very first exerted himself to the utmost
of his ability and patriotism to promote the objects of the _Novara_
Expedition, was so thoughtfully kind as to provide the geologist attached
to it with a number of copies of publications of the Imperial Institute,
as well as a corresponding number of neat little specimens of tertiary
petrifactions from the Vienna basin, for the purpose of presenting them to
kindred institutes in different quarters of the globe.

[113] The lines of road already in operation or projected throughout Chile
are as follows:--

    _a._ From Valparaiso to Santiago, 110 miles, constructed at the
    expense of the State, and estimated to cost $7,150,000
    (£2,860,000). This had been opened when we were there, as far as
    Guillota, 30 miles, but the whole was to be finished by 1862.

    _b._ From Valparaiso to Talca (180 miles), and

    _c._ From Port Caldera to Copiapó, the mining capital (50
    miles), both constructed by private companies. From Copiapó a
    tramway leads to Pabellar, whence there is a mule-road to the
    mines of Chanarullo (4400 feet above sea-level). Mr. Evans had
    invented a new description of locomotive, capable of climbing
    even to this elevated region. Lastly, a road is projected to
    unite Copiapó with the mining district of Tres Puntos.

[114] See a very interesting "Essay" upon Chile, published at Hamburg by
Señor Vicente Perez-Rosales, Consul-General for Chile at that port.

[115] This estimate is founded on the following calculations:--

  120,000 tons at $40 per ton, comes to $4,800,000, the annual
  expenses of which, such as crew, insurance, &c., and
  including interest for money invested, amounts to 30 per
  cent. for 20 days                                                $80,000

  Further saving of interest and insurance on goods valued at
  $16,000,000 at 20 per cent. for 20 days                          177,776
                                                                  --------
  Total saving effected by vessels using the Straits of Magelhaen $257,776

[116] The Steam-packet Company which now carries the mails twice a month
from Valparaiso to the southern ports of Chile, receives an annual subsidy
from Government of $50,000 (£10,500).

[117] According to the reports of Mr. George Schuthe, governor of the
little colony in the Straits of Magelhaen, some very valuable coal-strata
exist near Punta Arenas. These, although difficult of access, would,
nevertheless, fetch a high price, considering the high price of coal in
the harbours along the east coast of South America. In Buenos Ayres and
Monte Video, 12 to 15 days' sail distant, the average price of coal is 12
dollars (£2 10_s._) per ton.

[118] We cannot help stating here that we think it far from unimportant,
that when employed to measure the altitude of prominent objects, the
Aneroid may be made to supply widely different results from those of the
ordinary barometer, as the elimination of gravity in the Aneroid readings
remains as a constant element, and hence the difference between the two
can only be rectified by due regard being had to this circumstance, when
performing the requisite calculations.

[119] This group, between 51° and 53° S., and 57° and 62° W., comprises,
besides the two larger islands, 90 smaller islands, the superficial area
of the whole being about 6000 square miles, or 3,840,000 acres. The summer
temperature is 69°.8 Fahr. and that of winter rarely falls below 30°.2
Fahr., so that the climate greatly resembles that of Scotland in many
respects. The islands present a cheerless aspect; a rolling country with
peat soil, covered with rank grasses, and intersected by low ranges of
hills, alternating with marshy rivers and torrents. The lower part of the
country is clay, slate, and sandstone, covered with turf, which is used
for fuel. Tussock grass (_Dactylis cespitosa_) is the most common plant.


            [Illustration: Station on the Panama Railway]



                                  XXII.

  An Overland Journey from Valparaiso to Gibraltar, _viâ_ the Isthmus of
                                 Panama.

                     16th May To 1st August, 1859.

    Departure from Valparaiso.--Coquimbo.--Caldera.--Cobija.--
    Iquique.--Manufacture of saltpetre.--Arica.--Port d'Islay.--
    _Medanos_, or wandering sand-hills.--Chola.--Pisco.--The Chincha
    or Guano Islands.--Remarks respecting the Guano or Huanu beds.--
    Callao.--Lima.--Carrion crows, the principal street-scavengers.--
    Churches and Monasteries.--Hospitals.--Charitable institutions.--
    Medical College.--National Library.--Padre Vigil.--National
    Museum.--The Central Normal School.--Great lack of intellectual
    energy.--Ruins of Cajamarquilla.--Chorillos.--Temple to the Sun
    at Pachacamác.--River Rimac.--Amancaes.--The new prison.--
    Bull-fights.--State of society in Peru.--The _Coca_ plant, and
    the latest scientific examination respecting its peculiar
    properties.--The _China_, or Peruvian-bark tree.--Departure from
    Lima.--Lambajeque.--Indian village of Iting.--Païta.--Island of
    La Plata.--Taboga Island.--Impression made by the intelligence
    of Humboldt's death.--Panama.--"Opposition" Line.--Immense
    traffic.--The Railway across the Isthmus.--Aspinwall.--
    Carthagena.--St. Thomas.--Voyage to Europe on board the R.M.S.
    _Magdalena_.--Falmouth.--Southampton.--London.--Rejoin the
    _Novara_ at sea.--Arrival at Gibraltar.


Five days after the departure of the _Novara_, I left the roads of
Valparaiso on board the mail steamer _Callao_. The weather was
exceedingly unfavourable, the rain falling in torrents, while a heavy
tumbling sea made the embarkation of the numerous passengers and their
effects a process anything but agreeable. I have, therefore, the greater
pleasure in expressing my gratitude for the courtesy of the Captain of
H.M.S. _Ganges_, who sent his own gig to take me off to the steamer, and
to the numerous friends, who despite the stormy weather had assembled on
board to bid me a last farewell, and provide me with letters of
introduction to the authorities and most influential persons of the more
important of the localities I was about to visit. At 2 P.M. the shore bell
sounded, a little boat made its appearance on the port side, pitching
heavily in the swell, and a long thin figure stepped on deck. This proved
to be Captain Stewart of the _Louisa_, whose acquaintance I had formed at
the island of Tahiti, and who now, half breathless, handed me a small
packet with the following endorsement,--"These are the extracts you
requested from my journal, and which I promised to prepare for you on my
first voyage from Norfolk Island to Pitcairn." They consisted in fact of
those remarks upon the latest phase of the strange destiny of the Pitcairn
Islanders, which have already appeared in a previous chapter. The worthy
Captain had kept his word with true John Bull punctuality. A few moments
more and the _Callao_ was steaming out of Valparaiso Roads, on her voyage
northwards.

Although the boats of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company plying between
Valparaiso, Callao de Lima, and Panama, are tolerably large, clean, and
elegantly fitted, yet the number of passengers for intermediate ports make
them anything but a comfortable mode of travel. For, notwithstanding the
high fares,[120] it is necessary to crowd three or four passengers into
each state-room, which in the heat of the tropics is most inconvenient,
and at times almost intolerable. Personally, however, I had no reason to
complain on this score, as all the captains of the various steamers in
which I journeyed north, so soon as my connection with the _Novara_
Expedition was known, at once, with the most marked courtesy and
attention, secured to me a state-room for my own exclusive use, and
whenever we reached a port, placed their own boats at my disposal during
our stay.

The morning after we left Valparaiso, we reached Coquimbo, where, a few
weeks before (24th April, 1859), a severe action had been fought between
the Chilean troops and those of Pedro Gallo, the former proving
victorious. Coquimbo is a small town of about 2000 souls, whose sole claim
to importance is its proximity to some rich copper-mines. M. Longomasino,
one of the many victims of the _coup d'état_ of the second December, who,
the reader will recollect, received permission to make the voyage from
Tahiti to Valparaiso on board the _Novara_, was among our passengers; he
left the steamer at Coquimbo, intending to go to the adjoining mining town
of Serena (20,000 souls), where, through the kindness of friends, he had
been invited to edit a political paper.

Here I went on board the British corvette _Amethyst_, which just a year
before had been lying alongside of the _Novara_ in Singapore harbour, and
was received by her excellent commander with a most cordial welcome. To my
astonishment I found a number of civilians on board: refugees, who had
taken an active part in the late insurrection, and who now, when all hope
of success was over, sought an asylum on British soil, for such is the
deck of an English man-of-war, and, thanks to British political
proclivities, had been cordially received there.

About 11 P.M. the same night we were off the insignificant little harbour
of Huasco, and about nine next morning ran into Caldera, a dreary-looking
little place of some 2000 inhabitants, built upon one of a succession of
sand-slopes. There is not a trace of vegetation; no foliage, no shrubs, no
patches of grass,--all around as far as the eye could reach was a
cheerless waste of sand. Only extraordinary opportunities for money-making
could have induced the inhabitants to settle in this desolate wilderness,
deficient in the very first necessity of life--fresh water. Every drop of
this most important beverage has at present to be brought from 90 miles
inland, so that a cask containing some 15 gallons costs 31 cents or 1_s._
4_d._ English. The charge for supplying water alone to 90 or 100 workmen
amounts to 40 dollars, or £8 8_s._, a week! At the time I visited it, the
people were negotiating for the erection of a steam distilling apparatus,
for procuring fresh water from the sea, at a less cost than was paid
previously. From Caldera, a locomotive line of rail leads to the mining
town of Copiapó, 71 miles inland, in the vicinity of which are rich mines
of silver and copper. This enterprise has proved so remunerative, that,
although its construction cost 2,500,000 dollars (£525,000 or about £7400
a mile), the shareholders receive an annual dividend of 16 per cent.

I visited the copper-smelting kilns, which belong to an English company,
and produce annually from 1800 to 2000 tons of almost virgin copper (90 to
96 per cent.), in ingots and pigs, as they are termed, an ingot weighing
from 16 to 18 lbs avoirdupois. The ore, as at first found in the mines of
Copiapó, has barely 18 to 36 per cent. of copper, and has to undergo six
or seven smeltings before it becomes sufficiently pure to be sold at a
profit in the markets of Europe. The smelting-furnace produces about seven
tons of copper per diem, at a consumption of 60 tons of coal,[121] which
is imported from Swansea, partly from Pennsylvania, and is worth 12 to 15
dollars per ton of 2240 lbs. The rate of wages at Caldera remains pretty
steady at two to three dollars per diem, and this is the reason why the
enterprise is less remunerative than would be the case if wages were
lower.

The total annual yield of the copper and silver mines of the department of
Copiapó is worth about 14,000,000 dollars, and gives employment to from
6000 to 7000 labourers, or one-third the entire population of the
district.

On 20th May we anchored off Cobija, the sole harbour possessed by Bolivia
on the west coast, and with a population of 1000. The state of affairs in
Bolivia affords a marked example of how closely the development of a
country is connected with the fact of its possessing more or less of
sea-coast. How great is the commerce, the. prosperity, and the
civilization of Chile, a proportionally small strip of not over-fertile
soil, but the entire extent of which is sea-coast, compared with the
poverty and barbarism of the interior state of Bolivia, so admirably
fitted by nature for raising all manner of valuable produce, but whose
sole means of communication with the rest of the world is through one
insignificant harbour!

The same day we reached Iquique, the southernmost harbour of Peru, with a
population of about 4000, and which quite recently has increased greatly
in importance, owing to the trade in saltpetre, which is found in immense
quantities all along this rainless coast, and of which 1,000,000
hundredweight (50,000 tons) are exported annually to England, North
America, and Germany, in which countries it is extensively and
beneficially used for manure.[122] Here we found lying at anchor a large
merchantman, the _Victorine_ of Bordeaux, 3000 tons burthen, which was
taking in a full cargo, exclusively, of this valuable product. The
saltpetre is found between beds of clay from one to six feet below the
surface, boiled in large vats to free it from impurities,[123] and dried
in the form of cakes, which are packed for shipment in sacks of 250 lbs.
It is worth, if purified, 21 reals (about 11_s._ 4_d._) per cwt. on the
spot, and fetches £16 to £17 per ton in England. Upon a rough calculation,
the quantity of saltpetre along the coast of Peru at an average breadth of
30 miles amounts to 60,000,000 tons, enough to maintain the existing
supply[124] for at least another thousand years. The rate of wages of the
men engaged in the trade, owing to the scarcity of labour, is from two to
three dollars per diem! The scarcity of water at Iquique is so great, that
the town has to be supplied by means of a distilling apparatus, an
undertaking the gross daily receipts of which are six hundred dollars! For
the precious element has to be purchased not merely for men but animals;
the price, for example, for a male to drink _ad libitum_ is one real,
about 8-1/2_d._

Tincal, or Biborate of Soda, is also largely found all along the coast,
but the export was long prohibited, the suspicious jealousy of the
Peruvian Government seeking to obtain first of all conclusive evidence of
the value of this natural product, and the best means of making it
contribute to the State treasury. At present about 200 tons, worth from
£16 to £20 per ton, are exported annually. As we lay at anchor off
Iquique, numbers of natives shot about with arrow-like rapidity in their
exceedingly primitive boats, made of seal-skins fastened together in
canoe-fashion. To avoid overturns, these curious specimens of naval
architecture have bladders attached on either side!

The heat now began to be very perceptible. The bare, treeless, almost
perpendicular sand-bluffs along the coast, impart to it a dreary aspect,
which even the rocky chain immediately behind, rising some 2000 to 4000
feet, scarcely succeeds in softening. A great number of the passengers,
mostly Peruvians, indemnified themselves for the cheerless monotony of the
prospect on deck, by intense devotion to the mysteries of the green table
in the saloon. All through the day, till far on in the night, the painted
pasteboard flew from hand to hand. The favourite game was Rocambor,
something like Ombre, diversified with Monte and dice, and for very high
sums. I saw ten condors (£21) laid upon a single card. A few elderly
gentlemen sat regularly in a distant corner of the saloon, where they
played assiduously from nine in the morning till midnight without
interruption. One wealthy Peruano, well known along this coast, in the
course of a single voyage is said to have lost 80,000 dollars (£16,800)!!

On 20th May we anchored in Arica, an elegant seaport of some 7000
inhabitants, surrounded by beautiful luxuriant gardens, and which, though
belonging to Peru, may be considered as the chief outlet for the produce
of Northern Bolivia, since Tacna, the most important manufacturing town of
that State, with a population of 12,000, is only nine English miles
distant, lying at the foot of the Cordillera, while La Paz, the capital of
the Republic, with a population of 75,000, is 288 miles distant, and is
easiest reached from Arica. The political division of Bolivia is a crying
injustice to that lovely country and its industrious population. The
harbour of Arica belongs by natural position to Bolivia and not to Peru;
commercial interests and general intercourse unite it far more intimately
with Northern Bolivia than with Peru. The chief exports of Arica are
silver, copper, alpaca wool, cinchona bark, chinchilla furs, cotton, and
tin. There are also two steam flour-mills within the little town in full
operation; the grain comes from the interior, and is shipped as flour to
the various harbours along the coast. A railroad from Arica to Tacna
greatly facilitates traffic and commerce, but further in the interior all
intercourse is carried on by means of narrow mule-paths.[125]

The houses, constructed for the most part of sun-dried bricks all along
the coast of Peru, where rain is absolutely unknown, and even the
dew-deposit is trifling, are flat, barely roofed in with thin strips of
cane, and consequently when seen from the street have a very untidy
appearance. Unfortunately these terrace-like roofs are likewise the sole
receptacles for the refuse of the house, and any one who, in order to get
a better view, ventures to ascend one of the adjoining dazzling white
sand-heaps, will long remember the filthy but unique spectacle which
greets his eye.

Immediately outside of the suburb of Chimba, the desolate nature of the
country comes conspicuously into view. I next walked to one of the nearest
sand-hills, because I was assured that there were numerous graves of
queens to be found there, as well as quantities of mummies. Owing to the
extreme dryness of the atmosphere, the skulls of the dead which here lay
scattered upon the surface of the soil, seemed as though they were so many
anatomical preparations. Even some dead bodies of animals showed no
symptoms of decomposition, but had been perfectly dried. The peculiarity
of the meteorological conditions, the extreme dryness of the atmosphere,
and the saline impregnation of the soil, have very much more to do with
these marvellous antiseptic appearances than any indigenous skill in
embalming the Indian corpses; since, even now, when the brown
Catholicized Peruvians have lost none of their old superstitions, though
they have abandoned most of their former arts and customs, the dead
committed to the earth without further preparation, present the same
mummified appearance when disinterred. I took away with me the skull of an
Indian, from the neighbourhood of Arica, which was remarkable for the
singular malformation resulting from compression by circular bandages.

This artificial disfigurement of the skull has its origin in the peculiar
customs of several Indian races of both North and South America, of
mechanically altering the form of the cranium in the new-born infant. Of
the difference in point of beauty of the different Indian races along the
west coast of North America, a clear indication is afforded by the profile
of the head of a native of Puget Sound, Oregon territory, for which I am
indebted to the kindness of Dr. Ried of Valparaiso, he having been
presented with it in 1856, by the medical officer of an American
man-of-war. Here, in strong contrast with the oblong form of the cranium
of an Indian from the neighbourhood of Arica, it appears that the skull
has been flattened transversely, by pressure between two boards.

At first one is disposed to attribute the squeezed-in appearance of the
head, remarked in different Indian races, here lengthened in an unsightly
degree, there hideously flattened, to some freak of nature; but more
accurate investigations leave no doubt that the deformity in question, in
whatever form, is the result of pressure artificially applied, and that
this displacement of the brain is not confined to individuals, but is
characteristic of entire tribes, yet without any sensible diminution of
the intellectual faculties, or morbidity in their exercise.

The valley of Azapa, three Spanish leagues (nine miles English) distant
from Arica, is very fertile, and a good soil, but badly supplied with
water. However, at an expense of a few millions of dollars, a
communication might easily be established with the waters of the river
Arica, the expense of which would be amply repaid by the increased
productive power thus given to the valley. Sugar-cane, vintage-grape,
oranges, pine-apples, olives, and vegetables of every description, could
forthwith be raised, and advantageously disposed of at Arica.

Among the Germans resident in Arica, we formed the acquaintance of M.
Colmann, a merchant, and Consul for Chile, as also of Dr. Mittendorf, the
latter of whom is physician to the Railway Company here. By the latter
gentleman we were told that cuticular diseases, dysentery, and
intermittent fevers were the most common ailments, but that on the whole
the climate of Arica is healthy, and that many cases of illness were
solely attributable to the irregular, licentious mode of life of the
natives. Although it hardly ever rains, yet during the summer season
(January to March), when the snows begin to melt in the interior, and
tremendous falls of rain occur on the Cordillera, the beds of the rivers
become torrents, wheeling along vast volumes of water to the sea, and
partly sinking into the soil, so that, at a depth of two or three feet,
one comes upon water, or, at all events, moisture, while the surface
remains burned to a cake. A little canalization of the river-bed, and
damming up the water, so as to have a permanent reservoir, would not
merely secure a better supply of water, but would most beneficially
influence the salubrity of the neighbourhood. The river dries up entirely
every year in the months of July and August, during which accordingly
occur the largest number of cases of sickness, and it seems the more
necessary that measures of some sort should be at once taken to control
the water, as otherwise there is reason to fear that unless artificial
dykes and dams be constructed, the bed of the river will gradually be
sanded up, when the whole district will be worse off for water than ever;
since with each successive year's floods, as they dash down from the
mountains, a perceptible falling off in quantity has been remarked, so
that whereas ten years ago the bed of the river was full for four or five
months together, at present it is rarely full so long as two months in
all.

On 22nd May, we entered the little harbour of Port d'Islay, the access to
which is very difficult. The settlement itself stands on a steep rock, 150
feet high, descending almost perpendicularly into the sea on all sides, so
that the only landing-place is a mole, which communicates with the village
above by an iron ladder. The well-known traveller, Count Castelnau, who in
the course of a scientific expedition through South America visited this
port in 1848, prophesied a splendid future for it; but I do not believe
that its commerce has materially increased since then.

The sole claim to consideration of Port d'Islay consists in its proximity
to Arequipa, a city of 40,000 inhabitants, and the variety of valuable
natural products which abound in that fertile section of country, from
which, however, the port is separated by a sand-barren, 36 miles in width
and 120 in length, the city of Arequipa itself being 7500 feet above the
sea, at the foot of the volcano of the same name,[126] and amid a
magnificent scenery.

The dreary waste between Port d'Islay and Arequipa is continually swept by
drift sand, which, by constantly obstructing the road, renders travelling
thither absolutely unsafe, and indeed frequently dangerous to life. For
the unfortunate who misses his way amid these wastes is lost beyond all
possibility of succour. The wandering sand-columns or _medanos_,[127]
formed of drift sand, present a singular appearance as they spin along
before a S.E. wind, admirably described by Tschudi in his valuable
Sketches of Travel in Peru. These extraordinary pillars, which constantly
change both their form and position, and complete the perplexity of the
traveller, are usually semi-circular, 8 or 10 feet high, and from 20 to 50
feet wide, but occasionally they are seen 50 feet in height, when their
diameter is about 150 feet. They are of most frequent occurrence in the
hot season, when the parched sand obeys the slightest impulse of the
atmosphere, whereas in winter, owing to the deposition of a fine
penetrating dew (_garua_), which all along the coast of Peru supplies the
place of rain, which is never seen, the sand increases in weight, and the
basis of the column is solidified, so to speak, by the moisture absorbed.
Between Port d'Islay and Arequipa, the _medanos_ are first encountered
about 18 miles inland, or nearly half-way across the sand-barren.

In the dells near the harbour volcanic ashes are occasionally found at
certain spots, whereas they are never discovered further inland, nor near
the volcano of Arequipa, which since the memory of man has never been
known to be in a state of activity, and whose beautiful cone, not unlike
that of Ometepec in Nicaragua, seems to be densely wooded up to the very
summit. Apparently these are the remains of former eruptions of a
neighbouring volcano, which have been borne towards the coast by the
prevailing winds. The ashes themselves have no saline constituents, and
are used by the natives in the manufacture of sun-dried clay-bricks
(_adobes_), the quality of which they materially improve.

We made an excursion to a churchyard in the vicinity of d'Islay, where the
skulls of some half a hundred human beings lay exposed to view. They all
seemed to have been bleached by exposure, and were in good preservation,
so that on many might still be discovered heavy heads of hair. The eyes
had shrivelled up into the skull, and were by no means gleaming and
crystal-like as is alleged of those found in Indian graves, and offered
for sale to strangers. These so-called "crystallized human eyes," of which
an Italian curiosity dealer of Arica possessed one or two sacks-full,
belong to a species of mollusca (_Loligo gigas_), and were used by the
Indians to adorn their dead. To this circumstance must be attributed the
great number that are to be found in the graves in the neighbourhood of
Arica.

We continued to coast along during the entire night. The number of
passengers, especially of those on the "'tween decks," had again
increased. Among the late arrivals was an Austrian, a Tyrolese, from
Iquique, who was travelling into the interior of Peru. This man, seduced
by dazzling promises, had in 1856 emigrated to Peru with 293 of his
fellow-countrymen, and after two years of the most terrible hardships and
privations, at last succeeded in finding employment at the salt mines of
Iquique. He was now earning 3 dols. a day (12_s._ 6_d._), and was on his
way to fetch his family away from the colony of Pozúzu, and taking them
with him to the scene of his labours. That none of his countrymen did not
follow him was, as he explained to us, in consequence of one of the
colonists, "a half student," dissuading them from doing so, and himself
leading them to try their luck at another spot, where unfortunately they
had to battle with want in its severest form. I have rarely seen any man
so excited and agitated at the sound of his native tongue as this hearty
specimen of the sons of the Alps, when I addressed him "in good Austrian,"
and shook him by the hand. The reader will find further on, in the account
of my stay at Lima, a more full account of the Tyrolese colony at Pozúzu,
its present condition and possible future.

On 23rd May, at 6 A.M., the steamer anchored off Chala, which first
attained the dignity of a seaport in 1857, being intended to facilitate
intercourse and increase the trade with Cuzco. Chala is the nearest
harbour to the ancient capital of the Incas, 240 miles distant. Though
singularly ill-adapted for a port, being, in fact, nothing but an open
roadstead, Chala bids fair to become a place of some importance, so soon
as the country is at peace, and a good road is constructed hence to Cuzco,
so as to be able to convey with dispatch the numerous valuable products of
Cuzco. When we visited it, the little settlement, barely a year old, had
212 inhabitants, in some thirty wooden huts extending along the sandy
shore. The chief exports are wool and copper, the latter being found at
Chaipa and Atiquipa, nine miles N. of Chala.

The following morning, after passing the _Barracoon_ of Pisco, a rather
dangerous passage beset with low islands between Barraca Head (on
Sangallan Island) and Huasco Head (a projecting headland of the mainland),
we reached Pisco, also nothing but an open roadstead, the tremendous surf
in which does not admit of ships approaching within two or three miles of
the shore. Several years before a Mr. Wheelwright had commenced to
construct a mole here, to project some hundreds of feet into the sea, so
as to facilitate the loading and unloading of ships and the embarkation of
passengers, but the works were still unfinished, and indeed would need to
be very largely added to ere the object aimed at could possibly be
obtained. On the declivity of Barraca Head sloping seaward are visible
three marks in the form of crosses, which, according to tradition, were
made in the sand by the pious monks of former centuries. Their size must
indeed be colossal, since, though we passed from four to five miles off,
the outlines of the three figures were plainly visible. Well-known as this
phenomenon is to everybody, no one has ever had the curiosity to make an
excursion thither from Pisco, so as to clear up the fact of their being
actually the work of human hands, or, as seems more probable, simply
columns of drift sand, like the _medanos_ of Arica, thrown into this
fantastic shape by the caprice of some passing storm.

The chief staple of cultivation at Pisco, and throughout the province, is
the vine. I never tasted such delicate, juicy, luscious grapes as those I
got there. They are chiefly used in the manufacture of the well-known
"Pisco," a sort of "Aguardiente" (burning water, sc. brandy), the
consumption of which is extraordinarily great. There were also fruits in
most diverse profusion, chirimoyas (a species of anona), bananas,
aguacales, mangoes, pine-apples, lemons, oranges, peaches, apples, pears,
&c., which are grown here of the most delicate description for the market
of Lima.

Pisco is the first point along the entire barren coast at which the
traveller, since leaving Valparaiso, sees the shores covered once more
with vegetation. With inexpressible relief the eye rests upon the green
carpet which, on all sides, gleams forth, even between and among the
houses. The place has about 3000 inhabitants, and possesses numerous
churches, whose lofty belfries impart to it quite the appearance of a
large town. About 45 miles inland, in a lovely and fertile valley, lies
the large city of Ica, with which there is considerable traffic, and the
chief product of which is also the grapevine. Ten English miles N. of
Pisco, and, in fact, opposite the town, are the renowned Chincha or Guano
Islands, and towards these our course was now directed. These are three
small islands rising close to each other out of the bosom of the sea, the
most north-easterly of which has been the most stripped. Here also is the
chief village, consisting of upwards of 100 wooden huts, inhabited by some
200 to 250 persons. In 1858 there were some 2000 men living on the
islands, while several hundred ships at a time would be lying at anchor in
the harbour, loading with the valuable excretions of innumerable
sea-fowls, of which the islands chiefly consist. When we visited them, the
depredations had somewhat fallen off, the number of labourers was
diminishing, and there were only a few vessels in the harbour.

The islands have a melancholy, naked, barren look; the same substance
which, in smaller quantity, contributes so powerfully to promote the
productiveness of the soil, to which it is applied, here stifles all
vegetation, by reason of its very abundance, and fails to show any trace
of that fertilizing principle which lies concealed within it.

The northern island is about 4200 feet long, and 1500 to 1800 feet wide.
Its height is from 150 to 180 feet. The _Huanu_,[128] consisting of the
excrement of various descriptions of sea-birds, chiefly sea-mews,
sea-ravens, divers, and _laridæ_, forms strata, sometimes of a
greyish-brown, sometimes of a rusty red colour, which at some points
attain a thickness of 120 feet. The huts of the settlers are erected on
the very guano beds. A handsome, comfortable hotel has latterly been
added. All the necessaries of life, even drinking-water, have to be
brought from the mainland, 14 miles distant. Living, consequently, is very
expensive on the island, though there is anything but privation, or even
lack of enjoyment. One of the inhabitants, a Swede, who has a small store
on the island, observed to me, "We live as well and comfortably on the
Chincha Islands as anywhere on the globe, and have occasionally even music
and a dance!"

In May, 1859, the population consisted of 50 Europeans, 50 Chinese, and
250 Peruanos and Negroes. The majority were labourers, who were in great
request as "_Mangueros_" or "_Abarrotadores_," and were busily engaged in
excavating the indurated excrement, and transporting it to the various
points for lading. The daily wages of the free labourers was 1 dollar 50
cents (about 6_s._ 3_d._) per diem; the Chinese, on the other hand,
received only 5 dollars per month, and a daily ration of rice. One
Peruvian planter, Domingo Elias, had imported at his own cost several
hundred Chinese coolies, who, like those in the West Indies, were to pay
in labour for the expense of their voyage. The remuneration given to these
hardy sons of the Middle Empire was of the scantiest. While they had to
work alongside of convicts, longer and harder than any other class of
labourers, they only received one-tenth of the pay of the latter.

The sanitary condition of the settlement was described to me as
exceedingly favourable. The guano-getters contribute the smallest
contingent to the sick list, and even the strong, penetrating, and
exceedingly disagreeable stench of the substance, impregnated as it is
with ammonia, seems to have not the slightest prejudicial effect upon the
lungs, pulmonary complaints hardly ever making their appearance among the
workmen. So far from this being the case, it is even contended that
persons suffering under affections of the lungs derive benefit in the
first stage of the malady from a residence in the Huanu Islands, and find
themselves in improved health on their return to the mainland.

The centre island has been only partially excavated, but the works there
have been discontinued. At present it is entirely uninhabited, though
there are still visible on its summit a few wooden huts, which formerly
sheltered the workmen, as also some of the "shoots" or slides used for
facilitating the collection and shipment of the guano.

The southernmost of the three islands is quite in its primitive state,
never having been touched. No sign indicative of man's presence on it is
anywhere visible.

The earliest attempts to export guano to Europe as a manure were made in
1832, but they proved so losing a speculation, that not till eight years
later did the Peruvian mercantile house of Messrs. Quiros again direct
attention to the importance of guano as an article of export, when the
Government of Peru granted them, for a fixed sum, the exclusive privilege
of exporting guano for six years. This gave an opportunity for
instituting, on a sufficient scale, those experiments which, it will be
remembered, Mr. Meyer of Liverpool was making at that period, and which
was followed by such surprising results.

From March to October, 1841, 23 vessels conveyed 6125 tons of guano to
England, Hamburg, Antwerp, and Bordeaux. In November of the same year, the
English barque _Byron_ brought to Peru the cheering intelligence that a
ton of guano was selling in England for £28 per ton. This totally
unexpected and startling result induced the Government, by a decree of
17th November, to declare that the agreement with Messrs. Quiros was
cancelled, and fresh offers for the privilege of shipping guano were
invited from speculators.

Since that period the exportation of this important manure has attained
unprecedented dimensions in every part of the globe. Of late years it has
reached the enormous amount of 500,000 tons from these islands alone, and
the revenue to the Government has been 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 dollars.

The contractors sell the guano in Europe for account of the Peruvian
Government, and receive for it a commission fee of from 3-1/2 to 4-1/2 per
cent. of the gross amount; for this they get, moreover, paid 5 per cent.
of interest for outlays and pecuniary advances (pretty considerable) which
they make to the native Government. The contracts are generally entered
into for four years.

A complete exploration and survey of the islands was made in 1853 by M. C.
Faraguet, a French engineer. According to his report, which was pretty
comprehensive, and drawn up under the co-operation of several other
scientific gentlemen, the quantity of guano on the northernmost island, in
September, 1853, was 4,189,477 Peruvian tons (about 3,740,866 tons
English); the middle island about 2,237,954 English tons, and the
southernmost 5,072,032 English tons; or the entire cubical mass was at
that period about 11,050,852 tons English. Assuming an average price, this
would imply a money value of about £120,000,000. Since 1841, when the
first considerable shipment was made, to 1861, there had been exported
from the Chincha Islands 3,000,000 tons of guano, worth about 135,000,000
dollars (£29,250,000).

At first, owing to the enormous mass of guano left to accumulate
undisturbed for centuries, the very natural error was made of reckoning
the quantity deposited at too high an estimate, and the amount annually
taken at too low a figure.[129] Hence it happened that a few native and
many foreign writers have spoken of these islands as affording a supply
which only centuries could exhaust. It is now, however, ascertained that,
supposing the export proceeds at its present rate, only 25 to 30 years
will elapse ere the entire strata of excremental manure of all the three
Chincha Islands will have been carried off!

Notwithstanding ample supplies of guano have been discovered besides all
along the west coast of South America, on uninhabited islands and
promontories, and upwards of 7,000,000 tons of this valuable commodity
been found on the islands south of Callao alone,[130] yet, even should
this statement turn out correct, it would only supply the existing demand
for other 10 or 15 years, while the formation of beds of guano must year
after year become more and more confined to solitary, inaccessible islands
of the Southern Ocean. For so soon as such beds of guano begin to be
explored, they are quickly abandoned by the birds, which are gradually
retreating from the islands along the coast and the usual channels of
commerce.

The Peruvian Government does not seem to realize the calamity impending
over the country on the exhaustion of the guano beds, which would dry up
one of its principal sources of revenue. Certainly it seems impossible to
make a more unwise use of the immense sums which are flowing into the
State treasury. Nothing is done for making roads or railways so as to
furnish intercourse with the fertile provinces of the interior, or to
raise and encourage agriculture or commerce. Just as this revenue does not
result from the energy or industrial activity of the people, it is
expended without any object of utility to show for it. The Government
pockets the dues as a monopoly, and expends the sums thus obtained in
avaricious schemes of aggrandizement, or warlike expeditions against
Ecuador and Bolivia, which keep the country in perpetual hot water, and
only add to its burthens. The guano duties go in gunpowder! Lightly won,
as lightly gone!

During the nine days of our voyage between Valparaiso and Callao de Lima
there were some musicians on board, who gave us a concert on deck every
evening. As we left the Chincha Islands some frolicsome young Peruvians,
disregarding the discord of the flute and violin, and unmindful of the
timeless tuneless twanging of the two harps, got up a dance.

In the course of the night we ran into Callao harbour, and when I came on
deck, in the cool of the morning, I found we were already lying at anchor
in this spacious and secure port. The tradition that with a calm sea and a
clear sky it is possible to perceive the ruins of the old town, with its
houses and church-towers, which sank here suddenly in 1746 by the shock of
an earthquake, has survived to the present day, and is told to every
new-comer, who greedily swallows it down, though not one of the narrators
has ever beheld the marvel with his own eyes! Earthquakes, indeed, are by
no means so frequent as at the beginning of the present century, when it
was rare for a fortnight to elapse without at least one _temblore_ or
horizontal oscillation. The vertical shocks (_terra-motos_), the most
dangerous kind of earthquake, have not occurred here since 1828. The
season at which earthquakes most frequently occur are the months of March,
April, and September, whence the latter month has received from the people
the jocular name of "_Se tiembla!_" (it trembles!) One Peruvian who has
long occupied himself with scientific observations has repeatedly
witnessed that a magnet, freely suspended, regularly lost its attractive
powers a few minutes before each shock, and that a piece of steel held by
the magnetic force fell to the ground. If this be confirmed by a series of
observations the magnet might ultimately become a sort of
earthquake-monitor.

The Callao of the present day is a dirty, ugly hole, with narrow streets,
and low houses built principally of mud and cane, with flat roofs. Only a
few of the houses of foreigners, erected out of hearing of the hubbub of
the port, form a grateful exception. The entire population will be about
20,000 souls.

The most interesting building of the port is undoubtedly the new Custom
House with 31 colossal magazines, each capable of containing six to eight
entire ships' freights. I repeatedly heard complaints made of the
slovenliness of the attendants, in consequence of which it frequently
happened that days elapsed ere goods, paid for, were delivered out of
bond. The warehouse charge is very small, and consists chiefly of
stamp-duties, which are imposed on the money paid for goods. The trade of
Callao is apparently on the increase, and, considering the productiveness
of the country, would be even greater, were internal order restored, when
peace and confidence would follow in its train.

As I had to prosecute my journey northwards by the next steamer, I
hastened on to Lima, so as to satisfy my curiosity as to this the most
important city of Peru in modern days. A few hours after my arrival in
Callao, I found myself on the road to the "City of the Kings."[131] Only a
few years back the journey from Callao to Lima, though only six English
miles, was an exceedingly arduous and even dangerous undertaking. The road
lay through a shadeless desert of deep sand, between uncultivated fields
and low scrubs, and was absolutely unsafe owing to attacks of robbers. Now
it is a frequent excursion, a tolerably good railroad performing the
distance in about half an hour.

By the kindness of Mr. Wilhelm Brauns, the Consul-General of Hamburg, and
head of the distinguished English house Huth, Grüning, and Co.,[132] to
whom I brought letters of introduction, and who was most kindly in
waiting for me. I was speedily and pleasantly conveyed from the station in
Lima, to take up my quarters in his house till I took my leave. Owing to
this fortunate event, I found myself unexpectedly brought into the very
thick of the very best German society. Nowhere in the course of many years
of travel in various countries, all over the globe, did I meet with more
cordial hospitality, or a more delightful reception, than during my 19
days' stay in the "City of the Kings."

On our way from the station to the house of Mr. Brauns, I remarked that
the houses in every part of the city that we passed were painted with
variegated stripes, and heard, to my intense astonishment, that, in
consequence of a recent decree of the Government, every householder in
each quarter was ordered, with a view to facilitating the identification
of their houses, to paint them of a colour corresponding with the coloured
official plans of the city! Accordingly in one quarter all the houses were
green, in another yellow, in a third white, in a fourth reddish, and in a
fifth sky-blue. As in all Spanish American cities exposed to earthquakes,
most of the houses in Lima also are but one storey high. The larger
buildings are constructed of sun-dried bricks or fire clay, the smaller of
cane set up double, with the space between filled up with clay, and the
whole whitewashed. Their most singular feature is the flat roofs, which
consist of a layer of cane and straw mats, which, for better security,
occasionally have a coating of clay. Thus an open space (_Azotea_),
surrounded by balustrades, is secured, which is used as a playground by
children, and serves as a promenade for the grown-up portion of the
community. Some of the windows communicate with the roof by a sort of
trap-door, which instead of sashes of glass has shutters of wood, which
communicate with the rooms beneath by a long cord, so that they can be
opened or shut from below at pleasure. Many of the chambers in the
interior of the house get light and air solely through these apertures
(called _Ventana de Teatinas_, because first introduced by the Theatine
monks), while windows properly so-called are less numerous, and when
looking towards the street are usually provided with large, broad,
sometimes richly-gilt iron shutters. We saw these curious cords for
opening and shutting the trap-doors in the roof hanging down in the middle
of even elegantly-furnished apartments, and not even the circumstance of
being made of silk prevented their having a peculiar and ungraceful
effect.

The mode of constructing the houses, together with the elegant
ornamentation of the open courts (_patìo_) of the interior, speedily
remind the stranger that he is in a place where rain (at least according
to Northern ideas) is an unknown phenomenon, since one single, even
down-pour must inevitably do immense damage in the Lima of the present
day. During the winter months, however, as they are called, viz. June to
November, fogs (_garuas_) are very frequent, which, albeit light, are
sufficiently penetrating thoroughly to soak the pedestrian or horseman who
happens to be surprised by them. I have myself repeatedly experienced in
Lima fogs of such density, that it was quite practicable to count each
separate drop. During these winter months, fine, clear days free of all
cloud are comparatively rare; but the statement one occasionally hears,
that for five months together the sun is invisible in Lima, is an
exaggeration. The temperature of Lima is much lower than we could expect
from a city within 12 degrees of the Equator, and seems to be affected
principally by the proximity of the eternal snows of the Andes, and the
prevailing atmospheric currents. The thermometer never rises higher than
85°.8 Fahr., nor falls below 68°.2 Fahr. The average temperature during
the hot season is 77°, and during the cold 63°.5 Fahr. Such a climate
renders fires superfluous, and it is more habit than necessity that
induces some Spanish families to carry about copper or iron pans
(_Brasero_) filled with live coal, with which to warm their hands or feet.

The exteriors and internal equipments of the dwellings are very simple and
devoid of ornament, only a few of the older buildings, such, for instance,
as the house of Torre Tagle, near San Pedro, forming the exception. Among
the architectural decorations, which preserve to the present day the
tradition of the glories of the Peruvian kingdom, one may marvel at
majestic designs and beautiful mosaics, which even in their ruin tell of
the magnificent luxury that was once indulged in here.

The streets are wide and tolerably regular, but the absence of gutters and
the wretched foundation of the roadway prevent their being used by
carriages or horsemen, or by pedestrians even more than they can help. The
open ditches at either side are full of filth and animal impurities, which
are continually being thrown in, and but for the services of numerous
carrion crows (_cathartes f[oe]tens_), who perform the duties of
scavengers, Lima, owing to the supineness of the native authorities, would
be one of the filthiest and most unhealthy cities in South America. But
the _gallinazos_, as these black-headed birds are called by the natives,
although lazy and unwieldy, nevertheless are in such immense numbers here,
that they suffice to keep the streets comparatively free from putrescent
odours. Everywhere, even in the thick of places of public resort, one sees
these birds, which no one injures on account of their usefulness, and
which even the rising generation never think of disturbing in their
disgusting avocations, hopping about upon the bare ground, and gorging
themselves on the garbage around.

One of the greatest improvements to the city is its almost universal
illumination by gas, which in the evening imparts a peculiar charm to the
streets and fashionable shops of Lima, and enables them, in this
particular at least, to vie with those of the capitals of Europe.

The largest buildings in Lima are, as we might expect from a country
conquered and colonized by Spaniards, the churches and monasteries, of
which there are in this capital no fewer than eighty. Many of these
Spanish memorials, of a religious epoch more bigoted than sincere, are at
present decayed, and even those which are still preserved in something
like good order fail to charm the eye by any graces of architecture or
majestic simplicity in their interior fittings up. The Cathedral even,
which takes up almost the entire east side of the chief square, is no
exception to this rule, and, though it was 90 years in erection, is after
all a very indifferent edifice. The interior is lofty and spacious, but
owing to the choir having its proportions curtailed by a wide altar in the
midst, one perceives on entering the church only the smaller half, so that
the impression is destroyed, which, but for this interposed erection,
would undoubtedly be made by the high altar, richly overlaid with gold and
silver, seen through the vista of the entire building. The ornaments, the
sacred vessels, and censers used in performing mass are exceedingly rich
and valuable, but are too much overlaid to please an æsthetic taste. In
the catacombs of the Cathedral repose the remains of Francisco Pizarro.
Few strangers omit to visit this spot, and usually feel as much surprised
as pleased at finding offered them for sale by the sacristan, various
sorts of relics of the renowned conqueror of Peru, though all cannot hope
to be so fortunate as an English lady at Lima, who informed me with all
gravity that she had purchased from a guide a slipper taken from the
coffin of Pizarro. Should this mania for relics on the part of visitors,
and readiness to humour it on the part of vergers, continue unchecked,
there will remain ere long in the catacombs only an empty shell, in which
once lay the celebrated Conquistador. Perhaps, though, the speculative
sacristan contents himself with gratifying the wishes of curiosity-loving
visitants, by means similar to those of the artful cicerone who
accompanies the enthusiastic stranger in his rambles among the ruins of
classic antiquity.

The monastery of San Francisco is more worth notice for its immense
extent, which equals in size many an old imperial walled city of Suabia,
than for elegance of style or tasteful artistic interior. The façade,
painted in various colours, and overlaid with ornament, resembles by far
more a Buddha temple than a Roman Catholic church. The corridors are the
finest part of the building, their wooden ceilings being very richly
carved. On all the walls of the passages are suspended drawings
illustrative of the lives of various holy men, which, however, singular to
say, are hung with their faces to the wall, and are only turned round on
appointed festivals to charm the eyes of believers!

The church is very roomy within, but quite bare of ornament. The sacristan
with evident pride directed our attention to San Benito, a "black" saint,
who was held in high esteem by the negroes, probably on account of his
colour. Quite close to the monastery is the "Casa de Ejercicios," whither
the monks repair at certain periods of the year to perform the prescribed
religious exercises. The cells here have a more comfortless look than in
the cloister proper. A bed-frame with a skin stretched upon it, a hard
stool, a plain table, a crucifix, and a human skull, comprise the entire
inventory. The latter, the cranium of a departed brother, was covered with
numerous aids to religious meditation, some written, some carved on the
substance of the bone.

The lay-brother who escorted us round had not long been a denizen of this
gloomy monastic abode. Though still very young, he was leaving behind him
a tolerably enlarged experience of the world. Starting as a gold-digger in
California, he became a gambler and speculator, when he quickly lost all
he had so laboriously wrested from the soil, and returned to Lima, where,
more for the sake of change and comfort than for any special vocation or
imperious spiritual necessity, he had entered the order of Franciscans.
His temperament being much more that of a man of the world than a monk, he
must have felt himself sorely hampered by the restrictions of monastrism,
were it not for the lax morality which is the standard of convent life in
the capital of Peru; but the monk's cowl is in Lima not only the attire of
humility and resignation, it is likewise the cloak for all manner of
licentiousness and hypocrisy--the "_surtout_" which conceals many a lapse
from virtue!

The monastery of San Pedro was the wealthiest in Lima, so long as it
remained the property of the Jesuits. When, in 1773, the order went forth
for the suppression of the Order throughout South America, it was not
executed without the Spanish viceroy's cherishing certain secret hopes of
obtaining large riches. The Jesuits, however, on this occasion vindicated
their reputation for subtlety, which has become proverbial among mankind.
When the inventory was taken, nothing but empty boxes were to be found,
and the most strict investigations and inquiries led to no more favourable
result.

Among the hospitals which we visited, that of San Andres deserves foremost
notice for its size and comprehensiveness. It has room for 600 patients,
who are tended by 50 _S[oe]urs de la Charité_, the majority of whom are
French. The yellow fever, which, introduced in 1852 by immigrants,
penetrated deep into the interior, though of a milder type, had of late
carried off numerous victims, and indeed had seriously weakened the
hygienic good name[133] of Lima; the small-pox also had annually committed
fearful ravages; for vaccination is not made imperative by law, and
inoculation is therefore neglected. Besides the hospital of St. Andrew,
there are others for female patients, for the military, for incurables and
imbeciles, an asylum for orphans,[134] and one for foundlings.[135]

The best managed hospital apparently is that of Santa Anna, the wards of
which are roomy, light, and airy, and make up about 350 beds. On the other
hand, a portion of the above hospital set apart for those mentally
afflicted, as also the regular Lunatic Asylum (_casa de Locos_), were in a
state of filth and neglect, that are a positive disgrace to the present
century. It is, in fact, a singular consideration that in every quarter of
the globe men have only now begun to bethink them of their duties to those
unhappy fellow-creatures, whose wretched lot should have commanded their
most active sympathies! The reform of hospitals, and even of prisons and
penitentiaries, had long been carried out in Europe, before asylums
especially designed for the treatment of lunatics were projected. I must
not, however, omit to add, in justice to the philanthropic society
(_Sociadad de Beneficiencia_), to whose management the whole of the
hospitals and poor-houses of the capital are intrusted, that a new Lunatic
Asylum was in course of construction, the cost of which will amount to
85,000 dollars (about £17,800).

The _Hospital de los Locos_ (Hospital for the Insane) in the Cercado is
all on the ground-floor, with chambers used at once for sitting-room,
dining-room, and bed-chamber, but with accommodation for about 200
patients. Twenty of the cells are set apart exclusively for refractory
patients. The institution is in charge of Dr. Ulloa, one of the most
skilful of the native physicians, who studied both in France and England.
The patients are tended by the Grey Sisterhood, which has only recently
reached the country.

The old university buildings, on what formerly was called the Square of
the Inquisition, now named Independence Square, are at present only used
for festivities, examinations, conferring of degrees, &c. &c., while the
different lectures are read in various buildings. I visited the School of
Medicine, of which at that time Dr. Cajetano Herredia was rector, a
gentleman more respectable for his zealous discharge of duty than by his
scientific attainments. There are some good lecture-rooms, a chemical
laboratory, a small museum, consisting mainly of pathological specimens,
and a very fair library, which boasts several really valuable and
little-known prints and books, especially such as relate to the history of
Peru. One of the Professors, Don Antonio Raimondi, a Neapolitan by birth,
bids fair to raise the reputation of the School of Medicine of Lima by his
extensive knowledge and excellent mode of instruction. This gentleman
teaches several branches of Natural History, and, during the short period
he has been in Lima, has already given practical proof of his activity in
a variety of fields.

Unfortunately Professor Raimondi, with a number of his pupils, was absent
on an excursion for practical scientific instruction, so that I was
deprived of the opportunity of making his personal acquaintance. In his
studio I saw two very remarkable skulls of Indians, which, owing to
artificial pressure, had assumed a most singular form, one of which had
belonged to an Indian of Cuzco, the other to a native of the Chincha
tribe, who reside between Pisco and Cañete. I was also shown on the same
occasion a female skull in such excellent preservation, that one could
still easily perceive the expression of the face. This was the skull of a
half-breed Indian woman, named Maria Palacel, aged 25, who had died in the
hospital of Santa Anna, 27th Sept. 1856, of dysentery, and on 1st March,
1859, nearly two and a half years later, had been disinterred in a state
of complete preservation. Nature had in this case taken on herself the
process of embalming, and had, owing to the dryness of the atmosphere, and
the quantity of saline matter in the soil, secured results which in Europe
could only have been obtained artificially and at a considerable expense.

Adjoining the Escuela de Medecina is the National Library, a large
building containing some 30,000 volumes, treating of every department of
human knowledge, but which, owing to want of means, has of late years
received hardly any accession. The librarian is Don Francisco de Paula
Vigil, a highly intelligent and liberal-minded priest and man of the
world, who had been excommunicated by Pio Nono on account of his learned
work, "Defence of the Principles of Secular Authority against the
Pretensions of the Holy See." Nothing daunted by the fulmination of this
penalty, the excellent old gentleman is prosecuting his researches yet
farther, and is energetically defending his principles; and what is still
more surprising, he has anything but fallen off in public estimation in
consequence. This is due to the fact that, unlike the female population,
the Peruvians are very tolerant in religious matters, and rather averse
from those pre-disposed to spiritual matters, whence there results the
very small influence of the Peruvian clergy, everywhere visible, and the
obstinate virulent enmity with which also, since the Spanish yoke was cast
off, the priestly party oppose the progress of liberal ideas. This feeling
is moreover powerfully aided by the ghastly testimony of history, that it
was the monks who first introduced the rack and the Inquisition into the
country.

Father Vigil received me with much cordiality, and we had a long talk upon
a variety of subjects. At last it turned upon his own well-known work, and
the painful position in which he felt himself with respect to the See of
Rome. This was the most interesting portion of our conversation. "It is
not Catholicism that has made the majority of Catholic nations lag so
woefully in the career of progress," exclaimed the venerable priest, "but
that which Catholicism has suffered to be mixed up with it,--the
Inquisition and Monasticism. It is marriage and labour that make
individuals moral and useful, and nations great and powerful. Human
society can get on very well without monks or nuns, but not without
morals, not without matrimony and labour."

Had I not transcribed these words almost at the moment they were spoken, I
should hardly have dared to repeat them here, for I durst not have
trusted to my memory, that a Spanish American priest, should have made
such a remark in the "city of the Three Kings." These revelations, which
are far from being solitary, but find a responsive echo in the bosoms of a
portion at least of the male population of the capital, are highly
important in arriving at a conclusion respecting the actual religious
sentiment of the Peruvian Republic, and are very marked indications that
an immense movement is likewise preparing in the Catholic Church on the
further side of the Andes; and that Peru also has found its "Father
Passaglia." Nay, it would not surprise me in the least, should South
America, which for upwards of three centuries has been dumbly obeying the
behests of spiritual intolerance, suddenly emit letters and propositions
which would amount to a virtual separation from the Roman Catholic Church!
It is but a few years since Catholic priests in the Legislative Assemblies
of Nicaragua and Honduras recorded their votes in favour of repealing the
ordinance of celibacy, and from their pulpits harangued their flocks on
the advantages of revolutionary insurrection!

In a wing of the Library buildings is the National Museum, which, however,
merely fills two moderate-sized apartments. The Natural History collection
is in such a wretched neglected state that it is in imminent danger, the
ornithological department especially, of being entirely eaten up by
insects.

Amongst the most valuable are some Peruvian antiquities, such as weapons,
mummies, and what are called _Huacos_, earthen jars, pots, and other
utensils from ancient Indian graves. To the historical student the
portraits of the whole of the Viceroys and Governors of Peru, which are
suspended on the walls of the first apartment in chronological order, will
prove extremely interesting. The finest head of the series, the one which
most clearly tells of manly vigour, acuteness, and energy, is that of
Francisco Pizarro, the natural son of a Spanish nobleman, who tended swine
in his boyhood, and ended his life as Viceroy of Peru, having been slain
by an assassin in the 64th year of his age.

Of the educational institutions, the only one deserving special remark is
the "Escuela Normal Central" (Central Normal School), established by
Government, at an expense of 160,000 dollars (£33,600), and opened in
1859. Its object is to provide suitable school instruction for industrious
children of poor or aged parents; but hitherto the prefects of the
provinces have, by protection, presented almost exclusively children of
persons of means and position, and sent them on to the capital. Owing to
the great want of good schools hitherto, it happens that every one crowds
towards this new institute, which seems to promise to its pupils a more
complete education and better training than any other. The number for
which it was destined was 40 boarders and 200 day-scholars, the former of
whom are well taken care of.

The system of education pursued is the Lancasterian, and is carried out by
five professors. The estimated annual expenditure is about 20,000 dollars.
One of the directors, Mr. J. C. Braun, a German by birth, who not long
before had come to Lima to settle, and taught Natural Philosophy and
Chemistry, accompanied me throughout the extensive building, and specially
pointed out a class-room comfortably and even elegantly fitted up, as also
a small museum of Natural History, with an excellent geological
collection, and a small library attached to it. Singularly enough, the
latter comprises a great number of school-books in much request among
Protestant pedagogues. Apparently an order had been sent, without
specifying any particular writers, to purchase good school-books at some
German publishing-house, and now the Catholic youth of bigoted Lima is
taught from the works of Protestant teachers! Various surveys and maps
covered the walls of this class-room, all bearing evidence of their German
origin in the names of publishers and places, most of them having been
sent out from the distinguished house of Justus Perthes in Gotha.

One very remarkable and characteristic incident occurred at the opening of
the school, at which were present the President of the Republic, Don Ramon
de Castella, so hated and dreaded for his despotism, together with several
senators and deputies. The Rector, Don Miguel Estorch, laid considerable
stress, in the course of his address, upon the importance of really
effective schools in a State, and maintained that, when children are well
brought up, there is no longer any need of so large sums being spent for
police and standing army to keep up security and order in the country.
This remark, which made a deep impression on all present, nevertheless
gave much offence to the President, who rose and replied, in a tone of
considerable asperity, that the Rector's view was erroneous, and that a
proper military force was as indispensable as a good system of education;
that it least of all became the Rector to touch upon such a topic in that
place and such presence.

Under the present political _régime_, it is out of the question to look
for anything like intellectual vigour in Lima, so sparse are the elements
of such. There is an utter absence of that sympathy, interest, and support
which is necessary to its existence, alike on the part of Government and
of society at large.[136] Works, such as Manuel Fuentes' valuable
"Estadistica General de Lima" (General Statistics of Lima), can only be
considered as solitary special performances. Also in the field of
Journalism there is no person of mark visible, and even the few journals
which appear in Lima, such as the _Comercio_ and the _Independiente_, have
a very limited circulation. As only a small proportion of the population
can read or interest itself in politics, the principles advocated in those
journals exercise no influence, so that Government has less difficulty in
acting up to them than would otherwise be the case.

One thing that particularly struck me was the hostility displayed to
Austria, which, during my stay in Lima, manifested itself in the daily
press and a fraction of the population. The politics of Austria were
discussed with a bitterness of hate, which was the more surprising in a
nation which is itself a prey to intestine disorders, and suffers itself
to be led about a willing captive, in the fetters of a half-Indian despot.
I found, however, the clue to this excited language, when I learned on one
occasion, that there are upwards of 8000 Piedmontese in Lima and Callao
alone, chiefly shop-keepers and shipping-owners, who exercise a certain
influence upon the native population. The war in Europe had so raised anew
the pride of country in each Italian, and filled him with such sanguine
patriotic aspirations and hopes of a united Italy, that his heated fancy
beheld in every incident of the war the most righteous struggle that ever
was engaged in, and in the opposite party the most detestable and inhuman
of opponents.

Among such an auditory as those in which such opinions were ventilated,
there was no difficulty in finding adherents. The ignorance of the native
population respecting all countries on the other side of the Andes became
conspicuously evident in the course of the discussion. Of Italy and her
plains they had at least heard tell, since Peru maintains a pretty active
trade with Genoa. If I am not mistaken, the great revolutionary leader and
popular idol of Italy was once captain of a ship along the Peruvian coast,
and left here many a friend and well-wisher to his cause and himself. Of
Austria, on the other hand, there were simply dim rumours flitting about
as of some shadowy land, or the vanished empire of the Incas. Singular to
say, it was precisely the renowned Concordat made with the Papacy which
had brought such discredit on Austrian policy among the Roman Catholic
population. I dare not repeat here the strong language which was used, not
alone in the journals but to myself personally, by educated Peruvians and
foreigners settled here.

In fact, all the misery that Peru has suffered since its subjugation by
the Spaniards, and its present drooping condition, is here universally
ascribed to the overwhelming influence of Spanish monks and priests in
secular affairs. It has not yet been forgotten that monks stood at the
head of the Inquisition,--that for centuries the people groaned under
their oppressive sway. Conscious of their own fate, and the condition to
which the clerical weapons reduced the puerile half-civilized races which
inhabit Mexico and Central America, the lively imagination of the
Peruvians led to consequences resulting from such a state-policy far more
disastrous than could possibly be the case among a free-souled people like
the Austrians. For it is the chief merit of European civilization, that
every political measure threatening to impede the march of ideas by any
process of fettering men's minds, only serves to evoke a more restless
activity, as in our actual state of human culture enlightenment and
science form far too formidable a bulwark for reaction to obtain any
permanent success, or even to succeed in overleaping.

Among the excursions which I made during my stay in Peru, there were two
of special interest,--a ride to the ruins of Cajamarquilla, and a visit to
the Temple of the Sun at Pachacamác, the erection of which dates from a
period antecedent to the dynasty of the Incas.

The ruins of Cajamarquilla are about nine English miles distant from the
capital. Owing to the insecurity of life and property even in the region
immediately around the capital, these ruins are but rarely visited. But
very few strangers settled in Lima knew these ruins, and it required a
long time ere I could procure the slightest information respecting them.
My excellent host, Mr. Braun, who very soon perceived how much my heart
was set on visiting these ancient Indian ruins, exerted himself to make up
a party for me. It was a piece of real friendliness undertaken with the
very kindest intentions, but unfortunately scientific objects do not
usually admit of being mixed up with pleasure-parties, it being very
difficult to unite the two. About twenty horsemen, chiefly English, had
assembled to make the excursion. Among our company there were also a few
ladies, whom the difficulties and dangers could not deter from joining
us. As we had to take with us provisions for the entire party, a string of
mules heavily laden with prog had been sent off early in the morning to
the goal of our excursion. These preparations seemed to be by far the most
important in the eyes of a majority of the cavalcade, after their arrival
at the ruins themselves, an examination of which was evidently the last
thing they had thought of when they bestrode their steeds in the morning.

The road to the ruins of Cajamarquilla is excessively fatiguing, rough,
and rocky: nothing but climbing over rocky hills, upon which close to the
very edge of the precipice is a faint Indian track, or crossing torrents,
where the horse sinks to his crupper in the water, so that only a
practised horseman can save himself from a thorough soaking.

Immediately on leaving the city begins a tract of desolate sterile
stone-fields, in the midst of which one reaches what is known as the
Hacienda de Pedrero, a lonely farm, where, it being as usual a fête-day of
some Peruvian saint, a dozen field labourers had collected under the
shadow of the verandah round the farm-house, blissfully occupied in doing
nothing. No two of these were of the same breed; there were men of every
variety of race and shade of colour; whites, Indians, Chinese, Negroes,
Mulattoes, Mestizoes, Chinos, Sambos, Quadroons, &c. &c., and this
specimen in little of the population of Peru would lead any observer to
conjecture correctly as to the main reason of the low position held by the
country in the scale of nations. As in the Hacienda of San Pedrero, so
throughout the country one encounters fifty coloured men of all shades for
one full-blooded white. In Chile, on the other hand, one has to penetrate
deep into the interior before one finds any traces of the Indian stock,
while of negro population, (and this is the greatest advantage enjoyed by
that Republic over Peru,) there is absolutely none. In the settled parts
along the coast of Chile there are none but whites, and even the working
classes are Spaniards, English, German, Italians, and North Americans. The
preponderating white element in the population, their greater
intelligence, energy, and perseverance, form the principal source of that
intellectual and political activity which has placed Chile far in advance
of the other Southern and Central-American Republics, and is opening a
brilliant future to that State, far surpassing that of any of the
neighbouring republics.

From the Hacienda de San Pedrero it is half an hour's ride to that of
Guachipa and the Neveria of Don Pablo Sassio, where we engaged a guide,
who accompanied us a couple of miles further to the goal of our excursion.

Cajamarquilla is an ancient Peruvian hamlet in the valley of and close to
the river Rimac, which waters the whole district and makes it productive.
The remains of the dwellings are built exclusively of sun-dried bricks,
and the laying out of each single apartment differs little from the mode
of constructing Indian huts at the present day. It must to all appearance
have been an extensive place once, as the ruins cover eight to ten acres.
Considering the little space which the Indian of the present day requires
for his household gods, it may be assumed that this was a place of from
30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. I saw no buildings of very remarkable
dimensions, nor indeed any one the laying out of which designated it as
once intended for religious purposes. The ruins are for the most part,
relics of simple mud-huts, all similarly laid out in single chambers,
differing from each other mainly in the greater or less dimensions of the
apartments. Nothing here told of the existence of any buildings intended
for public meetings, temples for worship, sacrificial altars, &c., such as
one meets with in the ruined cities of Central America, in Copan,
Quiriguá, Petén, Palenque, and so forth. One perceives that each of these
huts, like those inhabited by the Indians at the present day, consisted of
two compartments, the entire superficial area being from 36 to 42 feet
square. The larger of the two apartments is about 60 feet, the smaller
from 12 to 18 feet in width and depth. Nowhere could we discern a trace of
that special construction which is observable among the Indian races of
the high lands of Guatemala, and is there usually employed for taking
vapour-baths (Temaskal.)

To form any notion of the antiquity of these buildings is doubly difficult
in a climate where it never rains and the temperature is the same
throughout the year, and where consequently buildings are not exposed to
the destructive alternations of cold, damp, and scorching heat, as in
other less favoured countries. Even earthquakes are here not so much to be
dreaded as where houses are of brick or stone, since the Adoba possesses
far more elasticity than intractable building material, and is therefore
better able to withstand the repeated undulations of the earth's surface.

The site of the town, which lies in a long deep valley surrounded on all
sides by hills of the most fantastic shape, rising to a height of from
8000 to 10,000 feet, is exceedingly grand. Unfortunately when we visited
it, all the peaks and hills of the country around were naked, barren, and
bleak-looking. But in winter after the first dews have fallen, those
slopes and table-lands that now looked so desolate are covered with dense
deep-green verdure, when they make a far more agreeable impression on the
beholder.

Of trees I saw only a few kinds of bamboo and acacia, which, more
spreading than lofty, were visible in the swampy ground along the edges of
the torrents. Some of the hills around seem at first sight like artificial
fortifications, but when we approach closer there is not the slightest
indication of Cajamarquilla having ever been a fort or place of defence.
To all appearance the spot, at the time of the Spaniards first coming to
Peru, was inhabited by the Quichua Indians, who afterwards either
abandoned voluntarily their peaceful abodes through dread of their
pursuers, or were driven thence by violence. None of the present
inhabitants of the vicinity, to whom I spoke, could give us any definite
information as to the ancient history of the ruins, and one hoary Indian,
named Pablo Plata, who lives in the village of Guachipa, and remembers
some wild traditions respecting Cajamarquilla, which he received by word
of mouth from preceding generations, I unfortunately missed seeing owing
to the shortness of my stay.

Quite close to the remains of the town, is at present a large Hacienda,
with magnificent clover pasturages, fertilized by the river Rimac. It was
at one of these green oases that our company sat down to a comfortable
pic-nic, which spoke volumes for the preparations that had been made for
creature comforts. No small portion of what had been brought with us was
left on the field, to be gobbled up by the clouds of negroes that crowded
round, glad of the opportunity of tasting something cooked in the European
fashion, though they do not like them as well as the product of their own
wretched native kettles. Thus, for example, our guide, a negro, preferred
vegetables and _dulce_ (sweets) to meat, and declared sherry and cognac
offered him to be "too strong."

If not in ease and comfort, at any rate in scientific interest, I found my
excursion to Cajamarquilla surpassed by that made to Pachacamác in the
valley of Lurin, which I made in company with some friend, and in the
course of which I stayed behind the rest of my party, in company with the
flag-lieutenant of the since world-renowned frigate _Merrimac_.

My visit to Pachacamác was, however, in so far less interesting than that
to Cajamarquilla, that the greater part of the road, as far as Chorillos,
was accomplished by railroad, the remainder of the way being over sand
barrens, abhorred by both steed and rider.

Chorillos, about nine miles from Lima, and a favourite watering-place of
the inhabitants of the capital, with salt-water baths and gaming-tables,
lies in a small romantic cove, but is of rather difficult access, owing to
the steep sand-hills which, 150 to 200 feet in height, bar all access from
seaward. Formerly the ride to Chorillos, like that from Callao to the
capital, was performed under considerable difficulty and danger, whence it
has not seldom resulted that visitors to the watering-place, who have made
money at the tables of Chorillos, have on their homeward ride to Lima been
eased of their winnings by some of their previous companions over the
board of green cloth! At present one bowls thither over a well-made road,
easily and without dread of being called on to "stand and deliver," since,
even in Peru, people have not yet succeeded in amalgamating railroads and
robbery.

The little place itself boasts of a few good dwelling-houses, and some 100
to 150 Ranchos of wood and _adobes_, or constructed of mud and reeds, in
which delectable abodes the good folk from the capital are content to pass
the hottest and most unhealthy months of the year (from January to May).
These Ranchos, very unsightly without and exceedingly poorly furnished,
are sometimes most habitable within-doors, and fitted with delightful
verandahs or open porches, in which the free-and-easy occupants loll
about in grass hammocks or rocking-chairs, fanned by the cool sea-breezes,
in a state of dreamy _dolce-far-niente_. Altogether Chorillos is a very
unpretending and altogether uncomfortable place, in which there is little
room for elegancy or self-assertion, the President of the Republic himself
occupying a wretched, dirty Rancho. Don Ramon passes most of his time in
the gaming-room, where he is a much-desired and most welcome guest, on
account of the large sums which he is in the habit of wagering.

On a lovely June morning, about 6.30 A.M., we rode out of Chorillos, and
three hours later reached the ancient Pachacamác,[137] a Quichua village
close to the sea-shore, with the temple of the Sun there existent at a
period antecedent to the Incas, and which was afterwards dedicated by the
Incas to the service of the invisible God. These ruins are much older than
those of Cajamarquilla. They are partly of clay-tile, but by far the
largest part consists of hewn stone, held together by mortar, the whole
presenting, even in its ruined state, a lasting and massive aspect. Of the
temple which once stood here, there is, however, no trace at present
visible beyond mere indistinct traces of the foundation.

In the midst of a spacious Indian village there is seen a hill about 400
feet high, with artificial terraces in regular gradation, and surrounded
by lofty walls, that look as though they had been battlemented. On this
rising ground once stood the temple which the Yuncas had built in honour
of their chief god. Somewhat later, when this wild race had been subdued
by the Incas, these consecrated the temple in honour of the Sun, flung out
the idols of the Yuncas, and designed a number of royal virgins for its
service. Pizarro, however, completed the work of destruction, when, with
his fanatical followers, he penetrated, in 1534, into the valley of Lurin,
hitherto the most populous and peacefully prosperous of the entire
Peruvian coast. The villages were laid waste, the temple overthrown, and
its virgin priestesses delivered over to the brutal soldiery, and
afterwards put to death.

Quite close to the ruins, as they lie scattered along the coast, the
island of Pachacamác, or Morosolar, rises from the bottom of the ocean,
scarcely accessible owing to its steep, precipitous sides, and on which
there is not a single architectural memorial of any sort to be found, as
erroneously stated, or copied, by several authors.

From the summit of the hill the visitor finds a surprising landscape,
stretching over the beautiful and fertile valley of Lurin; it is difficult
to imagine a more vivid and delightful contrast than is presented by the
greyish-brown, sandy, far-extending ruins, and the soft verdure of the
surrounding plain, variegated with the hues of every description of
tropical plant. The attention is further arrested by the singularity of
the abounding vegetation beginning close to the sea, where sugar-cane and
grass flourish in the most luxuriant superabundance, while scarcely a
half-mile distant the landscape resumes the barren, sandy features, which
extend for miles inland. Not till the Lurin valley is reached does the
magnificence of tropical vegetation again enliven the scene.

After a cursory examination of the locality, we passed the night at an
adjoining _Hacienda_, a large sugar plantation and refinery, which employs
180 Chinese coolies. Each Chinese labourer receives rations of rice and
vegetables, besides four dollars a month, and binds himself to stay eight
years with his employer, to repay the latter's outlay for his voyage, &c.
The speculator, however, who imports the coolies from the northern
provinces of China receives a premium of 300 dollars for every coolie
imported. The Chinese whom we saw at Lurin, as indeed all those we
encountered throughout Peru, were very filthy and depressed-looking, but
seemed in good health, and, on the whole, better off than in Brazil or the
West Indies. We were told that two Chinese will not get through so much
work as one negro. There are at present about 10,000 Chinese in Peru, who
have been imported by speculators during the last ten years, to some of
whom their deportation has been a vast benefit, since, after their eight
years' service, they are free, and may and do begin to work zealously on
their own account. In Peru, as in the Indies, Java, and indeed wherever
they are employed, the Chinese cling close to each other, and mutually
assist each other, should any of their number fall into poverty.

The following morning early we paid a second visit to the ruins of
Pachacamác, and took with us from the Hacienda a number of negroes, with
working implements, for the purpose of digging up and examining the
graves. At various points, especially close to the hill on which stands
what probably was once a fort, we found a great number of skulls lying
about. Most of those we picked up had been artificially compressed, though
they did not all seem to have had the pressure applied at the same place,
thus affording unmistakeable proof that artificial pressure had been
resorted to here. Many of the skulls, though they had been interred for
centuries, were still thickly covered with hair. There cannot be a doubt
that most of those buried here belonged to the race which occupied this
part of the country when the Spaniards first visited it, for after the
occupation and the subsequent wholesale baptisms which the proselytizing
monks performed upon the ignorant brown natives in droves, it is
improbable that any of the Christianized Indians would thereafter be
interred in unconsecrated earth.

The Peruvian Indians, as is well known, were accustomed to envelope their
dead in coarse cloths, after which they were buried in basket or
sack-shaped straw-plait work, certain objects and utensils being placed by
their side, preference being given to those the deceased had most used in
life. Thus, fish-nets, baskets, &c., were placed in the grave, and in the
case of a chief, weapons, staffs with golden knobs, pots of wood or burnt
earth, and so forth. The head usually reposes on a sort of pillow of grass
or cotton. I brought away with me from Pachacamác about half a dozen of
the most remarkably shaped of these skulls, as also some portions of
mummified corpses, which the negroes had disinterred in my presence. All
these objects were in excellent preservation, about three or four feet
under the surface, some in simple graves, others in longish sepulchres of
hewn stone, such as we might imagine were occupied by the wealthier class
of the community. It is usual to find several skeletons (probably members
of the same family) in each separate grave. I also found layers of woven
stuffs, some of very superior design and finish, interposed between
various corpses.

While the negroes were engaged in further excavations, I once more
ascended the hill on which the Temple of the Sun must once have stood, and
which to this day is called by the neighbouring inhabitants "_Castillo del
Sol_." On the side next the sea, there are still visible a number of
buttresses, which seem as though they had formed part of an older line of
fortifications. There was nothing resembling a sacrificial altar, or to
tell of the religious ceremonies that must once have been performed here.
Here and there the material of the wall was still covered with a reddish
tint, just as if it had been but recently painted. In several portions of
the wall still standing, there were pieces of wood alternating with layers
of mortar, now quite decayed, and affording unmistakeable evidence of the
antiquity of the buildings. We also remarked in the walls of several of
the Indian huts niche-shaped depressions, about 1-1/2 feet deep by 1-1/2
feet in length and width, the use of which has never been even plausibly
conjectured. While the whole of the buildings of Cajamarquilla consisted
of sun-dried tiles and bricks, those of Pachacamác seem to have been
almost entirely built of stone hewn into the shape of tiles. So much of
the wall as still remains is very strong and solid. According to tradition
the walls of ancient Pachacamác once stretched as far as Cuzco, 240 miles
distant E.N.E.!

The proprietor of the sugar plantation in the Lurin valley told me that he
himself, about ten years previous, had seen mummies disinterred in the
neighbourhood of Pachacamác, in the mouths of which were gold ornaments,
while various objects were buried with them, such as small idols of gold
and silver, staffs with golden buttons, earthen jars and vessels filled
with Chicha (the well-known favourite intoxicating drink of the Indians),
and fruits, the Chicha and fruits having remained in a wonderful state of
preservation.[138]

On our way back to Chorillos we passed the beautifully situated village of
Susco, environed with neat country-houses, which was a favourite summer
retreat of the inhabitants of Lima, before Chorillos reached its present
development. At present Susco is dreary and forsaken-looking.

When I reached Lima on my return from this interesting excursion, I had
only a few days more left before I was to take steamer again _en route_ to
Panama, which I employed in riding about to examine all that was best
worth seeing in the environs, and making a few parting calls.

One of the finest promenades in Lima is the _Alameda Nueva_, opened about
two years previous, which lies on the road to Amancaes on the further bank
of the Rimac, which divides the city into two unequal parts, of which,
however, far the larger one, constituting indeed the city proper, lies on
the left or southern bank. After the romantic descriptions I had read of
the Rimac, I found myself woefully undeceived by the reality. Of the
thundering rapids below the bridge, of which Castelnau gives us such a
picturesque sketch, I found not a trace visible, the greater part of the
river-bed, 150 to 200 feet wide, being quite dry, with a wretched little
driblet of water trickling through it. The season of the year may,
however, have contributed to this disenchanting prospect, and in August
and September, when the melting snows and violent rain-storms of the
neighbouring Cordilleras swell the brooks and rivers, they possibly impart
a more imposing and lively aspect to the Rimac. The stone bridge over the
river, which forms the communication with the suburb of San Lazaro, is a
handsome structure, built in 1638-1640, from the designs of an Augustine
monk, and cost nearly half a million dollars.

The _Alameda Nueva_ consists of a long, wide lane, with pretty garden
nurseries and flower-beds on either side, interspersed with tasteful
marble statues life-size, the whole enclosed in an elegant iron railing
richly ornamented. In the winter season, more particularly (June to
September), this beautiful promenade is in great request, when, after a
few heavy falls of dew, the hills and valleys of the environs are covered
with verdure of the most delicate shades, and the residents of the capital
wander through the lovely glades of Amancaes, which is so overrun with the
yellow blossoms of the Amaryllis (_Ismene Hamancaes_ of Herbert), that
this fine plant has given its name to the whole valley. On such occasions
quite a colony of booths is extemporized, where eatables and drinkables
are consumed, and giants and dwarfs, panoramas and art-saloons, are
thronged with visitors, while ballad-singers, musicians, rope-dancers,
mountebanks, jugglers, gamblers, and thieves, are never weary of plying
their various trades, to the lightening of the purses of the
pleasure-seeking crowds.

Of public amusements and places of resort there are but few in Lima, and
these not of a very refined description. The theatre is an old and
downright ugly building, where Spanish comedians play indifferent pieces.
An Italian operatic company proved a failure owing to want of subscribers,
even the highest talent barely succeeding in gaining sufficient to charter
a ship to carry the _troupe_ back to Europe. The sole amusement, which
never fails to collect a delighted multitude, is a bull-fight. These come
off at intervals during the summer in the Plaza del Acho, in an uncovered
amphitheatre specially built for the purpose, and constructed of sun-dried
brick. On these days all Lima is in a state of excitement, and an
incalculable crowd of curious sight-seers of both sexes are hastening
through the Alameda Nueva to the arena, there to gloat over the bloody
scene. Fully 12,000 to 15,000 human beings throng into the confined area;
each hastily deposits his half dollar (2_s._) of entrance-money, so as to
get the chance of a better seat. One would think it must be to a splendid
soul-elevating drama that they are flocking to listen to, whereas it is
but the torture of a wretched herbivore that excites their depraved
curiosity. The reader will excuse me for not reiterating the loathsome
details of an often-told spectacle.

It is a fact of considerable historic interest that bull-fights are now
confined to the Spaniards and to their coloured descendants, in the
various regions of the globe whither her dominion has extended, and it
seems but a fit pendent, that the laws of the same nation should, in the
latter half of the nineteenth century, condemn to the galleys Roman
Catholics who venture to embrace Protestantism.

We wish here to add one single remark of our own on a feature of the
entertainment which we have not seen mentioned elsewhere, viz. what
becomes of the flesh of the animals thus killed. It is forthwith cut up in
quarters quite close to the arena, and sold at a reduced price to the
populace, although it is a well-known physiological fact, that the meat of
any animal killed in a state of rabid agony cannot be eaten without
prejudice to the health. The negroes, however, erroneously maintain that
meat thus killed is far more tender than that of cattle slaughtered in the
ordinary mode, and the Government of Republican Peru finds it best to
leave each to decide the physiology of the question by his own digestive
powers.

Of the state of society in Lima I have little to say. A stranger finds it
difficult to obtain a footing among the better families, especially if his
stay be as limited as mine necessarily was. The high-pressure existence of
the capital has of late years obliterated much of its former originality
and poetry. He who saw Lima twenty years ago would hardly recognize it
now-a-days. The "Saya" and the "Manto," those singular but in Lima once
indispensable articles of apparel of the Limañas, which enabled them like
masks to attend church or market, to join processions, in short, never
left their face in the street or at the promenade, have entirely
disappeared, and with them have necessarily gone many other peculiar
habits and customs. Formerly no lady durst venture into the street without
a "Saya" or "Manto;" now, on the contrary, she would run the risk of being
insulted, or at least stared at, should she appear in public in this
peculiar mask-like disguise. The ancient usages peculiar to the country
must give way to French manners; the Saya, the close-fitting, usually
black or cinnamon-coloured upper garment, which once was the customary
attire, and consequently rendered a more careful toilette unnecessary, has
made way for the voluminous crinolined silk dress, while the Manto, that
heavy veil of a thick black silken material, which was thrown over the
back, shoulders, and head, and drawn so close that there was only a small
triangular space left through which peeped one eye, has been displaced by
the long black head-dress which the Spanish women are accustomed to wear.

The ladies of Lima are usually of elegant, slight, graceful appearance,
their chief attractions being brilliant complexion, large dark gleaming
eyes, dazzling white teeth, rich black hair, and very neat little feet.
They greatly reminded me of the Havana ladies, with whom they have much in
common so far as regards the passion for personal adornment, while in
figure and intelligent expression of face both lag far behind the ladies
of Chile.

The gentlemen of Lima, by which term I allude chiefly to the white Creoles
or pure descendants of the Spaniards, who constitute about one-third of
the population,[139] do not leave that impression of a splendid future
resulting from a prosperous development of the resources of the country,
which might be reasonably expected if there were more intellectual
movement, and more industrial and commercial activity apparent among their
number. The state of affairs in Peru since its separation from Spain in
1822, the constant squabbles and civil wars, as also the fact that a mere
mestizo, like Ramon Castilla, devoid of intellectual or moral
pre-eminence, should have succeeded in getting himself declared President
for life of the Republic,[140] are the best proofs of the political and
moral degradation of the Republic of Peru. All the splendid territories
from Peru to Mexico have, after three centuries of Spanish rule, sunk into
a state of demoralization and degeneracy, owing to the listless,
labour-hating, sluggish mestizo races that inhabit it, such as only the
immigration of one of the hardy northern races can ever adequately remedy.
In a previous visit to Central America, I have wandered through its rich
scenery, clad in the hues of perpetual summer, and smiling in exuberance
of fertility, and everywhere the same impression was made upon me. Almost
the only effect this wealth of nature seems to exercise upon the Indian or
negro mestizo is to incapacitate him from mastering by any effort of his
own the lethargy that preys upon him. Where a few rare exceptions occur,
as, for instance, in Costa Rica, in which a sounder policy is preserved,
it is invariably found that they are of purer Spanish descent than their
sister republics in tropical South America.[141]

Owing to their political organization, these various states can scarcely
fail to be powerfully affected by the impulses of our time. They have no
other prospect than that of becoming either an integral portion of the
immense North American Federation, or of once more being consolidated into
a monarchy under the sceptre of some scion of a European royal family. In
all probability, whether they be North Americans, or English, or Germans,
they will always be children of some of a more powerful race, who must
ultimately subvert the races of the Southern type, awaken a new spirit of
energy, and so carry out that which the lazy mixed races of the present
time have neither the power nor the inclination to effect. An immigration
of stilled Northerners can alone raise these countries politically and
commercially, develope their natural resources, and restore them to the
grade of civilized states.

One of the most important as well as useful plants of Peru, and with
samples of which I provided myself on leaving Peru, for the purpose of
future analysis, is the Coca (_Erythroxylon Coca_), the leaves of which
mixed with chalk or ashes of plants, form so important an article of diet
as well as a masticatory among some Indian races of Peru and Bolivia.
Before I left Europe one of our most celebrated German pharmacologists,
M. Wöhler of Göttingen, expressed to me his wish to procure a considerable
quantity of coca leaves, to enable him to analyze more completely than had
as yet been done the chemical constituents of this remarkable plant, and I
therefore made it a duty to take measures for procuring the requisite
supply. Although the wonderful stimulant properties of the coca had for
more than half a century been known to European travellers, the leaves of
the plant, which flourishes best on the eastern slopes of the Cordilleras
of Peru and Bolivia, at an elevation of about 8000 feet, and a temperature
of from 64°.4 to 68° Fahr., have hitherto only reached Europe in very
small quantities, having in fact been carried home simply as curiosities.
It was reserved for one of the _Novara_ expedition to bring over as much
as 60 lbs. weight for the purpose of investigation of its properties by
German men of science. Half of this quantity I took to Europe among my own
effects; the remainder was forwarded somewhat later, through the kindness
of two German gentlemen resident in Lima, Messrs. C. Eggert and N.
Linnich.

So many, and in the main correct, accounts[142] have been published by
travellers of the coca plant, its culture, its effect upon the system,
and the marvels that have been achieved by its use, that I may well be
excused from dwelling at length upon the habit which prevails among the
Indians of chewing coca, or on its importance as a chief article of
subsistence for several millions of our fellow-creatures. I may, however,
mention certain instances which came within my own personal knowledge, as
also a few statistical data relating to the annual consumption of coca in
Peru and Bolivia, and the economical importance of this cultivation.

A Scotchman named Campbell, who was settled as a merchant at Tacna in
Bolivia, and with whom I travelled to Europe from Lima, informed me that a
few years before, being engaged upon matters of urgent business, he had
performed in one day a distance of 90 English miles on mule-back, and
throughout that long distance had been accompanied by an Aymara Indian,
who kept up easily with the mule, without other refreshment than a few
grains of roasted maize and coca leaves, which, mingled with undissolved
chalk, he chewed incessantly. On reaching the station where he was to pass
the night, Mr. Campbell, though mounted on an excellent animal, found
himself greatly fatigued; the guide, on the other hand, _after he had
stood on his head for a few minutes_,[143] and had drank a glass of
brandy, set off without further delay on his homeward journey!!

In April, 1859, Mr. Campbell despatched a native from La Paz to Tacna, a
distance of 249 English miles, which the Indian accomplished in four days.
He rested one day at Tacna, and set off the following morning on his
return journey, in the course of which he had to cross a pass 13,000 feet
in height. It would seem that throughout the whole of this immense journey
on foot, he followed the Indian custom of taking no other sustenance than
a little roasted maize and coca leaves, which he carried in a little pouch
at his side, and chewed from time to time.[144]

Like other experienced travellers, Mr. Campbell, who has lived over 14
years in Bolivia, is of opinion that a moderate use of coca exercises no
prejudicial influence upon the general health, but simply tends to make
the Indian races of the higher regions of the Andes more capable of
continued laborious work. Many coca-chewers attain a great age, and Mr.
Campbell knew one such, who had taken part in the insurrection of
Tupac-Amaru in 1781, and at the time of my visit, 1859, was still in full
possession of all his faculties. In short, as in the case of opium and
wine, it would seem that it is only the abuse of coca that is followed by
evil consequences.

The coca is less cultivated in Peru than in Bolivia, and the leaves are
not in such request among the Quichua as among the Aymara Indians.[145]
As the Government of Bolivia draws a very handsome revenue from coca
cultivation, a tax of five reals, about one shilling, being levied on
every _cesto_, or about 25 lbs. English, there is a better opportunity of
getting at the correct amount of the entire production than in Peru, where
the plant is grown free of duty. The coca tax realizes in all in Bolivia
300,000 _pesos_ or dollars (about £75,000), so that the entire annual
product is about 480,000 _cestos_ or 1,200,000 lbs. The _cesto_ is worth
at La Paz from 7 to 9 _pesos_, but when employed in large quantities for
export, it cost about 10 dollars, placed on board ship. Altogether the
coca crop of Bolivia may reasonably be estimated at rather less than
700,000 _cestos_, equal to about 78,000 tons.

The analysis to which the coca leaves I brought home with me were
subjected at Göttingen, was attended by most important results, though the
experiments are far from being completed. It was reserved for one of the
assistants of the chemical laboratory, named Albert Niemann, to discover
in the leaves a peculiar crystallized organic base, to which, following
the usual custom in such cases, the name Cocain has been given.[146]

The lamented death of Dr. Albert Niemann in the flower of his youth, and
in the midst of his promising labours, necessarily interrupted for a time
the investigations into the nature and properties of cocain. M. Wöhler,
however, in his capacity of Director of the Chemical Laboratory of the
University, was so good as to assign to another able assistant, Mr. W.
Lossen, the task of taking up the analysis at the point where its gifted
discoverer had left it, when it was found that, when heated in chlorine,
the cocain underwent a singular and astonishing metamorphosis, being in
fact resolved into Benzoic acid and a new organic base, for which M.
Wöhler proposes the name of Ecgonin (from [Greek: Echgonos] an off-shoot).
Further researches with the coca leaves lead to the discovery of a second
organic base, which, it would appear, is contained in its primitive form
in the coca, the composition of which will be treated of in a forthcoming
paper by Mr. Lossen. This base is in a liquid form, for which the
provisional name hygrin (from [Greek:hugros], fluid) has been
adopted.[147]

Hitherto the experiments made to determine the physiological properties of
cocain have been less important in their results, as it is only found in
small quantities in the coca leaf, and an adequate quantity can only be
obtained with great trouble and difficulty.[148] Consequently it is as yet
impossible to decide the questions, whether one of these bases is stronger
than the other, as also to which of the two are to be ascribed the
peculiar properties of the plant. Singular enough, the various experiments
with an effusion of the coca leaves had not the least result, while it is
well known that the use of this kind of tea in the Cordilleras wonderfully
stimulates the breathing powers of the traveller, besides satisfying his
appetite.[149] It would also appear that the coca leaves lose part of
their virtue in transit, and that their most intense activity is only
developed in their native regions. If, however, the ultimate results of
the experiments of Mr. Lossen, instituted with as much sagacity as zeal,
should incontestably prove the value and utility of the plant for
pharmaceutical purposes, as well as in all cases where the human strength
is exposed to unwonted strains upon its energies, the means will surely
and easily be found for extracting _on the spot_ the active principles of
coca, as is being at present done by industrious Yankees in Ecuador, with
the Cinchona or China bark.

When the _Novara_ was leaving Batavia, I cherished the hope that our stay
in South America would be sufficiently prolonged to admit of my making an
excursion to the Cinchona forests, so as to enable me to speak
authoritatively and from personal knowledge upon certain questions
discussed at Lembang with Dr. Junghuhn,[150] which had hitherto been left
unsettled or altogether unexamined, and which were of such deep import to
the attempts being made in Java to cultivate the Cinchona. Circumstances,
however, had conspired to render this impracticable. Instead of the entire
expedition, as originally projected, visiting that classic region, it was
reserved to myself, a solitary individual, to tread the scenes, where
Humboldt once collected the first valuable contributions to science, and
even then my time was so limited that my attention had to be confined to
the capital of Peru, and the neighbouring country. Under these
circumstances such a project as a regular scientific excursion deep into
the heart of the Cinchona forests was entirely out of the question. I did
not fail, however, to translate into Spanish and English, the disputed
points which Dr. Junghuhn had requested me to ascertain for him, so that I
might obtain such information upon these interesting questions from such
of the friends I made in Peru or Chile as seemed likely, either in their
own persons or by the opportunities for natural studies that might happen
to characterize their place of residence, to advance our knowledge of the
Cinchona tree and its cultivation. My different efforts to obtain reliable
information on the cultivation of the China bark tree in its mother
country were especially promoted by my having met, while at Lima, with Mr.
Campbell, who, during the many years he has been settled at Tacna, has
paid especial attention to the China bark trade. For the chief export of
this important medicament is in the hands of the Bolivians, and not of the
Peruvians, as the uninitiated might imagine from the name it is usually
known by in commerce, viz. Peruvian bark.[151]

The most important facts which I am here enabled to dwell upon relate to
the correction of a widespread misconception, that owing to the thirst for
plunder and the wilful neglect of the China tree in its own native
regions, the supply of the valuable drug obtained from its bark, the
well-known Countess'[152] or Jesuit bark, which to the practical physician
is of scarcely less importance than the potato to the labouring man, is
daily diminishing. The Calisaya region (i. e. the limits within which the
C. Calisaya, the species that furnishes the most valuable bark, is found
in its finest and most abundant state) extends from about one degree north
of Lake Titicaca, or from 14° 30' to 20° S. In the forests of Cochabamba,
between which place and La Paz is the principal district of the China
tree, the tree is more frequently found than in those running parallel on
either side with La Paz, in which it is usually met with at such a
distance from the capital that it becomes valueless, owing to the cost of
transport, which is as high as 17 dollars per 100 lbs. The more southerly
forests are still quite virgin, and have never re-echoed the blows of the
Cascarilleros' axe. The largest quantity is exported from Tacna through
the port of Arica, only a small portion being smuggled northwards from
Lake Titicaca, for shipment _viâ_ Port d'Islay. According to statistics,
from 8000 to 10,000 cwt. of bark may be thus exported for any lapse of
time, without the slightest danger of the tree getting exterminated. Since
1845 the exportation of bark from Bolivia has been a Government monopoly,
which has farmed out the privilege to a private company, that used to pay
a certain annual premium based on an export of 4000 cwt. The company paid
the Cascarilleros or other persons who collected the bark, 25 dollars to
30 dollars for every hundredweight of Calisaya delivered in La Paz, the
capital of Bolivia. The enterprise, however, proved only partially
successful, since speculation, avarice and the continual political
troubles and alterations of the Government, have each and all proved sore
enemies to the peaceful development of the industry of the country. Each
new President had only one thought, viz. how to make the largest profit by
seizing on the natural wealth of the country, and only sought to increase
the export of the bark for the sake of the monopoly. In 1850 a native
commercial house in La Paz paid the bark-gatherers 60 pesos for every 100
lbs., besides a duty to Government of 25 pesos additional, at the same
time paying on an estimated export of 7000 cwt. The exorbitant wage thus
granted to the Cascarilleros resulted in an enormous quantity of Calisaya
being brought to La Paz from all parts of Bolivia, In order to preserve
the public tranquillity, and not glut the market, the Bolivian Government
now prohibited entirely the cutting or collecting of bark. Within eighteen
months about 1400 tons of bark were brought in, and this gave the
monopolists a perfect dread lest they should have to declare themselves
bankrupt, and it was indeed only through the intervention of Government
that they escaped. The latter took the entire stock on their own hands,
paid the speculators with Treasury bonds, redeemable within a given number
of years, and made a fresh contract with a native firm, which stipulated
that the price at La Paz should be 65 dollars per 100 lbs., without
further export duty.

As soon as the stock in hand was exhausted, the prohibition against
cutting Calisaya had of course to be rescinded, and in the interim the
most decided steps were taken to check the superfluous, indeed dangerous,
zeal of the Cascarilleros in the collection of the bark.

While I was in Java chemical experiments had begun to be made with the
bark of the young China trees, and from the fact that the valuable
alkaloid was not found in these, it was hastily inferred that the bark of
the trees grown in their adopted country had, owing to the change effected
in climatic and other conditions, been deprived of the principle that made
them most valuable in their native land. But researches made in South
America have satisfied me, that even in the indigenous forests of
Cinchona, the active principle quinine is only found in the bark of older
trees, and that its quantity is perceptibly affected by the age of the
tree, the finest quinine being obtained in largest quantities from trees
upwards of fifty years old. To ignorance of this peculiarity must also be
attributed in all probability the fact that, at the period of the Spanish
rule, the China collectors or hunters (_Cazadores de Quina_) used to fell
annually 800 or 900 young trees of from four to seven years old, to get at
the 110 cwts. of fever-bark, which, intended exclusively for the use of
the royal house, were shipped every year from Païta, and thence round the
Horn to Cadiz.[153]

So, too, with respect to the quantities annually exported at present from
Bolivia and Peru, and used in European stores, there remain serious errors
to correct, prevalent even among scientific circles. According to the
latest estimates (which take cognizance of seven inferior sorts), there
have been exported, between 1830 and 1860, not more than 10,000 tons,
while of Calisaya, the specially valuable red bark (_Cascarilla roja_),
not above 120,000 cwt. have been exported in all during the same period.
While the annual export thus dwindles in dimensions from what had
generally been supposed, there has lately been discovered in large
quantities, in the forests between Tarija, Cochabamba, and La Paz, a
species of Cinchona, whose bark is said to possess very much the same
properties as the Calisaya. The curate of Tarija has offered for sale 3000
cwt. of this valuable bark (called by the Indians Sucupira). The position
of the forests in which this species of Cinchona is found is so favourable
for exportation, that the cost of transport from Tarija to Iquique, the
nearest port, would only amount to from 8 to 10 dollars per quintal.

The departure of the mail steamer from Callao de Lima was fixed for the
afternoon of 12th June, when several of my friends were so kind as to
accompany me on board. In Callao I paid a short visit to H.M.S. _Ganges_,
and then the U.S. frigate _Merrimac_ (destined in less than three years to
acquire a mournful renown in the horrors of civil war, as also
imperishable celebrity as the pioneer of iron navies), one of the finest
and most powerful screw-ships of the North American navy, armed at that
time with 32 cannon, and of 960-horse power. I had had the pleasure of
becoming acquainted with the officers of both ships, partly in Valparaiso,
partly in Lima. On board the _Ganges_ I experienced a not less cordial
and kind reception, and Admiral Baines, as commander-in-chief of the
British fleet in the Pacific, did me the honour of granting me an official
pass to all captains of British ships, setting forth my scientific
pursuits, and recommending me to their particular attention.

On the morning of the 14th June, the good steamer _Valparaiso_, commanded
by that courteous model of a British sailor, Captain Bloomfield, reached
Huanchaco, the principal harbour of Truxillo, which is only six miles
distant, and was once the capital of the northern portion of the empire of
the Incas. The export of silver, wool, and cochineal from this port is
pretty considerable. Here came on board a Scotchman named Blackwood, who
for some years past had been cultivating cochineal in Truxillo, but was
now, as he confessed, unable any longer to compete in its production with
other countries, in consequence of the price of labour being so high, and
the uncertain state of labour-supply. Mr. Blackwood intended proceeding
_viâ_ California to the East Indies, where he hoped to light upon a more
suitable field for cochineal-growing, the cost of labour there being still
low, and there existing a constantly-increasing demand for that
substance[154].

On the 15th June we anchored in the roads of San José de Lambajeque in the
department of Chola. The position of this village is so unsuitable, that
it is only possible to effect a landing by means of what are called
_Balsas_(rafts with sails), consisting of huge thick trunks of trees bound
together. One of these curious contrivances conveyed on shore in safety 76
passengers at once, together with all their miscellaneous effects!

Fifteen miles north of Lambajeque lies the Indian village of Iting
(Repose), with 5000 inhabitants, whose language is totally different from
the Quichua dialect, usually spoken in the province. One Peruvian on his
return from his travels even went so far as to say that the idiom of the
Iting Indians strongly resembled that of the Chinese! In Monsefú, not
quite two miles from Iting, lives an Indian population which speaks
nothing but Spanish, and consequently can neither understand nor be
understood by its neighbours! This singular state of things almost
entitles us to conjecture that the Spanish conquerors have adopted here
the same tactics as those they put in practice in Central America, where
they repeatedly were at the pains to introduce among the subjugated
tribes, colonies of another race frequently hostile to the aborigines, in
order by difference of customs and language to render any united action
against the common enemy almost impossible. I have myself frequently
observed in the Central-American State of San Salvador, that, for
instance, the Tlascaltecas, who speak the language of Montezuma, had been
settled in the midst of foreign races. Such colonizations have almost
invariably been effected for political purposes, and were compulsory,
instead of being undertaken voluntarily.

On 16th June we anchored in the beautiful and sheltered harbour of Payta.
The little town itself has about 4000 inhabitants, who carry on a pretty
brisk trade with the interior and along the coast. The principal article
of export is hides, especially goat-skins, chinchilla fur (_Eriomys
Chinchilla_), cotton, fruit, oil, herb-archel (_Roccella tinctoria_--used
occasionally as a medicine, but more commonly as a dye,--the well-known
litmus, used for chemical test papers, being prepared from it), and straw
hats. Forty-five miles distant from Payta, in a beautiful and fertile
neighbourhood, lies the town of Piura with 10,000 inhabitants, which
carries on an extensive trade in fruit and vegetables along the coast, and
indeed supplies Lima with its excellent produce.

Payta harbour is visited annually by from fifty to sixty whalers, who take
in fresh provisions here, do their repairs, and give their crews a little
repose after long and heavy labours. The climate is very healthy and
exceedingly dry. At the same time there is no lack of good water, which
the Indians bring to the city from the river Chirar, 18 miles distant, in
casks on mule-back. This mode of transport is so cheap, that the erection
of a distilling apparatus in Payta would not pay. The cargo of one mule,
about 12 gallons, would sell for about 2 reals (about 1_s._ 5-1/2_d._).
Ships take in their supplies of water at Tumbez, a little further north.

When I was at Payta, there were some twenty merchant ships in the harbour.
The trade of the place was evidently increasing. This was indicated not
alone by the energy of the inhabitants, but by a general well-to-do air.
Large, round, broad-brimmed straw hats are annually exported to the value
of 400,000 dollars. Of goat-skins, the annual stock is about 1200 cwt.; of
herb-archel from 1500 to 2000 cwt. There are also at Payta some very
remunerative manufactures of castor oil (from the _Ricinus communis_), and
its cognate from the piñon bean (_Jatropha curcas_), both of which are
found in large quantities in the interior. By an iron machine worked by
steam some 85 gallons of the oil are made daily, part of which is used in
the country for lamps and in the preparation of soap; but by far the
largest portion is exported to the United States.

A few weeks before I reached Payta, there had been accidentally found in a
cave among the bare sand-hills which form the naked desolate environs of
the town, a quantity of maize, which was supposed to have formed part of a
stock which had been placed here by the Incas. It was of a smaller kind
than that grown at the present day. The grains, notwithstanding the
centuries they had lain interred, were in very tolerable preservation. All
along the coast nothing was spoken of but this incident, as though some
great treasure had been discovered, whereas it was but some 60 lbs. of
maize that were found. Moreover, the interest felt by the Indians in this
_trouvaille_ had nothing to do with its historic suggestiveness, but
because their readily-inflamed imagination prefigured boundless stores of
maize yet to be lighted upon and made available, without their having to
labour for them!

In the course of the afternoon we left Payta, and next day sighted the
island of La Plata, distant about 10 miles from the mainland. A tradition,
constantly in the mouth of the people, to the effect that the ancient
Incas buried here a large amount of treasure, has led to many formal
expeditions having been dispatched to this island at various times, every
one of which, however, proved abortive. We now began to find the
temperature perceptibly rising; for a few hours it rose from 65° to 76°
Fahr.

At 6 P.M. of the 20th, we reached the Taboga Islands, a group of lovely
islets, about 11 miles from Panama, where are the warehouses and wharves
of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company. Taboga Island, the most important
of the group, is only one mile and a half long by half a mile broad, but
with the adjacent islet of Taboquilla, forms a very convenient
crescent-shaped harbour, which unites to a secure haven a tolerably
healthy climate, so that during the unhealthy season, when the yellow
fever sometimes commits fearful ravages in Panama, many of the inhabitants
resort to this island, which, up to the year 1858, had remained entirely
free of the scourge.

Late in the evening the English and American papers came on board, from
which we got the first intelligence of the march of events at the seat of
war in Italy, as also of another world-wide calamity,--the death of
Alexander von Humboldt. Even here on the shores of the far Pacific, the
intelligence of the greatest naturalist of our age having departed from
among us, made a deep and powerful impression, which not even the tempests
which impended over the political horizon, and threatened to envelope the
entire world, could allay. Although the outbreak of hostilities between
two such powers as France and Austria must inevitably react severely upon
the condition of the inhabitants of North and South America, yet little
was discussed respecting events in Italy; while the obituary notice of
Humboldt was read aloud in the cabin, and many a fellow-traveller
inscribed on a slip of paper for preservation those beautiful words which
the noble and venerable old savant is said to have spoken, when on a
lovely sunny May-day his spirit winged its flight from our planet, whose
physical constitution his mighty mind had more closely investigated and
comprehended than any other mortal of our day. "How gloriously those
sunbeams dart forth; they seem as though inviting the earth to the
heavens!"

Thus it was forbidden to the members of the Expedition to find the great
naturalist yet alive on their return to their common native land! How full
of meaning did those touching words now prove, and how fall of mournful
memories, with which Humboldt concluded his scientific suggestions to the
_Novara_ voyagers, when he prayed to Almighty God, "That His Holy Spirit
would be with this great and splendid undertaking to the honour of the
common Fatherland!" The _Novara_ staff above all must doubly regret the
death of the "Nestor of Science." The warm and active interest he took in
their expedition contributed in no small degree to advance its scientific
efficiency, and if it be the privilege of the _Novara_ to live in the
memory of the scientific world, it will, as the Archduke Ferdinand
Maximilian himself expressed it in a letter to the venerable philosopher,
"redound in its honour to the latest ages, that it was permitted to
associate its name with that of Humboldt, who for three generations of men
has been associated with every triumph that has been achieved in the
domain of science."

On the 21st, at 7 A.M., we anchored in the roads of Panama. Large ships
are obliged to lie to from two to three miles off shore, as the beach is
nothing but "slike," and at ebb-tide presents an immense unsightly
expanse.

The town of Panama (many fish), built on low green hills amid the most
magnificent forms of tropical vegetation, presents when viewed from
seaward a most lovely, enchanting aspect, especially to the traveller
coming from the sterile sandy shores of the west coast of South America.
As soon, however, as he sets foot on the shore, and has entered the
precincts of the city, his first pleasing impressions are rudely
dispelled. The streets are everywhere narrow and filthy, the houses low
and poverty-stricken in appearance; even upon their roofs the luxuriance
of tropical vegetation bursts forth! Moreover the chief square with its
cathedral leaves an impression of decay. Only a few of the houses situate
near the beach, the property of strangers, and a few of the hotels, have
anything of a respectable appearance. The whole population does not exceed
8000 to 9000 inhabitants, of whom about 500 are whites, the rest being
negroes and mestizoes. At the time when the railroad was being made across
the Isthmus, in the construction of which thousands of Irish and Chinese
fell victims to the climate and the severity of the work, the experiment
was made of introducing negroes from Jamaica, whose cosmopolitan nature
asserted itself by their having increased and multiplied even here. At
present there are upwards of 100,000 negroes on and near the Isthmus.

The expense of living in Panama is no longer so exorbitant as it was ten
years ago, at the period of the first emigration to the newly-discovered
gold-fields of California, when there was no railroad, and the journey
across the Isthmus was made partly on mules, partly in small canoes. For
from three to four dollars a day, one gets very fair board and lodging at
the best hotels. The most expensive item is washing, the charge being 2
dollars (8_s._) a dozen!! In a climate where European cleanliness
necessitates frequent change of apparel, this item alone amounts to some
25 dollars to 30 dollars per month for a single person! Accordingly, it is
found to be more economical to fling away several articles of the toilette
as soon as they have been soiled, and purchase a fresh supply, rather than
pay this heavy tax on the purification of the old garments.

The North American Company, which maintains direct communication between
California and New York, has made such excellent arrangements, that the
passengers on their arrival in Panama by the train are conveyed in a small
steamer from the station, which is close to the shore, out to the large
steamer lying in the roads, which is to convey them to California. The
entire time occupied in convoying 700 or 800 passengers with their usually
rather heavy baggage from Colon across the Isthmus, and thence to their
re-embarkation in the steamer upon the West Coast, does not exceed ten
hours. The hotel-keepers of Panama, on the other hand, complain sorely of
this arrangement, for whereas formerly no passenger ever crossed the
Isthmus without spending one dollar at least, hundreds now pass through
without ever setting a foot in the city.

When I was in Panama there existed an "Opposition Line" of steamers, a
genuine American institution, of which we have occasional examples in
Europe, but which is only to be seen in its fall bloom in the United
States. Formerly, the fare for a deck-passage from New York to San
Francisco was 160 dollars (£33 10_s._). The "Opposition Line" lowered the
fare to 35 dollars, and as out of this sum 25 dollars had to be paid to
the railway, there remained only 10 dollars (£2 2_s._) for the cost of
transport and maintenance of passengers on board large handsome steamers
from New York to San Francisco! For the public at large this was
undoubtedly a vast benefit, and in consequence of the unexampled lowness
of fares, an immense number of persons had gone to California during the
last preceding few months. Whereas formerly only adventurers, speculators,
or persons of means, could turn their eyes on the land of gold, a poor but
industrious labouring population now pressed eagerly thither. Of course,
however, it was too good to last:--no enterprise could continue upon such
ruinous principles. It was the war of large capital against small;
whichever could longest stand the incessant drain, remained in possession
of the field. Occasionally, however, a "compromise" is effected between
the two parties, but in that case the public is usually the sufferer,
since in order to make up for past extravagance, the two quondam foes
combine to keep up exorbitant rates.

The salubrity of Panama, though still unhealthy enough during the wet
season (May to September), is undoubtedly better than it ever was in
former years. The doses of quinine pills with which people used to be
presented in society, very much the same way as a pinch of snuff, have
become infrequent, neither is it now the custom to drink sherry or brandy
and water with quinine in it. Indeed, were foreign settlers to abstain
from the practice of frequent meals, which even in more temperate climes
cannot be continued in with impunity, the health of the inhabitants would
benefit greatly. I repeatedly heard it maintained that the use of ice,
which at present can be got in large quantities and at very low rates upon
the whole Isthmus, and forms an ingredient of every beverage, and many
dishes even, has materially improved the hygienic conditions of Panama.
About 360 tons of ice are imported into Panama annually, or about one ton
per diem. The whole quantity is supplied from the North American lakes,
chiefly from Boston, and is sold in gross at 7 dollars 50 cents (about £1
25_s._) per 100 lbs., the retail price being a trifle over a shilling per
pound. In order to avoid a glut which might make ice importation
unremunerative, and endanger the steadiness of the supply, the Government
has kept in its own hands the monopoly of the ice-trade.

By Dr. Lebreton, a French physician long settled in Panama, who, together
with an Austrian gentleman, Dr. Kratochwil from Saaz in Bohemia, placed me
under the deepest obligation for their cordial hospitality, I was
furnished with a variety of most interesting details of the sanitary
statistics of the Isthmus, and some curious and valuable particulars
respecting the poison with which the Indians arm their arrow-tips. In
Panama is published a most ably-edited daily paper in English, the
"_Panama Star and Herald_," conducted by two Americans, Messrs. Power and
Boyd, which so fully and impartially treats of the political, social, and
commercial condition of the Isthmus and the South American Republics, as
makes it indispensable for every one to subscribe to it who takes any
interest in the development of this remarkable country. It is chiefly due
to these two large-minded, far-seeing gentlemen that we possess a
statistical detail of the very important commerce of the Isthmus, as well
as along the west coast of South America. These figures now lie before
me, and give better than anything else a fair and complete estimate of its
present activity, which, it may be remarked _en passant_, has owed nothing
to the natives, but is entirely due to the energy of foreigners.

No fewer than 64 powerful mail steamers, of the united burthen of 96,000
tons, and representing a money value of at least £4,000,000, ply, part on
the Atlantic side (Southampton _viâ_ St. Thomas, and New York to
Aspinwall), part on the Pacific side to the various harbours on the west
coast of America, and keep up regular communication between Europe and
that series of States, consisting of not less than 11,000,000 human
beings. The value of the products and merchandise annually passing to and
fro across the Isthmus amounts to about £15,000,000, while the amount of
precious metals is not very much less.

The pearl-fishery in the Gulf of Panama has of late years notably fallen
off from its former importance. At present it lags far behind that of the
Persian Gulf, from which there are annually about £300,000 worth brought
up, whereas here, notwithstanding the enormous extent of the
pearl-oyster-banks, the yearly take of pearls does not exceed £24,000.
Indeed the fishery is carried on less for its costly contents than for the
sake of the mother-of-pearl itself, of which some 800 or 900 tons are
shipped annually.

On 23rd June I went by rail from Panama to Aspinwall, on the Atlantic
side. Except on the days when the steamers on either side bring their
fortnightly quota of passengers, the traffic of the line is very small.
When, however, the passenger steamer at either end has disembarked her
living freight, the Isthmus is all alive, and the coffers of the Company
are amply replenished. The number of passengers both ways annually has
been estimated at from 36,000 to 40,000, and the gross receipts of the
Company at from £200,000 to £300,000.[155]

The fare for the somewhat short distance, 47 miles, is high. There is but
one class of carriage, and the charge is £5 5_s._, besides 10 cents
(5_d._) for every pound of baggage above 30 lbs. But it must always be
borne in mind that enormous difficulties had to be overcome in the
construction of the line, and that the cost of maintaining the permanent
way in anything like order is very great, in consequence of the climate
and the rich tropical vegetation. Whoever has struggled through the almost
impenetrable forests of the Isthmus, before the rail passed through it,
and bears in mind the immense physical difficulties of that laborious
operation, would thankfully pay double the sum now charged for performing
within a few hours a journey which often occupied a whole week.

The construction of the Panama Railroad was commenced in 1850, the first
sod being cut on the Atlantic side. On 27th January, 1855, the locomotive
first performed the journey from ocean to ocean. The cost of construction
amounted to about £1,100,000.[156] This capital was speedily subscribed by
the eager speculative Yankees, and, as the result proved, insured from the
very first to the shareholders a handsome constantly-increasing dividend.

The concession enjoyed by the Company from the Government of New Granada
only lasts for twenty years, from the day on which the entire line is
opened; on the expiry of that period the New Granada Government must
either pay down 5,000,000 dollars (the entire cost of construction), or
extend the concession for ten years more. At the expiration of this second
term, the Government may purchase for 4,000,000 dollars, or grant a third
term of equal length, after which they are to be at liberty to purchase it
for 2,000,000 dollars.

The traffic managers of the line, Messrs. Lewine and Dorsay, showed me the
most polite attention. The resident director, Mr. Center, whose office is
in Aspinwall, and to whom I had letters of introduction, invited me by
telegraph to make free use of the line, as nothing would give him greater
pleasure than to become of some service to a scientific traveller. I took
with me fourteen goodly packages, chiefly collections of natural history.
Most of these required great care and attention, some on account of their
fragile texture, others in consequence of being of a perishable nature.
All these were transported with as much care as though they had been
charged the very highest rate of freight. The treatment of scientific
travellers is to some extent a measure of the degree of civilization of a
people. Hence it is that the North American States and the British
colonies are the points of the globe where the efforts of scientific
travellers elicit the heartiest sympathy, where he may count upon the most
friendly reception, and the most cordial co-operation in carrying out the
objects he has in view. And speaking now after ten years of the most
varied experiences of travel, I look back thankfully to the conspicuous
evidences of good-will which I have universally received from all
Americans, from the banks of the St. Lawrence to the shores of the Gulf of
Mexico, and recall with gratitude how every class of the community
bestirred itself to promote and facilitate the scientific researches of a
solitary traveller,--how, more particularly, the press, that great power
of the intellect, lent the utmost assistance of its influential position
to forward my wishes, and how its columns, thanks to the interest its
conductors themselves felt, were always open in the most remote districts
to welcome the stranger. And now, when for a second time I received from
the sons of that same mighty republic the same cordiality of welcome, I
recalled with redoubled vivacity the happiness of those long-vanished but
most pleasant days, as I record this tribute with so much the more
satisfaction, that I felt it was not the individual but his profession
that was thus honoured, as is abundantly proved by the experience of many
another scientific traveller.

The journey across the Isthmus, right through the heart of the primeval
forest, which was decked out in its gayest attire, is one of the most
exciting, soul-stirring scenes that the eye of the lover of nature ever
rested upon. In no part of the world have I seen more luxuriant and
abundant vegetation than is presented by the forests of Central America,
and more especially upon the Isthmus. And, as if to heighten still further
the sense of marvel and enchantment, one traverses this magnificent forest
landscape behind a locomotive running on its iron track. What a contrast!
The wild ravel of creepers and the green feathery branches of the palms
almost penetrate into the waggons, and tell with unmistakeable emphasis
that the traveller is indeed surrounded by all the beauties of Nature in
her tropic garb. Trees of the most varied description and of colossal
dimensions flourish in the foreign garment of a borrowed adornment.
Between each solitary giant of a forest tree, parasites and _Lianæ_ spread
their delicate green coils, while many a gigantic stem, enveloped in
thousands of beautiful shoots, or dead trunk choked in the embrace of a
parasitic creeper, attracts the eye as the train speeds past. So quick and
so strong is the process of vegetation here, that every section of this
line has twice in each year to be freed from the encroachments of the
forest-children; nay, were the line to be left unused but for one
twelvemonth, it would be difficult to discover any trace of its existence,
so completely within that time would the whole district become once more a
wilderness!

The physico-geographical conditions of the Isthmus have only latterly been
made the subject of profound and exhaustive study by a German naturalist,
who has published the result of his researches. The justly-dreaded climate
was the main cause of its having been so long left unexamined. To that
keen indefatigable _savant_, Dr. Moritz Wagner, my whilom faithful
travelling companion through Northern and Central America, is due the
praise of having first accurately and analytically investigated the
territory of the Isthmus,--that dam which separates two ocean worlds as it
may be considered from one point of view,--that bridge which unites two
immense continents as it may be regarded from another,--and who, in so
doing, has contributed many new and important facts to our previous stock
of statistics respecting the hypsometrical and geognostic features of the
Isthmus, as well as to the geographical distribution of the forms of
organic life which are found there.

In the course of constructing the railroad, the geological profile of the
country was laid open through a length of 47 miles. This fortunate
circumstance the German naturalist availed himself of as an excellent
opportunity for carrying out his design, but his labours were none the
less beset with difficulties, and only his indomitable perseverance could
have carried him through the tropical intermittent fevers and mental
anxiety, which at one time threatened to prostrate his physical strength,
or even to lay him in his grave. Wagner had been first struck by the very
remarkable evidence of an entire alteration in the form of the hills
between Veragua and Obispo. This change in the vertical configuration, the
decided depression of the Cordilleras, which is most apparent between
Limon Bay (at the mouth of the Chagres river) and the Gulf of Panama, is
just as much an important geological fact for physical geography, and for
solving the important questions of the present and future commerce so
intimately connected with the artificially cutting through of this neck of
land, as the change in the horizontal configuration or the sudden
compression of this part of the world in the north-west of the province of
Choco, or the rugged steepness that characterizes the range of hills which
forms the contour of the coast-line. The geological and botanical
specimens, those most reliable of all data for physical generalization,
with which Wagner illustrates his interesting exposition of the natural
character, the prevailing formations, and the most prominent
representations of the vegetation of the Isthmus, form at present a
valuable part of the collections of natural history in the Museum of
Munich.

The journey across is not made at the speed one would expect on a line
where the locomotive is in charge of a Yankee. It takes four hours to do
the 47-1/2 English miles. The stations are very numerous, often situate in
the heart of the forest, where there are only a few labourers' huts.
Moreover, halts are frequent at spots where there are no passengers
visible, either to take up or set down. One of the most beautiful of the
stations is that at the little village of Paraiso, about nine miles
distant from Panama, which lies in a kettle-shaped glade. At this point
large clearings have been made, and the eye ranges over a rather more
extended landscape, only bounded in fact by the contour of the
neighbouring hills. The only inhabitants are negroes, mulattoes, and
mestizoes, who for the most part are employed as labourers on the line. A
few miles after leaving Paraiso, the train reaches the station of Culebra,
or, as it is more generally called by the inhabitants, "the Summit," the
narrow steep rise of which marks the water-shed between the Rio Grande,
falling into the Pacific, and the Rio Chagres, which debouches into the
Caribbean Sea. This is the highest point of the line. The actual height of
the pass is 287 English feet, but it has been lowered by about 25 feet, so
that Summit station is only 262 feet above the mean level of the ocean.

The most important village along the line is Matachin, a large straggling
village, which, however, seems to be inhabited exclusively by negroes,
mulattoes, and Zamboes. As I have previously remarked, the majority of the
labourers on the line emigrated hither from the West Indies, especially
Jamaica, attracted by the high wages of labour, and after it was
completed, settled along its course in neat, clean, but small cottages.
And whereas the baleful tropical climate decimated every other class of
labourer employed during the construction of the lines, these latter have
flourished here better than any other description of settler. They seem to
be universally healthy and well fed, and their oceans of children, who
impart life to the landscape, attest that the women have not lost their
fertility. They all seemed to be well and were neatly clothed. However,
when I crossed, it happened to be a holiday, and consequently every one
wore his Sunday dress, clean white trowsers, white shirt, and a
narrow-brimmed hat of fine straw.

Near Barbacoa station the eye of the traveller, that has hitherto revelled
in the voluptuous beauties of nature, rests with pleasure on a splendid
trophy of human industry, an iron bridge, 600 feet long, which spans the
River Chagres at this point. It was on one of the Cerros, a little west of
Barbacoa, that Vasco Nuñez de Balboa first beheld both the Atlantic and
the Pacific oceans at once, and, regarding his stand-point in the Isthmus
as a mere handful of earth, may have imagined himself a conqueror, whose
glance comprehended both worlds.

The last portion of the line, as we near the Atlantic side, passes over
vast swamps, which rendered the construction of this portion of the road
exceedingly difficult and very expensive. Aspinwall itself moreover, the
terminus of the Inter-oceanic Railway, lies on a small island, two-thirds
of the surface of which is morass, and covered with tropical marsh
vegetation. This station was selected, notwithstanding its very
unwholesome climate, chiefly because the roadstead of Limon Bay furnishes
a safe anchorage in all weathers for vessels of even the largest size.

This small island, only 7000 feet long by 5800 wide, which was first named
from the immense quantity of _Hippomane mancinella_, a tree with a very
powerful poison, that is found on it, and is now called "Isla de
Manzanilla," was formally made over by the New Granada Government to the
American Company at the beginning of the works in the year 1852, and was
used by it for the new city, as also for the erection of warehouses, &c.

Aspinwall, or Colon, as it is sometimes called, numbers at present some
1500 inhabitants, of whom 150 are North Americans and English, the rest
negroes and mulattoes. The little town, with its neat frame-houses and
clean cottages, involuntarily reminds one of the new settlements in the
North American States. Here, besides the residences of the officials, are
the warehouses and workshops of the Company. In the latter about 700
workmen are employed, while four schooners maintain uninterrupted
communication between Aspinwall and New York, for the purpose of providing
for the various wants of the crowded establishment. Even the very
provisions are imported from North America. The resident director, Mr. A.
J. Center, received me with the most hearty welcome, and during my entire
stay continued to display the same kindness and interest, which he
manifested from the moment he received my letter of introduction.

In Aspinwall the climate has within the last few years become more
salubrious than at the period of the first colonization, when "Chagres
fever" acquired a gruesome reputation, and no resident who stayed above
two months in the place escaped the attack of the fever. Even mules and
dogs could not escape the universal malaria. However, to this day a
lengthened residence on this marshy soil is not unattended with danger,
although the miasmatic poison has undoubtedly lost much of its virulence.
The negroes longest resist its dangerous effect, after whom come the
coolies, then the Europeans, while the Chinese are invariably the earliest
attacked.[157]

On 23rd June, about midnight, I left Limon Bay in the steamer _Medway_.
Having been committed to the charge of her captain by the kind attention
of Mr. B. Cowan, the English Consul in Aspinwall, I found myself more
comfortable and better attended to on board this small filthy old tub than
I could possibly have expected. The Company avowedly employ in the
Intercolonial lines the worst and most uncomfortable of their vessels, and
the traveller who has to make any short passage, for instance, among the
West India islands, is exposed to the doubly disagreeable feeling of
paying a very much higher rate of fare, for very inferior accommodation.
The _Medway_ was an old acquaintance of mine in my previous West Indian
rambles, as in former years she performed the mail service between Belize,
Jamaica, Hayti, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, and Havanna, and this opportunity
of renewing my acquaintance with her I hailed with anything but a
sentiment of satisfaction.

Early on the 25th June we ran into the extensive and beautiful bay of
Carthagena, which now-a-days is only accessible on one side, the second
entrance having been destroyed by the Spaniards during their supremacy,
and never reopened. This seaport contains about 11,000 inhabitants, many
churches and monasteries, as also large fortifications, but of trade and
commerce there is next to nothing. In the roads there lay but three small
coasting crafts. For the naturalist, and especially for the zoologist,
Carthagena is on the other hand classic soil.

Our steamer was fairly beleaguered by shoals of small canoes with natives
on board, who offered for sale any quantity of the most various and
beautiful little denizens of the surrounding country. Any naturalist who
should spend a short time here, might, with the assistance of the Indians,
who seem to be both zealous and apt collectors, get together an extensive
and most valuable zoological and botanical collection. Carthagena indeed
presents in particular great advantages for the shipment to Europe alive
of the more interesting animals. These steamers do not take much above a
fortnight hence to England, and if dispatched about May or June, the
animals would sustain but little detriment from the change to a European
climate at that season. Thus on the present voyage of the _Medway_ there
were numbers of animals and chests of plants in full bloom, consigned to
various museums and private collections in England.

On 30th June we anchored in the small but delightful harbour of St.
Thomas, with bright green hills forming a picturesque back-ground,
relieved by the white houses of the inhabitants picturesquely grouped
along their slopes.

St. Thomas had changed little from what I remembered it at my previous
visit in 1855. At the last census it had 15,000 inhabitants, and its trade
is visibly increasing. It is, however, extremely difficult to get at the
statistics of the annual amount of shipping here, as there is no
toll-house, and the Danish Government publishes no official information as
to the general trade. According to a German merchant long resident here,
the number of foreign ships of all nations entering and leaving the port
amounts to 860 annually, of coasters about 3500, while the annual value of
merchandise so transshipped is about 6,000,000 dollars. One very
remarkable trade is that in ice, which reaches the enormous amount of 1000
tons annually, chiefly for distribution among the adjoining islands, by
far the largest proportion of which comes from Boston, where it is worth
20 dollars per ton, and at St. Thomas 80 dollars per ton, or 3-1/2 cents
per lb. One may conceive that the entire ice-trade to the West Indies,
South America, China, the Malay Archipelago, and the East Indies is in the
hands of the keen North Americans, who evince a capacity for making a
genial use of a natural phenomenon, which a less speculative race of men
associate with the idea of cold, discomfort, and stagnation of
intercourse.

M. A. Rüse, a wealthy chemist and zealous naturalist, by whom as by other
German residents I was most kindly received, has acquired much distinction
from his profound acquaintance with the lower animals of the West Indies,
of which he possesses a small but valuable collection, chiefly of the
Fauna of the islands of St. Thomas, Ste. Croix and Trinidad, and was so
exceedingly courteous as to present me with duplicates of several of the
most interesting. M. Krebs, merchant, and M. Kjaer harbour-master, also in
their hours of relaxation gave me much valuable information on kindred
topics, the latter gentleman farther presenting me with specimens from an
excellent collection he had formed of petrifactions.

What, however, afforded me the sincerest satisfaction on the occasion of
my present visit to St. Thomas, was the striking examples of industry,
intelligence, and social comfort of the negro population. Of all nations
among whom this curse of slavery has been implanted, the Danes have best
comprehended how practically to solve the difficult problem of
emancipation. The number of slaves in Danish colonies was at all times
very small, and their manumission consequently more easy. Nevertheless
the mode adopted in getting rid of the evil is deserving of attention and
imitation. The duty of labouring does not cease with the means of
compelling it. Slaves emancipated by the Danish Government may spend the
wages they receive for their labour at their own discretion, and are
permitted to change masters at pleasure, but they cannot quit their former
employer till they have found a fresh one. The rate of wages at St. Thomas
is pretty high, and the black population, who form the largest contingent
of the labouring population, not only finds constant occupation, but is
remarkably well paid besides. The negroes on this island are, however,
very handy and quick, thanks to the constant intercourse with foreign
nations. Many of them speak several languages fluently, and a German
traveller who visits the island for the first time is apt to be not a
little surprised at finding himself addressed in his mother-tongue by a
swarthy son of Africa.

Our departure was fixed for 1st July. The various mail steamers which had
been expected from the different ports of the West Indies and the eastern
coast of Central America, had all arrived. The fine and comfortable but
old and slow steamer _Magdalena_ was to leave for Europe at noon. Suddenly
a sailing vessel came in like a Job's comforter, with the intelligence
that the splendid new steamer _Paramatta_, which was about due with the
mails from England, had on her first voyage gone ashore on the Anegada
shoal near the island of Virgin Gorda, 60 nautical miles from St. Thomas,
and with her 40 passengers, and a valuable cargo, was in need of instant
relief. This intelligence again delayed our departure. It was at first
determined to send off every disposable steamer to the scene of the
disaster, and to detain the _Magdalena_, till full particulars of the
mischance had been obtained, for transmission to the directors in London.
Afterwards it was arranged that the _Magdalena_ should proceed to the spot
where the _Paramatta_ was lying nearly high and dry, to assist if possible
in floating the ship off the reef.

At 6 P.M. accordingly we steamed out of the Bay of St. Thomas. On the
present occasion the _Magdalena_ had 163 passengers on board, the majority
of whom were planters from the various West India islands, bound on a
pleasure trip during the hot season. Not merely the black servants, but
even their white and chocolate-coloured masters, broke out into the most
marvellous English or French jargon, according as they came from Jamaica
and Demerara, from Martinique, Guadaloupe, or Hayti. The presence of a
great number of children, who, so long as they kept free of sea-sickness,
evidently considered the whole of the quarter-deck as especially designed
for them to play on, in which notion they were zealously upheld by their
mothers and their nurses, made the passage anything but agreeable.
Moreover, the impression made by the grown-up passengers was such as to
heighten one's aspirations for a speedy voyage. The intelligence which had
been received from the seat of war in Italy gave rise to much excitement,
and within the first twelve hours had made it apparent that it was vain
to hope for a pleasant voyage. Nothing was heard on every side but
politics, and it may be left to the reader to guess in what tone they
would be discussed, when Frenchmen, heated with visions of _la gloire
militaire_, were the principal spokesmen.

Early the next morning we were near the reef, which had disabled the
largest and finest of the Company's ships, that had just cost £140,000.
The unfortunate ship had struck the reef when running 11 knots an hour,
and now lay on her starboard side on the reef, having careened so far over
that her port paddle-wheel was quite clear of the water. A committee on
the spot having decided that she must be entirely dismantled before even
her bare hull could be got off the reef, it was resolved not to detain the
_Magdalena_, it being thought desirable that she should as speedily as
possible make her way to Southampton, so as to enable the directors at
once to determine what course to adopt, before the sailing of the next
steamer. Our captain was furnished with a general account of the accident,
together with a sketch by the head engineer of the position of the
_Paramatta_, and with these the _Magdalena_ was permitted to take her
departure.

The voyage threatened to be long and tedious, though attempts were made to
enliven the mornings and evenings by music, and an occasional dance on
deck. The former might have been made very agreeable, had not the _chef
d'orchestre_, who was second steward, ventured on playing his own
compositions as often as possible. To please the susceptibilities of the
two nationalities, _God save the Queen_ and _Partant pour la Syrie_ were
regularly called for each night. A more serious cause of alarm was the
fear lest we should have to put into some intermediate port to coal. When
she left St. Thomas the _Magdalena_ had 1200 tons on board, but as,
notwithstanding constant calms and a sea like a mill-pond, she never made
above 190 to 220 miles in the early part of the voyage, at a consumption
of 70 tons per day, there seemed every prospect of our exhausting our
supply. As she consumed her stock, however, she lightened perceptibly,
till she even got up to the for her unusual speed of 280 miles a day. How
different from the same Company's ships _Atrato_ and _La Plata_, which
frequently make 340 miles a day, and in fact average only 13 days on the
passage home, while the average of the _Magdalena_ and her consorts is 18
days!

At last, on 18th July, we sighted the Lizard's. Although barely 200 miles
from our destination, the captain thought it best to put into the nearest
port for a supply of coal, and shortly after noon we anchored in Falmouth
Harbour, where the first intelligence we got was that peace had been
concluded. Singular to say, even this intelligence produced no accession
of harmony between the two great political parties on board. As for
myself, I had kept as much as possible by myself; and now stepping ashore,
I wandered through the narrow dirty streets of Falmouth, which presents
the accurate type of the old-fashioned English provincial town. The
meadows and sloping hills around shone forth in all the fresh verdure of
spring. Even the traveller fresh from the voluptuous loveliness of the
tropics, finds ever new beauties in the manifold variety of nature. The
more the student of Nature walks with her and finds in her his chief
pleasures, the more receptive does his soul become for all that is
marvellous and beautiful, as from day to day they present themselves in
new and unexpected phases.

The same evening the _Magdalena_ resumed her voyage, and about noon on the
19th we passed the renowned "Needles," and in two hours afterwards reached
Southampton. Dire was the confusion on board, each person wishing to have
his own trunk conveyed on shore the first. I found with my voluminous
boxes the most courteous consideration. It sufficed to explain the object
of my travels to have all my luggage passed without examination. For down
to the English Custom House officials, who are not, it must be confessed,
prone to show much tenderness to travellers' baggage, extends that
honourable feeling of respect for science which Englishmen of all grades
seem to entertain. The same evening I reached London.

As the next steamer for Gibraltar was not to leave for eight days, I
immediately started to London, and availed myself of this opportunity to
renew old acquaintance, and make up my leeway as regarded the important
strides and valuable discoveries made in the fields of science during my
long absence from Europe. The warm interest and cordial reception I met
with from such gentlemen as Sir Roderick Murchison, General Sabine, Sir
Charles Lyell, Professor Owen, Dr. Gray, Mr. Henry Reeve, Mr. Crawford,
Mr. John Murray, Mr. Ellis, and many others, was the most gratifying and
conclusive evidence of the interest and high expectations which the
_Novara_ Expedition had excited among scientific circles in England.

On 27th July I embarked on board the P. and O. Company's steamer _Behar_,
Captain Black, _en route_ to Gibraltar, which I reached after a passage of
4-1/2 days, and, what is still more curious, by a singular coincidence, at
the very same moment when the _Novara_, with every stitch of canvas set,
was proudly careering through the famous Straits!! As the noble frigate
shot past our steamer, Captain Black saluted, and was so thoughtfully kind
as to signal the _Novara_ that I was among his passengers. Very soon
after, both ships anchored in the roads of Gibraltar. In the course of my
overland journey from Valparaiso to Gibraltar, I had travelled 8832
nautical miles, and had been but 29 days actually travelling.

I now felt pervaded by a sentiment of profoundest gratitude to a
benevolent fate, which had led me safely and pleasantly through so many
dangers till I rejoined that Expedition with which not alone the best and
happiest remembrances of my life are henceforth associated, but which
opened to me the unspeakably gratifying prospect of being better able to
contribute, by extended knowledge and experience, to the advancement of
science in my native land!


                              FOOTNOTES:

[120] The fares, first class (including provisions and bedding, but
without wine), are as follows:

                                         Miles    Dols.     £  s. d.
  Valparaiso to Callao de Lima           1467       95  or  19 19  0

  Callao to Panama                       1594      110  "   23  2  0

  Aspinwall (E. coast of Isthmus  }
    of Panama) to St. Thomas, and }      4572      360  "   75 12  0
    thence to Southampton         }

  Total, exclusive of 49 miles of }
    rail from Colon to Panama     }      7633      565  "  118 13  0

[121] Hitherto, the coal procured at Lota in the south of Chile has been
neglected, in consequence of the freight being so heavy that it is cheaper
to import coals from England and North America.

[122] See "On the Source and Supply of Cubic Saltpetre, or Nitrate of
Soda, and its use in small quantities as a Restorative to Corn-crops, by
Philip Pusey." London, W. Clowes and Sons, 1853.

[123] The proportion as found along the coast is 93 to 95 per cent. of
saltpetre, to 7 to 5 per cent. of earth.

[124] The export, however, is constantly increasing. In 1858 it amounted
to 61,000 tons, in 1859 to 78,000, of which 22,500 tons went to England,
15,200 to France, and the remainder to Germany.

[125] From Arica there are bridle-paths to Potosi, Oruru, Cochabamba, La
Paz, Chuquisaca, and Calamaca, probably the highest inhabited point of the
earth's surface, where a population of 800 souls live at an elevation of
13,800 feet above the level of the sea.

[126] The volcano of Arequipa is 10,500 feet above its base, but 18,000
above sea-level.

[127] "Peru; Sketches of Travel, 1839-42, by J. J. v. Tschudi." St. Gall,
1846: Vol. i. p. 335. Also, "Investigations on the Fauna of Peru." St.
Gall, 1844-46. The author from personal observation speaks as follows of
these singular sand-columns, whirling along before the wind. "Driving
before a strong wind, the _medanos_ speedily overleap all barriers, the
lighter and more easily-propelled preceding the heavier like an advanced
guard. Sometimes they are hurled against each other, when, so soon as they
meet, they are dashed violently together, and break up simultaneously.
Frequently a flat _stretch_ of ground is covered within a few hours by a
row of sand-hills, which within a day or two more resume their level
monotonous appearance. The most experienced guides consequently become
confused as to the way, and it is they who the soonest give way to despair
as they wander blindly about among the sand-hills. The small
mountain-spurs, by which the country is traversed from W. to E., afford
some sort of clue, but these oases are few and far between in the sterile
wilderness around."

[128] The ordinary mode of writing the word "Guano" is erroneous, as
already remarked by Tschudi, as the Quichua language, to which the word
belongs, is deficient in the consonant G, among others. The Spaniards
first converted into a G the strongly aspirated H of the original, while
the last syllable "nu," which so frequently terminates the words adopted
from the Quichua, was changed by them into "no."

[129] Only the immense numbers of sea-fowl, their extraordinary voracity,
and the bounteous provision for supplying them with food, can furnish any
possible explanation of the enormous mass accumulated here, even allowing
for such a lapse of time. Mr. Tschudi, in the course of his travels in
Peru, once kept for several days a live _Sula variegata_, which he was
continually feeding with fish. He carefully collected the excrement, when,
notwithstanding these birds eat much less in captivity than in a state of
nature, it voided in a day from 3 1/2 to 5 oz.! According to other
investigations in natural history, it seems that the pelican eats 20 lbs.
a day of fish.

[130] Beds of guano have also been discovered lately by Captain Ord at the
Kooria-Mooria Islands, on the south coast of Arabia, in 18° N. 56° E., 850
miles E.N.E. of Aden. Here any ship can load this valuable cargo on paying
a duty of £2 per ton to the English Government, which has recently
established a colony at the bay and islands of that name, and has made it
a coaling station. But the African guano is by no means so strong or so
pungent a manure as that found on the rainless coasts of Peru, where
certain peculiarities of climate combine to make it less liable to
diminution of its saline virtues by dissolution or liquefaction.

[131] The day on which Lima was founded by Pizarro was the 6th January,
1534, which according to the Catholic calendar is that dedicated to the
Three Kings of Cologne, whence, in conformity with the religious customs
of the period, the city was named "Ciudad de los Reyes" (City of the
Kings).

[132] I feel it a pleasant duty to express here publicly how much I am
indebted to the representatives of this celebrated firm in the different
ports of South America, and to the head of the house in London, for the
kind and generous manner in which this gentleman endeavoured to facilitate
and advance the objects I had in view.

[133] One of the most distinguished physicians of the capital, Dr.
Archibald Smith, has collected some interesting particulars, with the
dates, respecting the outbreak of these fearful maladies, which we intend
to publish elsewhere.

[134] This institution is also in charge of the Sisters of Charity. There
were only some ten or twelve children in course of education, who,
however, seemed to be in excellent health and well fed. When I expressed
to the lady superintendent my astonishment that the establishment was not
more extensively patronized, she replied, "_Los niños se crian en la
Calle!_" (The children are here brought up in the streets.)

[135] There are in Lima 46 private lying-in establishments. The mothers
are extremely loth to separate from their children, and if great
difficulty be experienced in getting wet-nurses, this is to be attributed
far more to the love of the mothers for their children than to strict
morality among the mass of the population.

[136] A Peruvian author, Don J. A. Delavalle, gives in one of his works
the following severe, yet faithful, portraiture of the state of letters in
his native country:--"En un país en el que el cultivo de las letras ni
constituye una profesion, ni crea una posicion social, ni procura lo
necesario--no decimos para lucrar con ella--para conseguir el sustento
para la vida, nos admiraremos de que haya quien escriba en Lima, y
reputaremos como extraordinario el número de obras que han salido de sus
prensas en 1860, por muy pequeño que este haya sido. Sin proteccion, pues,
y sin estimulo, ni oficial, ni social, ¿ qué se podrá esperar de las
letras Peruanas?" (_Translation of the foregoing._) "In a country where
the cultivation of letters is not a profession by itself, where literature
confers no social position, and barely procures the necessaries of
life,--we do not speak of realizing competence and independence,--we
marvel there should be any one in Lima who writes at all, and we consider
little less than extraordinary the number of books which have issued from
its press in 1860, insignificant as the sum total may be. Without
protection, without influence, and without stimulus, official or social,
who can suffer himself to hope for a better future for Peruvian
literature?" (Compare Peru in 1860, in the National Annual Register, by
Alfredo G. Leubel, Lima, 1861.)

[137] Pachacamác, the invisible God, i. e. "he who created the earth out
of nothing."

[138] In Cañete, an Indian village of 9000 inhabitants, 60 English miles
from Lurin, there are also numerous Peruvian architectural memorials, as
also an antique temple of idols, which have never been carefully examined.
On my return to Lima, I was shown the mummy of a very young child, which
Don Juan Quiros, deputy from the province of Cañete, had brought to the
capital with him from his own home. The little corpse, quite mummified,
lay in a beautiful, neatly-plaited little basket, and was swathed in
layers of fine variegated cloth. On both sides lay toys of various kinds,
attesting not alone the tenderness of the mother for her dead offspring,
but also that a high degree of artistic taste and finish had been
attained.

[139] According to the "Estadistica general de Lima" (1858) of M. Fuentes,
Lima has a population of 94,195, all told; according to the "Anuario
Nacional" of A. Leubel for 1861, only 85,116 souls, who inhabit a surface
of 6523.597 square Varas (Spanish). The entire population of Peru can
hardly exceed 1,900,000, but a reliable census has never yet been made.

[140] Once during my stay in Lima I had an opportunity of conversing with
Don Ramon. He had come up from his country-seat, or rather from the
roulette-table of Chorillos, to the capital, and was courteous enough to
accord me a reception at his house. After passing a couple of sentinels, I
was ushered through a large bare room into a small ill-lighted apartment
on the ground-floor, when I found myself suddenly face to face with the
President of the Peruvian Republic. I was presented by a friend settled in
Lima. The General is a mestizo with a strongly-marked brown Indian visage,
projecting cheek-bones, and an arched nose, wiry grey hair kept close
cropped, and energetic, but withal coarse features. He is so far entitled
to gratitude, that during the few years he has swayed the destinies of the
Republic, he has maintained internal tranquillity. But there still remains
the saddening feeling, borne out by the actual state of matters, that a
territory over which Spanish grandees and viceroys once held sway, is at
present ruled by an Indian half-breed, who can scarcely read and write. In
manners and general appearance, Don Ramon Castilla strongly reminded me of
his dusky confrère, General Rafael Carrera, President of Guatemala, with
whose despotic tendencies he may be said fully to sympathize.

[141] Thus too it is the predominance of the pure Spanish type and the
extent of foreign immigration, which render the future of Chile so
hopeful.

[142] Vide E. Pöppig, Travels in Chile, Peru, and down the Amazon, vol.
ii. p. 248.--Von Tschudi, Sketches of Peruvian Travel, vol. ii. p.
290.--Weddell, Travels in Northern Bolivia in 1853, p. 514.--Von Bibra,
Narcotics and their Influence on Man.--History of the Expedition of M.
Castelnau in the Central Territories of South America. Paris, 1850, vol.
iii. p. 349.--Dr. Paul Montegazza, "Researches into the Hygienic and
Medicinal Properties of Coca. Annali de Medicina, March, 1859."

[143] This custom of the Aymara Indians, not less universal than
extraordinary, of standing on their heads after long and fatiguing
marches, seems to be the result of an instinct which teaches them how best
to mitigate the severe pressure of the blood.

[144] The mail goes four times a month from La Paz to Tacna, and usually
weighs 25 lbs., which the courier carries on his back and delivers within
some five or six days, without other nourishment than that already
specified!

[145] The Aymara Indian rarely uses animal food, as to do so he would
require to kill one of his beloved Llamas. His chief food consists of
roasted _Chuño_, a small bitter species of potato, which flourishes only
on the barren, rugged plateau of the Andes inhabited by the Aymara, where
neither the common potato nor the maize continue to grow; even barley,
which the Spaniards introduced, ceases to thrive. Their only other food is
a species of moss, which grows in the swamps, and is called by the natives
"_Lanta_." Under such alimentary conditions, it is readily intelligible
why the Aymara have a predilection for coca balls (_acullica_), which (as
sailors and others do with us, with tobacco) they keep continually rolling
about in their mouths, and which, as soon as the whole of the juice has
been sucked out, is thrown away and replaced by a fresh "quid." The juice
of the green leaves diluted with oceans of saliva is usually swallowed. An
Indian chews on the average an ounce to an ounce and a half per diem, but
on feast-days double that quantity.

[146] Cocain is precipitated in colourless inodorous prismatic crystals.
It is with difficulty soluble in water, but melts readily in alcohol, and
with still more facility in ether. When dissolved in alcohol, the solution
becomes a strong alkaline reagent, and has a peculiar slightly bitter
taste. When brought in contact with the nerves of the tongue, it possesses
the singular property of deadening sensation after a few seconds have
elapsed, in the part to which it has been applied, which for a time
becomes almost void of feeling. It fuses at a temperature of 208°.4 Fahr.,
and in cooling resumes its former prismatic crystalline form. When heated
beyond this temperature, it changes to a reddish hue, and volatilizes with
a strong ammoniacal odour. Only a small portion seems to get liberated by
the destructive process. When heated on a platinum disc, it burns away
with a bright flame, leaving no residuum. Cocain completely neutralizes
acids, although most of the resulting salts seem to crystallize with
difficulty, and to remain for a considerable time in an amorphous state.
The resultant chloride seemed the most readily formed as well as
delicately shaped of the crystals. Cocain exposed in chlorine is followed
by such a development of heat that the former is fused. (Compare "Cocain,
an Organic Base in the Coca," letter of Professor F. Wöhler to W.
Haidinger, acting Fellow of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, presented at
the meeting of the Class of Mathematics and Physical Science, 8th March,
1860. See also "On a New Organic Base in the Coca-leaves," Inaugural
dissertation on attaining the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Göttingen,
by Albert Niemann of Goslar. Printed at the Göttingen Press, 1860.)

[147] According to Wöhler, this fluid substance admits of being distilled
even along with water; its odour strongly recalls Trimethylamin; it is a
strong alkaline reagent, but is not bitter to the taste, and forms a white
cloud when acids are poured upon it. Its chloride crystallizes readily,
but is very volatile. With chloride of platina it forms a flocculent
uncrystallized precipitate, which decomposes on the liquid being heated.
With chloride of quicksilver, it assumes a dim milky appearance, which is
caused by the formation of a substance resembling drops of oil. Hygrin is
not poisonous; a few drops given to a rabbit were followed by no
perceptible symptoms.

[148] As, judging by the experiments hitherto made, cocain seems to
consist of two atoms in juxta-position, there is reason to conjecture that
it is destined to be the source of a large number of products of
transformation. It is highly probable, as Wöhler has remarked, that cocain
may yet be _artificially_ made by a mixture of hygrin with Benzoic acid,
or rather with one of the substances forming part of the Benzoyle group.

[149] See Von Tschudi _ut suprà_, vol. ii. 309.

[150] I append here the most important points on which information is
sought respecting the climatic and other conditions of the various
Cinchona species as cultivated in South America, concerning which Dr.
Junghuhn needed more correct information, and can but express the hope,
that, should curiosity or destiny lead the steps of any one of my more
earnest readers to Peru, he may succeed by his own observation in solving
these questions, my inability to aid more effectively in which has been to
me a source of deep mortification. The learned naturalist of Java
furnished me with the following particulars:--

"What it behoves us especially to ascertain, respecting which Hasskarl has
observed nothing, and Weddell furnishes no accurate information, is
comprised in the following questions:

1. What are the highest and lowest limits of the _Cinchona Calisaya_, or
at all events, what is the altitude of the region in which it most
abounds?

2. What is the unvarying warmth of the soil, as observed at a depth of 5
feet below the surface?

3. On what soil does it grow most abundantly and luxuriantly? Does it
affect rich black mould, in moist forcing soils, or rather dry, stony,
barren soils? Does it grow on steep acclivities, or does it seem to prefer
gentle slopes or level ground? Can specimens of the soil be procured? What
is the description of the rock formation, trachytic, granitic, or gneiss,
or are slate or sandstone the characteristic formations?

4. What are the general meteorological conditions, and what is the annual
amount of rain-fall? For how many and during what months does it rain, and
during what period of the day are the showers heaviest? Does it rain for
months at a time, and for how many, and during what months? Or does it not
rain at all, in which case is its place supplied by regular afternoon
storms? How many days of rain are there in the rainy season of that
particular region of the tropical zone? Are the nights and forenoons, as
in Java, usually clear until noon? Is it known whether observations have
ever been made by the Spanish Creoles as to the amount and duration of the
rain-fall? A correct knowledge of the amount of moisture and rain-fall of
the Calisaya district is of special importance to all engaged in the
cultivation of that plant. Further, frequent observations must be made
with the psychrometer in the morning before sunrise, between nine and ten
o'clock, at the hour of maximum of temperature, and in the evening, in the
forest and in the open ground, that these may afterwards be compared with
mine in Java.

5. Does the Calisaya prefer the deepest shadows of the forest, does it
grow there quite apart from other trees, or is it more frequently found in
the open spaces where it is warmed by the sun's rays, such places being
usually rather clear of trees? Does it grow solitary, or is it found in
groups or clusters, and are its special peculiarities in this respect
observable in every forest? Is it observed to be more numerous towards the
edge of the forest, and does it evince a tendency to extend thence over
the grass, the drift, the plateaux, &c., and what alterations do these
make in its habits?

6. Information is wanted as to the month in which the Calisaya blossoms,
and that in which the fruit ripens, as also what length of time usually
elapses between the first appearance of the buds and the shedding of the
_corolla_, and from the shedding of the _corolla_ to the bursting, i. e.
the complete maturity of the capsules. It would seem that in Java it takes
a much longer time, as also that it blossoms at an entirely different
season from that in which it blossoms in its native regions.

7. Much anxiety is felt as to whether it is possible to ascertain with
accuracy how many years old, as also what are the usual height and the
diameter (at the base of the trunk) of a Calisaya tree, when it first
begins to blossom, and whether these first blossoms are developed into
ripe fruit, with seeds capable of fertilization.

8. How high, how thick, and how old are--

_a._ The youngest and smallest, and

_b._ The largest and oldest,

Calisaya trees, which are now felled for their bark in South America? What
description of bark is the most prized, that from the young and slender,
or that from the larger and older trees? Also whether the bark of a very
young tree, e. g. four years old, contain thus early the active principle,
genuine?

9. As, judging by appearances, it has been rightly assumed that the bark
of any given description of Cinchona is found to be more abundantly
provided with alkaloid, especially quinine, the greater the elevation
above the sea, and becomes impoverished in these respects in proportion as
a lower level and a warmer climate are reached, it is desirable that
special observations should be made for the elucidation of these
particulars.

10. It is desirable information should be got from the China bark
collectors (Cascarilleros) of Peru, as to the natural foes of the Cinchona
plant, especially C. Calisaya, and it appears likewise important to
ascertain whether the Calisaya is there also liable to be injured and
bored into by mites and other noxious insects.

11. It is highly desirable that all the above recommended observations
made respecting Cinchona Calisaya, may also be applied to _all other_
species of Cinchona that may occur in South America, of which those
ranking next in interest and importance to us in Java, and which have been
planted here, are C. _Condaminea, var. lucumæfolia_, _laurifolia_,
_lanceolata_, as also C. _cordifolia_, C. _ovata_, and _var.
erythroderma_.

12. Is the pure red China bark actually obtained from the C. _ovata, var.
erythroderma_ of Weddell, as would appear from an article by Howard in
"the Pharmaceutical Journal for October, 1856?" The leaves of that variety
have the most resemblance to those of the three young trees brought over,
which we now possess in Java, and which I have spoken of as _Cinchona
cordifolia_.

13. The experiments in acclimatization of the above-named species in Java,
especially in Western Java, which, it must be admitted, has a very much
more moist, rainy climate than Peru, and still more so than Southern
Bolivia, where the Calisaya chiefly grows, have already undergone several
phases, and it has successfully struggled with numerous obstacles, some
natural, others the result of failures of the earliest cultivators. The
species named C. _Condaminea, var. lucumæfolia_, has shown itself more
susceptible of being acclimatized than the C. _Calisaya_, and at present
(May, 1858) promises to produce from 50,000 to 70,000 ripe fruit, within a
few weeks, all fit for reproduction. Apparently the climate and other
physical conditions of the locality in Java, where the cultivation has
been carried on, have corresponded with those natural conditions which
enable this plant to grow so abundantly in its native soil of Peru."

[151] The name dates from the time when what is now Bolivia (in the forest
of which the China tree chiefly grows) formed an integral portion of Peru,
and was in fact called Upper Peru, whereas from that which is now called
Peru, hardly any bark is exported, while that found in New Granada and
Ecuador, whence it is exported to Spain under the name of Pitaya, is a
species of very inferior quality for medicinal purposes.

[152] The name, Countess' powder, which was given to the drug owing to its
use by a certain Countess Chinchon (wife of a Peruvian viceroy), was
afterwards altered to Cardinal's or Jesuit's powder, in consequence of the
Procurator-general of the order of Jesus, Cardinal de Lugo, having, during
his passage through France, everywhere made known the virtues of the drug,
and recommended it to the particular attention of Cardinal Mazarin, as the
brethren of the order had begun to drive quite a lucrative trade in South
American China bark, which they had carried on by their missionaries. V.
Humboldt's "_Ansichten der Natur_," third edition, 1849, vol. ii. p. 372.

[153] See Humboldt's Ansichten der Natur. Third edition. 1849. Vol. ii. p.
319.

[154] Señor Emilio Escobar of Lima sent me a small flask of a hitherto
little-known vegetable stuff, which gives very much the same dye as the
cochineal insect, and is found in great abundance throughout Peru. I have
added this bottle of dye, which at all events merits more minute
investigation, to the other collections of the _Novara_ Expedition.

[155] In 1859, there were forwarded, according to official documents:

                                           From        From
                                      Aspinwall   Panama to
                                     to Panama.  Aspinwall.     Totals.

  Passengers                             23,206      16,567      39,773

  Bullion                             3,146,983  57,097,061  60,244,044

  Mail parcels of the U.S.      pounds  643,752     184,395     828,147

   "       "        England       "      47,060       8,824      55,884

  Merchandise                   tons     17,278       3,802      21,080

  Coal.                           "       7,618      ------       7,618

  Personal baggage              pounds   67,698      62,581     130,279

[156] The cost of keeping in repair is not less than £100,000 per annum,
owing to the destroying energies of the atmosphere and of insects, as also
of the rapid growth of vegetation, to keep which under employs not less
than 3000 labourers.

[157] The statistics of mortality among the various races on the Isthmus
for the year 1858 give the following results.

  Of the natives, there die annually      1 in 50
  "      immigrant negroes                1 in 40
  "      Coolies                          1 in 40
  "      Europeans                        1 in 30
  "      Chinese                          1 in 10


                  [Illustration: The Austrian Eagle]



                                XXIII.

                      From Gibraltar to Trieste.

                    From 7th to 26th August, 1859.

    First circumstantial details of the War of 1859.--Alterations in
    Gibraltar since our previous visit.--Science and Warfare.--
    Voyage through the Mediterranean.--Messina.--The _Novara_ taken
    in tow by the War-steamer _Lucia_.--Gravosa.--Ragusa.--Arrival
    of H.I.H. the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian at Gravosa.--
    Presentation of the Staff.--Banquet on board the screw-corvette
    _Dandolo_.--Pola.--Roman Amphitheatre.--Porta Aurea.--Triumphal
    return to Trieste.--Retrospect of the achievements and general
    scientific results of the Expedition.--Concluding Remarks.


Eighty-two days elapsed between the departure of the _Novara_ from
Valparaiso and her arrival in the harbour of Gibraltar. They had been as
many days of dreadful trial and disaster for our country! While the good
ship was careering along in mid ocean, and in an unusually short space of
time had sailed over 10,600 nautical miles, the fortune of arms had gone
against our House, and we now heard for the first time of the desperate
battles, the heavy losses, the sudden armistice of Villafranca! The
Commodore at once telegraphed to Trieste the news of our arrival, and
asked for further instructions.

Among our friends and acquaintances at Gibraltar many changes and
alterations had taken place. The former Governor, Sir James Ferguson, had
in the interim been replaced by Sir W. Codrington. The Austrian Consul,
the estimable Mr. Longlands Cowell, was dead, and in his stead Mr. Frembly
attended provisionally to the duties of the office.

The heads of the community, the Governor, the staff, Mr. Creswell,
Postmaster-General, Mr. Frembly, &c., paid us marked attention on our
present visit. Singular to say, no one here seemed to be aware of our
having been declared neutral by most of the European powers, thanks to the
far-sighted circumspection of the projector of the voyage, and
consequently some apprehension had been felt lest some warships of the
enemy might have encountered the _Novara_ in American waters. But albeit
of late years we have been pretty well accustomed to see even written
treaties trodden underfoot, yet, in the present instance, the capture of
the _Novara_ had been stringently prohibited to all French cruisers. For
even in the Tuileries the consequences of such an abuse of power had been
well foreseen; it was felt moreover even there, that in our time the most
powerful can no longer dispense with science or disregard its interests,
that any violence offered to her votaries is an outrage upon mankind and
civilization. So great, indeed, was the anxiety felt at Paris to avoid any
possible collision with the _Novara_, that in addition to the existing
declaration of neutrality, special orders were dispatched by the French
Government, and from amid the din of battle and the thunder of artillery,
the word went forth: "The _Novara_ may proceed unmolested, for she is
freighted with scientific treasures, and science is the common benefit of
all nations!"

On 7th of August, a telegraphic dispatch was received in the course of the
morning from the Lord High Admiral, with instructions for the _Novara_ to
proceed under sail to Messina, where a war-steamer would be in waiting to
take us in tow. The same afternoon we weighed anchor on our way up the
Mediterranean.

On 15th August we sighted the northern shores of Sicily, and the same
evening could plainly perceive the brilliant red lights of the newly
erected lighthouse on Cape San Vito, the extreme N.W. point of the island.
Diversified by frequent calms, and but occasionally favoured with gentle
breezes, our progress was necessarily very slow. On the 16th we passed the
island of Ustica, and the following day the Lipari Islands, and at last,
about 7 A.M. of the 18th, we reached the Straits of Messina. A pilot who
came on board informed us that an Austrian war-steamer was lying off
Messina. Orders were now given to fire a few blank shot, to advise her
commander of our arrival in the Straits, after which we resumed our
course. A few hours more and we were in tow of the steamer, which proved
to be the _Lucia_, the same vessel which upwards of two years before had
brought us as far as Messina on our outward voyage. We now received
letters from friends and relatives at home, as also the customary and
inevitable poetical effusion, which some sailor poet had written on "The
Return of the _Novara_."

On the night of the 19th August we were off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca,
which marks the entrance of the Adriatic Gulf, and in the afternoon of the
following day passed Caste Nuovo near Cattaro, and the same night anchored
in the harbour of Gravosa in Dalmatia. The captain of the _Lucia_ had been
dispatched to bring us hither, there to wait further orders.

The following morning, Sunday, 21st August, the naturalists and superior
officers made an excursion to the highly interesting city of Ragusa, only
a few miles distant, which communicates with Gravosa by a beautiful wide
well-kept road. For the first time in 28 months our feet once more trod
our native soil.

Next morning, about nine, the imperial steam yacht _Fantasie_ came into
port, with H.I.H. the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian on board, accompanied
by the Archduchess. The Lord High Admiral stood on the paddle-box, and
saluted us most heartily, repeatedly waving his cap, to which the crew of
the _Novara_ replied by a shout that made the welkin ring. The
screw-corvette _Dandolo_ shortly after anchored near us.

About noon the Archduke came on board, and inspected the crew and ship,
after which he expressed himself in the most kind terms to the officers of
the ship and the scientific corps of the expedition. The Archduchess
afterwards had a levee, at which the officers and naturalists had the
honour of being presented to her Highness, who addressed to each a few
gracious words of welcome and interest.

In the evening there was an elegant banquet of forty covers, at which the
Archduke presided, his consort also sharing in the festivities, during
which his Highness distinguished the members of the Expedition in
proposing the toast, "The men of the _Novara_, whose names will belong to
Austrian history."

On 23rd August our frigate, accompanied by the _Lucia_ and the
screw-corvette _Dandolo_, sailed for Pola. Shortly before our departure
the Archduke again came on board, and himself brought with him a long list
of promotions. The entire crew were promoted one grade, and all the
midshipmen were made officers.

On the 25th August we passed, during the morning, the light-tower of
Promontore, standing on a solitary rock that rises out of the sea, hardly
a cable's length from the shore, and at 11 reached Pola, the chief naval
arsenal of Austria. Here we availed ourselves of the stoppage to visit
some of the classical monuments of Pola.

Few cities can present better-preserved or more extensive mementoes of
Roman architecture than this, the ancient _Pietas Julia_, so named because
shortly after its destruction by Julius Cæsar, it was rebuilt at the
instance of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. The majestic amphitheatre, of
elliptical form, rises on the slope of the hills, so that to remedy the
inequality of the ground the portion next the sea is held up by a
succession of buttresses. The dazzling white of the stone does not present
any traces by which one would guess its age. This relic of antiquity is in
far better preservation than the Colosseum of Rome, or the Amphitheatre of
Verona, and would have been far more perfect had it not been used as a
stone-quarry during the days of Venetian supremacy, when entire ship-loads
of this brilliant white stone were transported to Venice, there to be used
as building material.

Near the amphitheatre, on the side next the city, the stranger is struck
by another beautiful edifice, the _Porta Aurea_ (golden gate), a
monumental structure in the Corinthian style, which, according to one of
the inscriptions, was erected by his widow, Salvia, at her own expense, in
honour of Lucius Sergius Lepidus, tribune. For harmony of proportion,
richness and elegance of decoration, and perfect preservation, it may be
cited as one of the best existing specimens of Roman architecture. A
temple to Augustus and another to Diana also attract the astonished gaze
of the artist and antiquary, while many another object of classical
interest lies prostrate on the earth for want of means, or perhaps, more
probably, through indifference. It is highly probable that, with the
rapid development of the town, some interest will also be taken in
preserving its antiquities.

The importance of this spacious, easily accessible, secure, and
well-fortified harbour, induced the Austrian Government during the last
few years to commence public works on a large scale, which was
munificently projected and fully carried out, and have resulted in opening
for Pola a prospect of future importance second to none on the Adriatic,
making it the Portsmouth of the Austrian Empire.

In the evening we again set sail, and about 11 A.M. of the 26th escorted
by a squadron of above a dozen ships of war, in two columns, the one led
by H.I.H. the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, the other by our Commodore,
we neared the imposing roadstead of Trieste. As the _Novara_ passed
beneath the walls of the splendid château of Miramar, the residence of the
Archduke, a guard of artillery saluted the home-returning wanderer, and
almost immediately afterwards the cannon of the citadel of Trieste
thundered forth their salute.

A Lloyd's steamer, having on board the principal officials of the city, as
also a few friends, was now seen wending its way towards us with a band of
music on board, and fell into the procession. The latter made its way,
enveloped in clouds of smoke, to the picturesquely-situated city, as far
as the Bay of Muggia, where each ship let go her anchor in her appointed
position, and--THE VOYAGE WAS OVER.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the transcriber of the foregoing literary detail of the incidents of
the voyage of the _Novara_ still devolves the task of presenting a brief
summary of the chief objects aimed at, and the actual scientific results
attained by the Imperial Expedition, so as to moderate the exaggerated
expectations of one set of readers, and to rectify the hasty, depreciatory
judgment of others, by stating obvious and convincing facts.

He feels, above all, compelled to examine the question, which not alone
criticism but the entire educated world will address with reference to an
undertaking begun under such auspices and of such universal interest,
"What are the actual results, and what those to be anticipated from the
_Novara_ Expedition? How did its members respond to the efforts made to
provide them with every possible appliance that munificence could supply?"

In order aright to answer this query, whether the first Austrian
Expedition round the globe has really answered the expectations formed of
it, it is necessary to bear in mind that its first and foremost object was
the instruction on an adequate scale of the officers and midshipmen of the
Imperial navy, and that scientific investigation was always regarded as of
secondary importance to that chief object.

The descriptive portion of the voyage of the _Novara_ must be considered
simply as the precursor of a series of scientific publications which,
thanks to Imperial munificence, will be published at the expense
of the State. The nautico-physical portion will include the
astronomico-geodetical, magnetic, and meteorological observations made
throughout the voyage, and will appear under the auspices of the
Imperial hydrographic Institution at Trieste.

The abundant materials collected in the departments of natural history,
statistics, and commercial policy, will be prepared by the various
gentlemen who accompanied the Expedition, and comprise as many sections as
there were scientific branches represented on board ship during the
voyage. These publications will embrace, in a collected form, the
observations, investigations, and results obtained in the course of the
entire campaign, relating to Geology, Zoology, Botany, Ethnography and
Anthropology, Medicine, Statistics, and Trade.

And while these various works can only after their publication admit of a
just opinion being formed as to what has been achieved in this respect by
the Expedition, the numerous and valuable collections of objects of
natural history already give an idea of the activity and research of each
member of the scientific staff in the course of the voyage.

The zoological collection comprises above 26,000 specimens, partly
collected by the two zoologists themselves, partly presented or purchased;
they consist of 320 mammalia, 1500 birds, 950 amphibiæ, 2000 fish, 6550
conchyliæ, 13,000 insects, 950 crustacea, 500 molluscs, 60 skeletons, 50
skulls, 120 nests, and 150 eggs.

The botanical portion embraces several very comprehensive and valuable
_herbaria_ and collections of seeds (in selecting the latter the
capabilities of the various portions of the Empire were carefully borne
in mind, with reference to the power of propagating the plant), besides a
large quantity of fruits and flowers of tropical plants, preserved in
acetic acid or alcohol, as also Indian and Chinese drugs, and specimens of
ornamental and useful woods.

The mineralogical, petrographical, and palæontological collections consist
of several thousand specimens of mineralogy and petrifactions, part
collected by the geologist himself, part presented by scientific
Institutes, or private donors, or purchased.

The ethnographic collection embraces 376 objects, such as weapons of the
most diverse form, house utensils and implements of labour, ornaments,
amulets, carvings, idols, headgears, masks, pieces of clothing, models,
textile fabrics, manufactures in bark, musical instruments, Cingalese
manuscripts, as also fragments of palm-leaves, bamboo-reeds, and bark, all
variously transcribed. Some of these various objects are the more
interesting, as furnishing, so to speak, the last proofs of the aboriginal
skill which, in proportion to the increasing intercourse of the savage
tribes with European civilization, is rapidly diminishing, and in all the
principal colonies may be considered as already extinguished.

The anthropological collection consists of 100 skulls of various races of
men, and includes a complete Bushman-skeleton, besides a great variety of
interesting physiological and pathologico-anatomical preparations.

But it is not merely in its general, nautical, scientific, and
politico-economical features that the voyage of the _Novara_ has reacted
in a suggestive and instructing manner upon those who were privileged to
belong to the Expedition. It has widened the horizon of political
knowledge, presented the opportunity of instituting interesting
comparisons between the conditions of the various countries visited, and
has furnished many an instructive insight into the transmuting process,
which the possession of civil and religious liberty effects upon the
material welfare and intellectual energy of every race and land, from pole
to pole. And although mankind is subjected to the powerful influences of
climate, nourishment, soil, and natural phenomena in general, yet it is
not less certain that by freely developing the physical and intellectual
powers, those influences may be materially limited in extent of operation,
and modified in practice; so that, while we see a people inhabiting a
country, where Nature has lavished her utmost treasures of fertility,
beauty, and loveliness, languishing spiritually and physically under the
oppression of a despotic power, and the land itself hastening to
impoverishment and decay, we perceive on the other hand that another, far
less favourably situated, has been able under free institutions to become
by its own unaided energy the marvel of all nations, colonizing every
region of the earth, and extending its commercial and political importance
over the entire universe.

What a melancholy picture of stagnation and decay is presented by the
Spanish and Portuguese possessions in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies,
by the Slave-empire of Brazil, and the Hispano-American Republics, with
their mestizo dictators, as compared with the mighty development and
glorious promise of the British colonies in Asia, Africa, America, and
Australia, governed as they are by constitutional laws, and enjoying full
civil and religious rights! Here the energy of free self-governing men,
aided by a keen spirit of enterprise and investigation, has obtained a
victory over all impediments of a primeval nature, and not alone opened to
European civilization new channels for the extension of commerce and
industry, but also accomplished important social and political reforms,
for which many a civilized state in old Europe is still sighing in vain!

And to the German who has circumnavigated the globe, the consideration of
these lofty themes is mingled with a glow of pride and satisfaction, in
reflecting that it is a kindred Anglo-Saxon race, to whom apparently has
been assigned the glorious mission of diffusing a new life over the earth,
of carrying the light of Christian civilization, of political liberty, and
spiritual culture, to the most primitive tribes in the furthest regions of
the world, and of heralding, amid the ruins of slavery and despotism, the
day-spring of a lasting era of Freedom, Peace, and Prosperity!


                               THE END.



                                      VOL. II.

                                    APPENDIX A.

                                   A VOCABULARY

                         (ARRANGED UPON GALATIN'S SYSTEM)

          OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE NATIVES OF THE NICOBAR ARCHIPELAGO.[158]


  Name of object in   | Dialect used in      | Dialect used in       | Corresponding words
  English.            | Kar Nicobar          | the Central Group,    | used by the Malay
                      | (called PUH by       | consisting of the     | inhabitants of Pulo
                      | the natives).        | islands of Nangkauri, | Penáng, 5° 25' N.,
                      | The most northerly   | Kamorta, Pulo Milú,   | 100° 21' E.
                      | island, 9° 10' N.,   | Kondúl, and Lesser    |
                      | 93° 36' E.           | Nicobar.              |
                      |                      |                       |
                      |                      |                       |
  God                 | ----                 | ----                  | ----
  evil spirit         | ----                 | eewée                 | hontú
  man                 | kigonje              | báhju                 | orang
  people              | tarík                | ----                  | ----
  woman               | kigána               | angána                | poorampúan
  old woman           | ----                 | angána-oomiáha        | ----
  boy                 | lúenda               | kanióom               | booda-kitschí
  lad                 | marengla             | ilúh                  | ----
  young girl          | nia-kookána          | kanioóm-angána        | booda-poorampúan
  child               | niá                  | poa                   | ana-kitschí
  father              | jong                 | tschía                | bápa
  my father           | jong-tióo            | ----                  | ----
  mother              | kamioján             | tschía-angána         | ma, mák
  old man             | jong-niá             | angónje               | chaudáu
  old woman, feeble   | ----                 | koomhóois             | chaudán-poorampooan
    woman             |                      |                       |
  son                 | kóoan                | góan or ilúh          | ana-chaudán
  daughter            | kóoan                | kanióom-angana        | ana-pooram-pooan
  brother             | kanána               | tscháo-angana         | kaka
  head                | kóoi                 | góeh                  | kapalá
  hair                | kooiá                | jogh                  | ramut
  face                | gúa                  | matscháka             | mooká
  forehead            | mal                  | lal                   | dái
  ear                 | nang                 | neng                  | talénga
  earrings worn by    |                      |                       |
    natives           | nang                 | itiéi                 | --
  eye                 | mat                  | oal-mát               | mattá
  eyebrows            | --                   | ok-mát                | --
  nose                | elmé                 | moáh                  | idóng
  nostrils            | --                   | ol-moáh               | lo-bang-idong
  chin                | --                   | enkóin                | dagóo
  cheek               | --                   | tapóah                | pípi
  breast              | --                   | alendája              | dáda
  throat, larynx      | --                   | ungnóka               | kronkóugan
  calf of the leg     | --                   | kanmoána              | jantong-bóotis
  mouth               | minú                 | manóing               | mulót
  tongue              | litág                | kaletág               | lidá
  tooth               | kanáp                | kanáp                 | jijée
  beard               | máin-kóoa            | inhóing               | boolo-báo
  neck                | likún                | unlóngha              | tinkó
  arm                 | kel                  | koál                  | langán
  hand                | koontée              | oktái                 | tangán
  palm of the hand    | --                   | oal-tái               | --
  finger              | heng                 | kani-tái              | charée
  nail                | kiusó                | kaischúa              | kookóo
  body or trunk       | aláha                | okáha                 | badán
  belly               | áik                  | wuiáng                | baróot
  navel               | --                   | fon                   | boosát
  thigh               | kaldrán              | booló                 | pahá
  foot                | eldrán               | lah                   | tapa-kakí
  toes                | kundrán              | kanéch-lah _or_       | daloognoo-kakí
                      |                      |   ok lah              |
  bone                | tangáe               | ung-éjing             | tooláng
  skin                | --                   | ihé                   | kooléet
  knee                | --                   | kohanoáng             | lutót
  heart               | faniéoola            | kióyen                | hangát
  blood               | mahám                | wooáh                 | dará
  village             | panám                | mattái                | kampong
  chief               | máh                  | oomiáh-mattái         | capitan, capitan-kampong
  warrior             | hol                  |  --                   | toomóh
  friend              | moowée               | jól                   | bái, bánia-bái
  friendship          | hóldra               |  --                   | --
  house, hut          | patée                | njee                  | roomá
  kettle              | tzitóom              | poonhágua             | balanga, panél
  arrow               | alindreng            | bel                   | ana-paná
  bow                 | lindreng             | donna                 | paná
  axe, hatchet        | hanyeng              | enlóin                | kapá
  flint               | --                   | hindél                | sanapáng
  cannon              | --                   | hin-wáu               | mariám
   shot               | --                   | hadéel                | pasang-bóodeel
  knife               | sooréeta             | kahánáp               | pisóh
  canoe, or boat      | ap                   | dëuá                  | sampán
  rudder              |  --                  | duende-dol-deüá       | --
  shoe                | kundróka             | zapatos               | kasút, supátu
                      |                      | (corruption of        |
                      |                      | Portuguese)           |
  bread               | pekó                 | puáng                 | roti
                      |                      | (Portuguese, pan)     |
  pipe, whistle       | rípa                 | tanóp                 | hundchúe
  to smoke            | --                   | top-oomhói            | asap
  tobacco             | tobacco              | oomhói                | tumbáko
  bamboo tobacco-box  | ooráng               | --                    | --
  heaven              | halyáng              | oal, galahája         | langéet
  sun                 | tawúo                | heng                  | mataharée
  moon                | chingát              | kahaé                 | boolán
  full-moon           | sohó                 | --                    | --
  star                | tanoosamát           | shokmaléicha          | bintang
  day                 | tahei                | heng                  | tsará
  night               | átam                 | hatám                 | malám
  darkness            | sangóola             | doochóol              | bania-galáp
  morning             | haaréi               | hagée                 | pagée
  day after to-morrow | --                   | chayesláng            | hiso-pagée-pagée
  evening             | haráp                | ladiáyá               | patang
  summer              | talák                | koi-kapa              | poolan-nám
  (i. e. the dry or   |                      | (N.E. monsoon)        |
    fine season)      |                      |                       |
  winter              | koomra               | sohóng                | barát
  (i. e. the rainy    |                      | (S.W. monsoon)        |
    season)           |                      |                       |
  wind                | koofótt              | hash                  | angéen
  lightning           | nieïnáka             | máit                  | kilát
  thunder             | koonróka             | komtoogna             | gooróh
  rain                | koomra               | amà                   | oosán
  clouds              | talóol               | galaháya              | awán
  east                | --                   | hash-fooly            | téemor
  west                | --                   | hash-soháng           | barát
  south               | --                   | hash-láhhna           | slatán
  north               | --                   | hash-kapá             | ootára
  fire                | tamóia               | hióye                 | ápee
  to kindle a fire    |                      |                       |
    with bamboo       | kiséit               | --                    | --
  water               | neak                 | dák                   | ajaír
  salt-water          |  --                  | kamaléh               | aja-masséen
  sand                | toomlát              | péeèt                 | pasói
  earth, land         | panámm               | oal-mattái            | kampong
  sea                 | máee                 | oal-kamaléh           | aja-masséen
  flood-tide          |  --                  | hayjáoo               | ajáir-báh
  ebb                 |  --                  | tchóh                 | sooróot
  river               | tit-mak              | hiajarák              | soongwáy
  valley              |  --                  | alhodá                | lémba
  hill                | yógle                | kohinjúan             | boojétt (boo-kéett)
  mountain, forest    | koochiónn            |  --                   | boojétt-bassa
  island              | panám, poolgna       | poolgna, mattái       | póolo
  stone, rock         | chóng                | mangáh                | batóo
  brass               | mas                  | kalaháee              | tamagá
  iron                | wert                 | kadáo                 | bacee, (bucee)
  tree                | kaha-chiónn          | koy-unjéeha           | atas-kayóo
  wood                | chiónn               | oomnóeet              | kayóo
  leaf                | droée-chiónn         | da-unjéeha            | daáeen-kayóo
  bark                | ook-chiónn           | ok-unjéeha            | coolie-kayór
  grass               | káee-op              | oobjóoab              | roombót
  human flesh         | aláha                |  --                   |  --
  flesh               | kirinée              | okaóoha               | koolétt
  pork                | naoon                |  --                   |  --
  parrot              | sakáha               | katók                 | buron-baján nóri, kastóoree
  maina (bird         | kachaláo             | sichóoa               | buron-tiónn
    known as          |                      |                       |
    _Graculus         |                      |                       |
    Indicus_)         |                      |                       |
  cocoa-palm          | kahataóoka           | oocejáoo              | niónn
  green cocoa-nut     | taóoka               | njáoo                 | nionn-mooda
  ripe cocoa-nut      | toowooáyka           | gnoátt                | massá
  banana              | tanióonga            | hibóo                 | pisang
  sugar-cane          | lamóoa               | --                    | tóoboo
  yam                 | toltatchióng         | --                    | koontang oobee-bóonggala
  anana               | --                   | choodóo               | avanas
  _Carica-papaya_     |   popáy              |   popáy               |   papáya
  pandanus            | --                   | laróhm                | --
  palm-wine           | --                   | doágh                 | tóoak
  (toddy)             |                      |                       |
  pig                 | --                   | not                   | babi
  ape                 | ointchí              | dooáeen-káeen         | grah
  dog                 | ahm                  | ahm                   | autchíng
  cock                | hayám                | kamóoe-koep           | ajam-tchantán
  hen                 | kooan-hayám          | {kon-kamóoe  }        | ajam-bootéena
                      |                      | {tschi-kamóoe}        |
  rat                 | komét                | --                    | tíkus
  cat                 | koomeáo              | --                    | kootchíng
  serpent, snake      | petsch               | paéetya, toolán       | ooláh
  bird                | tschi-aítchou        | sitchúa               | boorón
  egg (generally)     | óoha                 | hóoeeja               | toolo
  hen's egg           | --                   | hóoeeja-kamóoe        | tulo-ajám
  dove                | makóoka              | moomóoh               | pregám-moorpáti
  fish                | kah                  | gah                   | ikán
  paper               | --                   | láeeberi              | kóortas
  lead-pencil         | --                   | anet-láeeberi         | halam-téemah
  key                 | --                   | tenooán               | anak-kúntchi
  chain               | --                   | maláo                 | rantik
  white               | tesó                 | tenjéea               | pootáy
  black               | turíng               | óeel                  | itám
  black coat          | --                   | loaim-óeel            | --
  red                 | sakalátt             | ak                    | máyra
  blue                | turing               | tchoongóa             | kalabóo
  dark-blue           | turing               | --                    | --
  light-blue          | tatóoka              | --                    | --
  yellow              | tangáo               | láaom                 | kooncéng
  green               | faiáll               | tchoongóa             | itchó
  large               | maróla               | kadóo                 | loás
  small               | keejilóng            | oompáeetche           | kitchée
  strong              | takale-aláh          | koáng                 | prat
  old                 | mah                  | boomóoashe oomiáha    | tóoa
  young               | neeáy                | eelóoh                | moodá
  good                | taláck               | lapów                 | bagóoce
  bad                 | atláck               | hadlapa               | tabáee
  pretty              | talácka-kóoa         | lapóa                 | báee
  very beautiful      | --                   | ilote-lapóa           | bánia-báee
  ugly                | atlácka-koóa         | jóoh                  | hang
  living              | atkáppa              | ahn                   | deeáa
  dead                | kóopa                | kapá                  | matti
  cold                | leejéet              | kaáy                  | sitchóo
  warm                | wooang, or wáyee-low | keeojan               | hang-át
  I                   | teeóoa               | teeóoa                | sajá
  thou                | mough                | mooáyh                | aug
  he                  | kna                  | ahn                   | deeá
  we                  | --                   | teeóe                 | kéeta, kámi
  ye or you           | --                   | eefóe                 | augkáoo
  they                | --                   | efoe-bajóo-oomtohm    | dia-orang, or marikaéetoo
  this                | eenáy                | neeáe or néena        | seenee, eenee
  that                | oomóo                | anáay                 | seetóo
  all                 | rókayra              | oomtóhm               | samooáa
  much                | marónga              | ootóhatche            | baniá, baniák
  who?                | akéea?               | tchée?                | sapaée? (seeáppa)
  who is he?          | --                   | tchick-ahn?           | --
  near                | raáyta               | meáyhoa               | dakátt
  distant             | --                   | hóee                  | tchaó
  very far            | --                   | hóee-kah              | --
  to-day              | taháee               | lenheng               | arynée, harée
  yesterday           | waháy                | mandiój               | koomaréen, klamaréen
  to-morrow           | hooráyeek            | hakáyee               | heéso (bisok)
  yes                 | hoán                 | aón                   | ijá
  no                  | draháwa              | ooát                  | tidá
  one                 | hang                 | hayáng                | satóo
  two                 | anátt                | ah                    | dooá
  three               | lóoay                | lóeh                  | téega
  four                | fön                  | fooán                 | oompátt
  five                | tanáyee              | tanáyee               | léema
  six                 | tafóol               | tafoóel               | njam
  seven               | sat                  | ishiátt               | tootchó
  eight               | háware               | oenfoán               | lapánn
  nine                | matióotare           | hayáng-hata           | sambilán
  ten                 | som                  | som                   | sibooló
  eleven              | kaook-séeen          | som-háyang            | sebeláss
  twelve              | áh-sien              | som-áh                | dooabeláss
  thirteen            | looay-sien           | som-loáy              | teejabeláss
  twenty              | kaóok-matiáma        | heng-oomtchóma        | dua-poolów
  twenty-one          | kaóok-matiáma-heng   | heng-oomtchóma-heang  | dua-poolów-satóo
  twenty-two          | kaook-matiama-anátt  | heng-oomtchóma-ah     | dua-poolów-duá
  thirty              | looay-kanyoo         | heng-oomtchóma-toktay | tiga-poolów
  forty               | fön-kanyóo           | ahm-oomtchóma         | ampátt-poolów
  fifty               | tanáyee-kanyóo       | ahm-oomtchóma-toktay  | léema-poolów
  sixty               | tafoól-kanyoo        | looáy-oomtchóma       | njam-poolów
  hundred             | heng-ohn             | som-oomtchóma         | saratooce
  thousand            | som-ohn              | --                    | sirrybóo
  to eat              | niá                  | náok                  | makán
  one who eats        | --                   | oog-naók              | --
  to drink            | kön                  | táoop                 | minoong
  one who drinks      | --                   | oog-taoop             | --
  to run              | kayánn               | deeánn                | larée
  to dance            | küliám               | katáoga               | máaen, murari
  to go               | keerángary           | tchoo                 | bigée
  to grow slowly      | att-kayán            | --                    | --
  to sing             | tingócka             | aekásha               | magnánee
  to sleep            | loom                 | eetáyak               | teedów
  to speak            | róa                  | olliówla              | sakápp
  to see              | mooak                | hadáh, oog-hadáh      | tengo
  to love             | hanganlón            | soojónghién           | bánia-kesseéen
  to kill             | sap                  | oorrée                | bóton, boonóh
  to cut one's self   | --                   | ottáh                 | --
  to sit              | ratt                 | katö                  | doodó
  to sit down         | --                   | bóoja                 | --
  to stand            | talánn               | ockshéeaga            | badyrée
  to come             | jéehee               | kaáytery              | marée
  to yawn             | --                   | hengáp                | móongwap
  to laugh            | --                   | itée                  | toortáwa
  to weep             | --                   | teeóom                | moonángis
  native stringed     |                      |                       |
  instrument          |                      |                       |
   (_see_ p. 122)     | --                   | dennang               | --
  _areca_-nut         | tissáh               | heejáh                | pinang
  coral chalk         | soonám               | shónn                 | kapoor
  betel-leaf          | kooránia             | hakáyee, aráy         | sirée
  tortoise-shell      | kap                  | ----                  | koolet-kará
  fly                 | inlooáyee            | jóoay                 | lapátt
  mosquito            | moosóka              | mihója                | njamó
  feather or pencil   | kanuítch             | anet-láyeebery        | kalám
  wing                | ----                 | danówen               | sajáp
  name                | minánee              | lérmay                | namáa
  what is your name?  | ----                 | kin-lérmay            | apa-namáa
  weapon              | hinwótt              | hindéll               | boodéel
  cow-pox             | mallóck              | ----                  | tcha-tchár
  white man           | isohokooa            | bájoo-tatenn-hamátt   | orang-bootáy
  a Malay or          |                      |                       |
    yellow man        | ----                 | kolog-hamátt          | orang-máyra
  black man           | ----                 | taóln-hamátt          | orang-itám
  voyage or journey   | ----                 | johatáyha             | blajárr
  doctor              | manlóoena            | manlóoena             | bornów
  honey               | ----                 | ----                  | lapáa
  flute (_see_        |                      |                       |
    p. 122)           | ----                 | hinhell               | bangsée



                             APPENDIX B.

                             VOCABULARY

                       (UPON GALATIN'S SYSTEM)

       OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NATIVES OF PUYNIPET ISLAND (CAROLINE
             ARCHIPELAGO) AND SIKAYANA, OR STEWART'S ISLAND.


                          |   Puynipet,                |   Sikayana,
  Object.                 |  6° 48' N.,                | 8° 24' 24'' N.,
                          | 158° 14' E.                |    163° E.
                          |                            |
  man                     | ooléen                     | tanáta
  apparel (men's)         | koáll                      | --
  men, people             | aramáss                    | --
  woman                   | lée                        | faféeny
  apparel (women's)       | lee-koóty                  | --
  boy                     | tchirri-máoon              | tamali-kirriky
  girl                    | tchirri-páyni              | tama-feény
  father                  | paba                       | tamána
  mother                  | nono                       | tinána
  old man                 |  --                        | tilui-tanáta
  old woman               | boóot                      | tama
  son                     |  --                        | aréeky
  brother                 | reeágey                    | táeena
  sister                  | reeágey-lee                | káwe
  workman or slave        | aramáss-a-mal              | --
  head                    | --                         | debosoúlu
  hair                    | --                         | ládóo
  face                    | --                         | lofeé-máta
  brow                    | --                         | móa-lái
  ear                     | --                         | káootalina
  eye                     | --                         | karimata
  nose                    | --                         | kai-joosoo
  mouth                   | --                         | móa-jóosoo
  tongue                  | --                         | aláydo
  tooth                   | --                         | nítcho
  beard                   | --                         | bábaée
  neck                    | --                         | teoówa
  arm                     | --                         | léema
  hand or finger          | --                         | motikáo
  nail                    | --                         | padde
  body                    | --                         | fuáitino
  belly                   | --                         | manáwa
  thigh or leg            | --                         | koonawáee
  foot                    | --                         | sapoowáee
  toes                    | --                         | motikáo-wáee
  bone                    | --                         | táyeewee
  heart                   | --                         | wagga-wagga
  blood                   | --                         | tóto
  village                 | --                         | takaeena
  chief                   | tchobity                   | alikée
  high-chief              | tchobity-lappilap          | --
  a king                  | nanamaréeky                | --
  minister                | nannekin                   | --
  warrior                 | --                         | patooa
  friend                  | --                         | tosóah
  house, hut              | nanoom                     | tamafálee
  bow and arrow           | katchin-kotáyoo            | --
  musket                  | kotcháck                   | --
  cannon                  | kotchák-lappilap           | --
  spear                   | kotáyoo                    | --
  saw                     | ratch-a-ratch              | --
  knife                   | kapoot                     | nife (Anglicé knife)
  young bamboo            | aleck                      | --
  cocoa-palm              | erring                     | nyóo
  old cocoa-nut           | erríng                     | mata-séelee
  young cocoa-nut         | páyeen                     | kamátoo
  yam                     | kaáp                       | --
  sugar-cane              | katchin-tchóo              | --
  bread-fruit             | mahee                      | --
  banana                  | oot                        | --
  ginger                  | goonapella                 | --
  food                    | moonga                     | --
  rope                    | sháal                      | --
  coral                   | paeena                     | --
  reef                    | mát                        | --
  ship's mast             | kow                        | --
  ship                    | tchob                      | --
  mainsail                | tcherrick                  | --
  launch                  | wooárr                     | wakka
  large ship, man-of-war  | --                         | wakka-wakka
  go, fetch me a canoe    | kowa-golawata-ny-wooárr    | --
  small canoe             | wooárr-madigadig           | --
  war-canoe               | wooárr-ma-loot             | --
  shoe                    | --                         | takka
  bread                   | --                         | papay (from papaya)
  pipe                    | péepo                      | méety-méety
  tobacco                 | --                         | tobacco
  smoke                   | atee-niágey                |
                          |  (? act of sternutation is |
                          |  intended to be expressed) | --
  heaven                  | --                         | teláoo
  sun                     | katerpin                   | teláh
  the sun scorches (_sc._ |                            |
    the sun is evil)      | katerpinban-kara-kara      | --
  moon                    | tschoonaboong              | maláma
  star                    | ootchoo                    | fatoó
  day                     | --                         | trasonáyee
  light                   | --                         | taeejáo
  night                   | bong                       | tepóh
  darkness                | --                         | poóori-táoo
  morning                 | raán                       | tapa-taeejáo
  evening (little night)  | --                         | afee-afee
  wind                    | katchi-niang               | --
  lightning               | --                         | wooéela
  thunder                 | --                         | mána
  rain                    | katow                      | tamakee-tayóowa
  the rain approaches     | katow-bankoto              | --
  basket                  | kíam                       | --
  distilled spirit        | jakó-ni-wáee               | --
  fire                    | katchiniagey               | áfee
  water                   | peéel                      | wooáee
  hot water (also tea)    | peéel-karakara             | --
  earth, land             | tcháap                     | fanóoa
  sea                     | nantchéet                  | wooáee-táee
  hill                    | --                         | faka-maoona
  island                  | --                         | tama-fanóva
  stone, rock             | tákee                      | fátoo
  sand                    | pig                        | --
  iron                    | --                         | keela
  tree, wood              | toóee _or_ tóoka           | lagáoo
  sandal-wood             | tooka-pomow                | --
  trepang                 | meneeka                    | --
  red-trepang             | lekapasina-menelka-witata  | --
  inferior sort           | lognan                     | --
  best sort               | mayéen                     | --
  black sort              | matup                      | --
  trepang split open      | penapen                    | --
  pearl-oyster            | páee                       | --
  flesh                   | --                         | tayéeho
  human flesh             | --                         | takéery
  pig                     | piig (corrupted            | --
                          |   from the English)        |
  dog                     | --                         | koorée
  bird                    | --                         | looppi
  egg                     | --                         | tafóoa
  dove                    | móorie                     | --
  domestic fowl           | maleek                     | --
  fish                    | maáam                      | éeka
  fool                    | booy-booée                 | --
  hat                     | tchoroóp                   | --
  chisel                  | tcheela                    | --
  flask                   | jug (English)              | --
  calabash                | ay-júg                     | --
  book                    | ay-tíng                    | --
  box                     | koba                       | --
  native cucumber         | toor                       | --
  apron                   | goál                       | --
  fish-hook               | katcheen-mata              | --
  musical instrument      | katcháng                   | --
  a liar                  | lakoompót                  | --
  tortoise-shell          | katchinipoot               | masána
  mosquito                | --                         | namoo
  name                    | --                         | koái-to-máre
  what is your name?      | idiatoom?                  | --
  who are you?            | itch-kowa?                 | --
  voyage, journey         | --                         | mamao
  white                   | boot-a-boot                | mah
  white-man               | oolyn-way                  | tamamáh
  black                   | tintol                     | óoree
  black-man               | --                         | lama-ooree
  red                     | witáta                     | ayóola
  blue, green             | --                         | ayóoee
  yellow                  | --                         | kikana
  great                   | lappiláp                   | naneéoo
  small                   | madigidig                  | likée-likée
  strong                  | --                         | faee-mafée
  young                   | --                         | táaney
  young man               | --                         | tama-táaney
  good                    | mamó                       | ayláooe
  long                    | maréerie                   | --
  short                   | mootamóot                  | --
  old                     | --                         | matooa
  far                     | maloóot                    | ma-máo
  painfully alarmed       | matchek                    | --
  bad                     | metchiwate                 | fa-keeno-keeno
  beautiful               | katchilell                 | ayláosee
  dead                    | metchilárr                 | koomátie
  a dead man              | hóni                       | --
  bad odours              | --                         | puraóo
  ugly (bad)              | --                         | fa-keeno-keeno
  ill                     | tchoo-mo                   | áyeesoo
  living                  | --                         | ayláooee
  cold                    | --                         | makalili
  warm                    | kara                       | mafána
  hot                     | kara-kara                  | --
  I, me                   | nej                        | enáoo
  we                      | --                         | kohootóha
  thou                    | --                         | akóee
  he                      | --                         | támala
  ye or you               | noom                       | akoee
  they                    | kowa                       | --
  all                     | karootcheea                | kohoo-tóhoo
  much, many              | matóto                     | tama-kee
  seldom                  | malólo                     | --
  where?                  | áya?                       | --
  who?                    | --                         | sáya?
  who's there?            | --                         | sáya-táy?
  which                   | itch                       | --
  what?                   | ta?                        | --
  what does that cost?    | táa-ban-pyn?               | --
  to-day                  | raánauit                   | tai-jáoo
  this night              | neeboong                   | --
  near                    | --                         | taoo-preemáee
  yesterday               | eejáyo                     | na-náfee
  long since              | kelanáydgo                 | --
  to-morrow               | lo-koop                    | taya-sóakee
  yes                     | --                         | oh
  I know                  | nejereera-neekee           | --
  no                      | tchó                       | sáyaee
  I don't know            | nej-tyraneekee             | --
  how do you call this?   | togata mett?               | --
  enough, that's enough   | áare                       | --
  there is no more        | allatcher                  | --
  fast                    | bit-a-bit                  | --
  one                     | aáat                       | táahee
  two                     | aáree                      | róoah
  three                   | tchil                      | torah
  four                    | abáng                      | fah
  five                    | ayliéem                    | leemah
  six                     | oán                        | ono
  seven                   | etch                       | féetoo
  eight                   | ewal                       | wároo
  nine                    | atóooo                     | séewo
  ten                     | katingóol etchak           | katáwa
  eleven                  | katingóol-aát              | katáwa-táhee
  twelve                  | katingóol-árée             | katáwa-róoah
  thirteen                | katingóol-etchil           | katáwa-tóra
  twenty                  | ree-etchak                 | mata-róoah
  thirty                  | tchil-etchak               | mata-tórah
  forty                   | pa-etchak                  | mata-fáh
  fifty                   | lyeem-etchak               | mata-léema
  sixty                   | oán-etchak                 | mata-on
  hundred                 | a-bóokie                   | lou
  200                     | ree-a-bookie               | róoah-lou
  300                     | tchil-abookie              | --
  1000                    | ket                        | kutaíoa-lou
  5000                    | lyeem-a-ket                | --
  2,505                   | ree-a-ket-lyeem-a-         | --
                          |   bookie-elyéem            |
  5,090                   | lyéem-a-ket-átoooo-        | --
                          |   etchak                   |
  4,440                   | pa-a-ket-pa-a-bóokie-      | --
                          |    pa-etchak               |
  3,030                   | tchil-a-ket-tchil-etchak   | --
  9,740                   | atóooo-a-ket-etch-         | --
                          |   a-bóokie-pa-etchak       |
  10,990                  | nóooo-atóooo-a-bookie-     | --
                          |   atóooo-etchak            |
  to eat                  | namenám                    | káee
  to drink                | --                         | óonoo
  to run                  | --                         | saéeray
  to dance                | --                         | anóo
  to go                   | gota                       | anáaoo
  to go ashore            | gota-nancháp               | --
  to go up                | gota-wáai                  | --
  to descend              | goti-wáai                  | --
  I am going on board     | --                         | anáoo-gafáno
  I am going forward      | ny-ban-tchoomeláa          | --
  whither go you?         | go-leejáa?                 | --
  go on!                  | hugo-wáai!                 | --
  stand up!               | hóota!                     | --
  wait!                   | hooti-mas                  | --
  sit down                | mónti                      | --
  lie down                | wenti                      | --
  to write or tattoo      | ting                       | --
  to sing                 | --                         | bésse
  to sleep                | meriláh                    | mói
  to speak                | kalang                     | tóka
  to love                 | bukka-bukka                | anáoo-fifái-kikaói
  I do not love him       | éekah                      | --
  the dead                | kumméla                    | leékie-teéa
  It smells unpleasantly  | --                         | poor-áoo
  to steal                | lyppiráp                   | --
  to sit                  | --                         | nófo
  to stand                | --                         | anasáni
  to come                 | tongata                    | --
  come back!              | broto                      | --
  come here!              | ky-to                      | --
  to bathe                | tóo-tu                     | --
  to bring                | wáta                       | --
  to take                 | wá-waée                    | --
  night-mare              | loátch                     | --
  to give                 | kiáng                      | --
  give me                 | kitá                       | --
  you are giving          | kowa-kiáng                 | --



                         APPENDIX C. (p. 399.)

    FORM IN SPANISH OF THE AGREEMENT ENTERED INTO IN DUPLICATE,
    CHINESE AND SPANISH, AND SIGNED BY EACH CHINESE EMIGRANT BEFORE
    LEAVING MACAO.


  Nombre__________  Provincia__________

  Edad__________ Profesion__________

  DIGO YO__________    natural__________

en China, de edad de _____ años, que he convenido con Dn. F. VELEZ lo que
se espresa en las clausulas siguientes:

1^a. Quedo comprometido desde ahora á embarcarme para la HABANA en la Isla
de Cuba en el buque que me señale dicho Señor.

2^a. Quedo igualmente comprometido y sugeto por el termino de ocho años á
trabajar en dicho pais de la Isla de Cuba á las ordenes de la SOCIEDAD LA
COLONIZADORA ó á las de la persona á quien traspasare este Contrato para
lo cual la faculto, en todas las tareas alli acostumbradas, en el campo,
en las poblaciones, ó en donde quiera que me destinen, sea en casas
particulares, establecimientos de cualquiera clase de industria y artes, ó
bien en ingenios, vegas, cafetales, sitios, potreros, estancias y cuanto
concierne á las labores urbanas y rurales sea de la especie que fueren.

3^a. Los ocho años de compromiso que dejo contraidos en los terminos
espresados en la clausula anterior, principiarán á contarse desde el
octavo dia siguiente al de mi llegada al puerto citado de la HABANA,
siempre que yo llegare en buena salud, y desde el octavo dia siguiente al
de mi salida del hospital ó enfermeria, caso de llegar enfermo ó incapaz
de trabajar al tiempo de mi desembarco.

4^a. Las horas en que he de trabajar dependerán de la clase de trabajo que
se me dé, y segun las atencinoes que dicho trabajo requiera, lo cual queda
al arbitrio del patrono á cuyas ordenes se me ponga, siempre que se me dén
mis horas seguidas de descanso cada 24 horas, y el tiempo preciso a demas
para la comida y almuerzo, con arreglo á lo que en estas necesidades
inviertan los de mas trabajadores asalariados en aquel pais.

5^a. Ademas de las horas de descanso, en los dias de trabajo, no podrá
hacerseme desempeñar en los Domingos mas lavores que las denecesidad
practicadas en tales dias segun la indole de los que haceres en que me
ocupen.

6^a. Me sugeto igualmente al orden y disciplina que se observe en el
establecimiento, taller, finca ó casa particular adonde se me destine, y
me someto al sistema de coreccion que en los mismos se impone por faltas
de aplicacion y constancia en el trabajo, de obediencia á las ordenes de
los patronos ó de sus representantes, y por todas aquellas, cuja gravedad
no haga precisa la intervencion de las leyes.

7^a. Por ninguna razon ó por ningun pretesto podré, durante los ocho años
por los cuales quedo comprometido en este Contrato, negar mis servicios al
patron que me tome, ni á evadirme de su poder, ni á intentarlo siquiera
por ninguna causa, ni mediante ninguna indemnizacion, y para significar
mas mi voluntad de permanecer bajo su autoridad en los limites que en este
Contrato le doy, renuncio desde ahora el derecho de rescision de Contrato
que otorgan á los colonos los Articulos 27 y 28 de las Ordenanzas sobre
colonizacion promulgadas por S. M. la Reina DA. YSABEL 2^a. en 22 de Marzo
de 1854, y el que pudieran otorgarle cualquiera otra ley ó disposiciones
que en lo sucesivo se publicasen.

8^a. En cuanto á casos de enfermedad convengo y estipulo, que si esta
escede de una semana se me suspenda el salario, y que este no vuelva á
correrme hasta mi restablecimiento ó lo que es igual, hasta que mi salud
permita ocuparme en el servicio de mi patrono, no obstante el tenor de los
Articulos 43, 44 y 45 del Reglamento citado, pues tambien renuncio al
derecho que pudiesen otorgarme para ninguna otra ecsigencia que solo á
fuerza de tramites costosos y largos pudiera llegar á justificarse ó á ser
reprovada.

Dn. F. VELEZ se obliga poa su parte para conmigo:

1^a. Aque desde el dia en que principien á contarse los ocho años de mi
compromiso, principie tambien á correrme el salario de cuatro pesos al
mes.

2^a. Aque se me suministre de alimento cada dia ocho onzas de carne salada
y dos y media libras de boniatas ó de otras viandas sanas y alimenticias.

3^a. Aque durante mis enfermedades se me proporcione en la enfermeria la
asistencia que mis males reclamen con los ausilios, medicinas y
facultativo que mis dolencias y conservacion ecsijan fuere por el tiempo
que fueren.

4^a. Aque se me dén dos mudas de ropa, una camisa de lana y una frazada
anuales.

5^a. Será de cuenta del mismo Señor y por la de quien corresponda mi
pasage hasta la HABANA y mi manutencion á bordo.

6^a. El mismo Señor me adelantará la cantidad de ocho pesos fuertes para
mi abilitation al viage que voi á emprender.

7^a. Tambien me dará cuatro mudas de ropa, colcha y de mas avios
necesarios, cujo importe de pesos 4 con los de la clausula anterior hacen
la suma de pesos doce, la misma que satisfaré en la HABANA á la orden de
la SOCIEDAD LA COLONIZADORA con un peso al mes que se descontará de mi
salario por la persona á quien fuere traspasado este Contrato,
entendiéndose que por ningun otro concepto podrá hacerseme descuento
alguno.

DECLARO haber recibido en efectivo y en ropa segun se espresa en la ultima
clausula la suma de pesos doce mencionados que reintegraré en la HABANA en
la forma establecida en dicha clausula.

DECLARO tambien que me conformo con el salario estipulado, aunque sé y me
consta es mucho mayor el que ganan los jornaleros libres y los esclavos en
la Isla da Cuba, porque esta diferencia la juzgo compensada con las otras
ventajas que ha de proporcionarme mi patrono, y las que aparecen en este
Contrato.

Y en fé de que cumpliremos mutuamente lo que queda pactado en este
documento firmamos dos de un tenor y para un solo efecto ambos
contratantes en ______ á _____ de 18__.

                                   POR LA SOCIEDAD LA COLONIZADORA.


                      TRANSLATION OF THE FOREGOING.

  Name________________________   Province__________________

  Age___ Business or occupation____________________

I, the under-signed____________ born at__________ in China ____years old,
have entered into an agreement with Don F. Velez, upon the following
conditions, viz.--

1. I engage from the date hereof to embark for the Havannah in the island
of Cuba in whatever ship the before-mentioned gentleman may appoint.

2. I further promise and engage during the space of eight years to work in
the said country of Cuba under the orders and regulations of the
Colonization Society, or of the person to whom the present agreement may
be assigned, and to perform all necessary agricultural labour in the
settlement, or wheresoever I may be ordered so to do, whether in a private
house or in any description of industrial enterprise, or in factories, in
plantations, in coffee-gardens, at country-seats, or on pasturage grounds,
and generally all manner of labour, whether in town or country, of what
description soever it may consist.

3. The eight years during which I bind myself to labour under the
conditions specified in the last preceding paragraph shall be held to
commence eight days after my disembarkation in the aforesaid harbour of
the Havannah, it being always understood that I have been landed in good
health, or else shall commence on the eighth day after my discharge from
hospital, in the event of my having landed in ill health or incapable of
working.

4. The hours during which I bind myself to labour shall depend upon the
nature of the work which I shall be required to perform, and the degree of
special attention which such work may require, or may be determined on his
own responsibility by the master under whose orders I may be placed,
provided always that I am permitted to enjoy certain hours of repose
during every 24 hours, and certain fixed periods for breakfast and dinner,
similar to those assigned to other paid labourers in that country.

5. Besides my hours of rest and recreation during work days, I shall not
be bound to do any work upon Sundays, beyond such necessary labour as may
seem to be requisite in the opinion of my employer or employers.

6. I also bind myself to submit to the orders and discipline which may be
in force in the house of business, farm, or private house in which I am
employed, and further agree that I shall be amenable to such _system of
punishment_ as may be in force in such localities for the correction of
indolence, absence from work, disobedience to the orders of any employers
or their agents, as also for all such minor offences as may not call for
the intervention of the law.

7. On no account whatever, and under no circumstances, shall it be lawful
for me during the aforesaid period of eight years for which I hereby bind
myself, to absent myself from my employer's service, or to withdraw or
escape from his authority, or under any circumstance or under any
provocation to complain against him, and in order to render more binding
upon me this declaration of my voluntary obedience to all these
provisions, I _renounce_ from the date of the present subscription the
right to rescind the provisions of this contract secured to emigrants by
articles 27 and 28 of the ordinances on colonization promulgated by H. M.
Queen Isabella II., 22 March, 1854, as also any similar rights that may be
secured to emigrants by any laws or official documents published or to be
published in reference thereto.

8. In case of sickness or infirmity I agree and declare that I fully
consent that if such illness shall exceed one week in duration, my wages
shall be stopped, and shall remain suspended until my recovery, or, which
is the same thing, until such time as my health permits me to re-enter the
service of my employer, without having recourse to the articles 43, 44,
and 45 of the aforesaid regulations, my rights under which I forego by the
last preceding paragraph, and do again _renounce_.

Don F. Velez for his part engages with me:--

1. That from the day on which my said term of eight years' service begins,
my wages shall be paid at the rate of four Spanish piastres monthly.

2. That there shall be provided me daily eight ounces of salt meat and two
and a half pounds Boniatas (_Jatropha Manihot_), or other equally good and
nutritious food.

3. That in the event of illness I shall be provided in the hospital with
such things as my case may require, and in particular with all medicines,
&c., necessary to restore me to health, so long as my illness may last.

4. That I shall be supplied annually with two pairs of trowsers, one
woollen shirt, and one woollen coat.

5. That my passage to the Havannah and maintenance while on board shall
be defrayed at the expense of my employer or his agent or representative.

6. That my employer shall further pay me eight dollars in order to enable
me to provide necessaries for the said voyage; and further,

7. That he shall provide me with four pairs of trowsers and a coverlet,
the same not to exceed four dollars, making with the preceding the sum of
12 dollars, which 12 dollars I bind myself to repay to the order of the
Colonization Society, by means of a monthly instalment of one dollar paid
by the person with whom my labour shall be contracted for, but upon the
further condition that no other deduction whatever shall be made from my
said monthly pay.

I hereby declare that, in conformity with the preceding paragraph, I have
received by way of cash advance and in clothing the equivalent of the said
12 dollars, which, as already stipulated, shall be repaid by me at the
Havannah.

I also declare that I am perfectly satisfied with the aforesaid payment,
although I am aware, and it is well known, that the free labourers, as
also the negro slaves, in the island of Cuba, are paid a much larger wage.
But I consider myself recompensed for this difference by the other
advantages which my employer binds himself to secure to me, and which are
set forth in the present contract. And in witness that we on either side
engage that the provisions hereof shall be duly and faithfully carried
out, we subscribe on that behalf two copies of similar purport this ____
day of ____ 18__.

                                  For the Colonization Society, __________

                                         Signature of emigrant, __________



                     APPENDIX D. (pp. 539-548).

    DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPHOON ENCOUNTERED IN THE CHINESE SEAS, BY
    H.I.R.M.'s FRIGATE NOVARA, ON THE 18TH AND 19TH AUGUST, 1858.


The path of the typhoon has been deduced from comparison with the readings
of the barometer, with which it corresponds pretty accurately, if due
allowance be made for the fact, that in determining it the various
directions in which the line of centres runs must be calculated on the
supposition that the orbit of the cyclone is circular, which it is not in
reality, since at any considerable distance from the centre it must be
elliptical. Hence it is apparent that the rate of velocity of the cyclone
in advancing along its path follows no fixed law, whereas some such
regularity undoubtedly exists among the masses of air encountered by the
cyclone. Hence too the errors thus made in specifying the direction of the
wind become of considerable importance in this connection, more especially
in the event of the place of observation being at any distance from the
centre, or that the path of the cyclone forms a sharp angle when wheeling
round. Moreover, as actually experienced, the path of the typhoon would
lie more near the line of the points of observation than a sketch founded
upon such observations would indicate, and than a general comparison of
the paths of cyclones founded upon the theory of their gyratory motion
would substantiate, except in those cases where the observer has been
directly in the path of the cyclone.

In our case the absolute distances, as specified in the annexed table (see
p. 490) of fifteen different stations taken during the three days during
which the cyclone and its premonitory and subsequent symptoms lasted, are
only assumed, because simultaneous observations of the varying directions
of the wind could not be taken at various points of the course of the
cyclone, and in so far may be inaccurate, although the relative distances
might possibly be tolerably correct.

The observations as to the direction of the wind at noon of the 18th
August and at the ensuing midnight, give results contradictory to the
theory, since the wind in both cases is almost the same as would at
midnight of the 19th indicate a central point, falling actually behind
that portion of the path of the line of centres already traversed on the
18th. Upon this showing the direction of the wind at 6 P.M. of the 18th
may be assumed as that of the centre of the cyclone. In fact, the path of
the cyclone at this point lay parallel with the course the ship was
holding, whence only trifling variations would be observable in the
direction of the wind at those periods. Besides, the cyclone was at that
time approaching the vertex of its orbit, in doing which it encountered
the large and tolerably lofty island of Okinawa-Sima of the Loo-Choo
group, which must have resulted in a certain expenditure of the force
causing the gyratory movement of the cyclone. In analyzing the path of the
cyclone, account must also be taken of the winds that prevailed from the
17th August up to midnight, although these are to be considered, with
respect to the cyclone proper, only in so far as they were winds that had
been altered in direction at the origin of the typhoon in conformity with
the laws of cyclones, which by no means imply in all cases a perfect
gyration. However, as these winds are varied in direction by the same
causes which are in full activity in the case of the cyclones, such
variations must follow the same laws, and the lines of centres which
present themselves with reference to these as parts of a circular orbit,
naturally lie in the same direction as that of the cyclone at its origin.

As early as the 13th August a marked alteration in the temperature of the
air had been perceptible at Shanghai; the thermometer fell from between
86° and 95° Fahr. to between 73°.4 and 78°.8 Fahr.: easterly breezes set
in, and the barometer rose in a remarkable manner for that latitude and
season. On the 17th the weather was still fine, but the sun set red and
fiery behind a dense mass of clouds.

The morning of the 18th broke with continued fine weather; but cumulous
clouds were massed on the sky, and looked black and threatening to the
N.E. By 8 A.M. the wind and sea had both risen materially. By 3 P.M. the
roll of the sea was from N. by E., the sky became still more cloudy, and
the clouds began to descend; banks of clouds in the direction of the
central point. At midnight between the 18th and 19th altered course to W.
by S., in order to run out of the cyclone by reaching its southern edge.

On the 19th at 8 A.M. a heavy sea from the northward, the sky a dense mass
of clouds with very limited horizon; the whole aspect of the heavens a
grey misty wrack of clouds, gradually falling lower and lower,--only in
the direction of the central point was there visible a gloomy,
leaden-coloured segment of clear horizon. From 4 P.M. to 8 P.M. the clouds
completely enveloped us, so that it was barely possible to descry an
object a cable's length from the ship; constant gusts of wind with fine
rain or sea-spray; very heavy sea from the west, but the waves fairly
decapitated by the wind as fast as they rose. By 11 P.M. a few dark clouds
became visible in the S.S.E., and the horizon began to widen again.

20th. The sky still covered; in the west, white parallel bands of clouds,
forming segments of circles: the masts and rigging covered with a crust of
evaporated salt.

                         17th August.

  Hours        Mean                Direction            Strength
  from         pressure            of wind.             of wind
  midnight     of                                       0 to 10.
  to           atmosphere.
  midnight.

    1           29.908             S.E. 3/4 E.          3.5
    2             .912             S.E. by E. 1/4 E.    3.5
    3             .915             S.E. by E. 1/4 E.    3.5
    4             .917             S.E. by E. 1/2 E.    2.5
    5             .914             S.E. by E. 1/4 E.    2.5
    6             .913             E.S.E.               2.5
    7             .909             S.E. by E. 3/4 E.    2.5
    8             .899             E.S.E.               3.
    9             .886             S.E. by E. 1/2 E.    3.
   10             .878             E. by S. 1/4 S.      3.
   11             .869             E. 3/4 S.            3.
   12M.           .860             E. 1/4 S.            3.
    1             .852             E. 1/2 S.            3.5
    2             .853             E. 1/2 S.            3.5
    3             .848             E.                   3.2
    4             .834             E. 1/2 N.            4.
    5             .817             E.N.E.               4.
    6           29.808             E.N.E.               4.
    7             .810             N.E. by E. 1/4 E.    4.
    8             .812             N.E. by E. 1/4 E.    3.5
    9             .812             N.E. by E.           3.5
   10             .806             N.E. by E. 1/2 E.    3.5
   11             .795             E.N.E.               3.5
   12             .784             E.N.E.               3.5

                       18th August.

    1           29.779             E. by N.             3.5
    2             .771             E. by N.             3.2
    3             .762             E. by N.             3.2
    4             .758             E. by N.             3.2
    5             .751             E. by N.             3.5
    6             .740             N.E. by E. 1/2 E.    3.5
    7             .721             N.E. by E.           4.
    8             .696             N.E. by E.           4.5
    9           29.666             N.E. by E.           5.
   10             .640             N.E.                 5.2
   11             .612             N.E. 1/2 N.          5.7
   12M.           .581             N.E. by N.           6.5
    1             .548             N.E. by N. 1/2 N.    5.
    2             .526             N.E. by N.           6.5
    3             .50              N.                   7.5
    4             .482             N. by E.             7.
    5             .459             N.E. by N.           7.5
    6             .435             N.E. by N.           8.
    7             .421             N.E. by N.           8.
    8             .411             N.E. by N.           8.
    9             .408             N.E. by N.           8.
   10             .405             N.E. 3/4 N.          8.5
   11             .401             N.E. 1/2 N.          8.7
   12             .375             N.E. 1/2 N.          8.7

                        19th August.

    1           29.306             N.E. by N.           5.7
    2             .319             N. by E.             8.
    3             .335             N. by E.             7.
    4             .351             N.                   7.5
    5             .364             N. 1/2 E.            7.2
    6             .376             N.                   7.2
    7             .383             N. by W.             6.5
    8             .376             N. by W. 1/2 W.      7.2
    9             .361             N.N.W.               7.7
   10             .347             N.N.W.               8.
   11           29.324             N.W.                 8.
   12M.           .295             N.W.                 8.
    1             .268             N.W. 1/2 W.          7.7
    2             .252             N.W. by W.           7.5
    3             .238             N.W. by W.           7.7
    4             .223             N.W. by W. 1/2 W.    7.7
    5             .220             W. by N. 1/2 N.      8.
    6             .221             W. by N. 1/2 N.      8.
    7             .225             W. by N. 1/2 N.      8.
    8             .229             W. by N.             8.5
    9             .233             W.                   8.5
   10             .243             W.                   8.5
   11             .256             W.                   8.5
   12             .282             W. by S.             9.

                     20th August to noon.

    1           29.351             W. by S. 1/2 S.      9.
    2             .363             W. by S.             9.
    3             .375             W. by S.             9.
    4             .413             W. by S.             9.
    5             .437             W.S.W.               7.5
    6             .457             S.W. by W.           7.
    7             .457             S.W. 1/2 W.          6.
    8             .471             S.W.                 6.
    9             .489             S.W. 1/2 S.          6.5
   10             .505             S.W. 1/2 S.          6.5
   11             .512             S.W. 1/2 S.          6.5
   12M.           .515             S.W. 1/2 S.          6.5

The barometric readings are corrected to the freezing-point density of the
atmosphere, as also to the level of the ocean, and are further reduced by
comparison with the Standard Barometer at the New Observatory. They are
also relieved of a source of error arising from the regular decline for
each day of the barometer, as evidenced by the observations made during
June and July, 1858, in mean latitude 23° 52' N., mean longitude 119° 12'
E. This downward tendency will be apparent from the following readings for
each hour:--for 1h. (A.M.) - 0.004, 2h. - 0.005, 3h. - 0.0012, 4h. -0.015,
5h. - 0.012, 6h. - 0.006, 7h. - 0.02, 8h. - 0.012, 9h. - 0.021, 10h.
-0.02, 11h. - 0.018, noon - 0.015, 1h. - 0.008, 2h. - 0.007, 3h. -0.021,
4h. - 0.025, 5h. - 0.023, 6h. - 0.015, 7h. - 0.008, 8h. - 0.001, 9h.
-0.008, 10h. - 0.014, 11h. - 0.015, 12h. (midnight) - 0.011. These
quantities are to be read as implying that when added to or deducted from
those supplied by actual observations, they result in the quantities
already assigned as the corrected averages for the day. The direction as
well as strength of the wind are copied from the averages as calculated by
the Commodore from the ship's log, the meteorological journals and the
daily postings made by the Commodore himself.

       *       *       *       *       *

According to the delineation of the path of the cyclone, as prepared from
the observations recorded, the following table, already referred to, gives
the approximative distance of the ship at stated points from such central
path, as compared with that deduced from barometrical observations,
allowing for the differences already mentioned. In the case of the
wind-pressure, the average is deduced from the mean of successive
observations taken every hour, and for the most part divided into
intervals of three hours each.

                               Distance.   Air-     Difference.  Distance
                                         pressure.               according
                                                                 to curve.

   1   17th August  4 A.M.       336     29.915 in.               336
   2   "    "       noon.        297       .860       0.055       300
   3   18th "       midnight.    265       .783        .132       257
   4   "    "       6 A.M.       230       .736        .178       233
   5   "    "       9 A.M.       205       .667        .248       205
   6   "    "       6 P.M.       153       .438        .477       153
   7   19th "       3 A.M.       140       .335        .580       138
   8   "    "       5 A.M.       148       .364        .551       142
   9   "    "       8 A.M.       146       .373        .542       143
  10   "    "       noon.        125       .296        .619       130
  11   "    "       3 P.M.       123       .238        .677       122
  12   "    "       6 P.M.       134       .222        .693       138
  13   "    "       9 P.M.       148       .235        .680       144
  14   20th "       midnight.    183       .296        .619       183
  15   "    "       6 A.M.       313       .450        .465       313

The minimum pressure according to the curve would be 28.975, but must
actually have been less. According to the strict reading it would result
that all radii before reaching the point where nearest the central path,
as also all those in the same half-circle after such central line has been
crossed, should have the same value, whatever the direction, which if
rigidly asserted cannot be correct, since the motion of a cyclone is truly
circular only in the immediate vicinity of its central point. As that
point is receded from, the motion becomes more or less elliptical, as is
attested by the barometric differences, which had the cyclone been a true
circle in all its parts ought to be similar for similar distances. This it
is admitted is not the case, as the barometric pressure shows a marked
decline in the earlier part of a cyclone the more rapidly the central line
is approached, just as it rises again once that line has been passed.

For this reason the distances as assigned upon a line of curves deduced
from the foregoing observations must be too great, especially those which
are calculated at right angles to the path of the typhoon, because
perpendiculars drawn at right angles to the varying directions of the wind
must intersect each other at points more distant than the actual central
point of the cyclone itself.

       *       *       *       *       *

To the foregoing may be appended a few extracts recounting the damage done
by the great typhoon of 27th July, 1862, from which some idea may be
formed of the tremendous violence and destructive effects of this
description of atmospheric agency.

_From London and China Telegraph, 29th Sept., 1862._

"A dreadful typhoon occurred at Canton on 27th July, 1862. The destruction
of life and property is immense, the loss of life in the city and
neighbourhood being estimated at about forty thousand. In the telegram
which was received a few days ago announcing this event, a query was
placed, and very reasonably, after the number stated; but the press state
that as far as inquiries have been made at present it is probably correct.
The loss of life has chiefly occurred amongst the junk population, and the
fine new fleet of forty Imperial junks, intended for the Yang-tse-kiang,
has been destroyed. The water rose till the streets of Honam had three
feet in them, but the buildings suffered less than might have been
expected; some two or three hundred feet of the granite wall at Shameen
was washed away, and blocks of stone were driven about as if they had been
billets of wood; houses in the city had also been blown down, and trees
rooted up; the rice crops have suffered severely; and the total damage may
be estimated in millions of dollars. Mr. Gaillard, an American Missionary,
was killed by the falling in of his house; and the residences of the Rev.
Messrs. Bonney and Piercey were thrown down, a large junk having been
driven up against them. At Whampoa the docks were all flooded, while the
workshops attached were unroofed and otherwise injured. From the _China
Mail_, which gives a long and graphic description of this disastrous
visitation, we extract the following:--'The British brig _Mexicana_
capsized in Hall and Co.'s dock, and lies on her beam-ends; the British
ship _Dewa Gungadhur_ is lying on her side in Gow and Co.'s dock; the
British steamer _Antelope_, in the Chinese dock at the corner of Junk
River, has her bow run up over the head of the dock, and her stern at an
angle of thirty degrees into it; the British steamer _Bombay Castle_ was
washed off the blocks in Couper's wooden dock, and was scuttled by her
captain to save her from being floated out of the dock; the American ship
_Washington_ is aground, blocking up the entrance to the Chinese dock in
Junk River; the American ship _Jacob Bell_ and British barque _Cannata_
are high on a mud flat, dry at low water--the latter making water, and
discharging her cargo; the new British steamer _Whampoa_ broke from her
moorings and went ashore, but has since been got off without injury.
Several chops sunk, and five of the foreign Customs' inspectors were
drowned. Many junks went down with all hands. Bamboo-town is entirely
destroyed, the water having flooded it to the depth of six feet, and swept
off a great number of its inhabitants. It is greatly to be feared that the
disasters among the shipping outside will prove something frightful, and
that many vessels now anxiously expected have either been driven on the
rocks and gone to pieces or have foundered at sea. Already, it will have
been observed, one dismasted vessel, the Danish brig _Hercules_, has come
in; and more may be looked for in the course of the next fortnight. The
_Iskandershah_ is on shore in the river, close to Tiger Island, a little
above the Bogue.' One writer says the city looks just as it did after the
bombardment by Admiral Seymour, and that there has not been such a typhoon
since 1832.

"The typhoon which visited Canton so severely also committed great ravages
at the port of Macao. The loss of life was very great. Many junks were
sunk or driven ashore, and their crews drowned. The _Chilo_, a British
ship engaged in the rice trade, went ashore, and is a total wreck; and
another vessel was also reported lost. The wharves have suffered severely,
and houses were blown down. A letter, dated 28th July, says:--'Yesterday
morning a very strong typhoon did a great deal of damage here. The new sea
wall on the Praia Grande stood it well, except in one place; but the old
one, which has stood so many typhoons before, is now nearly entirely
broken down; also Messrs. De Mello and Co.'s wharf. Some houses have come
down, and trees on the Praia and other places have lost nearly all their
branches. The British barque _Chilo_ got ashore outside, and has parted
amidships; about 100 piculs copper cash have been saved from her cargo.
The steamer _Syce_ is ashore in the inner harbour, but without damage. A
good many junks and boats have capsized or been dismasted, and a great
many lives lost. The appearance of the Praia Grande after the typhoon was
really astonishing. We had a very short notice or indication of a typhoon.
On Saturday night the wind commenced to blow from N.E., but not before
Sunday morning, about a quarter past four, did the barometer go down, and
it stood at 8 A.M. at 28.60; thermometer 81. At about 10 A.M. it was
blowing hardest from S.W., and caused the greatest damage.'"



                               VOL. III.

                         APPENDIX I. (p. 13.)

    _The following reprint (by permission) from the columns of the
    "Spectator" of 11th Oct. and 25th Oct., 1862, conveys so
    accurate an idea of the achievements of the gallant and lamented
    Burke and Wills, and of the mismanagement that led to their
    disastrous fate, that no apology is needed for inserting it
    here._


            THE AUSTRALIAN EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1860.[159]

                 (_Spectator, 11th and 25th Oct., 1862._)

"Those who are interested--and who is not?--in the history of the latest
and most successful of Australian exploring expeditions will find the
principal materials requisite for the satisfaction of their curiosity in
the small volume now before us. The special interest attaching to this
particular expedition lies in the striking contrast which it presents
between the perfect success of its leaders and their melancholy end.
Having accomplished their arduous task of traversing the Australian
continent from south to north, Messrs. Burke and Wills returned to their
starting-point, only to find that the dépôt which they had established
there had been abandoned by their companions less than twelve hours before
their arrival. Utterly broken down by privation and fatigue, and
disappointed of the succour on which they had confidently relied, they
were unable to traverse the comparatively trifling distance which
separated them from the settled districts, and, after some weeks of
hopeless wandering, they were literally starved to death when almost
within sight of aid. The story of these few weeks, as contained in the
scanty records left by Messrs. Burke and Wills, and in the statement made
by their sole surviving companion, is one of the most touching narratives
of human fortitude that we have ever met with. The feeling of sympathy,
almost painful in its intensity, which it necessarily excites, is
immediately followed by a desire to ascertain the precise quarter in
which the gross neglect which alone could have rendered such a
catastrophe possible can justly be charged. It is to this point that we
propose mainly to direct the remarks which we have to make on Mr.
Jackson's volume; and we shall recapitulate the history of the expedition
only so far as is absolutely necessary to render our observations
generally intelligible.

"The exploring party left Melbourne on August 20, 1860. It was accompanied
by a number of camels, which had been imported for the purpose, on the
supposition that these animals would be peculiarly fitted to bear the
privations incidental to such a journey. The party was headed by Mr.
Robert O'Hara Burke. Mr. Landells, who had charge of the camels, was
second in command; and the third officer was Mr. William John Wills, who
also acted as astronomical and meteorological observer to the expedition.
On September 23 they reached Menindie, on the Darling river, about 400
miles from Melbourne. Here Mr. Landells, in consequence of some
disagreement with Mr. Burke, resigned his post; and Dr. Beckler, the
medical officer to the expedition, declined to go any further. Hereupon
Burke appointed Wills in Landells' place, and divided his party, leaving
one section at Menindie, in charge of Beckler, while he, with Wills and
six others, pushed on, on October 19, for Cooper's Creek, about 400 miles
further north, under the guidance of one Wright, a man acquainted with the
country, whom he met with on the spot. On October 31, when about half-way
between Menindie and Cooper's Creek, Burke appointed Wright third officer,
and sent him back to the Darling, with instructions to bring up the
remainder of the party and stores to Cooper's Creek without delay. He then
pushed on, and reached the Creek on November 11. He remained here about a
month, and then again divided his party. Three men, six camels, and twelve
horses were left at the dépôt on the Creek, under the command of Mr.
Brahé, whose instructions were to remain till Burke's return, or until he
was forced to retreat by want of provisions. Burke started on December 16,
taking with him Wills, King, and Gray, six camels, one horse, and
provisions for three months, which was the time he expected to be absent;
but he told Brahé that he might be away four months, or even more. On
February 11, 1861, he reached a point only a few miles from the shore of
the Gulf of Carpentaria, and thus accomplished his mission of entirely
crossing the Australian Continent from south to north. He at once retraced
his steps, and arrived at the dépôt in Cooper's Creek on April 21,
accompanied by Wills and King, Gray having died a few days before. They
found that Brahé had quitted his post that very morning, and started for
the Darling, leaving some provisions buried at the foot of a tree, on
which he had cut an inscription indicating the fact. The exhausted
explorers debated what they had best do. Wills and King wished to make for
Menindie; but Burke, thinking that, weak as they were, it was hopeless to
try to overtake Brahé, decided to push for the nearest settled districts
of South Australia, distant about 150 miles. This they did on April 23,
having left a note in Brahé's _cache_, but without adding anything to his
inscription on the tree, or leaving any distinct intimation that they had
ever been there. But the enterprise was beyond their strength. They were
so weak that they could not advance more than five or six miles a day;
their camels knocked up, their provisions ran short; and, finally, Burke
died on July 1st, Wills having succumbed a day or two earlier. King, the
sole survivor, fell in with the natives, who treated him kindly; and he
was rescued on September 15th by a party sent from Melbourne in search of
him, under the guidance of Mr. Howitt.

"We must now return to Mr. Wright, and see how he carried out the
instructions given him by his chief. Mr. Burke, as we have already said,
sent him back to Menindie on October 31, 1860; and he reached that place
on November 5. Here, in the teeth of Burke's orders to bring the rest of
the party on to Cooper's Creek _without delay_, he remained inactive until
January 26, 1861, when he appears to have moved northward. He never,
however, got further than Bullo, a place about sixty miles south of
Cooper's Creek, where Mr. Brahé fell in with him on April 29, and at once
placed himself under his orders. Two days later Wright left Bullo, and
moved a few miles further south, "not seeing the utility of pushing on the
dépôt to Cooper's Creek for the purpose of remaining there the few weeks
their stores would last." On May 3, at Brahé's suggestion, Wright and he
returned to the dépôt on Cooper's Creek, taking no stores with them. They
remained there a quarter of an hour, did not examine the _cache_, and
then, seeing no signs of Burke having been there, rejoined the rest of
their party, and made their way back to the Darling, whence Brahé at once
proceeded to Melbourne. On hearing his report, the Exploration Committee
lost no time in despatching the relief party, under Mr. Howitt, which, as
we have already said, discovered King in the following September.

"After the foregoing brief summary of the facts of the case, the reader
will probably have but little difficulty in coming to the conclusion that
the death of Messrs. Burke and Wills was, in great measure, owing to Mr.
Wright's having so unaccountably neglected to obey the distinct
instructions of his chief. Mr. Jackson, indeed, holds that no one but
Wright was at all to blame in the matter. Nay, he even goes so far as to
accuse Wright of having wilfully and deliberately left the leaders of the
expedition to a fate which he must have known would be the natural result
of his inaction. 'Can any reasonable person,' he asks, 'doubt that Wright
knew perfectly well the exact nature of his instructions, and foresaw the
disastrous consequences almost certain to ensue should they be
disregarded.' This very serious charge is based upon a passage in a
despatch from Mr. Wright to the Exploration Committee at Melbourne, dated
Dec. 19th, in which he says:--'As I have every reason to believe that Mr.
Burke has pushed on from Cooper's Creek, relying upon finding the dépôt
stores at that water-course upon his return, there is room for the most
serious apprehensions as to the safety of himself and party, should he
find that he has miscalculated.' This passage seems at least to prove that
Wright had fully comprehended both the meaning and the object of the
instructions he had received, _to return to Menindie, and bring up the
stores as rapidly as possible to Cooper's Creek_. In the teeth of these
positive orders he remained at Menindie no less than eighty-two days, from
Nov. 5th, 1860, to Jan. 26th, 1861, doing literally nothing at all. There
was, as far as we can see, nothing to prevent him from reaching Cooper's
Creek with a portion of the stores before the end of 1860. The distance
from Menindie to the Creek is about 400 miles, and Mr. Burke had traversed
it without difficulty in twenty-three days. When Burke left Cooper's Creek
on December 16th, he was in daily expectation of Wright's arrival. Had
this reasonable expectation been fulfilled, there would then have been no
reason why Brahé should not have remained at the dépôt for six months, or
even a longer time. Wright appears to have spent a considerable portion of
the time which he wasted at Menindie in making trips to see his wife and
family, who were at a station about twenty-one miles off, being troubled
with fears that they would not get safely and comfortably to Adelaide,
whither he wished to send them. The explanation by which he subsequently
endeavoured to account for his delay was anything but satisfactory. In the
despatch already referred to, dated Dec. 29th, he alleged that he 'delayed
starting merely because the camels left behind by Mr. Brahé were too few
in number, and too inferior in carrying powers, to carry out a really
serviceable quantity of provisions.' When, however, he was examined by the
Commissioners appointed to inquire into the affair, he stated that he
remained at Menindie because he was waiting for the confirmation of his
appointment as third officer. When pressed to reconcile these two
statements, and reminded that, unless he could do so satisfactorily, he
'stood in an awkward position before the Commission,' he made no reply.
When at last he did set out from Menindie, we have seen that he advanced
no further than Bullo, where he was joined by Brahé on April 29th. In
explanation of this circumstance, he urges that Burke had left Menindie at
a favourable season, when water was abundant; while when he started the
advance of summer had dried up all the water-courses, and the ravages of
scurvy had reduced the effective strength of his party to an alarming
extent. This statement is, no doubt, substantially true; but we need
hardly observe that it rather aggravates than extenuates his offence.
Since he was well acquainted with the country, and knew that the advance
of summer would immensely increase the difficulty of traversing it, he is
all the more inexcusable for not having attempted the journey before the
hot weather set in. When, after having been joined by Brahé, he paid a
final visit to Cooper's Creek, the careless manner in which he conducted
the search almost drives us to the conclusion that he was completely
indifferent to its result. It was at Brahé's suggestion that he went back
at all. Then though both he and Brahé were mounted, and were accompanied
by a spare pack-horse, he did not, although the contingency of finding
Burke's party was the sole object of his journey, attempt to provide for
it by taking with him any stores of any kind. On reaching the dépôt, he
stayed there only a quarter of an hour, and then, having failed in that
time to discover any trace of Burke's party, at once turned his back on
the Creek. It is scarcely possible to imagine how, under such
circumstances, he could have omitted to examine the _cache_ made by Brahé
a few days before, in which case he would have discovered that Burke's
party had returned to the Creek, and would have learnt the direction in
which they had gone. When questioned on this point by the Commissioners,
he replied that he had noticed traces of natives about the place, and
feared that if he disturbed the ground where the stores were hid they
would see that something was buried there, and would plunder the _cache_.
He 'had not the presence of mind,' he went on, to add any mark of his own
to the inscription which Brahé had cut upon the tree. He seems, in fact,
to have been thoroughly sick of the whole business, and to have thought of
nothing but getting back to the settled districts with all possible speed.

"We must now inquire what amount of blame can be fairly attached to Mr.
Brahé, whose departure from Cooper's Creek was the immediate cause of the
melancholy end of Messrs. Burke and Wills. He appears to have received
instructions to remain at the Creek until the return of Burke's party, or,
at any rate, until the failure of his provisions obliged him to retreat.
Burke fixed three months as the probable duration of his absence; but
Wills seems to have impressed upon Brahé that it was quite possible they
might have been away for at least four months. Brahé did actually remain
there more than four months--from December 16th to April 21st;--but he
left before he was absolutely compelled to do so. Even supposing him not
to have overrated the supply of provisions necessary to carry his party
back to the Darling, he could clearly have remained until he had consumed
the stores which he left behind him at the Creek. But we must not forget
that he was placed in a very difficult position. One of his companions was
dangerously ill, and had for some time beset him with entreaties to return
to Menindie; and all his party seem to have thought it very doubtful
whether Burke would return that way at all. In Brahé's diary, on April
18th, we find the entry, 'There is no probability of Mr. Burke returning
this way.' Here the observation suggests itself that, had this been his
real conviction, there was no occasion for him to deprive himself of the
stores which he left behind him. Mr. Jackson points out that the letter
left by Brahé in the _cache_ at the Creek did not give a true account of
the condition of his party. In it Brahé said that they were all quite
well except one, and that the camels and horses were in good working
condition. It was this intelligence which induced Burke to decide to make
a push for South Australia. Had he known that Brahé's party, both men and
beasts, were really in a weak and exhausted state, as the slowness of
their rate of progression appears to prove, he would probably have decided
to follow in their track. Since Brahé was under Wright's command at the
time of their final return to Cooper's Creek, the lamentable carelessness
which, as we have already said, was displayed on that occasion, cannot
fairly be laid to his charge. It is almost impossible for us, with the
full knowledge of all the circumstances which we now possess, not to allow
our judgment to be influenced by the fact that, if Brahé had postponed his
departure for a few hours only, the melancholy catastrophe would not have
occurred. If, however, we wish to judge him fairly, we must not forget
that this is a fact of which, at the time of his departure, he was
necessarily ignorant. On the whole, we are inclined to agree with the
verdict pronounced in his case by the Commissioners who were appointed to
inquire into the affair. 'His decision,' they say, 'was most unfortunate;
but we believe he acted from a conscientious desire to discharge his duty,
and we are confident that the painful reflection that twenty-four hours'
further perseverance would have made him the rescuer of the explorers, and
gained for himself the praise and approbation of all, must be of itself an
agonizing thought, without the addition of censure he might feel himself
undeserving of.'

"We have now to inquire into the manner in which Mr. Burke discharged his
duties as leader of the expedition, with a view of ascertaining whether
its melancholy termination can, in any degree, be traced to any fault,
whether of omission or of commission, on his part. If we are willing to
submit ourselves absolutely to Mr. Jackson's guidance, we may, indeed,
spare ourselves this trouble; for he asserts most distinctly that Mr.
Burke invariably did what was best under existing circumstances, and that
he never neglected any precaution which could tend in any way to bring his
undertaking to a successful issue. But we must remember that Mr. Jackson
comes forward as the avowed advocate of Mr. Burke; and, while we are not
one whit behind him in enthusiastic admiration for the energy and
self-devotion displayed by his hero, we must not allow our respect for
these qualities to blind us to any defects which we think we can detect in
the conduct of the expedition. The report of the Commission, appointed by
the Victorian Government to inquire into the circumstances connected with
the death of Burke and Wills, finds fault with Burke on several points,
which we will proceed to consider in detail. In the first place, it
pronounces that Burke acted 'most injudiciously' in dividing his party at
Menindie. We are not sure that we can entirely concur in this verdict. We
do not see any evidence that Burke intended the dépôt at Menindie to be a
permanent one. On the contrary, it seems clear that he intended it to have
been transferred bodily to Cooper's Creek. On his arrival at Menindie, Dr.
Beckler's refusal to proceed further placed him in an awkward position. As
Beckler had no objection to remain at Menindie, Burke resolved to make his
services available as far as possible, and left him there with a section
of the party in charge of the heavier stores, while he himself pushed on
towards Cooper's Creek under the guidance of Mr. Wright. The division of
the party did not in any way retard or imperil Burke's arrival at Cooper's
Creek; and he seems to have looked forward to the union of all his forces
at that place before he proceeded further. As soon as he was convinced
that Wright was worthy of confidence, he appointed him third officer of
the expedition, and sent him back to bring the remainder of the party to
Cooper's Creek without delay, at the same time accepting Beckler's
resignation, and relieving him from any further charge. We cannot
therefore see that the division of the party at Menindie was directly
productive of any evil consequences, nor would any harm have resulted from
it, but for Wright's flagrant neglect of the instructions of his chief. In
the next place, the report pronounces that 'it was an error of judgment on
the part of Mr. Burke to appoint Mr. Wright to an important command in the
expedition, without a previous personal knowledge of him.' On this point
we think there is good ground for the censure of the Commission. That
Burke was, as it were, driven into a corner by the resignation of Landells
and Beckler is quite true; but it is difficult to imagine that he should
not have been able (supposing him to possess any insight into character at
all) to detect, during the time that he and Wright were together, some
indication of the gross incompetence which the latter subsequently
displayed. Mr. Jackson endeavours to shift the blame from Mr. Burke's
shoulders to those of the Exploration Committee, by observing that the
Committee knew of Wright's appointment by Dec. 3, and so had plenty of
time, if they had had any objection to him, to replace him by some one
else. What objection could the Committee possibly have to a man whose name
they had never heard before that moment? Clearly they are not to blame for
relying upon the judgment of the leader whom they had selected, and
confirming his appointment of a man who he assured them 'was well
qualified for the post, and bore the very highest character.' Whatever
blame may attach to the selection of Mr. Wright for a post of trust must
rest entirely upon Mr. Burke. The Commissioners next proceed to blame Mr.
Burke for finally departing from Cooper's Creek before the arrival of the
dépôt party from Menindie, and for undertaking so extended a journey with
an insufficient supply of provisions. On both these points there is
something to be said in Mr. Burke's favour. As regards the first, his
conduct was the natural result of his misplaced confidence in Wright,
combined with the consideration that the success of his journey depended
in great measure upon the rapidity with which it was prosecuted. With
respect to the second, we must remember that on an expedition of this
kind, when the carrying power is limited, and every ounce of weight has to
be considered, it is almost as important to exclude everything that is
superfluous as it is to leave behind nothing that is strictly necessary.
It seems probable, however, that Mr. Burke was guilty of an error in
judgment, in underrating the time which the journey from Cooper's Creek to
Carpentaria was likely to require. Finally, the Commissioners draw
attention to the fact that it does not appear that Burke kept any regular
journal, or that he gave written instructions to his officers. 'Had he,'
they observe on this point--and we fully concur in their
remark--'performed these essential portions of the duties of a leader,
many of the calamities of the expedition might have been averted, and
little or no room would have been left for doubt in judging of the conduct
of those subordinates, who pleaded unsatisfactory and contradictory verbal
orders and statements.'

"We are unable, the reader will perceive, to concur in Mr. Jackson's
repeatedly expressed opinion, that there are no grounds whatever for any
of the censures which the Commissioners found it their duty to pronounce
on some points connected with Mr. Burke's management of the expedition.
The fact is, that after a careful consideration of all the circumstances
of the case, we incline to the conclusion that Mr. Burke did not possess
the qualifications necessary for the successful leadership of such an
enterprise; and that, consequently, some blame must rest with the
Exploration Committee, who selected a comparatively unfit person for a
position of such responsibility and importance. We appreciate and admire,
as enthusiastically as Mr. Jackson himself can possibly do, the courage
and self-devotion displayed by Mr. Burke; but we cannot forget that
gallantry and daring are not the only qualities required in the leader of
an exploring expedition through an unknown and difficult country. The
choice of the Committee was, we believe, mainly dictated by the
consideration that Mr. Burke had, while employed in the police-force of
the colony, shown himself to be possessed of a considerable talent for
organization, and of no little aptitude for command. They appear not to
have attached sufficient importance to the not less material fact, that he
knew nothing of bush-travelling, and had no practical experience of the
preparations and precautions necessary for the successful prosecution of
such a journey as that with which he was entrusted. Mr. Jackson calls upon
us to observe that it was to the _rapidity_ of Mr. Burke's progress that
his ultimate success is due; and the observation is, to a great extent,
justified by facts. It appears to us, however, that most, if not all, of
the errors of judgment of which he was guilty, during the progress of the
expedition, are directly traceable to the same quality of mind which
rendered him so prompt in action. The Commissioners hit the blot in his
character when they pronounced that 'his zeal was greater than his
prudence.' The examination of his proceedings which we have already made
affords, we think, ample grounds for this conclusion. We have, however,
met with one passage in the records of the expedition which exhibits Mr.
Burke's constitutional hastiness of temper and want of judgment in so
strong a light, that we cannot refrain from placing it before the reader.
It occurs in King's narrative of the attempt made by himself, Burke, and
Wills, to reach the settled districts of South Australia, after they had
found the dépôt at Cooper's Creek deserted. Mr. Wills had gone back to the
dépôt, and Burke and King were awaiting his return. King proceeds as
follows:--

"'A few days after Mr. Wills left, some natives came down to the creek to
fish at some water-holes near our camp. They were civil to us at first,
and offered us some fish; on the second day they came again to fish, and
Mr. Burke took down two bags, which they filled for him; on the third day
they gave us one bag of fish, and afterwards all came to our camp. We used
to keep our ammunition and other articles in one gunyah, and all three of
us lived together in another. One of the natives took an oil-cloth out of
this gunyah; and Mr. Burke, seeing him run away with it, followed him with
his revolver, and fired over his head, and upon this the native dropped
the oil-cloth. While he was away, the other blacks invited me away to a
water-hole to eat fish, but I declined to do so, as Mr. Burke was away,
and a number of natives were about who would have taken all our things.
When I refused, one took his boomerang and laid it over my shoulder, and
then told me by signs that if I called out for Mr. Burke, as I was doing,
that he would strike me. Upon this, I got them all in front of the gunyah,
and fired a revolver over their heads; but they did not seem at all
afraid, until I got out the gun, when they all ran away. Mr. Burke,
hearing the report, came back, and we saw no more of them until late that
night, when they came with some cooked fish, and called out, "White
fellow." Mr. Burke then went out with his revolver, and found a whole
tribe coming down, all painted, and with fish in small nets carried by two
men. Mr. Burke went to meet them, and they wished to surround him; but he
knocked as many of the nets of fish out of their hands as he could, and
shouted out to me to fire. I did so, and they ran off. We collected about
five small nets of cooked fish. The reason he would not accept the fish
from them was, that he was afraid of being too friendly, lest they should
be always at our camp. We then lived on fish until Mr. Wills returned.'

"This method of dealing with the natives was surely, to say the least of
it, exceedingly injudicious. They had, it appears, always shown themselves
friendly to the explorers; and, in the weak state of the party, it was
little short of madness to run the risk of disturbing the friendly
relations between them and the blacks by any act of violence. And yet we
find Mr. Burke actually attacking them, and taking forcibly from them the
food which they had always shown themselves ready to give; and for no
better reason than that 'he was afraid of their being too friendly, lest
they should be always at the camp.' Not many days later Mr. Burke died
while making a last attempt to rejoin those very natives whom he had
driven away. It is scarcely possible to avoid the conclusion that Mr.
Burke's judgment must have been materially weakened by the sufferings and
privations he had undergone, before he could possibly have acted in so
utterly unaccountable a manner.

"We must now say a few words as to the route taken by Mr. Burke on his
journey from Cooper's Creek to Carpentaria, and the nature of the country
through which he passed. His first idea after reaching the Creek was to
proceed due north, and four tentative expeditions were made in that
direction, one of which was pushed to a distance of ninety miles. Finding,
however, that the ground was too rough, either for horses or camels, he
finally resolved to proceed in a north-westerly direction as far as Eyre's
Creek, and at that point turned northward, and crossed the continent by a
route which lies mainly on or about the 140th meridian of east longitude.
The country does not appear to be difficult to traverse; and Mr. Wills
tells us that the worst travelling-ground they met with was between Bullo
and Cooper's Creek. As regards the nature of the land, Mr. Burke briefly
sums it up in the following words: 'There is some good country between
this (Cooper's Creek) and the Stony Desert. From thence to the tropics the
country is dry and stony. Between the tropics and Carpentaria a
considerable portion is rangy, but is well watered and richly grassed.'
Mr. Wills reports that 'as to pasture, it is only the actually stony
ground that is bare, and many a sheep-run is, in fact, worse grazing than
that.' As regards the supply of water, it appears that the expedition,
except when actually crossing the desert, never passed a day in which they
did not traverse the banks of, or cross, a creek or other water-course.
The whole country appears, in short, to be admirably adapted for pastoral
purposes, and its discovery cannot but add largely to the resources of the
Australian colonies. Sir Henry Barkly, the Governor of Victoria, in a
despatch to the Duke of Newcastle, states that the occupation of "Burke's
Land" with stock is already seriously contemplated by the squatters, and
that there seems little reason to doubt that in the course of a few years
the journey from Melbourne to Carpentaria will be performed with
comparative facility by passing from station to station. He adds that
much of the country traversed by the expedition between the Darling and
Cooper's Creek is already taken up, so that both sheep and cattle are now
depastured within 25 miles of Bullo, stretching thence easterly along the
Queensland boundary in an almost unbroken chain. These anticipations are
fully confirmed by the report of Mr. Landsborough, the Queensland
explorer. This gentleman, who has crossed the continent from Carpentaria
to Melbourne, gives the most favourable account of the pastoral
capabilities of the country which he traversed, and does not hesitate to
express an opinion that within twelve months the whole of it will be taken
up by settlers. We need not therefore hesitate to conclude, with Sir Henry
Barkly, that 'the results attained by the expedition are of the very
highest importance, both to geographical science and to the progress of
civilization in Australia.'"



                       APPENDIX II. (p. 131.)

    _The following pathetic address, recently transmitted by H.E.
    Sir George Grey to the Duke of Newcastle, H. M. Secretary of
    State for the Colonies, for presentation to Her Majesty under
    her recent bereavement, also attests the deeply poetic vein that
    marks the Maori character._


Oh Victoria, our Mother!--We greet you! You, who are all that now remains
to recall to our recollection Albert, the Prince Consort, who can never
again be gazed upon by the people.

We, your Maori children, are now sighing in sorrow together with you, even
with a sorrow like to yours. All we can now do is to weep together with
you. Oh, our good mother, who hast nourished us, your ignorant children of
this island, even to this day!

We have just heard the crash of the huge-headed forest tree which has
untimely fallen, ere it had attained its full growth of greatness.

Oh, good lady, pray look with favour on our love. Although we may have
been perverse children, we have ever loved you.

This is our lament.

    Great is the pain which preys on me for the loss of my beloved.
    Ah, you will now lie buried among the other departed kings.
    They will leave you with the other departed heroes of the land.
    With the dead of the tribes of the multitude of 'Ti Mani.
    Go fearless then, O Pango, my beloved, in the path of death; for no
        evil slanders can follow you.
    Oh my very heart! Thou didst shelter me from the sorrows and
        ills of life.
    Oh my pet bird, whose sweet voice welcomed my glad guests!
    Oh my noble pet bird, caught in the forests of Rapaura!
    Let, then, the body of my beloved be covered with royal purple robes!
    Let it be covered with all-rare robes!
    The great Rewa, my beloved, shall himself bind these round thee.
    And my ear-ring of precious jasper shall be hung in thy ear.
    For, oh! my most precious jewel, thou art now lost to me.
    Yes, thou, the pillar that didst support my palace, hast been borne to
        the skies.
    Oh, my beloved! you used to stand in the very prow of the war-canoe,
    inciting all others to noble deeds. Yes, in thy life-time thou wast
        great.
    And now thou hast departed to the place where even all the mighty must
        at last go.
    Where, O physicians, was the power of your remedies?
    What, O priests, availed your prayers!
    For I have lost my love; no more can he re-visit this world.



                       APPENDIX III. (p. 172.)

    COPY OF OFFICIAL LETTERS OF H.E. COL. SIR T. GORE BROWN,
    GOVERNOR OF NEW ZEALAND TO COMMODORE VON WULLERSTORF-URBAIR,
    COMMANDER OF THE NOVARA EXPEDITION.


                                  I.

        _Government House, Auckland, New Zealand, January 4th, 1859._

Sir,

I do myself the honour to express to you the gratification which the visit
of His Imperial Majesty's frigate _Novara_ has afforded to the inhabitants
of Auckland and to myself.

I beg also to convey to you and to the officers of the scientific
department of your Expedition my best thanks for the valuable information
supplied by the investigations of these gentlemen.

It will be my agreeable duty to report to her Majesty's Government on the
subject, and I am satisfied that her Majesty will receive the
communication with pleasure, and will recognize the importance of the
services rendered to one of her Dependencies.

Wishing you a prosperous voyage, and success in the interesting objects of
your pursuit, I beg to subscribe myself,

                         Your faithful servant,

                            THOMAS GORE BROWN, Col. H.M.S.,
                                 Governor of New Zealand.


                                 II.

       _Government House, Auckland, New Zealand, January 5th, 1859._

Sir,

Having already endeavoured to express my thanks to yourself and the
officers of the scientific department of your Expedition for the valuable
aid afforded to the Colony, I now venture to ask you to confer a still
greater favour, by giving permission to Dr. Hochstetter to extend his
researches for a few months longer.

In the event of your granting this permission, the means necessary to
enable him to explore effectually will be provided at the expense of the
Colony of New Zealand.

I feel less diffidence in making this request to you, as Representative of
the Imperial Government, because Dr. Hochstetter's labours in this Colony
may be made the means of furthering the objects, which his Imperial
Majesty the Emperor of Austria had in view, when he despatched the
Expedition under your command.

I beg to add, that, should you feel it compatible with your duty to accede
to the application I have now the honour to make, every assistance shall
be afforded to Dr. Hochstetter, whilst engaged in this Colony, to enable
him to make his scientific researches as valuable as possible to the
Expedition of which he will remain a member, and care shall be taken to
facilitate his return to Europe at the expense of this Colony by such
route as he shall prefer.

                          I have the honour to be, Sir,

                              Your most faithful servant,
                               Thomas Gore Brown, Col. H.M.S.,
                                   Governor of New Zealand.



                       APPENDIX IV. (p. 172.)

            REPLY OF COMMODORE B. V. WULLERSTORF-URBAIR.


                     _On Board H.I.R.M. Frigate Novara, Auckland Harbour,
                                                       January 5th, 1859._

Sir,

In reply to your official note, dated Government House, Auckland, January
5th, a. c. in which, as the Representative of the Imperial Government, you
prefer the request, that I would give Dr. Hochstetter permission to extend
his geological researches in this Colony for a few months longer, I am
most happy to accede to your application, and to give Dr. Hochstetter, in
his capacity as geologist of the Imperial Expedition, leave for that
purpose, under the following conditions, which are nearly the same as
those stated in your kind note:----

1. That Dr. Hochstetter's sojourn in New Zealand may not exceed six
months, and thus enable him to return to Europe nearly at the same period
as the I.R. frigate is most likely to arrive there, namely, in November or
December next.

2. That the _Novara_ Expedition, of which Dr. Hochstetter still remains a
member, may likewise enjoy the benefit of the observations, collections,
and publications made by Dr. Hochstetter during his stay in New Zealand.

3. That the means necessary to enable Dr. Hochstetter to explore the
country effectually shall be provided at the expense of the Government of
New Zealand; that every assistance shall be afforded to this gentleman
whilst engaged in these geological explorations, and that care shall be
taken to facilitate his return to Europe (viz. Trieste), at the expense of
the Government of New Zealand, by such route as he shall prefer.

Upon this understanding I shall not only consider it compatible with my
duty to accede to your Excellency's application, and give Dr. Hochstetter
permission to remain for the time stated in the Province of Auckland, but
shall also feel quite certain, that the Imperial Austrian Government, as
well as the Academy of Sciences whose delegate Dr. Hochstetter must be
considered, will be highly gratified to learn that it was in the power of
the first Austrian Exploring Expedition to become serviceable to a nation
which has done so much for the advancement of science and the development
of natural resources in almost all parts of the world.

With hope that the friendly arrangement thus entered into on this subject
may create a lasting bond of union and communications between the
scientific men of both countries,

                                           I have the honour to subscribe,

                                              Your faithful servant,

                                                B. V. WULLERSTORF.



                         APPENDIX V. (p. 188.)

      ADDRESS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE PROVINCE OF AUCKLAND, NEW
                ZEALAND, TO THE GEOLOGIST OF THE NOVARA.


Dr. Hochstetter,

On the conclusion of your Geological Examination of a large and most
interesting portion of this province of New Zealand, we--the assembled
inhabitants of Auckland, representing every section of the community, and
for the most part intimately connected with the Agriculture and Commerce
of the province--desire to express our admiration of the eminently
scientific manner and unwearied activity with which you have conducted
your researches into the Geological Formations and Mineral Resources of
Auckland. We have also to thank you for the valuable information upon
these objects, which you have already placed in our possession in the
public lecture delivered by you in this hall on the 24th of June, and in
the reports you have forwarded to the General and Provincial Governments.

The report of a member of the _Novara_ Expedition, on the physical
characteristics of this portion of New Zealand--of which so little has
hitherto been known--will be acknowledged in Europe as both impartial and
authentic.

To us, as a community, the information contained in that report and the
maps you have constructed, together with those additional details we hope
to receive from you after your return to Europe, will be of essential
service in a material point of view. We also desire to convey to you our
sense of the impartiality of your reports, which, whilst they lay open to
our view those resources of the country that will eventually aid to its
wealth and its general prosperity, in no way exaggerate their value or
tend to lead to extravagant ideas or speculations that might only result
in disappointment.

Arriving in Auckland a stranger, upon whose sympathies we had no claim,
you have exerted all your energies to condense the results of your
scientific exploration into practical forms, for the benefit of the people
of the foreign country you visited for purely scientific purposes, or for
the special advantage of your own country.

On all these accounts we feel that our warmest thanks are due to you for
your disinterested exertions for the promotion of our welfare. As an
enduring testimony thereof, we request the acceptance of this purse, the
contents of which we beg you will devote to the purchase of some piece of
plate that we trust may be regarded by your family and your countrymen,
not only as a tribute of respect to your varied talents, but as a
well-merited memento of the grateful acknowledgment by the people of the
province of Auckland of the eminent scientific and practical services
rendered to them by you.

We are desirous that the plate should bear the following inscription:

"Presented to Dr. Hochstetter, Geologist attached to the Imperial Royal
Austrian Scientific Expedition in the frigate _Novara_, by the inhabitants
of the Province of Auckland, New Zealand, in testimony of the eminent
services rendered to them by his researches into the Mineral and
Agricultural resources of the Province."

                                      Signed on behalf of the subscribers,

             R. MOULD,                               JOHN WILLIAMSON,
             Colonel, commanding Royal Engineers,    Superintendent,
             Chairman of Committee.                  Province of Auckland.

_Auckland, 24th July, 1857._



                       APPENDIX VI. (p. 193.)

    ADDRESS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE CITY AND PROVINCE OF NELSON TO
    THE GEOLOGIST OF THE NOVARA.


Dr. Hochstetter,

Before your departure from among us, we, the inhabitants of the Province
and City of Nelson, beg to express to you our great obligations for the
benefits which you have conferred upon us as a community.

Though we cannot but congratulate you upon your approaching return to your
country and your family, we have strong personal reasons for looking upon
it with regret. We feel that it has been no light or trifling advantage to
have had among us one of that small class of men who conduct the great
national expeditions by which the benefits of science are distributed over
the world.

We know that such an one comes invested with the highest possible
authority to speak decidedly on the subjects of his investigations, and
are sure that we may place the most implicit confidence in his statements.
It is the great characteristic of such scientific pursuits as you are
engaged in, that though on the one hand they are joined to the deepest and
inmost principles of nature, on the other they are linked to the daily
wants and commonest necessities of life. We believe therefore that your
visit here will not be barren of practical results. We believe that it
will give us both a desire to develope, as far as possible, our share of
the gifts of nature, and a knowledge how we may best do this.

We know that we have had no special claims on you for the interest you
have taken in our welfare. The advantages which we have derived from it
are, however, of such a kind that both those who give and those who
receive may be proud of. We have had many opportunities of noticing how
earnestly you pursue knowledge for its own sake, and are glad to find that
those who do so are the most ready to employ for the benefit of others
what they have acquired themselves. You have done this in our case with
considerable personal exertion and discomfort, which have been cheerfully
encountered by your diligence and activity.

We do not wish to do more than allude to considerations of a personal
kind. But we must express our appreciation of your courteous and kind
behaviour towards us, and assure you that few men could have been among us
for so short a time and have acquired so much of the character of a
personal friend.

We beg your acceptance of the accompanying Testimonial, the product of our
Gold-fields, and we ask you to apply it to the purchase of a piece of
plate, which may help to keep us in your remembrance, and on which we ask
you to place the following inscription:--

"Presented to Dr. Ferdinand Hochstetter, Geologist to the Imperial Royal
Austrian Scientific Expedition in the frigate _Novara_, by the inhabitants
of the Province of Nelson, New Zealand, as a record of their appreciation
of the great benefits conferred upon them and the Colony by his frank
communication of the results of his zealous and able researches into the
geological character and mineral resources of the Province."

We earnestly hope that all good may go with you on your return to Europe,
and that after a pleasant and speedy voyage you may reach in safety your
home and friends. And with this wish we bid you heartily "Farewell."

                           Signed on behalf of the inhabitants of Nelson:

                             J. P. ROBINSON,
                                Superintendent of the Province of Nelson,
                                  New Zealand.



                             APPENDIX VII.


NEW GRANADA has now taken the title of the United States of Colombia, as
appears from the following document translated from the Spanish circular
to the Diplomatic Officials and Consuls of the United States of Colombia.

                  Secretary of State and Foreign Affairs.

Sir,--

In order that you may be exactly acquainted with the situation of the
country, the undersigned Secretary of State, proposes to inform you every
fortnight of the progress of the nation, setting forth fully and frankly
all that has been done, neither misrepresenting nor omitting anything
which, whether favourable or adverse to the new order of things in
Colombia, may be worthy of your notice.

You are not ignorant that since July 18, 1861, when the Federal Government
came into power in Bogota, the States of Cauca, Antioquia, Santander, and
Tolima have continued in the hands of the Centralists. You are not
ignorant that the decrees of "Tincion and Desamortizacion" of effects in
mortmain, put forth during the days which followed the 18th of July,
provoked the most violent discontent on the part of the ultramontane
clergy; and that these clergy, exchanging piety for gain, and setting
aside all the Christian precepts of charity, renunciation of worldly
goods, moderation, and submission to the powers that be, placed themselves
in open rebellion, and endeavoured by every possible means to subvert the
peace. Thus Romanism succeeded in raising in Santander an army of 3000
men, in Tolima another of 1000, and in Boyacá and Cundinamarca several
armed companies, one of which (that of Guasca) numbered upwards of 1000
soldiers. The Government did not, nevertheless, concern itself much about
this, because on its side were reason, opinion, and strength. Now, I am
glad to tell you, that out of the nine States of the Colombian Union,
seven enjoy an order and tranquillity as absolute as unchangeable. The
heroic State of Santander, so maltreated by the Centralists during four
years, does not contain on its soil one armed enemy, and its Government,
diligent and efficient in peace as in war, is directing its attention to
the re-establishment of commerce and the good exercise of its
administration. The faction of Tolima, after having committed incalculable
depredations and excesses, has been completely subdued. The parties
fomented in Boyacá and Cundinamarca have been broken up; the only one
which has hitherto been able to maintain a footing, although considerably
diminished, that of Guasca, has been overcome during the last few days,
its chief having been killed in battle. The only disturbed States are
therefore now those of Cauca and Antioquia. Thus, then, considering that
the seven States in which order and peace reign, Panama, Bolivar,
Magdalena, Santander, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, and Tolima, are on the coast,
in the north and centre; that is to say, the most important ones in a
commercial, financial, and military point of view, because in them are
principally found the ports through which our foreign commerce is carried
on, the rich custom-houses, the salt mines, the navigable rivers, the most
valuable riches, the most abundant agricultural produce, the sources of
our exports, the great mass of the population, and the greatest amount of
the national strength; it may very reasonably be concluded that Colombian
order rests upon firm bases,--and considering, further, that in the two
States still unquiet, the disturbers are reduced to very narrow limits,
having no port through which to introduce the elements of war, no funds at
their disposal to increase or maintain their present force;--that public
opinion is generally against them, seeking all means of showing them
hostility, of diminishing their army, and of closing to them all
resources;--that they are closely threatened by a numerous, trained,
enthusiastic army, in perfect discipline, and well supplied with
provisions and ammunition;--that this army, part of which occupies the
south of the valley of Cauca, another part the Andes of Quindio, and the
other preparing at Mompos to penetrate, if necessary, into Antioquia,
commanded by experienced generals, under the immediate direction of the
President of the Union;--and lastly, that the insurgent troops will amount
at most but to a third part of those sent against them by the Government;
that they are in want both of provisions and arms, as also of able
generals:--when all this is considered, I say, it must be concluded that
ere long peace will be re-established in these two States as it has
already been in the rest of Colombia. It is not without regret that the
President is about to undertake military operations against the two
disturbed States, for his most earnest desire has been to establish
tranquillity by means of conciliation, without fighting. The conduct
observed by him since the commencement of the civil war has been in
keeping with this desire. Only to mention recent events, hardly was Bogota
occupied in 1861, ere he addressed himself with this object in the most
conciliating terms to the Governments of the insurgent States. That of
Antioquia had not even the courtesy to answer him. A new and even more
advantageous offer of peace, on the occasion of convoking the National
Convention, has been made, proving the patriotic feeling of the President
and the obduracy of the Centralists ruling in Antioquia. And it must be
remembered that the leniency of the Government of the Union is so much the
more praiseworthy, as it has been the Government of Antioquia which has
brought upon Cauca the calamity which has now prostrated it. In fact,
peace and law would have obtained there many months ago, but for a cruel
faction supported and reinforced by the Antioquian Government, who renewed
it when it was failing, supplied it with money and munitions, assisted it
with military forces, and maintained anarchy and, not alarm, but terror,
in the State of Cauca. But notwithstanding these weighty motives for
inducing the Government of the Union to send its army against the State of
Antioquia, yet with great magnanimity it has declared that it will only do
so in the event of the Government of Antioquia not having agreed to
submit to the Union by the 6th of August next, the day on which the
national convention is to assemble at Cartajena. It is not indeed possible
that this State should be allowed to remain separate from the Union,
against the will of the Antioquian people, who do not join in the views of
those now ruling them, nor is it to be endured that they should carry on
against the other States and the Government of the Union a useless war,
for no defined political object. The States that have not yet chosen their
deputies for the Convention are now engaged in electing them. For the
rest, although it may well be thought that after such a war as that
through which we have passed the re-establishment of order and harmony in
the different branches of public administration, as well in the States as
in the Union, must be a long and anxious task, yet fortunately quite the
contrary has taken place. Immediately after the battles in which the
Federalists were successful society began to enjoy well-regulated civil
and judicial administration, and consequently confidence, commerce,
labour, social life, and striving for peace, were renewed with vigour. Our
people is as much the friend of order and justice as of liberty and
independence. To obey willingly it only desires from its governors
honesty, activity, loyalty to institutions, patriotism, and respect for
the ever moderate wishes of the country. The nation hates civil war, not
alone from reason, but from instinct; it has not spontaneously sought the
sad experience it has had of this terrible calamity; our strifes have not
come from below; the incendiary torch fell from the seat of the chief
Government. At least this is what has happened during the years just past.
But this longing for durable peace, this dearly-bought experience, and
this horror of civil war, joined to a moderate and firm love of liberty
and a decided spirit of progress, will produce without doubt a
constitution liberal, just, foreseeing, and clear, and for the future will
excite the attention of the people to the election of their high
officials. The President of the Union is in the country; his head-quarters
are in no fixed place; until now he has been first in Piedras and then in
Ambalema. A general secretary accompanies the President, for the despatch
of administrative matters of a serious nature, or connected with the war,
so that there may be no branch of government neglected, nor any subject of
public interest which shall not be attended to as in ordinary times. This
city, made nearly a year ago into a Federal district, has a governor and
a sufficient number of alcaldes and other subalterns to maintain order and
police. Besides the army which is moving upon Antioquia and Cauca, there
has been raised and organized another of reserve, as strong as the former,
and divided into three parts, which garrison the States of Santander,
Boyacá, and Cundinamarca. The national engagements in matters of credit
have engaged the attention of the Government in the most especial manner.
No outlay, not even to satisfy the necessities of existence, does it
prefer to fulfilling its obligations with foreign creditors. Also are
religiously cancelled the obligations in favour of foreigners given by the
disloyal Government of the extinct Granadine Confederation, for the sums
taken to make war upon the States which have supported Federal
institutions. Property belonging to foreigners is more efficiently
protected than it appears ever to have been before. In fact, all that has
relation to the faithful observance of public treaties, to the persons,
properties, and rights of citizens, or subjects of other nations, is a
subject of special solicitude to the Colombian Government, it being well
persuaded that the civilization as well as the good of the country demand
a faithful fulfilment of its foreign engagements, in order to raise the
national credit, and to aggrandize, by the increase of knowledge, of
wealth, and population, the modest country in which our lot has been cast.
To conclude, a solid and general peace is approaching with quick steps,
and I believe that I shall be able to announce it to you definitely,
together with the notice of the commencement of the operation of the
national Convention, within two months. Some material improvements have
been undertaken; but the favourable moment of entire peace has not yet
arrived to carry out all that the Government intends and desires to
accomplish. In the "Rejistro Oficial" you will find all that has been done
in these branches, and in favour of European immigration and the
colonization of our waste lands.

                                                   MANUEL ANCISAR.

  _Bogota, June 5, 1862._


                              FOOTNOTES:

[158] The orthography of the above vocabulary is founded upon the ordinary
rules for English pronunciation. The syllable on which the chief stress is
laid is marked when necessary by an accent.

[159] _Robert O'Hara Burke, and the Australian Exploring Expedition of
1860._ By Andrew Jackson. London: Smith, Elder, and Co.



                                INDEX.


                                  A

  Abáca, Manila Hemp, ii. 321-324

  _Acacia Catechu_ (Terra Japonica), ii. 114

  Adam's Peak, Ceylon, ascent of, i. 406-418

  Adams, William, one of the mutineers of the _Bounty_, iii. 261-263

  Address of the German Residents in Sydney to the commander of the
      Expedition, iii. 53 (and Appendix)

  Adiga River near Madras, i. 457

  Agraharam, Imperial present to the Brahmins, i. 459

  Agriculture, School of (_Quinta Normal_), at Santiago de Chile, iii. 300

  Aichison, Mr., Missionary at Shanghai, ii. 460

  Alameda, the new, at Lima, iii. 396

  ---- the public promenade at Santiago de Chile, iii. 296

  Albatross, the, i. 188

  Alboran, Island of, i. 25

  Algeziras, i. 40

  Algoa Bay, i. 258

  Alpaca, the, successful attempts to introduce into Australia, iii.
      64-66; value in Peru and Bolivia, 65

  Alwis, James de, his proficiency in Cingalese dialects, i. 396

  Amancaes, Valley of, near Lima, iii. 396

  Amaral, Dom Joâo Maria Ferreira do, Governor of Macao, assassination of,
      ii. 403

  American Missionary Society, its activity in China, ii. 460-465

  Amphitheatre, Roman, at Pola, iii. 454

  Amsterdam, Island of, in Indian Ocean, i. 323-335

  _Ananassa Sativa_, ii. 167, 325

  Aneroid Barometers, their usefulness under certain conditions, iii. 328

  Angas, Geo. Fred., Esq., secretary of the Australian Museum, Sydney,
      iii. 33

  Anthropometry, how practised, ii. 127; iii. 122-126

  Ant Islands, ii. 588

  Apothecary's store in Shanghai, ii. 437-440

  Appin, village of, near Sydney, iii. 26

  Aquasie Boachie, son of an African chief resident in Java, his history,
      ii. 206

  Arcot, city of, i. 452

  Areca palm, ii. 102

  Arequipa (Peru), iii. 350

  Arewarewa, a skin disease common in the Society Islands, iii. 247

  Arica (harbour and village), iii. 345

  Armegon, first British settlement on the Coromandel coast, i. 428

  Arréois, the, a secret society formerly existing at Tahiti, iii. 219

  Arrival in Trieste, iii. 455

  Artillery barrack at Valparaiso, iii. 285

  Ash Island (New South Wales), iii. 44

  Aspinwall (Isthmus of Panama), description of, iii. 438

  Assacú tree, the (_Hura Brasiliensis_), i. 135

  Atmospheric currents, i. 183

  Atolls, appearance of and how accounted for, ii. 588, 626

  Auckland, harbour and city, described, iii. 96-99

  Augustinian (or Barefoot) monks, convent at Manila, ii. 304

  Australia, German emigrants in, iii. 6, 31-33

  Australian club in Sydney, iii. 43

  ---- farm, description of an, iii. 38, 41

  Australische Zeitung, the German newspaper in Sydney, iii. 6

  Avatars, the, or descents of Vishnu, i. 436

  Ave Maria in Manila, the, ii. 347

  Azores, Island of, iii. 336

  Azoteas, or terraced roofs of Lima, iii. 366


                                  B

  Baines, Admiral, Commander-in-chief of H.M. Pacific squadron, iii. 323,
      418

  Baker, W., Esq., Government interpreter at Auckland, iii. 102

  Balgonie Farm, near Sydney, iii. 36

  Ball on board the _Novara_ in honour of the birth of an heir to the
      throne of Austria, iii. 52-54; ball given by the Austrian Consul at
      Valparaiso in honour of the Expedition, 321

  Balsas, or rafts used along the west coast of South America, description
      of, iii. 419

  Bamboo paper (China), ii. 516

  Bampoka, island of (Nicobar Group), ii. 43, 61

  Bampton reef, ii. 626

  Bandong, city in Java, ii. 235

  Banyan tree, i. 357

  Bargo, forest huts at, near Sydney, iii. 40; curious library in one of
      the houses at, 42

  Barometer, its lowest reading during the Typhoon in the China seas, ii.
      545

  Barrier Island, iii. 91

  Basle Missionary Association in China, ii. 368

  Basses or Baxos near Galle, i. 418

  Batavia, description of, ii. 180-190

  Batte-Malve, Island of, one of the Nicobar Group, ii. 42

  Bay-Lake (Manila), ii. 288

  Bell-bird of Australia, the, iii. 38

  Bennett, Dr. George, Zoologist of Sydney, iii. 14

  Beri-Beri, a Javanese malady, ii. 188

  Bernstein, Dr., physician and naturalist, ii. 211

  Betel-nut and fibre, ii. 73, 102, 144, 238, 260

  Biche de Mar, or sea slug. _See_ Trepang.

  Big Island. _See_ Sikayana.

  Binondo, suburb of Manila, ii. 290

  Birloche, the, a two-wheeled vehicle in use in Chile, iii. 294

  Bleeker, Dr., Ichthyologist in Java, ii. 183

  Bligh, Capt., commander of the _Bounty_, iii. 260; his fate, 261;
      becomes Governor of the penal colony of Botany Bay, 75

  Blodgett, Rev. Mr., Missionary at Shanghai, ii. 460

  _Boehmeria nivea_, the Ramé-fibre, ii. 167, 205, 321-324

  Bohea mountains of China, the, ii. 506

  Bo-tree, the (_Ficus religiosa_), i. 357

  Bolts, William, his attempt to colonize the Nicobars for Austria, ii.
      6-10

  Book-printing introduced into Tahiti, iii. 202

  Boomerang, known to the ancient Egyptians, iii. 31

  Borax, or Tincal, trade in, along the Peruvian coast, iii. 344

  Botanical garden of Rio, i. 143; of Cape Town, 205; of Buitenzorg
      (Java), ii. 205; of Sydney, iii. 20

  Botanical riches of the Nicobars, ii. 101-103; of Java, 204-206; of
      Sydney, iii. 19-21

  Botany Bay, account of, iii. 18

  Botany Tower, in Sydney, iii. 18

  _Bounty_, abridged account of mutiny of the, and subsequent fate of the
      mutineers and their descendants, iii. 261-276

  Brahmaism, its tenets, i. 435-437

  Brand Vley, hot-springs of (Cape Colony), i. 225-229

  Brauns, William, Consul-general of Hamburg, at Lima, iii. 364

  Brazil, importance of, as a field for German emigration, i. 132, 171

  Bread-fruit tree found in the Nicobars, ii. 101; in Puynipet, 558, 567;
      in Tahiti, iii. 243

  "Brickfielder," unpleasant sensations in a, 111. 52

  Bridgman, Dr., Missionary and Sinologue, ii. 460

  _Bromelia ananas_. _See_ _Ananassa sativa_.

  Brooke's deep-sea lead, mode of using and results, i. 112, 263

  Brotherhood of the Heaven and Earth (secret society of the Chinese of
      Singapore), ii. 147

  Broughton's Pass in New South Wales, iii. 27

  Browne, Col. T. Gore, Governor of New Zealand, iii. 136

  Buddha, tooth of, i. 405

  Buddhism, tenets and history of, i. 352-358

  Buitenzorg (Java), excursion to, ii, 203-208

  Bukit Timah, the, or mountain of tin at Singapore, ii. 143

  "Bullock-bandy," Cingalese native conveyance, i. 417

  Bungalow, description of one at Vellore, i. 452

  "Burster," violence of, at New Zealand, iii. 141

  Bush, the, of Australia, described, iii. 26, 30

  Bushmen, or Bosjesmen, the, i. 203

  Bush-rangers, depredations of the, iii. 76


                                  C

  Cabo Tormentoso, Storm Cape, now Cape of Good Hope, i. 192-195, 257

  Caffres, i. 203

  Cajamarquilla, ruins of, visited, iii. 385-388

  Caldera, Chile, its appearance, iii. 340

  Caledon, village of Cape Colony, visit to, i. 242

  Callao, port of Lima, iii. 363

  Caltura, Ceylon, curious rencontre at, i. 369, 397

  Calzada, the, or public promenade of Manila, ii. 310

  Camden Park, Sydney, visit to, iii. 20-23

  Camoens, grotto of, at Macao, ii. 394

  Camote, the, or sweet potato, ii. 102

  Campamiento (Gibraltar), i. 39

  Campbell, Mr., of Tacna (Peru), curious statistics furnished by him of
      the stimulating properties of coca leaves, iii. 404

  Campbelton, New South Wales, excursion to, iii. 24

  Campo Santo, or cemetery of Valparaiso, iii. 289

  Canalization, extent to which carried in China, ii, 479

  Cannibalism in Australia, iii. 33; in New Zealand, 108

  Canoes of the natives of Puynipet described, ii. 552

  Canton-English, peculiarities of, ii. 351, 364

  Canton River, ascent of the, ii. 381

  Canton, visit to, ii. 380-386

  Cape Brett, New Zealand, iii. 91

  Cape Horn, rounding of, iii. 325-328

  Cape Pigeon, habits of the, i. 157-190

  Cape San Augustin, i. 118

  Carabus or Calaboose, the prison at Tahiti, iii. 238

  Caret, Catholic missionary, his pertinacity at Tahiti, and its results,
      iii. 204-206

  Carlowitz, M. von, Prussian Consul at Macao, ii. 394

  Carretas, or ox-carriages of Chile, iii. 296

  Carron, Kennedy's companion in the explorations made by the latter in
      Northern Australia, iii. 12

  Carteret Island, ii. 595

  Carthagena, port of, in New Granada, iii. 440

  Casa Blanca, one of the oldest settlements in Chile, iii. 294

  Cash, common copper currency of China, ii. 419

  Castilla, Don Ramon de, president of Chile, interview with, iii. 303-306

  Cathedral of Tong-Kadu near Shanghai, ii. 445, 478; of Lima, iii. 369

  Cavite, the outport of Manila, ii. 280

  Cayenne, French penal colony in, revelations concerning, iii. 252

  Center, A. J., Esq., Director of the Isthmus of Panama railroad, his
      kindness, iii. 438

  Central Normal School of Lima, iii. 378

  Cerro Alegre, Valparaiso, iii. 288

  Cerro de Canetas, near Valparaiso, iii. 284

  Ceuta, Spanish fort of, i. 27

  Chagres, fever ravages of, iii. 439

  Chala (Peru), harbour of, iii. 353

  Chatham Island, iii. 95

  Cheyne, Capt. Andrew, his charts of the West Pacific, remarks on
      Puynipet, ii. 554; remarks on Simpson Island, 585-588, 592;
      geographical information respecting Bradley Reef, 594; remarks on
      the population of Sikayana, 613

  Chicha, the, a Chilian drink, iii. 316

  Chile, state of parties in, iii. 305

  China Tree, cultivation of, in Java, ii. 227-233; in Bolivia and Peru,
      iii. 413-417; points requiring to be elucidated, 409-412

  Chincha Islands, deposits of Guano on, iii. 355-362; life upon the, 357

  Chinese banquet, description of a, ii. 485-493

  ---- Council Chamber, ii. 427

  ---- dramatic representations, ii. 486

  ---- eating-houses, ii. 429

  ---- language and mode of writing, ii. 365

  ---- reckoning board, and how it is used, ii. 170

  ---- soothsayers, ii. 362

  ---- tea-garden, ii. 430

  Cholera at Madeira, i. 85-88; at Rio, 152; at Singapore, ii. 141, 151;
      in China, 453

  Chorillos, sea-side watering-place of the Limanos, iii. 389-391

  Chronometers, their accuracy fully established, iii. 336

  Church processions in Manila, ii. 345-347

  Cigar manufactory at Manila, ii. 317-320

  Cinchona, or Peruvian Bark. _See_ Fever-Bark.

  Cingalese canoe, i. 417

  Cinnamon, cultivation of, in Ceylon, statistics of, i. 373-377

  Clarence River, in Australia, iii. 22; Stearine Candle Manufactory at,
      iii. 22

  Clarke, W. B., geologist, iii. 14

  ----, Rev. H. F., virtually the first discoverer of Gold in Australia,
      iii. 66, 67

  Club, Australian, hospitalities of the, iii. 43

  "Coachman's Whip," the (a bird peculiar to Australia), iii. 38

  Cobija, Bolivia, harbour and prospects of, iii. 342

  Cobra di Capello, found in Ceylon occasionally, i. 363, 401

  Coca (or _Erythroxylon Coca_) of Peru, its remarkable properties, iii.
      402-406;  chemical analysis of its leaves at Göttingen, 406-409

  Cocain, the organic base of the Coca leaves, discovered at Göttingen,
      iii. 407

  _Coccus Pela_, the tree-wax insect of China, ii. 518

  Cochineal, i. 82; plantations of, at Pondok Gedeh (Java), ii. 210

  Cockatoo Island, Port Jackson, iii. 49

  Cock-fighting in Manila, prevalence of, ii. 312

  Cocoa-nut and palm, iii. 243

  Coffee-culture in Ceylon, i. 377-379; in Java, ii. 242-244

  Coggerah Bay, New South Wales, iii. 58

  Colic, the dry or vegetal form of (Tahiti), iii. 260

  Colonization of the Nicobar Archipelago, attempts at, ii. 1-15, 128-131

  ----, French principles of, compared with those of England, iii. 250,
      251

  Comet of 1858, ii. 594

  Comprador, a Chinese, described, ii. 360-362

  Concordia, military association of (Batavia), ii. 268

  Confucius, temple of, at Shanghai, ii. 433

  Constantia wine, statistics of manufacture of, i. 255

  Convict question considered, iii. 72-90; settlement at Singapore, ii.
      164-168

  Cook-river Bay, New South Wales, iii. 58

  Cook's Straits, New Zealand, iii. 95

  Coolie trade, its dimensions at Macao, ii. 397-401

  Cooper, Sir Daniel, his country-seat, and hospitable reception by, iii.
      16

  Copiapó, Chile, copper and silver mines of, iii. 341, 342

  Coquimbo, port of, iii. 340

  Coral reef of Puynipet, ii. 556

  Corregidor Island, Manila Bay, ii. 279

  Coróborry, dance of the Australian aborigines, described, iii. 34

  Cowries, mussel shells, used as currency, i. 394

  Crocodiles in Madras, i. 449; in Manila, ii. 337

  Cruera Patuóni, a New Zealand chief, his address to the members of the
      Expedition, iii. 103

  Cuba, statistics of tobacco culture in, ii. 320

  Culture system adopted in Java, features of the, ii. 244-246

  Curacavi, village in Chile, iii. 295

  Curaré, the Indian poison, i. 138

  _Curcuma longa_, ii. 562

  Curry, its constituents, i. 368

  Cuzent, Dr. G., valuable work on Tahiti by, iii. 215, 247

  Cyclones, or hurricanes, speculations as to origin of, i. 183-185, ii.
      547-549; description of one, 538-547


                                  D

  Dagga, Tascha or Takka, used by the Hottentots as a masticatory, i. 241

  Dahata Wahansa (the Holy Tooth), Ceylon. _See_ Buddha's Tooth.

  Dammara pine. _See_ Kauri pine.

  Damper, unleavened bread used in the Australian Bush, iii. 38

  Dana, his researches in New Zealand, iii. 181

  Dances of savage races--Caffres, i. 209; Javanese, ii. 260-264;
      inhabitants of Puynipet Island, 583; Australians, iii. 34; New
      Zealanders, 101; Tahitians, 219; natives of New Caledonia, 221

  Davis, John, an English sailor, abandoned on the island of Sikayana, his
      account of the natives, ii. 608-610

  Denison, Sir William, his reception, iii. 5, 14; his work on convict
      discipline, 51; hospitable reception by, 55; opens Parliament of New
      South Wales, 56

  Diadem, the, a mountain peak of Tahiti, iii. 225

  Dictionary, Maori, iii. 127

  Dieffenbach, his geological researches in New Zealand, iii. 109, 127

  Divers (pearl-) of Ceylon, i. 382-384

  Dkinawasima, island of, ii. 547

  Domeyko, Professor Ignacio, of Santiago, iii. 303

  Dominican Monks of Manila, ii. 302

  Dragon tree of Madeira, i. 59-64

  Drury, district of in New Zealand, visit to, iii. 155; its coal-fields,
      169-172

  Dubash (an Indian factotum), his functions, i. 425

  Duck-hunting in Manila, ii. 329-339

  Du Petit-Thouars, captain of French frigate _Venus_, his oppression in
      Tahiti, iii. 208


                                  E

  Earthquakes in Peru, iii. 362

  Edible swallows' nests, ii. 235-237

  Eimeo, one of the Society Islands, iii. 196, 241

  _Elephantiasis græcorum_, its ravages in Brazil, i. 135; singular mode
      of treatment for, 136

  Elephants in Ceylon, i. 410, 411

  Emigration of Chinese, ii. 397-400

  Emu, the, description of, iii. 31, 34

  Encouragement of learning in China, ii. 419

  English colonies, their influence on the mother country, iii. 1-3

  Evans, Lieut., U.S.A., director of the Chilean railway, iii. 308

  ----, F., his chart of magnetic declinations, iii. 257

  Expedition, Kennedy's, for traversing the continent of Australia,
      tragical fate of, iii. 13

  ----, table of, throughout the voyage, i. Appendix


                                  F

  Faáa, village of Tahiti, iii. 223; fête there, 230-235

  Falkland Islands, passed on voyage home, iii. 329-330

  Falmouth Harbour, arrival of author at, iii. 446

  Faóle, one of the groups of Stuart's Islands, ii. 604, 607-609

  Fare-rupe (_Pteris esculentum_) of Tahiti, iii. 245

  Fata Morgana, appearance of, i. 49

  Fauna of Island of St. Paul, i. 297

  Fautáua, a hill-fort in Tahiti, iii. 227; waterfall of, iii. 226

  Feejee Islands, iii. 89

  Feet, artificial compression of women's, in China, ii. 372

  Féi, or wild plantain, Tahiti, iii, 243

  Fenton, F. D., his work on the origin of the Maori population of New
      Zealand, iii. 138-140

  Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke, visits the _Novara_, iii. 452-455

  Ferguson, Sir James, Governor of Gibraltar, i. 28, iii. 450

  Fernando de Noronha, island of, i. 117

  Fever-Bark, or Cinchona. _See_ China tree.

  "Fiestas Reales," Manila, ii. 314

  Fire, alarm of, on board, i. 420-422

  Fire companies in Valparaiso, iii. 288

  "Fire of the Gods," name of a New Zealand weapon, iii. 101

  Fire on Island of Amsterdam, accidental, i. 332

  _Ficus Indica_. _See_ Banyan tree.

  ---- _Religiosa_. _See_ Bo-tree.

  Fish, species of, at St. Paul Island, i. 316

  Fitzroy Dry Dock, Cockatoo Island, Sydney, iii. 49

  _Flata limbata_, or wax insect of China. See _Coccus pelah_.

  Flemmich, J. F., Austrian Cons.-Gen. for Chile, iii. 279, 293, 321

  Flora of Island of St. Paul, i. 312-315

  Flying Fish, i. 110

  ---- Fox (Pteropus), or Kalong Bat, ii. 234, 337

  Fonseca, Friar Joachim, Manila, ii. 302

  Foot-print of Buddha, Ceylon, i. 413-415

  Fort St. George, Madras, i. 428, 474

  Fortune, Rob., naturalist, ii. 508

  Foundling and orphan children in China, statistics of, ii. 421-423

  Foveau Straits, New Zealand, iii. 95

  Franciscan monks, monastery of, at Manila, ii. 303

  Frangerola, harbour of, in Spain, i. 47

  French language compulsorily introduced into Tahiti, iii. 239, 240

  ---- naval stations in Oceania, remarks on, iii. 248-253

  ---- protection of Tahiti, its influence on commerce, iii. 248

  Friedrich, Dr., philologist (Batavia), ii. 185

  Friedrich's Islands (the Nicobars, which see)

  Fukien, or Fo-Kien, province of China, ii. 371

  Funchal, description of, i. 91-97

  Funeral customs of Australian aborigines, iii. 32, 33; of Nicobar
      Islands, ii. 31, 32

  Fung-yun-san, one of the founders of the Tai-ping sect, ii. 530; his
      marriage with "the Heavenly Sister," 530


                                  G

  Gadok, sanitary hill-station in Java, ii. 211

  _Galatea_, Danish corvette, visit of, to the Nicobars, ii. 13.

  Galatea River on the island of Great Nicobar, ii. 76

  Gallinazos, or Turkey buzzards, at Lima, iii. 368

  Gamelong, or alarm-drum of Java, ii. 260

  Gamhi plantations, ii. 144, 239

  Ganeza, Temple of, at Madras, i. 461

  _Ganges_, H.M.S., courtesy shown by officers of, iii, 323

  Garden Island, ii. 627

  Garua, the, substitute for rain in Peru, iii. 351-366

  Gaspar Straits, ii. 175, 177, 178

  Gay, Claude, his work on Chile, iii. 297

  Gecko, the (Ceylon), i. 360

  Gedeh, volcano of, in Java, ii. 208, 218, 221

  Genaadendal, Moravian colony of, i. 229-240

  German Emigrants in Rio, i. 164-173; in Shanghai, ii. 494-496; in
      Valparaiso, iii. 291, 316-318

  Gibraltar, description of, i. 29-46; return to, iii. 448-450

  Gilli-Mali, village of Ceylon, i. 407

  Ginseng root, China, ii. 439

  _Glossina morsitans._ _See_ Tsetse.

  Goddess of the Sea (or Queen of Heaven), Temple to the, at Shanghai, ii.
      428

  Gold-fields of Australia, statistics of, iii. 66-70

  Gower Island, ii. 595

  _Graculus Indicus_, or Maina, at the Nicobars, ii. 75

  Grass-cloth, manufacture of, ii. 325

  Gravosa, arrival at, on return voyage, iii. 452

  Great Nicobar, description of, ii. 72, 76-79

  Green Indigo (Chinese green), ii. 370-378

  Green stone, Nephrite, or Jade, weapons made from, iii. 118; history of
      a large block of, 119

  Gregory, his expedition in search of Dr. Leichhardt, iii. 11

  Grey, Sir George, his works on the ancient Maories and their dialects,
      iii. 126

  Gros, Baron de, French Plenipotentiary in China, ii. 468-471; ludicrous
      malady of, 471

  Guadalcanar, one of the Solomon Group, ii. 624

  Guam, or Guaham, Island, ii. 550

  Guamul, the Chilean deer, iii. 299

  Guano. _See_ Chincha Islands.

  Guava, the (_Psidium Guava_), of Tahiti, iii. 223, 224

  Guindy Park, Madras, children's fête in, i. 453-457

  Gunpowder trade with New Zealand rebels, iii. 135

  Gunyahs (Sandstone cavities), New South Wales, iii. 58

  Gutzlaff Island, ii. 409


                                  H

  Haast, J., naturalist, accompanies the geologist of the Expedition into
      the interior of New Zealand, iii. 155

  Hakka dialect, in use in China, ii. 368

  Hall of United Benevolence at Shanghai, ii. 426; of Council, Shanghai,
      427

  Hance, Dr., Botanist at Hong-kong, ii. 379

  Hand-book in Chinese of Physiology and practical Surgery, ii. 454

  Hangi-Maori, New Zealander's cooking oven, iii. 162

  Hargraves, the practical discoverer of the Australian gold-fields, iii.
      67

  Harland, Dr., Hong-kong, ii. 379, 454

  Hartmann, Madame, Buitenzorg, ii. 266

  Haszkarl, Dr., Botanist, ii. 228, iii. 410

  Hawaiki, Island of, supposed cradle of the New Zealand race, iii. 107

  Hay, Capt. Drummond, in New Zealand, iii. 154, 167, 181

  Heaphy, Charles, Chief Engineer, New Zealand, iii. 154

  Hemeralopia, prevalence of, on board, i. 419

  Herredia, Dr. Cajetano, of Lima, iii. 374

  Herzl, Dr., of Santiago di Chile, iii. 308

  Hill, Edward, Esq., of Sydney, his thorough acquaintance with native
      language and customs, iii. 29; excursion with, to Wulongong, iii. 30

  Hindoo Temple at Madras, visit to, i. 430

  _Hippomane Mancinella_ (Poison tree), Central America, iii. 438

  Hobson, Dr. B., of Shanghai, ii. 451-453

  Hochstetter, Dr. Ferdinand, Geologist to the Expedition, abridged
      narrative of his scientific tours in New Zealand, iii. 155-169,
      177-194; addresses to. _See_ Appendix.

  Hoei, or Tuité-Huy, Fraternity of Heaven and Earth (secret society of
      Chinese), tenets of, ii. 195-199

  Hogg, James, Hanseatic Consul, Shanghai, ii. 477, 494

  Holothuria. _See_ Trepang.

  Hong-kong, description of, ii. 355-364

  Horse, first introduction of, into Tahiti, iii. 201

  Hot-springs, Island of St. Paul, i. 280; of Brand Vley, i. 227

  Hottentots, habits of, i. 209

  "House of Big Words" (_Fare Aporáa_), the Parliament House at Papeete,
      Tahiti, iii. 210-212

  Howe, W., associate of the London Missionary Society in Papeete, iii.
      214-216

  Huanchaco harbour, Peru, iii. 418

  Hui Haupapa, a New Zealand chief, oration of, iii. 104

  Humboldt, Alex. von, his physical and geognostic memoranda, i.
      (Introduction);  intelligence of his death, how received in South
      America, iii. 423, 424

  Humboldt's Current, iii. 278

  Hung-Tsin-Tsuen, chief of the Tai-pings, ii. 523-526

  Huraka Gulf, New Zealand, iii. 91

  Hursthouse, his latest work on New Zealand, iii. 127

  Hwa-táh, nine-storied Pagoda, near Canton, ii. 396

  _Hyrax Capensis_, i. 242


                                  I

  Ice, statistics of trade at Ceylon, i. 373; at Valparaiso, iii. 302; at
      Panama, 427, 428

  Ichthyosis, prevalence of, among the natives of the island of Puynipet,
      ii. 573

  Illawara District, New South Wales, iii. 25-39

  Infanticide in China, ii. 369-372

  Iquique Harbour, Peru, iii. 342, 352

  Isthmus of Panama, trade over, iii. 428-431; geographical and physical
      features of, 434, 437

  Iting, village in Peru, iii. 419

  Itoe, village on Nangkauri (Nicobar), ii. 49-51

  Iwi, demon of the Nicobars, ii. 70; an exorciser of, 69-71


                                  J

  Jacatra, ancient name of Batavia, ii. 181

  Jade-stone, its value in China, ii. 363

  Jansen, Florentin Tepano, Bishop of Axieri in Papeete, iii. 217

  Java, excursions in, ii. 181-280

  Jesuit mission of Sikkawéi, Shanghai, ii. 477-483

  _Joseph and Theresa_, first Austrian ship to visit the Nicobars, ii. 10

  Joss-paper, used in Chinese temples, ii. 432

  Joss-sticks, ii. 341

  Junghuhn, Dr. Franz, his career, ii. 230, 240, 252; desiderata of China
      bark cultivation, iii. 409-412

  Jungle-men of the Nicobar Islands, ii. 40

  Junks, Chinese, ii. 352, 392, 413, 478

  Jurujuba Cove, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, i. 158


                                  K

  Kalamander-wood, i. 395

  Kalong Bat. _See_ Flying Fox.

  Kamorta, Island of, Nicobar Group, ii. 55, 84, 86

  Kampong, Chinese colonies in Java, ii. 195-197

  Kane, Dr., of Macao, ii. 396

  Kangaroo Hunting, in New South Wales, iii. 36, 37

  Kar-Nicobar, Island of, i. 481, ii. 12, 14, 16-37

  Karroo, the (Cape Colony), i. 231

  Katschal, Island of, Nicobar Group, ii. 86

  Kauri forest, a, in New Zealand, iii. 150

  Kauri pine, iii. 151

  Kawa beverage, its intoxicating properties, and how prepared in Tahiti,
      iii. 245-247

  Kawa plant (_Piper methysticum_), its properties, ii. 568, iii. 147, 245

  Kawaïn, extract of Kawa, iii. 246-248

  Keasberry, B. P., Missionary at Singapore, ii. 162

  Keira Hills, New South Wales, iii. 37; coal-fields in, 39

  Kennedy, E. B., his fatal exploring expedition to Cape York, Northern
      Australia, iii. 12, 13

  Kentsch, singular malady in Puynipet, ii. 574

  Klings, natives of Coromandel coast, ii. 145, 149

  Knight, Dr., Botanist, Auckland, iii. 141

  Koek, M. de, Batavia, ii. 203

  Koeping, one of the earliest visitors to the Nicobars, ii. 2

  Kolowrat, mountain on the Island of Malaýta, ii. 596

  Komios, village in Kar-Nicobar, ii. 38-41

  Kondúl, Island of the Nicobars, ii. 69, 87

  Krammat, mausoleum of a Malay prophet at the Cape, i. 244-248

  Kratochwil, Joseph, physician in Panama, iii. 428

  Krishna, the Hindoo Divinity, i. 436-460

  Kulczycki, Adam, Director of native department at Papeete, iii. 214

  Kumara (_Convolvulus Batata_), New Zealand, iii. 121

  Kus-kus grass (_Andropogon muricatum_), i. 465


                                  L

  Labour, European and Chinese compared, ii. 148

  Laguna de Bay, Manila, excursion to, ii. 325-341

  Laguna Encantada, the enchanted Lake near Manila, ii. 335-338

  Lalang grass (_Saccharum Koenigii_), ii. 51

  Lambajeque, harbourage on coast of Peru, iii. 419

  Lammat mountains, Solomon Islands, ii. 624

  Lang, J. D., Sydney, his historical and political works and address to
      Frankfort Congress, iii. 15

  Lao-tse, Chinese sage, ii. 435

  La Pérouse, monument to, at Botany Bay, iii. 17, 18

  Las Esmeraldas, Hacienda in Chile, iii. 311-313

  Lascars, Indian porters, i. 426

  Laval, Catholic Missionary to Tahiti, iii. 204

  Layard, C. P., Government agent in Ceylon, i. 396

  Lazar village. _See_ Leper village.

  Le Breton, Physician in Panama, iii. 428

  Lee Harbour. _See_ Roankiddi Harbour.

  Leeches, land-, of Ceylon, i. 407

  Legabalu, Island of, ii. 1

  Legaspi, conqueror of the Philippines, ii. 286, 287

  Leichhardt, his tragical fate in Australia, iii. 12

  Lemmas Canal, Hong-kong, ii. 353

  _Leonitis Leonurus_, masticatory used by the Hottentots, i. 241

  Leper village near Canton, ii. 457

  Leprosy in China, ii. 455-459

  Lima, account of, iii. 364-383

  "Line," ceremony in "crossing the," i. 115-117

  Little Hong-kong, small fishing village of, ii. 379

  Little Nicobar, Island of, ii. 63, 81

  Liu-tschiu (or Loo-choo) Islands, ii. 538, 543, 547

  Llama, introduction of, into Australia, iii. 64-66

  Lobschied, Dr. W., school inspector, Hong-kong, ii. 369, 379

  Logan, Dr. Abraham, editor of "Singapore Free Press," ii. 161

  ---- J. H., publisher of "Journal of Indian Archipelago," ii. 161

  Lombok, embassy from the king of, ii. 199-202

  London Missionary Society, ii. 451, iii. 200, 214-216

  Long-Fah, Pagoda of, near Shanghai, ii. 484

  Loo-Rock, lofty rock near Funchal, i. 57

  Los Baños, village near Manila, ii. 332-335

  Lossen, W., his experiments on the cocoa leaf, iii. 407

  Lu Kao. _See_ Green Indigo.

  Lunatic Asylum, Rio, i. 142; Manila, ii. 348; Lima, iii. 378

  Lütke, Russian Admiral, ii. 552

  Luzon, ii. 281-284


                                  M

  Macarthur, Sir William, New South Wales, iii. 20-25

  Macartney, Lord, his embassy to China, 1792, i. 299

  Macleay, botanist, New South Wales, his residence at Elizabeth Bay, iii.
      16

  Madras, i. 424-447

  Mafoûmo river, on East coast of Africa, ii. 9

  _Magdalena_, steamer, voyage home in, iii. 443-447

  Magelhaen, discovers Manila, ii. 285; his fate, 310; Straits of,
      settlement in, iii. 317; projected steam-tug line through, 317-320

  Magnetic declination, zero point of, iii. 257-260, 279

  ---- needle, variation of, iii. 257

  Mahabharata, Indian poem of, i. 472-474

  Mahamalaipur, City of the Holy Hill, monolith temples at, i. 464-474

  Mahawanso, Cingalese epic poem, i. 395, 396

  Mahishasura, the Indian giant, memorial of, i. 467

  Maigrat, Catholic missionary to Tahiti, iii. 106

  Maipú bridge, Chile, iii. 308

  Makok, pagoda near Macao, ii. 395

  Makun, St. Sebastian de, Catholic mission of, near Caltura, Ceylon, i.
      369, 401

  Malacca Straits, navigation in, ii. 132-135

  Malaýta, Island of, Solomon group, ii. 596

  Mamaku (_Cyathea Medullaris_), the tree-fern, specimens in New Zealand,
      iii. 122

  Mandioca flour (Brazil), i. 175

  Mangatawhiri, river in New Zealand, iii. 164, 165

  Mangrove forest at Puynipet, ii. 563

  Mangrove swamps in the Nicobars, ii. 72

  Manila hemp. _See_ Abáca.

  Manila, stay at and description of, ii. 290-310, 342-349

  Manluéna, or exerciser of evil spirits among the Nicobarians, quackery
      of the, ii. 70

  Manukau hills (New Zealand), excursion to the, iii. 150

  Maoris, or Mauris, aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand, speculations
      on their past and future, iii. 97-110

  Maori chiefs, reception of by the governor, iii. 136-138

  ---- king, iii. 135

  ---- meeting in Drury, iii. 136

  ---- poetry, specimens of, iii. 129-132; proverbs, 127-129

  Marine currents, i. 55-57

  Mass meeting of natives of New Zealand, iii. 99-106

  Matavai, native village in Tahiti, iii. 222

  Maury, Commander, U.S.N., his sea-charts, i. 54, 107, 114

  Meadows, J.A.T., government interpreter at Shanghai, ii. 473

  Meal, imports into Brazil from Austria, i. 175

  Medanos, wandering sand-hills in Peru, iii. 350

  Medical school in Lima, iii. 374, 375

  Meester Cornelis Bazaar, near Batavia, ii. 274

  Megabalu, Island of, Nicobar group, ii. 1

  Megamendoeng, pass of, in Java, ii. 211

  Melepilla, town in Chile, iii. 311

  Melori (_Pandanus_), bread of the Nicobarians, ii. 65

  Menu, the Hindoo lawgiver, i. 435

  Meridian of 180°, crossing the, iii. 194

  Meri-Meri, New Zealand war-club, iii. 104

  Meroe, island of, Nicobar group, ii. 82

  _Merrimac_, U.S.N., iii, 417

  Messina, return to, iii. 451

  Metelenian, harbour of, in Puynipet island, ii. 553; aboriginal race on
      Puynipet, 575

  Miáu-Tze, a wild race in China, ii. 461

  Miliani, Father, Catholic missionary in Ceylon, i. 370, 402

  Military library in Manila, ii. 342; hospital in Batavia, 187

  Milk, human, sold in China for vaccine, ii. 438 (note)

  Missionaries, Protestant, in Puynipet Island, ii. 563;  Catholic and
      Protestant, disputes of, in the Society group, iii. 200-205;
      Catholic, their first appearance in Oceania, 204-209

  Mitchell's Pass, New South Wales. _See_ Broughton's Pass.

  Moa (_Palapteryx ingens_), gigantic extinct bird of New Zealand, iii.
      191, 192

  Moehrenhout, American consul at Papeete, religious partisanship of, iii.
      205-207, 219

  Moesta, Dr., astronomer of Santiago de Chile, iii. 300

  Moko, or face-tattooing among the Maories, iii. 110-114

  Monasteries in Lima, iii. 370-372

  Monghata, hill of, in the Nicobar group, ii. 51

  Montial, island of, one of the Nicobar group, ii. 68

  Montigny, M. de, French consul at Shanghai, ii. 467, 512

  Montt, Manuel, President of Chile, iii. 303-305; interview with, 304;
      his position with respect to the ultramontane party, 305

  Monuments of Chinese female philanthropists, ii. 446

  Moore, Charles, Director of the Botanical Garden in Sydney, iii. 19

  Mooyart, Government assistant in Colombo, i. 407

  Moravian settlements (_see_ also Genaadendal) on Nicobars, ii. 94-96

  Morea, Island of. _See_ Eimeo.

  Moreton Bay, its capabilities for wool growing, iii. 47-49

  Morok (_Casuarius Bennetti_), iii. 14 (note)

  Morrok, bay of, Nicobar group, ii. 44

  Mosse, village on Kar-Nicobar, i. 481

  Motu-Uta, island in Papeete harbour (Tahiti), iii. 198

  Mouat, Dr., of Calcutta, ii. 458

  Mould, Col., chief of engineer corps, New Zealand, iii. 186

  Mount Egmont, or Taranaki Mountain (New Zealand), iii. 189

  Mozambique negroes in Brazil, i. 140, 235

  Muirhead, W., English missionary in China, ii. 418, 452

  Mulberry trees in China, ii. 499

  _Musa textilis_ (wild banana), ii. 167, 324

  Museum of natural history in Sydney, iii. 9; at Santiago de Chile, 301

  Musical instruments of the Nicobarians, ii. 122


                                  N

  Nadaud, Dr., physician at Papeete (Tahiti), iii. 214

  Nahlap Islands, near Puynipet Island, ii. 558-560

  Nannekin, chief of Puynipet Island, visit to, ii. 570-573

  National Library, Lima, iii. 375-377; Museum, Lima, 377, 378

  Negro population of Brazil, i. 166

  Negroes, the emancipation of, at St. Thomas successfully carried out,
      iii. 442, 443

  Negrillos or Negritos del Monte, Manila, ii. 293-295

  Negro-head tobacco of America, ii. 575

  Nelson, province of, in New Zealand, and geological researches therein,
      iii. 188-192

  Nephrite. _See_ Jade.

  New Caledonia, proposition of Dr. J. D. Lang to found there a German
      settlement, iii. 15; attempts of the French to annex same, 89, 250

  New Plymouth, province of New Zealand, iii. 188

  New year's eve at the Antipodes, iii. 166-168

  New Zealanders. _See_ Maories.

  Ngara, Lament for, specimen of New Zealand poetry, iii. 131

  Nicobar archipelago, ii. 1-137

  Niemann, Dr. Albert, his discovery of cocain, iii. 406

  Nopal plantations. _See_ Cochineal.

  Norfolk Island. _See_ _Bounty_, mutiny of.

  North Cape, Australia, ii. 627

  North China Herald, ii. 386, 496

  "Norther," description of a, at Valparaiso, iii. 285, 286

  Norzagaray, Don Fernando, Governor-General of the Philippines, ii. 307

  Nót, an aboriginal race on Puynipet Island, ii. 575

  _Novara_, her equipment, i. 4-9; at the dry-dock, Sydney, iii. 49;
      festivities on board in honour of the birth of a crown prince,
      51-54; return to Trieste, 455; retrospect of her career, 456-460

  Nukahiwa, island of, Marquesas group, iii. 250

  Nunneries in Shanghai for Chinese ladies, ii. 435, 436


                                  O

  Observatory at Santiago de Chile, iii. 299

  Odd Fourth, game at cards, introduced by sailors among the natives of
      Sikayana, ii. 602

  _Oïdium Tuckeri_, Madeira, i. 78

  Onehunga, village in Auckland province, iii. 97

  Opium, how prepared, ii. 154-160; annual imports of, into China,
      518-523; its cost in China, 523

  ---- boats on the Wusung, ii. 411

  ---- smokers, ii. 157-159, 274; number of, in China, 523

  Opposition line between New York and California, iii. 426

  Oraki, a Maori village, iii. 147-149

  Oranges, exportations of, from Tahiti into California, iii. 240

  Otahuha, village near Auckland, iii. 155

  Overbeck, M. Gustav, Prussian Consul at Hong-kong, ii. 378

  Owen, Captain, his visit to the Nicobars, ii. 3


                                  P

  Paarl, village of, Cape Colony, i. 219

  Pachacamác, ruins of, iii. 390-395

  Páh, a New Zealand native entrenchment, iii. 117, 155

  Pakin Island, ii. 589

  Pampero (storm from the pampas), i. 119

  Panama, description of, iii. 424-429; "Star and Herald," 428; Railroad,
      description of, 429-438

  _Panax Ginseng._ _See_ Ginseng.

  Pandanus tree, its exuberance on the Nicobar Islands, ii. 64, 101

  Paomotu Islands, iii. 260

  Paora Tahuera, New Zealand chief, address of, to the Expedition, iii.
      102

  Papakura, plains of, New Zealand, iii. 170

  Papaoa, village in Tahiti, iii. 237

  Papeete, capital of Tahiti, its position, iii. 197, 210; origin of name
      and mode of spelling, 210-212; Tahitian orators at, 212-214; its
      religious and social condition under the French Protectorate,
      213-220; Governor's ball, 235-240

  Paréu, a Tahitian native garment, iii. 221-231

  Parkes, Harry, English Commissioner at Canton, ii. 385

  Parliament at Tahiti, speeches in, iii. 212

  Patterson, Mr. M., Principal of St. John's College, Auckland, iii. 152

  Patuóni, New Zealand chief, iii. 102

  Paul, St., Island of, described, i. 267-319

  Payta, harbour of, Peru, iii. 420-422

  Pearls, artificial, how made, i. 387, 388

  Pearl-fishery of Ceylon, i. 379-388; of Panama, iii. 429

  Pearl, mother-o', procured at Paomotu and Gambier Islands, iii. 240
      (note)

  Pedro-talla-galla, highest mountain in Ceylon, i. 412

  Peh-lah, vegetable wax of China, ii. 518

  Pekin, Treaty of Peace concluded at, ii. 388

  Peluqueros, political party in Chile, iii. 306

  Penguins, in St. Paul Island, ludicrous movements of, i. 281-284

  Pettah, the, or Black quarter, Colombo, i. 372

  Pfitzmaier, Dr., an eminent Sinologue, ii. 367, 418, 461; his
      explanation of Chinese written character, 526

  Philippi, Dr., Professor in College of Santiago, iii. 297

  _Phormium tenax_, New Zealand flax, iii. 145

  Phosphorescent glow in the sea, i. 26

  Physical and geognostic memoranda. _See_ Humboldt.

  Pia, the (_Tacca Pinnatifida_), Tahiti, iii. 244

  Piaco, river, New Zealand, iii. 96

  Pico Ruivo, Madeira, i. 102, 105

  Pih-kwei, Tartar general, ii. 385

  _Piper methysticum._ _See_ Kawa.

  Pisco, town in Peru, iii. 354-357

  Pissis, Aimé, geologist of Santiago, iii. 297

  Pitcairn Island, History of. _See_ _Bounty_.

  Pizarro, conqueror of Peru, his corpse exposed to view in the catacombs
      of Lima, iii. 369;  his portrait in the National Museum, 378

  Point de Galle, Ceylon, i. 359-361

  Point Venus, Tahiti, iii. 222; revolving lighthouse on, 223

  Pola, chief naval arsenal of Austria, iii. 454

  Polyandria, prevalence of, in Ceylon, and cause, i. 365

  Polygamy in China, ii. 371

  Pomáre II., King of Tahiti, iii. 198; origin of name, 201; his remark on
      first beholding a horse, 202

  Pomáre, Queen, her letter to Louis Philippe, iii. 208; her civil list,
      209; her residence, 210; rudeness of French authorities to, 236-238

  Pomperos. _See_ Fire Companies.

  Poncho, the native Chilean garb, iii. 294

  _Porcelaine-craquelée_, ii. 440

  _Porta Aurea_ at Pola, ruins of, iii. 454

  Port Curtis, North Australia, gold-fields of, iii. 48; fate of the
      gold-seekers there, 49

  Port d'Islay, Peru, iii. 349, 350

  Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), ii. 627; first settlement there of
      convicts, iii. 75

  Potatáu, chief of the Waikato race, first king of the Maories, iii. 135

  Praya Grande, promenade at Macao, ii. 405

  Pré Catalan, pleasure gardens at Papeete, iii. 219-222, 235

  Public Schools at Shanghai, ii. 443

  Puka-puka, the New Zealand _papyrus_, iii. 147, 148

  Pulicat-Lake, near Madras, i. 475

  Punkah, its uses in India, i. 360

  Purchas, A. G., pastor of Onehunga, iii. 155; first discoverer of the
      Drury coal-beds, New Zealand, 169, 181

  Puynipet, Island of, visit to, ii. 551-588


                                  Q

  Quebradas, caves near Valparaiso, iii. 282, 288

  Quillota, Chile, favourite summer resort for the residents of
      Valparaiso, iii. 314, 315

  Quilpué, village in Chile, iii. 291; _fête champêtre_ there to the
      Expedition, iii, 292


                                  R

  Radhen Adipati Aria Kusuma Ningrat, a Javanese "Regent," ii. 264

  Radhen Adipati Wira Natu Kusuma, a Javanese "Regent," ii. 238, 252

  Radhen Rangga Padma Negara, a Javanese Chief, ii. 214

  Radhen Saleh, a Javanese Artist, ii. 269

  Raffles, Sir T. Stamford, his services to Singapore, ii. 138-140

  Ragusa, iii. 452

  Railroads--Rio, i. 161; Madras, 447-453; Batavia, ii. 204; New South
      Wales, iii. 20-43; Chile, 308-310; Isthmus of Panama, 429-438

  Raimondi, Professor, at Lima, iii. 374

  Rain-fall, annual amount of, in Gibraltar, i. 36; in Buitenzorg (Java),
      ii. 208; at the Solomon group, 624

  Rama, the Hindoo Divinity, i. 436

  Rama-Rama, a settlement in the heart of the New Zealand forests, iii.
      159

  Ramé-fibre. See _Boehmeria nivea_.

  Rancho, description of a, iii. 287, 389

  Rangitakí. _See_ Wiremu Kingi.

  Raorao (_Pteris Esculenta_), the New Zealand fern, iii. 121

  Rasamala forest of Java (_Liquid Ambar Altingiana_), ii. 216

  Ratnapoora, Ceylon, i. 406

  Reed, Mr., Minister, plenipotentiary of United States to China, ii. 466

  Réi, settlement on Puynipet Island, ii. 561

  Rerehau-Hemara, of Ngatiapakura, in New Zealand, enters as a seaman on
      board the _Novara_, iii. 175

  Retrospect of the results of the voyage, iii. 456-460

  Rewarewa, head-dress of Maori woman, iii. 220

  Rhanganatha Swami, Rock Temple, near Madras, i. 466

  Rice-paper in China, ii. 363, 364

  "Rickety Dick," last survivor of the Port Jackson aborigines, iii. 17

  Ried, Dr. Aquinas, Valparaiso, iii. 293

  Rüse, A., Pharmaceutist and Zoologist at St. Thomas, iii. 442

  Roankiddi Harbour, in Puynipet Island, ii. 561

  ---- race, manners and customs of, ii. 570-575

  ---- river on Puynipet Island, ii. 563

  Roberts, J. C., Protestant missionary, and present (late) foreign
      minister of the Tai-Ping rebels, ii. 528-532

  Robertson, Mr. Brook, English Consul, Shanghai, ii. 472

  Robinson, J. P., Superintendent of Nelson Province, New Zealand, iii.
      189

  _Roccella tinctoria_, i. 75

  Rochleder, Prof., of Prague, his instructions with reference to
      investigating the geographical distribution of plants, iii. 20

  Rochouse, Etienne, priest of the Society of Picpus, iii. 203

  Rosen, Pastor, missionary at the Nicobars, his residence at, ii. 12, 51,
      74


                                  S

  Saddle Islands, Chinese Sea, ii. 409

  Sago palm, the, ii. 153

  Saisset, M., Governor of Tahiti, iii. 211, 216, 219, 230, 232-238, 250,
      253

  Salak Gunung, volcano in Java, ii. 207

  Salangan, swallow on the Nicobars, ii. 58; at Java, 235-237

  Saltpetre, obtained at Iquique, iii. 343

  Sambelong. _See_ Great Nicobar.

  Sampan, or Chinese boat, ii. 413

  Samschoo, a Chinese beverage obtained from rice, ii. 474

  San Cristoval, island of, Solomon group, ii. 596, 624

  San Luis de Apra, harbour in Marianne Archipelago, ii. 549

  San Miguel, village near Manila, ii. 348

  Sandal-wood cutters, ii. 609; atrocities perpetrated by, 610

  Sandy Cape, Australia, ii. 626

  Santiago de Chile, visit to, iii. 295-303

  Sargasso, Mar de, iii. 334.

  Sàui, village of the Nicobar Islands, i. 481, ii. 24, 83

  _Saya y Manto_, the native dress of the Lima ladies, decline in the use
      of, iii. 399

  Scherzer, Dr. von, overland journey from Valparaiso, iii. 337-447

  Schierbrand, Col. von, Batavia, ii. 277

  Schroff, or Chinese factotum. See _Comprador_.

  Schu-king (old Chinese Book), ii. 498

  Sculptures of aboriginal Australians, iii. 34

  Sea-birds, habits of. _See_ Cape Pigeon, Albatross, &c.

  Serpent-breeding in Ceylon, i. 362

  Sesarga, Island of, ii. 624

  Sheep, statistics of, in New South Wales, iii. 62-64; in Australia at
      large, 64; estimated value of, 64

  Ship's complement, crew, officers, and scientific staff, i. Appendix

  Shrove Tuesday on shipboard, ii. 256

  Sicard, Dr. Adrian, monograph on Chinese sugar-cane, ii. 513

  Sikayana, visit to, ii. 601-622

  Sikkawéi, Jesuit mission at, ii. 480-483

  Silk, Chinese, statistics of, ii. 498-450

  Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, anchorage of, i. 195-197

  ---- Town, description of, i. 197-199

  Simpson's Island, inaccurately assigned position of, ii. 591

  Sinamay (or Sinamarre), Manila cloth, ii. 325 (note)

  "Singing Stones," the, Macao, ii. 406

  Siva, the Indian divinity, i. 435

  Skulls, human, used as drinking cups in Australia, iii. 34; Indian,
      found near Lima, 393

  Slave population of Brazil, condition of, i. 166-168

  Slavery among the Maories, iii. 116, 117

  Smith, his block-house at Titarango, iii. 150

  Snook-fish (_Thyrsites Atun_), i. 199

  Snow-fall on board the _Novara_, off the Horn, iii. 325

  Sokol, or Enchanted Lake, Manila. See _Laguna encantada_.

  Solomon Islands, ii. 595-597

  _Sorghum Saccharatum_ (Chinese sugar-cane), ii. 467, 512-515, iii. 302

  Southampton, arrival of Dr. v. Scherzer at, iii. 447

  Southern Cross, the, iii. 167

  Southern railroad, Chile, excursion on, iii. 308-310

  Sri-Pada, or Buddha's footstep, Ceylon, i. 413

  St. George's Canal, Nicobar group, ii. 68

  St. John College, Auckland, iii. 152

  St. Thomas, Island of, iii. 441-444

  Stafford, C. W., Under Secretary of State in New Zealand, iii. 97

  Stearine, candle-factory of, at Clarence river, iii. 22

  Stellenbosch, town of Cape Colony, i. 215-219

  Stewart, Capt., of schooner _Louisa_, his narrative of the recent
      history of the Pitcairn Islanders, iii. 269-276, 338

  Stewart's Islands, ii. 598

  Stores for voyage, list of, i. Appendix

  Straubenzee, Lieut.-General, Commander-in-chief of allied forces in
      China, ii. 382, 384

  Strzelecki, Count, his ethnographic work on Australia, iii. 32

  Sugar-growing in Tahiti, iii. 224, 225

  Sweet potato, ii. 102; of Tahiti, iii. 245

  Sycee (or sacrificial) paper, China, ii. 433 (note)

  Sydney, arrival at, ii. 627; description of, iii. 7-10

  Syle, Rev. Mr., missionary in China, ii. 460


                                  T

  Taboga, Island of, in Bay of Panama, iii. 422

  Taboo, customs of, in New Zealand, iii. 114

  Tacna, city of Peru, iii. 345

  Tael, Chinese currency, ii. 422 (note)

  Tagales, or Tagalogs, aborigines of the Philippines, ii. 292-296

  Tahiti, Island of, iii. 196-251; first efforts of Protestant
      missionaries in the Society Islands, 200-202; placed under French
      protectorate, 208; present political condition, 239, 240, 248-251;
      physical configuration of the island, 241; climate, 241; statistics
      of value of commerce, 248

  Tahitian women, their appearance and morals, iii. 219-221

  Taiarapu, peninsula of Tahiti, iii. 227

  Tai-ping rebels, their history, ii. 523-537; assume a political
      organization, 527; their doctrines, 529-533; latest intelligence
      respecting, 534-537

  Takapuna district, New Zealand, iii. 100

  Taki, Chinese merchant, Shanghai, banquet given by, ii. 485-494

  Tallow-tree (_Stillingia Sebifera_) of China, ii. 517

  Tangkuban Prahu, Javanese volcano, ii. 248-252

  Tanka-boat, Macao, ii. 393, 394, 406

  Taouist sect, China, ii. 435; their convents, 436

  Taranaki (Mount Egmont), New Zealand, iii. 189; province and tribe,
      189-191

  Taro (_Caladium esculentum_), Puynipet Island, ii. 568

  Tattooing, how performed among the Maories, iii. 110-114; on Puynipet,
      ii. 572-574

  Taú-Tái, or Governor of Shanghai, ii. 472; interview with him, 472-476

  Tawa, the (_Laurus Tawa_), its berries used by the Maories for the
      preparation of a beverage, iii. 122

  Te-Huhu, death-song of, specimen of New Zealand dirges, iii. 130

  Te Teira, New Zealand native, the purchase of whose land led to the late
      wars, iii. 132

  Tea, statistics of, ii. 504-511

  Teijsman, J. E., Director of Botanical Garden of Buitenzorg, ii. 205

  Telegraph, electric, its progress in Madras, i. 450; in Batavia, ii.
      204; in Australia, iii. 43

  Temple of the Goddess of the Sea, Shanghai. _See_ Goddess of the Sea.

  Tenákoe, the New Zealand mode of salutation, iii. 149

  Teressa, one of the Nicobar group, ii. 61

  _Terra Japonica._ See _Acacia Catechu_.

  Tetakaka valley, gold-fields of, New Zealand, iii. 190

  _Tetraodon Honkenyi_ (sea-devil), fatal effects of eating, i. 199, 200

  Theatrical representations in China, ii. 486-489

  Thomson, Dr. A., anthropometrical and dynamical experiments with New
      Zealand natives, and their results, iii. 123-125

  Ti-plant (_Cordyline Australis_) of Tahiti, an intoxicant beverage
      prepared from, iii. 245

  Tien-tsin, treaty of, considered, ii. 386

  Tiffin, the Indian lunch, i. 368

  Tigers, prevalence of, at Singapore, ii. 143

  Til-tree (_Oreodaphne f[oe]tens_), i. 65

  Tiles (Chinese weights), ii. 156

  Tillangschong, one of the Nicobar group, ii. 43, 45, 84

  Tinkal. See _Borax_.

  Tjiangoer, town in Java, ii. 235

  Tjiburum, river in Java, ii. 216

  Tjipodas, cinchona plantation at, in Java, ii. 227-232

  Tjisokan, village in Java, ii. 237

  Tjitarum, river in Java, ii. 238

  Toe-toe, species of New Zealand grass, iii. 147

  Tombs, Island of Puynipet, supposed, ii. 584

  Tom Weiry, a Sydney chief, iii. 59

  Tong-Kadu, Catholic cathedral near Shanghai, ii. 445, 478

  Tow-boats, expense of, at Hong-kong, ii. 408; at Shanghai, 537

  Track, one of the Nicobar group, ii. 62

  Trepang (or _Biche de Mar_), different species of, ii. 619-622;
      preparation for Chinese market, 621

  Treis, Island of, Nicobar group, ii. 62

  Trieste, departure from, i. 12; return to, iii. 455

  Tschandú. _See_ Opium.

  Tscharul Mugra (one of the _Flacourtiaceæ_), an antidote to leprosy,
      used in China, ii. 458

  Tschaura, or Chowra, Island of, Nicobar group, ii. 61, 84

  Tschinapatnam, Indian village of, i. 429

  Tschokóits, aboriginal race of Puynipet, ii. 575

  Tsetse-fly, ravages of, in Cape Colony, i. 252-254

  Tuakan, Maori village, iii. 166; New Year's night at, 167

  Tubuai, Island of, in Rorutu Archipelago, iii. 196

  Tupa-kihi (_Coriaria sarmentosa_) berries used for brewing purposes in
      New Zealand, iii. 111

  Turnour, George, translations from Cingalese, i. 395

  Typhoon, description of a, ii. 539-549


                                  U

  Ulála Bay, Nicobar Islands, ii. 60, 94

  Unger, Professor F., his theory as to the probable age of Australia,
      iii. 70, 71

  University of Sydney, iii. 8

  ---- Santiago de Chile, iii. 298, 299

  Upa-Upa, licentious dance of Tahitian women, iii. 219

  Urdaneta, Friar A., Prior of the Augustines of Manila, ii. 306

  Urmeneta, Don Jerónimo, foreign minister of Chile, iii. 304


                                  V

  Vahara Swami, Temple of, Madras, i. 470

  Valdivia, German colony at, iii. 316

  Valparaiso, iii. 280-291

  Vanilla plantations in Java, ii. 205

  Vapour-baths, Shanghai, ii. 419

  Vegetable wax. _See_ Peh-lah.

  Vellore, visit to, and fort, i. 447-453

  _Venus_, French frigate, visits Tahiti, iii. 208

  _Vert chinois._ _See_ Green Indigo.

  Victoria, Hong-kong, ii. 355-375

  Vigil, Francisco de Paula, director of National Library, Lima, iii. 375;
      his views respecting the Papacy, 376

  Vine disease in Madeira, particulars of the, i. 75-81

  Vishnu, Indian Divinity, i. 429

  Visscher van Gaasbeek, assistant resident, Java, ii. 239, 252

  Vinhatico (_Persea indica_), at Madeira, i. 65

  _Visanili Katail_ (poison oil), Ceylon, i. 401

  Vriese, de, director of Botanical Garden, Leyden, his travels in Java,
      ii. 242

  Vrij, chemist, resident in Java, ii. 246-248


                                  W

  War in Chile, iii. 305, 306

  Wax-berry, shrub, Cape Colony, i. 205

  Wagner, Dr. Moritz, his contour map of Isthmus of Panama, iii. 434

  Waiiria, Lake of, Tahiti, iii. 228

  Waikato River, New Zealand, iii. 158, 174, 182-184

  Wakka, New Zealand canoe, iii. 157

  Walloby (Kangaroo rat), Australia, iii. 36

  Wall reefs, ii. 556-558

  Wandering sand-hills. See _Medanos_.

  Wangs, or Kings of the Tai-pings, ii. 535-537

  Waves, mode of measuring their height, i. 191; height in Chinese sea,
      ii. 544

  Weapons of the Nicobar aborigines, ii. 121

  Weddahs, wild native race of Ceylon, i. 358

  Wellington Province, New Zealand, iii. 188

  Whale fishery off St. Paul Island, i. 288-291, 319-321; off Puynipet,
      ii. 554, 579; off Tahiti, iii. 248

  Whampoa, ship purveyor, ii. 168-173

  Whari, or New Zealand hut, iii. 161-163

  White colonists, Island of Puynipet, ii. 561

  Whittle's Rock, Simon's Bay, Cape Colony, i. 259

  Wiener, G., Austrian Consul at Hong-kong, ii. 378

  Wild Banana. See _Musa Textilis_.

  Will's Harbour. _See_ Papeete.

  Williamson, J., Superintendent of Auckland Province, iii. 177

  Wine cultivation of Madeira, i. 76-79; of Cape Colony, 255, 256; of
      Australia, iii. 21-24

  Winnes, Dr. Ph., Missionary at Hong-kong, ii. 368

  Wiremu Kingi, chief of New Zealand insurgents, iii. 132

  Wong-Fun, Physician in Macao, ii. 406

  Worcester, Cape Colony, its charming site, i. 223-225

  Wuang-po, canal of, ii. 479

  Wulongong, harbour of, New South Wales, iii. 29; rencontre with natives,
      30; Walloby hunt, 36; nocturnal adventures among the hills of, 40-42

  Wusung River, at Shanghai, ii. 410-414, 479


                                  Y

  Yak-tien, Chinese drug stone, ii. 437

  Yam, ii. 102; at Tahiti, iii. 245

  Yang-tse-Kiang, arrival off, ii. 410; navigation of, 410-412

  Yaws (_Framb[oe]sia_), prevalence of, in Puynipet Island, ii. 574

  Yeh, late Governor of Canton, ii. 383; his cruelty to the Tai-pings, 526

  Yellow fever, i. 158, iii. 372

  Yo-stone. _See_ Nephrite.


                                  Z

   Zodiacal light, i. 480



                                ERRATA.


                                VOL. I.

  PAGE LINE

  vii. 1 from bottom, _for_ Hardinger _read_ Haidinger

  viii. 3 from bottom, _for_ minerals _read_ mammalia

  xxvi. 6 from bottom, _for_ Saugar _read_ Sangar

  xxvii. 10 from bottom, _for_ Tama _read_ Jama

  ----9 from bottom, _for_ Saka _read_ Saku

  xxix. 12 from top, _for_ sheet of water _read_ pool of lava

  xxx. 10 from bottom, _for_ isolated Vaihu of the _read_ isolated
      Vaihu _or_ Easter Island

  xxxi. 10 from bottom, _for_ schists of lava _read_ sheets _or_
      flows of lava

  xxxv. 17 from top, _for_ internally of a matted texture _read_
      within the holes of a melted glassy surface

  ----2 from bottom, _for_ Gacal _read_ Jakal

  xxxvi. last line, _for_ Rosotlan _read_ Bosotlan

  xxxvii. 6 from bottom, _for_ Posto de Quindici _read_ Passo de
      Quindiu

  xxxviii. 9 from bottom, _for_ Ausango _read_ Ansango

  xxxviii. 5 from bottom, _for_ unlike _read_ like

  ----last line, _for_ Pullo _read_ Puela

  xxxix. 8 from bottom, _for_ veins _read_ grains

  ----8 from bottom, _for_ Weise _read_ Wisse

  ----6 from bottom, _for_ trachytes of Hungary _read_ trachytes
      out of Hungary

  xlii. 5 from top, _for_ 18° 15' _read_ 18° 25'

  xliii. 12 from top, _for_ Exogira contoni _read_ Exogyra Couloni

  xliv. 1 from top, or Yntales _has to be omitted entirely_

  ----5 from top, _for_ La Cruz _read_ La Cruz Olmedella

  1. 2 from top, _for_ crooked _read_ oblique

  115 6 from bottom, _for_ 30° 50' _read_ 33° 50'

  474 _for_ prediluvian period _read_ period (before the flood
      extended so far)


                               VOL. II.

  PAGE

  42 _for_ mania _read_ maina bird (Graculus)

  102 _for_ Jakopha _read_ Jatropha

  135 _for_ lovely _read_ lonely

  143 _for_ Turiah _read_ Bukit Timah

  156 _for_ Tschni-tschni _read_ Tschin-tschin

  163 _for_ Carl _read_ Windsor Earl

  219 _for_ usnioides _read_ usneoïdes

  242 _for_ Phlippan _read_ Phlippau

  262 _for_ room _read_ court yard

  296 _for_ Tbanac _read_ Ybanac

  319 _for_ Bisayx _read_ Bisaya

  343 _for_ aficimado _read_ aficiado

  350 _for_ Girandier _read_ Giraudier

  355 _for_ Praya Granite _read_ Praya Grande

  355 _for_ To-stone _read_ Yo-stone

  364 _for_ Funan _read_ Yunan

  366 _read_ preparing Indian-ink from

  394 _for_ Russian _read_ Prussian

  401 _for_ "lines" _read_ "lions"

  411 _for_ become involved _read_ escaped being involved

  416 _for_ Main-tze _read_ Mian-tze

  416 _for_ Long-Sah _read_ Long-Fah

  471 _for_ been _read_ had brought him

  482 _for_ medical _read_ philosophical

  498 _for_ Shoo-kiu _read_ Shoo-kin

  508 _for_ invisible _read_ illimitable

  516 _for_ China _read_ India

  518 _for_ limitata _read_ limbata

  547 _for_ Dkinawasmia _read_ Dkinawasima

  553 _for_ Metetenai _read_ Metelenian

  575 _for_ Metelemia _read_ Metelenian

  575 _for_ Awnaks _read_ Awuaks

  585 _for_ Nálan _read_ Ualán

  596 _for_ Senville _read_ Surville


                              VOL. III.

  PAGE LINE

  2 1 from bottom, _for_ Cotton _read_ Cotta

  29 8 from bottom, _for_ son-in-law _read_ brother-in-law

  33 9 from top, _for_ Augos _read_ Angas

  43 14 from top, _for_ stone-fields _read_ coal-fields

  58 14 from top, _for_ Cool-river _read_ Cook-river

  177 8 from bottom, _for_ England _read_ island

  186 11 from bottom, _for_ Thorold _read_ Mould

  191 _for_ Pakaivau _read_ Pakawau

  232 11 from bottom, _for_ reception-room _read_ reception-court

  243 1 from top, _for_ (pomegranates) _read_ (carica papayi)

  244 3 from bottom, _for_ Tacea _read_ Tacca

  245 4 from bottom, _for_ spandias _read_ spondias

  279 5 from top, _for_ 118 _read_ 48 days

  299 10 from bottom, _for_ Sillis _read_ Gillis

  308 7 from bottom, _for_ Ferro Canil _read_ Carril

  338 16 from bottom, _for_ the _read_ a

  351 16 from bottom, _for_ gama _read_ garua

  389 19 from bottom, _for_ Accordingly our _read_ Formerly the

  407 6 from bottom, _for_ Cocani _read_ Cocain

  ----7, 11, & 21--_for_ Cocani _read_ Cocain

  ----3, 8, & 13 from top, _for_ Cocani _read_ Cocain

  408 3, 6, & 21 from bottom, _for_ cocani _read_ cocain

  410 8 from top, _for_ Hasakael _read_ Hasskarl

  417 12 from bottom, _for_ centner _read_ quintal

  418 10 from top, _for_ Huanchoco _read_ Huanchaco

  ----5 from bottom, _for_ this hitherto _read_ a hitherto

  419 3 & 10 from top, _for_ Lambajique _read_ Lambajeque

  ----2 from bottom, _for_ San Salvadore _read_ San Salvador

  420 9 from top, _for_ Criomys _read_ Eriomys

  ----6 from bottom, _for_ Chirãr _read_ Chirar

  422 12 from top, _read_ it rose from 65° to 76° Fahr.

  ----11 from bottom, _for_ Taboquille _read_ Taboquilla

  428 11 from top, _for_ Le Breton _read_ Lebreton

  430 8 from top, _for_ £200,000 to £1,300,000 _read_ £200,000 to
      £300,000

  ----9 from bottom, _for_ an hour or two _read_ a few hours

  435 11 from bottom, _for_ facts _read_ specimens

  444 5 from bottom, _for_ however _read_ moreover

       *       *       *       *       *



                         List Of Corrections


Transcriber's Note: Blank pages have been deleted. All of the footnotes
have been moved. Some illustrations may have been moved. We have rendered
consistent on a per-word-pair basis the hyphenation or spacing of such
pairs when repeated in the same grammatical context. We have corrected
inconsistencies in the application of accents to the same word when
repeated in the same context. Paragraph formatting has been made
consistent. The publisher's inadvertent omissions of important punctuation
have been corrected. Some wide tables have been re-formatted to narrower
equivalents with some words replaced with commonly known abbreviations and
possibly a key. Some ditto marks have been replaced with the words
represented.

Other detected publisher's errors were corrected as listed below. The page
number is that of the source publication. An asterisk after the page
number indicates that the correction was specified by the publisher.

  Page          Correction

    2 * Political Economy. Stuttgart, 1840. (J. C. Cotton[Cotta].)
   24   being much more extensively dealt in in[delete 2nd in] European
   29 * Mr. Edward Hill, a son-in-law[brother-in-law] of
   32   according to all unbiassed[unbiased] observers,
   33 * among the natives of the north. M. Augos[Angas],
   43 * Hunter River and the Newcastle stone-fields[coal-fields],
   58 * thence over the Cool[Cook]-River
   96   by the numerous streams and creaks[creeks]
  111 * fruit of Tupa-kihi (_Coriaria Samentosa[Sarmentosa]_).
  120   settlements adjoining Fovean's[Foveau]Straits
  172   Commodore Von Wüllerstorff[Wüllerstorf] consented on condition
  177 * this little-explored England[island], we avail
  186 * put at my disposal by Colonel Thorold[Mould]
  191 * Pakaivau[Pakawau] give ground for anticipating that
  231   had already made the the[del 2nd the] circuit
  231 * In the reception-room[court] a perfect mountain
  241 * Pusenaura, Papara, Papuriri[Papeuriri],
  243 * (pine-apples), papayas (pomegranates?)[(carica papayi)],
  244 * VI. Pia (_Tacea[Tacca] pinnatifida_),
  245 * the _pandanus_ fruit, the _spandias[spondias] dulcis_
  263   good officers[offices] of the British Government
  269   details repecting[respecting] them.
  279 * in 118[48] days, and although
  282   nothing recals[recalls] that singular national aboriginal type,
  293   For this purpose Commodore von Wüllerstoff[Wüllerstorf]
  299 * traveller Sillis[Gillis], who for many years
  300   lodged, and clothed gratuituously[gratuitously],
  306   the downfal[downfall] of the existing Government
  308 * (Ferro Canil[Carril] del Sur)
  321   unhappy case. Commodore Wüllerstorff[Wüllerstorf],
  338 * the[a] little boat made its appearance
  351 * a fine penetrating dew (_gama[garua]_),
  372   "_Los ninos[niños] se crian en la Calle!_"
  380   Manuel Fuentes' valuable "Estadestica[Estadistica] General de Lima
  389 * Accordingly our[Formerly the] ride to Chorillos,
  395   we passed the beautifully situate[situated] village
  407 * in such cases, the name Cocani[Cocain]
  407 * Cocani[Cocain] is precipitated in colourless inodorous
  407 * Cocani[Cocain] completely neutralizes acids,
  407 * nature and properties of cocani[cocain]. M. Wöhler,
  410 * respecting which Hasakael[Hasskarl] has observed
  417 * amount to from 8 to 10 dollars per centner[quintal].
  418 * reached Huanchoco[Huanchaco], the principal
  418 * me a small flask of this[a] hitherto little-known
  419 * de Lambajique[Lambajeque] in the department of Chola.
  419 * miles north of Lambajique[Lambajeque] lies the Indian
  419 * Central American State of San Salvadore[Salvador]
  420 * chinchilla fur (_Criomys[Eriomys] Chinchilla_),
  420 * city from the river Chir[=a]r[Chirar],
  422 * it was as high as[it rose from] 65° to 70°[76°] Fahr.
  422 * with the adjacent islet of Taboquille[Taboquilla],
  428 * By Dr. Le Breton[Lebreton], a French physician
  430 * the Company at from £200,000 to £1,300,000[£300,000].
  430 * hour or two[a few hours] a journey which often occupied
  435 * geological and botanical facts[specimens]
  444 * However[Moreover], the impression made by the
  454   more extensive mementoes[mementos] of Roman architecture
  496   utility of pushing on [to] the dépôt
  519   Algesiras[Algeziras], i. 40
  522   Campbeltown[Cambelton], New South Wales, excursion to
  524   Curaré, the Indian prison[poison],
  524   Corróborry[Coróborry], dance of the Australian aborigines,
  529   Joss-ticks[Joss-sticks], ii. 341
  529   Illawarra[Illawara] District, New South Wales,
  532   Metelenien[Metelenian], harbour of, in Puynipet island,
  533   Director of the Botannical[Botanical] Garden
  535   Papacura[Papakura], plains of, New Zealand, iii. 170

       *       *       *       *       *





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Narrative of the Circumnavigation of the Globe by the Austrian Frigate Novara, Volume III - (Commodore B. Von Wullerstorf-Urbair,) Undertaken by Order - of the Imperial Government in the Years 1857, 1858, & 1859, - Under the Immediate Auspices of His I. and R. Highness the - Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Commander-In-Chief of the - Austrian Navy." ***

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