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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 8 - "Haller, Albrecht" to "Harmonium"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 8 - "Haller, Albrecht" to "Harmonium"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters, [oo] for infinity symbol and [dP] for partial differential
      symbol.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE HALLER, ALBRECHT VON: "From a literary point of view the
      main result of this, the first of his many journeys through the
      Alps, was his poem entitled Die Alpen, which was finished in March
      1729, and appeared in the first edition (1732) of his Gedichte."
      'poem' amended from 'peom'.

    ARTICLE HAMBURG: "... and if the progress of the tide up the river
      gives indication of danger, another three shots follow." 'another'
      amended from 'other'.

    ARTICLE HARBOUR: "Ostend is the only jetty harbour in which a large
      sluicing basin has been recently constructed, but it can only
      provide for the maintenance of deep-water quays in its vicinity;
      ..." 'harbour' amended from 'habour'.

    ARTICLE HARMONICA: "... Franz Leppich's panmelodicon in 1810,
      Buschmann's uranion in the same year, &c. Of most of these nothing
      now remains but the name and a description in the Allgemeine
      musikalische Zeitung ..." Added 'in'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


          VOLUME XII, SLICE VIII

       Haller, Albrecht to Harmonium



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  HALLER, ALBRECHT VON              HANDICAP
  HALLER, BERTHOLD                  HANDSEL
  HALLEY, EDMUND                    HANDSWORTH
  HALLGRÍMSSON, JÓNAS               HANDWRITING
  HALLIDAY, ANDREW                  HANG-CHOW-FU
  HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS, ORCHARD      HANGING
  HALLOWE'EN                        HANGÖ
  HALLSTATT                         HANKA, WENCESLAUS
  HALLUCINATION                     HANLEY
  HALLUIN                           HANNA, MARCUS ALONZO
  HALM, CARL FELIX                  HANNAY, JAMES
  HALMA                             HANNEN, JAMES HANNEN
  HALMAHERA                         HANNIBAL (Carthaginian statesman)
  HALMSTAD                          HANNIBAL (Missouri, U.S.A.)
  HALO                              HANNINGTON, JAMES
  HALOGENS                          HANNINGTON
  HALS, FRANS                       HANNO
  HALSBURY, HARDINGE GIFFARD        HANOI
  HALSTEAD                          HANOTAUX, ALBERT AUGUSTE GABRIEL
  HALT                              HANOVER (province of Prussia)
  HALUNTIUM                         HANOVER (city of Prussia)
  HALYBURTON, JAMES                 HANOVER (Indiana, U.S.A.)
  HALYBURTON, THOMAS                HANOVER (New Hampshire, U.S.A.)
  HAM (son of Noah)                 HANOVER (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
  HAM (town of France)              HANRIOT, FRANÇOIS
  HAMADAN                           HANSARD, LUKE
  HAMADHANI                         HANSEATIC LEAGUE
  HAMAH                             HANSEN, PETER ANDREAS
  HAMANN, JOHANN GEORG              HANSI
  HAMAR                             HANSOM, JOSEPH ALOYSIUS
  HAMASA                            HANSON, SIR RICHARD DAVIES
  HAMBURG (German state)            HANSTEEN, CHRISTOPHER
  HAMBURG (German seaport)          HANTHAWADDY
  HAMDANI                           HANUKKAH
  HAMELIN, FRANÇOIS ALPHONSE        HANUMAN
  HAMELN                            HANWAY, JONAS
  HAMERLING, ROBERT                 HANWELL
  HAMERTON, PHILIP GILBERT          HAPARANDA
  HAMI                              HAPLODRILI
  HAMILCAR BARCA                    HAPTARA
  HAMILTON                          HAPUR
  HAMILTON, MARQUESSES & DUKES OF   HARA-KIRI
  HAMILTON, ALEXANDER               HARALD
  HAMILTON, ANTHONY                 HARBIN
  HAMILTON, ELIZABETH               HARBINGER
  HAMILTON, EMMA                    HARBOUR
  HAMILTON, JAMES                   HARBURG
  HAMILTON, JAMES HAMILTON          HARCOURT
  HAMILTON, JOHN                    HARCOURT, SIMON HARCOURT
  HAMILTON, PATRICK                 HARCOURT, SIR WILLIAM VENABLES VERNON
  HAMILTON, ROBERT                  HARCOURT, WILLIAM VERNON
  HAMILTON, THOMAS                  HARDANGER FJORD
  HAMILTON, WILLIAM                 HARDEE, WILLIAM JOSEPH
  HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM (1730-1803) HARDENBERG, KARL AUGUST VON
  HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM (1788-1856) HARDERWYK
  HAMILTON, WILLIAM GERARD          HARDICANUTE
  HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM ROWAN       HARDING, CHESTER
  HAMILTON (town of Australia)      HARDING, JAMES DUFFIELD
  HAMILTON (river of Canada)        HARDINGE, HENRY HARDINGE
  HAMILTON (city of Canada)         HARDOI
  HAMILTON (burgh of Scotland)      HARDOUIN, JEAN
  HAMILTON (New York, U.S.A.)       HARDT, HERMANN VON DER
  HAMILTON (Ohio, U.S.A.)           HARDT, THE
  HAMIRPUR                          HARDWAR
  HAMITIC RACES AND LANGUAGES       HARDWICKE, PHILIP YORKE
  HAMLET                            HARDY, ALEXANDRE
  HAMLEY, SIR EDWARD BRUCE          HARDY, THOMAS
  HAMLIN, HANNIBAL                  HARDY, SIR THOMAS DUFFUS
  HAMM                              HARDY, SIR THOMAS MASTERMAN
  HAMMAD AR-RAWIYA                  HARDYNG, JOHN
  HAMMER, FRIEDRICH JULIUS          HARE, AUGUSTUS JOHN CUTHBERT
  HAMMER                            HARE, SIR JOHN
  HAMMERBEAM ROOF                   HARE, JULIUS CHARLES
  HAMMERFEST                        HARE
  HAMMER-KOP                        HAREBELL
  HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH          HAREM
  HAMMERSMITH                       HARFLEUR
  HAMMER-THROWING                   HARIANA
  HAMMER-TOE                        HARINGTON, SIR JOHN
  HAMMOCK                           HARIRI
  HAMMOND, HENRY                    HARI-RUD
  HAMMOND                           HARISCHANDRA
  HAMON, JEAN LOUIS                 HARITH IBN HILLIZA UL-YASHKURI
  HAMPDEN, HENRY BOUVERIE BRAND     HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON
  HAMPDEN, JOHN                     HARKNESS, ALBERT
  HAMPDEN, RENN DICKSON             HARKNESS, ROBERT
  HAMPDEN-SIDNEY                    HARLAN, JAMES
  HAMPSHIRE                         HARLAN, JOHN MARSHALL
  HAMPSTEAD                         HARLAND, HENRY
  HAMPTON, WADE                     HARLAY DE CHAMPVALLON, FRANÇOIS DE
  HAMPTON (Middlesex, England)      HARLECH
  HAMPTON (Virginia, U.S.A.)        HARLEQUIN
  HAMPTON ROADS                     HARLESS, GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPH
  HAMSTER                           HARLESS, GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPH ADOLF VON
  HANAPER                           HARLINGEN
  HANAU                             HARMATTAN
  HANBURY WILLIAMS, SIR CHARLES     HARMODIUS
  HANCOCK, JOHN                     HARMONIA
  HANCOCK, WINFIELD SCOTT           HARMONIC
  HANCOCK                           HARMONICA
  HAND, FERDINAND GOTTHELF          HARMONIC ANALYSIS
  HAND                              HARMONICHORD
  HANDEL, GEORGE FREDERICK          HARMONIUM
  HANDFASTING



HALLER, ALBRECHT VON (1708-1777), Swiss anatomist and physiologist, was
born of an old Swiss family at Bern, on the 16th of October 1708.
Prevented by long-continued ill-health from taking part in boyish
sports, he had the more opportunity for the development of his
precocious mind. At the age of four, it is said, he used to read and
expound the Bible to his father's servants; before he was ten he had
sketched a Chaldee grammar, prepared a Greek and a Hebrew vocabulary,
compiled a collection of two thousand biographies of famous men and
women on the model of the great works of Bayle and Moreri, and written
in Latin verse a satire on his tutor, who had warned him against a too
great excursiveness. When still hardly fifteen he was already the author
of numerous metrical translations from Ovid, Horace and Virgil, as well
as of original lyrics, dramas, and an epic of four thousand lines on the
origin of the Swiss confederations, writings which he is said on one
occasion to have rescued from a fire at the risk of his life, only,
however, to burn them a little later (1729) with his own hand. Haller's
attention had been directed to the profession of medicine while he was
residing in the house of a physician at Biel after his father's death in
1721; and, following the choice then made, he while still a sickly and
excessively shy youth went in his sixteenth year to the university of
Tübingen (December 1723), where he studied under Camerarius and
Duvernoy. Dissatisfied with his progress, he in 1725 exchanged Tübingen
for Leiden, where Boerhaave was in the zenith of his fame, and where
Albinus had already begun to lecture in anatomy. At that university he
graduated in May 1727, undertaking successfully in his thesis to prove
that the so-called salivary duct, claimed as a recent discovery by
Coschwitz, was nothing more than a blood-vessel. Haller then visited
London, making the acquaintance of Sir Hans Sloane, Cheselden, Pringle,
Douglas and other scientific men; next, after a short stay in Oxford, he
visited Paris, where he studied under Ledran and Winslöw; and in 1728 he
proceeded to Basel, where he devoted himself to the study of the higher
mathematics under John Bernoulli. It was during his stay there also that
his first great interest in botany was awakened; and, in the course of a
tour (July-August, 1828), through Savoy, Baden and several of the Swiss
cantons, he began a collection of plants which was afterwards the basis
of his great work on the flora of Switzerland. From a literary point of
view the main result of this, the first of his many journeys through the
Alps, was his poem entitled _Die Alpen_, which was finished in March
1729, and appeared in the first edition (1732) of his _Gedichte_. This
poem of 490 hexameters is historically important as one of the earliest
signs of the awakening appreciation of the mountains (hitherto generally
regarded as horrible monstrosities), though it is chiefly designed to
contrast the simple and idyllic life of the inhabitants of the Alps with
the corrupt and decadent existence of the dwellers in the plains.

In 1729 he returned to Bern and began to practise as a physician; his
best energies, however, were devoted to the botanical and anatomical
researches which rapidly gave him a European reputation, and procured
for him from George II. in 1736 a call to the chair of medicine,
anatomy, botany and surgery in the newly founded university of
Göttingen. He became F.R.S. in 1743, and was ennobled in 1749. The
quantity of work achieved by Haller in the seventeen years during which
he occupied his Göttingen professorship was immense. Apart from the
ordinary work of his classes, which entailed upon him the task of newly
organizing a botanical garden, an anatomical theatre and museum, an
obstetrical school, and similar institutions, he carried on without
interruption those original investigations in botany and physiology, the
results of which are preserved in the numerous works associated with his
name; he continued also to persevere in his youthful habit of poetical
composition, while at the same time he conducted a monthly journal (the
_Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen_), to which he is said to have
contributed twelve thousand articles relating to almost every branch of
human knowledge. He also warmly interested himself in most of the
religious questions, both ephemeral and permanent, of his day; and the
erection of the Reformed church in Göttingen was mainly due to his
unwearied energy. Notwithstanding all this variety of absorbing
interests he never felt at home in Göttingen; his untravelled heart kept
ever turning towards his native Bern (where he had been elected a member
of the great council in 1745), and in 1753 he resolved to resign his
chair and return to Switzerland.

The twenty-one years of his life which followed were largely occupied in
the discharge of his duties in the minor political post of a
_Rathhausammann_ which he had obtained by lot, and in the preparation of
his _Bibliotheca medica_, the botanical, surgical and anatomical parts
of which he lived to complete; but he also found time to write the three
philosophical romances--_Usong_ (1771), _Alfred_ (1773) and _Fabius and
Cato_ (1774),--in which his views as to the respective merits of
despotism, of limited monarchy and of aristocratic republican government
are fully set forth. About 1773 the state of his health rendered
necessary his entire withdrawal from public business; for some time he
supported his failing strength by means of opium, on the use of which he
communicated a paper to the _Proceedings_ of the Göttingen Royal Society
in 1776; the excessive use of the drug is believed, however, to have
hastened his death, which occurred on the 17th of December 1777. Haller,
who had been three times married, left eight children, the eldest of
whom, Gottlieb Emanuel, attained to some distinction as a botanist and
as a writer on Swiss historical bibliography (1785-1788, 7 vols.).

  Subjoined is a classified but by no means an exhaustive list of his
  very numerous works in various branches of science and literature (a
  complete list, up to 1775, numbering 576 items, including various
  editions, was published by Haller himself, in 1775, at the end of vol.
  6 of the correspondence addressed to him by various learned
  friends):--(1) Anatomical:--_Icones anatomicae_ (1743-1754);
  _Disputationes anatomicae selectiores_ (1746-1752); and _Opera acad.
  minora anatomici argumenti_ (1762-1768). (2) Physiological:--_De
  respiratione experimenta anatomica_ (1747); _Primae lineae
  physiologiae_ (1747); and _Elementa physiologiae corporis humani_
  (1757-1760). (3) Pathological and surgical:--_Opuscula pathologica_
  (1754); _Disputationum chirurg. collectio_ (1777); also careful
  editions of Boerhaave's _Praelectiones academicae in suas
  institutiones rei medicae_ (1739), and of the _Artis medicae
  principia_ of the same author (1769-1774). (4) Botanical:--_Enumeratio
  methodica stirpium Helveticarum_ (1742); _Opuscula botanica_ (1749);
  _Bibliotheca botanica_ (1771). (5) Theological:--_Briefe über die
  wichtigsten Wahrheiten der Offenbarung_ (1772); and _Briefe zur
  Vertheidigung der Offenbarung_ (1775-1777). (6) Poetical:--_Gedichte_
  (1732, 12th ed., 1777). His three romances have been already
  mentioned. Several volumes of lectures and "Tagebücher" or journals
  were published posthumously.

  See J. G. Zimmermann, _Das Leben des Herrn von Haller_ (1755), and the
  articles by Förster and Seiler in Ersch and Gruber's _Encyklopädie_,
  and particularly the detailed biography (over 500 pages) by L. Hirzel,
  printed at the head of his elaborate edition (Frauenfeld, 1882) of
  Haller's _Gedichte_.



HALLER, BERTHOLD (1492-1536), Swiss reformer, was born at Aldingen in
Württemberg, and after studying at Pforzheim, where he met Melanchthon,
and at Cologne, taught in the gymnasium at Bern. He was appointed
assistant preacher at the church of St Vincent in 1515 and people's
priest in 1520. Even before his acquaintance with Zwingli in 1521 he had
begun to preach the Reformation, his sympathetic character and his
eloquence making him a great force. In 1526 he was at the abortive
conference of Baden, and in January 1528 drafted and defended the ten
theses for the conference of Bern which established the new religion in
that city. He left no writings except a few letters which are preserved
in Zwingli's works. He died on the 25th of February 1536.

  Life by Pestalozzi (Elberfeld, 1861).



HALLEY, EDMUND (1656-1742), English astronomer, was born at Haggerston,
London, on the 29th of October 1656. His father, a wealthy soapboiler,
placed him at St Paul's school, where he was equally distinguished for
classical and mathematical ability. Before leaving it for Queen's
College, Oxford, in 1673, he had observed the change in the variation of
the compass, and at the age of nineteen, he supplied a new and improved
method of determining the elements of the planetary orbits (_Phil.
Trans._ xi. 683). His detection of considerable errors in the tables
then in use led him to the conclusion that a more accurate ascertainment
of the places of the fixed stars was indispensable to the progress of
astronomy; and, finding that Flamsteed and Hevelius had already
undertaken to catalogue those visible in northern latitudes, he assumed
to himself the task of making observations in the southern hemisphere. A
recommendation from Charles II. to the East India Company procured for
him an apparently suitable, though, as it proved, ill-chosen station,
and in November 1676 he embarked for St Helena. On the voyage he noticed
the retardation of the pendulum in approaching the equator; and during
his stay on the island he observed, on the 7th of November 1677, a
transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the important idea of
employing similar phenomena for determining the sun's distance. He
returned to England in November 1678, having by the registration of 341
stars won the title of the "Southern Tycho," and by the translation to
the heavens of the "Royal Oak," earned a degree of master of arts,
conferred at Oxford by the king's command on the 3rd of December 1678,
almost simultaneously with his election as fellow of the Royal Society.
Six months later, the indefatigable astronomer started for Danzig to set
at rest a dispute of long standing between Hooke and Hevelius as to the
respective merits of plain or telescopic sights; and towards the end of
1680 he proceeded on a continental tour. In Paris he observed, with G.
D. Cassini, the great comet of 1680 after its perihelion passage; and
having returned to England, he married in 1682 Mary, daughter of Mr
Tooke, auditor of the exchequer, with whom he lived harmoniously for
fifty-five years. He now fixed his residence at Islington, engaged
chiefly upon lunar observations, with a view to the great desideratum of
a method of finding the longitude at sea. His mind, however, was also
busy with the momentous problem of gravity. Having reached so far as to
perceive that the central force of the solar system must decrease
inversely as the square of the distance, and applied vainly to Wren and
Hooke for further elucidation, he made in August 1684 that journey to
Cambridge for the purpose of consulting Newton, which resulted in the
publication of the _Principia_. The labour and expense of passing this
great work through the press devolved upon Halley, who also wrote the
prefixed hexameters ending with the well-known line--

  Nec fas est propius mortali attingere divos.

In 1696 he was, although a zealous Tory, appointed deputy comptroller of
the mint at Chester, and (August 19, 1698) he received a commission as
captain of the "Paramour Pink" for the purpose of making extensive
observations on the conditions of terrestrial magnetism. This task he
accomplished in a voyage which lasted two years, and extended to the
52nd degree of S. latitude. The results were published in a _General
Chart of the Variation of the Compass_ in 1701; and immediately
afterwards he executed by royal command a careful survey of the tides
and coasts of the British Channel, an elaborate map of which he produced
in 1702. On his return from a journey to Dalmatia, for the purpose of
selecting and fortifying the port of Trieste, he was nominated, November
1703, Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford, and received an honorary
degree of doctor of laws in 1710. Between 1713 and 1721 he acted as
secretary to the Royal Society, and early in 1720 he succeeded Flamsteed
as astronomer-royal. Although in his sixty-fourth year, he undertook to
observe the moon through an entire revolution of her nodes (eighteen
years), and actually carried out his purpose. He died on the 14th of
January 1742. His tomb is in the old graveyard of St Margaret's church,
Lee, Kent.

Halley's most notable scientific achievements were--his detection of the
"long inequality" of Jupiter and Saturn, and of the acceleration of the
moon's mean motion (1693), his discovery of the proper motions of the
fixed stars (1718), his theory of variation (1683), including the
hypothesis of four magnetic poles, revived by C. Hansteen in 1819, and
his suggestion of the magnetic origin of the aurora borealis; his
calculation of the orbit of the 1682 comet (the first ever attempted),
coupled with a prediction of its return, strikingly verified in 1759;
and his indication (first in 1679, and again in 1716, Phil. Trans., No.
348) of a method extensively used in the 18th and 19th centuries for
determining the solar parallax by means of the transits of Venus.

  His principal works are _Catalogus stellarum australium_ (London,
  1679), the substance of which was embodied in vol. iii. of Flamsteed's
  _Historia coelestis_ (1725); _Synopsis astronomiae cometicae_ (Oxford,
  1705); _Astronomical Tables_ (London, 1752); also eighty-one
  miscellaneous papers of considerable interest, scattered through the
  _Philosophical Transactions_. To these should be added his version
  from the Arabic (which language he acquired for the purpose) of the
  treatise of Apollonius _De sectione rationis_, with a restoration of
  his two lost books _De sectione spatii_, both published at Oxford in
  1706; also his fine edition of the _Conics_ of Apollonius, with the
  treatise by Serenus _De sectione cylindri et coni_ (Oxford, 1710,
  folio). His edition of the _Spherics_ of Menelaus was published by his
  friend Dr Costard in 1758. See also _Biographia Britannica_, vol. iv.
  (1757); _Gent. Mag._ xvii. 455, 503; A. Wood, _Athenae Oxon._ (Bliss),
  iv. 536; J. Aubrey, _Lives_, ii. 365; F. Baily, _Account of
  Flamsteed_; Sir D. Brewster, _Life of Newton_; R. Grant, _History of
  Astronomy_, p. 477 and _passim_; A. J. Rudolph, _Bulletin of
  Bibliography_, No. 14 (Boston, 1904); E. F. McPike, "Bibliography of
  Halley's Comet," _Smithsonian Misc. Collections_, vol. xlviii. pt. i.
  (1905); _Notes and Queries_, 9th series, vols. x. xi. xii., 10th
  series, vol. ii. (E. F. McPike). A collection of manuscripts regarding
  Halley is preserved among the Rigaud papers in the Bodleian library,
  Oxford; and many of his unpublished letters exist at the Record Office
  and in the library of the Royal Society.     (A. M. C.)



HALLGRÍMSSON, JÓNAS (1807-1844), the chief lyrical poet of Iceland, was
born in 1807 at Steinsstaðir in Eyjafjarðarsýsla in the north of that
island, and educated at the famous school of Bessastaðr. In 1832 he went
to the university of Copenhagen, and shortly afterwards turned his
attention to the natural sciences, especially geology. Having obtained
pecuniary assistance from the Danish government, he travelled through
all Iceland for scientific purposes in the years 1837-1842, and made
many interesting geological observations. Most of his writings on
geology are in Danish. His renown was, however, not acquired by his
writings in that language, but by his Icelandic poems and short stories.
He was well read in German literature, Heine and Schiller being his
favourites, and the study of the German masters and the old classical
writers of Iceland opened his eyes to the corrupt state of Icelandic
poetry and showed him the way to make it better. The misuse of the Eddic
metaphors made the lyrical and epical poetry of the day hardly
intelligible, and, to make matters worse, the language of the poets was
mixed up with words of German and Danish origin. The great Danish
philologist and friend of Iceland, Rasmus Rask, and the poet Bjarni
Thórarensen had done much to purify the language, but Jónas Hallgrímsson
completed their work by his poems and tales, in a purer language than
ever had been written in Iceland since the days of Snorri Sturlason. The
excesses of Icelandic poetry were specially seen in the so-called
_rímur_, ballads of heroes, &c., which were fiercely attacked by Jónas
Hallgrímsson, who at last succeeded in converting the educated to his
view. Most of the principal poems, tales and essays of Jónas
Hallgrímsson appeared in the periodical _Fjölnir_, which he began
publishing at Copenhagen in 1835, together with Konráð Gíslason, a
well-known philologist, and the patriotic Thómas Saemundsson. _Fjölnir_
had in the beginning a hard struggle against old prejudices, but as the
years went by its influence became enormous; and when it at last
ceased, its programme and spirit still lived in _Ný Félagsrit_ and other
patriotic periodicals which took its place. Jónas Hallgrímsson, who died
in 1844, is the father of a separate school in Icelandic lyric poetry.
He introduced foreign thoughts and metres, but at the same time revived
the metres of the Icelandic classical poets. Although his poetical works
are all comprised in one small volume, he strikes every string of the
old harp of Iceland.     (S. Bl.)



HALLIDAY, ANDREW [ANDREW HALLIDAY DUFF] (1830-1877), British journalist
and dramatist, was born at Marnoch, Banffshire, in 1830. He was educated
at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and in 1849 he came to London, and
discarding the name of Duff, devoted himself to literature. His first
engagement was with the daily papers, and his work having attracted the
notice of Thackeray, he was invited to write for the _Cornhill
Magazine_. From 1861 he contributed largely to _All the Year Round_, and
many of his articles were republished in collected form. He was also the
author, alone and with others, of a great number of farces, burlesques
and melodramas and a peculiarly successful adapter of popular novels for
the stage. Of these _Little Em'ly_ (1869), his adaptation of _David
Copperfield_, was warmly approved by Dickens himself, and enjoyed a long
run at Drury Lane. Halliday died in London on the 10th of April 1877.



HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS, JAMES ORCHARD (1820-1889), English Shakespearian
scholar, son of Thomas Halliwell, was born in London, on the 21st of
June 1820. He was educated privately and at Jesus College, Cambridge. He
devoted himself to antiquarian research, particularly in early English
literature. In 1839 he edited Sir John Mandeville's _Travels_; in 1842
published an _Account of the European MSS. in the Chetham Library_,
besides a newly discovered metrical romance of the 15th century
(_Torrent of Portugal_). He became best known, however, as a
Shakespearian editor and collector. In 1848 he brought out his _Life of
Shakespeare_, which passed through several editions; in 1853-1865 a
sumptuous edition, limited to 150 copies, of Shakespeare in folio, with
full critical notes; in 1863 a _Calendar of the Records at
Stratford-on-Avon_; in 1864 a _History of New Place_. After 1870 he
entirely gave up textual criticism, and devoted his attention to
elucidating the particulars of Shakespeare's life. He collated all the
available facts and documents in relation to it, and exhausted the
information to be found in local records in his _Outlines of the Life of
Shakespeare_. He was mainly instrumental in the purchase of New Place
for the corporation of Stratford-on-Avon, and in the formation there of
the Shakespeare museum. His publications in all numbered more than sixty
volumes. He assumed the name of Phillipps in 1872, under the will of the
grandfather of his first wife, a daughter of Sir Thomas Phillipps the
antiquary. He took an active interest in the Camden Society, the Percy
Society and the Shakespeare Society, for which he edited many early
English and Elizabethan works. From 1845 Halliwell was excluded from the
library of the British Museum on account of the suspicion attaching to
his possession of some manuscripts which had been removed from the
library of Trinity College, Cambridge. He published privately an
explanation of the matter in 1845. His house, Hollingbury Copse, near
Brighton, was full of rare and curious works, and he generously gave
many of them to the Chetham library, Manchester, to the town library of
Penzance, to the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, and to the library
of Edinburgh university. He died on the 3rd of January 1889.



HALLOWE'EN, or ALL HALLOWS EVE, the name given to the 31st of October as
the vigil of Hallowmas or All Saints' Day. Though now known as little
else but the eve of the Christian festival, Hallowe'en and its formerly
attendant ceremonies long antedate Christianity. The two chief
characteristics of ancient Hallowe'en were the lighting of bonfires and
the belief that of all nights in the year this is the one during which
ghosts and witches are most likely to wander abroad. Now on or about the
1st of November the Druids held their great autumn festival and lighted
fires in honour of the Sun-god in thanksgiving for the harvest. Further,
it was a Druidic belief that on the eve of this festival Saman, lord of
death, called together the wicked souls that within the past twelve
months had been condemned to inhabit the bodies of animals. Thus it is
clear that the main celebrations of Hallowe'en were purely Druidical,
and this is further proved by the fact that in parts of Ireland the 31st
of October was, and even still is, known as _Oidhche Shamhna_, "Vigil of
Saman." On the Druidic ceremonies were grafted some of the
characteristics of the Roman festival in honour of Pomona held about the
1st of November, in which nuts and apples, as representing the winter
store of fruits, played an important part. Thus the roasting of nuts and
the sport known as "apple-ducking"--attempting to seize with the teeth
an apple floating in a tub of water,--were once the universal occupation
of the young folk in medieval England on the 31st of October. The custom
of lighting Hallowe'en fires survived until recent years in the
highlands of Scotland and Wales. In the dying embers it was usual to
place as many small stones as there were persons around, and next
morning a search was made. If any of the pebbles were displaced it was
regarded as certain that the person represented would die within the
twelve months.

  For details of the Hallowe'en games and bonfires see Brand's
  _Antiquities of Great Britain_; Chambers's _Book of Days_; Grimm's
  _Deutsche Mythologie_, ch. xx. (_Elemente_) and ch. xxxiv.
  (_Aberglaube_); and J. G. Frazer's _Golden Bough_, vol. iii. Compare
  also BELTANE and BONFIRE.



HALLSTATT, a market-place of Austria, in Upper Austria, 67 m. S.S.W. of
Linz by rail. Pop. (1900) 737. It is situated on the shore of the
Hallstatter-see and at the foot of the Hallstatter Salzberg, and is
built in amphitheatre with its houses clinging to the mountain side. The
salt mine of Hallstatt, which is one of the oldest in existence, was
rediscovered in the 14th century. In the neighbourhood is the celebrated
Celtic burial ground, where a great number of very interesting
antiquities have been found. Most of these have been removed to the
museums at Vienna and Linz, but some are kept in the local museum.

The excavations (1847-1864) revealed a form of culture hitherto unknown,
and accordingly the name Hallstatt has been applied to objects of like
form and decoration since found in Styria, Carniola, Bosnia (at
Glasinatz and Jezerin), Epirus, north Italy, France, Spain and Britain
(see CELT). Everywhere else the change from iron weapons to bronze is
immediate, but at Hallstatt iron is seen gradually superseding bronze,
first for ornament, then for edging cutting instruments, then replacing
fully the old bronze types, and finally taking new forms of its own.
There can be no doubt that the use of iron first developed in the
Hallstatt area, and that thence it spread southwards into Italy, Greece,
the Aegean, Egypt and Asia, and northwards and westwards in Europe. At
Noreia, which gave its name to Noricum (q.v.) less than 40 m. from
Hallstatt, were the most famous iron mines of antiquity, which produced
the Noric iron and Noric swords so prized and dreaded by the Romans
(Pliny, _Hist. Nat._ xxxiv. 145; Horace, _Epod._ 17. 71). This iron
needed no tempering, and the Celts had probably found it ready smelted
by nature, just as the Eskimo had learned of themselves to use telluric
iron embedded in basalt. The graves at Hallstatt were partly inhumation
partly cremation; they contained swords, daggers, spears, javelins,
axes, helmets, bosses and plates of shields and hauberks, brooches,
various forms of jewelry, amber and glass beads, many of the objects
being decorated with animals and geometrical designs. Silver was
practically unknown. The weapons and axes are mostly iron, a few being
bronze. The swords are leaf-shaped, with blunt points intended for
cutting, not for thrusting; the hilts differ essentially from those of
the Bronze Age, being shaped like a crescent to grasp the blade, with
large pommels, or sometimes with antennae (the latter found also in
Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Switzerland, the Pyrenees, Spain, north
Italy): only six arrowheads (bronze) were found. Both flanged and
socketed celts occurred, the iron being much more numerous than the
bronze. The flat axes are distinguished by the side stops and in some
cases the transition from palstave to socketed axe can be seen. The
shields were round as in the early Iron Age of north Italy (see
VILLANOVA). Greaves were found at Glasinatz and Jezerin, though not at
Hallstatt; two helmets were found at Hallstatt and others in Bosnia;
broad bronze belts were numerous, adorned in _repoussé_ with beast and
geometric ornament. Brooches are found in great numbers, both those
derived from the primitive safety-pin ("Peschiera" type) and the
"spectacle" or "Hallstatt" type found all down the Balkans and in
Greece. The latter are formed of two spirals of wire, sometimes four
such spirals being used, whilst there were also brooches in animal
forms, one of the latter being found with a bronze sword. The Hallstatt
culture is that of the Homeric Achaeans (see ACHAEANS), but as the
brooch (along with iron, cremation of the dead, the round shield and the
geometric ornament) passed down into Greece from central Europe, and as
brooches are found in the lower town at Mycenae, 1350 B.C., they must
have been invented long before that date in central Europe. But as they
are found in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, the early iron
culture of Hallstatt must have originated long before 1350 B.C., a
conclusion in accord with the absence of silver at Hallstatt itself.

  See Baron von Sacken, _Das Grabfeld von Hallstatt_; Bertrand and S.
  Reinach, _Les Celtes dans les vallées du Pô et du Danube_; W.
  Ridgeway, _Early Age of Greece_; ARCHAEOLOGY (plate).     (W. Ri.)



HALLUCINATION (from Lat. _alucinari_ or _allucinari_, to wander in mind,
Gr. [Greek: alyssein] or [Greek: alyein], from [Greek: alê], wandering),
a psychological term which has been the subject of much controversy, and
to which, although there is now fair agreement as to its denotation, it
is still impossible to give a precise and entirely satisfactory
definition. Hallucinations constitute one of the two great classes of
all false sense-perceptions, the other class consisting of the
"illusions," and the difficulty of definition is clearly to mark the
boundary between the two classes. _Illusion_ may be defined as the
misinterpretation of sense-impression, while _hallucination_, in its
typical instances, is the experiencing of a sensory presentation, i.e. a
presentation having the sensory vividness that distinguishes perceptions
from representative imagery, at a time when no stimulus is acting on the
corresponding sense-organ. There is, however, good reason to think that
in many cases, possibly in all cases, some stimulation of the
sense-organ, coming either from without or from within the body, plays a
part in the genesis of the hallucination. This being so, we must be
content to leave the boundary between illusions and hallucinations
ill-defined, and to regard as illusions _those false perceptions in
which impressions made on the sense-organ play a leading part in
determining the character of the percept_, and as hallucinations _those
in which any such impression is lacking, or plays but a subsidiary part
and bears no obvious relation to the character of the false percept_.

As in the case of illusion, hallucination may or may not involve
delusion, or belief in the reality of the object falsely perceived.
Among the sane the hallucinatory object is frequently recognized at once
as unreal or at least as but quasi-real; and it is only the insane, or
persons in abnormal states, such as hypnosis, who, when an hallucination
persists or recurs, fail to recognize that it corresponds to no physical
impression from, or object in, the outer world. Hallucinations of all
the senses occur, but the most commonly reported are the auditory and
the visual, while those of the other senses seem to be comparatively
rare. This apparent difference of frequency is no doubt largely due to
the more striking character of visual and auditory hallucinations, and
to the relative difficulty of ascertaining, in the case of perceptions
of the lower senses, e.g. of taste and smell, that no impression
adequate to the genesis of the percept has been made upon the
sense-organ; but, in so far as it is real, it is probably due in part to
the more constant use of the higher senses and the greater strain
consequently thrown upon them, in part also to their more intimate
connexion with the life of ideas.

The hallucinatory perception may involve two or more senses, e.g., the
subject may seem to see a human being, to hear his voice and to feel the
touch of his hand. This is rarely the case in spontaneous hallucination,
but in hypnotic hallucination the subject is apt to develop the object
suggested to him, as present to one of his senses, and to perceive it
also through other senses.

Among visual hallucinations the human figure, and among auditory
hallucinations human voices, are the objects most commonly perceived.
The figure seen always appears localized more or less definitely in the
outer world. In many cases it appears related to the objects truly seen
in just the same way as a real object; e.g. it is no longer seen if the
eyes are closed or turned away, it does not move with the movements of
the eyes, and it may hide objects lying behind it, or be hidden by
objects coming between the place that it appears to occupy and the eye
of the percipient. Visual hallucinations are most often experienced when
the eyes are open and the surrounding space is well or even brightly
illuminated. Less frequently the visual hallucination takes the form of
a self-luminous figure in a dark place or appears in a luminous globe or
mist which shuts out from view the real objects of the part of the field
of view in which it appears.

Auditory hallucinations, especially voices, seem to fall into two
distinct classes--(1) those which are heard as coming from without, and
are more or less definitely localized in outer space, (2) those which
seem to be within the head or, in some cases, within the chest, and to
have less definite auditory quality. It seems probable that the latter
are hallucinations involving principally kinaesthetic sensations,
sensations of movement of the organs of speech.

Hallucinations occur under a great variety of bodily and mental
conditions, which may conveniently be classified as follows.


I. _Conditions which imply normal waking Consciousness and no distinct
Departure from bodily and mental Sanity._

a. It would seem that a considerable number of perfectly healthy persons
occasionally experience, while in a fully waking state, hallucinations
for which no cause can be assigned. The census of hallucinations
conducted by the Society for Psychical Research showed that about 10% of
all sane persons can remember having experienced at least one
hallucination while they believed themselves to be fully awake and in
normal health. These sporadic hallucinations of waking healthy persons
are far more frequently visual than auditory, and they usually take the
form of some familiar person in ordinary attire. The figure in many
cases is seen, on turning the gaze in some new direction, fully
developed and lifelike, and its hallucinatory character may be revealed
only by its noiseless movements, or by its fading away _in situ_. A
special interest attaches to hallucinations of this type, owing to the
occasional coincidence of the death of the person with his hallucinatory
appearance. The question raised by these coincidences will be discussed
in a separate paragraph below.

b. A few persons, otherwise normal in mind and body, seem to experience
repeatedly some particular kind of hallucination. The voice ([Greek:
daimonion]) so frequently heard by Socrates, warning or advising him, is
the most celebrated example of this type.


II. _Conditions more or less unusual or abnormal but not implying
distinct Departure from Health._

a. A kind of hallucination to which perhaps every normal person is
liable is that known technically as "recurrent sensation." This kind is
experienced only when some sense-organ has been continuously or
repeatedly subjected to some one kind of impression or stimulation for a
considerable period; e.g. the microscopist, after examining for some
hours one particular kind of object or structure, may suddenly perceive
the object faithfully reproduced in form and colour, and lying, as it
were, upon any surface to which his gaze is directed. Perhaps the
commonest experience of this type is the recurrence of the sensations of
movement at intervals in the period following a sea voyage or long
railway journey.

b. A considerable proportion of healthy sane persons can induce
hallucinations of vision by gazing fixedly at a polished surface or
into some dark translucent mass; or of hearing, by applying a large
shell or similar object to the ear. These methods of inducing
hallucinations, especially the former, have long been practised in many
countries as modes of divination, various objects being used, e.g. a
drop of ink in the palm of the hand, or a polished finger-nail. The
object now most commonly used is a polished sphere of clear glass or
crystal (see CRYSTAL-GAZING). Hence such hallucinations go by the name
of _crystal visions_. The crystal vision often appears as a picture of
some distant or unknown scene lying, as it were, in the crystal; and in
the picture figures may come and go, and move to and fro, in a perfectly
natural manner. In other cases, written or printed words or sentences
appear. The percipient, seer or scryer, commonly seems to be in a fully
waking state as he observes the objects thus presented. He is usually
able to describe and discuss the appearances, successively
discriminating details by attentive observation, just as when observing
an objective scene; and he usually has no power of controlling them, and
no sense of having produced them by his own activity. In some cases
these visions have brought back to the mind of the scryer facts or
incidents which he could not voluntarily recollect. In other cases they
are asserted by credible witnesses to have given to the scryer
information, about events distant in time or place, that had not come to
his knowledge by normal means. These cases have been claimed as evidence
of telepathic communication or even of clairvoyance. But at present the
number of well-attested cases of this sort is too small to justify
acceptance of this conclusion by those who have only secondhand
knowledge of them.

c. Prolonged deprivation of food predisposes to hallucinations, and it
would seem that, under this condition, a large proportion of otherwise
healthy persons become liable to them, especially to auditory
hallucinations.

d. Certain drugs, notably opium, Indian hemp, and mescal predispose to
hallucinations, each tending to produce a peculiar type. Thus Indian
hemp and mescal, especially the latter, produce in many cases visual
hallucinations in the form of a brilliant play of colours, sometimes a
mere succession of patches of brilliant colour, sometimes in
architectural or other definite spatial arrangement.

e. The states of transition from sleep to waking, and from waking to
sleep, seem to be peculiarly favourable to the appearance of
hallucinations. The recurrent sensations mentioned above are especially
prone to appear at such times, and a considerable proportion of the
sporadic hallucinations of persons in good health are reported to have
been experienced under these conditions. The name "hypnagogic"
hallucinations, first applied by Alfred Maury, is commonly given to
those experienced in these transition states.

f. The presentations, predominantly visual, that constitute the
principal content of most dreams, are generally described as
hallucinatory, but the propriety of so classing them is very
questionable. The present writer is confident that his own
dream-presentations lack the sensory vividness which is the essential
mark of the percept, whether normal or hallucinatory, and which is the
principal, though not the only, character in which it differs from the
representation or memory-image. It is true that the dream-presentation,
like the percept, differs from the representative imagery of waking life
in that it is relatively independent of volition; but that seems to be
merely because the will is in abeyance or very ineffective during sleep.
The wide currency of the doctrine that classes dream-images with
hallucinations seems to be due to this independence of volitional
control, and to the fact that during sleep the representative imagery
appears without that rich setting of undiscriminated or marginal
sensation which always accompanies waking imagery, and which by contrast
accentuates for introspective reflection the lack of sensory vividness
of such imagery.

g. Many of the subjects who pass into the deeper stages of hypnosis
(see HYPNOTISM) show themselves, while in that condition, extremely
liable to hallucination, perceiving whatever object is suggested to them
as present, and failing to perceive any object of which it is asserted
by the operator that it is no longer present. The reality of these
positive and negative hallucinations of the hypnotized subject has been
recently questioned, it being maintained that the subject merely gives
verbal assent to the suggestions of the operator. But that the
hypnotized subject does really experience hallucinations seems to be
proved by the cases in which it is possible to make the hallucination,
positive or negative, persist for some time after the termination of
hypnosis, and by the fact that in some of these cases the subject, who
in the post-hypnotic state seems in every other respect normal and wide
awake, may find it difficult to distinguish between the hallucinatory
and real objects. Further proof is afforded by experiments such as those
by which Alfred Binet showed that a visual hallucination may behave for
its percipient in many respects like a real object, e.g. that it may
appear reflected in a mirror, displaced by a prism and coloured when a
coloured glass is placed before the patient's eyes. It was by means of
experiments of this kind that Binet showed that hypnotic hallucinations
may approximate to the type of the illusion, i.e. that some real object
affecting the sense-organ (in the case of a visual hallucination some
detail of the surface upon which it is projected) may provide a nucleus
of peripherally excited sensation around which the false percept is
built up. An object playing a part of this sort in the genesis of an
hallucination is known as a "_point de repère_." It has been maintained
that all hallucinations involve some such _point de repère_ or objective
nucleus; but there are good reasons for rejecting this view.

h. In states of ecstasy, or intense emotional concentration of
attention upon some one ideal object, the object contemplated seems at
times to take on sensory vividness, and so to acquire the character of
an hallucination. In these cases the state of mind of the subject is
probably similar in many respects to that of the deeply hypnotized
subject, and these two classes of hallucination may be regarded as very
closely allied.


III. _Hallucinations which occur as symptoms of both bodily and mental
diseases._

a. Dr H. Head has the credit of having shown for the first time, in
the year 1901, that many patients, suffering from more or less painful
visceral diseases, disorders of heart, lungs, abdominal viscera, &c.,
are liable to experience hallucinations of a peculiar kind. These
"visceral" hallucinations, which are constantly accompanied by headache
of the reflected visceral type, are most commonly visual, more rarely
auditory. In all Dr Head's cases the visual hallucination took the form
of a shrouded human figure, colourless and vague, often incomplete,
generally seen by the patient standing by his bed when he wakes in a
dimly lit room. The auditory "visceral" hallucination was in no instance
vocal, but took such forms as sounds of tapping, scratching or rumbling,
and were heard only in the absence of objective noises. In a few cases
the "visceral" hallucination was bisensory, i.e. both auditory and
visual.

In all these respects the "visceral" hallucination differs markedly from
the commoner types of the sporadic hallucination of healthy persons.

b. Hallucinations are constant symptoms of certain general disorders
in which the nervous system is involved, notably of the _delirium
tremens_, which results from chronic alcohol poisoning, and of the
delirium of the acute specific fevers. The hallucinations of these
states are generally of a distressing or even terrifying character.
Especially is this the rule with those of _delirium tremens_, and in the
hallucinations of this disease certain kinds of objects, e.g. rats and
snakes, occur with curious frequency.

c. Hallucinations occasionally occur as symptoms of certain nervous
diseases that are not usually classed with the insanities, notably in
cases of epilepsy and severe forms of hysteria. In the former disorder,
the sensory aura that so often precedes the epileptic convulsion may
take the form of an hallucinatory object, which in some cases is very
constant in character. Unilateral hallucinations, an especially
interesting class, occur in severe cases of hysteria, and are usually
accompanied by hemi-anaesthesia of the body on the side on which the
hallucinatory object is perceived.

d. Hallucinations occur in a large, but not accurately definable,
proportion of all cases of mental disease proper. Two classes are
recognized: (1) those that are intimately connected with the dominant
emotional state or with some dominant delusion; (2) those that occur
sporadically and have no such obvious relation to the other symptoms of
disease. Hallucinations of the former class tend to accentuate, and in
turn to be confirmed by, the congruent emotional or delusional state;
but whether these are to be regarded as primary symptoms and as the
cause of the hallucinations, or _vice versa_, it is generally impossible
to say. Patients who suffer delusions of persecution are very apt to
develop later in the course of their disease hallucinations of the
voices of their persecutors; while in other cases hallucinatory voices,
which are at first recognized as such, come to be regarded as real and
in these cases seem to be factors of primary importance in the genesis
of further delusions. Hallucinations occur in almost every variety of
mental disease, but are commonest in the forms characterized by a cloudy
dream-like condition of consciousness, and in extreme cases of this sort
the patient (as in the delirium of chronic alcohol-poisoning) seems to
move waking through a world consisting largely of the images of his own
creation, set upon a background of real objects.

In some cases hallucinations are frequently experienced for long periods
in the absence of any other symptom of mental disorder, but these no
doubt usually imply some morbid condition of the brain.

_Physiology of Hallucination._--There has been much discussion as to the
nature of the neural process in hallucination. It is generally and
rightly assumed that the hallucinatory perception of any object has for
its immediate neural correlate a state of excitement which, as regards
its characters and its distribution in the elements of the brain, is
entirely similar to the neural correlate of the normal perception of the
same object. The hallucination is a perception, though a false
perception. In the perception of an object and in the representation of
it, introspective analysis discovers a number of presentative elements.
In the case of the representation these elements are memory images only
(except perhaps in so far as actual kinaesthetic sensations enter into
its composition); whereas, in the case of the percept, some of these
elements are sensations, sensations which differ from images in having
the attribute of sensory vividness; and the sensory vividness of these
elements lends to the whole complex the sensory vividness or reality,
the possession of which character by the percept constitutes its
principal difference from the representation. Normally, sensory
vividness attaches only to those presentative elements which are excited
through stimulations of the sense-organs. The normal percept, then, owes
its character of sensory reality to the fact that a certain number of
its presentative elements are sensations peripherally excited by
impressions made upon a sense-organ. The problem is, then, to account
for the fact that the hallucination contains presentative elements that
have sensory vividness, that are sensations, although they are not
excited by impressions from the external world falling upon a
sense-organ. Most of the discussions of this subject suffer from the
neglect of this preliminary definition of the problem. Many authors,
notably W. Wundt and his disciples, have been content to assume that the
sensation differs from the memory-image only in having a higher degree
of intensity; from which they infer that its neural correlate in the
brain cortex also differs from that of the image only in having a higher
degree of intensity. For them an hallucination is therefore merely a
representation whose neural correlate involves an intensity of
excitement of certain brain-elements such as is normally produced only
by peripheral stimulation of sensory nerves in the sense-organs. But
this view, so attractively simple, ignores an insuperable objection.
Sensory vividness is not to be identified with superior intensity; for
while the least intense sensation has it, the memory image of the most
intense sensation lacks it completely. And, since intensity of
sensation is a function of the intensity of the underlying neural
excitement, we may not assume that sensory vividness is also the
expression in consciousness of that intensity of excitement. If Wundt's
view were true a progressive diminution of the intensity of a sensory
stimulus should bring the sensation to a point in the scale of
diminishing intensity at which it ceases to be sensation, ceases to have
sensory vividness and becomes an image merely. But this is not the case;
with diminishing intensity of stimulation, the sensation declines to a
minimal intensity and then disappears from consciousness. This objection
applies not only to Wundt's view of hallucinations, but also to H.
Taine's explanation of them by the aid of his doctrine of "reductives,"
for this too identifies sensory vividness with intensity. (H. Taine, _De
l'intelligence_, tome i. p. 108.)

Another widely current explanation is based on the view that the
representation and the percept have their anatomical bases in different
element-groups or "centres" of the brain, the "centre" of the
representation being assigned to a higher level of the brain than that
of the percept (the latter being sometimes assigned to the basal ganglia
of the brain, the former to the cortex). It is then assumed that while
the lower perceptual centre is normally excited only through the
sense-organ, it may occasionally be excited by impulses playing down
upon it from the corresponding centre of representation, when
hallucination results.

This view also is far from satisfactory, because the great additions
recently made to our knowledge of the brain tend very strongly to show
that both sensations and memory-images have their anatomical bases in
the same sensory areas of the cerebral cortex; and many considerations
converge to show that their anatomical bases must be, in part at least,
identical.

The views based on the assumptions of complete identity, and of complete
separateness, of the anatomical bases of the percept and of the
representation are then alike untenable; and the alternative--that their
anatomical bases are in part identical, in part different, which is
indicated by this conclusion--renders possible a far more satisfactory
doctrine. We have good reason to believe that the neural correlate of
sensation is the transmission of the nervous impulse through a
sensori-motor arc of the cortex, made up of a chain of neurones; and the
view suggests itself that the neural correlate of the corresponding
memory-image is the transmission of the impulse through a part only of
this chain of cortical elements, either the efferent motor part of this
chain or the afferent sensory part of it. Professor W. James's theory of
hallucinations is based on the latter assumption. He suggests that the
sensory vividness of sensation and of the percept is due to the
discharge of the excitement of the chain of elements in the forward or
motor direction; and that, in the case of the image and of the
representation, the discharge takes place, not in this direction through
the efferent channel of the centre, but laterally into other centres of
the cortex. Hallucination may then be conceived as caused by
obstruction, or abnormally increased resistance, of the paths connecting
such a cortical centre with others, so that, when it becomes excited in
any way, the tension or potential of its charge rises, until discharge
takes place in the motor direction through the efferent limbs of the
sensori-motor arcs which constitute the centre.

It is a serious objection to this view that, as James himself, in common
with most modern authors, maintains, every idea has its motor tendency
which commonly, perhaps always, finds expression in some change of
tension of muscles, and in many cases issues in actual movements. Now if
we accept James's theory of hallucination, we should expect to find that
whenever a representation issues in bodily action it should assume the
sensory vividness of an hallucination; and this, of course, is not the
case.

The alternative form of the view that assumes partial identity of the
anatomical bases of the percept and the representation of an object,
would regard the neural correlate of the sensation as the transmission
of the nervous impulse throughout the length of the sensori-motor arc
of the cortex, from sensory inlet to motor outlet; and that of the image
as its transmission through the efferent part of this arc only; that is
to say, in the case of the image, it would regard the excitement of the
arc as being initiated at some point between its afferent inlet and its
motor outlet, and as spreading, in accordance with the law of forward
conduction, towards the motor outlet only, so that only the part of the
arc distal or efferent to this point becomes excited.

This view of the neural basis of sensory vividness, which correlates the
difference between the sensation and the image with the only known
difference between their physiological conditions, namely the peripheral
initiation of the one and the central initiation of the other, enables
us to formulate a satisfactory theory of the physiology of
hallucinations.

The anatomical basis of the perception and of the representation of any
object is a functional system of nervous elements, comprising a number
of sensori-motor arcs, whose excitement by impulses ascending to them by
the sensory paths from the sense-organs determines sensations, and whose
excitement in their efferent parts only determines the corresponding
images. In the case of perception, some of these arcs are excited by
impulses ascending from the sense-organs, others only by the spread of
the excitement through the system from these peripherally excited arcs;
while, in the case of the representation, all alike are excited by
impulses that reach the system from other parts of the cortex and spread
throughout its efferent parts only to its motor outlets.

If then impulses enter this system by any of the afferent limbs of its
sensori-motor arcs, the presentation that accompanies its excitement
will have sensory vividness and will be a true perception, an illusion,
or an hallucination, according as these impulses have followed the
normal course from the sense-organ, or have been diverted, to a lesser
or greater degree, from their normal paths. If any such neural system
becomes abnormally excitable, or becomes excited in any way with
abnormal intensity, it is thereby rendered a path of exceptionally
low-resistance capable of diverting to itself, from their normal path,
any streams of impulses ascending from the sense-organ; which ascending
impulses, entering the system by its afferent inlets, excite sensations
that impart to the presentation the character of sensory vividness; the
presentation thus acquires the character of a percept in spite of the
absence of the appropriate impression on the sense-organ, and we call it
an hallucination.

This view renders intelligible the _modus operandi_ of many of the
predisposing causes of hallucination; e.g. the pre-occupation with
certain representations of the ecstatic, or of the sufferer from
delusions of persecution; the intense expectation of a particular sense
impression, the generally increased excitability of the cortex in states
of delirium; in all these conditions the abnormally intense excitement
of the cortical systems may be supposed to give them an undue directive
and attractive influence upon the streams of impulses ascending from the
sense-organs, so that sensory impulses may be diverted from their normal
paths. Again, it renders intelligible the part played by chronic
irritation of a sense-organ, as when chronic irritation of the internal
ear leads on to hallucinations of hearing; perhaps also the chronic
irritation of sensory nerves that must accompany the states of visceral
disease, shown by Head to be so frequently accompanied by a liability to
hallucinations; for any such chronic irritation supplies a stream of
disorderly impulses rising constantly from the sense-organ, for the
reception of which the brain has no appropriate system, and which,
therefore, readily enters any organized cortical system that at any
moment constitutes a path of low-resistance. A similar explanation
applies to the influence of fixed gazing upon a crystal, or the placing
of a shell over the ear, in inducing visual and auditory hallucinations.
The "recurrent sensations" experienced after prolonged occupation with
some one kind of sensory object may be regarded as due to an abnormal
excitability of the cortical system concerned, resulting from its unduly
prolonged exercise. The hypothesis renders intelligible also the
liability to hallucination of persons in the hysterical and hypnotic
states, in whose brains the cortical neural systems are in a state of
partial dissociation, which renders possible an unduly intense and
prolonged excitement of some one system at the expense of all other
systems (cf. HYPNOTISM).

_Coincidental Hallucinations._--It would seem that, in well-nigh all
countries and in all ages, apparitions of persons known to be in distant
places have been occasionally observed. Such appearances have usually
been regarded as due to the presence, before the bodily eye of the seer,
of the ghost, wraith, double or soul of the person who thus appears;
and, since the soul has been very commonly supposed to leave the body,
permanently at death and temporarily during sleep, trance or any period
of unconsciousness, however induced, it was natural to regard such an
appearance as evidence that the person whose wraith was thus seen was in
some such condition. Such apparitions have probably played a part,
second only to that of dreams, in generating the almost universal belief
in the separability of soul and body.

In many parts of the world traditional belief has connected such
apparitions more especially with the death of the person so appearing,
the apparition being regarded as an indication that the person so
appearing has recently died, is dying or is about to die. Since death is
so much less common an event than sleep, trance, or other form of
temporary unconsciousness, the wide extension of this belief suggests
that such apparitions may coincide in time with death, with
disproportionate frequency. The belief in the significance of such
apparitions still survives in civilized communities, and stories of
apparitions coinciding with the death of the person appearing are
occasionally reported in the newspapers, or related as having recently
occurred. The Society for Psychical Research has sought to find grounds
for an answer to the question "Is there any sufficient justification for
the belief in a causal relation between the apparition of a person at a
place distant from his body and his death or other exceptional and
momentous event in his experience?" The problem was attacked in a
thoroughly scientific spirit, an extensive inquiry was made, and the
results were presented and fully discussed in two large volumes,
_Phantasms of the Living_, published in the year 1886, bearing on the
title-page the names of Edmund Gurney, F. W. H. Myers and F. Podmore. Of
the three collaborators Gurney took the largest share in the planning of
the work, in the collection of evidence, and in the elaboration and
discussion of it.

Gurney set out with the presumption that apparitions, whether
coincidental or not, are hallucinations in the sense defined above; that
_they are false perceptions_ and are not excited by any object or
process of the external world acting upon the sense-organs of the
percipient in normal fashion; that they do not imply the presence, in
the place apparently occupied by them, of any wraith or any form of
existence emanating from, or specially connected with, the person whose
phantasm appears. This initial assumption was abundantly justified by an
examination of a large number of cases for it, which showed that, in all
important respects, most of these apparitions of persons at a distance,
whether coincidental or not, were similar to other forms of
hallucination.

The acceptance of this conclusion does not, however, imply a negative
answer to the question formulated above. The Society for Psychical
Research had accumulated an impressive and, to almost all those who had
first-hand acquaintance with it, a convincing mass of experimental
evidence of the reality of telepathy (q.v.), the influence of mind on
mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense. The
successful experiments had for the most part been made between persons
in close proximity, in the same room or in adjoining rooms; but they
seemed to show that the state of consciousness of one person may induce
directly (i.e. without the mediation of the organs of expression and
sense-perception) a similar state of consciousness in another person,
especially if the former, usually called the "agent," strongly desired
or "willed" that this effect should be produced on the other person, the
"percipient."

The question formulated above thus resolved itself for Gurney into the
more definite form, "Can we find any good reason for believing that
coincidental hallucinations are sometimes veridical, that the state of
mind of a person at some great crisis of his experience may
telepathically induce in the mind of some distant relative or friend an
hallucinatory perception of himself?" It was at once obvious that, if
coincidental apparitions can be proved to occur, this question can only
be answered by a statistical inquiry; for each such coincidental
hallucination, considered alone, may always be regarded as most educated
persons of the present time have regarded them, namely, as merely
accidental coincidences. That the coincidences are not merely accidental
can only be proved by showing that they occur more frequently than the
doctrine of chances would justify us in expecting. Now, the death of any
person is a unique event, and the probability of its occurrence upon any
particular day may be very simply calculated from the mortality
statistics, if we assume that nothing is known of the individual's
vitality. On the other hand, hallucinatory perceptions of persons,
occurring to sane and healthy individuals in the fully waking state, are
comparatively rare occurrences, whose frequency we may hope to determine
by a statistical inquiry. If, then, we can obtain figures expressing the
frequency of such hallucinations, we can deduce, by the help of the laws
of chance, the proportion of such hallucinations that may be expected to
coincide with (or, for the purposes of the inquiry, to fall within
twelve hours of) the death of the person whose apparition appears, if no
causal relation obtains between the coinciding events. If, then, it
appears that the proportion of such coincidental hallucinations is
greater than the laws of probability will account for, a certain
presumption of a causal relation between the coinciding events is
thereby established; and the greater the excess of such coincidences,
the stronger does this presumption become. Gurney attempted a census of
hallucinations in order to obtain data for this statistical treatment,
and the results of it, embodied in _Phantasms of the Living_, were
considered by the authors of that work to justify the belief that some
coincidental hallucinations are veridical. In the year 1889 the Society
for Psychical Research appointed a committee, under the chairmanship of
the late Henry Sidgwick, to make a second census of hallucinations on a
more extensive and systematic plan than the first, in order that the
important conclusion reached by the authors of _Phantasms of the Living_
might be put to the severer test rendered possible by a larger and more
carefully collected mass of data. Seventeen thousand adults returned
answers to the question, "Have you ever, when believing yourself to be
completely awake, had a vivid impression of seeing or being touched by a
living being or inanimate object, or of hearing a voice; which
impression, so far as you could discover, was not due to any external
physical cause?" Rather more than two thousand persons answered
affirmatively, and to each of these were addressed careful inquiries
concerning their hallucinatory experiences. In this way it was found
that of the total number, 381 apparitions of persons living at the
moment (or not more than twelve hours dead) had been recognized by the
percipients, and that, of these, 80 were alleged to have been
experienced within twelve hours of the death of the person whose
apparition had appeared. A careful review of all the facts, conditions
and probabilities, led the committee to estimate that the former number
should be enlarged to 1300 in order to make ample allowance for
forgetfulness and for all other causes that might have tended to prevent
the registration of apparitions of this class. On the other hand, a
severe criticism of the alleged death-coincidences led them to reduce
the number, admitted by them for the purposes of their calculation, to
30. The making of these adjustments gives us about 1 in 43 as the
proportion of coincidental death-apparitions to the total number of
recognized apparitions among the 17,000 persons reached by the census.
Now the death-rate being just over 19 per thousand, the probability that
any person taken at random will die on a given day is about 1 in 19,000;
or, more strictly speaking, the average probability that any person will
die within any given period of twenty-four hours duration is about 1 in
19,000. Hence the probability that any other particular event, having no
causal relation to his death, but occurring during his lifetime (or not
later than twelve hours after his death) will fall within the same
twenty-four hours as his death is 1 in 19,000; i.e. if an apparition of
any individual is seen and recognized by any other person, the
probability of its being experienced within twelve hours of that
individual's death is 1 in 19,000, if no causal relation obtains between
the two events. Therefore, of all recognized apparitions of living
persons, 1 only in 19,000 may be expected to be a death-coincidence of
this sort. But the census shows that of 1300 recognized apparitions of
living persons 30 are death-coincidences and that is equivalent to 440
in 19,000. Hence, of recognized hallucinations, those coinciding with
death are 440 times more numerous than we should expect, if no causal
relation obtained; therefore, if neither the data nor the reasoning can
be destructively criticized, we are compelled to believe that some
causal relation obtains; and, since good evidence of telepathic
communication has been experimentally obtained, the least improbable
explanation of these death-apparitions is that the dying person exerts
upon his distant friend some telepathic influence which generates an
hallucinatory perception of himself.

These death-coincidences constitute the main feature of the argument in
favour of telepathic communication between distant persons, but the
census of hallucinations afforded other data from which a variety of
arguments, tending to support this conclusion, were drawn by the
committee; of these the most important are the cases in which the
hallucinatory percept embodied details that were connected with the
person perceived and which could not have become known to the percipient
by any normal means. The committee could not find in the results of the
census any evidence sufficient to justify a belief that hallucinations
may be due to telepathic influence exerted by personalities surviving
the death of the body.

The critical handling of the cases by the committee seems to be above
reproach. Those who do not accept their conclusion based on the
death-coincidences must direct their criticism to the question of the
reliability of the reports of these cases. It is to be noted that,
although only those cases are reckoned in which the percipient had no
cause to expect the death of the person whose apparition he experienced,
and although, in nearly all the accepted cases, some record or
communication of the hallucination was made before hearing of the death,
yet in very few cases was any contemporary written record of the event
forthcoming for the inspection of the committee.     (W. McD.)



HALLUIN, a frontier town of northern France, in the department of Nord,
near the right bank of the Lys, 14 m. N. by E. of Lille by rail. Pop.
(1906) town, 11,670; commune, 16,158. Its church is of Gothic
architecture. The manufactures comprise linen and cotton goods, chairs
and rubber goods, and brewing and tanning are carried on; there is a
board of trade arbitration. The family of Halluin is mentioned as early
as the 13th century. In 1587 the title of duke and peer of the realm was
granted to it, but in the succeeding century it became extinct.



HALM, CARL FELIX (1809-1882), German classical scholar and critic, was
born at Munich on the 5th of April 1809. In 1849, after having held
appointments at Spires and Hadamar, he became rector of the newly
founded Maximiliansgymnasium at Munich, and in 1856 director of the
royal library and professor in the university. These posts he held till
his death on the 5th of October 1882. It is chiefly as the editor of
Cicero and other Latin prose authors that Halm is known, although in
early years he also devoted considerable attention to Greek. After the
death of J. C. Orelli, he joined J. G. Baiter in the preparation of a
revised critical edition of the rhetorical and philosophical writings of
Cicero (1854-1862). His school editions of some of the speeches of
Cicero in the Haupt and Sauppe series, with notes and introductions,
were very successful. He also edited a number of classical texts for the
Teubner series, the most important of which are Tacitus (4th ed., 1883);
_Rhetores Latini minores_ (1863); Quintilian (1868); Sulpicius Severus
(1866); Minucius Felix together with Firmicus Maternus _De errore_
(1867); Salvianus (1877) and Victor Vitensis's _Historia persecutionis
Africanae provinciae_ (1878). He was also an enthusiastic collector of
autographs.

  See articles by W. Christ and G. Laubmann in _Allgemeine deutsche
  Biographie_ and by C. Bursian in _Biographisches Jahrbuch_; and J. E.
  Sandys, _Hist. of Classical Scholarship_, iii. 195 (1908).



HALMA (Greek for "jump"), a table game, a form of which was known to the
ancient Greeks, played on a board divided into 256 squares with wooden
_men_, resembling chess pawns. In the two-handed game 19 men are
employed on each side, coloured respectively black and white; in the
four-handed each player has 13, the men being coloured white, black, red
and green. At the beginning of the game the men are drawn up in
triangular formation in the enclosures, or _yards_, diagonally opposite
each other in the corners of the board. The object of each player is to
get all his men into his enemy's yard, the player winning who first
accomplishes this. The moves are made alternately, the mode of
progression being by a _step_, from one square to another immediately
adjacent, or by a jump (whence the name), which is the jumping of a man
from a square in front of it into an empty square on the other side of
it. This corresponds to jumping in draughts, except that, in halma, the
hop may be in any direction, over friendly as well as hostile men, and
the men jumped over are not taken but remain on the board.

In the four-handed game either each player plays for himself, or two
adjacent players play against the other two.

  See _Card and Table Games_, by Professor Hoffmann (London, 1903).



HALMAHERA ["great land"; also Jilolo or Gilolo], an island of the Dutch
East Indies, belonging to the residency of Ternate, lying under the
equator and about 128° E. Its shape is extremely irregular, resembling
that of the island of Celebes. It consists of four peninsulas so
arranged as to enclose three great bays (Kayu, Bicholi, Weda), all
opening towards the east, the northern peninsula being connected with
the others by an isthmus only 5 m. wide. On the western side of the
isthmus lies another bay, that of Dodinga, in the mouth of which are
situated the two islands Ternate and Tidore, whose political importance
exceeds that of the larger island (see these articles). Of the four
peninsulas of Halmahera the northern and the southern are reckoned to
the sultanate of Ternate, the north-eastern and south-eastern to that of
Tidore; the former having eleven, the latter three districts. The
distance between the extremities of the northern and southern
peninsulas, measured along the curve of the west coast, is about 240 m.;
and the total area of the island is 6700 sq. m. Knowledge of the island
is very incomplete. It appears that the four peninsulas are traversed in
the direction of their longitudinal axis by mountain chains 3000 to 4000
ft. high, covered with forest, without a central chain at the nucleus of
the island whence the peninsulas diverge. The mountain chains are
frequently interrupted by plains, such as those of Weda and Kobi. The
northern part of the mountain chain of the northern peninsula is
volcanic, its volcanoes continuing the line of those of Makian, Ternate
and Tidore. Coral formations on heights in the interior would indicate
oscillations of the land in several periods, but a detailed geology of
the island is wanting. To the north-east of the northern peninsula is
the considerable island of Morotai (635 sq. m.), and to the west of the
southern peninsula the more important island of Bachian (q.v.) among
others. Galela is a considerable settlement, situated on a bay of the
same name on the north-east coast, in a well cultivated plain which
extends southward and inland. Vegetation is prolific. Rice is grown by
the natives, but the sago tree is of far greater importance to them.
Dammar and coco-nuts are also grown. The sea yields trepang and pearl
shells. A little trade is carried on by the Chinese and Macassars of
Ternate, who, crossing the narrow isthmus of Dodinga, enter the bay of
Kayu on the east coast. The total population is estimated at 100,000.

The inhabitants are mostly of immigrant Malayan stock. In the northern
peninsula are found people of Papuan type, probably representing the
aborigines, and a tribe around Galela, who are Polynesian in physique,
possibly remnants, much mixed by subsequent crossings with the Papuan
indigenes, of the Caucasian hordes emigrating in prehistoric times
across the Pacific. M. Achille Raffray gives a description of them in
_Tour du monde_ (1879) where photographs will be found. "They are as
unlike the Malays as we are, excelling them in tallness of stature and
elegance of shape, and being perfectly distinguished by their oval face,
with a fairly high and open brow, their aquiline nose and their
horizontally placed eyes. Their beards are sometimes thick; their limbs
are muscular; the colour of their skins is cinnamon brown. Spears of
iron-wood, abundantly barbed, and small bows and bamboo arrows free from
poison are their principal weapons." They are further described as
having temples (_sabuas_) in which they suspend images of serpents and
other monsters as well as the trophies procured by war. They believe in
a better life hereafter, but have no idea of a hell or a devil, their
evil spirits only tormenting them in the present state.

The Portuguese and Spaniards were better acquainted with Halmahera than
with many other parts of the archipelago; they called it sometimes Batu
China and sometimes Moro. It was circumnavigated by one of their vessels
in 1525, and the general outline of the coasts is correctly given in
their maps at a time when separate portions of Celebes, such as Macassar
and Menado, are represented as distinct islands. The name (Jilolo) was
really that of a native state, the sultan of which had the chief rank
among the princes of the Moluccas before he was supplanted by the sultan
of Ternate about 1380. His capital, Jilolo, lay on the west coast on the
first bay to the north of that of Dodinga. In 1876 Danu Hassan, a
descendant of the sultans of Jilolo, raised an insurrection in the
island for the purpose of throwing off the authority of the sultans of
Tidore and Ternate; and his efforts would probably have been successful
but for the intervention of the Dutch. In 1878 a Dutch expedition was
directed against the pirates of Tobalai, and they were virtually
extirpated. Slavery remains in the interior. Missionary work, carried on
in the northern peninsula of Halmahera since 1866, has been fairly
successful among the heathen natives, but less so among the Mahommedans,
who have often incited the others against the missionaries and their
converts.



HALMSTAD, a seaport of Sweden, chief town of the district (_län_) of
Halland, on the E. shore of the Cattegat, 76 m. S.S.E. of Gothenburg by
the railway to Helsingborg. Pop. (1900), 15,362. It lies at the mouth of
the river Nissa, having an inner harbour (15 ft. depth), an outer
harbour, and roads giving anchorage (24 to 36 ft.) exposed to S. and
N.W. winds. In the neighbourhood there are quarries of granite, which is
exported chiefly to Germany. Other industries are engineering,
shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute, hat, wood-pulp and
paper factories. The principal exports are granite, timber and hats; and
butter through Helsingborg and Gothenburg. The imports are coal,
machinery and grain. Potatoes are largely grown in the district, and the
salmon fisheries are valuable. The castle is the residence of the
governor of the province. There are both mineral and sea-water baths in
the neighbourhood.

Mention of the church of Halmstad occurs as early as 1462, and the
fortifications are mentioned first in 1225. The latter were demolished
in 1734. There were formerly Dominican and Franciscan monasteries in the
town. The oldest town-privileges date from 1307. During the revolt of
the miner Engelbrekt, it twice fell into the hands of the rebels--in
1434 and 1436. The town appears to have been frequently chosen as the
meeting-place of the rulers and delegates of the three northern
kingdoms; and under the union of Kalmar it was appointed to be the place
for the election of a new Scandinavian monarch whenever necessary. The
_län_ of Halland formed part of the territory of Denmark in Sweden, and
accordingly, in 1534, during his war with the Danes, Gustavus Vasa
assaulted and took its chief town. In 1660, by the treaty of Copenhagen,
the whole district was ceded to Sweden. In 1676 Charles XII. defeated
near Halmstad a Danish army which was attempting to retake the district,
and since that time Halland has formed part of Sweden.



HALO, a word derived from the Gr. [Greek: halôs], a threshing-floor, and
afterwards applied to denote the disk of the sun or moon, probably on
account of the circular path traced out by the oxen threshing the corn.
It was thence applied to denote any luminous ring, such as that viewed
around the sun or moon, or portrayed about the heads of saints.

In physical science, a halo is a luminous circle, surrounding the sun or
moon, with various auxiliary phenomena, and formed by the reflection and
refraction of light by ice-crystals suspended in the atmosphere. The
optical phenomena produced by atmospheric water and ice may be divided
into two classes, according to the relative position of the luminous
ring and the source of light. In the first class we have _halos_, and
_coronae_, or "glories," which encircle the luminary; the second class
includes _rainbows_, _fog-bows_, _mist-halos_, _anthelia_ and
_mountain-spectres_, whose centres are at the anti-solar point. Here it
is only necessary to distinguish halos from coronae. Halos are at
definite distances (22° and 46°) from the sun, and are coloured red on
the _inside_, being due to refraction; coronae closely surround the sun
at variable distances, and are coloured red on the _outside_, being due
to diffraction.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The phenomenon of a solar (or lunar) halo as seen from the earth is
represented in fig. 1; fig. 2 is a diagrammatic sketch showing the
appearance as viewed from the zenith; but it is only in exceptional
circumstances that all the parts are seen. Encircling the sun or moon
(S), there are two circles, known as the inner halo I, and the outer
halo O, having radii of about 22° and 46°, and exhibiting the colours of
the spectrum in a confused manner, the only decided tint being the red
on the inside. Passing through the luminary and parallel to the horizon,
there is a white luminous circle, the _parhelic circle_ (P), on which a
number of images of the luminary appear. The most brilliant are situated
at the intersections of the inner halo and the parhelic circle; these
are known as _parhelia_ (denoted by the letter p in the figures) (from
the Gr. [Greek: para], beside, and [Greek: hêlios], the sun) or
"mock-suns," in the case of the sun, and as _paraselenae_ (from [Greek:
para] and [Greek: selênê], the moon) or "mock-moons," in the case of the
moon. Less brilliant are the parhelia of the outer halo. The parhelia
are most brilliant when the sun is near the horizon. As the sun rises,
they pass a little beyond the halo and exhibit flaming tails. The other
images on the parhelic circle are the _paranthelia_ (q) and the
_anthelion_ (a) (from the Greek [Greek: anti], opposite, and [Greek:
hêlios], the sun). The former are situated at from 90° to 140° from the
sun; the latter is a white patch of light situated at the anti-solar
point and often exceeding in size the apparent diameter of the luminary.
A vertical circle passing through the sun may also be seen. From the
parhelia of the inner halo two oblique curves (L) proceed. These are
known as the "arcs of Lowitz," having been first described in 1794 by
Johann Tobias Lowitz (1757-1804). Luminous arcs (T), tangential to the
upper and lower parts of each halo, also occur, and in the case of the
inner halo, the arcs may be prolonged to form a quasi-elliptic halo.

The physical explanation of halos originated with René Descartes, who
ascribed their formation to the presence of ice-crystals in the
atmosphere. This theory was adopted by Edmé Mariotte, Sir Isaac Newton
and Thomas Young; and, although certain of their assumptions were
somewhat arbitrary, yet the general validity of the theory has been
demonstrated by the researches of J. G. Galle and A. Bravais. The memoir
of the last-named, published in the _Journal de l'École royale
polytechnique_ for 1847 (xviii., 1-270), ranks as a classic on the
subject; it is replete with examples and illustrations, and discusses
the various phenomena in minute detail.

The usual form of ice-crystals in clouds is a right hexagonal prism,
which may be elongated as a needle or foreshortened like a thin plate.
There are three refracting angles possible, one of 120° between two
adjacent prism faces, one of 60° between two alternate prism faces, and
one of 90° between a prism face and the base. If innumerable numbers of
such crystals fall in any manner between the observer and the sun, light
falling upon these crystals will be refracted, and the refracted rays
will be crowded together in the position of minimum deviation (see
REFRACTION OF LIGHT). Mariotte explained the inner halo as being due to
refraction through a pair of alternate faces, since the minimum
deviation of an ice-prism whose refracting angle is 60° is about 22°.
Since the minimum deviation is least for the least refrangible rays, it
follows that the red rays will be the least refracted, and the violet
the more refracted, and therefore the halo will be coloured red on the
inside. Similarly, as explained by Henry Cavendish, the halo of 46° is
due to refraction by faces inclined at 90°. The impurity of the colours
(due partly to the sun's diameter, but still more to oblique refraction)
is more marked in halos than in rainbows; in fact, only the red is at
all pure, and as a rule, only a mere trace of green or blue is seen, the
external portion of each halo being nearly white.

The two halos are the only phenomena which admit of explanation without
assigning any particular distribution to the ice-crystals. But it is
obvious that certain distributions will predominate, for the crystals
will tend to fall so as to offer the least resistance to their motion; a
needle-shaped crystal tending to keep its axis vertical, a plate-shaped
crystal to keep its axis horizontal. Thomas Young explained the parhelic
circle (P) as due to reflection from the vertical faces of the long
prisms and the bases of the short ones. If these vertical faces become
very numerous, the eye will perceive a colourless horizontal circle.
Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical
circle passing through the sun.

The parhelia (p) were explained by Mariotte as due to refraction through
a pair of alternate faces of a vertical prism. When the sun is near the
horizon the rays fall upon the principal section of the prisms; the
minimum deviation for such rays is 22°, and consequently the parhelia
are not only on the inner halo, but also on the parhelic circle. As the
sun rises, the rays enter the prisms more and more obliquely, and the
angle of minimum deviation increases; but since the emergent ray makes
the same angle with the refracting edge as the incident ray, it follows
that the parhelia will remain on the parhelic circle, while receding
from the inner halo. The different values of the angle of minimum
deviation for rays of different refrangibilities give rise to spectral
colours, the red being nearest the sun, while farther away the
overlapping of the spectra forms a flaming colourless tail sometimes
extending over as much as 10° to 20°. The "arcs of Lowitz" (L) are
probably due to small oscillations of the vertical prisms.

The "tangential arcs" (T) were explained by Young as being caused by the
thin plates with their axes horizontal, refraction taking place through
alternate faces. The axes will take up any position, and consequently
give rise to a continuous series of parhelia which touch externally the
inner halo, both above and below, and under certain conditions (such as
the requisite altitude of the sun) form two closed elliptical curves;
generally, however, only the upper and lower portions are seen.
Similarly, the tangential arcs to the halo of 46° are due to refraction
through faces inclined at 90°.

The paranthelia (q) may be due to two internal or two external
reflections. A pair of triangular prisms having a common face, or a
stellate crystal formed by the symmetrical interpenetration of two
triangular prisms admits of two internal reflections by faces inclined
at 120°, and so give rise to two colourless images each at an angular
distance of 120° from the sun. Double internal reflection by a
triangular prism would form a single coloured image on the parhelic
circle at about 98° from the sun. These angular distances are attained
only when the sun is on the horizon, and they increase as it rises.

The anthelion (a) may be explained as caused by two internal reflections
of the solar rays by a hexagonal lamellar crystal, having its axis
horizontal and one of the diagonals of its base vertical. The emerging
rays are parallel to their original direction and form a colourless
image on the parhelic circle opposite the sun.

  REFERENCES.--Auguste Bravais's celebrated memoir, "Sur les halos et
  les phénomènes optiques qui les accompagnent" (_Journ. École poly._
  vol. xviii., 1847), contains a full account of the geometrical theory.
  See also E. Mascart, _Traité d'optique_; J. Pernter, _Meteorologische
  Optik_ (1902-1905); and R. S. Heath, _Geometrical Optics_.



HALOGENS. The word halogen is derived from the Greek [Greek: hals]
(sea-salt) and [Greek: gennan] (to produce), and consequently means the
sea-salt producer. The term is applied to the four elements fluorine,
chlorine, bromine and iodine, on account of the great similarity of
their sodium salts to ordinary sea-salt. These four elements show a
great resemblance to one another in their general chemical behaviour,
and in that of their compounds, whilst their physical properties show a
gradual transition. Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of
aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and
chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid
(iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with
increasing atomic weights. The halogen of lower atomic weight can
displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from
the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand,
the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic
weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will
liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for
hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine
uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst
hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the
resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat. The hydrides of
the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble
in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with
basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which
resemble one another very strongly. On the other hand the stability of
the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine
pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline
solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine
monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable,
even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.
Compounds of fluorine and oxygen, and of bromine and oxygen, have not
yet been isolated. In some respects there is a very marked difference
between fluorine and the other members of the group, for, whilst sodium
chloride, bromide and iodide are readily soluble in water, sodium
fluoride is much less soluble; again, silver chloride, bromide and
iodide are practically insoluble in water, whilst, on the other hand,
silver fluoride is appreciably soluble in water. Again, fluorine shows a
great tendency to form double salts, which have no counterpart among the
compounds formed by the other members of the family.



HALS, FRANS (1580?-1666), Dutch painter, was born at Antwerp according
to the most recent authorities in 1580 or 1581, and died at Haarlem in
1666. As a portrait painter second only to Rembrandt in Holland, he
displayed extraordinary talent and quickness in the exercise of his art
coupled with improvidence in the use of the means which that art secured
to him. At a time when the Dutch nation fought for independence and won
it, Hals appears in the ranks of its military gilds. He was also a
member of the Chamber of Rhetoric, and (1644) chairman of the Painters'
Corporation at Haarlem. But as a man he had failings. He so ill-treated
his first wife, Anneke Hermansz, that she died prematurely in 1616; and
he barely saved the character of his second, Lysbeth Reyniers, by
marrying her in 1617. Another defect was partiality to drink, which led
him into low company. Still he brought up and supported a family of ten
children with success till 1652, when the forced sale of his pictures
and furniture, at the suit of a baker to whom he was indebted for bread
and money, brought him to absolute penury. The inventory of the property
seized on this occasion only mentions three mattresses and bolsters, an
armoire, a table and five pictures. This humble list represents all his
worldly possessions at the time of his bankruptcy. Subsequently to this
he was reduced to still greater straits, and his rent and firing were
paid by the municipality, which afterwards gave him (1664) an annuity of
200 florins. We may admire the spirit which enabled him to produce some
of his most striking works in his unhappy circumstances: we find his
widow seeking outdoor relief from the guardians of the poor, and dying
obscurely in a hospital.

Hals's pictures illustrate the various strata of society into which his
misfortunes led him. His banquets or meetings of officers, of
sharpshooters, and gildsmen are the most interesting of his works. But
they are not more characteristic than his low-life pictures of itinerant
players and singers. His portraits of gentlefolk are true and noble, but
hardly so expressive as those of fishwives and tavern heroes.

His first master at Antwerp was probably van Noort, as has been
suggested by M. G. S. Davies, but on his removal to Haarlem Frans Hals
entered the atelier of van Mander, the painter and historian, of whom he
possessed some pictures which went to pay the debt of the baker already
alluded to. But he soon improved upon the practice of the time,
illustrated by J. van Schoreel and Antonio Moro, and, emancipating
himself gradually from tradition, produced pictures remarkable for truth
and dexterity of hand. We prize in Rembrandt the golden glow of effects
based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Hals
was fond of daylight of silvery sheen. Both men were painters of touch,
but of touch on different keys--Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble.
The latter is perhaps more expressive than the former. He seizes with
rare intuition a moment in the life of his sitters. What nature displays
in that moment he reproduces thoroughly in a very delicate scale of
colour, and with a perfect mastery over every form of expression. He
becomes so clever at last that exact tone, light and shade, and
modelling are all obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the
brush.

In every form of his art we can distinguish his earlier style from that
of later years. It is curious that we have no record of any work
produced by him in the first decade of his independent activity, save an
engraving by Jan van de Velde after a lost portrait of "The Minister
Johannes Bogardus," who died in 1614. The earliest works by Frans Hals
that have come down to us, "Two Boys Playing and Singing" in the gallery
of Cassel, and a "Banquet of the officers of the 'St Joris Doele'" or
Arquebusiers of St George (1616) in the museum of Haarlem, exhibit him
as a careful draughtsman capable of great finish, yet spirited withal.
His flesh, less clear than it afterwards becomes, is pastose and
burnished. Later he becomes more effective, displays more freedom of
hand, and a greater command of effect. At this period we note the
beautiful full-length of "Madame van Beresteyn" at the Louvre in Paris,
and a splendid full-length portrait of "Willem van Heythuysen" leaning
on a sword in the Liechtenstein collection at Vienna. Both these
pictures are equalled by the other "Banquet of the officers, of the
Arquebusiers of St George" (with different portraits) and the "Banquet
of the officers of the 'Cloveniers Doelen'" or Arquebusiers of St Andrew
of 1627 and an "Assembly of the officers of the Arquebusiers of St
Andrew" of 1633 in the Haarlem Museum. A picture of the same kind in the
town hall of Amsterdam, with the date of 1637, suggests some study of
the masterpieces of Rembrandt, and a similar influence is apparent in a
picture of 1641 at Haarlem, representing the "Regents of the Company of
St Elizabeth" and in the portrait of "Maria Voogt" at Amsterdam. But
Rembrandt's example did not create a lasting impression on Hals. He
gradually dropped more and more into grey and silvery harmonies of tone;
and two of his canvases, executed in 1664, "The Regents and Regentesses
of the Oudemannenhuis" at Haarlem, are masterpieces of colour, though in
substance all but monochromes. In fact, ever since 1641 Hals had shown a
tendency to restrict the gamut of his palette, and to suggest colour
rather than express it. This is particularly noticeable in his flesh
tints which from year to year became more grey, until finally the
shadows were painted in almost absolute black, as in the "Tymane
Oosdorp," of the Berlin Gallery. As this tendency coincides with the
period of his poverty, it has been suggested that one of the reasons, if
not the only reason, of his predilection for black and white pigment was
the cheapness of these colours as compared with the costly lakes and
carmines.

As a portrait painter Frans Hals had scarcely the psychological insight
of a Rembrandt or Velazquez, though in a few works, like the "Admiral de
Ruyter," in Earl Spencer's collection, the "Jacob Olycan" at the Hague
Gallery, and the "Albert van der Meer" at Haarlem town hall, he reveals
a searching analysis of character which has little in common with the
instantaneous expression of his so-called "character" portraits. In
these he generally sets upon the canvas the fleeting aspect of the
various stages of merriment, from the subtle, half ironic smile that
quivers round the lips of the curiously misnamed "Laughing Cavalier" in
the Wallace Collection to the imbecile grin of the "Hille Bobbe" in the
Berlin Museum. To this group of pictures belong Baron Gustav
Rothschild's "Jester," the "_Bohémienne_" at the Louvre, and the "Fisher
Boy" at Antwerp, whilst the "Portrait of the Artist with his second
Wife" at the Ryks Museum in Amsterdam, and the somewhat confused group
of the "Beresteyn Family" at the Louvre show a similar tendency. Far
less scattered in arrangement than this Beresteyn group, and in every
respect one of the most masterly of Frans Hals's achievements is the
group called "The Painter and his Family" in the possession of Colonel
Warde, which was almost unknown until it appeared at the winter
exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1906.

Though a visit to Haarlem town hall, which contains the five enormous
Doelen groups and the two Regenten pictures, is as necessary for the
student of Hals's art as a visit to the Prado in Madrid is for the
student of Velazquez, good examples of the Dutch master have found their
way into most of the leading public and private collections. In the
British Isles, besides the works already mentioned, portraits from his
brush are to be found at the National Gallery, the Edinburgh Gallery,
the Glasgow Corporation Gallery, Hampton Court, Buckingham Palace,
Devonshire House, and the collections of Lord Northbrooke, Lord
Ellesmere, Lord Iveagh and Lord Spencer.

At Amsterdam is the celebrated "Flute Player," once in the Dupper
collection at Dort; at Brussels, the patrician "Heythuysen"; at the
Louvre, "Descartes"; at Dresden, the painter "Van der Vinne." Hals's
sitters were taken from every class of society--admirals, generals and
burgomasters pairing with merchants, lawyers, clerks. To register all
that we find in public galleries would involve much space. There are
eight portraits at Berlin, six at Cassel, five at St Petersburg, six at
the Louvre, two at Brussels, five at Dresden, two at Gotha. In private
collections, chiefly in Paris, Haarlem and Vienna, we find an equally
important number. Amongst the painter's most successful representations
of fishwives and termagants we should distinguish the "Hille Bobbe" of
the Berlin Museum, and the "Hille Bobbe with her Son" in the Dresden
Gallery. Itinerant players are best illustrated in the Neville-Goldsmith
collection at the Hague, and the Six collection at Amsterdam. Boys and
girls singing, playing or laughing, or men drinking, are to be found in
the gallery of Schwerin, in the Arenberg collection, and in the royal
palace at Brussels.

For two centuries after his death Frans Hals was held in such poor
esteem that some of his paintings, which are now among the proudest
possessions of public galleries, were sold at auction for a few pounds
or even shillings. The portrait of "Johannes Acronius," now at the
Berlin Museum, realized five shillings at the Enschede sale in 1786. The
splendid portrait of the man with the sword at the Liechtenstein gallery
was sold in 1800 for £4, 5s. With his rehabilitation in public esteem
came the enormous rise in values, and, at the Secretan sale in 1889, the
portrait of "Pieter van de Broecke d'Anvers" was bid up to £4420, while
in 1908 the National Gallery paid £25,000 for the large group from the
collection of Lord Talbot de Malahide.

Of the master's numerous family none has left a name except FRANS HALS
THE YOUNGER, born about 1622, who died in 1669. His pictures represent
cottages and poultry; and the "Vanitas" at Berlin, a table laden with
gold and silver dishes, cups, glasses and books, is one of his finest
works and deserving of a passing glance.

Quite in another form, and with much of the freedom of the elder HALS,
DIRK HALS, his brother (born at Haarlem, died 1656), is a painter of
festivals and ball-rooms. But Dirk had too much of the freedom and too
little of the skill in drawing which characterized his brother. He
remains second on his own ground to Palamedes. A fair specimen of his
art is a "Lady playing a Harpsichord to a Young Girl and her Lover" in
the van der Hoop collection at Amsterdam, now in the Ryks Museum. More
characteristic, but not better, is a large company of gentle-folk rising
from dinner, in the Academy at Vienna.

  LITERATURE.--See W. Bode, _Frans Hals und seine Schule_ (Leipzig,
  1871); W. Unger and W. Vosmaer, _Etchings after Frans Hals_ (Leyden,
  1873); Percy Rendell Head, _Sir Anthony Van Dyck and Frans Hals_
  (London, 1879); D. Knackfuss, _Frans Hals_ (Leipzig, 1896); G. S.
  Davies, _Frans Hals_ (London, 1902).     (P. G. K.)



HALSBURY, HARDINGE STANLEY GIFFARD, 1ST EARL OF (1825-   ), English lord
chancellor, son of Stanley Lees Giffard, LL.D., was born in London on
the 3rd of September 1825. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford,
and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1850, joining the North
Wales and Chester circuit. Afterwards he had a large practice at the
central criminal court and the Middlesex sessions, and he was for
several years junior prosecuting counsel to the treasury. He was engaged
in most of the celebrated trials of his time, including the Overend and
Gurney and the Tichborne cases. He became queen's counsel in 1865, and a
bencher of the Inner Temple. Mr Giffard twice contested Cardiff in the
Conservative interest, in 1868 and 1874, but he was still without a seat
in the House of Commons when he was appointed solicitor-general by
Disraeli in 1875 and received the honour of knighthood. In 1877 he
succeeded in obtaining a seat, when he was returned for Launceston,
which borough he continued to represent until his elevation to the
peerage in 1885. He was then created Baron Halsbury and appointed lord
chancellor, thus forming a remarkable exception to the rule that no
criminal lawyer ever reaches the woolsack. Lord Halsbury resumed the
position in 1886 and held it until 1892 and again from 1895 to 1905, his
tenure of the office, broken only by the brief Liberal ministries of
1886 and 1892-1895, being longer than that of any lord chancellor since
Lord Eldon. In 1898 he was created earl of Halsbury and Viscount
Tiverton. Among Conservative lord chancellors Lord Halsbury must always
hold a high place, his grasp of legal principles and mastery in applying
them being pre-eminent among the judges of his day.



HALSTEAD, a market-town in the Maldon parliamentary division of Essex,
England, on the Colne, 17 m. N.N.E. from Chelmsford; served by the Colne
Valley railway from Chappel Junction on the Great Eastern railway. Pop.
of urban district (1901), 6073. It lies on a hill in a pleasant wooded
district. The church of St Andrew is mainly Perpendicular. It contains a
monument supposed to commemorate Sir Robert Bourchier (d. 1349), lord
chancellor to Edward III. The Lady Mary Ramsay grammar school dates from
1594. There are large silk and crape works. Two miles N. of Halstead is
Little Maplestead, where the church is the latest in date of the four
churches with round naves extant in England, being perhaps of
12th-century foundation, but showing early Decorated work in the main.
The chancel, which is without aisles, terminates in an apse. Three
miles N.W. from Halstead are the large villages of Sible Hedingham (pop.
1701) and Castle Hedingham (pop. 1097). At the second is the Norman keep
of the de Veres, of whom Aubrey de Vere held the lordship from William
I. The keep dates from the end of the 11th century, and exhibits much
fine Norman work. The church of St Nicholas, Castle Hedingham, has fine
Norman, Transitional and Early English details, and there is a black
marble tomb of John de Vere, 15th earl of Oxford (d. 1540), with his
countess.

There are signs of settlement at Halstead (Halsteda, Halgusted, Halsted)
in the Bronze Age; but there is no evidence of the causes of its growth
in historic times. Probably its situation on the river Colne made it to
some extent a local centre. Throughout the middle ages Halstead was
unimportant, and never rose to the rank of a borough.



HALT. (1) An adjective common to Teutonic languages and still appearing
in Swedish and Danish, meaning lame, crippled. It is also used as a
verb, meaning to limp, and as a substantive, especially in the term
"string-halt" or "spring-halt," a nervous disorder affecting the muscles
of the hind legs of horses. (2) A pause or stoppage made on a march or a
journey. The word came into English in the form "to make alto" or "alt,"
and was taken from the French _faire alte_ or Italian _far alto_. The
origin is a German military term, _Halt machen_, _Halt_ meaning "hold."



HALUNTIUM (Gr. [Greek: Alontion], mod. S. Marco d'Alunzio), an ancient
city of Sicily, 6 m. from the north coast and 25 m. E.N.E. of Halaesa.
It was probably of Sicel origin, though its foundation was ascribed to
some of the companions of Aeneas. It appears first in Roman times as a
place of some importance, and suffered considerably at the hands of
Verres. The abandoned church of S. Mark, just outside the modern town,
is built into the cella of an ancient Greek temple, which measures 62
ft. by 18. A number of ancient inscriptions have been found there.



HALYBURTON, JAMES (1518-1589), Scottish reformer, was born in 1518, and
was educated at St Andrews, where he graduated M.A. in 1538. From 1553
to 1586 he was provost of St Andrews and a prominent figure in the
national life. He was chosen as one of the lords of the congregation in
1557, and commanded the contingents sent by Forfar and Fife against the
queen regent in 1559. He took part in the defence of Edinburgh, and in
the battles of Langside (1568) and Restalrig (1571). He had stoutly
opposed the marriage of Mary with Darnley, and when, after Restalrig, he
was captured by the queen's troops, he narrowly escaped execution. He
represented Morton at the conference of 1578, and was one of the royal
commissioners to the General Assembly in 1582 and again in 1588. He died
in February 1589.



HALYBURTON, THOMAS (1674-1712), Scottish divine, was born at Dupplin,
near Perth, on the 25th of December 1674. His father, one of the ejected
ministers, having died in 1682, he was taken by his mother in 1685 to
Rotterdam to escape persecution, where he for some time attended the
school founded by Erasmus. On his return to his native country in 1687
he completed his elementary education at Perth and Edinburgh, and in
1696 graduated at the university of St Andrews. In 1700 he was ordained
minister of the parish of Ceres, and in 1710 he was recommended by the
synod of Fife for the chair of theology in St Leonard's College, St
Andrews, to which accordingly he was appointed by Queen Anne. After a
brief term of active professorial life he died from the effects of
overwork in 1712.

  The works by which he continues to be known were all of them published
  after his death. Wesley and Whitefield were accustomed to commend them
  to their followers. They were published as follows: _Natural Religion
  Insufficient, and Revealed Religion Necessary, to Man's Happiness in
  his Present State_ (1714), an able statement of the orthodox
  Calvinistic criticism of the deism of Lord Herbert of Cherbury and
  Charles Blount; _Memoirs of the Life of Mr Thomas Halyburton_ (1715),
  three parts by his own hand, the fourth from his diary by another
  hand; _The Great Concern of Salvation_ (1721), with a word of
  commendation by I. Watts; _Ten Sermons Preached Before and After the
  Lord's Supper_ (1722); _The Unpardonable Sin Against the Holy Ghost_
  (1784). See Halyburton's _Memoirs_ (1714).



HAM, in the Bible. (1) [Hebrew: Ham], _Ham_, in Gen. v. 32, vi. 10, vii.
13, ix. 18, x. 5, 1 Chron. i. 4, the _second_ son of Noah; in Gen. ix.
24, the _youngest_ son (but cf. below); and in Gen. x. 6, 1 Chron. i. 8,
the father of Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (Egypt), Phut and Canaan. Genesis
x. exhibits in the form of genealogies the political, racial and
geographical relations of the peoples known to Israel; as it was
compiled from various sources and has been more than once edited, it
does not exactly represent the situation at any given date,[1] but Ham
seems to stand roughly for the south-western division of the world as
known to Israel, which division was regarded as the natural sphere of
influence of Egypt. Ham is held to be the Egyptian word _Khem_ (black)
which was the native name of Egypt; thus in Pss. lxxviii. 51, cv. 23,
27, cvi. 22, Ham = Egypt. In Gen. ix. 20-26 Canaan was originally the
third son of Noah and the villain of the story. Ham is a later addition
to harmonize with other passages.

(2) [Hebrew: Ham], _Ham_, 1 Chron. iv. 40, apparently the name of a
place or tribe. It can hardly be identical with (1); nothing else is
known of this second Ham, which may be a scribe's error; the Syriac
version rejects the name.

(3) [Hebrew: Ham], _Ham_, Gen. xiv. 5; the place where Chedorlaomer
defeated the Zuzim, apparently in eastern Palestine. The place is
unknown, and the name may be a scribe's error, perhaps for Ammon. (W. H.
Be.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A. Jeremias, _Das A.T. im Lichte des alten Orients_, p. 145,
    holds that it represents the situation in the 8th century B.C.



HAM, a small town of northern France, in the department of Somme, 36 m.
E.S.E. of Amiens on the Northern railway between that city and Laon.
Pop. (1906), 2957. It stands on the Somme in a marshy district where
market-gardening is carried on. From the 9th century onwards it appears
as the seat of a lordship which, after the extinction of its hereditary
line, passed in succession to the houses of Coucy, Enghien, Luxembourg,
Rohan, Vendôme and Navarre, and was finally united to the French crown
on the accession of Henry IV. Notre-Dame, the church of an abbey of
canons regular of St Augustin, dates from the 12th and 13th centuries,
but in 1760 all the inflammable portions of the building were destroyed
by a conflagration caused by lightning, and a process of restoration was
subsequently carried out. Of special note are the bas-reliefs of the
nave and choir, executed in the 17th and 18th centuries, and the crypt
of the 12th century, which contains the sepulchral effigies of Odo IV.
of Ham and his wife Isabella of Béthencourt. The castle, founded before
the 10th century, was rebuilt early in the 13th, and extended in the
14th; its present appearance is mainly due to the constable Louis of
Luxembourg, count of St Pol, who between 1436 and 1470 not only
furnished it with outworks, but gave such a thickness to the towers and
curtains, and more especially to the great tower or donjon which still
bears his motto _Mon Myeulx_, that the great engineer and architect
Viollet-le-Duc considered them, even in the 19th century, capable of
resisting artillery. It forms a rectangle 395 ft. long by 263 ft. broad,
with a round tower at each angle and two square towers protecting the
curtains. The eastern and western sides are each defended by a
demi-lune. The Constable's Tower, for so the great tower is usually
called in memory of St Pol, has a height of about 100 ft., and the
thickness of the walls is 36 ft.; the interior is occupied by three
large hexagonal chambers in as many stories. The castle of Ham, which
now serves as barracks, has frequently been used as a state prison both
in ancient and modern times, and the list of those who have sojourned
there is an interesting one, including as it does Joan of Arc, Louis of
Bourbon, the ministers of Charles X., Louis Napoleon, and Generals
Cavaignac and Lamoricière. Louis Napoleon was there for six years, and
at last effected his escape in the disguise of a workman. During
1870-1871 Ham was several times captured and recaptured by the
belligerents. A statue commemorates the birth in the town of General Foy
(1775-1825).

  See J. G. Cappot, _Le Château de Ham_ (Paris, 1842); and Ch. Gomart,
  _Ham, son château et ses prisonniers_ (Ham, 1864).



HAMADAN, a province and town of Persia. The province is bounded N. by
Gerrus and Khamseh, W. by Kermanshah, S. by Malayir and Irak, E. by
Savah and Kazvin. It has many well-watered, fertile plains and more than
four hundred flourishing villages producing much grain, and its
population, estimated at 350,000--more than half being Turks of the
Karaguzlu (black-eyed) and Shamlu (Syrian) tribes--supplies several
battalions of infantry to the army, and pays, besides, a yearly revenue
of about £18,000.

Hamadan, the capital of the province, is situated 188 m. W.S.W. of
Teheran, at an elevation of 5930 ft., near the foot of Mount Elvend (old
Persian _Arvand_, Gr. _Orontes_), whose granite peak rises W. of it to
an altitude of 11,900 ft. It is a busy trade centre with about 40,000
inhabitants (comprising 4000 Jews and 300 Armenians), has extensive and
well-stocked bazaars and fourteen large and many small caravanserais.
The principal industries are tanning leather and the manufacture of
saddles, harnesses, trunks, and other leather goods, felts and copper
utensils. The leather of Hamadan is much esteemed throughout the country
and exported to other provinces in great quantities. The streets are
narrow, and by a system called Kucheh-bandi (street-closing) established
long ago for impeding the circulation of crowds and increasing general
security, every quarter of the town, or block of buildings, is shut off
from its neighbours by gates which are closed during local disorders and
regularly at night. Hamadan has post and telegraph offices and two
churches, one Armenian, the other Protestant (of the American
Presbyterian Mission).

Among objects of interest are the alleged tombs of Esther and Mordecai
in an insignificant domed building in the centre of the town. There are
two wooden sarcophagi carved all over with Hebrew inscriptions. That
ascribed to Mordecai has the verses Isaiah lix. 8; Esther ii. 5; Ps.
xvi. 9, 10, 11, and the date of its erection A.M. 4318 (A.D. 557). The
inscriptions on the other sarcophagus consist of the verses Esther ix.
29, 32, x. 1; and the statement that it was placed there A.M. 4602 (A.D.
841) by "the pious and righteous woman Gemal Setan." A tablet let into
the wall states that the building was repaired A.M. 4474 (A.D. 713).
Hamadan also has the grave of the celebrated physician and philosopher
Abu Ali ibn Sina, better known as Avicenna (d. 1036). It is now
generally admitted that Hamadan is the Hagmatana (of the inscriptions),
Agbatana or Ecbatana (q.v., of the Greek writers), the "treasure city"
of the Achaemenian kings which was taken and plundered by Alexander the
Great, but very few ancient remains have been discovered. A rudely
carved stone lion, which lies on the roadside close to the southern
extremity of the city, and by some is supposed to have formed part of a
building of the ancient city, is locally regarded as a talisman against
famine, plague, cold, &c., placed there by Pliny, who is popularly known
as the sorcerer Balinas (a corruption of Plinius).

Five miles S.W. from the city in a mountain gorge of Mount Elvend is the
so-called Ganjnama (treasure-deed), which consists of two tablets with
trilingual cuneiform inscriptions cut into the rock and relating the
names and titles of Darius I. (521-485 B.C.) and his son Xerxes I.
(485-465 B.C.).     (A. H. S.)



HAMADHANI, in full ABU-L FADL AHMAD IBN UL-HUSAIN UL-HAMADHANI
(967-1007), Arabian writer, known as Badi' uz-Zaman (the wonder of the
age), was born and educated at Hamadban. In 990 be went to Jorjan, where
he remained two years; then passing to Nishapur, where he rivalled and
surpassed the learned Khwarizmi. After journeying through Khorasan and
Sijistan, he finally settled in Herat under the protection of the vizir
of Mahmud, the Ghaznevid sultan. There he died at the age of forty. He
was renowned for a remarkable memory and for fluency of speech, as well
as for the purity of his language. He was one of the first to renew the
use of rhymed prose both in letters and _maqamas_ (see ARABIA:
_Literature_, section "Belles Lettres").

  His letters were published at Constantinople (1881), and with
  commentary at Beirut (1890); his _maqamas_ at Constantinople (1881),
  and with commentary at Beirut (1889). A good idea of the latter may
  be obtained from S. de Sacy's edition of six of the _maqamas_ with
  French translation and notes in his _Chrestomathie_ arabe, vol. iii.
  (2nd ed., Paris, 1827). A specimen of the letters is translated into
  German in A. von Kremer's _Culturgeschichte des Orients_, ii. 470 sqq.
  (Vienna, 1877).     (G. W. T.)



HAMAH, the Hamath of the Bible, a Hittite royal city, situated in the
narrow valley of the Orontes, 110 English miles N. (by E.) of Damascus.
It finds a place in the northern boundaries of Israel under David,
Solomon and Jeroboam II. (2 Sam. viii. 9; 1 Kings viii. 65; 2 Kings xiv.
25). The Orontes flows winding past the city and is spanned by four
bridges. On the south-east the houses rise 150 ft. above the river, and
there are four other hills, that of the _Kalah_ or castle being to the
north 100 ft. high. Twenty-four minarets rise from the various mosques.
The houses are principally of mud, and the town stands amid poplar
gardens with a fertile plain to the west. The castle is ruined, the
streets are narrow and dirty, but the bazaars are good, and the trade
with the Bedouins considerable. The numerous water-wheels (_naurah_,) of
enormous dimension, raising water from the Orontes are the most
remarkable features of the view. Silk, woollen and cotton goods are
manufactured. The population is about 40,000.

In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of
Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and
Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them. In 738 B.C. Tiglath
Pileser III. reduced the city to tribute, and another rebellion was
crushed by Sargon in 720 B.C. The downfall of so ancient a state made a
great impression at Jerusalem (Isa. x. 9). According to 2 Kings xvii.
24, 30, some of its people were transported to the land of N. Israel,
where they made images of Ashima or Eshmun (probably Ishtar). After the
Macedonian conquest of Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks
in honour of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early Byzantine period
it was known by both its Hebrew and its Greek name. In A.D. 639 the town
surrendered to Abu 'Obeida, one of Omar's generals, and the church was
turned into a mosque. In A.D. 1108 Tancred captured the city and
massacred the Ism'aileh defenders. In 1115 it was retaken by the
Moslems, and in 1178 was occupied by Saladin. Abulfeda, prince of Hamah
in the early part of the 14th century, is well known as an authority on
Arab geography.



HAMANN, JOHANN GEORG (1730-1788), German writer on philosophical and
theological subjects, was born at Königsberg in Prussia on the 27th of
August 1730. His parents were of humble rank and small means. The
education he received was comprehensive but unsystematic, and the want
of definiteness in this early training doubtless tended to aggravate the
peculiar instability of character which troubled Hamann's after life. In
1746 be began theological studies, but speedily deserted them and turned
his attention to law. That too was taken up in a desultory fashion and
quickly relinquished. Hamann seems at this time to have thought that any
strenuous devotion to "bread-and-butter" studies was lowering, and
accordingly gave himself entirely to reading, criticism and philological
inquiries. Such studies, however, were pursued without any definite aim
or systematic arrangement, and consequently were productive of nothing.
In 1752, constrained to secure some position in the world, he accepted a
tutorship in a family resident in Livonia, but only retained it a few
months. A similar situation in Courland he also resigned after about a
year. In both cases apparently the rupture might be traced to the
curious and unsatisfactory character of Hamann himself. After leaving
his second post he was received into the house of a merchant at Riga
named Johann Christoph Behrens, who contracted a great friendship for
him and selected him as his companion for a tour through Danzig, Berlin,
Hamburg, Amsterdam and London. Hamann, however, was quite unfitted for
business, and when left in London, gave himself up entirely to his
fancies, and was quickly reduced to a state of extreme poverty and want.
It was at this period of his life, when his inner troubles of spirit
harmonized with the unhappy external conditions of his lot, that he
began an earnest and prolonged study of the Bible; and from this time
dates the tone of extreme pietism which is characteristic of his
writings, and which undoubtedly alienated many of his friends. He
returned to Riga, and was well received by the Behrens family, in whose
house he resided for some time. A quarrel, the precise nature of which
is not very clear though the occasion is evident, led to an entire
separation from these friends. In 1759 Hamann returned to Königsberg,
and lived for several years with his father, filling occasional posts in
Königsberg and Mitau. In 1767 he obtained a situation as translator in
the excise office, and ten years later a post as storekeeper in a
mercantile house. During this period of comparative rest Hamann was able
to indulge in the long correspondence with learned friends which seems
to have been his greatest pleasure. In 1784 the failure of some
commercial speculations greatly reduced his means, and about the same
time he was dismissed with a small pension from his situation. The
kindness of friends, however, supplied provision for his children, and
enabled him to carry out the long-cherished wish of visiting some of his
philosophical allies. He spent some time with Jacobi at Pempelfort and
with Buchholz at Walbergen. At the latter place he was seized with
illness, and died on the 21st of June 1788.

  Hamann's works resemble his life and character. They are entirely
  unsystematic so far as matter is concerned, chaotic and disjointed in
  style. To a reader not acquainted with the peculiar nature of the man,
  which led him to regard what commended itself to him as therefore
  objectively true, they must be, moreover, entirely unintelligible and,
  from their peculiar, pietistic tone and scriptural jargon, probably
  offensive. A place in the history of philosophy can be yielded to
  Hamann only because he expresses in uncouth, barbarous fashion an idea
  to which other writers have given more effective shape. The
  fundamental thought is with him the unsatisfactoriness of abstraction
  or one-sidedness. The _Aufklärung_, with its rational theology, was to
  him the type of abstraction. Even Epicureanism, which might appear
  concrete, was by him rightly designated abstract. Quite naturally,
  then, Hamann is led to object strongly to much of the Kantian
  philosophy. The separation of sense and understanding is for him
  unjustifiable, and only paralleled by the extraordinary blunder of
  severing matter and form. Concreteness, therefore, is the one demand
  which Hamann expresses, and as representing his own thought he used to
  refer to Giordano Bruno's conception (previously held by Nicolaus
  Curanus) of the identity of contraries. The demand, however, remains
  but a demand. Nothing that Hamann has given can be regarded as in the
  slightest degree a response to it. His hatred of system, incapacity
  for abstract thinking, and intense personality rendered it impossible
  for him to do more than utter the disjointed, oracular, obscure dicta
  which gained for him among his friends the name of "Magus of the
  North." Two results only appear throughout his writings--first, the
  accentuation of belief; and secondly, the transference of many
  philosophical difficulties to language. Belief is, according to
  Hamann, the groundwork of knowledge, and he accepts in all sincerity
  Hume's analysis of experience as being most helpful in constructing a
  theological view. In language, which he appears to regard as somehow
  acquired, he finds a solution for the problems of reason which Kant
  had discussed in the _Kritik der reinen Vernunft_. On the application
  of these thoughts to the Christian theology one need not enter.

  None of Hamann's writings is of great bulk; most are mere pamphlets of
  some thirty or forty pages. A complete collection has been published
  by F. Roth (_Schriften_, 8vo, 1821-1842), and by C. H. Gildemeister
  (_Leben und Schriften_, 6 vols., 1851-1873). See also M. Petri,
  _Hamanns Schriften u. Briefe_, (4 vols., 1872-1873); J. Poel, _Hamann,
  der Magus im Norden, sein Leben u. Mitteilungen aus seinen Schriften_
  (2 vols., 1874-1876); J. Claassen, _Hamanns Leben und Werke_ (1885).
  Also H. Weber, _Neue Hamanniana_ (1905). A very comprehensive essay on
  Hamann is to be found in Hegel's _Vermischte Schriften_, ii. (Werke,
  Bd. xvii.). On Hamann's influence on German literature, see J. Minor,
  _J. G. Hamann in seiner Bedeutung für die Sturm- und Drang-Periode_
  (1881).



HAMAR, or STOREHAMMER (GREAT HAMAR), a town of Norway in Hedemarken
_amt_ (county), 78 m. by rail N. of Christiania. Pop. (1900), 6003. It
is pleasantly situated between two bays of the great Lake Mjösen, and is
the junction of the railways to Trondhjem (N.) and to Otta in
Gudbrandsdal (N.W.). The existing town was laid out in 1849, and made a
bishop's see in 1864. Near the same site there stood an older town,
which, together with a bishop's see, was founded in 1152 by the
Englishman Nicholas Breakspeare (afterwards Pope Adrian IV.); but both
town and cathedral were destroyed by the Swedes in 1567. Remains of the
latter include a nave-arcade with rounded arches. The town is a centre
for the local agricultural and timber trade.



HAMASA (HAMASAH), the name of a famous Arabian anthology compiled by
Habib ibn Aus at-Ta'i, surnamed Abu Tammam (see ABU TAMMAM). The
collection is so called from the title of its first book, containing
poems descriptive of constancy and valour in battle, patient endurance
of calamity, steadfastness in seeking vengeance, manfulness under
reproach and temptation, all which qualities make up the attribute
called by the Arabs _hamasah_ (briefly paraphrased by at-Tibrizi as
_ash-shiddah fi-l-amr_). It consists of ten books or parts, containing
in all 884 poems or fragments of poems, and named respectively--(1)
_al-Hamasa_, 261 pieces; (2) _al-Marathi_, "Dirges," 169 pieces; (3)
_al-Adab_, "Manners," 54 pieces; (4) _an-Nasib_, "The Beauty and Love of
Women," 139 pieces; (5) _al-Hija_, "Satires," 80 pieces; (6) _al-Adyaf
wa-l-Madih_, "Hospitality and Panegyric," 143 pieces; (7) _as-Sifat_,
"Miscellaneous Descriptions," 3 pieces; (8) _as-Sair wa-n-Nu'as_,
"Journeying and Drowsiness," 9 pieces; (9) _al-Mulah_, "Pleasantries,"
38 pieces; and (10) _Madhammat-an-nisa_, "Dispraise of Women," 18
pieces. Of these books the first is by far the longest, both in the
number and extent of its poems, and the first two together make up more
than half the bulk of the work. The poems are for the most part
fragments selected from longer compositions, though a considerable
number are probably entire. They are taken from the works of Arab poets
of all periods down to that of Abu Tammam himself (the latest
ascertainable date being A.D. 832), but chiefly of the poets of the
Ante-Islamic time (_Jahiliyyun_), those of the early days of Al-Islam
(_Mukhadrimun_), and those who flourished during the reigns of the
Omayyad caliphs, A.D. 660-749 (_Islamiyyun_). Perhaps the oldest in the
collection are those relating to the war of Basus, a famous legendary
strife which arose out of the murder of Kulaib, chief of the combined
clans of Bakr and Taghlib, and lasted for forty years, ending with the
peace of Dhu-l-Majaz, about A.D. 534. Of the period of the Abbasid
caliphs, under whom Abu Tammam himself lived, there are probably not
more than sixteen fragments.

Most of the poems belong to the class of extempore or occasional
utterances, as distinguished from _qasidas_, or elaborately finished
odes. While the latter abound with comparisons and long descriptions, in
which the skill of the poet is exhibited with much art and ingenuity,
the poems of the _Hamasa_ are short, direct and for the most part free
from comparisons; the transitions are easy, the metaphors simple, and
the purpose of the poem clearly indicated. It is due probably to the
fact that this style of composition was chiefly sought by Abu Tammam in
compiling his collection that he has chosen hardly anything from the
works of the most famous poets of antiquity. Not a single piece from
Imra 'al-Qais (Amru-ul-Qais) occurs in the _Hamasa_, nor are there any
from 'Alqama, Zuhair or A'sha; Nabigha is represented only by two pieces
(pp. 408 and 742 of Freytag's edition) of four and three verses
respectively; 'Antara by two pieces of four verses each (id. pp. 206,
209); Tarafa by one piece of five verses (id. p. 632); Labid by one
piece of three verses (id. p. 468); and 'Amr ibn Kulthum by one piece of
four verses (id. p. 236). The compilation is thus essentially an
anthology of minor poets, and exhibits (so far at least as the more
ancient poems are concerned) the general average of poetic utterance at
a time when to speak in verse was the daily habit of every warrior of
the desert.

To this description, however, there is an important exception in the
book entitled _an-Nasib_, containing verses relating to women and love.
In the classical age of Arab poetry it was the established rule that all
_qasidas_, or finished odes, whatever their purpose, must begin with the
mention of women and their charms (_tashbib_), in order, as the old
critics said, that the hearts of the hearers might be softened and
inclined to regard kindly the theme which the poet proposed to unfold.
The fragments included in this part of the work are therefore generally
taken from the opening verses of _qasidas_; where this is not the case,
they are chiefly compositions of the early Islamic period, when the
school of exclusively erotic poetry (of which the greatest
representative was 'Omar ibn Abi Rabi'a) arose.

The compiler was himself a distinguished poet in the style of his day,
and wandered through many provinces of the Moslem empire earning money
and fame by his skill in panegyric. About 220 A.H. he betook himself to
Khorasan, then ruled by 'Abdallah ibn Tahir, whom he praised and by whom
he was rewarded; on his journey home to 'Irak he passed through
Hamadhan, and was there detained for many months a guest of Abu-l-Wafa,
son of Salama, the road onward being blocked by heavy falls of snow.
During his residence at Hamadhan, Abu Tammam is said to have compiled or
composed, from the materials which he found in Abu-l-Wafa's library,
five poetical works, of which one was the _Hamasa_. This collection
remained as a precious heirloom in the family of Abu-l-Wafa until their
fortunes decayed, when it fell into the hands of a man of Dinawar named
Abu-l-'Awadhil, who carried it to Isfahan and made it known to the
learned of that city.

The worth of the _Hamasa_ as a store-house of ancient legend, of
faithful detail regarding the usages of the pagan time and early
simplicity of the Arab race, can hardly be exaggerated. The high level
of excellence which is found in its selections, both as to form and
matter, is remarkable, and caused it to be said that Abu Tammam
displayed higher qualities as a poet in his choice of extracts from the
ancients than in his own compositions. What strikes us chiefly in the
class of poetry of which the _Hamasa_ is a specimen, is its exceeding
truth and reality, its freedom from artificiality and hearsay, the
evident first-hand experience which the singers possessed of all of
which they sang. For historical purposes the value of the collection is
not small; but most of all there shines forth from it a complete
portraiture of the hardy and manful nature, the strenuous life of
passion and battle, the lofty contempt of cowardice, niggardliness and
servility, which marked the valiant stock who bore Islam abroad in a
flood of new life over the outworn civilizations of Persia, Egypt and
Byzantium. It has the true stamp of the heroic time, of its cruelty and
wantonness as of its strength and beauty.

  No fewer than twenty commentaries are enumerated by Hajji Khalifa. Of
  these the earliest was by Abu Riyash (otherwise ar-Riyashi), who died
  in 257 A.H.; excerpts from it, chiefly in elucidation of the
  circumstances in which the poems were composed, are frequently given
  by at-Tibrizi (Tabrizi). He was followed by the famous grammarian
  Abu-l-Fath ibn al-Jinni (d. 392 A.H.), and later by Shihab ad-Din
  Ahmad al-Marzuqi of Isfahan (d. 421 A.H.). Upon al-Marzuqi's
  commentary is chiefly founded that of Abu Zakariya Yahya at-Tibrizi
  (b. 421 A.H., d. 502), which has been published by the late Professor
  G. W. Freytag of Bonn, together with a Latin translation and notes
  (1828-1851). This monumental work, the labour of a life, is a treasure
  of information regarding the classical age of Arab literature which
  has not perhaps its equal for extent, accuracy, and minuteness of
  detail in Europe. No other complete edition of the _Hamasa_ has been
  printed in the West; but in 1856 one appeared at Calcutta under the
  names of Maulavi Ghulam Rabbani and Kabiru-d-din Ahmad. Though no
  acknowledgment of the fact is contained in this edition, it is a
  simple reprint of Professor Freytag's text (without at-Tibrizi's
  commentary), and follows its original even in the misprints (corrected
  by Freytag at the end of the second volume, which being in Latin the
  Calcutta editors do not seem to have consulted). It contains in an
  appendix of 12 pages a collection of verses (and some entire
  fragments) not found in at-Tibrizi's recension, but stated to exist in
  some copies consulted by the editors; these are, however, very
  carelessly edited and printed, and in many places unintelligible.
  Freytag's text, with at-Tibrizi's commentary, has been reprinted at
  Bulaq (1870). In 1882 an edition of the text, with a marginal
  commentary by Munshi 'Abdul-Qadir ibn Shaikh Luqman, was published at
  Bombay.

  The _Hamasa_ has been rendered with remarkable skill and spirit into
  German verse by the illustrious Friedrich Rückert (Stuttgart, 1846),
  who has not only given translations of almost all the poems proper to
  the work, but has added numerous fragments drawn from other sources,
  especially those occurring in the _scholia_ of at-Tibrizi, as well as
  the Mu'allaqas of Zuhair and 'Antara, the _Lamiyya_ of Ash-Shanfarà,
  and the Banat Su'ad of Ka'b, son of Zuhair. A small collection of
  translations, chiefly in metres imitating those of the original, was
  published in London by Sir Charles Lyall in 1885.

  When the _Hamasa_ is spoken of, that of Abu Tammam, as the first and
  most famous of the name, is meant; but several collections of a
  similar kind, also called _Hamasa_, exist. The best-known and earliest
  of these is the _Hamasa_ of Buhturi (d. 284 A.H.), of which the unique
  MS. now in the Leiden University Library, has been reproduced by
  photo-lithography (1909); a critical edition has been prepared by
  Professor Chlikho at Beyreuth. Four other works of the same name,
  formed on the model of Abu Tammam's compilation, are mentioned by
  Hajji Khalifa. Besides these, a work entitled _Hamasat ar-Rah_ ("the
  Hamasa of wine") was composed of Abu-l-'Alaal-Ma'arri (d. 429 A.H.).
       (C. J. L.)



HAMBURG, a state of the German empire, on the lower Elbe, bounded by the
Prussian provinces of Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover. The whole
territory has an area of 160 sq. m., and consists of the city of Hamburg
with its incorporated suburbs and the surrounding district, including
several islands in the Elbe, five small enclaves in Holstein; the
communes of Moorburg in the Lüneburg district of the Prussian province
of Hanover and Cuxhaven-Ritzebüttel at the mouth of the Elbe, the island
of Neuwerk about 5 m. from the coast, and the bailiwick (_amt_) of
Bergedorf, which down to 1867 was held in common by Lübeck and Hamburg.
Administratively the state is divided into the city, or metropolitan
district, and four rural domains (or _Landherrenschaften_), each under a
senator as _praeses_, viz. the domain of the Geestlande, of the
Marschlande, of Bergedorf and of Ritzebüttel with Cuxhaven.
Cuxhaven-Ritzebüttel and Bergedorf are the only towns besides the
capital. The Geestlande comprise the suburban districts encircling the
city on the north and west; the Marschlande includes various islands in
the Elbe and the fertile tract of land lying between the northern and
southern arms of the Elbe, and with its pastures and market gardens
supplying Hamburg with large quantities of country produce. In the
Bergedorf district lies the Vierlande, or Four Districts (Neuengamme,
Kirchwärder, Altengamme and Curslack), celebrated for its fruit gardens
and the picturesque dress of the inhabitants. Ritzebüttel with Cuxhaven,
also a watering-place, have mostly a seafaring population. Two rivers,
the Alster and the Bille, flow through the city of Hamburg into the
Elbe, the mouth of which, at Cuxhaven, is 75 m. below the city.

_Government._--As a state of the empire, Hamburg is represented in the
federal council (_Bundesrat_) by one plenipotentiary, and in the
imperial diet (_Reichstag_) by three deputies. Its present constitution
came into force on the 1st of January 1861, and was revised in 1879 and
again in 1906. According to this Hamburg is a republic, the government
(_Staatsgewalt_) residing in two chambers, the Senate and the House of
Burgesses. The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive
power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have
studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must
belong to the class of merchants. The members of the Senate are elected
for life by the House of Burgesses; but a senator is free to retire from
office at the expiry of six years. A chief (_ober-_) and second
(_zweiter-_) burgomaster, the first of whom bears the title of
"Magnificence," chosen annually in secret ballot, preside over the
meetings of the Senate, and are usually jurists. No burgomaster can be
in office for longer than two years consecutively, and no member of the
Senate may hold any other public office. The House of Burgesses consists
of 160 members, of whom 80 are elected in secret ballot by the direct
suffrages of all tax-paying citizens, 40 by the owners of house-property
within the city (also by ballot), and the remaining 40, by ballot also,
by the so-called "notables," i.e. active and former members of the law
courts and administrative boards. They are elected for a period of six
years, but as half of each class retire at the end of three years, new
elections for one half the number take place at the end of that time.
The House of Burgesses is represented by a _Bürgerausschuss_ (committee
of the house) of twenty deputies whose duty it is to watch over the
proceedings of the Senate and the constitution generally. The Senate can
interpose a veto in all matters of legislation, saving taxation, and
where there is a collision between the two bodies, provision is made for
reference to a court of arbitration, consisting of members of both
houses in equal numbers, and also to the supreme court of the empire
(_Reichsgericht_) sitting at Leipzig. The law administered is that of
the civil and penal codes of the German empire, and the court of appeal
for all three Hanse towns is the common _Oberlandesgericht_, which has
its seat in Hamburg. There is also a special court of arbitration in
commercial disputes and another for such as arise under accident
insurance.

_Religion._--The church in Hamburg is completely separated from the
state and manages its affairs independently. The ecclesiastical
arrangements of Hamburg have undergone great modifications since the
general constitution of 1860. From the Reformation to the French
occupation in the beginning of the 19th century, Hamburg was a purely
Lutheran state; according to the "Recess" of 1529, re-enacted in 1603,
non-Lutherans were subject to legal punishment and expulsion from the
country. Exceptions were gradually made in favour of foreign residents;
but it was not till 1785 that regular inhabitants were allowed to
exercise the religious rites of other denominations, and it was not till
after the war of freedom that they were allowed to have buildings in the
style of churches. In 1860 full religious liberty was guaranteed, and
the identification of church and state abolished. By the new
constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the
city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory,
the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and
the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of
53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as
an executive. Since 1887 a church rate has been levied on the
Evangelical-Lutheran communities, and since 1904 upon the Roman
Catholics also. The German Reformed Church, the French Reformed, the
English Episcopal, the English Reformed, the Roman Catholic, and the
Baptist are all recognized by the state. Civil marriages have been
permissible in Hamburg since 1866, and since the introduction of the
imperial law in January 1876 the number of such marriages has greatly
increased.

_Finance._--The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January
1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein
to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with
the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port
proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was
taken into the Zollverein.

_Population._--The population increased from 453,000 in 1880 to 622,530
in 1890, and in 1905 amounted to 874,878. The population of the country
districts (exclusive of the city of Hamburg) was 72,085 in 1905. The
crops raised in the country districts are principally vegetables and
fruit, potatoes, hay, oats, rye and wheat. For manufactures and trade
statistics see HAMBURG (city).

The military organization of Hamburg was arranged by convention with
Prussia. The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic
regiment, under Prussian officers. The soldiers swear the oath of
allegiance to the senate.



HAMBURG, a seaport of Germany, capital of the free state of Hamburg, on
the right bank of the northern arm of the Elbe, 75 m. from its mouth at
Cuxhaven and 178 m. N.W. from Berlin by rail. It is the largest and most
important seaport on the continent of Europe and (after London and New
York) the third largest in the world. Were it not for political and
municipal boundaries Hamburg might be considered as forming with Altona
and Ottensen (which lie within Prussian territory) one town. The view of
the three from the south, presenting a continuous river frontage of six
miles, the river crowded with shipping and the densely packed houses
surmounted by church towers--of which three are higher than the dome of
St Paul's in London--is one of great magnificence.

The city proper lies on both sides of the little river Alster, which,
dammed up a short distance from its mouth, forms a lake, of which the
southern portion within the line of the former fortifications bears the
name of the Inner Alster (_Binnen Alster_), and the other and larger
portion (2500 yards long and 1300 yards at the widest) that of the Outer
Alster (_Aussen Alster_). The fortifications as such were removed in
1815, but they have left their trace in a fine girdle of green round the
city, though too many inroads on its completeness have been made by
railways and roadways. The oldest portion of the city is that which lies
to the east of the Alster; but, though it still retains the name of
Altstadt, nearly all trace of its antiquity has disappeared, as it was
rebuilt after the great fire of 1842. To the west lies the new town
(Neustadt), incorporated in 1678; beyond this and contiguous to Altona
is the former suburb of St Pauli, incorporated in 1876, and towards the
north-east that of St Georg, which arose in the 13th century but was not
incorporated till 1868.

[Illustration: Map of Hamburg.]

The old town lies low, and it is traversed by a great number of narrow
canals or "fleets" (_Fleeten_)--for the same word which has left its
trace in London nomenclature is used in the Low German city--which add
considerably to the picturesqueness of the meaner quarters, and serve as
convenient channels for the transport of goods. They generally form what
may be called the back streets, and they are bordered by warehouses,
cellars and the lower class of dwelling-houses. As they are subject to
the ebb and flow of the Elbe, at certain times they run almost dry. As
soon as the telegram at Cuxhaven announces high tide three shots are
fired from the harbour to warn the inhabitants of the "fleets"; and if
the progress of the tide up the river gives indication of danger,
another three shots follow. The "fleets" with their quaint medieval
warehouses, which come sheer down to the water, and are navigated by
barges, have gained for Hamburg the name of "Northern Venice." They are,
however, though antique and interesting, somewhat dismal and unsavoury.
In fine contrast to them is the bright appearance of the Binnen Alster,
which is enclosed on three sides by handsome rows of buildings, the
Alsterdamm in the east, the Alter Jungfernstieg in the south, and the
Neuer Jungfernstieg in the west, while it is separated from the Aussen
Alster by part of the rampart gardens traversed by the railway uniting
Hamburg with Altona and crossing the lakes by a beautiful bridge--the
Lombards-Brücke. Around the outer lake are grouped the suburbs
Harvestehude and Pösseldorf on the western shore, and Uhlenhorst on the
eastern, with park-like promenades and villas surrounded by well-kept
gardens. Along the southern end of the Binnen Alster runs the
Jungfernstieg with fine shops, hotels and restaurants facing the water.
A fleet of shallow-draught screw steamers provides a favourite means of
communication between the business centre of the city and the outlying
colonies of villas.

The streets enclosing the Binnen Alster are fashionable promenades, and
leading directly from this quarter are the main business thoroughfares,
the Neuer-Wall, the Grosse Bleichen and the Hermannstrasse. The largest
of the public squares in Hamburg is the Hopfenmarkt, which contains the
church of St Nicholas (Nikolaikirche) and is the principal market for
vegetables and fruit. Others of importance are the Gänsemarkt, the
Zeughausmarkt and the Grossneumarkt. Of the thirty-five churches
existing in Hamburg (the old cathedral had to be taken down in 1805),
the St Petrikirche, Nikolaikirche, St Katharinenkirche, St Jakobikirche
and St Michaeliskirche are those that give their names to the five old
city parishes. The Nikolaikirche is especially remarkable for its spire,
which is 473 ft. high and ranks, after those of Ulm and Cologne, as the
third highest ecclesiastical edifice in the world. The old church was
destroyed in the great fire of 1842, and the new building, designed by
Sir George Gilbert Scott in 13th century Gothic, was erected 1845-1874.
The exterior and interior are elaborately adorned with sculptures.
Sandstone from Osterwald near Hildesheim was used for the outside, and
for the inner work a softer variety from Postelwitz near Dresden. The
Michaeliskirche, which is built on the highest point in the city and has
a tower 428 ft. high, was erected (1750-1762) by Ernst G. Sonnin on the
site of the older building of the 17th century destroyed by lightning;
the interior, which can contain 3000 people, is remarkable for its bold
construction, there being no pillars. The St Petrikirche, originally
consecrated in the 12th century and rebuilt in the 14th, was the oldest
church in Hamburg; it was burnt in 1842 and rebuilt in its old form in
1844-1849. It has a graceful tapering spire 402 ft. in height (completed
1878); the granite columns from the old cathedral, the stained glass
windows by Kellner of Nuremberg, and H. Schubert's fine relief of the
entombment of Christ are worthy of notice. The St Katharinenkirche and
the St Jakobikirche are the only surviving medieval churches, but
neither is of special interest. Of the numerous other churches,
Evangelical, Roman Catholic and Anglican, none are of special interest.
The new synagogue was built by Rosengarten between 1857 and 1859, and to
the same architect is due the sepulchral chapel built for the Hamburg
merchant prince Johann Heinrich, Freiherr von Schröder (1784-1883), in
the churchyard of the Petrikirche. The beautiful chapel of St Gertrude
was unfortunately destroyed in 1842.

Hamburg has comparatively few secular buildings of great architectural
interest, but first among them is the new Rathaus, a huge German
Renaissance building, constructed of sandstone in 1886-1897, richly
adorned with sculptures and with a spire 330 ft. in height. It is the
place of meeting of the municipal council and of the senate and contains
the city archives. Immediately adjoining it and connected with it by two
wings is the exchange. It was erected in 1836-1841 on the site of the
convent of St Mary Magdalen and escaped the conflagration of 1842. It
was restored and enlarged in 1904, and shelters the commercial library
of nearly 100,000 vols. During the business hours (1-3 P.M.) the
exchange is crowded by some 5000 merchants and brokers. In the same
neighbourhood is the Johanneum, erected in 1834 and in which are
preserved the town library of about 600,000 printed books and 5000 MSS.
and the collection of Hamburg antiquities. In the courtyard is a statue
(1885) of the reformer Johann Bugenhagen. In the Fischmarkt, immediately
south of the Johanneum, a handsome fountain was erected in 1890.
Directly west of the town hall is the new Stadthaus, the chief police
station of the town, in front of which is a bronze statue of the
burgomaster Karl Friedrich Petersen (1809-1892), erected in 1897. A
little farther away are the headquarters of the Patriotic Society
(_Patriotische Gesellschaft_), founded in 1765, with fine rooms for the
meetings of artistic and learned societies. Several new public buildings
have been erected along the circuit of the former walls. Near the west
extremity, abutting upon the Elbe, the moat was filled in in 1894-1897,
and some good streets were built along the site, while the Kersten
Miles-Brücke, adorned with statues of four Hamburg heroes, was thrown
across the Helgoländer Allee. Farther north, along the line of the
former town wall, are the criminal law courts (1879-1882, enlarged 1893)
and the civil law courts (finished in 1901). Close to the latter stand
the new supreme court, the old age and accident state insurance offices,
the chief custom house, and the concert hall, founded by Karl Laeisz, a
former Hamburg wharfinger. Farther on are the chemical and the physical
laboratories and the Hygienic Institute. Facing the botanical gardens a
new central post-office, in the Renaissance style, was built in 1887. At
the west end of the Lombards-Brücke there is a monument by Schilling,
commemorating the war of 1870-71. A few streets south of that is a
monument to Lessing (1881); while occupying a commanding site on the
promenades towards Altona is the gigantic statue of Bismarck which was
unveiled in June 1906. The Kunst-Halle (the picture gallery), containing
some good works by modern masters, faces the east end of
Lombards-Brücke. The new Natural History Museum, completed in 1891,
stands a little distance farther south. To the east of it comes the
Museum for Art and Industry, founded in 1878, now one of the most
important institutions of the kind in Germany, with which is connected a
trades school. Close by is the Hansa-fountain (65 ft. high), erected in
1878. On the north-east side of the suburb of St Georg a botanical
museum and laboratory have been established. There is a new general
hospital at Eppendorf, outside the town on the north, built on the
pavilion principle, and one of the finest structures of the kind in
Europe; and at Ohlsdorf, in the same direction, a crematorium was built
in 1891 in conjunction with the town cemeteries (370 acres). There must
also be mentioned the fine public zoological gardens, Hagenbeck's
private zoological gardens in the vicinity, the schools of music and
navigation, and the school of commerce. In 1900 a high school for
shipbuilding was founded, and in 1901 an institute for seamen's and
tropical diseases, with a laboratory for their physiological study, was
opened, and also the first public free library in the city. The river is
spanned just above the Frei Hafen by a triple-arched railway bridge,
1339 ft. long, erected in 1868-1873 and doubled in width in 1894. Some
270 yds. higher up is a magnificent iron bridge (1888) for vehicles and
foot passengers. The southern arm of the Elbe, on the south side of the
island of Wilhelmsburg, is crossed by another railway bridge of four
arches and 2050 ft. in length.

_Railways._--The through railway traffic of Hamburg is practically
confined to that proceeding northwards--to Kiel and Jutland--and for the
accommodation of such trains the central (terminus) station at Altona is
the chief gathering point. The Hamburg stations, connected with the
other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the
Lombards-Brücke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often
called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour,
into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and
Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof
(on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin
station, and the Lübeck station a little to the north-east, during the
erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the
Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brücke. Between this central station
and Altona terminus runs the metropolitan railway, which has been raised
several feet so as to bridge over the streets, and on which lie the
important stations Dammtor and Sternschanze. An excellent service of
electric trams interconnect the towns of Hamburg, Altona and the
adjacent suburbs, and steamboats provide communication on the Elbe with
the riparian towns and villages; and so with Blankenese and Harburg,
with Stade, Glückstadt and Cuxhaven.

_Trade and Shipping._--Probably there is no place which during the last
thirty years of the 19th century grew faster commercially than Hamburg.
Its commerce is, however, almost entirely of the nature of transit
trade, for it is not only the chief distributing centre for the middle
of Europe of the products of all other parts of the world, but is also
the chief outlet for German, Austrian, and even to some extent Russian
(Polish) raw products and manufactures. Its principal imports are coffee
(of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices,
rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals,
sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique),
tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase),
wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and
coal. Of the total importations of all kinds of coal to Hamburg, that of
British coal, particularly from Northumberland and Durham, occupies the
first place, and despite some falling off in late years, owing to the
competition made by Westphalian coal, amounts to more than half the
total import. The increase of the trade of Hamburg is most strikingly
shown by that of the shipping belonging to the port. Between 1876 and
1880 there were 475 sailing vessels with a tonnage of 230,691, and 110
steam-ships with a tonnage of 87,050. In 1907 there were (exclusive of
fishing vessels) 470 sailing ships with a tonnage of 271,661, and 610
steamers with a tonnage of 1,256,449. In 1870 the crews numbered 6900
men, in 1907 they numbered 29,536.

_Industries._--The development of manufacturing industries at Hamburg
and its immediate vicinity since 1880, though not so rapid as that of
its trade and shipping, has been very remarkable, and more especially
has this been the case since the year 1888, when Hamburg joined the
German customs union, and the barriers which prevented goods
manufactured at Hamburg from entering into other parts of Germany were
removed. Among the chief industries are those for the production of
articles of food and drink. The import trade of various cereals by sea
to Hamburg is very large, and a considerable portion of this corn is
converted into flour at Hamburg itself. There are also, in this
connexion, numerous bakeries for biscuit, rice-peeling mills and spice
mills. Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery
and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking
establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and
fish-curing, preserving and packing factories. There are numerous
breweries, producing annually about 24,000,000 gallons of beer, spirit
distilleries and factories of artificial waters. Yarns, textile goods
and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions,
but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool
and cotton driving-belts. Among other important articles of domestic
industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the
free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical
machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils,
soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of
leather.

Shipbuilding has made very important progress, and there are at present
in Hamburg eleven large shipbuilding yards, employing nearly 10,000
hands. Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one,
where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for
the German navy are built, employs about 5000 persons. There are also
two yards for the building of pleasure yachts and rowing-boats (in both
which branches of sport Hamburg takes a leading place in Germany). Art
industries, particularly those which appeal to the luxurious taste of
the inhabitants in fitting their houses, such as wall-papers and
furniture, and those which are included in the equipment of ocean-going
steamers, have of late years made rapid strides and are among the best
productions of this character of any German city.

  _Harbour._--It was the accession of Hamburg to the customs union in
  1888 which gave such a vigorous impulse to her more recent commercial
  development. At the same time a portion of the port was set apart as a
  free harbour, altogether an area of 750 acres of water and 1750 acres
  of dry land. In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks,
  basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000
  (of which the imperial treasury contributed £2,000,000), between the
  confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire
  quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away
  to make room for these accessories of a great port. On the north side
  of the Elbe there are the Sandtor basin (3380 ft. long, 295 to 427 ft.
  wide), in which British and Dutch steamboats and steamboats of the
  Sloman (Mediterranean) line anchor. South of this lies the Grasbrook
  basin (quayage of 2100 ft. and 1693 ft. alongside), which is used by
  French, Swedish and transatlantic steamers. At the quay point between
  these two basins there are vast state granaries. On the outer (i.e.
  river) side of the Grasbrook dock is the quay at which the emigrants
  for South America embark, and from which the mail boats for East
  Africa, the boats of the Woermann (West Africa) line, and the
  Norwegian tourist boats depart. To the east of these two is the small
  Magdeburg basin, penetrating north, and the Baaken basin, penetrating
  east, i.e. parallel to the river. The latter affords accommodation to
  the transatlantic steamers, including the emigrant ships of the
  Hamburg-America line, though their "ocean mail boats" generally load
  and unload at Cuxhaven. On the south bank of the stream there follow
  in succession, going from east to west, the Moldau dock for river
  craft, the sailing vessel dock (Segelschiff Hafen, 3937 ft. long, 459
  to 886 ft. wide, 26¼ ft. deep), the Hansa dock, India dock, petroleum
  dock, several swimming and dry docks; and in the west of the free
  port area three other large docks, one of 77 acres for river craft,
  the others each 56 acres in extent, and one 23¾ ft. deep, the other
  26¼ ft. deep, at low water, constructed in 1900-1901. In 1897 Hamburg
  was provided with a huge floating dock, 558 ft. long and 84 ft. in
  maximum breadth, capable of holding a vessel of 17,500 tons and
  draught not exceeding 29 ft., so constructed and equipped that in time
  of need (war) it could be floated down to Cuxhaven. During the last 25
  years of the 19th century the channel of the Elbe was greatly improved
  and deepened, and during the last two years of the 19th century some
  £360,000 was spent by Hamburg alone in regulating and correcting this
  lower course of the river. The new Kuhwärder-basin, on the left bank
  of the river, as well as two other large dock basins (now leased to
  the Hamburg-American Company), raise the number of basins to twelve in
  all.

  _Emigration._--Hamburg is one of the principal continental ports for
  the embarkation of emigrants. In 1881-1890, on an average they
  numbered 90,000 a year (of whom 60,000 proceeded to the United
  States). In 1900 the number was 87,153 (and to the United States
  64,137). The number of emigrant Germans has enormously decreased of
  late years, Russia and Austria-Hungary now being most largely
  represented. For the accommodation of such passengers large and
  convenient emigrant shelters have been recently erected close to the
  wharf of embarkation.

  _Health and Population._--The health of the city of Hamburg and the
  adjoining district may be described as generally good, no epidemic
  diseases having recently appeared to any serious degree. The malady
  causing the greatest number of deaths is that of pulmonary
  consumption; but better housing accommodation has of late years
  reduced the mortality from this disease very considerably. The results
  of the census of 1905 showed the population of the city (not including
  the rural districts belonging to the state of Hamburg) to be 802,793.

  Hamburg is well supplied with places of amusement, especially of the
  more popular kind. Its Stadt-Theater, rebuilt in 1874, has room for
  1750 spectators and is particularly devoted to operatic performances;
  the Thalia-Theater dates from 1841, and holds 1700 to 1800 people, and
  the Schauspielhaus (for drama) from 1900 people, and there are some
  seven or eight minor establishments. Theatrical performances were
  introduced into the city in the 17th century, and 1678 is the date of
  the first opera, which was played in a house in the Gänsemarkt. Under
  Schröder and Lessing the Hamburg stage rose into importance. Though
  contributing few names of the highest rank to German literature, the
  city has been intimately associated with the literary movement. The
  historian Lappenberg and Friedrich von Hagedorn were born in Hamburg;
  and not only Lessing, but Heine and Klopstock lived there for some
  time.

_History._--Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808
by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a
defence against the Slavs, and called Hammaburg because of the
surrounding forest (_Hamme_). In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here,
perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a
great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries
from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish
islands and even into Sweden and Norway. In 834 Hamburg became an
archbishopric, St Ansgar, a monk of Corbie and known as the apostle of
the North, being the first metropolitan. In 845 church, monastery and
town were burnt down by the Norsemen, and two years later the see of
Hamburg was united with that of Bremen and its seat transferred to the
latter city. The town, rebuilt after this disaster, was again more than
once devastated by invading Danes and Slavs. Archbishop Unwan of
Hamburg-Bremen (1013-1029) substituted a chapter of canons for the
monastery, and in 1037 Archbishop Bezelin (or Alebrand) built a stone
cathedral and a palace on the Elbe. In 1110 Hamburg, with Holstein,
passed into the hands of Adolph I., count of Schauenburg, and it is with
the building of the Neustadt (the present parish of St Nicholas) by his
grandson, Adolph III. of Holstein, that the history of the commercial
city actually begins. In return for a contribution to the costs of a
crusade, he obtained from the emperor Frederick I. in 1189 a charter
granting Hamburg considerable franchises, including exemption from
tolls, a separate court and jurisdiction, and the rights of fishery on
the Elbe from the city to the sea. The city council (_Rath_), first
mentioned in 1190, had jurisdiction over both the episcopal and the new
town. Craft gilds were already in existence, but these had no share in
the government; for, though the Lübeck rule excluding craftsmen from the
_Rath_ did not obtain, they were excluded in practice. The counts, of
course, as over-lords, had their _Vogt_ (_advocatus_) in the town, but
this official, as the city grew in power, became subordinate to the
_Rath_, as at Lübeck.

The wealth of the town was increased in 1189 by the destruction of the
flourishing trading centre of Bardowieck by Henry the Lion; from this
time it began to be much frequented by Flemish merchants. In 1201 the
city submitted to Valdemar of Schleswig, after his victory over the
count of Holstein, but in 1225, owing to the capture of King Valdemar
II. of Denmark by Henry of Schwerin, it once more exchanged the Danish
over-lordship for that of the counts of Schauenburg, who established
themselves here and in 1231 built a strong castle to hold it in check.
The defensive alliance of the city with Lübeck in 1241, extended for
other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of
the Hanseatic League (q.v.), of which Hamburg continued to be one of the
principal members. The internal organization of the city, too, was
rendered more stable by the new constitution of 1270, and the
recognition in 1292 of the complete internal autonomy of the city by the
count of Schauenburg. The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the
_Rath_ led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds
against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to
recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded
with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh
outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.
In 1461 Hamburg did homage to Christian I. of Denmark, as heir of the
Schauenburg counts; but the suzerainty of Denmark was merely nominal and
soon repudiated altogether; in 1510 Hamburg was made a free imperial
city by the emperor Maximilian I.

In 1529 the Reformation was definitively established in Hamburg by the
Great Recess of the 19th of February, which at the same time vested the
government of the city in the _Rath_, together with the three colleges
of the _Oberalten_, the Forty-eight (increased to 60 in 1685) and the
Hundred and Forty-four (increased to 180). The ordinary burgesses
consisted of the freeholders and the master-workmen of the gilds. In
1536 Hamburg joined the league of Schmalkalden, for which error it had
to pay a heavy fine in 1547 when the league had been defeated. During
the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion
of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona. The
loss this brought to the city was, however, compensated for by the
immigration of Protestant refugees from the Low Countries and Jews from
Spain and Portugal. In 1549, too, the English merchant adventurers
removed their staple from Antwerp to Hamburg.

The 17th century saw notable developments. Hamburg had established, so
early as the 16th century, a regular postal service with certain cities
in the interior of Germany, e.g. Leipzig and Breslau; in 1615 it was
included in the postal system of Turn and Taxis. In 1603 Hamburg
received a code of laws regulating exchange, and in 1619 the bank was
established. In 1615 the Neustadt was included within the city walls.
During the Thirty Years' War the city received no direct harm; but the
ruin of Germany reacted upon its prosperity, and the misery of the lower
orders led to an agitation against the _Rath_. In 1685, at the
invitation of the popular leaders, the Danes appeared before Hamburg
demanding the traditional homage; they were repulsed, but the internal
troubles continued, culminating in 1708 in the victory of the democratic
factions. The imperial government, however, intervened, and in 1712 the
"Great Recess" established durable good relations between the _Rath_ and
the commonalty. Frederick IV. of Denmark, who had seized the opportunity
to threaten the city (1712), was bought off with a ransom of 246,000
_Reichsthaler_. Denmark, however, only finally renounced her claims by
the treaty of Gottorp in 1768, and in 1770 Hamburg was admitted for the
first time to a representation in the diet of the empire.

The trade of Hamburg received its first great impulse in 1783, when the
United States, by the treaty of Paris, became an independent power. From
this time dates its first direct maritime communication with America.
Its commerce was further extended and developed by the French
occupation of Holland in 1795, when the Dutch trade was largely directed
to its port. The French Revolution and the insecurity of the political
situation, however, exercised a depressing and retarding effect. The
wars which ensued, the closing of continental ports against English
trade, the occupation of the city after the disastrous battle of Jena,
and pestilence within its walls brought about a severe commercial crisis
and caused a serious decline in its prosperity. Moreover, the great
contributions levied by Napoleon on the city, the plundering of its bank
by Davoust, and the burning of its prosperous suburbs inflicted wounds
from which the city but slowly recovered. Under the long peace which
followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived,
fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central
America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial
relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation. The first
steamboat was seen on the Elbe on the 17th of June 1816; in 1826 a
regular steam communication was opened with London; and in 1856 the
first direct steamship line linked the port with the United States. The
great fire of 1842 (5th-8th of May) laid in waste the greatest part of
the business quarter of the city and caused a temporary interruption of
its commerce. The city, however, soon rose from its ashes, the churches
were rebuilt and new streets laid out on a scale of considerable
magnificence. In 1866 Hamburg joined the North German Confederation, and
in 1871, while remaining outside the Zollverein, became a constituent
state of the German empire. In 1883-1888 the works for the Free Harbour
were completed, and on the 18th of October 1888 Hamburg joined the
Customs Union (Zollverein). In 1892 the cholera raged within its walls,
carried off 8500 of its inhabitants, and caused considerable losses to
its commerce and industry; but the visitation was not without its
salutary fruits, for an improved drainage system, better hospital
accommodation, and a purer water-supply have since combined to make it
one of the healthiest commercial cities of Europe.

  Further details about Hamburg will be found in the following works: O.
  C. Gaedechens, _Historische Topographie der Freien und Hansestadt
  Hamburg_ (1880); E. H. Wichmann, _Heimatskunde von Hamburg_ (1863); W.
  Melhop, _Historische Topographie der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg von
  1880-1895_ (1896); Wulff, _Hamburgische Gesetze und Verordnungen_
  (1889-1896); and W. von Melle, _Das hamburgische Staatsrecht_ (1891).
  There are many valuable official publications which may be consulted,
  among these being: _Statistik des hamburgischen Staates_ (1867-1904);
  _Hamburgs Handel und Schiffahrt_ (1847-1903); the yearly
  _Hamburgischer Staatskalender_; and _Jahrbuch der Hamburger
  wissenschaftlichen Anstalten_. See also _Hamburg und seine Bauten_
  (1890); H. Benrath, _Lokalführer durch Hamburg und Umgebungen_ (1904);
  and the consular reports by Sir William Ward, H.B.M.'s consul-general
  at Hamburg, to whom the author is indebted for great assistance in
  compiling this article.

  For the history of Hamburg see the _Zeitschrift des Vereins für
  hamburgische Geschichte_ (1841, fol.); G. Dehio, _Geschichte des
  Erzbistums Hamburg-Bremen_ (Berlin, 1877); the _Hamburgisches
  Urkundenbuch_ (1842), the _Hamburgische Chroniken_ (1852-1861), and
  the _Chronica der Stadt Hamburg bis 1557_ of Adam Tratziger (1865),
  all three edited by J. M. Lappenberg; the _Briefsammlung des
  hamburgischen Superintendenten Joachim Westphal 1530-1575_, edited by
  C. H. W. Sillem (1903); Gallois, _Geschichte der Stadt Hamburg_
  (1853-1856); K. Koppmann, _Aus Hamburgs Vergangenheit_ (1885), and
  _Kammereirechnungen der Stadt Hamburg_ (1869-1894); H. W. C. Hubbe,
  _Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Hamburg_ (1897); C. Mönckeberg,
  _Geschichte der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg_ (1885); E. H. Wichmann,
  _Hamburgische Geschichte in Darstellungen aus alter und neuer Zeit_
  (1889); and R. Bollheimer, _Zeittafeln der hamburgischen Geschichte_
  (1895).



HAMDANI, in full ABU MAHOMMED UL-HASAN IBN AHMAD IBN YA'QUB UL-HAMDANI
(d. 945), Arabian geographer, also known as Ibn ul-Ha'ik. Little is
known of him except that he belonged to a family of Yemen, was held in
repute as a grammarian in his own country, wrote much poetry, compiled
astronomical tables, devoted most of his life to the study of the
ancient history and geography of Arabia, and died in prison at San'a in
945. His _Geography of the Arabian Peninsula_ (_Kitab Jazirat ul-'Arab_)
is by far the most important work on the subject. After being used in
manuscript by A. Sprenger in his _Post- und Reiserouten des Orients_
(Leipzig, 1864) and further in his _Alte Geographie Arabiens_ (Bern,
1875), it was edited by D. H. Müller (Leiden, 1884; cf. A. Sprenger's
criticism in _Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft_,
vol. 45, pp. 361-394). Much has also been written on this work by E.
Glaser in his various publications on ancient Arabia. The other great
work of Hamdani is the _Iklil_ (Crown) concerning the genealogies of the
Himyarites and the wars of their kings in ten volumes. Of this, part 8,
on the citadels and castles of south Arabia, has been edited and
annotated by D. H. Müller in _Die Burgen und Schlösser Südarabiens_
(Vienna, 1879-1881).

  For other works said to have been written by Hamdani cf. G. Flügel's
  _Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber_ (Leipzig, 1862), pp. 220-221.
       (G. W. T.)



HAMELIN, FRANÇOIS ALPHONSE (1796-1864), French admiral, was born at Pont
l'Évêque on the 2nd of September 1796. He went to sea with his uncle, J.
F. E. Hamelin, in the "Vénus" frigate in 1806 as cabin boy. The "Vénus"
was part of the French squadron in the Indian Ocean, and young Hamelin
had an opportunity of seeing much active service. She, in company with
another and a smaller vessel, captured the English frigate "Ceylon" in
1810, but was immediately afterwards captured herself by the "Boadicéa,"
under Commodore Rowley (1765-1842). Young Hamelin was a prisoner of war
for a short time. He returned to France in 1811. On the fall of the
Empire he had better fortune than most of the Napoleonic officers who
were turned ashore. In 1821 he became lieutenant, and in 1823 took part
in the French expedition under the duke of Angoulême into Spain. In 1828
he was appointed captain of the "Actéon," and was engaged till 1831 on
the coast of Algiers and in the conquest of the town and country. His
first command as flag officer was in the Pacific, where he showed much
tact during the dispute over the Marquesas Islands with England in 1844.
He was promoted vice-admiral in 1848. During the Crimean War he
commanded in the Black Sea, and co-operated with Admiral Dundas in the
bombardment of Sevastopol 17th of October 1854. His relations with his
English colleague were not very cordial. On the 7th of December 1854 he
was promoted admiral. Shortly afterwards he was recalled to France, and
was named minister of marine. His administration lasted till 1860, and
was remarkable for the expeditions to Italy and China organized under
his directions; but it was even more notable for the energy shown in
adopting and developing the use of armour. The launch of the "Gloire" in
1859 set the example of constructing sea-going iron-clads. The first
English iron-clad, the "Warrior," was designed as an answer to the
"Gloire." When Napoleon III. made his first concession to Liberal
opposition, Admiral Hamelin was one of the ministers sacrificed. He held
no further command, and died on the 10th of January 1864.



HAMELN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, at the
confluence of the Weser and Hamel, 33 m. S.W. of Hanover, on the line to
Altenbeken, which here effects a junction with railways to Löhne and
Brunswick. Pop. (1905) 20,736. It has a venerable appearance and has
many interesting and picturesque houses. The chief public buildings of
interest are the minster, dedicated to St Boniface and restored in
1870-1875; the town hall; the so-called Rattenfängerhaus (rat-catcher's
house) with mural frescoes illustrating the legend (see below); and the
Hochzeitshaus (wedding house) with beautiful gables. There are
classical, modern and commercial schools. The principal industries are
the manufacture of paper, leather, chemicals and tobacco, sugar
refining, shipbuilding and salmon fishing. By the steamboats on the
Weser there is communication with Karlshafen and Minden. In order to
avoid the dangerous part of the river near the town a channel was cut in
1734, the repairing and deepening of which, begun in 1868, was completed
in 1873. The Weser is here crossed by an iron suspension bridge 830 ft.
in length, supported by a pier erected on an island in the middle of the
river.

The older name of Hameln was Hameloa or Hamelowe, and the town owes its
origin to an abbey. It existed as a town as early as the 11th century,
and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden,
afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick. About
1540 the Reformation gained an entrance into the town, which was taken
by both parties during the Thirty Years' War. In 1757 it capitulated to
the French, who, however, vacated it in the following year. Its
fortifications were strengthened in 1766 by the erection of Fort George,
on an eminence to the west of the town, across the river. On the
capitulation of the Hanoverian army in 1803 Hameln fell into the hands
of the French; it was retaken by the Prussians in 1806, but, after the
battle of Jena, again passed to the French, who dismantled the
fortifications and incorporated the town in the kingdom of Westphalia.
In 1814 it again became Hanoverian, but in 1866 fell with that kingdom
to Prussia.

_Legend of the Pied Piper._--Hameln is famed as the scene of the myth of
the piper of Hameln. According to the legend, the town in the year 1284
was infested by a terrible plague of rats. One day there appeared upon
the scene a piper clad in a fantastic suit, who offered for a certain
sum of money to charm all the vermin into the Weser. His conditions were
agreed to, but after he had fulfilled his promise the inhabitants, on
the ground that he was a sorcerer, declined to fulfil their part of the
bargain, whereupon on the 26th of June he reappeared in the streets of
the town, and putting his pipe to his lips began a soft and curious
strain. This drew all the children after him and he led them out of the
town to the Koppelberg hill, in the side of which a door suddenly
opened, by which he entered and the children after him, all but one who
was lame and could not follow fast enough to reach the door before it
shut again. Some trace the origin of the legend to the Children's
Crusade of 1211; others to an abduction of children; and others to a
dancing mania which seized upon some of the young people of Hameln who
left the town on a mad pilgrimage from which they never returned. For a
considerable time the town dated its public documents from the event.
The story is the subject of a poem by Robert Browning, and also of one
by Julius Wolff. Curious evidence that the story rests on a basis of
truth is given by the fact that the Koppelberg is not one of the
imposing hills by which Hameln is surrounded, but no more than a slight
elevation of the ground, barely high enough to hide the children from
view as they left the town.

  See C. Langlotz, _Geschichte der Stadt Hameln_ (Hameln, 1888 fol.);
  Sprenger, _Geschichte der Stadt Hameln_ (1861); O. Meinardus, _Der
  historische Kern der Rattenfängersage_ (Hameln, 1882); Jostes, _Der
  Rattenfänger von Hameln_ (Bonn, 1885); and S. Baring-Gould, _Curious
  Myths of the Middle Ages_ (1868).



HAMERLING, ROBERT (1830-1889), Austrian poet, was born at
Kirchenberg-am-Walde in Lower Austria, on the 24th of March 1830, of
humble parentage. He early displayed a genius for poetry and his
youthful attempts at drama excited the interest and admiration of some
influential persons. Owing to their assistance young Hamerling was
enabled to attend the gymnasium in Vienna and subsequently the
university. In 1848 he joined the student's legion, which played so
conspicuous a part in the revolutions of the capital, and in 1849 shared
in the defence of Vienna against the imperialist troops of Prince
Windischgrätz, and after the collapse of the revolutionary movement he
was obliged to hide for a long time to escape arrest. For the next few
years he diligently pursued his studies in natural science and
philosophy, and in 1855 was appointed master at the gymnasium at
Trieste. For many years he battled with ill-health, and in 1866 retired
on a pension, which in acknowledgment of his literary labours was
increased by the government to a sum sufficient to enable him to live
without care until his death at his villa in Stiftingstal near Graz, on
the 13th of July 1889. Hamerling was one of the most remarkable of the
poets of the modern Austrian school; his imagination was rich and his
poems are full of life and colour. His most popular poem, _Ahasver in
Rom_ (1866), of which the emperor Nero is the central figure, shows at
its best the author's brilliant talent for description. Among his other
works may be mentioned _Venus im Exil_ (1858); _Der König von Sion_
(1869), which is generally regarded as his masterpiece; _Die sieben
Todsünden_ (1872); _Blätter im Winde_ (1887); _Homunculus_ (1888); _Amor
und Psyche_ (1882). His novel, _Aspasia_ (1876) gives a finely-drawn
description of the Periclean age, but like his tragedy _Danton und
Robespierre_ (1870), is somewhat stilted, showing that Hamerling's
genius, though rich in imagination, was ill-suited for the realistic
presentation of character.

  A popular edition of Hamerling's works in four volumes was published
  by M. M. Rabenlechner (Hamburg, 1900). For the poet's life, see his
  autobiographical writings, _Stationen meiner Lebenspilgerschaft_
  (1889) and _Lehrjahre der Liebe_ (1890); also M. M. Rabenlechner,
  _Hamerling, sein Leben und seine Werke_, i. (Hamburg, 1896); a short
  biography by the same (Dresden, 1901); R. H. Kleinert, _R. Hamerling,
  ein Dichter der Schönheit_ (Hamburg, 1889); A. Polzer, _Hamerling,
  sein Wesen und Wirken_ (Hamburg, 1890).



HAMERTON, PHILIP GILBERT (1834-1894), English artist and author, was
born at Laneside, near Shaw, close to Oldham, on the 10th of September
1834. His mother died at his birth, and having lost his father ten years
afterwards, he was educated privately under the direction of his
guardians. His first literary attempt, a volume of poems, proving
unsuccessful, he devoted himself for a time entirely to landscape
painting, encamping out of doors in the Highlands, where he eventually
rented the island of Innistrynych, upon which he settled with his wife,
a French lady, in 1858. Discovering after a time that his qualifications
were rather those of an art critic than of a painter he removed to the
neighbourhood of his wife's relatives in France, where he produced his
_Painter's Camp in the Highlands_ (1863), which obtained a great success
and prepared the way for his standard work on _Etching and Etchers_
(1866). In the following year he published a book, entitled
_Contemporary French Painters_, and in 1868 a continuation, _Painting in
France after the Decline of Classicism_. He had meanwhile become art
critic to the _Saturday Review_, a position which, from the burden it
laid upon him of frequent visits to England, he did not long retain. He
proceeded (1870) to establish an art journal of his own, _The
Portfolio_, a monthly periodical, each number of which consisted of a
monograph upon some artist or group of artists, frequently written and
always edited by him. The discontinuance of his active work as a painter
gave him time for more general literary composition, and he successively
produced _The Intellectual Life_ (1873), perhaps the best known and most
valuable of his writings; _Round my House_ (1876), notes on French
society by a resident; and _Modern Frenchmen_ (1879), admirable short
biographies. He also wrote two novels, _Wenderholme_ (1870) and
_Marmorne_ (1878). In 1884 _Human Intercourse_, another valuable volume
of essays, was published, and shortly afterwards Hamerton began to write
his autobiography, which he brought down to 1858. In 1882 he issued a
finely illustrated work on the technique of the great masters of various
arts, under the title of The _Graphic Arts_, and three years later
another splendidly illustrated volume, _Landscape_, which traces the
influence of landscape upon the mind of man. His last books were:
_Portfolio Papers_ (1889) and _French and English_ (1889). In 1891 he
removed to the neighbourhood of Paris, and died suddenly on the 4th of
November 1894, occupied to the last with his labours on _The Portfolio_
and other writings on art.

  In 1896 was published _Philip Gilbert Hamerton: an Autobiography_,
  1834-1858; and a _Memoir by his Wife_, 1858-1894.



HAMI, a town in Chinese Turkestan, otherwise called KAMIL, KOMUL or
KAMUL, situated on the southern slopes of the Tian-Shan mountains, and
on the northern verge of the Great Gobi desert, in 42° 48´ N., 93° 28´
E., at a height above sea-level of 3150 ft. The town is first mentioned
in Chinese history in the 1st century, under the name I-wu-lu, and said
to be situated 1000 lis north of the fortress Yü-men-kuan, and to be the
key to the western countries. This evidently referred to its
advantageous position, lying as it did in a fertile tract, at the point
of convergence of two main routes running north and south of the
Tian-Shan and connecting China with the west. It was taken by the
Chinese in A.D. 73 from the Hiungnu (the ancient inhabitants of
Mongolia), and made a military station. It next fell into the bands of
the Uighurs or Eastern Turks, who made it one of their chief towns and
held it for several centuries, and whose descendants are said to live
there now. From the 7th to the 11th century I-wu-lu is said to have
borne the name of Igu or I-chu, under the former of which names it is
spoken of by the Chinese pilgrim, Hsüan tsang, who passed through it in
the 7th century. The name Hami is first met in the Chinese _Yüan-shi_ or
"History of the Mongol Dynasty," but the name more generally used there
is Homi-li or Komi-li. Marco Polo, describing it apparently from
hearsay, calls it Camul, and speaks of it as a fruitful place inhabited
by a Buddhist people of idolatrous and wanton habits. It was visited in
1341 by Giovanni de Marignolli, who baptized a number of both sexes
there, and by the envoys of Shah Rukh (1420), who found a magnificent
mosque and a convent of dervishes, in juxtaposition with a fine Buddhist
temple. Hadji Mahommed (Ramusio's friend) speaks of Kamul as being in
his time (c. 1550) the first Mahommedan city met with in travelling from
China. When Benedict Goes travelled through the country at the beginning
of the 17th century, the power of the king Mahommed Khan of Kashgar
extended over nearly the whole country at the base of the Tian-Shan to
the Chinese frontier, including Kamil. It fell under the sway of the
Chinese in 1720, was lost to them in 1865 during the great Mahommedan
rebellion, and the trade route through it was consequently closed, but
was regained in 1873. Owing to its commanding position on the principal
route to the west, and its exceptional fertility, it has very frequently
changed hands in the wars between China and her western neighbours. Hami
is now a small town of about 6000 inhabitants, and is a busy trading
centre. The Mahommedan population consists of immigrants from Kashgaria,
Bokhara and Samarkand, and of descendants of the Uighurs.



HAMILCAR BARCA, or BARCAS (Heb. _barak_ "lightning"), Carthaginian
general and statesman, father of Hannibal, was born soon after 270 B.C.
He distinguished himself during the First Punic War in 247, when he took
over the chief command in Sicily, which at this time was almost entirely
in the hands of the Romans. Landing suddenly on the north-west of the
island with a small mercenary force he seized a strong position on Mt.
Ercte (Monte Pellegrino, near Palermo), and not only maintained himself
against all attacks, but carried his raids as far as the coast of south
Italy. In 244 he transferred his army to a similar position on the
slopes of Mt. Eryx (Monte San Giuliano), from which he was able to lend
support to the besieged garrison in the neighbouring town of Drepanum
(Trapani). By a provision of the peace of 241 Hamilcar's unbeaten force
was allowed to depart from Sicily without any token of submission. On
returning to Africa his troops, which had been kept together only by his
personal authority and by the promise of good pay, broke out into open
mutiny when their rewards were withheld by Hamilcar's opponents among
the governing aristocracy. The serious danger into which Carthage was
brought by the failure of the aristocratic generals was averted by
Hamilcar, whom the government in this crisis could not but reinstate. By
the power of his personal influence among the mercenaries and the
surrounding African peoples, and by superior strategy, he speedily
crushed the revolt (237). After this success Hamilcar enjoyed such
influence among the popular and patriotic party that his opponents could
not prevent him being raised to a virtual dictatorship. After recruiting
and training a new army in some Numidian forays he led on his own
responsibility an expedition into Spain, where he hoped to gain a new
empire to compensate Carthage for the loss of Sicily and Sardinia, and
to serve as a basis for a campaign of vengeance against the Romans
(236). In eight years by force of arms and diplomacy he secured an
extensive territory in Spain, but his premature death in battle (228)
prevented him from completing the conquest. Hamilcar stood out far above
the Carthaginians of his age in military and diplomatic skill and in
strength of patriotism; in these qualities he was surpassed only by his
son Hannibal, whom he had imbued with his own deep hatred of Rome and
trained to be his successor in the conflict.

  This Hamilcar has been confused with another general who succeeded to
  the command of the Carthaginians in the First Punic War, and after
  successes at Therma and Drepanum was defeated at Ecnomus (256 B.C.).
  Subsequently, apart from unskilful operations against Regulus, nothing
  is certainly known of him. For others of the name see CARTHAGE,
  SICILY, Smith's _Classical Dictionary_. So far as the name itself is
  concerned, _Milcar_ is perhaps the same as _Melkarth_, the Tyrian god.

  See Polybius i.-iii.; Cornelius Nepos, _Vita Hamilcaris_; Appian, _Res
  Hispanicae_, chs. 4, 5, Diodorus, _Excerpta_, xxiv., xxv.; O. Meitzer,
  _Geschichte der Karthager_ (Berlin, 1877), ii. also PUNIC WARS.
       (M. O. B. C.)



HAMILTON, the name of a famous Scottish family. Chief among the legends
still clinging to this important family is that which gives a descent
from the house of Beaumont, a branch of which is stated to have held the
manor of Hamilton in Leicestershire; and it is argued that the three
cinquefoils of the Hamilton shield bear some resemblance to the single
cinquefoil of the Beaumonts. In face of this it has been recently shown
that the single cinquefoil was also borne by the Umfravilles of
Northumberland, who appear to have owned a place called Hamilton in that
county. It may be pointed out that Simon de Montfort, the great earl of
Leicester, in whose veins flowed the blood of the Beaumonts, obtained
about 1245 the wardship of Gilbert de Umfraville, second earl of Angus,
and it is conceivable that this name Gilbert may somehow be responsible
for the legend of the Beaumont descent, seeing that the first authentic
ancestor of the Hamiltons is one Walter FitzGilbert. He first appears in
1294-1295 as one of the witnesses to a charter by James, the high
steward of Scotland, to the monks of Paisley; and in 1296 his name
appears in the Homage Roll as Walter FitzGilbert of "Hameldone." Who
this Gilbert of "Hameldone" may have been is uncertain, "but the fact
must be faced," Mr John Anderson points out (_Scots Peerage_, iv. 340)
"that in a charter of the 12th of December 1272 by Thomas of Cragyn or
Craigie to the monks of Paisley of his church of Craigie in Kyle, there
appears as witness a certain 'Gilbert de Hameldun _clericus_,' whose
name occurs along with the local clergy of Inverkip, Blackhall, Paisley
and Dunoon. He was therefore probably also a cleric of the same
neighbourhood, and it is significant that 'Walter FitzGilbert' appears
first in that district in 1294 and in 1296 is described as son of
Gilbert de Hameldone...." Walter FitzGilbert took some part in the
affairs of his time. At first he joined the English party but after
Bannockburn went over to Bruce, was knighted and subsequently received
the barony of Cadzow. His younger son John was father of Alexander
Hamilton who acquired the lands of Innerwick by marriage, and from him
descended a certain Thomas Hamilton, who acquired the lands of
Priestfield early in the 16th century. Another Thomas, grandson of this
last, who had with others of his house followed Queen Mary and with them
had been restored to royal favour, became a lord of session as Lord
Priestfield. Two of his younger sons enjoyed also this legal
distinction, while the eldest, Thomas, was made an ordinary lord of
session as early as 1592 and was eventually created earl of Haddington
(q.v.). It is interesting to note that the 5th earl of Haddington by his
marriage with Lady Margaret Leslie brought for a time the earldom of
Rothes to the Hamiltons to be added to their already numerous titles.

Sir "David FitzWalter FitzGilbert," who carried on the main line of the
Hamiltons, was taken prisoner at the battle of Neville's Cross (1346)
and treated as of great importance, being ransomed, it is stated, for a
large sum of money; in 1371 and 1373 he was one of the barons in the
parliament. Of the four sons attributed to him David succeeded in the
representation of the family, Sir John Hamilton of Fingaltoun was
ancestor of the Hamiltons of Preston, and Walter is stated to have been
progenitor of the Hamiltons of Cambuskeith and Sanquhar in Ayrshire.

David Hamilton, the first apparently to describe himself as lord of
Cadzow, died before 1392, leaving four or five sons, from whom descended
the Hamiltons of Bathgate and of Bardowie, and perhaps also of Udstown,
to which last belong the lords Belhaven.

Sir John Hamilton of Cadzow, the eldest son, was twice a prisoner in
England, but beyond this little is known of him; even the date of his
death is uncertain. His two younger sons are stated to have been
founders of the houses of Dalserf and Raploch. His eldest son, James
Hamilton of Cadzow, like his father and great-grandfather, visited
England as a prisoner, being one of the hostages for the king's ransom.
From him the Hamiltons of Silvertonhill and the lords Hamilton of
Dalzell claim descent, among the more distinguished members of the
former branch being General Sir Ian Hamilton, K.C.B. James Hamilton was
succeeded by his eldest son Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, who was
created in 1445 an hereditary lord of parliament, and was thereafter
known as Lord Hamilton. He had allied himself some years before with the
great house of Douglas by marriage with Euphemia, widow of the 5th earl
of Douglas, and was at first one of its most powerful supporters in the
struggle with James II. Later, however, he obtained the royal favour and
married about 1474 Mary, sister of James III. and widow of Thomas Boyd,
earl of Arran. Of this marriage was born James, second Lord Hamilton,
who as a near relative took an active part in the arrangements at the
marriage of James IV. with Margaret Tudor; being rewarded on the same
day (the 8th of August 1503) with the earldom of Arran. A champion in
the lists he was scarcely so successful as a leader of men, his struggle
with the Douglases being destitute of any great martial achievement. Of
his many illegitimate children Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, beheaded
in 1540, was ancestor of the Hamiltons of Gilkerscleugh; and John,
archbishop of St Andrews, hanged by his Protestant enemies, was ancestor
of the Hamiltons of Blair, and is said also to have been ancestor of
Hamilton of London, baronet. James, second earl of Arran, son of the
first earl by his second wife Janet Beaton, was chosen governor to the
little Queen Mary, being nearest of kin to the throne through his
grandmother, though the question of the validity of his mother's
marriage was by no means settled. He held the governorship till 1554,
having in 1549 been granted the duchy of Châtellerault in France. In his
policy he was vacillating and eventually he retired to France, being
absent during the three momentous years prior to the deposition of Mary.
On his return he headed the queen's party, his property suffering in
consequence. He was succeeded in the title in 1579 by his eldest son
James, whose qualities were such that he was even proposed as a husband
for Queen Elizabeth, but unfortunately he soon after became insane, his
brother John, afterwards first marquess of Hamilton, administering the
estates. From the third son, Claud, descends the duke of Abercorn, heir
male of the house of Hamilton.

The first marquess of Hamilton had a natural son, Sir John Hamilton of
Lettrick, who was legitimated in 1600 and was ancestor of the lords
Bargany. His two legitimate sons were James, 3rd marquess and first duke
of Hamilton, and William, who succeeded his brother as 2nd duke and was
in turn succeeded under the special remainder contained in the patent of
dukedom, by his niece Anne, duchess of Hamilton, who was married in 1656
to William Douglas, earl of Selkirk. The history of the descendants of
this marriage belongs to the great house of Douglas, the 7th duke of
Hamilton becoming the male representative and chief of the house of
Douglas, earls of Angus.

The above mentioned Claud Hamilton, who with his brother, the first
marquess, had taken so large a part in the cause of Queen Mary, was
created a lord of parliament as Lord Paisley in 1587. He had five sons,
of whom three settled in Ireland, Sir Claud being ancestor of the
Hamiltons of Beltrim and Sir Frederick, distinguished in early life in
the Swedish wars, being ancestor of the viscounts Boyne.

James, the eldest son of Lord Paisley, found favour with James VI. and
was created in 1603 Lord of Abercorn, and three years later was advanced
in the peerage as earl of Abercorn and lord of Paisley, Hamilton,
Mountcastell and Kilpatrick. His eldest son James, 2nd earl of Abercorn,
eventually heir male of the house of Hamilton and successor to the
dukedom of Châtellerault, was created in his father's lifetime lord of
Strabane in Ireland, but he resigned this title in 1633 in favour of his
brother Claud, whose grandson, Claud, 5th Lord Strabane, succeeded
eventually as 4th earl of Abercorn. This earl, taking the side of James
II., was with him in Ireland, his estate and title being afterwards
forfeited, while his kinsman Gustavus Hamilton, afterwards first Lord
Boyne, raised several regiments for William III., and greatly
distinguished himself in the service of that monarch. His brother
Charles, 5th earl of Abercorn, who obtained a reversal of the attainder,
died without issue surviving in 1701 when the titles passed to his
kinsman James Hamilton, grandson of Sir George Hamilton of Donalong in
Ireland and great-grandson of the first earl. This branch, most faithful
to the house of Stuart, counted among its many members distinguished in
military annals Count Anthony Hamilton, author of the _Mémoires du comte
de Gramont_ and brother of "la belle Hamilton." James, 6th earl of
Abercorn (whose brother William was ancestor of Hamilton of the Mount,
baronet), was a partizan of William III., and obtained in 1701 the
additional Irish titles of lord of Mountcastle and viscount of Strabane.

The 8th earl of Abercorn, who was summoned to the Irish house of peers
in his father's lifetime as Lord Mountcastle, was created a peer of
Great Britain in 1786 as Viscount Hamilton of Hamilton in
Leicestershire, and renewed the family's connexion with Scotland by
repurchasing the barony of Duddingston and later the lordship of
Paisley. His nephew and successor was created marquess of Abercorn in
1790, and was father of James, 1st duke of Abercorn.

  See the article Hamilton and other articles on the different branches
  of the family (e.g. Haddington and Belhaven) in Sir J. B. Paul's
  edition of Sir R. Douglas's _Peerage of Scotland_; and also G.
  Marshall, _Guide to Heraldry and Genealogy_.



HAMILTON, MARQUESSES AND DUKES OF. The holders of these titles descended
from Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, who was made an hereditary lord of
parliament in 1445, his lands and baronies at the same time being
erected into the "lordship" of Hamilton. His first wife Euphemia, widow
of the 5th earl of Douglas, died in 1468, and probably early in 1474 he
married Mary, daughter of King James II. and widow of Thomas Boyd, earl
of Arran; the consequent nearness of the Hamiltons to the Scottish crown
gave them very great weight in Scottish affairs. The first Lord Hamilton
has been frequently confused with his father, James Hamilton of Cadzow,
who was one of the hostages in England for the payment of James I.'s
ransom, and is sometimes represented as surviving until 1451 or even
1479, whereas he certainly died, according to evidence brought forward
by J. Anderson in _The Scots Peerage_, before May 1441. James, 2nd Lord
Hamilton, son of the 1st lord and Princess Mary, was created earl of
Arran in 1503; and his son James, who was regent of Scotland from 1542
to 1554, received in February 1549 a grant of the duchy of Châtellerault
in Poitou.

JOHN, 1st marquess of Hamilton (c. 1542-1604), third son of James
Hamilton, 2nd earl of Arran (q.v.) and duke of Châtellerault, was given
the abbey of Arbroath in 1551. In politics he was largely under the
influence of his energetic and unscrupulous younger brother Claud,
afterwards Baron Paisley (c. 1543-1622), ancestor of the dukes of
Abercorn. The brothers were the real heads of the house of Hamilton,
their elder brother Arran being insane. At first hostile to Mary, they
later became her devoted partisans. Their uncle, John Hamilton,
archbishop of St Andrews, natural son of the 1st earl of Arran, was
restored to his consistorial jurisdiction by Mary in 1566, and in May of
the next year he divorced Bothwell from his wife. Lord Claud met Mary on
her escape from Lochleven and escorted her to Hamilton palace. John
appears to have been in France in 1568 when the battle of Langside was
fought, and it was probably Claud who commanded Mary's vanguard in the
battle. With others of the queen's party they were forfeited by the
parliament and sought their revenge on the regent Murray. Although the
Hamiltons disavowed all connexion with Murray's murderer, James Hamilton
of Bothwellhaugh, he had been provided with horse and weapons by the
abbot of Arbroath, and it was at Hamilton that he sought refuge after
the deed. Archbishop Hamilton was hanged at Stirling in 1571 for alleged
complicity in the murder of Darnley, and is said to have admitted that
he was a party to the murder of Murray. At the pacification of Perth in
1573 the Hamiltons abandoned Mary's cause, and a reconciliation with the
Douglases was sealed by Lord John's marriage with Margaret, daughter of
the 7th Lord Glamis, a cousin of the regent Morton. Sir William Douglas
of Lochleven, however, persistently sought his life in revenge for the
murder of Murray until, on his refusal to keep the peace, he was
imprisoned. On the uncertain evidence extracted from the assassin by
torture, the Hamiltons had been credited with a share in the murder of
the regent Lennox in 1571. In 1579 proceedings against them for these
two crimes were resumed, and when they escaped to England their lands
and titles were seized by their political enemies, James Stewart
becoming earl of Arran. John Hamilton presently dissociated himself from
the policy of his brother Claud, who continued to plot for Spanish
intervention on behalf of Mary; and Catholic plotters are even said to
have suggested his murder to procure the succession of his brother.
Hamilton had at one time been credited with the hope of marrying Mary;
his desires now centred on the peaceful enjoyment of his estates. With
other Scottish exiles he crossed the border in 1585 and marched on
Stirling; he was admitted on the 4th of November and formally reconciled
with James VI., with whom he was thenceforward on the friendliest terms.
Claud returned to Scotland in 1586, and the abbey of Paisley was erected
into a temporal barony in his favour in 1587. Much of his later years
was spent in strict retirement, his son being authorized to act for him
in 1598. John was created marquess of Hamilton and Lord Evan in 1599,
and died on the 6th of April 1604.

His eldest surviving son JAMES, 2nd marquess of Hamilton (c. 1589-1625),
was created baron of Innerdale and earl of Cambridge in the peerage of
England in 1619, and these honours descended to his son James, who in
1643 was created duke of Hamilton (q.v.). William, 2nd duke of Hamilton
(1616-1651), succeeded to the dukedom on his brother's execution in
1649. He was created earl of Lanark in 1639, and in the next year became
secretary of state in Scotland. Arrested at Oxford by the king's orders
in 1643 for "concurrence" with Hamilton, he effected his escape and was
temporarily reconciled with the Presbyterian party. He was sent by the
Scottish committee of estates to treat with Charles I. at Newcastle in
1646, when he sought in vain to persuade the king to consent to the
establishment of Presbyterianism in England. On the 26th of September
1647 he signed on behalf of the Scots the treaty with Charles known as
the "Engagement" at Carisbrooke Castle, and helped to organize the
second Civil War. In 1648 he fled to Holland, his succession in the next
year to his brother's dukedom making him an important personage among
the Royalist exiles. He returned to Scotland with Prince Charles in
1650, but, finding a reconciliation with Argyll impossible, he refused
to prejudice Charles's cause by pushing his claims, and lived in
retirement chiefly until the Scottish invasion of England, when he acted
as colonel of a body of his dependants. He died on the 12th of September
1651 from the effects of wounds received at Worcester. He left no male
heirs, and the title devolved on the 1st duke's eldest surviving
daughter Anne, duchess of Hamilton in her own right.

Anne married in 1656 William Douglas, earl of Selkirk (1635-1694), who
was created duke of Hamilton in 1660 on his wife's petition, receiving
also several of the other Hamilton peerages, but for his life only. The
Hamilton estates had been declared forfeit by Cromwell, and he himself
had been fined £1000. He supported Lauderdale in the early stages of his
Scottish policy, in which he adopted a moderate attitude towards the
Presbyterians, but the two were soon alienated, through the influence of
the countess of Dysart, according to Gilbert Burnet, who spent much time
at Hamilton Palace in arranging the Hamilton papers. With other Scottish
noblemen who resisted Lauderdale's measures Hamilton was twice summoned
to London to present his case at court, but without obtaining any
result. He was dismissed from the privy council in 1676, and on a
subsequent visit to London Charles refused to receive him. On the
accession of James II. he received numerous honours, but he was one of
the first to enter into communication with the prince of Orange. He
presided over the convention of Edinburgh, summoned at his request,
which offered the Scottish crown to William and Mary in March 1689. His
death took place at Holyrood on the 18th of April 1694. His wife
survived until 1716.

JAMES DOUGLAS, 4th duke of Hamilton (1658-1712), eldest son of the
preceding and of Duchess Anne, succeeded his mother, who resigned the
dukedom to him in 1698, and at the accession of Queen Anne he was
regarded as leader of the Scottish national party. He was an opponent of
the union with England, but his lack of decision rendered his political
conduct ineffective. He was created duke of Brandon in the peerage of
Great Britain in 1711; and on the 15th of November in the following year
he fought the celebrated duel with Charles Lord Mohun, narrated in
Thackeray's _Esmond_, in which both the principals were killed. His son,
James (1703-1743), became 5th duke, and his grandson James, 6th duke of
Hamilton and Brandon (1724-1758), married the famous beauty, Elizabeth
Gunning, afterwards duchess of Argyll. James George, 7th duke
(1755-1769), became head of the house of Douglas on the death in 1761 of
Archibald, duke of Douglas, whose titles but not his estates then
devolved on the duke of Hamilton as heir-male. Archibald's brother
Douglas (1756-1799) was the 8th duke, and when he died childless the
titles passed to his uncle Archibald (1740-1819). His son Alexander,
10th duke (1767-1852), who as marquess of Douglas was a great collector
and connoisseur of books and pictures (his collections realized £397,562
in 1882), was ambassador at St Petersburg in 1806-1807. His sister, Lady
Anne Hamilton, was lady-in-waiting and a faithful friend to Queen
Caroline, wife of George IV.; she did not write the _Secret History of
the Court of England ..._ (1832) to which her name was attached. William
Alexander, 11th duke of Hamilton (1811-1863), married Princess Marie
Amélie, daughter of Charles, grand-duke of Baden, and, on her mother's
side, a cousin of Napoleon III. The title of duke of Châtellerault,
granted to his remote ancestor in 1548, and claimed at different times
by various branches of the Hamilton family, was conferred on the 11th
duke's son, William Alexander, 12th duke of Hamilton (1845-1895), by the
emperor of the French in 1864. His sister, Lady Mary Douglas-Hamilton,
married in 1869 Albert, prince of Monaco, but their marriage was
declared invalid in 1880. She subsequently married Count Tassilo
Festetics, a Hungarian noble. The 12th duke left no male issue and was
succeeded in 1895 by his kinsman, Alfred Douglas, a descendant of the
4th duke. Claud Hamilton, 1st Baron Paisley, brother of the 1st marquess
of Hamilton, was, as mentioned above, ancestor of the Abercorn branch of
the Hamiltons. His son, who became earl of Abercorn in 1606, received
among a number of other titles that of Lord Hamilton. This title, and
also that of Viscount Hamilton, in the peerage of Great Britain,
conferred on the 8th earl of Abercorn in 1786, are borne by the dukes of
Abercorn, whose eldest son is usually styled by courtesy marquess of
Hamilton, a title which was added to the other family honours when the
2nd marquess of Abercorn was raised to the dukedom in 1868.

  See John Anderson, _The House of Hamilton_ (1825); _Hamilton Papers_,
  ed. J. Bain (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1890-1892); Gilbert Burnet, _Lives of
  James and William, dukes of Hamilton_ (1677); _The Hamilton Papers
  relative to 1638-1650_, ed. S. R. Gardiner for the Camden Society
  (1880); G. E. C[okayne], _Complete Peerage_ (1887-1898); an article by
  the Rev. J. Anderson in Sir J. B. Paul's edition of the _Scots
  Peerage_, vol. iv. (1907).



HAMILTON, ALEXANDER (1757-1804), American statesman and economist, was
born, as a British subject, on the island of Nevis in the West Indies on
the 11th of January 1757. He came of good family on both sides. His
father, James Hamilton, a Scottish merchant of St Christopher, was a
younger son of Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Lanarkshire, by Elizabeth,
daughter of Sir R. Pollock. His mother, Rachael Fawcett (Faucette), of
French Huguenot descent, married when very young a Danish proprietor of
St Croix, John Michael Levine, with whom she lived unhappily and whom
she soon left, subsequently living with James Hamilton; her husband
procured a divorce in 1759, but the court forbade her remarriage.[1]
Such unions as hers with James Hamilton were long not uncommon in the
West Indies. By her James Hamilton had two sons, Alexander and James.
Business misfortunes having caused his father's bankruptcy, and his
mother dying in 1768, young Hamilton was thrown upon the care of
maternal relatives at St Croix, where, in his twelfth year, he entered
the counting-house of Nicholas Cruger. Shortly afterward Mr Cruger,
going abroad, left the boy in charge of the business. The extraordinary
specimens we possess of his mercantile correspondence and friendly
letters, written at this time, attest an astonishing poise and maturity
of mind, and self-conscious ambition. His opportunities for regular
schooling must have been very scant; but he had cultivated friends who
discerned his talents and encouraged their development, and he early
formed the habits of wide reading and industrious study that were to
persist through his life. An accomplishment later of great service to
Hamilton, common enough in the Antilles, but very rare in the English
continental colonies, was a familiar command of French. In 1772 some
friends, impressed by a description by him of the terrible West Indian
hurricane in that year, made it possible for him to go to New York to
complete his education. Arriving in the autumn of 1772, he prepared for
college at Elizabethtown, N.J., and in 1774 entered King's College (now
Columbia University) in New York City. His studies, however, were
interrupted by the War of American Independence.

A visit to Boston seems to have thoroughly confirmed the conclusion, to
which reason had already led him, that he should cast in his fortunes
with the colonists. Into their cause he threw himself with ardour. In
1774-1775 he wrote two influential anonymous pamphlets, which were
attributed to John Jay; they show remarkable maturity and controversial
ability, and rank high among the political arguments of the time.[2] He
organized an artillery company, was awarded its captaincy on
examination, won the interest of Nathanael Greene and Washington by the
proficiency and bravery he displayed in the campaign of 1776 around New
York City, joined Washington's staff in March 1777 with the rank of
lieutenant-colonel, and during four years served as his private
secretary and confidential aide. The important duties with which he was
entrusted attest Washington's entire confidence in his abilities and
character; then and afterwards, indeed, reciprocal confidence and
respect took the place, in their relations, of personal attachment.[3]
But Hamilton was ambitious for military glory--it was an ambition he
never lost; he became impatient of detention in what he regarded as a
position of unpleasant dependence, and (Feb. 1781) he seized a slight
reprimand administered by Washington as an excuse for abandoning his
staff position.[4] Later he secured a field command, through Washington,
and won laurels at Yorktown, where he led the American column in the
final assault on the British works. In 1780 he married Elizabeth,
daughter of General Philip Schuyler, and thus became allied with one of
the most distinguished families in New York.

Meanwhile, he had begun the political efforts upon which his fame
principally rests. In letters of 1779-1780[5] he correctly diagnoses the
ills of the Confederation, and suggests with admirable prescience the
necessity of centralization in its governmental powers; he was, indeed,
one of the first, if not to conceive, at least to suggest adequate
checks on the anarchic tendencies of the time. After a year's service in
Congress in 1782-1783, in which he experienced the futility of
endeavouring to attain through that decrepit body the ends he sought, he
settled down to legal practice in New York.[6] The call for the
Annapolis Convention (1786) was Hamilton's opportunity. A delegate from
New York, he supported Madison in inducing the Convention to exceed its
delegated powers and summon the Federal Convention of 1787 at
Philadelphia (himself drafting the call); he secured a place on the New
York delegation; and, when his anti-Federal colleagues withdrew from the
Convention, he signed the Constitution for his state. So long as his
colleagues were present his own vote was useless, and he absented
himself for some time from the debates after making one remarkable
speech (June 18th, 1787). In this he held up the British government as
the best model in the world.[7] Though fully conscious that monarchy in
America was impossible, he wished to obtain the next best solution in an
aristocratic, strongly centralized, coercive, but representative union,
with devices to give weight to the influence of class and property.[8]
His plan had no chance of success; but though unable to obtain what he
wished, he used his great talents to secure the adoption of the
Constitution.

To this struggle was due the greatest of his writings, and the greatest
individual contribution to the adoption of the new government, _The
Federalist_, which remains a classic commentary on American
constitutional law and the principles of government, and of which Guizot
said that "in the application of elementary principles of government to
practical administration" it was the greatest work known to him. Its
inception, and much more than half its contents were Hamilton's (the
rest Madison's and Jay's).[9] Sheer will and reasoning could hardly be
more brilliantly and effectively exhibited than they were by Hamilton
in the New York convention of 1788, whose vote he won, against the
greatest odds, for the ratification of the Constitution. It was the
judgment of Chancellor James Kent, the justice of which can hardly be
disputed, that "all the documentary proof and the current observation of
the time lead us to the conclusion that he surpassed all his
contemporaries in his exertions to create, recommend, adopt and defend
the Constitution of the United States."

When the new government was inaugurated, Hamilton became secretary of
the treasury in Washington's cabinet.[10] Congress immediately referred
to him a press of queries and problems, and there came from his pen a
succession of papers that have left the strongest imprint on the
administrative organization of the national government--two reports on
public credit, upholding an ideal of national honour higher than the
prevalent popular principles; a report on manufactures, advocating their
encouragement (e.g. by bounties paid from surplus revenues amassed by
tariff duties)--a famous report that has served ever since as a
storehouse of arguments for a national protective policy;[11] a report
favouring the establishment of a national bank, the argument being based
on the doctrine of "implied powers" in the Constitution, and on the
application that Congress may do anything that can be made, through the
medium of money, to subserve the "general welfare" of the United
States--doctrines that, through judicial interpretation, have
revolutionized the Constitution; and, finally, a vast mass of detailed
work by which order and efficiency were given to the national finances.
In 1793 he put to confusion his opponents who had brought about a
congressional investigation of his official accounts. The success of his
financial measures was immediate and remarkable. They did not, as is
often but loosely said, create economic prosperity; but they did prop
it, in an all-important field, with order, hope and confidence. His
ultimate purpose was always the strengthening of the union; but before
particularizing his political theories, and the political import of his
financial measures, the remaining events of his life may be traced.

His activity in the cabinet was by no means confined to the finances. He
regarded himself, apparently, as premier, and sometimes overstepped the
limits of his office in interfering with other departments. The
heterogeneous character of the duties placed upon his department by
Congress seemed in fact to reflect the English idea of its primacy.
Hamilton's influence was in fact predominant with Washington (so far as
any man could have predominant influence). Thus it happens that in
foreign affairs, whatever credit properly belongs to the Federalists as
a party (see also the article FEDERALIST PARTY) for the adoption of that
principle of neutrality which became the traditional policy of the
United States must be regarded as largely due to Hamilton. But allowance
must be made for the mere advantage of initiative which belonged to any
party that organized the government--the differences between Hamilton
and Jefferson, in this question of neutrality, being almost purely
factitious.[12] On domestic policy their differences were vital, and in
their conflicts over Hamilton's financial measures they organized, on
the basis of varying tenets and ideals which have never ceased to
conflict in American politics, the two great parties of Federalists and
Democrats (or Democratic-Republicans). On the 31st of January 1795
Hamilton resigned his position as secretary of the treasury and returned
to the practice of law in New York, leaving it for public service only
in 1798-1800, when he was the active head, under Washington (who
insisted that Hamilton should be second only to himself), of the army
organized for war against France. But though in private life he remained
the continual and chief adviser of Washington--notably in the serious
crisis of the Jay Treaty, of which Hamilton approved. Washington's
_Farewell Address_ (1796) was written for him by Hamilton.

After Washington's death the Federalist leadership was divided (and
disputed) between John Adams, who had the prestige of a varied and great
career, and greater strength than any other Federalist with the people,
and Hamilton, who controlled practically all the leaders of lesser rank,
including much the greater part of the most distinguished men of the
country, so that it has been very justly said that "the roll of his
followers is enough of itself to establish his position in American
history" (Lodge). But Hamilton was not essentially a popular leader.
When his passions were not involved, or when they were repressed by a
crisis, he was far-sighted, and his judgment of men was excellent.[13]
But as Hamilton himself once said, his heart was ever the master of his
judgment. He was, indeed, not above intrigue,[14] but he was
unsuccessful in it. He was a fighter through and through, and his
courage was superb; but he was indiscreet in utterance, impolitic in
management, opinionated, self-confident, and uncompromising in nature
and methods. His faults are nowhere better shown than in his quarrel
with John Adams. Three times, in order to accomplish ends deemed by him,
personally, to be desirable, Hamilton used the political fortunes of
John Adams, in presidential elections, as a mere hazard in his
manoeuvres; moreover, after Adams became president, and so the official
head of the party, Hamilton constantly advised the members of the
president's cabinet, and through them endeavoured to control Adams's
policy; and finally, on the eve of the crucial election of 1800, he
wrote a bitter personal attack on the president (containing much
confidential cabinet information), which was intended for private
circulation, but which was secured and published by Aaron Burr, his
legal and political rival.

The mention of Burr leads us to the fatal end of another great political
antipathy of Hamilton's life. He read Burr's character correctly from
the beginning; deemed it a patriotic duty to thwart him in his
ambitions; defeated his hopes successively of a foreign mission, the
presidency, and the governorship of New York; and in his conversations
and letters repeatedly and unsparingly denounced him. If these
denunciations were known to Burr they were ignored by him until his last
defeat. After that he forced a quarrel on a trivial bit of hearsay (that
Hamilton had said he had a "despicable" opinion of Burr); and Hamilton,
believing as he explained in a letter he left before going to his
death--that a compliance with the duelling prejudices of the time was
inseparable from the ability to be in future useful in public affairs,
accepted a challenge from him. The duel was fought at Weehawken on the
Jersey shore of the Hudson opposite the City of New York. At the first
fire Hamilton fell, mortally wounded, and he died on the following day,
the 12th of July 1804. Hamilton himself did not intend to fire, but his
pistol went off as he fell. The tragic close of his career appeased for
the moment the fierce hatred of politics, and his death was very
generally deplored as a national calamity.[15]

No emphasis, however strong, upon the mere consecutive personal
successes of Hamilton's life is sufficient to show the measure of his
importance in American history. That importance lies, to a large extent,
in the political ideas for which he stood. His mind was eminently
"legal." He was the unrivalled controversialist of the time. His
writings, which are distinguished by clarity, vigour and rigid
reasoning, rather than by any show of scholarship--in the extent of
which, however solid in character Hamilton's might have been, he was
surpassed by several of his contemporaries--are in general strikingly
empirical in basis. He drew his theories from his experiences of the
Revolutionary period, and he modified them hardly at all through life.
In his earliest pamphlets (1774-1775) he started out with the ordinary
pre-Revolutionary Whig doctrines of natural rights and liberty; but the
first experience of semi-anarchic states'-rights and individualism ended
his fervour for ideas so essentially alien to his practical, logical
mind, and they have no place in his later writings. The feeble
inadequacy of conception, infirmity of power, factional jealousy,
disintegrating particularism, and vicious finance of the Confederation
were realized by many others; but none other saw so clearly the concrete
nationalistic remedies for these concrete ills, or pursued remedial ends
so constantly, so ably, and so consistently. An immigrant, Hamilton had
no particularistic ties; he was by instinct a "continentalist" or
federalist. He wanted a strong union and energetic government that
should "rest as much as possible on the shoulders of the people and as
little as possible on those of the state legislatures"; that should have
the support of wealth and class; and that should curb the states to such
an "entire subordination" as nowise to be hindered by those bodies. At
these ends he aimed with extraordinary skill in all his financial
measures. As early as 1776 he urged the direct collection of federal
taxes by federal agents. From 1779 onward we trace the idea of
supporting government by the interest of the propertied classes; from
1781 onward the idea that a not-excessive public debt would be a
blessing[16] in giving cohesiveness to the union: hence his device by
which the federal government, assuming the war debts of the states,
secured greater resources, based itself on a high ideal of nationalism,
strengthened its hold on the individual citizen, and gained the support
of property. In his report on manufactures his chief avowed motive was
to strengthen the union. To the same end he conceived the constitutional
doctrines of liberal construction, "implied powers," and the "general
welfare," which were later embodied in the decisions of John Marshall.
The idea of nationalism pervaded and quickened all his life and works.
With one great exception, the dictum of Guizot is hardly an
exaggeration, that "there is not in the Constitution of the United
States an element of order, of force, of duration, which he did not
powerfully contribute to introduce into it and to cause to
predominate."

The exception, as American history showed, was American democracy. The
loose and barren rule of the Confederation seemed to conservative minds
such as Hamilton's to presage, in its strengthening of individualism, a
fatal looseness of social restraints, and led him on to a dread of
democracy that he never overcame. Liberty, he reminded his fellows, in the
New York Convention of 1788, seemed to be alone considered in government,
but there was another thing equally important: "a principle of strength
and stability in the organization ... and of vigour in its operation." But
Hamilton's governmental system was in fact repressive.[17] He wanted a
system strong enough, he would have said, to overcome the anarchic
tendencies loosed by war, and represented by those notions of natural
rights which he had himself once championed; strong enough to overbear all
local, state and sectional prejudices, powers or influence, and to
control--not, as Jefferson would have it, to be controlled by--the people.
Confidence in the integrity, the self-control, and the good judgment of
the people, which was the content of Jefferson's political faith, had
almost no place in Hamilton's theories. "Men," said he, "are reasoning
rather than reasonable animals." The charge that he laboured to introduce
monarchy by intrigue is an under-estimate of his good sense.[18]
Hamilton's thinking, however, did carry him foul of current democratic
philosophy; as he said, he presented his plan in 1787 "not as attainable,
but as a model to which we ought to approach as far as possible";
moreover, he held through life his belief in its principles, and in its
superiority over the government actually created; and though its
inconsistency with American tendencies was yearly more apparent, he never
ceased to avow on all occasions his aristocratic-monarchical partialities.
Moreover, his preferences for at least an aristocratic republic were
shared by many other men of talent. When it is added that Jefferson's
assertions, alike as regards Hamilton's talk[19] and the intent and
tendency of his political measures, were, to the extent of the underlying
basic fact--but discounting Jefferson's somewhat intemperate
interpretations--unquestionably true,[20] it cannot be accounted strange
that Hamilton's Democratic opponents mistook his theoretic predilections
for positive designs. Nor would it be a strained inference from much that
be said, to believe that he hoped and expected that in the "crisis" he
foresaw, when democracy should have caused the ruin of the country, a new
government might be formed that should approximate to his own ideals.[21]
From the beginning of the excesses of the French Revolution he was
possessed by the persuasion that American democracy, likewise, might at
any moment crush the restraints of the Constitution to enter on a career
of licence and anarchy. To this obsession he sacrificed his life.[22]
After the Democratic victory of 1800, his letters, full of retrospective
judgments and interesting outlooks, are but rarely relieved in their
sombre pessimism by flashes of hope and courage. His last letter on
politics, written two days before his death, illustrates the two sides of
his thinking already emphasized: in this letter he warns his New England
friends against dismemberment of the union as "a clear sacrifice of great
positive advantages, without any counterbalancing good; administering no
relief to our real disease, which is democracy, the poison of which, by a
subdivision, will only be more concentrated in each part, and consequently
the more virulent." To the end he never lost his fear of the states, nor
gained faith in the future of the country. He laboured still, in mingled
hope and apprehension, "to prop the frail and worthless fabric,"[23] but
for its spiritual content of democracy he had no understanding, and even
in its nationalism he had little hope. Yet probably to no one man, except
perhaps to Washington, does American nationalism owe so much as to
Hamilton.

In the development of the United States the influence of Hamiltonian
nationalism and Jeffersonian democracy has been a reactive union; but
changed conditions since Hamilton's time, and particularly since the
Civil War, are likely to create misconceptions as to Hamilton's position
in his own day. Great constructive statesman as he was, he was also,
from the American point of view, essentially a reactionary. He was the
leader of reactionary forces--constructive forces, as it happened--in
the critical period after the War of American Independence, and in the
period of Federalist supremacy. He was in sympathy with the dominant
forces of public life only while they took, during the war, the
predominant impress of an imperfect nationalism.[24] Jeffersonian
democracy came into power in 1800 in direct line with colonial
development; Hamiltonian Federalism was a break in that development; and
this alone can explain how Jefferson could organize the Democratic Party
in face of the brilliant success of the Federalists in constructing the
government. Hamilton stigmatized his great opponent as a political
fanatic; but actualist as he claimed to be,[25] Hamilton could not see,
or would not concede, the predominating forces in American life, and
would uncompromisingly have minimized the two great political conquests
of the colonial period--local self-government and democracy.

Few Americans have received higher tributes from foreign authorities.
Talleyrand, personally impressed when in America with Hamilton's
brilliant qualities, declared that he had the power of divining without
reasoning, and compared him to Fox and Napoleon because he had "deviné
l'Europe." Of the judgments rendered by his countrymen, Washington's
confidence in his ability and integrity is perhaps the most significant.
Chancellor James Kent, and others only less competent, paid remarkable
testimony to his legal abilities. Chief-justice Marshall ranked him
second to Washington alone. No judgment is more justly measured than
Madison's (in 1831): "That he possessed intellectual powers of the first
order, and the moral qualities of integrity and honour in a captivating
degree, has been awarded him by a suffrage now universal. If his theory
of government deviated from the republican standard he had the candour
to avow it, and the greater merit of co-operating faithfully in maturing
and supporting a system which was not his choice."

In person Hamilton was rather short and slender; in carriage, erect,
dignified and graceful. Deep-set, changeable, dark eyes vivified his
mobile features, and set off his light hair and fair, ruddy complexion.
His head in the famous Trumbull portrait is boldly poised and very
striking. The captivating charm of his manners and conversation is
attested by all who knew him, and in familiar life he was artlessly
simple. Friends he won readily, and he held them in devoted attachment
by the solid worth of a frank, ardent, generous, warm-hearted and
high-minded character. Versatile as were his intellectual powers, his
nature seems comparatively simple. A firm will, tireless energy,
aggressive courage and bold self-confidence were its leading qualities;
the word "intensity" perhaps best sums up his character. His Scotch and
Gallic strains of ancestry are evident; his countenance was decidedly
Scotch; his nervous speech and bearing and vehement temperament rather
French; in his mind, agility, clarity and penetration were matched with
logical solidity. The remarkable quality of his mind lay in the rare
combination of acute analysis and grasp of detail with great
comprehensiveness of thought. So far as his writings show, he was almost
wholly lacking in humour, and in imagination little less so. He
certainly had wit, but it is hard to believe he could have had any touch
of fancy. In public speaking he often combined a rhetorical
effectiveness and emotional intensity that might take the place of
imagination, and enabled him, on the coldest theme, to move deeply the
feelings of his auditors.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Hamilton's _Works_ have been edited by H. C. Lodge (New
  York, 9 vols., 1885-1886, and 12 vols., 1904); all references above
  are first to the latter edition, secondly (in brackets) to the former.
  There are various additional editions of _The Federalist_, notably
  those of H. B. Dawson (1863), H. C. Lodge (1888), and--the most
  scholarly--P. L. Ford (1898); cf. _American Historical Review_, ii.
  413, 675. See also James Bryce, "Predictions of Hamilton and de
  Tocqueville," in _Johns Hopkins University Studies_, vol. 5
  (Baltimore, 1887); and the capital essay of Anson D. Morse in the
  _Political Science Quarterly_, v. (1890), pp. 1-23. For a bibliography
  of the period see the _Cambridge Modern History_, vol. vii. pp.
  780-810. The unfinished _Life of Alexander Hamilton, by his Son_, J.
  C. Hamilton, going only to 1787 (New York, 2 vols., 1834-1840), was
  superseded by the same author's valuable, but partisan and uncritical
  _History of the Republic ... as traced in the Writings of Alexander
  Hamilton_ (New York, 7 vols., 1857-1864; 4th ed., Boston, 1879).
  Professor W. G. Sumner's _Alexander Hamilton_ (Makers of America
  series, New York, 1890) is appreciative, and important for its
  criticism from the point of view of an American free-trader; see also,
  on Hamilton's finance and economic views, Prof. C. F. Dunbar,
  _Quarterly Journal of Economics_, iii. (1889), p. 32; E. G. Bourne in
  ibid. x. (1894), p. 328; E. C. Lunt in _Journal of Political Economy_,
  iii. (1895), p. 289. Among modern studies must also be mentioned J. T.
  Morse's able _Life_ (1876); H. C. Lodge's (in the American Statesmen
  series, 1882); and G. Shea's two books, his _Historical Study_ (1877)
  and _Life and Epoch_ (1879). C. J. Riethmüller's _Hamilton and his
  Contemporaries_ (1864), written during the Civil War, is sympathetic,
  but rather speculative. The most vivid account of Hamilton is in Mrs
  Gertrude Atherton's historical romance, _The Conqueror_ (New York,
  1902), for the writing of which the author made new investigations
  into the biographical details, and elucidated some points previously
  obscure; see also her _A Few of Hamilton's Letters_ (1903). F. S.
  Oliver's brilliant _Alexander Hamilton: An Essay on American Union_
  (London, 1906), which uses its subject to illustrate the necessity of
  British imperial federation, is strongly anti-Jeffersonian, but no
  other work by a non-American author brings out so well the wider
  issues involved in Hamilton's economic policy.     (F. S. P.; H. Ch.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] These facts were first definitely determined by Mrs Gertrude
    Atherton from the Danish Archives in Denmark and the West Indies; see
    article in _North American Review_, Aug. 1902, vol. 175, p. 229; and
    preface to her _A Few of Hamilton's Letters_ (New York, 1903).

  [2] These were written in answer to the widely read pamphlets
    published over the _nom de plume_ of "A Westchester Farmer," and now
    known to have been written by Samuel Seabury (q.v.). Hamilton's
    pamphlets were entitled "A Full Vindication of the Measures of the
    Congress from the Calumnies of their Enemies," and "The Farmer
    Refuted." Concerning them George Ticknor Curtis (_Constitutional
    History of the United States_, i. 274) has said, "There are displayed
    in these papers a power of reasoning and sarcasm, a knowledge of the
    principles of government and of the English constitution, and a grasp
    of the merits of the whole controversy, that would have done honour
    to any man at any age. To say that they evince precocity of intellect
    gives no idea of their main characteristics. They show great
    maturity--a more remarkable maturity than has ever been exhibited by
    any other person, at so early an age, in the same department of
    thought."

  [3] George Bancroft was the first to point out that there is small
    evidence that Hamilton ever really appreciated Washington's great
    qualities; but on the score of personal and Federalist indebtedness
    he left explicit recognition.

  [4] For Hamilton's letter to General Schuyler on this episode--one of
    the most important letters, in some ways, that he ever wrote--see the
    _Works_, ix. 232 (8: 35).

  [5] Especially the letter of September 1780 to James Duane, _Works_,
    i. 213 (1: 203); also the "Continentalist" papers of 1781.

  [6] His most famous case at this time (_Rutgers_ v. _Waddington_) was
    one that well illustrated his moral courage. Under a "Trespass Law"
    of New York, Elizabeth Rutgers, a widow, brought suit against one
    Joshua Waddington, a Loyalist, who during the war of American
    Independence, while New York was occupied by the British, had made
    use of some of her property. In face of popular clamour, Hamilton,
    who advocated a conciliatory treatment of the Loyalists, represented
    Waddington, who won the case, decided in 1784.

  [7] As Mr Oliver points out (_Alexander Hamilton_, p. 156),
    Hamilton's idea of the British constitution was not a correct picture
    of the British constitution in 1787, and still less of that of the
    20th century. "What he had in mind was the British constitution as
    George III. had tried to make it." Hamilton's ideal was an elective
    monarchy, and his guiding principle a proper balance of authority.

  [8] Briefly, he proposed a governor and two chambers--an Assembly
    elected by the people for three years, and a Senate--the governor and
    senate holding office for life or during good behaviour, and chosen,
    through electors, by voters qualified by property; the governor to
    have an unqualified veto on federal legislation; state governors to
    have a similar veto on state legislation, and to be appointed by the
    federal government; the federal government to control all militia.
    See _Works_, i. 347 (1: 331); and cf. his correspondence, which is
    scanty, _passim_ in later years, notably x. 446, 431, 329 (8: 606,
    596, 517), and references below.

  [9] Nearly all the papers in _The Federalist_ first appeared (between
    October 1787 and April 1788) in New York journals, over the signature
    "Publius." Jay wrote only five. The authorship of twelve of them is
    uncertain, and has been the subject of much controversy between
    partisans of Hamilton and Madison. Concerning _The Federalist_
    Chancellor James Kent (_Commentaries_, i. 241) said: "There is no
    work on the subject of the Constitution, and on republican and
    federal government generally, that deserves to be more thoroughly
    studied. I know not indeed of any work on the principles of free
    government that is to be compared, in instruction and intrinsic
    value, to this small and unpretending volume.... It is equally
    admirable in the depth of its wisdom, the comprehensiveness of its
    views, the sagacity of its reflections, and the fearlessness,
    patriotism, candour, simplicity, and elegance, with which its truths
    are uttered and recommended."

  [10] The position was offered first to Robert Morris, who declined
    it, expressing the opinion that Hamilton was the man best fitted to
    meet its problems.

  [11] Hamilton's _Report on Manufactures_ (1791) by itself entitles
    him to the place of an epoch-maker in economics. It was the first
    great revolt from Adam Smith, on whose _Wealth of Nations_ (1776) he
    is said to have already written a commentary which is lost. In his
    criticism on Adam Smith, and his arguments for a system of moderate
    protective duties associated with the deliberate policy of promoting
    national interests, his work was the inspiration of Friedrich List,
    and so the foundation of the economic system of Germany in a later
    day, and again, still later, of the policy of Tariff Reform and
    Colonial Preference in England, as advocated by Mr Chamberlain and
    his supporters. See the detailed account given in the article
    PROTECTION.

  [12] That is, while Jefferson hated British aristocracy and
    sympathized with French democracy, Hamilton hated French democracy
    and sympathized with British aristocracy and order; but neither
    wanted war; and indeed Jefferson, throughout life, was the more
    peaceful of the two. Neutrality was in the line of commonplace
    American thinking of that time, as may be seen in the writings of all
    the leading men of the day. The cry of "British Hamilton" had no good
    excuse whatever.

  [13] e.g. his prediction in 1789 of the course of the French
    Revolution; his judgments of Burr from 1792 onward, and of Burr and
    Jefferson in 1800.

  [14] After the Democrats won New York in 1799, Hamilton proposed to
    Governor John Jay to call together the out-going Federalist
    legislature, in order to choose Federalist presidential electors, a
    suggestion which Jay simply endorsed: "Proposing a measure for party
    purposes which it would not become me to adopt."--_Works_, x. 371 (8:
    549). Compare also with later developments of ward politics in New
    York City, Hamilton's curious suggestions as to Federalist charities,
    &c., in connexion with the Christian Constitutional Society proposed
    by him in 1802 to combat irreligion and democracy (_Works_, x. 432
    (8: 596).

  [15] Hamilton's widow, who survived him for half a century, dying at
    the age of ninety-seven, was left with four sons and four daughters.
    He had been an affectionate husband and father, though his devotion
    to his wife had been consistent with occasional lapses from strict
    marital fidelity. One intrigue into which he drifted in 1791, with a
    Mrs Reynolds, led to the blackmailing of Hamilton by her husband; and
    when this rascal, shortly afterwards, got into trouble for fraud, his
    relations with Hamilton were unscrupulously misrepresented for
    political purposes by some of Hamilton's opponents. But Hamilton
    faced the necessity of revealing the true state of things with
    conspicuous courage, and the scandal only reacted on his accusers.
    One of them was Monroe, whose reputation comes very badly out of this
    unsavoury affair.

  [16] In later years he said no debt should be incurred without
    providing simultaneously for its payment.

  [17] He warmly supported the Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798 (in
    their final form).

  [18] The idea, he wrote to Washington, was "one of those visionary
    things none but madmen could undertake, and that no wise man will
    believe" (1792). And see his comments on Burr's ambitions, _Works_,
    x. 417, 450 (8: 585, 610). We may accept as just, and applicable to
    his entire career, the statement made by himself in 1803 of his
    principles in 1787: "(1) That the political powers of the people of
    this continent would endure nothing but a representative form of
    government. (2) That, in the actual situation of the country, it was
    itself right and proper that the representative system should have a
    full and fair trial. (3) That to such a trial it was essential that
    the government should be so constructed as to give it all the energy
    and the stability reconcilable with the principles of that theory."

  [19] Cf. Gouverneur Morris, _Diary and Letters_, ii. 455, 526, 531.

  [20] Cf. even Mr Lodge's judgments, pp. 90-92, 115-116, 122, 130,
    140. When he says (p. 140) that "In Hamilton's successful policy
    there were certainly germs of an aristocratic republic, there were
    certainly limitations and possibly dangers to pure democracy," this
    is practically Jefferson's assertion (1792) that "His system flowed
    from principles adverse to liberty"; but Jefferson goes on to add:
    "and was calculated to undermine and demolish the republic." As to
    the intent of Hamilton to secure through his financial measures the
    political support of property, his own words are honest and clear;
    and in fact he succeeded. Jefferson merely had exaggerated fears of a
    moneyed political engine, and seeing that Hamilton's measures of
    funding and assumption did make the national debt politically useful
    to the Federalists in the beginning he concluded that they would seek
    to fasten the debt on the country for ever.

  [21] Cf. Gouv. Morris, _op. cit._ ii. 474.

  [22] He dreamed of saving the country with an army in this crisis of
    blood and iron, and wished to preserve unweakened the public
    confidence in his personal bravery.

  [23] His own words in 1802. In justification of the above statements
    see the correspondence of 1800-1804 _passim_--_Works_, vol. ix.-x.
    (or 7-8); especially x. 363, 425, 434, 440, 445 (or 8: 543, 591, 596,
    602, 605).

  [24] Cf. Anson D. Morse, article cited below, pp. 4, 18-21.

  [25] Chancellor Kent tells us (_Memoirs and Letters_, p. 32) that in
    1804 Hamilton was planning a co-operative Federalist work on the
    history and science of government on an inductive basis. Kent always
    speaks of Hamilton's legal thinking as deductive, however (ibid. p.
    290, 329), and such seems to have been in fact all his political
    reasoning: i.e. underlying them were such maxims as that of Hume,
    that in erecting a stable government every citizen must be assumed a
    knave, and be bound by self-interest to co-operation for the public
    good. Hamilton always seems to be reasoning deductively from such
    principles. He went too far and fast for even such a Federalist
    disbeliever in democracy as Gouverneur Morris; who, to Hamilton's
    assertion that democracy must be cast out to save the country,
    replied that "such necessity cannot be shown by a political
    ratiocination. Luckily, or, to speak with a reverence proper to the
    occasion, providentially, mankind are not disposed to embark the
    blessings they enjoy on a voyage of syllogistic adventure to obtain
    something more beautiful in exchange. They must feel before they will
    act" (_op. cit._ ii. 531).



HAMILTON, ANTHONY, or ANTOINE (1646-1720), French classical author, was
born about 1646. He is especially noteworthy from the fact that, though
by birth he was a foreigner, his literary characteristics are more
decidedly French than those of many of the most indubitable Frenchmen.
His father was George Hamilton, younger brother of James, 2nd earl of
Abercorn, and head of the family of Hamilton in the peerage of
Scotland, and 6th duke of Châtellerault in the peerage of France; and
his mother was Mary Butler, sister of the 1st duke of Ormonde. According
to some authorities he was born at Drogheda, but according to the London
edition of his works in 1811 his birthplace was Roscrea, Tipperary. From
the age of four till he was fourteen the boy was brought up in France,
whither his family had removed after the execution of Charles I. The
fact that, like his father, he was a Roman Catholic, prevented his
receiving the political promotion he might otherwise have expected on
the Restoration, but he became a distinguished member of that brilliant
band of courtiers whose chronicler he was to become. He took service in
the French army, and the marriage of his sister Elizabeth, "la belle
Hamilton," to Philibert, comte de Gramont (q.v.) rendered his connexion
with France more intimate, if possible, than before. On the accession of
James II. he obtained an infantry regiment in Ireland, and was appointed
governor of Limerick and a member of the privy council. But the battle
of the Boyne, at which he was present, brought disaster on all who were
attached to the cause of the Stuarts, and before long he was again in
France--an exile, but at home. The rest of his life was spent for the
most part at the court of St Germain and in the _châteaux_ of his
friends. With Ludovise, duchesse du Maine, he became an especial
favourite, and it was at her seat at Sceaux that he wrote the _Mémoires_
that made him famous. He died at St Germain-en-Laye on the 21st of April
1720.

It is mainly by the _Mémoires ducomte de Gramont_ that Hamilton takes
rank with the most classical writers of France. It was said to have been
written at Gramont's dictation, but it is very evident that Hamilton's
share is the most considerable. The work was first published anonymously
in 1713 under the rubric of Cologne, but it was really printed in
Holland, at that time the great patroness of all questionable authors.
An English translation by Boyer appeared in 1714. Upwards of thirty
editions have since appeared, the best of the French being Renouard's
(1812), forming part of a collected edition of Hamilton's works, and
Gustave Brunet's (1859), and the best of the English, Edwards's (1793),
with 78 engravings from portraits in the royal collections at Windsor
and elsewhere, A. F. Bertrand de Moleville's (2 vols., 1811), with 64
portraits by E. Scriven and others, and Gordon Goodwin's (2 vols.,
1903). The original edition was reprinted by Benjamin Pifteau in 1876.
In imitation and satiric parody of the romantic tales which Antoine
Galland's translation of _The Thousand and One Nights_ had brought into
favour in France, Hamilton wrote, partly for the amusement of Henrietta
Bulkley, sister of the duchess of Berwick, to whom he was much attached,
four ironical and extravagant _contes_, _Le Bélier_, _Fleur d'épine_,
_Zénéyde_ and _Les Quatre Facardins_. The saying in _Le Bélier_'
"Bélier, mon ami, tu me ferais plaisir si tu voulais commencer par le
commencement," has passed into a proverb. These tales were circulated
privately during Hamilton's lifetime, and the first three appeared in
Paris in 1730, ten years after the death of the author; a collection of
his _Oeuvres diverses_ in 1731 contained the unfinished _Zénéyde_.
Hamilton was also the author of some songs as exquisite in their way as
his prose, and interchanged amusing verses with the duke of Berwick. In
the name of his niece, the countess of Stafford, Hamilton maintained a
witty correspondence with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

  See notices of Hamilton in Lescure's edition (1873) of the _Contes_,
  Sainte-Beuve's _Causeries du lundi_, tome i., Sayou's _Histoire de la
  littérature française à l'étranger_ (1853), and by L. S. Auger in the
  _Oeuvres complètes_ (1804).



HAMILTON, ELIZABETH (1758-1816), British author, was born at Belfast, of
Scottish extraction, on the 21st of July 1758. Her father's death in
1759 left his wife so embarrassed that Elizabeth was adopted in 1762 by
her paternal aunt, Mrs Marshall, who lived in Scotland, near Stirling.
In 1788 Miss Hamilton went to live with her brother Captain Charles
Hamilton (1753-1792), who was engaged on his translation of the
_Hedaya_. Prompted by her brother's associations, she produced her
_Letters of a Hindoo Rajah_ in 1796. Soon after, with her sister Mrs
Blake, she settled at Bath, where she published in 1800 the _Memoirs of
Modern Philosophers_, a satire on the admirers of the French Revolution.
In 1801-1802 appeared her _Letters on Education_. After travelling
through Wales and Scotland for nearly two years, the sisters took up
their abode in 1803 at Edinburgh. In 1804 Mrs Hamilton, as she then
preferred to be called, published her _Life of Agrippina, wife of
Germanicus_; and in the same year she received a pension from
government. _The Cottagers of Glenburnie_ (1808), which is her
best-known work, was described by Sir Walter Scott as "a picture of the
rural habits of Scotland, of striking and impressive fidelity." She also
published _Popular Essays on the Elementary Principles of the Human
Mind_ (1812), and _Hints addressed to the Patrons and Directors of
Public Schools_ (1815). She died at Harrogate on the 23rd of July 1816.

  _Memoirs of Mrs Elizabeth Hamilton_, by Miss Benger, were published in
  1818.



HAMILTON, EMMA, LADY (c. 1765-1815), wife of Sir William Hamilton
(q.v.), the British envoy at Naples, and famous as the mistress of
Nelson, was the daughter of Henry Lyon, a blacksmith of Great Neston in
Cheshire. The date of her birth cannot be fixed with certainty, but she
was baptized at Great Neston on the 12th of May 1765, and it is not
improbable that she was born in that year. Her baptismal name was Emily.
As her father died soon after her birth, the mother, who was dependent
on parish relief, had to remove to her native village, Hawarden in
Flintshire. Emma's early life is very obscure. She was certainly
illiterate, and it appears that she had a child in 1780, a fact which
has led some of her biographers to place her birth before 1765. It has
been said that she was first the mistress of Captain Willet Payne, an
officer in the navy, and that she was employed in some doubtful capacity
by a notorious quack of the time, Dr Graham. In 1781 she was the
mistress of a country gentleman, Sir Harry Featherstonhaugh, who turned
her out in December of that year. She was then pregnant, and in her
distress she applied to the Hon. Charles Greville, to whom she was
already known. At this time she called herself Emily Hart. Greville, a
gentleman of artistic tastes and well known in society, entertained her
as his mistress, her mother, known as Mrs Cadogan, acting as housekeeper
and partly as servant. Under the protection of Greville, whose means
were narrowed by debt, she acquired some education, and was taught to
sing, dance and act with professional skill. In 1782 he introduced her
to his friend Romney the portrait painter, who had been established for
several years in London, and who admired her beauty with enthusiasm. The
numerous famous portraits of her from his brush may have somewhat
idealised her apparently robust and brilliantly coloured beauty, but her
vivacity and powers of fascination cannot be doubted. She had the
temperament of an artist, and seems to have been sincerely attached to
Greville. In 1784 she was seen by his uncle, Sir William Hamilton, who
admired her greatly. Two years later she was sent on a visit to him at
Naples, as the result of an understanding between Hamilton and
Greville--the uncle paying his nephew's debts and the nephew ceding his
mistress. Emma at first resented, but then submitted to the arrangement.
Her beauty, her artistic capacity, and her high spirits soon made her a
great favourite in the easy-going society of Naples, and Queen Maria
Carolina became closely attached to her. She became famous for her
"attitudes," a series of _poses plastiques_ in which she represented
classical and other figures. On the 6th of September 1791, during a
visit to England, she was married to Sir W. Hamilton. The ceremony was
required in order to justify her public reception at the court of
Naples, where Lady Hamilton played an important part as the agent
through whom the queen communicated with the British minister--sometimes
in opposition to the will and the policy of the king. The revolutionary
wars and disturbances which began after 1792 made the services of Lady
Hamilton always useful and sometimes necessary to the British
government. It was claimed by her, and on her behalf, that she secured
valuable information in 1796, and was of essential service to the
British fleet in 1798 during the Nile campaign, by enabling it to obtain
stores and water in Sicily. These claims have been denied on the rather
irrelevant ground that they are wanting in official confirmation, which
was only to be expected since they were _ex hypothesi_ unofficial and
secret, but it is not improbable that they were considerably
exaggerated, and it is certain that her stories cannot always be
reconciled with one another or with the accepted facts. When Nelson
returned from the Nile in September 1798 Lady Hamilton made him her
hero, and he became entirely devoted to her. Her influence over him
indeed became notorious, and brought him much official displeasure. Lady
Hamilton undoubtedly used her influence to draw Nelson into a most
unhappy participation in the domestic troubles of Naples, and when Sir
W. Hamilton was recalled in 1800 she travelled with him and Nelson
ostentatiously across Europe. In England Lady Hamilton insisted on
making a parade of her hold over Nelson. Their child, Horatia Nelson
Thompson, was born on the 30th of January 1801. The profuse habits which
Emma Hamilton had contracted in Naples, together with a passion for
gambling which grew on her, led her into debt, and also into extravagant
ways of living, against which her husband feebly protested. On his death
in 1803 she received by his will a life rent of £800, and the furniture
of his house in Piccadilly. She then lived openly with Nelson at his
house at Merton. Nelson tried repeatedly to secure her a pension for the
services rendered at Naples, but did not succeed. On his death she
received Merton, and an annuity of £500, as well as the control of the
interest of the £4000 he left to his daughter. But gambling and
extravagance kept her poor. In 1808 her friends endeavoured to arrange
her affairs, but in 1813 she was put in prison for debt and remained
there for a year. A certain Alderman Smith having aided her to get out,
she went over to Calais for refuge from her creditors, and she died
there in distress if not in want on the 15th of January 1815.

  AUTHORITIES.--_The Memoirs of Lady Hamilton_ (London, 1815) were the
  work of an ill-disposed but well-informed and shrewd observer whose
  name is not given. _Lady Hamilton and Lord Nelson_, by J. C. Jefferson
  (London, 1888) is based on authentic papers. It is corrected in some
  particulars by the detailed recent life written by Walter Sichel,
  _Emma, Lady Hamilton_ (London, 1905). See also the authorities given
  in the article NELSON.     (D. H.)



HAMILTON, JAMES (1769-1831), English educationist, and author of the
Hamiltonian system of teaching languages, was born in 1769. The first
part of his life was spent in mercantile pursuits. Having settled in
Hamburg and become free of the city, he was anxious to become acquainted
with German and accepted the tuition of a French emigré, General
d'Angelis. In twelve lessons he found himself able to read an easy
German book, his master having discarded the use of a grammar and
translated to him short stories word for word into French. As a citizen
of Hamburg Hamilton started a business in Paris, and during the peace of
Amiens maintained a lucrative trade with England; but at the rupture of
the treaty he was made a prisoner of war, and though the protection of
Hamburg was enough to get the words _effacé de la liste des prisonniers
de guerre_ inscribed upon his passport, he was detained in custody till
the close of hostilities. His business being thus ruined, he went in
1814 to America, intending to become a farmer and manufacturer of
potash; but, changing his plan before he reached his "location," he
started as a teacher in New York. Adopting his old tutor's method, he
attained remarkable success in New York, Baltimore, Washington, Boston,
Montreal and Quebec. Returning to England in July 1823, he was equally
fortunate in Manchester and elsewhere. The two master principles of his
method were that the language should be presented to the scholar as a
living organism, and that its laws should be learned from observation
and not by rules. His system attracted general attention, and was
vigorously attacked and defended. In 1826 Sydney Smith devoted an
article to its elucidation in the _Edinburgh Review_. As text-books for
his pupils Hamilton printed interlinear translations of the Gospel of
John, of an _Epitome historiae sacrae_, of Aesop's _Fables_, Eutropius,
Aurelius Victor, Phaedrus, &c., and many books were issued as
Hamiltonian with which he had nothing personally to do. He died on the
31st of October 1831.

  See Hamilton's own account, _The History, Principles, Practice and
  Results of the Hamiltonian System_ (Manchester, 1829; new ed., 1831);
  Alberte, _Über die Hamilton'sche Methode_; C. F. Wurm, _Hamilton und
  Jacotot_ (1831).



HAMILTON, JAMES HAMILTON, 1ST DUKE OF (1606-1649), Scottish nobleman,
son of James, 2nd marquess of Hamilton, and of the Lady Anne Cunningham,
daughter of the earl of Glencairn, was born on the 19th of June 1606. As
the descendant and representative of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran,
he was the heir to the throne of Scotland after the descendants of James
VI.[1] He married in his fourteenth year May Feilding, aged seven,
daughter of Lord Feilding, afterwards 1st earl of Denbigh, and was
educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he matriculated on the 14th of
December 1621. He succeeded to his father's titles on the latter's death
in 1625. In 1628 he was made master of the horse and was also appointed
gentleman of the bedchamber and a privy councillor. In 1631 Hamilton
took over a force of 6000 men to assist Gustavus Adolphus in Germany. He
guarded the fortresses on the Oder while Gustavus fought Tilly at
Breitenfeld, and afterwards occupied Magdeburg, but his army was
destroyed by disease and starvation, and after the complete failure of
the expedition Hamilton returned to England in September 1634. He now
became Charles I.'s chief adviser in Scottish affairs. In May 1638,
after the outbreak of the revolt against the English Prayer-Book, he was
appointed commissioner for Scotland to appease the discontents. He
described the Scots as being "possessed by the devil," and instead of
doing his utmost to support the king's interests was easily intimidated
by the covenanting leaders and persuaded of the impossibility of
resisting their demands, finally returning to Charles to urge him to
give way. It is said that he so far forgot his trust as to encourage the
Scottish leaders in their resistance in order to gain their favour.[2]
On the 27th of July Charles sent him back with new proposals for the
election of an assembly and a parliament, episcopacy being safeguarded
but bishops being made responsible to future assemblies. After a wrangle
concerning the mode of election he again returned to Charles. Having
been sent back to Edinburgh on the 17th of September, he brought with
him a revocation of the prayer-book and canons and another covenant to
be substituted for the national covenant. On the 21st of November
Hamilton presided over the first meeting of the assembly in Glasgow
cathedral, but dissolved it on the 28th on its declaring the bishops
responsible to its authority. The assembly, however, continued to sit
notwithstanding, and Hamilton returned to England to give an account of
his failure, leaving the enemy triumphant and in possession. War was now
decided upon, and Hamilton was chosen to command an expedition to the
Forth to menace the rear of the Scots. On arrival on the 1st of May 1639
he found the plan impossible, despaired of success, and was recalled in
June. On the 8th of July, after a hostile reception at Edinburgh, he
resigned his commissionership. He supported Strafford's proposal to call
the Short Parliament, but otherwise opposed him as strongly as he could,
as the chief adversary of the Scots; and he aided the elder Vane, it was
believed, in accomplishing Strafford's destruction by sending for him
to the Long Parliament. Hamilton now supported the parliamentary party,
desired an alliance with his nation, and persuaded Charles in February
1641 to admit some of their leaders into the council. On the death of
Strafford Hamilton was confronted by a new antagonist in Montrose, who
detested both his character and policy and repudiated his supremacy in
Scotland. On the 10th of August 1641 he accompanied Charles on his last
visit to Scotland. His aim now was to effect an alliance between the
king and Argyll, the former accepting Presbyterianism and receiving the
help of the Scots against the English parliament, and when this failed
he abandoned Charles and adhered to Argyll. In consequence he received a
challenge from Lord Ker, of which he gave the king information, and
obtained from Ker an apology. Montrose wrote to Charles declaring he
could prove Hamilton to be a traitor. The king himself spoke of him as
being "very active in his own preservation." Shortly afterwards the
plot--known as the "Incident"--to seize Argyll, Hamilton and the
latter's brother, the earl of Lanark, was discovered, and on the 12th of
October they fled from Edinburgh. Hamilton returned not long afterwards,
and notwithstanding all that had occurred still retained Charles's
favour and confidence. He returned with him to London and accompanied
him on the 5th of January 1642 when he went to the city after the
failure to secure the five members. In July Hamilton went to Scotland on
a hopeless mission to prevent the intervention of the Scots in the war,
and a breach then took place between him and Argyll. When in February
1643 proposals of mediation between Charles and the parliament came from
Scotland, Hamilton instigated the "cross petition" which demanded from
Charles the surrender of the annuities of tithes in order to embarrass
Loudoun, the chief promoter of the project, to whom they had already
been granted. This failing, he promoted a scheme for overwhelming the
influence and votes of Argyll and his party by sending to Scotland all
the Scottish peers then with the king, thereby preventing any assistance
to the parliament coming from that quarter, while Charles was to
guarantee the establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland only. This
foolish intrigue was strongly opposed by Montrose, who was eager to
strike a sudden blow and anticipate and annihilate the plans of the
Covenanters. Hamilton, however, gained over the queen for his project,
and in September was made a duke, while Montrose was condemned to
inaction. Hamilton's scheme, however, completely failed. He had no
control over the parliament. He was unable to hinder the meeting of the
convention of the estates which assembled without the king's authority,
and his supporters found themselves in a minority. Finally, on refusing
to take the Covenant, Hamilton and Lanark were obliged to leave
Scotland. They arrived at Oxford on the 16th of December. Hamilton's
conduct had at last incurred Charles's resentment and he was sent, in
January 1644, a prisoner to Pendennis Castle, in 1645 being removed to
St Michael's Mount, where he was liberated by Fairfax's troops on the
23rd of April 1646. Subsequently he showed great activity in the futile
negotiations between the Scots and Charles at Newcastle. In 1648, in
consequence of the seizure of Charles by the army in 1647, Hamilton
obtained a temporary influence and authority in the Scottish parliament
over Argyll, and led a large force into England in support of the king
on the 8th of July. He showed complete incapacity in military command;
was kept in check for some time by Lambert; and though outnumbering the
enemy by 24,000 to about 9000 men, allowed his troops to disperse over
the country and to be defeated in detail by Cromwell during the three
days August 17th-19th at the so-called battle of Preston, being himself
taken prisoner on the 25th. He was tried on the 6th of February 1649,
condemned to death on the 6th of March and executed on the 9th.

Hamilton, during his unfortunate career, had often been suspected of
betraying the king's cause, and, as an heir to the Scottish throne, of
intentionally playing into the hands of the Covenanters with a view of
procuring the crown for himself. The charge was brought against him as
early as 1631 when he was levying men in Scotland for the German
expedition, but Charles gave no credence to it and showed his trust in
Hamilton by causing him to share his own room. The charge, however,
always clung to him, and his intriguing character and hopeless
management of the king's affairs in Scotland gave colour to the
accusation. There seems, however, to be no real foundation for it. His
career is sufficiently explained by his thoroughly weak and egotistical
character. He took no interest whatever in the great questions at issue,
was neither loyal nor patriotic, and only desired peace and compromise
to avoid personal losses. "He was devoid of intellectual or moral
strength, and was therefore easily brought to fancy all future tasks
easy and all present obstacles insuperable."[3] A worse choice than
Hamilton could not possibly have been made in such a crisis, and his
want of principle, of firmness and resolution, brought irretrievable
ruin upon the royal cause.

Hamilton's three sons died young, and the dukedom passed by special
remainder to his brother William, earl of Lanark. On the latter's death
in 1651 the Scottish titles reverted to the 1st duke's daughter, Anne,
whose husband, William Douglas, was created (third) duke of Hamilton.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biog._ by S. R. Gardiner;
  _History of England and of the Civil War_, by the same author;
  _Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton_, by G. Burnet; _Lauderdale Papers_
  (Camden Society, 1884-1885); _The Hamilton Papers_, ed. by S. R.
  Gardiner (Camden Society, 1880) and _addenda_ (Camden Miscellany, vol.
  ix., 1895); _Thomason Tracts_ in the British Museum, 550 (6), 1948
  (30) (account of his supposed treachery), and 546 (21) (speech on the
  scaffold).     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1]

      James, Lord Hamilton = Princess Mary Stuart,
          (d. 1479).       | daughter of James II.
                           |
       James, Lord Hamilton and 1st earl of Arran
                     (d. c. 1529).
                           |
    James, duke of Chatelherault, and 2nd earl of Arran
                      (d. 1575).
                           |
               James, 3rd earl of Arran
                      (d. 1609).
                           |
            John, 1st marquess of Hamilton
                      (d. 1604).
                           |
            James, 2nd marquess of Hamilton
                      (d. 1625).
                           |
       James, 3rd marquess and 1st duke of Hamilton.

  [2] See S. R. Gardiner in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_.

  [3] See S. R. Gardiner in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_.



HAMILTON, JOHN (c. 1511-1571), Scottish prelate and politician, was a
natural son of James Hamilton, 1st earl of Arran. At a very early age he
became a monk and abbot of Paisley, and after studying in Paris he
returned to Scotland, where he soon rose to a position of power and
influence under his half-brother, the regent Arran. He was made keeper
of the privy seal in 1543 and bishop of Dunkeld two years later; in 1546
he followed David Beaton as archbishop of St Andrews, and about the same
time he became treasurer of the kingdom. He made vigorous efforts to
stay the growth of Protestantism, but with one or two exceptions
"persecution was not the policy of Archbishop Hamilton," and in the
interests of the Roman Catholic religion a catechism called _Hamilton's
Catechism_ (published with an introduction by T. G. Law in 1884) was
drawn up and printed, possibly at his instigation. Having incurred the
displeasure of the Protestants, now the dominant party in Scotland, the
archbishop was imprisoned in 1563. After his release he was an active
partisan of Mary queen of Scots; he baptized the infant James,
afterwards King James VI., and pronounced the divorce of the queen from
Bothwell. He was present at the battle of Langside, and some time later
took refuge in Dumbarton Castle. Here he was seized, and on the charge
of being concerned in the murders of Lord Darnley and the regent Murray
he was tried, and hanged on the 6th of April 1571. The archbishop had
three children by his mistress, Grizzel Sempill.



HAMILTON, PATRICK (1504-1528), Scottish divine, second son of Sir
Patrick Hamilton, well known in Scottish chivalry, and of Catherine
Stewart, daughter of Alexander, duke of Albany, second son of James II.
of Scotland, was born in the diocese of Glasgow, probably at bis
father's estate of Stanehouse in Lanarkshire. He was educated probably
at Linlithgow. In 1517 he was appointed titular abbot of Ferne,
Ross-shire; and it was probably about the same year that he went to
study at Paris, for his name is found in an ancient list of those who
graduated there in 1520. It was doubtless in Paris, where Luther's
writings were already exciting much discussion, that he received the
germs of the doctrines he was afterwards to uphold. From Alexander Ales
we learn that Hamilton subsequently went to Louvain, attracted probably
by the fame of Erasmus, who in 1521 had his headquarters there.
Returning to Scotland, the young scholar naturally selected St Andrews,
the capital of the church and of learning, as his residence. On the 9th
of June 1523 he became a member of the university of St Andrews, and on
the 3rd of October 1524 he was admitted to its faculty of arts. There
Hamilton attained such influence that he was permitted to conduct as
precentor a musical mass of his own composition in the cathedral. But
the reformed doctrines had now obtained a firm hold on the young abbot,
and he was eager to communicate them to his fellow-countrymen. Early in
1527 the attention of James Beaton, archbishop of St Andrews, was
directed to the heretical preaching of the young priest, whereupon he
ordered that Hamilton should be formally summoned and accused. Hamilton
fled to Germany, first visiting Luther at Wittenberg, and afterwards
enrolling himself as a student, under Franz Lambert of Avignon, in the
new university of Marburg, opened on the 30th of May 1527 by Philip,
landgrave of Hesse. Hermann von dem Busche, one of the contributors to
the _Epistolae obscurorum virorum_, John Frith and Tyndale were among
those whom he met there. Late in the autumn of 1527 Hamilton returned to
Scotland, bold in the conviction of the truth of his principles. He went
first to his brother's house at Kincavel, near Linlithgow, in which town
he preached frequently, and soon afterwards he married a young lady of
noble rank, whose name has not come down to us. Beaton, avoiding open
violence through fear of Hamilton's high connexions, invited him to a
conference at St Andrews. The reformer, predicting that he was going to
confirm the pious in the true doctrine by his death, resolutely accepted
the invitation, and for nearly a month was permitted to preach and
dispute, perhaps in order to provide material for accusation. At length,
however, he was summoned before a council of bishops and clergy presided
over by the archbishop; there were thirteen charges, seven of which were
based on the doctrines affirmed in the _Loci communes_. On examination
Hamilton maintained that these were undoubtedly true. The council
condemned him as a heretic on the whole thirteen charges. Hamilton was
seized, and, it is said, surrendered to the soldiery on an assurance
that he would be restored to his friends without injury. The council
convicted him, after a sham disputation with Friar Campbell, and handed
him over to the secular power. The sentence was carried out on the same
day (February 29, 1528) lest he should be rescued by his friends, and he
was burned at the stake as a heretic. His courageous bearing attracted
more attention than ever to the doctrines for which he suffered, and
greatly helped to spread the Reformation in Scotland. The "reek of
Patrick Hamilton infected all it blew on." His martyrdom is singular in
this respect, that he represented in Scotland almost alone the Lutheran
stage of the Reformation. His only book was entitled _Loci communes_,
known as "Patrick's Places." It set forth the doctrine of justification
by faith and the contrast between the gospel and the law in a series of
clear-cut propositions. It is to be found in Foxs's _Acts and
Monuments_.



HAMILTON, ROBERT (1743-1829), Scottish economist and mathematician, was
born at Pilrig, Edinburgh, on the 11th of June 1743. His grandfather,
William Hamilton, principal of Edinburgh University, had been a
professor of divinity. Having completed his education at the university
of Edinburgh, where he was distinguished in mathematics, Robert was
induced to enter a banking-house in order to acquire a practical
knowledge of business, but his ambition was really academic. In 1769 he
gave up business pursuits and accepted the rectorship of Perth academy.
In 1779 he was presented to the chair of natural philosophy at Aberdeen
University. For many years, however, by private arrangement with his
colleague Professor Copland, Hamilton taught the class of mathematics.
In 1817 he was presented to the latter chair.

  Hamilton's most important work is the _Essay on the National Debt_,
  which appeared in 1813 and was undoubtedly the first to expose the
  economic fallacies involved in Pitt's policy of a sinking fund. It is
  still of value. A posthumous volume published in 1830, _The Progress
  of Society_, is also of great ability, and is a very effective
  treatment of economical principles by tracing their natural origin and
  position in the development of social life. Some minor works of a
  practical character (_Introduction to Merchandise_, 1777; _Essay on
  War and Peace_, 1790) are now forgotten.



HAMILTON, THOMAS (1789-1842), Scottish writer, younger brother of the
philosopher, Sir William Hamilton, Bart., was born in 1789. He was
educated at Glasgow University, where he made a close friend of Michael
Scott, the author of _Tom Cringle's Log_. He entered the army in 1810,
and served throughout the Peninsular and American campaigns, but
continued to cultivate his literary tastes. On the conclusion of peace
he withdrew, with the rank of captain, from active service. He
contributed both prose and verse to _Blackwood's Magazine_, in which
appeared his vigorous and popular military novel, _Cyril Thornton_
(1827). His _Annals of the Peninsular Campaign_, published originally in
1829, and republished in 1849 with additions by Frederick Hardman, is
written with great clearness and impartiality. His only other work, _Men
and Manners in America_, published originally in 1833, is somewhat
coloured by British prejudice, and by the author's aristocratic dislike
of a democracy. Hamilton died at Pisa on the 7th of December 1842.



HAMILTON, WILLIAM (1704-1754), Scottish poet, the author of "The Braes
of Yarrow," was born in 1704 at Bangour in Linlithgowshire, the son of
James Hamilton of Bangour, a member of the Scottish bar. As early as
1724 we find him contributing to Allan Ramsay's _Tea Table Miscellany_.
In 1745 Hamilton joined the cause of Prince Charles, and though it is
doubtful whether he actually bore arms, he celebrated the battle of
Prestonpans in verse. After the disaster of Culloden he lurked for
several months in the Highlands and escaped to France; but in 1749 the
influence of his friends procured him permission to return to Scotland,
and in the following year he obtained possession of the family estate of
Bangour. The state of his health compelled him, however, to live abroad,
and he died at Lyons on the 25th of March 1754. He was buried in the
Abbey Church of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh. He was twice married--"into
families of distinction" says the preface of the authorized edition of
his poems.

Hamilton left behind him a considerable number of poems, none of them
except "The Braes of Yarrow" of striking originality. The collection is
composed of odes, epitaphs, short pieces of translation, songs, and
occasional verses. The longest is "Contemplation, or the Triumph of
Love" (about 500 lines). The first edition was published without his
permission by Foulis (Glasgow, 1748), and introduced by a preface from
the pen of Adam Smith. Another edition with corrections by himself was
brought out by his friends in 1760, and to this was prefixed a portrait
engraved by Robert Strange.

  In 1850 James Paterson edited _The Poems and Songs of William
  Hamilton_. This volume contains several poems till then unpublished,
  and gives a life of the author.



HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM (1730-1803), British diplomatist and
archaeologist, son of Lord Archibald Hamilton, governor of Greenwich
hospital and of Jamaica, was born in Scotland on the 13th of December
1730, and served in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards from 1747 to 1758.
He left the army after his marriage with Miss Barlow, a Welsh heiress
from whom he inherited an estate near Swansea upon her death in 1782.
Their only child, a daughter, died in 1775. From 1761 to 1764 he was
member of parliament for Midhurst, but in the latter year he was
appointed envoy to the court of Naples, a post which he held for
thirty-six years--until his recall in 1800. During the greater part of
this time the official duties of the minister were of small importance.
It was enough that the representative of the British crown should be a
man of the world whose means enabled him to entertain on a handsome
scale. Hamilton was admirably qualified for these duties, being an
amiable and accomplished man, who took an intelligent interest in
science and art. In 1766 he became a member of the Royal Society, and
between that year and 1780 he contributed to its Philosophical
Transactions a series of observations on the action of volcanoes, which
he had made, or caused to be made, at Vesuvius and Etna. He employed a
draftsman named Fabris to make studies of the eruption of 1775 and 1776,
and a Dominican, Resina, to make observations at a later period. He
published several treatises on earthquakes and volcanoes between 1776
and 1783. He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and of the
Dilettanti, and a notable collector. Many of his treasures went to
enrich the British Museum. In 1772 he was made a knight of the Bath. The
last ten years of his life presented a curious contrast to the elegant
peace of those which had preceded them. In 1791 he married Emma Lyon
(see the separate article on Lady Hamilton). The outbreak of the French
Revolution and the rapid extension of the revolutionary movement in
Western Europe soon overwhelmed Naples. It was a misfortune for Sir
William that he was left to meet the very trying political and
diplomatic conditions which arose after 1793. His health had begun to
break down, and he suffered from bilious fevers. Sir William was in fact
in a state approaching dotage before his recall, a fact which, combined
with his senile devotion to Lady Hamilton, has to be considered in
accounting for his extraordinary complaisance in her relations with
Nelson. He died on the 6th of April 1803.

  See E. Edwards, _Lives of the Founders of the British Museum_ (London,
  1870); and the authorities given in the article on Emma, Lady
  Hamilton.



HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM, Bart. (1788-1856), Scottish metaphysician, was
born in Glasgow on the 8th of March 1788. His father, Dr William
Hamilton, had in 1781, on the strong recommendation of the celebrated
William Hunter, been appointed to succeed _his_ father, Dr Thomas
Hamilton, as professor of anatomy in the university of Glasgow; and when
he died in 1790, in his thirty-second year, he had already gained a
great reputation. William Hamilton and a younger brother (afterwards
Captain Thomas Hamilton, q.v.) were thus brought up under the sole care
of their mother. William received his early education in Scotland,
except during two years which he spent in a private school near London,
and went in 1807, as a Snell exhibitioner, to Balliol College, Oxford.
He obtained a first-class _in literis humanioribus_ and took the degree
of B.A. in 1811, M.A. in 1814. He had been intended for the medical
profession, but soon after leaving Oxford he gave up this idea, and in
1813 became a member of the Scottish bar. His life, however, was mainly
that of a student; and the following years, marked by little of outward
incident, were filled by researches of all kinds, through which he daily
added to his stores of learning, while at the same time he was gradually
forming his philosophic system. Investigation enabled him to make good
his claim to represent the ancient family of Hamilton of Preston, and in
1816 he took up the baronetcy, which had been in abeyance since the
death of Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston (1650-1701), well known in his
day as a Covenanting leader.

Two visits to Germany in 1817 and 1820 led to his taking up the study of
German and later on that of contemporary German philosophy, which was
then almost entirely neglected in the British universities. In 1820 he
was a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy in the university of
Edinburgh, which had fallen vacant on the death of Thomas Brown,
colleague of Dugald Stewart, and the latter's consequent resignation,
but was defeated on political grounds by John Wilson (1785-1854), the
"Christopher North" of _Blackwood's Magazine_. Soon afterwards (1821) he
was appointed professor of civil history, and as such delivered several
courses of lectures on the history of modern Europe and the history of
literature. The salary was £100 a year, derived from a local beer tax,
and was discontinued after a time. No pupils were compelled to attend,
the class dwindled, and Hamilton gave it up when the salary ceased. In
January 1827 he suffered a severe loss in the death of his mother, to
whom he had been a devoted son. In March 1828 he married his cousin
Janet Marshall.

In 1829 his career of authorship began with the appearance of the
well-known essay on the "Philosophy of the Unconditioned" (a critique of
Comte's _Cours de philosophie_)--the first of a series of articles
contributed by him to the _Edinburgh Review_. He was elected in 1836 to
the Edinburgh chair of logic and metaphysics, and from this time dates
the influence which, during the next twenty years, he exerted over the
thought of the younger generation in Scotland. Much about the same time
he began the preparation of an annotated edition of Reid's works,
intending to annex to it a number of dissertations. Before, however,
this design had been carried out, he was struck (1844) with paralysis of
the right side, which seriously crippled his bodily powers, though it
left his mind wholly unimpaired. The edition of Reid appeared in 1846,
but with only seven of the intended dissertations--the last, too,
unfinished. It was his distinct purpose to complete the work, but this
purpose remained at his death unfulfilled, and all that could be done
afterwards was to print such materials for the remainder, or such notes
on the subjects to be discussed, as were found among his MSS.
Considerably before this time he had formed his theory of logic, the
leading principles of which were indicated in the prospectus of "an
essay on a new analytic of logical forms" prefixed to his edition of
Reid. But the elaboration of the scheme in its details and applications
continued during the next few years to occupy much of his leisure. Out
of this arose a sharp controversy with Augustus de Morgan. The essay did
not appear, but the results of the labour gone through are contained in
the appendices to his _Lectures on Logic_. Another occupation of these
years was the preparation of extensive materials for a publication which
he designed on the personal history, influence and opinions of Luther.
Here he advanced so far as to have planned and partly carried out the
arrangement of the work; but it did not go further, and still remains in
MS. In 1852-1853 appeared the first and second editions of his
_Discussions in Philosophy, Literature and Education_, a reprint, with
large additions, of his contributions to the _Edinburgh Review_. Soon
after, his general health began to fail. Still, however, aided now as
ever by his devoted wife, he persevered in literary labour; and during
1854-1855 he brought out nine volumes of a new edition of Stewart's
works. The only remaining volume was to have contained a memoir of
Stewart, but this he did not live to write. He taught his class for the
last time in the winter of 1855-1856. Shortly after the close of the
session he was taken ill, and on the 6th of May 1856 he died in
Edinburgh.

  Hamilton's positive contribution to the progress of thought is
  comparatively slight, and his writings, even where reinforced by the
  copious lecture notes taken by his pupils, cannot be said to present a
  comprehensive philosophic system. None the less he did considerable
  service by stimulating a spirit of criticism in his pupils, by
  insisting on the great importance of psychology as opposed to the
  older metaphysical method, and not least by his recognition of the
  importance of German philosophy, especially that of Kant. By far his
  most important work was his "Philosophy of the Unconditioned," the
  development of the principle that for the human finite mind there can
  be no knowledge of the Infinite. The basis of his whole argument is
  the thesis, "To think is to condition." Deeply impressed with Kant's
  antithesis between subject and object, the knowing and the known,
  Hamilton laid down the principle that every object is known only in
  virtue of its relations to other objects (see RELATIVITY OF
  KNOWLEDGE). From this it follows limitless time, space, power and so
  forth are humanly speaking inconceivable. The fact, however, that all
  thought seems to demand the idea of the infinite or absolute provides
  a sphere for faith, which is thus the specific faculty of theology. It
  is a weakness characteristic of the human mind that it cannot conceive
  any phenomenon without a beginning: hence the conception of the causal
  relation, according to which every phenomenon has its cause in
  preceding phenomena, and its effect in subsequent phenomena. The
  causal concept is, therefore, only one of the ordinary necessary forms
  of the cognitive consciousness limited, as we have seen, by being
  confined to that which is relative or conditioned. As regards the
  problem of the nature of objectivity, Hamilton simply accepts the
  evidence of consciousness as to the separate existence of the object:
  "the root of our nature cannot be a lie." In virtue of this assumption
  Hamilton's philosophy becomes a "natural realism." In fact his whole
  position is a strange compound of Kant and Reid. Its chief practical
  corollary is the denial of philosophy as a method of attaining
  absolute knowledge and its relegation to the academic sphere of mental
  training. The transition from philosophy to theology, i.e. to the
  sphere of faith, is presented by Hamilton under the analogous relation
  between the mind and the body. As the mind is to the body, so is the
  unconditioned Absolute or God to the world of the conditioned.
  Consciousness, itself a conditioned phenomenon, must derive from or
  depend on some different thing prior to or behind material phenomena.
  Curiously enough, however, Hamilton does not explain how it comes
  about that God, who in the terms of the analogy bears to the
  conditioned mind the relation which the conditioned mind bears to its
  objects, can Himself be unconditioned. He can be regarded only as
  related to consciousness, and in so far is, therefore, not absolute or
  unconditioned. Thus the very principles of Hamilton's philosophy are
  apparently violated in his theological argument.

  Hamilton regarded logic as a purely formal science; it seemed to him
  an unscientific mixing together of heterogeneous elements to treat as
  parts of the same science the formal and the material conditions of
  knowledge. He was quite ready to allow that on this view logic cannot
  be used as a means of discovering or guaranteeing facts, even the most
  general, and expressly asserted that it has to do, not with the
  objective validity, but only with the mutual relations, of judgments.
  He further held that induction and deduction are correlative processes
  of formal logic, each resting on the necessities of thought and
  deriving thence its several laws. The only logical laws which he
  recognized were the three axioms of identity, non-contradiction, and
  excluded middle, which he regarded as severally phases of one general
  condition of the possibility of existence and, therefore, of thought.
  The law of reason and consequent he considered not as different, but
  merely as expressing metaphysically what these express logically. He
  added as a postulate--which in his theory was of importance--"that
  logic be allowed to state explicitly what is thought implicitly."

  In logic, Hamilton is known chiefly as the inventor of the doctrine of
  the "quantification of the predicate," i.e. that the judgment "All A
  is B" should really mean "All A is _all_ B," whereas the ordinary
  universal proposition should be stated "All A is _some_ B." This view,
  which was supported by Stanley Jevons, is fundamentally at fault since
  it implies that the predicate is thought of in its extension; in point
  of fact when a judgment is made, e.g. about men, that they are mortal
  ("All men are mortal"), the intention is to _attribute a quality_
  (i.e. the predicate is used in connotation). In other words, we are
  not considering the question "what kind are men among the various
  things which must die?" (as is implied in the form "all men are some
  mortals") but "what is the fact about men?" We are not stating a mere
  identity (see further, e.g., H. W. B. Joseph, _Introduction to Logic_,
  1906, pp. 198 foll.).

  The philosopher to whom above all others Hamilton professed allegiance
  was Aristotle. His works were the object of his profound and constant
  study, and supplied in fact the mould in which his whole philosophy
  was cast. With the commentators on the Aristotelian writings, ancient,
  medieval and modern, he was also familiar; and the scholastic
  philosophy he studied with care and appreciation at a time when it had
  hardly yet begun to attract attention in his country. His wide reading
  enabled him to trace many a doctrine to the writings of forgotten
  thinkers; and nothing gave him greater pleasure than to draw forth
  such from their obscurity, and to give due acknowledgment, even if it
  chanced to be of the prior possession of a view or argument that he
  had thought out for himself. Of modern German philosophy he was a
  diligent, if not always a sympathetic, student. How profoundly his
  thinking was modified by that of Kant is evident from the tenor of his
  speculations; nor was this less the case because, on fundamental
  points, he came to widely different conclusions.

  Any account of Hamilton would be incomplete which regarded him only as
  a philosopher, for his knowledge and his interests embraced all
  subjects related to that of the human mind. Physical and mathematical
  science had, indeed, no attraction for him; but his study of anatomy
  and physiology was minute and experimental. In literature alike
  ancient and modern he was widely and deeply read; and, from his
  unusual powers of memory, the stores which he had acquired were always
  at command. If there was one period with the literature of which he
  was more particularly familiar, it was the 16th and 17th centuries.
  Here in every department he was at home. He had gathered a vast amount
  of its theological lore, had a critical knowledge especially of its
  Latin poetry, and was minutely acquainted with the history of the
  actors in its varied scenes, not only as narrated in professed
  records, but as revealed in the letters, table-talk, and casual
  effusions of themselves or their contemporaries (cf. his article on
  the _Epistolae obscurorum virorum_, and his pamphlet on the Disruption
  of the Church of Scotland in 1843). Among his literary projects were
  editions of the works of George Buchanan and Julius Caesar Scaliger.
  His general scholarship found expression in his library, which, though
  mainly, was far from being exclusively, a philosophical collection. It
  now forms a distinct portion of the library of the university of
  Glasgow.

  His chief practical interest was in education--an interest which he
  manifested alike as a teacher and as a writer, and which had led him
  long before he was either to a study of the subject both theoretical
  and historical. He thence adopted views as to the ends and methods of
  education that, when afterwards carried out or advocated by him, met
  with general recognition; but he also expressed in one of his articles
  an unfavourable view of the study of mathematics as a mental
  gymnastic, which excited much opposition, but which he never saw
  reason to alter. As a teacher, he was zealous and successful, and his
  writings on university organization and reform had, at the time of
  their appearance, a decisive practical effect, and contain much that
  is of permanent value.

  His posthumous works are his _Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic_, 4
  vols., edited by H. L. Mansel, Oxford, and John Veitch (_Metaphysics_,
  1858; _Logic_, 1860); and _Additional Notes to Reid's Works_, from
  Sir W. Hamilton's MSS., under the editorship of H. L. Mansel, D.D.
  (1862). _A Memoir of Sir W. Hamilton_, by Veitch, appeared in 1869.



HAMILTON, WILLIAM GERARD (1729-1796), English statesman, popularly known
as "Single Speech Hamilton," was born in London on the 28th of January
1729, the son of a Scottish bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He was educated at
Winchester and at Oriel College, Oxford. Inheriting his father's fortune
he entered political life and became M.P. for Petersfield, Hampshire.
His maiden speech, delivered on the 13th of November 1755, during the
debate on the address, which excited Walpole's admiration, is generally
supposed to have been his only effort in the House of Commons. But the
nickname "Single Speech" is undoubtedly misleading, and Hamilton is
known to have spoken with success on other occasions, both in the House
of Commons and in the Irish parliament. In 1756 he was appointed one of
the commissioners for trade and plantations, and in 1761 he became chief
secretary to Lord Halifax, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, as well as
Irish M. P. for Killebegs and English M. P. for Pontefract. He was
chancellor of the exchequer in Ireland in 1763, and subsequently filled
various other administrative offices. Hamilton was thought very highly
of by Dr Johnson, and it is certain that he was strongly opposed to the
British taxation of America. He died in London on the 16th of July 1796,
and was buried in the chancel vault of St Martin's-in-the-fields.

  Two of his speeches in the Irish House of Commons, and some other
  miscellaneous works, were published after his death under the title
  _Parliamentary Logick_.



HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM ROWAN (1805-1865), Scottish mathematician, was
born in Dublin on the 4th of August 1805. His father, Archibald
Hamilton, who was a solicitor, and his uncle, James Hamilton (curate of
Trim), migrated from Scotland in youth. A branch of the Scottish family
to which they belonged had settled in the north of Ireland in the time
of James I., and this fact seems to have given rise to the common
impression that Hamilton was an Irishman.

His genius first displayed itself in the form of a wonderful power of
acquiring languages. At the age of seven he had already made very
considerable progress in Hebrew, and before he was thirteen he had
acquired, under the care of his uncle, who was an extraordinary
linguist, almost as many languages as he had years of age. Among these,
besides the classical and the modern European languages, were included
Persian, Arabic, Hindustani, Sanskrit and even Malay. But though to the
very end of his life he retained much of the singular learning of his
childhood and youth, often reading Persian and Arabic in the intervals
of sterner pursuits, he had long abandoned them as a study, and employed
them merely as a relaxation.

His mathematical studies seem to have been undertaken and carried to
their full development without any assistance whatever, and the result
is that his writings belong to no particular "school," unless indeed we
consider them to form, as they are well entitled to do, a school by
themselves. As an arithmetical calculator he was not only wonderfully
expert, but he seems to have occasionally found a positive delight in
working out to an enormous number of places of decimals the result of
some irksome calculation. At the age of twelve he engaged Zerah Colburn,
the American "calculating boy," who was then being exhibited as a
curiosity in Dublin, and he had not always the worst of the encounter.
But, two years before, he had accidentally fallen in with a Latin copy
of _Euclid_, which he eagerly devoured; and at twelve he attacked
Newton's _Arithmetica universalis_. This was his introduction to modern
analysis. He soon commenced to read the _Principia_, and at sixteen he
had mastered a great part of that work, besides some more modern works
on analytical geometry and the differential calculus.

About this period he was also engaged in preparation for entrance at
Trinity College, Dublin, and had therefore to devote a portion of his
time to classics. In the summer of 1822, in his seventeenth year, he
began a systematic study of Laplace's _Mécanique Céleste_. Nothing
could be better fitted to call forth such mathematical powers as those
of Hamilton; for Laplace's great work, rich to profusion in analytical
processes alike novel and powerful, demands from the most gifted student
careful and often laborious study. It was in the successful effort to
open this treasure-house that Hamilton's mind received its final temper,
"Dès-lors il commença à marcher seul," to use the words of the
biographer of another great mathematician. From that time he appears to
have devoted himself almost wholly to original investigation (so far at
least as regards mathematics), though he ever kept himself well
acquainted with the progress of science both in Britain and abroad.

Having detected an important defect in one of Laplace's demonstrations,
he was induced by a friend to write out his remarks, that they might be
shown to Dr John Brinkley (1763-1835), afterwards bishop of Cloyne, but
who was then the first royal astronomer for Ireland, and an accomplished
mathematician. Brinkley seems at once to have perceived the vast talents
of young Hamilton, and to have encouraged him in the kindest manner. He
is said to have remarked in 1823 of this lad of eighteen: "This young
man, I do not say _will be_, but _is_, the first mathematician of his
age."

Hamilton's career at College was perhaps unexampled. Amongst a number of
competitors of more than ordinary merit, he was first in every subject
and at every examination. He achieved the rare distinction of obtaining
an _optime_ for both Greek and for physics. How many more such honours
he might have attained it is impossible to say; but he was expected to
win both the gold medals at the degree examination, had his career as a
student not been cut short by an unprecedented event. This was his
appointment to the Andrews professorship of astronomy in the university
of Dublin, vacated by Dr Brinkley in 1827. The chair was not exactly
offered to him, as has been sometimes asserted, but the electors, having
met and talked over the subject, authorized one of their number, who was
Hamilton's personal friend, to urge him to become a candidate, a step
which his modesty had prevented him from taking. Thus, when barely
twenty-two, he was established at the Observatory, Dunsink, near Dublin.
He was not specially fitted for the post, for although he had a profound
acquaintance with theoretical astronomy, he had paid but little
attention to the regular work of the practical astronomer. And it must
be said that his time was better employed in original investigations
than it would have been had he spent it in observations made even with
the best of instruments,--infinitely better than if he had spent it on
those of the observatory, which, however good originally, were then
totally unfit for the delicate requirements of modern astronomy. Indeed
there can be little doubt that Hamilton was intended by the university
authorities who elected him to the professorship of astronomy to spend
his time as he best could for the advancement of science, without being
tied down to any particular branch. Had he devoted himself to practical
astronomy they would assuredly have furnished him with modern
instruments and an adequate staff of assistants.

In 1835, being secretary to the meeting of the British Association which
was held that year in Dublin, he was knighted by the lord-lieutenant.
But far higher honours rapidly succeeded, among which we may merely
mention his election in 1837 to the president's chair in the Royal Irish
Academy, and the rare distinction of being made corresponding member of
the academy of St Petersburg. These are the few salient points (other,
of course, than the epochs of his more important discoveries and
inventions presently to be considered) in the uneventful life of this
great man. He retained his wonderful faculties unimpaired to the very
last, and steadily continued till within a day or two of his death,
which occurred on the 2nd of September 1865, the task (his _Elements of
Quaternions_) which had occupied the last six years of his life.

  The germ of his first great discovery was contained in one of those
  early papers which in 1823 he communicated to Dr Brinkley, by whom,
  under the title of "Caustics," it was presented in 1824 to the Royal
  Irish Academy. It was referred as usual to a committee. Their report,
  while acknowledging the novelty and value of its contents, and the
  great mathematical skill of its author, recommended that, before being
  published, it should be still further developed and simplified. During
  the next three years the paper grew to an immense bulk, principally by
  the additional details which had been inserted at the desire of the
  committee. But it also assumed a much more intelligible form, and the
  grand features of the new method were now easily to be seen. Hamilton
  himself seems not till this period to have fully understood either the
  nature or the importance of his discovery, for it is only now that we
  find him announcing his intention of applying his method to dynamics.
  The paper was finally entitled "Theory of Systems of Rays," and the
  first part was printed in 1828 in the _Transactions of the Royal Irish
  Academy_. It is understood that the more important contents of the
  second and third parts appeared in the three voluminous supplements
  (to the first part) which were published in the same _Transactions_,
  and in the two papers "On a General Method in Dynamics," which
  appeared in the _Philosophical Transactions_ in 1834-1835. The
  principle of "Varying Action" is the great feature of these papers;
  and it is strange, indeed, that the one particular result of this
  theory which, perhaps more than anything else that Hamilton has done,
  has rendered his name known beyond the little world of true
  philosophers, should have been easily within the reach of Augustin
  Fresnel and others for many years before, and in no way required
  Hamilton's new conceptions or methods, although it was by them that he
  was led to its discovery. This singular result is still known by the
  name "conical refraction," which he proposed for it when he first
  predicted its existence in the third supplement to his "Systems of
  Rays," read in 1832.

  The step from optics to dynamics in the application of the method of
  "Varying Action" was made in 1827, and communicated to the Royal
  Society, in whose _Philosophical Transactions_ for 1834 and 1835 there
  are two papers on the subject. These display, like the "Systems of
  Rays," a mastery over symbols and a flow of mathematical language
  almost unequalled. But they contain what is far more valuable still,
  the greatest addition which dynamical science had received since the
  grand strides made by Sir Isaac Newton and Joseph Louis Lagrange. C.
  G. J. Jacobi and other mathematicians have developed to a great
  extent, and as a question of pure mathematics only, Hamilton's
  processes, and have thus made extensive additions to our knowledge of
  differential equations. But there can be little doubt that we have as
  yet obtained only a mere glimpse of the vast physical results of which
  they contain the germ. And though this is of course by far the more
  valuable aspect in which any such contribution to science can be
  looked at, the other must not be despised. It is characteristic of
  most of Hamilton's, as of nearly all great discoveries, that even
  their indirect consequences are of high value.

  The other great contribution made by Hamilton to mathematical science,
  the invention of Quaternions, is treated under that heading. The
  following characteristic extract from a letter shows Hamilton's own
  opinion of his mathematical work, and also gives a hint of the devices
  which he employed to render written language as expressive as actual
  speech. His first great work, _Lectures on Quaternions_ (Dublin,
  1852), is almost painful to read in consequence of the frequent use of
  italics and capitals.

  "I hope that it may not be considered as unpardonable vanity or
  presumption on my part, if, as my own taste has always led me to feel
  a greater interest in _methods_ than in _results_, so it is by
  METHODS, rather than by _any_ THEOREMS, which _can_ be separately
  _quoted_, that I desire and hope to be remembered. Nevertheless it is
  only human nature, to derive _some_ pleasure from being cited, now and
  then, even about a 'Theorem'; especially where ... the quoter can
  enrich the subject, by combining it with researches of _his own_."

  The discoveries, papers and treatises we have mentioned might well
  have formed the whole work of a long and laborious life. But not to
  speak of his enormous collection of MS. books, full to overflowing
  with new and original matter, which have been handed over to Trinity
  College, Dublin, the works we have already called attention to barely
  form the greater portion of what he has published. His extraordinary
  investigations connected with the solution of algebraic equations of
  the fifth degree, and his examination of the results arrived at by N.
  H. Abel, G. B. Jerrard, and others in their researches on this
  subject, form another grand contribution to science. There is next his
  great paper on _Fluctuating Functions_, a subject which, since the
  time of J. Fourier, has been of immense and ever increasing value in
  physical applications of mathematics. There is also the extremely
  ingenious invention of the hodograph. Of his extensive investigations
  into the solution (especially by numerical approximation) of certain
  classes of differential equations which constantly occur in the
  treatment of physical questions, only a few items have been published,
  at intervals, in the _Philosophical Magazine_. Besides all this,
  Hamilton was a voluminous correspondent. Often a single letter of his
  occupied from fifty to a hundred or more closely written pages, all
  devoted to the minute consideration of every feature of some
  particular problem; for it was one of the peculiar characteristics of
  his mind never to be satisfied with a general understanding of a
  question; he pursued it until he knew it in all its details. He was
  ever courteous and kind in answering applications for assistance in
  the study of his works, even when his compliance must have cost him
  much time. He was excessively precise and hard to please with
  reference to the final polish of his own works for publication; and it
  was probably for this reason that he published so little compared with
  the extent of his investigations.

  Like most men of great originality, Hamilton generally matured his
  ideas before putting pen to paper. "He used to carry on," says his
  elder son, William Edwin Hamilton, "long trains of algebraical and
  arithmetical calculations in his mind, during which he was unconscious
  of the earthly necessity of eating; we used to bring in a 'snack' and
  leave it in his study, but a brief nod of recognition of the intrusion
  of the chop or cutlet was often the only result, and his thoughts went
  on soaring upwards."

  For further details about Hamilton (his poetry and his association
  with poets, for instance) the reader is referred to the _Dublin
  University Magazine_ (Jan. 1842), the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (Jan.
  1866), and the _Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society_
  (Feb. 1866); and also to an article by the present writer in the
  _North British Review_ (Sept. 1866), from which much of the above
  sketch has been taken. His works have been collected and published by
  R. P. Graves, _Life of Sir W. R. Hamilton_ (3 vols., 1882, 1885,
  1889).     (P. G. T.)



HAMILTON, a town of Dundas and Normanby counties, Victoria, Australia,
on the Grange Burne Creek, 197½ m. by rail W. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901)
4026. Hamilton has a number of educational institutions, chief among
which are the Hamilton and Western District College, one of the finest
buildings of its kind in Victoria, the Hamilton Academy, and the
Alexandra ladies' college, a state school, and a Catholic college. It
has a fine racecourse, and pastoral and agricultural exhibitions are
held annually, as the surrounding district is mainly devoted to
sheep-farming. Mutton is frozen and exported. Hamilton became a borough
in 1859.



HAMILTON (GRAND or ASHUANIPI), the chief river of Labrador, Canada. It
rises in the Labrador highlands at an elevation of 1700 ft., its chief
sources being Lakes Attikonak and Ashuanipi, between 65° and 66° W. and
52° and 53° N. After a precipitous course of 600 m. it empties into
Melville Lake (90 m. long and 18 wide), an extension of Hamilton inlet,
on the Atlantic. About 220 m. from its mouth occur the Grand Falls of
Labrador. Here in a distance of 12 m. the river drops 760 ft.,
culminating in a final vertical fall of 316 ft. Below the falls are
violent rapids, and the river sweeps through a deep and narrow canyon.
The country through which it passes is for the most part a wilderness of
barren rock, full of lakes and lacustrine rivers, many of which are its
tributaries. In certain portions of the valley spruce and poplars grow
to a moderate size. From the head of Lake Attikonak a steep and rocky
portage of less than a mile leads to Burnt Lake, which is drained into
the St Lawrence by the Romaine river.



HAMILTON, one of the chief cities of Canada, capital of Wentworth
county, Ontario. It occupies a highly picturesque situation upon the
shore of a spacious land-locked bay at the western end of Lake Ontario.
It covers the plain stretching between the water-front and the
escarpment (called "The Mountain"), this latter being a continuation of
that over which the Falls of Niagara plunge 40 m. to the west. Founded
about 1778 by one Robert Land, the growth of Hamilton has been steady
and substantial, and, owing to its remarkable industrial development, it
has come to be called "the Birmingham of Canada." This development is
largely due to the use of electrical energy generated by water-power, in
regard to which Hamilton stands first among Canadian cities. The
electricity has not, however, been obtained from Niagara Falls, but from
De Cew Falls, 35 m. S.E. of the city. The entire electrical railway
system, the lighting of the city, and the majority of the factories are
operated by power obtained from this source. The manufacturing interests
of Hamilton are varied, and some of the establishments are of vast size,
employing many thousands of hands each, such as the International
Harvester Co. and the Canadian Westinghouse Co. In addition Hamilton is
the centre of one of the finest fruit-growing districts on the
continent, and its open-air market is a remarkable sight. The municipal
matters are managed by a mayor and board of aldermen. Six steam
railroads and three electric radial roads afford Hamilton ample
facilities for transport by land, while during the season of navigation
a number of steamboat lines supply daily services to Toronto and other
lake ports. Entrance into the broad bay is obtained through a short
canal intersecting Burlington Beach, which is crossed by two swing
bridges, whereof one--that of the Grand Trunk railway--is among the
largest of its kind in the world. Burlington Beach is lined with
cottages occupied by the city residents during the hot summer months.
Hamilton is rich in public institutions. The educational equipment
comprises a normal college, collegiate institute, model school and more
than a score of public schools, for the most part housed in handsome
stone and brick buildings. There are four hospitals, and the asylum for
the insane is the largest in Canada. There is an excellent public
library, and in the same building with it a good art school. Hamilton
boasts of a number of parks, Dundurn Castle Park, containing several
interesting relics of the war of 1812, being the finest, and, as it is
practically within the city limits, it is a great boon to the people.
Gore Park, in the centre of the city, is used for concerts, given by
various bands, one of which has gained an international reputation.
Since its incorporation in 1833 the history of Hamilton has shown
continuous growth. In 1836 the population was 2846; In 1851, 10,248; in
1861, 19,096; in 1871, 26,880; in 1881, 36,661; in 1891, 48,959; and in
1901, 52,634. The Anglican bishop of Niagara has his seat here, and also
a Roman Catholic bishop. Hamilton returns two members to the Provincial
parliament and two to the Dominion.



HAMILTON, a municipal and police burgh of Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1891), 24,859; (1901), 32,775. It is situated about 1 m. from the
junction of the Avon with the Clyde, 10¾ m. S.E. of Glasgow by road, and
has stations on the Caledonian and North British railways. The town hall
in the Scottish Baronial style has a clock-tower 130 ft. high, and the
county buildings are in the Grecian style. Among the subjects of
antiquarian interest are Queenzie Neuk, the spot where Queen Mary rested
on her journey to Langside, the old steeple and pillory built in the
reign of Charles I., the Mote Hill, the old Runic cross, and the carved
gateway in the palace park. In the churchyard there is a monument to
four covenanters who suffered at Edinburgh, on the 7th of December 1600,
whose heads were buried here. Among the industries are manufactures of
cotton, lace and embroidered muslins, and carriage-building, and there
are also large market gardens, the district being famed especially for
its apples, and some dairy-farming; but the prosperity of the town
depends chiefly upon the coal and ironstone of the surrounding country,
which is the richest mineral field in Scotland. Hamilton originated in
the 15th century under the protecting influence of the lords of
Hamilton, and became a burgh of barony in 1456 and a royal burgh in
1548. The latter rights were afterwards surrendered and it was made the
chief burgh of the regality and dukedom of Hamilton in 1668, the third
marquess having been created duke in 1643. It unites with Airdrie,
Falkirk, Lanark and Linlithgow to form the Falkirk district of burghs,
which returns one member to parliament.

  Immediately east of the town is Hamilton palace, the seat of the duke
  of Hamilton and Brandon, premier peer of Scotland. It occupies most of
  the site of the original burgh of Netherton. The first mansion was
  erected at the end of the 16th century and rebuilt about 1710, to be
  succeeded in 1822-1829 by the present palace, a magnificent building
  in the classical style. Its front is a specimen of the enriched
  Corinthian architecture, with a projecting pillared portico after the
  style of the temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome, 264 ft. in length and
  60 ft. in height. Each of the twelve pillars of the portico is a
  single block of stone, quarried at Dalserf, midway between Hamilton
  and Lanark, and required thirty horses to draw it to its site. The
  interior is richly decorated and once contained the finest collection
  of paintings in Scotland, but most of them, together with the Hamilton
  and Beckford libraries, were sold in 1882. Within the grounds, which
  comprise nearly 1500 acres, is the mausoleum erected by the 10th duke,
  a structure resembling in general design that of the emperor Hadrian
  at Rome, being a circular building springing from a square basement,
  and enclosing a decorated octagonal chapel, the door of which is a
  copy in bronze of Ghiberti's gates at Florence. At Barncluith, 1 m.
  S.E. of the town, may be seen the Dutch gardens which were laid down
  in terraces on the steep banks of the Avon. Their quaint shrubbery and
  old-fashioned setting render them attractive. They were planned in
  1583 by John Hamilton, an ancestor of Lord Belhaven, and now belong
  to Lord Ruthven. About 2 m. S.E. of Hamilton, within the western High
  Park, on the summit of a precipitous rock 200 ft. in height, the foot
  of which is washed by the Avon, stand the ruins of Cadzow Castle, the
  subject of a spirited ballad by Sir Walter Scott. The castle had been
  a royal residence for at least two centuries before Bannockburn
  (1314), but immediately after the battle Robert Bruce granted it to
  Sir Walter FitzGilbert Hamilton, the son of the founder of the family,
  in return for the fealty. Near it is the noble chase with its ancient
  oaks, the remains of the Caledonian Forest, where are still preserved
  some of the aboriginal breed of wild cattle. Opposite Cadzow Castle,
  in the eastern High Park, on the right bank of the Avon, is
  Chatelherault, consisting of stables and offices, and imitating in
  outline the palace of that name in France.



HAMILTON, a village of Madison county, New York, U.S.A., about 29 m.
S.W. of Utica. Pop. (1890), 1744; (1900), 1627; (1905) 1522; (1910)
1689. It is served by the New York, Ontario & Western railway. Hamilton
is situated in a productive agricultural region, and has a large trade
in hops; among its manufactures are canned vegetables, lumber and knit
goods. There are several valuable stone quarries in the vicinity. The
village owns and operates its water-supply and electric-lighting system.
Hamilton is the seat of Colgate University, which was founded in 1819,
under the name of the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, as
a training school for the Baptist ministry, was chartered as Madison
University in 1846, and was renamed in 1890 in honour of the Colgate
family, several of whom, especially William (1783-1857), the soap
manufacturer, and his sons, James Boorman (1818-1904), and Samuel
(1822-1897), were its liberal benefactors. In 1908-1909 it had a
university faculty of 33 members, 307 students in the college, 60 in the
theological department, and 134 in the preparatory department, and a
library of 54,000 volumes, including the Baptist Historical collection
(about 5000 vols.) given by Samuel Colgate. The township in which the
village is situated and which bears the same name (pop. in 1910, 3825)
was settled about 1790 and was separated from the township of Paris in
1795. The village was incorporated in 1812.



HAMILTON, a city and the county-seat of Butler county, Ohio, U.S.A., on
both sides of the Great Miami river, 25 m. N. of Cincinnati. Pop.
(1890), 17,565; (1900), 23,914, of whom 2949 were foreign-born; (1910
census), 35,279. It is served by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, and
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, and by
interurban electric lines connecting with Cincinnati, Dayton and Toledo.
The valley in which Hamilton is situated is noted for its fertility. The
city has a fine public square and the Lane free library (1866); the
court house is its most prominent public building. A hydraulic canal
provides the city with good water power, and in 1905, in the value of
its factory products ($13,992,574, being 31.3% more than in 1900),
Hamilton ranked tenth among the cities of the state. Its most
distinctive manufactures are paper and wood pulp; more valuable are
foundry and machine shop products; other manufactures are safes, malt
liquors, flour, woollens, Corliss engines, carriages and wagons and
agricultural implements. The municipality owns and operates the
water-works, electric-lighting plant and gas plant. A stockade fort was
built here in 1791 by General Arthur Saint Clair, but it was abandoned
in 1796, two years after the place had been laid out as a town and named
Fairfield. The town was renamed, in honour of Alexander Hamilton, about
1796. In 1803 Hamilton was made the county-seat; in 1810 it was
incorporated as a village; in 1854 it annexed the town of Rossville on
the opposite side of the river; and in 1857 it was made a city. In 1908,
by the annexation of suburbs, the area and the population of Hamilton
were considerably increased. Hamilton was the early home of William Dean
Howells, whose recollections of it are to be found in his _A Boy's
Town_; his father's anti-slavery sentiments made it necessary for him to
sell his printing office, where the son had learned to set type in his
teens, and to remove to Dayton.



HAMIRPUR, a town and district of British India, in the Allahabad
division of the United Provinces. The town stands on a tongue of land
near the confluence of the Betwa and Jumna, 110 m. N.W. of Allahabad.
Pop. (1901), 6721. It was founded, according to tradition, in the 11th
century by Hamir Deo, a Karchuli Rajput expelled from Alwar by the
Mahommedans.

The district has an area of 2289 sq. m., and encloses the native states
of Sarila, Jigni and Bihat, besides portions of Charkhari and Garrauli.
Hamirpur forms part of the great plain of Bundelkhand, which stretches
from the banks of the Jumna to the central Vindhyan plateau. The
district is in shape an irregular parallelogram, with a general slope
northward from the low hills on the southern boundary. The scenery is
rendered picturesque by the artificial lakes of Mahoba. These
magnificent reservoirs were constructed by the Chandel rajas before the
Mahommedan conquest, for purposes of irrigation and as sheets of
ornamental water. Many of them enclose craggy islets or peninsulas,
crowned by the ruins of granite temples, exquisitely carved and
decorated. From the base of this hill and lake country the general plain
of the district spreads northward in an arid and treeless level towards
the broken banks of the rivers. Of these the principal are the Betwa and
its tributary the Dhasan, both of which are unnavigable. There is little
waste land, except in the ravines by the river sides. The deep black
soil of Bundelkhand, known as _mar_, retains the moisture under a dried
and rifted surface, and renders the district fertile. The staple produce
is grain of various sorts, the most important being gram. Cotton is also
a valuable crop. Agriculture suffers much from the spread of the _kans_
grass, a noxious weed which overruns the fields and is found to be
almost ineradicable wherever it has once obtained a footing. Droughts
and famine are unhappily common. The climate is dry and hot, owing to
the absence of shade and the bareness of soil, except in the
neighbourhood of the Mahoba lakes, which cool and moisten the
atmosphere.

In 1901 the pop. was 458,542, showing a decrease of 11% in the decade,
due to the famine of 1895-1897. Export trade is chiefly in agricultural
produce and cotton cloth. Rath is the principal commercial centre. The
Midland branch of the Great Indian Peninsula railway passes through the
south of the district.

From the 9th to the 12th century this district was the centre of the
Chandel kingdom, with its capital at Mahoba. The rajas adorned the town
with many splendid edifices, remains of which still exist, besides
constructing the noble artificial lakes already described. At the end of
the 12th century Mahoba fell into the hands of the Mussulmans. In 1680
the district was conquered by Chhatar Sal, the hero of the Bundelas, who
assigned at his death one-third of his dominions to his ally the peshwa
of the Mahrattas. Until Bundelkhand became British territory in 1803
there was constant warfare between the Bundela princes and the Mahratta
chieftains. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, Hamirpur was the
scene of a fierce rebellion, and all the principal towns were plundered
by the surrounding chiefs. After a short period of desultory guerrilla
warfare the rebels were effectually quelled and the work of
reorganization began. The district has since been subject to cycles of
varying agricultural prosperity.



HAMITIC RACES AND LANGUAGES. The questions involved in a consideration
of Hamitic races and Hamitic languages are independent of one another
and call for separate treatment.

I. _Hamitic Races._--The term Hamitic as applied to race is not only
extremely vague but has been much abused by anthropological writers. Of
the few who have attempted a precise definition the most prominent is
Sergi,[1] and his classification may be taken as representing one point
of view with regard to this difficult question.

  Sergi considers the Hamites, using the term in the racial sense, as a
  branch of his "Mediterranean Race"; and divides them as follows:--

  1. _Eastern Branch_--
        (a) Ancient and Modern Egyptian (excluding the Arabs).
        (b) Nubians, Beja.
        (c) Abyssinians.
        (d) Galla, Danakil, Somali.
        (e) Masai.
        (f) Wahuma or Watusi.

  2. _Northern Branch_--
        (a) Berbers of the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Sahara.
        (b) Tibbu.
        (c) Fula.
        (d) Guanches (extinct).

  With regard to this classification the following conclusions may be
  regarded as comparatively certain: that the members of groups d, e
  and f of the first branch appear to be closely inter-connected by
  ties of blood, and also the members of the second branch. The
  Abyssinians in the south have absorbed a certain amount of Galla
  blood, but the majority are Semitic or Semito-Negroid. The question of
  the racial affinities of the Ancient Egyptians and the Beja are still
  a matter of doubt, and the relation of the two groups to each other is
  still controversial. Sergi, it is true, arguing from physical data
  believes that a close connexion exists; but the data are so extremely
  scanty that the finality of his conclusion may well be doubted. His
  "Northern Branch" corresponds with the more satisfactory term "Libyan
  Race," represented in fair purity by the Berbers, and, mixed with
  Negro elements, by the Fula and Tibbu. This Libyan race is
  distinctively a white race, with dark curly hair; the Eastern Hamites
  are equally distinctively a brown people with frizzy hair. If, as
  Sergi believes, these brown people are themselves a race, and not a
  cross between white and black in varying proportions, they are found
  in their greatest purity among the Somali and Galla, and mixed with
  Bantu blood among the Ba-Hima (Wahuma) and Watussi. The Masai seem to
  be as much Nilotic Negro as Hamite. This Galla type does not seem to
  appear farther north than the southern portion of Abyssinia, and it is
  not unlikely that the Beja are very early Semitic immigrants with an
  aboriginal Negroid admixture. It is also possible that they and the
  Ancient Egyptians may contain a common element. The Nubians appear
  akin to the Egyptians but with a strong Negroid element.

  To return to Sergi's two branches, besides the differences in skin
  colour and hair-texture there is also a cultural difference of great
  importance. The Eastern Hamites are essentially a pastoral people and
  therefore nomadic or semi-nomadic; the Berbers, who, as said above,
  are the purest representatives of the Libyans, are agriculturists. The
  pastoral habits of the Eastern Hamites are of importance, since they
  show the utmost reluctance to abandon them. Even the Ba-Hima and
  Watussi, for long settled and partly intermixed with the agricultural
  Bantu, regard any pursuit but that of cattle-tending as absolutely
  beneath their dignity.

  It would seem therefore that, while sufficient data have not been
  collected to decide whether, on the evidence of exact anthropological
  measurements, the Libyans are connected racially with the Eastern
  Hamites, the testimony derived from broad "descriptive
  characteristics" and general culture is against such a connexion. To
  regard the Libyans as Hamites solely on the ground that the languages
  spoken by the two groups show affinities would be as rash and might be
  as false as to aver that the present-day Hungarians are Mongolians
  because Magyar is an Asiatic tongue. Regarding the present state of
  knowledge it would be safer therefore to restrict the term "Hamites"
  to Sergi's first group; and call the second by the name "Libyans." The
  difficult question of the origin of the ancient Egyptians is discussed
  elsewhere.

  As to the question whether the Hamites in this restricted sense are a
  definite race or a blend, no discussion can, in view of the paucity of
  evidence, as yet lead to a satisfactory conclusion, but it might be
  suggested very tentatively that further researches may possibly
  connect them with the Dravidian peoples of India. It is sufficient for
  present purposes that the term Hamite, using it as coextensive with
  Sergi's Eastern Hamite, has a definite connotation. By the term is
  meant a brown people with frizzy hair, of lean and sinewy physique,
  with slender but muscular arms and legs, a thin straight or even
  aquiline nose with delicate nostrils, thin lips and no trace of
  prognathism. (T. A. J.)

II. _Hamitic Languages._--The whole north of Africa was once inhabited
by tribes of the Caucasian race, speaking languages which are now
generally called, after Genesis x., Hamitic, a term introduced
principally by Friedrich Müller. The linguistic coherence of that race
has been broken up especially by the intrusion of Arabs, whose language
has exercised a powerful influence on all those nations. This splitting
up, and the immense distances over which those tribes were spread, have
made those languages diverge more widely than do the various tongues of
the Indo-European stock, but still their affinity can easily be traced
by the linguist, and is, perhaps, greater than the corresponding
anthropologic similarity between the white Libyan, red Galla and swarthy
Somali. The relationship of these languages to Semitic has long been
noticed, but was at first taken for descent from Semitic (cf. the name
"Syro-Arabian" proposed by Prichard). Now linguists are agreed that the
Proto-Semites and Proto-Hamites once formed a unity, probably in
Arabia. That original unity has been demonstrated especially by
Friedrich Müller (_Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara_, p. 51,
more fully, _Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft_, vol. iii. fasc. 2, p.
226); cf. also A. H. Sayce, _Science of Language_, ii. 178; R. N. Cust,
_The Modern Languages of Africa_, i. 94, &c. The comparative grammars of
Semitic (W. Wright, 1890, and especially H. Zimmern, 1898) demonstrate
this now to everybody by comparative tables of the grammatical elements.

  The classification of Hamitic languages is as follows:[2]--

  1. _The Libyan Dialects_ (mostly misnamed "Berber languages," after an
  unfortunate, vague Arabic designation, _barabra_, "people of foreign
  language"). The representatives of this large group extend from the
  Senegal river (where they are called Zenaga; imperfect _Grammaire_ by
  L. Faidherbe, 1877) and from Timbuktu (dialect of the Auelimmiden,
  sketched by Heinrich Barth, _Travels_, vol. v., 1857) to the oases of
  Aujila (Bengazi) and of Siwa on the western border of Egypt.
  Consequently, these "dialects" differ more strongly from each other
  than, e.g. the Semitic languages do between themselves. The purest
  representative seems to be the language of the Algerian mountaineers
  (Kabyles), especially that of the Zuawa (Zouaves) tribe, described by
  A. Hanoteau, _Essai de grammaire kabyle_ (1858); Ben Sedira, _Cours de
  langue kab._ (1887); _Dictionnaire_ by Olivier (1878). The learned
  little _Manuel de langue kabyle_, by R. Basset (1887) is an
  introduction to the study of the many dialects with full bibliography,
  cf. also Basset's _Notes de lexicographie berbère_ (1883 foll.). (The
  dictionaries by Brosselard and Venture de Paradis are imperfect.) The
  best now described is Shilh(a). a Moroccan dialect (H. Stumme,
  _Handbuch des Schilhischen_, 1899), but it is an inferior dialect.
  That of Ghat in Tripoli underlies the _Grammar_ of F. W. Newman (1845)
  and the _Grammaire Tamashek_ of Hanoteau (1860); cf. also the
  _Dictionnaire_ of Cid Kaoui (1900). Neither medieval reports on the
  language spoken by the Guanches of the Canary Islands (fullest in A.
  Berthelot, _Antiquités canariennes_, 1879; akin to Shilha; by no means
  primitive Libyan untouched by Arabic), nor the modern dialect of Siwa
  (still little known; tentative grammar by Basset, 1890), have
  justified hopes of finding a pure Libyan dialect. Of a few literary
  attempts in Arabic letters the religious _Poème de Çabi_ (ed. Basset,
  _Journ. asiatique_, vii. 476) is the most remarkable. The imperfect
  native writing (named _tifinaghen_), a derivation from the Sabaean
  alphabet (not, as Halévy claimed, from the Punic), still in use among
  the Sahara tribes, can be traced to the 2nd century B.C. (bilingual
  inscription of Tucca, &c.; cf. J. Halévy, _Essai d'épigraphie
  libyque_, 1875), but hardly ever served for literary uses.

  2. _The Cushitic or Ethiopian Family._--The nearest relative of Libyan
  is not Ancient Egyptian but the language of the nomadic Bisharin or
  Beja of the Nubian Desert (cf. H. Almkvist, _Die Bischari Sprache_,
  1881 [the northern dialect], and L. Reinisch, _Die Bedauye Sprache_,
  1893, _Wörterbuch_, 1895). The speech of the peoples occupying the
  lowland east of Abyssinia, the Saho (Reinisch, grammar in _Zeitschrift
  d. deutschen morgenländ. Gesellschaft_, 32, 1878; _Texte_, 1889;
  _Wörterbuch_, 1890; cf. also Reinisch, Die Sprache der Irob Saho,
  1878), and the Afar or Danakil (Reinisch, _Die Afar Sprache_, 1887; G.
  Colizza, _Lingua Afar_, 1887), merely dialects of one language, form
  the connecting link with the southern Hamitic group, i.e. Somali
  (Reinisch, _Somali Sprache_, 1900-1903, 3 vols.; Larajasse und de
  Sampont, _Practical Grammar of the Somali Language_, 1897; imperfect
  sketches by Hunter, 1880, and Schleicher, 1890), and Galla (L.
  Tutscheck, _Grammar_, 1845, _Lexicon_, 1844; Massaja, _Lectiones_,
  1877; G. F. F. Praetorius, _Zur Grammatik der Gallasprache_, 1893,
  &c.). All these Cushitic languages, extending from Egypt to the
  equator, are separated by Reinisch as _Lower Cushitic_ from the _High
  Cushitic_ group, i.e. the many dialects spoken by tribes dwelling in
  the Abyssinian highlands or south of Abyssinia. Of the original
  inhabitants of Abyssinia, called collectively Agâu (or Agâu) by the
  Abyssinians, or Falashas (this name principally for Jewish tribes),
  Reinisch considers the Bilin or Bogos tribe as preserving the most
  archaic dialect (_Die Bilin Sprache_, Texts, 1883; _Grammatik_, 1882;
  _Wörterbuch_, 1887); the same scholar gave sketches of the Khamir
  (1884) and Quara (1885) dialects. On other dialects, struggling
  against the spreading Semitic tongues (Tigré, Amharic, &c.), see Conti
  Rossini, "Appunti sulla lingua Khamta," in _Giorn. soc. orient._
  (1905); Waldmeyer, _Wörtersammlung_ (1868); J. Halévy, "Essai sur la
  langue Agaou" (_Actes soc. philologique_, 1873), &c. Similar dialects
  are those of the Sid(d)âma tribes, south of Abyssinia, of which only
  Kaf(f)a (Reinisch, _Die Kafa Sprache_, 1888) is known at all fully. Of
  the various other dialects (Kullo, Tambaro, &c.), vocabularies only
  are known; cf. Borelli, _Éthiopie méridionale_ (1890). (On Hausa see
  below.)

  There is no question that the northernmost Hamitic languages have
  preserved best the original wealth of inflections which reminds us so
  strongly of the formal riches of southern Semitic. Libyan and Beja
  are the best-preserved types, and the latter especially may be called
  the Sanskrit of Hamitic. The other Cushitic tongues exhibit increasing
  agglutinative tendencies the farther we go south, although single
  archaisms are found even in Somali. The early isolated High Cushitic
  tongues (originally branched off from a stock common with Galla and
  Somali) diverge most strongly from the original type. Already the Agâu
  dialects are full of very peculiar developments; the Hamitic character
  of the Sid(d)ama languages can be traced only by lengthy comparisons.

  The simple and pretty Haus(s)a language, the commercial language of
  the whole Niger region and beyond (Schoen, _Grammar_, 1862,
  _Dictionary_, 1876; Charles H. Robinson, 1897, in Robinson and
  Brookes's _Dictionary_) has fairly well preserved its Hamitic grammar,
  though its vocabulary was much influenced by the surrounding Negro
  languages. It is no relative of Libyan (though it has experienced some
  Libyan influences), but comes from the (High ?) Cushitic family; its
  exact place in this family remains to be determined. Various languages
  of the Niger region _were_ once Hamitic like Haus(s)a, or at least
  under some Hamitic influence, but have now lost that character too far
  to be classified as Hamitic, e.g. the Muzuk or Musgu language (F.
  Müller, 1886). The often-raised question of some (very remote)
  relationship between Hamitic and the great Bantu family is still
  undecided; more doubtful is that with the interesting Ful (a) language
  in the western Sudan, but a relationship with the Nilotic branch of
  negro languages is impossible (though a few of these, e.g. Nuba, have
  borrowed some words from neighbouring Hamitic peoples). The
  development of a grammatical gender, this principal characteristic of
  Semito-Hamitic, in Bari and Masai, may be rather accidental than
  borrowed; certainly, the same phenomenon in Hottentot does not justify
  the attempt often made to classify this with Hamitic.

  3. _Ancient Egyptian_, as we have seen, does not form the connecting
  link between Libyan and Cushitic which its geographical position would
  lead us to expect. It represents a third independent branch, or rather
  a second one, Libyan and Cushitic forming one division of Hamitic. A
  few resemblances with Libyan (M. de Rochemonteix in _Mémoires du
  congrès internat. des orientalistes_, Paris, 1873; elementary) are
  less due to original relationship than to the general better
  preservation of the northern idioms (see above). Frequent attempts to
  detach Egyptian from Hamitic and to attribute it to a Semitic
  immigration later than that of the other Hamites cannot be proved.
  Egyptian is, in many respects, more remote from Semitic than the
  Libyan-Cushitic division, being more agglutinative than the better
  types of its sister branch, having lost the most characteristic verbal
  flection (the Hamito-Semitic imperfect), forming the nominal plural in
  its own peculiar fashion, &c. The advantage of Egyptian, that it is
  represented in texts of 3000 B.C., while the sister tongues exist only
  in forms 5000 years later, allows us, e.g. to trace the Semitic
  principle of triliteral roots more clearly in Egyptian; but still the
  latter tongue is hardly more characteristically archaic or nearer
  Semitic than Beja or Kabylic.

  All this is said principally of the grammar. Of the vocabulary it must
  not be forgotten that none of the Hamitic tongues remained untouched
  by Semitic influences after the separation of the Hamites and Semites,
  say 4000 or 6000 B.C. Repeated Semitic immigrations and influences
  have brought so many layers of loan-words that it is questionable if
  any modern Hamitic language has now more than 10% of original Hamitic
  words. Which Semitic resemblances are due to original affinity, which
  come from pre-Christian immigrations, which from later influences, are
  difficult questions not yet faced by science; e.g. the half-Arabic
  numerals of Libyan have often been quoted as a proof of primitive
  Hamito-Semitic kinship, but they are probably only a gift of some Arab
  invasion, prehistoric for us. Arab tribes seem to have repeatedly
  swept over the whole area of the Hamites, long before the time of
  Mahomet, and to have left deep impressions on races and languages, but
  none of these migrations stands in the full light of history (not even
  that of the Gee'z tribes of Abyssinia). Egyptian exhibits constant
  influences from its Canaanitish neighbours; it is crammed with such
  loan-words already in 3000 B.C.; new affluxes can be traced,
  especially c. 1600. (The Punic influences on Libyan are, however, very
  slight, inferior to the Latin.) Hence the relations of Semitic and
  Hamitic still require many investigations in detail, for which the
  works of Reinisch and Basset have merely built up a basis.
       (W. M. M.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] G. Sergi, _The Mediterranean Race. A Study of the Origin of
    European Peoples_ (London, 1901); _idem. Africa, Antropologia della
    stirpe camitica_ (Turin, 1897).

  [2] Only works of higher linguistic standing are quoted here; many
    vocabularies and imperfect attempts of travellers cannot be
    enumerated.



HAMLET, the hero of Shakespeare's tragedy, a striking figure in
Scandinavian romance.

The chief authority for the legend of Hamlet is Saxo Grammaticus, who
devotes to it parts of the third and fourth books of his _Historia
Danica_, written at the beginning of the 13th century. It is supposed
that the story of Hamlet, Amleth or Amloði,[1] was contained in the lost
Skjöldunga saga, but we have no means of determining whether Saxo
derived his information in this case from oral or written sources. The
close parallels between the tale of Hamlet and the English romances of
Havelok, Horn and Bevis of Hampton make it not unlikely that Hamlet is
of British rather than of Scandinavian origin. His name does in fact
occur in the Irish _Annals of the Four Masters_ (ed. O'Donovan, 1851) in
a stanza attributed to the Irish Queen Gormflaith, who laments the death
of her husband, Niall Glundubh, at the hands of Amhlaiðe in 919 at the
battle of Ath-Cliath. The slayer of Niall Glundubh is by other
authorities stated to have been Sihtric. Now Sihtric was the father of
that Olaf or Anlaf Cuaran who was the prototype of the English Havelok,
but nowhere else does he receive the nickname of Amhlaiðe. If Amhlaiðe
may really be identified with Sihtric, who first went to Dublin in 888,
the relations between the tales of Havelok and Hamlet are readily
explicable, since nothing was more likely than that the exploits of
father and son should be confounded (see Havelok). But, whoever the
historic Hamlet may have been, it is quite certain that much was added
that was extraneous to Scandinavian tradition. Later in the 10th century
there is evidence of the existence of an Icelandic saga of Amlóði or
Amleth in a passage from the poet Snaebjorn in the second part of the
prose _Edda_.[2] According to Saxo,[3] Hamlet's history is briefly as
follows. In the days of Rorik, king of Denmark, Gervendill was governor
of Jutland, and was succeeded by his sons Horvendill and Feng.
Horvendill, on his return from a Viking expedition in which he had slain
Koll, king of Norway, married Gerutha, Rorik's daughter, who bore him a
son Amleth. But Feng, out of jealousy, murdered Horvendill, and
persuaded Gerutha to become his wife, on the plea that he had committed
the crime for no other reason than to avenge her of a husband by whom
she had been hated. Amleth, afraid of sharing his father's fate,
pretended to be imbecile, but the suspicion of Feng put him to various
tests which are related in detail. Among other things they sought to
entangle him with a young girl, his foster-sister, but his cunning saved
him. When, however, Amleth slew the eavesdropper hidden, like Polonius,
in his mother's room, and destroyed all trace of the deed, Feng was
assured that the young man's madness was feigned. Accordingly he
despatched him to England in company with two attendants, who bore a
letter enjoining the king of the country to put him to death. Amleth
surmised the purport of their instructions, and secretly altered the
message on their wooden tablets to the effect that the king should put
the attendants to death and give Amleth his daughter in marriage. After
marrying the princess Amleth returned at the end of a year to Denmark.
Of the wealth he had accumulated he took with him only certain hollow
sticks filled with gold. He arrived in time for a funeral feast, held to
celebrate his supposed death. During the feast he plied the courtiers
with wine, and executed his vengeance during their drunken sleep by
fastening down over them the woollen hangings of the hall with pegs he
had sharpened during his feigned madness, and then setting fire to the
palace. Feng he slew with his own sword. After a long harangue to the
people he was proclaimed king. Returning to England for his wife he
found that his father-in-law and Feng had been pledged each to avenge
the other's death. The English king, unwilling personally to carry out
his pledge, sent Amleth as proxy wooer for the hand of a terrible
Scottish queen Hermuthruda, who had put all former wooers to death, but
fell in love with Amleth. On his return to England his first wife, whose
love proved stronger than her resentment, told him of her father's
intended revenge. In the battle which followed Amleth won the day by
setting up the dead men of the day before with stakes, and thus
terrifying the enemy. He then returned with his two wives to Jutland,
where he had to encounter the enmity of Wiglek, Rorik's successor. He
was slain in a battle against Wiglek, and Hermuthruda, although she had
engaged to die with him, married the victor.

The other Scandinavian versions of the tale are: the _Hrolfssaga
Kraka_,[4] where the brothers Helgi and Hroar take the place of the
hero; the tale of Harald and Halfdan, as related in the 7th book of Saxo
Grammaticus; the modern Icelandic _Ambales Saga_,[5] a romantic tale the
earliest MS. of which dates from the 17th century; and the folk-tale of
Brjám[6] which was put in writing in 1707. Helgi and Hroar, like Harald
and Halfdan, avenge their father's death on their uncle by burning him
in his palace. Harald and Halfdan escape after their father's death by
being brought up, with dogs' names, in a hollow oak, and subsequently by
feigned madness; and in the case of the other brothers there are traces
of a similar motive, since the boys are called by dogs' names. The
methods of Hamlet's madness, as related by Saxo, seem to point to
cynanthropy. In the _Ambales Saga_, which perhaps is collateral to,
rather than derived from, Saxo's version, there are, besides romantic
additions, some traits which point to an earlier version of the tale.

Saxo Grammaticus was certainly familiar with the Latin historians, and
it is most probable that, recognizing the similarity between the
northern Hamlet legend and the classical tale of Lucius Junius Brutus as
told by Livy, by Valerius Maximus, and by Dionysius of Halicarnassus
(with which he was probably acquainted through a Latin epitome), he
deliberately added circumstances from the classical story. The incident
of the gold-filled sticks could hardly appear fortuitously in both, and
a comparison of the harangues of Amleth (Saxo, Book iv.) and of Brutus
(Dionysius iv. 77) shows marked similarities. In both tales the usurping
uncle is ultimately succeeded by the nephew who has escaped notice
during his youth by a feigned madness. But the parts played by the
personages who in Shakespeare became Ophelia and Polonius, the method of
revenge, and the whole narrative of Amleth's adventure in England, have
no parallels in the Latin story.

Dr. O. L. Jiriczek[7] first pointed out the striking similarities
existing between the story of Amleth in Saxo and the other northern
versions, and that of Kei Chosro in the _Shahnameh_ (Book of the King)
of the Persian poet Firdausi. The comparison was carried farther by R.
Zenker (_Boeve Amlethus_, pp. 207-268, Berlin and Leipzig, 1904), who
even concluded that the northern saga rested on an earlier version of
Firdausi's story, in which indeed nearly all the individual elements of
the various northern versions are to be found. Further resemblances
exist in the _Ambales Saga_ with the tales of Bellerophon, of Heracles,
and of Servius Tullius. That Oriental tales through Byzantine and
Arabian channels did find their way to the west is well known, and there
is nothing very surprising in their being attached to a local hero.

The tale of Hamlet's adventures in Britain forms an episode so distinct
that it was at one time referred to a separate hero. The traitorous
letter, the purport of which is changed by Hermuthruda, occurs in the
popular _Dit de l'empereur Constant_,[8] and in Arabian and Indian
tales. Hermuthruda's cruelty to her wooers is common in northern and
German mythology, and close parallels are afforded by Thrytho, the
terrible bride of Offa I., who figures in _Beowulf_, and by Brunhilda in
the _Nibelungenlied_.

The story of Hamlet was known to the Elizabethans in François de
Belleforest's _Histoires tragiques_ (1559), and found its supreme
expression in Shakespeare's tragedy. That as early as 1587 or 1589
Hamlet had appeared on the English stage is shown by Nash's preface to
Greene's _Menaphon_: "He will afford you whole Hamlets, I should say,
handfulls of tragical speeches." The Shakespearian Hamlet owes, however,
little but the outline of his story to Saxo. In character he is
diametrically opposed to his prototype. Amleth's madness was certainly
altogether feigned; he prepared his vengeance a year beforehand, and
carried it out deliberately and ruthlessly at every point. His riddling
speech has little more than an outward similarity to the words of
Hamlet, who resembles him, however, in his disconcerting penetration
into his enemies' plans. For a discussion of Shakespeare's play and its
immediate sources see SHAKESPEARE.

  See an appendix to Elton's trans. of Saxo Grammaticus; I. Gollancz,
  _Hamlet in Iceland_ (London, 1898); H. L. Ward, _Catalogue of
  Romances_, under "Havelok," vol. i. pp. 423 seq.; _English Historical
  Review_, x. (1895); F. Detter, "Die Hamletsage," _Zeitschr. f. deut.
  Alter._ vol. 36 (Berlin, 1892); O. L. Jiriczek, "Die Amlethsage auf
  Island," in _Germanistische Abhandlungen_, vol. xii. (Breslau), and
  "Hamlet in Iran," in _Zeitschr. des Vereins für Volkskunde_, x.
  (Berlin, 1900); A. Olrik, _Kilderne til Sakses Oldhistorie_
  (Copenhagen, 2 vols., 1892-1894).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The word is used in modern Icelandic metaphorically of an
    imbecile or weak-minded person (see Cleasby and Vigfússon,
    _Icelandic-English Dictionary_, 1869).

  [2] "'Tis said that far out, off yonder ness, the Nine Maids of the
    Island Mill stir amain the host--cruel skerry-quern--they who in ages
    past ground Hamlet's meal. The good Chieftain furrows the hull's lair
    with his ship's beaked prow." This passage may be compared with some
    examples of Hamlet's cryptic sayings quoted by Saxo: "Again, as he
    passed along the beach, his companions found the rudder of a ship
    which had been wrecked, and said they had discovered a huge knife.
    'This,' said he, 'was the right thing to carve such a huge ham....'
    Also, as they passed the sand-hills, and bade him look at the meal,
    meaning the sand, he replied that it had been ground small by the
    hoary tempests of the ocean."

  [3] Books iii. and iv., chaps. 86-106, Eng. trans. by O. Elton
    (London, 1894).

  [4] Printed in Fornaldar Sögur Norðtrlanda (vol. i. Copenhagen,
    1829), analysed by F. Detter in _Zeitschr. für deutsches Altertum_
    (vol. 36, Berlin, 1892).

  [5] Printed with English translation and with other texts germane to
    the subject by I. Gollancz (_Hamlet in Iceland_, London, 1898).

  [6] Professor I. Gollancz points out (p. lxix.) that Brjám is a
    variation of the Irish Brian, that the relations between Ireland and
    the Norsemen were very close, and that, curiously enough, Brian
    Boroimhe was the hero of that very battle of Clontarf (1014) where
    the device (which occurs in Havelok and Hamlet) of bluffing the enemy
    by tying the wounded to stakes to represent active soldiers was used.

  [7] "Hamlet in Iran," in _Zeitschrift des Vereins für Volkskunde_, x.
    (Berlin, 1900).

  [8] See A. B. Gough, _The Constance Saga_ (Berlin, 1902).



HAMLEY, SIR EDWARD BRUCE (1824-1893), British general and military
writer, youngest son of Vice-Admiral William Hamley, was born on the
27th of April 1824 at Bodmin, Cornwall, and entered the Royal Artillery
in 1843. He was promoted captain in 1850, and in 1851 went to Gibraltar,
where he commenced his literary career by contributing articles to
magazines. He served throughout the Crimean campaign as aide-de-camp to
Sir Richard Dacres, commanding the artillery, taking part in all the
operations with distinction, and becoming successively major and
lieutenant-colonel by brevet. He also received the C.B. and French and
Turkish orders. During the war he contributed to _Blackwood's Magazine_
an admirable account of the progress of the campaign, which was
afterwards republished. The combination in Hamley of literary and
military ability secured for him in 1859 the professorship of military
history at the new Staff College at Sandhurst, from which in 1866 he
went to the council of military education, returning in 1870 to the
Staff College as commandant. From 1879 to 1881 he was British
commissioner successively for the delimitation of the frontiers of
Turkey and Bulgaria, Turkey in Asia and Russia, and Turkey and Greece,
and was rewarded with the K.C.M.G. Promoted colonel in 1863, he became a
lieutenant-general in 1882, when he commanded the 2nd division of the
expedition to Egypt under Lord Wolseley, and led his troops in the
battle of Tell-el-Kebir, for which he received the K.C.B., the thanks of
parliament, and 2nd class of Osmanieh. Hamley considered that his
services in Egypt had been insufficiently recognized in Lord Wolseley's
despatches, and expressed his indignation freely, but he had no
sufficient ground for supposing that there was any intention to belittle
his services. From 1885 until his death on the 12th of August 1893 he
represented Birkenhead in parliament in the Conservative interest.

  Hamley was a clever and versatile writer. His principal work, _The
  Operations of War_, published in 1867, became a text-book of military
  instruction. He published some pamphlets on national defence, was a
  frequent contributor to magazines, and the author of several novels,
  of which perhaps the best known is _Lady Lee's Widowhood_.



HAMLIN, HANNIBAL (1809-1891), vice-president of the United States
(1861-1865), was born at Paris, Maine, on the 27th of August 1809. After
studying in Hebron Academy, he conducted his father's farm for a time,
became schoolmaster, and later managed a weekly newspaper at Paris. He
then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and rapidly acquired
a reputation as an able lawyer and a good public speaker. Entering
politics as an anti-slavery Democrat, he was a member of the state
House of Representatives in 1836-1840, serving as its presiding officer
during the last four years. He was a representative in Congress from
1843 to 1847, and was a member of the United States Senate from 1848 to
1856. From the very beginning of his service in Congress he was
prominent as an opponent of the extension of slavery; he was a
conspicuous supporter of the Wilmot Proviso, spoke against the
Compromise Measures of 1850, and in 1856, chiefly because of the passage
in 1854 of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which repealed the Missouri
Compromise, and his party's endorsement of that repeal at the Cincinnati
Convention two years later, he withdrew from the Democrats and joined
the newly organized Republican party. The Republicans of Maine nominated
him for governor in the same year, and having carried the election by a
large majority he was inaugurated in this office on the 8th of January
1857. In the latter part of February, however, he resigned the
governorship, and was again a member of the Senate from 1857 to January
1861. From 1861 to 1865, during the Civil War, he was Vice-President of
the United States. While in this office he was one of the chief advisers
of President Lincoln, and urged both the Emancipation Proclamation and
the arming of the negroes. After the war he again served in the Senate
(1869-1881), was minister to Spain (1881-1883), and then retired from
public life. He died at Bangor, Maine, on the 4th of July 1891.

  See _Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin_ (Cambridge, Mass., 1899), by
  C. E. Hamlin, his grandson.



HAMM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the
Lippe, 19 m. by rail N.E. from Dortmund on the main line
Cologne-Hanover. Pop. (1905) 38,430. It is surrounded by pleasant
promenades occupying the site of the former engirdling fortifications.
The principal buildings are four Roman Catholic and three Evangelical
churches, several schools and an infirmary. The town is flourishing and
rapidly increasing, and possesses very extensive wire factories (in
connexion with which there are puddling and rolling works), machine
works, and manufactories of gloves, baskets, leather, starch, chemicals,
varnish, oil and beer. Near the town are some thermal baths.

Hamm, which became a town about the end of the 12th century, was
originally the capital of the countship of Mark, and was fortified in
1226. It became a member of the Hanseatic League. In 1614 it was
besieged by the Dutch, and it was several times taken and retaken during
the Thirty Years' War. In 1666 it came into the possession of
Brandenburg. In 1761 and 1762 it was bombarded by the French, and in
1763 its fortifications were dismantled.



HAMMAD AR-RAWIYA [Abu-l-Qasim Hammad ibn Abi Laila Sapur (or ibn
Maisara)] (8th century A.D.), Arabic scholar, was of Dailamite descent,
but was born in Kufa. The date of his birth is given by some as 694, by
others as 714. He was reputed to be the most learned man of his time in
regard to the "days of the Arabs" (i.e. their chief battles), their
stories, poems, genealogies and dialects. He is said to have boasted
that he could recite a hundred long _qasidas_ for each letter of the
alphabet (i.e. rhyming in each letter) and these all from pre-Islamic
times, apart from shorter pieces and later verses. Hence his name
_Hammad ar-Rawiya_, "the reciter of verses from memory." The Omayyad
caliph Walid is said to have tested him, the result being that he
recited 2900 qasidas of pre-Islamic date and Walid gave him 100,000
dirhems. He was favoured by Yazid II. and his successor Hisham, who
brought him up from Irak to Damascus. Arabian critics, however, say that
in spite of his learning he lacked a true insight into the genius of the
Arabic language, and that he made more than thirty--some say three
hundred--mistakes of pronunciation in reciting the Koran. To him is
ascribed the collecting of the _Mo'allakat_ (q.v.). No diwan of his is
extant, though he composed verse of his own and probably a good deal of
what he ascribed to earlier poets.

  Biography in McG. de Slane's trans. of Ibn Khallikan, vol. i. pp.
  470-474, and many stories are told of him in the _Kitab ul-Aghani_,
  vol. v. pp. 164-175.     (G. W. T.)



HAMMER, FRIEDRICH JULIUS (1810-1862), German poet, was born on the 7th
of June 1810 at Dresden. In 1831 he went to Leipzig to study law, but
devoted himself mainly to philosophy and belles lettres. Returning to
Dresden in 1834 a small comedy, _Das seltsame Frühstück_, introduced him
to the literary society of the capital, notably to Ludwig Tieck, and
from this time he devoted himself entirely to writing. In 1837 he
returned to Leipzig, and, coming again to Dresden, from 1851 to 1859
edited the feuilleton of _Sächsische konstitutionelle Zeitung_, and took
the lead in the foundation in 1855 of the Schiller Institute in Dresden.
His marriage in 1851 had made him independent, and he bought a small
property at Pillnitz, on which, soon after his return from a residence
of several years at Nuremberg, he died, on the 23rd of August 1862.

Hammer wrote, besides several comedies, a drama _Die Brüder_ (1856), a
number of unimportant romances, and the novel _Einkehr und Umkehr_
(Leipzig, 1856); but his reputation rests upon his epigrammatic and
didactic poems. His _Schau' um dich, und schau' in dich_ (1851), which
made his name, has passed through more than thirty editions. It was
followed by _Zu allen guten Stunden_ (1854), _Fester Grund_ (1857), _Auf
stillen Wegen_ (1859), and _Lerne, liebe, lebe_ (1862). Besides these he
wrote a book of Turkish songs, _Unter dem Halbmond_ (Leipzig, 1860), and
rhymed versions of the psalms (1861), and compiled the popular religious
anthology _Leben und Heimat in Gott_, of which a 14th edition was
published in 1900.

  See C. G. E. Am Ende, _Julius Hammer_ (Nuremberg, 1872).



HAMMER, an implement consisting of a shaft or handle with head fixed
transversely to it. The head, usually of metal, has one flat face, the
other may be shaped to serve various purposes, e.g. with a claw, a pick,
&c. The implement is used for breaking, beating, driving nails, rivets,
&c., and the word is applied to heavy masses of metal moved by
machinery, and used for similar purposes. (See TOOL.) "Hammer" is a word
common to Teutonic languages. It appears in the same form in German and
Danish, and in Dutch as _hamer_, in Swedish as _hammare_. The ultimate
origin is unknown. It has been connected with the root seen in the Greek
[Greek: kamptein], to bend; the word would mean, therefore, something
crooked or bent. A more illuminating suggestion connects the word with
the Slavonic _kamy_, a stone, cf. Russian _kamen_, and ultimately with
Sanskrit _acman_, a pointed stone, a thunderbolt. The legend of Thor's
hammer, the thunderbolt, and the probability of the primitive hammer
being a stone, adds plausibility to this derivation. The word is applied
to many objects resembling a hammer in shape or function. Thus the
"striker" in a clock, or in a bell, when it is sounded by an independent
lever and not by the swinging of the "tongue," is called a "hammer";
similarly, in the "action" of a pianoforte the word is used of a wooden
shank with felt-covered head attached to a key, the striking of which
throws the "hammer" against the strings. In the mechanism of a fire-arm,
the "hammer" is that part which by its impact on the cap or primer
explodes the charge. (See GUN.) The hammer, more usually known by its
French name of _martel de fer_, was a medieval hand-weapon. With a long
shaft it was used by infantry, especially when acting against mounted
troops. With a short handle and usually made altogether of metal, it was
also used by horse-soldiers. The _martel_ had one part of the head with
a blunted face, the other pointed, but occasionally both sides were
pointed. There are 16th century examples in which a hand-gun forms the
handle. The name of "hammer," in Latin _malleus_, has been frequently
applied to men, and also to books, with reference to destructive power.
Thus on the tomb of Edward I. in Westminster Abbey is inscribed his name
of _Scotorum Malleus_, the "Hammer of the Scots." The title of "Hammer
of Heretics," _Malleus Haereticorum_, has been given to St Augustine and
to Johann Faber, whose tract against Luther is also known by the name.
Thomas Cromwell was styled _Malleus Monachorum_. The famous text-book of
procedure in cases of witchcraft, published by Sprenger and Krämer in
1489, was called _Hexenhammer_ or _Malleus Maleficarum_ (see
WITCHCRAFT).

The origin of the word "hammer-cloth," an ornamental cloth covering the
box-seat on a state-coach, has been often explained from the hammer and
other tools carried in the box-seat by the coachman for repairs, &c. The
_New English Dictionary_ points out that while the word occurs as early
as 1465, the use of a box-seat is not known before the 17th century.
Other suggestions are that it is a corruption of "hamper-cloth," or of
"hammock-cloth," which is used in this sense, probably owing to a
mistake. Neither of these supposed corruptions helps very much. Skeat
connects the word with a Dutch word _hemel_, meaning a canopy. In the
name of the bird, the yellow-hammer, the latter part should be "ammer."
This appears in the German name, _Emmerling_, and the word probably
means the "chirper," cf. the Ger. _jammern_, to wail, lament.



HAMMERBEAM ROOF, in architecture, the name given to a Gothic open timber
roof, of which the finest example is that over Westminster Hall
(1395-1399). In order to give greater height in the centre, the ordinary
tie beam is cut through, and the portions remaining, known as
hammerbeams, are supported by curved braces from the wall; in
Westminster Hall, in order to give greater strength to the framing, a
large arched piece of timber is carried across the hall, rising from the
bottom of the wall piece to the centre of the collar beam, the latter
being also supported by curved braces rising from the end of the
hammerbeam. The span of Westminster Hall is 68 ft. 4 in., and the
opening between the ends of the hammerbeams 25 ft. 6 in. The height from
the paving of the hall to the hammerbeam is 40 ft., and to the underside
of the collar beam 63 ft. 6 in., so that an additional height in the
centre of 23 ft. 6 in. has been gained. Other important examples of
hammerbeam roofs exist over the halls of Hampton Court and Eltham
palaces, and there are numerous examples of smaller dimensions in
churches throughout England and particularly in the eastern counties.
The ends of the hammerbeams are usually decorated with winged angels
holding shields; the curved braces and beams are richly moulded, and the
spandrils in the larger examples filled in with tracery, as in
Westminster Hall. Sometimes, but rarely, the collar beam is similarly
treated, or cut through and supported by additional curved braces, as in
the hall of the Middle Temple, London.



HAMMERFEST, the most northern town in Europe. Pop. (1900) 2300. It is
situated on an island (Kvalö) off the N.W. coast of Norway, in Finmarken
_amt_ (county), in 70° 40´ 11´´ N., the latitude being that of the
extreme north of Alaska. Its position affords the best illustration of
the warm climatic influence of the north-eastward Atlantic drift, the
mean annual temperature being 36° F. (January 31°, July 57°). Hammerfest
is 674 m. by sea N.E. of Trondhjem, and 78 S.W. from the North Cape. The
character of this coast differs from the southern, the islands being
fewer and larger, and of table shape. The narrow strait Strömmen
separates Kvalö from the larger Seiland, whose snow-covered hills with
several glaciers rise above 3500 ft., while an insular rampart of
mountains, Sorö, protects the strait and harbour from the open sea. The
town is timber-built and modern; and the Protestant church, town-hall,
and schools were all rebuilt after fire in 1890. There is also a Roman
Catholic church. The sun does not set at Hammerfest from the 13th of May
to the 29th of July. This is the busy season of the townsfolk. Vessels
set out to the fisheries, as far as Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea; and
trade is brisk, not only Norwegian and Danish but British, German and
particularly Russian vessels engaging in it. Cod-liver oil and salted
fish are exported with some reindeer-skins, fox-skins and eiderdown; and
coal and salt for curing are imported. In the spring the great herds of
tame reindeer are driven out to swim Strömmen and graze in the summer
pastures of Seiland; towards winter they are called home again. From the
18th of November to the 23rd of January the sun is not seen, and the
enforced quiet of winter prevails. Electric light was introduced in the
town in 1891. On the Fuglenaes or Birds' Cape, which protects the
harbour on the north, there stands a column with an inscription in Norse
and Latin, stating that Hammerfest was one of the stations of the
expedition for the measurement of the arc of the meridian in 1816-1852.
Nor is this its only association with science; for it was one of the
spots chosen by Sir Edward Sabine for his series of pendulum experiments
in 1823. The ascent of the Sadlen or the Tyven in the neighbourhood is
usually undertaken by travellers for the view of the barren, snow-clad
Arctic landscape, the bluff indented coast, and the vast expanse of the
Arctic Ocean.



HAMMER-KOP, or HAMMERHEAD, an African bird, which has been regarded as a
stork and as a heron, the _Scopus umbretta_ of ornithologists, called
the "Umbre" by T. Pennant, now placed in a separate family _Scopidae_
between the herons and storks. It was discovered by M. Adanson, the
French traveller, in Senegal about the middle of the 19th century, and
was described by M. J. Brisson in 1760. It has since been found to
inhabit nearly the whole of Africa and Madagascar, and is the
"hammerkop" (hammerhead) of the Cape colonists. Though not larger than a
raven, it builds an enormous nest, some six feet in diameter, with a
flat-topped roof and a small hole for entrance and exit, and placed
either on a tree or a rocky ledge. The bird, of an almost uniform brown
colour, slightly glossed with purple and its tail barred with black, has
a long occipital crest, generally borne horizontally, so as to give rise
to its common name. It is somewhat sluggish by day, but displays much
activity at dusk, when it will go through a series of strange
performances.     (A. N.)



HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH, FREIHERR von (1774-1856), Austrian
orientalist, was born at Graz on the 9th of June 1774, the son of Joseph
Johann von Hammer, and received his early education mainly in Vienna.
Entering the diplomatic service in 1796, he was appointed in 1799 to a
position in the Austrian embassy in Constantinople, and in this capacity
he took part in the expedition under Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith
and General Sir John Hely Hutchinson against the French. In 1807 he
returned home from the East, after which he was made a privy councillor,
and, on inheriting in 1835 the estates of the countess Purgstall in
Styria, was given the title of "freiherr." In 1847 he was elected
president of the newly-founded academy, and he died at Vienna on the
23rd of November 1856.

For fifty years Hammer-Purgstall wrote incessantly on the most diverse
subjects and published numerous texts and translations of Arabic,
Persian and Turkish authors. It was natural that a scholar who traversed
so large a field should lay himself open to the criticism of
specialists, and he was severely handled by Friedrich Christian Diez
(1794-1876), who, in his _Unfug und Betrug_ (1815), devoted to him
nearly 600 pages of abuse. Von Hammer-Purgstall did for Germany the same
work that Sir William Jones (q.v.) did for England and Silvestre de Sacy
for France. He was, like his younger but greater English contemporary,
Edward William Lane, with whom he came into friendly conflict on the
subject of the origin of _The Thousand and One Nights_, an assiduous
worker, and in spite of many faults did more for oriental studies than
most of his critics put together.

  Von Hammer's principal work is his _Geschichte des osmanischen
  Reiches_ (10 vols., Pesth, 1827-1835). Another edition of this was
  published at Pesth in 1834-1835, and it has been translated into
  French by J. J. Hellert (1835-1843). Among his other works are
  _Constantinopolis und der Bosporos_ (1822); _Sur les origines russes_
  (St Petersburg, 1825); _Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst_ (1836);
  _Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak_ (1840); _Geschichte der
  Chane der Krim_ (1856); and an unfinished _Litteraturgeschichte der
  Araber_ (1850-1856). His _Geschichte der Assassinen_ (1818) has been
  translated into English by O. C. Wood (1835). Texts and
  translations--_Eth-Thaalabi_, Arab. and Ger. (1829); _Ibn Wahshiyah,
  History of the Mongols_, Arab. and Eng. (1806); _El-Wassaf_, Pers. and
  Ger. (1856); _Esch-Schebistani's Rosenflor des Geheimnisses_, Pers.
  and Ger. (1838); _Ez-Zamakhsheri, Goldene Halsbander_, Arab. and Germ.
  (1835); _El-Ghazzali, Hujjet-el-Islám_, Arab. and Ger. (1838);
  _El-Hamawi, Das arab. Hohe Lied der Liebe_, Arab. and Ger. (1854).
  Translations of--_El-Mutanebbi's Poems; Er-Resmi's Account of his
  Embassy_ (1809); _Contes inédits des 1001 nuits_ (1828). Besides these
  and smaller works, von Hammer contributed numerous essays and
  criticisms to the _Fundgruben des Orients_, which he edited; to the
  _Journal asiatique_; and to many other learned journals; above all to
  the _Transactions_ of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften" of Vienna, of
  which he was mainly the founder; and he translated Evliya Effendi's
  _Travels in Europe_, for the English Oriental Translation Fund. For a
  fuller list of his works, which amount in all to nearly 100 volumes,
  see _Comptes rendus_ of the Acad. des Inscr. et des Belles-Lettres
  (1857). See also Schlottman, _Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall_ (Zurich,
  1857).



HAMMERSMITH, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded
E. by Kensington and S. by Fulham and the river Thames, and extending N.
and W. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901) 112,239. The
name appears in the early forms of _Hermodewode_ and _Hamersmith_; the
derivation is probably from the Anglo-Saxon, signifying the place with a
haven (_hythe_). Hammersmith is mentioned with Fulham as a winter camp
of Danish invaders in 879, when they occupied the island of Hame, which
may be identified with Chiswick Eyot. Hammersmith consists of
residential streets of various classes. There are many good houses in
the districts of Brook Green in the south-east, and Ravenscourt Park and
Starch Green in the west. Shepherd's Bush in the east is a populous and
poorer quarter. Boat-building yards, lead-mills, oil mills,
distilleries, coach factories, motor works, and other industrial
establishments are found along the river and elsewhere in the borough.
The main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road, from Acton
on the west, converging at Shepherd's Bush and continuing towards
Notting Hill; King Street from Chiswick on the south-west, continued as
Hammersmith Broadway and Road to Kensington Road; Bridge Road from
Hammersmith Bridge over the Thames, and Fulham Palace Road from Fulham,
converging at the Broadway. Old Hammersmith Bridge, designed by Tierney
Clark (1824), was the earliest suspension bridge erected near London.
This bridge was found insecure and replaced in 1884-1887. Until 1834
Hammersmith formed part of Fulham parish. Its church of St Paul was
built as a chapel of ease to Fulham, and consecrated by Laud in 1631.
The existing building dates from 1890. Among the old monuments preserved
is that of Sir Nicholas Crispe (d. 1665), a prominent royalist during
the civil wars and a benefactor of the parish. Schools and religious
houses are numerous. St Paul's school is one of the principal public
schools in England. It was founded in or about 1509 by John Colet, dean
of St Paul's, under the shadow of the cathedral church. But it appears
that Colet actually refounded and reorganized a school which had been
attached to the cathedral of St Paul from very early times; the first
mention of such a school dates from the early part of the 12th century
(see an article in _The Times_, London, July 7, 1909, on the occasion of
the celebration of the quatercentenary of Colet's foundation). The
school was moved to its present site in Hammersmith Road in 1883. The
number of foundation scholars, that is, the number for which Colet's
endowment provided, is 153, according to the number of fishes taken in
the miraculous draught. The total number of pupils is about 600. The
school governors are appointed by the Mercers' Company (by which body
the new site was acquired), and the universities of Oxford, Cambridge
and London. Close to the school is St Paul's preparatory school, and at
Brook Green is a girls' school in connexion with the main school. There
are, besides, the Edward Latymer foundation school for boys (1624), part
of the income of which is devoted to general charitable purposes; the
Godolphin school, founded in the 16th century and remodelled as a
grammar school in 1861; Nazareth House of Little Sisters of the Poor,
the Convent of the Sacred Heart, and other convents. The town hall, the
West London hospital with its post-graduate college, and Wormwood
Scrubbs prison are noteworthy buildings. Other institutions are the
Hammersmith school of art and a Roman Catholic training college. Besides
the picturesque Ravenscourt Park (31 acres) there are extensive
recreation grounds in the north of the borough at Wormwood Scrubbs (193
acres), and others of lesser extent. An important place of entertainment
is Olympia, near Hammersmith Road and the Addison Road station on the
West London railway, which includes a vast arena under a glass roof;
while at Shepherd's Bush are the extensive grounds and buildings first
occupied by the Franco-British Exhibition of 1908, including a huge
stadium for athletic displays. In the extreme north of the borough is
the Kensal Green Roman Catholic cemetery, in which Cardinal Manning and
many other prominent members of this faith are buried. In the
neighbourhood of the Mall, bordering the river, are the house where
Thomson wrote his poem "The Seasons," and Kelmscott House, the residence
of William Morris. The parliamentary borough of Hammersmith returns one
member. The borough council consists of a mayor, 5 aldermen, and 30
councillors. Area, 2286.3 acres.



HAMMER-THROWING, a branch of field athletics which consists of hurling
to the greatest possible distance an instrument with a heavy head and
slender handle called the hammer. Throwing the hammer is in all
probability of Keltic origin, as it has been popular in Ireland and
Scotland for many centuries. The missile was, however, not a hammer, but
the wheel of a chariot attached to a fixed axle, by which it was whirled
round the head and cast for distance. Such a sport was undoubtedly
cultivated in the old Irish games, a large stone being substituted for
the wheel at the beginning of the Christian era. In the Scottish
highlands the missile took the form of a smith's sledgehammer, and in
this form the sport became popular in England in early days. Edward II.
is said to have fostered it, and Henry VIII. is known to have been
proficient. At the beginning of the 19th century two standard hammers
were generally recognized in Scotland, the heavy hammer, weighing about
21 lb., and the light hammer, weighing about 16 lb. These were in
general use until about 1885, although the light hammer gradually
attained popularity at the expense of the heavy. Although originally an
ordinary blacksmith's sledge with a handle about 3 ft. long, the form of
the head was gradually modified until it acquired its present spherical
shape, and the stiff wooden handle gave place to one of flexible
whalebone about 3/8 in. in diameter. The Scottish style of throwing,
which also obtained in America, was to stand on a mark, swing the hammer
round the head several times and hurl it backwards over the shoulder,
the length being measured from the mark made by the falling hammer to
the nearest foot of the thrower, no run or follow being allowed. Such
men as Donald Dinnie, G. Davidson and Kenneth McRae threw the light
hammer over 110 ft., and Dinnie's record was 132 ft. 8 in., made,
however, from a raised mount. Meanwhile the English Amateur Athletic
Association had early fixed the weight of the hammer at 16 lb., but the
length of the handle and the run varied widely, the restrictions being
few. Under these conditions S. S. Brown, of Oxford, made in 1873 a throw
of 120 ft., which was considered extraordinary at the time. In 1875 the
throw was made from a 7-ft. circle without run, head and handle of the
missile weighing together exactly 16 lb. In 1887 the circle was enlarged
to 9 ft., and in 1896 a handle of flexible metal was legalized. The
throw was made after a few rapid revolutions of the body, which added an
impetus that greatly added to the distance attained. It thus happened
that the Scottish competitors at the English games, who clung to their
standing style of throwing, were, although athletes of the very first
class, repeatedly beaten; the result being that the Scottish association
was forced to introduce the English rules. This was also the case in
America, where the throw from the 7-ft. circle, any motions being
allowed within it, was adopted in 1888, and still obtains. The Americans
still further modified the handle, which now consists of steel wire with
two skeleton loops for the hands, the wire being joined to the head by
means of a ball-bearing swivel. Thus the greatest mechanical advantage,
that of having the entire weight of the missile at the end, as well as
the least friction, is obtained. In England the Amateur Athletic
Association in 1908 enacted that "the head and handle may be of any
size, shape and material, provided that the complete implement shall not
be more than 4 ft. and its weight not less than 16 lb. The competitor
may assume any position he chooses, and use either one or both hands.
All throws shall be made from a circle 7 ft. in diameter." The modern
hammer-thrower, if right-handed, begins by placing the head on the
ground at his right side. He then lifts and swings it round his head
with increasing rapidity, his whole body finally revolving with
outstretched arms twice, in some cases three times, as rapidly as
possible, the hammer being released in the desired direction. During the
"spinning," or revolving of the body, the athlete must be constantly,
"ahead of the hammer," i.e. he must be drawing it after him with
continually increased pressure up to the very moment of delivery. The
muscles chiefly called into play are those of the shoulders, back and
loins. The adoption of the hand-loops has given the thrower greater
control over the hammer and has thus rendered the sport much less
dangerous than it once was.

  With a wooden handle the longest throw made in Great Britain from a
  9-ft. circle was that of W. J. M. Barry in 1892, who won the
  championship in that year with 133 ft. 3 in. With the flexible handle,
  "unlimited run and follow" being permitted, the record was held in
  1909 by M. J. McGrath with 175 ft. 8 in., made in 1907; a Scottish
  amateur, T. R. Nicholson, held the British record of 169 ft. 8 in. The
  world's record for throw from a 7-ft. circle was 172 ft. 11 in. by J.
  Flanagan in 1904 in America; the British record from 9-ft. circle
  being also held by Flanagan with a throw of 163 ft. 1 in. made in
  1900. Flanagan's Olympic record (London, 1908) was 170 ft. 4¼ in.

  See _Athletics_ in the Badminton library; _Athletes' Guide_ in
  Spalding's Athletic library; "Hammer-Throwing" in vol. xx. of
  _Outing_.



HAMMER-TOE, a painful condition in which a toe is rigidly bent and the
salient angle on its upper aspect is constantly irritated by the boot.
It is treated surgically, not as formerly by amputation of the toe, but
the toe is made permanently to lie flat by the simple excision of the
small digital joint. Even in extremely bad cases of hammer-toe the
operation of resection of the head of the metatarsal phalanx is to be
recommended rather than amputation.



HAMMOCK, a bed or couch slung from each end. The word is said to have
been derived from the hamack tree, the bark of which was used by the
aboriginal natives of Brazil to form the nets, suspended from trees, in
which they slept. The hammock may be of matting, skin or textiles, lined
with cushions or filled with bedding. It is much used in hot climates.



HAMMOND, HENRY (1605-1660), English divine, was born at Chertsey in
Surrey on the 18th of August 1605. He was educated at Eton and at
Magdalen College, Oxford, becoming demy or scholar in 1619, and fellow
in 1625. He took orders in 1629, and in 1633 in preaching before the
court so won the approval of the earl of Leicester that he presented him
to the living of Penshurst in Kent. In 1643 he was made archdeacon of
Chichester. He was a member of the convocation of 1640, and was
nominated one of the Westminster Assembly of divines. Instead of sitting
at Westminster he took part in the unsuccessful rising at Tunbridge in
favour of King Charles I., and was obliged to flee in disguise to
Oxford, then the royal headquarters. There he spent much of his time in
writing, though he accompanied the king's commissioners to London, and
afterwards to the ineffectual convention at Uxbridge in 1645, where he
disputed with Richard Vines, one of the parliamentary envoys. In his
absence he was appointed canon of Christ Church and public orator of the
university. These dignities he relinquished for a time in order to
attend the king as chaplain during his captivity in the hands of the
parliament. When Charles was deprived of all his loyal attendants at
Christmas 1647, Hammond returned to Oxford and was made subdean of
Christ Church, only, however, to be removed from all his offices by the
parliamentary visitors, who imprisoned him for ten weeks. Afterwards he
was permitted, though still under quasi-confinement, to retire to the
house of Philip Warwick at Clapham in Bedfordshire. In 1650, having
regained his full liberty, Hammond betook himself to the friendly
mansion of Sir John Pakington, at Westwood, in Worcestershire, where he
died on the 25th of April 1660, just on the eve of his preferment to the
see of Worcester. Hammond was held in high esteem even by his opponents.
He was handsome in person and benevolent in disposition. He was an
excellent preacher; Charles I. pronounced him the most natural orator he
had ever heard. His range of reading was extensive, and he was a most
diligent scholar and writer.

  His writings, published in 4 vols. fol. (1674-1684), consist for the
  most part of controversial sermons and tracts. The _Anglo-Catholic_
  _Library_ contains four volumes of his _Miscellaneous Theological
  Works_ (1847-1850). The best of them are his _Practical Catechism_,
  first published in 1644; his _Paraphrase and Annotations on the New
  Testament_; and an incomplete work of a similar nature on the Old
  Testament. His _Life_, a delightful piece of biography, written by
  Bishop Fell, and prefixed to the collected _Works_, has been reprinted
  in vol. iv. of Wordsworth's _Ecclesiastical Biography_. See also _Life
  of Henry Hammond_, by G. G. Perry.



HAMMOND, a city of Lake county, Indiana, U.S.A., about 18 m. S.E. of the
business centre of Chicago, on the Grand Calumet river. Pop. (1890),
5428; (1900) 12,376, of whom 3156 were foreign-born; (1910, census)
20,925. It is served by no fewer than eight railways approaching Chicago
from the east, and by several belt lines. As far as its industries are
concerned, it is a part of Chicago, to which fact it owes its rapid
growth and its extensive manufacturing establishments, which include
slaughtering and packing houses, iron and steel works, chemical works,
piano, wagon and carriage factories, printing establishments, flour and
starch mills, glue works, breweries and distilleries. In 1900 Hammond
was the principal slaughtering and meat-packing centre of the state, but
subsequently a large establishment removed from the city, and Hammond's
total factory product (all industries) decreased from $25,070,551 in
1900 to $7,671,203 in 1905; after 1905 there was renewed growth in the
city's manufacturing interests. It has a good water-supply system which
is owned by the city. Hammond was first settled about 1868, was named in
honour of Abram A. Hammond (acting governor of the state in 1860-1861)
and was chartered as a city in 1883.



HAMON, JEAN LOUIS (1821-1874), French painter, was born at Plouha on the
5th of May 1821. At an early age he was intended for the priesthood, and
placed under the care of the brothers Lamennais, but his strong desire
to become a painter finally triumphed over family opposition, and in
1840 he courageously left Plouha for Paris--his sole resources being a
pension of five hundred francs, granted him for one year only by the
municipality of his native town. At Paris Hamon received valuable
counsels and encouragement from Delaroche and Gleyre, and in 1848 he
made his appearance at the Salon with "Le Tombeau du Christ" (Musée de
Marseille), and a decorative work, "Dessus de Porte." The works which he
exhibited in 1849--"Une Affiche romaine," "L'Égalité au sérail," and
"Perroquet jasant avec deux jeunes filles"--obtained no marked success.
Hamon was therefore content to accept a place in the manufactory of
Sèvres, but an enamelled casket by his hand having attracted notice at
the London International Exhibition of 1851, he received a medal, and,
reinspired by success, left his post to try his chances again at the
Salon of 1852. "La Comédie humaine," which he then exhibited, turned the
tide of his fortune, and "Ma soeur n'y est pas" (purchased by the
emperor) obtained for its author a third-class medal in 1853. At the
Paris International Exhibition of 1855, when Hamon re-exhibited the
casket of 1851, together with several vases and pictures of which
"L'Amour et son troupeau," "Ce n'est pas moi," and "Une Gardeuse
d'enfants" were the chief, he received a medal of the second class, and
the ribbon of the legion of honour. In the following year he was absent
in the East, but in 1857 he reappeared with "Boutique à quatre sous,"
"Papillon enchaîné," "Cantharide esclave," "Dévideuses," &c., in all ten
pictures; "L'Amour en visite" was contributed to the Salon of 1859, and
"Vierge de Lesbos," "Tutelle," "La Volière," "L'Escamoteur" and "La
Soeur aînée" were all seen in 1861. Hamon now spent some time in Italy,
chiefly at Capri, whence in 1864 he sent to Paris "L'Aurore" and "Un
Jour de fiançailles." The influence of Italy was also evident in "Les
Muses à Pompéi," his sole contribution to the Salon of 1866, a work
which enjoyed great popularity and was re-exhibited at the International
Exhibition of 1867, together with "La Promenade" and six other pictures
of previous years. His last work, "Le Triste Rivage," appeared at the
Salon of 1873. It was painted at St Raphael, where Hamon had finally
settled in a little house on the shores of the Mediterranean, close by
Alphonse Karr's famous garden. In this house he died on the 29th of May
1874.



HAMPDEN, HENRY BOUVERIE WILLIAM BRAND, 1ST VISCOUNT[1] (1812-1892),
speaker of the House of Commons, was the second son of the 21st Baron
Dacre, and descended from John Hampden, the patriot, in the female line;
the barony of Dacre devolved on him in 1890, after he had been created
Viscount Hampden in 1884. He entered parliament as a Liberal in 1852,
and for some time was chief whip of his party. In 1872 he was elected
speaker, and retained this post till February 1884. It fell to him to
deal with the systematic obstruction of the Irish Nationalist party, and
his speakership is memorable for his action on the 2nd of February 1881
in refusing further debate on W. E. Forster's Coercion Bill--a step
which led to the formal introduction of the closure into parliamentary
procedure. He died on the 14th of March 1892, being succeeded as 2nd
viscount by his son (b. 1841), who was governor of New South Wales,
1895-1899.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] An earlier viscountcy was bestowed in 1776 on Robert
    Hampden-Trevor, 4th Baron Trevor (1706-1783), a great-grandson of the
    daughter of John Hampden, the patriot; it became extinct in 1824 by
    the death of the 3rd viscount.



HAMPDEN, JOHN (c. 1595-1643), English statesman, the eldest son of
William Hampden, of Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a
very ancient family of that place, said to have been established there
before the Conquest, and of Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Henry
Cromwell, and aunt of Oliver, the future protector, was born about the
year 1595. By his father's death, when he was but a child, he became the
owner of a good estate and a ward of the crown. He was educated at the
grammar school at Thame, and on the 30th of March 1610 became a commoner
of Magdalen College at Oxford. In 1613 he was admitted a student of the
Inner Temple. He first sat in parliament for the borough of Grampound in
1621, representing later Wendover in the first three parliaments of
Charles I., Buckinghamshire in the Short Parliament of 1640, and
Wendover again in the Long Parliament. In the early days of his
parliamentary career he was content to be overshadowed by Eliot, as in
its later days he was content to be overshadowed by Pym and to be
commanded by Essex. Yet it is Hampden, and not Eliot or Pym, who lives
in the popular imagination as the central figure of the English
revolution in its earlier stages. It is Hampden whose statue rather than
that of Eliot or Pym has been selected to take its place in St Stephen's
Hall as the noblest type of the parliamentary opposition, as Falkland's
has been selected as the noblest type of parliamentary royalism.

Something of Hampden's fame no doubt is owing to the position which he
took up as the opponent of ship-money. But it is hardly possible that
even resistance to ship-money would have so distinguished him but for
the mingled massiveness and modesty of his character, his dislike of all
pretences in himself or others, his brave contempt of danger, and his
charitable readiness to shield others as far as possible from the evil
consequences of their actions. Nor was he wanting in that skill which
enabled him to influence men towards the ends at which he aimed, and
which was spoken of as subtlety by those who disliked his ends.

During these first parliaments Hampden did not, so far as we know, open
his lips in public debate, but he was increasingly employed in committee
work, for which he seems to have had a special aptitude. In 1626 he took
an active part in the preparation of the charges against Buckingham. In
January 1627 he was bound over to answer at the council board for his
refusal to pay the forced loan. Later in the year he was committed to
the gatehouse, and then sent into confinement in Hampshire, from which
he was liberated just before the meeting of the third parliament of the
reign, in which he once more rendered useful but unobtrusive assistance
to his leaders.

When the breach came in 1629 Hampden is found in epistolary
correspondence with the imprisoned Eliot, discussing with him the
prospects of the Massachusetts colony,[1] or rendering hospitality and
giving counsel to the patriot's sons now that they were deprived of a
father's personal care. It was not till 1637, however, that his
resistance to the payment of ship-money gained for his name the lustre
which it has never since lost. (See SHIP-MONEY.) Seven out of the twelve
judges sided against him, but the connexion between the rights of
property and the parliamentary system was firmly established in the
popular mind. The tax had been justified, says Clarendon, who expresses
his admiration at Hampden's "rare temper and modesty" at this crisis,
"upon such grounds and reasons as every stander-by was able to swear was
not law" (_Hist._ i. 150, vii. 82).

In the Short Parliament of 1640 Hampden stood forth amongst the leaders.
He guided the House in the debate on the 4th of May in its opposition to
the grant of twelve subsidies in return for the surrender of ship-money.
Parliament was dissolved the next day, and on the 6th an unsuccessful
search was made among the papers of Hampden and of other chiefs of the
party to discover incriminating correspondence with the Scots. During
the eventful months which followed, when Strafford was striving in vain
to force England, in spite of its visible reluctance, to support the
king in his Scottish war, rumour has much to tell of Hampden's activity
in rousing opposition. It is likely enough that the rumour is in the
main true, but we are not possessed of any satisfactory evidence on the
subject.

In the Long Parliament, though Hampden was by no means a frequent
speaker, it is possible to trace his course with sufficient
distinctness. His power consisted in his personal influence, and as a
debater rather than as an orator. "He was not a man of many words," says
Clarendon, "and rarely began the discourse or made the first entrance
upon any business that was assumed, but a very weighty speaker, and
after he had heard a full debate and observed how the House was likely
to be inclined, took up the argument and shortly and clearly and
craftily so stated it that he commonly conducted it to the conclusion he
desired; and if he found he could not do that, he never was without the
dexterity to divert the debate to another time, and to prevent the
determining anything in the negative which might prove inconvenient in
the future" (_Hist._ iii. 31). Unwearied in attendance upon committees,
he was in all things ready to second Pym, whom he plainly regarded as
his leader. Hampden was one of the eight managers of Stratford's
prosecution. Like Pym, he was in favour of the more legal and regular
procedure by impeachment rather than by attainder, which at the later
stage was supported by the majority of the Commons; and through his
influence a compromise was effected by which, while an attainder was
subsequently adopted, Strafford's counsel were heard as in the case of
an impeachment, and thus a serious breach between the two Houses, which
threatened to cause the breakdown of the whole proceedings, was averted.

There was another point on which there was no agreement. A large
minority wished to retain Episcopacy, and to keep the common Prayer Book
unaltered, whilst the majority were at least willing to consider the
question of abolishing the one and modifying the other. On this subject
the parties which ultimately divided the House and the country itself
were fully formed as early as the 8th of February 1641. It is enough to
say that (v. under PYM) Hampden fully shared in the counsels of the
opponents of Episcopacy. It is not that he was a theoretical
Presbyterian, but the bishops had been in his days so fully engaged in
the imposition of obnoxious ceremonies that it was difficult, if not
impossible, to dissociate them from the cause in which they were
embarked. Closely connected with Hampden's distrust of the bishops was
his distrust of monarchy as it then existed. The dispute about the
church therefore soon attained the form of an attack upon monarchy, and,
when the majority of the House of Lords arrayed itself on the side of
Episcopacy and the Prayer Book, of an attack upon the House of Lords as
well.

No serious importance therefore can be attached to the offers of
advancement made from time to time to Hampden and his friends. Charles
would gladly have given them office if they had been ready to desert
their principles. Every day Hampden's conviction grew stronger that
Charles would never abandon the position which he had taken up. In
August 1640 Hampden was one of the four commissioners who attended
Charles in Scotland, and the king's conduct there, connected with such
events as the "Incident," must have proved to a man far less sagacious
than Hampden that the time for compromise had gone by. He was therefore
a warm supporter of the Grand Remonstrance, and was marked out as one of
the five impeached members whose attempted arrest brought at last the
opposing parties into open collision (see also PYM, STRODE, HOLLES and
LENTHALL). In the angry scene which arose on the proposal to print the
Grand Remonstrance, it was Hampden's personal intervention which
prevented an actual conflict, and it was after the impeachment had been
attempted that Hampden laid down the two conditions under which
resistance to the king became the duty of a good subject. Those
conditions were an attack upon religion and an attack upon the
fundamental laws. There can be no doubt that Hampden fully believed that
both those conditions were fulfilled at the opening of 1642.

When the Civil War began, Hampden was appointed a member of the
committee for safety, levied a regiment of Buckinghamshire men for the
parliamentary cause, and in his capacity of deputy-lieutenant carried
out the parliamentary militia ordinance in the county. In the earlier
operations of the war he bore himself gallantly and well. He took no
actual part in the battle of Edgehill. His troops in the rear, however,
arrested Rupert's charge at Kineton, and he urged Essex to renew the
attack here, and also after the disaster at Brentford. In 1643 he was
present at the siege and capture of Reading. But it is not on his skill
as a regimental officer that Hampden's fame rests. In war as in peace
his distinction lay in his power of disentangling the essential part
from the non-essential. In the previous constitutional struggle he had
seen that the one thing necessary was to establish the supremacy of the
House of Commons. In the military struggle which followed he saw, as
Cromwell saw afterwards, that the one thing necessary was to beat the
enemy. He protested at once against Essex's hesitations and compromises.
In the formation of the confederacy of the six associated counties,
which was to supply a basis for Cromwell's operations, he took an active
part. His influence was felt alike in parliament and in the field. But
he was not in supreme command, and he had none of that impatience which
often leads able men to fail in the execution of orders of which they
disapprove. His precious life was a sacrifice to his unselfish devotion
to the call of discipline and duty. On the 18th of June 1643, when he
was holding out on Chalgrove Field against the superior numbers of
Rupert till reinforcements arrived, he received two carbine balls in the
shoulder. Leaving the field he reached Thame, survived six days, and
died on the 24th.

Hampden married (1) in 1619 Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Symeon of
Pyrton, Oxfordshire, and (2) Letitia, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys
and widow of Sir Thomas Vachell. By his first wife he had nine children,
one of whom, Richard (1631-1695) was chancellor of the exchequer in
William III.'s reign; from two of his daughters are descended the
families of Trevor-Hampden and Hobart-Hampden, the descent in the male
line becoming apparently extinct in 1754 in the person of John Hampden.

JOHN HAMPDEN the younger (c. 1656-1696), the second son of Richard
Hampden, returned to England after residing for about two years in
France, and joined himself to Lord William Russell and Algernon Sidney
and the party opposed to the arbitrary government of Charles II. With
Russell and Sidney he was arrested in 1683 for alleged complicity in the
Rye House Plot, but more fortunate than his colleagues his life was
spared, although as he was unable to pay the fine of £40,000 which was
imposed upon him he remained in prison. Then in 1685, after the failure
of Monmouth's rising, Hampden was again brought to trial, and on a
charge of high treason was condemned to death. But the sentence was not
carried out, and having paid £6000 he was set at liberty. In the
Convention parliament of 1689 he represented Wendover, but in the
subsequent parliaments he failed to secure a seat. He died by his own
hand on the 12th of December 1696. Hampden wrote numerous pamphlets, and
Bishop Burnet described him as "one of the learnedest gentlemen I ever
knew."

  See S. R. Gardiner's _Hist. of England_ and _of the Great Civil War_;
  the article on Hampden in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_, by C. H.
  Firth, with authorities there collected; Clarendon's _Hist. of the
  Rebellion_; Sir Philip Warwick's _Mems._ p. 239; Wood's _Ath. Oxon._
  iii. 59; Lord Nugent's _Memorials of John Hampden_ (1831); Macaulay's
  _Essay on Hampden_ (1831). The printed pamphlet announcing his capture
  of Reading in December 1642 is shown by Mr Firth to be spurious, and
  the account in _Mercurius Aulicus_, January 27 and 29, 1643, of
  Hampden commanding an attack at Brill, to be also false, while the
  published speech supposed to be spoken by Hampden on the 4th of
  January 1642, and reproduced by Forster in the _Arrest of the Five
  Members_ (1660), has been proved by Gardiner to be a forgery (_Hist.
  of England_, x. 135). Mr Firth has also shown in _The Academy_ for
  1889, November 2 and 9, that "the belief that we possess the words of
  Hampden's last prayer must be abandoned."


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Hampden was one of the persons to whom the earl of Warwick
    granted land in Connecticut, but for the anecdote which relates his
    attempted emigration with Cromwell there is no foundation (v. under
    JOHN PYM).



HAMPDEN, RENN DICKSON (1793-1868), English divine, was born in Barbados,
where his father was colonel of militia, in 1793, and was educated at
Oriel College, Oxford. Having taken his B.A. degree with first-class
honours in both classics and mathematics in 1813, he next year obtained
the chancellor's prize for a Latin essay, and shortly afterwards was
elected to a fellowship in his college, Keble, Newman and Arnold being
among his contemporaries. Having left the university in 1816 he held
successively a number of curacies, and in 1827 he published _Essays on
the Philosophical Evidence of Christianity_, followed by a volume of
_Parochial Sermons illustrative of the Importance of the Revelation of
God in Jesus Christ_ (1828). In 1829 he returned to Oxford and was
Bampton lecturer in 1832. Notwithstanding a charge of Arianism now
brought against him by the Tractarian party, he in 1833 passed from a
tutorship at Oriel to the principalship of St Mary's Hall. In 1834 he
was appointed professor of moral philosophy, and despite much university
opposition, Regius professor of divinity in 1836. There resulted a
widespread and violent though ephemeral controversy, after the
subsidence of which he published a _Lecture on Tradition_, which passed
through several editions, and a volume on _The Thirty-nine Articles of
the Church of England_. His nomination by Lord John Russell to the
vacant see of Hereford in December 1847 was again the signal for a
violent and organized opposition; and his consecration in March 1848
took place in spite of a remonstrance by many of the bishops and the
resistance of Dr John Merewether, the dean of Hereford, who went so far
as to vote against the election when the _congé d'élire_ reached the
chapter. As bishop of Hereford Dr Hampden made no change in his
long-formed habits of studious seclusion, and though he showed no
special ecclesiastical activity or zeal, the diocese certainly prospered
in his charge. Among the more important of his later writings were the
articles on Aristotle, Plato and Socrates, contributed to the eighth
edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, and afterwards reprinted with
additions under the title of _The Fathers of Greek Philosophy_
(Edinburgh, 1862). In 1866 he had a paralytic seizure, and died in
London on the 23rd of April 1868.

  His daughter, Henrietta Hampden, published _Some Memorials of R. D.
  Hampden_ in 1871.



HAMPDEN-SIDNEY, a village of Prince Edward county, Virginia, U.S.A.,
about 70 m. S.W. of Richmond. Pop. about 350. Daily stages connect the
village with Farmville (pop. in 1910, 2971), the county-seat, 6 m. N.E.,
which is served by the Norfolk & Western and the Tidewater & Western
railways. Hampden-Sidney is the seat of Hampden-Sidney College, founded
by the presbytery of Hanover county as Hampden-Sidney Academy in 1776,
and named in honour of John Hampden and Algernon Sidney. It was
incorporated as Hampden-Sidney College in 1783. The incorporators
included James Madison, Patrick Henry (who is believed to have drafted
the college charter), Paul Carrington, William Cabell, Sen., and
Nathaniel Venable. The Union Theological School was established in
connexion with the college in 1812, but in 1898 was removed to Richmond,
Virginia. In 1907-1908 the college had 8 instructors, 125 students, and
a library of 11,000 volumes. The college has maintained a high standard
of instruction, and many of its former students have been prominent as
public men, educationalists and preachers. Among them were President
William Henry Harrison, William H. Cabell (1772-1853), president of the
Virginia Court of Appeals; George M. Bibb (1772-1859), secretary of the
treasury (1844-1845) in President Tyler's cabinet; William B. Preston
(1805-1862), secretary of the navy in 1849-1850; William Cabell Rives
and General Sterling Price (1809-1867).



HAMPSHIRE (or COUNTY OR SOUTHAMPTON, abbreviated Hants), a southern
county of England, bounded N. by Berkshire, E. by Surrey and Sussex, S.
by the English Channel, and W. by Dorsetshire and Wiltshire. The area is
1623.5 sq. m. From the coast of the mainland, which is for the most part
low and irregular, a strait, known in its western part as the Solent,
and in its eastern as Spithead, separates the Isle of Wight. This island
is included in the county. The inlet of Southampton Water opens from
this strait, penetrating inland in a north-westerly direction for 12 m.
The easterly part of the coast forms a large shallow bay containing
Hayling and Portsea Islands, which divide it into Chichester Harbour,
Langston Harbour and Portsmouth Harbour. The westerly part forms the
more regular indentations of Christchurch Bay and part of Poole Bay. In
its general aspect Hampshire presents a beautiful variety of gently
rising hills and fruitful valleys, adorned with numerous mansions and
pleasant villages, and interspersed with extensive tracts of woodland.
Low ranges of hills, included in the system to which the general name of
the Western Downs is given, reach their greatest elevation in the
northern and eastern parts of the county, where there are many
picturesque eminences, of which Beacon, Sidown and Pilot hills near
Highclere in the north-west, each exceeding 850 ft., are the highest.
The portion of the county west of Southampton Water is almost wholly
included in the New Forest, a sequestered district, one of the few
remaining examples of an ancient afforested tract. The river Avon in the
south-west rises in Wiltshire, and passing Fordingbridge and Ringwood
falls into Christchurch Bay below Christchurch, being joined close to
its mouth by the Stour. The Lymington or Boldre river rises in the New
Forest, and after collecting the waters of several brooks falls into the
Solent through Lymington Creek. The Beaulieu in the eastern part of the
forest also enters the Solent by way of a long and picturesque estuary.
The Test rises near Overton in the north, and after its junction with
the Anton at Fullerton passes Stockbridge and Romsey, and enters the
head of Southampton Water. The Itchen rises near Alresford, and flowing
by Winchester and Eastleigh falls into Southampton Water east of
Southampton. The Hamble rises near Bishops Waltham, and soon forms a
narrow estuary opening into Southampton Water. The Wey, the Loddon and
the Blackwater, rising in the north-eastern part of the county, bring
that part into the basin of the Thames. The streams from the chalk hills
run clear and swift, and the trout-fishing in the county is famous.
Salmon are taken in the Avon.

  _Geology._--Somewhat to the north of the centre of the county is a
  broad expanse of hilly chalk country about 21 m. wide; the whole of it
  has been bent up into a great fold so that the strata on the north dip
  northward steeply in places, while those on the south dip in the
  opposite direction more gently. In the north the chalk disappears
  beneath Tertiary strata of the "London Basin," and some little
  distance south of Winchester it runs in a similar manner beneath the
  Tertiaries of the "Hampshire Basin." Scattered here and there over the
  chalk are small outlying remnants which remain to show that the two
  Tertiary areas were once continuous, before the agencies of denudation
  had removed them from the chalk. These same agencies have exposed the
  strata beneath the chalk over a small area on the eastern border.

  The oldest formation in Hampshire is the Lower Greensand in the
  neighbourhood of Woolmer Forest and Petersfield; it is represented by
  the Hythe beds, sandstones and limestones which form the high ridge
  which runs on towards Hind Head, then by the sands and clays of the
  Sandgate beds which lie in the low ground west of the ridge, and
  finally by the Folkestone beds; all these dip westward beneath the
  Gault. The last-named formation, a clay, worked here and there for
  bricks, crops out as a narrow band from Fareham through Worldham and
  Stroud common to Petersfield. Between the Gault and the chalk is the
  Upper Greensand with a hard bed of calcareous sandstone, the Malm
  rock, which stands up in places as a prominent escarpment. The Upper
  Greensand is also exposed at Burghclere as an inlier; the rocks are
  bent into a sharp anticline and the chalk, having been denuded from
  its crest, the older sandy strata are brought to light. A much more
  gentle anticline brings up the chalk through the Tertiary rocks in the
  neighbourhood of Fareham. Besides occupying the central region already
  mentioned, which includes Basingstoke, Whitchurch, Andover, Alresford
  and Winchester, the chalk appears also in a small patch round
  Rockbourne. The Tertiary rocks of the north (London basin) about
  Farnborough, Aldershot and Kingsclere, comprise the Reading beds,
  London clay and the more sandy Bagshot beds which cover the latter in
  many places, giving rise to heathy commons. The southern Tertiary
  rocks of the Hampshire basin include the Lower Eocene Reading
  beds--used for brick-making--and the London clay which extend from the
  boundary of the chalk by Romsey, Bishop's Waltham, to Havant. These
  are succeeded towards the south by the Upper Eocene beds, the
  Bracklesham beds and the Barton clay. The Barton clays are noted for
  their abundant fossils and the Bagshot beds at Bournemouth contain
  numerous remains of subtropical plants. A series of clays and sands of
  Oligocene age (unknown in the London basin) are found in the vicinity
  of Lymington, Brockenhurst and Beaulieu; they include the Headon beds,
  with a fluvio-marine fauna, well exposed at Hordwell cliffs, and the
  marine beds of Brockenhurst. Numerous small outliers of Tertiary rocks
  are scattered over the chalk area, and many of the chalk and Tertiary
  areas are obscured by patches of Pleistocene deposits of brick earth
  and gravel.

  _Agriculture and Industries._--Nearly seven-tenths of the total area
  is under cultivation (an amount below the average of English counties)
  and of this area about two-fifths is in permanent pasture. The acreage
  under oats is roughly equal to that under wheat and barley. Small
  quantities of rye and hops are cultivated. Barley is usually sown
  after turnips, and is more grown in the uplands than in the lower
  levels. Beans, pease and potatoes are only grown to a small extent. On
  account of the number of sheep pastured on the uplands a large acreage
  of turnips is grown. Rotation grasses are grown chiefly in the
  uplands, and their acreage is greater than in any other of the
  southern counties of England. Sanfoin is the grass most largely grown,
  as it is best adapted to land with a calcareous subsoil. In the lower
  levels no sanfoin and scarcely any clover is grown, the hay being
  supplied from the rich water meadows, which are managed with great
  skill and attention, and give the best money return of any lands in
  the county. Where a rapid stream of water can be passed over them
  during the winter it seldom becomes frozen, and the grasses grow
  during the cold weather so as to be fit for pasture before any traces
  of vegetation appear in the surrounding fields. Hops are grown in the
  eastern part of the county bordering on Surrey. Farming is generally
  conducted on the best modern principles, but owing to the varieties of
  soil there is perhaps no county in England in which the rotation
  observed is more diversified, or the processes and methods more
  varied. Most of the farms are large, and there are a number of model
  farms. The waste land has been mostly brought under tillage, but a
  very large acreage of the ancient forests is still occupied by wood.
  In addition to the New Forest there are in the east Woolmer Forest and
  Alice Holt, in the south-east the Forest of Bere and Waltham Chase,
  and in the Isle of Wight Parkhurst Forest. The honey of the county is
  especially celebrated. Much attention is paid to the rearing of sheep
  and cattle. The original breed of sheep was white-faced with horns,
  but most of the flocks are now of a Southdown variety which have
  acquired certain distinct peculiarities, and are known as "short
  wools" or "Hampshire downs." Cattle are of no distinctive breed, and
  are kept largely for dairy purposes, especially for the supply of
  milk. The breeding and rearing of horses is widely practised, and the
  fattening of pigs has long been an important industry. The original
  breed of pigs is crossed with Berkshire, Essex and Chinese pigs. In
  the vicinity of the forest the pigs are fed on acorns and beechmast,
  and the flesh of those so reared is considered the best, though the
  reputation of Hampshire bacon depends chiefly on the skilful manner in
  which it is cured.

  The manufactures are unimportant, except those carried on at
  Portsmouth and Gosport in connexion with the royal navy. Southampton
  is one of the principal ports in the kingdom. In many of the towns
  there are breweries and tanneries, and paper is manufactured at
  several places. Fancy pottery and terra-cotta are made at Fareham and
  Bishop's Waltham; and Ringwood is celebrated for its knitted gloves.
  At most of the coast towns fishing is carried on, and there are oyster
  beds at Hayling Island. Cowes in the Isle of Wight is the station of
  the Royal Yacht Squadron, and has building yards for yachts and large
  vessels. The principal seaside resorts besides those in the Isle of
  Wight are Bournemouth, Milford, Lee-on-the-Solent, Southsea and South
  Hayling. Aldershot is the principal military training centre in the
  British Isles.

  _Communications._--Communications are provided mainly by the lines of
  the London & South-Western railway company, which also owns the docks
  at Southampton. The main line serves Farnborough, Basingstoke,
  Whitchurch and Andover, and a branch diverges southward from
  Basingstoke for Winchester, Southampton and the New Forest and
  Bournemouth. An alternative line from eastward to Winchester serves
  Aldershot, Alton and Alresford. The main Portsmouth line skirts the
  south-eastern border by Petersfield to Havant, where it joins the
  Portsmouth line of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway. The
  South-Western system also connects Portsmouth and Gosport with
  Southampton, has numerous branches in the Southampton and
  south-western districts, and large work shops at Eastleigh near
  Southampton. The Great Western company serves Basingstoke from Reading
  and Whitchurch, Winchester and Southampton from Didcot (working the
  Didcot, Newbury & Southampton line); the Midland & South-Western
  Junction line connects Andover with Cheltenham; and the Somerset &
  Dorset (also a Midland & South-Western joint line) connects
  Bournemouth with Bath--all these affording through communications
  between Southampton, Bournemouth, and the midlands and north of
  England. None of the rivers, except in the estuarine parts, is
  navigable.

  _Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
  1,039,031 acres, including the Isle of Wight. The population was
  690,097 in 1891 and 797,634 in 1901. The area of the administrative
  county of Southampton is 958,742 acres, and that of the administrative
  county of the Isle of Wight 94,068 acres. The county is divided for
  parliamentary purposes into the following divisions: Northern or
  Basingstoke, Western or Andover, Eastern or Petersfield, Southern or
  Fareham, New Forest, and Isle of Wight, each returning one member. It
  also includes the parliamentary boroughs of Portsmouth and
  Southampton, each returning two members, and of Christchurch and
  Winchester, each returning one. There are 11 municipal boroughs:
  Andover (pop. 6509), Basingstoke (9793), Bournemouth (59,762),
  Christchurch (4204), Lymington (4165), Portsmouth (188,133), Romsey
  (4365), Southampton (104,824), Winchester (20,929), and in the Isle of
  Wight, Newport (10,911) and Ryde (11,043). Bournemouth, Portsmouth and
  Southampton are county boroughs. The following are urban districts:
  Aldershot (30,974), Alton (5479), Eastleigh and Bishopstoke (9317),
  Fareham (8246), Farnborough (11,500), Gosport and Alverstoke (28,884),
  Havant (3837), Itchen (13,097), Petersfield (3265), Warblington
  (3639); and in the Isle of Wight, Cowes (8652), East Cowes (3196), St
  Helen's (4652), Sandown (5006), Shanklin (4533), Ventnor (5866). The
  county is in the western circuit, and assizes are held at Winchester.
  It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into 14 petty
  sessional divisions. The boroughs of Andover, Basingstoke,
  Bournemouth, Lymington, Newport, Portsmouth, Romsey, Ryde, Southampton
  (a county in itself) and Winchester have separate commissions of the
  peace, and the boroughs of Andover, Bournemouth, Portsmouth,
  Southampton and Winchester have in addition separate courts of quarter
  sessions. There are 394 civil parishes. Hampshire is in the diocese of
  Winchester, excepting small parts in those of Oxford and Salisbury,
  and contains 411 ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in
  part.

_History._--The earliest English settlers in the district which is now
Hampshire were a Jutish tribe who occupied the northern parts of the
Isle of Wight and the valleys of the Meon and the Hamble. Their
settlements were, however, unimportant, and soon became absorbed in the
territory of the West Saxons who in 495 landed at the mouth of the
Itchen under the leadership of Cerdic and Cynric, and in 508 slew 5000
Britons and their king. But it was not until after another decisive
victory at Charford in 519 that the district was definitely organized as
West Saxon territory under the rule of Cerdic and Cynric, thus becoming
the nucleus of the vast later kingdom of Wessex. The Isle of Wight was
subjugated in 530 and bestowed on Stuf and Wihtgar, the nephews of
Cerdic. The Northmen made their first attack on the Hampshire coast in
835, and for the two centuries following the district was the scene of
perpetual devastations by the Danish pirates, who made their
headquarters in the Isle of Wight, from which they plundered the
opposite coast. Hampshire suffered less from the Conquest than almost
any English county, and was a favourite resort of the Norman kings. The
alleged destruction of property for the formation of the New Forest is
refuted by the Domesday record, which shows that this district had never
been under cultivation.

In the civil war of Stephen's reign Baldwin de Redvers, lord of the Isle
of Wight, supported the empress Matilda, and Winchester Castle was
secured in her behalf by Robert of Gloucester, while the neighbouring
fortress of Wolvesey was held for Stephen by Bishop Henry de Blois. In
1216 Louis of France, having arrived in the county by invitation of the
barons, occupied Winchester Castle, and only met with resistance at
Odiham Castle, which made a brave stand against him for fifteen days.
During the Wars of the Roses Anthony Woodville, 2nd earl Rivers,
defeated the duke of Clarence at Southampton, and in 1471, after the
battle of Barnet, the countess of Warwick took sanctuary at Beaulieu
Abbey. The chief events connected with Hampshire in the Civil War of the
17th century were the gallant resistance of the cavalier garrisons at
Winchester and Basing House; a skirmish near Cheriton in 1644 notable as
the last battle fought on Hampshire soil; and the concealment of Charles
at Titchfield in 1647 before his removal to Carisbrooke. The duke of
Monmouth, whose rebellion met with considerable support in Hampshire,
was captured in 1685 near Ringwood.

Hampshire was among the earliest shires to be created, and must have
received its name before the revival of Winchester in the latter half of
the 7th century. It is first mentioned in the Saxon chronicle in 755, at
which date the boundaries were practically those of the present day. The
Domesday Survey mentions 44 hundreds in Hampshire, but by the 14th
century the number had been reduced to 37. The hundreds of East Medina
and West Medina in the Isle of Wight are mentioned in 1316. Constables
of the hundreds were first appointed by the Statute of Winchester in
1285, and the hundred court continued to elect a high constable for
Fordingbridge until 1878. The chief court of the Isle of Wight was the
Knighten court held at Newport every three weeks. The sheriff's court
and the assizes and quarter sessions for the county were formerly held
at Winchester, but in 1831 the county was divided into 14 petty
sessional divisions; the quarter sessions for the county were held at
Andover; and Portsmouth, Southampton and Winchester had separate
jurisdiction. Southampton was made a county by itself with a separate
sheriff in 1447.

In the middle of the 7th century Hampshire formed part of the West Saxon
bishopric of Dorchester-on-Thames. On the transference of the episcopal
seat to Winchester in 676 it was included in that diocese in which it
has remained ever since. In 1291 the archdeaconry of Winchester was
coextensive with the county and comprised the ten rural deaneries of
Alresford, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Drokinsford, Fordingbridge, Isle
of Wight, Sombourne, Southampton and Winchester. In 1850 the Isle of
Wight was subdivided into the deaneries of East Medina and West Medina.
In 1856 the deaneries were increased to 24. In 1871 the archdeaconry of
the Isle of Wight was constituted, and about the same time the deaneries
were reduced to 21. In 1892 the deaneries were reconstituted and made 18
in number, and the archdeaconry of the Isle of Wight was divided into
the deaneries of East Wight and West Wight.

After the Conquest the most powerful Hampshire baron was William
Fitz-Osbern, who in addition to the lordship of the Isle of Wight held
considerable estates on the mainland. At the time of the Domesday Survey
the chief landholders were Hugh de Port, ancestor of the Fitz-Johns;
Ralf de Mortimer; William Mauduit whose name is preserved in Hartley
Mauditt; and Waleran, called the Huntsman, ancestor of the Waleraund
family. Hursley near Winchester was the seat of Richard Cromwell; and
Gilbert White, the naturalist, was curate of Farringdon near Selborne.

Apart from the valuable foreign and shipbuilding trade which grew up
with the development of its ports, Hampshire has always been mainly an
agricultural county, the only important manufacture being that of wool
and cloth, which prospered at Winchester in the 12th century and
survived till within recent years. Salt-making and the manufacture of
iron from native ironstone also flourished in Hampshire from pre-Norman
times until within the 19th century. In the 14th century Southampton had
a valuable trade with Venice, and from the 15th to the 18th century many
famous warships were constructed in its docks. Silk-weaving was formerly
carried on at Winchester, Andover, Odiham, Alton, Whitchurch and
Overton, the first mills being set up in 1684 at Southampton by French
refugees. The paper manufacture at Laverstoke was started by the
Portals, a family of Huguenot refugees, in 1685, and a few years later
Henri de Portal obtained the privilege of supplying the bank-note paper
to the Bank of England.

Hampshire returned four members to parliament in 1295, when the boroughs
of New Alresford, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Overton, Portsmouth,
Southampton, Winchester, Yarmouth and Newport were also represented.
After this date the county was represented by two members, but most of
the boroughs ceased to make returns. Odiham and the Isle of Wight were
represented in 1300, Fareham in 1306, and Petersfield in 1307. From 1311
to 1547 Southampton, Portsmouth, and Winchester were the only boroughs
represented. By the end of the 16th century Petersfield, Newport,
Yarmouth, and Andover had regained representation, and Stockbridge,
Christchurch, Lymington, Newtown and Whitchurch returned two members
each, giving the county with its boroughs a total representation of 26
members. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members
in four divisions; Christchurch and Petersfield lost one member each;
and Newtown, Yarmouth, Stockbridge and Whitchurch were disfranchised. By
the act of 1868 Andover, Lymington and Newport were deprived of one
member each.

_Antiquities._--Hampshire is rich in monastic remains. Those considered
under separate headings include the monastery of Hyde near Winchester,
the magnificent churches at Christchurch and Romsey, the ruins of Netley
Abbey, and of Beaulieu Abbey in the New Forest, the fragments of the
priory of St Denys, Southampton, the church at Porchester and the slight
ruins at Titchfield, near Fareham, and Quarr Abbey in the Isle of Wight.
Other foundations, of which the remains are slight, were the Augustinian
priory of Southwick near Fareham, founded by William of Wykeham; that of
Breamore, founded by Baldwin de Redvers, and that of Mottisfont near
Romsey, endowed soon after the Conquest. There are many churches of
interest, apart from the cathedral church of Winchester and those in
some of the towns in the Isle of Wight, or already mentioned in
connexion with monastic foundations. Pre-Conquest work is well shown in
the churches of Corhampton and Breamore, and very early masonry is also
found in Headbourne Worthy church, where is also a brass of the 15th
century to a scholar of Winchester College in collegiate dress. The most
noteworthy Norman churches are at Chilcombe and Kingsclere and (with
Early English additions) at Brockenhurst, Upper Clatford, which has the
unusual arrangement of a double chancel arch, Hambledon, Milford and
East Meon. Principally Early English are the churches of Cheriton,
Grately, which retains some excellent contemporary stained glass from
Salisbury cathedral; Sopley, which is partly Perpendicular; and
Thruxton, which contains a brass to Sir John Lisle (d. 1407), affording
a very early example of complete plate armour. Specimens of the later
styles are generally less remarkable. The frescoes in Bramley church,
ranging in date from the 13th to the 15th century, include a
representation of the murder of Thomas à Beckett. A fine series of
Norman fonts in black marble should be mentioned; they occur in
Winchester cathedral and the churches of St Michael, Southampton, East
Meon and St Mary Bourne.

The most notable old castles are Carisbrooke in the Isle of Wight;
Porchester, a fine Norman stronghold embodying Roman remains, on
Portsmouth Harbour; and Hurst, guarding the mouth of the Solent, where
for a short time Charles I. was imprisoned. Henry VIII. built several
forts to guard the Solent, Spithead and Southampton Water; Hurst Castle
was one, and others remaining, but adapted to various purposes, are at
Cowes, Calshot and Netley. Fine mansions are unusually numerous. That of
Stratfieldsaye or Strathfieldsaye, which belonged to the Pitt family,
was purchased by parliament for presentation to the duke of Wellington
in 1817, his descendants holding the estate from the Crown in
consideration of the annual tribute of a flag to the guard-room at
Windsor. A statue of the duke stands in the grounds, and his war-horse
"Copenhagen" is buried here. The name of Tichborne Park, near Alresford,
is well known in connexion with the famous claimant of the estates whose
case was heard in 1871. Among ancient mansions the Jacobean Bramshill is
conspicuous, lying near Stratfieldsaye in the north of the county. It is
built of stone and is highly decorated, and though the complete original
design was not carried out the house is among the finest of its type in
England. At Bishops Waltham, a small town 10 m. S.S.E. of Winchester,
Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, erected a palace, which received
additions from William of Wykeham, who died here in 1404, and from other
bishops. The ruins are picturesque but not extensive.

  See _Victoria County History_, "Hampshire," R. Warner, _Collections
  for the History of Hampshire_; &c. (London, 1789); H. Moody,
  _Hampshire in 1086_ (1862), and the same author's _Antiquarian and
  Topographical Sketches_ (1846), and _Notes and Essays relating to the
  Counties of Hants and Wilts_ (1851); R. Mudie, _Hampshire_, &c. (3
  vols., Winchester, 1838); B. B. Woodward, T. C. Wilks and C. Lockhart,
  _General History of Hampshire_ (1861-1869); G. N. Godwin, _The Civil
  War in Hampshire, 1642-1645_ (London, 1882); H. M. Gilbert and G. N.
  Godwin, _Bibliotheca Hantoniensis_ (Southampton, 1891). See also
  various papers in _Hampshire Notes and Queries_ (Winchester, 1883 et
  seq.).



HAMPSTEAD, a north-western metropolitan borough of London, England,
bounded E. by St Pancras and S. by St Marylebone, and extending N. and
W. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901), 81,942. The
name, _Hamstede_, is synonymous with "homestead," and the manor is first
named in a charter of Edgar (957-975), and was granted to the abbey of
Westminster by Ethelred in 986. It reverted to the Crown in 1550, and
had various owners until the close of the 18th century, when it came to
Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson, whose descendants retain it. The borough
includes the sub-manor of Belsize and part of the hamlet of Kilburn.

The surface of the ground is sharply undulating, an elevated spur
extending south-west from the neighbourhood of Highgate, and turning
south through Hampstead. It reaches a height of 443 ft. above the level
of the Thames. The Edgware Road bounds Hampstead on the west; and the
borough is intersected, parallel to this thoroughfare, by Finchley Road,
and by Haverstock Hill, which, continued under the names of Rosslyn
Hill, High Street, Heath Street, and North End, crosses the Heath for
which Hampstead is chiefly celebrated. This is a fine open space of
about 240 acres, including in its bounds the summit of Hampstead Hill.
It is a sandy tract, in parts well wooded, diversified with several
small sheets of water, and to a great extent preserves its natural
characteristics unaltered. Beautiful views, both near and distant, are
commanded from many points. Of all the public grounds within London this
is the most valuable to the populace at large; the number of visitors on
a Bank holiday in August is generally, under favourable conditions,
about 100,000; and strenuous efforts are always forthcoming from either
public or private bodies when the integrity of the Heath is in any way
menaced. As early as 1829 attempts to save it from the builder are
recorded. In 1871 its preservation as an open space was insured after
several years' dispute, when the lord of the manor gave up his rights.
An act of parliament transferred the ownership to the Metropolitan Board
of Works, to which body the London County Council succeeded. The Heath
is continued eastward in Parliament Hill (borough of St Pancras),
acquired for the public in 1890; and westward outside the county
boundary in Golders Hill, owned by Sir Spenser Wells, Bart., until 1898.
A Protection Society guards the preservation of the natural beauty and
interests of the Heath. It is not the interests of visitors alone that
must be consulted, for Hampstead, adding to its other attractions a
singularly healthy climate, has long been a favourite residential
quarter, especially for lawyers, artists and men of letters. Among
famous residents are found the first earl of Chatham, John Constable,
George Romney, George du Maurier, Joseph Butler, author of the
_Analogy_, Sir Richard Steele, John Keats, the sisters Joanna and Agnes
Baillie, Leigh Hunt and many others. The parish church of St John (1747)
has several monuments of eminent persons. Chatham's residence was at
North End, a picturesque quarter yet preserving characteristics of a
rural village; here also Wilkie Collins was born. Three old-established
inns, the Bull and Bush, the Spaniards, and Jack Straw's Castle (the
name of which has no historical significance), claim many great names
among former visitors; while the Upper Flask Inn, now a private house,
was the meeting-place of the Kit-Cat Club. Chalybeate springs were
discovered at Hampstead in the 17th century, and early in the 18th
rivalled those of Tunbridge Wells and Epsom. The name of Well Walk
recalls them, but their fame is lost. There are others at Kilburn.

In the south-east Hampstead includes the greater part of Primrose Hill,
a public ground adjacent to the north side of Regent's Park. The borough
has in all about 350 acres of open spaces. The name of the sub-manor of
Belsize is preserved in several streets in the central part. Kilburn,
which as a district extends outside the borough, takes name from a
stream which, as the Westbourne, entered the Thames at Chelsea. Fleet
Road similarly recalls the more famous stream which washed the walls of
the City of London on the west. Hampstead has numerous charitable
institutions, amongst which are the North London consumptive hospital,
the Orphan Working School, Haverstock Hill (1758), the general hospital
and the north-western fever hospital. In Finchley Road are the New and
Hackney Colleges, both Congregational. The parliamentary borough of
Hampstead returns one member. The borough council consists of a mayor, 7
aldermen and 42 councillors. Area, 2265 acres.



HAMPTON, WADE (1818-1902), American cavalry leader was born on the 28th
of March 1818 at Columbia, South Carolina, the son of Wade Hampton
(1791-1858), one of the wealthiest planters in the South, and the
grandson of Wade Hampton (1754-1835), a captain in the War of
Independence and a brigadier-general in the War of 1812. He graduated
(1836) at South Carolina College, and was trained for the law. He
devoted himself, however, to the management of his great plantations in
South Carolina and in Mississippi, and took part in state politics and
legislation. Though his own views were opposed to the prevailing
state-rights tone of South Carolinian opinion, he threw himself heartily
into the Southern cause in 1861, raising a mixed command known as
"Hampton's Legion," which he led at the first battle of Bull Run. During
the Civil War he served in the main with the Army of Northern Virginia
in Stuart's cavalry corps. After Stuart's death Hampton distinguished
himself greatly in opposing Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and was
made lieutenant-general to command Lee's whole force of cavalry. In 1865
he assisted Joseph Johnston in the attempt to prevent Sherman's advance
through the Carolinas. After the war his attitude was conciliatory and
he recommended a frank acceptance by the South of the war's political
consequences. He was governor of his state in 1876-1879, being installed
after a memorable contest; he served in the United States Senate in
1879-1891, and was United States commissioner of Pacific railways in
1893-1897. He died on the 11th of April 1902.

  See E. L. Wells, _Hampton and Reconstruction_ (Columbia, S. C., 1907).



HAMPTON, an urban district in the Uxbridge parliamentary division of
Middlesex, England, 15 m. S.W. of St Paul's cathedral, London, on the
river Thames, served by the London & South Western railway. Pop. (1901),
6813. Close to the river, a mile below the town, stands Hampton Court
Palace, one of the finest extant specimens of Tudor architecture, and
formerly a royal residence. It was erected by Cardinal Wolsey, who in
1515 received a lease of the old mansion and grounds for 99 years. As
the splendour of the building seemed to awaken the cupidity of Henry
VIII., Wolsey in 1526 thought it prudent to make him a present of it. It
became Henry's favourite residence, and he made several additions to the
building, including the great hall and chapel in the Gothic style. Of
the original five quadrangles only two now remain, but a third was
erected by Sir Christopher Wren for William III. In 1649 a great sale of
the effects of the palace took place by order of parliament, and later
the manor itself was sold to a private owner but immediately after came
into the hands of Cromwell; and Hampton Court continued to be one of the
principal residences of the English sovereigns until the time of George
II. It was the birthplace of Edward VI., and the meeting-place (1604) of
the conference held in the reign of James I. to settle the dispute
between the Presbyterians and the state clergy. William III., riding in
the grounds, met with the accident which resulted in his death. It is
now partly occupied by persons of rank in reduced circumstances; but the
state apartments and picture galleries are open to the public, as is
the home park. The gardens, with their ornamental waters, are
beautifully laid out in the Dutch style favoured by William III., and
contain a magnificent vine planted in 1768. In the enclosure north of
the palace, called the Wilderness, is the Maze, a favourite resort.
North again lies Bushey Park, a royal demesne exceeding 1000 acres in
extent. It is much frequented, especially in early summer, when its
triple avenue of horse-chestnut trees is in blossom.

Among several residences in the vicinity of Hampton is Garrick Villa,
once, under the name of Hampton House, the residence of David Garrick
the actor. Sir Christopher Wren and Sir Richard Steele are among famous
former residents. Hampton Wick, on the river E. of Bushey Park, is an
urban district with a population (1901) of 2606.

  See E. Law, _History of Hampton Court Palace_ (London, 1890).



HAMPTON, a city and the county-seat of Elizabeth City county, Virginia,
U.S.A., at the mouth of the James river, on Hampton Roads, about 15 m.
N.W. of Norfolk. Pop. (1890), 2513; (1900) 2764, including 1249 negroes;
(1910) 5505. It is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and by
trolley lines to Old Point Comfort and Newport News. Hampton is an
agricultural shipping point, ships fish, oysters and canned crabs, and
manufactures fish oil and brick. In the city are St John's church, built
in 1727; a national cemetery, a national soldiers' home (between Phoebus
and Hampton), which in 1907-1908 cared for 4093 veterans and had an
average attendance of 2261; and the Hampton Normal and Agricultural
Institute (coeducational), which was opened by the American Missionary
Association in 1868 for the education of negroes. This last was
chartered and became independent of any denominational control in 1870,
and was superintended by Samuel Chapman Armstrong (q.v.) from 1868 to
1893. The school was opened in 1878 to Indians, whose presence has been
of distinct advantage to the negro, showing him, says Booker T.
Washington, the most famous graduate of the school, that the negro race
is not alone in its struggle for improvement. The National government
pays $167 a year for the support of each of the Indian students. The
underlying idea of the Institute is such industrial training as will
make the pupil a willing and a good workman, able to teach his trade to
others; and the school's graduates include the heads of other successful
negro industrial schools, the organizers of agricultural and industrial
departments in Southern public schools and teachers in graded negro
schools. The mechanism of the school includes three schemes: that of
"work students," who work during the day throughout the year and attend
night school for eight months; that of day school students, who attend
school for four or five days and do manual work for one or two days each
week; and that of trade students, who receive trade instruction in their
daily eight-hours' work and study in night school as well. Agriculture
in one or more of its branches is taught to all, including the four or
five hundred children of the Whittier school, a practice school with
kindergarten and primary classes. Graduate courses are given in
agriculture, business, domestic art and science, library methods,
"matrons'" training, and public school teaching. The girl students are
trained in every branch of housekeeping, cooking, dairying and
gardening. The institute publishes _The Southern Workman_, a monthly
magazine devoted to the interests of the Negro and the Indian and other
backward races. In 1908 the Institute had more than 100 buildings and
188 acres of land S.W. of the national cemetery and on Hampton river and
Jones Creek, and 600 acres at Shellbanks, a stock farm 6 m. away; the
enrolment was 21 in graduate classes, 372 in day school, 489 in night
school and 524 in the Whittier school. Of the total, 88 were Indians.

Hampton was settled in 1610 on the site of an Indian village,
Kecoughtan, a name it long retained, and was represented at the first
meeting (1619) of the Virginia House of Burgesses. It was fired by the
British during the War of 1812 and by the Confederates under General J.
B. Magruder in August 1861. During the Civil War there was a large Union
hospital here, the building of the Chesapeake Female College, erected in
1857, being used for this purpose. Hampton was incorporated as a town
in 1887, and in 1908 became a city of the second class.



HAMPTON ROADS, a channel through which the waters of the James,
Nansemond and Elizabeth rivers of Virginia, U.S.A., pass (between Old
Point Comfort to the N. and Sewell's Point to the S.) into Chesapeake
Bay. It is an important highway of commerce, especially for the cities
of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News, and is the chief rendezvous of
the United States navy. For a width of 500 ft. the Federal government
during 1902-1905 increased its minimum depth at low water from 25½ ft.
to 30 ft. The entrance from Chesapeake Bay is defended by Fortress
Monroe on Old Point Comfort and by Fort Wood on a small island called
the Rip Raps near the middle of the channel; and at Portsmouth, a few
miles up the Elizabeth river, is an important United States navy-yard.

Hampton Roads is famous in history as the scene of the first engagement
between iron-clad vessels. In the spring of 1861 the Federals set fire
to several war vessels in the Gosport navy yard on the Elizabeth river
and abandoned the place. In June the Confederates set to work to raise
one of these abandoned vessels, the frigate "Merrimac" of 3500 tons and
40 guns, and to rebuild it as an iron-clad. The vessel (renamed the
"Virginia" though it is generally known in history by its original name)
was first cut down to the water-line and upon her hull was built a
rectangular casemate, constructed of heavy timber (24 in. in thickness),
covered with bar-iron 4 in. thick, and rising from the water on each
side at an angle of about 35°. The iron plating extended 2 ft. below the
water line; and beyond the casemate, toward the bow, was a cast-iron
pilot house, extending 3 ft. above the deck. The reconstruction of the
vessel was completed on the 5th of March 1862. The vessel drew 22 ft. of
water, was equipped with poor engines, so that it could not make more
than 5 knots, and was so unwieldy that it could not be turned in less
than 30 minutes. It was armed with 10 guns--2 (rifled) 7 in., 2 (rifled)
6 in., and 6 (smooth bore Dahlgren) 9 in. Her most powerful equipment,
however, was her 18 in. cast-iron ram. In October 1861 Captain John
Ericsson, an engineer, and a Troy (N.Y.) firm, as builders, began the
construction of the iron-clad "Monitor" for the Federals, at Greenpoint,
Long Island. With a view to enable this vessel to carry at good speed
the thickest possible armour compatible with buoyancy, Ericsson reduced
the exposed surface to the least possible area. Accordingly, the vessel
was built so low in the water that the waves glided easily over its deck
except at the middle, where was constructed a revolving turret[1] for
the guns, and though the vessel's iron armour had a thickness of 1 in.
on the deck, 5 in. on the side, and 8 in. on the turret, its draft was
only 10 ft. 6 in., or less than one-half that of the "Merrimac." Its
turret, 9 ft. high and 20 ft. in inside diameter, seemed small for its
length of 172 ft. and its breadth of 41 ft. 6 in., and this, with the
lowness of its freeboard, caused the vessel to be called the "Yankee
cheese-box on a raft." Forward of the turret was the iron pilot house,
square in shape, and rising about 4 ft. above the deck. The "Monitor's"
displacement was about 1200 tons and her armament was two 11 in.
Dahlgren guns; her crew numbered 58, while that of the "Merrimac"
numbered about 300. She was seaworthy in the shallow waters off the
southern coasts and steered fairly well. The "Monitor" was launched at
Greenpoint, Long Island, on the 30th of January, and was turned over to
the government on the 19th of the following month. The building of the
two vessels was practically a race between the two combatants.

On the 8th of March about 1 P.M., the "Merrimac," commanded by Commodore
Franklin Buchanan (1795-1871), steamed down the Elizabeth accompanied by
two one-gun gun-boats, to engage the wooden fleet of the Federals,
consisting of the frigate "Congress," 50 guns, and the sloop
"Cumberland," 30 guns, both sailing vessels, anchored off Newport News,
and the steam frigates "Minnesota," and "Roanoke," the sailing frigate
"St Lawrence," and several gun-boats, anchored off Fortress Monroe.
Actual firing began about 2 o'clock, when the "Merrimac" was nearly a
mile from the "Congress" and the "Cumberland." Passing the first of
these vessels with terrific broadsides, the "Merrimac" rammed the
"Cumberland" and then turned her fire again on the "Congress," which in
an attempt to escape ran aground and was there under fire from three
other Confederate gun-boats which had meanwhile joined the "Merrimac."
About 3.30 P.M. the "Cumberland," which, while it steadily careened, had
been keeping up a heavy fire at the Confederate vessels, sank, with "her
pennant still flying from the topmast above the waves." Between 4 and
4.30 the "Congress," having been raked fore and aft for nearly an hour
by the "Merrimac," was forced to surrender. While directing a fire of
hot shot to burn the "Congress," Commodore Buchanan of the "Merrimac"
was severely wounded and was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant
Catesby ap Roger Jones. The Federal steam frigates, "Roanoke," "St
Lawrence" and "Minnesota" had all gone aground in their trip from Old
Point Comfort toward the scene of battle, and only the "Minnesota" was
near enough (about 1 m.) to take any part in the fight. She was in such
shallow water that the Confederate iron-clad ram could not get near her
at ebb tide, and about 5 o'clock the Confederates postponed her capture
until the next day and anchored off Sewell's Point.

The "Monitor," under Lieut. John Lorimer Worden (1818-1897). had left
New York on the morning of the 6th of March; after a dangerous passage
in which she twice narrowly escaped sinking, she arrived at Hampton
Roads during the night of the 8th, and early in the morning of the 9th
anchored near the "Minnesota." When the "Merrimac" advanced to attack
the "Minnesota," the "Monitor" went out to meet her, and the battle
between the iron-clads began about 9 A.M. on the 9th. Neither vessel was
able seriously to injure the other, and not a single shot penetrated the
armour of either. The "Monitor" had the advantage of being able to
out-manoeuvre her heavier and more unwieldy adversary; but the revolving
turret made firing difficult and communications were none too good with
the pilot house, the position of which on the forward deck lessened the
range of the two turret-guns. The machinery worked so badly that the
revolution of the turret was stopped. After two hours' fighting, the
"Monitor" was drawn off, so that more ammunition could be placed in her
turret. When the battle was renewed (about 11.30) the "Merrimac" began
firing at the "Monitor's" pilot house; and a little after noon a shot
struck the sight-hole of the pilot house and blinded Lieut. Worden. The
"Monitor" withdrew in the confusion consequent upon the wounding of her
commanding officer; and the "Merrimac" after a short wait for her
adversary steamed back to Norfolk. There were virtually no casualties on
either side. After the evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates on the
9th of May Commodore Josiah Tattnall, then in command of the "Merrimac,"
being unable to take her up the James, sank her. The "Monitor" was lost
in a gale off Cape Hatteras on the 31st of December 1862.

Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was
to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in
Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at
Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as
marking the opening of a new era--the era of the armoured warship. On
the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer
occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with
Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference
(see LINCOLN, ABRAHAM). At Sewell's Point, on Hampton Roads, in 1907 was
held the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition.

  See James R. Soley, _The Blockade and the Cruisers_ (New York, 1883);
  _Battles and Leaders of the Civil War_, vol. i. (New York, 1887);
  chap. ii. of Frank M. Bennett's _The Monitor and the Navy under Steam_
  (Boston, 1900); and William Swinton, _Twelve Decisive Battles of the
  War_ (New York, 1867).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For the idea of the low free-board and the revolving turret
    Ericsson was indebted to Theodore R. Timby (1819-1909), who in 1843
    had filed a caveat for revolving towers for offensive or defensive
    warfare whether placed on land or water, and to whom the company
    building the "Monitor" paid $5000 royalty for each turret.



HAMSTER, a European mammal of the order Rodentia, scientifically known
as _Cricetus frumentarius_ (or _C. cricetus_), and belonging to the
mouse tribe, _Muridae_, in which it typifies the sub-family
_Cricetinae_. The essential characteristic of the Cricetines is to be
found in the upper cheek-teeth, which (as shown in the figure of those
of _Cricetus_ in the article RODENTIA) have their cusps arranged in two
longitudinal rows separated by a groove. The hamsters, of which there
are several kinds, are short-tailed rodents, with large cheek-pouches,
of which the largest is the common _C. frumentarius_. Their geographical
distribution comprises a large portion of Europe and Asia north of the
Himalaya. All the European hamsters show more or less black on the
under-parts, but the small species from Central Asia, which constitute
distinct subgenera, are uniformly grey. The common species is specially
interesting on account of its habits. It constructs elaborate burrows
containing several chambers, one of which is employed as a granary, and
filled with corn, frequently of several kinds, for winter use. As a
rule, the males, females, and young of the first year occupy separate
burrows. During the winter these animals retire to their burrows,
sleeping the greater part of the time, but awakening about February or
March, when they feed on the garnered grain. They are very prolific, the
female producing several litters in the year, each consisting of over a
dozen blind young; and these, when not more than three weeks old, are
turned out of the parental burrow to form underground homes for
themselves. The burrow of the young hamster is only about a foot in
depth, while that of the adult descends 4 or 5 ft. beneath the surface.
On retiring for the winter the hamster closes the various entrances to
its burrow, and becomes torpid during the coldest period. Although
feeding chiefly on roots, fruits and grain, it is also to some extent
carnivorous, attacking and eating small quadrupeds, lizards and birds.
It is exceedingly fierce and pugnacious, the males especially fighting
with each other for possession of the females. The numbers of these
destructive rodents are kept in check by foxes, dogs, cats and
pole-cats, which feed upon them. The skin of the hamster is of some
value, and its flesh is used as food. Its burrows are sought after in
the countries where it abounds, both for capturing the animal and for
rifling its store. America, especially North America, is the home of by
far the great majority of _Cricetinae_, several of which are called
white-footed or deer-mice. They are divided into numerous genera and the
number of species is very large indeed. Both in size and form
considerable variability is displayed, the species of _Holochilus_ being
some of the largest, while the common white-footed mouse (_Eligmodon
leucopus_) of North America is one of the smaller forms. Some kinds,
such as _Oryzomys_ and _Peromyscus_ have long, rat-like tails, while
others, like _Acodon_, are short-tailed and more vole-like in
appearance. In habits some are partially arboreal, others wholly
terrestrial, and a few more or less aquatic. Among the latter, the most
remarkable are the fish-eating rats (_Ichthyomys_) of North-western
South America, which frequent streams and feed on small fish. The
Florida rice-rat (_Sigmodon hispidus_) is another well-known
representative of the group. In the Old World the group is represented
by the Persian _Calomyscus_, a near relative of _Peromyscus_.
     (R. L.*)



HANAPER, properly a case or basket to contain a "hanap" (O. Eng. _hnæp_:
cf. Dutch _nap_), a drinking vessel, a goblet with a foot or stem; the
term which is still used by antiquaries for medieval stemmed cups. The
famous Royal Gold Cup in the British Museum is called a "hanap" in the
inventory of Charles VI. of France. The word "hanaper" (Med. Lat.
_hanaperium_) was used particularly in the English chancery of a wicker
basket in which were kept writs and other documents, and hence it became
the name of a department of the chancery, now abolished, under an
officer known as the clerk or warden of the hanaper, into which were
paid fees and other moneys for the sealing of charters, patents, writs,
&c., and from which issued certain writs under the great seal (S. R.
Scargill-Bird, _Guide to the Public Records_ (1908). In Ireland it still
survives in the office of the clerk of the crown and hanaper, from which
are issued writs for the return of members of parliament for Ireland.
From "hanaper" is derived the modern "hamper," a wicker or rush basket
used for the carriage of game, fish, wine, &c. The verb "to hamper," to
entangle, obstruct, hinder, especially used of disturbing the mechanism
of a lock or other fastening so as to prevent its proper working, is of
doubtful origin. It is probably connected with a root seen in the Icel.
_hemja_, to restrain, and Ger. _hemmen_, to clog.



HANAU, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on
the right bank of the Main, 14 m. by rail E. from Frankfort and at the
junction of lines to Friedberg, Bebra and Aschaffenburg. Pop. (1905)
31,637. It consists of an old and a new town. The streets of the former
are narrow and irregular, but the latter, founded at the end of the 16th
century by fugitive Walloons and Netherlanders, is built in the form of
a pentagon with broad streets crossing at right angles, and possesses
several fine squares, among which may be mentioned the market-place,
adorned with handsome fountains at the four corners. Among the principal
buildings are the ancient castle, formerly the residence of the counts
of Hanau; the church of St John, dating from the 17th century, with a
handsome tower; the old church of St Mary, containing the burial vault
of the counts of Hanau; the church in the new town, built by the
Walloons in the beginning of the 17th century in the form of two
intersecting circles; the Roman Catholic church, the synagogue, the
theatre, the barracks, the arsenal and the hospital. Its educational
establishments include a classical school, and a school of industrial
art. There is a society of natural history and an historical society,
both of which possess considerable libraries and collections. Hanau is
the birthplace of the brothers Grimm, to whom a monument was erected
here in 1896. In the neighbourhood of the town are the palace of
Philippsruhe, with an extensive park and large orangeries, and the spa
of Wilhelmsbad.

Hanau is the principal commercial and manufacturing town in the
province, and stands next to Cassel in point of population. It
manufactures ornaments of various kinds, cigars, leather, paper, playing
cards, silver and platina wares, chocolate, soap, woollen cloth, hats,
silk, gloves, stockings, ropes and matches. Diamond cutting is carried
on and the town has also foundries, breweries, and in the neighborhood
extensive powder-mills. It carries on a large trade in wood, wine and
corn, in addition to its articles of manufacture.

From the number of urns, coins and other antiquities found near Hanau it
would appear that it owes its origin to a Roman settlement. It received
municipal rights in 1393, and in 1528 it was fortified by Count Philip
III. who rebuilt the castle. At the end of the 16th century its
prosperity received considerable impulse from the accession of the
Walloons and Netherlanders. During the Thirty Years' War it was in 1631
taken by the Swedes, and in 1636 it was besieged by the imperial troops,
but was relieved on the 13th of June by Landgrave William V. of
Hesse-Cassel, on account of which the day is still commemorated by the
inhabitants. Napoleon on his retreat from Leipzig defeated the Germans
under Marshal Wrede at Hanau, on the 30th of October 1813; and on the
following day the allies vacated the town, when it was entered by the
French. Early in the 15th century Hanau became the capital of a
principality of the Empire, which on the death of Count Reinhard in 1451
was partitioned between the Hanau-Münzenberg and Hanau-Lichtenberg
lines, but was reunited in 1642 when the elder line became extinct. The
younger line received princely rank in 1696, but as it became extinct in
1736 Hanau-Münzenberg was joined to Hesse-Cassel and Hanau-Lichtenberg
to Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1785 the whole province was united to
Hesse-Cassel, and in 1803 it became an independent principality. In 1815
it again came into the possession of Hesse-Cassel, and in 1866 it was
joined to Prussia.

  See R. Wille, _Hanau im dreissigjährigen Krieg_ (Hanau, 1886); and
  Junghaus, _Geschichte der Stadt und des Kreises Hanau_ (1887).



HANBURY WILLIAMS, SIR CHARLES (1708-1759), English diplomatist and
author, was a son of Major John Hanbury (1664-1734), of Pontypool,
Monmouthshire, and a scion of an ancient Worcestershire family. His
great-great-great-grand-father, Capel Hanbury, bought property at
Pontypool and began the family iron-works there in 1565. His father John
Hanbury was a wealthy iron-master and member of parliament, who
inherited another fortune from his friend Charles Williams of Caerleon,
his son's godfather, with which he bought the Coldbrook estate,
Monmouthshire. Charles accordingly took the name of Williams in 1729. He
went to Eton, and there made friends with Henry Fielding, the novelist,
and, after marrying in 1732 the heiress of Earl Coningsby, was elected
M.P. for Monmouthshire (1734-1747) and subsequently for Leominster
(1754-1759). He became known as one of the prominent gallants and wits
about town, and following Pope he wrote a great deal of satirical light
verse, including _Isabella, or the Morning_ (1740), satires on Ruth
Darlington and Pulleney (1741-1742), _The Country Girl_ (1742), _Lessons
for the Day_ (1742), _Letter to Mr Dodsley_ (1743), &c. A collection of
his poems was published in 1763 and of his _Works_ in 1822. In 1746 he
was sent on a diplomatic mission to Dresden, which led to further
employment in this capacity; and through Henry Fox's influence he was
sent as envoy to Berlin (1750), Dresden (1751), Vienna (1753), Dresden
(1754) and St Petersburg (1755-1757); in the latter case he was the
instrument for a plan for the alliance between England, Russia and
Austria, which finally broke down, to his embarrassment. He returned to
England, and committed suicide on the 2nd of November 1759, being buried
in Westminster Abbey. He had two daughters, the elder of whom married
William Capel, 4th earl of Essex, and was the mother of the 5th earl.
The Coldbrook estates went to Charles's brother, George
Hanbury-Williams, to whose heirs it descended.

  See William Coxe's _Historical Tour in Monmouthshire_ (1801), and T.
  Seccombe's article in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._ with bibliography.



HANCOCK, JOHN (1737-1793), American Revolutionary statesman, was born in
that part of Braintree, Massachusetts, now known as Quincy, on the 23rd
of January 1737. After graduating from Harvard in 1754, he entered the
mercantile house of his uncle, Thomas Hancock of Boston, who had adopted
him, and on whose death, in 1764, he fell heir to a large fortune and a
prosperous business. In 1765 he became a selectman of Boston, and from
1766 to 1772 was a member of the Massachusetts general court. An event
which is thought to have greatly influenced Hancock's subsequent career
was the seizure of the sloop "Liberty" in 1768 by the customs officers
for discharging, without paying the duties, a cargo of Madeira wine
consigned to Hancock. Many suits were thereupon entered against Hancock,
which, if successful, would have caused the confiscation of his estate,
but which undoubtedly enhanced his popularity with the Whig element and
increased his resentment against the British government. He was a member
of the committee appointed in a Boston town meeting immediately after
the "Boston Massacre" in 1770 to demand the removal of British troops
from the town. In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second
Provincial Congresses respectively, and he shared with Samuel Adams the
leadership of the Massachusetts Whigs in all the irregular measures
preceding the War of American Independence. The famous expedition sent
by General Thomas Gage of Massachusetts to Lexington and Concord on the
18th-19th of April 1775 had for its object, besides the destruction of
materials of war at Concord, the capture of Hancock and Adams, who were
temporarily staying at Lexington, and these two leaders were expressly
excepted in the proclamation of pardon issued on the 12th of June by
Gage, their offences, it was said, being "of too flagitious a nature to
admit of any other consideration than that of condign punishment."
Hancock was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780, was
president of it from May 1775 to October 1777, being the first to sign
the Declaration of Independence, and was a member of the Confederation
Congress in 1785-1786. In 1778 he commanded, as major-general of
militia, the Massachusetts troops who participated in the Rhode Island
expedition. He was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional
Convention of 1779-1780, became the first governor of the state, and
served from 1780 to 1785 and again from 1787 until his death. Although
at first unfriendly to the Federal Constitution as drafted by the
convention at Philadelphia, he was finally won over to its support, and
in 1788 he presided over the Massachusetts convention which ratified the
instrument. Hancock was not by nature a leader, but he wielded great
influence on account of his wealth and social position, and was liberal,
public-spirited, and, as his repeated election--the elections were
annual--to the governorship attests, exceedingly popular. He died at
Quincy, Mass., on the 8th of October 1793.

  See Abram E. Brown, _John Hancock, His Book_ (Boston, 1898), a work
  consisting largely of extracts from Hancock's letters.



HANCOCK, WINFIELD SCOTT (1824-1886), American general, was born on the
14th of February 1824, in Montgomery county, Pa. He graduated in 1844 at
the United States Military Academy, where his career was creditable but
not distinguished. On the 1st of July 1844 he was breveted, and on the
18th of June 1846 commissioned second lieutenant. He took part in the
later movements under Winfield Scott against the city of Mexico, and was
breveted first lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious conduct." After
the Mexican war he served in the West, in Florida and elsewhere; was
married in 1850 to Miss Almira Russell of St Louis; became first
lieutenant in 1853, and assistant-quartermaster with the rank of captain
in 1855. The outbreak of the Civil War found him in California. At his
own request he was ordered east, and on the 23rd of September 1861 was
made brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to command a brigade
in the Army of the Potomac. He took part in the Peninsula campaign, and
the handling of his troops in the engagement at Williamsburg on the 5th
of May 1862, was so brilliant that McClellan reported "Hancock was
superb," an epithet always afterwards applied to him. At the battle of
Antietam he was placed in command of the first division of the II.
corps, and in November he was made major-general of volunteers, and
about the same time was promoted major in the regular army. In the
disastrous battle of Fredericksburg (q.v.), Hancock's division was on
the right among the troops that were ordered to storm Marye's Heights.
Out of the 5006 men in his division 2013 fell. At Chancellorsville his
division received both on the 2nd and the 3rd of May the brunt of the
attack of Lee's main army. Soon after the battle he was appointed
commander of the II. corps.

The battle of Gettysburg (q.v.) began on the 1st of July with the defeat
of the left wing of the Army of the Potomac and the death of General
Reynolds. About the middle of the afternoon Hancock arrived on the field
with orders from Meade to assume command and to decide whether to
continue the fight there or to fall back. He decided to stay, rallied
the retreating troops, and held Cemetery Hill and Ridge until the
arrival of the main body of the Federal army. During the second day's
battle he commanded the left centre of the Union army, and after General
Sickles had been wounded, the whole of the left wing. In the third day's
battle he commanded the left centre, upon which fell the full brunt of
Pickett's charge, one of the most famous incidents of the war. Hancock's
superb presence and power over men never shone more clearly than when,
as the 150 guns of the Confederate army opened the attack he calmly rode
along the front of his line to show his soldiers that he shared the
dangers of the cannonade with them. His corps lost in the battle 4350
out of less than 10,000 fighting men. But it had captured twenty-seven
Confederate battle flags and as many prisoners as it had men when the
fighting ceased. Just as the Confederate troops reached the Union line
Hancock was struck in the groin by a bullet, but continued in command
until the repulse of the attack, and as he was at last borne off the
field earnestly recommended Meade to make a general attack on the beaten
Confederates. The wound proved a severe one, so that some six months
passed before he resumed command.

In the battles of the year 1864 Hancock's part was as important and
striking as in those of 1863. At the Wilderness he commanded, during the
second day's fighting, half of the Union army; at Spottsylvania he had
charge of the fierce and successful attack on the "salient"; at Cold
Harbor his corps formed the left wing in the unsuccessful assault on
the Confederate lines. In August he was promoted to brigadier-general in
the regular army. In November, his old wound troubling him, he obtained
a short leave of absence, expecting to return to his corps in the near
future. He was, however, detailed to raise a new corps, and later was
placed in charge of the "Middle Division." It was expected that he would
move towards Lynchburg, as part of a combined movement against Lee's
communications. But before he could take the field Richmond had fallen
and Lee had surrendered. It thus happened that Hancock, who for three
years had been one of the most conspicuous figures in the Army of the
Potomac did not take part in its final triumph.

After the assassination of Lincoln, Hancock was placed in charge of
Washington, and it was under his command that Booth's accomplices were
tried and executed. In July 1866 he was appointed major-general in the
regular army. A little later he was placed in command of the department
of the Missouri, and the year following assumed command of the fifth
military division, comprising Louisiana and Texas. His policy, however,
of discountenancing military trials and conciliating the conquered did
not meet with approval at Washington, and he was at his own request
transferred. Hancock had all his life been a Democrat. His splendid war
record and his personal popularity caused his name to be considered as a
candidate for the Presidency as early as 1868, and in 1880 he was
nominated for that office by the Democrats; but he was defeated by his
Republican opponent, General Garfield, though by the small popular
plurality of seven thousand votes. He died at Governor's Island, near
New York, on the 9th of February 1886. Hancock was in many respects the
ideal soldier of the Northern armies. He was quick, energetic and
resourceful, reckless of his own safety, a strict disciplinarian, a
painstaking and hard-working officer. It was on the field of battle, and
when the fighting was fiercest, that his best qualities came to the
front. He was a born commander of men, and it is doubtful if any other
officer in the Northern army could get more fighting and more marching
out of his men. Grant said of him, "Hancock stands the most conspicuous
figure of all the general officers who did not exercise a separate
command. He commanded a corps longer than any other, and his name was
never mentioned as having committed in battle a blunder for which he was
responsible."

  A biography of him has been written by General Francis A. Walker (New
  York, 1894). See also _History of the Second Corps_, by the same
  author (1886).     (F. H. H.)



HANCOCK, a city of Houghton county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Portage Lake,
opposite Houghton. Pop. (1890) 1772; (1900) 4050, of whom 1409 were
foreign-born; (1904) 6037; (1910) 8981. Hancock is served by the Mineral
Range, the Copper Range, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railways (the last two send their trains
in over the Mineral Range tracks), and by steamboats through the Portage
Lake Canal which connects with Lake Superior. Hancock is connected by a
bridge and an electric line with the village of Houghton (pop. in 1910,
5113), the county-seat of Houghton county and the seat of the Michigan
College of Mines (opened in 1886). Hancock has three parks, and a marine
and general hospital. The city is the seat of a Finnish Lutheran
Seminary--there are many Finns in and near Hancock, and a Finnish
newspaper is published here. Hancock is in the Michigan copper
region--the Quincy, Franklin and Hancock mines are in or near the
city--and the mining, working and shipping of copper are the leading
industries; among the city's manufactures are mining machinery, lumber,
bricks and beer. The municipality owns and operates the water-works. The
electric-lighting plant, the gas plant and the street railway are owned
by private corporations. Hancock was settled in 1859, was incorporated
as a village in 1875, and was chartered as a city in 1903.



HAND, FERDINAND GOTTHELF (1786-1851). German classical scholar, was born
at Plauen in Saxony on the 15th of February 1786. He studied at Leipzig,
in 1810 became professor at the Weimar gymnasium, and in 1817 professor
of philosophy and Greek literature in the university of Jena, where he
remained till his death on the 14th of March 1851. The work by which
Hand is chiefly known is his (unfinished) edition of the treatise of
Horatius Tursellinus (Orazio Torsellino, 1545-1599) on the Latin
particles (_Tursellinus, seu de particulis Latinis commentarii_,
1829-1845). Like his treatise on Latin style (_Lehrbuch des lateinischen
Stils_, 3rd ed. by H. L. Schmitt, 1880), it is too abstruse and
philosophical for the use of the ordinary student. Hand was also an
enthusiastic musician, and in his _Ästhetik der Tonkunst_ (1837-1841) he
was the first to introduce the subject of musical aesthetics.

  The first part of the last-named work has been translated into English
  by W. E. Lawson (_Aesthetics of Musical Art_, or _The Beautiful in
  Music_, 1880), and B. Sears's _Classical Studies_ (1849) contains a
  "History of the Origin and Progress of the Latin Language," abridged
  from Hand's work on the subject. There is a memoir of his life and
  work by G. Queck (Jena, 1852).



HAND (a word common to Teutonic languages; cf. Ger. _Hand_, Goth.
_handus_), the terminal part of the human arm from below the wrist, and
consisting of the fingers and the palm. The word is also used of the
prehensile termination of the limbs in certain other animals (see
ANATOMY: _Superficial and artistic_; SKELETON: _Appendicular_, and such
articles as MUSCULAR SYSTEM and NERVOUS SYSTEM). There are many
transferred applications of "hand," both as a substantive and in various
adverbial phrases. The following may be mentioned: charge or authority,
agency, source, chiefly in such expressions as "in the hands of," "by
hand," "at first hand." From the position of the hands at the side of
the body, the word means "direction," e.g., on the right, left hand, cf.
"at hand." The hand as given in betrothal or marriage has been from
early times the symbol of marriage as it also is of oaths. Other
applications are to labourers engaged in manual occupations, the members
of the crew of a ship, to a person who has some special skill, as in the
phrase, "old parliamentary hand," and to the pointers of a clock or
watch and to the number of cards dealt to each player in a card game. As
a measure of length the term "hand" is now only used in the measurement
of horses, it is equal to 4 in. The name "hand of glory," is given to a
hand cut from the corpse of a hanged criminal, dried in smoke, and used
as a charm or talisman, for the finding of treasures, &c. The expression
is the translation of the Fr. _main de gloire_, a corruption of the O.
Fr. _mandegloire_, _mandegoire_, i.e. _mandragore_, mandragora, the
mandrake, to the root of which many magical properties are attributed.



HANDEL, GEORGE FREDERICK (1685-1759),


  Life.

English musical composer, German by origin, was born at Halle in Lower
Saxony, on the 23rd of February 1685. His name was Handel, but, like
most 18th-century musicians who travelled, he compromised with its
pronunciation by foreigners, and when in Italy spelt it Hendel, and in
England (where he became naturalized) accepted the version Handel, which
is therefore correct for English writers, while Händel remains the
correct version in Germany. His father was a barber-surgeon, who
disapproved of music, and wished George Frederick to become a lawyer. A
friend smuggled a clavichord into the attic, and on this instrument,
which is inaudible behind a closed door, the little boy practised
secretly. Before he was eight his father went to visit a son by a former
marriage who was a valet-de-chambre to the duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. The
little boy begged in vain to go also, and at last ran after the carriage
on foot so far that he had to be taken. He made acquaintance with the
court musicians and contrived to practise on the organ when he could be
overheard by the duke, who, immediately recognizing his talent, spoke
seriously to the father, who had to yield to his arguments. On returning
to Halle Handel became a pupil of Zachau, the cathedral organist, who
gave him a thorough training as a composer and as a performer on keyed
instruments, the oboe and the violin. Six very good trios for two oboes
and bass, which Handel wrote at the age of ten, are extant; and when he
himself was shown them by an English admirer who had discovered them, he
was much amused and remarked, "I wrote like the devil in those days,
and chiefly for the oboe, which was my favourite instrument." His master
also of course made him write an enormous amount of vocal music, and he
had to produce a motet every week. By the time he was twelve Zachau
thought he could teach him no more, and accordingly the boy was sent to
Berlin, where he made a great impression at the court.

His father, however, thought fit to decline the proposal of the elector
of Brandenburg, afterwards King Frederick I. of Prussia, to send the boy
to Italy in order afterwards to attach him to the court at Berlin.
German court musicians, as late as the time of Mozart, had hardly enough
freedom to satisfy a man of independent character, and the elder Händel
had not yet given up hope of his son's becoming a lawyer. Young Handel,
therefore, returned to Halle and resumed his work with Zachau. In 1697
his father died, but the boy showed great filial piety in finishing the
ordinary course of his education, both general and musical, and even
entering the university of Halle in 1702 as a law student. But in that
year he succeeded to the post of organist at the cathedral, and after
his "probation" year in that capacity he departed to Hamburg, where the
only German opera worthy of the name was flourishing under the direction
of its founder, Reinhold Keiser. Here he became friends with Matheson, a
prolific composer and writer on music. On one occasion they set out
together to go to Lübeck, where a successor was to be appointed to the
post left vacant by the great organist Buxtehude, who was retiring on
account of his extreme age. Handel and Matheson made much music on this
occasion, but did not compete, because they found that the successful
candidate was required to accept the hand of the elderly daughter of the
retiring organist.

Another adventure might have had still more serious consequences. At a
performance of Matheson's opera _Cleopatra_ at Hamburg, Handel refused
to give up the conductor's seat to the composer when the latter returned
to his usual post at the harpsichord after singing the part of Antony on
the stage. The dispute led to a duel outside the theatre, and, but for a
large button on Handel's coat which intercepted Matheson's sword, there
would have been no _Messiah_ or _Israel in Egypt_. But the young men
remained friends, and Matheson's writings are full of the most valuable
facts for Handel's biography. He relates in his _Ehrenpforte_ that his
friend at that time used to compose "interminable cantatas" of no great
merit; but of these no traces now remain, unless we assume that a
_Passion according to St John_, the manuscript of which is in the royal
library at Berlin, is among the works alluded to. But its authenticity,
while strongly upheld by Chrysander, has recently been as strongly
assailed on internal evidence.

On the 8th of January 1705, Handel's first opera, _Almira_, was
performed at Hamburg with great success, and was followed a few weeks
later by another work, entitled _Nero_. _Nero_ is lost, but _Almira_,
with its mixture of Italian and German language and form, remains as a
valuable example of the tendencies of the time and of Handel's eclectic
methods. It contains many themes used by Handel in well-known later
works; but the current statement that the famous aria in _Rinaldo_,
"Lascia ch'io pianga," comes from a saraband in _Almira_, is based upon
nothing more definite than the inevitable resemblance between the
simplest possible forms of saraband-rhythm.

In 1706 Handel left Hamburg for Italy, where he remained for three
years, rapidly acquiring the smooth Italian vocal style which hereafter
always characterized his work. He had before this refused offers from
noble patrons to send him there, but had now saved enough money, not
only to support his mother at home, but to travel as his own master. He
divided his time in Italy between Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice; and
many anecdotes are preserved of his meetings with Corelli, Lotti,
Alessandro Scarlatti and Domenico Scarlatti, whose wonderful harpsichord
technique still has a direct bearing on some of the most modern features
of pianoforte style. Handel soon became famous as _Il Sassone_ ("the
Saxon"), and it is said that Domenico on first hearing him play
incognito exclaimed, "It is either the devil or the Saxon!" Then there
is a story of Corelli's coming to grief over a passage in Handel's
overture to _Il Trionfo del tempo_, in which the violins went up to A in
altissimo. Handel impatiently snatched the violin to show Corelli how
the passage ought to be played, and Corelli, who had never written or
played beyond the third position in his life (this passage being in the
seventh), said gently, "My dear Saxon, this music is in the French
style, which I do not understand." In Italy Handel produced two operas,
_Rodrigo_ and _Agrippina_, the latter a very important work, of which
the splendid overture was remodelled forty-four years afterwards as that
of his last original oratorio, _Jephtha_. He also produced two
oratorios, _La Resurrezione_, and _Il Trionfo del tempo_. This,
forty-six years afterwards, formed the basis of his last work. _The
Triumph of Time and Truth_, which contains no original matter. All
Handel's early works contain material that he used often with very
little alteration later on, and, though the famous "Lascia ch'io pianga"
does not occur in Almira, it occurs note for note in _Agrippina_ and the
two Italian oratorios. On the other hand the cantata _Aci, Galattea e
Polifemo_ has nothing in common with _Acis and Galatea_. Besides these
larger works there are several choral and solo cantatas of which the
earliest, such as the great _Dixit Dominus_, show in their extravagant
vocal difficulty how radical was the change which Handel's Italian
experience so rapidly effected in his methods.

Handel's success in Italy established his fame and led to his receiving
at Venice in 1709 the offer of the post of Kapellmeister to the elector
of Hanover, transmitted to him by Baron Kielmansegge, his patron and
staunch friend of later years. Handel at the time contemplated a visit
to England, and he accepted this offer on condition of leave of absence
being granted to him for that purpose. To England accordingly Handel
journeyed after a short stay at Hanover, arriving in London towards the
close of 1710. He came as a composer of Italian opera, and earned his
first success at the Haymarket with _Rinaldo_, composed, to the
consternation of the hurried librettist, in a fortnight, and first
performed on the 24th of February 1711. In this opera the aria "Lascia
ch'io pianga" found its final home. The work was produced with the
utmost magnificence, and Addison's delightful reviews of it in the
_Spectator_ poked fun at it from an unmusical point of view in a way
that sometimes curiously foreshadows the criticisms that Gluck might
have made on such things at a later period. The success was so great,
especially for Walsh the publisher, that Handel proposed that Walsh
should compose the next opera, and that he should publish it. He
returned to Hanover at the close of the opera season, and composed a
good deal of vocal chamber music for the princess Caroline, the
step-daughter of the elector, besides the instrumental works known to us
as the oboe concertos. In 1712 Handel returned to London and spent a
year with Andrews, a rich musical amateur, in Barn Elms, Surrey. Three
more years were spent in Burlington, in the neighbourhood of London. He
evidently was but little inclined to return to Hanover, in spite of his
duties to the court there. Two Italian operas and the _Utrecht Te Deum_
written by the command of Queen Anne are the principal works of this
period. It was somewhat awkward for the composer when his deserted
master came to London in 1714 as George I. of England. For some time
Handel did not venture to appear at court, and it was only at the
intercession of Baron Kielmansegge that his pardon was obtained. By his
advice Handel wrote the _Water Music_ which was performed at a royal
water party on the Thames, and it so pleased the king that he at once
received the composer into his good graces and granted him a salary of
£400 a year. Later Handel became music master to the little princesses
and was given an additional £200 by the princess Caroline. In 1716 he
followed the king to Germany, where he wrote a second German Passion to
the popular poem of Brockes, a text which, divested of its worst
features, forms the basis of several of the arias in Bach's _Passion
according to St John_. This was Handel's last work to a German text.

On his return to England he entered the service of the duke of Chandos
as conductor of his concerts, receiving a thousand pounds for his first
oratorio _Esther_. The music which Handel wrote for performance at
"Cannons," the duke of Chandos's residence at Edgware, is comprised in
the first version of _Esther, Acis and Galatea_, and the twelve _Chandos
Anthems_, which are compositions approximately in the same form as
Bach's church cantatas but without any systematic use of chorale tunes.
The fashionable Londoner would travel 9 miles in those days to the
little chapel of Whitchurch to hear Handel's music, and all that now
remains of the magnificent scene of these visits is the church, which is
the parish church of Edgware. In 1720 Handel appeared again in a public
capacity as impresario of the Italian opera at the Haymarket theatre,
which he managed for the institution called the Royal Academy of Music.
Senesino, a famous singer, to engage whom Handel especially journeyed to
Dresden, was the mainstay of the enterprise, which opened with a highly
successful performance of Handel's opera _Radamisto_. To this time
belongs the famous rivalry between Handel and Buononcini, a melodious
Italian composer whom many thought to be the greater of the two. The
controversy has been perpetuated in John Byrom's lines:

  "Some say, compared to Buononcini
   That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny;
   Others aver that he to Handel
   Is scarcely fit to hold a candle.
   Strange all this difference should be
   Twixt tweedle-dum and tweedle-dee."

It must be remembered that at this time Handel had not yet asserted his
greatness as a choral writer; the fashionable ideas of music and
musicianship were based entirely upon success in Italian opera, and the
contest between the rival composers was waged on the basis of works
which have fallen into almost as complete an oblivion in Handel's case
as in Buononcini's. None of Handel's forty-odd Italian operas can be
said to survive, except in some two or three detached arias out of each
opera; arias which reveal their essential qualities far better in
isolation than when performed in groups of between twenty and thirty on
the stage, as interruptions to the action of a classical drama to which
nobody paid the slightest attention. But even within these limits
Handel's artistic resources were too great to leave the issue in doubt;
and when Handel wrote the third act of an opera _Muzio Scevola_, of
which Buononcini and Ariosti[1] wrote the other two, his triumph was
decisive, especially as Buononcini soon got into discredit by failing to
defend himself against the charge of producing as a prize-madrigal of
his own a composition which proved to be by Lotti. At all events
Buononcini left London, and Handel for the next ten years was without a
rival in his ventures as an operatic composer. He was not, however,
without a rival as an impresario; and the hostile competition of a rival
company which obtained the services of the great Farinelli and also
induced Senesino to desert him, led to his bankruptcy in 1737, and to an
attack of paralysis caused by anxiety and overwork. The rival company
also had to be dissolved from want of support, so that Handel's
misfortunes must not be attributed to any failure to maintain his
position in the musical world. Handel's artistic conscience was that of
the most easy-going opportunist, or he would never have continued till
1741 to work in a field that gave so little scope for his genius. But
the public seemed to want operas, and, if opera had no scope for his
genius, at all events he could supply better operas with greater
rapidity and ease than any three other living composers working
together. And this he naturally continued to do so long as it seemed to
be the best way to keep up his reputation. But with all this artistic
opportunism he was not a man of tact, and there are numerous stories of
the type of his holding the great primadonna donna Cuzzoni at
arm's-length out of a window and threatening to drop her unless she
consented to sing a song which she had declared unsuitable to her style.

Already before his last opera, _Deidamia_, produced in 1741, Handel had
been making a growing impression with his oratorios. In these, freed
from the restrictions of the stage, he was able to give scope to his
genius for choral writing, and so to develop, or rather revive, that art
of chorus singing which is the normal outlet for English musical talent.
In 1726 Handel had become a naturalized Englishman, and in 1733 he began
his public career as a composer of English texts by producing the second
and larger version of _Esther_ at the King's theatre. This was followed
early in the same year by _Deborah_, in which the share of the chorus is
much greater. In July he produced _Athalia_ at Oxford, the first work in
which his characteristic double choruses appear. The share of the chorus
increases in _Saul_ (1738); and _Israel in Egypt_ (also 1738) is
practically entirely a choral work, the solo movements, in spite of
their fame, being as perfunctory in character as they are few in number.
It was not unnatural that the public, who still considered Italian opera
the highest, because the most modern form of musical art, obliged Handel
at subsequent performances of this gigantic work to insert more solos.

The _Messiah_ was produced at Dublin on the 13th of April 1742. _Samson_
(which Handel preferred to the _Messiah_) appeared at Covent Garden on
the 2nd of March 1744; _Belshazzar_ at the King's theatre, 27th of March
1745; the _Occasional Oratorio_ (chiefly a compilation of the earlier
oratorios, but with a few important new numbers), on the 14th of
February 1746 at Covent Garden, where all his later oratorios were
produced; _Judas Maccabaeus_ on the 1st of April 1747; _Joshua_ on the
9th of March 1748; _Alexander Balus_ on the 23rd of March 1748; Solomon
on the 17th of March 1749; _Susanna_, spring of 1749; _Theodora_, a
great favourite of Handel's, who was much disappointed by its cold
reception, on the 16th of March 1750; _Jephtha_ (strictly speaking, his
last work) on the 26th of February 1752, and _The Triumph of Time and
Truth_ (transcribed from _Il Trionfo del tempo_ with the addition of
many later favourite numbers), 1757. Other important works,
indistinguishable in artistic form from oratorios, but on secular
subjects, are _Alexander's Feast_, 1736; _Ode for St Cecilia's Day_
(words by Dryden); _L'Allegro, il pensieroso ed il moderato_ (the words
of the third part by Jennens), 1740; _Semele_, 1744; _Hercules_, 1745;
and _The Choice of Hercules_, 1751.

By degrees the enmity against Handel died away, though he had many
troubles. In 1745 he had again become bankrupt; for, although he had no
rival as a composer of choral music it was possible for his enemies to
give balls and banquets on the nights of his oratorio performances. As
with his first bankruptcy, so in his later years, he showed scrupulous
sense of honour in discharging his debts, and he continued to work hard
to the end of his life. He had not only completely recovered his
financial position by the year 1750, but he must have made a good deal
of money, for he then presented an organ to the Foundling Hospital, and
opened it with a performance of the _Messiah_ on the 15th of May. In
1751 his sight began to trouble him; and the autograph of _Jephtha_,
published in facsimile by the _Händelgesellschaft_, shows pathetic
traces of this in his handwriting,[2] and so affords a most valuable
evidence of his methods of composition, all the accompaniments,
recitatives, and less essential portions of the work being evidently
filled in long after the rest. He underwent unsuccessful operations, one
of them by the same surgeon who had operated on Bach's eyes. There is
evidence that he was able to see at intervals during his last years, but
his sight practically never returned after May 1752. He continued
superintending performances of his works and writing new arias for them,
or inserting revised old ones, and he attended a performance of the
_Messiah_ a week before his death, which took place, according to the
_Public Advertiser_ of the 16th of April, not on Good Friday, the 13th
of April, according to his own pious wish and according to common
report, but on the 14th of April 1759. He was buried in Westminster
Abbey; and his monument is by L. F. Roubilliac, the same sculptor who
modelled the marble statue erected in 1739 in Vauxhall Gardens, where
his works had been frequently performed.

  Handel was a man of high character and intelligence, and his interest
  was not confined to his own art exclusively. He liked the society of
  politicians and literary men, and he was also a collector of pictures
  and articles of _vertu_. His power of work was enormous, and the
  _Händelgesellschaft's_ edition of his complete works fills one hundred
  volumes, forming a total bulk almost equal to the works of Bach and
  Beethoven together.     (F. H.; D. F. T.)


  Handel as composer.

No one has more successfully popularized the greatest artistic ideals
than Handel; no artist is more disconcerting to critics who imagine that
a great man's mental development is easy to follow. Not even Wagner
effected a greater transformation in the possibilities of dramatic music
than Handel effected in oratorio, yet we have seen that Handel was the
very opposite of a reformer. He was not even conservative, and he hardly
took the pains to ascertain what an art-form was, so long as something
externally like it would convey his idea. But he never failed to convey
his idea, and, if the hybrid forms in which he conveyed it had no
historic influence and no typical character, they were none the less
accurate in each individual case. The same aptness and the same absence
of method are conspicuous in his style. The popular idea that Handel's
style is easily recognizable comes from the fact that he overshadows all
his predecessors and contemporaries, except Bach, and so makes us regard
typical 18th-century Italian and English style as Handelian, instead of
regarding Handel's style as typical Italian 18th-century. Nothing in
music requires more minute expert knowledge than the sifting of the real
peculiarities of Handel's style from the mass of contemporary formulae
which in his inspired pages he absorbed, and which in his uninspired
pages absorbed him.

His easy mastery was acquired, like Mozart's, in childhood. The later
sonatas for two oboes and bass which he wrote in his eleventh year are,
except in their diffuseness and an occasional slip in grammar,
indistinguishable from his later works, and they show a boyish
inventiveness worthy of Mozart's work at the same age. Such early choral
works, as the _Dixit Dominus_ (1707), show the ill-regulated power of
his choral writing before he assimilated Italian influences. Its
practical difficulties are at least as extravagant as Bach's, while they
are not accounted for by any corresponding originality and necessity of
idea; but the grandeur of the scheme and nobility of thought is already
that for which Handel so often in later years found the simplest and
easiest adequate means of expression that music has ever attained. His
eminently practical genius soon formed his vocal style, and long before
the period of his great oratorios, such works as _The Birthday Ode for
Queen Anne_ (1713) and the _Utrecht Te Deum_ show not a trace of German
extravagance. The only drawback to his practical genius was that it led
him to bury perhaps half of his finest melodies, and nearly all the
secular features of interest in his treatment of instruments and of the
aria forms, in that deplorable limbo of vanity, the 18th-century Italian
opera. It is not true, as has been alleged against him, that his operas
are in no way superior to those of his contemporaries; but neither is it
true that he stirred a finger to improve the condition of dramatic
musical art. He was no slave to singers, as is amply testified by many
anecdotes. Nor was he bound by the operatic conventions of the time. In
_Teseo_ he not only wrote an opera in five acts when custom prescribed
three, but also broke a much more plausible rule in arranging that each
character should have two arias in succession. He also showed a feeling
for expression and style which led him to write arias of types which
singers might not expect. But he never made any innovation which had the
slightest bearing upon the stage-craft of opera, for he never concerned
himself with any artistic question beyond the matter in hand; and the
matter in hand was not to make dramatic music, or to make the story
interesting or intelligible, but simply to provide a concert of between
some twenty and thirty Italian arias and duets, wherein singers could
display their abilities and spectators find distraction from the
monotony of so large a dose of the aria form (which was then the only
possibility for solo vocal music) in the gorgeousness of the dresses and
scenery.

When the question arose how a musical entertainment of this kind could
be managed in Lent without protests from the bishop of London, Handelian
oratorio came into being as a matter of course. But though Handel was an
opportunist he was not shallow. His artistic sense seized upon the
natural possibilities which arose as soon as the music was transferred
from the stage to the concert platform; and his first English oratorio,
_Esther_ (1720), beautifully shows the transition. The subject is as
nearly secular as any that can be extracted from the Bible, and the
treatment was based on Racine's _Esther_, which was much discussed at
the time. Handel's oratorio was reproduced in an enlarged version in
1732 at the King's theatre: the princess royal wished for scenery and
action, but the bishop of London protested. And the choruses, of which
in the first version there are already no less than ten, are on the one
hand operatic and unecclesiastical in expression, until the last, where
polyphonic work on a large scale first appears; but on the other hand
they are all much too long to be sung by heart, as is necessary in
operas. In fact, the turning-point in Handel's development is the
emancipation of the chorus from theatrical limitations. This had as
great effect upon his few but important secular English works as upon
his other oratorios. _Acis and Galatea_, _Semele_ and _Hercules_, are in
fact secular oratorios; the choral music in them is not ecclesiastical,
but it is large, independent and polyphonic.

We must remember, then, that Handel's scheme of oratorio is operatic in
its origin and has no historic connexion with such principles as might
have been generalized from the practice of the German Passion music of
the time; and it is sufficiently astonishing that the chorus should have
so readily assumed its proper place in a scheme which the public
certainly regarded as a sort of Lenten biblical opera. And, although the
chorus owes its freedom of development to the disappearance of
theatrical necessities, it becomes no less powerful as a means of
dramatic expression (as opposed to dramatic action) than as a purely
musical resource. Already in _Athalia_ the "Hallelujah" chorus at the
end of the first act is a marvel of dramatic truth. It is sung by
Israelites almost in despair beneath usurping tyranny; and accordingly
it is a severe double fugue in a minor key, expressive of devout courage
at a moment of depression. On purely musical grounds it is no less
powerful in throwing into the highest possible relief the ecstatic
solemnity of the psalm with which the second act opens. Now this sombre
"Hallelujah" chorus is a very convenient illustration of Handel's
originality, and the point in which his creative power really lies. It
was not originally written for its situation in _Athalia_, but it was
chosen for it. It was originally the last chorus of the second version
of the anthem, _As pants the Hart_, from the autograph of which it is
missing because Handel cut out the last pages in order to insert them
into the manuscript of _Athalia_. The inspiration in _Athalia_ thus lies
not in the creation of the chorus itself, but in the choice of it.

In choral music Handel made no more innovation than he made in arias.
His sense of fitness in expression was of little use to him in opera,
because opera could not become dramatic until musical form became
capable of developing and blending emotions in all degrees of climax in
a way that may be described as pictorial and not merely decorative (see
MUSIC; SONATA-FORMS; and INSTRUMENTATION). But in oratorio there was not
the least necessity for reforming any art-forms. The ordinary choral
resources of the time had perfect expressive possibilities where there
were no actors to keep waiting, and where no dresses and scenery need
distract the attention of the listener. When lastly, ordinary decorum
dictated an attitude of reverent attention towards the subject of the
oratorio, then the man of genius could find such a scope for his real
sense of dramatic fitness as would make his work immortal.

In estimating Handel's greatness we must think away all orthodox musical
and progressive prejudices, and learn to apply the lessons critics of
architecture and some critics of literature seem to know by nature.
Originality, in music as in other arts, lies in the whole, and in a
sense of the true meaning of every part. When Handel wrote a normal
double fugue in a minor key on the word "Hallelujah" he showed that he
at all events knew what a vigorous and dignified thing an 18th-century
double fugue could be. In putting it at the end of a melancholy psalm he
showed his sense of the value of the minor mode. When he put it in its
situation in _Athalia_ he showed as perfect a sense of dramatic and
musical fitness as could well be found in art. Now it is obvious that in
works like oratorios (which are dramatic schemes vigorously but loosely
organized by the putting together of some twenty or thirty complete
pieces of music) the proper conception of originality will be very
different from that which animates the composer of modern lyric,
operatic or symphonic music. When we add to this the characteristics of
a method like Handel's, in which musical technique has become a masterly
automatism, it becomes evident that our conception of originality must
be at least as broad as that which we would apply in the criticism of
architecture. The disadvantages of the want of such a conception have
been aggravated by the dearth of general knowledge of the structure of
musical art; a knowledge which shows that the parallel we have suggested
between music and architecture, as regards the nature of originality, is
no mere figure of speech.

In every art there is an antithesis between form and matter, which
becomes reconciled only when the work of art is perfect in its
execution. And, whatever this perfection, the antithesis must always
remain in the mind of the artist and critic to this extent, that some
part of the material seems to be the special subject of technical rule
rather than another. In the plastic and literary arts one type of this
antithesis is more or less permanently maintained in the relation
between subject and treatment. The mere fact that these arts express
themselves by representing things that have some previous independent
existence, helps us to look for originality rather in the things that
make for perfection of treatment than in novelty of subject. But in
music we have no permanent means of deciding which of many aspects we
shall call the subject and which the treatment. In the 16th century the
a priori form existed mainly in the practice of basing almost every
melodic detail of the work on phrases of Gregorian chant or popular
song, treated for the most part in terms of very definitely regulated
polyphonic design, and on harmonic principles regulated in almost every
detail by the relation between the melodic aspects of the church modes
and the necessity for occasional alterations of the strict mode to
secure finality at the close. In modern music such a relation between
form and matter, prescribing as it does for every aspect at every moment
both of the shape and the texture of the music, would exclude the
element of invention altogether. In 16th-century music it by no means
had that effect. An inventive 16th-century composer is as clearly
distinguishable from a dull one as a good architect from a bad. The
originality of the composer resides, in 16th-century music as in all
art, in his whole work; but naturally his conception of property and
ideas will not extend to themes or isolated passages. That man is
entitled to an idea who can show what it means, or who can make it mean
what he likes. Let him wear the giant's robe if it fits him. And it is
merely a local difference in point of view which makes us think that
there is property in themes and no property in forms. Nowadays we happen
to regard the shape of a whole composition as its form, and its theme as
its matter. And, as artistic organization becomes more complex and
heterogeneous, the need of the broadest and most forcible possible
outline of design is more pressingly felt; so that in what we choose to
call form we are willing to sacrifice all conception of originality for
the sake of general intelligibility, while we insist upon complete
originality in those thematic details which we are pleased to call
matter. But, if this explains, it does not excuse our setting up a
criterion for musical originality which can be accepted by no
intelligent critics of other arts, and which is completely upset by the
study of any music earlier than the beginning of the 19th century.

The difficulty many writers have found in explaining the subject of
Handel's "plagiarisms" is not entirely accounted for by mere lack of
these considerations; but the grossest confusion of ideas as to the
difference between cases in point prevails to this day, and many
discussions which have been raised in regard to the ethical aspect of
the question are frankly absurd.[3] It has been argued, for instance,
that great injustice was done to Buononcini over his unfortunate affair
with the prize madrigal, while his great rival was allowed the credit of
_Israel in Egypt_, which contains a considerable number of entire
choruses (besides hosts of themes) by earlier Italian and German
writers. But the very idea of Handelian oratorio is that of some three
hours of music, religious or secular, arranged, like opera, in the form
of a colossal entertainment, and with high dramatic and emotional
interest imparted to it, if not by the telling of a story, at all events
by the nature and development of the subject. It seems, moreover, to be
entirely overlooked that the age was an age of _pasticcios_. Nothing was
more common than the organization of some such solemn entertainment by
the skilful grouping of favourite pieces. Handel himself never revived
one of his oratorios without inserting in it favourite pieces from his
other works as well as several new numbers; and the story is well known
that the turning point in Gluck's career was his perception of the true
possibilities of dramatic music from the failure of a _pasticcio_ in
which he had reset some rather definitely expressive music to situations
for which it was not originally designed. The success of an oratorio was
due to the appropriateness of its contrasts, together of course with the
mastery of its detail, whether that detail were new or old; and there
are many gradations between a réchauffé of an early work like _The
Triumph of Time and Truth_, or a _pasticcio_ with a few original numbers
like the _Occasional Oratorio_, and such works as _Samson_, which was
entirely new except that the "Dead March" first written for it was
immediately replaced by the more famous one imported from _Saul_. That
the idea of the _pasticcio_ was extremely familiar to the age is shown
by the practice of announcing an oratorio as "new and original," a term
which would obviously be meaningless if it were as much a matter of
course as it is at the present day, and which, if used at all, must
obviously so apply to the whole work without forbidding the composer
from gratifying the public with the reproduction of one or two favourite
arias. But of course the question of originality becomes more serious
when the imported numbers are not the composer's own. And here it is
very noticeable that Handel derived no credit, either with his own
public or with us, from whole movements that are not of his own
designing. In _Israel in Egypt_, the choruses "Egypt was glad when they
departed," "And I will exalt Him," "Thou sentest forth Thy Wrath" and
"The Earth swallowed them," are without exception the most colourless
and unattractive pieces of severe counterpoint to be found among
Handel's works; and it is very difficult to fathom his motive in copying
them from obscure pieces by Erba and Kaspar Kerl, unless it be that he
wished to train his audiences to a better understanding of a polyphonic
style. He certainly felt that the greatest possibilities of music lay in
the higher choral polyphony, and so in _Israel in Egypt_ he designed a
work consisting almost entirely of choruses, and may have wished in
these instances for severe contrapuntal movements which he had not time
to write, though he could have done them far better himself. Be this as
it may, these choruses have certainly added nothing to the popularity
of a work of which the public from the outset complained that there was
not enough solo music; and what effect they have is merely to throw
Handel's own style into relief. To draw any parallel between the theft
of such unattractive details in the grand and intensely Handelian scheme
of _Israel in Egypt_ and Buononcini's alleged theft of a prize madrigal
is merely ridiculous. Handel himself, if he had any suspicion that
contemporaries did not take a sane architect's view of the originality
of large musical schemes,[4] probably gave himself no more trouble about
their scruples on this matter than about other forms of musical
banality.

The _History of Music_ by Burney, the cleverest and most refined musical
critic of the age, shows in the very freshness of its musical
scholarship how completely unscholarly were the musical ideas of the
time. Burney was incapable of regarding choral music as other than a
highly improving academic exercise in which he himself was proficient;
and for him Handel is the great opera-writer whose choral music will
reward the study of the curious. If Handel had attempted to explain his
methods to the musicians of his age, he would probably have found
himself alone in his opinions as to the property of musical ideas. He
did not trouble to explain, but he made no concealment of his sources.
He left his whole musical library to his copyist, and it was from this
that the sources of his work were discovered. And when the whole series
of plagiarisms is studied, the fact forces itself upon us that nothing
except themes and forms which are common property in all 18th-century
music, has yet been discovered as the source of any work of Handel's
which is not felt as part of a larger design. Operatic arias were never
felt as parts of a whole. The opera was a concert on the stage, and it
stood or fell, not by a dramatic propriety which it notoriously
neglected to consider at all, but by the popularity of its arias. There
is no aria in Handel's operas which is traceable to another composer.
Even in the oratorios there is no solo number in which more than the
themes are pilfered, for in oratorios the solo work still appealed to
the popular criterion of novelty and individual attractiveness. And when
we leave the question of copying of whole movements and come to that of
the adaptation of passages, and still more of themes, Handel shows
himself to be simply on a line with Mozart. Jahn compares the opening of
Mozart's _Requiem_ with that of the first chorus in Handel's _Funeral
Anthem_. Mozart recreates at least as much from Handel's already perfect
framework as Handel ever idealized from the inorganic fragments of
earlier writers. The double counterpoint of the Kyrie in Mozart's
_Requiem_ is still more indisputably identical with that of the last
chorus of Handel's _Joseph_, and if the themes are common property their
combination certainly is not. But the true plagiarist is the man who
does not know the meaning of the ideas he copies, and the true creator
is he in whose hands they remain or become true ideas. The theme "He led
them forth like sheep" in the chorus "But as for his people" is one of
the most beautiful in Handel's works, and the bare statement that it
comes from a serenata by Stradella seems at first rather shocking. But,
to any one who knew Stradella's treatment of it first, Handel's would
come as a revelation actually greater than if he had never heard the
theme before. Stradella makes nothing more of it, and therefore
presumably sees nothing more in it than an agreeable and essentially
frivolous little tune which lends itself to comic dramatic purpose by a
wearisome repetition throughout eight pages of patchy aria and
instrumental ritornello at an ever-increasing pace. What Handel sees in
it is what he makes of it, one of the most solemn and poetic things in
music. Again, it may be very shocking to discover that the famous
opening of the "Hailstone chorus" comes from the patchy and facetious
overture to this same serenata, with which it is identical for ten bars
all in the tonic chord (representing, according to Stradella, someone
knocking at a door). And it is no doubt yet more shocking that the
chorus "He spake the word, and there came all manner of flies" contains
no idea of Handel's own except the realistic swarming violin-passages,
the general structure, and the vocal colouring; whereas the rhythmic and
melodic figures of the voice parts come from an equally patchy _sinfonia
concertata_ in Stradella's work. The real interest of these things ought
not to be denied either by the misstatement that the materials adapted
are mere common property, nor by the calumny that Handel was
uninventive.

The effects of Handel's original inspiration upon foreign material are
really the best indication of the range of his style. The comic meaning
of the broken rhythm of Stradella's overture becomes indeed Handel's
inspiration in the light of the gigantic tone-picture of the "Hailstone
chorus." In the theme of "He led them forth like sheep" we have already
cited a particular case where Handel perceived great solemnity in a
theme originally intended to be frivolous. The converse process is
equally instructive. In the short Carillon choruses in Saul where the
Israelitish women welcome David after his victory over Goliath, Handel
uses a delightful instrumental tune which stands at the beginning of a
_Te Deum_ by Urio, from which he borrowed an enormous amount of material
in _Saul, L'Allegro_, the _Dettingen Te Deum_ and other works. Urio's
idea is first to make a jubilant and melodious noise from the lower
register of the strings, and then to bring out a flourish of high
trumpets as a contrast. He has no other use for his beautiful tune,
which indeed would not bear more elaborate treatment than he gives it.
The ritornello falls into statement and counterstatement, and the
counterstatement secures one repetition of the tune, after which no more
is heard of it. It has none of the solemnity of church music, and its
value as a contrast to the flourish of trumpets depends, not upon
itself, but upon its position in the orchestra. Handel did not see in it
a fine opening for a great ecclesiastical work, but he saw in it an
admirable expression of popular jubilation, and he understood how to
bring out its character with the liveliest sense of climax and dramatic
interest by taking it at its own value as a popular tune. So he uses it
as an instrumental interlude accompanied with a jingle of carillons,
while the daughters of Israel sing to a square-cut tune those praises of
David which aroused the jealousy of Saul. But now turn to the opening of
the _Dettingen Te Deum_ and see what splendid use is made of the other
side of Urio's idea, the contrast between a jubilant noise in the lowest
part of the scale and the blaze of trumpets at an extreme height. In the
fourth bar of the _Dettingen Te Deum_ we find the same florid trumpet
figures as we find in the fifth bar of Urio's, but at the first moment
they are on oboes. The first four bars beat a tattoo on the tonic and
dominant, with the whole orchestra, including trumpets and drums, in the
lowest possible position and in a stirring rhythm with a boldness and
simplicity characteristic only of a stroke of genius. Then the oboes
appear with Urio's trumpet flourishes; the momentary contrast is at
least as brilliant as Urio's; and as the oboes are immediately followed
by the same figures on the trumpets themselves the contrast gains
incalculably in subtlety and climax. Moreover, these flourishes are more
melodious than the broad and massive opening, instead of being, as in
Urio's scheme, incomparably less so. Lastly, Handel's primitive opening
rhythmic figures inevitably underlie every subsequent inner part and
bass that occurs at every half close and full close throughout the
movement, especially where the trumpets are used. And thus every detail
of his scheme is rendered alive with a rhythmic significance which the
elementary nature of the theme prevents from ever becoming obtrusive.

No other great composer has ever so overcrowded his life with occasional
and mechanical work as Handel, and in no other artist are the qualities
that make the difference between inspired and uninspired pages more
difficult to analyse. The libretti of his oratorios are full of
absurdities, except when they are derived in every detail from
Scripture, as in the _Messiah_ and _Israel in Egypt_, or from the
classics of English literature, as in _Samson_ and _L'Allegro_. These
absurdities, and the obvious fact that in every oratorio Handel writes
many more numbers than are desirable for one performance, and that he
was continually in later performances adding, transferring and cutting
out solo numbers and often choruses as well--all this may seem at first
sight to militate seriously against the view that Handel's originality
and greatness consists in his grasp of the works as wholes, but in
reality it strengthens that view. These things militate against the
perfection of the whole, but they would have been absolutely fatal to a
work of which the whole is not (as in all true art) greater than the sum
of its parts. That they are felt as absurdities and defects already
shows that Handel created in English oratorio a true art-form on the
largest possible scale.

There never has been a time when Handel has been overrated, except in so
far as other composers have been neglected. But no composer has suffered
so much from pious misinterpretation and the popular admiration of
misleading externals. It is not the place here to dilate upon the burial
of Handel's art beneath the "mammoth" performances of the Handel
Festivals at the Crystal Palace; nor can we give more than a passing
reference to the effects of "additional accompaniments" in the style of
an altogether later age, started most unfortunately by Mozart (whose
share in the work has been very much misinterpreted and corrupted) and
continued in the middle of the 19th century by musicians of every degree
of intelligence and refinement, until all sense of unity of style has
been lost and does not seem likely to be recovered as a general element
in the popular appreciation of Handel for some time to come. But in
spite of this, Handel will never cease to be revered and loved as one of
the greatest of composers, if we value the criteria of architectonic
power, a perfect sense of style, and the power to rise to the most
sublime height of musical climax by the simplest means.

  Handel's important works have all been mentioned above with their
  dates, and a separate detailed list does not seem necessary. He was an
  extremely rapid worker, and his later works are dated almost day by
  day as they proceed. From this we learn that the _Messiah_ was
  sketched and scored within twenty-one days, and that even _Jephtha_,
  with an interruption of nearly four months besides several other
  delays caused by Handel's failing sight, was begun and finished within
  seven months, representing hardly five weeks' actual writing. Handel's
  extant works may be roughly summarized from the edition of the
  _Händelgesellschaft_ as 41 Italian operas, 2 Italian oratorios, 2
  German Passions, 18 English oratorios, 4 English secular oratorios, 4
  English secular cantatas, and a few other small works, English and
  Italian, of the type of oratorio or incidental dramatic music; 3 Latin
  settings of the _Te Deum_; the (English) _Dettingen Te Deum_ and
  _Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate_; 4 coronation anthems; 3 volumes of
  English anthems (_Chandos Anthems_); 1 volume of Latin church music; 3
  volumes of Italian vocal chamber-music; 1 volume of clavier works; 37
  instrumental duets and trios (sonatas), and 4 volumes of orchestral
  music and organ concertos (about 40 works). Precise figures are
  impossible as there is no means of drawing the line between
  _pasticcios_ and original works. The instrumental pieces especially
  are used again and again as overtures to operas and oratorios and
  anthems.

  The complete edition of the German _Händelgesellschaft_ suffers from
  being the work of one man who would not recognize that his task was
  beyond any single man's power. The best arrangements of the vocal
  scores are undoubtedly those published by Novello that are not based
  on "additional accompaniments." None is absolutely trustworthy, and
  those of the editor of the German _Händelgesellschaft_ are sad proofs
  of the uselessness of expert library-scholarship without a sound
  musical training. Yet Chrysander's services in the restoration of
  Handel are beyond praise. We need only mention his discovery of
  authentic trombone parts in _Israel in Egypt_ as one among many of his
  priceless contributions to musical history and aesthetics.
       (D. F. T.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Chrysander says Mattei instead of Ariosti.

  [2] By a dramatic coincidence Handel's blindness interrupted him
    during the writing of the chorus, "How dark, oh Lord, are Thy
    decrees, ... all our joys to sorrow turning ... as the night succeeds
    the day."

  [3] The "moral" question has been raised afresh in reviews of Mr
    Sedley Taylor's admirable volume of analysed illustrations (_The
    Indebtedness of Handel to works of other Composers_, Cambridge,
    1906). The latest argument is that Handel shows moral obliquity in
    borrowing "regrettably" from sources no one could know at the time.
    This reasoning makes it mysterious that a man of such moral obliquity
    should ever have written a note of his own music in England when he
    could have stolen the complete choral works of Bach and most of the
    hundred operas of Alessandro Scarlatti with the certainty that the
    sources would not be printed for a century after his death, even if
    his own name did not then check curiosity among antiquarians. Of
    course Handel's plagiarisms would have damaged his reputation if
    contemporaries had known of them. His polyphonic scholarship was more
    "antiquated" in the 18th century than it is in the 20th.

  [4] Much light would be thrown on the subject if some one
    sufficiently ignorant of architecture were to make researches into
    Sir Christopher Wren's indebtedness to Italian architects!



HANDFASTING (A.S. _handfæstnung_, pledging one's hand), primarily the O.
Eng. synonym for _betrothal_ (q.v.), and later a peculiar form of
temporary marriage at one time common in Scotland, the only necessary
ceremony being the verbal pledge of the couple while holding hands. The
pair thus handfasted were, in accordance with Scotch law, entitled to
live together for a year and a day. If then they so wished, the
temporary marriage could be made permanent: if not, they could go their
several ways without reproach, the child, if any, being supported by the
party who objected to further cohabitation.



HANDICAP (from the expression _hand in cap_, referring to drawing lots),
a disadvantageous condition imposed upon the superior competitor in
sports and games, or an advantage allowed the inferior, in order to
equalize the chances of both. The character of the handicap depends upon
the nature of the sport. Thus in horse-racing the better horse must
carry the heavier weight. In foot races the inferior runners are allowed
to start at certain distances in advance of the best (or "scratch") man,
according to their previous records. In distance competitions (weights,
fly-casting, jumping, &c.) the inferior contestants add certain
distances to their scores. In time contests (yachting, canoe-racing,
&c.) the weaker or smaller competitors subtract certain periods of time
from that actually made, reckoned by the mile. In stroke contests (e.g.
golf) a certain number of strokes are subtracted from or added to the
scores, according to the strength of the players. In chess and draughts
the stronger competitor may play without one or more pieces. In court
games (tennis, lawn-tennis, racquets, &c.) and in billiards certain
points, or percentage of points, are accorded the weaker players.

Handicapping was applied to horse-racing as early as 1680, though the
word was not used in this connexion much before the middle of the 18th
century. A "Post and Handy-Cap Match" is described in _Pond's Racing
Calendar_ for 1754. A reference to something similar in Germany and
Scandinavia, called _Freimarkt_, may be found in _Germania_, vol. xix.

Competitions in which handicaps are given are called _handicap-events_
or _handicaps_. There are many systems which depend upon the whim of the
individual competitors. Thus a tennis player may offer to play against
his inferior with a selzer-bottle instead of a racquet; or a golfer to
play with only one club; or a chess-player to make his moves without
seeing the board.

The name "handicap" was taken from an ancient English game, to which
Pepys, in his _Diary_ under the date of the 18th of September 1660, thus
refers: "Here some of us fell to handicap, a sport that I never knew
before, which was very good." This game, which became obsolete in the
19th century, was described as early as the 14th in _Piers the Plowman_
under the name of "New Faire." It was originally played by three
persons, one of whom proposed to "challenge," or exchange, some piece of
property belonging to another for something of his own. The challenge
being accepted an umpire was chosen, and all three put up a sum of money
as a forfeit. The two players then placed their right hands in a cap, or
in their pockets, in which there was loose money, while the umpire
proceeded to describe the two objects of exchange, and to declare what
sum of money the owner of the inferior article should pay as a bonus to
the other. This declaration was made as rapidly as possible and ended
with the invitation, "Draw, gentlemen!" Each player then withdrew and
held out his hand, which he opened. If both hands contained money the
exchange was effected according to the conditions laid down by the
umpire, who then took the forfeit money for himself. If neither hand
contained money the exchange was declined and the umpire took the
forfeit money. If only one player signified his acceptance of the
exchange by holding money in his hand, he was entitled to the
forfeit-money, though the exchange was not made.

Handicap was also the name of an old game at cards, now obsolete. It
resembled the game of Loo, and probably derived its name from the
ancient sport described above.



HANDSEL, the O. Eng. term for earnest money; especially in Scotland the
first money taken at a market or fair. The termination _sel_ is the
modern "sell." "Hand" indicates, not a bargain by shaking hands, but the
actual putting of the money into the hand. Handsels were also presents
or earnests of goodwill in the North; thus Handsel Monday, the first
Monday in the year, an occasion for universal tipping, is the equivalent
of the English Boxing day.



HANDSWORTH. (1) An urban district in the Handsworth parliamentary
division of Staffordshire, England, suburban to Birmingham on the
north-west. Pop. (1891), 32,756; (1901) 52,921. (See BIRMINGHAM.) (2) An
urban district in the Hallamshire parliamentary division of Yorkshire, 4
m. S.E. of Sheffield. Pop. (1901), 13,404. In this neighbourhood are
extensive collieries and quarries.



HANDWRITING. Under PALAEOGRAPHY and WRITING, the history of handwriting
is dealt with. Questions of handwriting come before legal tribunals
mainly in connexion with the law of evidence. In Roman law, the
authenticity of documents was proved first by the attesting witnesses;
in the second place, if they were dead, by comparison of handwritings.
It was necessary, however, that the document to be used for purposes of
comparison either should have been executed with the formalities of a
public document, or should have its genuineness proved by three
attesting witnesses. The determination was apparently, in the latter
case, left to experts, who were sworn to give an impartial opinion (Code
4, 21. 20). Proof by comparison of handwritings, with a reference if
necessary to three experts as to the handwriting which is to be used for
the purposes of comparison, is provided for in the French Code of Civil
Procedure (arts. 193 et seq.); and in Quebec (Code Proc. Civ. arts. 392
et seq.) and St Lucia (Code Civ. Proc. arts. 286 et seq.), the French
system has been adopted with modifications. Comparison by witnesses of
disputed writings with any writing proved to the satisfaction of the
judge to be genuine is accepted in England and Ireland in all legal
proceedings whether criminal or civil, including proceedings before
arbitrators (Denman Act, 28 & 29 Vict. c. 18, 55. 1, 8); and such
writings and the evidence of witnesses respecting the same may be
submitted to the court and jury as evidence of the genuineness or
otherwise of the writing in dispute. It is admitted in Scotland (where
the term _comparatio literarum_ is in use) and in most of the American
states, subject to the same conditions. In England, prior to the Common
Law Procedure Act of 1854 (now superseded by the act of 1866), documents
irrelevant to the matter in issue were not admissible for the sole
purpose of comparison, and this rule has been adopted, and is still
adhered to, in some of the states in America. In England, as in the
United States, and in most legal systems, the primary and best evidence
of handwriting is that of the writer himself. Witnesses who saw him
write the writing in question, or who are familiar with his handwriting
either from having seen him write or from having corresponded with him,
or otherwise, may be called. In cases of disputed handwriting the court
will accept the evidence of experts in handwriting, i.e. persons who
have an adequate knowledge of handwriting, whether acquired in the way
of their business or not, such as solicitors or bank cashiers (_R._ v.
_Silverlock_, 1894, 2 Q.B. 766). In such cases the witness is required
to compare the admitted handwriting of the person whose writing is in
question with the disputed document, and to state in detail the
similarities or differences as to the formation of words and letters, on
which he bases his opinion as to the genuineness or otherwise of the
disputed document. By the use of the magnifying glass, or, as in the
Parnell case, by enlarged photographs of the letters alleged to have
been written by Mr Parnell, the court and jury are much assisted to
appreciate the grounds on which the conclusions of the expert are
founded. Evidence of this kind, being based on opinion and theory, needs
to be very carefully weighed, and the dangers of implicit reliance on it
have been illustrated in many cases (e.g. the Beck case in 1904; and see
_Seaman_ v. _Netherclift_, 1876, 1 C.P.D. 540). Evidence by comparison
of handwriting comes in principally either in default, or in
corroboration, of the other modes of proof.

Where attestation is necessary to the validity of a document, e.g. wills
and bills of sale, the execution must be proved by one or more of the
attesting witnesses, unless they are dead or cannot be produced, when it
is sufficient to prove the signature of one of them to the attesting
clause (28 & 29 Vict. c. 18, s. 7). Signatures to certain public and
official documents need not in general be proved (see e.g. Evidence Act,
1845, ss. 1, 2).

  See Taylor, _Law of Evidence_ (10th ed., London, 1906); Erskine
  _Principles of the Law of Scotland_ (20th ed., Edinburgh, 1903);
  Bouvier, _Law Dicty._ (Boston and London, 1897); Harris,
  _Identification_ (Albany, 1892); Hagan, _Disputed Handwriting_ (New
  York, 1894); also the article IDENTIFICATION.     (A. W. R.)



HANG-CHOW-FU, a city of China, in the province of Cheh-Kiang, 2 m. N.W.
of the Tsien-tang-Kiang, at the southern terminus of the Grand canal, by
which it communicates with Peking. It lies about 100 m. S.W. of
Shanghai, in 30° 20´ 20´´ N., 120° 7´ 27´´ E. Towards the west is the
Si-hu or Western Lake, a beautiful sheet of water, with its banks and
islands studded with villas, monuments and gardens, and its surface
traversed by gaily-painted pleasure boats. Exclusive of extensive and
flourishing suburbs, the city has a circuit, of 12 m.; its streets are
well paved and clean; and it possesses a large number of arches, public
monuments, temples, hospitals and colleges. It has long ranked as one of
the great centres of Chinese commerce and Chinese learning. In 1869 the
silk manufactures alone were said to give employment to 60,000 persons
within its walls, and it has an extensive production of gold and silver
work and tinsel paper. On one of the islands in the lake is the great
Wên-lan-ko or pavilion of literary assemblies, and it is said that at
the examinations for the second degree, twice every three years, from
10,000 to 15,000 candidates come together. In the north-east corner of
the city is the Nestorian church which was noted by Marco Polo, the
façade being "elaborately carved and the gates covered with elegantly
wrought iron." There is a Roman Catholic mission in Hangchow, and the
Church Missionary Society, the American Presbyterians, and the Baptists
have stations. The local dialect differs from the Mandarin mainly in
pronunciation. The population, which is remarkable for gaiety of
clothing, was formerly reckoned at 2,000,000, but is now variously
estimated at 300,000, 400,000 or 800,000. Hang-chow-fu was declared open
to foreign trade in 1896, in pursuance of the Japanese treaty of
Shimonoseki. It is connected with Shanghai by inland canal, which is
navigable for boats drawing up to 4 ft. of water, and which might be
greatly improved by dredging. The cities of Shanghai, Hangchow and
Suchow form the three points of a triangle, each being connected with
the other by canal, and trade is now open by steam between all three
under the inland navigation rules. These canals pass through the richest
and most populous districts of China, and in particular lead into the
great silk-producing districts. They have for many centuries been the
highway of commerce, and afford a cheap and economical means of
transport. Hangchow lies at the head of the large estuary of that name,
which is, however, too shallow for navigation by steamers. The estuary
or bay is funnel-shaped, and its configuration produces at spring tides
a "bore" or tidal wave, which at its maximum reaches a height of 15 to
20 ft. The value of trade passing through the customs in 1899 was
£1,729,000; in 1904 these figures had risen to £2,543,831.

Hang-chow-fu is the Kinsai of Marco Polo, who describes it as the finest
and noblest city in the world, and speaks enthusiastically of the number
and splendour of its mansions and the wealth and luxuriance of its
inhabitants. According to this authority it had a circuit of 100 m., and
no fewer than 12,000 bridges and 3000 baths. The name Kinsai, which
appears in Wassaf as Khanzai, in Ibn Batuta as Khansa, in Odoric of
Pordenone as Camsay, and elsewhere as Campsay and Cassay, is really a
corruption of the Chinese _King-sze_, capital, the same word which is
still applied to Peking. From the 10th to the 13th century (960-1272)
the city, whose real name was then Ling-nan, was the capital of southern
China and the seat of the Sung dynasty, which was dethroned by the
Mongolians shortly before Marco Polo's visit. Up to 1861, when it was
laid in ruins by the T'aip'ings, Hangchow continued to maintain its
position as one of the most flourishing cities in the empire.



HANGING, one of the modes of execution under Roman law (_ad furcam
domnatio_), and in England and some other countries the usual form of
capital punishment. It was derived by the Anglo-Saxons from their German
ancestors (Tacitus, _Germ._ 12). Under William the Conqueror this mode
of punishment is said to have been disused in favour of mutilation: but
Henry I. decreed that all thieves taken should be hanged (i.e. summarily
without trial), and by the time of Henry II. hanging was fully
established as a punishment for homicide; the "right of pit and
gallows" was ordinarily included in the royal grants of jurisdiction to
lords of manors and to ecclesiastical[1] and municipal corporations. In
the middle ages every town, abbey, and nearly all the more important
manorial lords had the right of hanging. The clergy had rights, too, in
respect to the gallows. Thus William the Conqueror invested the abbot of
Battle Abbey with authority to save the life of any criminal. From the
end of the 12th century the jurisdiction of the royal courts gradually
became exclusive; as early as 1212 the king's justices sentenced
offenders to be hanged (_Seld. Soc. Publ._ vol. i.; _Select Pleas of the
Crown_, p. 111), and in the Gloucester eyre of 1221 instances of this
sentence are numerous (Maitland, pl. 72, 101, 228). In 1241 a nobleman's
son, William Marise, was hanged for piracy. In the reign of Edward I.
the abbot of Peterborough set up a gallows at Collingham, Notts, and
hanged a thief. In 1279 two hundred and eighty Jews were hanged for
clipping coin. The mayor and the porter of the South Gate of Exeter were
hanged for their neglect in leaving the city gate open at night, thereby
aiding the escape of a murderer. Hanging in time superseded all other
forms of capital punishment for felony. It was substituted in 1790 for
burning as a punishment of female traitors and in 1814 for beheading as
a punishment for male traitors. The older and more primitive modes of
carrying out the sentence were by hanging from the bough of a tree ("the
father to the bough, the son to the plough") or from a gallows. Formerly
in the worst cases of murder it was customary after execution to hang
the criminal's body in chains near the scene of his crime. This was
known as "gibbeting," and, though by no means rare in the earliest
times, was, according to Blackstone, no part of the legal sentence.
Holinshed is the authority for the statement that sometimes culprits
were gibbeted alive, but this is doubtful. It was not until 1752 that
gibbeting was recognized by statute. The act (25 Geo. II. c. 37)
empowered the judges to direct that the dead body of a murderer should
be hung in chains, in the manner practised for the most atrocious
offences, or given over to surgeons to be dissected and anatomized, and
forbade burial except after dissection (see Foster, Crown Law, 107, Earl
Ferrers' case, 1760). The hanging in chains was usually on the spot
where the murder took place. Pirates were gibbeted on the sea shore or
river bank. The act of 1752 was repealed in 1828, but the alternatives
of dissection or hanging in chains were re-enacted and continued in use
until abolished as to dissection by the Anatomy Act in 1832, and as to
hanging in chains in 1834. The last murderer hung in chains seems to
have been James Cook, executed at Leicester on the 10th of August 1832.
The irons used on that occasion are preserved in Leicester prison.
Instead of chains, gibbet irons, a framework to hold the limbs together,
were sometimes used. At the town hall, Rye, Sussex, are preserved the
irons used in 1742 for one John Breeds who murdered the mayor.

The earlier modes of hanging were gradually disused, and the present
system of hanging by use of the drop is said to have been inaugurated at
the execution of the fourth Earl Ferrers in 1760. The form of scaffold
now in use[2] has under the gallows a drop constructed on the principle
of the trap-doors on a theatrical stage, upon which the convict is
placed under the gallows, a white cap is placed over his head, and when
the halter has been properly adjusted the drop is withdrawn by a
mechanical contrivance worked by a lever, much like those in use on
railways for moving points and signals. The convict falls into a pit,
the length of the fall being regulated by his height and weight. Death
results not from real hanging and strangulation, but from a fracture of
the cervical vertebrae. Compression of the windpipe by the rope and the
obstruction of the circulation aid in the fatal result. Recently the
noose has had imbedded in its fibre a metal eyelet which is adjusted
tightly beneath the ear and considerably expedites death. The convict is
left hanging until life is extinct.

It was long considered essential that executions, like trials, should be
public, and be carried out in a manner calculated to impress evil-doers.
Partly to this idea, partly to notions of revenge and temporal
punishment of sin, is probably due the rigour of the administration of
the English law. But the methods of execution were unseemly, as
delineated in Hogarth's print of the execution of the idle apprentice,
and were ineffectual in reducing the bulk of crime, which was augmented
by the inefficiency of the police and the uncertainty and severity of
the law, which rendered persons tempted to commit crime either reckless
or confident of escape. The scandals attending public executions led to
an attempt to alter the law in 1841, although many protests had been
made long before, among them those of the novelist Fielding. But perhaps
the most forcible and effectual was that of Charles Dickens in his
letters to _The Times_ written after mixing in the crowd gathered to
witness the execution of the Mannings at Horsemonger Lane gaol in 1849.
After his experiences he came to the conclusion that public executions
attracted the depraved and those affected by morbid curiosity; and that
the spectacle had neither the solemnity nor the salutary effect which
should attend the execution of public justice. His views were strongly
resisted in some quarters; and it was not until 1868 (31 & 32 Vict. c.
24) that they were accepted. The last public hanging in England was that
of Michael Barrett for murder by causing an explosion at Clerkenwell
prison with the object of releasing persons confined there for treason
and felony (Ann. Reg., 1868, p. 63). Under the act of 1868 (31 & 32
Vict. c. 24), which was adapted from similar legislation already in
force in the Australian colonies convicted murderers are hanged within
the walls of a prison. The sentence of the court is that the convict "be
hanged by the neck until he is dead." The execution of the sentence
devolves on the sheriff of the county (Sheriffs Act 1887, s. 13). As a
general rule the sentence is carried out in England and Ireland at 8
A.M. on a week-day (not being Monday), in the week following the third
Sunday after sentence was passed. In old times prisoners were often
hanged on the day after sentence was passed; and under the act of 1752
this was made the rule in cases of murder. A public notice of the date
and hour of execution must be posted on the prison walls not less than
twelve hours before the execution and must remain until the inquest is
over. The persons required to be present are the sheriff, the gaoler,
chaplain and surgeon of the prison, and such other officers of the
prison as the sheriff requires; justices of the peace for the
jurisdiction to which the prison belongs, and such of the relatives, or
such other persons as the sheriff or visiting justices allow, may also
attend. It is usual to allow the attendance of some representatives of
the press. The death of the prisoner is certified by the prison surgeon,
and a declaration that judgment of death has been executed is signed by
the sheriff. An inquest is then held on the body by the coroner for the
jurisdiction and a jury from which prison officers are excluded. The
certificate and declaration, and a duplicate of the coroner's inquiry
also, are sent to the home office, or in Ireland to the lord-lieutenant,
and the body of the prisoner is interred in quicklime within the prison
walls if space is available. It is also the practice to toll the bell of
the parish or other neighbouring church, for fifteen minutes before and
fifteen minutes after the execution. The hoisting of the black flag at
the moment of execution was abolished in 1902. The regulations as to
execution are printed in the Statutory Rules and Orders, Revised ed.
1904, vol. x. (tits. Prison E. and Prison I). The act of 1868 applies
only to executions for murder; but since the passing of the act there
have been no executions for any other crime within the United Kingdom.
(See further CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.)

In Scotland execution by hanging is carried out in the same manner as in
England and Ireland, but under the supervision of the magistrates of the
burgh in which it is decreed to take place, and in lieu of the inquest
required in England and Ireland an inquiry is held at the instance of
the procurator-fiscal before a sheriff or sheriff substitute (act of
1868, s. 13). The procedure at the execution is governed by the act of
1868 and the Scottish Prison Rules, rr. 465-469 (Stat. Rules and Orders,
Revised ed. 1904, tit. Prison S).

_British Dominions beyond the Seas._--Throughout the King's dominions
hanging is the regular method of executing sentence of death. In India
the Penal Code superseded the modes of punishment under Mahommedan law,
and s. 368 of the Criminal Procedure Code of 1898 provides that sentence
of death is to be executed by hanging by the neck.

In Canada the sentence is executed within a prison under conditions very
similar to those in England (Criminal Code, 1892; ss. 936-945). In
Australia the execution takes place within the prison walls, at a time
and place appointed by the governor of the state. See Queensland Code,
1899, s. 664; Western Australia Code, 1901, s. 663; in these states no
inquest is held. In Western Australia the governor may cause an
aboriginal native to be executed outside a prison. In New Zealand the
only mode of execution is by hanging within a prison (Act of 1883).

_United States._---In all the states except New York, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, North Carolina, Mississippi, Virginia, and Ohio (see
ELECTROCUTION) persons sentenced to death are hanged. In Utah the
criminal may elect to be shot instead.

  The only countries, whose law is not of direct English origin, which
  inflict capital punishment by hanging are Japan, Austria, Hungary and
  Russia.     (W. F. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Pollock and Maitland vol. i. 563. The sole survival of these
    grants is the jurisdiction of the justices of the Soke of
    Peterborough to try for capital offences at their quarter sessions.

  [2] In most counties in Ireland the scaffold used (in 1852) to
    consist in an iron balcony permanently fixed outside the gaol wall.
    There was a small door in the wall commanding the balcony and opening
    out upon it. The bottom of the iron balcony or cage was so
    constructed that on the withdrawal of a pin or bolt which could be
    managed from within the gaol, the trap-door upon which the culprit
    stood dropped from under his feet. The upper end of the rope was
    fastened to a strong iron bar, which projected over the trap-door.
    There were usually two or three trap-doors on the same balcony, so
    that, if required, two or more men could be hanged simultaneously.
    (Trench, _Realities of Irish Life_ (1869), 280.)



HANGÖ, a port and sea-bathing resort situated on the promontory of
Hangöudd, to the extreme south-west of Finland. Hangö owes its
commercial importance to the fact that it is practically the only winter
ice-free port in Finland, and is thus of value both to the Finnish and
the Russian sea-borne trade. When incorporated in 1874 it had only a few
hundred inhabitants; in 1900 it had 2501 and it has now over six
thousand (5986 in 1904). It is connected by railway with Helsingfors and
Tammerfors, and is the centre of the Finnish butter export, which now
amounts to over £1,000,000 yearly. There is a considerable import of
coal, cotton, iron and breadstuffs, the chief exports being butter,
fish, timber and wood pulp. During the period of emigration, owing to
political troubles with Russia, over 12,000 Finns sailed from Hangö in a
single year (1901), mostly for the United States and Canada. Hangö now
takes front rank as a fashionable watering-place, especially for wealthy
Russians, having a dry climate and a fine strand.



HANKA, WENCESLAUS (1791-1861), Bohemian philologist, was born at
Horeniowes, a hamlet of eastern Bohemia, on the 10th of June 1791. He
was sent in 1807 to school at Königgrätz, to escape the conscription,
then to the university of Prague, where he founded a society for the
cultivation of the Czech language. At Vienna, where he afterwards
studied law, he established a Czech periodical; and in 1813 he made the
acquaintance of Joseph Dobrowsky, the eminent philologist. On the 16th
of September 1817 Hanka alleged that he had discovered some ancient
Bohemian manuscript poems (the Königinhof MS.) of the 13th and 14th
century in the church tower of the village of Kralodwor, or Königinhof.
These were published in 1818, under the title _Kralodworsky Rukopis_,
with a German translation by Swoboda. Great doubt, however, was felt as
to their genuineness, and Dobrowsky, by pronouncing _The Judgment of
Libussa_, another manuscript found by Hanka, an "obvious fraud,"
confirmed the suspicion. Some years afterwards Dobrowsky saw fit to
modify his decision, but by modern Czech scholars the MS. is regarded as
a forgery. A translation into English, _The Manuscript of the Queen's
Court_, was made by Wratislaw in 1852. The originals were presented by
the discoverer to the Bohemian museum at Prague, of which he was
appointed librarian in 1818. In 1848 Hanka, who was an ardent
Panslavist, took part in the Slavonic congress and other peaceful
national demonstrations, being the founder of the political society
Slovanska Lipa. He was elected to the imperial diet at Vienna, but
declined to take his seat. In the winter of 1848 he became lecturer and
in 1849 professor of Slavonic languages in the university of Prague,
where he died on the 12th of January 1861.

  His chief works and editions are the following: _Hankowy Pjsne_
  (Prague, 1815), a volume of poems; _Starobyla Skladani_ (1817-1826),
  in 5 vols.--a collection of old Bohemian poems, chiefly from
  unpublished manuscripts; _A Short History of the Slavonic Peoples_
  (1818); _A Bohemian Grammar_ (1822) and _A Polish Grammar_
  (1839)--these grammars were composed on a plan suggested by Dobrowsky;
  _Igor_ (1821), an ancient Russian epic, with a translation into
  Bohemian; a part of the Gospels from the Reims manuscript in the
  Glagolitic character (1846); the old Bohemian Chronicles of _Dalimil_
  (1848) and the _History of Charles IV._, by Procop Lupác (1848);
  _Evangelium Ostromis_ (1853).



HANKOW ("Mouth of the Han"), the great commercial centre of the middle
portion of the Chinese empire, and since 1858 one of the principal
places opened to foreign trade. It is situated on the northern side of
the Yangtsze-kiang at its junction with the Han river, about 600 m. W.
of Shanghai in 30° 32´ 51´´ N., 114° 19´ 55´´ E., at a height of 150 ft.
By the Chinese it is not considered a separate city, but as a suburb of
the now decadent city of Hanyang; and it may almost be said to stand in
a similar relation to Wu-chang the capital of the province of Hupeh,
which lies immediately opposite on the southern bank of the
Yangtsze-kiang. Hankow extends for about a mile along the main river and
about two and a half along the Han. It is protected by a wall 18 ft.
high, which was erected in 1863 and has a circuit of about 4 m. Within
recent years the port has made rapid advance in wealth and importance.
The opening up of the upper waters of the Yangtsze to steam navigation
has made it a commercial _entrepôt_ second only to Shanghai. It is the
terminus of a railway between Peking and the Yangtsze, the northern half
of the trunk line from Peking to Canton. There is daily communication by
regular lines of steamers with Shanghai, and smaller steamers ply on the
upper section of the river between Hankow and Ich'ang. The principal
article of export continues to be black tea, of which staple Hankow has
always been the central market. The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now
goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as
formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in
the form of brick tea. The quantity of brick tea thus exported in 1904
was upwards of 10 million lb. The exports which come next in value are
opium, wood-oil, hides, beans, cotton yarn and raw silk. The population
of Hankow, together with the city of Wu-chang on the opposite bank, is
estimated at 800,000, and the number of foreign residents is about 500.
Large iron-works have been erected by the Chinese authorities at
Hanyang, a couple of miles higher up the river, and at Wuchang there are
two official cotton mills. The British concession, on which the business
part of the foreign settlement is built, was obtained in 1861 by a lease
in perpetuity from the Chinese authorities in favour of the crown. By
1863 a great embankment and a roadway were completed along the river,
which may rise as much as 50 ft. or more above its ordinary levels, and
not infrequently, as in 1849 and 1866, lays a large part of the town
under water. On the former occasion little was left uncovered but the
roofs of the houses. In 1864 a public assay office was established.
Sub-leases for a term of years are granted by the crown to private
individuals; local control, including the policing of the settlement, is
managed by a municipal council elected under regulations promulgated by
the British minister in China, acting by authority of the sovereign's
orders in council. Foreigners, i.e. non-British, are admitted to become
lease-holders on their submitting to be bound by the municipal
regulations. The concession, however, gives no territorial jurisdiction.
All foreigners, of whatever nationality, are justiciable only before
their own consular authorities by virtue of the extra-territorial
clauses of their treaties with China. In 1895 a concession, on similar
terms to that under which the British is held, was obtained by Germany,
and this was followed by concessions to France and Russia. These three
concessions all lie on the north bank of the river and immediately below
the British. An extension of the British concession backwards was
granted in 1898. The Roman Catholics, the London Missionary Society and
the Wesleyans have all missions in the town; and there are two
missionary hospitals. The total trade in 1904 was valued at £15,401,076
(£9,042,190 being exports and £6,358,886 imports) as compared with a
total of £17,183,400 in 1891 and £11,628,000 in 1880.



HANLEY, a market town and parliamentary borough of Staffordshire,
England, in the Potteries district, 148 m. N.W. from London, on the
North Staffordshire railway. Pop. (1891) 54,946; (1901) 61,599. The
parliamentary borough includes the adjoining town of Burslem. The town,
which lies on high ground, has handsome municipal buildings, free
library, technical and art museum, elementary, science and art schools,
and a large park. Its manufactures include porcelain, encaustic tiles,
and earthenware, and give employment to the greater part of the
population, women and children being employed almost as largely as men.
In the neighbourhood coal and iron are obtained. Hanley is of modern
development. Its municipal constitution dates from 1857, the
parliamentary borough from 1885, and the county borough from 1888.
Shelton, Hope, Northwood and Wellington are populous ecclesiastical
parishes included within its boundaries. That of Etruria, adjoining on
the west, originated in the Ridge House pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood
and Thomas Bentley, who founded them in 1769, naming them after the
country of the Etruscans in Italy. Etruria Hall was the scene of
Wedgwood's experiments. The parliamentary borough of Hanley returns one
member. The town was governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors
until under the "Potteries federation" scheme (1908) it became part of
the borough of Stoke-on-Trent (q.v.) in 1910.



HANNA, MARCUS ALONZO (1837-1904), American politician, was born at New
Lisbon (now Lisbon) Columbiana county, Ohio, on the 24th of September
1837. In 1852 he removed with his father to Cleveland, where the latter
established himself in the wholesale grocery business, and the son
received his education in the public schools of that city, and at the
Western Reserve University. Leaving college before the completion of his
course, he became associated with his father in business, and on his
father's death (1862) became a member of the firm. In 1867 he entered
into partnership with his father-in-law, Daniel P. Rhodes, in the coal
and iron business. It was largely due to Hanna's progressive methods
that the business of the firm, which became M. A. Hanna & Company in
1877, was extended to include the ownership of a fleet of lake
steam-ships constructed in their own shipyards, and the control and
operation of valuable coal and iron mines. Subsequently he became
largely interested in street railway properties in Cleveland and
elsewhere, and in various banking institutions. In early life he had
little time for politics, but after 1880 he became prominent in the
affairs of the Republican party in Cleveland, and in 1884 and 1888 was a
delegate to the Republican National Convention, in the latter year being
associated with William McKinley in the management of the John Sherman
canvass. It was not, however, until 1896, when he personally managed the
canvass that resulted in securing the Republican presidential nomination
for William McKinley at the St Louis Convention (at which he was a
delegate), that he became known throughout the United States as a
political manager of great adroitness, tact and resourcefulness.
Subsequently he became chairman of the Republican National Committee,
and managed with consummate skill the campaign of 1896 against William
Jennings Bryan and "free-silver." In March 1897 he was appointed, by
Governor Asa S. Bushnell (1834-1904) United States senator from Ohio, to
succeed John Sherman. In the senate, to which in January 1898 he was
elected for the short term ending on the 3rd of March 1899 and for the
succeeding full term, he took little part in the debates, but was
recognized as one of the principal advisers of the McKinley
administration, and his influence was large in consequence. Apart from
politics he took a deep and active interest in the problems of capital
and labour, was one of the organizers (1901) and the first president of
the National Civic Federation, whose purpose was to solve social and
industrial problems, and in December 1901 became chairman of a permanent
board of conciliation and arbitration established by the Federation.
After President Roosevelt's policies became defined, Senator Hanna came
to be regarded as the leader of the conservative branch of the
Republican party and a possible presidential candidate in 1904. He died
at Washington on the 15th of February 1904.



HANNAY, JAMES (1827-1873), Scottish critic, novelist and publicist, was
born at Dumfries on the 17th of February 1827. He came of the Hannays of
Sorbie, an ancient Galloway family. He entered the navy in 1840 and
served till 1845, when he adopted literature as his profession. He acted
as reporter on the _Morning Chronicle_ and gradually obtained a
connexion, writing for the quarterly and monthly journals. In 1857
Hannay contested the Dumfries burghs in the Conservative interest, but
without success. He edited the _Edinburgh Courant_ from 1860 till 1864,
when he removed to London. From 1868 till his death on the 8th of
January 1873 he was British consul at Barcelona. His letters to the
_Pall Mall Gazette_ "From an Englishman in Spain" were highly
appreciated. Hannay's best books are his two naval novels, _Singleton
Fontenoy_ (1850) and _Eustace Conyers_ (1855); _Satire and Satirists_
(1854); and _Essays from the Quarterly Review_ (1861). _Satire_ not only
shows loving appreciation of the great satirists of the past, but is
itself instinct with wit and fine satiric power. The book sparkles with
epigrams and apposite classical allusions, and contains admirable
critical estimates of Horace (Hannay's favourite author), Juvenal,
Erasmus, Sir David Lindsay, George Buchanan, Boileau, Butler, Dryden,
Swift, Pope, Churchill, Burns, Byron and Moore.

  Among his other works are _Biscuits and Grog, Claret Cup_, and _Hearts
  are Trumps_ (1848); _King Dobbs_ (1849); _Sketches in Ultramarine_
  (1853); an edition of the _Poems_ of Edgar Allan Poe, to which he
  prefixed an essay on the poet's life and genius (1852); _Characters
  and Criticisms_, consisting mainly of his contributions to the
  _Edinburgh Courant_ (1865); _A Course of English Literature_ (1866);
  _Studies on Thackeray_ (1869); and a family history entitled _Three
  Hundred Years of a Norman House_ (the Gurneys) (1867).



HANNEN, JAMES HANNEN, BARON (1821-1894), English judge, son of a London
merchant, was born at Peckham in 1821. He was educated at St Paul's
school and at Heidelberg University, which was famous as a school of
law. Called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1848, he joined the home
circuit. At this time he also wrote for the press, and supplied special
reports for the _Morning Chronicle_. Though not eloquent in speech, he
was clear, accurate and painstaking, and soon advanced in his
profession, passing many more brilliant competitors. He appeared for the
claimant in the Shrewsbury peerage case in 1858, when the 3rd Earl
Talbot was declared to be entitled to the earldom of Shrewsbury as the
descendant of the 2nd earl; was principal agent for Great Britain on the
mixed British and American commission for the settlement of outstanding
claims, 1853-1855; and assisted in the prosecution of the Fenian
prisoners at Manchester. In 1868 Hannen was appointed a judge of the
Court of Queen's Bench. In many cases he took a strong position of his
own, notably in that of _Farrar_ v. _Close_ (1869), which materially
affected the legal status of trade unions and was regarded by unionists
as a severe blow to their interests. Hannen became judge of the Probate
and Divorce Court in 1872, and in 1875 he was appointed president of the
probate and admiralty division of the High Court of Justice. Here he
showed himself a worthy successor to Cresswell and Penzance. Many
important causes came before him, but he will chiefly be remembered for
the manner in which he presided over the Parnell special commission. His
influence pervaded the whole proceedings, and it is understood that he
personally penned a large part of the voluminous report. Hannen's last
public service was in connexion with the Bering Sea inquiry at Paris,
when he acted as one of the British arbitrators. In January 1891 he was
appointed a lord of appeal in ordinary (with the dignity of a life
peerage), but in that capacity he had few opportunities for displaying
his powers, and he retired at the close of the session of 1893. He died
in London, after a prolonged illness, on the 29th of March 1894.



HANNIBAL ("mercy" or "favour of Baal"), Carthaginian general and
statesman, son of Hamilcar Barca (q.v.), was born in 249 or 247 B.C.
Destined by his father to succeed him in the work of vengeance against
Rome, he was taken to Spain, and while yet a boy gave ample evidence of
his military aptitude. Upon the death of his brother-in-law Hasdrubal
(221) he was acclaimed commander-in-chief by the soldiers and confirmed
in his appointment by the Carthaginian government. After two years spent
in completing the conquest of Spain south of the Ebro, he set himself to
begin what he felt to be his life's task, the conquest and humiliation
of Rome. Accordingly in 219 he seized some pretext for attacking the
town of Saguntum (mod. Murviedro), which stood under the special
protection of Rome, and disregarding the protests of Roman envoys,
stormed it after an eight months' siege. As the home government, in view
of Hannibal's great popularity, did not venture to repudiate this
action, the declaration of war which he desired took place at the end of
the year.

Of the large army of Libyan and Spanish mercenaries which he had at his
disposal Hannibal selected the most trustworthy and devoted contingents,
and with these determined to execute the daring plan of carrying the war
into the heart of Italy by a rapid march through Spain and Gaul.
Starting in the spring of 218 he easily fought his way through the
northern tribes to the Pyrenees, and by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs
on his passage contrived to reach the Rhone before the Romans could take
any measures to bar his advance. After out-manoeuvring the natives, who
endeavoured to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force sent
to operate against him in Gaul; he proceeded up the valley of one of the
tributaries of the Rhone (Isère or, more probably, Durance), and by
autumn arrived at the foot of the Alps. His passage over the
mountain-chain, at a point which cannot be determined with certainty,
though the balance of the available evidence inclines to the Mt Genèvre
pass, and fair cases can be made out for the Col d'Argentière and for Mt
Cenis, was one of the most memorable achievements of any military force
of ancient times. Though the opposition of the natives and the
difficulties of ground and climate cost Hannibal half his army, his
perilous march brought him directly into Roman territory and entirely
frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on
foreign ground. His sudden appearance among the Gauls, moreover, enabled
him to detach most of the tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans
before the latter could take steps to check rebellion. After allowing
his soldiers a brief rest to recover from their exertions Hannibal first
secured his rear by subduing the hostile tribe of the Taurini (mod.
Turin), and moving down the Po valley forced the Romans by virtue of his
superior cavalry to evacuate the plain of Lombardy. In December of the
same year he had an opportunity of showing his superior military skill
when the Roman commander attacked him on the river Trebia (near
Placentia); after wearing down the excellent Roman infantry he cut it to
pieces by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank. Having secured
his position in north Italy by this victory, he quartered his troops for
the winter on the Gauls, whose zeal in his cause thereupon began to
abate. Accordingly in spring 217 Hannibal decided to find a more
trustworthy base of operations farther south; he crossed the Apennines
without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno he lost a
large part of his force through disease and himself became blind in one
eye. Advancing through the uplands of Etruria he provoked the main Roman
army to a hasty pursuit, and catching it in a defile on the shore of
Lake Trasimenus destroyed it in the waters or on the adjoining slopes
(see TRASIMENE). He had now disposed of the only field force which could
check his advance upon Rome, but realizing that without siege engines he
could not hope to take the capital, he preferred to utilize his victory
by passing into central and southern Italy and exciting a general revolt
against the sovereign power. Though closely watched by a force under
Fabius Maximus Cunctator, he was able to carry his ravages far and wide
through Italy: on one occasion he was entrapped in the lowlands of
Campania, but set himself free by a stratagem which completely deluded
his opponent. For the winter he found comfortable quarters in the
Apulian plain, into which the enemy dared not descend. In the campaign
of 217 Hannibal had failed to obtain a following among the Italians; in
the following year he had an opportunity of turning the tide in his
favour. A large Roman army advanced into Apulia in order to crush him,
and accepted battle on the site of Cannae. Thanks mainly to brilliant
cavalry tactics, Hannibal, with much inferior numbers, managed to
surround and cut to pieces the whole of this force; moreover, the moral
effect of this victory was such that all the south of Italy joined his
cause. Had Hannibal now received proper material reinforcements from his
countrymen at Carthage he might have made a direct attack upon Rome; for
the present he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses which
still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 was
the defection of Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal
made his new base.

In the next few years Hannibal was reduced to minor operations which
centred mainly round the cities of Campania. He failed to draw his
opponents into a pitched battle, and in some slighter engagements
suffered reverses. As the forces detached under his lieutenants were
generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor
his new ally Philip V. of Macedon helped to make good his losses, his
position in south Italy became increasingly difficult and his chance of
ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote. In 212 he gained an
important success by capturing Tarentum, but in the same year he lost
his hold upon Campania, where he failed to prevent the concentration of
three Roman armies round Capua. Hannibal attacked the besieging armies
with his full force in 211, and attempted to entice them away by a
sudden march through Samnium which brought him within 3 m. of Rome, but
caused more alarm than real danger to the city. But the siege continued,
and the town fell in the same year. In 210 Hannibal again proved his
superiority in tactics by a severe defeat inflicted at Herdoniae (mod.
Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 destroyed a Roman
force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyrii. But with the loss of
Tarentum in 209 and the gradual reconquest by the Romans of Samnium and
Lucania his hold on south Italy was almost lost. In 207 he succeeded in
making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures
for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal (q.v.). On
hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the Metaurus he
retired into the mountain fastnesses of Bruttium, where he maintained
himself for the ensuing years. With the failure of his brother Mago
(q.v.) in Liguria (205-203) and of his own negotiations with Philip of
Macedon, the last hope of recovering his ascendancy in Italy was lost.
In 203, when Scipio was carrying all before him in Africa and the
Carthaginian peace-party were arranging an armistice, Hannibal was
recalled from Italy by the "patriot" party at Carthage. After leaving a
record of his expedition, engraved in Punic and Greek upon brazen
tablets, in the temple of Juno at Crotona, he sailed back to Africa. His
arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war-party, who
placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and of his
mercenaries from Italy. In 202 Hannibal, after meeting Scipio in a
fruitless peace conference, engaged him in a decisive battle at Zama.
Unable to cope with his indifferent troops against the well-trained and
confident Roman soldiers, he experienced a crushing defeat which put an
end to all resistance on the part of Carthage.

Hannibal was still only in his forty-sixth year. He soon showed that he
could be a statesman as well as a soldier. Peace having been concluded,
he was appointed chief magistrate (_suffetes, sofet_). The office had
become rather insignificant, but Hannibal restored its power and
authority. The oligarchy, always jealous of him, had even charged him
with having betrayed the interests of his country while in Italy, and
neglected to take Rome when he might have done so. The dishonesty and
incompetence of these men had brought the finances of Carthage into
grievous disorder. So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the
heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by instalments without
additional and extraordinary taxation.

Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed at this new
prosperity, demanded Hannibal's surrender. Hannibal thereupon went into
voluntary exile. First he journeyed to Tyre, the mother-city of
Carthage, and thence to Ephesus, where he was honourably received by
Antiochus III. of Syria, who was then preparing for war with Rome.
Hannibal soon saw that the king's army was no match for the Romans. He
advised him to equip a fleet and throw a body of troops on the south of
Italy, adding that he would himself take the command. But he could not
make much impression on Antiochus, who listened more willingly to
courtiers and flatterers, and would not entrust Hannibal with any
important charge. In 190 he was placed in command of a Phoenician fleet,
but was defeated in a battle off the river Eurymedon.

From the court of Antiochus, who seemed prepared to surrender him to the
Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete, but he soon went back to Asia, and
sought refuge with Prusias, king of Bithynia. Once more the Romans were
determined to hunt him out, and they sent Flaminius to insist on his
surrender. Prusias agreed to give him up, but Hannibal did not choose to
fall into his enemies' hands. At Libyssa, on the eastern shore of the
Sea of Marmora, he took poison, which, it was said, he had long carried
about with him in a ring. The precise year of his death was a matter of
controversy. If, as Livy seems to imply, it was 183, he died in the same
year as Scipio Africanus.

As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two
opinions. The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a
hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able
generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.
In the use of stratagems and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other
generals of antiquity. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must
marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he
received from Carthage. As his veterans melted away, he had to organize
fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army,
composed though it was of Africans, Spaniards and Gauls. Again, all we
know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. The Romans
feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice. Livy
speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally
great, among which he singles out his "more than Punic perfidy" and "an
inhuman cruelty." For the first there would seem to be no further
justification than that he was consummately skilful in the use of
ambuscades. For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than
that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient
warfare. Sometimes he contrasts most favourably with his enemy. No such
brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Claudius Nero on the
vanquished Hasdrubal. Polybius merely says that he was accused of
cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. He had indeed
bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against
destiny. For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a
mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.

  AUTHORITIES.--Polybius iii.-xv., xxi.-ii., xxiv.; Livy xxi.-xxx.;
  Cornelius Nepos, _Vita Hannibalis_; Appian, _Bellum Hannibalicum_; E.
  Hennebert, _Histoire d'Annibal_ (Paris, 1870-1891, 3 vols.); F. A.
  Dodge, _Great Captains, Hannibal_ (Boston and New York, 1891); D.
  Grassi, _Annibale giudicato da Polibio e Tito Livio_ (Vicenza, 1896);
  W. How, _Hannibal and the Great War between Rome and Carthage_
  (London, 1899); Te Montanari, _Annibale_, down to 217 B.C. (Rovigo,
  1901); K. Lehmann, _Die Angriffe der drei Barkiden auf Italien_
  (Leipzig, 1905), with bibliography. See also PUNIC WARS and articles
  on the chief battle sites. On Hannibal's passage through Gaul and the
  Alps see T. Arnold, _The Second Punic War_ (ed. W. T. Arnold, London,
  1886), Appendix B, pp. 362-373, with bibliography; D. Freshfield in
  _Alpine Journal_ (1883), pp. 267-300; L. Montlahuc, _Le Vrai Chemin
  d'Annibal à travers les Alpes_ (Paris, 1896); J. Fuchs, _Hannibals
  Alpenübergang_ (Vienna, 1897); G. E. Marindin in _Classical Review_
  (1899), pp. 238-249; W. Osiander, _Der Hannibalweg neu untersucht_
  (Berlin, 1900); P. Azan, _Annibal dans les Alpes_ (Paris, 1902); J. L.
  Colin, _Annibal en Gaule_ (Paris, 1904); E. Hesselmeyer, _Hannibals
  Alpenübergang im Lichte der neueren Kriegsgeschichte_, (1906);
  Kromyer, in _N. Jahrb. f. kl. Alt._ (1907).     (M. O. B. C.)



HANNIBAL, a city of Marion county, Missouri, U.S.A., on the Mississippi
river, about 120 m. N.W. of Saint Louis. Pop. (1890), 12,857; (1900),
12,780, including 920 foreign-born and 1836 negroes; (1910) 18,341. It
is served by the Wabash, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy, and the St Louis & Hannibal railways, and by boat
lines to Saint Louis, Saint Paul and intermediate points. The business
section is in the level bottom-lands of the river, while the residential
portion spreads up the banks, which afford fine building sites with
beautiful views. Mark Twain's boyhood was spent at Hannibal, which is
the setting of _Life on the Mississippi_, _Huckleberry Finn_ and _Tom
Sawyer_; Hannibal Cave, described in _Tom Sawyer_, extends for miles
beneath the river and its bluffs. Hannibal has a good public library
(1889; the first in Missouri); other prominent buildings are the Federal
building, the court house, a city hospital and the high school. The
river is here spanned by a long iron and steel bridge connecting with
East Hannibal, Ill. Hannibal is the trade centre of a rich agricultural
region, and has an important lumber trade, railway shops, and
manufactories of lumber, shoes, stoves, flour, cigars, lime, Portland
cement and pearl buttons (made from mussel shells); the value of the
city's factory products increased from $2,698,720 in 1900 to $4,442,099
in 1905, or 64.6%. In the vicinity are valuable deposits of crinoid
limestone, a coarse white building stone which takes a good polish. The
electric-lighting plant is owned and operated by the municipality.
Hannibal was laid out as a town in 1819 (its origin going back to
Spanish land grants, which gave rise to much litigation) and was first
chartered as a city in 1839. The town of South Hannibal was annexed to
it in 1843.



HANNINGTON, JAMES (1847-1885), English missionary, was born at
Hurstpierpoint, in Sussex, on the 3rd of September 1847. From earliest
childhood he displayed a love of adventure and natural history. At
school he made little progress, and left at the age of fifteen for his
father's counting-house at Brighton. He had no taste for office work,
and much of his time was occupied in commanding a battery of volunteers
and in charge of a steam launch. At twenty-one he decided on a clerical
career and entered St Mary's Hall, Oxford, where he exercised a
remarkable influence over his fellow-undergraduates. He was, however, a
desultory student, and in 1870 was advised to go to the little village
of Martinhoe, in Devon, for quiet reading, but distinguished himself
more by his daring climbs after sea-gulls' eggs and his engineering
skill in cutting a pathway along precipitous cliffs to some caves. In
1872 the death of his mother made a deep impression upon him. He began
to read hard, took his B.A. degree, and in 1873 was ordained deacon and
placed in charge of the small country parish of Trentishoe in Devon.
Whilst curate in charge at Hurstpierpoint, his thoughts were turned by
the murder of two missionaries on the shores of Victoria Nyanza to
mission work. He offered himself to the Church Missionary Society and
sailed on the 17th of May 1882, at the head of a party of six, for
Zanzibar, and thence set out for Uganda; but, prostrated by fever and
dysentery, he was obliged to return to England in 1883. On his recovery
he was consecrated bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa (June 1884), and
in January 1885 started again for the scene of his mission, and visited
Palestine on the way. On his arrival at Freretown, near Mombasa, he
visited many stations in the neighbourhood. Then, filled with the idea
of opening a new route to Uganda, he set out and reached a spot near
Victoria Nyanza in safety. His arrival, however, roused the suspicion of
the natives, and under King Mwanga's orders he was lodged in a filthy
hut swarming with rats and vermin. After eight days his men were
murdered, and on the 29th of October 1885 he himself was speared in both
sides, his last words to the soldiers appointed to kill him being, "Go,
tell Mwanga I have purchased the road to Uganda with my blood."

  His _Last Journals_ were edited in 1888. See also _Life_ by E. C.
  Dawson (1887); and W. G. Berry, _Bishop Hannington_ (1908).



HANNINGTON, a lake of British East Africa in the eastern rift-valley
just south of the equator and in the shadow of the Laikipia escarpment.
It is 7 m. long by 2 m. broad. The water is shallow and brackish.
Standing in the lake and along its shores are numbers of dead trees, the
remains of an ancient forest, which serve as eyries for storks, herons
and eagles. The banks and flats at the north end of the lake are the
resort of hundreds of thousands of flamingoes. The places where they
cluster are dazzling white with guano deposits. The lake is named after
Bishop James Hannington.



HANNO, the name of a large number of Carthaginian soldiers and
statesmen. Of the majority little is known; the most important are the
following[1]:--

1. HANNO, Carthaginian navigator, who probably flourished about 500 B.C.
It has been conjectured that he was the son of the Hamilcar who was
killed at Himera (480), but there is nothing to prove this. He was the
author of an account of a coasting voyage on the west coast of Africa,
undertaken for the purpose of exploration and colonization. The
original, inscribed on a tablet in the Phoenician language, was hung up
in the temple of Melkarth on his return to Carthage. What is generally
supposed to be a Greek translation of this is still extant, under the
title of _Periplus_, although its authenticity has been questioned.
Hanno appears to have advanced beyond Sierra Leone as far as Cape
Palmas. On the island which formed the terminus of his voyage the
explorer found a number of hairy women, whom the interpreters called
Gorillas ([Greek: Gorillas]).

  Valuable editions by T. Falconer (1797, with translation and defence
  of its authenticity) and C. W. Müller in _Geographici Graeci minores_,
  i.; see also E. H. Bunbury, _History of Ancient Geography_, i., and
  treatise by C. T. Fischer (1893), with bibliography.

2. HANNO (3rd century B.C.), called "the Great," Carthaginian statesman
and general, leader of the aristocratic party and the chief opponent of
Hamilcar and Hannibal. He appears to have gained his title from military
successes in Africa, but of these nothing is known. In 240 B.C. he drove
Hamilcar's veteran mercenaries to rebellion by withholding their pay,
and when invested with the command against them was so unsuccessful that
Carthage might have been lost but for the exertions of his enemy
Hamilcar (q.v.). Hanno subsequently remained at Carthage, exerting all
his influence against the democratic party, which, however, had now
definitely won the upper hand. During the Second Punic War he advocated
peace with Rome, and according to Livy even advised that Hannibal should
be given up to the Romans. After the battle of Zama (202) he was one of
the ambassadors sent to Scipio to sue for peace. Remarkably little is
known of him, considering the great influence he undoubtedly exercised
amongst his countrymen.

  Livy xxi. 3 ff., xxiii. 12; Polybius i. 67 ff.; Appian, _Res
  Hispanicae_, 4, 5, _Res Punicae_, 34, 49, 68.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For others of the name see CARTHAGE; HANNIBAL; PUNIC WARS.
    Smith's _Classical Dictionary_ has notices of some thirty of the
    name.



HANOI, capital of Tongking and of French Indo-China, on the right bank
of the Song-koi or Red river, about 80 m. from its mouth in the Gulf of
Tongking. Taking in the suburban population the inhabitants numbered in
1905 about 110,000, including 103,000 Annamese, 2289 Chinese and 2665
French, exclusive of troops. Hanoi resembles a European city in the
possession of wide well-paved streets and promenades, systems of
electric light and drainage and a good water-supply. A crowded native
quarter built round a picturesque lake lies close to the river with the
European quarter to the south of it. The public buildings include the
palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and
zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St
Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre. The barracks and other
military buildings occupy the site of the old citadel, an area of over
300 acres, to the west of the native town. The so-called pagoda of the
Great Buddha is the chief native building. The river is embanked and is
crossed by the Pont Doumer, a fine railway bridge over 1 m. long.
Vessels drawing 8 or 9 ft. can reach the town. Hanoi is the seat of the
general government of Indo-China, of the resident-superior of Tongking,
and of a bishop, who is vicar-apostolic of central Tongking. It is
administered by an elective municipal council with a civil service
administrator as mayor. It has a chamber of commerce, the president of
which has a seat on the superior council of Indo-China; a chamber of the
court of appeal of Indo-China, a civil tribunal of the first order, and
is the seat of the chamber of agriculture of Tongking. Its industries
include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of
tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and
inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metal-work, silk embroidery, &c.
Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay,
Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son. It is in frequent
communication with Hai-Phong by steamboat.

  See C. Madrolle, _Tonkin du sud: Hanoi_ (Paris, 1907).



HANOTAUX, ALBERT AUGUSTE GABRIEL (1853-   ), French statesman and
historian, was born at Beaurevoir in the department of Aisne. He
received his historical training in the École des Chartes, and became
_maître de conférences_ in the École des Hautes Études. His political
career was rather that of a civil servant than of a party politician. In
1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose
step by step through the diplomatic service. In 1886 he was elected
deputy for Aisne, but, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic
career, and on the 31st of May 1894 was chosen by Charles Dupuy to be
minister of foreign affairs. With one interruption (during the Ribot
ministry, from the 26th of January to the 2nd of November 1895) he held
this portfolio until the 14th of June 1898. During his ministry he
developed the _rapprochement_ of France with Russia--visiting St
Petersburg with the president, Felix Faure--and sent expeditions to
delimit the French colonies in Africa. The Fashoda incident of July 1898
was a result of this policy, and Hanotaux's distrust of England is
frankly stated in his literary works. As an historian he published
_Origines de l'institution des intendants de provinces_ (1884), which is
the authoritative study on the intendants; _Études historiques sur les
XVI^e et XVII^e siècles en France_ (1886); _Histoire de Richelieu_ (2
vols., 1888); and _Histoire de la Troisième République (1904, &c.), the
standard history of contemporary France._ He also edited the
_Instructions des ambassadeurs de France à Rome, depuis les traités de
Westphalie_ (1888). He was elected a member of the French Academy on the
1st of April 1897.



HANOVER (Ger. _Hannover_), formerly an independent kingdom of Germany,
but since 1866 a province of Prussia. It is bounded on the N. by the
North Sea, Holstein, Hamburg and Mecklenburg-Schwerin, E. and S.E. by
Prussian Saxony and the duchy of Brunswick, S.W. by the Prussian
provinces of Hesse-Nassau and Westphalia, and W. by Holland. These
boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg and the free state of
Bremen, the former stretching southward from the North Sea nearly to the
southern boundary of Hanover. A small portion of the province in the
south is separated from Hanover proper by the interposition of part of
Brunswick. On the 23rd of March 1873 the province was increased by the
addition of the Jade territory (purchased by Prussia from Oldenburg),
lying south-west of the Elbe and containing the great naval station and
arsenal of Wilhelmshaven. The area of the province is 14,870 sq. m.

  _Physical Features._--The greater part of Hanover is a plain with
  sandhills, heath and moor. The most fertile districts lie on the banks
  of the Elbe and near the North Sea, where, as in Holland, rich meadows
  are preserved from encroachment of the sea by broad dikes and deep
  ditches, kept in repair at great expense. The main feature of the
  northern plain is the so-called _Lüneburger Heide_, a vast expanse of
  moor and fen, mainly covered with low brushwood (though here and there
  are oases of fine beech and oak woods) and intersected by shallow
  valleys, and extending almost due north from the city of Hanover to
  the southern arm of the Elbe at Harburg. The southern portion of the
  province is hilly, and in the district of Klausenburg, containing the
  Harz, mountainous. The higher elevations are covered by dense forests
  of fir and larch, and the lower slopes with deciduous trees. The
  eastern portion of the northern plain is covered with forests of fir.
  The whole of Hanover dips from the Harz Mountains to the north, and
  the rivers consequently flow in that direction. The three chief rivers
  of the province are the Elbe in the north-east, where it mainly forms
  the boundary and receives the navigable tributaries Jeetze, Ilmenau,
  Seve, Este, Lühe, Schwinge and Medem; the Weser in the centre, with
  its important tributary the Aller (navigable from Celle downwards);
  and in the west the Ems, with its tributaries the Aa and the Leda.
  Still farther West is the Vecht, which, rising in Westphalia, flows to
  the Zuider Zee. Canals are numerous and connect the various river
  systems.

  The principal lakes are the Steinhuder Meer, about 4 m. long and 2 m.
  broad, and 20 fathoms deep, on the borders of Schaumburg-Lippe; the
  Dümmersee, on the borders of Oldenburg, about 12 m. in circuit; the
  lakes of Bederkesa and some others in the moorlands of the north; the
  Seeburger See, near Duderstadt; and the Oderteich, in the Harz, 2100
  ft. above the level of the sea.

  _Climate._--The climate in the low-lying districts near the coast is
  moist and foggy, in the plains mild, on the Harz mountains severe and
  variable. In spring the prevailing winds blow from the N.E. and E., in
  summer from the S.W. The mean annual temperature is about 46° Fahr.;
  in the town of Hanover it is higher. The average annual rainfall is
  about 23.5 in.; but this varies greatly in different districts. In the
  west the Herauch, a thick fog arising from the burning of the moors,
  is a plague of frequent occurrence.

  _Population; Divisions._--The province contains an area of 14,869 sq.
  m., and the total population, according to the census of 1905, was
  2,759,699 (1,384,161 males and 1,375,538 females). In this connexion
  it is noticeable that in Hanover, almost alone among German states and
  provinces, there is a considerable proportion of male births over
  female. The density of the population is 175 to the sq. m. (English),
  and the proportion of urban to rural population, roughly, as 1 to 3 of
  the inhabitants. The province is divided into the six
  _Regierungsbezirke_ (or departments) of Hanover, Hildesheim, Lüneburg,
  Stade, Osnabrück and Aurich, and these again into Kreise (circles, or
  local government districts)--76 in all. The chief towns--containing
  more than 10,000 inhabitants--are Hanover, Linden, Osnabrück,
  Hildesheim, Geestemünde, Wilhelmshaven, Harburg, Lüneburg, Celle,
  Göttingen and Emden. Religious statistics show that 84% of the
  inhabitants belong to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, 17 to the Roman
  Catholic and less than 1% to the Jewish communities. The Roman
  Catholics are mostly gathered around the episcopal sees of Hildesheim
  and Osnabrück and close to Münster (in Westphalia) on the western
  border, and the Jews in the towns. A court of appeal for the whole
  province sits at Celle, and there are eight superior courts. Hanover
  returns 19 members to the _Reichstag_ (imperial diet) and 36 to the
  _Abgeordnetenhaus_ (lower house) of the Prussian parliament
  (_Landtag_).

  _Education._--Among the educational institutions of the province the
  university of Göttingen stands first, with an average yearly
  attendance of 1500 students. There are, besides, a technical college
  in Hanover, an academy of forestry in Münden, a mining college in
  Clausthal, a military school and a veterinary college (both in
  Hanover), 26 gymnasia (classical schools), 18 semi-classical, and 14
  commercial schools. There are also two naval academies, asylums for
  the deaf and dumb, and numerous charitable institutions.

  _Agriculture._--Though agriculture constitutes the most important
  branch of industry in the province, it is still in a very backward
  state. The greater part of the soil is of inferior quality, and much
  that is susceptible of cultivation is still lying waste. Of the entire
  area of the country 28.6% is arable, 16.2 in meadow or pasture land,
  14% in forests, 37.2% in uncultivated moors, heaths, &c.; from 17 to
  18% is in possession of the state. The best agriculture is to be found
  in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, Göttingen and Grubenhagen,
  on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland. Rye is
  generally grown for bread. Flax, for which much of the soil is
  admirably adapted, is extensively cultivated, and forms an important
  article of export, chiefly, however, in the form of yarn. Potatoes,
  hemp, turnips, hops, tobacco and beet are also extensively grown, the
  latter, in connexion with the sugar industry, showing each year a
  larger return. Apples, pears, plums and cherries are the principal
  kinds of fruit cultivated, while the wild red cranberries from the
  Harz and the black bilberries from the Lüneburger Heide form an
  important article of export.

  _Live Stock._--Hanover is renowned for its cattle and live stock
  generally. Of these there were counted in 1900 1,115,022 head of
  horned cattle, 824,000 sheep, 1,556,000 pigs, and 230,000 goats. The
  Lüneburger Heide yields an excellent breed of sheep, the
  _Heidschnucken_, which equal the Southdowns of England in delicacy of
  flavour. Horses famous for their size and quality are reared in the
  marshes of Aurich and Stade, in Hildesheim and Hanover; and, for
  breeding purposes, in the stud farm of Celle. Bees are principally
  kept on the Lüneburger Heide, and the annual yield of honey is very
  considerable. Large flocks of geese are kept in the moist lowlands;
  their flesh is salted for domestic consumption during the winter, and
  their feathers are prepared for sale. The rivers yield trout, salmon
  (in the Weser) and crayfish. The sea fisheries are important and have
  their chief centre at Geestemünde.

  _Mining._--Minerals occur in great variety and abundance. The Harz
  Mountains are rich in silver, lead, iron and copper; coal is found
  around Osnabrück, on the Deister, at Osterwald, &c., lignite in
  various places; salt-springs of great richness exist at Egestorfshall
  and Neuhall near Hanover, and at Lüneburg; and petroleum may be
  obtained south of Celle. In the cold regions of the northern lowlands
  peat occurs in beds of immense thickness.

  _Manufactures._--Works for the manufacture of iron, copper, silver,
  lead, vitriol and sulphur are carried on to a large extent. The iron
  works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near
  Osnabrück; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at
  Hanover, Linden, Osnabrück, Hameln, Geestemünde, Harburg, Osterode,
  &c., and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the
  towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest. The textile industries
  are prosecuted chiefly in the towns. Linen yarn and cloth are largely
  manufactured, especially in the south about Osnabrück and Hildesheim,
  and bleaching is engaged in extensively; woollen cloths are made to a
  considerable extent in the south about Einbeck, Göttingen and Hameln;
  cotton-spinning and weaving have their principal seats at Hanover and
  Linden. Glass houses, paper-mills, potteries, tile works and
  tobacco-pipe works are numerous. Wax is bleached to a considerable
  extent, and there are numerous tobacco factories, tanneries,
  breweries, vinegar works and brandy distilleries. Shipbuilding is an
  important industry, especially at Wilhelmshaven, Papenburg, Leer,
  Stade and Harburg; and at Münden river-barges are built.

  _Commerce._--Although the carrying trade of Hanover is to a great
  extent absorbed by Hamburg and Bremen, the shipping of the province
  counted, in 1903, 750 sailing vessels and 86 steamers of, together,
  55,498 registered tons. The natural port is Bremen-Geestemünde and to
  it is directed the river traffic down the Weser, which practically
  forms the chief commercial artery of the province.

  _Communications._--The roads throughout are, on the whole, well laid,
  and those connecting the principal towns macadamized. Hanover is
  intersected by important trunk lines of railway; notably the lines
  from Berlin to Cologne, from Hamburg to Frankfort-on-Main, from
  Hamburg to Bremen and Cologne, and from Berlin to Amsterdam.

_History._--The name Hanover (_Hohenufer_ = high bank), originally
confined to the town which became the capital of the duchy of
Lüneburg-Calenberg, came gradually into use to designate, first, the
duchy itself, and secondly, the electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg; and it
was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the
electorate was raised to the rank of a kingdom.

The early history of Hanover is merged in that of the duchy of Brunswick
(q.v.), from which the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg and its offshoots,
the duchies of Lüneburg-Celle and Lüneburg-Calenberg have sprung. Ernest
I. (1497-1546), duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who introduced the reformed
doctrines into Lüneburg, obtained the whole of this duchy in 1539; and
in 1569 his two surviving sons made an arrangement which was afterwards
responsible for the birth of the kingdom of Hanover. By this agreement
the greater part of the duchy, with its capital at Celle, came to
William (1535-1592), the younger of the brothers, who gave laws to his
land and added to its area; and this duchy of Lüneburg-Celle was
subsequently ruled in turn by four of his sons: Ernest II. (1564-1611),
Christian (1566-1633), Augustus (d. 1636) and Frederick (d. 1648). In
addition to these four princes Duke William left three other sons, and
in 1610 the seven brothers entered into a compact that the duchy should
not be divided, and that only one of them should marry and continue the
family. Casting lots to determine this question, the lot fell upon the
sixth brother, George (1582-1641), who was a prominent soldier during
the period of the Thirty Years' War and saw service in almost all parts
of Europe, fighting successively for Christian IV. of Denmark, the
emperor Ferdinand II., and for the Swedes both before and after the
death of Gustavus Adolphus. In 1617 he aided his brother, Duke
Christian, to add Grubenhagen to Lüneburg, and after the extinction of
the family of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1634, he obtained Calenberg for
himself, making Hanover the capital of his small dukedom. In 1648, on
Duke Frederick's death, George's eldest son, Christian Louis (d. 1665),
became duke of Lüneburg-Celle; and at this time he handed over
Calenberg, which he had ruled since his father's death, to his second
brother, George William (d. 1705). When Christian Louis died George
William succeeded him in Lüneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed
by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince
who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman
Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received
Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating
a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and
which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus
(1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabrück. During the French wars
of aggression the Lüneburg princes were eagerly courted by Louis XIV.
and by his opponents; and after some hesitation George William,
influenced by Ernest Augustus, fought among the Imperialists, while John
Frederick was ranged on the side of France. In 1689 George William was
one of the claimants for the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, which was left
without a ruler in that year; and after a struggle with John George
III., elector of Saxony, and other rivals, he was invested with the
duchy by the emperor Leopold I. It was, however, his more ambitious
brother, Ernest Augustus, who did most for the prestige and advancement
of the house. Having introduced the principle of primogeniture into
Calenberg in 1682, Ernest determined to secure for himself the position
of an elector, and the condition of Europe and the exigencies of the
emperor favoured his pretensions. He made skilful use of Leopold's
difficulties; and in 1692, in return for lavish promises of assistance
to the Empire and the Habsburgs, the emperor granted him the rank and
title of elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg with the office of
standard-bearer in the Holy Roman Empire. Indignant protests followed
this proceeding. A league was formed to prevent any addition to the
electoral college; France and Sweden were called upon for assistance;
and the constitution of the Empire was reduced to a state of chaos. This
agitation, however, soon died away; and in 1708 George Louis, the son
and successor of Ernest Augustus, was recognized as an elector by the
imperial diet. George Louis married his cousin Sophia Dorothea, the only
child of George William of Lüneburg-Celle; and on his uncle's death in
1705 he united this duchy, together with Saxe-Lauenburg, with his
paternal inheritance of Calenberg or Hanover. His father, Ernest
Augustus, had taken a step of great importance in the history of Hanover
when he married Sophia, daughter of the elector palatine, Frederick V.,
and grand-daughter of James I. of England, for, through his mother, the
elector George Louis became, by the terms of the Act of Settlement of
1701, king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714.

From this time until the death of William IV. in 1837, Lüneburg or
Hanover, was ruled by the same sovereign as Great Britain, and this
personal union was not without important results for both countries.
Under George I. Hanover joined the alliance against Charles XII. of
Sweden in 1715; and by the peace of Stockholm in November 1719 the
elector received the duchies of Bremen and Verden, which formed an
important addition to the electorate. His son and successor, George II.,
who founded the university of Göttingen in 1737, was on bad terms with
his brother-in-law Frederick William I. of Prussia, and his nephew
Frederick the Great; and in 1729 war between Prussia and Hanover was
only just avoided. In 1743 George took up arms on behalf of the empress
Maria Theresa; but in August 1745 the danger in England from the
Jacobites led him to sign the convention of Hanover with Frederick the
Great, although the struggle with France raged around his electorate
until the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Induced by political
exigencies George allied himself with Frederick the Great when the Seven
Years' War broke out in 1756; but in September 1757 his son William
Augustus, duke of Cumberland, was compelled after his defeat at
Hastenbeck to sign the convention of Klosterzeven and to abandon Hanover
to the French. English money, however, came to the rescue; in 1758
Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, cleared the electorate of the invader; and
Hanover suffered no loss of territory at the peace of 1763. Both George
I. and George II. preferred Hanover to England as a place of residence,
and it was a frequent and perhaps justifiable cause of complaint that
the interests of Great Britain were sacrificed to those of the smaller
country. But George III. was more British than either his grandfather or
his great-grandfather, and owing to a variety of causes the foreign
policies of the two countries began to diverge in the later years of his
reign. Two main considerations dominated the fortunes of Hanover during
the period of the Napoleonic wars, the jealousy felt by Prussia at the
increasing strength and prestige of the electorate, and its position as
a vulnerable outpost of Great Britain. From 1793 the Hanoverian troops
fought for the Allies against France, until the treaty of Basel between
France and Prussia in 1795 imposed a forced neutrality upon Hanover. At
the instigation of Bonaparte Hanover was occupied by the Prussians for a
few months in 1801, but at the settlement which followed the peace of
Lunéville the secularized bishopric of Osnabrück was added to the
electorate. Again tempting the fortune of war after the rupture of the
peace of Amiens, the Hanoverians found that the odds against them were
too great; and in June 1803 by the convention of Sulingen their
territory was occupied by the French. The formation of the third
coalition against France in 1805 induced Napoleon to purchase the
support of Prussia by allowing her troops to seize Hanover; but in 1807,
after the defeat of Prussia at Jena, he incorporated the southern part
of the electorate in the kingdom of Westphalia, adding the northern
portion to France in 1810. The French occupation was costly and
aggressive; and the Hanoverians, many of whom were found in the allied
armies, welcomed the fall of Napoleon and the return of the old order.
Represented at the congress of Vienna by Ernest, Count Münster, the
elector was granted the title of king; but the British ministers wished
to keep the interests of Great Britain distinct from those of Hanover.
The result of the congress, however, was not unfavourable to the new
kingdom, which received East Friesland, the secularized bishopric of
Hildesheim, the city of Goslar, and some smaller additions of territory,
in return for the surrender of the greater part of the duchy of
Saxe-Lauenburg to Prussia.

Like those of the other districts of Germany, the estates of the
different provinces which formed the kingdom of Hanover had met for many
years in an irregular fashion to exercise their varying and ill-defined
authority; and, although the elector Ernest Augustus introduced a system
of administrative councils into Celle, these estates, consisting of the
three orders of prelates, nobles and towns, together with a body
somewhat resembling the English privy council, were the only
constitution which the country possessed, and the only check upon the
power of its ruler. When the elector George Louis became king of Great
Britain in 1714 he appointed a representative, or _Statthalter_, to
govern the electorate, and thus the union of the two countries was
attended with constitutional changes in Hanover as well as in Great
Britain. Responsible of course to the elector, the Statthalter, aided by
the privy council, conducted the internal affairs of the electorate,
generally in a peaceful and satisfactory fashion, until the welter of
the Napoleonic wars. On the conclusion of peace in 1814 the estates of
the several provinces of the kingdom were fused into one body,
consisting of eighty-five members, but the chief power was exercised as
before by the members of a few noble families. In 1819, however, this
feudal relic was supplanted by a new constitution. Two chambers were
established, the one formed of nobles and the other of elected
representatives; but although they were authorized to control the
finances, their power with regard to legislation was very circumscribed.
This constitution was sanctioned by the prince regent, afterwards King
George IV.; but it was out of harmony with the new and liberal ideas
which prevailed in Europe, and it hardly survived George's decease in
1830. The revolution of that year compelled George's brother and
successor, William, to dismiss Count Münster, who had been the actual
ruler of the country, and to name his own brother, Adolphus Frederick,
duke of Cambridge, a viceroy of Hanover; one of the viceroy's earliest
duties being to appoint a commission to draw up a new constitution. This
was done, and after William had insisted upon certain alterations, it
was accepted and promulgated in 1833. Representation was granted to the
peasants; the two chambers were empowered to initiate legislation;
ministers were made responsible for all acts of government; a civil list
was given to the king in return for the surrender of the crown lands;
and, in short, the new constitution was similar to that of Great
Britain. These liberal arrangements, however, did not entirely allay
the discontent. A strong and energetic party endeavoured to thwart the
working of the new order, and matters came to a climax on the death of
William IV. in 1837.

By the law of Hanover a woman could not ascend the throne, and
accordingly Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the fifth son of George
III., and not Victoria, succeeded William as sovereign in 1837, thus
separating the crowns of Great Britain and Hanover after a union of 123
years. Ernest, a prince with very autocratic ideas, had disapproved of
the constitution of 1833, and his first important act as king was to
declare it invalid. He appears to have been especially chagrined because
the crown lands were not his personal property, but the whole of the new
arrangements were repugnant to him. Seven Göttingen professors who
protested against this proceeding were deprived of their chairs; and
some of them, including F. C. Dahlmann and Jakob Grimm, were banished
from the country for publishing their protest. To save the constitution
an appeal was made to the German Confederation, which Hanover had joined
in 1815; but the federal diet declined to interfere, and in 1840 Ernest
altered the constitution to suit his own illiberal views. Recovering the
crown lands, he abolished the principle of ministerial responsibility,
the legislative power of the two chambers, and other reforms, virtually
restoring affairs to their condition before 1833. The inevitable crisis
was delayed until the stormy year 1848, when the king probably saved his
crown by hastily giving back the constitution of 1833. Order, however,
having been restored, in 1850 he dismissed the Liberal ministry and
attempted to evade his concessions; a bitter struggle had just broken
out when Ernest Augustus died in November 1851. During this reign the
foreign policy of Hanover both within and without Germany had been
coloured by jealousy of Prussia and by the king's autocratic ideas.
Refusing to join the Prussian _Zollverein_, Hanover had become a member
of the rival commercial union, the _Steuerverein_, three years before
Ernest's accession; but as this union was not a great success the
_Zollverein_ was joined in 1851. In 1849, after the failure of the
German parliament at Frankfort, the king had joined with the sovereigns
of Prussia and Saxony to form the "three kings' alliance"; but this
union with Prussia was unreal, and with the king of Saxony he soon
transferred his support to Austria and became a member of the "four
kings' alliance."

George V., the new king of Hanover, who was unfortunately blind, sharing
his father's political ideas, at once appointed a ministry whose aim was
to sweep away the constitution of 1848. This project, however, was
resisted by the second chamber of the _Landtag_, or parliament; and
after several changes of government a new ministry advised the king in
1855 to appeal to the diet of the German Confederation. This was done,
and the diet declared the constitution of 1848 to be invalid. Acting on
this verdict, not only was a ministry formed to restore the constitution
of 1840, but after some trouble a body of members fully in sympathy with
this object was returned to parliament in 1857. But these members were
so far from representing the opinions of the people that popular
resentment compelled George to dismiss his advisers in 1862. But the
more liberal government which succeeded did not enjoy his complete
confidence, and in 1865 a ministry was once more formed which was more
in accord with his own ideas. This contest soon lost both interest and
importance owing to the condition of affairs in Germany. Bismarck, the
director of the policy of Prussia, was devising methods for the
realization of his schemes, and it became clear after the war over the
duchies of Schleswig and Holstein that the smaller German states would
soon be obliged to decide definitely between Austria and Prussia. After
a period of vacillation Hanover threw in her lot with Austria, the
decisive step being taken when the question of the mobilization of the
federal army was voted upon in the diet on the 14th of June 1866. At
once Prussia requested Hanover to remain unarmed and neutral during the
war, and with equal promptness King George refused to assent to these
demands. Prussian troops then crossed his frontier and took possession
of his capital. The Hanoverians, however, were victorious at the battle
of Langensalza on the 27th of June 1866, but the advance of fresh bodies
of the enemy compelled them to capitulate two days later. By the terms
of this surrender the king was not to reside in Hanover, his officers
were to take no further part in the war, and his ammunition and stores
became the property of Prussia. The decree of the 20th of September 1866
formally annexed Hanover to Prussia, when it became a province of that
kingdom, while King George from his retreat at Hietzing appealed in vain
to the powers of Europe. Many of the Hanoverians remained loyal to their
sovereign; some of them serving in the Guelph Legion, which was
maintained largely at his expense in France, where a paper, _La
Situation_, was founded by Oskar Meding (1829-1903) and conducted in his
interests. These and other elaborate efforts, however, failed to bring
about the return of the king to Hanover, though the Guelph party
continued to agitate and to hope even after the Franco-German War had
immensely increased the power and the prestige of Prussia. George died
in June 1878. His son, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, continued to
maintain his claim to the crown of Hanover, and refused to be reconciled
with Prussia. Owing to this attitude the German imperial government
refused to allow him to take possession of the duchy of Brunswick, which
he inherited on the extinction of the elder branch of his family in
1884, and again in 1906 when the same subject came up for settlement on
the death of the regent, Prince Albert of Prussia.

In 1867 King George had agreed to accept Prussian bonds to the value of
about £1,600,000 as compensation for the confiscation of his estates in
Hanover. In 1868, however, on account of his continued hostility to
Prussia, the Prussian government sequestrated this property; and, known
as the _Welfenfonds_, or _Reptilienfonds_, it was employed as a secret
service fund to combat the intrigues of the Guelphs in various parts of
Europe; until in 1892 it was arranged that the interest should be paid
to the duke of Cumberland. In 1885 measures were taken to incorporate
the province of Hanover more thoroughly in the kingdom of Prussia, and
there is little doubt but that the great majority of the Hanoverians
have submitted to the inevitable, and are loyal subjects of the king of
Prussia.

  AUTHORITIES.--A. Hüne, _Geschichte des Königreichs Hannover und des
  Herzogtums Braunschweig_ (Hanover, 1824-1830); A. F. H. Schaumann,
  _Handbuch der Geschichte der Lande Hannover und Braunschweig_
  (Hanover, 1864); G. A. Grotefend, _Geschichte der allgemeinen
  landständischen Verfassung des Königreichs Hannover, 1814-1848_
  (Hanover, 1857); H. A. Oppermann, _Zur Geschichte des Königreichs
  Hannover_, 1832-1860 (Berlin, 1868); E. von Meier, _Hannoversche
  Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte_ (Leipzig, 1898-1899); W. von
  Hassell, _Das Kurfürstentum Hannover vom Baseler Frieden bis zur
  preussischen Okkupation_ (Hanover, 1894); and _Geschichte des
  Königreichs_ Hannover (Leipzig, 1898-1901); H. von Treitschke, _Der
  Herzog von Cumberland und das hannoversche Staatsgrundgesetz von 1833_
  (Leipzig, 1888); M. Bär, _Übersicht über die Bestände des königlichen
  Staatsarchivs zu Hannover_ (Leipzig, 1900); _Hannoversches Portfolio_
  (Stuttgart, 1839-1841); and the authorities given for the history of
  Brunswick.



HANOVER, the capital of the Prussian province of the same name, situated
in a sandy but fertile plain on the Leine, which here receives the Ihme,
38 m. N.W. from Brunswick, 78 S.E. of Bremen, and at the crossing of the
main lines of railway, Berlin to Cologne and Hamburg to
Frankfort-on-Main. Pop. (1885) 139,731; (1900) 235,666; (1905) 250,032.
On the north and east the town is half encircled by the beautiful woods
and groves of the Eilenriede and the List which form the public park.
The Leine flows through the city, having the old town on its right and
the quaint Calenberger quarter between its left bank and the Ihme. The
old town is irregularly built, with narrow streets and old-fashioned
gabled houses. In its centre lies the Markt Kirche, a red-brick edifice
of the 14th century, containing interesting monuments and some fine
stained-glass windows, and with a steeple 310 ft. in height (the highest
in Hanover). Its interior was restored in 1855. Close by, on the market
square, is the red-brick medieval town-hall (Rathaus), with an
historical wine cellar beneath. It has been superseded for municipal
business by a new building, and now contains the civic archives and
museum. The new town, surrounding the old on the north and east, and
lying between it and the woods referred to, has wide streets, handsome
buildings and beautiful squares. Among the last-mentioned are the square
at the railway station--the Ernst August-Platz--with an equestrian
statue of King Ernest Augustus in bronze; the triangular Theater-Platz,
with statues of the composer Marschner and others; and the Georgs-Platz,
with a statue of Schiller. To the south of the old town, on the banks of
the Ihme, lies the Waterloo-Platz, with a column of victory, 154 ft.
high, having inscribed on it the names of 800 Hanoverians who fell at
Waterloo. In the adjacent gardens an open rotunda encloses a marble bust
of the philosopher Leibnitz, and near it is a monument to General Count
von Alten, the commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo. Among the
other churches the most noticeable are the Neustädterkirche, with a
graceful shrine containing the tomb of Leibnitz, the Kreuzkirche, built
about 1300, with a curious steeple, and the Aegidienkirche among ancient
edifices, and among modern ones the Christuskirche, a gift of King
George V., the Lukaskirche, the Lutherkirche, and the Roman Catholic
church of St Mary, with a tower 300 ft. high, containing the grave of
Ludwig Windthorst, "his little excellency," for many years leader of the
Ultramontane (Centre) party in the imperial diet. Of secular buildings
the most remarkable is the royal palace--Schloss--built 1636-1640, with
a grand portal and handsome quadrangle. In its chapel are preserved the
relics of saints which Henry the Lion brought from Palestine. The new
provincial museum built in 1897-1902 contains the Cumberland Gallery and
the Guelph Museum; and the Kestner Museum also contains interesting and
valuable collections of works of art. The other principal public
buildings are the royal archives and library, containing a library of
200,000 volumes and 3500 manuscripts; the old provincial museum, which
houses a variety of collections, such as natural, historical and
ethnographical, and a collection of modern paintings; the theatre (built
1845-1852), one of the largest in Germany, the archaeological museum,
the railway station, and, in the west, close to Herrenhausen (see
below), the magnificent Welfenschloss (Guelph-palace). The last, begun
in 1859, was almost completed in 1866, but was never occupied by the
Hanoverian royal family. Since 1875 it has been occupied by the
technical high school, an academy with university privileges. Close to
it lies the famous Herrenhausen, the summer palace of the former kings
of Hanover, with fine gardens, an open-air theatre, a museum and an
orangery, and approached by a grand avenue over a mile in length.

Hanover has a number of colleges and schools, and is the seat of several
learned societies. It is largely frequented by foreign students,
especially English, attracted by the educational facilities it offers
and by the reputed purity of the German spoken. Hanover is the
headquarters of the X. Prussian army corps, has a large garrison of
nearly all arms and a famous military riding school. It occupies a
leading position among the industrial and commercial towns of the
empire, and of recent years has made rapid progress in prosperity. It is
connected by railway with Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, Hameln, Cologne,
Altenbeken and Cassel, and the facilities of intercourse have, under the
fostering care of the Prussian government, enormously developed its
trade and manufactures. Almost all industries are represented; chief
among them are machine-building, the manufacture of india-rubber, linen,
cloth, hardware, chemicals, tobacco, pianos, furniture and groceries.
The commerce consists principally in wine, hides, horses, coal, wood and
cereals. There are extensive printing establishments. Hanover was the
first German town that was lighted with gas. It is the birthplace of Sir
William Herschel, the astronomer, of the brothers Schlegel, of Iffland
and of the historian Pertz. The philosopher Leibnitz died there in 1716.

  Close by, on the left bank of the Leine, lies the manufacturing town
  of Linden, which, though practically forming one town with Hanover, is
  treated under a separate heading.

The town of Hanover is first mentioned during the 12th century. It
belonged to the family of Welf, then to the bishops of Hildesheim, and
then, in 1369, it came again into the possession of the Welfs, now
dukes of Brunswick. It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the
residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of
elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of
George I. One or two important treaties were signed in Hanover, which
from 1810 to 1813 was part of the kingdom of Westphalia, and in 1866 was
annexed by Prussia, after having been the capital of the kingdom of
Hanover since its foundation in 1815.

  See O. Ulrich, _Bilder aus Hannovers Vergangenheit_ (1891); Hoppe,
  _Geschichte der Stadt Hannover_ (1845); Hirschfeld, _Hannovers
  Grossindustrie und Grosshandel_ (Leipzig, 1891); Frensdorff, _Die
  Stadtverfassung Hannovers in alter und neuer Zeit_ (Leipzig, 1883); W.
  Bahrdt, _Geschichte der Reformation der Stadt Hannover_ (1891);
  Hartmann, _Geschichte von Hannover mit besonderer Rücksichtnahme auf
  die Entwickelung der Residenzstadt Hannover_ (1886); _Hannover und
  Umgegend, Entwickelung und Zustände seiner Industrie und Gewerbe_
  (1874); and the _Urkundenbuch der Stadt Hannover_ (1860, fol.).



HANOVER, a town of Jefferson county, Indiana, U.S.A., on the Ohio river,
about 5 m. below Madison. Pop. (1900) 377; (1910) 356. It is served by
boats on the Ohio river and by stages to Madison, the nearest railway
station. Along the border of the town and on a bluff rising about 500
ft. above the river is Hanover College, an institution under
Presbyterian control, embracing a college and a preparatory department,
and offering classical and scientific courses and instruction in music;
there is no charge for tuition. In 1908-1909 there were 211 students, 75
being in the Academy. The institution was opened in a log cabin in 1827,
was incorporated as Hanover Academy in 1828, was adopted as a synodical
school by the Presbyterian Synod of Indiana in 1829 on condition that a
Theological department be added, and in 1833 was incorporated under its
present name. In 1840, however, the theological department became a
separate institution and was removed to New Albany, whence in 1859 it
was removed to Chicago, where it was named, first, the Presbyterian
Theological Seminary of the North-west, and, in 1886, the McCormick
Theological Seminary. In the years immediately after its incorporation
in 1833 Hanover College introduced the "manual labor system" and was for
a time very prosperous, but the system was not a success, the college
ran into debt, and in 1843 the trustees attempted to surrender the
charter and to acquire the charter of a university at Madison. This
effort was opposed by a strong party, which secured a more liberal
charter for the college. In 1880 the college became coeducational.



HANOVER, a township of Grafton county, New Hampshire, U.S.A., on the
Connecticut river, 75 m. by rail N.W. of Concord. Pop. (1900) 1884;
(1910) 2075. No railway enters this township; the Ledyard Free Bridge
(the first free bridge across the Connecticut) connects it with Norwich,
Vt., which is served by the Boston & Maine railway. Ranges of rugged
hills, broken by deep narrow gorges and by the wider valley of Mink
Brook, rise near the river and culminate in the E. section in Moose
Mountain, 2326 ft. above the sea. Near the foot of Moose Mountain is the
birthplace of Laura D. Bridgman. Agriculture, dairying and lumbering are
the chief pursuits of the inhabitants. The village of Hanover, the
principal settlement of the township, occupies Hanover Plain in the S.W.
corner, and is the seat of Dartmouth College (q.v.), which has a
strikingly beautiful campus, and among its buildings several excellent
examples of the colonial style, notably Dartmouth Hall. The Mary
Hitchcock memorial hospital, a cottage hospital of 36 beds, was erected
in 1890-1893 by Hiram Hitchcock in memory of his wife. The charter of
the township was granted by Gov. Benning Wentworth on the 4th of July
1761, and the first settlement was made in May 1765. The records of the
town meetings and selectmen, 1761-1818, have been published by E. P.
Storrs (Hanover, 1905).

  See Frederick Chase, _A History of Dartmouth College and the Town of
  Hanover_ (Cambridge, 1891).



HANOVER, a borough of York county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 36 m. S. by W.
of Harrisburg, and 6 m. from the S. border of the state. Pop. (1890)
3746; (1900) 5302, (133 foreign-born); (1910) 7057. It is served by the
Northern Central and the Western Maryland railways. The borough is built
on nearly level ground in the fertile valley of the Conewago, at the
point of intersection of the turnpike roads leading to Baltimore,
Carlisle, York and Frederick, from which places the principal
streets--sections of these roads--are named. Among its manufactures are
foundry and machine-shop products, flour, silk, waggons, shoes, gloves,
furniture, wire cloth and cigars. The settlement of the place was begun
mostly by Germans during the middle of the 18th century. Hanover was
laid out in 1763 or 1764 by Col. Richard MacAllister; and in 1815 it was
incorporated. On the 30th of June 1863 there was a cavalry engagement in
and near Hanover between the forces of Generals H. J. Kilpatrick (Union)
and J. E. B. Stuart (Confederate) preliminary to the battle of
Gettysburg. This engagement is commemorated by an equestrian statue
erected in Hanover by the state.



HANRIOT, FRANÇOIS (1761-1794), French revolutionist, was born at
Nanterre (Seine) of poor parentage. Having lost his first
employment--with a _procureur_--through dishonesty, he obtained a
clerkship in the Paris octroi in 1789, but was dismissed for abandoning
his post when the Parisians burned the _octroi_ barriers on the night of
the 12th-13th of July 1789. After leading a hand-to-mouth existence for
some time, he became one of the orators of the section of the
_sans-culottes_, and commanded the armed force of that section during
the insurrection on the 10th of August 1792 and the massacres of
September. But he did not come into prominence until the night of the
30th-31st of May 1793, when he was provisionally appointed
commandant-general of the armed forces of Paris by the council general
of the Commune. On the 31st of May he was one of the delegates from the
Commune to the Convention demanding the dissolution of the Commission of
Twelve and the proscription of the Girondists (q.v.), and he was in
command of the insurrectionary forces of the Commune during the _émeute_
of the 2nd of June (see FRENCH REVOLUTION). On the 11th of June he
resigned his command, declaring that order had been restored. On the
13th he was impeached in the Convention; but the motion was not carried,
and on the 1st of July he was elected by the Commune permanent commander
of the armed forces of Paris. This position, which gave him enormous
power, he retained until the revolution of the 9th Thermidor (July 27,
1794). His arrest was decreed; but he had the _générale_ sounded and the
tocsin rung, and tried to rescue Robespierre, who was under arrest in
the hall of the _Comité de Sûreté Générale_. Hanriot was himself
arrested, but was rescued by his adherents, and hastened to the Hôtel de
Ville. After a vain attempt to organize resistance he fled and hid in a
secluded yard, where he was discovered the next day. He was arrested,
sentenced to death, and guillotined with Robespierre and his friends on
the 10th Thermidor of the year II. (the 28th of July 1794).



HANSARD, LUKE (1752-1828), English printer, was born on the 5th of July
1752 in St Mary's parish, Norwich. He was educated at Boston grammar
school, and was apprenticed to Stephen White, a Norwich printer. As soon
as his apprenticeship had expired Hansard started for London with only a
guinea in his pocket, and became a compositor in the office of John
Hughs (1703-1771), printer to the House of Commons. In 1774 he was made
a partner, and undertook almost the entire conduct of the business,
which in 1800 came completely into his hands. On the admission of his
sons the firm became Luke Hansard & Sons. Among those whose friendship
Hansard won in the exercise of his profession were Robert Orme, Burke
and Dr Johnson; while Porson praised him as the most accurate printer of
Greek. He printed the _Journals of the House of Commons_ from 1774 till
his death. The promptitude and accuracy with which Hansard printed
parliamentary papers were often of the greatest service to
government--notably on one occasion when the proof-sheets of the report
of the Secret Committee on the French Revolution were submitted to Pitt
twenty-four hours after the draft had left his hands. On the union with
Ireland in 1801, the increase of parliamentary printing compelled
Hansard to give up all private printing except when parliament was not
sitting. He devised numerous expedients for reducing the expense of
publishing the reports; and in 1805, when his workmen struck at a time
of great pressure, he and his sons themselves set to work as
compositors. Luke Hansard died on the 29th of October 1828.

His son, THOMAS CURSON HANSARD (1776-1833), established a press of his
own in Paternoster Row, and began in 1803 to print the _Parliamentary
Debates_, which were not at first independent reports, but were taken
from the newspapers. After 1889 the debates were published by the
Hansard Publishing Union Limited. T. C. Hansard was the author of
_Typographia, an Historical Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the Art
of Printing_ (1825). The original business remained in the hands of his
younger brothers, James and Luke Graves Hansard (1777-1851). The firm
was prosecuted in 1837 by John Joseph Stockwell for printing by order of
the House of Commons, in an official report of the inspector of prisons,
statements regarded by the plaintiff as libellous. Hansard sheltered
himself on the ground of privilege, but it was not until after much
litigation that the security of the printers of government reports was
guaranteed by statute in 1840.



HANSEATIC LEAGUE. It is impossible to assign any precise date for the
beginning of the Hanseatic League or to name any single factor which
explains the origin of that loose but effective federation of North
German towns. Associated action and partial union among these towns can
be traced back to the 13th century. In 1241 we find Lübeck and Hamburg
agreeing to safeguard the important road connecting the Baltic and the
North Sea. The first known meeting of the "maritime towns," later known
as the Wendish group and including Lübeck, Hamburg, Lüneburg, Wismar,
Rostock and Stralsund, took place in 1256. The Saxon towns, during the
following century, were joining to protect their common interests, and
indeed at this period town confederacies in Germany, both North and
South, were so considerable as to call for the declaration against them
in the Golden Bull of 1356. The decline of the imperial power and the
growing opposition between the towns and the territorial princes
justified these defensive town alliances, which in South Germany took on
a peculiarly political character. The relative weakness of territorial
power in the North, after the fall of Henry the Lion of Saxony,
diminished without however removing this motive for union, but the
comparative immunity from princely aggression on land left the towns
freer to combine in a stronger and more permanent union for the defence
of their commerce by sea and for the control of the Baltic.

While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League
must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The
foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern
shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of
Slavic territory east of the Elbe. This movement, extending in time from
about the middle of the 11th to the middle of the 13th century and
carrying a stream of settlers and traders from the North-west, resulted
not only in the Germanization of a wide territory but in the extension
of German influence along the sea-coast far to the east of actual
territorial settlement. The German trading towns, at the mouths of the
numerous streams which drain the North European plain, were stimulated
or created by the unifying impulse of a common and long-continued
advance of conquest and colonization.

The impetus of this remarkable movement of expansion not only carried
German trade to the East and North within the Baltic basin, but
reanimated the older trade from the lower Rhine region to Flanders and
England in the West. Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most
important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Münster, had long controlled
this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active
traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from
the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the
history of the League. The necessity of seeking protection from the
sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period
of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the
towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the
outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or
"counters" (Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer
justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German
merchants--such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the
gradual formation of the League. In the century of energetic commercial
development before 1350 the German merchants abroad led the way.

Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian
towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre
of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were
possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th
century. There also came into existence at Wisby the first association
of German traders abroad, which united the merchants of over thirty
towns, from Cologne and Utrecht in the West to Reval in the East. We
find the Gothland association making in 1229 a treaty with a Russian
prince and securing privileges for their branch trading station at
Novgorod. According to the "Skra," the by-laws of the Novgorod branch,
the four aldermen of the community of Germans, who among other duties
held the keys of the common chest, deposited in Wisby, were to be chosen
from the merchants of the Gothland association and of the towns of
Lübeck, Soest and Dortmund. The Gothland association received in 1237
trading rights in England, and shortly after the middle of the century
it also secured privileges in Flanders. It legislated on matters
relating to common trade interests, and, in the case of the regulation
of 1287 concerning shipwrecked goods, we find it imposing this
legislation on the towns under the penalty of exclusion from the
association. But with the extension of the East and West trade beyond
the confines of the Baltic, this association by the end of the century
was losing its position of leadership. Its inheritance passed to the
gradually forming union of towns, chiefly those known as Wendish, which
looked to Lübeck as their head. In 1293 the Saxon and Wendish merchants
at Rostock decided that all appeals from Novgorod be taken to Lübeck
instead of to Wisby, and six years later the Wendish and Westphalian
towns, meeting at Lübeck, ordered that the Gothland association should
no longer use a common seal. Though Lübeck's right as court of appeal
from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general
assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply
accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power. The union of
merchants abroad was beginning to come under the control of the partial
union of towns at home.

A similar and contemporary extension of the influence of the Baltic
traders under Lübeck's leadership may be witnessed in the West. As a
consequence of the close commercial relations early existing between
England and the Rhenish-Westphalian towns, the merchants of Cologne were
the first to possess a gild-hall in London and to form a "hansa" with
the right of admitting other German merchants on payment of a fee. The
charter of 1226, however, by which Emperor Frederick II. created Lübeck
a free imperial city, expressly declared that Lübeck citizens trading in
England should be free from the dues imposed by the merchants of Cologne
and should enjoy equal rights and privileges. In 1266 and 1267 the
merchants of Hamburg and Lübeck received from Henry III. the right to
establish their own hansas in London, like that of Cologne. The
situation thus created led by 1282 to the coalescence of the rival
associations in the "Gild-hall of the Germans," but though the Baltic
traders had secured a recognized foothold in the enlarged and unified
organization, Cologne retained the controlling interest in the London
settlement until 1476. Lübeck and Hamburg, however, dominated the German
trade in the ports of the east coast, notably in Lynn and Boston, while
they were strong in the organized trading settlements at York, Hull,
Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth and Bristol. The counter at London, first
called the Steelyard in a parliamentary petition of 1422, claimed
jurisdiction over the other factories in England.

In Flanders, also, the German merchants from the West had long been
trading, but here had later to endure not only the rivalry but the
pre-eminence of those from the East. In 1252 the first treaty privileges
for German trade in Flanders show two men of Lübeck and Hamburg heading
the "Merchants of the Roman Empire," and in the later organization of
the counter at Bruges four or five of the six aldermen were chosen from
towns east of the Elbe, with Lübeck steadily predominant. The Germans
recognized the staple rights of Bruges for a number of commodities, such
as wool, wax, furs, copper and grain, and in return for this material
contribution to the growing commercial importance of the town, they
received in 1309 freedom from the compulsory brokerage which Bruges
imposed on foreign merchants. The importance and independence of the
German trading settlements abroad was exemplified in the statutes of the
"Company of German merchants at Bruges," drawn up in 1347, where for the
first time appears the grouping of towns in three sections (the
"Drittel"), the Wendish-Saxon, the Prussian-Westphalian, and those of
Gothland and Livland. Even more important than the assistance which the
concentration of the German trade at Bruges gave to that leading mart of
European commerce was the service rendered by the German counter of
Bruges to the cause of Hanseatic unity. Not merely because of its
central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its
political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of
union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy. It was
more Hanse than the Hanse towns.

The last of the chief trading settlements, both in importance and in
date of organization, was that at Bergen in Norway, where in 1343 the
Hanseatics obtained special trade privileges. Scandinavia had early been
sought for its copper and iron, its forest products and its valuable
fisheries, especially of herring at Schonen, but it was backward in its
industrial development and its own commerce had seriously declined in
the 14th century. It had come to depend largely upon the Germans for the
importation of all its luxuries and of many of its necessities, as well
as for the exportation of its products, but regular trade with the three
kingdoms was confined for the most part to the Wendish towns, with
Lübeck steadily asserting an exclusive ascendancy. The fishing centre at
Schonen was important as a market, though, like Novgorod, its trade was
seasonal, but it did not acquire the position of a regularly organized
counter, reserved alone, in the North, for Bergen. The commercial
relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in
the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the
Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound
which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to
Scandinavian politics on the part of Lübeck and the League and thus by
necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic
sea-power exercised a unifying influence.

Energetic and successful though the scattered trading settlements had
been in establishing German trade connexions and in securing valuable
trade privileges, the middle of the 14th century found them powerless to
meet difficulties arising from internal dissension and still more from
the political rivalries and trade jealousies of nascent nationalities.
Flanders became a battle-field in the great struggle between France and
England, and the war of trade prohibitions led to infractions of the
German privileges in Bruges. An embargo on trade with Flanders, voted in
1358 by a general assembly, resulted by 1360 in the full restoration of
German privileges in Flanders, but reduced the counter at Bruges to an
executive organ of a united town policy. It is worth noting that in a
document connected with this action the union of towns, borrowing the
term from English usage, was first called the "German Hansa." In 1361
representatives from Lübeck and Wisby visited Novgorod to recodify the
by-laws of the counter and to admonish it that new statutes required the
consent of Lübeck, Wisby, Riga, Dorpat and Reval. This action was
confirmed in 1366 by an assembly of the Hansa which at the same time, on
the occasion of a regulation made by the Bruges counter and of statutes
drawn up by the young Bergen counter, ordered that in future the
approval of the towns must be obtained for all new regulations.

The counter at London was soon forced to follow the example of the other
counters at Bruges, Novgorod and Bergen. After the failure of the
Italians, the Hanseatics remained the strongest group of alien
merchants in England, and, as such, claimed the exclusive enjoyment of
the privileges granted by the _Carta Mercatoria_ of 1303. Their highly
favoured position in England, contrasting markedly with their refusal of
trade facilities to the English in some of the Baltic towns and their
evident policy of monopoly in the Baltic trade, incensed the English
mercantile classes, and doubtless influenced the increases in
customs-duties which were regarded by the Germans as contrary to their
treaty rights. Unsuccessful in obtaining redress from the English
government, the German merchants finally, in 1374, appealed for aid to
the home towns, especially to Lübeck. The result of Hanseatic
representations was the confirmation by Richard II. in 1377 of all their
privileges, which accorded them the preferential treatment they had
claimed and became the foundation of the Hanseatic position in England.

In the meanwhile, the conquest of Wisby by Waldemar IV. of Denmark in
1361 had disclosed his ambition for the political control of the Baltic.
He was promptly opposed by an alliance of Hanse towns, led by Lübeck.
The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the
stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne
Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in
1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the
Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the
prestige of the League.

The assertion of Hanseatic influence in the two decades, 1356 to 1377,
marks the zenith of the League's power and the completion of the long
process of unification. Under the pressure of commercial and political
necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of
merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity
had become such that in 1380 a Lübeck official could declare that
"whatever touches one town touches all." But even at the time when union
was most important, this statement went further than the facts would
warrant, and in the course of the following century it became less and
less true. Dortmund held aloof from the Cologne Confederation on the
ground that it had no concern in Scandinavian politics. It became,
indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns
for a policy of sea-power in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives
to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th
century its independence was frequently manifested. It rebelled at the
authority of the counter at Bruges, and at the time of the war with
England (1469-1474) openly defied the League. In the East, the German
Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the
policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles
and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic.
After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland,
especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even
against their Hanseatic confederates. Lübeck, however, supported by the
Bruges counter, despite the disaffection and jealousy on all sides
hampering and sometimes thwarting its efforts, stood steadfastly for
union and the necessity of obedience to the decrees of the assemblies.
Its headship of the League, hitherto tacitly accepted, was definitely
recognized in 1418.

The governing body of the Hansa was the assembly of town
representatives, the "Hansetage," held irregularly as occasion required
at the summons of Lübeck, and, with few exceptions, attended but
scantily. The delegates were bound by instructions from their towns and
had to report home the decisions of the assembly for acceptance or
rejection. In 1469 the League declared that the English use of the terms
"societas," "collegium" and "universitas" was inappropriate to so loose
an organization. It preferred to call itself a "firma confederatio" for
trade purposes only. It had no common seal, though that of Lübeck was
accepted, particularly by foreigners, in behalf of the League. Disputes
between the confederate towns were brought for adjudication before the
general assembly, but the League had no recognized federal judiciary.
Lübeck, with the counters abroad, watched over the execution of the
measures voted by the assembly, but there was no regular administrative
organization. Money for common purposes was raised from time to time,
as necessity demanded, by the imposition on Hanse merchandise of
poundage dues, introduced in 1361, while the counters relied upon a
small levy of like nature and upon fines to meet current needs. Even
this slender financial provision met with opposition. The German Order
in 1398 converted the Hanseatic poundage to a territorial tax for its
own purposes, and one of the chief causes for Cologne's disaffection a
half-century later was the extension from Flanders to other parts of the
Netherlands of the levy made by the counter at Bruges. Since the
authority of the League rested primarily on the moral support of its
members, allied in common trade interests and acquiescing in the able
leadership of Lübeck, its only means of compulsion was the "Verhansung,"
or exclusion of a recalcitrant town from the benefits of the trade
privileges of the League. A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of
Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been
earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew
their patrician governments. It was obviously, however, a measure to be
used only in the last resort and with extreme reluctance.

The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the
historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic
privileges abroad. At first the merchant Hansas had shared these
privileges with almost any German merchant, and thus many little
villages, notably those in Westphalia, ultimately claimed membership.
Later, under the Hansa of the towns, the struggle for the maintenance of
a coveted position abroad led to a more exclusive policy. A few new
members were admitted, mainly from the westernmost sphere of Hanseatic
influence, but membership was refused to some important applicants. In
1447 it was voted that admission be granted only by unanimous consent.
No complete list of members was ever drawn up, despite frequent requests
from foreign powers. Contemporaries usually spoke of 70, 72, 73 or 77
members, and perhaps the list is complete with Daenell's recent count of
72, but the obscurity on so vital a point is significant of the
amorphous character of the organization.

The towns of the League, stretching from Thorn and Krakow on the East to
the towns of the Zuider Zee on the West, and from Wisby and Reval in the
North to Göttingen in the South, were arranged in groups, following in
the main the territorial divisions. Separate assemblies were held in the
groups for the discussion both of local and Hanseatic affairs, and
gradually, but not fully until the 16th century, the groups became
recognized as the lowest stage of Hanse organization. The further
grouping into "Thirds," later "Quarters," under head-towns, was also
more emphasized in that century.

In the 15th century the League, with increasing difficulty, held a
defensive position against the competition of strong rivals and new
trade-routes. In England the inevitable conflict of interests between
the new mercantile power, growing conscious of its national strength,
and the old, standing insistant on the letter of its privileges, was
postponed by the factional discord out of which the Hansa in 1474
dexterously snatched a renewal of its rights. Under Elizabeth, however,
the English Merchant Adventurers could finally rejoice at the withdrawal
of privileges from the Hanseatics and their concession to England, in
return for the retention of the Steelyard, of a factory in Hamburg. In
the Netherlands the Hanseatics clung to their position in Bruges until
1540, while trade was migrating to the ports of Antwerp and Amsterdam.
By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the
League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken,
and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper,
the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring
fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade. For the
Russian trade new competitors were emerging in southern Germany. The
Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 1457, its later war and
embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black
Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its
fellows to secure a land-trade outside the sphere of Hanseatic
influence. The fairs of Leipzig and Frankfort-on-Main rose in
importance as Novgorod, the stronghold of Hanse trade in the East, was
weakened by the attacks of Ivan III. The closing of the Novgorod counter
in 1494 was due not only to the development of the Russian state but to
the exclusive Hanseatic policy which had stimulated the opening of
competing trade routes.

Within the League itself increasing restiveness was shown under the
restrictions of its trade policy. At the Hanseatic assembly of 1469,
Dantzig, Hamburg and Breslau opposed the maintenance of a compulsory
staple at Bruges in the face of the new conditions produced by a
widening commerce and more advantageous markets. Complaint was made of
South German competition in the Netherlands. "Those in the Hansa,"
protested Breslau, "are fettered and must decline and those outside the
Hansa are free and prosper." By 1477 even Lübeck had become convinced
that a continuance of the effort to maintain the compulsory staple
against Holland was futile and should be abandoned. But while it was
found impossible to enforce the staple or to close the Sound against the
Dutch, other features of the monopolistic system of trade regulations
were still upheld. It was forbidden to admit an outsider to partnership
or to co-ownership of ships, to trade in non-Hanseatic goods, to buy or
sell on credit in a foreign mart or to enter into contracts for future
delivery. The trade of foreigners outside the gates of Hanse towns or
with others than Hanseatics was forbidden in 1417, and in the Eastern
towns the retail trade of strangers was strictly limited. The whole
system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the
divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of
competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary
character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult. The measures
were those of the late-medieval town economy applied to the wide region
of the German Baltic trade, but not supported, as was the analogous
mercantilist system, by a strong central government.

Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which
combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was
probably more influential than the absence of a German political power
comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which
could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the
trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect
union. Nothing was to be expected from the declining Empire. Still less
was any co-operation possible between the towns and the territorial
princes. The fatal result of conflict between town autonomy and
territorial power had been taught in Flanders. The Hanseatics regarded
the princes with a growing and exaggerated fear and found some relief in
the formation in 1418 of a thrice-renewed alliance, known as the
"Tohopesate," against princely aggression. But no territorial power had
as yet arisen in North Germany capable of subjugating and utilizing the
towns, though it could detach the inland towns from the League. The last
wars of the League with the Scandinavian powers in the 16th century,
which left it shorn of many of its privileges and of any pretension to
control of the Baltic basin eliminated it as a factor in the later
struggle of the Thirty Years' War for that control. At an assembly of
1629, Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg were entrusted with the task of
safeguarding the general welfare, and after an effort to revive the
League in the last general assembly of 1669, these three towns were left
alone to preserve the name and small inheritance of the Hansa which in
Germany's disunion had upheld the honour of her commerce. Under their
protection, the three remaining counters lingered on until their
buildings were sold at Bergen in 1775, at London in 1852 and at Antwerp
in 1863.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Hansisches Urkundenbuch_, bearbeitet von K. Höhlbaum,
  K. Kunze und W. Stein (10 vols., Halle und Leipzig, 1876-1907);
  _Hanserecesse_, erste Abtheilung, 1256-1430 (8 vols., Leipzig,
  1870-1897), zweite Abtheilung, 1431-1476 (7 vols., 1876-1892); dritte
  Abtheilung, 1477-1530 (7 vols., 1881-1905); _Hansische
  Geschichtsquellen_ (7 vols., 1875-1894; 3 vols., 1897-1906);
  _Inventare hansischer Archive des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts_ (vols. 1
  and 2, 1896-1903); _Hansische Geschictsblätter_ (14 vols., 1871-1908).
  All the above-mentioned chief sources have been issued by the Verein
  für hansische Geschichte. Of the secondary literature, the following
  histories and monographs should be named. G. F. Sartorius, _Geschichte
  des hanseatischen Bundes_ (3 vols., Göttingen, 1802-1808),
  _Urkundliche Geschichte des Ursprunges der deutschen Hanse_,
  herausgegeben von J. M. Lappenberg (2 vols., Hamburg, 1830); F. W.
  Barthold, _Geschichte der deutschen Hansa_ (3 vols., 2nd ed., Leipzig,
  1862); D. Schäfer, _Die Hansestädte und König Waldemar von Dänemark_
  (Jena, 1879); W. Stein, _Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Hanse
  bis um die Mitte des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts_ (Giessen, 1900); E.
  Daenell, _Die Blütezeit der deutschen Hanse. Hansische Geschichte von
  der zweiten Hälfte des XIV. bis zum letzten Viertel des XV.
  Jahrhunderts_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1905-1906); J. M. Lappenberg,
  _Urkundliche Geschichte des hansischen Stahlhofes zu London_ (Hamburg,
  1851); F. Keutgen, _Die Beziehungen der Hanse zu England im letzten
  Drittel des vierzehnten Jahrhunderts_ (Giessen, 1890); R. Ehrenberg,
  _Hamburg und England im Zeitalter der Königin Elisabeth_ (Jena, 1896);
  W. Stein, _Die Genossenschaft der deutschen Kaufleute zu Brügge in
  Flandern_ (Berlin, 1890); H. Rogge, _Der Stapelzwang des hansischen
  Kontors zu Brügge im fünfzehnten Jahrhundert_ (Kiel, 1903); A.
  Winckler, _Die deutsche Hansa in Russland_ (Berlin, 1886).
       (E. F. G.)



HANSEN, PETER ANDREAS (1795-1874), Danish astronomer, was born on the
8th of December 1795, at Tondern, in the duchy of Schleswig. The son of
a goldsmith, he learned the trade of a watchmaker at Flensburg, and
exercised it at Berlin and Tondern, 1818-1820. He had, however, long
been a student of science; and Dr Dircks, a physician practising at
Tondern, prevailed with his father to send him in 1820 to Copenhagen,
where he won the patronage of H. C. Schumacher, and attracted the
personal notice of King Frederick VI. The Danish survey was then in
progress, and he acted as Schumacher's assistant in work connected with
it, chiefly at the new observatory of Altona, 1821-1825. Thence he
passed on to Gotha as director of the Seeberg observatory; nor could he
be tempted to relinquish the post by successive invitations to replace
F. G. W. Struve at Dorpat in 1829, and F. W. Bessel at Königsberg in
1847. The problems of gravitational astronomy engaged the chief part of
Hansen's attention. A research into the mutual perturbations of Jupiter
and Saturn secured for him the prize of the Berlin Academy in 1830, and
a memoir on cometary disturbances was crowned by the Paris Academy in
1850. In 1838 he published a revision of the lunar theory, entitled
_Fundamenta nova investigationis_, &c., and the improved Tables of the
Moon based upon it were printed in 1857, at the expense of the British
government, their merit being further recognized by a grant of £1000,
and by their immediate adoption in the _Nautical Almanac_, and other
Ephemerides. A theoretical discussion of the disturbances embodied in
them (still familiarly known to lunar experts as the _Darlegung_)
appeared in the _Abhandlungen_ of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in
1862-1864. Hansen twice visited England and was twice (in 1842 and 1860)
the recipient of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal. He
communicated to that society in 1847 an able paper on a long-period
lunar inequality (_Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society_, xvi. 465), and in 1854
one on the moon's figure, advocating the mistaken hypothesis of its
deformation by a huge elevation directed towards the earth (Ib. xxiv.
29). He was awarded the Copley medal by the Royal Society in 1850, and
his Solar Tables, compiled with the assistance of Christian Olufsen,
appeared in 1854. Hansen gave in 1854 the first intimation that the
accepted distance of the sun was too great by some millions of miles
(_Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Soc._ xv. 9), the error of J. F. Encke's
result having been rendered evident through his investigation of a lunar
inequality. He died on the 28th of March 1874, at the new observatory in
the town of Gotha, erected under his care in 1857.

  See _Vierteljahrsschrift astr. Gesellschaft_, x. 133; _Month. Notices
  Roy. Astr. Society_, xxxv. 168; _Proc. Roy. Society_, xxv. p. v.; R.
  Wolf, _Geschichte der Astronomie_, p. 526; _Wochenschrift für
  Astronomie_, xvii. 207 (account of early years by E. Heis);
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (C. Bruhns).     (A. M. C.)



HANSI, a town of British India, in the Hissar district of the Punjab, on
a branch of the Western Jumna canal, with a station on the
Rewari-Ferozepore railway, 16 m. E. of Hissar. Pop. (1901) 16,523. Hansi
is one of the most ancient towns in northern India, the former capital
of the tract called Hariana. At the end of the 18th century it was the
headquarters of the famous Irish adventurer George Thomas; from 1803 to
1857 it was a British cantonment, and it became the scene of a murderous
outbreak during the Mutiny. A ruined fort overlooks the town, which is
still surrounded by a high brick wall, with bastions and loop holes. It
is a centre of local trade, with factories for ginning and pressing
cotton.



HANSOM, JOSEPH ALOYSIUS (1803-1882), English architect and inventor, was
born in York on the 26th of October 1803. Showing an aptitude for
designing and construction, he was taken from his father's joinery shop
and apprenticed to an architect in York, and, by 1831, his designs for
the Birmingham town hall were accepted and followed--to his financial
undoing, as he had become bond for the builders. In 1834 he registered
the design of a "Patent Safety Cab," and subsequently sold the patent to
a company for £10,000, which, however, owing to the company's financial
difficulties, was never paid. The hansom cab as improved by subsequent
alterations, nevertheless, took and held the fancy of the public. There
was no back seat for the driver in the original design, and there is
little beside the suspended axle and large wheels in the modern hansom
to recall the early ones. In 1834 Hansom founded the _Builder_
newspaper, but was compelled to retire from this enterprise owing to
insufficient capital. Between 1854 and 1879 he devoted himself to
architecture, designing and erecting a great number of important
buildings, private and public, including churches, schools and convents
for the Roman Catholic church to which he belonged. Buildings from his
designs are scattered all over the United Kingdom, and were even erected
in Australia and South America. He died in London on the 29th of June
1882.



HANSON, SIR RICHARD DAVIES (1805-1876), chief justice of South
Australia, was born in London on the 6th of December 1805. Admitted a
solicitor in 1828, he practised for some time in London. In 1838 he went
with Lord Durham to Canada as assistant-commissioner of inquiry into
crown lands and immigration. In 1840, on the death of Lord Durham, whose
private secretary he had been, he settled in Wellington, New Zealand. He
there acted as crown prosecutor, but in 1846 removed to South Australia.
In 1851 he was appointed advocate-general of that colony and took an
active share in the passing of many important measures, such as the
first Education Act, the District Councils Act of 1852, and the Act of
1856 which granted constitutional government to the colony. In 1856 and
again from 1857 to 1860 he was attorney-general and leader of the
government. In 1861 he was appointed chief justice of the supreme court
of South Australia and was knighted in 1869. He died in Australia on the
4th of March 1876.



HANSTEEN, CHRISTOPHER (1784-1873), Norwegian astronomer and physicist,
was born at Christiania, on the 26th of September 1784. From the
cathedral school he went to the university at Copenhagen, where first
law and afterwards mathematics formed his main study. In 1806 he taught
mathematics in the gymnasium of Frederiksborg, Zeeland, and in the
following year he began the inquiries in terrestrial magnetism with
which his name is especially associated. He took in 1812 the prize of
the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences for his reply to a question on the
magnetic axes. Appointed lecturer in 1814, he was in 1816 raised to the
chair of astronomy and applied mathematics in the university of
Christiania. In 1819 he published a volume of researches on terrestrial
magnetism, which was translated into German by P. T. Hanson, under the
title of _Untersuchungen über den Magnetismus der Erde_, with a
supplement containing _Beobachtungen der Abweichung und Neigung der
Magnetnadel_ and an atlas. By the rules there framed for the observation
of magnetical phenomena Hansteen hoped to accumulate analyses for
determining the number and position of the magnetic poles of the earth.
In prosecution of his researches he travelled over Finland and the
greater part of his own country; and in 1828-1830 he undertook, in
company with G. A. Erman, and with the co-operation of Russia, a
government mission to Western Siberia. A narrative of the expedition
soon appeared (_Reise-Erinnerungen aus Sibirien_, 1854; _Souvenirs_
_d'un voyage en Sibérie_, 1857); but the chief work was not issued till
1863 (_Resultate magnetischer Beobachtungen_, &c.). Shortly after the
return of the mission, an observatory was erected in the park of
Christiania (1833), and Hansteen was appointed director. On his
representation a magnetic observatory was added in 1839. In 1835-1838 he
published text-books on geometry and mechanics; and in 1842 he wrote his
_Disquisitiones de mutationibus quas patitur momentum acus magneticae_,
&c. He also contributed various papers to different scientific journals,
especially the _Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne_, of which he became
joint-editor in 1823. He superintended the trigonometrical and
topographical survey of Norway, begun in 1837. In 1861 he retired from
active work, but still pursued his studies, his _Observations de
l'inclination magnétique_ and _Sur les variations séculaires du
magnétisme_ appearing in 1865. He died at Christiania on the 11th of
April 1873.



HANTHAWADDY, a district in the Pegu division of Lower Burma, the home
district of Rangoon, from which the town was detached to make a separate
district in 1880. It has an area of 3023 sq. m., with a population in
1901 of 484,811, showing an increase of 22% in the decade. Hanthawaddy
and Henzada are the two most densely populated districts in the
province. It consists of a vast plain stretching up from the sea between
the To or China Bakir mouth of the Irrawaddy and the Pegu Yomas. Except
the tract lying between the Pegu Yomas on the east and the Hlaing river,
the country is intersected by numerous tidal creeks, many navigable by
large boats and some by steamers. The headquarters of the district are
in Rangoon, which is also the sub-divisional headquarters. The second
sub-division has its headquarters at Insein, where there are large
railway works. Cultivation is almost wholly confined to rice, but there
are many vegetable and fruit gardens.



HANUKKAH, a Jewish festival, the "Feast of Dedication" (cf. John x. 22)
or the "Feast of the Maccabees," beginning on the 25th day of the ninth
month _Kislev_ (December), of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and
lasting eight days. It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of,
and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on
this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes,
king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
The Talmudic sources say that when the perpetual lamp of the temple was
to be relighted only one flask of holy oil sufficient for the day
remained, but this miraculously lasted for the eight days (cf. the
legend in 2 Macc. i. 18). In memory of this the Jews burn both in
synagogues and in houses on the first night of the festival one light,
on the second two, and so on to the end (so the Hillelites), or vice
versa eight lights on the first, and one less on each succeeding night
(so the Shammaites). From the prominence of the lights the festival is
also known as the "Festival of Lights" or "Illumination" (_Talmud_). It
is said that the day chosen by Judas for the setting up of the new altar
was the anniversary of that on which Antiochus had set up the pagan
altar; hence it is suggested (e.g. by Wellhausen) that the 25th of
Kislev was an old pagan festival, perhaps the day of the winter
solstice.

  For further details and illustrations of Hanukkah lamps see _Jewish
  Encyc._, s.v.



HANUMAN, in Hindu mythology, a monkey-god, who forms a central figure in
the _Ramayana_. He was the child of a nymph by the god of the wind. His
exploits, as the ally of Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) in the latter's
recovery of his wife Sita from the clutches of the demon Ravana, include
the bridging of the straits between India and Ceylon with huge boulders
carried away from the Himalayas. He is the leader of a host of monkeys
who aid in these supernatural deeds. Temples in his honour are frequent
throughout India.



HANWAY, JONAS (1712-1786), English traveller and philanthropist, was
born at Portsmouth in 1712. While still a child, his father, a
victualler, died, and the family moved to London. In 1729 Jonas was
apprenticed to a merchant in Lisbon. In 1743, after he had been some
time in business for himself in London, he became a partner with Mr
Dingley, a merchant in St Petersburg, and in this way was led to travel
in Russia and Persia. Leaving St Petersburg on the 10th of September
1743, and passing south by Moscow, Tsaritsyn and Astrakhan, he embarked
on the Caspian on the 22nd of November, and arrived at Astrabad on the
18th of December. Here his goods were seized by Mohammed Hassan Beg, and
it was only after great privations that he reached the camp of Nadir
Shah, under whose protection he recovered most (85%) of his property.
His return journey was embarrassed by sickness (at Resht), by attacks
from pirates, and by six weeks' quarantine; and he only reappeared at St
Petersburg on the 1st of January 1745. He again left the Russian capital
on the 9th of July 1750 and travelled through Germany and Holland to
England (28th of October). The rest of his life was mostly spent in
London, where the narrative of his travels (published in 1753) soon made
him a man of note, and where he devoted himself to philanthropy and good
citizenship. In 1756 he founded the Marine Society, to keep up the
supply of British seamen; in 1758 he became a governor of the Foundling,
and established the Magdalen, hospital; in 1761 he procured a better
system of parochial birth-registration in London; and in 1762 he was
appointed a commissioner for victualling the navy (10th of July); this
office he held till October 1783. He died, unmarried, on the 5th of
September 1786. He was the first Londoner, it is said, to carry an
umbrella, and he lived to triumph over all the hackney coachmen who
tried to hoot and hustle him down. He attacked "vail-giving," or
tipping, with some temporary success; by his onslaught upon tea-drinking
he became involved in controversy with Johnson and Goldsmith. His last
efforts were on behalf of little chimney-sweeps. His advocacy of
solitary confinement for prisoners and opposition to Jewish
naturalization were more questionable instances of his activity in
social matters.

  Hanway left seventy-four printed works, mostly pamphlets; the only one
  of literary importance is the _Historical Account of British Trade
  over the Caspian Sea, with a Journal of Travels_, &c. (London, 1753).
  On his life, see also Pugh, _Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of
  Jonas Hanway_ (London, 1787); _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xxxii. p.
  342; vol. lvi. pt. ii. pp. 812-814, 1090, 1143-1144; vol. lxv. pt. ii.
  pp. 721-722, 834-835; _Notes and Queries_, 1st series, i. 436, ii. 25;
  3rd series, vii. 311; 4th series, viii. 416.



HANWELL, an urban district in the Brentford parliamentary division of
Middlesex, England, 10½ m. W. of St Paul's cathedral, London, on the
river Brent and the Great Western railway. Pop. (1891) 6139; (1901)
10,438. It ranks as an outer residential suburb of London. The Hanwell
lunatic asylum of the county of London has been greatly extended since
its erection 1831, and can accommodate over 2500 inmates. The extensive
cemeteries of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, and St George, Hanover Square,
London, are here. In the churchyard of St Mary's church was buried Jonas
Hanway (d. 1786), traveller, philanthropist, and by repute, introducer
of the umbrella into England. The Roman Catholic Convalescent Home for
women and children was erected in 1865. Before the Norman period the
manor of Hanwell belonged to Westminster Abbey.



HAPARANDA (Finnish _Haaparanta_, "Aspen Shore"), a town of Sweden in the
district (_län_) of Norbotten, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. Pop.
(1900) 1568. It lies about 1½ m. from the mouth of the Torne river, on
the frontier with Russia (Finland), opposite the town of Torneå which
has belonged to Russia since 1809. The towns are divided by a marshy
channel, formerly the bed of the Torne, but the main stream is now east
of the Russian town. Haparanda was founded in 1812, and at first bore
the name of Karljohannstad. It received its municipal constitution in
1842. Shipbuilding is prosecuted. Sea-going vessels load and unload at
Salmio, 7 m. from Haparanda. Since 1859 the town has been the seat of an
important meteorological station. Annual mean temperature, 32.4° Fahr.;
February 10.5°; July 58.8°. Rainfall, 16.5 in. annually. Up the Torne
valley (54 m.) is the hill Avasaxa, whither pilgrimages were formerly
made in order to stand in the light of the sun at midnight on St John's
day (June 24).



HAPLODRILI (so called by Lankester), often called Archiannelida
(Hatschek), the name provisionally given to a number of interesting
lowly-organized marine worms, whose affinities are very doubtful (see
CHAETOPODA.) _Polygordius_ and _Protodrilus_ live in sand, but while
the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles,
_Protodrilus_ can progress by the action of the bands of cilia
surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral
groove. _Saccocirrus_, which also lives in sand, and more closely
resembles the Polychaeta, has throughout the greater length of its body
on each segment a pair of small uniramous parapodia bearing a bunch of
simple setae. No other member of the group is known to have any trace of
setae or parapodia at any stage of development.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.

    A, _Polygordius neapolitanus_. (From Fraipont.)
    B, Transverse section of _Polygordius_. (From Fraipont.)
    C, Trochophore of _Polygordius_. and D, later stage of the same,
      showing the development of the trunk. (From Hatschek.)
    E, Dorsal view of _Dinophilus taeniatus_.
    F, Male apparatus of the same (From Harmer.)
    a,   Anus.
    ap,  Apical organ.
    c,   Coelom.
    c.o, Ciliated pit.
    c.t, Cuticle.
    d.v, Dorsal vessel.
    e,   Eye.
    ep,  Epidermis.
    g.f, Genital funnel.
    h,   "Head kidney," with second nephridium just below it.
    i,   Intestine.
    l.m, Longitudinal muscles.
    m,   Mouth.
    m.o, Muscular pharyngeal organ.
    m.p, Male pore.
    n,   Nephridium.
    o.m, Oblique muscles.
    ov,  Ovary.
    p,   Penis.
    pr,  Prototroch.
    pt,  Prostomial tentacle.
    sp,  Sperm-sac.
    spd, Sperm-duct.
    st,  Stomach.
    t,   Testes.
    tr,  Trunk segment.
    tt,  Telotroch.
    v.n, Ventral nerve cord.
    v.v, Ventral vessel.]

  These three genera have the following characters in common. The body
  is composed of a large number of segments; the prostomium bears a pair
  of tentacles; the nervous system consists of a brain and longitudinal
  ventral nerve cords closely connected with the epidermis (without
  distinct ganglia), widely separated in _Saccocirrus_, closely
  approximated in _Protodrilus_, fused together in _Polygordius_; the
  coelom is well developed, the septa are distinct, and the dorsal and
  ventral longitudinal mesenteries are complete; the nephridia are
  simple, and open into the coelom. Polygordius differs from
  _Protodrilus_ and _Saccocirrus_ in the absence of a distinct
  suboesophageal muscular pouch, and in the absence of a peculiar closed
  cavity in the head region, which is especially well developed in
  _Saccocirrus_, and probably represents the specialized coelom of the
  first segment. Moreover, in _Saccocirrus_ the genital organs, present
  in the majority of the trunk segments, have become much complicated
  (fig. 2). In the female there is in every fertile segment a pair of
  spermathecae opening at the nephridiopores. In the male there are a
  right and a left protrusible penis in every genital segment, into
  which opens the nephridium and a sperm-sac. The wide funnels of the
  nephridia of this region are possibly of coelomic origin.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Diagram of a transverse section of
  _Saccocirrus_ showing on the left side the organs in a genital segment
  of a male, and on the right side the organs in a genital segment of a
  female. (From Goodrich.)]

  _Dinophilus_ is a free-swimming form without tentacles, and with
  segmental bands of cilia (fig. 1). The parasitic _Histriodritus_
  (Histriobdella) feeds on the eggs of the lobster. It resembles
  _Dinophilus_ in the possession of a ventral pharyngeal pouch (which
  bears teeth in _Histriodrilus_ only), the small number of segments,
  and absence of distinct septa, the absence of a vascular system, the
  presence of distinct ganglia on the ventral nerve cords, and of small
  nephridia which do not appear to open internally. _Histriodrilus_
  resembles _Saccocirrus_ in the possession of two posterior adhesive
  processes, and to some extent in the structure of the complex genital
  organs, which, however, are restricted to a single segment. In
  _Dinophilus_, there is also only a single pair of genital ducts
  behind; and in the male there are sperm-sacs and a median penis. In
  some species of _Dinophilus_ there is pronounced sexual dimorphism
  (the male being small and without gut) as in the Rotifera. The
  resemblance of _Dinophilus_ to the Rotifera is, however, quite
  superficial, and the general structure of this genus with distinct
  traces of segmentation, especially in the embryo, points to its close
  affinity, if not to _Polygordius_ in particular, at all events to the
  Annelida.

  That _Polygordius_, _Protodrilus_ and _Saccocirrus_ are on the whole
  primitive forms, and related to each other, there can be little doubt,
  but their place amongst the Annelida is difficult to determine. The
  development of _Polygordius_ alone is well known, having been studied
  by Hatschek, Fraipont and others. The larva (fig. 1, C and D) is a
  typical but very specialized form of trochophore, provided with a
  branching nephridium bearing solenocytes. The trunk develops on the
  lower surface of the disk-like larva, which undergoes a more or less
  sudden metamorphosis into the young worm (fig. 1). There appears to be
  little either in the development or in the structure of the Haplodrili
  to warrant the view held by Hatschek and Fraipont that _Polygordius_
  and _Protodrilus_ are exceedingly primitive forms, ancestral to the
  whole group of seta-bearing Annelids (Oligochaeta, Polychaeta,
  Hirudinea and Echiuroidea). Whatever may be the conclusion as to the
  position of _Dinophilus_ and _Histriodrilus_, it seems only reasonable
  to suppose that _Polygordius_ and _Protodrilus_, so far from
  representing a stage in the phylogeny of the Annelida before setae
  were developed, have lost the setae, which are already in a reduced
  state in _Saccocirrus_.

  AUTHORITIES.--Hatschek, "Studien z. Entw. der Anneliden," _Arb. Zool.
  Inst. Wien_, vol. i., 1878; "Protodrilus," ibid. vol. iii. (1881);
  Fraipont, "Le Genre Polygordius," _Fauna u. Flora d. Golfes v.
  Neapel._, xiv., 1887; Weldon, "Dinophilus gigas," _Quart. Journ. Micr.
  Sci._ vol. xxvii., 1886; Harmer, "Dinophilus," _Journ. Mar. Biol._
  N.S. vol. i., 1889; Schimkewitsch, "Entwickl. des _Dinophilus," Zeit.
  f. wiss. Zool._ vol. lix., 1895; Korschelt, "Über Bau u. Entw. des
  _Dinophilus," Zeit. f. wiss. Zool._ vol. xxxvii., 1882; Foettinger,
  "Histriobdella," _Arch. Biol._ vol. v., 1884; Goodrich, "On
  Saccocirrus," _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._ vol. xliv., 1901.
       (E. S. G.)



HAPTARA (lit. _conclusion_), the Hebrew title given to the prophetic
lessons with which the ancient Synagogue service concluded. In the time
of Christ these prophetic lessons were already in vogue, and Christ
himself read the lessons and discoursed on them in the synagogues of
Galilee. In the modern synagogue these readings from the prophets are
regularly included in the ritual of Sabbaths, festivals and some other
occasions.

  A list of the current lessons is given in the _Jewish Encyclopedia_,
  vol. vi. pp. 136-137.     (I. A.)



HAPUR, a town of British India in the Meerut district of the United
Provinces, 18 m. S. of Meerut. Pop. (1901) 17,796. It is said to have
been founded in the 10th century, and was granted by Sindhia to his
French general Perron at the end of the 18th century. Several fine
groves surround the town, but the wall and ditch have fallen out of
repair, and only the names of the five gates remain. Considerable trade
is carried on in sugar, grain, cotton, timber, bamboos and brass
utensils.



HARA-KIRI (Japanese _hara_, belly, and _kiri_, cutting),
self-disembowelment, primarily the method of suicide permitted to
offenders of the noble class in feudal Japan, and later the national
form of honourable suicide. Hara-kiri has been often translated as "the
happy dispatch" in confusion with a native euphemism for the act. More
usually the Japanese themselves speak of hara-kiri by its Chinese
synonym, _Seppuku_. Hara-kiri is not an aboriginal Japanese custom. It
was a growth of medieval militarism, the act probably at first being
prompted by the desire of the noble to escape the humiliation of falling
into an enemy's hands. By the end of the 14th century the custom had
become a much valued privilege, being formally established as such under
the Ashi-Kaga dynasty. Hara-kiri was of two kinds, obligatory and
voluntary. The first is the more ancient. An official or noble, who had
broken the law or been disloyal, received a message from the emperor,
couched always in sympathetic and gracious tones, courteously intimating
that he must die. The mikado usually sent a jewelled dagger with which
the deed might be done. The suicide had so many days allotted to him by
immemorial custom in which to make dignified preparations for the
ceremony, which was attended by the utmost formality. In his own
baronial hall or in a temple a daïs 3 or 4 in. from the ground was
constructed. Upon this was laid a rug of red felt. The suicide, clothed
in his ceremonial dress as an hereditary noble, and accompanied by his
second or "Kaishaku," took his place on the mat, the officials and his
friends ranging themselves in a semicircle round the daïs. After a
minute's prayer the weapon was handed to him with many obeisances by the
mikado's representative, and he then made a public confession of his
fault. He then stripped to the waist. Every movement in the grim
ceremony was governed by precedent, and he had to tuck his wide sleeves
under his knees to prevent himself falling backwards, for a Japanese
noble must die falling forward. A moment later he plunged the dagger
into his stomach below the waist on the left side, drew it across to the
right and, turning it, gave a slight cut upward. At the same moment the
Kaishaku who crouched at his friend's side, leaping up, brought his
sword down on the outstretched neck. At the conclusion of the ceremony
the bloodstained dagger was taken to the mikado as a proof of the
consummation of the heroic act. The performance of hara-kiri carried
with it certain privileges. If it was by order of the mikado half only
of a traitor's property was forfeited to the state. If the gnawings of
conscience drove the disloyal noble to voluntary suicide, his dishonour
was wiped out, and his family inherited all his fortune.

Voluntary hara-kiri was the refuge of men rendered desperate by private
misfortunes, or was committed from loyalty to a dead superior, or as a
protest against what was deemed a false national policy. This voluntary
suicide still survives, a characteristic case being that of Lieutenant
Takeyoshi who in 1891 gave himself the "belly-cut" in front of the
graves of his ancestors at Tokyo as a protest against what he considered
the criminal lethargy of the government in not taking precautions
against possible Russian encroachments to the north of Japan. In the
Russo-Japanese War, when faced by defeat at Vladivostock, the officer in
command of the troops on the transport "Kinshu Maru" committed
hara-kiri. Hara-kiri has not been uncommon among women, but in their
case the mode is by cutting the throat. The popularity of this
self-immolation is testified to by the fact that for centuries no fewer
than 1500 hara-kiris are said to have taken place annually, at least
half being entirely voluntary. Stories of amazing heroism are told in
connexion with the performance of the act. One noble, barely out of his
teens, not content with giving himself the customary cuts, slashed
himself thrice horizontally and twice vertically. Then he stabbed
himself in the throat until the dirk protruded on the other side with
the sharp edge to the front, and with a supreme effort drove the knife
forward with both hands through his neck. Obligatory hara-kiri was
obsolete in the middle of the 19th century, and was actually abolished
in 1868.

  See A. B. Mitford, _Tales of Old Japan_; Basil Hall Chamberlain,
  _Things Japanese_ (1898).



HARALD, the name of four kings of Norway.

HARALD I. (850-933), surnamed Haarfager (of the beautiful hair), first
king over Norway, succeeded on the death or his father Halfdan the Black
in A.D. 860 to the sovereignty of several small and somewhat scattered
kingdoms, which had come into his father's hands through conquest and
inheritance and lay chiefly in south-east Norway (see NORWAY). The tale
goes that the scorn of the daughter of a neighbouring king induced
Harald to take a vow not to cut nor comb his hair until he was sole king
of Norway, and that ten years later he was justified in trimming it;
whereupon he exchanged the epithet "Shockhead" for the one by which he
is usually known. In 866 he made the first of a series of conquests over
the many petty kingdoms which then composed Norway; and in 872, after a
great victory at Hafrsfjord near Stavanger, he found himself king over
the whole country. His realm was, however, threatened by dangers from
without, as large numbers of his opponents had taken refuge, not only in
Iceland, then recently discovered, but also in the Orkneys, Shetlands,
Hebrides and Faeroes, and in Scotland itself; and from these winter
quarters sallied forth to harry Norway as well as the rest of northern
Europe. Their numbers were increased by malcontents from Norway, who
resented Harald's claim of rights of taxation over lands which the
possessors appear to have previously held in absolute ownership. At last
Harald was forced to make an expedition to the west to clear the islands
and Scottish mainland of Vikings. Numbers of them fled to Iceland, which
grew into an independent commonwealth, while the Scottish isles fell
under Norwegian rule. The latter part of Harald's reign was disturbed by
the strife of his many sons. He gave them all the royal title and
assigned lands to them which they were to govern as his representatives;
but this arrangement did not put an end to the discord, which continued
into the next reign. When he grew old he handed over the supreme power
to his favourite son Erik "Bloody Axe," whom he intended to be his
successor. Harald died in 933, in his eighty-fourth year.

HARALD II., surnamed Graafeld, a grandson of Harald I., became, with his
brothers, ruler of the western part of Norway in 961; he was murdered in
Denmark in 969.

HARALD III. (1015-1066), king of Norway, surnamed Haardraade, which
might be translated "ruthless," was the son of King Sigurd and
half-brother of King Olaf the Saint. At the age of fifteen he was
obliged to flee from Norway, having taken part in the battle of
Stiklestad (1030), at which King Olaf met his death. He took refuge for
a short time with Prince Yaroslav of Novgorod (a kingdom founded by
Scandinavians), and thence went to Constantinople, where he took service
under the empress Zoe, whose Varangian guard he led to frequent victory
in Italy, Sicily and North Africa, also penetrating to Jerusalem. In the
year 1042 he left Constantinople, the story says because he was refused
the hand of a princess, and on his way back to his own country he
married Ellisif or Elizabeth, daughter of Yaroslav of Novgorod. In
Sweden he allied himself with the defeated Sven of Denmark against his
nephew Magnus, now king of Norway, but soon broke faith with Sven and
accepted an offer from Magnus of half his kingdom. In return for this
gift Harald is said to have shared with Magnus the enormous treasure
which he had amassed in the East. The death of Magnus in 1047 put an end
to the growing jealousies between the two kings, and Harald turned all
his attention to the task of subjugating Denmark, which he ravaged year
after year; but he met with such stubborn resistance from Sven that in
1064 he gave up the attempt and made peace. Two years afterwards,
possibly instigated by the banished Earl Tostig of Northumbria, he
attempted the conquest of England, to the sovereignty of which his
predecessor had advanced a claim as successor of Harthacnut. In
September 1066 he landed in Yorkshire with a large army, reinforced from
Scotland, Ireland and the Orkneys; took Scarborough by casting flaming
brands into the town from the high ground above it; defeated the
Northumbrian forces at Fulford; and entered York on the 24th of
September. But the following day the English Harold arrived from the
south, and the end of the long day's fight at Stamford Bridge saw the
rout of the Norwegian forces after the fall of their king (25th of
September 1066). He was only fifty years old, but he was the first of
the six kings who had ruled Norway since the death of Harald Haarfager
to reach that age. As a king he was unpopular on account of his
harshness and want of good faith, but his many victories in the face of
great odds prove him to have been a remarkable general, of never-failing
resourcefulness and indomitable courage.

HARALD IV. (d. 1136), king of Norway, surnamed Gylle (probably from
_Gylle Krist_, i.e. servant of Christ), was born in Ireland about 1103.
About 1127 he went to Norway and declared he was a son of King Magnus
III. (Barefoot), who had visited Ireland just before his death in 1103,
and consequently a half-brother of the reigning king, Sigurd. He appears
to have submitted successfully to the ordeal of fire, and the alleged
relationship was acknowledged by Sigurd on condition that Harald did not
claim any share in the government of the kingdom during his lifetime or
that of his son Magnus. Living on friendly terms with the king, Harald
kept this agreement until Sigurd's death in 1130. Then war broke out
between himself and Magnus, and after several battles the latter was
captured in 1134, his eyes were put out, and he was thrown into prison.
Harald now ruled the country until 1136, when he was murdered by Sigurd
Slembi-Diakn, another bastard son of Magnus Barefoot. Four of Harald's
sons, Sigurd, Ingi, Eysteinn and Magnus, were subsequently kings of
Norway.



HARBIN, or KHARBIN, town of Manchuria, on the right bank of the river
Sungari. Pop. about 20,000. Till 1896 there was only a small village
here, but in that year the town was founded in connexion with surveys
for the Chinese Eastern railway company, at a point which subsequently
became the junction of the main line of the Manchurian railway with the
branch line southward to Port Arthur. Occupying such a position, Harbin
became an important Russian military centre during the Russo-Japanese
War. The portion of the town founded in 1896 is called Old Harbin, but
the centre has shifted to New Harbin, where the chief public buildings
and offices of the railway administration are situated. The river-port
forms a third division of the town, industrially the most important;
here are railway workshops, factories and mercantile establishments.
Trade is chiefly in the hands of the Chinese.



HARBINGER, originally one who provides a shelter or lodging for an army.
The word is derived from the M. E. and O. Fr. _herbergere_, through the
Late Lat. _heribergator_, formed from the O. H. Ger. _heri_, mod. Ger.
_Heer_, an army, and _bergen_, shelter or defence, cf. "harbour." The
meaning was soon enlarged to include any place where travellers could be
lodged or entertained, and also by transference the person who provided
lodgings, and so one who goes on before a party to secure suitable
lodgings in advance. A herald sent forward to announce the coming of a
king. A Knight Harbinger was an officer in the royal household till
1846. In these senses the word is now obsolete. It is used chiefly in
poetry and literature for one who announces the immediate approach of
something, a forerunner. This is illustrated in the "harbinger of
spring," a name given to a small plant belonging to the Umbelliferae,
which has a tuberous root, and small white flowers; it is found in the
central states of North America, and blossoms in March.



HARBOUR (from M. E. _hereberge_, _here_, an army; cf. Ger. _Heer_ and
-_beorg_, protection or shelter. Other early forms in English were
_herberwe_ and _harborow_, as seen in various place names, such as
Market Harborough. The French _auberge_, an inn, derived through
_heberger_, is thus the same word), a place of refuge or shelter. It is
thus used for an asylum for criminals, and particularly for a place of
shelter for ships.

Sheltered sites along exposed sea-coasts are essential for purposes of
trade, and very valuable as refuges for vessels from storms. In a few
places, natural shelter is found in combination with ample depth, as in
the Bay of Rio de Janeiro, New York Harbour (protected by Long Island),
Portsmouth Harbour and Southampton Water (sheltered by the Isle of
Wight), and the land-locked creeks of Milford Haven and Kiel Harbour. At
various places there are large enclosed areas which have openings into
the sea; but these lagoons for the most part are very shallow except in
the main channels and at their outlets. Access to them is generally
obstructed by a bar as at the lagoon harbour of Venice (fig. 1), and
similar harbours, like those of Poole and Wexford; and such harbours
usually require works to prevent their deterioration, and to increase
the depth near their outlet. Generally, however, harbours are formed
where shelter is provided to a certain extent by a bay, creek or
projecting headland, but requires to be rendered complete by one or more
breakwaters (see BREAKWATER), or where the approach to a river, a
ship-canal or a seaport, needs protection. A refuge harbour is
occasionally constructed where a long length of stormy coast, near the
ordinary track of vessels, is entirely devoid of natural shelter. Naval
harbours are required by maritime powers as stations for their fleets,
and dockyards for construction and repairs, and also in some cases as
places of shelter from the night attacks of torpedoes. Commercial
harbours have to be provided for the formation of ports within their
shelter on important trade routes, or for the protection of the
approaches from the sea of ports near the sea-coast, or maritime
waterways running inland, in some cases at points on the coast devoid of
all natural shelter. A greater latitude in the selection of suitable
sites is, indeed, possible for refuge and naval harbours than for
commercial harbours; but these three classes of harbours are very
similar in their general outline and the works protecting them, only
differing in size and internal arrangements according to the purpose for
which they have been constructed, the chief differences being due to the
local conditions.

Harbours may be divided into three distinct groups, namely, lagoon
harbours, jetty harbours and sea-coast harbours, protected by
breakwaters, including refuge, naval and commercial harbours.

  _Lagoon Harbours._--A lagoon, consisting of a sort of large shallow
  lake separated from the sea by a narrow belt of coast, formed of
  deposit from a deltaic river or of sand dunes heaped up by on-shore
  winds along a sandy shore, possesses good natural shelter; and, owing
  to the large expanse which is filled and emptied at each tide, even
  when the tidal range is quite small, together with the discharge from
  any rivers flowing into the lagoon, one or more fairly deep outlets
  are maintained through the fringe of coast, which afford navigable
  access to the lagoon; whilst channels formed inside by the currents
  lead to ports on its banks. Lagoons, however, are liable to be
  gradually silted up, if rivers flowing into them bring down
  considerable quantities of alluvium, which is readily deposited in
  their fairly still waters; and their outlet channels are in danger of
  becoming shallower, by the sea in storms forming additional outlets by
  breaking through the narrow barrier separating them from the sea.
  Moreover, the approach from the sea to these channels through the
  fringe of coast is generally impeded by a bar, owing to the scour of
  the issuing current through these outlet channels becoming gradually
  too enfeebled, on entering the open sea, to overcome the heaping-up
  action of the waves along the shore, which tends to form a continuous
  beach across these openings. Rivers, accordingly, whose discharge is
  very valuable in maintaining a lagoon if their waters are free from
  sediment, must, if possible, be diverted from a lagoon if they bring
  down large amounts of silt; whilst the narrow belt of land in front of
  the lagoon must be protected from erosion by the waves, on its sea
  face, by groynes or revetments. The depth over the bar in front of an
  outlet can be improved by concentrating the current through the outlet
  by jetties on each side, and prolonging the jetties, and consequently
  the scour, out to the bar so as to lower it, and by supplementing the
  scouring action, if necessary, by dredging.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Venetian Lagoon Harbour.]

  _Jetty Harbours._--Several small ports were formed on the sea-coast
  long ago at points where flat marshy ground lying below the level of
  high-water, and shut off from the sandy beach by dikes or sand dunes,
  was connected with the sea by a small creek or river. Such ports
  presented in their original condition a slight resemblance to lagoons
  on a very small scale. Several examples are to be found on the sandy
  shores of the English Channel and North Sea, such as Dieppe, Boulogne,
  Calais, Dunkirk, Nieuport and Ostend, where the influx and efflux of
  the water from these enclosed tide-covered areas, through a narrow
  opening, sufficed to maintain a shallow channel to the sea across the
  beach, deep enough near high-water for vessels of small draught. When
  the increase in draught necessitated the provision of an improved
  channel, the scour of the issuing current was concentrated and
  prolonged by erecting parallel jetties across the beach, raised solid
  to a little above low water of neap tides, with open timber-work above
  to indicate the channel and guide the vessels. Even this low
  obstruction, however, to the littoral drift of sand caused an advance
  of the low water line as the jetties were carried out, so that further
  extensions of the jetties had eventually to be abandoned, as occurred
  at Dunkirk (see DOCK). Moreover, reclamation of the low-lying areas
  was gradually effected, thus reducing the tidal scour; and sluicing
  basins were excavated in part of the low ground, into which the tide
  flowed through the entrance channel, and the water being shut in at
  high tide by gates at the outlet of the basin, was released at low
  water, producing a rapid current through the channel as a compensation
  for the loss of the former natural scour. The current, however, from
  the sluicing basin gradually lost its velocity in passing down the
  channel, and besides, being most effective near the outlet of the
  basin, could only scour the channel down to a moderate depth below low
  water, on account of the increase in the volume of still water in the
  channel at low tide as its deepening progressed. Lastly, about 1880,
  improvements in suction dredgers (see DREDGE and DREDGING) led to the
  adoption of sand-pump dredging in the outer part of the channel, and
  across the foreshore in front to deep water; and at Dunkirk, docks
  were formed on the site of the sluicing basin; whilst at Calais
  sluicing was abandoned in favour of dredging. Ostend is the only jetty
  harbour in which a large sluicing basin has been recently constructed,
  but it can only provide for the maintenance of deep-water quays in its
  vicinity; and dredging is relied upon to an increasing extent, both
  for the maintenance and further deepening of the outer portion of the
  approach channel, and for maintaining the direct channel dredged to
  deep water across the Stroombank extending in front of Ostend (fig.
  2).

  Similar methods of improving the entrance channel to ports possessing
  an extensive backwater have been adopted on a large scale in the
  United States. For instance at Charleston, converging jetties, about
  2¾ m. long, have been extended across the bar to concentrate the scour
  due to a small tidal range expanding over the enclosed backwater, 15
  sq. m. in extent, and to protect the channel from littoral drift; but
  these jetties have caused an advance of the foreshore, and a
  progression seawards of the bar, necessitating dredging beyond the
  ends of the jetties to maintain the requisite depth.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Ostend Harbour and Jetty Channel.]

  Parallel jetties, moreover, across the beach, combined with extensive
  sand-pump dredging, have been employed with success at some of the
  ports situated at the outlet of rivers, enclosed bays, or lagoons, on
  the sandy shores of south-east Africa, for improving the access to
  them across encumbering shoals, where the littoral drift is too great
  to allow of the projection of breakwaters from the shore to shelter an
  approach channel.

  _Harbours Protected by Breakwaters._--The design for a harbour on the
  sea-coast must depend on the configuration of the adjacent coast-line,
  the extent and direction of the exposure, the amount of sheltered area
  required and the depth obtainable, the prospect of the accumulation of
  drift or the occurrence of scour from the proposed works, and the best
  position for an entrance in respect of shelter and depth of approach.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Genoa Harbour and Extensions.]

  _Completion of Shelter of Harbours in Bays._--In the case of a deep,
  fairly land-locked bay, a detached breakwater across the outlet
  completes the necessary shelter, leaving an entrance between each
  extremity and the shore, provided there is deep enough water near the
  shore, as effected at Plymouth harbour, and also across the wider but
  shallower bay forming Cherbourg harbour. A breakwater may instead be
  extended across the outlet from each shore, leaving a single central
  entrance between the ends of the breakwaters; and if one breakwater
  placed somewhat farther out is made to overlap an inner one, a more
  sheltered entrance is obtained. This arrangement has been adopted at
  the existing Genoa harbour within the bay (fig. 3), and for the
  harbour at the mouth of the Nervion (see RIVER ENGINEERING). The
  adoption of a bay with deep water for a harbour does not merely reduce
  the shelter to be provided artificially, but it also secures a site
  not exposed to silting up, and where the sheltering works do not
  interfere with any littoral drift along the open coast. A third method
  of sheltering a deep bay is that adopted for forming a refuge harbour
  at Peterhead (fig. 4), where a single breakwater is extended out from
  one shore for 3250 ft. across the outlet of the bay, leaving a single
  entrance between its extremity and the opposite shore and enclosing an
  area of about 250 acres at low tide, half of which has a depth of over
  5 fathoms.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Peterhead Harbour of Refuge.]

  _Harbours possessing partial Natural Shelter._--The most common form
  of harbour is that in which one or more breakwaters supplement a
  certain amount of natural shelter. Sometimes, where the exposure is
  from one direction only, approximately parallel with the coast-line at
  the site, and there is more or less shelter from a projecting headland
  or a curve of the coast in the opposite direction, a single breakwater
  extending out at right angles to the shore, with a slight curve or
  bend inwards near its outer end, suffices to afford the necessary
  shelter. As examples of this form of harbour construction may be
  mentioned Newhaven breakwater, protecting the approach to the port
  from the west, and somewhat sheltered from the moderate easterly
  storms by Beachy Head, and Table Bay breakwater, which shelters the
  harbour from the north-east, and is somewhat protected on the opposite
  side by the wide sweep of the coast-line known as Table Bay.
  Generally, however, some partial embayment, or abrupt projection from
  the coast, is utilized as providing shelter from one quarter, which is
  completed by breakwaters enclosing the site, of which Dover and
  Colombo (fig. 5) harbours furnish typical and somewhat similar
  examples.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Colombo Harbour.]

  _Harbours formed on quite Open Seacoasts._--Occasionally harbours have
  to be constructed for some special purpose where no natural shelter
  exists, and where on an open, sandy shore considerable littoral drift
  may occur. Breakwaters, carried out from the shore at some distance
  apart, and converging to a central entrance of suitable width, provide
  the requisite shelter, as for instance the harbour constructed to form
  a sheltered approach to the river Wear and the Sunderland docks (fig.
  6). If there is little littoral drift from the most exposed quarter,
  the amount of sand brought in during storms, which is smaller in
  proportion to the depth into which the entrance is carried, can be
  readily removed by dredging; whilst the scour across the projecting
  ends of the breakwaters tends to keep the outlet free from deposit.
  Where there is littoral drift in both directions on an open, sandy
  coast, due to winds blowing alternately from opposite quarters, sand
  accumulates in the sheltered angles outside the harbour between each
  converging breakwater and the shore. This has happened at Ymuiden
  harbour at the entrance to the Amsterdam ship-canal on the North Sea,
  but there the advance of the shore appears to have reached its limit
  only a short distance out from the old shore-line on each side; and
  the only evidence of drift consists in the advance seawards of the
  lines of soundings alongside, and in the considerable amount of sand
  which enters the harbour and has to be removed by dredging. The worst
  results occur where the littoral drift is almost wholly in one
  direction, so that the projection of a solid breakwater out from the
  shore causes a very large accretion on the side facing the exposed
  quarter; whilst owing to the arrest of the travel of sand, erosion of
  the beach occurs beyond the second breakwater enclosing the harbour on
  its comparatively sheltered side. These effects have been produced at
  Port Said harbour at the entrance to the Suez Canal from the
  Mediterranean, formed by two converging breakwaters, where, owing to
  the prevalent north-westerly winds, the drift is from west to east,
  and is augmented by the alluvium issuing from the Nile. Accordingly,
  the shore has advanced considerably against the outer face of the
  western breakwater; and erosion of the beach has occurred at the shore
  end of the eastern breakwater, cutting it off from the land. The
  advance of the shore-line, however, has been much slower during recent
  years; and though the progress seawards of the lines of soundings
  close to and in front of the harbour continues, the advance is checked
  by the sand and silt coming from the west passing through some
  apertures purposely left in the western breakwater, and falling into
  the approach channel, from which it is readily dredged and taken away.
  Madras harbour, begun in 1875, consists of two breakwaters, 3000 ft.
  apart, carried straight out to sea at right angles to the shore for
  3000 ft., and completed by two return arms inclined slightly
  seawards, enclosing an area of 220 acres and leaving a central
  entrance, 550 ft. wide, facing the Indian Ocean in a depth of about 8
  fathoms. The great drift, however, of sand along the coast from south
  to north soon produced an advance of the shore against the outside of
  the south breakwater, and erosion beyond the north breakwater; and the
  progression of the foreshore has extended so far seawards as to
  produce shoaling at the entrance. Accordingly, the closing of the
  entrance, and the formation of a new entrance through the outer part
  of the main north breakwater, facing north and sheltered by an arm
  starting from the angle of the northern return arm and running north
  parallel to the shore, round the end of which vessels would turn to
  enter, have been recommended, to provide a deep entrance beyond the
  influence of the advancing foreshore.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--Sunderland Harbour.]

  Proposals have been made from time to time to evade this advance of
  the foreshore against a solid obstacle, by extending an open viaduct
  across the zone of littoral drift, and forming a closed harbour, or a
  sheltering breakwater against which vessels can lie, beyond the
  influence of accretion. This principle was carried out on a large
  scale at the port of call and sheltering breakwater constructed in
  front of the entrance to the Bruges ship-canal, at Zeebrugge on the
  sandy North Sea coast, where a solid breakwater, provided with a wide
  quay furnished with sidings and sheds, and curving round so as to
  overlap thoroughly the entrance to the canal and shelter a certain
  water-area, is approached by an open metal viaduct extending out 1007
  ft. from low water into a depth of 20 ft. (fig. 7). It is hoped that
  by thus avoiding interference with the littoral drift close to the
  shore, coming mainly from the west, the accumulation of silt to the
  west of the harbour, and also in the harbour itself, will be
  prevented; and though it appears probable that some accretion will
  occur within the area sheltered by the breakwater, it will to some
  extent be disturbed by the wash of the steamers approaching and
  leaving the quays, and can readily be removed under shelter by
  dredging.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--Zeebrugge Harbour.]

  _Entrances to Harbours._--Though captains of vessels always wish for
  wide entrances to harbours as affording greater facility of safe
  access, it is important to keep the width as narrow as practicable,
  consistent with easy access, to exclude waves and swell as much as
  possible and secure tranquillity inside. At Madras, the width of 550
  ft. proved excessive for the great exposure of the entrance, and
  moderate size of the harbour, which does not allow of the adequate
  expansion of the entering swell. Where an adequately easy and safe
  approach can be secured, it is advantageous to make the entrance face
  a somewhat sheltered quarter by the overlapping of the end of one of
  the breakwaters, as accomplished at Bilbao and Genoa harbours (fig.
  3), and at the southern entrance to Dover harbour. Occasionally, owing
  to the comparative shelter afforded by a bend in the adjacent
  coast-line, a very wide entrance can be left between a breakwater and
  the shore; typical examples are furnished by the former open northern
  entrance to Portland harbour, now closed against torpedoes, and the
  wide entrances at Holyhead and Zeebrugge (fig. 7). With a large
  harbour and the adoption of a detached breakwater, it is possible to
  gain the advantage of two entrances facing different quarters, as
  effected at Dover and Colombo, which enables vessels to select their
  entrance according to the state of the wind and weather; where there
  is a large tidal rise they reduce the current through the entrances,
  and they may, under favourable conditions, create a circulation of the
  water in the harbour, tending to check the deposit of silt.
       (L. F. V.-*H.)



HARBURG, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
on the left bank of the southern arm of the Elbe, 6 m. by rail S. of
Hamburg. Pop. (1885), 26,320; (1905)--the area of the town having been
increased since 1895--55,676. It is pleasantly situated at the foot of a
lofty range of hills, which here dip down to the river, at the junction
of the main lines of railway from Bremen and Hanover to Hamburg, which
are carried to the latter city over two grand bridges crossing the
southern and the northern arms of the Elbe. It possesses a Roman
Catholic and two Protestant churches, a palace, which from 1524 to 1642
was the residence of the Harburg line of the house of Brunswick, a
high-grade modern school, a commercial school and a theatre. The leading
industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the
manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute.
Machines are manufactured here; beer is brewed, and shipbuilding is
carried on. The port is accessible to vessels drawing 18 ft. of water,
and, despite its proximity to Hamburg, its trade has of late years shown
a remarkable development. It is the chief mart in the empire for resin
and palm-oil. The Prussian government proposes establishing here a free
port, on the lines of the _Freihafen_ in Hamburg.

Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received
municipal rights in 1297. In 1376 it was united to the principality of
Lüneburg, along with which it fell in 1705 to Hanover, and in 1806 to
Prussia. In 1813 and 1814 it suffered considerably from the French, who
then held Hamburg, and who built a bridge between the two towns, which
remained standing till 1816.

  See Ludewig, _Geschichte des Schlosses und der Stadt Harburg_
  (Harburg, 1845); and Hoffmeyer, _Harburg und die nächste Umgegend_
  (1885).



HARCOURT, a village in Normandy, now a commune in the department of
Eure, arrondissement of Bernay and canton of Brionne, which gives its
name to a noble family distinguished in French history, a branch of
which was early established in England. Of the lords of Harcourt, whose
genealogy can be traced back to the 11th century, the first to
distinguish himself was Jean II. (d. 1302) who was marshal and admiral
of France. Godefroi d'Harcourt, seigneur of Saint Sauveur le Vicomte,
surnamed "Le boiteux" (the lame), was a marshal in the English army and
was killed near Coutances in 1356. The fief of Harcourt was raised to
the rank of a countship by Philip of Valois, in favour of Jean IV., who
was killed at the battle of Creçy (1346). His son, Jean V. (d. 1355)
married Blanche, heiress of Jean II., count of Aumale, and the countship
of Harcourt passed with that of Aumale until, in 1424, Jean VIII., count
of Aumale and Mortain and lieutenant-general of Normandy, was killed at
the battle of Verneuil, and with him the elder branch became extinct in
the male line. The heiress, Marie, by her marriage with Anthony of
Lorraine, count of Vaudémont, brought the countship of Harcourt into the
house of Lorraine. The title of count of Harcourt was borne by several
princes of this house. The most famous instance was Henry of Lorraine,
count of Harcourt, Brionne, and Armagnac, and nicknamed "Cadet la perle"
(1601-1666). He distinguished himself in several campaigns against
Spain, and later played an active part in the civil wars of the Fronde.
He took the side of the princes, and fought against the government in
Alsace; but was defeated by Marshal de la Ferté, and made his submission
in 1654.

The most distinguished among the younger branches of the family are
those of Montgomery and of Beuvron. To the former belonged Jean
d'Harcourt, bishop of Amiens and Tournai, archbishop of Narbonne and
patriarch of Antioch, who died in 1452; and Guillaume d'Harcourt, count
of Tancarville, and viscount of Melun, who was head of the
administration of the woods and forests in the royal domain (_souverain
maître et réformateur des eaux et forêts de France_) and died in 1487.

From the branch of the marquises of Beuvron sprang Henri d'Harcourt,
marshal of France, and ambassador at the Spanish court, who was made
duke of Harcourt (1700) and a peer of France (1709); also François
Eugène Gabriel, count, and afterwards duke, of Harcourt, who was
ambassador first in Spain, and later at Rome, and died in 1865. This
branch of the family is still in existence.

  See G. A. de la Rogne, _Histoire généalogique de la maison d'Harcourt_
  (4 vols., Paris, 1662); P. Anselme, _Histoire généalogique de la
  maison de France_, v. 114, &c.; and Dom le Noir, _Preuves
  généalogiques et historiques de la maison de Harcourt_ (Paris, 1907).
       (M. P.*)



HARCOURT, SIMON HARCOURT, 1ST VISCOUNT (c. 1661-1727), lord chancellor
of England, only son of Sir Philip Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt,
Oxfordshire, by his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir William Waller,
was born about 1661 at Stanton Harcourt, and was educated at a school at
Shilton, Oxfordshire, and at Pembroke College, Oxford. He was called to
the bar in 1683, and soon afterwards was appointed recorder of Abingdon,
which borough he represented as a Tory in parliament from 1690 to 1705.
In 1701 he was nominated by the Commons to conduct the impeachment of
Lord Somers; and in 1702 he became solicitor-general and was knighted by
Queen Anne. He was elected member for Bossiney in 1705, and as
commissioner for arranging the union with Scotland was largely
instrumental in promoting that measure. Harcourt was appointed
attorney-general in 1707, but resigned office in the following year when
his friend Robert Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford, was dismissed. He
defended Sacheverell at the bar of the House of Lords in 1710, being
then without a seat in parliament; but in the same year was returned for
Cardigan, and in September again became attorney-general. In October he
was appointed lord keeper of the great seal, and in virtue of this
office he presided in the House of Lords for some months without a
peerage, until, on the 3rd of September 1711, he was created Baron
Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt; but it was not till April 1713 that he
received the appointment of lord chancellor. In 1710 he had purchased
the Nuneham-Courtney estate in Oxfordshire, but his usual place of
residence continued to be at Cokethorpe near Stanton Harcourt, where he
received a visit in state from Queen Anne. In the negotiations preceding
the peace of Utrecht, Harcourt took an important part. There is no
sufficient evidence for the allegations of the Whigs that Harcourt
entered into treasonable relations with the Pretender. On the accession
of George I. he was deprived of office and retired to Cokethorpe, where
he enjoyed the society of men of letters, Swift, Pope, Prior and other
famous writers being among his frequent guests. With Swift, however, he
had occasional quarrels, during one of which the great satirist bestowed
on him the sobriquet of "Trimming Harcourt." He exerted himself to
defeat the impeachment of Lord Oxford in 1717, and in 1723 he was active
in obtaining a pardon for another old political friend, Lord
Bolingbroke. In 1721 Harcourt was created a viscount and returned to the
privy councils; and on several occasions during the king's absences from
England he was on the council of regency. He died in London on the 23rd
of July 1727. Harcourt was not a great lawyer, but he enjoyed the
reputation of being a brilliant orator; Speaker Onslow going so far as
to say that Harcourt "had the greatest skill and power of speech of any
man I ever knew in a public assembly." He was a member of the famous
Saturday Club, frequented by the chief _literati_ and wits of the
period, with several of whom he corresponded. Some letters to him from
Pope are preserved in the _Harcourt Papers_. His portrait by Kneller is
at Nuneham.

Harcourt married, first, Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Clark, his father's
chaplain, by whom he had five children; secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of
Richard Spencer; and thirdly, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Vernon.
He left issue by his first wife only. His son, Simon (1684-1720),
married Elizabeth, sister of Sir John Evelyn of Wotton, by whom he had
one son and four daughters, one of whom married George Venables Vernon,
afterwards Lord Vernon (see HARCOURT, SIR WILLIAM--footnote). Simon
Harcourt predeceased his father, the lord chancellor, in 1720, leaving a
son SIMON HARCOURT (1714-1777), 1st Earl Harcourt, who succeeded his
grandfather in the title of viscount in 1727. He was educated at
Westminster school. In 1745, having raised a regiment, he received a
commission as a colonel in the army; and in 1749 he was created Earl
Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt. He was appointed governor to the prince of
Wales, afterwards George III., in 1751; and after the accession of the
latter to the throne he was appointed, in 1761, special ambassador to
Mecklenburg-Strelitz to negotiate a marriage between King George and the
princess Charlotte, whom he conducted to England. After holding a number
of appointments at court and in the diplomatic service, he was promoted
to the rank of general in 1772; and in October of the same year he
succeeded Lord Townsend as lord lieutenant of Ireland, an office which
he held till 1777. His proposal to impose a tax of 10% on the rents of
absentee landlords had to be abandoned owing to opposition in England;
but he succeeded in conciliating the leaders of Opposition in Ireland,
and he persuaded Henry Flood to accept office in the government.
Resigning in January 1777, he retired to Nuneham, where he died in the
following September. He married, in 1735, Rebecca, daughter and heiress
of Charles Samborne Le Bas, of Pipewell Abbey, Northamptonshire, by whom
he had two daughters and two sons, George Simon and William, who
succeeded him as 2nd and 3rd earl respectively.

  See Lord Campbell, _Lives of the Lord Chancellors_, vol. v. (London,
  1846); Edward Foss, _The Judges of England_, vol. viii. (London,
  1848); Gilbert Burnet, _Hist. of his own Time_ (with notes by earls of
  Dartmouth and Hardwicke, &c., Oxford, 1833); Earl Stanhope, _Hist. of
  England, comprising the reign of Queen Anne until the Peace of
  Utrecht_ (London, 1870). In addition to the above-mentioned
  authorities many particulars concerning the 1st Viscount Harcourt, and
  also of his grandson, the 1st earl, will be found in the _Harcourt
  Papers_. For the earl, see also Horace Walpole, _Memoirs of the Reign
  of George II._ (3 vols., 2nd ed., London, 1847), _Memoirs of the Reign
  of George III._ (4 vols., London, 1845, 1894); also, for his
  vice-royalty of Ireland, see Henry Grattan, _Memoirs of the Life and
  Times of the Right Hon. H. Grattan_ (5 vols., London, 1839-1846);
  Francis Hardy, _Memoirs of J. Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1812); and for his genealogy, see Sir John Bernard Burke,
  _Genealogical History of Dormant and Extinct Peerages_ (London, 1883).
       (R. J. M.)



HARCOURT, SIR WILLIAM GEORGE GRANVILLE VENABLES VERNON (1827-1904).
English statesman, second son of the Rev. Canon William Vernon Harcourt
(q.v.), of Nuneham Park, Oxford, was born on the 14th of October 1827.
Canon Harcourt was the fourth son and eventually heir of Edward Harcourt
(1757-1847), archbishop of York, who was the son of the 1st Lord Vernon
(d. 1780), and who took the name of Harcourt alone instead of Vernon on
succeeding to the property of his cousin, the last Earl Harcourt, in
1831.[1] The subject of this biography was therefore born a Vernon, and
by his connexion with the old families of Vernon and Harcourt was
related to many of the great English houses, a fact which gave him no
little pride. Indeed, in later life his descent from the Plantagenets[2]
was a subject of some banter on the part of his political opponents. He
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating with first-class
honours in the classical tripos in 1851. He was called to the bar in
1854, became a Q.C. in 1866, and was appointed Whewell professor of
international law, Cambridge, 1869. He quickly made his mark in London
society as a brilliant talker; he contributed largely to the _Saturday
Review_, and wrote some famous letters (1862) to _The Times_ over the
signature of "Historicus," in opposition to the recognition of the
Southern States as belligerents in the American Civil War. He entered
parliament as Liberal member for Oxford, and sat from 1868 to 1880,
when, upon seeking re-election after acceptance of office, he was
defeated by Mr Hall. A seat was, however, found for him at Derby, by the
voluntary retirement of Mr Plimsoll, and he continued to represent that
constituency until 1895, when, having been defeated at the general
election, he found a seat in West Monmouthshire. He was appointed
solicitor-general and knighted in 1873; and, although he had not shown
himself a very strenuous supporter of Mr Gladstone during that
statesman's exclusion from power, he became secretary of state for the
home department on the return of the Liberals to office in 1880. His
name was connected at that time with the passing of the Ground Game Act
(1880), the Arms (Ireland) Act (1881), and the Explosives Act (1883). As
home secretary at the time of the dynamite outrages he had to take up a
firm attitude, and the Explosives Act was passed through all its stages
in the shortest time on record. Moreover, as champion of law and order
against the attacks of the Parnellites, his vigorous speeches brought
him constantly into conflict with the Irish members. In 1884 he
introduced an abortive bill for unifying the municipal administration of
London. He was indeed at that time recognized as one of the ablest and
most effective leaders of the Liberal party; and when, after a brief
interval in 1885, Mr Gladstone returned to office in 1886, he was made
chancellor of the exchequer, an office which he again filled from 1892
to 1895.

Between 1880 and 1892 Sir William Harcourt acted as Mr Gladstone's loyal
and indefatigable lieutenant in political life. A first-rate party
fighter, his services were of inestimable value; but in spite of his
great success as a platform speaker, he was generally felt to be
speaking from an advocate's brief, and did not impress the country as
possessing much depth of conviction. It was he who coined the phrase
about "stewing in Parnellite juice," and, when the split came in the
Liberal party on the Irish question, even those who gave Mr Gladstone
and Mr Morley the credit of being convinced Home Rulers could not be
persuaded that Sir William had followed anything but the line of party
expediency. In 1894 he introduced and carried a memorable budget, which
equalized the death duties on real and personal property. After Mr
Gladstone's retirement in 1894 and Lord Rosebery's selection as prime
minister Sir William became the leader of the Liberal party in the House
of Commons, but it was never probable that he would work comfortably in
the new conditions. His title to be regarded as Mr Gladstone's successor
had been too lightly ignored, and from the first it was evident that
Lord Rosebery's ideas of Liberalism and of the policy of the Liberal
party were not those of Sir William Harcourt. Their differences were
patched up from time to time, but the combination could not last. At
the general election of 1895 it was clear that there were divisions as
to what issue the Liberals were fighting for, and the effect of Sir
William Harcourt's abortive Local Veto Bill on the election was seen not
only in his defeat at Derby, which gave the signal for the Liberal rout,
but in the set-back it gave to temperance legislation. Though returned
for West Monmouthshire (1895, 1900), his speeches in debate only
occasionally showed his characteristic spirit, and it was evident that
for the hard work of Opposition he no longer had the same motive as of
old. In December 1898 the crisis arrived, and with Mr John Morley he
definitely retired from the counsels of the party and resigned his
leadership of the Opposition, alleging as his reason, in letters
exchanged between Mr Morley and himself, the cross-currents of opinion
among his old supporters and former colleagues. The split excited
considerable comment, and resulted in much heart-burning and a more or
less open division between the section of the Liberal party following
Lord Rosebery (q.v.) and those who disliked that statesman's
Imperialistic views.

Though now a private member, Sir William Harcourt still continued to
vindicate his opinions in his independent position, and his attacks on
the government were no longer restrained by even the semblance of
deference to Liberal Imperialism. He actively intervened in 1899 and
1900, strongly condemning the government's financial policy and their
attitude towards the Transvaal; and throughout the Boer War he lost no
opportunity of criticizing the South African developments in a
pessimistic vein. One of the readiest parliamentary debaters, he
savoured his speeches with humour of that broad and familiar order which
appeals particularly to political audiences. In 1898-1900 he was
conspicuous, both on the platform and in letters written to The _Times_,
in demanding active measures against the Ritualistic party in the Church
of England; but his attitude on that subject could not be dissociated
from his political advocacy of Disestablishment. In March 1904, just
after he had announced his intention not to seek election again to
parliament, he succeeded, by the death of his nephew, to the family
estates at Nuneham. But he died suddenly there on the 1st of October in
the same year. He married, first, in 1859, Thérèse (d. 1863), daughter
of Mr T. H. Lister, by whom he had one son, Lewis Vernon Harcourt (b.
1863), afterwards first commissioner of works both in Sir Henry
Campbell-Bannerman's 1905 ministry (included in the cabinet in 1907) and
in Mr Asquith's cabinet (1908); and secondly, in 1876, Elizabeth, widow
of Mr T. Ives and daughter of Mr. J. L. Motley, the historian, by whom
he had another son, Robert (b. 1878).

Sir William Harcourt was one of the great parliamentary figures of the
Gladstonian Liberal period. He was essentially an aristocratic type of
late 19th century Whig, with a remarkable capacity for popular campaign
fighting. He had been, and remained, a brilliant journalist in the
non-professional sense. He was one of those who really made the
_Saturday Review_ in its palmy days, and in the period of his own most
ebullient vigour, while Mr Gladstone was alive, his sense of political
expediency and platform effectiveness in controversy was very acute. But
though he played the game of public life with keen zest, he never really
touched either the country or his own party with the faith which creates
a personal following, and in later years he found himself somewhat
isolated and disappointed, though he was free to express his deeper
objections to the new developments in church and state. A tall, fine
man, with the grand manner, he was, throughout a long career, a great
personality in the life of his time.     (H. Ch.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] William, 3rd and last Earl Harcourt (1743-1830), who succeeded
    his brother in the title, was a soldier who distinguished himself in
    the American War of Independence by capturing General Charles Lee,
    and commanded the British forces in Flanders in 1794, eventually
    becoming a field-marshal. He was a son of Simon, 1st earl
    (1714-1777), created viscount and earl in 1749, a soldier, and from
    1772 to 1777 viceroy of Ireland, who was grandson and heir of Simon,
    Viscount Harcourt (1661-1727), lord chancellor--the "trimming
    Harcourt" of Swift--the purchaser of the Nuneham-Courtney estates in
    Oxfordshire, and son of Sir Philip Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt. The
    knights of Stanton Harcourt, from the 13th century onwards, traced
    their descent to the Norman de Harcourts, a branch of that family
    having come over with the Conqueror; and the pedigree claims to go
    back to Bernard of Saxony, who in 876 acquired the lordships of
    Harcourt, Castleville and Beauficel in Normandy. Viscount Harcourt's
    second son Simon, who was father of the 1st earl, was also father of
    Martha, who married George Venables Vernon, of Sudbury, created 1st
    Baron Vernon in 1762. The latter was a descendant of Sir Richard
    Vernon (d. 1451), speaker of the Leicester parliament (1425) and
    treasurer of Calais, a member of a Norman family which came over with
    the Conqueror.

  [2] The Plantagenet descent (see _The Blood Royal of Britain_, by the
    marquis of Ruvigny, 1903, for tables) could be traced through Lady
    Anna Leveson Gower (wife of Archbishop Harcourt) to Lady Frances
    Stanley, the wife of the 1st earl of Bridgewater (1579-1649), and so
    to Lady Eleanor Brandon, wife of the earl of Cumberland (1517-1570),
    and daughter of Mary Tudor (wife of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk,
    1484-1545), the daughter of Henry VII. and grand-daughter of Edward
    IV.



HARCOURT, WILLIAM VERNON (1789-1871), founder of the British
Association, was born at Sudbury, Derbyshire, in 1789, a younger son of
Edward Vernon [Harcourt], archbishop of York (see above). Having served
for five years in the navy he went up to Christ Church, Oxford, with a
view to taking holy orders. He began his clerical duties at
Bishopthorpe, Yorkshire, in 1811, and having developed a great interest
in science while at the university, he took an active part in the
foundation of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, of which he was the
first president. The laws and the plan of proceedings for the British
Association for the Advancement of Science were drawn up by him; and
Harcourt was elected president in 1839. In 1824 he became canon of York
and rector of Wheldrake in Yorkshire, and in 1837 rector of Bolton
Percy. The Yorkshire school for the blind and the Castle Howard
reformatory both owe their existence to his energies. His spare time
until quite late in life was occupied with scientific experiments.
Inheriting the Harcourt estates in Oxfordshire from his brother in 1861,
he removed to Nuneham, where he died in April 1871.



HARDANGER FJORD, an inlet on the west coast of Norway, penetrating the
mainland for 70 m. apart from the deep fringe of islands off its mouth,
the total distance from the open sea to the head of the fjord being 114
m. Its extreme depth is about 350 fathoms. The entrance at Torö is 50 m.
by water south of Bergen, 60° N., and the general direction is N.E. from
that point. The fjord is flanked by magnificent mountains, from which
many waterfalls pour into it. The main fjord is divided into parts under
different names, and there are many fine branch fjords. The fjord is
frequented by tourists, and the principal stations have hotels. The
outer fjord is called the Kvindherredsfjord, flanked by the Melderskin
(4680 ft.); then follow Sildefjord and Bonde Sund, separated by Varalds
island. Here Mauranger-fjord opens on the east; from Sundal on this
inlet the great Folgefond snowfield may be crossed, and a fine glacier
(Bondhusbrae) visited. Bakke and Vikingnaes are stations on Hisfjord,
Nordheimsund and Östensö on Ytre Samlen, which throws off a fine narrow
branch northward, the Fiksensund. There follow Indre Samlen and
Utnefjord, with the station of Utne opposite Oxen (4120 ft.), and its
northward branch, Gravenfjord, with the beautiful station of Eide at its
head, whence a road runs north-west to Vossevangen. From the Utne
terminal branches of the fjord run south and east; the Sörfjord, steeply
walled by the heights of the Folgefond, with the frequented resort of
Odde at its head; and the Eidfjord, with its branch Osefjord,
terminating beneath a tremendous rampart of mountains, through which the
sombre Simodal penetrates, the river flowing from Daemmevand, a
beautiful lake among the fields, and forming with its tributaries the
fine falls of Skykje and Rembesdal. Vik is the principal station on
Eidfjord, and Ulvik on a branch of the Ose, with a road to Vossevangen.
At Vik is the mouth of the Björeia river, which, in forming the
Vöringfos, plunges 520 ft. into a magnificent rock-bound basin. A small
stream entering Sörfjord forms in its upper course the Skjaeggedalsfos,
of equal height with the Vöringfos, and hardly less beautiful. The
natives of Hardanger have an especially picturesque local costume.



HARDEE, WILLIAM JOSEPH (1815-1873), American soldier, was born in
Savannah, Georgia, on the 10th of November 1815 and graduated from West
Point in 1838. As a subaltern of cavalry he was employed on a special
mission to Europe to study the cavalry methods in vogue (1839). He was
promoted captain in 1844 and served under Generals Taylor and Scott in
the Mexican War, winning the brevet of major for gallantry in action in
March 1847 and subsequently that of lieut.-colonel. After the war he
served as a substantive major under Colonel Sidney Johnston and
Lieut.-Colonel Robert Lee in the 2nd U.S. cavalry, and for some time
before 1856 he was engaged in compiling the official manual of infantry
drill and tactics which, familiarly called "Hardee's Tactics,"
afterwards formed the text-book for the infantry arm in both the Federal
and the Confederate armies. From 1856 to 1861 he was commandant of West
Point, resigning his commission on the secession of his state in the
latter year. Entering the Confederate service as a colonel, he was
shortly promoted brigadier-general. He distinguished himself very
greatly by his tactical leadership on the field of Shiloh, and was
immediately promoted major-general. As a corps commander he fought under
General Bragg at Perryville and Stone River, and for his distinguished
services in these battles was promoted lieutenant-general. He served in
the latter part of the campaign of 1863 under Bragg and in that of 1864
under J. E. Johnston. When the latter officer was superseded by Hood,
Hardee was relieved at his own request, and for the remainder of the war
he served in the Carolinas. When the Civil War came to an end in 1865 he
retired to his plantation near Selma, Alabama. He died at Wytheville,
Virginia, on the 6th of November 1873.



HARDENBERG, KARL AUGUST VON, PRINCE (1750-1822), Prussian statesman, was
born at Essenroda in Hanover on the 31st of May 1750. After studying at
Leipzig and Göttingen he entered the Hanoverian civil service in 1770 as
councillor of the board of domains (_Kammerrat_); but, finding his
advancement slow, he set out--on the advice of King George III.--on a
course of travels, spending some time at Wetzlar, Regensburg (where he
studied the mechanism of the Imperial government), Vienna and Berlin. He
also visited France, Holland and England, where he was kindly received
by the king. On his return he married, by his father's desire, the
countess Reventlow. In 1778 he was raised to the rank of privy
councillor and created a count. He now again went to England, in the
hope of obtaining the post of Hanoverian envoy in London; but, his wife
becoming entangled in an _amour_ with the prince of Wales, so great a
scandal was created that he was forced to leave the Hanoverian service.
In 1782 he entered that of the duke of Brunswick, and as president of
the board of domains displayed a zeal for reform, in the manner approved
by the enlightened despots of the century, that rendered him very
unpopular with the orthodox clergy and the conservative estates. In
Brunswick, too, his position was in the end made untenable by the
conduct of his wife, whom he now divorced; he himself, shortly
afterwards, marrying a divorced woman. Fortunately for him, this
coincided with the lapsing of the principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth
to Prussia, owing to the resignation of the last margrave, Charles
Alexander, in 1791. Hardenberg, who happened to be in Berlin at the
time, was on the recommendation of Herzberg appointed administrator of
the principalities (1792). The position, owing to the singular
overlapping of territorial claims in the old Empire, was one of
considerable delicacy, and Hardenberg filled it with great skill, doing
much to reform traditional anomalies and to develop the country, and at
the same time labouring to expand the influence of Prussia in South
Germany. After the outbreak of the revolutionary wars his diplomatic
ability led to his appointment as Prussian envoy, with a roving
commission to visit the Rhenish courts and win them over to Prussia's
views; and ultimately, when the necessity for making peace with the
French Republic had been recognized, he was appointed to succeed Count
Goltz as Prussian plenipotentiary at Basel (February 28, 1795), where he
signed the treaty of peace.

In 1797, on the accession of King Frederick William III., Hardenberg was
summoned to Berlin, where he received an important position in the
cabinet and was appointed chief of the departments of Magdeburg and
Halberstadt, for Westphalia, and for the principality of Neuchâtel. In
1793 Hardenberg had struck up a friendship with Count Haugwitz, the
influential minister for foreign affairs, and when in 1803 the latter
went away on leave (August-October) he appointed Hardenberg his _locum
tenens_. It was a critical period. Napoleon had just occupied Hanover,
and Haugwitz had urged upon the king the necessity for strong measures
and the expediency of a Russian alliance. During his absence, however,
the king's irresolution continued; he clung to the policy of neutrality
which had so far seemed to have served Prussia so well; and Hardenberg
contented himself with adapting himself to the royal will. By the time
Haugwitz returned, the unyielding attitude of Napoleon had caused the
king to make advances to Russia; but the mutual declarations of the 3rd
and 25th of May 1804 only pledged the two powers to take up arms in the
event of a French attack upon Prussia or of further aggressions in North
Germany. Finally, Haugwitz, unable to persuade the cabinet to a more
vigorous policy, resigned, and on the 14th of April 1804 Hardenberg
succeeded him as foreign minister.

If there was to be war, Hardenberg would have preferred the French
alliance, which was the price Napoleon demanded for the cession of
Hanover to Prussia; for the Eastern powers would scarcely have
conceded, of their free will, so great an augmentation of Prussian
power. But he still hoped to gain the coveted prize by diplomacy, backed
by the veiled threat of an armed neutrality. Then occurred Napoleon's
contemptuous violation of Prussian territory by marching three French
corps through Ansbach; King Frederick William's pride overcame his
weakness, and on the 3rd of November he signed with the tsar Alexander
the terms of an ultimatum to be laid before the French emperor. Haugwitz
was despatched to Vienna with the document; but before he arrived the
battle of Austerlitz had been fought, and the Prussian plenipotentiary
had to make the best terms he could with the conqueror. Prussia, indeed,
by the treaty signed at Schönbrunn on the 15th of December 1805,
received Hanover, but in return for all her territories in South
Germany. One condition of the arrangement was the retirement of
Hardenberg, whom Napoleon disliked. He was again foreign minister for a
few months after the crisis of 1806 (April-July 1807); but Napoleon's
resentment was implacable, and one of the conditions of the terms
granted to Prussia by the treaty of Tilsit was Hardenberg's dismissal.

After the enforced retirement of Stein in 1810 and the unsatisfactory
interlude of the feeble Altenstein ministry, Hardenberg was again
summoned to Berlin, this time as chancellor (June 6, 1810). The campaign
of Jena and its consequences had had a profound effect upon him; and in
his mind the traditions of the old diplomacy had given place to the new
sentiment of nationality characteristic of the coming age, which in him
found expression in a passionate desire to restore the position of
Prussia and crush her oppressors. During his retirement at Riga he had
worked out an elaborate plan for reconstructing the monarchy on Liberal
lines; and when he came into power, though the circumstances of the time
did not admit of his pursuing an independent foreign policy, he steadily
prepared for the struggle with France by carrying out Stein's
far-reaching schemes of social and political reorganization. The
military system was completely reformed, serfdom was abolished,
municipal institutions were fostered, the civil service was thrown open
to all classes, and great attention was devoted to the educational needs
of every section of the community.

When at last the time came to put these reforms to the test, after the
Moscow campaign of 1812, it was Hardenberg who, supported by the
influence of the noble Queen Louise, determined Frederick William to
take advantage of General Yorck's loyal disloyalty and declare against
France. He was rightly regarded by German patriots as the statesman who
had done most to encourage the spirit of national independence; and
immediately after he had signed the first peace of Paris he was raised
to the rank of prince (June 3, 1814) in recognition of the part he had
played in the War of Liberation.

Hardenberg now had an assured position in that close corporation of
sovereigns and statesmen by whom Europe, during the next few years, was
to be governed. He accompanied the allied sovereigns to England, and at
the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) was the chief plenipotentiary of
Prussia. But from this time the zenith of his influence, if not of his
fame, was passed. In diplomacy he was no match for Metternich, whose
influence soon overshadowed his own in the councils of Europe, of
Germany, and ultimately even of Prussia itself. At Vienna, in spite of
the powerful backing of Alexander of Russia, he failed to secure the
annexation of the whole of Saxony to Prussia; at Paris, after Waterloo,
he failed to carry through his views as to the further dismemberment of
France; he had weakly allowed Metternich to forestall him in making
terms with the states of the Confederation of the Rhine, which secured
to Austria the preponderance in the German federal diet; on the eve of
the conference of Carlsbad (1819) he signed a convention with
Metternich, by which--to quote the historian Treitschke--"like a
penitent sinner, without any formal _quid pro quo_, the monarchy of
Frederick the Great yielded to a foreign power a voice in her internal
affairs." At the congresses of Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau, Laibach and
Verona the voice of Hardenberg was but an echo of that of Metternich.

The cause lay partly in the difficult circumstances of the loosely-knit
Prussian monarchy, but partly in Hardenberg's character, which, never
well balanced, had deteriorated with age. He continued amiable, charming
and enlightened as ever; but the excesses which had been pardonable in a
young diplomatist were a scandal in an elderly chancellor, and could not
but weaken his influence with so pious a _Landesvater_ as Frederick
William III. To overcome the king's terror of Liberal experiments would
have needed all the powers of an adviser at once wise and in character
wholly trustworthy. Hardenberg was wise enough; he saw the necessity for
constitutional reform; but he clung with almost senile tenacity to the
sweets of office, and when the tide turned strongly against Liberalism
he allowed himself to drift with it. In the privacy of royal commissions
he continued to elaborate schemes for constitutions that never saw the
light; but Germany, disillusioned, saw only the faithful henchman of
Metternich, an accomplice in the policy of the Carlsbad Decrees and the
Troppau Protocol. He died, soon after the closing of the congress of
Verona, at Genoa, on the 26th of November 1822.

  See L. v. Ranke, _Denkwürdigkeiten des Staatskanzlers Fürsten von
  Hardenberg_ (5 vols., Leipzig, 1877); J. R. Seeley, _The Life and
  Times of Stein_ (3 vols., Cambridge, 1878); E. Meier, _Reform der
  Verwaltungsorganisation unter Stein und Hardenberg_ (ib., 1881); Chr.
  Meyer, _Hardenberg und seine Verwaltung der Fürstentümer Ansbach und
  Bayreuth_ (Breslau, 1892); Koser, _Die Neuordnung des preussischen
  Archivwesens durch den Staatskanzler Fürsten v. Hardenberg_ (Leipzig,
  1904).



HARDERWYK, a seaport in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the
shores of the Zuider Zee, 17 m. by rail N.N.E. of Amersfoort. Pop.
(1900) 7425. It is a quaint old town, approached by a fine avenue of
trees, and standing in the midst of a patch of fertile ground. Harderwyk
is chiefly important as being the depot for recruits for the Dutch
colonial army. It contains a small fort and large barracks. The
principal buildings are the town hall, with some ancient furniture, a
large 15th century church with a notable square tower, a municipal
orphanage, and the Nassau-Veluwe gymnasium. Agriculture, fishing, and a
few domestic industries form the only employment of the inhabitants. As
a seaport its trade is now confined exclusively to the Zuider Zee.



HARDICANUTE [more correctly HARDACNUT] (c. 1010-1042), son of Canute,
king of England, by his wife Ælfgifu or Emma, was born about 1019. In
the contest for the English crown which followed the death of Canute in
1035 the claims of Hardicanute were supported by Emma and her ally,
Godwine, earl of the West Saxons, in opposition to those of Harold,
Canute's illegitimate son, who was backed by the Mercian earl Leofric
and the chief men of the north. At a meeting of the witan at Oxford a
compromise was ultimately arranged by which Harold was temporarily
elected regent of all England, pending the final settlement of the
question on the return of Hardicanute from Denmark. The compromise was
strongly opposed by Godwine and Emma, who for a time forcibly held
Wessex in Hardicanute's behalf. But Harold's party rapidly increased;
and early in 1037 he was definitely elected king. Emma was driven out
and took refuge at Bruges. In 1039 Hardicanute joined her, and together
they concerted an attack on England. But next year Harold died; and
Hardicanute peacefully succeeded. His short reign was marked by great
oppression and cruelty. He caused the dead body of Harold to be dug up
and thrown into a fen; he exacted so heavy a geld for the support of his
foreign fleet that great discontent was created throughout the kingdom,
and in Worcestershire a general uprising took place against those sent
to collect the tax, whereupon he burned the city of Worcester to the
ground and devastated the surrounding country; in 1041 he permitted
Edwulf, earl of Northumbria, to be treacherously murdered after having
granted him a safe-conduct. While "he stood at his drink" at the
marriage feast of one of his flegns he was suddenly seized with a fit,
from which he died a few days afterwards on the 8th of June 1042.



HARDING, CHESTER (1792-1866), American portrait painter, was born at
Conway, Massachusetts, on the 1st of September 1792. Brought up in the
wilderness of New York state, Harding, as a lad of splendid physique,
standing over 6 ft. 3 in., marched as a drummer with the militia to the
St Lawrence in 1813. He became subsequently chairmaker, peddler,
inn-keeper, and house-painter, painting signs in Pittsburg, Pa., and
eventually going on the road, self-taught, as an itinerant portrait
painter. He made enough money to take him to the schools at the
Philadelphia Academy of Design, and he soon became proficient enough to
gain a competency, so that later he went to England and set up a studio
in London. There he met with great success, painting royalty and the
nobility, and, despite the lackings of an early education and social
experience, he became a favourite in all circles. Returning to the
United States, he settled in Boston and painted portraits of many of the
prominent men and women of his time. He died on the 1st of April 1866.



HARDING, JAMES DUFFIELD (1798-1863), English landscape painter, was the
son of an artist, and took to the same vocation at an early age,
although he had originally been destined for the law. He was in the main
a water-colour painter and a lithographer, but he produced various
oil-paintings both at the beginning and towards the end of his career.
He frequently contributed to the exhibitions of the Water-Colour
Society, of which he became an associate in 1821, and a full member in
1822. He was also very largely engaged in teaching, and published
several books developing his views of art--amongst others, _The Tourist
in Italy_ (1831); _The Tourist in France_ (1834); _The Park and the
Forest_ (1841); _The Principles and the Practice of Art_ (1845);
_Elementary Art_ (1846); _Scotland Delineated in a Series of Views_
(1847); _Lessons on Art_ (1849). He died at Barnes on the 4th of
December 1863. Harding was noted for facility, sureness of hand, nicety
of touch, and the various qualities which go to make up an elegant,
highly trained, and accomplished sketcher from nature, and composer of
picturesque landscape material; he was particularly skilful in the
treatment of foliage.



HARDINGE, HENRY HARDINGE, VISCOUNT (1785-1856), British field marshal
and governor-general of India, was born at Wrotham in Kent on the 30th
of March 1785. After being at Eton, he entered the army in 1799 as an
ensign in the Queen's Rangers, a corps then stationed in Upper Canada.
His first active service was at the battle of Vimiera, where he was
wounded; and at Corunna he was by the side of Sir John Moore when he
received his death-wound. Subsequently he received an appointment as
deputy-quartermaster-general in the Portuguese army from Marshal
Beresford, and was present at nearly all the battles of the Peninsular
War, being wounded again at Vittoria. At Albuera he saved the day for
the British by taking the responsibility at a critical moment of
strongly urging General Cole's division to advance. When peace was again
broken in 1815 by Napoleon's escape from Elba, Hardinge hastened into
active service, and was appointed to the important post of commissioner
at the Prussian headquarters. In this capacity he was present at the
battle of Ligny on the 16th of June 1815, where he lost his left hand by
a shot, and thus was not present at Waterloo, fought two days later. For
the loss of his hand he received a pension of £300; he had already been
made a K.C.B., and Wellington presented him with a sword that had
belonged to Napoleon. In 1820 and 1826 Sir Henry Hardinge was returned
to parliament as member for Durham; and in 1828 he accepted the office
of secretary at war in Wellington's ministry, a post which he also
filled in Peel's cabinet in 1841-1844. In 1830 and 1834-1835 he was
chief secretary for Ireland. In 1844 he succeeded Lord Ellenborough as
governor-general of India. During his term of office the first Sikh War
broke out; and Hardinge, waiving his right to the supreme command,
magnanimously offered to serve as second in command under Sir Hugh
Gough; but disagreeing with the latter's plan of campaign at Ferozeshah,
he temporarily reasserted his authority as governor-general (see SIKH
WARS). After the successful termination of the campaign at Sobraon he
was created Viscount Hardinge of Lahore and of King's Newton in
Derbyshire, with a pension of £3000 for three lives; while the East
India Company voted him an annuity of £5000, which he declined to
accept. Hardinge's term of office in India was marked by many social and
educational reforms. He returned to England in 1848, and in 1852
succeeded the duke of Wellington as commander-in-chief of the British
army. While in this position he had the home management of the Crimean
War, which he endeavoured to conduct on Wellington's principles--a
system not altogether suited to the changed mode of warfare. In 1855 he
was promoted to the rank of field marshal. Viscount Hardinge resigned
his office of commander-in-chief in July 1856, owing to failing health,
and died on the 24th of September of the same year at South Park near
Tunbridge Wells. His elder son, Charles Stewart (1822-1894), who had
been his private secretary in India, was the 2nd Viscount Hardinge; and
the latter's eldest son succeeded to the title. The younger son of the
2nd Viscount, Charles Hardinge (b. 1858), became a prominent diplomatist
(see Edward VII.), and was appointed governor-general of India in 1910,
being created Baron Hardinge of Penshurst.

  See C. Hardinge, _Viscount Hardinge_ (Rulers of India series, 1891);
  and R. S. Rait, _Life and Campaigns of Viscount Gough_ (1903).



HARDOI, a town and district of British India, in the Lucknow division of
the United Provinces. The town is 63 m. N.E. of Lucknow by rail. Pop.
(1901) 12,174. It has a wood-carving industry, saltpetre works, and an
export trade in grain.

The DISTRICT OF HARDOI has an area of 2331 sq. m. It is a level district
watered by the Ganges, Ramganga, Deoha or Garra, Sukheta, Sai, Baita and
Gumti--the three rivers first named being navigable by country boats.
Towards the Ganges the land is uneven, and often rises in hillocks of
sand cultivated at the base, and their slopes covered with lofty _munj_
grass. Several large _jhils_ or swamps are scattered throughout the
district, the largest being that of Sandi, which is 3 m. long by from 1
to 2 m. broad. These _jhils_ are largely used for irrigation. Large
tracts of forest jungle still exist. Leopards, black buck, spotted deer,
and _nilgai_ are common; the mallard, teal, grey duck, common goose, and
all kinds of waterfowl abound. In 1901 the population of the district
was 1,092,834, showing a decrease of nearly 2% in the decade. The
district contains a larger urban population than any other in Oudh, the
largest town being Shahabad, 20,036 in 1901. It is traversed by the Oudh
and Rohilkhand railway from Lucknow to Shahjahanpur, and its branches.
The chief exports are grain, sugar, hides, tobacco and saltpetre.

The first authentic records of Hardoi are connected with the Mussulman
colonization. Bawan was occupied by Sayyid Salar Masaud in 1028, but the
permanent Moslem occupation did not begin till 1217. Owing to the
situation of the district, Hardoi formed the scene of many sanguinary
battles between the rival Afghan and Mogul empires. Between Bilgram and
Sandi was fought the great battle between Humayun and Sher Shah, in
which the former was utterly defeated. Hardoi, along with the rest of
Oudh, became British territory under Lord Dalhousie's proclamation of
February 1856.



HARDOUIN, JEAN (1646-1729), French classical scholar, was born at
Quimper in Brittany. Having acquired a taste for literature in his
father's book-shop, he sought and obtained about his sixteenth year
admission into the order of the Jesuits. In Paris, where he went to
study theology, he ultimately became librarian of the Collège Louis le
Grand in 1683, and he died there on the 3rd of September 1729. His first
published work was an edition of Themistius (1684), which included no
fewer than thirteen new orations. On the advice of Jean Garnier
(1612-1681) he undertook to edit the _Natural History_ of Pliny for the
Delphin series, a task which he completed in five years. His attention
having been turned to numismatics as auxiliary to his great editorial
labours, he published several learned works in that department, marred,
however, as almost everything he did was marred, by a determination to
be at all hazards different from other interpreters. It is sufficient to
mention his _Nummi antiqui populorum et urbium illustrati_ (1684),
_Antirrheticus de nummis antiquis coloniarum et municipiorum_ (1689),
and _Chronologia Veteris Testamenti ad vulgatam versionem exacta et
nummis illustrata_ (1696). By the ecclesiastical authorities Hardouin
was appointed to supervise the _Conciliorum collectio regia maxima_
(1715); but he was accused of suppressing important documents and
foisting in apocryphal matter, and by the order of the parlement of
Paris (then at war with the Jesuits) the publication of the work was
delayed. It is really a valuable collection, much cited by scholars.
Hardouin declared that all the councils supposed to have taken place
before the council of Trent were fictitious. It is, however, as the
originator of a variety of paradoxical theories that Hardouin is now
best remembered. The most remarkable, contained in his _Chronologiae ex
nummis antiquis restitutae_ (1696) and _Prolegomena ad censuram veterum
scriptorum_, was to the effect that, with the exception of the works of
Homer, Herodotus and Cicero, the _Natural History_ of Pliny, the
_Georgics_ of _Virgil_, and the _Satires and Epistles of Horace_, all
the ancient classics of Greece and Rome were spurious, having been
manufactured by monks of the 13th century, under the direction of a
certain Severus Archontius. He denied the genuineness of most ancient
works of art, coins and inscriptions, and declared that the New
Testament was originally written in Latin.

  See A. Debacker, _Bibliothèque des écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus_
  (1853).



HARDT, HERMANN VON DER (1660-1746), German historian and orientalist,
was born at Melle, in Westphalia, on the 15th of November 1660. He
studied oriental languages in Jena and in Leipzig, and in 1690 he was
called to the chair of oriental languages at Helmstedt. He resigned his
position in 1727, but lived at Helmstedt until his death on the 28th of
February 1746. Among his numerous writings the following deserve
mention: _Autographa Lutheri aliorumque celebrium virorum, ab anno 1517
ad annum 1546_, _Reformationis aetatem et historiam egregie
illustrantia_ (1690-1691); _Magnum oecumenicum Constantiense concilium_
(1697-1700); _Hebraeae linguae fundamenta_ (1694); _Syriacae linguae
fundamenta_ (1694); _Elementa Chaldaica_ (1693); _Historia litteraria
reformationis_ (1717); _Enigmata prisci orbis_ (1723). Hardt left in
manuscript a history of the Reformation which is preserved in the
Helmstedt Juleum.

  See F. Lamey, _Hermann von der Hardt in seinen Briefen_ (Karlsruhe,
  1891).



HARDT, THE, a mountainous district of Germany, in the Bavarian
palatinate, forming the northern end of the Vosges range. It is, in the
main, an undulating high plateau of sandstone formation, of a mean
elevation of 1300 ft., and reaching its highest point in the Donnersberg
(2254 ft.). The eastern slope, which descends gently towards the Rhine,
is diversified by deep and well-wooded valleys, such as those of the
Lauter and the Queich, and by conical hills surmounted by the ruins of
frequent feudal castles and monasteries. Noticeable among these are the
Madenburg near Eschbach, the Trifels (long the dungeon of Richard I. of
England), and the Maxburg near Neustadt. Three-fifths of the whole area
is occupied by forests, principally oak, beech and fir. The lower
eastern slope is highly cultivated and produces excellent wine.



HARDWAR, or HURDWAR, an ancient town of British India, and Hindu place
of pilgrimage, in the Saharanpur district of the United Provinces, on
the right bank of the Ganges, 17 m. N.E. of Rurki, with a railway
station. The Ganges canal here takes off from the river. A branch
railway to Dehra was opened in 1900. Pop. (1901), 25,597. The town is of
great antiquity, and has borne many names. It was originally known as
Kapila from the sage Kapila. Hsuan Tsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim,
in the 7th century visited a city which he calls Mo-yu-lo, the remains
of which still exist at Mayapur, a little to the south of the modern
town. Among the ruins are a fort and three temples, decorated with
broken stone sculptures. The great object of attraction at present is
the Hari-ka-charan, or bathing _ghat_, with the adjoining temple of
Gangadwara. The _charan_ or foot-mark of Vishnu, imprinted on a stone
let into the upper wall of the _ghat_, forms an object of special
reverence. A great assemblage of people takes place annually, at the
beginning of the Hindu solar year, when the sun enters Aries; and every
twelfth year a feast of peculiar sanctity occurs, known as a
_Kumbh-mela_. The ordinary number of pilgrims at the annual fair
amounts to 100,000, and at the Kumbh-mela to 300,000; in 1903 there
were 400,000 present. Since 1892 many sanitary improvements have been
made for the benefit of the annual concourse of pilgrims. In early days
riots and also outbreaks of cholera were of common occurrence. The
Hardwar meeting also possesses mercantile importance, being one of the
principal horse-fairs in Upper India. Commodities of all kinds, Indian
and European, find a ready sale, and the trade in grain and food-stuffs
forms a lucrative traffic.



HARDWICKE, PHILIP YORKE, 1ST EARL OF (1690-1764), English lord
chancellor, son of Philip Yorke, an attorney, was born at Dover, on the
1st of December 1690. Through his mother, Elizabeth, daughter and
co-heiress of Richard Gibbon of Rolvenden, Kent, he was connected with
the family of Gibbon the historian. At the age of fourteen, after a not
very thorough education at a private school at Bethnal Green, where,
however, he showed exceptional promise, he entered an attorney's office
in London. Here he gave some attention to literature and the classics as
well as to law; but in the latter he made such progress that his
employer, Salkeld, impressed by Yorke's powers, entered him at the
Middle Temple in November 1708; and soon afterwards recommended him to
Lord Chief Justice Parker (afterwards earl of Macclesfield) as law tutor
to his sons. In 1715 he was called to the bar, where his progress was,
says Lord Campbell, "more rapid than that of any other débutant in the
annals of our profession," his advancement being greatly furthered by
the patronage of Macclesfield, who became lord chancellor in 1718, when
Yorke transferred his practice from the king's bench to the court of
chancery, though he continued to go on the western circuit. In the
following year he established his reputation as an equity lawyer in a
case in which Sir Robert Walpole's family was interested, by an argument
displaying profound learning and research concerning the jurisdiction of
the chancellor, on lines which he afterwards more fully developed in a
celebrated letter to Lord Kames on the distinction between law and
equity. Through Macclesfield's influence with the duke of Newcastle
Yorke entered parliament in 1719 as member for Lewes, and was appointed
solicitor-general, with a knighthood, in 1720, although he was then a
barrister of only four years' standing. His conduct of the prosecution
of Christopher Layer in that year for treason as a Jacobite further
raised Sir Philip Yorke's reputation as a forensic orator; and in 1723,
having already become attorney-general, he passed through the House of
Commons the bill of pains and penalties against Bishop Atterbury. He was
excused, on the ground of his personal friendship, from acting for the
crown in the impeachment of Macclesfield in 1725, though he did not
exert himself to save his patron from disgrace largely brought about by
Macclesfield's partiality for Yorke himself. He soon found a new and
still more influential patron in the duke of Newcastle, to whom he
henceforth gave his political support. He rendered valuable service to
Walpole's government by his support of the bill for prohibiting loans to
foreign powers (1730), of the increase of the army (1732) and of the
excise bill (1733). In 1733 Yorke was appointed lord chief justice of
the king's bench, with the title of Lord Hardwicke, and was sworn of the
privy council; and in 1737 he succeeded Talbot as lord chancellor, thus
becoming a member of Sir Robert Walpole's cabinet. One of his first
official acts was to deprive the poet Thomson of a small office
conferred on him by Talbot.

Hardwicke's political importance was greatly increased by his removal to
the House of Lords, where the incompetency of Newcastle threw on the
chancellor the duty of defending the measures of the government. He
resisted Carteret's motion to reduce the army in 1738, and the
resolutions hostile to Spain over the affair of Captain Jenkins's ears.
But when Walpole bent before the storm and declared war against Spain,
Hardwicke advocated energetic measures for its conduct; and he tried to
keep the peace between Newcastle and Walpole. There is no sufficient
ground for Horace Walpole's charge that the fall of Sir Robert was
brought about by Hardwicke's treachery. No one was more surprised than
himself when he retained the chancellorship in the following
administration, and he resisted the proposal to indemnify witnesses
against Walpole in one of his finest speeches in May 1742. He exercised
a leading influence in the Wilmington Cabinet; and when Wilmington died
in August 1743, it was Hardwicke who put forward Henry Pelham for the
vacant office against the claims of Pulteney. For many years from this
time he was the controlling power in the government. During the king's
absences on the continent Hardwicke was left at the head of the council
of regency; it thus fell to him to concert measures for dealing with the
Jacobite rising in 1745. He took a just view of the crisis, and his
policy for meeting it was on the whole statesmanlike. After Culloden he
presided at the trial of the Scottish Jacobite peers, his conduct of
which, though judicially impartial, was neither dignified nor generous;
and he must be held partly responsible for the unnecessary severity
meted out to the rebels, and especially for the cruel, though not
illegal, executions on obsolete attainders of Charles Radcliffe and (in
1753) of Archibald Cameron. He carried, however, a great reform in 1746,
of incalculable benefit to Scotland, which swept away the grave abuses
of feudal power surviving in that country in the form of private
heritable jurisdictions in the hands of the landed gentry. On the other
hand his legislation in 1748 for disarming the Highlanders and
prohibiting the use of the tartan in their dress was vexatious without
being effective. Hardwicke supported Chesterfield's reform of the
calendar in 1751; in 1753 his bill for legalizing the naturalization of
Jews in England had to be dropped on account of the popular clamour it
excited; but he successfully carried a salutary reform of the marriage
law, which became the basis of all subsequent legislation on the
subject.

On the death of Pelham in 1754 Hardwicke obtained for Newcastle the post
of prime minister, and for reward was created earl of Hardwicke and
Viscount Royston; and when in November 1756 the weakness of the ministry
and the threatening aspect of foreign affairs compelled Newcastle to
resign, Hardwicke retired with him. He played an important and
disinterested part in negotiating the coalition between Newcastle and
Pitt in 1757, when he accepted a seat in Pitt's cabinet without
returning to the woolsack. After the accession of George III. Hardwicke
opposed the ministry of Lord Bute on the peace with France in 1762, and
on the cider tax in the following year. In the Wilkes case Hardwicke
condemned general warrants, and also the doctrine that seditious libels
published by members of parliament were protected by parliamentary
privilege. He died in London on the 6th of March 1764.

Although for a lengthy period Hardwicke was an influential minister, he
was not a statesman of the first rank. On the other hand he was one of
the greatest judges who ever sat on the English bench. He did not,
indeed, by his three years' tenure of the chief-justiceship of the
king's bench leave any impress on the common law; but Lord Campbell
pronounces him "the most consummate judge who ever sat in the court of
chancery, being distinguished not only for his rapid and satisfactory
decision of the causes which came before him, but for the profound and
enlightened principles which he laid down, and for perfecting English
equity into a systematic science." He held the office of lord chancellor
longer than any of his predecessors, with a single exception; and the
same high authority quoted above asserts that as an equity judge Lord
Hardwicke's fame "has not been exceeded by that of any man in ancient or
modern times. His decisions have been, and ever will continue to be,
appealed to as fixing the limits and establishing the principles of the
great juridical system called Equity, which now not only in this country
and in our colonies, but over the whole extent of the United States of
America, regulates property and personal rights more than the ancient
common law."[1] Hardwicke had prepared himself for this great and
enduring service to English jurisprudence by study of the historical
foundations of the chancellor's equitable jurisdiction, combined with
profound insight into legal principle, and a thorough knowledge of the
Roman civil law, the principles of which he scientifically incorporated
into his administration of English equity in the absence of precedents
bearing on the causes submitted to his judgment. His decisions on
particular points in dispute were based on general principles, which
were neither so wide as to prove inapplicable to future circumstances,
nor too restricted to serve as the foundation for a coherent and
scientific system. His recorded judgments--which, as Lord Campbell
observes, "certainly do come up to every idea we can form of judicial
excellence"--combine luminous method of arrangement with elegance and
lucidity of language.

Nor was the creation of modern English equity Lord Hardwicke's only
service to the administration of justice. Born within two years of the
death of Judge Jeffreys his influence was powerful in obliterating the
evil traditions of the judicial bench under the Stuart monarchy, and in
establishing the modern conception of the duties and demeanour of
English judges. While still at the bar Lord Chesterfield praised his
conduct of crown prosecutions as a contrast to the former "bloodhounds
of the crown"; and he described Sir Philip Yorke as "naturally humane,
moderate and decent." On the bench he had complete control over his
temper; he was always urbane and decorous and usually dignified. His
exercise of legal patronage deserves unmixed praise. As a public man he
was upright and, in comparison with most of his contemporaries,
consistent. His domestic life was happy and virtuous. His chief fault
was avarice, which perhaps makes it the more creditable that, though a
colleague of Walpole, he was never suspected of corruption. But he had a
keen and steady eye to his own advantage, and he was said to be jealous
of all who might become his rivals for power. His manners, too, were
arrogant. Lord Waldegrave said of Hardwicke that "he might have been
thought a great man had he been less avaricious, less proud, less unlike
a gentleman." Although in his youth he contributed to the _Spectator_
over the signature "Philip Homebred," he seems early to have abandoned
all care for literature, and he has been reproached by Lord Campbell and
others with his neglect of art and letters. He married, on the 16th of
May 1719, Margaret, daughter of Charles Cocks (by his wife Mary, sister
of Lord Chancellor Somers), and widow of John Lygon, by whom he had five
sons and two daughters. His eldest daughter, Elizabeth, married Lord
Anson; and the second, Margaret, married Sir Gilbert Heathcote. Three of
his younger sons attained some distinction. Charles Yorke (q.v.), the
second son, became like his father lord chancellor; the third, Joseph,
was a diplomatist, and was created Lord Dover; while James, the fifth
son, became bishop of Ely.

Hardwicke was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, PHILIP YORKE
(1720-1795), 2nd earl of Hardwicke, born on the 19th of March 1720, and
educated at Cambridge. In 1741 he became a fellow of the Royal Society.
With his brother, Charles Yorke, he was one of the chief contributors to
_Athenian Letters; or the Epistolary Correspondence of an agent of the
King of Persia residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian War_ (4
vols., London, 1741), a work that for many years had a considerable
vogue and went through several editions. He sat in the House of Commons
as member for Reigate (1741-1747), and afterwards for Cambridgeshire;
and he kept notes of the debates which were afterwards embodied in
Cobbett's _Parliamentary History_. He was styled Viscount Royston from
1754 till 1764, when he succeeded to the earldom. In politics he
supported the Rockingham Whigs. He held the office of teller of the
exchequer, and was lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire and high steward of
Cambridge University. He edited a quantity of miscellaneous state papers
and correspondence, to be found in MSS. collections in the British
Museum. He died in London, on the 16th of May 1790. He married Jemima
Campbell, only daughter of John, 3rd earl of Breadalbane, and
grand-daughter and heiress of Henry de Grey, duke of Kent, who became in
her own right marchioness de Grey.

In default of sons, the title devolved on his nephew, PHILIP YORKE
(1757-1834), 3rd earl of Hardwicke, eldest son of Charles Yorke, lord
chancellor, by his first wife, Catherine Freman, who was born on the
31st of May 1757 and was educated at Cambridge. He was M.P. for
Cambridgeshire, following the Whig traditions of his family; but after
his succession to the earldom in 1790 he supported Pitt, and took office
in 1801 as lord lieutenant of Ireland (1801-1806), where he supported
Catholic emancipation. He was created K.G. in 1803, and was a fellow of
the Royal Society. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James Lindsay, 5th
earl of Balcarres, in 1782, but left no son.

He was succeeded in the peerage by his nephew, CHARLES PHILIP YORKE
(1799-1873), 4th earl of Hardwicke, English admiral, eldest son of
Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke (1768-1831), who was second son of
Charles Yorke, lord chancellor, by his second wife, Agneta Johnson.
Charles Philip was born at Southampton on the 2nd of April 1799 and was
educated at Harrow. He entered the royal navy in 1815, and served on the
North American station and in the Mediterranean, attaining the rank of
captain in 1825. He represented Reigate (1831) and Cambridgeshire
(1832-1834) in the House of Commons; and after succeeding to the earldom
in 1834, was appointed a lord in waiting by Sir Robert Peel in 1841. In
1858 he retired from the active list with the rank of rear-admiral,
becoming vice-admiral in the same year, and admiral in 1863. He was a
member of Lord Derby's cabinet in 1852 as postmaster-general and lord
privy seal in 1858. In 1833 he married Susan, daughter of the 1st Lord
Ravensworth, by whom he had five sons and three daughters. His eldest
son, CHARLES PHILIP YORKE (1836-1897), 5th earl of Hardwicke, was
comptroller of the household of Queen Victoria (1866-1868) and master of
the buckhounds (1874-1880). He married in 1863, Sophia Georgiana,
daughter of the 1st Earl Cowley. He was succeeded by his only son ALBERT
EDWARD PHILIP HENRY YORKE (1867-1904), 6th earl of Hardwicke, who, after
holding the posts of under-secretary of state for India (1900-1902) and
for war (1902-1903), died unmarried on the 29th of November 1904; the
title then went to his uncle, JOHN MANNERS YORKE (1840-1909), 7th earl
of Hardwicke, second son of Charles Philip, the 4th earl, who joined the
royal navy and served in the Baltic and in the Crimea (1854-1855). This
earl died on the 13th of March 1909 and was succeeded by his son Charles
Alexander (b. 1869) as 8th earl.

  The contemporary authorities for the life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke
  are voluminous, being contained in the memoirs of the period and in
  numerous collections of correspondence in the British Museum. See,
  especially, the _Hardwicke Papers_; the _Stowe MSS.; Hist. MSS.
  Commission_ (Reports 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11); Horace Walpole, _Letters_
  (ed. by P. Cunningham, 9 vols., London, 1857-1859); _Letters to Sir H.
  Mann_ (ed. by Lord Dover, 4 vols., London, 1843-1844); _Memoirs of the
  Reign of George II._ (ed. by Lord Holland, 2nd ed. revised, London,
  1847); _Memoirs of the Reign of George III._ (ed. by G. F. R. Barker,
  4 vols., London, 1894); _Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors of
  England, Scotland and Ireland_ (ed. by T. Park, 5 vols., London,
  1806). Horace Walpole was violently hostile to Hardwicke, and his
  criticism, therefore, must be taken with extreme reserve. See also the
  earl Waldegrave, _Memoirs 1754-1758_ (London, 1821); Lord
  Chesterfield, _Letters_ (ed. by Lord Mahon, 5 vols., London, 1892);
  Richard Cooksey, _Essay on John, Lord Somers, and Philip, Earl of
  Hardwicke_ (Worcester, 1791); William Coxe, _Memoirs of Sir R.
  Walpole_ (4 vols., London, 1816); _Memoirs of the Administration of
  Henry Pelham_ (2 vols., London, 1829); Lord Campbell, _Lives of the
  Lord Chancellors_, vol. v. (8 vols., London, 1845); Edward Foss, _The
  Judges of England_, vols. vii. and viii. (9 vols., London, 1848-1864);
  George Harris, _Life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke; with Selections
  from his Correspondence, Diaries, Speeches and Judgments_ (3 vols.,
  London, 1847). The last-named work may be consulted for the lives of
  the 2nd and 3rd earls. For the 3rd earl see also the duke of
  Buckingham, _Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets of George III._ (4
  vols., London, 1853-1855). For the 4th earl see _Charles Philip
  Yorke_, by his daughter, Lady Biddulph of Ledbury (1910).
       (R. J. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Lord Campbell, _Lives of the Lord Chancellors_, v. 43 (London,
    1846).



HARDY, ALEXANDRE (1569?-1631), French dramatist, was born in Paris. He
was one of the most fertile of all dramatic authors, and himself claimed
to have written some six hundred plays, of which, however, only
thirty-four are preserved. He seems to have been connected all his life
with a troupe of actors headed by a clever comedian named
Valleran-Lecomte, whom he provided with plays. Hardy toured the
provinces with this company, which gave some representations in Paris
in 1599 at the Hôtel de Bourgogne. Valleran-Lecomte occupied the same
theatre in 1600-1603, and again in 1607, apparently for some years. In
consequence of disputes with the Confrérie de la Passion, who owned the
privilege of the theatre, they played elsewhere in Paris and in the
provinces for some years; but in 1628, when they had long borne the
title of "royal," they were definitely established at the Hôtel de
Bourgogne. Hardy's numerous dedications never seem to have brought him
riches or patrons. His most powerful friend was Isaac de Laffemas (d.
1657), one of Richelieu's most unscrupulous agents, and he was on
friendly terms with the poet Théophile, who addressed him in some verses
placed at the head of his _Théâtre_ (1632), and Tristan l'Hermite had a
similar admiration for him. Hardy's plays were written for the stage,
not to be read; and it was in the interest of the company that they
should not be printed and thus fall into the common stock. But in 1623
he published _Les Chastes et loyales amours de Théagène et Cariclée_, a
tragi-comedy in eight "days" or dramatic poems; and in 1624 he began a
collected edition of his works, _Le Théâtre d'Alexandre Hardy,
parisien_, of which five volumes (1624-1628) were published, one at
Rouen and the rest in Paris. These comprise eleven tragedies: _Didon se
sacrifiant_, _Scédase ou l'hospitalité violée_, _Panthée_, _Méléagre_,
_La Mort d'Achille_, _Coriolan_, _Marianne_, a trilogy on the history of
Alexander, _Alcméon, ou la vengeance féminine_; five mythological
pieces; thirteen tragi-comedies, among them _Gésippe_, drawn from
Boccaccio; _Phraarte_, taken from Giraldi's _Cent excellentes nouvelles_
(Paris, 1584); _Cornélie_, _La Force du sang_, _Félismène_, _La Belle
Égyptienne_, taken from Spanish subjects; and five pastorals, of which
the best is _Alphée, ou la justice d'amour_. Hardy's importance in the
history of the French theatre can hardly be over-estimated. Up to the
end of the 16th century medieval farce and spectacle kept their hold on
the stage in Paris. The French classical tragedy of Étienne Jodelle and
his followers had been written for the learned, and in 1628 when Hardy's
work was nearly over and Rotrou was on the threshold of his career, very
few literary dramas by any other author are known to have been publicly
represented. Hardy educated the popular taste, and made possible the
dramatic activity of the 17th century. He had abundant practical
experience of the stage, and modified tragedy accordingly, suppressing
chorus and monologue, and providing the action and variety which was
denied to the literary drama. He was the father in France of
tragi-comedy, but cannot fairly be called a disciple of the romantic
school of England and Spain. It is impossible to know how much later
dramatists were indebted to him in detail, since only a fraction of his
work is preserved, but their general obligation is amply established. He
died in 1631 or 1632.

  The sources for Hardy's biography are extremely limited. The account
  given by the brothers Parfaict in their _Hist. du théâtre français_
  (1745, &c., vol. iv. pp. 2-4) must be received with caution, and no
  documents are forthcoming. Many writers have identified him with the
  provincial playwright picturesquely described in chap. xi. of _Le Page
  disgrâcié_ (1643), the autobiography of Tristan l'Hermite, but if the
  portrait is drawn from life at all, it is more probably drawn from
  Théophile. See _Le Théâtre d'Alexandre Hardy_, edited by E. Stengel
  (Marburg and Paris, 1883-1884, 5 vols.); E. Lombard, "Étude sur
  Alexandre Hardy," in _Zeitschr. für neufranz. Spr. u. Lit._ (Oppeln
  and Leipzig, vols. i. and ii., 1880-1881); K. Nagel, _A. Hardy's
  Einfluss auf Pierre Corneille_ (Marburg, 1884); and especially E.
  Rigal, _Alexandre Hardy ..._ (Paris, 1889) and _Le Théâtre français
  avant la période classique_ (Paris, 1901.)



HARDY, THOMAS (1840-   ), English novelist, was born in Dorsetshire on
the 2nd of June 1840. His family was one of the branches of the Dorset
Hardys, formerly of influence in and near the valley of the Frome,
claiming descent from John Le Hardy of Jersey (son of Clement Le Hardy,
lieutenant-governor of that island in 1488), who settled in the west of
England. His maternal ancestors were the Swetman, Childs or Child, and
kindred families, who before and after 1635 were small landed
proprietors in Melbury Osmond, Dorset, and adjoining parishes. He was
educated at local schools, 1848-1854, and afterwards privately, and in
1856 was articled to Mr John Hicks, an ecclesiastical architect of
Dorchester. In 1859 he began writing verse and essays, but in 1861 was
compelled to apply himself more strictly to architecture, sketching and
measuring many old Dorset churches with a view to their restoration. In
1862 he went to London (which he had first visited at the age of nine)
and became assistant to the late Sir Arthur Blomfield, R.A. In 1863 he
won the medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects for an essay
on _Coloured Brick and Terra-cotta Architecture_, and in the same year
won the prize of the Architectural Association for design. In March 1865
his first short story was published in _Chambers's Journal_, and during
the next two or three years he wrote a good deal of verse, being
somewhat uncertain whether to take to architecture or to literature as a
profession. In 1867 he left London for Weymouth, and during that and the
following year wrote a "purpose" story, which in 1869 was accepted by
Messrs Chapman and Hall. The manuscript had been read by Mr George
Meredith, who asked the writer to call on him, and advised him not to
print it, but to try another, with more plot. The manuscript was
withdrawn and re-written, but never published. In 1870 Mr Hardy took Mr
Meredith's advice too literally, and constructed a novel that was all
plot, which was published in 1871 under the title _Desperate Remedies_.
In 1872 appeared _Under the Greenwood Tree_, a "rural painting of the
Dutch school," in which Mr Hardy had already "found himself," and which
he has never surpassed in happy and delicate perfection of art. _A Pair
of Blue Eyes_, in which tragedy and irony come into his work together,
was published in 1873. In 1874 Mr Hardy married Emma Lavinia, daughter
of the late T. Attersoll Gifford of Plymouth. His first popular success
was made by _Far from the Madding Crowd_ (1874), which, on its
appearance anonymously in the _Cornhill Magazine_, was attributed by
many to George Eliot. Then came _The Hand of Ethelberta_ (1876),
described, not inaptly, as "a comedy in chapters"; _The Return of the
Native_ (1878), the most sombre and, in some ways, the most powerful and
characteristic of Mr Hardy's novels; _The Trumpet-Major_ (1880); _A
Laodicean_ (1881); _Two on a Tower_ (1882), a long excursion in
constructive irony; _The Mayor of Casterbridge_ (1886); _The
Woodlanders_ (1887); _Wessex Tales_ (1888); _A Group of Noble Dames_
(1891); _Tess of the D'Urbervilles_ (1891), Mr Hardy's most famous
novel; _Life's Little Ironies_ (1894); _Jude the Obscure_ (1895), his
most thoughtful and least popular book; _The Well-Beloved_, a reprint,
with some revision, of a story originally published in the _Illustrated
London News_ in 1892 (1897); _Wessex Poems_, written during the previous
thirty years, with illustrations by the author (1898); and _The Dynasts_
(2 parts, 1904-1906). In 1909 appeared _Time's Laughing-stocks and other
Verses_. In all his work Mr Hardy is concerned with one thing, seen
under two aspects; not civilization, nor manners, but the principle of
life itself, invisibly realized in humanity as sex, seen visibly in the
world as what we call nature. He is a fatalist, perhaps rather a
determinist, and he studies the workings of fate or law (ruling through
inexorable moods or humours), in the chief vivifying and disturbing
influence in life, women. His view of women is more French than English;
it is subtle, a little cruel, not as tolerant as it seems, thoroughly a
man's point of view, and not, as with Mr Meredith, man's and woman's at
once. He sees all that is irresponsible for good and evil in a woman's
character, all that is untrustworthy in her brain and will, all that is
alluring in her variability. He is her apologist, but always with a
reserve of private judgment. No one has created more attractive women of
a certain class, women whom a man would have been more likely to love or
to regret loving. In his earlier books he is somewhat careful over the
reputation of his heroines; gradually he allows them more liberty, with
a franker treatment of instinct and its consequences. _Jude the Obscure_
is perhaps the most unbiassed consideration in English fiction of the
more complicated questions of sex. There is almost no passion in his
work, neither the author nor his characters ever seeming able to pass
beyond the state of curiosity, the most intellectually interesting of
limitations, under the influence of any emotion. In his feeling for
nature, curiosity sometimes seems to broaden into a more intimate
communion. The heath, the village with its peasants, the change of every
hour among the fields and on the roads of that English countryside which
he has made his own--the Dorsetshire and Wiltshire "Wessex"--mean more
to him, in a sense, than even the spectacle of man and woman in their
blind and painful and absorbing struggle for existence. His knowledge of
woman confirms him in a suspension of judgment; his knowledge of nature
brings him nearer to the unchanging and consoling element in the world.
All the entertainment which he gets out of life comes to him from his
contemplation of the peasant, as himself a rooted part of the earth,
translating the dumbness of the fields into humour. His peasants have
been compared with Shakespeare's; he has the Shakespearean sense of
their placid vegetation by the side of hurrying animal life, to which
they act the part of chorus, with an unconscious wisdom in their close,
narrow and undistracted view of things. The order of merit was conferred
upon Mr Hardy in July 1910.

  See Annie Macdonell, _Thomas Hardy_ (London, 1894); Lionel P. Johnson,
  _The Art of Thomas Hardy_ (London, 1894).     (A. Sy.)



HARDY, SIR THOMAS DUFFUS (1804-1878), English antiquary, was the third
son of Major Thomas Bartholomew Price Hardy, and belonged to a family
several members of which had distinguished themselves in the British
navy. Born at Port Royal in Jamaica on the 22nd of May 1804, he crossed
over to England and in 1819 entered the Record Office in the Tower of
London. Trained under Henry Petrie (1768-1842) he gained a sound
knowledge of palaeography, and soon began to edit selections of the
public records. From 1861 until his death on the 15th of June 1878 he
was deputy-keeper of the Record Office, which just before his
appointment had been transferred to its new London headquarters in
Chancery Lane. Hardy, who was knighted in 1873, had much to do with the
appointment of the Historical Manuscripts Commission in 1869.

  Sir T. Hardy edited the Close Rolls, _Rotuli litterarum clausarum,
  1204-1227_ (2 vols., 1833-1844), with an introduction entitled "A
  Description of the Close Rolls, with an Account of the early Courts of
  Law and Equity"; and the Patent Rolls, _Rotuli litterarum patentium,
  1201-1216_ (1835), with introduction, "A Description of the Patent
  Rolls, to which is added an Itinerary of King John." He also edited
  the _Rotuli de oblatis et finibus_ (1835), which deal also with the
  time of King John; the _Rotuli Normanniae, 1200-1205_, and _1417-1418_
  (1835), containing letters and grants of the English kings concerning
  the duchy of Normandy; the Charter Rolls, _Rotuli chartarum,
  1199-1216_ (1837), giving with this work an account of the structure
  of charters; the Liberate Rolls, _Rotuli de liberate ac de misis et
  praestitis regnante Johanne_ (1844); and the _Modus tenendi
  parliamentum_, with a translation (1846). He wrote _A Catalogue of
  Lords Chancellors, Keepers of the Great Seal, Masters of the Rolls and
  Officers of the Court of Chancery_ (1843); the preface to Henry
  Petrie's _Monumenta historica Britannica_ (1848); and _Descriptive
  Catalogue of Materials relating to the History of Great Britain and
  Ireland_ (3 vols., 1862-1871). He edited William of Malmesbury's _De
  gestis regum anglorum_ (2 vols., 1840); he continued and corrected
  John le Neve's _Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae_ (3 vols., Oxford, 1854);
  and with C. T. Martin he edited and translated _L'Estorie des Engles_
  of Geoffrey Gaimar (1888-1889). He wrote _Syllabus in English of
  Documents in Rymer's Foedera_ (3 vols., 1869-1885), and gave an
  account of the history of the public records from 1837 to 1851 in his
  _Memoirs of the Life of Henry, Lord Langdale_ (1852), Lord Langdale
  (1783-1851), master of the rolls from 1836 to 1851, being largely
  responsible for the erection of the new Record Office. Hardy took part
  in the controversy about the date of the Athanasian creed, writing
  _The Athanasian Creed in connection with the Utrecht Psalter_ (1872);
  and _Further Report on the Utrecht Psalter_ (1874).

His younger brother, SIR WILLIAM HARDY (1807-1887), was also an
antiquary. He entered the Record Office in 1823, leaving it in 1830 to
become keeper of the records of the duchy of Lancaster. In 1868, when
these records were presented by Queen Victoria to the nation, he
returned to the Record Office as an assistant keeper, and in 1878 he
succeeded his brother Sir Thomas as deputy-keeper, resigning in 1886. He
died on the 17th of March 1887.

  Sir W. Hardy edited Jehan de Waurin's _Recueil des croniques et
  anchiennes istories de la Grant Bretaigne_ (5 vols., 1864-1891); and
  he translated and edited the _Charters of the Duchy of Lancaster_
  (1845).



HARDY, SIR THOMAS MASTERMAN, Bart. (1769-1839), British vice-admiral, of
the Portisham (Dorsetshire) family of Hardy, was born on the 5th of
April 1769, and in 1781 began his career as a sailor. He became
lieutenant in 1793, and in 1796, being then attached to the "Minerve"
frigate, attracted the attention of Nelson by his gallant conduct. He
continued to serve with distinction, and in 1798 was promoted to be
captain of the "Vanguard," Nelson's flagship. In the "St George" he did
valuable work before the battle of Copenhagen in 1801, and his
association with Nelson was crowned by his appointment in 1803 to the
"Victory" as flag-captain, in which capacity he was engaged at the
battle of Trafalgar in 1805, witnessed Nelson's will, and was in close
attendance on him at his death. Hardy was created a baronet in 1806. He
was then employed on the North American station, and later (1819), was
made commodore and commander-in-chief on the South American station,
where his able conduct came prominently into notice. In 1825 he became
rear-admiral, and in December 1826 escorted the expeditionary force to
Lisbon. In 1830 he was made first sea lord of the admiralty, being
created G.C.B. in 1831. In 1834 he was appointed governor of Greenwich
hospital, where thenceforward he devoted himself with conspicuous
success to the charge of the naval pensioners; in 1837 he became
vice-admiral. He died at Greenwich on the 20th of September 1839. In
1807 he had married Anne Louisa Emily, daughter of Sir George Cranfield
Berkeley, under whom he had served on the North American station, and by
her he had three daughters, the baronetcy becoming extinct.

  See Marshall, _Royal Naval Biography_, ii. and iii.; Nicolas,
  _Despatches of Lord Nelson_; Broadley and Bartelot, _The Three Dorset
  Captains at Trafalgar_ (1906), and _Nelson's Hardy, his Life, Letters
  and Friends_ (1909).



HARDYNG or HARDING, JOHN (1378-1465), English chronicler, was born in
the north, and as a boy entered the service of Sir Henry Percy
(Hotspur), with whom he was present at the battle of Shrewsbury (1403).
He then passed into the service of Sir Robert Umfraville, under whom he
was constable of Warkworth Castle, and served in the campaign of
Agincourt in 1415 and in the sea-fight before Harfleur in 1416. In 1424
he was on a diplomatic mission at Rome, where at the instance of
Cardinal Beaufort he consulted the chronicle of Trogus Pompeius.
Umfraville, who died in 1436, had made Hardyng constable of Kyme in
Lincolnshire, where he probably lived till his death about 1465. Hardyng
was a man of antiquarian knowledge, and under Henry V. was employed to
investigate the feudal relations of Scotland to the English crown. For
this purpose he visited Scotland, at much expense and hardship. For his
services he says that Henry V. promised him the manor of Geddington in
Northamptonshire. Many years after, in 1439, he had a grant of £10 a
year for similar services. In 1457 there is a record of the delivery of
documents relating to Scotland by Hardyng to the earl of Shrewsbury, and
his reward by a further pension of £20. It is clear that Hardyng was
well acquainted with Scotland, and James I. is said to have offered him
a bribe to surrender his papers. But the documents, which are still
preserved in the Record Office, have been shown to be forgeries, and
were probably manufactured by Hardyng himself. Hardyng spent many years
on the composition of a rhyming chronicle of England. His services under
the Percies and Umfravilles gave him opportunity to obtain much
information of value for 15th century history. As literature the
chronicle has no merit. It was written and rewritten to suit his various
patrons. The original edition ending in 1436 had a Lancastrian bias and
was dedicated to Henry VI. Afterwards he prepared a version for Richard,
duke of York (d. 1460), and the chronicle in its final form was
presented to Edward IV. after his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in
1464.

  The version of 1436 is preserved in Lansdowne MS. 204, and the best of
  the later versions in Harley MS. 661, both in the British Museum.
  Richard Grafton printed two editions in January 1543, which differ
  much from one another and from the now extant manuscripts. Stow, who
  was acquainted with a different version, censured Grafton on this
  point somewhat unjustly. Sir Henry Ellis published the longer version
  of Grafton with some additions from the Harley MS. in 1812.

  See Ellis' preface to Hardyng's _Chronicle_, and Sir F. Palgrave's
  _Documents illustrating the History of Scotland_ (for an account of
  Hardyng's forgeries).     (C. L. K.)



HARE, AUGUSTUS JOHN CUTHBERT (1834-1903), English writer and traveller,
was born at Rome in 1834. He was educated at Harrow school and at
University College, Oxford. His name is familiar as the author of a
large number of guide-books to the principal countries and towns of
Europe, most of which were written to order for John Murray. They were
made up partly of the author's own notes of travel, partly of quotations
from others' books taken with a frankness of appropriation that disarmed
criticism. He also wrote _Memorials of a Quiet Life_--that of his aunt
by whom he had been adopted when a baby (1872), and a tediously long
autobiography in six volumes, _The Story of My Life_. He died at St
Leonards-on-Sea on the 22nd of January 1903.



HARE, SIR JOHN (1844-   ), English actor and manager, was born in
Yorkshire on the 16th of May 1844, and was educated at Giggleswick
school, Yorkshire. He made his first appearance on the stage at
Liverpool in 1864, coming to London in 1865, and acting for ten years
with the Bancrofts. He soon made his mark, particularly in T. W.
Robertson's comedies, and in 1875 became manager of the Court theatre.
But it was in association with Mr and Mrs Kendal at the St James's
theatre from 1879 to 1888 that he established his popularity in London,
in important "character" and "men of the world" parts, the joint
management of Hare and Kendal making this theatre one of the chief
centres of the dramatic world for a decade. In 1889 he became lessee and
manager of the Garrick theatre, where (though he was often out of the
cast) he produced several important plays, such as Pinero's _The
Profligate_ and _The Notorious Mrs Ebbsmith_, and had a remarkable
personal success in the chief part in Sydney Grundy's _A Pair of
Spectacles_. In 1897 he took the Globe theatre, where his acting in
Pinero's _Gay Lord Quex_ was another personal triumph. He became almost
as well known in the United States as in England, his last tour in
America being in 1900 and 1901. He was knighted in 1907.



HARE, JULIUS CHARLES (1795-1855), English theological writer, was born
at Valdagno, near Vicenza, in Italy, on the 13th of September 1795. He
came to England with his parents in 1799, but in 1804-1805 spent a
winter with them at Weimar, where he met Goethe and Schiller, and
received a bias to German literature which influenced his style and
sentiments throughout his whole career. On the death of his mother in
1806, Julius was sent home to the Charterhouse in London, where he
remained till 1812, when he entered Trinity College, Cambridge. There he
became fellow in 1818, and after some time spent abroad he began to read
law in London in the following year. From 1822 to 1832 he was
assistant-tutor at Trinity College. Turning his attention from law to
divinity, Hare took priest's orders in 1826; and, on the death of his
uncle in 1832, he succeeded to the rich family living of Hurstmonceaux
in Sussex, where he accumulated a library of some 12,000 volumes,
especially rich in German literature. Before taking up residence in his
parish he once more went abroad, and made in Rome the acquaintance of
the Chevalier Bunsen, who afterwards dedicated to him part of his work,
_Hippolytus and his Age_. In 1840 Hare was appointed archdeacon of
Lewes, and in the same year preached a course of sermons at Cambridge
(_The Victory of Faith_), followed in 1846 by a second, _The Mission of
the Comforter_. Neither series when published attained any great
popularity. Archdeacon Hare married in 1844 Esther, a sister of his
friend Frederick Maurice. In 1851 he was collated to a prebend in
Chichester; and in 1853 he became one of Queen Victoria's chaplains. He
died on the 23rd of January 1855.

  Julius Hare belonged to what has been called the "Broad Church party,"
  though some of his opinions approach very closely to those of the
  Evangelical Arminian school, while others again seem vague and
  undecided. He was one of the first of his countrymen to recognize and
  come under the influence of German thought and speculation, and,
  amidst an exaggerated alarm of German heresy, did much to vindicate
  the authority of the sounder German critics. His writings, which are
  chiefly theological and controversial, are largely formed of charges
  to his clergy, and sermons on different topics; but, though valuable
  and full of thought, they lose some of their force by the cumbrous
  German structure of the sentences, and by certain orthographical
  peculiarities in which the author indulged. In 1827 _Guesses at Truth
  by Two Brothers_[1] appeared. Hare assisted Thirlwall, afterwards
  bishop of St David's, in the translation of the 1st and 2nd volumes of
  Niebuhr's _History of Rome_ (1828 and 1832), and published a
  _Vindication of Niebuhr's History_ in 1829. He wrote many similar
  works, among which is a _Vindication of Luther against his recent
  English Assailants_ (1854). In 1848 he edited the _Remains of John
  Sterling_, who had formerly been his curate. Carlyle's _Life of John
  Sterling_ was written through dissatisfaction with the "Life" prefixed
  to Archdeacon Hare's book. _Memorials of a Quiet Life_, published in
  1872, contain accounts of the Hare family.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Julius Hare's co-worker in this book was his brother Augustus
    William Hare (1792-1834), who, after a distinguished career at
    Oxford, was appointed rector of Alton Barnes, Wiltshire. He died
    prematurely at Rome in 1834. He was the author of _Sermons to a
    Country Congregation_, published in 1837.



HARE, the name of the well-known English rodent now designated _Lepus
europaeus_ (although formerly termed, incorrectly, _L. timidus_). In a
wider sense the name includes all the numerous allied species which do
not come under the designation of rabbits (see RABBIT). Over the greater
part of Europe, where the ordinary species (fig. 1) does not occur, its
place is taken by the closely allied Alpine, or mountain hare (fig. 2),
the true _L. timidus_ of Linnaeus, and the type of the genus _Lepus_ and
the family _Leporidae_ (see RODENTIA). The second is a smaller animal
than the first, with a more rounded and relatively smaller head, and the
ears, hind-legs and tail shorter. In Ireland and the southern districts
of Sweden it is permanently of a light fulvous grey colour, with black
tips to the ears, but in more northerly districts the fur--except the
black ear-tips--changes to white in winter, and still farther north the
animal appears to be white at all seasons of the year. The range of the
common or brown hare, inclusive of its local races, extends from England
across southern and central Europe to the Caucasus; while that of the
blue or mountain species, likewise inclusive of local races, reaches
from Ireland, Scotland and Scandinavia through northern Europe and Asia
to Japan and Kamchatka, and thence to Alaska.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The Hare (_Lepus europaeus_).]

The brown hare is a night-feeding animal, remaining during the day on
its "form," as the slight depression is called which it makes in the
open field, usually among grass. This it leaves at nightfall to seek
fields of young wheat and other cereals whose tender herbage forms its
favourite food. It is also fond of gnawing the bark of young trees, and
thus often does great damage to plantations. In the morning it returns
to its form, where it finds protection in the close approach which the
colour of its fur makes to that of its surroundings; should it thus
fail, however, to elude observation it depends for safety on its
extraordinary fleetness. On the first alarm of danger it sits erect to
reconnoitre, when it either seeks concealment by clapping close to the
ground, or takes to flight. In the latter case its great speed, and the
cunning endeavours it makes to outwit its canine pursuers, form the
chief attractions of coursing. The hare takes readily to the water,
where it swims well; an instance having been recorded in which one was
observed crossing an arm of the sea about a mile in width. Hares are
remarkably prolific, pairing when scarcely a year old, and the female
bringing forth several broods in the year, each consisting of from two
to five leverets (from the Fr. _lièvre_), as the young are called. These
are born covered with hair and with the eyes open, and after being
suckled for a month are able to look after themselves. In Europe this
species has seldom bred in confinement, although an instance has
recently been recorded. It will interbreed with the blue hare. Hares
(and rabbits) have a cosmopolitan distribution with the exception of
Madagascar and Australasia; and are now divided into numerous genera and
subgenera, mentioned in the article RODENTIA. Reference may here be made
to a few species. Asia is the home of numerous species, of which the
Common Indian _L. ruficaudatus_ and the black-necked hare _L.
nigricollis_, are inhabitants of the plains of India; the latter taking
its name from a black patch on the neck. In Assam there is a small spiny
hare (_Caprolagus hispidus_), with the habits of a rabbit; and an allied
species (_Nesolagus nitscheri_) inhabits Sumatra, and a third
(_Pentalagus furnessi_) the Liu-kiu Islands. The plateau of Tibet is
very rich in species, among which _L. hypsibius_ is very common.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--The Blue or Mountain Hare (_Lepus timidus_) in
winter dress.]

Of African species, the Egyptian Hare (_L. aegyptius_) is a small
animal, with long ears and pale fur; and in the south there are the Cape
hare (_L. capensis_), the long-eared rock-hare (_L. saxatilis_) and the
diminutive _Pronolagus crassicaudatus_, characterized by its thick red
tail.

North America is the home of numerous hares, some of which are locally
known as "cotton-tails" and others as "jack-rabbits." The most northern
are the Polar hare (_L. arcticus_), the Greenland hare (_L.
groenlandicus_) and the Alaska hare (_L. timidus tschuktschorum_), all
allied to the blue hare. Of the others, two, namely the large
prairie-hare (_L. campestris_) and the smaller varying hare (_L.
[Poecilolagus] americanus_), turn white in winter; the former having
long ears and the whole tail white, whereas in the latter the ears are
shorter and the upper surface of the tail is dark. Of those which do not
change colour, the wood-hare, grey-rabbit or cotton-tail, _Sylvilagus
floridanus_, is a southern form, with numerous allied kinds. Distantly
allied to the prairie-hare or white-tailed jack-rabbit, are several
forms distinguished by having a more or less distinct black stripe on
the upper surface of the tail. These include a buff-bellied species
found in California, N. Mexico and S.W. Oregon (_L. [Macrotolagus]
californicus_), a large, long-legged form from S. Arizona and Sonora
(_L. M alleni_), the Texan jack-rabbit (_L. M texanus_) and the
black-eared hare (_L. M melanotis_) of the Great Plains, which differs
from the third only by its shorter ears and richer coloration. In S.
America, the small tapiti or Brazilian hare (_Sylvilagus brasiliensis_)
is nearly allied to the wood-hare, but has a yellowish brown under
surface to the tail.

  See also COURSING.     (R. L.*)



HAREBELL (sometimes wrongly written HAIRBELL), known also as the
blue-bell of Scotland, and witches' thimbles, a well-known perennial
wild flower, _Campanula rotundifolia_, a member of the natural order
Campanulaceae. The harebell has a very slender slightly creeping
root-stock, and a wiry, erect stem. The radical leaves, that is, those
at the base of the stem, to which the specific name _rotundifolia_
refers, have long stalks, and are roundish or heart-shaped with crenate
or serrate margin; the lower stem leaves are ovate or lanceolate, and
the upper ones linear, subsessile, acute and entire, rarely pubescent.
The flowers are slightly drooping, arranged in a panicle, or in small
specimens single, having a smooth calyx, with narrow pointed erect
segments, the corolla bell-shaped, with slightly recurved segments, and
the capsule nodding, and opening by pores at the base. There are two
varieties:--(a) _genuina_, with slender stem leaves, and (b)
_montana_, in which the lower stem-leaves are broader and somewhat
elliptical in shape. The plant is found on heaths and pastures
throughout Great Britain and flowers in late summer and in autumn; it is
widely spread in the north temperate zone. The harebell has ever been a
great favourite with poets, and on account of its delicate blue colour
has been considered as an emblem of purity.

[Illustration: Harebell (_Campanula rotundifolia_).]



HAREM, less frequently HARAM or HARIM (Arab _harim_--commonly but
wrongly pronounced harem--"that which is illegal or prohibited"), the
name generally applied to that part of a house in Oriental countries
which is set apart for the women; it is also used collectively for the
women themselves. Strictly the women's quarters are the _haremlik_
(_lik_, belonging to), as opposed to _selamlik_ the men's quarters, from
which they are in large houses separated by the _mabein_, the private
apartments of the householder. The word _harem_ is strictly applicable
to Mahommedan households only, but the system is common in greater or
less degree to all Oriental communities, especially where polygamy is
permitted. Other names for the women's quarters are Seraglio (Ital.
_serraglio_, literally an enclosure, from Lat. _sera_, a bar; wrongly
narrowed down to the sense of harem through confusion with Turkish
_serai_ or _sarai_, palace or large building, cf. _caravanserai_);
Zenana (strictly _zanana_, from Persian _zan_, woman, allied with Gr.
[Greek: gynê]), used specifically of Hindu harems; Andarun (or
Anderoon), the Persian word for the "inner part" (_sc._ of a house). The
Indian harem system is also commonly known as _pardah_ or _purdah_,
literally the name of the thick curtains or blinds which are used
instead of doors to separate the women's quarters from the rest of the
house. A male doctor attending a zenana lady would put his hand between
the _purdah_ to feel her pulse.

The seclusion of women in the household is fundamental to the Oriental
conception of the sex relation, and its origin must, therefore, be
sought far earlier than the precepts of Islam as set forth in the Koran,
which merely regulate a practically universal Eastern custom.[1] It is
inferred from the remains of many ancient Oriental palaces (Babylonian,
Persian, &c.) that kings and wealthy nobles devoted a special part of
the palace to their womankind. Though in comparatively early times there
were not wanting men who regarded polygamy as wrong (e.g. the prophets
of Israel), nevertheless in the East generally there has never been any
real movement against the conception of woman as a chattel of her male
relatives. A man may have as many wives and concubines as he can
support, but each of these women must be his exclusive property. The
object of this insistence upon female chastity is partly the maintenance
of the purity of the family with special reference to property, and
partly to protect women from marauders, as was the case with the people
of India when the Mahommedans invaded the country and sought for women
to fill their harems. In Mahommedan countries theoretically a woman must
veil her face to all men except her father, her brother and her husband;
any violation of this rule is still regarded by strict Mahommedans as
the gravest possible offence, though among certain Moslem communities
(e.g. in parts of Albania) women of the poorer classes may appear in
public unveiled. If any other man make his way into a harem he may lose
his life; the attempted escape of a harem woman is a capital offence,
the husband having absolute power of life and death, to such an extent
that, especially in the less civilized parts of the Moslem world, no one
would think of questioning a man's right to mutilate or kill a
disobedient wife or concubine.

_Turkish Harems._--A good deal of misapprehension, due to ignorance
combined with strong prejudice against the whole system, exists in
regard to the system in Turkey. It is often assumed, for example, that
the sultan's seraglio is typical, though on a uniquely large scale, of
all Turkish households, and as a consequence that every Turk is a
polygamist. This is far from being the case, for though the Koran
permits four wives, and etiquette allows the sultan seven, the man of
average possessions is perforce content with one, and a small number of
female servants. It is, therefore, necessary to take the imperial
seraglio separately.

Though the sultan's household in modern times is by no means as numerous
as it used to be, it is said that the harem of Abdul Hamid contained
about 1000 women, all of whom were of slave origin. This body of women
form an elaborately organized community with a complete system of
officers, disciplinary and administrative, and strict distinctions of
status. The real ruler of this society is the sultan's mother, the
_Sultana Validé_, who exercises her authority through a female
superintendent, the _Kyahya Khatun_. She has also a large retinue of
subordinate officials (_Kalfas_) ranging downwards from the _Hasnadar
ousta_ ("Lady of the Treasury") to the "Mistress of the Sherbets" and
the "Chief Coffee Server." Each of these officials has under her a
number of pupil-slaves (_alaiks_), whom she trains to succeed her if
need be, and from whom the service is recruited. After the sultana
validé (who frequently enjoys considerable political power and is a
mistress of intrigue) ranks the mother of the heir-apparent; she is
called the _Bash Kadin Effendi_ ("Her excellency the Chief Lady"), and
also _hasseki_ or _kasseky_, and is distinguished from the other three
chief wives who only bear the title _Kadin Effendi_. Next come the
ladies who have borne the younger children of the sultan, the _Hanum
Effendis_, and after them the so-called Odalisks or Odalisques (a
perversion of _odalik_, from _odah_, chamber). These are subdivided,
according to the degree of favour in which they stand with the sultan or
padishah, into _Ikbals_ ("Favourites") and _Geuzdés_ (literally the
"Eyed" ones), those whom the sultan has favourably noticed in the course
of his visits to the apartments of his wives or his mother. All the
women are at the disposal of the sultan, though it is contrary to
etiquette for him actually to select recruits for his harem. The numbers
are kept up by his female relatives and state officials, the latter of
whom present girls annually on the evening before the 15th of Ramadan.

Every odalisk who has been promoted to the royal couch receives a
_daïra_, consisting of an allowance of money, a suite of apartments, and
a retinue, in proportion to her status. It should be noted that, since
all the harem women are slaves, the sultans, with practically no
exceptions, have never entered into legal marriage contracts. Any slave,
in however menial a position, may be promoted to the position of a kadin
effendi. Hence all the slaves who have any pretension to beauty are
carefully trained, from the time they enter the harem, in deportment,
dancing, music and the arts of the toilette: they are instructed in the
Moslem religion and learn the daily prayers (_namaz_); a certain number
are specially trained in reading and writing for secretarial work.
Discipline is strict, and continued disobedience leads to corporal
punishment by the eunuchs. All the women of the harem are absolutely
under the control of the sultana validé (who alone of the harem of her
dead husband is not sent away to an older palace when her son succeeds),
and owe her the most profound respect, even to the point of having to
obtain permission to leave their own apartments. Her financial
secretary, the _Haznadar Ousta_, succeeds to her power if she dies. The
sultan's foster-mother also is a person of importance, and is known as
the _Taia Kadin_.

The security of the harem is in the hands of a body of eunuchs both
black and white. The white eunuchs have charge of the outer gates of the
seraglio, but they are not allowed to approach the women's apartments,
and obtain no posts of distinction. Their chief, however, the _kapu
aghasi_ ("master of the gates") has part control over the ecclesiastical
possessions, and even the vizier cannot enter the royal apartments
without his permission. The black eunuchs have the right of entering the
gardens and chambers of the harem. Their chief, usually called the
_kislar aghasi_ ("master of the maidens"), though his true title is
_darus skadet aga_ ("chief of the abode of felicity"), is an official of
high importance. His appointment is for life. If he is deprived of his
post he receives his freedom; and if he resigns of his own accord he is
generally sent to Egypt with a pension of 100 francs a day. His
secretary keeps count of the revenues of the mosques built by the
sultans. He is usually succeeded by the second eunuch, who bears the
title of treasurer, and has charge of the jewels, &c., of the women. The
number of eunuchs is always a large one. The sultana validé and the
sultana hasseki have each fifty at their service, and others are
assigned to the kadins and the favourite odalisks.

The ordinary middle-class household is naturally on a very different
scale. The _selamlik_ is on the ground floor with a separate entrance,
and there the master of the house receives his male guests; the rest of
the ground floor is occupied by the kitchen and perhaps the stables. The
_haremlik_ is generally (in towns at least) on the upper floor fronting
on and slightly overhanging the street; it has a separate entrance,
courtyard and garden. The windows are guarded by lattices pierced with
circular holes through which the women may watch without being seen.
Communication with the _haremlik_ is effected by a locked door, of which
the Effendi keeps the key and also by a sort of revolving cupboard
(_dutap_) for the conveyance of meals. The furniture, of the
old-fashioned harems at least, is confined to divans, rugs, carpets and
mirrors. For heating purposes the old brass tray of charcoal and wood
ash is giving way to American stoves, and there is a tendency to import
French furniture and decoration without regard to their suitability.

The presence of a second wife is the exception, and is generally
attributable to the absence of children by the first wife. The expense
of marrying a free woman leads many Turks to prefer a slave woman who is
much more likely to be an amenable partner. If a slave woman bears a
child she is often set free and then the marriage ceremony is gone
through.

The harem system is, of course, wholly inconsistent with any high ideal
of womanhood. Certain misapprehensions, however, should be noticed. The
depravity of the system and the vapid idleness of harem life are much
exaggerated by observers whose sympathies are wholly against the system.
In point of fact much depends on the individuals. In many households
there exists a very high degree of mutual consideration and the standard
of conduct is by no means degraded. Though a woman may not be seen in
the streets without the _yashmak_ which covers her face except for her
eyes, and does not leave her house except by her husband's permission,
none the less in ordinary households the harem ladies frequently drive
into the country and visit the shops and public baths. Their seclusion
has very considerable compensations, and legally they stand on a far
better basis in relation to their husbands than do the women of
monogamous Christian communities. From the moment when a woman, free or
slave, enters into any kind of wifely relation with a man, she has a
legally enforceable right against him both for her own and for her
children's maintenance. She has absolute control over her personal
property whether in money, slaves or goods; and, if divorce is far
easier in Islam than in Christendom, still the marriage settlement must
be of such amount as will provide suitable maintenance in that event.

On the other hand, of course, the system is open to the gravest abuse,
and in countries like Persia, Morocco and India, the life of Moslem
women and slaves is often far different from that of middle class women
of European Turkey, where law is strict and culture advanced. The early
age at which girls are secluded, the dulness of their surroundings, and
the low moral standard which the system produces react unfavourably not
only upon their moral and intellectual growth but also upon their
capacity for motherhood and their general physique. A harem woman is
soon passée, and the lot of a woman past her youth, if she is divorced
or a widow, is monotonous and empty. This is true especially of
child-widows.

Since the middle of the 19th century familiarity with European customs
and the direct influence of European administrators has brought about a
certain change in the attitude of Orientals to the harem system. This
movement is, however, only in its infancy, and the impression is still
strong that the time is not ripe for reform. The Oriental women are in
general so accustomed to their condition that few have any inclination
to change it, while men as a rule are emphatically opposed to any
alteration of the system. The Young Turkish party, the upper classes in
Egypt, as also the Babists in Persia, have to some extent progressed
beyond the orthodox conception of the status of women, but no radical
reform has been set on foot.

_In India_ various attempts have been made by societies, missionary and
other, as well as by private individuals, to improve the lot of the
zenana women. Zenana schools and hospitals have been founded, and a few
women have been trained as doctors and lawyers for the special purposes
of protecting the women against their own ignorance and inertia. Thus in
1905 a Parsee Christian lady, Cornelia Sorabjee, was appointed by the
Bengal government as legal adviser to the court of wards, so that she
might give advice to the widowed mothers of minors within the harem
walls. Similarly trained medical women are introduced into zenanas and
harems by the Lady Dufferin Association for medical aid to Indian women.
Gradually native Christian churches are making provision for the
attendance of women at their services, though the sexes are rigorously
kept apart. In India, as in Turkey, the introduction of Western dress
and education has begun to create new ideas and ambitions, and not a few
Eastern women have induced English women to enter the harems as
companions, nurses and governesses. But training and environment are
extremely powerful, and in some parts of the Mahommedan world, the
supply of Asiatic, European and even American girls is so steady, that
reform has touched only the fringe of the system.

Among the principal societies which have been formed to better the
condition of Indian and Chinese women in general with special reference
to the zenana system are the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society
and the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission. Much information as to the
medical, industrial and educational work done by these societies will be
found in their annual reports and other publications. Among these are J.
K. H. Denny's _Toward the Uprising_; Irene H. Barnes, _Behind the
Pardah_ (1897), an account of the former society's work; the general
condition of Indian women is described in Mrs Marcus B. Fuller's _Wrongs
of Indian Womanhood_ (1900), and Maud Dover's _The Englishwoman in
India_ (1909); see also article MISSIONS.

  AUTHORITIES.--The literature of the subject is very large, though a
  great deal of it is naturally based on insufficient evidence, and
  coloured by Western prepossessions. Among useful works are A. van
  Sommer and Zwerner, _Our Moslem Sisters_ (1907), a collection of
  essays by authors acquainted with various parts of the Mahommedan
  world and strongly opposed to the whole harem system; Mrs W. M.
  Ramsay, _Everyday Life in Turkey_ (1897), cc. iv. and v., containing
  an account of a day in a harem near Afium-Kara-Hissar; cf. e.g. art.
  "Harem" in Hughes, _Dictionary of Islam_; Mrs S. Harvey's _Turkish
  Harems and Circassian Homes_ (1871); for Mahomet's regulations, see
  R. Bosworth Smith's _Mohammed and Mohammedanism_ (1889); for Egypt,
  Lane, _Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians_ (1837); and E.
  Lott, _Harem Life in Egypt and Constantinople_ (1869); for the
  sultan's household in the 18th century, Lady Wortley Montagu's
  _Letters_, with which may be compared S. Lane-Poole, _Turkey_ (ed.
  1909); G. Dorys, _La Femme turque_ (1902); especially Lucy M. J.
  Garnett (with J. S. Stuart-Glennie), _The Women of Turkey_ (London,
  1901), and _The Turkish People_ (London, 1909). For the attempts which
  have been made to modify and improve the Indian zenana system, see
  e.g. the reports of the Dufferin Association and other official
  publications. Other information will be found in Hoffman's article in
  Ersch and Gruber's _Encyclopädie_; Flandin in _Revue des deux mondes_
  (1852) on the harem of the Persian prince Malik Kasim Mirza; the count
  de Beauvoir, in _Voyage round the World_ (1870), on Javanese and
  Siamese harems; Häntzsche in _Zeitschrift für allgemeine Erdkunde_
  (Berlin, 1864).     (J. M. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In Africa also, among the non-Mahommedan negroes of the west
    coast and the Bahima of the Victoria Nyanza, the seclusion of women
    of the upper classes has been practised in states (e.g. Ashanti and
    Buganda) possessing a considerable degree of civilization.



HARFLEUR, a port of France in the department of Seine-Inférieure, about
6 m. E. of Havre by rail. Pop. (1906) 2864. It lies in the fertile
valley of the Lézarde, at the foot of wooded hills not far from the
north bank of the estuary of the Seine. The port, which had been
rendered almost inaccessible owing to the deposits of the Lézarde, again
became available on the opening of the Tancarville canal (1887)
connecting it with the port of Havre and with the Seine. Vessels drawing
18 ft. can moor alongside the quays of the new port, which is on a
branch of the canal, has some trade in coal and timber, and carries on
fishing. The church of St Martin is the most remarkable building in the
town, and its lofty stone steeple forms a landmark for the pilots of the
river. It dates from the 15th and 16th centuries, but the great portal
is the work of the 17th, and the whole has undergone modern restoration.
Of the old castle there are only insignificant ruins, near which, in a
fine park, stands the present castle, a building of the 17th century.
The old ramparts of the town are now replaced by manufactories, and the
fosses are transformed into vegetable gardens. There is a statue of Jean
de Grouchy, lord of Montérollier, under whose leadership the English
were expelled from the town in 1435. The industries include distilling,
metal founding and the manufacture of oil and grease.

Harfleur is identified with _Caracotinum_, the principal port of the
ancient Calates. In the middle ages, when its name, Herosfloth,
Harofluet or Hareflot, was still sufficiently uncorrupted to indicate
its Norman derivation, it was the principal seaport of north-western
France. In 1415 it was captured by Henry V. of England, but when in 1435
the people of the district of Caux rose against the English, 104 of the
inhabitants opened the gates of the town to the insurgents, and thus got
rid of the foreign yoke. The memory of the deed was long perpetuated by
the bells of St Martin's tolling 104 strokes. Between 1445 and 1449 the
English were again in possession; but the town was recovered for the
French by Dunois. In the 16th century the port began to dwindle in
importance owing to the silting up of the Seine estuary and the rise of
Havre. In 1562 the Huguenots put Harfleur to pillage, and its registers
and charters perished in the confusion; but its privileges were restored
by Charles IX. in 1568, and it was not till 1710 that it was subjected
to the "taille."



HARIANA, a tract of country in the Punjab, India, once the seat of a
flourishing Hindu civilization. It consists of a level upland plain,
interspersed with patches of sandy soil, and largely overgrown with
brushwood. The Western Jumna canal irrigates the fields of a large
number of its villages. Since the 14th century Hissar has been the local
capital. During the troubled period which followed on the decline of the
Mogul empire, Hariana formed the battlefield where the Mahrattas,
Bhattis and Sikhs met to settle their territorial quarrels. The whole
country was devastated by the famine of 1783. In 1797-1798 Hariana was
overrun by the famous Irish adventurer George Thomas, who established
his capital at Hansi; in 1801 he was dispossessed by Sindhia's French
general Perron; in 1803 Hariana passed under British rule. On the
conquest of the Punjab Hariana was broken up into the districts of
Hissar, Rohtak and Sirsa, which last has in its turn been divided
between Hissar and Ferozepore.



HARINGTON, SIR JOHN (1561-1612), English writer, was born at Kelston,
near Bath, in 1561. His father, John Harington, acquired considerable
estates by marrying Etheldreda, a natural daughter of Henry VIII., and
after his wife's death he was attached to the service of the Princess
Elizabeth. He married Isabella Markham, one of her ladies, and on Mary's
accession he and his wife were imprisoned in the Tower with the
princess. John, the son of the second marriage, was Elizabeth's godson.
He studied at Eton and at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he took the
degree of M.A., his tutor being John Still, afterwards bishop of Bath
and Wells, formerly reputed to be the author of _Gammer Gurton's
Needle_. He came up to London about 1583 and was entered at Lincoln's
Inn, but his talents marked him out for success at court rather than for
a legal career. Tradition relates that he translated the story of
Giocondo from Ariosto and was reproved by the queen for acquainting her
ladies with so indiscreet a selection. He was to retire to his seat at
Kelston until he completed the translation of the entire work. _Orlando
Furioso_ in English heroical verse was published in 1591 and reprinted
in 1607 and 1634. Harington was high sheriff of Somerset in 1592 and
received Elizabeth at his house during her western progress of 1591. In
1596 he published in succession _The Metamorphosis of Ajax_, _An
Anatomie of the Metamorphosed Ajax_, and _Ulysses upon Ajax_, the three
forming collectively a very absurd and indecorous work of a
Pantagruelistic kind. An allusion to Leicester in this book threw the
writer into temporary disgrace, but in 1598 he received a commission to
serve in Ireland under Essex. He was knighted on the field, to the
annoyance of Elizabeth. Harington saved himself from being involved in
Essex's disgrace by writing an account of the Irish campaign which
increased Elizabeth's anger against the unfortunate earl. Among some
papers found in the chapter library at York was a _Tract on the
Succession to the Crown_ (1602), written by Harington to secure the
favour of the new king, to whom he sent the gift of a lantern
constructed to symbolize the waning glory of the late queen and James's
own splendour. This pamphlet, which contains many details of great
interest about Elizabeth and gives an unprejudiced sketch of the
religious question, was edited for the Roxburghe Club in 1880 by Sir
Clements Markham. Harington's efforts to win favour at the new court
were unsuccessful. In 1605 he even asked for the office of chancellor of
Ireland and proposed himself as archbishop. The document in which he
preferred this extraordinary request was published in 1879 with the
title of _A Short View of the State of Ireland written in 1605_.
Harington was before his time in advocating a policy of generosity and
conciliation towards that country. He eventually succeeded in obtaining
a position as one of the tutors of Prince Henry, for whom he annotated
Francis Godwin's _De praesulibus Angliae_. Harington's grandson, John
Chetwind, found in this somewhat scandalous production an argument for
the Presbyterian side, and published it in 1653, under the title of _A
Briefe View of the State of the Church, &c._

Harington died at Kelston on the 20th of November 1612. His _Epigrams_
were printed in a collection entitled _Alcilia_ in 1613, and separately
in 1615. The translation of the _Orlando Furioso_ was carried out with
skill and perseverance. It is not to be supposed that Harington failed
to realize the ironic quality of his original, but he treated it as a
serious allegory to suit the temper of Queen Elizabeth's court. He was
neither a very exact scholar nor a very poetical translator, and he
cannot be named in the same breath with Fairfax. The _Orlando Furioso_
was sumptuously illustrated, and to it was prefixed an _Apologie of
Poetrie_, justifying the subject matter of the poem, and, among other
technical matters, the author's use of disyllabic and trisyllabic
rhymes, also a life of Ariosto compiled by Harington from various
Italian sources. Harington's Rabelaisian pamphlets show that he was
almost equally endowed with wit and indelicacy, and his epigrams are
sometimes smart and always easy. His works include _The Englishman's
Doctor, Or the School of Salerne_ (1608), and _Nugae antiquae_,
miscellaneous papers collected in 1779.

_A biographical account of Harington is prefixed to the Roxburghe Club
edition of his tract on the succession mentioned above._



HARIRI [Abu Mahommed ul-Qasim ibn 'Ali ibn Mahommed al-Hariri,] i.e.
"the manufacturer or seller of silk"] (1054-1122), Arabian writer, was
born at Basra. He owned a large estate with 18,000 date-palms at Mashan,
a village near Basra. He is said to have occupied a government position,
but devoted his life to the study of the niceties of the Arabic
language. On this subject he wrote a grammatical poem the _Mulhat
ul-'Irab_ (French trans. _Les Récréations grammaticales_ with notes by
L. Pinto, Paris 1885-1889; extracts in S. de Sacy's _Anthologie arabe_,
pp. 145-151, Paris, 1829); a work on the faults of the educated called
_Durrat ul-Ghawwas_ (ed. H. Thorbecke, Leipzig, 1871), and some smaller
treatises such as the two letters on words containing the letters _sin_
and _shin_ (ed. in Arnold's _Chrestomathy_, pp. 202-9). But his fame
rests chiefly on his fifty _maqamas_ (see ARABIA: _Literature_, section
"Belles Lettres"). These were written in rhymed prose like those of
Hamadhani, and are full of allusions to Arabian history, poetry and
tradition, and discussions of difficult points of Arabic grammar and
rhetoric.

  The Maqamas have been edited with Arabic commentary by S. de Sacy
  (Paris, 1822, 2nd ed. with French notes by Reinaud and J. Derenbourg,
  Paris, 1853); with English notes by F. Steingass (London, 1896). An
  English translation with notes was made by T. Preston (London, 1850),
  and another by T. Chenery and F. Steingass (London, 1867 and 1898).
  Many editions have been published in the East with commentaries,
  especially with that of Sharishi (d. 1222).     (G. W. T.)



HARI-RUD, a river of Afghanistan. It rises in the northern slopes of the
Koh-i-Baba to the west of Kabul, and finally loses itself in the Tejend
oasis north of the Trans-Caspian railway and west of Merv. It runs a
remarkably straight course westward through a narrow trough from
Daolatyar to Obeh, amidst the bleak wind-swept uplands of the highest
central elevations in Afghanistan. From Obeh to Kuhsan 50 m. west of
Herat, it forms a valley of great fertility, densely populated and
highly cultivated; practically all its waters being drawn off for
purposes of irrigation. It is the contrast between the cultivated aspect
of the valley of Herat and the surrounding desert that has given Herat
its great reputation for fertility. Three miles to the south of Herat
the Kandahar road crosses the river by a masonry bridge of 26 arches now
in ruins. A few miles below Herat the river begins to turn north-west,
and after passing through a rich country to Kuhsan, it turns due north
and breaks through the Paropamisan hills. Below Kuhsan it receives fresh
tributaries from the west. Between Kuhsan and Zulfikar it forms the
boundary between Afghanistan and Persia, and from Zulfikar to Sarakhs
between Russia and Persia. North of Sarakhs it diminishes rapidly in
volume till it is lost in the sands of the Turkman desert. The Hari-Rud
marks the only important break existing in the continuity of the great
central water-parting of Asia. It is the ancient Arius.     (T. H. H.*)



HARISCHANDRA, in Hindu mythology, the 28th king of the Solar race. He
was renowned for his piety and justice. He is the central figure of
legends in the Aitareyabrahmana, Mahabharata and the Markandeyapurana.
In the first he is represented as so desirous of a son that he vows to
Varuna that if his prayer is granted the boy shall be eventually
sacrificed to the latter. The child is born, but Harischandra, after
many delays, arranges to purchase another's son and make a vicarious
sacrifice. According to the Mahabharata he is at last promoted to
Paradise as the reward for his munificent charity.



HARITH IBN HILLIZA UL-YASHKURI, pre-Islamic Arabian poet of the tribe of
Bakr, famous as the author of one of the poems generally received among
the Mo'allakat (q.v.). Nothing is known of the details of his life.



HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON (13th cent.), called also al-Harizi, a Spanish
Hebrew poet and traveller. He translated from the Arabic to Hebrew some
of the works of Maimonides (q.v.) and also of the Arab poet Hariri. His
own most considerable work was the _Tahkemoni_, composed between 1218
and 1220. This is written in Hebrew in unmetrical rhymes, in what is
commonly termed "rhymed prose." It is a series of humorous episodes,
witty verses, and quaint applications of Scriptural texts. The episodes
are bound together by the presence of the hero and of the narrator, who
is also the author. Harizi not only brought to perfection the art of
applying Hebrew to secular satire, but he was also a brilliant literary
critic and his _makame_ on the Andalusian Hebrew poets is a fruitful
source of information.

  See, on the _Tahkemoni_, Kaempf, _Nicht-andalusische Poesie
  andalusischer Dichter_ (Prague, 1858). In that work a considerable
  section of the _Tahkemoni_ is translated into German.     (I. A.)



HARKNESS, ALBERT (1822-1907), American classical scholar, was born at
Mendon, Massachusetts, on the 6th of October 1822. He graduated at Brown
University in 1842, taught in the Providence high school in 1843-1853,
studied in Berlin, Bonn (where in 1854 he was the first American to
receive the degree of Ph.D.) and Göttingen, and was professor of Greek
language and literature in Brown University from 1855 to 1892, when he
became professor emeritus. He was one of the founders in 1869 of the
American Philological Association, of which he was president in
1875-1876, and to whose _Transactions_ he made various contributions;
was a member of the Archaeological Institute's committee on founding the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and served as the second
director of that school in 1883-1884. He studied English and German
university methods during trips to Europe in 1870 and 1883, and
introduced a new scholarly spirit into American teaching of Latin in
secondary schools with a series of Latin text-books, which began in 1851
with a _First Latin Book_ and continued for more than fifty years. His
_Latin Grammar_ (1864, 1881) and _Complete Latin Grammar_ (1898) are his
best-known books. He was a member of the board of fellows of Brown
University from 1904 until his death, and in 1904-1905 was president of
the Rhode Island Historical Society. He died in Providence, Rhode
Island, on the 27th of May 1907.

His son, ALBERT GRANGER HARKNESS (1857-   ), also a classical scholar,
was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 19th of November 1857. He
graduated at Brown University in 1879, studied in Germany in 1879-1883,
and was professor of German and Latin at Madison (now Colgate)
University from 1883 to 1889, and associate professor of Latin at Brown
from 1889 to 1893, when he was appointed to the chair of Roman
literature and history there. He was director of the American School of
Classical Studies in Rome in 1902-1903.



HARKNESS, ROBERT (1816-1878), English geologist, was born at Ormskirk,
Lancashire, on the 28th of July 1816. He was educated at the high
school, Dumfries, and afterwards (1833-1834) at the university of
Edinburgh where he acquired an interest in geology from the teachings of
Robert Jameson and J. D. Forbes. Returning to Ormskirk he worked
zealously at the local geology, especially on the Coal-measures and New
Red Sandstone, his first paper (read before the Manchester Geol. Soc. in
1843) being on _The Climate of the Coal Epoch_. In 1848 his family went
to reside in Dumfries and there he commenced to work on the Silurian
rocks of the S.W. of Scotland, and in 1849 he carried his investigations
into Cumberland. In these regions during the next few years he added
much to our knowledge of the strata and their fossils, especially
graptolites, in papers read before the Geological Society of London. He
wrote also on the New Red rocks of the north of England and Scotland. In
1853 he was appointed professor of geology in Queen's College, Cork, and
in 1856 he was elected F.R.S. During this period he wrote some articles
on the geology of parts of Ireland, and exercised much influence as a
teacher, but he returned to England during his vacations and devoted
himself assiduously to the geology of the Lake district. He was also a
constant attendant at the meetings of the British Association. In 1876
the syllabus for the Queen's Colleges in Ireland was altered, and
Professor Harkness was required to lecture not only on geology,
palaeontology, mineralogy and physical geography, but also on zoology
and botany. The strain of the extra work proved too much, he decided to
relinquish his post, and had retired but a short time when he died, on
the 4th of October 1878.

  "Memoir," by J. G. Goodchild, in _Trans. Cumberland Assoc._ No. viii.
  (with portrait). In memory of Professor Harkness his sister
  established two Harkness scholarships. One scholarship (of the value
  of about £35 a year, tenable for three years) for women, tenable at
  either Girton or Newnham College, Cambridge, is awarded triennially to
  the best candidate in an examination in geology and palaeontology,
  provided that proficiency be shown; the other, for men, is vested in
  the hands of the university of Cambridge, and is awarded annually, any
  member of the university being eligible who has graduated as a B.A.,
  "provided that not more than three years have elapsed since the 19th
  day of December next following his final examination for the degree of
  bachelor of arts."



HARLAN, JAMES (1820-1899), American politician, was born in Clark
county, Illinois, on the 26th of August 1820. He graduated from Indiana
Asbury (now De Pauw) University in 1845, was president (1846-1847) of
the newly founded and short-lived Iowa City College, studied law, was
first superintendent of public instruction in Iowa in 1847-1848, and was
president of Iowa Wesleyan University in 1853-1855. He took a prominent
part in organizing the Republican party in Iowa, and was a member of the
United States Senate from 1855 to 1865, when he became secretary of the
interior. He had been a delegate to the peace convention in 1861, and
from 1861 to 1865 was chairman of the Senate committee on public lands.
He disapproved of President Johnson's conservative reconstruction
policy, retired from the cabinet in August 1866, and from 1867 to 1873
was again a member of the United States Senate. In 1866 he was a
delegate to the loyalists' convention at Philadelphia. One of his
principal speeches in the Senate was that which he made in March 1871 in
reply to Sumner's and Schurz's attack on President Grant's Santo
Domingan policy. He was presiding judge of the court of commissioners of
Alabama claims (1882-1885). He died in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, on the 5th
of October 1899.



HARLAN, JOHN MARSHALL (1833-   ), American jurist, was born in Boyle
county, Kentucky, on the 1st of June 1833. He graduated at Centre
College, Danville, Ky., in 1850, and at the law department of
Transylvania University, Lexington, in 1853. He was county judge of
Franklin county in 1858-1859, was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress
on the Whig ticket in 1859, and was elector on the Constitutional Union
ticket in 1860. On the outbreak of the Civil War he recruited and
organized the Tenth Kentucky United States Volunteer Infantry, and in
1861-1863 served as colonel. Retiring from the army in 1863, he was
elected by the Union party attorney-general of the state, and was
re-elected in 1865, serving from 1863 to 1867, when he removed to
Louisville to practise law. He was the Republican candidate for governor
in 1871 and in 1875, and was a member of the commission which was
appointed by President Hayes early in 1877 to accomplish the recognition
of one or other of the existing state governments of Louisiana (q.v.);
and he was a member of the Bering Sea tribunal which met in Paris in
1893. On the 29th of November 1877 he became an associate justice of the
United States Supreme Court. In this position he showed himself a
liberal constructionist. In opinions on the Civil Rights cases and in
the interpretation of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the
Constitution, he dissented from the majority of the court and advocated
increasing the power of the Federal government. He supported the
constitutionality of the income tax clause in the Wilson Tariff Bill of
1894, and he drafted the decision of the court in the Northern
Securities Company Case, which applied to railways the provisions of the
Sherman Anti-Trust Law. In 1889 he became a professor in the Law School
of the Columbian University (afterwards George Washington University) in
Washington, D.C.



HARLAND, HENRY (1861-1905), American novelist, was born in St
Petersburg, Russia, in March 1861, and was educated in New York and at
Harvard. He went to Europe as a journalist, and, after publishing
several novels, mainly of American-Jewish life (under the name of Sidney
Luska), first made his literary reputation in London as editor of the
_Yellow Book_ in 1894. His association with this clever publication, and
his own contributions to it, brought his name into prominence, but it
was not till he published _The Cardinal's Snuff-box_ (1900), followed
by _The Lady Paramount_ (1902), that his lightly humorous touch and
picturesque style as a novelist brought him any real success. His health
was always delicate, and he died at San Remo on the 20th of December
1905.



HARLAY DE CHAMPVALLON, FRANÇOIS DE (1625-1695), 5th archbishop of Paris,
was born in that city on the 14th of August 1625. Nephew of François de
Harlay, archbishop of Rouen, he was presented to the abbey of Jumièges
immediately on leaving the Collège de Navarre, and he was only
twenty-six when he succeeded his uncle in the archiepiscopal see. He was
transferred to the see of Paris in 1671, he was nominated by the king
for the cardinalate in 1690, and the domain of St Cloud was erected into
a duchy in his favour. He was commander of the order of the Saint Esprit
and a member of the French Academy. During the early part of his
political career he was a firm adherent of Mazarin, and is said to have
helped to procure his return from exile. His private life gave rise to
much scandal, but he had a great capacity for business, considerable
learning, and was an eloquent and persuasive speaker. He definitely
secured the favour of Louis XIV. by his support of the claims of the
Gallican Church formulated by the declaration made by the clergy in
assembly on the 19th of March 1682, when Bossuet accused him of
truckling to the court like a valet. One of the three witnesses of the
king's marriage with Madame de Maintenon, he was hated by her for using
his influence with the king to keep the matter secret. He had a weekly
audience of Louis XIV. in company with Père la Chaise on the affairs of
the Church in Paris, but his influence gradually declined, and
Saint-Simon, who bore him no good will for his harsh attitude to the
Jansenists, says that his friends deserted him as the royal favour
waned, until at last most of his time was spent at Conflans in company
with the duchess of Lesdiguières, who alone was faithful to him. He
urged the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and showed great severity
to the Huguenots at Dieppe, of which he was temporal and spiritual lord.
He died suddenly, without having received the sacraments, on the 6th of
August 1695. His funeral discourse was delivered by the Père Gaillard,
and Mme de Sévigné made on the occasion the severe comment that there
were only two trifles to make this a difficult matter--his life and his
death.

  See Abbé Legendre, _Vita Francisci de Harlay_ (Paris, 1720) and _Éloge
  de Harlay_ (1695); Saint-Simon, _Mémoires_ (vol. ii., ed. A. de
  Boislisle, 1879), and numerous references in the _Lettres_ of Mme de
  Sévigné.



HARLECH (perhaps for _Hardd lech_, fair slate, or _Harleigh_, an
Anglicized variant), a town of Merionethshire, Wales, 38 m. from
Aberystwyth, and 29 from Carnarvon on the Cambrian railway. Pop. 900.
Ruins of a fortress crown the rock of Harlech, about half a mile from
the sea. Discovery of Roman coins makes it probable that it was once
occupied by the Romans. In the 3rd century Bronwen (white bosom),
daughter of Bran Fendigaid (the blessed), is said to have stayed here,
perhaps by force; and there was here a tower, called Twr Bronwen, and
replaced about A.D. 550 by the building of Maelgwyn Gwynedd, prince of
North Wales. In the early 10th century, Harlech castle was, apparently,
repaired by Colwyn, lord of Ardudwy, founder of one of the fifteen North
Wales tribes, and thence called Caer Colwyn. The present structure
dates, like many others in the principality, from Edward I., perhaps
even from the plans of the architect of Carnarvon and Conway castles,
but with the retention of old portions. It is thought to have been
square, each side measuring some 210 ft., with towers and turrets.
Glendower held it for four years. Here, in 1460, Margaret, wife of Henry
VI., defeated at Northampton, took refuge. Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Einion
held it for the Lancastrians, until famine, rather than Edward IV., made
him surrender. From this time is said to date the air "March of the men
of Harlech" (_Rhyfelgerdd gwyr Harlech_). The castle was alternately
Roundhead and Cavalier in the civil war. Edward I. made Harlech a free
borough, and it was formerly the county town. It is in the parish of
Llandanwg (pop. in 1901, 931). Though interesting from an antiquarian
point of view, the district around, especially Dyffryn Ardudwy (the
valley), is dreary and desolate, e.g. Drws (the door of) Ardudwy,
Rhinog fawr and Rhinog fach (cliffs); an exception is the verdant Cwm
bychan (little combe or hollow). The Meini gwyr Ardudwy (stones of the
men of Ardudwy) possibly mark the site of a fight.



HARLEQUIN, in modern pantomime, the posturing and acrobatic character
who gives his name to the "harlequinade," attired in mask and
parti-coloured and spangled tights, and provided with a sword like a
bat, by which, himself invisible, he works wonders. It has generally
been assumed that Harlequin was transferred to France from the
"Arlecchino" of Italian medieval and Renaissance popular comedy; but Dr
Driesen in his _Ursprung des Harlekins_ (Berlin, 1904) shows that this
is incorrect. An old French "Harlekin" (Herlekin, Hellequin and other
variants) is found in folk-literature as early as 1100; he had already
become proverbial as a ragamuffin of a demoniacal appearance and
character; in 1262 a number of harlekins appear in a play by Adam de la
Halle as the intermediaries of King Hellekin, prince of Fairyland, in
courting Morgan le Fay; and it was not till much later that the French
Harlekin was transformed into the Italian Arlecchino. In his typical
French form down to the time of Gottsched, he was a spirit of the air,
deriving thence his invisibility and his characteristically light and
aery whirlings. Subsequently he returned from the Italian to the French
stage, being imported by Marivaux into light comedy; and his various
attributes gradually became amalgamated into the latter form taken in
pantomime.



HARLESS (originally HARLES), GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPH (1738-1815), German
classical scholar and bibliographer, was born at Culmbach in Bavaria on
the 21st of June 1738. He studied at Halle, Erlangen and Jena. In 1765
he was appointed professor of oriental languages and eloquence at the
Gymnasium Casimirianum in Coburg, in 1770 professor of poetry and
eloquence at Erlangen, and in 1776 librarian of the university. He held
his professorship for forty-five years till his death on the 2nd of
November 1815. Harless was an extremely prolific writer. His numerous
editions of classical authors, deficient in originality and critical
judgment, although valuable at the time as giving the student the
results of the labours of earlier scholars, are now entirely superseded.
But he will always be remembered for his meritorious work in connexion
with the great _Bibliotheca Graeca_ of J. A. Fabricius, of which he
published a new and revised edition (12 vols., 1790-1809, not quite
completed),--a task for which he was peculiarly qualified. He also wrote
much on the history and bibliography of Greek and Latin literature.

  His life was written by his son, Johann Christian Friedrich Harless
  (1818).



HARLESS, GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPH ADOLF VON (1806-1879), German divine, was
born at Nuremberg on the 21st of November 1806, and was educated at the
universities of Erlangen and Halle. He was appointed professor of
theology at Erlangen in 1836 and at Leipzig in 1845. He was a strong
Lutheran and exercised a powerful influence in that direction as court
preacher in Dresden and as president of the Protestant consistory at
Munich. His chief works were _Theologische Encyklopädie und
Methodologie_ (1837) and _Die christliche Ethik_ (1842, Eng. trans.
1868). He died on the 5th of September 1879, having, a few years
earlier, written an autobiography under the title _Bruchstücke aus dem
Leben eines süddeutschen Theologen_.



HARLINGEN, a seaport in the province of Friesland, Holland, on the
Zuider Zee, and the terminus of the railway and canal from Leeuwarden
(15½ m. E.). It is connected by steam tramway by way of Bolswaard with
Sneek. Pop. (1900) 10,448. Harlingen has become the most considerable
seaport of Friesland since the construction of the large outer harbour
in 1870-1877, and in addition to railway and steamship connexion with
Bremen, Amsterdam, and the southern provinces there are regular sailings
to Hull and London. Powerful sluices protect the inner harbour from the
high tides. The only noteworthy buildings are the town hall (1730-1733),
the West church, which consists of a part of the former castle of
Harlingen, the Roman Catholic church, the Jewish synagogue and the
schools of navigation and of design. The chief trade of Harlingen is the
exportation of Frisian produce, namely, butter and cheese, cattle,
sheep, fish, potatoes, flax, &c. There is also a considerable import
trade in timber, coal, raw cotton, hemp and jute for the Twente
factories. The local industries are unimportant, consisting of
saw-mills, rope-yards, salt refineries, and sail-cloth and margarine
factories.



HARMATTAN, the name of a hot dry parching wind that blows during
December, January and February on the coast of Upper Guinea, bringing a
high dense haze of red dust which darkens the air. The natives smear
their bodies with oil or fat while this parching wind is blowing.



HARMODIUS, a handsome Athenian youth, and the intimate friend of
Aristogeiton. Hipparchus, the younger brother of the tyrant Hippias,
endeavoured to supplant Aristogeiton in the good graces of Harmodius,
but, failing in the attempt, revenged himself by putting a public
affront on Harmodius's sister at a solemn festival. Thereupon the two
friends conspired with a few others to murder both the tyrants during
the armed procession at the Panathenaic festival (514 B.C.), when the
people were allowed to carry arms (this licence is denied by Aristotle
in _Ath. Pol._). Seeing one of their accomplices speaking to Hippias,
and imagining that they were being betrayed, they prematurely attacked
and slew Hipparchus alone. Harmodius was cut down on the spot by the
guards, and Aristogeiton was soon captured and tortured to death. When
Hippias was expelled (510), Harmodius and Aristogeiton became the most
popular of Athenian heroes; their descendants were exempted from public
burdens, and had the right of public entertainment in the Prytaneum, and
their names were celebrated in popular songs and scolia (after-dinner
songs) as the deliverers of Athens. One of these songs, attributed to a
certain Callistratus, is preserved in Athenaeus (p. 695). Their statues
by Antenor in the agora were carried off by Xerxes and replaced by new
ones by Critius and Nesiotes. Alexander the Great afterwards sent back
the originals to Athens. It is not agreed which of these was the
original of the marble tyrannicide group in the museum at Naples, for
which see article GREEK ART, Pl. I. fig. 50.

  See Köpp in _Neue Jahrb. f. klass. Altert._ (1902), p. 609.



HARMONIA, in Greek mythology, according to one account the daughter of
Ares and Aphrodite, and wife of Cadmus. When the government of Thebes
was bestowed upon Cadmus by Athena, Zeus gave him Harmonia to wife. All
the gods honoured the wedding with their presence. Cadmus (or one of the
gods) presented the bride with a robe and necklace, the work of
Hephaestus. This necklace brought misfortune to all who possessed it.
With it Polyneices bribed Eriphyle to persuade her husband Amphiaraus to
undertake the expedition against Thebes. It led to the death of
Eriphyle, of Alcmaeon, of Phegeus and his sons. Even after it had been
deposited in the temple of Athena Pronoia at Delphi, its baleful
influence continued. Phayllus, one of the Phocian leaders in the Sacred
War (352 B.C.) carried it off and gave it to his mistress. After she had
worn it for a time, her son was seized with madness and set fire to the
house, and she perished in the flames. According to another account,
Harmonia belonged to Samothrace and was the daughter of Zeus and
Electra, her brother Iasion being the founder of the mystic rites
celebrated on the island (Diod. Sic. v. 48). Finally, Harmonia is
rationalized as closely allied to Aphrodite Pandemos, the love that
unites all people, the personification of order and civic unity,
corresponding to the Roman Concordia.

  Apollodorus iii. 4-7; Diod. Sic. iv. 65, 66; Parthenius, _Erotica_,
  25; L. Preller, _Griech. Mythol._; Crusius in Roscher's _Lexikon_.



HARMONIC. In acoustics, a harmonic is a secondary tone which accompanies
the fundamental or primary tone of a vibrating string, reed, &c.; the
more important are the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and octave (see SOUND; HARMONY). A
harmonic proportion in arithmetic and algebra is such that the
reciprocals of the proportionals are in arithmetical proportion; thus,
if a, b, c be in harmonic proportion then 1/a, 1/b, 1/c are in
arithmetical proportion; this leads to the relation 2/b = ac/(a + c). A
harmonic progression or series consists of terms whose reciprocals form
an arithmetical progression; the simplest example is: 1 + ½ + 1/3 + ¼ +
... (see ALGEBRA and ARITHMETIC). The occurrence of a similar proportion
between segments of lines is the foundation of such phrases as harmonic
section, harmonic ratio, harmonic conjugates, &c. (see GEOMETRY: II.
_Projective_). The connexion between acoustical and mathematical
harmonicals is most probably to be found in the Pythagorean discovery
that a vibrating string when stopped at ½ and 2/3 of its length yielded
the octave and 5th of the original tone, the numbers, 1-2/3, ½ being
said to be, probably first by Archytas, in harmonic proportion. The
mathematical investigation of the form of a vibrating string led to such
phrases as harmonic curve, harmonic motion, harmonic function, harmonic
analysis, &c. (see MECHANICS and SPHERICAL HARMONICS).



HARMONICA, a generic term applied to musical instruments in which sound
is produced by friction upon glass bells. The word is also used to
designate instruments of percussion of the Glockenspiel type, made of
steel and struck by hammers (Ger. _Stahlharmonika_).

The origin of the glass-harmonica tribe is to be found in the
fashionable 18th century instrument known as musical glasses (Fr.
_verrillon_), the principle of which was known already in the 17th
century.[1] The invention of musical glasses is generally ascribed to an
Irishman, Richard Pockrich, who first played the instrument in public in
Dublin in 1743 and the next year in England, but Eisel[2] described the
_verrillon_ and gave an illustration of it in 1738. The _verrillon_ or
_Glassspiel_ consisted of 18 beer glasses arranged on a board covered
with cloth, water being poured in when necessary to alter the pitch. The
glasses were struck on both sides gently with two long wooden sticks in
the shape of a spoon, the bowl being covered with silk or cloth. Eisel
states that the instrument was used for church and other solemn music.
Gluck gave a concert at the "little theatre in the Haymarket" (London)
in April 1746, at which he performed on musical glasses a concerto of
his composition with full orchestral accompaniment. E. H. Delaval is
also credited with the invention. When Benjamin Franklin visited London
in 1757, he was so much struck by the beauty of tone elicited by Delaval
and Pockrich, and with the possibilities of the glasses as musical
instruments, that he set to work on a mechanical application of the
principle involved, the eminently successful result being the glass
harmonica finished in 1762. In this the glass bowls were mounted on a
rotating spindle, the largest to the left, and their under-edges passed
during each revolution through a water-trough. By applying the fingers
to the moistened edges, sound was produced varying in intensity with the
pressure, so that a certain amount of expression was at the command of a
good player. It is said that the timbre was extremely enervating, and,
together with the vibration caused by the friction on the finger-tips,
exercised a highly deleterious effect on the nervous system. The
instrument was for many years in great vogue, not only in England but on
the Continent of Europe, and more especially in Saxony, where it was
accorded a place in the court orchestra. Mozart, Beethoven, Naumann and
Hasse composed music for it. Marianne Davies and Marianna Kirchgessner
were celebrated virtuosi on it. The curious vogue of the instrument, as
sudden as it was ephemeral, produced emulation in a generation
unsurpassed for zeal in the invention of musical instruments. The most
notable of its offspring were Carl Leopold Röllig's improved harmonica
with a keyboard in 1786, Chladni's euphon in 1791 and clavicylinder in
1799, Ruffelsen's melodicon in 1800 and 1803, Franz Leppich's
panmelodicon in 1810, Buschmann's uranion in the same year, &c. Of most
of these nothing now remains but the name and a description in the
_Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung_, but there are numerous specimens of
the Franklin type in the museums for musical instruments of Europe. One
specimen by Emanuel Pohl, a Bohemian maker, is preserved in the Victoria
and Albert Museum, London.

  For the steel harmonica see GLOCKENSPIEL.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See G. P. Harsdörfer, _Math. und philos. Erquickstunden_
    (Nuremberg, 1677), ii. 147.

  [2] _Musicus_ [Greek: autodidaktos] (Erfurt, 1738), p. 70.



HARMONIC ANALYSIS, in mathematics, the name given by Sir William Thomson
(Lord Kelvin) and P. G. Tait in their treatise on _Natural Philosophy_
to a general method of investigating physical questions, the earliest
applications of which seem to have been suggested by the study of the
vibrations of strings and the analysis of these vibrations into their
fundamental tone and its harmonics or overtones.

The motion of a uniform stretched string fixed at both ends is a
periodic motion; that is to say, after a certain interval of time,
called the fundamental period of the motion, the form of the string and
the velocity of every part of it are the same as before, provided that
the energy of the motion has not been sensibly dissipated during the
period.

  There are two distinct methods of investigating the motion of a
  uniform stretched string. One of these may be called the wave method,
  and the other the harmonic method. The wave method is founded on the
  theorem that in a stretched string of infinite length a wave of any
  form may be propagated in either direction with a certain velocity, V,
  which we may define as the "velocity of propagation." If a wave of any
  form travelling in the positive direction meets another travelling in
  the opposite direction, the form of which is such that the lines
  joining corresponding points of the two waves are all bisected in a
  fixed point in the line of the string, then the point of the string
  corresponding to this point will remain fixed, while the two waves
  pass it in opposite directions. If we now suppose that the form of the
  waves travelling in the positive direction is periodic, that is to
  say, that after the wave has travelled forward a distance l, the
  position of every particle of the string is the same as it was at
  first, then l is called the wave-length, and the time of travelling a
  wave-length is called the periodic time, which we shall denote by T,
  so that l = VT.

  If we now suppose a set of waves similar to these, but reversed in
  position, to be travelling in the opposite direction, there will be a
  series of points, distant ½l from each other, at which there will be
  no motion of the string; it will therefore make no difference to the
  motion of the string if we suppose the string fastened to fixed
  supports at any two of these points, and we may then suppose the parts
  of the string beyond these points to be removed, as it cannot affect
  the motion of the part which is between them. We have thus arrived at
  the case of a uniform string stretched between two fixed supports, and
  we conclude that the motion of the string may be completely
  represented as the resultant of two sets of periodic waves travelling
  in opposite directions, their wave-lengths being either twice the
  distance between the fixed points or a submultiple of this
  wave-length, and the form of these waves, subject to this condition,
  being perfectly arbitrary.

  To make the problem a definite one, we may suppose the initial
  displacement and velocity of every particle of the string given in
  terms of its distance from one end of the string, and from these data
  it is easy to calculate the form which is common to all the travelling
  waves. The form of the string at any subsequent time may then be
  deduced by calculating the positions of the two sets of waves at that
  time, and compounding their displacements.

  Thus in the wave method the actual motion of the string is considered
  as the resultant of two wave motions, neither of which is of itself,
  and without the other, consistent with the condition that the ends of
  the string are fixed. Each of the wave motions is periodic with a
  wave-length equal to twice the distance between the fixed points, and
  the one set of waves is the reverse of the other in respect of
  displacement and velocity and direction of propagation; but, subject
  to these conditions, the form of the wave is perfectly arbitrary. The
  motion of a particle of the string, being determined by the two waves
  which pass over it in opposite directions, is of an equally arbitrary
  type.

  In the harmonic method, on the other hand, the motion of the string is
  regarded as compounded of a series of vibratory motions (_normal
  modes_ of vibration), which may be infinite in number, but each of
  which is perfectly definite in type, and is in fact a particular
  solution of the problem of the motion of a string with its ends fixed.

  A simple harmonic motion is thus defined by Thomson and Tait (§
  53):--When a point Q moves uniformly in a circle, the perpendicular
  QP, drawn from its position at any instant to a fixed diameter AA´ of
  the circle, intersects the diameter in a point P whose position
  changes by a _simple harmonic motion_.

  The amplitude of a simple harmonic motion is the range on one side or
  the other of the middle point of the course.

  The period of a simple harmonic motion is the time which elapses from
  any instant until the moving-point again moves in the same direction
  through the same position.

  The phase of a simple harmonic motion at any instant is the fraction
  of the whole period which has elapsed since the moving-point last
  passed through its middle position in the positive direction.

  In the case of the stretched string, it is only in certain particular
  cases that the motion of a particle of the string is a simple harmonic
  motion. In these particular cases the form of the string at any
  instant is that of a curve of sines having the line joining the fixed
  points for its axis, and passing through these two points, and
  therefore having for its wave-length either twice the length of the
  string or some submultiple of this wave-length. The amplitude of the
  curve of sines is a simple harmonic function of the time, the period
  being either the fundamental period or some submultiple of the
  fundamental period. Every one of these modes of vibration is
  dynamically possible by itself, and any number of them may coexist
  independently of each other.

  By a proper adjustment of the initial amplitude and phase of each of
  these modes of vibration, so that their resultant shall represent the
  initial state of the string, we obtain a new representation of the
  whole motion of the string, in which it is seen to be the resultant of
  a series of simple harmonic vibrations whose periods are the
  fundamental period and its submultiples. The determination of the
  amplitudes and phases of the several simple harmonic vibrations so as
  to satisfy the initial conditions is an example of harmonic analysis.

  We have thus two methods of solving the partial differential equation
  of the motion of a string. The first, which we have called the wave
  method, exhibits the solution in the form containing an arbitrary
  function, the nature of which must be determined from the initial
  conditions. The second, or harmonic method, leads to a series of terms
  involving sines and cosines, the coefficients of which have to be
  determined. The harmonic method may be defined in a more general
  manner as a method by which the solution of any actual problem may be
  obtained as the sum or resultant of a number of terms, each of which
  is a solution of a particular case of the problem. The nature of these
  particular cases is defined by the condition that any one of them must
  be conjugate to any other.

  The mathematical test of conjugacy is that the energy of the system
  arising from two of the harmonics existing together is equal to the
  sum of the energy arising from the two harmonics taken separately. In
  other words, no part of the energy depends on the product of the
  amplitudes of two different harmonics. When two modes of motion of the
  same system are conjugate to each other, the existence of one of them
  does not affect the other.

  The simplest case of harmonic analysis, that of which the treatment of
  the vibrating string is an example, is completely investigated in what
  is known as Fourier's theorem.

  Fourier's theorem asserts that any periodic function of a single
  variable period p, which does not become infinite at any phase, can be
  expanded in the form of a series consisting of a constant term,
  together with a double series of terms, one set involving cosines and
  the other sines of multiples of the phase.

  Thus if [phi]([xi]) is a periodic function of the variable [xi] having
  a period p, then it may be expanded as follows:

                        __[oo]           2i[pi][xi]    __[oo]           2i[pi][xi]
    [phi]([xi]) = A0 + \      ^i A_i cos ---------- +  \     ^i B_i sin ----------. (1)
                       /__1                  p         /__1                 p


  The part of the theorem which is most frequently required, and which
  also is the easiest to investigate, is the determination of the values
  of the coefficients A0, A_i, B_i. These are
             _                             _
         1  /p                         2  /p                 2i[pi][xi]
    A0 = -- |  [phi]([xi])d[xi]; A_i = -- |  [phi]([xi]) cos ---------- d[xi];
         p _/0                         p _/0                     p
              _
          2  /p                 2i[pi][xi]
    B_i = -- |  [phi]([xi]) sin ---------- d[xi].
          p _/0                      p

  This part of the theorem may be verified at once by multiplying both
  sides of (1) by d[xi], by cos (2i[pi][xi]/p)/d[xi] or by sin
  (2i[pi][xi]/p)/d[xi], and in each case integrating from 0 to p.

  The series is evidently single-valued for any given value of [xi]. It
  cannot therefore represent a function of [xi] which has more than one
  value, or which becomes imaginary for any value of [xi]. It is
  convergent, approaching to the true value of [phi]([xi]) for all
  values of [xi] such that if [xi] varies infinitesimally the function
  also varies infinitesimally.

  Lord Kelvin, availing himself of the disk, globe and cylinder
  integrating machine invented by his brother, Professor James Thomson,
  constructed a machine by which eight of the integrals required for the
  expression of Fourier's series can be obtained simultaneously from the
  recorded trace of any periodically variable quantity, such as the
  height of the tide, the temperature or pressure of the atmosphere, or
  the intensity of the different components of terrestrial magnetism. If
  it were not on account of the waste of time, instead of having a curve
  drawn by the action of the tide, and the curve afterwards acted on by
  the machine, the time axis of the machine itself might be driven by a
  clock, and the tide itself might work the second variable of the
  machine, but this would involve the constant presence of an expensive
  machine at every tidal station.     (J. C. M.)

  For a discussion of the restrictions under which the expansion of a
  periodic function of [xi] in the form (1) is valid, see FOURIER'S
  SERIES. An account of the contrivances for mechanical calculation of
  the coefficients A_i, B_i ... is given under CALCULATING MACHINES.

  A more general form of the problem of harmonic analysis presents
  itself in astronomy, in the theory of the tides, and in various
  magnetic and meteorological investigations. It may happen, for
  instance, that a variable quantity [f](t) is known theoretically to be
  of the form

    [f](t) = A0 + A1 cos n1t + B1 sin n1t + A2 cos n2t + B2 sin n2t + ... (2)

  where the periods 2[pi]/n1, 2[pi]/n2, ... of the various
  simple-harmonic constituents are already known with sufficient
  accuracy, although they may have no very simple relations to one
  another. The problem of determining the most probable values of the
  constants A0, A1, B1, A2, B2, ... by means of a series of recorded
  values of the function [f](t) is then in principle a fairly simple
  one, although the actual numerical work may be laborious (see TIDE). A
  much more difficult and delicate question arises when, as in various
  questions of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism, the periods
  2[pi]/n1, 2[pi]/n2, ... are themselves unknown to begin with, or are
  at most conjectural. Thus, it may be desired to ascertain whether the
  magnetic declination contains a periodic element synchronous with the
  sun's rotation on its axis, whether any periodicities can be detected
  in the records of the prevalence of sun-spots, and so on. From a
  strictly mathematical standpoint the problem is, indeed,
  indeterminate, for when all the symbols are at our disposal, the
  representation of the observed values of a function, over a finite
  range of time, by means of a series of the type (2), can be effected
  in an infinite variety of ways. Plausible inferences can, however, be
  drawn, provided the proper precautions are observed. This question has
  been treated most systematically by Professor A. Schuster, who has
  devised a remarkable mathematical method, in which the action of a
  diffraction-grating in sorting out the various periodic constituents
  of a heterogeneous beam of light is closely imitated. He has further
  applied the method to the study of the variations of the magnetic
  declination, and of sun-spot records.

  The question so far chiefly considered has been that of the
  representation of an arbitrary function of the _time_ in terms of
  functions of a special type, viz. the circular functions cos nt, sin
  nt. This is important on dynamical grounds; but when we proceed to
  consider the problem of expressing an arbitrary function of
  _space-co-ordinates_ in terms of functions of specified types, it
  appears that the preceding is only one out of an infinite variety of
  modes of representation which are equally entitled to consideration.
  Every problem of mathematical physics which leads to a linear
  differential equation supplies an instance. For purposes of
  illustration we will here take the simplest of all, viz. that of the
  transversal vibrations of a tense string. The equation of motion is of
  the form

          [dP]²y     [dP]²y
    [rho] ------ = T ------, (3)
          [dP]t²     [dP]x²

  where T is the tension, and [rho] the line-density. In a "normal mode"
  of vibration y will vary as e^(int), so that

    [dP]²y
    ------ + k²y = 0, (4)
    [dP]x²

  where

    k² = n²[rho]/T. (5)

  If [rho], and therefore k, is constant, the solution of (4) subject to
  the condition that y = 0 for x = 0 and x = l is

    y = B sin kx (6)

  provided

    kl = s[pi], [s = 1, 2, 3, ...]. (7)

  This determines the various _normal modes_ of free vibration, the
  corresponding periods (2[pi]/n) being given by (5) and (7). By analogy
  with the theory of the free vibrations of a system of _finite_ freedom
  it is inferred that the most general free motions of the string can be
  obtained by superposition of the various normal modes, with suitable
  amplitudes and phases; and in particular that any arbitrary initial
  form of the string, say y = [f](x), can be reproduced by a series of
  the type

                    [pi]x          2[pi]x          3[pi]x
    [f](x) = B1 sin ----- + B2 sin ------ + B3 sin ------ + ... (8)
                      l              l               l

  So far, this is merely a restatement, in mathematical language, of an
  argument given in the first part of this article. The series (8) may,
  moreover, be arrived at otherwise, as a particular case of Fourier's
  theorem. But if we no longer assume the density [rho] of the string to
  be uniform, we obtain an endless variety of new expansions,
  corresponding to the various laws of density which may be prescribed.
  The normal modes are in any case of the type

    y = Cu(x) e^(int) (9)

  where u is a solution of the equation

    d²u   n²[rho]
    --- + ------- u = 0. (10)
    dx²      T

  The condition that u(x) is to vanish for x = 0 and x = l leads to a
  transcendental equation in n (corresponding to sin kl = 0 in the
  previous case). If the forms of u(x) which correspond to the various
  roots of this be distinguished by suffixes, we infer, on physical
  grounds alone, the possibility of the expansion of an arbitrary
  initial form of the string in a series

    [f](x) = C1u1(x) + C2u2(x) + C3u3(x)+ ... (11)

  It may be shown further that if r and s are different we have the
  _conjugate_ or _orthogonal_ relation
      _
     /l
     |  [rho] u_r(x) u_s(x) dx = 0. (12)
    _/0

  This enables us to determine the coefficients, thus
           _                         _
          /l                        /l
    C_r = |  [rho][f](x)u_r(x) dx ÷ |  [rho] {u_r(x)}² dx. (13)
         _/0                       _/0

  The extension to spaces of two or three dimensions, or to cases where
  there is more than one dependent variable, must be passed over. The
  mathematical theories of acoustics, heat-conduction, elasticity,
  induction of electric currents, and so on, furnish an indefinite
  supply of examples, and have suggested in some cases methods which
  have a very wide application. Thus the transverse vibrations of a
  circular membrane lead to the theory of Bessel's Functions; the
  oscillations of a spherical sheet of air suggest the theory of
  expansions in spherical harmonics, and so forth. The physical, or
  intuitional, theory of such methods has naturally always been in
  advance of the mathematical. From the latter point of view only a few
  isolated questions of the kind had, until quite recently, been treated
  in a rigorous and satisfactory manner. A more general and
  comprehensive method, which seems to derive some of its inspiration
  from physical considerations, has, however, at length been
  inaugurated, and has been vigorously cultivated in recent years by D.
  Hilbert, H. Poincaré, I. Fredholm, E. Picard and others.

  REFERENCES.--Schuster's method for detecting hidden periodicities is
  explained in _Terrestrial Magnetism_ (Chicago, 1898), 3, p. 13; _Camb.
  Trans._ (1900), 18, p. 107; _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (1906), 77, p. 136. The
  general question of expanding an arbitrary function in a series of
  functions of special types is treated most fully from the physical
  point of view in Lord Rayleigh's _Theory of Sound_ (2nd ed., London,
  1894-1896). An excellent detailed historical account of the matter
  from the mathematical side is given by H. Burkhardt, _Entwicklungen
  nach oscillierenden Funktionen_ (Leipzig, 1901). A sketch of the more
  recent mathematical developments is given by H. Bateman, _Proc. Lond.
  Math. Soc._ (2), 4, p. 90, with copious references.     (H. Lb.)



HARMONICHORD, an ingenious kind of upright piano, in which the strings
were set in vibration not by the blow of the hammer but by indirectly
transmitted friction. The harmonichord, one of the many attempts to fuse
piano and violin, was invented by Johann Gottfried and Johann Friedrich
Kaufmann (father and son) in Saxony at the beginning of the 19th
century, when the craze for new and ingenious musical instruments was at
its height. The case was of the variety known as _giraffe_. The space
under the keyboard was enclosed, a knee-hold being left in which were
two pedals used to set in rotation a large wooden cylinder fixed just
behind the keyboard over the levers, and covered with a roll-top similar
to those of modern office desks. The cylinder (in some specimens covered
with chamois leather) tapered towards the treble-end. When a key was
depressed, a little tongue of wood, one end of which stopped the string,
was pressed against the revolving cylinder, and the vibrations produced
by friction were transmitted to the string and reinforced as in piano
and violin by the soundboard. The adjustment of the parts and the
velocity of the cylinder required delicacy and great nicety, for if the
little wooden tongues rested too lightly upon the cylinder or the
strings, harmonics were produced, and the note jumped to the octave or
twelfth. Sometimes when chords were played the touch became so heavy
that two performers were required, as in the early medieval organistrum,
the prototype of the harmonichord. Carl Maria von Weber must have had
some opinion of the possibilities of the harmonichord, which in tone
resembled the glass harmonica, since he composed for it a concerto with
orchestral accompaniment.     (K. S.)



HARMONIUM (Fr. _harmonium_, _orgue expressif_; Ger. _Physharmonika_,
_Harmonium_), a wind keyboard instrument, a small organ without pipes,
furnished with free reeds. Both the harmonium and its later development,
the American organ, are known as free-reed instruments, the musical
tones being produced by tongues of brass, technically termed "vibrators"
(Fr. _anche libre_; Ger. _durchschlagende Zunge_; Ital. _ancia_ or
_lingua libera_). The vibrator is fixed over an oblong, rectangular
frame, through which it swings freely backwards and forwards like a
pendulum while vibrating, whereas the beating reeds (similar to those of
the clarinet family), used in church organs, cover the entire orifice,
beating against the sides at each vibration. A reed or vibrator, set in
periodic motion by impact of a current of air, produces a corresponding
succession of air puffs, the rapidity of which determines the pitch of
the musical note. There is an essential difference between the harmonium
and the American organ in the direction of this current; in the former
the wind apparatus forces the current upwards, and in the latter sucks
it downwards, whence it becomes desirable to separate in description
these varieties of free-reed instruments.

[Illustration: By courtesy of Metzler & Co.

FIG. 1.--Free Reed Vibrator, Alexandre Harmonium.]

  The _harmonium_ has a keyboard of five octaves compass when complete,
  [musical notes], and a simple action controlling the valves, &c. The
  necessary pressure of wind is generated by bellows worked by the feet
  of the performer upon foot-boards or treadles. The air is thus forced
  up the wind-trunks into an air-chamber called the wind-chest, the
  pressure of it being equalized by a reservoir, which receives the
  excess of wind through an aperture, and permits escape, when above a
  certain pressure, by a discharge valve or pallet. The aperture
  admitting air to the reservoir may be closed by a drawstop named
  "expression." The air being thus cut off, the performer depends for
  his supply entirely upon the management of the bellows worked by the
  treadles, whereby he regulates the compression of the wind. The
  character of the instrument is then entirely changed from a mechanical
  response to the player's touch to an expressive one, rendering what
  emotion may be communicated from the player by increase or diminution
  of sound through the greater or less pressure of wind to which the
  reeds may be submitted. The drawstops bearing the names of the
  different registers in imitation of the organ, admit, when drawn, the
  wind from the wind-chest to the corresponding reed compartments,
  shutting them off when closed. These compartments are of about two
  octaves and a half each, there being a division in the middle of the
  keyboard scale dividing the stops into bass and treble. A stop being
  drawn and a key pressed down, wind is admitted by a corresponding
  valve to a reed or vibrator (fig. 1). Above each reed in the so-called
  sound-board or pan is a channel, a small air-chamber or cavity, the
  shape and capacity of which have greatly to do with the colour of tone
  of the note it reinforces. The air in this resonator is highly
  compressed at an even or a varying pressure as the expression-stop may
  not be or may be drawn. The wind finally escapes by a small
  pallet-hole opened by pressing down the corresponding key. In Mustel
  and other good harmoniums, the reed compartments that form the scheme
  of the instrument are eight in number, four bass and four treble, of
  three different pitches of octave and double octave distance. The
  front bass and treble rows are the "diapason" of the pitch known as 8
  ft., and the bourdon (double diapason), 16 ft. These may be regarded
  as the foundation stops, and are technically the front organ. The back
  organ has solo and combination stops, the principal of 4 ft. (octave
  higher than diapason), and bassoon (bass) and oboe (treble), 8 ft.
  These may be mechanically combined by a stop called full organ. The
  French maker, Mustel, added other registers for much-admired effects
  of tone, viz. "harpe éolienne," two bass rows of 2 ft. pitch, the one
  tuned a beat too sharp, the other a beat too flat, to produce a waving
  tremulous tone that has a certain charm; "musette" and "voix celeste,"
  16 ft.; and "baryton," a treble stop 32 ft., or two octaves lower than
  the normal note of the key. The "back organ" is usually covered by a
  swell box, containing louvres or shutters similar to a Venetian blind,
  and divided into fortes corresponding with the bass and treble
  division of the registers. The fortes are governed by knee pedals
  which act by pneumatic pressure. Tuning the reeds is effected by
  scraping them at the point to sharpen them, or near the shoulder or
  heel to flatten them in pitch. Air pressure affects the pitch but
  slightly, being noticeable only in the larger reeds, and harmoniums
  long retain their tuning, a decided advantage over the organ and the
  pianoforte. Mechanical contrivances in the harmonium, of frequent or
  occasional employment, besides those already referred to, are the
  "percussion," a small pianoforte action of hammer and escapement
  which, acting upon the reeds of the diapason rows at the moment air is
  admitted to them, gives prompter response to the depression of the
  key, or quicker speech; the "double expression," a pneumatic balance
  of great delicacy in the wind reservoir, exactly maintaining by
  gradation equal pressure of the wind; and the "double touch," by which
  the back organ registers speak sooner than those of the front that are
  called upon by deeper pressure of the key, thus allowing prominence or
  accentuation of certain parts by an expert performer. "Prolongement"
  permits selected notes to be sustained after the fingers have quitted
  their keys. Dawes's "melody attachment" is to give prominence to an
  air or treble part by shutting off in certain registers all notes
  below it. This notion has been adapted by inversion to a "pedal
  substitute" to strengthen the lowest bass notes. The "tremolo" affects
  the wind in the vicinity of the reeds by means of small bellows which
  increase the velocity of the pulsation according to pressure; and the
  "sourdine" diminishes the supply of wind by controlling its admission
  to the reeds.

  [Illustration: By courtesy of Metzler & Co.

  FIG. 2.--Free Reed Vibrator, Mason & Hamlin American Organ.]

  _The American Organ_ acts by wind exhaustion. A vacuum is practically
  created in the air-chamber by the exhausting power of the footboards,
  and a current of air thus drawn downwards passes through any reeds
  that are left open, setting them in vibration. This instrument has
  therefore exhaust instead of force bellows. Valves in the board above
  the air-chamber give communication to reeds (fig. 2) made more slender
  than those of the harmonium and more or less bent, while the frames in
  which they are fixed are also differently shaped, being hollowed
  rather in spoon fashion. The channels, the resonators above the reeds,
  are not varied in size or shape as in the harmonium; they exactly
  correspond with the reeds, and are collectively known as the
  "tube-board." The swell "fortes" are in front of the openings of these
  tubes, rails that open or close by the action of the knees upon what
  may be called knee pedals. The American organ has a softer tone than
  the harmonium; this is sometimes aided by the use of extra resonators,
  termed pipes or qualifying tubes, as, for instance, in Clough &
  Warren's (of Detroit, Michigan, U.S.). The blowing being also easier,
  ladies find it much less fatiguing. The expression stop can have
  little power in the American organ, and is generally absent; the
  "automatic swell" in the instruments of Mason & Hamlin (of Boston,
  U.S.) is a contrivance that comes the nearest to it, though far
  inferior. By it a swell shutter or rail is kept in constant movement,
  proportioned to the force of the air-current. Another very clever
  improvement introduced by these makers, who were the originators of
  the instrument itself, is the "vox humana," a smaller rail or fan,
  made to revolve rapidly by wind pressure; its rotation, disturbing the
  air near the reeds, causes interferences of vibration that produce a
  tremulous effect, not unlike the beatings heard from combined voices,
  whence the name. The arrangement of reed compartments in American
  organs does not essentially differ from that of harmoniums; but there
  are often two keyboards, and then the solo and combination stops are
  found on the upper manual. The diapason treble register is known as
  "melodia"; different makers occasionally vary the use of fancy names
  for other stops. The "sub-bass," however, an octave of 16 ft. pitch
  and always apart from the other reeds, is used with great advantage
  for pedal effects on the manual, the compass of American organs being
  usually down to F (FF, 5 octaves). In large instruments there are
  sometimes foot pedals as in an organ, with their own reed boxes of 8
  and 16 ft. the lowest note being then CC. Blowing for pedal
  instruments has to be done by hand, a lever being attached for that
  purpose. The "celeste" stop is managed as in the harmonium, by rows of
  reeds tuned not quite in unison, or by a shade valve that alters the
  air-current and flattens one row of reeds thereby.

  Harmoniums and American organs are the result of many experiments in
  the application of free reeds to keyboard instruments. The principle
  of the free reed became widely known in Europe through the
  introduction of the Chinese cheng[1] during the second half of the
  18th century, and culminated in the invention of the harmonium and
  kindred instruments. The first step in the invention of the harmonium
  is due to Professor Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein of Copenhagen, who
  had had the opportunity of examining a cheng sent to his native city
  and of testing its merits.[2] In 1779 the Academy of Science of St
  Petersburg had offered a prize for an essay on the formation of the
  vowel sounds on an instrument similar to the "vox humana" in the
  organ, which should be capable of reproducing these sounds faithfully.
  Kratzenstein made as a demonstration of his invention a small
  pneumatic organ fitted with free reeds, and presented it to the
  Academy of St Petersburg.[3] His essay was crowned and was republished
  with diagrams in Paris[4] in 1782. Meanwhile, in 1780, a countryman
  of Kratzenstein's, an organ-builder named Kirsnick, established in St
  Petersburg, adapted these reed pipes to some of his organs and to an
  instrument of his invention called organochordium, an organ combined
  with piano. When Abt Vogler visited St Petersburg in 1788, he was so
  delighted with these reeds that in 1790 he induced Rackwitz, an
  assistant of Kirsnick's, to come to him and adapt some to an organ he
  was having built in Rotterdam. Three years later Abt Vogler's
  orchestrion, a chamber organ containing some 900 pipes, was completed,
  and, according to Rackwitz,[5] was fitted with free-reed pipes. Vogler
  himself, however, does not mention the free reed when describing this
  wonderful instrument and his system of "simplification" for church
  organs.[6] To Abt Vogler, who travelled all over Germany, Scandinavia
  and the Netherlands, exhibiting his skill on his orchestrion and
  reconstructing many organs, is due the credit of making Kratzenstein's
  invention known and inducing the musical world to appreciate the
  capabilities of the free reed. The introduction of free-reed stops
  into the organ, however, took a secondary place in his scheme for
  reform.[7] Friedrich Kaufmann[8] of Dresden states that Vogler told
  him he had imparted to J. N. Mälzel of Vienna particulars as to the
  construction of free-reed pipes, and that the latter used them in his
  panharmonicon,[9] which he exhibited during his stay in Paris from
  1805 to 1807. Kaufmann suggests that it was through him that G. J.
  Grenié obtained the knowledge which led to his experiments with free
  reeds in organs. It is more likely that Grenié had read Kratzenstein's
  essay and had experimented independently with free reeds. In 1812 his
  first _orgue expressif_ was finished. It was a small organ with one
  register of free reeds--the expression stop, in fact, added to the
  pipe organ and having a separate wind-chest and bellows. It would seem
  from his description of the orchestrion in _Data zur Akustik_ that
  Vogler knew of no such device. He used the swell shutter borrowed from
  England and a threefold screen of canvas covered with a blanket
  arranged _outside the instrument_, neither of which is capable of
  increasing the volume of sound from the organ, or at least only after
  having first damped the sound to a pianissimo. Vogler explains
  minutely the apparatus used to conceal the working of the screen from
  the eyes of the public.[10] The credit of discovering in the free reed
  the capability of dynamic expression was undoubtedly due to Grenié,
  although Abt Vogler claims to have used compression in 1796,[11] and
  Kaufmann in his choraulodion in 1816. A larger _orgue expressif_ was
  begun by Grenié for the Conservatoire of Paris in 1812, the
  construction of which was interrupted and then continued in 1816.
  Descriptions of Grenié's instrument have been published in French and
  German.[12] The organ of the Conservatoire had a pedal free-reed stop
  of 16 ft., with vibrators 0.240 m. long, 0.035 m. wide, and 0.003 m.
  thick.[13] Two compressors, one for the treble and the other for the
  bass, worked by treadles, enabled the performer to regulate the
  pressure of wind on the reeds and therefore to obtain the gradations
  of forte and piano which gained for his instrument the name of _orgue
  expressif_. Grenié's instrument was a pipe organ, the pipes
  terminating in a cone with a hemispherical cap in the top of which was
  a small hole. There were eight registers including the pedal, and the
  positive on the first keyboard had reed stops furnished with beating
  reeds. Biot insists on the Importance of the regulating wires (Fr.
  _rasettes_; Ger. _Krücken_) for determining the vibrating length of
  the reed tongue and maintaining it invariable. These are clearly shown
  in his diagram (see article FREE REED VIBRATOR, fig. 1); they do not
  essentially differ from those used with the beating-reed stops in his
  organ (fig. 76, pl. II.), or indeed from those figured by Praetorius.

  Isolated specimens of the cheng must have found their way to Europe
  during the 15th and 16th centuries, for Mersenne[14] depicts part of
  one showing the free reed. It would seem that still earlier in the
  17th century there was an organ in a monastery in Hesse with free
  reeds for the _Posaune_ stop, for Praetorius gives a description of
  the "extraordinary" reed (p. 169); there is no record of the inventor
  in this case.

  During the first half of the 19th century various tentative efforts in
  France and Germany, and subsequently in England, were made to produce
  new keyboard instruments with free reeds, the most notable of these
  being the physharmonica[15] of Anton Häckel, invented in Vienna in
  1818, which, improved and enlarged, has retained its hold on the
  German people. The modern physharmonica is a harmonium without stops
  or percussion action; it does not therefore speak readily or clearly.
  It has a range of five to six octaves. Other instruments of similar
  type are the French melophone and the English seraphine, a keyboard
  harmonica with bellows but no channels for the tongues, for which a
  patent was granted to Myers and Storer in 1839; the aeoline or
  aelodicon[16] of Eschenbach; the melodicon[17] of Dietz; the
  melodica[18] of Rieffelson; the apollonicon;[19] the new cheng[20] of
  Reichstein; the terpodion[21] of Buschmann, &c. None of these has
  survived to the present day.

  The inventor of the harmonium was indubitably Alexandre Debain, who
  took out a patent for it in Paris in 1840. He produced varied timbre
  registers by modifying reed channels, and brought these registers on
  to one keyboard. Unfortunately he patented too much, for he secured
  even the name _harmonium_, obliging contemporary and future
  experimenters to shelter their improvements under other names, and the
  venerable name of organ becoming impressed into connexion with an
  inferior instrument, we have now to distinguish between reed and pipe
  organs. The compromise of reed organ for the harmonium class of
  instruments must therefore be accepted. Debain's harmonium was at
  first quite mechanical; it gained expression by the expression-stop
  already described. The Alexandres, well-known French makers, by the
  ingenuity of one of their workmen, P. A. Martin, added the percussion
  and the prolongement. The melody attachment was the invention of an
  English engineer; the introduction of the double touch, now used in
  the harmoniums of Mustel, Bauer and others--also in American
  organs--was due to Tamplin, an English professor.

  The principle of the American organ originated with the Alexandres,
  whose earliest experiments are said to have been made with the view of
  constructing an instrument to exhaust air. The realization of the idea
  proving to be more in consonance with the genius of the American
  people, to whom what we may call the devotional tone of the instrument
  appealed, the introduction of it by Messrs Mason and Hamlin in 1861
  was followed by remarkable success. They made it generally known in
  Europe by exhibiting it at Paris in 1867, and from that time
  instruments have been exported in large numbers by different makers.
       (A. J. H.; K. S.)

FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (Leipzig, 1821), Bd. xxiii. pp. 369-374.
    The cheng was made known in France by Père Amiot, who published a
    careful description of the instrument in _Mémoire sur la musique des
    Chinois_, p. 80 seq., with excellent diagrams.

  [2] Ib., Bd. xxv. p. 152.

  [3] The essay was published in _Acta Acad. Petrop._ (1780).

  [4] "Essai sur la naissance et sur la formation des voyelles" in
    Rozier's _Observations sur la physique_ (Paris, 1782), _Supplément_,
    xxi. 358 seq.,, with two plates. The description of the instrument
    begins on p. 374, § xxii.

  [5] See "Über die Erfindung der Rohrwerke mit durchschlagenden
    Zungen," by Wilke, in _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (Leipzig, 1823), Bd. xxv.
    pp. 152-153 and Bd. xxvii. p. 263; also Thos. Ant. Kunz,
    "Orchestrion," id., Bd. i. p. 88 and Bd. ii. pp. 514, 542; and Dr
    Karl Emil von Schafhäutl, _Abt Georg Joseph Vogler_ (Augsburg, 1888),
    p. 37.

  [6] _Data zur Akustik, eine Abhandlung vorgelesen bey der Sitzung der
    naturforschenden Freunde in Berlin, den 15ten Dezember 1800_
    (Offenbach, 1801); also published in _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (1801), Bd.
    iii. pp. 517, 533, 565. See also an excellent article by the Rev. J.
    H. Mee on Vogler in Grove's _Dictionary of Music and Musicians_.

  [7] See _Data zur Akustik_, and a pamphlet by Vogler, "Über die
    Umschaffung der St Marien Orgel in Berlin nach dem Voglerschen
    Simplifikations-System, eine Nachahmung des Orchestrion" (Berlin);
    also "Kurze Beschreibung der in der Stadtpfarrkirche zu St Peter zu
    München nach dem Voglerschen Simplifikations-System neuerbauten
    Orgel" (Munich, 1809).

  [8] See _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (1823), Bd. xxv. pp. 153 and 154 note,
    and 117-118 note.

  [9] A description of Mälzel's panharmonicon before the addition of
    the clarinet and oboe stops with free reeds is to be found in the
    _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (1800), Bd. ii. pp. 414-415.

  [10] In the article in Grove's _Dictionary_ the screen is said to
    have been in the wind-trunk.

  [11] See _Allg. musik. Ztg._ Bd. iii. p. 523.

  [12] See J. B. Biot, _Précis élémentaire de physique expérimentale_
    (Paris, 1817), tome i. p. 386, and his _Traité de physique_ (Paris,
    1816), tome ii. p. 172 et seq., pl. ii.; "Über die Crescendo und
    Diminuendo Züge an Orgeln," by Wilke and Kaufmann, _Allg. musik.
    Ztg._ (1823), Bd. xxv. pp. 113-122; and _Allg. musik. Ztg._ Bd.
    xxiii. pp. 133-139 and 149-154, with diagrams on p. 167 which are not
    absolutely correct in small details.

  [13] J. B. Biot, _Traité_, tome ii. p. 174.

  [14] _Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636), livre v., prop. xxxv.

  [15] _Wien. musik. Ztg._ Bd. v. Nos. 39 and 87.

  [16] _Allg. musik. Ztg._ Bd. xxii. p. 505, and Bd. xxxv. p. 354.

  [17] Id. Bd. viii. pp. 526 and 715.

  [18] Id. Bd. xi. p. 625.

  [19] _Allg. musik. Ztg._ Bd. ii. p. 767, and _Wien. musik. Ztg._ Bd.
    i. No. 501.

  [20] Id. Bd. xxxi. p. 489.

  [21] Id. Bd. xxxiv. pp. 856 and 858; and _Cäcilia_, Bd. xiv. p. 259.





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