Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 97, September 6, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 97, September 6, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Classical languages (Greek, Arabic, Syriac, and Hebrew)
in this issue have been rendered as close to the original print as
possible.Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts.
A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added
at the end.]



NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 97. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      Notes on Books, No. II.--Gabriel Harvey, by S. W. Singer   169

      The Antiquity of Kilts, by T. Stephens                     170

      Notes on Julin, No. I., by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie         171

      Minor Notes:--Anecdote of Curran--Difficulty of getting
      rid of a Name--House of Lord Edward Fitzgerald--Fairy
      Dances--Æsop--Nelson's Coat at Trafalgar                   173

      QUERIES:--

      John Knox, by David Laing                                  174

      Minor Queries:--"Foeda ministeria, atque minis absistite
      acerbis"--Cornish Arms and Cornish Motto--Gloucester saved
      from the King's Mines--Milesian--Horology--Laurentius
      Müller--Lines on a Bed--Pirog--Lists of Plants, with their
      Provincial Names--Print Cleaning--Italian Writer on
      Political Economy--Carli the Economist--Nightingale and
      Thorn--Coleridge's Essays on Beauty--Henryson and
      Kinaston--Oldys' Account of London Libraries--A
      Sword-blade Note--Abacot--Princesses of Wales              174

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--A Kelso Convoy--Cardinal
      Wolsey--Brunswick Mum--Meaning of "Rasher"                 176

      REPLIES:--

      Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation             177

      A Saxon Bell-house                                         178

      The Whale of Jonah, by T. J. Buckton                       178

      St. Trunnian, by W. S. Hesleden                            179

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Lord Mayor not a Privy
      Councillor--Did Bishop Gibson write a Life of
      Cromwell?--Lines on the Temple--Henry Headley,
      B.A.--Cycle of Cathay--Proof of Sword Blades--Was Milton
      an Anglo-Saxon Scholar?--English Sapphics--The
      Tradescants--Monumental Inscription--Lady Petre's
      Monument                                                   180

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     182

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               183

      Notices to Correspondents                                  183

      Advertisements                                             183



Notes.


NOTES ON BOOKS, NO. II.--GABRIEL HARVEY.

This learned friend of Spenser and Sir Philip Sydney (though better
known from his quarrel with Tom Nashe) was in the habit of writing
copious memoranda in his books, several of which were in the library of
Mr. Lloyd, of Wygfair. Among them some miscellaneous volumes, which I
believe afterwards passed into the collection of Mr. Heber, contained
remarkable specimens of his calligraphic skill. His name was written
four or five times: "Gabriel Harveins, 1579," and with variation,
"Gabrielis Harveij" and "di Gabriello Haveio." The volumes contained the
Medea and Giocasta of Lodovico Dolce, in Italian; the Hecuba and
Iphigenia of Euripides in Latin, by Erasmus, the Comedies of Terence,
&c.; and the first Italian and English Grammar, by Henry Grantham, 1575.
On the blank pages and spaces what follows was inscribed:--

  "La Giocasta d' Euripide, Dolce, et Gascoigno. Senecæ et Statii
  Thebais. Item Senecæ OEdipus. Quasi Synopsis Tragoediarum
  omnium.--NON GIOCO, MA GIOCASTA."

  "Omne genus scripti, gravitate Tragoedia vincit."

  "Hæ quatuor Tragoediæ, instar omnium Tragoediarum pro tempore:
  præsertim cum reliquarum non suppetit copia. Duæ Euripidis placent
  in primis, et propter auctoris prudentissimam veram, et propter
  interpretis singularem delectum. Eadem in Sophoclis Antigonem
  affectio, ab Episcopo Vatsono tralatam: cum propter interpretis
  accuratum judicium. Qui tanti fecit optimo Tragicos, ut eosdem
  soleret cum Checo et Aschamo, omnibus aliis poetis anteferre;
  etiam Homero et Virgilio."

  "Questa Medea di Dolce non è Medea di Seneca. Ma Thieste di Dolce
  è Thieste medesimo di Seneca. Solo coro nel fin è soperchievole."

  "Gascoigni Jocasta, magnifice acta solemne ritu, et vere tragico
  apparatu. Ut etiam Vatsoni Antigone; cuive pompæ seriæ, et
  exquisita. Usque adeo quidem utraque ut nihil in hoc tragico
  genere vel illustrius vel accuratius."

  "Jam floruerant prudentissimi Attici, Pericles, Thucydides,
  Sophocles; jam florent Plato, Xenophon, Demosthenes, cum Euripides
  pangit Tragoedias. Nec excellentissimorum Atticorum, ullus vel
  prudentior Euripides, vel argutior, vel etiam elegantior. Nihil in
  eo nugarum, nihil affectationis, et tamen singula ubique
  cultissima."

  "Erasmus talis Euripidis interpres, qualis Pindari Melancthon.
  Foelix utriusque ad interpretandum dexteritas et fluens
  elocutionis facilitas. Plus in Erasmo diligentiæ; in Melancthone
  perspicuitas. Quam persequebatur, Camerarius, nec tamen
  assequebatur."

  "Erasmi ferè jadicium acre, et serium nec dubium est, quin
  delectum adhibucrit in sapientissimis Tragoediis eligendis
  exquisitum."

  "Ut ferè foeminas; sic Comoedias et Tragoedias; qui unam omnimodo
  novit, omnes novit quodam modo. Saltem ex ungue, Leonem; ex clave,
  Herculem."

       *       *       *       *       *

  "Quattro Comedie del divino Pietro Aretino. Cioè Il Marescalco ò
  Pedante.--La Cortigiana.--La Talanta.--Lo Hippocrito.

  "Habeo et legi: sed nondum comprare potui Il Filosofo: quæ tamen
  ipsius, Comoedia dicitur etiam exstare.

  "Memorantur etiam duæ illius Tragoediæ, L'Hortensia.--Tragoedia di
  Christo.

  "Comedie, Dialoghi capricciosi, Le Lettere, e Capitoli dell'
  Unico: Historie del suo tempo. La quinta essenza del suo unico
  ingegno; e lo specchio di tutte l'arti Cortegiane.

  "Due Comedie argutissime et facetissime di Macchiavelli Politico:
  La Mandragola.--La Clitia."

      "IL LEGGERE NUTRISCA LO INGEGNO."

  "Suppositi d'Ariosto: Comoediam singulariter laudate à P. Jovio in
  Elogiis; cum Plautinis facilè contendens Inventionis, atque
  successus amenitate; si utriusque sæculi mores non inepte
  comparentur. Syncrisis ætatum necessaria, ad Comoediarum,
  Historiarum, aliorumque Scriptorum excellentia in examinandam,
  atque judicandam solerti censura."

  "Arciprologo quasi di tutte le Comedie, il primo dell' Aretino; et
  il terzo e quarto dello' stesso."

  "Ut Comoedias, sic Tragoedias; qui tres aut quatuor intimè novit,
  novit ferè omnes. Tanti valet hic aureus libellus. Meo tandem
  judicio, Poetarum sapientissimus, Euripides: vel ipse Sophocle
  magis Attice nervosus et profundus, ut Seneca Latine."

          *       *       *       *       *

  "Ecce reliquiæ et fragmenta Menandri, Epicharmi, Alexidis,
  reliquiorumque Græcorum Comicorum. Cum toto Aristophane. Et
  fortasse senties nova veteribus non esse potiora. Nec usquam
  prudentiores Gnomas invenies, ne apud Theognidem quidem aut
  Isocratem.

  "Placent etiam Comoediæ quæ non sunt Comoediæ; et Tragoediæ quæ
  non sunt Tragoediæ: Ut utriusque generis multæ egregiæ apud
  Homerum, et Virgilium in Heroicis; Frontinum et Polyænum in
  Strategematis; Stephanum in Apologia Herodoti: Rabelesium in
  Heroicis Gargantuæ: Sidneium in novissima Arcadiæ: Domenichum in
  Facetiis. Quomodo antiquorum unus Græcorum dixit:--Delicatissimos
  esse Pisces quæ non sunt Pisces, et carnes lautissimas quæ non
  sunt carnes. Da mihi Fabulas non Fabulas, Apologos non Apologos.
  Et sensi optima Apophthegmata quæ non sunt Apophthegmata: Optima
  Adagia quæ non Adagia.

  "Inutiliter Tragoedias legit qui nescit philosophicas sententias a
  Tyrannicis distinguere. Alia scholarum doctrina, alia regnorum
  disciplina. Politico opus est judicio ad distinguendum
  prudentissimas sententias à reliquis. Nec semper Tyrannus
  barbarus: nec semper poeta, aut philosophus sapiens: solertis
  judiciis fuerit, non quis dicat, set quia dicatur respicere, et
  undique optima seligere."

  "Euripidis Jocastæ apud Gascoignum summa ferè Tragoediarum
  omnium."

          *       *       *       *       *

  "No finer or pithier Examples than in y'e excellent Comedies and
  Tragedies following, full of sweet and wise discourse. A notable
  Dictionarie for the Grammer."

          *       *       *       *       *

  "Ut de hac Terentii tralatione sentirem honorificentius; fecit
  Aldus exquisita editio."

I thought these notes worth transcribing, not only as showing the
attention paid by the learned students of this time to _the drama_, as
well ancient as modern, but more especially for the mention made of the
_Jocasta_ of George Gascoigne, and the _Antigone_ of Sophocles,
translated, as he says, by Watson, Bishop of Worcester, and not by
Thomas Watson, as Warton supposed. It may be doubted whether this
translation was into English; but Harvey seems to imply that it was
acted, as well as the Jocasta. Bishop Watson was celebrated for his
dramatic skill, in his Latin tragedy of _Absalon_, by Roger Ascham, who
says,--

  "When M. Watson, in St. John's College at Cambridge, wrote his
  excellent Tragedie of Absalon, M. Cheke, he, and I, had many
  pleasant talkes togither, in comparing the preceptes of Aristotle
  and Horace with the examples of Euripides, Sophocles, and
  Seneca.... M. Watson had another maner of care of perfection, with
  a feare and reverence of the judgement of the best learned: who to
  this day would neuer suffer yet his Absalon to go abroad, and that
  onelie bicause (_in locis paribus_) _Anapæstus_ is twise or thrise
  used instead of _Iambus_."

In a volume in the Bodleian Library marked Z. 3., Art. "Selden," is "The
Life of Howleglas," printed by Copland: at the bottom of the last page
is the following MS. note:

  "This Howleglasse, with Scoggin, Skelton, and (L----zario----?)
  given me at London of M. Spenser, xx Decembris, 1578, on condition
  y't I shoold bestowe y'e readinge on them, on or before y'e first
  day of January immediately ensuinge: otherwise to forfeit unto him
  my Lucian in fower volumes. Whereupon I was y'e rather induced to
  trifle away so many howers as were idely overpassed in running
  through y'e aforesaid foolish bookes; wherein methought y't not
  all fower together seemed comparable for fine and crafty feates
  with Jon Miller, whose witty shiftes and practises are reported
  among Skelton's Tales."

Mr. Malone, from whose memoranda I copy this, says, "I suspect it is
Gabriel Harvey's handwriting."

I have a copy of the Organon of Aristotle in Greek, which bears marks of
Gabriel Harvey's diligent scholarship. It is copiously annotated and
analysed by him when a student at Cambridge, and he has registered the
periods at which he completed the study of each part.

    S. W. SINGER.

  Mickleham, Aug. 15. 1851.


THE ANTIQUITY OF KILTS.

This has been the subject of many discussions, and has recently found a
place in the columns of "NOTES AND QUERIES." I do not propose to take
any part in the present discussion, but it may be of some service to
historical students for me to introduce to public notice a much older
authority than any that has yet been cited.

It is known to but few antiquaries out of the principality, that the
ancient poetry of Wales throws more light on the immediate post-Roman
history of Britain than any documents in existence. These poems vividly
pourtray the social condition of the period, and contain almost the only
records of the great contest between the natives and the Saxon invaders;
they prove beyond a doubt that the Romans had left the province in an
advanced stage of civilisation, and they supply us with the means of
affirming decisively, that the vine was cultivated here to a very
considerable extent.

The antiquity of these poems admits of no reasonable doubt; on that
point the _Vindication_ of Turner enables the antiquaries of Wales to
make this assertion with confidence: and having recently translated most
of our old poems, with a view to future publication, I feel myself
warranted in assuming them to belong to the sixth and seventh centuries
of our era. One of these bards, Aneurin by name, belonged to the British
tribe, described by the Romans as Ottadini, and by themselves as the
people of Gododin. This people were situated at the junction of England
and Scotland, and the poems of this bard chiefly refer to that district;
but as the bards were a rambling class, and as the bulk of the people
from Chester to Dumbarton were the same race as the people of the
principality, we are not surprised when we find this bard sometimes
among "the banks and braes of bonny Doon," and sometimes in North and
South Wales. In one of his verses he thus describes the kilt of a
British chief:--

      "Peis dinogat e vreith vreith
      O grwyn balaot ban ureith."

These lines may be found in the _Myvyrian Archæology_, vol. i. p. 13.
col. 1.; and a most unwarrantable translation of _dinogat_ may be found
in Davies' _Mythology of the Druids_; but the literal rendering would be
this:

      "Dinogad's kilt is stripy, stripy,
      Of the skins of front-streak'd wolf-cubs."

_Peis_ or _pais_ is the word now used for the article of female attire
known as a petti-coat, which in form bears a sufficiently close
resemblance to the male kilt to justify me in using that word here. It
also occurs in _pais-arfau_, a coat of arms, and _pais-ddur_, a coat of
mail. The words _vreith vreith_ have been translated word for word; in
the Kymric language it is a very common form of emphatic expression to
repeat the word on which the emphasis falls, as _yn dda da_ for _very
good_; but a more idiomatic translation would have been, _very stripy_.
_Vraith_ with us also stands for plaid, and in the Welsh Bible Joseph's
"coat of many colours" is named _siacced vraith_.

Now I will not attempt to determine what relation this kilt stands in to
the kilts of the Highlands, whether the Gael borrowed it from the
Briton, or the Briton from the Gael, or whether the dress was common to
both at the time in which Dinogad lived; but thus much appears to be
clear, that we here have a _kilt_, and that that kilt was striped, if
not a _plaid_; and it only remains for us to determine the period at
which Dinogad lived. Most persons are acquainted with the name of
Brochmael, Prince of Powys, the British commander at the battle of
Bangor in 613, on the occasion of the dispute between Augustine and the
primitive British church; Dinogad stood to him in the following
relation:

                      BROCHMAEL
                          |
                    CYNAN GARWYN
                          |
              +-----------+-----------+
              |                       |
      SELYF OR SALOMON.            DINOGAD.

Of Dinogad himself there is but one fact on record, and that took place
in 577. His brother Selyf fell at the battle of Bangor or Chester in
613. If we take these facts together, we may form a pretty accurate idea
respecting the period at which he lived.

Viewing this matter from a Cambrian standpoint, I feel myself warranted
in hazarding the following remarks. In the lines of Aneurin, the thing
selected for special notice is the excess of stripe; and therefore,
whether it was the invention of Dinogad, or whether he borrowed the idea
from the Scots or Picts when he was at Dumbarton in 577, it is quite
clear, from the repetition of the word _vreith_, that his kilt had the
attribute of stripyness to a greater extent than was usually the case;
while it is also equally clear, that amongst the Britons of that period,
kilts of a stripy character were so common as to excite no surprise. We
may therefore affirm,

1. That in the beginning of the seventh century the British chiefs were
in the habit of wearing skin kilts.

2. That striped kilts were common.

3. That a chief named Dinogad was distinguished by an excess of this
kind of ornament. And

4. That as the Kymry of North Britain were on intimate terms with their
neighbours, it is highly probable that the Scottish kilt is much older
than 1597.

    T. STEPHENS.

  Merthyr Tydfil.


NOTES ON JULIN, NO. 1.

(Vol. ii., pp. 230. 282. 379. 443.)

In approaching a subject set at rest so long since, I feel some apology
due to you; and that apology I will make by giving you the results of my
recent investigation of the question of Vineta _v._ Julin _alias_
Wollin, made in Pomerania, and noted from personal testimony and
Pomeranian chronicles.

But, first, to correct an _erreur de plume_ of DR. BELL'S. He says, in
stating the position of Vineta (Vol. ii., p. 283.), "opposite the small
town of _Demmin, in Pomerania_." DR. BELL has mis-written the name:
there is no such place on the Baltic. The real name is _Damerow, on the
Isle of Usedom_. A little lower he remarks, speaking of Wollin, "No
_rudera_, no vestiges of ancient grandeur, now mark the spot; not even a
tradition of former greatness." In this I think DR. BELL will find (and,
I am sure, will readily allow, in the same spirit of good faith in which
I make my observations) that he is in error, from the following
narrative.

The gentleman who has kindly given me, by word of mouth, the following
particulars, is a native of Wollin, and of one of the most ancient and
noble families in that island, a relative of that Baron Kaiserling who
was the Cicero of Frederick the Great, but of an elder branch of that
family, the Counts of Kaiserling. M. de Kaiserling states that, when a
young man, in his native town, he took a delight in reading the records
of its bygone glory, and in tracing out the ruins in the neighbourhood
of the town, extending to the distance of about one English mile from
its outskirts. The foundations of houses and tracks of streets[1] are
still exposed in the operations of agriculture, and any informant has in
his possession several Byzantine and Wendish coins which he at that time
picked up. He has likewise seen a Persian coin, which was found in the
same neighbourhood by a friend. Having been led by circumstances to
examine the evidence _pro_ and _con._ in this question, he has come to
the conclusion that Wollin and Julin or Jumne are identical. He treats
the story of Vineta as a nursery tale and a myth.

  [Footnote 1: Particularly the Salmarks (Wendish for Fishmarkets),
  as they were called.]

From the recently-published work on Wollin (_Die Insel Wollin und das
Seebad Misdroy. Historische Skizze von Georg Wilhelm von Raumer_:
Berlin, 1851) I extract the following account of Wollin in 1070, as I
think it important to have all the best evidence attainable[2]:--

  "Adam of Bremen, a contemporaneous historian, has left us a
  curious description of Wollin as it appeared at the time of its
  merchant greatness; yet he was himself, most probably, never
  there, but compiled his account from the narratives of sailors,
  from whose mouth he, as he says, heard almost incredibilities
  about the splendour of the town. He describes the famous city as
  the chief staple place of the trade of the surrounding Slavonians
  and Russians: also as the largest of all towns at this end of
  Europe, and inhabited by Slavonians, Russians, and various pagan
  nations. Also many Germans from Lower Saxony had come to the town,
  yet it was not permitted them to appear openly as Christians;
  though the political interests of a trading place, then as now,
  caused all nations to be allowed the liberty of incolation
  (_Niederlassungsrecht_) and toleration. The peculiar inhabitants
  of the place, particularly those who held the government, were
  mostly pagans, but of great hospitality, of liberal and humane
  customs, and great justice. The town had become very rich, by
  means of the trade of Northern Europe, of which they had almost
  the monopoly: every comfort and rarity of distant regions was to
  be found there. The most remarkable thing in Wollin was a pot of
  Vulcan, which the inhabitants called Greek fire.[3] Probably we
  should understand by this, a great beacon fire, which the
  Wolliners sustained by night on account of navigation, and of
  which a report was among the sailors that it was Greek fire; but
  it is also possible that in the trade with the Orient, which the
  discovered Arabic coins prove, real Greek fire was brought to
  Wollin in pots. A tricaputed idol of a sea-god, or Neptune, stood
  in Wollin, to denote that the island Wollin was surrounded by
  three different seas: that is to say, a green one, the Ostsee; a
  white one, under which we should probably understand the Dievenow;
  and one which was retained in raging motion by continual storms,
  the Haff. The navigation from Wollin to Demmin, a trading place of
  the Peene, is short; also from Wollin to Samland, in Prussia,
  eight days only were necessary to go by land from Hamburgh to
  Wollin, or by sea, across Schleswig; and forty-three days was the
  time of sailing from Wollin to Ostragard in Russia. These notices
  point to the chief trade of Wollin by sea, that is, with Demmin,
  Hamburgh, Schleswig, and Holstein, Prussia, and Russia.

  "So magnificent was ancient Wollin, according to the narrative of
  the seamen; yet it must not be considered exactly a northern
  Venice, but a wide-circuited place, chiefly, however, of wooden
  houses, and surrounded by walls and palisades, in which (in
  comparison with the then rudeness and poverty of the countries on
  the Ostsee) riches and merchandise were heaped up.

  "And now it is time to mention the fable of the drowned city
  Vineta. While an old chronicler, Helmold, follows Adam of Bremen
  in the description of the city Wollin, he puts, through an error
  of transcription[4], in place of Julinum or Jumne, which name Adam
  of Bremen has, Vineta; such a place could not be found, and it was
  concluded, therefore, that the sea had engulfed it. The celebrated
  Buggenhagen[5] first discovered, in the beginning of the sixteenth
  century, a great rock formation in the sea, at the foot of the
  Streckelberg, on the island of Usedom[6], and then the city
  Vineta was soon transplanted thither; and it was absurdly
  considered that a rock reef (which has lately been used for the
  harbour of Swinemünde, and has disappeared) was the ruins of a
  city destroyed by the waves a thousand years ago: indeed, people
  are not wanting at the present day, who hold fast to this fable,
  caused by the error of a transcriber. In the mean time it has
  become a folk tale, and as such retains its value. A Wolliner
  booth-keeper recounted me the interesting story, which may be read
  in Barthold's _History of Pomerania_ (vol. i. p. 419.),--a rough
  sterling Pomeranian (_ächt-pommerschis_) fantastical picture of
  the overbearing of the trade-enriched inhabitants of Vineta, which
  God had so punished by sending the waves of the ocean over the
  city. The town of Wollin, to which alone this legend was
  applicable, is certainly not destroyed by the sea, nor wholly
  desert: but if they deserved punishment for their pride in their
  greatness, they had received it in that they had quite fallen from
  their former glory."--Pp. 22-25.

  [Footnote 2: Likewise, repetition must be excused, as it is here
  scarcely avoidable.]

  [Footnote 3: "Olla Vulcani quæ incolæ Græcam vocant ignem de quo
  etiam meminit Solinus," adds Adam of Bremen. Solinus speaks of
  oil, or rather naphtha, from Moesia; and it is not improbable that
  the Wolliners imported it for their beacons in pots.]

  [Footnote 4: The oldest MSS. are said not to have this error.]

  [Footnote 5: A native of Wollin, by the bye.]

  [Footnote 6: Close by Damerow.]

As I wish thoroughly to dispose of the question, I shall divide my
communication on Julin into two parts, of which the above is the first.
I reserve my own remarks till all the evidence has been heard.

    KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.


Minor Notes.

_Anecdote of Curran._--During one of the circuits, Curran was dining
with a brother advocate at a small inn kept by a respectable woman, who,
to the well ordering of her establishment, added a reputation for that
species of apt and keen reply, which sometimes supplies the place of
wit. The dinner had been well served, the wine was pronounced excellent,
and it was proposed that the hostess should be summoned to receive their
compliments on her good fare. The Christian name of this purveyor was
Honoria, a name of common occurrence in Ireland, but which is generally
abbreviated to that of Honor. Her attendance was prompt, and Curran,
after a brief eulogium on the dinner, but especially the wine, filled a
bumper, and, handing it, proposed as a toast, "Honor and Honesty." His
auditor took the glass, and with a peculiarly arch smile, said, "Our
absent friends," and having drank off her amended toast, she curtseyed
and withdrew.

    M. W. B.

_Difficulty of getting rid of a Name._--The institution founded in Gower
Street under the name of the _University of London_, lived for ten years
under that name, and, since, for fifteen years, under the name of
_University College_, a new institution receiving the name of the
_University of London_. A few years after the change of name, a donor
left reversionary property to the _London University in Gower Street_,
which made it necessary to obtain the assistance of the Court of
Chancery in securing the reversion to its intended owners. A professor
of the _College_ in Gower Street received a letter, dated from Somerset
House (where the _University_ is), written by the Vice-Chancellor of the
University himself, and addressed, not to the _University College_, but
to the _University of London_. And in a public decision, by the
Archbishop of Canterbury, as Visitor of Dulwich College, which appears
in _The Times_ of July 21, it is directed that certain scholars are to
proceed for instruction to some such place as "King's College or _the
London University_." This is all worthy of note, because we often appeal
to old changes of name in the settlement of dates. When this decision
becomes very old, it may happen that its date will be brought into doubt
by appeal to the fact that the place of _instruction_ (what is _now_ the
_University_ giving no instruction but only granting degrees, and to
students of King's College among others) ceased to have the title of
_University_ in 1837. What so natural as to argue that the Archbishop,
himself a visitor of King's College, cannot have failed to remember
this. A reflected doubt may be thrown upon some arguments relating to
dates in former times.

    M.

_House of Lord Edward Fitzgerald._--The Note on his mother, in Vol.
iii., p. 492., reminds me of making the following one on himself, which
may be worth a place in your columns. When lately passing through the
village of Harold's Cross, near Dublin, a friend pointed out to me a
high antiquated-looking house in the village, which he said had been
occupied by Lord Edward Fitzgerald, and in which he had planned many of
his designs. The house appears to be in good preservation, and is still
occupied.

    R. H.

_Fairy Dances._--It might perhaps throw some light on this fanciful
subject, were we to view it in connexion with the operation of the
phenomenon termed the "odylic light," emitted from magnetic substances.
The Baron von Riechenbach, in his _Researches on Magnetism, &c._,
explains the cause of somewhat similar extraordinary appearances in the
following manner:--

  "High on the Brocken there are rocky summits which are strongly
  magnetic, and cause the needle to deviate: these rocks contain
  disseminated magnetic iron ore; ... the necessary consequence is
  that they send up odylic flames.... Who could blame persons imbued
  with the superstitious feelings of their age, if they saw, under
  these circumstances, the devil dancing with his whole train of
  ghosts, demons, and witches? The revels of the Walpurgisnacht must
  now, alas! vanish, and give place to the sobrieties of
  science--science, which with her touch dissipates one by one all
  the beautiful but dim forms evoked by phantasy."

Should such a thing as the odylic light satisfactorily explain the
phenomenon of ghosts, fairies, &c., we should happily be relieved from
the awkward necessity of continuing to treat their existence as "old
wives' fables," or the production of a disordered imagination.

    J. H. KERSHAW.

_Æsop._--It may be said, at first sight, "Why, every body knows all
about him." I answer, Perhaps about as much as modern painters and
artists know about Bacchus, whom they always represent as a gross,
vulgar, fat person: all the ancient poets, however (and surely they
ought to know best), depict him an exquisitely beautiful youth. A
similar vulgar error exists with regard to Æsop, who in the
_Encyclopædia Britannica_ is pronounced a strikingly deformed personage.
The exact opposite seems to have been the truth. Philostratus has left a
description of a picture of Æsop, who was represented with a chorus of
animals about him: he was painted smiling, and looking thoughtfully on
the ground, but not a word is said of any deformity. Again, the
Athenians erected a statue to his honour, "and," says Bentley, "a statue
of him, if he were deformed, would only have been a monument of his
ugliness: it would have been an indignity, rather than an honour to his
memory, to have perpetuated his deformity."

And, lastly, he was sold into Samos by a slave-dealer, and it is a
well-known fact that these people bought up the handsomest youths they
could procure.

    A. C. W.

  Brompton.

_Nelson's Coat at Trafalgar_ (Vol. iv. p. 114.).--Besides the loss of
bullion from one of the epaulettes of Lord Nelson's coat occasioned by
the circumstance related by ÆGROTUS, there was a similar defacement
caused by the fatal bullet itself, which might render the identification
suggested by ÆGROTUS a little difficult. Sir W. Beatty says, in his
_Authentic Narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson_, p. 70.:

  "The ball struck the fore part of his lordship's epaulette, and
  entered the left shoulder.... On removing the ball, a portion of
  the gold lace and pad of the epaulette, together with a small
  piece of his lordship's coat, was found firmly attached to it."

The ball, with the adhering gold lace, &c., was set in a crystal locket,
and worn by Sir W. Beatty. It is now, I believe, in the possession of
Prince Albert.

The intention of my note (Vol. iii., p. 517.) was to refute a common
impression, probably derived from Harrison's work, that Lord Nelson had
rashly adorned his admiral's uniform with extra insignia on the day of
the battle, and thereby rendered himself a conspicuous object for the
French riflemen.

    ALFRED GATTY.



Queries.


JOHN KNOX.

In completing the proposed series of Knox's writings, I should feel
greatly indebted to DR. MAITLAND or any of your readers for answering
the following Queries:--

1. In the Catalogue of writers on the Old and New Testament, p. 107.:
London, 1663, a sermon on Ezechiel ix. 4., attributed to Knox, is said
to have been printed anno 1580. Where is there a copy of this sermon
preserved?

2. Bale, and Melchior Adam, copying Verheiden, include in the list of
Knox's writings, _In Genesim Conciones_. Is such a book known to exist?

3. Bishop Tanner also ascribes to him _Exposition on Daniel_: Malburg,
1529. This date is unquestionably erroneous, and probably the book also.

4. Knox's elaborate treatise _Against the Adversaries of God's
Predestination_ was first published at Geneva, 1560, by John Crespin.
Toby Cooke, in 1580, had a license to print Knoxes _Answere to the
Cauillations of ane Anabaptist_. (Herbert's _Ames_, p. 1263.) Is there
any evidence that the work was reprinted earlier than 1591?

5. The work itself professes to be in answer to a book entitled _The
Confutation of the Errors of the Careles by Necessitie_; "which book,"
it is added, "written in the English tongue, doeth contain as well the
lies and blasphemies imagined by Sebastian Castalio, ... as also the
vane reasons of Pighius, Sadoletus, and Georgius Siculus, pestilent
Papistes, and expressed enemies of God's free mercies." When was this
_Confutation_ printed, and where is there a copy to be seen?

    DAVID LAING.

  Edinburgh.


Minor Queries.

116. "_Foeda ministeria, atque minis absistite acerbis_" (Vol. iii., p.
494.).--Will any of your readers who may be metrical scholars, inform me
whether there is any classical example of such an accent and cæsura as
in this verse of Vida?

    C. B.

117. _Cornish Arms and Cornish Motto._--The Cornish arms are a field
sable with fifteen _bezants_, not _balls_ as they are commonly called,
5. 4. 3. 2. 1. in pale _or_. These arms were borne by Condurus, the last
Earl of Cornwall of British blood, in the time of William I., and were
so borne until Richard, Earl of Cornwall, on being created Earl of
Poictou, took the arms of such. According to the custom of the French,
these were a rampant lion _gules_ crowned _or_, in a field _argent_; but
to show forth Cornwall, he threw the fifteen _bezants_ into a bordour
_sable_, round the bearing of the Earl of Poictou; but the Cornish arms,
those of Condurus, are unaltered, though the _coins_ are often mistaken
for balls, and painted on a field coloured to the painter's fancy. Can
you tell me when the Cornish motto "one and all" was adopted, and why?

    S. H. (2)

118. _Gloucester saved from the King's Mines._--In Sir Kenelm Digby's
_Treatise of Bodies_, ch. xxviii. sec. 4., is this passage:

  "The trampling of men and horses in a quiet night, will be heard
  some miles off.... Most of all if one set a drum smooth upon the
  ground, and lay one's ear to the upper edge of it," &c.

On which the copy in my possession (ed. 1669) has the following marginal
note in a cotemporary hand:

  "Thus Gloucester was saved from the King's mines by y'e drum of a
  drunken dru̅mer."

To what event does this refer, and where shall I find an account of it?
It evidently happened during the civil wars, but Clarendon has no
mention of it.

    T. H. KERSLEY, A.B.

119. _Milesian._--What is the origin of the term _Milesian_ as applied
to certain races among the Irish?

    W. FRASER.

120. _Horology._--Can any of your numerous correspondents kindly inform
me what is the best scientific work on Horology? I do not want one
containing _mere_ mathematical work, but entering into all the details
of the various movements, escapements, &c. &c. of astronomical clocks,
chronometers, pocket watches, with the latest improvements down to the
present time.

    H. C. K.

121. _Laurentius Müller._--Can any of your readers mention a library
which contains a copy of the _Historia Septentrionalis_, or History of
Poland, of Laurentius Müller, published about 1580?

    A. TR.

122. _Lines on a Bed._--Can you tell me where I can find the antecedents
of the following couplets? They are a portion of some exquisite poetical
"Lines on a Bed:"

      "To-day thy bosom may contain
      Exulting pleasure's fleeting train,
        Desponding grief to-morrow!"

I once thought they were Prior's, but I cannot find them. Can you assist
me?

    R. W. B.

123. _Pirog._--A custom, I believe, still exists in Russia for the
mistress of a family to distribute on certain occasions bread or cake to
her guests. Some particulars of this custom appeared either in the
_Globe_ or the _Standard_ newspaper in 1837 or 1838, during the months
of October, November, or December. Having lost the reference to the
precise date, and only recollecting that the custom is known by the name
of _Pirog_, I shall feel much obliged to any correspondent of the "NOTES
AND QUERIES" if he can supply me with further information on the
subject.

    R. M. W.

124. _Lists of Plants with their Provincial Names._--In a biography that
appeared of Dr. P. Brown in the _Anthologia Hibernica_ for Jan. 7, 1793,
we are informed that he prepared for the press a "Fasciculus Plantarum
Hibernicarum," enumerating chiefly those growing in the counties of Mayo
and Galway, written in Latin, with the English and Irish names of each
plant. See also _Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science_, i.--xxx.
Where is this MS.?

Can any of your readers refer me to similar lists of plants indigenous
to either England or Ireland, in which the provincial names are
preserved, with any notes on their use in medicine, or their connexion
with the superstitions of the district to which the list refers? Any
information on this subject, however slight, will particularly oblige

    S. P. H. T.

P.S. I should not be much surprised if the MS. of Dr. P. Brown existed
in some of the collectanea in the Library of Trin. Coll. Dub.

125. _Print cleaning._--How should prints be cleaned, so as not to
injure the paper?

    A. G.

126. _Italian Writer on Political Economy--Carli the Economist._--What
was the first work by an Italian writer on any element of political
economy? and in what year did Carli, the celebrated economist, die?

    ALPHA.

127. _Nightingale and Thorn._--Where is the earliest notice of the fable
of the nightingale and the thorn? that she sings because she has a thorn
in her breast? For obvious reasons, the fiction cannot be classical.

It is noticed by Byron:

      "The nightingale that sings with the deep thorn,
      That fable places in her breast of wail,
      Is lighter far of heart and voice than those
      Whose headlong passions form their proper woes."

But an earlier mention is found in Browne's poem on the death of Mr.
Thomas Manwood:--

      "Not for thee these briny tears are spent,
        But as the nightingale against the breere,
      'Tis for myself I moan and do lament,
        Not that thou left'st the world, but left'st me here."

He seems to interpret the fable to the same effect as Homer makes
Achilles' women lament Patroclus--Πατρόκλου πρόφασιν, σφῶν δ'
αὐτῶν κήδε' ἑκάστη. It has been suggested that it rather implies that
the spirit of music, like that of poetry and prophecy, visits chiefly
the afflicted,--a comfortable doctrine to prosaic and unmusical people.

      A. W. H.

128. _Coleridge's Essays on Beauty._--At pp. 300, 301, of this writer's
_Table Talk_ (3rd edition) there is the following paragraph:--

  "I exceedingly regret the loss of those essays on beauty, which I
  wrote in a Bristol newspaper. I would give much to recover them."

Can any of your readers afford information on this point? The
publication of the essays in question (supposing that they have not yet
been published) would be a most welcome addition to the works of so
eminent and original an author as S. T. Coleridge.

    J. H. KERSHAW.

129. _Henryson and Kinaston._--MR. SINGER (Vol. iii., p. 297.) refers to
Sir Francis Kinaston's Latin version of Chaucer's _Troilus and
Cresseid_, and of Henryson's _Testament of Cresseid_. The first two
books of the former are well known as having been printed at Oxford,
1635, 4to.; and the entire version was announced for publication by F.
G. Waldron, in a pamphlet printed as a specimen, in 1796. Query, Who is
now the possessor of Kinaston's manuscript, which MR. SINGER recommends
as worthy of the attention of the Camden Society?

In the original table of contents of a manuscript collection, written
about the year 1515, one article in that portion of the volume now lost
is "Mr. Robert Henderson's dreme, _On fut by Forth_." Can any of your
readers point out where a copy of this, or any other unpublished poems
by Henryson, are preserved?

    D. L.

  Edinburgh.

130. _Oldys' Account of London Libraries._--In "A Catalogue of the
Libraries of the late _William Oldys_, Esq., Norroy King at Arms (author
of the _Life of Sir Walter Raleigh_), the Reverend _Mr. Emms_, of
_Yarmouth_, and _Mr. William Rush_, which will begin to be sold on
Monday, April 12, by Thomas Davies;" published without date, but
supposed to be in 1764, I find amongst Mr. Oldys's manuscripts, lot
3613.: "Of London Libraries: with Anecdotes of Collectors of Books,
Remarks on Booksellers, and on the first Publishers of Catalogues." Can
any of your readers inform me if the same is still in existence, and in
whose possession it is?

    WILLIAM BROWN, Jun.

  Old Street.

131. _A Sword-blade Note._--I find in an account-book of a public
company an entry dated Oct. 1720, directing the disposal of "A
Sword-blade Note for One hundred ninety-two pounds ten shillings seven
pence." Can any of your numerous readers, especially those cognisant of
monetary transactions, favour me with an explanation of the nature of
this note, and the origin of its peculiar appellation?

    R. J.

  Threadneedle Street, Aug. 28. 1851.

132. _Abacot._--The word ABACOT, now inserted in foreign as well as
English dictionaries, was adopted by Spelman in his Glossary: the
authority which he gives _seems_ to be the passage (stating that King
Henry VI.'s "high cap of estate, called _Abacot_, garnished with two
rich crowns," was presented to King Edward IV. after the battle of
Hexham) which is in Holinshed, (the third volume of _Chronicles_, fol.
Lond. 1577, p. 666. col. 2. line 28.): but this appears to be copied
from Grafton (_A Chronicle, &c._, fol. Lond. 1569), where the word
stands _Abococket_. If this author took it from Hall (_The Union, &c._,
fol. Lond. 1549) I think it there stands the same: but in Fabyan's
_Chronicle_, as edited by Ellis, it is printed _Bycoket_; and in one
black-letter copy in the British Museum, it may be seen _Bicoket_,
corrected in the margin by a hand of the sixteenth century, _Brioket_.

Can any reader point out the right word, and give its derivation?

    J. W. P.

133. _Princesses of Wales_ (Vol. iv., p. 24.).--C. C. R. has clearly
shown what is Hume's authority for the passage quoted by Mr. Christian
in his edition of _Blackstone_, and referred to by me in my former
communication, Vol. iii., p. 477. Can he point out where the passage in
Hume is found? Mr. Christian refers to Hume, iv. p. 113.; but I have not
been able to find it at the place referred to in any edition of Hume
which I have had the opportunity of consulting.

    G.


Minor Queries Answered.

_A Kelso Convoy._--What is the origin of a _Kelso convoy_,--a Scotch
phrase, used to express going a little way with a person?

    B.

  [Jamieson, in his _Dictionary of the Scottish Language_,
  Johnstone's Abridgment, thus explains the phrase:--

  "KELSO CONVOY, an escort scarcely deserving the name south of
  Scotland. 'A step and a half ower the door stane.' (_Antiquary._)
  This is rather farther than a _Scotch Convoy_, which, according to
  some, is only to the door. It is, however, explained by others as
  signifying that one goes as far as the friend whom he accompanies
  has to go, although to his own door."]

_Cardinal Wolsey._--In the life of Wolsey in the _Penny Cyclopædia_ is
the following:

   "It is said that while he lived at Lymington, he got drunk at a
   neighbouring fair. For some such cause it is certain that Sir
   Amias Paulett put him into the stocks,--a punishment for which we
   find that he subsequently revenged himself."

I have been unable to find what was his revenge.

    B.

  [Collins, in his _Peerage of England_, vol. iv. p. 3., says, "that
  in the reign of Henry VII., when Cardinal Wolsey was only a
  schoolmaster at Lymington, in Somersetshire, Sir Amias Paulett,
  for some misdemeanor committed by him, clapped him in the stocks;
  which the Cardinal, when he grew into favour with Henry VIII., so
  far resented, that he sought all manner of ways to give him
  trouble, and obliged him (as Godwin in his _Annals_, p. 28.,
  observes) to dance attendance at London for some years, and by all
  manner of obsequiousness to curry favour with him. During the time
  of his attendance, being commanded by the Cardinal not to depart
  London without licence, he took up his lodging in the great gate
  of the Temple towards Fleet Street."]

_Brunswick Mum._--Why was the beer called _Brunswick Mum_ so named? When
I was young it used to be drunk in this country, and was, I am told,
extensively exported to India, &c. Is it still manufactured?

    G. CREED.

  [Skinner calls _Mum_ a strong kind of beer, introduced by us from
  Brunswick, and derived either from German _mummeln_, to mumble, or
  from _mum_ (silentii index), _i.e._ either drink that will (ut nos
  dicimus) make a cat speak, or drink that will take away the power
  of speech.

      "The clamorous crowd is hush'd with mugs of mum,
      Till all, tun'd equal, send a general hum."--_Pope._

  Brunswick Mum is now advertised for sale by many publicans in the
  metropolis.]

_Meaning of "Rasher."_--What is the derivation of the word _rasher_, "a
_rasher_ of bacon?"

    J. H. C.

  Adelaide, South Australia.

  [Surely from the French _raser_, to shave--a shaving of bacon. Our
  correspondent will probably recollect that vessels that have been
  _cut down_ are commonly known as _razees_.]



Replies.


PENDULUM DEMONSTRATION OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION.

(Vol. iv., p. 129.)

I beg to send you a few remarks on the note of A. E. B., concerning the
"Pendulum Demonstration of the Earth's Rotation."

Your correspondent appears to consider that the only fact asserted by
the propounders of the theory, is a variation in the plane of
oscillation, caused by "the difference of rotation due to the excess of
velocity with which one extremity of the line of oscillation may be
affected more than the other;" the probable existence of which he proves
by imagining a pendulum suspended over a point half-way between London
and Edinburgh, and set in motion by being drawn towards and retained
over London, and thence dismissed on its course. It is clear that in
such a case the pendulum would at starting be impressed with the same
velocity of motion in an eastern direction which the retaining power in
London had, and that its path would be the result of this force
compounded with that given by gravity in its line of suspension, _i.e._
towards the north, and its course would therefore be one subject to easy
calculation. I should imagine that this disturbing force arising from
the excess of eastern velocity possessed by the starting point over that
of suspension, would be inappreciable after a few oscillations; but at
all events it is evident that it might readily be avoided by setting the
pendulum in motion by an impulse given beneath the point of suspension,
by giving to it a direction east and west as suggested by A. E. B., or
by several other expedients which must occur to a mathematician.

Your correspondent proceeds by requiring that there should be shown
"reasonable ground to induce the belief that the ball is really free
from the attraction of each successive point of the earth's surface,"
and is not as "effectually a partaker in the rotation of any given
point" as if it were fixed there; or that "the duration of residence"
necessary to cause such effect should be stated. Now I certainly am
aware of no force by which a body unconnected with the earth would have
any tendency to rotate with it; gravity can only act in a direct line
from the body affected to the centre of the attracting body, and the
motion in the direction of the earth's rotation can only be gained by
contact or connexion, however momentary, with it. The onus of proving
the existence of such a force as A. E. B. alludes to, must surely rest
with him, not that of disproving it with me. What the propounders of
this theory claim to show is, I humbly conceive, this,--that the
direction in which a pendulum oscillates is _constant_, and not affected
by the rotation of the earth beneath it: that as when suspended above
the pole (where the point of suspension would remain fixed) the plane of
each oscillation would make a _different_ angle with any given meridian
of longitude, returning to its original angle when the diurnal rotation
of the earth was completed; and as when suspended above the equator,
where the point of suspension would be moved in a right line, or, to
define more accurately, where the plane made by the motion of a line
joining the point of suspension and the point directly under it (over
which the ball would remain if at rest) would be a flat or right plane,
the angle made by each successive oscillation with any one meridian
would be the _same_, so, at all the intermediate stations between the
pole and the equator, where the point of suspension would move in a
line, commencing near the pole with an infinitely small curve, and
ending near the equator with one infinitely large (_i.e._ where the
plane as described above would be thus curved), the angle of the plane
of oscillation with a given meridian would, at each station, vary in a
ratio diminishing from the variation at the pole until it became extinct
at the equator, which variation they believe to be capable both of
mathematical proof and of ocular demonstration.

I do not profess to be one of the propounders of this theory, and it is
very probable that you may have received from some other source a more
lucid, and perhaps a more correct, explanation of it; but in case you
have not done so, I send you the foregoing rough "Note" of what are my
opinions of it.

    E. H. Y.


A SAXON BELL-HOUSE.

(Vol. iv., p. 102.)

Your correspondent MR. GATTY, in a late number, has quoted a passage of
the historian Hume, which treats a certain Anglo-Saxon document as a
statute of Athelstan. As your correspondent cites his author without a
comment, he would appear to give his own sanction to the date which Hume
has imposed upon that document. In point of fact, it bears no express
date, and therefore presents a good subject for a Query, whether that or
any other era is by construction applicable to it. It is an extremely
interesting Anglo-Saxon remain; and as it bears for title, "be
leodgethincthum and lage," it purports to give legal information upon
the secular dignities and ranks of the Anglo-Saxon period. This promises
well to the archæologist, but unfortunately, on a nearer inspection, the
document loses much of its worth; for, independently of its lacking a
date, its jurisprudence partakes more of theory than that dry law which
we might imagine would proceed from the Anglo-Saxon bench.
Notwithstanding this, however, its archæological interest is great. The
language is pure and incorrupt West Saxon.

It has been published by all its editors (except Professor Leo) as
_prose_, when it is clearly not only rythmical but alliterative--an
obvious characteristic of Anglo-Saxon poetry. And it is this mistake
which has involved the further consequence of giving to the document a
legal and historical value which it would never have had if its real
garb had been seen through. This has led the critics into a belief of
its veracity, when a knowledge of its real character would have inspired
doubts. I believe that its accidental position in the first printed
edition at the end of the "Judicia" (whether it be so placed in the MS.
I know not) has assisted in the delusion, and has supplied a date to the
minds of those who prefer faith to disquisition. The internal evidence
of the document also shows that it is not jurisprudence, but only a
vision spun from the writer's own brains, of what he dreamed to be
constitutional and legal characteristics of an anterior age, when there
were greater liberty of action and expansion of mind. The opening words
of themselves contain the character of the document:--"Hit wæs hwilum."
It is not a narrative of the present, but a record of the past.

The legal poet then breaks freely into the darling ornament of
Anglo-Saxon song, alliteration: "On Engla lagum thæt leod and lagum,"
and so on to the end. As its contents are so well known and accessible,
I will not quote them, but will merely give a running comment upon
parts. "Gif ceorl getheah," &c. It may be _doubted_ whether, even in
occasional instances, the _ceorl_ at any time possessed under the
Anglo-Saxon system the power of equalising himself by means of the
acquisition of property, with the class of theguas or gentils-hommes.
But in the broad way in which the poet states it, it may be absolutely
denied, inasmuch as the acquisition of wealth is made of itself to
transform the _ceorl_ into a _thegn_: a singular coincidence of idea
with the vulgar modern theory, but incompatible with fact in an age when
a dominant caste of _gentlemen_ obtained.

It is not until the reign of Edward III. that any man, not born a
gentleman, can be distinctly traced in possession of the honours and
dignities of the country; an air of improbability is thus given which is
increased by a verbal scrutiny. In the words "gif thegen getheah thæt be
wearth to eorle," &c., the use of the word _eorl_ is most suspicious.
This is not the _eorl_ of antiquity--the Teutonic _nobilis_; it is the
official _eorl_ of the Danish and _quasi_-Danish periods. This
anachronism betrays the real date of the production, and carries us to
the times succeeding the reign of Ethelred II., when the disordered and
transitional state of the country may have excited in the mind of the
disquieted writer a fond aspiration which he clothed in the fanciful
garb of his own wishes, rather than that of the gloomy reality which he
saw before him.

The use of the _cræft_, for a vessel, like the modern, is to be found in
the _Andreas_ (v. 500.), a composition probably of the eleventh century.

The conclusion points to troubled and late times of the Anglo-Saxon
rule, when the church missed the reverence which had been paid to it in
periods of peace and prosperity.

I have said enough to show that this document cannot rank in accuracy or
truthful value with the Rectitudines or the LL. of Hen. I.

One word more. What is the meaning of _burh-geat_? _Burh_ I can
understand; authorities abound for its use as expressing the _manoir_ of
the Anglo-Saxon _thegn_. The "geneates riht" (_Rectitudines_) is
"bytlian and burh hegegian." The _ceorls_ of Dyddanham were bound to
dyke the hedge of their lords' _burh_ ("Consuetudines in Dyddanhamme,"
_Kemb_, vol. iii. App. p. 450.): "And dicie gyrde burh heges."

    H. C. C.


THE WHALE OF JONAH.

Eichhorn (_Einleitung in das Alte Testament_, iii. 249.) in a note
refers to a passage of Müller's translations of Linnæus, narrating the
following remarkable accident:--

  "In the year 1758, a seaman, in consequence of stormy weather,
  unluckily fell overboard from a frigate into the Mediterranean. A
  seal (_Seehund_, not _Hai_, a shark) immediately took the man,
  swimming and crying for help, into it wide jaws. Other seamen
  sprang into a boat to help their swimming comrade; and their
  captain, noticing the accident, had the presence of mind to
  direct a gun to be fired from the deck at the fish, whereby he was
  fortunately so far struck (_so getroffen wurde_) that he _spit_
  out directly the seaman previously seized in his jaws, who was
  taken into the boat alive, and apparently little hurt.

  "The seal was taken by harpoons and ropes, and hauled into the
  frigate, and hung to dry in the cross-trees (_quære_). The captain
  gave the fish to the seaman who, by God's providence, had been so
  wonderfully preserved; and he made the circuit of Europe with it
  as an exhibition, and from France it came to Erlangen, Nuremburg,
  and other places, where it was openly shown. The fish was twenty
  feet long, with fins nine feet broad, and weighed 3,924 lbs., and
  is illustrated in tab. 9. fig. 5.; from all which it is very
  probably concluded, that this kind was the true Jonas-fish."

Bochart concurs in this opinion.

Herman de Hardt (_Programma de rebus Jonæ_, Helmst. 1719) considers that
Jonah stopt at a tavern bearing the sign of the whale.

Lesz (_Vermischte Schriften_, Th. i. S. 16.) thinks that a ship with a
figure-head (_Zeichen_) of a whale took Jonah on board, and in three
days put him ashore; from which it was reported that the ship-whale had
vomited (discharged) him.

Eichhorn has noticed the above in his Introduction to the Old Testament
(iii. 250.).

An anonymous writer says that _dag_ means a fish-boat; and that the word
which is translated _whale_, should have been _preserver_; a criticism
inconsistent with itself, and void of authority.

The above four instances are the only hypotheses at variance with the
received text and interpretation worthy of notice: if indeed the case of
the shark can be deemed at all at variance, as the term κῆτος
was used to designate many different fishes.

Jebb (_Sacred Literature_, p. 178.) says that the whale's stomach is not
a safe and practicable asylum; but--

  "The throat is large, and provided with a bag or intestine so
  considerable in size that whales frequently take into it _two_ of
  their young, when weak, especially during a tempest. In this
  vessel there are two vents, which serve for inspiration and
  expiration; there, in all probability, Jonas was preserved."

John Hunter compares the whale's tongue to a feather bed; and says that
the baleen (whalebone) and tongue together fill up the whole space of
the jaws.

Josephus describes the fish of Jonah as a κῆτος, and fixes on
the Euxine for the locality as an _on dit_ (ὁ λόγος). The same
word in reference to the same event is used by Epiphanius, Cedrenus,
Zanarus, and Nicephorus.

The Arabic version has the word حُوْتا (_choono_), translated in
Walton's Polyglott _cetus_; but the word, according to Castell, means "a
tavern," or "merchants' office." This may have led to Herman de Hardt's
whim.

The Targum of Jonathan, and the Syriac of Jonah, have both the identical
word which was most probably used by our Lord, _Noono_, fish, the root
signifying _to be prolific_, for which fishes are eminently remarkable.
_Dag_, the Hebrew word, has the same original signification.

The word used by our Lord, in adverting to His descent to Hades, was
most probably that of the Syriac version, [Syriac](_noono_), which means
_fish_ in Chaldee and Arabic, as well as in Syriac; and corresponds to
the Hebrew word דַג,  (_dag_), _fish_, in Jonah i. 17., ii. 1., 10.
The Greek of Matthew xii. 40., instead of ἰχθὺς, has
κῆτος, _a whale_. The Septuagint has the same word κῆτος for
(1) _dag_ in Jonah, as well as for (2) _leviathan_ in Job iii. 8., and
for (3) _tanninim_ in Genesis i. 21. The error appears to be in the
Septuagint of Jonah, where the particular fish, _the whale_, is
mentioned instead of the general term _fish_. Possibly the disciples of
Christ knew that the fish was a κῆτος, and the habits of such
of them as were fishermen might have familiarised them with its
description or form. It is certain that the κῆτος of Aristotle,
and _cetus_ of Pliny, was one of the genus _Cetacea_, without gills, but
with blow-holes communicating with the lungs. The disciples may also
have heard the mythological story of Hercules being three days in the
belly of the κῆτος, the word used by Æneas Gazæus, although
Lycophron describes the animal as a shark, κάρχαρος κύων.

      "Τριεσπέρου λέοντος, ὅν ποτε γνάθοις
      Τρίτωνος ἠμάλαψε κάρχαρος κύων."

The remarkable event recorded of Jonah occurred just about 300 years
before Lycophron wrote; who, having doubtless heard the true story,
thought it right to attribute it to Hercules, to whom all other
marvellous feats of power, strength, and dexterity were appropriated by
the mythologists.

    T. J. BUCKTON.

  Lichfield.


ST. TRUNNIAN.

(Vol. iii., pp. 187. 252.)

Your "NOTES AND QUERIES" form the best specimen of a
Conversations-Lexicon that I have yet met with; and I regret that it was
not in existence some years ago, having long felt the want of some such
special and ready medium of communication.

In the old enclosures to the west of the town of Barton we had a spring
of clear water called St. Trunnian's Spring; and in our open field we
had an old thorn tree called St. Trunnian's Tree,--names that imply a
familiar acquaintance with St. Trunnian here; but I have no indication
to show who St. Trunnian was. I am happy, however, to find that your
indefatigable correspondent DR. RIMBAULT, like myself, has had his
attention called to the same unsatisfied Query.

Paulinus, the first Bishop of York, was the first who preached
Christianity in Lindsey; yet St. Chad was the patron saint of Barton and
its immediate neighbourhood, and at times I have fancied that St.
Trunnian might have been one of his coadjutors; at other times I have
thought he may have been some sainted person, posted here with the
allied force under Anlaff, previous to the great battle of Brunannburg,
which was fought in the adjoining parish in the time of Athelstan: but I
never could meet with any conclusive notice, of St. Trunnian, or any
particular account of him. Some years ago I was dining with a clerical
friend in London, and then made known my anxiety, when he at once
referred to the quotation made by DR. RIMBAULT from _Appius and
Virginia_, as in Vol. iii., p. 187.; and my friend has since referred me
to Heywoods's play of _The Four P's_ (Collier's edition of Dodsley's Old
Plays, vol. i. p. 55.), where the Palmer is introduced narrating his
pilgrimage:

      "At Saynt Toncumber and Saynt Tronion,
      At Saynt Bothulph and Saynt Ann of Buckston;"

inferring a locality for St. Tronion as well as St. Botulph, in
Lincolnshire: and subsequently my friend notes that--

  "Mr. Stephens, in a letter to the printer of the _St. James's
  Chronicle_, points out the following mention of St. Tronion in
  Geoffrey Fenton's _Tragical Discourses_, 4to., 1567, fol. 114.
  b.:--'He (referring to some one in his narrative not named)
  returned in Haste to his Lodgynge, where he attended the approche
  of his Hower of appointment wyth no lesse Devocyon than the
  papystes in France perform their ydolatrous Pilgrimage to the ydol
  Saynt Tronyon upon the Mount Avyon besides Roan.'"

Should these minutes lead to further information, it will give me great
pleasure, as I am anxious to elucidate, as far as I can, the antiquities
of my native place.

Mr. Jaques lives at a place called St. Trinnians, near to Richmond in
Yorkshire; but I have not the _History of Richmondshire_ to refer to, so
as to see whether any notice of our saint is there taken under this
evident variation of the same appellation.

    WM. S. HESLEDEN.

  Barton-upon-Humber, Aug. 29. 1851.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor_ (Vol. iv., pp. 9. 137.).--L. M. says
that the precedent of Mr. Harley being sworn of the Privy Council does
not prove the argument advanced by C., and "for this simple reason, that
the individual who held the office is _not_ Right Honorable, but the
officer _is_." What he means by the _office_ (of privy councillor) is
not clear; but surely he does not mean to say that it is not the rank of
privy councillor which gives the courtesy style of Right Honorable? If
so, can a man be a member of the Council till he is _sworn_ at the
board?

Is the Lord Mayor a member of the Board, not having been sworn? Is he
ever summoned to any Council? When he attends a meeting on the occasion
of the accession, is he _summoned_? and if so, by whom, and in what
manner? The Lord Mayor is certainly _not_ a privy councillor by reason
of his courtesy _style_ of Lord, any more than the Lord Mayor of York.

The question is, whether the style of Right Honorable was given to the
Lord Mayor from the supposition that he was a privy councillor, or from
the fact that formerly the Lord Mayor was considered as holding the rank
of a _Baron_; for if he died during his mayoralty, he was buried with
the rank, state, and degree of _Baron_.

When does it appear that the style of Right Honorable was first given to
the Lord Mayor of London?

    E.

_Did Bishop Gibson write a life of Cromwell?_ (Vol. iv., p. 117.).--In
the Life of the Rev. Isaac Kimber, prefixed to his _Sermons_, London,
1756, 8vo., it is stated that--

  "One of the first productions he gave to the world was the _Life
  of Oliver Cromwell_ in 8vo., printed for Messrs. Brotherton and
  Cox. This piece met with a very good reception from the public,
  and has passed through several editions, universally esteemed for
  its style and its impartiality; and as the author's name was not
  made public, though it was always known to his friends, it was at
  first very confidently ascribed to Dr. Gibson, Bishop of
  London."--P. 10.

The Life of Kimber appears to have been written by Edward Kimber, his
son, and therefore the claim of Bishop Gibson to this work may very
fairly be set aside.

The _Short Critical Review of the life of Oliver Cromwell, by a
Gentleman of the Middle Temple_, has always been attributed to John
Bankes, an account of whom will be found in Chalmers's _Biog. Dict._,
vol. iii. p. 422., where it is confidently stated to be his. It was
first published in 1739, 8vo. I have two copies of a third edition,
Lond. 1747. 12mo. "Carefully revised and greatly enlarged in every
chapter by the author." In one of the copies the title-page states it to
be "by a gentleman of the Middle Temple;" and in the other "by Mr.
Bankes." Bishop Gibson did not die till 1748, and there seems little
probability that, if he were the author, another man's name would be put
to it during his lifetime.

I conclude therefore that neither of these two works are by Bishop
Gibson.

    JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Lines on the Temple_ (Vol. iii., pp. 450. 505.).--In the _Gentleman's
Mag._ (Suppl. for 1768, p. 621.), the reviewer of a work entitled
"_Cobleriana, or the Cobler's Miscellany_, being a choice collection of
the miscellaneous pieces in prose and verse, serious and comic, by
Jobson the Cobler, of Drury Lane, 2 vols.," gives the following extract;
but does not state whether it belongs to the "new" pieces, or to those
which had been previously "published in the newspapers," the volume
being avowedly composed of both sorts:--

      "_An Epigram on the Lamb and Horse, the two insignia of the
      Societies of the Temple._

      "The Lamb the _Lawyers'_ innocence declares,
      The Horse _their_ expedition in affairs;
      Hail, happy men! for chusing two such types
      As plainly shew _they_ give the world no wipes;
      For who dares say that suits are at a stand,
      When _two_ such virtues both go hand in hand?
      No more let _Chanc'ry Lane_ be endless counted,
      Since they're by Lamb and Horse so nobly mounted."

The _Italics_, which I have copied, were, I suppose, put in by the
reviewer, who adds, "Q. Whether the Lamb and Horse are mounted upon
Chancery Lane, or two virtues, or happy men?" Poor man! I am afraid his
Query has never been answered; for that age was not adorned and
illustrated by any work like one in which we rejoice,--a work of which,
lest a more unguarded expression of our feelings should be indelicate,
and subject us to the suspicion of flattery, we will be content to say
boldly, that, though less in size and cost, it is cotemporaneous with
the Great Exhibition.

    A TEMPLAR.

These lines are printed (probably for the first time) in the sixth
number of _The Foundling Hospital for Wit_, 8vo.: Printed for W. Webb,
near St. Paul's, 1749 (p. 73.). The learned author of _Heraldic
Anomalies_ (2nd edit. vol. i. p. 310.) says they were _chalked_ upon one
of the public gates of the Temple; but from the following note,
preceding the lines in question, in _The Foundling Hospital for Wit_,
this statement is probably erroneous:

  "The Inner Temple Gate, London, being lately repaired, and
  curiously decorated, the following inscription, in honour of both
  the Temples, is _intended_ to be put over it."

A MS. note, in a cotemporary hand, in my copy of _The Foundling Hospital
for Wit_, states the author of the original lines to have been the "Rev.
William Dunkin, D.D." The answer which follows it, is said to be by "Sir
Charles Hanbury Williams."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Henry Headley, B.A._ (Vol. iii., p. 280.).--E. B. PRICE styles "Henry
Headley, B.A., of Norwich, a _now forgotten critic_." He might have
added, "but who deserved to be remembered, as one whose _Select Beauties
of Ancient English Poetry, with Remarks, &c._, in 2 vols., 1787,
contributed something towards the revival of a taste for that species of
literature which Percy's _Reliques_ exalted into a fashion, if not a
passion, never to be discountenanced again." The work of course is
become scarce, and not the less valuable, though that recommendation
constitutes its least value.

    J. M. G.

  Hallamshire.

_Cycle of Cathay_ (Vol. iv., p. 37.).--Without reflecting much on the
matter, I have always supposed the "cycle" in Tennyson's line--

      "Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay"--

to be the Platonic cycle, or great year, the space of time in which all
the stars and constellations return to their former places in respect of
the equinoxes; which space of time is calculated by Tycho Brahe at
25,816 years, and by Riccioli at 25,920: and I understood the passage
(whether rightly or wrongly I shall be glad to be informed) to mean,
that fifty years of life in Europe were better than any amount of
existence, however extended, in the Celestial Empire.

    W. FRASER.

_Proof of Sword Blades_ (Vol. iv., pp. 39. 109.).--Without wishing to
detract from the merits of an invention, which probably is superior in
its effects to old modes of testing sword blades, I object to the term
_efficient_ being applied to _machine_-proved swords.

Because, after such proof, they frequently break by ordinary cutting;
even those which have been made doubly strong and heavy--and hence unfit
and useless for actual engagement--have so failed. And because
machine-tried swords are liable to, and do, break in the handle.

For many reasons I should condemn the machine in question as
inapplicable to its purposes. By analogous reasoning, it would not be
wrong to call a candle a good thrusting instrument, because a machine
may be made to force it through a deal plank.

The subject of testing sword blades is a very important one, although it
has not received that degree of attention from those whom it more nearly
concerns which it seems to demand.

The writer's experience has been only _en amateur_; but it has satisfied
him how much yet remains to be effected before swords proved by a
machine are to be relied upon.

    E. M. M.

  Thornhill Square, August 16. 1851.

_Was Milton an Anglo-Saxon Scholar?_ (Vol. iv., p. 100.).--Is it too
much to suppose that the learned "Secretary for Forreigne Tongues" was
acquainted with the _Paraphrasis poetica Genesios ac præcipuarum sacræ
Paginæ Historiarum, abhinc Annos MLXX. Anglo-Saxonicè conscripta, et
nunc primum edita a Francisco Junius_, published at Amsterdam in 1655,
at least two years before he commenced his immortal poem? Hear Mr.
Turner on the subject:

  "Milton could not be wholly unacquainted with Junius; and if he
  conversed with him, Junius was very likely to have made Cædmon the
  topic of his discourse, and may have read enough in English to
  Milton, to have fastened upon his imagination, without his being a
  Saxon scholar."--Turner's _Anglo-Saxons_, vol. iii., p. 316.

Both Mr. Turner and Mr. Todd, however, appear to lean to the opinion
that Milton was not unskilled in Saxon literature, and mention, as an
argument in its favour, the frequent quotations from the _Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle_ which occur in the History. It is also worthy of note that
Alexander Gill, his schoolmaster, and whose friendship Milton possessed
in no small degree, had pursued his researches somewhat deep into the
"well of English undefiled," as appears from that extremely curious,
though little known work, the _Logonomia Anglica_.

    SAXONICUS.

_English Sapphics._--I admired the verses quoted by H. E. H. (Vol. iii.,
p. 525.) so much that I have had them printed, but unfortunately have no
copy by me to send you. I quote them from memory:

      PSALM CXXXVII.

      _By a Schoolboy._

      "Fast by thy stream, O Babylon! reclining,
      Woe-begone exile, to the gale of evening
      Only responsive, my forsaken harp I
                              Hung on the willows.

      "Gush'd the big tear-drops as my soul remember'd
      Zion, thy mountain-paradise, my country!
      When the fierce bands Assyrian who led us
                              Captive from Salem

      "Claim'd in our mournful bitterness of anguish
      Songs and unseason'd madrigals of joyance--
      'Sing the sweet-temper'd carols that ye wont to
                              Warble in Zion.'

      "Dumb be my tuneful eloquence, if ever
      Strange echoes answer to a song of Zion,
      Blasted this right hand, if I should forget thee,
                              Land of my fathers!"

    O. T. DOBBIN.

  Hull College.

_The Tradescants_ (Vol. iii., p. 469.).--It is to be hoped that the
discovery by C. C. R. of Dr. Ducarel's note may yet lead to the
obtaining further information concerning the elder Tradescant. It may go
for something to prove beyond doubt that he was nearly connected with
the county of Kent, which has not been proved yet. Parkinson says that
"he sometimes belonged to ... Salisbury.... And then unto the Right
Honorable the Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent." See Parkinson's
_Paradisus Terrestris_, p. 152. (This must be the same with DR.
RIMBAULT'S Lord Weston, p. 353., which should have been "Wotton.") We
may therefore, in the words of Dr. Ducarel's note, "consult (with
certainty of finding information concerning the Tradescants) the
registers of ----apham, Kent." I should give the preference to any place
near Canterbury approaching that name.

It is worth noticing that the deed of gift of John Tradescant (2) to
Elias Ashmole was dated in true astrological form, being "December 16,
1657, 5 hor. 30 minutes post merid." See Ashmole's _Diary_, p. 36.

    BLOWEN.

_Monumental Inscription, English Version_ (Vol. iv., p. 88.).--I have a
Note on this very epitaph, made several years since, from whence
extracted I know not; but there is an English version attached, which
may prove interesting to some readers, as it exactly imitates the style
of the Latin:

          cur-     f-     w-       d-     dis-  and p-
      "A     -sed   -iend  -rought  -eath    ease    -ain."
         bles-    fr-     b-      br-     and      ag-

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Lady Petre's Monument_ (Vol. iv., p. 22.).--Will the following passage,
from Murray's _Handbook to Southern Germany_, throw any light on the
meaning of the initials at the foot of Lady Petre's monument, as alluded
to in your Number of July 12, 1851?

  "At the extremity of the right-hand aisle of the cathedral of St.
  Stephen, is the marble monument of the Emperor Frederick III.,
  ornamented with 240 figures and 40 coats of arms, carved by a
  sculptor of Strasburg, Nicholas Lerch. On a scroll twisted around
  the sceptre in the hand of the effigy, is seen Frederick's device
  or motto, the letters A. E. I. O. U., supposed to be the initials
  of the words Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich Unterthan; or, in
  Latin, Austriæ Est Imperare Orbis Universi."--Murray's _Handbook
  to Southern Germany_, pp. 135, 136.

    C. M. G.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

Messrs. Longman have this month given a judicious and agreeable variety
to _The Traveller's Library_ by substituting for one of Mr. Macaulay's
brilliant political biographies a volume of travels; and in selecting
Mr. Laing's _Journal of a Residence in Norway during the Years 1834,
1835, and 1836_ (which is completed in Two Parts), they have shown
excellent discretion. For, as Mr. Laing well observes, "few readers of
the historical events of the middle ages rise from the perusal without a
wish to visit the country from which issued in the tenth century the men
who conquered the fairest portion of Europe." But as, even in these
locomotive times, all cannot travel, but many are destined to be not
only home-keeping youths but "house-keeping men" also, all such have
reason to be grateful to pleasant intelligent travellers like Mr. Laing
for giving them the results of their travels in so pleasant a form; and
especially grateful to Messrs. Longman for giving it to them at a price
which places it within the reach of every one.

_The Literature of the Rail; republished, by permission, from_ The Times
_of Saturday, August 9th, 1851, with a Preface_, has just been issued by
Mr. Murray, in the shape of a sixpenny pamphlet. This will be a
gratifying announcement to those who read and wished to preserve this
startling article on a subject which must come home to every thinking
mind,--to every one who has witnessed, as we have done, the worse than
worthless, the positively mischievous trash in the shape of literature
too often to be found on the bookstalls of railway stations. But there
is hope. The success which has attended the wholesome change effected on
the North-Western line is sure to lead to an extension of the better
system; and we are glad to see that the endeavours making by Messrs.
Longman to supply, by means of _The Traveller's Library_, the growing
want for _good and cheap_ books, are to be seconded by Mr. Murray, who
announces a Series under the title of _Literature for the Rail_, and the
opening number of which is to be _A Popular Account of Mr. Layard's
Discoveries at Nineveh, abridged by himself from the larger Work, and
illustrated by numerous Woodcuts_.

We are glad to see that the Trustees of the British Museum have printed
a _List of the Autograph Letters, Original Charters, Great Seals, and
Manuscripts, exhibited to the Public in the Department of Manuscripts_.
The selection does great credit to the intelligent Keeper of the
Manuscripts; and the exhibition of these treasures will, we trust, do
something more than merely gratify the curiosity of the thousands of the
people who have visited them, namely, encourage their representatives in
Parliament to a more liberal vote for this important department of the
Museum. Valuable manuscripts are not always in the market; when they
are, the country should never lose them through a mistaken parsimony.

Mr. Lumley, of Chancery Lane, has purchased from the Society of
Antiquaries the remaining stock of the _Vetusta Monumenta_, and proposes
to dispose of the various plates and papers separately, in the same
manner as he did those of the _Archæologia_. This arrangement is one
well calculated to answer the purpose of collectors, and therefore we
desire to draw their attention to it.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell, on Tuesday and
Wednesday next, some very interesting Autograph Letters of the late John
Davies of Manchester, and of another Collector, comprising many Royal
Autographs; a series of interesting letters addressed to Elizabeth,
Queen of Bohemia; and some rare historical letters from the Southwell
and Blathwayte Papers.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue Number
27. of Books Old and New; J. Russell Smith's (4. Old Compton Street)
Catalogue Part VI. for 1851 of Choice, Useful, and Curious Books; W.
Heath's (497. New Oxford Street) Catalogue No. 5. for 1851 of Valuable
Second-Hand Books; J. Petheram's (94. High Holborn) Catalogue Part 126.
No. 7. for 1851 of Old and New Books; W. S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham House,
Westminster Road) Catalogue No. 72. of English and Foreign Second-hand
Books.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. Folio. London, 1624.

THE APOLOGETICS OF ATHENAGORAS, Englished by D. Humphreys. London, 1714.
8vo.

BOVILLUS DE ANIMÆ IMMORTALITATE, ETC. Lugduni, 1522. 4to.

KUINOEL'S NOV. TEST. Tom. I.

THE FRIEND, by Coleridge. Vol. III. Pickering.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

QUÆSTOR, _who writes respecting Campbell's famous line:_

      "Like angels' visits, few and far between,"

_is referred to our_ 1st Vol. p. 102. _for some illustrations of it._

J. B. (Lichfield). _His wishes shall be attended to. The notice did not
refer to his communications._

AN OLD BENGAL CIVILIAN. _The Query sent shall have insertion as soon as
we can possibly find room for it._

P. T. _Will this correspondent kindly favour us with a sight of his
proposed paper on Prince Madoc? Our only fear is as to its extent._

AN OLD CORRESPONDENT _is thanked_. _The articles he refers to would be
very acceptable._

TO CORRESPONDENTS.--_The Correspondents who wanted Herbert's_ Social
Statics _and_ Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. I., _are requested to send
their names to the publisher._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Yet Forty Days--Erroneous Scripture
Quotations--Glass in Windows--Log Book--The Termination
"-ship"--Borough-English--Day of the Month--Passage in
Virgil--Suicides buried in Cross Roads--Ring Finger--Wray or
Ray--Bellman and his Songs--Three Estates of the Realm--Siege of
Londonderry--Broad Halfpenny Down--Ancient Egypt--John
Bodleigh--Horner Family, and many others which are in type._

_Copies of our_ Prospectus, _according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price_ 9_s._ 6_d._ _each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is_ 10_s._ 2_d._ _for Six Months, which may be paid by
Post-office Order drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE BELL,
186. Fleet Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor
should be addressed._



Just published, No. 12., Imperial 4to. price 2_s._ 6_d._, (continued
monthly), Details of Gothic Architecture, Measured and drawn from
existing examples, by J. K. COLLING, Architect.

      CONTENTS:

      E.E.      Nave Piers and Arches, West Walton Church, Norfolk.
       "        Mouldings of ditto          ditto.
       "        Details of Nave Piers, from  ditto.
      DEC.      Window from Tiltey Church, Essex.
      PER.      Doorway from Great Bromley Church, Essex.

  London: DAVID BOGUE and GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.


Autograph Letters, the Collection of the late John Davies, Esq., of
Manchester.

  PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will sell
  by Auction at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY,
  September 9, and following Day, the Collection of interesting
  Autograph Letters of the late John Davies, Esq., comprising
  letters of eminent Literary Men, Men of Science, Artists, Actors,
  and Musicians, distinguished Americans, Royal Autographs, Henry
  VII. and VIII., Edward VI., Oliver Cromwell, and several of the
  Regicides, a series of interesting Letters addressed to Elizabeth,
  Queen of Bohemia, some historical Letters from the Southwell and
  Blathwayte Papers, handsome Scrap Books filled with Autographs,
  &c. Catalogues will be sent on application; if in the country, on
  receipt of four stamps.


Now ready, completely revised, in medium 8vo., pp. 650, price 30_s._
strongly bound,

      The London Catalogue of Books,
      WITH THEIR
      SIZES, PRICE, AND PUBLISHERS' NAMES.
      1816-1851.

  The New Books of 1851 have been added, up to the time that each
  sheet passed through the press; and the publisher recommends those
  who purchase the "London Catalogue of Books, 1816-51," to preserve
  it. Subsequent editions will not embrace so long a period of
  years; and, as this Volume will not be reprinted, it will be well
  to bear in mind that the only correct record of books published
  some thirty-five years back, is to be found in the present
  edition.

  London: THOMAS HODGSON, Aldine Chambers, 13. Paternoster Row;

  And Sold by all Booksellers.


LONDON LIBRARY, 12. St. James's Square.--

  Patron--His Royal Highness Prince ALBERT.

  This Institution now offers to its members a collection of 60,000
  volumes to which additions are constantly making, both in English
  and foreign literature. A reading room is also open for the use of
  the members, supplied with the best English and foreign
  periodicals.

  Terms of admission--entrance fee, 6_l._; annual subscription,
  2_l._; or entrance fee and life subscription, 26_l._

  By order of the Committee.

  September, 1851. J. G. COCHRANE, Secretary and Librarian.


SLAVONIC LITERATURE.

  THE ECCLESIASTIC, of Sept. 1, Price 2_s._, No. LXIX., contains--

      The Royal Supremacy since the Revolution.
      Reports of the Government Inspectors for 1850-51.
      Illustrations of the State of the Church during the Great
          Rebellion, No. XIII.
      Slavonic Literature.
      Reviews and Notices.

  London: J. MASTERS, Aldersgate Street & New Bond Street.


Now ready, Price 25_s._, Second Edition, revised and corrected.
Dedicated by Special Permission to

      THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

  PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected
  by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
  arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
  including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments,
  and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical
  Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty, 4to., neat, in morocco
  cloth, price 25_s._ To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
  Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office
  Order for that amount; and by order, of the principal Booksellers
  and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with
    our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it
    appears."--_Musical World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
    Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

  Also, lately published,

  J. B. SALES'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the
  Chapel Royal St. James, price 2_s._

  C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.


ROLLIN'S KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN LEVIZAC'S FRENCH GRAMMAR.

  Just published, in 12mo. sheep, price 3_s._,

  CORRIGÉ: ou, Traduction Française des Thêmes Anglais contenus dans
  la Nouvelle Edition de la Grammaire de M. De Levizac: accompagné
  de quelques Remarques Grammaticales et Biographiques. Par M. G.
  ROLLIN, B.A., Professeur de Langues Anciennes et Modernes, et du
  Collège du Nord.

  London: WILLIAM TEGG & Co., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.


Lately published, in 12mo. roan, price 5_s._,

  LEVIZAC'S GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH TONGUE. New Edition, revised and
  improved by M. ROLLIN, B.A.

  London: WILLIAM TEGG & Co., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.


PROFIT AND DISCOUNT TABLES,

  In One Volume, just published, bound in roan, price 3_s._ 6_d._,
  or 4_s._ free by post,

  SHOWING the Prices at which Articles must be Sold, to obtain a
  Profit at a certain Per Centage upon their invoiced Cost. And
  also, the Net Cost of Articles, when Discounts are allowed on the
  invoiced Prices. Adapted for the assistance of Traders in their
  Purchases, Sales, and taking Stock. The Calculations are upon
  Prices from 1_d._ to 20_s._, and at the Rates for 1-½ per Cent.
  to 75 per Cent.

    _The following Example will show the Application of the
    Tables._--The invoiced Price of Silk is 2_s._ 4_d._ per yard,
    which it is proposed to sell at 15 per Cent. profit.

    Refer to the page showing that rate of per centage, find the cost
    price in the first column, and, by looking to the same line of the
    second, the price to be asked is shown to be 2_s._ 8-¼_d._

  By CHARLES ODY ROOKS, ACCOUNTANT.

  London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.


Post 8vo., price One Shilling.

  MR. SINGER'S "WORMWOOD;" embracing a restoration of the Author's
  reply, mutilated in "NOTES AND QUERIES," No. 72.; with a Note on
  the Monk of Bury; and a Reading of Shakespeare's Sonnet cxi.,
  "supplementary to the Commentators." By H. K. STAPLE CAUSTON.

    "Our northern neighbours think us almost as much deficient in
    philological illustration as in enlarged philosophical criticism
    on the Poet."--SINGER.

    "When you go a hunting, Sir Isaac, you kill all the game; you have
    left us nothing to pursue."--BENTLEY.

    "He misses not much, No; he doth but mistake the truth
    totally!"--SHAKSPEARE.

  London: HENRY KENT CAUSTON, Gracechurch Street.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 6. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851     |  33- 47 | PG # 37593  |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851     |  49- 79 | PG # 37778  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851   |  81- 94 | PG # 38324  |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851   |  97-112 | PG # 38337  |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851   | 113-127 | PG # 38350  |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851   | 129-144 | PG # 38386  |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851   | 145-167 | PG # 38405  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |
      +-----------------------------------------------+-------------+





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 97, September 6, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home