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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 98, September 13, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
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fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has
been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 98. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 13. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._



CONTENTS.


                                                                Page

      NOTES:--

      Madrigals in praise of Queen Elizabeth, by Dr. E. F.
      Rimbault                                                   185

      MS. Notes in a Copy of Liber Sententiarum                  188

      Classification of Literary Difficulties                    188

      Minor Notes:--Meaning of "Ruell"--Curious Facts in
      Natural History                                            189

      QUERIES:--

      Papal Bulls, &c.                                           189

      Sir Walter Raleigh in Virginia, by Henry H. Breen          190

      Minor Queries:--Wife of St. Patrick--Meaning of
      Mop--William Lovel of Tarent Rawson--Cagots--Execution
      under singular Circumstances--Rhynsault and
      Sapphira--Mallet's Second Wife--Proverb, what constitutes
      one?--Presant Family--The Serpent represented with a human
      Head--Dr. Wotton--Κολοβοδάκτυλος --Essex's
      Expedition to Ireland--Decretorum Doctor--Grimsdyke or
      Grimesditch--Passage in Luther--Linteamina and Surplices   190

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Ellrake or Hellrake--Francis
      Clerke--Nine Days' Wonder--Streso--The Willow
      Garland--Name of Nun--"M. Lominus, Theologus"              192

      REPLIES:--

      Remarks upon some recent Queries, by H. Walter             193

      Domingo Lomelyne, by W. D'Oyly Bayley                      194

      Petty Cury                                                 194

      The Dauphin                                                195

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Visiting Cards--Sardonic
      Smiles--Darby and Joan--Marriage of Bishops--Winifreda
      --George Chalmers--The Three Estates of the Realm--"You
      Friend drink to me Friend"--Broad Halfpenny Down--Horner
      Family--The Man of Law--Riddle--Speculative Difficulties
      --St. Paul--Commissioners on Officers of Justice in
      England--Noble and Workhouse Names--Poulster--Judges
      styled Reverend--The Ring Finger                           195

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     199

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               199

      Notices to Correspondents                                  199

      Advertisements                                             200



Notes.


MADRIGALS IN PRAISE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.

At the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a musical work of an
extraordinary character issued from the press of that industrious
printer Thomas Este, the history of which it will be my endeavour to
elucidate in the present communication. The title-page runs as
follows:--

  "MADRIGALES. THE TRIUMPHES OF ORIANA, to 5 and 6 voices: composed
  by divers severall aucthors. Newly published by Thomas Morley,
  Batcheler of Musick, and one of the gentlemen of hir Majesties
  honorable Chappell, 1601. In London, Printed by Thomas Este, the
  assigne of Thomas Morley. _Cum privilegio Regiæ Majestatis._"

The dedication is addressed--

  "To the Right Honorable the Lord Charles Howard, Earle of
  Notingham, Baron of Effingham, Knight of the Noble order of the
  Garter, Lord High Admirall of England, Ireland, and Wales, &c.,
  and one of her Majesties most honorable Privie Counsell."

As all that is known, with _certainty_, of the _origin_ of this work
consists in the title-page and the dedication, I shall make no apology
for quoting the latter at length:--

  "Right Honorable,

  "I have adventured to dedicate these few discordant tunes to be
  censured by the ingenious disposition of your Lordship's Honorable
  rare perfection, perswading my selfe, that these labours, composed
  by me and others (as in the survey hereof, your Lordship may well
  perceive), may not by any meanes passe, without the malignitie of
  some malitious _Momus_, whose malice (being as toothsome as the
  _adder's_ sting), couched in the progres of a wayfayring man's
  passage, might make him retire though almost at his journeyes end.
  Two speciall motives have imbouldened me (Right Honorable) in this
  my proceeding. First, for that I consider, that as the body cannot
  bee without the shadow, so _Homer_ (the Prince of Poets) may not
  be without a Zoilist: The second and last is (the most forcible
  motive), I know (not onely by report, but also by experiment) your
  Lordship to bee not onely _Philomusus_, a lover of the _Muses_,
  and of learning; but _Philomathes_, a personage always desirous
  (though in all Arts sufficiently skilfull) to come to a more high
  perfection or _Summum bonum_. I will not trouble your Lordship
  with to to [_sic_] tedious circumstances, onely I humbly intreat
  your Lordship (in the name of many) to patronage this work with no
  lesse acceptance, then I with a willing and kinde hart dedicate
  it. So shall I think the _initium_ of this worke not onely happely
  begun, but to bee _finited_ with a more happie period.

  "Your Honour's devoted in all dutie,

  "THOMAS MORELY."

_The Triumphs of Oriana_ consists of twenty-five madrigals, set by the
most eminent musicians of the day, and edited (as the title-page and
dedication show) by Thomas Morley, a most "rare and cunning musician,"
and moreover an especial favourite with the reigning queen, in whose
honour the work is said to have been composed.

Sir John Hawkins, in his _History of Music_, vol. iii. p. 406., says the
"occasion" of the publication of _The Triumphs of Oriana_ was this:

  "The Lord High Admiral, Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, was
  the only person, who, in the last illness of Elizabeth, could
  prevail on her to go into and remain in her bed; and with a view
  to alleviate her concern for the execution of the Earl of Essex,
  he gave for a prize-subject to the poets and musicians of the
  time, the beauty and accomplishments of his royal mistress, and by
  a liberal reward, excited them severally to the composition of
  this work. This supposition is favoured by the circumstance of its
  being dedicated to the Earl, and the time of its publication,
  which was the very year that Essex was beheaded. There is some
  piece of secret history which we have yet to learn, that would
  enable us to account for giving the Queen this romantic name;
  probably she was fond of it. Camden relates that a Spanish
  ambassador had libelled her by the name of _Amadis Oriana_, and
  for his insolence was put under a guard."

Dr. Burney, in his sketch of the Life of Thomas Morley (_General History
of Music_, vol. iii. p. 101.), speaking of this work, says,

  "As Italy gave the ton to the rest of Europe, but particularly to
  England, in all the fine arts, during the reign of Queen
  Elizabeth, it seems as if the idea of employing all the best
  composers in the kingdom to set the songs in _The Triumphs of
  Oriana_ to music, in honour of our virgin queen, had been
  suggested to Morley and his patron, the Earl of Nottingham, by
  Padre Giovenale, afterwards Bishop of Saluzzo, who employed
  thirty-seven of the most renowned Italian composers to set
  _Canzonetti_ in honour of the Virgin Mary, published under the
  following title: _Tempio Armonico della Beatissima Virgine nostra
  Signora, fabbricatole per opera del Reverendo P. Giovenale, A. P.
  della Congregatione dell' Oratorio. Prima Parte, a tre voci,
  Stampata in Roma da Nicola Mutii_, 1599, in 4to."

That by _Oriana_ is meant Queen Elizabeth, there can be but little
doubt. The appellation surely does not countenance the supposition that
there "must be some secret piece of history" in the case. Queen
Elizabeth, we all know, was a woman of inordinate vanity. Even at the
age of three score and ten she delighted in the names of _Cynthia_,
_Diana_, and such like; and _Oriana_, who was the heroine of the
well-known romance _Amadis de Gaul_, and a lovely and virtuous woman to
boot, could not fail to gratify her. How D'Espes, the Spanish
ambassador, could libel her under the double title of _Amadis Oriana_,
it is difficult to imagine; but so it was, according to Camden (anno
1569). "_Libellos famosos spargit, in quibus Reginæ existimationem
contumeliosè atterit sub nomine Amadis Orianæ._"

The pretty sounding tale related by Sir John Hawkins, that the work in
question was undertaken with a view to alleviate the grief of the queen
for the death of the Earl of Essex, and that prizes were given by the
Earl of Nottingham for the best composition for that purpose, is
entirely without foundation. Sir John Hawkins gives no authority for his
statement, and I believe it rests entirely upon conjecture.

_The Triumphs of Oriana_ (as we have seen) was printed at London in the
year 1601. In the same year was published at Antwerp a collection of
madrigals with the following title: _Il Trionfo di Dori, descritto da
diversa, et posti in Musica, da altretranti Autori a Sei Voci, In
Anversa, Appresso Pietro Phalesio_, 1601. From the date of these two
collections, it appears almost impossible that either should have been
an imitation of the other; and yet, by an extraordinary similarity in
point of _style, number, variety of composers, and burthen of the
poetry_, there can be but little doubt such was the case. The point will
be therefore to ascertain if either of these works was printed
previously to this date, 1601. I have no doubt that the _Orianas_ is the
first and only edition of the work. On the other hand, there is good
reason (from a variety of circumstances) to suppose that the copy of _Il
Trionfo di Dori_ with this date will turn out to be the _second_
edition.

The poetry (if such it can be called) of the _Orianas_ is a paraphrase
of _Il Trionfo di Dori_. The Italian burden or conclusion is always--

      "Cantiam Ninfe e Pastori
      Viva la bella Dori."

And the English version:

      "Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
      Long live faire Oriana."

Mr. Oliphant, in his collection of poetry entitled _La Musa
Madrigalesca_, is perhaps not far wrong when he says that the rhymes of
the _Orianas_ would "disgrace the veriest tyro in Grub Street;" but,
nevertheless, I have extracted a few specimens, premising that they are
the best I could find among the "twenty-five":--

        1.
      "Hence! stars, too dim of light;
      You dazle but the sight;
      You teach to grope by night;
        See here the shepherd's star,
        Excelling you so far.
      Then Phoebus wiped his eies,
      And Zephirus cleer'd the skies.
      In sweet accented cries,
        Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
        Long live fair Oriana."

        2.
      "All creatures now are merry-minded,
        The shepherds' daughters playing,
        The nimphes are fa-la-la-ing;
      Yond bugle was well-winded.
        At Oriana's presence each thing smileth,
      The flowres themselves discover,
      Birds over her do hover,
        Musick the time beguileth.
      See where she comes, with flow'ry garlands crowned;
      Queene of all Queenes renowned:
        Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
        Long live faire Oriana."

        3.
      "Thus _Bonny-bootes_ the birthday celebrated
        Of hir his Lady dearest;
        Fair Oriana, which to his hart was neerest.
      The nymphs and shepherds feasted
      With clowted creame, and to sing were requested.
      Loe! here the fair, created
        (Quoth he) the world's chiefe goddesse.
        Sing then, for she is _Bonny-bootes'_ sweet mistres.
          Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
          Long live faire Oriana."

        4.
      "Come blessed bird! and with thy sugred rellish,
      Help our declining quire not to embellish;
      For _Bonny-bootes_ that so aloft would fetch it,
      Oh! he is dead, and none of us can reach it!
      Then tune to us, sweet bird, thy shrill recorder,
        And I, Elpin and Dorus,
        For fault of better, will serve in the chorus.
      Begin; and we will follow thee in order.
        Then sang the wood-born minstrel of Diana,
        Long live faire Oriana."

Now a question arises, who was the _Bonny-boots_ mentioned in the two
last-quoted madrigals?

Sir John Hawkins has the following hypothesis:

  "Bonny-boots seems to be a nick-name for some famous singer, who,
  because of his excellent voice, or for some other reason, had the
  permission to call the queen his lady. Possibly the person meant
  might be one Mr. Hale, of whom mention is made by Sir William
  Segar, in his account of a solemn tilt, or exercise of arms, held
  in the year 1590 before Queen Elizabeth, in the Tiltyard at
  Westminster, with emblematical representations and music, in which
  the above-mentioned Mr. Hale performed a part, by singing a song,
  &c. Sir William Segar also says of this person, that he was her
  majesty's servant, a gentleman in that art excellent, and for his
  voice both commendable and admirable."--_Hist. of Music_, vol.
  iii. p. 406.

Some gallant, high in favour with the Lady Oriana (Queen Elizabeth), is
evidently alluded to in these madrigals; but I cannot agree with Sir
John Hawkins, that a public singer like Mr. Hale would be permitted "to
call the queen his lady." The idea is too absurd for a moment's
consideration. Another conjecture is, that the individual designated
_Bonny-boots_ was the Earl of Essex; but I shall here quote two extracts
from a curious and rare work published by Thomas Morley in 1597, and
entitled "_Canzonets, or Little Short Aers to Five and Six Voices_:
Printed by Peter Short," &c.:--

        1.
      "Fly love, that art so sprightly,
      To _Bonny-boots_ uprightly;
      And when in Heav'n you meet him,
      Say that I kindly greet him;
      And that his Oriana,
      True widow maid still followeth Diana."

        2.
      "Our _Bonny-boots_ could toot it, yea and foot it;
      Say lusty lads, who now shall bonny-boot it?
      Who but the jolly shepherd, bonny Dorus?
      He now must lead the Morris dance before us."

The conjecture that _Bonny-boots_ was the Earl of Essex at once falls to
the ground; for he was not beheaded till 1601, and the title-page of
Morley's _Canzonets_ bears date 1597.

That some conceit relative to the Lady Oriana existed long before the
appearance of _The Triumphs_, is evident. Although the latter work was
not published till the year 1601, yet in 1597 the idea had been acted
upon by Nicholas Yonge in his _Second Book of Musica Transalpina_; for
therein is the well-known madrigal by Giovanni Croce from _Il Trionfo di
Dori_, adapted to the English words, "Hard by a crystal fountain," and
ending with the burden, "Long live fair Oriana." Dr. Burney (_Hist. of
Music_, vol. iii. p. 124.) says, that according to Hearne, a madrigal
beginning with these words used annually to be sung by the fellows of
the New College, Oxon, but he was unable to find it. Other madrigals in
praise of Oriana may be found in Bateson's _First Set of Madrigales_,
1604; Pilkington's _First Set of Madrigales_, 1613; and in Vautor's
_First Set of Songes_, 1619.

The publication of madrigals in praise of Queen Elizabeth, after her
death, may be easily accounted for. They were (it is evident upon
examination) originally composed with the others, but sent too late for
insertion in the set; after which their respective composers had no
opportunity of publishing them until the dates above given.

The conclusion then I arrive at is this, that _Il Trionfo di Dori_ was
printed in Italy (most probably at Rome) between the years 1588 and
1597; that N. Yonge procured a copy of it from thence (as may be
inferred from his Preface), and from it published Croce's madrigal. This
copy was most probably seen by Thomas Morley, and gave him the idea of
his _Triumphs of Oriana_. Morley was at this time an especial favourite
with the queen, who had recently rewarded him with "a faire gold
chaine." An offering then like the _Orianas_ could not fail of being
acceptable to the vanity of Elizabeth, who, even at the age of
sixty-eight, was extremely susceptible of flattery--especially when
directed towards her person. It doubtless had the desired effect, and
secured for Morley the patronage of the queen and the principal
nobility. The publication of this work is thus easily explained without
the intervention of any "secret piece of history."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


MS. NOTES IN A COPY OF LIBER SENTENTIARUM.

As MS. notes in old books have been regarded as fit matter for this
journal, I would contribute two or three from a copy of Peter Lombard's
_Book of Sentences_, printed at Vienna in 1477. This has not only passed
through divers hands before it came into mine, but several previous
owners have left their names in it, and one of them very numerous
marginal comments. Of these the earliest appears to have been Thomas
Wallwell or T. Swallwell, a monk of Durham, who, from the handwriting,
which is of the fifteenth century, I conclude was the marginal
commentator. He has availed himself of the "Laus Deo" below the colophon
to add "q' Ts. Wallwell monachus ecclesiæ cathedralis Dunelmensis." The
words are abbreviated, but I have given them at length except the first,
which, instead of being a _q_, with a comma, is a _q_ with an oblique
line through it, that I thought might baffle the printer. The comments
are very scholastic, and such as would then have been considered much to
the purpose. It is possible some reader of this journal may be able to
supply information respecting this erudite monk.

The next owner, judging by the handwriting, which seems little, if at
all, later than 1500, has thus recorded his ownership on the blank side
of the last leaf:

      "Istius libri verus est possessor dominus Stephanus Merleye."

He was probably a priest, but I have discovered no annotations by him;
though, as there is scarcely a page without writing on it, there may be
some.

However, the note to which I would more particularly invite attention is
at the top of the first page, and in the handwriting, I think, of the
above-mentioned monk. It is in abbreviated Latin, but read in extenso it
runs thus:

  "Sententiæ Petri Lumbardi fratris Graciani qui decretum
  compilavit, et etiam Petri Comestoris, qui scholasticam historiam
  edidit et alia. Iste Petrus Lumbardus fecit istud opus, edidit
  glossas psalterii et Epistolarum et plura alia. Fuit etiam
  episcopus Parisiensis. Isti tres fratres uterini erant, et
  floruerunt anno salutis 1154, qui fuit annus ab origine mundi
  6353."

Over the word Graciani is interlined "monachi" in the same hand. In this
statement two things are remarkable:--1. The allegation that these three
well-known writers of the twelfth century were uterine brothers. 2. The
mundane era. The former is hardly reconcileable with the generally
received account of them, but it is not altogether new. Cave, writing of
Gratian, adverts to a story of their having been brothers in the
following words:

  "Non desunt plurimi qui Gratianum, Petri Lombardi, Petrique
  Comestoris germanum fuisse volunt, matremque tergeminos hos
  fratres ex furtivo concubitu conceptos uno partu edidisse, quod
  quidem nullo satis gravis autoris testimonio
  fulcitur."--_Scriptores Eccl._, vol. ii. p. 216.

I am not going to advocate this story, for it is most likely false; and
the monk's statement may not be correct; but as it is less improbable,
it may be worth recording. Peter Lombard died in 1164. Gratian completed
the Decretum about 1151, and probably survived some years, but I have
not met with the date of his death. Peter Comestor died in 1198. They
may therefore have all been contemporaries, though the last must have
lived to a good old age, unless he were considerably younger than the
others.

With regard to the mundane era by which the writer computed, it will be
found to differ materially, not only from that now in common use among
ourselves, but also from all that are mentioned by Sir H. Nicolas in his
_Chronology of History_; for it assumes the Nativity to have occurred in
the year of the world 5199. This, however, agrees with what appears to
have been recognised as the era of the creation by the western churches
from about the beginning of the fifth century (see De Vaine's
_Dictionnaire Raisonné de Diplomatique_, voce _Comput_), though from
some cause it seems to have been almost overlooked by modern writers in
this country.

I have not attempted to explain the "_q̵_" before Ts. Wallwell. It may
have meant "quoth," or "quæsit;" but I am not satisfied with anything
that has occurred to me. It stands thus:

      "_Laus Deo. q̵_, T_s_Wallwell
      Mo'cs ecc̄le cathedralis dunełm."

"Ts." for Thomas is not usual, but those are clearly the letters: I have
tried to read the "_s_" (which may have been meant for a capital) with
the surname, but Swallwell is a stranger cognomen than that I have
attributed to the monk. Some correspondent conversant with Durham may
possibly recognise the name in one of its forms.

    W. S. W.

  Temple.


CLASSIFICATION OF LITERARY DIFFICULTIES.

Whatever may be the utility of your publication as a source of
information to individuals, each on his own point of difficulty, there
is a purpose, and one of its greatest ultimate purposes, which it must
one day answer, though not immediately--I mean the furnishing of
materials for general conclusions on the _difficulties of literature_.
The queries which are sent to you are those which an author must put to
himself in his closet; the manner in which others help him shows the
manner in which he ought, if he could, to help himself. Occasionally,
the querist betrays a want of power to reduce his own difficulty to its
proper category; occasionally, also, the respondent fails to grapple
with the real point. All this is instructive, and reconciles those who
are instructed by it to the presence of many things which seem trivial
or out of place to those who do not consider the nature of the whole
undertaking. But the instruction I speak of will be much augmented in
quantity and elevated in character, if ever the time should come when
the mass of materials collected finds an architect to arrange it. The
classification of the obstacles which an inquirer meets with, so treated
as to give a view of the _causes_ of difficulty as they arise, both from
the state of our books, and of our modes of using them, must surely one
day suggest itself as a practicable result of the "NOTES AND QUERIES."
The more this result is insisted on the more likely is it to be
realised; and though it may need twenty volumes of the work to be
completed, or even more, before anything can be done, the mere
suggestion may induce some of your readers to keep an eye upon your
pages with a view to something beyond current matter.

    M.


Minor Notes.

_Meaning of "Ruell."_--In the "Rhime of Sir Thopas" Chaucer says:

      "His sadell was of _ruell_ bone
      His bridle as the sun yshone," &c.

Translated by Z. A. Z.:

      "His saddle was of jit black bone."

      Whitaker and Co. London, 1841.

Tyrwhitt says:

      "His sadel was of _rewel_ bone."

What kind of material this was, I profess myself quite ignorant.

  "In the _Turnament of Tottenham_, ver. 75. (_Anc. Poet._, vol. ii.
  p. 18.), Tibbe is introduced with 'a garland on her head full of
  _ruell_ bones.' The derivation in Gloss. Urr. of this word from
  the French _riolé_, diversely coloured, has not the least
  probability. The other, which deduces it from the French
  _rouelle_, _rotula_, the whirl-bone or knee-pan, is more
  plausible; though, as the glossarist observes, that sense will
  hardly suit here."--Chaucer, by Thomas Tyrwhitt, Esq. Pickering:
  London, 1830.

      "His saddle was of _ruel_ bone."

      Chaucer, by Thomas Speght.
      London, 1687.

And its Glossary says:

  "RUELL BONE, _f._ of the French word _riolé_, that is, diversely
  colored: an Antistæcon in many words derived from another
  language; as, in _Law_ from _Loy_, and _Roy_ from _Rex_."

So far the printed attempts at explaining this term _ruell_. May I
submit for the consideration of your readers, that it is related to the
French adjective _rouillé_, rusty; used by Molière in the form
_enrouillé_. Evidently this has affinity to _ruber_, _rouge_, and _red_.
So that Tibbe's garland would be of tortoise-shell combs: and the saddle
would be of a similar nature.

_La Ryole_ is found as the name of the tenement occupied by Thomas le
Bat (temp. Ed. III.?) Was this the sign of "The Comb," which is so often
seen in the windows of our present shops?

    J. W. P.

_Curious Facts in Natural History_ (Vol. iii., pp. 166, 398.).--In St.
Lucia a coleopterous insect is found with a small plant growing directly
from the back. I have myself seen it; but the plant consisted merely of
the first two leaflets.

    E. H. B.

  Demerary.



Queries.


PAPAL BULLS, ETC.

A correspondent (S. P. H. T.) inquires, 1. Has there been any authorised
collection of Papal Bulls, Breves, Encyclical Letters, &c., published
since the beginning of the present century?

2. If not, has there been any authorised list of those addressed to the
Roman Catholic Church in England or Ireland?

3. What bulls have, during the last century, been published against
Bible Societies, &c., and where will I find _authorised_ copies of them,
more particularly those of Pope Pius VII., bearing date 29th June, 1816,
and directed to the Primate of Poland; that of 18th September, 1819,
against the circulation of the Scriptures in the Irish Schools; that of
Leo XII., dated 3rd May, 1824, directed to the Irish clergy, which last
is the latest I am acquainted with?

4. What authority is there for using the "Form of receiving Converts
from the Church of Rome," as published by the British Reformation
Society? Does it occur in _any_ edition of the Book of Common Prayer?

5. What authority is there for the occasional services of 5th November,
30th January, 29th May, and 20th June? Some of these are, I am aware,
specially directed by act of parliament; but the point upon which I wish
to obtain information is, what the precise amount of obligation is that
exists on the officiating minister to use or neglect the services in the
absence of any specific directions on the matter from his Ordinary?

6. What authority is there for the use of the Gloria immediately after
the minister's announcing the Gospel. No rubric _now_ appears to
recognise it?

7. At what period did the practice of playing "a voluntary" upon the
organ during the collection of the alms originate? And what is the
earliest record of the alms being collected after the communion service
and before the sermon, and not after the prayer for the Church Militant?

    S. P. H. T.

  [The Editor will be happy to insert a reply pointing out sources
  of information. It is obvious that this is all which the limits of
  the work and the claims of other correspondents and readers will
  allow, when questions are proposed which contain many, and some of
  them difficult and disputed, points.]


SIR WALTER RALEIGH IN VIRGINIA.

I remember having read, some time ago, a statement in the public prints,
to the effect that the popular belief, as to Sir Walter Raleigh having
visited Virginia, was unfounded: the fact being, that he had projected
such a voyage, and that the vessels equipped by him for that purpose had
actually reached that country; but that the illustrious voyager himself
was prevented by some circumstance from conducting the expedition. This
statement seemed to have been elicited by one of the subjects proposed
for the decorations of the new Houses of Parliament, namely, "Sir Walter
Raleigh landing in Virginia," and the idea was exploded with so much
assurance that I had ceased to give it any credence. I find, however, in
Hallam's _Literature of Europe_, 2nd edition, vol. iii. p. 179., that
the fact of Sir Walter's having been in Virginia is relied upon by that
historian, in the following passage:

  "Harriott, the companion of Sir Walter Raleigh in Virginia, and
  the friend of the Earl of Northumberland, in whose house he spent
  the latter part of his life, was destined to make the last great
  discovery in the pure science of algebra."

Are there any data to support Mr. Hallam's opinion? Such is his general
accuracy, that few would be disposed to question any statement
deliberately put forward by him. In this instance, however, he may have
adopted, without inquiry, the tradition which has been current for the
last two hundred and fifty years.

    HENRY H. BREEN.

  St. Lucia, July, 1851.


Minor Queries.

134. _Wife of St. Patrick._--Will some one of your Irish contributors
inform me when the 18th of March began to be celebrated in honour of S.
Sheelagh, and the ground on which it is asserted that she was the wife
of St. Patrick? I cannot find that St. Patrick was married; I am aware,
however, that the silence of the usual authorities goes but a little way
to disprove the popular tradition, as in days when women were but
beginning to assume their present equable station, the mention of a wife
at any time would be only casual.

    W. DN.

135. _Meaning of Mop._--In the midland counties, servants are hired by
the year in the following manner. On the several Tuesdays about
Michaelmas, all who wish for engagements collect together at the
different towns and villages, whither the masters resort for the purpose
of hiring them. Those meetings which occur previous to Michaelmas day
are called _statute-fairs_, while those which take place after that day
are termed _mops_. Query, What is the derivation of this word? I have
been told that the later assemblies are so called because they consist
of the inferior servants who were not engaged before,--such as use a
_mop_ instead of sweeping clean and scouring. A friend conjectures that
the name implies "an indiscriminate _mopping-up_ of all sorts, the
greater number of servants having gone before, and there being only a
few left." I have no book to which I can refer for information on this
subject.

    J. H. C.

  Adelaide, South Australia.

136. _William Lovel of Tarent Rawson._--In Hutchins's _Dorset_, vol. i.
p. 91., is a pedigree of _Lovel_ of Tarrant Rawson carried back to the
later years of Hen. VII. In that genealogy the first person is described
as _William Lovel_ of Tarent Rawson, alias "_Antiocheston_." Under what
circumstances did he come by this cognomen? Was he connected with any
branch of the house of Yvery, and in what manner?

The arms are Barry nebulé of six O. and G., quartering 2. Arg. a
cheveron G. between three ermines; 3. Erm. a cheveron sab.; 4. Erm. on a
chief indented G. three ducks A.

Crest: a fox az. bezanté collared with a coronet O.

    AMANUENSIS.

137. _Cagots._--Can any of your readers give me any information about
the Cagots in the south of France, whose history has been written by
Mons. Michel, in a work entitled _Sur les Races Maudits_? There seems to
be great doubt about their origin; are they remnants either of the
Saracens or the Paulicians? They still, I am told, exist in the deep
Pyrenean vallies, and are a most degraded race. Is there any analogy
between them and the Cretins of the Alps, with the difference, that in
the Alps Cretinism is regarded with kindness, in the Pyrenees with
scorn? If so, does this point to the existence of a Celtic and
non-Celtic element in the races inhabiting the respective mountain
chains? idiotcy being reverenced especially among the Celtic races.
Then, as before the first French revolution, the Cagots had a
particular place and door set apart for them in the churches. Does not
this look like their being Paulicians forced into orthodoxy, or equally,
perhaps, Saracen Christians, similar to the Jew Christians of Spain?

    RUSTICUS.

138. _Execution under singular Circumstances._--I have read somewhere,
but failed to "make a note of it" at the time, an anecdote of a singular
occurrence at Winchester, to the following effect.

Some years ago a man was apprehended near ----, in Hampshire, charged
with a capital offence (sheep-stealing I believe). After being examined
before a justice of the peace, he was committed to the county gaol at
Winchester for trial at the ensuing assizes. The evidence against the
man was too strong to admit of any doubt of his guilt; he was
consequently convicted, and sentence of death (rigidly enforced for this
crime at the period alluded to) pronounced. Months and years passed
away, but no warrant for his execution arrived. In the interval a marked
improvement in the man's conduct and bearing became apparent. His
natural abilities were good, his temper mild, and his general desire to
please attracted the attention and engaged the confidence of the
governor of the prison, who at length employed him as a domestic
servant; and such was his reliance on his integrity, that he even
employed him in executing commissions not only in the city, but to
places at a great distance from it. After a considerable lapse of time,
however, the awful instrument, which had been inadvertently concealed
among other papers, was discovered, and at once forwarded to the high
sheriff, and by the proper authority to the unfortunate delinquent
himself. My purpose is brief relation only; suffice it to say the
unhappy man is stated under these affecting circumstances to have
suffered the last penalty of the law.

Query, Can any of your readers inform me if this extraordinary story is
founded on fact?

    M. W. B.

139. _Rhynsault and Sapphira._--Whence did Steele derive the story of
these personages in the _Spectator_ (No. 491.)? A similar story is told
by Jeremy Taylor, from John Chokier (_Duct. Dubit._, book iii. chap. ii.
rule 5. quæst. 3.); and that of Colonel Kyrke furnishes another
parallel.

    A TR.

140. _Mallet's Second Wife._--I should be glad to know in what year the
second wife of Mallet died. It is stated that he returned from abroad
shortly before his death, without his wife.

    F.

141. _Proverb, what constitutes one?_--What distinguishes a proverb, and
is essential to its being such, as distinct from a short familiar
sentence?

    QUERE.

142. _Presant Family._--Any information respecting the ancient family of
Presant, which is now nearly extinct, will oblige

    SYLLA.

143. _The Serpent represented with a human Head._--Is Raphael the only
painter who depicts the serpent with a _human_ head tempting Eve? and
what is the origin of the legend?

    G. CREED.

144. _Dr. Wotton._--Is there any genealogical connexion between Sir
Henry Wotton, the Venetian ambassador, and the Rev. Henry Wotton of
Suffolk, father of the eminent Dr. William Wotton? And where is the
pedigree to be found?

    S. W. RIX.

  Beccles.

145. _Κολοβοδάκτυλος._--In the seventh book of Origen's
_Philosophumena_, chap. xxx., speaking of Marcion, the writer says:

  "When therefore Marcion, or any of his currish followers, barks at
  the Demiurgus, bringing forward these arguments about the
  opposition of good and evil, they must be told that neither the
  Apostle Paul, nor Mark ὁ κολοβοδάκτυλος (_i.e._ the
  stump-fingered), promulgated any such doctrines; for nothing of
  the kind is found written in the Gospel according to Mark."

Is this epithet of Mark the Evangelist mentioned by any other of the
fathers, or is it known how it originated? It is also to be remarked
that Luke, not Mark, according to the received opinion, was the
evangelist whose authority Marcion admitted, and whose text he tampered
with to suit his own views. Is Origen supported in his account of the
matter by any other writer?

    C. W. G.

146. _Essex's Expedition to Ireland._--It is a matter of history that
the celebrated Earl of Essex in Queen Elizabeth's time left London in
March 1599, in command of a great expedition against Ireland,
accompanied by a numerous train of nobility and gentry and other
retainers.

At what office and to what quarter is one to apply for the purpose of
discovering the _Muster Roll_ made upon that occasion? There must be
some documents, bills, letters, &c., relating to that expedition, the
object of the querist being to ascertain whether his own name,
"Jackson," can be found in any of these documents, as he has reason to
think that any ancestor of his was one of the battle-axe guards in
Dublin at that period.

    J.

147. _Decretorum Doctor._--Is this title given at either of our
universities? And what is its precise meaning? It not uncommonly occurs
in the documents of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and that it
is not the same as Doctor of Laws may be concluded from the following
examples:--The publication of a Pope's Bull by the Bishop of London, in
the chapel of his palace in London on May 16, 1503, is stated to have
been made "Præsentibus tunc ibidem, Venerabilibus viris, Willielmo
Mors, et Johanne Younge, _Legum_, et Thoma Wodyngton, _Decretorum_,
Doctoribus, Testibus," &c. (_Rymer_, xiii. 61.) And in Wood's _Athen._,
1845 (ii. 728.), we find the same "Tho. Wodynton, decr. doctor,"
collated to the church of St Mary le Bow, on the resignation of the same
"Joh'is Yonge, LL.D." on May 3, 1514.

    Φ.

148. _Grimsdyke or Grimesditch._--If you do not deem the following Query
too trifling for your most invaluable publication, I should be much
obliged if you would insert it, in hopes some of your antiquarian
correspondents may find something to say on the point.

From near Great Berkhampstead, Hants, to Bradenham, Bucks, about fifteen
miles (I write from memory), runs a vallum or ditch, called Grimsdyke,
Grimesditch, or the Devil's Dyke: it is of considerable boldness of
profile, being in some places twelve or fourteen feet from the crest of
the parapet to the bottom of the ditch; it keeps within two miles of the
crest of the Chiltern Hills, and is passingly mentioned in Lipscombe's
_History of Bucks_, and in the commencement of Clutterbuck's _History of
Hertfordshire_. Are there other earthworks of the same name (Grimsdyke)
in England; and what was their former use? This one in question, from
its total want of flank defence, could hardly hold an enemy in check for
long; nor does it seem to have been a military way connecting detached
forts, as, though there are earthworks (camps) on either side, it seems
to hold a tolerably straight course independent of them. And, lastly,
about the etymology of the word:--I find, in Bosworth's _Anglo-Saxon
Dictionary_, among a host of other meanings:

      "GRIMA, ghost, phantom, witch, hag."

I may mention that there is the tradition about the dyke, common to most
works of the sort, that it was "done by the Devil in a night."

    NAUTICUS.

  H.M.S. Phaiton, Lisbon, Aug 25.

149. _Passage in Luther._--In Luther's _Responsio ad librum Ambrosii
Catharini_, where he attacks the confessional, he says:

  "Cogit etiam papa peccata suarum legum confiteri--ad hæc tot
  peccatorum differentiis, speciebus, generibus, _filiabus_,
  _nepotibus_, _ramis_, circumstantiis," &c.

Were these expressions merely jocular, or have any papal canonists or
casuists given the title of _filiæ_, _nepotes_ or _rami_ to offences
deducible from the same root?

    H. W.

150. _Linteamina and Surplices._--What is the meaning of _linteamina_ to
be met with in the writings of ecclesiologists of a past age, and in the
canonists?

At what date did the surplice first become an ecclesiastical vestment,
and what are the differences discernible in the surplices of the Greek,
Latin, and English churches?

    J. Y.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Ellrake or Hellrake._--Can you kindly give me any information
respecting the word _ell-rake_ or _hell-rake_ (for I know not which it
is), an agricultural implement in frequent use? It is not alluded to in
Todd's _Johnson's Dictionary_, 1818.

    VASHTI.

  [In Shropshire an _ell-rake_ means a large rake: an _ellock-rake_,
  a small rake used for breaking up ant-hills.]

_Francis Clerke._--I have now before me a MS. in small folio on paper,
pp. 225., besides index, entitled--

  "Pro Curatorium ac Modus postulandi in Curijs et Causis
  ecclesiasticis Auct'at'e reverendissimi in Christi patris ac
  D̅mi D̅mi Johannis providentia Divina Cantuariensis
  Archiepiscopi, totius Anglie Prima'ts et Metropolitani Londoni
  celebrā que communiter Curie de Arcubus appellantur. Per
  Franciscum Clerke, Alme Curie de Arcubus procuren' collecta et
  edita."

Who was Francis Clerke; and was this collection ever published, and
when?

    S. P. H. T.

  [Francis Clerke for about forty years practised the civil law in
  the Court of Arches, Admiralty, Audience, Prerogative, and
  Consistorial of the Bishop of London. In 1594, the Oxford
  University conferred upon him the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law.
  His principal work, entitled _Praxis curiæ Admiralitatis Angliæ_,
  passed through several editions. A short notice of the author will
  be found in Wood's _Athenæ_, i. 657. (Bliss), and a list of his
  other works in Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_.]

_Nine Days' Wonder._--Did any particular circumstance give rise to the
saying, "A nine days' wonder?"

    W. R. M.

  [Most probably Kemp's _Nine Daies Wonder_, performed in a Morrice
  Daunce from London to Norwich, wherein euery dayes iourney is
  pleasantly set downe, to satisfie his friends the truth against
  all lying ballad-makers; what he did, how he was welcome, and by
  whome entertained.--This very curious tract has been reprinted by
  the Camden Society.]

_Streso._--In a book by Cradock on the Lives of the Apostles, published
in 1641, I find many extracts and quotations in Latin from Streso in
_Pref. de Vit. Apostolorum_. As I cannot find out or hear of such an
author or book of Streso, could you inform one who he was?

    LINCOLNIENSIS.

  [The work is in the Bodleian Library: "Streso (Casp.), Anhaltinus,
  _Commentarius practicus in Actorum Apostolicorum per Lucam
  Evangelistam descriptorum capita priora sedecim_. 4to. Amst.
  1650." The same library contains five other works by this author.]

_The Willow Garland._--In the Third Part of _King Henry VI._ (Act III.
Sc. 3.), the Lady Bona sends this message to King Edward, uttered, as
the messenger afterwards reports to him, "with mild disdain:"

      "Tell him, in hope he'll prove a widower shortly,
      I'll wear the willow garland for his sake."

As I find no note upon the willow garland in any edition of Shakspeare
to which I have access, I should be obliged by having its meaning
explained in your columns.

    ARUN.

  [The willow is considered as the emblem of despairing love, and is
  often associated with the yew and the cypress in the churchyard:
  hence, a garland made of the boughs of the willow was said to be
  worn by forlorn lovers. In _Much Ado about Nothing_, Act II. Sc.
  1., Benedick says,--"I offered him my company to a willow-tree,
  either to make him a garland, as being forsaken, or to bind him up
  a rod, as being worthy to be whipped."]

_Name of Nun._--Can any of your readers inform me on what principle it
is that the name of Nun (ןוּכ), the father of Joshua, is expressed
in the Septuagint by ναυῆ? I cannot help regarding the
substitution of αυῆ for ןוּ as a very singular
circumstance, more especially as it seems impossible to account for it
by the conjecture that כ had been mistaken by the LXX for any
letter that would be likely to be represented in Greek by ῆ.
There are but few proper names in the Hebrew Scriptures that terminate
in ןוּ; and the way in which these are expressed in the Septuagint
affords, I believe, no analogy to the above case.

    QUIDAM.

  Gillingham.

  [The explanation usually given, after Gesenius, is that early
  copyists mistook ΝΑΥΝ for ΝΑΥΗ; and as some MSS.
  have Ναβί and Ναβή, it is supposed that later
  copyists thought that it was the the Hebrew איבכ.]

"_M. Lominus, Theologus._"--Is there any printed account of this divine,
or of a work on the Pelagian and Manichæan heresies which he published
at Ghent in 1675?

    S. W. RIX.

  Beccles.

  [The Bodleian Library contains a work by M. Lominus, entitled,
  _Blakloanæ Hæresis Historia et Confutatio_. 4to. Gandavi, 1675.]



Replies.


REMARKS UPON SOME RECENT QUERIES.

1. Without wishing to protract the discussion about _eisell_, let me
tell the correspondent who questioned whether wormwood could be an
ingredient in any palatable drink, that _crême d'absinthe_ ordinarily
appears with noyau, &c. in a Parisian restaurateur's list of luxurious
cordials. Whilst that _eisell_ was equivalent to wormwood is confirmed
by its being joined with gall, in a page of Queen Elizabeth's book of
prayers, which caught my eye in one of those presses in the library of
the British Museum, where various literary curiosities are now so
judiciously arranged, and laid open for public inspection.

2. As a decisive affirmation of what _rack_ meant, where the word was
the derivative of the Saxon pecan, your correspondents may accept the
following from our martyr, Frith's, _Revelation of Antichrist_. He
renders the second clause of 2 Peter ii. 17., "And racks carried about
of a tempest;" and he immediately adds, "Racks are like clouds, but they
give no rain."

3. In answer to MR. BREEN'S inquiry where there is any evidence from the
writings of Gregory I., that he could be so shameless as to panegyrise
that female monster Queen Brunéhaut, he may read some of that Pope's
flattering language in his letter addressed to her on behalf of that
Augustine whom he sent to England, as contained in Spelman's _Concilia_.
Epist. xvii. (_Brunichildæ, Reginæ Francorum_) begins as follows:

  "Gratias omnipotenti Deo referimus, qui inter cætera pietatis suæ
  dona, quæ excellentiæ vestræ largitus est, _ita vos amore
  Christianæ religionis implevit, ut quicquid ad animarum lucrum_,
  quicquid ad propagationem fidei pertinere cognoscitis, _devota
  mente et pio operari studio_ non cessetis.... Et quidem hæc de
  Christianitate vestra mirentur alii, quibus adhuc beneficia vestra
  minus sunt cognita; nam nobis, quibus experimentis jam nota sunt,
  non mirandum est, sed gaudendum."--Spelm. _Concil._ p. 82.

And in Epist. xi.:

  "Excellentia ergo vestra, _quæ prona in bonis consuevit esse
  operibus_."--Id. p. 77.

4. The etymology of Fontainebleau (Vol. iv., p. 38.). I can only speak
from memory of what was read long ago. But I think that in one of
Montfaucon's works, probably _Les Monumens de la Monarchie Française_,
he ascribed the origin of that name to the discovery of a spring amongst
the sandy rocks of that forest by a hound called _Bleau_, to the great
satisfaction of a thirsty French monarch who was then hunting there, and
was thereby induced to erect a hunting-seat near the spring.

5. To A. B. C. (Vol. iv., p. 57.), your questionist about the marriage
of bishops in the early ages of the Christian church, who has had a
reply in p. 125., I would further say, that as we have no biographies
describing the domestic life of any Christian bishop earlier than
Cyprian, who belonged to the middle of the third century, it is only
incidentally that anything appears of the kind which he inquires after.
It would be enough for the primitive Christians to know that their
scriptures said of _marriage_, that it was _honourable in all;_ though
such as were especially exposed to persecution, from their prominence
as officers of the church, would also remember the apostle's advice as
good for the present distress, 1 Cor. vii. As, however, your
correspondent asks what evidence there is that Gregory Nazienzen's
father had children after he was raised to the episcopate, this fact is
gathered from his own poem, in which he makes his father say to him,
"Thy years are not so many as I have passed in sacred duties." For
though these sacred duties began with his admission into the priesthood,
he was made a bishop so soon afterwards, that his younger son, Cæsarius,
must at any rate be held to have been born after the elder Gregory
became a bishop.

Curiously enough, however, good evidence appears in the papal law
itself, that the marriages of ecclesiastics were not anciently deemed
unlawful. In the _Corpus Juris Canonici_, or _Decretum aureum_, D.
Gratiani, Distinctio lvi. canon 2., which professes to be a rescript of
Pope Damasus (A.D. 366-84), says:

  "Theodorus papa filius [fuit] Theodori episcopi de civitate
  Hierosolyma, Silverius papa filius Silverii episcopi Romæ--item
  Gelasius, natione Afer, ex patre episcopo Valerio natus est. Quam
  plures etiam alii inveniuntur: qui de sacerdotibus nati apostolicæ
  sedi præfuerunt."

To which Gratian attaches as his own conclusion:

  "Hine Augustinus ait, _Vicia parentum_ Filiis non imputentur."

Thereby throwing a slur on the said married bishops. But can. xiii., or
Cænomanensem, of the same Distinctio, says:

  "Cum ergo ex sacerdotibus nati in summos pontifices supra legantur
  esse promoti, non sunt intelligendi de fornicatione, sed de
  legitimis conjugiis."

I will only add that Athanasius mentions a Bishop Eupsychius (Primâ
contra Arianos) who was martyred in the reign of Julian, and that the
historian Sozomen says of him (_Eccl. Hist._, lib. v. ch. 11.), that
when he suffered he had but recently married, καὶ οἷον ἔτι
νυμφίον ὄντα.

    H. WALTER.


DOMINGO LOMELYNE.

(Vol. i., p. 193.)

As it is not to be met with in a regular way, your correspondent may be
ignorant that Domingo Lomelyne was progenitor of the _extinct baronets_
LUMLEY, his descendants having softened or corrupted his name into an
identity with that of the great northern race of the latter name. They,
however, retained different coat-armour in the senior line, bearing in
common with many other English families of Italian, Champaigne, and
generally trans-Norman origin, "a chief." Guido de St. Leodigaro and one
Lucarnalsus are the earliest heroes to whom I find it assigned; but
Stephen, son of the Odo, Earl of _Champaigne_ (whence Fortibus, Earl of
Albemarle), also brought it to England at a very early period; and
thence from the Holderness annex of de Fortibus (in spite of the
allegations in Wott. _Bar._, i. 189.), Worsley perhaps copied it. The
old Lumley or Lomelyne accounts connect it with the city of _Naples_.
Your correspondent will find that Domingo Lomelyne was a _Genoese_, and
of the _bedchamber_ to Henry VIII.; that he maintained at his own cost,
and commanded, a troop of horse at Boulogne in the same reign, and had a
pension of 200_l._ per annum from Queen Elizabeth in 1560. If any of
your corespondents can give me the junior ramifications of this family
diverging from the son and grandson of Domingo, I shall feel much
obliged, provided that James Lumley, living 1725, who married Catherine
Hodilow, can be satisfactorily linked with James, the son of Domingo.
James and Martin were the family names, and the family was settled in
London and Essex.

    WM. D'OYLY BAYLEY.


PETTY CURY.

(Vol. iv., pp. 24. 120.)

Having noticed in a recent number some rather various derivations of the
name "Petty Cury," which one of the streets in Cambridge bears, I have
been led to examine the word "Cury," and think that a meaning may be
given to it, preferable to any of the three mentioned in your paper. The
three to which I refer connect the word with "cook-shops," "stables," or
some kind of a court-house ("curia"). The arguments brought forward in
their favour either arise from the similarity of the words (as "Cury"
and "écurie"), or from the probability that either cook-shops, stables,
or a court-house existed in the vicinity of the street, whence it might
derive its name. With regard to the name "Cury" being derived from the
cook-shops in the streets, this seems to have little to do with the
question; for supposing there are some half dozen such shops there
(which I do not know to be the case), it proves little as to what was
the number three or four centuries ago. Secondly, "Cury" derived from
"écurie:" this seems unsatisfactory, for, as nothing whatever is known
about our former fellows' horses, the argument in its favour simply
consists in "Cury" being similar to "écurie." The third derivation is,
that "Cury" is taken from "curia," a senate or court-house. This falls
to the ground from the considerations, that if it were derived from it
we might expect the name to be Parva Cury and not Petty Cury; and if it
be derived from it, it implies that there was some larger court existing
at that time, in contradistinction to which this was called "Parva
Curia." But no larger one (as the advocate of the derivation allows) did
exist, so that this derivation meets the fate of the former ones.

The most probable derivation of the word is from the French "curie," a
_ward_ or _district_, which certainly possesses this advantage over the
three former ones, that the word is exactly the same as that of the
street. The arguments in its favour are these:--In referring to a map of
Cambridge dated A.D. 1574, I find the town divided into _wards_, with
different names attached to them. These wards are all larger than "Petty
Cury:" in the same map the name is spelt "_Peti Curie_" (_i.e._ small
ward), both words being French or Norman ones, and the word "peti" being
applied to it from its being smaller than any of the other wards. In
former times it was not unusual to give French names to the wards and
streets of a town, as may be seen any day in London, or even in
Liverpool, which is comparatively a modern place. Thus the word from
which I propose to derive the name "Cury" being the very same, and not
requiring us to form any vague suppositions either about cook-shops,
stables, or court-houses, I conclude, may be considered preferable to
the three before mentioned.

    W. F. R.

  Trinity College, Sept. 1. 1851.


THE DAUPHIN.

(Vol. iv., p. 149.)

The communication of your correspondent ÆGROTUS respecting the claims of
an individual to be the Dauphin of France and Duke of Normandy, brought
to my recollection pretensions of a similar nature made by a person who,
about twenty years ago, was resident in London; and was a teacher of
music, as I was informed. This person introduced himself to me, in a
French house of business, as the genuine Dauphin of France, the second
son of Louis XVI. In justice to the _soi-disant_ Dauphin, I should state
that he did not bring forward his claims abruptly, but in the course of
a conversation held in his presence, relating to the claims of another
pretender to the same honours. The communicator of this important
intelligence of a new rival to the contested diadem, urged his claims
with so much plausibility, and pressed me so earnestly to pay him a
visit--seeing that I listened to his impassioned statement with decorous
patience and real interest--in order that he might explain the matter
more fully and at leisure--that I went to his house in the New Road,
where I saw him more than once. He told me that the woman, who had all
her life passed as his mother, informed him on her death-bed that he was
the Duke of Normandy, and had been confided to her charge and care; and
that she was told to make her escape with him by his true mother, Marie
Antoinette, when that unfortunate queen eluded the murderous pursuit of
her assailants in the furious attack made on the Tuileries on the 10th
of August, 1792. So impressed was I by the earnestness of the narrator,
and the air of truth thrown around his story--knowing also that some
doubts had been started as to the death of the Dauphin in the
Temple--that I offered, being then about to visit Edinburgh, which was
at that time the residence of the exiled monarch Charles X. and his
ill-starred family, to be the bearer to them of any memorial or other
document, which the claimant to the rights of Dauphin might wish to
submit to that illustrious body. A statement was accordingly drawn up,
and sent by me when in Edinburgh, not to Charles X., but to her royal
highness the Duchess of Angoulême; who immediately replied, requesting
an interview on my part with one of the noblemen or gentlemen of her
household, whom I met; and was informed by him from her royal highness,
that such communications exceedingly distressed her, in recalling a past
dreadful period of her life; for that there was no truth in them, and
that her brother, the Duke of Normandy, died in the Temple. With deep
and sincere protestations of regret at having been the cause of pain to
her royal highness, and made the unconscious dupe of either a knave or a
fool, instead of bringing forward an illustrious unknown to his due
place in history, I took my leave; and think this account ought to
scatter for ever to the winds all tales, _in esse_ or _posse_, of
pretended Dauphins of France and Dukes of Normandy.

I should mention, that in my interview with the _soi-disant_ Dauphin, he
showed me various portraits of Louis XVI., and then bade me look at his
own features, in every attitude and form, and say if the likeness was
not most striking and remarkable. I could not deny it; and in truth was
so impressed with his whole account, that I began to look upon the
humble individual before me with something of the reverence due to
majesty, shorn of its glories.

    J. M.

P.S.--I now recollect that the name of this pretended Dauphin was Mevis,
and that he was said to have been seen in Regent Street by a friend of
mine about five years ago; and may, for aught I know, be still living.

  Oxford, Sept. 2.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Visiting Cards_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.).--In answer to your 87th Query, it
may serve in part to help to show "when visiting cards first came into
use," by informing you that about six or eight years ago a house in Dean
Street, Soho, was repaired (I think No. 79.), where Allison and Co., the
pianoforte makers, now of the Quadrant, formerly resided; and, on
removing a marble chimney-piece in the front drawing-room, four or five
visiting cards were found, one with the name of "Isaac Newton" on it.
The names were all _written_ on the back of common playing cards; and it
is not improbable that one or more may still be in the possession of Mr.
Allison, 65. Quadrant. The house in Dean Street was the residence of
either Hogarth or his father-in-law.

    A. MITE.

_Sardonic Smiles_ (Vol. iv., p. 18.).--I beg to refer such of your
readers as take an interest in the discussion of "Sardonic Smiles" to a
treatise or memoir on the subject, by a learned scholar and antiquary in
the St. Petersburgh Transactions for 1851. The title of the memoir is as
follows: _Die Talos-Sage und das Sardonische Lachen. Ein Beitrag zur
Geschichte Griechischer Sage und Kunst, von Ludwig Mercklin._ The memoir
is also printed separately, from the _Mémoires des Savants Etrangers_.

    J. M.

  Oxford, August 4.

_Darby and Joan_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--As no one has answered your
correspondent by referring him to a copy of this ballad, I have great
pleasure in calling his attention to _A Collection of Songs, Moral,
Sentimental, Instructive, and Amusing_, 4to. Cambridge, 1805. At p. 152.
of this volume, the "pleasant old ditty" of "Darby and Joan" is given at
length, accompanied with the music. The editor, the Rev. James Plumptre,
M.A., tells us that it is "attributed to Matthew Prior." As this book is
somewhat difficult to procure, your correspondent is welcome to the loan
of my copy.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Marriage of Bishops_ (Vol. iv., pp. 57. 125.).--In reference to the
inquiry of your correspondent A. B. C., for any instances of bishops and
priests who, during the first three centuries, were married after
ordination, I may suggest that the Council of Nice in 325 declared it to
be then "_an ancient tradition_ of the Church that they who were
unmarried when promoted to holy orders should not afterwards
marry."--Socrates, _Hist. Eccl._, lib. i. cap. ii.; Sozomen, _Hist.
Eccl._, lib. i. c. xxiii.

May not the proper translation in the text which he quotes, 1 Cor. ix.
5., be "woman," instead of "wife;" and might not the passage be more
accurately rendered by the expression "sister-woman?" Clemens
Alexandrinus says (_Stromat._, lib. iii. edit. Poterii, Venet. 1757,
tom. i. p. 526.): "Not as wives but as sisters did the women go round
with the apostles:" and see also Matt. xxvii. 55., Mark xv. 41., and
Luke viii. 3.

    DORFSNAIG.

_Winifreda_ (Vol. iii., p. 27.).--LORD BRAYBROOKE has furnished your
readers with a very curious list of the various printed forms in which,
at different times, this popular song has been given to the world; but
he has omitted one which I think ought to be placed on record. I allude
to a copy contained in the third number of _The Foundling Hospital for
Wit_, a rare miscellany of "curious pieces," printed for W. Webb, near
St. Paul's, 8vo. 1746 (p. 23.). This work was printed in numbers, at
intervals, the first bearing date 1743; and the sixth, and last, 1749.
My copy is particularly interesting as having the blank names filled up
in a cotemporary hand, and the authors' names, in many cases, added. The
song of _Winifreda_ is assigned to "Mr. G. A. Stevens;" so that, after
all, the Edinburgh reviewer may have confounded _George_ Steevens, the
"commentator," with his earlier and equally facetious namesake, _George
Alexander_.

George Alexander Stevens was born (if a MS. obituary in my possession
may be relied on) "in the parish of St. Andrew's Holborn, 1710." He died
(according to the _Biographia Dramatica_) "at Baldock in Hertfordshire,
Sept. 6, 1784."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_George Chalmers_ (Vol. iv., 58.).--The printed books and MSS. of the
late George Chalmers were disposed of by auction in 1841 and 1842 by Mr.
Evans of Pall Mall. The particular MS. inquired after by J. O. occurs in
the third part of the printed sale catalogue, and is numbered 1891. It
is thus described by Mr. Evans:

  "CHALMERS'S BIBLIOGRAPHIA SCOTICA POETICA, or NOTICES OF SCOTTISH
  POETS AND THEIR WORKS, from 1286 to 1806, 4 vols. Chalmers's
  _Notices of the Scottish Poetry, Drama, and Songs_, 2 vols.,
  together 6 vols.

    "[Star symbol] These Volumes contain a great fund of Information,
    and furnish very valuable Materials for a History of Scotch
    Poetry. They would also be very useful to Collectors."

Lot 1894. is also highly interesting. It is described as--

    "RITSON'S BIBLIOGRAPHIA SCOTICA, 2 vols. Unpublished.

    "[Star symbol] A very Valuable Account of Scottish Poets and
    Historians, drawn up with great care and indefatigable Research by
    Ritson. The Work was intended for Publication. These Volumes were
    purchased at the sale of Ritson's Library by Messrs. Longman and
    Constable for Forty-three Guineas, and presented to George
    Chalmers, Esq., who had edited Sir D. Lyndsay's Works for them
    gratuitously."

My catalogue of Chalmers's library, unfortunately, has not the prices or
purchasers' names; and the firm of the Messrs. Evans being no longer in
existence, I have no means of ascertaining the present locality of the
above-mentioned MSS.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_The Three Estates of the Realm_ (Vol. iv., p. 115.).--W. FRASER is
quite right in repudiating the _cockney_ error of "Queen, Lords, and
Commons" forming the "three estates of the realm." The sovereign is
_over_ the "realm;" a word which obviously designates the persons
_ruled_. W. F. however does not exactly hit the mark when he infers,
that "the Lords, the Clergy _in convocation_, and the Commons" are the
"three estates." The phrase "assembled in Parliament" has no application
to the Convocation; which moreover does not sit at Westminster, and was
not exposed to the peril of the gunpowder plot. The three estates of the
realm are the three orders (_états_) into which all natural-born
subjects are legally divided: viz. the _clergy_, the _nobility_, and the
_commonalty_. They are represented "in Parliament" by the "Lords
Spiritual," the "Lords Temporal," and the "Commons" (elected by their
fellows). The three estates thus meet their sovereign in the "chamber of
Parliament" at the opening of every session; and there it was that the
plot was laid for their destruction.

W. F. is no doubt aware that originally they all _deliberated_ also
together, and in the presence of the sovereign or his commissioners: and
though, for the freedom of discussion, the sovereign now withdraws, and
the Commons deliberate in a separate chamber (leaving the chamber of
Parliament to be used as "the House of Lords," both Spiritual and
Temporal), yet to this day they all reassemble for the formal _passing_
of every act; and the authority of all three is recited by their proper
names in the preamble.

The first and second estates are not fused into one, simply because they
continue to deliberate and vote together as all three did at the first.

The _Convocation_ of the Clergy was altogether a different institution,
which never met either the sovereign or the Parliament: but their order
was _represented_ in the latter by the prelates. It is another mistake
(therefore) to think the Bishops sit in the House of Lords as _Barons_.

    CANONICUS EBORACENSIS.

"_You Friend drink to me Friend_" (Vol. iv., p. 59.).--When I was a boy,
about sixty-five years ago, Mr. Holder (a surgeon of some eminence at
that time) was a frequent visitor at our house, and much amused us by
several catches in which (under his instruction) we delighted to join;
and among which was--

      "_I_ friend, drink to _thee_, friend, as _my_ friend
          drank to _me_;
      _I_ friend, charge _thee_, friend, as _my_ friend
           chargēd _me_;
      Sŏ dŏ _thou_, friend, drĭnk tŏ _thy_ friend,
           as _my_ friend drank to _me_,
      For the more we drink liquor the merrier are we."

    R. S. S.

  56. Fenchurch Street.

_Broad Halfpenny Down_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.).--_Broad halpeny_, or _broad
halfpenny_, signifies to be quit of a certain custom exacted for setting
up tables or boards in fairs or markets; and those that were freed by
the King's charter of this custom, had this word put in their
letters-patent: by reason whereof, the freedom itself (for brevity of
speech) is called _broad halfpenny_. (_Les Termes de la Ley._) Hence the
origin of "Broad-halfpenny Down."

    FRANCISCUS.

Whence the name I cannot say, but would just note the fact, that sixteen
miles from London, on the Brighton railway, is a breezy upland called
_Farthing Down_. The country folk deem it a sufficiently famous place,
and one told me "that was once London;" meaning, a town stood there
before London was built. It is a locality well known to those who hunt
with the Croydon pack.

    P. M. M.

_Horner Family_ (Vol. iv., p. 131.).--Is it true that the following
rhymes apply to one of the Horners of Mells?

      "Little Jack Horner
      Sat in a corner,
      Eating a Christmas pie,
      He put in his thumb,
      And pulled out a plum,
      And said what a good boy am I."

The plum being 100,000_l_. I have been told a long story on the matter
by Somersetshire people.

    P. M. M.

_The Man of Law_ (Vol. iv., p. 153.).--The lines so felicitously quoted
by Mr. Serjeant Byles at a recent trial were thus given in _The Times_:

      "The man of law who never saw
        The way to buy and sell,
      Wishing to rise by merchandise,
        Shall never speed him well."

This version is rather nearer the original than that of your
correspondent MR. KING, who avowedly writes from memory. The author of
the lines was Sir Thomas More. They are thus given in "_A Mery Jest how
a Sergeant would learn to play the Freere_. Written by Maister Thomas
More in hys youth:"

      "A man of lawe that never sawe
        The wayes to bye and sell,
      Wenyng to ryse by marchaundyse,
        I praye God spede hym well!"

My quotation is at second-hand from Warton's _History of English
Poetry_, sect. xliii.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, August 30. 1851.

  [We are also indebted to T. LAWRENCE and BARTANUS for replying to
  this Query. The latter adds, "The poem is given at length in the
  History of the English Language prefixed to the 4to. edition of
  Johnson's _Dictionary_."]

_Riddle_ (Vol. iv., p. 153).--The riddle (query _rebus_?) for the
solution of which your correspondent A. W. H. inquires, may be found
printed in vol. i. pp. 109, 110. of the poems of Dr. Byrom, well known
as the author of the "Pastoral," inserted with much commendation by
Addison in the 8th volume of the _Spectator_, and the supposed inventor
of the universal English short-hand. The author of the rebus seems to
have been then unknown (1765), and it is said to have been "commonly
ascribed to Lord Chesterfield." Whether this was asserted in jest, does
not appear: but Dr. Byrom, to whom application for a solution had been
made, in the course of his reply, given in his own peculiar style, has
the following passage, which may be a guide to those who may now seek to
arrive at the mystery:--

      "Made for excuse, you see, upon the whole,
      The too great number of words, that poll
      For correspondency to ev'ry line;
      And make the meant one tedious to divine:
      But we suspect that other points ambiguous,
      And eke unfair, contribute to fatigue us.

          "For first, with due submission to our betters;
      What antient city would have eighteen letters?
      Or more?--for, in the latter lines, the clue
      May have _one_ correspondent word or two:
      Clue should have said, if only one occurr'd,
      Not correspondent _words_ to each, but _word_.

          "From some suspicions of a bite, we guess
      The number of the letters to be less;
      And, from expression of a certain cast,
      Some joke, unequal to the pains at last:
      Could you have said that all was right and clever,
      We should have try'd more fortunate endeavour.

      "_It should contain, should this same_ JEU DE MOTS,
      _Clean-pointed turn, short, fair, and_ A PROPOS;
      _Wit without straining; neatness without starch;
      Hinted, tho' hid; and decent, tho' tis arch;
      No vile idea should disgrace a rebus--_
      SIC DICUNT MUSÆ, SIC EDICIT PHOEBUS."

    T.W. (1)

  [We are also indebted to R. P. for a similar Reply.]

_Speculative Difficulties_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--As L. M. M. R. is not
certain as to the title and author of the book he inquires about,
perhaps he may find it under the title of _The Semi-sceptic, or the
Common Sense of Religion considered_, by the Rev. J. T. James, M.A.;
London, 1825. This is a very unpretending but very beautiful work, of
some 400 pages. The author died Bishop of Calcutta.

    O. T. DOBBIN.

_St. Paul_ (Vol iii., p. 451.).--In answer to EMUN, allow me to name a
_Life of St. Paul_ by the Rev. Dr. Addington, an eminent dissenting
minister of the close of the last century; a work on the life and
epistles of St. Paul by Mr. Bevan, a member of the Society of Friends;
and two books by Fletcher and Hannah More on the character of the same
apostle.

    O. T. D.

_Commissioners on Officers of Justice in England_ (Vol iv., p. 152.).--I
can give no information respecting the commission of July 27, 1733; but
on June 2, 8 GEO. II. [1735], a commission issued to Sir William
Joliffe, Knt., William Bunbury, Simon Aris, Thomas Brown, Thomas De
Veil, Esquires, and others, for inquiring into the officers of the Court
of Exchequer, and their fees, "and for the other purposes therein
mentioned." I imagine this commission also extended to other courts. The
names of the jurors impannelled and sworn as to the Court of Exchequer,
July 9, 1735; their oath, presentment, and six schedules of fees, are
given in Jones's _Index to the Originalia and Memoranda Records_
(London, fo. 1793), vol, i. Preface, xxxiii.-xliv.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge.

_Noble and Workhouse Names_ (Vol. iii., p. 350.).--I can enumerate
several old names, some Anglo-Saxon, in the parishes of Burghfield and
Tylchurst, in Berks, belonging to the peasantry, many of whom may have
been gentry in bygone years; such as Osborne, Osman, Seward, Wolford,
Goddard, Woodward, Redbourne, Lambourne, Englefield, Gower, Harding,
Hussey, Coventry, Avery, Stacy, Ilsley, Hamlin, Pigot, Hemans, Eamer,
and Powel. A respectable yeoman's widow, whose maiden name was
Wentworth, told me she was of the same family as Sir Thomas Wentworth,
Earl of Strafford, beheaded in Charles's reign.

    JULIA R. BOCKETT.

  Southcote Lodge.

_Poulster_ (Vol. iv., p. 152.).--The meaning of this word is undoubtedly
as D. X. surmises. The original term was _upholder_, which is still in
occasional use; next _upholster_; and, thirdly, _upholsterer_. In
Stowe's _Survey of London_, it appears in the second form: and so also
_poulter_, which still exists as a surname. "Mr. Richard Deakes,
Uphoulster," was buried at St. Dunstan's in the West, London, in 1630.
(_Collectanea Topog. et Geneal._, v. 378.) It would be worth inquiry
_when_ the incorrect duplication of termination first produced our
modern words _upholsterer_ and _poulterer_? Mr. Pegge remarks, that
"Fruiter_er_ seems to be equally redundant;" and that "cater-_er_ is
written _cater_ in the margin of the _Life of Gusmand de Alfarache_,
folio edition, 1622, p. 125. (_Anecdotes of the English Language_, edit.
Christmas, 1844, p. 79.)"

    J. G. N.

_Judges styled Reverend_ (Vol. iv., p. 151.).--Your correspondent. F. W.
J., before he receives an answer to his Query, "When did the judges lose
the title of Reverend and Very Reverend?" must first show that they ever
bore it. By the example he quotes he might as well argue that they bore
the title of "Très Sages," as that of "Très Reverend." The fact is,
that, _as a title_, it was never used by them, the words quoted being
nothing more than respectful epithets applied to eminent men of a past
age, by the editors or publishers of the work.

I very much doubt also whether the style of "The Honorable" is properly
given to the judges.

It would be curious to trace the commencement of the practice of
addressing a judge on the bench as "My Lord." In the Year Books are
numerous instances of his being addressed simply "Syr." Off the bench
the chief alone is entitled to the designation "My Lord," and that
address can be properly given to the puisne judges only when they are on
the circuit, and then because they are acting under a special royal
commission.

    EDW. FOSS.

_The Ring Finger_ (Vol. iv., p. 150.).--In the ancient ritual of
marriage, the ring was placed by the husband on the top of the thumb of
the left hand, with the words "In the name of the Father;" he then
removed it to the forefinger, saying, "and of the Son;" then to the
middle finger, adding, "and of the Holy Ghost;" finally, he left it as
now, on the fourth finger, with the closing word "Amen."

    R. S. H.

  Morwenstow.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

The name of Dr. Freund is probably known to many of our readers as that
of the most profound lexicographer of the present day, so far as the
Latin language is concerned. His larger Latin-German Lexicon is as
remarkable for its philosophical arrangement as for the philological
acquirements of its author; and of that important and valuable work a
translation, or rather an adaption, is now before us, in one handsome
octavo volume, under the title of _A Copious and Critical Latin-English
Lexicon, founded on the larger German-Latin Lexicon of Dr. William
Freund: with Additions and Corrections from the Lexicons of Gesner,
Facciolati, Scheller, Georges_, &c. By E. A. Andrews. LL.D., &c. Dr.
Andrews and his assistants have executed their respective portions of
the work in a most able manner; and the book, which in its getting up is
as creditable to American typography as its editing is to American
scholarship, will, we have no doubt, meet, as it deserves, with a most
extensive sale in this country.

_The Churchyard Manual, intended chiefly for Rural Districts_, by the
Rev. W. H. Kelke, is a little volume published for the purpose of
promoting the improvement of rural churchyards, by giving them a more
truly Christian character. It is illustrated with some extremely
pleasing and appropriate monumental designs, and contains a judicious
selection of epitaphs, and is indeed altogether well calculated to
accomplish the good end at which the author aims.

_Archælogical Guide to Ely Cathedral; prepared for the Visit of the Bury
and West Suffolk Archælogical Institute_, Sept. 1851, is a most useful
little tract, calculated not only to increase the interest of the
members of the Bury Institute, in their visit to the venerable pile
which it describes, but furnishing just the heads of information which
future visitors will require, and therefore likely to outlast the
temporary object for which it has been so ably compiled.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--C. Hamilton's (22. Anderson's Buildings, City
Road) Catalogue of Books, Portraits, Original Drawings, Local,
Historical, and other important Manuscripts; W. Miller's (3. Upper East
Smithfield) Catalogue Part 38. of a Collection of Books in the various
Branches of Literature.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

No. 3 of SUMMER PRODUCTIONS or PROGRESSIVE MISCELLANIES, by Thomas
Johnson. London, 1790.

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. Folio. London, 1624.

THE APOLOGETICS OF ATHENAGORAS, Englished by D. Humphreys. London, 1714.
8vo.

BOVILLUS DE ANIMÆ IMMORALITATE, ETC. Lugduni, 1522. 4to.

KUINOEL'S NOV. TEST. Tom. I.

THE FRIEND, by Coleridge. Vol. III. Pickering.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

C. W. _If our correspondent lives, as we trust he will, to see our
hundredth Volume, we feel assured that what he now considers a blemish
he will then estimate very differently._

F. S. _The allusion to which our correspondent refers, is to a
well-known stanza:_

      "The Sun's perpendicular heat
        Illumines the depth of the sea,
      And the fishes, beginning to sweat,
        Cry, 'Bless us how hot we shall be.'"

DESPECTUS. _Such of the various matters suggested in our correspondent's
voluminous communication as are calculated for insertion in our columns
shall be introduced as opportunities offer._

RADIX. _A diamond Latin Dictionary, by Riddle, has, we believe, been
published by Messrs. Longman._

G. M. P., _who inquires as to the origin and proper name of the
character_ "&" (and-per-se-and, and-by-itself-and), _is referred to our_
2nd Vol. pp. 250. 284.

E. A. T. Das Knaben Wunderhorn _has never been translated into English.
We have no doubt, however, but that translations have been made of many
of the pieces contained in it._

LLEWELLYN _will find a note addressed to him at our Publisher's._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_School of the Heart--John of Lilburne--Absalom's
Hair--Ray and Wray Families--Meaning of Deal--Nightingale and Thorn--The
Termination "-ship"--Repudiate--Swinhope--Unlucky for Pregnant Women to
take an Oath--The Man of Law--Presteign--Queen's Messengers--Murderers
buried in Cross Roads--Sword-blade Note--Petty Cury--Domesday Book of
Scotland--Elision of letter V.--Names first given to
Parishes--Dole-bank--The Dauphin--Agla--Coins of Constantius II.--Corpse
passing makes a Right of Way--Poulster._

_Copies of our_ Prospectus, _according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLS. I., II., _and_ III., _with very copious Indices, may still be had,
price_ 9_s._ 6_d. each, neatly bound in cloth._

NOTES AND QUERIES _is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers may receive it on Saturday. The subscription for the Stamped
Edition is 10s. 2d. for Six Months, which may be paid by Post-office
Order drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet
Street; _to whose care all communications for the Editor should be
addressed._



Just published, in One Volume, royal 8vo. (pp. 1663), price 21_s._,

      A COPIOUS AND CRITICAL
      LATIN-ENGLISH LEXICON,
      FOUNDED ON THE LARGER GERMAN-LATIN LEXICON OF DR. WILLIAM FREUND:
      WITH ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
      FROM THE
      LEXICONS OF GESNER, FACCIOLATI, SCHELLER, GEORGES, &c.
      BY E. A. ANDREWS, LL.D., &c.

    "We have examined this book with considerable attention, and have
    no hesitation in saying it is the best Dictionary of the Latin
    Language that has appeared."--_Literary Gazette._

    "In conclusion, we are glad to have an opportunity of introducing
    so excellent a work to the notice of our classical and
    philological readers. It has all that true German _Gründlichkeit_
    about it which is so highly appreciated by English scholars.
    Rarely, if ever, has so vast an amount of philological information
    been comprised in a single volume of this size. The knowledge
    which it conveys of the early and later Latin is not to be
    gathered from ordinary Latin Dictionaries. With regard to the
    manner in which it is got up, we can speak most favourably. Never
    have we seen a better specimen of American typography. Every page
    bears the impress of industry and care. The type is clear, neat,
    and judiciously varied. A pretty close inspection has not enabled
    us to discover any error worth mentioning."--_Athenæum._

  London: SAMPSON LOW, 169. Fleet Street.


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      | Policy. | Insured. |   Original Premium.      | increased      |
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      |  1806   |  £2500   |  £79 10 10 Extinguished  | £1222  2  0    |
      |  1811   |   1000   |   33 19  2   Ditto       |  231 17  8     |
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      +---------+----------+--------------------------+----------------+

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      |        |       |          |           | further increased.  |
      +--------+-------+----------+-----------+---------------------+
      |   521  | 1807  |   £900   | £982 12 1 |     £1882 12 1      |
      |  1174  | 1810  |   1200   | 1160  5 6 |      2360  5 6      |
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      +--------+-------+----------+-----------+---------------------+

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ROLLIN'S KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN LEVIZAC'S FRENCH GRAMMAR.

  Just published, in 12mo. sheep, price 3_s._,

  CORRIGÉ: ou, Traduction Française des Thêmes Anglais contenus dans
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  LEVIZAC'S GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH TONGUE. New Edition, revised and
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  SYRIAC READING LESSONS: consisting of copious extracts from the
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LONDON LIBRARY, 12. St. James's Square.--Patron--His Royal Highness
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  This Institution now offers to its members a collection of 60,000
  volumes to which additions are constantly making, both in English
  and foreign literature. A reading room is also open for the use of
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  September, 1851.

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 13, 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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