Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Scientific American, Vol. XLIII.—No. 1. [New Series.], July 3, 1880 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Vol. XLIII.—No. 1. [New Series.], July 3, 1880 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration]


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN


A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS,
CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.


NEW YORK, JULY 3, 1880.

Vol. XLIII.--No. 1. [NEW SERIES.]

[$3.20 per Annum [POSTAGE PREPAID.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

   1     Agricultural inventions              1
  40     Aspirator and compressor*           11
  38     Astronomical notes                  11
  25     Baby elephant takes a bath           7
  22     Bath, shower, portable, new*         6
  11     Boiler explosions, prevention of*    4
  38     Canal boat, improved                10
  17     Carpetings, etc., printing gold on   5
  30     Chloral hydrate, simple test for     7
  13     Chloroforming during sleep           5
  35     Corn magnets                        10
  14     Dipper, watering, improved*          5
  29     Drowned, perseverance with the       7
  15     Electric lamp, improved*             5
  25     Elephant, baby, takes a bath         7
  37     Engineering inventions              10
   6     Epidemic, strange, a                 2
  33     Exhibition, internation., Sydney*    8
  11     Explosions, boiler, prevention of*   4
  39     Fires in New York                   11
   8     Fogs, navigation in*                 3
  16     Fruit, preserving app. for*          5
   3     Gas machine, Maxim's*                1
   3     Gas making, simple process*          1
  20     Genessee Falls, utilization of       5
  34     Horology, report of judges*          8
  33     International exhibition, Sydney*    8
   1     Inventions, agricultural             1
  37     Inventions, engineering             10
  24     Inventions, mechanical               7
  12     Inventions, miscellaneous            4
  42     Inventions, new                     11
   9     Iron, effect of age on quality       3
  15     Lamp, electric, improved*            5
  23     Leadville mines and railroads*       6
  35     Magnets, corn                       10
  36     Materials, resistance of, exp. on   10
   3     Maxim's gas machine*                 1
  24     Mechanical inventions                7
  31     Natural history notes                7
   8     Navigation in fogs*                  3
   7     Oil tanks, cannonading of            3
  18     Ore separator, Edison                5
  41     Photoglyptic process, new           11
  26     Phyllirhoe Bucephala*                7
  32     Ruggles, S. P                        7
  22     Shower bath, portable, new*          6
  19     Slate washer, novel*                 5
   2     Specimen, rare, lost                 1
   5     Steamer, little, remarkable          2
  10     Steamers, large, collision between   3
  21     Stevens Institute of Technology      5
  33     Sydney Industrial Exhibition*        8
  28     Tree growth, force of*               7
  27     Trees and shrubs, care of            7
  19     Washer, slate, novel*                5
   4     Watches, Am., superiority of         2
  14     Watering dipper, improved*           5

       *       *       *       *       *



AGRICULTURAL INVENTIONS.

Mr. Sterling A. Millard, of Clayville, N. Y., has invented a scythe
blade that contains much less weight of metal and possesses equal or
greater strength than the ordinary scythe blades. It is made in the
usual manner from what is termed by scythe makers a "scythe rod," and
is wrought and shaped in such form that a proper thickness is left
to serve as the back of the blade. A longitudinal auxiliary rib or
supplementary back is formed on the blade, which stiffens the scythe
without requiring the same weight of metal as those of the usual
construction.

Mr. George C. Winslow, of Kalamazoo, Mich., has patented an
improvement in spring harrow teeth, which consists generally in
hinging the harrow tooth in the forward end of a rectangular frame
bolted to the harrow bar, and combining therewith a spring, which
at its back end is clamped to the harrow bar by the same bolts which
secure the rectangular frame, and which spring then curves upward and
forward, and then down through the slot or opening of the rectangular
frame, and is jointed at its extremity, near the bottom of the harrow
tooth, so that its tension serves to throw the harrow tooth forward,
but allows it to yield to obstruction.

       *       *       *       *       *



A RARE SPECIMEN LOST.

Captain Ingalls, of the schooner Chalcedony, has let slip an
opportunity to make a small fortune and at the same time settle the
long vexed question as to the reality of the elusive and possibly
mythical sea serpent. His story, as told in the _Argus_, of Portland,
Maine, June 8, runs as follows:

"Last Saturday, about one o'clock in the afternoon, we were slowly
sailing past Monhegan, there being very little wind, about twenty
miles southwest of the island, when we caught sight of what looked
like a large schooner floating bottom up. As the object lay almost
dead ahead, we made directly for it, but before we got very close a
Cape Ann schooner lay to and sent a boat's crew to inspect what now
plainly appeared to be a monstrous carcass of some species or other.
We finally hove to, about a ship's length off, and took a leisurely
survey of the thing. It was dead, and floated on the water, with its
belly, of a dirty brown color, up. It head was at least twenty feet
long, and about ten feet through at the thickest point. About midway
of the body, which was, I should guess, about forty feet long, were
two fins, of a clear white, each about twelve feet in length. The body
seemed to taper from the back of the head down to the size of a small
log, distinct from the whale tribe, as the end had nothing that looked
like a fluke. The shape of the creature's head was more like a tierce
than anything I can liken it to. I have seen almost all kinds of
shapes that can be found in these waters, but never saw the like of
this before.

Two years ago, off Seguin, I saw shooting through the water a thing
which, I think, resembled this creature considerably, but I didn't
get close enough to it to say for certain. The men from the Cape Ann
schooner got on this dead creature, and one of the boys cut a double
shuffle on its belly, which for all the world looked like the bottom
of a schooner covered with barnacles and seaweed by the weather. We
should have towed the thing to Portland had there been any wind,
but as there wasn't, we steered away and left it. What sort of a sea
monster this was I can't say for sure, but in my opinion it was the
original 'sea serpent,' which has been seen once in a while for years
past, and which, when alive, was too swift a swimmer for any sailing
vessel to get alongside of."

The report of the captain of the "Cape Ann schooner" will be in order
now.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MAXIM'S NEW GAS MACHINE.]

SIMPLE AND CHEAP PROCESS OF GAS MAKING.

When a current of air is passed over the surface of gasoline it
becomes carbureted or charged with its vapors to saturation. Air thus
charged is somewhat heavier than pure air, and when passed through an
Argand or bat's wing burner, it burns with a brilliant white flame.
Nothing would seem easier than to make a machine that would force
a current of air through, over, or on some material saturated with
gasoline, and this apparently simple process has led many into
attempts to make a successful gas machine. Many fortunes have been
spent by the unscientific in the chase after this, to them, _ignis
fatuus_. The stumbling block which has wrecked so many enterprises
in this line has been the cold produced by the evaporation of the
gasoline. One pound of gasoline, in passing from a liquid to a vapor,
requires about as much heat as would be required to melt two pounds of
cast iron. It is therefore obvious that where no heat is supplied,
the gasoline, air, and machine must soon become very cold when any
considerable quantity of gas is being made. The heat must come from
somewhere, and as none is supplied, it is taken from the apparatus,
air, and gasoline, making them very cold. A beautiful and simple
experiment to illustrate this refrigeration can be made as follows:
Place a gill of water in a common washbasin, then pour over it
one pint of light gasoline; shake the basin, and blow the liquids
vigorously, when very soon the basin will become intensely cold--the
water will freeze, and may be taken out in the form of a snowball.
If the water and basin are hot, and the experiment performed in a hot
room or in the sun, it is much more striking.[1]

This refrigeration operates upon the gas as follows: Air will take up
and hold in suspension any volatile liquid in proportion to the square
of its temperature, so that when the temperature of the gasoline and
air have fallen off one half, the quantity of gasoline in the air has
fallen off three quarters, and the light is destroyed. The quality of
the gas in such machines varies from a rich smoky flame to a pale
blue and blowing flame in a short time. Every change of quality in the
liquid, temperature of the apparatus, or number of burners used causes
a vexatious change in the quality of the gas. If heat is applied at
the right time and in the right quantity it is not so bad, but too
much heat, or neglecting to regulate it properly, converts the machine
into a still, the condenser of which is the pipes of the building
lighted, when danger is added to vexation. About ten years ago a
machine was illustrated in these columns that obviated all these
troubles; it was the invention of the well known mechanical engineer,
Hiram S. Maxim, of this city. His machine was on an entirely new
principle, and has since gone into general use. It was intricate and
somewhat expensive, but it performed its work well. Messrs. A. T.
Stewart & Co. use them largely in their mills and hotels. Mr. Maxim
made one of six thousand burner capacity for the Grand Union Hotel,
Saratoga Springs, it being the largest gas machine ever built. It has
supplied gas of an unvarying quality for six years, and is as good as
new to-day.

To reduce the cost as far as possible, Mr. Maxim has designed a new
machine on another principle, which we herewith illustrate. Fig. 1
shows the machine in perspective, and Fig. 2 is a sectional view.
The vertical cylinder is a common gas holder of sheet brass. It is 36
inches in diameter for a thousand burner machine. The operative parts
of the machine are best shown in the sectional view, which represents
the portion of the machine called the injector. A is a steam chamber
supplied with four or more pounds of steam through the pipe, K. B is
the gasoline supply pipe, and C the air supply. D is an index valve.
The operation is as follows: Steam being in the chamber, A, the
descent of the holder opens the valve, M, and allows the steam to
[_Continued on page 4._]

[Footnote 1: This experiment should not be tried in the vicinity of
a gaslight or fire.]

       *       *       *       *       *



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

ESTABLISHED 1845

       *       *       *       *       *

MUNN & CO., EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT NO. 37 PARK ROW, NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *

 O. D. MUNN. A. E. BEACH.


TERMS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

One copy, one year postage included     $3 20

One copy, six months, postage included   1 60

Clubs.--One extra copy of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be supplied
gratis for every club of five subscribers at $3.20 each; additional
copies at same proportionate rate. Postage prepaid.

Remit by postal order. Address
  MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.

-->To Advertisers.--The regular circulation of the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN is now FIFTY THOUSAND COPIES weekly. For 1880 the publishers
anticipate a still larger circulation.

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT

Is a distinct paper from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. THE SUPPLEMENT is
issued weekly. Every number contains 16 octavo pages, uniform in size
with SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Terms of subscription for SUPPLEMENT, $5.00
a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single copies, 10 cents. Sold by
all news dealers throughout the country.

COMBINED RATES.--The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SUPPLEMENT will be sent
for one year, postage free, on receipt of _seven dollars_.

Both papers to one address or different addresses, as desired.

The safest way to remit is by draft, postal order, or registered
letter.

Address MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, N. Y.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN EXPORT EDITION.

The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Export Edition is a large and splendid
periodical, issued once a month. Each number contains about one
hundred large quarto pages, profusely illustrated, embracing: (1.)
Most of the plates and pages of the four preceding weekly issues of
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, with its splendid engravings and valuable
information; (2.) Commercial, trade, and manufacturing announcements
of leading houses. Terms for Export Edition, $5.00 a year,
sent prepaid to any part of the world. Single copies 50 cents.
-->Manufacturers and others who desire to secure foreign trade may
have large, and handsomely displayed announcements published in this
edition at a very moderate cost.

The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Export Edition has a large guaranteed
circulation in all commercial places throughout the world. Address
MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 3, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT

No. 235,

For the Week ending July 3, 1880.

Price 10 cents. For sale by all newsdealers.


                                                                  PAGE
I.  ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS.--The New Railway up Mount
    Vesuvius. 6 illustrations. Plan of road.--General view of
    mountain and railway.--Side view and end view of passenger
    car.--Mount Vesuvius Railway.--Map showing railway,
    mountain, crater, and surrounding country.--The carriage
    road and railway                                              3735
    The St. Gothard Tunnel--Notes on the junction of the two
    galleries. By Dr. CALLADON                                    3736
    The St. Gothard Tunnel.--Conditions and causes of air
    currents in the tunnel                                        3736
    Protection of Ships from Loss by Fire and from Loss by
    Sinking. Recent improvements in the construction of ships
    and steamers                                                  3738
    Regenerative Stoves.--A Sketch of their History and Notes
    on their Use. By JOHN N. HARTMAN. An important paper read
    at the Pittsburg meeting of the American Institute of
    Mining Engineers. 1 figure                                    3738
    Cowper's Hot Blast Stoves. 2 full page illustrations of
    hot blast stoves for a pair of furnaces.--Plan and cross
    section of stove.--Plan and cross section of furnace.--Plan
    and cross section of gas downcomer.--Sectional elevation of
    stove and downcomer                                           3739
    Wilson's Lock-up Safety Valve. An important improvement.
    10 figures.                                                   3742
    Working Low Grade Ores                                        3742
    The Largest Concrete Tank in England                          3742

II. ELECTRICITY, ETC.--Siemens' Improvements in Electric
    Railways. 4 figures. Siemens' combined steam and electric
    railway.--Siemens' electric mail railway                      3743
    Difference in the Actions of Positive and Negative
    Electricity                                                   3743
    Forces Exciting Electricity                                   3743
    The New Electrical Middlings Purifier. By THOS. B. OSBORNE.
    5 figures                                                     3744
    Physical Society, London. Photo--electricity.--Electrometer
    key.--Air in water.--Steam thermometer                        3745
    Atmospheric polarization. Influence of terrestrial magnetism  3745

III. HYGIENE AND MEDICINE.--Lead Poisoning. Clinical lecture
    by Dr. WM. PEPPER. Effects of a cosmetic of carbonate of
    lead.--Symptoms of lead poisoning.--Affinity of lead for
    nerves and muscles.--Treatment of lead poisoning              3745
    Recent Investigations of the Blood                            3746
    The Pulse. Lecture on the pulse in health and disease,
    by Dr. T. A. McBRIDE                                          3746
    Some Early Symptoms of Insanity                               3747
    An Improved Method of Applying Antiseptic Vapors              3747
    Treatment of Phthisis by Inhalation of Borax and Salicylic
    Acid                                                          3747

IV. CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY.--Detection of Starch in Cane
    Sugar. By P. CASAMAJOR                                        3747
    Double Lever Cement Testing Apparatus. 1 figure               3748
    Prediction of Chemical Elements                               3748
    Oil of Sage                                                   3748
    Bronzing Iron                                                 3748
    Rust Preventing Compound                                      3748
    Argentine Sheep and Wool                                      3748

V.  NATURAL HISTORY, ETC.--Brain of Limulus Polyphemus.
    General anatomy of the brain.--Internal structure and
    histology of the brain.--Comparison of the Limulus brain
    with the brain of other arthropods                            3749
    An Unfortunate White Whale. A live whale with a broken neck   3749
    Ethereal Oil of California Bay Tree. By J. M. STILLMAN        3749
    Forest Trees of North America. Prof. Sargent's catalogue
    (continued from SUPPLEMENT No. 234). Cedars, Red Woods,
    Firs, Spruces, etc.                                           3750

       *       *       *       *       *



THE SUPERIORITY OF AMERICAN WATCHES.

The extract from the report of the judges in horology, at the Sydney
International Exhibition, with the diagrams showing the comparative
merit of the watches tested, given on other pages of the current issue
of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, cannot fail to interest our readers. There
were ten exhibitors, and the inherent and comparative merits of the
various exhibits were rated under ten heads on the basis of 100 points
"for the highest degree of excellence." There were British, German,
French, Swiss, and American competitors; and while the scores of the
nine European exhibitors footed up totals ranging from 76 to 686,
their average being 389-1/3, the total of the Waltham Watch Company
was 981. In detail this remarkable score stood thus: Originality,
98; invention and discovery, 95; utility and quality of material,
95; skill in workmanship, 93; fitness for purpose intended, 100;
adaptation to public wants, 100; economy, 100; cost, 100; finish and
elegance of cases, 100; timekeeping qualities, 100. Total, 981.

The timekeeping tests were made, as the report points out, by Prof.
H. C. Russell, Astronomer Royal at the Sydney Observatory; and it is
especially noted that while the majority of the watches tested had
been made for exhibition purposes, and specially prepared for that
end, the exhibit of the American company was the ordinary and regular
product of the factory, such as is finished every day. Another
evidence of the superiority of the American system, as emphasized in
the report, is the fact that a sixth grade Waltham watch, one of the
cheapest tested, showed a better performance than many very expensive
and otherwise first class watches of other makes.

The moral of the victory is happily drawn in the following editorial
review of the contest and its lessons, by the Sydney _Morning Herald_
of April 14, last:

"The report of the judges in horology, which we published on Saturday
last, was a document of more than ordinary interest. The slightest
glance at it will show that the judges brought no small amount of
ability and industry to their task. In many other classes of exhibits
judging must, to no small extent, be a matter of opinion. There is
no absolute test by which one photograph, for example, or one oil
painting can be decided to be superior to another. In exhibits of
this kind much must be left to the taste of the critic. Watches and
chronometers, on the other hand, can be submitted to the minutest
tests. The care and trouble which these require are not small, but
the issue is sufficiently important to warrant all the labor which
the judges in horology brought to their work. Time-keepers that can be
relied upon in all weathers and in all climates, and that are within
reach of all classes, are a luxury of no common order, but to a large
number of persons they are a necessity also. In these fast days, when
everything must be done to time, it is for a variety of purposes
found necessary to make accurate divisions, not merely of the days
and hours, but of the minutes and seconds also. The verdict which the
judges in our Exhibition have pronounced on the Waltham watches is
one of which any company might be proud; but the facts on which the
verdict is based are as interesting to the public at large as to the
parties immediately concerned. One of the secrets of American progress
lies first in the invention of machinery, and then in its application
to almost all descriptions of industry. It is the bringing of
machinery to every branch of watchmaking that is enabling Americans to
beat the world in this as well as in many other things.

"There has been a general belief that a machine-made watch is not to
be compared to one that is hand-made, and that on this account the
English watch must always hold its own against the American. This
belief will have to be given up, if it is not given up already. It has
now been established that machinery can be used for the purposes of
watchmaking with quite as much success as for those of agriculture.
The Americans are showing that they can make better watches than
the Swiss or the English, but, what is of equal importance, they
are showing that they can make them for less money. The boast of the
Yankees is that they can turn out work cheaper and better than anybody
else, and that for that reason the world must take their products.
It would be difficult to prove that in some departments the boast is
wholly without foundation. The American mechanic is paid better than
the English mechanic, and yet the work which he turns out can, as a
rule, be sold for less. The reason is, not only that he works harder,
but that the assistance of machinery enables him to produce the
largest result by the smallest amount of labor.

"Mr. Brassey, who believes that the workmen of his own country are
equal if not superior to any in the world, maintains that an English
mechanic can do more work than an American mechanic. The American
really does more, because the inducements to industry are greater, and
because he has better machinery. The success of the Waltham Company
has furnished a striking instance of this. This company has now not
only well-nigh driven foreign watchmaking companies out of America,
but it has shown that it can more than compete with them on their own
ground. This arises partly from the fact that it can turn out the best
work on a large scale, but also from the fact that the principle on
which it operates enables it to do all this economically. The
Waltham Company claims to have arrived at simplicity, uniformity, and
precision in the manufacture of watches, and the report of our judges
shows that its claim is well founded. One of its discoveries was that
a simple instrument, where simplicity is possible, will cost less and
be worth more than a complicated one. Another was that the making
of all instruments of the same grade exactly alike, so that the part
which belongs to one belongs to the whole, will not only facilitate
manufacture, but will greatly economize it. A third was, that
these properties of simplicity and interchangeability are the best
guarantees of perfect exactitude. The success which the Americans have
reached in this as well as in other branches of industry, ought
to excite the gratitude rather than the jealousy of the world. Any
company or nation that shows how a maximum of efficiency can be
reached by a minimum of labor confers a benefit on mankind. This
our American cousins have done in other spheres besides that of
watchmaking. There are branches of the prosperity of the Americans
that are traceable to the extent of their territory and the fertility
of their soil; but the triumph of their machinery has been the result
of their inventiveness and of their enterprise, and for that reason it
points a moral that Australians might profitably observe."

       *       *       *       *       *



A REMARKABLE LITTLE STEAMER.

There is soon to set sail from London for New York a new and
remarkable little steamer of 70 tons gross burden, named the
Anthracite, designed to exhibit the advanced engineering ideas of
Mr. Loftus Perkins, of England. The distinctive peculiarities of this
steamer are the very high steam pressure that she carries--350 to 500
lb. to the square inch, and the small consumption of fuel--one pound
of coal per hour per horsepower. A trial trip of this new little boat
was lately made of 46 miles, during which 350 lb. steam pressure was
steadily maintained, 132 revolutions per minute of propeller, and a
speed of eight knots per hour. Other vessels, some of larger size than
the above, have been built on the Perkins system, and are running
in England. One of them, the yacht Emily, carries 500 lb. boiler
pressure. Most of our readers are familiar with Mr. Perkins' system,
which has been fully described in our columns. Those who may wish to
refer thereto are directed to an interesting article by Mr. Perkins,
with engravings, published in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No.
81, July 21, 1877; also to the description of the steam ferry boat,
run on this principle, given with three pages of engravings in our
SUPPLEMENT No. 217.

Engineering theory and practice have for a long time plainly pointed
to high steam pressures as one of the surest ways to economy of fuel.
Twenty five years ago our ocean steamers carried only 16 lb. pressure
to the inch, and burned 5 to 6 lb. of coal per hour per horse power.
To-day they are carrying 75 lb. pressure, and burning 2½ to 3 lb. of
coal per hour per horse power.

In 1840 the Britannia, one of the finest steamers of the Cunard line
plying between this country and England, burned 5,291 lb. of coal for
each ton of paying freight she carried, her speed, then considered
fast, being 8½ knots per hour. In 1877 the Britannic, speed 15.6 knots
per hour, burned only 551 lb. of coal per ton of freight carried.

Although our present steamers are making fast time and are very
economical as compared with earlier vessels, still it is a lamentable
fact that on the largest and finest of them, furnished with all the
latest improvements and best appliances to secure economy, worked by
the most careful and intelligent engineers, we succeed in putting
into our steam only about one tenth of the heat realized in our
boiler fire, the remaining nine-tenths of the heat being lost. Only in
proportion as we make our steam hotter, and expanding it more, shall
we economize in fuel. In this respect the voyage of the Anthracite is
designed by her owners, we presume, to be an eye-opener for steamboat
owners, not only in this country but throughout the world. If a little
bit of a boat like this, 84 feet long, 16 feet beam, and 10 feet deep,
can carry its own coal and water across the Atlantic, with a pressure
of 350 to 500 lb. to the inch, and on one pound of coal per horse
power, the natural inference is that our great steamers, when fitted
with the same system, will realize far better results. The change from
three pounds of coal to one pound per horse power means a shaving of
two thirds in the coal bill, which is always an enormous item in the
expenses of large boats. We ought to add that another peculiarity of
the Anthracite is that she uses the same boiler water over and over,
only a trifle of fresh water being supplied to make good the slight
waste. Our New York steamboat men, who have to pay so dear for Croton
water, will be likely to examine the water tank of the Anthracite with
interest.

       *       *       *       *       *



A STRANGE EPIDEMIC.

On the night of Tuesday, June 15, a remarkable epidemic fell upon
several towns in western Massachusetts, the town of Adams
suffering most severely. Out of a population of 6,000, several
hundred--variously estimated from 600 to over 1,000--were prostrated
by a disease resembling cholera morbus. The symptoms were first
dizziness, then great nausea, followed by vomiting and prolonged
purging, and in some cases delirium. A belt of country two or three
miles in width and several miles long was thus afflicted, beginning at
the west, the whole number of victims being estimated at from 1,200 to
1,500. No deaths are reported.

The cause of the epidemic is not known, but seems most likely to have
been atmospheric. For some time the weather had been dry and hot.
A heavy local rain fell during the evening, and was followed by or
attended with a sudden and great lowering of the temperature. A chilly
fog hung over the belt of country invaded by the disease, and a heavy
"swampy" odor and taste were in the air.

The malady reached its climax in about twenty-four hours. It was first
suspected that the water supply had been somehow poisoned, but many
people who had not used the water were prostrated, while others
who used it freely escaped. Adams has hitherto been regarded as an
exceptionally healthy town, and the surrounding country is high and
wholesome.

       *       *       *       *       *



CANNONADING OF OIL TANKS.

On the morning of Friday, June 11, lightning struck an oil tank
belonging to the Tidioute and Titusville Pipe Line, at Titusville,
Pa. The fire thus kindled, raged until Sunday night, consuming 200,000
barrels of oil, crude and refined, and destroying property to the
amount of $1,500,000. The most appalling feature in this fire was the
successive "boiling over" of oil from burning tanks of the liquid.
To empty rapidly a tank containing 20,000 barrels of oil, while the
latter is on fire, is no easy matter. The pipes connected with the
tanks were utterly inadequate to remove the oil rapidly enough to rob
the "boiling over" of its terrors. A happy thought suggested itself
on Friday to Mr. D. R. Herron, of the Titusville Battery. Obtaining
permission, Mr. Herron brought out one of the Parrott guns of the
battery, loaded it with solid shot, and began firing against the
three-eighths iron sheets of the distant blazing tank. The first
shot glanced, but subsequent volleys pierced the shell of the tank,
releasing a large quantity of oil that otherwise would have fed the
flames. The battery then moved on to the Emery tank, also burning, and
lastly to the Acme tank. Large rents were made in all these, and the
liberated oil ran harmlessly down into a stream. This novel target
practice greatly shortened the duration of the fire at these tanks,
and so drained them that the flames died out for want of fuel, and no
"boiling over" resulted.

The peculiar attraction for lightning which these iron oil tanks
appear to possess has been several times referred to in our columns.
Whenever a thunderstorm passes fairly over one of them it seems to be
devoted to destruction. Millions of dollars' worth of property have
thus been destroyed. No practical safeguard has yet been suggested.

Ordinary buildings, when properly provided with rods that are
well grounded in the earth, are comparatively safe from lightning.
Structures made of iron and simply resting upon the earth, without
rods, are also exempt from electrical damage. Such structures always
present a continuous body of conducting material for the free passage
of electricity to earth. Why is it, then, that iron oil tanks form
such conspicuous exceptions to our common experience with lightning?
Rods put on other structures save them; but rods have been put on oil
tanks, masts with rods have surrounded the tanks, but the tanks were
exploded by lightning all the same.

We will repeat a possible explanation which we have heretofore given.
From every oil tank, according to our theory, there is a constant
escape of light hydrocarbon vapor, which forms a permanent cloud or
column, rising to a great height above the tanks, far above any
rod that could be erected. This vapor rod is a conductor, which the
lightning naturally follows, sets on fire the vapor, and explodes the
tank.

A column of heated air or vapor rising from a chimney is well known
to be a conductor for lightning; the rise of hydrocarbon vapors is
illustrated by the balloon.

If the theory we have outlined is correct, the remedy for the
electrical explosion of oil tanks is to be found in such a treatment
of the oil, or such a construction of tank, as shall prevent any
escape of the light vapors.

       *       *       *       *       *



NAVIGATION IN FOGS.

The disastrous collision of the Sound steamers Narragansett and
Stonington was quickly followed by one at sea, by which two great
passenger ships escaped instant destruction almost by a hair's
breadth.

Shortly after noon, Monday, June 12, the National Line steamship
Queen, bound from London to New York, and within 300 miles of her
journey's end, ran into the Anchor Line steamship Anchoria, on the way
from New York to Glasgow. The bow of the Queen struck the Anchoria on
the port side, about twenty feet abaft the foremast, smashing a great
hole through the iron hull. Two compartments of the Anchoria filled
immediately, but the partitions stood firm, and the other compartments
sufficed to keep the vessel afloat. The bow of the Queen was badly
crushed, and her forward compartment was flooded. Fortunately the
bulkhead proved stanch, and the ship was saved. The fog was very
thick, and both ships were going at full speed. It is said that the
captain of the Anchoria mistook the whistle of the Queen for that of
the Anchoria's companion vessel, the Victoria, which left New York at
the same time, and was probably not far away, and before the error was
discovered the ships were too close to avoid the catastrophe. Had the
sea been rough or the partitions less stanch, both ships must have
gone to the bottom almost instantly.

The passengers of the Anchoria were transferred to the Queen, which
was least hurt, and the two ships sailed together for New York,
arriving Tuesday noon.

These two collisions, coming in such quick succession and imperiling
so many lives, give terrible emphasis to the dangers attending
navigation in foggy weather. They make very pertinent also the query
whether the means now employed for discovering the position
and nearness of unseen vessels are at all commensurate with the
necessities of the case, or with the means already known, and known
to be well calculated to prevent such dangers. In a dense fog the
ordinary ship's light is visible scarcely more than a ship's length;
and as it proved in the case of the Narragansett and Stonington, the
time between thus sighting an approaching vessel and the instant of
collision is fatally brief. The recent test of electric headlights
for ships in this harbor clearly demonstrated the possibility of
projecting a beam of electric light through the densest fog for a
thousand feet or more, and through ordinary fogs a distance several
times as great.

Except in very rough weather the steam whistle can be heard a long
distance, but it is liable to be a treacherous guide. It is not always
possible to determine by the ear alone the direction from which a
sound comes; and it would seem that a mistake of this nature was made
on the Stonington, since the order intended to change her course
away from that of the Narragansett only served to precipitate the
collision. Had the whistle of the Queen signaled her course it could
not have been mistaken for that of a ship sailing in the opposite
direction, and the safety of two great floating hotels and their
occupants would not have been imperiled thereby.

Means for the better penetration of fogs, for determining the
direction of unseen sources of sounds, and for enabling steamers to
announce to all within hearing the course they are pursuing, seem
therefore to be imperative necessities on shipboard. The first is
furnished by the electric headlight, with a system of projection
similar to but more efficient than that used on locomotives. The last
would be provided by an efficient code of whistle signals to indicate
the several points of compass. The second need is supplied by the
instrument figured in the accompanying illustration.

[Illustration: PROFESSOR MAYER'S TOPOPHONE.]

The aim of the topophone, which was invented and patented by Professor
A. M. Mayer, last winter, is to enable the user to determine quickly
and surely the exact direction and position of any source of sound.
Our figure shows a portable style of the instrument; for use
on ship-board it would probably form one of the fixtures of the
pilot-house or the "bridge," or both. In most cases arising in sailing
through fogs, it would be enough for the captain or pilot to be
sure of the exact direction of a fog horn, whistling buoy, or steam
whistle; and for this a single aural observation suffices.

Every one has twirled a tuning fork before the ear, and listened to
the alternate swelling and sinking of the sound, as the sound waves
from one tine re-enforce or counteract those from the other tine. The
topophone is based upon the same fact, namely, the power of any sound
to augment or destroy another of the same pitch, when ranged so that
the sound waves of each act in unison with or in opposition to those
of the other.

Briefly described, the topophone consists of two resonators (or any
other sound receivers) attached to a connecting bar or shoulder rest.
The sound receivers are joined by flexible tubes, which unite for part
of their length, and from which ear tubes proceed. One tube, it will
be observed, carries a telescopic device by which its length can be
varied. When the two resonators face the direction whence a sound
comes, so as to receive simultaneously the same sonorous impulse, and
are joined by tubes of equal length, the sound waves received from
them will necessarily re-enforce each other and the sound will be
augmented. If, on the contrary, the resonators being in the same
position as regards the source of sound, the resonator tubes differ in
length by half the wave length of the sound, the impulse from the one
neutralizes that from the other, and the sound is obliterated.

Accordingly, in determining the direction of the source of any sound
with this instrument, the observer, guided by the varying intensity
of the sound transmitted by the resonators, turns until their
openings touch the same sound waves simultaneously, which position
he recognizes either by the great augmentation of the sound (when the
tube lengths are equal), or by the cessation of the sound, when the
tubes vary so that the interference of the sound waves is perfect. In
either case the determination of the direction of the source of the
sound is almost instantaneous, and the two methods may be successively
employed as checks upon each other's report.

It is obvious that with such a help the pilot in a fog need never be
long in doubt as to the direction of a warning signal; and if need
be he can without much delay, by successive observations and a little
calculation, determine, approximately at least, the distance of the
sounding body.

       *       *       *       *       *



EFFECT OF AGE ON THE QUALITY OF IRON.

Professor Bauschinger, in 1878, tested iron taken from a chain bridge
built in 1829, and found that fifty years of use had not perceptibly
altered its quality--either its strength or its elasticity--as
reported at the time of its erection. He also examined metal from
another bridge built in 1852, and found that the average quality
remained as given by Von Pauli at the time of its erection.

Professor Thurston, testing pieces of the wire cable of the Fairmount
Suspension Bridge, recently taken down at Philadelphia, after about
forty years' use, found the iron to have a tenacity and elasticity
and a ductility fully equal to the best wire of same size found in the
market to-day.

He therefore concludes that iron subjected to strains such as are met
with in properly designed bridges does not deteriorate with age.

       *       *       *       *       *



A COLLISION BETWEEN LARGE PASSENGER STEAMERS.

During a fog near midnight, June 11, two of the large passenger
steamers plying on Long Island Sound, Stonington line, between New
York and Boston, came in collision, while running at considerable
speed. One of the boats, the Narragansett, was struck near the middle,
her side cut open, and a smoke-pipe knocked over, which made a down
draught through the furnace, driving out a great sheet of burning
gas into the cabins and between decks, by which the vessel was set on
fire, at the same time the opening in her side caused her to begin
to sink. Some three hundred passengers were on board, and a frightful
scene of confusion followed. Happily there was a plentiful supply
of life-preservers, some life-rafts, and a few life-boats. There was
delay in lowering the boats, but the rafts, life-preservers, chairs,
and other floatables served to support most of the unfortunate people,
who, to escape the flames, were obliged to leap quickly into the
water. About fifty lives were lost; the remainder were rescued by
boats from another steamer, the New York, also by help sent from the
other damaged vessel, the Stonington.

It seems remarkable that so many were saved. This calamity illustrates
the necessity for further effort on the part of inventors to discover
new and improved means for fog signaling, saving life, preventing the
spread of fires, and keeping vessels afloat. Most of the large local
steamers that communicate with New York are veritable palaces,
built regardless of expense, and supplied with every known reliable
appliance for safety; but the occurrence of accidents like this and
their disastrous results show that much remains to be done before
navigation, even upon smooth waters, can be considered secure.

The life-rafts of the Narragansett seem to have proved more useful
than the life-boats in rescuing the drowning people, the rafts being
more quickly and easily launched, requiring less skill, etc.

The upperworks of our river and Sound passenger steamers consist at
present of a mass of light, dry woodwork, forming cabins that are very
comfortable and commodious for travelers, but highly dangerous in case
of fire.

The collision of river steamers above described was followed a few
hours later by a collision between two great ocean steamers, accounts
of which we give in another column.

       *       *       *       *       *



HONORS TO AN AGED CHEMIST.

The chemists of Germany are collecting money for the purpose of
presenting a gold medal to Prof. Woehler on his eightieth birthday,
which will be July 31, 1880. Prof. Woehler is one of the most
distinguished as well as the oldest of living chemists. Himself
a pupil of old Berzelius, a contemporary of Liebig, and the loved
instructor of many of our best chemists, his name is equally respected
on both sides of the Atlantic. Profs. Jay and Chandler, of Columbia
College, New York city, two of his former pupils, are receiving
contributions from those who wish to join in this well deserved
memorial.

       *       *       *       *       *



PERSEVERANCE UNDER DIFFICULTIES.

A good lesson to young people inclined to exaggerate the hinderances
to their success in life, and to think that their chances are too poor
to justify honest exertion, is furnished by a young colored man of
Columbus, Ohio, F. P. Williams by name, now serving in that city as
census enumerator. Several years ago he was run over by a train of
cars, his arms being so mutilated that both had to be taken off near
the shoulder. Lacking hands he learned to write legibly by holding his
pencil between his teeth. He writes quite rapidly, and in his work as
enumerator takes an average of 200 names a day.

       *       *       *       *       *



MAXIM'S NEW GAS MACHINE

[_Continued from first page._]


escape through the jet, L. This produces a partial vacuum at L, and
draws air in at C. The air and steam pass with great rapidity through
the tube, G. The action of the air and steam produces another
partial vacuum at N, which draws gasoline in through the pipe, B. The
adjustment of the opening is such that one pound of steam draws in air
sufficient for two pounds of gasoline. The heat of the steam is taken
up by the refrigeration caused by the evaporation of the gasoline, so
that at E the compound is carbureted air and cold water. The tube, F,
presents the curious phenomenon of being hot at _a_ and cold at _b_.
In one short piece of tube we have a hot retort and a cold condenser.
The supply of gasoline is regulated by the valve, D. The dash pot,
H, prevents a too rapid action of the valve, I. Gas of any desired
density may be made, and when once adjusted the gas does not vary. The
burner used with this machine is made to produce the very best results
attainable, and then the gas is regulated to a density and pressure
to suit the burner. The nuisance of an adjustable burner is thus
obviated.

The holder closes off the supply when full, and lets on a supply when
nearly empty. Gasoline has been much improved within a few years. It
is now so very cheap that the equivalent of one thousand feet of coal
gas of standard quality may be equaled for sixty cents. Where no steam
is at hand these machines are run with a small oil burner. They are
being made by the Pennsylvania Globe Gas Light Co., 131 Arch St.,
Philadelphia, Pa., of from 100 to 10,000 burner power.

This machine was patented June 8, 1880.

[Illustration: Fig 2.

MAXIM'S GAS MACHINE--SECTION OF INJECTOR]


       *       *       *       *       *



PREVENTION OF BOILER EXPLOSIONS.

This vexed problem has occupied the minds of engineers and inventors
since the introduction of steam as a motive power, and there are
several theories of boiler explosions, each having its adherents. Of
course there are conditions under which a boiler explosion is involved
in no mystery; as, for example, when the water is dangerously low,
when the safety valve is of insufficient capacity, or when it is
unduly loaded; but there are other cases where an explosion cannot be
rationally explained in the light of the well known theories.

Mr. Daniel T. Lawson, of Wellsville, Ohio, has recently patented,
in this and several other countries, a device for preventing boiler
explosions, which appears practical, and according to the testimony of
scientific men the claims of the inventor are well founded.

The inventor, in explaining his invention, says that when water
is superheated it becomes as explosive as gunpowder, exploding by
bursting into steam from a reduction of pressure. When the engineer
opens the throttle valve the cylinder is instantly filled with steam,
creating a vacuum to that extent in the boiler. The superheated water
then immediately rises to fill the vacuum, and is met by the valve,
instantly cutting off the escape into the cylinder; this causes a
concussion on every square inch in the boiler much greater than the
regular pressure of the steam. There is abundant reason to believe
that it is this concussive action which causes the numerous and
mysterious boiler explosions, and which cause is wholly independent of
the amount of water in the boiler; in fact, the greater the amount of
water in the boiler the more terrific the explosion.

This invention, which is based upon this theory, consists in reducing
the concussive strain produced by the impulsive and intermittent
escape of steam to the cylinders to an approximately uniform pressure,
by rendering the evolution or passage of steam from the water to the
steam space approximately constant and independent of the intermittent
discharges from the steam space to the cylinder. The means for
accomplishing this consist in a boiler constructed with a partition,
A, intervening between the water space and the space from which the
steam is taken to supply the cylinder, and feeding the steam as it
is generated through valves or orifices, B, in the partition, of a
smaller size than the port or opening through which the steam passes
into the cylinder. By this means the normal steam pressure or steam
supply, when thus intermittently or alternately reduced, is restored
gradually by reducing the flow from the water space to the steam
space, so that the transformation of water into steam is made
approximately uniform in spite of the intermittent escape of steam
through the cylinders, and the boiler is thus relieved of the constant
wear and strain of the concussion.

[Illustration: LAWSON'S IMPROVED STEAM BOILER.]

In supplying steam from the water compartment to the steam
compartment, the inventor intends using a number of small
perforations, not amounting in the aggregate to more than about one
twentieth the size of the cylinder port, in connection with a number
of small valves to be under control of the engineer, so that the
amount of steam required can be readily regulated, yet carefully
avoiding the possibility of all, when opened to their utmost capacity,
forming as large an opening as the valve through which the cylinder is
supplied. A number of small valves and perforations in the partition
sheet between the water and steam compartments, will remedy that
hitherto very general annoyance of water rising to and through the
valves, which is occasioned by pressure of steam upon the surface
of the water, and when _one large_ valve is opened, the pressure is
partly removed from the water immediately under it, consequently the
water rises through the valve. A number of small openings for the
liberation of steam from the superheated water will remedy this
difficulty.

       *       *       *       *       *



MISCELLANEOUS INVENTIONS.


Mr. Niels C. Larsen, of Sacramento, Cal., has patented a purse or
satchel fastening which can be securely locked and present a smooth
and unbroken surface without projections.

A combined dental speculum and shield has been patented by Mr. Alfred
W. Edwards, of New York city. The object of this invention is to
facilitate the performance of dental operations, such as the filling
of teeth. It consists in a combined dental speculum, gag, and
shield formed of a flaring or bonnet-shaped shell of metal, having
a longitudinal slot in its lower side to receive the teeth, and an
arched wire attached to its lower part, upon the opposite sides of
the forward end of the slot, to rest upon the teeth and support the
forward part of the shell.

An improved coupling for the shafts of a wagon, which can be readily
fastened to or unfastened from the axle, has been patented by Mr.
William W. French, of Stockbridge, Mass. The invention consists in the
combination with the axle clip and knuckle joint of a sliding
bearer and spring catch to facilitate the opening and closing of the
coupling.

Mr. Joseph Kintz, of West Meriden, Conn., has patented an improved
process for bronzing iron surfaces, which consists in cleaning and
buffing the iron surfaces, then electroplating with copper, then
dipping in acid solution, then again buffing, then boiling in a salt
of tin solution, and then finishing by subjecting the article to heat
until the copper and spelter coatings are fused into bronze.

A simple device for extending the steps of passenger cars, for the
convenience of passengers getting in and out of the car, and for
protecting at the same time the treads of the permanent steps from
sparks, cinders, snow, etc., during the passage of the car from one
station to another, has been patented by Mr. Benjamin F. Shelabarger,
of Hannibal, Mo.

Mr. Luther C. Baldwin, of Manchester, N. H., has patented a new and
improved automatic heat regulator, simple in construction and so
arranged as to operate, under the smallest changes of temperature,
upon the valves of the source of heat.

An improved cigar lighting stand has been patented by Mr. Joseph
Kintz, of West Meriden, Conn. This improvement relates to lamp stands
for cigar lighting, and has for its object the production of a stand
of ornamental character which may be packed closely for transportation
and readily put together for use.

A simple, safe, and efficient device in which light oils may be used
as fuel for heating sad irons for domestic use, or for the use of
tailors, dressmakers, etc., has been patented by Mr. Harvey L. Wells,
of Evansville, Ind. It consists essentially of an iron box divided
longitudinally into two chambers, the lower being the combustion
chamber and the upper the heating chamber.

An improvement in electric light has been patented by Mr. Charles
J. Van Depoele, of Detroit, Mich. The object of this invention is
to automatically regulate the feed of the carbon in electric lights
according to the changes of resistance in the current caused by the
consumption of the carbon points, so as to prevent flickering and
variations in intensity of the light.

       *       *       *       *       *



CHLOROFORMING DURING SLEEP.

The possibility of chloroforming a person in sleep, without waking
him, having been disputed in a recent murder trial, Dr. J. V. Quimby,
of Jersey City, was led to test the question experimentally. The
results were presented in a paper before the section of medical
jurisprudence at the meeting of the American Medical Association a few
days ago. Dr. Quimby made arrangements with a gentleman to enter his
room when he was asleep and apply chloroform to him. He did this with
entire success, transferring the person from natural to artificial
sleep without arousing him. He used about three drachms of Squibb's
chloroform, and occupied about seven minutes in the operation. The
second case was a boy of thirteen who had refused to take ether for a
minor operation. Dr. Quimby advised the mother to give the boy a light
supper and put him to bed. She did so, and Dr. Quimby, calling when
the boy was asleep, administered the chloroform and performed the
operation without awakening the boy. The third case was a boy of ten
years suffering from an abscess, and the same course was pursued with
equal success. Two important inferences may be drawn from these cases,
Dr. Quimby said. Minor surgical operations may be done with perfect
safety and much more pleasantly than in the ordinary way, and,
secondly, a person somewhat skilled in the use of chloroform may enter
a sleeping apartment and administer chloroform with evil intentions
while a person is asleep. Hence the use of this drug in the hands of
a criminal may become an effective instrument in the accomplishment of
his nefarious designs.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED WATERING DIPPER.

A convenient vessel for watering plants, sprinkling floors, and for
other similar purposes is shown in the annexed engraving. It is simply
a dipper of the usual form, partly covered at the top by a shield, at
the center of which is fixed a sprinkler spout. The utility of this
improvement will be recognized without further description. It was
recently patented by Mr. R. Harrison, of Columbus, Miss.

[Illustration: HARRISON'S WATERING DIPPER]

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED ELECTRIC LAMP.

The lamp shown in the engraving will be recognized as an Edison
lamp, the vacuum globe and the carbon horseshoe being the principal
elements. Mr. John H. Guest, a well known electrical inventor of
Brooklyn, N. Y., judging from his own experience in fusing platinum
with glass in the manufacture of thermostatic fire alarms, concluded
that the principal trouble with the Edison lamp would be the entrance
of air around the wires passing through the glass of the vacuum globe,
devised a simple plan of sealing the joint between the wires and the
glass by means of mercury, thus interposing an effectual barrier to
the entrance of air at that point.

[Illustration: GUEST'S IMPROVED ELECTRIC LAMP, Fig 1 and Fig 2]

The invention is so clearly shown in the engraving that scarcely a
word of explanation is necessary. In the lamp shown in Fig. 1, the
wires that convey the current to the carbon horseshoe are sealed in
the ends of curved glass tubes communicating with the globe, and these
joints are inclosed in small globes formed on the ends of the glass
tubes and filled with mercury.

In this lamp Mr. Guest has made provision partially or wholly
preventing the circulation of air, should any remain in the globe
after exhaustion with the air pump. The device by which this is
accomplished is simply a small globe connected with the lower portion
of the lamp globe by a contracted passage, the theory being that the
cooler and heavier portion of the air will be drawn into the auxiliary
globe by its own gravity.

Fig. 2 shows a lamp in which the tubes that support the wires extend
downward into the lamp globe. These tubes at their junction with the
vacuum globe are fused to the platinum conducting wires, and the tubes
act simply as lateral supports to the wires inside the globe, allowing
the wires to expand freely lengthwise. The tubes are sealed outside
the globe in the manner shown in Fig. 1.

Another improvement made by Mr. Guest consists in inclosing the ends
of the platinum wire conductors in the ends of the material of the
carbon before it is carbonized, the wire being formed into a loop to
increase the conducting surface and to insure a good connection with
the carbon.

       *       *       *       *       *



APPARATUS FOR PRESERVING FRUIT.

The annexed engraving represents a simple apparatus for preserving
fruit in its natural state, by means of a partial vacuum. The vessel
is especially designed for the purpose, and is provided with an
absorbent which takes up whatever moisture may emanate from the fruit.
The vessel is preferably made of glass or earthenware, and is provided
with a cover having a packing ring and a device for receiving
the stems of the fruit. The cover is secured to the vessel by an
adjustable screw clamp. In the bottom of the vessel there is an
absorbing ring made of burnt or dried clay, which absorbs the moisture
escaping from the fruit. The air in the vessel is rarefied either
by heat or by the application of an air pump to the opening in the
bottom.

This apparatus was recently patented by Mr. Carl J. Renz, of Hudson,
N. Y.

[Illustration: FRUIT-PRESERVING APPARATUS.]

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW PROCESS FOR PRINTING GOLD AND SILVER COLORS ON CARPETINGS AND
OTHER TEXTILES.

(TRANSLATED FOR THE _COMMERCIAL BULLETIN._)


Gold and silver designs for carpeting and oilcloths have been hitherto
prepared in the following manner: The gold or silver were put in
leaves or bronze powder on the designs, which were printed with a
varnish of linseed oil, or similar adhesive. The bronze thus attached
did not possess much firmness, and the method was necessarily
expensive. The method recently adopted by Wohlforth is as follows:
The bronze powder is united at once to printing material. The liquid
silicate of potash, or of oxide of sodium, answers this purpose. One
part, by weight, of gold, silver, or bronze powder, along with two
parts of the silicate, will give a print color, which is easily
transferable by rollers to paper, oilcloth, and woods and metals. The
bronze thus printed dries very rapidly, and cannot be taken off by
oil or water, unless they are boiling. It bears light and heat
equally well, and especially sulphureted hydrogen, which has such
a destructive effect on bronzes put on in the form of powder. It is
recommended to thin the mass by an addition of warm water, 10 to 20
per cent, so as to keep it from becoming too hard during the process
of printing. An addition of glycerine or sirup, of 5 to 10 per cent.,
will be even preferable. The bronze color remaining on the printing
forms can be taken off by warm water.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE EDISON ORE SEPARATOR NOT NEW

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

In your issue of June 19, 1880, I notice an illustration of an
electro-magnetic ore separator invented by Mr. Edison, and patented
June 1, 1880.

A device absolutely identical with this has been in use for the past
ten or fifteen years at the emery works at Chester, Hampden county,
Mass. I there saw it in use myself in November, 1876, and was
informed, I think by Mr. Ames, that it was not patented, and that no
valid patent could be granted upon it by reason of its long continued
public use.

My uncle, John S. Williams, of this city, president of the Ore Knob
Copper Company, had heard of the machine, and sent me to Chester with
a view to purchasing the right to use it at the Ore Knob Copper Works,
in Ashe county, North Carolina. On my return to Baltimore I had the
magnets constructed by Watts & Co., electricians, on November 24,
1876, for a large machine, similar to the one at Chester, which
machine was completed about December 10, 1876, and practically tested
at No. 52 Commerce St., Baltimore. It was sent to the Ore Knob Mine
about Christmas, 1876, to be used in separating magnetic oxide of iron
from the copper ore, and, for aught I know to the contrary, is in use
there yet. This is a striking instance of how history repeats itself
in inventions. Mr. Edison is doubtless an original inventor of the
device, but he most certainly is not the first inventor.

R. D. WILLIAMS.

Baltimore, Md., June, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *



NOVEL SLATE WASHER.

Few articles meet with a readier sale or more promptly remunerate the
inventor than the class of inventions adapted to the use of children
either in their school life or in their amusements. One of these
useful little novelties is shown in our engraving. It is a slate
washer, consisting of two pieces of metal stamped up so as to form a
holder for the sponge at the top and the cloth drier at the bottom.
They also form a tubular receptacle containing a supply sponge, which
is moistened by removing the corks at the ends.

This invention was recently patented by Mr. Jacob A. Smith, of Salem,
Ohio.

[Illustration: SMITH'S SLATE WASHER.]

       *       *       *       *       *



THE UTILIZATION OF GENESEE FALLS.

The plan to furnish Rochester, N. Y., with power for manufacturing and
for running street cars through the utilization of the falls of the
Genesee in compressing air, was described in this paper some weeks
ago. All the power of the lower falls, save what is needed to run two
wheels for factories already in operation, has been purchased by
the inventor of the system, and a promising beginning has been made.
According to the Rochester _Union_, a large gang of men are at work
building the crib just below the falls on the east side of the river
in a cove which seems to have been made by nature for this purpose.
This foundation is 100 feet long by 75 feet wide, and will have an
average depth of 13 feet. It is being constructed of solid logs of oak
timber bolted together, and the center will be filled with stone. On
the top of the crib will be erected the derrick, 125 feet high, and
the water will pour into it from the top of the falls through the
bulkheads at one end of the dam. The stand pipes will run from the
top of the derrick to the cylinders on the crib, which will be in the
neighborhood of 500 feet long. The whole machinery will be roofed in.
The difficulty in the way of getting the materials to the place,
they all having to be lowered over the falls, makes the work of
construction somewhat slow. It is expected, however, that the first
application of the system to the propulsion of street cars will be
possible in September next.

       *       *       *       *       *



STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

The commencement exercises took place on June 16 and 17, and were of a
very interesting nature. On the 16th President Henry Morton delivered
an able address before the graduating class on "Popular Fallacies in
Engineering." We intend to publish the address in full in our next
week's SUPPLEMENT.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW PORTABLE SHOWER BATH.

We give herewith perspective and sectional views of an improved
portable shower bath, recently patented by Mr. James E. Vansant, of
Covington, Ky. It consists of a spherical vessel, having at the bottom
a supporting rim which admits of setting it on the floor when occasion
requires. The top is provided with a screw cap, perforated with
numerous small holes for discharging water in fine streams. In the
center of the cover there is a filling tube, which extends nearly to
the bottom of the vessel. A float is provided to indicate when the
vessel is filled, and shot contained in the two side tubes serves as
ballast to keep the device either in an upright or inverted position.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--VANSANT'S PORTABLE SHOWER BATH.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--SECTION OF SHOWER BATH.]


The vessel is pivoted in a light jointed frame that admits of hanging
it up or setting it down. In use it is tipped by means of the cords
attached.

       *       *       *       *       *



MINES AND RAILROADS OF LEADVILLE.

_To the Editor of the Scientific American:_

Nearly every person interested in geology sets up a theory of his own
with regard to the carbonate deposits of Leadville, immediately on
arriving in this famous district. There is, however, but one theory
which has been generally adopted by scientific men, formulated by
W. S. Keyes, General Manager of the Chrysolite Iron and Little Chief
Mines, and substantiated by the mute testimony of the fossil remains
that fix the geologic data. The theory is substantially as follows:

A shallow sea overspread this entire region. An even bed of limestone,
dolomitic, was formed by the myriads of shell-fish that subsisted in
this shallow sea. From some natural convulsion the waters flowed off,
leaving the sedimentary deposits. Subsequently the porphyritic rock
flowed over the surface in a pasty mass, covering the limestone. There
then followed two processes of ore making. The first was through the
mineralizing action of heated and ore depositing waters, coming up out
of the depths, and impregnating and permeating the hanging and foot
walls of the contact. No free oxygen was contained in these waters;
neither did they carry any chlorides or chlorobromides, wherein
consists the present richness of Leadville's ores; but in the first
process the ore was entirely in the form of sulphurets.

The second process was initiated by the uplifting of the mountain
ranges to their present height, at which time the diorites, those ore
indicators of the globe, uprose through the sedimentary strata.
Thus was the original surface of deposit bent and folded, and not
unfrequently entirely broken. The surface waters carrying free oxygen
and free carbonic acid now penetrated along the contact, and oxidized
the sulphurets, which formed free sulphuric acid, giving rise to
the sulphates and sulpho-carbonates. The irresistible law of gravity
distributed these sulphates, these oxides, and these carbonates in
vast bonanzas, that have been the wonder of the world. The fossil
trilobites of this region identify it with the silver lead districts
of Nevada, Utah, and Mexico. It is not anomalous, but simply richer
than its sister regions to the West and South.

The output of ore from the Leadville mines last year (1879) aggregated
122,483 tons, which represents a value of $11,477,046. That is to say,
there was an average yield at $90 per ton, or just $31,443.96 each
day. On the first day of May of the present year (1880), the returns
from thirty-seven of the leading mines gave a total daily output
of 899½ tons of ore, yielding, at the low average of $90 per ton,
something like $80,955 per day. The world's history of silver mining
in the past shows nothing like this for so young a camp. Scarcely a
month passes without opening up some new and vast carbonate deposits.
The territory has not even been thoroughly prospected; and the future
yield of the royal metal will far eclipse its past production.

It might not be uninteresting in this connection to give something
regarding the sampling and milling of ores. One of the most complete
concerns engaged in this business anywhere in the country is that of
Augustus R. Meyer & Co. This establishment has grown with the growth
and development of this carbonate district. The business was first
established as long ago as the year 1877 (before Little Pittsburg was
dreamed of). A little log house, a relic of seventeen years previous,
was found sufficiently ample for the needs of the business of that
period. However, it was not long before additions had to be made
and new buildings erected. In the year 1879 the present company was
incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000, and every preparation
that money and business sagacity could effect was made to meet the
demands of the prosperous era, that has built a mining metropolis
10,240 feet above the sea level, at the base of the great continental
divide. As at present constituted the premises of the company comprise
seven and one-half acres of ground, upon which six buildings have been
erected, including ore houses and crushing and sampling buildings.
During the busy season of summer from thirty-five to forty men are
employed, who alternate their work in two shifts, day and night. At
this season it frequently happens that the ore houses, which hold
1,500 tons, are insufficient for the accommodation of the mineral sent
from the mines to be crushed, and large quantities have to be stored
outside. In sampling ores from the various mines about Leadville this
establishment pursues the most careful methods. The different ores are
first deposited in large bins holding from 25 to 100 tons. One-tenth
of each load is taken and run through a Dodge crusher, which well
adapts it for the furnaces. A fifth of the tenth already indicated is
put through heavy rollers, and one half of this finely crushed ore is
subjected to the Bucking hammer and powdered to an eighty-sieve grade.
One sample of this powder, consisting of a fourth, is given to the
miner, two samples are kept for reference, and the other is sent to
the assayer, who takes his "assay ton," upon which the company buys
and sells. The capacity of the works are all the way from 80 to 150
tons per day. For samples, $7.50 is charged for silver and lead per
ton, and $10 per ton for gold; but in large quantities a less charge
is made. In job crushing, the market value of silver is allowed, with
from five to ten per cent. deducted. The Meyer works enjoy an excellent
patronage from the best mines of the camp, including such as the
Chrysolite, Carbonate, Vulture, Duncan, Matchless, Climax, Morning
Star, Crescent, and J. D. Dana, some of which have all their crushing
done at these sampling works.

[Illustration: AUGUSTUS R. MEYER AND COMPANY'S ORE MILL.]

       *       *       *       *       *



RAILROADS.

In order to furnish better transportation facilities for the mineral
of this district, and to emancipate it from the freight embargo
that has virtually fettered its commerce, citizens of Leadville have
determined to construct a broad gauge railway down the Arkansas Valley
to Pueblo. This will enable Leadville merchants to ship goods through
from the East without breaking bulk, and lay them down in their
warehouses as cheaply as the same commodities could be laid down in
Denver. This will insure Leadville the control of the business of
the Gunnison country, whose mineral developments are spoken of in the
highest terms. Propositions from Eastern railroad contractors have
already been received, preliminary surveys have been made, and
$200,000 guaranteed to the stock subscription. It now seems to be only
a question of what method to pursue in constructing the road.

Growing out of the broad gauge movement, to some extent, two or three
narrow gauge enterprises have been organized. One is projected from
Leadville to Salt Lake City, following the carbonate belt, as shown in
Hayden's Geological Map, around through the Eagle River, Roaring Fork,
and White River Agency districts, into Utah. Such men as H. A. W.
Tabor and C. B. Rustin stand at the head of this project. Another
narrow gauge road is organized to be built into the "Ten-Mile" and
Breckenridge districts, where the famous Robinson Mine is located.
Should the broad gauge be built this summer to Pueblo, there is little
doubt but that narrow gauges would ramify out from Leadville into
every mineral bearing gulch that was found accessible.

W.

Leadville, May 6, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *



MECHANICAL INVENTIONS.

Mr. William B. Hickman, of Sterling, Kan., has patented a swage to be
used in welding the triangular bar which is to form the flange of a
plow point or share to the body of the same.

Mr. Lucius S. Edleblute, of Cincinnati, O., has recently patented what
he calls the rubber cushioned spoke and hub. This is an improvement
in the class of vehicle wheel hubs having an elastic band or annular
portion which surrounds the journal box and on which the butts of the
spokes rest, so that the wheel is rendered elastic and more durable,
also comparatively noiseless when running on stony pavements, roads,
or streets.

Mr. George Richards, of Boxbury, Mass., has patented a steam muffler
composed of two plates of a diameter very much greater than the
diameter of the pipe through which the steam escapes from the boiler,
so that the steam has room to expand before escaping to the outer air,
its expansion effectually deadening the noise caused by the passage
through the contracted escape pipe.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE BABY ELEPHANT TAKES A BATH.

It is customary with traveling menageries in hot weather when
convenient to a river to allow the elephants to take a bath. The
London Circus passed through Woonsocket, R. I., the other day, when
the keeper let loose all the elephants, including "Hebe" and her baby,
for the above purpose. The mother and her offspring were permitted to
approach a river for the first time since the baby was born, and they
were, therefore, watched with great interest by their keeper. The
mother cautiously approached the Blackstone River, which flows past
the circus grounds, and waded in a short distance, carefully feeling
her way; she then encouraged the baby to follow her, which the
obedient little fellow did. When far enough in the mother caught the
baby between her fore legs, and then lay down in the water and rolled
over, giving the baby the first bath. The mother then felt perfectly
satisfied with her job, and rising up approached the bank, bringing
the little one with her. On reaching terra firma she drove the younger
before her, and would not allow it to approach the water again, though
it showed a disposition to do so.

       *       *       *       *       *



PHYLLIRHOE BUCEPHALA.

This little animal belongs to the family of snails, class Heteropoda,
is about an inch long, and is devoid of any shell or covering
whatever. It is flat, and so absolutely transparent that a person
can read through its body. It is provided with a pair of feelers. The
little animal is very luminous if placed in fresh water or disturbed,
but this phenomenon is most beautiful when an ammonia solution is
poured over the animal. It will shine with a vivid blue light, which
extinguishes with life. But even after death the nerve cells, which
are directly below the skin and produce the light, can be irritated
sufficiently to become luminous. It is a singular fact that
electricity has no effect upon these nerve cells.

[Illustration: PHYLLIRHOE BUCEPHALA--AS SEEN IN THE LIGHT.

_a b_, ganglion; _c_, intestines; _d_, liver; _f_, kidneys; _g_,
generative organs.]

[Illustration: PHYLLIRHOE BUCEPHALA--SHOWING IN THE DARK THE LUMINOUS
SPOTS.]

       *       *       *       *       *



CARE OF TREES AND SHRUBS.

In view of the drought which prevails in many parts of the country and
its unusual severity over extensive districts, the _Rural New Yorker_
suggests to those who have planted trees or shrubs the past spring
that there is one method, and so far as we know, says the writer, only
one, by which they may be protected against injury or death from that
cause. Surface watering has been shown to do more harm than good. The
ground is made hard and compact, thus becoming a better conductor of
heat while it becomes less pervious to air and moisture. A portion of
the surface soil should be removed, and then pailful after pailful
of water thrown in until the ground, to a depth of two feet and to
a width about the stem of not less than three feet in diameter, has
become saturated. Then, as soon as the water has disappeared from the
surface, the removed soil should be well pulverized and returned. A
covering of boards, straw, or hay, or even of sand or gravel, may then
be applied, and the tree or shrub, thus treated, will pass through ten
days of additional drought in safety.

As soon as rain comes to wet the earth thoroughly, we think it is
better to remove the mulch. Nothing is then gained by permitting it
to remain. Mellowing the surface soil about the trees, thus keeping it
free from grass and weeds, is then the most that is needed. We would
repeat that the present is the season when the female borer deposits
her eggs on the stems of fruit trees, and the wash of lime, potash,
sulphur, etc. (darkened with lampblack), should now be applied and
reapplied during June and July, as soon as washed off by rain.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE FORCE OF TREE GROWTH.

[Illustration: THE FORCE OF TREE GROWTH.]

The disruptive power of tree roots, growing in the crevices of rocks,
is well known. Masses of stone weighing many tons are often dislodged
in this way from the faces of cliffs, and no one gives them more than
a passing glance. When, however, the sanctity of the tomb is
invaded, despite the graven warning of the occupant, the case is very
different, and superstitious people are apt to think there must be
something in it more than accident and the unconscious expression of
the resistless force of growing vegetation.

The engraving herewith is copied from a photograph sent to us by
a European correspondent, of a grave in the Garten churchyard, in
Hanover, Germany, the invasion of which by a birch tree has been the
occasion of much wonderment by country people, who come from great
distances to examine it.

The monument, so unfeelingly disrupted, was erected in 1782, and bears
on its base the following inscription: "This grave, which was bought
for all eternity, must never be opened." A chance birch seed, lodging
in a crevice of the monument, has displayed the irony of nature in
slowly yet surely thwarting the desire of the person who designed it
for a perpetual memorial. All the joints are separated, the strong
iron clamps are broken, and the birch tree has embraced the upper
large block, which weighs about one and a quarter tons, and the
tree is driving its roots below, gradually but surely tilting the
structure.

       *       *       *       *       *



PERSEVERANCE WITH THE DROWNED.

In a recent communication to the French Academy, Professor Fort
asserts that he was enabled to restore to life a child three years
old, by practicing artificial respiration on it four hours, commencing
three hours and a half after apparent death. He mentions also a case
in which Dr. Fournol, of Billancourt, reanimated, in July, 1878, an
apparently drowned person by four hours of artificial respiration
begun one hour after the patient was taken from the water. At this
season, when cases of drowning are apt to be frequent, the possible
benefit that may come from a persevering effort to revive victims
of drowning, should encourage friends not to despair of their
resuscitation, even after several hours of seemingly fruitless labor.

       *       *       *       *       *



SIMPLE TEST FOR CHLORAL HYDRATE.

A new test for chloral hydrate has been devised by Frank Ogston,
namely, yellow sulphide of ammonium. On adding this reagent to a
solution of chloral of moderate strength there is at first no change
noticed, but in a short time the colorless solution acquires an orange
yellow color, and on longer standing turns brown and evolves a gas
of very disagreeable odor. Ogston's experiments show that a solution
containing ten milligrammes turns brown in six hours, and gives the
peculiar odor. With one milligramme the orange-yellow color appears
in twelve hours, but no odor. Croton chloral gives the same reactions,
but chloroform, chloric ether, and formic acid do not.

       *       *       *       *       *



NATURAL HISTORY NOTES.

_The Propagation of Oysters._--At the recent meeting in this city
of the American Fish Cultural Association, a paper was read on the
propagation of the oyster, by Dr. W. J. Brook, of the Johns Hopkins
University. The manner in which this propagation takes place had never
before, he said, been thoroughly understood. Through studies made by
him last summer, however, great light was thrown on the subject. He
found that the American oysters do not breed their young in the
shell, as had been supposed, and that consequently the eggs can be
impregnated artificially. An average oyster contains from six to nine
million eggs, and one of large size may contain fifty millions. The
plan pursued by him in fertilizing these eggs was to chop the male
and female oyster up together; thus the fluids are mixed and the
impregnation is made complete. The process of development immediately
begins, and goes on so rapidly that a change may be noted every
fifteen seconds. In a very few hours the embryo is sufficiently formed
to swim in the water. The shells at first are very small, and are not
adjacent to each other. They grow very rapidly, closing down over the
sides, and finally unite and form the hinge. In the short space of
twenty-four hours the young oyster is able to take food, and from
three days to a week it attains perfect form. During its early life it
is a swimming animal. The oyster is able to reproduce its species at
the end of a year's growth, and it is marketable at the age of three
years.

       *       *       *       *       *



S. P. RUGGLES.

S. P. Ruggles died at Lisbon, N. H., May 28. He was principally known
as the inventor of the Ruggles printing press, which was among the
first of machine presses. His invention was what printers call an
"upside-down press," the type being upside down when in the bed. About
twenty-five years ago Mr. Ruggles sold out his interest for nearly
$200,000, and since then has not been in active business. He was the
inventor of the raised alphabet for the blind, and always showed great
interest in the amelioration of the condition of the sightless. He was
also a great friend of mechanical education, and has written much on
the subject.

       *       *       *       *       *



SYDNEY INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION.--1879-1880.

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE JUDGES IN HOROLOGY.

DEPARTMENT III.--EDUCATION AND SCIENCE.

_Group_--_Scientific and Philosophical Instruments and Methods._

Class 310.--Chronometric Apparatus, Chronometers, Astronomical Clocks,
Watches, Chronographs, etc., etc.

  _Judges_.--John McGarvie Smith, New South Wales.
  P. E. Bound, Switzerland.
  H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Great Britain.
  E. Beckmann, Germany.
  Gregory P. Harte, United States.

_To the Honorable Committee on Judging and Awards, Sydney
International Exhibition._

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to hand you herewith the report of the
judges of Class 310, as above,

And remain, sirs, your obedient servant,

GREGORY P. HARTE, Chairman.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following exhibits were submitted for examination:

U. S. Exhibit, 537, American Watch Company, Waltham, Mass., U. S.
A.--Watches and Chronographs.

British Exhibit, 1,048, Victor Kullberg, London, England--Watches and
Chronographs.

British Exhibit, 1,054, Nicole & Nielsen, London, England--Watches,
Chronographs, etc.

British Exhibit, 1,060, T. Russell & Sons, London, England--Watches,
Chronographs, etc.

British Exhibit, 1,041, Castleberg & Co., London, England--Watches,
etc.

British Exhibit, 1,060a, S. Backschmid, Switzerland--Watches.

       *       *       *       *       *


German Exhibit, 36, A. Lange & Sons, Dresden, Germany--Watches, etc.

Swiss Exhibit, L. Audemars, Brassus, Switzerland--Watches, etc.

French Exhibit, 146, A. H. Rodanet, Paris, France--Chronometers.

French Exhibit, 177, G. Tribandeau, Besançon, France--Watches.

Swiss Exhibit, 14a, International Watch Company--Watches.

In presenting the following report, the judges desire to make some
explanations, which, we trust, will excuse them in the minds of the
impartial for any apparent neglect in the form of their report, and
for the limited number of tests made of the horological exhibits.

The judges were appointed too late to do the full amount required,
inasmuch as the number of exhibits was so much in excess of any
reasonable allotment for examination and report before the closing of
the Exhibition.

Commencing their labors, however, immediately after the first
call, the examinations were not complete until March 3d, which only
permitted a time test to be made of nine days in a single position.
This single position was objected to by some of the exhibitors,
but ill-advisedly, for the ratings observed in the watches of the
objecting exhibitors were of such character as to establish in the
minds of the judges the conclusion that their watches would not have
made so good a comparative showing if there had been more time to
observe the ratings in other positions.

Great care was taken by the individual judges in making up their note
books during the examination of the watches, and scrutinizing the
inherent and comparative merits of exhibits under the ten different
heads unanimously agreed upon, as follows:

1. Originality.
2. Invention and discovery.
3. Utility and quality of material.
4. Skill in workmanship.
5. Fitness for purposes intended.
6. Adaptation to public wants.
7. Economy.
8. Cost.
9. Finish and elegance of cases.
10. Time-keeping qualities.

It was agreed the judges should use the number 100 as expressing the
highest degree of excellence in each of these ten elements of inherent
and comparative merit, and adjudge individually to each of the several
exhibits such rating as their respective judgments would warrant after
careful examination; each set of opinions being made a portion of
this report, and in the _résumé_ the mean average being taken as the
unanimous verdict of the judges.

It was also decided we should take up each exhibit in the order
originally examined, and, beginning with the first element of merit
(originality), each judge should in numbers express his judgment of
the inherent and comparative merit attaching to each exhibit in this
one element; this being done, to proceed with each succeeding element
in order and in the same manner. The five judgments being complete and
in numbers, the aggregated verdict is arrived at simply by addition
and division.

This is not only a verdict as to the inherent and comparative merits
of each exhibit, but also a full analysis of each order of merit in
any exhibit as compared with all the others....

In giving this verdict it was absolutely necessary to ascertain to the
fullest extent the time-keeping qualities of the exhibits. The judges
were led to this conclusion from the fact that in some of the
exhibits we were shown watches of equal finish containing every
known application of horological science in practically the same
construction, which should, as far as they could determine by merely
optical examination, keep quite as good time as watches of double and
treble the costs in other exhibits, thus involving their judgment in
doubt upon several elements of merit.

In justice to themselves and to the exhibitors the judges determined
to make the test in only one position, and give the whole of the time
at their disposal to testing the watches in what might be considered
their normal position, if such term is allowable--that is, "pendent
up," or hanging.

At the solicitations of the judges Prof. H. C. Russell, Astronomer
Royal at the Sydney Observatory, kindly consented to make the tests,
and each of the exhibitors was requested to send three watches of his
own selection to the Observatory for this trial.

As will be seen by the report of Professor Russell, eight of the
ten exhibitors availed themselves of this opportunity. It is proper,
however, to state here that none of the exhibitors apparently
anticipated this test, and that it is possible some of the watches
might have made a better record if they had been differently attended
to since the opening of the Exhibition; but they were in this respect
all upon a par.

The majority of the watches had been made for exhibition purposes and
specially prepared to that end; and some had been previously rated at
observatories before sending.

_Notably, however, to the contrary of the above, the exhibit of the
American Watch Company was the ordinary and regular product of the
factory, such as is finished every day._

Notwithstanding the possibility that these exhibits might have been
better prepared for observatory time tests, some of the exhibits, as
will be seen by the rating, demonstrate the wonderful advances made in
the application of horological sciences to the manufacture of watches,
and that their rating is being made equal to that of the best marine
chronometers.

The following is the report of Professor Russell, and the accompanying
diagram (see next page) will readily give an idea of the comparative
performance of the different watches.

"_Sydney Observatory, 26th February, 1880_.

"GREGORY P. HARTE, ESQ.,

"_Chairman of the Judges in Horology_.

"SIR: I have the honor to report that, in response to your circular,
inviting exhibitors of watches each to send three watches to the
Observatory to be tested, I received on Monday, February 16th:

"Three watches, Nos. 611, 669, 237, from Mr. Dolman, agent for Mr.
Tribandeau, Besançon.

"Three watches, Nos. 987271, 670068, 1221336, from Mr. Manson, agent
for Waltham Watch Company.

"Three watches, Nos. 3171, 1935, 2526, from Mr. Allerding, agent for
Mr. Kullberg.

"And on the forenoon of February 17th:

"Three watches, Nos. 11527, 19967, 12629, from Mr. Hoffnung, agent for
Lange & Sons.

"Three watches, Nos. 1004, 8632, 8370, from Mr. Jacob, as agent for
Nicole & Nielsen.

"Three watches, Nos. 70690, 23496, 113516, from Mr. Jacob, as agent
for Thomas Russell & Sons.

"One watch, No. 47150, from Mr. Jacob, as agent for Castleberg.

"Three watches, Nos. 12731, 12483, 11680, from Mr. Wiesener, as agent
for L. Audemars.

"And on 18th February:

"Two watches, Nos. 2724, 3528, from Mr. Jacob, as agent for
Castleberg.

"On the 17th I began rating these watches, keeping them all in one
position (hanging), and subject to the same conditions of temperature;
in fact, they were all hung on one board, and kept in a compartment
locked up so as to avoid change of temperature, except such changes as
were due to changes in the weather.

"They were rated once a day by the standard clock, which affords
special convenience for this work, and the error of which was found by
daily astronomical observations giving the absolute time; great care
was taken in rating so as to get the exact error of each watch every
day, care being taken at the same time to avoid errors in the seconds
dials, a fault sufficiently obvious in some of these exhibits.

"In presenting the result of this test in the form of a diagram (see
diagram on the opposite page), it is necessary to explain that the
curves show only the change of rate in each case, and nothing is shown
here of the actual rate, which was large in several instances.

"In the diagram spaces between faint lines represent seconds; and the
thicker faint lines represent the mean rate in each case: When the
curve rises it shows that the watch was gaining on its previous rate,
and when it falls the watch was losing on its previous rate. For
example, in No. 4 curve the thicker line shows the position of a
gaining rate of 3 sec. per day; on the 18th, watch No. 4 had a gaining
rate of 2.7 sec., and is plotted below the thick line; on the 19th and
20th it was less than 3 sec., but on the 21st the rate increased
to 4.8 sec., and the curve rises above the line. The same rule is
followed with losing rates; and, therefore, each curve shows whether
the watch was gaining or losing on its own rate.

"For convenient reference the barometer and temperature curves are
plotted on the same sheet; although from the short time at command the
watches could only be tested in one position, a glance at the diagram
will show that in some degree at least the temperature adjustment and
the isochronal properties of the balance springs were also tested; and
I wish to call your attention to the fact that the whole of these
show in a more or less degree a marked response to the change in
temperature, some being over and others under corrected.

"This fact is important, because it adds another proof that the old
form of compensation balance--even when combined with chronometer
spring and escapement and all the refinements which the best modern
workman can add to it--fails to yield a complete correction for
temperature; and I much regret that the American Watch Company, who
claim to have overcome this fault by means of a balance involving a
new arrangement of the metals, did not send to be tested any of their
first-class watches containing this important improvement.

"Several of the rate curves, especially Nos. 4, 10, 13, 16, 21, and
24, respond to the change in the barometer in a way that shows the
isochronal properties of their balance springs are not quite perfect.
_Looking down the curves it becomes at once evident that watch No. 5,
which is No. 670068, second grade of the American Watch Company, is
remarkably free from these defects, and presents the best rate of
all the watches tested._ No. 9, which is No. 2526, Kullberg, is the
nearest approach to No. 5; indeed, the difference between its highest
and lowest rates is 0.1 sec. less than No. 5, but it has not such a
steady rate. The timekeeping of both these watches is remarkably good,
and shows that we have entered upon a new era in the manufacture of
pocket chronometers; _for these rates are better than the majority of
marine chronometers._

"_Among the cheaper watches tested, No. 6, which is No. 1221336, of
the American Watch Company, is worthy of notice; it is a watch of the
sixth grade, yet its performance has been better than that of many
very expensive and otherwise first-class watches among those tested;
such a watch speaks volumes in favor of the system under which it was
made, and is the best comment upon the accuracy of the machines that
produced it._

"There are several watches among those tested which have kept
wonderfully steady rates, but their comparative merit is shown in the
diagrams much better than it could be by any description. The daily
rate of each watch will be found in a table attached.

"The changes in Nos. 1, 2, 3, 17, and 19 were too great to plot.

"H. C. RUSSELL,

"_Government Astronomer._"

       *       *       *       *       *


CONCLUSION OF THE REPORT.

In consideration of the facts developed in this examination, and the
preponderance of elements of inherent and comparative merit adjudged
by the judges (each in independent judgment) being equal to nearly
70 per cent. more than the next highest exhibit, they have found it
exceedingly difficult to make such a classification in degree as will
give even-handed justice to all.

We adjudge to the

AMERICAN WATCH COMPANY, OF WALTHAM, MASS., U. S. A.,

a first-class award, and such other special distinction, diploma,
medal, or award, as is consistent with the duties and obligations of
the honorable Sydney International Commission, for the largest and
most complete exhibit of horological instruments examined.

They also propose, as the only means by which their appreciation of
the merits of the production of this company can be adequately or
equitably recognized by the Committee on Judging and Awards, that a
separate first-class award be given for the timekeeping qualities of
all grades of these watches.

Also a separate first-class award for the perfection of this system of
watchmaking and the improvements in the mechanical parts of the watch,
being notably in the main spring and going barrel, the patent safety
pinion, the perfect epicycloidal form of all the teeth of the train,
in every grade of watch alike, and the isochronal adjustment of the
balance spring.

Also to Charles V. Woerd, mechanical superintendent of the American
Watch Company, Waltham, Mass., U. S. A., a first-class award for his
new mode of compensating balances.

Also a separate first-class award for the improvements in cases, the
number of artistic forms and designs used, the beauty and elegance
of their finish, and for their new and indestructible method of
enameling.

VICTOR KULLBERG

The display of marine chronometers by this maker, with the Observatory
ratings, was of the very first order. Every part of those instruments
was remarkably well made, and the modifications of some of the balance
wheels worthy of special attention. Adjudged a first-class award.

The display of watches by the same maker, although small, commanded
attention from their very nice finish in all parts. As will be seen
from the report and diagram of Professor Russell, they are good
timekeepers, especially the one having the chronometer escapement.
This style of watch, however, is of too delicate construction and too
costly to fully meet the requirements of any considerable public want.
The same objection will hold good as to the lever escapements as far
as cost or economy is concerned, they being comparatively too high
priced. Representing a certain class of manufacture, they are of the
first order of merit, and adjudged a first-class award.

The "gas governor" exhibited by the same maker, an instrument for
regulating the amount of heat in the testing of chronometers, is
commended as a useful invention.

[Continued on page 10.]



RESUME OF THE JURY'S EXAMINATION [page 9]

       *       *       *       *       *

+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|              |AMERICAN|         |        |       |        |
|   NAMES      | WATCH  |         |        |  Thos.| Castle-|
|    OF        |COMPANY,| Victor  |Nicole &|Russell| berg & |
| EXHIBITORS.  |WALTHAM.|Kullberg.|Nielsen.|& Sons.|Company.|
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Originality.  |   98   |    0    |   28   |   8   |    0   |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Invention &   |   95   |    0    |   22   |   0   |    0   |
| discovery.   |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Utility and   |        |         |        |       |        |
|quality of    |   95   |   73    |   47   |  25   |   29   |
|material.     |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Skill in      |   93   |   80    |   58   |  30   |   30   |
|workmanship.  |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Fitness for   |        |         |        |       |        |
|purposes      |  100   |   89    |   70   |  36   |   36   |
|intended.     |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Adaptation to |  100   |   53    |   60   |  34   |   41   |
|public wants. |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Economy.      |  100   |   57    |   48   |  22   |   25   |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Cost.         |  100   |   65    |   38   |  26   |   32   |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Finish and    |        |         |        |       |        |
|elegance      |  100   |   73    |   76   |  42   |   42   |
|of cases.     |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|Timekeeping   |  100   |   96    |   80   |  44   |   53   |
|qualities.    |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+
|              |        |         |        |       |        |
|Totals        | 981    |  586    |  527   |  267  |  288   |
|              |        |         |        |       |        |
+--------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+--------+

[_Cont._]
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|              |        |       |         |        | Inter- |
|   NAMES      |        |       |         |        |national|
|    OF        |S. Back-|A Lange|  Louis  |G. Tri- | Watch  |
| EXHIBITORS.  | schmid.|& Sons.|Audemars.|bandeau.|Company.|
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Originality.  |    0   |  45   |   98    |    0   |    0   |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Invention &   |    0   |  33   |   24    |    0   |    0   |
| discovery.   |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Utility and   |        |       |         |        |        |
|quality of    |   11   |  68   |   73    |   10   |   32   |
|material.     |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Skill in      |   11   |  83   |   85    |   19   |   31   |
|workmanship.  |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Fitness for   |        |       |         |        |        |
|purposes      |    7   |  86   |   80    |   15   |   37   |
|intended.     |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Adaptation to |   15   |  73   |   54    |   15   |   49   |
|public wants. |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Economy.      |   12   |  59   |   44    |   18   |   41   |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Cost.         |   10   |  79   |   58    |   19   |   63   |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Finish and    |        |       |         |        |        |
|elegance      |   10   |  71   |   76    |   20   |    0   |
|of cases.     |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|Timekeeping   |    0   |  89   |   79    |    0   |    0   |
|qualities.    |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+
|              |        |       |         |        |        |
|Totals        |   76   | 686   |  671    |  116   |   287  |
|              |        |       |         |        |        |
+--------------+--------+-------+---------+--------+--------+


[Illustration: FACSIMILE DIAGRAM SHOWING THE CHANGE IN RATE OF WATCHES
TESTED AT THE OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY, FEBRUARY 17 TO 26, 1880.]

       *       *       *       *       *



SYDNEY INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. [page 10]

[_Continued from page 8._]


NICOLE & NIELSEN.

This exhibit, made specially for the Exhibition, comprised a full line
of plain levers, split seconds, chronographs, calendars, repeaters,
etc., and was a representative display of their peculiar style of
manufacture in all its details. The cost of these watches, compared
with others of similar construction and finish, was excessive; and
while they show good timekeeping qualities, they do not equal that of
other exhibits.

As representing their own methods of construction they are of the
first order of merit, and are adjudged a first-class award.


THOS. RUSSELL & SONS

exhibit a full line of their manufacture, which, upon comparison with
other exhibits of the same general character and construction, places
them in the third order of merit, and they are adjudged a third-class
award.


S. BACKSCHMID

exhibits a class of cheap watches of very inferior workmanship and
finish, of the last order of merit, and adjudged a fourth-class award.


N. CASTLEBERG & CO.

exhibit a meritorious line of watches in many respects, of good
finish, and not excessively high priced for their performances; of the
second order of merit, and adjudged a second class award.


A. LANGE & SONS

exhibit a class of watches possessing many elements of merit, and
of superior finish in many respects and at a cost which is quite
reasonable. That the watches are constructed upon scientific
principles and are intended as reliable timepieces, is shown from
Observatory tests. The variations show that care has been taken to
approximate a perfect adjustment, and that a partial success has
been attained. A peculiarity in the construction of the balance
wheel--having a horizontal split from the timing second holes each
way--is noticeable, which we fail to understand. This exhibit was made
expressly for this Exhibition, and Observatory rates sent with each
watch, and, as a representative exhibit, although small, was the
second best examined, and is, in its class, of the first order of
merit, and adjudged a first-class award.

       *       *       *       *       *


LOUIS AUDEMARS

exhibits a wonderful class of complicated watches, calendars,
repeaters, chronographs, etc., etc., combined in one watch, and
elaborately cased and artistically finished. The great element of
merit in this exhibit is in the combination of the great number
of unusual functions for a watch, and by skill in workmanship and
mechanical science securing a correct performance.

The enormous cost of these watches is an effectual embargo on their
use to any except the very few, and their utility is, therefore,
very limited. In their class they are, however, of the first order of
merit, and adjudged a first-class award.


G. TRIBANDEAU

exhibits a considerable collection of watches in a great variety of
cases, of a class of workmanship, finish, and performance calling for
the fourth order of merit, and are adjudged a fourth-class award.


A. H. RODANET

exhibits two marine chronometers only, one of which was broken and the
other out of order; commended.


INTERNATIONAL WATCH COMPANY

exhibit a collection of watches of the third order of merit, and
adjudged a third-class award.

In concluding this report, the judges very much regret the limitation
in time which has prevented them securing position tests of this very
interesting exhibit in horology, as much on account of the exhibitors
as on their own account. Such advances have in the last few years been
made in this science that, in the interest of the public as well as of
the manufacturers, a sufficiency of time is desirable to make tests
in five or six positions, and fourteen days should be allowed to each
position. Tests for heat and cold, and an opportunity to carefully
note barometric and thermometric influences upon the various systems
of adjustment, would be very valuable and interesting.

Respectfully, etc.,

GREGORY P. HARTE, _Chairman_, United States.
H. C. RUSSELL, B.A., F.R.A.S., Great Britain.
J. McGARVIE SMITH, New South Wales.
P. E. BOUND, Switzerland.
E. BECKMANN, Germany.

       *       *       *       *       *



CORN MAGNETS.

Every kind of salve or lotion that is supposed to remove or relieve
corns meets with a large sale. Corn files and pencils are getting
stale, and an enterprising inhabitant of Dresden has lately brought
out what he calls a "corn magnet." It is evident that it is as unlike
a magnet as possible, for an examination shows that it is made of
sulphur colored with graphite. The directions are to set fire to
one end, and let a drop of the melted sulphur fall upon the corn. A
convenient and agreeable operation, especially if the corn is on
the bottom of the foot. It is needless to say that the corn usually
survives the slight burn and lives to torment the owner again. All
burns, whether by caustic or otherwise, should be avoided.

       *       *       *       *       *



EXPERIMENTS ON THE RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS.

Prof. J. Burkitt Webb, C.E., now in Europe, writes as follows:

On the invitation of Prof. Spangenberg we visited the
"Versuchsstation," at the Gewerbe-Akademie, where the important
experiments upon materials for engineering purposes are being made.
These tests are of two kinds--trials of strength and trials of
endurance. The first are made by means of very heavy and accurate
machinery, mostly new within the last two or three years; the latter
are the celebrated "Dauer-Versuche," a description of which we will
reserve for another letter.

The main machine, of which there are three or four duplicates at work
at various points in Germany, is housed in a special building in the
interior court of the academy. It consists of heavy iron "ways," some
fifty feet long, accurately planed and secured to a stone foundation,
with a hydraulic pump and scales at one end, and a number of massive
attachments for subjecting the piece of iron or other material to
various kinds of strains. There are also other instruments which
belong to the machine as delicate as it is heavy, and which are used
for adjusting the parts of the apparatus, reading the results of a
test, or making calculations. This machine differs from others in the
way of measuring the force used. It has been the custom to take
the pressure on the liquid in the hydraulic cylinder, as shown by a
manometer, as the basis of calculation. This introduces an inaccuracy,
as part of this is due to the friction on the piston packing, and the
true pressure is less than that shown by this irregular quantity.
To avoid this difficulty a massive lever is introduced between the
hydraulic press and the point where its pressure is applied. One arm
of this lever is one-eighth inch long, and the other five hundred
times as long, so that to measure a pressure of one hundred tons, four
hundred pounds must be placed on the scale pan which hangs from
the end of the long end of the lever. The fulcrum rests against the
piston, and the short end of the lever is connected by heavy
links with the apparatus by means of which the strain is applied.
Technically speaking the fulcra of scales are "knife edges," but to
convey a pressure of one hundred tons and remain free to move, these
edges must be very obtuse, perhaps 160° to 170°; they must be as
long as possible, some fifteen inches, of the best hardened steel,
accurately ground, and must rest against a hardened plate of steel.
Made with the greatest care the sharp edge under such a pressure will
sometimes make a dent in the plate and the scales are clogged. As
it is very difficult to measure the one-eighth inch with accuracy,
another lever is provided with a ratio of one to ten, and with a
short arm long enough to be made of a certain length with but a small
percentage of error. To test the main lever this occupies essentially
the same place as a sample of iron to be stretched; it is loaded with,
say, two hundred pounds, which it multiplies to a ton; this pressure
is then weighed by placing four pounds upon the main scale pan,
and the fulcrum of the main lever is adjusted until the two weights
balance.

The attachments consist of: I. Jaws for holding round, square, and
flat bars to be submitted to tension. II. Arrangements for holding
beams and columns in various ways at their ends, and compressing them
until they are crushed or "buckle." III. Two massive graduated iron
beams, which are placed crosswise on the "ways," and used for twisting
shafts, railroad axles, etc. IV. A face plate, about four feet square,
for holding plates of boiler iron nearly as large by the perimeter,
and crushing in the middle by forcing various shaped pieces against
it. V. Apparatus for bending a beam by crushing an angular piece into
it; and in the same connection, VI. Shears for cutting off bars of
metal and measuring the force required.

In connection with this main machine were some, quite old, which had
been used in the infancy of the subject by a former professor, and a
new special machine for the same purpose as attachment V., and which
seemed to "kink" a piece of railroad iron as if it were only lead. In
this the pressure was obtained by screws.

Among the instruments used for the adjustment of the parts of the
main machine we saw the finest cathetometer we had ever seen. This
instrument, by Breithaupt, in Cassel, has two telescopes, with
micrometer screws with more than one hundred and twenty-five threads
per inch, and scales graduated on glass with more than six hundred and
twenty five divisions to the inch. Another instrument for measuring
the deflection, in two directions at once, of a column under pressure,
has micrometer screws with more than two hundred and fifty threads per
inch. We saw also a planimeter, which not only calculated mechanically
the area of a figure, but gave also its center of gravity, moment
of inertia, etc. We saw also a French calculating machine; the other
apparatus is, we believe, all German. If one is, however, critical, it
will be found in many lines of business that all the fine goods here
are imported, though naturally the Germans are slow to acknowledge it.

We witnessed the experiments on a sample of round iron over an inch
in diameter, and on a piece of iron plate three inches wide by half an
inch thick. It is perhaps needless to say that they seemed to stretch
like putty and to break like thread. The pressure is put on a few
hundred pounds at a time, and the elongation is read by two telescopes
and a scale, which multiply the distance five hundred times. At the
same time the first "elastic limit" is watched for. Before this is
arrived at the piece will return to its original length when the
tension is removed; after this the stretching is in part permanent.
One of the facts brought out is that there are _several_ elastic
limits, in copper seven or eight. The appearance of the surface after
the elastic limit is passed and the iron stretches is peculiar. A wavy
appearance is seen, and longitudinal ridges begin to form, due to the
changes going on in the crystals, by which they adapt themselves to
the increased length. After a further general adaptation of structure
becomes impossible, these appearances culminate in the weakest part.
The apparatus for measuring the increase in length has long since been
removed, and the places where it was attached have been filed smooth
to avoid introducing the weak point artificially. The diameter of this
part now reduces rapidly, and the surface becomes rough and the iron
hot--you can see it stretch. When it has reduced twenty-five or more
per cent. it gives way suddenly with a sharp crack. The percentage of
reduction before breaking is now recorded with the observations on the
elasticity and the breaking strain, and the experiment is at an end.
It suggested itself to see if the work done in pulling the iron
apart was fully accounted for by the heat generated. We could easily
calculate the work up to the point of maximum tension, but after this
the force required was not measured; however, a rough calculation
showed that the iron was as hot as required, or at least that the data
would require to be quite complete if any residual was to be found.

Berlin, May 13, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *



ENGINEERING INVENTIONS.

An improved wheel guard, which will push any obstacles on the track
aside, and which can be adjusted to a greater or less height above the
rails, has been patented by Mr. Solomon Brisac, of New York city.
It consists in a wheel guard formed of a metallic box with a beveled
front side, which box is adjustably fastened to the front end of a
recessed plate resting on and partially surrounding the grease box.
The box is braced by means of a rod attached to its forward end and
passing into a socket fastened to the bottom of the car.

An improved water motor, constructed on the general principle of a
rotary engine, in which two compartments are arranged side by side,
with a partition intervening, and in which the sliding pistons in the
piston wheels in the two compartments are arranged at right angles
to each other, has been patented by Mr. William E. Seelye, of Anoka,
Minn.

Mr. Stephen Barnes, of New Haven, Conn., has invented a vibrating
propeller, adapted to small boats and vessels to be operated by either
hand or steam power. The floats are arranged so that they will offer
no resistance on the return stroke.

An improved device for removing snow from railway tracks, and
especially from between the rails, has been patented by Mr. David M.
Horton, of Fishkill Village, N. Y. It consists of a revolving brush, a
mould board in juxtaposition thereto, and a fan blower, in combination
with suitable driving gear for propelling the brush and fan.

An improvement in steam traps, patented by Mr. Hugh O. Ames, of New
Orleans, La., consists in combining with a vibratory arm carrying a
water receiver, a side apertured hollow trunnion, a discharge pipe, a
jacketed standard, and an outlet pipe.

An improved cotton press has been patented by Mr. Alfred A. Janney, of
Montgomery, Ala. This invention relates to an improvement in the class
of cotton and hay presses in which the follower is worked by a screw
that passes through a nut, to which the required rotary motion is
imparted by means of lateral sweeps or levers. It consists in the
means for supporting and securing the levers and forming a vertical
guide for the screw, so that the levers are prevented from rocking or
swaying as power is applied in the operation of packing.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED STEAM CANAL BOAT.

The late experiments in canal steamboats bid fair to be a complete
success. The Baxter steamers were not sufficiently remunerative
to continue the building of that kind of boat. They do not carry a
sufficient load, owing to their build, and that is made necessary by
the form and arrangement of the machinery and propelling power, the
propeller being that form used by the tug in Buffalo. The new style,
which bids to pay handsomely, is as full a bow and stern as the
ordinary first-class canal boat. The propelling power is radically
different from the tug propeller. The wheel is eight feet in diameter
and placed close to the stern; the boiler is upright, with a single
engine, very compact machinery, taking up no more room than the stable
in many boats, and enabling the boat to carry 7,500 bushels of corn
and coal for the trip. With this cargo they run from Buffalo to New
York in seven days on five and a half gross tons of coal, saving river
and harbor towing. One returned from New York to Buffalo in one hour
less than seven days, bringing one hundred and thirty tons of freight.
The outlook now promises to supersede mule and horse towing. The
Belgian system of cable towing will take that large number of boats
now relying on the mule, and deliver them promptly as consigned and in
much less time and cost than can be done by the mule. Both systems are
necessary for rapid movement on the canal, and to cheapen the transfer
from the West to the seaboard. Steam is sure to supersede animal power
on the canal, as everywhere else. The canal steamboats are at last so
far perfected as to insure a handsome profit in running them, and
a large number will soon be at work on the canal. Two are to be
constructed in Lockport as speedily as possible by one of our most
enterprising boat builders, and the machinery is contracted for,
thus opening up a new industry for our numerous and worthy
mechanics.--_Lockport_ (_N. Y._) _Journal_.

       *       *       *       *       *



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES.

OBSERVATORY OF VASSAR COLLEGE.


The computations in the following notes are by students of Vassar
College. Although merely approximate, they are sufficiently accurate
to enable the ordinary observer to find the planets.

M. M.


POSITIONS OF PLANETS FOR JULY, 1880.


MERCURY.

On July 1 Mercury sets a few minutes after 9 in the evening.

Mercury can be readily found, early in July, a few degrees south of
the point of sunset; the planet moves rapidly southward, but can be
followed, and may be seen as late as the 20th. On July 18 Mercury has
nearly the declination of Regulus.


VENUS.

Venus keeps nearly the path of the sun, setting after the sun late in
July, but so nearly with it that the planet is not likely to be seen.


MARS.

Mars has moved from its position nearly in line with Castor and Pollux
toward Leo. It sets on July 1 at 9h. 44m. P.M. On the 31st Mars sets
at 8h. 32m.

On the 31st, at meridian passage, Mars and Uranus are nearly together.
Uranus is east of Mars and half a degree south.


JUPITER.

Jupiter is coming into the evening hours.

On July 1 Jupiter rises a few minutes after midnight. On July 31
Jupiter rises a few minutes after 10 P.M. It will be known at once by
its brilliancy.

Besides the ordinary belts of Jupiter the planet still shows at this
time (June 10) the large ruddy spot spoken of by many persons some
weeks since. This spot is elliptical in shape; its longest diameter is
about one-fifth that of Jupiter. A small glass will show it, and the
ordinary observer can, by watching its appearance and disappearance
and reappearance, determine the time of rotation of Jupiter on its
axis, or the length of the planet's day.

The best evenings for looking at Jupiter are those of July 23, when
the satellite nearest to Jupiter goes across its face, preceded by
its shadow; July 28, when the first and second satellites will make
similar transits; and July 29, when Jupiter will rise without the
presence of its third satellite, which will be in eclipse, and will
come out of the shadow after midnight.


SATURN.

Saturn follows close upon Jupiter, but keeps further north in
declination by about 2½°.

On July 1 Saturn rises 36m. after midnight. On the 31st Saturn rises
at 10h. 38m. P.M.

The waning moon will pass north of Jupiter and Saturn on the 27th to
28th.

Any one who has a glass sufficient to show the ring of Saturn and the
largest satellite, Titan, will find this planet intensely interesting,
and the movements of the satellite will show the time of its
revolution in its orbit around Saturn.


URANUS.

Uranus rises after the sun, and sets too nearly with the sun to be
seen.


NEPTUNE.

Neptune may be seen, with a good telescope, in the early morning hour.
Neptune is 2¼° west of Alpha Ceti, and 11° north. It approaches Alpha
Ceti during the month, and if it can be found, may be known to be a
planet by that movement.

       *       *       *       *       *



FIRES IN NEW YORK.

The report of the Board of Fire Commissioners, just printed, shows
that during the year 1879 there were in this city 1,551 fires, of
which 1,029 were discovered by persons not connected with the Fire
or Police Department. In 1,456 cases the fires were confined to the
buildings in which they originated. Twenty-five buildings were totally
destroyed, and 69 were greatly damaged. Of all the fires, 1,001 were
extinguished by buckets of water and fire extinguishers. The total
estimated loss by fire during the year was $900,280 on buildings
and $4,771,300 on stock, making a total of $5,671,580. The
estimated insurances on the buildings were $7,276,446, and on stock,
$14,525,264, making a total of $21,801,710. The estimated uninsured
loss was $180,060. In three cases the loss was between $100,000 and
$115,000; in one case $168,908; in one case $352,185; in one case
$333,900; and in one case $1,978,991. In 1,066 cases the loss was less
than $100.

Nearly a quarter of all the fires were caused by carelessness, and 100
are attributed to children playing with matches and fire. Forty fires
were caused by the spontaneous combustion of oily rags and other
materials, and 93 by exploding kerosene lamps. Four members of the
department and 12 citizens died of injuries received at fires during
the year, and 139 firemen and 54 citizens were more or less injured.

There are 729 uniformed members of the department The pay roll of the
whole department for 1879 was $1,030,822.14, and the appropriation for
all expenses was $1,254,970. The appropriation for the present year
is $1,307,670. The department now possesses 233 horses, 1 marine steam
fire engine, 58 steam fire engines, of which 5 are self propelling,
10 chemical engines, 24 hook and ladder trucks, 108 chemical fire
extinguishers, and 4 aerial ladders, together with other fire
apparatus.

The annual inspection of the department showed that the quickest
average time in hitching a team was 3.17 seconds, and in hitching
a single horse, 5.66 seconds. The general average in hitching all
apparatus was, in 1879, 9.54 seconds; in 1878, 10.26 seconds; and in
1877, 13.03 seconds.

During the year, $30,300 was collected for licenses for the sale of
kerosene oil, each license costing $10. The Fire Department Relief
Fund now amounts to $422,569.07, and the insurance fund to $12,780.

       *       *       *       *       *



ASPIRATOR AND COMPRESSOR.

Professor Marangoni, of Pavia, has invented an aspirator for measuring
gases which is much simpler than many now in use in laboratories,
which latter have the defect that the air or gas ascends through
the descending liquid and makes thus the measuring of the former
uncertain. The improved apparatus is shown in our illustration. It
consists of two vessels attached to a fixed horizontal shaft, FE,
which is placed upon two upright supports. This shaft has several ways
or passages made in it which performs the functions of the taps.
The water of the upper receptacle passes into the lower one by the
passage, A, and thence through the tube, BC, issuing at its lowest
extremity at C. The air contained in the lower vessel is thus emitted
by the channel DE, cut into the shaft, while the air or gas is
aspirated in the same ratio by the passage and tube, FG. The apparatus
acts thus at the same time as aspirator and compressor. It is simple,
and will be a useful addition to the laboratory.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW PHOTOGLYPTIC PROCESS.[1]

[Footnote 1: A communication to the Photographic Society of France.]


WALTER B. WOODBURY.

It is now thirteen years since I had the honor of introducing in
France my new photoglyptic process, which, up to the present time, has
remained in the hands of very few, owing to the great expense hitherto
necessary to start the working of it. For some time I have been
engaged in making experiments with a view to discover a system which
should be at the same time simple and inexpensive; and the process
which I have this evening the honor to bring before your notice is the
result of my researches.

The summary of the new system is as follows:

To obtain from negatives reliefs on glass similar to transparencies by
the carbon process, but modified in the quantity of materials used.

To attach, and keep in absolute contact with the relief so obtained, a
sheet of tin foil.

To solidify this sheet of tinfoil by coating it with copper; then
backing it up with another sheet of plate glass covered with a
composition; and then to detach the whole from the first relief--the
result being a mould ready to place in the press and print one
thousand or more proofs.

I commence by showing you the relief made from the negative, and
explaining how this is obtained.

I take a sheet of plate glass of a convenient size, and place it in
hot water, together with a sheet of paper a little smaller; then,
having driven out the excess of water by means of a squeegee, I
place it on a leveling stand. Having prepared a solution composed of
gelatine 200 parts, water 1,000 parts, glycerine 20 parts, white sugar
30 parts, with a little Indian ink, and filtered the same, I pour a
sufficient quantity on the paper and spread it up to the corners with
the finger. These plates are then dried in a dry place and can be kept
until wanted.

To sensitize the plates I employ a bath of bichromate of potash of
six per cent., and again dry them. Without doubt this method is rather
long; but one should consider that each proof made is capable of
giving five or ten thousand prints if necessary, as the same relief
will make many printing moulds. I tried, with the aid of the Autotype
Company, of London, to get a suitable tissue; but as this requires
a uniform thickness of half a millimeter the ordinary system did not
succeed. When the sensitized plate is dry the edges are cut with a
knife, the glasses serving over and over again. I show you a piece of
this prepared paper.

As in the carbon process, it is necessary to place a border of black
paper at the back of the negative, and to cut the sensitized tissue a
little larger than the opening.

After the exposure the gelatine is fixed on a collodionized glass by
placing them both in water and squeegeeing the surface; but in dry
weather it is as well to use albumen in place of collodion, as used
by M. Ferrier for his transparencies in carbon. The glass holding the
gelatine is now placed in a hot water bath heated to 42° Centigrade,
and left till the paper comes away from the gelatine, when it is
placed in this apparatus by the frame holding the grooves.

By means of this small gas regulator the temperature is kept always
the same, namely, 50° Centigrade. The water should be now and then
agitated by lifting up and down the frame holding the glasses.

After a space of three or four hours the reliefs will be sufficiently
washed, and can be taken out and placed in alcohol to dry quickly
and sharp at the same time. In this stage of the process all spots or
scratches that may have been on the negative can be removed (being in
relief on the gelatine) by means of a piece of glass. The relief is
now ready to be covered with the tin. You will observe that up to the
present the operations have been almost the same as those necessary to
produce a transparency in carbon.

As it is of the first necessity that the tin should be kept in
absolute contact with the gelatine relief, I prepare the latter by
rubbing it over with a piece of flannel charged with a greasy matter
(pomatum answers as well as anything). I then make a border of
India-rubber in benzine round the glass. The effect of this is to
prevent any air from returning between the tin and the relief when
once it has been driven out.

Taking care that the back of the glass is perfectly clean, it is now
placed on the steel or glass bed of a rolling-press. A sheet of tin
foil (without holes) that has been smoothed on a sheet of glass by a
soft brush is now laid on it, and then three or four thicknesses of
blotting paper. The whole is then passed under the cylinder several
times, each time increasing the pressure. The surface of the tin
is now ready to place in the electrotyping cell, but must first be
cleaned with a solution of caustic potash to remove any grease, and
bordered with shellac varnish to prevent the copper from depositing
where not required.

Electric contact is made by means of the small apparatus, on removing
a small proportion of the lac varnish. After two or three hours
sufficient copper will have been deposited, and after drying can be
then attached to another glass, on which it will remain.

This glass is covered while hot with a composition of shellac, resin,
and Venice turpentine, and can be prepared in advance, using an iron
plate heated direct by the gas flame. The same iron plate is employed
to again soften the composition and attach it to the copper; but this
time heated only by boiling water, this temperature being sufficient
to soften it until it enters into all the hollows of the copper. On
placing a weight on the two glasses the excess of the composition is
forced out at the edges. When cold the glass plate on which the copper
and tin are now attached can be separated from the relief, which can
then be used over and over again to produce fresh matrices.

The matrix or intaglio is now ready to place in the printing press,
and the remaining operations of printing are exactly the same as those
used in the old process of photoglyptic printing.

In placing the mould in the press it is advisable to place one or
two thicknesses of stout blotting paper, previously wetted, under the
mould to give to it a slight amount of elasticity and, at the same
time, to keep it in place.

As in all other mechanical processes a reversed or pellicle negative
is required; but it is very simple to print upon a specially prepared
transfer paper, and, instead of mounting the print with the face
uppermost, to attach it under water to the mount, and when dry to
detach the paper on which the print has been made. By this means there
remains only one thickness of paper instead of two, thus doing away
with an objection which has often been found in mounted photographs
for book illustration.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW INVENTIONS.

An improved combined cutting and clinching tool has been patented by
Mr. Peter D. Graham, of Black Hawk, Col. The object of this invention
is to provide a new, useful, and convenient tool for cutting and
clinching horseshoe nails.

Mr. John J. Berger, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has patented an improved
hand perforating or check stamp of the class which are used to cut or
perforate the paper with figures and letters as a safeguard against
alterations of the check; and the object of this improvement is to
perforate the check with needle points, and at the same time ink
the perforations, whereby the numbers may be clearly marked without
cutting large openings in the paper.

An improved apparatus for the manufacture of nitric acid has been
patented by Mr. Paul Marcelin, of Black Rock, Conn. The object of this
invention is to furnish apparatus for manufacturing nitric acid so
constructed that the stronger acid may be separated from the weaker
acid as the acid passes from the retort to the receiving bottles,
to obtain a strong acid suitable for use in manufacturing
nitro-glycerine.

Mr. Max Rubin, of New York city, has patented an improved shawl strap,
so constructed that either strap may be wound up alone, or both may be
wound up together, or one may be wound up tighter than the other, by
adjusting the handle.

Mr. Ambrose Madden, of Asbury Park, N. J., has patented an attachment
for use with halters for preventing horses from cribbing and to
cure them of that pernicious habit; and the invention consists in a
combination of rigid arms and straps hung upon the halter and carrying
a spiked plate, which is retained beneath the animal's under lip in
such manner that the motions of the horse in the act of cribbing cause
the spikes to prick.

       *       *       *       *       *



BUSINESS AND PERSONAL.

_The Charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a line for
each insertion; about eight words to a line. Advertisements must be
received at publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear
in next issue._

-->_The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers a
circulation of not less than 50,000 copies every weekly issue._

       *       *       *       *       *

Lubricene, Gear Grease, Cylinder and Machinery Oils. R. J. Chard, 6
Burling Slip, New York.

Telephones repaired, parts of same for sale. Send stamp for circulars.
P.O. Box 205, Jersey City, N. J.

The genuine Asbestos Liquid Paints are the purest, finest, richest,
and most durable paints ever made for structural purposes. H. W. Johns
M'f'g Co., 87 Maiden Lane, sole manufacturers.

The Finger Annunciator, and all other electr. apparatus, by Finger
Annunciator Co., 73 Cornhill, Boston.

The most popular Pens in use are those of the Esterbrook Steel Pen
Company. For sale everywhere. Everybody send Circular to R. K. Teller,
Unadilla, N. Y.

A few pat. Centering and Squaring Attachments for Lathes, made by R.
E. State & Co., entirely new, for sale cheap. J. & W. State, Lock Box
291, Springfield, Ohio.

Soapstone and Empire Gum Core Packing, the best for Railroads. Greene,
Tweed & Co., New York.

Our new Stylographic Pen (just patented), having the duplex
interchangeable point section, is the very latest improvement. The
Stylographic Pen Co., Room 13, 169 Broadway, N. Y.

Shaw's U. S. Standard of Pressure. Mercury Gauges, all pressures,
Steam, Hydraulic, and Vacuum. Best for pumping stations and pipe
lines. 915 Ridge Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.

For Sale low--52 x 17 feet Sidewheel Boat, and one 23 x 5½ feet
Launch; best condition. S. E. Harthan, Worcester, Mass.

Wanted.--Farm Engine, with Steam Plow Attachment. Address P. O. Box
18, Reinbeck, Iowa.

Advertising of all kinds in all American Newspapers. Special lists
free. Address E. N. Freshman & Bros., Cincinnati, O.

Patent for Sale Cheap.--Entire Patent or State Rights. Just the thing
for the summer. Money can be made out of it. Other business prevents
owner from handling it. A. H. Watkins, 294 Harrison Ave., Boston,
Mass.

We keep a full assortment of Esterbrook's, Gillott's, Spencerian,
Perry's, and Lamar's Pens. Send for price list to J. Leach, 86 Nassau
St., New York.

For Sale.--A Baltimore City Fire Department Steam Fire Engine, in
complete working order. Address P.O. Box 676, Baltimore, Md.

Metallic Piston Rod Packing Company, 773 Broad St., Newark, N. J.
Agents wanted; terms liberal.

Skinner & Wood, Erie, Pa., Portable and Stationary Engines, are full
of orders, and withdraw their illustrated advertisement. Send for
their new circulars.

Asbestos Board on Chimneys prevents their heat from affecting the
temperature of rooms through which they pass. Asbestos Pat. Fiber Co.,
lim., 194 Broadway, N. Y.

Sweetland & Co., 126 Union St., New Haven, Conn., manufacture the
Sweetland Combination Chuck.

Power, Foot, and Hand Presses for Metal Workers. Lowest prices.
Peerless Punch & Shear Co., 52 Dey St., N. Y. The Brown Automatic
Cut-off Engine; unexcelled for workmanship, economy, and durability.
Write for information. C. H. Brown & Co., Fitchburg, Mass.

Corrugated Traction Tire for Portable Engines, etc. Sole
manufacturers, H. Lloyd, Son & Co., Pittsburg, Pa.

For the best Stave, Barrel, Keg, and Hogshead Machinery, address H. A.
Crossley, Cleveland, Ohio.

Best Oak Tanned Leather Belting. Wm. F. Forepaugh, Jr., & Bros. 531
Jefferson St., Philadelphia, Pa.

National Steel Tube Cleaner for boiler tubes. Adjustable, durable.
Chalmers-Spence Co., 40 John St., N. Y.

Split Pulleys at low prices, and of same strength and appearance
as Whole Pulleys. Yocom & Son's Shafting Works, Drinker St.,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Stave, Barrel, Keg, and Hogshead Machinery a specialty by E. & B.
Holmes, Buffalo, N. Y.

Solid Emery Vulcanite Wheels--The Solid Original Emery Wheel other
kinds imitations and inferior. Caution.--Our name is stamped in full
on all our best Standard Belting, Packing, and Hose. Buy that only.
The best is the cheapest. New York Belting and Packing Company, 37 and
38 Park Bow. N. Y.

For Separators, Farm & Vertical Engines, see adv. p. 382.

Walrus Leather, Emery, and Polishing Goods. Greene, Tweed & Co., 118
Chambers St., New York.

Nickel Plating.--Sole manufacturers cast nickel anodes, pure nickel
salts, importers Vienna lime, crocus, etc. Condit, Hanson & Van
Winkle, Newark, N. J., and 92, and 94 Liberty St., New York.

Presses, Dies, and Tools for working Sheet Metal, etc. Fruit & other
can tools. Bliss & Williams, B'klyn, N. Y.

Bradley's cushioned helve hammers. See illus. ad. p. 397.

Instruction in Steam and Mechanical Engineering. A thorough practical
education, and a desirable situation as soon as competent, can be
obtained at the National Institute of Steam Engineering, Bridgeport,
Conn. For particulars, send for pamphlet.

Hydraulic Jacks, Presses and Pumps. Polishing and Buffing Machinery
Patent Punches, Shears, etc. E. Lyon & Co., 470 Grand St., New York.

Forsaith & Co., Manchester, N. H., & 207 Centre St., N. Y. Bolt
Forging Machines, Power Hammers, Comb'd Hand Fire Eng. & Hose
Carriages, New & 2d hand Machinery. Send stamp for illus. cat. State
just what you want.

For Mill Mach'y & Mill Furnishing, see illus. adv. p. 381.

Air Compressors, Blowing Engines, Steam Pumping Machinery, Hydraulic
Presses. Philadelphia Hydraulic Works, Philadelphia, Pa.

For Patent Shapers and Planers, see ills. adv. p. 380.

For Pat. Safety Elevators, Hoisting Engines, Friction Clutch Pulleys,
Cut-off Coupling, see Frisbie's ad. p. 316.

Machine Knives for Wood-working Machinery, Book Binders, and Paper
Mills. Large knife work a specialty. Also manufacturers of Soloman's
Parallel Vise. Taylor. Stiles & Co., Riegelsville, N. J.

For Alcott's Improved Turbine, see adv. p. 297.

Mineral Lands Prospected, Artesian Wells Bored, by Pa. Diamond Drill
Co. Box 423, Pottsville, Pa. See p. 381.

Rollstone Mac. Co's Wood Working Mach'y ad. p. 380

Improved Solid Emery Wheels and Machinery, Automatic Knife Grinders,
Portable Chuck Jaws. _Important_, that users should have prices of
these first class goods. American Twist Drill Co., Meredithville, N.
H.

For Standard Turbine, see last or next number.

Burgess' Non-conductor for Heated Surfaces; easily applied, efficient,
and inexpensive. Applicable to plain or curved surfaces, pipes, elbows
and valves. See p. 284.

Diamond Saws. J. Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., N. Y.

Steam Hammers, Improved Hydraulic Jacks, and Tube Expanders. R.
Dudgeon, 24 Columbia St., New York.

Wanted--The address of 40,000 Sawyers and Lumbermen for a copy of
Emerson's Hand Book of Saws. New edition 1880. Over 100 illustrations
and pages of valuable information. Emerson, Smith & Co., Beaver Falls,
Pa.

Eagle Anvils, 10 cents per pound. Fully warranted.

For Wood-Working Machinery, see illus. adv. p. 413.

Eclipse Portable Engine. See illustrated adv., p. 413.

Tight and Slack Barrel machinery a specialty. John Greenwood & Co.,
Rochester, N. Y. See illus. adv. p. 413.

Elevators, Freight and Passenger, Shafting, Pulleys and Hangers. L. S.
Graves & Son, Rochester, N. Y.

$400 Vertical Engine, 30 H.P. See page 413.

Best American Shot Gun made is the "Colts." Far superior to any
English guns for the same price. For description, see SCI. AMERICAN
of May 29. Send for circular to Hodgkins & Haigh, Dealers in General
Sporting Goods, 300 Broadway, New York.

Telephones.--Inventors of Improvements in Telephones and Telephonic
Apparatus are requested to communicate with the Scottish Telephonic
Exchange, Limited, 34 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Scotland. J. G.
Lorrain, General Manager.

Pat. Steam Hoisting Mach'y. See illus. adv., p. 413.

Hydraulic Cylinders, Wheels, and Pinions, Machinery Castings; all
kinds; strong and durable; and easily worked. Tensile strength not
less than 65,000 lbs. to square in. Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co.,
Pittsburgh, Pa.

C. J. Pitt & Co., Show Case Manufacturers, 226 Canal St., New York.
Orders promptly attended to. Send for illustrated catalogue with
prices.

For best low price Planer and Matcher, and latest improved Sash,
Door, and Blind Machinery, Send for catalogue to Rowley & Hermance,
Williamsport, Pa.

Elevators.--Stokes & Parrish, Phila., Pa. See p. 412.

Penfield (Pulley) Block Works. See illus. adv. p. 413.

       *       *       *       *       *



[OFFICIAL.]

INDEX OF INVENTIONS

FOR WHICH

LETTERS PATENT OF THE UNITED STATES WERE GRANTED IN THE WEEK ENDING;

JUNE 1, 1880,

AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE.

[Those marked (r) are reissued patents.]

       *       *       *       *       *


A printed copy of the specification and drawing of any patent in the
annexed list, also of any patent issued since 1866, will be furnished
from this office for one dollar. In ordering please state the number
and date of the patent desired, and remit to Munn & Co., 37 Park Row,
New York city. We also furnish copies, of patents granted prior to
1866; but at increased cost, as the specifications not being printed,
must be copied by hand.

Adding machine, C. P. Sullivan                               228,416
Advertising checker board, H. P. Eysenbach                   228,330
Annunciator, pneumatic, D. & T. Morris                       228,267
Axle lubricator, car, C. D. Flynt                            228,337
Axle lubricator, vehicle, L. Adams                           228,242
Bale tie, W. S. E. Sevey                                     228,223
Baling press, H. O. King                                     228,361
Bedstead, invalid, E. Conover                                228,318
Bedstead, sofa, C. S. E. Spoerl _et al_                      228,408
Belting and process of manufacture, cotton, M. Gandy         228,186
Belts, lacing, O. C. Pomeroy                                 228,390
Berth for vessels, self-leveling, D. Huston (r)                9,224
Berth for vessels, self-leveling, C. C. Sanderson            228,278
Berth, self-leveling ship's, C. C. Sanderson                 228,279
Binders, knot tyer for self, W. Stephens                     228,228
Blacking and polishing boots and shoes, machine
  for, P. P. Audoye                                          228,297
Blower, fan, H. Allen                                        228,293
Bolting tree, J. M. Springer                                 228,409
Boot and gaiter, rubber, G. H. Sanford                       228,398
Bottle, etc., lock, A. T. Boone                              228,170
Bottle stopper, E. Hollender                                 228,355
Bow strings, clutch for, C. M. Beard                         228,302
Bracelet, C. E. Hayward                                      228,348
Bracelet, A. Vester                                          228,425
Bran cleaner, L. Gathmann                                    228,340
Brick, pottery, etc., kiln for burning, E. Escherich         228,331
Buckboard, E. Hitt                                           228,352
Buckle, tug, D. O. Fosgate                                   228,255
Bumper, W. V. Perry                                          228,385
Bung, J. H. Stamp                                            228,227
Button fastener, D. Bainbridge                               228,298
Button, sleeve and cuff, H. McDougall                        228,370
Buttons, machine for making, W. W. Wade                      228,233
Can, D. Bennett                                              228,167
Can fastening, J. Hall                                       228,343
Car coupling, Neff & Thalman                                 228,378
Car coupling, J. F. Stanley                                  228,411
Car coupling, Morand & Edwards                               228,212
Car coupling tool, G. Searl                                  228,400
Car door bolt, A. W. Zimmerman                               228,241
Car wheel, J. A. Woodbury                                    228,430
Car wheel chill, W. Wilmington                               228,428
Cars, bell cord guide for railway, S. L. Finley              228,253
Cars upon railways, running, J. R. Cox                       228,176
Carbureting gas and air, W. M. Jackson                       228,357
Card teeth, apparatus for tempering wire for,
  W. F. Bateman                                              228,301
Carpet fastener, W. Bray                                     228,306
Carpet lining, G. J. Bicknell                                228,168
Carpet sweeper, B. W. Johnson                                228,358
Carriage top, E. S. Scripture (r)                              9,230
Carriage top rest, G. Miles                                  228,211
Cartridge shells, machine for drawing, A. C. Hobbs           228,197
Centering machine, J. E. Dimsey                              228,249
Chair seats and backs, making, F. D. Newton                  228,377
Chandelier, extension, G. Bohner                             228,244
Cheese press, M. B. Fraser (r)                                 9,228
Cheese press, G. F. White                                    228,291
Cheese vat, J. B. Marquis                                    228,366
Chuck, J. H. Westcott                                        228,426
Churn, E. Rhoades (r)                                          9,225
Clock, alarm, F. Krober                                      228,202
Clock, calendar, C. S. Lewis                                 228,261
Clock case, G. Havell                                        228,193
Cloth pressing machine, P. Miller                            228,375
Clutch, W. J. Ray                                            228,276
Cockle separator, D. Brubaker                                228,310
Collar, horse, T. Hepburn                                    228,351
Commode, A. Climie                                           228,313
Copying process, dry, Kwaysser & Husak                       228,362
Cork tapering machine, F. L. Blair                           228,169
Corn husking machine, F. L. Collis                           228,174
Corn husking machine roller, E. A. Bourquin                  228,305
Corn popper, D. Lumbert                                      228,205
Cornice, window, H. F. Gray                                  228,189
Cranks, device for overcoming the dead points
  of, C. L. Fleischmann                                      228,185
Crochet needles, manufacture of, J. A. Smith                 228,404
Crucible furnaces, hydrocarbon burner for, I. M. Seamans     228,281
Cutlery, pocket, J. W. Ayers                                 228,163
Danger signal, M. A. Vosburgh                                228,232
Diagram for theaters, etc., H. T. Lemon                      228,204
Domestic boiler, C. Friedeborn                               228,339
Drawing, apparatus for assisting in, W. B. O. Peabody        228,273
Drying apparatus, W. J. Johnson                              228,259
Electrotype mould, E. B. Sheldon                             228,224
Exercising machine, F. Saunders                              228,277
Eyeglasses, J. Schaffer                                      228,399
Fan, M. Rubin                                                228,394
Fastening device, E. F. Miller                               228,373
Faucet attachment, C. A. Raggio                              228,219
Fence nail, wire, E. L. Warren                               228,236
Fertilizers, process and apparatus for the manufacture
  of, W. Plumer                                              228,387
Firearm, breech-loading, W. H. Baker                         228,165
Fluted fabrics, machine for creasing, E. Brosemann           228,309
Fruit basket, H. B. Crandall                                 228,248
Fuel, process and apparatus for burning pulverized,
  A. Faber de Faur                                           228,334
Furnace, B. F. Smith                                         228,405
Gas, making illuminating, T. J. F. Regan                     228,392
Gate, E. J. Clark                                            228,314
Gate roller, F. W. Holbrook                                  228,354
Gelatine or ichthyocolla from salted fish skins,
  extracting, J. S. Rogers (r)                                 9,226
Glass furnace, T. B. Atterbury                               228,296
Glassware, machine for grinding, A. M. Bacon                 228,164
Glove fastener, Smith & Hassall                              228,403
Governor, elevator, I. H. Small                              228,284
Governor for marine engines, W. U. Fairbairn                 228,252
Governor for middlings purifiers, etc., feed, W. Donlon      228,180
Grain conveyer, pneumatic, F. A. Luckenbach                  228,206
Grain meter, J. B. Stoner                                    228,229
Grain separator, magnetic, C. E. Fritz (r)                     9,229
Grate, fire, E. Moneuse                                      228,376
Grinding and polishing wheel, G. Hart                        228,257
Hammer lifter, drop, C. G. Cross                             228,324
Harness, breast, J. W. Cooper                                228,175
Harrow, S. A. Bollinger                                      228,303
Harrow, C. W. Page                                           228,382
Harvester, Jones & Emerson                                   228,359
Header, guiding, W. H. Keen                                  228,260
Heating and ventilating apparatus, J. W. Geddes              228,188
Hinge, spring, L. Bommer                                     228,304
Hitching strap, J. C. Covert                                 228,322
Hoes and other tools, eye for, J. R. Thomas                  228,419
Hog holder and nose ring carrier, W. A. Stark                228,286
Horse hoof pad, A. J. Lockie                                 228,262
Horse power equalizer, W. T. G. Cobb                         228,173
Horse power sweep, J. Branning                               228,307
Horseshoe nail machine, J. Roy                               228,220
Hose coupling, S. Adlam, Jr.                                 228,161
Hose coupling, M. B. Hill                                    228,196
Hot air furnace, B. W. Felton                                228,336
Hydraulic joint, E. D. Meier                                 228,209
Indigo blue, making artificial, A. Baeyer                    228,300
Lamp, car, G. Seagrave                                       228,402
Lamp globe, G. Chappel                                       228,247
Lamp, street, J. G. Miner                                    228,265
Last, W. J. Crowley                                          228,178
Latch, G. L. Crandal                                         228,323
Life protector for railway rails, E. J. Hoffman              228,353
Lifting jack, J. State                                       228,285
Lithographic press, J. A. Parks                              228,271
Lock, C. F. Otto                                             228,379
Locomotive, J. B. Smith                                      228,406
Locomotive cone, F. A. Perry                                 228,386
Locomotive engine, J. W. Clardy                              228,172
Locomotive lubricator, W. P. Phillips                        228,215
Loom for weaving gauze fabrics, A. McLean                    228,372
Loom shedding mechanism, H. Halcroft                         228,191
Loom temple, E. Hamilton                                     228,346
Loom temple, J. & L. Hardaker                                228,256
Lubricator, W. P. Phillips                          228,216, 228,217
Mash machine, W. Craig                                       228,177
Mash rake, whisky, D. L. Graves                              228,190
Mash stirrer, G. Schock                                      228,222
Measuring machine, cloth, B. K. Parker                       228,381
Middlings purifier, J. B. Martin                             228,367
Milk cooler, T. Stahler                                      228,412
Milk pail holder, A. C. Dodge                                228,327
Mining and excavating apparatus, E. M. Hugentobler           228,356
Mortising machine, E. H. N. Clarkson (r)                       9,221
Nickel, solution for electro-deposition of, J. Powell        228,389
Oil and lard oil, treatment of petroleum lubricating,
  H. V. P. Draper                                            228,181
Ore separator, magnetic, T. A. Edison                        228,329
Packing for piston rods, etc., metallic,
  L. Katzenstein                                             228,200
Packing for steam engines, spring, J. W. Smith               228,225
Packing, piston, W. M. Thompson, Jr.                         228,420
Packing, piston rod, R. B. H. Gould                          228,341
Padlock, McDonald & McAllister (r)                           228,371
Pantaloons, F. H. Carney                                     228,246
Paper bag machine, C. A. Chandler                            228,312
Paper floor covering, compound, H. Hayward                   228,194
Paper for bank notes, checks, etc., J Sangster               228,221
Parchment or toughening paper, making artificial,
  L. H. G. Ehrhardt                                          228,328
Pens, pointing, E. Wiley                                     228,427
Permutation lock, J. B. Cook                                 228,316
Photo-negatives, producing, embellishing, and retouching,
  W. D. Osborne                                              228,380
Photographic background, accessory for forming, W. F. Ashe   228,295
Picture support, G. H. Brown                                 228,308
Pillow sham holder, M. A. Steers                             228,414
Pipes, tubing etc., protector for the threaded ends of,
  H. E. Boyd                                                 228,171
Planter, corn, R. H. C. Enyeart                              228,332
Planter, corn, A. Hearst                                     228,258
Planter, corn, A. Runstetler                                 228,396
Plow attachment, J. R. Harbaugh                              228,192
Plumbers' traps, manufacture of, J. McCloskey                228,369
Preserving evaporated fruits and vegetables,
  H. G. Hulburd                                              228,198
Printer's chase, J. Kingsland, Jr.                           228,201
Printer's quoin, C. G. Squintani                             228,410
Printer's type case, J. T. Edson                             228,251
Pulley, J. B. Stockham                                       228,415
Pump, W. S. Laney                                            228,203
Pump, lift, P. T. Perkins                                    228,383
Pump, rotary, J. Hallner                                     228,344
Pump, steam jet, Randall & Tuttle                            228,275
Railway heads, stop motion for, H. T. Spencer                228,407
Railway joints, angle splice for, J. D. Hawks                228,347
Railway signal apparatus, electric, O. Gassett               228,187
Range, D. H. Nation                        228,268, 228,269, 228,270
Reclining chair, T. G. Maguire                               228,263
Refrigerating and ice making apparatus, C. P. G. Linde       228,364
Rivets, making tubular, G. W. Tucker                         228,423
Rock drills and earth augers, machine for operating,
  G. Taylor                                                  228,418
Rubber bottles, etc., closing the openings in India,
  T. J. Mayall                                               228,207
Rubber, ornamenting hard, H., O., & M. Traun                 228,290
Sash cord fastener and sash lock, combined,
  E. V. Heaford                                              228,349
Sash cord guide, E. H. N. Clarkson (r)                         9,222
Sash fastener, S. P. Jackson                                 228,199
Sash fastening, J. Pusey                                     228,274
Sawing machine, circular, P. Pryibil                         228,218
Sawing machine, drag, S. F. Steele                           228,413
Sawing machine, drag, A. Wilkins                             228,237
Screw bolt, L. Strauss                                       228,288
Screw threads, device for cutting, J. C. Williams            228,429
Sealing packages, E. A. McAlpin                              228,368
Seaming machine, F. A. Walsh                        228,234, 228,235
Sewing machine balance wheel pulley, E. Flather              228,184
Sheet metal joint, C. Wright                                 228,240
Shirt, G. C. Henning                                         228,195
Shoe, J. J. Snyder                                           228,226
Shoe nail, Z. Talbot                                         228,417
Shoe support, rubber, J. G. Foreman                          228,338
Shoulder brace, C. A. Williamson                             228,238
Sign, flexible, F. Tuchfarber (r)                              9,223
Skiving machine, W. S. Fitzgerald                            228,183
Skylight, W. D. Smith                                        228,282
Smoker's kit, T. V. Curtis                                   228,325
Soap and other materials, apparatus for mixing,
  W., Sr., W., Jr., & A. W. Cornwall                         228,320
Soap, machine for mixing materials for making,
  W., Sr., W., Jr., & A. W. Cornwall                         228,319
Soap, process and apparatus for remelting, W., Jr.,
  & A. W. Cornwall                                           228,321
Soda water, apparatus for generating gas for, J. Collins     228,315
Spark arrester, locomotive, D. P. Wright                     228,431
Spool box, C. Tollner                                        228,289
Stamp, hand, T. Berridge                                     228,243
Stamp, postage, J. Macdonough                                228,365
Steam engine, J. C. Miller                                   228,374
Steam engine recorder, G. H. Crosby                          228,179
Steam generator, N. Eaton                                    228,250
Stove, A. C. Barstow                                         228,166
Stove grate, J. Moore, Jr                                    228,266
Stove, hay, Stocum & Merrill                                 228,287
Stove, magazine, C. Seavor                                   228,401
Surface gauge, F. J. Rabbeth                                 228,391
Swarm catcher, J. W. Bailey                                  228,299
Syringe attachment, S Turner                                 228,422
Tackle or pulley block, T. R. Ferrall                        228,335
Telephone, S. Russell                                        228,395
Telephone circuit switch, G. L. Anders                       228,294
Telephones, dental attachment for, H. G. Fiske               228,254
Testing machine, T. Olsen                                    228,214
Textile and other materials, machine for cutting,
  A. Warth (r)                                                 9,232
Textile fabrics, machine for cutting, A. Warth (r)             9,231
Ticket holder, C. Scherich                                   228,280
Ticket, railway, F. C. Nims                                  228,213
Tobacco caddy, R. Finzer                                     228,182
Tobacco hoisting apparatus, W. S. Guy                        228,342
Tongs, pipe, S. Fawcett                                      228,333
Toy, creeping, P. Von Erichsen                               228,231
Treadle mechanism, D. S. Van Wyck                            228,424
Treadle power machine, G. W. Ziegler                         228,432
Tree protector, J. W. Richards                               228,393
Trimmings, flitter for milliners', J. Lambert                228,363
Tube machine, D. Appel                                       228,162
Valve, balanced, E. D. Meier                                 228,210
Vapor burner, W. H. Smith (r)                                  9,227
Vehicle spring, H. M. Keith                                  228,360
Vent for beer barrels, O. Zwietusch                          228,292
Vessels, apparatus for unloading coal, etc., from,
  Cooney & Swanston                                          228,317
Vise and clamp, J. Brady                                     228,245
Wagon, road, C. W. Saladee                                   228,397
Wagon running gear, G. W. Burr                               228,311
Wash boiler, O. Tilton                                       228,230
Washing and wringing machine, combined, C. H. Wood           228,239
Washing machine, J. B. Pettit                                228,272
Water closets, flushing cistern for, S. G. McFarland         228,264
Water heater, K. McDonald                                    228,208
Water heater, fireplace, I. B. Potts                         228,388
Whiffletree hook, E. Hanrahan                                228,345
Windlass locking gear, Remington & Manton (r)                  9,233
Windmill, A. H. Smith                                        228,283
Window screen, R. Perrin                                     228,384
Wire stretcher, H. Hemenway                                  228,350
Wood bit, L. Thuston                                         228,421

       *       *       *       *       *


DESIGNS.

Carpets, T. J. Stearns                              11,800 to 11,803
Carriage door fender, M. Wiard                                11,805
Coffin lid lifters, J. W. Rogers                              11,798
Fringe for knitted fabrics, G. Upton                          11,804
Funeral ornaments, J. W. Rogers                               11,799
Key bow, G. S. Barkentin                                      11,794
Medal batteries, Lewis & Brice                                11,796
Pencil cases, L. W. Fairchild                                 11,795
Statuary, group of, J. Rogers                                 11,797

       *       *       *       *       *


TRADE MARKS.

Cigars, E. Aschermann & Co                                     7,924
Cigars, Giglio & Freschi                                       7,926
Dry goods, Eddystone Manufacturing Co                   7,931, 7,933
Flour, B. R. Pegram, Jr.                                7,727, 7,728
Prints, Eddystone Manufacturing Company                        7,932
Soap, C. Davis & Co                                            7,925
Teas, table, Sanders & George                                  7,912
Velocipedes, N. S. C. Perkins                                  7,929

       *       *       *       *       *


ENGLISH PATENTS ISSUED TO AMERICANS.

FROM MAY 25 TO JUNE 1, 1880, INCLUSIVE.

Anthracite, obtaining, C. M. Warren, Norfolk, Mass.
Burners and generators for hydrocarbons, E. G. Furber, New York city.
Corsets, L. C. Warner, New York city.
Engines, locomotive, W. P. Hauszey, Philadelphia, Pa.
Filtering apparatus, G. H. Moore, Norwich, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISEMENTS


INSIDE PAGE, EACH INSERTION  - - - 75 CENTS A LINE.

BACK PAGE, EACH INSERTION - - - $1.00 A LINE.

(About eight words to a line.)

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received
at publication office as early as Thursday morning to appear in next
issue._

-->The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers a circulation
of not less than 50,000 copies every weekly issue.


_Fifth Edition Just Ready._

THE COMPLETE PRACTICAL MACHINIST

Embracing Lathe Work, Vise Work, Drills and Drilling,
Taps and Dies, Hardening and Tempering, the Making
and Use of Tools, etc., etc. By Joshua Rose. Illustrated
by 130 engravings. Fifth edition, revised. In
one vol., 12mo., 376 pages. Price $2.50 by mail, free of
postage.

CONTENTS: Chapter I. Lathe and Machine Tools.
II. Cutting Speed and Feed. III. Boring Tools for Lathe
Work. IV. Screw-cutting Tools. V. General Observations
on Lathe Work. VI. Turning Eccentrics. VII.
Hand Turning. VIII. Drilling in the Lathe. IX. Boring
Bars. X. Laps. XI. Twist Drills. XII. Tool Steel.
XIII. Taps and Dies. XIV. Vise-work Tools. XV.
Fitting Connecting Rods. XVI. Milling Machines and
Milling Tools. XVII. To Calculate the Speed of Wheels,
Pulleys, etc. XVIII. The Slide Valve. XIX. How to
Set a Slide Valve. XX. Pumps Index.

We also publish:

THE MODERN PRACTICE OF AMERICAN MACHINISTS
AND ENGINEERS. By Egbert P. Watson. Illustrated
by 86 engravings. 12mo, $2 50

-->The above or any of our Books sent by mail, free
of postage, at the publication price.

Our new and enlarged CATALOGUE OF PRACTICAL
AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS--96 pages, 8vo--sent free to any
one who will furnish his address.

HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.,
Industrial Publishers, Booksellers, and Importers,
810 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA.


FOR SALE,
A full set of Patent Office Reports, from 1849 to 1872.
Price $60. Apply to C. M. ALEXANDER, Washington, D. C.


BAND SAWS
AND
PLANERS
a specialty.

C. Hodgkins & Son,
Marlboro, N. H.

[Illustration]


1880                     1880
PITTSBURGH EXPOSITION SOCIETY.
THE FOURTH
EXPOSITION AND FAIR
Will open to the public Thursday, September 2, and remain
open day and evening (Sundays excepted) until
Saturday, October 9th, 1880.

Blank forms of application for space, Prospectus, and
Premium list may be had by addressing the secretary.

Exhibitors are earnestly requested to make early application
for space, thus enabling the managers to better
arrange the whole Exhibition.

New Machinery Hall; new Engine and Boilers.

Manufacturers and Inventors should avail themselves
of the unsurpassed facilities offered by this Exposition
for the introduction of new machinery to the public.

OFFICE, GERMANIA BANK BUILDING, 89 WOOD ST.
P.O. BOX 895.

E. P. YOUNG, I. C. PATTERSON,
General Manager. Secretary.
JOHN D. BAILEY, Asst. Manager and Cashier.


[Illustration:
-->SEND STAMP FOR CATALOGUE.
TOOLS:
TAPS & DIES
VISES
CHUCKS  TWIST DRILLS
MACHINE SCREWS
LATHES  FILES
STUBS TOOLS & STEEL
TALLMAN & McFADDEN--PHILADELPHIA.]


CIGAR BOX LUMBER,

MANUFACTURED BY OUR NEW PATENT PROCESS.

THE BEST IN THE WORLD.

SPANISH CEDAR,
  MAHOGANY,
    POPLAR

ALSO THIN LUMBER OF ALL OTHER KINDS, 1/8 TO ½ IN., AT CORRESPONDING
PRICES. ALL QUALITIES. EQUAL IN ALL RESPECTS TO
ANY MADE, AND AT PRICES MUCH UNDER ANY TO BE OBTAINED
OUTSIDE OF OUR ESTABLISHMENT. SEND FOR PRICE LIST.

GEO. W. READ & CO.,
186 TO 200 LEWIS STREET, N. Y.


MOSQUITO CATCHER.

WILL CLEAR YOUR ROOM IN A FEW MINUTES WITHOUT SMOKE,
SOIL, OR GREASE. PRICE 50 CENTS. SEND FOR CIRCULAR. AGENTS
WANTED EVERYWHERE. GOOD TERMS. L. T. JONES,
166 LIGHT STREET, BALTIMORE, MD.


ROOTS' NEW IRON BLOWER.

[ILLUSTRATION]

POSITIVE BLAST.
IRON REVOLVERS, PERFECTLY BALANCED
IS SIMPLER, AND HAS
FEWER PARTS THAN ANY OTHER BLOWER.
P. H. & F. M. ROOTS, MANUF'RS,
CONNERSVILLE, IND.

S. S. TOWNSEND, GEN. AGT., {6 CORTLANDT ST.,  }
                           {8 DEY STREET,     } NEW
WM. COOKE, SELLING AGT., 6 CORTLANDT STREET,  } YORK.
JAS. BEGGS & CO., SELLING AGTS., 8 DEY STREET,}

-->SEND FOR PRICED CATALOGUE.


FOUR SIDED MOULDER, WITH OUTSIDE
BEARING. WE MANUFACTURE 5 SIZES OF THESE MOULDERS.
ALSO ENDLESS BED PLANERS,
MORTISERS AND BORERS. TENONING
MACHINES, SASH DOVETAILERS.
BLIND RABBETING
MACHINES. ALSO A LARGE
VARIETY OF OTHER WOOD
WORKING MACHINES.

ADDRESS
LEVI HOUSTON, MONTGOMERY, PA.

[ILLUSTRATION]


STEAM PUMPS.
THE NORWALK IRON WORKS CO.,
SOUTH NORWALK, CONN.


THE BLAKE "LION AND EAGLE" CRUSHER,
A patented improvement of the former "New Pattern" Blake machine.
Has much greater efficiency than the old. It requires only about half
the power to drive, and is transported at much less expense (the size
most used weighing several thousand pounds less than the unimproved
machine). It requires less than half the time in oiling and other
manipulation, and less than half the expense for repairs. Address

E. S. BLAKE & CO., Pittsburgh, Pa.,
Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers.

[2 Illustrations]


DELAMATER STEAM PUMPS
For every variety of work
WATERWORKS PUMPING ENGINES
DELAMATER IRON WORKS
Boiler Makers, Engine Builders,
and Founders,

Office, No. 10 CORTLANDT ST.,

Works, Foot of W. 18th St., North River, New York.

ESTABLISHED 1841.


MODEL ENGINES

Complete sets of CASTINGS
for making small Model steam Engines
1½ in. bore, 3 in. stroke, price, $4;
ditto 2 in. bore, 4 in. stroke,
price, $10, same style as cut.
Gear Wheels and Parts of Models.
All kinds of Small Tools and Materials.
Catalogue Free.
GOODNOW & WIGHTMAN,
176 Washington Street,
Boston, Mass.


STUTTERING CURED by Bates' Appliances. Send
for description to SIMPSON & Co., Box 2236, New York.


SPARE THE CROTON AND SAVE THE COST.
DRIVEN OR TUBE WELLS
furnished to large consumers of Croton and Ridgewood
Water. WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO., 235 Broadway, N. Y.,
who control the patent for Green's American Driven Well.


THE DRIVEN WELL.
Town and County privileges for making DRIVEN
WELLS and selling Licenses under the established
AMERICAN DRIVEN WELL PATENT, leased by the year
to responsible parties, by

WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO.,
235 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.


ROOFING.
For steep or flat roofs. Applied by ordinary workmen
at one-third the cost of tin. Circulars and samples free.

Agents Wanted. T. NEW, 32 John Street, New York.


XX COT (NOT PAINTED, WHITE DUCK) $2.

[Illustration: Painted Red, Brown Canvas and Fancy Bolster, $2.50.
Painted Red, Striped Canvas and Fancy Bloster, $3.00.

COT FOLDED
XX CANVAS COT
27 IN. WIDE
MEAS. ½ CUBIC FT.]

Makes a perfect bed. No mattress or pillows required.
Better than a hammock, as it fits the body as pleasantly,
and lies _straight_. Folded or opened instantly. Self-fastening.
It is just the thing for hotels, offices, cottages, camp-meetings,
sportsmen, etc. Good for the lawn, piazza, or
"coolest place in the house." Splendid for invalids or children.
Sent on receipt of price, or C. O. D. For 50 CTS.
EXTRA, with order, I will prepay expressage to any railroad
station east of Mississippi River and north of Mason
and Dixon's line. For 75 CENTS, in Minnesota, Missouri,
and Iowa.

HERMON W. LADD, 108 FULTON ST., BOSTON;
207 Canal St., New York; 165 North Second St.,
Phila.; 94 Market St., Chicago. SEND FOR CIRCULARS.


[Illustration]

RUBBER BACK SQUARE PACKING,
BEST IN THE WORLD

[Illustration]

FOR PACKING THE PISTON RODS AND VALVE STEMS OF STEAM ENGINES AND PUMPS.

B represents that part of the packing which, when in use, is in contact
with the Piston Rod.

A the elastic back, which keeps the part B against the rod with
sufficient pressure to be steam-tight, and yet creates but little
friction.

This Packing is made in lengths of about 20 feet, and of all sizes
from ¼ to 2 inches square.

JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treas. NEW YORK BELTING & PACKING CO.,
37 & 38 Park Row, New York.


JOHN R. WHITLEY & CO.

European Representatives of American Houses, with
First-class Agents in the principal industrial and agricultural
centers and cities in Europe. London, 7 Poultry, E. C.
Paris, 8 Place Vendôme. Terms on application.
J. R. W. & Co. purchase Paris goods on commission at
shippers' discounts.


STEAM HEATING APPARATUS
LIGHTS PATENTS
24 SIZES OF BOILERS RADIATION 28 PER
CENT SUPERIOR TO ANY OTHER.
ADDRESS: EUREKA STEAM HEATING CO.
ROCHESTER, N. Y.


GRAIN SPECULATION

in large or small amounts. $25 or $25,000. Write
W. T. SOULE & CO., Commission Merchants,
130 La Salle St., CHICAGO. ILL., for Circulars.


TELEPHONE
Works 1 mile.
Price $3.50. Pat'd.
Circulars free. HOLCOMB & CO., Mallet Creek, Ohio.


JOHNSON'S PATENT UNIVERSAL LATHE CHUCK.
[Illustration]
Lambertville Iron Works, Lambertville, N. J.


GREEN HOUSE
HEATING AND
VENTILATING
APPARATUS.

BASE BURNING
WATER HEATERS.

For Small Conservatories.

HITCHINGS & CO.,
No. 233 Mercer Street,
New York.


POND'S TOOLS,

Engine Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.

DAVID W. POND, Worcester, Mass.


LATHES, PLANERS SHAPERS

Drills, Bolt and Gear Cutters, Milling Machines. Special
Machinery. E. GOULD & EBERHARDT, Newark, N. J.


[Illustration:
COE BRASS MFG. CO.
BRASS AND COPPER IN SHEETS.
WIRE AND BLANKS.
WOLCOTTVILLE, CONN.
MATERIALS FOR METALLIC.
AMMUNITION A SPECIALTY.]


BUCKET PLUNGER STEAM PUMPS,
FOR EVERY DUTY.
BUCK VALLEY MACHINE CO.,
EASTHAMPTON, MASS.


GRISCOM & CO'S
VALVE REFITTING MACHINE.
[Illustration]
POTTSVILLE,
PA.


STEEL CASTINGS

From ¼ to 15,000 lb. weight, true to pattern, of unequaled
strength, toughness, and durability. 15,000 Crank Shafts
and 10,000 Gear Wheels of this steel now running prove
its superiority over all other Steel Castings. Send for
circular and price list.
CHESTER STEEL CASTINGS Co., 407 Library St., Phila, Pa.


CARNEGIE BROS & CO
UNION IRON MILLS
PITTSBURGH PA.

WROUGHT IRON BEAMS
CHANNELS TEES & ANGLES

The attention of Architects, Engineers, and Builders
is called to the great decline in prices of wrought
STRUCTURAL IRON.

It is believed that, were owners fully aware of the small
difference in cost which now exists between iron and
wood, the former, in many cases, would be adopted,
thereby saving _insurance_ and avoiding all risk of _interruption_
to _business_ in consequence of fire. Book of detailed
information furnished to Architects, Engineers,
and Builders, on application.


ALAND'S
Silent Injector,
Blower & Exhauster.
Apply to
S. ALAND,
Rome, Oneida
Co., N. Y.
[Illustration]


WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY,
Such as Woodworth Planing, Tonguing, and Grooving
Machines, Daniel's Planers, Richardson's Patent Improved
Tenon Machines, Mortising, Moulding, and
Re-Saw Machines. Eastman's Pat. Miter Machines, and
Wood-Working Machinery generally. Manufactured by
WITHERBY, RUGG & RICHARDSON,
26 Salisbury Street, Worcester, Mass.
(Shop formerly occupied by R. BALL & CO.)


SHAFTS, PULLEYS, HANGERS, ETC.
Full assortment in store for immediate delivery.
WM. SELLERS & CO.,
79 Liberty Street, New York.


PORTER MANUF'G CO.
[Illustration]
[Illustration: The New Economizer Boiler]
The New Economizer,
the only Agricultural Engine with Return Flue
Boiler in use.
Send for circular to
PORTER MFG. Co., Limited,
Syracuse, N. Y.
G. G. YOUNG, Gen. Agt., 42 Cortland St., New York.


FORSTER'S ROCK & ORE BREAKER AND COMBINED CRUSHER AND PULVERIZER.

[Illustration]
_The simplest machine ever devised for the purpose._
Parties who have used it constantly for six years testify that it
will do _double_ the work of _any other Crusher_, with one-third
the Power, and one-half the expense for keeping in repair.
The smaller sizes can be run with Horse Power.
Address TOTTEN & CO., Pittsburgh Pa.


STEAM PUMPS.

HENRY R. WORTHINGTON.

239 BROADWAY, N. Y.
83 WATER ST., BOSTON.
709 MARKET ST., ST. LOUIS, MO.

THE WORTHINGTON PUMPING ENGINES FOR WATER
WORKS--Compound, Condensing or Non-Condensing.
Used in over 100 Water-Works Stations.

WORTHINGTON STEAM PUMPS of all sizes and for all
purposes.

PRICES BELOW THOSE OF ANY
OTHER STEAM PUMP IN
THE MARKET.

WATER METERS. OIL METERS.


KNOW THYSELF.

The untold miseries that result
from indiscretion in early life
may be alleviated and cured.
Those who doubt this assertion
should purchase the new medical
work published by the PEABODY
MEDICAL INSTITUTE, Boston,
entitled THE SCIENCE OF
LIFE; or, SELF-PRESERVATION.
Exhausted vitality,
nervous and physical debility, or
vitality impaired by the errors of
youth, or too close application to business,
may be restored and manhood regained.

[Illustration]

Two hundredth edition, revised and enlarged, just
published. It is a standard medical work, the best in
the English language, written by a physician of great
experience, to whom was awarded a gold and jeweled
medal by the National Medical Association. It contains
beautiful and very expensive engravings. Three
hundred pages, more than 50 valuable prescriptions for
all forms of prevailing disease, the result of many years
of extensive and successful practice, either one of
which is worth ten times the price of the book. Bound
in French cloth; price only $1, sent by mail, postpaid.

The London Lancet says: "No person should be
without this valuable book. The author is a noble
benefactor."

An illustrated sample sent to all on receipt of 6 cents
for postage.

The author refers, by permission, to Hon. P. A. BISSELL, M.D.,
prest. of the National Medical Association.
Address Dr. W. H. PARKER, No. 4
Bulfinch Street, Boston, Mass. The
author may be consulted on all diseases
requiring skill and experience.

HEAL THYSELF


EXTRA BARGAINS.

Town rights, $10; county, $25. Best novelty yet manufactured.
If you want to make money, address, with stamp,
J. H. MARTIN, Hartford, N. Y.


[Illustration:

CARY & MOEN
STEEL WIRE OF EVERY DESCRIPTION
& STEEL SPRINGS.
234 W. 29. ST., NEW YORK CITY]


"THE 1876 INJECTOR."
Simple, Durable, and Reliable. Requires no special
valves. Send for illustrated circular.
WM. SELLERS & CO., Phila.


[Illustration: PATENTS.]
CAVEATS, COPYRIGHTS, LABEL
REGISTRATION, ETC.

Messrs. Munn & Co., in connection with the publication
of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine
Improvements, and to act as Solicitors of Patents for
Inventors.

In this line of business they have had OVER THIRTY
YEARS' EXPERIENCE, and now have _unequaled facilities_
for the Preparation of Patent Drawings, Specifications,
and the Prosecution of Applications for Patents in the
United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs.
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats,
Registration of Labels, Copyrights for Books, Labels,
Reissues, Assignments, and Reports on Infringements
of Patents. All business intrusted to them is done
with special care and promptness, on very moderate
terms.

We send free of charge, on application, a pamphlet
containing further information about Patents and how
to procure them; directions concerning Labels, Copyrights,
Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues, Infringements,
Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the Sale
of Patents, etc.

_Foreign Patents_.--We also send, _free of charge_, a
Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws, showing the cost and
method of securing patents in all the principal countries
of the world. American inventors should bear in
mind that, as a general rule, any invention that is valuable
to the patentee in this country is worth equally as
much in England and some other foreign countries.
Five patents--embracing Canadian, English, German,
French, and Belgian--will secure to an inventor the exclusive
monopoly to his discovery among about ONE
HUNDRED AND FIFTY MILLIONS of the most intelligent
people in the world. The facilities of business and
steam communication are such that patents can be obtained
abroad by our citizens almost as easily as at
home. The expense to apply for an English patent is
$75; German, $100; French, $100; Belgian, $100; Canadian, $50.

_Copies of Patents_.--Persons desiring any patent
issued from 1836 to November 20, 1866, can be supplied
with official copies at reasonable cost, the price depending
upon the extent of drawings and length of
specifications.

Any patent issued since November 20, 1866, at which
time the Patent Office commenced printing the drawings
and specifications, may be had by remitting to
this office $1.

A copy of the claims of any patent issued since 1836
will be furnished for $1.

When ordering copies, please to remit for the same
as above, and state name of patentee, title of invention,
and date of patent.

A pamphlet, containing full directions for obtaining
United States patents sent free. A handsomely bound
Reference Book, gilt edges, contains 140 pages and
many engravings and tables important to every patentee
and mechanic, and is a useful handbook of reference
for everybody. Price 25 cents, mailed free.

Address MUNN & CO.,
Publishers SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
37 Park Row, New York.

_BRANCH OFFICE--Corner of F and 7th Streets,
Washington, D. C._


THE HOLLY SYSTEM OF STEAM HEATING
FOR CITIES AND VILLAGES. HOLLY STEAM COMBINATION CO. LIMITED.
LOCKPORT N. Y.
SEE ILLUSTRATED AD. IN LAST NUMBER.


THE ASBESTOS PACKING CO.,
Miners and Manufacturers of Asbestos,
BOSTON, MASS.,
OFFER FOR SALE:
PATENTED ASBESTOS ROPE     PACKING,
    "        "    LOOSE       "
    "        "    JOURNAL     "
    "        "    WICK        "
    "        "    MILL BOARD,
    "        "    SHEATHING PAPER,
    "        "    FLOORING FELT.
    "        "    CLOTH.


COLUMBIA BICYCLE.

A practical road machine. Indorsed
by the medical profession as the most
healthful of outdoor sports. Send 3
cent stamp for 24 page catalogue, with
price list and full information, or 10
cents for catalogue and copy of _The
Bicycling World_.

THE POPE M'F'G CO.,
89 Summer Street, Boston, Mass.


MACHINISTS' TOOLS.
NEW AND IMPROVED PATTERNS.
Send for new illustrated catalogue.
Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c,
NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO.,
New Haven, Conn.


H. W. JOHNS'
ASBESTOS

LIQUID PAINTS, ROOFING, BOILER COVERINGS,
Steam Packing, Sheathings, Fireproof Coatings, Cements,
SEND FOR SAMPLES, ILLUSTRATED PAMPHLET, AND PRICE LIST.
H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO., 87 MAIDEN LANE, N. Y.


THE GEORGE PLACE MACHINERY AGENCY
Machinery of Every Description
121 Chambers and 103 Reade Streets, New York.


THE WATSON PUMP, FOR ARTESIAN, OR DEEPWELL PUMPING,
PISTON ROD, PLUNGER & WELL ROD IN DIRECT LINE MACHINE
SIMPLE, EFFICIENT.
JAMES WATSON, 1508 S. FRONT ST., PHILA.


DIES FOR EVERY PURPOSE.
STILES & PARKER PRESS CO., Middletown, Ct.


BI-SULPHIDE OF CARBON.
E. R. TAYLOR,
Cleveland, O.


ICE-HOUSE AND REFRIGERATOR.--
Directions and Dimensions for construction, with one
illustration of cold house for preserving fruit from
season to season. The air is kept dry and pure throughout
the year at a temperature of 34° to 36°. Contained
in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, 116. Price 10 cents.
To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.


BEECHER & PECK,
Successors of MILO PECK, Manufacturers of
PECK'S PATENT DROP PRESS,
Regular sizes. Hammer
from 50 to 2,570 Lb. Special
attention given to making
of Drop Dies, Drop and Machine
Forgings.

New Haven, Conn.
[ILLUSTRATION]
[ILLUSTRATION]


17--STOP ORGANS
Sub-bass and Oct. Coupler, box'd and ship'd only $97.75.
New Pianos, $195 to $1,600. Before you buy an
instrument be sure to see my Mid-summer offer, illustrated,
free. Address Daniel F. Beatty, Washington, N. J.


ADVERTISEMENTS.


INSIDE PAGE, EACH INSERTION  - - - 75 CENTS A LINE.
BACK PAGE, EACH INSERTION - - - $1.00 A LINE.
(About eight words to a line.)

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate
per line, by measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements
must be received at publication office as early
as Thursday morning to appear in next issue._

-->The publishers of this paper guarantee to advertisers
a circulation of not less than 50,000 copies every
weekly issue.


FOR SALE.--PLYMOUTH MACHINE
Works, Engine, and Saw Mill. Patterns on hand. Locality
good. For particulars, call on or address the works.
Plymouth Machine Works, Plymouth, Richland Co., O.


FIRE BRICK, TILE AND CLAY RETORTS ALL SHAPES
BORGNER & O'BRIEN
23rd ST, ABOVE RACE, PHILADELPHIA.


HOLLY'S IMPROVED WATER WORKS.

Direct Pumping Plan. Advantages: 1. Secures by
variable pressure a more reliable water supply for all
purposes. 2. Less cost for construction. 3. Less cost
for maintenance. 4. Less cost for daily supply for all
use of Holly's Improved Pumping Machinery. 5. Affords
the best fire protection in the world. 6. Largely
reduces insurance risks and premiums. 7. Dispenses
with fire engines, in whole or in part. 8. Reduces fire
department expenses. For information, address the
HOLLY MANUFACTURING CO., Lockport, N. Y.,
Or PARK BENJAMIN & BRO., Gen. Agents,

49 and 50 Astor House, N. Y. City.


[Illustration]

Established 1844.

JOSEPH C. TODD,

Successor to TODD & RAFFERTY,

PATERSON, N. J.,

Engineer and Machinist.

Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum,
and Bagging Machinery. Steam Engines,
Boilers, etc. Sole Agent for
Mayher's New Patent Acme Steam
Engine and Force Pumps combined.
Also owner and exclusive manufacturer
of

THE NEW
BAXTER PATENT PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE.

These engines are admirably adapted to all kinds of
light power for driving printing presses, pumping water,
sawing wood, grinding coffee, ginning cotton, and all
kinds of agricultural and mechanical purposes, and are
furnished at the following low prices:

1 Horse Power, $150 | 1½ Horse Power, $190
2 Horse Power,  245 | 2½ Horse Power,  275
3 Horse Power.  290 | 4  Horse Power,  350

Send for descriptive circular. Address
J. C. TODD,
PATERSON, N. J.
Or No. 10 Barclay St., New York.


EMERY WHEELS AND GRINDING MACHINES.

[Illustration:
EX INUTILI UTILITAS
TANITE
TRADE MARK]

THE TANITE CO.,
Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pa.

Orders may be directed to us at any of the following addresses,
at each of which we carry a stock:

London, Eng., 9 St. Andrews St., Holborn Viaduct, E. C.
Liverpool, Eng., 42, The Temple, Dale St.
Sydney, N. S. W., 11 Pitt St.
San Francisco, 2 and 4 California St.
Chicago, 152 and 154 Lake St.
St. Louis, 209 North Third St.
 "   "  811 to 819 North Second St.
Cincinnati, 212 West Second St.
Indianapolis, Corner Maryland and Delaware Sts.
Louisville, 427 West Main St.
Nashville, 28 West Side Public Square.
New Orleans, 26 Union St.


THE NEW YORK ICE MACHINE COMPANY,
  21 COURTLANDT STREET, ROOM 54.
Low Pressure Binary Absorption System.

Advantages over other Machines.

Makes 25 per cent. more Ice. Uses only ¼ water of condensation.
No Pressure at rest. Pressure in running,
14 pounds. Self-lubricating. No Leaks, non-inflammable.
No action on Metals. Easy Attendance.


WM. A. HARRIS.

PROVIDENCE, R. I. (PARK STREET),

Six minutes walk West from station.
Original and Only builder of the
HARRIS-CORLISS ENGINE
With Harris' Patented Improvements,
from 10 to 1,000 H.P.


[Illustration]

THE BAKER BLOWER.
Centennial Judges Report.

"Good Design and Material. Very
efficient in action. With the special advantages
that they can  be connected
for motion directly with engine without
the use of gearing or belting."

SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

WILBRAHAM BROS.
No. 2318 Frankford Avenue,
PHILADELPHIA, PA.


BOILER COVERINGS,
Plastic Cement and Hair Felt, with or without the
Patent "AIR SPACE" Method.
ASBESTOS MATERIALS,
Made from pure Italian Asbestos, in fiber, mill board, and
round packing. THE CHALMERS-SPENCE CO.,
40 John Street, and Foot of E. 9th Street, New York.


TELEGRAPH and Electrical Supplies.
Send for Catalogue.
C. E. JONES & BRO., CINCINNATI, O.


WOOD SOLE SHOES.

The cheapest, most durable,
warm, good looking, and thoroughly
waterproof shoe. Particularly
adapted to Brewers,
Miners, and all classes of laborers.
Send stamp for circular
and price list.

CHAS. W. COPELAND,
122 Summer St., Boston, Mass.


BUY NO BOOTS OR SHOES

Unless the soles are protected from wear by _Goodrich's
Bessemer Steel Rivets. Guaranteed to outwear any other
sole._ All dealers sell these boots. Taps by mail for 50
cents in stamps. Send paper pattern of size wanted.
H. C. GOODRICH, 19 Church St., Worcester, Mass.


SPY Glasses, Field & Opera Glasses, MICROSCOPES,
McALLISTER Magnifying Glasses. Circulars free.
Mfg Optician, 49 Nassau St., N. Y.


[Illustration]
PAINTERS attention: send for circulars.
etc. of my latest Metallic Plates for graining
oak, walnut, chestnut, ash, etc., in the
most rapid and excellent manner, no skill
required. J. J. CALLOW. Cleveland. O.


HARTFORD
STEAM BOILER
Inspection & Insurance
COMPANY.

W. B. FRANKLIN, V. Pres't, J. M. ALLEN, Pres't.
J. B. PIERCE, Sec'y.


THE RODIER PATENT SINGLE IRON PLANE.

[Illustration]

Made of extra quality iron. A practical labor saving tool.
Cuts against the grain equally as well as with it. Can be
adjusted instantly to cut a coarse or fine shaving, and
excels any double iron plane ever produced.
Address LAFLIN MANUFACTURING CO.,
North Elm Street, Westfield, Mass.


PYROMETERS,

For showing heat of
Ovens, Hot Blast Pipes,
Boiler Flues. Superheated Steam, Oil Stills, etc.
HENRY W. BULKLEY, Sole Manufacturer,
149 Broadway, N. Y.


THE MACKINNON PEN OR FLUID PENCIL.

[Illustration]

Particulars mailed Free.
MACKINNON PEN CO.,
200 Broadway, near Fulton St., N. Y.


FRIEDMANN'S PATENT INJECTOR,
The best
BOILER FEEDER
In the world.
Simple, Reliable, and Effective.
40,000 IN ACTUAL USE.
NATHAN & DREYFUS,
Sole Manufacturers, NEW YORK.
Send for Descriptive Catalogue.


[Illustration: THE BACKUS WATER MOTOR]

SUPPLIES FROM HYDRANT PRESSURE
the cheapest power known.
Invaluable for blowing Church Organs, running
Printing Presses, _Sewing Machines in Households_,
Turning Lathes, Scroll Saws, Grindstones, Coffee Mills,
Sausage Machines, Feed Cutters, _Electric Lights_,
Elevators, etc. It needs little room, no firing
up, fuel, ashes, repairs, engineer, explosion, or delay,
no extra insurance, no coal bills. Is noiseless, neat,
compact, steady; will work at any pressure of water
above 15 lb.; at 40 lb. pressure has 4-horse power, and
capacity up to 6 or 8 horse power.
Prices from $15 to $250. Send for circular to
THE BACKUS WATER MOTOR CO., Newark, N. J.


PICTET ARTIFICIAL ICE CO., LIMITED,
P.O. Box 3083.
142 Greenwich St., New York.
Guaranteed to be the most efficient
and economical of all existing
Ice and Cold Air Machines.


MICROSCOPES, OPERA GLASSES, SPY
Glasses, Spectacles, Thermometers, Barometers,
Compasses.
R. & J. BECK,
Manufacturing Opticians, Philadelphia, Pa.
Send for ILLUSTRATED PRICED CATALOGUE.


J. STEVENS & CO.,
P.O. Box 28, Chicopee Falls, Mass.

[Illustration]

Manufacturers of Stevens' Patent Breech-Loading
Sporting and Hunters' Pet Rifles,
Single and Double Barrel Shot Guns,
Pocket Rifles, Pocket Shot Guns, Gallery
Rifles, Superior Spring Calipers and Dividers,
including the New Patent Coil Spring
Calipers: also Double Lip Countersinks and
Hathaways' Patent Combination Gauge.


MILL STONES AND CORN MILLS.

We make Burr Millstones, Portable Mills, Smut Machines,
Packers, Mill Picks, Water Wheels, Pulleys, and
Gearing specially adapted to Flour Mills. Send for
catalogue.

J. T. NOYE & SONS, Buffalo, N. Y.


[Illustration:
PATENT COLD ROLLED SHAFTING.]

The fact that this shafting has 75 per cent. greater
strength, a finer finish, and is truer to gauge, than any
other in use renders it undoubtedly the most economical.
We are also the sole manufacturers of the CELEBRATED
COLLINS' PAT. COUPLING, and furnish Pulleys, Hangers,
etc., of the most approved styles. Price list mailed on
application to JONES & LAUGHLINS,
Try Street, 2d and 3d Avenues, Pittsburg, Pa.
190 S. Canal Street, Chicago, Ill.

-->Stocks of this shafting in store and for sale by
FULLER, DANA & FITZ, Boston, Mass.
Geo. Place Machinery Agency, 121 Chambers St., N. Y.


LEFFEL WATER WHEELS,

[Illustration]

With recent improvements.
Prices Greatly Reduced.
8000 in successful operation.
FINE NEW PAMPHLET FOR 1879,
Sent free to those interested.

James Leffel & Co,
Springfield, O.
110 Liberty St., N. Y. City.


A PLANING MILL OUTFIT FOR SALE
very low for cash. Will sell all together or each machine
separate. All first-class machines, good order.
J. H. KERRICK & CO., Indianapolis, Ind.


BOGARDUS' PATENT UNIVERSAL ECCENTRIC MILLS
--For grinding Bones, Ores, Sand, Old Crucibles,
Fire Clay, Guanos, Oil Cake, Feed, Corn, Corn and
Cob, Tobacco, Snuff, Sugar, Salts, Roots, Spices,
Coffee, Cocoanut, Flaxseed, Asbestos, Mica etc.,
and whatever cannot be ground by other mills.
Also for Paints, Printers' Inks, Paste Blacking, etc.
JOHN W. THOMSON, successor to JAMES BOGARDUS,
corner of White and Elm Sts., New York.


$3 PRINTING PRESS

[Illustration: The Excelsior]

Print cards labels &c. (Self-inker $5) 13 larger sizes
For business or pleasure, young or old. Do your own advertising
and printing. Catalogue of presses, type, cards,
&c., for 2 stamps. Kelsey & Co. Meriden, Conn.


HEKTOGRAPH
Patents for the process of Dry Copying have been issued to us, dated May
18 and June 1, 1880. The Hektograph is now the only gelatine copying pad
which can be used without infringing.
All infringements will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
HEKTOGRAPH CO., 23 and 24 Church Street, New York.


THE TANITE CO.,

STROUDSBURG, PA.
EMERY WHEELS AND GRINDERS.

LONDON--9 St. Andrews St., Holborn Viaduct, E. C.
LIVERPOOL--42 The Temple, Dale St.


WOOD WORKING MACHINERY.
PLANNING, MATCHING, MOLDING, MORTISING,
TENONING, CARVING, MACHINES.
BAND & SCROLL SAWS
UNIVERSAL
AND
VARIETY WOOD WORKERS, &c &c.
J. A. FAY & CO.
CINCINNATI, O., U. S. A.


Metallic Shingles

Make the most DURABLE and ORNAMENTAL ROOF
in the world. Send for descriptive circular and new
prices to

IRON CLAD MANUFACTURING CO.,

22 CLIFF STREET, NEW YORK.


SHEPARD'S CELEBRATED
$50 Screw Cutting Foot Lathe.

Foot and Power Lathes, Drill Presses,
Scrolls, Circular and Band Saws, Saw
Attachments, Chucks, Mandrels, Twist
Drills, Dogs, Calipers, etc. Send for
catalogue of outfits for amateurs or
artisans.

H. L. SHEPARD & CO.,
331, 333, 335. & 337 West Front Street,
Cincinnati, Ohio.


WANTED.--FIRST-CLASS PARTIES IN
cities to sell Wing's Fan Ventilators. A great success.
Rare chance to make money. See SCI. AM., Jan. 31, 1880,
or send for pamphlets, etc. L. J. WING, or THE SIMONDS
MFG. CO., 50 Cliff Street, New York.


CENTENNIAL AND PARIS MEDALS.

Mason's Friction Clutches and Elevators.

"New and Improved Patterns."
VOLNEY W. MASON & CO., Providence, R. I., U. S. A.


BROWN'S PAT. SPLIT PULLEYS
Shafts, Hangers,

At low prices. Largest assortment. A. & F.
BROWN, 57, 59, & 61 Lewis St., New York.


[Illustration: PROSPECTUS]

OF THE

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

FOR 1880.

THE MOST POPULAR SCIENTIFIC PAPER IN THE WORLD.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOLUME XLIII. NEW SERIES.

       *       *       *       *       *

ONLY $3.20 A YEAR, INCLUDING POSTAGE. WEEKLY.
52 NUMBERS A YEAR.

       *       *       *       *       *

THIS WIDELY CIRCULATED and splendidly illustrated paper is published
weekly. Every number contains sixteen pages of useful information,
and a large number of original engravings of new inventions and
discoveries, representing Engineering Works, Steam Machinery,
New Inventions, Novelties in Mechanics, Manufactures, Chemistry,
Electricity, Telegraphy, Photography, Architecture, Agriculture,
Horticulture, Natural History, etc.

ALL CLASSES OF READERS find in THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN a popular
_resume_ of the best scientific information of the day; and it is the
aim of the publishers to present it in an attractive form, avoiding
as much as possible abstruse terms. To every intelligent mind, this
journal affords a constant supply of instructive reading. It Is
promotive of knowledge and progress in every community where it
circulates.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.--One copy of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be
sent for _one year_--52 numbers--postage prepaid, to any subscriber
in the United States or Canada, on receipt of THREE DOLLARS AND TWENTY
CENTS by the publishers; six months, $1.60; three months, $1.00.

CLUBS.--ONE EXTRA COPY of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be supplied
gratis _for every club of five subscribers_ at $3.20 each; additional
copies at same proportionate rate. Postage prepaid.

One copy of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and one copy of THE SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT will be sent for one year, postage prepaid, to
any subscriber in the United States or Canada, on receipt of _seven
dollars_ by the publishers.

The safest way to remit is by Postal Order, Draft, or Express. Money
carefully placed inside of envelopes, securely sealed, and correctly
addressed, seldom goes astray, but is at the sender's risk. Address
all letters and make all orders, drafts, etc., payable to

MUNN & CO.,
37 PARK ROW, NEW YORK.

TO FOREIGN SUBSCRIBERS.--Under the facilities of the Postal Union,
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is now sent by post direct from New York, with
regularity, to subscribers in Great Britain, India, Australia, and all
other British colonies; to France, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Russia,
and all other European States; Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and all States
of Central and South America. Terms, when sent to foreign countries,
Canada excepted, $4, gold, for SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 1 year; $9, gold,
for both SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and Supplement for 1 year. This includes
postage, which we pay. Remit by postal order or draft to order of Munn
& Co, 37 Park Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS.
ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S INK. Tenth and Lombard
Sts., Philadelphia, and 50 Gold St. New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Note:


_x_ indicates italic script.

Some archaic (Early American) spellings have been retained.


Flour, B. R. Pegram, Jr. ... 7,727, 7,728

7,727, 7,728 are as printed.

(TRADE MARKS.)


Error

'pecularities' corrected to 'peculiarities'
"The distinctive peculiarities of this steamer are the very high
steam pressure that she carries--..."

(Article 5: 'A REMARKABLE LITTLE STEAMER.')





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Vol. XLIII.—No. 1. [New Series.], July 3, 1880 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home