Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Scientific American, Vol. XXXVII.—No. 2. [New Series.], July 14, 1877 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Vol. XXXVII.—No. 2. [New Series.], July 14, 1877 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration]


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN


A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS,
CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.


NEW YORK, JULY 14, 1877.

Vol. XXXVII.--No. 2. [NEW SERIES.]

[$3.20 per Annum [POSTAGE PREPAID.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  Africa, carrying peace into          16
  Air compressor, Bower's *            15
  Alloy, new                           18
  American inventions. N.S.Wales       25
  American Institute Exhibition        24
  Answers to correspondents            27
  Artesian well, pumping (13)          27
  Billiard ball holder *               22
  Billiard table *                     22
  Bisulphide of lime (35)              28
  Bleaching silk and wool              24
  Boot and shoe machinery *            19
  Bookbinding, new method of *         19
  Books and publications               25
  Business prospects                   15
  Carrigeen crop                       17
  Catastrophism, Clarence King on      16
  Catastrophe in geology               17
  Chalk cup *                          22
  Coloring matter from herbs (2)       27
  Copper plates covered with steel     22
  Curtain fixture *                    19
  Disinfecting rooms                   15
  Duplex education                     17
  Dyspepsia, on                        20
  Education in Germany                 24
  Electricity, conducting power (21)   27
  Electrotyping cylinders (33)         28
  Electricity and magnetism (5)        27
  Gold, dentists' (24)                 27
  Horses, dead, standing erect         20
  Inventions patented in England       25
  Lightning, effects of                20
  Lime, precipitating (22)             27
  Locomotive valves, setting           21
  Man's place in Nature                25
  Measures of the U. S. (32)           28
  Mints of the U. S. (30)              27
  Papier Mache (40)                    28
  Patents, American and foreign        25
  Patent decisions, recent             25
  Patents, official list of            28
  Phosphorescent sweating              18
  Plague, extension of the             24
  Plants, curious carnivorous *        23
  Popular fallacies                    24
  Santini, death of Professor          15
  Sebastin, a new explosive            18
  Solar heat, apparatus for utilizing  18
  Special notice                       25
  Steamer, new                         21
  Steam pump, pounding (20)            27
  Sulphur, test for                    22
  Sunstroke                            20
  Tin scrap, utilization of *          18
  Tin-can telephone                    21
  Tin and phosphorus, alloy of         24
  Yule, John                           15

       *       *       *       *       *



BOWER'S PATENT AIR COMPRESSOR.


The new air compressor herewith illustrated may be operated by steam
or water power, and is available for work in mines, tunnels, or
quarries, for driving rock drills, coal cutters, and hauling and
pumping engines, working mining pumps, for use in factories, and in
fact for all service where a safe and efficient power is required. The
construction of the machine, the capacity of which differs according
to the amount of power required, will readily be understood from the
illustration. Above the air cylinder are two distinct air chambers,
each having two induction or receiving valves, which cushion on
rubbers. With the movement of the piston these chambers alternately
receive and force the compressed air through check valves placed
in the upper part of the air compartment, both compartments being
connected with one pipe conveying the air to the ordinary air
receiver. These check valves lift alternately, and cushion on water;
and as the compressed air is forced into the pipe connecting with the
receiver, without a possibility of any of it escaping back into the
receiving chambers, it is claimed that there is the smallest possible
loss of power, and that the machine will give fully 90 per cent of
steam power expended in the shape of compressed air. The compressor is
compact in form, strongly made, simple in construction, and not liable
to get out of order. One peculiarity in its construction is that no
water jacket or hollow piston is used; yet under any of the extreme
pressures to which the machine has been tested, no inconvenience, we
are informed, from heat has been perceptible.

In connection with the compressor, receivers of various sizes are
used, into which the air is pumped and thence conveyed by pipe to the
location where required, even if it be a mile or more, the loss by
friction between receiver and point of utilization of the air being,
it is claimed, under 2 lbs. of the pressure.

The manufacturers also build water-power compressors, one of which,
driven by 75 to 100 horse power, they have recently shipped to Utah.
The machine is intended to convey the air through iron tubes 5,000
feet to the mouth of a silver mine, where a 50 horse power hoisting
and a 25 horse power pumping engine will be driven by air instead
of steam, and a tube will be extended into the mine 1,000 feet deep,
where the power drills and small pumps will be operated by air also.

The manufacturers submit a number of excellent testimonials from
parties using the machine. From one, we learn, that at the Antelope
and Prince of Wales mine, near Alta City, Utah, the compressor runs 10
hours per day, and supplies compressed air to two 3 inch drills used
in running levels. The distribution terminates at distances of from
1,000 to 2,000 feet from the compressor. The machine also drives one
hoisting engine and ventilates the lower part of the mine. The main
supply pipe is three inches in diameter, 2,300 feet long, and is
tapped by two inch pipe wherever power is required. The expenditure
of fuel is one cord of green pine wood and 600 lbs. of bituminous
coal per 10 hours. Air pressure in receiver 100 lbs. This pressure
is reported to be obtained by 70 lbs. of steam as indicated by the
gauges.

For further particulars, address the manufacturers, Messrs. Griffith
and Wedge, Zanesville, Ohio.

[Illustration: BOWER'S AIR COMPRESSOR.]

       *       *       *       *       *



DEATH OF PROFESSOR SANTINI.


A cable dispatch announces the death of the Italian astronomer,
Giovanni Santini. The Professor was born at Tuscany, June 30, 1786,
and was in the ninety-first year of his age. He graduated at the
University of Pisa. He soon devoted himself to a study of the exact
sciences, and in 1814 he had achieved so much distinction that he was
appointed to a professorship in the Padowa Observatory in place
of Vincenzo Cheminello. In 1825 he was appointed Rector of the
University, and up to the time of his death he held the position of
Professor of Astronomy and Director of Mathematical Studies. He was
generally esteemed by the learned societies of Europe, and held
a number of honorary titles and degrees from various leading
universities. He was also a correspondent of the French Academy. The
principal books published by him are strictly scientific, such
as "Decimal Arithmetic" (1808), "Elements of Astronomy" (1820),
"Logarithms and Trigonometry," and "Optical Problems" (1821-23). Some
of his elementary works on astronomy for beginners are the best ever
published in Italy.

       *       *       *       *       *



JOHN YULE.


The death is announced of Mr. John Yule, of the Hutchestown Engine
Works, Rutherglen, N. B., at the age of 66. During early life, Mr.
Yule went the round of the best engineers' shops in Scotland and
England, and became one of the recognized leaders in engineering
progress. His inventiveness took various directions, amongst other
fruits being an improved rotary engine, a compensating governor for
the steam engine, and a screw tap, drill, and mandrel. For the latter
he was awarded the silver medal of the Scottish Society of Arts. For
some years Mr. Yule acted as the manager of the boiler department of
Messrs. Robert Napier & Son's establishment, but eventually resumed
business at the Hutchestown Works, and devoted attention amongst
other matters to the improvement of swing bridges and steam cranes and
hammers. In the former line two of his most important works are the
plate girder bridge over the entrance to one of the docks at Port
Glasgow, for the Caledonian Railway, erected from plans by Messrs.
Bell and Miller, C.E., Glasgow; and a lattice girder bridge over the
entrance to Kingston Dock, Glasgow Harbor. Owing to the angle at which
this last bridge crosses the dock, great difficulties were experienced
in working out the mechanical details so as to admit of easy motion.
These were skillfully overcome, and the bridge was, as finally
erected, a monument of his design as well as workmanship. The
Blackhill incline on the Monkland Canal, constructed nearly a quarter
of a century ago, is a sample of Mr. Yule's mechanical powers. Of late
years he was largely engaged as a professional valuator.


       *       *       *       *       *



BUSINESS PROSPECTS.


We have recently taken the pains to make inquiries from the more
eminent bankers and merchants in the chief cities of the interior, and
the results of our inquiries have tended to confirm the belief we have
more than once expressed in this journal, that although, from various
causes, there is overhanging a portion of our American industries a
cloud of gloom and depression, still throughout the nation at large
there is going on a process of growth and recovery from which the best
results are anticipated. How long we shall have to wait before the
life which is at work silently and secretly beneath the surface will
put forth its full power, in the full harvest of productive activity,
is, of course, impossible to foretell. What is chiefly important for
us to know, however, is that the progress we are making tends upwards
and not downwards, and that it promises to lead our industry and
commerce to a brighter and not to a darker future.--_Financial
Chronicle._


       *       *       *       *       *



TO DISINFECT ROOMS.


The disinfection of a room is not complete unless the walls have been
thoroughly cleansed. If they are papered, the paper must be removed
and the surface beneath carefully scraped and washed. If the walls are
painted, they should be washed with caustic soda. The ceiling should
also be subjected to a similar treatment.

       *       *       *       *       *



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

ESTABLISHED 1845.

MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT NO. 37 PARK ROW, NEW YORK.

O. D. MUNN.

A. E. BEACH.

       *       *       *       *       *



TERMS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.


One copy, one year, postage included              $3.20
One copy, six months, postage included             1.60

CLUBS.--One extra copy of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be supplied
gratis for every club of five subscribers at $3.20 each; additional
copies at same proportionate rate. Postage prepaid.


THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT


is a distinct paper from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. THE SUPPLEMENT is
issued weekly; every number contains 16 octavo pages, with handsome
cover, uniform in size with SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Terms of subscription
for SUPPLEMENT, $5.00 a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single
copies 10 cents. Sold by all news dealers throughout the country.

COMBINED RATES.--The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SUPPLEMENT will be sent
for one year, postage free, on receipt of _seven dollars_. Both papers
to one address or different addresses, as desired.

The safest way to remit is by draft, postal order, or registered
letter.

Address MUNN & CO., 37 Park Bow, N. Y.

--> Subscriptions received and single copies of either paper sold by
all the news agents.



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE TO MAIL SUBSCRIBERS.


Mail subscribers will observe on the printed address of each paper the
time for which they have prepaid. Before the time indicated expires,
to insure a continuity of numbers, subscribers should remit for
another year. For the convenience of the mail clerks, they will please
also state when their subscriptions expire.

New subscriptions will be entered from the time the order is received;
but the back numbers of either the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN or the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT will be sent from January when desired.
In this case, the subscription will date from the commencement of the
volume, and the latter will be complete for preservation or binding.

       *       *       *       *       *



VOL. XXXVII., NO. 2. [NEW SERIES.] _Thirty-second Year._

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JULY 14, 1877.


       *       *       *       *       *



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT,

NO. 80,

FOR THE WEEK ENDING JULY 14, 1877.


I.  ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS.--Wrought Iron Bridge Designs:
    by WILLIAM O. DOUGLAS. A method of construction whereby the
    safety of the structure is not dependent on any single member.
    2 engravings.--Steel Wire Hawsers.

    Health and Sewage of Towns; by ALFRED CARPENTER, M.D., C.S.S.
    A practical experience of the Dry system.

    Carlisle Bridge, Dublin, 1 engraving--Extinction of Fires.--Important
    Dutch Enterprise.

    Foot Bridge across the River Ness at Inverness; by C. R. MANNERS,
    Engineer. 13 illustrations.

    Radiating Steam Hercules for the St. Heliers' Harbor Works, Jersey.
    2 figures.--New Meat Trucks.--New Horseshoe.--Scott's Wheel-Cutting
    and Moulding Machine. 3 figures.

    Compound Engine with Rope Driving Gear; by BENJAMIN GOODFELLOW,
    Engineer. 3 engravings.--Differential Screw Pipe Joint.
    6 figures.

    Pipes for Gas and Other Purposes (continued from SUPPLEMENT No.
    77). Main-laying continued, with 4 figures.--Fittings of Gas and
    Water Pipes; Includes the average "life" of pipes; an account of
    various soils, and amount of corrosion in each; Professor Barff's
    new iron-preserving process, and other processes in practical use
    for preserving iron pipe; proving pipe; the utility of various
    metals, and directions for pipe-laying: various fittings,
    illustrated in 16 figures.

II. TECHNOLOGY.--The Sizing of Cotton Goods; a paper read before the
    Society of Arts, by W. THOMPSON, F.R.S. A very full and clear
    description, embracing: An account of the process of weaving,
    explaining the object and utility of size. A table of sizing
    mixtures in which are enumerated all the substances used, (1) for
    giving adhesive properties to the size, (2) to give weight and
    body to the yarn, (3) for softening the size or yarn, and (4) for
    preserving the size from mildew and decomposition.
    Tests for these substances and directions for mixing, so as to
    obtain the results required. Proportions of sizing. Use of flour
    in size. Weighting materials, China clay and its substitutes.
    "Softenings" and oils for softening. East winds. Glycerin, grape
    sugar, mildew preventives, and tape sizing. "Slashing," packing,
    mildew, damaged goods, etc.--Notes on Garment Dyeing. Giving
    preparation of garments with cotton warps, green on garments with
    cotton warps, brown on the same, etc.

III. LIGHT, HEAT, ELECTRICITY, ETC.--On the Minute Measurements
    of Modern Science. By ALFRED M. MAYER. Article IX. The dividing
    engine and methods of making accurate linear scales.
    8 illustrations.

IV. NATURAL HISTORY, ETC.--Catastrophism, or the Evolution of
    Environment. An address by Clarence King before the Sheffield
    Scientific School of Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

V.  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE.--Pencils of Silver Nitrate.--The Black
    Poplar.--Tree Leaves as a Fertilizer.--Improving Pastures.--Lawns
    and Hay.--Thoroughbred Pigs.--Shall Country Houses have Cellars?

VI. MISCELLANEOUS.--The New German Patent Law: being the Full
    Text of the New Law for Patents, passed July 1, 1877, covering all
    the States of the German Empire.


Terms.--SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, one year, postpaid, _five
dollars_. One copy of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and one copy of SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, one year, postpaid, _seven dollars_. CLUBS.--One
extra copy of the SUPPLEMENT will be supplied gratis for every club of
five SUPPLEMENT subscribers at $5.00 each.

All the back numbers of the SUPPLEMENT, from the commencement, January
1, 1876, can be had. Price 10 cents each.

NOW READY.--The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT for 1876, Complete
in two large volumes. Over 800 quarto pages; over 2,000 engravings.
Embracing History of the Centennial Exhibition. New Illustrated.
Instructions in Mechanical Drawing. Many valuable papers, etc. Price
five dollars for the two volumes, stitched in paper; or six dollars
and fifty cents, handsomely bound in stiff covers.

Remit by postal order. Address

MUNN & CO. PUBLISHERS, 37 Park Row, New York.

--> Single copies of any desired number of the SUPPLEMENT sent to any
address on receipt of 10 cents.

       *       *       *       *       *



CARRYING PEACE INTO AFRICA.


To carry war into Africa has been a proverb ever since Rome vowed the
destruction of Carthage. But the Carthagenian invasion was a modern
episode in Africa's experiences of that nature. On one of the earlier
monuments of Egypt there is figured a slave-hunter's raid upon an
Ethiopian village, the horrid details of which are said by travelers
to be an accurate picture of a slave raid of to-day. The same
murderous work has been going on incessantly for at least 4,000 years:
how much longer there is no telling. For all these ages the African
borders have known war and war only, and of the most destructive and
barbarizing nature.

Recently, under the influence of Sir Samuel Baker, Colonel Gordon, and
the civilized world in general, the Khedive of Egypt has carried war
into the interior in the interests of peace: a conquest in a measure
justified by the suppression of inter-tribal war for the filling of
slave pens, and the abolition of the slave trade down the Nile. A
similar reform has been effected on the east coast by the pressure of
English power on the Sultan of Zanzibar. And the immediate effect of
these two movements has been to prevent the butchery or enslavement of
not less than half a million negroes annually.

A still more promising invasion of Africa has just been decided upon
in the International Geographical Conference in Brussels: an invasion
wholly in the interests of peace and civilization. At the meeting,
a year ago, it was declared advisable to establish, by international
effort, a line of permanent commercial stations from Bagomoyo, on the
coast of Zanzibar, to St. Paul de Loanda, on the opposite Atlantic
coast; the first stations to be at Ujiji, where Stanley found
Livingstone, on the eastern shore of lake Tanganyika; at Nyangwe,
Livingstone's furthest point northward on the Lualaba; and at some
point further west on the route of Cameron, to be fixed in the
dominions of Muata Yamvo, one of the most powerful chiefs of Central
Africa. At the second conference, which ended June 24, arrangements
were made for sending out the first expedition toward Tanganyika.

The object of the proposed stations is the development of civilization
by commerce, not by religious propaganda. Primarily they will serve
as bases of operation for explorers of the interior, a sort of
_entrepôts_, where the explorer may supply himself with provisions,
instruments, and goods, and thus save the cost and embarrassment of
an army of porters from the coast. They will also serve as places of
refuge for explorers in times of sickness and other reverses, which
have hitherto so terribly hampered explorers. The heads of these
pioneer establishments are to be men of scientific training and proved
executive ability; and each will be aided by a physician-naturalist
and a few skilled artisans. The points thus far chosen are on a line
regularly traveled by the caravans of Arab traders, carrying coffee,
tea, sugar, arms, and woven goods to permanent Arab residences and
trading stations in the interior. An agent of the London Missionary
Society has already begun the survey of a route for ox teams as far
as lake Tanganyika; and Cameron has expressed the opinion that a light
narrow-gauge railway could be constructed from the coast to the lake
at a cost not exceeding four thousand dollars a mile. The traffic
along such a road, he thinks, would soon pay interest on the outlay.

The unexplored region thus to be opened up to civilization and
commerce (other than in human beings) is larger than the United
States east of the Mississippi. Around it is a still larger region of
partially explored country of unequalled fertility, abounding in great
lakes and navigable rivers, and for the most part so high above
the sea that the products of the tropics mingle with those of
the temperate zone. The cereals, durah, maize, rice, sugar cane,
starch-yielding roots and tubers, cotton, coffee, tobacco, spices,
gums and caoutchouc, dye-stuffs and medicinal plants, the banana,
fig, date, orange, and the vine are among the known products of this
region; and all are capable of becoming important staples of foreign
commerce. The country is not less rich in coal, iron, copper, gold,
and other valuable minerals. The climate, though moist from abundant
rain, is less debilitating than India or Brazil; and everywhere, away
from the miasmatic coast regions and the marshes of the lower river
courses, European explorers have found small cause for complaining of
excessive heat or unhealthiness. On the elevated plateaus which cover
so large a part of Central Africa, the climate is like that of the
sanitariums of India; while among the mountains the finest climates of
the world are fairly rivalled. Stanley found in the mountainous region
between the great lakes and within a degree of the equator every
climatic condition and every element of landscape beauty that could
attract and delight a white colony. It was a perfect alpine country,
with mountains rising from twelve to fifteen thousand feet, yet free
from alpine cold and snow. Countless torrents from the hills watered
ever-verdant valleys as beautiful as those of Tyrol, lying under a
brilliant equatorial sun, yet with a climate as cool and equable as
any European might desire. Further south, among the mountains about
Lake Nyassa, the same features are presented on a grander scale:
a country aptly described as a second Switzerland of gigantic
proportions.

There can be no question of the ability of Europeans to sustain
themselves in the greater part of the interior-certainly on all the
higher plateaus-nor of the possibility of building up in Central
Africa a great civilized empire. Nature offers every facility, and the
native population seem to be well fitted for productive industry. In
every respect they are physically and morally superior to the negroes
of the coast, and only need protection and the encouragement of
legitimate commerce to weld them into a great nation. Already
they stand on the borders of civilization. They are intelligent,
industrious, and not unskillful in the manufacture of iron and copper
ornaments, utensils, and weapons. The arts of tanning, spinning,
weaving, dyeing, mat-making, etc., are widely diffused among them, and
many of their products are remarkable for their fineness and
strength. They carry on agriculture with considerable success;
and, notwithstanding the chronic state of insecurity incident to
slave-hunting, their wealth in cattle is very great. As soon as the
disturbing and impoverishing influence of the slave traffic is abated,
and a market provided for the products of peace, the advancement of
the people in civilization is likely to go on with great rapidity.
As the source of raw materials which we need, and as a market for the
surplus manufactures of Europe and America, the country offers, to say
the least, many attractions; and it will not be surprising if, within
fifty years, thriving commercial stations will be founded on all
its great lakes and rivers, and connected with the outer world by
telegraphy, railways, and steamship lines.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADDRESS OF CLARENCE KING ON CATASTROPHISM.


Mr. Clarence King lately delivered an interesting address before the
Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College, New Haven, Conn., under
the title of "Catastrophism, or the Evolution of Environment," which
promises to evoke considerable discussion. We subjoin an abstract of
the principal features of the address, which is quite lengthy. The
full text will be found in our SUPPLEMENTS, Nos. 80, 81.

Mr. King refuted the doctrine of slow evolution as taught by Huxley
and Darwin, and declared that the surface of the earth and climate had
been subject to sudden and catastrophic mutation, which included in
its environment all types of life.

He reasoned that marine fossils are found entombed in rocky beds far
remote from present seas; and that these beds were once sea bottoms
that have been upheaved by convulsions of Nature. The earliest history
of mankind is pregnant with catastrophe, and we have historic story
and biblical record of its sudden and destructive energy. He called
to mind the vast and massive eruptions of the Pliocene basalt as seen
upon our own continent.

The great obvious changes in the rocky crust were referred to a few
processes; the sub-aerial decay of continents, delivery by streams
of land-detritus into the sea, the spreading out of these comminuted
materials upon a pelagic floor, and lastly upheaval, by which oceanic
beds were lifted up into subsequent land masses. All these processes
he declared to have been more rapid in the past than now. Suddenness,
world-wide destructiveness, were the characteristics of geological
changes. Periods of calm, like the present, are suddenly terminated by
brief catastrophic epochs. Successive faunas and floras were created
only to be extinguished by general cataclysms.

He believed in recurrent, abrupt accelerations of crust change, so
violent as to destroy all life on the globe. He declared the idea to
be the survival of a prehistoric terror, and was backed up by breaks
in the great palæontological record. Of the geologic features of
our continent, he said that beneath our America lies buried another
distinct continent, which he called Archæan America, which was made
up of what was originally ocean beds lifted into the air and locally
crumpled into vast mountain chains, which were in turn eroded by
torrents into mountain peaks. The original coast lines of this
continent we may never be able fully to survey, but its great
features, the lofty chains of the mountains which made its bones, were
very nearly co-extensive with our existing systems, the Appalachians
and Cordilleras. The cañon-cutting rivers of the present Western
mountains have dug out the peaks and flanks of those underlying,
primeval uplifts and developed an astonishing topography; peaks rising
in a single sweep 30,000 feet from their bases, precipices lifting
bold, solid fronts 10,000 feet into the air, and profound mountain
valleys. The work of erosion, which has been carried on by torrents
of the quaternary age, brings to light buried primeval chains loftier
than any of the present heights of the globe.

At the close of the Palæzoic age, two enormous masses of what,
probably, were then continents began to sink, and as they disappeared
the present Atlantic and Pacific oceans appeared, while the sea-floor
of a then ocean, emerged, and became the new continent of America.
Dividing this new continent was a sea, but catastrophe removed this
sea and resulted in the folding up of mountain ranges 20,000 and
40,000 feet in height, thereby essentially changing the whole climate
of the continent. Of the land life of the mesozoic age we have
abundant remains. The wonderful reptilian and avian fauna of the
mesozoic age is now familiar to all. But after the catastrophe, and
the change of climate which must necessarily have ensued, this fauna
totally perished.

After criticising the opinions of Huxley, Lyell, Hutton, Darwin, and
others, he recurred to the effects of sudden terrestrial or cosmical
changes, and conceived that the effects of these changes would
be, first, extermination; secondly, destruction of the biological
equilibrium; and thirdly, rapid morphological change on the part of
plastic species. When catastrophic change burst in upon the ages of
uniformity, and sounded in the ear of every living thing the words
"Change or die!" plasticity became the sole principle of salvation.
And plasticity is the key to survival and prosperity. Mr. King
remarked in conclusion of his address: "He who brought to bear that
mysterious energy we call life upon primeval matter bestowed at
the same time a power of development by change, arranging that the
interaction of energy and matter, which make up environment should,
from time to time, burst in upon the current of life and sweep it
onward and upward to ever higher and better manifestations. Moments of
great catastrophe, thus translated into the language of life, become
moments of creation, when out of plastic organisms something newer and
nobler is called into being."

       *       *       *       *       *



DUPLEX EDUCATION.


The age in which we live is a fast one, and he who does not move with
equal celerity, and keep pace with those around him, is ruthlessly
thrust to the wall, and remains there unless he has strength and will
to regain the lost position. We call to our aid every force of
Nature and invoke the assistance of every appliance with which we are
cognizant. We call our fathers slow, and to us they were so; but there
was the same need of celerity in their every-day life as to-day there
is in ours.

While calling to our aid the elements of Nature and adapting thousands
of mechanical appliances to our wants, do we not often feel that there
is beyond all these a "something" that may be invoked and trained to
help us on in the race of life? Occasionally we find dim glimmerings
of this "something" that we believe will eventually grow to be one of
the prominent sciences. Physiologists tell us that the human brain is
double, that the right and left lobes act in a degree independent of
each other--the right lobe of the brain controlling the physiology of
the left side of the individual from head to heel, while the left lobe
exercises a like dominion on the opposite side. Grant this to be true,
then can be explained the idiosyncrasy that is occasionally seen in
individuals, of which we may instance that of writing at the same
time with both hands; and again we have heard of telegraph operators
sending and receiving two messages at the same time, operating with
both hands, and independent of each other. It is said that Nasmyth,
the inventor of the steam hammer, could actually produce two sketches
or drawings in this way and at the same time. It is also affirmed that
Sir Charles Fox, the architect of the Exhibition building of 1851,
could write upon two ideas at the same time and transfer these ideas
simultaneously to paper with right and left hand. The mechanic can
often be found who can operate upon one piece of mechanism, while at
the same time his brain is busy upon the study of some unborn idea,
foreign to that work upon which he is laboring. Writers can be found
who can write out one train of ideas, while ideas entirely different
are being cogitated upon somewhere in their craniums. We have even
heard it affirmed that an indistinct glimmering of a third idea would
occasionally peep around the corner of the caputs of these favored
ones.

Why not educate this? Why not form schools and institutions to bring
it out and lead the brain to perform this double function? It can
certainly be done. The world wants it, surely. The age demands it.
Individuals need it. If these individuals can succeed and become
experts in this method of double work, will not double compensation
and a greater remuneration be their reward? This, certainly, will be
an incentive to its acquirement. Go to the apprentice when first he
takes position beside the vise, with chipping chisel in one hand and
hammer in the other. The injunction he mentally receives as he raises
the hammer is, that to miss the chisel is to hit his knuckles. After
a few demonstrative blows he knows what it means, and therefore chisel
and hammer soon come by some strange process to harmonize in action,
so that in whatever position the head of the chisel may be, the blow
is sure to be properly received, and that, too, without any sensible
effort on his part. In this illustration both right and left hand are
taught to act, by brain dictation, in a certain concerted manner.

Again, we find that mutes have been learned to articulate words
and sentences by proper education, they being taught to imitate the
motions of the mouth and labial organs as by their tutors directed.
Education can do much, and these are some of its results. Can we not
by proper teaching produce all the results as shown in the case of
Nasmyth and Fox. The first lessons must necessarily be simple. For
instance, two things done at the same time with both hands, giving
expression at this time to ideas connected therewith, but distinct
from each other. From this simple lesson we progress, and, as the
ultimatum, we may arrive at greater achievements than Nasmyth or Fox
ever dreamed of. We may find that we can so divide our entity that we
can be conscious of a double-brain existence in a dual action.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE CARRIGEEN CROP.


To the great majority of people, Carrigeen, under the more familiar
name of Irish Moss, is known chiefly as the basis of a pleasant and
wholesome drink for the sick room, or as an article of use in the
preparation of delicacies for the table. Comparatively few are aware
of its wide and varied use in the arts, or that the thousands of
barrels of it employed annually by our manufacturers of paper, cloth,
felt, and straw hats, etc., and by brewers, is not an Irish, but an
American product, and, speaking strictly, is not a moss but a seaweed.

Carrigeen (_chondrus crispus_) is to be found more or less abundantly
all along our northern coast, ranging between the low water line
and the depth of forty feet, or so; but as a rule its fronds, which
correspond to the leaves of air plants, are so numerously inhabited by
small mollusca that they are spoiled for other use. The clean-growing
article seems to be limited almost wholly to certain ledges in the
neighborhood of Scituate, Mass.--a section of coast guarded by the
celebrated Minot Ledge Lighthouse, and famous for its danger to
shipping. Here, where the waves of the Atlantic dash with full force
upon the rocky coast, the carrigeen grows to perfection; and wherever
it escapes the spawn of mussels and other shellfish, is gathered
during the summer season in vast quantities.

The harvest begins in May and ends about the first of September. The
gathering is made in two ways--by hand-picking during exceptionally
low tides, and by means of long-handled iron-toothed rakes at ordinary
tides. Of course the work cannot be carried on except during fair
weather. Hand-pulling is possible only during the bi-monthly periods
of spring tides, that is, when the moon is full and again at new moon.
At such times high tide occurs about midday and midnight, and the
ledges are exposed for moss gathering morning and evening. The
mossers' boats are rowed to the rocks where the finest grades abound,
and the gatherers select with great care the growths that are freest
from minute shells and other foreign matter. This portion of the crop,
if properly handled afterwards, generally goes to the apothecary and
fetches a price two or three times that of the common grade.

As the tide rises the pickers are driven to their boats, and proceed
to the outer moss-bearing rocks where the rake is used, as it also is
during ordinary low tides. Moss taken in this way is not so clean as
the hand-picked, and is always mixed with tape grass, which must be
removed during the process of curing and packing.

The curing of the moss is the most critical part of this peculiar
farming. On being brought to the shore the moss is black and
unsightly; it must be bleached as well as dried. The bleaching is
effected by repeated wetting and drying in the sun; and as the moss
is readily soluble in fresh water the bleaching beds are situated
near the banks of the salt creeks that abound along the shore. After
drying, the moss is packed in tubs and rolled to the water, where it
is thoroughly washed, then rolled back to the bleaching bed, to
be dried again in the sun. Five or six such exposures are usually
sufficient. On the bleaching ground, the moss is carefully spread
and turned, and watchfully guarded against wetting by rain. In this
process it turns from black to red, then to the yellowish-white of the
perfected article. When properly cured the moss is stored in bulk,
in shanties; where, as time permits, it is picked over and packed in
barrels. The crop averages about half a million pounds a year; and
thanks to the brighter and more abundant sunshine of our coast, the
moss has a brighter color and is of finer quality than the Irish
product.

       *       *       *       *       *



CATASTROPHISM IN GEOLOGY.


Mr. Clarence King was probably not a little surprised to learn from
the Tribune that in his most suggestive address on "Catastrophism and
the Evolution of Environment," he had turned the guns of Geology upon
Biology; and that in calling attention to the influence of periods of
accelerated change in environment upon exposed types of life he had
swept away the "fundamental doctrines upon which has been built the
scheme of development by natural selection and the survival of the
fittest." Certainly nothing in the address betrays any consciousness
of possible effects of that sort. And it is quite probable also that
Mr. King will have to suffer some annoyance from seeing his name set
up at gaze, like Joshua's moon in Ajalon, by the unscientific press
generally, as that of the newest champion of orthodoxy against the
leaders of modern scientific thought: a penalty which scientific men
always have to pay for emphasizing neglected truths.

Mr. King certainly deals some telling blows against the position of
the stricter school of Uniformitarians in geology, and brings into
prominence a much neglected element in the struggle for existence; but
there is no scientific revolution threatened, nor are any crumbs of
comfort spread for those endeavoring to arrest the natural drift of
scientific progress.

The issue between Mr. King and the sticklers for uniformity in rates
of geological change is simply this: In the reaction against the
sweeping cataclysms, the sudden wipings out of whole creations and
the sudden introductions of new worlds of life believed in by earlier
geologists, the modern English school has come to look upon time and
the slower modifications of the earth's surface, now observable, with
the struggle for existence under easy conditions, as the chief factors
in geological change and its accompanying variations in the forms of
life. Mr. King, on the other hand, insists that in so doing they have
taken too little account of catastrophic changes, that is, widespread
and sudden movements of sea and land. In other words, he raises rapid
change of environment from the subordinate place it has hitherto
occupied in the scheme of historical development, and gives special
emphasis to the grand geologic movements which have to do with such
changes.

In this Mr. King has unquestionably rendered good service to the
science he has done so much to extend and honor in the field; while
the illustrations from American geology which he brings to bear on the
subject are as likely as his sturdy opinions to attract attention.
Yet we are inclined to think that in some things he has allowed his
enthusiasm to run away with him. The stolid self-confidence of
extreme Uniformitarians has tempted him to exaggerate the periodic
accelerations of geologic and biologic movement, and to overstate
their effects quite as much as others have underestimated them;
and when he charges the followers of Lyell with intellectual
near-sightedness and a lack of "the very mechanism of imagination,"
they may possibly be able to retort not unjustifiably that he has
mistaken the natural foreshortening of the geological vista due to
distance for actual brevity; and that his belief in the abruptness and
suddenness of the great changes which the earth's strata record, may
be due to his own lack of sustained imaginative power for grasping and
interpreting all the evidences of the enormous time really involved.
But this is a question not of imaginative capacity but of logical
deduction from observed facts; and however abrupt the beginning of
some of the great geologic movements may have been, their subsequent
progress cannot in all cases have been so rapid as to allow of their
being called catastrophic in any ordinary acceptation of the term.

Take, for example, the alleged catastrophe which marked the close of
the mesozoic age in the West. Of this movement Mr. King remarks: "In
a quasi-uniformitarian way, 20,000 or 30,000 feet of sediment had
accumulated in the Pacific and 14,000 in the [American] mediterranean
sea; when these regions, which, during the reception of sediment,
had been areas of subsidence, suddenly upheaved, the doming up of the
middle of the continent quite obliterating the mediterranean sea and
uniting the two land masses into one. The catastrophe which removed
this sea resulted in the folding up of mountain ranges 20,000 and
40,000 feet in height, thereby essentially changing the whole climate
of the continent."

That this great change occurred, and was attended with an obliteration
of the wonderful reptilian and avian fauna of the mesozoic age, is
most true: that it occurred suddenly does not appear. On the contrary,
there is evidence to show that the prodigious folding up of mountain
ranges involved could not have proceeded with sufficient rapidity to
turn the course of a stream of water. It happened that one of those
folds--one which, had no denudation been going on meanwhile,
would have lifted its crest higher than the highest peak of the
Himalayas--lay directly across the course of the Colorado river. The
river held its course uninterruptedly, sawing its way through the
uplift until six vertical miles of rocky strata had risen past it. At
no time, therefore, could the rapidity of motion in the bulging strata
have exceeded the capacity of the river to wear away the obstruction,
and the bulge was fifty miles across! We do not know how rapidly a
river may sink its channel through such a rising barrier; but we do
know that a process of that nature cannot legitimately be described
as swift or sudden. And surely it requires not less intellectual
far-sightedness and imaginative faculty to carry the mind across the
enormous stretch of time involved in such a change slowly wrought--a
period during which at least three vertical miles of the rising
mountain fold was worn down by rain and atmospheric abrasion--as to
mass the continental doming, the mountain folding, and the attendant
life changes together as a convulsive "catastrophe."

Mr. King, however, is not a Catastrophist of a very violent sort. He
shelves among the errors of the past the belief in such cataclysms as
Cuvier believed in, involving world-wide destruction of all life--"the
mere survival of a prehistoric terror, backed up by breaks in the
palæontological record and protected within those safe cities of
refuge, the Cosmogonies;" though he rejects as equally unsatisfactory
the mild affirmations of the Uniformitarians, that existing rates
of change and indefinite time are enough to account for all the
geological record. With our present light, he holds, geological
history seems to be a dovetailing together of the two ideas. "The ages
have had their periods of geological serenity, when change progressed
in the still, unnoticeable way, and life through vast lapses of
time followed the stately flow of years; drifting on by insensible
gradations through higher and higher forms, and then all at once
a part of the earth suffered short, sharp, destructive revolution
unheralded as an earthquake or volcanic eruptions." Thus stated, his
position does not seem to be radically different from that of
the broader Uniformitarians, except that he marks the periods of
accelerated physical change, and not those of comparative quiescence,
as the dominant ones in their influence on life-change. He takes
high and strong ground, too, in insisting that it is the business
of geology not simply to decipher and map out the changes which have
taken place in the configuration of the globe and in its climatic
conditions, but also to investigate and fix the rates of change. And
when the evolution of environment takes form as a distinct branch of
geology, he expects to witness a marked modification in the dominant
views of biologists. Its few broad laws will include "neither the
absolute uniformitarianism of Lyell and Hutton, Darwin and Haeckel,
nor the universal catastrophism of Cuvier and the majority of
teleogists." "Huxley alone among prominent evolutionists opens the
door for a union of the residue of truth in the two schools, fusing
them in his proposed evolutional geology."

So, on looking back over a trail of thirty thousand miles of
geological travel, Mr. King is impelled to say that Mr. Huxley's
far-sighted view perfectly satisfies his interpretation of the broad
facts of the American continent.

Of Mr. King's observations in regard to plasticity of physical
structure in connection with rapidly changing environment and the
struggle for existence, we propose to speak at another time.

       *       *       *       *       *



The great stone monuments of England, like Stonehenge, are supposed,
by Mr. James Fergusson, to be military trophies, erected in the time
of King Arthur on the battle fields by the victorious armies.

       *       *       *       *       *



A NEW APPARATUS FOR STORING AND UTILIZING SOLAR HEAT.


The apparatus herewith illustrated is devised to collect solar heat or
other heat, store it up in a heat reservoir--a mass of iron or other
suitable material--confine it in the reservoir until needed, keep
it in such form that it can be transported from place to place, and
utilize it for industrial or other purposes.

[Illustration: APPARATUS FOR STORING AND UTILIZING SOLAR HEAT.]

A is a concave mirror for concentrating the solar rays upon the heat
reservoir, B, which is a mass of iron. C is the heat box for
confining the heat until needed, and also for serving as package for
transporting the heat reservoir when hot. G is the heat reservoir
chamber, in which the heat is communicated from the hot reservoir to
the air. Under certain circumstances the heat reservoir may be heated
in the heat reservoir chamber. H is a devaporizing chamber, for
extracting the moisture from the air by means of a deliquescent
substance or other material or treatment. A vertical stack or flue, I,
communicates with the heat reservoir chamber, for conveying the heated
air away for use.

The device for concentrating the solar rays may be either stationary
or movable, and, if movable, may be moved by hand, or automatically,
to follow the sun. The various chambers mentioned will have valves,
J, at the ends to regulate the passage of the air, and there will be a
door, K, at the side or bottom.

Patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, March
20, 1877, by Messrs. John S. Hittell and Geo. W. Deitzler, of San
Francisco, Cal.

       *       *       *       *       *



PHOSPHORESCENT SWEATING.


While the subject of phosphorescence in marine animals was under
discussion at a society meeting in Florence, Professor Panceri cited
the case of a medical man, who, after eating fish, felt indisposed,
had nausea, and sweats that were luminous. This idiosyncrasy was laid
to the _pesce baudiera_, a Neapolitan fish. Dr. Borgiotti, another
member of the Academy, also narrated a case of phosphorescent sweating
in a patient with miliaria, a fact which has previously been noticed.

       *       *       *       *       *



UTILIZATION OF TIN SCRAP.


Messrs. Charles A. Catlin and George F. Wilson, of Providence, R.
I., have patented, May 8, 1877, a new process of utilizing tin scrap,
whereby they claim the tin is recovered, either as a valuable salt
of that metal or in the metallic form, and the iron or other metal is
left as a scrap at once available for reworking.

[Illustration: CALLIN AND WILSON'S PROCESS OF UTILIZING TIN SCRAP.]

In any suitable building, a crane, A, is erected and placed in the
sweep of that crane; in any convenient order are a boiler, D, two
tanks, B and C, an evaporating pan, F, and an additional tank, E.
From the crane is suspended a wire basket to contain the scrap to be
treated, so perforated as to admit of the ready entrance of the liquid
when submerged in, and its ready escape when withdrawn from, the
boiler, D, in which boiler is put a sufficient quantity of the
solution of caustic soda or potash to allow of a complete submersion
therein of the basket and its contents. The basket, G, is then filled
with the material to be treated, sprinkling in during the filling the
requisite quantity of common salt or other chloride and nitrate
of soda or other nitrate, using these dry, not in solution, either
previously mixed or shaken in together in the proportion of from three
to five pounds each to every hundred pounds of scrap, the requisite
quantity depending upon the thickness of the thin [tin?] plate to be
removed. The loaded basket, being elevated by the crane, A, is
then swung round, and, by lowering, submerged in the hot or boiling
solution of caustic soda or potash in the iron boiler, D, which may
hold in solution a further proportion of the chloride and nitrate
used, the heat of which solution is maintained by a fire beneath the
boiler, or in any other and ordinary way. In the ensuing reaction the
oxygen of the nitrate combines with the tin to form stannic acid, and
this, in turn, combining with the alkali present, forms a stannate
of that base, which, entering into solution, leaves the before-plated
metal tin-free, the chloride present assisting in the reaction. A
further and more complex reaction takes place, by which copious fumes
of ammonia are evolved, which may be utilized by proper appliances.
When the reaction is complete, the basket containing the now tin-freed
scrap is withdrawn from the boiler, and suspended above it long enough
to drain. It is then swung over the tank, C, containing water, in
which it is washed by submerging and withdrawing several times, and
in like manner the washing completed in the water of the tank, B. The
contents of the basket being now discharged, it is again filled with
fresh scrap in the manner already described, and the process repeated.
The loss by evaporation from the boiler, D, is supplied by the wash
water in the tank, C; this, in turn, being supplied by the wash water
in the tank, B, to which fresh water is supplied as required. When
the caustic solution is sufficiently charged with the tin salt, it
is allowed to deposit the impure crystals, which, being removed and
drained, are redissolved in water in the iron tank, E. This solution
in the iron tank, E, after filtration or decantation, is again
concentrated in the evaporating pan, F, the crystals of stannate being
removed from time to time, drained and dried; or the impure crystals
obtained in the boiler, D, may be mixed with fine charcoal or other
reducing agent, and subjected to the requisite heat for the reduction
of the tin to the metallic form.


       *       *       *       *       *



NEW ALLOY.


A very beautiful new alloy, intended to replace brass in various
ornamental uses, especially in window and door furniture, has been
invented by W. A. Hopkins, of Paris. The alloy is composed of copper,
tin, spelter, or zinc and lead, which metals are manipulated. A
crucible is placed in the furnace and fired to red heat, and into the
crucible thus heated the metals are placed in the proportions of--tin
1-1/8 (say) 1 oz., spelter or zinc ½ oz., lead 5/16 of an ounce. These
are the proportions he prefers to use, as he has found them to give
excellent and satisfactory results, but he does not intend to confine
himself rigidly to the precise proportions named, as they may,
perhaps, be slightly varied in some particulars without materially
detracting from the beautiful color of the alloy which it is
intended to produce. The molten metals are kept well stirred, and
any impurities therein should be removed. When thoroughly mixed,
this alloy, which is termed the first alloy, is poured off into ingot
moulds and left to cool. Copper, in the proportion of eight parts to
one of this first alloy, is then placed in the crucible and brought
to melting heat, when the tin or first alloy is added and intimately
mixed with the copper, for which purpose the molten mass must be well
stirred for several minutes; it is then poured into ingot moulds for
sale in the form of ingots, or it may be poured into pattern moulds so
as to produce the articles required. This is the mode of manipulation
which it is preferred to employ, as an opportunity is thus afforded of
removing any impurities from the first alloy before mixing it with the
copper; but all the metals may, if preferred, be mixed together in the
proportions given and melted at one operation. By this means an alloy
is obtained of great strength, and of a very beautiful appearance, and
which is particularly suitable for small work, such, for instance, as
window and door furniture and other house furniture which is usually
made in brass or other alloy of copper, though it is not intended to
confine its use to such articles.

       *       *       *       *       *



SEBASTIN--AN IMPROVED EXPLOSIVE.


In the manufacture of the explosive known as dynamite, an infusorial
earth is used, which is filled with or made to absorb nitroglycerin.
As compared with certain kinds of charcoal, however, the absorptive
and retentive power of infusorial earth in small changes of
temperature unfavorably affect the common dynamite, and cause a
separation of the nitrogylcerin from the infusorial earth. The
improvement we now refer to is the invention of G. Fahnehjelm, of
Stockholm, Sweden, and consists in the substitution of a highly
porous and absorptive species of wood charcoal, in place of the
earth heretofore employed. The author designates his production as
"sebastin," and gives a number of interesting particulars as follow:

In order to produce a charcoal having the required quantities, the
carbonization or coking must be done in such a manner as to completely
destroy the organic substances, and to produce as porous a charcoal as
possible. For this he selects by preference young trees or striplings
or branches of poplar, hazelwood, or alder tree, and he burns them in
an open fire. When the wood has been consumed he does not put out the
fire by means of water, but leaves it to go out of itself. In this
way he obtains a very inflammable and very porous charcoal, which can
absorb more than five, and approaching six times its weight of
nitroglycerin without any risk of the separation of the oil. The
charcoal is pulverized in a wooden mortar, but it should not be
reduced to too fine a powder, else it will not so completely absorb
the nitroglycerin. The charcoal produced in the ordinary way, or by
closed fire, is quite different as regards absorbing power. Charcoal
of fir trees may, however, be used, and may acquire nearly the same
qualities, that is, if charred a second time in a special oven.

By mixing the different kinds of charcoal, a material may be obtained
possessing the required absorbing qualities, and an explosive compound
may then be obtained of the required power without loss of the
necessary consistency--that is, without being too dry, which is not
desirable. The charcoal not only serves as the best absorbent for the
nitroglycerin, but it plays also an important part in the combustion.
The nitroglycerin in exploding decomposes into steam, carbonic acid,
nitrogen, and oxygen. In the explosion of dynamite with inert base the
oxygen goes away without being utilized, but in the explosion of this
new compound (the new sebastin as he calls it) a part of the absorbent
charcoal is burnt by means of the liberated oxygen. The quantity of
gas is thus augmented, and also the development of heat, whereby again
the tension of this gas is augmented. As, however, the quantity of
charcoal necessary for the complete absorption of the nitroglycerin
is in all cases much larger than that which can reduce the excess of
oxygen produced at the explosion into carbonic acid, he adds to the
compound a salt, which also by the combustion gives an excess amount
of oxygen which may contribute to burn the rest of the charcoal. For
this purpose he uses by preference nitrate of potassa, which may be
added without any risk, and which gives the explosive compound a very
much greater rapidity or vehemence, and consequent force of explosion.

The composition of the new sebastin depends upon the objects for which
it is to be used, and the effects intended to be produced. The
strongest compound, and even in this there is stated to be no risk of
the separation of the nitroglycerin, is composed of 78 parts by
weight of nitroglycerin, 14 of the wood charcoal, and 8 of nitrate of
potassa; and when less power is required the proportions are
varied, the second quality consisting of 68 per cent. by weight of
nitroglycerin, 20 of the charcoal, and 12 of nitrate of potassa.

To show the relative strength of the compounds, the inventor says: Let
the dynamic force of pure nitroglycerin be represented by the number
2,884,043.6, then the dynamic force of the sebastin No. 1, as
above, will be indicated by 2,416,575, and of the sebastin No. 2 by
1,933,079.4, while that of dynamite No. 1 (consisting of 75 per
cent. of nitroglycerin and 25 per cent. of infusorial earth) will be
represented by 674,694.

For the above qualities of sebastin the increased effect produced by
the greater rapidity of the explosion must be taken into account also.
The increase has not yet been measured, but is estimated at 10 per
cent. The sebastin may also be compounded in other proportions of the
constituent parts, but the object being to produce explosive compounds
of the greatest force which it is possible to employ without danger,
he merely mentions that the proportion by weight may vary from 50
to 80 per cent. of nitroglycerin, 15 to 35 per cent. of the prepared
charcoal, and 5 to 20 per cent. of the nitrate of potassa; the parts
being taken by weight, as above stated.

       *       *       *       *       *



A NEW METHOD OF BOOKBINDING.


The annexed engravings represent a new system of binding books,
for which a number of important advantages are claimed. It obviates
stitching, allows of each leaf being firmly secured, and hence is
especially well suited for single-leaved books. It admits of plates
and maps being bound in their proper places instead of being pasted
in, and renders the book much stronger and more durable. The inventor
claims a saving of 40 to 75 per cent of the time required for
stitching, and of 50 per cent of the time needed in ordinary rebinding
work.

[Illustration: Bookbinding Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4]

The mode of operation is as follows: On receiving the sheets, the
binder folds them and places them in consecutive order, according to
the printer's signature. The front and bottom edges of the book are
then trimmed so as to obtain two straight sides; and the backs of the
sheets are cut off, transforming them into single leaves. Horizontal
lines are now marked with pencil across the back of the book for the
saw cuts; and a diagonal line, A, B, Fig. 2, is drawn to serve as a
guide in replacing the leaves in their proper places. A thin coat of
glue is next applied to the back; and when this is dry, the book is
divided into sections of from four to eight leaves (without counting
them) entirely disregarding the printer's signatures, but placing the
sheets in their original order. The binder places the first section
removed at his right hand, the next at his left, and so on, forming
two piles. Each pile is then straightened, and in the back of each, a
little below the transverse lines, are made bevel cuts with the saw.
Said cuts are 1/8 inch in length, inclined at an angle of
45°, and so placed that one half their length is above and the other
half below the marked line. When one pile of sheets is thus sawn, the
other pile is similarly treated; but the corresponding cuts are made
at relatively opposite angles. This will be understood from Fig. 1, in
which C represents the edge of the right hand pile, for example, and D
that of the left hand pile.

The sections of each pile are now returned in their regular order,
according to the printer's signatures. Should a section have been
misplaced, the diagonal line, being thus broken, will show the fact.
It will be seen, however, that this arrangement involves the alternate
use of sheets from each pile, so that, when all are put together, the
beveled cuts will cross or form dovetails, as shown in Fig. 3. Half
inch strips of white paper muslin, E, Fig. 4, are next pasted around
the back edges of the first and last sections. This is done to
strengthen the hold of the twines in the back of the book, said
sections necessarily bearing the whole strain of the covers. The twine
used corresponds in size to the holes made by the coincidence of the
beveled saw cuts. This twine is passed through the holes by means of a
blunt darning needle. The back of the book is shown in Fig. 2; and in
Fig. 4 the twines are represented as passed. Nothing further remains
to be done but to paste in the fly-leaves and lining, and finish the
book in the usual manner.

It is evident that this a very much stronger method of securing the
leaves than that in which the twine is simply laid and glued in a
straight cut. Each leaf is independently fastened; and the thread is
prevented from cutting through, as is commonly the case when the book
has been used to any great extent. Books can be bound to open more or
less as desired; and in rebinding, instead of taking the book apart
and cutting threads, a thin shaving is sliced off the back, and the
leaves are treated in the manner already described.

Patented March 20, 1877, by Mr. Florenz E. Schmitz. For further
information, address Messrs. Schmitz and Slosson, box 1180,
Middletown, Orange county, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED CURTAIN FIXTURE.


We illustrate herewith an improved curtain fixture, which may be
adjusted to windows or curtains of different widths, and is adapted
for use in connection with different means for raising and lowering
the curtain. Fig. 1 represents the device in place, a portion of the
cornice being broken away to exhibit it; and Fig. 2 shows the same in
detail.

[Illustration: Improved Curtain Fixture Figs. 1 and 2]

Attached to the cornice are guides, A, in which are sliding loops, B.
The latter may be adjusted to suit the position of the hooks placed in
the window case to sustain the cornice, so that said hooks need not be
set with any particularity. The curtain roller, C, has both its ends
screw-threaded, to receive hollow pulleys, as shown. The spindles
projecting from these pulleys are inclosed in coiled springs which
press against the bearings, D, and so hold the shade in any position
in which it may be placed. The bearings, D, are clasped in the ways,
A, and are laterally adjustable. Sliding blocks are also arranged in
said ways, and through each block passes a set screw, E. It will be
perceived that the bearings may be readily adjusted to curtains of
different widths, and the parts may afterward be locked in position by
the set screws, E. The curtain may be raised or lowered by cords wound
on the hollow pulleys.

Patented December 5, 1876, by Mr. K. J. Pospisil. For further
particulars relative to sale of patent, address the Penn Patent
Agency, 133 South Second street, Philadelphia, Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *



BOOT AND SHOE MACHINERY.


[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 1]

No manufacturers have taken greater advantage of the ingenuity of the
mechanical engineer than the American boot and shoe makers. Nearly
every operation in the complex process of evolving finished boots
from the plain skins of leather is the object of a special class of
machinery; and for several years past, we have weekly chronicled the
patenting of several improvements in the devices for effecting some
of the numerous operations. We present herewith a series of eight
labor-saving machines of the most approved construction, which we
select from Knight's "American Mechanical Dictionary."[1]

[Footnote 1: Published in numbers by Messrs. Hurd & Houghton, New York
city.]

Fig. 1 is a shoe-edge trimmer, in which the shoe is mounted on a
jack, the carriage of which has a motion of translation and rotation
communicated to it: so that, while the side of the sole is being
trimmed, the shoe is fed longitudinally against the knife, but at the
toe and heel is rotated beneath it. The knife is universally jointed,
to permit the hands of the operator to determine the different bevels
cut.

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 2]

Fig. 2 is an ingenious little machine for placing the eyelets of the
lace holes in position, and fastening them. The eyelets are fed, one
by one, from the reservoir at the top, down the inclined ways, and are
seized at the foot between the plunger and anvil, and they are riveted
in their proper places in the shoe or strip of leather, which is held
and fed by the operator.

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 3]

Fig. 3 is a machine in which a shoe or boot is chucked and revolved
against a burnishing tool, to impart a smooth and elegant finish to
the heel. Our engraving shows a machine with what is called in the
trade a "hot kit," a heated burnishing tool, with a flexible gas pipe
of sufficient length, which follows the oscillations of the burnishing
stock, _a_, and which conveys gas to the interior of the tool, where
it is burnt in a jet. The tool is made to reciprocate over the surface
of the heel, passing from breast to breast at each oscillation with an
elastic pressure.

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 4]

Fig. 4 is a machine for pressing together the "lifts" which compose
a boot or shoe heel, thus dispensing with the handiwork of the
hammer and lapstone. The bed is adjusted vertically by a screw to any
thickness to which the blank heel may be built; and the plunger is
brought down by the depression of the treadle with such force as to
compact the lifts together.

Fig. 5 shows a heel-pricking machine. When the lifts of the heel are
fairly pressed together by the appliance shown in Fig. 4, the pricking
machine pierces the necessary holes through all the lifts at once by
a gang of awls. The compressed heels are first secured together by
tacking, and then placed on the platen; and the plunger, with its gang
of awls, descends with great force.

Fig. 6 is a heel trimmer, known in the trade as the Coté trimmer. The
shoe is held stationary by the treadle clamp; and the knife stock,
which is centrally pivoted to the outer plate or jaw bearing upon the
tread lift, is then grasped in the hands of the operator, and moved to
give a sweeping cut to trim the heel.

Fig. 7 is a machine for pressing boot soles. Beneath the crosshead of
the press is a swinging bed, on each end of which is a form, in order
that a shoe may remain under pressure upon one while the operator
is placing another shoe on the other. The pressure is given by the
treadle, which brings down the upper platen on the channeled sole.

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 5]

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 6]

[Illustration: Boot and Shoe Machinery Fig. 7]

       *       *       *       *       *



ON DYSPEPSIA.


At a late meeting of the Harveian Society, of London, Dr. Farquharson
read a paper on this subject. Attention was directed to the state of
the tongue in dyspepsia. A deeply fissured tongue often meant little;
whereas a thin white fur, composed of minute dots, was generally found
along with pain immediately after food. Pain after a longer interval
was accompanied by a pale, flabby tongue, with reddish tip and center.
The treatment of dyspepsia consisted of two parts, that of food
and that of drugs. The latter was the principal part with patients
applying for gratuitous relief. The pain occurring immediately after
food was usually relieved by alkalies; whereas acids were indicated
where suffering was not experienced until an hour or two after the
commencement of the digestive act. For the relief of the nausea and
sickness remaining after the bowels were thoroughly cleansed, nothing
was so effectual as hourly drop doses of ipecacuanha wine. Nux vomica
was also a valuable remedy. Pain might be but the protest of the
stomach against an overload, or be the result of deficient tone from
general nervous exhaustion. In some cases each meal was followed by
diarrh[oe]a; and for these cases attention was directed to Ringer's
plan of minute doses of the liquor hydrargyri perchloridi In speaking
of diet, Dr. Farquharson pointed out that there are three forms of
dyspepsia: 1. The dyspepsia of fluids, as it is called, where the
stomach seems intolerant of all forms of fluid; 2. The digestive
derangement following intemperance in the matter of animal food; and,
3. The dyspepsia connected with indulgence in tea, or other warm and
weak infusions of tannin.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING.


The amount of destruction of life and property by lightning, or rather
electrical discharges, has been very great throughout the world.

It is estimated that at least 45 persons are killed annually by
lightning in this country. The average number of deaths by lightning
has been 22 in England, 9 in Switzerland, 3 in Belgium, and 75 in
France. In France alone, during a period of thirty years, over 10,000
persons were smitten, of which 2,252 were instantly killed. Eighty
were wounded and 9 killed during one thunderstorm at Châteauneuf les
Montiers in 1861, and within one week, when the air was highly charged
with electricity, thirty-three fearful flashes of lightning were
observed, each bringing death to some victims.

During the sixteen years between 1799 and 1816, 156 vessels of the
British navy were struck by lightning; 73 men were killed and 138
injured, and the loss of materials amounted to over a million dollars;
but since the system of metallic conductors, adapted for vessels,
devised by Sir W. Snow Harris, has been applied to the vessels in that
navy, the losses and damages by lightning have almost entirely ceased,
although the number of vessels has been greatly increased.

In Fuller's Church History it is stated that "scarcely a great
abbey in England exists which once, at least, was not burned down by
lightning from heaven."

On the night of April, 1718, twenty-four steeples were struck along
the coast of Brittany; and on the 11th of January, 1815, twelve
steeples suffered a similar fate in the Rhenish provinces.

On the 27th of July, 1759, lightning burnt all the woodwork of the
great cathedral at Strasbourg; and on the 14th of August, 1833, it was
struck three times within a quarter of an hour, and so much damaged
that the repairs cost about $6,000,000. In 1835 lightning conductors
were placed upon the building and steeple, and since then it has
not been damaged whatever by lightning, although discharges have on
several occasions occurred in line with the top of the steeple, which
is 437 feet above the ground.

On the 18th of August, 1769, the Tower of St. Nazaire, at Brescia,
was struck, and the subterranean powder magazine, containing 2,076,000
lbs. of powder, belonging to the Republic of Venice, was exploded.
One sixth of the whole town was laid in ruins and the rest very much
injured, and about 3,000 persons killed.

On the 26th of June, 1807, the powder magazine of Luxembourg,
containing 28,000 lbs., was struck, and besides about 30 persons
killed and 200 injured, the town was ruined.

Explosions and large fires, involving a great loss, have become rather
frequent in this country, owing to the iron tanks used for the storage
of petroleum being struck by lightning. From March to August, in 1876,
over 10,000,000 gallons, and on April 19, 1877, over 2,000,000 gallons
of oil, and the village of Troutman, were destroyed in the oil regions
of Pennsylvania.

Some of the thunderstorms which have prevailed in this country have
been very terrific and destructive. During August 14th, 15th, and
16th, 1872, portions of New York State and the New England States were
visited by some of the most terrific thunderstorms ever experienced,
during which over 200 dwellings were struck and damaged, about 10
persons were instantly killed, and 160 stunned. Quite a number of
barns, with their contents, hay and cattle, were also struck, fired,
and consumed. Cars, while running on some of the railroads, were
surrounded by a vivid electric light, but no passengers were injured,
although they were greatly alarmed. Telegraph wires were melted by the
half mile, telegraph instruments broken, and poles shattered in all
directions. One of these storms occurred at midnight, at Arlington,
Mass., August 14th, in which brilliant streams of electricity darted
across the sky in every direction, and the thunder which followed was
constant for a period of thirteen minutes, without the intermission
of an instant of silence. Three hundred and thirty-one discharges
were counted in seven minutes by an observer, and each discharge was
followed by loud and sometimes rattling reports, whose reverberations
rolled through the heavens in an endless procession of majestic and
terrific sounds. During this scene, the moon, which was about half an
hour above the western horizon, was visible, but so magnified, through
the haze and vapor, as to appear like a brilliant flame suspended in
the sky. For a period of twenty minutes the scene was one of grandeur
and sublimity rarely witnessed.

In the States of Illinois and Iowa, and the prairie country west of
the Mississippi river, thunderstorms are generally more terrific, and
more lives have been lost there from the effects of lightning than
in any other section of this country. Owing to the said country being
level and devoid of trees, the equilibrium between the electricity
of the atmosphere and that of the earth is principally restored by
disruptive discharges.--_Spang's "Treatise on Lightning Protection"_

       *       *       *       *       *



A tooth of a mastodon has been dug up near the Ashley river in South
Carolina. It is 11½ inches long, 6 inches in diameter, and weighs more
than 5 lbs.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE SEA SERPENT SIGHTED FROM A ROYAL YACHT.


The Osborne, paddle royal yacht, Commander Hugh L. Pearson, which
arrived at Portsmouth from the Mediterranean on Monday, June 11,
has forwarded an official report to the Admiralty, through the
Commander-in-Chief (Admiral Sir George Elliot, K.C.B.), respecting a
sea monster which she encountered during her homeward voyage.

At about 5 o'clock in the afternoon of June 2, the sea being
exceptionally calm, while the yacht was proceeding round the north
coast of Sicily toward Cape Vito, the officer on the watch observed
a long ridge of fins, each about 6 feet long, moving slowly along. He
called for a telescope, and was at once joined by other officers. The
Osborne was steaming westward at ten and a half knots an hour, and
having a long passage before her, could not stay to make minute
observations. The fins were progressing in a eastwardly direction, and
as the vessel more nearly approached them, they were replaced by the
foremost part of a gigantic monster. Its skin was, so far as it could
be seen, altogether devoid of scales, appearing rather to resemble in
sleekness that of a seal.

The head was bullet-shaped, with an elongated termination, being
somewhat similar in form to that of a seal, and was about six feet in
diameter. Its features were only seen by one officer, who described
them as like those of an alligator. The neck was comparatively narrow,
but so much of the body as could be seen, developed in form like that
of a gigantic turtle, and from each side extended two fins, about
fifteen feet in length, by which the monster paddled itself along
after the fashion of a turtle.

The appearance of the monster is accounted for by a submarine volcano,
which occurred north of Galita, in the Gulf of Tunis, about the middle
of May, and was reported at the time by a steamer which was struck by
a detached fragment of submarine rock. The disturbance below water, it
is thought probable, may have driven up the monster from its "native
element," as the site of the eruption is only one hundred miles from
where it was reported to have been seen--_Portsmouth (Eng.) Times._

       *       *       *       *       *



SUNSTROKE.


The sudden accession of heat has already produced one fatal, and more
than one severe, case of sunstroke in the metropolis. Probably the
affection so designated is not the malady to which the term _coup de
soleil_ can be properly applied. The condition brought about is
an exaggerated form of the disturbance occasioned by entering
too suddenly the "hot" room of a Turkish bath. The skin does not
immediately perform its function as an evaporating and therefore
cooling surface, and an acute febrile state of the organism is
established, with a disturbed balance of circulation, and more or less
cerebral irritation as a prominent feature of the complaint. Death may
suddenly occur at the outset of the complaint, as it has happened in
a Turkish bath, where the subject labors under some predisposition to
apoplexy, or has a weak or diseased heart. It should suffice to point
out the danger and to explain, by way of warning, that although the
degrees of heat registered by the thermometer, or the power of the
sun's rays, do not seem to suggest especial caution, all sudden
changes from a low to a high temperature are attended with danger
to weak organisms. The avoidance of undue exercise--for example,
persistent trotting or cantering up and down the Row--is an obvious
precaution on days marked by a relatively, if not absolutely, high
temperature. We direct attention to this matter because it is obvious
the peculiar peril of overheating the body by exertion on the first
burst of fine weather is not generally realized. It is forgotten that
the increased temperature must be measured by the elevation which has
recently taken place, not the number of degrees of heat at present
recorded. The registered temperature may be more or less than that
which occurred a year ago; but its immediate effects on the organism
will be determined by the conditions which have preceded it and the
violence of the change.--_Lancet_.

       *       *       *       *       *



DEAD HORSES STANDING ERECT.


The Danville _Advertiser_ of the 7th inst. says: Mr. Smith was in
town on Saturday with his hired man, and the two tell a singular story
about a lightning stroke. Mr. Smith was on a grain drill in a field,
and his hired man was about 12 rods from him, dragging. Suddenly Smith
heard the noise of thunder, and became unconscious. The man also heard
the noise, but neither of them saw any flash of lightning. The
man went to Smith, and in about twenty minutes he was restored to
consciousness. Then attention was given to the horses. One of them was
standing erect, with one foot lifted a little way from the earth, and
the other was kneeling with his nose in the earth, and both were stone
dead, and retained their positions until they were pushed over. The
supposition is that in this case the electricity went from the earth
to the sky.

       *       *       *       *       *



The Berlin correspondent of the London _Times_ states that General
Berdan, of the United States, has invented an instrument which
will greatly improve the art of killing. He calls his invention a
"range-finder." It consists of a telescope and other instruments, all
of which can be carried on a dogcart, and which enable the engineers
to measure with perfect accuracy up to 2,000 metres, or 1,500 yards.
The time needed to ascertain distances, is only two minutes, and
the General believes that his invention will double the accuracy of
artillery fire, and quadruple that of infantry.

       *       *       *       *       *



SETTING LOCOMOTIVE SLIDE VALVES.

BY JOSHUA ROSE.


E. G. asks: "How can I set the slide valves of a locomotive when
she is on the road?" J. H. S. asks: "What is the method of setting
locomotive slide valves from marks on the slide spindle?" And F. O.
asks: "How are the valves of inside cylinder locomotives set, since
the back ports are out of sight and you cannot measure the lead?"

Our correspondent will find these questions answered in full below.

It is presumed that the lengths of the eccentric rod, reverse rod, and
other parts are correct, and they are properly connected and oiled
so as to be in working order. The first thing to do is to place the
reverse lever in the forward full-gear notch of the quadrants, or
sectors, as they are sometimes called. The next procedure is to place
the crank on its forward dead center as near as can be ascertained by
the eye, and loosening the set screw of the forward eccentric, that is
to say, the eccentric which connects with the upper end of the link,
move that eccentric round on the shaft until the valve leaves the port
at the front end of the cylinder open to the amount of whatever lead
it is desired to give the valve. In moving the eccentric round on the
shaft, it is necessary to move it in the direction in which it will
turn when in operation. This is done in order to take up any lost
motion there may be in the eccentric straps, in the eccentric rod
eyebolts, or other working parts or joints between the eccentric and
the slide valve rod or spindle. If the eccentric was turned backward
instead of forward, all the lost motion would operate to vitiate the
set of the valve, because, when the eccentric begins to move, its
motion will have no effect in moving the slide valve spindle, until
all the lost motion in the various parts is taken up by the eccentric
movement. In considering this part of the operation, we must bear in
mind that, to set the valve, we must move the wheels of the engine,
it being impracticable to move the piston itself. Now, in moving the
wheels, we are confronted with the fact that the crank pin is pulling
the connecting rod; hence, if there is any lost motion in the brasses
at either end of the connecting rod, the piston will not be at the end
of its stroke when the crank is on its dead center.

Suppose, for instance, that we have moved the driving wheel forward
until the crank stands upright at a right angle to the bore of the
cylinder, the resistance to motion of the piston and crosshead has
caused the crank pin to bed against the half-brass nearest to the
cylinder, all the play or lost motion is then between the other
half-brass and the crank pin. When, however, the engine is at work and
the piston is driving the crank pin, instead of being driven by it,
the lost motion will exist between the crank pin and the half-brass
nearest to the cylinder, and the contact will exist between the crank
pin and the other brass. The difference in the position of the piston,
caused by this lost motion, may be ascertained by moving the piston
back and forth until the crank pin contacts with first one and then
the other half-brass. It is sometimes attempted to remedy the defect
due to this lost motion by moving the crank pin past the dead center
and then moving it back to the dead center, so that while on that
center the play or lost motion in the connecting rod is taken up. This
is all very well so far as the connecting rod and piston is concerned,
and will cause them both to stand on their respective dead centers
with the lost motion taken up; but, in moving the wheel back to the
dead center, we have given full liberty to all the lost motion in the
various parts of the valve motion or gear, as already explained, in
reference to moving the eccentric upon the shaft. As there are so many
more parts in the valve gear, in which lost motion may occur, it is
manifestly preferable to take up that play by moving the driving wheel
in a continuous direction, rather than to move the latter back to
accommodate any play there may be in the connecting rod.

The crank being placed by the eye upon its forward dead center, and
the eccentric connected to the top of the link being moved round
on the axle (in the direction in which the wheels will run when the
engine is going forward) until the steam port at the front end of the
cylinder is open to the amount of the lead, we fasten the eccentric to
hold in that position. We then throw the reverse lever over into the
last notch at the other end of the sector, lifting the link up so
that the eccentric connected to the lower end of the link may be
approximately adjusted, which is done by moving the eccentric round
upon the axle (in the direction in which the axle will revolve when
the engine is running backward) until the crank stands upon the same
dead center, and the front port is open to the amount of the lead.
This being done, we have the eccentrics approximately adjusted and may
proceed to the final adjustment, in which the first thing to do is to
find the exact dead centers of the crank. It is obvious that a line
drawn through the center of the crank pin and the center of the wheel
axle, will stand horizontally true and level when the crank is on
either of the dead centers, but the presence of the crank pin makes
it impracticable to draw such a line. We can therefore draw one which
will be parallel to those centers; and to do this we draw a circle
upon the end of the wheel axle (and from its center) of the same
diameter as that of the crank pin, and then resting a straight-edge
upon the bearing of the crank pin (taking care to avoid the round
corner upon the pin, if there is one), we place the other end of the
straight-edge even with the top of the circle drawn upon the axle; and
then, using the straight-edge as a guide, we draw a line across the
end of the axle and the wheel face. When this line is level the crank
will be upon its dead center. This plan is sometimes employed, but is
not a very accurate one, because the length of the line is very short
as compared to the circumference of the driving wheel; hence, an error
of the thickness of the line becomes one equal to several thicknesses
of the line when carried out to the wheel circumference. Furthermore,
if the line of the cylinder does not stand horizontally level, as
is sometimes the case, the result of the whole proceeding will be
inaccurate. Again, the connecting rod end and the coupling rod is in
the way, rendering it awkward to both draw and level the line.

A better and more accurate method to find the dead centers is as
follows: Place the reverse lever into the end notch of the sector at
the forward end, and then move the driving wheel forward until the
guide block is within about a quarter of an inch of the end of its
travel, then place a straight-edge against the end of the guide block,
and draw, on the outside face of the guide bar, a line even with the
end of the guide block. Bend a piece of wire (pointed at both ends) to
a right angle, make a center punch mark either in the rail, under the
driving wheel, or in some stationary, solid part contiguous to the
wheel, or at such distance from it that when one end of the bent wire
is placed in the center punch mark, the operator with the other end
will be able to draw a line across the rim of the driving wheel. Here,
however, arises another consideration, that it is better to set the
valves with the wheel axle in its proper position in the pedestal
shoes, and in order to do this the wheel should rest upon the rail
with its proper proportion of the weight of the engine resting upon
it. The springs will then be deflected to their proper amount, and the
axle box will have passed its proper distance up the pedestals. It is
obvious that if the engine is blocked up so that the driving wheels
clear the rails (which is done in order to avoid having the weight of
the engine to move while setting the valve), the axle boxes will drop
in the pedestal and the valve will be set incorrectly, as the wheels
are in a wrong position. To avoid this, and at the same time to avoid
having to move the whole engine while setting the valve, the engine
is blocked up from the rails, and the axle boxes of the driving wheels
are wedged up so as to be lifted up into their proper position. In
this case there is no very accurate means of ascertaining what is
the exact proper height, save it be by first marking upon the outside
faces of the shoes or pedestal a line even with the top of the axle
box when the load is upon the wheels, and then, after blocking up the
engine from the rails, wedging up the axle boxes till the face again
comes even with the line.

Whatever plan is pursued, one end of the piece of wire is rested in
the fixed center punch mark, and with the other a line is drawn across
the outside face of the wheel rim. The driving wheel is then revolved
forward until the guide block returns, having passed to the end of its
travel. When its end again stands exactly even with the mark made upon
the guide bar, the piece of wire is again brought into requisition,
one end being rested in the fixed center punch mark as before, and
with the other end another line is drawn across the outside rim of the
wheel. It is obvious that by taking a pair of compasses and finding a
point exactly equidistant between the two lines thus marked upon the
wheel rim, and then marking that point with a center punch mark, the
crank will be upon its exact dead center, when one end of the piece of
bent wire rests in the fixed center punch mark, the other end rests
in the center punch mark upon the wheel rim. To find the other dead
center, the wheel must be moved about halfway round and the process
repeated with the motion block at the other end of the guide bars.

Thus, whenever the piece of wire will stand with one end resting in
the fixed center punch mark and the other end in either of the center
punch marks upon the wheel run, the crank is upon a dead center.
Having thus placed the crank upon either dead center, we measure the
valve lead, and if in temporarily fixing our eccentrics we gave it too
much lead, we mark where it stands upon the shaft by means of a line
drawn on the axle and carried up on the side face of the eccentric;
then move the eccentric back some little distance more than is
necessary to make the adjustment, and then move it forward again a
little at a time, noting when the valve has the proper amount of lead,
and thus fasten the eccentric upon the axle by means of the set screw.

The object of moving the eccentric too far back and then moving it
forward is to make the adjustment so that the latter may be made with
the lost motion of the valve gear all taken up. The next proceeding is
to move the driving wheel halfway round and try the lead at that end
of the stroke. If the lead at the two ends is not equal, it shows that
either the slide valve spindle or the eccentric rods are not of the
proper length and must be rectified; this being done, the crank must
be again placed upon first one and then the other dead center, the
valve lead being measured at each end. When the lead is equal at each
end, the rods are of correct length, and the amount of the lead must
be regulated by moving the eccentrics as already directed.

If the link block does not come opposite the end of the eccentric rod
when the reverse lever is in the end notch of the sector, the length
of the reverse rod is wrong and should be corrected. If the link block
comes right, under the above conditions, for the forward but not for
the backward eccentric rod, the notches in the sector are not cut
in their proper positions, or the link hanger is not of the proper
length. In either case the error may be remedied by altering the
length of the latter. But, as doing this would alter the amount of the
valve lead, it is well, if there is any prospect of such errors, to
correct them before setting the valves.

Instead of measuring the lead of the valve with a rule, or by a wedge,
the following plan is very often adopted: After the valve and spindle
are in position, the valve is placed with the proper amount of lead
upon the front port. A center punch mark is then made upon the face
of the steam chest. A piece of quarter inch iron wire is then bent at
right angles and each end filed to a point. One end of this wire is
placed in the fixed center punch mark in the steam chest, and with the
other a mark is made upon the slide spindle. Upon this latter mark a
center punch mark is also made sufficiently deep to be very plainly
visible when the burr raised by center punching is filed off, which
is necessary to prevent this burr from cutting the packing. It follows
that whenever the bent piece of wire will rest with one end in the
center punch mark in the steam chest, and the other end in the center
punch mark in the slide spindle, the valve is in its proper position
when the crank is on the corresponding dead center. This plan is a
very old one and possesses the advantage that the valve may be set
without seeing it, that is to say, with the steam chest cover on. If
the length of the piece of wire measured direct from point to point is
known, the valve may be set when the engine is upon the road without
taking off the steam chest cover. The center punch mark upon the steam
chest should, however, always be placed in about the same spot, so as
to avoid mistakes in case of there being other similar marks upon the
chest. It should always be made deep, so as not to get filled up with
paint and be difficult to find. In course of time the mark upon the
slide valve spindle is apt to disappear from the wear of the spindle,
hence the center punch with which it is made should have a long
conical point. To mark the position of the eccentric upon the axle,
it is an excellent plan, after the eccentrics are finally adjusted,
to take a chisel with the cutting end ground to the form of a fiddle
drill, one cutting edge being at a right angle to the other. The
chisel must be held so that while one edge rests upon the axle, the
other edge will bear against the radial face of the eccentric. A sharp
blow with a hammer upon the chisel-head will make a clean indented cut
upon the axle and the eccentric, the two cuts exactly meeting at their
junction and denoting the position of the eccentrics. In setting the
valves of inside cylinder locomotives, the back ports being out of
sight, the amount of lead is ascertained by making a wooden wedge
about three inches long, a thirty-second of an inch thick at one end
and three eighths of an inch thick at the other end. The faces of this
wedge are chalked, and the lead is measured by inserting it between
the edge of the valve and the edge of the port until its thickness
just fills the space, and then moving it edgeways so that the valve
and port edges will just mark it. By measuring the thickness of the
wedge at the mark, the amount of lead is ascertained. After the valves
are set, it is still desirable to mark the position by center
punch marks upon the outside of the steam chests and upon the valve
spindles, as already described.

If an eccentric should slip when the engine is upon the road,
and there are no marks whereby to readjust them, it may be done
approximately as follows: Put the reverse lever in the end notch of
the forward gear, then place the crank as nearly on a dead center as
the eye will direct, and open both the cylinder cocks, then disconnect
the slide valve spindle from the rocker arm, and move the valve
spindle until the opening of the port corresponding to the dead center
on which the crank stands will be shown by steam blowing through the
cylinder cock, the throttle valve being opened a trifle. The position
of the valve being thus determined, the eccentric must be moved upon
the shaft until the valve spindle will connect with the rocker arm
without being moved at all. The throttle valve should be very slightly
opened, otherwise so much steam will be admitted into the cylinder
that it will pass through any leak in the piston and blow through
both cylinder cocks before there is time to ascertain which cock gives
first exit to the steam.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW STEAMER.


A new steamer for the Mallory line, between New York and Texas, was
lately launched from the yard of Roach & Co., Chester, Pa., 2,200 tons
burden. Principal dimensions as follows: Length over all, 239 feet 7
inches; beam (moulded), 34 feet; depth from the base to the spar deck
beams, 18 feet 2½ inches; depth of hold, 16 feet 5½ inches; diameter
of propeller (Hirsch's patent-four blades), 11 feet 6 inches. She
is to be provided with compound engines, having cylinders 24 and 44
inches in diameter, with a stroke of 44 inches, and two return tubular
boilers 10 feet long, 10 feet 3 inches wide, and 8 feet 6 inches high.
Aft are compartments capable of holding 80 tons of water, for the
purpose of depressing the stern before and after crossing the bar at
Corpus Christi. Her low draught is 7½ feet; speed, 14 knots.

       *       *       *       *       *



A TIN-CAN TELEPHONE.


In Professor Bell's telephone a plate of sheet iron is made to vibrate
by means of the electrical current, something after the manner of
the skin of a drumhead. In a recent improvement by Mr. G. B. Havens,
Louisville, Ky., the electrical wires are wrapped around a common tin
fruit can. By means of tin cans at each end, sounds, it is said, were
sent over 92 miles of wire, and included several pieces of music.

       *       *       *       *       *



MR. HOTCHKISS, an American inventor, whose improved revolving cannon
we illustrated some time since, has received intimation that his
system has been approved by the French Government, and that they have
decided to adopt his cannon.

       *       *       *       *       *



COLLENDER'S IMPROVED BILLIARD TABLE.


In the accompanying engravings, we illustrate two important
improvements in the construction of billiard tables, which have
recently been devised by Mr. H. W. Collender, the well known billiard
table manufacturer of this city. The first, which is represented in
Fig. 1, relates to the construction of the bed-supporting frame, and
aims to render the same stronger while cheapening its manufacture.
In putting together the body and framework of the table, the usual
practice is to cut away the stock of the cross beam and longitudinal
beam, and halve them together. Longitudinal grooves are also formed on
the inner surface of the side and "broad rails," to accommodate tenons
on the ends of the cross beams; and the latter are secured in place
by bolts fastening their ends to the broad rails. Mr. Collender claims
that, by this mode of construction, not only are the cross beams
weakened by being halved together, but the broad rails are also
weakened by the cutting away of this stock near the middle to effect
the framing into them of the ends of the cross beams.

[Illustration: Fig 1, billiard table support frame]

From Fig. 1, it will be seen that the cross beam, A, is combined with
the side broad rails in the following manner: Upon the inner face of
each broad rail is secured a cast iron socket piece, B, into which
fits one end of the cross beam, A. From said beam the bolt, C, passes
through the shoe, B, and is secured by a nut, D, let into the stock of
the broad rail. The shoe, B, has lugs which enter the broad rail; and
the aperture in it, through which the bolt passes, is made oblong to
admit of the drawing of the parts together after the insertion of the
bolt. Upon the sides of the cross beam near the middle, and directly
opposite each other, are two shoes, E; these have no bolt holes. In
them are placed the adjacent ends of the longitudinal beams, F, the
other extremities of which are seated in shoes on the broad rails.
The shoes, E, have their lugs of such a length, compared with the
thickness of cross beam, A, that when put in place on said beam said
lugs will come together. The advantage of this is that, should the
beam, A, shrink in width, the shoes on each side of it will still
maintain their proper relation to form immovable abutments for the
ends of pieces, F. This construction allows of shorter stuff being
used in the manufacture, and renders the framework stronger.

[Illustration: Figure 2, billiard table frame corner]

In Fig. 2 is illustrated a new method of forming the corners of the
table. Hitherto it has been customary to use corner blocks, of various
sizes according to the dimensions of the table, located one at each
corner. Into these the broad rails were framed and secured. To this
arrangement Mr. Collender adduces a long category of objections, based
on the possibility of the weight of the bed being thrown on these
blocks in case of shrinkage of the frame, on the fact that the corner
of the table bed must necessarily be left without any support where
it extends over the upper end of the corner block, and also that in
a bevel table, in which the area of the top of the corner block is
unavoidably much greater than that of the top of the corner block of
a vertical-sided table, a large portion of the table bed will be left
without any support.

The new device consists of a cast iron union plate, G, which is bolted
to the leg as shown. The broad rails and casting are securely fastened
by the bolt, H. It will be seen that this bolt, passing through the
end of one broad rail, and into a nut let into the other rail,
will securely draw and hold together the ends of said rails and the
interposed metal plate clamped between them, and that as the plain
ends of the wooden rails just fit (widthwise) between the projecting
heads on the edges of said interposed plate, the latter will form a
sort of housing for the ends of the rails. And it will be understood
that in this construction not only does the bead on the outer edge of
the plate overlap the edges of the rails and form a neat and durable
corner finish to the body, but the broad rails being bolted together
in the direction of the grain of the wood with only an interposed
metal plate, there will be no tendency to a loosening of the union of
the parts of the frame. The main importance of this invention rests
in the idea of dispensing with the usual corner blocks, and thus
permitting the top edges of the broad rails, on which the bed rests,
to practically come together and afford a perfect support to the bed
clear out to the corners of the latter; at the same time the whole
structure is rendered stronger and more durable with less weight of
material.

These inventions are the subject of separate patents, that of the
first being dated April 4, 1876, and of the second, November 16, 1875.
For further information, address the manufacturer and patentee, Mr. H.
W. Collender, 738 Broadway, New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *



COATING ENGRAVED COPPER PLATES WITH STEEL.


In order to render copper plates which are used in printing more
durable, they can be covered with an electrolytic deposit of iron
which possesses an unusual degree of hardness almost superior to
steel. The salt usually employed has been the double sulphate of iron
and ammonia. Professor Böttger, who first invented this process, has
recently devised an improvement in the bath employed. He dissolves 10
parts of ferrocyanide of potassium (yellow prussiate of potash) and
20 parts of the double tartrate of soda and potash (Rochelle salts) in
200 parts of water, and to this he adds 3 parts of persulphate of iron
dissolved in 50 parts of water. A large precipitate of Prussian
blue is formed. To the whole is added, drop by drop, with constant
stirring, a solution of caustic soda until the blue precipitate
entirely disappears, leaving a perfectly clear, light yellow liquid,
which is now ready for use.

Professor Böttger also claims that this solution can be employed with
advantage for dyeing cotton yarn and fabrics a beautiful blue, without
the use of a mordant. For this purpose the goods are put into the
bath, that has previously been slightly warmed, until they are
saturated through and through, and then dried in the air, after which
they are immersed in extremely dilute sulphuric acid (1 to 50), which
neutralizes the alkali, and after washing and drying again they are
permanently dyed a fine blue color.

       *       *       *       *       *



TEST FOR SULPHUR IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.


H. Vohl recommends the following as the best method of detecting
sulphur in organic compounds: The substance to be tested is heated in
a solution of caustic lime and oxide of lead in glycerin. The latter
is prepared as follows: One volume of distilled water is mixed with
2 volumes of pure glycerin and heated to boiling; freshly prepared
slaked lime is added, little by little, until it is saturated. Freshly
precipitated hydrated oxide of lead, or moist litharge, is added in
excess, and the liquid allowed to boil gently for a few minutes,
then tightly corked and left to cool, after which the clear liquid
is decanted from the sediment into a glass vessel that can be tightly
corked. If into this solution be introduced and heated any organic
which contains sulphur, like hair, feathers, horn, albumen, and the
like, it will at once turn black from the formation of sulphide of
lead. The great delicacy of this test is evident from the fact that,
when pure wheat bread is boiled with this reagent, it turns yellow at
first and then dark gray in consequence of the presence of sulphur in
the gluten of the bread.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED BILLIARD BALL HOLDER.


The usual receptacle for the fourth ball, when only three balls are
used in the game of billiards, is placed at the side of the table. As
this is both inconvenient and unsightly, a neat device, clearly shown
in the annexed illustration, has been invented, which is intended to
be attached to a gas fixture over the table. A plate or sign is also
added on which the number of a table--in case several tables are
employed, as in a billiard saloon--may be inscribed. The form and
design of the arrangement may of course be varied in many ways.

[Illustration: billiard ball holder]

Patented May 2, 1876. For further particulars, address the
manufacturer, Mr. H. W. Collender, 738 Broadway, New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE MONITOR CHALK CUP.


The annexed engraving represents an improved chalk cup or holder
for billiard tables, which is so constructed that it will not become
loose, sag down, mar the table, or jar when the ball strikes the
cushion. It may be adjusted to remain in any desired position.

The shank is pivoted in a metallic frame which is secured to the
table. The rear end of the shank works against a spring. On the upper
portion of the shank is a projection which embraces a horizontal
flange to sustain the box against being forced downward. The
arrangement is very similar to the ordinary window catch. The player
has only to start the box from its position under the table, when
the spring carries it out at right angles to the rail. A touch is
sufficient to cause the spring to carry the box back to its former
position. The device is very simple, and its advantages will be
evident to all billiard players cognizant of the defects of the
ordinary cup.

[Illustration: THE MONITOR CHALK CUP.]

Patented May 1, 1877. For further particulars, address the
manufacturer and patentee, Mr. H. W. Collender, 738 Broadway,
New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *



CURIOUS CARNIVOROUS PLANTS.


The _arum Dracunculus_ is one of the most curious of that wonderful
series of carnivorous plants which at the present time are engaging
the closest scrutiny of naturalists. It is a true trap in one
sense--inasmuch as it captures the victim which ventures near it; but
it relies on little or no mechanical means for securing its prey, but
stupefies the living insect by its odor. The flower is horn-shaped,
about 11 inches in length, with an opening some 5 inches in diameter.
The color within is a dull dark violet, while the interior of the
spathe is lined with black, hooked bristles, the whole appearance
of the flower being thoroughly repulsive. The illustrations herewith
presented, Figs. 1 and 2, represent it at one third its natural
size, Fig. 2 showing a section of the flower. It is not certain what
attracts the insects, which are usually of the species known as the
meat fly and the common house fly. They do not seem to seek for the
small quantity of nectar concealed, and yet they cluster about the
fatal opening, as if drawn by some overpowering fascination. Overcome
by lethargy, they fall inert upon the flower, are lightly held by the
bristles, and finally die asphyxiated by the carbonic acid which the
plant disengages in large quantities during its inflorescence. Strange
as is the action of the _arum_, the method whereby the _mentzelia_
takes its prey is even more wonderful. To illustrate on a magnified
scale, let the reader imagine a surface thickly covered with strong
iron posts, on the sides of which are numerous keen barbs pointing
downward. Then between these posts, suppose that jars overflowing with
honey are placed. An elephant, let it be imagined, attracted by the
profusion of sweetness, inserts his trunk between the posts and
finds easy access to the honey. But while he can force his proboscis
downward past the barbs turned in that direction, when he attempts to
withdraw it he finds the keen points catch in the flesh, and render
it impossible to do so. A terrible struggle follows, the unfortunate
animal twisting and writhing in every direction, until finally by
an Herculean effort the head is torn from the body, and the latter
becomes digested by some potent gastric juice, exuding from the
colossal organism of which the trap forms but a portion. Of course
this is vastly exaggerated, and it would puzzle an elephant to pull
his own head off; but if for the post studded trap, we substitute the
surface of a flower, and if we replace the elephant by a fly, we shall
have conceived an accurate picture of what takes place in the peculiar
receptacle with which Nature has provided the _mentzelia ornata_.
This is very beautifully shown in Fig. 3; and at A, in same figure,
is represented the barbed bristles grasping the highly magnified
proboscis of the fly. Between the barbed bristles are mushroom-shaped
projections, from the summits of which a viscous nectar exudes. This
is the honey bait which induces the insect to insert his trunk between
the fatal barbs. There is still another plant, _physianthus albens_,
which captures butterflies by grasping the proboscis. The construction
of the flower is quite complicated, so that the insects are compelled
to insert their trunks through a narrow and winding passage in order
to reach the nectar. The organ then necessarily comes in contact with
an adhesive substance, which prevents its removal.

The _Gronovia scandens_, Fig. 4, is another plant trap, which catches
no flies nor possesses any such wonderfully adapted devices as the
plants already described. It simply has its branches covered with
double barbed bristles of great strength which attach themselves to
anything brought in contact with them. The bristles are strong enough
to hold lizards, as represented by our engraving, the points inserting
themselves in the interstices of the scaly covering of the reptile.
Of course the lizard thus held starves to death, and small birds
often follow a like fate. We are indebted to _La Nature_ for the
illustrations.

[Illustration: Figs. 1 and 2.--ARUM DRACUNCULUS.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--MENTZELIA.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--GRONOVIA SCANDENS.]

       *       *       *       *       *



POPULAR FALLACIES.


Night air and damp weather are held in great horror by multitudes
of persons who are sickly or of weak constitutions; consequently, by
avoiding the night air, and damp weather, and changeable weather, and
weather that is considered too hot or too cold, they are kept within
doors the much largest portion of their time, and as a matter of
course continue invalids, more and more ripening for the grave
every hour; the reason is, they are breathing an impure atmosphere
nineteen-twentieths of their whole existence.

As nothing can wash us clean but pure water, so nothing can cleanse
the blood, nothing can make health-giving blood, but the agency of
pure air. So great is the tendency of the blood to become impure in
consequence of waste and useless matters mixing with it as it passes
through the body, that it requires a hogshead of air every hour of our
lives to unload it of these impurities; but in proportion as this air
is vitiated, in such proportion does it infallably fail to relieve the
blood of these impurities, and impure blood is the foundation of all
disease. The great fact that those who are out of doors most, summer
and winter, day and night, rain or shine, have the best health the
world over, does of itself falsify the general impression that night
air or any other out-door air is unhealthy as compared with in-door
air at the same time.

Air is the great necessity of life; so much so, that if deprived of it
for a moment, we perish; and so constant is the necessity of the
blood for contact with the atmosphere, that every drop in the body is
exposed to the air through the medium of the lungs every two minutes
and a half of our existence.

Whatever may be the impurity of the out-door air of any locality,
the in-door air of that locality is still more impure, because of
the dust, and decaying and odoriferous matters which are found in
all dwellings. Besides, how can in-door air be more healthy than the
out-door air, other things being equal, when the dwelling is supplied
with air from without?

To this very general law there is one exception, which it is of the
highest importance to note. When the days are hot, and the nights
cool, there are periods of time within each twenty-four hours, when
it is safest to be in-doors, with doors and windows closed; that is to
say, for the hour or two including sunrise and sunset, because about
sunset the air cools, and the vapors which the heats of the day have
caused to ascend far above us, condense and settle near the surface of
the earth, so as to be breathed by the inhabitants; as the night grows
colder, these vapors sink lower, and are within a foot or two of the
earth, so they are not breathed. As the sun rises, these same vapors
are warmed, and begin to ascend, to be breathed again, but as the
air becomes warmer, they are carried so far above our heads as to
be innocuous. Thus it is that the old citizens of Charleston, S.
C., remember, that while it was considered important to live in
the country during the summer, the common observation of the people
originated the custom of riding into town, not in the cool of the
evening or of the morning, but in the middle of the day. They did not
understand the philosophy, but they observed the fact that those who
came to the city at mid-day remained well, while those who did so
early or late suffered from it.

All strangers at Rome are cautioned not to cross the Pontine marshes
after the heat of the day is over. Sixteen of a ship's crew, touching
at one of the West India islands, slept on shore several nights, and
thirteen of them died of yellow fever in a few days, while of two
hundred and eighty, who were freely ashore during the day, not a
single case of illness occurred. The marshes above named are crossed
in six or eight hours, and many travelers who do it in the night
are attacked with mortal fevers. This does, at first sight, seem to
indicate that night air _is_ unwholesome, at least in the locality
of virulent malarias, but there is no direct proof that the air about
sunrise and sunset is not that which is productive of the mischief.

For the sake of eliciting the observations of intelligent men, we
present our theory on this subject.

A person might cross these marshes with impunity, who would set out on
his journey an hour or two after sundown, and finish it an hour or two
before sun-up, especially if he began that journey on a hearty meal,
because, in this way, he would be traveling in the cool of the night,
which coolness keeps the malaria so near the surface of the earth as
to prevent its being breathed to a hurtful extent.

But if it is deadly to sleep out of doors all night in a malarial
locality, would it be necessarily fatal to sleep in a house in such
a locality? It would not. It would be safer to sleep in the house,
especially if the windows and doors were closed. The reason is, that
the house has been warmed during the day, and if kept closed, it
remains much warmer during the night indoors than it is outdoors;
consequently, the malaria is kept by this warmth so high above the
head, and so rarefied, as to be comparatively harmless. This may
seem to some too nice a distinction altogether, but it will be found
throughout the world of Nature that the works of the Almighty are most
strikingly beautiful in their _minutæ_, and these _minutæ_ are the
foundation of His mightiest manifestations.

Thus it is, too, that what we call fever and ague might be banished
from the country as a general disease, if two things were done. 1.
Have a fire kindled every morning at daylight, from spring to fall,
in the family room, to which all the family should repair from their
chambers, and there remain until breakfast is taken. 2. Let a fire
be kindled in the family room a short time before sundown; let every
member of the family repair to it, and there remain until supper is
taken.

In both cases, the philosophy of the course marked out consists in two
things. First. The fire rarefies the malaria and causes it to ascend
above the breathing point. Second. The food taken into the stomach
creates an activity of circulation which repels disease.--_Hall's
Journal of Health_.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE EXTENSION OF THE PLAGUE.


Our recent English medical exchanges mention, with undisguised
apprehension, the fact that already early this spring authentic
observers state that the plague has broken out in Bagdad, and is
rapidly increasing there; and information from other sources renders
it probable that the disease has shown itself in other places in the
vicinity of that city, some of which have not suffered before since
the new development of the disease in Mesopotamia, three or four years
ago. The progress of the epidemic in and about Bagdad last year shows
that each year since its reappearance in that district it has covered
a wider area, and it will be remembered that last year it crossed the
Turco-Persian frontier, and broke out at Shuster, in Khuzistan. From
the phenomena of the epidemic to this period it was feared, especially
by the physicians on the spot, that, if it should recur in the present
year, it must be expected to extend over a still wider area, and show
itself in even a more aggravated form than had yet been observed. This
opinion is concurred in by Surgeon-Major Colville, the medical officer
attached to the British Embassy at Bagdad, and is expressed in his
official report, on the subject of the last and previous year's
outbreak.

The Turco-Russian struggle in Asia Minor, and the massing of Persian
troops on the western frontier of that country, add an additional and
most grave factor to this ominous intelligence.

It has been so long since Christian Europe has suffered from this
terrible disease that most medical men have never seen a case, and,
indeed, for awhile, epidemiologists flattered themselves it had "died
out." They yet say that a thorough system of sanitation will certainly
check its advance.

Let us hope so; for of all pestilences which have ever scourged
humanity, and desolated empires, none approach in magnitude those of
the plague. Under the name of "the black death," it fills, as Hirsch
remarks, one of the darkest pages in the history of the human race.
It devastated every known country of the earth, and penetrated to the
remotest mountain hamlets and granges, sometimes sweeping away in a
few days every inhabitant, leaving not one to remember the name or to
inherit the goods of the family or the village. Long years afterward,
travelers would come upon these unknown villages, the houses rotting,
the bones of the plague-stricken owners bleaching in the rooms and
streets, and no one to say who they had been.

As an epidemic disease, it no doubt spreads from India, that mother of
pestilence, where, in the province of Kutch and Guzerat, it is found
as an endemic of great malignancy. Far more fatal in its historical
appearance than the cholera, it is well that the medical mind of
Europe is on the alert to meet its approach with the most energetic
measures; and should they fail, it will devolve upon us to lose
no time in taking up the defensive in the most energetic
manner.--_Medical and Surgical Reporter._

       *       *       *       *       *



EDUCATION IN GERMANY.


The compulsory school laws of Prussia are frequently pointed to as
models for similar laws, perhaps with the hope that by imitating her
lower schools we can bring up our high schools to an equal rank with
hers, and place our universities on a level with those which are
producing the most finished scholars, the deepest thinkers, and the
greatest investigators. We are likely to forget that the conditions
are different, and especially that _nascitur, non fit_, is as true of
a chemist as of a poet. The state of popular education in Germany
is, however, a matter of interest, and is best illustrated by the
following table, showing the percentage of unschooled men among the
recruits from different German provinces:

                  Per cent.
  Prussia             3.19
  Bavaria             1.79
  Saxony              0.23
  Würtemberg          0.02
  Baden               0.22
  Hesse               0.35
  Mecklenburg         1.09
  Thuringia           1.42
  Alsace              3.45

These figures seem to indicate a higher grade of intelligence and
wider diffusion of knowledge among all classes, for recruits are from
every class, than in Austria, although in the latter the figures are
arranged so differently as to make any accurate comparison of Austria
and Germany rather difficult and unsatisfactory.


-----------------+----------+----------------+-----------------+----------
NAME OF DISTRICT.| Number of|   Number of    | Percentage of   | Number of
                 | Common   | inhabitants to | school children |  Normal
                 | Schools. |  each school.  | who attend.     | Schools.
-----------------+----------+----------------+-----------------+----------
Bohemia          |   4,190  |      1,254     |       77        |    12
Bukowina         |     167  |      3,121     |        9        |     1
Dalmatia         |     241  |      1,864     |       12        |     2
Galicia          |   2,374  |      2,341     |       15        |     1
Carinthia        |     318  |      1,060     |        ?        |     2
Carniola         |     234  |      1,187     |       48        |     2
Custrin          |     396  |      1,496     |       38        |     5
Moravia          |   1,866  |      1,082     |       78        |     5
Lower Austria    |   1,267  |      1,578     |       76        |     5
Upper Austria    |     506  |      1,455     |       82        |     2
Salzburg         |     155  |        982     |       85        |     1
Steiermark       |     690  |      1,657     |       59        |     3
Schlesia         |     433  |      1,208     |       77        |     4
Tyrol            |   1,926  |        457     |        ?        |     6
                 |----------|----------------|-----------------|----------
    Total        |  14,763  |                |                 |    51
-----------------+----------+----------------+-----------------+----------

Over 3,000 teachers' positions are said to be vacant at the present
time.

       *       *       *       *       *



BLEACHING SILK AND WOOL.


The methods now in use for bleaching silk, wool, and all animal
fibers, such as sulphurous acid, alkalies, soap, etc., are so
imperfect that Tessié du Motay has patented the following process,
involving the use of binoxide of barium, with or without the addition
of permanganates. The binoxide of barium is pulverized and subjected
to the action of carbonic acid to remove any unconverted caustic
baryta present. It is then thrown into boiling water, and after the
bath has partially cooled the materials to be bleached are introduced
and the bath kept at a temperature of 86° Fah. to 194° Fah. for two
hours; silk from wild silkworms requiring a higher temperature than
wool, goat's hair, and the like. It is then taken out and washed, put
into an acid bath, then washed again. If necessary, the barium bath
is repeated, as also the subsequent washings. If this second bath of
binoxide of barium does not produce the requisite whiteness, it is
introduced into a solution of permanganic acid or permanganate of
magnesia before the last washing.

Binoxide of Barium, BaO_{2}, is made by subjecting the oxide or
caustic baryta, BaO, to a stream of oxygen or common air at a high
temperature. Its bleaching action is probably due to the formation of
peroxide of hydrogen in solution in the bath.

       *       *       *       *       *



AN ALLOY OF TIN AND PHOSPHORUS.


At the Graupen Tin Works, in Bohemia, an alloy of tin and phosphorus
is made containing the greatest possible quantity of phosphorus which
the tin is able to retain without losing any of it upon repeated
meltings. This compound, which is neither entitled to the name of
alloy nor is it a phosphide of tin, is employed in the manufacture
of phosphorus-bronze. In the manufacture of phosphorus-bronze, by
alloying copper with phosphorus-tin, no other precautions require to
be observed than in the preparation of common bronze. As the different
properties of phosphorus-bronze depend upon the proportions of
phosphorus and of tin, two kinds of phosphorus-tin are prepared. No.
0 contains 5 per cent., and No. 1, 2½ per cent. of phosphorus. These two
kinds suffice to make the greater part of all the desired mixtures.
For special purposes, the Graupen Works make to order phosphorus-tin
with any desired quantity of phosphorus not exceeding 5 per
cent., which is the highest possible limit. It is claimed
that phosphorus-bronze may be manufactured by the use of this
phosphorus-tin as much as 40 per cent. cheaper than that now in the
market, while it will only cost 8 per cent. more than the ordinary tin
and copper bronze.

No details are given of the method employed to make the phosphorus
combine with tin, but the low melting point of tin as compared with
that of copper would indicate that this would lead to the great saving
promised above.

       *       *       *       *       *



AMERICAN INSTITUTE EXHIBITION.


The forty-sixth Exhibition of this Institute will open September 12,
in this city. Parties having novelties which they intend to bring to
public notice should at once address the General Superintendent for
blanks and information. The medals, it is said, have been increased
and special awards will be made upon a number of articles.

       *       *       *       *       *



AMERICAN INVENTIONS FOR NEW SOUTH WALES.


Writing from Sydney, under date of April 14, the _Times_ correspondent
thus refers to the supply of locomotives and carriages from America:
Our appearance at Philadelphia has drawn the attention of American
manufacturers to us in a most marked and unexpected degree. A country
that, like New South Wales, is rolling in wealth must be a country
that is able to buy, and a country that is able to buy is exactly the
country that American manufacturers have been anxiously looking out
for. Our representatives at Philadelphia have come back strongly
impressed with the fact that there are many things that the Americans
can supply us with advantage. Our Government has an offer from Messrs.
Baldwin & Co. to furnish a locomotive engine for about £1,000 less
than the cost of an English engine, and to leave the payment open
until the engine has been thoroughly proved and approved. A Pullman's
sleeping car and an ordinary passenger car have already been ordered,
and American wheels, axles, rails, and brakes are strongly pressed
on our acceptance. As our Government engineers are all of the English
school, American novelties will have a hard battle to fight to
win official acceptance, but the demand for economy in railway
construction and working is so great that people and Parliament will
press on the Minister for Public Works a fair trial for any American
novelties that may seem to be suited to our wants. The English
manufacturers, therefore, who have hitherto supplied us must look to
their laurels.--_Capital and Labor_.

       *       *       *       *       *



MAN'S PLACE IN NATURE.


Concerning man's true place in Nature, Haeckel says:

"Whatever part of the body we consider, we find upon the most exact
examination that man is more nearly related to the highest apes than
are the latter to the lowest apes. It would therefore be wholly forced
and unnatural to regard man in the zoological system as constituting a
distinct order, and thus to separate him from the true ape. Rather is
the scientific zoologist compelled, whether it is agreeable to him or
not, to rank man within the order of the true ape (Simiæ)."

To whatever minutiæ of detail the comparison is carried, we reach in
every case the same result. Between man and the anthropoid apes there
are the closest anatomical and physiological resemblances. In form
and function, there is the most exact agreement between all the
corresponding bones of the skeleton of each; the same arrangement
and structure of the muscles, nerves and entire viscera, and of
the spleen, liver and lungs--the latter being a matter of especial
significance, for between the manner of breathing and the process of
nutrition there is the closest relation.

The brain, also, is subject to the same laws of development, and
differs only with regard to size. The minute structure of the skin,
nails, and even the hair, is identical in character. Although man
has lost the greater part of his hairy covering, as Darwin thinks, in
consequence of sexual selection, yet the rudimentary hairs upon the
body correspond, in many respects, to those of the anthropoids. The
formation of the beard is the same in both cases; while the face and
ears remain bare. Anthropoids and men become grayhaired in old age.
But the most remarkable circumstance is that, upon the upper arm, the
hairs are, in both cases, directed downward, and upon the lower arm
upward; while in the case of the half-apes it is different, and not as
soft as that of man and the anthropoids.

The eye, on account of its delicate structure, is peculiarly
suitable for comparisons of this kind; and we find here the greatest
similarity: even inflammation and green cataract occur under the same
circumstances, in both. See, also, Darwin upon this point.

There is no more striking proof that man and the anthropoid apes have
the same anatomical and physiological nature, and require the same
food, than the similarity of their blood. Under the microscope the
blood corpuscles are identical in form and appearance; while those of
the carnivora are clearly different from them.

It may now be interesting, in confirmation of what has been said, to
refer to the family life, and, if one may so speak, to the mental
and moral life of the anthropoids. Like man, the ape provides with
exceeding care for its young, so that its parental affection has
become proverbial. Connubial fidelity is a general and well known
virtue. The mother ape leads its young to the water, and washes its
face and hands in spite of its crying. Wounds are also washed out with
water. The ape, when in distress, will weep like a human being, and
in a manner that is said to be very affecting. Young apes manifest
the same tendencies as human children. When domesticated, they are
in youth docile and teachable, and also, at times, like all children,
disobedient. In old age they often become morose and capricious. Most
apes construct huts, or, at least, roofs, as a protection from the
weather, and sleep in a kind of bed.

One peculiarity is alone common to them and man, and this is the habit
of lying upon the back in sleep. In battle they defend themselves with
their fists and long sticks; and, under otherwise like circumstances,
they manifest like passions and emotions with man: as joy and sorrow,
pain and envy, revenge and sympathy. In death, especially, the ape
face assumes a peculiarly human-like and spiritual expression, and the
sufferer is the object of as genuine compassion as exists in the case
of man. It is also well known that apes bury their dead, laying the
body in a secluded spot, and covering it with leaves. Regarding the
domestic life of the ape, Darwin says, in his "Descent of Man" (vol.
1, p. 39):

"We see maternal affection manifested in the most trifling details.
Thus Rengger observed an American monkey (a Cebus) carefully driving
away the flies which plagued her infant; and Duvancel saw a Hylobates
washing the faces of her young ones in a stream. So intense is
the grief of female monkeys for the loss of their young, that it
invariably caused the death of certain kinds kept under confinement
by Brehm in North Africa. Orphan monkeys are always adopted, and
carefully guarded by other monkeys, both males and females. One female
baboon had so capacious a heart, that she not only adopted young
monkeys of other species but stole young dogs and cats, which she
continually carried about with her. Her kindness did not go so far,
however, as to share her food with her adopted offspring; at which
Brehm was surprised, as his monkeys divided everything quite
fairly with their own young ones. An adopted kitten scratched
the above-mentioned affectionate baboon, who certainly had a fine
intellect, for she was much astonished at being scratched, and
immediately examined the kitten's feet, and without more ado bit off
the claws."

The number of characteristics possessed in common by man and the
higher apes is, indeed, very great, and includes not only physical
and emotional but even intellectual qualities.--_From Schlickeysen's
"Fruit and Bread," translated by Dr. Holbrook._

       *       *       *       *       *



SPECIAL NOTICE.


Persons who have sent numbers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN to this
office, for the purpose of having them bound, will please call or send
for them immediately.

Some of the volumes extend back to 1860, and as we need the room they
occupy, we shall dispose of those not claimed within ten days from
date of this paper.

MUNN & Co., 37 Park Row, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



DECISIONS OF THE COURTS.

UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT.--DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY.

SHAWL STRAP PATENT.--GEORGE CROUCH _vs._ WILLIAM ROEMER.


[In equity.]

  By Nixon, District Judge.

  This is an action for an alleged infringement of complainant's
  letters patent No. 82,606, dated September 29, 1868, and reissued
  March 7, 1871, No. 4,289.

  The subject-matter of the patent is in the reissue described to be
  a strap "to confine a shawl or similar article in a bundle," and
  termed a shawl-strap. The schedule attached to and forming a part
  of the said reissued patent states, that before the complainant's
  invention "straps had been used to confine a shawl or similar
  article in a bundle, and a leather cross-piece with loops at the
  ends, had extended from one strap to the other; and above and
  attached to this leather cross-piece was a handle. This leather
  cross-piece or connecting strap is liable to bend and allow the
  straps to be drawn toward each other by the handle in sustaining
  the weight. Hence the bundle is not kept in a proper shape and the
  handle is inconvenient to grasp."

  The invention is then stated to consist "of a rigid cross-bar
  beneath the handle, combined with suspending straps, that are to
  be passed around the shawl or bundle, such straps passing through
  loops at the ends of the handle."

  No question can be made but that the shawl straps manufactured
  and sold by the defendant are an infringement of the complainant's
  reissue. They consist of a metallic cross-bar, with slots at the
  ends for the reception of the straps, and which also connect the
  ends of the handle.

  Several defences are set up in the answer, but the only one
  necessary to consider is the first, to wit: The want of novelty
  and prior public use.

  I had occasion, heretofore, to inquire into the validity of
  the complainant's patent, in a controversy between the same
  complainant, and Speer _et al._, reported in VI. Off. Gaz. 1874,
  in which, as in this case, the principal defence turned upon
  the novelty of the invention. A prior public use was alleged and
  attempted to be proved. I there said and now repeat "that the
  patent is _prima facie_ evidence that the patentee was the
  original and first inventor, and that any one who controverts this
  assumes the burden of proof and undertakes to show affirmatively
  that there was a prior knowledge and use of the alleged invention
  under such circumstances, as to give to the public the right of
  its continued use against the patentee."

  The defence in this case has brought out many facts in regard to
  the public use of the rigid cross-bar in shawl straps anterior to
  the date of the complainant's patent, which were not developed in
  the former suit. There is no evidence which in my judgment affects
  the honesty of the complainant's claim, or which creates any
  doubt that he really believed himself to be the original and first
  inventor, but nevertheless I am constrained to the conclusion,
  after a most careful examination of the whole testimony, that the
  proofs show with reasonable certainty that he has been anticipated
  in the invention and that his patent is void, in consequence of
  the prior knowledge and public use, and the bill must be therefore
  dismissed with costs.

  [_E. B. Barnum_, for complainant.
  _Arthur v. Briesen_, for defendant.]

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS.

THE ECONOMIC THEORY OF THE LOCATION OF RAILWAYS.


By Arthur M. Wellington, C.E. Price $2.00. New York city: Office of
the Railroad Gazette, 73 Broadway.

  The author of this book is thoroughly conversant with his subject,
  and his statement that the book has gradually grown from a few
  notes into a volume may be accepted as an explanation of the
  somewhat fragmentary character of the work. He asserts that "all
  our railways are uneconomically located," and "in many cases these
  errors are shockingly evident." If these statements are true, he
  is right in stating that "there is something almost pitiful in
  the waste of human labor enforced by such costly blundering." He
  considers that other countries have made lamentable blunders in
  locating their railroads, so that the suffering stockholders of
  American lines may take comfort from the thought that others are
  or may be as badly off.


FRUIT AND BREAD. A SCIENTIFIC DIET. By Gustav Schlickeysen. Translated
from the German by M. L. Holbrook, M.D. With an Appendix. Illustrated.
New York city: M. L. Holbrook & Co.

  The author and translator of this little treatise are firm
  believers in vegetarianism, and present in a highly attractive
  form the main arguments which sustain them in their position. The
  subject is most carefully and systematically treated, and although
  the conclusions at which the author arrives are greatly at
  variance with modern belief and practice, the book is nevertheless
  entitled to proper and respectful consideration. Illustrations are
  given of the teeth and stomachs of various animals, and these are
  compared with the similar organs existing in man, so exhibiting
  in a clear and satisfactory manner the perfect adaptedness of the
  latter to a purely vegetable regimen, which is certainly something
  more than merely accidental. Altogether the book is well worthy
  of perusal by others than those more immediately interested in the
  question of diet.


THEORETICAL NAVAL ARCHITECTURE: a Treatise on the Calculations
involved in Naval Design. By Samuel J. P. Thearle, F.R.S.N.A., etc.
Two Volumes; Text and Plates. New York city: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

  This book is designed to meet the requirements of both those who
  possess but a moderate amount of mathematical knowledge as well as
  of those who are much further advanced. Numerous formulæ and rules
  clearly stated will enable the former to perform without much
  difficulty the ordinary routine of the draughting office, while
  ample opportunity is afforded the latter to trace back the
  processes from which these rules have gone forth. The book is
  divided into six parts. Part I. embraces the calculations relating
  to the forms and dimensions of ships. II. those relating to the
  weights and centers of gravity of ships. Part III. refers to the
  strength of ships. IV. and V. to their propulsion by sails and by
  steam engines; while Part VI. treats of the calculations relating
  to steering. An excellent book of plates and tables accompanies
  the text.


KEMLO'S WATCH REPAIRER'S HANDBOOK: being a complete guide to the young
beginner in taking apart, putting together, and thoroughly cleaning
the English lever and other foreign watches, and all American watches.
By F. Kemlo, Practical Watchmaker. With Illustrations. Price $1.25.
Philadelphia, Pa.: Henry Carey Baird & Co.

  This work will prove of great value to all in whom the curious
  mechanism of clocks and watches has excited more than a passing
  interest. None but skilled followers of the art have been allowed
  to contribute to its pages, so that the practical worth of the
  information given can be fully relied upon. A concise history of
  timekeepers is followed by a clear and exhaustive description of
  the English lever watch, which in turn is followed by articles
  on cleaning, putting together, and the conditions necessary to
  produce a good English watch. American watches deservedly engage
  considerable attention. Papers on repairing watches, cleaning and
  repairing clocks, and a short description of the necessary tools
  complete the book.


RECENT PROGRESS IN SANITARY SCIENCE. By A. R. Leeds. Salem, Mass.:
Printed at the Salem Press.

  This is a reprint of a paper read at the Lyceum of Natural
  History, October 9, 1876, by the well known Professor of Chemistry
  at the Stevens Institute.


WILLIAMS' TOURIST'S MAP AND GUIDE TO COLORADO AND THE SAN JUAN MINES.
Price 50 cents each. New York city: H. T. Williams, 46 Beekman street.

Two well edited publications, deserving the attention of travelers and
emigrants.

       *       *       *       *       *



INVENTIONS PATENTED IN ENGLAND BY AMERICANS.


June 7 to June 15, 1877, inclusive.

BOOTS AND SHOES.--Mellen Bray, Newton, Mass. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
MOTOR.--W. W. Gary, Washington, D. C. FURNACES.--J. J. Storer, New
York city. GAS.--M. H. Strong, Brooklyn, N. Y. GAS APPARATUS.--D. C.
Smith, East Northwood, N. H. GAS MACHINES.--T. F. Rowland, Greenpoint,
N. Y. MINERAL WOOL APPARATUS.--A. D. Elbers, Hoboken, N. J. MOTIVE
POWER.--W. G. Smith et al., New York city. POWER LOOMS.--James Long,
Philadelphia, Pa. PULVERIZING MACHINES.--J. J. Storer, New York city.
PUMP.--A. F. Eells et al., Boston, Mass. REFRIGERATING APPARATUS.--B.
J. B. Mills, Lexington, Ky. SEWING MACHINES.--C. H. Warner,
Sturbridge, Mass. SHEET METAL UTENSILS.--F. G. Niedringhaus, St.
Louis, Mo. VALVE GEAR.--E. Cope et al., Hamilton, Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *



RECENT AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENTS.

NOTICE TO PATENTEES.


Inventors who are desirous of disposing of their patents would find it
greatly to their advantage to have them illustrated in the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN. We are prepared to get up first-class WOOD ENGRAVINGS of
inventions of merit, and publish them in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN on
very reasonable terms.

We shall be pleased to make estimates as to cost of engravings
on receipt of photographs, sketches, or copies of patents. After
publication, the cuts become the property of the person ordering them,
and will be found of value for circulars and for publication in other
papers.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW AGRICULTURAL INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED HAY ELEVATOR.


Eugene L. Church, Walworth, Wis.--This is a hay elevator and carrier
of simple and effective construction; and it consists essentially of a
traveling carriage locking, by a tilting catch, on a fixed stop block
of the track, from which it is released by the action of the bail
of the sheave frame of the hay fork on a pivoted grappling hook, the
sheave being held in suspended position by the joint action of a fixed
hook, of the pivoted hook, and of the tilting catch. A track beam,
which is suspended from the rafters of a barn or other building by
means of eyebolts passing through the center of the track beam. A
carriage runs along the track beam by a pair of flanged wheels, at
each end of which the wheels of one pair are set at such distance from
each other that they clear readily the suspension bolts as they pass
along the same. A hoisting rope is attached, in the customary manner,
to a fixed point at one end of carriage, and passed then through the
sheave frame of the hay fork, and over a pulley of the carriage, and
through a sheave at the end of track beam, and down to the ground,
where a horse is hitched to its free end.


IMPROVED CORN HARVESTER.


Bennett Osgood, Lenox, Iowa.--This invention is an improved machine
for cutting up the corn, removing the ears from the stalks, and
cutting the stalks into pieces, and which may be adjusted to cut up
the corn and shock it. As the stalks are carried back by chains, pins
or hooks on bars tear open the husks of the ears; and the bars, in
connection with rollers, break the ears from the stalks. The ears,
when broken off, drop through an opening in the platform into an
elevator, up which they are carried, and are discharged into a wagon
drawn at the side of the machine. The box of the elevator is supported
from the frame of the machine, and its carrier is driven from a shaft
by an endless band. The stalks are carried back by endless chains, and
allowed to drop from the rear end of the platform upon the brackets
attached to the rear bar of the frame. As they fall upon the brackets
they are cut into three pieces by two knives, which work in slots in
the brackets, and to the upper part of which are pivoted the upper
ends of two bars. The lower ends of these bars are pivoted to a crank
formed upon the shaft, which revolves in bearings attached to the rear
bar of the frame.


IMPROVED SULKY HARROW.


George M. Furman, Laclede, Mo.--This is an improved riding harrow,
so constructed that it may be readily raised from the ground, by the
driver from his seat, to clear it of rubbish, to pass obstructions,
and to pass from place to place, to cut up the ground and cover the
seed thoroughly, and be used for cultivating small grain and plants.


IMPROVED HARROW.


Hans Iver Lund, Charlotte, Iowa.--The object of this invention is to
furnish an iron harrow which shall be light, strong, and durable,
of less draft than an ordinary harrow, of less size, inexpensive
in manufacture, and effective in operation, breaking up the lumps
thoroughly, and stirring up the soil evenly. The harrow is designed
to be made in three sections, all exactly alike, one, two, or three of
which may be used at a time.


IMPROVED COMBINED COTTON SCRAPER AND CULTIVATOR.


Malachiah Roby, Kosciusko, Miss.--This machine is so constructed as to
bar off and dirt or cultivate cotton plants at one operation; and the
invention relates to the construction and arrangement of a center or
main beam, to the forward end of which the draft is attached. To the
beam, a little in the rear of its forward end, is attached the middle
part of a crossbar, in which are formed a number of holes to receive
the hooks or clevises by which the forward ends of side beams are
secured to said crossbar. To the rear end of the main beam is attached
the middle part of a crossbar, to which the rear ends of the side
beams are secured by a bow and yoke passed around them diagonally, and
which are tightened, when adjusted in place, by nuts screwed upon the
ends of the bows. Bands are passed around said beams and diagonally
around said standards, and tightened in place by wedges or other
suitable means, so that the scrapers can be readily adjusted to
work deeper or shallower in the ground, and easily detached when not
required for use. Cultivating plows or dirters have standards which
are attached to the side beams, the plows and standards of the inner
side beams being placed in advance of those attached to the outer side
beams. When the machine is to be used as a cultivator, the scrapers
are detached, and may be replaced by cultivating plows.


IMPROVED CULTIVATOR.


Austin S. McDermott, Prairie Creek (Melleray P. O.), Iowa.--The object
of this invention is to furnish a cultivator which shall be readily
adjusted as the character of the work to be done may require, and
easily guided and controlled. The tongue of the machine is made in
V shape, and its rear end is attached to the axle. The arms of the
tongue are connected by a crossbar, to which the doubletree is pivoted
by a hammer bolt. To the ends of the axle are attached, or upon them
are formed, crank axle arms, upon the journals of which the wheels
revolve. To the arms of the tongue, near the forward end of said
tongue, are bolted the ends of the forward arms of the three-armed
bar, the third arm of which projects to the rearward, and its rear end
is bent into U form to receive a curved bar, which is pivoted to
the three-armed bar by a bolt that passes through the bend of the
three-armed bar and through the center of the curved bar. The ends of
the curved bar are secured to the forward ends of the beams by bolts,
two to each end. To the rear ends of the beams are attached handles
which may be strengthened by braces, and are designed for use in
guiding the plows when the machine is used as a walking cultivator.


IMPROVED CHICKEN COOP.


Daniel M. Sullivan and Thomas A. Retallic, Montgomery City, Mo.--This
invention consists of a coop adjustable vertically on a standard,
and provided with removable partitions and doors for convenience in
cleansing. The frame of the coop is placed on a standard, at the top
of which is placed a pulley. A cord is attached to the top of the coop
frame, and runs over the pulley, and is attached to a counterweight.
The coop is divided by a central transverse partition into two
compartments, which are subdivided by transverse partitions composed
of slats, and held in place by a dowel pin at the bottom and by a pin
at the top. The vertical strips that hold the slats of the partitions
together are grooved on each side to receive sliding partitions which
are arranged on a central longitudinal line of the coop, and at
right angles to the partitions. Grooves are also made in the ends and
central partition of the coop to receive these sliding partitions.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW TEXTILE INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED FULLING MILL.


James Hunter, North Adams, Mass., assignor to himself and James E.
Hunter, of same place.--The object of this invention is to improve
the construction of fulling mills in such a way that there can be no
possibility of injuring the cloth while passing through the rollers,
and in such a way as to give the operator full control over the
friction caused by the tongue or lever upon the goods, whether said
goods be heavy or light.


IMPROVED SHUTTLE-DRIVING MECHANISM FOR NARROW-WARE LOOMS.


William B. Willard, New York city.--This invention, relating to looms
for weaving narrow ware, consists in the arrangement of a spur wheel
traveling on a fixed rack, and actuating a movable rack attached to
the shuttle carrier. Motion is given to the spur wheel by a cam on the
main shaft of the machine, which acts through a slotted lever and a
connecting rod. The object is to provide mechanism for throwing the
shuttle in such looms. In the loom the shuttlerace is divided at its
center, leaving a space of sufficient width to admit of the passage
and shedding of the warp. The shuttle slides in the race, and is of
such length as to overlap the opening, so that it may pass smoothly
from one section of the shuttlerace to the other. The shuttle is
pierced to receive the fingers of the shuttle carrier, which slides on
the bar. The latter is a piece of sheet metal, which is turned over at
its upper edge to receive the bar, and is provided with guides for the
fingers. The said fingers are capable of engaging with the holes in
the shuttle and project below the piece of sheet metal, and are bent
at right angles, and provided with grooved friction rollers, which
engage with a cam slot of such form that it will draw the fingers, one
at a time, downward out of the shuttle, and retain them below the
warp during the passage of the portion of the shuttle with which they
engage, through the threads of the warp, and replace them after that
part of the shuttle passes the warp.


IMPROVED LOOM TEMPLE.


Christian H. Schlaf, Rockville, Conn.--This is an improved device for
stretching the cloth while being woven. It is so constructed as to
adjust itself as the cloth is being woven and carried forward to the
cloth beam.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW WOODWORKING AND HOUSE AND CARRIAGE BUILDING INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED THILL COUPLING.


Josiah Kitzmiller, Keedysville, Md.--This is an improvement upon that
form of thill coupling in which a pivoted cap is employed to slide
over the end of the bolt or pin which secures the eye of the thill
iron to the lugs or ears of the axle clip, the said cap serving to
prevent the said pin from becoming accidentally displaced without
the use of a screw nut or other securing device. It consists in the
construction and arrangements of a spring catch for holding
said pivoted cap down to its place against any tendency to rise
accidentally, the said spring catch being located in a transverse
groove or recess in the cap and between the cap and the adjacent lug
and being provided with a beveled head and square shoulder, which
engages with the under side of the lug to hold the cap down. The merit
of this arrangement is that the catch is concealed from sight by the
complete inclosure of the spring and the position of the beveled head
beneath the coupling, and hence the exterior of the coupling
presents a plain, smooth, and neat appearance, free from catches
or projections, which would be liable to hook into the clothing in
getting into or out of the carriage.


IMPROVED VEHICLE SPRING.


Fredrick W. Faber, Columbus, Texas.--This invention consists in
combining an auxiliary spring with a spring suspended from goosenecks
attached to the axle, the said auxiliary spring being attached to the
axle, and provided with yokes for embracing the suspended spring, the
object being to provide a device for steadying the main spring and
preventing lateral motion.


IMPROVED TIRE HEATER.


Philip W. Cassil, New Athens, O.--To the top of the furnace or firebox
is secured the ring heating chamber, which consists of the ring plate
having a ring flange or rim formed around its outer edge. To the ring
plate are attached the outer ends of a number of arms, the inner ends
of which meet in the center of the ring plate, and have a journal
attached to them. The journal may be hollow or solid, and upon it is
placed a hub to which are attached a number of radial arms, to the
outer ends of which is attached a rim. The rim fits against the
inner part of the ring plate, and forms the inner wall of the heating
chamber.


IMPROVED CHIMNEY COWL.


Andrew F. Barry and Ira G. Lane, New York city.--This invention is a
chimney cowl or ventilator which will deflect the natural current of
air, so that a draft is continually maintained. To the upper end of
a sheet metal chimney top is attached a strip of metal, bent into a
spiral form, and having spaces between the successive convolutions of
the spiral. The spirals overlap each other, and increase in diameter
towards the top. The coils are connected at intervals by stays, and
the end of the upper and outer coil is tapped on to the one that
precedes it, and is trimmed off horizontally, and upon it is placed an
ornamental border. The wind, striking this top from any direction,
is deflected so as to cause a draft. The device is claimed to be
ornamental in appearance, is cheaply and easily made, and does not
obstruct the chimney.


IMPROVED WAGON AXLE.


Wilbur F. Buckelew, Shreveport, La.--The object of this invention is
to strengthen the wooden axles of wagons, and to fasten the skeins
so that they will not become loose. A wooden axle is grooved
longitudinally upon its under side throughout its entire length, to
receive a rod, which is reduced in size at its ends, and threaded to
receive the nuts. This rod is bent so as to conform to the tapering
portion of the axle upon which the skein is placed. The skeins, having
countersunk outer ends, are placed on the ends of the axle, and nuts
having a beveled face corresponding to the countersunk ends of the
skeins, are placed on the ends of the rod, and clamp the skeins
securely on the axle. By giving the nut this peculiar form, it
contains more threads than it otherwise would, and is in consequence
stronger. The rod not only serves to retain the skeins securely in
their places, but it also acts as a stay or truss rod for the axle,
greatly strengthening it.


IMPROVED WAGON BRAKE LEVER.


Jacob P. Outson, Racine, Wis.--This invention consists of a curved
ratchet bar and two levers working on the same pivot, one carrying a
spring pawl, that engages with the curved ratchet bar, and the other
carrying a stud for throwing the pawl out of the notches of the
ratchet bar. When the brake is to be applied to the wheels of the
wagon, one lever is thrown forward, carrying with it the other lever;
and the pawl, by engaging the notches of the bar, holds the lever
at any desired point. When it is desired to release the brake first
named, the lever is drawn back, moving first the length of the slot,
the stud striking the pawl and throwing it out of engagement with
the ratchet bar, when the lever may be carried back to any required
position.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW HOUSEHOLD INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED BAKER.


Luna Drew, Irving, Wis.--This is an improved baking attachment to
heating stoves of all kinds, so that the heat of the same may be
utilized for baking, warming, raising bread, and other purposes. It
consists of a baker supported on adjustable legs, and secured to
a round, oval, or square heating stove by suitable top and bottom
slides. A warmer is arranged below the baker. The front of the baker
is detachable, to admit its use for baking or warming purposes.


IMPROVED FIRE KINDLER.


John G. Distler, Brooklyn (Greenpoint P. O.), N. Y.--This invention is
an improved fire kindler, simple in construction, convenient in use,
and effective in operation, burning freely, and lasting long enough
to fully kindle the fire. It is formed of corncobs, steamed, having
a number of transverse holes formed through them, dried, dipped in
melted white resin, and wrapped in paper. The corncobs are steamed to
prevent them from breaking while being bored. The cobs, while still
moist with the steam, have a number of transverse holes bored in them
with a rapidly revolving bit, and are then thoroughly dried. When dry
the cobs are dipped in melted white resin, and before they are fully
cold they are wrapped in ordinary paper, which adheres to them,
prevents any odor from passing off into the room and prevents them
from soiling the hands while being handled.


IMPROVED MATCH SAFE.


John A. Field, Racine, Wis.--This is a match safe, the back, top, and
front of which are made from a single piece of tin, and to which a
lighter of wire cloth is attached, which is placed over a picture, to
give the match safe an ornamental appearance. It is so arranged that
the matches are delivered singly to a pair of hooks, from which they
may be readily taken by the fingers.


IMPROVED NURSERY CHAIR.


Luther I. Adams, East Templeton, Mass.--This chair may be readily
converted into a high or low chair, and in which an attached toy box
retains the toys when the chair is in either position. The armed low
chair has curved legs. Between the rear legs a shaft is journaled,
upon which two wheels are placed. The support for the low parts
when it is used as a high chair consists of two similar sides, each
composed of two curved strips, which are held together partly by
crossbars and partly by triangular metallic pieces that are attached
to their upper ends and pivoted to the center of the crossbars that
connect the legs. A shaft, having upon it wheels, is journaled in the
curved strips at the back of the chair near the lower ends. The toy
box consists of a tray that is concaved at its upper edge and is made
convex at its lower end, and is provided with a cover that extends
over a portion of it, and forms a receptacle for toys when the box is
in a vertical position.


IMPROVED FRUIT JAR.


Catherine Hastings, Oswego, N. Y.--This is an improved attachment for
fruit jars, to enable them to be conveniently handled when filled with
hot fruit, and at other times. It does not interfere with standing the
full fruit jars upon their tops, if desired, and enables the jars to
be used for holding and carrying various articles. There is a metallic
screw band, by which the cover is secured upon the mouth of jar. To
the opposite sides of the band are soldered lugs to which are pivoted
the ends of a wire bail.


IMPROVED VENTILATOR.


Charles E. Darling, Lewiston, Me., assignor of two thirds his right
to Henry Free and John E. Lydston, of same place.--This ventilator for
windows, doors, etc., works in noiseless manner, and is watertight. It
consists of radially recessed face disks, clamped to the glass frame,
and having an intermediate pivoted disk with corresponding recesses
that are set by a crank lever and cords into open or closed piston.


IMPROVED BAKING PAN.


Charles I. Kagey and Fred W. Stoneburner, Arcola, Ill.--The body of
this roaster is made of sheet iron, and is rectangular in form. To one
end of the body a cap is secured, and to the other end a rectangular
cast iron frame is fitted, to which a cast iron door is hinged. At the
top of the roaster, at or near its center, an aperture is made, which
is closed by a tapering projection that extends downward from a plate
that is hinged to the top of the roaster. Rings are attached to the
top of the roaster near each end for convenience in handling. The
apparatus, when in use, is placed upon a stove or in an oven.


IMPROVED STOVEPIPE SHELF.


John W. Jackson, Sharpsville, Pa.--A wire of the requisite strength is
bent into the shape required to form the horizontal support. To this
the shelf is attached, and also the bracket, which rests against the
pipe for supporting the same.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW MECHANICAL AND ENGINEERING INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED WATER WHEEL.


Isaac Mallery, Dryden, N. Y.--This invention relates to downward
discharge turbine water wheels; and it consists in the employment, in
combination with a stationary chute case and an independent adjustable
frame, of a series of gates, which are pivoted to this frame and
adjustable to the periphery of said case. The bucket wheel is formed
of curved and inclined buckets arranged around a hub, and applied to a
cap ring and a skirting. This wheel is keyed on a driving shaft,
stepped on a bridge, and passed up through a tubular sleeve, which is
cast on the top of a cylindrical chute or guide case. This case is
rigidly secured to the base or bed frame, and constructed with oblique
issues, which direct the currents of inflowing water against the
buckets of the wheel.


IMPROVED VALVE MOTION FOR STEAM ENGINES.


Henry Haering, New York city.--This is an improved device for
operating the slide valve of a steam engine from the piston rod of
said engine, in such a way that the valve will be moved slightly to
partially uncover the inlet and exhaust ports as the piston completes
its stroke, and its motion will be continued in the same direction as
the piston begins to move upon the return stroke, until the ports are
fully opened, and will then stand still, with the ports fully open,
until the piston has nearly completed its return stroke. It consists
in the combination of a three-armed bar, two levers, connecting bar,
and connecting lever, with the piston rod and the valve stem of
a steam engine; and in the combination of a lockbar, spring, two
cylinders, and pin, with the two levers and the three-armed bar.
As the piston approaches the end of its stroke, the upper end of an
upright arm of a bar strikes the concaved side of the upper part of
one of the levers operating it, and moving the slide valve to close
the ports and admit steam in front of the piston. As the piston begins
its return stroke the inclined upper surface of one of the side arms
of the three-armed bar comes in contact with the lower end of the said
lever, and continues its motion in the same direction, fully opening
the said inlet port, which remains fully open until the piston has
again nearly completed its stroke.


IMPROVED REVERSIBLE ECCENTRIC.


George G. Lafayette and Pitt W. Strong, Brockville, Ontario,
Canada.--This is an improved device to act as a substitute for the
link motion on a reversible engine, or for adjusting the stroke of
a boiler-feed pump, while in motion, so as to regulate the amount of
feed water supplied to the boiler, without the use of an overflow pipe
and cock, and keeping thereby the pump constantly in motion, which
will save the annoyance frequently experienced in pumps by their
refusing to prime after having been stopped for a short time. It may
be further used to control the speed of all kinds of engines, whether
with plain slide valve or with a cut-off valve working on top of the
other by connecting directly to the device a suitable governor, so
as to automatically shorten and lengthen the stroke of the valve, and
give a uniform motion to the engine under different loads.


IMPROVED EXPANDING REAMER.


Robert Blair, San Francisco, Cal.--In this improved tool there is
a clamping bolt by which the cutters are clamped fast after being
adjusted. The cutters are arranged to slide directly across the stock
in dovetail grooves, and are slotted to slide along the clamping bolt
and washers, by which they are clamped fast after they are adjusted
to the position required by a toothed pinion and racks. The pinion is
arranged in the stock between the cutters, and the shaft extends out
of the end of the stock, with a nick in the end for a screwdriver to
turn it.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW MISCELLANEOUS INVENTIONS.

IMPROVED TORTOISE-SHELL HANDLE.


Christian W. Schaefer, New York city.--The object of this invention
is to mount the handles of canes, umbrellas, parasols, whips, opera
glasses, and similar articles with a tortoise-shell covering, in such
a manner that the present inefficient mode of attaching the same by
glue may be dispensed with, the covering attached in tightly fitting
and durable manner, and the joint or weld of the edges be not
noticeable in the least.


IMPROVED HAND STAMP.


Leonard Tilton, Brooklyn, E.D., N. Y.--This invention consists in
novel devices for giving positive rotation to the stamp heads after
the impressions are made, in combination with a reciprocating inking
pad, and in means for adjusting the throw of the inking pad with
respect to the printing faces of the stamp heads.


IMPROVED BUCKLE.


John Fenton, Indianapolis, Ind.--This invention is an improved buckle,
neat in appearance, strong and durable, which may be easily fastened
and unfastened, which will not require the strap to be perforated, and
will hold it securely in any position into which it may be adjusted.
The buckle is formed of a plate having holes in its middle part to
receive the rivets by which it is secured to the strap, and having
cross slots formed in its ends to receive the free end of the said
strap, and the eccentric, having its outer side corrugated radially,
and provided with a handle.


IMPROVED LIQUID DIFFUSER.


George M. Smyth, Brooklyn, N. Y.--This invention consists in the
combination of an air compressor, an air reservoir, and a receptacle
for the liquid, and an arrangement of pipes and nozzles for atomizing
the liquid. An air compressor of any ordinary construction is
connected with the reservoir by a pipe, in which two stopcocks are
placed. There is a receptacle for containing the liquid to be diffused
or atomized. A pipe passes through a stopper placed in the neck of the
said receptacle, and extends nearly to the bottom of the same, and its
upper end is provided with a stopcock and nozzle. A nozzle is arranged
at right angles to the first-mentioned nozzle, and is attached to a
brace that is secured to the pipe.


IMPROVED OIL CAN.


John Graves, New York city, assignor to himself and James L. Miller,
Westfield, N. J.--This is an improved case for packing oil cans for
transportation, the case furnishing the additional facility that the
can may be readily inserted into the same and tilted for use. The
invention consists of a wooden projecting case with side slots, in
which trunnions of the can are guided and supported for swinging the
can on pivot hooks, which serve also for the purpose of locking the
lid to the case.


IMPROVED HARNESS TUGS.


Charles Hauff, Ashland, O.--The body of the carrier is made in the
form of a ring with outwardly projecting flanges around its edges. The
strap is passed around the ring in the groove formed by its flanges,
and its inner end is sewed to its body at the side. Small wedge-shaped
blocks of leather are inserted in the angle between the parts of the
strap where they meet and the ring, which angular blocks are covered
by angular projection of the flanges of the ring.


IMPROVED COMPOSITION FOR CASTING ORNAMENTAL FIGURES.


August Kiesele, New York city.--This consists in a composition
formed by the admixture of dry pulverized sugar, melted paraffin, and
stearine. It is poured into moulds and allowed to cool. The article
is then removed from the mould, and powdered starch or sugar is dusted
over it to destroy the gloss and give it the appearance of alabaster.


IMPROVED PEN RACK.


Harvey W. Forman, Golden City, Col.--This consists of an upper frame
with intercrossing wires, forming wide spaces or meshes, and of a
second frame with closer wires below the same, for holding the pen in
upright position, in connection with a bottom pad or absorbent below
the rack frames.


IMPROVED STOPPER FOR MUCILAGE BOTTLE.


James Tilghman, New York city.--This is a combined brush and stopper,
consisting essentially of a handle having a stem and a flat end
corresponding to the top of the cork. The brush has a flat head,
corresponding to the bottom of the cork. The cork is interposed
between the said head and end of the handle, and held in place by the
central stem.

       *       *       *       *       *



BUSINESS AND PERSONAL.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Charge for Insertion under this head is One Dollar a line for
each insertion. If the Notice exceeds four lines, One Dollar and a
Half per line will be charged._

       *       *       *       *       *


Metallic Letters and Figures to put on patterns of castings, all
sizes. H. W. Knight, Seneca Falls, N. Y.

How to make Violins--Write J. Ranger, Syracuse, N. Y.

Blake's Belt Studs.--The best and cheapest fastening for Rubber or
Leather Belts. Greene, Tweed & Co., 18 Park place, N. Y.

All kinds of new Lift and Force Pumps for all purposes, at half price,
or trade for firearms or tools. W. P. Hopkins, Lawrence, Mass.

Steam Yacht for sale. 31 feet long, 6½ beam; new. John Howard, No.
1720 Rittinhouse st., Philadelphia.

Mothers make selections for themselves uptown, but they always go to
Baldwin the Clothier in New York and Brooklyn for boys' outfits.

Wanted--The Agency of small article of merit or novelty for the
Hardware or House furnishing lines. W. M. Ernst & Co., 26 Cliff
street, New York.

Thermometers and Hydrometers for scientific and other purposes.
Goldbacher, 98 Fulton street, N. Y.

For Sale.--One 3 ft. Planer, $195; one 8 ft. do., $350; one 26" Lathe,
$295; one 22" do., $175; one 15" do., $120. At Shearman's, 132 North
3d street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Inventors.--Send 10 cents for the "Journal of Invention," 4 months. 37
Park Row, N. Y. Room 2.

Reliable Oak Leather and Rubber Belting. A specialty of Belting for
high speed and hard work. Charles W. Arny, Manufacturer, Phila., Pa.
Send for price lists.

Shaw's Noise-Quieting Nozzles for Escape Pipes of Locomotives,
Steamboats, etc. Quiets all the noise of high pressure escaping steam
without any detriment whatever. T. Shaw, 915 Ridge Ave., Philadelphia,
Pa.

For 13, 15, 16, and 18 in. Swing Screw-Cutting Engine Lathes, address
Star Tool Company, Providence, R. I.

John T. Noye & Son, Buffalo, N. Y., are Manufacturers of Burr Mill
Stones and Flour Mill Machinery of all kinds, and dealers in Dufour &
Co.'s Bolting Cloth. Send for large illustrated catalogue.

Removal.--Fitch & Meserole, Manufacturers of Electrical Apparatus, and
Bradley's Patent Naked Wire Helices, have removed to 40 Cortlandt St.,
N. Y. Experimental work.

Power & Foot Presses, Ferracute Co., Bridgeton, N. J.

For Best Presses, Dies, and Fruit Can Tools, Bliss & Williams, cor. of
Plymouth and Jay Sts., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Lead Pipe, Sheet Lead. Bar Lead, and Gas Pipe. Send for prices.
Bailey, Farrell & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Hydraulic Presses and Jacks, new and second hand. Lathes and Machinery
for Polishing and Buffing metals. E. Lyon & Co., 470 Grand St., N. Y.

Solid Emery Vulcanite Wheels--The Solid Original Emery Wheel--other
kinds imitations and inferior. Caution.--Our name is stamped in full
on all our best Standard Belting, Packing, and Hose. Buy that only.
The best is the cheapest. New York Belting and Packing Company, 37 and
38 Park Row, N. Y.

Steel Castings from one lb. to five thousand lbs. Invaluable for
strength and durability. Circulars free. Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co.,
Pittsburgh, Pa.

Leather and Rubber Belting, Packing, Hose, and Manufacturers'
Supplies. Send for list. Greene, Tweed & Co., 18 Park place, N. Y.

For Solid Wrought Iron Beams, etc., see advertisement. Address Union
Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa., for lithograph, etc.

Blank Book Back-Shaping Machine. Illustrated circular free. Frank
Thomas & Co., Home St., Cincinnati, O.

Hand Fire Engines, Lift and Force Pumps for fire and all other
purposes. Address Rumsey & Co., Seneca Falls, N. Y., U. S. A.

Help for the weak, nervous, and debilitated. Chronic and painful
diseases cured without medicine. Pulvermacher's Electric Belts are
the desideratum. Book, with full particulars, mailed free. Address
Pulvermacher Galvanic Co., 292 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Silver Solder and small Tubing. John Holland, Cincinnati, Manufacturer
of Gold Pens and Pencil Cases.

Patent Scroll and Band Saws. Best and cheapest in use. Cordesman, Egan
& Co., Cincinnati, O.

Mill Stone Dressing Diamonds. Simple, effective, and durable. J.
Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., N. Y.

Best Glass Oilers. Cody & Ruthven, Cincinnati, O.

For Boult's Paneling, Moulding, and Dovetailing Machine, and other
wood-working machinery, address B.C. Machinery Co., Battle Creek,
Mich.

Chester Steel Castings Co. make castings for heavy gearing, and
Hydraulic Cylinders where great strength is required. See their
advertisement, page 30.

Reliable information given on all subjects relating to Mechanics,
Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Steam Engines, and Boilers, by A. F. Nagle,
M.E., Providence. R. I.

       *       *       *       *       *



NOTES & QUERIES


It has been our custom for thirty years past to devote a considerable
space to the answering of questions by correspondents; so useful have
these labors proved that the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN office has become the
factotum, or headquarters, to which everybody sends, who wants special
information upon any particular subject. So large is the number of our
correspondents, so wide the range of their inquiries, so desirous are
we to meet their wants and supply correct information, that we are
obliged to employ the constant assistance of a considerable staff of
experienced writers, who have the requisite knowledge or access to
the latest and best sources of information. For example, questions
relating to steam engines, boilers, boats, locomotives, railways,
etc., are considered and answered by a professional engineer of
distinguished ability and extensive practical experience. Inquiries
relating to electricity are answered by one of the most able and
prominent practical electricians in this country. Astronomical queries
by a practical astronomer. Chemical inquiries by one of our most
eminent and experienced professors of chemistry; and so on through
all the various departments. In this way we are enabled to answer the
thousands of questions and furnish the large mass of information which
these correspondence columns present. The large number of questions
sent--they pour in upon us from all parts of the world--renders it
impossible for us to publish all. The editor selects from the mass
those that he thinks most likely to be of general interest to the
readers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. These, with the replies, are
printed; the remainder go into the waste basket. Many of the rejected
questions are of a primitive or personal nature, which should be
answered by mail; in fact, hundreds of correspondents desire a special
reply by post, but very few of them are thoughtful enough to inclose
so much as a postage stamp. We could in many cases send a brief reply
by mail if the writer were to inclose a small fee, a dollar or more,
according to the nature or importance of the case. When we cannot
furnish the information, the money is promptly returned to the sender.

J. P. D. will find directions for colored whitewash on pp. 235, 236,
vol. 36.--A. M. will find directions for electroplating on p. 59, vol.
36.--H. P. can recover silver from photographers' waste by the process
detailed on p. 250, vol. 27.--A. W. A.'s difficulty as to 64 and 65
squares in the puzzle can be solved by an inspection of the diagrams
on p. 323, No. 21, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT.--I. A. will find a
description of a magneto-electric machine on p. 195, vol. 34. A clock
thus would go for 12 hours, and wind itself at the same time for
12 hours more, if such a machine could exist, would be a perpetual
motion. As to tempering small drills, see p. 186, vol. 26.--R. B. can
prevent rust on iron or steel by the means described on p. 26, vol.
25. For a recipe for a depilatory, see p. 186, vol. 34.--A. T. R. is
informed that the hydrocarbon engine is reversible.--T. W. will find
directions for making sand belts on p. 235, vol. 36.--M. G. should
address a manufacturer of oxygen cylinders.--J. S. C., who inquires
as to a water fountain, sizes of pipes, etc., should send us a sketch
with dimensions.--O. L. is informed that the proper way to ascertain
the relative strengths of corrugated and plain sheet metal is by
experiment.--G. H. B. will find directions for making colored
printing inks on p. 90, vol. 36.--P. M. will find on p. 250, vol. 36,
directions for making a polishing starch.--C. H. B. can braze the ends
of his brass plate to make a cylinder of it. See p. 219, vol. 36.--W.
H. C. is informed that his method of fluting reamers is not
new.--C. C. G. will find his method of raising coal or other weights
impracticable.--E. S. G. had better test so simple an experiment and
satisfy himself.--W. H. C. is informed that the most satisfactory plan
would be to get his tools nickel-plated.

(1) J. H. N., of Christ Church, New Zealand, asks: Is the stearin from
which the olein has been extracted by Dr. Mott's process fit to be
made at once into good stearin candles, without any further treatment?
A. Yes.

(2) B. B. says: I wish to express the strongest coloring matter from
certain herbs, sage leaves, for instance. How can it best be done
cheaply and quickly? Evaporation during several days, after boiling
and simmering, has the effect; but it is inconveniently slow. The
color produced is a medium brown. A. Dry the leaves, etc., thoroughly,
and grind to a fine powder. Digest this for several days in enough
warm water to thoroughly moisten it throughout. Then add enough wood
naphtha to make a stiff paste, and after standing an hour transfer to
a fine linen bag and express the thick liquid in a screw press. 2. Is
there anything that will set the color? A. Try a strong hot solution
of alum.

(3) H. K. F. M. says: I have a box made of Bohemian crystal. The
cover, which was held to the box by a brass frame, has come apart
from its frame. It seemed to have been cemented by a hard substance
resembling plaster of Paris. How can I make it? A. Boil 3 parts
powdered rosin for sometime with 1 part of caustic soda and 5 parts of
water; then stir into the soap formed one half its weight of plaster
of Paris, and use immediately.

(4) F. N. Y. asks: Would a canvas bag, coated with a varnish made of
india rubber dissolved in naphtha, be suitable to hold oxygen gas? A.
Yes; but bags made of double pieces of cloth, cemented together with
the varnish, are better.

(5) J. A. B. asks: Is there any difference between electricity
and magnetism? A. Electricity and magnetism are supposed to be
manifestations of the same force whose actions are produced at
right angles to each other; the action which occurs in the line of
polarization being called electricity, and the one at right angles to
this line, magnetism. There is an important difference between
them, however, as electricity is essentially a dynamic force, while
magnetism is purely static.

1. Is not the idea of the world moving around the sun in an elliptic
form absurd? A. No. 2. My idea is that the north star is the center
of the universe, or in fact is the magnet that all the suns or fixed
stars move around, and that the attraction of the pole of the earth,
although it moves around the sun, is the cause of the change of
seasons, or, in other words, the angle of light. A. There is nothing
whatever to support the idea. But a supposed center of the universe
has really been designated by some astronomers.

(6) P. S. asks: How much copper wire does it require to construct an
electro-magnet that will uphold 100 lbs., and what size of wire should
be used? A. Probably 500 or 600 feet of No. 14 copper wire would be
sufficient with 3 or 4 very large size Grove cells and cores about 6
inches long and 1 inch in diameter.

(7) H. S. B. says: Water falls about 16 feet per second. My overshot
water wheel moves about 4 feet per second. Do I in that way lose that
percentage of the actual power of the water? A. Not necessarily.

(8) C. N. B. asks: Can a steam engine be worked with compressed air
the same as with steam? A. Generally speaking, it can; but not in
every respect.

(9) J. Y. says: If all the measures of length, surface, and capacity
in the world, and all the weights were lost, by what means could new
ones be made corresponding exactly with those we now have? A. It would
be impossible, as all the measures in use refer to certain arbitrary
standards.

(10) R. B. G. asks: If a horse be pulling at the end of a lever and
traveling 3 miles an hour, how many lbs. pressure against his collar
must he exert, to raise 33,000 lbs. 1 foot per minute? A. The force
exerted by the animal will depend upon the length of the lever, which
should be given.

(11) C. H. McK. asks: Would a pump so constructed as to create an
incessant suction draw water an indefinite distance, or how far would
it draw it? A. Such a pump would raise water no higher than any other
that was equally tight.

(12) J. W. says: I wish to get some boilers made about 12 inches
in diameter and 13 inches deep. I want them to stand a pressure
corresponding to 400° Fah°. Do you think it would be safe to have them
made of cast iron? A. We think it will be better to use wrought iron.
Make the shell about 7/16 of an inch thick.

(13) J. R. S. says, in reply to E. W. P., who says that he has
an artesian well which does not flow; but from which he pumps by
inserting a pipe inside the well tubing, and asks: "If we attach the
pump to the well tubing directly, allowing no air to enter the tube,
would it not be like trying to pump water from an airtight barrel?" If
such were the case, the drive well would be a miserable failure; for
in all drive wells the pump is attached directly to the tube. I would
advise E. W. P. to attach his pump to the well tube direct, and he
will gain three times the amount of water that he now gets. By having
his pump attached to the well tube directly, the working of the pump
creates a vacuum, and the atmospheric pressure on the earth's surface
violently forces the liquid to fill the vacuum thus formed, thereby
giving a much greater amount of water than can be otherwise obtained.
It is a well established fact that more water can be obtained by the
drive well than by any other. A. In our answer to E. W. P., it will
be evident, we think, to most of our readers, that we only referred to
the case in which the well had no connection with the atmosphere, when
the pipe was tightly fitted. It appears, however, that it might have
been better to have stated this more definitely, and we gladly
embrace the opportunity afforded by the interesting letters of
our correspondents. We would be glad to receive from J. R. S. some
experimental data in proof of his assertion as to the great gain from
a tight connection. This also answers J. T. G. and W. H. F.

(14) H. H. S. says: 1. Given, a boat with a 35 feet keel, of 6 feet
beam, with fine lines; also a two-cylinder engine, each cylinder 4 x
5 inches; and a wheel 28 inches in diameter and of 3½ feet pitch. Will
an upright boiler, with 135 square feet heating surface, and 4 square
feet grate surface, be sufficient to run the engine at 250 or 300
revolutions per minute with 100 lbs. steam? A. With good coal and
a forced draft, the boiler may be large enough. 2. What will be the
probable speed of boat? A. In smooth water, 7 to 8 miles an hour.

(15) F. A. asks: What would be a safe outside pressure for a cylinder
of wrought iron, ½ inch thick and 4 feet in diameter, and 8 feet long?
A. According to tables given in Wilson's "Treatise on Steam Boilers,"
the working pressure for such a tube would be about 65 lbs. per square
inch.

(16) F. M. M. asks: 1. How large must an engine be to run a boat 12½
feet wide, 75 feet long, drawing 4 feet of water, at the rate of 30
miles per hour, on a river or bay where the surface is smooth? A. We
have some doubts as to whether these conditions could be fulfilled. 2.
Do steamboats on the ocean use salt water in their boilers for
steam, or do they carry fresh water? A. They ordinarily have surface
condensers, so that the water of condensation is returned to the
boilers.

(17) E. S. N. says: Please give your ideas as to how much water an
engine 18 inches in diameter by 22 inches stroke, running at 145
revolutions per minute, at 80 lbs. steam, cutting off at about 18
inches, will require. We furnished an injector for one of the above
dimensions, capable of throwing 900 gallons per hour. It was found
to be insufficient, and I went to the mill to discover the cause, if
possible. The manufacturers of the injector thought it ought to be
large enough, and so did we. I found everything set up properly, and
the piston and valve were evidently in good order. I finally measured
the capacity of the tank which supplied the injector, and found
that it drew 960 gallons per hour. A. We do not think the data are
sufficient for an accurate calculation. It is possible, however, that
some of our readers have made experiments on similar engines, and can
give some useful information.

(18) T. W. asks: What size of breast water wheel, with a fall of 2
feet water, would it require to produce the same power as an overshot
wheel of 4 feet diameter, 18 inches face, with a fall of 5 feet water?
A. If the breast wheel gave the same efficiency as the other, it would
require a face about 2½ times as wide.

(19) A. K. says: A. asserts that if a small and a large boiler be set
side by side and connected with the top gauge cock of the two boilers,
level, when they are first filled with water, and then steam is
raised, that the water will not remain the same, that the pressure
will be greater in the larger boiler, and consequently will force the
water into the smaller one. B. says that the water will always remain
the same as long as the boilers are connected; that the pressure on
the water will be the same in both boilers, and therefore the water
will always assume the same level in each. Which is right? A. The
pressures sometimes vary in two boilers connected in this way; and
they should be set in such a way that the water cannot be forced from
one into the other under any circumstances.

(20) J. T. G. says: I notice your reply to W. G. in regard to pounding
of a steam pump, in which you recommend the use of a larger air
vessel. I think that W. G. can remedy the difficulty by allowing a
small quantity of air to enter the pump cylinder at each stroke,
which can be done without sensibly diminishing the amount of water
delivered, provided the lift is not so high as to nearly equal the
capacity of the pump. That would keep the maximum quantity of air in
the air vessel, and I think that the air in the discharge pipe would
have the effect of converting a comparatively rigid column into an
elastic one. W. G. can easily try the experiment by running with
the drain cocks at the end of his pump partially open; and if that
remedies the difficulty, he might insert a small check valve opening
inward to prevent the discharge of water during the out-stroke. If W.
G. tries this, I wish that he would let us know the result through the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

(21) G. H. says: Please decide the following: A. claims that a team
of horses can draw a greater load when hitched close to it than when
hitched at a distance of 10 or 20 feet. B. claims that, everything
else being equal, distance makes no difference, and that the team
could pull as many lbs. at a distance of 20 feet as it could at ten or
less. Which is right? A. We incline to B.'s opinion.

Please tell me the relative power of conducting electricity of
the principal metals. A. According to Matthiessen, the electrical
conductivity of the principal metals, under similar conditions, is as
follows:

  Silver             100.0
  Copper              99.9
  Gold                80.0
  Aluminium           56.0
  Sodium              37.4
  Zinc                29.0
  Cadmium             23.7
  Potassium           20.8
  Platinum            18.0
  Iron                16.8
  Tin                 13.1
  Lead                 8.3
  German silver        7.7
  Antimony             4.6
  Mercury              1.6
  Bismuth              1.2

(22) S. R. S. asks: How can lime, or rather phosphate of lime, be
precipitated from cod liver oil, which is perfectly clear and said to
contain 2 per cent. of the phosphate? A. This can only be done by
first destroying the organic matter of the oil, and then examining the
residue for the phosphates with the usual reagents--magnesia solution,
barium chloride, nitrate of silver, ammonium molybdate, etc. With so
small a percentage of the phosphates, it will be necessary for you to
work with concentrated solutions, and slowly. The oil may be oxidized
by treating it on the waterbath with hot hydrochloric acid, with
some chlorate of potash, added in small quantities at a time. Then
evaporate down nearly to dryness, and treat with a little strong
nitric and a few drops of sulphuric acid. This will take some time if
properly done.

(23) J. H. S. says, in answer to J. H. B.'s query as to a parrot
pulling out his feathers: Take a knife and scrape the inside edge of
the bill, and the feathers will slip from the bill without coming out.
This is done for feather-eating hens; no doubt it will answer for a
parrot as well.

(24) S. R. S. says: I have some dentists' pellet gold. I alloyed it
with brass and silver. I melted it several times, but it was so very
brittle that I could not work it. I then added a $2½ gold coin, and
fused, all together, but it was as brittle as before. I then fused it
and dropped in lumps of pure saltpeter, but it is still as brittle
as before. I fused the gold on a lump of charcoal with an alcohol
blowpipe. Please tell me how to work it. A. You fail to state the
proportions of your alloy. There may be an excess of zinc and copper,
or the fusion may not have been complete. Place it, together with
several small pieces of rosin and a little borax or carbonate of soda,
in a small blacklead crucible, and heat to very bright redness over
a good fire. If this does not obviate the difficulty, fuse the alloy
with about three times its weight of nitrate of potassa (saltpeter),
and treat the mass when cold with dilute sulphuric acid. Pour off the
acid solution and fuse the alloy, together with any silver sulphate
adhering to it and a little carbonate of soda. Any silver contained in
the acid solution may be recovered by adding a little salt or muriatic
acid, and fusing the precipitated chloride of silver with carbonate of
soda.

(25) N. S. asks: 1. Can water be decomposed into its constituents
(oxygen and hydrogen) with any considerable rapidity, and in large
quantities, by electricity? A. Yes; providing a large magneto-electric
machine be used. 2. What is the best and cheapest method of generating
hydrogen in large quantities? A. The action of iron or zinc scraps
on diluted oil of vitriol is among the best. A considerable volume
of pure hydrogen may also be obtained with facility by passing
superheated steam through a large iron tube filled with scrap iron
heated to bright redness.

(26) G. S. D. W. asks: Is there any process by which an engraving can
be transferred either to stone or wood, where the printing ink can
be made to show up as black as in the original after the transfer has
been made? A. We know of no satisfactory method whereby this may
be accomplished directly. By means of the chromate of gelatin
photographic process, such transfers may be made without great
difficulty.

(27) F. M. M. asks: 1. If a steamboat 100 feet long, of 5 feet beam
and 4 feet draught, be provided with one set of common side paddle
wheels, and power enough to run it at the rate of 10 knots per
hour, would two sets of side wheels, with the power doubled and the
revolutions of the wheels doubled, double the speed of the boat? A.
No. 2. If we take the same boat, side wheels, and power, for running
10 knots per hour, and arrange for the side wheels to feather their
paddles, what effect would it have on the speed of the boat? A. You
might obtain from 10 to 15 per cent. more of the power of the engine in
useful effect.

(28) W. J. T. asks: 1. What is the best dark color to paint a
laboratory, and what kind of paint must I use? A. One of the best for
this purpose is shellac in alcohol, colored to suit with Vandyke or
Spanish brown, etc. 2. I wish to varnish my benches. What varnish
would you recommend? A. Shellac is commonly used, but copal gives good
results, also Brunswick black in oil.

Of what should a waste water pipe be made, so as to resist acids? A.
Make it of lead or block tin.

Can you recommend an elementary work on electric batteries? A.
Sprague's "Electricity: its Theory, Sources, and Applications," is one
of the best.

(29) T. P. H. asks: Can I take a wax impression off type and then
electrotype it with a battery? A. Yes. This is the common method of
making electrotypes for printing from.

(30) C. M. asks: What are the locations of the various branch mints of
the United States? A. A recent authority gives them as Philadelphia,
Pa., San Francisco, Cal., Carson City, Nev., and Denver, Col. Assay
offices are situated at New York city, Charlotte, N. C., and Boise
City, Idaho.

(31) B. L. D. asks: Can you give me a recipe for making paste for
sharpening razors, knives, etc.? A. Mix the finest emery obtainable
with a little suet.

(32) C. B. McM. says: I hear that four gallon measures of different
capacities are in use, and that The United States standard gallon
contains 230 cubic inches. In the confusion of text-book statements
such as--"wine gallon = 231 cubic inches," "beer gallon = 282 cubic
inches," "American standard gallon = 58973 grains (Youmans' Chemistry)
= nearly 234 cubic inches," and the very extensive ignorance of what
is really correct, please repeat the information in a way that may
be quoted as authority for the capacity of a United States gallon in
cubic inches, and the weight in grains. A. "The gallon of the United
States is the standard or Winchester wine gallon of 231 cubic inches,
and contains 8.3388822 lbs. avoirdupois, or 58372.1754 troy grains of
distilled water at 39.83° Fah., the barometer being at 30 inches. It
is equal to 3.785207 liters. The gallon of the State of New York is of
the capacity of 8 lbs. pure water at its maximum density, or
221.184 cubic inches. It is equal to 3.62346 liters."--_Appleton's
Cyclop[oe]dia._

(33) S. C. D. says: Please give directions for electrotyping
cylindrical rollers for impressing upon sheets of wax, accurately,
of the proper figure for honeycomb foundations. The figure for the
surface of the cylinders to be derived from sheets of wax foundation,
having the figure correctly impressed upon them. A. This can be done
by coating with plumbago, and then electrotyping with copper, in a way
familiar to most printers and to all electrotyping establishments. The
plates can afterwards be bent round a roller, and used to impress the
sheets of wax.

(34) J. H. T. asks: There is a piece of ground, 100 rods long and 10
rods wide at one end, running to a point at the other, which we wish
to divide into 4 equal lots. Please give a rule. A. Let the 100 rods
be the base of a triangle, divide it into 4 parts of 25 rods each, and
join the apex with each of the three dividing points. You will then
have 4 triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels, which,
according to Euclid, are equal to each other.

(35) R. S. asks: What are the chemical qualities of bisulphide
of lime, and how can I prepare it? A. The bisulphide of calcium
(C_{2}S_{5}) is produced by boiling milk of lime with sulphur and
water, but not long enough to allow the lime to become completely
saturated. The filtered liquid, on cooling, deposits crystals whose
composition agrees with the formula C_{2}S_{2} + 3H_{2}O. Exposed to
the air, it soon absorbs oxygen, becoming converted into insoluble
sulphate of calcium. Its aqueous solutions are likewise decomposed.
Its reactions with the metallic salts are similar to those of the
alkaline sulphides.

(36) H. M. S. asks: 1. Of what is the bronze preparation made and how
is it applied to clock fronts? A. Bronze powders are made of various
metallic alloys. The gold bronze is usually made of Dutch gold
(an alloy of copper and zinc) and of the bisulphide of tin (_aurum
musivum_). They are usually applied to metal work by means of an oil
size or japan varnish. 2. In what way can I remove the old bronze? A.
Wash first with a solution of washing soda (hot), clean and dry, and
then rub with a little benzole, alcohol, or ether.

(37) W. E. W. asks: 1. Of what mixture is the bright red paint usually
put upon axes made? A. It consists of fine vermilion ground with
1 part boiled oil and 2 parts turpentine. 2. Is more than one coat
applied? A. One coat will suffice. It is best applied with a fine
brush, when the metal is warm.

(38) C. M. B. asks: Is the odor emitted by the ailanthus tree
unwholesome? A. It is considered so by many, but we have no proof as
to the facts.

(39) L. S. & Co. ask: Is there anything known which would clean the
hands from paints and lacquers without the use of turpentine? A. A
little ammonia and benzine or naphtha, aided by a little sand, is
often used in stubborn cases; put plenty of good soap and warm water,
with a stiff brush or a small piece of pumicestone, will ordinarily
suffice.

(40) W. P. S., Jr., says: Can you give me a recipe for making _papier
maché_? A. _Papier maché_ is obtained from old paper and the like made
into a pulp by grinding with milk of lime or lime water, and a little
gum dextrin or starch. This pulp is then pressed into form, coated
with linseed oil, baked at a high temperature, and finally varnished.
The pulp is sometimes mixed with clay (kaolin), chalk, etc.; and other
kinds are made of a paste of pulp and recently slaked lime. This is
used for ornamenting wood, etc.

(41) M. P. B. says, in reply to a correspondent who asked how to
prevent his water filter from getting choked up: Fit in the filter,
on the top of the charcoal, a piece of board having in the center a
circular hole from two to four inches in diameter, according to the
size of the filter; force in this a sponge so tightly that all the
water has to pass through it first, but not so as to prevent its free
passage. This sponge will absorb readily the gross impurities of the
water, and can easily be taken out and cleaned once or twice a week.

(42) A. C. S. asks: 1. Is there any reason why lightning rod points
should always be bright, if the points are kept sufficiently sharp? A.
It makes no difference if the points are not bright. 2. If lightning
rods put up in the ordinary way above the roof terminate in the eaves'
spouting of the house, and said spouting had good ground connections,
would this not be equal to the best lightning rod, and thereby save
many feet of rod and many dollars of expense? A. The arrangement you
suggest would be good. Make a thoroughly good ground connection with
leaders, have all joints well soldered, and you may dispense with the
rod as you propose.

(43) J. A. W. says: Having occasion to do some copper plating some
time ago, I dissolved sulphate of copper in water in a glass jar. I
then poured it off into my battery, and there was some left in the
jar. I threw a small piece of iron into it and left it for some days.
I then took it out; and to my surprise, I found that it had been
perfectly plated with copper. Please let me know the cause? A. The
reaction you note is taken advantage of to cheaply copper plate small
articles of cast iron. See answer to J. O. M., p. 347, vol. 36. In the
presence of water, the reaction is as follows:

     CuSO_{4}   +   Fe   =   FeSO_{4}   +   Cu.

Sulphate of copper. Iron. Sulphate of iron. Copper.

As the iron is a more positive metal than copper, it displaced the
latter in combination with acids, the remaining portions of the iron
becoming coated with the precipitated copper.

(44) A. G. asks: Is the silver, for a reflecting telescope, put on the
back of the glass the same as on looking glasses? A. No. Only one
side of the glass is ground and polished to the shape required. The
silvering is done on this side; and then, with the softest buckskin
and the finest rouge, the surface of the silver is polished for the
reflecting surface. In cities where gas is used, it will not retain
its brilliancy very long; then it requires to be cleaned with nitric
acid and resilvered, which is only the work of a few hours when a
person has become accustomed to it.

(45) A. L. B. says: 1. I understand that, in modern chemistry, the
acids and alkalies are the two extremes of a class of substances
called hydrates, the only difference being the radical. In the
reaction of nitric acid, HO NO_{2} or HNO_{3} on potassic hydrate, KOH
is KO NO_{2} or KNO_{3}, and H_{2}O. Which molecule loses the oxygen
atom, and why should one part with it more than the other?

A.    HNO_{3}    +    KOH      =    KNO_{3}  + H_{2}O
    Nitric acid      potassic       potassic    water
                     hydrate        nitrate

In this reaction the potassium is considered, by virtue of its greater
affinity, as replacing the hydrogen atom in the hydric nitrate; the
hydrogen in turn satisfying the OH group to form water. These hydrates
are similar only in point of constitution. Their chemical deportments
are widely different. 2. What are oxides in modern chemistry? A. The
bodies formed by the direct combination of oxygen with the elementary
bodies are called oxides. With water some of these oxides form
hydrates, as

    K_{2}O   +  H_{2}O = 2(KHO)
  potassium     water    potassic
    oxide                hydrate

(46) J. R. M. asks: To have a circular saw run well, should the
mandrel have a little end play if it is desired to relieve the saw
and guides of strain? A. If the saw is not true or the carriage runs
crooked, end play of the mandrel to the extent of the deviations will
relieve the strain upon the saw. But if the carriage runs true and the
saw true, the mandrel should have no end play.

MINERALS, etc.--Specimens have been received from the following
correspondents, and examined, with the result stated:

M. S. M.--It is a quartz crystal, the opposite sides of which
have been ground flat, probably by artificial means.--F. B.--It is
graphite.


       *       *       *       *       *



COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.


The Editor of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN acknowledges, with much
pleasure, the receipt of original papers and contributions upon the
following subjects:

On a Battery and Electric Clock. By J. E. W.

On Anti-Water Drinking. By C. P. W.

On Snakes Catching Fish. By C. R. G.

On Utilization of Sewage. By Dr. H. D. T.

On Aerial Navigation. By C. W.

On the Ash-Colored Salamander. By C. F. S.


       *       *       *       *       *



HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS.


Correspondents whose inquiries fail to appear should repeat them.
If not then published, they may conclude that, for good reasons,
the Editor declines them. The address of the writer should always be
given.

Inquiries relating to patents, or to the patentability of inventions,
assignments, etc., will not be published here. All such questions,
when initials only are given, are thrown into the waste basket, as it
would fill half of our paper to print them all; but we generally take
pleasure in answering briefly by mail, if the writer's address is
given.

Hundreds of inquiries analogous to the following are sent: "Who
makes machinery suitable for making flour barrels? Whose is the best
theodolite? Who sells steam whistles? Whose is the cheapest silk,
suitable for balloons? Who makes the best engraving machine for
transferring designs to copper?" All such personal inquiries
are printed, as will be observed, in the column of "Business and
Personal," which is specially set apart for that purpose, subject to
the charge mentioned at the head of that column. Almost any desired
information can in this way be expeditiously obtained.


       *       *       *       *       *



OFFICIAL.

INDEX OF INVENTIONS

FOR WHICH

LETTERS PATENT OF THE UNITED STATES WERE GRANTED IN THE WEEK ENDING

June 5, 1877,

AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE.

[Those marked (r) are reissued patents.]

       *       *       *       *       *



A complete copy of any patent in the annexed list, including both the
specifications and drawings, will be furnished from this office for
one dollar. In ordering, please state the number and date of the
patent desired and remit to Munn & Co., 37 Park Row, New York city.

       *       *       *       *       *



Air, cooling, C. Pfanne                                  191,710
Apple parers, etc., W. M. Griscom                191,669,191,670
Ash sifter, G. W. & L. Demond                            191,520
Bag holder. E. Woods                                     191,741
Baking pan, L. B. Foss                                   191,578
Baking pan, J. H. Pitts                                  191,548
Barrel cover, McClellan & McBride                        191,699
Barrel head, G. M. Breinig                               191,644
Bedstead, wardrobe, S. S. Burr                           191,651
Bee hive, T. A. Atkinson                                 191,635
Bee hive, H. F. Poggenpohl                               191,612
Bee hive, Sperry & Chandler                              191,620
Bench dog, W. Lyle                                       191,693
Bit stock, J. T. Matthews                                191,540
Blacksmith's tongs, J. Van Matre                         191,734
Boiler furnace, etc., J. E. Crowell                      191,518
Bottle stopper, C. De Quillfeldt (r)                       7,722
Bottles, etc., sealing, C. L. Darby                      191,519
Bottling machine, W. H. Kelly                            191,596
Bracket, J. B. Sargent                                   191,718
Breech loading fire arm, V. Bovy                         191,563
Breech loading fire arm, J. Schudt                       191,721
Bridge, E. S. Sherman                                    191,552
Bung cutter, R. & G. N. Crichton                         191,658
Button, clasp, L. B. Colin                               191,657
Button fastening, A. Brookmann                           191,649
Calender and washing list, J. C. Coombs                  191,517
Car brake, E. S. Jones                                   191,594
Car coupling, W. Duesler                                 191,522
Car lavatory, C. E. Lucas                                191,691
Carriage perch stay, J. R. McGuire                       191,700
Chair convertible, J. P. True                            191,733
Chair, folding, B. F. Little                             191,689
Chicken coop, Sullivan & Retallic                        191,621
Chicken coop, R. L, & N. J. Todd                         191,556
Chimney draft regulator, W. H. Sears                     191,722
Chisel, mortising, J. T. Bowen                           191,643
Churn, T. J. Parrish                                     191,708
Churn, reciprocating, H. C. Sperry                       191,726
Churn, rotary, A. J. Borland                             191,562
Churn, rotary, Hatton & Record                           191,676
Churn, rotary, J. G. Wallace                             191,736
Clasp hook, spring, J. W. Knause                         191,686
Clocks, adjusting position of, W. F. Wuterich            191,630
Coal and ore washer, J. M. Bailey                        191,511
Corn dropper, J. P. Simmons                              191,723
Corset skirt supporter, T. F. Hamilton                   191,672
Cotton scraper, etc., M. Roby                            191,613
Cultivator, W. E. Dewey                                  191,660
Cultivator, A. S. McDermott                              191,606
Cupboard, W. H. Sallada                                  191,549
Curry comb, Bennett & Moody                              191,559
Curry comb, P. Miller                                    191,608
Desk, school, C. H. Presbrey                             191,713
Drawing instrument, J. R. Peel                           191,611
Drill hoe, E. F. Pryor                                   191,714
Easel, T. L. Fisher                                      191,577
Easel, F. S. Frost                                       191,579
Eccentric, reversible, Lafayette & Strong                191,602
Elevator, etc., telescopic, W. R. Comings                191,516
Elliptic spring, N. J. Tilghman                          191,731
Engine frame, S. W. Putnam                               191,716
Engine exhaust, C. T. Parry                              191,545
Engine valve motion, H. Haering                          191,583
Feed rack, W. H. Howard                                  191,590
Feed water heater, N. W. Kirby                           191,597
Fence, E. H. Perry                                       191,547
Fences, R. F. Ward                              191,626, 191,627
Fence cap, metallic, J. D. W. Lauckhardt                 191,603
Finger guard, K. A. Wynne                                191,742
Fire escape, L. Henkle                                   191,677
Fire front, G. W. Purcel                                 191,715
Fire kindler, J. G. Distler                              191,572
Fireproof column, Drake & Wight                          191,662
Flour bin and sifter, F. M. Mahan                        191,694
Fluting and polishing, C. Johnson                        191,684
Fluting machine, Keller & Olmesdahl                      191,595
Fly trap, Carroll & Lamb                                 191,652
Fountain, portable, W. H. Zinn                           191,557
Fruit crate, G. Willard                                  191,739
Fuel, pressing, stalks, etc., for, Davis & Fisk          191,571
Fulling mill, J. Hunter                                  191,592
Furnace bottom construction, P. D. Nicols                191,543
Furnaces, oxygen, blast, C. Hornbostel                   191,530
Gage cock, boiler, D. T. Ellis                           191,663
Gas apparatus, portable, D. H. Irland                    191,531
Gate, B. R. Baker                                        191,637
Gate, J. T. Guy                                          191,671
Gearing, oscillating, N. P. Otis                         191,705
Glassware, making, C. L. Knecht                          191,534
Grate, J. H. Mearns                                      191,702
Griddle, H. C. Milligan                                  191,703
Gutter holder, M. Schmitt                                191,616
Hame attachment, J. Hudson                               191,591
Harness saddle tree, W. L. Frizzell                      191,525
Harrow, H. I. Lund                                       191,604
Harvester, Philleo & Cox                                 191,711
Harvester corn, B. Osgood                                191,610
Harvester finger bar, H. L. Hopkins                      191,678
Harvester rake, R. Emerson                               191,664
Harvester rake, R. D. Warner                             191,743
Harvester reels, H. A. Adams                    191,631, 191,632
Harvester cutter, Haskin & Reigart                       191,675
Hats, pressing, R. Kent                                  191,533
Hatter's measure, J. A. Harrington                       191,674
Hay derrick, etc., R. N. B. Kirkham                      191,598
Hay elevator, E. L. Church                               191,568
Hinge and door, safe, P. F. King                         191,680
Hog catcher, J. H. Eames                                 191,575
Hoisting machine, H. J. Reedy                            191,717
Hoisting machine, G. H. Reynolds (r)                       7,727
Hoisting machine, F. G. Hesse                            191,529
Holdback, J. W. Hight                                    191,589
Honey box, Johnson & Keeley                              191,593
Hoopskirt spring, etc., A. Benjamin                      191,641
Hydrocarbon injector, H. E. Parson                       191,546
Hydrocarbons, extracting, W. Adamson                     191,623
Ice cream freezer, J. Solter                             191,725
Ice cutting machine, C. Chadwick                         191,515
Ice house, E. Schandein                                  191,719
Ice machine, A. T. Ballantine                            191,638
Indicator for bellows, J. E. Treat                       191,624
Iron and steel cementation, J. W. Hoxie.                 191,681
Iron from cold short pig, etc., C. C. McCarty            191,698
Jar cover, E. Meier                                      191,541
Jewelry, plated, English & Covell                        191,665
Keyhole guard, C. H. Covell (r)                            7,720
Label holder, J. E. Sweetland                            191,555
Lathe tool, E. F. Beugler                                191,560
Lathes, truing work in, A. Hatch                         191,586
Lifting jack, T. Weathers                                191,737
Lime kiln, M. Callan                                     191,566
Lithographic press, C. C. Maurice                        191,696
Locomotive light, A. Dressell                            191,574
Loom take-up, J. Lyall                                   191,692
Loom harness cording, L. J. Knowles                      191,600
Lubricator, C. H. Parshall                               191,707
Mandrel, expanding, Amann & Harker                       191,634
Manure drill, A. C. Hurley                               191,682
Marine ram, N. H. Borgfeldt                              191,514
Match safe, J. A. Field                                  191,576
Medicine case, J. C. Millard                             191,607
Milk cooler, J. Bissonett                                191,513
Millstone dress, R. S. Williams                          191,740
Mineral wool, treating, A. D. Elbers                     191,524
Mirror, adjustable, S. R. Scottron                       191,720
Motion, converting, C. Chadwick                 191,654, 191,655
Needle, knitting, etc., S. Peberdy                       191,709
Oil can, D. Bennett                                      191,642
Oil well rope socket, H. Baddock (r)                       7,719
Ore, reducing nickel, W. B. Tatro                        191,728
Organ swell, reed, Kelly & Hebard                        191,532
Paper barrels, making, E. M. Slayton                     191,618
Paperbox, P. B. Pickens                                  191,712
Pianoforte bridge, J. Herald                             191,587
Picture exhibitor, J. Hannerty                           191,673
Plow, E. Haiman (r)                                        7,724
Plow, L. F. W. Liles                                     191,688
Plow clevis, C. O. Wilder                                191,629
Plow colter, C. R. Thompson                              191,622
Plow, sulky, A. A. Fowler                                191,677
Plow, sulky, W. Henry                                    191,588
Preserving, bleaching fruit, etc., J. R. Dodge, Jr.      191,661
Pulleys, casting, G. G. Lobdell                          191,690
Pulp, die for forming, D. Scrymgeour                     191,551
Pump, rotary, Swan & Edgecomb                            191,727
Pumps, making buckets for, J. N. Kaufholz                191,685
Pumping from casks, etc., W. F. Class                    191,656
Quicksilver condenser, R. F. Knox                        191,687
Railway signal, electric, J. P. Tirrell                  191,732
Reamer, expanding, R. Blair                              191,561
Refrigerator, Thompson & Parkhurst                       191,729
Refuse burner, W. Glue                                   191,744
Ribbon block, G. N. Stanton                              191,554
Ribbon, etc., storing, A. C. Mason                       191,695
Ripping tool, G. D. Clark                                191,569
Safe, fireproof, Saxe & Harding                          191,550
Sandpapering machine, J. P. Beck                         191,640
Sash fastener, S. G. Monce                               191,609
Saw guide, J. B. Currier                                 191,659
Sawing machines, scroll, J. H. Plummer (r)          7,725, 7,726
Seed drill, H. L. Brown                                  191,565
Seed planter, check row, G. D. Haworth                   191,528
Sewing machine, straw, S. C. Brown                       191,647
Sewing machine trimmer, H. H. Hallett                    191,584
Shingles, etc., bunching, P. Dexter (r)                    7,723
Shoes, making, J. Tibbetts                               191,730
Skate, J. A. Dodge                                       191,573
Skate, roller, J. Miner                                  191,542
Skylight bar, J. W. Atkinson                             191,636
Spinning, roll support. F. B. Hart                       191,585
Spooling, stop motion, J. Wild                           191,738
Spools, preventing unrolling tape, etc., A. C. Gould     191,581
Spoon blank, die, H. W. Bassett                          191,639
Stamp, hand, L. Tilton                                   191,623
Stamp mill, G. Downing                                   191,521
Steamboat smoke stack, Rouze et al                       191,614
Stop motion fork slide, J. McCaffrey, Jr.                191,697
Stove, J. Gladding, 3d                                   191,580
Stove, coal oil, M. H. Barnes                            191,558
Stove, cooking, D. E. Paris                              191,706
Stovepipe damper, A. Brightman                           191,646
Stovepipe thimble, J. Carhartt                           191,567
Stove, oil, cooking, Sherburne et al                     191,553
Straw cutter, A. Vahldieck                               191,625
Sugar, liquefying hard, O. H. Krause                     191,535
Sugar liquor, collecting, A. A. Goubert                  191,527
Sugar liquor, collecting, Matthiessen et al     191,537, 191,538
Sugar, washing raw, F. O. Matthiessen                    191,539
Swing, J. J. Janezeck                                    191,683
Thill coupling, J. Kitzmiller                            191,599
Tobacco, hoisting, C. H. Slaton                          191,619
Tobacco pipe, N. T. Oberg                                191,544
Tobacco plant planter, R. A. Knox                        191,601
Top, spinning, T. McLaughlin                             191,701
Tortoise-shell handle, C. W. Schaeffer                   191,615
Towel rack, C. A. Brickley                               191,564
Trap for balls, T. Wilkie                                191,628
Tube well, T. J. Dean (r)                                  7,721
Type writer, D. H. Sherman                               191,617
Upholstering tuft, R. H. Bryant                          191,650
Valve tank, J. P. Duncan                                 191,523
Vegetable cutter, W. Chapin                              191,653
Vehicle spring and axle, S. W. Ludlow                    191,536
Ventilation, etc., W. H. Bennett                         191,512
Wagon axle skein, H. L. Hinds                            191,679
Wagon gearing, W. P. Brown                               191,648
Wagons, skid attachment for, C. Crandall                 191,570
Wardrobe hook, labeled, T. F. Breese                     191,645
Wash boiler, T. Gunsalus                                 191,582
Water gauge, C. D. Smith                                 191,724
Water wheel, L. Good                                     191,668
Water wheel, I. Mallery                                  191,605
Weaving shuttle, duck, W. L. Gilbert                     191,526
Wheelbarrow, E. W. Walker                                191,735
Wood pressing machine, S. L. Nagle                       191,704
Wrench, pipe, G. Fletcher                                191,666

       *       *       *       *       *



DESIGNS PATENTED,


10,030 to 10,032.--EMBROIDERY.--E. Crisand, New Haven, Conn.
10,033.--LOCK-CASE.--R. Flocke, Newark, N. J.
10,034.--BOTTLES.--J. H. Harrison, Davenport, Iowa.
10,035 to 10,037.--CARPET.--H. S. Kerr, Philadelphia, Pa.
10,038, 10,039.--CARPETS.--T. J. Stearns, Boston, Mass.
10,040.--MOULDING.--R. M. Merrill et al., Laconia, N. H.
10,041 to 10,044.--OIL CLOTH.--C. T. Meyer et al., Bergen, N. J.
10,045.--STUDS, ETC.--J. W. Miller et al., Newark, N. J.
10,046.--BOOK CASES.--J. W. Schuckers, New York city.

[A copy of any one of the above patents may be had by remitting one
dollar to MUNN & Co., 37 Park Row, New York city.]


       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISEMENTS

       *       *       *       *       *

Inside Page, each insertion                     75 cents a line.
Back Page, each insertion                          $1.00 a line.

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received
at publication office as early as Friday morning to appear in next
issue._

       *       *       *       *       *



THE SCIENTIFIC GRAIN & MIDDLINGS MILL.

[Illustration]

12, 20, and 30 inch Mill Stones.

Sent on trial to responsible parties, and warranted the full equal of
any heavy mill built in the world. Send for our price list, as this
may not appear again.

A. W. STRAUB & CO., 1361 Ridge Avenue, Phila, Pa.


NO MORE SLIPPING BELTS. MY NEW Patent Pulley Cover will do double the
work before the belt will slip. Put on without disturbing shafting.
Agent wanted in every city. Circulars free.

JOHN W. SUTTON, 95 Liberty St., New York.


THE NEW GERMAN PATENT LAW. Being the Full Text of the New Law for
Patents, passed July 1st, 1877, covering all the States of the German
Empire. Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 80. Price 10
cents. To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.


PATENT COLD ROLLED SHAFTING

Price list mailed on application to JONES & LAUGHLINS,
Try Street, 2d and 3rd Avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa.
190 S. Canal Street, Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukie, Wis.
--> Stocks of this shafting in store and for sale by
FULLER, DANA, & FITZ, Boston, Mass.
GEO. PLACE & CO. 121 Chambers St., N. Y.


EUREKA SAFETY POWER!

Practically IMPOSSIBLE TO EXPLODE.
Tested to 300 lbs. pressure per square inch.
2-Horse Power, $150, 3 to 4 H.P., $250.
Also, Stationary Engines and boilers, and
SPARK ARRESTING PORTABLE ENGINES
for plantation use. Send for our circular.
Discount to the trade.

B. W. PAYNE & SONS,
Corning, N. Y.


SIZING OF COTTON GOODS. Read before the Society of Arts by
W. Thompson, F.R.S. A most Full and Clear Description of the process,
embracing: An account of the process of Weaving, explaining the object
and utility of Size. A table of Sizing Mixtures, in which are
enumerated the Substances used: 1, for giving Adhesive properties to
Size; 2, to give Weight and Body to the Yarn; 3, for Softening the
Size or Yarn; and 4, for Preserving the Size from Mildew and
Decomposition. Tests for these Substances, and Directions for
Preparing, so as to obtain the results required. Proportions of Sizing.
Use of Flour in Size. Weighting Materials, China Clay and its
substitutes. "Softenings," and Oils for Softening. East Winds and
their effect. Glycerine, Grape Sugar, Mildew Preventives, and Tape
Sizing. "Slashing," Packing, Damaged Goods, etc. Contained in
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 80. Price 10 cents. For sale at this
office and of all newsdealers.


CELEBRATED FOOT LATHES.

Foot Power Back-geared Screw Lathes, Small Hand and Power Planers for
Metal, Small Gear Cutters, Slide-rests, Ball Machine for Lathes, Foot
Scroll Saws, light and heavy Foot Circular Saws. Just the articles for
Amateurs or Artisans. Highly recommended.

Send for illustrated Catalogues.

N. H. BALDWIN, Laconia, N. H.


$66 a Week in your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free.
H. HALLETT & CO., Portland Maine.


SAVE OIL. USE TOMLINSON'S
Car Axle Box. Cars run for 3 cents for a thousand miles.
See _Car Builder_ for June, 1877. Address

J. B. TOMLINSON, 80 White St., N. Y.


DAYTON CAM PUMP

[Illustration]

THE ONLY PUMP IN THE MARKET DESIGNED AND CONSTRUCTED
ESPECIALLY FOR BOILER FEEDING.

Are Pumping water at 268° F. No Dead Centers.
The Steam Valve is a plain Slide Valve, identical to
the slide valve of a Steam Engine, but derives its
motion from a cam. Speed can be regulated to suit
evaporation.

Pumping Returns from Steam Heating Apparatus a specialty.

--> Send for Circular.

Smith, Vaile & Co.,

DAYTON, OHIO.


WHAT 25 CENTS WILL BUY!

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK.

PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS.

This is a most useful Little bound book of 150 pages, comprising,
probably, the most extensive variety of standard, practical, condensed
information ever furnished to the public for so small a price.
Contents:

1. THE LAST CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES (1870), by States, Territories
and Counties. IN FULL, showing also the area in square miles of each
State and Territory.

2. TABLE OF OCCUPATIONS.--Showing the occupations of the people of the
United States, and the number of persons engaged in each occupation.
Compiled from the last census.

3. TABLE OF CITIES, having over 10,000 Inhabitants. Compiled from the
last census.

4. MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. Miniature outline.

5. THE UNITED STATES PATENT LAWS (full text).--Principal Official Rules
for Procedure; Directions How to Obtain Patents, Costs, etc.; Forms for
Patents and Caveats: How to Introduce and Sell Inventions; Forms for
Assignments; Licenses; State, Town, County, and Shop Rights; General
Principles applicable to Infringements; Synopsis of the Patent Laws of
Foreign Countries; Rights of Employers and Employes in respect to
Inventions.

6. THE ORNAMENTAL DESIGN PATENT LAW (full text).--Costs and Procedure
for securing Design Patents for Ornamental Productions such as Designs
for Textile Fabrics, Patterns for Wood and Metal Work, New Shapes and
Configurations of any article of Manufacture, Prints, Pictures, and
Ornaments, to be printed, woven, stamped, cast, or otherwise applied
upon machinery, tools, goods, fabrics, manufactures.

7. THE UNITED STATES TRADE-MARK LAW (full text).--With Directions,
Proceedings and Expenses for the Registration of Trade-Marks of every
description.

8. THE LABEL COPYRIGHT LAW (full text).--With Directions, Proceedings
and Cost of Registering Labels for Goods. Medicines, and Merchandise
of all kinds.

9. THE GENERAL COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES (full text).--With
Directions and Costs for Securing Copyrights by Authors for Books,
Pamphlets, Charts, Photographs, Pictures, and Works of Art.

10. THE PRINCIPAL MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS.--Described and illustrated
by  150 small diagrams, of great value to Inventors and Designers
of Mechanism.

11. THE STEAM ENGINE.--With engraving, showing all the parts, names,
etc., and a brief history of the Invention and Progress of Steam Power.

12. GEOMETRY, as Applied to Practical Purposes. With illustrations.

13. HORSE POWER.--Simple Rules for Calculating the Horse-Power of
Steam Engines and Streams of Water.

14. KNOTS.--Presenting engravings of 48 different kinds of Rope Knots,
with explanations as to tying.

15. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.--Troy, Apothecaries', Avoirdupois,
French, Weights; U. S. Standard; Dry Measure; Land Measure; Cubic
Measure; Liquid Measure; French Square Measure; French Cubic, or Solid
Measure; Measuring Land by Weight; Engraving of a section of English
and French rule, of equal length.

16. VALUABLE TABLES: (1) Velocity and Force of the Wind. (2) Specific
Gravity and Weight, per Cubic foot and Cubic inch, of the principal
substances used in the Arts (3) Heat-conducting Power of various
Metals and other Solids and Liquids. (4) Table of the Mineral
Constituents absorbed or removed from the Soil, per acre, by
different crops. (5) Table of Steam Pressures and Temperatures.
(6) Table of the Effects of Heat upon various bodies, melting-points,
etc.

17. MEDALLION PORTRAITS OF DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN INVENTORS, with
biography in brief and engravings of their inventions, viz.: Franklin,
Fulton, Whitney, Wood, McCormick, Blanchard, Winans, Morse, Goodyear,
Howe, Lyle, Eads.

18. ENGRAVINGS of Capitol, Washington, with brief history, dimensions,
cost, etc.; United States Patent Office, interior and exterior views,
dimensions, and description; Scientific American Buildings, N. Y. and
Washington.

19. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.-Force of Expansion by Heat; Small
Steam-boats, proper dimensions of Engines, Boilers, Propellers. Boats;
Incubation, Temperature of; To Make Tracing Paper; Constituents of
various substances; Friction, how produced, and Rules for Calculation;
Specific Heat Explained; Specific Gravity of Liquids, Solids, Air, and
Gases; Gunpowder--Pressure, Heat, and Horse-Power of; Copying Ink, to
Make; Heat, its mechanical equivalent explained; Molecules of Matter,
size and motion explained; Lightning and Lightning Rods--valuable
information; Value of Drainage Explained; Amount of Power at present
yielded from Coal by best Engines; Sound--its velocity and action;
Liquid Glues, Recipes; Value of Brains; Properties of Charcoal; Height
of Waves; Speed of Electric Spark, etc.; Plain Directions, with
Engravings, showing how any person can make Electro-Magnets and
Electric Batteries at a cost of a few cents; Valuable Recipes.

_The Scientific American Reference Book,_ price only 25 cents, may be
had of News Agents in all parts of the country, and of the undersigned.
Sent by mail on receipt of the price.

Address MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York,


THE SECOND GREAT SALE

OF PATENTS AT

AUCTION

Will take place at the Auction Rooms of GEO. W. KEELER, 53 Liberty St.,
N. Y., on July 16, at 12 o'clock. Models now on exhibition.
Send for Catalogue.


WOOD & LIGHT MACHINE CO. WORCESTER, Mass.
Manufacture of all kinds of IRON-WORKING MANCHINERY, including many
novelties. Shafting, Pulleys, &c.

Send for Circulars.

[Illustration]


$95 A month and expenses. SALESMAN WANTED to sell to DEALERS.
SAMPLES FREE. CANDY & NOVELTIES

LETTERS must have enclosed return postage.
H. SMITH & CO., CONFECTIONERS, Cincinnati, O.


POND'S TOOLS
ENGINE LATHES, PLANERS, DRILLS, &c.

Send for Catalogue. DAVID W. POND, Successor to
LUCIUS W. POND. WORCESTER, MASS.


STEAM PUMPS.

FIRST PRIZES, CENTENNIAL, PHILA., VIENNA,
PARIS, NEW YORK, BALTIMORE, BOSTON.

Send for circular of recent patented improvements,

THE NORWALK IRON WORKS CO.,
South Norwalk, Conn.

Prices Reduced.


N. F. BURNHAM'S 1874 WATER WHEEL
Is declared the "STANDARD TURBINE," by OVER 600 persons
who bought and use them with PART and FULL GATE open.
Pamphlets Free.
N. F. BURNHAM, YORK, PA.


OTIS' SAFETY HOISTING MACHINERY
OTIS BROS. & CO., No. 348 Broadway, New York.


$55 TO $77 a week to Agents. $10 _Outfit Free_.
P. O. VICKERY, Augusta Maine.


WE ENAMEL
in FINE JET BLACK every variety Of turned woodwork
parts of machinery castings tin-ware and other metal
work ENAMELED JET GOODS, in wood or metal, made to order
AMERICAN ENAMEL CO. 17 WARREN ST. PROVIDENCE. R. I.


50 MIXED CARDS, with name, l0c. and stamp.
Agent's Outfit, l0c. COE & CO., Bristol, Ct.


[Illustration: PHOTO ENGRAVING CO.

MOSS'S PROCESS
67, Park Place.]
NEW YORK

L. SMITH HOBART. President.
J. C. MOSS, Superintendent.

TYPE-METAL RELIEF PLATES.

A SUPERIOR SUBSTITUTE FOR WOOD-CUTS AT MUCH LOWER PRICES.


These plates are engraved almost entirely by photo-chemical means, thus
avoiding the old, slow and tedious method of engraving on wooden blocks,
where the workman is compelled to engrave each line separately by
cutting away the wood around it, often spending many days upon a plate
a few inches square.

In appearance our relief plates are the same as regular stereotypes,
being mounted type high on blocks ready to be set up and printed from,
with type, on any ordinary press.

They can be used directly and will wear as long as any type-metal
plates, but if a great number of impressions are wanted, duplicate

ELECTROTYPES AND STEREOTYPES

can be made from them the same as from wood-cuts.

They have a printing surface as smooth as glass, and the lines are
engraved deeper than they are in hand-cut plates. Notwithstanding the
_low prices_ at which they can be furnished, they are very much
superior  to wood-cuts, and in some classes of work are rapidly
taking the place of lithography.

REFERENCES.

Among those who manifest their satisfaction with our work, by
continued orders, we may mention:--D. Appleton & Co., Scribner & Co.,
Frank Leslie, A. D. F. Randolph & Co., G. W. Carleton & Co., The
American Tract Society, Robert Carter & Bros., Munn & Co., Pub.
"Iron Age," Pub. "Illustrated Weekly," Pub. "McGee's Illustrated
Weekly," and also a large part of the principal publishers and
manufacturers throughout the country.

COPY.

Almost all kinds of Prints or Engravings from Wood, Stone, Copper and
Steel may be reproduced directly. _The requisites are, clean, distinct
black lines or stipple work, on white or only slightly tinted paper.
All Photographs and Pencil Sketches must first be drawn in ink._ We
keep a corps of artists constantly employed, trained to do this work
in the best manner. We can make drawings from photographs or tin-types
taken in the usual way. They may be of any size, but should, of course,
show the object distinctly.

Drawings for our use, unless intended to be redrawn, should be on a
_smooth, white_ surface, in _perfectly black_ lines, and usually twice
the dimensions each way of the desired plate.

Copy for fac-similes of handwriting should be in _perfectly black ink_,
on _smooth white_ paper, written with a full pen, and without use of
blotting paper.

TIME.

While we can engrave a plate in a few hours that would occupy a
wood-engraver a month, and often do so, yet with the large amount of
work constantly on hand and promised, we cannot usually engage to fill
an order for a single plate in less than from three to six days;
larger orders will, of course, require longer time.

CHANGE OF SIZE.

In reproducing wood-cut prints, the size can often be considerably
reduced; but if the reduction is great, the lines become so fine and
close together that they will not print well. Coarse wood-cuts, such
as are generally used in Newspapers, may often be reduced to half
their linear dimensions, but _fine_ wood-cuts will admit of but little
reduction.

_Most_ steel plate prints and lithographs will not admit of any
reduction, and even when reproduced, the same size in relief, require
considerable care in printing.

All kinds of prints generally look bad when much enlarged, as the
lines become very coarse and ragged on the edges; though we have
sometimes made very effective cuts for posters and hand-bills in this
way.

In all cases of enlargement and reduction the relative proportions
remain the same.

It must not be forgotten, however, that by redrawing, prints of any
kind can be enlarged or reduced to any desired size.

PROOFS.

We will, whenever desired, furnish tin-type proofs of drawings made by
us, for examination and approval, or correction, before engraving.

A printed proof is sent with each plate when delivered, which may
always be equaled or surpassed in actual work with proper usage.

PRICES.

It is impossible to give a scale of prices by the square inch for
miscellaneous job-work, as sometimes a small cut two or three inches
square may require as much work as another one a foot square. We can,
however, give an average inch rate to newspaper publishers whose work
runs uniformly about the same from week to week, especially when they
furnish us with copy already prepared--such as prints and pen-and-ink
drawings.

In sending for estimates, be careful to send us the copy we are to
work from, with full specifications as to size and quality, and
remember that it is the same with engraving that it is with everything
else; the price will vary greatly with the quality of work ordered.

Never, directly or indirectly, ask us to give _you_ better prices than
we give our other customers, as we try to treat all alike.

The great advantage of our method of engraving enables us to give
better work at lower prices than can be given by any other method for
the greater part of such work as would be given to wood-engravers,
though in very small pieces of the poorer grades of work the advantage
is not so great, and in very coarse work such as is usually engraved
on mahogany and pine, our process gives us no advantage over the
wood-engraver.

To estimate properly upon any piece of work, we must understand just
what is wanted. We guarantee all our work to be executed in the style
agreed upon.

TERMS.

OUR TERMS are CASH ON DELIVERY, except by special agreement.

Orders from parties not known to us must be accompanied by an advance
of at least half the price, or satisfactory City reference.

Goods sent by Express will be C. O. D. Where plates are small they may
be sent by Mail upon receipt of price and postage. Remittances must be
by draft on New-York or P. O. money order, payable to the order of
Photo-Engraving Co., or by registered letter--_not by Checks on Local
Banks_.

We pledge ourselves to meet the reasonable demands of those who employ
us. If, in any case, we cannot do so, we will refund the money advanced.

_SEND STAMP FOR ILLUSTRATED CIRCULAR_.


WROUGHT IRON BEAMS & GIRDERS

[Illustration: WROUGHT IRON BEAMS & GIRDERS]

THE UNION IRON MILLS, Pittsburgh, Pa., Manufacturers of improved
wrought iron Beams and Girders (patented).

The great fall which has taken place in the prices of Iron, and
especially in Beams used in the construction of FIRE PROOF BUILDINGS,
induces us to call the special attention of Engineers, Architects, and
Builders to the undoubted advantages of now erecting Fire Proof
structures; and by reference to pages 52 & 54 of our Book of Sections--
which will be sent on application to those contemplating the erection
of fire proof buildings--THE COST CAN BE ACCURATELY CALCULATED, the
cost of Insurance avoided, and the serious losses and interruption to
business caused by fire; these and like considerations fully justify
any additional first cost. It is believed, that were owners fully
aware of the small difference which now exists between the use of Wood
and Iron, that in many cases the latter would be adopted.

We shall be pleased to furnish estimates for all the Beams complete,
for any specific structure, so that the difference in cost may at once
be ascertained. Address

CARNEGIE, BROS. & CO., Pittsburgh, Pa.


$5 TO $20 per day at home. Samples worth $5 free.
STINSON & CO., Portland, Me.


LIGHT GRAY IRON CASTINGS to order promptly.
Plain, Bronzed, or Galvanized.

We make a _specialty_ of light work.

LIVINGSTON & CO., Iron Founders, Pittsburgh, Pa.


THE GEORGE PLACE MACHINERY AGENCY

Machinery of Every Description.

121 Chambers and 103 Reade Streets, New York.


SPARE THE CROTON AND SAVE THE COST.

DRIVEN OR TUBE WELLS furnished to large consumers of Croton and
Ridgewood Water. WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO., 414 Water St., N. Y. who
control the patent for Green's American Driven Well.


PATENT RIGHTS for Useful Inventions Wanted.
Address Box 1012, P.O., N. Y., with description and terms.


TO ELECTRO-PLATERS. JEWELERS, AND WATCHMAKERS.

BATTERIES, CHEMICALS, AND MATERIALS, in sets or single,
with Books of instruction for Nickel, Gold, and Silver Plating.

THOMAS HALL, Manufacturing Electrician,
19 Bromfield Street, Boston, Mass.
Illustrated Catalogue sent free.


LATHES, PLANERS, SHAPERS, DRILLS, GEAR & BOLT CUTTERS, &c.
E. GOULD, Newark, N. J.


SELF-ACTING SASH-LOCK for Meeting Rails

[Illustration: Sash-lock]

BURGLAR PROOF.

Can not be forced or tampered with in any way.
BEAUTIFUL DESIGN; PRACTICAL; SIMPLE.
United States, State, or County Rights for sale. Address
D. C. GOODRICH, Harrisburg, Pa.


[Illustration] THE TRADE ENGINE

Noiseless in operation-Perfect in workmanship--all light parts of
Cast Steel.

Every Engine indicated, and valve corrected to give the highest
attainable results.

Warranted superior to any semi-portable Engine in the market!

Send for Price List and Circular.

HERRMANN & HERCHEL--
RODE M'F'G Co.,
Dayton, Ohio,


WESSELL METAL, A PERFECT IMITATION
of gold in color, surface, etc., for manufacturers of
imitation jewelry, and other workers in fine yellow
metal. Wessell Manuf'g Co., No. 204 East 23d St., N. Y.


[Illustration]

YOU ask WHY we can sell First-Class 7 1-3 Octave Rosewood Pianos
for $290. Our answer is, that it costs less than $300 to make any $600
Piano sold through Agents, all of whom make 100 per ct. profit.
We have no Agents, but sell direct to Families at Factory price, and
warrant five years.

We send our Pianos everywhere for trial and require no payment unless
they are found satisfactory.

Send for our Illustrated Circular, which gives full particulars, and
contains the names of over 1500 Bankers, Merchants and Families that
are using our Pianos in every State of the Union.

Please state where you saw this notice. Address,

U. S. PIANO CO., 810 BROADWAY, N. Y.


$12 A DAY at home. Agents wanted. Outfit and terms free.
TRUE & CO., Augusta, Maine.


WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY,

Such as Woodworth Planing, Tongueing, and Grooving Machines, Daniel's
Planers, Richardson's Patent Improved Tenon Machines, Mortising,
Moulding, and Re-Saw Machines, and Wood-Working Machinery generally.

Manufactured by
WITHERBY, RUGG & RICHARDSON,
26 Salisbury Street, Worcester, Mass,
(Shop formerly occupied by R. BALL & CO.)


STEEL NAME STAMPS.
N. Y. STENCIL WORKS, 87 Nassau St., N. Y.


WANTED -- FOR MONCLOVA, State of Coahuila, Mexico, a man who knows how
to make Star Candles, without the use of Sulphuric Acid, capable to
put up and put in running order the necessary apparatus, superintend
the manufacturing process, and teach same to the parties interested.

Apply and state terms to
GOLDFRANK, FRANK & CO.,
San Antonio, Texas.


WE WANT SALESMEN on a regular salary of $85 a month and expenses to
sell our CIGARS to DEALERS. Samples FREE.

Send 3c. stamp to insure answer.
S. FOSTER & CO. Cincinnati, O.


EXTRAORDINARY, WONDERFUL, AND VALUABLE MEDICAL WORK.

With engravings; price, $1.
Contains, also, fifty original prescriptions for prevailing diseases,
each worth ten times the price of the book. Gold Medal has been
awarded the author. Descriptive circulars sent free. Address

Dr. W. H. PARKER,
No. 4 Bulfinch Street, Boston.


[Illustration]

$100.00 REWARD This MOUSTACHE or HEAVY BEARD produced on a smooth face
by the use of DYKES BEARD ELIXIR, without injury, or will forfeit
$100.00.

Price by mail in sealed package 25 cents, 3 packages only 50 cents.

A. L. SMITH & Co., Palatine, Ill., Sole Agents.

--> We caution the public against imitations.


THE DRIVEN WELL.
Town and County privileges for making DRIVEN WELLS and selling Licenses
under the established AMERICAN DRIVEN WELL PATENT, leased by the year
to responsible parties, by

WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO.,
NEW YORK.


IMPORTANT FOR ALL CORPORATIONS AND MANF'G CONCERNS.--BUERK'S WATCHMAN'S
TIME DETECTOR, capable of accurately controlling the motion of a
watchman or patrolman at the different stations of his beat.
Send for circular.

J. E. BUERK, P.O. BOX 979, BOSTON, MASS

N. B.--The suit against Imhaeuser & Co., of New York, was decided in my
favor, June 10, 1874. Proceedings have been commenced against Imhaeuser
& Co. for selling, contrary to the order of the Court. Persons using
clocks infringing on my patent, will be dealt with according to law.


[Illustration]
25 per cent. Discount on Price List of SUPERIOR WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY
allowed for the present. Also for SMITH'S CHILLED-BEAM VISES;
effective, heavy, strong, durable, and economical.

For full particulars, address

H. B. SMITH,
Smithville, Burlington Co.,
N. J., U. S. A.


HINTS TO YOUNG MACHINE-TENDERS.
By an old Papermaker. Practical Instructions for the tending and care
of Papermaking Machinery.

Showing how to clean a Dandy; how to make good edges; to keep paper
from crushing and worming; to stop crimping; together with many
other valuable directions, hints, and suggestions, contained in
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 79. Price 10 cents.

To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.


JOHN HOLLAND'S GOLD PENS

[Illustration]

Received the Centennial Medal from the Judges on Awards, for
"superior elasticity and general excellence." If not sold by your
Stationer, send for Illustrated Price-List to the

MANUFACTORY, 19 W. 4TH ST., CINCINNATI.


SECOND-HAND MACHINERY.

FOR SALE.

The Machinery in the works of the UTICA STEAM ENGINE CO., comprising
Large Face Plate Lathe, Engine Lathes, large and small,
20 ft. x 4 ft. Planer, Slotter, Shaper, Lauback Universal Drills,
Bolt Cutter, Fans, Upright Drills, Cranes, Dudgeon Steam Hammer,
Steam Fire Pump, Hose, Platform Scales, Pulleys, one 40 H. P.
Locomotive Boiler, two 50 H. P., and one 25 H. P. Tubular Boilers,
one 36 in. by 16 ft. Cylinder Boiler, etc., etc.

For Catalogue and Price List, address

JAMES F. MANN, UTICA, N. Y.


THE PATENT PARAGON LAMP STOVE

Can be used with any ordinary Kerosene Lamp. Every family wants one.
PRICE 35 CTS.; BY MAIL 45 CTS.  _One agent made $21 in 3 days._
Send for terms.

ABOTT M'F'G CO.,
101 BEEKMAN STREET, NEW YORK.


IRON CASTINGS to order, _smooth_ and _exact to pattern_,
of _Soft Tough Iron_, at

T. Shriver & Co.'s Foundry,
333 East 56th St., N. Y.

Prices very low. _Favorable terms_ made on Castings in regular
supply.


ADVERTISEMENTS


Inside Page, each insertion - - - 75 cents a line.
Back Page, each insertion   - - - $1.00 a line.

_Engravings may head advertisements at the same rate per line, by
measurement, as the letter press. Advertisements must be received at
publication office as early as Friday morning to appear in next issue._


COTTON MILLS AND MACHINE SHOPS

Can make great savings by using the Allen Governor. Its operation is
unequalled and wonderful. Nearly all machinists once using these
Governors become agents for their sale. They are simple in construction,
not liable to get out of order, permit the speed of the engine to be
changed at will, are neat in appearance, noiseless, very durable, save
the engineer's time, save fuel, and are at once the most powerful and
most sensitive Governors ever made.

Russell (Cotton) Mills, Plymouth, Mass., March 20, 1876.

S. B. ALLEN: Your Governor has been attached to our Corliss engine over
one year, and has given perfect satisfaction. The engine was never
governed until yours was attached, although we have tried three of the
best kind of Governors known. When steam or work varied, the speed
would vary, and we could only run our looms an average of 103 picks per
minute. Since using your Governor, and solely on account of the perfect
steadiness with which it holds the engine and machinery, we are enabled
to run the looms regularly 112 picks per minute, MAKING AN ACTUAL
INCREASE OF OUR ENTIRE PRODUCTION OF OVER EIGHT PER CENT. Your Governor
saves coal, saves waste, saves care and labor of the engineer, and
produces more goods and better goods. I have timed the engine a hundred
times, and never found it to vary in the least. It is the honest truth
that the Allen Governor holds it exactly on speed.

Address L. C. KING, Superintendent.

GERARD B. ALLEN & CO., St. Louis.
FRASER & CHALMERS, Chicago.
NEW ORLEANS MACHINERY DEPOT, New Orleans.
PACIFIC IRON WORKS, San Francisco.
FILER, STOWELL & CO., Milwaukee, Wis., or
THE ALLEN GOVERNOR CO., BOSTON.


HORSE STALL FLOOR,

Patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, June 4th, 1872.
Rights sent by mail, with full instructions how to make and use, on
receipt of $1.00; two for $1.50. It will keep the stall cleaner and the
horse much more comfortable than any floor in use. It requires less
than one-half of the usual amount of bedding. Any man can make them
with very little expense. A liberal discount to carpenters or stable
keepers in quantities of twelve or more. This floor is used throughout
the New England States, and many parts of the South and West. State,
County, and Town rights for sale. Agents wanted.

G. W. GORDON,

256 Broadway, Chelsea, Mass.


THE BIGELOW STEAM ENGINE.

BOTH PORTABLE AND STATIONARY.

The CHEAPEST AND BEST in the market.
Send for descriptive circular and price list.

H. B. BIGELOW & CO.,

New Haven, Conn.


LeCOUNT'S PATENT
MACHINISTS' TOOLS.

REDUCED PRICES.
Set Iron Dogs, 3-8 to 2 in.,  - - - - -  $5.60
 "    "   "    3-8 to 4 in., - - - - - - 12.00
 "  Steel "    3-8 to 2 in.,  - - - - -   6.30
 "    "   "    3-8 to 4 in., - - - - - - 13.00

Iron & Steel Clamps, Die Dogs, Clamp Dogs, Vice Clamps, Expanding
Mandrels, &c. Send for latest Price List to

C. W. LE COUNT, South Norwalk, Conn.


WORKING MODELS

And Experimental Machinery, Metal or Wood, made to order by
J. F. WERNER, 62 Center St., N. Y.


[Illustration: Patents]

PATENTS

CAVEATS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, ETC.

Messrs. Munn & Co., in connection with the publication of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine Improvements, and to act as
Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had OVER THIRTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE,
and now have _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent
Drawings, Specifications, and the Prosecution of Applications for
Patents in the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs.
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Trade Mark
Regulations, Copyrights for Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and
Reports on Infringements of Patents. All business intrusted to them is
done with special care and promptness, on very moderate terms.

We send free of charge, on application, THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HAND
BOOK, an elegantly illustrated pamphlet of 48 pages, containing
further information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Trade Marks, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues,
Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the Sale of
Patents.

_Foreign Patents._--We also send, _free of charge,_ a Synopsis of
Foreign Patent Laws, showing the cost and method of securing patents
in all the principal countries of the world. American inventors should
bear in mind that, as a general rule, any invention that is valuable
to the patentee in this country is worth equally as much in England
and some other foreign countries.

Five patents--embracing Canadian, English, German, French, and Belgian
--will secure to an inventor the exclusive monopoly to his discovery
among about ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY MILLIONS of the most intelligent
people in the world. The facilities of business and steam
communication are such that patents can be obtained abroad by our
citizens almost as easily as at home. The expense to apply for an
English patent is $75; German, $100; French, $100; Belgian, $100;
Canadian, $50. Address

MUNN & CO., 37 Park Row, New York city.


PYROMETERS,

For showing heat of Ovens, Hot Blast Pipes, Boiler Flues, Super-Heated
Steam, Oil Stills, &c.

HENRY W. BULKLEY. Sole Manufacturer,
149 Broadway, New York.


$5 Outfit free. Salary guaranteed. Write at once to
EMPIRE NOVELTY CO., 309 Broadway, New York.


TAYLOR'S M'F'G CO., WESTMINSTER, MD., Portable and Stationary Engine
Builders, etc. Send for Cata.


STEAM PUMPS

Wright's Pat. Bucket Plungers are the best.

VALLEY MACHINE Co.
Easthampton, Mass.


ROOTS' FORCE BLAST BLOWER,

[Illustration: Roots blower]

FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED AT PARIS AND VIENNA,

SPEED ONLY 100 TO ??0 REV. PER M. SAVES HALF THE POWER REQUIRED FOR FAN.

P. H. & F. M. ROOTS, Manuf'rs, CONNERSVILLE, IND.
S. S. TOWNSEND, Gen'l' Ag't, 6 Cortlandt St., NEW YORK.


ESTABLISHED 1844.

JOSEPH C. TODD,

(Formerly of Todd & Rafferty), ENGINEER AND MACHINIST.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, Rope, Oakum, and Bagging Machinery, Steam Engines,
Boilers, etc. Also Agent for the celebrated and improved
Rawson & Rittinger Hoisting Engine, I will furnish specifications and
estimates for all kinds of machinery.

Send for descriptive circular and price. Address

J. C. TODD,
10 Barclay St., New York, or Paterson, N. J.


GUILD & GARRISON,

[Illustration: Pump]

34 to 44 First St.,
Williamsburgh, N. Y.,
Manufacturers of STEAM PUMPS for all purposes.

Also Vacuum Pumps, Vacuum Fans and Air Compressors.


NON-COMBUSTIBLE STEAM BOILER AND PIPE COVERING
WITH "AIR SPACE" IMPROVEMENT.

Saves 10 to 20 per cent. CHALMERS SPENCE CO.,
Foot E. 9th St. N. Y.; 1202 N. 2d St., St. Louis, Mo.


NEW WOOD LATHE; ALSO SCROLL SAW. BOTH new and first-class.
Send for circulars.

H. BICKFORD, Cincinnati, O.


ROCK-DRILLING MACHINES AND AIR COMPRESSORS

MANUFACTURED BY BURLEIGH ROCK DRILL CO.
SEND FOR PAMPHLET. FITCHBURG MASS


MACHINISTS' TOOLS.

NEW AND IMPROVED PATTERNS.
Send for new illustrated catalogue.

Lathes, Planers, Drills, &c.

NEW HAVEN MANUFACTURING CO.,

New Haven, Conn.


STEEL CASTINGS,

From ¼ to 10,000 lbs. weight, true to pattern. An invaluable
substitute for forgings, or for malleable iron castings requiring
great strength.

Send for circular and price list to

CHESTER STEEL CASTING COMPANY,
EVELINA STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA.


[Illustration: Planer Saw teeth]

FULL SIZE PLANER SAW TOOTH
3 CENTS EACH

"OFFICE OF DICKINSON BROS., RIDGEWAY, ELK Co., PA., May 28th, 1877.

"Messrs. EMERSON, SMITH & Co. GENTS: We have been through four winters
in frozen hemlock, cutting 20,000 feet of lumber per day with your
Patent Planer Saw, averaging 75,000 feet with each set of 40 bits."

--> Mill Men and Sawyers, send your full address, plainly written, on
a postal card, for Emerson's Hand Book of Saws, free, to

EMERSON, SMITH & CO., BEAVER FALLS, PA.
Please name size and style of saw used.


[Illustration: LEHIGH VALLEY EMERY WHEEL CO.]

Machines AND Wheels Guaranteed,

Send for Illustrated Circular,

_Weissport_, PA.


PERFECT NEWSPAPER FILE

The Koch Patent File, for preserving newspapers, magazines, and
pamphlets, has been recently improved and price reduced. Subscribers to
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT can be
supplied for the low price of $1.50 by mail, or $1.25 at the office of
this paper. Heavy board sides; inscription "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN," in
gilt. Necessary for every one who wishes to preserve the paper.

Address

MUNN & CO.,

Publishers SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.


HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION & INSURANCE COMPANY.

W. B. FRANKLIN, V. PRES'T. J. M. ALLEN, PRES'T.
J. B. PIERCE, SEC'Y.


PUNCHING PRESSES.

Drop Hammers and Dies, for working Metals, &c.
THE STILES & PARKER PRESS CO., Middletown, Conn.


A PRACTICAL MACHINIST, WITH TEN years' experience as Foreman in one of
the largest and most successful shops in the country, employing over
four hundred men, wishes employment. Would be willing to invest a few
thousand dollars in a safe and paying business. Address
A. Foreman, P. O., Phila., Pa.


WANTED:
Agents for the Automatic Gas Lighting Torch in every gas-burning town
in the United States. Exclusive territory given. Sewing machine agents
preferred. This Torch lights without matches. Address

THE STOCKWELL SELF-LIGHTING GAS BURNER CO.,
89 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK.


GUARDIOLA'S COFFEE & SUGAR MACHINERY

COFFEE, MALT, CORN, COCOA, AND  GRAIN-DRYING MACHINE. COFFEE-HULLING
AND POLISHING MACHINES. COFFEE-WASHING MACHINE. HELIX SUGAR EVAPORATOR.

MESSRS. C. ADOLPHE LOW & CO., 42 Cedar Street,
MESSRS. MUNOZ & ESPRIELLA, 52 Pine Street, New York,
are Mr. Guardiola's Agents, and they will give prompt attention to all
orders for any of the above machines.


THE HOADLEY PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE.

WITH AUTOMATICAL CUT-OFF REGULATOR, AND BALANCED VALVE.

THE BEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL ENGINE MADE
SEND FOR CIRCULAR

The J. C. HOADLEY CO. LAWRENCE, MASS.

STATE WHERE YOU SAW THIS.


EAGLE FOOT LATHES,

[Illustration]

Improvement in style. Reduction in prices April 20th. Small Engine
Lathes. Slide Rests, Tools, etc. Also Scroll and Circular Saw
Attachments, Hand Planers, etc. Send for Catalogue of outfits for
Amateurs or Artisans.

WM. L. CHASE & CO.,
95 & 97 Liberty St., New York.


MILL STONES AND CORN MILLS.

We make Burr Millstones, Portable Mills, Smut Machines, Packers, Mill
Picks, Water Wheels, Pulleys, and Gearing, specially adapted to Flour
Mills.

Send for catalogue.

J. T. NOYE & SON, BUFFALO, N. Y.


F. ADEE & CO.'S PATENT LEAD STENCH TRAPS.

Positive protection against Sewer-gas. Best and cheapest.
See illustration, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 14th.

Send for circular. F. ADEE, 275 Pearl St., N. Y.


ASBESTOS BOARD,

For Flange Joints, Cylinder Heads, Man-hole Plates, etc.
The only genuine, strictly fire-proof, made from pure ITALIAN ASBESTOS.
All sizes, from 1-32 to 1-4 inch.

H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO., 87 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK.


THE TANITE CO.,

STROUDSBURG, PA.

EMERY WHEELS AND GRINDERS.

GEO. PLACE, 121 Chambers St., New York Agent.


[Illustration: The Excelsior 1st Premium at Centennial]

$3 PRINTING  PRESS!

Prints cards, envelopes, etc., equal to _any_ press. Larger sizes for
large work.

_Do your own printing and advertising and save money_. Excellent spare
hour amusement for old or young. Or it can be made _money making_
business anywhere.

Send 3c. stamps for large catalogue to

KELSEY & CO., Manufacturers,
Meriden, Conn.


NOTICE TO FOREIGN SUBSCRIBERS.

For the convenience of subscribers residing abroad, we have prepared
the annexed table, exhibiting the subscription price of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SUPPLEMENT in the principal foreign currencies:

The prices here given   |   SCIENTIFIC    | SCIENTIFIC | SCIENTIFIC
are for one year's      |   AMERICAN      | AMERICAN   | AMERICAN and
subscription, including |                 | SUPPLEMENT | SUPPLEMENT
the postage.            |                 |            | together.
------------------------|-----------------|------------|--------------
Austria                 | S. Florins    9 |     13     |     20
Belgium                 | Francs       20 |     30     |     46
Denmark                 | Kroner       15 |     23     |     35
France                  | Francs       20 |     30     |     46
German Empire           | R. M.        16 |     25     |     37
Great Britain           | Shillings    16 |     24     |     36
Holland                 | H. F.         9 |     14     |     21
Italy                   | Francs       20 |     30     |     46
Norway                  | Kroner       15 |     23     |     35
Russia                  | Roubles       5 |      8     |     11
Sweden                  | Kroner       15 |     23     |     35
Switzerland             | Francs       20 |     30     |     46
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Deposit either of the above amounts in any of the important post
offices  in Great Britain or Ireland, or in any country on the
Continent of Europe, making the order payable to MUNN & Co., New York
city, and send us the receipt, with the name of the sender, and the
address to which the paper is to be mailed.


TUBE CLEANERS for cleaning Boiler Tubes.
THE NATIONAL STEEL TUBE CLEANER CO. 814 E. 9th St., N. Y.


ALCOTT LATHES, for Broom, Rake and Hoe Handles.
S. C. HILLS, 78 Chambers St. N. Y.


DROP FORGINGS AND SPECIAL MACHINERY,
THE HULL & BELDEN CO.,
Danbury, Conn.


BEST DAMPER REGULATORS AND LEVERS GAUGE COCKS.
MURRILL & KEIZER, 44 HOLLIDAY ST., BALTIMORE


TORPEDO VESSELS. BY MR. DONALDSON.
A valuable paper, lately read before the United Service Institute.
Being a full exposition of the Torpedo-boat system, from the earliest
efforts to the present time. Giving dimensions and performances of the
several sizes built by Thornycroft Bros. for the various governments,
highly interesting trials of these boats, and experiences in war, and
a description of the torpedoes used. 1 illustration. Contained in
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 79. Price 10 cents. To be had at
this office and of all newsdealers.


BOGARDUS' PATENT UNIVERSAL ECCENTRIC MILLS--For grinding Bones, Ores,
Sand, Old Crucibles, Fire Clay, Guanos, Oil Cake, Feed, Corn, Corn and
Cob, Tobacco, Snuff, Sugar, Salts, Roots, Spices, Coffee, Cocoanut,
Flaxseed, Asbestos, Mica, etc., and whatever cannot be ground by other
mills. Also for Paints, Printers' Inks, Paste Blacking, etc.

JOHN W. THOMSON, successor to JAMES BOGARDUS,
corner of White and Elm Sts., New York.


LEHIGH UNIVERSITY.--TUITION FREE.

Civil, Mechanical, and Mining Engineering; Chemistry and Metallurgy;
Full Classical Instruction; French and German; English Literature;
International and Constitutional Law; Psychology and Christian
Evidences.

For Registers, address the Rev. JOHN M. LEAVITT,
D.D., President, Bethlehem, Penna.


DRILLS, Jigging Machines, etc.
Illustrated catalogues sent FREE
Address AMES M'F'G CO., Chicopee, Mass.


PHOSPHOR-BRONZE AND ITS APPLICATIONS.
By ALEXANDER DICK. A series of valuable tests, showing the superiority
of Phosphor-bronze over ordinary bronze. Old bronze and new compared.
Phosphor-bronze under oft-repeated strains; also its adaptability to
frictional purposes. Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 79.
Price 10 cents. To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.


[Illustration: Advertisement H. W. JOHNS' PATENT ASBESTOS MATERIALS.]

PAINTS, ROOFING, STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS, STEAM PACKING,
_Sheathings, Fire, Acid_, and _Waterproof Coatings, Cements_, etc.
Send for Samples, Illustrated Catalogues, Price Lists, etc.

87 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK.


FIFTY SYRUP RECIPES, FOR HOUSEHOLD purposes, Mineral Waters, etc.,
to wit: Simple Syrup, (2) Lemon Syrup, Mulberry Syrup, Vanilla Syrup,
Vanilla Cream Syrup, (2) Cream Syrup, Ginger Syrup, Orange Syrup, (2)
Pineapple Syrup, Nectar Syrup, Sherbet Syrup, Grape Syrup, Banana
Syrup, (2) Coffee Syrup, Wild Cherry Syrup, Wintergreen Syrup, (2)
Sarsaparilla Syrup, Maple Syrup, (2) Chocolate Syrup, Coffee Cream
Syrup, Ambrosia Syrup, Hock and Claret Syrup, Solferino Syrup,
Capsicum Syrup, Cherry Syrup, Strawberry Syrup, (2) Raspberry Syrup,
Peach Syrup, Blackberry Syrup, Orgeat Syrup, Catawba Syrup, Milk Punch
Syrup, Champagne Syrup, Sherry Cobbler Syrup, Excelsior Syrup, Fancy
Syrup, Currant Syrup, Framboise Syrup, Maidenhair Syrup, Orange Flower
Syrup, Cinnamon Syrup. How to make Syrups Frothy.

Colognes for the Sick Room, by GEO. LEIS. With recipes for the
production of preparations that serve as pleasing perfumes,
deodorizers, and cosmetic lotions.

All the above are contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT No. 77.
Price 10 cents. To be had at this office and of all newsdealers.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE "Scientific American" is printed with CHAS.
ENEU JOHNSON & CO.'S INK. Tenth and Lombard
Sts., Philadelphia, and 59 Gold St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Note:


_x_ indicates italic script.

Some archaic (Early American) spellings have been retained.


Errata:

Article 13 ("CALLIN AND WILSON'S PROCESS OF UTILIZING TIN SCRAP.'"):

'thin' corrected to 'tin'
"... the requisite quantity depending upon the thickness
of the tin plate to be removed."

Article NQ (39): 'put' corrected to 'but'
"... but plenty of good soap and warm water,..."

P. 16, Advert for 'ROOTS' FORCE BLAST BLOWER':

"SPEED ONLY 100 TO ??0 REV. PER M. SAVES HALF THE POWER REQUIRED
FOR FAN."

figure obscured by address label:
    ('Journal of Pharmacy X 145 S 10th st.').





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American, Vol. XXXVII.—No. 2. [New Series.], July 14, 1877 - A Weekly Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, - Mechanics, Chemistry, And Manufactures" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home