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Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume I - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts.
Author: Pöllnitz, Karl Ludwig von
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume I - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Note: The original publication has been replicated
faithfully except as shown in the Transcriber’s Amendments at the end of
the text. This etext presumes a mono-spaced font on the user’s device,
such as Courier New. Words in italics are indicated like _this_. But the
publisher also wanted to emphasize words in sentences already italicized,
so he printed them in the regular font which is indicated here with: _The
pirates then went to +Hispaniola+._ Obscured letters in the original
publication are indicated with {?}. Superscripts are indicated like this:
S^{ta} Maria. Footnotes are located near the end of the work.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Lestevenon de Berkenroode]





                           Baron de POLLNITZ.


                    The OBSERVATIONS He made in his
                   late TRAVELS from _Prussia_ thro’

                             _ENGLAND_, &c.

                       In LETTERS to his FRIEND.

                 Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE
                     of the Chief CITIES and TOWNS;


                The CHARACTERS of the PRINCIPAL PERSONS
                         at the Several COURTS.

                            In TWO VOLUMES.

                                 Vol. I

                  The SECOND EDITION, with ADDITIONS.

            Printed for DANIEL BROWNE, at the _Black Swan_,
                   without _Temple-Bar_. M.DCC.XXXIX.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                 PREFACE, BY THE TRANSLATOR        v

                 AUTHOR’S PREFACE                 ix

                 ADVERTISEMENT BY THE EDITOR     xiv

                 PREFACE                          xv

                 ADDENDA to Vol. I             xviii

                 ADDENDA to Vol. II              xxi

                 BOOKS LATELY PUBLISHED         xxiv

                 LETTER I                          1

                 LETTER II                        49

                 LETTER III                       60

                 LETTER IV                        69

                 LETTER V                         80

                 LETTER VI                       162

                 LETTER VII                      178

                 LETTER VIII                     183

                 LETTER IX                       193

                 LETTER X                        197

                 LETTER XI                       210

                 LETTER XII                      224

                 LETTER XIII                     246

                 LETTER XIV                      258

                 LETTER XV                       272

                 LETTER XVI                      280

                 LETTER XVII                     293

                 LETTER XVIII                    299

                 LETTER XIX                      315

                 LETTER XX                       327

                 LETTER XXI                      338

                 LETTER XXII                     357

                 LETTER XXIII                    364

                 LETTER XXIV                     377

                 LETTER XXV                      391

                 LETTER XXVI                     408

                 LETTER XXVII                    422

                 OTHER BOOKS                     432

                 INDEX                           433




                        To the Right Honourable

                       PHILIP, _Lord_ HARDWICKE;

                      Baron of _Hardwicke_, in the
                        County of _Gloucester_;

                          LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR
                          of _Great Britain_;


                 One of the LORDS of His Majesty’s most
                       Honourable PRIVY COUNCIL.

                                MY LORD,

The good Reception these Memoirs, which I most humbly offer to your
Lordship, have met with Abroad; and the Protection and Favour the _Author_
has obtain’d at one of the Chief Protestant Courts of EUROPE; encourage
me, tho’ with the profoundest Submission, to intreat your Lordship’s
favourable Acceptance of this _Translation_.

’Tis, my Lord, the only Homage I am capable of paying your Lordship, and
the best Testimony I can give with what Zeal and Pleasure I join in the
Congratulation of the Public for that illustrious Regard paid to your
Lordship’s Merit, and Their Wishes, by his SACRED MAJESTY, this Day in

That your Lordship may very long enjoy a sufficient Portion of Health,
equal to the Abilities of your Great Mind, for supporting you under that
vast Weight of Service which you have now taken upon you for your King and
Country, is the hearty Prayer of all good ENGLISHMEN; and particularly of
Him, My Lord, who has the Honour to subscribe

                            YOUR LORDSHIP’S
                             _Most Devoted,
                               Most Obedient, and
                                 Most Humble Servant._



                           By the TRANSLATOR.

The Author of these _Memoirs_, who is a Person of an honourable Family in
_Prussia_, and confess’d by all that know him to be a Gentleman of
extraordinary Talents, is one that may be truly said to have seen the
World; he having not only travell’d twice thro’ the principal Parts of
_Europe_, but by his Acquaintance with People of the first Rank, and a
diligent Inquiry and nice Inspection into Men and Things, attained to that
Knowledge of Both, which is of such Service and Entertainment to Mankind
in the general, and so particularly necessary for All who attend to what
is doing in high Life.

He has succeeded very happily in the right Narrative Stile; and the
_French_ Language, in which he wrote the following Letters, seems to be as
natural to him as if it was his Mother-Tongue. But the Thing which has
most contributed to the Demand for these Memoirs, is the Multitude of
Characters that the Baron has interspers’d, not only of the Deceas’d, but
even of Persons that are still living, and distinguish’d by the exalted
Spheres in which they move.

That every one of those Characters is equally just, or that every
Circumstance relating to them is told with the utmost Exactness, is not to
be imagin’d: For supposing the Author to have been ever so circumspect and
impartial, how was it possible for him to take the true Likeness of every
one, in such a Variety of Personages of both Sexes, and to be perfectly
sure of every Particular that he mentions; since he could not be
Eye-Witness of every thing, and must be oblig’d for many to Information
from other Persons, of whom, ’tis no wonder if some were prejudic’d? But
to do the Baron Justice, it must be allow’d, that he no where fails in
that Respect and Decorum to Princes which are their due; and that he has
not discover’d a predominant Passion for Satire: because where he has
painted in the strongest Colours, and represented his Subjects in the most
disadvantageous Light, they were such whose Follies or whose Vices were
too flagrant and notorious to be either conceal’d or disguis’d: And,
considering the Groupe of Courtiers whom he has crouded into his Canvass,
the Reader will rather be surpris’d to meet with so few Imperfections in
his Characters, and so many excellent Qualities. By this means, his
Memoirs have, upon the whole, done Honour to his Understanding, without
offending his Conscience, or hurting his Fortune; he being, at this very
time, upon a handsome Establishment at the Court of _Prussia_.

It cannot possibly escape the Observation of the Reader, that the Baron,
when he wrote these Letters to his noble Friend, was a profess’d Member of
the Church of _Rome_; but that nevertheless, he was not such a Bigot to
its Constitution, nor such a Believer in the Legends of its Writers, or
the pretended Miracles of its Saints, as to incur the Character of a blind
and furious Zealot; it appearing on the contrary, from several
Declarations of his Mind in the following Pages, that he did not want
Charity either in his Nature or Principles for those from whom he differ’d
in religious Sentiments. Such a Catholic Spirit, assisted by his good
Sense, made it, no doubt, much easier for him, after reflecting upon the
Fopperies and Impostures which he had seen in that Church during his
Travels, to abjure the _Romish_ and to embrace the _Protestant_ Religion,
which he did accordingly with great Devotion last Summer, at _Berlin_;
after which, his _Prussian_ Majesty was pleas’d to distinguish him with
peculiar Marks of his Favour and Esteem, by declaring him one of the
Gentlemen of his Bed-Chamber, and Chief Cup-Bearer of his Court; and he
has very lately given him a considerable Prebend.

To the new Edition of his Memoirs, from which the following Sheets are
translated, there’s not only a great number of material Additions in the
Body of the Work, as is observ’d by the Editor of it, _Amsterdam_, but
several new Notes: In this Translation, these Notes are likewise
considerably augmented, for the sake of continuing the Thread of the
History to the present Time, by the Notice taken of certain remarkable
Alterations, or other curious Particulars that have happen’d to the
Persons or the Places mentioned, since 1734, when the said Edition was

One great Defect for which the foreign Editor has been very much blam’d,
was the want of a Table to these Memoirs; which, if not absolutely
necessary in a Work of this kind, wherein so many Persons and Facts are
mentioned, cannot be necessary for any Book whatsoever that comes from the
Press. To supply this Defect, the Translator has added an Alphabetical
Index to each of the two Volumes; which Indexes are the more copious, that
the Reader might know where to turn in an Instant for some Account of the
Characters, Conduct, or Familys of those public Personages, whose Names so
often occur in the News-Papers.




                            AUTHOR’s PREFACE

                                 TO THE

                             FIRST EDITION.

_There are very few Books without a +Preface+; and that there are
so, is in a great measure owing to the Fancy of the +Booksellers+,
who think them to be absolutely necessary, and too often judge of
the merit of a Copy by the Flights of its Preface, and the
insinuating Tone of the +Author’s+ Voice in reading it. I had the
misfortune to fall into the hands of one of these Booksellers, so
fond of Prefaces, whom nothing would serve but he must have one at
the Head of my +Memoirs+. My telling him that I did not know what to
put into a Preface, signify’d no more than if I had been talking to
a Post; for he threaten’d to get a Preface compos’d by an Author who
wrote for Wages. This startled me, and I trembled for the fate of my
Book, not doubting that a Preface written by a Man of Letters, who
made it his profession to compose such marvellous Pieces, would
altogether eclipse the few Excellencies in this Work of mine. What,
said I to myself, the Sale of my Book then must depend only on the
Goodness of the Preface, which, when the Readers compare with the
Book it self, they will say, O! what a wonderful Man is the Author
of the +Preface+! What a pitiful Writer, the Compiler of the
+Memoirs+! No, said I again to my self, I am resolv’d that the
Preface and the Book shall run the same risk; and since Chance has
enter’d me an Author, I’ll play out the whole part of one._

_I am told, that the Design of a Preface is to give the Publick an
account, in the first place, of the Reasons that have engag’d the Author
to compose his Work; that then he is to inform the Publick, that ’tis in
meer Complaisance to his Friends, and because there are mangled Copies of
his Manuscript abroad, that he has been determined to put it to the Press;
and finally, that he is to conclude with a sort of Petition, wherein he is
to beg the Reader’s Indulgence for his Productions. This, I have been
assured, is the Plan of a Preface; let us now see how well I can execute

_As to the first Article, +viz.+ what Motives I had to write, I sincerely
own that when I set Pen to Paper, I meant nothing more than to amuse
myself. I was the farthest in the World from thinking that I should one
day be overtaken with the Temptation of setting up for an Author. I wrote
Letters to a Friend of mine, purely to divert him with an Account of such
things as came in my way; the Minutes of which Letters I preserved till I
had insensibly formed a Volume of ’em; and having nothing else to do, I
augmented and digested them in the manner that I now give them to the
Publick. The truth is, that my Friends have not used the least Importunity
with me to commit my Manuscript to the Press, nor was it possible for any
spurious Copies of it to get abroad, because no body ever saw it till I
put it into the hands of the Bookseller._

_But I shall be ask’d, what possess’d me to commence Author, and how came
I to be so idle as to put my Name at the Head of a sorry book? I must
answer again, that it was downright Indolence. As to my Name, it would
have been very difficult to have concealed it from Persons to whom I have
the greatest Obligations. I should have been suspected to have been the
Author of these Memoirs at certain Courts, for which I have a Respect both
by Inclination and Duty; and perhaps, if I had left this Copy to the
wide World, as some do those Foundlings which they are asham’d to own,
such Passages might have been foisted into it, as would have been father’d
upon me, in spite of all Protestations of my Innocence._

_As to the Book itself, I am apt to think there is nothing in it that any
Person whatsoever ought to take offence at. When I speak of Sovereign
Princes, ’tis with the Reverence due to the +Lord’s Anointed+; and I also
endeavour to honour them in their Ministers, being taught by my Religion
that I ought to honour God in his Saints. I have done my utmost to paint
the true Characters of People in Place, and can safely say, that my
Authorities are not meer hear-says or scraps out of News-Papers; for,
thank to God, my Birth and Fortune have put me in a capacity to see, hear,
and judge for myself._

_It will be thought perhaps, that when I speak of Nations in general, I
judge too rashly. It may be so; this being an Article especially in which
all Men do not think alike. The +French+ have a quite different Idea of
the +Germans+ from what the +English+ have, and the +English+ do not pass
the same Verdict on the +French+ as the +Swedes+ do. ’Tis the same in
private Life. Every one makes his own Condition the Standard of his
Judgment. The Man of Quality, the Citizen, the Soldier, the Merchant, have
all different Ideas. The Traveller judges of the Nation where he is, by
the Company he keeps. A +Frenchman+ who in +Germany+ converses with none
but those of the second Class, will say that the +Germans+ are honest
People, but clownish; whereas another, who keeps company with Persons of
Quality, or those in Offices, will agree, that the +Germans+ are more
polite than they have been painted by certain +French+ Writers, who have
been transplanted to +Germany+ either by their Distresses, or by meer
Chance. So, a +German+, who, when he is at +Paris+, sees no better Company
than the Marchionesses of the Suburb of +St. Germain+, imagines
that all the Women both at Court and in the City are like them. In fine, a
Foreigner who takes up his Residence in the City of +London+, will
entertain a different Idea of the +English+ from what another shall do who
lodges at +St. James+’s end of the town. They are, as one may say, so many
different Nations in one and the same State, which stand in little
relation to one another; and sometimes attribute Virtues and Vices to each
other without due Consideration. A Foreigner therefore can form a solid
Judgment of none but those with whom he is conversant; and if he has the
good luck to pitch his Tent well, he entertains an advantageous Opinion of
the Nation in general. Let Foreigners, when they return home, after having
kept such various sorts of Company, sit down to draw the Characters of the
Nations they have seen, I do but think what a strange difference would
appear in their Descriptions! The Judgment therefore which I make of
People, is founded upon the Company I kept, and upon what I heard from
such Inhabitants of the Country as appear’d to me to be altogether
unprejudiced, and were pleased to honour me with their Information. I do
not say but, after all, I may have been mistaken; for I do not pretend to
have painted things in any other light than as they appear’d to me. If,
nevertheless, any particular Person thinks himself particularly intended
when I speak of the Inhabitants of any Province or Town in general, I beg
him to remember, that I confess in my Memoirs there are worthy People in
all parts of the World, and ’tis not my fault if his Conscience does not
permit him to rank himself in that number._

_No doubt I shall be reproach’d for relating too many Trifles, and passing
too lightly over things of greater Importance. To speak freely again, I
will make no difficulty to own, that, if when I began these Memoirs, I had
ever thought of printing them, the desire of promoting their Sale might
perhaps have put upon inserting a great many Nothings which I omitted, as
not thinking it worth while to charge my Memory with ’em. The far greatest
part of what the World reads is Trifles, and a History will make its
fortune not by the instructive Facts that are in it, but by the Romantic
Turn the Author gives it. Besides, I am not so vain as to write with a
design of Instructing; for what could I relate in my Travels which others
have not done before me in better Terms? To talk of Learned Men, to make a
Catalogue of Books and MSS. that are to be met with in Libraries, to
ransack the Cabinet of the Curious, to publish Inscriptions, to treat of
antique Medals, to affirm that I have seen an +Otho+ of Brass, which is
known to be but of Silver, what a Posse of Men of Learning would rise up
against me! Whereas, now I fear nothing; the Learned don’t read Trifles,
or if they do, they scorn to criticise them. I shall to them remain
unknown, or at least, my Meanness will be my Protection against their

_I would fain be as secure against the Criticism of those, who reading for
the sake of their amusement, require an exact, elegant Stile in trifles,
that is, adorn’d with the Flowers and Garlands of Rhetorick. But how shall
I gain their Indulgence? If I own to them that I could do no better, they
will say to me, and justly enough, +Alas! then what made you write?+ To
which I shall answer, as I said before, that it was meerly for want of
something else to do. If they will but forgive me this time, I assure them
that I not only will never relapse into the same error, but that I shall
not be sorry if they disdain to take Notice of my Book: And if the reading
of these Memoirs inclines them to sleep, I shall think my self very well
rewarded for having contributed to their Repose._

_After all, I am more particularly obliged to ask pardon of the +French+
than any other Nation: ’Tis in their Language I have presumed to write,
and they are my proper Judges. Such is their Politeness and their
Readiness to assist Foreigners, that I doubt not of Mercy. And in
return, I promise them, that if a +Frenchman+ ever vouchsafes to write in
the +German+ Language, I will forgive him any Errors that he may commit._

                      ADVERTISEMENT by the EDITOR.

N. B. “These Memoirs went off so quick, that before they had been out
scarce six Months, the _French_ Bookseller was oblig’d to prepare for this
_Second Edition_; to which, there are considerable Additions both in the
Body of the Work and in the Notes, of curious and interesting Facts and
Characters, and the principal Alterations that have happen’d at the
several Courts, since the first Edition.

“There is added in particular, a very circumstantial Account of the
present Elector of _Saxony_’s Family, his Ministers, and Officers; and in
short, of the Chief Persons of both Sexes belonging to his Court and
Houshold. This is prefix’d in the Original, at the Head of the Memoirs;
but the Translator thought it more regular as well as more consistent with
the Method observ’d every where else by the Author, to place it at the End
of his Description of the City of _Dresden_. The Baron has dedicated that
Account to the present Elector (_Augustus_, King of _Poland_) and
introduc’d it with the following Preface.”




                         TO THE SECOND EDITION.

_The_ PRESENT STATE OF THE COURT OF SAXONY_, which is added to this
Edition, has no need of a Preface to recommend it, the very Title shewing
that ’tis what concerns every +Saxon+ especially to be acquainted with._

_All Subjects have a desire to know something of their Sovereign; and
private Men in every State have this Curiosity, with respect to their
Ministers and Courtiers. These are the Characters which I have ventured to
draw, tho’ I own, that I don’t think I have always hit the Life, for want
of that Penetration and Delicacy of Imagination which Nature, to me a
Step-Mother, has deny’d me; and also because it would have been necessary
for me to have stay’d longer than I did at +Dresden+. Three Months
Residence at so great a Court, are hardly sufficient to make a Man
acquainted with it, were his Fund of Knowledge even as deep as mine is
shallow. Then what a Presumption would it be for me to think I have
attained to it!_

_I must not dissemble, that this Book with all its Imperfections, has cost
me more trouble in composing than one much larger would have done upon a
Subject that had been more familiar to me. There was a necessity for me to
make Inquiry into many Particulars, and to get some of my Information from
a private hand. I own my Obligation to the Civility of M. +Konig+, the
Counsellor of the Court, for the Intelligence I wanted relating
to some of the Court-Nobility. If I had been so happy as to have found out
but one or two Persons more as active for me as he was, my Work would have
been more correct and more extensive. Such as it is, I intreat the Reader
to accept it, and to forgive any Errors in it, in consideration that I am
the first who has ventured to treat of such a Subject. I own, there is a
certain degree of Rashness in the Undertaking, but the noble Motive that
has induc’d me to it, seems to plead for my excuse._

_All +Saxony+ knows in general, that ’tis govern’d by a Sovereign,
gracious, and vigilant to render it happy. It were needless to set the
King’s Virtues and Actions before their Eyes, which the People already
admire, and pray for him. But as this Great Prince does not want those who
envy his Glory, they are the Persons whom I have chose to make asham’d of
themselves; and have endeavoured, if possible, to reclaim others whom a
fatal blindness keeps at a distance from his Majesty’s Person[1]._

_All that ever had the honour of approaching +Augustus III.+ will agree
with me that he adorns that Throne, upon which a respectful Nation has
plac’d him; and that whatever I have said of this Monarch is short of what
might be mention’d. How is it possible to give the true Portraiture of a
King born without Vice, by Principle virtuous, and religiously good? To
admire him in silence is the only way to please him, which I know too
well, not to conform to it; and therefore I have not presum’d to expatiate
so far in his Praise as the Sublimity of the Subject demands._

_The same Aversion of the Queen to Praise, has confin’d me within the same
bounds. How many Virtues have not I been forc’d to smother? What Thoughts_
_have not I sacrific’d, lest I should offend the noble Modesty of that
August Princess, who with a Simplicity attending her Grandeur, makes her
Glory to consist in being humble in the midst of Honours?_

_I believe no body will dispute the Truth of what I have advanc’d relating
_PRINCESSES HIS SISTERS_. The hopes I have raised of what may be expected
from_ THEIR ROYAL HIGHNESSES_, will surely be confirm’d by Time, and by
all those who have access to them._

_The Actions of the Duke +John-Adolphus+ of +Saxe-Weissenfels+ are so well
establish’d that I have not thought fit to anticipate History, by which
they are to be consecrated: And for the same reason, I have but just
touch’d upon the amiable Qualities of his Mind, which are rever’d both by
the Court and the Army._

_As to the Princess of +Saxe-Weissenfels+, I frankly own, that as I had
not the honour of paying my Court to her, what I have said of her Virtues
has no other Authority than the Voice of the Publick, which can never
speak enough in her Praise._

_I have been more copious in treating of the Ministers; and what I have
said of them is so true, that they who know them not may thereby form a
just Idea of what they are._

_I have taken as much notice of the principal Lords and the most
distinguish’d Ladies of the Court, as the little time I had for this Work,
and the Limits to which I was confin’d, would permit. I flatter myself
they will forgive the Freedom with which I use them; and hope I have
preserv’d a Decency in my Language which will secure me from Reproach._



                           ADDENDA to Vol. I.

Pap. 15. M. _Beausobre_, Minister of the Gospel at _Berlin_, and Author of
several learned Treatises, died in _May_ 1738.

P. 26. The Princess of _Brandenburg-Schwedt_, fourth Daughter of the King
of _Prussia_, was deliver’d of a Daughter in _April_ 1738.

P. 27. The Count _de Truchses-Walbourg_, Major-General in the Service of
the King of _Prussia_, died at _Berlin_ in _April_ 1738.

P. 34. In _July_ 1738, his _Prussian_ Majesty, together with the Prince
Royal and Prince _William_, made a Tour to _Holland_, and paid a Visit to
his most Serene Highness the Prince of _Orange_.

P. 66. His Excellency Baron _Hattorf_, Secretary of State for the Affairs
of _Hanover_, died in _August_ 1737.

P. 70. _Christina-Louisa_, Princess of _Oetingen_, died in 1736.

P. 72. _Philippina-Charlotte_, Duchess of _Brunswic-Wolfembuttle_, and
third Daughter to the King of _Prussia_, after having had two Sons by Duke
_Charles_ her Husband, _viz._ the first born in 1735, and the other, who
is called _George-Francis_, in 1736, was deliver’d also of a Daughter in
_September_ 1737, who in the Month following was baptiz’d by the Names of

P. 105. M. _de Miltitz_, who was Tutor to the present King _Augustus_ when
he was Electoral Prince of _Saxony_, died in _March_ 1738.

P. 113. The Princess Royal of _Poland_ was married in _July_ 1738, to Don
_Carlos_ King of _Naples_ and _Sicily_.

P. 130. The Count _de Sulkowski_ in _January_ 1738 fell under some
Disgrace, so that his Majesty order’d his Papers to be seal’d up, and
excused him from farther Attendance on him, but was willing he should keep
the Title and Rank of Minister of the Cabinet, and General of the Foot,
with 6000 Crowns Pension.

P. 140. _Adolphus de Bruhl_ was in _January_ 1738 appointed Grand-Master
of the Horse, at the _Saxon_ Court, in the room of the Count _de

P. 142. The Count _de Moschinski_ died in _September_ 1737.

P. 147. The Count _de Diedrichstein_ died at _Prague_ in _September_ 1737.
He was Baron of _Hollenbourg_, _Finckenstein_, _Dahlberg_ and
_Landskroon_, Hereditary Great Huntsman of _Styria_, Hereditary Cup-Bearer
of _Carinthia_, Knight of the Order of St. _John_ of _Jerusalem_, Grand
Prior in _Bohemia_, _Moravia_, _Silesia_, _Carinthia_, _Styria_, _Tirol_,
_Austria_ and _Poland_, Bailiff of the aforesaid Order, and Commander of
the Commanderies of _Little Oels_, _Furstenfeld_ and _Mosling_, a
Privy-Counsellor of the Emperor, and Governour-General of the Kingdom of

P. 168. The last Duke of _Saxe-Mersebourg_ mention’d in the Note of that
Page, died in _May_ 1738.

P. 182. In _April_ 1738, the Emperor appointed the Prince of _Saxe-Gotha_
Lieutenant Velt-Marshal of his Armies; and in _September_ following
he solicited the Diet of _Ratisbon_ for the Post of second
Velt-Marshal-General of the Empire, in the Disposal of the Protestant
States, vacant by the Death of the Baron _de Wutgenau_.

P. 182. _Augusta_ Princess of _Wales_ was deliver’d of a Princess on the
31st of _July_ 1737, who was baptized after her own Name; and on the 24th
of _May_ 1738, she was deliver’d of a Prince who was baptiz’d
_George-William Frederic_.

P. 208. The Margravine of _Brandenbourg-Culmbach_, Mother to the Queen of
_Denmark_, died at _Copenhagen_ in _August_ 1737, in the 70th Year of her
Age, very much lamented.

P. 220. Count _Philip Kinski_ was made Chancellor of _Bohemia_, in _May_
1738, in the room of the late Count _de Collowrat_.

P. 233. The Archduchess, Wife to the Duke of _Lorrain_, had a Daughter,
born _January_ 25, 1737, and another born in _September_ 1738.

P. 264. The eldest Son of the Duke _Ferdinand_ of _Bavaria_, died in
_April_ 1738.

P. 266. The Count _Maximilian de Fugger_ died at _Vienna_, in _January_

P. 266. The Count _de Thirheim_ died in _January_ 1738, at _Lintz_, the
Capital of _Upper Austria_.

P. 285. _Charles-Alexander_ Duke of _Wirtemberg-Stutgard_, died on the 1st
of _March_ 1737, and was succeeded by his eldest Son _Eugene-Lewis_ the
present Duke, who was born the 30th of _January_ 1728.

P. 298. The Margrave of _Baden-Dourlach_ died the first of _May_ 1738, at
_Carelsruhe_, who having no Issue living, is succeeded by _Frederic_ of
_Witgenstein_, who is marry’d to the Princess _Augusta-Amelia-Albertina_
of _Nassau-Siegen_. The Deceased was 58 Years and near 11 Months of Age,
being born the 17th of _June_ 1679. He was a General in the Emperor’s
Army, and Great Master of the Artillery in the Circle _of Suabia_. By his
Wife, a Daughter of the Duke of _Wirtemberg-Stutgard_, he had four
Children, who are all dead. When he laid the Plan and Foundation of the
City and Castle of _Carelsruhe_, he gave equal Liberty of Conscience to
the Lutherans, Calvinists, and Roman Catholics.

P. 321. The Cardinal _de Schonborn_ died in _August_ 1737.

P. 335. The Baron _de Beveren_, Grand Marshal at the Elector Palatine’s
Court, died there in _January_ 1738.

P. 357. In _January_ 1738, the Prince of _Hesse-Hombourg_ was married to
the Velt-Marshal _Trubetskay_’s Daughter.

P. 362. After the Death of the Count of _Hanau_ without Issue, the
Succession was awarded to the Prince of _Darmstad_ as next Heir, on
condition of his paying 200000_l._ by way of Compensation to the House of


                          ADDENDA to Vol. II.

Pag. 14. Cardinal _Bissi_ died in _August_ 1737.

P. 44. Cardinal _Olivieri_, Secretary of the Pope’s Briefs, died at _Rome_
in _February_ 1738.

P. 61. Prince _James Sobieski_ died in _December_ 1737.

P. 136. On the 28th of _June_ 1737, the Great Duke of _Tuscany_ died in
the 67th Year of his Age, and was succeeded by _Francis_ Duke of _Lorrain_
(who married the Emperor’s Daughter) for whom possession was immediately
taken of the Duchy by the _German_ Forces.

_Ferdinand_, Duke of _Courland_, who is mentioned in the same Page, died
in 1737; and the Nobility assembling at _Mittau_ elected Count _Biron_, a
Native, to succeed him.

P. 150. The Affairs of _Corsica_ are very much alter’d since the first
Edition of these Volumes. Baron _Theodore_ having left the Island, and
promis’d to return soon with Succours, went to _Amsterdam_, where he was
confin’d for Debt; but being soon discharg’d by the Interest of some
foreign Power, he proceeded to _Paris_, and thence to _Marseilles_, in
order, as he gave out, to put himself again at the Head of the
_Corsicans_: But during this the _French_ having undertaken to be
Mediators betwixt the _Corsicans_ and _Genoese_, have, with the
Approbation of both, sent a General thither with some Troops, and the
_Corsicans_ have agreed to send over a dozen of their chief Men to the
Court of _France_ as Hostages for their good Behaviour; but since this,
_Theodore_ has set his Foot again upon that Island.

P. 257. The Duke of _Liria_, Son and Successor to the late Marshal Duke of
_Berwic_, died at _Naples_ in _May_ 1738.

P. 260. The Marshal _d’Estrees_ died the 5th of _December_ 1737.

P. 309. The Marshal _de Wrangel_, Governour of _Brussels_, died in
_August_ 1737, in the 87th Year of his Age.

P. 332. The Succession to the Duchies of _Juliers_ and _Berg_, is an
Affair which has been very much canvass’d for several Months past, between
the Elector Palatine and the Courts of _Prussia_ and _Saxony_. The
maritime Powers of _Great Britain_ and _Holland_ have proposed an
Accommodation, with regard to the Succession, into which the Elector
Palatine is willing to enter; but the Courts of _France_, _Prussia_ and
_Saxony_ don’t concur with it; and _France_ has guarantee’d the actual
Possession of those Duchies to the Prince of _Sultzbach_.

P. 447. On the 20th of _November_ 1737, _Wilhelmina-Carolina_ Queen of
_Great Britain_ died of a Mortification in her Bowels; and on the 17th of
_December_ following she was privately interr’d in _Westminster-Abbey_.


                       BOOKS _lately published_,

1. The Third and Fourth Volumes of the MEMOIRS of CHARLES-LEWIS BARON DE
POLLNITZ being the Observations he made in his late Travels from _Prussia_
thro’ _Poland_, _Germany_, _Italy_, _France_, _Spain_, _Flanders_,
_Holland_, _England_, &c. discovering not only the present State of the
chief Cities and Towns, but the Characters of the principal Persons at the
several Courts.

2. CYCLOPÆDIA; or, An Universal Dictionary of ARTS and SCIENCES:
Containing, An Explication of the Terms, and an Account of the Things
signified thereby in the several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, and
the several Sciences, Human and Divine: The Figures, Kinds, Properties,
Productions, Preparations and Uses of Things, Natural and Artificial: The
Rise, Progress, and State of Things, Ecclesiastical, Civil, Military and
Commercial; with the several Systems, Sects, Opinions, &c. among
Philosophers, Divines, Mathematicians, Physicians, Antiquaries, Critics,
&c. The Whole intended as a Course of Antient and Modern Learning,
extracted from the best Authors, Dictionaries, Journals, Memoirs,
Transactions, Ephemerides, &c. in several languages. By E. CHAMBERS,
_F.R.S._ The Second Edition, corrected and amended, with some ADDITIONS.
In Two Volumes, Folio.

carefully collated with the several Editions of the Original; in which
many Passages are restored, and the Whole greatly augmented; particularly
with a Translation of the Quotations from eminent Writers in various
Languages: To which is prefixed, the Life of the Author, revised,
corrected and enlarged, by Mr. Des Maizeaux, Fellow of the Royal Society;
compleat in 5 Volumes, Folio.

4. A Tour thro’ the whole Island of Great Britain, divided into Circuits
or Journies, giving a particular and entertaining Account of whatever is
Curious, and worth Observation, viz. 1. A Description of the principal
Cities and Towns, their Situation, Government and Commerce. 2. The
Customs, Manners, Exercises, Diversions, and Employment of the People. 3.
The Produce and Improvement of the Lands, the Trade and Manufactury. 4.
The Sea-Ports and Fortifications, the Course of Rivers, and the Inland
Navigation. 5. The public Edifices, Seats and Palaces of the Nobility, and
Gentry. Interspersed with useful Observations. Particularly fitted for the
Perusal of such as desire to travel over the Island. The second Edition,
with very great Additions, Improvements and Corrections, which bring it
down to the beginning of the Year 1738, in three neat Pocket Volumes.
_Price, Nine Shillings._

All printed for D. BROWNE, without _Temple-Bar_.



                                 OF THE

                           Baron de POLLNITZ.

                In SEVERAL LETTERS to Mr. _L. C. D. S._

                               LETTER I.

  _SIR_,                                       _Berlin, June 6, 1729._

From _Breslaw_ to _Berlin_ ’tis 40 _German_ Miles of very even Country,
well peopled and cultivated. There are I know not how many little Towns in
the Road, not worth mentioning.

The first Place of any Importance is CROSSEN. This City is the Capital of
the Dutchy from whence it has its Name, which formerly made a Part of
_Silesia_, but is now annex’d to the Electorate of _Brandenburgh_. There’s
a Bridge at _Crossen_, by which we pass the River _Oder_, defended by
Fortifications. The Town is situate in a pleasant fruitful Country. The
Houses, which are all of Brick, are uniform, and the Streets as strait as
a Line. The chief of them terminate in a great Square in the middle of
the Town, where there is a Statue of the King of _Prussia_. The River
_Oder_ is of great advantage to the Commerce of _Crossen_, which carries
on a considerable Trade in Linnen-Cloth and Earthen Ware.

Going out of _Crossen_, we pass this River by a Bridge, as we do a second
time over to FRANCFORT, a considerable City of the Marquisate of
_Brandenbourg_, famous for its Fairs, and its University. This City has
stood the Shock of various Revolutions. It was put under the Ban of the
Empire by the Emperor _Charles_ IV. for having disobey’d his Orders; and
the Inhabitants to make him easy were forc’d to pay him down 12000 Marks
of Silver, which at that time was an immense Sum. In 1631 the _Swedes_
besieg’d and took it by Storm, when they put all the Inhabitants to the
Sword in reprisal for the Massacre of 2000 _Swedes_, whom the Emperor’s
General Count _Tilly_ had inhumanly put to death in the City of
_Brandenbourg_. By the Peace of _Munster_, or _Westphalia_, which
establish’d the Tranquility of the Empire, _Francfort_ was restor’d to the
Elector of _Brandenbourg_ its lawful Sovereign.

Here is a University founded by _Joachim_ I. (Margrave of _Brandenbourg_)
in 1506, which is very much frequented by the _Silesians_, and by the
_Hungarian_ Protestants.

There are two Fairs a Year at _Francfort_, which render it a trading City,
and its Commerce consists in Linnen-Cloth, and Fells.

’Tis ten Miles from _Francfort_ to _Berlin_, and a flat sandy Country. The
Road leads thro’ _Munchenbourg_, a little Town chiefly inhabited by the
Descendants of _French_ Men, who left their Country upon the Revocation of
the Edict of _Nantes_.

The nearer one comes to the Capital of _Brandenbourg_, the more sandy is
the Soil, yet the Country produces plenty of Corn and Fruits.

BERLIN is the common Residence of the King of _Prussia_, and one of the
largest, best built, and best govern’d Cities in all _Germany_. The
Streets are spacious, strait, neat and well pav’d. The Situation is
advantageous; for tho’ it lies in a very sandy Soil, yet it is encompass’d
with agreeable Gardens producing Fruits and excellent Pulse, and its
Commerce is much improv’d by the River _Spree_; which passes thro’ the
City, and has a Communication with the _Havel_, the _Oder_, and the

The _French_, who for the sake of Religion became Refugees, have
contributed in an extraordinary manner to the Establishment and
Aggrandisement of _Berlin_, by the establishing of all sorts of
Manufactures, and the introducing of Arts into it; and it may be said of
them, that they have omitted nothing to testify their Gratitude to the
Elector _Frederic-William_ and his Posterity, for the generous Reception
which he gave them in his Dominions.

_Berlin_ is divided into five Wards exclusive of the Suburbs, which are
very extensive. I will run thro’ these Wards in the Order of their
Situation: But before I do this, I propose to shew you what is most
remarkable in the Suburbs; where the Houses are generally of Timber, but
so well plaister’d that they seem to be of Stone; and the Streets are
broad, lightsome and strait.

In the Suburb of _Spandau_ the Queen has a delightful House and Gardens.
The House is called _Monbijou_; a very proper Name for it, because ’tis
really a Jewel. ’Tis a Pavilion, the Apartments of which are laid out with
Art, and furnish’d with great Judgment and Elegance. The Gardens are
charming, and lie finely open to the River. This House was built by the
Countess _de Wartemberg_, Wife to the Prime Minister of King _Frederic_ I.
As her Husband’s Power and Favour were at that time so great, that he did
whatever he pleas’d, all the King’s Workmen and Architects us’d the
utmost Diligence to serve her well. But she did not enjoy this fine House
long; for it was scarce compleated when the King removed the Count from
all his Employments, and banish’d him to _Francfort_ on the _Maine_.
However, he settled a Pension upon him and his Lady of 24000 Crowns, and
the Countess by way of Acknowledgement gave the King this House, which of
all the immense Treasure that she had amass’d, was the only Piece that she
cou’d not carry with her. The King gave this House to the Princess Royal
now Queen, who has added great Embellishments to it, and brought it to its
present State of Perfection.

In the Suburbs of _Stralau_ is the House and Gardens of _Belvedere_,
belonging to the King. _Rollé_ Superintendant of the Finances to the
Elector _Frederic-William_, caus’d this Garden to be made, in which he
laid out considerable Sums; and as this Minister was at other very great
Expences, it so impair’d his Fortune, that he was oblig’d to throw up all
and retir’d to _Holland_; and being very much in debt to the Elector, his
Garden was forfeited to that Prince, who made a Present of it to M. _de
Fuchs_, one of his Ministers. King _Frederic_ I. purchas’d it of the
latter, and after having embellished it, made a Present of it to the Queen
his third Wife; but that Princess’s ill state of Health obliging her to
retire to _Mecklenbourg_ her Native Country, _Belvedere_ became neglected.

Near this Royal House is the magnificent Gardens of _Craut_, who from a
Boy behind the Counter rais’d himself by his Industry to the Post of
Pay-master General of the Army, and at length to that of Minister of
State. He was to have been call’d to account in his last stage of Life,
but he cunningly diverted that Storm by feigning himself Lunatic; and
dying, he left an immense Estate, part of which fell to the King by way
of Restitution, and the rest to his Nephew, who makes a grand Figure at

I enter’d _Berlin_ thro’ that call’d the Gate _Royale_, which has had that
Name ever since the Day that _Frederic_ I. made his Entry there, after his
Coronation at _Koningsberg_ in _Prussia_. This Gate is defended by a
Half-Moon, and two Bastions fac’d with Brick, and fronts that call’d the
Street _Royale_; one of the longest and most frequented in all the City.
There are very fine Houses in it, particularly that of M. _de Catsch_, a
Minister of State, that of _Grumkau_, and the Post-House, which last
Building was begun by order of the late King, for his Favourite the Count
_de Wartemberg_, who was hereditary Post-Master.

Thro’ the Street _Royale_ there run fine, spacious and beautiful Streets.
The first is call’d _la Rue du Cloitre_, in which we see the Royal
Manufactory. _Frederic_ I. who bought it of the Heirs of the Marshal _de
Flemming_, established an Academy of Nobles there; so that, on the Payment
of three hundred Crowns, they had Lodging, Provision, and Instruction in
every thing that it’s natural a Man of Quality shou’d know. This
Establishment existed a few Years, but sunk at last meerly thro’ the
Neglect of Persons whose Business ’twas to take care of it. The present
King has chang’d this Fabrick into a Work-house, and allowed Lodgings in
it for several Woollen Manufacturers.

Adjoining to the Royal Manufactory, there are public Warehouses, which
were established and built by the late King; and being destroyed by Fire,
the present King caus’d them to be rebuilt. Opposite to the Warehouses
stands the House of M. _de Creutz_, Minister of State; which has fine
Apartments, and is very neatly furnish’d. Higher in the same Street
there’s the House of M. _Duvaine_, a _French_ Man by Birth, and
Lieutenant-General of his _Prussian_ Majesty’s Forces: And contiguous to
his House, which makes a fine Appearance, is the _Calvinists_ new Church,
a Structure rais’d after the Model of _Grunberg_, an Architect who had
before acquir’d a Reputation, which did not suffer by his Contrivance of
this great Fabrick: The Front of it is magnificent, but the inside plain,
as are all the Churches of the _Calvinists_, which you know don’t
admit of Images. The subterranean Places or Catacombs, for interring
those that worship here, are worth seeing. Several Persons have been
interr’d there of great Note, particularly _Casimir de Colbe_, Count
_de Wartemberg_, Prime Minister, Great Chamberlain, Master of the Horse,
Post-Master-General, Protector of all the Academies in the Dominions of
the King of _Prussia_, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. Being
banish’d in 1711, to _Francfort_ upon the _Maine_, where he died the Year
following, he ordered that his Corpse shou’d be carry’d to _Berlin_; and
his Will was accordingly fulfill’d. He was so dear to King _Frederic_ I.
that he was very loth to part with him; but was, as it were, compell’d to
it by a Cabal, who oppos’d his Ministerial Authority; tho’ he was provok’d
at the Insolence of _Wartemberg_’s Wife, and at his mean Submission to
her. The King made an Offer to him afterwards, by the Count _Christophle
de Dohna_, (who was then his Ambassador at _Francfort_, for the Election
of the Emperor,) to come and resume his Employments, on condition that he
wou’d not bring his Wife with him; but _Wartemberg_ refus’d, saying, he
was engag’d in honour not to forsake her. Perhaps he was very glad of this
Excuse for not returning, because he had once experienc’d the Vicissitude
of Fortune, and knew well that he had been too powerful a Man not to be
hated. King _Frederic_ I. who was desirous to see his Funeral pass by,
cou’d not refrain Tears; which undoubtedly was the greatest Character that
he cou’d give of his Minister.

Next to the Count _de Wartemberg_’s Tomb, is that of _Henrietta de
Pollnitz_, Wife to _Francis_ Count _de Duhamel_, the _Venetians_
Generalissimo. Her Husband dying in the _Morea_, this Lady return’d to
_Venice_, proposing to go and end her Days at _Berlin_, where she was
born; but while she was performing her Quarantain she died, after desiring
her Body to be carry’d to _Berlin_; which was accordingly done by two of
her Nephews, and one of her Nieces, whom she made her Heirs. There is also
the Tomb of the Count _de Denhoff_, Lieutenant-General of the King’s
Armies, Knight of his Order of the Black Eagle, Minister of State,
Governour of _Memel_, and Ambassador at the Treaty of _Utrecht_, where he
acquired a high Reputation among the foreign Ministers. The Marshal _de
Villars_, who had known him at _Vienna_, when he the Marshal resided there
in the quality of Minister, to take care of the Affairs of _France_, said
to me one day, speaking of the Count _de Denhoff_, that the King of
_Prussia_ cou’d not do enough to reward the Count’s great Merit. _If he
wou’d have been rul’d by me_, added he, _he wou’d have been in the Service
of the King my Master_.

The second Street that crosses the Street _Royale_, is the _Jews_ Street,
which runs into the Square _Molcke-Marck_; where the Hotel _de Schwerin_
makes a fine Appearance. Within a few Houses lower down, there’s a
Manufactory of Gold and Silver Lace, which one _Schindler_ has established
with good success: This House belong’d to the Wife of M. _de Wensen_,
Marshal of the Court to King _Frederic_ I. but she resign’d it as part of
Payment of a Fine, to which her Husband had been condemn’d by the Count
_de Wartemberg_, then prime Minister; who confin’d M. _Wensen_ in
_Custrin_ Castle, because he had presum’d to represent to the King that
the Table of the prime Minister, which was served by his Majesty’s Cooks
and Butlers, was more expensive than his Majesty’s own Table. _Wensen_
however, upon the Payment of this Fine, obtain’d his Liberty, and was
banish’d to his Lands in the Dutchy of _Zell_.

In the middle of _Molcke-Marck_ is the Statue of _Frederic_ I. Father to
the present King, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mantle on his
Shoulders. The Statue was cast by order of _Frederic_ I. himself, who
intended to have it plac’d in the Court of the Arsenal; but dying before
it cou’d be brought about, the King his Son caus’d it to be set up where
it now stands, which is indeed a much better Place for it.

The _Spandau_ Street, which is the third that crosses the Street _Royale_,
contains the Town-House, and other fine Buildings: The Street _St. Esprit_
is altogether as beautiful, as is the Kay, which fronts the Castle or
Palace of the King. Upon this Kay we see the House of the Baron _de
Vernesobre_, whose Ancestors being _French_ Protestant Merchants, settled
at _Koningsberg_ in _Prussia_. He was in _France_ at the time of the
_Mississippy_ Plague, which, tho’ so fatal to others, prov’d so fortunate
to him, that he gain’d several Millions of Livres, with which he came and
set up at _Berlin_, where he has taken to building, having purchas’d the
Estate of _Hohensihn_ from Monsieur _de Borstel_, one of the best
Gentlemen of the Country, procur’d himself the Title of Counsellor of
State, and cuts a Figure now among Persons of Quality.

The Churches of St. _Mary_, St. _Nicholas_, and that belonging to the
Garrison, are as magnificent as any of the Protestant Churches. St.
_Mary_’s has a beautiful Spire. When _Frederic_ I. made his royal Entry
here, at his return from his Coronation, a Man ascended to the Globe of
this Spire, and saluted the new King by flourishing a pair of Colours.
The Church of the Garrison was founded by the late King, but was very much
damag’d some Years ago by the blowing up of a Magazine of Gun-Powder in
the Neighbourhood, just as they were removing it to a safer Place. King
_Frederic William_ has caus’d it to be rebuilt with more Magnificence than
before. The Organs are very fine, and the Galleries very well contriv’d.

That Ward of _Berlin_ which I have now run through, is separated from that
of _Coln_ or _Cologne_ by the River _Spree_, over which there are four
Bridges, whereof there is one of Stone, call’d the _Pont-neuf_. _Frederic_
I. in imitation of the _Pont-neuf_ at _Paris_, famous for the Statue of
_Henry_ IV. caused the Equestrian Statue of his Father, the Elector
_Frederic-William_, to be erected upon this Bridge, with very great Pomp
and Splendor; for no Prince in _Germany_ strove more than he did to copy
_Lewis_ XIV. in Magnificence and every thing else. When this Statue was
dedicated, the Count _de Lottum_, who was then Grand Marshal of the Court,
accompanied by most of the Courtiers on horseback, and by the City
Companies, assisted at the Ceremony, which was performed with an
_Apparatus_, till then unknown in _Germany_ upon the like Occasions; but
had been practised at _Paris_, when the Statue of _Lewis le Grand_ was
erected in that City.

This entire Monument was design’d by one _Jacobi_, who after several Years
Labour and constant Application to it, has brought it to its present
State. This skilful Operator has represented the Elector in a _Roman_
Dress, and in an heroic Stature; that is to say, above the natural Size.
The Statue is placed on a magnificent Pedestal of white Marble. At the
four Corners of the Base, are placed as many Slaves in Brass, who seem as
if they were chain’d to it.

When one has pass’d the Bridge, the King’s Palace offers itself to view; a
great and stately Fabric, which _Frederic_ I. began in the Year 1699, and
a worthy Monument of that Prince’s Magnificence, who was of Opinion, that
of all the Sums expended by Sovereigns, those which they lay out in
Buildings are least liable to Censure. And indeed Magnificence is well
bestowed, and even Profusion seems justifiable in Architecture, because
grand Edifices are the principal Ornament of any State.

The Palace has been the Workmanship of several Architects; the Name of the
first was _Schluter_, but he not giving Satisfaction was dismiss’d, and
went into the Service of the Czar _Peter Alexiowitz_. Whatever he did is
extremely incumber’d with Ornaments which have not a due Proportion. His
Successor was _Eosander_, a _Swede_, who is a Lieutenant-General in the
Service of the King of _Poland_: He was oblig’d in some measure to pursue
what _Schluter_ had begun; so that if he has not come off well every
where, he has at least that for his Excuse. The third was _Bot_, a
_Frenchman_, and now General Officer in _Poland_; who without dispute was
a much better Artist than the others. Every thing that he has done is more
simple, yet more grand, noble, and complete.

These three Architects having gone upon different Plans, you will easily
imagine that the Fronts are not perfectly regular; yet for all this, had
the Palace been finish’d according to the Models approv’d of by the late
King, it wou’d have been inferior to no Edifice for Grandeur and
Magnificence, except the _Louvre_ of _Paris_. King _Frederic-William_ does
not think fit to carry on this Building, but leaves that Honour to his
Son, the Prince Royal.

As to giving you all the Particulars of this vast Palace, you will be so
good as to excuse me: Be satisfied if I only tell you, that it consists
of four Stories: The Apartments are large, have fine Cielings, and are
royally furnish’d. In no part of the World did I ever see such a
prodigious quantity of Plate, Tables, Stands, Lustres, Chandeliers,
Screens, Looking-Glass Frames, Couches, Arm-Chairs, all of Silver. The
late King left Plate to the value of two Millions eight hundred thousand
Crowns, not reckoning the Fashion. In that call’d the Knights Hall,
there’s a Beaufet which takes up one intire side of the Room, where there
are Cisterns and Basons Silver gilt, of an extraordinary Size.

The Furniture of the grand Apartment is very rich; there’s a fine Gallery
adorn’d with Pictures, the Cieling of which was painted by one _Peine_, a
_Frenchman_, who in divers Compartments has skilfully represented the
principal Actions of King _Frederic_ I. At the End of this Gallery there’s
a Saloon, which was formerly magnificent to the last degree, being
wainscotted, if I may so call it, with Amber: But the late Czar coming on
_Berlin_ in his return from _Holland_ and _France_, and not a little
admiring this Furniture, which was the only thing of its kind, the King
made him a Present of it: so that what had been amass’d with great Care
and Cost by several Electors, fell in one Day into the hands of a Nation,
which, no longer ago than the beginning of the present Century, was
reckon’d Barbarian.

The Palace had fine Gardens belonging to it before they were destroy’d,
and converted into a Place of Arms, and a Parade for the Guards.

Hard by the Palace are the King’s Stables, a very grand Building, facing
the great Street. The Architecture without is _Gothic_, but the inside is
more magnificent; the Stables are broad and spacious, very lofty, and
very lightsome: the Mangers are of Stone, and the Pillars which mark the
Stands for the Horses, are of Iron, and adorn’d with the King’s Cypher,
gilt: Over the Mangers are several great Pictures of the finest Horses
that ever came out of his Majesty’s Studs. The Backside of the Stables
projects towards the River _Spree_, to which they can lead the Horses by a
Stair-Case without Steps, built in the form of a Horse-Shoe.

The Main Body of the House contains grand Lodgings for the Master of the
Horse, and the Officers under him. Over the Stables are great Rooms where
they keep a deal of fine Furniture, both for the Horse and Mule;
magnificent Sleds, with convenient Harness, adorn’d with Bells of Silver,
or Silver gilt; a great number of fine Arms; the rich Accoutrements of the
Horse which serv’d _Frederic_ I. on the Day of his public Entry; all the
Ornaments of the Bridle, the Breast-Leather, and Crupper, as well as the
Bits and Stirrups, being of Gold adorn’d with Brilliants.

Over the Riding-House is the great Theatre, where, in the late King’s
time, Interludes and Comedies us’d to be acted before the whole Court; but
the Opera of _Roxana_ and _Alexander_ was the last that was acted on it.
It was play’d in 1708, upon the Marriage of King _Frederic_ I. with
_Sophia_ of _Mecklemberg_. In 1706, an Interlude was acted there, on
account of the Arrival of the Princess Royal, now Queen; intitled, _Beauty
triumphing over Heroes_; at which the Markgraves _Frederic-Albert_ and
_Christian-Lewis_, the late King’s Brothers, danc’d, with all the young

As we go farther down the great Street, we come to the Fish-Market, where
is the Hotel of the City of _Cologne_, and _Dorffling_’s Hotel occupied by
the Count _de Finck_. This Family is oblig’d for its Rise to the Marshal
_Dorffling_, who from an Apprentice to a Taylor rais’d himself by his
Valour and Merit to the highest Posts in the Army. The Story goes, that
when he had serv’d his Apprenticeship at _Tangermunde_, having a mind to
go to _Berlin_, he came to a part of the Country where he cou’d not
proceed without crossing the _Elbe_, but not having wherewithal to pay his
Passage, the Ferry-Men refus’d to carry him over; which so vex’d him, that
he threw his Knapsack into the River in a Pet, curs’d the Trade of a
Taylor, and went back to _Tangermunde_, where he listed himself a Soldier.
There being a War at that time all over _Germany_, it was no difficult
matter for the young Warrior to find an Opportunity to shew his Courage;
and he signaliz’d it in such a manner, that his Officers, who were all in
love with him, strove to advance him, and therefore made him known to the
Elector _Frederic-William_. This Prince who lov’d, rewarded, and was a
good Judge of Valour, did not depend upon what Fame reported of him; but
in order to see his Officers and Soldiers fight with his own Eyes,
conducted them himself to the Enemy, and very soon took notice of
_Dorffling_. He saw him at every part of the Field where there was Honour
to be won: He saw he was a sensible industrious Fellow, that he hated
Parties and Cabals, and that he had that _Germanic_ Probity which was the
distinguish’d Virtue of our Forefathers, but which we now content
ourselves with admiring. The Elector observing such a Stock of Virtue in
_Dorffling_, thought him deserving of his Favour, advanc’d him to the
tip-top Employments, and made him very rich. Envy, which is as old as the
World itself, and which like that, never stands still, made several of the
Courtiers jealous of the Fortune or rather the Merit of _Dorffling_, and
there were some who did not stick to say, that if the Marshal came to be
ever so great a Nobleman, he wou’d always retain the Air of a Taylor. This
being carry’d to _Dorffling_, _True enough_, said he, _I was a Taylor,
and I have cut out Cloth; but now_, said he, clapping his Hand to the Hilt
of his Sword, _I have an Instrument in my Hand, with which I’ll cut off
the Ears of any Man that slanders me_.

This brave Fellow liv’d to a great Age, and left a Son who was one of the
King of _Prussia_’s Lieutenant-Generals, and Colonel of a Regiment of
Dragoons, but died without Issue. He had not quite the Vivacity of his
Father, but he had his Honour and Integrity.

Going out of the Fish-market, as we turn to the right, one perceives the
_Lutheran_ Church of _St. Peter_[2], which is a considerable Structure;
and then we come into that call’d the _Fryars_ Street, the Houses of which
are all well built. In this Street stands the Palace where the _Aulic_
Council meets, which in _France_ they call the _Parlement_; ’tis here that
all Civil Causes are try’d, and from thence there lies an Appeal to the
King’s Council.

Beyond the Palace there is a Square, on the Right side of which there’s a
Church with a Cupola which belongs to the _Calvinists_, and is look’d upon
as the Cathedral of _Berlin_: For you know that the late King made two
Bishops, one in _Prussia_ and the other at _Berlin_, and they were the
Prelates that crown’d him. They are since dead, and the present King lets
their Sees lie vacant. In this Church is the Tomb of the Royal Family.
There’s a great Row of Buildings over against it, which consists of
several uniform Houses belonging to Merchants, and supported by stately
Arches with Shops under them, where are sold all sorts of Goods. Turning
round by that Piazza, brings one to a second Branch of the River, which
divides the Ward of _Coln_ from that of _Werder_. This River, which has
three wooden Bridges over it, is confin’d in a Canal lin’d with Freestone,
and form’d by two fine Kays.

The most considerable Edifices in the Ward of _Werder_ are the Royal
Custom-House, so commodiously situate that Boats can come up close to it:
The _French_ School, and their Church, which is serv’d by able Ministers;
some of whom, as the late M. _Lenfant_ (Author of the celebrated _History_
of the _Council of Constance_, &c. and Chaplain to the King of _Prussia_)
M. _de Beausobre_ and M. _Jacquelot_, &c. have acquir’d a Reputation in
the Republic of Letters. The Royal Hunting-House is a large magnificent
Structure for lodging the great Huntsman and all his inferior Officers:
There too is the great Dog-Kennel and the Magazines for all the Hunting
Equipage. Near this place is the Hotel or Palace for Ambassadors, where
are likewise entertain’d such Foreign Princes as are not of a Rank high
enough to be accommodated in the King’s Palace. This Hotel belong’d
formerly to the Baron _de Danckelman_, Prime Minister to King _Frederic_
when he was only Elector, and being built by the said Minister at a time
when he was such a Favourite that he did almost what he pleas’d, he spar’d
no Cost to render it a Mansion worthy of his high Station. I was assur’d
by Persons of Credit then alive, that after it was built, the late King
had a Desire to see it, upon which occasion M. _de Danckelman_ made a
great Entertainment for him; and that while the Queen and the whole Court
were dancing, the King retir’d into his Minister’s Closet, to have a
private Conference with him; and looking very earnestly on a certain
Picture there, M. _de Danckelman_ told him, that Picture and all that he
saw would soon be his Majesty’s. The King not knowing what he meant,
desir’d his Minister to explain himself; whereupon he made answer, ‘That
he shou’d very shortly incur his Displeasure; that his Fall wou’d be
attended by the Forfeiture of all his Estate; that he should be arrested
and committed to the _Spandau_ Prison; and that there he should be
confin’d ten Years, at the Expiration of which his Innocence wou’d be made
to appear, his Estate wou’d be restor’d to him, and he shou’d be taken
again into his Majesty’s Favour.’ The King, who was at that time very fond
of his Minister, and did not think he cou’d ever do without him, ridicul’d
what he had said as the Surmise of a Visionary, and was going to swear by
the New Testament then upon a Table in the Room, that this sad Prophecy
wou’d never come to pass. But the Minister held his Hand, and begg’d him
not to take an Oath which it wou’d not be in his power to keep.

I tell you this Story just as I had it from a Lady of Quality to whom the
King himself told it: But in short, let the Story be as it will, ’tis very
certain that M. _de Danckelman_ was disgrac’d, committed Prisoner to
_Spandau_, and from thence remov’d to _Peitz_, without any Companion but
his Wife, who generously desir’d to suffer Imprisonment with him. His
Confinement lasted much longer than he had prophesy’d, and when at length
he obtained his Release, he was not restor’d to his Employments, nor even
to his Estate. ’Tis said indeed that the present King, who on his
Accession to the Crown sent for M. _de Danckelman_ to _Berlin_, offer’d
him the Ministry; but that the Baron excus’d himself by reason of his
great Age and his tedious Imprisonment, which had made him lose the
Connection of Public Affairs. This Minister died lately, having lived to
the Age of fourscore. His remarkable Disgrace, and fifteen Years
Confinement in a Prison, had not sunk his Spirits, nor shock’d his
Constancy of Mind; and one shall scarce meet with an Instance in History,
either before or since, of more Merit and more Misfortune in one and the
same Person. He was a passionate Admirer of Learned Men, and a Rewarder of
Virtue. In a word, by the Disgrace of this Great Man, the State lost a
faithful disinterested Minister, and Men of Learning lost a _Mecænas_,
full of Zeal and solid Knowledge, who never fail’d to support by his own
Authority, and to procure a Reward from his Master, for all Persons that
apply’d to him with any Proposal that was useful and uncommon.

To go from the Ambassadors Hotel to the New Town, one must pass before the
House belonging to the Governour of _Berlin_[3], who is at present the
Marshal Count _de Wartensleben_; a Nobleman whose Virtues, long Services,
and great Age, challenge Veneration. The House he lives in was built by
order of the Elector _Frederic-William_, for the Reception of the Marshal
_de Schomberg_, who resign’d the Battoon of the Marshal of _France_ to
_Lewis_ XIV. after that Prince had revok’d the Edict of _Nantes_, and came
with a numerous Retinue of Gentlemen, to desire Employment under the
Elector. Accordingly that Prince gave him the Command of his Troops, but
the Marshal quitted that Employment, to accompany the PRINCE of ORANGE to
_England_, in his famous Expedition against his Father-in-Law; and he
likewise attended that Prince to _Ireland_, where he acquir’d great Glory,
but was kill’d in passing the River _Boyne_.

The _Governour’s House_ is separated by a great Square from the _Arsenal_,
which is one of the compleatest Fabrics in _Europe_, and was built
according to a Model design’d by _Bot_, whom I mention’d to you before;
which skilful Architect has, upon this occasion, equalled any thing that
was ever done by the famous _Bernin_.

The intire Structure consists of four main Bodies of Building, which form
a spacious Quadrangle in the middle. The lower Story is of Rustic
Architecture, with arch’d Windows. There are three great Porticoes at the
Entrance to each Front. Over the principal Gate there’s the Picture of the
late King, in a great Medal of Brass. The four Cardinal Virtues of a
Gigantic Size, are plac’d on Pedestals by the Portico, and seem to look
towards the King’s Effigies, which is supported by Fame and Victory. The
_Corinthian_ Order prevails throughout the first Story, and is very
artfully executed. A Gallery or Ballustrade runs round the whole Edifice,
and is adorn’d with Trophies and Statues, particularly a very perfect one
of _Mars_, sitting upon a Heap of Arms of different sorts; and the
Decoration of all together is noble and majestic. Studs of Iron in form of
Cannon are plac’d at proper Distances, and support Iron Chains, hung in
Festoons, which hinder People from clambering up to the Windows.

The Inside of this _Arsenal_ is as magnificent as the Outside. The lower
Rooms are stor’d with a great number of Brass Cannon. The Walls and
Pillars that support the Arch are garnish’d with Cuirasses and Helmets. In
the upper Story there are several Rooms full of Arms, rang’d in such Order
as can never be enough admir’d.

Behind the _Arsenal_ there’s the House of the General of the Ordnance,
which also contains the Foundery, where Men are continually at work.

Besides this _Arsenal_, there are several others in _Berlin_, where they
keep Field-Pieces, Iron Cannon, and all that belongs to the Train of
Artillery. ’Twas the late Margrave _Philip_[4], Brother to _Frederic_ I.
who when he was Great Master of the Ordnance began to put the King’s
_Arsenals_ into a good State. But King _Frederic-William_ has finish’d
what his said Uncle began, and has put the Artillery on such a footing,
that ’tis a question if any _Arsenal_ in _Europe_ is on a better

A Rampart and a Ditch separate the _Werder_ from the _Dorothy-Stadt_, or
new Town, which is for most part inhabited by _French_ Families. It had
the Name of _Dorothy-Stadt_ in honour of the Electress _Dorothy_ of
_Holstein-Glucksburg_, the second Wife of _Frederic-William_, who with her
own Hand planted the first Lime-Tree of the seven great Rows which divide
this Ward into two Parts. The middlemost Row, which is the widest, is
inclos’d with Ballustrades, and forms a pleasant Grass-Walk for
Foot-Passengers. The Walks on each side are pav’d, and serve as a Ring for
the Coaches. Nothing is more beneficial and agreeable than taking the Air
in this Place, where you may have any thing that can be desir’d in a City.
At the end of one of these Walks is a Gate which opens to the Park, the
Walks of which being above a League in length, form a fine Point of View.

On both sides the Lime-Tree Rows, are Houses, among which the Palace of
Madame the Margravine, Dowager[5] to the Margrave _Philip_, Brother to the
late King, is one of the best. The late Margrave purchas’d this Palace
(which at that time was inconsiderable) of the Wife of _Weiller_ Colonel
of the Artillery, who had thrown up his Employments, Wife, Children and
all, to go with a Lady of Quality, that was in love with him, to _Vienna_.
This Gentlewoman pass’d for a modern _Sappho_, and every body talk’d of
her Virtue and good Sense. But being a Slave to the Follies of Love, and
asham’d to let them be seen at _Berlin_, where she was counted an Oracle,
she resolv’d to quit the Place of her Birth, and engag’d her Lover to
leave all and follow her.

The Margrave made considerable Augmentations to this House, and render’d
it very commodious. The Furniture of the Palace also is rich, and worthy
of the Princess who resides in it.

Opposite to the Margravine’s Palace is a Building which was formerly
call’d the King’s Little Stables, but has been metamorphos’d into Caserns
for the Gendarmery; they discover the Magnificence of _Frederic_ I. who
caused them to be built. The Apartments that run over the Stables are
occupied by the Academy of Painters, and that of Arts and Sciences. Behind
the Stables there’s the Observatory, with a great number of Astronomical
and Mathematical Instruments, of which there are many of a new Invention.

_Frederic-Stadt_, which is the fifth Ward of _Berlin_, communicates with
the New Town and the _Werder_. This is one of the pleasantest Wards in the
whole City, the Streets being spacious, strait, and planted with

Perhaps I have dwelt too long upon the Metropolis of the Electorate of
_Brandenburgh_; but I thought that as there had been no true Account yet
given of this City, you wou’d not be sorry to have it from me.

The next day after my Arrival here, I had the Honour to see the King, who
was then seeing his Soldiers mount guard. He is a Prince of a middling
Stature, and in very good Plight of Body: His Air commands Respect; yet,
when he pleases, no Prince in the World can be more gracious. I heard him
speak to his Officers in such a kind manner as cou’d not but charm them; I
admir’d his Genius for military Discipline, and perceiv’d that with the
Glance of an Eye he cou’d discover the least Fault committed against that
wonderful Exactness which is introduc’d in the Evolutions of his Troops.
After the Guards had perform’d their Exercise, the King stay’d to see them
file off. I never yet saw Troops march with more Order and State, so that
it seem’d as if they were all mov’d by one Spring. All the Soldiers are
young, of an even Stature, and the cleverest Fellows that Nature ever
form’d: they are well cloth’d, and have such an Air of Neatness, that even
the private Centinels might all pass for Officers. I remember you was
prejudic’d against their Clothing; their Clothes you said were too strait,
and too short. I was of your Opinion once, and think so still, when I
happen to see one of their Officers and Soldiers singly among us, who wear
Night-Gowns rather than Coats; but when I see a whole Body of _Prussians_
together, I am of another Opinion, and think their Dress gives them a
warlike Air which other Troops have not. You will tell me perhaps, that
the Clothing of the _Prussians_ is good in a Garrison, but that in the
Field their Garments are not wide enough to cover the Soldiers in the
Night. I answer, that the _Prussian_ Soldiers are in no danger of not
being cover’d, because when they are in the Field, every Captain is to
carry as many Coverlids, as there are Comrades in his Company. But you’ll
say, this must be a very great Incumbrance, and take up a deal of
Equipage. ’Tis true, it may require two Sumpter Horses in a Company, but a
Soldier fares the better for it; because when he goes wet into the Camp,
he can get his Clothes dry’d in the Night while he is under his Coverlid.
After all, the Incumbrance is no greater at present, for those Troops,
than it was at the time when all the _Prussian_ Infantry had Cloaks, which
the Soldiers wore, was the Weather ever so hot, folded over their
Shoulders, and ty’d both before and behind by their Belt. If they had any
hasty March to make, such as I saw they made in _Flanders_ in 1708, when
they went to attack the _French_ near _Audenarde_, the _Prussians_ left
their Cloaks behind with a Guard, and when the Battle was join’d, the
Captains were oblig’d to send for their Cloaks. In short, what makes me
think the _Prussian_ Clothing the most convenient for a Soldier, is, that
most of the _German_ Princes are now come into it, and like it well: The
Troops of _Saxony_, and _Brunswic_ in particular, are cloth’d like those
of _Prussia_.

The _Prussian_ Troops, which are new cloth’d every Year, have Breeches of
Woollen Cloth for the Winter, and of Linnen for the Summer; and they are
allow’d Shirts, Necks and Spatterdashes: Their Pay is good and regular;
the Soldier is compell’d to do his Duty, but when he does it, enjoys more
Liberty than in the Service of any other Nation: so that were I to carry a
Musket, I fancy it wou’d be in the Service of _Prussia_, where such a
strict Discipline is observ’d, that the Soldier is no Swearer, and is not
allow’d to game, and where in a word he does not abandon himself to
Licentiousness. On Sundays and Saints Days they are requir’d to go twice a
day to hear a Sermon: The Catholicks have the liberty of going to Mass. In
short, good Manners are introduc’d and observ’d in those Troops to such a
Nicety, that you would wonder at it.

All the Infantry is cloth’d in blue. It depends on the Colonel of every
Regiment, to order what Waistcoats and Trimming he pleases for the
Clothes. The Horse and Dragoons wear white, but the Houshold Troops blue,
with Campaign Coats of Gold Lace. The Hussars Clothing is red, but the
Garbs of the Officers both of Foot and Horse are plain, and only differ
from the Apparel of the Soldiers in the fineness of the Cloth; tho’ there
are some Regiments whose Waistcoats are bedaub’d all over with Gold or
Silver Lace.

The Colours, which are uniform in all the Regiments, are white, with the
King’s Device, representing an Eagle flying towards the Sun with this
Motto, _Nec Soli cedit_. There’s such a Uniformity preserv’d in all things
throughout the Army, even in their Guns, Swords, Bayonets, &c. that in
every Regiment they wear the very same, even to their Shoe-Buckles.

The same Regularity is observ’d in the Horse and Dragoons, which ride both
upon black Horses; and indeed they are not permitted to have any others,
the Officers themselves being not exempt from this Rule, when they are at
the head of their Squadrons or Companies. The Housings and Equipage of the
latter are of the same Pattern, and extremely rich. All the Horse wear
Buff-Coats, and underneath Cuirasses. They perform their Exercise on Foot
like the Infantry, and with the same Exactness. The Kettle-Drums and
Trumpets of all the Horse are of Silver.

There is not a Captain in all the _Prussian_ Army but has at least ten
supernumerary Men; so that these included, the King’s Forces amount to
near 100000, all pick’d Men. You cou’d not but admire if you were to see
how they behave; insomuch that whenever they take the Field, ’tis pity but
Fortune shou’d favour them.

Not many Days after my Arrival here, the King being gone to visit his
Kingdom, I had the Honour of waiting on the Queen. This Princess, whose
Name is _Sophia-Dorothea_, is Sister to the present King of _Great
Britain_, being the Daughter of _George_ I. the late King, and of
_Sophia-Dorothea_ Princess of _Brunswic-Zell_. And she does every thing
that is worthy of her August Extraction; for surely never did Daughter
more resemble a Father; she has the same Benignity and Wisdom, the same
Equity and Justice, and Sweetness of Temper. Like him she knows the Charms
of a private Life, and Friendship, on a Throne: Like him she is ador’d by
her Subjects and her Domestics, and is the chief Blessing and Darling of
both. To extend Goodness and Affability farther, were impossible; there
being no Foreigners but what are charm’d with the gracious Manner in which
this Princess receives them. To a thousand Virtues worthy of Veneration,
she has added the singular Talent of speaking the Language of several
Countries which she never saw, with as much Delicacy as if they had been
her Mother Tongues. The _French_ Language especially, is so familiar to
her, that one wou’d take her to be a Princess of the Royal Family of
_France_; and the Grandeur and Majesty that accompany all her Actions,
induce those even who don’t know her, to be of Opinion that she was born
to reign.

That which still more endears this Queen to her People, is the Care she
takes of the Education of her Family; which consists of four Princes, and
six Princesses. The eldest of the Sons is stil’d the _Prince Royal_[7].
This young Prince is handsome, charms every one by his Kindness and
Good-Nature; and loves Reading, Musick, the Arts, and Magnificence: His
Sentiments, his Behaviour, and his Actions, make it probable, that if he
comes to the Crown, his Reign will be one of those mild and peaceable
Reigns, which procure Kings that Love of their People, wherein consists
their true Glory. The Care of the Prince Royal’s Education was committed
first of all to Madam _de Camke_, one of the Queen’s Ladies of Honour, and
Governess of the Children of _Prussia_. But this Lady left the Charge of
the latter to the Sub-Governess, Madam _de Rocoule_, and her Daughter
Madamoiselle _de Montbail_. Madam _de Rocoule_ had also the honour to be
Sub-Governess to the King; so that she was no Novice in the forming of
young Princes. As she talks nothing but _French_, she has taught it to the
King’s Children; who speak it with as much ease as they do the _German_
Language. At seven Years of Age the Prince Royal was taken out of the
Hands of the Women; and the Count _de Finck_ of _Finckenstein_,
Lieutenant-General of the King’s Forces, a Knight of his Order, and
Colonel of a Regiment of Horse, was appointed his Royal Highness’s
Governour; and the Baron _de Kalestein_ was made Sub-Governour. The King’s
Choice of both these Gentlemen was universally applauded.

The eldest of the King’s Children is _Frederica-Sophia-Wilhelmina_, the
Princess Royal; who was born in 1709. I was at _Berlin_ at the Ceremony of
her Baptism, which was performed in the Chapel of the Castle, in presence
of _Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_, _Frederic-Augustus_ King of
_Poland_, and _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_. The Birth of this Princess,
and the Circumstances of three Kings and a Queen attending at her Baptism,
gave occasion to a great many Copies of Verses. All the Poets said that
the Presence of these three Kings, was a Sign that she wou’d one day have
Possession of three Crowns. They had then in view the Crowns of _Great
Britain_, that were to devolve to the Family of _Hanover_; in which there
was a young Prince[8], who, it was then imagin’d, was to be in time the
Husband of this Princess. Whether this Match will ever take place, and
whether the Princess will be Queen, I can’t say; but if she is not,
Fortune will not do Justice to her Merit.

The Princess _Frederica-Louisa_, the King’s second Daughter, is lately
married to the Margrave of _Brandenburgh Anspach_. ’Tis said that his
Majesty’s third Daughter, the Princess _Philippina-Charlotte_, is promised
to[9]_Charles_, hereditary Prince of _Brunswic-Bevern_, Nephew to the
Empress Regent.

The other Princes and Princesses, the King’s Children[10], are as yet too
young to furnish any Particulars for their Character. In a word, put them
all together, they form a very fine Family.

The Margravine, Dowager of the Margrave _Philip_, Brother to the late
King, is the first in Rank at Court, next to the King’s Children: She was
born Princess of _Anhalt-Dessau_. Her Royal Highness was lately chose
Abbess of _Herford_, a sovereign Abby in _Westphalia_, (in a Town
belonging to the King of _Prussia_, as part of the Principality of
_Ravensberg_;) whose Canonesses must be all Princesses, or Countesses of
the Empire. This Princess, tho’ she is past her Bloom, is still the
Ornament of the Court; and no Person can be more civil than she is to
Foreigners; so that ’tis as much a Pleasure as a Duty to pay one’s Court
to her. When the King is at _Berlin_, and the Queen has no Drawing-Room,
the whole Court repairs to the Margravine’s House, where her Royal
Highness daily keeps an elegant Table; to which she admits the Quality of
both Sexes. She is the Mother of two Princes and a Princess; the Sons are
the Margraves _Frederic_ and _Henry_, and the Daughter is married to the
hereditary Prince of _Wirtemberg_. The young Margrave _Frederic_ resides
at _Schwedt_ upon the _Oder_, where he has a very fine House; but does not
come to Court but when he can’t avoid it. The young Margrave _Henry_
resides commonly at _Berlin_. Both these Princes are handsome, lusty, and
well shap’d.

The Margrave _Albert_, the King’s Uncle[11], lives in his Majesty’s
Palace, tho’ he is eight Months of the Year at _Frederichsfelde_, a
Pleasure-House about a League from _Berlin_. He is the second Son of the
Elector _Frederic-William_, and _Dorothy_ of _Holstein Glucksburg_: He
is well shap’d, has a noble Air, and has been in his time a very good
Dancer: He is fond of Grandeur and Pleasures. At the beginning of the last
War he distinguished himself very much at the Siege of _Keyserswaert_, and
other Places, where he commanded the Troops of the King his Brother. His
Royal Highness is Governor of _Pomerania_, Knight of the Black Eagle, and
Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and of another of Horse, in the King’s
Service: He has also a Regiment of Foot in the Service of the _United
Provinces_; and is Grand Master of the six Commanderies of the Order of
St. _John_ of _Jerusalem_, who, at the Alteration of Religion in the time
of _Luther_, withdrew from the Grand Master of _Malta_, and assum’d to
themselves a Right of chusing a Grand Master under the Protection of the
Elector of _Brandenburgh_. The Margrave marry’d a Princess of _Courland_,
Heiress to the Freeholds of her Uncle Duke _Ferdinand_, the last of her
Family. This Princess, tho’ not reckon’d a Beauty of the first Rate, has a
great Share of Charms and Good-nature, Modesty and Politeness. Their Royal
Highnesses are perfectly civil to those who have Access to them; which is
the reason, that notwithstanding the little Concern they have in Business,
they have always a numerous Court. They have three Princes, and two
Princesses. The eldest of the Sons is _Charles_, a Prince whose Person and
Character are very amiable. The eldest of the Daughters is married to the
Duke of _Saxe-Eysenach_.

The last Prince of the Royal Family, is the Margrave _Christian-Lewis_,
third Son of the Elector _Frederic-William_ by the second Marriage. This
Prince is Governour of the City and County of _Halberstadt_; he has a
Regiment of Foot, is Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, and Commander
of that of St. _John_. He studied at _Leyden_; after which, he serv’d
with distinction in _Italy_. He now lives retir’d from Court at _Malchau_,
a House about a Mile from _Berlin_, which the late King bought of the
Heirs of M. _de Fuchs_, his Minister of State. There the Margrave, who has
a Relish for the Pleasures of private Life, passes his Time in Hunting,
Reading, and every innocent Pleasure that an agreeable Country is capable
of furnishing. This Prince has been a handsome well-made Man; he has a
grand Air, and there’s something heroic in his Physiognomy: In the very
Flower of his Youth he was a constant Admirer of Virtue, and might ever be
quoted for an Example of Sobriety. He is so exceeding fat, that it’s
fear’d he won’t live to be a very old Man[12].

All the Princes of the Royal Family wear the _Prussian_ Order, _viz._ that
of the Black Eagle; and receive it as soon as they are born. ’Tis an
Orange Ribband, to which is appendant a Cross enamel’d with blue,
resembling the Cross of _Malta_. A Star of Silver is embroider’d on the
Coat; and in the middle of it is an Orange Escutcheon, over which is a
black Eagle crown’d with Wings display’d, holding in one of its Talons a
Crown of Laurel, and in the other a Thunder-bolt, with the Motto, SUUM
CUIQUE, in Letters of Gold. This Order was instituted by _Frederic_ I. the
sixth of _January_ 1701, _O. S._ on account of his Coronation at
_Koningsberg_. He call’d it the Order of the Black Eagle, because a Black
Eagle forms the Arms of _Prussia_; and he chose an Orange Ribband, in
memory of the Electress his Mother, who was a Princess of _Orange_; in
Right of whom he pretends to be next Heir to _William_ III. King of
_England_, and Prince of _Orange_.

The Princes of the Royal Family are not exempt from passing thro’ the
Degrees of military Service; and ’tis not here as in other places, where
they have Regiments and Governments as soon as they are born. The King
will have them to know how to obey, before they come to command; and ’tis
an Encouragement to the Officers to find themselves so far honour’d, as to
be on a Par in the Service, with those who are born to be their
Sovereigns. The Prince Royal has a Regiment of Horse[13]. M. _de
Lopel_[14], a Major-General, commanded that Regiment formerly, but the
King preferring him to the Government of _Custrin_, this Regiment has for
Colonel M. _de Wreech_, a Person of a good Family in the new Marquisate.
His Father, who was one of the King’s Lieutenant-Generals, had serv’d the
late Elector _Frederic-William_, the late King, and his present Majesty.
M. _de Wreech_, whom I am speaking of, was, at his return from his
Travels, appointed by the late King a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber: After
that Prince’s Death, his present Majesty enter’d him into his Service, and
gave him a Troop of Horse. This Gentleman distinguished himself greatly in
1708, at the Battle of _Audenarde_; where he was _Aid de Camp_ to the
Marshal _de Natzmer_, then General of the Cavalry: He had a Horse kill’d
under him, and was taken Prisoner; but the Enemy in their Flight not
watching him very strictly, he found means to get off when the Night came
and put an end to the Battle. He lay hid in a Ditch till next day, in
danger every moment of being knock’d on the head by our own Men; but when
the Day broke, he rejoin’d his General, who had received a slight Wound
in the Head. M. _de Wreech_ is one of the richest Subjects the King has;
but he is worthy of his Fortune, and uses it like a Man of Quality. He is
certainly a valuable Gentleman, has a noble Soul, and Sense and Knowledge
enough to capacitate him to serve his King and Country both in Peace and

_Berlin_ is not a City where you ought to look for the most lively
Diversions; the King, to whose Will every body conforms, not being fond of
them himself. Yet when once a Man is known there, he will find Amusement
enough; for the People are affable and civil, make plentiful
Entertainments, and have very good Wine.

When the King is absent, the Queen has a Drawing-Room every Night, from
seven o’clock till ten; when her Majesty sups with the Princes and
Princesses of her Family, and other Persons of Distinction of both Sexes.
But when the King is at _Berlin_, the Queen keeps no Drawing-Room, unless
some Foreign Prince happen to be there. Then there are Assemblies in the
City alternatively, among Persons of the first Rank, at which they
sometimes dance; and the King and Prince Royal frequently honour these
Assemblies with their Presence. When there is no grand Assembly, there are
particular Societies, where they sup, and play at small Game.

The Ministers of most consequence at this Court are Messieurs _d’Ilgen_,
_Grumkau_, and _Kniphausen_[15]; these are they who treat of Foreign
Affairs, and thro’ whose hands pass the Secrets of State: but the King’s
Prime Minister is the King himself, who is inform’d of every thing, and is
desirous to know every thing. He gives great Application to Business, but
does it with extraordinary Ease; and nothing escapes his Penetration, nor
his Memory, which is a very happy one. No body knows better than he where
his Government is strong, and where ’tis weak; and no Sovereign in the
World is of more easy Access, his Subjects being actually permitted to
write to him, without any other Formality than superscribing the Letter,
_To the King_. By writing underneath, _To be deliver’d into his Majesty’s
own Hands_, one may be sure that the King receives and reads it, and that
the next Post he will answer it, either with his own Hand or by his
Secretary: these Answers are short, but peremptory, and they prevent a
tedious painful Attendance. The King, who is an Enemy to vain Pomp and
Pageantry, always goes abroad without any Guards, with only a small
Retinue, and sometimes too walks on foot; he makes his Greatness to
consist in solid Power, in the having his Troops well disciplin’d, his
Places kept up in good Order, his Arsenals well provided, and his Treasury
full enough to enable him to oppose his Enemy in case he be attack’d. He
never aims so much as to disturb his Neighbours, much less to rob them: I
heard him say one day, that _he had no Intention of attacking any body,
nor of beginning a War; but if he was attack’d, he would defend himself
the best he could_: a Conduct which he has religiously observed ever since
he has been plac’d upon the Throne, even towards _Charles_ XII. King of
_Sweden_, notwithstanding what is said of him by a certain Author, who
from sorry Memoirs has wrote that Prince’s Life. But I will not deviate
from my Subject.

There’s no Town in all the King of _Prussia_’s Dominions, except
_Neufchâtel_, where he has not been; no Province which he does not know
full well; not a noble Family but he can tell their Revenues; nor a Court
of Justice but he is well acquainted with their chief Members. His
Behaviour is plain; he knows no Gallantry, and does not easily pardon it
in his Officers. He is so true to his Consort the Queen, that he wishes
all Men would follow his Example, and that every Husband would live only
with the Woman whom God has allotted him. His Diversion is Hunting; and
for this reason, he resides commonly at _Potzdam_ or _Wusterhausen_, which
are Pleasure-Houses four Miles from _Berlin_. Yet he generally goes on
_Saturdays_ into his Capital, where he holds a Council on _Sunday_, and
returns on _Monday_. In the Winter he makes a longer stay at _Berlin_: but
let him be either here or there, he is on the Parade every Day at ten
o’clock, when his Soldiers mount the Guard; after which he gives Audience
to his Ministers, and holds a Council, or goes abroad for the Air. At Noon
the King appears in a great Saloon, where are all the Generals and
Officers, the Foreign Ministers, and all the Court in general: There he
converses a few Moments, and then goes into another Room, where he dines
with the Queen, the Princes and Princesses of his Family, and any other
Persons whom he has caused to be invited. His Table is commonly spread for
eighteen Guests. After he has sate about an Hour and half at Table, he
retires to his Closet till six at Night, when he appears again in the Room
where he held his Levee: There his Majesty gives Orders to the Marshal
_Wartensleben_ Governor of _Berlin_, and to the Marshal _Natzmer_
Commandant of the Gendarmery. After this, he talks a while with those that
are present, and then passes into a Room at some distance from his
Apartment, to which the Queen repairs sometimes with one or two Ladies in
company. There are ten or a dozen Officers whom the King honours with his
Confidence, who play here at _Picquet_, _Ombre_, and _Backgammon_. Here
they also smoak, and to this Place the King sends for such as he has a
mind to talk with about special Affairs. I have been there twice upon
such an account. Here there is no manner of Restraint, but every body sits
down, the King dispensing with all the Respect that is due to him, and at
eleven o’clock he dismisses the Company and retires.

The King hunts when he is at _Potzdam_ and _Wusterhausen_; but in other
respects he leads the same Life there as he does at _Berlin_. At _Potzdam_
he hunts the Stag, having for that end caused a great Forest to be paled
in, where he has made noble Roads.

The Castle at _Potzdam_, which is very convenient, was built by the
Elector _Frederic-William_, who commonly resided at it; and after having
run his glorious Race, died here the 29th of _April_, 1688. King
_Frederic_ I. made considerable Embellishments to it, particularly the
great Gate opening into the main Court of the Castle, which is an
admirable Piece of Architecture that was design’d by M. _Bot_, my Hero for
Buildings. But all that the late King did, does not come up to the Works
that have been added to it of late Years. The Town of _Potzdam_ has been
augmented two Thirds; the Streets are as strait as a Line, with Trees
planted, and Canals cut in them after the manner of _Holland_; the Houses
are uniform and built with Bricks. Besides a great Hospital, which the
King has founded here for his Soldiers’ Orphans, here is a considerable
Fabric for Armourers, who make all those Arms for the Forces and Arsenals,
which were formerly made at _Liege_.

This Town is the Garrison for the first Battalion of those _Tall
Grenadiers_, so much talk’d of in _Europe_. I protest to you that they
exceed the common Report, being the compleatest, the finest, and
best-disciplin’d Body that can be imagin’d. The Men are of all Nations,
there being scarce a Prince in _Europe_ but takes a pleasure in sending
Recruits to it. Some of these Grenadiers have had 1500 Crowns List-Money;
and several receive two Florins _per diem_: Some of them are very rich;
others there are who trade, and have good Houses at _Potzdam_. The tallest
and the best Man among them all was one call’d _Jonas_, (lately dead) who
work’d heretofore in the Mines of _Norway_. The famous _Huguetan_, whom
_Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_ created Count _de Guldenstein_, took him
from the Mines, and presented him to the King. He then stoop’d in the
Shoulders, and hobbled in walking; but by tricking him up, they gave him
that good Air which he wanted.

’Tis certain, there are no Troops in the World where the Peasant sooner
shakes off the clownish Air, and more easily assumes the military one.
This gigantic Regiment has requir’d great Pains, and considerable Sums to
establish it; and I am assured it has cost the King more than six other
Regiments. But ’tis all his Majesty takes delight in; and surely this
Prince cannot but be commended for giving into a Pleasure so noble, and so

Having given you some Account of _Potzdam_, I must also mention
_Charlottenbourg_, another Royal House, a Mile from _Berlin_. This Castle
stands on the _Spree_, so that one may go to it by Water: but the common
Way is thro’ the Park which is at the end of the great Walk from the new

In the late King’s time, whenever he was at _Charlottenbourg_, all the
Road from _Berlin_ to this Palace was lighted by Lanthorns erected on both

_Charlottenbourg_ was formerly call’d _Lutzenbourg_. It was a small
Village belonging to M. _Doberginsky_, Steward of the Houshold to the
Queen, (the King’s Mother.) He had built a trifling House there, and that
Queen taking the Air there one day, lik’d the Situation of the Place so
well, that she bought it, and set about building there; but she died
before all the Works she had undertaken were finished. However, her
Husband King _Frederic_ I. caused them to be carried on, and made
considerable Additions to them; and in order to perpetuate the Queen’s
Name, which was _Sophia-Charlotte_, he caused _Lutzenbourg_ to be called
_Charlottenbourg_. This Castle is one of the most considerable Structures
in _Germany_; the Apartments are grand and splendid, and the Furniture
very rich. There’s a Cabinet adorn’d with the choicest Porcellane, ranged
in such order as is surprising: In another Cabinet there are Lustres, a
Tea-Table with Dishes, a Coffee-Pot, and the whole Equipage in short of
solid Gold. The Chapel is one of the most superb that can be; every side
being adorn’d with Gold and Painting. The Orangery is one of the most
magnificent in _Europe_; not only with regard to the Beauty and Number of
its Trees, but the Greatness of the Building in which they are kept all
the Winter.

I could tell you of several more Houses which the late King had in the
Neighbourhood of _Berlin_; but as they were suffer’d to run to ruin after
he died, I think I had better entertain you with the Characters of the
prime Nobility at this Court.

The Count _de Wartensleben_ is the oldest Marshal. He is by Birth a
_Westphalian_, and pass’d his early days in the Service of _France_. He
was Commander in chief of the Troops of the Duke of _Saxe-Gotha_, when
King _Frederic_ I. called him to his Service. The Count _de Wartemberg_,
who was at that time the Chief Minister, wanted a Person to be at the head
of the Troops, who should be intirely devoted to himself: This was an
Obedience he did not expect to find in the Counts _de Lottum_, _Dhona_,
and _Denhoff_, nor in the other Generals whose long Services and Birth
might make them aspire to this military Dignity. He believed the fittest
Person to be his Tool would be a Foreigner that should be oblig’d to him
for his Fortune: Therefore he caus’d the Marshal’s Batoon to be given to
the Count _de Wartensleben_, who answer’d to a tittle the Intention of the
Minister his Benefactor. ’Tis true, that he never seconded his Revenge,
but neither did he oppose it. He did the Business of his Office, and
meddled not with the Intrigues of the Court. It may be said of him, that
he never deviated from the Path of Equity, and in Justice to him it must
be own’d that he always did good, when it was in his power. Since the
Death of the late King, his Authority and Interest are very much lessened.
Besides, he is too far advanc’d in years to concern himself with almost
any Business at all.

The General whose Power is most rever’d, is the Prince _Leopold_ of
_Anhalt-Dessau_. In consideration of his high Birth, and the Rank of
Sovereign which he holds in the Empire, I ought to have nam’d him first;
only the Count _de Wartensleben_ is the oldest Marshal.

The Prince of _Anhalt_ is Marshal, Governour of the City of _Magdebourg_,
Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.
This Prince, who is a Person of a good Stature and noble Presence, happy
Features and a lively Aspect, was born with all the Qualifications of a
General and a Soldier, being vigilant, laborious, indefatigable, equally
patient of Heat and Cold, Want and Abundance; Brave even to Intrepidity,
and possibly never equalled in this respect, unless we except _Charles_
XII. King of _Sweden_: Being a Man of unexampled Rigour in Military
Discipline, he will be obey’d; but then he rewards his Soldiers when they
do their Duty, and sometimes makes himself familiar with them: A warm and
constant Friend, but an implacable Enemy when he thinks himself not well
us’d; haughty to his Equals, civil and courteous to his Inferiors. In his
Youth, he was a Wine-Bibber, and a Deboshee; but it has been observ’d,
that neither Wine nor Women can detain him, when he is in the pursuit of
Glory. He is a religious Observer of his Promises, and never makes any but
after mature Reflection. He is an Enemy to the Pomp and Constraint of the
Lives of Great Men; an Œconomist, perhaps more than becomes his
Dignity; and is an absolute Master in his Family and his Government,
having poor, but dutiful Subjects, and well-regulated Finances.

The Care of the Prince of _Anhalt_’s Education was committed to M. _de
Chalisac_, a Native of _Guienne_. This Gentleman found an ungovernable
Temper in the young Prince which he had much ado to manage. The Prince
happen’d very early to have a liking for Madamoiselle _de Fohsen_, (whom
he afterwards marry’d) which being not at all pleasing to his Mother, (who
was born Princess of _Orange_) she thought the best way to cure him of his
Fondness for her, would be to send him abroad; and therefore appointed M.
_de Chalisac_ to travel with him to _Italy_, and accordingly they made
that Tour.

_Chalisac_, who was my particular Friend, and whose Memory I honour, told
me that this Prince’s extraordinary Vivacity and Intemperance, had often
made his Heart ake; but that whenever he happen’d to run astray, he was
sure to reclaim him by setting the Motives of Honour and Ambition in his
View. To this purpose he related what happen’d when they were at _Venice_,
viz. that the Prince came home one Morning very much in Liquor, after
having spent the whole Night in a Debauch; and M. _de Chalisac_ reproving
him, perhaps a little too sharply, as the young Prince thought, he ran and
snatch’d up a Pistol, and returning with it to his Governour, said, _You
Dog, I must kill you_. M. _de Chalisac_, without appearing surpriz’d,
looking sternly at the Prince, made him answer; _Shoot me if you think
fit; but think how worthy a Figure you’ll make in History, when it shall
be recorded that a Prince of +Anhalt+, a Prince of a Family that has given
Emperors to +Germany+, murder’d his Tutor_. These Words spoke with an Air
of Authority made such an Impression on the young Prince, that he laid
down his Pistol saying, _You are indeed in the right; I should have
committed a villainous Action_.

The Prince on his Return from _Italy_ to _Dessau_ shew’d that Time and
Absence had not that Effect upon him as they generally have upon Lovers.
He returned as much in love with Madamoiselle _de Fohsen_ as he was at
setting out. He married her in 1698, and soon after, _viz._ in 1701, she
was by the Emperor acknowledged a Princess of the Empire. He has had five
Sons and two Daughters by her, the eldest of whom is dead.

But the Embraces of a tender Spouse cou’d not keep him at home; a Warrior
he was born, and a Warrior he would be. The War being then kindled between
the Emperor and the _French_, the Prince went to serve in the Army on the
_Rhine_, and was present at the taking of _Keiserswaert_. Soon after, King
_Frederic_ I. gave him the Command of 6000 Men, whom he sent to the
Emperor’s Assistance in _Italy_, where he signaliz’d himself in every
Campaign, but especially at the raising of the Siege of _Turin_. The Duke
of _Savoy_, afterwards King of _Sardinia_, with whom the Prince had not a
very good Understanding, doing me the Honour to talk to me about him one
day, said, _The Prince of +Anhalt+ has too much Fire; but when he is
ripen’d by Age, he will be a great General. He was born with the Genius of
a Captain, and he has contributed to save my Crown_.

When a Neutrality was agreed on for _Italy_ between the Emperor, his
Allies, and _France_, the Prince of _Anhalt_ was recall’d, and the King
gave him the Command of his Troops in _Flanders_, where he maintain’d the
Reputation which he had acquir’d in _Italy_, and was continued in his
Command till the Peace of _Utrecht_.

The Obstinacy of _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_ in refusing to hearken to
a Treaty for the Sequestration of _Stetin_, having oblig’d the King of
_Prussia_ to make war upon him, the Prince of _Anhalt_ serving under the
King, who then commanded his Army in Person, had the Honour to defend the
Isle of _Rugen_, against the King of _Sweden_, who came in the Night and
attack’d it with Fury; but the _Swedes_ were repulsed, after having lost a
number of considerable Officers in the Action. Since the Treaty with
_Sweden_, this Prince has had no occasion to signalize his Valour. He
resides commonly at _Dessau_, or at _Magdebourg_; and does not come to
Court but when Affairs call him. He has three Sons in the King’s Service,
of whom the two eldest have Regiments of their own, and the third commands
his Father’s.

The King, who has a great Affection for the Prince of _Anhalt_, makes no
considerable Regulation with regard to his Troops, or in any thing
relating to the War-Office, without his Advice. His Majesty has given him
considerable Tracts of Land in _Prussia_, where ’tis said the Prince is
building not only Villages, but entire Towns.

M. _d’Arnheim_ is the third Marshal. This old Gentleman, who is past
fourscore, learnt the Art of War under two Great Masters, the Elector
_Frederic-William_ of _Brandenbourg_, and _Montecuculi_ the Rival of

The Marshal _de Natzmer_ is an old Soldier also, who has serv’d under
several Commanders with very great Distinction; particularly the Prince
of _Waldeck_, General of the _Dutch_ Forces, the Prince of _Orange_
afterwards King of _England_, and lastly under the Duke of _Marlborough_
and Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_; who had all an Esteem for his Valour and
Military Experience; this Marshal having been in all the Battles which
those Generals fought in the _Netherlands_, and having been always wounded
or had a Horse shot under him.

After having mentioned the chief Commanders of the King’s Forces to you, I
think it incumbent on me to give you an Account of those Persons whose
Credit or Employments have the greatest Influence upon the Government; in
which you will please to excuse me, if I do not follow that Order I have
hitherto observ’d in my Narrative.

The Baron _d’Ilgen_ First Minister of State, was born of an obscure Family
in _Westphalia_. After he had finished his Studies, he commenc’d Secretary
to M. _de Meinders_, Minister of State to the Elector _Frederic-William_,
and to King _Frederic_ I. His Discretion and his Industry soon procur’d
him the Favour of his Master, who put him Governour over his Nephew the
Baron _de Heidekam_. M. _d’Ilgen_ travell’d with the young Baron to
_Holland_, _England_, and _France_, in which Tour they spent two Years. At
his Return to _Berlin_, M. _de Meinders_ enter’d him in Business, and the
Elector _Frederic-William_ dying not long after, he procur’d him the
Office of Secretary to the new Elector. In this Employment he behav’d with
such Circumspection that he is still continued in it, notwithstanding the
many Changes that have happen’d in the Ministry. The Baron _de Fuchs_ one
of the most able Ministers that ever _Germany_ produc’d, being charm’d
with his Genius, gave him such a Recommendation to the late King, that he
preferr’d him to a Seat in the Council, where _Ilgen_ soon found out the
way to make himself necessary. The Count _de Wartemberg_, whose Abilities
were not so great but he stood in need of a Second, being then at the Head
of the Council, consulted in all matters with M. _d’Ilgen_, who, after the
Count _de Wartemberg_ retired, had the Province of Foreign Affairs
committed to him solely, and has kept it ever since.

M. _d’Ilgen_ has both Gaiety and Solidity in his Temper, a lively,
fruitful Imagination, and most pleasing Aspect. He is extremely sober, and
an excellent Œconomist, being as great an Enemy to Pleasure, as he is a
Friend to Riches. He is humble sometimes, even to excess; revengeful,
crafty; a Master of his Temper, his Countenance, his Tongue, and his Eyes,
which he accommodates altogether to the Situation of his Affairs. As by
his Parts he raised himself, so by his Parts he supports himself. He is
the sole Repositary of his own Secrets, having no Confident nor Favourite
to share them. He is so indefatigable, that he composes and writes all
himself, keeping his Secretaries only to copy. In short, he works like a
Day-labourer, and makes the Ministry, as it were, a Handicraft. He speaks
well, but writes better; he affects _double Entendres_ in his Answers, and
artfully has recourse, when he needs it, to an ambiguous Expression. He
has so little scruple, in point of Oaths, that he takes and breaks them
with equal Indifference. He never made himself a Creature, but always
removed and humbled those that ever gave him any Umbrage. That which
heightens his Character, and proves his Genius, is, that he has supported
himself a long time, without Kindred, Friends, or Creatures, and perhaps
without being too much honoured by the Favour of his Master[16].

M. _de Grumkau_ Minister of State, Lieutenant-General of the King’s
Forces, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Orders of St.
_Andrew_ of _Muscovy_, and of the White Eagle of _Poland_, is descended of
an illustrious Family in _Pomerania_. His Father was Grand Marshal of the
Elector _Frederic-William_, and died in that Post, at the beginning of the
late King’s Reign. M. _de Grumkau_ being left a Minor, was sent very young
to _France_, to learn his Exercises, where he acquitted himself with
Diligence, and the Approbation of his Superiors. At his return to
_Berlin_, _Frederic_ I. appointed him Gentleman of his Bed-chamber, and
gave him a Company of Foot. Soon after which, he married Madamoiselle _de
la Chevallerie_, who was Maid of Honour to the Queen _Sophia-Charlotte_.
It was not long before he was advanced; and during the last War he served
as a Brigadier in the Army in the _Netherlands_. At the same time he had
the Care of the King’s Affairs with my Lord Duke of _Marlborough_, and
Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_. His manner of

Behaviour shew’d that he was fit to be employ’d in great Affairs: but the
Count _Wartemberg_, the Favourite, and Prime Minister, being jealous of
his Genius, kept him as much as he could out of any Share in Authority,
and chose rather to prefer him by War, than to employ him in the Ministry.
The Favourites (Messieurs _de Camke_) who succeeded _Wartemberg_,
perceiving M. _de Grumkau_’s superior Abilities, were not more favourable
to him than the Count was. He was preferr’d to be a Major-General at one
of the last Promotions that was made by the late King; and
_Frederic-William_, on his Accession to the Throne, made him
Lieutenant-General, and Minister of State.

M. _de Grumkau_ is good-natur’d, civil, and affable. He has the Manners
and Sentiments of a Man of Quality, as he really is; he is generous,
liberal, loves Splendor and Pleasures, but is not so much addicted to them
as to neglect the Affairs of the Ministry. He is laborious, has a clear
and quick Apprehension; a pleasant, lively, and penetrating Fancy; and is
no Enemy to Satyr, when it does not attack his Neighbour’s Reputation. As
he is of a beneficent Temper, he has Friends, and makes himself Creatures.
Of all the Ministers, he speaks to the King with the greatest Freedom; and
I believe one may safely venture to put him in the Rank of Favourites.

The Baron _de Kniphausen_[17], Minister of State, and Commander of the
Order of St. _John_, is descended of an illustrious Family in
_East-Friesland_. In the late King’s time, his Father was President of the
Chamber, which is properly, Superintendant of the Finances. No Minister
has been employed in more Embassies. He was the King’s Resident in
_Spain_, with _Charles_ III. the present Emperor; he was the same in
_Denmark_, _Muscovy_, and _France_; and every where supported the Dignity
of his Master, and the Honour of his Character. So many Embassies had very
much disconcerted his Affairs; and talking to me one day at _Paris_ about
his Lady, who was the Daughter of M. _d’Ilgen_, ‘I know, _said he_, that
her Rank is not equal to mine, and that I may be reproach’d for having
married her; but I can return the same Answer which they report of the
Count _de Lude_ (Governor to _Gaston_ of _France_, _Lewis_ XIIIth’s
Brother) who, when he was ruin’d like me, married a Tradesman’s Daughter;
_Could I do better_, said he, _when I was persecuted Day and Night by my
Creditors, than to take Refuge in a Shop, rather than be carried to an

M. _de Kniphausen_ has a wonderful natural Genius, and would have every
Talent requisite for a Minister, if he was not quite so averse to Labour;
but being as lazy as his Father-in-Law is laborious, Affairs suffer in his
hands by delay. Not but that he knows how to dispatch them, if he will,
for nobody is more lively nor more vigilant than he, when he sets his
heart upon a thing; but he is naturally indolent, being fond of his Ease
and good Cheer.

The Baron _de Gohren_, who is Director of the Chamber of Finances, and of
the Post-Office, is a Man of a good Family in the Marquisate of
_Brandenburg_. He has not been many years in the Ministry, but has the
Reputation of an upright Man, and one not to be corrupted. He is very
reserved, and a Person of few Words, which gives him an Air that those who
are not conversant with him mistake for Haughtiness.

M. _de Creutz_ has a happy Physiognomy, being a mixture of hard Features
with mild ones, that carry an Air of Probity and Frankness, which of all
external Appearances is undoubtedly the most advantageous. He is polite,
and magnificent; has an extraordinary Vivacity, an admirable Facility of
expressing himself, and an easy, affable, and genteel Behaviour. He never
promises but when he means to perform, and his Word may be safely depended
on. I always found him very sincere, and I cannot help saying, I love him.
_Frederic-William_ called him to his Councils, he having been his
Secretary when he was Prince Royal. His Assiduity and Punctuality in
performing the Duties of his Office, had procured him the King’s Affection
to such a degree that his Majesty continues to honour him with his
Good-will, and gives heed to his Representations[18].

M. _de Creutz_ is one of the richest Subjects in the Country, having had a
very great Estate by his Wife: She has also brought him a Daughter, an
only Child, who is said to have a great deal of Wit; and being a rich
Heiress into the bargain, she will not fail of Suitors.

M. _de Vierec_ is a Man of Quality, and a Native of _Mecklemburg_; his
Father was Counsellor of State to the late King, and his Envoy
Extraordinary in _Denmark_. The Son, of whom I am now writing, quitted the
Service of Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ of _Brunswic-Wolfembuttle_, to be a
Gentleman of the late King’s Bed-chamber. When he came to Court, he had no
Relations there, but he was so happy as to raise himself Friends; for his
modest Air, and his polite and submissive Deportment, gain’d him the
Good-will of the Favourites; and as he lov’d Play, he soon made himself
acquainted with the Court-Ladies, who always gave him their good Word.

In 1711, when the Count _de Dohna_ went as the King’s Ambassador to
_Francfort_, for the Election of an Emperor, he desir’d of the King that
M. _de Vierec_, who was reckon’d the most sober young Man at Court, might
be Marshal of the Embassy, which was perform’d at the King’s Expence. M.
_de Vierec_ acquitted himself so well in that Employment, that he had the
same Post at the Congress of _Utrecht_. He had afterwards, for a while,
the Care of the King’s Affairs at the Court of _France_, when the Duke of
_Orleans_ was Regent; and at his Return from thence, he was employed in
the Regency of _Cleves_; from whence he was called home to better
Preferment, by means of _Gerstorf_, whose Daughter he had married. For
this General’s only Son being killed in _Sicily_, his Majesty, in order to
comfort the Father, whom he lov’d, and who he saw took it very much to
heart, declared M. _de Vierec_ his Son-in-Law, Minister of State. M. _de
Gerstorf_’s Daughter dying afterwards, M. _de Vierec_ thereby came
possessed of a very great Estate, and married again to the Daughter of the
Count _de Finck_, who was formerly the Prince Royal’s Governor.

M. _de Vierec_ is perfectly polite, and altogether as modest now as he was
before he was a Minister; but he is close and reserv’d, mysterious more
than needs must, and jealous. His Circumspection, which extends to the
minutest things, gave him the Air of a Minister, before he had a thought,
perhaps, of ever being one. What with his Kindred, his Estate, and his
Preferment, he is become powerful at Court.

These, Sir, are the Persons of the greatest Consequence at the Court of
_Prussia_, with whom I had a particular Acquaintance. I am not so vain as
to think I have painted them in their true Colours; but such as they
appear’d to be in my eyes, I have represented them to you. Men are not
always the same; nor do they appear in the same light to all that see
them; every Man having his own way of thinking, and few judging solidly.

I have now told you all the Particulars that I know of this Court. What
remains for me is to mention some things to you, which are worth your
seeing, if ever you live to come hither.

Such are the King’s Cabinets of Medals and Antiquities; that of Natural
Curiosities, in which are a great many things not to be seen elsewhere;
the Chymical Laboratory, with its Furnaces and Instruments of a new
Invention; the magnificent Theatre, which the King caused to be built for
Anatomical Demonstrations, with all the Curiosities and Instruments which
are there kept; the Royal Library, one of the most valuable and compleat
in all _Germany_, where, besides scarce Books and Manuscripts, is a very
curious _Chinese_ Printing-Press.

All these things would be worth particularizing; but to do this, a Man
must have a larger Acquaintance here than I pretend to: Besides, my
Relation is already spun to such a length that I believe ’tis time to
conclude it.

I will, however, just acquaint you of a Foundation by the present King, in
favour of the young Gentlemen of his Dominions, which are the Academies of
Cadets, in _Berlin_, _Magdebourg_, and other Towns, where they are taught
the Rudiments of War; so that ’tis a Nursery from whence the King makes a
Draught of good Officers. His Majesty has moreover ordered his Generals of
Foot to take each a young Gentleman, whose Fortune does not happen to be
equal to his Birth, to keep them as Pages, and to make them learn their
Exercises, and every thing that an Officer ought to know. An excellent
Institution this, and a fine Resource for the poor Nobility!

I am preparing to set out forthwith for _Hamburgh_, _Hanover_, and the
Court of _Brunswic_; and after I have made that Tour, you shall have a
second Letter from me. Mean time, I am, _&c._


                               LETTER II.

  _SIR_,                                    _Hamburgh, June 20, 1729._

Nothing gives me greater pleasure, than the Approbation with which you are
pleased to honour the Account I sent you of the Court of _Prussia_; which
I esteem as an infinite Reward for the little trouble it cost me. You must
not imagine that I can ever be weary of writing to you; I can never do any
thing more agreeable to myself, than to contribute to your Amusement; and
shall think myself exceeding happy, if I can succeed.

I set out from _Berlin_ upon the 10th of _June_, and in less than four
Hours came to ORANJEBOURG, a royal Seat, which King _Frederic_ I. caused
to be built, and to which he gave the Name of _Oranjebourg_, to perpetuate
the Memory of his Mother, who was born Princess of _Orange_. This Prince,
great in every Action, spar’d no Cost to render this House worthy of his
magnificent Taste. The Situation of this Place is very charming, in the
midst of fine large Meadows, with Canals cut in them after the manner of
_Holland_. The Apartments of the Palace are grand, tho’ the rich
Furniture it had formerly has been removed to _Berlin_. The present King
not taking a fancy to it, all runs to ruin; the Gardens, which were the
finest in _Germany_, are not kept in order; the great Vessels of
Porcellane; which were not to be match’d in _Europe_, the late King having
procur’d the choicest Rarities of that Ware, that were in the Magazines of
_Holland_; all these fine things, I say, are pass’d into the hands of the
King of _Poland_, at _Dresden_. The Gallery and the Salon of
_Oranjebourg_, which were furnish’d with them, and which were reckoned
among the Beauties of _Germany_, are of no account now but for the
Richness of their Cielings.

From _Oranjebourg_, I went and lay at FERBELLIN, a Town which is only
remarkable for a Victory gain’d here by the Elector _Frederic-William_
over the _Swedes_. The latter enter’d his Dominions, while he was engag’d
with his Army in defence of the Empire then attack’d by the _French_ on
the _Upper Rhine_. The Elector being inform’d of the Invasion of his own
Country by the _Swedes_, came away from the _Rhine_ with his Troops, and
by one of the bravest Marches that ever any General made, deliver’d it
from the Enemy. He surprized them in _Ratenau_, a Town in the Marquisate
of _Brandenbourg_, the Garrison of which he made Prisoners; and then
continuing his March, he came up with the _Swedes_ near _Ferbellin_, at a
time when the latter thought him still upon the _Rhine_, and gain’d a
compleat Victory. A venerable old Gentleman, who was very near the
Elector’s Person at this Battle, told me, that before the Engagement
began, the Prince being at the head of his Army, took out his Pistols,
fir’d them in the Air, and lifting up his Eyes to Heaven, said, _’Tis to
thy Glory, _GREAT GOD_, that I discharge my Arms; defend my Cause, thou
knowest it to be just; punish my Enemies_. Then drawing his Sword, and
turning about to his Soldiers, _My Comrades_, said he, _I desire no other
Defence, nor no other Weapons, but the Protection of God, your Courage,
and my Sword. Follow me therefore, my Friends, do as I do, and be assur’d
of Victory_.

In this Battle, _Forbenius_, the Elector’s Gentleman of the Horse,
perceiving that a white Steed which his Master rode, made his Person a
very plain Mark for his Enemy, so that they had singled him out to fire
at, desir’d the Prince to change Horses with him. The Elector, who had a
great Soul, above all Fear, refus’d at first to do so, but upon the
repeated Instances of _Forbenius_, he consented to it; and the Moment that
the Gentleman mounted the Horse which the Elector quitted, a Cannon-Shot
kill’d him dead upon the Place, so quick, that he expir’d without the
Comfort of knowing that he had thereby preserved the Life of his Master.

_HAMBURGH_, a Hanse-Town in the Circle of Lower _Saxony_, is, without
dispute, one of the richest and most considerable Towns in all the Empire
of _Germany_. It depends solely upon its Magistrates, who are chose by the
Burgers themselves. Its Liberty has been often contested by the Kings of
_Denmark_, who as Dukes of _Holstein_, pretend that _Hamburgh_ is built
upon their Territory, and that therefore they ought to be the Sovereigns
of it. The Electors of _Brandenbourg_, and the Princes of the House of
_Brunswic_, always opposed the Incroachments of the _Danes_; nor will they
suffer any Power whatsoever to oppress the City of _Hamburgh_, because, if
it were possible, they would be glad to annex it to their own Domains. The
City being exposed to these Attacks, has taken all the Measures possible
to be in a condition to defend its Liberty. ’Tis very well fortified,
maintains a good Garrison, and has an Arsenal provided with all

The Commerce of _Hamburgh_ is considerable, tho’ ’tis very much lessen’d
since _Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_, prohibited the Importation of
Merchandize from _Hamburgh_ to his Dominions[19].

The manner of living in this City is different from that of all the Hanse
Towns. Here is a tolerable Opera all the Year round[20]; charming Walks,
choice Company, much Visiting and hearty Cheer. There are several good
Houses of the Nobility, where Foreigners are well receiv’d. The Merchants
are affable and civil; most of them in their youth travel to the most
remarkable Countries of _Europe_, where they then pass for Gentlemen of
_Holstein_. As they are rich, they can easily afford to make a good
Appearance where-ever they come. There they learn that polite Air, and
that Behaviour which one would wish to see in all Gentlemen of good
Families. The only thing for which I find fault with them, is, that they
treat their Wives too much like the _Levant_ People, where the Women are
only suffer’d to go to the Mosques; so here, the Women scarce go any where
but to Church, or if they at any time take the Air, ’tis in company with
their Husbands: and a Foreigner is so seldom admitted to their
Assemblies, that when he is, those poor Women are as much astonish’d at
the sight of him, as a Sultana would be to see a Capuchin enter the

There’s a great many worthy People here. I have made an Acquaintance with
M. _de Brocks_, one of the Magistrates, who has acquir’d a Reputation for
his Skill in Poetry, by such Compositions as cannot but convince
Foreigners, who understand the _High-Dutch_, that as good things may be
said in that Language, as in any other[21]. This M. _de Brocks_ is of an
amiable Character, civil, and complaisant, and has acquir’d the Love and
Esteem of all that know him.

Most of the _European_ Princes have Residents here, for which reason here
are several Chappels of the _Roman_ Catholicks, who otherwise would be
obliged to go to the Church at _Altena_, as the _Calvinists_ are forc’d to
do, the _Lutheran_ being the Religion that is uppermost at _Hamburgh_; but
the _Jews_ have their Synagogues here. What an odd Establishment is this
in a Christian Country![22] how uncharitable, and even nonsensical! and
how must it make the _Turks_ laugh! We grant Synagogues to the _Jews_, the
Enemies of JESUS CHRIST, who would crucify him again, if they had not done
it already; and we refuse Churches and Temples to those that believe as
we do in JESUS CHRIST! No, were you to call me Heretic a thousand times, I
would say, HOLLAND FOR EVER! where ’tis a Maxim, to leave every Man to his
Conscience; and where they think it would be a Contradiction to admit
People to be their Fellow-Citizens, and to deny them the Liberty of
worshipping God in their own way.

The Emperor’s Minister, who has the Title of _His Imperial Majesty’s
Plenipotentiary_ to the Circle of Lower _Saxony_, commonly resides at
_Hamburgh_. The last Gentleman that had this Employment was the Count _de
Metsch_[23]; and since his being made Vice-President of the Emperor’s
_Aulic_ Council, it has not been fill’d up[24].

The Populace of _Hamburgh_, just such another ungovernable Herd as the
_Amsterdam_ Mobs, having taken it into their heads some years ago, out of
a mad sort of Zeal for Religion, to plunder the House and Chapel of the
Emperor’s Resident; the City in order to make Satisfaction for the Insult,
was condemned to build a House which was to be the Residence of the
Emperor’s Minister always for the future. For this end, the City bought
the Palace of the late Baron _de Gortz_, a Man of great Fame in the
History of _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_; and whose Fortune and
Catastrophe are worthy your notice.

_Henry_ Baron _de Gortz_ was born of an independent Family in _Franconia_,
which is a Province that abounds with Nobility of Distinction. He enter’d
young into the Service of the Duke of _Holstein-Schleswic_, and rose to be
his Minister. He was a Man generous, noble, and magnificent, even to
Profusion; vigilant, full of Projects and Stratagems; a Man whom nothing
could surprize, nothing dissuade from a Design that he had once form’d;
whose Ambition was boundless, and who always aim’d to do something to be
talk’d of. In the _North_ there was no Intrigue in which he had not a
hand, and into which he did not likewise draw his Master, whom he push’d
upon Enterprizes so far above his Power to execute, that he thereby lost
his Dominions. The Baron _de Gortz_ thought _Holstein_ too narrow a Sphere
for him to move in, and therefore he attach’d himself to _Charles_ XII.
King of _Sweden_, after that Prince return’d from his long Stay at
_Bender_. _Charles_ was just such a Master as the Baron wanted, and he
just such a Minister as was necessary for the King of _Sweden_; nor was
there ever in the World a greater Sympathy between two Men. _Gortz_ was
born to form great Designs, _Charles_ to put them in execution; and the
constant Design of both was only to throw _Europe_ into a Ferment.

The Baron, besides other happy Gifts of Nature, had the Talent of
insinuating and pleasing. He soon got an Ascendant over _Charles_, to such
a degree that tho’ this Prince was never to be advis’d by his Ministers,
yet the Baron’s Opinion was a Law to him. _Gortz_ frighten’d _Europe_, and
made _Sweden_ tremble; being as much fear’d and dreaded there as the King
himself. The _Swedes_ were uneasy to see so great a Share of Authority
vested in a Foreigner; and therefore form’d Parties and Cabals to strip
him of it; but they durst not discover their Designs. The Minister knew
all the while they envy’d him, but was in no manner of Concern about it;
for being sure of the Favour of the King, he despised the Hatred, both of
the Populace and the Great Men[25].

But after the Death of _Charles_ XII. who was killed at the Siege of
_Frederickshall_, in the Month of _December_, the _Swedes_ did not fail to
punish him; for the Baron, before he cou’d have Intelligence of the King’s
Death, was actually put under an Arrest; and upon that Occasion he said to
the Officer, _Surely the King must be dead!_ From that Moment he was never
once heard to complain or murmur; for he was intrepid even to Death; the
Sentence of which he received with a wonderful Constancy of Mind, chose to
die like a Philosopher, and thought too freely of Religion to the very
last. A Divine, who is now one of the King of _Denmark_’s Chaplains,
turn’d his Heart, and brought him to acknowledge that ’twas the Hand of
God which smote him. He was conducted to the Place of Execution in a
mourning Coach, in which the Chaplain rode with him. He had a long Robe of
black Velvet, ty’d with Ribbands over his Shoulders; and as he was
mounting the Scaffold, which was hung with black Cloth, perceiving one
_Duval_, a _Frenchman_, who was his Steward, he held out his Hand, saying,
_Farewell +Duval+, I shall eat no more of thy Soups_. When he was on the
Scaffold, an Officer of Justice read a Paper to him with a loud Voice; in
which it was declared that he was degraded from the Rank of Nobility, and
that the Queen had order’d him to be beheaded. _Alas!_ said he, _I am born
a free Baron of the Empire. +Sweden+ cannot take from me what it never
gave me; and if I had really deserv’d to be degraded, none has a Right to
do it but the +Emperor+._ Having requir’d one of his Valets de Chambre to
undress him, he deliver’d the Ribband of the Order of the Black Eagle of
_Prussia_ to a Gentleman who stood near him, and enjoin’d him to carry it
to one of his Kindred, that he might return it to the King of _Prussia_.
Then he fell on his Knees, without shewing the least Sign of Fear; and
receiv’d the Stroke of Death with a Constancy of which there are very few
Examples. His Head being exposed to the People, was a pleasing Victim to
their Hatred and Revenge. The Baron’s Corpse was interr’d, at the Place of
Execution, from whence one of his Footmen took it away in the Night-time,
put it into a Barrel, and carry’d it to _Hamburgh_; where it was laid upon
a Bed of State, and bury’d with all the Formalities fitting the Rank which
he had held in the World.

Within a Cannon-Shot of _Hamburgh_, stands the Town of ALTENA, which
belongs to the King of _Denmark_. The _Swedish_ General, _Steinbock_,
reduc’d it to Ashes, the 9th of _January_ 1712, by way of Reprisal, as he
said, because the _Danes_ had burnt _Staden_: but there was this
Difference, that the _Danes_ had besieg’d _Staden_ in form, and destroy’d
it by their Bombs; whereas _Steinbock_ acted the part of an Incendiary. As
soon as he appear’d before _Altena_, he sent in a Message to advise the
Inhabitants to retire with what they could carry off, for that he was
going to destroy their Town. The Magistrates came out in a Body, and
falling at his Feet, begg’d for Mercy, and offer’d him a considerable Sum
of Money. _Steinbock_ insisting on more, they granted him his whole
Demand, only they desir’d Time to go to _Hamburgh_ for the Money. The
merciless General would admit of no such Delay. The poor Inhabitants were
oblig’d to turn out; the Mothers carry’d out their Infants; the young
Fellows, the paralytick old Men; some groan’d under Loads of Furniture;
all lamented their Fate, and uter’d Cries that wou’d have almost pierc’d
a Stone. The _Swedes_ stood at the Barriers, with flaming Torches in their
Hands, to see them pass; and before the poor Inhabitants were all gone
out, they enter’d the Town, and set fire to all parts of it; not sparing
even the Vaults of the Dead.

Never was a greater Desolation known; but what compleated the Ruin of the
_Altenois_, was the Necessity of the Times, which was such as oblig’d the
_Hamburghers_ not to entertain them. Several prejudic’d Authors have said
that the _Hamburghers_, insensible, if not overjoy’d at the Calamity of
their Neighbours, kept their Gates shut, that they might see them perish.
But the truth is, that the _Hamburghers_ were oblig’d to be thus strict;
because the Plague raging at that time in _Holstein_, the Elector of
_Hanover_ had forc’d them to stop all Commerce with that Country;
threatning them, that if he heard they had the least Communication with
_Altena_, he wou’d prohibit his Subjects from all manner of Correspondence
with the City of _Hamburgh_. Besides, it wou’d not have been prudent in
the _Hamburghers_ to have open’d their Gates in the Night-time; for the
_Swedish_ Army being so near, they could not tell but the _Swedes_ might
come into the Town as well as the _Altenois_. To the Misfortune of the
Times therefore must be ascribed the Distress of the Inhabitants of
_Altena_, most of whom perished with Cold, Want, and Despair.

_Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_, being touched with Compassion for the
Misfortune of his Subjects of _Altena_, relieved them as far as the
Necessity of the Times wou’d give him leave. He caus’d them to be supply’d
with Materials for rebuilding their Houses; and now _Altena_ has recovered
her Losses: for the King of _Denmark_ has not only granted it many new
Privileges, but has caus’d a Harbour to be made there; and does all that
is in his power to draw a Trade to it. This City being a privileg’d Place
for Bankrupts, many of that Character come from _Hamburgh_ to settle here;
and there is a general Toleration for those of all Religions, who have
their Churches and Temples here; which draws such numbers of People, that
in time _Altena_ will probably become _Hamburgh_, and _Hamburgh_ _Altena_:
For the _Hamburghers_, on the contrary, will tolerate no Christian Sects;
tho’ they grant the _Jews_ the public Exercise of their Religion, as has
been already observed. The Governour of _Danish Holstein_ resides here,
who is the Count _de Reventlau_, Brother to the[26]Queen of _Denmark_. I
am, _&c._



                              LETTER III.

  _SIR_,                                      _Hanover, July 5, 1729._

This Letter is to acquaint you of some things that I remark’d in the Road
from _Hamburgh_, and in this City itself; where I have now been these
three Days.

I set out from _Hamburgh_ the 22d of _June_, and went by Water to
HARBOURG, having sent my Chaise thither the Day before. This Town is a
Dependant on the Dutchy of _Lunenbourg_, and belongs to the Elector of
_Brunswic-Lunenbourg_. It has nothing very remarkable but its Castle,
which is a Pentagon, lin’d with a good Cover’d-Way. Madamoiselle
_d’Olbreuse_[27], whom the Duke of _Zell_ marry’d, had the Title of Madame
_de Harbourg_, till she was recogniz’d by the Emperor a Princess of the
Empire. For by the Laws of _Germany_, a Prince of a Sovereign Family can
marry none but a Princess, or a Countess. If he weds a private
Gentlewoman, he not only marries below himself, but his Wife does not go
by his Name; and the Children of such Marriage cannot succeed, unless the
Emperor declare the Mother a Princess; as he commonly does in favour of
Princes of antient Families.

Between _Harbourg_ and _Zell_, which is twelve Miles, there is scarce any
thing but Heath. The Post-Stages, which are of four Miles, are very ill
serv’d, and the Inns the worst in _Germany_; all which together render
the Road extremely disagreeable.

ZELL is a little Town with great Suburbs. All its Buildings are of Timber,
except the Churches, the Castle, and the House of Correction, which are of
Brick. There is a Trade from hence to _Bremen_, by the River _Aller_.

After the Death of _George-William_, the last Duke of _Zell_[28], this
City, and its Dependency, the Dutchy of _Lunenbourg_, devolv’d to his
Nephew _George_, Elector of _Brunswic-Hanover_, afterwards King of _Great
Britain_. This Prince had a Regency at _Zell_, which judged all Causes,
without any Appeal but to the Council of State at _Hanover_. The President
of it at this time, is the Baron _de Friesberg_, a Person of a good Family
in the Country of _Hildesheim_; who has been a long time the Elector’s
Envoy at the Diet of _Ratisbon_, where I knew him, and received a world of
Civilities from him. He is esteem’d for the prudent Management of his
Office, and his noble manner of living. There are a great many Persons of
Quality settled at _Zell_, who for a trifling Expence enjoy the Pleasures
of agreeable Society. They visit and regale one another very much, and are
not wanting in Civilities to Foreigners. Monsieur _de Schulenbourgh_[29],
Lieutenant-General of the _Hanoverian_ Horse, and Knight of the
_Prussian_ Order of the Black Eagle, is the Governour of this Town. He is
a Gentleman of good Extraction, of Behaviour, Noble, Polite, and Easy; and
though he is Father of a numerous Family, he affects to live grand, and
keeps a very good Table. One of his Sons is in the Service of _Prussia_,
the others are in that of the King of _England_. I mention them to you,
because they are worthy Gentlemen; and whoever knows them, cannot but
esteem them.

Here are a great many _French_ People, _Catholick_ as well as
_Protestant_, of whom the former have a Chapel, and the latter a Church;
but the Religion which is predominant, is the _Lutheran_. The last
Dutchess of _Zell_, of the Family of _Olbreuse_, being a _French_ Woman,
fill’d her Husband’s Court and Guards with her own Countrymen; who were
even preferr’d before the Natives of _Zell_. I have been told that these
_Frenchmen_ really thought themselves so much at home, that there happen’d
to be one day no less than a dozen of ’em at Dinner at the Duke’s Table,
who all except the Prince were _Frenchmen_; which one of them observing,
said to the Duke, _My Lord, this is really very pleasant; there is no
Foreigner here but you_!

In the Neighbourhood of this Town there’s the Castle of _Ahlen_, where,
(about nine Years ago,) the unfortunate Daughter of the last Duke of
_Zell_, by Madamoiselle _d’Olbreuse_, ended her Days, after she had been
retir’d thither about thirty six Years: She had been promised
in Marriage to _Augustus-William_, the hereditary Prince of
_Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Wolfemhuttle_; but her Father the Duke, by the
Intrigues of the Princess _Sophia_, Dutchess of _Hanover_, marry’d her
against her Will, and against the Consent of her Mother, to the hereditary
Prince _George-Lewis_, who was afterwards King of _Great Britain_, by
Right of his Mother, and who died in the Year 1727, as he came to make
the Tour of his hereditary Dominions. She was sixteen Years old at her
Marriage with that Prince, who was then twenty-two.

Tho’ there’s a good deal of Heath between _Zell_ and _Hanover_, yet the
Country is very well cultivated; for the Inhabitants not only make Turfs
of the Heath for Fewel, but it serves also for Pasturage, and for Manure.
’Tis about five _German_ Miles from one Town to the other, and I travell’d
it in less than five Hours.

HANOVER, the Capital of the Electorate of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_, is bigger
than _Zell_. The River _Leine_ divides it into the old and new Towns,
which are both encompass’d with Ramparts that scarce deserve the Name.
There is nothing very extraordinary in the Palace or Castle, which is
rather commodious than magnificent; and the Town of _Hanover_, generally
speaking, is but ill built. The most remarkable Structure in it, is the
_Roman Catholick_ Church, which was granted to those of that Communion by
_Ernest-Augustus_ of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Hanover_; that being one of the
Conditions which the Emperor _Leopold_ demanded of him when he honour’d
him with the Electoral Dignity. That Prince moreover engag’d to admit of
an Apostolical Vicar in his Dominions, and to give him leave to reside at
_Hanover_, as _Spiga_, who lately died at _Francfort_[30], did for many
Years. Divine Service is perform’d in this Church as regularly as in a
Cathedral; and they who officiate in it are Missionaries. The number of
Catholicks is very considerable; but few Persons of Quality are of that
Communion, the Nobility being all _Lutherans_.

When _George_ I. King of _Great Britain_ left his _German_ Dominions to
take possession of his Kingdom, he was willing that all Affairs at
_Hanover_ shou’d continue on the same footing as they were before he was
called to the Throne; and he left behind him Prince _Frederic_ his
Grandson, now Prince of _Wales_; who not only had a Drawing-Room every
Day, but the same Attendance as had the Elector before he was King.

His Majesty King _George_ II. has made no Alteration in the Establishment
of the King his Father. When he sent for the Prince of _Wales_ to
_England_, he order’d the Courtiers to continue their Assemblies at the
Castle; and that his Table shou’d always be serv’d in the same manner as
if he himself was at _Hanover_. His Majesty keeps up the same number of
Gentlemen, Pages, Domestics, and Guards; and the same number of Horses,
Grooms, &c. in his Stables. There’s a _French_ Comedy acted three times a
Week at the Palace, to which all People are admitted _gratis_; and there
are frequently Concerts, Balls and Assemblies. The Gentlemen who do the
Court-Honours at these Entertainments, and who invite Persons to dine or
sup at the King’s Table, are either M. _de Hardenberg_, the Grand Marshal,
or, in his absence, the Baron _de Gortz_[31], Chief Steward of the
Houshold; or else M. _de Rheden_, Captain of the Castle of _Hanover_.

In the King’s absence, the Government is compos’d of a Council of State,
whereof M. _de Hardenberg_ is Chief or President; which meets every day in
an Apartment of the Castle. To this all the Courts of Justice in the
Dominions of _Hanover_ are subject, and accountable. The Council of State
receives its Orders immediately from the King; and they are counter-signed
either by the Count _de Bothmar_, or by M. _de Hattorf_, the two _German_
Ministers that attend his Majesty’s Person.

The Count _de Bothmar_[32] is an old Gentleman, who for a long time
resided in quality of the Elector’s Envoy at the Court of _England_,
where, by his prudent Management for his Master, he cherished the most
incontestable Right that a Prince can possibly have to a Crown; I mean,
the Voice of the People.

M. _de Hattorf_ is not only the Minister’s Son, but has been his
Co-adjutor, for they had both the War-Office in their Province; for which
reason they were called _Louvois_ and _Barbesieux_, a Comparison which
does no Dishonour either to the one or to the other: for if the two
_Hattorfs_ have not made such a Blaze in the World, ’tis because they had
not a _Lewis_ XIV. for their Master, for they were not inferior to the
_French_ Ministers in Capacity, and Application to Business, and had not
their Pride and Arrogance.

M. _de Munchausen_ is one of those Ministers of State who bears the most
Sway. He is of a Temper beneficent, mild, civil, very candid, sober, and
religious. He lives with Dignity, and his House is as open to Foreigners
as any in the City.

The Marshal Baron _de Bulau_, is Commander in chief of the Forces[33]. He
has no manner of Dependance on the Council of State, and receives his
Orders immediately from the King, by M. _de Hattorf_ the Secretary at War.
The Promotion which the King makes of Officers is by the Recommendation of
M. _de Bulau_; and such as would enter into the Service must make their
Application to him. He serv’d with Distinction in the _Netherlands_, under
my Lord Duke of _Marlborough_. He has actually under his Command 18000
Men, which is the Complement of the King of _Great Britain_’s Forces, as
Elector. His Majesty indeed, keeps in pay 12000 _Hessians_,[34] and 4000
Men of the Troops of _Wolfenbuttle_. ’Tis true, those Forces are paid by
_England_, but to me it seems they are only to defend the King’s Dominions
in _Germany_.

Tho’ the Sovereign is absent, yet here are not wanting Amusements; there
being many good Families, and a number of amiable Persons.

The lovely Countess of _Delitz_, Niece to the Dutchess of _Kendal_, cou’d
not fail of Adorers, even in the most barbarous Countries; for the Charms
of her Mind are not inferior to the Beauty, Sweetness, and Gracefulness of
her Person.

No Lady can have a better Temper or Behaviour than the Baroness _de
Bulau_, Daughter-in-law to the Marshal, and Daughter to the late Countess
of _Platen_: her Husband is a worthy Gentleman, and keeps a very good

The Count _de Platen_, hereditary Post-Master-General, is one of the
richest Subjects in the Electorate, and one that spends the most Money. A
Foreigner will always have cause to speak well of M. _de Rheden_, Captain
of the Castle, and M. _de Wagenheim_, the great Cup-Bearer. Messieurs
_d’Ilten_ live splendidly; and both the Brothers, the eldest of whom is a
Colonel of the Guards, are amiable and infinitely polite. If ever you come
hither, you will certainly have reason to be fond of their Company.

The Situation of _Hanover_ is very agreeable; and in its Neighbourhood are
several pretty Seats. Among these _Herenhausen_ (the House of the _Lord_,
or the _Master_) is a Castle which was built by Order of the Elector
_Ernest-Augustus_, the King’s Grandfather. This House, to which a strait
Walk leads, bears no proportion to the Magnificence of its Gardens, which
are undeniably some of the finest in all _Europe_; being particularly
adorn’d with Water-Works that throw the Water up much higher than the
famous Fountain at _St. Cloud_, which was always look’d upon as the most
considerable of the kind[35].

Between _Hanover_ and _Herenhausen_, there are two fine Seats; of which,
one is call’d _Fantasie_, i. e. _the Whim_; and the other, _Monbrillant_,
or, _Mount-Pleasant_. They were built by two Sisters-in-law, _viz._ Madame
_de Kilmanseck_, (who after her Husband’s Death, was by King _George_ I.
created Countess of _Arlington_) and the Countess of _Platen_. These two
Houses are a Proof of the good Taste of those Ladies, who were really an
Honour to _Germany_, for their Beauty, good Sense, Manners, and Genius.
They both died in their Prime, a little time after one another; my Lady
_Arlington_ in _England_, and the Countess of _Platen_ at _Hanover_, to
which she was not only an Ornament, but a Lustre.

The Dominions of _Hanover_ are so considerable, that I have been assured
the Revenues are no less than six Millions of Crowns _per An._ Whether
this be true, I do not know; but I tell you what I was told myself.

_Hamelen_ upon the _Weser_ is the only Town that can be reckoned a Place
of Defence. _Hanover_, _Zell_, and _Lunenbourg_, have Ramparts;
_Harbourg_, a Castle, or Citadel; but all so inconsiderable, that they are
not worth mentioning.

There are few Sovereigns whose Finances are in so good a Condition as this
Elector’s; which has been the happy Produce of three succeeding Reigns;
and the good Œconomy wherewith they were managed by the three last
Princes of the Electoral Family, has contributed infinitely to the Figure
it makes at this time. Mean-while, notwithstanding these Regulations, the
People were never oppress’d, and the Princes always lived with a Splendor
suitable to their Grandeur. _Ernest-Augustus_ obtained the Electoral
Dignity, not without making great Presents to the Court of _Vienna_, at a
time too when his Power was limited to the Dutchy of _Hanover_, and the
Bishoprick of _Osnabrug_. Tho’ this Prince had a numerous Family to
provide for, he lived with Splendor, was fond of Magnificence and
Pleasures, gallant, generous, and liberal; and when he died, he left no
Debts to pay, and his Finances were in a good State.

GEORGE I. his Son and Successor kept up a considerable Body of Troops, and
had a very splendid Court. As his Acquisitions were great, he distributed
his Favours where-ever he was inform’d there was a Necessity; and when he
came to the Throne, he made no Reform in this Court; so that their not
seeing him was the only Token of his Absence. At his Death, he left
immense Sums in his Treasury, and so glorious a Character, that his
Subjects still bless the Memory of his Reign.

GEORGE II. his Son, and the Heir of his Crown, his Dominions, and Virtues,
behaves in the very same manner. While he lives and acts like a King, he
neither gives, on the one hand, into the Extravagance of vain Pomp and
Pageantry, nor on the other, into that sordid Thriftiness which debases
Royal Majesty, and extinguishes the Love of Subjects. He accumulates
Treasure without oppressing his People, who love him, and offer up their
Prayers for him, as I do for your Preservation; and

                                                             _Am_, &c.


                               LETTER IV.

  _SIR_,                               _Blanckenbourg, July 30, 1729._

I was six Hours travelling from _Hanover_ to BRUNSWIC, the Capital of the
Dutchy of that Name, which is a very great City, with Houses for the most
part of Timber. It was formerly a Free and Imperial City, and one of the
_Hanse_-Towns; but falling under the Sovereignty of the Princes of the
House of _Brunswic_, they reduced it to a level with the other Towns of
their Dominions. It belongs to the Duke of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg
Wolfembuttle_. The Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ began to fortify it; and his Son
_Augustus-William_, the present Duke[36], perfected what remained
unfinished at his Father’s Death, and made _Brunswic_ a Place which cannot
be besieged without a numerous Army: But then on the other hand, it would
require such an Army to garison it as the Duke could not furnish without
the help of his Neighbours, and which besides, wou’d not perhaps be
extraordinary convenient for him to introduce. The said Duke has caused a
new Palace to be built, which is large and magnificent, and the Furniture
is rich, new, and excellently well chosen. Among the rest, there are very
fine Pictures, and a Cabinet full of Curiosities.

The Duke of _Blanckenbourg_, Brother to the Duke of _Wolfembuttle_, has a
particular Palace, where he resides in the Fair-time, but it did not
appear to me to be a House of any consequence.

The Fairs of _Brunswic_ contribute very much to make it a rich and famous
City, there being two held every Year, and a considerable Trade carried on
at both.

There is very good Diversion during these Fairs; for then all the Ducal
Family is generally at _Brunswic_; to which foreign Princes come often,
and there is always a great Concourse of the Nobility. The Duke sends
every Morning to invite the Quality of both Sexes, who at Noon repair to
the Palace. The Grand Marshal, for avoiding all Disputes about Precedency,
causes the Ladies to be match’d with the Gentlemen by the drawing of
Tickets; and sometimes it happens that a Dutchess is at the lower end of
the Table, which is served with very great Magnificence and Elegance. When
there are too many Guests to sit at one Table, the two Brothers keep each
a separate Table at his own Palace. At Night, the Company repairs to the
_German_ Opera, which being ended, they pass into Rooms joining to the
Theatre where they play, and sup, and then dance. The Ball is open’d by
the Gentleman who happened to draw the first Number in the Morning, and
continues till Day-break.

The Ducal Family of _Brunswic-Wolfembuttle_ consists now but of two
Brothers; the eldest of whom, the Duke[37] _Augustus-William_, has had
three Wives, but no Issue. He is married to a Princess of

These two Princes are so far advanced in Years, that the Duke
_Ferdinand-Albert_ of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Bevern_, Son-in-law to the Duke
of _Blanckenbourg_[38], is looked upon as their presumptive Heir. _Europe_
produces few Princes of more distinguished Merit, who have equal
Knowledge, more Learning, and Integrity, or more Valour and Experience in
War. He has acquired a noble Reputation in _Hungary_; and he is not only a
Brother-in-law to the Emperor, but one of his favourite Generals, and has
a Regiment in his Service[39].

His Family consists of four Sons and three Daughters[40] by his Wife
_Antonietta-Amelia_ of _Brunswic-Blanckenbourg_. These are very hopeful
young Princes. The eldest, whose Name is _Charles_[41], is of a lovely
Make, and has Sense infinitely beyond his Years. The eldest Princess,
_Elizabeth-Christina_[42], at twelve Years of Age may pass for one that is
compleatly grown; her Air is noble and modest; her Features regular; in a
word, she is form’d to make that Prince happy who is one day to be her

The Court of _Wolfembuttle_ is numerous, and when assembled does not want
for Magnificence.

The Ministers of most Power are the Baron _Stein_[43], and the Count _de
Debn_[44]. The former is descended of an illustrious Family in _Swabia_:
He was in the Service of the Landgrave of _Darmstadt_, and his Envoy at
the Dyet of _Ratisbon_, and several Courts, where he made himself
considerable by his Eloquence, the Justness of his Sentiments, by the Ease
with which he expresses them, and by his Politeness.

The Count _de Dehn_ is a Native of _Mecklemburg_, where he was born of a
good Family, and enter’d very young a Page to Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ of
_Brunswic-Wolfembuttle_. He had the Happiness to please that Prince, but
much more his Successor, the Duke _Augustus-William_, who of his Page,
made him his Favourite and Minister, heaped Wealth and Honours upon him,
and match’d him to the Daughter of his Chancellor, who was one of the
richest Heiresses in all _Germany_.

The young Minister finding himself rich and powerful, quickly thought the
Court of _Wolfembuttle_ too narrow a Stage for Action. He had chose the
Count _de Fleming_, Prime Minister of the King of _Poland_, for a Model.
He saw that this Minister, under pretence of important Negotiations, went
to the chief Courts of the Empire to make a Parade of his Riches; and
young _Dehn_ long’d with Impatience to imitate him. He procur’d himself to
be nominated the Duke’s Envoy Extraordinary to _Holland_ and _France_,
where he vy’d in every respect with the Ambassadors of the chief Crowns.
In fine, after having staid about eighteen Months at _Paris_, he went away
very much lamented by the Merchants and Workmen with whom he had dealings.
He came to _Wolfembuttle_ to receive the Applauses of his Master, and to
rest himself after the Fatigues he had undergone in his important

As Count _Fleming_ was honoured with the Orders of _Denmark_, _Russia_,
and _Poland_, his Rival too thought he could not do without one Ribbon at
least; and thinking the Order of _Dannebrock_ the most proper for him,
because it was white, he demanded and obtained it of _Frederic_ IV. the
King of _Denmark_. When he saw himself thus adorn’d, he procured himself
to be sent to _Vienna_. What business he had there, I know not; but he was
scarce ever from the Emperor, and in order to be nearer to his Person, he
lodged just by the Palace of the _Favorita_. He often relieved the Cares
of the Ministry by making some Entertainment or Ball. He had an admirable
Genius for Dancing, so that every body thought him the Inventor of
Country-Dances. The Emperor gave him the Title of a Count, with which he
returned to his own Court.

When Glory has once fir’d a noble Soul, nothing can keep it within Bounds.
The Count _de Dehn_ had lost his first Wife, who left him the Heir of
three great Estates; and he married again to an amiable Lady, who return’d
him Love for Love. Tho’ he was dear to his Master, yet he could not
resolve to continue at _Wolfembuttle_, because he had a Taste for nothing
but Treaties and Negotiations. He returned a second time, as Envoy
Extraordinary to the _States-General_, but did not stay long at the
_Hague_; for after having had his publick Audience, wherein he assured
their High-Mightinesses of the sincere Affection of his Master for their
Republic, and of his own personal Joy to find himself seated in an
Arm-Chair in their Assembly, he went over to _England_ to reside at the
Court of his _Britannic_ Majesty. He was admired for his Grandeur, as much
in _England_ as elsewhere; but the Air of that Country not agreeing with
the Delicacy of his Constitution, he return’d to _Germany_; and, after
having made a tour to the chief Courts of the Empire, he is come back to
_Wolfembuttle_, where he stays in expectation that some great Event or
other will turn up, that he may be employ’d in some remarkable Embassy,
whereby _Europe_, attentive to every thing that relates to him, may have
fresh Proofs of his great Talents.

The Baron _de Hagen_ is Commander in Chief of the Duke’s Troops, which
actually amount to above 4000 Men, and ’tis said, that his Highness’s
Revenues exceed two Millions of Crowns. His Subjects are not the worst
used of any in _Germany_. ’Tis a good fruitful Country; the Peasants, who
are sober and laborious, are as clownish and as stupid as those that herd
with the Hogs in _Westphalia_; but they are robust, strong, and good

In _Brunswic_ there is a Catholick Church which is small, but neat. The
Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ caus’d it to be built at the time he embraced the
Catholick Religion; which he did, after full Conviction, not many Years
before his Death.

_Saltzdahl_, a Pleasure-House belonging to the Duke, is a League from
_Brunswic_, and from _Wolfembuttle_. It was built by Duke _Anthony-Ulric_,
one of the most magnificent Princes of his Time, and one who had the most
elegant Taste. This House is worthy of nice Observation. It has a great
Gallery with a Collection of Pictures in it by the chief Painters, which
is not to be met with elsewhere. In one great Cabinet there is very fine
Porcellane; and in another, a vast number of Vessels and Urns painted by
_Raphael_. In short, the Curious can’t want here for Entertainment.

The Road from _Brunswic_ to WOLFEMBUTTLE is as pleasant as most Roads. We
cross a little Wood through which there are several Routes cut, and as we
come near the Town, several pretty Seats appear in view.

The Town of _Wolfembuttle_ is not half so big as _Brunswic_, nor is it
better built, the Houses being of Timber. The Fortifications seem to me to
be in good Repair. The Castle, or Ducal Palace, is ancient, and makes no
great Appearance, but ’tis commodious, and has good Lodging-Rooms. That
which most deserves the Attention of a Traveller, is the Library, which is
one of the best chosen in _Europe_, and contains very scarce Books and

As I had left the Court at _Brunswic_ I did not stay many Hours at
_Wolfembuttle_, but came to lie here at BLANCKENBOURG, where I have all
that Heart can wish for.

The Duke is as affable and as civil a Prince as any in the World. In his
Youth he visited the principal Courts of _Europe_, where he contracted a
great Politeness, and a solid Taste of Elegancy. He loves the _Belles
Lettres_, protects the Arts and Sciences, and looks out for Men of Ability
to serve him. He is magnificent, generous, a good Prince, and a kind
Master. He was at one and the same time, the Father of an Empress, and the
Grandfather of an Emperor. As a Father, he has a considerable Pension from
the Emperor of _Germany_; and as a Grandfather, he has been honour’d with
the Order of St. _Andrew_ of _Muscovy_, founded by _Peter_ the Great,
which is a blue Ribbon, with St. _Andrew_’s Cross appendant to it
enamell’d with blue. This Prince is also a Commander of _Suplenbourg_, a
Commandery of the Order of St. _John_, annexed to the House of _Brunswic_.
He has had three Daughters by his Wife _Elizabeth-Christina_ of

The Dutchess, tho’ advanc’d in Years, retains an Air of Grandeur and
Majesty which strikes the Beholders, and her Features discover the Marks
of that shining Beauty which she had in her Youth. But what renders this
Princess more venerable than even her Birth, is her solid Piety, her just
Discernment, her lively Imagination, her noble and easy manner of
expressing herself, and her Principles of Humanity, accompany’d with a
Generosity free from all Ostentation.

I had the honour to pay my Duty to her at _Brunswic_, some Years ago, when
she receiv’d me with such Tokens of Goodness as rejoic’d my very Heart;
and upon all Occasions since, she has been pleas’d to give me fresh Proofs
of it. As I can be of no service to this Princess in any Case, nor so
happy as to be able to contribute to her Glory, ’tis my Ambition to make
every one, and you, Sir, in particular, sensible of the Respect and
Attachment with which I am devoted to her, and of the grateful Sense I
have of the Benevolence with which she has honour’d me.

The Courtiers of _Blanckenbourg_ are, like their Master, very polite. M.
_de Munchausen_ is the chief of the Duke’s Council, and was formerly in
the Service of the Duke of _Wolfembuttle_. He is a Gentleman of great
Learning, Labour, and Vigilance, and has a distinct and noble Manner of
Delivery. He is heartily attach’d to his Master; and the Courtiers seem’d
to me to have an Esteem and Affection for him. Men of solid Judgment, and
who have been more conversant with this Minister than I, have assured me
that he is one of the greatest Genius’s at this present, in _Germany_[45].

M. _de Sporck_ is the Grand Marshal, which Employment he acquits himself
in with very great Politeness and Care. He is come of a good Family, his
Father being Minister of State, and Director of the Dutchies of _Zell_
and _Lunenbourg_. M. _de Polentz_[46] does the Honours of the Court under
him, in quality of Great Cup-Bearer. As he had his Education at Court, he
is vastly polite; and Foreigners cannot but be pleas’d with his good

The Duke and Dutchess delight to see Foreigners at their Court, whom they
load with Civilities, and will have them always to dine and sup with their
Highnesses. After Dinner, they take the Air, or make Visits; and in the
Evening there’s an Assembly in the Dutchess’s Apartment, where they play,
then sup, and afterwards every one retires. We have had a Comedy twice or
thrice, which is acted by the young People of the Family, who perform
their Parts very well; especially in the Tragedies of _Corneille_ and
_Racine_, translated into _High-Dutch_.

The Pleasures of the Carnival are more gay, at which time the Duke makes
Entertainments: There’s a Ball, a Masquerade, and Comedy at Court, every
Day; and for the time there’s so great a Concourse of Strangers here from
the neighbouring Towns, that sometimes ’tis impossible to get a Lodging.

The Town of BLANCKENBOURG is small, and the Houses ill built, and
inconvenient. The Duke has done all in his power to engage the Inhabitants
to build; he has offer’d them Materials _gratis_, and has moreover
endeavour’d to inspire them with a Taste for the Arts; but all without

I never in my whole Life, saw People more indolent and clownish than those
of _Blanckenbourg_, and the neighbouring Towns. They are so bigotted to
old Customs, that they say, _My Father liv’d so, and so will I; My Father
did not do this, nor will I_. I cannot conceive how People, so dull as
they are, and so strongly attach’d to the Institutions of their
Forefathers, came to give into _Luther_’s Reformation.[47]

_Blanckenbourg_ is a petty County, which Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ yielded in
his Life-time to his second Son, to make him some sort of Compensation for
the Right of Primogeniture, which he had newly introduc’d into his Family,
to that Son’s prejudice: For the Princes of _Brunswic_ had for a long time
been us’d to a Partition of Lands in their Families. The _Hanover_ Branch
was the first that abolish’d that Custom, pernicious to great Families.
Duke _Anthony-Ulric_ was only restrain’d from it by Pr. _Lewis_ his second
Son, whom he lov’d more than his eldest; and not caring to leave him
without Dominions, to the Discretion of a Brother, he gave him Possession
of this State in his Life-time; because he was of Opinion, that after his
Death, his Will wou’d have the Fate of not being executed by his
Successor, according to the Custom introduc’d among Sovereigns. With them
’tis a Right of Regale, but for us to do so, is a Crime.

As the County of _Blanckenbourg_ does not give Admittance into the College
of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire, so it does not give the Rank of a
Sovereign Prince to the Person in possession of it. The Duke, in order to
procure himself both these Privileges, made a Treaty with the Elector of
_Hanover_, whereby he got that Prince to yield him the Vote and Seat which
he enjoy’d in the Dyet for his Dutchy of _Grubenhagen_: And the Duke, on
his part, engaged never to vote at the Dyet but in conformity to the
Sentiments of the Elector. After his Decease, or if he happens to succeed
his Brother, the Vote and Session for _Grubenhagen_ revert to the

This, Sir, is all that I can say to you at present. Their Highnesses being
to set out in a few days for _Oetingen_, where they use to go every
Summer, I propose to go forthwith to _Leipsic_ and _Dresden_: And at the
latter Place I hope to hear from you.

                                                           I am, _&c._


                               LETTER V.

  _SIR_,                                   _Dresden, August 30, 1729._

From _Blanckenbourg_ we have till’d Lands, and fruitful Fields; with Woods
of Oak interspers’d all the way, till we come to MAGDEBOURG, the Capital
of a Dutchy of that Name, formerly an Archbishoprick, but secularised at
the Treaty of _Westphalia_, in favour of the House of _Brandenbourg_, to
whom that Dutchy was yielded in exchange for their resigning Hither
_Pomerania_ to _Sweden_. This City has for these two Centuries past,
suffer’d very much. It was besieg’d by the Emperor _Charles_ V. who
squeez’d considerable Sums from it. But it fared worse in that unhappy War
which divided _Germany_ during the space of 30 Years; for the Counts _de
Tilly_ and _Papenheim_ commanding the Imperial Army in 1631, took it by
Storm, put the Inhabitants to the Sword, and reduc’d the whole City almost
to Ashes. Nevertheless, ’tis since pretty well recover’d, and has some
fine Houses. The great Square before the King’s Palace has few equal to it
for its Extent, and for the fine Houses that encompass it, which are all
uniform, three Stories high, and were all raised in this Reign. In this
same Square there’s an Arsenal, which really is not so magnificent as that
of _Berlin_, but may be rank’d among the chief Arsenals in _Europe_. This
is a populous Town, and has a more flourishing Trade than any other City
in the King of _Prussia_’s Dominions.

The great Church, which was formerly the Metropolitan, is ancient, and one
of the largest and most magnificent Buildings in _Germany_. It has still
some Reliques to shew, particularly the Basin in which _Pilate_ washed his
Hands, after having pass’d Sentence of Death upon our Saviour; the
Lanthorn[49] which _Judas_ made use of when he went to apprehend him; a
Thorn of the Crown that was planted on his Head: and things of the like

The Chapter of _Magdebourg_ is still, bating the change of Religion, on
the same footing as before the Reformation. The Canons must all make Proof
of their Nobility; tho’ ’tis a _Punctilio_ with which the King, who
confers all the Prebends and Dignities of the Chapter, sometimes
dispenses. The present Provost is the Duke of _Saxe-Barbi_, who succeeded
his Father in that Dignity, which brings him in 12000 Crowns a-year. He
lives in a fine House on the great Square, fronting the Palace, built by
the Order of King _Frederic_ I. who also caus’d a Citadel to be erected
here, on the other side of the _Elbe_, over which there is a Bridge. That
King began likewise to fortify the Town; and King _Frederic-William_, who
carried on, and finish’d the Fortifications, has now made _Magdebourg_ one
of the most important Places in _Europe_. M. _de Walrave_, Chief Engineer,
had the Direction of those Works, which are a Proof of his great Ability.

The Margrave _Albert_ of _Brandenbourg_[50], Brother to the late King
_Frederic_ I. is Governour of the Dutchy of _Magdebourg_; as is the Prince
of _Anhalt-Dessau_ of the Town, where he has a numerous Garrison under his
command. The Arsenal, which is a fine Structure, and full of Cannon, and
small Arms, is worth seeing.

The King of _Prussia_ having it much at heart to render _Magdebourg_ a
flourishing Town, has transferr’d the Regency of the Dutchy hither, which
was heretofore at _Halle_; and for this reason there are several good
Houses in the Town. The Dutchy of _Magdebourg_ is one of the best
Provinces in the _Prussian_ Dominions. It has a great Income from the
_Elbe_, and the Salt-Works. The Catholicks are allowed a Toleration of
their Religion in the Dutchy, and have Churches in the Town.

The Roads from _Magdebourg_ to _Leipsic_, are so bad at this time, by
reason of the Rains that have fallen for some Days past, that I have been
three Days in getting from the one Town to the other. Indeed I went some
Leagues out of my way, on purpose to see BARBI and COHTEN. The first of
these Towns belongs to a Prince of the House of _Saxony_, of the Branch
of _Weissenfeld_; and has nothing considerable but the Prince’s Palace,
which makes a good appearance, and has commodious Apartments, elegantly
furnished. There is a Salon, and a Closet, the Cielings of which are
painted by _Peine_, and not the worst things he has done. The Palace has
Gardens delightfully situate by the side of the _Elbe_. The Duke _de
Barbi_ is the only Prince of the House of _Saxony_ who professes the
_Calvinist_ Religion, in which he was educated by his Father, who was at
first a _Lutheran_. This Prince is a comely handsome young Man. He married
_N---- de Wirtemberg-Oels_[51], but has no Children. He has been in the
Service of _Prussia_, and is Grand Provost of the Chapter of _Magdebourg_,
and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle of _Poland_.

COHTEN, which is bigger than _Barbi_ by one half, belongs to a Prince of
_Anhalt_[52]; the only one of his Branch, tho’ he has had two Wives. I
desired leave to kiss his Hand; but he excused himself by pretending an
Indisposition. I have observed that petty Princes are always more
difficult of Access than great ones. The Town has no Fortifications; and I
walk’d about a good while to see if there was any thing remarkable, but
’twas to no purpose; and I was oblig’d to confine myself to my Inn, which
was one of the worst in _Europe_.

LEIPSIC stands in a fruitful Plain. This City, so famous for its Fairs,
and for its University, may justly pass for the Jewel of the Electorate
of _Saxony_; not only for the Beauty of its Structures, but for the
considerable Revenue which it yields to its Sovereign, the King of
_Poland_. ’Tis small, and fac’d with Ramparts, and a Ditch; but all these
Fortifications are of little consequence. Its Castle, or rather Citadel,
which joins to the Town, is a Place of greater Importance. There is always
a good Garrison and Governour in it, who is at present General
_Baumgarten_. As the Castle passes under the Denomination of the King’s
House, the _Roman_ Catholicks have had a Chapel there ever since
_Augustus_ II. embraced their Religion.

The Suburbs of _Leipsic_ are very large. The City has four Gates newly
built of Free-Stone, which are magnificent, tho’ not according to the
Rules of Architecture.

At each Gate they have newly set up a Mile-Post, such as the _Romans_ had
formerly. There are the like Posts at the Gates of all the Towns, and even
at the Villages in the Electorate of _Saxony_. From hence they count the
Leagues, which are divided at the end of every Quarter of a Mile, by other
Posts not so big, upon all the great Roads, shewing the Distances of the
Places, and of the chief Towns; which is a mighty Convenience to
Travellers, who were heretofore often impos’d upon by the Post-Masters, as
to the Length of the Roads.

The Houses of _Leipsic_ are large, very high, and substantially built of
Free-Stone; and their being adorn’d with great fine Windows helps to set
them off to the Eye. The Ground-Floors of most of the Houses are
Warehouses, in which the foreign Merchants store the Goods they sell at
the Fairs, which are three in number every Year, _viz._ at
_New-Year’s-day_, _Easter_, and _Michaelmass_. The Concourse of Foreigners
here at the Fair-Season, is so great that ’tis often a hard matter to get
a Lodging here for Love or Money. I myself saw in 1709, at the
_New-year’s_ Fair, the late King of _Prussia_, the King and Queen of
_Poland_, and 44 Princes or Princesses of Sovereign Families. The two
Kings and the Queen lodged at the House of _Appel_, a Merchant; where the
King of _Poland_ always resides when he comes to _Leipsic_.

The University, formerly so famous, is very much decay’d: That of _Halle_,
its Neighbour, and its Rival, in the King of _Prussia_’s Dominions, takes
away a great many Students from it. They say that for some time past there
have been more able Professors at _Halle_, where besides ’tis much cheaper
living than at _Leipsic_; and where the Students are not such
Spendthrifts, nor so much addicted to Expence and Gallantry.

The Gardens of Messieurs _Appel_ and _Pose_, Merchants, in the Suburbs,
are worth seeing. The first is large and magnificent: In the second are
very uncommon Plants, cultivated with very great Care. The Gardeners of
_Leipsic_, who are reckon’d the best in all _Germany_, value themselves
upon forcing Nature; so that I have seen here, at _Easter_ Fair, the
Fruits, Flowers, and Pulse, of all the Seasons. The Asparagus here is
delicious, and extraordinary large. Another Nicety at _Leipsic_, is its
Larks, which are sent over all _Germany_; nay, to _Poland_, _Holland_ and
_Denmark_. I was assured, but I will not vouch for the Truth of it, that
the very Custom-Duty paid for Larks at _Leipsic_, amounted to 12000 Crowns
a-year; which Sum I thought the more considerable, because I think I have
heard it said, that 60 Larks pay but a Grosh[53] the Duty; judge then how
many there must be to make up the Sum of 12000 Crowns. But be it true or
false, ’tis certain that there is not a Country in the World where these
Birds are taken in such quantities; for, from _Michaelmass_ to
_Martinmass_, the Fields are cover’d with ’em.

Another Singularity is the multitude of Nightingales, in the Woods near
_Leipsic_; whereof they take great numbers, and keep them in Cages: The
Innkeeper’s Daughter, where I lodged, had seven of them; and I have seen a
great many at other Houses.

’Tis surprizing that so plentiful a Country as _Saxony_ shou’d have no
better Ordinarys. I don’t mean _Leipsic_ and _Dresden_, where, considering
one is in _Germany_, we come off pretty well; tho’ were it so in
_Holland_, the _Netherlands_, or in _France_, we shou’d not think
ourselves well us’d. I mean the little Towns and Villages in a Road so
frequented as that from _Leipsic_ to _Dresden_. There’s Provision to be
had at these Ordinarys, but then ’tis so ill dress’d, and the Houses so
nasty, that ’tis enough to turn one’s Stomach.

Setting out from _Leipsic_, at the opening of the Gates, I came betimes to
WERMSTORF, or HUBERTSBOURG, (St. _Hubert_’s Palace,) a magnificent
Hunting-Seat, which the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_ is building at the
Entrance of a Forest, where there are several Roads cut. This House is
five Miles from _Leipsic_, and eight from _Dresden_; and when ’tis
finish’d, will be large and magnificent: Men are hard at work upon it, and
the main Body of it is already compleated. Their Royal Highnesses, the
Prince and Princess, generally hunt here at Spring and Autumn. The
Equipage for the Stag-hunting is very fine, the Liveries being Yellow,
with Facings of blue Velvet, and Silver Lace at all the Seams.

After I had walk’d an Hour or two at _Hubertsbourg_, I proceeded on my
Journey, and came to Dinner at MEISSEN, the Capital of _Misnia_. This City
has nothing particular, besides its Manufacture of Porcellane, which is
so finely painted and enamell’d with Gold, that it is more beautiful than
the Porcellane of _Japan_, and much dearer. The Invention of it is owing
to an Alchymist, or one that pretended to be such; who had persuaded a
great many People he cou’d make Gold. The King of _Poland_ believ’d it as
well as others, and to make sure of his Person, caus’d him to be committed
to the Castle of _Konigstein_, three Miles from _Dresden_. There, instead
of making Gold, that solid precious Metal, which puts Mankind on
committing so many Follies, he invented Brittle Porcellane; by which, in
one Sense, he made Gold, because the great Vent of that Ware brings a deal
of Money into the Country.

After having pass’d the _Elbe_, over a wooden Bridge, going out of
_Meissen_, I came in less than three Hours to DRESDEN, the Capital of the
Electorate of _Saxony_. The City is pretty large, fortify’d with Art and
Regularity; and very lightsome. Its Houses are high and substantial, the
Streets broad, strait, well pav’d, neat, and in the Night-time well
lighted. There are great Squares in it; and the whole City is so well laid
out, that _Dresden_ may be rank’d among the finest in the World.

The _Elbe_ divides it into two Parts; which are distinguished by Old and
New _Dresden_, and join’d together by a Bridge of Stone.

In order to give you a more perfect Idea of this City, I shall point out
to you such things as I took most notice of. I shall begin with Old
_Dresden_, which is the first that we come to from _Meissen_. At the
Entrance of the Town, on the right hand, there is a great House, called
the Palace of the _Indies_, or _Holland_ House, which the King bought some
Years ago of his Prime Minister, the Marshal Count _de Fleming_. All the
Rooms of this Palace, which consists of three Stories, are so many
Closets of _Japan_ and _China_ Wares. I don’t believe that all the
Warehouses in _Amsterdam_ put together, are capable of furnishing such a
quantity of uncommon old Porcellane, as is to be found here. The value of
it is computed at a Million of Crowns. The very Houshold-Goods are
_Indian_. There is one Set of Furniture, the like of which I never saw
elsewhere: It consists of Feathers of various Colours, and all natural;
inlaid with so much Art, that it might be taken for a fine flower’d

This magnificent Palace has a Garden belonging to it, which looks towards
the _Elbe_. It is adorn’d with Statues of white Marble, which the King
caus’d to be purchas’d at _Rome_, of the Cardinals _Annibal_ and
_Alexander Albani_, Nephews to _Clement_ XI. These Statues are much more
priz’d here than they were at _Rome_.

Near the Palace of the _Indies_ stands that of the Cadets; a magnificent
Structure built by the States of _Saxony_, for maintaining two Companies
of Cadets, all Gentlemen of the Country; who are there instructed in all
the Sciences fitting for Persons of Quality.

Farther up in the same Street, there is an Amphitheatre, or Area, for the
Battles of wild Beasts; of which a great number is kept for that purpose.
Here are Lions, Tigers, Bears; in short, all the fiercest Animals from the
four Quarters of the World.

The Bridge over the _Elbe_, which joins Old _Dresden_ to the New, is
scarce to be parallel’d, either for its Length or Substance. It has lately
been made broader by forming Demy-Arches which support the Riders on each
side. The Barriers are of Iron, well wrought. An Equestrian Statue of the
King is going to be erected upon it.

The Palace or Castle joins to the Bridge, at the Entrance of New
_Dresden_. This is an ancient Structure, which makes but a mean
Appearance; and ’tis said, that the King intends it shall be pull’d down,
and another built in its room; and that his Majesty has set apart eight
Millions of Crowns for the Expence of it.

The inside of the Castle surpasses the outside. The State-Room is
splendidly furnish’d. The Great Gallery contains several Curiosities, such
as antique Busts, Vessels, and Pictures.

This Palace has two Chapels, one of which belongs to the _Roman_
Catholicks, and the other to the _Lutherans_. The first was heretofore the
Theatre for Operas, but the King turn’d it into a Chapel, upon account of
the Marriage of his only Son with the Archdutchess, eldest Daughter to the
Emperor _Joseph_; the second was always the Chapel of the Electors of
_Saxony_. The King might, if he pleas’d, have order’d Mass to be
celebrated in it, but he wou’d not give his Subjects that Handle for
Complaint; besides, the late Queen, his Wife, having always stuck to the
_Lutheran_ Religion, in which she was born, he left her that Chapel for
her use. The Treasure of it is extremely rich, and contains Vessels,
Chasubles, and other things heretofore consecrated and given to this
Chapel by the Piety of the Electors.

The Royal Treasury, commonly call’d the _Grune Gewölbe_, (the Green
Vault,) is in the Palace. They are three arch’d Rooms, which contain
immense Riches, and shine all over with Gold, Precious Stones, and
Diamonds. ’Tis one of the finest Places in the World. There are several
Sets of Brilliant Diamonds, Rubies, Emeralds, Pearls, Saphirs, and other
Precious Stones. Every Set is compleat, and consists of Buttons for
Clothes, Loops for Hats, Swords, Hangers, Canes, Sleeve-Buttons,
Shoe-Buckles, Muffs, and Sword-Belts, Snuff-Boxes, Watches,
Tweezer-Cases, Pocket-Books; in short, all the Jewels that can possibly be
imagin’d, even to the Furniture of a Horse; so that were I to write down
every Particular, I should furnish you a Volume. And they all look the
better, for being ranged with wonderful Nicety in Cases of Crystal.

To the Castle belongs a Garden, call’d the _Zwinger Garten_, which is the
_Tuilleries_ of _Dresden_, but not extensive enough to deserve the Name of
a Garden. ’Tis encompass’d with Buildings of Free-Stone, which are
Green-Houses for Orange-Trees. The Structure consists but of one Floor, on
which are rais’d six large Pavilions, _viz._ three in front at the
Entrance, two on the sides, and one over the Portico at the Entrance;
which have all a Communication with one another, by a Platform that has
Balustrades adorn’d with Statues. It wou’d be hard to lay what Order of
Architecture prevails most in this Edifice, the Carv’d-Work with which it
is decorated, being more of the _Gothic_ than the modern Taste.

Near to this Building there’s a Palace which makes a great Shew, but the
Apartments are by much too small, and too low for the Ornaments employ’d
about them. The King caus’d this House to be built for the Countess _de
Cosel_, at the time when that Lady was in high Favour. No Cost was spar’d
in it; but ’tis pity that a more skilful Architect had not been pitched
upon to conduct it.

There are five or six other Houses, which are here call’d _Hotels_, but in
_Italy_ wou’d certainly pass for Palaces. The Hotel _de Fuhl_ in the
Street of _Pirnitz_ is one of this number. It was erected by the Great
Marshal _de Fuhl_ who on his Death-bed left it to his Wife, of whom it was
purchas’d by the Count _de Fleming_. That Minister sold it soon after to
the King, who made considerable Embellishments in it, and furnished it
richly. In this Condition his Majesty gave it in 1728, to the Marshal _de
Wackerbarth_, to make him amends when he had been burnt out of the House
he liv’d in, as Governour of _Dresden_. After this, the Governour’s House
being rebuilt, the King bought the other House again of the Count _de
Wackerbarth_, and has made it a Depositary of his Medals, Antiquities, and

To be sure you have heard that this Fire broke out at the Governour’s
House in the Night-time, while the King of _Prussia_ was here. His Majesty
actually lodg’d at the Governour’s House; and was in Bed when the Fire
burst out with such fury that he had but just time to make his Escape in
his Night-Gown, and to save a little Box in which there were Papers of
consequence; for the Floor of his Bed-Chamber fell in, the moment after
the King was gone out of it. An Officer, his Wife, and her Maid-Servant
perish’d in the Flames. The Count _de Wackerbarth_ only sav’d his Wardrobe
and his Plate; for his fine Library, and a noble Collection which he had
of Drawings, one of the compleatest and best chosen Setts in _Europe_,
were consum’d.

The Hotel of _Hoyhm_ is the most considerable Building in _Dresden_. In
about six Years time it had four different Owners. It was founded by the
King’s Favourite, the Count _de Fitztuhm_[54], his Great Chamberlain, and
Minister of State; who having been kill’d in a Duel at _Warsaw_, by the
Count _de St. Gilles_, a _Piedmontese_ that came to _Poland_ to seek
his Fortune, his Widow sold it to Marshal _Fleming_, who dying at _Vienna_
not long after he had purchased it, the House fell to his Son, a weakly
Child, who did not long survive him. His Mother, who was a _Radzivil_, was
his Heiress, and one of the greatest Matches in _Europe_. She was soon
after married again to a _Polander_ whom she follow’d into his own
Country; and when she left _Dresden_, she sold her House to the Count _de
Hoym_, who at present occupies it.

Not far from this House are the King’s Stables, which are well worth
seeing, there being a great number of wonderful fine Horses, and some of
all sorts of the rarest Breeds. Over the Stables, are Rooms full of fine
Equipage, consisting of sumptuous Saddles and Housings, Sleds and
magnificent Harness. Many of these Equipages are of the _Turkish_ Mode,
and plated with massy Silver, adorn’d with precious Stones.

The Arsenal, which is much boasted of here, cannot be reckon’d a fine one
by any but such as have not seen the Arsenal of _Berlin_, to which it is
not to be compar’d. There are several Rooms in it full of Arms, Brass
Cannon, Helmets, and Cuirasses, which are the Tapestry of Arsenals.

Thus, Sir, you have all that I observed in _Dresden_: it remains for me to
give you some Account of its Suburbs, and of the Pleasure-Houses which the
King has in the Neighbourhood of this City.

The Suburbs of _Dresden_ are very extensive, but have no Building of
consequence, except the Palace in the King’s great Garden, built by his
Majesty’s Mother, and that call’d the _Turkish_ Palace, because it is
furnished entirely after the _Turkish_ manner. The King gave an
Entertainment at this Palace to the Princess his Daughter-in-law, on
account of her Arrival at _Dresden_, which was so particular that I think
it deserves a Digression.

Upon the Feast-Day, the whole Court appeared at the _Turkish_ Palace, in
the Habits of _Turks_. The King came in the Dress of a _Sultan_, but
without any Attendance. His Majesty was soon after follow’d by the
Princess his Daughter-in-law, with her Ladies. Her Royal Highness, for
whom the Entertainment was made, found a Body of Janizaries drawn up in
the Court-Yard of the Palace. The King receiv’d her at the Entrance of his
Apartment, and conducted her into a Hall spread with fine Tapestry, and
laid with Cushions richly embroider’d.

The King and Princess being seated, were served by twenty-four Negroes in
sumptuous Dresses, with Sherbet, Coffee, and Sweet-Meats, in great Vessels
of massy Silver; nor were scented Waters, and perfumed Handkerchiefs
forgot. After this Collation, they drew near the Windows to see the
_Pillau_ (which is the Rice of _Turky_) and the King’s Bounty-Money
distributed to the Janizaries. This was follow’d by a Comedy, with an
Entertainment of _Turkish_ Dances. Then came the Supper, the Guests
sitting cross-legg’d upon the Cushions, and the Courses being served up
after the fashion of _Turky_, by the Negroes and young _Turks_. While they
were at Table, the Company was diverted by the various Leaps and Postures
of certain Tumblers and Rope-Dancers. Supper being over, they went into
the Garden, which was illuminated with several Thousands of Crystal Lamps.
There was Tilting, and shooting at the Mark, and whenever the Mark was
hit, a Sky-Rocket was sent up, which for the time seem’d to sprinkle
Thousands of Stars among those in the Firmament. After this, the Company
retir’d into the Palace, where the King and the Princess open’d the Ball,
and there was dancing till five o’clock in the Morning, when the Ball was
concluded with a sumptuous Breakfast that was serv’d at the several
Tables, after the manner of our own Country; which, with the leave of the
_Mussulmen_, is as good as theirs.

The finest Royal Houses, are _Pilnitz_ and _Moritzbourg_. The King, who is
certainly of all Sovereigns the most magnificent, keeps Men continually at
work, in embellishing those Places. The Works are carried on by the
Direction of Mons. _Bot_, whom I think to be not inferior to _Bernini_,
and I doubt not, such is my high Idea of him, that as he is supported by
the Generosity of a Great King, he will accomplish such Works as are
worthy of himself, and of his Master too.

I have now done with the Description of the Palaces and Royal Houses, in
which, I own I have been defective, and would gladly have been excus’d
from giving it; but you would have it, and I cou’d not help gratifying
you. I pass now to something more important; and shall entertain you with
the present State of the Royal Family, and the Characters of the most
distinguish’d Persons at Court.

FREDERIC-AUGUSTUS II. King of _Poland_, and Elector of _Saxony_, is the
Chief of this August Family. This Monarch, whom no Man surpasses in
Strength and Dexterity, and whom few Princes equal in Generosity, is the
second Son of _John George_ III. Elector of _Saxony_. He succeeded his
Brother _John George_ IV. in the Electorate, and was chose King of
_Poland_ after the Death of the Great _Sobieski_, notwithstanding the
Intrigues of the Emissaries of _France_ who declared for the Prince of

When _Frederic-Augustus_ ascended the Throne, he brought all the Virtues
to it fitting for a Great King. The Agreeableness of his Person, his
Majestic Air, his Heroic Strength, his Good-Nature, his Politeness, and
his well-known Valour, were the least of his Qualities. Never was any
Prince more magnificent, nor did any one either give more, or with a
better Grace. As a General and a Statesman, he was never too much lifted
up by Prosperity, nor shock’d by Adversity; so that he was observed, when
in the depth of his Misfortunes, to act and treat even with his Enemies,
with that Air of Complaisance and Satisfaction, which Men inur’d to great
Affairs know how to assume, in the midst of the cruellest Mortifications.
This Prince, in his Youth, travelled to the chief Countries of _Europe_,
and where-ever he came, was admir’d for his Strength, his Air, and
Dexterity. Amongst other Adventures, a very odd one befel him in his
Travels, at _Venice_. There happen’d to be in that City a famous
Astrologer, who had the Reputation of being well read in the Book of Fate.
The King, who was only Prince at that time, had a mind that he should
calculate his Nativity, and for that purpose went to the Astrologer’s
House, accompanied by two Gentlemen. They were all three dress’d in plain
Apparel, and the Prince, to disguise himself still the more, had conceal’d
his brown Hair under a fair Peruke. He enter’d the last Man, into the
Astrologer’s House, and seem’d to be rather as an Attendant, than a
Companion of the others. But to him the Astrologer first address’d
himself, calling him by the Titles of _My Lord_ and _Highness_. The Prince
told him that his Rank in the World was much too mean for such high
Compliments; but the Astrologer made answer, he knew very well whom he
spoke to, and that it was in vain for him to think of concealing himself
from such a Man as he. The Prince and his small Retinue were then
conducted by him into a Closet, where he shewed him a Looking-Glass. _Cast
your Eye on that Mirror_, said he to the Prince, _and there you will see
the principal Events of your Life_. The Prince without any scruple,
look’d accordingly, and saw himself at first in the Habit of an Elector;
afterwards, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mantle on his Shoulders;
and at last, full of Wounds, and bath’d in his Blood.

This Story, which I should not give you for true, if I had not heard it
from a great Nobleman who told me he had it from the King’s own Mouth, is
however, not without a Parallel; for it is pretended, that a Mason told
Madam _de Maintenon_, when she was no more than Madam _Scarron_, what her
Fortune and Rank would be in _France_. I could mention several other
Instances to you of the same nature, which all surprize me, tho’ they
don’t convince me. Be it as it will, two Articles of the Prediction made
to the King of _Poland_ are fully accomplished; as to the third, may
Heaven confound the Astrologer[55].

The King of _Poland_ spends part of his time in his Kingdom, and part of
it in his Electorate. ’Tis true, that he seems to take more delight in
_Saxony_ than in _Poland_; and ’tis in my Opinion very natural for him to
do so; _Saxony_ being his hereditary Country, where he is so absolute
that his Will is the Law of his Subjects, by whom he is rather ador’d than
belov’d: besides, ’tis _Saxony_ that furnishes him wherewithal to support
his Dignity, and offers him every thing conducive to the Pleasures of a
Great King; and it is there that he has a Court, the most brilliant in
_Europe_, not only for its Splendor, but for Magnificence and Pleasures;
whereas in _Poland_, he has only the vain Pageantry of Royalty; being
under greater Limitations than any Sovereign in the World; so that the
least Innovation, the least Act of Authority, makes the _Poles_ clamorous,
and they presently think they are excused from paying him that Obedience
which they owe him. All the Gentlemen here are their own Masters; and the
Noblemen behave so much like Sovereigns, that they never go to Court but
to demand Favours, which if they obtain, they go away ungrateful, and if
they are deny’d, they retire with the Intention of taking a Revenge on the
first Opportunity: For the Climate being rough, the People are fierce; and
the King, tho’ adored in _Saxony_, is scarce beloved in _Poland_.

The Electoral Prince, this King’s only Son, is lusty, proper, and well
made, and like the King his Father is adroit in all bodily Exercises. He
loves Pleasure, but ’tis with Moderation, and is heartily attach’d to the
Religion which he has embrac’d. He is stiff and reserved, without being
haughty, which is a Temper that he derives from the late Queen his
Mother[56], whom he very much resembles. To such as have the Honour of
Access to him, and of being known to him, he is gracious, familiar and
very civil. His Royal Highness has been admit’d for his good Qualities in
a great part of _Europe_, particularly in _Germany_, _France_, and
_Italy_, where he has spent several Years. No Son can have more respect to
a Parent than he has for the King his Father, whose Will and Pleasure he
never oppos’d in any one Instance; and whose Person he has always honour’d
even in his Ministers. Of all Pleasures he seems to bestow most Time in
Hunting; nevertheless he makes it only as an Amusement without being
passionately fond of it. His Royal Highness’s Confident is _Solckofski_ or
_Sulkowski_[57], a _Polish_ Gentleman who was once his Page; and by thus
making him his Favourite, for which he cannot but be applauded, he shews
that he is capable of distinguishing true Merit. I had frequently the
Honour of making my Compliments to this Prince while he was at _Paris_,
and this is now the second time that I have had the same favour at
_Dresden_, where I find he is the same gracious Personage as ever. The
last time that I had the Honour of being introduc’d to him he talk’d a
great deal to me about _Paris_, and when he dismiss’d me, he said he was
sorry to think that _Dresden_ would not afford me so many Pleasures as

The same Day that I waited on the Prince, I was introduced to the Princess
his Royal Highness’s Consort, who is the late Emperor _Joseph_’s eldest
Daughter. The Voice of the People is unanimous in the Character of this
Princess. All Mankind agrees that she has not her superior for
Good-nature, Piety, Charity, Modesty, and in a word for all, the Virtue of
the Soul: To please her Husband, and to give her Children an Education
suitable to their Birth, is her principal Endeavour. ’Tis rare to find a
happier Couple than their Royal Highnesses; for Marriage, which generally
cools the warmest Passions, seems on the contrary to have animated their
reciprocal Affection to such a degree that they are a Pattern for the
Imitation of their Court.

Their Royal Highnesses Children are so young that I shall say but little
of them[58]. Their eldest Son very much resembles the Pictures that I have
seen of the Emperor _Joseph_ when he was a Child. This young Prince seems
to me to be of a very delicate Constitution, and has so great a Weakness
in his Knees that he can scarce stand: The Physicians say it will go off
as he grows up, but their Promises are no Gospel for me.

The two Princes of the Blood, who commonly reside at _Dresden_, are
_John-Adolphus_ of _Saxe-Weissenfels_[59], a Prince of uncommon Merit,
whose Sentiments and Actions are no disparagement to his Birth; and
_Maurice-William_ of _Saxe-Zeits_, the last of his Branch. He was
persuaded by his Uncle the late Cardinal _de Saxe-Zeits_ to abjure the
_Lutheran_ Religion and to embrace the ecclesiastical State: He is Bishop
of _Konigsgratz_ in _Bohemia_, Provost of _Alten Ottingen_ in _Bavaria_,
and a Canon of _Cologne_, _Liege_, and _Aichstedt_, and is descended from
such a Family that it may be presum’d, he will some day or other, be
advanc’d to the Purple[60].

N. B. _What follows, is a more particular Account of the Electoral
Family of +Saxony+, translated from the Baron’s State of it; which
is prefix’d to the second Edition of these +Memoirs+._

_Augustus_ III. King of _Poland_ Great Duke of _Lithuania_ and Elector of
_Saxony_, was born the seventh of _October_ 1696. He is the only Son of
_Augustus_ II. the last King of _Poland_ and of _Eberhardina_ of
_Brandenbourg-Bareith_. His Grandmother, _Anne_ Princess Royal of
_Denmark_, Widow of _John George_ the third Elector of _Saxony_, took care
of him in his Infancy, and impress’d him with those Sentiments of Piety,
Humanity, and Justice, which render him at this day the Darling of his
People, and the Pattern of Kings.

At a proper Age, the King his Father took him out of the hands of the
Women, and committed him to the Care of Monsieur _de Miltitz_, a Gentleman
of a good Family; whom Learning, good Behaviour and solid Virtue render’d
worthy of such an Employment.

The Prince, who always found Charms in Virtue, was sensible of the Merit
of his Governor: He lov’d him, was inseparable from him, and receiv’d his
Advice with a Docility, which, at his tender Age, was a presage he wou’d
be possess’d of that Fund of Wisdom which now renders him worthy of his

While the young Prince was under the Conduct of the Women, God was pleas’d
to touch the Heart of the late King his Father: That Monarch, who happen’d
to be born a _Lutheran_, was converted to the _Roman_ Catholick Religion,
and not long after elected King of _Poland_; and his Majesty being
convinc’d of the Purity of the Religion which he had embrac’d, was
inclin’d to make a Convert also of the Prince his Son. Nevertheless, such
was the Respect the King had for her Royal Highness his Mother, that he
was loth that august Princess shou’d be an Eye-witness of the young
Prince’s renouncing a Religion which she had taught him, and to which she
was strenuously attach’d: He resolv’d therefore to remove him, and sent
him to _Francfort_ to be present at the Coronation of the Emperor
_Charles_ VI. His Companion in this Journey, was M. _de Miltitz_; but as
this Gentleman’s Attachment to _Luther_’s Doctrine made the King
apprehensive that he wou’d thwart his Views, he recall’d him, and
appointed the Count _de Costa_, and the Baron _de Hagen_, to be his Son’s

The Count who was a _Polander_ and Palatine of _Livonia_, was not only of
noble Birth, but a Gentleman of solid Piety, profound Learning, great
Probity, and as much respected for his Principles as belov’d for his good
Behaviour and Politeness.

The Baron _de Hagen_ was of a Family of some Distinction in the Electorate
of _Triers_: He was Ambassador from the King at the Emperor’s Election,
and at his Coronation at _Francfort_: His Behaviour was more grave than
the Count _de Costa_’s, but he was not inferior to the Count for Learning,
Integrity, and good Sense.

Under the Conduct of these two Gentlemen, the Prince set out to visit a
part of _Germany_ and _Italy_, where he embrac’d the _Roman_ Catholick
Religion; his Profession of which, was however for a long time as private
as it is now exemplary; for he did not declare his alteration of Religion
’till after the Death of her most Serene Highness his Grandmother, who
died the first of _July_ 1717. During this the Prince made the Tour of
_France_, where, tho’ he travell’d under the Name of the Count _de
Misnia_, _Lewis_ XIV. caus’d all the Honours to be paid to him which were
due to the Son of a great King.

The Court of _France_ was charm’d with that Politeness, that noble
Modesty, and that Fund of Wisdom which accompany’d this Prince’s Actions
and Conversation: They admir’d him and were sorry for his Departure. He
travell’d a second time to _Italy_, where he acquired that fine Taste of
Men and Things and that Knowledge of Architecture, Painting, and other
curious Arts, which is so useful for great Princes. _Germany_, upon the
return of this Prince, bless’d itself for having given him birth, and
offer’d up Prayers that all its Princes might be like him. His Royal
Highness stay’d a considerable while at _Vienna_, where he maintain’d the
Reputation he had acquir’d in the several Countries he had seen. He
returned at length to _Saxony_, where there was an universal Joy for his
Arrival. The _Saxons_ were charm’d to see the Prince that was design’d by
Heaven to be their Sovereign, so worthy of that Command. One day or other,
they said, we shall lose the most righteous of Kings, and the best of
Masters, but we shall find restor’d in his Son, his heroic Stature, his
majestic Air, his Magnanimity, the same Temper for Goodness, Equity and
Generosity; the Spirit of the great _Augustus_ will be always present with
us; and all our Loss will be that of his Personal Appearance.

Not long after the Prince’s Return to _Dresden_, _Augustus Christopher_
Count _de Wackerbarth_[61] treated at _Vienna_ for the Marriage of his
Royal Highness to the most serene Archdutchess _Maria Josepha_, eldest
Daughter of the late Emperor _Joseph_. The Count _de Flemming_, Prime
Minister and Velt-Marshal of _Saxony_, solemnly demanded the most serene
Archdutchess in Marriage; and the Prince repair’d to _Vienna_ to espouse
her. The Ceremony was perform’d in the Chapel of _la Favorita_, with all
the Pomp suitable to so great a Match. Some Days after this, their Royal
Highnesses set out for _Dresden_, where they were receiv’d with an
unparallell’d Magnificence. _Augustus_ II. the most splendid of Kings, and
a Prince who had the best Fancy for ordering of Entertainments, outdid
himself; he thought nothing too good for celebrating the Nuptials of his
so worthy a Son, with a Princess whose Ancestors were all Emperors.

The Rejoicings having lasted forty Days, the King set out for his Kingdom,
leaving the Prince Regent, as he always did whenever he went from his

In 1726, the Prince himself took a Journey to _Poland_, to which Country
he had once before accompanied the King his Father in 1711, but then made
no long stay. There he won the Hearts of the chief Nobility, who from that
moment thought him worthy of succeeding one day to their Governor, the
Great _Augustus_. They were pleased to see, that he honour’d their
Countryman, the Count _Sulkowski_, with his Confidence, and they thought
it a happy Omen for their Nation, blessing their Stars, that the Prince
distinguished Virtue in one born among themselves.

His Royal Highness being convinced that of all the Sums laid out by
Princes, there are none less liable to censure than what they expend in
Buildings, undertook that of _Wermsdorf_, which he afterwards call’d
_Hubertsbourg_; and he finish’d that great Work in a little time, by the
assistance of the King his Father: For, in short, it would have been
impossible for his Royal Highness to have defray’d all the Expence of it
himself. It was already very wonderful to see with what Prudence he
directed his Finances. His Revenue being settled, his Expence was suitable
to his Rank; he had a numerous Houshold, his Hunting Equipage was
sumptuous, yet he did good to all that made their Necessity known to him;
his Charities were truly Royal, every body was paid; the Noblemen and the
Tradesmen receiv’d their Pensions and Salaries punctually; and his
Accounts were so regularly kept and discharged by the Count _Sulkowski_,
that the Prince was never in debt.

The Prince commonly spent the Season for hunting the Stag at
_Hubertsbourg_, and employ’d the remainder of his time at _Dresden_, in
all manner of Exercises, being admired in every Action, for the Grace,
Strength, and Dexterity with which he perform’d it, as well as for the
Sobriety and Regularity of his Manners; for he kept as regular Hours
then, as he does now.

_Augustus_ III. never knew what it was to be idle or vicious. Such is his
Chastity and Fidelity to his august Spouse, that he never gave her the
least Reason so much as to suspect his Honour. He games only for
amusement, and never plays so high that the loss of the Stake can put
those out of temper who have the Honour to be of his Party. But of all the
Virtues of _Augustus_ III. there is none, most certainly, which has made
him more the Favourite of Heaven, than the inviolable Respect he always
manifested for the King his Father, who tenderly lov’d him; and never was
a Son, Heir to so powerful a Dominion, more affected for the loss of a
Father, than he was when he heard of the death of his. His Affliction was
impress’d deeply in his Countenance, when he receiv’d the homage of his
capital City, at his first appearance in publick; and to this very day, he
is ready to melt in tears at the sight of any Object that calls him to
mind; for which reason the People of _Dresden_, rather than renew his
Sorrow, forbear the mention of a King whom _Europe_ has plac’d in the Rank
of its greatest Men.

Prince FREDERIC-AUGUSTUS, when he became Elector, did not alter his
Manners, but retain’d the same Piety, the same Regularity. He kept most of
the Servants of the late King his Father, and settled Pensions on those
whom he thought fit to dismiss. His first Care, when he came to the
Electorate, was to provide himself with Ministers, whose Candor and
Sincerity were above Envy it self. For this purpose, he call’d to his
Cabinet-Council, the Count _de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour_, M. _de
Baudissin_, the Count _Sulkowski_, and M. _de Bruhl_; to the two last of
whom he committed the Direction of Affairs.

All _Saxony_ applauded this Choice, and doubted not of being very happy
under the Reign of a Prince, who was capable of forming so true a Judgment
of Persons for his Ministers. But what the _Saxons_ saw with extraordinary
Satisfaction, was the sure Proof the King gave of his Gratitude and Esteem
for Virtue, in recalling M. _de Miltitz_, heretofore his Governor, who for
some Years past was retired to his Estate. This Gentleman wou’d fain have
been excus’d from returning to Court, alledging his great Age, and his
being a Stranger to Business; when his Majesty sent him word, that he
requir’d no more at his hands than what his Health wou’d permit; that he
knew his Probity, his Love for his Country, and his Attachment to himself;
that therefore he was willing he shou’d be near his Person, and assist him
with his Advice, which he knew wou’d be solid, by what he gave him when he
had the charge of his Education. In this manner FREDERIC-AUGUSTUS, by the
display of his Gratitude, an uncommon Virtue (especially among Princes)
encourag’d his Courtiers to do what might also give them a Title to it.

These great Qualities procur’d him the Suffrages of the most judicious
Part of the Republic of _Poland_ which chose him for King. His Majesty
having sent the Count _de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour_, and M.
_Baudissin_ to _Warsaw_, with the Character of Plenipotentiaries, to take
care of his Interests, these Ministers found the _Polish_ Lords very much
divided: Foreign Gold, with the Intrigues, Cabals, and ensnaring Promises
of a Minister who was lavish of it; all these had corrupted a great number
of them, and others were oppress’d, and must undoubtedly have submitted to
Violence, if they had not had a very great share of Courage and Love to
their Country. God, who never abandons the Virtuous, was their Support and
their Protector, as well as the Shield of the Plenipotentiaries, whose
sacred Character could not guard them from all manner of Outrage. And tho’
the Blood of the _Jagellons_, which flows in this Prince’s Veins, tho’ his
being the Son of one of the greatest Kings that _Poland_ ever had, as well
as his own Dignity of a Sovereign, ought to have procured him the Respect
of all the _Poles_, yet every Person and Thing belonging to him at
_Warsaw_, was maltreated. Such was, at that time, the unhappy Fate of
_Poland_; Oppression and Tyranny having succeeded the glorious, mild, and
peaceful Reign of _Augustus_ II.

Mean time, those generous Noblemen who had so bravely stood up in the
defence of the Liberties and Honour of their Country, after having tried
all their Efforts to reclaim their wandering Brethren, found they could
not succeed, and therefore broke up; after which, they met in the very
same Place where _Henry de Valois_ had been elected, and there they chose
and proclaim’d AUGUSTUS Elector of _Saxony_, King of _Poland_. They then
sent a Deputation to his Majesty, to intreat him to come immediately, with
the Queen his Consort, to take possession of the Throne. The King comply’d
with their Intreaty, and set out from _Dresden_, after having return’d
solemn Thanks to God, the sovereign Disposer of Crowns, and of the Fortune
of Kings.

In a few days the Queen followed the King, and overtook him at
_Tarnovitz_, where their Majesties received the grand Deputation from
_Poland_; and after giving them Audience, proceeded in their Journey
towards _Cracow_. There the King made his Royal Entry on the 14th of
_January_ 1734, and on the 17th of that Month, their Majesties were
consecrated and crowned by _Lipsky_ the Bishop of that See.

Some time after this august Ceremony, which, in _Poland_, is absolutely
necessary and essential for a King Elect, the Queen return’d to _Saxony_;
but the King staid at _Cracow_, where he held a Diet, in which he made
several Regulations for restoring the Tranquillity of the Kingdom. When
the Diet was ended, his Majesty march’d towards _Dantzic_, which the
_Russians_, his Allies, had invested, in order to drive out the Primate
and his Adherents, who were retir’d thither.

But after a March of several Days, which the Severity of the Weather
render’d very painful, his Majesty yielded to the Instances that were made
to him from _Saxony_, to assist in Person at the opening of the Assembly
of States which he was under a necessity of calling; and he returned to
_Dresden_, where his Arrival caus’d an inexpressible Joy. Mean time the
Army, under the Command of the Prince of _Saxe-Weissenfels_ continued its
March towards _Dantzic_.

The King was accompanied by a great number of _Polish_ Noblemen, who
finding themselves unable to oppose the Rage of the Primate’s Party in
their several Countries, came to seek shelter in _Saxony_, where his
Majesty receiv’d them, and still entertains them, in a manner which cannot
but convince them of his Gratitude, and give them greater Hopes of what
Favours they may expect, when the Tranquillity of _Poland_ is restor’d.

The King, after his Return from _Cracow_, summon’d the States of his
Electorate, and open’d the Assembly with the usual Ceremonies. He was
seated on his Throne, accompanied by the chief Lords of his Court, as well
the _Polish_ as _Saxons_. M. _de Miltitz_, his Privy Counsellor, sat on
the Right-hand of the Throne; and, in the King’s Name, made a Speech to
the States, wherein he declared to them that his Majesty intended to make
no Innovation in the Affairs of Religion, but to let his Protestant
Subjects enjoy their Privileges, as they had been granted and confirm’d to
them by the late King. Then they told him the Motives which had engag’d
the King to call them together, and demanded the necessary Subsidies for
defraying the extraordinary Expences which his Majesty had been
necessarily involved in thro’ the Calamities of the Time. M. _de Hesler_,
Administrator of the Office of hereditary Marshal of _Saxony_, return’d an
Answer in the Name of the States, and spoke with a Dignity, and all the
Decorum due to so august an Assembly. He assur’d the King of the
respectful and inviolable Fidelity and Attachment of his Subjects to his
sacred Person. And in truth, ’tis impossible for a People to be better
affected to their Sovereign, and more disposed to contribute to every
thing that is capable of augmenting his Glory.

The King’s voluntary Declaration to his States that he would make no
Innovation in the Affairs of Religion, won the Hearts of his Subjects to
such a degree, that there is not a _Saxon_ who would make any scruple to
sacrifice his Life and Fortune for his Service. And the said Declaration
does equal Honour to the Justice of the Monarch, and the Wisdom of his

While the King was employ’d with his States in securing the Happiness and
Tranquility of _Saxony_, his Majesty received Advice, that his Army, after
having join’d the _Russians_, had obliged the _Dantzickers_ to surrender,
and that the _Polish_ Lords of the contrary Party petition’d for leave to
remove to some Place where they might pay him their homage. The King, in
imitation of the great Emperor whose Name he bears, after having made a
Conquest, thought, like him, of nothing more than to make those happy whom
the Fortune of War had submitted to his Arms. His Majesty did not take
any advantage of his Victory, but forgetting past Offences, repair’d to
the Abbey of _Oliva_, near _Dantzic_, where he receiv’d the Submission of
the _Dantzickers_, and the Allegiance of the Lords that were the Primate’s
Adherents. By his Modesty and Goodness, he charm’d the Vanquished, and
convinc’d them of their Obligation to pay him that Esteem which before
perhaps they did not think was their Duty to grant to him. The Greatness
of his Soul, which inclines him to sympathize with the Misfortunes of the
Unhappy, hinder’d him from entering _Dantzic_, the desolate State of that
City being so afflicting a Scene to him, that he cou’d not bear to see it.
The _Dantzickers_, by their submission, were become his Subjects; their
present Misfortunes, and their past Mistakes, affected him to such a
degree, that he was fearful of being put in mind of them, and refus’d to
appear among them, crown’d with those Laurels which he had reap’d by their
defeat. So much Modesty, worthy of the most glorious Triumph, gain’d him
the Prayers of the People, in which his Majesty saw more Charms, than he
wou’d have found in Trophies, and the most stately Triumphal Arches.

The King having provided for the pressing Necessities of his Kingdom,
return’d to his Electorate, where the States continued their Deliberations
ever since his Absence. Now that his Majesty is return’d, the Care of the
State is almost his constant Employment. His Recreations are either taking
the Air on horseback, Hunting, the _Italian_ Opera, or else going to
Concerts, which the Queen, who is a great Lover of Music, causes to be
perform’d in her own Apartment. Their Majesties generally dine together,
and admit the Nobility of both Sexes to their Table.

There, the King observes that Temperance which so much becomes sovereign
Princes. All his Hours, as has been already observ’d, are regulated; and
all his Actions accompanied with Devotion, good Order, and Equity. Never
did King better discharge that sacred Character; being always firm and
tranquil, Danger cou’d never affright him. He accepted the Crown, tho’ he
saw he cou’d never fix it on his Head without infinite Pains, Peril, and
Cares. The Advantage he had gain’d over his Enemies did not seem to have
flush’d him; he was sorry he had not been able to reclaim them by gentle
Methods, and ascribes the happy Success of his Arms solely to Providence.

Thus have I given you a very imperfect Account of the Virtues and Actions
of a King, which plainly denote that the perfect honest Man (a Title not
unworthy even of the sacred Majesty of Kings) forms his Character. As for
his Stature, ’tis such as, one wou’d think, those ought to have who are
born to command. He has a robust and vigorous Constitution, a sound
Judgment, a happy Memory, a generous and beneficent Soul, the necessary
Constituents of the Hero and the Christian. His Conduct is regulated by a
great Attachment to the Principles of Religion. His Aim and his
Application are to render his Subjects happy; and he only longs for Peace
that they may taste the Fruits of it.

As to her MAJESTY the QUEEN, the Name of that august Princess, whom Heaven
has endowed with all manner of Virtues, to be the worthy Wife of a King,
is MARIA JOSEPHA, who was born the 8th of _December_ 1699, and is the
eldest Daughter of _Joseph_ Emperor of the _Romans_, and of
_Wilhelmina-Amelia_ of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Hanover_. Her Marriage to the
King, then the Prince Royal, was celebrated at _Vienna_, the 20th of
_August_ 1719, betwixt 8 and 9 a Clock at Night, in the Chapel of the
Palace of the _Favorita_, by the Pope’s Nuncio, who next day perform’d the
solemn Mass. In a few days after, this Princess set out with her Husband
for _Saxony_. It has already been observed with what Pomp she was received
by the King her Father-in-law; and the Veneration paid her by the
Subjects, was equal to the Magnificence of her Reception by the King. The
Returns that the Princess made on her part, manifested a Goodness which
nothing cou’d resist; so that she had the Homage and the Hearts both of
the Courtiers and the common People. Being the Daughter of a Princess,
whom the World respects even more for her Virtues than for the Splendour
of that extraordinary Grandeur with which she is inviron’d, her Royal
Highness’s sole Concern was to walk in the Steps of that august Mother,
the Pattern of Princesses, and the Honour of Religion. She conceiv’d a
Respect for the King her Father-in-law, and the Queen her Mother-in-law,
from which she never departed; and now that she is a Sovereign, she has no
other Cares than to render a Nation happy which is worthy of being so for
its Affection and Fidelity to its Electors. She is inviolably attach’d to
her Duties, full of Tenderness and Respect for her Husband, and always
wisely employ’d in what may procure him solid Comfort. She continually
gives him Examples of Piety and Charity; she is beneficent to all that
make their Necessities known to her, and seems to think every unfortunate
Subject merits her Protection. The Care she takes of her Children is not
only the Care of a tender Mother, but of a Queen, who, in love to the
State, is desirous to form their Minds, so as to render them worthy of
being its Sovereigns, and to procure them the advantage of being more
respected, if possible, for their Virtues than their Birth.

The Queen, who went with the King to _Cracow_, and there receiv’d the
Crown, return’d after her Coronation to _Saxony_, where she is belov’d and
reverenc’d by People of all Ranks. This august Princess seems to have an
Air of Gravity, as have all the Princes of the most serene House of
_Austria_; but as she is serious, so she is discreet, modest, and
good-natur’d. She was educated, as are all the Archdutchesses, in the
knowledge of Things useful for those who are born to govern States; she
speaks several Languages very readily, and particularly the _Latin_, in
such a manner as both charms and surprizes the _Poles_. She is Mistress of
History and Geography, and has a solid Taste of Musick, Painting, and all
the Sciences in general: Yet never did Queen take less Pride in her
Talents; for, by kindly condescending to accommodate her self to the
Capacities of those with whom she converses, she conceals all her
Superiority. Her high Rank serves only to render her affable; she is the
Mother of the People, and particularly of the Poor. And to sum up the
Character of this great Princess, it may be said in short, that she is a
virtuous Wife, a faithful Companion, a tender Mother, and a compassionate

His Royal Highness the PRINCE ROYAL and ELECTORAL was born at _Dresden_,
the 5th of _September_ 1722, and baptized in the _Roman_ Catholick Church,
by the Name of _Frederic-Christian_: He is handsome, and has a Countenance
full of Good-nature, and indeed his Goodness charms all that pay their
court to him. His Knowledge and Learning are beyond one of his tender
Years; he talks several Languages justly, and with ease; and his strong
Inclination to follow the wise Counsels of his Governor, the Count
_Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour_, is a sure Presage that when he comes to
the Age of Maturity, he will walk in the glorious Steps of the King his

As to their Royal Highnesses the other Princes, the eldest of them, Prince
AUGUSTUS-ALBERT-CHRISTIAN-XAVIER was born the 25th of _August_ 1730. He is
handsome, full of Life and Spirit, and already discovers a great
Inclination to every thing military. He is infinitely better pleased to
see the Officers of his Regiment about him than the Women his Attendants.
The Noise of Drums and Trumpets is the most agreeable Music to him, and
according to all appearance, ’tis what he will always prefer to the Flute.
When he went with their Majesties to _Cracow_, and heard talk of the
Ravages committed by the Palatine of _Kiow_, he said, he had a mind to go
and fight him, and cut off his Head. In fine, all the Actions of this
young Prince give hopes that he will add one to the Number of Heroes
descended from the august Blood of _Saxony_.

CHARLES-CHRISTIAN-JOSEPH came into the World _July_ 13, 1733, so that his
Royal Highness is too young as yet for any Character in History; and I
shall proceed next to their Royal Highnesses the Princesses.

Her Royal Highness MARY-AMELIA, their Majesties eldest Daughter, was born
at _Dresden_, the 24th of _September_ 1724. She is fair, very well shap’d,
and has the Air of her Mother. Her Features are regular, and ’tis heartily
to be wish’d that the Small-Pox may spare them. The Care the Queen takes
of her Education is so well bestow’d on her, that she is much better
form’d than Princesses of her Age generally are.

MARY-ANNE-SOPHIA was born the 24th of _August_ 1728. She is brown, and
likely to be much admir’d for her Beauty. There is something in her
Physiognomy so subtle and witty, that she has already secur’d the
Suffrages of the Courtiers.

The Princess MARY-JOSEPHA was born the 4th of _November_ 1731. Heaven has
been pleas’d to grant her a share of Beauty with all the Princes and
Princesses her Brothers and Sisters.

I should make some mention of all the PRINCES and PRINCESSES of the BLOOD,
_viz._ all the most serene Dukes, Princes and Princesses of the Family of
_Saxony_, particularly those who are deriv’d from the _Albertine_ Branch,
as descending with the King from the Elector _John-George_ I. who form’d
the four Branches, _viz._ the Electoral Branch, and those of
_Weissenfels_, _Mersbourg_, and _Zeits_. But as this is only an Epitome of
_Augustus_ III’s Court, I shall only take notice of those Princes who
reside there; _viz._ JOHN-ADOLPHUS Duke of SAXE-WEISSENFELS, and the

The Duke, who was born _September_ 4, 1685, is of a good Stature. His Air,
Behaviour, and way of thinking, denote his Birth; and never was Prince
more worthy of being so. He is beneficent, generous; and all the Qualities
which attract Love and Esteem are united in his Person. After having spent
his early Days in the Service of _Hesse-Cassel_, he enter’d into that of
the late King; and in the several Campaigns which he made in _Germany_,
_Italy_, _Flanders_, and _Poland_, he always signaliz’d his Valour; and
particularly not long ago, when he supported the Reputation of the King’s
Arms before _Dantzic_ in a conspicuous manner. His Goodness, his Modesty,
and his Care to distinguish true Merit, gain him the Love and Veneration
both of the Officers and Soldiers. This Prince is actually a
Lieutenant-General in the Emperor’s Army, General of the _Saxon_ Horse and
Foot, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of
the Order of the _White Eagle_. He is the Widower of _Caroline_ Princess
of _Saxe-Eysenach_, and professes the _Lutheran_ Religion.

The Princess CHRISTINA of SAXE-WEISSENFELS, who was born the 27th of
_July_ 1690, adheres to the _Roman_ Catholic Doctrine, Prince _Albert_ her
Father being a Convert to that Communion. She is of a good Stature, has a
grand Majestic Air, and her Behaviour is graceful and polite. Her most
serene Highness receives all that draw near to her with Respect and
Kindness, and demonstrates her high Birth only by discharging the
Obligations of it. She is so firmly attach’d to the Queen by the Bands of
Love and Virtue that she is caress’d and distinguish’d by her; and all the
Court honours and respects her more out of Inclination than Duty.

You will not perhaps be sorry to know the Names, _&c._ of the late King’s
legitimated Natural Issue, who are rank’d immediately after the Princes of
the Blood. They are four Sons and three Daughters, of whom I shall now
give you an Account, and who were their Mothers.

1. Count _Maurice_ of _Saxony_ is the eldest of the late King’s Natural
Children, by _Aurora_ Countess of _Koningsmark_, the most worthy of her
Sex in _Europe_ to be the Mistress of a great King; and of all the King’s
Favourite Ladies, she kept longest in his Favour, so that after her
Retirement she acquitted her self so well that she continued in the
possession of his Majesty’s Esteem and Regard. She is still living,
and after having been a Prioress of the Imperial _Lutheran_
Abbey _Quedlinbourg_ she rose to be the Abbess. The Count is a
Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot in _France_.

2. The next is the Count _Rotofski_ or _Rutowski_, Lieutenant-General, and
Colonel of the Crown-Guards, who owes his Birth to the King’s tender
Passion for _Fatima_ a _Turkish_ Lady who was taken Prisoner very young,
and fell to the share of M. _Schoning_, a Lieutenant-General in the
Service of the Elector of _Brandenbourg_, who carried her to _Berlin_, and
had her baptiz’d without altering her Name, tho’ she afterwards went by
that of Madame _de Spiegel_. Madamoiselle _de Flemming_, known by the Name
of _Brebentau_, having married the Palatine of that Name, took a fancy to
her, obtain’d her of M. _de Schoning_, and carried her with her into
_Poland_, where from a Slave she became the King’s Mistress, tho’ Madame
_Brebentau_ did not perceive it till _Fatima_’s Waist betray’d her. She
had as much Wit as Beauty, and every body said she deserv’d her Fortune.
Nevertheless, she did not enjoy it long; for Madame _de Lubomirski_, who
was Wife to the Great Chamberlain of the Crown, stole away the King’s
Heart from her. The Count _Rutowski_ is a Major-General of the King’s
Forces, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight
of the Order of the _White Eagle_. This Nobleman very much resembles the
late King his Father, having his Strength, Dexterity, Valour and
Politeness. He had his Education in _France_, and from thence went into
the _Service_ of _Victor Amadeus_ the late King of _Sardinia_. Then he
enter’d for a little while into the Service of the King of _Prussia_, and
at length fix’d himself in that of _Saxony_, when he signaliz’d his Valour
at the Siege of _Dantzic_, and afterwards made the Campaign as a Voluntier
in the Imperial Army on the _Rhine_. As for his Religion, he professes the
_Roman_ Catholic.

3. The third of the late King’s Natural Sons is _George_ Prince _de
Teschen_, otherwise call’d the _Chevalier de Saxony_, whom he had by
Madame _de Lubomirski_ above-mentioned, who was Niece to the famous
Cardinal _Radjouski_ Archbishop of _Gnesna_, and Primate of _Poland_.
After this Lady had indulg’d the King’s Passion she got a Divorce from
Prince _Lubomirski_, and took the Title of the Princess _de Teschen_,
which was granted to her by the Emperor. This Son of her’s was brought up
in the _Roman_ Catholic Religion. He is a Colonel in the King’s Service,
and Knight of the Order of the _White Eagle_. He is a well-set Man, has a
noble Air, and supports his Title by a great share of Valour and good
Sense. He is perfect Master of military Architecture, and has great
Talents for War, which he cultivates to such a degree that his very
Amusements are the Study of what a great Captain ought to know. This
Desire of his to be qualify’d some day or other for the Command of an Army
engag’d him, at his return from the Siege of _Dantzic_, to repair to the
Army of Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_ to improve himself in the Art of War
under that Great Master.

4. The fourth and youngest of the Natural Sons of the late King of
_Poland_ is the Count _de Cosel_, Knight of the Order of the _White
Eagle_, whose Mother was the Countess _de Cosel_; which Lady is also
Mother to the Countesses of _Friesland_[62] and _Moschinski_[63]. The
Count is a tall handsome Youth, modest and reserv’d, and more prudent than
might be expected from his Years. This Nobleman, who does not disparage
his Birth, is now making the Campaign upon the _Rhine_ in the Imperial
Army. He is of the _Lutheran_ Communion.

Madame _de Cosel_ is of the Family of _Bruchstorf_, and a Native of
_Holstein_. She was Maid of Honour to the Dutchess of _Wolfembuttle_, when
the Count _de Hoym_ Minister of State to the King of _Poland_ married her:
The Count soon after the Marriage carried her to _Dresden_, where the King
fell in love with her, and no sooner made it known to her but gain’d her
compliance. M. _de Hoym_ enrag’d at this, demanded a Divorce from her,
which his Wife readily came into; so that the Consistory of _Dresden_
declared their Marriage null and void. M. _de Hoym_ married again, and
Madame took the Title of the Countess _de Cosel_; but this Lady at once
lost the King’s Favour and her Liberty into the bargain, and is kept close
Prisoner in a Castle, where she has nothing to do but to indulge her
melancholy Reflections upon the Revolutions of her Fortune[64].

The NATURAL DAUGHTERS of the late King are, 1. The Countess of _Bilinski_,
(Sister of the Count _Rutowski_) who was born in _Poland_ as well as her
Brother, and educated in the _Roman_ Catholic Religion. _Augustus_ II.
gave her in Marriage to the Count _Bilinski_. The Countess’s frequent
Ailments obliged her to go to _Paris_ for her Health; so that not being of
this Court, ’twill not be expected I should give her Character.

2. The Countess of _Orselska_, who was born at _Warsaw_, of one _Renard_ a
_French_ Woman, and bred up in the _Roman_ Catholic Faith: She is of a
good Stature, and very charming. Of all the late King’s legitimated
Children his Majesty seem’d to be fondest of this. She was at first very
much neglected, and it did not appear that the King ever intended to own
her. But Count _Rotofski_ seeing her at _Warsaw_ in a Plight too mean for
her Birth took the freedom to mention her to the King her Father, and told
him that she merited some Kindness from him. The King thereupon desir’d to
see her, and she came into his Presence in the _Amazonian_ Habit, which
was her favourite Dress. The King thought she resembled him very much, and
not being able to resist the tender Impressions of Nature he embrac’d her,
and call’d her his Daughter. At the same time he order’d the whole Court
to acknowledge her in that Quality, gave her a magnificent Palace, with
Diamonds without number, and settled great Pensions on her. ’Tis certain,
in short, that never was Daughter more like her Father; she had the same
Features, Temper and Genius. It was impossible for her to be handsomer
with a more grand Air. She is fond of Magnificence, Expence, and
Pleasures. One of her Diversions is to dress in Mens Apparel. It was in
this Habit that I saw her the first time, when she was on horseback, in a
purple Habit embroider’d with Silver, and wore the blue Ribband of
_Poland_. Being all alone, I could not learn who she was, but really took
her to be some young Foreign Nobleman whom I had not yet seen. I never
beheld any body sit better than she did on horseback, or have a more
amiable Air; insomuch, that many Ladies would have been glad of a Lover so
handsome. The same evening I saw her at the Ball, where she was still
dress’d like a Man, only her Habit was more rich than it was in the
morning, and her dishevell’d Locks of Hair hung down in fine Curls about
her Shoulders; so that _Cupid_ himself was not more tempting when he
appear’d before _Psyche_. Her good Mien, and the graceful Air with which I
saw her dance a Minuet, made me inquire who this pretty Youth was? Count
_Rotofski_, who overheard me, made answer, _The young Man whom you admire
wou’d do you no great harm if you were a Woman, but may possibly hurt you
as the Case stands; but come along with me_, continued he, taking me by
the Hand, _I will make him known to you, then leave you to come off with
him as well as you can_. I guess’d by these Words that the Person he was
going to usher me to was the Countess _Orselska_; and I was confirmed in
my Suspicion when I heard Count _Rotofski_ say to her, _Sister, here is a
Gentleman who has all due Respects for you, and who, I’ll engage will be
ready to serve you in whatever you shall require of him_. Madamoiselle
_Orselska_ smiling at this Discourse, I saluted her with all the Respect
which I ow’d to her Rank, and she receiv’d me in the most obliging manner
possible. I saw her next day in Womens Apparel, and thought her still more
amiable. I visit her every day, and now whenever I go to her I generally
find with her _Charles Lewis_, a younger Prince of the Family of
_Holstein-Beck_, who ’tis said is the happy Man for whom she is design’d
in Marriage[65].

3. The Countess _Moschinski_, Daughter of the Countess of _Cosel_, was
born at _Dresden_, and match’d by the late King to the Count _de
Moschinski_, a _Polish_ Nobleman. Her sober and courteous Deportment, and
the Goodness of her Temper, have procured her both Love and Reverence.

Having now treated of the Princes of the Royal Family, I proceed to give
you an account of the chief Noblemen of the Court; and in the first place,
of the MINISTERS of the CABINET.--These are, 1. _Waldemar_ Baron _de
Lowendahl_ Grand Marshal, Knight of the _Saxon_ Order of the _White
Eagle_, and of the _Danish_ Order of the _Elephant_, who by his Post of
Grand Marshal holds the first Rank at the Court of _Saxony_, because the
Elector is Arch Grand Marshal of the Empire. He is a _Dane_ by birth, and
is descended from a Count of _Guldenlowe_, a natural Son of the
Blood-Royal of _Denmark_. He spent his youthful Days in the Service of the
_States-General_, and was made a Captain in the Blue Guards; which he
afterwards quitted, and went into the Service of the Emperor _Leopold_,
and distinguish’d himself in quality of a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1683, at
the raising of the Siege of _Vienna_; after which he return’d to
_Denmark_, where he serv’d with Honour. But leaving that Court upon some
Disgust, he came into _Saxony_, where _Augustus_ II. declared him
President of the Chamber, which Office he held when the King of _Denmark_
recall’d him home. It was with the Approbation of his Master the King of
_Poland_ that he return’d to _Copenhagen_, where his _Danish_ Majesty gave
him the Command of his Army in _Norway_ against the _Swedes_; which
Commission he discharged with so much Honour, that he was dignify’d with
the Order of the _Elephant_, as he had already been by that of
_Dannebroc_. He might, had he pleased, have enjoy’d the greatest Offices
in _Denmark_; but he had promised _Augustus_ II. not to forsake him, so
that he refus’d all the Advantages which _Frederic_ IV. offer’d him, and
return’d into _Saxony_. After the death of the Count _de Phlug_, the late
King appointed him Grand Marshal, which Office he still executes with
Honour. Tho’ he is now advanced in years he has a sound Constitution, and
the Air, Behaviour, and Way of Thinking of a Man of his Quality. Being
affable and polite, he does the Honours of the Court in a Gentleman-like
manner, for which the Courtiers reverence him, and the King professes an
esteem for him. His Majesty is the sixth King whom this Minister has
serv’d. He has married to his second Wife a Lady of the Family of
_Rantzau_, in the Country of _Holstein_, who bears a valuable Character,
and is as polite as can be desired, speaking _French_ as well as if she
was born at _Versailles_. The Grand Marshal has two Sons by his first
Marriage with a Lady of _Revenclau_: his youngest, _viz._ _Woldemar_ Baron
_de Lowendahl_ is Major-General of the King’s Armies, Inspector General of
the _Saxon_ Infantry, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot. He was fourteen
years old when the Grand Marshal sent him to _Denmark_; where he made a
Campaign at Sea under Admiral _Tordenschild_. At his return to _Dresden_
he carried a Musket, and afterwards pass’d through all the subaltern
Degrees. When he was but a Lieutenant he accompany’d General _Seckendorf_
to _Vienna_, where the Marshal Count _Guido de Staremberg_ gave him a
Company in his Regiment, and he distinguish’d himself in a particular
manner at the Sieges of _Temiswaer_ and _Belgrade_, and in _Sicily_. Since
that, he enter’d into the Service of _Augustus_ II. who gave him a
Regiment. Afterwards he made two Campaigns as a Voluntier with the
Imperialists in _Corsica_; and upon all occasions manifested that Valour,
Skill, and Prudence, as he did lately in the Defence of _Cracow_; where,
with a weak and sickly Garrison, he not only made a vigorous stand against
the Attacks of the Primate’s _Polish_ Adherents, but also obliged them to
retire. This General is so fond of signalizing his Bravery, that he was
scarce return’d from _Poland_, but he went to make the Campaign as a
Voluntier, with the Imperial Army on the _Rhine_. He lives magnificently,
keeps a good Table, and is very civil to Foreigners.

2. _Anthony_ Count de _Lutzelbourg_, who is by birth a _Lorrainer_,
and an exemplary Professor of the _Roman_ Catholic Religion, is
Lieutenant-General of the Forces, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle,
and General of the Horse. He is pretty tall, and has a chearful
Countenance, with a noble easy Behaviour, which shews the Man of Quality.
His Merit procured him the Honour of being the King’s Governour after the
Decease of the Count _de Costa_, which Post he held ’till his Majesty came
of age, when he was appointed Steward of his Houshold, and was as much
esteem’d by their Royal Highnesses as he is valued by the Courtiers, and
belov’d by the Domestics of the Prince who are under his command: but his
frequent Ailments oblig’d him to quit that Office: Nevertheless he was
last year at _Vienna_, where he receiv’d for the King his Master the
Investiture of the Feudatory States of the Empire, and concluded the
Treaty of Alliance still subsisting between the two Courts.

3. _Henry-Frederic_ Count of _Friesland_, is Great Chamberlain, General of
the Infantry, Lieutenant-General of the King’s Forces, and Knight of the
Order of the _White Eagle_. He is descended from a Family which has for a
long time been of illustrious Rank in _Saxony_. He spent part of his Youth
in the Service of _Peter_ the Great, Czar of _Muscovy_, and signaliz’d his
Valour very much at the Battle of _Pultowa_; where _Charles_ XII. King of
_Sweden_ in a few Hours lost all the fruit of nine years Toil, and of an
infinite number of Victories. Soon after this great Battle he shew’d his
Wisdom to be equal to his Bravery at the Battle of _Pruth_; which though
it did not turn out so much to the Czar’s Honour, was altogether as
fortunate to him, since it extricated that Prince out of the worst scrape
that perhaps ever King was reduced to. He enter’d afterwards into the
Service of the late King; who being sensible of his Merit, raised him to
the greatest Dignities of his Court, and married him to one of the
Daughters that he had by the Countess of _Cosel_. The Great Chamberlain,
who has the Looks and Behaviour of a Man of Quality, thinks and acts too
like a Nobleman. Few Persons surpass him in Politeness and Learning: He is
perfect Master of several Languages, and of every thing that forms the
Minister and the General. He loves Literature and the Arts, and was always
their Supporter. He lives handsomely, and has such a Presence as commands
the Veneration of all that have to do with him.

4. _Joseph_ Count _de Gabaleon-Wackerbarth-Salmour_, the adopted Son of
the Velt-Marshal _Augustus Christopher_ Count _de Wackerbarth_ who
succeeded Marshal _de Flemming_ in the chief command of the Troops in
_Saxony_, and was not only Marshal, but a Minister of State, Grand Master
of the Artillery, Governour of _Dresden_, and Knight of the Order of the
_White Eagle_. The Father was born of a good Family in _Mecklembourg_; but
from his very youth he attach’d himself to the Elector of _Saxony_; and by
his own Merit, and the Friendship of his Predecessor Count _Flemming_, he
was raised to the chief Posts in the Army and the Court. In 1709 he had
the Command of the _Saxon_ Troops before _Tournay_, as he had in 1715
before _Strahlsund_, when ’twas besieg’d by the Kings of _Denmark_ and
_Prussia_, and defended by _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_. M. _de
Wackerbarth_ was made Count of the Empire by the King his Master, while
that Prince was Vicar of the Empire, after the death of the Emperor
_Joseph_. After being grac’d with this Dignity, the Count _de
Wackerbarth_ was employ’d in sundry important Negotiations, especially at
_Vienna_; where he married a _Piedmontese_ Lady, the Dowager of _Charles_
Margrave of _Brandenbourg_, Brother to _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_,
who when he was but very young at the University of _Turin_; married her
by the Left-hand, as you know is the Fashion among our Princes when they
marry below themselves. However the Lady went by the Name of Madame _de
Brandenbourg_ to the very day that the Count _de Wackerbarth_ married her,
being so proud of the Title that she was resolv’d never to part with it
’till she was married again: Notwithstanding the advantageous Offers made
to her from the King of _Prussia_ to engage her to renounce it, her
refusal of which was the more generous because it was at a time too when
she was in narrow Circumstances; yet her constant Answer was, that nothing
in the Universe should tempt her to debase herself; and that she had
rather be poor, and pass for the Wife of the Margrave of _Brandenbourg_,
than be rich, and pass for his Mistress. Before she became Madame _de
Brandenbourg_ she was the Widow of a certain Count _de Salmour_, by whom
she had a Son whom she engaged the Count _de Wackerbarth_, when she
married him, to adopt for his own. I confess I never saw this Lady; for at
the time of my former Voyage hither she was at _Vienna_; and now she is
dead. They talk of her still as one of the acutest Women of her time. But
to return to the Marshal; he is very civil, lives with great Splendor, and
his House is open to all Foreigners. He is mighty intimate with the Count
_de Flemming_, Prime Minister and Favourite of the King; so that they
fully contradicted the Proverb, _That Fire and Water can’t agree_; for
Count _Flemming_ was lively almost to the Degree of a Fury, whereas the
Count _de Wackerbarth_, on the contrary, abounds with Phlegm[66]. We go
back now to his adopted Son _Joseph_ above-mention’d, a _Piedmontese_, at
present one of the Ministers of the Cabinet[67].

He is also Knight of the Order of the _White Eagle_, and Governour of his
Royal Highness the Prince Royal and Electoral. He bears the Name and Arms
of _Wackerbarth_, by reason of his being adopted as above by the
Velt-Marshal his Father-in-law; upon whose death, he succeeded to his
Estate. He took to arms betimes; but having receiv’d a Wound in the Foot,
which he feels to this day, he was oblig’d to quit a Profession in which
he distinguish’d himself, and apply’d afterwards to Affairs of State. The
late King sent him to the Courts of _Bavaria_ and _Vienna_, where he
supported the Prerogatives of his Character with Dignity, and gain’d the
extraordinary Esteem of their Imperial Majesties and the Ministers.
_Augustus_ II. recall’d him from _Vienna_, and sent him to _Rome_, to the
new Pope _Clement_ XII. The _Romans_, those Masters in the Art of
Politics, were soon convinced that this Minister knew more than they could
teach him: They admired the Prudence and Resolution with which he behav’d
when the _Sbirri_ presum’d to invade the Franchise of his Quarter; and all
own’d that the most experienced Minister could not have better supported
the Honour of his Master. At his Return from _Rome_, the late King, to the
Satisfaction of all Men, appointed him Governour to Prince _Frederic_, the
present Prince Royal and Electoral; the Count having all the necessary
Qualifications to fill that Post with Honour: For besides a good Share of
Religion, he is a Gentleman of known Candour, great Experience in
Business, and abundance of Good-nature, Politeness, and Modesty: And he is
not only deeply learn’d, but always studious how to answer the great Trust
repos’d in him by their Majesties; and as the Method he takes to instruct
the Prince has won him his Royal Highness’s Esteem and Friendship, so it
cannot fail of procuring him one day the Praise and Gratitude of those who
are concern’d for the Glory of the Royal Family.

When _Augustus_ III. came to the Government he sent the Count, with M. _de
Baudissin_, in Quality of his Plenipotentiaries, to the Republic of
_Poland_; in which Post he answer’d the Expectation which the King had of
his Capacity. His Wisdom got the better of all Opposition; and he had the
advantage of triumphing over the Intrigues and Cabals of the Primate.
After the King had been proclaim’d the Count swore, in his Majesty’s Name,
in the Church at _Warsaw_, to the Observation of the _Pacta Conventa_
drawn up by the Members of the Republic; and then accompanied the Grand
Deputation of the _Polish_ Nobility at _Tarnowitz_. ’Twas he that made
answer, in the Name of their Majesties, to the Harangues of the Bishop of
_Cracow_ declaring the Republic’s Acknowledgement of his Title, and their
Obedience. And the Answer he return’d was in the two Languages in which
the Prelate address’d him: He spoke in _Latin_ for the King, and in
_French_ for the Queen.

The Count being return’d to _Dresden_ since their Majesties Coronation, is
wholly taken up in the Education of the Prince Royal; and his care of him
has been crown’d with such Success, that we may prophesy his Royal
Highness will one day draw down that Blessing of God upon himself, which
is upon the Head of the Just.

5. _Wolff-Henry de Baudissin_, General of the Horse, Colonel of a Regiment
of Carabiniers, and Knight of the Order of the _White Eagle_, and that of
_Dannebroc_, has all the Qualities requisite for a well-born Gentleman,
_viz._ an agreeable Aspect, a good Stature, a noble Air, easy and engaging
Behaviour, approv’d Valour, a Generosity free of all Ostentation; and
finally what is superior to all these Qualities, he has a Fund of Probity
and Candour which nothing can corrupt. He is a Native of _Holstein_, and
spent his early Years in the Service of _Sweden_, and afterwards in that
of the Duke his Sovereign, who gave him a Regiment, with which he serv’d
all the last War in the _Netherlands_, in the Post of Major-General.
_Augustus_ II. calling him to his Service, made him Lieutenant-General of
his Forces, and then General of the Cavalry. When _Augustus_ III. came to
the Government he summon’d him to his Cabinet-Council, and sent him as his
Plenipotentiary to _Poland_, where he had a hand in every Transaction for
the Advantage and Honour of the King. He afterwards commanded the Army
which his Majesty was obliged to carry into his Kingdom for the Defence of
his oppressed Subjects; and there he fell so dangerously ill that he was
obliged to return to _Germany_, to make use of the Waters of _Pyrmont_; by
which he found benefit; and he is now at _Dresden_, where his Seniority
gives him the Command in chief of the Forces.

6. _Alexander-Joseph_ Count _de Sulkowski_, Starost of _Sokolnick_, Chief
Huntsman of _Lithuania_, Master of the Horse, Great Master of the
Wardrobe, Major-General of the King’s Forces, Colonel of the Crown-Guards
and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the _White Eagle_,
is a _Polander_. Being taken into Service very young as Page to the King,
then Prince Royal and Electoral, he accompanied him in his Travels, and
there acquir’d a good Fund of Knowledge. His great Sobriety, his
Assiduity, his Application to the discharge of his Duties, his Sense, and
his sincere Attachment to Religion, won his Master’s Heart, of which he
keeps possession even to this day; with a Distinction that does him the
more Honour, because he derives it from the King’s thorough conviction of
his Merit.

The Count is of a good Stature, has a noble and modest Air, and a Candour
in his Conversation and his Action, which is very engaging. He is civil,
and makes no other Use of his Favour but to do as much Good as he can,
without prejudicing the Interests of the King whom he serves with
Gratitude, Affection, and Zeal. He is a generous Minister, and his House
is open to all Persons of Distinction.

After he had serv’d as a Page, he was by the late King made a Gentleman of
the Bed-Chamber; and not long after that, his present Majesty, who was
then still Prince Royal, declar’d him Director of his Hunting Equipage,
and trusted him with the Management of his Domestic Affairs. The late King
also appointed him one of his Chamberlains.

At the famous Camp at _Zeithaim_, the Count commanded an Independent
Company. He discover’d so great Application, and such a happy Genius for
the Art of War, that the late King, whose Penetration nothing cou’d
escape, took it for a good Omen, and gave him a Regiment of Foot. Thus did
the Count make his way towards the splendid Fortune which he now enjoys.
M. _de Bruhl_ resigning his Post of Great Master of the Wardrobe, soon
after the King’s Accession to the Government, his Majesty gave that Post
to his Favourite. He afterwards call’d him to his Cabinet-Council; and at
his Coronation, he made him Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. After
the Court’s Return from _Cracow_, the Count went to the Army before
_Dantzic_; where he gave demonstration of his being as good a Soldier as
he is an able Statesman. It being not compatible with his Ministry to be
long absent, and _Dantzic_ being on the point of capitulating, he went to
give the King an account of the Success of its Siege, and the Prosperity
of his Arms. He accompanied his Majesty to the Abbey of _Oliva_, and by
his Prudence contributed very much to put such _Polish_ Lords in mind of
their Obedience, who had thought of being exempted from it. And his only
View being more and more to deserve that Favour with which the King
honours him, and being desirous of having it in his power to serve him, as
well in his Armies, as in his Cabinet, he went last of all to the Imperial
Army, in order to qualify himself for a Command under Prince _Eugene_ of

To complete the good Fortune of this Count, he married a Lady, who,
besides her Birth and personal Charms, has a Character which gains her the
Applause and Veneration of all that know her. She is hereditary Baroness
of _Stein_; and when he marry’d her, she was Lady of Honour to the Queen.
They are both Members of the _Roman_ Catholic Church.

7. _Henry de Bruhl_, Knight of the Orders of _Poland_ and _Prussia_, a
Member of the Privy-Council, President of the Chamber of Finances,
Director General of the Excise, and Vice-President of the Taxes, is the
Son of _John de Bruhl_, who was of the Privy-Council to _Augustus_ II. and
Grand Marshal and Director of the Privy-Council to the Duke Regent of
_Saxe-Weissenfels_. He is by Birth a _Saxon_, and has a Brother who is
Knight of the Teutonick Order. He made great progress at _Leipsic_ in the
_Belles Lettres_, and in the Exercises suitable to a Person of his
Extraction. His Recreations there, were Music, and Conversation with
Persons of his own Taste. He sometimes made Verses, which were esteem’d
for the bright Thoughts in them, and the Harmony of the Versification.
When he quitted _Leipsic_, he was enter’d Page to the late King: In this
Post he behaved with so much Sobriety and Assiduity, that his Majesty soon
distinguish’d him from the Croud, admitted him to Familiarity with him;
and finding he had a sound Judgment, a quick Apprehension, a Penetration
beyond what might be expected from one of his Age, and that he was a
Person of Discretion, and inviolable Secrecy, join’d with a noble Freedom,
and such a happy way of expressing himself as to render the most difficult
Subjects easy and pleasant; he readily judg’d that such a one was fit to
be employ’d in great Affairs. He had a mind to instruct him; and having
nominated him one of the Gentlemen of his Bed-Chamber, he had him under
his Eye. M. _de Bruhl_ improv’d so well from the Lessons of this great
Master, so thoroughly study’d his Humour, and so exactly suited himself to
his Genius, that he made himself necessary. His Application, his Love to
Business, and the Ease with which he dispatch’d it, won him the intire
Confidence of _Augustus_ II. who declar’d him Great Master of the
Wardrobe, and a Privy Counsellor; and to him he moreover committed the
Direction and Regulation of Affairs, Foreign and Domestic. Never had the
King shewn more Affection or Esteem for any of his Favourites; yet this
Nobleman took ne’er the more State upon him for it, but living always
humble, polite, and ready to do Services, he made himself Friends, and
secur’d himself by that means against all the Hatred and Envy with which
Courtiers are very ready to treat those who are in Power.

When the King of _Prussia_ went to the Camp at _Zeithaim_, he conferr’d
his Order of the Black Eagle upon M. _de Bruhl_: The late King also
honour’d him with that of the White Eagle; but this was at a time when
this Minister had no Relish for Honours, and wou’d have been glad to have
renounc’d them for ever, if he cou’d thereby have prolong’d the Days of a
Master so worthy of Immortality.

It was in those last Moments, when the Professions of Friendship cannot be
so much as suspected, that _Augustus_ II. gave his Favourite his Order, as
a certain Token that he retain’d a value for him even to Death. This great
King having finish’d his glorious Career, M. _de Bruhl_, without suffering
himself to be too much cast down, knowing that an Ocean of Tears was too
little to shed for the Loss he had sustain’d, thought of nothing more than
paying the due Devoirs to the deceas’d Sovereign, and to the Prince, his
Son and Successor. Having therefore caus’d the Corpse of the former to be
embalm’d, and put a Seal upon all the Effects which belong’d to him,
besides securing the Jewels and Papers of Consequence; he came to
_Dresden_ to join the Elector, now King of _Poland_, who received him with
such Marks of Kindness, as were enough to have put the deceas’d Monarch
out of the Minister’s Thoughts, if his Gratitude had not dictated to him,
that such a King and such a Master ought never to be forgot.

The King confirm’d him in all the Employments and Honours which he had
held by the Favour of _Augustus_ II. and moreover appointed him one of the
Ministers of his Cabinet. Some time after this, his Majesty declar’d him
President of the Chamber of Finances; consequently, this great, this true
King, by distinguishing Merit, did farther Honour to the Memory of his
august Father, since he did what that magnanimous Prince wou’d have
undoubtedly done for his Favourite.

At this time the Minister resign’d to the King his Office of Great Master
of the Wardrobe, which his various Occupations did not permit him to
manage with that Care he thought was necessary. After the Return of the
Court from _Cracow_, whither this Gentleman had accompany’d the King, he
marry’d the Countess _de Collowrat_, one of the Queen’s Ladies of Honour,
whose high Birth was supported with such personal Qualities as can never
be enough commended. The Bride being a _Roman_ Catholic, the Ceremony of
the Marriage was performed at _Moritzbourg_, in presence of their
Majesties, by the Bishop of _Cracow_. Never was a Couple better match’d;
the Lady’s Person being a Collection of Charms, and M. _de Bruhl_ a Man of
as noble Presence as one wou’d wish to see; which he generally sets off
with a rich Dress of a good Fancy. No body at Court surpasses him in a
generous way of living; for he keeps a noble Table, and at his House
Persons of Distinction have their Assemblies. This Minister has something
so attracting in his Looks and Behaviour that he easily wins the Hearts of
People who are the most indifferent to him. He is so polite, affable, and
engaging, that he listens attentively to those who lay their Wants before
him, returns them courteous and distinct Answers; and whenever he is
constrain’d to give a Denial, he does it in such a manner as plainly
demonstrates his Concern that ’tis not in his power to oblige. And ’tis
owing to this Good-nature of his, and to the Kindness with which he treats
his Inferiors, that he can boast of possessing the Love and Veneration of
the Public.

In short, the Count _de Sulkowski_ who has the first place in the Cabinet,
and this Gentleman who has the second, are the Ministers who decide all
Affairs with the King’s good Pleasure. They are Gentlemen who know
nothing of Jealousy nor Envy; and, as they act from one and the same
Principle, so they have both the same View, which is to increase, if
possible, the Glory of the King, and the Happiness of the Government.

The Office of all the above-mention’d, as Ministers of the Cabinet, is so
eminent at this Court that it gives those who are invested with it the
Precedence of all the Generals, both of Horse and Foot.

Besides these, there are three other Ministers of the Cabinet, who, tho’
retir’d from Court, enjoy the Rank and Pensions annex’d to the Ministry.
They are the Count _de Manteuffel_, the Count _de Promnitz_, and the
Marquiss _de Fleuri_.

_Ernest_ Count _de Manteuffel_, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is
descended of a Family which has been for a long time of distinguish’d Rank
in _Prussian Pomerania_. He was Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to _Frederic_
I. King of _Prussia_. Certain Ballads being handed about at Court, which
were insulting Lampoons upon the Count _de Wartemberg_, the King’s Prime
Minister and Favourite, M. _de Manteuffel_ was charged with being the
Author of ’em; who knowing that the Favourite wou’d not put up with the
Affront, retir’d to _Saxony_, where the Count _de Flemming_, who then bore
the greatest sway at the King of _Poland_’s Court, receiv’d him as his
Countryman, and employ’d him in foreign Affairs; which he managed with the
Approbation both of his Majesty and the foreign Ministers he had to treat
with. M. _de Manteuffel_ kept in with the Favourite without giving into
the Flattery which that Minister expected from his Creatures; and while
the King was Vicar of the Empire, he made M. _de Manteuffel_ Count of the
Empire. His Majesty had some time before honour’d him with the Order of
the White Eagle, and preferr’d him to his Cabinet-Council; and after
Marshal _Flemming_’s Death, M. _de Manteuffel_[68] had the principal
Direction of the foreign Affairs. But this able Minister, and one of the
chief Ornaments and Confidents of the late King’s Court, retir’d from it
in 1730, to his Estate in _Pomerania_, and now resides at _Berlin_; where
he still enjoys a Pension of 24000 Crowns, or 12000 Rixdollars, which was
secur’d to him by the present Elector. It adds to his Character, that
after he was retired, the Want of him was lamented.

He is pretty tall, well set, has a grand Air, and is one of the handsomest
Men that I have seen. His Behaviour is noble and easy, he has a good Fund
of Learning, an extraordinary Memory, and such a Happiness of expressing
himself that when he talks he never fails to give Pleasure. He lives
nobly, and when he was at _Dresden_ his House was open to all Persons of
Distinction and Merit. He married a Baroness of _Pludouska_, who is, as
well as himself, of the _Lutheran_ Religion.

_Erdmann_, Count _de Promnitz_, is more at his Estate than at Court; he is
also Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. He married a Princess of
_Saxe-Weissenfels_. He always distinguish’d himself by his Zeal, and his
Attachment to the Royal Family; of which he gave Proofs by raising an
Independent Company at his own Expence, for the Service of the late King,
which he sent to reinforce his Majesty’s Troops in the Camp before
_Zeithaim_: And for the same Use he has since rais’d a Regiment of Horse.

_Francis Vicardel_, Marquiss _de Fleuri_ and _de Beaufort_, is a
_Savoyard_. He was the King of _Sardinia_’s Minister, and his Envoy to the
Court of _Vienna_, when the late King of _Poland_ invited him into his
Service, admitted him to his Cabinet-Council, and made him a Knight of
his Order. This Minister is endow’d with all the Talents that can be
desir’d in a Man who has an Employment. He has an agreeable Aspect,
engaging Manners, a just Discernment, a quick Apprehension, and a very
even Temper. But his frequent Ailments disabling him from the Exercise of
his Talents, he desir’d, and obtain’d leave to retire to his Estate in
_Savoy_; and the late King, who had always a great and noble Soul, being
desirous that he shou’d be a Witness of his Goodness and Royal
Magnificence, secur’d the Enjoyment of his Pensions to him; which the
present King has also been pleased to confirm.

Another of the Cabinet Ministers, who was also formerly Prime Minister to
the late King of _Poland_, was the Count _de Hoym_, descended from one of
the principal Families in _Saxony_, and Brother to the Gentleman that
married Madame _de Cosel_. I knew him intimately before he was advanced to
the Ministry, at _Paris_, and at _Vienna_, as well as here at _Dresden_.
You must have seen him in _Silesia_, where he has a very fine Estate.
There is not a Minister at this Court more civil, more learned, or a
better Friend to learned Men. During his long Residence at _Paris_ as
Ambassador from the King of _Poland_, his House was open to all Men of
Learning as it is now at _Dresden_; and he had the splendid Title given
him of the _Mecænas_ of _Saxony_[69].

They who are actually PRIVY COUNSELLORS, or MINISTERS OF STATE here, are
eight in number. They are descended from some of the best Families in
_Saxony_, and profess the Protestant Religion. The Detail of their
Characters, their Experience, and their Merit, wou’d oblige me to
transgress the Limits of this Work, were I only to treat of those who are
bound by their Employments to attend the King’s Person, and who compose
his Majesty’s Houshold. But for the Reputation of the Privy Council, ’tis
proper just to observe that all its Members are Subjects who do Honour to
the King’s Choice; that they are vigilant for promoting the Good of the
Public, and that in their Deliberations they manifest their Zeal for the
King, and their Affection to their Country.

The President of this Council, is _Alexander de Miltitz de Scharffenberg_,
who is a Native of _Saxony_, the same that was the King’s Governour; of
whom so much has been already said, that I avoid to make any more
particular mention of him here.

Two of the Privy Counsellors are Counsellors of the Conferences, which are
held in presence of his Majesty, _viz._ _Gotlob-Frederic_ Baron _de
Gersdorff_, and _Bernard_ Baron _de Zech_. The former comes from an
ancient Family of Distinction, which has given several great Men to this
State. The latter has acquitted himself with Success in the several
Negociations wherein he has been employ’d. They are both laborious,
vigilant, upright Men, and of great Experience in Business.

_The King’s_ GREAT OFFICERS_ are,_

I. The GRAND MARSHAL; which Office is now held by _Waldemar_, Baron _de
Lowendahl_, who has under him

                   The Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber,
                               The Pages,
                             The Huntsmen,
              The Musicians of the Chapel and the Chamber,
                              The Dancers,
                             The Comedians,
                            The Trumpeters,
                              The Footmen,
                              The _Turks_,
                            The _Heydukes_,
                            The Messengers,
                             The _Negroes_;

and in short, a considerable number of other Officers and Domestics of the
King’s Houshold. His Jurisdiction extends not only over those that I have
mention’d, but also over all Foreigners of Quality who happen to be at
_Dresden_; and there is a Tribunal or Court for this purpose, of which the
Great Chamberlain, the Great Master of the Kitchens, the Great Cup-Bearer
and the Marshal of the Court are Members.

II. The GREAT CHAMBERLAIN; who is at present _Henry-Frederic_ Count of
_Friesland_. ’Tis he that receives the Ambassadors and other foreign
Ministers, and introduces them to an Audience of the King. He has under
him the several Chamberlains.

III. The MASTER of the HORSE, _Alexander-Joseph_ Count _de Sulkowski_, is
in possession of this Office, which is one of the best and noblest
Employments at Court, the Person who is invested with it being serv’d by
the King’s Equipages and Livery, and having the disposal of all the
inferior Offices appertaining to the Stables. He has under him the
Equerries, the Prickers, and all the Workmen employ’d for the Service of
the Stables, and the making of the Equipages.

He that is the only chief Equerry is _Adolphus de Bruhl_, one of the
King’s Chamberlains. He officiates in the absence of the Master of the
Horse, is Brother to _Henry de Bruhl_ Minister of the Cabinet, and
resembles him in Candour and Integrity. His Honesty, which is imprinted on
his very Countenance, reflects a Lustre on all his Actions. He is so
sensible of the Charms of Friendship that he fulfils all the Obligations
of it; and besides those Qualities of the Mind, he makes an agreeable
Appearance, is dextrous in his Exercises, has a solid Relish of the Arts
and Sciences, is perfect Master of Music, and plays on several

He was heretofore in the Service of the Duke Regent of _Weissenfels_, and
next in that of the Duke of _Saxe-Weimar_, who had such an Esteem for his
Merit that to him he referred the Direction of his Court. Nevertheless he
left this Prince, and enter’d into the Service of the late King, who
conferred those Employments on him which he now enjoys. Since he came to
Court, he married a young Lady of Quality of the Family of _Opelen_, whose
Fortune and Charms into the bargain made her such a considerable Match
that she did not want Suitors.

IV. The GREAT HUNTSMAN. The Gentleman who at present possesses this
Office, one of the most lucrative at Court, is _Charles de Leubnitz_. It
gives him the Superintendance over all the Officers of the Venery, in
which Number are included the Rangers, the Verdurers, the Gentlemen and
Pages, and above a hundred Huntsmen or other Persons depending on them.
The Great Huntsman is a Protestant, as well as his Lady, who is of the
Family of _Schaurot_.

V. The GREAT MASTER of the KITCHENS is _Adolphus_ Baron _de Seyffertitz_,
of a Family which has been for a long time distinguish’d in this
Electorate. His first Step at Court was in the Employment of Gentleman of
the Bed-Chamber. _Augustus_ II. at the request of the late Czar _Peter the
Great_, plac’d him Governor to the Czarowitz when that young Prince came
into _Germany_. He continued in this Post till after the Marriage of the
Czarowitz to the Princess of _Brunswic-Wolfembuttle-Blanckenbourg_. After
his return to _Saxony_ he accompanied the late King to _Berlin_, when his
Majesty together with _Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_, went thither to
make a visit to _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_. In 1711, M. _de
Seyffertitz_ was appointed Marshal of the Embassy which _Augustus_ II.
sent to _Francfort_, for the Election of an Emperor. His Imperial Majesty
_Charles_ VI. at the Ceremony of his Coronation, made him a Knight of the
Empire, and at length the late King made him one of his Chamberlains, and
then Great Master of the Kitchens, which Office he manages with Dignity
and Politeness. He married a Lady of the Family of _Haxthausen_, Widow of
the Count _de Beichling_ the Great Faulconer. They are both of the
_Lutheran_ Communion.

In the absence of the Grand Marshal, the Great Master of the Kitchens
officiates, and at the grand Ceremonies wears like him a Staff tipp’d with
Silver gilt. Under his Province are the Comptrollers of the Kitchen and of
the Houshold, the Clerks of the Kitchen, the Purveyors, the Cooks and
Turn-spits, the Pastry-Cooks, the Pursers, Fishmongers, _&c._

VI. The GREAT CUP-BEARER is _John-Adolphus de Haugwitz_, a Gentleman of
good Extraction. His Father was Grand Marshal to the late King. He is a
handsome Man, has a noble Mien, performs all sorts of Exercises with a
Grace and with Dexterity, and does the Honours of the Court in a becoming
manner. He is of the Protestant Religion, and married to a Lady of the
Family of _Beist_. His Employment sets him above all the Officers of the
King’s Buttery, Cellar, and Pantry. In the absence of the Grand Marshal
and the Master of the Kitchens, he officiates for them, and at great
Ceremonies he carries like them a Staff of Silver gilt.

VII. The GREAT FAULCONER is an Office held by _Anthony_ Count _de
Moschinski_, a _Polish_ Nobleman, and a _Roman_ Catholic. He was formerly
Page to the King, and attended his Majesty in his Tours to _France_ and
_Italy_, where he acquir’d great Politeness, and a very engaging
Deportment. At his return to _Dresden_, he was made one of the Gentlemen
of the Bed-Chamber to the King, who was then the Prince Royal. Afterwards
the late King appointed him one of his Chamberlains; and when the Count
_de Fitztuhm_ unhappily lost his life at _Warsaw_, his Majesty who had
given his Office of Great Chamberlain to the Count _de Friesland_,
bestow’d that of _Great Faulconer_, which was held by that Nobleman, upon
the Count _de Moschinski_, who was grac’d almost at the same time with the
Order of the _White Eagle_, and the Post of Treasurer to the Court of
_Poland_. His Majesty also granted him in Marriage one of his natural
Children, the Daughter of the Countess _de Cosel_. Never was a Person more
deserving of Honours than the Great Faulconer, who is truly magnificent,
and makes such an Appearance, that he does an Honour to his Character. By
his Behaviour he engages the Friendship and Regard of all that have to do
with him. He has under his command the Officers of the Faulconry or Mews
where the Hawks are kept, the Faulconers, and in general all those Persons
that have any relation to the Faulconry.

VIII. The GREAT MASTER of the WARDROBE is _Alexander-Joseph_ Count _de
Sulkowski_. He has under his Jurisdiction the _Catholic_ Clergy, the
_Physicians_ of the _Body_, the _Footmen_, the _Secretaries_, _Writers_
and _Clerks_ of the _Chamber_, the _Inspectors_ of the _Chamber_ of
_Curiosities_, the _Ushers_ of the _Chamber_ and of the _King’s Closet_,
his _Peruke-makers_, _Surgeons_ and _Taylors_, the _Negroes_, _Dwarfs_,
and _Pages_ of the _Back-Stairs_, the _Architects_, _Engineers_ and

IX. The POST-MASTER-GENERAL is _Maurice-Charles_ Count _de Linar_, who is
also one of the Chamberlains, and a Knight of the Order of St. _John_. He
is descended from a Family which has been of Eminence for a long time in
this Electorate. His good Mien is answerable to his Birth, and by his
Politeness, his Manners, and his Expences, he does an honour to the Prince
that employs him. The King, after his Coronation, sent him to _Muscovy_ to
notify the Accomplishment of that Ceremony to the Empress of the
_Russians_, and he still continues at that Princess’s Court, to take care
of his Master’s Interests, which he does in a way that cannot but turn to
his own Advantage, and the Honour of the King.[70] This Gentleman was also
employ’d by the late King at the Court of _Prussia_, and at the _British_
Court when at _Hanover_, and always discharg’d his Commissions with such
Success as was crown’d with his Majesty’s Approbation.

X. The MARSHAL of the COURT is _John-George d’Einsiedel_, who is also a
Privy-Counsellor, and a Gentleman of a good Family, his Ancestors having
possessed the chief Offices of the State. He has visited the principal
Courts of _Europe_, where he contracted that polite Turn which is seen in
his Behaviour. He is a handsome Man, has a noble Air, and his Demeanour is
answerable. He knows a great deal, and performs all the academical
Exercises very well. He married the Daughter of the General Count _de
Flemming_ Governor of _Leipsic_, who was a rich Heiress, and to be valued
for the Qualities of her Mind. The Marshal of the Court and his Lady are
both of the _Lutheran_ Communion. His Office joins him in Commission with
the Grand Marshal, the Great Master of the Kitchens, and the Great
Cup-Bearer; and like those Officers he carries the short Staff of Silver
gilt at the grand Ceremonies. ’Tis commonly he that makes the

_Curt d’Einsiedel_ Marshal of the Court, and one of the Chamberlains, is
remarked for his genteel Mien and Extraction. His good Qualities and
Deportment render him worthy of all Employments. He is of the establish’d
Religion of _Saxony_, and lately married Madamoiselle _de Schoneberg de
Maxen_, whose Personal Charms are an Ornament to the Court.

_Ernest-Ferdinand d’Ermandsdorff_, Marshal of the King’s Houshold, and one
of the Chamberlains, has procur’d himself Esteem by his Merit as well as
his good Birth and Breeding. Besides his Knowledge of various kinds which
qualifies him for Business, he is Master of several Languages,
particularly the _French_. He married a Lady of the Family of _Hesler_,
and they are both of the _Lutheran_ Religion.

XI. The CHAMBERLAINS. Of these there are too many to be all mention’d
here, so that I shall only take notice of the twelve Pensioners who are in
waiting about their Majesties, and without regarding the Seniority of
their Admittance. They commonly attend the King and Queen, each a whole
Week in their turn, and have the Rank of Major-Generals. The finest
Prerogative of their Employment; is the Honour of eating with their
Majesties when they are in Waiting, and of being the Depositaries of the
Petitions which are presented to the King in his Passage.

1. _Henry Rodolph de Schonfeld_, Lord of _Lowenitz_, is the King’s first
Chamberlain. He has a fine Presence and Behaviour, and a sweet and amiable
Temper. He keeps a handsome Table and Equipage, suitable to his Fortune.
He attended the King, by his Majesty’s Order, to _Cracow_, and lastly to

2. _Helmuth de Plesk_ is of a Family in the Dutchy of _Holstein_, of some
Note for their great Estate there, and for the Rank they bear at the Court
of _Denmark_, where several Lords of _Plesk_ are in the Ministry. The
Gentleman here mention’d is actually the King’s Envoy Extraordinary to the
Court of _Denmark_.

3. _Augustus-Henry Gottlob_, Count _de Callenberg_, is of this Electorate,
where his Family has for a long time enjoy’d a considerable Rank, and a
fine Estate. He has been the King’s Envoy Extraordinary to the Courts of
_France_, _Brussels_, _Cologn_, _Triers_, and the Elector _Palatine_, to
notify the Death of the late King, and the Accession of their present
Majesties to the Electorate. He married the Countess of _Bose_, lives
nobly, and adorns the Court by his Politeness. He is of the Protestant

4. _John-George de Carlowitz_ is of the same Religion. He is a _Saxon_,
and married to Madamoiselle _de Neitsch_. He has a peculiar Talent of
gaining the Love of all Mankind; which he owes to his Travels, and his
natural Genius.

5. _Frederic-Augustus de Brandstein_, after having finish’d his Studies at
_Wittenberg_, travell’d to good purpose to the principal Countries of
_Europe_. At his return the late King declar’d him a Gentleman of his
Bed-Chamber, and some time after one of his Chamberlains. He is well
descended, and what is convenient for a Courtier, he adheres to the
Religion which is uppermost in the State.

6. _Detler-Henry d’Einsiedel_, Brother to the Marshal of the Court,
honours his Name by his personal Qualities. He is a handsome tall
Gentleman, has a grand Presence, and few Gentlemen surpass him in Good
Manners, Address, and polite Literature. He study’d at _Wittenberg_, and
afterwards made a Visit to the principal Courts of _Europe_: The last he
made was to that of _Sweden_, whither he was sent by the King to notify
the Death of his late Majesty, and the Accession of his present Majesty to
the Electorate.

7. _Sigismond d’Arnim_, is not only one of the King’s Chamberlains, but
Colonel of a Regiment of Horse. He is of an ancient Family which has Lands
in _Lusatia_. His Employments are owing both to his Birth and personal
Merit. He is of the Religion of the Country.

8. _Maximilian_, Count _d’Herzan_, is of _Bohemia_. The late Countess his
Mother was the Queen’s first Lady of Honour, and attended her Majesty
hither from _Vienna_. He is able to cut a Figure at Court, but is absent
above half of his time; and is a _Roman_ Catholic.

9. _Charles-Christian de Minckwitz_, is a Gentleman of a fine Mien. As he
has been a great Traveller, he has acquir’d a great share of Knowledge and
Politeness. He was born a _Saxon_, but has embrac’d the _Roman_ Catholic
Faith; tho’ he has defeated himself by it of the Reversion of a
considerable Inheritance.

10. _Henry-Augustus de Breitenbauch_, is a Gentleman of fine Sense and
Manners suitable to his Extraction. Such is his good Taste and Skill in
Music, that he has been singled out for the Direction of the King’s
Pleasures. He is of the Communion of the Country, and marry’d to a Lady of
the Family of _Schonberg_.

11. _Nicholas-Schwizinski_ is a Native of _Poland_; he has valuable
Qualities, and a great Attachment to the _Roman_ Catholic Religion.

12. _N. N. de Sehgutt-Stanislawski_ is of a Family which was formerly
possess’d of a great Estate in _Silesia_, with the Title of the Counts _de
Sehgutt_, till the Conquest of the Country by the _Teutonic_ Knights, when
his Ancestors remov’d to _Prussia_; and spreading afterwards in _Poland_,
they assum’d the Name of _Stanislawski_, as what was more agreeable to the
_Poles_. This Chamberlain is a Person of strict Honour and Integrity,
without any manner of Guile. He spent his Youth at the Academy of _Berlin_
which was erected by King _Frederic_ I. and afterwards enter’d as
Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to _Augustus_ II. who not many Years after
made him a Chamberlain of _Poland_, and put him upon the Establishment of
_Saxony_; and when the present King came to the Government, he continued
him in his Employment. His Majesty also made choice of him to attend him
to _Cracow_, and lastly to _Oliva_.

XII. Of the STEWARD of the QUEEN’S HOUSHOLD. Since the Queen’s Arrival at
_Dresden_, there have been four Stewards of her Majesty’s Houshold. The
Count _de Diedrichstein_ was the first that had this Place, which he
resign’d for the Grand Priory of _Bohemia_. His Successor was the Count
_de Konigsegg_ who actually commands the Emperor’s Army in _Lombardy_.
This General being recall’d to _Vienna_, was replac’d by the Count _de
Wratislau_, and he by the Count _de Waldstein_ who lately quitted that
Post to go and take possession of the Office of _Landshauptmann_, or
Intendant of _Silesia_, which was conferr’d on him by the Emperor. The
Count _de Wratislaw_, who has the care of his Imperial Majesty’s Affairs
at this Court, officiates there again as Steward. This is the Officer who
leads the Queen, and gives Orders to all her Officers and Domestics, and
who must be apply’d to by those that solicite for an Audience of her

XIII. The _Queen’s first Lady of Honour_, is _Theresa_ Baroness of
_Stein_, and Countess Dowager of _Collowrat_; who honours her Station by
her Virtues, and by the Dignity with which she fills it. The late Count
_de Collowrat_ her Husband was Great Chamberlain of _Bohemia_, and one of
the chief Noblemen of that Kingdom. This Lady, his Relict, is a _Roman_
Catholic, and is such in an exemplary manner. Those Ladies who want to
kiss the Queen’s Hand, or to pay their Duty to her, must apply to this
Lady, who introduces and presents them. She has the Precedence before all
other Ladies, and only yields it to the Princesses of the Blood.

XIV. Of the _Governess of the Ladies of Honour, and of the Ladies of
Honour themselves_. In the absence of the first Lady of Honour, the
Governess of the Ladies officiates. The Baroness Dowager of _Rohr_
worthily fills this Station, and has under her six Ladies, two of whom,
_viz._ the Countesses of _Waldstein_ and _Kokersowitz_, are Ladies of the
Bed-Chamber, a Title which procures them Admittance to the Queen’s Closet.
All the Ladies of Honour must always appear in the Court-Dress. Their
manner of Living is such that it obliges Calumny itself to respect them.

XV. Of the _Lords and Ladies that are attach’d to the Court by their
Offices, or by the Favours of the King_.

Tho’ the _Polish_ Lords cannot be put upon the Establishment of the Court
of _Saxony_, that there may be nothing in common between the two States,
yet it may be thought inexcusable not to mention in this place
_John-Alexander Lipski_, Bishop of _Cracow_, Duke of _Servia_, and Great
Chancellor of _Poland_; not only because this Prelate, who is descended
from one of the best Families in the Kingdom, was appointed Bishop of
_Cracow_ by the late King, but because he has given signal Proofs of his
Gratitude and Attachment to the august Family of his Benefactor. The
Virtues of this Gentleman intitle him to Respect: He is pious without
Hypocrisy, generous without Ostentation, magnificent without Pageantry,
officious meerly for the Pleasure of obliging, a Courtier without
Servility, a Man strictly attach’d to his King and his Country, learned
without being positive, a great Orator, a good Bishop, and a wise
Minister, always ready to embrace a good Proposal, and firm to support it,
laborious, vigilant, acting only out of Principle, and by consequence
susceptible of Friendship, and scorning Revenge. The late King, out of his
Esteem for the Qualities of this Prelate, made him Bishop of _Cracow_,
Great Chancellor of _Poland_, and honour’d him with his Order of the White
Eagle. By this means he so rivetted him to his Interest, and to that of
the Prince his Son, that after his Majesty’s Decease, his most Reverend
Highness directed Affairs in such a manner that the Republic chose his Son
for their King. _Augustus_ II. being proclaim’d accordingly, the Prince
and Bishop was appointed Head of the Embassy which the States of the
Kingdom sent to the new Monarch at _Tarnowitz_, to carry him the Diploma
of his Election. He spoke upon this occasion with a noble Eloquence,
rendering to their Majesties all due Respects, and yet maintaining the
Dignity of the most Serene Republic. Having discharg’d this Commission,
he went before the King to _Cracow_, made his Entry there, and took
possession of the Bishoprick. Some days after this, he consecrated and
crown’d their Majesties in his Metropolis. When the King return’d to
_Saxony_, the Prelate followed him, and attended him to _Oliva_; and ’twas
he that receiv’d the Allegiance and Homage of the _Dantzickers_ to his
Majesty. He is since come hither to rejoin the Court, is belov’d,
reverenc’d, and every one does Justice to his Virtues.

_Charles-Lewis_, Prince of _Holstein-Beck_, Colonel in the Service of the
King, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is the second Son of the
late _Lewis-Frederic_ Veldt-Marshal of _Prussia_, Governour of
_Koningsberg_, and Knight of the Order of the Elephant. This Prince
married _Anne_ Countess of _Orselska_, the legitimated Daughter of the
late King.

_George-Ignatius_, Prince _de Lubomirski_, Sword-Bearer of the Crown,
Lieutenant-General of the King’s Forces, Colonel of the Life-Guards, and
Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is descended from a Family of very
great Distinction in _Poland_. After he return’d from his Travels, being
attach’d to the Court of _Augustus_ II. he married the Daughter of the
Count _de Fitztuhm_, who was Great Chamberlain; a Lady of such Beauty,
such personal Charms, and such fine Sense, that she engages the Veneration
of all that know her. Prince _Lubomirski_ is a jolly handsome Man, very
polite, thinks and acts agreeable to his Birth, has a good share of
Literature, and is perfect Master of Music. He lives in a handsome manner
very suitable to his Rank.

The _Princess_ of _Teschen_ is a _Polish_ Lady, and ally’d to the greatest
Families in the Kingdom. Her Uncle was the famous Cardinal _Radjowski_,
Archbishop of _Gnesna_, and Primate of the Kingdom. She was formerly
marry’d to Prince _Lubomirski_, Great Chamberlain of the Crown; but the
Marriage was dissolved, so that she quitted the Name of _Lubomirski_ for
that of _Teschen_, which she still bears, tho’ she afterwards marry’d
Prince _Lewis_ of _Wirtemberg_. This Princess supports her Rank with
Dignity, has a grand Air, is respected for a noble distinguish’d and
engaging Behaviour, and lives in so handsome a manner, that she is one of
the most shining Ornaments of this Court.

_Josepha_ Countess _de Lagnasco_ is the Daughter of the Count _de
Wallenstein_, who was Great Chamberlain to the Emperor _Joseph_, and one
of the most worthy Noblemen of the Imperial Court, by _Eleonora_ Countess
of _Losenstein_; a Lady whose Memory is with Justice rever’d by all
_Vienna_. The Countess _de Lagnasco_ was the Widow of Count _Thaun_, when
she marry’d the late Count _de Lagnasco_, Minister of the Cabinet to
_Augustus_ II. General of the _Saxon_ Cavalry, Captain of the
Horse-Guards, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. Since that
Nobleman’s Decease, which was in _April_ 1732, his Widow has always liv’d
at _Dresden_; where she enjoys the Esteem of their Majesties, and the
Veneration of the Courtiers. This Countess is Mistress of several
Languages to Perfection, thoroughly understands Music, and sings with
Grace and Method. Her noble generous way of living, and her graceful and
distinguish’d Behaviour cannot be express’d, nor indeed equall’d to any
thing but the Goodness of her Temper. The late Count _de Lagnasco_ is of a
good Stature, and his Behaviour polite and civil. I think you know that he
was of a Family in _Piedmont_ of some Distinction. How, or when he first
enter’d into the Service of the King of _Poland_, I cannot tell you; but I
know that he presently insinuated himself into his Master’s Favour, by
his very great Assiduity, agreeable Temper, and by a vast Complaisance to
enter into his Pleasures. He establish’d himself so firmly in the King’s
Favour that the Count _de Flemming_ look’d upon him as the only Rival he
had to fear, and therefore he never much lik’d him. The Count _de
Lagnasco_ was employ’d in several Embassies; and when he had finish’d that
at _Rome_, which was his last, there was a Talk that he was to go
Ambassador to _Vienna_, and that the young Count _de Wackerbart_ was to go
to _Rome_. I must further acquaint you that M. _de Lagnasco_ was happy in
all respects, even in Marriage, not only with his first, but his second
Wife, who, when he married her, was a young, rich, brisk Widow. His first
Wife was the Daughter of the Count _de Noyelles_, Lieutenant-General in
_Holland_, a Lady of great Virtue, esteemed by all the People at the
_Hague_, and possess’d of a considerable Estate, of which, dying young,
and without Issue, she made her Husband sole Heir.

_Francis_, Count _de Montmorency_, is a Name too well known to speak of
his Extraction. He was a Colonel in _France_ when he went into the Service
of _Augustus_ II. who receiv’d him with that Demonstration of Esteem which
that King was so ready to grant to Persons of Merit. His Majesty first
appointed him Major-General of his Forces, and some time after he declar’d
him a Lieutenant-General, and Captain of his Horse-Guards. At that time
the Count married Madame _Potschin_, Widow of the Great General of
_Lithuania_; a Lady whose Birth, Qualities, and Fortune, recommended her
for a very considerable Match. The Countess _de Montmorency_, in the time
of her former Husband, went to _Paris_ for the Recovery of her Health, and
receiv’d extraordinary Honours at the _French_ Court, where she was
admir’d for her Politeness, the Delicacy of her Sentiments, and the Ease
with which she express’d them in the Language of _France_; from whence
they conceiv’d an advantagious Idea of the Court of _Augustus_ II. not
imagining how ’twas possible for the Manners of a Foreign Lady so much to
resemble their own. She is also as much rever’d at _Dresden_ as at
_Paris_; and all that know her, agree she is highly to be valued for her

_Antoinetta_ of _Lichtenstein_, Countess of _Wallenstein_, is Wife to
_Leopold_ Count _de Wallenstein_, heretofore Great Master of the Queen’s
Houshold; a Lady both belov’d and honour’d at this place, for her Virtues
and civil Deportment; and as she is preparing to follow her Husband into
_Silesia_, she will carry with her the Esteem of their Majesties, and
leave the Court sorry for her Absence.

XVI. _Of the Foreign Ministers who reside at this Court._

_Francis-Charles_ Count _de Wratislaw_, one of the Emperor’s Privy
Council, and Knight of the Orders of _Russia_ and _Poland_, resides at
this Court in quality of Ambassador from his Imperial and Catholic
Majesty. He is descended from one of the greatest Families in the Kingdom
of _Bohemia_, and a Family which has given wise Ministers to the august
House of _Austria_. This Gentleman has been for a long time in the
Management of the most important Affairs: He was Ambassador for the
Kingdom of _Bohemia_ to the Dyet of the Empire at _Ratisbon_; From thence
he went in the same Character to _Poland_, where he was present at the
Dyet of _Grodno_. The Emperor afterwards nam’d him Great Master of the
Houshold to the Princess Royal and Electoral, now Queen of _Poland_. The
Count having worthily acquitted himself of that Office, was for several
Years Ambassador at _Russia_, where he concluded that happy Alliance
subsisting between the two Empires, and acquired the Esteem of the
Empress, who honor’d him with her Order of St. _Andrew_; _Augustus_ II.
having before given him that of the White Eagle.

This Minister, since his Return from _Muscovy_, has moreover been charg’d
by the Emperor with important Commissions to the Courts of _Prussia_,
_Brunswic_, and _Holstein_. At length he is come back again to this Court,
as Ambassador from his Imperial and Catholic Majesty; and officiates also
as Great Master of the Queen’s Houshold. This Nobleman is of a middling
Stature, of a happy Physiognomy, is civil, beneficent, and loves Grandeur
and Pleasures, but does not abandon himself to them so far as to neglect
the Interests of his Master, whose Affairs he negociates with a noble
Candour which has render’d him as much esteem’d at the Courts where he has
resided, as he is beloved for his Affability and Politeness. His Wife is
the Countess of _Kinski_, whose Father was Great Chancellor of _Bohemia_,
under the Emperor _Leopold_, and whose Brother is now in that Office under
the most August _Charles_ VI.

_Hermann-Charles Keyserling_, Plenipotentiary Minister from the Empress of
the _Russians_, is of a Family of Note in _Courland_. He study’d at
_Koningsberg_ in _Prussia_. After he had visited the principal Courts of
_Germany_, and return’d to his own Country, he was made Gentleman of the
Bed-Chamber to the Dutchess of _Courland_, _Anne_ of _Muscovy_, the
present Empress, who employ’d him in several Commissions to the Courts of
_Prussia_ and _Poland_. Nevertheless he quitted her Service for one of the
judicial Offices in that Country.

When _Anne_ came to the Throne, the States of _Courland_ deputed M.
_Keyserling_ to that Princess, who offer’d him an Employment at her
Court, and appointed him Vice-President of the Chamber of Justice of the
_Russian_ Empire. Some time after, she made him President of the Academy
of Sciences at _Petersbourg_, and sent him to this Court, where he
discharges his Ministerial Office with universal Approbation. The Wife of
this Minister is the Daughter of the Starost _Forchs_, who, for opposing
the Pretensions of a certain Power which challeng’d more Respect, was
assassinated at _Mittaw_. Both he and his Lady are of the _Lutheran_

_John-Hartwig-Ernest_, Baron of _Bernsdorff_, Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber
to the King of _Denmark_, and his Majesty’s Envoy at this Court, is of a
Family which is possess’d of a fine Estate in _Mecklembourg_, and has
given an able Minister to the House of _Hanover_. The Envoy, of whom
mention is here made, does honour to his Character, and behaves with a
Prudence not inferior to Ministers of the greatest Experience.

       *       *       *       *       *

By the Detail I have now given you, Sir, you must have observ’d that the
chief Employments of the Court are in the hands of Foreigners, and that
_Saxons_ have little to do in Affairs of State, for which they are oblig’d
indeed to the Count _de Flemming_. This vain, haughty, and imperious
Minister expected every one shou’d truckle to him. He found that
Foreigners were much more submissive than the _Saxons_, who are by nature
stately, and Enemies to Slavery in any shape. Count _Flemming_ being dead,
it’s probable that the _Saxons_ will be more employ’d than they have been;
and indeed they have Capacities equal to any Nation in the World. They are
well made, robust, agile, laborious, good Soldiers, cunning Courtiers.
They have naturally more Spirit than the _French_ allow to the _Germans_;
they improve in the Sciences, and in bodily Exercises, and they have good
Writers among them upon all sorts of Subjects; witness the Works of M.
_Leibnitz_, the famous Philosopher, and of _Thomasius_, one of the most
able Civilians of his time. The _Saxons_ are addicted indeed to all
Pleasures in general, but to none so much as the Bottle and Gaming. They
love Pomp and Expence, and are naturally not very engaging, being
exceeding ceremonious, and affecting more than all the _Germans_ to ape
the _French_, with whom they sympathise very much, particularly in their
Fondness for new Fashions, their Forwardness to make new Acquaintance and
Friendships, and perhaps too in their Readiness to fall out with them upon
very trivial Occasion.

Since I have spoke so much of the Men, I must also give you some account
of the _Saxon_ Women. They are all of a fair Complexion, and there are
among them the finest Faces in the World. They are generally well shap’d
too, which is what they are chiefly taken notice of for: They are tall and
slender; they dance well, and have a surprising genteel Air, which they
take great care to improve by rich Dress. One Fault I find with them is,
that they are very affected, and that they have too much Action when they
talk. As to their Tempers, they are reckon’d to be good-natur’d; but then
they are subtile and crafty. They love Dress and Ornament more than all
Women that I ever saw. They are lively and gay, and passionately fond of
Dancing and Merriment. When they are told that they are handsome, they are
so far from being surpriz’d that they look upon it as a Compliment due to
them. When once they love, they love with Tenderness; and there are among
them such Examples of Constancy as would eclipse even a _Cleopatra_, or a
_Clelia_. These heroic Sentiments of Love they learn from Romances, which
they are vastly fond of: But this must be said to their Honour, that
Gallantry does not take up so much of their Time and Thoughts as to make
them neglect their Business; for they are laborious, dextrous, and amuse
themselves with all sorts of Work. They do every thing too with a good
Grace; and in a word it may be added to their Praise, that a _Saxon_ Woman
wants nothing more to make her amiable, but an Inclination to acquire that

Pleasures and Recreations commonly attend the Ladies so closely, that in
treating of the one I can’t but remember the other; and the Inhabitants of
_Dresden_ are so much devoted to Pleasures, that I think I ought to put
them into a separate Article. When the King is at _Dresden_ there are
Pleasures in abundance, such as Plays, Masquerades, Balls, Feasts, Running
at the Ring, and Races on Sleds, Turnaments, Hunting-Matches; but when the
King is in _Poland_ there’s a very great _Vacuum_. The Electoral Prince
and Princess are often at _Wermstorff_, alias _Hubertsbourg_; and even
when their Royal Highnesses are in Town, they are pretty retir’d: They see
Company while they are at Dinner, but for the rest of the day none come
near them besides the few that have the honour of their Confidence. The
rest are scatter’d up and down the Town to the great Disappointment of
Foreigners that happen then to be here; for there’s no body keeps open
House, they being all select Societies to which ’tis very difficult to
gain admittance. If one is invited to dine with some Lord of the Court,
one has a good Dinner ’tis true, but after Dinner is over a Man knows not
how to bestow himself. One is sure of finding Company no where except at
the Houses of Madame _de Brebentau_ the Widow of the great Treasurer of
_Poland_, and of the Countess _de Lagnasco_; nor are their Houses always
open, for Madame _de Brebentau_ is often sick, and Madame _de Lagnasco_
often abroad, or engag’d in Parties with the Electoral Princess, and then
one knows not where to go; for there’s no Play to be seen, and as for the
young People, they amuse themselves with the common Pleasures of that
Stage of Life; they drink, they game, and do something more.

When the King is at _Dresden_, the People partake in most of the Pleasures
of the Court, the generality of the Entertainments which the King gives
being public. Plays and Masquerades are free for any People of Fashion;
there’s nothing to pay, and all divert themselves as they like best. The
Citizens Wives are more tractable here than in any Town in _Germany_: They
love to imitate the Ladies of Quality, and ’tis sometimes as good as a
Comedy to see what Airs they give themselves.

They are extremely fond of Dressing, which Luxurious Taste extends even to
Wives of the Mechanics, and of the Livery; so that were a Stranger to come
hither on a Sunday or a Holiday, when every body is dress’d, he wou’d be
tempted to think that _Plutus_ had scatter’d all his Wealth among these
People; and a very great Nobleman, who ’tis like was not acquainted with
the God _Plutus_, returning home once from _Dresden_, told his Wife that
he was come from a City to which the Devil had carry’d all the Money.

The Parsons here do indeed cry aloud against these Abuses, but the worst
on’t is, that like the Clergy in many other Places, they preach what they
don’t practise; and while they are declaiming against Luxury and new
Fashions, they suffer their Wives and Daughters to be the first to set off
their Charms with the gayest and the newest Patterns.

While I am speaking of the Pastors, I must be a little more particular.
These Gentlemen stand very high in the Opinion of the Laity, and are
ready to think themselves Bishops. Having such Notions as these in their
Heads, they anathematise all that are not _Lutherans_: The _Catholics_ and
the _Reform’d_, or, to speak as they do, the _Papists_ and _Calvinists_,
all Christians in short who are of a contrary Opinion to those charitable
Ecclesiastics are damn’d without Mercy. Yet by the Appearance of these
severe Judges, one would think they preach’d only Peace and Paradise; and
they have such a meek, humble, modest, and timorous Air, that you wou’d be
apt to take them for Saints.

A few days ago I had an Adventure with one of those Clergymen, which I
will acquaint you of, because I think it may give you an Idea of their
Character; for he that sees one of them, sees all.

I happen’d to be making a Visit to a _Lutheran_ Lady, who passes for a
very devout one: There was already a pretty deal of Company, and who
should come in to add to it but a Minister that was a Doctor, and by
consequence a Man of Importance; as such too he was receiv’d by the
Mistress of the House, who said to me as soon as she saw his Face, _You
will now see a holy Man_. The good Man, or Saint, as he wou’d be reckon’d,
enter’d the Room with his Eyes cast downward, making profound Reverences,
and prostrating himself in such a manner as if he had said _Domine non sum
dignus_. At last, after a great many Compliments, he sat down, was silent
for a few Moments, and then he spoke. His Words were all sacred, and his
Sentences such as if the wise Man himself had spoke with his Lips: _God be
prais’d_ was in every Phrase, and he was hearken’d to with as much
Attention as an Oracle. I listen’d to him first like the rest, but at
length I thought I might as well talk to a pretty young Lady that sat just
by me. The Doctor offended to see the little Regard I paid to what he
said, enquir’d of the Mistress of the House who I was. She told him my
Name, and withal that I was once a _Calvinist_, but that I was turn’d
_Papist_. What a Thunder-stroke was this to the Doctor! He threw himself
to the back of his Chair, lifted up his Eyes to Heaven, sigh’d, and cry’d
out, _Das Gott erbarme_, i. e. _God help us_. Then transported by a Fit of
Zeal, he turn’d about to me and ask’d me what had induc’d me to embrace a
Religion which he treated as Idolatry? I told him that I did not think he
need to give himself any Trouble about my Conversion, since according to
his System I was damn’d when a _Calvinist_ as well as when a _Catholic_.
_The Case is not quite the same_, said the Minister; but to turn _Papist_!
cry’d he, to _adore Baal! to become a Disciple of Antichrist! alas! it
were better to be a damn’d Calvinist!_ I own that I had much ado to help
laughing outright at the Minister’s impertinent Zeal: yet I had the
Discretion to contain myself, for I had a mind to see to what length he
wou’d carry his sanctify’d Rant. He said indeed a great deal, and because
I made no Answer, he thought he had convinc’d me, if not touch’d me to the
quick. He was actually applauding himself for the good Work he had wrought
upon my Soul, when I told him that he ought not to conclude from my
Silence that he had convinc’d me; that it neither consisted with my
Character nor my Temper to dispute about Religion, that I left every Man
to his own Opinion, and that I knew which to adhere to. _What Blindness is
here!_ cry’d the Doctor again, _What a mad Papist are you? If you will not
be of our Communion_, return to the _Religion which you have abandon’d, in
which there are some Hopes at least that God will pardon you_.

The fanatical Doctor concluded his Exclamations by a Prayer, in which he
begg’d God to preserve every good _Lutheran_ Soul from the Errors of
Popery; and then he went away, leaving the Company more scandaliz’d than
edify’d by his Zeal.

Formerly the Preachers had the pleasure of venting their Choler in the
Pulpit, but the King by a wise Decree, which indeed ought to be followed
in all Countries, has confin’d them to the Preaching of the Gospel, and to
treat of Controversial Matters no farther than is merely necessary for the
People’s Instruction. For the rest, the Parsons need not fear being soon
supplanted, for the _Saxons_ are hearty _Lutherans_; and if they tolerate
the Catholics, ’tis because they can’t help it. They have excluded them
from Offices in the Courts of Judicature, and from the Privilege of
enjoying Lands; but they have not been able to keep them out of Places in
the Ministry, or at Court, nor from Employments in the Army, which are
three very engaging Articles to make Proselytes among the Gentry.

       *       *       *       *       *

Thus, Sir, you have all that I can say to you relating to _Dresden_ and
_Saxony_. ’Tis now high time to put an end to my Legend. I kiss your hand,
and am, _&c._



                               LETTER VI.

  _SIR_,                                      _Weimar, Sept. 5, 1729._

Before I write you an account of what became of me when I left _Dresden_,
I shall endeavour to give you the Intelligence you desire concerning the
late Count _de Flemming_, Prime Minister and Velt-Marshal of _Saxony_.
That Nobleman was of a good Extraction, being descended of a Family which
pretends to derive its Origin from that of _Flemming_, which has been of
considerable Rank for a long time in _Scotland_, _Sweden_, _Germany_, and
_Poland_. My Lord _Wigtoun_ is the Chief of that Family in _Scotland_.

_James-Henry_ Count _de Flemming_, whose Pourtraiture and Character you
desire of me, was born the 8th of _March_ 1667. His Father was President
of the Regency of _Stargard_, the Capital of _Prussian Pomerania_, who had
three Sons, of whom this Count was the second. He had an Education
suitable to his Birth. He study’d first at _Francfort_ upon the _Oder_,
and afterwards at _Utrecht_ under the celebrated _Grevius_, where he
learnt _Latin_ to such a degree that he always spoke it with very great
Eloquence. After he had finish’d his Studies he enter’d into the Service
of _Brandenbourg_, where the Baron _de Span_, his Uncle by the Mother’s
side, was Velt-Marshal. His first Preferment was to a Pair of Colours; but
in a little time he had a Company given him, which he commanded at the
Battle of _Orbassan_ in _Piedmont_. In 1694, he enter’d as a
Lieutenant-Colonel into the Service of _John-George_ IV. Elector of
_Saxony_; upon whose Death, and the Succession of _Frederic-Augustus_,
_Flemming_ obtain’d a Regiment, and accompany’d the new Elector into
_Hungary_, where he commanded the Emperor’s Army against the Infidels
during the Campaigns of 1695, and 1696. There it was that _Flemming_
kill’d in a Duel the Baron _de Lovel_, who was Lieutenant-Colonel in the
Service of _Saxony_. In 1697, he was sent into _Poland_, where, by the
Interest of his Cousin-german, the Daughter of Velt-Marshal _Span_ of
_Berlin_, Wife of M. _Brebentau_ Palatine of _Marienbourg_, who died Great
Treasurer of _Poland_, and by the Credit of _Benedict Sapieha_ he had the
Happiness of getting his Master chose King of _Poland_. This Negotiation
obtain’d him the Post of Major-General, and laid the Foundation of his
Fortune. In 1700, he was made a Lieutenant-General, and in that Quality
laid siege to _Riga_, which the King of _Sweden_ oblig’d him to raise. In
1702, he marry’d _Sapieha_, a Daughter of one of the chief Noblemen of
_Lithuania_. He was wounded the same Year at the Battle of _Clischhoff_,
at which time the King of _Sweden_ being every where victorious, demanded
that the King of _Poland_ shou’d deliver up _Flemming_ to him. But upon
this he retir’d to _Brandenbourg_, till King _Stanislaus_ had made
_Charles_ XII. easy. _Flemming_ being return’d to _Saxony_, fought a Duel
with M. _de Schulembourg_, who giving him a Fall, insisted that he should
beg his Life; but _Flemming_ got out of this ugly Scrape by a scurvy Joke,
and _Schulembourg_ gave him his Life. The latter was a younger
Lieutenant-General than _Flemming_, but in every respect his Rival, and
wou’d have been a Marshal if his Fortune had been as good as his Valour.
At the Battle of _Frauenstad_ in 1705, where he was defeated by the
_Swedes_, _Schulembourg_ quitted the Service of _Saxony_ and went into
that _of Venice_. By this means _Flemming_, who had now no Rival left, was
made a Marshal, and happen’d to be at _Dresden_ when the King of _Sweden_
made that strange Visit to the King of _Poland_; at which time, if
_Augustus_ had been as ungenerous as _Flemming_, _Charles_ wou’d have been
detain’d. Many People accuse _Flemming_ of having persuaded the King his
Master to deliver up _Patkul_: This I can’t pretend to affirm, but that
there was a mortal Antipathy betwixt him and the Minister of _Russia_ is
certain; for the latter having presented a Memorial to the King of
_Poland_, setting forth the wretched condition of the _Muscovite_ Troops
in the Pay of _Saxony_, concluded it with these _Latin_ Words,

                        DIXI, ET SALVAVI ANIMAM.

Which Memorial, when _Flemming_ had read, and found himself not very well
used in it, he took a Pen and underwrote these Words,

                      MALEDIXISTI, ET DAMNABERIS.

After the Disaster which _Charles_ XII. met with near _Pultowa_,
_Flemming_ contributed very much to the Re-establishment of King
_Augustus_ in _Poland_. He confirm’d the Alliance betwixt his Master and
the Czar, made Peace with the Confederates, and concluded another Alliance
with _Denmark_. The Czar and the King of _Denmark_ honour’d him with their
Orders of Knighthood, and he had that of _Poland_ before. He went
Ambassador to the unsuccessful Congress at _Brunswic_, and was afterwards
at _Hanover_ to attend _George_ I. King of _Great Britain_. When the King
of _Sweden_ return’d to _Pomerania_, _Flemming_ left no Stone unturn’d to
draw the King of _Prussia_ into his Master’s Alliance. He had some Years
before procur’d him the Sequestration of the Town of _Stetin_, and ’twas
lucky enough for him that the Pride and Obstinacy of the King of _Sweden_
obliged the King of _Prussia_ to declare himself his Enemy. At that time
_Flemming_ was rather a Courier between _Dresden_, _Berlin_, and _Warsaw_,
than an Ambassador and Prime Minister, which Dignity he enjoy’d after the
Death of the Prince _de Furstemberg_ his Predecessor. When the Peace of
the North was settled, _Flemming_ went Ambassador to _Vienna_, where he
concluded the Marriage of the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_ with the
Archduchess, eldest Daughter to the Emperor _Joseph_, tho’ the Contract
had been settled before by the Count de _Wackerbarth_, who it may be said
had the Pains to negotiate it, and _Flemming_ the Glory of finishing it.

At this time Count _Flemming_ had resign’d all the Salaries of his
Employments in _Saxony_, and only reserv’d to himself the private
Perquisites and the Franchise of the Post-Offices; and his Journeys, which
were very frequent, were all at the Expence of the King. It was about this
time that he caus’d his Marriage with _Sapieha_ to be dissolv’d, and
marry’d one _Radzevil_, by whom he had a Son, who was but a Year and a
half old when the Count died at _Vienna_, to which place he was return’d
with the Character of Ambassador. He left all his Estate to this Child,
without making any Intail on his Family; so that when this Son died, who
did not long survive him, his Estate went to Madame _de Flemming_, who by
marrying again carry’d the Bulk of it into another Family. They say that
his Inheritance was worth sixteen Millions of Crowns, exclusive of what he
had expended during the Splendor of his Fortune, which lasted thirty
Years, or thereabouts. Whether _Richelieu_ and _Mazarine_ got greater
Estates, I cannot say; but in _Germany_ there is not an Instance of one
sooner acquir’d, more resplendent, and better supported than his was. He
was Prime Minister, Velt-Marshal of _Saxony_, and Master of the Horse of
_Lithuania_; by which Offices he gain’d immense Sums. He made considerable
Purchases in _Silesia_ and _Poland_, but very little in _Saxony_. Whether
he left any thing to the King is not said; tho’ he ought really to have
made him some Restitution, and he might naturally have given up with a
good Grace what he cou’d not but foresee wou’d be taken by force from his
Heir. As it was just that his Succession shou’d pass thro’ the Purgatory
of a _Chambre Ardente_, the King establish’d one, which ’tis said has
adjudg’d eight Millions to his Majesty, and the same to his Widow; which
is a very fair Dividend.

Count _Flemming_ was taller than ordinary, but a handsome Man; he had very
regular Features, a lively Eye, a disdainful Sneer, a haughty Air, and he
was really proud, and beyond measure ambitious. He was generous to a
degree of Ostentation, and always aim’d to do something to be talk’d of.
He was vigilant, laborious, indefatigable, allow’d himself little Sleep;
and whenever he took a Debauch, a Nap of two Hours set him to rights
again. It was no more for him to go from a Debauch to Business, than from
Business to a Debauch; and he never fatigu’d himself, but dispatch’d the
greatest Affairs with so much Ease as if they were only a Diversion. He
lov’d to banter, but did not always make use of the Terms suitable to his
Character; and Persons who did not dare to answer him again, were commonly
the Butts of his Raillery. He was polite when he had a mind to it, but in
the general Course of his Behaviour he carry’d an Air fitter for a Captain
of Dragoons than for a Marshal and a Prime Minister. He never did a thing
for any body without some View; he scrupl’d neither Cunning nor even
Perjury, and provided he could gain his Ends, all ways were alike fair to
him. All his Life-time he took care to do his own Business first, and
then his Master’s the King’s; and I question whether I do him any
Injustice if I say that he was the King of _Prussia_’s Minister, much more
than the King of _Poland_’s.

This, Sir, is all that I have to say to you concerning Count _Flemming_. I
have told you very nakedly what I always thought of him, and I don’t
believe that I have mistaken his Character. Be this as it will, my
Decision is of too little weight to do either Good or Harm; the Publick
will always judge of him according to their best Information. I proceed
now with the Narrative of my Travels.

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had set out from _Dresden_ I went to _Altenbourg_ in hopes of
finding the Court of _Gotha_ there, which I had been told, intended to
spend the Remainder of the fine Season there; but it was set out the Night
before for _Gotha_, where I hope to see it to-morrow.

The City of ALTENBOURG is the Capital of a County of that Name, of which
the Duke of _Saxe-Gotha_ is the Sovereign. This Prince has a Palace there
which makes a handsome appearance, but I shall say nothing more of it
because I neglected to go and see it. The Peasants of the County of
_Altenbourg_ are the richest in _Germany_, and may almost vye with those
of _Holland_. I have been assur’d that some of them have given 20 or 30000
Crowns in Marriage with their Daughters; and like the _Dutch_ Peasants,
they take care to match them to none but the Sons of substantial Farmers.

As I left _Altenbourg_ I came upon a fine Causey with a Row of Trees on
each side, which brought me to the Frontiers of the County. I afterwards
fell into very bad Roads all the way to _Leipsic_, where I stay’d but a
very few Hours, and proceeded the same day to MERSEBOURG. This City was
much more considerable formerly than now. It was the See of a Bishop, but
was seculariz’d by the Treaty of _Passaw_ in favour of the House of
_Saxony_. Its Situation is charming, with Gardens and Meadows all round
it, and its Walls are wash’d by the River _Sala_. The great Church which
was formerly a Cathedral is a _Gothic_ Building, where there is a stately
Tomb of the Emperor _Rodolph_ of _Schwartzbourg_, who died after he had
lost one Hand in a Battle he fought with the Emperor _Henry_ IV. with whom
he was Competitor. This Prince a few Moments before he expir’d, took up
his Hand that was cut off, and holding it up to those who were about him,
said to them, _Behold this Hand; ’tis the same that I lifted up when I
promis’d Faith and Allegiance to my Emperor and Lord; but by your Advice
and Instigation I have not kept my Promise to him, for which you will one
day give an account to God._ Some time after this unfortunate Prince’s
Death, the Emperor _Henry_ IV. coming to _Mersebourg_ and taking a view of
_Rodolphus’s_ Tomb, of which he admir’d the Magnificence, certain
Flatterers told him that the Tomb ought to be destroy’d as too pompous for
a Rebel; but the Emperor scorning such a pitiful Revenge, made answer,
_Wou’d to God that all my Enemies were thus pompously interr’d_.

The City of _Mersebourg_ is the Residence of a Duke of the House of
_Saxony_, who is Sovereign of all the Country that formerly constituted
the Bishoprick, which enables him to keep a splendid Court[71]. The next
day after my Arrival I had the Honour to pay him my Compliments, and had a
very satisfactory Reception. The Prince conducted me into a Hall which was
hung with Bass-Viols from the Bottom to the Top, in the same manner as an
Arsenal is with Helmets and Breast-Plates. In the middle of the Hall there
was a Viol which was distinguish’d from the rest. It reach’d up to the
very Cieling, and there was a Ladder set, which such as had the Curiosity
to take a particular View of it were oblig’d to ascend, for surely it was
the most stately Instrument of the kind that ever was made. The Duke made
me take particular notice of it, and was pleas’d with the Admiration which
I express’d of it. He regal’d me also with some Airs upon another
Bass-Viol which he call’d his _Favorite_, and which was but one fourth
part as big as the other.

After this Concert I din’d with the Duke and Duchess. This Princess is the
Daughter of the late Prince of _Nassau-Idstein_, than whom there cannot be
a more amiable Lady. She has an Air of Mildness, Goodness and Prudence
diffused over all her Features; and her Wit is of the same Stamp as her
Beauty, amiable without Parade and Ostentation. Some of her Courtiers
assur’d me, that her Mind is as charming as her Person. If that be true,
which I am loth to doubt of, this Princess deserves a more splendid
Fortune than what she enjoys.

After Dinner, I was one at a Match of Quadrille with the Duchess, and at
night there was dancing, and I never saw any body dance with a better
Grace than this Princess. The Ball held till the Night was far advanced,
when there was a grand Supper, which was no sooner over than I took leave
of the Duke and Duchess and retir’d to my Quarters, with a design to set
out in a few Hours and proceed in my Journey. At my Lodging I found a
Gentleman from the Duke, who said to me, ‘That as he was passing by he saw
my Men packing up my things, and that therefore he came in purely to wish
me a good Journey. He assured me that he had a secret Kindness for me;
that I might safely take his Word; that he was Sincerity it self; and that
he wish’d 500000 Devils might twist his Neck if he was not heartily my
Friend: And to give you proofs of it, _said he_, I will treat you with
some Trifle, such as a Dram of Anniseed, Orange-Water, or Ratasia. Upon my
word my Apothecary has what is choice good; he lives but at the end of the
Street; Come, I will shew you the way to his House.’

While he harangu’d me in this manner he reel’d, being so drunk that he
cou’d not stand. I thank’d him therefore for his Love, and told him that I
did not drink Drams, but that if he had a mind to any Liquor of that sort,
I would send for some for him; and I bid my Landlord fetch it. The
Apothecary, as ill luck would have it, was not yet got up. ‘Soho, here,
_said my new Friend_, there is nothing to drink but Aquavitæ; here,
Landlord, a Glass of Brandy, Pipes and Tobacco. You must have something,
_said he_, to be doing.’ Every thing he call’d for being brought, my
Gentleman drank two or three Glasses of Brandy, and smoak’d as many Pipes
of Tobacco. I hoped to see him tumble down, and by consequence to get rid
of him, when he took it into his head to call for some Dishes of Tea that
I had order’d to be made for my self, and which made him so sober that he
recover’d his Reason. I laid hold of this happy Interval (for I heard him
calling out for Brandy, which I apprehended would occasion a Relapse) and
talk’d to him about his Master’s Bass-Viols; upon which, without much
Intreaty, he said to me, ‘You know, Sir, that every Man almost has his
particular Whim, Princes as well as private Persons. One is an Admirer of
Magnificence, another of Troops, and a third of Mistresses. As for my
august Master, his Fancy runs only on Bass-Viols, and whoever sollicits
him for an Employment or any other Favour, can’t do better than to
accommodate his Arsenal with one of these Instruments. That very large
one, _said he_, which you saw in the Room where all his Viols are, was
presented to him by one who wanted to be a Privy-Counsellor; his Petition
was granted, and had he ask’d for any thing else he might have had it.’
This officious Gentleman told me a great many other Particulars which let
me into the very Chronicle of the Court of _Mersebourg_; but I don’t
trouble you with it, because the Truth is not to be told at all times.

My Equipage being ready, I set out for NAUMBOURG, where I arrived at Noon.
This City was formerly the See of a Bishop. Its ancient Cathedral is still
standing, and tho’ _Lutheran_, has a Chapter and Canons who must prove
their Nobility both by the Father’s side and Mother’s side, by sixteen
Descents. When this Bishoprick was seculariz’d it was said that no
Catholic Prince could ever be possess’d of this State. Therefore when the
last Duke of _Saxe-Zeits_, Administrator of _Naumbourg_, turn’d Catholic,
the King of _Poland_ as eldest of the _Saxon_ Family and Executor of the
_Pacta_ or Conventions made between the Princes of that Family, took
possession of _Naumbourg_. The Duke’s being reconciled to the _Lutheran_
Communion was to no purpose, the King did not restore his Dominions to
him, but still possesses them, tho’ he is more a Catholic than the Duke of
_Zeits_ perhaps ever was. You know that this Prince has left a Nephew who
wou’d have been his Heir, if he had not been a Catholic and a Priest. This
is the Prince who, I acquainted you from _Dresden_, was Bishop of
_Konigsgratz_ in _Bohemia_. He was born a _Lutheran_, as are all those of
his Family. His Uncle the Cardinal of _Saxe_, Brother to the Duke of
_Zeits_, made him embrace the Roman Catholic Religion when he was very
young, and afterwards persuaded him to enter into Ecclesiastical Orders,
by which step he deprived his Nephew of the glorious Prerogative of being
a Sovereign Prince, and transferred his Rights to the King of _Poland_
his distant Cousin.

_Naumbourg_ is famous for its Fairs, which next to those of _Leipsic_, are
the most considerable in _Saxony_. The Suburbs of this City are almost all
Vineyards; but why, I know not, for the Wine is so detestably bad, that
they give it away in a manner for nothing.

Finding nothing at _Naumbourg_ which was worth my while to stay there for,
I only chang’d Horses and came hither. As one approaches this Place, we
meet with Corn-Fields and Hop-Grounds instead of Vines, and the Country
rises into Hills, so that one does not see the Town of WEIMAR till we are
just upon it. The City, which is not more considerable than _Naumbourg_,
is the Residence of the Duke of _Saxe-Weimar_, who has a Palace here which
does not want for Magnificence, and tho’ unfinish’d, has an air of
Grandeur. The Connoisseurs in Architecture highly extol the grand
Stair-Case there, which two Persons may ascend and descend at the same
time without meeting one another, and yet always keeping each other in
view. It consists of two Flights of Stairs upon one Spindle, laid one over
the other in the same Well of a square Form. The Curious who have observ’d
it, admire it, because there are few such to be seen.

The great Hall which is an oval, is beautiful, but not lightsome enough.
There are the Pictures of all the Dukes of _Saxe-Weimar_ at full length,
from the first Duke that ever was down to the Father of the present. They
are all drawn on Horseback, and done by no mean Hand.

In the same Palace is the Duke’s Library, which tho’ not very large,
consists of sundry scarce Books. ’Tis open twice a week, when the Curious
are not only permitted to peruse them, but even to borrow them, upon
leaving a Note with the Librarian.

The Duke of _Weimar_ spends very little Time in his Capital, but commonly
resides at a Seat which he has caus’d to be built about a League out of
Town. He has given it the Name of _Belle-Vue_, because of the fine
Prospect which it commands from the Apartments of the first Story. The
House is small and not very commodious, so that the chief Beauty of it is
its Situation, which is very charming. The Gardens which are begun upon
very good Plans will be beautiful when finish’d, as well as the
Pheasant-Walk and Menagerie where there are Turkeys and all sorts of Fowl.

The Duke of _Weimar’s_ Name is _Ernest-Augustus_: He is the eldest of the
_Ernestine_ Branch which lost the Electorate when _Charles_ V. was
Emperor. He marry’d a Princess of _Anhalt-Cothen_, who I have been told,
was a Lady of distinguish’d Merit. She died and left him a Son and three

The young Prince is about ten Years of age[72]. He can neither hear nor
pronounce well, and is withal of a very tender Constitution. The
Physicians say it signifies nothing, and that as he grows up he will
acquire a Freedom of Speech. But I question it, and am apt to think rather
that those Disciples of _Æsculapius_ will send him into the other World.
The only Hopes of any Male Issue of _Weimar_ are founded upon this Child.
The Duke of _Saxe-Eysenach_ who is the next a-kin has no Children; so that
the Dominions of _Weimar_ and _Eysenach_ too are ready to devolve to the
Family of _Saxe-Gotha_. The Duke of _Weimar’s_ Subjects teaze him very
much to marry, but the Prince does not seem to be in a Humour to satisfy
them; for I have often heard him say that he can’t bear the mention of

No body presumes to go to _Belle-Vue_ without being sent for, except only
on _Mondays_ when poor People are permitted to go thither with their
Petitions which they deliver to the Secretary, and he gives them to the
Duke. Persons of Quality, whether Foreigners or others, that have a mind
to speak with the Duke, apply for it to the Marshal of the Court, but are
seldom admitted to an Audience.

The Duke has rarely any other Company at _Belle-Vue_ but two young Ladies
whom he calls his Maids of Honour, and three young Women, Citizens
Daughters, who go by the Name of his Chamber-Maids; a Major of his Troops,
and the Officer of his Guard, who is a Lieutenant or an Ensign. I had
forgot to mention the Baron _de Bruhl_, who is the Duke’s Favourite and
his Master of the Horse.

’Tis with these Persons that the Prince passes his Time. He wakes early in
the Morning, but makes it late before he rises; for he takes his Tea in
Bed, and sometimes plays on the Violin. At other times he sends for his
Architects and Gardeners, with whom he amuses himself in drawing of Plans.
His Ministers also come to him while he is in Bed to talk upon Business.
About Noon he gets up, and as soon as he is dress’d, sees his Guard mount,
which consists of 33 Men, commanded by a Lieutenant or an Ensign. He
exercises his Soldiers himself, and corrects them too when they commit any
Fault. This done he takes the Air, and at two or three o’clock sits down
to Table, where the two Maids of Honour, the Master of the Horse, the
Major, the Officer of the Guard, and even Foreigners if any happen to be
there, are of the Company. The Dinner holds a long while, and ’tis
sometimes three, four, and five Hours before they rise from Table. The
Glass never stands still hardly, and the Duke talks a great deal, but the
Conversation is commonly on Subjects that are not very agreeable. When
Dinner is over they drink Coffee, after which the Duke retires for a few
Minutes, and then plays at Quadrille with his two young Ladies and the
Major; but sometimes he does nothing but smoak Tobacco, and he often
retires to his Chamber where he amuses himself with Drawing or else
playing on the Violin till he goes to Bed.

There scarce a Week passes but the Duke gives an Invitation at least once
or twice to all the Persons of Quality of the Court, and all the Officers
of his Troops, at which time there are two great Tables spread, where they
dine, play, sup, and afterwards dance till next Day.

The Duke’s Troops consist of a Battalion of 700 Men, a Squadron of 180
Troopers, and a Company of Cadets on horseback. His Infantry consists of
pick’d Men. Since the famous _Bernard de Weimar_ who was Pensioner to
_Lewis_ XIII. King of _France_, no Duke of _Weimar_ had so many Troops,
and really they must be chargeable to the Duke whose Revenues ’tis said
don’t exceed 400000 Crowns. This Prince has made a Treaty with the King of
_Poland_, whereby he engages to assist the King with his Battalion
whenever his Majesty thinks it necessary for his Service; in which Case
the King promises to give that Battalion the same Pay as he does his own
Troops. Mean time the Duke is obliged to clothe them all according to the
Pattern which is sent to him from _Dresden_; and indeed their Clothes are
very rich, especially those of the Officers and Cadets, which are so
bedaub’d with Gold and Silver Lace, that a Foreigner who comes to _Weimar_
cannot but admire it.

The Duke’s Family is very numerous, for besides the Prince his Son and the
three Princesses his Daughters, he has a Sister, and a Mother-in-law, who
is a Princess of _Hesse-Hombourg_: Mean time he has a numerous Court, and
may boast that some of them are Persons of very great Merit.

The Gentleman who is at the Head of Affairs is the Baron _de Reinbabe_,
who has the Title of President of the Council of State. He is a Person of
a good Family, in _Silesia_, has very great Abilities, and withal so much
Good-nature and Modesty as are seldom to be met with. When he was young he
travell’d very much abroad, where he learnt what was valuable in every
Country that he came to. He speaks several Languages well, is a great
Historian, a learned Civilian, and a good Poet. Notwithstanding the
Business that goes thro’ his Hands, and his Care of a numerous Family, he
is always almost at his Studies, and never better pleas’d than when he is
in his Library; yet he is no Enemy to Pleasures, but enjoys them without
abandoning himself to them, and takes them as they fall in his way without
pursuing ’em. To finish his Character I will add what was said of him by a
Prince who knew him intimately: _If Probity was intirely lost in the rest
of Mankind_, said he to me, _I think I shou’d be sure to find it again in
the Baron_ de Reinbabe.

The Baron _de Schmiedel_ is Marshal of the Court and Director of the
military Chest. He is a Person of great Piety, whose Aspect is not indeed
the most engaging, yet a very good Man to have to do with. He is a sincere
Friend, loves to do a kind Thing, is exact in the Duties of his Offices,
an Enemy to Vice, and very much attach’d to the Interests of his Master,
tho’ he does not always please him because he has not the Talent of
Dissimulation so necessary at Courts.

The Baron _de Studenitz_ a _Silesian_ is a Privy-Counsellor, and President
of the Chamber. He was formerly in the Service of the Duke of
_Saxe-Barbi_, and afterwards he enter’d into that of the Duke of
_Saxe-Hilburgshausen_, whose Finances he directed for several Years, in
which he acquired a Reputation, and came to _Weimar_ where he was
continued in the same Employment. He is a Gentleman of very great Learning
and Integrity, and having travell’d a long time in his Youth, very well
knows how to carry himself.

M. _de Hering_ is of a noble Family in the Country of _Anhalt-Cothen_. He
is the Duke’s Aulic Counsellor, a Gentleman of Worth, and both Learned and
Polite. He is on the point of leaving this Court, which will be a Loss to
the Duke that he will not easily repair.

M. _de Bruhl_ the Duke’s Master of the Horse and Favourite, is a _Saxon_.
His Birth, good Qualities, and especially his sweet Temper render him very
worthy of a Sovereign’s Favour. Yet I doubt whether, notwithstanding so
much Merit, he has a firm Footing in the Duke’s Friendship; he has too
much Candor, too much Sincerity, and is too zealous to do Services; and
perhaps also too much attach’d to the Interests and Honour of his Master:
for tho’ these Qualities have the Appearance of Virtues, yet they are
sometimes Errors in the Eyes of Princes.

Thus, Sir, have I given you the Names of the most distinguish’d Persons at
the Court of _Weimar_. I set out to-morrow for _Gotha_. I hope for a Line
from you at _Wurtzbourg_, and don’t propose to write again to you till I
know whether you are living or dead.

                                                           _I am_, &c.


                              LETTER VII.

  _SIR_,                                       _Gotha, Sept. 9, 1732._

I set out from _Weimar_ at 5 o’clock in the Morning, and by eight was at
_Erfurt_, where I walk’d about an Hour, and came at Noon to _Gotha_.

’Tis all a flat Country abounding with Corn. In time of Rain the Roads are
so bad that sometimes it takes up a whole Day to come from _Erfurt_ to
_Gotha_. ERFURT is a City belonging to the Elector of _Mentz_, is the
Capital of _Thuringia_, and may be rank’d among those of the second Class
in _Germany_. Its Inhabitants are almost all _Lutherans_, yet the
principal Churches belong to the Catholics. _Erfurt_ is fortified with
good Ramparts, and by a Castle on a Hill which absolutely commands the
Town. There is always a good Garison in the Place, which consists of the
Emperor’s Soldiers and those of _Mentz_; and the Elector has a Governor
here with the Title of _Stadtholder_, who presides in the Regency.

GOTHA, which is not near so big as _Erfurt_, is a City situate in the
middle of a fine fruitful Plain, so that which way soever one approaches
it, one always perceives the Castle or Palace of the Duke, which stands on
an Eminence by itself, and has a Prospect of a vast Extent of Country.
This Castle, which is one of the biggest in _Germany_, was built by
_Ernest_ Duke of _Gotha_, surnamed the _Pious_; who caused both that and
the Town to be encompassed with Ditches and Ramparts. To the Glory of this
Prince, he undertook and finished these Great Works, at a time when
_Germany_ was so impoverished by intestine Wars that few of its Princes
were able to erect Palaces[73].

As of all the _Saxon_ Princes of the _Ernestine_ Branch, the Duke of
_Gotha_ is the most powerful, so his Court is of all the _Saxon_ Courts
next to that of _Dresden_, the most Numerous and the most Magnificent.

Nevertheless the Subjects of the Duke of _Gotha_[74] are the least
burthen’d with Taxes of any in _Germany_. To this Prince’s wise Management
of his Finances is owing not only his own Happiness, but that of his
People too, by whom he is ador’d; and really he treats them more like a
Father, than a Sovereign; and never makes them sensible of his Power, but
when he is to do them Justice. He is a kind good Master, easy of Access,
temperate in his way of Living, gives very great Application to the
Affairs of his Government, loves Reading, understands Books, and knows
every thing which a Prince ought to be acquainted with. As to his Person,
he is handsome and comely; is civil in his Deportment, but reserv’d; and
therefore seldom speaks to Strangers, if he can help it; but endeavours
first of all to know those he has Business with, and when he has found out
their Character, talks with them upon such Subjects as he thinks they are
best acquainted with. He keeps regular Hours, rises at seven o’clock,
first spends an Hour in Prayer, and the reading of some pious Treatise;
and then gets himself dress’d, and gives Audience to his Ministers, or to
other Persons that desire it. At Noon he dines with the Duchess his Wife,
the Princes his Children, and other Persons of Distinction; stays about an
Hour and a half at Table, and then takes a Walk in the Gardens of the
Palace, or if the Weather does not permit, he employs himself in his
Closet, or spends the Time in reading till five o’clock. Then he goes to
the House of some Person of Distinction at his Court where all the
Nobility have an Assembly, and plays at Ombre, after which he returns to
his Palace, sups in the manner that he din’d, and at nine o’clock retires.

There is a Drawing-Room at Court three times a Week when the Company meets
in a great Hall, where they make Parties at Ombre and Piquet. At seven
o’clock a large Table is spread, which is free for all the Company. Then a
Carver cuts up the Victuals, which are handed to that, and to all the
Gaming-Tables that are cover’d with Napkins. Those who don’t play may sit
down at what Table they like best. The Duke, the Duchess, or the Princes,
generally do Foreigners the Honour to admit them to their Table. During
the Supper there is a Concert of Music, and at nine o’Clock all the
Company retires.

The Duke by his Marriage with _Magdalen-Augusta_ of _Anhalt-Zerbst_, has
seven Sons and two Daughters[75]: The eldest is the Hereditary Prince, who
has been twice in _Paris_, and once in _Italy_, _England_, _Holland_,
_Denmark_, _Sweden_, and at all the Courts of _Germany_, in which Travels
he has acquir’d a great deal of Politeness and valuable Knowledge. I had
the Honour of making my Compliments to him both at _Paris_, and the
_Hague_, and found him of such a Temper as induces me to think that the
Subjects of _Gotha_ will be as happy hereafter under his Government, as
they are under that of the Duke his Father. He was lately married to his
Cousin-German _Louisa-Dorothea_ of _Saxe-Meinungen_, a very lovely young
Princess, who, with all her Graces and Charms, has abundance of
Good-nature and Modesty[76].

The Duke has all the Great Officers common to other Sovereigns. The Count
_de Ronaw_ is Great Marshal, and the chief Man at Court. They give him
here the Character of Favourite; whether he is such I know not, but this I
know, that he is not unworthy of it. I was very well acquainted with him
at _Ratisbon_ in 1720; he was not then in any Place, and expressed a
Friendship for me; and now that I see him here in a Post, I find him the
same Man as at _Ratisbon_, always a Friend to his Friends; which for a
Favourite is a very great Character.

The Duke’s Revenues are computed at a Million of Crowns a year, with which
he maintains near 3000 Men of regular Troops. His Family is large and his
Livery fine; his Guards are very well cloath’d; his Table is serv’d with
more Delicacy than Profusion; his Palace is well furnish’d; every body
punctually paid; and no body dissatisfied.

I don’t mention the Library to you, nor the Chamber of Rarities, because I
am not yet well enough inform’d of such Things there as are worth
observing. I propose to take another Round before I go hence, and shall
not fail to transmit to you what Observations I shall make there. Mean
time, I am, _&c._[77]


                              LETTER VIII.

  _SIR_,                                 _Wurtzbourg, Sept. 22, 1729._

When I came hither I had the very great Pleasure to find your Letters, and
to hear that you enjoy perfect Health. Continue, I beseech you, to write
to me; that being the only Means by which you can persuade me what I wish
to be convinced of more than any thing in the World, that my Letters are
acceptable to you.

I have been in one of the most disagreeable Roads in all _Germany_; and
tho’ the Country abounds with Provisions of all sorts, I had like to have
been famished in the Public Houses.

From _Gotha_, I went to EYSENACH, thinking to pass a few Days at that
Court, but I found the[78] Duke sick, and the Hereditary Prince and
Princess[79] absent, so that I had only my Labour for my Pains.

As the Town of _Eysenach_ offers nothing at all to View which is worth a
Traveller’s Attention, I set out the same Day for FULDE, where I arrived
the next. You know, that this City is the Capital of the Principality of
_Fulde_, the Sovereign of which is an Abbot, a Prince of the Empire, and
Chancellor to the Empress. The present Sovereign is _Adolphus_ Baron of
_Bahlberg_, who was chose by the Chapter of the Abbey Church in 1726, in
the room of _Constantine_ Baron of _Buthler_, who died suddenly, and not
without suspicion of Poison. _Fulde_ is a dirty little Town open on all
sides, and has nothing remarkable but the Abbey Church, and the Prince’s
Palace, which are two Freestone Buildings that make a very grand
Appearance. The Apartments of the Palace are very richly furnish’d. The
last Abbot being a Man of good Understanding and great Views, caused this
Palace to be so adorn’d as to demonstrate the Wealth of the Abbey.

The Prince Abbot has a Grand Marshal, a Master of the Horse, a Marshal of
the Court, several Privy and Aulic Counsellors, a Number of Gentlemen, a
Company of Horse-Guards well cloathed and well mounted, a Regiment of Foot
Guards, eight Pages, a Number of Footmen, and several Sets of Horses. He
gives a rich Livery, and in a word, his Houshold is spruce and
magnificent. There are very few Sovereigns in _Germany_ whose Table is
better served; for there is plenty of every thing, particularly delicious
Wines, of which they tipple to such Excess that in a very little time they
are not capable of distinguishing their Liquor. There are, I believe, the
hardest Drinkers here in _Europe_; and I being on the other hand but a
Milksop, thought that _Fulde_ was not a Country for me to pitch my Tent
in. I dined with the Prince, went home drunk to my Quarters, slept sound,
and next day set out for _Wurtzbourg_, where I am happily arriv’d after
having gone through such horrible bad Ways, and met with such dismal
Lodging, that I wish my Enemies were but condemned to travel this Road
four times a Year.

Here I make myself amends for the Mortification which I met with coming
hither. WURTZBOURG is a considerable City though not very large. The
_Main_ divides it into two Parts. It is the Residence of the Prince Bishop
of _Wurtzbourg_ Duke of _Franconia_. The Person who now enjoys that great
Dignity is _Christopher-Francis de Houtten_[80]. He was elected by the
Chapter to succeed _John Philip Francis_ Count de _Schonborn_, who was one
of the greatest and most magnificent Prelates that perhaps ever fill’d the
Episcopal See of _Wurtzbourg_. This Prince, in the five Years time that he
has been Bishop, has done more things for the Embellishment of
_Wurtzbourg_ than ten of his Predecessors put together. He has furnished
one Part of the Town with new Fortifications, and has laid the Basis of a
stately Palace, which will be one of the greatest, the compleatest and
most regular Fabrics that we have in _Germany_; he having for that end
consulted the most skilful Architects, and sent for the most celebrated
Sculptors from _Italy_. As he was a passionate Admirer of the Arts and
Sciences, and perfectly understood them, especially Architecture; he chose
the best Parts of all the Designs that were presented to him, and from
them he compos’d the Plan of the Work, which was executed with such
diligence that in four Years time two thirds of the Building were rooft.
His unexpected Death put a stop for a while to this Great Work. The
present Bishop took it in hand again, but after having made considerable
Alterations in those great and magnificent Projects, the Work advances so
slowly that when it will be finished no body knows.

The deceased Bishop _Schonborn_ has also caused a Chapel to be built near
the Metropolitan Church, which he has lined with very uncommon Marble
brought for the purpose from _Italy_ at a very great Expence. Brass,
Gilding, and every thing that can render a Chapel superb, has been
employed in it in a very curious manner. This stately Edifice is as yet
imperfect, and will require great Sums to finish it. As it was designed
for the Burial-Place of the Bishop and his Family, it is to be presum’d
that the House of _Schonborn_, now so rich and so powerful, will not
suffer a Monument to lie unfinish’d which is to perpetuate the remembrance
of its Grandeur.

The Great Hospital founded by a Bishop whose Name was _Julius_, is worth
seeing. ’Tis a stately Building, which looks more like the Palace of a
Prince than a Hospital. Four hundred Persons of both Sexes are maintained
in it. There are two fine Halls which are particularly made use of upon
_Holy Thursday_. In the one, the Bishop performs the Ceremony of washing
the Feet of the Poor, who are afterwards sumptuously feasted in it; and in
the other, he regales his Chapter, and all his Family.

The Castle stands upon an Eminence on the other side of the River which we
pass over a Stone Bridge, adorn’d like that of St. _Angelo_ at _Rome_,
with twelve fine Statues representing so many Saints. This Castle is a
strong Place, and entirely commands the Town. The Form of it is quite
irregular, it consisting of several Buildings erected by several Bishops.
Those Prelates always liv’d in it, till the last, who, while he was
building a new Palace in the Town, lodged in a neighbouring Gentleman’s
House, from whence he could see how the Work went on. The Apartments of
the old Castle are spacious and noble. I found in them all that Furniture
with which they were adorn’d for the Reception of the Archduchess
_Mary-Elizabeth_, when that Princess came to _Wurtzbourg_ in her way to
the Government of the _Netherlands_. I have not seen richer Furniture at
the Palace of any Prince of the Empire.

In this Castle there are two things that are well worth seeing; the
Arsenal and the Vault; the one full of all the Stores invented by _Mars_
and _Bellona_, for the Destruction of Mankind, and the other furnish’d
with every thing to satiate the Thirst of an Army of Drunkards. If ever
you come hither and should have the Curiosity to visit these Magazines of
_Mars_ and _Bacchus_, I advise you to begin with the Arsenal, especially
if you can get some Courtier to go with you; for these Gentlemen, tho’
very civil, think, that the least thing which a Foreigner ought to do for
them is to forfeit his Reason to them in this Vault. I am sure, I speak by
dear Experience. Three days ago I told the Bishop that I had a mind to see
the Castle. This Prince was so complaisant as to order one of his
Gentlemen to go with me. My honest Companion fearing, ’tis like, that a
Conversation _tete-a-tete_ would be too melancholy, chose two Topers to
bear us Company, whom _Silenus_ would not have disown’d for his Children.
Being a stranger to the Virtues for which those Gentlemen were eminent, I
put my self entirely under their Direction without the least Apprehension
of my Misfortune. When they had shewed me the Apartments, the Arsenal,
Fortifications, and every thing, they carried me at last into the Vault,
which I found illuminated like a Chapel wherein I was to lie in State; and
indeed, my Funeral Obsequies were perform’d in Pomp, for the Glasses
served instead of Bells, and Torrents of Wine gush’d out instead of
Tears: At length, after the Service was over, two of the Prince’s
_Heydukes_ carry’d me to a Coach, and from thence to Bed; that was my
Tomb. Yesterday I rose again, but scarce know at this Moment whether I am
quite come to myself. ’Tis true that this does not give me much Concern,
for ever since I have been here, I have followed the laudable Custom of
getting drunk twice a day. You perceive that I am improv’d by my Travels,
and that I am apt enough to learn the pretty Manners of the Countries
where I make any Stay. I fancy that you will find me very much alter’d for
the better. There is nothing that accomplishes a Man so much as
travelling; judge you of this by the Life which I lead here.

I rise at ten o’clock, my Lungs very much inflam’d with the Wine I drank
the Night before: I take a large Dose of Tea, dress myself, and then go to
make my Compliments to the Bishop. The Baron _de Pechtelsheim_ the Marshal
of the Court invites me to dine with the Prince: He promises, nay, and
sometimes swears too that I shall not drink. At Noon we sit down to Table.
The Bishop does me the honour to drink two or three Healths to me. The
Baron _de Zobel_, Master of the Horse, and the Baron _de Pechtelsheim_,
toast the same number to me, and I am under a necessity of drinking to no
less than fourteen Persons at the Table; so that I am drown’d in Liquor
before I have din’d. When the Company rises, I wait on the Prince to his
Chamber-Door, where he retires, and I think to do the same, but I find an
Embargo put upon me in the Antichamber by the Master of the Horse, and the
Marshal of the Court, who with great Bumpers in their Hands drink the
Prince’s Health to me, and _Prosperity for ever to the most laudable
Chapter of +Wurtzbourg+_. I protest to them that I am the Bishop’s most
humble Servant, and that I have a very great Veneration for the most
laudable Chapter, but that to drink their Healths wou’d destroy mine, and
therefore I beg they wou’d excuse my pledging them; but I may as well talk
to the Wind; these two Healths must be drank, or I shall be reckon’d no
Friend to the Prince and his Chapter. If this were all my Task I shou’d be
well off; but then comes M. _de Zobel_, one of the most intrepid Carousers
of the Age, who squeezes me by the Hand, and with an Air and Tone of
perfect Cordiality, says to me, _You love our Prince so well that you
can’t refuse drinking to the Prosperity of the illustrious Family of
+Houtten+_. And when he has made this moving Speech, he takes off a great
Glass to witness his Zeal for the Life of his Master; after which an
officious _Heyduke_ brings me a Glass, and being infected with the Goust
that prevails at this Court, assures me that this Wine cannot possibly do
me Harm, because ’tis the very same that the Prince drinks. By a
Persuasion, founded on so just an Inference, I have the Courage to venture
on t’other Glass, which is no sooner drank but I reel, and can drink no
more; when in order to finish me M. _de Pechtelsheim_, one of the
honestest Gentlemen living, but the staunchest Wine-bibber that I know,
accosts me with a Smile and says, _Come_, dear Baron, _one Glass more to
better Acquaintance_. I conjure him to give me Quarter, but he embraces
me, kisses me, and calls me _Herr Bruder_, (his dear Brother.) How can a
Man withstand such tender Compliments! At last I put myself in a fit
Posture to run away; I sneak off, steal down the Steps as well as I can,
and squeeze myself into a Sedan which carries me home; where my People
drag me out like a dead Corpse, and fling me on a Bed, as if the next
thing was to lay me out. I sleep three or four hours, awake in a perfect
Maze, put myself to rights again, and prepare to make Visits, or to
receive them; but whichsoever I do, I presently find my self in such a
pickle again, that I cannot walk alone. There’s no such thing as
Conversation here betwixt one Friend and another without the Bottle; so
that I am tempted to think the Inhabitants of this City are descended from
_Silenus_, and that the old Sot left them the Faculty of hard drinking for
a Legacy, as St. _Hubert_ bequeath’d to his Family the power of curing a

I din’d yesterday with the Reverend the _Scots Benedictine_ Fryars, who
gave me a hearty Welcome, and an excellent sort of Liquor call’d _Stein
Wein_, or Stone-Wine, probably because it grows on a Rock; which is the
only time that I have departed from the Regimen I keep to here, I mean
that I was not drunk. The House of these _Benedictines_ is one of the five
Houses which form a sort of a Republic in their Order, and which, without
depending on their General, chuse a President out of their number who has
the direction of all their Affairs. These five Houses are in five
different Towns, _viz._ at _Vienna_ in _Austria_, at _Ratisbon_,
_Wurtzbourg_, at _Doway_ in _Flanders_, and at _Dieulegarde_, near
_Pont-a-Mousson_ in _Lorrain_.

These _Benedictines_ put me in mind of the Reverend Fathers the _Jesuits_,
who have a very fine House in this City: These are they who are Directors
of the University, and instruct the Youth with a Zeal which cannot but
confound their Enemies.

The Prince and Bishop lives in very great Splendor, and is one of the most
powerful of our Spiritual Sovereigns. His Dominion includes seventy
Bailywics, and his Country is the finest and fruitfullest in _Germany_.
The only thing that is scarce here is Money, and this is owing to their
want of Trade, and to the great number of Monks and Priests who ingross
all to themselves. The Bishop has 50000 Crowns a-year for his Privy-Purse.
The Chamber is oblig’d to maintain him in every thing. It furnishes his
Wardrobe, his Table, and pays his Houshold and his Troops, which actually
consist of 3500 Men, who are commanded by General _Eib_, the Governour of
_Wurtzbourg_. In time of War the Bishop has no less than 10000.

The Court is numerous, and I can assure you that upon Festival-Days ’tis
very magnificent. On St. _Quilian_’s Day, who is the Patron of
_Wurtzbourg_ and _Franconia_, the Bishop repairs with a great Train to the
Metropolitan Church. Six of the Bishop’s Coaches, drawn each by six
Horses, begin the March, attended by twenty four Footmen and sixteen
Pages; and above fourscore Gentlemen richly dress’d walk before the
Bishop’s Coach, guarded by two Files of Halbardiers. The Master of the
Horse and the Marshal of the Court walk by the sides of the Coach, the
latter bearing the Sword of the Duke of _Franconia_ with the Point
uppermost; and the Coach is surrounded by _Heydukes_, and followed by a
company of Life-Guards.

The Bishop of _Wurtzbourg_ has one Prerogative which the other Bishops
have not; for while he officiates, his Great Marshal bears the Sword of
the Duke of _Franconia_ naked and upright till the Consecration of the
Elements, and then he puts it up in the Scabbard, and carries it before
the Prince with the Point downwards; which is a Distinction I take to be
altogether as extraordinary as that of the Abbot and Count _de Gemblours_,
the first Nobleman of the States of _Brabant_, who has the Privilege of
celebrating Mass with his Boots and Spurs on.

The Bishop’s ordinary Expence is perfectly suitable to the Dignity of a
great Prince; and his Table, which is commonly spread for eighteen
Guests, is serv’d with a Magnificence to the degree of Profusion; not that
this Prince affects Pomp, but because he is oblig’d to conform to the
antient establish’d Customs of his Court. This Prelate gives very great
Application to the Affairs of his Government, for which purpose he rises
early in the Morning: When he is dress’d he spends some time in Prayer,
and then confers with his Ministers, or with the Chiefs of the several
Tribunals. At ten o’clock he hears Mass, and afterwards goes to Council:
At Noon he dines, and after having sate an Hour and an half at Table, he
retires, and spends the Evening with his Family, which is numerous, and
compos’d of Persons of Worth. In Carnival-time he makes great
Entertainments twice or thrice a week for all the Nobility of
_Wurtzbourg_, and there is sometimes a Ball and even Masquerades at Court.
In the Winter-time Persons of Rank have Assemblies for Gaming; and during
the Carnival there’s a Ball three times a week in a House kept by the
Undertaker, at which they bespeak Places beforehand, and where Foreigners
are admitted _gratis_. All this wou’d be pretty enough if the Company was
not sometimes disturb’d by People in Liquor, tho’ ’tis true that such are
not very chagrining to the Natives, who are us’d to such Sights; and the
very Ladies, who elsewhere fly such Company, do not seem to have a staunch
Aversion to them. Foreigners have reason to applaud the Civilities both of
the Prince and his Courtiers. As for my own part I am infinitely oblig’d
for the Respect they have been pleas’d to shew to me. The Prince heaps his
Favours on me, and the Nobility their Courtesies. If it were not that one
is forc’d to drink hard, I shou’d like the Town very well. Two Days hence
I shall set out for _Anspach_, and from thence I shall go by the way of
_Nuremberg_ and _Bareith_ to _Prague_. I shall write to you by the very
first Opportunity: Mean time I am, _&c._


                               LETTER IX.

  _SIR_,                                    _Anspach, Sept. 29, 1729._

I came in one day from _Wurtzbourg_ to ANSPACH, which is twelve Miles, and
pass’d thro’ two or three little Towns not worth naming. _Anspach_ is the
Capital of the Margraviate so call’d, and the Residence of the Margrave of
_Brandenbourg_, Chief of the second Branch of that Family settled in
_Franconia_. ’Tis a small but pretty Town, and very well built. It has no
Fortifications, and is only shut in by Walls surrounded with Walks which
form a Bulwark. The Prince has a large Castle or Palace building here,
which when finish’d will be magnificent. The late Margrave, Father of the
present, had begun to build it according to the Models of an _Italian_
Architect; but as he did nothing to answer the Opinion conceiv’d by the
_Germans_ that the _Italians_ are the best Architects in the World,
perhaps because he was oblig’d to patch up old Walls for the sake of some
Rooms: Madame the Margravine Regent, Mother of the young Margrave,
continued what her Husband began, but changed the Architect, and makes use
of the Baron _de Zochau_ to carry on those Works; who, tho’ oblig’d to
conform to what was done by the _Italian_, has succeeded much better than
that Foreigner. Madame the Margravine Regent has likewise caus’d some
noble Gardens to be laid out; and this Princess spares no Cost for
embellishing the Town of _Anspach_.

The Margravine Regent[81] is of the Family of _Wurtenberg_, and may be
compar’d for Beauty with the finest Princesses in the World. Being left a
Widow at twenty nine Years of Age, she renounc’d all Pleasures, and
thought of nothing but the Education of her Son, and the Affairs of her
Regency; both of which Duties this Princess discharges in such a manner
that her Subjects bless her Government, and the young Margrave cannot but
have very great Obligations to her.

Madame the Margravine, besides a charming Person, has a sparkling Wit and
a solid Judgment, which she has taken care to cultivate by great reading,
and maintains by a Piety and Charity truly Christian. There is in all her
Actions such Politeness, and so much Good-nature, as gain her the hearts
of all Persons. In fine, without flattering this Princess, I can assure
you that her Life is a Pattern of Virtue. She is wean’d from all the
Vanities of the Age; she wears neither Gold nor Lace, and has given her
Diamonds, which were of very great value, to her Son. She keeps so retir’d
to her Apartment, that she is never seen but at Church, at Table, or when
she gives Audience; which she never refuses to any body unless when she is
tir’d. She is incessantly employ’d, and takes delight in it. She is her
own Minister, and her Counsellors are only the Executioners of her Orders.

’Tis pity that _Germany_ is so soon like to lose a Princess who does her
Country so much Honour: The Margravine is in so declining a Condition
that there’s no hopes of her Recovery. The Physicians have actually told
her so; but the Princess, far from being terrify’d at the sad Tidings,
receiv’d it like a Christian Heroine: _God gave me my Life_, said she to
her Physicians, _he will take it from me when he pleases, his Will be
done_. She continues to live in the way she always did; and the Approach
of Death, which she sees advancing to her with slow Pace, gives her no
Trouble nor Tremor; but submitting to the Decrees of Providence, she waits
with Resignation for that awful Moment which often makes the stoutest
Hearts tremble.

The young Margrave is actually at _Paris_, so that I cou’d have given you
no manner of Account of this Prince, if I had not had the Honour to see
him two Years ago. He was born the 12th of _May_, 1712. He is a handsome,
comely, lively Man, has an extraordinary Memory, and if Age matures his
Understanding, bids fair to be one day a Prince of a sublime Genius. His
Governour was M. _de Bremer_, a Gentleman of _Livonia_; and his Præceptor
M. _Neukirch_[82], celebrated for several Essays in Poetry.

Notwithstanding the Reform which Madame the Margravine made in her Court
when she came to the Regency, ’tis still very numerous. The Count _de
Castel_ is the first Man at this Court, and has the Title of Lord Steward.
His Lady commonly attends Madame the Margravine, and does the Offices of
Lady of Honour without affecting the Title. M. _de Bremer_, the Baron _de
Seckendorf_, and the Baron _de Zochau_, are Privy Counsellors; and the
Baron _de Kinsberg_ is Marshal of the Court. As to the Troops the
Margravine Regent only keeps up such a number as is necessary to furnish
her Quota to the Empire, and to guard her Person.

The Margraviate of _Anspach_ is very much interspersed with Woods, which
makes it a fine Country for Hunting. ’Tis said that it brings in 500000
Crowns every Year to its Sovereign. The Principal Towns are _Anspach_ and
_Schwabach_, in which Manufactures are erected that do great Prejudice to
the City of _Nuremberg_.

I think I ought not to omit acquainting you with two things which are
fondly believ’d by the common People, and which the Landlord of the House
where I quarter’d affirm’d to me to be Facts. The one is, that there are
no Rats in all the Country of _Anspach_, since one of the Family of the
Rat-killing St. _Hubert_ pass’d that way. The other is of the same Tenor,
and admitted for a certain Truth by every Subject in the Dominions of the
House of _Brandenbourg_, _viz._ When any one of this Family dies, whether
Prince or Princess, a Woman in White always appears just before in the
Palace. I know not whether you ever heard any thing concerning this
Prophetess of Ill Luck. Be that as it will, the Story which is told of her
is this:

_Joachim_ II. Elector of _Brandenbourg_, having a mind to enlarge his
Palace at _Berlin_, wanted to buy in several Houses; but an old Woman, the
Owner of one of those Houses, resolv’d not to sell it to him upon any
Terms. The Elector finding her so obstinate sent her the Purchase-Money
and turn’d her out of it; upon which the old Woman swore in a Rage that
she wou’d be an eternal Plague to _Joachim_ and his Posterity. They
pretend that the good Lady keeps her Word, and that she haunts all the
Palaces of the _Brandenbourg_ Family. Yet I never heard any body at
_Berlin_ say they had ever seen her there, tho’ that is the Place where
she ought naturally to have taken up her head Quarters. My Landlord added
to these fine Stories that the Margravine would not die yet a while,
because the Woman in White had not yet appear’d to any body at Court.

                                                           _I am_, &c.


                               LETTER X.

  _SIR_,                                 _Carlsbad, October 10, 1729._

When I took leave of the Court of _Anspach_, I was honour’d with a
precious mark of the Margravine’s Goodness, _viz._ a weighty Gold Medal;
and now I am again upon my Journey. I was not many hours in travelling
from _Anspach_ to _Nuremberg_, thro’ a Country extremely sandy, but very
well cultivated, and interspers’d with considerable Villages which in our
Country wou’d be reckon’d Towns.

So much has already been said by others of the City of NUREMBERG, that I
have very little to add to it. I assure you this Town is the most
disagreeable Place in _Europe_ to live in. The Patricians are the People
of the first Rank there, and lord it like the petty Nobles of _Venice_.
The Government here too has very great Resemblance with the _Venetian_,
and they have a sort of Doge. In short they are very much like the Frog in
the Fable that strove to swell it self to the Size of the Ox. Of these
Patricians some are very rich, but they are so rude that no body visits
them, and they scarce visit one another. Perhaps you will ask me what I
mean by the Term _Patricians_? ’Tis this; they are Gentlemen: There are
Patrician Families old enough to dispute Antiquity with any of the
Nobility whatsoever, and who were formerly admitted into all the Chapters.
But now the case is otherwise; for the Nobility not only exclude them out
of the Chapters, but dispute their being Gentlemen; pretending that they
derogate from the Title by their Magistratical Offices. Such is, you know,
our _Germanic_ Vanity; the things which are honourable in other Countries,
are with us diminutive: The Court, the Sword, and the Church, are the only
Professions that a Gentleman can follow: If he has not the Talents proper
for one or other of these, or if Fortune frown upon him, he had better be
out of the World than take any Offices of the Magistracy upon him, or
enter into Trade: He had better beg Alms nobly than marry beneath himself.
But I shall not here set up for a Censor of the _Germanic_ Customs. Let us
talk of _Nuremberg_. This City has 6 Gates, 12 Conduits, and 118 Wells. Of
the Churches St. _Laurence_’s is the biggest: There’s a great many
Reliques in it, particularly a part of the Manger in which our Saviour was
laid, a piece of his Garment, and three Links of the Chains which bound
St. _Peter_, St. _Paul_, and St. _John_. As the _Lutherans_ make no great
account of those Reliques, they wou’d do well to give them to some poor
Catholic Convent, which would thereby soon be enrich’d.

You know that the Government here is altogether Evangelical, _i. e._
_Lutheran_. The Catholics have a small Church in the House of the Teutonic
Order: The _Calvinists_ go to the Church in the Territory of _Anspach_;
but the _Jews_ are not tolerated because ’tis said they formerly poisoned
the Wells. They live in a Place not far from _Nuremberg_, but come to Town
every Morning, paying something for their Entrance, have an old Woman set
over them, who is commonly both their Guard and their Guide, and are
permitted to trade and trick wherever they can till Night, when they are
obliged to retire.

In the Church of the Hospital is kept _Charlemain_’s Crown, said to weigh
fourteen Pounds, the Sceptre and the Globe, in short all the Ornaments of
Empire except _Charlemain_’s Sword said to have been brought from Heaven
by an Angel, the same very likely that carry’d the holy Vial and the
Oriflamb to _France_. That Sword is kept at _Aix la Chapelle_.

The Trade of _Nuremberg_ is very much fallen off; for besides that the
Toys and Knick-knacks which were formerly made in this City are much out
of fashion, especially in _Germany_, the Manufactures which the Margraves
of _Bareith_ and _Anspach_ have settled in their Dominions do considerable
Prejudice to _Nuremberg_.

The Inhabitants of this City may be, (at least I think ’em so) the
honestest People in the World, but they are the most horrible
Complimenters that I know. I cou’d not set my Foot in a Shop, but the
Master, the Mistress, the Children and the Apprentices waited on me into
the very Street, than king me for the Honour I had done them. My Landlord
too, who saw me go in and out twenty times a day, receiv’d me always with
great Ceremony, and ask’d me how I did. And when I went out he pray’d me
not to leave his House long in Contempt, without honouring it with my

_Nuremberg_ is the richest and most potent Imperial City next to
_Hambourg_. The Domain of _Nuremberg_ is even much larger than that of
_Hambourg_, but the latter bears the Bell for Wealth. ’Tis said that
_Nuremberg_ has seven other Towns in its Territory, with 480 Villages and
Parishes. Yet for all this ’tis not a rich City; for the Patricians
pocket all the Money, and the Citizens are poor.

Next Day after my Arrival at _Nuremberg_ I set out for
_Christian_-ERLANGEN, a Town in the Margraviate of _Brandenbourg-Bareith_,
which owes its flourishing State to a Colony of _French_ People who fled
out of _France_ on account of their Religion.

Forty Years ago _Erlangen_ was but a little Village in the middle of a
Forest of Fir-Trees. The Margrave _Christian_ giving shelter to the
_French_ who left their Country after the Revocation of the Edict of
_Nantz_, assign’d them _Erlangen_ to settle in. When they cut down the
Woods they built the Town, to which they gave the Name of
_Christian-Erlangen_, in Memory of _Christian_ their Benefactor. All the
Streets are in a strait Line. The _French_ have set up all sorts of
Manufactures here, and have made it one of the prettiest Towns of
_Germany_. Madame[83] _Elizabeth-Sophia_ of _Brandenbourg_, second
Daughter of the Elector _Frederic-William_, and third Wife of the Margrave
_Christian_ Founder of _Erlangen_, caus’d a very handsome Palace to be
built in the great Square of this City, to which there are noble Gardens.
’Tis at present occupy’d by _Sophia_ of _Saxe-Weissenfels_, Widow of the
last Margrave of _Bareith_. This Princess was to have dwelt at _Neustadt_,
which was settled on her for her Dowry; but as ’tis a lonesome,
melancholy, scoundrel Place, the Margrave Regent was willing she should
live at _Erlangen_. The Margravine Dowager was one of the most beautiful
Princesses in the World, of which she still preserves the fair Remains,
and none can have an Air more grand. She lives at _Erlangen_ with all the
Dignity becoming her Rank. Foreigners are very well received at her Court,
and particularly by the Princess herself, who for Politeness has few

From _Christian-Erlangen_ I went in less than a Day to _Bamberg_, tho’ I
stay’d two or three Hours at FORCHEIM a Place in the Bishoprick of
_Bamberg_, whose Buildings appear’d to me to be old and out of repair.

The Bishoprick of BAMBERG is the first Bishoprick of the Empire. The
Bishop is Suffragan to no Archbishop. He depends only as to Spirituals
upon the Holy See, and receives the Pall as an Archbishop. He has moreover
this Distinction, that the Electors are his great Officers as they are
those of the Empire, and he has the Privilege of summoning them to come
and do the Duties of their Offices on the Day of his Installation. I have
not heard that any Bishop ever made use of this mighty Prerogative, for
the Retinue which those great Officers would bring along with them might
be a Charge to him. The great Privileges which this Prelate enjoys are
counter-balanc’d by one Mortification; for if the Electors happen to chuse
an Emperor who has no Dominions, the Bishop of _Bamberg_ would be oblig’d
to yield him his Episcopal City and Palace. ’Tis said that the Emperor has
the same Right to _Rome_, and that if he should chuse that ancient City of
the World for his Residence, the Pope wou’d be oblig’d to yield him the
Palace of the Vatican and to retire to that of St. _John de Lateran_. But
I really think that the Holy Father and the Bishop of _Bamberg_ will not
be so soon turn’d out.

The late Elector of _Mentz_, _Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn_, who was
also Bishop of _Bamberg_, embellish’d the City with a new Episcopal
Palace, a great and stately Building that stands on an Eminence, from
whence there is an extensive Prospect of various Beauties.

The City of _Bamberg_ is very well built, and has beautiful Churches.
Herein is to be seen the Tomb of the Emperor _Henry_ II. and his Wife the
Empress _Cunegonda_. This Princess lies at the right hand of her Husband,
because she kept her Virginity to her Death. Was not this abusing the
Sacrament of Marriage?

The Bishop who fills the Episcopal See of _Bamberg_ is _Frederic-Charles_,
Count de _Schonborn_, Vice-Chancellor of the Empire. This Prelate being
Minister of State to the Emperor commonly resides at _Vienna_, and is now
there, so that I have nothing to say to you of his Court; but I reckon I
shall be able to give you some Account of him after I have paid my
Respects to him at _Vienna_.

The Neighbourhood of _Bamberg_ is very agreeable, but as one comes to it
from _Nuremberg_ thro’ a certain Forest of Fir-Trees, it strikes a Man
with Horror to find an Avenue to it a quarter of a League in length form’d
by Wheels and Gibbets. This, at first sight gives a Stranger no very great
Idea of the Honesty of the People; but he is of another Opinion when he
comes to know that these expos’d Malefactors are for the most part
Foreigners. The Bishoprick of _Bamberg_ is contiguous to seven or eight
different States, and the Town it self lies in the greatest Road of all
_Germany_, which is the Reason that ’tis so infested by Rogues from all
Quarters. In the time of the Elector of _Mentz_, _Bamberg_ was their _Ne
plus ultra_, for that Prince gave them no Quarter: Being an Enemy to
Wickedness, and one of the greatest Justiciaries that we have had in
_Germany_, he sent all to the Gallows that deserv’d Hanging.

About a League out of the Town the Bishop has a charming Pleasure-House;
but there is nothing in all _Germany_ more magnificent than the Castle of
POMMERSFELDEN belonging to the Count _de Schonborn_, which is three
Leagues from _Bamberg_. _Francis Lotharius de Schonborn_ Elector of
_Mentz_ caus’d this stately Fabric to be built, the whole of which forms a
great Body of Building flank’d by two Pavilions with two advanc’d Wings.
The whole is regularly built, and decorated with well-fancy’d
Architecture. The Entry is supported by several Colonnades, where the
first thing that presents it self is the grand Stair-Case, which is
extraordinary magnificent, and perhaps one of the best contrived in
_Europe_. This Entry leads into a Salon which serves as a Passage to the
Garden; ’tis in form of a Grotto adorn’d with several Fountains, Columns,
and Statues of Marble: The Cieling is painted as well as the Sky-Light of
the Stair-Case, and the Arches of the principal Apartments. They are all
painted by Hands that the Elector sent for on purpose from _Italy_. I
don’t give you the Particulars of the great Salon, nor of the Apartments,
because it would take up a Volume. The whole are laid out with Art, and
furnish’d with great Choice, Judgment and Splendor.

The Stables answer exactly to the Castle which they front. They are built
in form of a Half-Moon with a Pavilion in the middle, which is an oval
Salon, from both Sides of which you see all the Horses. The Mangers are of
Marble in form of Shells, and the Racks of Iron neatly wrought in form of
a Basket or Scuttle.

The Salon in the middle of the two Stables is painted in Fresco, and looks
one way to the Court, and the other to the Riding-House, where the Elector
us’d to see the Horses manag’d belonging to the Studs of his Bishoprick
near _Bamberg_, one of the best in _Germany_.

The Gardens of _Pommersfelden_ are very answerable to the Magnificence of
the Buildings: In a word, every Thing belonging to this fine House is
worthy of it. The Builder of it had sublime Ideas: He spared no Cost to
leave Monuments of his Grandeur and Wealth to Posterity, and has made a
House of _Pommersfelden_ which really surpasses some Royal Palaces. But
’tis time to take you out of this fine Place and to carry you back to

There is a good Number of the Nobility settled in this Town. The Chapter
consists of Persons of Quality: It has the Right of chusing the Bishop;
and ’tis he who governs in the Absence of the Prince. Such a Resort as
here is of the Nobility makes the Time pass away agreeably; but they drink
as hard here as at _Fulde_ and _Wurtzbourg_, so that it looks as if
Drinking was an inseparable Function of the Ecclesiastical Courts. Having
some Relations in this Town I stay’d there three Days, during which I had
the Pleasure of Drinking every Day with one of my Cousins out of a great
Goblet of solid Gold which weigh’d to the Value of a thousand Ducats. You
can’t imagine how well the Wine went down out of a Cup of that Value. I
heartily wish’d that my Cousin wou’d have dealt by me as _Joseph_ did by
_Benjamin_, and that he had put up his Cup in my Portmanteau, provided he
wou’d not have sent to fetch me back again, as the Governour of _Egypt_
did his Brother; but this was what my dear Cousin did not think fit to do.
He made me drink my Skin-full of Wine, and only wish’d me my Pockets full
of Gold.

From _Bamberg_ I went to BAREITH the Residence of the Margrave of
_Brandenbourg_. The elder of the two Branches of that Family settled in
_Franconia_. _John George_ Elector of _Brandenbourg_ divided his Dominions
between his three Sons: He left the Electorate with its Appendages to his
eldest Son, and gave the Margraviate of _Culmbach_ to _Christian_ his
second Son, and that of _Anspach_ to his third Son. _Christian_ form’d
two Branches, that of _Bareith_ and that of _Culmbach_. The Branch of
_Bareith_ became extinct in 1726, by the Death of _George-William_, whose
Widow lives at _Erlangen_. _George-Frederic-Charles_ Margrave of
_Culmbach_ his Cousin, succeeded him. This Prince has five Children,
_viz._ two Princes[84] and three Princesses[85]. He marry’d _Dorothy_ of
_Holstein-Beck_ at _Berlin_ in 1709. I had then the Honour to see him: He
was a Prince of a noble Aspect, very civil, good-natur’d, and temperate,
and a Lover of Books and Men of Learning. He did an Act of Generosity that
perhaps is not to be parallel’d, and which I relate to you as the most
authentic Testimony that can be of his Good-nature and Integrity.

His Predecessor had left an empty Exchequer and a great many Debts; and
the Margrave at his Accession to the Regency was oblig’d to pay the King
of _Prussia_ 460000 Florins, upon condition that his Majesty wou’d
renounce any Pretensions he might have to the Margraviate, by virtue of
the Resignation of all Rights to the Succession which had been made by the
Margrave of _Culmbach_ his Father, in favour of _Frederic_ I. King of
_Prussia_. To raise this Sum on People already overburden’d by the common
Taxes, was to seek their Ruin. The Margrave in pity of their miserable
Condition, chose rather to borrow this Money of the States of the Circle
of _Franconia_ at great Interest. When he found himself in peaceable
possession of his Dominions by the Payment made to the King of _Prussia_,
he undertook to pay off not only his own, but the Debts of his
Predecessor. To enable himself to do this, he began by turning off his
Court, kept but a small Number of Counsellors and Gentlemen, and disbanded
3000 Men of the Troops which the late Margrave kept in pay to no purpose.
He reduc’d his Table to the greatest Frugality; his Clothes were plain,
and he avoided Magnificence and Gaming. Some time after this, he made
another Reform in his House, and kept up but a very small Number of
Domestics. He establish’d a Council of Regency, and to save the Expence
which his Rank as a Sovereign would have engag’d him in whether he wou’d
or not, he left his Dominions, and went to live incognito with the
Hereditary Prince his Son at _Geneva_. I believe that both of them are
actually at _Montpellier_[86]. He is resolv’d not to return to his
Dominions till all his Debts are paid off. Mean time his Subjects wish for
his Return with Impatience, for he has such a Kindness for them, and
governs them with such mildness that they look on him as their Father and
Benefactor. This Retirement of the Margrave from the Splendors of
Sovereignty is the more to be commended because ’tis absolutely voluntary:
He was not at all oblig’d to pay the Debts of his Predecessor; for they
were of such a Nature as not to be rank’d among the Debts of the
Government. Nevertheless it was his Pleasure to do it, and he chose rather
to abridge himself of the Charms of Sovereignty than that People, whose
Faith in the Government had made them part with their Money, shou’d lose
their Debts. Such a glorious Action as this, is in my Judgment equal to
the Laurels of twenty Victories: This was owing to his Virtue, whereas
Victory is generally the Consequent of Chance and Fortune.

You will easily imagine that while the Sovereign is absent this City is
not very gay. It appear’d to me the more melancholy because I had seen it
in the time of the late Margrave, at whose Court there was continual
Feasting and Jollitry.

The City of _Bareith_ is inferior to _Erlangen_. The Margrave’s Palace is
a great old Pile, but not very commodious, and meanly furnish’d. This
Prince has a very pretty House, a League from _Bareith_, call’d the
_Hermitage_, which was built by Order of the late Margrave.

It stands in the middle of a thick Wood, in which there are a great many
Pavilions built, without any Symmetry indeed, but very ingeniously
contriv’d within for the Use to which they serve. When the late Margrave
came to the Hermitage, he and his whole Court were in the Dress of
Hermits. There were certain Hours in which the Hermit Brothers went to pay
a Visit to the Hermit Sisters, who liv’d in the Pavilions. The Brothers
and Sisters who gave each other Collations, were subject to certain Rules
from which they could not be dispensed but by the Remission of the
Superior of either Sex, who were then the Margrave, and his Lady the
Margravine. In the Evening they met again in the Hall of the Castle, where
they supp’d; and that every thing might be done according to the Rules, at
the beginning of the Supper certain Verses were read, or some little Story
compos’d by one or other of the Hermit Brothers; then Silence was broke,
and every one gave his Opinion upon what had been read, upon which there
ensued a general Conversation. The Supper held till pretty late, and was
commonly followed with a Ball. No body could be admitted into the Order
without the general Consent of the Chapter. And the Superior himself had
no Right but to propose such as were Candidates for Admission. To give you
all the Statutes of this Society, would be too tedious; besides I should
be afraid of adding or diminishing to them, because I only have them from

The Margrave has a Mother still alive, _viz._ _Sophia-Christina_ Countess
of _Wolffenstein_, who lives at _Copenhagen_ with her Daughter the
Princess Royal[87] of _Denmark_. The King of _Denmark_ grants her the
Title of Royal Highness, and causes the same Honours to be paid to her as
to the Princesses of his Family.

The Margrave has also three Brothers and two Sisters. The eldest of the
Brothers is a Major-General and Colonel of Foot in the Service of the
Emperor, and the two others are in the Service of _Denmark_. The two
Princesses are marry’d, one to the Prince Royal of _Denmark_, the other to
_George-Albert_ Prince of _East-Friesland_. So that the intire Family of
_Brandenbourg-Culmbach_ consists of Princes and Princesses to the number
of twelve.

The Revenues of this Margrave are pretty near the same as those of the
Margrave of _Anspach_. His Fortress is the Castle of _Plassenberg_.

From _Bareith_ I came in two Days to CARLSBAD, a Place of Fame for its hot
Waters, of which there are two Sorts differing from one another both in
Strength and Heat. They derive their Source from the middle of a River
form’d by Torrents from the neighbouring Mountains, whose Waters are
extremely cold; yet they make not the least Alteration in the heat of the
Mineral Waters. They are said to be very wholesome for all sorts of
Maladies, particularly for the Gravel, and for the Barrenness of Women. M.
_Hofman_, a celebrated Professor of Physic at _Hall_, has published a
Treatise, wherein he examines the nature of those Waters, and prescribes
how they ought to be used. The Manner is very disagreeable; you are
obliged to be shut up in a Room, and be the Weather ever so hot, the
Stove must be heated, you must be tormented by taking off two or three
Pots of Water, which are almost equal to thirty Chocolate Cups; besides
walking about very much, and sweating great Drops.

To make amends for the Fatigue of the Morning, there is good Company to be
seen here all Day long; for Abundance of Strangers come to _Carlsbad_,
particularly the Nobility of _Bohemia_ and _Austria_. There are publick
Walks and a great Room adjacent, where they play, dance and walk till the
Evening. They who love to live by Rule retire without Supper.

Whoever would be well accommodated at _Carlsbad_ must carry three things
thither with him, his own Bed, Wine, and Cook; tho’ a Foot-boy may serve
for the Cook, because one is generally invited by the _Bohemian_ or
_Austrian_ Noblemen, who always keep a great Table, and love Company to
dine with ’em.

The Inhabitants of _Carlsbad_ are generally Armourers, who work very neat
and vastly cheap. At the Season for using the Waters, Merchants flock
hither from all Parts, and _Carlsbad_ is superior to many great Towns. I
had a great deal of Amusement during the two different Seasons that I
pass’d there, and I contracted a World of good Acquaintance, who, I hope,
will be of Service to me at _Prague_, for which Place I propose to set out
to-morrow. I am, _&c._



                               LETTER XI.

  _SIR_,                                  _Prague, November 15, 1729._

I have now been a Month in this City, yet it seems but as a Day; for I
find infinite Amusements here, and a thousand things that I like, only I
want your Company. The City of PRAGUE is ancient, and has been time out of
mind, the Seat of the Kings of _Bohemia_. ’Tis without dispute one of the
Biggest Towns in _Europe_. ’Tis encompass’d with Ramparts, and as well
fortified as a Place of that Extent can be, and commanded by several
Hills, which ’tis impossible to level. This City is divided by the River
_Molde_ or _Muldaw_, into two Parts, _viz._ _Old Prague_ and _Little
Prague_; and during the Course of the last Century, it suffer’d the
greatest Cruelties that a City can possibly undergo in a time of War. The
Archduke _Leopold_ Bishop of _Passau_ surpriz’d and plunder’d the lesser
Part, and would have done the same by the old Town, if the Emperor
_Matthias_ King of _Hungary_ had not come in time to relieve it. Nine
Years after this, _Prague_ was again plunder’d by those who were most
concerned to preserve it; I mean the Imperialists, who, after the Battle
at _Weissenberg_, near _Prague_, wherein they defeated _Frederic_ Elector
Palatine whom a Party had chose King of _Bohemia_, enter’d the City, and
carried off inestimable Booty. _Prague_ was used no better in 1631, by the
Elector of _Saxony_, after that Prince made himself Master of _Bohemia_.
The Great _Walstein_ of so much Note for his Glorious Actions, and his
Tragical Exit, recover’d _Bohemia_ from the _Saxon_ in 1632, and took
_Prague_ by Storm. Some time after this the _Swedes_ attack’d it, and took
the lesser _Prague_; but could not force the old Town, it was so
courageously defended by the Students and Burghers. The _Swedes_ thereupon
retired, and carry’d off immense Wealth. At length the Peace of
_Westphalia_ restored Tranquillity to _Bohemia_ and the City of _Prague_,
which has been subject ever since to the House of _Austria_; and the
Kingdom which before was Elective, had the Mortification to become

The Situation of _Prague_ is pleasant in the midst of Gardens and fine
Fields, and ’tis adorn’d with noble Buildings, of which the Houses of the
Counts _Tschernin_ and _Sternberg_ are as fine as any. The Furniture of
the former is extremely rich; there is a Gallery adorned with excellent
Pictures, a Cabinet of choice Porcellane with entire Services of the
finest _Indian Lacca_; and another Room full of fine Arms and other
Curiosities. Count _Sternberg_’s House is not so large, yet better
contriv’d; and in _Rome_ it self would pass for a fine Palace. But there
is one built by the late Count _de Gallasch_, who died Viceroy at
_Naples_, that bears the Bell above all. You know that Nobleman was
prodigiously rich and magnificent. He spared no Cost in his Buildings.
’Tis pity the House is not well situate, but it certainly would be so, if
the young Count _de Gallasch_ was of the same Way of Thinking with his
Father, who intended to have had five or six old Hovels belonging to it
pull’d down to the ground, by which means he would have had a fine Square.

The Convents of both Sexes are another Ornament of this Great City. The
House of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits is one of the most magnificent.
They have lately caused a Church to be built, which is one of the best
adorned that I have seen out of _Italy_. If you were but here, we would
go together and see all those Buildings. I would carry you first of all to
the Cathedral, which is in lesser _Prague_, on the Top of the Hill call’d
_Ratschin_, and from thence we would go and take a View of the Castle
which is upon the same Hill.

The Metropolitan Church is a very antient Structure, which was burnt down
by the _Swedes_, and is only rebuilt in part. Its Magnificence and Beauty
consist in the thickness of its Walls and Arches; and the Architecture of
this Church is such, that I fancy it would appear _Gothic_ to the very
_Goths_ themselves. ’Tis in this Cathedral that the Kings and Queens of
_Bohemia_ are consecrated. The Archbishop of _Prague_’s Office is to
perform the Unction upon both; but the Abbess of St. _George_, whose Abbey
is also upon the Hill of _Ratschin_, is to place the Crown upon the Head
of the Queen, and in this Function she is assisted by the Wives of the
Great Officers of the Crown.

In this Metropolitan Church are preserved with great Veneration the Bodies
of a couple of Saints extremely dear to the _Bohemians_. The one is St.
_Wenceslaus_ King of _Bohemia_, the other St. _John Nepomucene_. The
latter was very lately canonized by Pope _Benedict_ XIII. at the Request
of the States of this Kingdom, who were at the whole Expence of the
Ceremony, which was performed in the Church of St. _John de Lateran_ at
_Rome_ with extraordinary Pomp.

The Story of this Saint is very singular: He was Confessor to the Wife of
that cruel Emperor _Wenceslaus_, who was deposed by the Electors. That
Prince being jealous of his Queen enjoined St. _John Nepomucene_ to reveal
that Princess’s Confessions to him. He employed Presents, Prayers and
Threats, to persuade the Saint to make this Discovery, but all to no
purpose; upon which he caused him to be cast headlong from the Bridge
into the River of _Molde_. The Body was seen floating at some distance
from the Place, attended with five Stars swimming on the Water; then he
was added to the Number of the Saints and Martyrs, and his Corpse was
taken out of the River, and carried with Pomp to _Prague_, where it was
interr’d in the Church of _Dain_ in the old Town, of which he was a Canon.
His Corpse being found some Years ago, his Tongue appearing to be as fresh
as ever, was taken out of his Mouth and put into a Silver Gilt Box; the
Body was enclosed in a stately Coffin, and the whole carried with great
Ceremony to the Cathedral. An Altar being erected in the middle of the
right Wing of the Choir, there the Saint was interr’d in a Tomb of Silver
Gilt; and the Tongue put into a sort of Tabernacle where it has wrought
and does still work great Miracles. There is a great Concourse of People
hither from all Parts to invoke this Saint, whose Tomb is loaded with
precious Gifts, and adorned by the Empress with a rich Canopy. But no body
has given more illustrious Proofs of Devotion to St. _Nepomucene_ than the
Prince _de Schwartzenberg_[88] Master of the Horse to the Emperor, and the
Count _de Martinitz_ Marshal of the Imperial Court; who both ascribe the
Conception of their Wives, and the Birth of their Sons, to the Protection
of that Saint, tho’ I should have thought all this feasible enough without
a Miracle. The Princess _de Schwartzenberg_ had not been married many
Years before she had a Daughter[89]; her Husband had not seen her for
fourteen Years after this, during which she had no Children. This is no
more than common; after they came together again Madam is brought to Bed
of a Son, in which tho’ there is nothing but what is very natural, yet
’tis cry’d up for a Miracle; the Birth is ascribed to the Devotion which
the Princes paid to the Tomb of St. _Nepomucene_ for nine Days together,
and to make the Saint some amends, his Tomb and his Altar are adorn’d by a
great many Vessels of Silver and Silver gilt.

As to Count _Martinitz_ there seems indeed to be better colour for a
Miracle in his favour. He had been married fourteen or fifteen Years, and
his Lady never given the least Sign of Teemingness. She was in good plight
of body, her Husband liv’d with her, and they went together several times
to the Baths of _Carlsbad_, but all had signified nothing. The Count
longing passionately for a Son had perform’d more than nine days Devotion
successively, for he went the last Holy Year to _Loretto_ and to _Rome_.
But Heaven deaf to his Cries granted him no Heir; at last knowing not what
Saint to pray to, his Lady propos’d, that they should go and worship nine
days together at the Tomb of St. _Nepomucene_. They set out, they arrive
at _Prague_, they prostrate themselves before the sacred Tomb. Soon after,
Madame _de Martinitz_ proves with Child, and at nine Months end is
delivered of a Son. You may say whatever you please, but such a Favour
sure was worth some Lamps of solid Silver before the Saint’s Tomb; and the
Count _de Martinitz_ full of Zeal and Gratitude has given some that are
very magnificent.

The _Bohemians_ have so great confidence in St. _John de Nepomucene_, that
they have almost forgot St. _Wenceslaus_ their old Patron. There is no
Church where St. _John_ has not a Chapel, no Bridge without his Effigy;
every body Gentle and Simple, Men and Women, wear his Picture as if it
were the Badge of an Order, hanging to a straw-colour’d Ribbon, and you
would swear that all the _Bohemians_ were Knights of St. _Louis_. In
short, St. _Nepomucene_ is the only Saint in vogue; and Presents are
heap’d upon him to such a degree that if it continues much longer, he will
be as rich as our Lady of _Loretto_.

The Palace or Castle which joins to the Cathedral is a great Building
composed of several Main Bodies without Symmetry or Architecture. The
Apartments are but low and plain, but here is one of the most beautiful
Prospects in the World. The great Hall in which the Royal Feast is kept on
the Day of the Coronation of the Kings is the largest of the kind, next to
the spacious Hall of _Westminster_. The Palace-Gardens are large, but have
nothing to recommend them besides their Situation. The Tribunals of the
Regency meet in the Palace: The first of these consists of Stadtholders
who are of the Emperor’s Privy Council. They are to the Number of twelve,
and represent the Sovereign. Most of them are the great Officers of the
Crown. There must be always two of them private Gentlemen to take care of
the Interests of the Gentry against the Nobility; for you must know that
the Princes, Counts, and Barons, who compose the Nobility, form a separate
Body here, and would think it a Disparagement to be call’d _Gentlemen_;
tho’ _Henry_ IV. King of _France_ counted it an honour to be the first
Gentleman in his Kingdom, and King _Francis_ I. whenever he affirmed a
thing, said, _Upon the Word of a Gentleman_.

The Chief of the Council of the Stadtholders is call’d the _Great
Burgrave_, whose Dignity is the highest in the Kingdom. He represents the
Person of the Emperor, and is inferior to none but the Chancery of
_Bohemia_ which always attends the Emperor.

The Bridge over the _Muldaw_ which joins little _Prague_ to the old Town,
is one of the longest and most substantial Bridges in _Europe_. It has on
both sides the Statues of several Saints, which if they had been done by
a better hand, would have prov’d an Ornament. There is a Crucifix also
which is pretended to be of Gold, and to have been erected formerly at the
Expence of the _Jews_, pursuant to an Order of the Government, as a
Punishment for their having crucified a Christian Infant upon
_Easter_-Day, to insult the Memory of our Saviour’s Death.

The _Jews_ are the only Sectaries that are tolerated in _Bohemia_. There
are some _Hussites_ still subsisting, but they keep so close, that the
Government does not seem to know that there are any at all. I was assur’d
that in _Prague_ alone there were no less than 80,000 _Jews_; whether
there are quite so many, I know not; but ’tis certain they are very
numerous. Their Quarter in the old City forms a little separate Town. They
have all the Trade in their own hands, follow all sorts of Callings, and
by their receiving all old-fashion’d things in Payment, they quite ruin
the Christian Handicrafts-men. As these People multiply like Rabbets, ’tis
said the Emperor is going to issue an Ordinance prohibiting any but their
eldest Sons to marry; the Report of which is so alarming to the _Jews_,
that they would advance great Sums to prevent its taking effect.

If we except _Rome_, _Paris_, and _London_, there is no City where there
are more Gentry, or a Gentry that is more wealthy: Every body here lives
grand; and in no Part of the World do the Nobility keep greater State, or
take more Pride in their Substance. They are polite and civil to
Strangers, whom they know to be Persons of Quality. For my own part, I
like them prodigiously, and I can safely say it, I have hardly met with a
Foreigner who has not the same Notion of _Prague_ that I have.

There is not a Gentleman in this Country but has seen at least _Holland_,
_France_, and _Italy_, and indeed they are under some necessity of
travelling, for the Education they have at home is none of the best. But
they don’t travel as People of their Birth and Fortunes ought to do. They
are commonly attended by a sort of Governors, who make it their Profession
to ramble abroad with young Gentlemen, and are for the most part
_Walloons_, _Luxemburghers_, _Lorrainers_, or _Liegeois_, Soldiers of
Fortune, without Education, and without Manners; who think ’tis enough for
their Pupils to see Houses and Churches, and having not the Courage or the
Capacity to put themselves forward, or even to shew their Heads, don’t
care that their Gentlemen should keep Company. They tell _young Master_,
that my Lord his Father, who put him under their Care, recommended
Œconomy to them; that they might game at Assemblies, but that ’tis not
well to play while they are travelling: Therefore the Spark is oblig’d to
keep in his Quarters, or if he is perhaps permitted to go to the public
Shews, even this Pleasure, because it is not to be had without Money, must
be taken in Moderation; the Governor’s Aim is only to crib all he can, and
sink his Pupil’s Money into his own Purse. This is so true that I have
known some who never eat Suppers, yet always brought them to Accompt; many
of ’em get a Profit by every thing they buy, and they make such hard
Bargains that ’tis ten to one if they don’t chouse the Merchant as well as
their Pupil. If the Governor does not like the Place they come to, he must
be gone, tho’ it were the most proper Town in the World to form the young
Gentleman; for the Governor only writes to the Father or Mother that the
Air did not agree with their Son, and that therefore he had remov’d him.
The Generality of these wretched Guides maintain that six Weeks or three
Months Stay at most is sufficient to know _Paris_; a Fortnight to be
thoroughly acquainted with the Genius of the _English_; a Month to know
_Rome_; a Week to see _Naples_; and so of the rest: And when they have
shewn their Gentleman at _Paris_, the Anatomical Wax-work and the
Observatory; at _London_, the Lions in the Tower; at _Rome_, the
Catacombs; and at _Naples_, the Liquefaction of St. _Januarius_’s Blood,
and Mount _Vesuvius_; they think they have done great matters, and away
they go without having made an Acquaintance with one Soul at any of the
Courts. They have seen the King of _France_ touch for the Evil; The King
of _England_ go to the Parliament-House; and the Pope sitting in his
Elbow-Chair, distributing his Benedictions. With a Mind thus adorn’d, the
young Man, after eighteen Months or two Years Absence abroad, returns
home. The Governor has two or three thousand Florins, and sometimes more
as a Gratuity, besides his Stipend. Again, the worthy _Mentor_ makes a
Bubble of the Father who trusts his Son with him, and behold now, he is
ready for another Tour. One would think that, instead of travelling in
this manner, it were better to send abroad for the Plans of all the Towns,
I am sure ’twould be cheaper; the Parents would have the comfort to see
their Sons at home, and they would also have wherewithal to furnish a
little Box in the Country.

There are no People of Quality in the World more addicted to an expensive
way of Living than those of _Prague_, which is the Reason that for all
their immense Revenues they are sometimes over Head and Ears in Debt; but
by good Luck they have a Settlement which prevents them from total Ruin:
For most of their Lands are intail’d for ever on the eldest Son of the
Family, so that he can neither alienate nor incumber them without the
Consent of the whole Family, and of the King himself, which is a Thing
very hard to be obtain’d. When an eldest Son of a Family has squander’d
his Freehold, and runs himself more and more in debt, the Creditors, and
sometimes the Parents themselves, present a Petition to the King and
desire a Sequestration. The King after being inform’d of the List of the
Debts, and of the _Majorat_ (which is the Name they give here to the Lands
that are intail’d) names Trustees for the Administration of the Estates of
the Spendthrift, who is allow’d a Pension till all the Debts are paid.
There’s another very good Establishment here for securing the Sale of
Landed Estates and Mortgages. Every Nobleman gives in a Particular of his
Estate to a Tribunal which is call’d the _Landtaffel_, where the same is
register’d. When a Person wants to borrow Money or to make a Sale, the
Lender or the Purchaser has recourse to the _Landtaffel_’s Office, where
he sees whether the Lands are incumber’d; and if the Borrower’s Debts
don’t exceed two Thirds of the Price at which they are rated by the
_Landtaffel_, he may lend his Money very safely.

Tho’ the _Bohemians_ are brave and good Soldiers, yet they don’t love the
Service, I mean the Gentry: Most of them prefer the Civil to Military
Employments, and a private Life to Posts in the Army or at Court. They are
so us’d to be absolute Masters at their Estates where the Peasants are
their Slaves, and to be homag’d like Petty Sovereigns by the Burghers at
_Prague_, that they don’t care to reside at _Vienna_, and to be oblig’d
like other Subjects to pay their Court to the Sovereign and the Ministers.
As soon as a Gentleman of _Bohemia_ comes of Age, he is oblig’d to take an
Oath of Fidelity to the Emperor as his King; which is a Law as much
binding on the Nobility as the Gentry; and none of ’em dare to go out of
the Kingdom without express Leave from the Emperor, on the Penalty of
forfeiting his Estate. When the Noblemen are return’d from their Travels
to _France_ and _Italy_, they put in to be Chamberlains, not so much for
the sake of engaging themselves to Attendance at Court as to procure a
Precedency for their Wives, it being a Custom with most of ’em to marry as
soon as they come of Age. Afterwards they aim to be Counsellors of State,
and Stadtholders, and this is the _Ne plus ultra_ of their Preferments.
The Counsellors of State challenge the Title of _Excellency_: But this is
what those who are not of that Denomination, and of as good Families as
themselves, scruple to allow them, so that generally speaking they have it
only given them by their Domestics and Dependants. So that one may say of
their Excellencies what the Duchess of _Elbœuf_ of the _Lorrain_ Family
said in _France_ concerning the Princes of _Bouillon_, that they were
_Domestic Highnesses_, because none but their own Servants give them the
Title of _Highness_.

Of all the great and wealthy Families, those of _Lobkowitz_, _Kinski_,
_Schlick_, _Collobradt_, and _Martinitz_ are the only ones that make a
Figure at the Imperial Court. ’Tis true there are several other Noblemen
at _Vienna_ who have Lands in _Bohemia_, but then their Families are not
originally descended from that Kingdom.

The _Kinski_’s Family is actually the most splendid at Court. There are
five Brothers of it in Employments. The eldest is the Great Chancellor of
_Bohemia_[90]. The second who is call’d Count _Stephen_, is Great Marshal
of _Bohemia_, a Minister of State, and the Emperor’s Ambassador at the
Court of _France_[91]. The third, Count _Philip_, is the Emperor’s
Minister Plenipotentiary to _Great Britain_; and the two youngest are in
the Army, where one of them is a Lieutenant-Colonel. Count _Philip_ was
sent Ambassador when but twenty nine Years old. He has demonstrated by his
Conduct that Wisdom does not always stay for Age, and that he is the
worthy Son of one of the greatest Ministers that[92] the Emperors
_Leopold_ and _Joseph_ ever had. The City of _Prague_ is a very great
Loser by his Absence, for he liv’d there with Splendor, and his House was
always open, particularly to Foreigners. For my own part I receiv’d such
Civilities there as I shall never forget.

As I have told you that the Nobility of _Bohemia_ are the richest in the
Empire, I must also acquaint you that the Peasants there are miserable to
the last degree; their Persons, and all they have, are at the Command of
their Lord. The poor Wretches have often not a Bit of Bread to eat, in a
Country which is one of the most plentiful in _Europe_ for all sorts of
Provisions. They dare not go from one Village to another to work, nor
learn a Handicraft without their Lord’s Consent. So much Subjection keeps
the poor Creatures always trembling and humble, so that if you do but
speak to ’em they are ready to lick the Dust off your Feet. The Severity
with which these People are us’d is really terrible, but ’tis as true on
the other hand, that gentle Usage has no Effect upon ’em; for they are
excessively lazy and stubborn, and being moreover us’d to harsh Treatment
from Generation to Generation, Blows scarce terrify them, tho’ tis the
only way to make ’em good for any thing.

The _Bohemians_ have a great many Talents for Music, so that there’s no
Village, be it ever so small, but the Mass is sung in Concert, and they
are very happy at winding the Hunters Horn.

’Tis certain that this Kingdom is one of the best Countries in the
Emperor’s possession, and next to _Hungary_, brings him in most Money.

_Bohemia_ is a Country of States, whom the Emperor as King of it, summons
every Year to the City of _Prague_. They consist of the Clergy, Nobility,
Gentry, and Towns. The Assembly is open’d by a Commissioner of the
Emperor’s Nomination, who lays before them his Imperial Majesty’s Demands.
The States, such is their Submission and Zeal, grant the full Demand which
is commonly a very great Sum; yet for all this, the _Bohemians_ wou’d not
complain of Taxes if the Emperor resided among them, but they are sorry to
see their Country exhausted to enrich the _Austrians_ to whom they have a
natural Aversion, and the _Austrians_ as heartily hate the _Bohemians_.

I own to you I shall be sorry to leave _Prague_. I take the _Bohemians_ to
be the best People upon Earth, and _Prague_ to be one of those Towns of
the Empire where a Gentleman may have most choice of Company. The Ladies
here are very amiable. Gaming, which may be call’d the universal Pleasure,
is carry’d as high here as they please in Houses of the Quality, where
Assemblies of both Sexes are held every Night, with good Cheer,
particularly Pheasants and Ortolans in plenty; and upon Fish-Days, there
are Trouts, Salmon, and Cray-Fish; and that there may be nothing wanting,
_Bohemia_ likewise furnishes good Wine. At the Estate of the young Count
_Tschernin_ at _Melneg_, there is a red sort not inferior to _Burgundy_.
Of all these good Things many partake together, and for my part I own I am
taken more with this Pleasure than any other, because we make it last as
long as we will, and then ’tis suited to all Ages.

There is a tolerable _Italian Opera_ here. In Winter they have Races in
stately Sledges: There is great Masquerading, and they dance till they are
ready to drop to the ground: For this end there are public Balls which are
extraordinary splendid, and might be compar’d, if any can be compar’d,
with the Balls at the _Hay-Market_ in _London_.

In the Summer-Time when there is not so much Company in Town, these
Assemblies are thinner. The Gentry meet at Night in a Garden belonging to
the Prince _de Schwartzenberg_, where they game, chat, and walk up and
down, after which they always go to some House or other to sup. When one
has a mind to go to the Country, we are sure of a good Reception, and the
longer one stays the greater Pleasure one gives to the Master of the
House. Here they pass the Time in Hunting of all sorts. Many of the
Nobility keep Packs of Hounds, and others Hawks. The Generality keep
Musicians in their Service, so that let the Weather be what it will, one
may be always amused in this Country. Besides, one enjoys all the Freedom
here that can be. After this, Sir, can you blame me for being sorry to
leave _Bohemia_? But ’tis what I’m now preparing to do, and I purpose to
go to _Vienna_. You will be so good as to let me have a Line from you
there; for to be plain with you, to write three Letters for one is too
hard. ’Tis true that your’s are of inestimable Value, and that therefore
you are in the right not to be lavish of them; but the same Reason
justifies me in desiring them. Adieu, Sir: Love me always a little, and be
assur’d that no Man is more than I, _&c._


                              LETTER XII.

  _SIR_,                                      _Vienna, Nov. 30, 1729._

The Court of VIENNA consists of so many Princes and Noblemen, that it
cannot be deny’d to be the greatest and most magnificent Court in
_Europe_. Nevertheless Ceremonies, and the _Etiquette_, a Name by which
they call ancient Usages, give it an Air of Constraint that is to be seen
no where else. There’s a universal Out-cry against the latter, and even
the Emperor sometimes seems to be disturb’d at it, yet ’tis observ’d as
strictly as if it was an Article of Religion, and nothing cou’d set it
aside but an Oecumenical Council.

Notwithstanding this, a Foreigner of Quality (for such he must be here)
finds Advantages at this Court which he does not meet with either at
_Paris_ or _London_, I mean Opportunities of making Acquaintance. After a
Person has been to wait on their Imperial Majesties he need only be
introduc’d into one single Family to be soon made known to all the rest,
with this Advantage too, that go where you will, they speak the _German_,
_French_, _Italian_, and _Spanish_ Languages; whereas a Foreigner at
_Paris_ is under a Necessity of speaking _French_, and at _London_
_English_; but a Man may shift very well at _Vienna_ without the
_High-Dutch_ or _German_ Language.

The Ministers and great Lords of the Court are Civil, Courteous, and of
easy Access, especially to such as want no Favour of ’em, and come to
_Vienna_ only for Curiosity or Business. The Way of these Gentlemen is to
return no Visits: but they invite People to their Tables, which being
always well fill’d, a Man soon gets a great deal of Acquaintance.

’Tis a very easy matter to be admitted to kiss the Hands of their Imperial
Majesties, and even to obtain a private Audience of ’em; for there needs
nothing more than to give in your Name to the Emperor’s Great Chamberlain
and the Empress’s Great Master of the Houshold. When you kiss their Hands
you bend one Knee to the Ground, and the Time for it is generally when
their Majesties pass by to Dinner. But private Audiences are attended with
more Ceremonies. The Great Chamberlain having appointed the Hour of
meeting in his Antichamber, which is commonly five o’clock in the Evening,
he repairs thither at that Time, and introduces to the Audience; and if he
be absent, ’tis done by the Chamberlain in Waiting. The Ceremony observ’d
is this: The Emperor stands up under a Canopy, leaning with his Back
against a Table, and an Arm-Chair by his Side, A Screen of red Velvet with
Gold Fringe is plac’d at the Entrance of the Room, so that the Emperor is
not perceiv’d at the opening of the Door. Behind this Screen near the
Door, stands the Great Chamberlain. As soon as the Person comes in sight
of the Emperor he bends the Knee, which he repeats as he advances a little
farther, and again when he comes near to his Imperial Majesty. To these
Genuflexions the Emperor gives a Nod of the Head, hearkens very
attentively to the Person who addresses him, and returns a succinct and
gracious Answer. Then the Person kneeling with one Knee on the Ground
kisses his Majesty’s Hand, after which he retires, going backwards and
making three Genuflexions as he did at Entrance. The same Ceremonies are
observ’d at an Audience of the Empress, who gives it standing just as the
Emperor does, with this Difference only that the Emperor is all alone, and
the Empress is attended with one of her Ladies of Honour, who nevertheless
stands off at such a Distance that she can’t hear what is said.

The Emperor commonly eats with the Empress and the Arch-Duchesses. But
there are particular Days, such as the Installation of the Knights of the
_Golden Fleece_, when the Empress herself is not allow’d to sit down at
Table with his Imperial Majesty. The Dinner is commonly in the Emperor’s
Apartment, and the Supper at the Empress’s. At Dinner two Chamberlains
hold the Ewer for their Majesties to wash, and the Steward, or in his
absence the Great Chamberlain presents them the Napkin, which is done
after the manner of _Spain_, with one Knee on the Ground. The Number of
Dishes at the Emperor’s Table is forty eight, and the same at the
Empress’s; but tho’ their Majesties eat together they are each serv’d by
their own Officers and Cooks. They commonly drink both together at the
first Time; and till they have drank, the Ambassadors, Courtiers, and
Ladies all wait at Dinner. After the Emperor has drank, the Steward, the
Master of the Horse, the Great Chamberlain, and the Captain of the Guards
receive his Orders: The Lady of Honour in Waiting and the Empress’s
Steward receive her Orders in like manner. None remain in the Room but the
Officers necessary for the Service, and some curious People who are not
us’d to see Sovereigns eat. On Sundays, Saints Days, and Days of _Gala_,
which is the Name they give here to Days of Festival and Ceremony, the
Dinner is attended with Music. I forgot to acquaint you that the Emperor
is always cover’d at Table, and that when he puts his Hat on the
Ambassadors put on theirs.

At Supper the Lady of Honour who is in waiting presents the Napkin, and
the Ladies of the Bed-Chamber not only carve and hand the Victuals, but
taste both the Meat and the Wine. The Pages carry the Dishes and Plates,
and fetch the Wine from the Beaufet which they give to the Ladies, and
they to their Majesties. During the Supper as well as at Dinner all the
Gentlemen and Ladies stand up, so that here neither Princes nor Princesses
have any Distinction shew’d them, but all Ranks are levell’d and
confounded, and no body sits down in presence of the Sovereign.

On the Days of _Gala_ the Court is extremely gay, and nothing is to be
seen but Gold and Diamonds. The Days of this kind that are celebrated with
most Splendor are those of St. _Charles_ and St. _Elizabeth_, the Name
Days of the Emperor and Empress. The Emperor, who commonly dresses very
plain, is cover’d all over with Diamonds upon St. _Elizabeth_’s Day. And
as for the Empress, her Apparel is commonly rich, and so loaded with
Jewels upon St. _Charles_’s Day that she can scarce stand under it. Except
on these Days of _Gala_ the Court dresses very plain. ’Tis true that these
Days are very frequent, and that consequently plain Clothes are not very
much wore, for if it be a Holiday, or the Birth-Day of some Minister, or
if some Lady of Distinction sends but for a Surgeon to bleed her, ’tis
enough to put the whole City in _Gala_. These _Gala’s_ may be divided into
three Classes; the _Court Gala_ which is universal both for the Nobles and
Plebeians; the _Grand Gala_ which is kept in the City is for the Festival
of some Minister; and the third and last is the _Little Gala_, which is
when the Ladies are let blood. A Husband makes a _Gala_ here for his Wife,
the Wife for her Husband, the Children for their Parents, and Brothers and
Sisters for one another; so that to be sure two Thirds of _Vienna_ are
always in _Gala_; which made a _French_ Jester say, ’twould take up a
great deal of Brimstone to cure the _Austrians_ of the _Gale_[93].
However, they take care not to appear in this domestic _Gala_ before the
Emperor and Empress, because it would be reckon’d a Disrespect to them.

On the great Festival-Days the Emperor goes with a grand Retinue to St.
_Stephen_’s Cathedral: He takes up one whole Side of the Coach, and the
Empress sits fronting him. Their Majesties are preceded by the
Chamberlains and Knights of the _Golden Fleece_ on horseback: The Pages
and Footmen walk bare-headed immediately after the Coach of the Master of
the Horse, and their Imperial Majesties Coach is guarded on each side by a
File of Archers, and attended by the Coaches of the Arch-Duchesses and the
Ladies. Then the Horse-Guards appear with their Kettle-Drums and Trumpets,
and the March is clos’d by the Pope’s _Nuncio_ and the Ambassadors with
their Train, which consists of three magnificent Coaches and six Horses

On _Corpus Christi_ Day the Emperor accompanies the Holy Sacrament, when
the Streets thro’ which the Procession passes are cover’d with Planks.
Their Imperial Majesties repair in the Morning with great Attendance to
St. _Stephen_’s Cathedral, and after assisting at Divine Service join in
the Procession. The Emperor is immediately follow’d by the Empress, who is
accompany’d by all the Ladies in rich Dresses, which renders this one of
the most magnificent Processions in the World.

The same Honours and Respects are paid to the Empress Dowager as to the
Empress Regent. She has her separate Houshold, and her own Guards. She has
an Apartment in the Palace, but commonly lives in a Convent of her own
founding in one of the Suburbs, and does not come to Town except on the
great Festivals or for some extraordinary Function. You know, without
doubt, that the Empress Dowagers can never quit Mourning; their Apartments
must be always hung with Black, and their Coaches and Liveries are of the
same Colour: Nor can they be present at any Play, Ball, or Concert. In
short by losing their Husbands they must renounce the Pleasures of this
Life. These severe Obligations on a Widow are fully discharg’d by the
Empress Dowager. Being retir’d to a Convent where she is almost
continually prostrate before the Altars in Prayer and Supplication, she
makes her Mansion a Place of Piety and Peace, and never appears in public
but when Conveniency requires. This Princess was always an Example of the
most uncommon Virtue. In the Life-time of her Husband the Emperor
_Joseph_, she lov’d Pleasures and Grandeur; but when she became a Widow
she renounc’d all, and only employ’d herself in Works of Piety, and in the
Education of the two Arch-Duchesses her Daughters, whom she has now the
Comfort of seeing marry’d to two powerful Princes of the Empire[94].
There’s not a Person that draws near her Imperial Majesty but admires her
eminent Qualities. I have not yet had the Honour this Journey of casting
my self at her Feet, but the first Time I was here I had the Advantage of
paying my Duty to her at _Schonborn_, where she then pass’d the Summer. I
was receiv’d by her with such Proofs of her Kindness as charm’d me, and
which I shall always remember with Pleasure and Respect. This Princess is
the Daughter of _John-Frederic_ Duke of _Brunswic-Hanover_ and of
_Henrietta-Benedictine_ Princess Palatine. After the Death of the Duke her
Father, who left no Son, she went with the Duchess of _Brunswic_ to
_France_, where this Princess was very glad to retire to her Sister the
Princess of _Condé_. The Empress who was then the Princess _Amelia_,
spent some Years in _France_, where she learned the Language and
Politeness of that Nation to perfection, and in short acquir’d that Merit
and Virtue for which she is now so much admir’d, and which perhaps have
contributed equally with her illustrious Extraction to gain her possession
of the first Throne in Christendom. The Marriage of her elder Sister to
_Renaud d’Este_ Duke of _Modena_ obliging the Dutchess of _Brunswic_ to
leave _France_, and go and settle at _Modena_, the Princess _Amelia_
follow’d her also into _Italy_. She had no reason to be sorry for her
leaving _France_, and rejecting the Addresses of a _French_ Nobleman who
had presum’d to court her, for not long after her Arrival at _Modena_ she
was marry’d to the King of the _Romans_, afterwards the Emperor _Joseph_.
This Empress is not only endow’d with the Christian but all the Moral
Virtues, and there are few Princesses of a more generous Soul, of greater
Courage, or of a Genius more sublime, more refin’d, or more adorn’d. There
was a Time when she might be rank’d among the most beautiful Princesses of
_Europe_: she still retains all the Marks of it; and therewith preserves
such a majestic Air that whenever I behold her it revives the profound
Veneration I have for her sacred Person.

The Emperor _Charles_ VI. is of a middling Stature, and in good Plight of
Body: He is of a swarthy hale Complection, has a brisk Eye, and thick
Lips, for which last his Family in general have been remarkable. This
Monarch is the second Son of the Emperor _Leopold_ by _Eleonora_ of
_Newbourg_, and the fifteenth Emperor[95] of his Family. Being design’d
when a Minor for Successor to _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, he had a
grave Education suitable to the People whom he was one day to govern. This
made him contract an Air of Seriousness, which, to those who have not the
Honour of Access to him, favours of Severity; yet he is affable and very
humane. He hears those with Attention that speak to him, and his Answers
are full of Good-nature. When he attain’d to an Age hardly ripe enough for
the Crown of _Spain_, he met with various Fortune in that Kingdom; but he
supported himself in every Event with an heroic Magnanimity, being always
submissive to the Will of that Providence which he knew was the Master of
the Fortune of Kings. The Adversitys with which it pleas’d God to try his
Patience by the Siege of _Barcelona_ which he carry’d on in Person, and by
the Loss of the Battle of _Villa Viciosa_, only serv’d to confirm his
Constancy, and his natural Integrity, a Principle which renders him even
more venerable than the Splendor of his Crowns and the vast Extent of his
Power. Heaven, which always rewards Virtue, has granted this Monarch one
of the best and most fortunate Reigns that any Emperor has had since
_Germany_ has been the Seat of Empire. He wants nothing to crown his
Happiness but a Male Heir, which is so much the Desire of the People, as
well as of the Emperor and the most virtuous Empress the World ever saw,
that God grant he may have one.

This Princess is descended from the august House of _Brunswic_, to which
_Europe_ is at this Time oblig’d for two Empresses[96], one King[97], and
a Queen[98]. She is the Daughter of _Lewis Rodolph_ Duke of
_Brunswic-Blankenbourg_[99] by _Christiana-Louisa_ Princess of _Oetingen_,
of whom I gave you an Account in my Letter from _Blankenbourg_. The
Character of this august Princess for her Affability and Goodness is so
well known in the World that ’tis needless to speak of it here. You know
likewise how beautiful and handsome she was when she was marry’d to the
Emperor. And notwithstanding the Pimples in her Face and her present
Corpulency she may still be reckon’d in the number of the beautiful
Princesses. Such an Air of Modesty, Mildness, and Majesty, accompanies
every thing she does, as inspires those that approach her with equal
Courage and Respect. Her Duty is her Law, and her principal Care is to
please the Emperor, whose Wisdom she knows to be sufficient to govern his
Dominions, and to him she therefore leaves all Affairs. Indeed she is very
earnest with him to get Favours for those who petition her, which she
thinks a Happiness to obtain, and she bestows them in such manner as is
very affecting to the Receivers. This Princess is charitable, generous,
and magnificent. She maintains her Dignity without Conceit, and supports
her solid Piety without Ostentation. She was educated in the _Lutheran_
Religion, but abjur’d it at _Bamberg_ when she came thither in her Way to
be marry’d to the Emperor, then King of _Spain_, and is now a good
Catholic, yet without any Hatred to the Protestants; being convinc’d that
the Love of one’s Neighbour is one of the Duties which God most strictly
enjoins upon Mankind, and that Charitableness and good Examples are the
best Means to reconcile those to the Church who are separated from it.

In the same sublime Sentiments of Virtue does the Empress educate the
Archduchesses her Daughters, and those young Princesses are like to make
worthy Proficients. The eldest Archduchess _Mary Theresa_ is brought up in
the agreeable Prospect of being one day Mistress of the vast Dominions
possessed by the Emperor[100]. This young Princess has very much of the
Air of the Empress her Mother; and if Heaven designs her for the
Sovereignty of the Empire, God grant she may also resemble her in her

The Emperor has three Sisters. The eldest is the Archduchess _Mary
Elizabeth_ Governess of the (_Austrian_) _Netherlands_; the second is
_Mary-Anne_ Queen of _Portugal_; and the third is the Archduchess _Mary
Magdalen_, who ’tis said is intended to be Governess of _Tirol_. The
intire August House of _Austria_ consists at present of the sacred Person
of the Emperor and of eight Princesses[101], of whom three are married;
and God grant it may be augmented by the Birth of a Prince; for without
setting up here for a zealous Subject, I don’t think that the Houses of
_Austria_ and _Bourbon_ ought ever to be extinct, both of them having made
the Fortunes of an infinite Number of Gentlemen.

The Emperor’s ordinary Pastime (when he has a Desire to unbend his Mind
from Affairs of State, to which he applies with all the Earnestness of a
Monarch that loves his People) is Hunting, or Shooting at a Mark; and the
Empress is generally a Sharer in his Diversions. His Imperial Majesty goes
sometimes also to the Riding-House, where he exercises himself in Riding:
At other times Music is his Amusement, which the Monarch not only performs
by Book, but is also a Composer; and some Years ago an Opera was acted
here of his composing. All the Actors as well as the Dancers and the
Musicians of the Orchestre were Persons of Quality. The Emperor himself
made one, and the two eldest Archduchesses his Daughters danced. The
Spectators were the Empress Regent and the Empress Dowager, and every
Actor had the Liberty of carrying two of his Kindred or intimate Friends.

Tho’ their Imperial Majesties are very fond of Music they have seldom more
than two Operas in a Year, _viz._ on the Days of St. _Charles_ and St.
_Elizabeth_, and sometimes the same Operas are play’d again during the
Carnival. At this time, which is devoted to Mirth, there is a Ball at
Court, and on the Flesh-days there is commonly a great Masquerade
representing a Country-Wedding. In the Palace there is a very magnificent
Theatre, which indeed is almost the only thing there that is worth seeing,
for the Imperial Palace is so wretched a Mansion that few Monarchs are
lodged worse than the Emperor. The Furniture too is old-fashion’d and not
very rich, which is somewhat unaccountable, because the Wardrobes are full
of costly Pieces of Tapestry, stately Pictures, and other fine Goods which
probably they are restrained from making use of by the _Etiquette_. The
Emperor’s Pleasure-Houses are no better than his Palace in the City. The
Castle of the _Favorita_ which is in one of the Suburbs, is a great
Building full of Turnings and Windings like the Street which it looks
into, and has more of the Appearance of a great Convent of _Capuchin_
Fryars than of the Dwelling of a Prince who is the Head of so many
Sovereigns. The Gardens are as mean as the House, and only considerable
for their Extent. _Laxembourg_ is still very much inferior to the
_Favorita_; but the Court is there no more than a Month or six Weeks,
during the Hunting of the Heron. The Ministers that are obliged to attend
the Emperor thither have Houses there, which though not very grand, are
commodious. When a Person goes to _Laxembourg_ to pay a Visit to the Court
he is under a Necessity of returning to _Vienna_ for a Bed, which is a
very great Inconveniency.

The Emperor _Joseph_ had begun a very fine House at _Schonborn_ about a
League from _Vienna_, but did not live to finish it; and the Empress
_Amelia_ to whom the Emperor gave it, instead of carrying on the Works
which her Husband had begun, lets it run to ruin; which is great pity, for
if that Building had been finish’d the Emperor wou’d not have had a
_Versailles_, but he wou’d at least have had a Mansion-House suitable to
his Dignity. ’Tis said that a new Palace is going to be built for the
Emperor; which, if true, ’twere to be wish’d that better Architects may be
employ’d in it than those who have had the Direction of the new Stables
and of St. _Charles_’s Church, which are Buildings lately erected with
very great Expence, but without any Taste. The Stables are a Range of
Buildings of a vast Length, divided into seven Pavilions which appear at
first sight to be so many different Houses. The middlemost Pavilion which
is design’d to lodge the Master of the Horse is much higher than the other
six, which sink gradually on the two sides. Nor are the inner Rooms better
contriv’d; for the Horses stand all in one Row, and the Stable is so
narrow withal, that one is every Minute in danger from the Horses Heels;
which is purely owing to the Indiscretion of the Architect, who having
ground enough and to spare might for the same Expence have made something
grand and noble.

Whether the same Architect that built the Stables had the Direction
likewise of St. _Charles_’s Church, is what I know not; but if they are
two different Men their Head-pieces are very much alike. This Church would
perhaps have been admir’d in the Days of the _Goths_, but in so refined an
Age as the present, one cannot look on it without being sorry for the Sums
of Money laid out in it.

This bad Taste as to Buildings prevails too much at _Vienna_, not but that
there are Hotels and even Palaces in which the Rules of Architecture are
observ’d, but then the Builders are got into such a way of ornamenting and
charging their Houses with Sculpture as is altogether contrary to the
noble Simplicity of the ancient Architecture. The Palace of Prince
_Eugene_ of _Savoy_ is stately, but situate in a narrow Street with a very
little Court before it. The Stair-case is very well contriv’d were it not
too much confin’d. The Apartments of the first Story are as well laid out
as the Ground wou’d admit of. We enter first into a spacious Salon adorn’d
with great Pictures representing the chief Victories of Prince _Eugene_
over the _French_ and the _Turks_. In the two Rooms next to this are very
rich Hangings wherein the Maker _Devos_ at _Brussels_ has very correctly
delineated the whole Military Science. The Bed-chamber beyond that has a
Set of Furniture of green Velvet richly embroider’d with Gold and Silk. In
the same Room there is a Lustre of Rock Crystal which is said to have cost
40,000 Florins. All the other Furniture is extraordinary magnificent, and
wou’d be cry’d up at _Paris_ it self, where it must be allow’d a Taste for
fine Furniture prevails more than any where.

The Palace of _Lichtenstein_ is bigger than that of _Savoy_, and not less
magnificent. ’Tis worth seeing were it only for its Paintings. I pass over
the Hotels of _Schwartzenberg_, _Daun_, _Diedrichstein_, _Harrach_, and
several other noble Edifices, lest my Letter shou’d swell into a Volume.

The Palaces of the Suburbs are infinitely more grand than those of the
City, and they have both Court-yards and Gardens. The most noble are the
Palaces of _Trautsheim_, _Rofrano_, _Schwartzenberg_, _Altheim_, and
_Eugene_ of _Savoy_. This last especially is a superb Structure with
magnificent Gardens, a fine Orangery, and a Menagery stor’d with the most
uncommon Creatures that the four Parts of the World can furnish. ’Tis in
this fine great House that Prince _Eugene_ passes the beautiful Season of
the Year. There is not so fine a Sight as an Assembly at this Prince’s
House, for not only the outer Court, in which there’s a fine Piece of
Water, but the Gardens are illuminated by an infinite Number of Lanthorns
made in form of a Bowl of extraordinary white Glass, which cast a very
great Light and make a glorious appearance. The Assembles at this Prince’s
House are always very numerous; for his Birth, Employments and Interest,
draw a great Court to him.

Prince _Eugene_ is of a middling Stature, and well made. His Air is
extremely serious, and his Deportment grave and reserv’d; but
notwithstanding that Reservedness he is a hearty Friend to his Adherents.
He is a thorough Judge of Merit, and loves to distinguish it. He is
perfectly genteel and civil, very polite to the Ladies, respectful and
submissive to his Lord and Master, but without Flattery or Servility. He
is generous and noble in every thing excepting his Apparel. He is an Enemy
to Ostentation, Ceremonies, and Constraint. In his youthful Days he lov’d
Pleasures, but he abandon’d them as soon as he was animated with a Thirst
for Glory. He was born in _France_, but left that Kingdom in 1683, out of
disgust that he was no more taken notice of, and came to _Vienna_ just
before the _Turks_ laid siege to it. He made the Campaign as a Volunteer,
and distinguish’d himself in such a manner that the Emperor _Leopold_ gave
him in _December_ following that Regiment of Dragoons which still goes by
his Name. When the Siege of _Vienna_ was rais’d, he serv’d in _Hungary_
under Duke _Charles_ of _Lorrain_, and _Maximilian-Emanuel_ Elector of
_Bavaria_. The first time that he obtain’d the Command of the Imperial
Army was in 1697, when he began with the Victory at _Zenta_ whereby 22,000
_Turks_ lost their Lives; a Loss which they could not recover, and which
put them upon suing for the Peace that was granted to them at _Carlowitz_
in 1699. The Prince afterwards commanded in _Italy_, _Germany_,
_Flanders_, and lastly in _Hungary_; and wherever he went Conquest
attended him. To give you a Detail of his Achievements would be to
anticipate the _History_ which is to immortalize them, and to which you
will not take it ill if I refer you. As to the Dignities and great
Employments of this Prince, he is Chief Counsellor of the Council of
Conferences; President of the Aulic Council of War; Commander in Chief or
Lieutenant-General of the Armies of the Emperor and Empire; his Imperial
Majesty’s Vicar-General in _Italy_; Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons; and
Knight of the Golden Fleece. All his Employments may be worth about
300,000 Florins a year to him. Besides this, he has a considerable Estate
in _Hungary_ and in the Neighbourhood of _Vienna_, which brings him in
about 100,000 Florins _per Ann._ more. He holds those Lands by the
Emperor’s Bounty who gave them to him as a Reward for his important

The Marshal Count _Guido Staremberg_ is one of those Gentlemen also who
deserve particular respect for their Virtue. He is descended of a Family
which has given great Generals and wise Ministers to the Emperors of the
_Austrian_ Family, and has supported the Glory of his Ancestors in a
signal manner; _Hungary_, _Italy_, and _Spain_, have been Witnesses of
Bravery and consummate Wisdom in the Art of commanding Armies, and have
admir’d him the more because they saw him always gaining Victories with
Armies ill paid, destitute of all Necessaries, and very much inferior to
his Enemies. This General enter’d very young into the Service in quality
of an Ensign, and advanc’d himself by degrees. He was made
Lieutenant-Colonel a little before the _Turks_ Undertaking against
_Vienna_, and while it was besieg’d, serv’d as Adjutant to his Cousin
_Ernest-Rudiger_ Count _de Staremberg_, the Defender of _Vienna_. This
Count _Guido_, after having been a few years in the Service, was preferr’d
to the Regiment of Foot of which he is still Colonel. When he was very
young he was made Great _Commander_ of the _Teutonic_ Order. I do not
mention his Exploits to you, because they are so much celebrated by Fame
that you cannot but know them. This General, tho’ very much advanc’d in
years, retains all his juvenile Ardor, and wou’d still be very capable of

Having mention’d two of the Emperor’s greatest Generals you will not be
sorry, I fancy, if I shou’d give you some Account also of his chief
Ministers. They are five in Number, and are call’d _Counsellors of the
Conferences_. Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_ is the first Counsellor, but
without the Title of Prime Minister, that being a Dignity not known at the
Imperial Court.

The Count _Lewis de Zinzendorf_, Chancellor of the Court, and Knight of
the _Golden Fleece_, is the second Counsellor of the Conference. He is a
Nobleman descended of a Family which has been for a long time eminent in
_Austria_. His Mother was a Princess of _Holstein_, who married to her
second Husband the Marshal Count _de Rabutin_ Governor of _Transylvania_,
but died a few years ago in a very advanc’d Age. I had the honour to know
her the last time I was here; her House being the Rendezvous of all People
of Rank. Count _Zinzendorf_ was in the Ministry in the Reign of _Leopold_.
He was that Emperor’s Minister Plenipotentiary in _France_, while the
Marshal _de Villars_ was at _Vienna_ with the same Character from _Lewis_
XIV. At the Death of the Emperor _Joseph_, the Count _de Zinzendorf_ was
that Prince’s Ambassador to the States-General, in which Character he was
confirmed by the Empress _Eleonora_ who was Regent during the Absence of
King _Charles_. He repaired from the _Hague_ to _Frankfort_ to assist at
the Coronation of _Charles_ VI. and officiated at the Ceremony as Vicar to
the Great Treasurer of the Empire, a Dignity which is Hereditary in his
Family. At the Congress of _Utrecht_ which was open’d not long after, the
Count _de Zinzendorf_ assisted as the Emperor’s first Ambassador. He
afterwards went to the unsuccessful Congress of _Soissons_, and from
thence to _Versailles_, where he succeeded so well with the Cardinal _de
Fleury_, that he kept him tight in those pacific Sentiments which the
Enemies of his Tranquillity, if not of his Glory, aim’d to make him give
up. The Count is now return’d hither, and almost the only Man that acts in
the Province of foreign Affairs. His Interest is very great, for besides
the Esteem which the Emperor has for his Person and Services, he is
related to all the most distinguished Persons at Court, and strictly
attached to the Interest of Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_, of whose Integrity
and disinterested Zeal for the Emperor he is very sensible. The Count _de
Zinzendorf_ is pretty tall and has a happy engaging Aspect. His Deportment
is noble. He is pretty reserv’d, but civil. He is very polite to
Strangers, and his House is open to them. He keeps the noblest and most
elegant Table at _Vienna_. He is magnificent in every thing he does, and
all his Actions favour of the Man of Quality. He is Father of a numerous
Family. The second of his Sons is a Cardinal and Bishop in _Hungary_[103].
Another is Knight of _Malta_, and Lieutenant-Colonel. As these are the two
with whom I am best acquainted, so they are the only ones I shall mention.
I know not whether ’tis possible for a Man to be more sprightly than they
both are. The Chevalier has more Mettle and Life than a _Gascon_: He is
very blunt in his witty Sallies, but the variety of them pleases, and
their novelty and justness are surprizing.

The Count _Gundacker de Staremberg_, President of the Chamber of Finances,
and Knight of the Golden Fleece, is the third Counsellor of the
Conferences. His Integrity is very much cry’d up, and he has manag’d the
Finances in such a manner as to guard against the Public Hatred.

The Count _de Schonborn_, Bishop of _Bamberg_ and _Wurtzbourg_,
Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, is the fourth Counsellor of the
Conferences[104]. You know, Sir, that the _Schonborn_ Family has given us
several worthy Gentlemen; but I may venture to say, with all due Regard to
the Memory of those great Men, and without flattering the Vice-Chancellor,
that of all the Family he has the greatest Capacity for Business, the most
generous Temper, and the most engaging and most civil Behaviour. As this
Prelate has not his Equal at _Vienna_ for Grandeur and Riches, so he has
not his Fellow for Magnificence. The Emperor has a singular Esteem for
him. The Vice-Chancellor has the Chancery of the Empire under him, and no
body above him but the Emperor, and the Elector of _Mentz_, who is the
Great Chancellor of the Empire.

The Count _de Konigseck_, Vice-President of the Aulic Council of War, is
the fifth Counsellor of the Conferences. This Nobleman, whose Extraction
is from a Family of Distinction in the Empire, is one of the tallest and
handsomest Men at Court: He is the Emperor’s Ambassador Extraordinary at
the Court of _Spain_. His Family has for a long time past been attach’d to
the House of _Austria_. He studied at _Besançon_, and was design’d for the
Church; but he quitted the Band, took to Arms, and enter’d into the
Service of the Emperor _Leopold_; in which he had not been many Years
before he had a Regiment of Foot, and the Emperor _Joseph_ made him his
Chamberlain. He also gave him the Government of _Mantua_, from whence he
was recall’d by _Charles_ VI. and sent to take possession of the
_Netherlands_ in the Name of the Emperor, to whom they were evacuated for
that purpose by the Maritime Powers. The Count _de Konigseck_, during his
Administration of the _Netherlands_, concluded the Barrier Treaty with the
States-General. At _Brussels_ he married Madamoiselle _de Lanoi la
Motterie_, a young Lady of a good Family, and distinguish’d Merit. When he
left the _Netherlands_ he went Ambassador from the Emperor to the Court of
_France_, where he gain’d great Esteem, especially from the Duke of
_Orleans_, the Regent; a Prince who was an excellent Judge of Merit, and
very sparing of his Applause. After three Years stay at _Paris_, the Count
return’d to _Vienna_. He attended the Archduchess, Wife to the Electoral
Prince of _Saxony_, in quality of Steward, to _Dresden_; and at his return
went to the Government of _Transilvania_. But the Emperor recall’d him
from this Post and sent him his Ambassador Extraordinary to _Spain_; where
the Count is as much esteem’d as he was at _Paris_. ’Tis said that he is
in entire Favour with their Catholic Majesties; nevertheless he makes such
earnest Application to be recall’d, that ’tis said he will obtain his
Request, and that his Nephew[105], who is the Emperor’s Minister
Plenipotentiary to the States-General, is already nominated to relieve

In the Council of Conferences the most important Affairs of the Empire are
taken into Consideration, and the Emperor is always present.

Besides the five Ministers whom I have now mention’d to you, there are
several others whose Interest is more circumscrib’d. Every Kingdom subject
to the Emperor has its Minister and particular Chancery.

Count _Badiani_ directs the Affairs of _Hungary_, in quality of its

The Affairs of _Bohemia_ are in the Province of Count _Kinski_, the
Chancellor of that Kingdom, who has a Vice-Chancellor under him, with a
great many Assessors and Counsellors.

The Council of _Spain_ consists of a President, Vice-President, and
Counsellors. Its Authority extends over all the Kingdoms that were
formerly subject to _Spain_, but yielded to the Emperor by the Peace. The
Count _de Monte-Santo_, a Grandee of _Spain_, Brother to the Count _de
Cinfuentes_, Constable of _Castile_, is President of this Council[107]; in
which Office he succeeded the Archbishop of _Valentia_, who quitted his
See to follow the Emperor whom he had acknowledg’d for his Sovereign in

Of all the Tribunals at _Vienna_ the _Aulic Council_ is the most
venerable; because ’tis the Parliament of the Empire. It is compos’d of a
President, _viz._ the Count _de Wurmbrandt_; a Vice-President, who is the
Count _de Metsch_; and of eighteen Counsellors, among whom there must be
six Protestants, and of these one must be a _Calvinist_. This Tribunal
judges of all Civil Causes between the Princes and private Men of the
Empire. Its Authority terminates with the Emperor’s Life; and ’tis on this
account only that the supreme Tribunal of _Wetzlar_, which subsists even
during the Vacancy of the Imperial Throne, challenges Precedence of the
Aulic Council. ’Tis a Mistake to think, as many Foreigners do, that the
Aulic Council takes Cognizance of Affairs of State; for its sole Business
is to do Justice: It registers no Edict unless it be its own
Sentences[108]; and is much more limited than the Parliaments of _France_,
which have at least the Privilege of losing Time in Remonstrances.

I perceive too that I am in a fair way to make you lose a great deal, if I
don’t put an end to my Legend; which therefore I now do, and refer the
rest of the Remarks that I have to entertain you with to another Post.

                                       _I kiss your Hand, and am_, &c.



                              LETTER XIII.

  _SIR_,                                    _Vienna, Decem. 10, 1729._

There are some other Articles which I cannot but add to those I have
already given you from _Vienna_. The Police of this City is administer’d
by a Stadtholder. The Person that now fills that Post is the Count _de
Kehvenhuller_; who is also a Minister of State, and Knight of the Golden
Fleece. His Functions are the same with those of the Lieutenant of the
Police at _Paris_, and nothing makes the Difference but the Title; only it
must be observ’d that the Stadtholder is always a Person of noble
Extraction, and a Gentleman of the Army, whereas the Lieutenant of the
Police at _Paris_ is often of mean Extraction, but always a Gentleman of
the long Robe.

The Governour of _Vienna_ had seldom any other Title than _Colonel of the
City_. The present Governour is the Marshal Count _de Daun_, the same that
defended _Turin_, who was six Years Viceroy of _Naples_, six Months
Governour of the _Netherlands_, and afterwards four Years Governour of
_Milan_[109]. His Lieutenant-Colonel, who is the Count _Maximilian de
Staremberg_, Lieutenant-General of the Emperor’s Forces, and Colonel of a
Regiment of Foot, commands in his absence, and has the Direction of the
Fortifications, the Arsenal, and the Garison. This Garison consists of a
Regiment of Foot, compos’d of veteran Soldiers, or the Burghers and
Artificers of _Vienna_, from whence this Regiment never stirs. The
Employments in this Corps are very lucrative; but as they don’t lie in the
Road to the Temple of Honour, they are not much solicited by Persons of
any considerable Extraction. Yet this Regiment, as little esteem’d as it
is, perform’d very good Services during the Siege of _Vienna_ by _Kara
Mustapha_, Grand Vizier to _Mahomet_ IV. It acted then under
_Ernest-Rudiger_ Count _de Staremberg_, who was Commandant in the City;
and both the General and his Garison acquir’d very great Glory by the
Resistance which they made. But perhaps with all their Bravery they cou’d
not have prevented the Place from being taken, had it not been for the
Avarice of the Grand Vizier, who hoped to be Master himself of the vast
Treasures that he knew were in the City, and was therefore against
storming the Town, for fear lest if it were carry’d by that means, the
Soldiers would have shar’d the Plunder.

The Siege of _Vienna_ being foreign to my purpose, I shall say nothing of
it. You know that it was raised by the Assistance that was brought to it
by the brave _John Sobieski_ King of _Poland_; who defeated the _Turks_ on
the 12th of _September_, 1683, and return’d home laden with Glory and
Booty, having made himself Master of all the Grand Vizier’s Equipage. Upon
this occasion he said a pleasant thing in a Letter which he wrote to the
Queen his Wife, who had not a very implicit Faith in the Maxims of
_Seneca_ on the Contempt of Riches; ‘You shan’t say when I come home, as
the _Tartary_ Women do to their Husbands when they return from the Army
without Booty, _You are not a Man for me, because you come empty-handed_;
for the Grand Vizier has made me sole Heir of all he had.’

You need not be told that this was the second time the _Turks_ were forc’d
to raise the Siege of _Vienna_; for _Soliman_ the Sultan besieg’d it in
the Reign of _Charles_ V. but with no better Success than _Kara Mustapha_.
’Tis true that the Disappointment he met with was not so fatal in its
Consequence to the Sultan as the other was to the Vizier of _Mahomet_ IV.
who was strangled at _Belgrade_ when _Mahomet_ was there: And the Head of
this Minister is still to be seen in the Arsenal at _Vienna_. The
Translation of this _Turkish_ Relique hither from _Belgrade_ was pretty
extraordinary. Some Years after _Kara Mustapha_ had been strangled, when
the _Germans_ took _Belgrade_, the Soldiers being inform’d where the Grand
Vizier was buried, open’d his Tomb in hopes of Treasure, but found nothing
except the Body in its Shirt, on which there were several _Arabic_
Characters, and an Alcoran. The Governour being told of it, remember’d
that this very Grand Vizier, when he laid Siege to _Raab_, which he was
oblig’d to raise, said, That if he took the Town he wou’d have the Head of
its Bishop cut off, who was then the Count _Leopold de Collonitz_, and
send it to the Sultan, to be reveng’d of that Prelate for taking Money out
of the Convents, and encouraging the Garison therewith to make a vigorous
Resistance. The Governour of _Belgrade_ remembring, I say, the Menaces of
the Grand Vizier, thought it wou’d be a very agreeable Present to the
Count _de Collonitz_, now a Cardinal[110], to send him the Vizier’s Head
and Body too, together with the Shirt and Alcoran; and he put up the whole
very neatly in a Crystal Shrine, adorn’d with Silver Plates, and sent it
accordingly to his Eminence; who not thinking this odd Present a proper
Relique to be deposited in his Chapel, gave it to the Arsenal here at
_Vienna_, where I have both seen the Mussulman and felt him. I wou’d fain
have pluck’d some of the Hairs of his Mustachio, but the Guardian of the
precious Treasure watch’d my Fingers too narrowly. They say that a piece
of the Halter by which a Man hangs himself is lucky, and why mayn’t there
be the same Virtue in the Mustachio of the Grand Vizier? Be it so or not,
’twill always deserve an honourable Station in some Cabinet of Rarities.

Since the Siege of _Vienna_ this City is much inlarg’d. Its Fortifications
are so augmented too that if the _Turks_ should ever be prompted by their
ill Fate to besiege it again, they wou’d find a stouter Resistance, and a
greater number of their Mustachios sindged than they imagine.

The Emperor has lately given new Lustre to his Capital, by prevailing with
Pope _Benedict_ XIII. to erect it into an Archbishopric. Several Bishops,
particularly the Archbishop of _Passaw_, have dismember’d their Dioceses
to aggrandise its Jurisdiction. The Cardinal _de Collonitz_ is the Person
who at present enjoys this Dignity, which gives him the Character and Rank
of a Prince.

The _Roman_ Catholic is the only Religion exercis’d in _Vienna_, and in
all _Austria_; but the Ministers of the Protestant Crown’d Heads have the
Liberty here, as well as elsewhere, of keeping a Chapel. When the holy
Sacrament or the Viaticum is carried to any sick Person, ’tis always
attended by Guards who oblige all People that meet it to kneel. I have
seen the Emperor, when the Viaticum was passing by, alight out of his
Coach and accompany it to Church. This Prince, and indeed all those of his
Family, always paid a very great Devotion to the holy Sacrament of the
Altar. Of this _Philip_ IV. King of _Spain_ gave a very edifying Proof;
for this Monarch going the very day that the King his Father died, from
the Palace of _Madrid_ to the Monastery of St. _Jeronimo del Passo_ in a
close Coach, that he might be _incog._ alighted out of it to accompany
the Viaticum which they were carrying to a sick Man; whereupon the Condé
Duke _d’Olivarez_ told him, That the King his Father was so lately dead
that he ought not to have been seen in public. _My Lord_, said the King,
_this Custom cannot excuse me from paying that Worship to God which I owe

It may be said of the august House of _Austria_, That as few Princes equal
them in Piety, so there are few that equal them in Birth. There may be
Families that have been longer grac’d with the Diadem; but of these there
are very few that have such great Alliances. There is no King, and not
many Sovereign Princes but what are related to them; and there are very
few Kingdoms to which the House of _Austria_ has not given Queens. ’Tis
now 300 Years that it has been Mistress of the Empire; and since _Albert_
II. it has given thirteen Emperors to _Europe_ successively. One of the
Princesses of _Austria_ had so many great Relations that I cannot help
mentioning her. This was the Empress _Mary_, Wife to the Emperor
_Maximilian_, Son to _Ferdinand_ I. This Princess was Sister to _Philip_
II. King of _Spain_, and the Daughter, the Wife, the Daughter-in-law, and
the Mother of five Emperors; the Grand-daughter, the Daughter, the Sister,
and the Aunt of four Kings of _Spain_; and the Mother-in-law of two Kings,
_viz._ _Charles_ IX. King of _France_, and _Philip_ II. King of _Spain_. A
modern Author says, that the Origin and Kindred of this Princess
infinitely surpassed those of _Agrippina_, who, according to the Report of
_Tacitus_, was the Daughter of _Germanicus_, the Sister of _Caligula_, the
Wife of _Claudius_, and the Mother of _Nero_. But when I consider how
perfect a Master you are, both of History and Genealogy, I ought to beg
your pardon for my Impertinence in troubling you with these Instances.

What remains for me now, is to communicate some Remarks to you which I
have made upon the _Austrians_ in general. I shall begin with the Women,
whom I shall paint to you, as _Burrhus_ says, with the Freedom of a
Soldier, who is not the best Limner.

The Women here, as in all other Countries, are either handsome or ugly. In
general they are rather handsome than pretty, for they are dull Beauties.
They are all tall and well shap’d; they walk well, but when they curt’sy,
do it in such an aukward manner, that one would think their Backs were in
danger of breaking. In their Dress they affect Finery rather than a good
Fancy. Two or three excepted, there’s none that lay on the Red, much less
the White, and Patches are very little worn; in a word, they have nothing
about them that denotes Coquettry. As to their Humour, they are reckon’d
frank, tho’ not easily made familiar; they are naturally vain, and like
all our _German_ Women, pretty reserv’d, and not so fond of Gallantry as
they are of Gaming, Luxury, and Magnificence. Such is their Indolence that
they concern themselves no more about their Houshold Affairs than if they
were Strangers. They know no Books but their Prayer-Books, are extremely
credulous, and give into all the Externals of Religion: This makes their
Conversation sometimes insipid; and unless now and then a Love-Story falls
in, Rain and Fair-Weather are their general Topics. They have at least as
great a Conceit of _Vienna_ as the _Parisians_ have of _Paris_; for out of
_Vienna_ they think there’s no Salvation. But all these little Defects are
repair’d by an uncommon Greatness of Soul, and Generosity. They are hearty
Friends, and warm Protectors of those whose Interests they espouse. When
they are in love, their Passion is sincere; and instead of ruining their
Lovers, there are some who have made the Fortunes of those to whom they
have taken a Fancy. Upon this Head I have been told, that in the Reign of
the Emperor _Joseph_, when Gallantry was more in vogue than ’tis now,
there was a Lady, who being in love with a Gentleman, and having a mind to
make his Fortune without the Censure of the Public, thought fit in an
Assembly where her Spark cut at Basset, to punt against him. She set a
Bett, without telling a Soul how much she stak’d. Her Husband coming into
the Room where they were at play, she rose up, took the Marks that were
against her, threw them on the Ground, and said to the Banker, loud enough
to be heard by her Husband, _I owe you, +Sir+, 40000 Florins_. The Husband
in a very great Surprize ask’d what was the matter? _I have been such a
Fool_, said she, pointing to the Banker, _as to lose 40000 Florins to
+Monsieur N----+. You have reason to chide me; but however my Debt must be
paid_. The Husband indeed grumbled very much, and said he wou’d not pay.
_What!_ reply’d the Wife, _won’t you pay the Gentleman? It shall fare the
worse with you if you don’t, for I am resolv’d to pay him in some Coin or
other_. The Husband perceiving his Wife so resolute, and that if he did
not deposite the Money it wou’d subject him to the Loss of what was more
precious, chose rather to part with the Cash; and indeed he had no reason
to repent of it, for the Lady’s Heart was so won by it, that she renounc’d
the Sight of her Lover from that Moment, and made a very sober Wife.

This, Sir, is all I have to give you concerning the Temper of the Women.
Let me tell you also how they spend their Time. They rise late. As soon
almost as their Eyes are open, they call for Chocolate, and send to their
Husbands to know who they have invited to Dinner, and whether there is
room for any more Guests. If the Lady does not like the Company, she
sends notice to some Lady of her Acquaintance that she intends to dine
with her; but if there be room at home, as a polite Husband always takes
care to leave some at the Disposal of his Wife, she sends an Invitation to
whom she pleases. After this she dresses and goes to Mass; for here the
Ladies are all so devout that there’s none but what hears at least one
Mass in a day. There they read in five or six different Prayer-Books, kiss
all the Pictures that are at the head of the Prayers, and very devoutly
toss their Beads. After the Office is over, they commonly chat a quarter
of an Hour in the Church. Then they go abroad and make some friendly
Visits, or else go home to receive them. At these Visits, they hear all
the News in _Vienna_. During this they have all a little Box of _Indian_
Lack upon their Knees, in which they thread Gold till Dinner-time. When
that’s over, they drink Coffee or play at _Quinze_ till Night, when they
go to Court. From the Empress’s Apartment they adjourn to the Assembly,
where they divert themselves at _Piquet_, or at _Quadrille_; and then
retire, undress themselves, go to Supper, and thence to Bed, well pleased
to think with what Indolence and Idleness they have spent the Day.

The Women of the second Class, in which I include the Gentlewomen that
have no Titles of Honour, _viz._ the Wives of the Assessors, Referendaries
and Agents of the Court, discover such an Air of Plenty and Prosperity as
is remarkably surprizing. Their Houses are richly furnished, and their
Tables well served. If a Referendary has a mind to a nice bit, no body
must offer to take it; and the best of every thing is what they are sure
to lay hands on. Belly Cheer is one of those things which the _Austrians_
generally think of most: They require a great many Dishes, and those
well-cramm’d. They are so very much accustom’d to this Profusion of
Eatables that I have known some young People in _Austria_ affirm they
don’t know what good Eating is in _France_, because they don’t serve up a
couple of Loins of Veal in one Dish. Different sorts of Wines are what
they are also very much us’d to, which certainly is very expensive because
foreign Wines pay considerable Duties; yet nothing less will serve them
than eight or ten sorts of Wine, and I have been at Houses where there
have been no less than eighteen. They place a Note upon every Plate
expressing the several sorts of Wine at the Beaufet.

The Burghers and common sort of People mimick the Nobility as far as their
Purses will afford; and it may be said that no Nation in the World is so
extravagant as this.

The _Austrians_ are naturally proud and haughty, and expect all Mankind
should stoop to them. As their Sovereign is in the first Rank among the
Christian Princes, so they think theirs to be the chief Nation in the
World. Nothing is more vain nor more insupportable than a young
_Austrian_, whose Father is in any Rank at Court. They are intoxicated
with Pride and Presumption; and as they know themselves to be rich, and
their Fathers to be great Lords, they think they may despise all the
World, and lay aside that courteous and polite Behaviour which would so
well become their Birth. Yet what I here observe to you concerning the
young People is not so universally true as not to admit of great
Exceptions, which is the Case of every thing asserted in the general.

The Court is not without Ladies who are much to be valued. The Empress
Regent honours with her Confidence Madame the Countess _de Fuchs_, whose
Husband was Minister of State to the Emperor, and his Plenipotentiary at
_Hambourg_, where he died. This Countess is Sister to the Count _de
Molard_, Steward of the Emperor’s Kitchens. She is a very polite Lady,
and is so far from being envy’d for being a Favourite that all Persons of
Distinction agree she deserves it, because she supports it with Modesty,
and makes no other Use of it but to do good.

Madamoiselle _de Klenck_ has a very great share in the Favour of the
Empress Dowager, which I take to be a Reward due to her long Services, and
to her Merit. She is chief Maid of Honour to that Princess, and has been
engag’d to her ever since she has been at _Vienna_. If the Character of a
thorough Gentlewoman may be attributed to any of the Sex, Madamoiselle _de
Klenck_ deserves it more than any other, it being impossible for a Person
to have more Integrity, and more Generosity.

The Countess Dowager of _Altheim_, of the _Pignatelli_ Family, in regard
to whose Rank I ought to have mention’d her first, if I observ’d a very
strict Order in my Writings, is a Native of _Spain_. The Count _d’Altheim_
married her at _Barcelona_. Her Beauty was the more admir’d in _Spain_
because she was fair. This Lady has a noble Air, and has a Genius capable
for Affairs of the greatest Consequence. Their Imperial Majesties pay her
great Distinction, and all the Courtiers honour and respect her, so that
now in her Widowhood she continues in good Credit, and almost as much
Authority as she had when that great Favourite her Husband was living.

The Gentry of _Austria_, and of all the Emperor’s Hereditary Dominions,
are so fond of the Title of Count, that the Gentlemen buy and sollicit it
as eagerly as if it was a great Estate. ’Tis well for them that the
Dispatch of their Patents does not cost much; for the greatest Privilege
which this brings them is all a Chimæra. These Counts may be said to hold
the same Rank among the ancient Counts of the Empire as the King’s
Secretaries in _France_ do among the Gentlemen of good Families.

As for Gentlemen, they are so common here that there are scarce any others
to be seen. All the Agents of the Court, and all the Referendaries procure
themselves a Title, tho’ I know not why; for neither they nor their Wives
dare to rank themselves among the Prime Nobility. This Madness of theirs
to be enobled is so common, and so easy to be gratified, that I have known
a Man, who was formerly Messenger to the Emperor _Joseph_, purchase the
Title of Baron; and his Children begin to mix with the _Grand Monde_.

These, Sir, were all the Remarks that I made upon the _Austrians_. I must
give you a few Particulars concerning the Emperor’s Person. I have already
said something to you of his Character: What follows is to shew you how
grateful he is, and how friendly, Virtues which are the more to be
esteem’d in him because they are not the most familiar to great Men.

The Emperor shows all possible Marks of Gratitude to those _Spaniards_ who
adher’d to him while he was at _Barcelona_. He has loaded them with Wealth
and Honours; and if it’s possible for one’s native Country to be forgot,
he has put them in a Situation to forget theirs. This particular Goodness
of the Emperor extends to all that followed his Fortunes in _Spain_; whom
he distinguishes upon all Occasions, and does them good preferably to his
other Subjects. As to Friendship, no Monarch ever had more for any
Favourite than _Charles_ had for the late Count _d’Altheim_, his Master of
the Horse. This Nobleman was the Emperor’s Page, when he was only
Arch-Duke; and he attended that Prince to _Spain_, where his Care, his
Services, his Assiduity, and above all his Honesty and his Integrity, won
him the intire Confidence of the young Monarch. When this Prince became
Emperor he rewarded the Count with Honours, Wealth, and Dignities. He
lov’d him as long as he liv’d, and his Memory is still dear to him. As
soon as he died, the Emperor declar’d himself Guardian to his Children,
gave Orders in what manner they shou’d be brought up, and now treats them
much more like his own Children than his Subjects. But what wou’d you say
of the Emperor’s tender Love for the Empress? Some time ago this Princess
being dangerously ill, the Emperor not only sent for his Physicians, and
conjur’d them to employ all their Art to save her Life, but promised them
Rewards suitable to that Service, and actually watched with her several
Nights to see her take the Remedies they prescrib’d. Does not a
Conjugal-Love so perfect, deserve to be rewarded by the Birth of an
Archduke? Adieu, Sir. If I were Emperor, you shou’d be my Count
_d’Altheim_; but in the Condition I am in, you are the Person whom I
honour most of all Mankind; and am, &c.



                              LETTER XIV.

  _SIR_,                                       _Munich, Jan. 5, 1730._

As I came hither from _Vienna_, I stay’d two Days at LINTZ, the Capital of
_Upper Austria_. This City lies on the _Danube_, over which there is a
wooden Bridge. ’Tis a little Town, but well built, and has fine Churches.
Its Inhabitants are thriving, and they drive a great Trade in
Linnen-Cloth. ’Tis the Residence of a great many Persons of Quality, and
of the Regency of the Province, of which the Count _de Thirheim_ is the
Chief. This Nobleman lodges in the Imperial Palace, which stands upon an
Eminence, and commands the City. The Building is commodious enough, but
not so magnificent. The Emperor _Leopold_ stay’d here during the Siege of
_Vienna_; till not thinking himself safe in it he retir’d to _Passaw_. The
Neighbourhood of _Lintz_ is very agreeable. All the way hither from
_Vienna_ the _Danube_ is lin’d on both sides with Vineyards; but from
_Lintz_ to this Place, instead of Vines, there are Plantations of Hops.

MUNICH, in the _German_ Tongue _Munchen_, stands in the middle of a large
Plain, and in the Center of _Bavaria_, of which it is the Capital City.
The Walls of it are washed by the River _Iser_; ’tis a small Town, but
better built than fortified, for within these few Years several fine
Houses have been rais’d in it. The Elector’s Palace is one of the biggest
Piles of Building in _Europe_, but it wants a great deal of being so
handsome a Structure as _Misson_ and several other Authors have
represented it; for its Magnificence consists principally in its Bulk. The
chief Front, which looks towards a very narrow Street, has the Resemblance
of a fair Convent; to which the Image of the Virgin _Mary_ over the great
Gate contributes not a little. That for which ’tis held in most Esteem is
the great Apartment which is call’d the _Emperor’s_ Apartment. The
Connoisseurs in Painting admire the Pictures in the great Hall, which
represent both Sacred and Prophane History, and are performed by the Hand
of _Candi_. The Chimney-piece in the same Room is very much esteem’d:
Among other fine Figures with which it is adorn’d, there’s a Statue of
Porphyry that represents _Virtue_ holding a Spear in the Right Hand, and
in the Left a gilt Palm-Branch. In 1632, when _Gustavus Adolphus_ King of
_Sweden_ made himself Master of _Munich_, he thought this so beautiful a
Room that he was sorry he could not get it transported to _Stockholm_. In
the Reign of _Ferdinand Mary_, Grandfather to the present Elector, great
part of the Palace of _Munich_ was reduc’d to Ashes, which Accident was,
’tis said, the Occasion of that Prince’s Death; for being at _Straubingen_
when he received the sad News of the Fire, he took Horse immediately and
rode with such Fury to _Munich_ that he receiv’d a Fall which in a little
time prov’d his Death.

The present Elector _Charles-Albert-Cajetan_ has embellish’d the Palace
with a new Apartment, which, tho’ not so big as the Emperor’s, exceeds it
in Magnificence. ’Tis adorn’d with noble Pictures, antique Busts, and
Vases plac’d upon[111] Tables of very great Value; and among other Things
there’s the Picture of the Virgin done by St. _Luke_.

There’s a secret Passage from the Palace thro’ little Galleries to all the
Churches and Convents in the Town. The nearest Church is that of the
_Theatins_, which together with their Monastery was built by
_Maria-Adelaide_ of _Savoy_ Wife to _Ferdinand-Mary_. The Fryars of this
Convent must be twenty seven in number, and all Men of Quality. They
subsist by charitable Donations; but dare not ask Alms, and must wait for
such Provisions as Providence shall please to send them. When they have
suffer’d extreme Want at any Time for three Days together, they are
permitted to ring a Bell as a Token of their Distress; but it has been
observ’d that this never happen’d above twice since their first
Establishment, because the Electors are too charitable to let them want.
The Tomb of the Princes of _Bavaria_ is in the Church of these honest

The Church of our Lady is the parochial Church of _Munich_. In it is the
stately Tomb of the Emperor _Lewis_ of _Bavaria_ who died of Poison. ’Tis
adorn’d with a great many fine Figures of Brass and Marble. In this Church
the Elector on the 24th of _April_ last instituted the Order of St.
_George_, by Authority of Pope _Benedict_ XIII. The Ceremony was perform’d
with a vast deal of Pomp, and the Elector of _Cologn_ officiated at the
High Mass. The Promotion consisted of three Grand Priors, six Grand
Crosses, a Commander, and six Knights. Some time after this first
Promotion the Elector made a second, in which he appointed one Grand
Cross, and nine Knights. ’Tis said there will speedily be a third
Promotion of eight more Knights, the whole Number being to consist of

The Elector intends to annex Commanderies to his Order. They who are
admitted into it must give Proofs of their Extraction from sixteen
Descents; and this is so strictly observ’d that his most Serene Electoral
Highness, as Grand Master of the Order, has renounc’d all Power of
granting any Dispensation from it. According to the Statutes of this Order
all the Knights are oblig’d to be Catholics, to defend the Faith and the
Church, to protect Widows and Orphans, and to practise all the Christian
Virtues. The Badge of the Order is a large Sky-blue Ribbon border’d about
the breadth of an Inch with a black and white Stripe; and at the end of
the Ribbon hangs a Cross enamell’d with blue, in the middle of which there
is a St. _George_.

The Church and Convent of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits are two very
magnificent Structures. The Roof of the Church which is one single Nave is
a Work of Skill and Ingenuity, wherein the Apertures are contriv’d with
very great Art; for which reason, the Curious look upon this Fabric as a
Master-piece of Architecture.

The Church of the Reverend Fathers of St. _Austin_, tho’ but of a moderate
Size, contains Beauties that are not always to be met with in greater
Fabrics. The Pictures with which it is adorn’d are highly esteem’d, and
good Judges agree there are few that can parallel them.

Tho’ the Houses of _Munich_ are all very well built, there are few that
can be call’d Hotels or Palaces. The Count _Piosas_ a _Piedmontese_ has
caus’d one to be built of late Years which is a considerable Structure
with regard to the true Proportions of its Outside, and to the ingenious
Distribution of the Apartments, which have fine Decorations and good

The Court of _Bavaria_ observes most of the Customs of the Court of
_Vienna_ in matters of Ceremony, but as for the rest, their Way of living
is different; here being more Freedom, and more Diversion.

The Elector _Charles-Albert_ delights in Pleasures and bodily Exercise,
and acquits himself therein with a Grace. He is a comely Personage, and
has a grave, noble, and majestic Air, so that he is taken for a proud Man;
yet few Princes are more gracious and more civil to Strangers, and to his
Subjects also he is easy of Access. He was full of Life and Spirit when he
was a Prince, and now that he is a Sovereign is become sedate and
moderate. He is genteel, talks _French_, _Italian_, and _Latin_ well, is
Master of History, and perfectly acquainted with the Interest of Princes
in general, and that of his own Family in particular. He sticks to
Business, and above all seems to be very earnest in redressing his
Finances which he found in great Disorder when he acceded to the
Electorate. The Elector was born the 6th of _August_, 1697. He is Son of
_Maximilian-Emanuel_ famous for his Victories and for his Disgrace, and of
_Theresa-Cunegunda-Sobieski_, Daughter of _John Sobieski_ King of
_Poland_. When _Charles_ came into the World he had a Brother living who
was born of the Arch-Duchess _Mary-Maximilian_, _Emanuel_’s first Wife.
This young Prince who all _Europe_ expected wou’d be the Successor of
_Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, dying at _Brussels_ the 6th of _February_,
1699, _Charles_ thereby became the Electoral Prince: He was bred up at
_Munich_ with four of his Brothers, but both he and his Brothers
surrender’d Prisoners to the Emperor _Joseph_ after the Battle of
_Hochstet_, which subjected all _Bavaria_ to his Imperial Majesty. That
Monarch had the young Princes remov’d to _Gratz_, where he caus’d them to
be treated in a manner not so suitable to their high Birth as to their
decay’d Fortune. When _Joseph_ died, his Successor _Charles_ VI. used the
Princes with less Severity, caus’d them to be honourably attended, and
sent them Masters to instruct them; and upon the Peace of _Rastadt_ which
reinstated the Elector _Maximilian-Emanuel_ in his Dominions, the Princes
his Children were restor’d to him. They finish’d their Studies at
_Munich_, after which the Elector sent the four eldest to _Rome_, where
the second, whose Name was Duke _Philip_, died not long after he had been
chose Bishop of _Munster_ and _Paderborn_. _Charles_ returning from
_Italy_ went to _Vienna_, made the Campaign of _Belgrade_, and some Years
after that, he marry’d _Mary-Amelia-Anne_ of _Austria_, the late Emperor
_Joseph_’s second Daughter. In 1725, _Charles_ and his three Brothers were
at _Fontainbleau_, at the Marriage of _Lewis_ XV. and next Year he
succeeded his Father who died at _Munich_ lamented as he was ador’d by his

The Electoress who is a little Woman, very much resembles the Empress her
Mother, and has more Vivacity than is common to the Princes of the House
of _Austria_. She prefers Hunting to all other Pleasures, and there are
few Days but she partakes of that Diversion with the Elector, who, as well
as the Princes his Brothers, is fond of it.

The Elector has by his Marriage two[113] Princes and two Princesses. The
eldest of the Sons who has the Title of the Electoral Prince is call’d
_Maximilian-Joseph_, and was born the 28th of _March_, 1727. His most
serene Electoral Highness’s three Brothers are Duke _Ferdinand_, the
Elector of _Cologn_, and the Bishop of _Freisingen_ and _Ratisbon_. Of
these Princes Duke _Ferdinand_ is the only one who resides at _Munich_.
His most serene Highness is a Lieutenant-General, and has a Regiment of
Cuirassiers in the Emperor’s Service. He is also a Knight of the _Golden
Fleece_, and Grand Prior of the Order of St. _George_. He marry’d
_Mary-Ann-Caroline_ of _Newbourg_, by whom he has two Sons and one
Daughter. I have already told you that he was educated with the Elector
his Brother, with whom he made the Campaign of _Belgrade_, travell’d
several times to _Italy_, and last of all to _France_, where those Princes
were admir’d for their Splendor, their Politeness, their good Taste, and
their fine Understanding. One shan’t find a Man more affable than Duke
_Ferdinand_ who is even ador’d at _Munich_, and is dearly belov’d by the
Elector his Brother. The Duchess his Wife who is the best-natur’d Princess
in the World makes grand Entertainments, and is particularly civil to

The Bishop of _Freisingen_ and _Ratisbon_ spends more of his Time at
_Munich_ than in his Diocese. He is a Prince of great Penetration, Spirit
and Vivacity, is generous, liberal, and charitable, extremely civil, and
’tis impossible to be acquainted with him without adding Love to that
Respect and Veneration which are due to his Birth and Character. He
enter’d very young into Orders, and was consecrated Bishop by his Brother
the Elector of _Cologn_. ’Twas thought at first that he wou’d have made
but an indifferent Ecclesiastic, but he has demonstrated that he knows how
to reconcile the Gravity of a Prelate with the Magnanimity of a Temporal

The Court of _Bavaria_ is without dispute the most gallant, and the
politest in _Germany_. We have a _French_ Comedy here together with Balls
and Gaming every Day, and a Concert of Music three Times a Week, at which
all the Company is mask’d; and after the Concert there’s Gaming and
Dancing. These public Assemblies, at which the Elector and the whole Court
are present, bring in a great Revenue to the Elector’s _Valets de
Chambre_; for besides the Money which every one pays at Entrance, they are
also paid for the Cards, and are concern’d in almost all the Banks; so
that those Domestics have almost all the Cash of the Nobility, with whom
they don’t scruple neither to rank themselves. Besides these noisy
Pleasures we have others that are more tranquil, I mean those of civil
Society. Of this kind there’s more here than in the other Towns of
_Germany_; but more still among the Foreigners that are in the Elector’s
Service than among the _Bavarians_; for these are generally proud, tho’
’tis certainly more owing to their Opinion that it gives them a good Air
to be so than to their Temper; and they actually become more sociable when
they are made sensible that their grand Airs are not astonishing.

The Title of Count is as common here as at _Vienna_, and the _Bavarian_
Counts have no greater Privileges than those of _Austria_, for they are as
much Subjects as the meanest Gentlemen. I find that those in Places, and
who bear any Rank at Court are much more polite than others. The Counts
_de Thirheim_, _Torring_, and _Preising_ who have the chief Employments
are so civil that I believe there’s few Foreigners but will give them
their Encomium.

The Elector has a very large Houshold, and a number of great Officers.
I’ll mention some of them to you.

The Count _Maximilian de Torring-Seefeldt_ is Steward of the Elector’s
Houshold, a Minister of State, and Knight of the _Golden Fleece_. This
Nobleman who is advanc’d in Years, is good-natur’d and civil, speaks
little, is naturally grave, not fond of Pomp, and lives retir’d in the
middle of a Court, but when he makes any Entertainment does it with
Grandeur. He never once abandon’d the Elector _Maximilian-Emanuel_ his
former Master, but follow’d him in his Fortunes both good and bad.

The Count _Sigismond de Thirheim_ is Great Chamberlain, a Minister of
State, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. _George_. He is very tall, and
tho’ his Air is not the most affable, he is courteous and civil. He lives
very nobly, and does the Honours of the Court very handsomely;
consequently he is generally beloved and esteem’d. He was Governor of the
Elector, who, contrary to most Princes that are not apt to retain an
Esteem for those who once had the Care of their Education, gives great
Proofs of his Regard for the Count _de Thirheim_.

The Count _Maximilian de Fugger_ is Grand Marshal[114]. As he does not
live at _Munich_, I have nothing particular to tell you of him.

The Count _Maximilian de Preysing_ Master of the Horse, President of the
Chamber of Finances, a Minister of State, and Grand Croix of the Order of
St. _George_, is a very polite Nobleman, but serious and grave to the last
degree. ’Tis difficult for any Man to be more attach’d to his Religion, to
have more Candor, and to be more upright than this Minister. His Probity
has brought Envy upon him, but it has procur’d him the Elector’s intire
Confidence, of which however the Count makes no farther Advantage than is
requisite for his Master’s Business. He is accus’d of being close-fisted,
and of dissuading the Elector from giving Gratuities; but ’tis agreed that
he is very charitable to the Poor. ’Tis a hard matter for a Minister who
has the Direction of the Finances to please every body, and he is commonly
the Butt of public Censure.

The Count _de Rechberg_ Great Huntsman[115], Minister of State, President
of the Council of War, Lieutenant-General, and Grand Croix of the Order of
St. _George_, is Commander in Chief of the Elector’s Forces: He
accompany’d the late Elector to _France_ where he acquir’d the Reputation
of an experienc’d skilful General.

_Ignatius-Joseph_ Count _de Torring_ is a Minister of State, Grand Master
of the Artillery, and a Grand Croix of St. _George_. He followed the late
Elector into _France_, and after that Prince was restor’d he went as
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Imperial Court, where he negotiated the
Marriage of the present Elector with the Archduchess, youngest Daughter to
the late Emperor _Joseph_.

I cou’d tell you of many other Persons of Distinction at the Court of
_Bavaria_, only I fear that being too particular wou’d tire your Patience.
The Ministers who bear the greatest Sway are the Counts _Maximilian de
Preysing_ and _de Torring_, and M. _d’Unertel_. The first is Director of
the Finances; the second has the Province of Foreign Affairs; and the
third takes care of Affairs Domestic and Military. These three Ministers
are the Arbiters of _Bavaria_, and to them the Tribunals of the several
Provinces must apply.

_Bavaria_ is divided into four Cantons or Provinces, _viz._ the Cantons
_of Munich_, _Burghausen_, _Landstrut_ and _Straubingen_. Each of these
Provinces has a Regency or Parliament; and an Appeal lies from Sentences
therein pass’d to the Elector’s Council of State.

’Tis certain that _Bavaria_ is one of the best States in the Empire. ’Tis
said that it brings in seven Millions of Florins, and I have been assured
by Persons who have Opportunities of being inform’d of the State of the
Finances, that there was a time when the late Elector received eleven
Millions _per Ann._ The Riches of _Bavaria_ are owing to the Exportation
of Salt and Corn, and to the Consumption of the Beer brew’d in the
Country, which is as good as any in the World. _Tirol_, and the Country
of _Saltzbourg_, have almost all the Corn which they spend from
_Bavaria_, and the Elector has a Florin for every Sack that is exported.
Another thing which is a Treasure to _Bavaria_ is the Fir-Trees, a Wood
that serves for every Use that can be imagin’d, whether for Building, or
for Houshold-Stuff. There is not a Province in the Empire where Provisions
are cheaper, and in the mean time there’s a vast Home-Consumption; for
besides that the _Bavarians_ love good Eating and Drinking, the Country is
very populous; and ’tis computed that the Inhabitants of _Munich_ alone
are above 40,000.

Of all the Sovereigns in _Europe_, next to the King of _France_, the
Elector of _Bavaria_ has the finest Pleasure-Houses, for which he may
thank the Elector his Father who had a wonderful good Fancy and Judgment.

NYMPHENBOURG a short League from _Munich_ is a charming Place. The Castle
is to be seen a great way off by reason of its Situation in the middle of
a great Plain, so that from the Apartments of the second Story one
discovers a vast Tract of Country, and an infinite number of Rural
Beauties that are in the Neighbourhood of _Munich_. _Mary-Adelaide de
Savoy_ (Mother to _Maximilian-Emanuel_) who was extremely fond of the Arts
and Sciences, and knew them perfectly well, was the Person who laid the
Foundations of that Castle. The Man that she employ’d to build it was an
_Italian_ Architect whom she sent for out of _Italy_ for the purpose. But
all this Palace consisted only of one great Pavilion. _Maximilian-Emanuel_
thinking the Castle too small, caused several Mansions to be added to it,
together with fine Stables and grand Gardens; in short, he put the whole
into that magnificent Condition we see it in at this day. His most serene
Electoral Highness lets the Pavilion stand in pure respect to the Memory
of his Mother who built it, but ’tis pity he does; for ’tis much higher
than the rest of the Edifice, and is no good Ornament to the main
Building. In order to give you a more perfect Idea of this House, I will
tell you that it looks towards a great and magnificent Canal terminated at
each end by a spacious Basin adorn’d with Water-works and double Rows of
Trees on each side which form the Avenues. We enter into the Castle by an
Ascent of Marble Steps: The first Room we come to is a very great high
Salon adorn’d with Architecture of Plaister of _Paris_ very well executed.
From each side of this Salon there is a Passage into several Apartments of
which I shall not stop to give you the Detail, because I don’t think it in
my power to convey a suitable Idea to you of the Richness of the
Furniture, and all the fine things that are in it. Imagine only that the
late Elector who had an exquisite Taste, and a noble Soul, spar’d no Cost
to adorn these Apartments. I pass to the Gardens which one enters from the
Great Hall by a Descent of Marble Steps. The first thing that strikes the
Eye is a Parterre of a vast Extent, at the Entrance of which there is a
great Bason ornamented with a Group of Figures of mill’d Lead gilt with
Water-Gold representing _Flora_ receiving Flowers from _Nymphs_ and
_Cupids_. At the end of the Parterre there is one of the most agreeable
Woods in the World, which is cut by three Walks in form of a Goose’s Foot.
The middlemost fronts the great Pavilion of the Castle, and has a large
Canal in the middle of it of which one can’t see the end: ’Tis terminated
by a fine Cascade form’d by several Blocks of Marble, and adorn’d with
fine Statues. The second Walk on the right hand leads one to the Mall
which forms a Semi-Circle, and is one of the finest and longest I ever
saw. At the Entrance of this Mall there is a Pavilion call’d _Pagodebourg_
(the _Castle of the Pagode_;) ’tis two Stories high, and built in form of
the _Pagodes_ Temples. I believe there never was any thing prettier. All
the Furniture of this little Palace is _Indian_, of a charming Contrivance
and Elegancy; and the whole is so well laid out that notwithstanding the
smallness of the House, the Elector has every Convenience in it that can
be desir’d. Over-against _Pagodebourg_ on the other side of the Canal in
the third Walk is _Badenbourg_ (the _Castle of Baths_) which is a more
considerable Building, and has all the Beauty of the Modern Bagnios. The
Baths are spacious and lin’d with Marble. There is an Apartment consisting
of several Pieces adorned with Stucco, and Pictures representing _Venus_
in the Bath, _Diana_ in the Water with her Nymphs, and the other Subjects
of the Fable. The whole Apartment glitters with Gold, and the Furniture of
it is rich, and of a charming Fancy. This beautiful House is surrounded
with fine Pieces of Water adorned with Cascades and Statues. These Baths
wou’d most certainly deserve a particular Description, and I am angry with
myself for not being able to give it.

’Tis certain that next to the Gardens of _Versailles_, there is none so
magnificent as those of _Nymphenbourg_; which is a Place that Art and
Nature seem to have joined their Forces in order to render noble and

The Castle of _Schleisheim_ is a more regular Building than that of
_Nymphenbourg_, and makes so grand an Appearance that I don’t know any
House in _Germany_ that can compare with it. The great Stair-Case and the
Salon in the large Apartment are the only Pieces in their kind. They are
fac’d with Marble, and painted in a most correct and beautiful manner.

_Taco_, _Furstenriet_ and _Starenberg_ are Houses fit for the Solacement
of a Great Prince, and will be Testimonies to Posterity of the Elector
_Maximilian-Emanuel_’s grand and happy Taste.

Of all the Elector’s Houses _Nymphenbourg_ is that where the Court resides
most. It is as well a Hunting-House as a Pleasure-House, by reason of a
Park in the Neighbourhood which is eight Leagues in compass, and cut out
into a great number of fine long Roads. Here the Elector comes to rouze
the Stag; and there is a little Park adjoining to the Gardens, which, as
well as the adjacent Fields, abounds with Pheasants, Partridges, and all
other Game of that sort.

When the Court is at _Nymphenbourg_ the Electress has a Drawing-Room there
three times a Week where there is Gaming, and when that is over the Ladies
sup with their Electoral Highnesses, who sometimes admit Gentlemen of
their Court to their Table, but commonly all Foreigners. They who prefer
taking the Air to Gaming, find open Calashes every Evening drawn by two
Horses, at the bottom of the Steps on the side of the Garden: A Gentleman
drives the Calash, two Ladies ride in it, and a Gentleman stands behind.
And such as prefer the Water find very neat Gondolas finely gilt upon the
Canal at their Service; so that there is no want of any thing to add to
the Pleasures of all sorts in this inchanting Place.

Were I to enumerate to you all the various Pleasures of this Court I
should never have done. For the present I shall confine myself to these
already mentioned. I am resolved to set out in three or four days for
_Stutgard_. I shall lie at _Augsbourg_, and at _Ulm_. A Frost which has
held for a Month without ceasing has made the Roads so hard that I hope I
shall roll along finely. I expect to hear from you at _Stutgard_. Pray
take care that I be not disappointed, and believe that I am very
sincerely, _&c._


                               LETTER XV.

  _SIR_,                                    _Stutgard, Jan. 14, 1730._

There is nothing remarkable between _Munich_ and _Augsbourg_ except it be
the fine Abbey of FURSTENFELDT, which is in possession of the _Bernardin_
Fryars. It was founded by _Lewis the Severe_ Duke of _Bavaria_ to attone
for his Wickedness in putting _Joan_ of _Brabant_ his Wife unjustly to
death. The History of _Bavaria_ relates the Fact thus: _Joan_ was a very
beautiful Princess. Her Husband who was doatingly fond of her being
obliged to take a Journey, put her under the Guard of one of his Aunts.
While he was gone _Joan_ wrote frequently to her Husband, and sometimes to
his Prime Minister and Favourite. One day she put her Letters into the
hands of a Domestic, charging him to deliver them as they were directed;
but the Man made a Mistake, and gave the Letter which was for the Duke to
his Favourite, and that which was for the Minister to the Duke. _Lewis_
thought that his Wife’s Style was too obliging to a Subject, and was even
mad with Jealousy. He first kill’d his Favourite, and then taking horse
posted to _Donawert_ where his Wife was. He came to the Castle in the
Night-time, murder’d the Porter with his own hand, put his Aunt and all
with whom he had left his Wife in charge to Death; and then like another
_Herod_, caused the unfortunate _Joan_ to be beheaded. The Night after
this barbarous Action, the Heirs of _Lewis_’s Head turn’d gray, tho’ he
was but twenty-eight Years old; which Accident made him sensible of his
Guilt and of the Innocence of his Wife. As his Barbarity was great, so was
his Repentance. He went on foot to _Rome_ to beg the Pope’s Absolution for
his Sins, and obtain’d it on condition that he wou’d cause a Church to be
built, and found a Monastery in his Dominions. _Lewis_ returning from
_Rome_ founded the Abbey at _Furstenfeldt_. The first Establishment was
only for eight Fryars; but the Piety of the Princes of _Bavaria_ having
wrought upon them to bestow their Favours upon this House, it now
maintains thirty Fryars and an Abbot, whom the Monks have the Prerogative
to chuse out of their own Body. These good Fathers are actually erecting a
very stately Church, and they enjoy all the Conveniences of Life.

The Country between _Munich_ and _Augsbourg_ is level and intermix’d with
Woods and Plains. AUGSBOURG which is a Bishop’s See, and an Imperial City,
is the Capital of _Swabia_, and one of the biggest and handsomest Towns in
_Germany_. A small Branch of the _Leck_ passes thro’ it, and supplies it
with plenty of Water. The Streets of _Augsbourg_ are broad, strait and
lightsome; the Houses well built, and many of ’em full of Paintings. The
Inhabitants look upon _Augustus_ to be the Founder of their City. ’Tis
true that Emperor sent a Colony thither, but the Town was founded before.
It is not said what Name it went by before the Name of _Augusta
Vindelicorum_ was given it to distinguish it from the other Towns that
bore the Name of _Augusta_. The clearing up of this difficulty is what I
shall leave to the Antiquarians, and confine my self to the Transactions
at _Augsbourg_ for about two hundred Years past. What will render this
City for ever famous is the Confession of Faith which the Protestant
Princes presented here to the Emperor _Charles_ V. in the year 1530. Tho’
the Protestants were at that time very powerful in _Augsbourg_ they cou’d
not keep their ground, for they were drove out by the _Bavarians_; but
_Gustavus Adolphus_ restored them in 1632, since which time they have kept
their Footing there, and share the Government with the Roman Catholics. In
1687, the Emperor, _Spain_, the United Provinces, and the Electors of
_Saxony_, _Brandenbourg_, and the Palatinate concluded that famous League
at _Augsbourg_ against _Lewis_ XIV. who was beginning to inforce the Claim
of the Duchess of _Orleans_ his Sister-in-law to the Succession of the
Elector Palatine _Charles-Lewis_, who was that Princess’s Brother. In
1690, _Joseph_ Archduke of _Austria_ King of _Hungary_, the eldest Son of
the Emperor _Leopold_, was consecrated and crown’d King of the _Romans_ at
_Augsbourg_, at which Ceremony the Emperor, the Empress, the Electors of
_Mentz_, _Cologn_, _Triers_, _Bavaria_, and the Palatinate were personally

In 1703, the Elector _Maximilian_ of _Bavaria_, made himself Master of
_Augsbourg_ in one Week’s time. This City had demanded and obtained a
Neutrality, but having afterwards received an Imperial Garrison the
Elector made use of that Pretence to lay Siege to it. He caused the
Fortifications to be demolish’d, foreseeing, no doubt, that he should not
be able to keep the Place. _Augsbourg_ was set free again by the Battle of
_Hochstet_, and still enjoys its Freedom under its own Magistrates, the
Bishop having no Authority in the City as to Temporals. The present Bishop
is of the Family of _Neubourg_, and Brother to the Elector Palatine. This
Prince has the same Goodness of Temper which is so natural to all his
Family. As his Bishoprick is not one of the most considerable in
_Germany_, so his Court is none of the biggest, but his Houshold is well
regulated, and every thing conducted in it with Order and Splendor.

The Chapter of the Cathedral consists of Persons of Quality who are
oblig’d to make Proof of their Nobility. The Canons have the Prerogative
of chusing their Bishop, who like all the Prelates of _Germany_ is a
Sovereign Prince. He dwells at _Augsbourg_, tho’ he ought to reside at
_Dillingen_. The Episcopal Palace is old, and not very commodious: It
joins to the Cathedral, which is a _Gothic_ gloomy unwieldy Fabric, but
its Ornaments are very rich.

The most considerable Building is the Town-house, a very substantial Pile
built all of Freestone except the Portico, which is of Marble. The Rooms
are very fine, and the great Hall especially is to the last degree
magnificent. The Walls are cover’d with Painting, being such Emblems and
Devices as have relation to the Government. Nothing can be more beautiful
than the Cieling which consists all of Compartments whose Frames are
carv’d and gilt in an extraordinary manner, the whole enrich’d with
Pictures and other Ornaments perfectly well dispos’d.

Before the Town-house there’s a very stately Fountain, where, among other
fine Figures of Brass, the Statue of _Augustus_ which is represented in a
most noble Attitude is highly esteem’d.

The City of _Augsbourg_ is in my Opinion something like _Antwerp_ with
regard to the Spaciousness of the Streets and the Substantialness of its
Buildings; and formerly when the _Venetians_ were Masters of all the
Commerce, it resembled it in Trade; for _Augsbourg_ was then the Staple
for Merchandize, which was from thence transported to a great part of
_Europe_. But since _London_ and _Amsterdam_ are become the Warehouses of
the whole World, and the Commerce of _Venice_ decays, the greatest Trade
of _Augsbourg_ consists in Goldsmith’s Wares, with which this City
furnishes _Germany_, _Poland_, and in general almost all the North. These
Wares are much cheaper here than elsewhere, and when the Patterns are
furnish’d People are well serv’d. Notwithstanding the Decay of its
Commerce there are several very rich Families; but whether any can do what
_Fugger_ did to the Emperor _Charles_ V. is a Question. That Monarch
passing thro’ _Augsbourg_ lodg’d at _Fugger_’s House, who entertain’d him
like an Emperor. The Fewel he burnt in every Chimney was Cedar, and after
the Repast, which was extraordinary sumptuous, _Fugger_ took a Bond for a
very considerable Sum which the Emperor ow’d him, and threw it into the

The Nobility assemble commonly every Evening at the _Three Kings_ Inn
where I quarter. There’s a very fine Hall well lighted, where they game,
club for a Supper, and after Supper dance. Be not scandaliz’d that the
Nobility have their Assembly at an Inn, it being one of the best Houses in
_Germany_ and the most superb Inn in _Europe_. There’s very good
Attendance. I have supp’d at it twice, and one cannot be better
accommodated in any House whatsoever.

From _Augsbourg_ I came to ULM another Imperial City. Tho’ all the Country
is even, yet ’tis very tiresome to Travellers because of the Pavement of
the Causeys; but Thanks to the Snow which has levell’d the Ways, I have
not been much incommoded; tho’ on the other hand I had like to have been
lost in the Snow, such a quantity of it having fallen for two Days that
one could not distinguish the Roads. I found my self at a Post-Stage where
my Guide, tho’ he was a Man that had grown grey in the Business of
Postilion upon the same Road, did not know the Way. I was in danger every
Moment of tumbling into some Ditch, when just as we entered a certain
Valley my Postilion sounded a Horn to give notice to any Carriages or
Horses that might happen to meet us to make way, when a Voice from the
Hollow call’d out to the Postilion, _Who’s that? Stephen? Oh!_ cry’d the
Postilion, _Is it you, Christopher? God be thank’d that I met with you_!
Then turning towards me, he said with an Air of Satisfaction, _Now you are
out of all Danger, for here’s a blind Man that will conduct us to the
Place we are going to_. I thought the Droll jok’d with me, but we had not
gone many Yards farther before I really saw a poor Wretch who could not
see, yet offer’d to be my Guide, and promis’d he wou’d conduct me very
well. I abandon’d my self to him, and he walk’d so fast before my Chaise
that the Horses follow’d him in a gentle Trot till we came safe to the
Stage. There he told me that ’twas fifteen Years ago that he lost his
Sight by the breaking of an Imposthume in his Eyes, after having suffer’d
such horrible Pains for two Months that he bless’d himself for the Loss of
his Sight; so that when I ask’d him if he was not very much concern’d at
it, he said that at first it made him melancholy for some time, but that
he always comforted himself by the Remembrance of the Torture he had
undergone in the Loss of his Sight, and that he thought it were much
better to be blind and to have his Health than to see, and suffer the
Pains that he had endur’d; but that now he was so us’d to his Condition it
gave him no Concern. Indeed, when I ask’d him, if he should not be very
glad to recover his Sight? he said, Yes, if it were possible; but that if
he must undergo the same Pains to recover it as he had felt in the Loss of
it, he had rather by a thousand times continue blind. When I told him of
my Surprize that he should find out the Way better than those who see, he
told me that since he had been blind he came regularly on Sundays and
Saints Days to the Place where we were to hear Mass, and that therefore
the Road was become very familiar to him. He added, that he sometimes
went alone to beg three or four Leagues from his Village, which was a
quarter of a League from the hollow Way where I met with him. I sent the
Man away, after giving him some Relief; and could not but admire the
divine Providence, which tho’ it had afflicted the poor Wretch with what
to me seems more terrible than Death, gave him Strength to bear his
Misfortune with Patience.

The City of _Ulm_ is not above half as big as _Augsbourg_, but is much
better fortify’d. The _Danube_ which washes its Walls, becomes navigable
at this Place, and a Boat goes from hence every Week for _Vienna_, which
is a great Ease to People who are not in a Condition to lay out much
Money; for it costs but a _Creutzer_, which is one Penny a _German_ Mile.
Tho’ the City of _Ulm_ maintains a very numerous Garison, and is very well
fortify’d, and furnished with a good Arsenal, the Elector _Maximilian_ of
_Bavaria_ took it by Surprize in 1702, it being a Place necessary for him
to secure his Dominions on that side, and to facilitate the Passage of the
_French_ Troops that were to join his Army. General _Thungen_ robb’d him
of this Conquest the 10th of _Sept._ 1704, after about a Week’s Siege.

Then it was that _Ulm_ became again subject to its Magistrates who are all
_Lutherans_. The Catholics cannot enjoy Offices, but have several
Churches. This City drives a great Trade in Linnen, but few of the Gentry
live here except the Patricians who are not more sociable than those of
_Nuremberg_ and _Augsbourg_. The Burghers and the Women in particular go
dress’d like those at _Augsbourg_. To see them go to and come from Church
is next kin to seeing a Masquerade, and ’tis certainly one of the most
diverting Sights in this City, where really I did not give my self time to
be tired, for I set out again the very next Day after I came, and arrived
in this Town, where I have now rested my self a couple of Days.

STUTGARD lies in the middle of a Valley surrounded with Vineyards. ’Tis
pretty large, has Streets broad and strait, but the Houses are of Timber.
’Tis the Capital of the Duchy of _Wirtemberg_, and was formerly the
Residence of the Sovereigns of the Country; but _Eberhard-Lewis_ the
present Duke of _Wirtemberg_ established his Seat some Years ago at[116]
_Ludwigsbourg_, a new City and a new Palace of his own building.

The Duke’s Castle is an old Structure of Freestone, compos’d of four Piles
of Building, flank’d at each Angle by a Tower. The Walls of it are wash’d
by Ditches which give it the disagreeable Air of a Prison. The Duchess who
is the Duke’s Wife, and Sister to the Margrave of _Baden-Dourlach_, has an
Apartment in this Palace. You know that this Princess and her Husband
don’t live well together. The Prince[117] about twenty Years ago preferr’d
a Mistress to her[118], who certainly has neither the Beauty, nor the
Merit of the Duchess. The Princess is remarkably patient under the
Indifference of a Husband, and the Contempt of the most haughty Rival that
ever was. The frequent Visits paid her by her only Son are all the Comfort
she has. The Court neglects her, no body dares to go near her, and
whoever pays the Duchess the Respects that are naturally due to her, is
sure to incur the merciless Hatred of the Mistress. I may be able perhaps
to give you a farther Account of this Princess and her Rival when I have
been at _Ludwigsbourg_, whither I propose to go to-morrow, and where I
hope for a Line from you.

                                                           _I am_, &c.


                              LETTER XVI.

  _SIR_,                                 _Ludwigsbourg, Feb. 2, 1730._

The Duke of _Wirtemberg_ is a Prince of a middling Size, and before he
grew so fat was very well shap’d. He is genteel, affable, and
well-belov’d, and few Princes treat their Courtiers with more Familiarity.
He has been one of the best Dancers of his Time. He also sits perfectly
well on horseback, and performs all bodily Exercises with infinite
Gracefulness, and incomparable Dexterity. He takes pleasure sometimes in
driving his own Coaches, and I have seen him drive eight Horses without a
Postilion, and manage them with as much Ease as if there was but one Horse
in the Harness. He is a Prince that loves Magnificence, is generous,
gallant, and amorous. Tho’ ’tis above twenty Years that he has kept one
and the same Mistress, he is as passionately fond of her, and gives as
shining Proofs of it as ever. During the last War his most Serene Highness
commanded the army of the Empire on the _Upper Rhine_. He has an only Son
marry’d to _Henrietta_ of _Prussia_, Daughter of the Margrave _Philip_,
Brother to _Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_. This young Prince is called
the hereditary Prince. He is short of Stature, but handsome. He has one of
the best Tempers that can be desir’d in a Sovereign, being humane,
good-natur’d, affable, and civil. It may be said that the Father and the
Son are the two politest Men at the Court of _Wirtemberg_. The Father has
spent several Years in _Holland_, _Lorrain_, _Geneva_, _Turin_, _Italy_
and _France_. When he return’d from his Travels he went and marry’d at
_Berlin_. He has an only Daughter who is very amiable. The hereditary
Prince is vastly fond of Grandeur, Dancing, Plays and Music: He fatigues
himself very much, and commonly rides seven or eight Horses in a Morning.
His tender Constitution and the little Care he takes of it make me
apprehensive he will not live to be an old Man[119].

The hereditary Princess has an Air of Grandeur and Majesty suitable to her
Rank. She is tall and handsome, has a noble Mien, and tho’ she is not a
regular Beauty, ’tis certain that she has a very good Look. She is
extremely grave, and does not seem to take a great share in the Pleasures
of the Court. She seems to be most of all taken with Dress, and her
Apparel is not only splendid but well-fancy’d. Her Royal Highness, which
is a Title given her because she is the Daughter of a King’s Brother, is
extremely gracious and civil to all Mankind, but particularly to those
whom she knew at the Court of _Prussia_. She does me the honour to
discourse with me sometimes. I find she thinks very justly, and that her
Sentiments are very agreeable to her Birth. This Princess is of the
_Calvinist_ Religion, and she keeps a Chaplain who preaches to her in her
own Apartment; so that now while the Prince _Alexander de Wirtemberg_ is
here, there are three Chapels in the Castles of as many different

The Countess _de Wurben_ is the first Lady at Court next to her Royal
Highness. She has been the Duke’s sole Favourite for a long time. She is
_Gravenitz_ by Name, and is descended of a noble Family in _Mecklembourg_.
The Duke first fell in love with her when she was but a Girl. She had the
Assurance after she had been some Years in Favour to insist that the Duke
should get a Divorce from the Duchess his Wife, by whom he had a Son, and
marry her. When the Duchess was inform’d of her Rival’s Demand she sued
for the Emperor’s Protection, and obtain’d it. That Monarch signified to
the Duke that he would do well to remove his Favourite, who was therefore
oblig’d to retire to _Swisserland_. The Duke who could not bear her out of
his sight, followed her thither and stay’d there with her for some time,
but at last being oblig’d to return to his Dominions, and not being able
to take Madamoiselle _de Gravenitz_ to him without reviving the just
Suspicions of the Duchess, he look’d out for a Husband for his Mistress.
The Count _de Wurben_ a Gentleman of a good Family, and in mean
Circumstances, but a very eager Stickler for the Favours of Fortune at any
rate whatsoever, made an offer to marry Madamoiselle _de Gravenitz_. She
was bestowed upon him with a Pension of 24000 Florins, and the Character
of the Duke’s Envoy Extraordinary to the Imperial Court. He engag’d never
to make use of the Husband’s Prerogative and never to require of his Wife
to leave the Court. Upon this Condition he obtain’d even before he set out
for _Vienna_ the Office of _Landthoffmeister_ or Lord Lieutenant of
_Wirtemberg_, which is the highest Dignity in the Country. When the
Marriage was concluded, Madam _de Wurben_ returned to _Stutgard_, where
she had Lodgings in the Palace. All her Aim was to insult the Duchess, in
hopes of provoking her to commit something so outragious as might embroil
her with the Duke, and make him resolve never to forgive her; but this
Princess equally virtuous and prudent, and always patient, bore all this
Mortification without murmuring. The Mistress, who could not endure to see
her in the Palace, obtain’d an Order from the Duke for her Retirement to
the Estate which was settled on her for her Jointure; but the Duchess
would never comply to it, saying, that if she had not been unfortunate
enough in the Loss of her Husband she would not retire to her Jointure.
This Refusal, how reasonable soever it was, affronted the Duke, who
acquainted the Duchess that he did not look upon her any longer as his
Wife, and gave orders that she should be treated no longer as a Sovereign.
During this, Madam _de Wurben_ became a Widow; whereupon all the Hopes
reviv’d that she had presumed to entertain when a Maid. She persuaded the
Duke to leave _Stutgard_, and to found _Ludwigsbourg_. As soon as this
House was in a Condition to be occupy’d, the Duke and his Mistress came
and liv’d in it. There’s no sort of Intrigue which this Favourite has not
try’d to put herself in the Duchess’s Rank, but hitherto she has not been
able to succeed. Mean-while she enjoys all the Honours of a Sovereign.
’Tis at her Apartments that the Court is kept. Whenever the Duke plays
’tis there, and there it is he diets. In short she is treated in every
thing upon a par with her Royal Highness. Her Excellency (which is the
only Title given to this imperious Favourite since the Death of her
Husband) is drawing on to fifty Years of Age, and yet carries a mighty
Sway. She employs all the Remedies imaginable to cancel the Injuries which
Time has done to her Complexion, and also to conceal her natural Temper;
for Artifice and Dissimulation are the Compounds of her Character. She is
so eager in amassing of Riches that she makes it her chief Business. While
she pretends a mighty Respect for the Duke, she expects like another
_Astarte_ that every Knee should bend and tremble before her. As she is
the Reservoir of Favour, greater Court is made to her than to the Duke
himself, and Woe be to those that dare to disoblige her! I must own
however that she knows how to behave as well as any Woman in _Germany_,
when she has a mind to shew her Politeness. The worst on’t is, that she is
not always so inclin’d; for she has been so long us’d to give herself
great Airs that they are become habitual to her. The principal Offices of
the Court are distributed among her Kindred or Creatures. Her Brother the
Count _de Gravenitz_ is Grand Marshal and Prime Minister. I hardly ever
saw a handsomer Man: I must also do him the justice to declare that he is
as civil as his Sister is haughty. Some Years ago the Duke obtain’d for
him the Dignity of a Count of the Empire, in which Quality he was admitted
also at the Dyet, and he has a Seat there on the Bench of the Counts of
_Swabia_. His Authority is never oppos’d but by his Sister, to whom he
will not always be obedient. ’Tis said their Divisions have sometimes gone
so far that the Favourite has done all in her power to turn out her
Brother, and he has try’d all Ways in his turn to remove his Sister, but
the Duke has always been so good as to reconcile them. The Prime Minister
and his eldest Son are honour’d with the Order of _Prussia_. There is no
Court in _Europe_ where there’s such a Variety of Orders and Ribbons. The
Duke bears alternatively the _Danish_ Order of the _Elephant_, the
_Prussian_ Order of the _Black Eagle_, and his own Order which is that of
St. _Hubert_.

The Hereditary Prince has the Order of _Prussia_ and that of the Duke his

The Prince _Charles-Alexander_ wears the _Fleece_, and the Order of
_Wirtemberg_[120]. Prince _Lewis_ his Brother wears the _Polish_ Order of
the _White Eagle_.

The Baron _de Schunck_ heretofore the Duke’s Minister of State, and at
present Great Bailiff of a Bailywic, is Knight of the Order of

I should never have done were I to give you the Names of all the Knights
of the Order of St. _Hubert_, and the many petty Sovereigns that have been
the Grand Masters.

The Duke’s particular or Cabinet-Council is compos’d of the Hereditary
Prince and the Counts _de Gravenitz_, Father and Son, the Baron _de
Schutz_, and M. _de Pollnitz_[121]. There are many other Counsellors of
State, but not being admitted to the Cabinet-Council they are not in so
much Esteem as the others.

His most Serene Highness keeps the Estimate of his Forces to himself. I
think that he has now 4000 Men without reckoning his Life-Guards, which
are two Companies, the finest of all the Guards in _Germany_. One of these
Companies is commanded by the Lieutenant-General Baron _de Phul_, and the
other by a Count of _Witgenstein_. They are dress’d in yellow, and are
only distinguish’d by the Facing of their Clothes and their Bandeliers,
one of which is Black and the other Red. Their Regimental Clothes are
Yellow with Silver Lace. The Duke has also a Company of Cadets on
Horseback, all Gentlemen. They are dress’d in Red, with black Velvet
Facings and Silver Lace. They mount Guard at the Duke’s Apartment only.
Two of them always stand Centry before his Highness’s Chamber-Door.

The Court of _Wirtemberg_ is one of the most numerous in _Germany_.

There’s a Grand Marshal, who as I have told you is the Count _de
Gravenitz_, Brother to the Favourite.

A Marshal of the Court, who is second Son to the Grand Marshal.

A Travelling Marshal, who is Brother-in-law to the Prime Minister.

A Great Cup-bearer, who is the Baron _de Frakenberg_.

A Master of the Horse.

A Great Huntsman.

Four Chamberlains.

A Number of Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and Gentlemen of the Court.

Two Captains of the Guards.

A considerable number of Counsellors of State and Aulic Counsellors.

Twenty Pages, all Men of good Families.

And finally a great many Footmen, and Officers of the Kitchen, Pantry, and

The Duke’s Stables are the best furnish’d of any in _Europe_. One shall
not see finer Horses, or any that are better manag’d. The Hunting Equipage
is also very magnificent; and I don’t know one thing that is wanting. His
Highness keeps a Company of _French_ Comedians to whose Performance every
body is admitted _gratis_. We have often Balls, Masquerades, and Concerts
of Music. There is an Assembly at the Favourite’s House every day, where
the Company plays at Piquet, Quadrille, and Pharo; so that here are all
the Pleasures of a great Court. The Duke’s Table is serv’d with very great
Cost and Delicacy, and is commonly spread for sixteen Guests. The Duke
sits at the upper end, between her Royal Highness and her Excellency. The
Gentlemen are plac’d according to the Rank which they derive from their
Employments, and the Ladies according to the Offices which are borne by
their Husbands.

There’s a Ceremonial observ’d here which is not known in any other Court,
_viz._ the Duke’s Ministers give place to no Foreigner, unless he be a
Minister like themselves to some Prince, or unless he be a Count of the
Empire. These have so distinguish’d a Rank at this Court that all who are
not Counts must give place to them. A Count of the Empire, tho’ he be a
Cadet in the hundredth Generation, a Lieutenant or an Ensign, as it
sometimes happens, in the Duke’s Service, takes place of all Ministers and
great Officers who are not Counts. This is a Regulation which her
Excellency made after her Brother was created a Count, to the end that her
Family might have the more Honour, and that the greater Respect might be
paid to her own Dignity of Countess without a County.

I have told you that the Duke had transferr’d his Residence from
_Stutgard_ to _Ludwigsbourg_, and the reason which made him abandon the
Capital of his Dominions; but why he preferr’d the Situation of his new
Town to a hundred others that he might have chose more agreeable, is what
I cannot account for.

LUDWIGSBOURG is remote from any River, great Roads and Forests. The Duke
at first only built a small Mansion-House with two advanced Wings, so
disposed that the Court lay between the House and the Garden; but he has
since made great Additions to it, and is actually building a large
Mansion between the Court and the Garden, to which the Wings of the former
Building are to be joined. One _Frisoni_, an _Italian_, has the direction
of these Works; in which it appears that he is a much better Mason than an
Architect. The new Building runs so far out that it discovers all the
Effects of it. The Front of the Mansion consists of three Stories,
including the Ground-Floor; but on the Garden side there are only two of a
moderate Height, so that one wou’d take this Building rather for an
Orangerie than for the Palace of a Sovereign. The great Stair-Case is
dark, the Apartments want Light, the Chambers are long and narrow, and
have very few Outlets. However, this single Building was undertaken by
_Frisoni_ for 700000 Florins, exclusive of several sorts of Materials with
which he was furnished.

The old Mansion, which fronts the new, is not near so large, tho’ it is
three Stories high every way. The Apartments are small and too
inconvenient to live in, yet no Cost has been spar’d to adorn them;
Carving, Gilding, and Painting being employ’d in them with more Profusion
than Judgment. The Furniture is rich, but of a very odd Fancy. The best
thing in all the Palace is the Chapel, which would every where be reckon’d
a fine noble Structure. But notwithstanding all the Faults which are
observ’d in the Palace, it must be allow’d that whoever lives to see it
finish’d will find it a magnificent Piece of Work. In the Gardens there
are several Terrasses, which rising by degrees one above another, intirely
bound the Prospect of the Palace. ’Tis certain that when the Duke’s
Architects saw this Prince resolutely determin’d to build at
_Ludwigsbourg_, they ought at least to have advis’d him to place his
Palace at the very spot where his Gardens end: In this case it would have
stood in the middle of a Plain, the Apartments would not have been cramp’d
by the Buttresses, with which the Palace is encompass’d, and the Gardens
wou’d have had a gentle Descent; and for a very little Expence there might
have been a fine Piece of Water at one end, betwixt them and a Coppice,
which is a Walk for Pheasants.

The City of _Ludwigsbourg_ is as irregular as the Palace; and its
Scituation, which is very disadvantageous, will always render it a very
incommodious Town, because of the unevenness of the Ground. Most of the
Houses are of Timber, and slightly built; for those who build them do it
with an Ill-will, either out of Necessity, or to please the Duke who seems
to be fond of building. This Prince has ruin’d _Stutgard_, and will never
make a good Town of _Ludwigsbourg_; for if the Court was absent from it
but one Year, ’twou’d be one of the meanest Villages in _Wirtemberg_. This
Town is in no respect very agreeable. The Nobility here don’t seem very
fond of Strangers, and there are no Entertainments but what are made by
the Duke. No body here, not even the Prime Minister keeps a Table; and all
the Expence of the Courtiers is in their Dress, and their Horses. Yet
there is not a Prince of the Empire who gives handsomer Salaries, except
the Electors; so that the Case is the very reverse here to what it is at
almost all other Courts, for here People grow rich, whereas elsewhere they
are beggar’d. I have known Persons that came to this Court in mean
Circumstances, and in a few Years got Estates. The Duke is by nature
generous and beneficent, and wou’d be more so if his Liberality was not
curb’d. He has given several Gentlemen Materials for building _gratis_;
and the Houses were no sooner up but he purchas’d them, and paid as dear
for ’em as if he had not contributed a Shilling towards raising them. I
have been assur’d that his most Serene Highness’s Revenues amounted to
four Millions of Florins. ’Tis certain that he is Master of one of the
finest Countries in all _Germany_; a Country which has plenty of every
thing, but Money is scarce by reason of the Fertility of the neighbouring
Provinces, _viz._ the _Palatinate_, _Bavaria_, _Franconia_, and _Alsace_.
The People are desirous of a War upon the Upper _Rhine_, in hopes of
putting off their Commodities.

The _Lutheran_ is the only Religion tolerated in the Duchy of
_Wirtemberg_, tho’ the Duke has permitted _Frisoni_ the Director of his
Buildings to erect a Chapel for the Use of the Catholic Workmen whom he
has sent for from _Italy_ to build the Palace; which Chapel however is
design’d to be demolish’d as soon as the Works are finish’d: But I am
rather inclin’d to think that the Court itself will one day have a
Catholic Chapel; for if the hereditary Prince shou’d happen to die without
Male-Issue, _Wirtemberg_ will fall to the Share of Prince _Alexander_,
(Cousin-german to the Duke) who has embraced our Religion; and who having
Children by the Princess of _Tour_ and _Taxis_ whom he marry’d at
_Brussels_, sees them brought up in the Catholic Faith.

                                       _I kiss your hand, and am_, &c.


Since I wrote the above, the Countess _de Wurben_ is fallen under
Disgrace, which I have been told happen’d by this means.

The Duke’s Carriage to his Mistress had been cold for some time, when the
King of _Prussia_ came to _Ludwigsbourg_ and exhorted him to be reconcil’d
to his Wife, in order to get Heirs. The Duke cou’d not persuade himself to
take the Duchess again; but however the King’s Representations prevail’d
so far, as to put him quite out of conceit with his Mistress. He just kept
up a bare Acquaintance with her, and that was all; which she perceiv’d,
and made no scruple to try the most extraordinary Methods to maintain
herself in Favour. The Duke having been blooded in her Presence, she
secreted a Napkin stain’d with his Blood. What Use she propos’d to make of
it I know not, but she carry’d it to her Apartment. The Duke’s _Valets de
Chambre_ missing the Napkin acquainted their Master of it. M. _de Roder_,
a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, and a Favourite of his Highness, said that
no body cou’d possibly take it but the Countess, and that to be sure she
did it for no good. The Duke order’d M. _de Roder_ to go to the Countess’s
Apartment and enquire into the Fact. _Roder_ ask’d for the Napkin. The
Countess deny’d her having it; but _Roder_ affirm’d he saw her take it,
upon which she was in a Passion with him, and told him she wou’d make him
repent of his Ill-manners to her. _Roder_ made answer, that all the Airs
she gave herself were out of season, that her Reign was over, and that he
wou’d oblige her to return the Napkin. The Countess not us’d to be talk’d
to at such a rate, was frighten’d, and restor’d the fatal Napkin, which
completed her Ruin. The Duke, when inform’d by his Favourite of what had
pass’d, sent an Order to the Countess not to stir from her Apartment: And
this Prince setting out soon after for _Berlin_, charged the hereditary
Prince his Son to command Madamoiselle _de Wurben_ to retire to her
Estate. The Countess obey’d, and being indulg’d to carry what she had a
mind to along with her, retir’d to a Territory of hers depending
immediately on the Empire, not many Leagues from _Ludwigsbourg_. There it
was that she heard of the Duke’s Reconciliation with the Duchess, upon the
Duke’s return from _Berlin_. This News extremely shock’d her, because she
always flatter’d herself that the Prince wou’d return to her: And
perceiving now that she had no Hopes of being restor’d to Favour by the
power of her own Charms, she had a mind to try what she cou’d do by I know
not what Charm in the Magic Art. To carry her Point she was under a
necessity of having a little of the Duke’s Blood; and she wrote to his
_Valet de Chambre_, promising him great Rewards if he cou’d procure her
some. What does the Domestic but carry the Letter to the Duke? who
immediately gave Orders to Colonel _Streithorst_ to arrest the Countess,
and carry her to some Place of Security. The Colonel taking a Detachment
of Soldiers along with him, contriv’d it so that he came to the Countess’s
Seat at Night, and immediately surrounding the House, knock’d at the Gate,
but no body making answer he thunder’d so hard at the Gate, that at length
Madame _de Sultman_ the Countess’s Sister put her Head out at the Window,
and ask’d who it was that dar’d to make such a Noise. _Streithorst_ told
her his Name, and said he came thither by Order of the Duke. Madame _de
Sultman_ made answer that the Countess was not well, and cou’d not be
spoke with. The Colonel, who knew the contrary, said, that if they did not
let him in he wou’d break open the Doors; upon which they thought fit to
open them. During this the Countess was got to Bed; and _Streithorst_
entring her Chamber found her there with her Sister and her two
Brothers-in-law, the General _N----_ and _Sultman_, who was formerly at
_Berlin_ Equerry to the Countess of _Wartenberg_, and afterwards
Privy-Counsellor to the Duke of _Wirtemberg_. The Colonel having signify’d
his Order to the Countess, she affected to be in a dying Condition; but
said that if she was able enough to get up she did not intend it, she
being at home, and in a free House of the Circle of _Swabia_, from whence
she did not think the Duke had Authority to remove her. The Colonel
threaten’d that his Grenadiers shou’d pull her out of Bed; and the Lady
seeing that she must obey, thought fit to rise. She fell on her Knees to
_Streithorst_; but the hard-hearted Officer was deaf to her Cries, and
conducted her to a place of Security where she is closely confin’d, and
like to be a Prisoner as long as the Duke lives.


                              LETTER XVII.

  _SIR_,                                  _Carlsrouhe, Feb. 15, 1730._

I Deny that any Man can be happier than I am at this Juncture. You have
wrote an excellent long Letter to me; you assure me that you are well, and
that you have still an Affection for me; what more is there wanting to
compleat my Joy? I am preparing to make you the best amends I can, and
instead of a Letter to write you a Volume.

I came in one Day from _Ludwigsbourg_ to CARLSROUHE, which is the
Residence of the Margrave of _Baden-Dourlach_. The Name _Carlsrouhe_
signifies _Charles_’s Rest. The present Margrave _Charles_ of
_Baden-Dourlach_ was the very Man that laid both the Plan and Foundation
of this City, and its Castle. Nothing is so pretty as the Disposition of
the whole: I wish I were able to give you an Idea of it. Imagine the
Margrave’s House to be at the Entrance of a great Forest, in the Center of
a Star form’d by thirty two Walks, the chief of which behind the Palace is
three _German_ Leagues in length. Two large Wings advance from the main
Body of the House, which deviating from each other in proportion as they
lengthen, the whole together looks like a Theatre. Behind the principal
Building there’s a very high Octogon Tower which commands all the Walks.
The Space between the two Wings forms the Court, and then come the Gardens
and Parterres, at the end of which there’s a Semi-Circle of Houses of an
equal Height, built Arch-wise, and three Stories high including the
Ground-Floor. Between these Houses there run five Streets, the middlemost
of which fronts the Palace. At the end of the three chief Streets opposite
to the Palace are three Churches; one belonging to the _Lutherans_,
another to the _Calvinists_, and a third to the _Roman_ Catholics; to
which three prevailing Religions of the Empire the Margrave gave equal
Liberty of Conscience when he founded the new Town.

The chief part of the Town lies behind the Houses that front the Palace.
This properly speaking consists but of one Street, which is of a
prodigious Length. All these Houses as well as the Margrave’s are of
Timber, so that you are not to look for fine or substantial Buildings at
_Carlsrouhe_; but the Contrivance and Distribution of the whole taken
together is really wonderful. I took the Freedom to tell the Margrave that
I was surpriz’d that he had not at least employ’d Brick in the building of
his Palace, and of the Houses which form the Half-Moon about his Gardens.
‘I was wil’ing, _said the Prince_, to make myself a Place of Retirement,
and to build without putting the Burthen on my Subjects. I chose moreover
to have the Comfort of enjoying what I built. If I had us’d Bricks it
wou’d have cost me a great deal more Money; and I cou’d not have finish’d
my Buildings without laying an extraordinary Impost upon my Country. It
wou’d have taken me up abundance of Time too, and perhaps I shou’d never
have had the Satisfaction of seeing an end to my Labours. Another Reason
was, that my Country is so scituate as to be liable to be the Theatre of
Wars, and I am not in a Condition to make this a strong Place, nor cou’d I
encompass it with Walls. Do you think therefore that I shou’d have been
justified in laying out a great deal of Money on a Place to see it burnt
down before my Face, as I did my House at _Dourlach_, and my other Houses
which the _French_ reduc’d to Ashes. I am but a petty Sovereign; I have
built a House according to my Condition, and I had rather it shou’d be
said of me that I have but a mean Habitation, and owe no Money, than that
I have a stately Palace and am over Head and Ears in Debt.’

I have given you this account of what the Margrave said to me, because I
thought it wou’d let you into an Idea of his Character. This Prince, to
whom I was introduc’d on the very day of my Arrival here, took the trouble
himself to shew me his Palace, and all about it. I thought the Apartments
very well laid out, but there is not room enough to lodge the hereditary
Prince, who lives in one of the Houses in the Semi-Circle fronting the

The Pheasant-Walk, which joins to the Castle, is the prettiest thing in
the World. ’Tis a very large Inclosure, dispos’d in various Walks planted
with Fir-Trees cut in the shape of a Fan. There’s a great Basin in the
Center always full of wild Ducks. ’Tis encompass’d with four Pavilions,
made in the Form of _Turkish_ Tents. Two of the Pavilions are Volarys, and
the two others Summer-Houses, with Window-Curtains of Green Cloth. There
are Sofas and Couches, after the manner of the Eastern Countries. In this
Place of Retirement and Rest the Margrave spends some Hours every Day,
and he is generally accompany’d by some young Ladies whom he teaches
Music; so that they perform agreeable Concerts.

The Margrave was in the right to give his House the Name of _Charles’s
Rest_, for he leads the most tranquil Life here that can be. Far from
being infatuated with vain Grandeur, he has the Charms of it, without the
Check and Constraint of it. This Prince is of a very robust Constitution,
and tho’ he underwent a vast deal of Fatigue in his Youth, he is as
fresh-colour’d and as vigorous as if he was but forty Years of Age. He
travell’d when he was a young Man into the principal parts of _Europe_;
and during his Father’s Life-time was several Years in the Service of
_Sweden_. When he return’d to his Dominions he serv’d in the Army of the
Empire on the Upper _Rhine_, under his Cousin Prince _Lewis_ of _Baden_.
Tho’ the Margrave is very fat, yet he uses a great deal of Exercise. He
rises in Summer at five o’Clock in the Morning, and walks in his Gardens
till the Heat of the Weather obliges him to retire within doors; then he
does Business with his Counsellors, or else employs himself in Experiments
of Chymistry, and sometimes he draws. He commonly dines at four o’clock,
and is attended by Waiting-Women, of whom there are no less than
threescore, tho’ no more than eight wait upon one Day. These, when the
Margrave goes abroad, attend him on horseback, dress’d like _Hussurs_. The
Generality of these Damsels understand Music and Dancing; they also
perform Operas at the Theatre of the Palace, and are Musicians of the
Chappel. They have all Lodgings in the Palace. After Dinner is over the
Margrave grants Audience to his Subjects; and upon particular Days of the
Week hears all that come. Few Princes render Justice more speedily, and
more punctually. Sometimes he goes a Hunting. He makes very light
Suppers, and retires early to Bed. He delights in Agriculture, and is one
of the greatest Florists living. This Prince is never unemploy’d. There
are few things which he does not know, and very many which he understands
to Perfection. His Conversation is as agreeable as any I know. He speaks
several Languages well. His Behaviour is obliging and courteous. He loves
Foreigners, treats them with Distinction, and loads them with Civilities.
Upon Sundays and Holidays he eats with the Prince his Son, and the
Princess his Daughter-in-law. His Table, which is then spread for sixteen
Guests, is serv’d with more Delicacy than Profusion.

The hereditary Prince[122], only Son to the Margrave, is pretty short, and
has not the Life and Spirit of his Father. He is very complaisant and
civil, and seems to me of a good-natur’d Disposition. He has been at
_Paris_, in _England_, and in _Holland_, where he marry’d the Daughter of
the unfortunate Prince of _Nassau_, who was drown’d in 1711, as he was
passing the _Maerdyke_ to the _Hague_, to adjust with _Frederic_ I. King
of _Prussia_, such Differences as related to the Succession of the late
King _William_ of _Great Britain_, to which they both laid Claim. The
hereditary Princess seems to me to be well behav’d; and she makes very
handsome Entertainments. The Court assembles at her House every day,
_viz._ at Noon, and at five o’clock in the Evening; and there they dine,
game, and sup. Foreigners are very well receiv’d there, and both the
Ladies and Gentlemen are very civil and complaisant.

The Grand Marshal, and his Brother the Great Huntsman, are Persons capable
of making a Figure with Distinction in the greatest Courts. The first
marry’d a legitimated Daughter of the Margrave.

The Baron _d’Ixter_, President of the Regency, and Chief of the Council,
is a Person of signal Merit, and capable of any Business, be it ever so

Generally speaking the Margrave’s Court is extremely well regulated. This
Prince is fond of the Nobility, and seeks to do them a Pleasure. He has
none but Persons of Quality in his Service. ’Tis great pity that this
Court does not come together again. The Margravine, who is Sister to the
Duke of _Wirtemberg_, resides at _Dourlach_, and never comes to
_Carlsrouhe_ but when ’tis a Holiday, or when some foreign Prince is
there. This Princess is actually very much indispos’d, so that I don’t
think I shall have the Honour of kissing her Hand. The Margrave also
educates at his Court three young Princes his Nephews, the Sons of his
Brother. They are under the Government of the Baron _de Gemming_, who
takes very great Care of their Education.

As to the Margrave’s Revenues, I cannot be positive what they are, because
I found that People who ought to know best, vary in their Calculations not
a little; some assur’d me they were 400,000, some 500,000 Florins, and
others much more. Be it as it will, ’tis certain that the Margrave lives
nobly, that every body is well paid, and that the Subjects are not
over-burthen’d. Farewell, Sir, I set out to-morrow for _Rastadt_, and
shall write to you as soon as I can, _&c._


                             LETTER XVIII.

  _SIR_,                                  _Strasbourg, Feb. 28, 1730._

It took me up no more than four Hours to go from _Carlsrouhe_ to RASTADT.
As soon as I alighted there I notified my Arrival to the Grand Marshal,
with a Request that he wou’d procure me the Honour of paying my
Compliments to their Highnesses of _Baden-Baden_. I had for answer, that
the Margrave was out a Hunting, and that therefore I cou’d not have an
Audience before next day. I had patience to stay; and having by Good luck
some Books at hand, I spent all that day in Reading, and the next day too,
but did not hear a Word from the Grand Marshal. Mean time as I did not
come to _Rastadt_ purely to read, and as ’tis a Town does not afford much
Amusement, since a quarter of an hour is enough to know all the Streets, I
was very chagrin. I sent a second Message to the Grand Marshal, but had
the same Answer as before. I thought it improper to insist any farther,
and gave over all hopes of seeing the Court of _Rastadt_. However I went
to see the Margrave’s Palace, which his Father the late Prince _Lewis_ of
_Baden_ built from the ground. It is very much like to the Palace of _St.
Cloud_ near _Paris_, and seems to be a Building conducted with more
Regularity than I observ’d in several new Houses in _Germany_ left solely
to the Direction of ignorant Masons, who without a Taste for Building have
the Assurance to call themselves Architects.

The principal Stair-Case is large and lightsome. The Apartments have all
the Conveniences they can admit of. Those which are contiguous to the
grand Stair-Case are distributed into several Partitions, for Shew and for
Convenience. They are painted, gilt, and gaily furnish’d. The Margravine
Dowager to Prince _Lewis_ put them in this Condition against the Marriage
of her Daughter to the Duke of _Orleans_; and the Furniture is indeed rich
and well fancy’d. The Keeper shewed me the Closet in which Prince _Eugene_
of _Savoy_ and Marshal _Villars_ sign’d the Peace in 1714. ’Tis pity that
this truly magnificent Palace has no Gardens to it. There’s Ground mark’d
out for that purpose, and if Prince _Lewis_ had liv’d they wou’d have been

After having seen the Apartments and the Chapel, which is small, but
exceedingly adorn’d, not knowing what to do with myself I went to a
Billiard-Table fronting the Palace, where I found some Gentlemen of the
Court as idle as myself. They treated me as a Foreigner, and were
complaisant to me. A young Fellow of a good Appearance, and who seem’d to
have an Air of Politeness, having refus’d as well as myself to play,
enter’d into a Conversation with me: And by degrees that Sympathy of our
Tempers, which was a Stranger to the Laws of Reason, made us talk to one
another with as much Freedom as if we had been old Acquaintance. I
complain’d to him that tho’ I had been three days at _Rastadt_ I cou’d not
get an Opportunity of paying my Duty to their Highnesses of _Baden_. He
told me that I need not be surpriz’d at it; that since the Death of the
late Prince _Lewis_, the Margravine his Dowager, who was hereditary
Princess of _Saxe-Lawenbourg_, had introduc’d into her Court the
Ceremonial of the Eastern Princes; that she never appear’d but in a full
Divan, and that she did not permit any one whatsoever to come near to her
Son except the Bashaws and Dervizes who were of the Council. The young
Gentleman’s manner of accounting for this matter made me smile, and put me
upon asking him several Questions. ‘How! _said I_, according to the
Character I have had of the Margravine, she is very much of a Christian,
and of that virtuous Heroine which the wise Man, if he had been still
living, wou’d have propos’d to us for a Model. Indeed, _said the
Gentleman_, the Character you have had of her is right enough: The
Margravine has Piety and Virtues that render her valuable; but she has a
Haughtiness, and a certain _Particularity_ in her Temper, which is hardly
to be parallell’d. For instance, if she had receiv’d you it wou’d have
been standing under a Canopy by an Arm-Chair, with as much State as the
Empress. She wou’d have ask’d you two or three Questions, after which she
wou’d have assur’d you of her Protection, and then have dismiss’d you
without detaining you to dine with her, as is the manner of all the
Princes of the Empire; but ’tis not the fashion here, _continued the
Gentleman_. The Margravine commonly dines in private, and we who are of
her Court don’t see her but at Mass. The young Margrave our Master wou’d
like well enough to see Company, but his Mother giving him to understand
that she does not care for it, he conforms to her Pleasure. The young
Margravine, who is the Daughter of the Prince _de Schwartzenbourg_, has no
Authority, because tho’ naturally obliging and civil she durst not put her
good Qualities in practice, because the Margravine Dowager reproaches her
that she does not know how to carry it like a Sovereign; by which means
this poor Princess is oblig’d to be proud against her Inclination. If you
were to see her you wou’d be charm’d with her; for she is tall and
handsome, of a lively fair Complexion, but not languid, and has a very
noble Air. When the Margrave marry’d her she was an only Daughter, and the
Princess of _Schwartzenbourg_ her Mother, who had not lived with her
Husband for near fifteen Years, was not like to have any more Children.
But the Event has proved contrary; for the Prince and Princess of
_Schwartzenbourg_ are reconcil’d, and the Princess has had a Son, who has
frustrated the Hopes of our young Margravine of being some day or other
one of the richest Heiresses in the Empire. This has not advanc’d her in
the Favour of her Mother-in-law, who often snaps at her; but there being
no Remedy, the young Princess bears her Ill-humours with Patience. As she
is just brought to bed too of a Son, we hope she will have more Interest;
at least ’tis what we all wish, because she is a very good Princess. ’Tis
not a Year, _continued the Gentleman_, that our young Margrave has been of
Age, nevertheless his Majority is so controll’d by the Ascendancy which
the Dowager keeps over her Son, that it may be said ’tis she who governs
still. This Prince accustom’d to obey knows not what is the Pleasure of
commanding. There’s the same likelihood of his being a Dependant as long
as his Mother lives; and indeed he ought to humour that Princess, as well
because she was always a good Mother to him, as for the Advantages she is
capable of doing him; for she is very rich, and has a noble Estate in
_Bohemia_, which she wou’d perhaps give to her youngest Son, who is Canon
of _Cologne_ and _Augsbourg_, if the Margrave disobliged her; tho’ I
believe it must be a great Offence indeed that wou’d provoke her to
disinherit him, because he was always her Darling, and perhaps too the
most dutiful of all her Children. Such is her Tenderness for this Son
that when there was a Talk of his going abroad she wou’d needs go with
him; and she actually accompany’d him all over _Italy_. Some People were
indeed so ill-natur’d as to say that ’twas not out of Love to the Prince,
but because she was afraid he wou’d wean himself from her Company, and
break quite away from her. ’Tis said however that she is going to quit the
Court, and to retire to _Etlingen_, which is the Place assign’d for her
Jointure. We all wish it, not that we have any reason to complain of this
Princess, but because we hope then to have a gayer Court. For the rest, to
do the Margravine Dowager Justice, she has manag’d her Son’s Finances with
a great deal of Œconomy. When the late Prince _Lewis_ died he left a
heavy Debt upon the Country, which was also ruin’d by the late War. But
the Margravine Regent has paid off all, and so happily retriev’d the
Government and the Finances, that when her Son came of Age she gave him
considerable Sums, and the Country was in a better Condition than ever.’

There the Gentleman concluded. After putting several Questions to him I
learnt that the Duchess of _Orleans_ had been promis’d in Marriage to
Prince _Alexander_ of _Tour_ and _Taxis_[123], that the Presents were made
for the Wedding, and that the same was very soon to be celebrated: But
when the Duke of _Orleans_ actually sent M. _d’Argenson_ his Chancellor to
_Rastadt_ to demand the Princess in Marriage, the Margravine her Mother
thinking this a better Match beyond comparison, call’d back the Promise
she had made to the Prince _de la Tour_, and concluded the Treaty with the
Duke of _Orleans_. The young Margrave marry’d his Sister by Proxy, in
presence of M. _d’Argenson_, and the Princess was conducted to
_Strasbourg_, where finding a Set of Domestics sent from _Paris_ to
receive her, she turn’d off all her _German_ Servants and proceeded on her
Journey to _Chalons_, whither the Duke of _Orleans_ went to meet her.

The same Gentleman from whom I learnt all these Particulars told me
likewise that the young Margrave, before he marry’d the Princess of
_Schwartzenbourg_, was to have had the Daughter of King _Stanislaus_, but
that the Margravine broke off the Marriage-Treaty which was very far
advanc’d, because the King was not able to pay down a hundred thousand
Crowns ready Money for his Daughter’s Dowry. It was undoubtedly owing to
that Princess’s happy Star that the King could not raise the Sum, for in
such case his Daughter would not now have worn one of the first Crowns in
the World. The Gentleman told me moreover that the Margravine was
mortify’d to the last degree when she heard that the Princess whom she had
refus’d for her Daughter-in-law was become the Queen of _France_. She was
apprehensive too that this Princess or the King her Father would take
revenge for the Slight she had put upon their Alliance, and she wrote a
Letter to King _Stanislaus_ to congratulate him on an Event so glorious to
him, and to recommend to him the Duchess of _Orleans_ her Daughter. _I
intreat you, Sir_, said she, _to prevail with the Queen your Daughter to
honour my Daughter and all my Family with her Favour. I will presume to
say that both I and Mine deserve it at your Hands for the Respect we have
always had for you_. This Letter, which was as submissive as the
Margravine’s Conduct had been haughty, was receiv’d with very great
Civility by King _Stanislaus_, who, after having read it to the Queen his
Wife, could not help saying, _I am much oblig’d to the Margravine for
this Letter_, and he return’d her a very engaging Answer. ’Tis my Opinion
that at that time, instead of bearing the Princess any Ill-will he took it
very kindly of her that she had refus’d his Daughter for a
Daughter-in-law. The officious Gentleman would perhaps have inform’d me of
other Particulars concerning the Court of _Rastadt_, if the Margrave’s
Return from Hunting had not oblig’d him to go to the Castle. I thank’d him
for the trouble he had given himself, and went and shut my self up at my

I set out next day for _Strasbourg_, and in less than five Hours arrived
at KEHL. ’Tis all an even Country, and admirable Roads. We travel thro’
the Dominions of _Spire_, the Bishoprick of _Strasbourg_, and the County
of _Hanau_. At _Kehl_ I paid a Visit to the General Baron _de Roth_, the
Governour of the Place, who entertain’d me at Dinner, and made me
exceeding welcome, but so ply’d me with Liquor that I thought my self at
_Fulde_ or _Wurtzbourg_. After Dinner M. _de Roth_ shewed me the
Fortifications, which I found in a very bad State. The Commandant told me
that he had taken a world of pains to represent it to the Dyet of the
Empire at _Ratisbonne_, but that he might as well have talk’d to so many
deaf Men. ’Tis certain that if Care be not taken, the _Rhine_ will wash
away the Fort one day or other, and carry it to _Holland_. The Marshal _de
Bourg_ said to me a while ago when we were talking of _Kehl_, that M. _de
Roth_ would do well to fasten his Fort with Chains to the Citadel of

There’s only a Bridge over the _Rhine_ to pass from _Kehl_ to STRASBOURG
the Capital of _Alsace_, and formerly an Imperial City. The _French_ made
themselves Masters of it in _September_ 1681, when they came to the very
Gates of the Place before the Town had notice of their March, and when it
was in no Condition to make resistance; for whether they thought they had
no need of being upon their guard, or whether the chief Burgomasters had
been corrupted, the Town wanted but every thing. The Capitulation was
signed on one side by the Marquis _de Louvois_, and the Baron _de Monclar_
Commandant in _Alsace_; and on the other by eight Deputies of the City,
which was secured in all its Privileges, Prerogatives and Customs, both
ecclesiastical and civil. The Bishop was nevertheless restored to his See,
and the Canons to the Cathedral, which had belonged for 152 Years to the
_Lutherans_. _Lewis_ XIV. made his entry into _Strasbourg_ the 23d of
_October_ following, and immediately order’d a Citadel and other Works to
be erected, which have since been so augmented that _Strasbourg_ may now
be rank’d among the most important Places of _Europe_. The Marshal Count
_de Bourg_ commands in it, and has one of the King’s Lieutenants under
him, who is always a General Officer. M. _Dangervilliers_[124] formerly
Intendant of _Dauphiny_, is Intendant of the Province of _Alsace_ and the
City of _Strasbourg_. These Gentlemen, whom I have been to see, receiv’d
me with prodigious Civility, and very punctually return’d my Visit.

The Marshal Count _de Bourg_ preserves a stately Mien in an advanced Age,
and one may easily perceive he has been a very fine Man in his time. He
was Page to _Philip_ of _France_ Duke of _Orleans_, Brother to _Lewis_ the
Great, and to that Duke’s Favour his Advancement to Military Employments
is very much owing, tho’ ’tis true that he has distinguished himself in
the Service. On the 26th of _August_ 1709, he defeated near _Rumersheim_
the Count _de Mercy_, who commanded a flying Camp of 9000 Men detach’d
from the Army of the Empire, then under Command of the Elector of
_Hanover_, afterwards _George_ I. King of _Great Britain_. This Victory
gain’d M. _de Bourg_ the blue Ribbon. King _Lewis_ XV. gave him the Staff
of a Marshal of _France_, and confirmed him in the Government of
_Strasbourg_. The _French_ Officers accuse this Marshal of Pride, but for
my part, I have all the Reason that can be to love him for his Civility.

M. _Dangervilliers_ is really more engaging than the Marshal, and is
therefore more beloved by the Officers. He is affable and civil,
complaisant to Foreigners, and lives with a vast deal of Splendor. The
Princes of the Empire that border upon _Alsace_ like him very well, and
think he is more candid, and less haughty than his Predecessors.

There’s not many of the Nobility settled in this City, and of these few
that are wealthy; and therefore they live very much retir’d. The Canons of
the Great Chapter who ought all to be Princes or Counts, are not of very
great Service, because most of ’em holding other Benefices, only come to
_Strasbourg_ to pass away three Months there of their Residence, and by
consequence they are here as Strangers. The best Houses therefore are the
Intendant’s and the King’s Lieutenant’s. There are always a great many
Officers here who are indeed amiable Fellows, and know how to serve, and
to be good Company too upon occasion. The Commandants of the Corps are in
Years, and Officers of Experience, and the rest are clever smart Youths
who long sadly to be fighting, and would fain make you believe the four
Corners of the World will quickly be on fire. I have not seen finer
Infantry than the _French_ Infantry at this present time. There are very
fine Gentlemen too in the Cavalry, but then they are not near so well
mounted as ours. You know the Cry with us is that the _French_ are ruin’d,
and not able to do any thing more. How the Case stands with them, I really
know not, but if one may judge of it by Appearances, it cannot be so. No
Troops were ever better cloathed, better paid, more spruce, nor finer. The
Officers are splendid; they game, divert themselves, and eat and drink
well, which does not seem to me to be the Life of People in want. Upon
these terms, I would be content to be in such want all my Life long.

The Garrison maintains a Company of Comedians who are paid by the
Captains, and commanding Officers, for the Subalterns are admitted
_gratis_. The Theatre, which is one of the prettiest in the Country, is
maintain’d by the City.

A Man that has a Taste for a plain home-bred Girl may here find Amusement
and good Blood. ’Tis observ’d that the _Lutheran_ Women are the most
beautiful, and the Sex at this Place is said to be very indulgent, and
very tractable; so that I should be apt to think, a Man need not be very
open-hearted to them.

Tho’ _Strasbourg_ may be reckon’d among the finest Towns in _France_, one
can’t say there’s a single House in it that is magnificent, or makes a
grand Appearance. The Cathedral is a very stately Building of _Gothic_
Architecture; its famous Spire is one of the most lofty, and of the
neatest Workmanship of any in _Europe_. _Misson_, who ’tis like always
carried his Plummet and Foot-Rule in his Pocket, because he never fails to
give the Length and Breadth and Height of a Thing, says that ’tis 574 Foot
in height; and I believe he is not mistaken. _Erkivin de Stembach_ who was
the Architect, finish’d it in the Year 1449. ’Tis said that _Lewis_ XIV.
had a mind to have a Spire erected upon the second Tower which seems to
have been built with that View. He order’d M. _de Vauban_ to draw a Model
of it, and to compute the Cost, which he found would amount to several
Millions of Livres. The King thinking that he could employ that Sum to a
better purpose, contented himself with making a Present to the Cathedral
of the Ornaments, and all the Priests Vestments for celebrating Mass upon
the several annual Festivals; the whole of which is extraordinary
sumptuous, and becoming the Magnificence of one of the greatest Kings in
the World. ’Twas in the Cathedral of _Strasbourg_ that the Duke of
_Orleans_ the first Prince of the Blood of _France_ married as Proxy to
_Lewis_ XV. _Mary Lescinski_, the Daughter of King _Stanislaus_. This
Ceremony, at which I was present, was more magnificent than what was
observ’d at _Fontainbleau_ at the Queen’s Arrival; and the Concourse of
_German_ Noblemen and Princes hither upon the Occasion was prodigious. The
Cardinal _de Rohan_, as Bishop of _Strasbourg_, gave the Nuptial
Benediction. Nothing can be finer than the Speeches which his Eminency
made upon that Solemnity: As they fell into my hands, I think I ought to
communicate them to you. You will find them _verbatim_ at the End of this
Letter. _Poland_ in this Instance, made a worthy Restitution to _France_,
which many Years ago gave the _Poles_ a King who was afterwards the
unfortunate _Henry_ III; and they have now in their turn given a Queen to
_France_. But _Germany_ may boast that the Queen derives from the Empire
that Fund of Virtue which is the Source of her Happiness, and makes her
admir’d by the Universe. _France_ had for a long time left off sending to
our Climates for her Queens. _Mary-Anne Victoria_ of _Bavaria_ was in a
fair way to be one, but she died a Dauphiness[125]. _Lorrain_, _Scotland_,
_Italy_ and _Spain_, had as it were engross’d the Crown of _France_ for
their Princesses. But I hope the Virtues of the present Queen and the
other _German_[126] Princesses who are now at the Court of _France_ will
oblige the _French_ to confess that if our Princesses have not Crowns for
their Dowries like the Infanta’s of _Spain_, they have an Estate of more
Value than all the Wealth in the World, _viz._ Piety, Charity, and Love
for the People.

A great many young _German_ Gentlemen come hither for the sake of learning
_French_, and their Exercises, but I don’t think they are a jot the better
for it, because the Masters of their Exercises are not better Scholars
here than they are in many Towns of _Germany_; and as to the _French_,
they speak it very ill in this City; for the Inhabitants talk
_High-Dutch_, and our young Sparks are so pleas’d to hear their own
Language spoke that they neglect to learn any other. Besides they always
herd together, and too easily catch one another’s Vices as well as
Virtues. As they have not many Parts to shew, they spend their time at the
Billiard-Table, the Coffee-House, and often at other Places not so honest,
of which there are but too many here, this being a City as noted for
Libertines as any in _Europe_.

                                                           _I am_, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Speech of Cardinal +de Rohan+ to the_ QUEEN_, before the Celebration
of the Marriage._


‘While I see you in this sacred Temple approaching to our Altars to
contract that illustrious Alliance which is to unite you to the greatest
of Kings and the most amiable of Princes, I adore what God designs you
for, and admire with Transport the Course that Providence is steering to
conduct you to the Throne which you are going to ascend. You are
descended, MADAME, from a Family illustrious for its Antiquity, for its
Alliances, and for the eminent Employments which the great Men it has
given to _Poland_ have fill’d successively with so much Glory. You are the
Daughter of a Father, who, thro’ the various Events of a busy Life,
chequer’d by good and bad Fortune, has always shewn himself the Gentleman,
the Hero, and the Christian. You have for your Mother, and your
Grandmother, Princesses, who like to _Judith_, and to that virtuous Woman
whose Character is drawn in the Scriptures, have attracted the Veneration
and Respect of the whole World, by the Fidelity with which they always
walk’d in the Fear of the Lord. In your Person, MADAME, are center’d all
the Accomplishments that can be form’d by a happy Birth, and an admirable
Education, supported by Examples equally strong and affecting. In you,
that Goodness, that Mildness, and those Charms are predominant, which gain
Love at the same time as they inforce Respect; that Integrity of Heart
which nothing can resist; that Superiority of Understanding and Knowledge
which are conspicuous, as it were in spite of you, and in spite of that
Modesty and noble Simplicity which are natural to you; and finally that
which is the Crown of so much Merit, that Taste for Piety, and that
Attachment to the true Principles of Religion, which animate your Actions,
and regulate your Conduct. Adorn’d with all these Virtues, what Crown is
there to which you might not reasonably aspire, exclusive of the Custom
which in some measure obliges Kings to look no farther than round the
Throne for Princesses that they have a mind would reign with them? He who
disposes of Empires puts the Sceptre of _Poland_ into the hands of a
Prince to whom you owe your Being, and by giving the Father that Splendor
conducts the Daughter insensibly to the sublime Station he is preparing
for her. But, O God, how impenetrable are thy Designs, and how far above
human Prudence are the Means thou makest use of to bring about thy wise
Purposes! This Prince was scarce seated on the Throne in which the Choice
of the Grandees, and the Affection of the People had plac’d him, but he
was oblig’d to quit it: He is abandon’d, betray’d, persecuted; one fatal
Shot bereaves him of the Hero his Friend, and the chief Stay of his Hopes:
He submits to the necessity of the Times without abating in his Courage:
He seeks refuge in a Country which is the common Shelter of unfortunate
Kings: He comes to _France_, and thither, MADAME, you are following him.
All that see you there, touch’d with your Misfortunes, admire your Virtue,
the Odour of which spreads to the Throne of a young Monarch, who, such is
the Lustre of his Crown, the Extent of his Power, and above all, the
Charms of his Person, might have made his choice out of all the Princesses
of the World: But being guided by wise Counsels, he fixes it upon You; and
here the Finger of God is plainly visible in improving that very
Misfortune which separates the King your Father from his Subjects, and
takes you out of _Poland_ to give Us in your Person, a Queen who shall be
the Glory of a Father and of a Mother, of whom she is now the Comfort and
Delight; a Queen, who shall render that Nation happy which most richly
deserves it, at least for its Respect and its Fidelity to its Sovereigns;
a Queen, who being inviolably attach’d to her Duty, full of Tenderness and
Respect for her Husband, and her King, and wisely employ’d in what is
capable of procuring her solid Happiness, will revive to us the Reign of
the Empress _Flaccilla_, of whom History says, that having always kept the
Precepts of the Divine Law in her view, she conferr’d thereupon daily with
the great _Theodosius_, and that her Words like a fruitful Rain, water’d
with success those Seeds of Virtue which God had sown in the Heart of her
Husband. Come then, MADAME, Come to the Altar. May the Engagements you are
going to enter into, sacred of themselves, (since according to the
Apostle, they are the Symbol of the Union of Jesus Christ with his Church)
may they be also sanctify’d by your own Disposition. May you be so
sensible of what you are going to be, that you may acknowledge that in
crowning your Merits, he crowns his Gifts: And may you Christians that
hear me, when you see the shining Rewards that are bestowed in this World
upon true Virtue, learn to respect and love it.’

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Cardinal’s Speech after the Celebration of the Marriage._


‘Now that august Ceremony is ended which crowns our Hopes and our Wishes;
give me leave to desire your Majesty’s Royal Protection for the Church of
_Strasbourg_. This Church has not forgot and never will forget the signal
Favours it has received from our former Kings. How great are its
Obligations to our last Monarch! Being deliver’d up by the Misfortunes of
the Times to the Furys of Schism and Heresy, it would perhaps have
perish’d as many others did, if that great Prince, by resuming the Rights
of his Ancestors, had not undertaken its defence, and supported it with
all his Power. To him it is oblig’d for the Advantage of being restored
to the Possession of this sacred Temple from which it had been banished.
There’s nothing here but what puts us in mind of his Pious and Royal
Magnificence. Temples adorn’d, Pastors liberally maintain’d, Missions
founded, new Converts protected and supported, are so many Monuments of
the Zeal and Piety of a King whose Memory will never die. He had not the
Comfort to finish the Work which he had undertaken; that is to say, the
reuniting of all the Sheep of this illustrious Flock in one and the same
Fold: This was reserv’d to the worthy Heir of his Zeal and Crown. It will
be your part, MADAME, to represent to your August Spouse how much the
Remembrance of his Great Grandfather, his own Glory, and our Necessities,
which are even those of Religion, require of him. You will not desire that
Recourse shou’d be had to those Methods which exasperate, without
persuading; such would not be to your Majesty’s liking, and God forbid
that we should suggest them to you. Those Children who disown us are your
Subjects, MADAME, and the Church of _Strasbourg_ confiding intirely in
God’s Mercy, still looks on itself as their Mother. We therefore conjure
you by the Bowels of Jesus Christ, to employ, for the sake of uniting
them, every Thing with which an active but sympathizing Charity may
inspire you. God will bless your Majesty’s Endeavours, and our Desires,
and will employ the Instances of your Piety and your Faith to the total
Confusion of Error, and the Triumph of the Truth. May your Reign be long
over us, MADAME, for the Happiness of the King, and the Welfare of this
great Kingdom. May God hear the Prayers which the Church has now offer’d
up for your Majesty, and may you be so good as to place us in the Rank of
your most zealous and most faithful Subjects.’


                              LETTER XIX.

  _SIR_,                                 _Heidelberg, March 12, 1730._

Being in the Neighbourhood of SAVERNE where the Cardinal _de Rohan_ lives,
I had a mind to go thither. I have had the Honour to be known to that
Prelate a long time, and was overjoy’d at the opportunity of paying my
respects to him.

_Armand Gaston_ Cardinal _de Rohan_ was elected Bishop of _Strasbourg_ the
10th of _April_ 1704[127], and received the Cardinal’s Cap from the Hands
of _Lewis_ XIV. the 18th of _May_, 1712. The Year following he succeeded
the Cardinal _de Janson_ as Great Almoner. The Emperor granted him the
Temporal Investiture of the See of _Strasbourg_[128] on the 10th of
_June_ 1723, and in 1724, he obtain’d a Seat in the College of Princes at
the Assembly of _Ratisbon_. This Prelate who is considerable for his Birth
and Dignities, is much more so for his great Soul, his polite and obliging
Behaviour, and for an Air of Grandeur which accompanies all his Actions.
He is a comely Person, as are indeed all of his Family. Being noble and
magnificent in every thing that he does, he lives wherever he is like a
great Nobleman, but particularly at _Saverne_. I found at his Palace the
Duke and Duchess of _Tallard_, the Duchess _de la Meilleraie_,
Madamoiselle _de Melun_, the Prince and Princess of _Birkensfield_, M.
_Dangervilliers_, the Intendant of _Strasbourg_, the Count and Princess of
_Hanau_, and in short a great many Officers of Distinction. They had all
convenient Lodgings and Accommodation in the Castle; and Gaming, taking
the Air, Hunting, Music, and Good Cheer were their constant Diversions.

The Bishops of _Strasbourg_ have resided for a long time at the Palace of
_Saverne_, which was always a convenient House; but the Cardinal _de
Roban_ has made it very considerable. The outside of this Palace is not so
magnificent as the inside. The Entry which leads to the chief Stair-Case
is lighted to great advantage, and has several Outlets that have a
convenient Communication with the lower Apartments, which are high, and
very finely embellish’d. The principal Stair-Case is very grand, and leads
to a stately Salon with most curious Decorations. It has a double
Apartment which is render’d as commodious as possible; and the Furniture
consists of Embroidery of Gold and Silver, which may be thought perhaps
too rich. The Queen, who lodg’d at the Cardinal’s House when she came to
_Saverne_, was charm’d with the Splendor of it, and the extraordinary
Respect with which she was attended here.

The Cardinal _de Rohan_ designs that this rich Furniture shall remain
annex’d to the See; for which his Successor will certainly have very great
Obligations to him: But his Eminence was not so much oblig’d to his
Predecessors; for when he was chose Bishop he found a House very much out
of order, and scarce a Chair in it, whereas ’tis now fit for a King. His
Eminency is about making very large fine Gardens, which are in very great
forwardness, and perfectly answerable to the Grandeur and Beauty of the
Palace; and at the end of them there is a stately Canal which cost
infinite Labour and Expence. The whole of it is the more magnificent
because _Saverne_ stands at the foot of very high Mountains; and in
digging the Canal the Workmen often met with Rocks which they were forc’d
to blow up.

At the Cardinal’s Table there’s both Abundance and Elegance; and his
Eminency entertains in such a manner as really charms his Guests. All his
Domestics follow his example; and ’tis certain that they are all very
diligent; and that there is not a House in _France_, or in _Europe_, where
there’s better Attendance. His Eminency’s Houshold, and all his Temporal
Affairs in general, are directed by the Abbott _de Ravanne_, Counsellor in
the Parliament of _Paris_.

The Cardinal is one of the richest Noblemen in _France_, and without
dispute the most expensive. He has built a Hotel at _Paris_, and furnish’d
it sumptuously. He has made considerable Works at _Saverne_, and laid out
a great deal of Money in Plate, Furniture, Pictures, antique Vessels, and
Busts, Medals, and Books. Some time ago he purchas’d of the President
_Menard_ the famous Library of the illustrious Messieurs _de Thou_,
formerly one of the most celebrated in _France_; and he daily in-riches
it with all the most curious and uncommon Books and Manuscripts.

Besides all these Expences, the Cardinal intends also to build a new
episcopal Palace at _Strasbourg_[129], where he is indeed but
indifferently lodg’d at present. The Marquiss _de N----_ talking of the
Cardinal _de Rohan_’s Expence, said, _That, to be sure, his Eminency had
found out the Philosopher’s Stone_. I think so too, and that he has done
it by procuring himself five or six hundred thousand Livres a-year in good

From _Saverne_ I went to HAGUENAU, and to WEISSENBOURG, formerly Imperial
Cities, and now subject to _France_, but Places of little consequence.
King _Stanislaus_ after the Death of _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_,
being forc’d to quit _Deux-Ponts_ to which he had retired with his Family,
came and resided at _Weissenbourg_; and here it was that he receiv’d the
first Proposals that were made to him for the Marriage of his Daughter
with King _Lewis_ XV. I came and took up my Quarters at LANDAU, one of the
most scoundrel Places in the World, but the best fortify’d; and famous for
having stood out several Sieges. The Emperor _Joseph_ took it when he was
King of the _Romans_. The _French_ retook it a little before the signing
of the Peace at _Rastadt_, by which Treaty it was left in their hands.
They maintain a good Garison in it, and have added several Works to it.

From _Landau_ I pass’d to BRHOUSEL, with an Intention to pay my respects
to the Cardinal _de Schonborn_ Bishop of _Spire_ who resides there, but I
did not succeed better there than at _Rastadt_; for his Eminency excus’d
himself from seeing me because he was going a hunting, and put me off till
next day; but I did not think it worth while to wait, what had happen’d to
me at the Court of _Baden_ being too fresh in my Memory. I was afraid of
the same Fate at _Brhousel_, where I lay at such sorry Quarters that I
cou’d not avoid catching Cold, my Lodging-Room being without Glass, and be
famish’d into the bargain, there being nothing to eat: Besides, my
Landlord told me that the Cardinal made even those People who came to him
upon Business dance attendance for three or four days. I said to my self
therefore that he had much more reason to make me wait, who came to his
Court out of meer Curiosity. I resolv’d therefore, as any Gentleman ought
to have done in the like case, and took the opportunity of the Cardinal’s
Absence to go and view the outside of his Palace. ’Tis a great Structure
not yet entirely finish’d, which the Cardinal has hitherto carry’d on from
the very Foundation; but if I must be sincere with you, all these Works,
considerable as they are, have been form’d upon pitiful Plans. It has cost
a very large Sum of Money; and I fancy that in the time of the ancient
_Teutonics_, it wou’d have been reckon’d a very fine Structure. The chief
Beauty of it lies in its Situation; for a great Variety of agreeable
Objects are discovered from the Apartments. The Gardens are also so new
that one can scarce know the Plan of ’em; it seems to me that they are not
of an extraordinary Taste, and that they wou’d be much more suitable for a
private Man than for a Sovereign.

The Cardinal _de Schonborn_ is a keen Sportsman. He has Game enough in his
own Bishoprick, for the Country so abounds with all sorts that the Fields
are ruin’d by the Deer. The Peasants are so hard put to it to preserve
their Corn that they are oblig’d to watch it day and night. The Cardinal
often makes Hunting-Matches for the Stag and wild Boar, in which they kill
hundreds; at such times the Peasants are oblig’d to take a certain
quantity of Meat, for which they pay so much a Pound, according to a
Price that is regulated. The Bishoprick of _Spire_ is one of the
fruitfullest Provinces in _Germany_, but the Inhabitants are extremely
poor; for their Provisions lie on their hands, and they have scarce
wherewithal to pay the great Taillies due to their Sovereigns.

The Dignity of the Bishop of _Spire_ is elective, as are all the
Bishopricks of _Germany_ which are not in the hereditary Dominions of the
House of _Austria_. The Bishop is Sovereign of the Country, but the City
of _Spire_ has particular Privileges, as have all the Imperial Cities. You
know it was at _Spire_ that the Emperor _Charles_ V. establish’d the
Imperial Chamber, which is as it were the Parliament of the Empire. The
_French_ having destroy’d _Spire_ when they ravag’d the _Palatinate_, the
Chamber or supreme Tribunal was transferred to _Wetzlar_ in _Wetteravia_,
where indeed it seem’d to be more in the Center of _Germany_, and secur’d
from all manner of Insult.

_Damien-Hugo_ Count _de Schonborn_ Cardinal, is at this present Bishop of
_Spire_, and Co-adjutor of _Constance_. He is also grand Commander of the
Teutonic-Order. He was heretofore a Member of the Emperor’s Privy-Council,
and his Plenipotentiary to the Circle of Lower _Saxony_. _Clement_ XI. of
the _Albani_ Family honour’d him with the Purple. He is descended of a
Family in which Merit has happen’d to be back’d by Fortune. The Cardinal’s
Father was the first Count of it. He was also one of the Emperor’s
Privy-Council, and Brother to _Lotharius-Francis_ Elector of _Mentz_ and
Bishop of _Bamberg_. The Cardinal has actually a Brother who is Elector of
_Triers_, another who is Bishop of _Wurtzbourg_ and _Bamberg_, whom I have
mention’d to you upon other occasions; and lastly, a third who is a
Counsellor of State[130] to the Emperor, and is now the Head of the
Family. Messieurs _de Schonborn_ had formerly an Elector of _Mentz_ in
their Family, who was at the same time Bishop of _Wurtzbourg_, but that
Prince left them no great Estate; so that they were not very rich when
_Lotharius-Francis_, Uncle to them all, was chose Elector of _Mentz_. But
this Prince procur’d them both Wealth and Honours, and render’d the Count
_de Schonborn_, who is Counsellor of State to the Emperor, one of the
richest Noblemen in _Germany_.

From _Brhousel_ to _Heidelberg_ there’s one of the finest Countries in the
World, planted with Fruit, and especially Walnut-Trees, which bring in a
great Revenue.

The City of HEIDELBERG, upon the _Necker_, is very much pent up by that
River, and a Chain of Hills, so that ’tis not near so broad as ’tis long.
This City is the Capital of the Lower _Palatinate_, and was formerly the
Residence of the Electors. Here is a University which was founded in 1346,
by _Robert_ Prince _Palatine_, who was chose King of the _Romans_. No Town
has smarted more by the Scourge of War. Since the Disgrace of _Frederic_
Elector _Palatine_, whom the _Bohemians_ chose for their King, it has been
taken, plunder’d, or burnt four times. In 1622, the Emperor’s General
_Tilly_ put 500 _Palatines_ in it to the Sword, and at the same time the
Emperor carry’d off the famous Library, which he gave in part to _Urban_
VIII. who caused it to be placed in the _Vatican_, where ’tis still to be
seen. In 1634, _Heidelberg_ was besieg’d twice. _John de Werth_ took it
for _Lewis_ XIV. but not being able to carry the Castle he retir’d. Not
many days after, the Marshals _de Force_ and _Brezé_ forc’d the Quarters
of the _Germans_, and took both the Town and Castle. The _French_ took
this City a third time in 1688, and again in 1693, which was the last
time, Sword in hand; at what time they committed Cruelties shocking to
remember, and of which there are woful Marks still left in _Heidelberg_,
and all the Towns in the _Palatinate_. This City was beginning to recover
it self by the Elector’s residing there, when it brought a more heavy
Disgrace upon it self than all the Misfortunes it had suffer’d by the War.
The Case was thus:

The great Church of _Heidelberg_ since the Peace of _Westphalia_ belongs
half to _Roman_ Catholics, and half to the _Calvinists_, of whom the
former have the Choir, and the others the Body, and nothing but a thin
Partition separates the two Communions. The Choir not being big enough to
contain the Catholics when the Court resided at _Heidelberg_, the Elector
propos’d to the _Calvinists_ to yield him the Body of the Church,
alledging that not only the Choir was too scanty, but that he shou’d be
very glad that the Church in which the _Palatine_ Princes lie interr’d
were altogether Catholic. He promis’d at the same time that another Church
should be built for them larger and finer than what they were to yield to
him. The _Calvinists_ said that the great Church had been granted to them
by the Treaty of _Munster_; that all the Princes who were Guarantees of
the Peace of _Westphalia_ were engag’d to preserve them in the enjoyment
of it; that therefore they could not give it up without violating that
Treaty, which was their Security, and without rendring themselves unworthy
of the Protection of the Protestant Powers. The Elector, in order to
remove those Obstacles, consented that the Powers who were Guarantees of
the _Westphalian_ Treaty of Peace, in which the Church he desir’d was
expressly mentioned, should be Guarantees of the Church which he promis’d
should be built for them: But all these Offers how reasonable soever were
not accepted by the _Calvinists_. The Elector being thereby incens’d,
made use of his Sovereign Authority, and took by force what they were not
willing to yield to him; whereupon the _Calvinists_ had recourse to the
Protestant Princes of the Empire, the _Lutherans_ as well as the
_Calvinists_, who constituting but one Body and one Communion when the
Catholics are to be oppos’d, united together, and engag’d in their Quarrel
the Kings of _Great Britain_, _Denmark_, _Sweden_, and _Prussia_, and the
_States-General_. These Powers caused the Catholic Churches in their
Dominions to be shut up, sequester’d the Estates of the Convents, and made
such Clamors and Menaces that the Elector was oblig’d to reinstate the
_Calvinists_ in the Nave of the Church; but he was so angry with the
Inhabitants of _Heidelberg_ for their Disrespect to him that he remov’d
his Residence to _Manheim_. The Burghers were not very sorry at first for
the Departure of the Court; for being accustom’d to its Absence, they
flattered themselves that the Tribunals of the Regency, which, since the
Accession of the _Newbourg_ Family to the Electorate, had constantly been
kept at _Heidelberg_, would remain there still. But they were soon thrown
into the utmost Consternation when they saw those Tribunals follow the
Elector. They went and cast themselves at the Feet of their angry
Sovereign, and asking his Pardon for having affronted him, they offer’d
him the Church which was the cause of his Displeasure, and conjur’d him to
return to their City. But all their Supplications were fruitless; the
Elector was stedfast in his Resolution to punish _Heidelberg_, and
abandon’d it for ever. _Heidelberg_ having no Trade, and subsisting only
by the Court, or by the Tribunals of the Regency, of which it was totally
depriv’d, falls now into decay, and will, no doubt, e’er ’tis long dwindle
to little or nothing.

The Elector’s Palace is higher than the City, and situate in such a manner
that there’s a Prospect from the great Apartments quite through the
Opening between the Mountains, by which the _Necker_ runs into the Plain.
The Palace is built of Free-Stone, and is a magnificent Structure. The
greatest part of it was burnt by the _French_ when they destroy’d the
_Palatinate_: The Lodging-Rooms that are subsisting are very substantial,
tho’ not built in the modern Taste. The Apartments are large, but want
Ornament, especially since they have been stript of their Furniture. The
Gardens were formerly reckon’d the finest in _Germany_; but there’s scarce
any thing left of them except the Place where they flourished. If one may
judge of what they were by their Situation, they must have been very
pleasant, by reason of the extensive Prospect they afforded into the

I do not intend to detain you with an Account of the famous Tun, _Misson_
having given a more exact Description of that than of many Towns which he
treats of. You will in his _Travels_ find a Cut of this Vessel, which will
give you a more perfect Idea of it than any Narrative whatsoever. The
Elector _John-William_, the Predecessor of the present Elector, gave a
Companion to this Tun, which is not altogether so large, but much more
adorn’d. They are both full of Wine. I remember that in 1719, when I was
at the _Palatine_ Court, the Elector ask’d me at Table whether I had seen
the Great Tun; and upon my saying that I had not, that Prince, than whom
there was not a more gracious Sovereign in the whole World, told me he
would carry me to it. He made a Proposal to the Princess his Daughter, who
was marry’d to the hereditary Prince of _Sullzbach_, to go thither after
Dinner was over; which she accepted. The Trumpets led the way, and the
Court followed in great Ceremony. When we had mounted the Platform which
is over the Tun, the Elector did me the honour to drink to me out of the
_Wilkom_, which was a Silver gilt Cup, of a large dimension. He took it
off clean at one Draught, and having caused it to be replenished, sent it
to me by a Page. Good Manners, and the Respect I ow’d to the Elector’s
Commands, not permitting me to refuse the Chalice, I begg’d heartily that
he would suffer me to drink it off at several Draughts; which was indulg’d
me; and the Elector talking in the mean time with the Ladies, I took the
opportunity of his Absence, and made no scruple to deceive him, for I
return’d great part of the Wine to the bottom of the Tun, threw a part of
it on the ground, and the rest, which was the least part of it, I drank. I
thought my self well off that he did not perceive in what manner I bubbled
him; for I saw he was very well pleased with me. Then several other great
Glasses went round, and the very Ladies wet their Lips, which was the
thing that effectually contributed to demolish us. I was one of the first
that was overpower’d. I perceived those convulsive Motions that threaten’d
me if I drank any more, therefore I sneak’d off and made the best of my
way down from the Platform. I was endeavouring to get out of the Vault,
but was stop’d at the Door by two Life-Guard Men, who with their Carabines
crossing each other, cry’d, _Stand, there’s no coming this way_. I
conjur’d them to let me pass, and told them that I had very important
Reasons for my departure; but I might as well have talk’d to the Wind. I
found my self in a terrible Quandary: To get up again to the head of the
Tun was Death: What would become of me I could not tell. In short I crept
under the Tun, and there hoped to hide my self; but it was a fruitless
Precaution: There’s no avoiding a Man’s Destiny. It was my Fate to be
carry’d out of the Vault, and to know nothing of the matter. For the
Elector perceiv’d I was a Deserter, and I heard him say, _Where is he?
What’s become of him? Let him be look’d after, and brought up to me dead
or alive_. The Guards at the Door being examin’d said that I came that way
in order to get out, but that they sent me back again. All these
Inquiries, which I heard from my Hole, made me burrow my self the more. I
crept under the Covert of a couple of Boards I met with by chance, where
nothing but a Cat, Devil, or Page could possibly find me out. But a little
Page, who was indeed both Devil and Page too, ferreted me, and baul’d out
like one that was mad, _Here he is! Here he is!_ and then I was taken out
of my Covert. You may imagine what a silly Figure I made. I was carry’d
before my Judge, who was the Elector himself. But I took the liberty to
challenge both him and all the Gentlemen in his Retinue, as being Parties
in the Cause. _Alas! my little Gentleman_, said the Prince to me, _You
refuse us for your Judges; I will appoint you others then, and we shall
see whether you come off any better_. He nominated the Princess his
Daughter, and her Ladies to try me, and the Elector was my Accuser. After
pleading my own Cause they put it to the Vote, and I was condemn’d
unanimously to drink as long as I could swallow. The Elector said, that as
he was the Sovereign he would mitigate my Sentence; that I should that day
drink four Pint Glasses of Wine, and that for a Fortnight running I should
tip off the like Glass to his Health immediately after Dinner. Every body
admir’d the Elector’s Clemency, and whether I did or not, I was fain to do
as they did, and to return him Thanks. Then I underwent the heaviest part
of my Sentence; I did not lose my Life indeed, but for some Hours I lost
both my Speech and my Reason. I was carry’d to a Bed, where when I came
to my self I was told that my Accusers were in the same pickle as I was;
and that none of them went out of the Vault in the same manner as they
enter’d it. Next day the Elector was so good as to mitigate the remaining
part of my Sentence, and excus’d me from the Penance to which I was
condemn’d, upon my promising him that I wou’d make one at his Table for a
Month to come.

                                                           _I am_, &c.


                               LETTER XX.

  _SIR_,                                    _Manheim, March 17, 1730._

In going from _Heidelberg_ to MANHEIM we leave the _Necker_ on the right
hand, but keep almost all the way by the side of that River. ’Tis three
Leagues from one City to the other, over a fruitful Plain. _Manheim_ lies
between the _Rhine_ and the _Necker_, in a marshy Country, which has
always been reckon’d very unwholesome. About fourscore Years ago this City
was but a Village. _Frederic_ Elector _Palatine_, who was chose King of
_Bohemia_, caus’d it to be fortify’d, and built a Castle or Citadel there,
which he call’d _Fredericsbourg_. At the same time a Town was built, of
which all the Streets run parallel, the chief that passes thro’ the middle
of the Town was planted with Trees after the manner of _Holland_. But the
_French_ having taken _Manheim_ in 1693, raz’d it to the ground, and by
the Treaty of _Nimeguen_ it was stipulated that _Manheim_ should be
demolished; which was done accordingly. _John-William_ of _Newbourg_, the
last Elector, began again to fortify _Manheim_, according to the Plans
laid down by the famous _Cohorn_; but those Works were suspended, so that
no more than two Bastions and a Courtain were finish’d. When the present
Elector _Charles-Philip_ came to live at _Manheim_ he caus’d those Works
to be resumed which his Brother had discontinued, and to be carried on
with such Diligence that in a few Years he put the Place in a state of
Defence[131]. The Fortifications are all fac’d with Brick; and _Manheim_
is now one of the best Places in all _Germany_.

This City has three fine Gates, of which that of the _Necker_ is the most
magnificent, and the best adorned; in which one sees beautiful
Basso-relievos, after a Plan very happily executed. This Gate opens
towards a long and spacious Street, at the end of which stands the
Elector’s Palace, one of the largest and most substantial Buildings in
_Europe_. It were to be wish’d indeed that the Architecture had been more
regular: Never had any Architect more Advantage, for he built it new from
the Foundation, was not stinted for want of room, and as he set no Limits
to his Expence, I should have thought that a masterly hand might have
produc’d something curious. Nevertheless there are Faults in the Building
which are shocking to such as have the least Skill in Architecture;
insomuch that they who have a Taste for that Science are sorry that a
Building which has been so expensive has been no better conducted. The
Situation of this Palace is indeed very fine, at the end of the City, and
of a very noble large Street, which like all the rest runs in a strait
Line. The Palace, which has a great Square before it, consists of a large
number of Lodging-Rooms, with a great high Pavilion in the middle, and two
advanc’d Wings, with ample Pavilions at the ends; where two other very
extensive Wings rise on both sides that are likewise terminated by
Pavilions, behind which there are other Lodging-Rooms. The inside of the
Palace is form’d by two great Courts, which are to be separated by an open
Gallery or Terrass, the Model of which is very much adorned with
Architecture; but I can’t think it will look well when ’tis done. The
Apartments are adorn’d with fine noble Floors and Cielings, and have the
finest Prospect in the World to _Spire_, _Franckendahl_, _Worms_, and all
the Country in general, as far as the Mountains of _Alsace_, which
consists wholly of Towns and Villages. All this fine fruitful Country is
water’d by the _Rhine_, which passes behind the Palace of _Manheim_, and
washes its Fortifications. Upon this beautiful Canal there are to be the
Gardens of the Palace, for which there are intended two Courtains and a

’Tis almost inconceivable how the Elector was able to get all the Works
about _Manheim_ finished in so few Years; for in short I remember to have
seen Partridges where there are now Houses and Palaces. The whole Town is
laid out in a most regular and charming manner; and ’tis without dispute
one of the prettiest Towns in _Europe_. ’Tis pity the Houses are not
higher: The reason they alledge for it is, that _Manheim_ is a fortify’d
Town, and that by consequence the Houses ought to be low. I know not what
Authority there is for this, since _Strasbourg_, _Metz_, _Luxembourg_, and
_Lisle_, are Places of much more Importance than _Manheim_, and yet the
Houses are as high there as they are in other Towns.

The Palace is commodious, and yet, for what reason I know not, the Elector
does not live in it[132]. Some say that he has been told of so many
Faults in it as have quite put him out of conceit with it, and others that
’tis because a certain Astrologer prophesy’d he would die there; but I am
apt to believe that the latter Reason is no more than a Joke, and I dare
to say that the Elector is too wise a Man to credit it. Mean time this
Prince dwells in a House belonging to a _Jew_, to which several other
private Houses are join’d; but for all that the Lodgings are very bad.

There can’t be a better-natur’d Man than _Charles-Philip_ of _Newbourg_,
Elector _Palatine_. He is the best of Masters, and the most affable of
Princes. He is reckoned extremely handsome, and one of the chief Dancers
in his time; and he has a noble Aspect. His Behaviour and Conversation
engage one to love him, and to pay one’s court to him out of pure
Inclination. He formerly was fond of Pomp and Pleasure, but since the loss
of his only Daughter and his Son-in-law, who died within a few Years one
of another, he seems to be no longer taken with what was heretofore his
Amusement. The Elector has been twice marry’d, _viz._ first to
_Louisa-Charlotte_ Princess of _Radzeville_, and secondly to _Theresa
Lubomirski_, both _Polish_ Ladies. The former left him a Daughter that was
marry’d to _Joseph-Charles_ Prince _Palatine_ of _Sultzbach_, but died in
1728; as did her Husband the Year following. This Princess had such Beauty
and Merit, that she was the Comfort of her Father and the Admiration of
her Acquaintance. She left three young Princesses, whom the Elector causes
to be educated at his Court, where they are now all that he has to delight
him; but then they incessantly renew to him the sorrowful Remembrance of a
Daughter who was extremely dear to him.

The Death of that Princess has been a very great Affliction to the
Elector, and chang’d the Face of the _Palatine_ Court. Indeed as to
Affability, and to the Goodness of his Temper, he is still the same
Elector, but he has no longer that Gaiety of Humour which his Daughter’s
Company rais’d in him; for she had a thousand different Amusements for
him, and Pleasures and Merriment every where accompany’d her. The Elector
eats always in private, except on Holidays, and when there’s any foreign
Prince at his Court. After he has been in public at Mass, he commonly
stops in one of his Apartments to chat with the Courtiers, or to play at
Billiards till Dinner-time. After Dinner he goes to Bed, and lies there
two Hours; then he rises, and after having caus’d himself to be dress’d,
he gives Audience to his Ministers, and to such private Persons as want to
talk with him. He is very attentive to those who speak to him, and answers
them with Good-nature and Kindness. He seldom refuses what is in his power
to grant; and when Reasons force him to a denial, ’tis visible that he is
uneasy, and he refuses in so civil a manner, that People go away at least
comforted, if not contented. At six o’clock in the Evening the whole Court
meets in his Electoral Highness’s Apartment, where there is Play till nine
o’clock, and then the Elector retires, makes a very slight Supper, and
goes to Bed in good time.

Tho’ the Elector dines in private there’s always a Table sumptuously
serv’d for the hereditary Prince of _Sultzbach_, Brother to him who was
the Elector’s Son-in-law. This passes for the Elector’s Table, is spread
for eighteen Guests, and is serv’d by Pages.

The Prince _de Sultzbach_ is look’d upon as the Elector’s Heir, because
’tis not supposed that the Elector’s Brother, the Elector of _Mentz_,
would be willing to quit the first Electorate of the Empire, and the
great Benefices which he possesses, to become Elector _Palatine_, if he
should happen to survive his Brother[133]. The Bishop of _Augsbourg_, the
Elector’s second Brother, being a Priest, cannot succeed. The Prince _de
Sultzbach_’s Father is still living; but being as old as the Elector, he
is not like to survive him very long[134]. The Prince _John-Christian_ of
_Sultzbach_ was born in 1700. He is the Widower of the Princess _de la
Tour_ of _Auvergne_, who brought him for her Portion the Sovereignty of
_Bergopzoom_; and left him a Son, who is educated at _Brussels_ with his
Great-Grandmother the Duchess Dowager of _Aremberg_. The Prince
_John-Christian_ is tall and extremely corpulent, insomuch that ’tis well
if he has not the Dropsy. He spent the first Days of his Youth at the
Court of _Lorrain_ in _France_, and in the _Netherlands_, by which Travels
he acquired a great deal of Politeness. He was lately betrothed to
_Eleonora-Philippina_ of _Hesse-Rhinfelds_, Sister to the Princess of
_Piedmont_[135], and to the Duchess of _Bourbon_. This Princess is every
day expected from _Turin_, to which Place she accompanied her Sister.
Their Highnesses will then go and keep their Court at _Heidelberg_[136].

The Principal Noblemen of the _Palatine_ Court are the following:

_Francis-George_ Count of _Manderscheldt-Blanckenheim_[137], the Steward
of the Houshold, Prime Minister, and Knight of the Order of St. _Hubert_.
He is of illustrious Extraction; is a Man of Integrity and very great
Probity, incapable of doing an ill thing, but not at all engaging in his
Deportment; for he is reserved, with an Air of Haughtiness, which is a
Defect that he was born with, and endeavours to conquer, but cannot. When
one knows him intimately he proves a good Friend, and capable of doing one
Service. He has very great Pensions from the Elector, and is the oldest of
his Family, which being pretty numerous, he does not live in a very grand

The Baron _de Sickingen_ is Great Chamberlain, Minister of State, and
Knight of the Order of St. _Hubert_. He is a Gentleman of a fine Presence,
of an easy and engaging Access, with profound Learning, and Sentiments
suitable to his Birth. He was Governor of the late Prince _de Sultzbach_,
Son-in-law to the Elector; and he imprinted such Ideas of Men and Things
in the Mind of that young Prince, as gave great hopes that his Government
would be happy if ever he attain’d to it. M. _de Sickingen_ was afterward
the Elector’s Envoy Extraordinary to the Imperial Court; and I knew him at
_Vienna_ where he was exceedingly beloved. At his return he succeeded his
Brother in the Office of Great Chamberlain, which he exercises with the
Approbation of the whole Court.

_John-Frederic_ Count _de Globe_, is Grand Marshal, Minister of State, and
Knight of the Order of St. _Hubert_. He is very rich, and has a fine
Estate in _Bohemia_. He was once the Elector’s Page, who finding him at
the bottom a Man of Integrity and Honour, took care of his Fortune, gave
him the best Employments at his Court, and raised him to the Dignity of
Count. M. _de Globe_ has been seldom at _Manheim_ for some Years past;
which is a Loss both to Court and City, because he liv’d very nobly, and
more than all, was very civil to Foreigners[138].

The Baron _de Wohlin_ is Master of the Horse[139]. He is one of those Men
in whom we meet with that Candor and Probity so much boasted by our

The Count _de la Tour_ and _Taxis_ is Captain of the Life-Guards,
Lieutenant-General, and Knight of the Order of St. _Hubert_. His Carriage
seems blunt and proud, yet he is familiar with those that are in his
Confidence. He has considerable Credit at Court, owing to his Sister’s
being so long in favour with the Elector.

_Julius Augustus_ Count _de la Marck_, Lieutenant-General, Captain of the
hundred _Swissers_, and Knight of St. _Hubert_, is descended of an
illustrious Family in the Empire. He spent part of his Youth in the
Service of _France_, where his eldest Brother is now actually a
Lieutenant-General, Colonel of a foreign Regiment, and a Commander of the
Order of the _Holy Ghost_. He has learnt all the _French_ Politeness; his
Behaviour resembles the Man of Quality; his Temper is gay, and he loves
good Cheer, Joy and Pleasures.

The Count _Egmont de Hatzfeldt_ Lieutenant-General, Minister of State, and
Secretary at War, comes from one of the best Families in the Empire, This
Nobleman is extraordinary civil; his House is open to all Persons of
Distinction; he lives very nobly, and both his Lady and himself are very
fond of entertaining Foreigners. They were both intrusted to conduct to
_Piedmont_ the Princess of _Sultzbach_ first Wife to _Charles_ Prince of
_Piedmont_[140], and discharged their Employments in such a manner that
they had the general Approbation of the _Sardinian_ Court.

The Barons of _Hildesheim_ and _Beveren_ are both Ministers of State. The
former acquired a very great Reputation in the Negotiations that were
carry’d on at _Heidelberg_ in 1719, for the Church of the _Calvinists_
which the Elector had a mind shou’d be Catholic. The second has been Envoy
to the King of _Great Britain_. They are both to be valued for their
Merit, live very honourably, and make Foreigners welcome.

I could tell you of many other Persons of Birth and Merit employ’d at this
Court, but really my Letter would be too tedious. Nevertheless I cannot
omit the mention of the Baron _d’Obsten_, whom you saw at _Breslau_, after
he had quitted the Service of the _Czar_. He is settled here, but has no
Character. He and all his Family are become of our Communion. He has a
considerable Pension from the Elector, and is generally very well
esteem’d. His Son, who is a Captain, is a young Gentleman of Merit, and
his Daughters are young Ladies highly to be esteem’d for their good
Behaviour and Politeness.

The Count _de Nassau-Weilbourg_ lives here also. His Birth would engage me
to give you an Account of him tho’ I were not induc’d to it by the
Consideration of his Merit. This Nobleman has an infinite share of it; he
is generous, magnificent, genteel, and civil, knowing what Family he is
descended from; but knowing it for no other reason than to discharge all
the Obligations of it. He is the Ornament of this Court, tho’ he is not in
the Service of the Elector. His Father was Velt-Marshal, and Commander in
Chief of the _Palatine_ Troops during the Reign of the late Elector _John
William_. The Count I am speaking of was Envoy Extraordinary from the
Elector to the Court of _France_ during the Minority of _Lewis_ XV. He
then went often to the Royal Palace to pay his court to the Regent’s
Mother, and there it was that I knew him; for that Lady and the whole
Court of France had a very great Value for him. That Princess speaking of
him one day to me, said she was very glad that he was a Count of _Nassau_;
for indeed, said she, he deserves to bear a great Name[141].

There are amiable People here of both Sexes who are very sociable, so that
’tis a Stranger’s own fault if he misses of Amusement here; for such are
generally treated very civilly. As for my own part, I have received so
many Courtesies from the Elector, and so many Favours from his Court that
I shall for ever acknowledge them.

The Nobility maintain a Company of _French_ Comedians who act three times
a Week upon a very little Theatre, but both the Townsmen and Foreigners
pay. Tho’ this Company, of which the Count _de la Marck_ has the
Direction is not the best, yet ’tis a pleasure to go to it for the sake of
seeing Company. In the time of the late Princess there were a thousand
Pleasures which there are not now, so that her Death is still lamented.

The Elector’s Revenues are reckon’d at two Millions of Crowns. You may
rate them more or less, ’tis no matter; for my own part, I affirm nothing,
being not willing to imitate the Marquis _de Breton-Villiers_, who in his
Memoirs of the Regency values the Revenues of all the Princes of the
Universe with as much assurance as if he had been Superintendant of every
one’s Finances. The Elector has about 7 or 8000 Soldiers, exclusive of his
Guards. His best Places are _Manheim_, _Juliers_, and _Dusseldorp_. The
three Religions tolerated in the Empire have Churches here, and the _Jews_
a large Synagogue. They are very numerous at this Place, and two thirds of
the Houses belong to them, as being either built by them, or mortgag’d to
’em. Some of them are very rich, and drive a great Trade with the _Jews_
at _Meiz_, _Frankfort_ and _Amsterdam_. ’Tis certain that they do a great
injury to the Christian Merchants, and that they are not honester here
than elsewhere.

Don’t write to me, if you please, before I have sent you my Direction,
because I know not whether I shall stay long enough at _Frankfort_, to
which some Affairs call me, to receive your Letters.

Just now we hear of the Death of Pope _Benedict_ XIII. As I never saw a
Conclave, and am in the Humour of Travelling, I have an inclination to
take a tour to _Rome_. I shall not resolve on it till I come to
_Frankfort_. Which way soever I go you shall be inform’d, and I will not
fail to desire your Commands. Mean time I am always very sincerely, _&c._


                              LETTER XXI.

  _SIR_,                                  _Frankfort, March 21, 1730._

At my Departure from _Manheim_ I pass’d the _Rhine_ over a Bridge of
Boats, and in three Hours time arrived at FRANCKENDAHL, which was formerly
fortified, but after having suffered by the general Conflagration in the
_Palatinate_, was dismantled by the Peace of _Nimeguen_, and so it has
remained ever since. It still bears the Marks of _French_ Fury; and a
great many Houses that were burn’d have not been rebuilt.

There’s the finest Country in the World between _Franckendahl_ and WORMS.
I came hither at ten o’clock in the Morning, and spent the rest of the
Forenoon in seeing what was most remarkable. _Worms_ is not the Place now
that it was before the _French_ burn’d it. Its most wealthy Inhabitants
instead of rebuilding their Houses, retir’d to _Frankfort_ and _Holland_,
so that the Chapter of _Worms_, which is wholly compos’d of Persons of
Quality, is now the chief Glory of the Town. The Bishop of it is the
Elector[142] of _Mentz_, who was chose _July_ 12, 1694. This Prince has
built a new Episcopal Palace, the Contrivance of which is beautiful. It
joins to the Cathedral which is ancient, and built very substantially. The
_Lutherans_ have just built a fine Church, the Roof of which is painted.
In several Compartiments there’s the History of _Luther_’s pretended
Reformation. That Doctor is there represented as appearing before the Dyet
of the Empire which met at _Worms_ _An._ 1521. You know that he was cited
to it by the Emperor _Charles_ V. His Friends, to dissuade him from
appearing, put him in mind of _John Huss_, who notwithstanding the
Safe-Conduct that had been granted him by the Emperor _Sigismond_, was
burnt by a Decree of the Council of _Constance_. _Luther_, without being
intimidated, said, that _tho’ he was sure to be engag’d with as many
Devils as there were Tiles upon the Houses of +Worms+, he was resolv’d to
go_. He went thither accordingly, and appear’d the 17th of _April_ before
the Dyet, where he offer’d, with a Courage deserving a better Cause, to
maintain his Doctrine and his Writings against all that should go about to
demolish them from the Holy Scriptures.

The City of _Worms_ stands in the middle of a fine spacious Plain,
abounding with Corn, Vineyards, and Fruit-Trees. A Wine is produced here
which is call’d _Lieben-Frauen-Milch_, i. e. _Our Lady’s Milk_. The
_Rhine_ is about three or four hundred Paces from the Town, but ’tis said
it formerly ran close by the Walls of it. Which way soever one comes to
_Worms_, one perceives at a great Distance the four Towers of the
Cathedral which are all built of red Freestone. Two drunken Fellows
mistook those Towers one day for Capuchin Fryars. Being in the Country at
a pretty good Distance from the Town, as the Sun was going down, one of
them said to his Comrade, _We have no Time to lose, the Gates are going to
be shut.--No matter_, said the other, pointing to the Towers; _Don’t you
see those Capuchins there before us? They are of the Town, and are
going thither as well as we. You are in the right_, reply’d the former,
_let us drink the good Fryar’s Health_. They had a Gourd Bottle full of
Wine, of which they drank every Drop, so that they did not overtake the
imaginary Capuchins till next Day.

There is not a finer Country than that between _Worms_ and OPPENHEIM, a
little Town upon an Eminence, on the left Side of the _Rhine_, to which we
pass over a flying Bridge. The Road from _Oppenheim_ is unpassable for
near two Leagues, because ’tis commonly overflown by that River; but
afterwards the Way is perfectly good to _Frankfort_. ’Twas very late when
I came to this City, but by good luck the People of _Frankfort_ who
formerly shut their Gates at Sun-set have lately chose to keep them open
till ten o’clock, so that for paying a Trifle one may enter the Town.

I know not whether I need give any Account of the City of FRANKFORT. It
has been so often describ’d, and is so well known to the World, that I
fancy every body knows what sort of Town it is, tho’ they have not seen
it. _Frankfort_ is famous for its two yearly Fairs, _viz._ at _Easter_ and
_Michaelmas_. It suffer’d much by a great Fire in 1619, but the whole has
been since rebuilt, and the Houses are finer than before. There are few
Places upon the whole more disagreeable, and few Towns in _Germany_ where
the Common People are more unpolish’d. The Burghers are not to be match’d
for Affectedness, and their Conversation is insupportable. The Magistrates
are all _Lutherans_; nevertheless the principal Churches belong to the
Catholics. The _Calvinists_ may live in the Town, but cannot hold any
Employments, and are oblig’d to go for Worship to _Bockenheim_ in the
County of _Hanau_, and to cause their Children to be baptiz’d in the
_Lutheran_ Churches. The great Church in which the Ceremony of the
Emperor’s Coronation is perform’d is dark, and by no means proper for such
an august Solemnity. You know that _Aix la Chapelle_ is properly the Place
set apart for the Coronation of our Emperors, and _Frankfort_ for their
Election. But since _Maximilian_ I. no Emperor has been crown’d at _Aix_.
_Frankfort_ being situate in the Centre of the Empire is much more
commodious for all the Princes, but particularly for the Spiritual
Electors and for the Elector Palatine, who may send for their Equipages by
Water and return them back by the same Convenience. When _Charles_ VI. was
crown’d at _Frankfort_ in 1711, there was an extraordinary Concourse of
Princes and Noblemen. Certain speculative Gentlemen made two Remarks on
this Occasion, from which they presag’d two Things. The one was, that the
Emperor made his Entrance into this City in close Mourning for the Emperor
_Joseph_ his Brother; whereupon they said that _Charles_ wore Mourning
because he foresaw that he should be the last Emperor of his Family. The
second was, that as _Charles_ return’d from the Church invested with all
the Marks of Sovereignty, _Charlemain_’s Sword had like to have dropp’d
out of the Scabbard; which the Elector of _Triers_ of the _Lorrain_ Family
observing, catch’d hold of the Sword, and put it in again before it was
quite fallen out of the Scabbard. Upon this, the same Calculators of
Nativities said it was an Omen that the Emperor would never have a quiet
Reign, and that he would always be in a Situation that would oblige him to
draw his Sword for his Defence[143].

As to Persons of great Distinction at _Frankfort_, they are very few. The
Chief are the Princess-Dowager of _Nassau-Ousingen_, born Princess of
_Lovestein_; the Count _de Degenfeldt_ (_Schomberg_)[144] Major-General of
the King of _Prussia_’s Forces, and a Commander of the Order of the _Black
Eagle_; and finally, Madame _la Raugrave_[145] Daughter of _Charles-Lewis_
Elector Palatine: She is the last of the Blood of the Protestant
_Palatine_ Princes. The Senate of _Frankfort_, in consideration of her
great Age, and in respect to her Birth, has granted her the Liberty of
keeping a _Calvinist_ Chaplain to preach in her own House. Sometimes the
Prince _de la Tour_ and _Taxis_[146] Hereditary Post-Master of the Empire
resides at _Frankfort_. His House is a great Relief to Foreigners. His
Princess[147] is a Lady of very great Merit, and has the Soul and
Sentiments of a Queen. In the Houses of the Persons that I have mention’d
there’s an Assembly of both Sexes every Evening; but take them one with
another they are very thin except at the Fairs, when there’s a vast Resort
of Nobility and Gentry. Most of the Electors and Princes of the Empire
have their Agents at _Frankfort_, to whom they give the Title of
Residents; but those Gentlemen are not a jot the more respected for it,
most of them being Merchants of the City of _Frankfort_ it self, who
sollicit the Title in order to be exempt from the Authority of the Senate,
and from the Payment of the Customs, and to qualify themselves to place
over their Doors the Arms of the Princes to whom they send the

The Count _de Degenfeldt_ makes such a Figure here that he deserves a more
particular mention. He is a Nobleman of good Extraction. He is a Native of
the _Palatinate_, and spent his Youth in the Service of the Elector
Palatine. He was at that Time a _Calvinist_, but turn’d Catholic. Some
Years after, he was reconcil’d to his former Communion, and married in
_England_ a Cousin of his, the Daughter of the Duke _de Schomberg_, with
whom he had a very great Estate. He has also a considerable Expectancy
from Madame _la Raugrave_ a _Palatine_, his Aunt[148]. The Relation of M.
_de Degenfeldt_ to this Lady, brings to my Mind the History of the Mother
of Madame _la Raugrave_, who as I have observ’d was a _Degenfeldt_. I have
chose to give it you from what was told me by the late Madame of _France_,
and from very good Memoirs that have been put into my hands. I have plac’d
this History as a Transaction in the Time of the ancient _Germans_; and as
I design’d to insert it in a Work which I have undertaken, for want of
something else to employ my Time, I chuse to do it by way of a Discourse
from Madame the late Electress of _Hanover_ to her Daughter-in-law. I
herewith send you the entire History, and at the End of it you will find
the Key. As I fancy you are quite disengag’d in the Country, I don’t
apprehend that the reading of it will be Loss of your Time. I rather fear
you won’t like it; but in either case ’twill be your own Fault; I don’t
force you to read; you may if you please let _Gertrude_ alone.

                _History of GERTRUDE a +Marcoman+ Lady._

The History of _Gertrude_, of which I propose to give you, my Princess, a
Relation, is properly the History of the Extinction of my Family; for the
fatal Passion of my Brother King _Malcolm_ for that Lady, is in all
appearance the Reason that there are no more left in my Family than three
Princesses[149], and my self.

There was such a Harmony in Sentiments betwixt my Brother and me, that it
united us in the strictest Friendship. We had been brought up together in
_Belgium_[150], where the King my Father had been oblig’d to take refuge,
that he might be nearer at hand to receive Succours from _Alfred_ King of
_Albion_, Father of the Queen my Mother, against the _Romans_, who after a
long and bloody War had turn’d him out of his Dominions. That King amus’d
him a long while with fair Promises; but the Misunderstanding which there
was at that time between him and the States of his Kingdom, added to a
certain Indolence in his natural Temper, hinder’d him from seeing the
Effect of them; and the King my Father did not live long enough to be
witness of the Peace which the _Romans_ were at length oblig’d by his
Allies to conclude. This was not an advantageous Peace for _Malcolm_ my
Brother, because in order to obtain it he was oblig’d to yield a part of
his Dominions to the Prince of the[151]_Boyens_, an Ally of the _Romans_,
and upon these Terms he was left in quiet possession of the rest.

When my Brother saw himself establish’d on the Throne, he thought of
marrying. His Ministers propos’d the Princess of the _Catti_ as the
fittest Match for him, and assur’d him that besides her illustrious
Extraction he could not marry a more beautiful Princess, or one of a
better Temper. My Brother who only alter’d his Condition for Reasons of
State, was willing enough to follow their Advice, and accordingly espous’d
her. The Marriage at first prov’d very happy; the Queen his Wife had her
share of Beauty, and tho’ her Temper was very different from what it had
been represented to my Brother, yet she so cunningly disguis’d it for some
time that this Prince thought himself very happy in his Choice. But their
Agreement was of a short Duration; the Queen’s true Humour soon discover’d
it self: It appear’d that she was ill-natur’d, and intolerably
high-spirited; of an odd sullen Temper, always ready to contradict, and
frequently subject to Chagrin, of which she herself knew not the Cause,
and which she vented upon all that approach’d her without distinction. The
King my Brother was of a Temper quite the reverse: He lov’d Diversions,
was civil, affable, naturally gay, beneficent; and I don’t speak it out of
Partiality in favour of a Brother whose Memory is still dear to me, but
I’ll be bold to say, that if he had not been quite so choleric, he would
have been the most accomplish’d Prince of his Time. Nevertheless he bore
with his Wife’s ill Humours very patiently at first, and endeavour’d to
reclaim her by gentle Usage; but when he saw that all the Pains he took
were to no purpose, he resolv’d at length to seek out some other

The Beauty of _Gertrude_, Maid of Honour to the Queen his Wife, had for a
long time smitten him, but hitherto he had only discover’d his Passion to
her by his Glances, for fear of disgusting the Queen. _Gertrude_ who
perceiv’d that my Brother did not look upon her with Indifference,
affected to shun every Opportunity that Prince might take of revealing his
Love to her. But Fortune favour’d my Brother, who being one day with his
Queen in her Apartment, when the Discourse fell upon Jewels, perceiv’d
that the Princess had left off wearing a certain Bracelet of which he had
made her a Present, and asking her what she had done with it, the Queen
told him that she believ’d she had laid it up in a Casket of which she had
the Key in her Pocket. She made one of her Maids fetch it, and open’d it,
but the Bracelet was not there, at which she seem’d uneasy. This my
Brother observ’d, and taking a Pleasure in making her more uneasy, he said
to her, tho’ in a manner that shew’d he did not think as he spoke, that
she had undoubtedly some Gallant in a Corner, to whom she had either given
that Bracelet, or who had stole it from her. These Words, tho’ deliver’d
in jest, made a deep Impression upon the Queen, and as it was her Nature
soon to take fire, she was stung to the quick at what he had said, and
forgetting the Respect she ow’d to the King her Husband, was in such a
Passion with him that she let fall some Words that were very affronting.
My Brother who was naturally mettlesome and fiery, and far from expecting
any such Treatment, made her answer, that if she continued to forget
herself after that manner, he would find ways and means to humble her.
Upon this he went out of the Room abruptly, and passing through the
Antichamber, met the fair _Gertrude_. Such was his Disgust that instead of
being upon the reserve as he had been, he had a long Conversation with
her, and found her so sprightly and good-natur’d that he was compleatly
charm’d with her. He declar’d his Love to her, and she was so artful that
tho’ she gave him no Hopes, yet she did not rebuff him.

When my Brother was retir’d, _Gertrude_ went into the Apartment of the
Queen her Mistress, who plac’d her whole Confidence in her. That Princess
no sooner saw her but she made a thousand Complaints of the King’s
Treatment of her. _Gertrude_ seem’d to sympathize in her Resentment, and
believing that the Queen could not fail to know that the King had talk’d
with her in the Antichamber, she told her that the Prince having met her
in her Passage gave her an angry Account of what had passed; and that she
had done all she could to pacify him, but to no purpose: At the same time
she blam’d the King’s Proceeding; and encourag’d by the Liberty which the
Queen gave her, told her that if she who was but a private Gentlewoman was
so treated by any Husband, she would never pardon him tho’ he were a King.
She added several other Sayings which instead of pacifying this silly
Queen, did but exasperate her the more.

In the mean time, _Malcolm_, who was impatient to know the Success of his
Amour, wrote a Letter to _Gertrude_ which he sent her by one of his chief
Domestics, together with a rich Diamond Equipage. But the artful
_Gertrude_ whose Aim was to draw on his Passion, rather than to gratify
it, was far from yielding to his first Attacks, and sent him back the
Diamonds, tho’ with a modest and respectful Answer, wherein she desir’d
him to talk no more to her of Love. My Brother was too deeply smitten to
be repuls’d; he doubled his Presents, was assiduous, and eager in his
Courtship; and as ’tis very rare for a King of his amiable Personage to
meet with long Resistance, _Gertrude_ abated of her Shyness by degrees,
and at length discovered that she was not insensible of Love. Their
Correspondence which did not exceed the Bounds of Honour, was kept secret
for a considerable time, but made the greater Blaze when it was known.
_Malcolm_ being one day with his Wife, happen’d, without perceiving it, to
drop a Letter which the Queen took up, and found to be the Hand-writing of
_Gertrude_. The Letter being written in _Latin_ made the Queen the more
curious to know what was in it; and she gave it to her Cousin, Prince
_Valamir_, desiring him to unfold the Contents of it to her. This Prince
was so unwise as to satisfy her Curiosity, and acquainted her that
_Gertrude_ by this Letter assur’d the King that he had gain’d her Heart.
You will easily imagine how much the Queen was ruffled when she heard of
this Intrigue: She could not contain herself; and without giving ear to
the Arguments made use of by _Valamir_, she ran immediately to
_Gertrude_’s Apartment in the Palace, who by good luck was gone abroad.
The Queen thinking her Casket was in _Gertrude_’s Closet caused it to be
broke open, and finding it there, open’d it, and took out all the Letters,
of which several that appear’d to be from the King her Husband left her no
room to doubt of that Prince’s extraordinary Passion for _Gertrude_, and
of the Intimacy there was between them. My Brother was quickly inform’d of
what the Queen had been doing, but conceal’d his Uneasiness, shew’d his
Wife no manner of Resentment, and only sent a Caution to _Gertrude_ not to
return to the Palace. _Malcolm_’s Silence deceiv’d the Queen, who indeed
was not a Lady of very great Penetration, so that she flatter’d herself
the King might possibly be ignorant of the Outrage she had committed; and
upon this Supposition she thought it her best way to dissemble her Hatred
and Wrath against _Gertrude_. She pretended therefore to be very uneasy
for fear of what had happen’d to her, caus’d a Search to be made for her
several days, and seem’d very much dejected at her Absence. She hoped by
all these Demonstrations of Friendship to decoy her back to the Palace, in
order then to be compleatly reveng’d of her.

Thus Matters stood when the King of the _Suevi_, the Brother-in-law of the
Queen my Sister-in-law, came to Court with the Queen his Wife. This Prince
having observ’d the Queen’s Melancholy on several occasions, ask’d her the
reason of it one day as they sate at Table. ‘You must not be surpriz’d,
said _Malcolm_, to see the Queen my Wife out of temper; ’tis her common
Infirmity, and very often she her self knows not the cause of it. My
Ailment is but too real (reply’d the Queen in a great Pet;) and (then
addressing herself to her Husband) said she, it does not at all become you
whose dishonourable Amours have been the only Cause of my Disorder, to
insinuate as if it were but imaginary.’ This Answer made in so public a
manner, so nettled my Brother that he turn’d pale for meer Vexation, and
not being able to curb his Passion, forgot his Dignity so far as to strike
her; upon which the unfortunate Princess rose from Table, and retir’d in
Tears to her own Apartment. My Brother, whose Passion was always as soon
over as it was easily kindled, was sorry in a very few moments after for
what he had done, made his Excuses to the King and Queen of the _Suevi_,
and rising from Table, went with them to his Wife’s Apartment, where he
ask’d her pardon for what had pass’d. This Atonement, which the Queen did
not expect so soon, touch’d her to the quick: The King and she embrac’d
each other, and exchang’d their Promises to forget as well as to forgive
every Offence. But would you believe it? that fickle, fantastical Creature
my Sister-in-law chang’d her mind all on a sudden, and when her Husband
came in the Evening with an intention to spend the Night with her, she
absolutely refus’d to let him bed with her unless he would resolve to
deliver up _Gertrude_ to her. _Malcolm_, who was still asham’d at what he
had done in his last Fury, receiv’d so violent a Proposition with more
Patience than he would have done upon another Occasion. He endeavour’d by
fair Words to pacify his Wife, assuring her that nothing criminal had ever
pass’d between him and _Gertrude_, and that tho’ he had corresponded with
the Girl by Letters, it was not out of any Love he had for her, so much as
to know whether it was true that she wrote as good _Latin_ as he had been
told she did. Tho’ this Speech of his was not very probable, yet as People
are easily inclin’d to believe what they wish to be true, the Queen
suffer’d herself to be at last persuaded, and was reconciled to her
Husband without insisting any farther on the Sacrifice she at first

The Emperor being come to spend some Time at _Pluibourg_, summon’d an
Assembly thither of the Princes of the Empire. My Brother went thither
with the Queen his Wife; but the Consequence was that they were more
embroil’d than ever; and my Sister-in-law was so unadvised as to let
_Cæsar_ and his Court be Witnesses of certain Brawls, which for her own
Interest as well as her Husband’s, she ought to have carefully confin’d
within the Limits of her own Houshold. ’Tis true that my Brother had no
very great Respect for her, and he lov’d _Gertrude_ more than ever. Being
hindred by a slight Indisposition from going to _Montpayen_ where he kept
her at one of his Houses, not a Day pass’d but he sent an Express to know
how she did, and the Queen’s ill Temper, who no doubt had better have
try’d good-natur’d Methods to reclaim him, only incens’d him against her,
and made him the fonder of _Gertrude_.

The Assembly of the Princes of _Germany_ being over, and the Emperor
return’d to _Rome_, my Brother set out for _Montpayen_ the Capital of his
Kingdom, and gave orders for his Queen to follow him next Day. But for a
Reason which I never could dive into, the Princess instead of obeying him
stay’d a Month longer at _Pluibourg_, without vouchsafing to let the King
her Husband know the Reason of her delay; and not only so, but when she
came to _Montpayen_, she had the Assurance to go with a bold Face to her
Husband’s Apartment, without knowing how he would take it: But the Prince
who had just Reason to be angry, foreseeing that she was like enough to
take such a step, had given orders to refuse her Entrance; wherefore she
was oblig’d to retire to her Apartment, whither a Captain of the Guards
came in a Moment after, to tell her from the King that she was a Prisoner.

This unhappy Princess bore her Disgrace very weakly. She repented, but too
late, of having been so imprudent as to contravene the Orders of the King
her Husband; and hoping to work upon his Good-nature, she wrote him a most
submissive Letter, begging his pardon for her Disobedience, and intreating
him to restore her to her Liberty. My Brother sent her an Answer, wherein
he only gave her the Title of the Princess of _Cattia_. He told her, ‘that
having consider’d the Disagreement there was betwixt his Temper and her’s,
he resolved to be divorc’d from her, and that she would do well herself to
give her Consent to it; which if she did with a good Grace, he would
restore her to her Liberty and settle a Revenue on her suitable to her

This Answer was a Thunder-stroke to my Sister-in-law; she rav’d and tore
like a mad Woman. She was for a long while like one out of her Senses, but
recovering them at length by the help of her Women, and consulting with
those that had the greatest share of her Confidence, she sent the King
word that he was Master, and might make use of his Authority, but that
she would never consent to the Divorce.

My Brother who had fix’d his Resolution, and saw no other way to get
possession of _Gertrude_ than by marrying that Girl who had presum’d to
set so high a Price upon her Favours, took off the Mask, notify’d his
Design to the Court, and in a few days after, the Marriage was perform’d
in the manner that you know is practis’d in _Germany_ by Princes who marry
beneath themselves, which excludes the Children by such _Venter_ from
succeeding to the Father’s Estate. As soon as he was marry’d, he restor’d
the Queen to her Liberty, and acquainted her, ‘That by the Advice and
Consent of the Priests of his Kingdom whom he had caused to be assembled,
he had marry’d _Gertrude_. That the Thing being done and past remedy, he
hoped she would resolve to make her self easy. That however, he would
always treat her as a Princess; that she should be welcome to continue in
her Apartment at the Palace; that she should have her Guards to attend
her, and that he had set apart a sufficient Fund for her Maintenance; but
that he expected she would be so complaisant as to acknowledge _Gertrude_
hereafter for the lawful Queen.’

My Sister-in-law who then saw that her Disgrace was infallible, gave her
self up to Complaints and Tears, wrote to the King her Husband in the most
moving Language, and implor’d the assistance of the King her Brother: But
all was to no purpose; she was oblig’d to submit to her Misfortune, and to
be patient under an Affliction which she had partly brought upon her self
by her Folly.

While all this pass’d, my Brother was at one of his Seats not far[152]
from his Capital, where he caus’d _Gertrude_ to be treated as a Queen,
and not long after carried her to _Montpayen_ where the sight of her
Royalty was a fresh Mortification to the Queen my Sister-in-law. However,
the unfortunate Princess not yet despairing of the means of reclaiming her
Husband, was resolv’d to make the last Attempt to turn that Prince’s
Heart. She dress’d herself in the most gay and rich Apparel that she could
get, and taking her Children along with her, went to meet the King her
Husband in the Room next to the Hall where he was at Table with
_Gertrude_, and thro’ which he must necessarily return. When he appear’d,
she threw herself with her Children at his Feet, clasp’d his Knees,
conjur’d him with Tears in her Eyes to look with Pity on an unhappy
Princess whom he had formerly thought fit to make his Wife, and to
consider that the Affront he put upon her by divorcing her, would be a
Reproach to those very Children of whom he had been so fond. My Brother
seem’d to be melted at so moving a Spectacle, look’d for some Moments on
his Wife and Children with Tears in his Eyes, and he was just ready to
raise her from the Ground, when _Gertrude_ who was at his Heels, fearing
what might be the Consequence of the Confusion that she saw him in, talk’d
earnestly to him in the _Tuscan_ Language, saying, _Remember_, my Lord,
_what you promis’d me_. These few Words wrought so much on the unsteady
Mind of my Brother that he only lifted up his Hands to Heaven and went on,
shewing by the Trouble he was under, how little he was Master of his
Reason upon this Occasion. The Queen my Sister-in-law remain’d for a while
speechless, but Fury and Despair quickly seiz’d her Soul. She rose up and
ran into her Closet, where snatching up a Dagger[153] she came back again
with an Intention to stick it into her Rival’s Heart. But the Rage she
was in having so confounded her that she had not a Thought of concealing
that Instrument of her Revenge, it was perceiv’d by one of the chief
Courtiers who pluck’d it from her just as she was going into the Closet
where my Brother was with _Gertrude_. That Prince hearing a Noise so near
him ran out, and demanded what was the matter. ’Tis I, (said the Queen
very couragiously) ‘who was coming to revenge my self and you too on the
Monster which disunites us; but that Traytor there (said she, pointing to
the Man that had wrested the Dagger out of her Hands) has depriv’d me of
the only Opportunity that I could call a Pleasure.--Princess, (said the
King to her very calmly) don’t indulge your self any longer in such
extravagant Passions, if you are unwilling that I should use you roughly.’
Then he retir’d with _Gertrude_, and my Sister-in-law return’d to her
Apartment in a Temper which you may easily imagine.

_Clodius_, who now governs the Empire, being at that time proclaim’d
Emperor, this Princess made her Complaints to him, and desir’d him to
reconcile _Malcolm_ to her. But _Cæsar_ having excus’d himself, my
Sister-in-law who could no longer bear the Presence of her Rival, retir’d
to the King her Brother, there to wait the End of her Misfortunes. My
Brother liv’d afterwards very lovingly with his new Spouse, and had by her
four Sons and as many Daughters. But Death having at last robb’d him of a
Person so dear to him, the Prince was so afflicted for the Loss of her,
that he spent two Years in continual Sorrow, and at length himself paid
the same Tribute to Nature.

He left but one Son and a Daughter by his lawful Spouse who surviv’d him
some Years. The King my Nephew was marry’d, but he was of such a
melancholy Temper, his Humour was so different from the Queen’s, and there
was so little Love betwixt them, that he died without Issue. With him I
have seen my Family utterly extinct, its Dominions transferr’d to the
Power of a Prince who is hardly related to us, and my Country abandon’d to
the most dismal Desolation. For my Niece having marry’d _Meroveus_,
Brother to _Ariovisto_ King of the _Gauls_, the latter who is an ambitious
Prince and goes to War upon every the least Pretence, asserted the Rights
of his Sister-in-law without Delay, and pleading that she ought to succeed
to the Inheritance of the King her Brother, notwithstanding the _Salic_
Law establish’d in _Germany_, he sent a formidable Army into the Dominions
of my deceased Nephew, where the _Gauls_ at first meeting with no
Resistance, committed enormous Cruelties, and extended their Fury even to
the Violation of the Tomb of the Kings my Ancestors, whose dead Bodies
were stripp’d and exposed to the Caprice of the unruly Soldiers:
Calamities, which perhaps would never have happen’d, had it not been for
my Brother’s fatal Passion for _Gertrude_; because in all Appearance if he
had liv’d in a good Understanding with his lawful Spouse; he would have
had more Children by her, and I would not have had the Vexation to see the
Throne of my Fathers posses’d by a foreign Family.

                   _KEY to the History of GERTRUDE_.

  _Albion_, England.
  _Alfrede I._ James I. _King of_ England.
  _Ariovisto_, Lewis XIV.
  _Belgium_, Holland.
  _Boyens, (Prince of) the Elector of_ Bavaria.
  _Catti, (Princess of) the Princess of_ Hesse-Cassel.
  _Cæsar, the_ Emperor.
  _Clodius, the Emperor_ Leopold.
  _Germania_, Germany.
  _Gertrude, the Baroness of_ Degenfeldt.
  _Malcolm_, Charles-Lewis _Elector_ Palatine.
  _Meroveus_, Philip _of_ France, _Duke of_ Orleans, _Brother to_
      Lewis XIV.
  _Montpayen_, Heidelberg.
  _Pluibourg_, Ratisbon.
  _Romans, the_ Imperialists.
  _Rome_, Vienna.
  _Suevi, (King of) the Margrave of_ Baden-Dourlach.

                   _End of the History of_ Gertrude.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have not scrupled to give you this History, because all the Persons who
are Subjects of it are dead. I wrote it very much in haste, for the
Diversion of the Princess _d’A----_, so that you must not be surpriz’d if
you don’t meet with all that Exactness which there ought to be in this
little Narrative; tho’ I must tell you again that every Tittle of it is
true, so that you may read it as a History, and not as a Romance.

I have fix’d my Resolution, and now am setting out for _Rome_; therefore
please to direct to me at _Venice_. I go to-morrow to a great
Hunting-Match that is to be at _Darmstadt_, where I shall stay two Days:
From thence I shall go and spend two more with the Count _de Hanau_; and
then will I begin my Pilgrimage to the Holy Places. I am most entirely,



                              LETTER XXII.

  _SIR_,                                      _Munich, April_ 2, 1730.

Since you received my last I have done and seen a great many Things. On
the 23d of _March_ I set out from _Frankfort_ for DARMSTADT, the Capital
of the upper County of _Catzenellenbogen_, and the Residence of
_Ernest-Lewis_ Landgrave of _Hesse-Darmstadt_[154].

This Town is extremely small, and only enclosed with Pallisadoes. If the
Prince’s Palace had been finish’d according to its Model, it would have
been one of the greatest and most magnificent in _Europe_, and there might
have been Lodgings for the Emperor, and all the nine Electors of the
Empire. It would have been bigger than the Town, and have cost immense
Sums: That Part which is finish’d makes a very grand Appearance. But all
those magnificent Works which the Landgrave Regent at first carried on
with very great Vigour are entirely discontinu’d, and there’s no
Appearance that they will ever be taken in hand again. The old Palace is
much more commodious than it seems to be; its Apartments being convenient,
and richly furnish’d. The Landgrave does not live in the Palace, but leads
a very retir’d Life in a little House upon the Square, where he is never
seen but upon Sundays and Holidays. He amuses himself in turning of Ivory,
making Chymical Experiments, and in Drawing. He loves Hunting above all
things whatsoever. He delights in Agriculture, and in Music, and it may
strictly be said that he is never unemploy’d. He has very great Knowledge
natural and acquir’d. He has seen a great many Countries, and tho’ sixty
Years of Age he still looks well, and his grey Hairs, not to call them
white, give him a venerable Air. He sits a Horse very well, walks well,
and seems to enjoy perfect Health. His Wife was _Dorothy_ of
_Brandenbourg-Onoltzbach_, who died in 1705. They say that he lately
married _N---- de Spiegel_ the Widow of Count _Seibelsdorf_ a
Lieutenant-General in the Service of _Bavaria_. Be that as it will, the
Marriage is not public, and the Lady still goes by the Name of her former
Husband by whom she has Children. ’Tis true that the Landgrave pays her
very great Distinction, and indeed she is very amiable.

This Prince commonly dines at a little Table spread only for four People;
but on Sundays and Holidays he goes to the Palace, and dines with his Son
at a Table cover’d for sixteen Guests, and sups with the Ladies who are
never seen at Court but upon those Days. ’Tis a very hard matter to come
at the Speech of the Landgrave, and much more to that of his only Son the
hereditary Prince. The Hunting-Officers are the only Persons that have the
Privilege of Access to them; for which reason this is not one of the most
entertaining Courts; and a Man is under a necessity of throwing himself
into the Town, where indeed there are a great many People of Merit who are
civil to Foreigners.

The hereditary Prince _Lewis_, the only Son of the Landgrave, who was born
the 5th of _April_ 1691, is a handsome Man, has a noble Air, dances well,
mounts a Horse well, has Vivacity, Spirit, and Politeness, but is often
thoughtful, melancholy, and goes for Retirement to the Woods, where he is
passionately fond of Hunting; but is apt to create himself Uneasiness, and
does not know how to dissemble it. Tho’ he has all the Qualities necessary
to shine in Company, yet he sees but very little. He married
_Charlotta-Christina of Hanau_, who dying in 1726, left him three Sons and
two Daughters, the eldest of which was then seven Years of Age. By virtue
of this Marriage the Prince is Heir to the Count of _Hanau’s_ Estate in
_Alsace_, and to all his Freeholds in general, which will be a very rich

Nevertheless the Court of _Darmstadt_ is very numerous. The Landgrave has
a great many Counsellors of State, Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber and Court,
and a greater Number still of Officers of the Venery, and Huntsmen. There
is not a Province in _Germany_ more proper for Hunting, nor in _Europe_
where there are more Deer. ’Tis a flat even Country, and a gravelly Soil
interspersed with Woods thro’ which there are cut noble Roads. I have seen
the Deer come up close to the Pallisadoes of the Town, and at their
Rutting-time I have heard them cry as I lay in my Bed. This great plenty
of Deer is extremely troublesome to the Peasants who are abroad day and
night to watch their Fields. The Landgrave and the hereditary Prince are
so jealous of their Game that they reckon it as bad a Crime as Murder for
any one to kill a Deer; and tho’ ’tis an establish’d Custom among almost
all Sovereigns to punish with Severity all those that kill a Creature
which God however certainly created for the Use of all Mankind, yet there
is no Prince who observes this Law more strictly than the Landgrave.

I cannot give you a more certain Account of the Revenues of this Prince
than of those of all the other Sovereigns. ’Tis said that he has 5 or
600000 Florins _per Ann._ I am not very well inform’d of the number of his
Troops, for I have only seen his Regiment of Guards which is in very
compleat Order. His Horse-Guards are also very fine Troops, and commanded
by the General _Miltitz_, who is at the same time Grand Marshal of the
Court, the Honours of which he performs in a very handsome manner.

Tho’ the Soil at _Darmstadt_ is very gravelly, it produces excellent
Pulse. I have seen Asparagus at the Landgrave’s Table, three of which
weigh’d a Pound, tho’ indeed they were not altogether so nice. I remember
that in a former Journey which I made hither in the Month of _December_,
there were brought to the Landgrave in several Pots of Porcellain, a Dwarf
Cherry-Tree laden with Cherries; Strawberry-Plants, an Almond-Tree, and in
short, the Fruits of all the Seasons.

The intended Hunting-Match, for what reason I know not, was put off; and
as I came hither only to see it, I staid but one Day and went to HANAU.
The Count and the Princess of _Hanau_ were but lately return’d from
_Alsace_. The Town of _Hanau_ is situate on a large Plain to the right of
the _Main_. ’Tis divided into two Wards, the old and the new Town: The
latter is much bigger than the former: It was built by the _Walloon_
Protestants, who, during the Duke of _Alva’s_ Persecution under _Philip_
II. King of _Spain_, quitted the _Netherlands_ and came to settle at
_Hanau_, which they fortify’d, and built in such a manner that all the
Streets run parallel. The Count keeps several Companies in pay, from which
he makes Detachments for the Quota he is oblig’d to furnish, as a Member
of the Circle of the _Upper Rhine_.

The _Walloons_ who are settled at _Hanau_ have established several
Manufactures there, especially Woollen Stuffs. The _Calvinists_, the
_Lutherans_, and the _Jews_ are tolerated here, and as for us Catholics,
we may go to Mass where we please.

The Count’s Palace is in the old Town: ’Tis an ancient Building, and makes
no great Appearance, but the Apartments are commodious, and very richly
furnish’d. The Count has a very pretty Pleasure-House a quarter of a
League from _Hanau_, call’d PHILIPSRUHE, _i. e._ (_Philip’s Repose_) and
built by the late Count _de Hanau_, Brother to the Count Regent[155].
’Twas at this Seat that I found the Count of _Hanau_. There was a very
numerous Attendance, and I heartily wish’d I could have staid there a few
days. Few Princes in the Empire live more elegantly than the Count _de
Hanau_. The Lady who directs the whole Houshold, and keeps all things in
wonderful Order is the Princess[156] who is of the Family of
_Brandenbourg-Anspach_, and Sister to the Queen of _England_. At this
Court you have all the Liberty than can be desired. When you first come a
Chamber is provided for your Lodging, and a Footman order’d to wait on
you. Every Morning an Officer comes to know what you will please to have
for Breakfast; and there’s every Thing to be had that you call for. If
afterwards you have a mind to go out a Hunting, you send to the Great
Huntsman for a Guide and to the Count for Horses out of his Stables. If
you come back too late for Dinner at Court, you are serv’d very elegantly
in your own Apartment. In the Evening when you are retir’d from Company, a
Butler takes care to provide you with Wine and Beer. The Servants of
Foreigners diet with those of the Count. His own Table which is commonly
for eighteen Guests is served as well as most, and a second Table is
serv’d with the same Magnificence. The Count has a very great Family, and
lives every way like a Prince; and indeed ’tis his own Fault that he is
not one, for he has had the Imperial Diploma for it a long while, but he
does not care to make use of it; saying, he had rather be the first Count
than the lowest Prince. He is the last Male of his Family. After his Death
the County of _Hanau_ relapses to the Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_,
according to the Treaty of Confraternity made between the several Families
of _Saxony_, _Hesse_, and _Hanau_, which imports that the said Families
shall succeed one another. The King of _Poland_ as Elector of _Saxony_
ought to have had his Share in the Succession to the County of _Hanau_,
but his Majesty by a Treaty yielded his Rights to the Landgrave of
_Cassel_. As to the Lands in _Alsace_, and the Freeholds, they revert, as
I told you before, to the Children of the hereditary Prince of

The Count of _Hanau_ seems to be much older than he is in reality. He is a
very civil Nobleman, and Hunting is a Diversion of which he is extremely
fond, so that to kill a Deer upon his Lands is an unpardonable Crime; and
the lesser Game, such as Rabbits, Hares, and Partridges, are equally his
Care. All these Creatures spoil the Fields; but they serve for the Count’s
Amusement, while the poor Peasant is oblig’d to pay his Tax, and dares not
speak a Word.

From _Hanau_ to MUNICH I never made a stop; but after having travell’d
thro’ _Wurtzbourg_, _Nurembourg_, and _Augsbourg_ arrived here last night,
and propose to set out again to-morrow, and after two or three days stay
at _Saltzbourg_ shall proceed by the way of _Tirol_ to _Venice_, where I
beg you would not fail to let me hear from you.

I am just come from attending the Obsequies of _Theresa-Cunegunda
Sobieski_ Electoress of _Bavaria_, Mother to the Elector. This Princess
died lately at _Venice_, to which City she retir’d eighteen Months ago,
and her Corpse is forthwith expected to be interr’d in the Tomb of the
Electoral Family. She has left, as ’tis said, near six millions of
Florins, which, since she has made no Will, are to be equally shar’d
between the four Princes her Sons. She has moreover left a Daughter who is
a Nun in a Convent of this City. In 1719, when she took the Habit, I was
present. She chose this retir’d Life against the Will of her Father the
Elector, who did all he could to dissuade her from it; and she liv’d in
great Reputation for her Piety. But to return to the Obsequies of the
Electoress: The Elector and Electoress assisted at them, together with the
Elector of _Cologne_, the Duke _Ferdinand_, the Bishop of _Freisingen_,
the Duchess _Ferdinand_, and the two Princes her Sons. These Princes had
Cowls upon their Heads, and great Cloaks, which is not one of the most
becoming Dresses. The Family of _Bavaria_ observes a very singular Custom,
which is, never to give a black Livery, nor to line their Coaches. I think
this reasonable enough, for it does not look very well in a pompous

                                                           _I am_, &c.


                             LETTER XXIII.

  _SIR_,                                  _Saltzbourg, April 2, 1730._

At my departure from _Munich_ I went and din’d at _Eversberg_, a Village
belonging to the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits, who have a House there
which is a large one, and that’s all ’tis good for. I went and lay at
WASSERBOURG a Town of _Bavaria_ built upon a Rock, so encompass’d with the
River _Inn_ that ’tis a perfect Peninsula. Mountains and Rocks hang over
this Town as if they wou’d crush it, and indeed the Place is not worth
much Description. It was settled as a Dowry on the Electoress
_Theresa-Cunigunda Sobieski_ who died last Month, but this Princess would
never live in it, nor indeed do I know any other Prince that would.

After having pass’d the _Inn_[157] over a very slender wooden Bridge I
climb’d a high Mountain, got down another, ascended a third, and so I
travell’d all the way up Hill and down Hill till I came within two Leagues
of _Saltzbourg_, where the Country becomes more passible.

The City of SALTZBOURG as well as the whole Archbishoprick takes its Name
from the River _Saltz_ which passes thro’ the City and Country. It rises
in _Tirol_ and loses itself in the _Inn_. The Mountains that are about
the Town make it not near so broad as ’tis long, tho’ take it all together
’tis not a large Town. ’Tis very well fortify’d, and has a Castle which
standing on an Eminence forms as it were a Citadel. ’Tis furnish’d with a
good Arsenal, and all manner of Ammunition, and I have been assur’d that
of Gunpowder alone there are no less than 20000 Quintals. Some Years ago
when I was here, Lightning fell so near this Magazine that it wanted but
half a Foot of penetrating to the Powder, which if it had touch’d I fancy
I shou’d never have wrote to you more. There is always a Guard of fifty
Men at the Castle, and the Garison of the Town consists of 600 Men who are
lodg’d in the Caserns.

The City of _Saltzbourg_ contains finer Edifices than many great Towns. It
has a magnificent Cathedral which was consecrated the 24th of _September_
1628, by an Archbishop who was of the Family of the Counts _de Lodron_.
’Tis a vast Structure of Free-stone, and has a stately Front which may be
reckon’d the compleatest in _Germany_. The skilful Architect by whom it
was directed has very much copy’d the Front of St. _Agnes’s_ Church in the
Square of _Navona_ at _Rome_. It has four Marble Statues bigger than the
Life, which represent St. _Peter_, St. _Paul_, St. _Rupert_, and St.
_Virgilius_, of whom the two latter were the first Archbishops of this
See. The whole Church is adorn’d in the inside with Pilastres of the
_Corinthian_ Order. ’Tis built in the Form of a Cross with a very high
Dome which separates the Nave from the Choir. The high Altar which is at
the bottom of the Choir is of Marble, as are the two Chapels that form the
Cross: The Pavement of the Church is of great Squares of Marble of various
Colours. ’Tis pity there was not more Inlet for Light, the Dome being the
only lightsome Part of it. But as the Church is magnificent the Ornaments
of the high Altar are more so. Upon the Grand Festivals it bears a Sun of
Gold adorn’d with precious Stones to the Value of 100000 Crowns, a great
Cross of massy Gold, and four golden Candlesticks. The Front of the Altar,
and the Tabernacle are of massy Silver of excellent Workmanship.

St. _Rupert_ surnam’d the Apostle of _Bavaria_ was the first Bishop of
_Saltzbourg_ in 582. _Leo_ III. whom the Church honour’d as a Saint,
erected this Bishoprick into an Archbishoprick in favour of St. _Arnould_,
in the Year 798. He had for Suffragans the Bishops of _Freisingen_,
_Ratisbon_, _Passau_, _Briken_, _Gurck_, _Chiemsee_, _Seggau_, and

The Archbishop has a Right of Nomination to the four last Bishopricks;
only the Nomination to the Bishoprick of _Gurck_ is alternative between
this Prelate and the Emperor, as Archduke of _Austria_. The four Bishops
bear the Title of Princes of the Empire, and enjoy all the Prerogatives
annexed to that high Dignity. Notwithstanding this, the Archbishop never
gives them the Preference, and when he talks to them, only compliments
them with the Title of _Euer Freuntschaft_, i. e. _Your Friendship_.
Service is perform’d in this Metropolis according to the Usage observ’d in
St. _Peter’s_ Church at _Rome_. The Chapter is compos’d of the Archbishop,
a Provost, a Dean, and twenty four Canons, all Men of Quality, who are
only oblig’d to four Months Residence, and the rest of the Time they may
go where they please. Both the Provost and Dean have the Crosier and
Mitre[158]. The Archbishop, as well as the Elector of _Cologn_, has the
Privilege of dressing in the Habit of a Cardinal. This Prelate has the
Directorship of the College of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire
alternatively with the Archduke of _Austria_. He is moreover _Legatus
natus & perpetuus_ of the Holy See, and Primate of _Germany_. His
Titles are these, ‘_Leopold_, by the Grace of God, Archbishop of
_Saltzbourg_, and Prince of the Empire, perpetual Legate of the Holy
Apostolic See of _Rome_, Primate of _Germany_, descended of the
illustrious Family of the Barons of _Firmian_.’

The Archbishop at his coming to the See must pay 100000 Crowns to _Rome_
for the Pall, but the Country generally raises it for him, besides making
a free Gift of the like Sum to its new Prince. The Revenues of this
Prelate are about 1500000 Florins a Year. The very Salt which is carried
into _Bavaria_ and _Swabia_ brings him in 30000 Crowns. He is absolute
Master of all his Revenues, and accountable to no body for what he lays
out. The present Archbishop is of _Tirol_, of a distinguish’d Family, but
not favour’d much by Fortune. He was born the 26th of _May_ 1679, and
succeeded _Francis-Anthony_ the Count _de Harrach_. His Advancement was
owing to the Division of the Chapter, who all wanted to be either Bishops
themselves, or else to advance some one Friend or Cousin. After a great
many Debates and Messages sent forwards and backwards, their Choice fell
upon the Baron _de Firmian_ who was at that time very infirm, which was
the only Thing that procur’d him the Mitre; for the Parties that divided
the Chapter united in his favour, because they thought him a Man not very
long-liv’d; but they believ’d however he might live long enough to give
each Party time to form its Cabals for advancing that Person to the
Bishoprick who they thought would best serve their Purpose. But all those
Gentlemen were mightily mistaken as to the Archbishop’s Life. For this
Prelate, like another Pope _Sixtus_ V. lost all his Infirmities when he
found the Mitre, and is very like to out-live many of his Electors.

This Prince is tall, has an austere haughty Air; seldom makes any
Compliments, and talks much less, except when he is hunting, which is all
the Pleasure of his Life. He is almost always alone, and generally eats by
himself. In the Summer-time he keeps altogether in the Country where he is
of very difficult Access, and keeps no Retinue, nor Company. He is accus’d
of being too thrifty, and I don’t know but there may be something in it;
but perhaps he would not appear to be quite so saving if he had succeeded
any body else in the Bishoprick but the Count _de Harrach_, the most
generous, noble, and most magnificent Prelate of his Time. The Archbishop
is naturally a Valetudinarian; and under God, he is oblig’d for the
Preservation of his Life to his Physician _Gersner_, a Native of _Vienna_,
a Man of great Skill in his Profession, and of strict Honour and
Integrity, who has got so much the length of the Prelate’s Foot that he is
almost the only Person that dares to speak to him with Freedom. The Count
_d’Arco_ Son to the Archbishop’s Sister is this Prelate’s only Darling;
for to the surprize of the whole Court, and Chapter, he prefers him before
a Nephew of his own Name, a Canon of _Saltzbourg_ and of _Trent_, a young
Clergyman of great Hopes.

The Archbishop of the _Lodron_ Family who caus’d the Metropolis to be
built, likewise founded the Archiepiscopal Palace, the Fortifications, and
the Stables, which were all finish’d in the thirty two Years that he was
Archbishop. The Apartments of the Palace being not laid out altogether in
the modern Taste, the deceased Archbishop _Anthony_ Count _de Harrach_,
made a thorough Change in them, and left little more than the Outside
standing. The Palace at _Saltzbourg_ is now more magnificent than many
royal Houses. It contains 173 Rooms all richly furnish’d, without
reckoning the Halls and Galleries. The Archbishop’s Apartment is stately:
It has a great Marble Stair-case divided into three Flights, which leads
into a spacious Guard-Chamber, from whence one enters into the
Archbishop’s Apartment consisting of several Rooms, where able _Italian_
Masters have adorn’d the Cielings with very good Draughts. One is really
surprized to see the Richness of the Furniture, and the infinite Variety
of other things that are distributed up and down this vast Apartment; such
as Marble Tables adorn’d with gilt Mouldings; old Porcellain of the most
beautiful sort; Lustres of massy Silver, and Rock Crystal of uncommon
Workmanship; Chandeliers also of Silver or Crystal upon large gilded
Stands, and a multitude of other things very well worth observation.

How magnificent soever this Apartment is, there’s another made use of upon
Days of Ceremony which infinitely surpasses it. I will only mention the
principal Rooms of it. We first enter into a great Salon adorn’d with the
Pictures of no less than fourscore Archbishops of _Saltzbourg_. Next to it
there’s another Salon ingeniously and magnificently decorated, which
discovers Grandeur in every part of it. ’Tis furnish’d with a Suit of
Hangings of Crimson-Damask with Gold Lace, forming a rich Architecture in
Pilasters of the Composite Order, the Frize of which is adorn’d with a
pair of Brackets, which is a vast Addition to the whole Decoration. The
rich Gilding shines every where with profusion. At one end of the Room
there stands in the Wall a sumptuous Beaufet of Silver gilt, and at the
other there’s a rich Canopy under which the Archbishop sits when he dines
in State. There’s a stately Lustre in the middle of the Room which
consists of magnificent pieces of Rock Crystal. At the end of this grand
Apartment there are two Galleries that deserve the attention of the
Curious in Painting, who will certainly pass their time here very
agreeably, and find a great many choice Pictures done by the best
Masters. The Chimney-piece of the first of these Galleries is a great
Ornament to it, being of the finest Marble adorn’d with Brass, gilt with
Water-Gold. Over it there’s a Statue of Brass as big as the Life
representing _Antinous_. The second Gallery is as magnificent as the
first. The Floor, Cieling, Door-Cases, and all the Ornaments in general
are of fine Marble. The Walls are painted in Fresco, and exhibit
Geographical Charts of the principal Dominions in _Europe_ in divers
Pictures, which are executed with very great Art and Exactness both as to
the Painting and Disposition of the Things that are the Subjects of it.

A third Apartment which is over the Archbishop’s is for lodging foreign
Princes, and is not inferiour to the others in Grandeur and Magnificence.
It consists of several Rooms all in a row. In one Room there are all the
Pictures of the Emperors from _Charlemain_ to _Charles_ VI. The Rooms that
follow it are hung with very rich Tapestry, particularly one Set
representing the War between _Pompey_ and _Cæsar_, which is so wonderfully
well drawn that the Marshal _de Daun_ Governour of _Milan_ offer’d 40000
Florins for it to the late Archbishop. I shall say nothing of the other
Apartments, having treated so much of the Archiepiscopal Palace; tho’ if
it had belong’d to a Temporal Prince I should have said much less of it,
but I thought fit to give you an Idea of the Wealth of a Prelate.

Adjoining to the Palace there is a great Building which serves for lodging
the Archbishop’s Domestics. The Stables are fit for a King, and if a
_Frenchman_ was to see them he would be forc’d to own that as to the
Inside they are more magnificent than the so much boasted Stables of
_Versailles_. They hold 150 Horses in two Rows, with a broad Walk in the
middle; and the Roof which is pretty high is supported by two Ranges of
Stone-Pillars. Next to these Stables is a Riding-House cover’d, the
Ceiling of which being painted in Fresco, represents a Tournament; and all
round it there is a Gallery. ’Tis pity that this magnificent Riding-House
is not broader. There’s another Riding-House uncovered which has not its
Fellow in the World. ’Tis a very great square Place, three Sides of which
are lin’d by very high Rocks, in which three Rows of Seats are very
artfully cut out for the Spectators, when there is any Carousal, or Combat
of wild Beasts. The whole Work is really magnificent, and the old _Romans_
would not have been ashamed to own it.

_Trinity-College_ Church is extremely well adorned. The Floor is of
Marble, and the Roof painted with a great deal of Art, representing the
Assumption of the Virgin, and the Crown placing on her Head by God the
Father and by Jesus Christ. The High-Altar is of a very singular Form, but
very magnificent. Two Angels of Brass, exceeding human Stature, in a
Posture of Humility and Adoration, support a Heart of Brass which serves
for a Tabernacle. Over it is a Globe, between God the Father and the
Redeemer. God the Father seems to rest his right hand upon the Globe, and
presents the left to our Lord, who puts his left upon the Globe, and in
the right holds a Cross. They are supported by very large Rays which shine
with very rich Gilding. This stately Groupe is surmounted with a Glory, in
the midst of which the Holy Ghost appears in form of a Dove, extending its
Rays over God the Father, and God the Son. The whole is of Brass gilt with
Gold, of a very curious Fancy.

Near this magnificent Church is the Palace of _Mirabel_, where the late
Archbishop the Count _de Harrach_, used to spend the Summer. This Prince
who is truly magnificent in every thing, caus’d this House to be built at
a great Expence from the very Foundation; but the Architect whom he
employ’d has not answer’d his Intention, and it appears that he did not
understand the proper Distribution of the Apartments. Every Part of it
indeed taken distinctly, is beautiful, but there is not one in its proper
Place. The grand Stair-Case is very fine, as well for its Contrivance as
for its rich Ornaments, but ’tis placed in a Corner, and without a Guide
’tis no easy matter to find it. The Salon, which is the Master-piece of
the Archbishop’s Apartments, is worth the Observation of the Curious, with
respect to the grand Manner in which ’tis painted: Marble, Brass, and
Gilding, seem to have been bestowed on it with profusion. As to the
Pilasters, the _Corinthian_ Order is entirely observed; and there are
Basso-Relievos imitating Brass which are well design’d, and make a very
good appearance. ’Tis pity this fine Salon wants proportion, it being much
too lofty for its Size; and ’tis still more to be lamented that it has not
a Prospect over the Gardens, the River of _Saltz_, and the adjacent
Country, which are the Objects that are discover’d from the Apartments
next to the Salon.

The Chapel of _Mirabel_ is also very magnificent; and though but of a
middling Size, is not inferior to the finest Churches. This Palace is
accompanied with Gardens finely adorned with Fountains and Statues; and
there are several Orange-Trees planted in the Ground, which are cover’d up
in the Winter in a wooden Box.

Thus, Sir, have I given you a very particular Account of the City of
_Saltzbourg_: What remains for me is to speak of the Archbishop’s
Houshold, which will give you an Idea of his Wealth and Grandeur. This
Prince has

  A Steward,
  A Great Chamberlain,
  A Grand Marshal,
  A Master of the Horse,
  A Great Huntsman,
  A Captain of the Guards,
  A Master-Cook,
  A Pay-Master,
  Twenty-four Chamberlains,
  Sixteen Gentlemen-Servants called _Truchsses_,
  Sixteen Pages,
  Fifteen Ushers of the Cabinet,
  Eleven Ushers of the Chamber,
  Forty-two Valets de Chambre,
  Twenty-eight Footmen,
  Eighteen Cooks.

How many Coachmen and Grooms he has I know not, but there must be a great
number of ’em, the Archbishop having 750 Horses.

Besides the Officers that I have now mentioned, there are also the Great
Hereditary Officers of the Archbishoprick, who are four.

The eldest of the _Lodron_ Family is Hereditary Grand Marshal.

The Count _de Kuenbourg_ is Great-Cup-Bearer.

The Office of Master of the Pantry is vacant by the death of the Count _de
Thanhausen_, the last of his Family.

The Count _de Torring_ is Great Chamberlain.

All these Offices are executed by the eldest Sons of the Families

The Archbishop confers the Order of St. _Hubert_, which was instituted the
25th of _November_, 1702, by the Archbishop _John-Ernest_, who has thereto
annexed six Commanderies, or Prebends, of a considerable Revenue.

The Archbishops are obliged for most of their Wealth to the Princes of
_Bavaria_[159]. Mean time the Members of the Chapter of _Saltzbourg_ admit
of no Princes, that they may have a Plea for refusing the Princes of
_Bavaria_, of whose Power they are jealous; in which I think they shew
more regard to the Rules of Policy than those of Gratitude.

The City of _Saltzbourg_ is worth seeing, but does not afford Amusement.
Every one lives here for his own sake, and except some Gentlemen of the
Chapter, and the Master of the Horse, who is the Count _de Truchsses
Zeil_, there’s nobody to visit. The latter is a Nobleman whose Manners and
Sentiments are intirely conformable to his Birth. I know nobody that is
more polite; and I have abundant reason to praise his Civility to me. He
is of a Family, one Branch of which is settled in _Prussia_, where it has
for a long time held distinguished Employments, and produced Subjects of
great Merit who have done the State good Service.

I forgot to mention two things to you that are worth seeing, _viz._ the
Capuchins Convent, from whence there’s a Prospect of a vast Tract of
Country; and St. _Sebastian_’s Church-yard, in which is interr’d the
celebrated _Paracelsus_; his Tomb lies in a Place very much neglected,
behind a Door, where a _Latin_ Epitaph says, ‘There rests
_Philip-Theophrastus Paracelsus_, the famous Physician, who with wonderful
Art cured the Leprosy, Gout, Dropsy, and other incurable Distempers; and
who after having given all his Estate to the Poor, died _September_ 24,

_Paracelsus_ cured most of his Patients by Sympathy, which made the
Vulgar, who are always apt to run into extremes, believe that he was a
Magician. He wrote several Books, whereof one of the most curious is his
_Treatise of Secret Philosophy_, which really contains such Passages as
would make one believe that if _Paracelsus_ was not a Conjurer himself, he
was at least one of the Sect.

St. _Sebastian_’s Church-yard is a square Place, encompassed with a
Gallery supported by Arches: ’tis 119 Paces in length, and 96 in breadth.

The Neighbourhood of _Saltzbourg_ is not disagreeable; and though the
Valley in which the City lies is pretty much inclosed with Mountains, yet
it presents several Objects that are pleasing to the Sight.

The Archbishop has two Pleasure-Houses, _viz._ _Cleisheim_ and _Heilbron_,
which are both of them beautiful and magnificent. _Heilbron_ especially is
worth seeing on account of its fine Waters and Cascades.

I hope to write to you speedily from _Venice_, and perhaps you will hear
from me when I come to _Inspruc_; but this will depend on the Stay I shall
make there, and on the departure of the Post.


    Since the year 1730, that this Letter was wrote, great
    Revolutions have happened in the Archbishoprick of _Saltzbourg_,
    with regard to Religion; for about 22,000 Persons have abandoned
    this Country, together with their Estates and their Fortunes,
    and declared themselves of the _Lutheran_ Communion; which is
    very strange, and almost inconceivable! For in short, those
    People never knew any Clergy but their own Priests, they lived
    in a Country where there was no Controversy about Religion,
    because all the Inhabitants were reckon’d staunch Catholics, by
    consequence those People could not be instructed; and even the
    greatest part of them could not read, but were bred up in such
    gross Ignorance that they scarce knew the Principles of
    Christianity. Therefore how could these poor People know that
    they were in an Error?

    I am not ignorant that at the beginning of the pretended
    Reformation, there were _Saltzburghers_ that followed the
    Doctrines of _Luther_, such as _Staupitz_, Abbot of _St.
    Peter_’s at _Saltzbourg_; _Paul Speratus_, a Preacher in the
    Cathedral of this City; and several others. But _Lutheranism_
    was thought to be quite suppressed in this Province, when it
    seem’d all on a sudden to take deeper Root than ever; tho’, as I
    said before, I can’t conceive how it should happen. Is it
    possible that the Archbishop, the Curates and _Priests_ should
    take so little care of what ought to have been most dear to
    them, I mean the Salvation of Souls, as that so many Thousands
    of People should pass with them for good _Romans_, at the same
    time that they abhorred _Rome_ and its Precepts? For in short, I
    suppose, and believe too, that there have ever been Protestants
    in this Country, since the pretended Reformation; it being not
    in the power of Man to destroy a Religion when once it has had
    Followers in a Country; but the Difficulty is, how those
    Sectaries should subsist there, without the Knowledge of an
    ecclesiastical Sovereign; and how it was possible for them, not
    only to subsist, but even to multiply, and the Priests and
    Archbishop not perceive it. Ought not the Curates to know the
    Sentiments of their Parishioners by Confession? Ought they not
    to acquaint the Archbishop their Head of it? and ought not this
    Prelate and his Priests to endeavour to reclaim those that go
    astray, by the Example of a lively Faith, and by charitable
    Exhortations, and from a Compassion for their Error, diligently
    to oppose the Propagation of it? But all this has been
    neglected: The Priests, and their Archbishop, knew not there was
    a Fire, ’till ’twas too late to put it out; and instead of the
    Good-nature, Compassion, and Charity, which like Water were
    necessary to extinguish it, they pour’d in the Oil of Hatred and
    Violence, and abandoned themselves to their furious Zeal. The
    haughty, rigid, and severe Archbishop, forgetting that he was
    both a Father and an Archbishop, and giving way to the Violence
    of his Temper, has for ever lost those Souls which he might have
    hoped to reclaim, by Instructions truly pastoral, and treating
    them as Children led astray; whereas this Prelate, by using the
    contrary Method, has caused a great many Persons to declare
    themselves Protestants, who would have died in the Bosom of the
    Church, if the proper Remedies had been employed, to bring them
    back to it.

    But I am persuaded that among the Emigrants of _Saltzbourg_,
    there is a vast number who made Religion only a Cloak to leave
    their Country, in hopes of bettering their Fortunes elsewhere,
    and who were seduced by the ensnaring Temptation of throwing off
    the Yoak of Submission. Be this as it will, those unfortunate
    Subjects, like the _Jews_, are spread into divers Countries, as
    _Germany_, _Holland_, and _Prussia_, where the King, I must
    confess, (as much a Catholic as I am) has received them with a
    Charity and Generosity perfectly christian and royal; his
    Majesty having grudg’d neither Care nor Expence to convince the
    World that as _France_ is the Asylum of unfortunate Kings, so
    the Dominions of _Prussia_ are the Refuge of oppressed


                              LETTER XXIV.

  _SIR_,                                     _Inspruc, April 9, 1730._

I travelled hither all the way from _Saltzbourg_, with the same Horses,
which is what I will never do again; for travelling by Post is always
best; and though ’tis more expensive, yet on the other hand ’tis less

Three Leagues from _Saltzbourg_ stands the little Town of HALLE, which
belongs to the Elector of _Bavaria_, and is a Place considerable for its
Salt-Pits. It lies in a small Valley crossed by three Rivers, form’d by
Torrents from the Mountains, which bring down a vast quantity of floating
Wood, that is stopp’d at _Halle_ by the Piles which either cross or shut
up the Rivers. They lay the Wood up in store for the Salt-Works, which
consume a great quantity of it.

After I had been all over the Salt-Works, I went and din’d at
_Schneitzenrieth_, a sorry Village, where, however, I far’d better than I
have done at many good Towns.

When I had dined I pursued my Journey, and having travelled four Leagues,
entred the Country of TIROL, the Passage to which is very much straitened,
so that there’s scarce room for a Waggon, by two very high Rocks or
Mountains, and two Forts between them, one belonging to the Archbishoprick
of _Saltzbourg_, and the other to the County of _Tirol_. Each Sovereign
keeps a Garrison in his Fort, and Officers to receive the Duties.

I lay that Evening at WAHTRINGEN, the first Village in the Dominions of
_Tirol_, as one comes out of _Germany_. I here found a Parcel of Boys
running about with lighted Touchwood in their hands, to the Houses, Woods,
and Fields. Having ask’d an old Man the meaning of it, he told me that the
Wood so lighted was consecrated by the Parson of the Parish, and had the
virtue of securing all Places to which it was carried, against Lightning.
This Consecration of the Wood is always perform’d the _Saturday_ before
_Easter_, when a great Pile is erected before the Church, into which the
Parson throws Holy water, and then sets fire to It. When the whole is well
kindled, every one strives to snatch a Firebrand, with which they run to
their Houses and Lands, but with so little care that I wonder they don’t
set every place they come to in a Flame.

From _Halle_ to _Wahtringen_ the Country is every bit uncultivated. The
Inhabitants live upon Milk, Pickled Cabbage, and Water-gruel. They have no
Corn but what comes from _Bavaria_. All their Substance and Trade is in
Cattle, and their Mountains afford excellent Pasture.

Upon _Easter-day_ I heard Mass at _St. John_’s, a great Village where
there’s a very pretty Church. I was very much pleased with the Sermon that
was preached by the Parson, and with the Regularity with which the whole
Divine Service was performed.

After Mass I went and din’d at ELVAN, to which place I came through a
Valley, which in the Summer time must be very agreeable, but at the
present Season is all covered with Snow. I was not more edified at
_Wahtringen_, than I was scandalized at _Elvan_, to catch my Landlord, a
clever, merry Blade, engaged with one of his Maids in something else
instead of telling their Beads. My Presence was so far from spoiling
Sport that my Landlord invited me very civilly to do as he did, assuring
me that his House was well furnish’d with Nymphs. In a very little time I
was convinced that what he said was true, for being obliged by the Cold to
stay in the common Room while one was aired for me, I saw half a score
Lasses come in, who were all of them my Landlord’s very humble Servants,
and not in the least disposed to imitate the eleven thousand Virgins.

After Dinner, pursuing my way through Snows and Rocks, I went and lay at
_Kundahl_. Next day I got beyond the Snow, and crossed a very pleasant
Valley which brought me to RATENBERG, a Town on the Banks of the _Inn_,
defended by a Castle built on a Rock, and stronger by its Situation than
by its Works. The Elector _Maximilian-Emanuel_ of _Bavaria_ coming before
this Castle on the 13th of _June_, 1703, obliged the Garrison, which was
composed of the Militia, to surrender at Discretion. From this Fort to
_Inspruc_ I always kept along the River _Inn_, which runs through a fine
Valley between high Mountains that are much steeper on the right side of
the River than the left; nevertheless there are Houses on them that are
inhabited by the Miners. I can’t imagine how it was possible for the good
People to build in Places so inconvenient; for their Houses look as if
they were stuck on to the Rocks, and as if nothing but a Goat or a Swallow
could come at them. The whole Valley is very populous, and abounds with
pretty Villages, Castles, and fine Country-Houses.

At the end of it stands the Town of SCHWATZ, which is very well built. The
Parish Church is an ancient, fair, large Edifice; and wholly covered with
Copper, as most of the Churches in _Tirol_ are with Tin painted green,
which has a very pretty look. The Houses at _Schwatz_ are generally of
Brick, so that ’tis very rare to see one of Timber. I observ’d at the Inn
where I din’d, and throughout the whole Country of _Tirol_, that when
People came into any House, they said to the Master of it, _Hail, Jesus
Christ!_ to which he answered, _May Christ be praised, and the holy Virgin
his Mother_. Then the Master of the House stepp’d forward, and took the
Visitor by his hand. This method of saluting is practised among all the
People throughout _Tirol_; and the Salutation is fix’d up in Print at all
the Doors, with an Advertisement tack’d to it, importing, that Pope
_Clement_ XI. had granted an hundred Days of Indulgence, and plenary
Absolution, in favour of those who should pronounce the Salutation and the

After having din’d at _Schwatz_, I continued to ride along the _Inn_; and
three Leagues beyond that I pass’d the River, over a Bridge near
_Fultishau_, a fine Convent of the Servite-Fryars, and went to HALLE, the
second City of _Tirol_. The reverend Fathers the _Jesuits_ have a fine
House here, and a noble Church, with a great Garden to it. The Mint is
also worth seeing, where they coin a great quantity of Species from the
Silver and Copper taken out of the Mines of _Tirol_. The Water is brought
to it by wooden Pipes. They drive a great Trade at _Halle_ in Copper, Tin,
and Salt, which is produced there in abundance, the Vent of it being
promoted by means of the River _Inn_, which becomes navigable at _Halle_.

From this Town to _Inspruc_ ’tis two Leagues, and a strait even Road which
deserves to be planted on each side with Trees. INSPRUC, the Capital City
of _Tirol_, stands in the middle of a Valley, on the Banks of the _Inn_,
over which there’s a wooden Bridge that leads to the Suburbs. _Inspruc_
was heretofore the Residence of the Archdukes, the Sovereigns of _Tirol_;
but since the august House of _Austria_ has been reduced in _Germany_ to
the Imperial Branch singly, this City has been only subject to Governors,
who however were always great Noblemen. _Charles_ Duke of _Lorrain_, who
married the Queen Dowager of _Poland_, Sister to the Emperor _Leopold_,
and who made himself famous by the Victories which he gain’d over the
_Turks_, held this important Office. That Prince dying at _Inspruc_, was
succeeded by _Charles_ Prince Palatine of _Newbourg_, Brother to the
Empress _Eleonora_, _Leopold_’s third Wife, but he renounced the
Government of _Tirol_, on his Accession to the Electorate. He liv’d at
_Inspruc_, with great Pomp, and his Absence is still very much lamented
there. Since he went away, the Government of _Tirol_ has remain’d vacant.
They say ’tis designed for the Archduchess _Mary-Magdalen_, the Emperor’s
youngest Sister. This I know is what the Burghers of _Inspruc_ wish for;
but I don’t think the Nobility do; because the Presence of the Archduchess
would oblige the People of Quality to be at very great Expence; for they
would be under a necessity of going to Court, as well as of carrying it
more civilly to their Vassals.

The Count _de Konickel_ is the Chief of the Regency: He has the Title of
_Landshauptman_, which is much the same with Lieutenant-General of the
Province, wherein he has the absolute Command, and all the Sovereign
Courts depend on him. This Nobleman is a _Tirolese_, and lodges in a fine
House which has been built by order of the States of _Tirol_, for the
Residence of their _Landshauptman_. He conducts himself with Dignity, and
is civil to Foreigners.

’Twas at _Inspruc_ that the Emperor _Charles_ V. received one of the
greatest Shocks he had met with in all his Life. For he was surprized
there with his Brother _Ferdinand_, King of the _Romans_, by _Maurice_
Elector of _Saxony_, who, though his Creature, made War upon him
nevertheless, on account of Religion. The Emperor and his Brother were so
near being taken that they had but just time to make their Escape to
_Villaco_, a little Town upon the _Drave_ in _Carinthia_. This was a
terrible Reverse of Fortune for a Prince, who, but a few years before, had
a Pope and a King of _France_ too, his Prisoners.

_Maximilian-Emanuel_ Elector of _Bavaria_ was not more fortunate at
_Inspruc_ than _Charles_ V. for though he made himself Master of it in
_June_ 1703, he was obliged to abandon it in _July_ following, and to
retire to _Bavaria_, after having tried in vain to force Passes which were
in a manner inaccessible by Nature, and guarded not only by the Peasants
but by regular Troops. His Design was to have joined M. _de Vendosme_ in
the County of _Trent_, and by that means to have opened a Communication
with the _Milanese_. The Elector, whilst he was retreating, ran the hazard
several times of losing his Life; and his Troops were for the most part
knock’d o’ th’ head by Stones which the Peasants hurl’d at them in the
Defiles which they were obliged to pass.

The City of _Inspruc_ is absolutely defenceless, and were it not for its
Suburbs, would be one of the least Cities in all _Germany_; but those
Suburbs are very large, and the Residence of Persons of the greatest
Distinction. The Houses are very commodious, well built of Brick, and for
the most part with Piazzas, which is a great Conveniency to the
Foot-passengers. There was heretofore great Store of Salt here, but for
some years past the Pits are dry, which is a Loss to _Inspruc_ of no less
than 200,000 Florins a-year.

Though the City is small yet there are several very fine things to be seen
in it. Such is the ancient Palace of the Archdukes, a vast large
Structure, but without Architecture, or any manner of Regularity. There
are Pictures in it done by skilful Hands, particularly in that call’d the
Giant’s-Hall, where the Story of _Dejanira_ is represented with very great
Art and Perfection.

The Palace has very great Gardens belonging to it, but they are not well
kept; yet there are the Remains of noble Fountains and brazen Statues.
Among the latter is an Equestrian Statue of an Archduke of _Austria_, who
is represented as large as the Life, in Armour, with Breeches after the
Fashion of the Ancients, a Ruff, and little Boots. The Horse seems to rest
upon his Haunches, in an Attitude as if he was just ready to leap off the

The Prince _Charles_ of _Newbourg_, the present Elector Palatine, finding
the old Castle not commodious enough, caused one to be built of Wood;
which was some years ago burnt down to the ground by an accidental Fire.

The Parish Church is of modern Building, with a great Dome raised in the
middle of the Cross. The whole Architecture of this Edifice is of the
_Corinthian_ Order. The Front is expos’d to an advantagious Point of View
on a Square, and is adorned with three Orders, one above another, which
makes the Fabric to rise in the whole to about 120 Foot height, exclusive
of a great flight of Steps to it, after the manner of _Italy_. All the
Parts of this Structure are charged with Ornaments of a clumsey Invention,
and very ill executed; so that the Confusion resulting from it is
infinitely shocking to those that have a nice Taste of Architecture. The
Inside is more tolerable than the Outside, and is even magnificent. The
whole Length from the Entrance to the Foot of the High-Altar, is 432 Feet.
The Foundation of it was laid while _Charles de Newbourg_ was Governor of
_Tirol_, who plac’d the first Stone of it. The whole Decoration of this
Church consists in Pilasters of red Marble, with a Vein of white, and the
Chapiters are of Plaister. The Roof is painted in Fresco by _Gosman-Daniel
Ossem_, a Native of _Munich_, who has succeeded so well as to give entire
satisfaction to such as have a Taste for, and Skill in things that are
curious. The High-Altar stands under the Arch at the end opposite to the
Nave of the Church. ’Tis perfectly magnificent, adorned with four great
Pillars of the Composite Order, of green Marble with white Veins, whose
Chapiters and Basons are of Marble of various Colours; and they support a
Canopy, which is form’d by four Curves fill’d with a Glory.

The Tabernacle and the Front of the Altar are of massy Silver, charged
with several Mouldings, and Foliages of Silver gilt; and there are few
Altars more splendidly decorated. There is a miraculous Image of the holy
Virgin, which the Archduke _Leopold_, the Sovereign of _Tirol_, brought
hither from _Dresden_. That Prince made a Visit to the Elector of
_Saxony_, who shewing him his Treasure, desir’d him to chuse any Piece
that he lik’d best; _Leopold_ singled out this Figure, because he was told
that in the early days of Lutheranism, it had been cast three times in the
Fire, and always taken out again without any damage. The Archduke on his
return to his Dominions, made a Present of this Image to the Parish, and
it has ever since been held in great veneration, and never fail’d of
working great Miracles. Three great Lamps of massy Silver are continually
burning before it; and the other Chapels have each a Lamp of solid Silver
whose Light is always shining. All this Plate was given to the Church by
the Elector Palatine.

The famous golden Roof is near the Parish Church, and serves to cover a
Balcony of the Chancery which fronts the Square. They say that _Frederic_
of _Austria_, the Sovereign of _Tirol_, caused this Roof to be made, to
let his Subjects see that he was not so bare of Money as they thought him,
and that he did not deserve the Nickname they had given him of the
_Pennyless Prince_. There are many however who affirm that this Roof is
not of Gold, while others say the contrary. As far as I can judge of it, I
believe ’tis of Copper only covered with very thin Plates of Gold, and by
consequence of no great Value. And supposing the whole Roof was of solid
Gold, I don’t believe the Expence was very extraordinary, though to be
sure it was by much too great for so mean a purpose.

The House or College of the reverend Fathers the Jesuits, is a very great
Building in which no Cost has been spared. Its principal Front is 166
Paces in length. These Fathers are the Directors of the University. Near
to their College is the Church of the _Franciscans_, whose Convent was
founded by the pious Legacies of the Emperor _Maximilian_, who on his
Death-bed ordered his Successor to cause this House and Church to be built
at _Inspruc_. His Grandson _Ferdinand_ I. Son to _Philip_ the Fair,
perform’d his Will, and in honour of his Grandfather’s Memory, raised him
a Marble Tomb which may be rank’d among the most stately _Mausoleums_ in
_Europe_. The Emperor _Maximilian_ is there represented on his Knees upon
a Cushion, with his Hands lifted up to Heaven, and as it were prostrate in
Prayer: He is adorned with the Crown, and the Imperial _Dalmatic_. This
Figure is of a gigantic Size, and admirably well done in Brass. ’Tis
plac’d on a great high Base of black Marble, forming an oblong Square, on
an Ascent of three Steps of red Marble. The whole Base is divided into
twenty-four Compartiments, or square Tables of white Marble, representing
the memorable Actions of _Maximilian_ in excellent Bas-Reliefs. The four
cardinal Virtues in a mournful Attitude, are represented in Brass, as
sitting on the Corners of the _Mausoleum_, and looking on _Maximilian_’s
Statue. The entire _Mausoleum_ stands by itself in the middle of the
Church; and the following Inscription is engraved in Letters of Gold all
round the Base of this Monument;


All this fine _Mausoleum_ was executed with very great Care and Skill, by
_Alexander Colin_, a Native of _Mechlin_; the Picture of which ingenious
Painter, and that of his Wife, are kept in the Church, as an
Acknowledgment due to that excellent Artist. This _Mausoleum_ was mightily
enriched by the Magnificence of _Frederic_ Archduke of _Austria_, surnamed
the _Pennyless Prince_, who caused to be placed in the Nave of the Church
twenty-eight Statues of Brass seven Foot in height, representing so many
Princes and Princesses that were related to the House of _Austria_. They
are set up in two Rows from the great Gate to the Altar, and therefore
separate the Nave from the two Wings on the Sides. ’Tis pity that those
Statues are in the hands of Monks who neglect them very much, and suffer
the Dust to eat into them. They would do much better in a Royal Palace:
Some of them are in great perfection. I fancy you will be glad to know the
Names of the Persons they represent.

       *       *       *       *       *

I. The first, beginning on the right Side of the Altar, is the Figure of
_Joan_ of _Castile_, Mother to _Charles_ V. and _Ferdinand_ I. the Heads
of the two Branches of the House of _Austria_; the first of which became
extinct by the Death of _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_, but the second
still flourishes among us with Glory in the Person of the August _Charles_

II. _Ferdinand_ the Catholic, Father to _Joan_.

III. _Cunigonda_ Archduchess, Daughter to the Emperor _Frederic_ IV. and
Wife to _Albert_ of _Bavaria_, who died a Nun.

IV. _Margaret_, Daughter to _Henry_ Duke of _Carinthia_ and Count of
_Tirol_, surnamed the _Pious_, because she founded and built several
Convents. This Princess was nicknamed _Margaret Wide-Mouth_: She was
marry’d first to _John_ Margrave of _Moravia_, Son to the Emperor
_Charles_ IV. whom she surviv’d, and marry’d to her second Husband
_Lewis_, Margrave of _Brandenburg_, Son to the Emperor _Lewis_ of
_Bavaria_, whom she also surviv’d, and finding herself a Widow a second
time, and without Issue to enjoy what she had, she made a Present of the
County of _Tirol_ whereof she was Sovereign, to her Cousins _Rodolph_,
_Albert_, and _Leopold_ of _Austria_, which Grant was confirm’d by the
Emperor _Charles_ IV. in 1364.

V. _Mary of Burgundy_, Wife to the Emperor _Maximilian_ I. the richest
Heiress of her Time.

VI. _Elizabeth_, the Daughter of the Emperor _Sigismond_, and Wife to the
Emperor _Albert_ II. who carry’d the Duchy of _Luxembourg_ to the House of
_Austria_. She was Mother to the unfortunate King _Ladislaus_.

VII. _Godfrey_ of _Bouillon_, Duke of _Lorrain_, King of _Jerusalem_,
plac’d here among the Princes of the House of _Austria_, as being
descended from the same Family as they.

VIII. _Albert_ I. Emperor.

IX. _Frederic_, Archduke of _Austria_, he who was nicknamed Prince

X. _Leopold_ of _Austria_, surnamed the _Virtuous_, Son of _Albert_ the

XI, and XII. Opinions are very much divided about the Persons who are
represented by these two Statues; but ’tis generally thought they are the
Emperors _Charles_ V. and _Ferdinand_ I.

XIII. The Emperor _Frederic_ IV. Father to _Maximilian_ I.

XIV. _Albert_ II. Emperor, King of _Hungary_ and _Bohemia_, and Father to
the unfortunate King _Ladislaus_.

XV. _Clovis_, the first Christian King of _France_, who is plac’d among
the Princes of the House of _Austria_, because their Genealogists derive
them from the ancient _Franks_ who subdued _France_.

XVI. _Philip_ I. call’d the Fair, King of _Spain_.

XVII. The Emperor _Rodolph_ I.

XVIII. The Archduke _Albert_, call’d the _Wise_.

XIX. _Theodoric_ King of the _Goths_. I am not a Genealogist good enough
to tell you in what Relation he stands to the House of _Austria_.

XX. _Ernest_, Archduke, Grandfather to _Maximilian_ I.

XXI. _Theodebert_ Count of _Provence_, from whom descended the Dukes of
_Burgundy_ and the Counts of _Hapsburg_.

XXII. _Arthur_, Prince of _Wales_, who marry’d _Catherine_ of _Arragon_.

XXIII. _Sigismond_, Archduke and Count of _Tirol_, who adopted the Emperor
_Maximilian_ I.

XXIV. _Blanche Mary_, the second Wife of _Maximilian_ I. which Princess
was the Daughter of _John Galeas_ Duke of _Milan_.

XXV. _Margaret_, Daughter of _Maximilian_ I. who was marry’d first to
_John_ a Prince of _Spain_, and secondly to _Philibert_ Duke of _Savoy_.

XXVI. _Cimburge_, Wife of _Ernest_ the Archduke, and Mother to the Emperor
_Frederic_ IV.

XXVII. _Charles_ the _Bold_, Duke of _Burgundy_, Father to _Mary_ of
_Burgundy_ who was Wife to _Maximilian_ I.

XXVIII. _Philip_, Duke of _Burgundy_, Father to _Charles_ the _Bold_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Besides these twenty-eight Statues there are twenty three others plac’d
upon the Cornish of the Portico which separates the Nave from the Choir:
They are of Brass two Foot high, and represent those Kings and Princes
whom the Church honours as Saints.

I am farther to acquaint you of the Chapel of this Church, call’d the
Silver Chapel, because of the Image of the Virgin there of solid Silver as
big as the Life in the middle of the Altar, with a great many Images of
Saints all of the same Metal. The Ascent to this Chapel is by a winding
Stair-Case. Here is to be seen the stately Tomb of _Ferdinand_ Archduke of
_Austria_, Count of _Tirol_, Son to the Emperor _Ferdinand_ I. This
Mausoleum is under an Arch which is pretty high. _Ferdinand_, whose
Figure is of white Marble, seems to be asleep upon a Bed of black Marble
rais’d one Foot from the Ground. The whole Arch is lin’d with Marble of
various Colours, forming divers Compartments of very curious Workmanship,
where you see the Arms of the Provinces reduc’d to the Obedience of the
House of _Austria_: The different Colours are shewn by precious Stones
enchas’d in Marble, and so curiously done that the Work seems to be
enamel’d. Round the same Arch are plac’d five Bas-Reliefs, representing in
as many Pictures the memorable Actions of _Ferdinand_. Five other
Bas-Reliefs contain the Images of that Prince’s Patrons, _viz._ JESUS
CHRIST, St. _Anthony_ of _Padua_, St. _George_, St. _Thomas_, and St.

Near the said Tomb stands that of _Philippina_ of _Welserin_, who was born
at _Augsburg_, and the Wife of the Archduke _Ferdinand_, by whom she had
two Sons, _Charles_ the Margrave of _Burgau_, and _Andrew_ Cardinal of
_Austria_. This _Mausoleum_ is of Free-stone and has nothing remarkable
more than the following Epitaph:


The Franciscan who shew’d me this Chapel assur’d me that it was one of the
First-rate Chapels in the World, on account of the Indulgences which had
been annex’d to it by the Beneficence of the Popes; that it was upon a par
with the Chapel of the _Holy Sepulchre_ at _Jerusalem_, with the Churches
of _St. John de Lateran_, _St. Mary major_, and _St. Gregory_ at _Rome_;
and that, in fine, a Mass said in this Chapel for the Repose of a Soul
departed, was enough to deliver it out of Purgatory.

These, Sir, are the Remarks that I made in this City, from whence I am
making ready to set out to-morrow. I expect to be well jolted all the way
to _Venice_, where to make my self amends I will take my Pleasure in a
_Gondola_. I wish with all my heart I had your Company there; we should
then have the Satisfaction of seeing a great many fine Sights together.
But for want of this Satisfaction I shall never cease to think of you; and
pray don’t forget me, but believe me to be for ever, _&c._


                              LETTER XXV.

  _SIR_,                                     _Venice, April_ 27, 1730.

I wrote to you from _Inspruc_ the very Day before I set out from thence
for this Place, to which I arriv’d without any Misfortune. About three
quarters of a League from _Inspruc_ we came among very tiresome and
disagreeable Mountains, the highest of which is call’d the _Brenner_, a
Name that the Country People gave it when they clear’d it of the Wood, and
burnt it. This Mountain is much more rugged on the side of _Trent_ than
’tis towards _Inspruc_; ’tis for nine Months together cover’d with Snow,
and I found a great deal remaining on it still; yet ’tis inhabited to the
very Top. There is a Post-House, a Tavern, and a Chapel in which Mass is
only said when the Snows are melted: It produces Corn and Hay in
abundance. Near the Post-House there is a considerable Spring which at
first forms a large Basin, and then divides into two Torrents which
quickly change into Rivers, one whereof falls into the _Inn_ above
_Inspruc_, and the other, after becoming navigable two Leagues from
_Bolsano_, loses itself in the _Adige_ above _Trent_. The Passage of the
_Brenner_ is very painful, and sometimes impracticable when it snows or
rains; so that Travellers are often oblig’d to stay several Days till the
Return of fair Weather, which is the more inconvenient because the Inns on
both Sides are of the worst sort.

_Stertzingen_ a little Town four Post-Stages from _Inspruc_, has nothing
remarkable; however I was well accommodated there. Next Day I went and
din’d at BRIXEN an Episcopal City in an agreeable Valley, where I found
the Season very forward. The Country between _Brixen_ and _Bolsano_ is
extremely populous, and so manur’d that the steepest Mountains are

BOLSANO is a pretty Town well inhabited, and drives a considerable Trade,
having no less than four Fairs a Year. Its Situation is very agreeable, in
the middle of a fine large Valley full of Villages and Vineyards. The Air
here is much softer than in the rest of _Tirol_, and I found Trees here in
full Verdure while in the Country they were but just budded. The Vines are
very carefully watched by Men who keep Guard in Huts rais’d upon three
Poles plac’d cross-wise, and high enough to command the Vineyards.
_Misson_ in his Voyage to _Italy_ says, that these Huts or _Guerites_ were
for lodging the Guards that are posted to hinder the Bears from eating the
Grapes. I know not who could tell him that there were any Bears in this
Country, and if there are ’tis hardly probable they would venture into a
Valley so populous as that of _Bolsano_. The Wines of this Valley are the
best in all _Tirol_; but they must be drank, as must all the Wines of this
Country, the very Year of their Growth, or else they grow luscious, and
then turn crabbed.

The Valley of _Bolsano_ which extends to _Trent_ is throughout equally
agreeable; and is not incumber’d by those horrid Mountains that we were
pester’d with in the Road from _Inspruc_.

TRENT is celebrated for the Council formerly held there. I went to see the
Church of St. _Mary major_, where the Fathers of that Council held their
Assembly. It has nothing remarkable besides its Organs which are of too
enormous a Size for a Church, but are a very curious piece of Work; for
they not only exhibit various Sounds, but imitate Vocal Music, the Notes
of divers Birds, and the Noise of Kettle-Drums and Trumpets. The Bishop of
_Trent_ is a Prince of the Empire. The See is now vacant by the Death of
the Count _de Wolckenstein_ the last Bishop. The Chapter has fix’d the
Election for next _May_. A great many Travellers highly extol the Bishop’s
Palace, but for my own part, I was not so fortunate as to observe any
thing in it that was worthy of Attention.

Throughout all _Tirol_ the Common People are very ill-favour’d: Most of
the Women are disguis’d by Wens in their Throat[160], and as if that was
not enough they disfigure themselves by their Dress. The Country Women
wear Stockings which have no Feet, and are gather’d into many little Folds
from the Ancle to the Calf of the Leg: Their Shoes are exactly like those
the Men wear. Their Petticoats are exceeding short, and ty’d up almost as
high as their Breasts which are very large. With all this they have a Pair
of Stays which reaches down to their Waist, and renders them compleatly
deform’d. Instead of other Head-dress they wear a green high-crown’d Hat,
the Brims of which are let down, and is as unbecoming a part of their
Dress as any of the rest. At _Brixen_ the Blood mends, the Women are
handsomer, the Men more genteel, and the People in general more civiliz’d;
tho’ take ’em all together the _Tirolese_ are very honest People. They are
staunch zealous Catholics, tho’ they say that some of the Peasants, are
_Lutherans_. The _Holy Virgin_ and St. _Christopher_ are the principal
Objects of the People’s Devotion: The latter is painted on all their
Houses, and the Roads are full of little Chapels of the _Virgin_ who is
represented in all manner of ways. I have seen her painted in a Chapel
standing with a great Veil over her Head which she extended with her Arms
to cover the Pope, the Emperor, seven Kings, and as many Electors, who
seem to be prostrate at her Knees.

As I left _Trent_ I began to ascend a Mountain which does not become
smooth till we reach to _Berschen_ which is a Post-Stage and a half from
_Trent_. This Mountain is exceeding steep, troublesome, and tiresome, and
after ’tis pass’d, one is in a manner buried among Rocks and horrid
Mountains which seem as if they would fall on the Heads of the Travellers;
and I have been assur’d that this sometimes happens in rainy Weather, when
so many Pieces crumble off of the Rock that it requires 4 or 500 Carts to
clear the Roads. In short, all the Way till one comes within a League of
_Bossagno_ a City in the State of _Venice_ is full of Rocks and
Precipices; but from that Town to _Mestre_ which is four Post-Stages from
it, the Country is the finest in the World; and in short, every thing is
good and pleasant except their Wine and their publick Houses. The Wine has
naturally a musty Taste, and no Body, and the Colour is like that of the
thick Wine of _Bourdeaux_. This Country so abounds in Quails that the
Post-Master of _Bossagno_ assur’d me he had taken 720 in a Morning, that
he drove a great Trade with ’em, and sent some of ’em to the State of
_Venice_, and to _Lombardy_. Whether he said true, I know not, but he
shew’d me 1100 live Quails which he kept in Wicker-Cages in a great Barn
where he had hung all the Cages to Pack-Thread to keep them from Rats and

At MESTRE one embarks for _Venice_ which is about seven Leagues from it; I
made the Voyage in a Gondola in less than an Hour and half. As I travell’d
post to _Mestre_, my Gondoliers, when I came to _Venice_, carry’d me to
the Post-Office, where I was oblig’d to tell my Name, and the Business for
which I came to _Venice_; but this is a Ceremony to which they who don’t
travel post are not subject. I went and took up my Lodging at the _White
Lion_, highly rejoic’d that I could rest my self there after my Fatigue,
and that I had lost sight of the _Alps_, those horrid Mountains which no
body would chuse to live amongst but a _Swiss_ or a _Tirolese_, who, as
Cardinal _Bentivoglio_ justly observes in his Voyage to _Swisserland_, are
a People made for the _Alps_, and the _Alps_ for them.

As I have been twice before at _Venice_, I serve as a _Cicerone_[161] to
two _Bohemian_ Counts whom I was acquainted with at _Prague_, and whom I
happen’d to meet with at my Quarters. As ’tis customary to do to all
Foreigners, I began with shewing them the Square of St. _Mark_, the chief
Square of _Venice_, if not of the whole World. ’Tis adorn’d by the Palace
of the _Doge_, the Church of St. _Mark_, and the _Procuraties_, or Houses
of the Procurators, and has been pav’d within these few Years with great
Squares of Free-stone. We ascended the famous Tower of St. _Mark_ which is
a four-square Building, by a Stair without Steps. It was built by the Doge
_Domingo Morosini_, to serve as a Watch-Tower to Ships at Sea; and that it
might be seen a great way off he caus’d the Angel on the top of it to be
gilt; but Time the Destroyer of all Things has stripp’d off the Gold. From
this Tower one sees the whole City of _Venice_, the neighbouring Islands,
and the _Terra Firma_, which all together makes a noble Prospect.

We afterwards enter’d St. _Mark_’s Church, which is an Edifice of
_Grecian_ Architecture, pretty dark and not very high, but after all, full
of Curiosities worthy the Attention of a Traveller. As this Church has
been describ’d with more Exactness than I can pretend to, I shall treat
very succinctly of the chief Things which it contains. The grand Portico
is so low that one must even go down some Steps to enter into the Church.
There is a Platform over it on which are plac’d four brazen Horses brought
from _Constantinople_, to which they were first carry’d from _Rome_ by
_Constantine_ when that Prince transferr’d the Seat of the Empire from the
one City to the other. Nothing is so magnificent and beautiful as those
Horses. They were heretofore all over gilt, but People out of mere Avarice
scrap’d off great part of the precious Metal, and all the rest is almost
worn off by Time.

At the Entrance of the Church on the right-hand Side there is a square
Stone which seem’d to me to be of white Marble, and is said to be a piece
of the Rock which _Moses_ struck in the Wilderness, whereupon there issued
out Water. If this be really that Stone, what that Legislator did is so
much the more to be admir’d, and may be reckon’d doubly miraculous; first
in fetching Water to a Place where there was none before, and then the
bringing a quantity of it through four Holes no bigger than Pease
sufficient to quench the Thirst of so numerous a Multitude. The Pavement
of this Church is very grand, being of _Mosaic_ Work exceedingly
diversify’d with Stones of various Colours, Marble and Porphyry: But the
stateliest Thing in all the Church are the Ornaments of the Altar for the
great Holidays, of which that of St. _Mark_ the Patron of the Republic is
the most strictly kept. St. _Mark_’s Treasure is then all laid open, which
consists in the rich Spoils taken from the Emperors of _Constantinople_.
Every part shines with solid Gold, Pearls, and Diamonds; so that the
Temple of _Jerusalem_ excepted, I believe there’s not a House devoted to
God that could ever boast of so much Riches. All this Treasure is kept in
St. _Mark_’s Tower, and none of it can be taken out but in presence of one
of the Procurators, who must also be at the Altar when the Treasure is
plac’d on it, and dare not stir from it till ’tis put up safe again.

St. _Mark_’s Church serves as a public Chapel to the Doge, who always is
or at least ought to be attended thither by the Pope’s Nuncio and the
Ambassadors; but M. _de Gersi_ the _French_ Ambassador, from I know not
what Punctilio of Honour, avoids being present at the same Functions with
the Count _de Bolagnos_ the Emperor’s Ambassador[162], whom he can’t
endure to see go before him. When the Doge goes to St. _Mark_’s Church
’tis always with great Ceremony: He walks between the Pope’s Nuncio and
the Emperor’s Ambassador, and the other Ambassadors walk in the same Row
according to the Rank of their Masters. They are preceded by six Trumpets,
and six Banners are born before the Doge together with a Chair or Stool of
State, there being no Back to it, and a Cushion of Gold Brocade. The
Prince is dress’d in a long Robe of Gold Brocade also lin’d and fac’d with
Ermin. The Senators follow him in Robes of red Damask, walking two and
two. He is receiv’d at the Entrance of the Church by the Clergy of St.
_Mark_ who bring him Holy Water and Incense, which the Ambassadors receive
after him. His Serenity and the Ambassadors fall on their Knees in the
middle of the Nave, and then repeat the Prayers of _Domine salvum fac
Principem nostrum_. Afterwards the Doge goes and places himself at the End
of the Choir on the right Hand as we go in, and sits in the first upper
Row of the Canons with the Pope’s Nuncio on his Right and the Emperor’s
Ambassador on the Right of the Nuncio, and so on with the rest. The Doge
does not sit down ’till the Senators are all enter’d, who, as they pass by
his Serenity, make him a profound Obeisance, to which the Doge makes no
manner of return. When every body is seated, the Doge accompany’d by the
Ambassadors advances towards the Altar, the Nuncio strikes up High Mass
and says the Overture, to which the Doge answers. After this, the Doge and
the Ambassadors return to their Places, and the Prelate of St. _Mark_ who
is in waiting, continues the Office.

After the Mass is over, the Doge returns to his Palace attended by the
same Train that accompanied him to Church. When he has ascended the grand
Stair-case of his Palace he seats himself in an Arm-Chair which is plac’d
over-against the Stair-case. After he has sate a few Moments, he dismisses
the Ambassadors and the other Persons of his Retinue, and retires to his

Next to St. _Mark_’s Church is the Doge’s Palace, a vast Building, of
which you will find a large Account in _Misson_’s Travels.

The present Doge is _Aloisio Mocenigo_[163], a Prince as much to be
respected for his Merit as for his Dignity. He is a Gentleman of great
Sagacity, talks well, is very polite, and has infinitely more Generosity
than is ascribed to those of his Country. He is a handsome Man, and has a
noble Aspect that is improv’d by his white Locks of Hair which render him
venerable. Before he was advanc’d to be a Doge, which was in 1722, he
serv’d the Republic with distinction in quality of Generalissimo. The vain
Honours which this new Dignity has procur’d him have not puff’d him up,
and he seems to think them rather a Burden than a Pleasure. Before he came
to be Doge he was the most sociable Nobleman at _Venice_, and he now sees
more Company than ever his Predecessors did. He masks himself at publick
Rejoicings, goes out every Night in a common Gondola without Guard or
Retinue, and diverts himself at his Brother’s. He has sometimes too been
upon _Terra Firma_, not valuing it tho’ he lost for a while all the
Honours annexed to his Dignity as Doge; for you know that this Character
does not go beyond the Lakes. He is oblig’d to be present at all the
public Ceremonies, tho’ very much against his Inclination and Temper,
which is far more uniform than that of the other _Italians_.

The Ceremony in which he shines with the greatest Lustre, is that of
marrying the Sea, which without dispute is one of the finest Shews in all
the World. ’Tis perform’d on _Ascension-Day_, when the Doge, the
Ambassadors, and the Senate ride out into the _Adriatic_ on board a Vessel
call’d the _Bucentaur_, attended by the State-Gondolas of the Ambassadors
gilded, with a vast number of other Gondolas and Galleasses which surround
the _Bucentaur_, the most stately Vessel that was ever built, and more
magnificent than all that History (or even Romance) tells us of the
sumptuous Vessel of _Cleopatra_. When the Doge goes on board the
_Bucentaur_ he is saluted by the great Guns from the Galleys, the Men of
War, and the Merchant-Ships in the Harbour; and while he performs the
Ceremony of marrying the Sea by throwing in a Ring to denote the
Sovereignty of the Republic over the Gulph, there’s nothing heard but
Kettle-Drums, Trumpets, and Concerts of Music, with the loud Acclamations
of the People.

His Serene Highness marries two other Wives whom he maintains with as
little Trouble as the Sea. They are the Abbesses of the Convents of the
_Virgin_ and St. _Daniel_. This Ceremony is perform’d upon St. _Philip_’s
Day, when the Doge in a Galeass accompany’d by the Ambassadors and the
Senate, repairs with a great Train to those Convents which are situate on
the Shore behind the Arsenal. The Prelate who officiates for the Day
receives him at the Entrance of the Church, brings him the Holy Water, and
conducts him to a Place prepared for him in the Choir where he assists at
High Mass. Then he repairs to the Grate, in which there’s a large Opening
where the Lady Abbess appears with her Nuns. The Abbess addressing herself
to the Doge intreats him to continue the Favour of his Protection to
herself and the Nuns; to which the Doge returns answer, that she and all
the Convent may depend upon his Good-Will. Then he turns about and walks
on foot to the Convent of St. _Daniel_, where his Reception and
Transaction are the same as at the Convent of the _Virgin_. These two
Convents have very singular Privileges. The Abbesses have the
Crosier-Staff, and both they and their Nuns depend solely upon the Doge,
and not at all upon the Pope or the Court of _Rome_ either in Spirituals
or Temporals. They have good Revenues and live as much as can be at their
Ease. The Dress of these Nuns is rather gay than modest. Like the Nuns at
_Strasbourg_ they wear their Hair in Tresses: Their Petticoats are so
short that you may see their Ancles; and instead of Stays they wear
Jackets with short Skirts, which are very becoming to those that are of a
good Shape. Their Necks are quite bare, only when they go into the Choir
they cover them with Veils of fine white Wool, which trail on the ground.
These Nuns are the Daughters of the Nobles, and enjoy great Liberty, more
than I believe they have under their Father’s Roof.

The Festival of St. _Mark_ is always celebrated with very great Solemnity.
On the Day preceding, the Doge accompany’d by the Ambassadors repairs with
a great Train to St. _Mark_’s Church, where he assists at the Vespers.
Next Day the Confraternities, who are nine in number, meet at the Ducal
Palace, accompany the Doge to Church in Procession, and are present at
High Mass. After this the Doge returns to his Palace, and the Brotherhoods
go round the Square. Each Society has magnificent Images, and two Canopies
richly embroider’d with Gold and Silver; whose Poles or Supporters are of
solid Silver. The Procession is clos’d by a Man dress’d in a Gown of red
Damask, carrying a Pole with a moving Wheel at the end of it; which serves
to support a gilt Lion surrounded with Laurel Branches, and little
Standards of divers Colours. The Lion turns round incessantly, and the Man
who carries it makes him leap, and play a hundred Gambols: He is
surrounded with a Multitude of People, who cry out, God bless St. _Mark_.
This Sight, how ridiculous soever, is nevertheless amusing, draws
abundance of the Nobility to the Square, and on that Day every body is
mask’d. After the Procession is over, the Maskers go to see the Doge’s
Table, who entertains the Ambassadors and the Senate at Dinner, on a
Table in form of a Horse-shoe; which is extravagantly adorn’d with
Kickshaws, and Machines made of Starch, which are here call’d _Triumphs_.
Nothing of the kind can be better executed, or more magnificent. As there
is a great Apprehension of a Croud, all the Maskers are turn’d away at
Dinner-time. They keep on their Masks all day long; and after Dinner all
the Nobility, or to speak more properly, the whole City of _Venice_
appears mask’d upon the Square of St. _Mark_; and indeed, for one who
never saw it before, ’tis a remarkable fine Shew. What surpriz’d me, and
if I may say it, made me laugh, was to see all the Maskers fall on their
Knees at the Sound of the _Angelus_; you wou’d swear every body was in
Rapture, yet every thing that goes before and that follows the Stroke of
the Bell is not the most devout.

The Day after St. _Mark_’s we had another publick Shew, and by consequence
a fresh occasion for the _Venetians_ to masquerade it. That was the
Election which the Fishermen, who are here call’d the _Nicolotti_, made of
a Chief, who bears the Title of the Doge of the _Nicolotti_. Their Choice
fell this Bout upon a Gondolier belonging to the noble _Giustiniani_.
After the Election he was conducted to an Audience of the Doge of
_Venice_, dress’d in a Robe of red Sattin, and otherwise accoutred like a
Jackpudding. He was preceded by a great Mob of Pipers, Hautboys, and
Fishermen. Just before him was carry’d a red Flag, with the Effigies of
St. _Mark_. The Doge receiv’d him sitting on his Throne, and attended by
the Council. The Complement of the Doge of the Fishermen was made with
great Gravity, and answer’d by the Doge of the Republick in few Words;
which done, he return’d in the same Order that he came. This sham Doge
has authority over all the Fishermen, is their Judge, gives them Licence
to fish, and takes care that the City be well supplied with that sort of
Provision. ’Tis said that this Office, which is for Life, is worth above
1000 Crowns _per Annum_. He had formerly the Privilege of commanding in a
certain Quarter of the City, and assisted at all the Ceremonies where the
Doge was present: He even accompany’d that Prince on board the
_Bucentaur_, and had Precedency of all the Ambassadors; but they have lost
that Right since, upon what occasion I know not, they gave up the
Precedency to an Ambassador from the Emperor.

The Patriarch of _Venice_ is the second Person in the State. The present
Patriarch is of the Family of _Gradenigo_. The Authority of this Prelate
is so stinted, that he only nominates to two or three Benefices. The
Inhabitants of every Parish chuse their Parsons, which is always attended
with Intriguing; for their Livings being very lucrative, have great
Interest made for them. The Patriot has a Privilege of having a Gondola
painted Purple and Gold, with a Roof or Covering of Red Velvet; but this
Gondola must not exceed a certain Degree of Magnificence. You know that
the Gondolas of private Men must be black, and that none but Ambassadors
have the Privilege of having theirs gilded.

Tho’ the Churches of _Venice_ have been sufficiently describ’d, I cannot
help saying something of those that I thought the most remarkable. Without
doubt the Front of the Church of the bare-footed _Carmelites_, situate
upon the Great Canal, is the most magnificent, not only of _Venice_, but
perhaps of _Europe_; as well with regard to the Proportions of
Architecture that have been carefully observ’d, as with regard to the
Fineness of the Marble, white as Alabaster, with which this beautiful
Front is wholly embellish’d. The Inside of this Church is extremely
magnificent. The Roof is richly gilded, and curiously painted. The Walls
are fac’d with Marble Pilasters; the Floor is of Stones inlaid with
various Colours, and the Altars are exceeding stately: But of all these
different things there seems to be too great a number, so that I could
wish many of the Ornaments had been spar’d; for a noble Simplicity wou’d
have look’d much better.

This sort of Simplicity is conspicuous in the Church of St. _George_, one
of the biggest in _Venice_, the Architecture of which is surprizing. A
Convent belongs to it, which for Magnificence and Regularity surpasses
many Sovereign Palaces. The great Stair-Case is a fine piece of
Architecture, and wou’d become a King’s Palace much better than a Convent.
This House has two noble Cloysters planted with Orange-Trees, a couple of
spacious Courts, and two large Gardens well cultivated, which have
Terrasses from whence there is a Prospect of the Sea, and the neighbouring

The Capuchins, whose Churches are very plain every where else, have a very
noble one here, which is called _Al Redemptore_. It was built by order of
the Republic to discharge a Vow they had made in the time of a Plague. The
honest Capuchin who shew’d me the Church, made me take special notice of a
Crucifix of Brass over the high Altar, whereon our Saviour is represented
expiring, with his Head leaning on his right Shoulder. My Guide assur’d me
that when the Crucifix was plac’d in the Church the Head of our Lord’s
Image was erect, but that it fell afterwards into its present Posture.

There are other Churches worth seeing, were it only for the stately Tombs
of the most distinguish’d Families of the Republic. Such is the Tomb of
the noble Family of _Cornaro_, in the Church of the _Cajetans_, where are
the Marble Effigies of eight Cardinals, and four Doges descended from that
Family. In the Churches of St. _Paul_ and St. _John_ are Pictures very
much esteem’d by the _Connoisseurs_, and there’s the sumptuous Tomb of the
_Valerios_, where the Father, the Mother, with the Son, are carv’d in
their natural Proportion in Marble, apparell’d in the Habit of the Doge
and Dogess.

Before I have done with the Churches, I think I ought to give you some
account of that of the _Jesuits_; the Front whereof is of noble
Architecture, well disposed, and the Ornaments not too much crouded; but
the Decoration of the Inside is really grand. Nothing can be richer than
the Choir, and the high Altar. The Choir consists of a spacious Dome
supported by four large Pillars of white Marble, lin’d with great
Flower-pieces of old green Marble. The Roof is painted and gilt. The high
Altar, which is all of Marble, is a Pavilion or Dome supported by ten
Columns wreath’d of the ancient _Greek_ Marble. The Tabernacle is of
Alabaster, incrustated with _Lapis-Lazuli_. To all this rich Work are
added two Angels in their natural Proportion, over which are the Effigies
of God the Father, and God the Son. The five Steps leading to the Altar
are of green Marble, incrustated with old yellow Marble so artfully that
this Work would easily be taken for a Piece of _Persian_ Tapestry. The
Pulpit and the Balustrade, which separates the Nave from the Choir, are of
Marble, and perfectly answerable to the Magnificence of the whole Church.

I now proceed to the Arsenal, so much celebrated in _Europe_, perhaps more
for what it has been than what it is at present. Three Nobles have the
Management or Custody of it, who relieve one another every Week. He that
is in waiting must visit the Posts in the Night-time; and the Centinels
are oblig’d each to ring a Bell every Hour, that the Officer upon Guard
may know they are at their Posts. No body can see the Arsenal without
Leave of the Nobleman in waiting, who never refuses it to Persons of Rank.
The first thing I was shew’d were four Rooms full of Arms necessary for
the Marines, where are also kept the Cuirasses of those Generals who have
most distinguish’d themselves in the Service of the Republic; but they are
all full of Dust. Then I was shewed the Magazine of Anchors, and the
Cellar to which the Workmen of the Arsenal go when they please to a
Fountain of Wine and Water mix’d. As much diluted as this Wine is, ’tis
said that there’s no less spent here every Year than amounts to 74000
Crowns. This is an Endowment which was settled by one _Cornaro_ Queen of
_Cyprus_, for the Relief of the Workmen. Near this Cellar are the Forges,
of which there are twelve; but there are only two actually at work. The
Rope-Yard just by it, is 410 Paces in length, and serves at the same time
for a Warehouse of Hemp, of which I did not see any great Quantity. In
another Court there were a great many Cannon, both Iron and Brass, a Room
full of Bullets, a Magazine of Cordage, a Timber-Yard, and three great
Rooms full of Arms for the Foot Soldiers. There was another that serv’d as
an Arsenal for the Horse, but ’twas lately burnt down by the Carelessness
of a Centinel. The Dock for building and refitting of Ships forms a
separate Court, in the midst of which there’s a great Bason that
communicates with the Sea, and is encompass’d with twenty six Sheds
cover’d over, which contain as many Ships, Galleys, and Galleasses. The
latter are Machines of a terrible Size, which have a sort of Battery at
both ends. My Guide assur’d me that a _Venetian_ Galleass was not afraid
of twenty five _Turkish_ Galleys: This may be; but I wou’d venture a
Wager on the side of the Infidels. In this same Dock are the Prowes of
twelve _Turkish_ Galleys taken at the famous Battle of _Lepanto_. But the
most noble thing in all this Dock, is the _Bucentaur_, which went out of
Port for the first time in the Year 1728. This superb Vessel was built by
_Antonio Corradini_; and is so well design’d, and the Ornaments of
Sculpture, of which there’s a great number, so well plac’d, that every
thing is easily distinguish’d, and strikes with Amazement. ’Tis gilded
down to the Water-edge, and ’tis said that the Expence of it amounted to
70000 Sequins. The Deck is cover’d from Head to Stern with Crimson-Velvet,
bedaub’d with a broad Lace, and Gold Fringes. And the inside if possible
is more magnificent than the Outside. There’s a great Room the length of
the Ship, where the Doge sits on a Throne, and the Ambassadors and
Senators on Seats like those of the Canons in the Choir. The Cieling
consists of Bas-reliefs in divers Compartments intirely gilt. The Floor is
of Walnut-tree, incrusted with Ebony-Wood and Mother of Pearl. The Rowers
who sit in the Hold of the Ship are all of one Livery, and their Oars
gilt, which makes a very fine Sight when all hands strike together.

You know that the _Bucentaur_ never goes out but once a-year, upon
Ascension-day, when the Captain who then commands must take an Oath before
he stirs out of the Harbour, that he will bring her back again into the
Arsenal. He carries nothing aboard of his own, for unless the Weather be
very fair indeed, the Ceremony is put off to another day. They build a new
_Bucentaur_ every hundred Years, and the old ones are laid up till they

I just now hear that the Post is going off, so that I am oblig’d to defer
what I have farther to say of _Venice_ till the next. I shall be
infinitely pleas’d if I can satisfy your Curiosity, and much more if I
can prove to you that no body has a more profound Veneration for you than
I, _Who am_, &c.


                              LETTER XXVI.

  _SIR_,                                       _Venice, May 15, 1730._

The Common-wealth keeps twelve Galleys in pay, and twenty Men of War. The
_Capitana_ Galley, call’d the _Fusta_, never goes out of the Great Canal,
but is continually at Anchor before the Square of St. _Mark_. There’s
commonly four Galleys and as many Men of War in the _Levant_. Others lie
at Anchor in the Canal of _Zueca_, which were lately drawn out of the
Arsenal, because for want of Water the Ships receive Damage. The Power of
the Republic consists chiefly in its Maritime Force. It maintains very few
Land Forces, and those they have are all kept at _Corfou_, which is the
Rampart of _Venice_, and the Defence of the Gulph; the Preservation of
which is owing to the Count _de Schulemburg_, General in chief of the
Republic; for in the last War when the _Turks_ attempted to take it, ’twas
he that oblig’d them to raise the Siege: And the Republic in
acknowledgment of this important Service caus’d his Statue on Horseback to
be erected in the Square of the Old Castle of _Corfou_; and settled a
Pension upon him of 5000 Crowns a-year for his Life, besides his ordinary

’Tis certain that _Venice_ has suffer’d a Decay both of Power and
Commerce. The _Turks_ have taken the _Morea_ from her; she has little or
nothing left in the _Levant_; and as to her Places in the _Terra Firma_
they are poor, depopulated, and meanly fortified. One of the main
Securities of _Venice_ is her Lakes; but for some Years past they begin to
thicken so by the Mud and Dirt brought by the Rivers which fall into the
Gulph, as in time must prove to the very great Detriment of _Venice_,
because Ships which us’d formerly to go in or out with ease, can only go
out now by the help of a Canal which has been cut for the purpose. This
Inconvenience might have formerly been prevented for a trifle of Expence,
whereas now ’tis past all remedy.

The Powers of which the _Venetians_ ought to be most jealous, are the
_Turks_ and the Emperor, in whose Dominions they are in a manner inclos’d.
The Great Duke of _Tuscany_ and the Duke of _Parma_ were formerly Powers
which were of little or no Terror to the Republic; but if those Dominions
shou’d ever come under the Sovereignty of _Don Carlos_, the political
System of _Italy_ will be very much alter’d, and the _Venetians_ will in
all probability be oblig’d to keep fair with him. The Republic has for a
long time observ’d an exact Neutrality in the Quarrels among the Princes
of Christendom, perhaps because it knows not for which side to determine
itself; for tho’ the Senate hates the _Spaniards_, and cannot forget the
famous Conspiracy of the Marquiss _de Bedmar_ the Catholic King’s
Ambassador; they don’t much like either the _Germans_ or _French_, whose
Power gives them Umbrage. And I believe, were it possible for the
_Venetians_ to hurt those three Powers at the same time, we shou’d quickly
see their Republic rouze itself from that Lethargy in which it’s profound
State-Policy has doz’d it.

Since the _English_ and _Dutch_ became Masters of the Commerce of
_Europe_, the Trade of _Venice_ is as much decay’d as its Power; and
their Manufactures are sunk extremely. The _Venetians_ heretofore
furnished almost all _Europe_ with Cloth; their Looking-Glasses, and those
for Drinking, were also in great vogue, but those Manufactures are since
transplanted into other Countries, so that _Venice_ scarce furnishes any
more than _Italy_. ’Tis worth while however to go and see the Glass-House
where they work Night and Day, except in _August_ and _September_, when
the Heats are too violent. ’Tis certain the Drinking-Glasses made here are
much stronger than any other, but as they are blown they are not near so
substantial as the Glass that is run; however they require less Labour,
and have the Advantage when they are broke of being melted again; the
Matter of which they are composed being much more flexible than that of
the run Glass.

The Nobles of _Venice_ are Slaves to Policy, Diffidence, and Suspicion;
and Ambassadors are much more so, whom every one shuns as suspected
Persons, and whom a Foreigner can scarce talk to without renouncing his
Correspondence with the Nobles. An Ambassador is oblig’d to confine
himself to his own Family, or else to amuse himself in the Company of
Foreigners, of whom there is always a good number in this City; for no
Nobleman dare visit him without the express leave of the Senate, who now
indeed grant it much more freely than they did formerly.

Customs are alter’d here in very many things. ’Twas formerly a Crime to
see a Woman in private, and a Foreigner did not dare to run the Venture;
but now the case is quite different, for there are several Houses of
Quality where I am indulg’d, and am often _tête a tête_ with the Mistress
of the House, without any more notice taken of me than if I were in
_France_, where Ease and Freedom are so much boasted. The Ladies are
great Visiters, and have Assemblies every Night, to which they repair
alone in their Gondola’s without any other Attendance but a Valet de
Chambre, who serves as their Gentleman-Usher. They are mask’d at all
public Performances, and go where they have a mind to it. This easy access
to the Ladies contributes not a little to make my Stay in this City
agreeable. I own to you that I am infinitely charm’d with it; there are a
thousand Things here that please me, and were I to chuse any City in
_Italy_ to live in, ’twould certainly be this, where People enjoy entire
Liberty, provided they don’t meddle with the State and its Government,
which after all too, I don’t think a Foreigner has much to do with. Here
one is in the Centre of civil Pleasures and Debauchery. God is as
exemplarily serv’d here as in any Place whatsoever. Few Nations observe
the Externals of Religion better than the _Italians_ in general and the
_Venetians_ in particular, of whom it may be said that they spend one half
of their time in committing Sin, and the other half in begging God’s

Masquerades are more in fashion here than elsewhere. People go in Masks to
take the Air, as well as to Plays and Balls; and ’tis the favourite
Pleasure both of the Grandees and the Commonalty. This gives rise to many
Adventures, and sometimes one makes Acquaintance under a Mask which would
be impracticable perhaps, were not such Disguises in Fashion. I remember
that the first time I was here I struck up an Acquaintance in the Square
of St. _Mark_ with two of the first-rate Ladies of this Country. They were
mask’d, and I was in a Scarlet Domino embroider’d with Silver, which being
a Habit that had been seldom seen here, drew the Eyes of all the Company
in the Square upon me, and in particular of two Ladies, one of whom
twitching me by the Sleeve, said to me, ‘Sir, I and the Lady here, my
Friend, fancy by your Air which outstrips our Gentlemen, that you are a
Foreigner, and we are inclin’d to think that you are no mean Person. We
should be glad of your Conversation, and you will do us a Pleasure to take
a turn with us round the Square.--You do me too much Honour, fair Lady
(said I, walking on) and what you tell me of my Appearance pleases me the
more because you are both the compleatest Ladies in the Place. As you
guess by my Habit that I am not a common Person, your Air persuades me
that I have the Honour to speak to Ladies of Quality.--You are not
mistaken (said the same Lady to me) this Lady my Companion is Madame
_M----_ and I am the Wife of Mr. _C----_. You find (continu’d she) that
our Names are pretty well known in _Venice_. Now, after having told you
who we are, may we presume to ask who you are?’ I gratify’d their
Curiosity by pulling off my Mask, which I thought a Compliment due to
their Quality. I had scarce told my Name, when the Lady who had not yet
spoke one Word, said to me, ‘You are not so much a Stranger among us as
you imagine; your Name is very well known to me, and the late Madame
_Duhamel_, your Aunt, whose[164] Husband was Commander in chief of our
Forces, was one of my most intimate Friends, and she often told me how
much she wish’d to see you here; but ’twas a Comfort she did not live to
enjoy. She went with her Husband to _Corfou_, where he died not without
Suspicion of Poison; for he was accus’d of being too great a _Frenchman_;
and your Aunt who was return’d from _Corfou_ with a Design to go and
spend the Remainder of her Days at _Berlin_, died as she was performing
Quarentine in our Port. You caus’d her Body to be remov’d to _Berlin_, and
you was one of her Heirs; and, tho’ I don’t mention it to make a Merit of
it, I must tell you that you are oblig’d to me for it, since I pleaded for
you against a very great number of M. _Duhamel_’s Relations. My Love to
your Aunt put me upon engaging Mr. _M----_ to espouse your Interest, which
he promoted with Success, and prevail’d on the Senate to prefer the
Recommendations of the King of _Prussia_ and the Elector of _Hanover_ who
both protected you, before the Instances made by the _French_ Ambassador
in the Name of the King his Master, in favour of Messieurs _Duhamel_. I
was infinitely pleas’d (continu’d Madame _M----_) that I had an
Opportunity of serving you, and you may depend upon it that Mr. _M----_
and I shall ever interest our selves heartily for all that belong to our
deceased Friend.’ I made answer to Madame _M----_ in Terms suitable to her
obliging Expressions, and crav’d her Permission to pay my respects to her
at her House. She answer’d me very civilly that she would send her Husband
to me, and that then she should be glad to see me at her House. Next
Morning as I was ready to go out, and wait upon Mr. _M----_ to whom I
thought I ow’d a Visit after the Civilities I had receiv’d from his Wife,
I was told that he was at my Door and desir’d to speak with me. I went and
receiv’d him, and found him every whit as polite as his Lady. He offer’d
to shew me the Curiosities of _Venice_ till his Wife was stirring. We went
and saw several Churches, after which he conducted me to his House where I
found Madame _M----_ who receiv’d me with all the Civility possible. She
was a Woman who tho’ forty Years of Age shew’d that she had been a very
beautiful Lady in her time. Madame _C----_ happen’d to be in her Company,
with whom she had been the Day before in the Square of St. _Mark_. I never
saw a more beautiful Lady, or that had a nobler Carriage. She was not yet
twenty Years of Age, but had been marry’d five Years to a Man, who tho’
the most ill-favour’d of his Sex had a most amiable Behaviour. I fell in
love with Madame _C----_ as soon as ever I saw her, and when I beheld her
Husband, I had Presumption enough to believe that my Application to the
Lady would not be disagreeable. But I soon perceiv’d that she was not a
Woman for my turn; she quickly depriv’d me of all Hopes of Success; and I
no sooner saw those Hopes vanish’d, which are the only Support of Lovers,
but I dropp’d my Amour. I had another in view which was attended with
better Success: M. _M----_ carry’d me to a Country-House of his towards
_Padua_, and I don’t know where I was ever more agreeably entertain’d in
my whole Life. ’Tis at these Country Seats one sees the _Venetians_ in
Perfection, who are quite another sort of People here than in the City;
for here they put off that grave serious Air which they affect in Town,
and are quite sociable, civil, courteous, and live with more splendor. As
these Country-Houses are near one another, the Gentlemen to whom they
belong visit each other very much, and are almost always together; but at
_Venice_ they live with more Restraint.

I am in some doubt whether I should reckon the Music of the _Venetian_
Churches in the number of its Pleasures; but upon the whole, I think I
ought, because certainly their Churches are frequented more to please the
Ear, than for real Devotion. The Church of _la Pieta_ which belongs to the
Nuns who know no other Father but Love, is most frequented. These Nuns are
enter’d very young, and are taught Music, and to play on all sorts of
Instruments, in which some of ’em are excellent Performers. _Apollonia_
actually passes for the finest Singer, and _Anna-Maria_’s for the first
Violin in _Italy_. The Concourse of People to this Church on Sundays and
Holidays is extraordinary. ’Tis the Rendezvous of all the Coquettes in
_Venice_, and such as are fond of Intrigues have here both their Hands and
Hearts full. Not many Days after my Arrival in this City I was at this
very Church, where was a vast Audience, and the finest of Music. As I was
going out, a Woman who hid her Face accosted me, saying, there was a Lady
in a Gondola who desir’d to speak with me. Tho’ this smelt strong of an
Adventure, which I was never very fond of, I however went along with the
Woman; and really, not above ten Paces from the Spot I found a Gondola, in
which was a Lady whom I knew to be the Daughter of the unfortunate Baron
_de H----_ of whose tragical Catastrophe you have heard. I own it mov’d my
Compassion, as well as Sorrow, to see before my Eyes a young Lady of Rank
in a strange Country and in such a Situation as made me surmise that she
was in a bad Way. But it even touch’d me to the quick, when after having
made her Apology to me for having sent for me, she said to me with a Voice
interrupted with Sighs, ‘For God’s sake tell me what’s become of my poor
Father; is he still living? He has been the Cause of his own Unhappiness
and mine too; he has plung’d me into an Abyss of Woe, but he is still my
Father: Nothing can make me forget the Duty I owe him; I should be glad
even to lay down my Life to relieve his Misfortunes.’ I told her that I
had not been at _Berlin_ for a long time; that I had not kept up a
Correspondence there with any body, and that consequently I could not tell
her any News of her Father. I knew at the same time that he died in
Prison at _Spandaw_; but I was loth to be the Messenger of such bad News
to a Person who seem’d to be already too much afflicted. ‘I did not know
you were at _Venice_ (reply’d Madamoiselle _de H----_) or I should have
sought an Opportunity to speak with you. I saw you at the Church of _la
Pieta_, and the sight of you call’d my Misfortunes fresh to my Memory, as
well as the sad Catastrophe of your old Friend my Father. I could not
refrain shedding Tears, and the Remembrance of my Disgrace has eclips’d
the Pleasure I take in seeing you.’ I endeavour’d to assuage her Grief,
and to calm her ruffled Soul; and therefore I went with her to her House,
and when I saw her a little compos’d I ask’d her questions about her state
of Life, and desir’d her to tell me how she had pass’d her time since she
left _Berlin_. She answer’d me in every Point with a great deal of Honesty
and Simplicity. ‘After the Execution of that Sentence (said she) which
degraded my Father from Nobility and Honour, and set him on a level with
the basest Scoundrels, I had not the Courage to stay at _Berlin_. I went
to _H----_ to find out Madame _de B----_ my Aunt from whom I hoped to meet
with Protection; but I soon experienc’d that the Unfortunate have no
Relations. My Aunt would not give me House-room, and sent a Confident of
her’s to tell me that she advis’d me to be gone from _H----_ or else to
change my Name and not to call me her Cousin, unless I had a Desire to be
confin’d. But alas! I would then have taken it as a Favour if my Aunt had
shut me up; for I was in extreme Want, and knew not what would become of
me. I lodg’d at an Inn where I got my Living by making of Linnen and
Washing, when a good likely young Man came and took up his Quarters in the
very same House, who immediately struck up an Acquaintance with me. I know
not what he saw in me to charm him, for I did nothing but cry all the day
long. Mean time he talk’d to me of Love, and gave me so many
Demonstrations of his flaming Passion that I found he was really smitten
with me. To tell you the whole Truth, I was not long insensible of the
same Passion. He even offer’d to marry me, which, since he would not be
deny’d, I consented to. He told me that he was an Officer in the Emperor’s
Service, and a Native of _Lubeck_, and that he was come hither to take
possession of an Estate fallen to him by Inheritance. I took what he said
to be true because he was handsomely equipp’d, and had his Pockets well
lin’d. In short, I was smitten with him, and thought I should be very
happy in taking him for my Husband. Not many Days after our Marriage, he
told me that he must needs set out for _Hungary_ where the Regiment was
quarter’d, whereof he said he was a Lieutenant, and that consequently I
must make ready to go with him.--We set out from _H----_ and arriv’d
happily at _Vienna_. It was in that very City that my Husband, who till
then behav’d well towards me, and whose Conduct had been very regular,
chang’d all on a sudden to the reverse. He spent the whole Day in
Gaming-Houses, and the Night in Debauchery. Sometimes he never once came
home for four or five Days together, and when he did, ’twas only to insult
me, and to upbraid me with the misfortune of my Father, which I discover’d
to him before Marriage, for fear he should reproach me one time or other
with having deceiv’d him. He told me that I was a Disgrace to him, that
his Colonel had broke him for marrying me, and that I was the Author of
his Ruin. I try’d to pacify him, and spar’d no Pains nor Complaisance for
it, but all to no purpose. I heard that my Husband was desperately in love
with a common Prostitute, that he had ruin’d himself for her sake; and in
a little time he was oblig’d to sell the very Clothes off his back. He had
contracted Debts, and expecting every day to be arrested by his Creditors,
he left _Vienna_ privately, abandoning me to the most dreadful Despair.
’Twas eight Months before I heard a Word of him. At last I came to know
that he was here at _Venice_, and I resolv’d to find him out. Madame the
Countess of _W----_ who had generously assisted me, fitted me out for the
Journey, but when I came hither I did not find my Husband, who I heard was
at _Padua_. I was making my self ready to follow him thither, when I heard
the News that he was kill’d by a Student with whom he had a Quarrel at
Gaming. His Death fill’d up the Measure of my Sorrow. I found my self
quite a Stranger here without Friends or Subsistence. I endeavour’d, but
in vain, to get my Living by my Labour, as I had done at _H----_ but I
found so little to do that ’twas impossible for me to hold out long; and I
must undoubtedly have sunk under my Misery if it had not been for the
noble _D----_ who out of Pity to my Condition reliev’d me six Years ago by
granting me a Pension: But how happy should I be if I could live without
it, and retire for ever to some religious Foundation!’ Here the
unfortunate _H----_ concluded her Narrative. I sifted her Sentiments about
Religion: I knew she had been educated in the _Lutheran_, but she
express’d her Inclination to embrace the Catholic Religion, and also to
turn Nun. I promis’d to serve her all that lay in my power, and that same
Evening I spoke to Madame _M----_ who promis’d me to enter her into Orders
as soon as she was turn’d Catholic. A Jesuit who has had the tutoring of
her for near a Month gives us Hopes that she will instantly be qualify’d
to take the Veil. She seems to me to be very eager for it. A few days ago
I acquainted her with her Father’s Death, with which she seem’d very much
affected, but at the same time she express’d her Submission to the Decrees
of Providence, and told me her Misfortunes with so much Resignation, that
I have Reason to think she will be very happy in the Retirement which she
is about to embrace. If this be the Case, I shall think my self very
fortunate in having contributed by my Advice to her Tranquillity. Heaven
grant her Prayers may prevail that I my self may put those Lessons in
practice which I have taught her, as to the Necessity of Conversion.

Pardon me, Sir, this long Digression. As you knew the unfortunate _H----_
in his Prosperity, and as you are also inform’d of his Disgrace, I thought
you would not be sorry to hear of the Fate of his Daughter. I now resume
my Remarks on _Venice_.

Two Days ago I went to see the _Scuola St. Rocco_, which are Rooms where
the Fraternities of that Saint meet, in which are Pictures done by the
greatest Masters, particularly one in the great Room below, which is the
Picture of the _Annunciation_ done by _Tintoret_, a Piece highly esteem’d.
This Picture is, without Contradiction, one of the finest and most
affecting Paintings at _Venice_, because of the lively Expressions of
Surprise, Admiration, and Joy which appear in the _Virgin’s_ Face. She is
sitting in her Chamber, which the skilful Painter has represented as a
plain mean Room in some Disorder with old and worn out Furniture. Upon the
grand Stair-case there’s another Picture representing the _Annunciation_
in like manner, which is done by _Titian_, and is not one of the worst of
his Performances. The upper Rooms are adorn’d with several Pictures done
by _Tintoret_, in which he has described our Lord’s Passion. Our Saviour
appearing before _Pilate_ is an admirable Piece; ’tis really moving to see
the Modesty and Serenity of his Countenance. A second Picture represents
our Lord carrying his Cross. In a third, we see him fasten’d on it, and
expiring for the Salvation of Mankind. These are invaluable Pieces, and
are reckon’d the compleatest that ever _Tintoret_ painted.

I have also been to see the chief Palaces, which lie for the most part on
the great Canal, and that call’d _Reggio_. They are very magnificent, but
they are generally so like one another that he who has seen one may say he
has seen them all. They have little Court-Yards, less Gardens, and no
Stables. Nothing goes to form a Palace at _Venice_ but the main Body of
the Building, a great Salon in the middle, and Apartments on the Right and
Left; and setting aside the Marble, there are Palaces as magnificent
elsewhere which have only the name of a House.

The Square of St. _Mark_ is the ordinary Rendezvous of all the Gentry at
_Venice_. There are Nobles who keep their constant Circuits here as it
were, and who never stir from the Place but to Bed, for they pass their
whole Time in Gaming at the Coffee-Houses, or in the Peruke-Makers Shops.
The number of their Nobles is not limited; and any body for paying down
100000 Ducats may purchase Nobility. These Gentlemen compliment each other
with the Title of _Excellency_, and ’tis what they all challenge from
Foreigners. Mean time, some of those _Excellencies_ go to the Shambles,
and to the Fish-Market, and carry home their Meat or their Fish under
their Robes, and some are so very poor that they go a begging. This Title
is so very common here that I had much ado to hinder a Lackey whom I hired
from giving it to me. Tho’ I told him that I was by no means _Excellent_,
he made me answer that he knew full well what Obligations were due to my
Excellency, and that he would not be thought to be wanting in Respect to
my Excellency. A _Frenchman_ lately come from _Constantinople_ to whom I
made my Complaints, how much this Title was prophan’d, assur’d me that the
_Venetians_ were still more lavish of it out of _Venice_, so that he heard
the very Grooms belonging to the Baillo of the Republic at
_Constantinople_, compliment one another with the Title of _Excellency_.

Among the _Venetian_ Excellencies there are also _Petits-Maitres_ who are
known by their Doublets lin’d with Scarlet, their fine white Perukes, by
their fantastical Step, and that Air of lolling which they give themselves
in their Gondola’s, which are much smaller and nimbler than the common
sort. These _Petits-Maitres_ are great Beaus, and have commonly more than
one Mistress at a time, and indeed there are few Nobles but have one at
least. These Creatures, excepting the little Liberty they enjoy, are as
happy as Sultana’s. Their Lovers treat them like Princesses, and the
_Venetians_ in general pay great respect to the whole Sex. I have seen
_Faustina_ the famous Singer, and _Stringuetta_ the noted Courtezan come
mask’d upon the Square of St. _Mark_, leaning on the Shoulders of
Noblemen, and every Man paying them as much Obeisance as if they had been
Ladies of great Importance. The same day that they appear’d on the Square
there happen’d to be a Skirmish between two Women mask’d that were Rivals,
who, as soon as they knew one another, fell out, went to Cuffs, tore off
each other’s Masks, and at last Knives were drawn, with which they cut one
another so deeply that one of ’em was left dead on the Spot.

       *       *       *       *       *

I now think it high time to finish my Letter which is already very long,
and perhaps too full of Trifles. I have told you every Thing that came
uppermost in my Mind, so that you have a perfect Farrago, which however
is a Proof of the Pleasure I take in corresponding with you.


                             LETTER XXVII.

  _SIR_,                                  _Ronciglione, May 30, 1730._

As it appears by all the Letters from _Rome_ that they are on the point of
chusing a new Pope, I set out sooner from _Venice_ than I should otherways
have done, and came post to this City without stopping much by the Way. I
pass’d thro’ PADUA, where I had the Honour to pay my Respects to the
Prince _Emanuel_ of _Portugal_, who is come to reside there for some time,
and I was afterwards at the Comedy, which was indeed, a most wretched
Performance, but the Assembly was gay and numerous: Among the rest there
were a great number of Students and young Fellows, particularly one that
made a very finical Appearance, who had ten or twelve Patches on his Face,
a red Coat embroider’d with black Gawse, a Hat, a Shoulder-Knot,
Stockings, _&c._ the whole trimm’d with Gawse. I took him at first for a
Mountebank, but I plainly saw that the Whimsicalness of his Dress was the
Humour of the Country. What gave me some Amusement was, to see a Hare
which Harlequin had taught to play Tricks, to tumble Top over Tail, to
leap over a Stick, and to beat a Drum with his two Fore-feet.

From _Padua_ I went to FERRARA a City in the Ecclesiastical State, where
the Pope keeps a Legat who is always a Cardinal. It appear’d to me to be a
large City with spacious Streets, and some fine Palaces, but it did not
seem to be very populous, which is ascrib’d to the bad Air in this
Country, otherwise one of the finest in all _Italy_.

The Road from _Ferrara_ to BOLOGNA is extremely level, and as good and
agreeable in Summer as ’tis unpassable in Winter. _Bologna_ is the second
City in the Ecclesiastical State, and is a large fine Town. ’Tis in a most
charming Situation, all the Country round it being properly a Garden, and
one of the most fruitful and fairest Plats in Nature. ’Tis said this City
contains near 80000 Inhabitants. The common People are civil and well
bred, and none more polite to Foreigners than the Noblemen. There are
stately Palaces here, of which I will only mention that of the Marquis
_Rinucci_, because to me it seem’d to be one of the most considerable in
the City. ’Tis very magnificent, and of a vast extent. The Ground-Floor
contains three large Apartments, the first Story five, and the second as
many. The Stair-case of this Palace is very much esteem’d for its
Contrivance. In one of the Halls are two large Pictures: The first is the
Consecration of the Emperor _Charles_ V. perform’d by the Pope at
_Bologna_: The second represents _Frederic_ IV. King of _Denmark_ giving
Audience to the Senate of _Bologna_: and their complimenting him on his
Arrival. In another of those Halls are two other curious large Pictures;
the one of Cardinal _Rinucci_, having Audience of the King of _Poland_
when he was sent to him as Nuncio; and the second shews the same Cardinal
receiving the Cap from _Lewis_ XIV. King of _France_, at whose Court he
was Nuncio when he was promoted to the Purple. The Apartments adjoining to
these Halls are also adorn’d with excellent Paintings and very richly

The Churches of _Bologna_ are not less magnificent than the finest
Churches in _Italy_. I thought that of St. _Paul_ the most worthy of
Remark, which is serv’d by _Bernardine_ Fryars. The Roof is adorn’d with
Paintings representing the History of St. _Paul_. These Pictures which are
highly esteem’d are the Performances of _Antonio Caccioli_ and _Rolli_ two
Natives of _Bologna_, and they have both out-done themselves. The Painting
of the Dome where St. _Paul_ is represented on his Knees ready to have his
Head struck off is admirably fine. The high Altar is of Marble of various
Colours, finish’d with a great deal of Art. The Seats of the Monks are of
Wallnut-Tree, and over them are several Pictures of the Life of St. _Paul_
drawn by an able Hand, who was _Carache_’s Pupil. The Churches of St.
_Catherine_ of _Bologna_, and St. _Michael_ in _Bosco_ are well worth the
Traveller’s Observation, on account of the choice Pictures with which they
are adorn’d. St. _Michael_’s in _Bosco_ stands upon an Eminence three
Miles from _Bologna_, to which there’s an Entrance thro’ a cover’d Gallery
made like a Piazza. ’Twas a Work erected by the Citizens of _Bologna_, out
of their Devotion to a miraculous Image of the _Holy Virgin_ which is
reverenc’d in this Church.

The Legate’s Palace is very ancient, but grand and magnificent. ’Tis as
strictly guarded during the Vacancy of the Holy See as if the Enemy were
at the Gates of the City. All the Avenues to it are hung with Chains: The
_Swiss_ Guards are arm’d with Cuirasses: The Guard which consists of fifty
Soldiers is barricaded with Pallisades and Chevaux de Frise, and the
Palace-Gate is defended by eight Pieces of Cannon.

What remains for me to tell you of _Bologna_ is, that ’tis one of the
Cities in _Italy_ where a Foreigner finds most Amusement. The Nobility not
only strive to give him Pleasure, but he has fine Paintings to feast his
Eye, and here are often excellent Concerts of Music, Operas, and Comedies,
charming Walks, and genteel Country-Houses; which I take to be all that
can be desir’d in Life.

From _Bologna_ I travell’d in two days to _Florence_, after having been
dragg’d in my Chaise thro’ the _Apennines_, a prodigious Range of
Mountains; which is a thing I shall never do again while I live; for I
really suffer’d very much in this Road, and if ever you should have a
fancy to come this way, I would advise you to carry Provisions or a Cook
with you, for there is not one considerable Place in all the Road.
_Fiorenzola_, which is almost half way, is a sorry little Town. From
thence to _Scarperia_ the Road is extremely rugged. One descends a high
Mountain pav’d like a Stair-case, which to attempt in a Chaise, you are
sure of being, if I may so call it, broke upon the Wheel, and therefore I
chose to walk down. At _Scarperia_ the Road becomes more passable, and it
mends as you come near _Florence_. In our Way we pass’d thro’ a Town
call’d _Ponte_ that stands at the Foot of a Hill, where the Great Duke has
a Castle which appear’d to me to be very well fortify’d.

One perceives FLORENCE a great way off, and indeed it makes a fine point
of View to see so great a City in a beautiful Valley between Hills which
rise insensibly, and end at length in high Mountains, inhabited in such a
manner that they may be reckon’d the Suburbs of _Florence_. The River
_Arno_ passes thro’ both the City and the Valley. Among all the Cities of
_Italy_, _Florence_ may justly be surnamed the _Fair_, since it has all
that can be desir’d in a great and wealthy Town, such as sacred and
profane Edifices, Bridges, Monuments, and Fountains; yet ’tis not so
large nor populous as _Bologna_. As I enter’d _Florence_ I perceived over
the Gate a Table of white Marble with a _Latin_ Inscription on it, as


’Twas the late Great Duke _Cosmo_ who caus’d this to be engrav’d to the
Honour of the King of _Denmark_.

The City of _Florence_ has been so well describ’d that I shall pass very
briefly over all that relates to the Buildings. The Square call’d _Piazza
del Gran Duca_ or the old Palace, contains Ornaments enough to embellish a
great Town. Here you see a spacious Fountain which _Cosmo_ I. caus’d to be
built after the Designs of _Amminati_ and _Philip Baldinucci_, two of the
most famous Sculptors at that Time. Not far from this Fountain is the
Equestrian Statue of _Cosmo_ I. which is rais’d upon a great Pedestal of
white Marble, with this Inscription engrav’d on the chief Front of it:


On the other three Sides of the Pedestal are very fine Bas-Reliefs of
Brass. The first represents _Cosmo_ I. recogniz’d for Sovereign by the
Senate of _Florence_; the second the Ceremony of _Cosmo_’s Coronation,
and the third the same _Cosmo_ in an antique triumphant Car making his
pompous Entry into _Sienna_, which was submitted to his Government.
_Ferdinand_ I. _de Medicis_ when he erected this Statue to the Honour of
his Father, employ’d in the Direction of it the famous _John Bologna_, who
has very well answer’d the Opinion that had been conceiv’d of him.

In the Great Duke’s Gallery near the Square, I saw the greatest
Curiosities, both among the Antients and Moderns. A Busto of _Alexander_
the Great, the famous Statue of _Venus_, cut by _Apollodorus_, with those
of the Emperors and Empresses of _Rome_, and the greatest Personages of
former Centuries; the best Originals of the greatest Painters; and a
thousand uncommon things, such as Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, Emeralds,
Saphirs, Topazes, Amber, Porcellain, Crystal, Porphyry, Coral, Marble, and
Granite, the Particulars of which wou’d form a Volume. They are actually
engraving on Plates, and several Persons of Quality are contributing to
the Expence of this fine Work, which is considerable, and for which
excellent Designers are employ’d. This wou’d have been worthy of the Great
Duke, and it seems to me that this Prince when he sees his Family extinct,
and his Estate pass into the hands of Foreigners, ought at least to
eternize the Glory of his Ancestors by publishing an Inventory of the
immense Wealth which they have acquired, and transmitted to their

Of all the Churches in _Italy_ there are none more magnificent as to the
outside than the Dome of _Milan_, and the Cathedral of _Florence_, both
which are entirely lin’d with Marble of various Colours. A Citizen of
_Florence_, who pretended to know the History of this City perfectly well,
assur’d me that its Cathedral was built out of the Impost of five _Sous_
which had been laid upon every Piece of Cloth that was then sold at
_Florence_; but I believe you may without Breach of Charity take this for
a Story.

Over against the Cathedral is the magnificent Baptistery, to which there’s
an Entrance thro’ three Gates of Brass, so artfully wrought that _Michael
Angelo_ said they were good enough to be the Gates of Paradise.

St. _Laurence_’s Chapel, which is not yet finish’d, is the Admiration of
all Connoisseurs, and is design’d to be the Place for the Burial of the
Great Dukes, whose Remains are to be deposited in a Mausoleum of wonderful
Workmanship, adorn’d with precious Stones. ’Tis 150 years ago that this
Chapel has been building, and yet it wants two Thirds of being finish’d.
If it were lawful to criticise the Conduct of Princes, I must say it
again, that the Great Duke, who sees that his Greatness and his Family
must end with him, ought to put the last hand to this Monument of the
Magnificence of the _Medicis_: For can he hope, that if he himself
neglects to transmit the Lustre of his Family to Posterity, his Successors
will think to do it, who are nothing to him, or at least but very little?
But such is the Humour of _John Gaston_ Great Duke of _Tuscany_; he is so
indifferent and unconcern’d about every thing, that he sees Foreigners
dispose of his Dominions, and nominate his Successor, and the Courtiers
ready to abandon him and to worship the said Successor; and yet the
Prospect, how disagreeable soever it may be, does not seem to give him any
Uneasiness: And he said some days ago, after he had sign’d his Last Will
and Testament, declaring _Don Carlos_ Infante of _Spain_ his Successor,
_that he had just got a Son and Heir by a Dash of his Pen, which he had
not been able to get in thirty four years Marriage_.

Thus, Sir, I have given all you will have of me this time touching
_Florence_, where I cou’d stay but a few days, and then made no
Acquaintance, having only been taken up in seeing the Curiosities of this
City. At my Return from _Rome_ I propose to come hither again, and make
some stay in order to get a little Knowledge of the Court; and then you
shall be inform’d of every Remark that I make.

From _Florence_ I went and din’d at _Castilloncello_, and lay at SIENNA a
City in the Duchy of _Tuscany_, to which _Cosmo_ I. _de Medicis_ made it
subject, not without great Resistance from the _Siennois_. The City which
is both an Archbishoprick and an University, is very pleasantly situate,
and enjoys a very good Air. ’Tis said that _Italian_ is spoke here with
more Purity than in any other Town in _Italy_. It seem’d to me to want
Inhabitants, for I went thro’ several Streets and did not meet a Soul.
’Tis said that a great many of the Nobility are settled in _Sienna_, and
that Strangers are sure to meet with a civil Reception here, but as I
staid no more than one day, I had only a cursory View of the Town. The
Cathedral appear’d to me to be a great and noble Building lin’d with
Marble. The Great Duke’s Palace is ancient, but commodious. It has a Tower
which is look’d upon as a singular piece of Architecture. The Great
Princess[165] _Violante_ of _Bavaria_ is Governess of _Sienna_. She liv’d
formerly in this City, and was mightily belov’d in it; but she has resided
for some time at _Florence_. The Square which is before the Palace is
oval, and hollow in the Middle, so that it may be laid under-water like
the Square _Navona_ at _Rome_.

From _Sienna_ to _Viterbo_ the Road is extremely bad, I passed the
Mountain of _Radifocani_, situate in one of the vilest Countries in all
_Italy_. At the top of the Mountain there’s a Castle, where a Garison of
fifteen Men is kept, with a Commanding Officer, whom I found at the House
of Entertainment where I alighted. He had been a Lieutenant in _France_ in
the Royal _Italian_ Regiment, and spoke very good _French_. He told me
that the Inhabitants under his Government were as bad as the Country, of
which some Moments after, I saw a Proof. A Mule-driver having a Quarrel
with the Drawer, the latter stabb’d him with a Knife in the Rim of the
Belly, with as much Sedateness as if he had been doing a good Action; and
the Commandant never caus’d the Assassin to be apprehended: for which when
I express’d my Surprize to him, he said he had nothing to do out of his
Place; and that besides he did not dare to cause the Assassin to be
apprehended, because he had three Brothers as wicked as himself, who wou’d
not fail to take a Revenge if he was punish’d. And then, said he, I shou’d
have enough to do if I were to cause all to be apprehended who give Wounds
with Knives.

AQUAPENDENTE is a sorry little Town, and yet a Metropolis. BOLSENA is no
better, and MONTEFIASCONE tho’ a Bishoprick, wou’d not be worth
mentioning, were it not for its Vineyards which produce excellent
_Muscadine_ Wine.

VITERBO, three Leagues from _Montefiascone_, seem’d to me to be a pretty
Town. ’Tis adorn’d with three fine Fountains, and pav’d with great Flint
Stones which are four foot long and two foot broad. This City has some
fine Houses in it. ’Tis the See of a Bishop, and its Cathedral is a
Structure which does not want for Grandeur. In this Church the Archbishop
and Elector of _Cologn_ was consecrated by Pope _Benedict_ XIII. who came
hither on purpose to save the Elector all manner of dispute about
Precedency with the Cardinals; who were in their turn so disgruntled with
the Pope, that none of them accompany’d him in this Journey.

MONTEROSO is a pretty Town, but RONCIGLIONE outdoes it; and indeed in all
the Ecclesiastical State there is not a pleasanter. It drives a great
Trade in Snuff. I came hither yesterday at Noon, and don’t think of going
away ’till this Evening, my Chaise being broke. I hope however to lie this
Night at _Rome_, from whence I purpose to send you many good Stories
forthwith. You will do me a Pleasure to let me hear from you; and to
believe me in _Italy_, as well as elsewhere, yours, _&c._

                           _End of Volume_ I.


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                         An Alphabetical INDEX

                                 TO THE

                             FIRST VOLUME.


  _Abbesses_ of two Convents, the Ceremony of marrying them by every Doge
      of _Venice_, 400.
    Their Dress, 401.

  _Agrippina_, Empress of _Rome_, 250.

  _Ahlen-Castle_, in the Dutchy of _Zell_; the Retreat of the Duke’s
      unfortunate Daughter, 62.

  AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, _t._ 199, 341.

  _Albert_, Margrave of _Brandenbourg_, 82.

  _Albert_ I. Emperor, 388.

  _Albert_ II. Emperor, 388.

  _Aller_, R. 61.

  _Alpes_, for whom those Mountains were made, 395.

  ALTENA, _t._ 53, 57.
    Distress of the Inhabitants, 58.
    Privileg’d Place for Bankrupts, 59.

  ALTENBOURG, _t._ 167.

  _Altheim_, Count and Countess, 255, 256.

  _Amelia_, Empress of Germany, 228 to 230, &c. 344.

  _Amminati_, Sculptor, 426.

  _Andrew_, Cardinal of _Austria_, 390.

  St. _Andrew_’s Order of _Muscovy_, 76.

  _Angelo, Michael_, his saying that certain Gates were good enough for
      Paradise, 428.

  _Anhalt-Cothen_, Princess, 173.

  _Anhalt-Dessau Leopold_, Pr. 37.
    His Amour and Marriage, and his Menace to shoot his Tutor, 38, 39.
    His Character by the late D. of _Savoy_, 39.
    His Valour, 39, 40.
    His Government, 82.

  _Augustus Lewis_, Pr. his Wives and Issue, 83.

  _Anhalt-Zerbst, Magdalen-Augusta_, Duchess of _Saxe-Gotha_, 181.

  _Anna-Maria_’s Violin, 415.

  _Anne_, Princess Royal of _Denmark_, and Electress-Dowager of _Saxony_,

  _Anne-Frederica_, of _Promnitz_, 83.

  _Anne-Sophia-Charlotte_, of _Prussia_, Duchess of _Saxe-Eysenach_, 183.

  _Annunciation-Pictures_, done by _Tintoret_ and _Titian_, 419.

  ANSPACH, 193, 204.
    See _Brandenbourg_.

  _Anthony-Ulric_, D. of _Brunswic-Lunenburg-Wolfembuttle_, 69, 71, 73,
      75, 79.

  _Antinous_’s Statue, 370.

  _Antonietta-Amelia_ of _Brunswic-Blanckenbourg_, 72.

  _Apollodorus_ Statuary, 427.

  _Apollonia_, the Singer, 415.

  _Appel_, a Merchant at _Leipsic_, his House the Residence of the K. of
      _Poland_, 85.

  _Appennine_ Mountains, 425.

  AQUAPENDENTE, _t._ 430.

  _Arch-duchess_, 232, 233, 381.

  _Architecture_, the best Article that Princes can lay out their Money
      in, 10.

  _Aremberg_, Duke and Duchess Dowager, 332, 333.

  _Argenson_, M. de, 303.

  _Arlington_, Countess of, 67.

  _Arnheim_, Marshal de, 40.

  _Arnim, Sigismond_ de, 146.

  _Arnould_, St. 366.

  _Arthur_, Prince of Wales, 389.

  AUGSBOURG, _t._ 273.
    Its Comparison with _Antwerp_, 275.
    Its chief Trade, 275, 276.

  _Augusta_, of _Saxe-Gotha_, Princess of _Wales_, 182.

  _Augustus_ III. K. of _Poland_, 97, 99.
    His Travels and Conversion to Popery, 101.
    His Marriage, 102, 165.
    His Love and Duty to his Father, 104.
    His Election and Coronation, 106.
    His Tutor, 126, 127.
    His Queen, 98.
    Their Children, 99.

  _Augustus-William_ D. of _Brunswic-Lunenburg Wolfembuttle_, 69, 71, 73.

  _Augustus-Albert_, Prince of _Prussia_, 113.

  _Augustus_, Emperor, 273.

  _Aulic Council_, at _Berlin_, 14.
    At _Vienna_, 244.

  St. _Austin_’s Tract of the City of God, 179.

  _Austria_, House, of whom it now consists, 233.
    A Wish that it never may be extinct, 233.
    Its great Alliances, 250.

  _Austrian Princes_, remarkable for an Air of Gravity, 112.
    Their People’s Avertion to the _Bohemians_, 222.
    The scurvy Pun of a _French_ Jester upon them, 228.
    Their Epicurism, 253.
    Pride, 254.
    Their Fondness for the Title of Count, 255.

  _Austrian_ and _Lorrain_ Families united, 233, 341.

  _Auvergne_, Princesses, 332, 333.


  _Backover_, M. Chancellor of _Saxe-Gotha_, 182.

  _Baden-Baden_, Margrave and Margravine, 213, 299, 300.

  _Baden-Dourlach, Christian_, Margrave of, 183, 279.
    _Charles_, 293, 296. 298.
    Margravine, 298, 300, 301, 304.

  _Badiani_, Count, 244.

  _Bahlberg, Adolphus_, Baron of, 184.

  _Baldinucci, Philip_, the Sculptor, 426.

  _Balls_ of _Bohemia_, compar’d with those in the _Hay-Market_, 223.

  BAMBERG, t. 201, &c. the mighty Prerogative of its Bishop, 201.

  BARBI, _t._ 82.

  _Bareith_, Margraves. See _Brandenbourg_.

  BAREITH, _t._ 204.
    Princess, 303.

  _Baron_, the Title purchased in
  _Germany_ by a Messenger, 256.

  _Basset_, how a Lady made her Gallant’s Fortune at it, 252.

  _Bass-Viols_, a _German_ Duke’s Fondness for ’em, 168, to 171.

  _Bavaria_, Electors of, 259, 262, 263.
    Its Division, 267.
    Riches and Revenue, 167, 268.
    Electoress, 363, 364.
    Its Apostle, 366.

  _Baudissin_, M. _Wolf, Henry_ de, 104, 127, 128.

  _Baumgarten_, General, 84.

  _Beaufort_, Marquis de, 135.

  _Beausobre_, M. 15.

  _Bedmar_, Marquis de, his Conspiracy, 409.

  _Beichling_, M. Chancellor, 91.

  _Beichling_, Countess Dowager, 141.

  _Belgrade_, 248.

  _Belvedere-Palace_, 4.

  _Benedict_ XIII. Pope, 337, 430.

  _Benedictines_, a sort of Republic form’d in that Order, 190.

  _Benson, William_, Esq; Director of the fine Water-works at
      _Herenhausen_, 67.

  _Bentivoglio_, Cardinal, his Remark upon the _Alps_ and the
      neighbouring People, 395.

  _Bergenopzoom_, 332.

  BERLIN, t. 3. Its Obligation to the _French_ Refugees, 3.
    Its Academy, 147.

  _Bernsdorff, John Hartwig Ernest_, Baron of, 155.

  _Berschen_, t. 394.

  _Beveren_, Baron de, 334, 335.

  _Bevern, Brunswic_ Branch, 71.
    _Charles_, Prince of, 26, 72.
    _Ferdinand-Albert_, Prince of 70, 71, 72.
    _Elizabeth-Christina_, Princess, 72.

  _Bilinski_, Count and Countess, 118.

  _Bishoprick_, which the first in _Germany_, 201.

  _Black Liveries_, never given by a certain _German_ Family, 363.

  _Blanc_, M. de, 306.

  _Blanche, Mary_, Wife to the Emperor _Maximilian_, 389.

  _Blanckenbourg_, County, 79.

  BLANCKENBOURG, t. 76, 78.
    Stupidity of the People, 78.

  _Blanckenbourg_’s Duke and Duchess, 71, 76, 78.
    The Duke’s Treaty with the Elector of _Hanover_ for a Vote and Seat
        in the Dyet, 79.
    His Accession to the Title of the D. of _Wolfembuttle_, 80.

  _Blanckenheim-Mandersheldt, Francis George_, Count de, 333.

  _Bockenheim_, t. 340.

  _Bohemia_, 210, 211, &c. 244.
    Where and by whom its Kings and Queens are consecrated, 212.
    Its Saints, _ib._.
    The Wealth and Grandeur of its Nobility, and the Poverty and Slavery
        of the Peasants, 218, 219, 221.
    Its States, of whom compos’d, 222.
    Their Aversion to the _Austrians_, 222.

  _Bolagnos_, Count de, 397.

  _Bologna, John_, 427.

  BOLOGNA, t. 423, 424.

  BOLSANO. t. 392.

  _Bolsena_, t. 430.

  _Bork_, the _Prussian_ Minister and General, 31, 42.

  _Bose_, Countess of, 145.

  _Bossagno_, t. 394.

  _Bot_, the Architect, 10, 18.
    Compar’d to _Bernini_, 94.

  _Bothmar_, Count de, 65.

  _Bouillon_, Princes, why they had the Title of _Domestic_ Highnesses,

  _Bourbon_ and _Austria_, Houses, our Author’s Wish that they might
      never be extinct, 233.

  _Bourbon_, Duchess of, 310, 332.

  _Bourg_, Marshal de, 306, 307.

  _Brandenbourg_, Electors of, _Joachim_ II. 196.
    _John George_, 204.

  _Brandenbourg, Lewis_, Margrave of, 387.

  _Brandenbourg-Anspach_, Margraves, capital, 193, &c., 195, 361.
    Margravine, 194.
    Her Present to our Author, 197.
    Death in this Family pretended to be always foretold by the
        Appearance of a Spirit, 196.

  _Brandenbourg-Bareith_, Margraves, 200, &c. 205, &c. 303, 342.


  _Brandenbourg-Schwedt_, Marquis of, 26.
    Margravine Dowager, 125.

  _Brandstein, Frederic-Augustus_ de, 145.

  _Brebentau_, Mademoiselle de, 116, 157.

  _Brebentau_, the Palatine of _Marienbourg_, 163.

  _Breitenbauch, Henry-Augustus_ de, 146.

  _Bremer_, M. de, 195.

  _Brenner_, Mountain, 391, 392.

  _Breslau_, the Road from it to _Berlin_, 1.

  _Breton-Villiers_, Marquis, Reflection on his Memoirs, 337.

  _Brezé_, Marshal de, 321.

  BRHOUSEL, t. 318.

  _Brimstone_, prescrib’d to the _Austrians_ by a _French_ Jester, 228.

  BRIXEN, t. 392, 394.

  _Brocks_, a _Hamburgher_ and Poet, 53.

  _Brou_, M. de, 306.

  _Bruhl, John_ and _Henry_ de, 104, 129, 130, 131, 132, 140.
    _Adolphus_ de, 140.
    Baron de, 174, 177.

  _Brunswic Hanover, John-Frederic_, Duke of, 229.

  _Brunswic_ Family, 61, 69, 71.
    The Princes descended from it, 231.

  BRUNSWIC, t. 69, 75.

  _Brunswic-Blanckenbourg, Lewis Rodolf_, Duke of, 70, 231.

  _Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Wolfembuttle_, Duke of, 231.

  _Bucentaur_, a fine Venetian Galley, 399, 407.

  _Bulau_, Baron de, 65, 66.
    Baroness, 66.

  _Burgau, Charles_, Margrave of, 390.

  _Burgundy, Charles_ the Bold, Duke of, 389.
    _Philip_ Duke, 389.

  _Buthler, Constantine_, Baron of, 184.


  _Cabinet Ministers_, their Precedence at the Court of _Prussia_, 134.

  _Caccioli Antonio_, Painter, 424.

  _Cadets Academies_, 48.

  _Cæsar_’s War with Pompey, painted, 370.

  _Callenberg, Augustus-Henry Gottlob_, Count de, 145.

  _Camke_, Madame de, 25.

  _Camke_, Messieurs de, 44.

  _Candi_, a famous Painter, 261.

  _Carinthia, Henry_ Duke of, 387.

  _Carlowitz, John-George_ de, 145.
    Treaty, 238.

  CARLSBAD, t. 208, &c.
    Virtue of its Baths, _ib._

  CARLSROUHE, t. 293.

  _Caroline_, Princess of _Saxe-Eysenach_, 115.

  _Cassel_, See _Hesse_.

  _Castel_, Count de, 195.

  _Castilloncello_, t. 429.

  _Catsch_, M. a Minister of _Prussia_, 5, 17, 43.

  _Catzenellenbogen_, upper County, 357.

  _Chains_, that bound St. _Peter_, St. _Paul_, and St. _John_, three
      Links of them, 198.

  _Chalisac_, M. 37.

  _Charlemain_’s Crown and Sword, 199.
    _Charles_, Margrave of _Burgau_, 390.
    _Charles_ II. K. of _Spain_, 387.
    _Charles_ IV. Emperor, 387.

  _Charles_ V. Emperor, 381, 387, 423.

  _Charles_ VI. Emperor, 70, 230, 341.
    His Diversions, 233.
    His Friendship and Gratitude, 256.
    His Love for the Empress, 257.
    Remarks on his Coronation, 341.

  _Charles-Christian_, Prince of _Prussia_, 113.

  _Charles_, K. of _Sardinia_, 335.

  _Charles_ XII. K. of _Sweden_, 55, 56, 123, 124.

  _Charles_, Prince Palatine of _Sultzbach_, 332.

  _Charles_, the Bold, Duke of _Burgundy_, 389.

  _Charles-Albert_, Elector of _Bavaria_, 259, 262, 263.
    His Electoress, 263.

  _Charles-Lewis_, Elector Palatine, 274, 342, 381, 383.
    _Philip_ ditto, 328, 330, 331.
    His Revenues, 337.

  _Charlottemburg_ House, 35.

  _Child-bearing_, ascrib’d to the Miracles of the two _Bohemian_ Saints,
      213, 214.

  _Christian_, Margrave of _Brandenburg-Bareith_, 200.

  _Christian-Lewis_, Margrave of _Brandenburg_, 28.
    Ulric, Duke of _Wirtemberg-Oels_, and _Bernstad_, 83.
    _William_, of _Saxe-Gotha_, Prince, 182.

  _Christina-Louisa_, of _Oetingen, Duchess of Blanckenbourg_, 70.

  _Christina_, Princess of _Saxe-Weissenfels_, 114, 115.

  _Christopher_, St. where most worshipped, 394.

  _Cicerone_, the Meaning of that Word in Italy, 395.

  _Cinfuentes_, Count de, 244.

  _Cleisheim_, 375.

  _Clischoff_, Battle, 163.

  _Clovis_, K. of _France_, 388.

  _Coburg_, t. 200.

  _Cohorn_, Engineer, 328.

  COHTEN, t. 83.

  _Colin, Alexander_, Statuary, 386.

  _Collobradt_, Count, 220.

  _Collonitz_, the Count and the Cardinal, 248, 249.

  _Collowrat_, Count and Countess, 133, 148.

  _Complimenters_, nauseous, 199.

  _Condé_, Princess of, 344.

  _Conferences_, Counsellors of, 240, 244.

  _Constance_, Council of, 15, 339.

  _Coquets_, in _Venice_, the Place of their Rendezvous, 415.

  _Corfou_, Island, 408.

  _Cornaro_ Family’s Tomb, 404.

  _Cosel_ Countess of, Mistress of the late K. of _Poland_, 90, 91, 117,
      118, 120, 124.
    Her Menaces against him, 118.
    Count, 117, 136.
    Her Daughter, 142.

  _Cosmo_ I. Duke of _Florence_, 426, 427.

  _Costa_, Count de, 101, 123.

  _Counts_ of the Empire, their Preheminence, 287.

  _Courland_, Duchess Dowager, 200.

  _Craut_, his surprising Rise from behind the Compter to the Ministry,

  _Creutz_, M. de, _Prussian_ Minister, 5, 45.

  _Creutzer_, Coin, 278.

  _Crossen_, t. 1.

  _Culmbach-Brandenburg_, Margraviate, 204.
    _George-Frederic-Charles_, the Margrave, 205.
    His Family and Revenues, 204, &c. 208.

  _Cunegonda_, Empress, her Tomb, 202, 387.

  _Cup_, which _Joseph_ put in _Benjamin’s_ Sack; the Reason our
    Author had to remember that Passage, 204.

  _Customs_, a remarkable Attachment to old ones, 78, 79.

  _Cyprianus_, Dr. 179.

  _Cyprus, Cornaro_, Q. of, 406.

  _Czarowitz_, 70.


  _Damnitz_, M. de, Grand Marshal of _Saxe-Gotha_, 182.

  _Danckelman_, Baron de, 15.
    He prophesies his own Fate, 16.

  _Dangervilliers_, M. 306, 307.

  _Danneberg, Henry_ de, 71.

  _Danebrock_ Order, 74.

  _Dantzick_, t. invested, 107.
    Reduc’d, 108, 109.

  _Danube_, R. 278.

  _Darmstadt_, t. 357.
    Landgraves, 357, 362.

  _Daun_, Count and Marshal de, 246, 370.

  _Degenfeldt_ (_Schomberg_) Count de, 342, 343.

  _Dehn_, Count de, 72, 73.
    A very fine Dancer, as well as Minister of State, 74.

  _Dejanira’s_ Story painted, 383.

  _Delitz_, Countess of, 66.

  _Denhoff_, General, 7.

  _Denmark_, Q. of, 208.
    The Prince Royal, 208.

  _Devos_, Tapestry-maker at _Brussels_, 236.

  _Diedrichstein_, Count, 147.

  _Doberginsky_, M. 35.

  _Doges_ of _Venice_, their Marriage of the Sea, and of the Abbesses of
      two Convents, 399, 400.

  _Dohna_, Count de, 6.

  _Dorffling_, a Taylor, his Rise to be a General in the Army, 12.

  _Dorothea-Sophia_, Princess of _Prussia_, 19.

  _Dorothy_, Electress of _Brandenburg_, 19.

  DRESDEN, t. 87, 157, &c.

  _Drinking_ hard, in _Germany_, our Author’s humourous Account how it
      affected him, 184, 187, to 190, 204, 325, to 327.
    Where he reckons it an inseparable Function of the Ecclesiastical
        Courts, 204.

  _Duhamel, Francis_, General, 7, 412.
    His Lady, 412.

  _Duvaine_, General, 5.

  _Duval_, a famous Soop-maker, 56.


  _East-Friesland, George-Albert_, Prince of, 208.

  _Eib_, General, 191.

  _Einsiedel, John George_ de, 143.

  _Einsiedel, Curt_ de, 144.
    His Lady, 144.

  _Einsiedel Detler, Henry_ de, 146.

  _Eleonora_, Empress, 240, 381.

  _Eleonora_, Princess of _Neubourg_, 230.

  _Eleonora-Philippina_, Princess of _Hesse-Rhinfels_, 332.

  _Elizabeth_, Empress of _Germany_, 232, &c.
    Her Abjuration of the _Lutheran_ Religion, 232.

  _Elizabeth-Sophia_ of _Brandenbourg_, Duchess Dowager of _Courland_,

  _Elizabeth-Christina_ of _Oetingen_, Duchess of _Blanckenbourg_, 76.

  _Elvan_, t. 378.

  _Emanuel_, Prince of _Savoy_, 238.

  _Emigrants_, of _Saltzbourg_, 375, 376.

  _Emperors_ of _Germany_, the Ceremony of their Audiences, 225.
    Their Dining, 225.
    Suppers, 227.
    Pictures, 370.

  _Empresses_, the Respect paid to them, 228 to 230, &c.

  _Empress_ Dowager, 229.

  _Eosander_, the Architect, 10.

  _Erdmansdorff, Ernest-Ferdinand_ de, 144.

  ERFURT, t. 178.

  ERLANGEN, _Christian_, t. 200.

  _Ernest-Augustus_, the first Elector of _Hanover_, 63, 67.
    How he obtain’d that Dignity, 68.

  _Ernest_, Arch-Duke, and his Wife, 389.

  _Ernest-Augustus_, Duke of _Saxe-Weimar_, 173.

  _Ernest_ the _Pious_, Duke of _Gotha_, 178.

  _Etiquette_, in foreign Courts, what, 224.

  _Etlingen_, t. 303.

  _Eversberg_, t. 364.

  _Eugene_ of _Savoy_, Prince, his Palace, 236.
    His Character, 237, 141.
    His Regiment of Dragoons, 237.
    His Sickness, Death, and Interment, 238.
    His Employments and Estate, 238, 240.
    His last Will, 239.
    His Library, 239.
    His Nephew, 239.

  _Excellency_, the _Venetians_ Fondness for the Title, 420, 421.

  EYSENACH, t. 183. See _Saxe_.


  _Fatima_, a _Turkish_ Lady, 115, 116.

  _Favourita_, the Emperor’s Palace, 234.

  _Faustina_, the Singer, 421.

  _Ferbellin_, t. 50.

  _Ferdinand_, I. _de Medicis_, 427.

  _Ferdinand_, K. of _Castille_, 387.

  _Ferdinand_, K. of the _Romans_, 381.

  _Ferdinand_ I. Emperor, 385, 387.
    His Son’s Tomb, 389,
    and Wife, 390.

  _Ferdinand-Albert_, D. of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_ and _Bevern_, 70, 71,
    His Merit and Preferment, 72.

  _Ferdinand-Mary_, Elector of _Bavaria_, 259.
    His Wife, 260.

  _Ferdinand_, Duke of _Bavaria_, 263, 264.
    His Duchess, 263.

  FERRARA, t. 423.

  _Finck_, of _Finckenstein_, Count, 25.

  _Fiorenzola_, t. 425.

  _Fermian_, Barons of, 367.

  _Fishermen_, at _Venice_, their Election of their Doge or Chief, 402.

  _Fitztuhm_, Count de, 91, 142.
    His Daughter, 150.

  _Fleming, James-Henry_, Count de, Prime Minister of _Poland_, 73, 74,
      89, 90, 92, 102, 125, 144, 152, 155, 162.
    His Reason for employing Foreigners before _Saxons_, 155.
    The Origin of his Family and his Education, 162.
    His Preferments from first to last, 162, &c.
    His Marriage and his Duels, 163, 165.
    His Conduct with regard to _Patkul_, 164.
    His Estate, 165, 166.
    His general Character, 166.

  _Fleming_, Mademoiselle de, 116.

  _Fleury_, Marquis de, 135.
    Cardinal de, 241.

  FLORENCE, t. 425.

  _Fohsen_, Mademoiselle de, 38.

  _Forbenius_ he saved the Life of the Elector of _Brandenbourg_, 51.

  _Force_, Marshall de, 321.

  _Forchs_, the _Starost_ assassinated, 155.

  _Francfort_, on the _Rhine_, 340.
    Privilege of those here called Residents, 342.

  _Francfort_, on the _Oder_, t. 2.

  _Francis_ I. K. of _France_, his solemn Affirmation, 215.

  _Franconia_, Duke, 185, 191.

  _Frankenberg_, Baron de, 236.

  FRANKENDAHL, t. 338.

  _Frauenstad_, Battle, 163.

  _Frederic_, of _Austria_, nicknam’d the _Pennyless_ Prince, 385, 386,

  _Frederic_, Elector Palatine, who was chose K. of _Bohemia_, 210.

  _Frederic_ IV. Emperor, 387, 388.
    His Mother, 389.

  _Frederic_, Electoral Prince of _Saxony_, 99, 112.

  _Frederic_ II. Duke of _Gotha_, 180, 181.
    III. the present Duke, 181, 182.
    His Brother _William_, 181.
    His other Brothers and Sisters, and his Revenues and Guards, &c. 182.

  _Frederic-Augustus_ II. K. of _Poland_, 94, 102.
    His Nativity calculated at _Venice_, 95, 96.
    His Death, 96.
    His Queen, and her Death, 97.
    His Change of Religion, 100.
    The Method he took to convert his Son, 101.
    His Natural Issue, 115, &c.
    His Generosity, 164.

  FREDERIC IV. K. of _Denmark’s_ Compassion to the _Altenois_, 58, 59.
    His Queen’s Retirement, 59.
    His giving Audience to the Senate at _Bologna_, 423, 426.

  _Frederic_, the _Fair_, 230.

  _Frederic-William_, Elector of _Brandenbourg_, his Statue, 9.
    His remarkable Speech to his Soldiers, 50.
    His daughter, 200.

  _Frederic_ I. K. of _Prussia_, his Statue, 8, 297.

  _Frederic_, Prince Royal of _Prussia_, 25.

  _Frederica-Sophia_, Princess of _Prussia_, 25, 26.

  _Frederica-Louisa_, Princess of _Prussia_, 26.
    Of _Saxe-Gotha_, Princess, 182.

  _Fredericsfeld_, House, 27.

  _Friesberg_, Baron de, 61.

  _Friesland, Henry-Frederic_, Count of, 123, 139, 142.

  _Frisoni_, an Architect, 288, 290.

  _Fuchs_, Baron de, the _Prussian_ Minister, 4, 29, 41.

  _Fuchs_, Countess de, 254.

  _Fugger, Maximilian_, Count, 266.
    His generous Entertainment of the Emperor _Charles_ V. 276.

  _Fuhl_, de, Great Marshal, 90.

  FULDE, t. 184. Magnificence of its Abbot, 184.

  _Fultishau_, Convent, 380.

  _Furstemberg_, Prince, 165.
    Cardinal, 315.

  _Furstenfeldt_, Abbey, 272, 273.


  _Gala_, Days of, what, 226, 227, 228.

  _Galeas, John_ Duke of _Milan_, 389.

  _Gallasch_, Count de, 211.

  _Gardeners_, the best in all _Germany_, 85.

  _Garment_, Christ’s, a Relique of it, 198.

  _Gaston, John_, Great Duke of _Tuscany_, 428.

  _Gates_, thought by _Michael Angelo_ to be good enough for Paradise,

  _Gemblours_, Abbot of, his sole Privilege of celebrating Mass booted
      and spurr’d, 191.

  _Gemming_, Baron de, 208.

  _Gentleman_, two _French_ Kings fond of the Title, 215.

  GEORGE I. K. of _Great Britain_, his Wife, 61, 62.
    His Administration, 61, 64, 68.

  _George_ II. King, 64, 69.

  _George-William_, Margrave of _Brandenbourg-Bareith_, 205.

  _George_ (St.) Abbess of, 212.
    Order _Bavarian_, 260.

  _George_ I. Landgrave of _Darmstad_, 357.

  _German_ Language, its Excellency. 53, 195.
    Vanity of the _Germans_, 198.

  _Gersi_, the _French_ Ambassador, 397.

  _Gersner_, Physician, 368.

  _Gerstorf, Gotlob-Frederic_, Baron de, 47.

  _Gertrude_, a _Marcoman_ Lady, History of her, an entertaining Novel,
      343, &c.
    Its Key, 355.

  _Gilles_ (_St._) Count de, 92.

  _Glass_ Manufacture of _Venice_, 410.

  _Globe, John-Frederic_ Count de, 334.

  _Goblet_ of Gold, the Pleasure with which our Author drank out of it;
      and how he wish’d to carry it off, 204.

  _Godfrey_ of _Bouillon_, K. of _Jerusalem_, 388.

  _Gohren_, Baron de, 45.

  _Gortz_, (_Henry_) Baron de, 54.
    His famous Copper Coin, 56.
    His Execution, 57.

  _Gortz_, the _Hanovarian_, 64.

  _Gotha_, see _Saxe_, and _Frederic_, and _Ernest_.

  GOTHA, _t._ 178.
    Its Dukes, 178, 179, &c.
    Duchesses, 181.
    The noble Library here, 179.
    Their Revenues, 182.

  _Gravenitz_, Count de, 284, 285, 286.

  _Gravenitz_, Countess de, Mistress of the D. of _Wirtemberg_, 279, 282,
      to 284.

  _Gravity_, an Air peculiar to the _Austrian_ Princes, 112.

  _Grosh_, the Value of that Coin, 85.

  _Grumkau_, the _Prussian_ Minister, 5, 31, 43.

  _Grunberg_, the Architect, 6.

  _Guide_, a remarkable one that was blind, 277.

  _Guides_, the Name given to them in _Italy_, 305.

  _Guldenstein-Huguetan_, Count de, 35.

  _Gundacker de Staremberg_, Count, 241.

  _Gustavus Adolphus_, 259, 274.


  _Hacke_, M. de, 46.

  _Hagen_, Baron de, 75, 101.

  HAGUENAU, 381, _t._

  _Hall_, the largest next to _Westminster_, 215.

  _Halle_, t. 82, 377, 380.
    University, 85.

  HAMBURGH, _t._ 51, 199.
    Its Dispute with _Denmark_, 52.
    Its Opera, 52.
    Its Mob, 54.
    Vindication of its Citizens from the Charge of Cruelty to the
        _Altenois_, 58.
    Their Respect to the _Jews_, 53, 59.

  _Hamelen_, t. 68.

  _Hanau_, Count of, 359, 361, 362.

  _Hanau, Charlotta-Christina_ of, 359.

  HANAU, _t._ 360, 362.

  HANOVER, 63, 68.
    _Roman_ Catholics there, 63.
    Revenues of the Electorate, 68.
    ---- Electoress of, 343, 344.

  HARBOURG, _t._ 60, 68.

  _Hardenberg_, M. Grand Marshal of _Hanover_, 64, 65.

  _Harlay_, M. de. 306.

  _Harrach_, Count de, 242, 367, 368, 371.

  _Hattorfs_, Ministers compar’d to _Louvois_ and _Barbesieux_, 65, 66.

  _Hatzfield, Egmont_ Count, 335.

  _Haugwitz, John-Adolphus_ de, 142.

  HEIDELBERG, _t._ 321, 322.
    Its Decay to what owing, 323.
    Its famous Tun, 324.

  _Heilbron_, 375.

  _Henrietta-Benedictine_, the Princess _Palatine_, 229.

  _Henry_ II. Emperor, his Tomb, 202.

  _Henry_ IV. Emperor, the pompous Interment he wish’d his Enemies, 168.

  _Henry_ III. K. of _France_, 309.

  _Henry_ IV. K. of _France_, his Ambition to be called the first
      Gentleman in his Kingdom, 215.

  _Herenhausen_ Palace, 67.

  _Herford_ Abbey, 27.

  _Hering_, M. de, Vice-Chancellor of _Saxe-Gotha_, 177, 182.

  _Hermitage_, a Seat near _Bareith_, 207.

  _Herzan, Maximilian_ Count de, 146.

  _Hesler_, M. de, 108.

  _Hesse_ Princes, 357.

  _Hesse-Cassel, Philip_ the Landgrave of, 357, 362.

  _Hesse-Darmstadt, Ernest-Lewis_ Landgrave of, 357.
    His Wife, 358.
    His Son and his Wife, 359.
    His Revenues and Troops, 360.

  _Hesse-Rhinfels_, Princess of, 332.

  _Hildesheim_, Baron, 335.

  _Hochstet_ Battle, 262.

  _Hoffman_, Professor of Physic at _Halle_, 208.

  _Hohenlo_, Count de, 353.

  _Holstein-Beck, Lewis-Frederic_ Pr. of, 150.

  ---- _Charles-Lewis_ Pr. of, 120, 150.
    _Dorothy_, Princess of, 205.

  _Houtten, Christopher-Francis_ de, Pr. and Bp. of _Wurtzbourgh_, 185.

  _Hoym_, Count de, 91, 92, 117, 118.
    His Catastrophe, 136, 137.

  _Hubert_ (St.) his Legacy, 190.
    Noted for killing Rats, 196.

  HUBERTSBOURGH, _t._ 86, 103, 157.

  _Huss, John_, 339.

  _Hussites_, the Remains of ’em, 216.


  _Jacobi_, the Statuary, 9.

  _Jacquelot_, M. 15.

  _Janson_, Cardinal, 315.

  _Jews_, the Respect shewed them at _Hamburg_, 53, 59.
    Not tolerated at _Anspach_, and why, 198.
    Their Punishment for crucifying an Infant of Christian Parents on
        _Christmass-day_, 216.
    Vast number of ’em in _Bohemia_, 216.
    and the _Palatinate_, 337.

  _Ilgen_, Baron, _Prussian_ Minister, 31, 41.

  _Ilten_, Messieurs de, of _Hanover_, 66, 67.

  _Inn_ River, 364, 379, 380.

  INSPRUC, t. 380.

  _Joan_ of _Castille_, 387.

  _John_’s (St.) Village in _Tirol_, 378.

  _John_ (St.) of _Jerusalem_, Kts. of, 28.

  _John_ (St.) _Nepomucene_, 212, 213.

  _John-Ernest_ ABp. of _Saltzbourg_, 373.

  _John-Adolphus_ of _Saxe-Weissenfels_, 99, 114.

  _John-George_ I. Elector of _Saxony_, 114.

  _John-George_ III. Elector of _Saxony_, 94.

  _John-George_ IV. Elector, 94.

  _John-Augustus_ of _Saxe-Gotha_, Pr. 182.

  ---- _Adolphus_, ditto, 182.

  _John William_, D. of _Saxe-Eisenach_, 183.
    Elector Palatine, 324, 328.

  _Jonas_, the tall Grenadier, 35.

  _Joseph_, Emperor, 274.

  _Iser_ R. 258.

  _Isselbach_, General, 336.

  _Judas_’s Lanthorn to be seen in two Places, 81.

  _Ixter_, Baron de, 298.


  _Kalestein_, Baron de, 25.

  _Kara Mustapha_, Grand Vizier, 247, 248.

  KEHL, _t._ 305.

  _Kendal_, Duchess, 66.

  _Kevenbuller_, Count de, 246.

  _Keyserling-Hermann-Charles_, 154.

  _Kilmanseck_, Madame de, 67.

  _Kinsberg_, Baron de, 195.

  _Kinski_, Counts, 154, 220, 221, 244.

  _Kinski_, Countess of, 154.

  _Klenzek_, Mademoiselle de, 55.

  _Kniphausen_, Baron, the _Prussian_ Minister, 31, 44.

  _Kokersowitz_, Countess, 148.

  _Konickel_, Count de, 381.

  _Konigsegg_, Count de, 147, 239, 242, 243.
    His Marriage, 243.
    His Nephew, 243, 244.

  _Konigstern_ Castle, 87.

  _Koningsmark, Aurora_ Countess of, 115.

  _Kuenbourgh_, Count de, 373.

  _Kundahl_, t. 379.

  _Kurtzrok_, Baron, 54.


  _Lactantius_’s Works, 179.

  _Ladies, Venetian_, in Masks, pick’d up by our Author, 411.
    and himself pick’d up by a Lady in Distress who knew him, 416.

  _Ladislaus_, King, 388.

  _Lagnasco_, Count, and _Josepha_ Countess of, 151, 152, 157, 158.

  LANDAU, _t._ 318.

  _Lands_, how entail’d, and how secur’d in _Bohemia_, 218, 219.

  _Larks_, where they most abound, 85.

  _Laxembourg_, the Emperor’s Palace, 234.

  _Leibnitz_, the Philosopher, 156.

  _Leine_, _r._ 63.

  LEIPSICK, _t._ 83.
    Why ’tis called the Jewel of _Saxony_, 84.
    Its Fairs frequented by a great number of Princes and Princesses, 85.

  _Lenfant_, M. Author of the Council of _Constance_, 15.

  _Leopold_ of _Austria_, surnam’d _the Virtuous_, 388.

  _Leopold_, Archduke, 210.

  ---- Emperor, 230.

  ---- Bp. of _Saltzbourgh_, his Houshold and his Revenues, 367, 373.
    Why compared to Pope _Sixtus_ V. 367.

  _Levant_ Women, their great Confinement within doors, 52.

  _Leubnitz, Charles_, 140.

  _Lewis_ VI. Landgrave of _Darmstad_, 357.

  _Lewis_, the Hereditary Prince, 359.

  _Lewis_ of _Bavaria_, Emperor, 260, 387.

  ---- of _Baden_, Pr. 299, 303.

  ---- _Ernest_ of _Saxe-Gotha_, P. 182.

  ---- _the Severe_, Duke of _Bavaria_, his Murder of his Minister and his
      Wife, 272.
    His Repentance, 273.

  ---- _Rodolph_, D. of _Brunswic-Lunenburg,_ and _Blanckenbourg_, 70,

  ---- Margrave of _Brandenburg_, 387.

  _Lewis_ XV. K. of _France_, his Marriage, 304, 309.
    Cardinal _Rohan_’s Speeches upon it, 310, 313.

  _Lichtenstein_ Palace, 236.

  _Lieutenant_ of the Police at _Paris_, 246.

  _Linange, Mary-Christina-Felicite_, Countess of, her Husbands, 183.

  _Linar, Maurice-Charles_, Count de, 143.

  LINTZ _t._ 258.

  _Lipski, John-Alexander_, Bp. of _Cracow_, 149.

  _Lobkowitz_, Pr. and Princess, 342.

  _Lodron_, Counts of, 365, 373.

  _Lopel_, General de, 30.

  _Lorrain, Francis_ Duke of, his Marriage to the Archduchess, 233, 341.

  ---- _Charles_, Pr. 239, 381.

  _Losenstein, Eleonora_ Countess of, 151.

  _Lovel_, Baron de, kill’d in a Duel with Count _Flemming_, 163.

  _Louestein_, Princess, 342.

  _Louisa-Dorothea_ Duchess of _Saxe-Gotha_, 181.

  _Louvois_, Marquiss, 306.

  _Lowendahl, Waldemar_ Baron of, 121.
    His Service to six Kings, 121.
    His Wives and Issue, 122.
    His Son _Waldemar_, 122, 139.

  _Lowinitz, Henry-Rodolph de Schonfeld_ Lord of, 145.

  _Lubomirski-Theresa_, Electoress _Palatine_, 330.

  _Lubomirski_, Madame de, Rival to _Fatima_ a _Turkish_ Lady, Mistress
      to the late K. of _Poland_, 116, 117.

  _Lubomirski, George-Ignatius_ Pr. of, 150, 151.

  _Lude_, Count de, his wise Reason for marrying a Tradesman’s Daughter,

  _Ludwigsbourg_ t. 279, 287.

  LUNENBURG _t._ 68.

  _Lunenburg-Zell_ and _Lunenburg-Hanover_ Families united, 61.

  _Luther, Martin_, his resolute Expression when dissuaded to go the
      Dyet, 339.

  _Lutzelbourg, Anthony_ Count de, 123.


  _Magdebourg_ Duchy yielded to the House of _Brandenbourg_, 80.
    Character of it, 82.

  MAGDEBOURG _t._ 48, 80.

  _Maintenon_, Madame de, Mistress of _Lewis_ XIV. her Fortune told by a
      Mason, 96.

  _Malchau_ House near _Berlin_, 29.

  _Manger_, a Relique of our Saviour’s, 198.

  MANHEIM _t._ 327.

  _Manteuffel, Ernest_ Count de, 134.

  _Marck, Julius-Augustus_, Count de la 334, 337.

  _Marcoman_ Lady, the History of one, 344. _&c._

  _Margaret_ of _Tyrol_ surnam’d _the Pious_, and nicknam’d _Wide-Mouth_,

  _Maria-Anne-Caroline_ of _Newbourgh_, 263.

  _Maria-Magdalena_, Archduchess, 233, 381.

  _Maria Elizabetha_, Archduchess and Governess of the _Netherlands_,

  _Maria-Amelia_ Princess of _Poland_, 113.

  _Maria-Anne-Sophia_ Princess of _Poland_, 113.

  _Maria-Josepha_ Princess of _Poland_, 114.

  _Maria-Theresa_ Archduchess, 232, _&c._
    Her Marriage to the D. of _Lorrain_, 233.

  _Maria-Josepha_ Q. of _Poland_, 98, 102, 110, 111, 112.

  _Maria-Anne-Victoria_ of _Bavaria_, 309.

  _Maria_ Empress of _Germany_, her illustrious Relations, 250, 388.

  _Marie-Adelaide_ of _Savoy_, 260, 268.

  _Maria-Lescinski_ Q. of _France_, 304, 309.

  _Mark’s_, St. Festival, how celebrated at _Venice_, 401.

  _Marriage_ of the Sea, 399, 400.

  _Marriage_ of Princes how limited by the Laws of Germany, 60, 352.
    A Princess charg’d with abusing that Sacrament of the Church of
        _Rome_, 202.

  _Martinitz_, Count of, 213, 214.

  _Masquerades_ at _Venice_, 412.

  _Mass_, by whom alone celebrated with Boots and Spurs on, 192.

  _Matthias_ Emperor of _Germany_, 210.

  _Maubrisson_, Abbess of, 344.

  _Maurice, William_, Pr. of _Saxe-Zeits_, 99.

  ---- Elector of _Saxony_, 381.

  ---- Count of _Saxony_, 115.

  ---- of _Saxe-Gotha_ Pr., 182.

  _Maximilian_, Emperor, 385, 388.
    His Statue, 386.
    Wife, 388, 389.
    His Daughter, 389.
    Father-in-law, 389.

  _Maximilian-Emanuel_, Elector of _Bavaria_, 262, 263, 268, 274, 278,
      379, 382.
    _Joseph_ the Electoral Pr. 263.

  _Meinders_, M. de, the _Prussian_ Minister, 41.

  MEISSEN _t._ 86.

  _Melvil_, M., 65.

  _Menard_, President, 317.

  _Mentz, Lotharius-Francis de Schonborn_ Elector, 201, 203, 310, 321,
    His Severity to Robbers, 202.

  _Mercy_, Count de, 244.
    His Defeat, 307.

  MERSEBOURG _t._ 167, 168.
    Its Duke’s Fondness for Bass-Viols, 168, 170, 171.
    His Duchess, 169.

  MESTRE. _t._ 394, 395.

  _Metsch_, Count de, 54, 242, 245.

  _Mile-posts_ in _Saxony_, 84.

  _Milk_ of our Lady, a Wine so called, 339.

  _Miltitz_, General, _Alexander de_, 78, 100, 105, 107, 360.

  _Minckwitz, Charles-Christian de_, 146.

  _Miracles_ ascrib’d to the two Saints of _Bohemia_, 213, 214.

  _Misson, Maximilian_, criticized, 308, 392.

  _Mobs_ of _Amsterdam_ and _Hamburg_ compar’d, 54.

  _Mocenigo-Aloisio_, Doge of _Venice_, 399.

  _Modena, Renaud d’Este_, Duke of, 230.

  _Molard_, Count de, 255.

  _Molsheim_ t. 315.

  _Monclar_, Baron de, 306.

  _Montbijou_ Palace, 3.


  MONTEROSO _t._ 430.

  _Monte-Sancto_, Count of, 244.

  _Montmorency, Francis_ Count de, 152.
    His Countess, 152.

  _Moravia, John_ Margrave of, 387.

  _Moschinski, Anthony_, Count and
    Countess, 117, 120, 142.

  _Moses_, a Piece of his Rock, 396.

  _Motterie_, Mademoiselle, 243.

  _Mount-Pleasant_, a fine Seat near _Hanover_, 67.

  _Muchlberg_, the strong Lines cast up there by the Prince of _Beveren_,

  _Munchausen_, M. 65, 77.

  _Munchenbourg_ t. 2.

  MUNICH _t._ 258, 268, 363.

  _Muscovy, Anne_ Czarina of, her Marriage, 200.


  _Nassau-Friesland_, Prince, his untimely end, 297.
    His Daughter, who is Sister to the Pr. of _Orange_, 297.

  _Nassau, Idstein_, Pr. 169.

  ---- _Weilbourg_, Count, 336.

  ---- _Ousingen_ Princess, 342.

  _Nativities_, Calculators of ’em
  refuted, 341.

  _Natzmer_, Marshal de, 33, 40.

  NAUMBOURG, _t._ 171, 172.

  _Neitsch_, Mademoiselle de, 145.

  _Nepomucene_ (St.) _John_, 212, to 215.

  _Nesselrod_, Count de, 334.

  _Neukirch, Benjamin_, a Poet, 195.

  NEUSTADT, _t._ 200.

  _Nicolotti_, Fishermen at _Venice_ so call’d, their Election of a Doge
      of their own, 402.

  _Nightingales_, a Multitude of ’em, 86.

  _Nobility_ at _Venice_, the Purchase of it, 420.

  _Noyelles_, Count de, 152.

  NUREMBERG, _t._ 196, 197.
    Its Government compar’d to the _Venetian_, 197.

  NYMPHENBOURG Palace, 268, 270, 271.


  _Occo_ the Antiquary, 179.

  _Oder_, River, 2.

  _Oetingen_, t. 80.
    Princesses, 70, 76, 231.

  _Ohsten_, Baron de, 335.

  _Olbreuse_, Madamoiselle de, 60, 62.
    Her Daughter, 62.

  OPPENHEIM, _t._ 340.

  _Oranjebourg_, t. 49.

  _Orders of Knighthood_, the _Prussian_, 29.
    The _Bavarian_, 260.
    Of St. _Hubert_, 373.

  _Orleans_, Duke of, 243, 306.
    Duchess, 274, 303, 304, 310.

  _Orselska_, _Anne_ Countess of, 119, 150.

  _Ossem, Gosman-Daniel_, the Painter, 384.


  PADUA, _t._ 422.

  _Palatinate, Upper_, 344.

  _Palatine_, Electors, 274, 322, 323, &c. 328, 381.
    Revenues, 337.
    Who the last of the Protestant Princes of this Title, 342.

  _Paracelsus_, where bury’d, 374.
    How he wrought most of his Cures, 374.

  _Passau_, t. 366.

  _Patkul_, Count, 164.

  _Patriarch_ of _Venice_, 403.

  _Patricians_ in _Germany_, who they are, 197, 198, 200.

  _Pechtelsheim_, Baron de, 188, 189.

  _Peine_, Painter, 11, 83.

  _Pennyless Prince_, the Nickname of an _Austrian_, 385, 386, 388.

  _Petits-Maitres_, at _Venice_, 421.

  _Philibert_ D. of _Savoy_, 389.

  _Philip_ IV. of _Spain_, his Reverence to the Viaticum, 249.

  ---- D. of _Burgundy_, 389.

  ---- Margrave of _Brandenburg_, 19, 20, 281.
    His Dowager, 20, 26.
    His Sons, 27.
    His Uncle _Albert_, 27.
    _Albert_’s Sons, 27.

  _Philippina-Charlotte_, Princess
  of _Prussia_, 26, 72.

  _Philippina_ of _Welserin_, Archduchess, 390.

  _Philipsruhe_, a Pleasure-House, 361.

  _Phul_, Baron de, 285.

  _Pilate_’s Basin, 81.

  _Piosas_, Count, 261.

  _Plassenberg_ Castle, 208.

  _Platen_, Count de, 66.
    Countess, 67.

  _Pleasure-Houses_, who has the finest in _Europe_, 268.

  _Plesk_, _Helmuth_ de, 145.

  _Pludowska_, Baroness, 135.

  _Poddewitz_, the _Prussian_ Minister, 31.

  _Poland_, the Equivalent it has given to _France_ of a Queen for a
      King, 309.

  _Polentz_, M. de, 78.

  _Pollnitz_, M. de, Cabinet-Counsellor to the D. of _Wirtemberg_, 285.

  ---- Baron, (our Author) his Conference with a _Lutheran_ Doctor after
      he had turn’d _Papist_ from a _Calvinist_, 160.

  ---- _Henrietta_, 7.

  _Pomerania, Hither_, yielded to _Sweden_, 80.

  POMMERSFELDEN, _t._ Seat of the Elector of _Mentz_, 203, 204.

  _Pompey_’s War with _Cæsar_ painted, 370.

  _Ponte_, t. 425.

  _Porcellane_, finer in _Germany_ than in _Japan_, 87, 88.

  _Portugal_, _Mary-Anne_ Queen of, 233.

  ---- _Emanuel_ Pr. of, 422.

  _Pose_, a Merchant at _Leipsic_, his fine Garden, 85.

  _Potschin_, Madame de, 152.

  _Potzdam_ Castle, 34.

  PRAGUE, _t._ 210.

  _Preysing, Maximilian_ Count de, 266, 267.

  _Princes_, petty, more inaccessible than great ones, 83.

  _Privy-Counsellor_’s Preferment owing to a Present of a Bass-Viol, 171.

  _Profusion_ of Princes in what Article ’tis most justifiable, 10, 103.

  _Promnitz, Erdmann_ Count de, 135.

  _Proselytes_, by what means they are soonest made among the Gentry,

  _Provence, Theodebert_ Count of, 389.

  _Prussia_, K. 21, 31, _&c._ 376.
    His Queen, 24.
    His Soldiery, 21, to 24, 34.
    His Children, 25, _&c._ 30, 72.
    Princess Royal’s Marriage, 205.

  _Pruth_ Battle, 123.

  _Pultowa_ Battle, 123, 164.


  _Quails_, abundance of ’em, where, 395.

  _Quilian_, St. 191.


  _Rabutin_, Marshal de, 240.

  _Radifocani_, M. 429.

  _Radjowski_, Cardinal, 116, 150.

  _Radzevil, Louisa-Charlotte_ Pss. of, 330.

  _Radzevil_, 2d Wife of Marshal _Flemming_, 92, 165.

  RASTADT, _t._ 299.
    Prince of _Baden_’s Palace here compar’d to _St. Cloud_ near _Paris_,
    Treaty sign’d there, 300.

  _Ratenau_, t. 50.

  RATENBERG, _t._ 379.

  _Rats_, a Saint that was famous for killing them, 196.

  _Ravanne_, Abbot de, 317.

  _Raugrave_, Madame la, 342, 343.

  _Rechberg, Gaudentz_ Count de, 266.

  _Reinbabe_, Baron de, 176.

  _Religion_, the Externals of it, where best observ’d, 412.

  _Residents_ for the _German_ Princes at _Franckfort_, their Privileges,

  _Rheden_, M. de, 64, 66.

  _Rhenen_, t. 344.

  _Riga_ Siege, 163.

  _Rinucci_, the Cardinal and the Marquiss, 423.

  _Robert_, Prince Palatine, K. of the _Romans_, 321.

  _Rock, Moses_’s, a piece of it, 396.

  _Rocoule_, Madam de, 25.

  _Roder_, M. de, 261.

  _Rodolph_, Emperor, the Speech he made after he had one of his Hands
      cut off in Battle, 168.

  _Rohan_, Cardinal _Armand Gaston_, 309.
    His Speeches on the Marriage of the Queen of _France_, 310, 313.
    His Election and Death, 315.
    Character, 316.

  _Rohr_, Baroness Dowager of, 148.

  _Rollé_, the _Brandenburg_ Minister, 4.

  _Rolli_, the Painter, 424.

  ROME, _t._ the _German_ Emperor’s Right to live there, 201.

  _Ronaw_, Count de, Envoy of _Saxe Gotha_, 181, 182.

  RONCIGLIONE, _t._ 430.

  _Rossing_, M. de, 78.

  _Roth_, Baron de, 305.

  _Rotofski_, Count, 115, 119.

  _Rupert_, St. 365, 366.

  _Rutowski_, Count, 115, 116, 118.

  _Ruzzini Carlo_, Doge of _Venice_, 399.


  _Saltz_, R. 364.

  _Saltzbourg_, t. 364.
    Its Revenues, and Houshold of its Archbishop, 367, 373.
    A great Revolution in this Country, 375.

  _Saltzdahl_ Seat near _Brunswic_, 75.

  _Sapieha, Benedict_, 163.

  _Sardinia_, King and Queen, 332, 335.

  SAVERNE, _t._ 315.

  Savoy, see _Eugene_ and _Emanuel_.

  _Saxe-Lawenburg_, Princess, 300.

  ---- _Weissensels, John-Adolphus_ Prince of, 99, 115.
    _Sophia_ Princess of, 200.
    _Christina_ Princess of, 114, 115.

  ---- _Weymar_ Dukes, 172, 173, 174, 175.

  _Saxe-Zeits, Maurice-William_ Pr. of, 99, 171.

  ---- Cardinal, 171.

  ---- _Gotha_ Duchy, 167.
    Wealth of its peasants, 167.

  ---- _Gotha_ Dukes, 173, &c.
    Duchesses, 181.

  ---- _Barbi_ Duke, 82, 83.

  ---- _Meynungen_ Princess, 181, 200.

  ---- Chevalier de, 116.

  ---- _Eysenach_ Dukes, 173, 183.

  _Saxony_ ill provided with Ordinaries, 86.
    Present State of its Court, 99, to 155.
    Character of the Men, 155.
    of the Women, 156.
    of the Clergy, 159.

  _Scarperia_, t. 425.

  _Schindler_’s Lace Manufactory, 7.

  _Schleisheim_ Palace, 270

  _Schluter_ the Architect, 10.

  _Schmiedel_, Baron de, 176.

  _Schneitzenrieth_, t. 377.

  _Schomberg_, Marshal, 17.

  _Schonborn, Francis George_, Count, 328.

  ---- _John-Phillip-Francis_, Count, 54, 185, 186.
    _Damian-Hugo_ the Cardinal, 318, 319, 320.

  ---- _Frederic-Charles_, Bp. of _Bamberg_, 185, 190, 191, 201, 242.
    _Lotharius-Francis_, another of its Bishops, 201.

  _Schoning_, General, 116.

  _Schorror_, the Pope’s Vicar at _Hanover_, 64.

  _Schulemburg_, Count de, 408.

  _Schulenbourg_, General, 61.
    His Duel with Count _Fleming_, 163.

  _Schwabach_, t. 196.

  _Schwartzenborg_, Pr. 213, 223, 301, 302, 304.

  _Schwetzingen_, t. 352.

  _Schwizinski, Nicholas_, 147.

  SCHWATZ, _t._ 379.

  _Schunck_ and _Schutz_, Barons _de_, 285.

  _Sea_, the Ceremony of marrying it, 399, 400.

  _Seckendorf_, Baron and Count, 54, 195.

  _Seefelde-Terring, Maximilian_, Count _de_, 265.

  _Sehgutt_, Counts of, 147.

  _Seibelsdorf_, General, 358.

  _Seiffertitz, Adolphus_ Baron _de_, 141.

  _Sickengen_, Baron _de_, 333.

  SIENNA _t._ 429.

  _Sigismond_, Emperor, 339, 388.

  _Sigismond_, Archduke and Count of _Tirol_, 389.

  _Silenus_’s Legacy, 190.

  _Sobieski, John_ K. of _Poland_, 247.
    His Daughter, 262.

  _Soissons_, Countess of, 238, 239.

  _Soliman_, the Sultan, 248.

  _Solkcofski, Alexander-Joseph_, Count _de_, 98, 103, 104, 128, 133,
      139, 143.

  _Sophia-Wilhelmina_, Princess of _East-Friesland_, 83.

  ---- _Christiana-Louisa_, Princess of _Bareith_, 205.

  _Spain_, Council of, at _Vienna_, 244.

  _Span_, Baron _de_, 162, 163.

  _Speratus, Paul_, 375.

  _Spiegel_, Madame _de_, 116, 358.

  _Spiga_, the Pope’s Vicar at _Hanover_, 63.

  SPIRE _t._ 320.

  _Sporcke_, M. _de_, 77.

  _Spree_, River, 3.

  _Staden_, Siege, 57.

  _Stadtholder_ at _Vienna_, 246.

  _Stanislaus_, K. 318.
    His Daughter’s March on foot with the Prince of _Baden_, 304.
    Marriage to _Lewis_ XV. 309.

  _Stanislawski, N. N. de Sehgutt_, 147.

  _Staremberg, Maximilian_, 246.

  _Staremberg, Ernest-Rudiger_, Count _de_, 239, 247.

  _Staremberg, Guido_, Marshal, 239.

  _Staremberg, Gundacker_, Count, 241.

  STARGARD, _t._ 162.

  _Staupitz_, Abbot, 375.

  _Stein_, Baron, 72.
    Baroness, 130, 148.

  _Steinbock_, General, prov’d cruel, Incendiary, 57.

  _Stein Wein_, a sort of Wine so called, 190.

  _Steinbach_, the Architect, 308.

  _Sternberg_, Count, 211.

  STERTZINGEN, _t._ 392.

  _Stetin_, t. its Sequestration, by whom obtain’d, 164.

  _Stetterheim_, M. _de_, Cup-bearer to the D. of _Saxe-Gotha_, 183.

  _Strada, James de_, 179.

  _Strahlsund_, Siege, 124.

  STRASBOURG, _t._ 305, 315.
    Noted for Libertines, 310.

  _Streithorst_, Colonel, 292.

  _Stringuetta_, the _Venetian_ Courtezan, 421.

  _Studenitz_, Baron _de_, 176.

  STUTGARD, _t._ 279, 289.

  _Sulkowski._ See _Solkcofski_.

  _Sultman_, M. and Madame _de_, 292.

  _Sultzbach, Joseph-Charles_, Pr. and Princess of, 324, 330, 331.

  ---- _Theodore_, Prince, 332.

  ---- _John-Christian_, Prince, 332, 333.

  ---- _Charles_, Prince, 332.

  _Sympathy_, its Power, 374.


  _Tartary_ Women, what they say to their Husbands when they come home
      without Booty, 247.

  _Telemachus_, translated into _German_ Verse, 195.

  _Teschen, George_, Prince of, 116, 117.
    Princess of, 117, 150.

  _Thanhausen_, Count de, 373.

  _Thaun_, Count and Countess, 151.

  _Theodebert_, Count of _Provence_, 389.

  _Thirheim, Sigismond_, Count _de_, 258, 265, 266.

  _Thomasius_, the Civilian, 156.

  _Thorn_ of our Saviour’s Crown, 81.

  _Thou_, Messieurs, their Library, by whom purchased, 317.

  _Thungen_, General, 278.

  _Tilly_, Count, his Massacre of the _Swedes_ at _Brandenburgh_, 2.
    Of the _Palatines_ at _Heidelberg_, 321.

  _Tintoret_, the Painter, 419, 420.

  _Tirol_, Country, 377.
    Manner of Salutation here, 380.
    Dress of the People, 393.
    Their Saints, 394.

  _Titian_, the Painter, 419.

  _Torring, Ignatius-Joseph_, Count _de_, 265, 267, 373.

  _Tour_ of _Auvergne_, Princess, 332.

  _Tour_ and _Taxis, Alexander_, Pr. of, 205, 303, 342.

  ---- ---- ---- _Mary-Augusta_, Princess of, 285, 290.

  _Tournay_, Siege, 124.

  _Towers_, mistaken for _Capuchin_ Friars, 339.

  TRENT, _t._ 393.

  _Truchsses, Zeil_, Count _de_, 374.

  _Tschernin_, Count, 211, 222.

  _Tuhlmeier_, Secretary, _Prussian_, 43.

  _Tun_, at _Heidelberg_, 324.

  _Turks_, where they have reason to laugh at the Christians, 54.

  _Tuscany, John Gaston_, the Great Duke, 428.
    His Saying when he declared Don _Carlos_ his Successor, 428.

  _Tutors_, or Governors, a mercenary sort, 217, 218.


  _Valerio_’s Tomb at _Venice_, 405.

  _Vatican_ Library, 321.

  _Vauban_, M. Engineer, 309.

  VENICE, _t._ 395, 396, &c.
    Its Doges, 389, 390.
    Patriarch, 403.
    Churches, 403, _&c._
    Arsenal, 405, _&c._
    Bucentaur, 399, 407.
    Forces, 408.
    Lakes, 409.
    Its political Interest, 409.
    Trade, 410.
    Nobles and Ambassadors, 410.
    Ladies, 411.
    Music, 414, 415.
    Palaces and Gentry, 420.

  _Vernesobre_, Baron _de_, his Gains by _Missisippi_, 8.

  _Viaticum_, the Homage paid to it in Popish Countries, 249.

  _Vicardel, Francis_, Marquis of _Fleuri_ and _Beaufort_, 135.

  _Vieban_, M. _de_, _Prussian_ Minister, 43.

  VIENNA, _t._ 224.
    Sieges, 237, 239, 247, 248.
    Its Police, 246.
    Its Governour how stil’d, 246.
    Its Garrison, 247.
    Fortifications, 249.
    Women, 251, &c.

  _Vierec_, M. _de_, 46.

  _Villaco_, t. 382.

  _Violante_, of _Bavaria_, Princess, 429.

  _Violin_, the first in _Italy_, 415.

  _Virgilius_, St. 365.

  _Virgin Mary_’s miraculous Image at _Inspruc_, 384.
    The Adoration paid to her in the Countries of _Trent_ and _Tirol_,

  VITERBO, _t._ 430.

  ULM, _t._ 276.

  _Unertel_, M. _de_, 267.

  _Voltaire_’s Life of _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_, Reflection on it,


  _Wackerbarth, Augustus Christopher_, Marshal _de_, 91, 99, 102, 124.

  _Wakerbarth, Salmour-Gabaleon-Joseph_, Count _de_, 104, 112, 124, 126,
    His Countess, 125.

  _Wagenheim_, M. _de_, of _Hanover_, 66.

  WAHTRINGEN, _t._ 377.

  _Walbourg de Truchsses_, Count _de_, 27.

  _Waldstein_, Count and Countess _de_, 147. 148.

  _Wales_, FREDERIC, Prince of, 26, 64.
    AUGUSTA, Princess of, 182.

  _Wallenstein_, Count and Countess of, 151, 153.

  _Walrave_, M. Engineer, 82.

  _Walstein_, the great Soldier, 210.

  _Wartemberg_, Count and Countess, 3, 5, 6, 7.
    The King of _Prussia_’s Tears at his Funeral, 7.
    His Administration, 36, 42, 44, 134.

  _Wartensteben_, Count, 17, 36.

  _Wasserbourg_, t. 364.

  _Water-works_, at _Herenhausen_, 67.

  _Wederkopf_, M. _de_, 80.

  _Weiller_, a _Prussian_ Colonel, 20.

  _Weimar_, t. 172.
    Its Dukes, 172 to 176.

  _Weissenberg_ Battle, 210.


  _Wenceslaus_ (St.) K. of _Bohemia_, 212, 213.

  _Wens_ in Throats, 393.

  _Wensen_, M. Marshal of the _Prussian_ Court, 7, 8.

  WERMSTORF, _t._ 86, 103, 157.

  _Werth, John de_, 321.

  _Wetzlar_ Tribunal, 245, 320.

  _Whim_, a fine Seat so called near _Hanover_, 67.

  _William_ of _Saxe-Gotha_, Prince, 182.

  _William-Henry_, Duke of _Saxe-Eysenach_, 183.

  _Willigise_, ABp. of _Mentz_, 179.

  _Wirtemberg, Lewis_ Prince of, 151, 285.
    _Charles-Alexander_ Duke, 279, 285, 290.
    His Duchess, 285.
    His Brother _Frederic_, 285.

  _Wirtemberg, Eberhard-Lewis_ D. 279, 280, 289.
    His Duchess, _ib._ 280.
    His Son, 281.
    Daughter, _ib._

  _Wirtemberg-Oels, Augusta-Louisa_, Princess of, 83.
    _Christian-Ulric_, Duke of, 83.

  _Witgenstein_, Count, 285.

  _Woad_, three sorts of it, 179.

  _Wohlin_, Baron _de_, 334.

  _Wolckenstein_, Count _de_, 393.

  _Wolfembuttle_ Family and Court, 69 to 72.
    Its Inhabitants compared to the Hogs of _Westphalia_, 75.
    The Duchess Dowager, 80.

  WOLFEMBUTTLE, _t._ 75.

  _Wolffenstein, Sophia-Christina_, Countess of, 208.

  _Women_, of the _Levant_ and _Hamburg_, their great Confinement, 52.

  WORMS, _t._ 338.

  _Wratislaw, Francis-Charles_, Co. _de_, 147, 148, 153.
    His Countess, 154.

  _Wreech, de_, Colonel, 30.

  _Wurben_, Countess _de_, Mistress to the D. of _Wirtemberg_, 279, 282,
      283, 284.
    Her Disgrace, 290, &c.

  _Wurm_, M. _de_, Master of the Horse to the D. of _Saxe-Gotha_, 183.

  _Wurmbrandt_, Count _de_, 245.

  _Wurtenberg, Christina-Charlotta de_, Margravine of
      _Brandenburg-Anspach_, 194.

  WURTZBOURG, _t._ 185.
    Power and Splendor of its Bishop, 190.


  _Zech, Bernard_, Baron _de_, 138.

  _Zell_, Duke and Duchess, 60, 61, 62.

  ZELL, _t._ 61, 68.

  _Zensa_, Prince _Eugene’s_ Victory there, 237.

  _Zinzendorf, Lewis_, Count _de_, 240.
    The Dignity hereditary in his Family, _ib._

  _Zebel_, Baron _de_, 188, 189, 336.

  _Zechau_, Baron _de_, 193, 195.



In the first Col. of Letter M, in the Index, Line 6 from the Bottom, for
p. 113, read 114. Line 7, 9, and 11, for _Prussia_ r. _Poland_. In the 3d.
Column of the same Letter, read lines 34, 35, 36, thus:

_Moschinski, Anthony_, Count and Countess, 117, 120, 142.

_Moses_, a Piece of his Rock, 396.



[1] The Reader will please to observe, that this Preface was written
during the late Distractions in _Poland_, before the Malecontent Lords had
reconcil’d themselves to their Allegiance to their lawful Sovereign.

[2] This Church being destroy’d by Lightning in 1730, is magnificently
rebuilt. The 21st of _August_ 1734, the new Spire of it, which had been 4
Years erecting, and was carry’d up to the Height of about 190 Feet, fell
at 9 o’clock at Night upon the Roof of the Church, whereby that and the
neighbouring Houses suffer’d very great Damage. How it happen’d, no body
yet knows; some say it was caus’d by Thunder, others by an Earthquake, and
some will have it that it fell down of its own accord.

[3] This House is no longer the Governour’s; for the King, who has caused
great Additions to be made to it, has given it to the Prince Royal, and it
goes by the Name of the _Prince Royal’s Palace_. The Governour lives at
present in the Street _Royale_, the King having purchas’d the fine House
of _Catsch_ there purposely for the Governour’s Residence.

[4] This Prince died at _Schwedt_, _Dec._ 19, 1711. He left two Sons, one
of whom was marry’d in 1734, to the Princess _Dorothea-Sophia_, the King
of _Prussia_’s fourth Daughter, then about fifteen Years of age. So that
his Majesty, who had six Daughters, married four of them within the space
of four Years, and has now but two more to dispose of.

[5] Her Name is _Jean Charlotte_, and she is the youngest Sister of Prince
_Leopold_ of _Anhalt Dessau_, being the Daughter of the Prince
_John-George_ II. by _Henrietta Catherine_, Daughter of _Frederic-Henry_
Prince of _Orange_.

[6] Since the Original was publish’d, this Ward has been lengthen’d two
thirds. There is one Street so long, that in this respect there are few
that equal it: ’tis as strait as a Line; and terminates in an Oval,
surrounded with very fine Houses. A new Ward is also erected at the End of
that call’d the New Town; from whence it ranges behind _Frederic-Stadt_.
Here most of the chief Nobility are building Hotels or Palaces, rather
than Houses. In a word, if the Number of the Inhabitants of _Berlin_ was
proportionable to that of the Houses, it would be the finest, and the most
flourishing Town in all _Germany_.

[7] He married (in _June_ 1733,) the Princess _Elizabeth-Christina_ of
_Brunswic-Lunenburgh_, and _Bevern_, Daughter of _Ferdinand-Albert_ Duke
of _Brunswic-Lunenburgh_, and _Bevern_, Field-Marshal General of the
Armies of the Emperor and Empire: and Presumptive Heir to the Duke Regent
of _Brunswic-Lunenburg Wolfembuttle_.

[8] This was his Royal Highness, now Prince of _Wales_. All _Europe_, in
short, thought, as did the Poets of that Time; and every one in general
mark’d out the Princess for this Prince. It was then too the Desire of
both the Queens; and the Princess herself seem’d to have been brought up
in that Notion. But when ’twas least of all expected, certain Reasons of
State cancell’d all these Views; and the King of _Prussia_ thought fit to
marry his eldest Daughter in 1731, to the Hereditary Prince of
_Brandenburg-Bareith_: as King _George_ II. _of Great Britain_, in 1756,
thought fit to marry his eldest Son to her Highness, _Augusta_, youngest
Sister of the present Duke of _Saxe-Gotha_.

[9] The Marriage was actually celebrated between them, in _July_ 1733.

[10] The fourth married in 1734, to the King’s Cousin, the Margrave of

[11] This Prince died in 1731. His eldest Son, the Margrave _Charles_,
succeeded him in the Grand Mastership of the Order of St. _John_; and had
his Regiment of Foot in the Service of _Prussia_. Prince _Frederic_, his
Royal Highness’s second Son, had his Regiment in the Service of the
States-General of the _United Provinces_; and the Count _de
Truchsses-Walbourgh_, a Major-General, had his Regiment of Horse. He was
sent to compliment _Lewis_ XV. upon his Coronation; and afterwards on the
same Commission to the Emperor at _Prague_. His Wit and Politeness were
applauded at both those Courts.

[12] He died suddenly in _August_ 1734, at _Malchau_, aged 57, being born
the 4th of _May_ 1677, O. S. He was not married.

[13] The King thought fit some time ago, to confer this Regiment of Horse
upon his second Son, Prince _Augustus-William_, and to give the Prince
Royal a Regiment of Foot.

[14] M. _de Lopel_ died the beginning of 1735, in his Government of

[15] The first and the last have been dead some Years, and their Places
supply’d by Messieurs _Bork_ and _Poddewitz_, who have a just Title to the
intire Possession of the King’s Confidence.

[16] Since the writing of this, he is dead, and succeeded in the
Management of Foreign Affairs by M. _de Borck_, Lieutenant-General of the
King’s Forces, Knight of the Black Eagle and St. _John_, Governor of
_Stetin_, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot. This Gentleman is descended
from a very good Family in _Pomerania_, and served with Distinction in the
Army in _Flanders_. Since the Peace of _Utrecht_, he has been twice
charged with the King’s Affairs at the Emperor’s Court, where he was
highly esteemed, especially by Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_. Those Foreign
Ministers who have to do with him, and who knew M. _d’Ilgen_, observe a
great Contrariety in the Characters of the two Ministers. The one was a
Man of Intrigue, Craft, and Mystery, the other, of Candour, Sincerity, and
a noble Frankness. M. _de Tuhlmeier_, Nephew to the late M. _d’Ilgen_, who
is Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, was, as it were, born to the
Business; having been trusted from his Youth by his late Uncle. The
Foreign Ministers speak well of him: he is very assiduous in his Office,
and indeed suffers no Business to sleep in his hands.

The Person who has the Affairs Criminal in his Cognizance, is M. _de
Vieban_, Minister of State, and Auditor-General of the Army. He succeeded
M. _de Catsch_; is a Native of _Cologn_; and as he was at _Berlin_ without
Relations or Friends, his Advancement is only to be ascribed to his own
Merit and Abilities.

[17] He fell into Disgrace, after this Account of him was written, and
died at his Commandery.

[18] M. _de Creutz_ died the beginning of An. 1733, leaving only one
Daughter, who is married to M. _de Hacke_, a Gentleman of a good Family,
and his Majesty’s Aid-de-Camp and Favourite. This Marriage was solemnized
with a great deal of Pomp, and honoured with the Presence of their
Majesties, the whole Royal Family, and the Duke of _Lorrain_.

[19] This Resolution was taken by his Majesty in 1725, on account of a
Recoinage, which the _Hamburghers_ thought necessary, partly in order to
hinder their Silver from being carried out of their City to _Denmark_.
This Dispute had considerable Consequences; so that the King of _Denmark_
not being able to bring the _Hamburghers_ to his Terms, push’d Matters so
far as to fit out a couple of Frigats to cruise at the Mouth of the
_Elbe_, which seized all Merchant Ships bound for that City. But in
_March_ 1736, the Affair was happily accommodated.

[20] It was set up, carried on, and directed by some of the Foreign
Ministers residing at _Hamburgh_, who had each his particular Province; so
that M. _d’A----_ presided at the Rehearsals, M. _de W----_ regulated the
Dances, and M. _S----_ had the ordering of the Clothes, the Head-dresses,
the Paint and the Patches of the Actresses.

[21] This is what scarce any body has doubted of, but Pere _Boubours_.

[22] The _Hamburghers_ have nothing to fear from the _Jews_, with regard
to their Republic, but they cannot so well trust the turbulent and
enterprizing Temper of the _Roman_ Catholic Clergy, who aim at their
Churches. The popular Commotions which are but too frequent at _Hamburgh_,
would soon furnish those Gentlemen with an Opportunity to re-assert Claims
which are incompatible with the present Liberty of the City. But this
Pretext, how plausible soever in favour of the Papists, is not at all
conclusive against the _Calvinists_ at _Hamburgh_, who surely might be as
safely tolerated as the _Jews_.

[23] His Post of Plenipotentiary of the Circle of Lower _Saxony_, was
conferr’d in 1733 upon the Count _de Seckendorf_, one of the Emperor’s
Lieutenant-Generals; but the Functions of the Embassy are perform’d by the
Baron _de Kurtzrok_, the Imperial President.

[24] In 1734, he was install’d Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, in the room
of the Count _de Schonborn_, Bishop of _Bamberg_, who retir’d.

[25] The common People cou’d never forgive him for his manner of raising
Taxes; by filling the King’s Coffers with all the Silver of the Kingdom,
and substituting instead of it a Copper Money, which will perpetuate his
Memory; especially the Coins on which he caus’d the seven Planets to be
engrav’d; which are sought after, and hoarded up as Monuments of his

[26] Second Wife of King _Frederic_ IV. who died in _October_ 1730. Her
being so much in favour with that Prince, was the cause of her Disgrace
after the Death of that Monarch; and she retir’d to the Isle of _Fuhnen_,
where she leads a very melancholy Life.

[27] She was called _Eleanor d’Emiers_, and was the Daughter of _Alexander
d’Olbreuse_, a Gentleman of _Poictou_.

[28] The House of _Brunswic_ has for its Head _Ernest_ of _Zell_, who by
_Bernard_ and _Albert_ the Great, the Son of _Otho_ the Infant, descended
from the Familys of _Este_ and _Witikind_. _George-William_ Duke of
_Zell_, was Grandson to _William_, the second Son of _Ernest_; from whom
came the two Branches of _Lunenbourg-Zell_, and _Lunenbourg-Hanover_; both
which were united in the single Family of _Hanover_, by the Death of the
Duke of _Zell_, who left no Issue besides a Daughter married to his Cousin
_George_ I. King of _Great Britain_, as well as Elector of _Hanover_.

[29] Monsieur _de Schulenbourgh_ died the beginning of the Year 1733.

[30] Pope _Clement_ XII. on his Accession to the Pontificate, appointed
for his Successor _Schorror_, Bishop of _Helenopolis_, a Native of _Bonn_,
in the Electorate of _Cologne_; a Prelate as amiable as venerable.

[31] He retir’d some Years since from Court, to his Estate at _Schlitz_,
in _Franconia_.

[32] The Count _de Bothmar_ died at _London_ in the beginning of _An._
1732, in a very advanc’d Age, and much lamented by all that knew him. The
Baron _de Hattorf_ succeeded him in the Ministry to the King as Elector.

[33] Since this was written, the continual Ailments and great Age of M.
_de Bulau_, have obliged the King to make an Alteration in the Command of
his Troops. M. _de Hardenberg_, a Knight of the _Teutonic_ Order, is
Commander in Chief of the Horse, and M. _Melvil_, who is descended of a
noble Family in _Scotland_, has the Command of the Foot. They are both
Officers of Reputation, and signaliz’d their Valour during the late Wars.

[34] These auxiliary Forces have been of late years disbanded.

[35] These Works were set up by the Direction of WM. BENSON, Esq; who went
over to _Hanover_ for that purpose in 1716, was soon after made
Surveyor-General of His Majesty’s Works in _England_, and is now one of
the Auditors of the Imprest.

[36] He died in _March_, 1731, without Issue by either of his three Wives;
who were, 1. _Christina-Sophia_ of _Brunswic_, 2. _Sophia-Amelia_ of
_Holstein-Gottorp_, and 3. _Elizabeth-Sophia_ of _Holstein-Norbourg_, whom
he left a Widow, after two Years Marriage. His Brother _Lewis-Rudolph_,
Duke of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_ and _Blanckenbourg_, succeeded him. He was
born in 1671, and in 1690 married _Christiana-Louisa_ of _Oetingen_, by
whom he had three Daughters; the eldest of whom was married to the Emperor
_Charles_ VI. the second to the _Czarowitz_, Son of _Peter_ the Great; and
the third, to the Duke _Ferdinand-Albert_ of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_ and

[37] The Branch of _Brunswic-Bevern_ is descended from _Henry de
Danneberg_, eldest Son of Duke _Ernest_, Head of the _Brunswic_ Family.
_Henry_ left two Sons; the youngest of whom, _Augustus_ of _Wolfembuttle_,
had three Sons who form’d three Branches, _Brunswic_, _Wolfembuttle_, and
_Bevern_. The two first were united in _Anthony-Ulric_. _Ferdinand-Albert_
I. Chief of the Line of _Bevern_, left five Sons and a Daughter. Three of
his Sons are dead; of whom the Eldest lost his life at the Battle of
_Schellenburg_, in 1704; the Third died in 1706, when he was Provost of
St. _Blaise_ of _Brunswic_; as did the Fifth also, in 1706, at the Battle
of _Turin_. There remain two Sons, _viz._ Duke _Ferdinand-Albert_ II. and
Duke _Ernest-Ferdinand_.

[38] See the foregoing Note.

[39] This Prince was Velt-Marshal-General of the Emperor’s Forces, and in
that Quality he commanded the Emperor’s Army, in the War which _France_
declared against his Imperial Majesty in 1733. He acquired great
Reputation at the Head of a very weak Army, by hindering the _French_ from
doing any thing more than taking Fort _Kehl_ in the first Campaign, when
the Emperor was surpriz’d and unprovided. At the Opening of the Campaign
in 1734, this Prince oppos’d the Designs of the Marshal _Berwick_, by
Lines which he cast up at _Muhlberg_, and which were of good service to
Prince _Eugene_ in facilitating his Retreat towards _Heilbron_, when he
came to take upon him the Command of the Imperial Army. That great General
own’d he never saw any thing look better, or that was stronger and better
disposed than those Lines, which the Duke of _Bevern_ had guarded till
then, with an Army of not 25000 Men. His most Serene Highness was in 1734,
declared by the Dyet of the Empire, Velt-Marshal-General of the Armies of
the Empire.

[40] He had fourteen Children, _viz._ seven Sons and seven Daughters, the
last of whom was born in 1732.

[41] He married _Philippina-Charlotte_, the King of _Prussia_’s third
Daughter, in 1733.

[42] This Princess was married to the Prince Royal of _Prussia_, in 1733.

[43] The Baron having quitted the Service of _Wolfembuttle_, is actually a
Minister of State at _Hanover_.

[44] The Count _de Dehn_, after being disgrac’d, went to _Denmark_, of
which he already wore the Order of _Dannebrock_, and obtained the Title of
one of the King’s Counsellors of State. From that time he stay’d at his
Estate in the Country of _Wolfembuttle_, till the Year 1734, that the King
of _Denmark_ appointed him to go to _Petersburg_, to fill up the Post of
his Envoy Extraordinary vacant by the Death of M. _Westphal_.

[45] Since the Duke succeeded his Father, M. _de Munchausen_ is become
first Minister of State, and manages all the Branches of that Office with
that Care and Justice which procure him universal Love and Esteem.

[46] He is at present Marshal of the Court; M. _de Miltitz_ is Great
Cup-Bearer, and M. _de Rossing_ Great Huntsman.

[47] The reason is, perhaps, because out of _their Attachment to old
Customs_, they had the Curiosity to go a little higher back than their

[48] The Duke of _Blanckenbourg_ being become Duke of _Wolfembuttle_, by
the Death of his Brother, has scarce made any Alteration in his Court. The
Persons who were heretofore his Creatures and Favourites continue in the
same Employments. The Dutchess Dowager remains at _Brunswic_, in the fine
House which the late Duke caus’d to be built; and of which the said Prince
made a Present to her, with all its rich Furniture. This Princess is
immensely rich, and lives with very great Dignity. Her Steward is M. _de
Wederkopf_, who was formerly Privy Counsellor to the King of _Denmark_,
and his Envoy Extraordinary at the Court of _France_.

[49] The Treasury of St. _Dennis_, near _Paris_, boasts also of this
Lanthorn; so that _Judas_ must have had at least two Lanthorns.

[50] He died in 1731, as is before observed.

[51] Her Name is _Augusta-Louisa_, she was born the 11th of _January_
1698, and is the Daughter of _Christian-Ulric_, Duke of _Wirtemberg-Oels_
and _Bernstadt_, by his 3d Wife, _Sophia Wilhelmina_, of _East-Friesland_.

[52] This is _Augustus-Lewis_, who in 1728, succeeded his Brother
_Leopold_. His second Wife _Emilia_ of _Promnitz_, dying in 1732, he
marry’d his Sister _Ann-Frederica_ of _Promnitz_; which Match, at that
time, made a very great Noise. The Curious are referr’d to a Paper call’d
_le Glaneur_, or the Gleaner, published in 1733, for what was said upon
it. This Prince has had Children, by his three Wives; and two Sons in
particular by his second.

[53] ’Tis the 24th part of a Dollar, or about 2_d._-1/2 _Sterling_.

[54] He had been in the King’s Service ever since he was only Prince of
_Saxony_, and always took care to keep in Favour; he being, of all the
Favourites, the Person that had the greatest Share of the Prince’s
Confidence: Nevertheless, he ow’d his Advancement, and his illustrious
Post of Minister of the Cabinet, to the Interest of the Countess _de
Cosel_, who caus’d the Chancellor _Beichling_, who had always been the
Favourite Minister, to be turn’d out.

[55] This part of the Prophecy did not take place, for the King of
_Poland_ died in his Bed at _Warsaw_ the 1st of _Feb._ 1733, O. S. This
Monarch set out in the Month of _January_, from _Dresden_, to hold the
Dyet of _Poland_, which was open’d at _Warsaw_, and every thing seem’d
like to pass to the Satisfaction of the King and Kingdom, when these fine
Hopes were demolished by the Death of this Prince, who in his last
Sickness, preserved the Character of the Hero, betraying neither Fear nor
Folly; all his Wish being that he might live to embrace his Son.

The King found himself in a declining State, several Years. During the
last Dyet at _Grodno_, a Mortification seiz’d his Foot; for which reason,
M. _de Petit_, a Surgeon of _Paris_, whom the King sent for on purpose,
cut off two Toes, and set his Majesty upon his Legs again, but told him
withall, he must observe such a Regimen as he prescribed to him, or else
it would break out again. But the King finding himself better, neglected
_Petit_’s Advice, and died of the Mortification, as the Surgeon had

[56] _Eberhardina_ of _Brandenbourg-Bareith_ Queen of _Poland_, and
Electoress of _Saxony_: she died at her Seat at _Pretch_ near
_Wittenberg_, some Years before the King.

[57] This Prince succeeding his Father in the Electorate, and afterwards
in the Throne of _Poland_, rais’d M. _Solckofski_ to the Dignity of a
Count, and appointed him his Master of the Horse, and one of his Cabinet

[58] The Electoral Prince (now Elector of _Saxony_ and King of _Poland_)
has eight Children, _viz._ three Princes and five Princesses; so that the
Electoral Branch is not like to be extinct very soon.

[59] The Velt-Marshal the Count de _Wackerbarth_ being dead, the Elector
nam’d this Prince Generalissimo of the Troops of the Electorate in 1734.

[60] This Prince has for some time past resided at _Konigsgratz_.

[61] Who died, _August_ 13, 1734, a Minister of the Cabinet, Velt-Marshal
and Governour of _Dresden_.

[62] She died at _Dresden_ soon after this was written.

[63] Count _Moschinski_, the Husband of this Lady, was Great Treasurer of
the Court in _Poland_, and is Great Faulconer in _Saxony_.

[64] Madame _de Cosel_ may thank no body but herself for her Disgrace; for
when she was in Royal Keeping, she had the assurance to threaten the King
more than once that if ever he abandon’d her she wou’d pistol him. The
King, who knew her to be a Woman that always kept her word, thought it his
best way to be beforehand with her, tho’ it was not till some time after
that he caus’d her to be arrested. Madame _de Cosel_, who was retir’d to
_Berlin_, did not dissemble her Chagrin; and ’tis said she declar’d in
publick that the King should pay dear for being so false to her: Threats
which his Majesty wou’d perhaps have despis’d, if Madame _de Cosel_ had
not refused to give him back a Promise which he had made to her of
marrying her in case the Queen shou’d die. Mean time the King desir’d of
the King of _Prussia_ to give orders for arresting her, which was done
accordingly; and Madame _de Cosel_ was carried under a Guard to _Saxony_,
where she remain’d a Prisoner till the death of the King. But we have been
told by the publick News-Papers that she obtain’d her Liberty in 1734.

[65] This Marriage was actually consummated at _Dresden_. But since the
King’s death, the Prince of _Holstein_ has abandon’d his Wife, whom he
only married with a view of obtaining some considerable Employment from
the King. The present Elector has eas’d her of most of that Wealth which
the late King had heap’d on her.

[66] He died in _August_, 1734; and was succeeded in his Employments by
the Prince of _Saxe-Weissenfels_, and the Count of _Friesland_.

[67] The Count _de Wackerbarth Salmour_ distinguish’d himself, in the year
1733, when the new Elector sent him Commissary Plenipotentiary to
_Poland_; where he manag’d the Interests of his Master so well, that he
was chose King.

[68] He was created a Count of the Empire (not by the King of _Poland_,
but) by the Emperor. As he is a Lover of the Belles Lettres, in the late
War he wrote and publish’d several solid Pieces, which were well penn’d.

[69] He was disgrac’d in 1731, upon which he retir’d to his Estate. The
Catastrophe of this Gentleman is so tragical an Incident, that it will be
proper to give a short but true History of it, as it is related in the
following Circular Letter, wrote by the King of _Poland_’s Order, to his
Ministers abroad, for the Information of all the Foreign Courts. The
Letter was dated at _Warsaw_, the 12th of _May_, O. S. 1736, as follows.


‘The tragical Death of the Count _de Hoym_ having been variously reported
both in printed Papers and written Letters, and with Circumstances not
strictly true; the King has order’d me to give you an exact Information of
this Affair.

‘You will remember what the late King, of glorious Memory, signified to
his Ministers abroad, concerning the Reasons and Circumstances that
preceded, accompanied, and followed the Disgrace of the Count _de Hoym_.

‘This Count having been a second time arrested for other Crimes, after the
Death of the late King, was committed in 1733, to _Sonnenstein_, from
whence the present King was so merciful as to release him some Weeks
after; contenting himself to bind him again by Oaths stronger than the
former; whereby the Count obliged himself to continue quiet at his Estate,
without concerning himself with any but his own private Affairs.

‘Yet towards the close of the Year 1734, and at the time when the King was
in _Poland_, the Count, notwithstanding his Engagements, took the
Opportunity of his Majesty’s Absence, to set on foot other Intrigues, in
defiance of his Oaths and his Promises; whereof the King being timely
inform’d, order’d him to be arrested and committed Prisoner to
_Konigstein_; which was the reason of his attempting his Life by a Pistol,
whereof I acquainted you by my Circular Letter of the 15th of _January_,

‘An Information was afterwards preparing for the Trial of him and his
Accomplices; but not many days after the first Examination, the said Count
being stung by the Remorse of his Conscience, and vexed to see all his
Pranks laid open, chose to shorten the Course of Justice by putting an end
to his own Life, notwithstanding the undeniable Proofs he had before
experienc’d of his Majesty’s Clemency. For this purpose he first pretended
to be sick, and having order’d his Domestics not to disturb him, he hang’d
himself the 21st of _April_ last, at Night, with a Handkerchief ty’d to a
Hook that supported his Looking-glass. The Letter he wrote to his
Domestics with a Pencil, and which was found upon the Floor, is an
indisputable Mark of the deliberate Purpose and cold Blood with which he
executed this Design. Moreover, in searching his Pockets a Razor was found
on him, with a Penknife, Scissars, and the like Instruments.

The Family of the Deceas’d having petition’d the King not to proceed
against the Corpse with the Severity of the Law, his Majesty has been so
good as to order the Body of the Self-murderer to be privately interr’d,
just without the Church-Yard of the Garrison at the Fort of _Konigstein_.’

                                                       _I am_, &c.

The Night before the Count dispatch’d himself, he left a Note upon his
Table for his two Servants, as follows:

‘Be prudent, make no Noise or Alarm, untie me immediately, put me to Bed,
and then shut the Door after you, by bolting it when you are out, which
you may do by the help of this Pack-thread; and by this means no body will
know you have been in my Chamber. The World will doubtless believe I died
of an Apoplexy; if you perform my Orders discreetly and faithfully, my
Family will pay you 1000 Ducats, on sight of this Note.’

[70] In _October_ 1736, he return’d to _Dresden_.

[71] The Duke of _Mersebourg_ died in 1731, and was succeeded by his
Uncle, the Duke _de Sprinberg_.

[72] This Prince died in 1732.

[73] The chief Trade of this Town is in _Woad_, of which they have three
sorts. The first they sow about _Christmas_, the next in the _Spring_,
_Summer_, and _Harvest_, of which they have three Crops, and the third
grows wild. This Herb is such a sovereign Balsamic, that it cures Wounds
almost with a touch, if taken in time. It resembles Plantain, but has a
longer Leaf. The Roots fatten and improve barren Ground exceedingly, and
being brought over to _England_, with _Clover_, _Cinque-Foil_, &c. grows
with good Success in _Northamptonshire_, and other Places. In the Duke’s
Palace there is a Chamber of valuable Rarities, and a noble Library, of
which the late Duke caus’d a Catalogue to be publish’d of the MSS. that
the Learned might know where to have recourse to them. The Person he
imployed to form it, was Dr. _Cyprianus_ Ecclesiastical Counsellor and
Assessor in the Consistory of _Gotha_. They are for the most part the MSS.
of Ecclesiastical Authors, Ancient and Modern, especially the latter.
There is a great Number of Papers and Letters in the _Latin_ and _German_
Languages, concerning _Luther_’s Reformation, and several MSS. of the
vulgar Translation of the Bible. There is a correcter Copy than that at
_Leipsic_, of the Works of _Lactantius_; another of St. _Austin_’s
Treatise of the _City of God_, which belonged to _Willigise_ Archbishop of
_Mentz_, about the year 1000; another of the ancient Capitularies of the
Kings of _France_, with the Salic Laws, and the Laws of the _Lombards_,
_Almains_, &c. There are thirty one MS. Volumes containing the Abridgments
of the Lives of the Emperors of the _West_, and of the _East_, their
Pictures and Medals, and those of their Families, the whole collected in
1550, by _James de Strada_ of _Mantua_. The Medals are very well design’d,
and _Occo_ the famous Antiquary affirms in a Letter quoted by M. _Patin_,
that every Figure on them cost a Crown the engraving. There is a
particular MS. which contains a Collection of Tracts by certain _Greek_
Chymists concerning the desirable _Art of making Gold_. For the rest the
Curious are referred to the Catalogue it self.

[74] This Prince, who was _Frederic_ II. died in 1732, _March_ 12.

[75] He had ten Sons and six Daughters by her. The Hereditary Prince who
succeeds him is _Frederic_ III. born _April_ 4, 1699. He has a Brother
named _William_ born _March_ 12, 1701, and some time an Officer in the
_Dutch_ Service.

[76] She was born _August_ 10, 1710.

[77] Since these Letters were written the Face of the Court of _Gotha_ is
very much altered. The Duke therein mentioned is dead. The Hereditary
Prince _Frederic_ has succeeded him, and his Mother the Duchess Dowager
retired to _Altenbourg_, with the Princesses her Daughters, who are
_Frederica_ born _July_ 6, 1715, O. S. and _Augusta_ born _Nov._ 18, 1719,
and married _April_ 27, 1736, to his Royal Highness _Frederic_ Prince of
_Wales_. The Duke’s Brothers, who are _William_, _John-Augustus_,
_Christian-William_, _Lewis-Ernest_, _Maurice_ and _John-Adolphus_, are
gone into the Service of the Emperor, the King of _Poland_, and the Prince
of _Hesse-Cassel_. As to the Government, the Duke treads in the very Steps
of his late Father. M. _Backover_ is his Chancellor, and the First Man in
his Council. M. _de Hering_, formerly in the service of the Duke of
_Saxe-Weimar_, is Vice-Chancellor. The Count _de Ronaw_ is now Envoy at
the Dyet of _Ratisbon_, M. _de Damnitz_, heretofore in the Service of the
Prince _de Rudelstad_, is Grand Marshal; and seems to have a Share in the
new Duke’s Confidence. This Gentleman is also a Major-General, and the
Camp seems to be a fitter Element for him than the Court.--The Office of
Master of the Horse is not yet fill’d up. M. _de Wurm_, a Person of
Quality and Merit, was in possession of that Office in the late Duke’s
time, but he lately resigned it of his own accord. M. _de Stotterheim_, is
to be appointed Great Cup-Bearer, who is as yet, I think, in the Service
of some Foreign Prince.

[78] _John William_ Duke of _Saxe-Eysenach_, died at sixty-one Years of
Age, soon after having married to his fourth Wife _Mary Christina
Felicite_ Countess of _Linange_, the Widow of _Christian_ Margrave of

[79] _Ann Sophia Charlotte_ of _Prussia_ Daughter of the late Margrave
_Albert_, and Wife to _William Henry_ the present Duke of _Saxe-Eysenach_.

[80] His Successor was _Frederic Charles_ Count _de Schonborn_ Bishop of
_Bamberg_ and Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, who was before his
Competitor. In 1734, he resigned the Post of Vice-Chancellor, and retired
to his Bishoprick.

[81] _Christina-Charlotta de Wurtenberg_, Margravine Dowager of
_Brandenbourg-Anspach_, who was Regent for her Son, died at _Anspach_
1730, soon after she had resign’d the Regency to this young Margrave, and
match’d him to _Frederica-Louisa_, second Daughter of the King of

[82] This was _Benjamin Neukirch_. He put _Telemachus_ into Verse, and was
the Author of a great many other Works, which shew that the _German_
Language is capable of conveying as fine Sentiments as those which are
more us’d by Authors. He died lately at _Anspach_.

[83] This Princess was the Dowager of the Duke of _Courland_, when she
marry’d the Margrave _Christian_ who was very old. After his Death she
marry’d the Duke of _Saxe-Meinungen_ whom she has surviv’d. She resides at
_Coburg_ in _Franconia_. She never had but one Son, and that was he who
marry’d the present _Czarina_, but died soon after his Marriage.

[84] The Hereditary Prince who is the eldest, marry’d the Princess Royal
of _Prussia_ in 1731.

[85] The eldest of the Princesses, _Sophia-Christiana-Louisa_, was marry’d
in 1731 to the Prince _Alexander de la Tour_ and _Taxis_. She lately
embrac’d the _Romish_ Religion.

[86] The Margrave and the Prince are now return’d to _Bareith_, where they
live with all the Splendor of Sovereignty.

[87] She is the present Queen.

[88] He had the Misfortune to be killed as he was hunting in _Bohemia_, by
the Emperor himself in 1732.

[89] She is now Margravine of _Baden-Baden_.

[90] His fickle State of Health oblig’d him to quit this Employment, in
which he was succeeded by the Count _de Collobradt_, who in 1734 was made

[91] He is return’d to _Vienna_ since 1732.

[92] This Minister was Great Chancellor of _Bohemia_ and a Knight of the
_Golden Fleece_. Count _Joseph_ was nominated Ambassador to _Great
Britain_ in 1736, in the room of his Brother _Philip_.

[93] This Word in _French_ signifies a _Scab_.

[94] The Electoresses of _Bavaria_ and _Saxony_.

[95] I conform to the Opinion of almost all the Historians, who do not
place _Frederic_ the Fair in the List of the Emperors.

[96] The Empress Regent and the Empress Dowager.

[97] The King of _Great Britain_.

[98] The Queen of _Prussia_.

[99] The present Duke Regent of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg-Wolfembuttle_.

[100] _Feb._ 1, 1736, she was marry’d to the Duke of _Lorrain_.

[101] There are but seven Archduchesses since 1730; the Emperor’s third
Daughter being dead.

[102] This great General who was born the 8th of _October_ 1663, O. S.
died on the 10th of _April_ 1736, O. S. so suddenly, that when his
Gentleman went that Morning, as usual, into his Chamber to awake him, he
was found dead in his Bed. He had been the day before very gay with
Company whom he entertain’d at Dinner, and made not the least Complaint of
any Ailment, tho’ he had for some time before been so indispos’d that he
did not venture abroad. ’Tis supposed that he was choak’d by an immoderate
Defluxion of Rheum with which he was now and then troubled. His sudden
Death cast the City and Court of _Vienna_ into such a Consternation as did
prodigious Honour to his immortal Memory. On the 15th, after having lain
three days in State, he was interr’d in the Tomb of his Nephew _Emanuel_
Prince of _Savoy_ (which the Princess of _Savoy_ Countess of _Soissons_
caus’d to be erected in the Metropolitan Church of St. _Stephen_) with all
the Military Honours, and all the Magnificence due to his illustrious
Birth, and to these important Services which he perform’d to the August
House of _Austria_ during the Reigns of three successive Emperors. A Will
was found among his Papers, whereby he declar’d the late Prince _Eugene_
of _Savoy_ his Nephew who died the year before at _Manheim_ his universal
Heir. But after that time a Codicil was made, tho’ never sign’d by Prince
_Eugene_, declaring for his Heir his Niece _Louisa de Seissons_ of
_Carignan_ (who was born _December_ 16, 1686.) then at a _Nunnery_ in
_France_. The Prince left behind him a numerous and curious library of
Books, many of which he bought when at _London_ of _Christopher Bateman_
in _Pater-noster Row_, besides a fine Cabinet of Medals and other
Curiosities. The Emperor has bought his Library of his Niece for 20000

Since the Prince’s Death the Count _de Konigseg_, Vice-President of the
Council of War, has the chief Direction of Military Affairs at this Court,
and signs all Dispatches and Commissions which that Prince sign’d as first
President of the said Council, for thirty-three years. His Regiment of
Dragoons is given to Prince _Charles_ of _Lorrain_, but the Honours he
held as General in Chief of the Emperor’s Forces, and his Imperial
Majesty’s Vicar-General in _Italy_, are like to continue vacant by reason
of the Peace.

[103] He is now Bishop of _Breslaw_, a Dignity which gives him a
distinguish’d Rank in this Duchy.

[104] The Count _de Metsch_, Vice-President of the Aulic Council of the
Empire, succeeded him in the Office of the Vice-Chancellor; and the Count
_Aloysius-Thomas Raimond_ of _Harrach Rohram_, heretofore Viceroy of
_Naples_, hereditary Master of the Horse of Upper and Lower _Austria_,
Marshal of the States of the Country, Knight of the Golden Fleece, is
appointed Counsellor of the Conferences in the room of the Count _de

[105] The Count _de Konigseck-Erps_. He actually went to _Spain_, with a
design to relieve his Uncle; but as the Face of Affairs is alter’d at this
Court, they are both return’d. The Count _de Konigseck-Erps_ is at
_Brussels_ Counsellor of State of _Brabant_.

[106] The Count _de Konigseck_ is return’d home from his Embassy to
_Spain_. He actually officiates as Vice-President of the Aulic Council of
War, and as Privy-Counsellor of the Conferences. He is Lieutenant-General
of the Emperor’s Armies, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot; and is lately
created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. The Count _de Mercy_ being kill’d
at the Battle of _Parma_, the 29th of _June_, 1734, the Emperor sent the
Count _de Konigseck_ to _Italy_, and gave him the Command of his Army,
which was in a very shatter’d Condition, and which the Count _de
Konigseck_ set to rights again, in such a manner as to command Respect
even from his Enemies.

[107] His Name and Title is _Joseph de Silva y Meneses_, Marquess _de
Villasor_, Count _de Monte-Santo_.

[108] They are barely _Opinions_, and do not pass into Decrees till they
are approved by the Emperor.

[109] When he return’d to _Vienna_, after the _French_ and _Savoyards_ had
taken _Milan_ in 1733, several Articles of Complaint were exhibited
against him; but he made so full a Defence against the Impeachment, that
the Emperor has the same Confidence in him as before.

[110] He was Uncle to the Cardinal _Collonitz_ ABp. of _Vienna_.

[111] In the Beginning of the Year 1730, this Apartment was burnt down by
a Fire which broke out in the Night-time; so that the Elector and
Electress had like to have been burnt in their Beds, and scarce any of the
fine Furniture was sav’d.

[112] The Order consists at present of a Grand Master who is the Elector,
and two Grand Priors, who are the Electoral Prince and Duke _Ferdinand_,
six Grand Crosses, nine Commanders, and several Knights.

[113] The second is dead.

[114] The present Grand Marshal is the Count _Gaudentz de Rechberg_, a
Grand Croix of the Order of St. _George_.

[115] The Baron _de Freysing_ is at present Great Huntsman.

[116] He died _An._ 1733, and leaving no Children, his Son and Grandson
dying before him, was succeeded by _Charles-Alexander_, the eldest of his
Cousin-Germans, the Son of Duke _Frederic-Charles_, who had been his
Guardian till the Year 1693. The Duke _Eberhard-Lewis_ was 57 Years of

[117] The Duke was reconcil’d to her two Years before she died, and tho’
she was no less than fifty Years of Age, it was reported for a good while
that she was with Child.

[118] This was the Countess _de Gravenitz_. Since the Duke’s Death the
Duke Regent has commenc’d a Prosecution against her, and she traverses
from one Court to another for that Protection which every one denies her.

[119] He died at _Ludwigsbourg_ the 23d of _Nov._ 1731.

[120] He was Velt-Marshal of the Emperor’s Forces, and Governor of
_Servia_ and _Belgrade_. He is one of the famous Generals of our Age, on
whom Prince _Eugene_ set a great Value. When he came to the Succession he
obtain’d of the Diet of the Empire the Post of Velt-Marshal-General
jointly with the Duke of _Brunswic-Bevern_ and the Prince of _Anhalt_. He
married _Mary-Augusta_ of _Tour Taxis_, by whom he has Children. He has
two Brothers in the Emperor’s Service, _viz._ Prince _Frederic_, and
Prince _Lewis_, who distinguish’d themselves in the last War upon the

[121] M. _de Pollnitz_ left the Court in 1732, and is since retir’d to his
lands in _Saxony_.

[122] This Prince died the Beginning of the Year 1732, and left one Son.

[123] He his since marry’d a Princess of _Brandenburg-Bareith_, who has
embrac’d the Catholic Religion.

[124] He was advanc’d to the Office of Secretary at War in the room of M.
_le Blanc_, and was succeeded as Intendant of _Alsace_ by M. _de Harlay_,
formerly Intendant of _Metz_; and when the latter was made Intendant of
_Paris_ he was succeeded by M. _de Brou_.

[125] The Wife of _Lewis_ the Dauphin who was _Lewis_ XIVth’s only Son.

[126] The Duchess of _Orleans_ who is of the _Baden_ Family, and the
Duchess of _Bourbon_.

[127] The famous Cardinal _William Egon de Furstemberg_ Bishop of
_Strasbourg_ died the 10th of _April_ 1704, and was immediately succeeded
by the Abbot _de Rohan_, who was chose Co-adjutor _Jan._ 31, 1701.

[128] _Strasbourg_ was an Episcopal See before the Year 376, for one
_Arnaud_ Bishop of _Strasbourg_ was then present at the Council of
_Cologne_. The Chapter is composed of 24 Members, _viz._ 12 Capitulars,
and 12 Domicilairs, who must be all Princes or Counts. From 1592 the
Canons were _Lutherans_, and Catholics till 1681, when _Lewis_ XIV. having
taken _Strasbourg_, established a Bishop there whose See was at
_Molsheim_, and caused the Cathedral to be restored to the Catholic
Canons; and notwithstanding the contrary Dispositions of the Treaty of
_Westphalia_, in 1687, he turn’d the _Lutheran_ Canons out of
_Brudersdorff_, and the Prebends which they retain’d in the Chapter:
Nevertheless the _Lutheran_ Religion is tolerated in this City.

[129] ’Tis already far advanc’d.

[130] He was admitted Kt. of the _Golden Fleece_ at the last Promotion.

[131] This Fortress is now finish’d, and the Elector, who continues to
keep his Court here, has a strong Garison in it.

[132] He actually lodges there now.

[133] This Prince died at _Breslau_ in _April_ 1732.

[134] His Name was _Theodore_. He was born in 1659, and died in 1732.

[135] The late Queen of _Sardinia_.

[136] The Prince _John-Christian_ became Prince Regent of _Sultzbach_
after his Father’s Death, but did not long survive him, for he died
suddenly _July_ 20, 1733; so that Prince _Charles_ his Son, born
_December_ 10, 1724, is now Prince _Palatine_ of _Sultzbach_, Marquiss of
_Bergopzoom_, and presumptive Heir to the Elector. He is a very forward
hopeful Youth. The Elector has sent for him from _Brussels_ to _Manheim_,
notwithstanding the Intreaty of the Duchess _d’Aremberg_, his
Great-Grandmother by the Mother’s side, (who had the care of his
Education,) that he might be permitted to stay with her. This young
Prince’s Grandmother is the Princess Dowager _d’Auvergne_, Sister to the
Duke _d’Aremberg_, one of the toasted Beauties of her Time. She retir’d to
a Nunnery, is a Lady of good Learning, and now one of the Heads of the
_Jansenist_ Party of _Holland_.

[137] He died soon after this was written, and his Place is not yet fill’d

[138] I suppose M. _de Globe_ is dead; at least he is no longer Grand
Marshal, that Post being occupied by the Baron _de Beveren_, a
Privy-Counsellor and President of the Ecclesiastic Administration at
_Heidelberg_. This Minister does an Honour to the Elector’s Choice of his

[139] The Office of Master of the Horse is vacant; but the Count _de
Nesselrod_ does the Duties of it, in quality of Vice-Master of the horse.

[140] The present King of _Sardinia_.

[141] General _Isselbach_ Commander in Chief of the _Palatine_ Troops, and
Governor of Manheim, dying in _August_ 1734, the Elector gave the Command
of his Troops to the Count _de Nassau-Weilbourg_, and the Government of
_Manheim_ to the Baron _de Zobel_.

[142] Since this was written the Elector of _Mentz_, of the _Palatine_
Family of _Newbourg_ dying, the Chapter of _Worms_ unanimously chose for
its Bishop _Francis-George_ Count _de Schonborn_, Archbishop and Elector
of _Triers_.

[143] These sharp-sighted Gentlemen were not so happy as to foresee the
Marriage which has lately united the Families of _Austria_ and _Lorrain_,
and brought the latter within View of the Imperial Crown, of which the
Elector of _Triers_ saving the Sword in the Scabbard seems to have been a
remarkable Omen.

[144] He was the King of _Prussia_’s Plenipotentiary to the King of _Great
Britain_, and is return’d to _Frankfort_, where he is Minister from the
King of _Prussia_ to the Circle of the _Rhine_.

[145] This Lady died _An._ 1733.

[146] Since the Author was at _Frankfort_ the Prince _Alexander de la
Tour_ and _Taxis_ who married a Princess of _Brandenbourg-Bareith_,
resides in this City and is building a House there.

[147] She is _Louisa-Anne-Frances_ of _Lobkowitz_, Daughter to the late
Prince _Leopold_ of _Lobkowitz_ who was the Empress’s chief Steward till

[148] This Lady died at _Frankfort_ in _Feb._ 1733.

[149] Madame the Abbess of _Maubrisson_, Sister to Madame the Electress of
_Hanover_, who is supposed to be the Person that speaks here; Madame the
Duchess of _Hanover_, Mother to the Empress _Amelia_, and Madame the
Princess of _Condé_.

[150] At _Rhenen_, a small Town in the Province of _Utrecht_.

[151] The _Upper Palatinate_ yielded to the Elector of _Bavaria_ by the
Treaty of _Westphalia_.

[152] At _Schwetzingeu_, a League from _Heidelberg_.

[153] Twas a Pistol which the Count _de Hehenlo_ snatch’d from her, and
shot into the Air from the Window. But here it was absolutely necessary to
call it a Dagger, Fire-Arms being not known at the Time of which this
History bears date.

[154] _Phillip_ the Magnanimous, Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_, was in 1518
Sovereign of all the Country of _Hesse_. He died in 1567, and left four
Sons who shar’d his Dominions and form’d the four Branches of
_Hesse-Cassel_, _Hesse-Marpurg_, _Hesse-Rheinfels_ and _Hesse-Darmstadt_
The landgraves _Lewis de Marpurg_ and _Philip de Rheinfels_ had no Issue,
but their Nephew _Maurice_ of _Cassel_ having 18 Children, _Earnest_ one
of the Sons reviv’d a Branch of _Rheinfels_ which was divided into those
of _Rotenburg_ and _Vanfried_, that are still subsisting. The Posterity of
_George_ I, Landgrave of _Darmstadt_ was altogether as fruitful, and
form’d the Branches of _Darmstadt_, _Butzbach_, _Hombourg_, and
_Lauterbach_, some of which are extinct. The Landgrave-Regent is one of
the sixteen Children of the Landgrave _Lewis_ VI. Great-Grandson of
_George_ I. There are at present these six Branches of the Family of
_Hesse, viz._ 1. _Hesse-Cassel_, 2. _Hesse-Philipstall_, 3.
_Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenbourg_, 4. _Hesse-Rheinfels-Vanfried_, 5.
_Hesse-Darmstadt_, 6. _Hesse-Hambourg_.

[155] This Count died in 1736.

[156] She died at _Hanau_ after a very long Illness.

[157] This River rises in _Tirol_ a little above _Inspruc_, becomes
navigable at _Halle_, and loses itself in the _Danube_ near _Passau_.

[158] The Provost and Dean of _Passau_ enjoy the same Prerogative.

[159] The Revenue of this Archbishoprick amounts to 600,000 Florins. The
Archbishop has 60,000 Florins a-year for his private Expences, and 24,000
Crowns for officiating at three solemn Services, without reckoning the
Deanery, which is worth 24,000 Florins to him.

[160] The People about the _Alps_ are very subject to those Swellings by
drinking too much cold unwholesome Water.

[161] This is the Name which they give in _Italy_ to those who do the
Office of Guides to shew Foreigners the Curiosities of any Town.

[162] This Minister died at _Venice_ in 1732, and was succeeded by Prince

[163] He is dead, and succeeded by Don _Carlo Ruzzini_.

[164] _Francis_, Count _Duhamel_, Lieutenant-General of the King of
_Prussia_’s Army, Knight of the Order of the _Black Eagle_, and Colonel of
a Regiment of Horse. The _Venetians_ invited him to their Service in 1704,
and gave him the chief Command of their Forces.

[165] This Princess died in 1731, at _Florence_.

       *       *       *       *       *

                        Transcriber’s Amendments

Transcriber’s Note: A table of contents has been added. Blank pages have
been deleted. On pages that remain, some unnecessary page numbers may have
been deleted when they fall in the middle of lists. Some illustrations may
have been moved. Footnotes have been moved to just above this paragraph.
The hyphenation of words varies widely but has not been changed. The
spelling of words varies widely and has not been changed except as listed
below. The publisher’s inadvertent omissions of important punctuation have
been corrected.

The following list indicates any additional changes. The page number
represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext
except for footnotes and illustrations since they may have been moved.
Corrections specified by the publisher are marked with an asterisk (*).

  Page          Change

 title    [Vol. I]
   ix     for he threatned[threaten’d] to get a Preface compos’d
 xxiv     BARON DE POLLNITZ being the Oservations[Observations] he made
    5     for his Favourite the Connt[Count] _de Wartemberg_,
   11     But the late Czar coming no[on] _Berlin_
   15     upon which ocasion[occasion]
   17     To go from the Ambassaors[Ambassadors] Hotel to the New Town
   38     for her, woud[would] be to send him abroad;
   41     I thing[think] it incumbent on me to give you
   84     Travellers, who were heretefore[heretofore] often impos’d upon
   57     As soon as he appear’d be-[del] before _Altena_,
   96     at _Warsaw_ the 1st of _Feb._ 1733, N.[O.] S.
  133     In short, the Count _de Sulkouski[Sulkowski]_ who has
  134     The Office of all the abovementioned[above-mention’d], as
  146     the Religion which is upermost[uppermost] in the State.
  151     but the Marriage was dissoved[dissolved],
  251     their Conversattion[Conversation] sometimes insipid;
  172     They are all drawn or[on] Horseback,
  187     for the Glasses served in-[del] instead of Bells,
  194     which were of gery[very] great value,
  199     Knick-knacks which where[were] formerly made in this city
  220     the _Ne plus ultra_ of their Perferments[Preferments].
  220     The[There] are five Brothers of it in Employments.
  225     The Empreor[Emperor] stands up under a Canopy
  236     Simplicity of the ancient Arcitecture[Architecture].
  317     most celebrated in _France_; and he daily in-riches[enriches]
  320     He was addmitted[admitted] Kt. of the _Golden Fleece_ at the
  348     found to be the Hand-writting[Hand-writing] of _Gertrude_.
  351     whither a Captian[Captain] of the Guards came in
  359     This great p’enty[plenty] of Deer is extremely troublesome
  361     Circle of of[del 2nd of] the _Upper Rhine_.
  379     runs through a fine Valley beween[between] high Mountains
  394     they would fall on the Heads of the Travallers[Travellers];
Index     _Brandenbourg-Anspach_, Margraves, {?}[capital], 193,
Index     _Kara-Mustapha_, Grand Visier[Vizier], 247, 248.
Index     _Lowinitz, Henry-Rodolph de Schonfield[Schonfeld]_ Lord of, 145.
Index  *  _Maria-Amelia_ Princess of _Prussia[Poland]_, 113.
Index  *  _Maria-Anne-Sophia_ Princess of _Prussia[Poland]_, 113.
Index  *  _Maria-Josepha_ Princess of _Prussia[Poland]_, 113[114].
Index     _Staupitz_, Abbat[Abbot], 375.

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume I - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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