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Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume II - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels From - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts.
Author: Pöllnitz, Karl Ludwig von
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume II - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels From - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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[Illustration: Lestevenon de Berkenroode]





                           Baron de POLLNITZ.


   The OBSERVATIONS He made in his late TRAVELS from _Prussia_ thro’

                        _GERMANY_, || _FLANDERS_,
                          _ITALY_, || _HOLLAND_,
                         _FRANCE_, || _ENGLAND_, &c.

                       In LETTERS to his FRIEND.

 Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE of the Chief CITIES and TOWNS;


     The CHARACTERS of the PRINCIPAL PERSONS at the several COURTS.

                            In TWO VOLUMES.

                                VOL. II.

                  The SECOND EDITION, with ADDITIONS.


 Printed for DANIEL BROWNE, at the _Black-Swan_, without _Temple-Bar_.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                       LETTER XXVIII          1

                       LETTER XXIX           24

                       LETTER XXX            46

                       LETTER XXXI           55

                       LETTER XXXII          77

                       LETTER XXXIII         95

                       LETTER XXXIV         113

                       LETTER XXXV          129

                       LETTER XXXVI         151

                       LETTER XXXVII        168

                       LETTER XXXVIII       179

                       LETTER XXXIX         189

                       LETTER XL            203

                       LETTER XLI           228

                       LETTER XLII          261

                       LETTER XLIII         277

                       LETTER XLIV          290

                       LETTER XLV           310

                       LETTER XLVI          325

                       LETTER XLVII         337

                       LETTER XLVIII        348

                       LETTER XLIX          357

                       LETTER L             364

                       LETTER LI            384

                       LETTER LII           394

                       LETTER LIII          430

                       LETTER LIV           449

                       INDEX                473



                   MEMOIRS OF THE Baron de POLLNITZ.

                In SEVERAL LETTERS to Mr. _L. C. D. S._

                             LETTER XXVIII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Rome, July 30, 1730._

Thus am I at length arrived at the famous City of ROME, that City which
has been so long the Mistress of the World, and is still the Metropolis of
_Europe_: But don’t expect I should give you a perfect Description of it,
because that would require a Man better skilled in Architecture than I am.
I shall only mention such things as to me appeared to be the most
beautiful, or those which I thought the Reverse, and which yet the
Ostentation of the _Italians_ cries up for the Wonders of the World. I
shall make it my Business, to give you an Account of Things animate, much
rather than those which are inanimate; the latter having been so well
described, that all I could say to you upon that Head would be but a
Repetition of what you have read a thousand times over.

ROME is certainly one of the finest Cities in the World; but it is not now
That ROME of which we read such pompous Accounts, it having scarce any
Remains left of what it was in ancient Days. Notwithstanding this, it must
be owned, that it has matchless and stately Structures. Nothing is equal
to its Churches, its Fountains, and some of its Palaces. At one’s first
Entrance thro’ the Gate _del Popoli_, a Foreigner cannot but be struck
with Admiration, when he looks right before him, which methought resembled
the grand Decoration of a Theatre; but when I cast my Eyes to the Right
and Left, the Scene was quite different: I believed I was entring into a
Village. This is a Riddle, which I will now endeavour to explain to you.
When I looked strait before me, I immediately perceiv’d a Square of a
triangular Form, at one Point whereof stands the Gate _del Popoli_,
through which I entered, facing three very long Streets drawn to a Point,
in the Shape of a Goose-foot. These Streets are separated by two Churches,
the Fronts whereof are magnificent, and of regular Architecture. In the
middle of the Square there’s a stately Obelisk, or Spire, of oriental
Granate, which, according to the Inscription on the Pedestal, was raised
by Pope _Sixtus_ V. At the foot of this Pyramid, on the Town-side, there’s
a Fountain. All this together makes the Square a Beauty, and seemed to be
worthy of ROME: What follows appear’d to me to have the Air of a Village.
The first Thing one perceives at the Left-hand of the Square, is a Church
consecrated to Our Lady, the Architecture of which is very plain; and on
the same Side are several very sorry Houses, or rather Huts. The
Right-hand of the Square consists of Hay-Barns, and two or three wretched

From the Square _del Popoli_, I shall run through the three Streets which
lead from thence to the chief Quarters of ROME. I shall begin with that in
the Middle, which fronts the Gate. ’Tis called the Street _del Corso_,
because there it is that in the Carnival Time, the _Barbary_ Horses run
Races, and where there is the _Pasciggio_, or Ring, frequented every Day
by the Coaches. This Street runs thro’ almost all ROME, and has some fine
Houses in it, particularly the Palaces _Ruspoli_, _Gicci_, _Carolis_,
_Mancini_, _Pamphili_, and _Bolognetti_. It crosses the Squares of St.
_Mark_ and _Colonna_. The first is a Quadrangle, encompassed with good
substantial Buildings, and adorned with the famous _Antonine_ Pillar,
which the Senate caused to be erected to the Honour of _Antoninus the
Pious_, whose Statue was formerly on the Top of it, but has since given
place to the Effigies of St. _Paul_. St. _Mark_’s Square is so called,
because it lies before the Church dedicated to the Saint of that Name. In
it stands the Palace of _Venice_, a vast Pile of Building, now occupied by
the Ambassador of the Republic, but was the Residence of Pope _Sixtus_ V.

The second Street which takes its Rise in the Square _del Popoli_, is
called _la Strada Ripetta_. It has nothing in it remarkable but the Stairs
leading down to the _Tiber_, which are of a grand Design, and so
contrived, that there are two Flights of a Stair-case, without Steps, for
the Convenience of the Horses that carry the Goods which are landed at the
Foot of the Stairs; that being one of the principal Ports of ROME.

The third Street, which ends in the Square of _Spain_, has also nothing in
it worth seeing. To hear a _Roman_ speak of the Square of _Spain_, one
would think it the finest Place in the World; but I know nothing that
less deserves that Character. ’Tis much narrower in the Middle than at
both Ends; it is but half-paved; and, excepting the Palace of _Spain_,
which is occupied by the Cardinal _Bentivoglio_[1], the Ambassador of that
Crown, and the Palace _de Propaganda_, it has not one handsome House. In
the Middle of it there’s a plentiful Fountain, in form of a Bark, placed
in an oval Bason. This Fountain stands at the Foot of a prodigious
Stair-case, which leads to the Church of _Trinity on the Mountain_,
belonging to the _French Minims_. ’Twas made during the Pontificate of
Pope _Innocent_ XIII. of the Family of _Conti_, out of the Money which a
rich _Frenchman_ left on his Death-Bed for that very Purpose. They say,
that no less than 60,000 _Roman_ Crowns were expended in it; which, if
true, ’twas Money very ill laid out; for the Stair-case is of a Taste
perfectly _Gothic_, and so ill built, that it is actually falling to
Decay, though it is not above five Years since it was finished. If the old
_Romans_ were but to peep out of their Graves at this Piece of Work, I
dare say, they would blush to see how their Successors build.

The Square of _Spain_, as ugly, and as much hid as it is by Houses, is the
Place of Rendezvous for all the _Beau Monde_ in the City. Here the Ladies,
sitting at their Ease in their Coaches, receive the Homage of the
Gentlemen standing at their Coach-doors; and thus an Hour or two is spent
every Evening, in breathing the worst Air in ROME, mixed with Clouds of
Dust; and one is not only pester’d with Beggars, but every Minute in
Danger of being crush’d to pieces between the Coaches, which press
forward, without keeping their Ranks, or observing any Order. I know not
how you would like it, but I am sure, for my own Part, who am not a Man
for amorous Prattle, I avoid being here as much as possible, and had
rather go up to the Terras, which is upon Mount _Trinity_. There I have
the Pleasure to see something of what passes in the Square of _Spain_; I
extend my View over all ROME, and even into the Country beyond it, and
there I breathe the fresh Air, without the Risque of being broke upon the
Wheel. ’Tis true, that I see none except Abbés and Prelates; but they are
not Eye-sores to me, and besides, I should find the same at the Doors of
the Ladies Coaches.

Foreigners reside commonly in the Square of _Spain_, and the seven Streets
which run into it. This Quarter belongs to the Jurisdiction of the
_Spanish_ Ambassador, whither the _Sbirri_ dare not pursue a Criminal, or
to venture being seen there; for if they did, they would be attacked by
Bravo’s, who, like the _Swiss_ of the _Spanish_ Minister, are very jealous
of their Rights of Franchise, which all Ambassadors enjoy as well as he:
This is often the Source of many Disorders, and, if I may venture to say
it, authorizes Wickedness, because it gives the Criminals so ready an
Opportunity of finding Refuge; but ’tis a rare Income for the Bravo’s and
their Captain; for the Libertines and Malefactors who retire into their
Masters Quarter, can do no less than pay them for their Protection.

The Square of _Spain_ leads me to give you some Account of the Square
_Navona_, which, tho’ by no Means regular, and by much too narrow for the
Length of it, may be numbered among the finest Squares in the World. ’Tis
adorned with noble Fountains, two of which are worth the strict Attention
of the Curious. The Middlemost, which is the largest, was erected by Order
of Pope _Innocent_ X. of the Family of _Pamphili_, according to a Model by
Signior _Lorenzo Bernini_, who has made a shining Display of his Art in
this pompous Work. The Whole is a large oval Bason, lined with white
Marble, in the Midst of which there rises a Rock, with four Grottos cut in
it, and on the Top there’s an Obelisk, or Spire, of oriental Granate,
which was formerly in the _Circus_ of the Emperor _Antoninus Caracalla_.
At the four Corners of the Rock, there are four Statues of white Marble,
sitting in Attitudes equally bold and noble, which represent the four
principal Rivers of the World, the _Ganges_, the _Nile_, the _Danube_, and
_Rio de la Plata_, in the _West-Indies_. These four Statues, tho’ made by
different Hands, are alike beautiful, and adorned with the Attributes
suitable to each Statue. The second Fountain is a white Marble Bason in an
oval Figure, in the Middle of which a Triton appears sitting on a Dolphin
cut in Marble, done by the Hand of the famous _Michael Angelo Buonarota_.

Opposite to the great Fountain stands the fine Church of St. _Agnes_,
begun by _Innocent_ X. and finished by his Nephews the Princes _Pamphili_.
’Tis one of the most sumptuous and stately Edifices in ROME. The Inside is
an Oval. It abounds every-where with Marble, Gilding, and excellent
Paintings. Adjoining to this Church is a great and magnificent Palace,
belonging to Prince _Pamphili_, who lets it out to the Cardinal
_Corsini_[2]. There’s a Gallery which is admired by the Connoisseurs in

The _Pantheon_, commonly called the Church _de la Rotonda_, because of its
round Figure, is a Monument of the Magnificence of ancient ROME, which has
been well preserved. _Agrippa_ caused this Temple to be built, with an
Intention to dedicate it to _Augustus_ his Father-in-Law; but he
afterwards devoted it to _Jupiter Ultor_, or _the Avenger_. Pope
_Boniface_ I. or, as others say, _Boniface_ IV. consecrated this Temple to
the True God, by dedicating it to the Holy Virgin and the Martyrs, with
the Title of _Sta. Maria ad Martyres_. Nothing is more Majestic than the
Portico of this Church, which is supported by sixteen Columns of oriental
Granate, of a wonderful Height and Circumference, all of a Piece, and of
the _Corinthian_ Order. The Church, which is round, receives Light only by
an Opening in the Middle of the Roof, which is built in Form of a Dome.
The Walls are lined with Marble, even up to the Cornish which supports the
Roof, and several little Chapels are cut out in the Wall. The Roof was
heretofore covered with Brass, but _Urban_ VIII. stripped the Church of
that magnificent Covering, and employ’d the Brass partly on the High Altar
of St. _Peter_’s Church, and of the rest of it he caused those Guns to be
cast that are still to be seen in the Castle of St. _Angelo_. The Pope who
did this, being of the _Barberini_ Family, gave Occasion to the _Romans_,
who take a Pleasure in criticising the Conduct of the Popes, to say, that
the _Barberini_ had done even more than the _Barbarians_; and really, it
is worthy of Remark, that in the several Sackings of ROME the _Rotonda_
was always spared.

St. _Peter_’s Church so astonished me, that I cannot pass it by in
Silence. To tell you in few Words what I think of it; I believe, that
though there were no other Building in ROME but this Church, it would be
worth while to make a Journey hither on Purpose to see it. The Area which
lies before this superb Pile, can’t but be admired by all that see it.
Pope _Alexander_ VII. caused it to be laid out after the Model of my Hero
in Architecture, Signior _Lorenzo Bernini_. The Form of this Area is
round, and encompassed by a Peristyle of two hundred eighty-six Pillars,
which leads all the way under Covert to the Church. These Columns support
an Architrave adorned with a great Number of Statues, representing divers
holy Martyrs. The Area is adorned with two magnificent Fountains, which
continually throw out vast Sheets of Water, into three Basons, the
lowermost whereof, being the largest, serves to let out the Water, which
runs under Ground. An Obelisk of seventy-two Feet in Height, besides the
Basis, stands up in the Middle of the two Fountains. Pope _Sixtus_ V. who
may justly be reckoned the Restorer of ROME, on account of the Ornaments
with which he embellished every Part of it, caused it to be set up, after
’twas dug out of the Earth, near the Place where now stands St. _Peter_’s
Sacristy. He ordered it to be erected on a very high Pedestal; and Signior
_Fontana_, the famous Architect, was the Man by whose Direction so immense
a Weight was raised to that Height. ’Tis said, that Pope _Sixtus_ V.
commanded that every Man who assisted in raising this Obelisk should keep
Silence on Pain of Death, for fear lest Talking should distract the
Workmens’ Thoughts, and take them off from a due Attention to the Orders
of the Architect; and as they knew that _Sixtus_ would be obeyed, not a
Man spoke a Word. The Work went on very well, till when the Spire was
almost raised, the Ropes happened to be too short. This Accident so
confounded _Fontana_, that he knew not what to do, when one of the
Spectators took it in his Head to call out to him to throw Water upon the
Ropes. _Fontana_ followed his Advice with such good Success, that the Pope
promised a Reward for the Person who would own that he gave it: But no
body cared to trust _Sixtus_; the Adviser concealed himself in the Crowd,
and it could never be known who he was. The whole Height of the Obelisk,
including the Base and Cross, is one hundred and eight Feet. _Sixtus_ V.
caus’d some Timber of the real Cross to be set in the Cross of gilt Brass
at the Top of the Spire, and granted ten Years Indulgences to any Person
that shou’d salute it, and at the same Time repeat three _Pater-nosters_,
and as many _Ave Maries_.

When you have passed over the great Square, there’s an Ascent of some
Steps to a grand Platform or Terras, that leads into the Portico which is
before the Church. The Roof of it is supported by Columns of the
_Corinthian_ Order, adorned with Basso Relievos of Marble. The Cieling is
of Stukoe, divided into several Compartments in the _Mosaic_ Taste, which
form the Arms of _Paul_ V. of the _Borghese_ Family; the whole gilt all
over. As one turns to the Right in this Portico, one sees the Statue of
_Constantine_ the Great, carved in Marble by _Bernini_, who has
represented the Emperor on Horseback, in a Posture of Astonishment at the
Appearance of the Cross. Over-against this Statue, on the Left-side of the
Portico, is _Charlemaign_’s Statue, likewise on Horseback, done by
_Augustin Cornicchini_, a Native of _Peschia_ in _Tuscany_; but ’tis not
near so bold a Figure as that carved by _Bernini_. At the Entrance of the
Church, we leave on the Right-hand the holy Gate, which the Pope opens and
shuts every twenty-five Years, at the Time of the great Jubilee.

I must confess that the inside Decoration of St. _Peter_’s did not strike
me at first View; for I imagined that every thing there must be Gold and
Azure, but I was mistaken; tho’, after having examined Things closely, I
was, as it were, in an Ecstasy at the Variety of Beauties I there saw. The
High Altar, which is almost in the middle of the Dome, is of a
Magnificence not to be parallelled. It stands by itself, and is on all
Sides open, consisting of four wreathed Columns of Brass, of an immense
Height and Bulk, which support a Canopy of the same Metal, surmounted by
Angels holding Festons of Flowers, so completely carved, that one would
naturally imagine the Whole to be the Work of a Goldsmith. At this Altar
none can celebrate Mass but the Pope himself, and the Cardinal Dean, by
his Holiness’s express Permission; and underneath, in a Chapel richly
adorned, there lie some Parts of the Holy Bodies of the Apostles St.
_Peter_ and St. _Paul_. There’s a Descent into this Chapel by a Stair-case
of fine Marble, consisting of two Flights, in Form of a Horse-shoe, and
surrounded by a Balustrade of Brass, supporting a great many Silver Lamps,
which never cease to burn, except on _Good-friday_, when the Church is
hung in Mourning, in Memory of the Death of our Saviour.

At the Bottom of the Church stands, highly elevated, St. _Peter_’s Chair,
a very fine Piece of Work, all of Brass, gilt, and supported by the four
Fathers of the Church, St. _Ambrose_, St. _Jerome_, St. _Augustine_, and
St. _Gregory_, of a gigantic Size, with a Glory of Brass, gilt, over them,
raised as high as the Roof. Under the Chair is an Altar, on both Sides of
which there are stately Tombs of Brass and Marble, of incomparable
Workmanship and Beauty. The Mausoleum of _Urban_ VIII. on the Right Hand,
has two admirable Statues of white Marble, representing two Virtues, of
such exquisite Beauty, that there was a Necessity of covering their
Nudities to prevent the like Scandal which a certain _Spaniard_ gave, in
whom a Statue of this sort kindled an unruly Passion. These two Tombs are
not the only ones which adorn this Church; for there are many others
altogether as superb; particularly, the Mausoleum of the Countess
_Matilda_, and that of _Christina_ Queen of _Sweden_, to whom the Popes
granted Burial in St. _Peter_’s Church, where, except the Successors of
that Apostle, none can be interred. These two Princesses were of such high
Birth, and had done so much for the Church, that they well deserved to be
honoured with this Distinction; for the first defended the Church, at the
Head of her Army, against the Emperor _Henry_ IV. the other even abdicated
her Crown, and abandoned her Dominions, to embrace the _Roman_ Religion.
_Christina_’s Tomb is nobly designed, without being overcharged with
Ornament; and there is her Picture in a great Medal of Brass, which is
perfectly well executed.

Tho’ every thing in St. _Peter_’s Church is worthy of the particular
Observation of a curious Traveller, I think nothing deserves it more than
the noble Pictures of Mosaic Work, wherewith the Altars are decorated,
than which there can be nothing more complete; for it surpasses any thing
that was ever done by the Ancients. ’Tis but a few Years that the Artists
have arrived to the Perfection we now discover in Works of this kind. One
of these Pictures, which is just finished, represents the Story of Sta.
_Petronilla_, St. _Peter_’s Sister, so excellently designed, and so nicely
coloured and polished, that nothing in the Art of Man can out-do it. One
would swear ’twas a Picture behind a Glass; yet it consists only of little
Glass Squares, exactly cemented together by a certain Gum that is
extremely astringent. ’Tis a Piece of Work of the more Value, because it
is Proof against the Injuries of Weather, and nothing can damage it. They
design to remove out of this Church all the Pictures painted in Oil, which
grow mouldy by Time and Moisture, and to put Pictures of Mosaic Work, in
their place. If this Project, which is in a good Forwardness, and carried
on apace, be ever finished, St. _Peter_’s Church will be possessed of a
Treasure the more precious because there will be none like it.

The subterraneous Parts of the Church are altogether as magnificent as the
Superstructure; for Marble and Pictures of the Mosaic kind are its
Ornaments. ’Tis worth while to take the Pains to go up to the Top of this
Church, which one ascends by a sloping Stair-case, without one Step, that
leads to the Dome; and by other Stairs, not so commodious, one rises to
the Globe, which, ’tis said, will hold, twenty Persons with Ease. Upon St.
_Peter_’s Day the Church is illuminated from the Foundation to the Cross,
by Lamps without Number, which make a very fine Appearance.

All the other Churches of ROME are beautiful Piles, and ’tis certain that
the least of ’em contains something that will entertain a curious
Spectator. Those of them indeed that are the most worthy of Attention,
are, St. _Paul_’s without ROME, St. _John_’s _de Lateran_, St. _Mary
Major_’s, the Churches of _Jesus_, St. _Ignatius_, St. _Philip de Neri_,
our Lady’s of Victory, the Church of St. _Agnes_, and the Noviciate of the

As to the Foundation of St. _Mary Major_’s Church, there is a Tradition,
that two Bridegrooms of Quality, both very rich and very devout, having
pray’d to the Holy Virgin, that she would please to reveal to them for
what good Purpose they should bestow their Wealth; the Mother of God
signified to them in a Dream, that she would have them build a Church at
the Place which they would find cover’d next Day with Snow; a Thing the
more extraordinary at that Time, because it was the Month of _August_.
But, to the End that this Revelation might be the more authentic, the Holy
Virgin imparted it the same Night to the Pope St. _Liberius_ I. who next
Day made a Procession round the City, accompanied by all the Clergy, and
by _John_ a Patrician, and a Senator of ROME, and found that Spot of
Ground where now stands the Church of St. _Mary Major_, covered with Snow.
The Building was begun that very Day, and at first the Church was called
the _Liberian_ Church, and also the Church of St. _Mary of the Manger_,
because the Manger in which our Saviour lay, was there deposited; and at
last it was called St. _Mary Major_, because it is the biggest of those
Churches in ROME that are dedicated to the Holy Virgin.

I have been so long upon Churches, that ’tis high Time to shift the Scene.
I am now going to acquaint you of what has happened here since I came,
referring what I have farther to relate to you concerning the Buildings of
ROME to another Opportunity.

The Conclave is ended, and we have at last got a Pope: After tedious and
warm Disputes, which had divided the sacred College for four Months, they
have elected Cardinal _Corsini_. The Cardinals could not determine whom to
chuse for Head of the Church, till about a Week ago. Cardinal _Imperiali_
was proposed at first, and he would certainly have been the Man, upon
account of his great Age and Merit, if the Cardinal _Bentivoglio_, the
Minister of _Spain_, had not put the Negative upon him in the Name of
their Catholic Majesties; nevertheless, ’tis the Opinion of many People,
that the Cardinal had no such Order in his Pocket at that Time, tho’ he
had it at the Election of Pope _Conti_; because out of personal Pique to
Cardinal _Imperiali_ he had represented him to his Master as an Enemy to
the House of _Bourbon_, and too much attached to the Emperor. Probably the
Cardinal _Bentivoglio_ thought, that because their Catholic Majesties did,
at his Solicitation, grant an Exclusion to Cardinal _Imperiali_ that Time,
it was to continue for ever; at least, his unreasonable Grudge against his
Eminence made him take that Handle. The Reason he bore him so much ill
Will was this; _Bentivoglio_ had a Brother, a Marquis, who, for certain
Outrages which he had caused to be committed by his Bravoes, was arrested
by Order of this very _Imperiali_, when he was Legate of the Holy See at
_Ferrara_. Cardinal _Bentivoglio_, who was a proud haughty Man, took this
as such an Affront to his Family, that he could never forget it; and as
the _Italians_ seldom lose an Opportunity of taking Revenge, he laid hold
on this: So that Cardinal _Imperiali_ came short of the _Tiara_, merely
for having done an Act of Justice.

Cardinal _Imperiali_ being thus set aside, _Corsini_ was proposed for
Pope; but his Eminence fearing he should be excluded by the _Germans_,
pretended an Unwillingness to accept of the Pontificate, and desired his
Brethren to cast their Eyes upon some other Person. _Davia_ was proposed,
and would undoubtedly have been in St. _Peter_’s Chair, if Cardinal _de
Bissi_, a _Frenchman_, had not excepted against him, on pretence that he
was a _Jansenist_. ’Tis true, that Cardinal _Davia_ was never a great
Friend of the _Jesuits_, and that M. _Bissi_ is a Man after their own
Hearts: The Society, indeed, is accused of having put the _French_
Cardinal upon it; but this is what I won’t swear. Though, be it as it
will, I think, if the Society were convinced that _Davia_ was their Enemy,
they did very wisely to set him aside. During this, Cardinal _Corsini_,
who still kept the triple Crown in View, and had only declined it for fear
of being opposed by the Imperial Cardinals, wrote to the Great Duke, and
to the Grand Princess _Violante_, desiring the former to intercede for him
directly with the Emperor, and the latter with the _Bavarian_ Family; to
the end that Family might do him good Offices at _Vienna_. His Wishes were
accordingly answered; for the Great Duke earnestly desired the Emperor to
consent to the Election of _Corsini_, and he obtained for Answer, that his
Imperial Majesty would order his Cardinals not to oppose him. _Corsini_
having this favourable Answer, engaged his Friends to bring him again upon
the Stage. And the Cardinal Chamberlain _Albano_, the Head of the
Cardinals, made by _Clement_ XI. his Uncle, spoke for him to all of his
Party, who accordingly gave their Votes for him; but Cardinal _Barberini_
hearing that _Corsini_ was going to be proposed a second time, declared
openly against him; and said, he would never consent to his Election. The
Chamberlain was in no great Pain for this Opposition; for he was much more
apprehensive of the Imperialists, and particularly of the Cardinal
_Cienfuegos_, who was very earnest for the Election of _Colonna_, or some
other Subject of the Emperor. The Chamberlain therefore went at Midnight
to the Cardinal _Cienfuegos_, and proposed the Choice of _Corsini_ to him;
and not finding him intirely for it, he threw himself at his Feet, and
conjured him for God’s sake not to oppose the said Cardinal’s Advancement.
‘You see, said he, that we cannot agree in the Choice of a Pope. Will you
end your Days here? ’Tis now four Months that we have been shut up. What
have you to say against _Corsini_? He is old, and, according to the Course
of Nature, cannot live longer than the Time it will take us up to destroy
the Factions that are among us. If you have a Notion that he is not in
the Interests of the Emperor, you perceive that it can’t be long in his
Power to hurt him. Moreover, if you consent to his Advancement, he will be
obliged to own his Obligation to the Emperor for the Pontificate, and
consequently cannot but make him an Acknowledgment.’ The Cardinal
Chamberlain water’d his Discourse with a great many Tears, for the good
Man can weep when he will. This so moved _Cienfuegos_, who is the
best-natured Soul in the World, that he gave his Consent to the Election
of _Corsini_. But then the _French_ feigned they would not be for him any
longer, and pretended to take Umbrage at the _Germans_ espousing the Man
whom they had before opposed. They stood out abundance of Intreaty, but at
length they consented, saying, that since the _Germans_ made the Pope,
they would name the Minister; which was granted them. They nominated
Cardinal _Banchieri_, who had been Vice-Legat at _Avignon_, to be
Secretary of State. The Cardinal _Cienfuegos_, who was puffed up with the
Thoughts of having made the Pope, did not so much as think of opposing the
_French_ in the Nomination of a Minister who was intirely devoted to them.
Many People of very good Sense are of Opinion that the _Germans_ were
bubbled in this Affair, and that the _French_ made both the Pope and the
Minister. Whether ’twas so or not, I cannot say; the Intrigues of the
Conclaves will never be rightly known, but in the Valley of _Jehosaphat_;
yet it seems to me, that since we have been the Masters of _Italy_, we are
even more hated there than the _French_ ever were, and ’tis certain that
they were hated there with a Vengeance. ’Tis very probable, therefore,
that the _Italian_ Cardinals had it not very much at Heart, to give us a
Pope that was in our Interest. Be this as it will, even to the very Day
of the new Pope’s Exaltation, all the City of ROME thought the Cardinal
_Cienfuegos_ Master of the Conclave; which is so true, that among the
Satires current during the Vacancy of the Holy See, the Cardinal was
exhibited at a Window of the Conclave, taking Aim with a Fuzee at the Holy
Ghost, which was hovering about the Place, in form of a Dove.

Cardinal _Corsini_ was proclaimed Pope on _Wednesday_ the 12th of _July_,
in the Morning. He took the Name of _Clement_ XII. in Honour to the Memory
of _Clement_ XI. who made him a Cardinal. He is in the 78th Year of his
Age. All good People are pleased at his Advancement, and since the
_Romans_ could not get a _Roman_ for their Pope, they are not sorry that
he was preferred to his Competitors. He was generous and noble,
good-natured, mild, and affable, while a Cardinal, and we may expect that
he will not hide those Qualities now he is a Pope.

In the Afternoon of his Advancement to the Pontificate, _Clement_ XII.
received a Visit from the Pretender, and the Princess his Lady, who are
here styled the _King_ and _Queen_ of _England_. After he had conversed a
while with them, he went on Foot to the Chapel of Pope _Sixtus_, and
placed himself on a Seat before the Altar, where he received the Adoration
of the Cardinals, who came according to their Seniority, and kneeling
down, kissed his Foot, and his Right-hand. The Pope embraced them one
after the other, and gave them the _Pax_ to kiss. ’Tis only upon that Day
and the Coronation-day, that the Cardinals kiss the Pope’s Foot; for
afterwards, they only kiss his Hand. When this first Ceremony was over,
the Pope was seated in his Chair of PROCESSION, which is a great
Arm-chair, adorned with red Velvet, richly embroidered with Gold; and
then eight Men took him upon their Shoulders, and carry’d him thro’ the
great Stair-case to St. _Peter_’s Church. When they came before the Chapel
of the Holy Sacrament, the Pope was set down; and rising from his Chair,
he went and kneeled at a Desk prepared for the Purpose. After a short
Prayer, he returned to his Chair, and was carried towards the High Altar,
where he was seated in the Middle. There the Cardinals paid another
Adoration to him, like that which they made to him in _Sixtus_’s Chapel;
and then the Pope was carried into a Pew, near the Altar, where he put off
his Mitre and Cope, and being put into a Sedan, returned to his Apartment,
where he quickly after received the Compliments of the Ambassadors, the
_Roman_ Princes, and of all the Quality of ROME; and in the Evening, there
were Illuminations and Bonfires throughout the City, accompanied with a
Discharge of the Cannon of the Castle of St. _Angelo_.

The same Rejoicings were continued next Day, which the Pope spent in
giving Audiences, and naming his Ministers. Then it was, that at the
Recommendation of the _French_, he appointed the Cardinal _Banchieri_
Secretary of State. They say, that in the Evening, _Clement_ XII. had a
long Conversation with the Persons who had the greatest Share of his
Confidence when he was a Cardinal, and asked them, what they said at ROME
about his Exaltation. One of them intreated to be excused from telling
him, but the Pope injoining him to declare the whole Truth to him, the
Confident obeyed, and told the Pope that the _Romans_ seemed to approve of
the Choice which the Cardinals had made; but that they were apprehensive
they should have no better Treatment from the _Florentines_, than they
had from the _Beneventines_, under the last Pontificate. ‘The _Romans_,’
said the Pope, ‘are afraid then without a Cause; for I will have no
Respect of Persons, but will so govern, that if I don’t win the Love of my
Subjects while I live, they shall, at least, be sorry when I die.’ Then
turning about to his Nephew the Marquis _Neri Corsini_, now a Cardinal,
whom he had made a Prelate but the Day before; ‘I exhort you, Nephew,
_said he_, to behave so as to offend nobody. My Reign cannot be long. My
Age and my Infirmities ought to put me upon thinking of the Grave, much
rather than of human Grandeur. Let you and I live then so, that our Name
may not be hated when I am no more seen; and let us, if possible, so carry
it to Mankind, that I may be lamented after Death, and that you may not
want Friends.’ ’Twas with such Sentiments as these, that _Clement_ XII.
ascended the Throne of St. _Peter_.

The Ceremony of his Coronation was performed on the 16th of _July_, and I
can assure you, that, setting aside the Number of Cardinals and Bishops
who attended at it, there was nothing in it magnificent. The Pope, vested
in his _Pontificalibus_, and preceded by the Sacred College, went in
Procession to _Sixtus_’s Chapel, where he made a very short Prayer, and
then was carried thro’ the grand Stair-case under St. _Peter_’s Portico,
where he was seated on a Throne, and admitted St. _Peter_’s Chapter to
kiss his Foot. He was from thence carried into the Church, and put down at
the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, before which he made his Prayer
kneeling, as did also the Cardinals. After this Prayer, he was carried to
the Chapel of St. _Gregory_ the Great, where he made another short Prayer
prostrate before the Altar. Then he was placed in a Throne on the
Right-side of the Altar, and the Cardinals seated themselves upon Benches,
on both Sides of the Chapel. While the Musick was performing a _Tercet_,
they put on their white Copes, embroidered with Gold, and their Mitres of
white Damask, and the Archbishops and Bishops did the same. After this,
they went all, both Cardinals and Prelates, to perform Homage to the Pope,
with this Distinction, that the Cardinals kissed only the Hand of the Holy
Father, but the Prelates kissed his Hand and his Foot too. When this
Ceremony was ended, the Pope caused the Crucifix to be elevated, and gave
his first Blessing to the Standers-by, and the Populace, thereto annexing
a plenary Indulgence _in articulo mortis_. He afterwards descended from
his Throne, put himself again in his Chair of Procession, and was carried
before the High Altar. He was the only Person that had then the Mitre on
his Head; for the Cardinals and Prelates held theirs in their Hands. While
he was thus carried in Procession, a Master of the Ceremonies went before
him, burning Flax three times, calling out aloud at each time to him,
_Sancte Pater! sic transit Gloria Mundi_: i. e. _Holy Father! so passeth
away the Glory of the World_. This Exhortation to the Remembrance of the
Frailty of human Greatness seemed to me to touch the Pope’s Heart; for he
lifted up his Eyes to Heaven, and the very Tears trickled down his Cheeks.
When he drew near the Altar, he fell on his Knees, and prayed with a great
deal of Devotion and Humility. He then received the Benediction of three
of the eldest Cardinal Priests, and the first Cardinal Deacon presented
him with the Pall; after which, he went up to the Altar, perfumed it with
Incense, and then caused himself to be seated in his Throne, which was
erected at the Bottom of the Church, facing the Altar. The Cardinals sat
upon high Benches, on both Sides the Throne, in two Ranks, leading to the
Altar. The Persons whom they here call the King and Queen of _England_,
with the Princes their Sons, and their whole Court, were in a Gallery on
the Right-hand of the Throne, and in another Gallery opposite to this,
were the principal Ladies of ROME, and the most distinguished Foreigners.
I was there in the Retinue of the Prince of _Waldeck_, who has been here
these two Months.

From that Gallery, we saw the Cardinals, the Archbishops, and the Bishops,
pay their Homage to the Pope; which was performed by kissing the Pope’s
Hand and Foot. Then the Pope tuned High Mass, at which the Epistle and
Gospel were sung, both in _Greek_ and _Latin_, by a _Greek_ Bishop and a
Cardinal Deacon. The Pope, after he had performed the Consecration,
returned to his Throne, where a Cardinal assistant Priest carried the
consecrated Host to him, and the Chalice, of both of which the Pope took
one half kneeling and bare-headed. He sucked the Divine Blood, according
to a Custom, thro’ a golden Tube; and when the Cardinal assistant Priest
had taken the half that remained, both of the consecrated Host, and the
Chalice, the Mass was ended. After the Office was over, the Pope, preceded
by the Cardinals, Bishops, and Prelates, was carried in grand Procession
to the Gallery which is over the great Gate of the Church, fronting the
great Square, where he was seated on a very high Throne, in order to be
seen by the People; and after two Cardinal Deacons had taken off his
Mitre, and put on his _Tiara_, kissing at the same Time both his Hand and
Face, the Pope rose up, and gave his solemn Benediction standing, to the
People that were crowded in St. _Peter_’s Square, and the Streets that
led to it: At the same Time the Cannon of the Castle of St. _Angelo_ were
fired, and the Light-horse Carabineers and Guards made a Discharge of
their small Arms. Then the Pope descended from the Throne, and being again
placed in his Chair, was carried in Procession to his Apartment, where he
dismissed the Cardinals, who, I believe, wanted Rest as well as the Holy
Father, after a Ceremony which had lasted five Hours. At Night the Houses
were all illuminated, and a fine Firework was play’d off at the Castle of
St. _Angelo_.

Here give me Leave to make a Remark upon an Author, in whose Favour I have
seen you prepossessed, namely, Mr. _Misson_, who, in his Account of the
Pope’s Coronation, the Ceremony of which, he says, he copied out of the
Ceremonial of ROME, describes this Act as the most magnificent and superb
that can possibly be seen; for, according to him, the Pope’s Throne is
covered with precious Stones, tho’ I assure you, that there cannot be a
greater Mistake; for if, as I said once before, we except the many
Cardinals, Bishops, and Prelates, whose Presence renders the Ceremony
august, nothing is more plain and simple. St. _Peter_’s Church, indeed, is
hung upon that Day with red Damask, laced with gold Tinsel, but ’tis the
very same upon every grand Festival; nor is St. _Peter_’s Throne, upon
this Occasion, richer than ordinary; and I can’t imagine where _Misson_
could see those Canopies covered with precious Stones. That Author really
affected to impose on his Readers, and this is not the only Place where he
has deviated from the Truth.

The first Pope, who caused himself to be crown’d, was _Damasus_ II. in the
Year 1048. And _Urban_ V. was the first that used the triple Crown,
commonly called the _Tiara_; and this he did, to shew that the Vicar of
_Jesus Christ_ has Pontifical, Imperial, and Regal Power; and for the same
Reason, St. _Peter_ was anciently described (as is still to be seen in the
Palace of the _Vatican_) holding three Keys in his Right-hand.

Not many Days after the Coronation, the Pope quitted the _Vatican_, and
took up his Residence in the Palace of _Monte Cavallo_. The Holy Father
marched out with a Pomp which pleased the _Romans_, who are naturally fond
of Pageantry; and they were the more delighted with this, because they had
seen nothing like it during the Pontificate of the deceased Pope. He rode
in a very splendid Coach, preceded by the _Roman_ Nobility on Horseback,
his Guards, and all his Houshold, which formed a numerous Train. The
Streets were full of People, who nevertheless discovered no Signs of Joy,
as is usual when the Popes go abroad; for the _Romans_, when they saw
_Clement_ XII. remember’d that he was a _Florentine_; and there needed
nothing more to put them out of Conceit with him. I am, _&c._



                              LETTER XXIX.

  _SIR_,                                       _Rome, Sept. 10, 1730._

In this Letter I shall run through the Palaces of ROME, as briefly as I
traversed the Churches in my former. I shall take Care to mention no
Houses to you, but such as deserve the Name of Palaces; for you must know,
that the Buildings which we _Ultramontains_ think much to call Hotels, are
here styled Palaces.

I think, that the Pope’s two Palaces called the _Vatican_ and
_Monte-Cavallo_ deserve to be mentioned before all the others: The first,
for its Extent and Magnificence; the second, because the Popes give it a
Preference to the other, from an Opinion here, that it stands in the most
healthful Air in the City.

The _Vatican_ is a Building extremely irregular, very great and very high,
and so close to St. _Peter_’s Church, that it takes off a great deal of
its Beauty. As to the Outside of it, I don’t see any thing to be admired
in this Building, except the Quantity of Brick and Stone that has been
employed in it; but as to the Inside, ’tis quite otherwise; for one cannot
help being astonished at the Grandeur of the Apartments, and the Beauty of
the Pictures every-where, in which the best Painters of _Italy_ seem to
have strove to display the utmost of their Art: _Raphael_ especially has
done Wonders here: His Master-piece is a Picture representing the History
of _Attila_, a Piece which one cannot behold without being charmed.

_Sixtus_’s Chapel is of singular Beauty, on Account of its wonderful
Paintings, and especially for that great Picture of the Day of Judgment,
by _Michael Angelo Buonorato_, who, ’tis said, represented all the Persons
of his Acquaintance so much to the Life, that ’twas impossible to mistake
them; and that he placed his Friends among the Elect, and those that he
did not love, among the Damned; whereupon a Prelate, who was a Domestick
of Pope _Sixtus_ IV. then in St. _Peter_’s Chair, finding himself among
the damned, complained of it to the Pope, and desired him to deliver him
out of such bad Company; but the Holy Father told him, that his Power
extended no farther than Purgatory; that he could deliver Souls from
thence, but not from Hell; and that therefore, since ’twas his Misfortune
to be in such Company, there he must stay.

The _Vatican_ Library is, without Dispute, the finest and the greatest in
the World. ’Tis full of MSS. in the _Hebrew_, _Arabic_, _Greek_, _Latin_,
and other Languages. Pope _Sixtus_ V. spared no Cost to enrich it with the
best Books; and since his Death, it has been very much augmented by the
_Heidelberg_ Library, and that of _Christina_ Queen of _Sweden_. The
former was brought hither, as I think I told you, after the Defeat of
_Frederic_ the Elector _Palatine_, King of _Bohemia_, when _Heidelberg_
submitted to the Power of the House of _Austria_. The latter was purchased
by the Pope from that Queen’s Heirs. The Building which contains this
Library is worthy of the great _Sixtus_ V. who caused it to be built from
the very Foundation. ’Tis generally divided into two Parts, _viz._ the
Public, and the Private. The first is three hundred Feet long, and sixty
broad. The second consists of two great Rooms, into which the Admittance
is not so easy as into the Gallery, because of the very scarce MSS. that
are there contained. _Sixtus_ V. caused the whole Library to be painted,
both Inside and Outside, in which he employed the most ingenious Artists
of his Time. The Outside represents, in different Figures, the Arts, the
Sciences, and the Virtues. In the Inside, there are painted in divers
Compartments, the most memorable Actions of _Sixtus_ V. the holding of
sixteen Councils; the most celebrated Libraries; and the Men, in short,
ever since _Adam_, who have been most distinguished in the World for their
Learning. In the private Library are painted the principal Actions of Pope
_Sixtus_ V. and the Doctors of the Church.

The last Pope _Benedict_ XIII. was of a different Opinion from the Popes
his Predecessors, with regard to the Palace of the _Vatican_. He thought
it too fine for his Residence, as he did also the Palace of _Belvidero_,
which is properly a House of Pleasure, tho’ it joins to the _Vatican_. And
as ’twas his Maxim, that a General ought to die in the Army; and a Bishop,
if not at the Altar, at least near his Church; he was not willing to quit
the Neighbourhood of St. _Peter_; and therefore, on the Backside of the
Gardens of the Pontifical Palace, he caused a little House to be built,
with some few Rooms in it that looked into the Country; where all his
Furniture was a few matted Chairs, all his Ornaments the Images of certain
Saints, and all his Companions a Brother of his own Order, with whom he
used to take the Air, and say his Breviary; and he could go out of this
Apartment whenever he pleased, without being seen.

I fansy, Sir, you will not be sorry if I should make a Digression here,
touching the Person of this Pope, who was perhaps the most humble, and the
most regular in his Morals, that ever filled the Papal Chair since St.
_Peter_. Being born at _Rome_, of the illustrious Family of the _Ursini_,
he entered very young into the Order of St. _Dominic_, and was made a
Cardinal at twenty-three Years of Age, by Pope _Clement_ X. of the
_Altieri_ Family. He commonly resided, after he was a Cardinal, at
_Benevento_, of which he was Archbishop. ’Twas there that he heard of the
Death of his Predecessor _Innocent_ XIII. of the Family of _Conti_. When
he received the News, he had just given away all his Money to the Poor, so
that he was fain to borrow of _Fini_, whom he afterwards made a Cardinal,
the Sum of eight hundred Crowns, to enable him to repair to the Conclave
at ROME. The Division of the Sacred College, who could not agree in the
Choice of a Pontiff, was the Cause of his Advancement. The Cardinals aimed
at placing the _Tiara_ upon the Head of a Man who might wear it just long
enough, either to dissipate, or to form their Cabals, and no longer. They
were all convinced, that by chusing the Cardinal _Ursini_, they should
give a holy Pope to the Church, but an indifferent Prince to the State;
however, they thought to remedy this Deficiency, by planting such
Ministers about the Pope, as they did not doubt would make him do what
they pleased. But they were egregiously mistaken; for the Cardinal
_Ursini_, when he was advanced to the Pontificate, was resolved to be
_Pope_; and he chose his own Ministers, without consulting the Sacred
College. One _Coscia_, a _Neapolitan_ Clergyman, born of mean Parents, had
for a long Time a great Ascendant over him. The Pope advanced him to the
Purple, preferred him to the highest Offices both in the Church and the
State, and made him Archbishop of _Benevento_.

This new Creature bore greater Sway than ever any Cardinal Nephew had
done, when Nepotism was in its Meridian. He was guilty of a thousand
Oppressions. Nothing was to be seen, but Rapine and Injustice; and he
converted all Things, even the most sacred, into Money. Every body
groan’d; but it was to no Purpose to complain, for the Pope was so
byassed in his Favour, that he turned a deaf Ear to all his Accusers. Even
the Cardinals, sensible of the public Misery, vigorously represented to
the Pope the Grievances that happened under his Administration; but he
would not hear them, and imputed their Remonstrances to Envy. _Coscia_
confirmed him every Day too in this Sentiment. _They will accuse me of
every thing that is ill_, said he to the Holy Father, _but God is my
Witness, that I discharge my Duty; and they hate, and strive to blacken
me, for no other Reason, but because perhaps I am in this respect too
strict._ I have been very well assured, that the Cardinal, when he made
his Defence to the Pope, often shed Tears, which wrought so much on his
Good-nature, that he wept too.

I know not whether I dare vouch the Truth of the following Story, which
however is firmly believed by all the People of ROME. Certain Cardinals
represented to the Pope one Day, that _Coscia_ was not only guilty of
innumerable Extortions, but that he led the most irregular Life in the
World, and diverted himself every Day with Prostitutes. The Pope said, he
would inquire into the Matter, and punish _Coscia_, if what they alledged
was true. Accordingly he taxed him with it the very same Day, but _Coscia_
easily brought himself off. He said, ’twas all Calumny; swore with Tears
in his Eyes, that he was innocent; and desired the Pope to hear him in
Confession. The Pope agreed to it; he said what he pleased, and his
Holiness almost took him for a Saint. But _Coscia_, fearing lest the Pope
should at length open his Eyes, thought to blind him the more by writing
an anonymous Letter, which he caused to be delivered to him by a trusty
_Valet de Chambre_, importing in Substance as follows: ‘Your Holiness
being so prepossessed in Favour of Cardinal _Coscia_, that you will give
Credit to nothing that is told you of his Debaucheries, ’tis thought
proper to acquaint you, that this very Night, at Nine o’Clock, the
Cardinal will have some Mistresses in his Chamber. Your Holiness may be an
Eye-witness of the Intrigue, if you will but take the Trouble to repair to
the Cardinal’s Apartment, and peep thro’ the Key-hole.’ The Pope did not
fail to go at the Time mentioned; but instead of seeing what he expected,
the Cardinal, who imagined he would come, took care to be on his Knees at
Prayer, with his Beads in one Hand, and a Crucifix in the other, which he
kissed with a great Air of Contrition. The Pope, beholding the crafty
Cardinal in this Posture, cry’d out to somebody that was with him, _Do but
see that holy Man, who has been represented to me in such a wicked Light!
Would to God that all the Clergy were like him._ Then entring into the
Cardinal’s Chamber, _Dear Coscia_, said he, embracing him, _They have
accused you to me as the greatest of Sinners, and I was so weak as to
think you guilty; I ask your Pardon, and I pray God to forgive me the
Injury I have done you._ He afterwards joined with _Coscia_ in reading the
Litanies of the Holy Virgin; and he wanted no other Proof of his being a
Saint. Thus was the honest Pope made the Dupe of the greatest of
Hypocrites. But, to the Pope’s Sorrow, this was not all; Cardinal _Coscia_
was not the only Man who abused his Credulity; for all that served him
being _Beneventines_, and as cunning as _Coscia_, whose Creatures they
were, they tried who should bubble the Pope most; which made Cardinal
_Buoncompagno_ say, _That the Pope was like the Holy Sepulchre, in the
Hands of the_ Turks.

This good Pope never knew what Money was, nor the Value of it; but gave
away all that he had, and especially to the Poor, for whose Relief he sold
all the Presents he received. He could never understand how a Piece of
Gold could be sometimes worth less than a Piece of Silver; and I have been
told, that one Day, as he was selling some Presents he had received from
the Emperor of _China_, to his unworthy _Beneventines_, one of them
offered thirty Crowns for a thing that was perhaps worth five hundred.
Another came and offered a gold Crown-piece. The Pope, surprized at the
golden Proffer, said to him that had offered the thirty Crowns, ‘I am
sorry I can’t let you have the Thing; you offered me only Silver, but
here’s one offers me Gold; what I sell, is for the Poor, and I will not
wrong them.’ Accordingly, he that held out the gold Coin had the
Preference; and thus did those Knaves juggle together to trick the Pope.
They had one common Purse, and what they bought of the Holy Father at
their own Price, they sold afterwards in ROME, and shared the Profit.

At the Beginning of his Pontificate, the Governor of ROME having
complained to him that _Pharao_ and _Basset_ proved the Ruin of a great
many People, he answered him smartly, _Alas! are not you the Governor?
Send the Gamesters to the Gallies._ He never loved to talk of State
Affairs, and would never read the Relations given by Nuncios, who, he
said, were only Newsmongers and Spies, with whom he did not care to have
any Concern; nor would he ever advance them to the Purple, but always put
them back, tho’ perhaps the Term of their Nunciature had been long

This holy Pope, for I really believe him a Saint, lived in the very midst
of ROME, and of his Court, like a Hermit, always at Prayer, or employed in
the Functions of the Priesthood. He was an Enemy to Luxury and Pageantry,
would never suffer a Clergyman to kneel at his Feet, but always made him
rise, and sit down by him; being as humble as ’twas possible for any mean
Priest, and perhaps too humble for his Character. He went out every Day
in a sorry Coach, with only a Pair of Horses, without Guards, without any
Companion, as I said before, besides a Brother of his Order, _viz._ the
_Dominican_, to the Rules of which he always adher’d, and without any
Attendants but a Couple of Footmen, and six of his _Swiss_ Guards. If he
happened to meet with any Carriage in a narrow Street, he bade his
Coachman stop, saying, he did not desire to fall out with any body. So
much is enough for _Benedict_ XIII. who was a pious Pope, and would have
been a good Prince too, if his Ministers had been Men of Honour. I now
return to the _Vatican_.

This Palace joins to the Castle of St. _Angelo_, which is the Citadel of
ROME, by a covered Gallery, which was made at a Time when the turbulent
_Romans_, not paying their due Obedience to the Popes, the latter thought
proper to make themselves a Passage to it in case of a Revolution; but,
Thanks to God, this Precaution is no longer necessary; for the Popes are
the Masters. The Castle of St. _Angelo_ is for Prisoners of State, and in
it is the Arsenal, which, by the way, is in a very bad State. There are
also kept the four Millions of _Roman_ Crowns, which Pope _Sixtus_ V.
deposited there, with an Injunction, by a Bull, at the same Time, that
they should not be touched but to serve some pressing Exigency of the
Church. It has the Name from the Appearance of an Angel to Pope St.
_Gregory the Great_, putting up a Sword all over bloody, in its Scabbard,
to denote that God had stay’d the Pestilence, in regard to the Prayers of
St. _Gregory_, who, accompanied by all the Clergy and People of ROME,
carried in Procession to St. _Peter_’s Church two Images of the Virgin,
the one painted by St. _Luke_, and kept in the Church of St. _Mary Major_,
the other, which appeared to St. _Galle_, and is worshipped in the Church
of St. _Mary in Compitello_.

From the Castle of St. _Angelo_ you will please to follow me to the Palace
of _Monte Cavallo_, which is travelling from one End of ROME to the other.
_Gregory_ XIII. began this Palace, and several of the succeeding Popes
have carried it on. ’Tis much more spacious than magnificent, and yet none
of the Apartments are good for much, except that of the Pope, who indeed
is well lodged. _Paul_ V. of the _Borghese_ Family, who, next to _Sixtus_
V. was the Pope that has most embellished ROME, has also most of all
contributed to the Embellishment of the Palace of _Monte Cavallo_. Here
are excellent rich Cielings, made in the Time of his Pontificate. This
vast Building forms a long Square, with a great Court in the Middle,
encompassed with Piazzas, five hundred Paces in Length. The two cross
Buildings, of which that at the farther End forms the main Body of the
Building, are higher than those on the Sides. In the Front of the main
Building there’s a mosaic Picture of the Holy Virgin, with the Infant
_Jesus_ in her Arms, as designed by _Charles Maratti_, which is an
admirable Piece. There are also fine Paintings in the Apartments, but they
are not near so magnificent as those of the _Vatican_. The Furniture of
this Palace, and indeed, of all the Pontifical Palaces, is far from being
rich. The Hangings are of crimson Damask, with Lace and Fringe of gold
Tinsel. The Seats are Benches of Wood, painted with the Arms of the
reigning Pope, and varnished; and the Cardinals themselves have no other
in the Apostolical Palace. From the Pope’s Apartments there’s one of the
most agreeable Prospects that can be over almost all ROME, and very far
into the Country. The Air of _Monte Cavallo_ is said to be the best in
_Rome_, and indeed no other Reason could induce the Popes to reside here
rather than at the _Vatican_. The Gardens belonging to it are very much
admir’d by the _Italians_, who never travell’d out of their Country, where
Gardening is not in very great Perfection; but as for us _Ultramontains_,
who know a little of what belongs to Gardens, we look upon those of this
Country with very great Indifference.

The Capitol is a considerable Building, with Curiosities worthy a
Traveller’s Attention. It was built in the Pontificate of _Gregory_ XIII.
The Ascent to it is by a Stair-case of several Flights, adorn’d on both
Sides with Balustrades of Free-stone, at the Bottom of which two Lions are
plac’d, of a kind of black Stone like Jet, which form two Fountains. At
the Top of the Stair-case, there are two great Horses representing
_Castor_ and _Pollux_, when they came Express to ROME with the News of the
Victory gain’d over the _Tarquins_. In the Midst of the Area, which is
form’d by three separate Piles of Building, two whereof are as advanc’d
Wings to the main Building that fronts the Ascent, there’s an _Equestrian_
Statue in Brass, of the Emperor _Marcus Aurelius Antoninus_, which is the
most beautiful, and completest Piece that was perhaps ever made of the
Kind. They say here, that the Republic of _Venice_ offer’d some Years ago
to pay as many _Sequins_ for this Statue as cou’d be put into the Horse’s
Belly. If this be true, that Republic was undoubtedly more wealthy than it
is at present. ’Tis certain, that the Capitol contains a considerable
Treasure in ancient and modern Statues, in Basso Relievos, and in all
Sorts of Fragments of Antiquity. The Structures are according to the
Direction of _Michael Angelo_.

In the middlemost Pile of Buildings, which is much higher than the two
others, the Senate of ROME meets, and there Justice is administer’d.
There are two Flights or Steps up to the Gate which opens into the Hall of
the Tribunal where they plead. Between the two Flights, there’s a stately
Fountain adorn’d with two antique Statues of Marble, lying on Pedestals,
representing the _Nile_ and the _Tiber_; and in a Niche over it, is the
Statue of _Roma triumphans_, a Work of Porphyry, an antique Marble of
excellent Sculpture.

The Inside of these three Piles of Building contains fine Paintings,
particularly the Rape of the _Sabines_; and among the modern Statues, the
Connoisseurs esteem the brazen Statue of Pope _Urban_ VIII. done by
_Bernini_; the Colossal Statue of Pope _Leo_ X. in Marble, done by
_Lorenzetto_ of _Florence_; those of _Alexander Farnese_, _Marcus
Antoninus_, _Colonna_, _Gregory_ XIII., _Paul_ III. and many others, in
short, which I don’t mention, as being of less Value, and which are not
much minded here, because they are not done by the best Hands, but wou’d
pass with us for Master-pieces.

Being in the Neighbourhood of that great Square call’d _Campo-vaccino_, I
cannot help giving you some Account of it; not that I pretend to
particularize it, because I have not sufficient Learning. Here we see the
admirable Ruins of the Magnificence of old ROME, which I cannot behold
without pitying the Condition they are in at present. You wou’d have the
same Concern as I have, were you in the Middle of a large Square, and to
see nothing all round it but Ruins; to see on one Side the Walls of the
ancient Capitol, on the other the _Constantine_ Arch erected with so much
Expence by the Senate and People of ROME, broken and half-bury’d; beyond
that, the Arch of _Titus_, in a Condition still worse; on your Left, the
immense Ruins of the Temple of _Peace_; the Vestigies of the Temple of
_Antoninus_ and _Faustina_, on the Architrave of which is this vain
Inscription, _Divo Antonino, Divæ Faustinæ_; on your Right-hand the
melancholy Ruins of the Temple of _Concord_, which, to judge of it by the
eight Pillars that are still remaining, must have been very superb; it was
built to fulfil a Vow made by the Dictator _Furius Camillus_ for having
reconcil’d the _Plebeians_ and the _Patricians_. ’Twas in this Temple,
according to _Varro_, that the Senate assembled to treat of the Affairs of
the Republic. In short, here are so many other unfortunate Remnants of the
Mistress of the Universe, as wou’d put you in mind of the Instability of
this World, and that all is Vanity. But what wou’d you say, if you shou’d
go on till you come to the famous _Coliseum_, which Time, the Destroyer of
all Things, had spar’d, but was destroy’d by Men, and such too as were
most concern’d in the Preservation of every thing in ROME that was
beautiful? And what wou’d you think, if you saw there was scarce enough
remaining of this stately Edifice to give you an Idea of what it was once?
’Twas _Vespasian_ that caus’d it to be built after the Model which was
intended by _Augustus_. Its Form on the Outside is round, and ’tis built
of a prodigious Height, intirely of great Free-Stones. The Court or Arena
is oval. There were three distinct Rows of Seats in the Amphitheatre, the
highest for the Senators, the second for the Knights, and the third for
the common People. They say it contain’d eighty-five thousand Spectators.
It was dedicated by _Titus_, who upon that Occasion celebrated a great
Feast, distributed large Sums to the common People, and enter’d five
thousand wild Beasts of all Sorts into it in one Day. _Paul_ III. and
_Urban_ VIII. caus’d the _Coliseum_ to be demolish’d, and made use of the
Stones for building the Palaces which are now inhabited by their Families.

Having entertain’d you sufficiently with the public Structures, let us now
take a View of some of the private Palaces; but before I introduce you
into them, I will give you my Thoughts of the Palaces of ROME in general.
I don’t deny that there are finer and greater Palaces here than elsewhere;
but of these there are few; and as for the others, they are not worth so
much Notice as is taken of ’em. Methinks, ’tis with the Buildings of ROME,
as with those People, whose Reputation being once well establish’d, we are
apt to applaud in them, what in others perhaps we shou’d censure. A great
many Palaces are admir’d here, barely from the Prepossession that
Architecture flourishes here more than any-where else. Indeed, this was
true enough heretofore, in the Time of a _Sixtus_ V. a _Paul_ V. and an
_Urban_ VIII. who had the Embellishment of ROME at Heart; but ’tis not so
now, since the indolent Popes have nothing more of that Work upon their
Hands. I can assure you, that they actually build now much better in
_France_ than they do in _Italy_, especially as to the Distribution of the
Apartments, of which the _Italians_ have no Notion. Most of the Apartments
of ROME consist of a long Suite of Rooms, often very small ones, which
have no Way out of them but the Door you enter at; and commonly the Rooms
have no Light, nor Chimney, nor Place to set up a Bed, or Canopy; which is
the Reason that those two Pieces of Houshold Stuff are seldom fix’d where
they shou’d be; mean time, Canopies are what the _Roman_ Princes and
Cardinals are very fond of, and many of them have no less than five or
six; vain Ostentation, which makes those Gentlemen fancy they are giving
Audience, when they are only receiving Visits! After all, one must not
look for such Ornaments here as they have in _France_, and elsewhere. As
to their Floors, they are only made of Bricks; they know nothing of
Wainscotting; their Glazing is horrible; and most of their Ceilings, tho’
there are some very magnificent, are of Timber, so coarsly work’d, that
the Gilding employ’d on them serves only the more to expose their
Deformity. The Furniture is almost everywhere the same; consisting either
of red Damask, with an upper Border of Velvet, of the same Colour, adorn’d
with Tinsel Lace and Fringe resembling Gold, or else of Pictures, which
are, indeed, the most perfect of the Kind; but when I see five or six
Rooms all together in a Row, full of Paintings, I fancy myself in some
Picture-shop at the Fair of _St. Germain_. Besides, these Pictures are in
such sorry old-fashion’d Frames, that they disparage them. They have but
few Looking-glasses, and those very small. As for Porcellane and crystal
Vessels, they are not much in Vogue; but, on the other hand, here are
beautiful Statues which I admire, and think very fine; but I shou’d be
better pleas’d to see them in a Gallery, in a Salon, or in a Garden: For I
don’t think they look well in a Chamber. All the Furniture one sees here
is antique, having been laid in, for most part, by Popes that have been a
long while in their Graves; and there’s no House furnish’d in the modern
Taste, except those of the Cardinals _del Giudici_, _Albano_, _Bolognetti_
and _Carolis_.

’Tis time now to enter into some of the Palaces. That which they call here
the _Farnese_ Palace, is, in my Opinion, the most magnificent in ROME;
_Michael Angelo_ was the Architect. Most of the Stones of this Building
were taken out of the _Coliseum_ of the Emperor _Vespasian_, by Order of
_Paul_ III. who made no Scruple to destroy the proudest Monument of
Antiquity for the sake of furnishing his Nephews with a Palace. This
Palace is two Stories high, and has a perfect Square before it, adorn’d
with two stately Fountains, the Water of which continually spouts up
fifteen Feet high, and then falls by two Sheets into a Shell or Cistern of
oriental Granate, of a vast Bigness, and all of a Piece. The Entrance to
this Palace is through a great Court, adorn’d within by _Doric_ Pillars;
and this leads to a square Court, the Buildings of which are supported by
Arches, with great Galleries well cover’d over, where we see the famous
Statues of _Hercules_ and _Flora_, which are really worthy the Observation
of the Curious. In a second Court, which is pretty much neglected, there
is to be seen, in a wooden Case, the magnificent Groupe of white Marble,
all of one Piece, representing the Fable of _Dirce_, fasten’d to a Bull,
by _Zethus_ and _Amphion_, the Sons of _Antiope_, Wife of _Lycus_ King of
_Bœotia_, who, to take Revenge for their Mother, whom _Lycus_ had
divorc’d, because she had suffer’d herself to be debauch’d by _Jupiter_ in
the Form of a Satyr, were so barbarous as to murder _Lycus_, and to tie
_Dirce_ by the Hair of her Head to the Horns of a wild Bull, by which she
was dragg’d about, till the Gods, pitying the State of this Princess,
turn’d her into a Fountain. This great Machine was brought from _Rhodes_
to ROME by Order of the Emperor _Antoninus Caracalla_, and was found under
Ground in the very Place where were formerly the Baths of that Emperor,
from whence _Paul_ III. had it brought to the Palace of his Family, that
it might serve as a Vista to the grand Gate; but it has not yet been
plac’d there.

The great Stair-case which leads to the Apartments is adorn’d with several
fine Statues. We enter first into a great Hall, where we have the History
of _Alexander Farnese_, when he pass’d the _Scheld_, who is represented as
crown’d by Victory, with _Flanders_ and the _Scheld_ chain’d to his Feet.
There is also a Number of other fine antique Statues in several Niches,
and upon several Pedestals. The first Chamber is painted in _Fresco_ by
_Salviati_ and _Zucaro_. There we see the Emperor _Charles_ V. and
_Francis_ I. King of _France_, shaking each other by the Hand; the
memorable Transactions of _Paul_ III. and _Martin Luther_ in Conference
with that Pope’s _Nuncio_. In the next Apartments there are a great many
fine Bustos and Ceilings, well painted and richly gilt. But the finest
Piece of all in this Palace is the Gallery, which was painted throughout
by _Annibal Carache_, whose skilful Hand has therein represented with very
great Art the several Deities assisting at the Triumph of _Bacchus_. In
fine, no Cost has been spared in this Palace. I have been assured, that
the Furniture of it was very magnificent formerly; but it is since all
taken away, and the Palace serves to lodge the Minister of _Parma_. ’Tis
pity that ’tis not finish’d, for in Truth it wou’d be a fine Piece of
Building; but the Case is the very same with all St. _Peter_’s _Miracles_,
which is the Name they give to all the Palaces built by the Popes for
their Families. The Popes are old Men when they come to the Pontificate,
and Modesty, or Decency, hinders them from doing any thing for their
Families, the first Year or two; so that they begin in the Decline of
their Years, to undertake vast Designs, which they don’t live to finish;
and ’tis seldom that their Nephews pursue what was begun by their Uncles,
either because they don’t care to make a Shew of the Wealth that was left
them, or else because they have not Souls great enough for the
Undertaking; for, to be plain, those Nephews of the Popes are seldom good
for much, and have had a poor Education. The Generality are Persons of a
mean or base Extraction, who become Princes without any Merit but the
Fortune of their Uncles, and are so intoxicated with their Grandeur, that
they are swallow’d up in Sloth, and think of nothing, not even of the
Preservation of their growing Families; so that they quickly fall to
decay, and as soon as their Spring is over, they are snatch’d off on
sudden by Winter.

_Paul_ III. had a Project for building a Bridge over the _Tyber_, behind
the _Farnese_ Palace, in order to give it a Communication with the Garden
of the little _Farnese_ Palace, which is on the other Side of the River,
in the Quarter call’d _Longara_; and if this Design had been executed, the
Duke of _Parma_ wou’d have had a much finer Palace at ROME, than he has in
his own Capital.

The _Barberini_ Palace is in no respect inferior to the _Farnese_, and is
larger, and, without doubt, richer in Pictures, Statues and Tapestry. The
Stair-case is very much taken Notice of, which runs up winding, and forms
a great oval Well in the Middle, from the Bottom to the Cupola. The great
Hall, which is a stately Room, is painted in _Fresco_ by _Peter Cortona_,
who has artfully represented the four Cardinal Virtues, and the Triumph of
Glory, with their proper Figures and Ornaments, all to great Perfection.
The Apartments to which this Hall leads, are very spacious, and really
contain a vast Treasure in Pictures and Statues, of which were I to give
you all the Particulars, I shou’d never have done. That which very much
disfigures this Palace is the Entrance to it, a Defect which however might
easily be remedied, were they only to pull down two or three Outhouses
which belong to it.

The Palace _Pamphili_ in the Street _del Corso_ will be, as to the
Outside, the most magnificent in ROME, when the grand Front, which is now
actually carrying up, is finish’d. The Prince _Pamphili_ who is the Owner
of it, is very well able to go through with it; for he is one of the
richest Noblemen in ready Money in ROME. His Brother the Cardinal, who
died a little while ago, left him four hundred thousand _Roman_ Crowns in
Specie. The Prince is a very good Œconomist, has no Children, and being
not like to have any, because of the Variance betwixt him and his Wife,
his Nephew the Duke _Carpidetti_, who is the last of the _Pamphili_
Family, will be his Heir. The Prince and his Lady have been often parted;
and though they have been as often reconcil’d, either by their Kindred, or
by the Popes, they are continually at Variance; nevertheless, I have been
assured by People who know them perfectly well, that when they are
asunder, they are very loving, and write to one another the most tender
Letters; but that as soon as they come together, they hate one another as

’Tis not long ago that the _Campagna di Roma_ was infested by Locusts
(which are here call’d _Grilli_) to such a Degree, that Pope _Benedict_
XIII. curs’d them, and banish’d them to the Sea, in which it is pretended
they were all drown’d. This Miracle being talk’d of some Days after in
Presence of the Prince _Pamphili_, he made Answer, that he did not believe
it; for, said he, were it so, I shou’d be the most unhappy of Men! But,
‘How is it possible for all the _Grilli_ to be plung’d headlong into the
Sea, and the _Campagna di Roma_ to be deliver’d from them, and that I
shou’d still keep the _Grillo_ in my House?’ He alluded hereby to his
Wife, who is of the _Grillo_ Family in _Genoa_.

If the Duke _Carpinetti_ shou’d die without Issue, as ’tis believ’d will
be the Case, from his having been married these four Years past to a Lady
who never yet conceiv’d, the immense Estate of the _Pamphili_ Family goes
to the Family of the Constable _Colonna_, and really it will then be in
better Hands. You know that the _Colonna_’s are the gayest People in ROME,
and the most illustrious next to the Princes of Sovereign Families, to
many of whom they are related. They have the Honour to be of the same
Stock as the Royal Family of _Prussia_. Since the _Ursini_ Family is
extinct, there’s not one in ROME can equal the _Colonna_’s. The Head of
this Family is hereditary Constable; he is Prince _del Soglio_, (of the
Throne) and as such, in all public Ceremonies, he sits at the Right-hand
of the Pope’s Throne, which is a Place that he yields to none but the
Nephews of the reigning Pope. He is moreover Knight of the Golden Fleece,
and the present Emperor declar’d him his perpetual Ambassador for
presenting the Hackney, which is a Mark of the Tribute that the Kingdom of
_Naples_ owes to the Holy See[3]. The _Colonna_’s are well-bred, affable
and generous, and always liv’d with a Dignity suitable to their Birth. The
present Cardinal, and the Constable his Nephew, are perhaps two of the
finest Gentlemen in the World. They both dwell in the same Palace, and
live in a Concord and Union, which is the more beautiful, because ’tis
what is seldom known among the Great. Their Palace is one of the most
magnificent in ROME, as to the Inside of it; and ’tis pity but that it had
another Front. It owes its Rise to none but its Owners, without being
oblig’d for it to any of St. _Peter_’s Successors. Instead of giving you
the Particulars of every Room, I need only tell you, that they are all
richly furnish’d. It has Cabinets, Pictures and Statues, that are of an
extraordinary Beauty. The Gallery is truly Royal, and has Beauties that
are not to be found in that of _Versailles_, which is admir’d by all
_Europe_: Such are four Pillars of antique yellow Marble, two of which
support an Arch at each End, whereby there’s an Entrance to the Salon,
which is at the End of the Gallery. This might be said to be a complete
Gallery, if one of the Salons at the End of it was not raised five or six
Steps, whereas the other is level with the Apartment and the Gallery. The
Roof of this fine Piece of Building is painted, and represents the Victory
gain’d in the Time of _Pius_ V. over the _Turks_ at _Lepanto_, by the
Valour of _Mark Antony Colonna_. These Paintings are by different Hands,
and not all of the same Beauty. As to the Pictures and Statues that adorn
the Walls which are fac’d with Marble, ’tis impossible to see any thing
more complete; and this is a Truth even confessed by _Frenchmen_. I never
saw a finer Show than this Gallery makes, when illuminated on the Eve and
Festival of St. _Peter_, which is the Time of the Constable’s presenting
the Hackney to the Pope.

This Ceremony was perform’d not many Days ago; but as it cou’d not be on
St. _Peter_’s Festival, by reason of the Vacancy of St. _Peter_’s See, it
was done at the Church of Our Lady _del Popoli_, on the Day of the
Festival of that Church. The Pope went thither with a great Train, the
Cardinals _Olivieri_ and _Banchieri_, the one Secretary of the Briefs,
and the other Secretary of State, sitting over-against him in his Coach.
When he came to the Gate of the Church, he was put into his Procession
Chair, and carried towards the Altar, where he ton’d the Vespers, which
were continu’d by the Music. During this, Don _Philip Corsini_, the Pope’s
grand Nephew, and all the Nobility that accompany’d the Holy Father, set
out on Horseback from the Church, and went to the Constable’s Palace. They
were attended by a Detachment from the hundred _Swiss_ Guards, Light-Horse
and Carbineers. Don _Philip Corsini_ complimented the Constable in the
Name of _Clement_ XII. and told him, that he came to conduct him to an
Audience of his Holiness. A Detachment of Light-horse began the March;
then came all the Feudatory Nobility of the Kingdom of _Naples_: The
Princes march’d alone, according to their Rank, being preceded by their
Gentlemen and Officers on Horseback, and follow’d by the Hackney, which is
a white Horse carrying a Saddle of red Velvet, in form of a Pannel, with
the Housing of the same Stuff, richly embroider’d with Silver, trailing on
the Ground: A Purse of red Velvet was hung about his Neck, wherein was the
Bill of Exchange for seven thousand Ducats, which is the Tribute that the
Kingdom of _Naples_ pays to the Holy See. Immediately after the Hackney,
came the Constable, between two Files of the hundred _Swiss_, preceded by
thirty-six Footmen, and surrounded by sixteen Pages, all of his own
Livery. Don _Philip Corsini_ was on his Right-hand, and M. _Acquaviva_,
the _Major Domo_, (who has been a Cardinal ever since 1733.) on his Left.
The feudatory Prelates follow’d him, drest in short purple Mantles, and
riding on Mules, two a breast. The March was clos’d by fifteen of the
Constable’s magnificent Coaches, four of which were drawn by six Horses.
When the Constable came to the Church, he alighted, and met the Pope, who
was just then going out of it in his Procession Chair. The Ambassador
kneeling before him, said to him, ‘That the Emperor _Charles_ VI. King of
the _Two Sicilies_, his Master, had charg’d him to deliver to his
Holiness, the Tribute of the Hackney, and the seven thousand Ducats, which
his Imperial and Royal Majesty ow’d to the Holy See, for the Kingdom of
_Naples_.’ This Compliment must be made in the _Spanish_ Tongue, to which
the Pope makes Answer in _Latin_. _Clement_ XII. said, ‘We accept the
Tribute and the Present which our well-beloved Son _Charles_ VI. Emperor
and King of the _Sicilies_, owes to us; and we give to him, and his August
Spouse _Elizabeth_ the Empress, to his Kingdoms and Dominions, and to all
his Subjects in general, our Apostolical Benediction, in the Name of the
Father, _&c._’ When the Pope had said this, the Ambassador, who was all
the while on his Knees, rose up, and an Apostolical Notary, who was
present, immediately made an Entry of this Function in the Apostolical
Register, according to Custom. This done, _Clement_ XII. went out of the
Church, and return’d with a great Train to the Palace of _Monte-cavallo_.
The Constable came out in a Moment after, accompanied by the Emperor’s
Ambassador, his Cardinal _Cienfuegos_, who rode in the Constable’s chief
Coach, the Constable sitting on his Left-hand. The Footmen of the
Cardinal, and of the Ambassador, walk’d in a Body together, without any
Distinction, but the Coaches follow’d alternatively, _viz._ one Coach of
the Cardinal’s, and one of the Constable’s. His Eminency had ten, which
were each drawn by only a Pair of Horses. Thus they arriv’d at the
Constable’s Palace, which they found illuminated with Flambeaux of white
Wax. All the Nobility of ROME came in a few Moments after, with all the
Cardinals. They were plentifully regal’d with Refreshments, and a fine
Firework was play’d off, which was erected in the Court-yard in such a
manner, that it fronted alike both the Palace and the Street. Next Day the
Constable and the Cardinal took another Tour with a great Train thro’ the
principal Streets of ROME; and in the Evening, the Ambassador’s Palace was
illuminated, where the Sacred College, and all the Nobility, appear’d, as
they did the Night before; and there was another Firework: Thus the
Ceremony ended, and ’tis also Time for me to conclude my Letter, by
assuring you, that I am ever, _&c._


                              LETTER XXX.

  _SIR_,                                         _Rome, Dec. 5, 1730._

Tho’ I am heartily weary of entertaining you with Palaces, yet I can’t
forbear giving you some Account of the Palace of the Prince _Borghese_.
There’s an admirable Court-yard, and the Buildings round it are of an
elegant and agreeable Contrivance. They are two Rows of Arches, one above
the other, supported by ninety-six Columns of Granate, which form
Corridors or Galleries, so that one may walk all round under Shelter. The
Summer Apartment, which is level with the Court, is fit to lodge a
Monarch. ’Tis adorned with the choicest Paintings, and several of the
Rooms have the Pleasure of Fountains in them always playing into Basons of
Porphyry, or other precious Stones, of which one is a complete Piece of
Work of massy Silver. The Furniture is not answerable to all this
Magnificence, it being all as old as the Time of _Paul_ V. who was of the
_Borghese_ Family, and tho’ no more than an Advocate at first, rais’d his
Family from the mean State it was in at _Sienna_.

The Eldest of this Family has a Revenue of one hundred and sixteen
thousand Crowns, and as he lives, is in no manner of Danger of becoming a
Bankrupt. There is not a Family in ROME for which St. _Peter_ has done
more than this. The Prince’s Palace in the City is, as I have told you, a
stately Building. There are fine Stables belonging to it, and there’s a
second Palace fronting the first, which serves in common for the
Domestics. Almost all the Houses of that Ward, which is one of the most
populous in ROME, belong to this Prince, who has also several magnificent
Country Houses, particularly that of _Mondragone_, near _Frescati_, built
by Pope _Paul_ V. and the Garden near the Gate _Pinciano_, made by
Cardinal _Scipio Borghese_, one of that Pope’s Nephews. Before the Art of
Gardening was introduc’d into _Germany_ and _France_, the Gardens of
_Italy_ were reckon’d the finest in the World; but now-a-days ’tis
otherwise, and unless (as is partly observ’d before) a Man is an
_Italian_, and never pass’d the _Alps_, he will look with Contempt upon
all the Gardens which the _Romans_ call _wonderful_, _charming_, and
_astonishing_. Nevertheless, I wou’d not have you think that I find no
Beauty at all in their Gardens; I admire the continual Verdure of their
Holyoaks, Firs, Pines and Laurels, of which the Walks are form’d, tho’
they are gloomy and melancholy. I am amaz’d at the Magnificence of those
who made those Gardens, and am pleas’d to find by what they have done,
that they had the Taste of Noblemen, and that indeed they have not come
short of the most excellent Works in their Time. But then I am sorry to
see how little Care their Nephews take of these Things, how they suffer
them to run to Ruin, and how little they know to make a good Use of the
Estates left them by Providence. Thanks to the Foundations of _Paul_ V.
and Cardinal _Scipio_, the Houses and Gardens of the Prince _Borghese_ are
kept in better Order than those of the other _Roman_ Nobility; yet for all
this, they are not near so neat, and so well trimm’d, as the Gardens of
_France_, _Holland_, and the _Ultramontane_ Countries.

_Mondragone_ stands upon an Eminence, and fronts the City. ’Tis a large
Building, after the Model of the Palace of _Monte-cavallo_. The Apartments
are spacious, but very sorrily furnish’d. The House at the Vineyard
_Pinciano_ is only magnificent on Account of the rare Sculptures with
which ’tis adorn’d. ’Tis almost intirely cover’d on the Outside with
stately Basso-relievos, of antique Marble, among which, ’tis a Pleasure to
see _Curtius_ on Horseback, throwing himself and Horse headlong into the
Gulph, to deliver his Country from the Pestilence. The Statue of
_Belisarius_, in the Attitude of a poor Man begging Alms, is so well made,
that it raises Compassion. The Apartments, tho’ very ill furnish’d, are
adorn’d with fine Pictures and Statues: Among the latter, you wou’d admire
_David_ holding his Sling, cut in Marble by Signior _Bernini_; the Groupe
representing _Daphne_ beginning to be metamorphos’d into a Laurel, at the
Nick of Time when the God of Day is going to embrace her; the ancient
Statue of _Seneca_ expiring in the Bath, which is of antique black Marble,
representing the Philosopher up to the Middle of his Legs in a Cistern, or
Vessel of _African_ Stone, of modern Workmanship; the famous Statue of the
_Gladiator_ in a fighting Posture, the Work of _Agasias_ the _Ephesian_,
as the _Greek_ Inscription denotes, which is at the Foot of the Statue;
and in fine, the fair Hermaphrodite lying on a Matrass, all of Marble, of
curious Workmanship. ’Tis said that this Statue was discover’d under the
Foundations of the Front of the Church of Our Lady of _Victoria_, at the
Time that Cardinal _Scipio Borghese_ caus’d it to be erected; and really
’tis so curious a Piece, that it wou’d have been pity it had not been
found, and brought again to Light. Were I to tell you of all the other
Statues of the Prince _Borghese_, I shou’d never have done; for no King in
the World has so many, or so fine; and he may boast of being the Owner of
a Treasure that is inestimable.

I beg leave to take a present Farewel of every Thing relating to Buildings
and Statues, and must acquaint you after what Manner _Clement_ XII. has
taken Possession of the Church of St. _John de Lateran_. This Ceremony was
perform’d on _Sunday_ the 19th of _November_ last. The Pope went in the
Morning with his usual Train from the Palace of _Monte-Cavallo_ to that of
the _Vatican_. At half an Hour past eighteen o’Clock, as they call it
here, which with us is about half an Hour past One in the Afternoon, the
Cavalcade began. Two Trumpets and four Light-Horsemen of the Guard led the
Way, follow’d by several close Carriages cover’d with Tapestry embroider’d
with the Arms of the Cardinals to whom they belong’d: Then came the
Cardinals Mace-bearers, with their Maces of solid Silver. These were
follow’d by their Eminencies Gentlemen and Chaplains, by the Legate of
_Bologna_, and the _Roman_ Princes, all very sorrily mounted, and dress’d
in black Coats and Cloaks. Four of the Pope’s Equerries in red Robes, his
Holiness’s Taylor, and two Boys of the Wardrobe, in Robes of red Serge,
went before two Portmanteaus trimm’d with red Velvet lac’d with Gold,
which were carry’d on the Backs of Mules, in form of a Litter. The Grooms
in Surtouts of red Serge, two and two, leading the Hackneys of the Tribute
for _Naples_. The Pope’s Mules with Caparisons of red Velvet, with Lace
and Fringe of Gold. Three Litters cover’d with red Velvet trimm’d with
Gold Lace. The Master of the Pope’s Stables follow’d by two Prickers. At
some Distance from thence came the _Roman_ Nobility, walking without
Distinction of Rank, all dress’d in black Coats and Mantles, with great
Perukes, and their Hats off. Then came five of the Pope’s Mace-bearers, in
long-sleev’d purple Gowns with black Velvet Lace, bearing their Maces of
solid Silver, and follow’d by fourteen Drummers on Foot, in Surtouts of
red Sattin with yellow and red Lace, bearing the Arms of the fourteen
Quarters, or Wards of the City of ROME. Four of the Pope’s Trumpeters
dress’d in Red with Gold Lace. The Valets of the Apostolical Chamber in
red Robes. The Valets _de Chambre_ call’d _Camerieri extra muros_. The
Commissary and Fiscal of the Chamber in purple Robes. The Consistorial
Advocates dress’d in Black. The Chaplains of the Commonalty in red Robes.
The Valets of the Privy-chamber, and the Chamberlains of Honour in purple
Robes. The four last carry’d on long Poles the four Cardinals Hats that
are vacant. Then came forty Officers of the Senate and People of ROME, in
Gowns of black Velvet, and wearing Caps of the same Stuff: These were
follow’d by the Clerks of the Chamber, the Auditors of the Rota, by the
Master of the sacred Palace walking on the Left of the Dean, by the
Auditors of the Rota, and by fourteen Marshals wearing white sattin
Waistcoats under Gowns of purple Mohair, and Caps of black Velvet. Then
came the Governor of ROME in his Camail and Rochet, the Princes _del
Soglio_ in black Coats and Cloaks, two Masters of the Ceremonies preceding
the Pope’s Cross-bearer, who carry’d the Image of our Saviour turn’d
towards the Holy Father, and walk’d between two Ushers bearing red Wands.
Then the Holy Father appear’d in a Litter, like a _Phaethon_, lin’d with
red Velvet embroider’d and lac’d with Gold, carry’d by two white Mules.
Twenty-four Pages in an antique Dress of white Sattin, with a great many
red and silver’d Ribbands, and black Cloaks lin’d with white and silver
Mohair, and inrich’d with broad Gold Lace, encompass’d the Litter, as did
the Footmen, the Scavengers and the Lance-presadoes, in scarlet Cloaths
trimm’d with Gold. Immediately before the Litter the Captain of the
hundred _Swiss_ rode on Horseback, arm’d with a Cuirass of Iron, and his
Helmet, at the Head of two Files of the hundred _Swiss_ arm’d with
Cuirasses like himself. His Holiness, who was in the Middle, wore a white
Cassock. He had a Rochet on, and over it a Stole of red Sattin embroider’d
with Gold, the Camail or short Mantle of red Velvet lin’d with Ermin, a
Cap of the same Stuff, and over that a red Hat. Next to the Litter came
the Almoner, the Gentleman Carver, the Secretary, and the Physician. At
some small Distance follow’d fourteen Cardinals riding on Mules, who were
dress’d in purple Habits, and had their Cowls flapp’d over their Eyes,
with their red Hats. They were follow’d by Signior _Neri Corsini_, a
Nephew of _Clement_ XII. at the Head of the Patriarchs, Archbishops,
assistant Bishops, Apostolical Prothonotaries, the Auditor of the Chamber,
the Treasurer, the Recorders of the Signature, and the other domestic
Prelates, all clad in their Rochets and Camails of Purple. The March was
clos’d by the Light-horse and Carbineers. The former had at their Head the
Marquis _Bartholomew Corsini_, and the Duke _Strozzi_, (both Nephews of
the Holy Father) who shone in gilt Cuirasses, and had over them Surtouts
of red Grogram, or Mohair, embroider’d with Gold. They had on their Hats
great Plumes of white Feathers, and their Pages carry’d their Spears and
Helmets before them. The Light-horse had over their Cloaths, which are not
of the same Pattern, Surtouts of red Cloth with Gold Lace; their Hats were
adorn’d with large Plumes of white and red Feathers, and for their Arms
they bore Lances, at the End of which are little Standards of red and blue
Taffeta, such as I have seen carry’d by the _Spahis_.

All this Cavalcade pass’d thro’ the Capitol, the Court whereof was hung
with Tapestry of red Damask lac’d with Gold Tinsel. The Marquis
_Frangipani_, a _Roman_ Senator, receiv’d the Pope, and presented him the
Keys of the Capitol, after making a short Speech to him, which the Pope
answer’d by a Benediction. At _Campo-Vaccino_, thro’ which the Train
pass’d, the Pope found near the _Farnese_ Vineyard a triumphal Arch, which
the Duke of _Parma_, as Feudatory of the Holy See, is oblig’d to erect
every Time that the new Popes take Possession of the _Lateran_ Church.
From the Capitol to the said Church, which is a very considerable
Distance, the Streets were hung with Tapestry furnish’d by the _Jews_, who
had brought out a great many moth-eaten Rags for the Purpose.

When the Pope alighted from his Litter, he was receiv’d at the Gate of St.
_John de Lateran_, by the Cardinal _Picus de Mirandola_, Arch-priest of
the said Church, who presented the Holy Father with the Cross to kiss, and
being preceded by the Chapter of St. _John de Lateran_, conducted him to
the Throne which was erected on the Right-side of the great Gate. The Pope
being there seated, array’d himself in his _Pontificalibus_, and put on
the Mitre, after which he admitted the Chapter to kiss his Foot. Then the
Cardinal Arch-priest harangu’d him in the Name of the Chapter, and
presented him the Keys of the Church, one of which was of Gold, the other
of Silver, in a Silver gilt Bason adorn’d with Flowers. During this, the
Cardinals put on their Copes and their Mitres. Then the Pope rising from
his Throne, advanc’d towards the great Gate of the Church. The Cardinal
Arch-priest perfum’d him with Incense thrice, and presented the Sprinkler
to him, which the Pope dipp’d into the Holy Water, and therewith sprinkled
the Clergy and Laity. Then he seated himself in his Procession Chair, and
was carry’d thro’ the Body of the Church to the High Altar, the Members of
the Chapter holding a Canopy over his Head. The Pope kneeling before the
Holy Sacrament, made a short Prayer, and went and plac’d himself upon a
Throne erected at the Bottom of the Choir facing the Entrance. There he
receiv’d the usual Obeisance of the Cardinals, Bishops, Prelates and other
Clergy, and then gave his solemn Benediction to the Standers-by, being
assisted in this Ceremony by two Cardinal-Deacons, who put on his Mitre,
and took it off, just as the Service requir’d. Then his Holiness descended
from the Throne, and being seated in his Procession Chair, was carry’d to
the _Lateran_ Palace. During this, the Musick play’d Anthems, and the
Cardinal Arch-priest read several Prayers. When the Pope arriv’d at the
great Pew fronting the spacious Square that opens towards the City of
ROME, he ascended a very high Throne, and gave his Benediction twice to
all the Christian People. Then he saw some slight Medals scatter’d among
the Populace, which were struck with his own Die. After this, he was
carry’d in a Sedan to his Coach, in which he took with him the Cardinals
_Banchieri_ and _Olivieri_, and thus he return’d to the Palace of
_Monte-Cavallo_, attended by his usual Train.

This Cavalcade and Ceremony, after all that can be said, appear more
magnificent in the Descriptions or Prints that are engrav’d of them, than
they are in reality. If I may presume to say so, it has an Air of
Masquerade which I don’t think suitable to the Court of the Vicar of JESUS
CHRIST. All the Laity dress’d in Black, and most of the Clergy in Purple,
mounted upon Mules; all this, I say, forms a very dismal Pomp. Most of the
Cardinals and Prelates are ancient, and to see them on Horseback, is not
to see them at an Advantage. Carpets of different Colours were hung out at
all the Windows, as is the Custom here upon all solemn Festivals, either
in Processions, or in public Entries. But in my Opinion, all this
Tapestry, instead of adorning the Houses, makes them look like Brokers
Shops. The Carpets which are hung out in _France_ and the _Netherlands_
upon such Solemnities have an Air much more majestic.

The Models after which the triumphal Arch was erected were very fine; but
as it was executed in Paper and Pastboard, a great Rain which had fallen
for some Days before, had almost spoil’d it. Besides this, the Order of
the Procession was very ill observ’d; for there were sometimes Intervals
of half a Quarter of an Hour. And when the Pope went out of the _Lateran_
Church, there was so great a Stop of Coaches, that he was above an Hour
getting along. ’Tis said, there will speedily be a Promotion of Cardinals;
if so, I shall not fail to let you know what passes at that Ceremony. But
at present I shall add no more, and I question whether you will hear from
me again before Lent. I am, _&c._


                              LETTER XXXI.

  _SIR_,                                        _Rome, March 10, 1731_

I was some Days ago at an Audience of the Holy Father. I might have had it
sooner, but I thought fit to give Way to those that were more importunate
for it; for _Clement_ XII. has been continually teaz’d upon that Score
from the very Day of his Exaltation. The Form of demanding Audiences is
the same here as at other Courts, and I assure you, the Difficulty of
obtaining them is every whit as great; so that in this Point, all
Countries, and all Courts are alike.

Having made my Application to Signior _Acquaviva_, the _Major Domo_, who
officiated as Head-Chamberlain, in the room of Signior[4] _Doria_, then
indisposed, he gave the Pope Notice that I attended, and he order’d me to
be immediately admitted. I left my Hat and Sword at the Door, according
to Custom. I found the Pope sitting under a Canopy, in an Elbow-chair,
ascended by three Steps, with his right Foot resting on a Cushion of red
Velvet. As I enter’d the Chamber, Signior _Acquaviva_ bid me kneel, which
I did, and the Pope gave me his Blessing. I then rose up, and approach’d
him as far as half the Length of the Chamber, when I kneel’d again, and
receiv’d the Pope’s Blessing a second Time. Then I arose again, and coming
up close to the Pope, I kneel’d again, and receiv’d a third Blessing, all
which Blessings really did not cost his Holiness much Trouble; for they
consisted in no more than making a Sign of the Cross, without speaking one
Word. The Pope, who is talkative, but eloquent, ask’d me many Questions,
and recollected that he had known me when he was only a Cardinal. He was
extremely gracious, and I had reason to be satisfied with my Audience so
long as I had no Favour to ask. But the Moment that I put myself in the
Number of Petitioners, I saw the Pope’s Countenance change; his Smiles
were turn’d into Frowns, and I could easily perceive that he had rather
have my Room than my Company. But being appriz’d beforehand, that his
Holiness was always uneasy at receiving Petitions, I proceeded without
omitting a Word of what I had to say to him. In going out of the Chamber,
I went backward, kneeling three times by the Way, as I had done at
Entrance, and the Pope at each time gave me his Blessing, which was all
that I got by my Audience; but I am preparing to desire another very soon;
for they say, the honest Pope loves to be importun’d, and therefore I will
gratify him in his own Way.

Indeed all that go to the Audience of the Holy Father fare no better than
I did, unless they are Princes, and even the Catholics must all kiss the
Pope’s Toe. The Prince Regent of _Waldeck_, who was here not long ago,
went to an Audience of his Holiness, and was receiv’d in the same manner
as the Princes of _Brunswic_ had been formerly: He waited some Moments in
the Antichamber, and without being oblig’d to leave his Sword and Hat, as
those of his Retinue were, he was introduc’d by the _Major Domo_ to the
Pope, who receiv’d him seated on his Throne. The Prince did not kneel as
he enter’d, nor did the Pope, who ask’d him several Questions, and was
inform’d that he was a _Lutheran_, give him his Blessing: Before he
withdrew, the Prince desir’d the Pope, that he would give him leave to
introduce his Retinue to him; when one of his Gentlemen, scrupulous to the
last Degree, neither kneel’d, nor kiss’d the Pope’s Foot. At _Geneva_
indeed he deserv’d to have his Statue erected, tho’ here his Politeness
was call’d in question; but as for the Prince of _Waldeck_, all ROME was
charm’d with his obliging and polite Behaviour: He spent four or five
Months here, and liv’d handsomely. He apply’d himself to the Knowledge of
Antiques, and made a Collection of Stones finely cut, which, tho’ not so
large as some are, is not the worse chosen; for he has discover’d a very
great Taste and Skill in Curiosities; and happy would it be for _Germany_
if all its Princes were like him.

The Prince of _Waldeck_ leads me to give you an Account of those
unfortunate Princes who are here call’d the King and Queen of _England_.
Perhaps you will not dislike to know what they are doing, and on what Foot
they stand here. That unfortunate Prince, which is a Title I think no body
can envy him, lives a very melancholy Life; and I question whether the
Pension which the Pope allows him of 12000 Crowns, is enough to make him
easy under his Afflictions: He lodges in the Palace of the Marquis
_Monti_, and has a great Number of Domestics, but few in his Service that
are Persons of Quality. My Lord _Dunbar_ is the chief Man at his Court,
since Mr. _Hayes_, to whom the Pretender gave the Title of my Lord
_Inverness_, retir’d to _Avignon_: This Gentleman is intrusted with the
Education of the young Princes, who are here styl’d the Prince of _Wales_,
and the Duke of _York_, and as lovely Children they both are as one shall

The King, or the Pretender, it matters not, is complimented with the Style
of _Majesty_ by the Pope, and by all that have Access to him. He never
goes to an Audience of the Holy Father in public, but always by the
Back-stairs; and the Pope not only gives him an Arm-chair, but all the
Honours are paid to him that are due to a King who keeps _incognito_. When
the Cardinals visit him, he gives them the _Tabouret_, or little Stool;
but the Imperial Cardinals never go to see him, nor did they think fit to
do it, even at the Time when the Emperor seem’d to be more embroil’d with
the King of _Great Britain_ than ever; whereas the _French_ Cardinals go
to him every Day, and are always with him, notwithstanding the strict
Alliance between the King their Master, and the King of _Great Britain_.
When the eldest Prince, who is here styl’d the Prince of _Wales_, goes to
wait on the Pope, he is treated as the presumptive Heir of a Crown; he has
a Chair set for him with a Back to it, and takes Place of the Cardinals.
As to the younger Son, the pretended Duke of _York_, his Rank is not yet
settled, nor has he yet made a Visit to the Pope.

_The Pretender_ is of a middling Stature, but a mere Skeleton; and if I
may venture to say it, has nothing in his Looks of an Impostor: He is
prodigiously like the Pictures I have seen of the late King _James_ II.
his Father, only his Aspect is something more melancholy; but he is so far
from it in his natural Temper, that he is a Lover of Pleasures, and would
indulge himself in Gallantry, if he was not so strictly watch’d by the
Priests; for if the scandalous Chronicle does not belye him, Mrs. _Hayes_,
_alias_ Lady _Inverness_, had, for a while, the Honour of obliging him. If
one may guess at the Heart by external Appearances, he is sincerely
attach’d to the Religion which he professes, yet without being such a
Bigot as some will have him to be; for he causes his Children to be
educated by Protestants, and every _Sunday_ a Church of _England_ Minister
preaches in _English_ in the Protestant Chapel of his Palace: He is
extremely reserv’d at first to those with whom he is not acquainted, but
it wears off by Degrees; and when once he knows People, he is very
courteous and civil to them. I have the Honour to be often at his Table,
and I am bound to acknowledge his Favours to me.

His Table, which is commonly laid for a dozen Guests, is serv’d with what
is grand and delicate. The Queen eats at her own little Table. People are
seated at the King’s Table without any Distinction of Rank, and he sits
himself between the two Princes his Sons: He talks a great deal at his
Meals, but the Tone of his Voice is not the most agreeable: His
Conversation runs generally upon common Topicks, and falls very naturally
upon his Misfortunes. All this Prince’s Time is regularly divided; he
rises early, devotes the Morning to his Business, hears Mass before Noon,
when he goes to Dinner, and after sitting an Hour and half, or two Hours
at Table, takes a Nap; and then, unless it be a Saint’s Day, when he goes
to Vespers, he walks out for the Air in some Garden or other without
ROME, where he exercises himself on Horseback, or else diverts himself at
Mall with his Sons, and his Gentlemen. In the Evening he returns to his
Palace, and receives Visits from the Cardinals; at Ten o’Clock he goes to
Supper, and at Midnight to Bed. During the Carnival he was almost every
Day at the Opera, where his Box being very large, he used to sup with the
Gentlemen and Ladies of his Court.

The Queen his Wife is a Princess, who deserves in reality to be a Queen;
and tho’ not a sparkling Beauty, it may be said that her Person is
infinitely charming; she has indeed the Character of a most accomplish’d
Lady, and never was there a better natur’d Person with more Humility; she
is friendly, compassionate, charitable; her Piety is exemplary, and in
Truth, she leads the Life of a Saint, without affecting the Shew of
ceremonial Devotion; for she has nothing more at heart than to do good,
and her Love of one sublime Virtue is incredible; for tho’ she is heartily
attach’d to her own Religion, she has no Rancour against those who differ
from her in Opinion, but would fain reclaim them by her good Example and
good Nature. Were she Mistress of a Kingdom, she would certainly make it
her Rule to discharge the Duties of her Rank as became it; and indeed,
Nature has given her great Advantages to acquit herself worthily in such a
Sphere; for she has a wonderful quick Comprehension, an admirable Memory,
and she speaks _Polish_, _High-Dutch_, _French_, _Italian_, and _English_
so well, that ’tis not easy to distinguish which of those Languages is
most familiar to her. I own to you, that of all the Princesses whom ever I
had the Honour to approach, I don’t know one more deserving of the
Veneration of the Public. I should be glad to see her happy; and if that
Respect and Duty, from which I shall never depart, did not bind me so
strongly to the King and Queen of _Great Britain_, I could wish to see her
wear the Crown of the three Kingdoms.

You know that this Princess is Daughter to Prince _James Sobieski_, and by
consequence Cousin German to the Emperor, and the Queen of _Spain_, and
Niece to the Elector Palatine, and the Queen of _Spain_, Widow of
_Charles_ II. Yet all this did not protect her from being arrested at
_Inspruck_, when she pass’d that Way to _Italy_, to be married to the
Pretender; she was kept in very close Custody, and the Manner of her
Deliverance shews the Superiority of her Genius. The Pretender sent Mr.
_Gaydon_, then a Major in the Service of _France_, to try if he could
procure her Liberty; the said Officer went to _Inspruck_, accompany’d by
Mr. _Wogan_, an _English_ Gentleman, and one _Misset_, an _Irishman_, who
carry’d his Wife with him. They arriv’d accordingly at _Inspruck_ with a
great Retinue, and there they pass’d for People of Consequence: They
contriv’d so that their Coach Wheels broke at the Gate of the City, to
give them a Pretence for staying in the Town till their Coach was
repair’d: They introduc’d themselves into all Assemblies, and found out a
Nun whom they brib’d to deliver Letters to the Princess. Having fix’d on
the Day for carrying her off, and even appointed the Hour, which was
Eleven at Night, they got a young Woman of the Princess’s Stature to pass
thro’ the Guards in the Antichamber, and to lie in the Prisoner’s Bed, who
for two Days had pretended to be sick. The Princess put on the Girl’s
Cloaths, and in that Disguise went out of her Apartment, pass’d thro’ her
Guards, and made up towards _Misset_, who gave a Whistle opposite to the
Convent, as had been agreed on beforehand, that she might know whom to
apply to. The Princess was conducted to an Inn, and as it had snow’d a
great deal, and was very dirty and dark, she happen’d to step into a
Slough; one of her Shoes stuck so fast in the Mud, that she was oblig’d to
leave it behind her, and to walk only with one Shoe on to the Inn. From
thence, without giving herself Time to change her Stockings, she went, wet
and draggled as she was, into a Coach, where Mrs. _Misset_ and Mr.
_Gaydon_ had the Honour to sit with her. _Wogan_ rode by the Side of the
Coach, and _Misset_ stay’d two Hours longer at _Inspruck_, to see whether
any Discovery was made of the Princess’s Flight. The Silence of the Guard
was such, that he believ’d they knew nothing of the Matter, so that he
rode after the Princess, but kept two Post-Stages behind, in order to
watch if they were not pursued, which was a very good Precaution; for
early next Day it was found out that the Princess had made her Escape; and
the Commandant at _Inspruck_ immediately sent off Messengers to all the
great Roads, with Orders to all the Officers of the Country to apprehend
the Fugitive. _Misset_ being overtaken by one of those Messengers, he
travell’d a little way with him, and resolv’d either to make him drunk, or
to knock him on the Head. Having provided himself beforehand with a
certain intoxicating Drug which immediately bereaves People of their
Senses, and throws them into a profound Sleep, he gave some of it to the
Messenger; and when he found him doz’d, he took away his Dispatches, and
went and overtook the Princess, who, after travelling three Days and three
Nights successively, without Rest, was got into the Dominions of the Holy

Arriving at _Bologna_, she there found my Lord _Dunbar_, vested with a
Proxy from the Pretender, then in _Spain_, to marry her; which Ceremony
was accordingly perform’d there without much Pomp, and the Princess set
out in a few Days for _Rome_. My Lady _Marr_, accompany’d by all the
_English_ of both Sexes that were at ROME of the Pretender’s Party, went
in that Prince’s Coaches to meet the Princess; and the Cardinals, the
_Roman_ Princes, and all the Nobility likewise sent their Coaches. Thus
did the Princess make her public Entry into ROME, where she was receiv’d
with great Marks of Respect; and there she was, not long after, join’d by
her Husband[5].

While I am speaking of the Pretender, I ought not to omit acquainting you
of a certain Prophecy in every body’s Mouth here, which was said to be
found among the Papers of the late Pope, importing, that in the Year 1734,
the Pretender should be in the peaceable Possession of the Throne of
_Great Britain_; but I would not give much Money for his Hopes[6]. Be this
as it will, the Prophecy is as follows:

      Dum _Marcus cantabit Hallelujah,
      Et Antonius Veni Creator,
      Et Joannes Baptista cænabit,
      Tune regnabit et triumphabit Rex in Anglia Jacobus_ III.

                                 _i. e._

      _When Easter falls on St. Mark’s Day,
      And Whitsunday on St. Antony’s of Padua,
      And when St. John the Baptist’s is a Sacrament Day,
      Then King James +III.+ shall reign and triumph in England._

Thanks to God, the Carnival is ended; I say, Thanks to God, because it was
to me very tiresom, tho’ it lasted here, according to an establish’d
Custom, but a Week. During all that Time, from Two o’Clock in the
Afternoon till Sun-set, all the Streets were full of Masquers, some on
Foot, and some in open Chaises: The former say a thousand silly Things,
and the latter throw Meslin in one another’s Eyes by Handfuls; but the
best on’t is, that either by their Cloaths, or their Equipage, every body
is known. Besides, the Pageantry of the _Romans_ is always the same, even
in Masquerades; they dress up their Domestics like Harlequins, and make
them follow them with their Faces bare. They thus rake the Air gravely in
open Chariots made like Gondolas. Their Horses are adorn’d with Plumes of
Feathers, and loaded with little Bells like ours in the Sled Races. In the
Evening the Coaches range themselves in two Rows in the Street _del
Corso_, which is besides pretty narrow, and there they see the Race of
Barbs, which are five or six Horses, that are suffer’d to run loose
without a Rider, from the Gate _del Popoli_ to a Place beyond the
_Venetian_ Palace. The poor Beasts gallop thro’ the Shouts and Cries of
the Populace, and are often crippled by striking themselves against the
Coaches. The first of these Horses that reaches the Goal wins a Prize for
his Master, which generally consists of a Piece of Cloth of Gold, and at
Sun-set every body retires. Mean time a _Roman_ will tell you, that the
Carnival of ROME is the finest in the World.

But the thing of which they brag most, and which they believe is no-where
to be parallell’d for Magnificence, is their Balls, of which you shall now
be Judge: Several Gentlemen having clubb’d this Winter for the Hire of the
Palace _Barberini_, near the _Mount of Piety_, and caus’d it to be
furnish’d by the _Jew_ Brokers; when the Day was fix’d for the Ball, they
invited all the Ladies; and as to the Gentlemen, they had the Liberty of
appearing there mask’d, provided they made themselves known at the Door:
All the Rooms were small, and but poorly lighted; there were several
Pieces of Dancing to the Music of five or six Violins: The Room design’d
for the principal Nobility was encompass’d with Forms, and the Place for
the Dancers was an oval Nook rail’d in. A Gentleman of the Company that
gave the Ball stood at the Entrance of the Oval; they gave him the Title
of Master of the Hall, and ’twas he that call’d out the Dancers. All the
Ladies were mask’d at this Ball, which was call’d a Feast, but I know not
why; for there were Glasses indeed, but there was nothing to eat or drink.
The Ladies were all very gay, and some of them in Court-Dresses. I have
been twice at these pretended Entertainments, but was so tir’d, and in
such Danger of being press’d to Death, that I don’t care to go again; for
which reason the _Romans_ say, I have not an elegant Taste.

Neither am I very well reconcil’d to their Plays, of which indeed here are
none all the Year, except during the Carnival; but then we had two
Opera-Theatres, and four or five for Comedy. Of all these Theatres there’s
but one that’s good for any thing, and that’s the Ladies Theatre, commonly
call’d the Theatre of _Aliberti_ because ’twas built by Order of one Count
_Aliberti_. The Room is excessively large, so that the Voices are lost in
it; it has seven Rows of Boxes, so low and little, that it makes the Room
look like a Henroost; the Pit will hold 900 Persons with Ease: The Stage
is spacious, very high, and fitely decorated; but they don’t shift the
Scenes with that Dexterity as they do at our Play-houses, yet, when the
whole is put together, the Place is not to be despised: The Habits of the
three principal Actors are magnificent, but those of the rest are
horrible. Their Voices are good, and so are their Instruments for the most
part; but their Dancers are too bad to behold, and you can’t imagine any
thing more hideous: The Women are in the Disguise of Men, out of a
ridiculous Scruple, if I may venture to call it so, which they have here,
that Women should not be seen at the Theatres. This is the Reason, that
the Operas of ROME are vastly inferior to the other Operas of _Italy_.
There is not perhaps a more ridiculous Sight, than to see these Creatures,
who are but half Men, play the Parts of Women; yet, tho’ they have neither
Air nor Gracefulness, they are applauded here as much as the best
Actresses are elsewhere. Tho’ I am passionately fond of the _Italian_
Music, yet I own to you, that I am disgusted with their Operas, when I see
those Eunuchs play the Part of a _Roland_, a _Hercules_, or some such
Hero; and I have not Patience to see no more than half a dozen Actors, no
Machines, and no Dances, except in the Interludes. In my Opinion, such an
Opera rather deserves the Name of a Concert; good Voices here are very
scarce, and there are actually but five or six Men, and three Women, that
have the Reputation of singing well. The Case is the very same with the
Composers; they have just lost one of the ablest Men of that Class; _viz.
Leonard Vinci_, who, they say, was poison’d at _Naples_; but there are
still remaining M. _Hass_, commonly call’d the _Saxon_, and _Signior
Purpora_, of whom the former is a _German_, who married the famous
_Signiora Faustina_.

While I am giving you an Account of the Pleasures of ROME, I ought not to
omit the Inundations of the Square _Navona_, which are perform’d on the
four _Sundays_ in the Month of _August_. Two Thirds of the Square being
then laid under Water, it forms a Lake, in which the Coaches make a Ring.
The adjacent Windows are full of Spectators, and the Fronts of the Houses
are crowded by the Populace, who make hideous Shouts and Outcries, when a
Coach happens to take in a little Water, or when one overturns, which
sometimes is the Case. The oddest Thing of all to my Mind is, that while
the People were intent upon seeing the Coaches pass, and playing a
thousand Pranks, a Jesuit, mounted upon a Rail at the other End of the
Square, bawl’d out in vain for an Audience of Penitents; and tho’ very
few, if any body, heard him, yet he went on haranguing, and ’twas not his
Fault that every body did not forsake all to hear him. About twenty Paces
from the Preacher was a Mountebank, who, by the comical Jests and Actions
of his _Merry-Andrew_, drew a much greater Audience to him than the Jesuit

Are not these now very inchanting Pleasures? Yet a _Roman_, who never
pass’d the _Ponte Mole_, as there are a great many who have not, will tell
you there are none like those of ROME. But I affirm that the _Romans_
don’t know what Diversion is; for in those Parties of Pleasure where
reigns the greatest Freedom, there’s always an Air of Constraint, which
one does not see elsewhere: Nor does a free Deportment become them,
insomuch that when they assume such a Carriage, they naturally forget
Politeness, which besides is not what they are much used to; for they know
how to be respectful, much more than to be polite. The Way to be
acquainted with them thoroughly, is to visit them at their Country-Seats,
where they are more frank, less ceremonious, and more sociable, and where
they live much better than they do at ROME, at least they feed better; and
I will even venture to say, that they there spend high, but they get not
the Credit by such Living which they ought, because they don’t set it off
to the best Advantage; and if I am not too much prejudiced, it seems to
me, that they grudge the Expence. The most sumptuous Article of their
Repasts is Deserts, and they have excellent Cooks and Butlers; but as for
us _Ultramontains_, we are not quite so well used to their Method of

I know not whether ’tis the Depravity of my Taste, or the Want of
Discernment; but I cannot conceive what Motives, except Devotion or
Curiosity, can bring any Man to ROME, than which there is hardly a more
melancholy City in the World: Yet I know some Foreigners, and in
particular certain _Englishmen_, who are fond of ROME to a Degree of
Enthusiasm. I strive to think as they do, and would fain persuade myself,
that the Life which they lead here is agreeable; but I can’t be of that
Opinion, nor can I accustom myself to take up Manners and Customs so
contrary to ours. At my Age, ’tis a hard Matter to fall into a new Taste
and Fashion of Living: Those of ROME don’t agree with me, and I foresee
they never will; yet if by Chance I should meet with any Pastime here, I
promise you, I’ll revoke my Complaints, and give you an Account of my
Pleasures, as I do of my Chagrin.

The People here rise late, and go to Bed late; the first Thing which they
do is to drink Chocolate; then they hear Mass in their domestic Chapel, of
which almost every House has one: They afterwards make some Visits, return
home at Dinner-time, undress, and dine frugally with their Families. After
their Meal they get between the Sheets, and sleep for an Hour or two; and
after that, loiter away as much in doing nothing at all; but then they
dress, and go the Ring, which is without the Gate _del Popoli_; from
thence to the _Ponte Mole_ there’s a Walk, which is very sorrily pav’d,
between two Walls, and some pitiful Houses; and there’s no Air, but Dust
enough to choak one. When the Sun is upon its Decline, the _Beau Monde_
repairs to the Square, or Place _d’Espagne_, where I think I have already
told you how they amuse themselves. From the Square they go and make their
Visits of Ceremony: At Two o’Clock at Night, which in the long Days in
Summer is about Ten with us, they fall into _Assemblies_. These may be
divided into three Classes, the great Companies for Gaming, the private
Companies where they also play, and the Societies in which they only
converse. Neither of the three are very numerous, which is owing to the
Difference between the Princesses and the Ladies, and to the Fondness of
all the Ladies to have Company at their own Houses.

The Assemblies that are most frequented by Foreigners, are those of
Mesdames _Corsini_, the Pope’s Nieces, the Duke of _Santo Bueno_, and the
Countess of _Bolognetti_. These are the three Houses at ROME where there
is most Company, and where Foreigners are most civilly entertain’d. The
Duke has a Concert at his House every _Friday_, at which are present all
the People of Distinction at ROME. _Madame de Bolognetti_ has a grand
Assembly every _Sunday_, which begins with a great Levee of Women, for the
most part well-dress’d, who lend their Ears to two or three prating Abbés,
lolling carelessly on the Backs of their Chairs. A Foreigner enters, and
salutes the Company respectfully; but no Lady gives heed to him, except
Madame _Bolognetti_, a fine young Lady, who is the only one that rises;
and she does her best to entertain the poor Stranger in _French_, which
she talks very prettily. Many other Ladies both understand, and can speak
this Language; but whether it is owing to Timorousness or Ill-nature, they
don’t care to talk it; which is so true, that I remember the first Time I
travell’d hither, I one Day accosted a very amiable Lady in the _French_
Tongue, because then I did not understand the _Italian_; but she answer’d
me in good _French_, _Sir, I neither speak nor understand the +French+
Language_. She then turn’d about, and in a Moment I saw a well-looking
Abbé come in, who talk’d with her in private all the Evening, and probably
in such a Language as she understood.

After the Levee they fall to play, but ’tis at such Games as we
_Ultramontains_ know no more of than Magic; _viz._ such as _Tarot_,
_Pazzica_, _Premiere_, and _Milchiades_. As to the last of these, I take
it to be like the Languages, which ’tis difficult to be Master of, unless
People begin to learn them when they are young. It would take up a Man’s
whole Life to learn to know the Cards, whereof at one Game they play with
99, which are painted too with very extraordinary Figures of Popes,
Devils, _&c._ and it often happens, that the Devil takes up the Pope.
During the Conclave they play at _Pharao_, but the Pope has prohibited all
Games of Hazard, which was an Injury to many Houses that subsisted by the
Money for the Cards.

The private Assemblies differ only from the public ones, in that they have
not so much Company. There is generally the Mistress of the House, and a
Dozen _Petits-colets_, who really are the _Petits-Maîtres_ of this Place,
supposing them to be _Italians_; for you are not to imagine that these
Gentlemen will suffer a poor _Ultramontain_ Abbé to put in a Word, because
they think he has neither Sense nor Merit. As this is a Country of
Priests, you shall see ten Sparks of the Band to one of the Sword. ’Tis
true, that the Abbé wears the same Habit as the Gentlemen of the Gown, and
as all others do who are not able to lay out much Money in Cloaths; so
that when you see a _Petit-colet_ come out of any suspicious Places, you
must beware of Mistakes; for they are not always Priests, nor even

The third Class of Assemblies, where there is no Gaming, is generally at
the House of some Prince; there I spend my Evenings with great Pleasure
and Freedom; yet ’tis at one of the chief Houses of ROME, and really the
Conversation is held in one of the finest Apartments in the World. I enter
a very spacious magnificent Room, illuminated by a Couple of Wax Candles,
so that if Custom had not taught me the way, I shou’d be at a Loss where
to salute the Master and Mistress of the House: These two little Candles
are plac’d in great Candlesticks of Silver upon old-fashion’d Stands of
the same Metal. A Fountain of solid Silver, from which the Water spouts
with a soft Murmur, invites me agreeably to Slumber; and it seems as if
those in the Room were afraid to awake me; for they do nothing but
whisper, and not a Mortal stirs from the Spot in which his good or ill
Fortune plac’d him, because it wou’d be a Crime even to move a Chair; so
that unless one had a speaking Trumpet, a Man must be content to converse
with his next Neighbour. The Moment one enters the Room, two Pages in a
black Livery attend us with Ice upon Salvers, but I don’t accept it every
time ’tis offer’d; for if I did, my Stomach wou’d have long ago been
congeal’d like the frozen Ocean. This profound Silence, this murmuring
Fountain, all these Cardinals, Prelates and Abbats, dress’d in Black; the
two Wax Candles, giving a dismal Light; all this, I say, together, makes
the Assembly look like Mutes posted to watch a Corpse, and I assure you
that a Church-yard itself does not put me more in mind of Mortality.
Nevertheless it sometimes happens that one or other of the Company raises
his Voice, and relates the News of the Day. This is generally confin’d to
what is done within the City; for what was said by the Pope, the contrary
Effect of some Medicine, or else some Cardinal or Prelate, the Heat or
Cold of the Weather, and the Age of the Moon, are the common Topics. And
after having thoroughly canvass’d these momentous Subjects till Midnight,
all the Company retires with their Heads as empty as their Stomachs.

Can you think, Sir, after what I have told you, that a Foreigner passes
his Time here well? No, truly, ROME is a City that a young Gentleman
indeed ought absolutely to see; for here he will conceive a perfect Notion
of Architecture, establish himself in a Taste for Painting and Sculpture,
and acquire a true Idea of the Magnificence of old ROME: But when he has
digested all this, I would advise him to be gone, since there is nothing
more for him to learn, and he is in Danger of forgetting every thing.
There is not so much as one good Fencing Master, and scarce a Master of
the Languages that understands the _Italian_; and those who are Dabblers
in this Way are generally Foreigners, who have neither Accent nor Method.
All that a young Gentleman can learn here is Architecture, and the Canon
Law; for as to Ecclesiastical History, there are few People that are
Masters of it in its Purity.

A Gentleman that lives beyond the Mountains will here be apt to forget the
good Manners he may have contracted in _France_, or elsewhere; for, I say
it again, the Generality of the _Romans_ know nothing more than Ceremony,
because they are ignorant of good Manners, and there’s scarce one of them
in a thousand that has the Air of a Man of Quality: To be a Judge of this,
one must see them at Table, and in what a very slovenly Manner they behave
at their Meals, which is owing to their eating generally alone; for they
then loll so much at Table, that when they dine in Company, they are at a
Loss what to do. They are not only nasty in their manner of eating, but in
their Cloaths; for I believe there is not above one out of thirty that
puts on fresh Linen every Day. I remember that in 1719, when I was in
_France_, a Reformado Colonel, who, tho’ an _Italian_, was in the _French_
Service, often came to me in a Morning, and seeing me dress myself, told
me one Day that he observ’d I follow’d the _French_ Fashion strictly: I
ask’d him, In what? He made Answer, In my changing my Shirt every Day.
Nevertheless I wou’d not have you think that this Slovenliness is general;
for there are People as much perfum’d here as elsewhere; and you may take
my Word for it, that a _Petit-Maître_ at ROME is as great a Fop as the
pertest _French Petit-Maître_. Indeed they are more rare here than
elsewhere, because no young Sparks are admitted to the Assemblies before
they are twenty Years of Age.

But as for what remains of the Character of the _Romans_, I must tell you
ingenuously, that I think the Notion we on the other Side of the Mountains
have of them comes far short of it. There are good People in all
Countries, and I know some _Romans_ of as strict Probity as the honestest
_Teutonics_. I know others that are not so honest; but is not the Case the
same every-where, and is there one Country upon the Face of the Earth,
where all the People are virtuous? The _Italians_ are in general accus’d
of being jealous, but I really think it wrong; for there’s no Nation where
the Ladies have more Freedom than here. ’Tis possible that some of the
Leaven of the antient Jealousy may still remain among the Citizens; but as
to the People of Quality, I don’t think them any more liable to that
Imputation than our People are. I wish I cou’d say as much in their
Vindication as to their being too much given to Niggardliness; but the
Fact is too well known, and ’tis the original Sin of almost all the
_Italians_, particularly of the _Romans_, from the highest to the lowest;
and ’tis undoubtedly this avaricious Temper which makes them so sober as
they are; for I think I took Notice to you, that when they are at other
Folks Tables, they are intemperate enough; yet I never saw the better Sort
drunk, and the common People but very seldom. They are accus’d also of
being revengeful, which may be true enough; but really they are cry’d out
against upon that Score much more than they deserve; for I have known some
that have receiv’d Affronts, so good-natur’d as to forget them. ’Tis true,
that the Populace are very apt to make use of the _Stilletto_, but this is
owing to the too great Indulgence of Justice. A Man convicted of Murder
for the first Time is condemn’d to the Gallies; tho’ in some Cases indeed
he is only banish’d from the City, and the Ecclesiastical State; and then,
after two or three Years Absence, he pays 50 Crowns, and returns to ROME.
They who have committed a Murder, and are not apprehended, generally
compound the Matter with the Government by paying a certain Sum of Money.
If Justice was no stricter in our Part of the World, and if our Churches
were Sanctuaries, as they are here, we shou’d have more Crimes perhaps
committed among us than there are at ROME, where, when all is said and
done, we don’t hear of Robberies, nor of Murders committed for the sake of
Robberies; and tho’ there are no Lanthorns, nor Watchmen, nor Patrolls
here in the Night, I shou’d make no Scruple to go from one End of the City
to the other with my Purse in my Hand. What I shou’d be most afraid of
wou’d be the being assassinated by Mistake; but even Murders of this Kind
are much oftner committed among the Dregs of the People, than among
Persons of Breeding; for since I have been here, I have not heard of such
an Accident to any Person of Note.

I happen’d not long ago to be one Evening at a House not far from my
Quarters, so that I went home alone, and on Foot; it might be about Eleven
o’Clock, ’twas a fine Moon light Night, and there were a great many People
stirring in the Streets. I pass’d thro’ the Street _del Corso_, and just
as I came to the Square of _Colonna_, near the House of Cardinal
_Imperiali_, I saw two Men coming towards me, one at a little Distance
behind the other: As the former brush’d close by me, I heard a Pistol go
off, and saw the poor Man fall down dead at my Feet: The Shot came from
the Man that was behind, with whom, it seems, he had a Quarrel at Gaming;
but nobody troubled their Heads to apprehend the Criminal, so that he went
very quietly to take Shelter in a Church, where I saw him some Days after;
at length he is got abroad, and if he can but make up the Sum of 50
Crowns, he will be sure of his Pardon, after three Years Exile. But ’tis
really an abominable Case, that sacred Places, set apart to keep the
Holocaust without Spot or Blemish, shou’d serve as a Place of Retreat for
a Miscreant, that comes in reeking with his Neighbour’s Blood. This is an
Abuse which every body confesses, but they are loth to violate antient
Privileges. In the last Pope’s Time, _Alberoni_ propos’d to the other
Cardinals in a Congregation to solicit the Pope to take away the
Franchises from the Churches; but his Proposal was rejected, whereupon he
said with Indignation, ‘Since ’tis so, I heartily wish, that some Villain
wou’d take it into his Head to murder some one of you, and fly for Refuge
to the Church of which I am Protector: I assure you, that were the whole
Sacred College to demand him of me, instead of delivering him up to
Justice, I wou’d do all in my Power to promote his Escape.’ ’Tis said,
that _Clement_ XII. has a Mind to take away those Franchises with regard
to Assassins; but I question whether he will have the Courage to venture
at it, because it brings so much Grist to the Friers Mills, the Privileges
of whose Convents procure them the Respect of the better Sort of People,
and the Homage of the Mob.

Notwithstanding the Disorders that happen here, and the Abuses that are so
establish’d, yet there is not a City in the World where God is better
serv’d, and where Charity to the Poor is more put in Practice. For this
Purpose there’s a great Number of Hospitals, among which that for Pilgrims
is worth seeing. Hundreds of Pilgrims of all Nations are admitted into it
almost every Day, who are there lodg’d and taken care of for three Days,
and then dismiss’d with Money in their Pockets. Towards the latter end of
the Holy Week, these Pilgrims are serv’d, the Men by the Cardinals, and
the Women by the Princesses and Ladies of ROME.

Divine Service is perform’d with very great Pomp in all the Churches, but
particularly in the Pope’s Chapel. Were I to give you an Account of all
the Ceremonies therein observ’d, it wou’d take me up another Day. I will,
in due Time and Place, give you a Narrative of the Ceremonies of the Holy
Week, which, tho’ I was present at once before, during the Pontificate of
_Clement_ XI. I am very desirous of seeing again, that I may be the better
enabled to relate them to you hereafter. I am, _&c._


                             LETTER XXXII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Rome, June 15, 1731._

Tho’ the first Promotion of Cardinals by _Clement_ XII. was made the Close
of the last Year, yet I had so many other Matters to entertain you with,
that I deferr’d giving you an Account of that Ceremony till now. This
Promotion was made in Favour of three _Nuncios_, (who, by the way, never
quit their Nunciatures, but for the sake of being made Cardinals) I mean
the _Nuncios_ in _Germany_, _France_, and _Spain_, and Signior _Ruspoli_,
the Pope’s Kinsman. The latter might have had the Hat during the
Pontificate of _Benedict_ XIII. his Father having obtain’d it for him of
Cardinal _Coscia_, on the Promise of thirty thousand Crowns; but being
appriz’d of the Bargain, which his Father had made with _Coscia_, he went
to _Corsini_, then a Cardinal, and now Pope, who was his Father’s Friend
and Kinsman, and having told him what had pass’d betwixt his Father and
_Coscia_, intreated him to frustrate the Contract, saying, that he wou’d
never accept of a Hat, unless he had it from the Pope’s mere Good-will.
Cardinal _Corsini_ being charm’d with the generous Temper of young
_Ruspoli_, took Care to vacate the Bargain; and now that he is seated in
St. _Peter_’s Throne, he has preferr’d _Ruspoli_ over the Heads of many
Prelates, who have grown grey in the Service of the Holy See.

This Promotion was made at _Monte-Cavallo_. The Pope had declar’d in a
private Consistory, that he was resolv’d to make five Cardinals, _viz._
the three _Nuncios_ above-mention’d, Signior _Ruspoli_, and a Fifth, whom
he reserv’d in _Petto_. The Cardinal Secretary of State, for want of a
Cardinal Nephew, immediately dispatch’d Couriers to the _Nuncios_ to carry
them the News of their Promotion, and likewise sent to acquaint _Ruspoli_
of what had pass’d. This Prelate, who waited for the good News in the
Apartment of the Cardinal Secretary of State, went immediately up the
Back-Stairs to the Pope, and thank’d him for the Favour he had just done
him, and then return’d to his Palace, where he receiv’d the Compliments of
all the Nobility. In the Afternoon he went and paid a Visit to Signior
_Neri Corsini_, _Clement_ XIIth’s Nephew, the Man whom the Holy Father had
reserv’d in _Petto_. On the _Thursday_ following there was a public
Consistory, in which the new Cardinal, who, till that Day, had, according
to the Ceremonial, been oblig’d to keep his Chamber, and to be dress’d in
Purple, receiv’d the Hat from the Pope’s own Hand. His Eminency repair’d
in the Morning to the Chapel of _Monte-Cavallo_, while the Cardinals were
assembled in the Chamber of the Consistory. He was join’d in the Chapel by
these Cardinals, _viz. Barberini_, who represented the Dean of the Sacred
College; _Ottoboni_, the Great Chancellor; _Albano_, the Chamberlain; and
_Cienfuegos_, Treasurer of the Chapel. Their Eminencies, after great
Compliments, led their new Collegue towards the Altar, and gave him the
usual Oath of Fidelity to the Holy See. They return’d from thence into the
Hall of the Consistory, and the new Cardinal was left alone in the Chapel,
with his _Caudataire_, or Train-bearer, and a Master of the Ceremonies.
During this, the Cardinals went, and made their Obedience to the Pope, by
kissing his Hand; after which two of the Cardinal Deacons went to fetch
Cardinal _Ruspoli_, and introduced him into the Hall of the Consistory. As
he enter’d within the Bar, he made a low Bow to the Pope, who was seated
at the other End on his Throne; he made a second Obeisance in the Middle
of the Hall, and a third at the Foot of the Throne; after which he fell on
his Knees, and kiss’d both the Foot and Hand of the Holy Father, who
rais’d him from the Ground, and embraced him. The new Cardinal went
afterwards, and embraced his Collegues, according to the Order of their
Seniority, and then return’d and fell on his Knees again to the Pope. A
Master of the Ceremonies drew the Cowl over his Head, and the Pope put on
his Hat, which was taken off in a Moment by the Master of the Ceremonies.
The new Cardinal now kiss’d the Holy Father’s Foot and Hand a second Time;
and the Pope, rising from his Throne, retired to his Chamber, whither
_Ruspoli_ followed him, and after having thank’d him for the Honour he had
done him, went and rejoin’d the Cardinals in the Hall of the Consistory.
This done, they went in Procession, with the Pope’s Music playing before
them, to the Chapel, where _Te Deum_ was sung; after which the Cardinals
went into the great Room that is before the Chapel, call’d the _Royal
Hall_. There they form’d a Circle, where the new Cardinal thank’d his
Collegues for the Honour they had done him, by admitting him for a
Brother, and then they all retir’d. When _Ruspoli_ came home, he there
found a Gentleman of the Pope’s Privy-chamber, who brought him the Hat,
which the Pope had just before put upon his Head, in a Silver Bason. When
Dinner was over, the new Cardinal repair’d with a great Train to St.
_Peter_’s Church; after which he went and paid his Respects to the
Pretender to the Crown of _England_, and to the Princess his Wife; he also
made a Visit to the Cardinal Dean; and on the Days following he visited
the whole Sacred College, without regard to their Rank.

A Week after the public Consistory the Pope held a private one, in which
he both shut and open’d the Mouth of Cardinal _Ruspoli_. At the former
Ceremony, the new Pope kneeling at the Holy Father’s Feet, his Holiness
laid two Fingers on the Cardinal’s Mouth, and strictly injoin’d him not so
reveal to any body what shou’d pass in the Consistories at which he shou’d
be present. This closing up of the Mouth formerly depriv’d the Cardinals
of either speaking or voting, whenever it happened that they enter’d the
Conclave before the Pope had open’d their Mouths; which might sometimes be
the Case, because the Popes generally left an interval of some Days
between the Ceremony of shutting the Mouth, and that of opening it. But
_Pius_ V. declar’d by a Bull which he publish’d the 26th of _January_
1571, that the shutting of the Mouth being a mere Ceremony, it shou’d not
exclude the new Cardinals from giving their Votes, or speaking.

Cardinal _Ruspoli_ being now upon his Legs before the Pope went and took
his Place among the Cardinals: At the same time the Holy Father pronounc’d
the Words _extra omnes_, which are repeated by a Master of the Ceremonies,
and oblige all but the Cardinals to turn out. Then the secret Consistory
was held, after which the Doors were set open, and every body re-enter’d
the Room. The new Cardinal went again, and threw himself at the Pope’s
Feet, who open’d his Mouth, by giving him the Power both of Voting and
Speaking. At the same time he nominated the Church of which he was to
bear the Title, and this he did by putting on his Finger a Gold Ring
adorn’d with an oriental Saphir, for which the Cardinal, according to a
Custom establish’d by _Gregory_ XV. is to pay five hundred Crowns of Gold
to the College _de propaganda fide_. With that the Ceremony ended. In the
Evening the Palaces of the Cardinals, the Princes and the Foreign
Ministers, and those likewise of the other Persons of Quality, were
illuminated as they had been on the Day of the Promotion.

There are, as I have observ’d, two Sorts of Consistories, the one Public,
the other Secret, and they are both notify’d to the Cardinals by two of
the Pope’s Ushers, who receive the Order directly from the Holy Father
himself. These Ushers give previous Notice also of all the public Chapels
to be held, of all Processions, Cavalcades, and other Ceremonies. They
wear Gowns of purple Cloth, and carry a black Wand. They speak to the
Cardinals on the Knee, in these Terms, _Eminentissime Domine, Crastina
Die, Hora, &c. in Palatio Apostolico erit Consistorium secretum_, or,
_fiat Processio._ They have this Privilege, that the Cardinals must not
let them wait a Moment; but are oblig’d to admit them, in what Plight
soever they are, to receive their Messages standing, and to veil their
Bonnet to them. These Ushers have the Privilege also, that when they find
a Cardinal at Table, they may carry off the best Dish, unless the Cardinal
chuses rather to give them a Couple of Pistoles.

This Consistory is in a proper Sense the Pope’s Council of State, wherein
he deliberates secretly with the Cardinals on the most important Affairs
of the Holy See. After the Pope has therein given a particular Audience to
each Cardinal, the Bishops are therein nominated to vacant Sees, and the
Palls conferr’d upon the Archbishops. Every thing that has been treated of
in the consistorial Congregations, is there determin’d, as is, in short,
every thing whatsoever relating to the Welfare of the Church, both in
Spirituals and Temporals: And this is what is call’d the Secret
Consistory. In the Public Consistory, the Pope receives the Ambassadors
that come from Tributary Countries, and delivers the Hat to the new
Cardinals. The Pope has the Power of assembling the Consistory as often as
he thinks fit, and on that Day all other Congregations are suspended. In
this Public Consistory, the Pope’s Throne is rais’d much higher than
ordinary, and the Cardinals sit on high Benches, with their Train-bearers
plac’d at their Feet. The Constable _Colonna_, in Quality of first Prince
of the Throne, stands on the Right-hand of it, which is a Post of Honour
that he yields to none but the Pope’s Nephews. The Ambassador of
_Bologna_, and the Conservators of ROME, in Robes of Gold Tissue, are
plac’d on both Sides of the Throne, about which are also the Pope’s great
Officers. The Holy Father is supported by two Cardinals, one on the Right,
the other on the Left of the Throne, sitting on Stools.

When the Pope declares he has a Cardinal in _Petto_, tho’ he names him
not, he is always sure to be a Cardinal, and walks even at the Head of all
those that are to receive the Hat before him. When it happens that the
Pope dies ere he has declar’d him in Public, ’tis sufficient if the Holy
Father leaves a Note behind him, wherein he says, that the Person whom he
declar’d a Cardinal in _Petto_, is such a one; or if two Cardinals attest
that they heard the deceased Pope say, who was the Man that he had
nominated in _Petto_.

The Dignity of a Cardinal is look’d upon here as the greatest Thing in the
World. There are no Cabals nor Intrigues of any kind, which the Prelates
of this Court don’t form to obtain it; and a Family at ROME never thinks
its Fortune made, if it has not some Cardinal of its own Name. This is so
true, that one of the first Princes in ROME, who did not want a Hat in his
Family, for the sake of illustrating it, did nevertheless, during the
Pontificate of _Benedict_ XIII. purchase one for his Son, of the Cardinal
_Coscia_, at the Price of eighty thousand Crowns. But ’tis mere Ambition
only that can make a Man wish to be a Cardinal; for the Life which those
purple Gentry lead, is, as ’tis here said, the most melancholy in the
World; every thing they do at home is by Compass and Measure; they are
continually under Uneasiness and Constraint, oblig’d almost every Day to
be present at Chapels, Congregations, and Consistories, must give and
receive Visits of Ceremony, assist at the Festivals of the Church, at the
taking of Habits, granting of Audiences; in short, a Cardinal who minds
his Profession, has not an Hour in the Day that he can call his own. ’Tis
true, that an infinite deal of Respect is paid to them; but what signify
such empty Honours, attended with a perpetual Constraint, to a rational
Man, who is moreover a Nobleman by Birth, and does not forget that he is
but a Man? I am sure, there are above four Cardinals to whom their
Grandeur is a Burden.

When a Cardinal goes abroad with a great Train, which is here call’d _in
Fiochi_, he must have three Coaches. That in which he rides himself goes
foremost, preceded by all his Livery Servants, and a Footman carrying an
Umbrella under his Arm. All that meet him, tho’ they are Princes, must
stop for him; and when two Cardinals meet one another riding out after
this manner in State, they must both stop their Coaches, and compliment
each other, and then the oldest passes on first. When the Cardinals thus
ride out with this Ceremony, they are dress’d in long Robes of Scarlet,
except in Time of _Lent_, when they are of Purple. Their common Dress is
that of an Abbat, with a red Bonnet and Stockings; and ’tis in this Habit
they make their familiar Visits, without any Retinue, and with the
Curtains of their Coach drawn. The best way of seeing them, after a Person
has been once introduc’d to them, is to attend in their Train, when they
go to any public Function, or to make any Visit of Ceremony. The Cardinal,
when he takes Coach, salutes those who are to ride with him. The most
honourable Place in it is by the Side of the Cardinal, the second upon a
Seat in the Boot or the Coach, next to his Eminency, and so of the rest.

As to the vehement Outcry in our Part of the World against the Luxury of
the Cardinals, I really think it unjust; for I can’t see wherein it
consists. Their Houshold is not over and above numerous. Their Domestics
are generally a _Maître de Chambre_, an Officer who they say is tantamount
to the great Chamberlain of our Electors; a Cupbearer; a Train-bearer; one
or two Gentlemen; two or three Priests; as many _Valets de Chambre_; eight
or ten Lackeys; three Coachmen; eight Horses, and three Coaches. Their
Furniture is red Damask very plain. They keep so frugal a Table, that they
commonly allow their Cook but one or two Testoons a Day to defray the
Expence of it, exclusive of the Bread, Wine and Fruit; for they always eat
alone. None but the Cardinal Ministers keep an open Table at any time; and
of these, not one does it at present, but the Cardinal _de Polignac_, the
Minister[7] of _France_: For the Cardinal _Cienfuegos_, the Emperor’s
Ambassador, has retrench’d his Table, by reason of his great Age; as has
the Cardinal[8] _Bentivoglio_, on account of his Infirmities.

I can’t help thinking there’s much more Reason to exclaim against the
ridiculous Pretension of the Cardinals to an Equality with crown’d Heads,
and to take Place of Sovereigns, tho’ a Cardinal is often but an ordinary
Man at first, only rais’d to the Purple by good Fortune, and the Favour of
the Pope; of which we have living Instances in two Creatures of the last
Pontificate, the Cardinals _Fini_ and _Coscia_. That such Cardinals shou’d
presume to have the Precedency of an Elector of _Bavaria_, or of
_Cologne_, of a Duke of _Lorain_, and in short, of every Prince
whatsoever, is what, notwithstanding all my Respect to the Sacred College,
I must own to be an Absurdity. That these Cardinals have conceiv’d such a
high Opinion of their Dignity, is owing to the excessive Complaisance of
the Princes of _Italy_, who every-where give them the upper Hand; and a
Cardinal takes so much State upon himself, that he refuses the Precedency
in his own House, to a Sovereign Prince of _Italy_. Our Princes on the
other Side of the Mountains are perhaps as staunch Catholics, and as much
devoted to the Holy See, as the _Italian_ Princes are; yet they don’t pay
this Homage to the Cardinals. And indeed, what Reason is there for it? We
have seen Cardinals in the Service of Sovereigns; and I dare affirm, there
are very few of ’em that wou’d refuse to be Pensioners to an Elector of
the Empire.

When one Cardinal makes a Visit to another, the latter receives the
Visitant at the Coach-door, and conducts him into the Chamber of Audience,
where they both place themselves in Arm-chairs, under a Canopy; and after
having been a few Minutes by themselves, the Gentlemen of the Cardinal
that receives the Visit, bring them Ice, Chocolate, and Sweetmeats. When
the Stranger goes away, the other waits on him to the Coach, lends him a
Hand to put him into it, and even shuts the Coach-door. They give one
another the Title of Eminency, but in all their Interviews there’s a great
Air of Constraint.

The complete Number of Cardinals is Seventy. They are the Pope’s
Counsellors in ordinary, and have the Right of electing him. They are
distinguish’d into three Orders, _viz._ Six Cardinal Bishops, fifty
Priests, and fourteen Deacons. Their Number was fix’d by Pope _Sixtus_ the
Vth. The first Cardinal Bishop is styl’d Dean of the Sacred College. He
that is so now is Cardinal _Pignatelli_, Archbishop of _Naples_. This
Dean, the first Cardinal Priest, and the first Cardinal Deacon, are styl’d
_Chiefs of the Order_; and as such they have the Prerogative of giving
Audience to Ambassadors, and to the Magistrates of the Ecclesiastical
State, during the Vacancy of the Holy See. _Innocent_ the IVth, while the
Council was held at _Lyons_, made a Rule that the Cardinals Hat shou’d be
red, to denote that they were always ready to shed their Blood for the
Liberties of the Church. _Boniface_ the VIIIth order’d that they shou’d
wear scarlet Robes. _Paul_ III. requir’d that their Bonnets shou’d be of
the same Colour; and _Urban_ the VIIIth granted them the Title of
Eminency, which before that was only given to the Ecclesiastical Electors
of the Empire, and to the Grand Master of _Malta_. The Council of _Trent_
own’d it to be the Right of all Nations, to put in for the Dignity of
Cardinal; but those who push for it with the greatest Success, are the
Kindred of the reigning Pope, the _Nuncios_ in _Germany_, _France_ and
_Spain_, the Auditors of the Rota, the Clerks of the Chamber; and in fine,
many of the Pope’s Great Officers.

There are few Examples in History of Cardinals that have quitted the Hat.
The first that had a mind to do it, was the Cardinal _Ardicinio_; but Pope
_Innocent_ VIII. refus’d to consent to it, at the Remonstrance of the
Cardinals, who represented to him, that the Church ought by no Means to be
depriv’d of so good a Subject. Some time after this, Cardinal _Borgia_
resign’d his Dignity to _Alexander_ VI. The Cardinal _Henry_ of _Portugal_
quitted his too, for the sake of succeeding to his Brother,[9] the King
_Don Sebastian_. After him, _Ferdinand de Medicis_, upon the Death of his
Brother _Francis de Medicis_, without Issue Male, preferr’d the
Sovereignty of _Tuscany_ to the red Hat, which he restor’d to Pope
_Sixtus_ V. There are also several Instances of Persons who have preferr’d
an austere Retirement to the vain Grandeur of the Purple, particularly
Cardinal _Maurice_ of _Savoy_, _Ferdinand_ and _Vincent Gonzague_,
_Francis_ of _Lorain_, _Camillus Pamphili_, _John Casimir_ of _Poland_;
and _Gabriel Filippuci_ of _Macerata_, so lately as in the Pontificate of
_Clement_ XI. This Resignation of the Hat cannot be made without the
Pope’s Consent to it; and when this is done, the Cardinal who renounces it
must pay the Officers of the Apostolical Palace the same Sum, as his Heirs
wou’d be oblig’d to pay, if he was dead.

There being a Hat vacant by the Exaltation of every Pope, they commonly
honour one or other of the Pope’s Family with it who advanc’d them to the
Purple; which is what they here call _Restitution_; and when they omit
this Piece of Respect, they are accus’d of Ingratitude. _Clement_ XII. has
not yet made this _Restitution_ to the _Albano_[10] Family, tho’ he has
promoted half a score Cardinals. He thought it was more natural to confer
that Dignity on his Kindred and Friends; and at the last Promotion which
he made, he contented himself with making an Apology to the _Albani_,
because he did not restore their Hat to them for that time, assuring them,
that he wou’d take care to satisfy them, at the very next Promotion. The
_Albani_ were oblig’d to set a good Face on a bad Game; but I would not
give them much for the Hat they are like to have of _Clement_ XII. for you
are to take Notice, that the Pope is fourscore Years of Age; that he is
afflicted with the Gout and other Ailments; that there is not one Hat
vacant, and yet the Holy Father hopes to live to make another Promotion,
and then to satisfy the _Albani_.

The Pope pretends to the Prerogative of deposing the Cardinals, but they
deny it. Be this as it will, there’s hardly an Instance that the Popes
ever exercis’d this Act of Authority. _Clement_ XI. had an Intention
indeed to haue depriv’d Cardinal _Alberoni_ of his Hat, because when the
Cardinal was the Minister of _Spain_, he employ’d that Money against the
Emperor, which the Pope had permitted him to levy upon the Clergy for the
War against the _Turks_. But _Clement_ XI. met with so much Opposition
from the Sacred College, that he cou’d not accomplish it, and died.
Whether _Clement_ XII. will succeed better, and whether he will ever be
able to deprive _Coscia_ of his Hat, which is what he seems to be very
much set upon, I know not; for he too is thwarted under-hand by a great
many of the Cardinals, who, as unworthy as Cardinal _Coscia_ is of the
Purple, are not willing that he shou’d serve as an Example for the future.
The Pope is also too old to see the Issue of this Process, which, tho’ it
has been fifteen Months depending, is not yet very far advanc’d. Cardinal
_Coscia_ is retir’d to _Naples_. He has been very much blam’d for quitting
ROME, and People who know the Tricks of this Court, have assur’d me that
he might have stay’d here safe enough. As for my own Part, if I had been
the unfortunate Cardinal _Coscia_, I wou’d have retir’d, but not in the
Manner that he did. Moreover I promise you, that were I in the Case that
he is now, they shou’d cite me long enough before I wou’d be seen at ROME;
and I think, whoever advis’d him to the contrary, was in the wrong[11].

You know that immediately after the Death of Pope _Benedict_ XIII. the
Populace ran to _Coscia_’s Palace, plunder’d it, and wou’d have torn the
Cardinal Limb from Limb, if he had not escap’d by a Back-door; after
which, he disguis’d himself, and left the City. He ought not to have come
back again, or else he shou’d have got a safe Conduct from his Collegues,
whereby he might have been sure of a Permission to retire to his
Archbishoprick of _Benevento_, after the Election of the new Pope; but he
did not take this Precaution. He came and assisted at the Conclave, and
afterwards went to live in his Palace. The new Pope threaten’d him with
the Castle of _St. Angelo_; whereupon he was frighten’d, and march’d out
of the Country; which is charg’d upon him as a Crime, because a Bull of
_Innocent_ X. of the _Pamphili_ Family, publish’d the 19th of _February_,
1646, injoins, that no Cardinal shall depart out of the Dominions of the
Holy See, without Leave of the Pope; with this Clause moreover, that the
Cardinal who disobeys it shall be summon’d three times in the Space of
fifteen Months, _viz._ once at the End of each six Months, and the last
Time at the End of three Months after the second Citation; and if then the
Cardinal be still obstinate, and does not return, he shall be depriv’d of
the Hat. _Coscia_ has as yet been cited but once, and does not seem
inclin’d to return, tho’ his Acquaintance don’t stick to affirm that he
will. Mean time, he has been depriv’d of the Archbishoprick of
_Benevento_, which the Pope has conferr’d on[12] M. _Doria_, the first
Gentleman of his Bed-chamber; a Thing so unusual, that Cardinal _Coscia_
complain’d of it bitterly, tho’ to no manner of Purpose. I question
whether the Cardinal will ever come hither again, even tho’ the Pope were
to give him his Passport: And really, what happen’d to M. _Targa_, his
Brother, is enough to deter him; for this _Prelate_ coming to _Venice_,
after he had been at _Vienna_, soliciting the Emperor’s Protection for
himself and his Brother in vain, the Pope order’d him to return to ROME;
which, after having desir’d, and obtain’d Promise of a Safeguard for his
Person, he did accordingly, and took up his Lodging in a Convent. But two
Days after this, the Pope sent him an Order to remove to another, and not
to stir out of it without his Leave. _Targa_ yields Obedience, and the
Monks, to whose Guard he was committed, watch him narrowly; yet for all
this, there came certain Soldiers one Night, who carry’d him off to the
Castle of _St. Angelo_; which seems to be the very Safeguard that the Pope
intended by his Promise; for there he is closely confin’d, and can speak
to nobody. These severe Acts of Justice are frequent in the Pontificate of
_Clement_ XII. who taking a Fancy to undo every thing that was done by his
Predecessor, on Pretence that the said Pope alienated the Rights of the
Holy See, we hear of nothing but Writs and Attachments. The wisest Men,
or, if you will, the greatest Criminals, get out of the Way, while others
suffer themselves to be arrested, as did Signior _Sardini_, who was
impeach’d of having put the late Pope upon making a Treaty with the King
of _Sardinia_, by which the Holy Father granted that Prince the Nomination
to all the Bishopricks and Benefices in his Kingdom. This Prelate was
arrested in his House in the Night-time, and committed to the Castle of
_St. Angelo_, where he is kept a Prisoner of State[13]. Not many Days
before he was arrested, all his Papers were seiz’d, which he desir’d to
have again for the Vindication of his Conduct, but they were refus’d. Some
Days ago the Pope sent to tell him, that he had his Leave to justify
himself, if he cou’d; to which _Sardini_ made Answer, That he had nothing
to say; that the Pope shou’d be his Judge, and Cardinal _Corsini_, his
Holiness’s Nephew, shou’d be his Advocate: But all this has stood him in
no stead; he is still in Prison, and ’tis said, that the Pope will either
behead or pardon him.

Some time ago Cardinal _Ottoboni_ made Interest for one _Nocera_, a Canon,
who was in Trouble also upon _Sardini_’s Account; and he desir’d the Pope
that he wou’d please to call in the Writ issued for attaching the Person
of _Nocera_, who was retir’d to a Sanctuary at _Albano_. The Pope made
Answer to the Cardinal, That he was sorry he cou’d not grant him his
Request; but that he wou’d not charge his Conference with the Sin of
having suffer’d Iniquity to pass with Impunity. ‘We are old, _said the
Holy Father_; and our Age tells us, that it can’t be long before we shall
appear at God’s Tribunal; therefore we are desirous of so behaving, that
we may hope there to find Mercy; but this is what we dare not expect, if
we don’t let Justice take its Course. Who knows, my dear Cardinal, whether
we shall live till To-morrow?’ ‘Your Holiness, _reply’d the Cardinal_,
ought not to think of dying so soon: For God generally grants to great
Princes two Stages of Life, one wherein to display their Justice, and the
other their Mercy. He has permitted your Holiness to finish the Career of
Justice, and ’tis to be hop’d, that he will also permit you to run that of

I will conclude my long Letter with a very curious Anecdote, which I had
from Cardinal _Imperiali_, who has had the Purple so long, that he is
actually grown grey in it. As he was talking one Day of the Bull of
_Innocent_ X. which forbids the Cardinals from departing the
Ecclesiastical State without the Pope’s Leave, he told me, That _Innocent_
X. fulminated this Bull by reason of the Elopement of Cardinal _Astalli_,
his Kinsman, when he went to deprive him of his Hat. What gave Occasion to
all the Rout was this: After the _Portuguese_ had shook off the Yoke of
the _Spaniards_, and restor’d the _Braganza_ Family to the Throne, the
King of _Spain_, who always took the Title of King of _Portugal_,
pretended that ’twas his Right to nominate to the Bishopricks and
Benefices that became vacant in _Portugal_. The Pope was at that time in
so much Subjection to the _Spaniards_, that this Plea of their Monarch
perplex’d him sadly. At last he thought of extricating himself out of
this Difficulty, by referring it to a Consistory to nominate to the
_Portuguese_ Bishopricks, and he resolv’d to assemble one with all Speed
for that Purpose. He imparted his Design to no Person but the Cardinal
Secretary of State, and the Cardinal _Astalli_, whom he injoin’d not to
speak of it on Pain of Death. The Evening when the Consistory was to be
summon’d for the next Day, the Ambassador of _Spain_ made such an earnest
Application for an Audience of him, that he durst not refuse it. The
Minister therein told him, That he was inform’d of his Design; and at the
same time protested against every thing that shou’d be done in the said
Consistory, contrary to the Pretensions of the King his Master. The Pope,
very much incens’d that his Secret had taken Wind, suspected that he had
been betray’d by his Secretary of State, and he reproach’d him for it
bitterly, threatning him with the Loss of his Head. The Minister swore,
that he had not reveal’d it to the _Spaniard_; and he said moreover, That
if the Ambassador knew of his Holiness’s Secret, it cou’d be only from
Cardinal _Astalli_. He desir’d but twenty-four Hours of the Pope to prove
his Innocence; and to find out where the Guilt lay. For this End he sent
for one of the _Spanish_ Ambassador’s _Valets de Chambre_, and promis’d
him five hundred Pistoles, if, after he put his Master to Bed, he wou’d
search his Pockets, and take out a Letter which he said he knew there was
in one of them, written in the very Hand of Cardinal _Astalli_. The _Valet
de Chambre_ cou’d not stand the Temptation, but carry’d the fatal Letter
to the Cardinal Secretary of State, and he made Haste with it to the Pope;
whose Wrath was then wholly turn’d against _Astalli_, to such a Degree,
that he forbad him his Palace, and actually intended to have him arrested
the very next Day: But _Astalli_ disappointed him of that Pleasure,
escap’d the same Night in a _Felucca_ from ROME, and sail’d for _Sicily_.
Then it was that _Innocent_ X. issued the Bull in Question. He caus’d
_Astalli_ to be summon’d, who indeed return’d to the Dominions of the Holy
See; but he stay’d in a little frontier Town of the Kingdom of _Naples_,
where he was accompany’d by a Guard of two thousand _Spaniards_, who
remain’d with him as long as the Pope liv’d, after whose Death _Astalli_
return’d to ROME. I have the Honour to be, _&c._


                             LETTER XXXIII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Rome, Sept. 5, 1731._

Give me Leave to tell you, that I think the Approbation with which you
honour my Narratives, favours more of Compliment than Sincerity; for all
the Merit they can challenge, is, that they are written with an unaffected
Simplicity. I tell you Things just as I find them, or as they are reported
to me; if I accuse wrongfully, ’tis owing to my Misinformation, or my
Credulity; for I do my best, and set about it heartily, and you can’t
define any thing more. You wish to know the Ceremonies of the Holy Week; I
will now relate them to you as they pass’d this Year.

On _Palm_ Sunday, the Pope distributed Palms in the Chapel of
_Monte-Cavallo_ to all the Cardinals, and others that were present.

Upon the last _Wednesday_ in _Lent_, the Cardinals went after Dinner to
the Pope’s Chapel, where they were present at Vespers, and the _Tenebræ_,
sung by the Pope’s Voices, without being accompany’d by Instruments. ’Tis
perhaps one of the finest Pieces of Music that was ever compos’d, and ’tis
so much valued here, that the Master of the Chapel dares not to give
Copies of it, nor the others to transcribe it, on Pain of Excommunication.

The Pope being somewhat indispos’d upon _Holy Thursday_, Cardinal
_Barberini_ officiated for him. The Cardinals repair’d in the Morning to
the _Vatican_ in _Sixtus_’s Chapel, and assisted at High Mass; after which
the Cardinal _Barberini_, preceded by the Bishops and Cardinals, all in
Mitres and white Copes, carry’d the Holy Sacrament in Procession, under a
Canopy held up by eight Archbishops, into _Paul_’s Chapel, which was
finely illuminated. There our Lord’s Body was deposited, after which the
Cardinals went into a Hall, where they found thirteen Priests of divers
Nations, dress’d in white woollen Robes, with square Caps of the same, all
sitting on a high Bench in form of a Gradatory. Cardinal _Barberini_, who
sat on a Throne erected at the End of the Hall, took off his Cope, and
having put on the Chasuble, he pronounc’d some Collects, which were
answer’d by the Music. He then put off the Chasuble, took a white Napkin,
and went and wash’d the Feet of the Priests, in a silver gilt Bason, which
was carry’d by the Masters of the Ceremonies. Having wip’d their Feet dry,
he kiss’d them, and distributed to each Priest, by the Hands of the
Apostolical Treasurer, two Medals of Gold, and one of Silver. Then he
reascended the Throne, and having again put on the Chasuble, he struck up
the _Pater-noster_, and the Music finish’d it. This done, he went with the
Cardinals his Brethren into a separate Room, where he resum’d his ordinary
Habit. On the other Hand, the thirteen Priests were led by a Master of the
Ceremonies into a Hall, where they seated themselves at a Table, which was
elegantly serv’d. The Pope’s Chamberlains of Honour waited on them, and if
the Pope had been well, he wou’d have done the same himself. The Cardinals
din’d also together, and their Dinner, which was one of the most
sumptuous, is always provided at the Expence of their Eminencies out of
certain Monies coming to them from the Rota and the Datary. The Priests
Table is defray’d by the Apostolical Chamber, and the Service of both
Tables is order’d by the Pope’s _Major Domo_. The Cardinal’s Beaufet is
very neat; I have seen some that are more magnificent, but never one that
is better dispos’d. The Cardinals always take their own Liquor with ’em;
which, ’tis said, has been their Practice ever since the Catastrophe that
happen’d to Pope _Alexander_ VI. and his Son _Cæsar Borgia_, Duke _de
Valentinois_, when the latter, for the Sake of having the Debris of the
Cardinal _Adrian de Cornetto_, order’d Wine that was poison’d to be serv’d
up at a Supper where the Pope was to be present, together with the said
Cardinal, for whom he intended the poisonous Draught. But _Cornetto_ had
the good Luck to escape the Snare, and only the Pope and _Cæsar_ suffer’d
by it: For being both thirsty, when they came into the Supper-Room, and
calling for a Glass of Wine at the very Instant when the Person who was
let into the Secret was gone out of the Room, another fill’d them out each
a Bumper, of the Wine that was prepar’d, which kill’d the Pope; but
_Cæsar_, having caus’d himself to be wrapp’d up in the Skin of a Mule,

After Dinner, the Cardinals return’d to _Sixtus_’s Chapel, where they
assisted at the _Tenebræ_, and the _Miserere_. This Day’s Ceremony of
washing Feet is a Custom of antient Standing among the Catholic Princes.
We find in the History of _France_, that _Robert_ the _Pious_, he that was
call’d King of his Morals, as well as of his Subjects, constantly kept two
hundred poor Men in his Retinue, and often wash’d their Feet, particularly
upon Holy _Thursday_. So at _Vienna_, _Versailles_, in _Spain_, and at
several other Courts, the Empress, the Queens, and other Sovereign
Princesses, wash the Feet of thirteen Women upon the same Day.

Upon good _Friday_ in the Morning, the Cardinals were again present at
Divine Service in _Sixtus_’s Chapel; after which, they din’d together, but
they had nothing besides Roots; and one of the Pope’s Chaplains read the
Lecture. After their Repast, they again assisted at the _Miserere_, and
then they all went down into St. _Peter_’s Church, where, having form’d a
Semi-circle before the High Altar, they kneel’d down upon Cushions of
purple Cloth, and in that Manner reverenc’d the Reliques, which were held
forth to them from a high Balcony. These were the Spear with which our
Saviour’s Side was pierc’d, the Holy Handkerchief, and a great Piece of
the Cross on which he was crucify’d.

On _Saturday_ the Cardinals assisted at Divine Service, in the Chapel of

Upon _Sunday_, which was the first Day of _Easter_, the Pope, dress’d in
his _Pontificalibus_, was carry’d in his processional Chair to his Chapel,
where he struck up the High Mass, which was sung to the End by a Cardinal
Priest. Then the Pope was carry’d to the Box or Gallery facing the Great
Square, where a Cardinal Deacon read the Bull _In Cœna Domini_ with an
audible Voice; after which the Pope fulminated the Apostolical Censures
against Heretics, by throwing down a lighted Flambeau into the Square.
After this, the Holy Father, while the Cannon were fir’d from the Castles
of _Monte-Cavallo_, and _St. Angelo_, gave his Benediction twice to the
Populace, who were on their Knees in the Square, and in the Streets that
led to the Palace. The Blessing which the Pope gives that Day is solemn,
and extends to the whole Christian World. I forgot to tell you, that upon
Holy _Thursday_ and Good _Friday_, while the Church is in Mourning for the
Saviour of the World, the Pope’s Chapel is stripp’d of all Ornaments, the
Throne of the Holy Father is without a Canopy, and the Pope neither gives
so much as one Blessing, nor admits any body to kiss his Foot or his Hand.

Since I am treating of Ceremonies, I will give you an Account of those
that are observed at the Fabrication and Distribution of the _Agnus Dei_’s
of white Wax, which on one Side represent the Saviour of the World, in the
Form of a Lamb, (bearing the Standard of the Cross) according to the
Attribute that was given him by his Forerunner St. _John_ the _Baptist_.
This of _Agnus Dei_ is an old Custom in the Church. St. _Augustin_ makes
mention of it in his 118th Epistle. _Baronius_ assures us, in his 8th
Volume, that ’twas the Custom in his Time, upon the _Quasimodo Sundays_,
to distribute among the People _Agnus Dei_’s consecrated by the Pope. And
Cardinal _Bellarmine_ says, that in 798, Pope _Leo_ III. gave an _Agnus
Dei_ to the Emperor _Charlemain_, which was set in a Gold Frame adorn’d
with precious Stones[14]. All the Popes consecrate _Agnus Dei_’s in the
first Year of their Pontificate; and they perform the same Ceremony in the
Jubilee Year, and every seven Years, reckoning from the first Year of
their Exaltation. _Clement_ XII. perform’d the Ceremony on the _Wednesday_
after _Easter_, in the great Hall of his Apartment at _Monte-Cavallo_,
which was then hung with red Damask adorned with Gold Lace. The Pope’s
Throne was at one End of the Hall, with an Altar on his right Hand; and
between the Throne and the Altar, there was a Pew for the Pretender and
his Family. Opposite to the Throne, there was a great Gallery, with Steps
to it, for the Ambassador of _Venice_, the Ladies, and other Persons of
Distinction. Under that Gallery was an Amphitheatre for the Spectators of
the second Class. Within the Rails, which were cover’d with red Damask,
there was a square Pit, and in the Middle of it four large Cisterns of
solid Silver, full of Water, placed on Pedestals of Wood, silvered and
gilt, Admirably carv’d by _Bernini_. When the Pope, accompanied by ten
Cardinals, whom he had invited to this Ceremony, was entered into the
Hall, and seated on his Throne, two Chamberlains of Honour placed a
Cistern before him of the same Kind as the four that were in the Hall. The
Pope, who had a Mitre upon his Head, of silver Brocade, and a Cope of the
same, struck up the _Veni Spiritus Sancte_, which the Music carry’d on.
Afterwards the Holy Father read some Collects, and blessed the Water that
was in the Cistern before him, into which he poured Holy Oil, and Holy
Chrism. Then came four Cardinals with silver Ladles, who dipp’d them into
the Holy Water, and carry’d it to mix with the Water that was in the four
Cisterns. This done, the Pope and the Cardinals put on great white Aprons,
and the Cardinals sat two and two upon Joint-stools at each Cistern, while
two other Cardinals supported the Pope. The _Chamberlains of Honour_, and
the Prelates of the Houshold, brought the _Agnus Dei_’s in wooden Tubs,
wash’d with Silver; and as fast as they threw them into the Cisterns
fill’d with Holy Water, the Pope and the Cardinals fish’d them up again
with great Skimmers of Silver, and put them into other Tubs, which the
Prelates deliver’d to the Sextons. This lasted near two Hours, till the
Pope, being quite fatigued, rose up, read some more Collects, and then
retired. The same Ceremony was repeated next Day, and in these two Days
they made threescore thousand _Agnus Dei_’s, which they say cost the
Chamber twelve thousand Crowns.

Upon _Quasimodo Sunday_, the Pope distributed the _Agnus_’s with very
great Ceremony in the Chapel of _Monte-Cavallo_. He was carry’d in his
Processional Chair from his Apartment to the Chapel, where, being seated
on his Throne, and the _Agnus Dei_ having been perform’d by the Music, one
of the Apostolical Subdeacons, carrying the _Agnus_’s in a Silver Bason,
preceded by the Cross, and by the Acolytes, or Assistants at Mass, bearing
Wax Candles in great Silver Candlesticks, and the Censer, enter’d the
Chapel, and kneeling down, said to the Pope with a loud Voice, _Pater
Sancte, isti sunt Agni novelli, qui annunciaverint nobis Alleluja; modo
venerunt ad fontes, repleti sunt charitate; Alleluja._ To which the Choir
answered, _Deo Gratias; Alleluja._ Then the Sub-deacon rose, and went and
kneel’d down in the Middle of the Chapel, where he repeated the same Words
as before. He did the same Thing at the Foot of the Pope’s Throne, to whom
he presented a Bason full of _Agnus Dei_’s, in little Packets, wrapp’d up
in Cotton, which the Holy Father distributed to the Cardinals, and all the
Standers-by, who receiv’d them on their Knees. I got my Share of them, and
only wait for an Opportunity to send some to you.

There’s a Sort of People here who carry their Pretensions very high. These
are the _Roman_ Princes, who for most part are only beholden for this
princely Dignity to the Happiness of their Families, in having one of them
a Pope; for many of them are scarce so much as Gentlemen. They are
complimented with the Style of Excellency, but this Title extends only to
the First-born of the Family. They require a vast deal of Homage from
their Domestics, and all affect to have Canopies and Chambers of Audience
in their Palaces. They expect that a Gentleman should come to their Houses
without sending Word beforehand, and wait in their Antichamber till they
are pleas’d to see him. You will think that they must be very necessitous
Gentlemen, who will submit to this Rule, and that their Excellencies
Antichambers are only frequented by their own Domestics. When they receive
Visits from one another in Ceremony, they seat themselves under a Canopy
like the Cardinals; then they go abroad in State, and have two Coaches to
follow their Body-Coach, in which his Excellency sits forward by himself,
and his Gentlemen ride backward, and at the Boots of the Coach: A Footman
carries an Umbrella before them, as is done before the Cardinals, which is
a Signal of Respect that requires all Coaches, except those of the
Cardinals or Priests, to give them the Way, and even to stop while they
pass by.

The Princesses formerly did not use to give the Right Hand to the Ladies
of Quality at their own Houses; but since the Honours annex’d to
_Nepotism_ have been abolish’d, they have been oblig’d to humble
themselves, and to treat the Ladies as their Equals; yet for all this they
correspond together very little. Heretofore too the Pope’s Nieces did not
give Precedence to any body, not even to the Princesses; and all Ladies in
general were oblig’d to be in a full Dress, when they paid them a Visit;
nor did the Nieces go to any body’s House, but enjoy’d all the Honours of
Sovereigns. But all this is over now; for the Nieces of the present Pope
not only give the Right Hand to Ladies of the lowest Rank, but also return
their Visits. Indeed the Princesses _Corsini_ are extraordinary civil and
complaisant to every body; and even at this Day, tho’ the Pope has
declar’d their Husbands Princes and Dukes, they are content to pass with
the Title of Marchionesses, and have set up no Canopies. The Nobility are
vastly pleas’d with their Carriage, but the Princes are much disgusted at
it, and think that by such Behaviour they disparage their Dignity.

Some Days ago an _Englishman_, one _Thirems_, who has been a long time in
the Service of the Great Duke of _Tuscany_, and is very much attach’d to
the _Corsini_ Family, said to the Pope, with whom he is very free, that
the Behaviour of the _Corsini_ Ladies was very much applauded by the
Nobility, but as much dislik’d by the Princes. ‘What! _said the Pope_, Do
the Princes think that my Nephews and Nieces were not of as good Blood,
when they had only the Title of Marquises and Marchionesses, as they are
now they have the Title of Prince? I would have them know, that tho’ I
have declar’d my Nephews Princes and Dukes, it was rather to conform to an
old Custom, than with any Design to ennoble them.’

I would pardon the _Roman_ Princes all their Vanity, if they enjoy’d any
solid Prerogatives; but at their Estates they are no more than plain
Gentlemen, and whenever the Pope pleases, he sends the _Sbirri_ to arrest
them, as well as the meanest of his Subjects. The Thing which puffs up
this Gentry to such a Degree, is, that Gentlemen of good Families make no
Scruple to wait on them, the Poverty among the Nobility being very great,
and there being but a very indifferent Chance for Gentlemen of the Sword,
because the greatest Part of the _Roman_ Gentry are so much degenerated
from their Ancestors, that they have no Taste for Arms; while their
Fondness for ROME, and the Notion they have, that there is not such a
delightful Place in the World, hinders them from going abroad, and puts
them under a Necessity of being Slaves to People, who are very often their
Inferiors in Birth.

Nor do the _Roman_ Princes distinguish themselves either by their Air, or
their Manner of Living. They have a great Number of Footmen indeed, some
no less than two dozen; but they live very meanly, so that not one of
them keeps an open Table, or has any thing to treat with but Ice, and at
most a Dish of Chocolate. The Evening is the Time to converse with them;
for as soon as the _Angelus_ has sounded, all Ceremonies at ROME are over,
the Abbats and Priests go in the Lay Habit to the Cardinals, and all
Compliments at meeting are set aside.

The Princes and the Cardinals give their Domestics such sorry Wages, that
their Livery Servants are continually mumping. The first Time one comes to
a House, the Domestics accost you for something to drink, which is what
they call _Lucky Handsel_; they mump again at New-Years Tide, and in the
Month of _August_, which is what they call _la Ferra Gusta_, and again
when the Mistress of the House is brought to bed of a Son; in short, they
find out so many Pretences, that they are perpetually teizing People for

The Princesses have the Privilege of being lighted to the public
Spectacles by eight Flambeaux of white Wax; but I have known some of them,
who, for saving their Wax, never burnt any till they came within four or
five hundred Paces of the Theatre, when they stopp’d to give their
Lacqueys Time to light their Flambeaux, in order that they might arrive at
the Opera in Pomp. And when they went out, they stopp’d at the very same
Place for the Lacqueys to put out their Flambeaux, from which Place all
the Light the Princesses had to go home by was no more than a couple of
little dark Lanthorns, which are here made use of commonly. This way of
going with eight Flambeaux puts me in mind of a certain _English_
Dutchess, who having travell’d in that manner at ROME, would fain have
introduced the Fashion at _Paris_ too; but she was forbid to make that
Parade there, because the first two or three times that she went abroad
with so much Splendor, every body fell on their Knees, and thought the
Holy Sacrament was carrying to some sick Person.

Most of the Ladies, as well as Princesses, have very magnificent Coaches,
but seldom make use of them. The Marquis _Sudarini_, who has lately
match’d his Son, has made his Daughter-in-law a Present of a Coach, for
which he gave 7000 _Roman_ Crowns, and there are many others that cost
more Money; but these Coaches are terrible Machines, and ’tis as much as a
Pair of Horses can do to drag them along: Besides, these stately portable
Houses have an Attendance on them, which is by no means suitable; they are
generally accompany’d by half a score, or a dozen shabby Footmen, who,
with the Swords that they wear, look more like Catchpoles than Footmen.
Their Liveries in general are Scarecrows, and I do not think that there
are any in the whole World more fantastical: The Lacqueys are for the most
part old, dirty, unshapable Fellows, because, when once a poor Wretch has
a Livery put upon his Back, he never throws it off, and does not so much
as attain to the Honour of being a _Valet de Chambre_. When he is past his
Service his Master _jubilées_ him, that is to say, puts him upon Half-pay,
and he serves no longer. The Appearance or Neatness of a Servant are
Things that are not regarded here; and provided they have but the Number,
what matters it, say they, how they look?

This Maggot of keeping so many Lacqueys has infected even the Citizens;
they who are in such mean Circumstances, that they cannot afford to
maintain them the whole Year round, covenant with them only for _Sundays_
and Saints Days. Thus a Journeymen Shoemaker, or a Chimney sweeper, who
has but that very Day put a Scrub Livery on his Back, and that often
borrow’d of a Tallyman, shall walk gravely before young Master, or pretty
Miss, to and from Church, with his greasy Hair turn’d up behind his Ears,
and a long Sword by his Side. For it would be reckon’d indecent here to
see a Woman or a Miss go abroad alone, and the most abandon’d Prostitutes
are always attended with a Matron.

The Funerals of Persons of Quality are perform’d here with very great
Pomp; all the Dead are carried to Interment with their Faces bare. I saw
the Funerals of Cardinal _Buoncompagno_, Archbishop of _Bologna_, and the
Prince _Ruspoli_. The former was carried by Night in one of his Coaches to
the Church of St. _Andrew de Laval_, which was hung all over with Black.
Next Day the Corpse was laid upon a Bed of State in the Middle of the Nave
of the Church, dress’d in the Sacerdotal Vestments, with the Head turn’d
towards the Choir, and the Cardinal’s Hat at the Feet: Four _Valets de
Chambre_ stood at the Corners of the Bed, and each held a Banner of black
Taffeta, with the Arms of the Deceas’d: There were an hundred great Tapers
or Torches of White Wax in large Iron Candlesticks round the Bed: The high
Mass was sung with Music, and the whole Sacred College was present: When
the Cardinals enter’d the Church, they made a short Prayer to the Holy
Sacrament on their Knees; after which they went and kneeled at the Feet of
the Deceased, where they said a _Pater_, and the Prayer _Absolve Domine,
&c._ and then taking the Holy Water Brush, they sprinkled it on the
Corpse: The Cardinals retir’d after the Mass, but the Corpse lay expos’d
till the Evening, when the Priests Vestments were taken off of the
Deceased, and he was put into a Leaden Coffin, which was inclos’d in
another of Cypress Wood, and then let down into the Grave. The Prince
_Ruspoli_’s Corpse was expos’d in the Church of St. _Laurence Lucini_,
which had been his Parish Church, in the same manner as the Cardinal _de
Buoncompagno_ was; but none of the Cardinals, nor any of the Deceased’s
Kindred, assisted at the Office; for the _Italians_ say, ’tis barbarous to
oblige Relations to attend each other’s Funerals, as is the Fashion with

But tho’ they do not attend at the Funerals, yet they wear Mourning much
more regularly, and longer than we do. A Woman’s Mourning is black from
Head to Foot, so that one does not see the least Bit of Linen they have,
which is not a very favourable Circumstance to those of a brown
Complexion. The Pope’s Nieces never wear Mourning, not even for their
nearest Relations; for the _Romans_ reckon it so great a Happiness for a
Family to have a Pope of it, that they say nothing ought to afflict the
Kindred of a Pope.

They bury People here twenty-four Hours after they are dead, and sometimes
sooner. ’Tis surprizing to see how quick they dress their Churches,
whether for Funerals or Festivals, which it must be allow’d is always done
with extraordinary Magnificence and Elegance. Most of the Churches have
their own Suits of Hangings. Upon solemn Festivals they are commonly hung
with Crimson Damask, with a Border of Velvet of the same Colour, adorn’d
throughout with Lace and Fringe of Gold. All these Festivals of the Church
are celebrated with very great Pomp and Bustle; all the Houses of the
adjacent Quarters are illuminated in the Eve of the Festival, as well as
in the Night itself; which always concludes with a Firework play’d off in
the most spacious Part of the Quarter where it is celebrated, at the
Expence of the Parishioners. The _Romans_ have a singular Taste for all
Holidays, and are great Admirers of Spectacles: They are at least as mere
Cockneys as the _Parisians_, and every little Novelty makes them run to
it, as if they had never seen the like in their Lives, tho’ all that they
see is but the same Thing over again: They erect a Firework in the
Twinkling of an Eye; these are very high Machines made of Reeds cover’d
with Paper, which makes a very great Shew at little Expence: There’s
scarce a Week that passes in the Summer-time, but they have one or two of
these Fireworks.

The Tribunal of the _Rota_ is, next to the Congregations of the Cardinals,
the chief Tribunal in ROME, if not of the whole World; for its Authority
extends over all the Kingdoms and Dominions that acknowledge the Holy See.
It consists of a dozen Prelates, who have the Title of Auditors; _viz._
one _German_, one _French_, two _Spaniards_, one _Bolognese_, one
_Ferrarese_, one _Venetian_, one _Tuscan_, one _Milanese_, and three
_Romans_. They have four Notaries under them, and the oldest Auditor is
President; they meet twice a Week in the Palace where the Pope resides.
Appeals in all Catholic Countries for Causes relating to Benefices are
made to the Tribunal of the _Rota_.

The Governor of ROME is always a Prelate, and commonly an Archbishop _in
partibus_; his Post gives him the Rank immediately after the Cardinals,
and he challenges Precedency of the Ambassadors of crown’d Heads[15]; tho’
I cannot positively say whether these yield it to him, because I never yet
saw them appear at any public Ceremony. This Governor is the Sovereign
Judge of Criminal Causes, and takes Cognisance of all Civil Causes, that
require a speedy Issue: He has under him a Lieutenant and an Auditor
Civil, a Lieutenant and two Judges Criminal, with a Multitude of Subaltern
Officers; and the Provost, who is call’d the _Barrigello_, with 300
Sergeants, or _Sbirri_. When he goes abroad, he is attended by his Guards,
who are ten or a dozen old Halbardiers, more ragged than any that you ever
saw; he causes his Horses to wear Tufts of black Feathers; for you must
know, that there are four Sorts of Plumes; the Cardinals who are Princes
by Birth, or the Ambassadors, have them of Red and Gold; those of the
Cardinals, who are not Princes, are plain Red; the Princes have theirs of
Gold Colour: The Governor of ROME, and the other Prelates, as the _Major
Domo_, cause their Horses to wear black ones: The Governor always goes
abroad with two Coaches, and has an Umbrella carried before him as the
Cardinals have: He goes twice a Week to an Audience of the Holy Father, to
give him an Account of what passes, but particularly to make a Report of
the condemn’d Malefactors; and he must never be absent from ROME: One of
the noblest Prerogatives belonging to his Office, is, that he never quits
it but to be made a Cardinal.

Another Magistrate of Note at ROME is the _Senator_: The _Romans_ pretend
that he represents the ancient Senate of ROME; if so, ’tis but a poor
Epitome of it. He lives in the Capitol, and must always be born out of
ROME. He holds his Office by Patent from the Pope, and has it for his
Life. He has under him several Subaltern Officers; two Lieutenants Civil,
styl’d Collaterals; a Judge, intitled Captain of the Appeals; a Lieutenant
Criminal, or _Fiscal_, who passes Sentences of Death; and he has a Right
to take Cognisance of all Causes Civil and Criminal, that happen to arise
between the Citizens and Inhabitants of ROME: For this End he has also
under him 30 Notaries or Commissaries, and the Prisons of the Capitol are
at his Disposal: When he appears at any public Ceremony, he is dress’d in
a long Robe of Gold Brocade lin’d with red Taffeta, and a Cap of black
Velvet: He has a Seat to himself in the Pope’s Chapel, and goes, like the
Governor of ROME, twice a Week, to give an Account to the Pope and the
Cardinal Nephew of what has pass’d at his Bar; he is then dress’d in a
long Simar, or Robe of Velvet, or black Mohair. When he enters into his
Office, he takes an Oath to the Pope, and his Holiness gives him the Staff
of Command, which is a Sceptre of Ivory; he is afterwards conducted with
great Ceremony to the Capitol, guarded by all the Nobility of Rome on
Horseback, and by all the Militia of the City.

Their Manner of executing Criminals is very singular. They have but two
Sorts of Punishments here, _viz._ the _Strappa Corda_, and the Gibbet. The
first, tho’ ’tis not mortal, seems to my Mind more terrible than Death
itself; the Malefactor being ty’d with his two Hands together to a Rope,
by which he is hoisted 15 or 16 Feet from the Ground, and then let fall on
a sudden, so that he generally becomes a Cripple for Life. When a Man is
to be hang’d, they talk of it a Week beforehand, as if it was the finest
Holiday in the World: The Night before the Execution, several Prelates,
Princes, and others of Quality admitted into the Confraternity of
Comforters, repair at Midnight to the Prison. When they come near the
Dungeon, they make a great Noise, and with a loud Voice ask the Gaoler,
_Where is such a one?_ naming the Criminal that is to be condemn’d. _Here
he is_, says the Man, loud enough to be heard by the Criminal. _Open the
Doors to us_, say the Comforters; _he is in a bad State there, we will
remove him to a Place where he shall be better_. The Turnkey opens the
Dungeon, and lets in the Comforters, who exhort the Criminal to go along
with them; and being guarded by a Company of the _Sbirri_, they put him
in the middle, and carry him thro’ several Galleries and Turnings towards
the Door of a Chapel, before which is hung a Piece of black Cloth. Just as
the Criminal is preparing to enter it, the Fiscal, calling him by his
Name, says to him, _You--there is your Sentence_; and at the same time
throws him a Paper, in which the Sentence is written: The Criminal reads
it, or else one of the Comforters does that Office for him: That very
Moment the _Sbirri_ withdraw, and the Comforters remain alone with the
Criminal: Then the Cloth hung before the Chapel Door is lifted up, and the
Patient is led to an Altar at the End of it, with a Crucifix upon it, in
the middle of six lighted Wax Candles, where the Question is put to him,
_If he is willing to confess_: If he says, Yes, as very few _Italians_ die
willingly without Confession, a Confessor is allotted him, who gives him
the best Advice that he can.

The _Italians_ generally make their _Exit_ like good Christians, but ’tis
with very great Reluctance. A Man, who was condemn’d to die some Years ago
for the Crime which brought down Fire from Heaven upon _Sodom_, would not
hear any Talk of Confession; upon which Cardinal _Banchieri_, at that time
only a Prelate, being one of his Comforters, and exhorting him to beg of
God to pardon his Sins; _What!_ said the Criminal to him, _Would you have
me die for a Crime, of which you Priests are all guilty to a Man? I don’t
know_, said the Cardinal, _of any Priests that are so unhappy as to commit
such a Crime; but if there are, they don’t plead guilty in the Face of
Justice_. Another Malefactor being very loth to die, a Comforter said to
him, that Kings and Popes must all submit to Death. _True_, reply’d the
Convict, _but they are not all hang’d_.

After a Criminal has confess’d, he receives the Sacraments, and the
Comforters continue with him till the next Day. At Ten o’Clock, which is
the Hour of Execution, he is convey’d in a Cart to the Gallows, to which
he rides backwards, attended by two Priests, and two Comforters. When they
are come to the fatal Place, they set him down out of the Cart before a
Chapel to say his Prayers; and then they make him walk backwards to the
Foot of the Ladder, which he always mounts with his Back to it; when the
Hangman, who is at the Top of it, fastens the Rope about his Neck, and
then leans with all his Weight upon his Shoulders, to put him out of his
Pain. After he is expir’d, Masses are said in all the Churches, and even
in the Pope’s Chapel, for the Repose of his Soul; and for this End a
Collection is made, to which the poorest People contribute something; at
length, after he has hung four or five Hours, he is bury’d like another

You’ll excuse me, Sir, for concluding my Letter with such a dismal
Subject: The Post is just going off, and I have many other Letters to
write, so that I hope you won’t take it ill that I add no more to this. I
am, &c.


                             LETTER XXXIV.

  _SIR_,                                     _Rome, October 10, 1731._

This being in all Appearance the last Letter I shall write to you from
ROME, I shall now give you the best Answer I can to the Questions you put
to me in your last.

You desire, _Sir_, that I should give you a faithful Character of the Holy
Father; but do you consider well what it is you require? Is it likely that
such a private Man as I, who only see the Pope thro’ a Perspective in all
his Glory and Grandeur, shou’d be able to paint him? No, Sir, the
Successors of St. _Peter_ are not like other Princes: None but such of
their Domestics as are their most intire Confidents can know them
thoroughly; and these, either out of their Zeal or Policy, paint them
always, if not as they are, at least as they ought to be. You will tell
me, that in all Courts ’tis the same Case; and that, notwithstanding this,
one may judge of Princes by their Actions. ’Tis very true, yet this gives
us but an imperfect Idea of Princes, who often do Good or Harm without
meaning either.

To judge by outward Appearances, _Clement_ XII. may be rank’d among the
greatest Popes that ever the Church had: He had always, even before he was
Pope, the Reputation of an honest Man, and all his Pride is to merit that
Character: He is rigid; and, if I may venture to say it, sometimes blunt
in his Answers: His earnest Application to the retrieving of the Finances,
which were very much disorder’d by the Ministers of _Benedict_ XIII.
renders him an Œconomist, perhaps more than suits with his Dignity: He has
the Interests of the Holy See very much at heart; but is accus’d of being
more troubled for the Loss of the Duchy of _Parma_, (which they give out
here was devolv’d to the Holy See by the death of the Duke _Francis
Farnese_) than for the Disturbances owing to the Affair of the
Constitution in _France_: He is a great Admirer of Persons of Quality, but
he does them little good: His good Husbandry extends even to his Nephews,
whom he has loaded with Honours and Titles; but he has hitherto given them
very little Money. When he was a Cardinal, his House was open to every
body; he liv’d magnificently, and it was expected he would rather be a
prodigal Pope, than a _saving_ one: He was civil and affable, but not very
ready to do Services; for if he made his Friends welcome, he thought that
was enough; Business was what took up little of his Time, and he bent his
Thoughts more to noble Living than to Affairs of State. And the _Romans_,
who had other Reasons not to be pleas’d with his Election, said he rose to
the Pontificate from a Game at Picquet.

Since he is become a Pope, he is quite another sort of a Man: He is
desirous to know every thing that passes, and is fond of being his own
Minister. But ’tis his Misfortune, that his Memory begins to fail him, and
he is almost blind; besides which, as he never was employ’d in State
Affairs, he knows them not so much by Experience as Theory: Yet for all
this it were to be wish’d, for the sake of the Ecclesiastical State, that
he had been chose Pope in the place of _Benedict_ XIII. But ’tis the
Unhappiness of this Country, that its Princes are commonly more harass’d
with their bodily Infirmities, than with the Cares of Government: ’Tis
pity that the Pope is so old; for he has the very Qualities that
constitute a great Prince. Notwithstanding his great Age, he has had the
good Luck to make ten Cardinals, tho’ he has not been sixteen Months in
the Pontificate; but his last Promotion of five Cardinals was not
generally approv’d of. Among other coarse _Pasquinades_ that were utter’d
upon that Occasion, this Inscription was affix’d to several Gates of the
Pontifical Palace, _Nostro Signora fa una bella Promotione, quatro Matti,
ed un Minchione, +i. e.+ Our Lord, has made a fine Promotion, four Madmen
and one Fool_. Those five Cardinals were Signior _Guadagno_, the Pope’s
Nephew, formerly a barefooted _Carmelite_; Signior _Doria Maestro di
Camera_, Archbishop of _Benevento_; Signior _Gentili_, a _Datary_, who had
been formerly _Secretary of the Congregation of the Bishops, and the
Regular Clergy_, a Post which, tho’ the very next Step to a Cardinal’s
Cap, the Pope had made him resign for the Office of a _Datary_, which is
but a mean Commission; Signior _Ferrayo_, and Signior _Bichi_, both
Nuncios in _Portugal_.

The last is noted for the Broils that he occasion’d between the Holy See
and the Court of _Lisbon_: The King of _Portugal_ being disgusted with
this Nuncio for having defrauded him of the Customs, by entring Goods upon
his own Account, which he sold afterwards to the Prejudice of the
_Portuguese_ Merchants, and being moreover exasperated with this Prelate
for assuming more Authority to himself, than his Predecessors had ever
done, demanded of _Clement_ XI. to recall him; and upon that Pope’s Death
he repeated his Instances to _Innocent_ XIII. who at length consented to
his Demand: But then the King, for what Cause I know not, alter’d his
Mind, and declared he was not willing that _Bichi_ should leave his Court
till the Term of his Nunciature was expired. And as the Pope had nominated
M. _Ferrayo_ to relieve _Bichi_, and was obstinate for the Return of the
latter to ROME, the King order’d his Ambassador to demand of the Pope for
what Reason he recall’d _Bichi_; and in case the Holy Father should
declare that it was to punish his Nuncio, He injoin’d him to say, that
this Minister was intirely innocent of the Matters laid to his Charge in
_Portugal_; but that if, on the contrary, the Pope should give him to
understand, that he recall’d _Bichi_, to give him such an Office in the
Apostolical Palace as might secure him a Cardinal’s Hat, he the Ambassador
should then make Answer, that His _Portuguese_ Majesty was of Opinion,
the Dignity of Nuncio at his Court ought to procure the Purple for all
those who resided with him in that Quality; and that therefore his Majesty
would never suffer M. _Bichi_ to depart from _Lisbon_, till he was
declared a Cardinal.

The Pope exclaimed against the King’s new Demand, repeated his Orders to
_Bichi_ to return to ROME, and sent away M. _Ferrayo_ for _Portugal_. But
the King would not let _Bichi_ go out of the Kingdom, nor _Ferrayo_ come
into it; and _Bichi_ himself refus’d to obey the Holy Father, who
threaten’d him with Excommunication, but the Prelate, being sure of the
King’s Protection, did not much value the Apostolical Censures. The King
in short continu’d to solicit the Hat for him strenuously; but _Innocent_
XIII. would not hear it mention’d, alledging that it was not proper for
him, who, in Quality of Cardinal Protector of _Portugal_, had impeach’d
_Bichi_ at the Holy See, to advance him to the Purple. _Benedict_ XIII.
who was of a beneficent and pacific Disposition, no sooner came to the
Pontificate, but he wrote a Letter with his own Hand to the King of
_Portugal_, wherein he promis’d him the Hat for _Bichi_. The Sacred
College, when they were inform’d of the Pope’s Intentions, made smart
Remonstrances to him, and every Cardinal in particular represented to him
how unworthy _Bichi_ was of the Purple. Cardinal _Corsini_, the present
Pope, was the Man that declar’d himself against that Prelate with the
greatest Warmth; for he told the Pope, that notwithstanding his Respect
for his Holiness, he would never consent that _Bichi_, that dishonourable,
that faithless Man, (which were the Epithets wherewith he honour’d him)
should be one of his Brethren. In a Word, the whole Sacred College shew’d
so much Disgust at the Thoughts of this Promotion, that the Pope was
oblig’d to revoke the Promise he had made to the King of _Portugal_. That
Monarch, incensed to see himself made a Jest of by the Priests, recalled
his Ambassador and Envoy then at ROME, and ordered his Subjects to leave
that City, and to have nothing more to do with the Holy See. And the Pope,
in his Turn, recalled _Ferrayo_, who still continued in _Spain_, on the
Frontier of _Portugal_, and summoned _Bichi_ to ROME, whither at last he
was determined to return.

During this, _Benedict_ XIII. died, and _Clement_ XII. succeeding him,
_Bichi_, who is his Kinsman, went to _Sienna_, the Place of his Birth.
There it was that he heard of his Promotion, which was made on the 24th of
_September_ last, but not without strong Debates in the Sacred College. A
great number of the Cardinals put the Holy Father in mind, that he was
formerly the most zealous Stickler against _Bichi_: And in the Consistory
wherein the Pope propos’d him, a Cardinal gave his Opinion, that the
Prelate might be admitted into the Sacred College in Quality of a
Penitent, The Pope happening to say, that he knew of no other Way to come
to an Accommodation with the King of _Portugal_, than by making _Bichi_ a
Cardinal; one of the Cardinals made Answer, ‘I question whether the
promoting of _Bichi_ will set us to Rights with _Portugal_; but let it
happen as it may, ’twill be, at the worst, but one Hat more ill bestow’d.’

The _Romans_ actually pine for an Accommodation with _Portugal_; for the
Ambassadors of that Crown have always expended great Sums here, especially
since the Accession of the present King, who has caus’d a great deal of
Money to be laid out here in Statues, Pictures, and other Things of Value.
’Tis reckon’d upon the whole, that the Absence of the _Portuguese_ is a
Loss to the City of ROME of above a Million of _Roman_ Crowns in a Year.

The Pope’s Nephews are like their Uncle, Men of great Sincerity, Honour
and Probity; but whether ’tis owing to the Indolence of their Tempers, or
to their Want of Interest with their Uncle, they serve nobody, and know
not the Pleasure of doing Good. The Cardinal, who should naturally have
the most Credit, is he that has the least: He is penurious to the last
Degree[16]. Before he was made a Cardinal and Minister, People conceiv’d a
high Idea of him; they believ’d that a Person who had travelled so much as
he had done, and who had been many Years employ’d by the Great Duke in
_France_, and at the Congress of _Cambray_, must needs be well versed in
Business; therefore they apply this Verse to him,

         _Tel brille au second rang, qui s’eclipse au premier._

                                 i. e.

   _He shines so much in the second Class, as eclipses him in the first._

Every body allows he is an upright Man; but they don’t look upon him as a
Minister. He is so reserved, that ’tis quite disgusting; and when he
grants any Favour, he does it in so strange a Manner, that they who
receive it are sorry they were beholden to him. I question whether he will
have very many humble Servants left, when his Uncle dies.

In the same Consistory wherein the Pope made _Bichi_ a Cardinal, the Holy
Father talk’d a great deal about the Succession of _Parma_. He complain’d
in general Terms of the Emperor, for arrogating to himself those
Prerogatives relating to the Dominions of _Parma_, which were only due to
the Holy See. He acquainted the Sacred College with every thing that he
had done for maintaining the Rights of the Church; he said, that as soon
as he was informed that the Duchess of _Parma_ was really not with Child,
he ordered his _Nuncio_ at _Parma_ to take Possession of the Dominions,
that were devolved to the Holy See by the Extinction of the Male Line of
the _Farnese_ Family; that his _Nuncio_ had executed his Orders; but that
_Stampa_, the Emperor’s General and Commissary, had caus’d an Edict to be
publish’d, whereby, in the Name of the Emperor, he forbad all the Subjects
of _Parma_ from owning any other Sovereign, but him to whom his Imperial
Majesty shou’d give the Investiture of the Duchy. The Pope said, he was
sorry when he heard _Stampa_ had taken that Step; but that he expected
from the Emperor’s Justice and Piety, that he wou’d not approve of the
Conduct of his General, and that he wou’d not do any thing contrary to the
incontestable Claim of the Holy See to the Dominions of the _Farnese_
Family. The Cardinals returned a very modest Answer to the Pope, thanking
him for the Endeavours he had us’d to maintain the Rights of the Holy See,
and praying him to continue them. The Cardinals _Cienfuegos_ and
_Bentivoglio_, being inform’d of all the Complaints which the Pope
intended to make in this Consistory, took care not to be there. These
Gentlemen are extremely angry with the Emperor; ‘What! _said they_, to
have no more Respect for the Pope and the Holy See, to invade the Estates
of the Church, and dispose of them as he pleases, are these Actions
becoming an Emperor, Protector of the Catholic Faith?’ Really, to hear how
they talk, one wou’d think the Emperor had actually taken all they had
from ’em; tho’ I am persuaded, that if he would but give them the Duchy of
_Parma_, they wou’d consent to his being a _Jansenist_.

You desire, Sir, to be inform’d of the Reception that is given here to
Ambassadors. I shou’d have done this long before you desired it, if I had
seen any Ambassador go to an Audience of the Pope, besides the _Maltese_,
who has not so grand a Reception here as the Ambassadors of Crown’d Heads.
’Twas on the second _Sunday_ in _Lent_, in the Afternoon, that the
Ambassador of _Malta_, who has resided here six Years in Quality of
Ambassador of that Order, made his Entry as Tributary Ambassador
Extraordinary. This Minister, repairing without any Retinue to the
Vineyard of Pope _Julius_, without the Gate _del Popoli_, was complimented
there, on the Part of the Pope, by the _Major Domo_, and the oldest
Prelate; and on the Part of the Cardinals, and principal Nobility, by
their Gentlemen. After this, the Cavalcade was made with more Order than
is commonly observ’d here at public Ceremonies. First came the several
Coaches and Six of the Cardinals, Princes, and other Persons of
Distinction, following one another without Observation of the respective
Ranks of their Owners. Then came two of the Ambassador’s Grooms on
Horseback, who were follow’d by four cover’d Waggons, and a Couple of
Field Carriages, cover’d with Tapestry, that was embroidered with his
Excellency’s Coat of Arms. Next came the Ambassador’s Master of the
Horse, follow’d by six led Horses, two Trumpets, with the Lackeys, _Valets
de Chambre_, Pages, and Gentlemen belonging to the Ambassador, all on
Horseback. These were follow’d by the chief Lackeys of the Cardinals
riding upon Mules, and carrying their Master’s red Hats flung over their
Shoulders; and after these came the Cardinals Gentlemen, who were follow’d
by a Detachment of Light-horse. The Chamberlains of Honour follow’d riding
upon Mules. The Knights of _Malta_ on Horseback rode just before the
Ambassador, who was supported by the _Major Domo_, and Signior _Colonna_,
the oldest Prelate. His Excellency was preceded by twelve running Footmen
in his Livery, and he walked in the Middle of a Couple of Files of the
hundred _Switzers_ of the Pope’s Guard. Three of the Ambassador’s Coaches
and Six clos’d the March. The whole Train pass’d thro’ the chief Streets
of ROME, and accompany’d the Ambassador to his Palace, where his
Excellency treated all the Company with Refreshments.

On the Day of Audience, the Ambassador went in his Equipage to the Palace
of _Monte-Cavallo_, attended by the Coaches of the Cardinals and the
Nobility. He was receiv’d at the Top of the Stairs by the _Major Domo_,
who conducted him into that called the Prince’s Apartment. The Ambassador
having waited there a little Time, two Masters of the Ceremonies came to
acquaint him, that his Holiness was ready to admit him to an Audience in
the Consistory then sitting. The Ambassador went thither, conducted by the
Masters of the Ceremonies; and Signior _Acquaviva_, the _Major Domo_,
received him at the Entrance of the Hall of the Consistory, and conducted
him to the Entrance of the Court fronting the Pope. The Ambassador fell on
his Knees, and made a profound Obeisance to the Pope, who gave him his
Blessing. Then he fell on his Knees again in the Middle of the Court, and
the third Time at the Pope’s Feet, to whom he made his Speech kneeling. In
this Posture he also delivered the Letter from the Grand Master to the
Holy Father, who gave it to a Prelate, ordering him to read it. The
Ambassador arose, and having crossed the Court, saluting the Cardinals on
the Right and Left, he fell on his Knees at the Entrance of the Court,
opposite to the Holy Father. There he heard the Grand Master’s Letter
read, and afterwards a very long Speech in _Latin_, which an Abbat, who
was a Knight of _Malta_, made in the Name of the Order, upon his Knees.
The Prelate had no sooner read the Letter, but he answered the Speech in
_Latin_. The Ambassador, who was still on his Knees, arose, after the
Prelate had ended his Speech; went and kneel’d again at the Pope’s Feet,
which he kiss’d, and then presented to his Holiness the Knights of
_Malta_, who had accompany’d him to the Audience, and who all kiss’d the
Holy Father’s Feet. The Pope, rising from his Seat, retir’d to his
Apartment; but the Ambassador stay’d in the Hall of the Consistory, till
all the Cardinals were gone out. He then returned to his Palace, where he
gave a grand Repast to the Knights of his Order. The next and the
following Days, he made his Visits of Ceremony to the Cardinals. Their
Eminencies don’t give Precedence to the Ambassadors; but bating that only,
they treat them as their Equals.

I have been assured, that the Ambassadors Extraordinary of Kings are
lodged three Days in the Pontifical Palace, during which they have the
Honour to dine once with the Holy Father. If I continue here till the
Arrival of the Duke of _St. Aignan_, the Ambassador of _France_, who is
every Day expected, I will give you an Account how he is received; for
tho’ these Ceremonies are printed here, I shall be willing to have ocular
Demonstration of the Things that I write to you.

Of all the public Functions at this Place, there is none more august, and
more solemn, than the Procession with the Holy Sacrament, when ’tis
carry’d by the Pope. Upon _Corpus Christi_ Day, the Holy Father was placed
in an Arm-chair, without a Back to it, with a Desk before him, upon which
he laid the Pyx that contained the Holy Sacrament. His Cope, which was
very long, and very wide, so cover’d the Desk and the Chair, that the Pope
seemed to be kneeling. His Head was uncovered, and in this Posture he was
carry’d by eight Men. In my whole Life, I never saw any thing more
exemplary than the Countenance of the Pope during the Ceremony, his Face
being the very Picture of Contrition and Devotion. The Procession set out
from St. _Peter_’s Church, attended by all the Fraternities, the Monastic
Orders, the _Roman_ Nobility, the Conservators of ROME, the Governor of
ROME, the Chapter of St. _Peter_, and all the Prelates and Bishops. Three
_Tiara_’s, and as many Mitres, adorn’d with Pearls and Diamonds, were
carry’d before the Holy Father. The Pope was environed with the hundred
_Swiss_ of his Guards, all in Armour, and by the Officers of his Chamber;
and the Procession was clos’d by the Light-horse, and Cuirassiers on
Horseback. The Colonnade of St. _Peter_, and the Streets, were hung with
Tapestry, and cover’d with Canvas, to keep off the Heat of the Sun. As the
Pope passed by the House where the Family of the _Stuarts_ liv’d, he gave
to those Princes the Blessing of the Holy Sacrament. The Holy Father’s
Nieces were in a neighbouring House; but they did not receive that
Honour, it being reserved only for Sovereigns.

You seem, Sir, to be so much prejudiced against the holy Office of the
Inquisition, that I must endeavour to convince you of the mistaken Notion,
which, I presume to say, you have conceived upon that Head. Honest People
have no more Reason to dread this Tribunal, than any of the other Courts
of Justice. They tell a thousand Stories of it in our Part of the World,
and especially among the _Protestants_, which are absolute Falsehoods. Be
but an honest Man; speak of God and the Saints with all due Respect, or at
least don’t offer to insult them; give no public Scandal; and you have
nothing to fear from the Holy Office. To speak the Truth, will not a Man
in all the Christian Countries, that is notoriously impious in Word or
Deed, will he not be taken to Talk by the Consistories, and by the Law? I
own, for my part, that I don’t see wherein that Barbarity, and that
Inhumanity consists, which the Holy Office is charg’d with in _Protestant_
Countries; on the contrary, it seems to me to be the mildest Tribunal in
the World. Let me be guilty of the greatest Injuries to God and Religion,
in Thought, Word or Deed; if I do but go and confess my Crimes to the Holy
Office, and tell them I repent of my Wickedness and Folly, the Father
Commissary will represent the Horror of my Sins to me, will exhort me, for
the Salvation of my Soul, to behave and think better for the future, and
at last will absolve me. Where now is that _Protestant_ Tribunal, which is
content with a voluntary Confession? Instead of absolving the Penitent,
don’t they condemn him to Imprisonment, and bodily Pains?

For these sixteen Months that I have been at ROME, I have not heard of any
one’s being arrested by the Holy Office; on the contrary, I have seen
Acts of Clemency perform’d by this Tribunal, so much run down, which
perhaps the Consistory of _Geneva_ would never have done. I had not long
been here, but there came one _Pallas_, a Native of _Toulon_, and Captain
in _France_, who brought a young Woman with him, whom he said he had
ravish’d; he desir’d a License of the Vicar to marry her, which was
granted. But some Months after, there comes a Woman, who appear’d to be
the Wife of _Pallas_, and the Mother of the young Creature that he had but
just married, and who was ready to lie in. _Pallas_, perceiving his Crime
on the Brink of being detected, goes and reveals the whole to the Holy
Office, which first gave him Protection for his Person, and in a few Days
after acquitted him, injoining him at the same time to take his first Wife
again. This _Pallas_ dying not many Days after, his two Wives went to Law
for their Jointure. I question now whether this Officer would have been
acquitted by a Parliament of _France_.

The Congregation of the Holy Office was established by Pope _Paul_ III. at
the Solicitation of the Cardinal _John Peter Caraffa_, who afterwards,
becoming Pope, by the Name of _Paul_ IV. made a remarkable Addition to the
Authority of this Tribunal. That Holy Pontiff, _Pius_ V. reduced it to its
present State. This Congregation consists of a dozen Cardinals, besides a
Number of Prelates, and a great many Divines of different Orders, who are
called _Consultori & Qualificatori del Santo Officio_. Among those are
included a Conventual, the General of the _Dominicans_, the Master of the
Sacred Palace, the Commissary of the Holy Office, the Fiscal, and the
Assessor, which last must always be a secular Prelate. This Tribunal takes
Cognizance of the Causes of Heresy, and of such novel Opinions as are
repugnant to the Soundness of the Catholic Faith; as also of Matters of
Apostasy, Witchcraft, the Abuse of the Sacraments, and other wicked
Actions; and it likewise takes Cognizance of prohibited Books. It sits
twice a Week, _viz._ on _Wednesdays_ in the Convent of _Minerva_, and on
_Thursdays_ in Presence of the Pope, who is the Head of it. The oldest
Cardinal has the Title of Secretary of the Holy Office, and is the Keeper
of its Seals. None but Cardinals can vote in it, and they admit of no
Proposals but what they think proper.

The Palace of the Holy Office is close by St. _Peter_’s Church, and there
live the Assessor, the Father Commissary, the Fiscal, the Notary, and
other Officers. There also the Prisoners are kept, and there they are
try’d, according as the Case requires. The Officers of the Holy Office
acknowledge no other Judges in the first Instance, but the Assessor of the
Tribunal whereof they are Members; and they appeal for the Definitive
Sentence to the Cardinals who are Members of the Congregation.

I will conclude my long Letter with a Remark, which I have made upon the
_Romans_ in particular, and the _Italians_ in general, I mean its to the
reciprocal Hatred of the Inhabitants of the different States of _Italy_.
That the _Romans_ hate the _Florentines_, I think I have told you more
than once; but that’s not all, for they as heartily hate the _Neapolitans_
and the _Genoese_. They commonly say, that there must be seven _Jews_ to
make one _Genoese_, and seven _Genoese_ to make one _Florentine_. ’Tis
unaccountable how the People of _Italy_ can so hate one another. I can’t
imagine that they should be so blind as not to see the Prejudice it does
them; for, in short, ’tis not barely the Hatred of one Province to
another, but it diffuses its Poison to the Towns that are subject to one
and the same Sovereign. These People don’t consider that they form one and
the same Nation; and that if they did but unite together, they would be
both rich and powerful; but being jealous of one another, they only seek
to ruin each other, and by that means deprive themselves of the most solid
Support of their Liberty.

To my mind, we act much more rationally; for tho’ our _Germany_ is divided
into many more Dominions than _Italy_ is, we do however form a Body
against Foreigners, who have a Design upon our Estates and our Liberties.
The lesser Princes comply with the Emperor’s Will; and their own Interest,
and that of the Empire, is all one. Our Princes visit and associate with
one another, and maintain a Sort of common Friendship; the _Italian_
Princes on the contrary never visit one another; and when by chance a
Sovereign of four or five Leagues of Country comes to have an Interview
with such another Sovereign as himself, it takes up as much Negociation to
adjust it, as was necessary to settle the Interview between _Philip_ IV.
and _Lewis_ XIV. But is it not ridiculous to see such petty States act
towards one another with as much Finesse and Craft as the most powerful
Kingdoms? ’Tis this Diffidence, this reciprocal Hatred between the
Governments and Towns of _Italy_, that has made them for a long time the
Sport of Foreigners; whereas, if these People did but keep up a good
Understanding with one another, they would soon drive them out; for Nature
has furnish’d them with Ditches and Walls, which if they don’t defend,
’tis their own Fault: But it seems as if Providence, by which the Fate of
all Dominions is determin’d, would not have it so.

Adieu, Sir, for the present: I cannot be sure when I shall write to you
again, much less when I shall have the Pleasure of embracing you, tho’
there’s scarce a Day passes over my Head but I do it in Imagination. Do
you but render me like for like, and be assur’d that nobody in the World
is more strictly than I am, _Yours, &c._


                              LETTER XXXV.

  _SIR_,                                        _Genoa, Nov. 2, 1731._

The Road from _Rome_ to LORETTO has been so fully describ’d, that I think
I should pass it over in Silence; nor shall I say any thing more to you of
the _Santa Casa_, which you know in what manner the Angels bore to the
Place where it now stands. If you would be inform’d of the Treasure of
this House, look into the Voyages of _Misson_, who has given a large
Account of every Particular: Since he wrote, the Treasure is not very much
increas’d, the Princes having almost done making their Offerings to it.
The Queen of _France_ has lately settled a perpetual Endowment on it for
the Celebration of four Masses a Day, by way of Thanksgiving for the Birth
of the Dauphin.

From _Loretto_ to BOLOGNA the Road is good, and ’tis a fine fruitful
Country; I stay’d three Days the longer at that City, on purpose to see
the Cardinal _Grimani_, who is Legate there from the Holy See. He is a
Prelate of great Virtue, sound Morals, and polite, but unaffected
Behaviour. He has been _Internuncio_ at _Brussels_, _Nuncio_ at
_Cologne_, and in _Poland_, and in this Quality he resided at _Vienna_,
when he was advanc’d to the Purple. I knew him at all those _Nunciatures_;
I saw him at _Rome_, when he went thither to receive the Hat, and I have
now seen him again at _Bologna_, and find he is the same Man now he is
both Cardinal and Legate, that he was when but an _Internuncio_[17]. For
’tis only in vulgar Souls that Honours change Manners.

Notwithstanding the Reluctance I had to repass the _Apennine_ Hills a
second time, I was forced to resolve upon it, or else to renounce all
Thoughts of being at _Leghorn_ at the Arrival of the Fleets from _Spain_
and _England_, I have been at FLORENCE, and have had the Honour to wait on
the Great Duke, and Madame the Electoress Palatine Dowager. I had formerly
paid my Compliments to this Princess, both here and at _Dusseldorp_, and
she was now pleas’d to call me to mind again, and to shew me abundance of
Respect and Kindness: Her most Serene Electoral Highness lives very
retir’d, and is almost continually at her Devotions: She has her own
Ladies of the Bed-chamber; but as for the rest, she is attended by the
Officers of the Great Duke, and makes use also of that Prince’s Equipage.

I did not suppose that I should be able to pay my Respects to the Great
Duke, because I had been told, that it was very difficult to get an
Audience of him; yet I attain’d to that Honour at the very Time when I
least of all expected it. As I was going from the Electress’s Apartment, I
met one of the Great Duke’s _Valets de Chambre_, who came to tell me,
That his Royal Highness wanted to speak with me: This Message so surpriz’d
me, that I thought the Man mistook me for another Person, till he
convinced me of the contrary: I was obliged to yield Obedience, and the
_Valet de Chambre_ introduc’d me to the Audience: I found the Great Duke
sitting upright in Bed, accompany’d by several Lap-dogs, with nothing on
but a Shirt without Ruffles, and a long Cravat about his Neck of coarse
Muslin: His Cap was very much besmear’d with Snuff, and truly there was
nothing neat nor grand about him: By his Bed-side there stood a Table in
Form of a Beaufet, upon which there were Silver Buckets, that contain’d
Bottles of Liquors and Glasses: His Royal Highness receiv’d me however
with great Marks of Goodness, reproach’d me because I had not yet desired
to see him, and said to me in the kindest Manner possible, That I did very
ill to treat my old Friends with so much Indifference. The Prince
remember’d he had known my Father, and he call’d to mind, that when he was
at _Berlin_, my Parents paid him all due Respects; he ask’d me what News
from the Court of _Prussia_? and wanted to know all the Alterations that
had been made there since his Time: He talk’d to me of the Court of
_Rome_, and particularly of the Pope; and said with a Smile, That the Holy
Father was at first his Subject, afterwards his Equal, and now the Master
of him, and of all the Catholic Princes. The Conversation at length took a
gayer Turn, and ran upon Pleasures, good Chear, and the Bottle. The Grand
Duke said, ’twas too early in the Day to drink Wine, (for ’twas no more
than Two o’Clock in the Afternoon) but that he had a choice Dram, of which
I should taste, and he was so good as to fill me a Glass of it out of a
Bottle which was by his Bed-side. ’Twas to no Purpose for me to protest,
that I never drank Drams; I was fain to drink that Glass, then another,
and after that a third. The Great Duke assum’d no State upon Account of
his Rank, but treated me as his Equal, and drank Glass for Glass with me.
I was just going to fall at his Knees, and to beg Quarter, when, as good
Luck would have it, _Joannino_, his favourite _Valet de Chambre_, came in,
and whisper’d something in his Ear. Upon this the Great Duke put on a
serious Air, and soon after dismiss’d me, but charg’d me not to go from
FLORENCE before I had receiv’d his Commands. _Make yourself as merry as
you can_, said the Prince; _but be sure not to go away without taking year
Leave of me_. Two Hours after I return’d to my Inn, his Royal Highness
sent me a Present of Fowls, _Bologna_ Sausages, Cheese, Sweetmeats, and
other good Things, together with several Dozens of Bottles of most
excellent Wine; so that I assure you I had Subsistence enough for three

I stay’d four Days, expecting the Great Duke’s Orders; but as none came in
all that Time, I desir’d his Favourite _Joannino_ to ask him if he had any
Commands for me; upon which he sent me word, that he desir’d I would stay
two Days longer, and that then he would see me. I heard that a Courier was
arriv’d from _Leghorn_, which brought him News, that the _Spanish_ Fleet
had been seen at Sea; upon which I thought, that the Grand Duke would be
very much taken up with his Ministers; but I was soon inform’d, that he
left all Matters intirely to the Management of his Ministers, the
Commandeur _d’Elbene_, and the Marquis _Rinuccini_, who settled every
thing as they thought fit with Father _Ascanio_, the _Spanish_ Minister.

The Great Duke lay snug in his Bed, not that he was sick, but out of pure
Indulgence. ’Tis now twenty-two Months since he went out of his Palace,
and above seven since he put on his Cloaths. His Levee is not till Noon,
and then he sends for such as he has Business with to his Bed-chamber; but
this is an Honour which the _Florentines_ don’t easily attain to; for he
seems to be fondest of the _German_ Nation, whose Language he speaks well,
and pretends even to know its various Dialects. There are few Pilgrims
that pass this Way, either to or from _Rome_, but he sends for them to his
Court, where he converses whole Hours with them, refreshes them with his
Cordials, and puts a Crown in their Pockets when they go away: He dines at
Five o’Clock in the Evening, and sups at Two in the Morning: He always
eats alone, commonly in his Bed; and spends two or three Hours in
Table-Talk with _Joannino_, and some young Fellows call’d _Ruspanti_,
because they are Pensioners to the Great Duke, and paid in _Ruspes_, which
are a Coin of the same Value as _Sequins_; and some of them have two,
three, and even five _Ruspes_ a Week. They are paid by _Joannino_ every
_Wednesday_ and _Saturday_; but all their Business is to attend the Great
Duke, whenever he sends for them at Dinner or Supper; ’tis said their
Number consists of above three hundred, and that they cost his Royal
Highness 80,000 Crowns _per Ann._ They consist of all Nations, but of
_Germans_ more than any other. They wear no Livery, nor are they all clad
alike; and they are only Known by their Locks, which are always very much
curl’d and powder’d.

When the two Days which the Great Duke had order’d me to stay were
expir’d, I again sent for his Leave to be gone; upon which he commanded me
to wait on him, and receiv’d me altogether as kindly as he did the first
Time: He kept me near three Hours, during which he did me the Honour to
talk with me on a thousand different Subjects; and then he dismiss’d me,
saying, _Farewel, go to +Leghorn+, and see my new Guests safe ashore_.

I cannot leave FLORENCE, without thinking it my Duty to mention some
Persons of Note to you, whom I was acquainted with at this Court.

The Commandeur _d’Elbene_ is Steward of the Great Duke’s Houshold, and
President of his Council, and venerable both for his Age and his Merit.

The Marquis _Rinuccini_ is the second Minister, but is properly the Soul
of the Council, having been employ’d in Business a long time; for in 1711
he was the Great Duke’s Envoy at the _Hague_, and about that Time he
attended the late Elector Palatine to the Election of an Emperor at
_Franckfort_. He was afterwards sent Envoy from the Great Duke to the
Congress at _Utrecht_, and from thence he went to _England_: When he
return’d from his Embassies, the late Great Duke admitted him a Member of
his Council, and put him at the Head of Foreign Affairs, of which he has
still the Direction. ’Twas he that dispos’d the Great Duke and the
Electress to submit to the Times, and to recognize Don _Carlos_, the
Infante of _Spain_, for their Successor: And in fine, he is the Man that
settles all Matters against the Arrival of that Prince, who is expected
here with very great Impatience.

Tho’ the Nobility of FLORENCE are in general very civil to Foreigners, yet
’tis certain, that the Marquis _Richardi_ is one of those Gentlemen that
give them the best Welcome; and as he is one of the richest Gentlemen in
_Tuscany_, he is also one of those that keep the best House; he has three
Sons, and one of them is a Prelate; the eldest of them, Don _Vincenzo_,
who is like some Day or other to be the Head of the Family, has travell’d
very much, and is certainly a Gentleman of very great Acquirements and

There are a great many fine Ladies here, but they don’t dress well, and
have not near so much Liberty as those of _Rome_: There’s one Madame
_Suarez_ indeed, that cuts a very great Figure, and keeps open House to
all Comers; she receives Foreigners in a grand Manner, especially the
_English_; but her House would be better, if there was not so much Gaming
in it.

Before I set out from FLORENCE, I can’t think it will be improper to give
you a few Particulars concerning the Family of the _Medicis_, which is
near being extinct in the Person of the Great Duke _John Gaston_.

This Family has given seven Sovereign Princes to _Tuscany_. _Cosmo_ the
First, of that Name, was also the first Great Duke. He obtain’d that Title
about _Ann._ 1568. from the Emperor _Maximilian_ II of whom he had
demanded the Title of _King of Hetruria_; but the Emperor return’d him for
Answer, That he knew of but one King in _Italy_, and that was himself.
However, to gratify _Cosmo_’s Vanity, _Maximilian_ invented the Title of
_Great Duke_, that of _Arch Duke_ being already the Appenage of the House
of _Austria_. The Names of the seven Great Dukes, with their Alliances,
are as follow.

    _+Cosmo I.+ who married +Eleanor+ of +Toledo+._

    _+Ferdinand I.+ who married +Joan+ of +Austria+._

    _+Francis I.+ who married +Mary Magdalen+ of +Austria+._

    _+Cosmo II.+ whose Wife was +Claude+ of +Lorain+._

    _+Ferdinand II.+ married to +Mary de la Rovero+, Duchess of

    _+Cosmo III.+ who married +Margaretta Louisa+ of +Orleans+._

    _+John Gaston+, married to +Anna Maria Frances+ of

The Family of _Medicis_ calls to my Mind that of the _Kettlers_, Dukes of
_Courland_; and I fansy the following Parallel will hold between the two
Families. The _Medicis_, before they were Sovereigns of _Tuscany_, were
Standard-Bearers of FLORENCE; the _Kettlers_ were Gentlemen, and Grand
Masters of the _Teutonic_ Order in _Courland_. The Emperor _Maximilian_
II. made _Medicis_ Grand Duke: _Sigismond Augustus_, King of _Poland_,
made _Kettler_ a Duke. The two Families have each given seven Sovereigns
to _Europe_, and they are alike related to the greatest Families. The last
of the _Medicis_, and the last of the _Kettlers_, were married to
Princesses of the _Saxon_ Family. They both see Foreign Powers disposing
of their Succession before they are dead[18]. Both Families began to
flourish almost at the same time, at the two Extremities of _Europe_; and
in all Appearance their Period is like to be the same.

I could stay but six Days at _Florence_ this Journey, because I had a mind
to see the Landing of the _Spaniards_ at LEGHORN. I had no Time neither to
lose, for they came into the Road the Day before I arriv’d, and landed two
or three Days after. The Fleet was compos’d of two Squadrons, one of
which, _viz._ the _English_, consisting of thirteen Ships, was commanded
by Admiral _Wager_. The two Squadrons set Sail at one and the same time,
but had been dispers’d by a Storm in the Gulph of _Lyons_. The _English_
came in all together; but the _Spaniards_ arriv’d one after another, and
some of their Transports were lost. In fine, the Troops were all landed on
the second of _November_, _All Souls Day_, whereon there fell a terrible
Rain, on which the Superstitious sounded dismal Conjectures. The Marquis
_de Charni_[19], the Commander of the _Spanish_ Forces, came on Shore the
Day preceding, to adjust all Matters with the Marquis _Rinuccini_, whom
the Grand Duke had sent for that Purpose to LEGHORN. The _Spanish_ General
was oblig’d to take an Oath of Fidelity to the Grand Duke before the
Marquis _Rinuccini_, which when he had done, the _Spanish_ Forces enter’d
the City, incorporated themselves with those of the Grand Duke, and
mounted Guard on the very same Day that they landed. It is stipulated,
that there shall be always two Thirds _Spaniards_ to one Third of the
Great Duke’s Soldiers. The _Spanish_ Army consists of no more than 6000
Men, but then they are the Flower of their Troops, and there are Arms and
Equipage for above 20,000. There’s one _Swiss_ Regiment, another of

I have been to see the two Admiral Ships: The _English_ has three Decks,
and carries 86 Guns: The _Spanish_, which had Admiral _Mari_ on board,
carries 90 Guns, has three Decks also, and is by much bigger than the
_English_ Man of War: It had been fitted up for bringing over the Infante
Don _Carlos_, and no Expence was spar’d to render it magnificent. The
Admiral’s Cabbin was hung with Sky-blue and Silver Brocade; the Tables,
Chairs, and the Frames of the Pier Glasses, _&c._ were of _Indian_ Lacca
Red and Gold: But notwithstanding all this Magnificence, the _English_
Ship was the neatest, and far out-did the _Spaniard_ in the civil
Treatment of those that went aboard. The _English_ Naval Officers are
almost all Men of Quality: They strove who should be the most polite to
such as came to visit them, and talk’d very modestly both of their Ships
and their Tackling; whereas the _Spaniards_ bragg’d of theirs beyond
measure; they pretended that their Ships, which had only two Decks, were
much easier to work than those of the _English_, which are all of three
Decks; and affirm’d, that as their Ships were broader and longer, and
their Decks higher, they were much more formidable than the _English_, and
not so much incommoded by the Smoak in a Battle. On the other hand, I was
told by an _Engish_ Officer, That a Ship with three Decks was preferable
to one that had but two, because when ’tis a high Sea, and they are forc’d
to shut up the lowermost Deck, there are still two Batteries remaining,
whereas a Ship with but two Decks, in the same Case, can have but one
remaining: Besides, a Ship with three Decks, _said the Officer_, being
higher than a Ship with but a couple, has a great Advantage over what the
other has, when they come to Boarding. As I understand nothing of
Navigation, I know not whether my _Englishman_ was in the right. But be
that as it will, I am of the Opinion, which prevails almost universally,
that whenever it shall please God to let second Causes have their Effects,
it will be always safer to _lay a Wager_ on the Side of the _English_ than
on the _Spanish_ Ships.

On St. _Charles_’s Day, which was the Festival of the Infante Don
_Carlos_, the Marquis _Mari_ gave us a grand Feast: I say _us_, because I
was there, as well as all _Leghorn_, _Florence_, _Sienna_, _Lucca_, and
_Pisa_, which you’ll say was a goodly Company, and I assure you moreover,
it was very gay. The _Florence_ Gentry, who expected that the Infante
would have come with the Fleet, had all bespoke new Apparel; and as they
are naturally very prodigal, they spar’d no Cost upon this Occasion. The
_Lucquese_ Gentry did not come short of them, of whom it may be said, that
taking the _Milanese_ and _Genoese_ along with them, they are of all the
_Italians_ the most polite, and have most of the Air of Men of Quality.
Besides the _Italians_, there was so great a Concourse of _Englishmen_ and
Foreigners at LEGHORN, that all the Lodgings were taken up; nevertheless
Provisions were in great Plenty, and as cheap as ever.

The _English_ are return’d home. ’Tis said, that the Infante[20] will come
hither speedily by Land. The _Tuscans_ long mightily to see him, and
expect he will work Miracles; for besides what they have heard in his
Praise, they lay great Stress upon a Prophecy of _Nostradamus_, who says
in one of his Stanzas,

      _Du plus profund de l’Occident d’Europe,
      De doubles Nopces un Enfant naitra,
      Qui vers le Po menera grande Troupe:
      Son bruit au Regne d’Orient plus croitra._

                                _i. e._

      ‘In the most Western Part of _Europe_ an Infant
      shall be born of a double Marriage, who shall
      lead a great Force towards the _Po_, and whose
      Fame shall spread to the Eastermost Kingdom.’

This Child, _born of a double Marriage_, must be the Infante, who is the
Son of _Philip_ V. by his second Wife.

I heartily wish that I cou’d have staid at _Florence_ till this Prince
arriv’d; but I have order’d my Affairs so as to be at _Paris_ before
_Christmas_, and I must steer my Course accordingly. Yet before I leave
LEGHORN, I must give you some Account of this City, which is of more Note
for its great Trade, than for its Antiquity. ’Tis one of the neatest
Cities in _Italy_, and that to which there’s the greatest Concourse of
Foreign Merchants, either for the sake of Trade, or for Shelter from their
Creditors: The City is well built, the Streets broad, strait and
lightsome, and several have Canals in them, after the Manner of _Holland_.
The great Square is beautiful, and the Port magnificent, being divided
into the great and little Harbours, the former of which has been render’d
convenient by the Expence of a fine Mole, and some Towers that serve for
Light-houses; the other, which has a very narrow Entrance, serves for the
Gallies. There’s an admirable Marble Statue of _Cosmo_ I. _de Medicis_,
which is rais’d on a Pedestal of the like white Marble: The Great Duke is
represented in Armour, with a Ducal Mantle over his Shoulders, a Turban on
his Head, and a Scymitar at his Feet. The Concomitants of this fine Statue
are worthy of a nice Observation: At the very Foot of the Base or
Pedestal, at the four Corners, there are as many Slaves in Brass,
representing _Turks_, in admirable Attitudes, which seem, as it were,
chain’d to the Pedestal: The _Connoisseurs_ reckon them Master-pieces:
Their Proportion, which is twelve Foot, makes the Vulgar think they
represent four Giants; but Tradition says, that they are the Figures of
four _Turks_, _viz._ the Great-Grandfather, the Grandfather, the Father,
and the Son; who being all on board a _Turkish_ Vessel, the youngest of
them, who was an Astrologer, prophesied to his Companions, as they
embark’d, that on such a Day they shou’d all be taken into Slavery by the
Christians; which Prediction, to their Misfortune, came to pass; for they
were taken by the Great Duke’s Gallies, and this Prince caus’d their
Statues to be carv’d, to transmit the Event to Posterity.

PISA, tho’ a much more considerable City than _Leghorn_ for its Antiquity,
and the Beauty of its Buildings, is not so pleasant a Place by far. ’Tis a
large, fine, well built City, but extremely thin of People; ’tis divided
into two Parts by the River _Arno_, which comes from _Florence_, and forms
two stately Kays here. The Cathedral is a great stately Fabric of _Gothic_
Architecture: It has three great Gates, the Doors or Leaves of which are
of Brass, and represent the Passages mention’d in the New Testament, a
Proof how grosly they are mistaken, who say they were the Gates of
_Solomon_’s Temple; but they are not near so fine as those at the
Baptistery of _Florence_. The Inside of the Church is answerable to the
Magnificence of the Outside, and the Roof is supported by sixty Marble

I say nothing to you of the Tower that leans to one Side, and which
consists of six or seven Degrees or Rows of Pillars one above another, nor
of the stately Baptistery, much less of the Church-yard, call’d _il Campo
Santo_. Look into _Misson_, he will tell you the Measures of every thing;
for that Gentleman always carry’d Mathematical Instruments about him, so
that there was nothing but what he measur’d and weigh’d.

PISA is a City, which a Traveller can’t avoid seeing, but ’tis impossible
for him to stay in it; the People being so proud of the Honour their
Ancestors gain’d by the Conquest of _Carthage_, that their Vanity is
perfectly surfeiting.

Having stay’d but one Day at _Pisa_, I proceeded in my Journey to _Genoa_,
passing thro’ the Forest of VIAREGGIO, where, if I had had a great Charge
of Money about me, and had credited what my Guide said, I shou’d have
sweat for Fear; because he affirm’d to me, that there was not a Week
throughout the Year but Passengers were robb’d and murder’d in this
Forest. But when I came to the Village of _Viareggio_, which stands in the
Middle of the Forest, I heard that every Word my Guide has told me was
false; and that since the Courier from _Lucca_ was robb’d, which was
eighteen Years ago, they had not heard of any Robbers this Way: This put
me very much in Heart again, for, to be plain with you, I don’t care to
tilt with Highwaymen; but for all this, an _Italian_ Lacquey that I have
in my Service, cou’d not be easy: As we had still three Leagues of this
Forest to pass thro’, he conjur’d me to take a Guard; but I banter’d him,
and proceeded on my Way. My Lacquey rode by me on Horseback, telling his
Beads. I had scarce travell’d half a League, but I saw five Men coming
arm’d; my Lacquey, who was the first that spy’d them, cry’d out like a
Madman, _Jesu Maria! what! must I die without Confession? Misericordia!
Misericordia!_ I put my Head out of the Chaise to take a View of the Men,
who had innocently put my Lacquey into such a Fright, and found by their
Garb, that they were Soldiers from _Lucca_, who patroll’d there for the
Security of the Forest. The Panic which my Lacquey was under made me at
first laugh very heartily, but I soon changed my Note; for when we came to
PIETRA-SANTA, a little Place in the State of _Lucca_, he had not Strength
to alight from his Horse; for the Fright had so seiz’d him, that he was
almost dead: He wanted a Confessor; but I thought a Surgeon would do every
whit as well for him, and therefore I sent for one, and caus’d him to
bleed the Fellow, who in two Hours time grew better. I took him into my
Chaise, and went and lay at MASSA DI CARRARA, the Capital of a very small
Feodal Sovereignty of the Empire, belonging to Cardinal _Cibo_, the last
of his Family. After his Death, this Principality is to fall to his Niece,
who, ’tis said, is design’d for the young Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_,
Nephew[21] to the Great _Eugene_, and Lieutenant-General of the Emperor’s

The Founder of this Family was _Alberic Cibo_, the natural Son of
_Innocent_ VIII. and, for his Sake, the Emperor _Maximilian_ II. erected
_Massa_ into a Feudal Principality of the Empire: This City has nothing
remarkable in it but the Prince’s Palace, which makes some Shew. The
Emperor keeps a Garrison in it[22]. The People at _Massa_ are of good
florid Complexions, and the Country is famous for its Quarries of Marble,
and for Oil in abundance.

From _Massa_ to SERSANA, or SARZANA, a City in the State of _Genoa_, the
Country is extremely well cultivated, being planted with Olive-Trees and
Vines. In this City the _Genoese_ have a Governor, or Podestat, but they
keep a very sorry Garison in it; and if the Republic has no better
Soldiers to withstand the _Corsicans_, who are call’d the _Devils_ of
_Italy_, I question whether the Rebellion will be soon suppress’d. The
Sergeant of the Guard at the Gate made me a very civil Petition for
Charity, which he assured me was a small Tribute due to him from

From _Sersana_ I proceeded to LERICI, a little Town on the Sea-side. There
I put my Chaise on board a Felucca, and arriv’d in less than twenty-four
Hours at _Genoa_, tho’ I stay’d some Hours at SESTRI, an Episcopal City of
that Republic: It is a small, but pleasant Town, and very agreeably
situate upon a Rock forming a Cape, which runs very far into the Sea. This
Town is defended by a Fort, which seem’d to me to be well furnish’d with
Cannon, but the Garison is no better mann’d than that of _Sersana_.

GENOA, from that Side which is next the Harbour, affords one of the
greatest and finest Points of View in the World; and though most of the
Streets are narrow, close, and not very lightsome, yet among all the Towns
of _Italy_ it is with Justice call’d the _Superb_; for there is not a City
in _Europe_, where there are more spacious and magnificent Palaces, and
where the Houses are in general better built. This rich and stately City
has been subject to several Revolutions, but never suffer’d a greater
Shock than in 1684. when ’twas bombarded by Order of _Lewis_ XIV. The
Marquis _de Seignelai_, who was the Minister of his Revenge, discharg’d
his Commission so well, that from the 18th of _May_ to the 28th, he caus’d
13,000 Bombs to be thrown into the Town. The _Genoese_ were oblig’d to
humble themselves, and the King granted them a Peace, on Condition that
they wou’d send four Senators into _France_, to make their Submission to
him by the Mouth of the Doge, whose Title was to be kept up, tho’,
according to the Laws of the Republic, he loses it as soon as he stirs a
Foot out of the City, _Francis-Maria-Imperiali Lercari_ was then the Doge,
who went to _Versailles_, and had his Audience there on the 15th of _May_
1685. He affected to appear very gay there, by which means he gave more
Lustre to the Satisfaction which he came to make, than to his own Dignity.

The _French_ boast very much of this Event, and have not only struck
Medals upon it, but have represented it in Basso Relievos of Brass, in
Tapestries, and in Pictures; and all their Historians talk of it as one of
the most glorious Epochas of the Reign of _Lewis_ XIV. Far be it from me
to detract from the Glory of a Reign, which all the Universe admires, and
to this Day respects; but I cannot help saying, that I question whether
the _French_ wou’d easily pardon any other Nations for making the like
Boast of their Exploits. The _Spaniards_, who have the Character of being
vain, are, in my Opinion, if I may presume to say it, less so than the
_French_. They have a more glorious Passage in their History, and that is,
the Excuses which _Philibert_, Prince of _Piedmont_, Son to _Charles
Emanuel_, Duke of _Savoy_, made in Person to _Philip_ IV. King of _Spain_,
in 1610. That Monarch, being disgusted at the Conduct of the Duke, because
he had made a Treaty with _France_, sought to be reveng’d on him, and
found an Opportunity. _Henry_ IV. King of _France_ being assassinated,
_Mary de Medicis_, the Regent, was in no Condition to embroil herself with
_Spain_, by assisting _Charles Emanuel_. _Philip_ IV. improv’d this
Opportunity, and caus’d Troops to march from the _Milanese_ towards
_Piedmont_: The Duke, in order to divert the Storm, sent his Son to
_Madrid_. The young Prince was very well receiv’d there at first, but he
had the Mortification to be oblig’d to make the most submissive Speech
that could come from the Lips of a Sovereign Prince: ‘Sir, _said he,
addressing himself to the King_, the Duke, my Lord and Father, being
hinder’d from coming himself, by his Age and Business, has sent me to
supplicate your Majesty on my Knees, to accept of the Satisfaction which I
am now making. I am at a Loss for Terms strong enough to express the Grief
of the Duke my Father for the Loss of your Favour. I fall once more at
your Majesty’s Feet, resolv’d not to rise, were I to die on the Spot, till
you have granted me the Favour I desire of you, which is, to take the Duke
my Father, and our whole Family, into your Royal Protection. By this,
_Sir_, you will give a Proof of your Readiness to pardon the greatest
Errors, and of the Kindness which you always had for a Family which is
devoted to you, and honours you as its Lord and Father. This Declaration,
which is now made at your Knees by a Prince of your Blood, shall, if
necessary, be seal’d by mine. The Duke my Father absolutely relies upon
your Majesty’s Goodness, and we resign ourselves to you without Reserve.
If it pleases you to grant me the Favour which I humbly desire of you, it
will be a new Obligation, that will attach us forever to your Interests.’

Was not so submissive a Speech as this more likely to feed the Vanity of
the King of _Spain_, than all the Excuses made by the Doge of _Genoa_ to
puff up _Lewis_ XIV? And is not a Prince of _Piedmont_ at _Madrid_, a
Person of more Consequence than a Doge of _Genoa_ at _Versailles_?
Nevertheless, the _Spaniards_ have neither struck any Medals, nor raised
any Monuments to transmit that Event to Posterity. Pardon me, Sir, for
this Digression: The Prince of _Piedmont_’s Speech is not to be met with
in all the Historians: I believ’d it would be acceptable to you, and
thought it was not altogether foreign to my Subject, to put the Reparation
made by that Prince in a Parallel with that of the _Doge_. I now resume
the Thread of my Narrative.

The Street _Balbi_, and the _new_ Street, are more like Galleries than
Streets. The former lies near the beautiful Church of the _Annunciation_
and the first considerable Structure that appears in it, is the _Jesuits_
College, of which _James Balbi_, a _Genoese_ Nobleman, made a Present on
his Death-bed to the Society, on Condition that his Arms would always
remain over the great Gate. The Reverend Fathers the _Jesuits_ have
laboured much to efface this poor Remembrance of their Benefactor, and for
this End have had great Law-Suits with the _Balbi_ Family; but at length
they were condemn’d by an Arret of the Senate to keep up the Arms of the
Founder, and there they still remain.

The two Palaces _Purazzi_, which are in the same Street, are very
magnificent, and richly furnished. In one of those Palaces there is a
Theatre, called the Theatre of the _Falcon_, which is so extremely well
laid out, that every Spectator may see and hear what passes with Ease, and
without incommoding his Neighbour, the Boxes being large and convenient,
and the Ornaments dispos’d every-where with Judgment.

The new Street is every whit as magnificent as the Street _Balbi_. Here
are the two Palaces _Brignole_, and indeed they are both stately
Buildings. Their Ornaments are the finest that can be imagined, and of the
newest Fashion: The Furniture is extremely rich, there being excellent
Pictures by the greatest Masters, Chimney and Pier-Glasses of an
extraordinary Size, and placed to Advantage; Tables of choice Marble upon
Stands of an excellent Contrivance, and very richly gilt: In short, one
wou’d not wish to see any thing more fine, and more complete. Messieurs
_Brignole_ are four Brothers, of whom there is but one that has a Son:
They are immensely rich, and have seven magnificent Palaces in _Genoa_.

The Palace of the Duke _Doria_, which is in the same Street, is grand and
stately; but not so richly furnished as the Palace of the Prince _Doria_,
without the Gate of St. _Thomas_, which owes its Foundation to the
celebrated _Doria_, who was a General of the Emperor _Charles_ V. This
Palace is very extensive, and has a Prospect of the Sea, but the
Apartments are low and old-fashioned.

The Suburb of St. _Peter d’Arena_ is very large, and contains several
noble Palaces, of which the Palace _Imperiali_, where the Emperor and
Empress lodged at their Return from _Spain_, is esteemed by the
Connoisseurs in Architecture.

The People at _Genoa_ are more sociable than they are at _Venice_, and the
Nobility here much more easy of Access. I don’t believe, that they who
accuse the _Italians_ of Jealousy, include the _Genoese_ in that Charge;
there being few Countries in the World where the Women are allow’d more
Freedom, and where, to all Appearance, they take more. A Woman must have
very few Charms indeed, if she has not two or three profess’d Lovers.
These Sparks, who go by the Name of _Cicisbei_, are never out of their
Sight; but they take great Pains in their Amours, being obliged to run so
fast by the Side of their Mistresses Sedan, that they earn a Glance from
the Fair with the Sweat of their Brows. There are Ladies here, who have
five or six of these Admirers always attending them where-ever they go;
and ’tis happy for these Rivals, that they never fall together by the
Ears. ’Tis true, that if they quarrel, they would be obliged to box it;
for the Gentry here don’t wear Swords, their Dress being like that of the
Lawyers in _France_; but they always wear short silk Mantles, which I
could wish the Counsellors of Parliament in _France_ would likewise wear,
in order to distinguish them from Tailors and Shopkeepers.

The People of Quality here dress very well, and the _Genoese_ of both
Sexes have a much better Air than those of _Florence_ and _Rome_. The
Princess of _Modena_’s Residence with them has not been to their
Detriment; for they have contracted a courtly Behaviour, to which the
_Italians_ are pretty much Strangers. The _Genoese_ in general understand
good Living, and are never deficient in that respect, for want of knowing
better. Tho’ they are said to be a sorry People, I could like to live here
very well. I have been at two of their Assemblies, upon Occasion of the
Marriage of a Nobleman, and have not seen any thing more magnificent; for
a King could not have made a more splendid Entertainment. I was introduced
to them by the Count _Guiccardi_, Envoy Extraordinary from the Emperor,
and received abundance of Civilities. This Envoy is a Subject of the Duke
of _Modena_, and was formerly in his Service. He was that Prince’s
Minister at _Vienna_, when he went into the Service of his Imperial
Majesty. He married the Countess _Sinzendorff_, who was the Daughter of
_Hawitz_, the Grand Marshal at _Dresden_. This Lady was a _Lutheran_; but
being at _Vienna_, and having a Curiosity to go to Divine Service in the
Metropolitan Church of St. _Stephen_, while she was looking upon a Picture
of the Holy Virgin, a Flash of Lightning came into the Chapel where she
was, and scorch’d her in a Part, which I verily believe she wou’d not shew
for all the Gold of _Peru_; but she received no other Harm, and thinking
that she saw the Holy Virgin protecting her, it made such an Impression
upon her, that she embraced our Religion, of which she is an exemplary

You know that the _Genoese_ are actually at War with their Subjects the
_Corsicans_, who have newly publish’d a Manifesto of their Reasons for
taking Arms. If all they say be true, ’tis certain they have been very ill
used; and that if any Rebellion can be excus’d, theirs may. This War has
already cost the Republic immense Sums, and by the Turn which Affairs are
taking, ’tis to be presumed it will run them into a much greater Expence.
The _Corsicans_ have chose one _Giafferi_ for their Leader. He is a Man of
Courage, and a good Head-piece: They say he has taken an Oath to procure
his Country its Liberties; and if the _Genoese_ are not assisted by some
Power, he is like enough to succeed.[23] Time will bring all Things to
Light. I am, _&c._


                             LETTER XXXVI.

  _SIR_,                                       _Turin, Nov. 28, 1731._

The Road hither from GENOA is very bad at this time of the Year. During
the first two Post-Stages I cross’d one River no less than thirty-two
times, and saw a great many fine Houses on the Banks of it; for tho’ the
Neighbourhood of GENOA is very mountainous, ’tis very pleasant, all the
Hills being covered with Chesnuts, and other Fruit-Trees. After I had
travell’d about four Post-Stages, I enter’d on the Plain which brought me
to _Turin_. This is certainly one of the finest Countries in the World,
and wants nothing but Causeys.

The most considerable City that I met with in my Road, was ALEXANDRIA DE
LA PAILLE, which stands on the River _Tanaro_. ’Tis a great Town, but not
very populous. It formerly depended on the _Milanese_, and was yielded by
the Emperor to the King of _Sardinia_, who keeps a good Garison in it, and
has set Men at Work to repair the Fortifications, which had really been
very much neglected. This City is also of Note for its Fairs, which are
the most considerable in _Italy_.

I afterwards came to ASTI, where I found nothing good but an Inn, which
indeed is one of the best of _Italy_, From thence I went and lay at
QUIERI, a great Town in _Piedmont_, ill built, but full of People of
Quality, and situate in a Plain, which is perfectly beautiful; but I was
in so much Haste to get to TURIN, that I did not stay there. I pass’d by
the Foot of a Hill, on which stands the Castle of MONTCALLIER, a Royal
Palace built by her late Royal Highness, the Mother of King _Victor
Amedeus_. The Apartments are large and magnificent, and command one of the
finest Prospects in the World; but the Gardens belonging to it are no more
worth a Traveller’s View, than the Village of _Montcallier_ itself.

At some Distance from this Place I cross’d the _Po_ over a wooden Bridge,
and came thro’ a pleasant Avenue to TURIN, the Capital of _Piedmont_, and
the ordinary Residence of the Dukes of _Savoy_. Those Princes chose also
to make it the Seat of the Chamber of Accompts, and of the Senate, which
is what they call in _France_ the Parlement; and they have rendered it one
of the strongest and finest Cities of _Italy_, exclusive of its charming
Situation. ’Tis divided into two Parts, the _old_ and the _new_ City, with
Bastions and Outworks, well fac’d, and a Citadel very regularly fortify’d.
It stands eighteen Miles from the _Alps_, in a Plain which has the _Po_ on
one Side, and the _Duero_ on the other.

This City will always be remember’d for the Siege which it sustained in
1704, when the Marshal and Count _Daun_, Governor of _Milan_, commanded
here, by the Emperor’s Permission, at the Request of the Duke of _Savoy_.
He defended the Place against the Duke of _Orleans_, the Grandson of
_France_, and gave Time to Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_ to come to its
Relief, and oblige the Enemy to raise the Siege. The _French_ pretend,
that all this was done by Order from Court; and that the Duchess of
_Burgundy_, the Daughter of King _Victor Amedeus_, was the Person that
prevail’d on _Lewis_ XIV. to consent to the raising of the said Siege. As
I am not privy to what pass’d at that Time in the Cabinet of the King of
_France_, this is an Anecdote, which I can neither affirm nor deny; but as
the Belief of what the _French_ give out upon this Head is not an Article
of Faith, I hope they will not be angry, if I do not give Credit to
Rumours, so much to the Dishonour of the greatest King that ever they had:
For how can it be imagin’d, that if _Lewis_ XIV, had really a Desire, that
his Army should decamp from before TURIN, he would have chose to have
subjected that Army to the Hazard of being obliged to fight against his
Will and his Orders, and by that Means to have expos’d the Honour of his
Nephew, the Glory of his Arms, and the Lives of a great many brave Men,
which were lost in that Defeat? Surely, a Retreat concerted in the Cabinet
would have been made in better Order, and would not have had the
Appearance of a Flight. But the _French_ have this Notion: They were never
routed, but ’twas either because it pleased the Court that they should be
routed, or because of some Jealousy betwixt their Generals. They lost the
Battle of _Hochstet_, for want of a right Understanding betwixt the
Elector of _Bavaria_, and the Marshal _de Tallard_; that of _Ramillies_,
because the Marshal _de Villeroy_ would not let the Elector of _Bavaria_
have the Honour of beating us; that of _Audenarde_, because the Duke of
_Vendosme_’s receiving that Shock, was a real Satisfaction to the Duke of
_Burgundy_, the Presumptive Heir of the Throne: And M. _de la Motte_, too,
suffered himself to be beaten near _Wynendale_, only in Complaisance to
the Duke of _Burgundy_, who was apprehensive that he should not be able to
persuade the King his Grandfather to the Peace, which he had very much at
Heart, if _Lisle_ was not taken by the Allies, which City could not have
been mastered, but by letting the Convoy pass, which M. _de la Motte_ had
attack’d. The Passage of the _Scheld_, the raising of the Siege of
_Brussels_, the Surrender of _Ghent_, without strikeing a Blow; all this
was done also by Order of the Duke of _Burgundy_, who was for a Peace upon
any Terms, and cou’d not obtain it without sacrificing both the Army and
Glory of the King his Grandfather. But to speak the Truth, were all the
Marshals of _France_ to tell me the same Story, they would find me as
great an Unbeliever as St. _Thomas_, and wou’d never prevail with me to be
guilty of such an Insult upon the Memory of the Duke of _Burgundy_, the
wisest Prince of his Time, as to believe that he had the Honour of his
Country, and the Interests of his Family so little at Heart.

Nothing can be more regular than that Part of TURIN, which is called the
_new City_. The Houses are of Brick, and three Stories high. The Streets
are wide, strait, and well-pav’d. It has fine Churches, particularly the
Metropolis, or Chapel of the _Holy Handkerchief_, which is also the Royal
Chapel, and may be reckon’d the Master-piece of Architecture. ’Tis in the
Form of an Octogon Dome, all fac’d, not excepting the Roof, with black
Marble. The Altar is in the Middle of the Dome. There is preserved the
precious Relique of our Lord’s Handkerchief, of which there’s the like in
St. _Peter_’s Church at _Rome_, and at _Besançon_. I had been told, that I
should be able to distinguish the very Print of the Face in this
Handkerchief, and a Part of our Saviour’s Body; but I was not so happy as
to discern any thing like it.

The King’s Palace makes no great Appearance, nor indeed is it quite
finish’d; nevertheless, the Apartments are well contriv’d; The Furniture
is rich, and there are excellent Pictures, and magnificent Cielings. There
are Gardens in this Palace, which are artfully dispos’d in the Manner of
Fortifications, according to beautiful Plans; but setting this aside, they
are not much adorn’d.

The finest, and the completest Thing at TURIN, and perhaps in _Europe_, in
the modern Architecture, is the Front of the Palace of the late Madame
Royale, the King’s Grandmother. This Palace is contiguous to the King’s
Palace, and communicates with it by a Gallery. ’Twas a very old Building,
and made a poor Appearance; but Madame Royale spar’d no Cost, either in
Gilding or Painting, to set off the Inside. When this was done, it
happened that the Stair-case was inconvenient; upon which her Royal
Highness, who was in every Thing magnificent, undertook to build one; and
to this is owing the stately Front, of which I here make mention. This
Princess consulted with all the skilful Architects in _Italy_, and fix’d
upon the Plans, which to her appear’d the most grand and beautiful. Before
this Stair-case was built, they us’d to say that Madame Royale’s Palace
was a House without a Stair-case; and now they say ’tis a Stair-case
without a House; and really, the Stair-case wou’d become the _Louvre_, it
being by much too big for the Building it belongs to.

I cou’d not get a Sight of the Castle of the _Venerie_, three Leagues from
TURIN; for while King _Victor_ is a Prisoner there, no body is suffer’d to
go near it. You must, no doubt, have heard of that Prince’s being under an
Arrest; but I question whether you have been inform’d of what gave
Occasion to that Affair, and of the Manner of his being taken into
Custody. What I have heard of it from People of Credit, is as follows.

King _Victor Amedeus_, after the Death of the Queen his Wife, who was
Daughter of _Philip_ of _France_, the late Duke of _Orleans_, by
_Henrietta_ of _England_, fell in Love with the Marchioness of[24] _St.
Sebastian_, Lady of Honour to the Princess of _Piedmont_, now Queen of
_Sardinia_. The Virtue of Madame _de St. Sebastian_, and the King’s
Devotion for her, induc’d him to marry this Favourite. But not thinking it
honourable for a King to place a Subject on his Throne, he took a
Resolution to resign his Crown, before he contracted so unequal
a[25]Match. He imparted his Design to Madame _de St. Sebastian_, who did
all she cou’d to prevail with _Victor_ to continue upon the Throne; but
finding he was resolv’d not to make her a Queen, she consented to his
Abdication, still thinking herself highly honour’d to become the Wife of a
Prince, who had worn a Crown. King _Victor_ consulted with his chief
Favourites about his Abdication, who all advis’d him not to leave the
Throne. His Son King _Charles_ conjur’d him to keep Possession of it. _I
protest to your Majesty_, said this Prince, _I never once indulged a Wish
to govern, and think myself exceeding happy to be your First Subject_. But
all his Remonstrances were of no Effect; and the 5th of _September_, 1730,
was fix’d for the Day of Abdication. Upon that Day, all the chief Persons
in the Government, and the Senate, met in the great Hall of the[26]Palace.
There the King appear’d without any Mark of Royalty, accompany’d by the
Prince of _Piedmont_, and declar’d to the Assembly, that he was resolv’d
to yield the Throne to his Son; and that from that Moment he exempted
them, as he did all his Subjects, from the Oath of Allegiance they had
taken to him. He exhorted them, at the same time, to acknowledge his Son
_Charles_, Prince of _Piedmont_, for their King; and desir’d them to be as
Loyal to their new Sovereign, as they had been to him. Then the Act of
Abdication was read with a loud Voice, by the Marquis _del Borgo_,
Secretary of State, and _Charles_ was recogniz’d for King.

After the Ceremony was over, King _Victor_, with the Marchioness of _St.
Sebastian_, whom he had married, on Condition[27] that she shou’d wear no
other Title, set out for _Chamberry_, which he had chose for the Place of
his Retirement. But scarce a Month was past, ere he began to repent of
having given the Reins out of his Hands, though the King his Son behaved
as dutifully to him, as if he had been still his Subject. When King
_Victor_ resign’d, he advis’d his Son to cause the Lands of the Nobility
and Gentry to be survey’d, and to impose a Tax on them, in Proportion to
the Number of Acres. This Scheme, tho’ it had a View to the Increase of
the King’s Revenues, tended to the Ruin of the Nobility; for which Reason,
_Charles_ when he came to the Crown, did not think proper to put it in
Execution. _Victor_ being incensed at it, wrote about it to his Son,
rather in the Style of his Lord and Master, than his Father; and
perceiving that _Charles_ was still averse to his Counsel, he entertained
a Thought of reascending the Throne[28]. To this End, he secretly felt the
Pulse of the People, and found them all faithful Subjects to _Charles_:
Yet all this did not discourage him; he relied upon the Troops, which he
knew had an Esteem for him, and he thought they wou’d also be his Friends;
for most of the Officers having been preferr’d by him, he did not doubt
but they were still attach’d to him, and he flatter’d himself with their
Concurrence to his Designs. He wrote to the Marshal _Rhebinder_, in
general Terms indeed; but in a Style that was very soothing and tempting.
This General, who was Commander in Chief of the Forces, being sensible of
what Consequence it was to deprive King _Victor_ of the least Hopes of
reascending the Throne, returned him Answer, that he owned he was obliged
to him for his Estate, Honours, and every Thing: ‘Your Majesty, _said the
Marshal in his Letter_, has made me all that I am. I am under no
Obligation to King _Charles_; but my Engagements to your Majesty are
inexpressible; tho’ of all the Favours which you have heap’d upon me, the
Honour of your Esteem was always to me the dearest. Give me leave
therefore, Sir, to preserve that Esteem, which I presume to say, I have
acquir’d by the Blood I have spilt for your Service; whereas, Sir, I
shou’d forfeit it, were I so unhappy as to be guilty of Perjury to the
King whom you have given me, and to whom you have injoined me Obedience. I
shall be as true to him as I was to your Majesty, and will shed the last
Drop of my Blood to maintain him on the Throne. I am however always ready
to give your Majesty the most sincere Marks of my Respect for your Person,
being fully persuaded, Sir, that your Majesty will lay no Commands on me,
but such as are agreeable to that Justice, which ever accompanied all your
Actions, _&c._’

This Answer was not sufficient to cool King _Victor_’s Ambition to resume
the Government. He wrote a second time to the Marshal _de Rhebinder_, and
to other General Officers. He assumed an imperious Style, and signify’d,
that he knew how to punish those that refus’d to obey him. All these
Letters were carried to King _Charles_, who being concerned to see his
Father so uneasy, said to those who brought them, What wou’d you have me
do? _He is my Father, I depend upon your Fidelity and resign myself to

The King was still in Hopes, that he shou’d be able to make _Victor_ easy,
and was willing to have an Interview with him; and for that Purpose he
went with his Queen to _Evian_, and from thence to _Chamberry_, where
_Charles_ paid his Father a Visit, but found him very much out of Temper.
The Prince however bore all with the Dutifulness of a Son. But when he
took leave of _Victor_, he paid a Visit to Madame _de St. Sebastian_, with
whom he had a long Conference. He desir’d this Lady to pacify King
_Victor_, and to dissuade him from concerning himself any farther with
State Affairs. _He hath made me King_, said _Charles, and King I will be.
You can do any thing with him; therefore make him easy. If he does not
like this, let him choose any other Castle or Place in my Dominions that
he likes better, of which he shall have the intire Disposal_. They say
_Charles_ dropt a Hint in this Conversation, that he was inclin’d to yield
his Father a Province in Sovereignty; however, he promis’d great
Advantages to Madame _de St. Sebastian_, not only for herself, but for the
Son that she had by her former Marriage, and for her Brothers. This Lady
promis’d the King all that he desir’d, but kept her Word very ill; for her
Ambition to be Queen prompted her to make King _Victor_ every Day more and
more uneasy.

_Victor_ after this observed no Measures, and said publicly, that he would
reascend the Throne. To this End, he thought it necessary for him to be
nearer TURIN. He therefore wrote to the King his Son, that the Air of
_Chamberry_ was bad for his Health, and desir’d him to let him go and
reside at the Castle of _Montcallier_. _Charles_ was return’d to TURIN
when he receiv’d this Letter; but before he had Time to answer it, he
understood that the King his Father, and Madame _de St. Sebastian_, were
already come to _Montcallier_. He was not at all sorry for it, because,
as he knew King _Victor_’s Designs, he cou’d better observe his Motions,
when so near him: And King _Victor_, on his Part, was glad that he was at
_Montcallier_, in Hopes that the Neighbourhood of TURIN might give him a
better Opportunity of tampering with the Garison, and the commanding
Officer of the Place. He did all that was in his Power to gain them, and
gave such publick[29] Proofs of his Intention to reascend the Throne, that
_Charles_’s Ministers[30], fearing lest he should call in Foreigners to
his Assistance, unanimously advis’d the King to confine him. The young
Prince exclaim’d several times against this Proposition. _What!_ said he,
_make my Father a Prisoner! No, I can never consent to that_: And indeed,
it was a long time ere he cou’d agree to it; but at length he was
prevail’d on by the strenuous Solicitations of his Council; tho’, when he
sign’d the Order for confining him, his Hand shook to such a Degree, that
the Secretary of State was obliged to guide it.

The Count _de la Perouse_, Lieutenant-General of his Forces, was charged
with the Execution of the Warrant for arresting King _Victor_, and had a
Detachment given him of three thousand Men, drawn out of the Garisons of
TURIN, and other neighbouring Places, to support him at the Undertaking.
They all march’d out at the same Hour from their Quarters, without
knowing whither they were to go; and at Two o’Clock next Morning they all
came to the Place appointed at _Montcallier_. The Count _de la Perouse_,
attended by the Chevalier _de Solare_, Lieutenant Colonel of the Guards,
at the Head of a Detachment of Grenadiers, with their Bayonets screw’d to
their Musquets, went up to the great Stair-case of the Palace, which led
to King _Victor_’s Apartment, while the Marquis _d’Ormea_, Secretary of
State, who carry’d the Order sign’d by King _Charles_, secur’d the
Back-stairs with another Detachment of the Grenadiers. M. _de la Perouse_,
finding the Apartment shut, broke open the Door; and, after seizing a Page
in waiting, that was asleep in the first Anti-chamber, he made his Way
farther, and forc’d open all the Doors, till he came to the Chamber where
the King was a-bed with Madame _de St. Sebastian_. This Lady, hearing a
Noise, arose immediately, and having only Time to slip on a Night-gown,
ran to the Door; when seeing so many arm’d Men, she cry’d out, _Oh! Sir,
we are betray’d!_ They gave her no Time to say more; but two Officers
carry’d her into the next Chamber, where they caus’d her to be dress’d,
and afterwards conducted her to _Ceve_, a Fortress of _Piedmont_.

Neither the Outcry of Madame _de St. Sebastian_, nor all the Noise that
was made, had awak’d King _Victor_, who always slept sound. The Chevalier
_de Solare_ seiz’d the King’s Sword, which he saw lying on a Table; and
the Count _de la Perouse_ went to the Bed-side, and open’d the Curtains.
Upon that, the King started out of his Sleep, and ask’d what was the
Matter. The Count _de la Perouse_ said to him, That he had Orders from the
King to arrest him. _What King do you mean?_ said _Victor_: _’Tis I that
am your King and Master; you ought to acknowledge no other. Your Majesty
has been so_, reply’d the Count, _but you are so no longer; and since it
has pleas’d you to give us King Charles for our Lord and Master, and to
command us to obey him, I hope you yourself will set us an Example of such
Obedience_. The King was in a violent Passion, threaten’d the Officers,
and refus’d to rise. The Chevalier _de Solare_ coming too near the Bed,
the King punched him with his Elbow in the Belly, and commanded him in
Wrath to withdraw. As he still continued obstinate in his Refusal to rise,
the Officers lifted him. up, and dress’d him. The King was heard to say,
in the mean time, that he only wish’d to sit two Hours on the Throne, that
he might hang up the Rascals that had misled his Son; and he nam’d the
principal Lords of the Court.

As soon as he was dress’d, the Officers surrounded him, and conducted him
down the great Stair-case to his Coach, that waited for him in the Yard.
The King, seeing the Anti-chamber full of Grenadiers, seem’d surpriz’d at
it; and the Soldiers, who as yet knew not on what Errand they were sent,
seem’d no less surpriz’d, when they saw their old King was to be carry’d
off a Prisoner. _What! Our King!_ said they softly to each other, _What
has he done? What is the Matter?_ The Count _de la Perouse_, fearing a
Mutiny, call’d out _Silence_, in the King’s Name, _on Pain of Death_. The
old King found drawn-up in the Court-yard a Regiment of Dragoons, which he
had always valu’d above the rest of his Troops. The Sight of it affected
him, and he wou’d have spoke to it; but no Time was allow’d him, and he
was oblig’d to go into the Coach. The Count _de la Perouse_, and the
Chevalier _de Solare_, ask’d his Leave to sit with him; but the King
answer’d, That he would not suffer it: So they mounted their Horses, rode
by the Sides of the Coach, which was surrounded by the Soldiers, and
conducted him to _Rivoli_. I had almost forgot to tell you, that when he
went from _Montcallier_, he ask’d for three Things; his Wife, his Papers,
and his Snuff-Box, the last of which was all he obtain’d.

The Day after he came to _Rivoli_, as they were clapping iron Bars, and
double Shutters, to the Windows of his Apartment, the King ask’d the
Glazier what he was going to do! _I am going_, said the Man, _to put on
double Shutters to your Windows that you mayn’t catch Cold this Winter_.
_How now, Varlet!_ said the King, _Do you think I shall spend all the
Winter here?_ _Ah! by my Faith_, reply’d the Glazier, _you will pass this
winter here, and I believe many more_.

This Prince is attended with Care, and treated with all the Respect due to
his Person; and they say, he begins to be sedate. The Chevalier _de
Solare_, and two Captains of the Guards, are set over him, with whom he
sometimes plays at Billiards. They have Orders to treat him with all
manner of Respect; but to give no Answer to any of his Complaints[31].

In the whole Course of this Affair, ’tis fortunate for King _Charles_,
that not one of his Subjects has fail’d in his Allegiance to him; he has
not been oblig’d to stain his Government by any bloody Execution; nor has
he caus’d above three Persons to be apprehended, among whom were King
_Victor_’s two Physicians, that carried his Letters; but they are lately
set at Liberty, and a good Understanding is like to be quickly restored
between the father and the Son.

They say, that Madame _de St. Sebastian_ is fallen into a deep Melancholy;
and that she lives intirely upon Broth, which is of her own making. After
her Disgrace, her Son, who was an Ensign in the Guards, was no longer seen
at Court. The young King missing him, ordered the Marquis _d’Ormea_,
Minister and Secretary of State, to acquaint him, that he might come to
Court, and continue in his Employment; and that his Majesty assured him he
did not intend that he should be a Sufferer for any Crime whatsoever,
which Madame _de St. Sebastian_ had committed, and that he would take Care
of his Fortune.

The _Piedmontese_ are charm’d with their new King, and indeed, he is a
Prince that has the Qualities of a good Monarch: He is humane,
compassionate, generous and beneficent. He is a little under Size in
Stature, but very well shaped, dances well, loves Pleasures, and
particularly Hunting. Without Flattery, one may say, he is endowed with a
great many Virtues; and that if he has Faults, ’tis only owing to the
Human Nature, with which intire Perfection is incompatible.

The Queen[32] is of the Family of _Hesse Rhinfels_. She is tall and
slender; her Air is both majestic and modest; she is fair, and has a very
fine Complexion, is a Princess of solid Piety, charitable to the Poor, and
ready to do Good to all Mankind, but particularly to her Family. She is
the Mother of two lovely[33] Princes, and a Princess, and seems very
attentive to give them an Education suitable to their Birth.

The Ceremonial of this Court is pretty much the same with that which is
observed at the Court of _France_, The King and Queen always eat together,
and permit none to be Spectators but the Officers of their Houshold. The
Ladies must not come to the Palace, without being in the Court Dress, the
Queen alone wearing a Mantua. Her Majesty has six Ladies of Honour to
attend her, who must be all Wives, and as many Maids of Honour. She has a
Drawing-Room every Night, when the Queen is seated in an Arm-chair, the
young Princess of _Carignan_, and the Queen’s youngest Sister, sitting on
Folding-chairs, two Rows off, by the Side of the Queen’s Chair; and all
the Ladies stand, with the Gentlemen behind them. This Drawing-Room holds
for about an Hour, when the Queen rises, and, saluting the Princesses and
Ladies, retires. After this, all the Nobility repair to some House where
there is an Assembly. The gayest of all is held at the House of the
Marchioness _de Prie_, whose Husband was Lieutenant Governor of the
_Netherlands_, who often gives a Ball, at which the King is sometimes

There’s an Air of Ease and Freedom in this City, which is not to be
enjoy’d in all _Italy_ besides; and the _Piedmontese_ don’t think
themselves _Italians_; so that I am often ask’d, Whether I came last from
_Italy_? Or, Whether I am going to it? I could like to live in this City
better than in any other. I think this Mixture of the _French_ Manners
with the _Italians_ is perfectly agreeable and just. The People here live
well. There are several Noblemen that keep a good Table, and are very
civil to Strangers. For this, the Marshal _de la Rhebinder_ is
particularly noted. This General is a Native of _Livonia_: He commanded
the Elector Palatine’s Troops in _Italy_, and then went into the Service
of the Duke of _Savoy_, in Quality of Lieutenant General, and Colonel of a
foreign Regiment of Foot. King _Victor_ created him a Velt-Marshal, and he
is actually Commander in Chief of the King of _Sardinia_’s Troops.

The Marquis _d’Ormea_ is the Chief or President of the Council, first
Secretary of State, and Prime Minister. He was heretofore in the
Confidence of King _Victor_. That Prince had sent him to _Rome_, where
the Marquis _d’Ormea_ obtained great Advantages of Pope _Benedict_ XIII.
for the King his Master; particularly the Nomination to all Benefices.
This Minister was recall’d in the first Year of the Pontificate of
_Clement_ XII. when his Holiness was so inclement as to revoke all that
his Predecessor had granted. Not long before King _Victor_’s Abdication he
returned to TURIN. King _Charles_ does nothing without him. He is a
Gentleman of Good-nature, an Enemy to Subterfuges, and is sacred to his
Promises. I knew him at _Rome_, and have the Honour of seeing him here as
often as the Multiplicity of his Affairs will permit him to receive my
Visits. Every body here applauds and speaks well of him, which is not
always the good Fortune of People elsewhere, that are in Places: This
Minister has a Brother a[34]Cardinal, and an only Son, who is a very
lovely Youth, and has a natural Inclination to tread hereafter in the
Steps of his Father.

The Youth here don’t seem to be so hair-brain’d as they are elsewhere: I
don’t know whether they are really wiser, but however they seem to be so
in Public. Were I to advise a Father of a Family, it should be to send his
Children to the University here, than which I question whether there’s a
better in _Europe_, as well with regard to the Masters of the Exercises,
as to the Care taken of the Youth, who are boarded, dieted and instructed
in all the Sciences and Exercises, and divided into two Classes; of which
the one only studies the Law, and therefore does not pay so much as the
other; but they must be all Gentlemen. They are only allow’d to go abroad
on certain Days of the Week; but then they may appear at Court, and go
where they please, except to Houses of Gaming.

The Out-parts of TURIN are infinitely pleasant. The Country is adorned
with a great many pretty _Cassines_ or Pleasure-Houses, which are only
separated by Meadows, that are constantly water’d by a Number of little
Brooks. I take the Air every Day upon the _Esplanade_, between the City
and the Citadel, where there are fine Walks, and one often meets with very
pretty Women. The Blood here is perfectly good, and all the _Piedmontese_
Ladies have a great deal of Life and Spirit. I am very sorry to leave
them, but the Misfortune is unavoidable, and Haste presses me to be gone.
I propose to be in ten or twelve Days at _Lyons_, if I don’t stay at
_Chamberry_; but this you will know by my next Letter. Don’t fail to write
to me at _Paris_, and believe me to be, _&c._


                             LETTER XXXVII.

  _SIR_,                                       _Lyons, March 2, 1732._

Tho’ I had pass’d Mount _Cenis_ twice before, and travers’d _Savoy_, yet I
thought the Passage of the _Alps_ as disagreeable as ever; and am heartily
glad to find myself in this City, which is better than all _Savoy_ put

From _Turin_ I went and lay at LA NOVALAISE. I first pass’d by the Castle
of _Rivoli_, which stands on an Eminence, and to which there’s an Avenue
from _Turin_ in a strait Line of three Leagues in Length. Then I travell’d
thro’ SUSA, which, by the way, is a very dirty Town, upon the Banks of a
River form’d by Torrents from the neighbouring Mountains, which seem, as
it were, to bury _Susa_ alive. This City, and the Valley in which ’tis
built, are commanded by the Fort DE LA BRUNETTE, an important Place, which
King _Victor Amedeus_ caus’d to be erected for the Defence of _Piedmont_.
Nature and Art have alike contributed to fortify it. ’Tis provided with a
good Garison, and all Necessaries to sustain a Siege; and if it had been
built in the Time of _Lewis_ XIII. I doubt whether that King, and his
Minister the Cardinal _de Richelieu_, would so easily have passed the

LA NOVALAISE is a sorry Town, with a wretched Inn, which is the more
disagreeable, because Strangers are oblig’d to stop there to unload their
Effects, and put them on the Backs of Mules to carry them to the other
Side of the Mountain. I was carried over it in a matted Elbow-chair by
four Men, who relieved one another at proper Distances, and often took me
upon their Shoulders; so that if I had been ever so little given to
Chimeras, I should have fansied myself a Pope.

At the Top of the Mountain is a[35]Lake, and also an Hospital, which I
thought made but a poor Appearance. Pilgrims are there entertain’d, and
other Foot Passengers, for three Days; and there are two Priests to
receive the Passengers, and to serve the Church. This is a very laudable
Foundation in a sorry wretched Country, where, notwithstanding this
Provision, People are often found dead in the Snow. Those poor Reverends
may boast, that they live in one of the saddest Places in the World, their
greatest Amusement for nine Months in the Year, being to see the Snow
fall, and to blow their Fingers. The Descent from Mount _Cenis_ on the
Side of _Savoy_ is by much the[36] easiest, where in the Winter-time
People have the Pleasure of rolling down in a Sled, which the Country
People call _se faire ramasser_. This Way of travelling is very commodious
and diverting, and so swift, that an Arrow from a Cross-bow does not fly
faster. I knew an _English_ Gentleman that stay’d a Week together at
_Lanebourg_, and who, after he had come down this Mountain, went up again
and again, purely for the Pleasure of _se faire ramasser_.

LANEBOURG and its Inn are no better than _La Novalaise_; but one is
oblig’d to stop again here for fresh Horses. Those who don’t travel Post,
and make use of the Carriers of _Turin_ or _Chamberry_, are seldom put to
this Trouble, because most of these People have Pack-horses on both Sides
the Mountain, and have nothing to do but to send their Baggage away, which
is very quickly loaded. From _Lanebourg_ to _Chamberry_ all the Road is
bury’d, as it were, by Rocks and Mountains, and frightful Precipices:
There are Rails indeed, but not strong enough to stop a Carriage: I saw a
Cart drawn by four Horses tumble down one of those Precipices, by which
the Horses were kill’d, and the Cart with its whole Lading, which
consisted of Porcelain and Glass Wares belonging to the Prince of
_Carignan_, broke in a thousand Pieces: The Carrier, tho’ he was not at
all to blame, drew out his Knife in order to stab himself, and wou’d
actually have done it, if my Postilion and other People had not hinder’d

I pass’d thro’ several little Towns in my Way hither, that are not worth
mentioning; ST. JOHN DE MAURIENNE is the chief, because ’tis the See of a
Bishop, and the Capital of a Province of that Name; ’tis a very antient
County, and the first Inheritance of the Princes of _Savoy_; this Valley
extends from the _Alps_ to the River of _Isere_ on one Side, and from the
_Tarentaise_ to the _Dauphinois_.

CHAMBERRY, the Capital City of _Savoy_, is not a Town where you must
expect sumptuous Fabrics, the Houses there making but a mean Figure, yet
the Place is not for that Reason one jot the less agreeable; ’tis situate
on the Banks of the River _Orbanno_ in a very little Plain encompass’d
with Hills, where there are charming Walks, and special Company. There’s a
great Number of Nobility, who indeed are not the most money’d Men; yet
they make good Entertainments, and keep a great deal of Company. The
Ladies are beautiful, and the Gentlemen handsome, the common People
good-natur’d and civil, and the _Savoyards_ in general are a very good
Sort of People. They are accus’d of being too thrifty, but perhaps ’tis
more out of Necessity than Inclination; for when a Man is oblig’d to
support the Dignity of a Noble or Gentleman, and has but a small Fortune,
he is forc’d to be a good Husband whether he will or no.

At the Distance of five Leagues from _Chamberry_ I descended a high
Mountain, in which I perceiv’d a Road had been cut for half a League. I
saw by a _Latin_ Inscription at the Foot of the Mountain, which I had not
Time to copy, that the _Romans_ formerly undertook to make this Road; but,
judging it impossible, gave it over; yet _Charles Emanuel_ II. for the
Good of his Subjects, and the Public in general, undertook it; and had the
Glory to carry it to a Conclusion, which was the most useful and
magnificent Thing that a great Sovereign could do: But I question whether
he wou’d have accomplish’d it, if, like the _Romans_, he had not made use
of Gunpowder. There was a Necessity for the blowing up of prodigious high
Rocks for establishing the Bed of the Causey, which is fenc’d on both
Sides by Rocks cut out in Form of Walls, that are as high as the Top of
the Mountain. This hollow Way is subject to great Mists; when I pass’d, it
was the finest Weather in the World on the Plain; but when I enter’d the
Valley, I found a Mist so thick, that I could not see my Postilion.

This Mist brought me to the Town of ECHELLES, which is at the Foot of the
Mountain at the Entrance of a Plain that leads to _Lyons_. I also pass’d
to PONT DE BONVOISIN, a little Town which is shar’d betwixt the Kings of
_France_ and _Sardinia_. Both these Princes have their Custom-houses here,
the Officers of which are not very tractable. The King of _France_ keeps a
Commandant, and two free Companies, in that Part of _Bonvoisin_, which
belongs to him. This is the first Town of _Dauphiny_, which is not one of
the least Provinces in the Kingdom. It was granted to _Philip de Valois_
by _Humbert de la Tour_, the last Sovereign Prince of _Dauphiny_, who bore
the Title of Dauphin of the _Viennois_. History says, that _Humbert_,
finding himself childless, made a Grant of his Principality to the King of
_France_, and chose a Monastic Life at _Lyons_ in the Order of St.
_Dominic_, in the Rules of which he liv’d with the very great Esteem of
good Men. He was afterwards elected Prior of this Convent, and nominated
Patriarch of _Alexandria_. Some say, that having been the innocent Author
of the Death of his only Son, his deep Concern for this Accident made him
resolve to embrace the Monastic Life; but others pretend, that having a
secret Grudge against the Duke of _Savoy_, whom he was too weak to cope
with, he made an Agreement with the King of _France_, on purpose that the
Duke might have a Neighbour powerful enough not only to oppose, but to
reduce him to Reason. But if this be true, it must be own’d to be a sad
Sort of Revenge for a Prince to strip himself of a Sovereignty, purely to
injure his Neighbour. I fansy there are few Princes wou’d be of the Humour
to take such a Revenge. The same _Humbert_ requir’d, that the eldest Son
of _France_ shou’d be styl’d the Dauphin, which was granted him, and has
been observ’d ever since. The Duke of _Orleans_, the first Prince of the
Blood of _France_, is Governor of _Dauphiny_. This Province has a
Parliament, which is held at _Grenoble_. The antient Dauphins resided at
_Vienne_, which is an Archbishoprick. ’Twas to the Neighbourhood of this
City, that _Herod_ and _Pilate_, our Saviour’s Judges, were banish’d.

LYONS is so considerable a City, that the _French_ commonly say, _Next to
+Paris+, +Lyons+_[37]. The _Sâon_ runs thro’ this City, and the _Rhone_
washes its Walls; ’tis a large opulent City, for the Inhabitants are
industrious, laborious, and given to Trading. There’s not a Town in
_France_, if in the whole World, where they make such fine Stuffs. They
endeavour to imitate them at _Turin_, in _Holland_, and elsewhere, but
they can’t come up to them. The City of Lyons is the See of an Archbishop,
who is at present M. _de Rochebonne_, and therein succeeded the late M.
_de Villeroi_, Son to the late Marshal of that Name, who was _Lewis_ the
XVth’s Governor. The _Villeroi_ Family has been for a long time in
Possession of the Government of _Lyons_, and the chief Dignities of its
Province. The late Marshal obtain’d the Government of _Lyons_ and the
_Lyonnois_ from King _Lewis_ XIV. who also granted him the Reversion of
the said Government for his eldest Son, the Archbishoprick for his second
Son, and the Abbey of _St. Peter_ in _Lyons_ for his Daughter. The Duke of
_Orleans_, when Regent of the Kingdom, conferred on him moreover the
Reversion of the Government of _Lyons_ for his Grandsons the Duke _de
Retz_, and the Marquis _d’Alincourt_, and nominated the latter
Lieutenant-General of the Province. Tho’ Authority generally renders those
hated who are vested with it, yet the Gentlemen of the Name of _Villeroi_
have ever escap’d that Fate; ’tis true they have always acted with very
great Moderation, and are beneficent, well-bred, civil and generous, so
that they are mightily belov’d in _Lyons_, where the late Marshal was as
much respected as the King himself; for he procur’d great Advantages for
the Province, and for the City in particular.

They tell a very good Story concerning the Admission of the first
_Villeroi_ to the Archiepiscopal Dignity of this City. The Chapter of
_Lyons_ is one of the most haughty in all _Christendom_, and ’tis not
without Reason; for it is founded upon the Blood of above 20,000 Martyrs,
and has always been reputed the Seminary of Popes, Cardinals and Bishops,
who have been taken from thence to govern the Church. Nobility is
inseparable therein from the Priesthood, and ’tis an Observation made by
several Authors, that in the third Century the Chapter consisted of
seventy-four Canons, of whom one was the Son of an Emperor, nine the Sons
of Kings, fourteen the Sons of Dukes, thirty the Sons of Counts, and
twenty were Barons. ’Tis no wonder therefore, that the Counts of _Lyons_,
for they are not called Canons, made a Scruple to admit for their
Archbishop _Camillus de la Neuville_, who was not of their Body, and whom
King _Lewis_ XIV. had nominated to this Archbishoprick. _Neuville_ is
known to be the Name of the Family of _Villeroi_. The Grandfather of this
Prelate was the first of the Family that was of any Eminence; he had been
Treasurer of the War-Office, and _Prevôt des Marchands_ of the City of
_Paris_; his Grandfather _Nicolas de la Neuville_ had been Secretary of
State, and his Father _Charles de la Neuville_ was the first of the Family
who had a Title of Honour, which was that of Marquis _d’Alincourt_, Sieur
_de Villeroi_, an Estate which _Peter le Gendre_ Treasurer of _France_,
had given to his Grandfather. The Marquis _d’Alincourt_ was Governor of
_Lyons_ and the _Lyonnois_, and dying in the Service of the King, as
Ambassador at _Rome_, his Majesty gave his Son the Archbishoprick of
_Lyons_, when it became vacant. The Chapter refus’d to admit him, because
he was not of a suitable Rank, nor a Member of their Body; but the King
found a way to make himself obey’d, and when the Archbishop harangu’d the
Chapter, he took these Words of the Psalmist for his Text, _The Stone
which the Builders had rejected, is become the head Stone of the Corner_.
The Discourse he made was, they say, as insulting to the Chapter as one
would expect from the Choice of the Text. The Dean, whose ready Wit was
applauded, made no other Answer to the Archbishop, than by taking the next
Verse to that which the Prelate had chose, _viz._ _This is the Lord’s
(+the King’s+) Doing, it is marvellous in our Eyes_. Notwithstanding this,
the new Archbishop found means to become both the Spiritual and Temporal
Governor of this City; for he was made Lieutenant-General in the
Government of the _Lyonnois_ till the Year 1693, when he was succeeded by
the Son of the Marshal _Villeroi_ his Nephew, and the latter was succeeded
by M. _de Rochebonne_.

The Person who commands in the Absence of the Duke _de Villeroi_, Governor
of the City, is the _Prevôt des Marchands_, which is so much the worse for
any Foreigner that comes Post; for he is carried to his House, and as
strictly examin’d as if he was a Prisoner at the Bar. I was also oblig’d
to conform to this Custom; having made me wait a long time in an
Anti-chamber, where was a Mixture of People of all Sorts, he appear’d at
last with an Air of Importance, which was not natural to him. The
Questions he put to me, and the Answers I gave, were very Laconic, and I
imagine that there is no Love lost betwixt us.

The _Prevôt des Marchands_ ought to be chang’d every three Years; but when
he is acceptable to the Court, he is commonly continued. One wou’d think,
that the transitory Grandeur of these Gentlemen shou’d not make them so
vain; for when they are turn’d out of their Employment, they make just the
same Figure as a Stage-Player, after he has put off the _Roman_ Habit, in
which he has represented _Mithridates_ or _Pyrrbus_.

I have reason to be as much pleas’d with M. _Poultier_ the Intendant, as I
have to dislike M. _Perichon_, the _Prevôt des Marchands_. I have been to
make him a Visit, which he has return’d; and for these four Days that I
have been here I go every Night to his House, where I see the best People
of this City, in which there’s good Company, tho’ few Nobility. The
Merchants of the first Rank live like petty Sovereigns, and have fine
Houses, both in the Town and the Country. If a Foreigner has ever so
little Acquaintance here, he cannot fail of being diverted; for the
_Lyonnois_ are civil and obliging, and not so much absorb’d in Commerce as
to neglect good Manners. They are extraordinary civil to me, and make me
very welcome. They delight in Gaming, and are not insensible to Love and
the Bottle.

The Comedy here is tolerable, and as much frequented as if it was the
best: The Comedians generally make their Fortunes in this City, and if
they don’t get an Estate, they can at least shew a fine Wardrobe. At one
of these Madams Levees a Captain is oblig’d to yield the Precedence to a
Journeyman Shopkeeper. There’s an old Actress here, who forty Years ago
was the Darling of the Generality of _Lyons_: The People of good Taste
wish her banish’d from the Theatre, but there’s no persuading this
superannuated Beauty not to expose her wither’d Charms: She has the
Direction of the Comedy, which brings her in 20,000 Livres a Year. An
Attempt has been made to cut off her Pension, which really might be better
employ’d; but Mademoiselle _Marez_, which is the Name of this Matron,
remonstrated, that she cou’d not live with less than 35000 Livres a Year,
that her Gallant was not able to furnish her the odd 15,000 any longer,
that she had no Estate; and that if they touch’d her Pension, she shou’d
be undone for ever. Reasons so just as these prevail’d, so that it was not
thought fit to push poor Mademoiselle _Marez_ to an Extremity. A Lady of
this Province happening to be in Town, and hearing it reported that
Mademoiselle _Marez_ had no less than 15,000 Livres a Year from her
Gallant, said smartly, _Ah! base Jade! She ought to be burn’d; She takes
the Bread out of the Mouths of above fifteen honest Wives_.

I often take the Air here in the Square of _Belle-Cour_, or _Lewis le
Grand_, where I am sure to meet with good Company, there being always a
great many very pretty Women, and well dress’d, who act the Ladies of
Quality very well. But I mention my Walks at _Belle-Cour_ to you, without
acquainting you what Sort of Place it is: ’Tis not pav’d, nor near so wide
as it is long: The Houses at both Ends are uniform, and finely decorated;
and it were to be wish’d, that those on the two Sides were of the same
Proportion. On one Side of this Square there’s a Row of Trees, and in the
Middle an Equestrian Statue of _Lewis_ XIV. who is there represented on
Horseback on a Pedestal of white Marble; but with no other Inscription
than the Name, LEWIS XIV. which, after all that can be said, is a great
deal of Praise in a little Compass; and the late Marshal _de Villeroi_,
who engag’d the Citizens of _Lyons_ to be at the Expence of it, thought it
the greatest and most respectful Compliment that cou’d be paid to the

There’s another Square here call’d _les Terreaux_, which is worthy of
Notice; in the Front of it stands the Town-house, which is a grand and
magnificent Edifice of Stone. _Lewis_ XIV. on Horseback is represented in
Basso-Relievo over the Gate. On the Left-hand of the Town-house upon the
Square of _Terreaux_ stands the Abbey of St. _Peter_, which is a great
Building, and, when finish’d, will not want for Magnificence. I am, _&c._


                            LETTER XXXVIII.

  _SIR_,                                      _Paris, March 20, 1732._

For the sake of good Wine I preferr’d the _Djon_ Road to _Paris_, before
the great Road from _Lyons_ thro’ _Tarare_; but I have been rightly serv’d
for being so over-nice in my Palate, for I have been sadly impos’d on, and
did not meet with one Glass of good Wine at any House of Entertainment in
all the Road, which in other respects I found pleasant enough. I sent my
Chaise to _Chalons_ upon the _Saone_, and went thither by Water in the
Boat that carries Passengers, who go in the _Diligence_ (Stage Coach) to
_Paris_. In this Vehicle, which otherwise was not a very pleasant one, I
happen’d to meet with a Couple of Officers of my Acquaintance, very
amiable Gentlemen. We pass’d by TREVOUX, the Capital of the Principality
of _Dombes_, of which the Duke _de Maine_ is Sovereign: It came to him by
Inheritance from the late Mademoiselle _de Montpensier_, Daughter of
_Gaston_ of _France_, Duke of _Orleans_, a Princess who render’d herself
famous in the Civil Wars by the taking of _Orleans_, and by ordering the
Cannon to be fir’d from the Bastille upon the Army of _Lewis_ XIV. who
never intirely forgave her for that Piece of Disrespect, and to punish her
wou’d never give her leave to marry[38]. ’Twas to reconcile the King to
her, that her Ladyship made the Duke _de Maine_ her Heir. _Dombes_ has a
Parliament, and _Trevoux_ is famous for the _Literary Journal_ printed
there, which causes such frequent Disputes among the Learned.

After having pass’d _Trevoux_, we saw several other Towns, Villages and
Mansion-houses in a Country, one of the finest Landskips that ’tis
possible to imagine. We din’d very much in Haste at a Village, and went
and lay at MACON, an Episcopal City, where the Canons of the Cathedral
have the Title of Counts, as well as those of the Church of St. _John_ at
_Lyons_. This City did not seem to me to have any thing remarkable, and
whether there is any good Company in it, I did not stay long enough to

CHALONS upon the _Saone_ is also the See of a Bishop, but did not appear
to me to be one jot more considerable than _Macon_: I went to see the
Castle, which has a full Command of the Town: There I was shew’d the
Apartment where the Duchess of _Maine_ was kept Prisoner during the
Regency of the Duke of _Orleans_. A Person had need of all that Spirit
which she is known to have, to bear up under a Disgrace equal to hers:
’Twas but a little before, that all the People of _France_ were fond of
making their Court to her; her Grandeur was not equall’d by any Princess
of the Blood, and her Lodgings were perfectly superb; but on a sudden she
fell from all her Splendor, and was oblig’d to live in a miserable Castle,
with no Companions but the Women that are absolutely necessary to attend
her[39]. I will hereafter give you a more particular Account of this
Princess; but I now proceed on my Journey.

From _Chalons_ I went to DIJON, after having pass’d thro’ _Beaune_, and
along by the best Vineyards in all _Burgundy_. To tell you frankly my
Mind, I had quite another Idea of _Dijon_, than what I really found it to
be: ’Tis an ancient City, and most of the Houses are old, and make no
great Appearance, tho’ they are very convenient, and well fitted up. In
the Street of _Conde_, which is newly built, the Houses are of equal
Proportion. The lower Part consists of Shops, and over them are the
Merchants Lodging-Rooms, and there are Iron Balconies at the Windows,
which, if the Houses were higher, wou’d make a fine Sight. This Street
leads to the Place Royale, in which there’s an Equestrian Statue of the
late King _Lewis_ XIV. which is plac’d on so high a Pedestal, that it even
raises the Statue higher than the Houses that surround the Place, which
moreover is by much too small to contain so great a Monument. The Houses
are actually very low, and if they were to be carry’d higher, the Statue
would look as if it were imprison’d in a Cage. This Mass of Copper was
cast in _Paris_, and first carry’d by Water to _Auxerre_, where it
remain’d a long while, it being so very heavy and large, that it was in a
manner immoveable; but at last it was remov’d by Land Carriage to _Dijon_,
but not without very great Difficulty, and as great Expence; yet it
appeared to me to be one of the least Statues in the Kingdom.

This Statue faces the _King’s House_, where lives the Duke of _Bourbon_,
Governor of the Province. ’Tis a very spacious Building, with two advanc’d
Wings, but can only be reckon’d a very irregular Structure. I did not go
to see the Apartments, because I was told, that they were not furnish’d,
and not worth the Trouble of a View.

The Palace, where the Parliament meets, is very ancient, and one of the
vilest in the Kingdom. Whether the Dukes of _Burgundy_ resided there
heretofore, I know not; but if they did, they were not very sumptuously

_Dijon_ was erected, but a few Years ago, into a Bishoprick, by the late
Pope _Benedict_ XIII. at the Request of the Duke of _Bourbon_; who was
very glad to procure that Honour for the Capital of his Government.

The Ring at _Dijon_ is the finest Thing about this City; which is really
neither fine nor agreeable. The common People are not over and above
civil, and those of Quality value themselves very much upon their
Nobility. Pray read only the Letters of _Bussi Rabutin_, and you will know
what Sort of Gentry the _Burgundians_ are; for they are all, like him,
puffed up with their Birth. The Parliament of this Province consists
generally of Persons of Quality.

The Duke of _Bourbon_ is the fourth Governor of _Burgundy_, of the _Conde_
Family; to which this Government is a Sort of Appenage. This Prince never
comes to _Dijon_, but to hold an Assembly of the States. The Count _de
Tavannes_, who is Lieutenant-general of the Province, commands there in
his Absence. There is an Intendant, and all the Sovereign Courts.
Notwithstanding so much Company, I thought _Dijon_ a melancholy Place; and
I have seen a great many Towns in _France_ of less Note, which to me had a
more gay and agreeable Appearance. There is a public Concert here, to
which I was forc’d to go, whether I would or not; I thought, before I
went, that it would be but indifferent, and so indeed I found it. The Hall
was magnificent, the Company numerous and splendid, and the Concert would
have been very good, if there had been Musicians; but as it was, it
resembled the Butchers Concert of Marrow-bones and Cleavers.

From _Dijon_ I went to AUXERRE and SENS, of which the last is the See of
an Archbishop; and that’s all I can say of it, because I only staid there
to change Horses. When I came to _Auxerre_, I found the whole Street where
the Post-house stands in an Uproar, it being full of Mob, and especially
of Women, who all seem’d very much enrag’d. This was owing to a
Transaction the Night before, when the Wife of a Baker qualify’d her
Husband for one of the chief Posts in the Seraglio: The Motive which
induc’d her to this barbarous Action was Jealousy: Her Husband, who was
about twenty Years old, and a very likely Man, was (at least, as the
scandalous Chronicle of _Auxerre_ said) a little too intimate with a
Pastry Cook Woman, who was young and handsome. The Baker’s Wife, who was
old and ugly, not being able to bear the Thoughts of her Husband’s
Inconstancy, had taken Care to lay a Razor under her Bolster; and at the
very Time when her Husband was giving her the Marks of his Tenderness for
her, she made him a second _Abelard_. This Tragedy having happen’d just as
I arriv’d at _Auxerre_, the Inhabitants were all very much incensed
against the Baker’s Wife, and hurry’d the poor Wretch to Prison. The Women
curs’d her heartily, yet in their serious Imprecations there was something
perfectly comical. I verily believe, that if they had had her at their
Mercy, they would have tore her to Pieces.

FONTAINEBLEAU, a Royal Palace which I pass’d thro’, is fourteen Leagues
from _Paris_. There’s a great Village belonging to it, which stands in the
Middle of a large Forest, wherein a great Number of long Roads is cut, for
the Conveniency of Hunting. The Palace is irregular, because all the Kings
from _Francis_ I. to _Lewis_ XIV. have made very considerable Additions to
it; nevertheless the Apartments are grand and magnificent. There’s a great
Number of Cielings painted by celebrated Masters, whom _Francis_ I. sent
for on purpose from _Italy_. The Gallery of the Stags is noted for the
cruel Action committed there by _Christina_, Queen of _Sweden_; who caus’d
her Master of the Horse, and her Favourite _Monaldeschi_, to be
assassinated there before her Face, after having shewn him some Letters,
which he had the Indiscretion to write, and reproach’d him for his
Treachery, in the Presence of the Minister[40] of the Order of the Holy
Trinity, whom she had sent for to give the poor Man Confession, and who in
vain solicited his Pardon. _Lewis_ XIV. was very much disgusted at an
Execution thus committed in his Palace, and, as it were, under his Nose:
Indeed, rather than be oblig’d to manifest his Resentment, he chose to
keep a profound Silence; but tho’ he dissembled it as much as possible,
_Christina_ perceiv’d, that she had staid too long at his Court, and
resolv’d to retire to _Rome_, where in 1689 she died.

But _Fontainebleau_ has lately been the Scene of an Action more pleasant,
grand and glorious, _viz._ the Ceremony of the Marriage of King _Lewis_
XV. The Duke of _Orleans_ having marry’d the Queen by Proxy, at
_Strasbourg_, the Princess came by short Days Journies to a Place about a
League from _Moret_; where she was met by the King, and the Princesses of
the Blood. I had the Pleasure of being an Eye-witness of this Interview.
When the Two Coaches of the King and Queen came in Sight of each other,
they advanc’d a few Paces upon the Trot, and then stopp’d; when their
Majesties alighted, and walk’d to each other upon Carpets. When the Queen
came near to the King, she kneel’d down upon a Cushion of blue Velvet,
seeded with Fleurs-de-Lys of Gold. The Dukes of _Orleans_ and _Bourbon_
rais’d her up again, when the King saluted her, but said nothing to her:
The Princes and Princesses saluted her also, and she receiv’d them with
such a good-natur’d, modest Air, as prepossess’d the whole Court in her
Favour. Then the King went into his Coach, where the Queen seated herself
on his Left-hand; and the Princes and Princesses having plac’d themselves
according to their Rank, they thus proceeded to _Moret_. I heard the late
Duchess of _Orleans_ say, that there was a very great Silence observ’d in
the Coach for some time, because all that were in it, out of Respect to
the King, waited for him to speak first: But as he said nothing, the
Duchess of _Orleans_, who had seen the Queen in _Germany_, and at _Metz_,
was the first that broke Silence; and, by degrees, the Conversation became
general. When they arriv’d at _Moret_, the King and the Queen, attended by
the Princes and Princesses, went into the Queen’s Closet: There the King
talk’d; and after having stay’d about an Hour, he return’d to
_Fontainebleau_, with the same Train that attended him when he set out
from thence.

The next Morning, at Eight o’Clock, the Queen arriv’d at _Fontainebleau_,
without any other Retinue than what she had during her whole Journey.
Being in an Undress, she went strait to her Apartment, and sat down to
the Toilet; when she was dress’d, Word was brought to her, that the King
was arriv’d; who, in a few Moments after, made his Appearance, in a Mantle
of Gold Brocade, trimm’d with _Spanish_ Point of Gold, the whole enrich’d
with Diamonds. His Majesty, having saluted the Queen, walk’d the same
Instant towards the Chapel, and the Queen follow’d immediately after him,
supported by the Dukes of _Orleans_ and _Bourbon_: She was dress’d in a
Blue Velvet Gown, seeded with Fleurs-de-Lys of Gold; her Petticoat, and
the Tail of her Gown, were fac’d with Ermin, and adorned with Diamonds;
and her Royal Mantle, which was like her Gown, was held up by the
Princesses of the Blood. She had the Royal Crown on her Head; and ’tis
certain, that every thing about her was truly magnificent, and made a very
grand Appearance. The Chapel was adorn’d with a rich Suit of Hangings, of
blue Velvet, imbroider’d with Gold. The Elector of _Cologne_, the
Electoral Prince of _Bavaria_, now Elector, the Duke _Ferdinand_, and the
Bishop of _Freisingen_ and _Ratisbon_, were present _incognito_ at the
Ceremony. The Cardinal _de Rohan_ gave their Majesties the Nuptial
Benediction. The Queen happening to be out of Order during the Mass, the
Duke of _Bourbon_, who perceiv’d it, gave her some Balm-water, by which
her Majesty found immediate Relief.

After Mass was ended, they return’d in great Ceremony to the Queen’s
Apartment; and soon after was the Royal Feast, when the Princes and
Princesses din’d with their Majesties. All this was very fine, but the
Room was so much too small, that they who were in it were ready to be
smother’d, and three-fourths of the People could not get in.

When the Feast was over, their Majesties chang’d their Apparel, and took
an Airing with the Royal Family in a Calash, round the great Canal,
preceded by all the Court Nobility, and the Officers of the King’s
Houshold, and follow’d by the Ladies, in Coaches drawn each by Six Horses.
But ’tis certain, that in the whole, there was nothing more magnificent
than the Number of the Persons, and their Cloaths; for as to their
Equipages, they were very ordinary; there was not so much as one new
Coach, the Liveries were old, and the Nobility very sorrily mounted.

When the King and Queen were return’d to the Palace, there was a
Drawing-room; after which, their Majesties supp’d with the Princesses of
the Blood; and during the Supper, there was a Concert. When their
Majesties arose from Table, they went to the Windows, and saw the
Firework, and the Illumination in the Park; which was very much admir’d,
but really appear’d trifling to us _Germans_, who are accustom’d to see
Fireworks that cost immense Sums, and which are executed in a Manner that
surpasses every thing done elsewhere of the Kind. Thus ended all the
Rejoicings upon account of the King’s Marriage. They say there were great
Illuminations and Bonfires also at _Paris_; but as I was at
_Fontainebleau_, I did not see them. ’Tis certain tho’, that how much
soever the _French_ were pleas’d with the Marriage of their King, they
were in no very great Humour to rejoice at a Time when a Pound of Bread
cost eleven Sols, and few were they that had a Belly-full. ’Tis no
laughing Matter, when the Guts grumble. But I leave this long Digression,
and resume the Thread of my Narrative, by proceeding with the Description
of _Fontainebleau_.

This Royal Palace is accompanied with a fine Park, which, tho’ not near so
much adorned as the Park of _Versailles_, has remarkable Beauties, not to
be met with in that. The great Canal is superb, and, generally speaking,
the Palace of _Fontainebleau_, with all that environs it, has much more of
the Air of a Royal Palace, than _Versailles_ and _Marly_. The Village or
Town of _Fontainebleau_, for I know not which to call it, is very well
built. Most of the Lords have great Houses here, where they put their
Equipages and Domesticks; it being the Custom at the Court of _France_,
for every Lord that belongs to the Court to be lodg’d in the King’s
Palace; and the _French_ are so infatuated with this Practice, that a
Nobleman had rather be lodg’d in a Manger at Court, than in an Apartment
ever so commodious and magnificent, in his House at _Versailles_ and

The Road from _Fontainebleau_ to _Paris_ is pav’d all the Way. There are a
great many fine Houses on it, particularly PETITBOURG, belonging to the
Duke _d’Antin_, to whom it came by Succession, from his Mother, the
Marchioness _Montespan_. Very great Buildings have been erected there
within these few Years, which have the Appearance of Magnificence and
Grandeur; not to mention the rich Furniture, the Pleasures of the Park,
and several other Things, so ingeniously chose, and so beautifully
dispos’d, as are infinitely delightful.

CHOISY, which belongs to the first Princess Dowager of _Conti_, Daughter
of _Lewis_ XIV. by Mademoiselle _de la Valiere_, is, to my thinking, one
of the finest Houses in the Kingdom. ’Tis built intirely in the modern
Taste, and stands by the River Side. The Apartments are richly adorn’d.
The Garden which belongs to it is spacious, and several Alleys are cut
out in it, which yield very fine Walks, and render _Choisy_ an inchanting
Place. Were I to mention all the other fine Houses to you that are upon
the Road, I should never have done. If you consult the _Delices de la
France_, you will find a large Account of all those Houses, as well as of
their Names and Situation. For my part, my Head akes so much at this
Instant, that ’tis impossible for me to add any more: But in a few Days,
you shall hear farther from me; and then I will give you some Account of
_Paris_: In the meantime, believe me to be always Yours intirely, _&c._


                             LETTER XXXIX.

  _SIR_,                                       _Paris, April 1, 1732._

Don’t imagine, that I am going to give you an exact Description of the
City of PARIS; for that would be an Undertaking to as little Purpose, as
it is beyond my Ability. PARIS has been so fully describ’d, and is so much
talk’d of, that most People know what Sort of Place it is, though they
have never seen it. Several Authors are so divided about the Antiquity of
PARIS, that I can say nothing positive to you upon this Head. _Cæsar_, in
his Commentaries, speaks very much in its Favour, and says, that in his
Time, this City was call’d _Lutetia_. The Learned differ also about the
Origin of this[41]Name; but I shall leave them to dispute this Matter as
long as they please, and assure them, that I am not concerned in their

According to Father _Daniel_, PARIS was the Capital City of _France_, in
the Reign of _Clovis_, about the Year 507. But even then, PARIS was a
Place of very little Consequence; and, if it be duly consider’d, could not
be rank’d among the great Towns, before the Reign of _Philip Augustus_;
That Prince made it his Endeavour to embellish it, and added Buildings to
it, which at that Time were reckon’d very magnificent. Since his Reign,
PARIS has always been the Seat of the Kings, and has been continually
increasing in Grandeur and Beauty. But none of its Kings has contributed
so much to the Magnificence of PARIS, as the Prince who least resided in
it, I mean _Lewis_ XIV. who caus’d such Structures to be rais’d in it, as
are worthy of the greatest Monarch in the World. Of some of these Works, I
may hereafter give you a more particular Account.

The _French_ pretend, that no City in _Europe_ contains so many
Inhabitants as PARIS; but the _English_ say, the most populous is
_London_; yet, without the least Hesitation, I determine it for the latter
of the two Rivals. My Reason for it is this: At PARIS, eighteen or twenty
thousand People die every Year, and at _London_ twenty-three or
twenty-four thousand; tho’ I don’t dispute, but PARIS seems more populous:
For in the latter, every body is to be seen in the Streets, either on Foot
or in Coaches; whereas at _London_, Passengers are continually going up
and down the _Thames_; which River is seldom without carrying forty or
fifty thousand People, who, if diffus’d in the Streets, would make them
look fuller of People than those of PARIS. Besides, what makes the Capital
of _France_ appear to be more populous, is, that it has more Coaches and
Carts; whereas at _London_, one always sees Goods going up or down the
River; which is the Reason, that Carts are not so much in Use there: And
most of the Ladies, instead of Coaches, ride in Sedans. But a _Frenchman_
will tell me, you shall see five or six Families in one House at PARIS;
whereas at _London_, they are seldom two. To this I shall answer, that
’tis true, there are more Lodgers in the Houses of PARIS; but this stands
for nothing, and only proves, that there are more Houses at _London_. At
PARIS, there are many Hôtels, or great Houses, Convents, large Gardens,
public Squares, Quays, and a River that runs through the Middle; all which
takes up a great deal of Ground; and in several of the Suburbs, without
which PARIS itself is but a little Place, there are intire Marshes. But at
_London_,’tis quite otherwise, such Hôtels are uncommon there, and few
Houses there have Courts to them. They are all very much pent up, and many
a House at _London_ is not so big as the Halls in a great many of the
Hôtels at PARIS.

But what matters it, whether _London_ is bigger or less than PARIS? I
shall now speak of the latter, not as the biggest, but as the most
beautiful City in _Europe_. ’Tis reckon’d, there are in PARIS nine
hundred Streets, with above twenty thousand Houses, of which four thousand
have great Gates, and Courts to turn Coaches in. The Number of Inhabitants
amounts to above eighty thousand; in which must be reckon’d one hundred
and fifty thousand Domestics. There are at least twenty thousand Coaches,
and near one hundred and twenty thousand Horses for Carriages of all
Sorts, of which, one Year with another, ten thousand die. In fine, the
very Expence of the Lanthorns, which are lighted nine Months in the Year,
is computed at two hundred thousand Crowns at least. The common Revenues
which the City of PARIS produces, are said to amount at least to
twenty-eight Millions of Livres; a Sum, which, I believe, is not rais’d by
some Kingdoms.

PARIS enjoys all the Prerogatives that can be enjoy’d by the Capital of a
powerful Kingdom. This City has not only the Reputation of being the
Residence of Kings, but is the Seat of an Archbishop, a Parliament, an
University, an Intendant, a Governor, and of all the Sovereign Courts in
the Government. Its Metropolitan Church, which was heretofore no more than
the See of a Bishop, Suffragan to the Archbishop of _Sens_, is dedicated
to the Virgin _Mary_. St. _Denys_, who liv’d in the first Ages of
Christianity, is own’d to be its Founder, or at least its first Bishop.
Its first Archbishop was _Francis de Gondy_, who obtain’d that Dignity by
a Bull of Pope _Gregory_ XV. in 1622. since which Time there have been
seven Archbishops. Whoever is the Archbishop, has the Title of Duke of St.
_Cloud_, and in that Quality is both Duke and Peer of _France_. The
present Archbishop’s Name is _N. N. de Vintimille_ of the Counts _du Luc_.
He succeeded _Lewis-Antony_, Cardinal _de Noailles_, and finds his Diocese
as disobedient to his Mandates, as it was to those of his Predecessor.
The good Prelate does all he can, to bring back his[42]stray’d Sheep; but
it seems as if most of the _Parisians_ know not what they would be at; and
indeed the greatest Number dispute about Matters, which they don’t
understand. I find the Talk of all PARIS engross’d by two grand Subjects;
I mean grand for the _Parisians_, and, if I may venture to say it, for the
_French_ in general: For, to be plain, ’tis owing to the Want of something
else to talk of during a long Peace, that they busy themselves very
seriously about Things, which at other Times they would think unworthy of
their Attention. The one is the Affair of Father _Girard_ and _la
Cadiere_; the other, the pretended Miracles of the Abbé _Paris_. There is
nothing so base, with which Knavery and a furious Zeal can inspire a
Party, but what has been said and written on these Subjects. The Enemies
of the _Jesuits_ have[43]invented, that Father _John Baptist Girard_, a
Native of _Dole_ in _Franche Comté_, debauch’d one _la Cadiere_, who came
to him for Confession; they prevail’d on the young Woman to accuse him of
Crimes, the very Idea of which is shocking, and which the most resolute
Villain would not dare perhaps to be guilty of, much less Father _Girard_;
who, till accus’d of this Wickedness, had always _pass’d_ for an honest
Man, whose Conduct and Morals had been edifying in Places where he had
been, and particularly at _Toulon_, where nevertheless he is said to have
committed the most horrid Enormities. But _la Cadiere_ has recanted; and
the Parlement of _Aix_, before whom the Cause was pleaded, has declar’d
Father _Girard_ innocent. Yet the _Jansenists_ exclaim, and wish that the
King would cause the Members of that Parlement to be hang’d up, because
they could not in Conscience bring in Father _Girard_ guilty.

The following _Epigram_ is lately publish’d upon that Parlement:

      _Pour avoir immolé le Fils du Tout-Puissant
      +Pilate+ moins que vous nous parut detestable;
      Il ne reçût point d’or pour punir l’Innocent,
      Mais vous en recevez pour sauver le coupable._

                                _i. e._

_Pilate_, tho’ he sacrific’d the Son of the Almighty, is even less
detestable in our Eyes than you; for he receiv’d no Gold to punish the
Innocent, but you take it to save the Guilty.

                                Or thus:

      _Of Judges that in Judgment sit,
        Whether incurs most Banns,
      He that for Gold doth Vice acquit,
        Or Virtue +gratis+ damns?_

      _+Pilate+, who sacrific’d the Son
      Of the Almighty Lord,
      Because no Golden Bribe he won,
      Is less than you abhorr’d._

Father _Girard_’s Adventure calls to my Mind a great Scandal of this
Nature, that happen’d in the fourth Century, on Occasion of a Lady’s
Confession to a Deacon; which obliged the Patriarch _Nectarius_ to abolish
Auricular Confession throughout the _East_; as may be seen in the fourth
Tome of _Fleuri_’s _Ecclesiastical History_. This Author, in his Sixteenth
Tome, says, that in the twelfth Century there were Abbesses in _Spain_,
who preach’d, gave Blessings, and confessed Persons of both Sexes. If this
Practice was re-establish’d, there would be no Room to fear such Disorders
and Scandals as have happen’d in _Provence_.

The second Topic, which takes up a great deal of the _Parisians_
Conversation, is the pretended Miracles of the Sieur _Paris_, to whose
Tomb People flock as much as they could be suppos’d to do to the _Holy
Sepulchre_ itself. Curiosity drew me thither as well as others; and I
found such a vast Crowd of People, that ’twas with much ado I could get to
the Stone which covers the Saint of the Populace. While I was looking at
this Tombstone, I heard ’em cry behind, _Stand by, make Room there_; so
that I thought some Prince of the Blood was coming; but ’twas no more than
a mean-looking Fellow, who, with a very contrite Air, went and stretch’d
himself on the Tomb; where he had not lain many Moments, but I saw him
turn up the Whites of his Eyes, grind his Teeth, foam at the Mouth, and
twist his Body into such Postures, that he look’d more like one that had
the Devil in him, than the Favourite of a Saint. These Agitations lasted
as long as the Man had any Strength; after which he was carry’d off, and
I assure you, that when he was taken from the Tomb, he had a much more
sickly Look than when he came to it. Nevertheless the People bawl’d out,
_A Miracle!_ and I even heard it said, _Who can doubt one Moment, after so
manifest a Cure as this, that +Paris+ is a Saint!_

Such Miracles, as this that I have now related to you, are work’d here
every Day: One can’t set a Foot into a House, without being entertain’d
with some new Story plac’d to the Accompt of the Abbé _Paris_; yet I
protest, that not one single Miracle has been prov’d: and M. _Herault_,
the Lieutenant-General of the Police, to whom all these Miracles are
reported, said, in my Hearing, that there was not one of them true; that
’twas a palpable Delusion; and that ’twas only tolerated, the better to
trace it up to its Source, and to undeceive the Populace; which, I
believe, will be no easy Matter, they are so much prepossess’d in Favour
of their Saint. The only Way would be for the Pope to canonise the Sieur
_Paris_, and then I am persuaded, that all the Devotees of this new Saint
wou’d abandon him, rather than be in the Holy Father’s Mess. But here I
leave both Father _Girard_ and the Abbé _Paris_, though perhaps I shall
find an Opportunity of discovering all that I may hear of them to you,
when I think it worthy of your Regard; but I shall be far from troubling
you with every impertinent Tale that is reread about them; for I verily
believe, that all the Songs and Verses that are made upon them wou’d form
several Volumes: And it must be expected this Humour will last, till
something new starts up to drown both these Subjects of present
Conversation. I own to you, that I am very much in Pain to think what the
_French_ can have to amuse them after this is over; for their Genius is
such, that it must have something to work upon, tho’ ’tis happy for them
that a mere Nothing suffices, and that such Nothing is always treated by
them as a serious Affair, and proves to them an inexhaustible Fund of

You ask me, how I employ my Time here? which is a Question that is not
very soon answer’d. My Amusements are of such various Kinds, that, to be
plain with you, I find myself at a loss to account for them. I should
often be very much puzzled to prove an _alibi_ of two Days. This Country
is my Centre, and PARIS is to me the Spring of Youth. Never was any
Reflection more mortifying to me, than the Thought that I am not in a
Condition to fix my Habitation here; for tho’ I find Faults in the
_French_, as well as in all other Nations, yet I acknowledge they have a
thousand good Qualities; and I think them much more amiable at home than
they are abroad, where, be a Man ever so much prepossess’d in their Favour
upon other Accounts, he is surfeited with their eternal Criticisms, and to
hear them incessantly remarking, _They don’t do so at +Paris+. You don’t
see this in +France+_. Here they are polite, good-natur’d, humane, civil
and engaging; and a Foreigner, who can bring himself ever so little into
their Way of Thinking, Acting, and Speaking, will always be sorry to leave

But I am not about giving you the Character of the _French_; what I am now
to acquaint you with is, how I live with them. In a very irregular Course
of Life, I aim at a certain Regularity: I rise very late, because I don’t
go to Bed till Two or Three o’Clock in the Morning: When I am dress’d, I
go to some Cabinet of Curiosities, some Library, or to some Structure or
other, which, tho’ I have seen perhaps an hundred times, I revisit with
Pleasure, because I always find some new Beauty in it. Such are the Hôtel
or Hospital of the _Invalids_, founded and built by _Lewis_ XIV. _Val de
Grace_, the Church which is the Repositary of the Hearts and Bowels of the
Kings and Princes of the Royal Family, and was founded by _Anne_ of
_Austria_, Mother to _Lewis_ XIV. the Choir of _Notre Dame_, adorn’d with
Marble and Brass by _Lewis_ XIV. to fulfill a Vow made by King _Lewis_
XIII. his Father; the _Louvre_, with all the Beauties it contains; and, in
fine, a Number of other stately Fabrics, which I don’t mention or describe
to you, because a thousand Authors have already given a better Account of
them, than I am able to do. After having thus saunter’d away two or three
Hours, I return home to Dinner; for I rarely dine abroad: When I have
din’d, if I am alone, I read for an Hour or two; after which I go out,
either to make Visits, or else to take the Air. I often go to their Plays,
not only because I have a Taste that way, but to avoid Gaming; for you
can’t go into a House, but they bring out the Cards. After the Comedy is
over, which I am forc’d, whether I will or not, to prefer to the Opera, I
go to some House, where there’s no saying nay, but I must make one at
Quadrille, to ease me of my Money; for I know not what ’tis to win. I am
entertain’d with a good Supper, and then I join in a second Party at
Quadrille, and sometimes in a third; and go home at three o’Clock in the
Morning, with an empty Pocket.

This Itch for Gaming, which has infected the Generality of the _French_,
is look’d upon as one of the Plagues of the Nation. I can’t imagine how
’tis possible for People, who can scarce stay a Quarter of an Hour in one
Place, but are generally restless where-ever they are, to sit five or six
Hours together in cutting and shuffling the Cards. ’Tis however a
necessary Evil, especially for a Foreigner, who must otherwise make a very
silly Figure, till he is quite initiated in the Customs of the Country.
The Ladies say of a Man who does not play, that he is a useless Piece of
Lumber; and the most flaming Lovers cease to make Love, as soon as Cards
are brought upon the Carpet.

There are some Houses however, where this Passion for Gaming is not quite
so prevalent; ’tis said too, that the Lawyers Houses are not so liable to
the Contagion; but I own, I am not conversant enough with them to know the
Difference. ’Tis certain, that at Court they play deeper than any-where,
and very many of the Nobility have impair’d their Fortunes, for the sake
of having the Honour to be one of a Party with the King. His Majesty
commonly plays at Lansquenet; the Party consists of twelve Cutters, who
set a _Lewis d’Or_ upon the Card. The King, and the principal Gamesters,
as the Count _de Tholouse_, the Duke _d’Antin_, the Duke _de Grammont_,
and the like, set two, and sometimes four _Lewis d’Ors_ upon a Stake. The
King is reckon’d to have the best Luck of all that play in the Queen’s
Apartment: Any body that is well dress’d is admitted to make one of the
Company, which forms a great Court, tho’ a mix’d Assembly. All the Ladies
sit round the Gaming-table, and the Men stand. The _French_ say, that
Gaming sets every body upon a Level. There’s one _S. Remi_, who had been a
Lacquey first to the Marshal _d’Estrée_’s Lady, and then to the Duke of
_Bourbon_, who preferr’d him to be his _Valet de Chambre_, and at the
Queen’s Arrival gave him a Post in her Majesty’s Houshold, which he held
at the same time that he officiated as the Duke’s _Valet de Chambre_: I
have seen this Man raise or fall the Mirth of the King’s Company at
Pleasure; ’tis true, he does not cut; but he is at every Card, and makes
very good Pastime. At _Fontainebleau_, I heard him one Day bet the King
twenty _Lewis d’Ors_, upon his own Card against his Majesty’s. The King
answer’d coolly, _No, Marquis_; which is a Nickname that his Majefty has
given him, and may nevertheless be transmitted to the Posterity of this
_S. Remi_, who is moreover Fop enough to be a Marquis.

This Medley of People at Play has been the Custom in _France_ at all
times. I remember to have heard the late Mother of the Regent say, That
when she went upon a time from _Versailles_, where she resided with the
King, to see her Husband, _Lewis_ XIV’s Brother, who was gone to spend a
few Days at St. _Cloud_, she found him playing at Lansquenet with a dozen
Cutters, of whom she knew but two; and when the Game was out, she ask’d
her Husband, who the People were that he had been playing with: _They are
very honest Fellows_, reply’d the Prince, _good substantial Tradesmen of
+Paris+, who play well, and for a great deal of Money_. The old Lady gave
us moreover to understand, that she had not been at that time long in
_France_, and that she was so vex’d to find her Husband in such Company,
that she cou’d not forbear to upbraid him for it; but her Husband turn’d
it all off with a Laugh, and made her Answer, _That she had still a Spice
of the +German+ Haughtiness, but that it would wear off in Time_.

’Tis certain however, that this Liberty, with which all Sorts of People
are indulg’d, of coming in for a Game and away, renders them fawcy. That
noted Comedian _Baron_, the greatest Coxcomb of all Men living before the
_Quinaults_, was one Day at the House of the Prince _de Conti_, the same
that had been chose King of _Poland_, where they were playing at
Lansquenet. _Baron_, pulling his Purse out with a careless Air, said to
the Prince, _Ten Lewis D’Ors upon the Knave, +M. de Conti+. Done,
+Britannicus+_, said the Prince _de Conti_, who knew that _Baron_ had
been just acting that Part in a Play. It is certain, that at many of the
Womens Houses, the Gamesters are as much pamper’d as a Father Confessor is
by his Female Votary. A greet many Houses subsist here by the Emoluments
of Gaming, where, were it not for the Money arising from their Cards,
their Suppers would be very light, and many that now ride wou’d go on
Foot. The Duke _de Gevres_, Governor of _Paris_, and the Prince _de
Carignan_, who have a Grant for licensing all manner of Gaming, have
farm’d it out, and get 120,000 Livres a-piece by it clear Money; which one
shall hardly find in any City in the World.

This Gaming puts me in mind of a Lottery they have here every Month, which
is a Sort of Game too, where the Banker is the greatest Gainer. These
Lotteries have been set on foot by the Parson of the Parish of St.
_Sulpice_, to help build his Church, and twenty Sols is the Price of each
Ticket; but they prove the utter Undoing of many a Lacquey and
Maid-Servant; which made a Friend of mine say, that the Parson of St.
_Sulpice_, out of Gratitude to the poor Devils, for burying their Wages in
his Lottery, could do no less, when they die, than bury their Carcases for
nothing. This Lottery is worth to the Parson about 20,000 Livres a Month,
besides the Sums he gets from the pious Contributions of several Persons
zealous for the House of God: Nevertheless these Works go on so slowly,
that the Parson’s Trowel is not like to be laid aside yet-a-while, tho’,
if his Church be ever finished, ’twill be the greatest and the finest in
the Kingdom; for all the new Works are design’d by _Giles Maria Oppenord_,
the Duke of _Orleans_’s chief Architect, and one of the most skilful of
his Profession in _France_.

The Parsonage of St. _Sulpice_ is the most considerable, not only of
_Paris_, but perhaps of _Europe_; for it brings in the Parson as much as
some good Dioceses do their Bishops. The Right of Presentation to it is in
the Abbat and Friers of the Abbey of St. _Germain_. The present Incumbent
is M. _Languet de Gergy_, who has one Brother that is Bishop of
_Soissons_[44], and another now an Ambassador at _Venice_[45]. The
Vigilance both of the Pastor, and of the Priests whom he employs for
administring the Sacraments, cannot but be commended: The latter form a
numerous Society, attend their Function with Application, and Divine
Service is perform’d in the Church with very great Edification. The
Society, and several Seminaries join’d to it, form together the most
numerous Body of Clergy in all the Kingdom. The Seminary of St. _Sulpice_
is one of the most frequented, because the Ecclesiastical Discipline is
there taught and practis’d with Care; perhaps too, because Subjects are
often taken from thence for the chief Dignities of the Church. Nothing is
more edifying than to see the Procession of this Parish upon the Day of
_Corpus Christi_, when there’s a numerous Appearance of the Clergy in
magnificent Copes: The Canopy, under which the Holy Sacrament is carry’d,
is extraordinary rich. Twenty-four young Clergymen go before the Holy
Sacrament, and twelve always walk backward, perfuming the Host, as they
go, with Censers of Silver. There is not a Procession in the Kingdom that
is made with more Dignity and Order[46]. With your Favour, I will conclude
this Letter with the bare Mention of this Sacred Ceremony. As I propose
to go to-morrow to _Versailles_, I shall send you what Observations I make
there. I am, _&c._


                               LETTER XL.

  _SIR_,                                 _Versailles, April 15, 1732._

I have been now just ten Days at _Versailles_, where I have had the Honour
of greeting the King and Queen, and all the Royal Family. I perceiv’d the
King since his Marriage is grown very fat, but he is still one of the
finest Princes in _Europe_. It may be said of _Lewis_ XV. that he is a
Prince born without Vice, and free from that Haughtiness, which is
commonly attach’d to Royalty: He is familiar with his Courtiers, reserv’d
to Persons that are unknown to him, and particularly to Ambassadors, and
more secret and circumspect than Persons of his Age. He has the Morals,
Behaviour, and Sentiments of a good Man, and from thence _France_ may
expect his Reign will be gentle and peaceful. It appears, as if _Lewis_
XV. will be content with the Government of one of the most powerful
Monarchies of the World, and that he will not be inclin’d to disturb
_Europe_, for the sake of conquering a Town or a Province. He has been
educated in such Sentiments of Justice, that his Neighbours ought not to
be afraid of him, since God has undoubtedly chose him to be one of the
Arbitrators of _Europe_, in order for the Preservation, and not for the
Destruction of Equity: _Lewis_ the _Pacific_ and the _Debonaire_ will be
his distinguishing Titles: Must not these be dearer to his Subjects, than
the bloody Title of _Lewis_ the _Conqueror_? And may he not be great, and
at the same time a Lover of Peace? Hitherto the King seems to follow the
Plans of Government chalk’d out by the late Duke of _Burgundy_, his
Father, whose Wisdom is still rever’d by _France_. God grant that he may
always take them for his Models, and that his Reign may be long, and end
as glorious as it begun!

I never cast my Eyes upon _Lewis_ XV. without admiring the Providence
which has preserv’d him, contrary to the People’s Expectation. I have had
the Honour to see him Duke of _Anjou_, his Brother, the Duke of
_Bretagne_, being then alive. I have seen him the Dauphin of _France_, and
at length I have seen him on the Throne: He had at one time a pale
Complexion, which did not promise long Life. What Diseases has he not
labour’d under! yet he now enjoys a perfect State of Health, and the
Crown, which was so likely to devolve to collateral Branches, is
establish’d upon the Head of this young Prince, and like to descend to his
own Posterity. In fine, a King of _France_, Father of five Children living
before he is twenty Years of Age, is such a Phænomenon as is hardly to be
parallell’d in antient or modern History, and ’tis in my Opinion more
extraordinary even than the advanc’d Age, and the long Reign of his

The Queen is a Princess of exemplary Virtue, whose sole Application is to
discharge her Duties to God, the King, and her Children: She is extremely
gracious and civil, and has a great Happiness of expressing herself in the
_French_, _German_, and _Polish_ Languages: She had formerly a great Taste
for Music, and is now fond of Reading; but being entirely conformable to
her Husband’s Sentiments, she takes no manner of Share in the Government:
She loves no Pageantry nor Ceremony, and the Rank of being the first Queen
in the World seems to have no other Effect upon her, than to render her
Virtues more venerable and conspicuous.

As for the Children of _France_, they are as yet too young to be
characteris’d. Mean time I assure you, ’tis a fine Sight to see them going
to the Queen’s Apartment, or running along the Gallery, with at least
forty Attendants in their Train, including the Ladies and Chambermaids.
The Person intrusted with the Care of the Education of the Children of
_France_ is the Duchess _de Ventadour_; but as she is very far advanced in
Years, and not able to be with them every-where, the Duchess of _Tallard_,
her Grand-daughter, is join’d with her in the Commission. This Lady is the
Daughter of the Prince _de Rohan_, Brother to the Cardinal: The Choice
which has been made of her to succeed the Duchess of _Ventadour_, has been
applauded by the whole Court; and in short, there are few Ladies that have
a more noble Carriage, more Politeness, and sublimer Sentiments: And ’tis
very remarkable, that since the Birth of the Dauphin, _Lewis_ XIVth’s only
Son, the Mother, the Daughter, and the Grand-daughter have always been
trusted with the Education of the Children of _France_.

Her Royal Highness, the Widow of the Regent, who is Daughter to _Lewis_
XIV. by Madame _de Montespan_, is the first in Rank at Court, and she is
the only Princess that has a Right to sit at Table with their Majesties,
when they dine in State; but ’tis a Prerogative that she does not often
make use of, because she has such a Dislike to Dress, that she appears
little at Court; and when she comes to the King or Queen, ’tis in private:
She commonly resides at _Paris_, or at _Bagnolet_[47]: She is the only
Princess of the Kingdom that has Guards, and enjoys the Honours of a
Daughter of _France_. King _Lewis_ XIV. granted all these great
Distinctions to the late Duke of _Orleans_, in Favour of this Marriage, to
which that Prince agreed against the Consent of his late Father, and the
express Prohibition of his Mother; who was so exasperated against her Son,
for not resisting _Lewis_ XIVth’s Will and Pleasure, that she lifted up
her Hand against him, when he told her that he was just marry’d, would not
see her Daughter-in-law for a long time, and never could endure the
Thoughts of the Match, till she saw her Grand-daughter marry’d to the Duke
of _Berry_. Since that time, she has not been so strongly prejudic’d
against her, but acknowledges her Royal Highness’s Virtues, and always
kept a good Correspondence with her. This Princess lives very retir’d in
the Midst of the Court, and is very much employ’d in Works of Piety.

Her Son, the Duke of _Orleans_, is a Prince of exemplary Devotion, being
almost continually at Prayer, or performing Works of Charity: He made two
or three Attempts to retire from the World, but the King thinking his
Presence necessary in his Council, would not consent to it. His most
serene Highness is the first Prince of the Blood, and Governor of
_Dauphiny_; and he was once Colonel and Captain General of the _French_
Infantry, but he resign’d that Post some Years ago. This Prince marry’d
the Princess of _Baden_, by whom he has a Son styl’d Duke of _Chartres_, a
hopeful young Prince, who is educated at St. _Cloud_, remote from the
Grandeur and Hurry of the Court.

The Duke of _Orleans_ has also four Sisters in the Kingdom, the eldest of
whom is the Abbess _de Chelles_, who was formerly styl’d Mademoiselle _de
Chartres_. This Princess, in spite of all the Persuasions of the late
Regent and the Duchess, who did their utmost to divert her from it, took
the Habit of a Nun, tho’ she was one of the most amiable Princesses in
_Europe_, and might have made a great Prince happy.

The second Sister is the Queen of _Spain_, the Dowager of _Lewis_ I. whom
she marry’d when he was Prince of _Asturias_, before his Father resign’d
the Crown of _Spain_ to him; but the young King did not live long to enjoy
it, and after his Death, the young Queen Dowager having a Desire to return
to _France_, their Catholic Majesties consented to it, and the King of
_France_ allow’d her the Castle of _Vincennes_ to reside in, where for
some time she liv’d: She had not been there many Weeks, when she receiv’d
a Visit from the King, who said, before he went, that his Visit would be
short. _I am not very talkative_, said his Majesty, _and they say, that
the Queen of +Spain+ does not talk at all; so that I don’t believe we
shall have much Conversation_: And indeed the Visit was very short. The
Queen receiv’d the King at the Step of the Coach, and the King taking her
by the Hand, led her into his Chamber, where two Arm-Chairs were plac’d
for them under a Canopy. The King seated himself on the Right Hand, and
after a few Words spoke by the Duke _de Bourbon_, and the Duke _de
Noailles_, who, as Captain of the Guards, stood behind the King’s Chair,
his Majesty rose, and went away with the same Ceremonies as he came. Some
time after this, the Queen of _Spain_ went to visit the King, when her
Guards were plac’d in all the Posts of _Versailles_, the King’s Guards
being order’d to make room for them. The King receiv’d the Queen as she
alighted from the Coach, and every thing pass’d with the same Formality as
at _Vincennes_. The Queen of _Spain_, after some Stay at the Castle of
_Vincennes_, went to live in those Apartments at _Luxembourg_, which had
been the Residence of her Sister the Duchess of _Berry_; but some time ago
she retir’d to a Convent, and her Family, which was at first exceeding
numerous, was very much reduc’d. If we except the vain Honours of Royalty,
she would have been far more happy, if she had never been a Queen; for
then she might have marry’d again; whereas now she must continue a Widow,
and pass the Prime of her Days in Solitude and Retirement.

The third Sister of the Duke of _Orleans_ is Mademoiselle _de Beaujolois_,
who was design’d as a Match for the Infante, Don _Carlos_; but when the
Infanta of _Spain_ was sent back from _France_, return’d to this Kingdom
with the Queen, her Sister: She is one of the most beautiful and most
amiable Princesses upon Earth, worthy to reign, and worthy of the

Mademoiselle _d’Orleans_[49], her Sister, is a very charming Princess,
with an exceeding graceful Air, and Behaviour fully answerable to her

Next to the Family of _Orleans_, the first in Rank is that of _Conde_,
which consists of three Princes, and six Princesses: The Duke _de Bourbon_
is the chief, who is great Steward of the King’s Houshold, and Governor of
_Burgundy_, His Highness lost one Eye in Hunting, by an unfortunate Shot
from the Duke of _Berry_: He was marry’d very young to Mademoiselle _de
Conti_ his Cousin, who died without Issue. He was also but young when he
made the Campaigns in _Germany_, in Company with his Brother-in-law the
Prince of _Conti_. After the Decease of _Lewis_ XIV. the Duke went to Law
with the legitimated Princes, and caus’d the Duke _de Maine_ to be
degraded from the Rank of Prince of the Blood, to which he had been
promoted by an Arret solemnly register’d in Parliament during the Life of
the late King. The Duke of _Bourbon_ demanded, as first Prince of the
Blood, whom he then represented, by reason of the tender Age of the Duke
of _Chartres_, now Duke of _Orleans_, to have the Superintendance of the
King’s Education, to which Post the Duke _de Maine_ had been nominated by
the late King’s last Will: He obtain’d his Demand, and the Duke _de Maine_
retir’d to _Seaux_. The Duke _de Bourbon_ had after this a great Share in
the Affairs of the Regency, and the Duke of _Orleans_ took care to keep
him in good Humour. At the unexpected Death of the Regent, the Duke, being
then at _Versailles_, went to the King, and demanded the Post of Prime
Minister, vacant by the Death of his Royal Highness, and obtain’d it. The
late M. _de la Vrilliere_, Secretary of State, being perhaps a little too
forgetful of his Obligations to the Son of a Prince who had heap’d Favours
upon him, drew up the Patent instantly, and caus’d it to be sign’d by the
King, before the Duke of _Chartres_, who was at the Opera at _Paris_,
could hear the News of his Father’s Death; so that tho’ he went Post to
_Versailles_, and demanded the Office of First Minister, the Duke of
_Bourbon_ told him, that the King had dispos’d of it to himself. The Duke
was no sooner vested with the Authority of Prime Minister, than he made
great Alterations in the Government; but these are the Subject of History
rather than of a Letter. M. _le Blanc_, who had been Secretary at War,
and was the Darling of the Officers, was committed to the _Bastille_; and
M. _de Breteuil_, who had been formerly Master of the Requests, and
Intendant of _Tours_, succeeded him in that Office; which was the
Consequence of a Misunderstanding, or rather a Hatred, between two Ladies,
who were the Mistresses, the one of the Duke of _Bourbon_, the other of M.
_le Blanc_. All the Friends of the latter, among whom was M. the Count _de
Belle-Isle_, shared in his Disgrace. The four Brothers of the Name of
_Paris_ had the Management of the Finances, of which Brothers two had been
Soldiers in the Guards; but they had the Cunning to extricate themselves
from that melancholy State, and to render themselves necessary to the
Government during the Time of the Regency. M. _d’Argenson_ Keeper of the
Seals had been their Patron, and rais’d them upon the Ruins of Mr. _John
Law_, and his System. Whatever was done by these Brothers is foreign to my
Purpose: Their rapid Fortune drew Envy upon them, and they soon became the
Objects of the public Hatred.

The most remarkable Transactions of the Duke’s Administration, were the
sending back of the Infanta, and the Marriage of the King. The Duke,
foreseeing the Inconveniencies to which _France_ would be liable, if the
King should die without Issue, thought it best to prevent so fatal an
Accident, which it had not been possible for him to have done without
marrying the King. The Infanta of _Spain_ was a Child, and it would be at
least eight Years before they could hope for any Issue from her; whereas
by marrying the King to another speedily, there was a Chance of having a
Dauphin very soon, who would secure the Tranquillity of the Kingdom. His
most Serene Highness therefore propos’d this Affair to the Council, which
at first he found very much divided about it; for they were apprehensive
of the Resentment of the King of _Spain_, and the Duke himself was
heartily sorry, that he was under a Necessity of giving their Catholic
Majesties just Cause of Disgust for the sake of the public Good: The
Council being at last agreed, they pass’d a Resolution unanimously to send
back the Infanta. This was accordingly notified to the Court of _Spain_,
where News so unexpected was receiv’d with all the Indignation possible.
The Infanta was sent back. The Duchess of _Tallard_ had the Care of
conducting her to the _Spanish_ Frontier. All the Honours due to the
Daughter of a great King were paid to this Princess, and every thing that
could be thought of, was done to soften the Displeasure of their Catholic
Majesties for her Return. All _France_ murmur’d in secret at the Departure
of this Princess; for she had won the Hearts of all who had seen her, by a
Behaviour and a Genius so vastly above one of her Age, that they
prognosticated she would one Day be a great Queen. Not long after she was
sent away, the King was married to a Princess so happy in Childbearing,
that Heaven thereby seems to applaud what the Duke has done, and the
People, quite forgetting the Infanta, bless his Name.

The King, after he had been married a few Months, thought it was not
convenient for a Prince of the Blood to have the Direction of his Affairs;
and therefore he displac’d the Duke of _Bourbon_ from the Post of Prime
Minister, and made the late Bishop of _Frejus_, now the Cardinal _de
Fleury_, the sole Depositary of his Authority. The Duke receiv’d Orders to
retire to _Chantilly_, a Seat he has near _Senlis_; and there his Friends
put it into his Head to marry a second Wife: Several Princesses were
propos’d to him, but he determin’d his Choice for _Eleonora_ of
_Hesse-Rhinfelds_, Sister of the Princess of _Piedmont_, now Queen of
_Sardinia_[50]; and the Brother of this Princess, having a Proxy sent to
him from the Duke, married her at _Rotenbourg_, in Presence of the Count
_de Gasse_, whom the Duke had sent to assist in his Name at this Ceremony.
The young Duchess no sooner arriv’d in _France_, but her Beauty, and the
Charms both of her Person and Mind, made her admir’d by the whole Court,
of which she is now one of the principal Ornaments: She is belov’d and
respected by all Mankind, and every body pities her, that the Duke has not
all that Tenderness for her which she deserves, and which it were to be
wish’d he had for the Support of the _Conde_ Family, of which the two only
Princes remaining, _viz._ the Counts _de Charolois_ and _Clermont_, are
not married.

The Count _de Charolois_ is tall, handsome, and well-set: His Entrance
upon the Stage of Action was much taken Notice of; for a Thirst after
Glory was the Passion of his Soul, as soon as he came to the Years of
Understanding. The War being kindled in _Hungary_, and Prince _Eugene_ of
_Savoy_ having gain’d a Victory near _Temiswar_, which reviv’d that Hero’s
Reputation in _France_, the Count _de Charolois_ had a mind to learn the
Art of War under so great a Master, and to make the Campaign which
immediately follow’d that of _Temiswar_; but he did not dare to discover
his Intention, and fearing that he should not obtain the Consent, either
of the Duke of _Orleans_ the Regent, the Duchess his Mother, or the Duke
his Father, he resolv’d to set out privately, being sure that he should be
applauded for his Undertaking, if he could be so happy as to put it in
Execution. He imparted his Design in Confidence to M. _de Billy_, one of
his Gentlemen, and to _Renault_ his first _Valet de Chambre_, and with
these two Attendants he set out from _Chantilly_ on Pretence of Hunting.
He travell’d five or six Post-Stages with the very Horses that belonged to
the Duke his Father; after which he left them to the Care of the
Post-master, and hir’d fresh Horses, with which he reach’d _Liege_; where
he rested some Days, and having provided himself with Linen, went to the
Court of the Elector of _Cologn_, whom he had known in _France_: His first
Visit at _Bonn_, was at the House of M. _de S. Maurice_, the Elector’s
Prime Minister; but he did not find him at home. M. _de Billy_ thereupon
desir’d to speak with his Lady, and told her, that a certain Punctilio of
Honour had oblig’d him to come from _France_ with the young Gentleman in
his Company; but Madame _de S. Maurice_, not thinking he was a Prince of
the Blood, and taking the Count _de Charolois_ for some petty Officer,
gave him a very cold Reception: However, she sent for her Husband, who was
then attending the Elector’s Person; and when the Count _de S. Maurice_
came, he presently knew the Count _de Charolois_, paid him all due
Respects, and hasten’d to notify his Arrival to the Elector, who at first
was concern’d to hear it, because his Electoral Highness knew not but he
might disoblige the Court of _France_ by receiving the Count, who he
imagin’d had left the Kingdom upon some Disgust. Nevertheless, after
reflecting with himself, that whatever the Count _de Charolois_ might have
done, the Court of _France_ could not be angry with him for paying a
Regard to his Quality as Prince of the Blood, he sent to invite him to his
Palace. The Count went thither accordingly, by the Name of the Count _de
Dammartin_, which he always travell’d With as long as he was absent from
the Kingdom. The Elector receiv’d him With all the Marks of the highest
Esteem, kept him several Days at his Court, and then furnish’d him with
Money for his Journey to _Munich_; where he no sooner arriv’d, but he
wrote to the Duke his Father to send him Remittances, and the necessary
Equipages for the Campaign which he was then going to make.

Tho’ the Count _de Charolois_ did not find the Elector of _Bavaria_ at
_Munich_, yet he was as well receiv’d as if he had been there; and the
Electress, tho’ he had not been to see her, no sooner heard of his
Arrival, but she order’d all due Honours to be paid to him. When the
Elector return’d to _Munich_, he was overjoy’d to find this Prince there,
and offer’d to make his Peace in _France_, in which he succeeded so far,
as to get his Departure out of the Kingdom approv’d by the Duchess and the
Regent. When the Count’s Domestics were arriv’d, he set out for _Hungary_,
and pass’d through _Vienna_ without saluting the Emperor, or the Empress
Dowager his Cousin German. The Empress Was so offended at it, that she
wrote to her Aunt, who was the Prince’s Grandmother, and signified to that
Princess, that she did not think it handsome for a Prince of such Descent
as the Count _de Charolois_, to pass through _Vienna_ to serve in the
Imperial Army, without having seen the Emperor. The Count’s Relations did
not fail to reproach him for his Want of Respect to their Imperial
Majesties. He excus’d himself, by saying that he did not know what
Treatment he ought to expect; but the Answer he receiv’d, was an Order
from the Regent in the King’s Name, to wait on their Imperial Majesties as
he return’d from the Campaign.

He signaliz’d himself in it very much, but with so little Care of his
Person, that Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_ often reproach’d him for it: He
took a Pleasure to go up to the very Breast-work of the Trenches; and
from thence with Screw-Guns he fir’d at the _Turks_, as if he had been
shooting at small Birds: On the other hand the _Turks_ did not spare him,
but sent their Balls whizzing about his Ears in Return for his Frolic. The
Count was present at the Battle of _Belgrade_, and saw that Place taken:
He afterwards went to _Vienna_, and staid there some Weeks, where he had
an Audience of the Emperor, not _incognito_, but as the Count _de
Charolois_. The Emperor receiv’d him at the _Favourita_ standing: His
Audience was attended with this odd Circumstance. The Count, being not
acquainted with the Ceremonial, did not know that he should find the
Emperor all alone; and therefore, when he enter’d the Closet, and saw a
Man in a very plain Dress leaning with his Back against a Table, he took
him for some private Gentleman; but in a few Moments he spy’d the Golden
Fleece: He was doubtful in his Mind, after all, whether ’twas the Emperor;
but he advanc’d, saying within himself, that in either case there was not
much Harm in being mistaken. The Emperor receiv’d him with very great
Marks of Distinction, and the Count kiss’d his Hand, because he had been
told it was the Custom, and that all the Princes of the Empire did the
same. He afterwards went to the Apartment of the Empresses, and had
reason, where-ever he came, to be satisfied with his Reception.

From _Vienna_ he return’d to _Munich_, after which he made the Tour of
_Italy_, and lodg’d at _Rome_ at the House of the Cardinal _de
Tremouille_, who had then the Care of the Affairs of _France_. After
having repass’d the Mountains, he came back to _Munich_, where he stay’d a
Year and an half, being always lodg’d and defray’d, together with his
Retinue, at the Expence of his Electoral Highness, who kept a Table for
him for twelve Guests, besides Hunting-Equipage, and Horses at his

Hunting is this Prince’s chief Amusement since he return’d to _France_: He
appears seldom at Court, and neither meddles nor makes with Affairs of
State. They talk often of getting him a Wife; but he does not seem to have
any more Goût for the Sacrament of Marriage, than his younger Brother the
Count _de Clermont_, a young Prince of a lovely Person, a sweet Nature,
and who seems to have a way of Thinking becoming his Birth. They who
approach him, and know him intimately, have assur’d me, that he has all
the Qualities that can be to form hereafter a great Prince. It seems as if
he were design’d for the Church, since his most Serene Highness actually
enjoys several considerable Abbeys; but hitherto this Prince dresses in
the Lay Habit, and performs no Spiritual Function. While I was speaking of
the Count _de Charolois_, I forgot so tell you, that he is Governor of _la
Touraine_, in which Honour he succeeded the late M. _Dangeau_, first
Gentleman-Usher to the late Duchess of _Burgundy_. In his time _la
Touraine_ was not reckon’d among the great Governments; but as the Regent
was willing to give one to the Count _de Charolois_, after having granted
away the Reversions of all the great Governments, he thought of no other
Expedient, than to put _la Touraine_ in the Rank of the other Provinces.

The three Princes that I have just mention’d, are the Sons of Madame the
Duchess (of _Bourbon_) the legitimated Daughter of _Lewis_ XIV. and Madame
_de Montespan_; She is a Princess who has been cry’d-up in _Europe_ for
her Wit, Beauty, and the Charms of her Person. Tho’ she is the Mother of a
numerous Family, she may still be reckoned among the Beauties of the
Court; and ’tis certain, that when the Duchess is with the Princesses her
Daughters, she seems rather to be their Sister than the Mother. This
Princess is immensely rich, those who manage her Affairs having acquir’d
a vast Estate in the contagious Actions of the _Missisippi_. She lives
with very great Magnificence, and has lately caus’d a Palace to be built,
which may be rank’d with the finest Structures in _Europe_. Her most
Serene Highness is often at _Chantilly_ with the Duke her Husband, but the
rest of her Time she divides betwixt the Court and City.

The Princess of _Conti_ the second Dowager, the Princesses of _Charolois_,
_Clermont_ and _Sens_, are her Daughters, and form one of the most
beautiful Families that ever was. ’Tis pity that Princesses so beautiful
and accomplish’d are not well match’d, but their Greatness is a Bar to
their Settlement in Marriage; besides, this Century has been more prolific
every-where in Princesses than in Princes. The Princess of _Conti_, who
has some Thoughts of a Wife for the Prince her Son, has just bought the
fine House which was built by the Count _de Belle-Isle_, out of the vast
Sums which he got by _Missisippi_ Stock; there she proposes to end her
Days, and she already appears but seldom at Court, which indeed the
Trouble of Dressing hinders a great many Princesses and Ladies from
frequenting. The Princess of _Conti_ was very young when she married, and
has had two Sons; but there’s only one of them living, whom in his
Father’s Life-time was styl’d the Count _d’Alais_, and is now the Prince
of _Conti_[51].

As for Mademoiselle _de Charolois_, all the Charms imaginable are united
in her Person: She has a noble Aspect, a very lively sparkling Wit, and of
all the Duchess’s Daughters she is the most like her Mother, and has the
most sprightly Ideas. During the Regency of the Duke of _Orleans_, when
Money was become extraordinary scarce, Mademoiselle _de Charolois_
appear’d at the Royal Palace with two _Lewis d’Ors_ in her Ears for
Pendants; upon which the Duke of _Orleans_ asking her the Meaning of that
new Fashion, she made him Answer, that she found _Lewis d’Ors_ scarcer
than Diamonds, and that therefore she wore them as such. Mademoiselle _de
Charolois_ lives in the little Hôtel _de Bourbon_, which formerly belong’d
to _Anne_ of _Bavaria_ the Palatine, the Widow of _Henry Julius_ of
_Bourbon_, Prince of _Conde_, Grandmother to the Princes and Princesses of
the _Conde_ Family. This Princess has a Family here independent on Madame
the Duchess (of _Bourbon_); but she generally follows the Court, and as
she is very fond of Hunting, and rides well, she makes one at all the
King’s Matches.

Mademoiselle _de Clermont_ is not only very beautiful, but has an Air of
Quality, good Nature and Modesty, which distinguishes her from all the
Grandees of the Court. Calumny, which does not always favour the Royal
Blood here, could never shed its Venom upon this Princess, and the whole
Court ever admir’d her for her Sobriety and Virtue. She is Superintendante
of the Queen’s Houshold, and went in this Quality with the Ladies of
Honour to meet her Majesty at _Strasbourg_.

Mademoiselle _de Sens_, with her Beauty, is both graceful and modest: She
was brought up under her Grandmother the Princess; and after her Decease,
the Duchess of _Brunswic_, her Great Aunt, Mother to the Empress _Amelia_,
who spent her latter Years in _France_, had the Care of her Education, and
form’d her one of the most amiable Princesses upon the Earth.

The _Conti_ Family, which is the third Branch of the Princes of the Blood,
consists at this time of two Dowager Ladies, a young Prince, and a
Princess, call’d Mademoiselle _de la Roche-sur-yon_. The Princess of
_Conti_, the first Dowager Lady, is the legitimated Daughter of King
_Lewis_ XIV. by Mademoiselle _de la Valiere_: This Princess is celebrated
for her Beauty, Wit, and noble Air, which she still retains: She happen’d
to be a Widow when she was very young. Some say that the King of _Morocco_
demanded her in Marriage, but I have been assur’d by many People, that
’tis a mere Fiction. Be this as it will, such a Match was not practicable;
for tho’ Religion had been altogether out of the Question, King _Lewis_
XIV. would never have sacrific’d a Daughter so dear to him, and one who
was the Ornament of his Court, to a _Marabou_[52]. The Princess of
_Conti_, since the Death of her Brother the Dauphin, has not appear’d in
public, and only visits the King and Queen privately in their Majesties
Closet. Her Occupations are Works of Piety and Charity, and her Life is an
Example of Virtue: She commonly resides in her Hôtel at _Paris_, which is
beautiful and magnificent, and formerly belong’d to the Marshal-Duke _de

The legitimated Princes, Sons of _Lewis_ XIV. are the Duke _de Maine_, and
the Count _de Tholouse_. The former is Grand Master of the Ordnance,
Colonel-General of the _Swiss_ and _Grisons_, and Governor of _Guienne_:
He married _Louisa-Benedictina_ of _Bourbon-Condé_, by whom he has two
Sons and a Daughter. The Duke _de Maine_ possesses the Sovereignty of
_Dombes_, which the late Mademoiselle, Daughter of _Gaston_ of _France_,
Son of _Henry_ IV. left him by Will. This Prince signaliz’d his Valour in
his Youth: He has the Misfortune to halt, but he has a superior Genius,
and is a Man of true Christian Piety. The late King distinguish’d him
above all his Children, of which he gave an illustrious Proof, when he
appointed him Superintendant of the Education of _Lewis_ XV. and when he
made him a Sharer in the Authority of the Regency, together with the Duke
of _Orleans_, whom he would have been glad to have intirely excluded from
it, if his Royal Highness’s Birth had not given him an absolute Title to
it. Some Years before this, the said King, by a Declaration the most
solemnly register’d that ever any was, had recognis’d the Ability of the
Duke _de Maine_, the Count _de Tholouse_, and their Posterity, to succeed
to the Crown on Failure of Issue by the lawful Princes. The Princes of the
Blood, in Complaisance to _Lewis_ XIV. before whom every Knee was bow’d,
did not oppose a Declaration so little for their Honour: But in the
Beginning of _Lewis_ XVth’s Reign they commenced a Suit upon it against
the legitimated Princes. The Arret which call’d them to the Succession of
the Crown was revok’d, and the Count _de Tholouse_ was the only one that
retain’d for his Life the Honours that were annex’d to the Dignity of
Prince of the Blood. The Duke _de Maine_ and his Children were depriv’d of
these great Prerogatives, and reduc’d to the Rank of their Peerage. Some
Years after, however, it pleas’d the King to restore those Honours to the
Duke _de Maine_, and to his Sons the Prince of _Dombes_, and the Count
_d’Eu_; but these Princes continue excluded from the Crown.

I have already acquainted you how the Duke of _Bourbon_ depriv’d the Duke
_de Maine_ of the Superintendance of _Lewis_ XVth’s Education: But that
was not the only Circumstance that mortified him; for at that Juncture the
Point that seem’d to be solely in View, was to undo every thing that had
been done by _Lewis_ XIV. And the Duke, together with his Employments and
Honours, also lost his Liberty. He was accus’d of holding a Correspondence
with the Prince _de Cellamare_, the _Spanish_ Ambassador, who endeavour’d
to excite the _French_ to a Rebellion against the Regent, by promising
them Assistance from the King his Master: Hereupon the Duke _de Maine_ was
arrested, and committed Prisoner to _Dourlens_ in _Picardy_, where he was
closely confin’d. They who are not the most zealous of this Prince’s
Friends, agree that he supported this Reverse of Fortune with an heroic
Constancy. I heard it said by the People who were set to watch him, that
they never saw him once deviate from that Serenity of Mind, and that good
Nature which accompany all his Actions. But the Duchess of _Maine_ did not
receive the News of his Disgrace with the same Tranquillity; for being
born with all the high Spirit of the Great _Conde_ her Grandfather, she
rav’d against the Regent, but especially against her Nephew the Duke, whom
she look’d upon as the Author of her Misfortunes. They say moreover, that
the Duke _de Maine_ himself was rattled by her before he was confin’d.
’Twas on the Day that _Lewis_ XV. came to the Parlement to hold his first
Bed of Justice, when the Duke _de Maine_ was turn’d out of that Share
which the late King’s last Will gave him in the Regency. As this Duke came
home from the Parlement, he found his Wife in the utmost Impatience to
know what had been done; of which when he had given her an exact Account,
the Duchess could not bridle her Passion, but looking on her Husband with
Indignation, she said, _I have nothing left then to possess, but the Shame
of having married you!_ When she received Orders to quit to the Duke of
_Bourbon_ that Apartment which she had in the _Thuilleries_, while the
Duke _de Maine_ was Superintendant of the King’s Education; _Yes_, said
she, _I will quit it with a Vengeance_, and at the same time order’d it to
be stripp’d quite bare of Furniture; and for the more Haste she dash’d the
Looking-glasses, China, and all Goods of that Sort in Pieces.
Nevertheless, when she was apprehended, and during the Time that she was
detain’d, she was not heard to utter a Complaint or a Murmur; but
supported her Disgrace with that Magnanimity for which she is admir’d, a
Quality which elevates her so far above other Women, and sets her on a Par
with the greatest Men.

The Duke and Duchess of _Maine_ are often at _Seaux_, a fine House but a
little Distance from _Paris_, on the high Road to _Orleans_, built by
_John Baptist Colbert_. Here they have always a gay Court. This Duchess is
so much in Love with the Arts and Sciences, that all Men of Letters look
on her as their Patroness; and there are few Poetical Compositions which
are not first presented to her. The last Time I paid my Court to her, the
following Piece, compos’d of no more than two Rhymes, was read there, and
so highly applauded, that I herewith send you a Copy of it[53].

The Prince of _Dombes_, the Duke of _Maine’s_ eldest Son, is a tall
handsome well set Gentleman, and has the Reversion of his Father’s
Offices. Whether the Count _d’Eu_ has any Employments, I know not. Both
these Princes are commonly at Court. Mademoiselle _du Maine_ is a very
amiable Princess, whose Education has been fully answerable to her Birth,
and who, by her Manners and Politeness, approves herself the worthy
Daughter of her Mother.

The Count _de Tholouse_, great Admiral of _France_, is the second Son of
King _Lewis_ XIV. by Madame _de Montespan_. In the last War he commanded
the Naval Army of _France_. He is one of the handsomest and comeliest
Lords at Court. He is noble and magnificent in every thing that he does,
and they say, he is generous. He is very polite, and has always been as
much esteem’d for his Merit, as for his Rank of a legitimated Prince,
which he has preserved, tho’ his Brother was divested of it. It was
believed for a long time, that this Prince would not marry, and that his
great Estate would fall to the Children of the Duke _de Maine_; but he
married some Years ago, _Maria Victoria_ of _Noailles_, Widow of the
Marquis _de Gondrin_, Son to the Duke _d’Antin_, by whom he had a Son, who
is now the Duke _d’Epernon_. The Count _de Tholouse_ has had a Son by her
also, who is called the Duke[54]_de Ponthievre_; by which Title, the Count
has the Rank of a Peer in Parliament. This Prince, since his Marriage, has
commonly resided at _Rambouillet_, where the King frequently makes Parties
for Hunting. His Majesty shews a very great Regard for the Countess of
_Tholouse_, which gives her Authority to talk to his Majesty with a great
deal of Freedom. The _French_ say, she was the Occasion of the Duke of
_Bourbon_’s being put out of the Ministry. ’Tis certain, however, that the
King was at _Rambouillet_, when the Duke _de Charost_ went and told the
Duke, That it was his Majesty’s Pleasure, that he should quit the Station
of Prime Minister. The Duke being at _Versailles_ when he receiv’d the
unwelcome News, they say, he desired to speak with the King and Queen; but
that the Duke _de Charost_ told him, he had Orders for his Removal to
_Chantilly_. His most Serene Highness obey’d, and did not appear to be
afflicted for the Loss of his Authority, so much as for the falling-off of
his Friends and Creatures. The Marchioness _de Prie_, Lady of the
Bed-chamber to the Queen, whom he honoured with a very singular Esteem,
received Orders to leave the Court, and to retire to _Normandy_; where,
during her being in Favour, she had purchased a considerable Estate. The
Brothers of the Name of _Paris_, those Objects of the Public Odium, were
divested of their Authority. M. _de Blanc_ came again into the Ministry:
M. _de Belle-Isle_ regain’d his Liberty, and obtained the Command of the
Troops of the Government of _Metz_, and the three Bishopricks. The
Marchioness _de Prie_ had the Mortification to see her Employment of Lady
of the Bed-chamber fill’d up by the Daughter of M. _le Blanc_, to whom she
was a declared Enemy, and whom she had endeavoured to ruin. This Lady was
not able to support herself long under her Disgrace; for having been used
to bear a Sway, she could not reconcile herself to Retirement; but
languished for a while, and at length died of a Colic, which gave her
horrid Pains. She was not much regretted, because she had made few
Friends; Ambition and Self-Interest had taken intire hold of her. She
thought her Disgrace unsufferable, and the little Reflection she made upon
the Revolution of Fortune, rendered hers but the more intolerable. I will
hereafter give you an Account of the Cardinal _de Fleury_, and of the
Persons now of the First Rank at Court; but at present my Pen is ready to
drop out of my Fingers; for ’tis One o’Clock in the Morning, and if I
write any more, I shall but give you my Dreams. Therefore I am, with all
the Esteem, possible, _&c._


                              LETTER XLI.

  _SIR_,                                    _Versailles, May 1, 1732._

In my last Letter I mention’d the Princes and Princesses of the Blood
Royal to you; in this I am to give you an Account of those Persons at this
Court, who are in the most exalted Stations.

The Cardinal _de Fleury_, by his Dignity of Cardinal, and much more by his
Character, as the Depositary of the Royal Authority, has the first Rank in
the State next to the Princes of the Blood. This Prelate, tho’ far
advanced in Years, is brisk and lively to Admiration. His Stature is
somewhat above the middle Size; he has a happy Physiognomy, to which
Fortune has not given the Lye; and he is humble, good-natur’d and civil.
You know that he was Bishop of _Frejus_. He resign’d that See to excuse
himself from the Pastoral Charge of Souls, when the late King _Lewis_ XIV.
nominated him, by his Last Will, Preceptor to the young _Dauphin_, now
King _Lewis_ XV. This was almost the only Article of _Lewis_ the Grand’s
Will, which the Regent put in Execution. M. _de Frejus_ won the Heart of
the young Monarch to such a Degree, that the Prince was intirely wrapp’d
up in him; and his Affection for him has increas’d so much ever since,
that now it may be literally said, that the Cardinal _de Fleury_ is the
Depositary, or Trustee, of the Royal Authority. The Regent, a Prince of
Penetration, if ever there was one, quickly perceived what an Ascendant M.
_de Frejus_ had over the young Monarch; and being apprehensive of what
might be the Consequences of it, he was continually contriving how to
remove the Prelate from Court. With this View he offered him the
Archbishoprick of _Rheims_, which was vacant by the Death of the Cardinal
_de Mailly_; but M. _de Fleury_, who resigned the Bishoprick of _Frejus_,
that he might not have the Charge of Souls, was so far from accepting one
of the greatest Archbishopricks in the Kingdom, that he absolutely refused
it. The Duke of _Orleans_, who was intent upon carrying his Point, offered
to make him a Cardinal; for he hoped, that the Pope’s ill State of Health
would quickly bring on a Conclave; and that then M. _de Frejus_ would be
obliged to go to _Rome_, where he thought he shou’d be able to continue
him, on Pretence of managing the King’s Affairs there; and that then the
young Monarch’s Fondness to see his Favourite would by that Means
insensibly be weaned. But M. _de Frejus_ saw the Hook that was hid under
this Bait. The red Hat did not dazzle his Eyes; and he knew moreover, that
if he kept close to the King’s Person, he could be sure of a Hat whenever
he pleased. However, he thank’d the Duke of _Orleans_, and told him, he
had no such ambitious Views, and that he preferred his Station in the
King’s Council, before all the Dignities, to which, in his Goodness, he
had Thoughts of promoting him. The Duke of _Orleans_, however chagrin’d at
the Prelate’s Moderation, was forc’d to keep it to himself; he was afraid
to make use of his Authority; for it was not long before this, that he
banish’d the Marshal _de Villeroy_ to _Lyons_, at which the People
grumbled; and to put away the Preceptor too, would have rais’d a Clamour
against him, throughout the whole Kingdom. M. _de Frejus_ continued at
Court as a Member of the Privy Council, and there was not a Courtier who
gave more constant Attendance; and in this Station he supported the
Ministry of the Cardinal _du Bois_, the Duke of _Orleans_, and the Duke of
_Bourbon_; but he confin’d himself all the while within the Bounds of his
Office. At the King’s Marriage, he accepted of that of Great Almoner to
the Queen, and by that Means his Attachment to the Court became more
strict. When the Duke _de Bourbon_ was disgrac’d, the King offered the
Place of Prime Minister to M. _de Frejus_, who, indeed, accepted of that
eminent Post; but ’twas on Condition, that he should not be compelled to
take the Title, and that he might always lay an Account of every Thing
before the King.

The Bishop of _Frejus_ being thus become Master of the Government, it was
but reasonable that he should be adorned with the Purple, to give the more
Lustre to his Character. Mean time _France_, had no Hat to demand, for the
Number of her Cardinals was completed. The Emperor having a Pretension at
that Time to a Hat, the King desired him to yield it to him for his First
Minister; and the Emperor, overjoy’d that he could oblige the King, and
that he could make the Minister some sort of Amends for his pacific
Sentiments, gave him his Nomination accordingly. Pope _Benedict_ XIII.
sent the Cap to the Bishop, who then assumed the Title of Cardinal _de
Fleury_; and with this Title he now governs the State, not with the
general Applause of the _French_, because the Thing is impossible; but at
least, with the Approbation of his King, of Foreigners, and indeed, of
every Man in the Kingdom, who is thoroughly inform’d of the State of
_France_ in particular, and of _Europe_ in general. Yet those who have the
least Affection for the Cardinal, must acknowledge his Disinterestedness
and Integrity; for the worst Enemy he has, cannot accuse him of amassing
Riches, or of coveting to aggrandize his Family; in which respect he is,
perhaps, negligent to a Fault, his Kindred having the Character of Persons
of Worth.

The Cardinal’s Expences are as much circumscrib’d as his Dignity will
admit of. He is very regular in his Way and Manner of Living, and no
doubt, ’tis the strict Regimen which he observes, that keeps him in so
vigorous a State of Health: For he gives very great Application to
Business, And I don’t think he can be upbraided with wasting of Time in
his Diversions.

The _French_ (I speak of those who hope to make their Fortune by the
Sword) find fault with his Temper as too pacific. _We are despis’d_, (say
they) _our Neighbours make Treaties and Alliances without us, and +France+
is no longer what she was in the Time of +Lewis+ XIV._

I am not here proposing to make a Panegyric on the Cardinal, but I cannot
help letting you see how weakly those People talk, who censure his Conduct
as to Foreign Affairs. I don’t pretend to enter into the Domestic Affairs
of the Kingdom, tho’ I am very well persuaded, that the Cardinal’s
Integrity, and his Zeal for the King, incline him to act to the best of
his Power. I will only leave you to judge if his Inclination to Peace is
blameable. When he came into the Ministry, he found the King’s Coffers
exhausted, and the Kingdom in a Condition, which requir’d Rest rather than
a War, the Event of which is always uncertain. But after all, Who is there
to go to War with? What shall be the Pretence? Who is it that insults
_France_? Or, Who desires any thing more of her than her Friendship? Have
not the Treaties of _Utrecht_, and _Baden_, and all the Treaties made
since, during the Regency of the Duke of _Orleans_, settled the Interests
of _Europe_? Did not _England_ earnestly court the Alliance of _France_?
Has the Emperor seem’d less desirous of it? Nay, Did not _Spain_ itself,
forgetting the sending back of the _Infanta_, enter into her former
Engagements with this Crown, as soon as the Cardinal _de Fleury_ was
vested with the Ministry? In what respect then, can the _French_ think
themselves despis’d by their Neighbours? I will take upon me to prove, on
the contrary, that _Lewis_ XV. during the Cardinal _de Fleury_’s Ministry,
instead of being neglected, has been as much courted by the Foreign
Powers, as _Lewis_ XIV. was in all that Glory which procured him the Title
of _Louis le Grand_. When the Clamour was for abolishing the _Ostend_
Company, How did _England_ and _Holland_ bestir themselves to make the
King a Party in their Quarrel? What did not the Emperor do to engage him
in his Interest? Every thing was uncertain, as long as _France_ remained
undetermined. The _English_ and the _Dutch_ prepared to attack the
Emperor, and the latter made ready for his Defence. The Cardinal having
got the King to declare for the Maritime Powers, the Emperor abolish’d the
_Ostend_ Company immediately. What more could have been obtained by a War?

When the Talk was, of introducing the Infante _Don Carlos_ into _Italy_,
what Measures, what Solicitations were not employ’d by the Powers
concerned, either to bring over _Lewis_ XV. to their Party, or to oblige
him to a Neutrality? Count _Sinzendorff’s_ coming from _Vienna_ to
_Versailles_, on purpose to treat for the Tranquillity of _Italy_, seems
to me a Proof, that the Emperor does not neglect _France_ to such a
Degree as the Uneasy and Disaffected would fain have it believed. In good
Truth, if _France_ had not threatened to attack the Emperor, in case he
did not consent to the Introduction of the _Infante_ into _Tuscany_, would
his Imperial Majesty have been influenced by the bare Menaces of _Spain_?
That Monarch is too well established in _Italy_, to fear any thing from
that Crown; and if Equity and Justice did not always accompany his
Actions, it would have been easy for him to have taken Possession of
_Tuscany_; and the _Spaniards_, who have never been able to retake
_Gibraltar_, and who, perhaps, would never have reduced _Barcelona_
without the Assistance of the _French_, would have found it a very
difficult Matter to have turned them out of it. The Cardinal _de Fleury_
having persuaded the King to declare in Favour of the _Infante_, he
threatens to join the _English_ and _Spaniards_; and the Emperor seeing
all _Europe_ against him, but especially _France_, which is capable of
striking the hardest Blows, yields to the Times, and grants every thing
that is desired of him. Can there be any thing more to the Honour of the
Cardinal? And, Why should a War be undertaken, if Menaces alone are
sufficient to obtain what is desired?

But, say the Disaffected, we purchase Peace of all the World by our Money.
The Cardinal is not chargeable with lavishing the King’s Money. I know not
that he gives away any, unless it be the Subsidies granted to the Crowns
of _Denmark_ and _Sweden_. If that be purchasing a Peace, _Lewis_ XIV. and
the Regent after him, were much more lavish of the Royal Treasure, and
perhaps with less Profit; and it would be easy to demonstrate, that in
order to dislodge the _Spaniards_ from _Sicily_, the Regent sent more
Money into _Germany_ and _England_, in one Month, than the Cardinal gives
away in a Year to the Northern Crowns; tho’ one of ’em has for Time out of
Mind been used to draw Subsidies from _France_. Yet all this while, the
Regent was not accused of purchasing a Peace of his Neighbours; because,
in order to make it necessary to buy a Peace, some Prince or other must
have threatened him with a War. But ’tis certain, that no Power did then,
or does now, think of attacking _France_. Let her continue peaceable, and
there we will leave her.

But on the other hand, tho’ it were not justifiable for the Cardinal to
entertain pacific Sentiments, and tho’ he were to indulge the Passion of
the _French_, I would fain know of those who are so hot for a War, Whether
they are well assured it would have a happy Issue? And, Whether, when a
War is once begun, it would be in their Power to put an End to it,
whenever they thought it consistent with their Affairs? Nay, I will
suppose that every thing should happen as they would wish, and that the
War should prove a fortunate one; What Acquisition can _France_ make,
which would not be more to her Expence than her Advantage? For the farther
she extends her Conquests, the more Enemies she will have of Course, and
the more Troops she will be oblig’d to maintain. The Frontiers of the
Kingdom are secured. Are a few more Towns, nay, an intire Province, a
sufficient Temptation for a King of _France_? And are they an Equivalent
for the Blood and Treasure that must be expended to acquire them? No,
surely, the Cardinal is perfectly in the right, and I must beg the
_Frenchmen’s_ Pardon, when I tell ’em, they know not what they would be
at. How desirous were they of the late Peace? And they have scarce tasted
the Fruits of it, but they now want a War. If the Cardinal should enter
into a War, and the Consequences of it should prove fatal, Would they not
throw the Blame upon him? They would say for the Purpose, that it was
inconsistent with a Priest to make War. For my Part, I think the Cardinal
_de Fleury_ has substantial Reasons for doing what he does. The _French_
have been so long accustomed to the turbulent Reign of _Lewis_ XIV. which
was interspersed throughout with great Events, that they know not how to
reconcile themselves to one that is more placid and calm; but ’tis to be
hoped, they will ere long. Whatever they do, the Cardinal seems to be very
easy, let them say what they will of him. As he knows that he has nothing
to reproach himself with, and that he has always preferred the Good of the
Public to his own private Interest, he is afraid of no Revolution in his
Fortune. He is sensible that Innocence always holds up its Head, and that
real Merit is above the Reach of Envy and Malice.

M. _Daguesseau_ the Chancellor of _France_, is the Chief Magistrate of the
Kingdom, and his Office is attended with such great Prerogatives, that the
King cannot take it from him. The Person whom he succeeded in this eminent
Dignity, was M. _Voisin_, who being Secretary of War, was made Chancellor
by _Lewis_ XIV. upon M. _de Pontchartrain_’s resigning that Post, to
devote the Residue of his Life to God in Retirement. M. _Voisin_ dying
suddenly in the Beginning of the Duke of _Orlean_’s Regency, M.
_Daguesseau_, then Attorney-General, was, by his Royal Highness, appointed
Chancellor in his Room. All _France_ applauded this Choice. Every body was
so satisfied of this Magistrate’s Candour and Integrity, that nobody
doubted he would assert Justice and Equity; and in short, he perfectly
answered the Expectations of the Public. But as true Merit, is always the
most envied, a Cabal was soon formed against his Integrity. M.
_Daguesseau_ refused to put the Seal to certain Edicts, which he thought
contrary to the Welfare of the Government; at which the Duke of _Orleans_
was so incensed, that he banished the Chancellor to _Frene_, a fine Seat
belonging to that Minister near _Meaux_; and the Seals were given to M.
_d’Argenson_, Lieutenant of the Police, with the Title of Keeper of the
Seals, which was formerly no more than a bare Commission; but the Regent
was then for erecting it into an Office. The Parliament of _Paris_
exclaimed very much against this Innovation, but the Regent, after all,
was obey’d. Upon the Death of M. _d’Argenson_, the Chancellor was
recall’d, and the Seals restor’d to[55]him; but he held them not long; for
the Regent, who was resolved to have no Ministers but such as knew how to
obey, disgraced the Chancellor a second time for opposing his Will, and
gave the Seals to M. _d’Armenonville_. The latter dying during the
Cardinal _de Fleury_’s Ministry, the Seals were given to M. _de
Chauvelin_, who, besides the Title of Keeper of the Seals, has also the
Office of Minister and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. The
Chancellor, who has been recalled for some time, assists at the Council;
but his Office has been depriv’d of its greatest Lustre, since the Seals
have been separated from it.

M. _Chauvelin_, Keeper of the Seals, Minister and Secretary of[56]State
for Foreign Affairs, owes his Advancement to the Cardinal _de Fleury_,
who seems to confide in him intirely. This Minister is reckon’d very
laborious, good-natur’d and civil. The Foreign Ministers are so taken with
him, that they think no more of Messieurs _de Torcy_ and _de Morville_.
The former was of the _Colbert_ Family, Secretary of Foreign Affairs under
_Lewis_ XIV. a Man, as one may say, born for the Ministry, and whose great
and good Services have been very much cry’d-up, but more rewarded by the
Applauses of _Europe_, than by Favours from the Court. The other was the
Son of the late Keeper of the Seals, _d’Armenonville_, and had acquir’d a
great Reputation in his Embassies to _Holland_, and the Congress of
_Cambray_, when he desired Leave to[57] retire, and was succeeded by M.

The Count _de Maurepas_ is Grandson to the Chancellor _de Pontchartrain_,
and Son to the Count _de Pontchartrain_, Secretary for the Maritime
Affairs in the Reign of King _Lewis_ XIV. He enter’d very young into the
Ministry, and has so behav’d as to gain Friends and Dependants. I have not
heard one Man give him an ill Word, while every body speaks well of him;
but as for his Secretaries, or chief Clerks, the Seafaring People often
exclaim against the Airs of Importance which some of those Scribes put on,
who watch all Opportunities to impose on the Honesty of the Minister, in
Favour of their Creatures, to the Prejudice of other Subjects, who have
more Merit.

The Count _de S. Florentin_ is of the Family of _Phelypeaux_, as is also
the Count _de Maurepas_, who married his Sister. He is the Son of M. _de
la Vrilliere_, Secretary of State; and had the Reversion of his Father’s
Office granted him by the Regent, when he was scarce twenty Years of Age.
M. _de la Vrilliere_ dying not long before the King’s Marriage, M. _de S.
Florentin_ entered on his Office. He has that Province which relates to
Affairs Ecclesiastical. He married, some Years ago, the Daughter of the
late Count _de Platen_, Great Chamberlain, and Hereditary Post-Master of
_Hanover_; but neither of ’em knew one another before the Match was made.
Mademoiselle _de Platen_ was a _Lutheran_, but is turn’d _Catholic_. The
Lady, her Mother, for Whom I had as profound a Veneration as for any Woman
in the World, and whose Memory I still revere, brought her into _France_.
M. _de S. Florentin_ has Reason to be pleas’d with the Choice he has made:
For his Lady is not only very charming, but has noble Sentiments, and a
Virtue which Calumny itself durst not asperse. When she married M. _de S.
Florentin_, King _George_ I. of _Great Britain_ settled a Pension upon her
of forty thousand Livres, for forty-five Years; and King _George_ II. on
his Accession to the Crown, was pleased to confirm the said Pension, upon
that Lady’s going to _London_ to solicit it, in Company with her
Mother-in-law Madame _de la Vrilliere_, now Duchess of _Mazarine_.

M. _d’Angervilliers_, formerly Intendant of _Alsace_, is Secretary of the
War-Office, in which he succeeded M. _le Blanc_, who was the Secretary a
second time, when he died at _Versailles_. The first time that he was
Secretary, he was supplanted by M. _de Breteuil_, during the Ministry of
the Duke _de Bourbon_; and he, in his Turn, supplanted M. _de Breteuil_,
the Queen’s Chancellor, in the Ministry of the Cardinal _de Fleury_. You
see by this, that the War-Office has been several times chang’d in a few
Years; but ’tis like to remain always in the Hands of M._d’Angervilliers_,
whose Application, Vigilance and Integrity, are very much cry’d-up by the
Officers, and all that have to do with him. I gave you some Account of
this Minister, when I wrote to you from _Strasbourg_, to which I have
nothing to add.

As the Secretary of War has been often chang’d of late Years, the
Comptroller-General of the Finances has been much more so. From the Year
1711, when I first came to _Paris_, to this Day, I have known seven
Comptrollers General, and not one of ’em died in the Office: So that this
Post may well be compared to that of the Grand _Vizier_, which is alike
struggled for, and alike fatal to those who are invested with it.

Of all the Men who have had that ticklish Employment of
Comptroller-General in _France_, there is not one that has made a more
shining Fortune, and a Fortune that sooner slipp’d from him, than _John
Law_. This Man, of whom many People have wrote and talk’d without knowing
him, and according to their Passions, was a _Scotsman_, born with a narrow
Fortune, but strong Desires to inlarge it. He had travell’d through
several Parts of _Europe_, and Gaming prov’d his chief Subsistence. He won
considerable Sums in _Italy_, especially at _Genoa_; and there it was that
he hatch’d all those Projects which he put in Execution in _France_. ’Tis
true, that he did not come into this Kingdom, till he had offered his
Services to _Victor Amadeus_, the King of _Sardinia_. This Prince told
him, That his Dominions were too small for the Execution of so great a
Design; but that _France_ was a Theatre, where he might expect to make his
Market, and thither he advised him to go. _If I know the Humour of the
+French+_, added the King, _I am sure they will relish your Schemes_.
_John Law_ took the Monarch’s Advice, and shewed his Project to the
Regent, who approved it; and the Projector soon found, that he had the
Purses of the _French_ absolutely at his Command. As he was a Protestant,
he made his Abjuration in the _Recollets_ Church at _Melun_, in the
Diocese of _Sens_, in the Month of _December_ 1719, in the Hands of the
Abbé[58]_Tancin_. In the Month of _January_ following, he was made
Comptroller-General; but he quitted that Post in _June_; abruptly left
_Paris_ on the thirteenth of _December_ 1720; and after rambling about for
a while, not knowing where to fix, (for his own Country did not suit him)
he died at _Munich_. The Generality of the _French_ accuse him of having
exhausted _France_, and sent away immense Sums to Foreign Countries. How
true this is, I know not, but ’tis certain, that _Law_, after his
Disgrace, liv’d very meanly. His Widow and his Son, (Mr. _John Law_)[59]
who are actually at _Utrecht_, make no very great Figure there, which very
many People ascribe to Policy. But for my own Part, who think more freely,
and don’t see what could hinder Mrs. _Law_ and her Son from making a
Display of their Riches, in the Country where they live; I can’t help
crediting what People, and such as were _John Law_’s Intimates, have
assured me for a certain Truth, _viz._ That _Law_ being puff’d-up with his
Fortune, and not thinking it would be so short-liv’d, had no Thought of
securing it in Foreign Countries; and that if he had such a Purpose, he
had not Time to send any Sums out of the Kingdom. He was oblig’d both by
Necessity, and out of Policy, to make Purchases in _France_; and
accordingly he made considerable Acquisitions; but they were no more than
a pleasant Dream to him, and the Loss of them only made his Disgrace the
greater Affliction. I am of their Opinion, who believe that _John Law_ was
richer when he came to _France_, than he was three Months after he left
it. This Copy of Verses was made upon him, which, perhaps, you will not be
sorry to see[60].

    The TITLE of it is, A COMMISSION of the OFFICE of

      _De par le Dieu porte-marotte,
      Nous Général de la Calotte,
      Attendu que le Régiment
      Est obligé sensiblement
      Au Sieur +Law+, de qui la Science
      Et conduite dans la Finance
      Nous a donné maints Calotins,
      En inventant les Bulletins,
      Autrement dits Billets de Banque,
      Pour servir au jeu de la Blanque,
      Jeu non renouvellé des Grecs,
      Comme le Fade jeu de l’Oye,
      Mais imaginé tout exprès
      Pour exciter l’homme à la joye:
      Témoin les Plaisans viremens,
      Et continuels changemens,
      Que l’on a vu dans le Royaume
      De Quinquempoix & de Vendôme,
      Et Principauté de Soissons,
      Où l’Achat & le Dividende_
      _Causoient un Rumeur st grande,
      Qu’on ne vit jamais tant de Rats
      Obseder gens de tous états:
      Mari, Femme, Garçon & Fille!
      Laquais, Servantes, la Famille!
      En un mot, sans rien excepter,
      Venoit jouer & blanqueter,
      Et s’y portoit de telle sorte,
      Qu’il falloit Gardes à la Porte
      Pour renvoyer chacun chez soi,
      Après les trois coups de Beffroi.
      Là de tous Païs & Provinces,
      Marchands, Magistrats, Artisans,
      Prélats, Guerriers & Courtisans,
      Ducs & Pairs, & même des Princes,
      Non du Païs, mais bien forains,
      Accouroient comme des Essains,
      Malgré vent, grêle, pluye & crotte,
      Pour y jouer à la Marotte,
      En beaux & bons deniers comptant,
      Contre des Voleurs Calotines,
      Dont la +France+ & terres voisines
      Se pourront souvenir longtems._

        _A ces Causes, vu l’Abondance
      Des Calotins qui sont en +France+
      De tous Rangs & de tous états,
      Par le moyen du dit Sieur +Las+,
      Nous lui consions nos Finances;
      Voulons que sur ses Ordonnances
      Nos fonds soient œconomisés,
      Augmentés & réalisés;
      Afin que selon son merite
      Chacun ait part, grosse ou petite,
      Dans nos immenses Revenus,
      Tant de gros Fonds que de menus.
      Or comme un pareil Ministere
      Est sert étendu dans sa Sphere,
      Lui donnons pour prémier Commis,
      +NOMPAR[61]+ qui des moins endormis
      Connoit la manœuvre diverse
      De la Finance & du Commerce.
      Lui donnons pour Profits & Droit,
      Pensions, Gages & Salaries,
      Le quart de tous les Angles droits,
      Que couperont les Commissaires
      Au papier qui sera visé,
      Et duquel en homme avisé
      Il a si bien grossi le nombre,
      Que la +France+ y seroit à l’ombre,
      Si tous le Billets rassemblés,
      Et les uns aux autres collés,
      On en pouvoit saire une Tente.
      Au surplus de ladite Rente,
      Lui donnons notre grand Cordon,
      Passant de la droite à la gauche,
      Ainsi qu’un légere ébauche
      De sa droiture, dont le fond
      Va si loin que [62]+Terrasson+ même,
      Grand calculateur du Système,
      Ne pourroit pas le mesurer.
      En outre, pour mieux honorer
      Le chef de ce grand Personnage,
      Qui fit bouquer tout homme sage,
      Et soi disant docte & profond,
      Lui donnons Calotte de plomb,
      De la haute et prémiere classe;
      Et pour surcroit de telle grace,
      Joignons à ces [63]Coqs dont la voix
      Chanta la Justice au François,
      Papillons, Rats & Girouettes,_
      _Hannetons Grelots, & Sonnettes.
      En mémoirs d’un si beau chant,
      Qu’au sortir de +France+ on publie
      Qù il va chanter en +Italie+,
      Où sans doute il aura beau champ
      Pour exercer son grand Génie,
      Et sa connoissance infinie
      Dans l’art de décupler les sonds
      Par Billets payables à vue,
      Desquels aujourd’hui nous voyons
      En +France+ une si bonne Issue.
      Ordonnons à tous les Païs
      De notre vaste Dépendance,
      De l’ecouter dans ses avis,
      Sur-tout dans l’art de la Finance;
      Art qu’il possede eminemment.
      Fait au Conseil du Régiment[64]._

’Tis certain, that never was any thing more splendid, than the short Reign
of his Fortune. The _French_ perfectly idoliz’d, him, and even those who
turned their Backs to his Altar, could not help admiring him as an
extraordinary Man. The Nobility did not scruple to pay their Homage to
him; and I have seen Dukes and Peers of _France_ waiting in his
Antichamber, like the meanest Subjects. Towards the Close, there was no
coming to the Speech of him without Money. The _Swiss_ must be feed for
Entrance at his Gate, the _Lacqueys_ for Admittance into his Antichamber,
and the _Valets de Chambre_ for the Privilege of Access to his
Presence-Chamber or Closet. The Audiences too were very short, and People
were quickly dismissed with very little Merchandise for a great deal of
Money. Mean time he was civil, and his Fortune did not seem to have puff’d
him up. He was a fine handsome Man, of a fair Complexion, as the _English_
generally are, and had a very noble Port. Nobody understood _Algebra_
better than he did, and, let his Enemies say what they please, his System
was good in itself, and might have been beneficial to _France_, if it had
been punctually follow’d.

The Scheme was calculated for keeping two Thirds more of Species in the
Kingdom, than of Bills, in which Case there would always have been Money
enough to have paid off those Bills. But this did not satisfy the Avarice
of the Under-strappers; and in 1720, when the Bank Bills were put down,
there were two Thirds of Bills in the Kingdom, to one Third of Money,
_viz._ five hundred Millions of Money, to a thousand Millions in Bills;
and M. _d’Argenson_, the Protector of the four Brothers of the Name of
_Paris_, prevailed on the Regent to circulate 1760 Millions of
extraordinary Bills not registered, with which People bought and sold
Shares; and during this Commerce, the Bills were realiz’d by the Brokers
into Species; insomuch that, according to a Computation then made by
_Barême_, they say, that at the Time of the total Suppression of the
Bills, which was in _October_ 1720, there were more Livres _Tournois_ in
the famous Bank of _Missisippi_, than there had been Minutes since the
Creation of the World. All this Variety of Bills had so stupified the
_Parisians_, and they gave them such intire Credit, that before the Arret
of the fifteenth of _May_ 1720, which sunk the Bills from ten _per Cent.
per Mensem_ to half their Value, a _Parisian_ did not care to be paid in
Specie; for he thought Bills were far better, not only because they were
not liable to be lower’d, but because they were more ready to count, and
especially to carry. A Man that had Millions in his Pocket did not
perceive the Weight of ’em, whereas but one hundred _Louis-d’ors_ are too
heavy; and, how was it possible for a Man to carry them in his Pocket
without being tir’d? While Peoples Fortunes were in Paper, I could boast
of having had a Letter-case once in my Hands, in which there were Notes to
the Value of thirty-two Millions. If they had been my own, I question
whether I should have let them lie in Bank Bills, with the Hazard of
losing half the Value. What follows, is a short, but curious Account of
this Scheme[65].

_Lewis_ XIV. a little before he died, was two thousand two hundred
Millions in Debt: But by the Reduction of the Principal and Interest of
the Revenues of the Town-House, (of _Paris_) by strikeing off two fifths
upon all Contracts, and by reducing Interest to four _per Cent._ the Debts
of the State were reduced to one thousand eight hundred Millions; which
was the very Sum that was owing from the Crown, when _Lewis_ XV. came to
it. The Debts of the Government were afterwards reduced to one thousand
four hundred Millions, by sinking a Quarter, a half and three-fourths upon
the State Bills, as well as all other Debts owing by the King, as also on
Pensions, and by the Recovery of great Sums thro’ the Chamber of Justice.
Mr. _Law_ thought he should be able to extinguish all the Debts, by a
Scheme which he form’d upon the Profits that were made by _Missisippi_.
For this Purpose he erected a Bank, and caused as many Shares to be
created, as amounted to one hundred and fifty Millions, at one hundred
Livres each, payable in State Bills, which, to the Advantage of the
Buyers, rose to no less than one thousand. After this, he created more
Actions, to the Value of one hundred and five Millions, payable in Money
or Effects, at one thousand _per Cent._ which, with the former one hundred
and fifty Millions, produced one thousand six hundred and fifty Millions;
a Sum more than sufficient to cancel all the King’s Debts. Besides this,
Mr. _Law_ created Bank Bills for one thousand two hundred Millions, of
which he received the Value, either in Money or Effects. He raised the
Money higher, upon which there were at least three hundred Millions
Profit, that are not brought to the Accompt. He compelled all People to
carry their Money to the Bank, by certain Arrets, which injoin’d People at
first, to keep no more than one hundred Livres by them, and afterwards but
five hundred. So that in eight Months Management, he augmented the old
Debts of the State, that were one thousand four hundred Millions, to one
thousand six hundred and fifty Millions; which, added to the one thousand
two hundred Millions of the Bank, rise to two thousand eight hundred and
fifty Millions, due at this Time from the King. If to this we add the
_Præmium_ to which the Actions rose, which at one thousand eight hundred
among private People, make five thousand four hundred Millions more; to
which the one thousand two hundred Millions in Bank Bills must be added;
it will appear that the Public is charg’d with six thousand six hundred
Millions in Paper; and for the paying off of that Sum, there will be but
five hundred Millions in the Kingdom in Specie, when they are reduced to
their intrinsic Value. The King having received one thousand six hundred
and five Millions in Effects, of which he owed the greatest Part, and
Actions or Shares being taken instead thereof, which Actions, by secret
Management, rose to five thousand four hundred Millions among the
Subjects, Mr. _Law_ thereby gave the People the Opportunity of putting
three thousand seven hundred and five Millions in their Pockets.

    An ACCOUNT of the BANK BILLS that subsisted, and of those that
    were burnt.

  Bills engraved                  669000000
  Bills printed                  1927400000

  Bills of 10000 Livres          1134000000
            1000                 1123200000
             100                  299200000
              10                   40000000
                           Total 2596400000

  Bills burnt of 10000 Livres     562500000
                  1000            138528000
                   100              6026000
                    10               273460
                            Total 707327460

  There then remained therefore}
    in Trade                   } 1989072540

The Fortunes made at _Paris_, during this _Missisippi_ Contagion, are so
extraordinary, that unless one had seen it, ’twere impossible to believe
it; and, what is still more unaccountable, the greatest were rais’d by
mere Scoundrels; for except a few of the Court Lords and Ladies, it look’d
as if Fortune had resolved to put the Gentry into Almshouses, for the Sake
of inriching a Parcel of Bankrupts, Lacqueys, Beggars, and other of the
Mobility[66]. And ’tis my real Opinion, that if God had not interpos’d,
Footmen would at length have been the Masters, and the Masters the
Footmen. The Handicraftsmen laid by their Work; there was nothing talked
of but Actions, and every Place echoed with _Missisippi_ and
_Quinquempoix_, which is the Street where all that hopeful Trade was
carried on.

These lucky _Missisippians_ have nevertheless seen the Turn of Fortune’s
Wheel. The Generality of those who had not the Precaution to send their
Money out of the Kingdom, were called to Accompt, and obliged to disgorge
a Part of their Gains. Whether the King got much by this Scrutiny, I know
not; but I believe it had the same Fate as the Chamber of Justice,
established in 1716, in the _Augustins_ Convent at _Paris_, for the
Prosecution of People employ’d in the Finances. This Tribunal, at the Head
of which was M. _de Portail_, now the first President, had condemned
several Tax Gatherers for an infinite Number of Misdemeanors committed in
the King’s Finances. Some were punished as they justly deserved. A great
many were tax’d in Proportion to the Declarations they were forced to make
of their immense Wealth, which might have produc’d very considerable Sums
for the Ease of the Government, at that Time plung’d over Head and Ears in
Debt. But these Bloodsuckers of the People compounded for a Trifle of
Expence, by a few Presents to a Lady, or to some Nobleman who had the
Favour of the Regent. This was a Golden Shower, of which the least Part
fell into the King’s Coffers.

I have made a terrible Digression. Mr. _Law_ carried me to _Missisippi_,
which is a long Voyage, and a Country from whence a Man can’t return
whenever he has a Mind to it; but I am now come back to the Court. I have
mentioned the Ministers to you, but they are not the only Persons that
have a Seat in the Council. One of its Members is the Marshal _de
Villars_, who being of all the _French_ Generals, the Man that made the
most shining Figure during the last War, I think myself oblig’d to give
you a more particular Account of him.

_Francis Hector_, Duke _de Villars_, Marshal of _France_, and Dean of the
Marshals, is a Gentleman of a good Family, his Father having been a
Commander of the King’s Orders. His Stature is above the middle Size, and
he has the Port and Step of a Nobleman. He has an agreeable winning
Countenance, and hazel Eyes, which are lively and sparkling. He is a Man
of Penetration, crafty, complaisant, and capable of great Affairs. He
talks a great deal; but what he says is to the Purpose. He is laborious,
attach’d to, and indefatigable in Business, a courageous good Soldier, and
a successful General. Satire charges him with Avarice, as it did the Duke
of _Marlborough_ his Rival: He is, withal, accused of being too haughty,
and too conceited of his Actions, and his Merits. This, indeed, may be
true enough; for I myself was Witness to a Conversation, in which he
discovered it sufficiently plain. ’Twas the Winter after the Battle of
_Denain_, when the Marshall being at Dinner with the late[67]M.
_d’Armagnac_, Great Master of the Horse, where I was likewise a Guest; he
talked a great deal about his Exploits, to which I listened so
attentively, that he took Notice of it; and being unknown to him, he
whispered the Master of the Horse in the Ear, to know who I was; and when
the Marshal was told that I was a _German_, he paid me a good deal of
Respect. Then resuming his Discourse, and addressing it to me, he talked
of his Victory at _Denain_, with an Air of mighty Self-Applause. _But
why_, said he, _did your People drown themselves? I am merciful, I would
have given them Quarter_; _and they ought surely to have asked it_. I
declare to you, that my Soul was all in Fire for the Honour of _Germany_.
Those Words, Mercy and Quarter, I took for an Insult upon my Country. I
was young and hot-headed, and was just going to return him an Answer that
would not have become me; however, I kept my Temper, and ’twas not till
the second or third Provocation that I made him Answer, _That I did not
think he ought to be surprized at what the +German+ Troops did, because
they had known his Valour sufficiently before the Battle of +Denain+, but
never had a Trial of his Clemency_. I saw that he did not relish my
Answer, upon which he shifted the Subject, and did not speak a Word more
to me all the Time.

Some time after the Peace, however, I made him Satisfaction: ’Twas at the
House of the Duchess _de Lude_, Lady of Honour to the Duchess of
_Burgundy_. There was a great deal of Company, and among the rest, the
Marshal _de Villars_. The Conversation fell upon the Custom of the
Ancients, to give Surnames to their Heroes; and the Moderns were blam’d
for not doing so too. _What Name should we find for you, Marshal?_ said
the Duchess _de Lude_. I replied immediately, _This would be no difficult
Task. I don’t think that any Title would suit the Marshal +de Villars+
better than that of +Germanicus Franciscus+_. This Trifle hit the
Marshal’s Taste so nicely, that he put on a smiling Countenance, and said
a great many obliging Things to me.

The Marshal _de Villars_, in his Youth, was a Page to _Lewis_ XIV. He
enter’d into the Service very young, and distinguished himself at his
first setting-out, so that he really owes his Advancement more to his
Services and Merit, than to Fortune. After the Peace of _Ryswic_, he had
the Care of the King’s Affairs at the Emperor’s Court; but was recalled
from thence a little before the War began, upon Account of the Succession
to the King of _Spain_, _Charles_ II. When the War was declared, M. _de
Villars_, at that time Lieutenant-General, was in the Army in _Germany_,
commanded by the Marshal _Catinat_. The Marquis _de Villars_, with a
Detachment from the Army, attack’d the _Imperialists_ near _Fridlinguen_
in 1702. The _French_ said, that he won the Victory; the _Germans_ say,
No. Which Party is in the Right, I can’t tell; but be it as it will, the
Staff of a Marshal of _France_ was M. _de Villars_ Reward for the Battle.
The same Year the Duke of _Savoy_ entring into an Alliance against the two
Crowns, at the very Time that he assured them of his Attachment, the
Treaty which that Prince made with the Emperor and his Allies, was kept
secret for a while, tho’ not so secret but the Elector of _Bavaria_ knew
of it; and his Electoral Highness reproaching the Envoy of _Savoy_ with
it, that Minister actually swore he knew nothing of the Matter, and that,
moreover, he did not believe it; upon which the Marshal _de Villars_, who
was present, clapp’d his Hand upon the Envoy’s Shoulder, and repeated
this Verse to him out of _Racine_; _Tu ne le crois que trop, malheureux
+Mithridate+_, _i. e._ Ah! poor _Mithridates_! thou believest it but too
much. In 1704, the Marshal _de Villars_ was recalled from the Army in
_Germany_, to command in the _Cevennois_, where he gained Palms and
Olives, as well as Laurels; for by his good Nature and Moderation he
pacified a Rebellion, which the too great Severity of his Predecessor, the
Marshal _de Montrevel_, had but the more inflamed.

After this, he had the Command of the Army in _Germany_, and kept it till
1709, when he went into the _Netherlands_ to relieve the Duke _de
Vendosme_, who was sent into _Spain_. M. _de Villars_, when in _Flanders_,
retriev’d the Honour of _France_, which had been sully’d there by several
Defeats. For tho’ the _French_ suffer’d another at the Battle of
_Malplaquet_, yet they made so brave a Stand, that the Allies could not
help admiring their Courage. The Marshal _de Villars_, being wounded in
the Knee, was obliged to retire, and to leave the Command to the Marshal
_de Boufflers_, who drew off the Army in good Order. They give out, that
when the Marshal _de Villars_ heard the News, he said, _+Villars+ was not
there; he could not be everywhere_. The Allies paid dear for this Victory;
for they lost twenty-three thousand Men, besides a considerable Number of
Officers of Distinction. They might say as _Pyrrhus_ did, after the Defeat
of the _Romans_, _One more such a Victory, and I am undone_. The _French_
lost eight thousand one hundred thirty-seven Men; and during the whole
Course of the War, there was not a more bloody, nor a more obstinate

The Campaign of 1712 was the most glorious to the Marshal _de Villars_, of
any that he ever made; for he therein gained the Victory at _Denain_, and
in two Months time took from the Allies what had cost them several

’Twas about the same time, that, upon the Death of the Duke _de Vendôme_
at _Vinaroz_ in _Spain_, _Lewis_ XIV. conferr’d his Government of
_Provence_ upon the Marshal, who was also made a Duke and Peer. They tell
a Story, that when he went to take Possession of his Government, and the
Deputies of the Province presented him with a Purse full of _Lewis d’Ors_,
One of ’em said, _Here_, my Lord, _is such another Purse as that we gave
to the Duke +de Vendôme+, when, like you, he came to be our Governor; but
that Prince refus’d to take it_. _Ah!_ said the Marshal _de Villars_,
squeezing the Purse, _M. +de Vendôme+ has not left his Fellow behind him_.

The War in the _Netherlands_ being finish’d by the Peace at _Utrecht_, the
Marshal _de Villars_ had again the Command of the Army in _Germany_. When
he took his Leave of the King, he said to him, _I most humbly intreat your
Majesty to consider, that I leave you in the midst of my Enemies, whilst I
am going to fight yours_. He actually took _Landau_ and _Fribourg_, and
afterwards return’d to _Versailles_, to receive the King’s Orders to go
and treat of a Peace with Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_. During the Campaign
his Enemies told the King, in hopes his Majesty would blame him for it,
that he had laid out the Sum of 1800,000 Livres in the Purchase of an
Estate. The King asking him one Day at Dinner, if it was true that he had
made such a Purchase; _Yes, Sir_, replied the Marshal, who suspected that
those who told the King of it were then at the Table, _I have bought an
Estate which cost me 1800,000 Livres; and if the War continues, and your
Majesty trusts me with the Command of your Army, I hope to purchase a more
considerable one next Year at the Expence of your Enemies_. But instead of
making another Campaign, the Marshal went to _Rastadt_, where he and
Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_ sign’d the Preliminaries of the Peace, which
those two Generals concluded afterwards at _Baden_ on the seventh of
_June_ 1714. Since that time the Marshal has always resided at Court. The
_French_ look upon him as the Restorer of their Reputation in the
_Netherlands_, the Support of the State, and the chief Captain of his
Time: He is loaded with Wealth and Dignities: He is a Duke and Peer, a
Marshal of _France_, a Grandee of _Spain_, a Knight Commander of the
King’s Orders, a Knight of the Golden Fleece, and Governor of _Provence_.
He has an only Son, for whom he has obtain’d the Reversion of his

Perhaps I have detain’d you too long about the Marshal _de Villars_; but I
thought the little Particularities I have given you would do you a
Pleasure, and that you would not be sorry to know some Circumstances of a
Man, who, after all, has been much cry’d-up in _Europe_. I shall be more
brief in my Account of the other Noblemen, and of these I shall name but
two or three, of whom you have heard some Talk, and such as are in most
Reputation with us.

_James Fitz-James_ Duke of _Berwic_, a Peer and Marshal of _France_, a
Peer of _England_, a Grandee of _Spain_, a Knight of the Garter, and of
the Golden Fleece, is the legitimated Son of _James_ II. King of _Great
Britain_[69]. He follow’d his Father to _France_, where he served with
Distinction. In 1706 he had the Marshal’s Staff given him; and in 1707 he
commanded the Army of the two Crowns in _Spain_, where he defeated the
Lord _Gallway_ near _Almanza_. The King of _Spain_, to reward him for such
great Service, made him a Grandee of _Spain_, and gave him the Duchy of
_Liria_, which M. _de Berwic_ yielded to his eldest Son, who is actually
in Possession of it. In 1714 the Marshal-Duke of _Berwic_ reduc’d
_Barcelona_ under the Obedience of _Philip_ V. This City had refus’d to
acknowledge that Prince, and tho’ abandon’d, and without any Hopes of
Relief, continued the War with an Obstinacy of Men who seem’d to be
desperate. The very Women, the Priests, Friers, all were Soldiers in
_Barcelona_; and during the Siege, which held sixty-one Days with open
Trenches, after a Blockade of eleven Months, there were five hundred and
forty-three Friers and Priests kill’d and wounded in the Sallies and
Attacks. The City was taken on the eleventh of _September_ by Storm: The
Battle lasted from Four o’Clock in the Morning till Eleven, when the
Inhabitants retir’d into the new Town, which is only separated from the
other by a single Wall. They surrender’d next Day at Discretion to the
Marshal-Duke _de Berwic_, who gave them a verbal Promise to save their
Lives, and to protect the City from Plunder, on their paying down a large
Sum of Money. _Barcelona_ being thus reduc’d, the Marshal return’d to
_France_ loaded with Wealth and Honours. Upon the Death of King _Lewis_
XIV. he was admitted to the Council of the Regency, and sent soon after to
command in _Guienne_. The Regent gave him the Command of the Army against
the King of _Spain_, which his Royal Highness had before offer’d to the
Marshal _de Villars_; but that Nobleman told him, He would never draw his
Sword against a Prince who might one Day become his Sovereign, a Prince
for whose Service he had already spilt some Blood, and one for whom the
Kingdom had expended such a Treasure. The Marshal-Duke of _Berwic_, being
not so delicate, accepted of the Command, took _St. Sebastian_, and obey’d
the Regent much more than he was bound to do in Duty.

For this he was continued in the Command of _Guienne_, and particularly of
_Bourdeaux_. For some time past the Marshal-Duke has been very much at
Court, and often at his Ducal Lordship in _Picardy_[70].

_Victor-Maria_ Duke _d’Estrées_, whom I ought to have mention’d before the
Duke of _Berwic_, as being the oldest Marshal of _France_, is
Vice-Admiral of the Kingdom, a Duke and Peer, a Grandee of _Spain_, a
Commandeur of the King’s Orders, and a Knight of the Golden Fleece. He is
the last of his Family, which has been render’d illustrious by all the
great Dignities of the Kingdom ever since[71] the charming _Gabriella
d’Estrées_, who was Mistress to _Henry_ IV. He lives with as much Splendor
and Magnificence as most Noblemen in _France_: His House is open to all
Foreigners of Distinction, and Men of Knowledge and Learning are well
receiv’d in it. The Marshal has a fine Library, a most beautiful Cabinet
of Medals, and a complete Collection of antique Stones that are grav’d.
Besides the Estate of the Family of _Estrées_, of which he is the only
Head, he made great Acquisitions by _Missisippi_ Stock, and there are few
Sovereigns that have finer Diamonds. Since the Troubles that arose in
_Bretagne_ during the Regency of the Duke of _Orleans_, the Assembly of
the States of that Province is always held by this Nobleman. The Nobility
of _Bretagne_ extol him very much, and find a great Difference between
their Treatment by this Marshal, and the rigid haughty Air with which the
late Marshal _de Montesquiou_ carried it to them during the Regency. Tho’
the Marshal _d’Estrées_ is very much attach’d to the Court, yet he is
often at _Paris_, where he has a very fine House, and is visited by the
greatest and the best People in the Kingdom. The Marshal’s Lady, who is
_Noailles_, Sister to the Countess _de Tholouse_, was formerly a Lady of
the Bed-chamber to the Duchess of _Burgundy_; she has all the Politeness
of the ancient Court, and tho’ she is past the Bloom of her Youth, she is
still one of the most amiable Women at Court, and by her Management there
is not a more agreeable Family than hers in the Kingdom. I am, _&c._


                              LETTER XLII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Paris, May 22, 1732._

Yesterday I loiter’d away a good deal of Time with a Couple of
_Englishmen_, to whom, as they call it in _Italy_, I was a _Cicero_[72].
Nevertheless, you must not expect me to give you an Account of every thing
I saw; and besides, so much has been already said of _Versailles_, that
you shall hardly find one Book in twenty, almost, but what treats of the
Beauties of this Royal Palace.

After having shew’d my _English_ Gentlemen the Castle, the Chapel, the
Stables and the Park, I carried them to the Royal Abbey of _St. Cyr_,
which they had heard so much Talk of, that they long’d to see it: ’Tis a
grand stately House, and worthy of the Magnificence of the great Monarch
who founded it, at the Solicitation of Madame _de Maintenon_, for the
Education of two hundred and fifty young Damsels, whose Families are not
able to give them a Maintenance suitable to their Birth. Immediately after
the Demise of _Lewis_ XIV. Madame _de Maintenon_ retir’d to _St. Cyr_, and
there she always dwelt till she died. She went thither indeed, even
during the King’s Illness, as soon as she found that the Physicians had
given him over; the King, however, contrary to all Expectation, recover’d;
and not seeing Madame _de Maintenon_, ask’d where she was: Upon this the
Lady return’d, when the King gave her a handsome Reprimand for abandoning
him, and desir’d her to stay with him as long as he had any Remains of
Life. Madame _de Maintenon_ obey’d, but the King’s Breath was no sooner
out of his Body, than she took Coach, and went to _St. Cyr_, with a Design
never to stir from it as long as she liv’d.

She had the Consolation, however, of receiving Visits there from all the
Princes and Princesses of the Blood; and even the late Madame the Regent’s
Mother, who never visited Madame _de Maintenon_ in the King’s Life-time,
thought she could not excuse herself from making her a Visit. The Regent
went thither likewise, and told her, she might depend upon his punctual
Regard to every Tittle that the late King had order’d in her Favour by his
last Will and Testament. Madame _de Maintenon_ return’d him Thanks, and
said, that as she was resolv’d to be retir’d for the Residue of her Life,
she desir’d but 40,000 Livres a Year for her Subsistance. Four Years after
this she died, and was interr’d in the Church of _St. Cyr_, in the Middle
of the Choir, in a Tomb of plain black Marble, with the following Epitaph
engrav’d on it; which I lik’d so well, that I have copied it Word for
Word, and send it to you, because I don’t believe you have seen it

                                CY  GIT

      _Très baute & très puissante Dame
      _Marquise de_ MAINTENON;
      _Femme Illustre, Femme vraiment Chrétienne;
      Cette Femme forte que le Sage chercha vainement dans son Siecle,
      Et qu’il nous eût proposé pour modele, s’il eût vêcu dans le nôtre.
        Sa Naissance fut très noble.
      On loua de bonne heure son Esprit, & plus encore sa Vertu.
      La Sagesse, la Douceur, la Modestie sormoient son Caractere,
        Qui ne se démentit jamais.
      Toujours égale dans les differentes situations de sa vie;
      Mêmes Principles, mêmes Regles, mêmes Vertus.
        Fidèle dans les exercices de Piété,
      Tranquille au milieu des agitations de la Cour,
        Simple dans la Grandeur,
        Pauvre dans le centre des richesses,
        Humble au comble des honneurs;
      Révérée de_ LOUIS LE GRAND,
        _Environnée de sa gloire,
      Autorisée par sa plus intime confiance,
        Dépositaire de ses graces,
      Qui n’a jamais fait d’usage de son pouvoir,
        Que par sa bonté.
      Une autre Esther dans la faveur,
      Une seconde Judith dans la Retraite & l’Oraison:
        La Mere des Pauvres,
      L’Asyle toujours sûr des malheureux,
          Une vie si illustre
      A été terminée par un mort sainte
          Et precieuse devant Dieu.
      Son Corps est resté dans cette sainte maison,
        Dont elle avoit procuré l’établissement;
          Et elle a laissé à l’univers
          L’exemple de ses vertus.
        Décédée le 15 d’Avril 1719.
        Née le 28 de Novembre 1635._

                                 i. e.

                               HERE LIES

      _The most high and most potent Lady_
      _The Lady_ FRANCESE D’AUBIGNY,
         _Marchioness of_ MAINTENON.
      _A Wife illustrious_[73], _a Woman truly Christian;
      That virtuous Heroine whom the wise Man sought in vain in his Time,
      And whom he wou’d have propos’d to us for a Pattern, if he had liv’d
          in ours.
        She was of Birth most noble,
      Her Wit was early commended, and much more her Virtue.
      Sobriety, good Nature and Modesty, form’d her Character,
        From which she never derogated.
      Always unchangeable in the various Situations of her Life;
      The same Principles, the same Rules, the same Virtues.
        Sincere in the Exercises of Piety,
      Tranquil during the Storms at Court,
          Plain in the Midst of Grandeur,
      Poor in the Centre of Wealth,_
        _Humble at the Summit of Honours;
      Rever’d by_ LEWIS LE GRAND,
        _Environ’d with his Glory,
      Vested with his most intimate Confidence,
        The Depositary of his Favours,
      Who never made use of her Power
        But to do Good.
      Another_ Esther _in Favour,
      A second_ Judith _in Retirement and Prayer:
        The Mother of the Poor,
      The never-failing Asylum of the Unfortunate.
          A Life so illustrious
      Was cut off by a Death Pious,
          And precious in the Sight of God.
      Her Body lies in this Sacred House,
        Of which she procur’d the Establishment:
          And her Virtues she has left
          To the World for a Pattern.
        She departed this Life_ April 15, 1719.
        _Being born the 28th of_ November 1635.

My _Englishmen_ thought the Panegyric upon Madame _de Maintenon_ a little
too much strain’d. I confess that I think she is well equipp’d with a
Character; and if it be true, that she was as humble as her Epitaph
imports, I make no doubt, but if she had liv’d to see such an Encomium, it
would have put her Modesty sadly out of Countenance: For ’tis certain,
that this Lady had a very great Fund of Virtue and Piety; and I have heard
it said by Persons, who otherwise had no reason to be fond of her, that
’twas impossible to be acquainted with her, and not to esteem her.

When I return’d from _St. Cyr_, I came hither to see M. _Voltaire_’s
Tragedy of _Brutus_, which is so fine a Piece, that I and my _English_
Companions were charm’d with it: We not only admir’d the Conduct and
Versification of it, but we applauded the Freedom with which the Author
makes the _Romans_ think and speak. Mean time, the _French_ are not of our
Opinion. _The Respect due to Royalty_, say they, _is not well preserv’d in
it_. They censure the Author _for presuming to confine the Royal Authority
within the Bounds of Justice_. _M._ de Voltaire, say they, _never could
imbibe these Sentiments in_ France. _’Tis very plain that he contracted
them beyond Sea. They may be relish’d well enough by the_ English; _but to
us they are intolerable: And if M._ de Voltaire _goes on to write in this
Manner, he may, perhaps, have an Apartment in the_ Bastile. I confess that
terrible Name dumb-founder’d me, and I did not dare to say a Word in the
Author’s Vindication, for fear of being deem’d his Accomplice. The
_Bastile_ and the _Holy Office_ are two Terms which always silenc’d me,
even when I have had the strongest Inclination to speak my Mind.

As for the Comedians, they perform’d Wonders. One _du Frêne_ actually
out-did himself. He is Brother to _Quinaut_, an excellent Comedian in the
Parts which require Humour, but excessively out-of-the-Way in Tragedy; and
take him off the Theatre, impertinent beyond Expression, as is also his
Brother, tho’ they are both Men of Wit.

The Players are much more respected here than they are elsewhere, which
makes them insolent to the last Degree. The Nobility are fond of their
Company, and admit them to their Parties of Pleasure: And as they are
Kings upon the Stage, and Equals and Companions at Table with the best
Lords in the Kingdom, no wonder that it turns their Brains. But that which
must needs render them arrogant beyond Measure, is a late Instance of
Regard paid them by the _French_ Academy, who, by a Letter, invited the
Performers in the _French_ Comedy, to hear an Oration made in their
Academy; which the Comedians took for such an Honour, that the very next
Day they offer’d the Members of the Academy Admission to their Comedy
_Gratis_; which the Academicians made no Scruple to accept, to the great
Amazement of the whole City of _Paris_, which blames the Members for it
not a little: The Fault is laid at the Door of certain Authors, who are in
League with the Comedians, and gave the Invitation without consulting the
rest of the Members, of whom several that had, no Hand in the Transaction,
protested against the Conduct of those who had, the Consequence of which
was a Quarrel in the Academy. Indeed, one would imagine by that Day’s
Work, that they did not really consider what they were doing; and the
Noblemen who are Members of the Academy, cry out against it very much.
’Tis true, that the Comedians who presume to offer Admission _Gratis_ to a
Marshal _de Villars_, a Marshal _d’Estrées_, or other Noblemen of that
Rank, are not mean Fellows, and deserve the Appellation of the _Company
of_ Comedians, instead of _Troop_; in order to distinguish them from the
Strollers in the[74] Country. Why then should not they be honour’d? The
Actors in the Opera, who, as well as they, divert the Public for Lucre,
have, indeed, the Privilege, that a Gentleman may be admitted among them
without Disparagement to his Title. This is a Favour, says a modern Author
very justly, which had never yet been granted to those who perform in the
public Spectacles, and who give Diversion for Money; because in most of
the Ages of Christianity, they had been look’d upon as Persons
excommunicated and infamous, by reason of the Corruption in Morals, owing
to their then too licentious Representations, which, perhaps, is no longer
apprehended to be the Case at present. ’Tis certain, that if a Performer
in an Opera may be noble, I can’t see why a Person mayn’t be the same in a
Comedy; tho’ ’tis my Opinion, that if Stage-players may be Gentlemen,
Rope-dancers and Tumblers have a Title to it; for, besides the Honour they
have of diverting the Public, they run the Risk of breaking their Necks
every Day; and is not that the Lot of the Nobility?

As I returned Yesterday with my _Englishmen_ from _Versailles_, we went to
_St. Cloud_, where we had the Honour to see the Duke _de Chartres_, the
only Son of the Duke of _Orleans_. This Prince was in the Park, to see a
young Officer of the Train of Artillery make Proofs of some Pieces of
Ordnance. We were surpriz’d to see how attentively the young Prince
observed every thing, and to hear him ask the Officer such Questions as
were not to be expected from one of his Years. We had reason also to
applaud the gracious and polite Reception which he gave us. To be plain, I
was charm’d to see a Grandson of the late _Madame_, so worthy of herself,
and of the illustrious Blood from which he is descended.

_St. Cloud_ is a Palace belonging to the Duke of _Orleans_, first Prince
of the Blood, and was built by Order of the late Monsieur _Philip_ of
_France_, (Brother of _Lewis_ XIV.) who added very magnificent Gardens to
it. ’Tis certain, that if the late King had chose _St. Cloud_ for his
Residence, instead of _Versailles_, he might have had a finer Building
with less Expence. What is most admir’d at _St. Cloud_, are the Gallery
and Salon, both painted by _Mignard_, the Cascade, and the great
Water-work, which throws up the Water a hundred Feet high, and which
nothing exceeds of the Kind, but the Work that was made by the Direction
of an[75]_English_ Gentleman at _Herenhausen_, near _Hanover_, in the
Reign of King _George_ I.

_St. Cloud_ has been fatal to several Princes of the Royal Family. _Henry_
III. was assassinated there on the first of _August_ 1589, at eight
o’Clock in the Morning, by _James Clement_. _Henrietta_ of _England_,
first Wife to the late _Philip_ of _France_, Duke of _Orleans_, only
Brother to _Lewis_ XIV. died there suddenly of a Colic, on the 30th of
_June_ 1670. She said that she was poison’d, for which Reason the King
caus’d her Corpse to be open’d in Presence of the _English_ Ambassador.
’Tis a difficult Matter, to judge whether that Princess’s Suspicions were
true; for the Physicians and Surgeons found all her noble Parts corrupted,
tho’ she was but twenty-six Years old. Her Husband paid his Tribute to
Nature on a sudden, in the same Palace, on the 4th of _June_ 1701.

What I have mentioned to you of the unhappy Catastrophe of the last of the
_Valois_, puts me in Mind of a Passage in History, that _Te Deum_ was
forgot in the Ceremony of his Coronation; that the Crown fell from his
Head; and that there was no Oil in the Sacred Phial, to perform the
customary[76] Unction; which were then taken for ill Omens, and Time
prov’d them but too true.

Since I am upon Tragical Events, I will mention a Thing to you that lately
happen’d in _England_, and which I was assur’d by the _English_ Gentlemen,
in our Return from _Versailles_, is a certain Fact.

One _Richard Smith_, a Bookbinder, and his Wife _Bridget_, were about a
Fortnight ago found hanging in their Chamber near their Bed-side, about
three or four Feet Distance from one another; and in the next Room, their
Daughter, who was but two Years old, was found shot thro’ the Head. There
were three Letters left upon the Table, of which the following is the most
material; and I send you a Copy of it, because it will let you into the
_Stoic_ Character of the _English_ Nation. ’Tis directed to Mr.
_Brindley_, a Bookbinder at _London_, in that which is call’d _New

_Cousin_ BRINDLEY,

    ‘These Actions, consider’d in all their Circumstances, being
    somewhat uncommon, it may not be improper to give some Account
    of the Cause, and that it was an inveterate Hatred we conceiv’d
    against Poverty and Rags; Evils, which through a Train of
    unlucky Accidents were become inevitable; for we appeal to all
    that ever knew us, whether we were either idle or extravagant;
    whether or no we have not taken as much Pains to get our Living
    as our Neighbours, altho’ not attended with the same Success.
    We apprehend the taking our Child’s Life away to be a
    Circumstance for which we shall be generally condemn’d; but for
    our own Parts, we are perfectly easy upon that Head. We are
    satisfy’d it is less Cruelty to take the Child with us, even
    supposing a State of Annihilation, as some dream of, than to
    leave her friendless in the World, expos’d to Ignorance and
    Misery. Now in order to obviate some Censures, which may proceed
    either from Ignorance or Malice, we think it proper to inform
    the World, that we firmly believe the Existence of Almighty God;
    that this Belief of ours is not an implicit Faith, but deduced
    from the Nature and Reason of Things: We believe the Existence
    of an Almighty Being from the Consideration of his wonderful
    Works, from a Consideration of those innumerable celestial and
    glorious Bodies, and from their wonderful Order and Harmony. We
    have also spent some Time in viewing those Wonders which are to
    be seen in the minute Part of the World, and that with great
    Pleasure and Satisfaction, from all which Particulars, we are
    satisfied, that such amazing Things could not possibly be
    without a first Mover, without the Existence of an Almighty
    Being: And as we know the wonderful God to be Almighty, so we
    cannot help believing but that he is also good, not implacable;
    not like such Wretches as Men are, not taking Delight in the
    Miseries of his Creatures; for which Reason we resign up our
    Breaths unto him, without any terrible Apprehensions, submitting
    ourselves to those Ways, which in his Goodness he shall please
    to appoint after Death. We also believe the Existence of
    unbody’d Creatures, and think we have Reason for that Belief,
    altho’ we don’t pretend to know their Way of subsisting. We are
    not ignorant of those Laws made _in Terrorem_; but leave the
    Disposal of our Bodies to the Wisdom of the Coroner and his
    Jury; the Thing being indifferent to us where our Bodies are
    laid: From whence it will appear how little anxious we are about
    a _Hic jacet_; we for our Parts neither expect, nor desire such
    Honours, but shall content ourselves with a borrowed Epitaph,

      ‘Without a Name, for ever silent, dumb,
      Dust, Ashes, nought else is within this Tomb.
      Where we were born or bred, it matters not,
      Who were our Parents, or have us begot.
      We were, but are not: think no more of us;
      For as we are, so you’ll be turn’d to Dust.

    ‘It is the Opinion of _Naturalists_, that our Bodies are at
    certain Stages of Life compos’d of new Matter, so that a great
    many poor People have new Bodies oftner than new Cloaths: Now as
    Divines are not able to inform us which of those several Bodies
    shall rise at the Resurrection, it is very probable, that the
    deceased Body may be for ever silent as well as any other.’

                                                        RICHARD SMITH.
                                                        BRIDGET SMITH.

The Coroner’s Inquest, after the usual Formalities, brought in their
Verdict, whereby they declared _Richard Smith_ guilty of that Crime, which
they call in _England_, _Felo de se_, or Self-Murder; and of Wilful Murder
as to his Child. _Bridget_ was brought in a Lunatic, tho’ she had sign’d
the Letter with her Husband, and acknowledged that she was equally
concerned in the Murder of her Child; so that I think her Corpse deserved
hanging, at least for a little while: And sure I am, that she would not
have been found a Lunatic here.

There being commonly some little Piece of Entertainment at the End of
Tragedies, I am now to divert you with some such Farce. ’Tis the Adventure
of a certain pert Coxcomb of a Counsellor, with the Abbé _de Vayrac_, an
Author, and a Man of[77]Wit. Not many Days ago, as the Abbé was walking on
Foot, he was overtaken with a Shower of Rain, which made him take Shelter
under a Penthouse, at a Shop-door. At the same Time, who should pass by in
a magnificent Coach, driving at a mad Rate, as if he would run over every
Thing in his Way, but a Counsellor, whose furious Career was stopp’d all
on a sudden, by something that broke his Harness! This Disaster happen’d
just at the Place Where the Abbé _de Vayrac_ stood, dress’d like other
Authors, with an old tatter’d Hat upon his Head, and a shabby Cloak over a
Coat quite thread-bare. The Thing that most diverted the Counsellor, was
his Hat, and he order’d one of his Lacqueys to ask him, if it was not as
old as the Battle of[78]_Rocroy_. You must know, the Lacqueys of this
Country are more brazen-fac’d and insolent than they are any-where else;
and the Counsellor’s discharg’d his Errand to a Tittle. M. _l’Abbé_, said
he, in a Droll Tone, _my Master wants to know in what Battle your Hat
receiv’d all those Wounds_. _At the Battle of_ Cannæ, _Friend_, reply’d
the Abbé; and then he laid on five or six heavy Blows upon the impudent
Ambassador’s Shoulders with his _Cane_. The Counsellor, seeing his
Domestic so soundly drubb’d, stepp’d instantly out of his Coach, and
running to the Abbé, said, _What are you doing?_ The Abbé reply’d very
sedately, _I am chastising Insolence._ _Parbleu_, M. _l’Abbé_, said the
Counsellor, _I think you are a pleasant Fellow to presume to strike a
Servant of mine! Surely you don’t know me; for if you did, you would have
more Respect for my Livery._ _Pardon me_, reply’d the Abbé, _I know you
very well._ _And who am I?_ said the Counsellor. _Why you are a Fool_,
reply’d the _Abbé_; upon which the Gentleman thought fit to sneak off.
This is a very true Story; for I had it from the Abbé _de Vayrac_ himself,
who told it to me with the same Gravity as he had answer’d the Counsellor.

Tho’ Lacqueys are not commonly the Subjects of Conversation, yet I think
that those of _Paris_ deserve some Notice. They form so considerable a
Body, that there are many Kings who have not so numerous an Army. Besides,
these Fellows make such extraordinary Fortunes, and often rise so quick
from _Valets_, to be Masters and Gentlemen, that really they ought not to
be confounded in the Lump with the _European_ Lacqueys. Those of ’em who
set up for fine Fellows, as many of ’em do, (for in the Livery of _Paris_,
you meet with every Thing that is handsome and gay) such, I say, as are in
the Service of some young Noblemen, are commonly Equals and Companions
with their Masters. There are others who are the Darlings of the Fair Sex;
and if Satire may be credited, and Appearances, perhaps, into the
Bargain, there are Ladies even of the first Quality, who don’t always
treat their Lacqueys like Servants. ’Tis true, they most commonly take
them out of the Livery, and in order to bring them near their Persons,
they make them their Pages, or _Valets de Chambre_. Nothing is thought too
good for these Favourites of _Venus_; they are rigg’d out like Princes,
and were you to see one of these fortunate Lacqueys, you would naturally
take him for some Person of Consequence. And indeed, there are some who
act the Man of Quality to such a Perfection, that nothing can exceed it;
and they have often better Manners than their Masters. The Airs of
Importance, and of Quality, are very natural to the _French_. There are
others of the menial Class, that enjoy the Favour of their young Masters,
in a Way so uncommon, that one knows not what to think of it; and many of
those young Gentlemen, forgetting the Respect that is due to their own
Persons, and their Families, make Parties at Supper with ’em, at which
Time, I fansy, Conversation is the least Part of the Entertainment. But
such is the Spirit of Debauchery, that it has infected the Generality of
the young People at Court; tho’ ’tis true enough, that it ever was so.

I don’t say that excessive Debauchery is the universal Goût of the Nation;
for, on the contrary, the _French_ are virtuous from the Cradle to the
Grave, if they are but so happy as to get over the four or five Years of
juvenile Fury, and to surmount the tumultuous Passions which their great
Vivacity kindles in their Breasts, and prompts them to do Things at twenty
Years of Age, which at thirty they detest and abhor; and I affirm of the
_French_ in general, that they are not vicious by Inclination. The
Nobleman is infinitely more so, than the Bulk of the People; and whether
it is bad Company, bad Counsel, or whatever else that misleads him, he
thinks that to be debauch’d gives him a fine Air; and many of ’em really
boast of being greater Deboshees, than in Fact they are.

But this does not seem to me to be the Case of the Women (I mean of those
who are not very rigidly attach’d to the Precepts of Virtue). They always
preserve an Appearance of Decency, which imposes on such as don’t know
them: Nor is their Conversation licentious; and if they are naughty, ’tis
in private. ’Tis certain that our Countrymen don’t do the _French_ Ladies
Justice. Many of our young Fellows, when they come home from _Paris_,
affecting to be Coxcombs, tell Stories so much to the Disadvantage of the
Fair Sex, that most of the _German_ Gentlemen, and especially of our
Ladies, think the Reverse of what they ought to do. Virtue and Modesty are
as eminent among the Sex here as elsewhere; and those Whifflers, that give
themselves the Liberty of scandalizing them, very often know not how to
call one Woman of Quality by her right Name, and even never saw her
Antichamber. ’Tis certain, that there are Women of Quality here, who have
laid aside the Mask; but of these there are so few, that the whole Sex
ought not to be reproach’d for their Misconduct. I give you my Word and
Honour, that there are fine young Ladies here, born to charm our Sex, whom
Calumny itself is obliged to respect; and I don’t see what more can be
desired. I’ll vouch the same for the young Gentlemen, of whom indeed, the
greatest Number is very much debauch’d, but there are some that have not
quitted the Reins of Modesty. A _Tremouille_, a _Luxembourg_, a
_Boufflers_, and many more, may be set up as Examples to our Youth, who,
perhaps, would be worse than the Youth of _France_, if they were enter’d
as young into Company, and seated in the Centre of Joy and Pleasures. But
I perceive, that instead of a Letter I am drawing a Case. Therefore here I
drop my Brief, and think my Epistle long enough to be concluded. I am
intirely Yours, _&c._


                             LETTER XLIII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Paris, May 28, 1732._

I was puzzled some time ago, to think what could make the _French_ forget
Father _Girard_ and _la Cadiere_, and the pretended St. _Paris_; for I
apprehended, those two Articles would be the Subject of Conversation a
great while longer; but I was mistaken: ’Tis all forgot; and there’s
something now upon the Tapis, of quite another Kind.

The Archbishop of _Paris_ having thought fit to issue his Mandate for
suppressing a certain printed Paper, intitled _Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques_,
(a Sort of Ecclesiastical News-Journal) the Parliament of _Paris_ was
disgusted, and made an Arret, condemning the Archbishop’s Mandate. The
Court took the Prelate’s Part, and declar’d all that was done by the
Parliament upon this Occasion, null and void. The Parliament standing up
mightily for its Privileges, which nevertheless it holds only by the good
Pleasure of its Kings, discontinued its Assemblies, and the King was
obliged to issue repeated Orders, before the Members would resume their
Business. Mean time the _Advocates_ and _Solicitors_ have thought fit to
espouse the Cause of the Parliament, and refuse to plead till the King has
_done Justice_ to the Parliament, (’tis their own Term) by preserving it
in the Possession of Appeals against Incroachments; which it has really
enjoy’d for many Years, and which is the Ground of the present Disputes.
The Parliament say, that they are the more justifiable in supporting this
antient Prerogative, because they are obliged to it in Conscience, and for
the Welfare of the State committed to their Charge. For, say they, what
would be the Consequence, were the Archbishop’s Mandate to be authorized?
The Pope and the Bishops would, by Degrees, assume that Right which they
pretend to, of pronouncing Excommunications for very trivial Causes, and
even of putting the King himself under an Interdict, and consequently of
usurping a Temporal Despotic Power under the Umbrage of their Spiritual
Power, which, say the Parliament, is absolutely contrary to the Liberties
of the _Gallican_ Church; by Virtue whereof, ’tis sufficient for the
Parliament alone, in the like Case, to stigmatize and condemn those
_Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques_, as they have already done for a long Time.

This is, in general, the Situation of Affairs, and the Substance of the
Arguments made use of by the Parliament for the Maintenance of their
Rights, which are stuff’d with Abundance of pompous Terms, such as the
_Obligations of Conscience_, the _Liberties of the_ Gallican _Church_, and
a thousand such Expressions, with which the very Hawkers make your Ears
ring as you go along the Streets. The Ladies too have for the present laid
aside all the Jargon of Dresses, to learn that Language; and she who us’d
to talk of Cornets and Gorgets, now assumes the Style of an Advocate,
pleads for _Gallican_ Liberties, overturns the Church, and sends the
_Sacred College_ and the _Bishops_ to the Gallies. In short, I can’t
express to you, how ridiculous the _French_ are in these Cases. Being fond
of every Thing that’s new, be it good or bad, they catch at it blindfold;
which is a plain Confirmation of the Inconstancy of these People, who are
so fickle, that I verily believe, if any one should take a Fancy to preach
_Mahometanism_ to them, they would embrace it with their usual Levity.

The following, my dear Friend, is a Piece of Poetry, which, I think, is
good, and make no Doubt will please you. The Subject of it is, Christian
Tranquillity. If I can pick up any Thing new for you, before I go hence, I
will not fail to send it to you. I supp’d lately in a Place with M. _de
Voltaire_, and another Poet, the latter of whom rehearsed a very pretty
Piece to us, of which he refused to give us a Copy, pretending ’twas
imperfect; but however, he has promised it to me. When I have it, I will
send it to you.

            TRANQUILLITÉ                         CHRISTIAN
            CHRÉTIENNE.                        TRANQUILLITY.

    Surles les Disputes du Tems.        On the Disputes of the Times.

  Plein d’ignorance et de Miseres,    Why wilt, audacious mortal Man,
  Pourquoi, Mortel audacieux,         So wretched, and so ignorant,
  Veux-tu sur des profonds mysteres   On Mysteries dark and profound
  Porter un œil trop curieux!         resume to cast an Eye too nice?
  Toi, pour qui toute la Nature       Dost thou, to whom all Nature seems
  Ne paroit qu’une Enigme obscure,    But an impenetrable Riddle,
  Tu sondes les Divins Decrets?       Pretend to fathom God’s Decrees?
  Tu croi que ton foible gênie        Think’st thou thy feeble Genius can
  De l’Intelligence infinie           The mighty Secrets e’er unfold
  Pourra dévoiler les Secrets?        Of infinite Intelligence?

  Crains les ténèbres respectables,  Fear thou the dark, but awful Shades,
  Où Dieu cache sa Majesté;          Where God his Majesty conceals;
  De ses Desseins impénétrables      For who the Veil can penetrate
  Qui peut percer l’obscurité?       Of his impenetrable Schemes?
  Mesure la vaste étendue            Measure the vast immense Extent
  De ces Globes, qu’offre à la vue   Of all those Globes that may be seen
  Un tems serein et lumineux.        In Weather most serene and bright.
  Mais arrête ici ton audace,        But here thy fond Presumption check;
  Tu ne peux voir que la surface     For thou nought but the Surface seest
  De ce Théatre merveilleux.         Of this Theatre wonderful.

  Où t’emporte l’ardeur extréme       Where will thy furious Ardor stop,
  De tout comprendre, et de tout      All Things to comprehend and see?
  Tu ne te connois pas toi-même:      And know’st not what thou art
  L’Esprit échape à son savoir;           thyself,
  Et la Raison impérieuse             Thy Mind a Stranger to its Bounds:
  De la Grace victorieuse             Will then imperious Reason dare
  Veut pénétrer la Profondeur!        Presume to penetrate the Depths
  +Paul+, tout rempli de              Of all-victorious Grace Divine?
      sa Lumiere,                     Great Paul, in whom its
  Nous apprend quelle est la maniere  Light shone full,
  Dont elle agit sur notre cœur.      Explains to us the Manner how
                                      Grace operates upon our Hearts.

  Je sens en moi que la Nature        I feel within, that Nature’s self
  Veut établir ma Liberté;            To fix my Freedom makes Efforts;
  Elle se plaint, elle murmure,       And when her Power is controll’d
  Quand son pouvoir est disputé.      She murmurs inward, and complains.
  Mais si j’interroge mon Ame         But if my Soul I do but ask
  Comment une céleste flâme           Which way a Flame celestial
  La fait agir, la fait mouvoir;      Induces it to act and move;
  Je crains que cette Ame hautaine    I fear this haughty swelling Soul
  Ne donne à la puissance humaine,    To human Power will ascribe
  Ce qui vient du Divin Pouvoir.      That which to Pow’r Divine is due.

  Surpris de l’Intervalle immense     Astonish’d at the Space immense
  Qu’on voit de l’Homme au Créateur,  Betwixt the Creature and Creator,
  Si je n’admets une Puissance        If I do not a Pow’r confess
  Qui concourt avec son Auteur,       Concurring with its Author,
  Ce n’est plus pour moi qu’un        Free Agency, or that Free-will
      vain titre,
  Que le franc, que le libre Arbitre, Of which my Reason so much vaunts,
  Que ma Raison sais tant vanter:     Is but for me an empty Plea:
  Je ne connois plus de Justice,      That Justice I no longer own,
  Qui récompense et qui punisse,      Which doth reward and punish too,
  Ce qui ne peut rien mériter.        What strictly neither can deserve.

  Ainsi mon Ame est suspendue         Thus is my Soul held in Suspense
  Entre les Sentimens divers.         Betwixt Opinions contrary.
  Par-tout où je porte ma vue,        Where-e’er my roving Eyes I turn
  Je vous des Abîmes ouverts.         Abysses open to my View.
  Pour me garantir du naufrage,       For fear of being cast away,
  Je n’ose quitter le rivage;         I dare not quit the Sight of Shore;
  La crainte assûre mon repos.        And ’tis this Fear my Peace secures.
  Combien, dans cette Mer profonde,   How many, in this Ocean deep,
  Flottant à la merci de l’onde,      Floating at Mercy of the Waves,
  Se perdent au milieu des flots?     Are by those Waves immerg’d
                                          and lost!

  De tant de disputes fameuses,      Let us the dang’rous Tracks avoid
  Où nous embarque notre orgueil,    Of those Disputes but too well known,
  Fuyons les Routes dangereuse:      In which our Pride engageth us:
  L’Homme à Lui-même est un écueil;  Man’s to himself a fatal Rock;
  Dans le petis Monde sensible,      For in this little World of ours
  Est un Dédale imperceptible,       There is a Dadalus unseen,
  Dont nous ignorons les Détours.    Whose Windings are to us unknown.
  La Foi de notre sort decide:       ’Tis Faith our Fortune doth decide,
  Elle tient le fil qui nous guide;  She holds the Thread which
  Sans elle, nous errons toujours.       is our Guide;
                                     Or else we always go astray.

  Heureux le cœur simple              Happy that honest docile Heart,
       et docile,
  Qui sans raisonner sur la Foi,      Which without reas’ning about Faith
  Respecte dans nos Saints Conciles   Our Holy Councils venerates,
  Le sacré dépôt de la Foi;           The Sacred Guardians of that Faith;
  Ne franchissant point la Barriere,  And dares not climb o’er
                                          that Barrier.
  Que le Pere de la lumiere           Fix’d by the Father of all Light
  Met aux vains efforts de l’esprit.  Against proud Reason’s vain Efforts.
  A quoi nos soins doivent-ils
      tendre?                         To what shou’d our Endeavours tend?
  Est-ce à pratiquer, ou comprendre   Is it to practice, or comprise
  Ce que le Ciel nous a prescrit?     The Things which Heaven has

  Laissons la Sagesse éternalle       Let’s to Eternal Wisdom leave
  Disposer des cœurs à son gré:       The sole Disposal of all Hearts:
  Il suffit à l’Homme fidelle,        The true Believer is content,
  Que par lui Dieu soit adoré.        That God by him shou’d be ador’d.
  Qu’importe à ces Docteurs habiles,  What do these cunning Doctors gain,
  Que par des Raisons trop subtiles   Who by too subtle Arguments
  Un Système soit combattu?           A System strive to overthrow?
  Que produit leur haute science,     What does their Knowledge great
  Si Dieu ne met dans la Balance      If God but in the Balance cast
  Que l’Innocence & la Vertu?         Virtue and Innocence to turn the

It were to be wish’d, that every _Frenchman_ had the same Christian
Tranquillity; for then they would not worry one another as they now do,
nor would they give such a Scandal to _Europe_. But the Matter is push’d
so far, that I don’t foresee how a Stop can be put to it. It will be
always a Worm preying upon the Vitals of _France_, and a Bone of
Contention between the Court and Parliament.

Some Days ago, the Court banish’d the Abbé _Pucelle_, a Counsellor of
Parliament. This Man is another _Broussel_, and I believe, he would be
overjoy’d, if he could revive the ancient Barricades which were erected
during the Minority of _Lewis_ XIV. after the Queen Mother _Anne_ of
_Austria_ had caus’d that same _Broussel_ to be put under an Arrest. But
as yet there does not appear to be so much Rout about the Abbé _Pucelle_,
notwithstanding he made a very great Noise in Parliament. There he spoke
like an Angel, and every body said he defended the Liberties of the
_Gallican_ Church so well, that nobody could do it better. Nevertheless, I
am apprehensive, that he will be at a Loss how to vindicate his own
Liberty; and I am very much mistaken, if he has not a Lodging at
_Vincennes_, or the _Bastile_, before he dies. The Parliament leaves no
Stone unturn’d, that he may be recalled; and will do no Business at all,
till that dear Brother of theirs is restored. Mean time, all Affairs are
at a Stand, by which private Persons are the Sufferers: And yet these very
Counsellors, who make a Scruple of Conscience to register an Edict from
the King, which infring’d the ancient Privileges of the Parliament, don’t
care what becomes of poor Widows and Orphans, that languish for the Issue
of a Process kept in Suspense by these Domestic Quarrels! In Truth, I
cannot but admire the good Nature of the King, and the Moderation of the
Cardinal _de Fleury_. I am sure, that the Regent, and the Cardinal
_Dubois_, would not have had so much Patience: For the former sent the
Parliament to _Pontoise_, and caus’d the Members to be arrested and
banish’d for a less Offence; and at the Time too, when the Parliament
remonstrated against the Alteration of the Species, in which the Fortune
of every _Frenchman_ was concerned. Hitherto all the Representations of
the Parliament for the Return of the Abbé _Pucelle_, have been of no
Effect; and I fansy, that the first President will be forced to make
another Trip to _Compiegne_, where the King has for some Time past

A Couplet has lately been made upon the Abbé’s Exile: I don’t remember the
Beginning of it, but it ends thus;

_Que de bonnes gens vont pleurer!_ _Que de filles vont crier_,
_Rendez-nous_ Pucelle, _ô gai_, _Rendez-nous_ Pucelle!

_i. e._

How do the good Women lament! How do the Daughters cry, Give us back
_Pucelle_, Give us back _Pucelle_[80]!

You must allow the _French_ are merry Mortals. Let what will happen,
they’ll find something or other in it to divert them. Every thing is to
them a Subject for a Song; and I remember to have heard of a Ballad they
made and sung upon the Plague in _Provence_, in 1720. Mean time, these
Jarrings between the Court and Parliament have absolutely effac’d the
Memory of the blessed _Paris_. ’Tis true, he began to be out of Vogue,
after the Court caus’d the Church-yard of _St. Medard_ to be stopp’d up,
where he lies interr’d. If this had been done at first, a great deal of
Scandal would have been prevented. I am very sorry I can’t stay to see
what will be the End of all these Things; but my Affairs call me to
_Germany_, whither I propose to set out the first Opportunity; therefore
write to me no more at present.

Two Days ago, I saw such a Slur put upon the Charms of a young Lady, that
she was thoroughly mortified. ’Twas the Marchioness _de R----_, one of the
Ladies of the Bed-chamber. She has been us’d, for a long time, to daub her
Face very awkwardly, with a great deal of White, Red, and Patches; but on
that Day she out-did herself. She came into the Garden of the
_Thuilleries_, on Purpose to be admir’d; for she has the Reputation of a
very great Coquette: But she was hooted at by a great many smart Fellows
that follow’d her, and gather’d all the Mob about her, so that the poor
Lady was glad to retire; and being oblig’d to wait a little for her Coach,
was very much hiss’d into the Bargain by those prodigal Puppies the
Lacqueys; so that in my Life I never saw a Woman more run down.

The same Night I supped with the Marquis _de L----_, whom I had never seen
before. I was told by a certain Lady, That he ow’d his Fortune to an old
Woman: For tho’ he was a Man of a good Family, yet, being a younger
Brother, he was not rich. When he was twenty Years of Age, he pleased the
Marchioness _de L----_, who was threescore and ten, to such a Degree, that
she offer’d to marry him; and the Marquis, who was then but a plain
Gentleman, did not want very much Intreaty to accept the Proposal; for
tho’ he was a Man of a handsome Presence, he did not presume to think that
any young Woman would fall in Love with him, who had one hundred and fifty
thousand good Livres a Year to her Fortune, which was what the Marchioness
really had to bestow upon whom she pleased. As the two Lovers return’d
from the Church of _St. Sulpice_, where they were married, the Marchioness
carried her Spouse to her own House; and leading him into an Apartment,
_You need not be afraid, Sir_, said she; _don’t imagine that I married
you to toy with. This is your Apartment; mine is on the other Side of the
House. You shall lie here, and I’ll lie in my own Chamber. I was willing
to make a Man of you, because I took you for a deferring young Fellow: But
this I could not do, without taking you to be my Husband; and I had rather
it should be said, that I am an old Fool for marrying a young Fellow, than
to give any Colour for reporting, that I keep you in Pay. ’Tis more
honourable both for you and me, that we are married; for now I can do what
I please for you without the Censure of the Public. This, too, is what I
have resolv’d on; and as I have no Relations, you may depend upon it, that
all I have in the World will be one Day or other your own. All the
Acknowledgment I desire of you, is some little Share in your Respect, and
I am persuaded you are too much of a Gentleman to use me ill._ Judge you
how much the Marquis was surprised, at a Speech which he so little
expected. He was ready to fall at the Feet of his Bride, and to give her
Proofs of his Ecstasy of Love, when she push’d him from her, and said,
_None of these extraordinary Fits, I beseech you, Sir; let us live
together like Friends: All the rest is superfluous._ In short, she gave
him to understand, ’twas her absolute Determination, that he should never
think of her as his Wife. The Marquis was obliged to comply; and after
having liv’d thus in perfect Harmony for seven Years, the Lady died, and
left her Husband Heir to all her Estate.

The young Fellows undoubtedly stand the best Chance for the great
Fortunes. I had Engagements here, when I was but twenty-two Years of Age,
with an old Lady too, but she was not altogether to disinterested as the
Marchioness _de L----_; for tho’ she was kind to me, she obliged me to a
great deal of Duty. This Lady of mine was forty Years older than myself;
yet what with Patches, and the Red and the White, her Charms were renewed
every Day to such a Degree, that ’twas well I was twenty-two Years of Age,
or else they would have frightened me. But fourscore thousand Livres a
Year, which I always kept in View, made me take that for natural, which
was only artificial; insomuch that if I had been put to my Oath, I know
not whether I should not have sworn that my superannuated Mistress was but
in her Teens. We lived a couple of Years together very lovingly. The Lady
happened to have two Sons living, old enough both of ’em, to be my
Fathers; yet she did not despair of having another Brood. For this End she
proposed Matrimony to me, and I freely consented. But my Sons-in-law _in
futuro_, being advertised, by whom I know not, where I had appointed a
Meeting with their Mother, came and fell at her Feet, and conjured her not
to wrong them and their Children, (for they were both married) by marrying
me. The Lady was stagger’d in her Resolution, and was just going to
promise her Sons, that she would not have me; when I came to her in the
Nick of Time, and so encouraged her by my Presence, that she got the
better of her Weakness.

Mean time, the Sons sprung a new Mine, which answered their End. Their
Mother was a Coquet, but one of the pious Sort, and devoted that Time to
God, which she did not spend with me, or at her Toilet. The Sons detached
a Priest of _St. Sulpice_ to her. The holy Man chose his Opportunity when
I was abroad. I did not foresee, that a Blow would come from such a
Quarter; or else the _Swiss_, and all her Domestics, being my Creatures, I
could easily have kept him out of the House. He discharged his Commission
so effectually, that he prevailed to have the Signing of the Marriage
Articles, which were to have been executed the very next Day, put off for
three Months longer. I was not very much chagrin’d when I heard this News;
for I confess, I flatter’d myself, that ’twas not possible for the Lady to
escape me. By the Description I have given you of my Sweetheart, you will
imagine that I was not over Head and Ears in Love. Whatever Scruple the
Priest of _St. Sulpice_ had raised in her, she carried it to me the same
as ever: We still liv’d very lovingly together, and I had considerable
Presents made to me, which I squandered away as fast as I received. At the
same Time, I did not dare to mention any Writings for my Security; and to
talk to a Mistress of threescore Years and ten, about making her Last Will
and Testament, was, I thought, a strange kind of Courtship, and the Way to
spoil all.

Nevertheless, this Misfortune fell upon me, when I least of all expected
it. As I went one Morning into my Dear’s Chamber, I found her at her
Toilet, complaining of a great Pain in her Head. She told me, That she was
in a sad Quandary too, because she had invited People to Dinner, but was
not in a Condition to keep them Company; and she desired me, therefore, to
do them the Honours of her House: But I prevailed with her to send Word to
those whom she had invited, that she was ill, and that she should be glad
to see them another Time. I then left her, with a Promise to come back and
dine with her; and having taken a Walk, I returned accordingly; when I
found her dress’d more gay than usual. She told me, that a Dish or two of
Coffee had quite remov’d her Head-ach, and that she had trick’d herself up
to please me. We din’d together, but she eat very little, and began very
soon to complain again; so that I made her lie down upon the Bed, and
taking a Book in my Hand, I sat down by her to read, while she rested: But
all on a sudden, I felt her lay hold of my Hand, and as I turned about to
her, my Mistress gave my Hand a Squeeze, and that Instant expir’d. I
called for Help, and both Surgeons and Physicians came, by whose Order she
was blooded; but ’twas to no Purpose: For _there’s no returning from the
Shore of the Dead_.

This Accident so surprized me, that I did not so much as think of securing
my own Effects; but went into my Room, and presently I was given to
understand, that one of the Sons of the Deceased was come with an Officer
to seal up all her Effects. I did not in the least oppose it, nor, indeed,
had I any manner of Title to dispute it. But my Good-nature only made the
Son the more insolent; for he even came into my own Apartment, to seal up
such Effects as belong’d to me. I told him, that if he did not withdraw, I
would make my Servants, and those of the Deceased, who had all a Respect
for me, turn him out. During this, the late M. _de N----_, a Counsellor of
Parliament, who was very much my Friend, came to see me, who advised me to
quit my Quarters with all Speed, and to pack up every Thing that belong’d
to me immediately. He also offer’d me Room in his House for my Furniture,
and other Effects; which Offer I accepted, and in a few Hours every Thing
of mine was clear’d off of the Premises. The Sons, after this, threaten’d
to enter an Action against me; but as they had no Proof of any Thing that
I ow’d to their Mother, they did not presume to molest me. If I had been
of the Temper then, that I am now, I should not have so soon forgot the
Loss I suffer’d; for, besides a good She-Friend, which is a rare and
precious Thing, I lost the Hopes of a splendid Fortune.

I know not how it came into my Head, to entertain you with my _quondam_
Amours. But ’tis a Vein of Prating which I am indulg’d in, more by you
than by any body. Farewel, my Dear, you will hear no more of me about this
Country, for I am preparing to quit it the very first Opportunity.


                              LETTER XLIV.

  _SIR_,                                     _Brussels, June 4, 1732._

When I left _Paris_, I kept on the Pavement all the Way to Chantilly,
which may pass for the finest Seat in the Kingdom, since the great
Additions made to it by the Duke of _Bourbon_, who is the Lord of it. The
Forest likewise, of _Chantilly_, is as fine as any thing that ever Art and
Nature form’d. ’Tis a magnificent Palace, the Stables are stately, and the
Park is adorned with the finest Pieces of Water in the World. _Lewis_ XIV,
who was always very desirous of being the Master of this House, wanted to
purchase it of the late Prince. The latter made Answer to him, That it was
at his Service, only he begged him, he would make him the Keeper of it
from that Moment. The King perceived, that the Prince resigned it to him
with some Reluctance, and therefore spoke no more of it.

The Duke _de Bourbon_, who is certainly the richest Prince in _Europe_,
that is not a Sovereign, lives very much at CHANTILLY, since he is no
longer in the Ministry. There is always a very numerous Court, and he
lives there more like a King, than a Prince of the Blood.

After having walked sufficiently about _Chantilly_, I went and lay at
_Senlis_, and next Day arrived in good Time at CAMBRAY, a City famous upon
several Accounts; but its Beauty does not answer its Reputation.
_Cambray_, the Capital of the _Cambresis_, was formerly an Imperial City,
and its Archbishop was a Sovereign and Prince of the Empire. _France_
having seized _Cambray_, there remains nothing more to the Archbishop, of
so many fine Prerogatives, but the empty Title of a Prince of the Empire;
which he still retains, tho’ he has no Vote nor Session at the Diet. Since
1712, that I came for the first Time into _France_, the Church of
_Cambray_ has had four Archbishops. I then found the See possessed by the
Illustrious _Francis de Salignac de la Mothe Fenelon_, Preceptor of the
late Duke of _Burgundy_, Father of _Lewis_ XV. He had for his Successor
_John d’Estrées_; but the latter died before he had taken Possession of
the Archbishoprick. The celebrated Cardinal _Dubois_ succeeded to him; but
he did not enjoy that Dignity long, for he died at _Versailles_ the 10th
of _August_ 1723. The Abbé _de S. Albin_, the natural Son of the Duke of
_Orleans_, the Regent, was appointed Archbishop of _Cambray_ at an Age
when he had need of Dispensations from _Rome_, to qualify himself for that

I think ’twill not be impertinent to make some little mention of the
Cardinal _Dubois_, and, perhaps, you will not be sorry to hear a few
Particulars of him. In the first Place, these were his Titles; William
_Cardinal_ Dubois, _Priest Archbishop and Duke of_ Cambray, _Prince of
the Holy Empire, Count of the_ Cambresis, _Abbat of_ St. Just de Nogent
_under_ Couffy, _of_ Bourgueil, Airvaux, Cercamps, St. Winoxberg, _and_
St. Bertin _of_ St. Omer; _Principal and Prime Minister, and Secretary of
State for Foreign Affairs_; _Great Master and Superintendant General of
the Couriers, Posts and Relays of_ France; _one of the forty Members of
the_ French _Academy and that of the Belles Lettres_: _And chose by the
Prelates and other Deputies at the General Assembly of the Clergy of_
France, _to be their first President_.

The Cardinal _Dubois_ was not of extraordinary Extraction, but was born
with great Talents, and an uncommon Genius. He was Preceptor to the Duke
of _Orleans_, afterwards Regent of the Kingdom; which was the Reason that
the Prince and he were so well acquainted with each other’s Thoughts, that
the least Sign given by the One, was understood by the other. The Abbat
_Dubois_ was employed in the Negociations of Peace in _England_, and at
_Utrecht_. When the Duke of _Orleans_ came to be Regent, he sent him to
take care of the King’s Interests at the Court of King _George_ I. of
_Great Britain_; with whom he concluded the famous Treaty of the Quadruple
Alliance. When the King came of Age, the Regent being desirous to have a
first Minister that he could confide in, chose the Abbat _Dubois_, whom he
first made an Archbishop, and then obtain’d a Cardinal’s Hat for him. ’Tis
said, that the Cardinal was beginning to forget his Obligations to his
Benefactor, and thinking to shake off all Submission to him, when he died
at _Versailles_, after having enjoyed his splendid Fortune but a few
Years. His Illness was of no long Continuance, but very painful. _La
Peyrome_, the King’s chief Surgeon, made an Operation upon him for a
Disorder which the Cardinal’s Enemies ascribe to his Incontinence, before
he was Archbishop. He dreaded the Operation very much, and was loth to
undergo it, tho’ the Surgeons assured him, that nothing else could save
his Life. The Duke of _Orleans_, to whom the Minister’s Life was dear,
made use of his Authority, and obliged the Cardinal to submit to the
Operation, which did not answer his Royal Highness’s Hopes; for in a few
Days after it, his Favourite died. The Eagerness with which the Duke of
_Orleans_ seized the Ministry, confirmed the Public in their Opinion, that
the Cardinal had entertained a Thought of asserting his own Independency.

The Cardinal was not much lamented; for he was blunt, violent and
outrageous; which was not the Way to acquire the Good-will of a Nation,
which loves that Decency and Politeness should be kept up in every Thing.
Satire, or, if you please, Calumny, gave it out, that the Cardinal was
married at _Tours_, when he was made Archbishop, and that his Wife liv’d
in that City; that he gave it in Charge to M. _de Breteuil_, the Intendant
of _Tours_, to prevail upon her, if possible, not to discover that she was
his Wife; but that she refused to relinquish the Advantage; that thereupon
M. _de Breteuil_ sent for the Parish Register where the Marriage was
solemnized, and tore out the Leaf in which their Names were entered; and
that the Woman was going to make a great Noise, but was threatened with
Confinement, and by that Means obliged to be silent.

I will not engage for the Truth of all, or any Part of this Story; but
’tis what the scandalous Chronicle has given out, and what has reach’d
even to _Rome_; so that when it was told to the late Pope, with a great
many other Passages concerning the Cardinal, he was heartily vexed, that
he had advanced him to the Purple; and I have been assured, that it was
such a Grief to the Holy Father, that it help’d to shorten his Days.

The Duchess _de F----_ was with the Cardinal one Day, when being in one of
his sullen Moods, his Eminency, in plain Terms, bade her _go and pick
Violets_. The Lady complaining of him to the Duke of _Orleans_, the
Regent, the Prince made Answer, _You are much in the right_, Madame; _the
Cardinal_ Dubois _is a Brute, but, nevertheless, he has a good

This Cardinal made a Compliment of much the same Nature to the Cardinal
_de Noailles_, who telling him one Day as he came from an Audience of the
Duke of _Orleans_, That the said Prince would not give Ear to his
Representations, but bade him _go and ---- himself_, you understand the
rest; the Cardinal _Dubois_ made Answer, _And really, Brother, the best
Thing your Eminency can do, is to obey_.

These Stories put me in mind of another that was current all over _Paris_,
a little after the Cardinal _Dubois_ was advanced to the Purple. The
Lacqueys of these two Cardinals happening to be at a certain Place
together, they had a Dispute about their Master’s Pre-eminency. _Our
Master_, said the one, _is the oldest Cardinal, Duke and Peer, and a
Commander of the Kings Orders_. The others said, _Ours is a Prince of the
Empire, Duke of_ Cambray, _and Prime Minister_. _Ours_, replied the
former, _consecrates Bishops; therefore, to be sure, he has the Preference
above the Cardinal_ Dubois---- _A very pretty Argument this!_ said one of
_Dubois’s_ Lacqueys, _Why, if there’s any thing in Consecration, my Master
is the greater Lord, in that respect too: For yours may consecrate
Bishops, but mine consecrates G-d every Day of his Life._ And, indeed; if
the Fellow meant his Master’s Swearing by all that’s Sacred, he was not
in the wrong; for the Cardinal had a very bad Habit of Swearing, like any

The Cardinal left no great Estate behind him; and whether it was owing to
his Disinterestedness, or to his want of Time to amass Wealth, his Fortune
being but of a short Duration, his Heirs had not much Reason to rejoice at
his Death. The Duke of _Orleans_ soon forgot him, and nothing preserved
his Memory so long in _France_ itself, but certain Satires and Epitaphs
made upon him by the Wits; which might have been transmitted, perhaps, to
Posterity, if there had not been too much Gall in them. The Cardinal
_Dubois_ lies interr’d in the Church of _St. Honore_, where his Brother
was a Canon. This Clergyman set up a Marble Tomb for him, where the
Cardinal is represented on his Knees, inclin’d towards the Altar of the
Choir, but his Head seems to turn from it; upon which the Critics remark,
that he durst not, since his Death, look towards what he had profan’d in
his Life.

The Cardinal _Dubois_ obtained in Favour of _Cambray_, that the Congress
should be held there for accommodating the Differences between the Emperor
and _Spain_. The _French_ made great Boast of this Matter, and vaunted how
much it was to the Honour of the Duke of _Orleans_, that all the Powers of
_Europe_ should send Ambassadors to him, to submit their Fortunes to his
Arbitration. The same Things were said with regard to the Congress of
_Soissons_. _They are come_, said the Court-Flatterers, _into our own
Country, to desire Peace of us_. They were not so modest as the Allies
were heretofore; for when _Lewis_ XIV. sent his Ambassadors to _Aix la
Chapelle_, _Nimeguen_, _Ryswic_, _Gertruydenberg_, _Utrecht_, _Rastadt_,
&c. we did not say, That the King came to beg a Peace of us; whereas the
_French_ always said, _That they gave Peace to Europe_. Be this as it
will, they have no very great Reason to boast of the two last Congresses
that were held in their Country; which tho’ both were opened with a World
of Splendor, yet both came to nothing. The Treaty of _Vienna_, concluded
the 19th of _April 1725_. O. S. put a Period to the _Cambray_ Congress;
the Operations of which, during four Years Continuance, amounted to
nothing more than forming fine Rules for the Ceremonial, and the
maintaining of a good Order among the Domestics. The Baron _de Ripperda_,
afterwards created a Duke and Grandee of _Spain_, and also Prime Minister
to their Catholic Majesties, being a Person of great Vivacity, was so
tir’d with the Dilatoriness of the Congress of _Cambray_, that he went to
_Vienna_, with the Name of the Baron _de Puffenberg_, and established so
strict a Friendship betwixt his Master and the Emperor, that the like was
never, perhaps, known before between those two Courts, even when the House
of _Austria_ possessed the Throne of _Spain_. This very much eclipsed the
Glory of the Congress of _Cambray_, and the Congress of _Soissons_
received as great a Check afterwards by the Treaty of _Seville_.

From _Cambray_, I went to Valenciennes, the last Place in _French
Flanders_, and one of the most considerable Towns in that Province. The
Governor of it is the Prince _de Tingry_, who is the Son of the famous
Duke _de Luxembourg_, the Marshal of _France_; whose Honour our Writers
have endeavoured to sully, by accusing him of having held a Correspondence
with the Devil, and of gaining so many Victories over us by that Means.
The Prince _de Tingry_ distinguished himself very much during the last
War, by the Name of the Chevalier _de Luxembourg_. He contributed a great
deal to the Support of _Lisle_ when it was besieged, by throwing a Convoy
of Powder into it in the Night-time. He is look’d upon by all the
Officers, as one of the chief Generals in _France_. Considering his Birth,
Merit, Services, and those of his Father too, he ought to have had the
Marshal’s Staff a long time ago; and ’twas thought he would have been
included in the last Promotion, but he happened to be left out[81]. He is
now one of the oldest Lieutenant-Generals. I cannot help mentioning his
Politeness and Civility, having infinite Reason to acknowledge his Favours
to myself.

Mons, the Capital City of _Hainault_, is not so large a City as
_Valenciennes_, but I believe has more Gentry in it; and that, if it had a
_French_ Garison, would have more Parties of Pleasure. The Duke
_d’Aremberg_ is Governor both of this City, and of _Hainault_, of which he
is Hereditary Grand Bailiff; but he resides at _Brussels_, and never comes
into this Province, except to hold an Assembly of the States. This
Nobleman is a Sovereign Prince of the Empire, Lieutenant-General and
Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, Governor of _Hainault_, and of the City of
_Mons_, Knight of the Golden Fleece, and lately a Captain of the
Halbardiers of the Emperor’s Guard. He was but in his Cradle when he
received the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece from King _Charles_
II. after his Father had been killed in _Hungary_. He is the only Nobleman
in all the _Netherlands_, that has recognized the House of _Austria_
alone, for his Sovereign. His Mother, who is the Daughter of the late
Marquis _de Grana_, Governor of the _Netherlands_, prevented him from
engaging with any other Side, and always rejected the Advantages that
were offered to her on the Part of _Philip_ V. After the _Netherlands_
were reduced to the Obedience of their lawful Sovereign, by the Battle of
_Ramillies_, the Duchess _d’Aremberg_ and her Son were the first to
acknowledge King _Charles_ III. The Son had a _Flemish_ Regiment in that
Prince’s Service, and was very young when he made his first Campaign under
my Lord _Marlborough_. ’Twas under him and Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_,
that he made all his future Campaigns, wherein he always signalized his
Valour, but particularly at the Battle of _Belgrade_. ’Tis certain, that
if the Duke had stay’d longer at _Vienna_, he would have had some
important Employment long ere now. He has all the Qualities necessary for
a good General, and an able Minister, and has every Endowment that renders
a Man amiable. The Emperor values him, and Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_
lov’d and esteem’d him: But the Duke seems to have no Inclination to
improve these Advantages, and prefers the tranquil Pleasures of
_Brussels_, to the Tumult of the Court of _Vienna_.

I don’t mention the Battle of _Malplaquet_, which was fought in the
Neighbourhood of _Mons_; nor the Siege of that City; which, to be sure,
have been often repeated in your Ears, and what I have already told you of
upon other Occasions.

From _Mons_ to _Brussels_, there’s a famous Causey. We pass thro’ _Halle_,
whose Church is very much frequented by the Devotees of this Country, and
has a miraculous Image of the Holy Virgin, to which the Princes of the
House of _Austria_ have made great Presents.

The City of BRUSSELS is not populous, in Proportion to its Bigness, nor is
the Town itself so pleasant as its Out-parts. The Houses are generally
old, and it may be said, that excepting the Churches, and the Town-house,
there is not a Structure worth the Mention. One very great Inconvenience
of _Brussels_, is its irregular Situation, which is all up-hill and
down-hill; so that if it was as large as _Paris_, it might truly be called
the Hell of Horses: And another very great Nuisance is the little Care
taken of the Streets, where one is always bespatter’d with Dirt, or
choak’d with Dust.

The Palace which was burnt, was an old Edifice, with commodious
Apartments, but irregular. Its Ruins, which are still to be seen, look
like those of the Palace of _Priam_: Why they are not removed, I know not.
The Archduchess, Governess of the _Netherlands_, lives in the Palace of
_Orange_, belonging to the Prince of _Nassau_, the Hereditary Stadtholder
of _Friesland_. She has not much Room there, but her most Serene Highness
prefers it to the Palace of _Egmont_, the Apartments of which are more
spacious and commodious, tho’ ’twas offered her by the Duke _d’Aremberg_,
who is the Proprietor of it.

This Princess had like to have perished in the Flames of the Palace, which
was set on Fire by the Indiscretion of the Confectioners, who were
preparing Sweetmeats for a Ball, which the Archduchess intended to give
the next Day. The Fire caught the Sugar, and spread into the
Confectionary. The Officers thought they should be able to suppress it
without any Noise, but it mastered them. ’Twas four Hours, however, before
it alarmed the Palace; and in the mean time, they say, a great Part of the
Building, and of its Furniture, might have been saved, if the Burghers had
been permitted to have given their Assistance: But for fear of Confusion,
and of the Embezzlement of Goods, which generally happens in such
Calamities, the Gates of the Palace were kept shut a long Time, and the
Soldiers pushed off such Burghers as offered to come near, so that the
whole was consumed. The Archduchess was saved, as it were, by a Miracle;
for a little Dog that lay with her, scratching her Face, awaked her, when
she perceived the Smoke, and called out to her Women. At the same Instant,
her Guards broke open the Door, so that she had only time to slip on a
Gown, and one Stocking. The Floor was quite burnt, and fell in, the Moment
that she was gone out of her Chamber. She made a Shift to save her Dog,
and that was all. Her most Serene Highness went instantly to Prayers in
her Chapel; but the Flames spreading to that Sanctuary, she was obliged to
retire to the House of the Prince _de Rubempré_, her Master of the Horse,
whose House fronted her Palace, and which, from thence, she saw consumed
to the Ground, with all its Treasure; but nothing seemed to give her so
much Pain, as the Misfortune of her Domestics, and the Danger to which
they were exposed. But even here the Archduchess could not be safe; for
_Rubempré’s_ House was so near her own, that ’twas fear’d the Fire would
have reach’d it; so that she was obliged to retire to the Palace of
_Orange_, then occupied by the Count _de Visconti_, the Grand Master of
her Houshold, and her First Minister. The Princess _de Rubempré_ furnished
her with Stockings, and the Countess _de Visconti_, with Shifts and other
Apparel; and ’twas in these borrowed Cloaths, that a Daughter, descended
from so many Emperors, did, next Day, receive the Compliments of all the
Nobility. Her Wardrobe was quite destroyed, and nothing saved but the

Every body agrees, that the Archduchess preserved an extraordinary
Serenity of Mind, under so great a Misfortune. She was continually
encouraging some, and comforting others. The only Thing that heartily
grieved her, was the unhappy Fate of Mademoiselle _d’Uhlefeldt_, Lady of
the Golden Key, whose Mother was one of the Ladies of Honour. This
unfortunate young Lady, thinking her Mother still asleep, was caught by
the Flames as she was running to her Apartment to awake her. She was
snatch’d as soon as possible out of the Flames, but was all over parched
from Head to Foot, and died the next Day, after having received the
Sacraments of the Church, and the Farewels of her Mother; with a Constancy
the more to be admired, because she was very young, very dear to her
Mother, and on the Point of making a very advantageous Settlement. The
whole Court was charm’d, to see with what Resignation she bore her
Misfortune. She said several times, that she died with Pleasure, since God
had saved the Archduchess and her Mother. Her most Serene Highness
honoured her with her Tears, and caused a magnificent Funeral to be
performed for her, in the Church of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits; at
which all the Nobility of _Brussels_ was present, and every Soul was sorry
for the Loss of her.

In searching among the Ruins of the Palace, most of the Archduchess’s
Jewels were found again, and only some Ear-pendants of great Value, and a
Gold Toilet, were missing.

The Archduchess is the eldest of the Emperor’s three Sisters. She is
jolly, but dances nimbly and gracefully. The Princess has a noble and
majestic Aspect. She appears to be extremely grave, and talks little, but
with Dignity; and she is Mistress of several Languages. When she came into
the _Netherlands_, as she parted thro’ _Louvain_, she returned an Answer
in _Latin_, to the Deputies of the University, who harangued her in that
Language. She is Mistress of History, Geography, and many other fine
Sciences; and without flattering her, she may be said to be a Mirror of
Virtue and Piety. ’Tis impossible for any one living to be more
charitable; and she does not know what it is to refuse Access to the
Unfortunate. She wishes it were in her Power to serve all that ask Favour
at her Hands, and is very much perplexed when she is obliged to give a
Denial. That Portion of the Day, which she does not devote to God, she
bestows upon Business, to which she gives very great Application: And her
most Serene Highness is so easy of Access, that ’tis no manner of
Difficulty to obtain an Audience of her.

The same Honours are paid to her here, as are paid to the Emperor at
_Vienna_. She always eats alone, and for most part in Public. Her Ladies
wait on her at Table. She lends a gracious Ear to those that speak to her,
and returns the kindest Answers. She was never known to express the least
Disgust with any of her Domestics.

Her Second in Affairs is the Count _Don Julio Visconti_, by Birth a
_Milanese_, a Person of Honour, and of a good Family, a Man of Integrity
and Sincerity, impossible to be byass’d by any thing but Justice, a good
Œconomist, and always disinterested. Tho’ the People of this Country are
not the most ready to speak well of their Governors or Superiors, they all
agree, that M. _de Visconti_ is a Minister not to be corrupted. He is
pretty tall, and has a grave stern Countenance. He has such a Weight of
Affairs upon his Hands, that he cannot always give the like Attention to
every thing, but refers many Things to his Secretary, _Henry Crumpipen_ by
Birth a _Westphalian_, who was born with all the Talents for Business. He
is good-natur’d, civil, courteous, ready to do Kindnesses, has an
extraordinary Memory, and is a Man of a singular Application. He is
universally beloved here, and every one allows, that he is as uncorrupt
as his Master.

M. _de Visconti_ is lately appointed Viceroy of _Naples_, and is to be
relieved here by the Count _Frederik de Harrach_; who is not only a Person
of a great Family, but has a very amiable Temper, and the Carriage of a
Person of Quality. He was at _Cambray_ during the Congress, where, tho’ he
had not the Character of Ambassador, he was let into all Affairs, the
Emperor’s Plenipotentiaries being ordered to communicate every thing to
him. After that, he was sent as a Minister to take care of the Emperor’s
Affairs at the Court of _Turin_, From thence he was recalled, and sent
Ambassador from his Imperial Majesty, as King of _Bohemia_, and first
Secular Elector, to the Diet of _Ratisbon_; which Post he is quitting, in
order to come hither, to be Prime Minister to the most Serene Archduchess.
I make no doubt but he will be acceptable to the _Flemings_; for he is
affable and engaging, active, laborious, generous and liberal, and loves
Expence and Pleasures. As he has a Fortune of his own, and another by his
Wife, who is a Princess of _Lichtenstein_, he is in a Condition to please
the People of[82]_Brussels_, who expect their Ministers, _&c._ to lay out
a great deal of Money with ’em; and therefore daily regret the Loss of
_Maximilian Emanuel_ the Elector of _Bavaria_, because that Prince
expended seven or eight Millions with them every Year, which he drew from
_Bavaria_. _The Archduchess_, say the People of _Brussels, spends nothing,
and her Court is rather a Convent_; yet if they considered that this
Princess has but four hundred and sixty, or at most, but five hundred
thousand Florins Revenue, they would, no doubt, be more sparing in their
Reflection. With this Sum, which is a Trifle for so great a Princess, her
most Serene Highness maintains a very large Houshold, pays everybody well,
and keeps out of every body’s Debt; which is what can’t be said of any
Governor or Sovereign of the _Netherlands_, who always went away from
these Provinces in Debt. The Inhabitants have been accustomed to make
Complaints Time out of Mind, and I believe, if the Question was put to
every single Native of _Brabant_ or _Flanders_, there would be very few
that could tell what sort of Government they would have, and what Master
would suit them best: For, since the Death of _Charles_ II. King of
_Spain_, they have been under four several Dominions, and have had eight
or nine Governors, who have all given them Cause to murmur. The only one
that ever had their Applause, was the Marshal Count _de Daun_, now
Governor of _Milan_, which, perhaps, was as much owing to his succeeding
the Marquis _de Prie_, whose Recal every body desired, as to the
advantageous Alterations he made in the Government.

The Court of _Brussels_ is really not the most inviting Court in the
World. The Ceremonial at _Vienna_ is observed here almost in every thing.
The Archduchess is served like the Empress, and nobody has the Privilege
of eating with her; only the Duke of _Lorain_ was indulg’d that Liberty,
but ’twas at one of the Hunting Seats, and then the Ladies attended him as
they did the Archduchess. When the Elector of _Bavaria_ came hither with
the Princes his Brothers, in their Return from _France_, he said _’Twas
very comical, that he who lay every Night with an_ Archduchess _at_
Munich, _could not have the Pleasure of dining with an_ Archduchess _at_

The Ladies of this Country, who have Titles, of whom there are many whose
Husbands are Grandees of _Spain_, insisted, at first, on the Privilege of
being seated on a Stool in the Presence of her most Serene Highness; but
they were disappointed in their Claim; and notwithstanding they urged,
that the other Governesses of the _Netherlands_ had granted them this
Distinction, they were answered, That those other Governesses were not
Sisters of the Emperor; and that if they were such, they did not keep to
the Ceremonial of the Court of _Vienna_, where all Ladies, Princesses as
well as others, stand in Presence of the Archduchesses. Others claim’d the
Privilege to come to the Palace in a Coach and Six, and some have actually
presumed to drive in with such Equipage: But the Guards, who are better
instructed in the Ceremonial than such Ladies, sent them back again, and
told them, That it was not proper for any but her most Serene Highness, to
come with six Horses. The Ladies turned back, not a little mortified; and
for some time took it in such Dudgeon, that they would not appear at
Court; but when they saw that nobody regarded their Pouting, and were
apprehensive of an Order from _Vienna_, they came to Court again, and now
do as they ought.

The Nobility and Gentry of this Country are extremely haughty. There are
some Families which are really of very great Quality, but a great many,
who, tho’ they have very pompous Titles, would be very much at a Loss to
prove their noble Parentage. If you would take their Word for it, they
were all heretofore Counts of _Hainault_, _Flanders_, Dukes of _Brabant_,
_Guelderland_, and so on. Their Ancestors have performed important
Services to the State, but most of them are now retired, or if they serve,
it is in _Spain_ or _France_. _To go to_ Vienna, _to make Court to the
Emperor! oh fy!_ say they, _’tis fatiguing to Death. The Manners of the
Germans are so different_, proceed they, _from ours; their Service is so
unpolite! To be confined in that Place called_ Hungary! _don’t mention it
to us. There’s not a Mortal to converse with_. These Gentlemen, after all,
have Reason on their Side: For many of ’em, tho’ they have never served
the Emperor, and perhaps, never seen him, have been preferred to
Regiments, Governments, and the most distinguished Employments in the
_Netherlands_; and as they have had such good Success, they would be to
blame to act otherwise. They serve in _Spain_, and come to _Brussels_ to
receive their Reward.

It must be owned, nevertheless, that tho’ few of the _Flemings_, under
whom I generally include all the Subjects of the _Austrian Netherlands_,
go to _Vienna_, ’tis partly owing to the Narrowness of their Fortunes. The
Nobility, being not rich, are not able to lay out much Money; and they
live therefore with very great Œconomy, like private People. They seldom
make Invitations to Dinner, and not one of ’em keeps an open Table. Yet
there are more Equipages here with the Ducal Mantle, than in _Vienna_
itself. All those Dukes and Princes, made by the Kings of _Spain_,
formerly assumed only the Title of _Excellency_; but since they have been
under the _German_ Government, they are called _my Prince_, and
_Monsieur_. They would fain usurp the Title of _Highnesses_, which is
given them by their Domestics, and many poor Gentlemen, who interlard it
with abundance of _Monseigneurs_. The Duke _d’Aremberg_ is the only
Nobleman who supports the Expence of a Man of Quality; and tho’ he is the
Person to whom most Honour is due, yet he is one that least requires it.

_Brussels_ is a great Sufferer by the frequent Absence of the Prince of
_la Tour_ and _Taxis_, Hereditary Post-master of the Empire, and the
_Netherlands_. When this Nobleman is at _Brussels_, he lives with very
great Splendor and Magnificence. His House is open to all Men of Quality,
and ’tis the Asylum of Foreigners. The Princess _de la Tour_, who is a
Princess of _Lobkowitz_, is wonderfully civil; and by her noble and
gracious Deportment, and her agreeable Conversation, attracts all persons
of Merit; and all Foreigners are charmed with her[83]. The Natives have a
Regard for the Family of _la Tour_, but ’tis attended with Envy. The
Prince _de la Tour_, tho’ not a Sovereign, is nobly ally’d. His Mother was
a _Furstenberg_: His Wife is a _Lobkowitz_: His Son is married to a
Princess of _Brandenbourg-Culmbach_; and his Daughter to the Prince
_Alexander_ of _Wurtemberg_: So that all who question the Antiquity or
Nobility of the Family of _la Tour_, are, I think, very much in the wrong.
I will not dispute that there are Families more ancient, tho’ those of _la
Tour_ have printed several Volumes in Folio, to prove the great Antiquity
of their Origin, as well as their Descent from the _Torres_, who were so
long at Variance with the ancient _Viscontis_. And I can’t help thinking,
that a Family, which has been ally’d for many Generations with the
greatest in the Empire, and whose Son has been a [84]Canon or Count of the
Cathedral of _Cologn_, may be rank’d among our best Families in _Germany_.

Of all the Ladies, the Princess _de la Tour_ is most distinguished by the
Archduchess; for which the other Ladies envy her, but this is very
natural: For the Princess _de la Tour_ was born at _Vienna_, and, as it
were, brought up with the Archduchess; and Friendships so early contracted
are generally the most lasting. Besides, the Princess _de la Tour_
discovers such an Attachment to the Archduchess, that ’tis not surprising
that she should honour her with her Confidence.

I have told you, that the Pleasures of the Court of _Brussels_ are not
very gay, and I’ll assure you those of the City are much of the same dull
Taste. There’s a very fine Theatre here, but the Comedy acted on it is
horrible. The Assemblies here are very melancholy, and will be more so
when the Countess _de Visconti_ is gone, since, were it not for that Lady,
there would be no such Pleasures here. Whoever saw _Brussels_ in the Time
of the War, and sees it now, scarce knows the Place again. Every thing
falls to decay, and it has hardly any Trade stirring, but in Lace,
Camblets and Tapestry; the Fabric of which is, indeed, brought to very
great Perfection. _Lenir_’s Manufacture of Tapestry excels all the rest
for the Beauty of its Colours, and he furnishes _England_ and _Italy_ with
it. _Devos_, who works for _Germany_, made the fine Tapestry of Prince
_Eugene_ of _Savoy_, and the History of _Charles_ V. for the Emperor
_Charles_ VI. _Vermillon_ sends a great many of his Works to _Portugal_,
_France_, and _Muscovy_. _Van der Borg_ the Son has lately made a fine
Piece of Tapestry for the Archduchess, representing the _Israelites_
worshipping the Golden Calf, and _Moses_ receiving the Tables of the Law.
The Father of _Van der Borg_, who is as good a Workman as the Son, has
made magnificent Tapestries for the Chamber of the States, which represent
the joyful Entry of _Philip the Fair_, Duke of _Brabant_. They are in the
Town-house, and worth seeing.

Here lives the Marshal _de Zumjungen_, who commands the Emperor’s Troops
in this Country. He is a Person of very great Merit, and has been raised
by his Valour and Services to the chief Military Employments[85]. He is
descended of an ancient _Patrician_ Family of _Francfort_, and professes
the _Lutheran_ Religion. He was at first but a common Soldier, and has
gone thro’ all the Degrees of Preferment. He is a General of very great
Experience, and is very well beloved by the Officers. He makes Foreigners
very welcome, and lives very handsomely, without being at extraordinary

The Governor of _Brussels_ is the Marshal _de Wrangel_, a venerable old
Man, and much respected. He is a _Sweed_, and, like M. _de Zumjungen_, has
gone thro’ all the Military Employments from a Dragoon. He is not very
rich, but lives handsomely upon what he has, and always keeps a very good

The Prince _de Rubempré_ is of the Family of _Merode_, one of the most
distinguished in the _Netherlands_. He is Master of the Horse to the
Archduchess, and Knight of the Golden Fleece, a very courteous Nobleman,
and one of the richest in the _Low Countries_.

The Prince of _Nassau_ is Captain of her most Serene Highness’s Band of
Pensioners, and Knight of the Order of St. _Hubert_. He is the younger
Brother of the Prince of _Nassau-Siegen_, who, after the Death of
_William_ III. King of _Great Britain_, assumed the Title of Prince of
_Orange_; which he still goes by in _Spain_, where he is a Pensioner to
the King. The Prince of _Nassau_, of whom I here make mention, was also
formerly in the Service of _Spain_. He married the Sister of the Marquis
_de Nesle_ in _France_, and went some Years ago into the Service of the
Emperor, who made him one of his Lieutenant-Generals. I make no Doubt but
his Birth, and the assiduous Application he gives to the Office which he
holds under the Archduchess, will soon procure him the Honour of the
Golden Fleece.

I shall set out in a few Days to make the Tour of _Flanders_, a Country so
well known, and of which you have heard so often from Officers, who are
continually going and coming to it, that I think, I need not confirm to
you what you know of it already. Therefore, only expect a superficial
Account of it. You shall hear from me by the next Post. Mean time, I have
the Honour to be, _&c._


                              LETTER XLV.

  _SIR_,                                       _Liege, June 28, 1732._

From _Brussels_ I went to GHENT, the Capital City of the County of
_Flanders_, and a Bishoprick, suffragan to the Archbishop of _Mechlin_.
The _Scheld_ passes thro’ the City, which, with its Suburbs, is divided
into several Islands by the _Lys_, and a great Number of Canals. ’Tis very
large in Circumference, insomuch, that ’tis reported, the Emperor
_Charles_ V. us’d to say, _That he could put_ Paris _into his_ Gand[86].
This might be true enough then, but now _Ghent_ might easily be contained
in _Paris_, because, like all the Towns in the _Netherlands_, it is
decay’d, and not so large, nor so powerful, as it was formerly. The
Citizens of _Ghent_ were heretofore much disposed to rebel; but the most
notable Revolt they ever made, was from _Charles_ V. for which they were
severely punished by that Emperor; who, forgetting that he was their
Countryman by Birth, no sooner heard of their Revolt, but he passed
through _France_ to chastise the Rebels. Accordingly, he caused
twenty-five of the principal Burghers to be put to Death, banished a
greater Number, confiscated the Estates of the Ring-leaders, took away
their Artillery, their Arms, and their Privileges; condemned them to pay a
Fine of above one Million two hundred thousand Crowns, and built a
Citadel; by which Means _Ghent_ became, as it were, a wide Desert, many of
its Inhabitants retiring to other Towns.

The Fortifications of _Ghent_ consist of great Outworks, a Counterscarp,
broad Ditches and good Ramparts. Its Bulk, Situation and Wealth, render it
very considerable; but it takes up too much Ground to be a good Place:
Nevertheless, I have heard that King _William_ of _England_, used to say,
that in a Time of War, it was much more convenient for the Allies to keep
_Ghent_ than _Brussels_.

I have done nothing at _Ghent_ but sauntered about the Streets. I have
been to see all the Churches, of which there is a great Number, and some
of them very fine; but have made no Acquaintance, except with the Baron
_de Stein_, Colonel of a Regiment of the Infante of _Portugal_, a
Gentleman of good Extraction and Merit; who is married to Mademoiselle _de
Watteville_, formerly Lady of the Bed-chamber to the Archduchess,
Governess of the _Netherlands_. She is a Lady worthy to be respected, and
is esteemed by all _Ghent_. What Amusements there are in this Town, I
cannot say; but if I am not deceived in Appearances, there are no
Pleasures here but what must be insipid.

I went in the Bark along the Canal from _Ghent_ to _Bruges_, which is the
most commodious and agreeable way of Travelling in the World. I was in a
good Room, and with Company very happily mix’d. At Noon we had a Dinner
served up, as if it had been at the best Victualling-house at _Brussels_;
where, by the way, there are excellent Inns. ’Tis a Rule in this Bark, for
the Women to drink at Free-cost, the Men paying for the Wine. This cuts
pretty deep into the Reckoning; for there is generally a good Number of
Women on Board; and the _Flemish_ Women are, for most part, good Topers of
the Juice of the Grape.

BRUGES in the County of _Flanders_ stands in a great Plain, three Leagues
from the Sea, upon the Canal of _Reye_; which being divided into several
navigable Streams, forms several Islands in this City. Another Canal goes
to _Ostend_, which is but three Leagues off, and carries Ships to _Bruges_
of four hundred Tons. ’Tis this that keeps up the Trade here, tho’ ’tis
considerably diminished, since many of the Merchants went to settle at
_Antwerp_, and in _Holland_; notwithstanding which, _Bruges_ is still one
of the biggest and best Cities in _Flanders_. Here are magnificent
Structures, both sacred and profane. The Streets are broad, strait and
open, with several large Squares, and there’s no want of Inhabitants; but
they know no Pleasure besides Eating and Drinking. ’Tis a hard matter for
a Foreigner to get acquainted with ’em; for the _Flemings_ are naturally
unsociable, and it seems as if they were afraid to converse with a
_German_. When the Count _de Lalaing_, formerly the Viscount of
_Audenarde_, is in this City, of which he is Governor, one is sure of
being welcome at his House; but, unlucky for me, he happened to be at
_Brussels_. And, as I don’t care to be in the Spleen, I went immediately

This City is famous for standing-out a Siege of three Years and three
Months, again _Albert_ Archduke of _Austria_; and for the _India_ Company
established here, by a Grant from the Emperor, which all _Europe_,
however, agreed to get revoked. _Ostend_ never was a Town of much Note for
Pleasures. ’Tis small, but worth seeing. Its Port is the most considerable
that belongs to the Emperor in _Flanders_. Its Situation renders it very
strong: ’Tis encompass’d with two very deep Canals, has eight Bulwarks,
and a large Ditch, several Bastions, and good Outworks, kept in due
Repair. If the _Ostend_ Company had continued, this would certainly have
been a powerful City. The People began to build here apace, but now every
Thing is at a Stand, both Buildings and Commerce: For _Holland_ and
_England_ swallow-up all, and seem to have vowed the Ruin of the

NEWPORT, to which I went by the Canal, is infinitely worse than _Ostend_.
’Tis a perfect Hole, but extremely well fortify’d, and can lay the Country
under Water for several Leagues. The Air here is detestable, to such a
Degree, that there’s never more than a Detachment in the Garison at one
time, and yet a great many Men die here. The Inhabitants have a livid
unwholesome Complexion. There is not a Soul to make a Visit to, and the
Officers, who love Company, are sick to Death for want of knowing what to
do with their Time.

As I left _Newport_, I returned to _Ghent_, and went to COURTRAY, over one
of the finest Causeys, with Trees on both Sides, that is in all
_Flanders_. This, which is a pleasant little Town, drives a great Trade in
Holland, and damask’d Linen, and its Inhabitants are wealthy. Its
Fortifications are good for nothing; nevertheless, here is a Governor, a
Commandant, and the whole Complement of Superior Officers. The first is M.
_de Devenish_, an _Irishman_, one of the Emperor’s Major-Generals. The
second is M. _Dickson_, a _Scotsman_, who has a Colonel’s Commission, and
is one of the civilest Men I know; his only Fault being, perhaps, that he
is too liberal. He was very generous to me. There are five or six Persons
of Quality in this Town, who, rather than expose themselves too much to
Spleen, will not admit of Visits from the Towns-people. The Chapter of the
Collegiate Church of _St. Mary_ consists of true Priests, who rail at one
another plentifully, and are never seen together but in the Chapter-house,
where they have the Diversion of abusing each other heartily; so that I
dare say, were they to embrace at High Mass, they would hug so lovingly,
as to squeeze the Breath out of one another’s Bodies.

I proceeded over a fine Causey to MENIN, one of the Barrier Towns
belonging to the Emperor, with a _Dutch_ Garison. The Count[87]_de Nassau
Laleck_, Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Horse in the
_Dutch_ Service, is Governor of it. To qualify himself for this
Government, he must (like all the Governors or Commandants of the Barrier
Towns) have taken an Oath of Fidelity to the Archduchess, to the Emperor,
and also to the States General his Masters. But I can’t imagine how he
would be able to reconcile such Swearing to his Conscience, in case a War
should break out between the Emperor and _Holland_. I think this Oath may
be put upon a Par with that which is taken by the Captain of the
_Bucentaur_ at _Venice_, when he carries that Vessel out to Sea, to bring
her back into Port, be the Weather what it will. _Menin_ is one of the
most regular Fortifications in _Flanders_. M. _de Vauban_, by whom they
were directed, thought them his Master-piece. Yet some will have it, that
the Works are too close together, and too small. This Place was very ill
defended in the last War, insomuch, that I heard some Officers say, there
was no Breach made in it. The _French_ Commandant, when he surrendered it
to the Duke of _Marlborough_, having demanded Leave to march out of the
Breach, was answered, That ’twas not adviseable for him to do it, unless
he had Ladders; upon which he chose, with his Garison, to march out at the
Gate. There’s no Company at _Menin_, but Mademoiselle _de Laleck_, and
some Officers Wives, who are Persons of very great Merit.

LISLE, the Capital of _French Flanders_, is as gay, populous and trading a
City, as the Towns of _Imperial Flanders_ are declining. ’Tis a large,
fine, and well fortified City. The Streets are broad and well-pav’d. It
has two magnificent Squares, and Edifices both sacred and profane, which
discover its Riches. There’s a new Town-house building here, in a bad
Situation; but when finish’d, will be grand and magnificent. The Duke _de
Bousslers_, whose Father acquir’d great Glory by his vigorous Defence of
_Lisle_, is Governor of this City, and of _French Flanders_. He is a fine
handsome young Nobleman, tho’ of an under Size. He applies very much to
the Military Science, and gives very great Hopes of his Proficiency in
that Calling. The Officers cry him up very much; and I heard every body
speak well of him. He makes a noble Appearance, and lives generously. I
found him extremely civil and respectful to every body, with a sweet and
amiable Temper, far from the Presumption to which Youth are but too
liable; in a Word, such a one, that a Friend to _France_ would wish all
her young Noblemen were like to him.

There are several good Houses in _Lisle_, particularly that of Madame _de
Mouchi_, heretofore Lady of the Bed-chamber, and Favourite of the late
Duchess of _Berry_; the Houses of the Commandant of the Town, and the
Citadel, and of the Intendant; and in all these Houses there’s abundance
of good Company. The _French_ Officers make a much better Appearance than
ours do, and as soon as the Service is over, they all treat one another
upon a Par. Here is a good Comedy, and a tolerable Theatre for it. In
Winter there are a great many Balls, and a true Relish of good Living
here; such as eating in Company, Gaming, and Other Diversions.

You know that _Lewis_ XIV. took _Lisle_ from the _Spaniards_. The Allies
retook it in 1708, after a long Siege; which, when one considers the
Number of Princes and great Noblemen who were present at it, such as the
King of _Poland_, the Electoral Prince of _Hanover_, now the King of
_Great Britain_, and the late Landgrave of _Hesse Cassel_, puts one in
Mind of the Siege of _Troy_. _Lisle_ was restored by the Treaty of
_Utrecht_ to _France_, which Crown, in Exchange for it, yielded _Ypres_
and its Chatellany to the Emperor.

Commerce flourishes mightily in this City, and there’s a Concourse to it
from all _Imperial Flanders_, because of the Profit to be made by the
Mint. Since the Peace, the City has been very much augmented and
embellished; so that there are few Towns that outstrip it. I was very much
delighted here, and if my Affairs had not call’d me back to _Germany_, I
should have stay’d here some time longer.

I return’d again thro’ _Ghent_, and from thence went to _Antwerp_,
surnam’d the _Trading_; for you must know, that all the Towns in the _Low
Countries_ have Surnames: Thus, _Brussels_ is called the _Noble_, _Ghent_
the _Great_, _Louvain_ the _Wise_, _Mechlin_ the _Genteel_, _Namur_ the
_Strong_; and so of the rest.

ANTWERP, anciently one of the finest and richest Cities in _Europe_,
stands in a pleasant fruitful Plain on the Right Side of the _Scheld_. Our
Lady’s Church, which is the Cathedral, is a very great Building, that is
worth seeing, for the magnificent Pictures with which ’tis adorned. The
Town-house and the Jesuits Church are worthy of a Traveller’s Attention.
This Church was formerly very magnificent, but was consumed by Lightening
in 1718; when the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits lost a real Treasure in
Pictures. They rebuilt it, but with more Frugality than their
Predecessors. The fine Pictures done by _Rubens_, and two very magnificent
Chapels, are still to be seen.

The Foundation of _Antwerp_, its Citadel, built by the famous Duke of
_Alva_, and all the Calamities which this City suffered during the Civil
Wars for Religion, are Things too well known for me to mention them.

_Antwerp_ is very much fallen from what it was once. ’Twas formerly a City
of the greatest Trade in _Europe_; but _Amsterdam_ is risen upon its
Ruins; for Towns, like all other Things, must submit to Fate. _Antwerp_ is
incomparably better situate than _Amsterdam_, and the largest Vessels came
to it heretofore by the _Scheld_; but this River is now choak’d up by
Vessels full of Stones, and other Things, sunk there on Purpose by the
_Dutch_, those charitable Neighbours of the _Netherlands_.
Notwithstanding its Decay of Trade, there are Families here extremely
rich. All its wealthy Citizens keep magnificent Equipages, wear lac’d and
embroider’d Cloaths, and their Wives dress like Princesses. They all go to
the Assembly, which begins at an early Hour, where they play at
_Quadrille_, and then every one goes Home to Supper. There’s a charming
Walk upon the Ramparts, but no Company, besides the Priests, who pretend
there to con their Breviary. There is one of the prettiest Theatres that
is to be seen out of _Italy_, but no Play. So that, take it all together,
you may perceive this is not a Place of the greatest Entertainment.

The Marquis _de Rubi_, one of the Emperor’s Major-Generals, is Governor of
_Antwerp_. He should, by Right, live in the Citadel or Castle; but as his
House there is very much run to Ruin, he has one in the City, where he
appears with Dignity. He is a _Catalan_, and was Viceroy of[88]_Sardinia_,
when the _Spaniards_ made a Conquest of that Kingdom in the Time of
Cardinal _Alberoni_.

This, Sir, is all that I have to say to you of _Antwerp_; from whence I
went to MECHLIN, a pretty Town, where the Metropolitan Church is worth
seeing. The Cardinal _de Bossu_, Brother of the Prince _de Chimay_, is its
Archbishop, and the only one in the _Netherlands_, belonging to the House
of _Austria_. You know, that at _Mechlin_ is held the Sovereign Council or
Parliament, which is the Reason one sees such a Swarm of Attornies and
Solicitors here, and hears so many of the Quirks of the Law. There are
few People of Quality here, and the Assemblies are not very inviting.

The Causey between _Mechlin_ and _Louvain_ is a new Piece of Work. Before
this was cast up, the People of _Mechlin_ were obliged, in the
Winter-time, to go thro’ _Brussels_, in order to avoid the bad Roads,
which was a great Way about.

LOUVAIN is a great City, where one sees a vast Number of Students,
Doctors, Priests and Friers. But none of these being Companions for me, I
only pass’d quite thro’ the Town; for I had seen the Churches before; and
I was not a Stranger to the turbulent Spirit of the Inhabitants, who are
the most unpolish’d of all the _Netherlands_. One of the grand Privileges
of the University of _Louvain_, is a Nomination to a great Number of
Benefices; about which they are actually at Law with several Bishops of
the _Netherlands_, who pretend to dispute their said Right; on Pretence,
that the University prefers Men to Livings, of whose Persons or Sentiments
they have no Knowledge. Mr. _Strickland_, by Birth an _Englishman_, and
Bishop of _Namur_, is to go on the Part of the Bishops, to get this Affair
determined at _Rome_. But I’ll lay a Wager, that he will do nothing more
than see the Datary and the Rota with a round Sum of Money.

There’s a very good Pavement from _Louvain_ to _Tirlemont_, which is a
Town in a Manner abandoned, and where I know of nothing remarkable; so
that I brush’d thro’ it, and went and lay at MAESTRICHT, one of the best
and strongest Places in _Europe_, belonging to the _Dutch_; to whom
_Spain_ abandoned it by the Peace of _Munster_. The _French_ Army took it
in 1673, in thirteen Days, and the Allies retook it in fifty. The _Dutch_
Propriety in it was recogniz’d by the Peace of _Nimeguen_, and they
maintain a numerous Garison in it. The Governor of it is Prince _William_
of _Hesse Cassel_, Brother to the King of _Sweden_; but since the Death of
the Landgrave of _Hesse_, that Prince being vested with the Regency of the
said Landgraviate, resides no longer at _Maestricht_; which is a Loss to
this Town, for he kept a fine Court there, and liv’d with all the Dignity
answerable to his high Birth. The Person who commands in the Place during
his Absence, is the Brigadier[89] _d’Amerongen_.

The Walks about _Maestricht_, especially those on the Ramparts, are
charming; for there’s no want of good Company, and ’tis the genteelest of
all the Garisons that belong to the _Dutch_. ’Tis a very pretty Town, with
beautiful Squares, and the Streets are very open. The Catholics, as well
as Protestants, have Churches here, and keep up that Union which is
remarkable in all the Towns of _Holland_. The _Maese_ passes thro’ this
Town, and over it there’s a Stone Bridge; from which, I have been assured
for a Truth, the late Marshal _d’Auverquerque_, when a young Man, leaped
his Horse into the River, to convince Mademoiselle _de Feldtbruck_, how
sincerely he loved her. It seems he was one Day making his Vows and
Protestations to her at her Coach-Door, when she told him, That she looked
upon all he said to be Flams, and that she would lay him a Wager, he did
not love her enough to leap his Horse over into the River. He accepted the
Wager, and won it at the Risque of his Life. He was so fortunate as to
keep his Footing in the Stirrups, and his Horse was so good as to wade
with him to the Shore. But after he had taken this dangerous Leap, he
reflected on the capricious Temper of his Mistress; and broke off his
Courtship with the young Lady; which, I think, was the least she deserved.

I stay’d a few Days at _Maestricht_, which City put me in Mind of my
Father, who died there in the Service of the Elector _Frederic_ of
_Brandenbourg_. I have been to shed a few Tears at his Tomb in the new
Church, which is the only Devoir I could pay to his Memory; the Religion
wherein he died, forbidding me to put up the Prayers of the Church for

The City of LIEGE is about five Leagues from _Maestricht_. A Vessel goes
thither, and returns every Day. But to go against the Stream of a River so
rapid as the _Maese_, and which in the Summer-time often wants Water, is
what I shall never advise any Friend of mine.

The Generality of the Antiquarians will have it, that _Liege_ was built by
that _Ambiorix_ King of the _Eburons_, a great Enemy of the _Romans_ who
cut in Pieces one of their Legions, commanded by two of _Cæsar’s_
Lieutenants; for which Affront, _Cæsar_ afterwards took a sweet Revenge.
But be this as it will, ’tis certain that _Liege_ is a very ancient City.
’Tis large and very populous, and situate in a pleasant Valley,
encompassed with fine Hills and Dales; wherein there are Meadows, thro’
which there run several Rivulets, that fall into the _Maese_, which passes
thro’ the City, and has a Bridge over it of Stone. The Cathedral,
dedicated to St. _Lambert_, is famous for its Chapter, which consists of
Princes, Cardinals, and Persons of the first Quality; in which Number are
included some of but ordinary Extraction, who become Lords of Manors, or
_Tressonciers_, (the Title that the Canons assume) by means of the
Doctor’s Degree. But this Chapter, let it be as venerable as it will,
comes very far short of being as well constituted as those of _Germany_.

The Palace of the Prince and Bishop of _Liege_ is ancient. It has large
Rooms, but is so pent up by little Streets, that the Apartments are not
airy enough[90]. The present Bishop is the last Survivor of the Family of
_Berg_. He was chosen against powerful Competitors, who were the Elector
of _Cologne_, and the Cardinal of _Saxe Zeits_; but he had the good Luck
to be chose when himself did not expect it. Whether the Chapter is pleased
with him, I know not; but the Populace are very fond of him. He governs
with Moderation and Wisdom. He is very just, rarely pardons a Crime, is of
very difficult Access, but in other respects good; very regular in his
Affairs, and abounding in Charities; which, perhaps, are not always
distributed according to his Intention. He had for a long time a
_Capuchin_ to be Confessor, who directed every Thing; but the good Father
was accused of loving his Brothers too well, and of being accessary to
their Breach of the Vow of Poverty. This _Capuchin_ Minister died without
being lamented for any thing else, by that Prince’s Domestics. He is
succeeded in his Post of Confessor, by another _Capuchin_; but his
Authority is more limited.

The Prince leads a very private Life, and is eight Months in the Year at
_Serai_, a Country House a small League from _Liege_, on the Banks of the
_Maese_, towards _Huy_, where he has seldom any body with him but his
Confessor, the Captain of his Guards, and a Gentleman of his Bed-chamber.
His Table is not so sumptuous as ’tis elegant; his Liveries are very
modest, his Guards but few, and cloath’d exactly alike. He has rais’d a
Regiment of Guards, of which the Count _de Beaufort_, Brother to the
Governor of _Charleroy_, is the Colonel. This Regiment is lodged in the
old Caserns of the Citadel, which was formerly very considerable, but has
been intirely ruin’d and demolish’d, since it was besieg’d and taken by my
Lord _Marlborough_. ’Twas also stipulated in the Treaty of Peace, that the
Citadel of _Liege_ shall not be rebuilt.

You know, that the Episcopal See of _Liege_ was formerly at _Tongres_; of
which, they say, that _Maternus_, sent by St. _Peter_, was the first
Bishop. The See was transferr’d by his Successors, first to _Maestricht_,
and then to _Liege_.

There are some magnificent Churches in this City, where those that love
Paintings will be delighted. The Churches in general are beautiful, and
have for most part been repaired within these few Years. St. _Paul’s_
Church here would be admir’d, even in _Rome_ itself. Divine Service is
perform’d in it with very great Regularity; and ’tis impossible not to be
edify’d by it, the _Roman_ Ritual being observed in every Particular.

The Pleasures of _Liege_ consist very much in Drinking, for there’s little
Society among the Women; and as for the Men, they are generally at the
Tavern, where there are good _Bar_ and _Burgundy_ Wines, and a sort of
Beer still better, neither of which being very dear, the People of _Liege_
go with Joy to the Bottle; but being, at best, Men of warm Brains, great
Talkers, Railers and Backbiters, their Entertainments and Assemblies
commonly end like the _Italian_ Comedies. The _Liegeois_ are accused of
being insincere, and are called, _the_ Italians _of the_ Netherlands. They
drive a great Trade, with as little Honesty as elsewhere. They are
Drunkards, quarrelsome, and so vindictive, that they think any sort of
Revenge sweet. They love Law-suits and Chicanery, to such a Degree, that
the Country of _Liege_ alone furnishes the Chamber of _Wetzlar_ with more
Business than all the Empire. I confess, that of all the People I ever
conversed with, there are none for whom I have less Esteem, and none,
whose Society I shall always more avoid; tho’ I shall ever esteem the
honest Folks there, of whom, I am persuaded, there are some: But I enter
not into Particulars, I speak only of the Generality of the _Liegeois_,
who appeared to me such as I have describ’d them; and if I wrong them, I
ask their Pardon. Another Man may conceive what Idea of them he pleases,
and for my own part, I shall be overjoy’d to hear of any Merit found among

The Country of _Liege_ is fruitful, and abounding with all Things, except
Wine and Oil, which they must have from Foreigners. Here are Mines of Iron
and Lead, Quarries of Marble, and a sort of Mineral, which is an Earth
proper to burn, and their common Fuel; but a Fuel very disagreeable,
because of its nasty Smell, which is infinitely worse than the _English_
Coal, and renders _Liege_, in the Winter-time, as black and as sooty as

The Bishop is Lord of the whole Country: He has, however, his States, who
are not always of the Prince’s Opinion. In this Country are reckon’d fifty
Baronies, a great Number of Abbies, above twenty wall’d Towns, and near
fifteen hundred Villages. This Principality is subject to the Empire.

I reckon to set out hence To-morrow, and to go and lie at _Spa_, where I
hope to be merry. Be you the same, and believe me to be always Yours,


                              LETTER XLVI.

  _SIR_,                                     _Cologn, July, 13, 1732._

The Road from _Liege_ to Spa is very disagreeable, and, really, the Place
itself is not worth the Trouble of going to it; I mean, for such as are
not under a Necessity of using the Waters; for I am not willing to embroil
myself with the _English_, who neglect the best Waters in the World, which
they have at _Bath_ and _Tunbridge_, to go to those of the _Spa_. Here are
several Springs, which the Physicians of the Place adjust to all
Distempers. That of _Poubon_, which is in the Middle of the Square of
_Spa_, is good for the Gravel, the Sciatica, and in short, for every
Thing, except the Stomach; but then, on the other hand, this Part of the
human Body may be set to Rights by the Water of the _Geronstere_, which
must be taken every Morning, three Quarters of a League from _Spa_, in a
little Coppice, where a sorry Hovel is built, to shelter the
Water-drinkers from the Rain. But how good soever the _Geronstere_ Spring
is for the Stomach, it is of no manner of Service to the Breast; in which
Case they must go to another Fountain, of which I have forgot the Name.
The Physicians and Inhabitants of _Spa_, good People, consulting their own
Interest more than the Health of the Foreigners, tell them absolutely,
that they must continue to drink the Waters, at least, six Weeks
successively; which Precepts the _English_ follow very readily, and even
go beyond them. I knew a young _Irishman_, who for three Years fansied
himself to be sick, and was continually taking the Waters of the _Spa_. He
would fain have persuaded me, that otherwise he should have died: He
complained of a great Pain in his Kidneys; yet he look’d very well, eat
heartily, slept sound, and danced like one mad. While I was at _Spa_, I
thought myself at _London_, there being ten _Englishmen_ to one Foreigner.
I believe that Nation, in short, has laid a Plot to take away _Spa_ from
the Bishop of _Liege_. I was overjoy’d to renew my Acquaintance there with
Persons of good Families, whom I had known at _London_. Tho’ I am
extremely prepossessed in Favour of _England_ and _Englishmen_; yet I
cannot help agreeing with many others, that they are more amiable, and
more sociable Abroad, than they are at Home.

In my Road from _Spa_ to _Aix la Chapelle_, I came to LIMBOURG, the
Capital Town of the Duchy of that Name, and truly, the most dismal Capital
in the World. It stands upon a Mountain, as it were, by itself, and in one
of the most disagreeable Situations that can be imagined. Heretofore it
was fortified, but is now dismantled. There are, however, three hundred
Invalids that keep Guard here, such a one as it is. The whole Country has
a very miserable Appearance; yet I have been assured, that the Inhabitants
are very well to pass. They have good Store of Cattle, make a great deal
of Cheese, and manufacture very good Cloth, for which they have a great
Vend in the _Netherlands_, and at _Frankfort_ Fair; where a great many
Pieces are sold, which pass for the Cloth of _Holland_, and even of
_England_. The Road from _Limbourg_ to _Aix la Chapelle_, which is four
Leagues, is very disagreeable to travel in a Chaise, because of the Rocks
and Mountains.

AIX LA CHAPELLE, which is an Imperial City, owes its Foundation to
_Charlemagne_, who established the Seat of his Empire here; and, they say,
that the Town-house was formerly Part of his Palace. This City is fixed by
the Golden Bull, to be the Place for Crowning the Emperors. _Charlemagne_
caused his Son _Louis the Pious_ to be crowned there, by _Hildebold_,
Archbishop of _Cologne_; since which, there have been thirty-six Emperors
crowned in _Aix_. They who have been crowned elsewhere, have always given
an Instrument to the City of _Aix_, and to the Chapter Royal of the Church
of our Lady, declaring, that this Ceremony, performed elsewhere, shall be
of no Prejudice either to the City, or its Church.

The Annals of _Aix_, among several other miraculous Events, report, That
during the Coronation of _Rodolph_ I. there appeared a great bright Cross
over the Church of our Lady, as a Mark that God approved of the Choice
which the Electors had made of that Prince, according to the Advice given
them by _Albert the Great_, of the _Dominican_ Order, Bishop of
_Ratisbon_, and _Rodolph_’s Confessor. When the Electors were going to
take the Oath of Fidelity to _Rodolph_, according to Custom, the Sceptre
which they were to touch, was not to be found; whereupon _Rodolph_, who
did not think this Ceremony absolutely needless, took a Crucifix from the
Altar: _See_, (said he to the Electors, who stood round _Charlemagne_’s
Chair, in which _Rodolph_ sat) _see the Signal of that by which we and all
the World have been redeemed; we will make use of this, instead of the
Sceptre._ Then kissing the Crucifix very devoutly, it so wrought upon the
Princes and Electors, that without staying for the Sceptre, they took the
Oath, and paid Homage with their Hands crossing each other. I forgot to
tell you, that the Cross which appeared in the Firmament, during this
Transaction, tho’ white at first, became red as Blood; which being told to
the Emperor _Rodolph_, he said, _If God gives me Life, I will go beyond
Sea, and there sacrifice my Blood for my Sins, for the Honour of my
Saviour_ Jesus Christ. Probably, this Emperor did not live to perform his
pious Resolution; for History does not say, that he ever went to Sea; but
it mentions, that when this Prince was only the Count _de Hapsbourg_, he
met a Priest in a Field, walking on Foot, and carrying the Viaticum to a
Person that was sick, and that _Rodolph_, such was his Devotion for the
Holy Sacrament of the Altar, alighted from his Horse, and set the Priest
upon it, using this Expression, _That it should never be said, that the
Man who carried the Saviour of the World, should walk on Foot, while he_,
Rodolph, _sate on Horseback_. The Priest, who was wrought upon by the Zeal
of the Prince, and inspired by God, prophesied to him, That he should be
chose Emperor, and that his Posterity should attain to the highest
Honours. The Event has answered the Prediction; for God has so blessed
_Rodolph_’s Family, which now goes by the Name of the House of _Austria_,
that since his Time, the Imperial Sceptre has not departed from it;
_Charles_ VI. being the fifteenth Emperor, besides seven Kings of the
_Romans_, who are descended, without Interruption, from the _Rodolphin_

The Church of _our Lady_ is very ancient, being consecrated by Pope _Leo_
III. in Presence of the Emperor _Charlemaign_, and as many Bishops
attended at the Ceremony as there are Days in the Year; of whom, no doubt,
a great many were Bishops in Parts beyond the Seas. At this Consecration a
Thing happened very surprising and extraordinary; to which you may give
as much, or as little Credit as you please. ’Tis, that God, in order fully
to answer _Charlemagne_’s Desire to complete the aforesaid Number of
Bishops, of which there wanted two, permitted St. _Monulphus_, and St.
_Gondulphus_, Bishops of _Tongres_, who had been both dead a long time,
and buried in the Church of _St. Servais_, at _Maestricht_, to appear
visibly at the Solemnity of this Coronation, and to receive the Pope’s
Blessing; after which they vanish’d. But I think, without pretending to
dive into this Mystery, that if these two Bishops were really Saints, they
ought to have given the Pope their Blessing, as being older Saints than
the Holy Father. Mean time, that there is such a Story, you are not to
doubt; for in the Roof of the Church of _St. Servais_ at _Maestricht_, I
saw a Picture that represents it. There is an Angel holding out a Label in
the Language of _Brabant_, signifying, Monulphus _and_ Gondulphus, _arise,
and go to the Consecration of the Church of_ Aix: And upon their Tomb
there is this _Latin_ Distich, expressing their Departure from thence to
the Church at _Aix la Chapelle_.

_Excitus bâc arcá_ Monulphus, _Aquisque dicato_ Gondulphus _Templo se
reddit uterque Hierarcha._

After such authentick Evidences of so extraordinary a Passage, a Man must
be very incredulous not to believe it. I should never have done, were I to
give you an Account of all the precious Reliques that are in our Lady’s
Church, of which you know that the Emperor is by Birth a Canon. The great
Reliques are only shown once every seven Years, when Pilgrims come from
all Parts, and particularly from _Hungary_; but as they are then only
exposed from the Top of a Steeple, the poor Creatures have only the
Satisfaction of seeing them at a very great Distance; and after having
been regaled by the City of _Aix_, most of ’em return Home, without being
able to say what they have seen. The first and most ancient Relique, is
the Shift which the Holy Virgin had on when she was delivered of our Lord.
Whenever these Reliques are exposed, a Priest makes a Proclamation to the
People, what Relique he is going to shew them. The following is the Form
of one of those Proclamations.

                         At the first RELIQUE.

    We shall shew you the Linen, the sacred Raiment, in which the
    Holy Virgin +Mary+, Mother of God, was drest the Night of the
    Holy Nativity of Our Lord, when she brought forth +Jesus
    Christ+, Very God and Very Man. Therefore let us beseech God,
    that we may look upon this sacred Relique in such a Manner, that
    the Honour and Glory of God may be thereby advanced, and that we
    may obtain his Grace, and his sacred Benediction.

The other Proclamations are in the same Taste: But so much for Reliques.

In the Church of _Aix_, there is a very great Treasure, consisting of
Vessels of Gold and Silver gilt, Copes embroider’d with Pearls, and other
sacred Ornaments, which are very rich. There is the Royal Chair, in which
_Charlemaign_ sate in his Tomb three hundred and twenty-five Years. ’Tis
of white Marble, not polished, because it was covered with Plates of Gold;
but what’s become of ’em, I know not. ’Tis in this Chair that the King of
the _Romans_ goes and seats himself as soon as he is consecrated; and here
the Electors, and the Chapter of the Church, go and make their first
Obeisance to him, in Quality of King of the _Romans_. The High Altar, and
the Pulpit, are covered with Plates of Gold, adorned with Jewels of a
great Value, especially an Agate of an extraordinary Size; the Whole given
by St. _Henry_ of _Bavaria_, the second Emperor of the _Romans_ of that
Name. Were I to give you all the other Particulars of this Church’s
Treasure, my Letter would swell to a Volume.

The Citizens of _Aix_, being in Hopes to have that Congress there, which
was held afterwards at _Soissons_, caused their Town-house to be repaired;
so that ’tis now one of the finest in _Germany_. They also built new
Baths, very proper and commodious, and the Structure makes a handsome
Appearance. _Aix_, take it all together, is a very pretty Town, and
there’s very good Company here, even when the Waters are not in Season;
but the noisy Pleasures are not to be expected. The Houses of the Countess
_de Golstein_, and the Baron of _Dobelstein_, are of great Relief. The
last is a Gentleman of Merit, and of a good Family, his Father having been
a General Officer in the Service of _Joseph Clement_, Elector of
_Cologne_; and having served in _France_, the last War, with Reputation.
He honoured me with his Friendship, and I revere his Memory.

Of all the Places where the Waters are used, there’s none of more
agreeable Accommodation than _Aix_; the Lodgings and Provisions here being
perfectly good. There’s the House of _Bougir_, near the _Fountain_, where
the late King of _Denmark_, the Queen, the Princess, and all their
Retinue, were lodged very conveniently. This House is exceeding well
furnished, and belongs to very genteel People, who, during the Season,
hold Assemblies, and give a Ball, in a Room which is perfectly fine.

From _Aix la Chapelle_, I came in less than a Day to _Cologne_, thro’ a
very even Road, and a flat Country all the Way, excepting a Hill that one
ascends going out of _Aix_. I passed thro’ JULIERS, the Capital of a Duchy
of that Name, upon the little River _Roer_, which is very subject to
overflow its Banks. Several Authors will have it, that _Julius Cæsar_
caused this City to be built, while others ascribe its Foundation to
_Drusus_. Which of them soever it was, the Town does no Honour to either.
There is not one House in it, that can be called a Structure; and I
thought the Fortifications were very much neglected. The Castle, or
Citadel, which I only saw at a Distance, ’tis to be hoped, is in a better
State. The Elector Palatine keeps a good Garison there, commanded by the
General _Haxhausen_; whose House is, I think, the best in all _Juliers_.
The _Roman_ Catholic is the only Religion exercised in the City, but the
_Lutherans_ and _Calvinists_ have their Chapel on the Glacis of the Place;
and ’tis natural enough to suppose, that ere long they will have Churches
in the Town itself, since nothing stands in the Way but the Life of the
Elector _Palatine_; after whose Death, ’tis hardly supposed that the King
of _Prussia_ will let a Country slip from him, to which he has such just

COLOGNE is the greatest City in _Germany_, but the saddest in _Europe_.
There’s nothing to be heard in it but tolling of Bells, and nothing to be
seen but Priests, Friers and Students; many of whom beg Alms with a Song.
The People of _Cologne_ boast, that _Agrippina_, the Mother of _Nero_, was
born there; and that this Princess, in order to give the City signal
Proofs of her Good-will and Generosity, very much augmented its
Circumference, and peopled it with a Colony of Veteran _Romans_. ’Twere to
be wish’d, that this Empress was still living, and that she would take it
into her Head to people _Cologne_ again, where there are really more
Houses than Families. For ’tis a poor Burgher indeed here, who has not a
whole House to himself.

If the Inhabitants of a Town were the more righteous for having a Number
of Churches, those of _Cologne_ would be the greatest Saints upon Earth;
for they have as many Churches and Chapels as there are Days in the Year.
The most considerable is the Metropolitan Church, dedicated to the Apostle
St. _Peter_. If it were finished, it would be one of the greatest and most
magnificent Buildings in _Europe_; but in its present Condition, it does
no very great Honour to the Chapter, which is the most illustrious in
_Germany_; the Canons being all born Princes, or Counts of the Empire, who
must prove their Nobility from sixteen Descents. There are, indeed, some
Canons who are only Doctors; but, properly speaking, they are no more than
the Officers of the Chapter. The Bodies of the three Kings that were
brought to _Cologne_, lie in a Chapel behind the Choir. They came into the
City through a Gate towards the _Rhine_, which was walled up, as soon as
the sacred Reliques had pass’d, that nothing might profane it. The
Effigies of the three Kings are painted over it. The Inhabitants of
_Cologne_ have such a Veneration for these Reliques, that I believe, it
would not be proper so much as to question whether they are genuine, in a
Company of the Burghers.

The Nobility and Gentry at _Cologne_ are as polite as they are elsewhere;
but the Vulgar are extremely clownish. There are very ancient _Patrician_
Families here, who make as plain Proof that they are descended from the
old _Romans_, as the Duke _de Ventadour_ in _France_ does, that he is a
Kin to the Holy Virgin.

The Town is governed by a Senate, and is a Free Imperial City;
nevertheless, the Elector of _Cologne_ holds the Supreme Court of Justice
here, by a sort of Chief Justice, or Lieutenant Criminal, who has no
manner of Dependance on the Magistrates. The principal Offices are shared
among the _Patricians_ or Senators; who keep close at their own Houses,
and shun the Nobility, as do all the _Patricians_ of _Germany_. There are
very few Families of Quality in this City, considering its Bigness. The
Noblemen of the Chapter, are all the good Company to be met with in
_Cologne_, and they are respectful to Foreigners; but the greatest Part of
’em are very little in Town; for as soon as their Residence is expired,
they either go Home, or remove to other Places, where they are
Prebendaries. There are substantial Tradesmen here, who eat well, and
drink still better. They may be merry Blades, for aught I know, but I have
not kept them Company; and you need not be told, that our _Germanic_
Haughtiness will not permit us to demean ourselves to them.

There are a great many other Curiosities to be seen in this City,
particularly the House where the Horses went up of their own Accord into
the Garret, to convince a Man, that his Wife, who was buried the Day
before, was not dead. You will find the Account of it in _Misson’s_[91]
Letters. I have been to see the House where the unfortunate Queen _Mary de
Medicis_ lodg’d, while she liv’d here, and where she died in a Condition
so forlorn, as may be a Warning to the World of the Frailty of Human
Grandeur. The ungrateful Cardinal _de Richelieu_, on whom she had heap’d
Riches and Honour, not content with having banish’d her out of the
Kingdom, abandon’d her to the Want of every thing; and while himself liv’d
in the Luxury of the most splendid Fortune, he made the Queen suffer the
Martyrdom of Misery and Sorrow. Cardinal _Mazarin_, his Successor in the
Ministry, retir’d likewise to this Town, while the whole Kingdom of
_France_ was in a Conspiracy against him; but he had the Glory to defeat

I shall say nothing to you of the Revenues of this City, because I have
seen nobody that could give me the least Insight into that Matter. It
maintains some Companies of very sorry Soldiers, who keep Guard at the
Gates, at the Town-house, and very insolently search the Luggage of all
Comers; which is, certainly, of all Inconveniencies the greatest; because
when one is not above two hundred Steps from our Quarters, we are obliged
to unloose our Portmanteaus, which are then search’d, and every thing
turn’d topsy-turvy; after which, one is obliged to be at the Trouble of
putting every thing to rights again, while the very Fellows, that have put
all in Confusion, have also the Impudence to ask for a Spill of Money to
drink. In other Towns, an Officer goes with you to your Quarters, and you
shew him what you have. But the Imperial Cities always affect to differ
from others in certain Particularities, which are generally in direct
Opposition to their own Interest, and constantly so to the Convenience of
the Public.

There are Protestants settled here, who are not the poorest People in the
City. They go to Church at _Mulheim_, a Village in the Country of _Berg_,
about half a League off.

I set out To-morrow for _Bonn_, where the Elector is expected every Hour.
He comes from _Mergendahl_, where he has been elected Grand Master of the
_Teutonic_[92] Order, tho’ the Pope thought he had Benefices enough
before. This is actually the Sixth which the Elector holds at this Time,
and I believe the Seventh will not escape him. The least of all brings him
in a hundred thousand Crowns a Year. I don’t think there’s any Harm in the
Plurality of Benefices, but in the Abuse of ’em; which is a Thing that
cannot be charged to the Score of the Elector. I shall let you know in my
next, what I think of this Prince’s Court. In the mean time, and always, I
am with the most perfect Esteem, &c.


                             LETTER XLVII.

  _SIR_,                                        _Bonn, July 30, 1732._

As I came to BONN, two Days before the Return of the Court, I had all that
time to walk about. This City stands upon the _Rhine_, five Leagues from
_Cologne_; from whence one travels to it thro’ one of the finest Roads in
the World, well-pav’d and planted with Trees, over a large fruitful Plain,
encompassed with Hills laden with Vines and Woods. This is a City so very
ancient, that _Florus_ tells us ’twas founded by _Drusus_. The Learned
say, ’tis the _Ara Ubiorum_ of the Ancients, mention’d by _Tacitus_. Be
this as it will, _Bonn_ has not the least Monument that favours of the
_Roman_ Magnificence; is now but a little City, and of no Consequence at
all, when the Court is not there. ’Twas heretofore very well fortify’d,
and has sustained several Sieges, particularly one in 1689, by _Frederic_
Elector of _Brandenbourg_, afterwards King of _Prussia_, who besieged it
at the Head of his own Troops, and those of _Munster_ and _Holland_; and
lost a great many Men before it. His tall Musqueteers, all _French_
Gentlemen and Protestants, distinguished themselves in an extraordinary
manner; for, being just come out of _France_, with a Spirit of Hatred and
Revenge against _Lewis_ XIV. who, by repealing the Edict of _Nantes_, had
forced them to abandon their Country, they performed such valiant Feats as
were surprising, and were never weary of Fighting; every _Frenchman_ that
was a Catholic, being odious to them. _St. Bonnet_, their commanding
Officer, a Man of Birth and Bravery, was killed as he was storming the
Breach in Quality of Volunteer. This Officer thought it was an Injustice
to him, that he was not appointed to command the Storm, and complained of
it to the Elector; who told him, That he knew very well ’twas his Due, but
that he thought it best to spare an Officer for whom he had a very great
Esteem. _St. Bonnet_ said, He did not think it would be for his Reputation
to stay behind; and therefore he begged his Electoral Highness, by all
Means, not to let him lose an Opportunity, which would undoubtedly procure
him the Honour of convincing him of his Zeal. The Elector, by way of
Reply, laid his absolute Commands on him, not to think of Fighting, but to
continue always near his Person. _St. Bonnet_, ambitious of Glory, and,
perhaps, hurry’d by his Fate, did not pay Obedience to the Elector’s
Commands, and was wounded by a Musquet Ball, of which he died two Days
after, very much regretted by his Master, and the whole Army.

During this Siege, _Bonn_ was reduced to a Heap of Rubbish, so that scarce
a House was left standing; for the Baron _d’Asfeldt_, who commanded in the
Place for _Lewis_ XIV. made a very stout Defence; having sustained a
Blockade of two Months, and twenty-seven Days open Trenches.

This City was again besieg’d in 1703, by my Lord Duke of _Marlborough_,
who obliged the Marquis[93] _d’Alegre_, now Marshal of _France_, to
capitulate at the End of eleven Days. It had been agreed by the Treaty of
_Utrecht_, that the _Dutch_ should keep Garison in _Bonn_; but the Elector
_Joseph Clement_, not long after his Re-establishment, found Means to turn
them out, and to be Master, as it was but reasonable, in his own

This same Prince, at his Return from _France_, found his capital City in a
sorry Condition; a great many Houses destroy’d in the last Siege, were not
yet rebuilt, and his own Palace lay in Ruins. But he set about the Repair
of every thing; and in short, in a few Years, not only caused the old
Houses to be rebuilt, but likewise erected a great many new ones, and
built a Palace, which makes a grand Appearance, and would have been one of
the most considerable Structures in _Germany_, if it had been brought to
Perfection. The main Body of it, which is quite finish’d, has spacious
Apartments, laid out with Art, richly adorn’d, and nobly furnish’d. The
Tapestry with which the Chapel is hung upon grand Festivals, is worth
seeing. It represents, in twelve great Pieces, the History of our Lord’s
Nativity; which is wonderfully well designed; and they may be reckon’d
the Master-pieces of the _Gobelins_, where the Elector _Joseph Clement_,
caused them to be made.

The principal Church of this City is a large Pile. They say it was founded
by St. _Helena_, the Mother of the Emperor _Constantine_, to the Honour of
the Holy Martyrs _Cassius Florus_, and _Malusius_, Soldiers of a _Roman_
Legion. The Statue of that Princess, in yellow Copper, is placed at the
Extremity of the Nave. The Saint is represented on her Knees, adoring the
Cross, which she holds in her Left-hand. The Attitude of this Statue is so
very noble, that it would certainly be esteemed, if it were in any Church
of _Rome_.

Tho’ the Elector has all the Pleasures that can be desired at _Bonn_, yet
he spends most of his Time at _Bruhl_, a House he caused to be built three
Leagues out of Town; which, tho’ not very large, has very fine Apartments,
adorned with every thing that is completely elegant and magnificent. The
Elector is making some Gardens to it, which are like to be exceeding fine
when finish’d.

The late Elector caused a Castle to be erected, about one Quarter of a
League from _Bonn_, near a Village called _Popelsdorff_, which was built
in Form of a Circus, and the Architecture of it was very singular; but the
present Elector has been pleased to pull down a Part of it, and to employ
the Materials in the Works at _Bruhl_. Near _Popelsdorff_, there’s a
Nursery very well laid out, and kept in neat Order.

All these Houses are an Embellishment to the Suburbs of _Bonn_, which are
moreover very agreeably situate. I was infinitely more delighted here,
than at _Cologne_; for _Bonn_ grows every Day finer, while the latter is

After having walk’d about here a great deal, expecting the Elector’s
Return, this Prince is at length arrived, together with Duke _Ferdinand_
his Brother. He was welcom’d with the Discharge of the Cannon, and
complimented by all the Persons of Distinction in Town, upon his Return,
and upon his Advancement to the Grand Mastership of the _Teutonic_ Order.
Next Day there was a Gala at Court, when the Elector was dress’d in a Lay
Habit, and wore a Sword; at which every body was surprized, because the
Dress which is most affected by the Electors of _Cologne_, is like that of
the Cardinals: But the Elector declared, he appeared in that Habit, as
Grand Master of a Military Order.

His Electoral Highness has a just Title to be called _Clement Augustus_;
for he has a stately Mien, is handsome, and of easy Access, and loves
Pleasures, and particularly Hunting, as much as his Condition will admit
of. His regular Life, and the Soundness of his Morals, may serve for an
Example to many older Prelates, that are not so powerful, nor so nobly
descended. He lived in his Infancy at _Gratz_, together with the Princes
his three elder Brothers. The Elector, his Father, sent him afterwards,
with Duke _Philip_ his Brother, to Rome. The Marquis _Santini_, a Native
of _Lucca_, a Commandeur of the Order of _Malta_, and a Lieutenant-General
in the Service of _Bavaria_, was appointed for their Governor. Duke
_Philip_ was chose Bishop of _Paderborn_ and _Munster_. The Gentleman who
was very instrumental in his Election, was the Count _de Plettenberg_, now
the Elector’s Prime Minister, who was then purely attach’d to that Prince,
from the Devotion he always had for the House of _Bavaria_; and Duke
_Philip_ dying not long after his Election, the Count prevailed on those
two Chapters, to chuse the young Duke _Clement-Augustus_ for their Bishop.
This Prince received his Bulls from the Pope’s own Hand, at _Rome_; and
afterwards went and took Possession of his Bishoprick. Not long after
this, the Elector of _Cologne_, his Uncle, caused the young Prince to be
appointed his Coadjutor: And upon the Death of _Joseph Clement_, _Clement
Augustus_ succeeded him also in the Bishoprick of _Hildesheim_.
After the Death of the Duke of _York_, _Ernest-Augustus_, Duke of
_Brunswic-Lunenbourg_, and Bishop of _Osnabruck_, he was chose for
Successor to that Prince’s Episcopal See; and he is just now elected Grand
Master of the _Teutonic_ Order, by the unanimous Choice of the Knights,
who have Commanderies in that Order.

The Enemies of the House of _Bavaria_ murmur sadly to see half a Dozen of
such great Benefices in the Possession of one Prince; _What!_ say they,
_one Bishop to hold so many Bishopricks! there are few Instances of the
like in all our Annals; ’tis not agreeable to the Canons of the Church_. I
am not so well versed in the Canon Law, as to determine, whether it be so
or no; but I am not ignorant, that other Princes have held as many, and
even more Benefices; and that ’tis for the Welfare and Interest of the
Church, that the Elector should be a powerful Prince. _Albert_, Cardinal
of _Brandenbourg_, was at the same time Archbishop of _Mentz_ and
_Magdebourg_. The Archduke _Leopold_ held nine great[94] Benefices; but it
was not said in his Time, that this was not agreeable to the Canons of the
Church. _Francis_ of _Newbourg_, the last Elector of _Mentz_, tho’ not a
Priest, held five Bishopricks and Abbies, and yet there was no Outcry
against him; why then should it be thought so strange, that the Elector
should have six? This Prince is not inferior either in Birth or Merit to
the Archduke _Leopold_, and to the Prince of _Newbourg_.

Tho’ I am not a Pensioner to the Elector, I cannot help saying, that the
Catholics, instead of clamouring against his Grandeur, ought, on the
contrary, to do every thing they can to increase it: For the several
Bishopricks held by this Elector, are so surrounded, and even indented, by
the Dominions of the greatest Protestant Powers, that neither of them,
separately, would be able to defend itself, in case it should be the
Misfortune of _Germany_ to be exposed to a religious War; whereas, being
united under one Head, they are a formidable State.

_But_, say the Grumblers again, Bernhard de Galen _was only Bishop of_
Munster, _and yet he made_ Holland _tremble_. This is very true; but they
don’t consider, that this Prelate was supported by all the Power of
_Lewis_ XIV., or else, as turbulent and as martial as he was, he would
never have entertained a Thought of attacking the Seven Provinces. But
admitting that he had been able to have made War singly with the Republic,
what does that signify to the Time present? The Face of _Europe_, and
particularly of _Germany_, is very much chang’d since his Death. The
Protestants, who were then weak, are become powerful. They are the Masters
of Commerce, which is the Fountain of Wealth; and they have Provinces, the
best situate that can be, for receiving Foreign Succours. The Catholics,
on the contrary, are exhausted, divided in Interest, and their Dominions
impoverished by the Loss of Manufactures, and the Want of Trade.
Therefore, I say it again, ’tis my Opinion, that instead of opposing the
Grandeur of this Elector, they are obliged by Interest, to contribute
their utmost to augment it, in order to furnish Religion and the Church
with an able Protector.

Pardon me, Sir, this long Plea, into which I was drawn by a religious
Zeal, and for the just Cause of a Prince who challenges both
Love and Respect. His Prime Minister is _Ferdinand_ Count _de
Plettenberg-Nordkirchen_, whose Family has been of distinguish’d Rank for
a long time in _Westphalia_, and has given several Princes Bishops of
_Paderborn_ and _Munster_. It had formerly only the Title of a Barony, and
M. _de Plettenberg_ is the first Count of it. Soon after he had been
promoted to this Dignity, the Emperor nominated him a Member of his Privy
Council; and his Imperial and Catholic Majesty, has lately sent him the
Order of the Golden Fleece, to reward him for having prevailed on the
Elector to guarantee the _Pragmatic Sanction_: The Count _de Plettenberg_
is adorned, therefore, with all the Dignities which a Lay Nobleman can be
ambitious of in _Germany_: He is Count of the Empire, one of the Emperor’s
Privy Counsellors, a Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grand Master of the
Elector of _Cologne_’s Houshold, his Great Chamberlain, and his Prime

Nor was there ever any Person more deserving of those Employments, the
Elector being partly obliged to him for his own[95] Grandeur. ’Twas this
Minister, as I have already said, who caused this Prince to be chose,
first, Bishop of _Paderborn_ and _Munster_, and afterwards Bishop of
_Hildesheim_ and _Osnabruck_: He also contributed very much to his being
elected Coadjutor of _Cologne_; for had it not been for his
Representations, the deceased Elector _Joseph Clement_ would, perhaps,
have never been prevailed on to accept of a Coadjutor, because he
apprehended, that he should not live long after he had taken such a Step:
But the Count _de Plettenberg_ dispossessed him of that silly Surmise; and
by that Means procured, for his Master, the second Electorate of the
Empire. You will naturally imagine, Sir, that such great Services,
performed by this Minister, for a Prince to whom he was not a Subject,
could not but be attended with great Rewards. They have purchased him the
Elector’s intire Confidence, who leaves all Affairs wholly to him. The
Count uses his Authority with Moderation, and is civil and courteous. His
Behaviour is noble and easy, and his Personage altogether as agreeable. He
has none of those Airs of Superiority, which they commonly assume, who in
their Grandeur are the Favourites of Fortune. Being advanced to be the
First Minister of a great Prince, at an[96] Age when a Person would scarce
presume to think himself fit to meddle with State Affairs, he makes Labour
itself a Pleasure, and has nothing of that mysterious haughty Air, which
only serves to alienate Peoples Hearts; for he is easy of Access, hears
attentively those who speak to him, and gives clear Answers without
affecting Evasions or Delays. He is generous, liberal and beneficent,
vigilant, laborious, and in Love with Business. He rises at Five o’Clock
every Day, and employs the Morning, in Business. After this, he keeps a
magnificent Table, where, in the midst of an Abundance and Delicacy, there
is that Frugality observed, which is so laudable in those who have
Places. After Dinner, he goes into his Closet, where he gives Audience to
the Subaltern Ministers, leaving it to the Countess his Spouse, to do the
Honours of his House, which is always open to Persons of Distinction and
Merit. As he was born to one of the greatest Estates in _Germany_, so he
is one of those Noblemen who live with the greatest Magnificence. His
Expences are considerable. His House is richly furnished, and full of
excellent Pictures by the most skilful Masters. Yet the Magnificence of
his House in Town does not come near to that of his Seat at _Nordkirchen_,
where every Thing is stately, and has the Air of a Prince. Mean time, the
Count _de Plettenberg_ adorns it every Day, and is actually making Gardens
to it, which will not easily be match’d in _Germany_. This Minister has an
only Son at the University of _Leyden_, a Youth of great Hopes, who is
already actually an Aulic Counsellor of the Emperor, his Chamberlain, and
Master of the Horse[97] to the Elector of _Cologne_; and to whom the Count
_de Plettenberg_, besides his great Estate, will leave his Steps to
follow, and his Example to imitate.

There are many other Persons of good Birth and Merit at this Court. The
Baron _de Nothasst_, Lieutenant-General, Chamberlain, and Captain of the
Elector’s Guard. M. _de Walhot de Goudenau_, Marshal of the Court. The
Baron _de Schourss_, and the Marquises _Caponi_ and _Trotti_, the
Elector’s Chamberlains, are distinguished for their Civility to
Foreigners. The Baron _de Sparr_, by Birth a _Swede_, whose Father died in
the Service of _France_, is Almoner to the Elector, and Dean of _Bonn_.
His Electoral Highness has lately sent him to _Rome_, to desire the Holy
Father’s Approbation of his Election, as Grand Master of the _Teutonic_
Order. M. _de Sparr_ was Page to the late Elector of _Bavaria_, in which
Post he behaved with an uncommon Sobriety, applied himself to the Study of
several Languages, and learnt to speak them with the same Ease as his
Mother-Tongue. He made great Progress in Music, History, and Geography,
and neglected no Means to render himself one Day or other, useful to the
State, and to his Prince. After he had served as Page, he entered into the
Military Service, and was made a Major in the Guards, and Chamberlain to
the Elector of _Bavaria_. He proposed to make a Settlement, when God,
whose Decrees are impenetrable, inspired him with a Resolution to go into
Holy Orders. For this End, he quitted his Employments, and retired to a
Seminary, which he only left to take up Priest’s Orders. He said his first
Mass in the same Church, and on the same Day, that the Duke _Theodore_ of
_Bavaria_, Bishop of _Ratisbon_ and _Freisingen_, said his. He went a Year
ago to _Rome_, where he applied himself strenuously to the Study of the
Canon Law. I knew him there, and found that he had the Esteem of every
body. He has such Sentiments of Piety and Honour, that ’twere to be wished
all our Clergy had the like; for then they would do more Service both to
God, and the World.

The Elector’s Houshold is very numerous, but he has no more than two
Regiments of Foot in his Electorate. The Baron _de Nothasst_ is Commander
in chief of those Troops, which, tho’ but a Handful, are sufficient for
the Guard of _Bonn_, _Rhinberck_, and _Keiserswaert_, which were fortified
heretofore, but have since the Peace been demolished.

In the Absence of the Elector, the Dean of the Chapter of _Cologne_
governs with the Title of Stadtholder. He is lodged in the Electoral
Palace, and is served by the Elector’s Officers. During this Time, _Bonn_
is a very melancholy Place. The Nobility and Gentry have their Assemblies
at the House of the Countess _de Fugger_, where there are many more of the
Fair Sex than ours, and the Canonesses of this City make a shining Figure.
In such good Company I leave you, and am, &c.


                             LETTER XLVIII.

  _SIR_,                                       _Mentz, Aug. 20, 1732._

I have been up the _Rhine_ from _Bonn_ to _Mentz_, to avoid the
disagreeable Passage over the Mountains of _Wetteravia_. I was not
fatigu’d, but then I was pretty much chagrin’d. I landed at LINTZ, a
little Town in the Electorate of _Cologne_, on the right Side of the
_Rhine_; and there I drank the excellent Wine of _Bleickert_, which is
made near the Village of _Huningen_, about a League from this Town. The
_Liegeois_, who know how to brew Wine as well as Beer, buy up a great
Quantity of it, which they balderdash after their Manner, and sell for
_Burgundy_. After I had fill’d my Bottles, I continued my Voyage, and
arrived at ANDERNACH, a little Town, which is a considerable Gainer by the
Floats of great Timber that are brought hither, and sent from hence for
_Holland_. Here is also a great Vent of Stone Jugs and Pitchers, and of
the Mineral Water of _Dunchstein_, which in the Summer is very much drank
with Wine.

A little above _Andernach_, on the other Side of the River, there’s an
abandon’d Seat belonging to the Count _de Neuwidt_, who lays up his
Hunting-Equipage in it. The Vulgar have a Notion, that this House is
haunted by the Devil; which is a sort of Superstition that is to be met
with, more or less, in all Countries.

The little Town of NEUWIDT gives its Name to a County of the Empire, where
the Count has a very pretty House. This Nobleman, and his Subjects too,
are[98]Calvinists. He married a Daughter of the late Count _Alexander de
Dhona_, who was the King of _Prussia_’s Governor. She is a Lady highly to
be valued for her Virtue, her Understanding, and her Behaviour.

The _Rhine_, which runs thro’ none but a plain Country from _Neuwidt_ to
_Bonn_, is, above that Place, pent up by Mountains so high, that they give
me the frightful Remembrance of the _Alps_. These terrible Rocks are
cultivated to the very Top, and produce excellent Wines. One can hardly
take one’s Eyes off of them, there’s such a variegated Prospect of
Vineyards, Woods, Towns, Villages, Gentlemen’s Seats, and Cottages.

The only Town of Consequence is COBLENTZ, in the Electorate of _Triers_,
at the Conflux of the _Moselle_ and the _Rhine_, in a fine Valley
surrounded with noble Hills. The City is fenced with grand Walls and
Ramparts. Its two Rivers are a great Advantage to its Commerce, and to
them ’tis obliged for all its Wealth. In this Town there reside several
Persons of Quality, such as the Counts _de la Leie_, and _de Metternich_,
the Barons _de Walpol_, and _d’Oels_. The Count _de la Leie_ is a very
rich Nobleman, lives high, and is very charitable; so that the Poor look
upon him as their Father, and the Convents as their Supporter. He is a
Gentleman of sound Piety, very great Politeness, and all his Behaviour is
to the last Degree noble. He has an only Son by the Countess _de
Schonborn_, Sister to the Elector of _Triers_, a young Gentleman of a
lovely Presence, and whose Merit infinitely surpasses his Years.

The Fortress of _Ehrenbreitstein_, which is properly the Citadel of
_Coblentz_, stands on the other Side of the _Rhine_. They reckon it
impregnable, for this Reason, perhaps, because it was never taken. It is
situate upon a high Mountain, or deep Rock, which stands in a manner by
itself, and is on all Sides of very difficult Access. The Works are all of
Stone, and several cut out in the Rock. There is a Cannon here, which,
they say, is longer than the famous Culverin, that _Lewis_ XIV. caused to
be carried from _Nancy_ to _Dunkirk_. The Palace of the Elector of
_Triers_ is at the Foot of this Fortress, in a Place which is very much
pent up by the _Rhine_ on one Side, and by a Rock on the other. It makes
but a mean Appearance, and the Apartments are low, incommodious, and very
much exposed to the Sun. Near this Palace is a little Town called _Dahl_,
where live most of the Elector’s Domestics. This Quarter has a
Communication with the City of _Coblentz_ by a flying Bridge.

The present Bishop of _Triers_ is _Francis-George_ Count _de Schonborn_,
who is the younger Brother of the Cardinal Bishop of _Spires_, and of the
Bishop of _Ramberg_ and _Wurtzbourg_. He is also Bishop of _Worms_, and
Abbat of _Elwangen_. He was elected Archbishop, when _Francis-Lewis_ of
_Newbourg_ was translated from the Electorate of _Triers_ to that of
_Mentz_. This Prince is not tall, but very stout, and has a fine Aspect:
He is affable, and very civil. His Courtiers assured me, that he was a
very kind Master, and his Subjects seemed to be pleased with his
Government. His Disbursements seem to me to be very moderate, and his
Houshold not large.

From _Coblentz_ I went to _Sanckewerdt_, which is the Foot of the Castle
of RHINFELDTS, belonging to a Catholic Branch of the Family of _Hesse_.
The Landgrave of _Cassel_ was once in Possession of this Fortress, and
claimed it as his Right, by Virtue of his being the eldest of the Family
of _Hesse_. Upon this Occasion he was engaged in a great Law-Suit, but the
Aulic Council gave a Verdict in Favour of the Prince of _Rhinfeldts_, and
the Troops of _Hesse Cassel_ were by an Imperial Commission turn’d out. A
Garison is actually kept here for the Emperor, and the Circle of the
_Upper Rhine_. This Place is reckoned one of the most important upon the
_Rhine_, over which River here is a Passage by a flying Bridge.

As I still went up the River, I came to _Binger-Loch_, a Name which is
given to a Cascade, that the _Rhine_ forms here between two Rocks. This is
reckoned as the most dangerous Passage of all the _Rhine_, though there’s
no Danger to be apprehended, unless the Watermen are drunk with Wine;
which is too commonly the Misfortune at this Place, where the Juice of the
Grape costs little or nothing. Near to this Hollow, upon a Rock, in the
midst of the _Rhine_, there’s the famous _Rats-Tower_; built, according to
Tradition, by _Hatto_ Bishop of _Mentz_, in the Year 969, to secure him
from the Rats, which gnaw’d him as a Punishment for his having burnt a
considerable Number of poor People in a Barn, that came in a great Dearth
of Provisions, to beg he would give them Bread; when this barbarous
Prelate, hearing the Shrieks of those unfortunate Wretches in the Flames,
ask’d his Courtiers if they did not hear the Rats cry? How improbable
soever this Story may seem, ’tis as much believed by the Vulgar, as if it
were an Article of Faith; insomuch that when I told my Watermen I
questioned the Truth of the Fact, they said, that if I had any Doubt of
it, I could not be a good Catholic. For my Part, I sincerely believe, that
this Tower served heretofore as a Place of Toll, and, perhaps, for a
Mainguard to a Castle, of which the Ruins are still to be seen, and in
which ’tis said that Bishop _Hatto_ dwelt, when he was obliged to retire
to the Tower, where he was, nevertheless, gnaw’d by the Rats.

The little City of BINGEN is not far from thence, on the left Side of the
_Rhine_. ’Tis the most considerable of all the _Rhingau_, and ’tis thought
to produce the best _Rhenish_ Wine; for you are to know, that the Fashion
of Wine alters, as well as of every thing else. Formerly the Wine of
_Bacharach_ was most in Vogue, and the _French_ have not disdained to
celebrate it in their drunken Catches; but now that Wine is no longer in
request by the Wine-Conners, who are here so delicate, that if they do but
wet their Lips, they can presently tell the Age and the Growth of any Wine
that they taste. They say now, that the Wine of _Bacharach_ is worth
nothing, in comparison with the Wine of _Ridelsheim_, and of
_Johannesberg_, Vineyards in the _Rhingau_: But for my Part, who have the
Happiness not to be so nice, I thought the Wine of _Bacharach_ very good,
and should not be sorry if I was obliged to drink that, and no other.

From _Bingen_ to MENTZ, the _Rhine_ is very broad. This capital City of
the first Electorate of the Empire is seated on the left Side of the
_Rhine_, over which there’s a Bridge of Boats, that is pretended to be in
the very same Place where _Charlemaign_ caused one to be made of five
hundred Paces in Length, in the Year 798. The Antiquarians of this City,
in spite of the best Authors, will have it to be built by a Son of
_Japhet_, or at least by a great Lord who escaped out of _Troy_. Be it as
it will, ’tis very ancient, and has suffered, as almost all the Towns in
the World have, great Revolutions. They say that St. _Crescent_, who was a
Disciple of St. _Paul_, was its first Bishop. But what I know for a
greater Certainty, is, that the Elector of _Mentz_ is Archbishop, and
Great Chancellor of the Empire. The Person who is now possessed of that
eminent Dignity, is _Philip-Charles_, Baron of _Eltz_; who was chose
unanimously on the Ninth of _June_ last. He was a Capitular of the
Metropolitan Churches of _Mentz_ and _Triers_, Great Chanter of _Mentz_ in
the Year 1710, Suffragan to the Bishop of _Triers_, Provost of the
Collegiate Church of _St. Peter_ at _Monstadt_, a Privy Counsellor to the
late Elector of _Mentz_, his Predecessor, and President of his Aulic
Council. His Election by the Chapter of _Mentz_ has been applauded by the
whole Empire; but particularly by those who know this Prince’s Candour,
and the Purity of his Morals. He succeeded _Francis-Lewis_ of _Neubourg_,
whose Predecessor was _Francis-Lotharius_, Count _de Schonborn_, who was
also Bishop of _Bamberg_. This Prince, who has had this Dignity a long
time, has caused his Capital City to be very much embellished, furnish’d
it with good Fortifications, and put it into such a Condition, that it
may be looked upon as a powerful Bulwark of the Empire. The _French_ had
begun to fortify _Mentz_ in 1688; and the Marshal _d’Uxelles_, who then
commanded here for King _Lewis_ XIV. put it into such a Condition, as to
sustain a Siege of seven Weeks open Trenches against Duke _Charles_ of
_Lorain_, to whom he surrendered it by Capitulation. Most of the Works,
cast up by the _French_, being only of Earth, were demolished, and others
of Stone erected in their stead.

The Town is not airy, the Streets being narrow and crooked. There are some
fine Houses here, particularly those of the Barons _de Dalberg_,
_Ingelheim_ and _Rolling_; but ’tis pity they are not in a better

The Metropolitan Church is an ancient Structure, which has nothing
remarkable but its Treasury, one of the richest in _Germany_. I remember
to have read in an old Chronicle of Bishop _Conrade_, that in his Time
there was in this Treasury a Cross of Gold of six hundred Weight, adorned
with Diamonds; and that at the Foot of the Cross, these _Latin_ Words were

             _Auri sexcentas habet hæc crux aurea libras._

Whether there ever was such a Cross here, I know not; but I can assure
you, there is none here now. The Chapter of this Church consists intirely
of Persons of Quality, but they don’t admit Princes to it.

The Elector’s Palace would be a magnificent Pile, if the Whole was
answerable to the new main Body of the Building, whose Apartments are
commodious and grand, and enjoy one of the finest Prospects in the World.

That which most deserves a Traveller’s View in this City, is the
_Carthusians_-house, one of the finest in _Europe_, as well for its
Buildings, as its Situation. The Church belonging to it is small, but very
neat; and the Pews of the Friers are most nicely carved in Wood. The
Joiner’s Work is adorned with Sculpture, very well executed; which
represents the Passages of the New Testament. The main Body of this Fabric
fronts the _Rhine_, and there are Apartments commodious enough to lodge a
Sovereign, and his Retinue. The Cloister is very spacious, and forms a
perfect Square, with the Cells of the _Carthusians_ round it, each of
which, consists of four or five rooms, all upon one Floor; plainly, but
neatly furnished. The _Carthusians_, after the Hours are over which they
devote to spiritual Exercises, cultivate their own little Gardens, or
employ themselves in the Work of Joiners, Turners, and the like useful and
industrious Occupations.

It may be said, to the Praise of the _Carthusians_ in general, that they
always keep clear from the Intrigues of the World, the Converse of Women,
and the Ambition of aspiring to Prelacies. They live in a manner, so as
that tho’ they are not very serviceable to the Public, they cannot do it
any Prejudice; which is what can scarce be said of the other Orders.

At the Foot of the _Carthusians_-house, which stands on a very high Hill,
is the Palace and Garden of the _Favorita_, belonging to the Elector.
_Francis-Lotharius de Schonborn_, caused this House to be erected; the
Gardens of which are not extraordinary large, and may be call’d a
Labyrinth of Grottos, Cascades, Summer-houses and Statues; but the Whole
are heap’d, as it were, one upon another, and ranged with very little
Fancy. There’s a Salon, accompanied with six Pavilions, detach’d from it,
disposed in such a manner, that from each Pavilion there’s a Prospect of
the _Rhine_, the _Main_, and of all the fine Scenes of the Country on the
other Side of those Rivers.

For the rest, ’tis a very dull City, as are almost all the Cities subject
to the Ecclesiastical Princes. Nevertheless, there’s a great Number of
Gentry here, but they scarce ever visit one another, except in Ceremony.
The Men rarely visit the Ladies, and seem, to my Mind, to be fondest of
the Bottle. One of the chief Diversions of the Inhabitants of _Mentz_ is
to go all the Summer long to some neighbouring Places where they use the
Waters; such as _Wisbade_, _Schwalbach_ and _Schlangenbadt_. And while
these Waters are in Season, _Mentz_, _Francfort_, _Darmstadt_, and all the
neighbouring Towns, look as if they were quite forsaken.

I was some Years ago at SCHWALBACH, and was very merry there. ’Tis a
little Town, between the Hills, three Leagues from _Mentz_, and belongs to
the Landgrave of _Hesse-Rhinfelds_. The Waters which are drank there, very
much resemble those of _Spa_ in Taste; but, I think, they are stronger. I
am sure, that if _Schwalbach_ was so happy as to be frequented for the
sake of its Waters, by two or three _English_ Gentlemen of Distinction, it
would make a Fortune out of the People of that Country, and bear away the
Purse from _Spa_. The Method of taking those Waters is altogether the same
as at _Spa_; and they observe the same Regimen, but with much greater
Mirth. For here is a great Room, where every body meets without
Distinction of Persons, and where they play at all Sorts of Games; and
it’s surrounded too with Shops, in which there are a thousand Sorts of
fine Toys. Here is commonly a Ball, and sometimes a _German_ Comedy, which
really, I think, is but indifferent; and here are often great Feasts, at
which every one pays their Quota. But there are generally some Princes
here to take the Waters, who make Entertainments for the Gentry.

SCHLANGENBADT, which is a League from _Schwalbach_, is a Place that
consists properly of two great Houses, one belonging to the Elector of
_Mentz_, and the other to the Landgrave of _Hesse Darmstadt_. Here they
use the Hot Baths, which are extremely wholesome for relaxing the Nerves,
and for the Stone. Barren Women also frequent this Place; but if they
don’t take very great Care of themselves, they generally return pregnant.

This, Sir, is all the Account I can give you of _Mentz_, and its
Neighbourhood. Having done all my Business here, I am making ready to be
gone in a few Days. I propose to go back the same Way that I came, and as
I fall down the _Rhine_, I hope in two Days to be at _Cologne_, from
whence I shall proceed thro’ _Dusseldorff_ towards _Cleves_. There I hope
to have a Letter from you, than which nothing can be more welcome. I am,


                              LETTER XLIX.

  _SIR_,                                      _Cleves, Sept. 1, 1732._

At my Return to _Cologne_, I went to see the Castle or Palace of BENSBERG,
belonging to the Elector _Palatine_, in the Country of _Berg_, three
Leagues from the _Rhine_, which River I passed over a flying Bridge,
between _Cologne_ and _Duitz_. This House is worth seeing. ’Twas founded
by Order of the Elector _John-William_, who was a Prince in every Thing
magnificent, and sent for the most able Workmen from _Italy_ to build it.
All this great Structure is built of very hard Stone. The Ornaments, such
as the Frises and Architraves, are of a Kind of grey Marble, which they
dig out of neighbouring Quarries. The Apartments are large, very well
decorated, and adorned with the finest Paintings; and they have a Prospect
of a vast Length of Country, which offers a Variety of grand and noble
Scenes to View.

From this House I went to DUSSELDORFF, the Capital of the Duchy of _Berg_,
belonging to the Elector _Palatine_. This City stands in the midst of a
fine fruitful Plain, five Leagues from _Cologne_. The _Rhine_ washes its
Walls, and runs at the Town with such Violence, that they have been
obliged to make great Works to break the Current. _Dusseldorff_ is but a
small Place. The late Elector _John-William_, who resided in it, had
undertaken to aggrandize it with an additional Quarter, which they call
the _New-Town_; but that Prince’s Death, and the Absence of the Court, put
a Stop to the Buildings. The present Elector is fortifying this Place; but
’tis carried on so slowly, that ’twill take up a great deal of Time to
finish it.

The Elector’s Castle or Palace is ancient, and has nothing remarkable, but
a Gallery of Pictures; which Gallery consists of five great Divisions or
Salons, three whereof are much bigger than the other two. The Pictures in
the first Room are all by the Hand of _Rubens_. That of the _Last Day of
Judgment_ is an admirable Piece, and one of the best that was ever done by
that excellent Painter. They say he painted it for the Duke _Wolffgang de
Neubourg_, in Acknowledgment for that Prince’s having taken him out of
_Spain_, where _Rubens_ was going to be arrested by the Holy Office. The
Pictures in the second Room are all done by several _Flemish_ Masters, but
most of ’em by _Van Dyck_. The third Room, which is the biggest, contains
Pictures by the most skilful _Italian_ Masters. The fourth is adorned with
the Works of the Chevalier _Van der Werf_, a _Dutch_ Painter, who died
lately at the _Hague_, having had the Honour to see some of his Pictures
sold for a thousand gold Ducats the Piece. The Elector _John-William_ gave
him a Pension of six thousand Florins, besides paying him two thousand
Florins for each Picture. No _Flemish_ Painter excelled him in Designing,
or had a better Hand at mixing of Colours. His Painting is so fine, and
the Colouring so lively, and so well fansied, that no Enamel is more
beautiful. Among his Works, the Connoisseurs admire _the Life and Passion
of our Saviour_; Diana _in the Bath_, a Piece for which the Elector
_John-William_ paid twenty thousand Florins; and the Picture of
_Mary-Anne_ of _Medicis_, that Elector’s Wife, which Princess is
represented with her Court-Ladies in the Habit of the Vestal Virgins. The
fifth and last Room, which is the most magnificent, contains select Pieces
by Masters of the first Rank; as _Raphael_, _Julius Romain_, _Peter di
Cortona_, _Guido_, _Titian_, _Paul Veronese_, _Tintoret_, _Correggio_,
_Albano_, the _Caracchis_, _Joseph Pin_, _Paul Rubens_, _Van Dyck_,
_Reimbrants_, and many others. But that which no less attracts the Curious
in another Taste, is the Abundance and Variety of other Things that are
distributed up and down the several Rooms; as Figures of Brass, of the
utmost Perfection, copy’d, for most part, from the finest Antiques, placed
upon beautiful Tables of _Florence_; portable Cabinets, adorned with
excellent Miniature, or inlaid Work; and, in short, an infinite Number of
other Things, that are very much to be admired, and render this Gallery
truly magnificent.

Under these Rooms there’s another Gallery, full of Statues of Marble and
Plaister, according to the Model of all the celebrated Statues of _Rome_
and _Florence_; the Moulds of which were collected by the Elector
_John-William_, with very great Care and Expence.

In the Market-place opposite to the Palace, is that Elector’s Equestrian
Statue, who is represented in Armour on Horseback, with the Electoral
Bonnet on his Head. But this Monument, which is of Brass, is not
answerable to the Cost of it: For the Horse is represented in a walking
Pace, with his Tail dragging nine Inches on the Ground, which makes a very
wretched Figure; tho’ ’tis said, that the Man who cast this Statue, took a
Horse which the Elector had for his Model. Possibly he might have a fine
Mane and Tail, but this is what does not appear in Brass. The whole
Monument is erected on a Pedestal of grey Marble, very solid, and even
without any Inscription or Ornaments. Nevertheless, _John-William_ of
_Neubourg_, the Elector _Palatine_, deserved as much as any Prince in the
World, to have his Virtues transmitted to Posterity by some Inscription.
He was magnificent, generous, liberal, a Protector of the Arts and
Sciences: His Court and his Disbursements were like those of a King; his
Good-nature render’d him amiable; he was the Delight of his Courtiers, and
the Darling of his Subjects.

This great Prince lived at a Time when _Germany_ had four other Princes,
who were as great Patrons of the Arts and Sciences as himself; _viz._
_Frederic-Augustus_ King of _Poland_, _Frederic_ King of _Prussia_,
_Antony-Ulric_ Duke of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_, and _Charles_ Landgrave of
_Hesse Cassel_; of all which Princes, the only one that survives is the
King of[99] _Poland_, the rest having no Life but in History, where they
are sure of Immortality; for, besides the Monuments they have left of
their Grandeur, Men of Learning will not fail to transmit their Glory to
the latest Posterity.

The present Elector _Palatine_ having fixed his Residence at _Manheim_,
there’s a Regency at _Dusseldorff_, of which the Count _de Schasberg_ is
the President. The Country of _Berg_, and that of _Juliers_, depending on
it, are governed by States, without whose Consent the Sovereign cannot lay
any Taxes. These Countries bring in a Million of Crowns to the Elector.
All Religions are tolerated here, and every Communion has its particular
Churches; but the Catholics only are admitted to the Civil Employments.
The Reverend Fathers the Jesuits have a fine Church, and a beautiful
Convent here. There’s a Chapel without the _Cologne_ Gate, which is worth
seeing. ’Tis built after the Model of the _Santa Casa_ of _Loretto_, and
adorned with very fine Paintings. ’Twas founded by the Electress, Wife of
_John-William_, to the Honour of the most Holy Virgin.

Tho’ the Court is no longer at _Dusseldorff_, yet here is very good
Company, and the Gentry are very sociable and friendly to Foreigners.
There are amiable and deserving Ladies here, particularly Madame _de
Speik_, whose Husband is a Major-General. She would be very fit to adorn a

I went from _Dusseldorff_ to KEISERSWERDT, formerly a Place of Importance,
which held out a destructive Siege, but is now wholly dismantled. From
thence I proceeded to DUISBOURG, a Town in the Duchy of _Cleves_, at the
Extremity of a Forest, where they catch wild Horses, which are small, but
indefatigable and very serviceable. The City of _Duisbourg_ is only
remarkable for its University. The Country betwixt this Town and _Wesel_,
is all a Plain, and a very gravelly Soil, yet produces every thing that’s

After having crossed the Rivers of _Roer_ and _Lippe_ in the Ferry-boats,
I came to WESEL, a strong Place of the Duchy of _Cleves_, belonging to the
King of _Prussia_: ’Tis regularly fortify’d, and has a very good Citadel
towards the _Rhine_. The late King of _Prussia_, _Frederic_ I. was the
first that set about fortifying of _Wesel_; and his Son, King
_Frederic-William_, has caused those Works to be carried on and finished.
M. _Bot_, now a General Officer in _Saxony_, had the Direction of those
Works in the first Place; after which, the Care of them was committed to
M. _Walrave_, a Colonel Engineer. They have both contributed to render
_Wesel_ one of the strongest Places in _Germany_. Nothing in this Town
more particularly deserves a Traveller’s Attention, than the _Berlin_
Gate, of which M. _Bot_ drew the Model: I never saw any Thing finer, or
more perfect of the Kind. The Arsenal also is worth seeing, and is
extremely well furnished with all Necessaries, whether of Ordnance or

In my Way from _Wesel_ to this Town, I came to SANTEN, formerly a famous
City, but now very much decay’d. The Catholic Church is a beautiful
Structure, and has a miraculous Image of the most Holy Virgin, to which
the Natives pay great Devotion.

’Tis five Leagues from _Santen_ to CLEVES, thro’ one continued Range
of[100] Walks. The Avenue that leads to _Cleves_ is magnificent. This Town
is small, but very pleasant, and well built. The King’s Palace is ancient,
yet it has fine Apartments; and among the rest, a magnificent Hall.
There’s nothing surely in Nature, completer and finer than a View of these
Apartments. _Lewis_ Duke of _Burgundy_, Grandson to _Lewis the Great_,
coming with his Army to _Cleves_ in 1702, thought the Situation of the
Place so charming, that he was heard to say, more than once, That he
wish’d _Versailles_ was as well situate.

_Cleves_ is the Seat of the Regency of this Duchy, the President of which
is M. _de Borck_, a Gentleman of Quality and Merit, who acquits himself of
his Office with a great Share of Integrity and Application, is very civil,
and a Gentleman of a fine Presence.

There are several good Families in this City, particularly those of the
Chancellor _de Becker_, a Gentleman of distinguished Merit, who makes very
handsome Entertainments, and lives with great Splendor; and of the
Baroness _de Blaspiel_, a Lady of Birth and Merit. She was Maid of Honour
to the Queen of _Prussia_, who honoured her with her Confidence; and never
was a Favourite more worthy of it; for she always preserved the same
Respect for her Mistress, and the same Regard for all Mankind. The whole
Court of _Berlin_ thought her an Ornament, when it pleased the King to
remove her from Court, by banishing M. _de Blaspiel_, who was one of his
Ministers, to his Estate in this Province, where he died, and having no
Children, left his Wife Heiress of a very considerable Estate. I don’t
know but this Lady thinks herself as happy in this Retirement, as she was
at Court: All the Country respects her; and one time, when the King came
hither, his Majesty, together with the Prince Royal, did her the Honour to
come and dine with her, and gave her Tokens of the sincerest Esteem. I was
formerly very well acquainted with Madame _de Blaspiel_ at Court, and had
Opportunity to know the Goodness of her Temper thoroughly, which is what
has induced me to give you a more particular Account of her, than of other
Persons of Distinction in this City, with whom I was not so well
acquainted. Farewel, my dear Friend, I am afraid I shall not see you again
so soon as I expected; but whenever that happens, I shall have a great
many Facts to tell you, which ’tis not always safe to commit to a Letter.
I kiss your Hand, and am, _&c._


                               LETTER L.

  _SIR_,                                   _Amsterdam, Nov. 29, 1732._

Instead of excusing myself for my late Silence, I confess to you, that had
it not been for the obliging Reproaches you make me upon that Account, I
should not have entertained you with any more of my Travels. Not that I
thought _Holland_ did not deserve your Attention as much as any other
Country in the World, but because, as I found I had nothing new to send
you, I thought it best not to surfeit you with the Repetition of what
others before me have said much better. But as you seem to think these
Arguments not sufficient, I will endeavour to satisfy you in the best
manner I can; and you are a Gentleman of too good Sense to expect more.

From _Cleves_ I went to NIMEGUEN, a Town in the Province of _Guelderland_,
and the Bulwark of the Seven United Provinces, towards the Dominions of
_Prussia_; from which ’tis but two Leagues distant. This Place stands on
the Side of a Hill on the Banks of the _Vahal_, a River which comes out of
the _Rhine_, and falls into the _Maese_, near the Town of _Dort_ or
_Dordrecht_. The _French_, after eight Days Siege, took it in 1672, at the
Time when the Republic seem’d ready to sink under the Weight of their
Arms. Since that Time it has been very much fortify’d; so that ’tis now a
Place of Consequence. This Town is famous for the Peace which was sign’d
here in 1678, between _France_ and the States General; and in the next
Year, between the Emperor, _Spain_, the Princes of _Germany_, and
_France_. It has no remarkable Edifice. From one of its Bastions, which is
much higher than the rest of the Fortifications, there’s a Prospect of a
great Tract of Country beyond the _Vahal_; which is one of the finest
Views in the World, and the most agreeable Sight that _Nimeguen_ affords.

After having crossed the _Vahal_ over a flying Bridge, I travelled four or
five Leagues upon a very narrow crooked Dike, which in rainy Weather is
very much broke. It seems as if it was made for the Destruction both of
Coaches and Passengers; for if the Coachman be ever so little aukward, or
the Horses skittish, a Man is in Danger of breaking his Neck, the rather,
because the common Caravans, or Stage-Coaches in _Holland_, are so made,
that a little Matter turns ’em topsy-turvy; so that one would imagine the
Inventor of ’em studied to contrive a Vehicle, the most uneasy, and the
most dangerous, that could be to the Lives of Mankind. Suppose to
yourself, a cursed high Waggon, which you get up to by an Iron Step,
placed between the wheels, which are hardly two Feet from one another. The
Body of the Caravan is covered with Hoops, in Form of a Cradle, spread
over with an Oil-cloth, and so low, that the least Shock jolts one’s Head
against the Roof. This infernal Machine, invented, no doubt, for the
Entrance of _Proserpine_ into Hell, instead of a Thill, has a Hook, by
which the Coachman, who is commonly drunk, guides the Horses, by placing
one Foot on it, while be rests the other against the Crupper of one of his
Horses, which almost touch the Caravan. No less than eight People are
stow’d in these horrible Break-necks, which, to compleat the Abomination,
makes such a Rattle as is perfectly stunning to all the Passengers.

’Twas in one of these pretty Stage-Coaches that I came very much jaded to
RHENEN, a little Town on an Arm of the _Rhine_, which has for a long time
been the Residence of the Family of the unfortunate _Frederic_ Elector
_Palatine_, who was chose King of _Bohemia_. That Prince caused a House to
be built there, which now belongs to the King of _Great Britain_, as Heir
to the Electress _Sophia_ his Grandmother, the Daughter of the said
_Frederic_, by _Elizabeth_ Princess of _England_; but all the Use which
the King makes of this House, is for the Accommodation of his Equipage in
his Journies to and from _Hanover_.

The Road from _Rhenen_ to _Utrecbt_ is like the Sands of _Libya_; I mean
that which the Caravans take in the rainy Season; for in fine Weather
they go through a Plain, the Soil of which is extremely clayish, and by
consequence, not passable when it has rain’d.

As disagreeable as the Country is, through which I passed, yet there are
several fine Country Houses, of which that belonging to the Earls of
_Athlone_, whose Ancestor was General of the _Dutch_ Infantry, and made a
Peer of _Great Britain_ by King _William_ III. is one of the most
considerable: But it is inferior to ZEIST, a Palace belonging to the Count
of _Nassau_, Son of the late Mons. _d’Odyck_, distinguished in the
Republic for his Birth and Employments, his Ability in Business, and his
Magnificence. This House is, in my Opinion, one of the finest in the Seven
Provinces, and has most of the Air of a Nobleman’s Palace. It has fine
Gardens, and stately Avenues. _Lewis_ XIV. resided in it at the Time when
that Monarch, like an impetuous Torrent, came to ravage the Republic. The
Count _de Nassau-Zeist_ had afterwards the Honour to see at the same Place
_Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_, whose Presence Was undoubtedly more
agreeable to him, because it was accompanied with the Peace, and because
that Prince only drew his Sword for the Defence of the Republic, and its

The Country Houses in general, which are situate in the Provinces of
_Utrecht_, _Guelderland_ and _Over-yssel_, have much more the Appearance
of Palaces than those in _Holland_; where Land is so dear, that they can
only make Models of Houses and Gardens; which, if they were executed,
would not want for Magnificence.

The Neighbourhood of _Utrecht_ is charming: A large fine Avenue leads to
the City, at the Entrance of which, on the Left-hand, is the Mall, which
_Lewis_ XIV. so admir’d upon Account of its Walks, that he wish’d he
could transport them to _Versailles_, and ordered his Troops not to cut
down the Trees.

UTRECHT, as to its Outside, seems very ancient. I fansy that the Walls of
_Jericho_, which fell at the Sound of the dreadful Trumpets of _Israel_,
were not unlike the Walls of this City; and its Inhabitants, probably, did
not think them a whit stronger, because they were so much in haste to
carry their Keys to the King of _France_, notwithstanding the Offers made
to them by the Prince of _Orange_, to defend the Place. _Lewis_ XIV.
entered this City with all the Pomp of a Conqueror; but he made a very
short Stay here, which, they say, was owing to a Remark made to him, That
in a great Part of the Town, the meaner Sort of People lived under Ground;
and that it would be an easy Matter for those subterraneous Inhabitants to
place Gunpowder in those Cellars, and blow them up at the time that his
Majesty came by. If this Circumstance is true, they who possessed the King
with this Jealousy were unacquainted with the _Dutch_, who, ’tis possible,
might have had no Respect for the Person of the King, in a Tumult, or in a
Battle; but when they had received him into their Town, he had nothing to
fear, because Treachery and Dissimulation are no Parts of their Character.

The Streets of _Utrecht_ are spacious and very airy, its Houses pleasant
and well built. A great many Houses have been built here since the
Congress for that Peace, which put an End to the War for the Succession to
_Charles_ II. King of _Spain_. This City, next to the _Hague_, is the most
agreeable for Persons of Quality, of whom here’s a great Number, as well
as of other Persons, who having got Fortunes by Trade, retire hither for
the peaceable Enjoyment of what they have acquir’d.

The great Church which was formerly the Metropolis, still preserves its
Chapter, into which Persons need no other Proofs nor Vocation for
Admittance than Money, these Prebends being bought and sold like Companies
of Dragoons. The Court of _Rome_ always nominates the Archbishop, who
commonly resides at _Amsterdam_. I think the Person who enjoys
this[101]Dignity now, is a Native of this City, but ’tis probable he has
no View to a Cardinal’s Cap, he being a declared _Jansenist_. The
_Carthusians_ who retired from _France_ under the specious Pretext of
securing their Consciences from Oppression, are settled in his Diocese,
where they live in two separate Convents not very far from _Utrecht_, and
are very zealous Distributers of the Writings published in _France_, about
the Religious Differences. They had acquired the Esteem of the
Protestants, who did not think they differ’d very widely from their
Communion; but since they endeavour to make the Sieur _Paris_ pass for a
Saint, I know not whether they will not lose the good Opinion that has
been conceiv’d of ’em. For in this Country, they have no great Value for
these Favourites of the Court of Heaven, and much less for those who
increase the Number of ’em. Be this as it will, ’tis allow’d by every
body, even by the most zealous _Roman_ Catholics, that setting aside their
Religious Sentiments, there’s no Fault to be found with their Morals and
Behaviour, and that they live as regularly as they did perhaps in the
Convent which they have abandoned.

The Town-house has nothing in it that is magnificent, at least if one may
believe those who have seen it; for I had not the Curiosity to examine it:
Nor is there any Edifice of Consequence in the Town. Their Dwellings are
neat, but not large, which is the Reason that during the Congress the
Ambassadors had very scanty Lodgings, tho’ it was not for want of Money,
insomuch that several of ’em might have purchased the Houses they lived
in, with the Money they paid for the Rent of their Apartments, during the
Course of their Ministerial Residence. Speaking of this Congress, puts me
in Mind of what certain Satirical Politicians said concerning the Three
Treaties of Peace that had been concluded successively in the Dominions of
the Republic. _Nimeguen_, said they, signified NEIM-WEG (_Take all_),
_Reiswick_, REIS-WEG (_Pluck up all_), and _Utrecht_, AUSSER RECHT
(_Witbout Right_). If every Thing be fairly examin’d, all this perhaps may
be true enough, but the Laughers would not be on the Side of the Allies.

I made use of the Vessel that goes and comes Three times a Day from
_Utrecht_ to _Amsterdam_, which is not only the most commodious, but the
best regulated, and the cheapest Passage in _Europe_. One knows to a
Minute when it goes off, and within one Quarter of an Hour that it gets
into Port. If you agree for the _Rous_ or Cabin, one is alone, or with
what Company you please. I thought the Vessel in which I came to
_Utrecht_, so much like a moving Dungeon that I was as glad when I came
out of it, as a Prisoner, when he is set at Liberty. The Canal which
carried me to _Amsterdam_ presents a thousand agreeable Objects to View,
being diversified all the Way with fine Country-houses, magnificent
Gardens, Meadows and Villages.

After having admired every Thing that proves the Wealth of the
Inhabitants, I am arrived at AMSTERDAM, that modern _Tyre_, the Mistress
of Commerce, the Warehouse of the World, and one of the finest, greatest,
and most wealthy Cities in _Europe_. It contains both sacred and profane
Edifices, which are magnificent; but at the same Time (for I speak freely)
retains I know not what Air of the Cit, which one does not meet with in
the Buildings of _Venice_ and _Genoa_, which are of a sublimer Taste,
because the Nobility are the Governors. The Things which may be said to be
truly great and noble at _Amsterdam_, are its Ramparts faced with Bricks,
and the broad and deep Ditches with which ’tis encompassed.

_Amsterdam_ is the only Town in the World which may be compared in any
measure to _Venice_. For tho’ ’tis not built as _Venice_ is, in the midst
of the Sea, it stands as that does upon Piles. Like _Venice_ it consists
of a vast Number of Islands, and its principal Streets have Canals, with
the Adventage of spacious Kays at their Doors, fenc’d with Trees; whereas
at _Venice_, the Water is only pent in by the Houses. That I take to be
all the Resemblance there is between these two Rivals in Commerce; for as
to the Beauty of the Structures, there is no Comparison; one _Canal
Grande_, and one _Canal Reggio_, being worth more in this respect than all
_Amsterdam_. There are Palaces, and here are Houses, which are neat,
genteel and pleasant, without the Rules of Architecture, and built of
Brick. Heretofore the _Amsterdammers_ Manner of Building was very
extraordinary. Most of the old Houses that are yet in Being, stand upon
Stilts, which I explain thus: The Front of the first Floor, upon the
Ground, is commonly all Windows, which are separated by wooden Pillars
that support all the Stone-work of the other Floors, which, happy for
them, is very slight; for there’s seldom a Wall more than two Bricks in
Thickness, and the Ceilings are nothing but Boards, so that the People in
the first Floor have the Pleasure to know, that every Word they say is
overheard in the second. I don’t criticize the Manner of the Distribution
of their Rooms; tho’, to be plain, their Architects know no more of this
Matter than they do how to carry up the Chimnies, which are almost all of
them smoaky. ’Tis true, that the Inhabitants are not very much incommoded
by it, and that they might even do without them[102]. For the Women warm
themselves with a Turf all Day long, which they put into a little earthen
Pan, and this into a wooden Stove, with Holes bor’d in it, which they keep
under their Petticoats, and sit over it, as a Hen broodeth over her
Chicken. The Men are always within Doors, dressed in a Night-gown lined
with Flannel, under which they are Twaddled in three or four thick
Waistcoats: And if the Weather be cold, they also make use of such a Stove
as the Women do, or else warm themselves in the Kitchen, where there is
seldom Bustle enough to prevent their creeping to the Chimney-corner; and
I would venture a Wager, that there are many substantial People here who
don’t boil the Pot above once a Week: For there’s no Nation in the World
that feeds worse than the _Dutch_, and particularly the _Amsterdammers_,
Butter, Milk, Cheese, and Salt-fish, being their common Diet.

But I have deviated from the Article I was upon, touching their Manner of
Building. I cannot conceive how ’tis possible for Houses that are so
slight to stand: And there are some that perfectly totter from Side to
Side; but I had rather see a Woman dance, than a House. A great Number of
those Houses have lately been set upright. One of those Pinacles, in Form
of a Sugar-loaf, which is at the Top of most of the old Houses, unhappily
fell down and kill’d three Persons that were passing along the Street:
Whereupon the Government, out of their great Care to prevent all such
Accidents for the future, ordered the Landlords of every House to cause
those staggering Pyramids to be pulled down: This has had two good
Effects; for People are not so liable to be knock’d o’the Head, and the
Town looks handsomer. The principal Ornament of the Houses is their
Windows, there being scarce a Country that has finer Glazing, and many of
the Houses have Windows of polish’d Plate-glass. But in some Palaces of
_Venice_ or _Genoa_, the Paintings and Gildings only of the Ceilings are
worth more than the finest House in _Amsterdam_. Yet I don’t deny but
there are Houses here, in the Rearing of which no Cost has been spar’d,
but in general they are small. There are scarce any that have above five
Windows in Front, others have four, and the greatest Part three. The Entry
is by Steps of black Marble or Stone. To the Houses of the common Size,
there’s a very narrow Entry pav’d with white Marble, with which the Walls
are often fac’d, at least to a certain Height. The Apartment consists
generally of two Rooms on a Floor, a little Court behind it, and a second
Pile of Building, which is but one Room in Depth, and has Lights towards
the Garden. At _Venice_ and _Genoa_, a Merchant (for I set the Nobles
aside) will have at least an Apartment of three or four Rooms. At
_Amsterdam_ the Furniture is neatest, and in _Italy_ the richest. Here one
shall find a curious Piece of _Flemish_ Tapestry, a Closet of Pictures,
fine Glass, a great deal of _China_ Ware, and curious Toys from the
_Indies_; the Floor shall be covered with fine _Persian_ Carpets; but you
shan’t see any Furniture of Velvet embroidered with Gold, no Lustres of
Rock-Crystal, no great Collection of Paintings, nor that Abundance of
antique Busts, Vases and Statues of Marble and Brass. In fine, to conclude
this long Parallel, I must tell you, that if the Palaces of _Italy_ were
as neat as the Houses of _Amsterdam_, there would be nothing to compare to
them; and if the Houses of _Amsterdam_ were as much neglected as those of
_Italy_, they would be of no Manner of Account.

Be a House here ever so small, there’s always some Apartment in it
uninhabited, which is the finest Part of the Building. ’Tis a Sanctuary
whereof the upper Servant Maid of the House is the grand Priestess. She
has so profound a Respect for this unfrequented Place that she never
enters it without putting off her Shoes, for fear of soiling the Floor,
which is held in so great Veneration that they pay it a Sort of Worship:
’Tis the Residence of the Houshold Gods, and one is sure of incurring the
Indignation both of the Mistress and the Maids, if one does not shew the
same Veneration to their Floor as they do. Whoever enters the House, must
first rub their Feet upon a Mat at the Door, and be sure not to spit, were
they in Danger of being choak’d, unless they find a little Basket of Sand
laid there for the Purpose; and if a Person should but happen to drop the
least Thing capable of spotting the Floor, I am not sure that the
Priestesses would not sacrifice the Delinquent to their Idol, and that we
should not see the Revival of the Story of _Orpheus_ and the _Bacchantes_.
There are however some particular Days in the Year when the Priestesses
give their Masters Leave to enter these Sanctuaries, and therein to
receive Company; but the very next Day, this Place, which in the Language
of the Country is called _Besse-Kamer_ (i. e. _the best Room_) is wash’d
and purify’d, as our Churches are after they have been profaned. I don’t
make Things a jot worse than they are in reality, and I am sure there are
some Rooms that are not opened four times in a Year, unless it be to air
the Goods. ’Tis the same with a thousand fine Things in the
_Amsterdammers_ Possession, which they don’t make use of for fear of
spoiling them: Thus they live in the midst of Abundance, and of Wealth,
without the Hearts to enjoy what they have. Nevertheless, within these few
Years past, they begin to have some Taste of Life: They give into
Equipage, Furniture, and Rural Entertainments, and their Women into Dress
and Splendor. The old Men exclaim against new Fashions, and say the
Republic is in a declining State, in which they resemble one of our
Emperors, who observing that his Master of the Horse had changed the
Cord-Traces, which had been the Fashion of his Court, into Leather Traces,
cry’d out, That _Luxury would be the Ruin of his Family, and his

The Government of _Amsterdam_ is in a Senate, consisting of sixty-three
Persons, who hold their Places for Life; and when any one dies, ’tis the
Senate that appoints his Successor: In this Body there are twelve
Burgomasters, of whom four preside annually. They chuse three out of the
twelve every Year, who with one of the four of the last Year, that
continues in Office, have the Direction of Affairs. These latter, before
they enter into their Office, are obliged to take an Oath to the senior
Burgomasters. He who is continued from one Year to the other, has the
Presidency for three Months, after which the others take it in their
Turns; and they who go out of their[103]Office, are commonly employed as
Treasurers of the City, or as Counselor-Deputies to the States of
_Holland_, residing at the _Hague_.

The Office of Burgomaster is more honourable than profitable; for ’tis
said, their Salary is only five hundred Florins _per Annum_: But their
Authority is considerable; for they are the chief Magistrates, and in some
Sort the Masters of the City. They dispose of all the public Money, and
they alone judge of what is necessary for the Safety of the Town. They are
the Guardians of the Bank, which can only be opened in the Presence of one
of ’em. They confer all Offices, and may therewith gratify whom they will,
and if they please, their own Children; so that, as in _Germany_, there
needs but a Bishop in a decay’d Family to repair its Misfortunes, so here,
if there be but a Burgomaster in a Family, ’tis enough to make ’em all

There is also in this City a Bailiff, who is called _Hoofd-Schout_, or
_Hoofd-Officier_, who is the same that is elsewhere called the Lieutenant
of the Police. He has under him three Substitutes, who are called the
_Under-Schouts_. These are they who apprehend Malefactors, which they
often do in the midst of a Mob, only accompanied with a Couple of Archers
who have no other Arms but Swords. Yet every one trembles at the Sight of
’em, and two Men carry another to Prison, with more Ease than forty
Archers can do the like at _Paris_.

The Senate meets in the Stadthouse. This Fabric, so much celebrated for
its Magnificence, and because it contains the richest Bank in the
Universe, is really a stately Edifice; and tho’ it has Defects, it may be
ranked in the Number of the finest Buildings in _Europe_. It fronts a
Square called the _Dam_, in the Centre of the City. The Building is almost
a complete Quadrangle, with Pavilions at each Angle. In the middle of the
principal Front there’s an advanced Building which takes up one third of
the whole Front. ’Tis decorated by seven Porticos, so small that they
disfigure all this great Pile of Building; which they pretend was not
owing to the Ignorance of the Architect, but to a political Cause: For at
the Time that this Stadthouse was built, the Republic was but in its
Infancy. The Populace of _Amsterdam_, a turbulent Mob, ready for any
Mischief, were then far less submissive to their Magistrates than now; and
they so often disturbed those Magistrates in their Deliberations, that the
Architect chose to make the Avenues so narrow, on purpose to prevent the
Inconveniencies of too easy an Entrance by a Crowd of People. But if this
was his true Reason for not keeping to the Rules of Architecture, three
great Porticos would have done as well as seven small ones: He might have
given them due Proportion, and the Front would have been more majestic.
But the Number Seven was the chosen Number, and it was to represent the
Seven United Provinces, to whose Union the City of _Amsterdam_ owes its
Enjoyment of Liberty and Commerce. Notwithstanding this Defect, ’tis
certain that a Foreigner, tho’ he will not offer to compare this
Stadthouse to the Palace of _Versailles_, to the Escurial, or to the
_Procuraties_ at _Venice_; and tho’ when he looks on it, he may only think
he sees a Town-house, and not the Palace of a King, or of a powerful
State, yet he cannot behold it without Admiration, especially if he does
but consider that every Material in this Building was brought from foreign

The Outside of this great Fabric is all of Free-stone, extremely well put
together; and an Order of very substantial Pilasters ranges quite round
the whole. The Part which projects from the principal Front, is terminated
by a Pediment, which is a grand Piece of Sculpture. It represents the City
of _Amsterdam_, under the Figure of _Cybele_, seated in a Chair. Four
_Naiads_, and two Sea Nymphs, present her with Crowns of Palms, and
Laurels, and Fruit, in token of the Power and Abundance which this City
receives by Commerce. On the other Side, _Neptune_, accompanied by the
_Tritons_, seems approaching to pay his Homage to the Goddess, undoubtedly
to denote the Power of this City at Sea. All this magnificent Groupe is
extremely well executed, and very much esteemed by the Connoisseurs. A
Dome at the Top of this Edifice has eight great open Arches all round,
which support the Cupola; and in this Dome there’s a Chime of Bells which
the Lovers of such noisy Music say is very good Harmony.

The first Room within is the Chamber of Justice, wherein the Criminals
receive their Sentence. It has three Porticos which open into the great
Square, from whence may be seen what passes in that Chamber. This Room is
adorned with Bas-Reliefs of white Marble, done by excellent Hands.
_Solomon_’s Judgment is there represented in such a grand Manner as is
wonderful. Beyond this Chamber is the great Stair-case, which has no
manner of Ornament, and little or no Light. It leads to the great Hall,
which is really magnificent, but not very lightsome. It is adorned with
Pilasters and Bas-Reliefs of white Marble, executed with infinite Art. The
arch’d Roof, which is of Wood, and painted with Oil, is not answerable to
the Richness of this Hall. Four great Coridors or Galleries, laid open by
great Arches on both Sides, at the two Ends of the Hall, lead to the
Apartments, and are adorned with white marble Pilasters two and two,
Flowers in Bas-Relief, and Statues of a grand Disposition; and the Emblems
with which the Gates are adorned, are all very suitable to the Business
that is transacted in the Chamber to which they open.

I shall not undertake to give you the Particulars of all these Rooms, not
only because it would carry me too far, but because I observed nothing in
them, except some Paintings, that is worth your Notice. The Arsenal takes
up one intire Floor over these Chambers, but is only considerable for the
prodigious Quantity of Arms of the modern Fashion, especially Muskets,
which are the Manufacture of this City, and a Part of its Commerce.

The ground Floor is very low, but consists of fine great Arches. Here are
contained the Offices of the Bank, and the Prisons, from which no body
ever yet escaped, and it is humanly impossible they should; for besides
that the Walls are very thick, the whole is strongly barricaded both
within and without, by iron Bars, the very Appearance of which is
frightful. But if ’tis possible for Prisons to be agreeable, these would
certainly be such, for they are all lightsome; the Prisoners are not so
ill used as they are elsewhere, but are allowed proper Nourishment, and
not suffered to Wallow in their Nastiness.

The Stadthouse is the Place where all Persons are married, who are not of
the Religion that prevails in the Country. This is a Ceremony that may be
seen every _Sunday_, and is performed in the Presence of two Echevins, and
a Secretary. The People that are to be married, go into a Room where the
Magistrates are seated at a Table, and there they are entered one after
the other without Distinction of Rank, into the Register of Marriages;
after which they go Home with the Satisfaction of having been as well
married as if the Ceremony had been performed by the Pope himself; nor are
they under the least Necessity of having recourse to the Church.
Nevertheless, all the regular People go to some Priest or Minister to
receive the nuptial Benediction.

The Treasure of the Bank is kept in a Place under Ground, which extends,
as I am assured, a great Way under the Square of the _Dam_.

Every body agrees that it is immense, but nobody knows exactly of how many
thousand Millions it consists; and it is a Question, whether its Credit be
not infinitely greater than its Cash; it being certain that the Public has
such a Confidence in it that every body puts their Money into it, though
without any Interest for it: On the contrary, it costs One hundred and
five Florins ready Cash, to have One hundred Florins Bank. The largest
Payments are commonly made in Bank Notes: A certain Sum is registered in
the Bank Books, which is transferred, either in whole, or in Part, to the
Person to whom the Payment is to be made, This is called _The Keeping an
Account at the Bank_. It was a Correspondence of this Nature which the
famous _John Law_ would fain have establish’d at _Paris_; and he would
certainly have succeeded, if he had had but the Fund of the Bank of
_Amsterdam_, and the public Confidence.

They say that the Revenues of this City amount to fifty thousand Livres a
Day, which I am apt to believe is true; for really the Taxes here are very
considerable, the Subjects of this State paying more than those of any
Crown whatsoever: All the Difference consists in the Distribution of the
Taxes, and the Manner of raising them: Here they are laid equally upon the
Rich and upon the poor, upon Citizens and upon Foreigners.

The Liberty so much boasted of in these Provinces, is no more than that
which the good People of other Countries enjoy; nevertheless, I must
except Religion, which every one here may adapt to his own Fancy. The
Liberty therefore consists only in the Equality of Conditions: But for a
Boor to presume to be saucy to a Burgher, to despise the Nobility, to
censure his Masters with Impunity, and to treat all Kings as Tyrants,
seems to me to be a Liberty which favours very much of Libertinism. The
_Germans_ and the _French_, who are not used to such Licentiousness in
their own Country, easily fall into it here; and ’tis really a Wonder to
hear them in a Coffee-house talking of Sovereigns, especially when,
inspir’d with a Holy Zeal, they plead for the Religion, which, say they,
is every-where oppressed, except in the Dominions of the Calvinists. They
think every Government tyrannical, which does not allow intire Liberty of
Conscience. ’Tis true that in this Country every one believes as he
pleases: And here are Religions of every Kind, which nevertheless tend to
one and the same Centre, _viz._ the acquiring of Riches, and the
tormenting both of Body and Soul, to get an Estate, not to enjoy it, but
to have the Pleasure of dying rich. Money, the Darling and the Idol of the
whole World, is so adored in this City, that it stands in the stead of
Birth, Wit, and Merit. A Man who has but a small Share of the Favours of
Fortune, is neglected almost every-where; but here he is despised.

Next to those of the prevailing Religion, the Catholics, among whom I
include the Jansenists, are the most numerous: I have been told, they are
above twenty thousand. They have fourteen Churches, served by different
Orders of Friers, who as they die, the States have declared, shall be
succeeded hereafter by none but the secular Priests who are Natives of the
Country. They say, that this Resolution was taken, because the Monks sent
the Money which they received for the Poor, to their Convent. What Ground
there is for this Charge, I know not; but be it as it will, who can be
sure that the Priests will not employ the Poors Money to enrich their own
Families? The Catholics form a considerable Body in this State, both for
their Number and their Wealth. It may be said that they are with the
_Jews_ (forgive me the Parallel) one of the chief Supports of its
Commerce; for as they cannot hold Offices, they are Merchants from Father
to Son; tho’ ’tis true, that among the Protestants who are in Offices,
there are some who trade.

What I have now said to you of our Clergy, engages me to give you some
Account of two Calvinist Preachers here, who are very much esteemed, and
mightily followed by those of their Communion. The one is M. _Alstein_, a
_German_ Minister, who preaches in the Church called the _Chapel_, a Man
of exemplary Morals, who avoiding angry Disputes and bitter Invectives,
preaches truly Christian Morality, which reaches to the Heart. He was
Minister of the Garison of _Potsdam_, in the Dominions of _Prussia_, when
he was called hither by the _German_ Colony established in this City. He
is belov’d and esteemed for his Modesty, Good-nature and Candour. This
Testimony which I pay him of the Veneration and Esteem I have for him, is
perfectly agreeable with the Character given of him by the Voice of the

The second Preacher is M. _Châtelain_ a _French_ Minister, with whom I
have no Acquaintance; but he has a very great Character, and I have heard
him preach. It were to be wish’d, that all the Clergy (our Priests will
suffer me not to forget them) had it as much at Heart as this Minister
has, to instruct their Audiences; and that they would preach Morality,
which is the Life of all Religions, because it is founded upon Piety and
Virtue. M. _Châtelain_ was Minister at the _Hague_, when he was called to
this City, where he has the Pleasure of being as much esteem’d and
follow’d by his Flock, as he was by that which he left.

I have many other Things to acquaint you with, but upon my Word, I can
write no more at present, my Pen falling out of my Hand. I shall resume it
however against next Post, not so much to tell you of _Amsterdam_, as to
assure you that no body can be more intirely yours, than I am, &c.


                               LETTER LI.

  _SIR_,                                    _Amsterdam, Dec. 7, 1732._

Since the Weather is set in for Frost, I keep my Station upon the Ice, to
see the People slide upon Skates; a favourite Exercise of the _Dutch_, in
which they acquit themselves with marvellous Dexterity. These Skates are a
very little smooth Piece of Wood, like a Weaver’s Shuttle, except that the
Part on which the Heel and the Sole of the Shoe rest most, is a little
broader. The Remainder of it is slender and crooked at the End, that the
Iron which is underneath may the better cleave the Snow, and that they may
with the more Ease surmount the Obstacles and little Hillocks in the Ice,
over which they pass with great Rapidity, but not without Danger of
breaking their Legs or Arms, and often of being drowned. The _Dutch_ are
less exposed to these Inconveniencies than others, because they are most
expert in the Art; for they learn to skate when they can scarce go alone.
This is rather the Diversion of the common People, and of the lusty young
Fellows, than of the Gentry, or of Men full-grown. These go in Sleds,
after the Manner of our Country, which is what they call here _Narren_;
_i. e._ to play the Fool: And indeed, to consider it duly, I think ’tis a
right Name for it.

The Place where I take the Air, is upon the River of _Amstel_, without the
Gate of _Utrecht_, where I see several Thousands of People scudding along
upon Skates, so fast that they seem to fly. If one of these Skaters was to
be seen in _Swisserland_, I know not whether he would not suffer the Fate
of _Brioche_, the Puppet-Show Man, whom the People of those Cantons burned
for a Conjurer.

These Skaters are a great Relief to me; for to tell you a Secret, I am
quite sick of this City, which really is not a Place for a Man to live in,
that is not concerned in Trade; and a Foreigner especially, knows not how
to bestow himself. He can find nowhere to go but to some sorry
Coffee-house, or melancholy Walk. In the one he is sure to be _incens’d_
with Tobacco, and stunned with wretched Commentaries upon News-Papers or
the Price of Pepper and Ginger; in the other he is as solitary as a
Hermit. Their Comedies are but a poor Relief to such as don’t understand
_Dutch_, which besides is a Language that I think is not very fit for the
Stage, any more than ours. I thought the Actors pitiful, and the Habits
trifling; but the Decorations are fine, and the Theatre spacious and
magnificent. I can’t imagine why the Magistrates will not let _French_
Comedies be acted in their City, where I think they would do more Good
than Harm; for they would help to polish the Youth, and would undoubtedly
keep them from that Temptation to Debauchery, to which Idleness, and the
Difficulty of knowing where to spend the Evenings, naturally incline them.
I heard _d’Argenson_, the late Keeper of the Seals say, he had observed,
while he was Lieutenant of the Police at _Paris_, that there were more
Disorders and Debaucheries committed in that City, during the Fortnight at
_Easter_, when the Theatres were shut up, than were committed in four
Months, while all Shows were kept open. I doubt not but it would be the
same at _Amsterdam_, where there is a numerous Youth, for whom the Parents
are blindly complaisant, and ready to kill the fatted Calf; so that being
left to their own Devices, and having in general but few Maxims of
Education, they run with the Stream of their Passions into all
Extravagancies. These young Fellows, who prefer the Exercise of driving a
Chaise before all others, set up in the mean Time for fine Gentlemen; but
how well they perform their Part, I leave you to think.

The Assemblies, or Societies, as they are here called, have nothing that
is engaging. You see very fine Faces there, but not a Tongue moves, at
least to a Foreigner, the very Sight of whom seems to frighten them. Here
they drink Tea, or play a Game at Ombre, or Quadrille, and afterwards go
in quest of a Supper.

Those Societies, or Clubs, where there are no Ladies, are still worse. In
these they smoke and drink in Abundance, talk of Trade or Politicks; and
at such Times, woe be to those Powers that have forbid the Importation of
_Dutch_ Toys into their Dominions. The only Remedy here against Chagrin,
is Reading, of which a Man may have his Heartful; for _Amsterdam_ is not
only the Centre of the Bookselling Trade, but here are Book-sellers, that
are very ready to lend Books to such, who, like myself, cannot be at the
Charge of a Library. I divide my Time between Reading, the Coffee-house,
and taking the Air, the latter of which I use very moderately, one being
obliged to go so far for it, that I think of it at least four times before
I set out. The Canals, such as the _Heers-Gracht_, and the
_Keizers-Gracht_, are pleasant Walks in the Town, because they are planted
with Trees; but they are indifferently paved. Upon these two Canals, live
Persons of the greatest Distinction, or rather those of the greatest
Wealth in the City.

One of the finest Walks in it is the Bridge, which joins the Rampart from
one Side of the _Amstel_ to the other. ’Tis six hundred and fifty Feet in
Length, and seventy in Breadth; and here one enjoys an admirable Prospect,
which is the only one perhaps that can be compared with the View from
_Pont-Royal_ at _Paris_.

The Admiralty, with its Precinct, forms a little Town. ’Tis one of the
Arsenals of the _Dutch_ Navy. Here one actually sees Seventy Men of War,
and Materials for building a much greater Number. With the Leave of the
_Venetians_, their Arsenal, so much boasted, is by no means comparable to
this, with regard to Naval Stores.

The Admiralty Office is so near the _India_ Company’s Warehouse, that I am
tempted to give you some Account of a House which contains such a
Treasure. ’Tis a very great Structure of several Stories, distributed into
divers Chambers, or Rooms, where there is a prodigious Quantity of all
manner of Spices, of which the most common Sorts lie in Heaps as Corn does
in our Granaries. There are also a great many other Things of Value; and
in a Word, every Thing, be it ever so precious, that comes from the
_Indies_. After I had walked about an Hour in this Warehouse, I was, as it
were, embalmed with the Odour of all the different Spices, which made my
Head ake exceedingly, or else I should have thought myself metamorphosed
into a Mummy; but jesting apart, I fancy that were a Carcase to be
deposited in this House, it would be free from Corruption. The _India_
Company is properly a Republick, within the Republic itself. It arms,
disarms, raises and disbands Officers and Soldiers, without being
accomptable to the State. It maintains a Governor in the _Indies_, who
lives there with more Pomp and Grandeur than his Masters do here. As a
_Neapolitan_ Lady at _Madrid_ wish’d _Philip_ IV. _that he might one Day
be Viceroy of_ Naples, so it might be said to a Director of the
_East-India_ Company, _I wish you may be one Day Governor of_ Batavia.

I don’t give you an Account of the Houses of Correction, nor of the
Hospitals, of which here are a great Number well founded, and well
maintained, because I have an extraordinary Antipathy to Prisons, and
dread the very Name of an Hospital, to which however I perceive that I am
making great Strides; but it will be Time enough for me to give you an
Account of those Mansions, when I have fixed my Quarters there. A
Description of a Synagogue would not, I believe, be material to you;
therefore I shall only acquaint you, that here are two, one for the
_Portuguese_ Jews, which is very fine, the other for the _German_ Jews.
They are both Jews alike, but differ in their Taste and Sentiments. The
_Portuguese_ Jews are the handsomest of the two, for they shave their
Beards, and some of them are very genteel. I was shew’d one the other Day,
who was a smart young Fellow, and might, have cut a Figure among the
Petits-Maîtres. I was told, that he had been educated in our Religion, and
that he seemed to be fond of it; but being at _Paris_, in the Retinue of
M. ***, Ambassador of ***, he ran away from that Minister’s Service, and
came to _Amsterdam_, where he turned as staunch a Jew as if he had never
heard the Name of Jesus Christ.

Near the Jews Quarter there is the Garden of Simples. I am not Botanist
enough to tell you what Plants it contains; but have been assured, that
’tis one of the finest in _Europe_ for foreign Plants, which, considering
the great Trade that is carried on by the _Dutch_, is not improbable.

When I have told you, that the public Walk, which they call _The
Plantation_, is near this Garden, and that it consists of several fine
Rows of Trees, one of which is cut out in the Shape of a Fan, I shall
think that I have not omitted giving you the minutest of my Remarks on the
Inside of _Amsterdam_.

The Suburbs of this great City, in which ’tis said there are about five
hundred thousand Souls (as many as are in _Naples_) are extremely
populous. There are above eight hundred Windmills continually at Work, in
grinding Corn, or sawing of Timber. On the other Side of the Harbour,
there are several Villages, of which _Sardam_ is the most considerable,
not only for its Size, in which it surpasses many Towns, but for the
Wealth of its Inhabitants, who are called Peasants, and pretend to be
nothing else, tho’ I can’t imagine why; for they trade and make a Figure
here upon the Exchange, like the most substantial Merchants, and don’t
apply themselves to Agriculture. I have been told, that there are above a
thousand Windmills at _Sardam_, always employed in sawing of Timber; which
would have been a rare Field for _Don Quixot_ to have display’d his
Valour. That Neatness of which the _Dutch_ are so fond, is cultivated to
the greatest Nicety in this Village; and the _Amsterdammers_ themselves
cannot but own and admire it.

The Peasants of _Sardam_ dress more like the Citizens of _Amsterdam_ than
those of the other Villages in these Parts do, whose Apparel is of a very
extraordinary Fashion. They wear monstrous large Trowsers, wide enough to
make some People a whole Suit. Under this Trowser there is another Pair of
Breeches, and perhaps a third, or else a Pair of Drawers; and to the two
Pair of Breeches which are in Sight, they have solid Plate Buttons bigger
than a Crown piece, They also wear four or five Waistcoats, one over the
other, which are set so thick with silver Buttons that they perfectly
touch one another. Over all this Cloathing they have a dark-colour’d
Surtout or Doublet, which keeps them extremely tight downward, and
therefore all their Waistcoats ride up, so that they seem to have Breasts
like Women. Their Shoes are Seamen-like, or, with Reverence be it spoken,
such as are now worn by the _French_ Petits Maitres. They have also silver
Buckles, but so large that they are fitter for the Harness of Horses than
for Shoes. I assure you, that if the _Romans_ had been dressed like these
Peasants, the _Carthaginians_ would have taken a richer Booty in silver
Buttons than they did at the Battle of _Cannæ_, when they took that Heap
of _Roman_ Rings. The Women also wear a small Equipage of Gold and Silver.
They have gold Ear-pendants, a Bodkin of the same which fastens their
Caps, Chains about their Necks, in Form of Pearl Necklaces, great Rings,
and in all this there’s no Expence grudged.

The _Sardamers_ are so very much wedded to their ancient Habit, that a
Father once refused to own his Son, because having been for some Years in
_France_, he came to wait on him upon the Exchange of _Amsterdam_, in a
Suit of Cloaths bedawb’d with gold Lace. Young _Calf_, which was the
Peasant’s Name, arriving at _Amsterdam_ about Change-Time, went thither,
supposing he should find his Father there, in which he was not mistaken,
and he ran to embrace him; but the Father pushing him away, ask’d him what
he wanted, and told him that he did not think he had the Honour to be
known to him, and that probably he was mistaken in his Man. The Son’s
calling him Father, signify’d nothing. Old _Calf_ being inexorable,
interrupted him, saying, _I your Father! I have but one Son, who is such a
Peasant as I am, and not a Lord, as you seem to be_. The young Fellow
perceived that his Father took Umbrage as his Dress; therefore he went to
a public House, sent for Cloaths after the _Sardam_ Mode, and having thus
equipped himself, went upon the Exchange next Day, where his Father
received him with all the Tokens of the most endearing Tenderness. After
that Day, young _Calf_, who went in _France_ by the Name of _de Veau_
(which is the Signification of his Name translated into _French_) always
continued to dress in this Manner. This gave Occasion some Years ago to a
very pleasant Adventure: A _Frenchman_ who had known M. _Calf_ at _Paris_
by the Name of _de Veau_, coming to _Amsterdam_, inquired every-where for
M. _de Veau_, who he said was a very rich Nobleman, of high Rank, as he
guessed by his Train of Attendants. It was a long Time before he could
hear any Tidings of him, because few People knew that young _Calf_ had
frenchified his Name in foreign Countries. At length a _Frenchman_, who
was settled at _Amsterdam_, offered the _Parisian_ to find out his Friend
for him. For this Purpose he carried him to the Exchange; and pointing to
M. _Calf_, _Stop_, said he to him, _there’s the Man you are looking for_.
The _Frenchman_, who did not know M. _de Veau_ in his Country Garb,
thought that his Guide bantered him. _Parbleu Mons._ said he, _I told you
plain enough, that the Person I want is a Nobleman, and not a Peasant_. M.
_Calf_ hearing the Foreigner speak, and knowing him at first Sight, went
up to him, and welcomed him upon his Arrival in _Holland_. The _Frenchman_
knew him instantly by his Voice, but thought himself in a Trance, because
he could not imagine how ’twas possible for a Person whom he had known a
Nobleman in _France_, to be a Peasant in _Holland_. M. _Calf_ explained
the Mystery of it to him however, as far as was convenient, considering
the Place where they were, and desired his Company to _Sardam_. The
_Frenchman_ went accordingly, and when he came thither, ’twas a fresh
Matter of Surprise to him to see the Peasant had the House and Furniture
of a Nobleman. M. _Calf_ shew’d him, that tho’ he had laid aside the Garb,
he had not renounced the Politeness of the _French_, entertained him with
good Chear for several Days, and then sent him back highly delighted to

The Village of _Sardam_ being in North _Holland_, I cannot avoid giving
you some Account of this Nook of that Province. Here is a perfect
Miscellany of Meadows, Canals, Country Houses, Gardens, great Villages,
and good Towns, an Uniformity of Beauties, which is only disagreeable by
being continued. He that sees one Town or House, sees all, and so of the
rest. The principal Towns of this Canton are _Horne_, _Alcmaer_, and
_Enckbuysen_, which are all built with the same Neatness, but have nothing
of Magnificence belonging to them, except it be the Walks at their Gates.
All these Places are so deserted, that it would take up the _Emigrants_ of
three or four Bishopricks to people them. Their Trade decays, _Amsterdam_
being the Loadstone that draws all to it. This Part of the Province of
_Holland_ is very much infested with Worms which eat into the very Stakes
pf the Dykes. The People are in Hopes that the Frost will kill them, and
put an End to a Calamity which is one of the worst that can befal this
Country. It is not certain how these Insects breed, nor whether it be in
the Sea, or in the Timber itself: One would imagine from some little
external Specks of the infested Stakes, these Worms must breed in the Sea,
and from thence make their Way into the Wood, no bigger than Needles,
after which they grow as big as the Silkworm, and gnaw the Inside of the
Timber, in such a Manner that it looks like a Honeycomb. The Spoil they
make is said to be in those Parts only of the Stake which are under Water.
The Damage they have done to the Dykes is very considerable, and has so
very much alarmed the States, that they have prohibited Plays, &c. at the
_Hague_, and ordered public Prayers. A great many People pretend that this
Province was visited by such a Scourge fifty or sixty Years ago, and that
it was delivered from it by a Sort of Fish, that have never been seen
since, which devoured all those Worms. Others treat this as a Fable, and
say, that such Insects were never known, much less the Fish by which they
were devoured. Be this as it will, several Treatises will shortly be
published, to shew the Origin, Nature and Progress of the present Species
of Worms. If I am not mistaken, these Books will point out the Method, and
the Remedies proper for destroying them; and if any of ’em are printed
before I depart this Country, I will not fail to send them to you.

For the rest, I cannot say that I have had any other Satisfaction in my
Tour to North _Holland_ than the Gratification of Sight; for Company does
not seem to be the Taste of the Country. I never stirred out but every
body took me for a very odd kind of a Man: Yet I am no Petit-Maître; nor
is there any Thing uncommon in my Make. The Sex in this out-of-the-way
Country is very handsome, and here are Country Lasses who have a delicate
Complexion, not inferior to the finest Ladies. These Sylvan Beauties are
generally fair, and have such a languishing Look, that I guess they would
not prove unkind to any young Faun that courted them. For my own Part, who
am too far advanced in Years to attempt an Intrigue with ’em, I content
myself with admiring these beautiful Nymphs, whose Favours would perhaps
rather mortify than gratify me, and which in either Case, I should not
prefer to the Honour of your Friendship; a Thing to me of Price
inestimable. Of this I beg the Continuance, and flatter myself, that I
deserve it by the Attachment with which I am, _&c._


                              LETTER LII.

  _SIR_,                                 _Helvoetsluys, Feb. 2, 1733._

Being detained in this Port by Winds that have for these six Days
obstinately opposed my Passage to _England_, without any Prospect of their
changing, I am at full Leisure to inform you of such Things as I have seen
since the last Letter that I had the Honour to write to you from

I was carried from that City in the Boat in less than three Hours to
HARLEM, the second of those Towns that have a Right to send Deputies to
the Assembly of the States of the Province. It was for a long Time the
Rival of _Amsterdam_, and actually at War with it, but could not hinder
its Aggrandisement. While those Provinces fought for their Liberty,
_Harlem_ was besieged, taken and plunder’d by the _Spaniards_, against
whom the very Women bore Arms. In 1559, Pope _Paul_ IV. erected this Town
into a Bishoprick, but it never had more than two Bishops. The Splendor of
it is owing to its Manufactures, which consist of Silk-Stuffs, Cambrics,
strip’d Dimities, and Thread Stockings. Its Whitsters also bring a great
Revenue to this Town. The Florists cannot fail of being agreeably amused
here, by reason of Flowers of such Beauty, that I have been assured a
Tulip-Root has been sold there for fourteen hundred Florins. But the
greatest Honour of _Harlem_ is to have given Birth to _Laurence Coster_,
the Inventor of Printing. I am not ignorant that _Mentz_ disputes with
_Harlem_ for the Honour of that Invention, but this being a Controversy
which ’tis none of my Province to determine, I sincerely believe, when I
am at _Harlem_, that _Coster_ is the Inventor of this wonderful Art,
provided I may be at Liberty to believe the contrary when I am at _Mentz_,
and to be uncertain of the Matter everywhere else. _Coster_’s House is to
be seen here with the following Inscription placed Over the Gate, which
denotes, that _Printing_, the BEST ART for perpetuating the other Arts,
was first invented here about _Anno_ 1440.

                            MEMORIÆ SACRUM.
                           ARS ARTIUM OPTIMA,
                           HIC PRIMUM INVENTA
                          CIRCA ANNUM MCCCCXL.

In order to reconcile the two Towns, I believe it might be granted, that
_Coster_ invented the Art of Cutting in Wood, which was formerly made use
of, and that _John Faustus_ of _Mentz_ invented the Characters of Metal,
that are used now. By this Means the two Parties will have equal Share in
the Glory of the Invention, which after all is disputed with them by the
_Chinese_, who prove that the Art of Printing was known to them two
thousand Years ago.

As I walked about in _Harlem_, my Guide bid me look at certain Cambrick
Cockades trimm’d with Lace, which were tied to some of the Doors. He told
me, that this was to shew that the Woman of the House was in Childbed;
which procures the Husband a Protection, so that he cannot be arrested
during six Weeks that his Wife is supposed to lye-in. What was the
Occasion of the Grant of this Privilege, I could not learn, nor by what
Prince it was granted.

The Walks of _Harlem_, especially that in the Wood, which is at the Gates
or the Town, would be charming, if they were not so sandy. On the other
Hand, the Canal which leads from this Town to _Leyden_, is one of the most
disagreeable in the Province, there being scarce any Thing upon its Banks
but Meadows and Downs.

LEYDEN is one of the largest and finest Cities in the Country. It has been
subject, as all sublunary Things are, to great Revolutions and
Misfortunes. The _Spaniards_ besieged it in 1573, and as they despaired of
taking it by Force, they intended to reduce it by Famine. The Inhabitants
were drove to the utmost Misery, till they pierced the Dykes of the
_Maese_, and the _Issel_, by which Means all the great Meadows about
_Leyden_ became a perfect Sea of Water, and the _Spaniards_, in Danger of
perishing, raised the Siege: And the 3d of _October_ is annually observed
with Rejoicings in Memory of the Deliverance of the Town upon that Day of
the Month.

The great Church, dedicated to St. _Peter_, is one of the finest
Structures in _Holland_. The Roof is supported by three Rows of tall
Pillars. All the other Buildings are neat, the Streets broad and airy,
and a great many have Canals. ’Tis pity but this Town had a greater Number
of Inhabitants, who had Estates to live upon; for it swarms with the
meaner Sort of People, all Carders of Wool, or Makers of Cloth, who are
not very well to pass, the Manufactures being very much decay’d, since the
Importation of Cloth from _Holland_ has been prohibited by some of its
neighbouring States.

The University seems to be in a more thriving Way. There are actually
three great Men for Professors, _Vitriarius_ for the Civil Law,
_Boerhaave_ for Physic, and _s’Gravesande_ for the Mathematics. The first
is a Gentleman of so much Learning, and has so happy a Way of expressing
himself, that he draws all the young Nobility of _Bohemia_ and _Austria_
to _Leyden_. Of all the Protestant Universities, those of _England_
excepted, I know of none where the Students are more regular and retir’d
than they are at _Leyden_: Nor is there any Place more proper for
Students, who are at the Fountain of Literature, and may live here how
they please, without being obliged to Profusion: For the Students here
don’t value themselves upon the Richness of their Cloaths, as they do in
_Germany_; and many of them seldom put off their Morning Gowns, which is
also the favourite Dress of the Burghers; so that the first time I came
thro’ this City, I really thought there had been some epidemical Disease
in it: For all the People appearing in the Streets in an Undress, look
like so many Patients. The famous Chamber of Anatomy has been so much
describ’d, that I forbear to speak of it. The Catholics have Churches
here, up one Pair of Stairs, as they have in all the Towns of the Seven
Provinces. Some of these are very rich, and of good Families.

The Passage from _Leyden_ to the _Hague_, whether by Land, or by the
Canal, is equally pleasant, on account of the beautiful Country-Seats, and
fine Gardens, that are to be seen, which way soever you look; so that
these three Leagues seem as nothing at all.

The HAGUE, which is called a Village, because ’tis not inclosed, and sends
no Deputies to the Assembly of the States of the Province, is nevertheless
a better Place than many great Cities which have that Privilege, and is
certainly one of the finest in _Europe_. The States General, as well as
those of this Province, assemble here, and ’tis the Place of Residence for
the foreign Ministers. Heretofore the Counts of _Holland_ lived here.
Since the Establishment of the Republic, the Stadtholders have kept their
Court here; and the _Hague_, as much a Village as it is, may be reckoned
for the Capital of the whole United Provinces. The Inhabitants are more
genteel, more sociable, and in every respect more conversable than in the
other Parts of _Holland_. The Nobility here are esteemed, and Merit does
not go for nothing. The Ladies have a good Air, and dress well, and have
something more engaging than mere Beauty.

The Houses are more spacious and better built, tho’ perhaps not so
magnificent as those at _Amsterdam_; and here are some Palaces with

The Palace which they call _the Court_, was anciently the Residence of its
Sovereigns, and afterwards of the Stadtholders. This is a great Fabric,
consisting of several Structures, which form a very irregular Tower. There
meet the States General, the Council of State, the States of _Holland_,
the Council of Nobles, and that of the _Gecommitteer de Raden_, or Deputy
Counsellors of the Province. Their High Mightinesses hold their
Conferences in two large magnificent Rooms, one of which is called the
_Chamber of the Truce_, because the Truce for twelve Years was there
concluded with _Spain_. ’Tis in this Chamber that the States give Audience
to the Foreign Ministers. There is also another great Room in the Palace,
in which are hung up all the Colours and Standards taken from the Enemies
of the Republic. Adjoining to the Court, is the Palace or Hotel for
lodging the Ambassadors during the three Days that the State defrays their
Expence. It was built by Prince _Maurice_ of _Nassau_, after he returned
from his Government at _Brasil_, and he adorned it with all the Rarities
that are the Production of the _Indies_. But all these Things, as well as
the Palace, were consumed by the Flames in 1707, on the very Day that the
Duke of _Marlborough_ set out for the Army. Nevertheless, as only the
Timber Work was burnt, some private Persons who had a Mortgage upon this
House, afterwards caused it to be rebuilt as it now stands, which tho’
’tis not very large, yet makes a good Appearance.

The Palace of the _Old Court_ belonging to the King of _Prussia_, because
it fell to _Frederic_ I. by Inheritance from King _William_ III. is a
large Pile of Building, at the Bottom of a Court, formed by two advanced
Wings, which are supported by high Arches, and joined together by an Iron
Balustrade, which separates the Court from the Street. The Apartments are
large and commodious, and there’s a very fine Hall, adorned with Paintings
by good Hands. To this Palace there is a large Garden, which was very much
embellished by the late King of _Prussia_, who gave Leave for all People
of Fashion to see it; but ’tis now neglected. The King’s Minister, and
the[104] Count _de Hompesch_, General of the States Cavalry, have
Lodgings there. I could name several other Houses of Consequence to you,
which I pass over in Silence, for fear of swelling my Letter with Things
that are needless.

The Situation of the _Hague_ is very different from that of the other
Towns of this Province, and in its Neighbourhood there’s every Thing that
forms a fine Landskip. Every Inlet into the Place is by fine Avenues paved
With Bricks. There is not a better Road than that which leads to
_Scheveling_, a Village on the Sea Shore, a League from the _Hague_. ’Tis
a strait Walk cut out of the Downs, and inclosed by double Rows of Trees
interspersed with Pyramids of Yews. The _Delft_ Road, and that which leads
to _Loosduinen_, one or two Leagues from the _Hague_, are also very
beautiful. In short, go which Way one will, we always find charming Walks,
and even within the Town there are some that are very agreeable. That
called the _Voorbout_ is the most frequented, it being the Ring for the
Coaches. There’s a great Walk in the Middle, well gravelled and railed in,
where in all the Summer Evenings there’s very fine Company. ’Twas
_Charles_ V. that embellished the _Hague_ with this Walk. It has
occasioned several Disputes between Ambassadors about Precedence; but the
most remarkable that ever happened was that between M. _de Thou_, the
_French_ Ambassador, and M. _de Gamarre_, the Ambassador of _Spain_. These
two Ministers were taking the Air, each in his Coach and Six, when they
met full Butt, and neither would give Way, so that their Domestics were
just going to Boxing; when some Gentlemen of the Assembly of the States,
who saw what gave Occasion to the Dispute, offered the Ambassadors their
Mediation, and proposed to both of ’em to return back at that very Instant
by the same Way they came. M. _de Gamarre_ was very ready to comply with
any Proposal; but M. _de Thou_ refused every one, and would by no means
admit of an Equality betwixt himself and the Ambassador of _Spain_. The
Gentlemen of the Assembly of the States being by this Time reinforced by
several others, all equally desirous to pacify the Disputants, M. _de
Beverwert_, the first of the Nobles of the Province of _Holland_, after
having spent no less than four Hours in Debates and Conferences to no
purpose, seeing M. _de Thou_ obstinately bent in demanding a free Passage,
proposed at last to M. _de Gamarre_, to drive off across the Ring; and for
doing this with the better Grace, he offered that there should be two
Openings made in the Ring; by which Means, said he, his Excellency would
have the Rail opened to him, and the Honour of the Right-hand. The
_Spanish_ Ambassador accepted of the Proposal, and thereby ended the
Dispute; which, had it not been for the Wisdom and Care of the States,
might have been attended with fatal Consequences. Both Parties pleased
themselves with the Fancy, that they had gained _the vain Honours of
Precedency_; a trifling Advantage indeed, tho’ in short, if there were any
Advantage to boast of, it was with the Ambassador of _France_, because he
obtained the Liberty of his Passage, which was all he demanded; and he
finished his Carrier, while the _Spaniard_ returned home, perhaps because
they had disputed so long till Night overtook them.

The _French_, who were always very jealous of Precedency, have had the
most Disputes about this Matter. The Count _d’Estrades_, the Embassador of
_Lewis_ XIV. had one in this same _Voorbout_, with the Prince of _Orange_,
afterwards King of _Great Britain_. Their Coaches happened to meet, and
each of ’em aiming at the Post of Honour, they stopped over-against one
another. The Ambassador’s Servants ran from his Lodgings, and were joined
by all his Friends; but he forbad them to proceed to Violence, for fear of
the Misfortune which would infallibly have happened, and would have been
very great, by reason of the Concourse of People that flock’d together for
the Prince. The Pensionary, being informed of it, hastened to the Spot, to
prevent any Disorder; and the Ambassador, seeing him coming, said to him,
_I know not what the Prince’s People mean; I was ignorant till now, that
the High and Mighty States had a Sovereign_ (implying that the Ambassadors
only give Way to Sovereigns). He sent at the same Time to the Princess
Dowager of _Orange_, to know whether the Prince’s Governor was not more to
blame for this Misconduct, than the Prince himself? She answered, That
’twas the King of _England_’s Business to concern himself in the Affair;
for she imagin’d, that his _Britannic_ Majesty was bound in Interest to
support the Dignity of his Nephew’s Rank. Nevertheless, she follow’d the
Advice of the Pensionary, and went into the Walk that was between the
Rails. The Prince her Son alighted to shew his Respect for her, and made
his Coach turn about, so that the Ambassador’s passed into the Rank which
he claimed to be due to him. This Minister pretended, that the Prince’s
Ancestors never had Precedence of the Ambassadors; that on the contrary,
they went a League from the _Hague_ to receive them, on the Part of the
States; insomuch that _Frederic-Henry_ the Prince’s Grandfather, tho’ upon
Pretence of the Gout he excused himself from the Ceremony, yet he did not
take the first Place. _Charles_ II. might perhaps murmur at it; but being
sold to _France_, he did not stand up for his Nephew’s interests.

Since I am upon the Article of Ambassadors, I will now give an Account of
such Foreign Ministers as reside at the _Hague_.

M. _de Fenelon_, Brigadier of the _French_ King’s Armies, is his most
Christian Majesty’s Ambassador to the States General. This Minister is
Nephew to the Great _Fenelon_, Archbishop of _Cambray_. He is esteemed for
his Modesty, his Candour, and for the Order he keeps in his Family. His
Expence is not very considerable, and appears much less than it is to the
Inhabitants of the _Hague_, who have not forgot what was spent among them
by my Lord _Chesterfield_, Ambassador from _Great Britain_, one of the
most sumptuous Noblemen in _England_, who was perfectly adored by the
common People, and whose Absence is regretted by all Persons of

The Count _de Sinzendorff_, the Emperor’s Plenipotentiary, has a great
Estate in the Hereditary Dominions. He is Son-in-Law to the Great
_Sinzendorff_, Chancellor of the Imperial Court, which is the Reason that
he began very young to display his Talents for Business. He has been so
successful as to re-establish the good Harmony between the Republic and
the Emperor, which was violated by the Establishment of the _Ostend_
Company, and to get the _Pragmatic Sanction_ guaranteed by their[105] High

The Count _de Golofskin_ is Plenipotentiary Minister of _Russia_, which
Employment he fills with the general Approbation of all that know him. He
is as civil and courteous as the Climate in which he was born is sharp. He
passed his Youth at _Berlin_, and performed his Exercises at the Academy
founded by the late King _Frederic_ I. He was afterwards several Years
Envoy Extraordinary from the late Czar _Peter the Great_, and from the
late Empress _Catharine_ to the Court of _Prussia_; from which Court the
present Empress _Anne_ sent him in Quality of her Ambassador to that of
_France_: And now he has the Management of his Sovereign’s Affairs with
the States General. He is esteemed for his Sagacity and good Nature. While
he resided at _Berlin_, he there married the Daughter of the late Count
_Ferassier de Dhona_, who unhappily lost his Life in the Affair of
_Denain_, where he acted as Lieutenant-General of the Infantry in the
Service of the States. She is a Lady whose Virtue commands Respect, and
she has the most charming Family that is to be seen.

M. _de Masch_, Envoy from the King of _Prussia_, is a very fit Person to
manage the Interests of the King his Master in this Country, where a
Minister ought to be civil and popular. The late King appointed him
Governor to the Princes of _Brandenbourg Culmbach_, the eldest of whom is
actually the Prince Regent of _Bareith_. M. _de Masch_ has inspired those
Princes with such Sentiments as do him Honour. He was a Privy Counsellor
of the Regency of _Cleves_, when the King sent him into this Country,
where he has been so happy as to put an End to the long Disputes that had
subsisted[106] between his _Prussian_ Majesty, and the Prince of _Nassau
Orange_, concerning the Succession to the Estate of the late King
_William_ III.

M. _de Brosse_, a _Frenchman_ by Birth, manages Affairs here for
the[107]King of _Poland_, in whose Service he is a Major General. He has
acquired very great Esteem, owing to his Talents, his Politeness, and his
fine Understanding. He observes great Decorum in his Family; nevertheless,
he makes a grand Appearance.

M. _de Sporck_, Minister here from the King of _Great Britain_, as Elector
of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_, is a Gentleman of good Extraction. He came very
young into Business; and as he is on the Spot to take for his Pattern his
Father-in-Law, the Grand Pensionary of _Holland_, one of the wisest
Ministers of his Time, ’tis to be presumed he will make a great Progress.
He lives as grand as most Envoys. His Lady is very well behaved, and does
the Honours of her Family to Perfection.

I am not acquainted with the Envoys of[108]_Sweden_ and[109]_Denmark_. M.
_d’Ayrolles_ takes care of the Interests of the King of _Great Britain_,
and acquits himself like a Gentleman of long Experience in Business.

Don _Lewis d’Acunha_, the Plenipotentiary Minister of the King of
_Portugal_, has been for a long Time trusted with the most important
Embassies. He was his Majesty’s second Ambassador at the Congress of
_Utrecht_, which Employment he afterwards had in _England_, then in
_France_, and now again here, where he makes a Figure worthy of his
Character. He has the Reputation of being an able Negotiator, and a crafty
Politician. He is very polite, is fond of Grandeur, and when he was
younger, was no Enemy to Gallantry.

Thus, Sir, have I given you an Account of most of the Foreign Ministers
who reside at the _Hague_. Those of the States are not many. M. _de
Slingeland_ the Grand Pensionary is at the Head of ’em. The consummate
Wisdom of this Minister, who is grown grey in the Direction of the Secrets
of this State, is acknowledged universally. The Republic deems him as one
of its principal Pillars, and _Europe_ ranks him amongst its greatest
Ministers. He was heretofore Secretary of the Council of State, when the
_Hague_ was what _Rome_ was formerly under a _Sixtus_ V. the Centre of
Politics. He succeeded the late M. _Hoornbeck_ in the Office which he now
holds, and exercises this painful Employment with universal Approbation.
Tho’ he is well stricken in Years, and very much troubled with the Gout,
he gives Application to Business[110].

His Second is the _Gressier Fagel_, one of the greatest Genius’s of the
State, who is to be reverenced for his great Age, and respected for his
Virtue, for his Learning, his Candour, and for that noble Freedom which
accompanies his Words and his Actions. Being a Lover of Learning, he has a
Library, which is a most learned Collection; and a Cabinet of Medals, and
of the most rare antique Stones. His House is adorned with Pictures, done
by the most able Masters, with Vessels, Urns, and all the most precious
Things which Antiquity has left, of which there is nothing but what he
takes a Pleasure to shew to the curious Connoisseurs. ’Tis pity that this
Minister, who has every Quality for which the greatest Men are reverenced,
cannot live for ever.

’Tis certain that the _Hague_ contains a vast Number of worthy Persons of
both Sexes, and this State may boast of having as great a Number of
Subjects of known Probity, as any other Country perhaps in the World. Were
I to name them all to you, Sir, it would be attempting a Work above my
Capacity, and require a Volume. I may hereafter give you an Account of
such only as make the greatest Figure at the _Hague_, either on Account of
their Employments, or their Birth.

The _Hague_ is the best Place in _Europe_ for a Foreigner to make a good
Acquaintance with the greatest Ease, because of the many Societies or
Assemblies, public Spectacles and Walks. If a Person appears ever so
little in public, he is presently known. The Houses that are most open to
Company, and where the most distinguished Persons of both Sexes at this
Place are to be seen, are those of my Lady _Albemarle_, M. _de Keppel_,
and the Count _de Welderen_. My Lady is Dowager to the Earl of
_Albemarle_, General of the _Dutch_ Infantry, Colonel of the _Swiss_,
Governor of _Tournay_, and Knight of the Order of the Garter. He was of
the _Keppel_ Family, which has for a long time been distinguished in these
Provinces. He had been Page to the Prince of _Orange_, who, when he came
to be King of _Great Britain_, created him a Peer of _England_, with the
Title of an Earl. He heaped Wealth and Honours upon him, and it may be
said, that my Lord _Albemarle_, and my Lord _Portland_, were two Noblemen
for whom _William_ III. always professed the highest Esteem. My Lord
_Albemarle_ maintained himself in Favour by his Assiduity, his
Complacency, by a Fund of real Merit, and by his Care not to ask any
Thing, but to leave every thing to the King’s voluntary Grace and Favour.
This Nobleman has left a Son, who has a Regiment in _England_. The Lady
his Dowager is the Sister of Messieurs _Vander Duin_, Nobles of this
Province. She lives in a very decent Manner, and is always considered as
the first Lady of the _Hague_.

M. _de Keppel_[111], the Brother of the late Earl of _Albemarle_, is a
Lieutenant-General in the Service of the State, and Colonel of a Regiment
of Horse. He was for some time Envoy Extraordinary from their High
Mightinesses to the Court of _Prussia_. He lives very grand at the
_Hague_, his Behaviour is extremely noble, and his Family will always bear
a good Character in all the Countries of the World. Madame _de Keppel_,
heretofore _Welderen_, does the Honours of it with all the Care possible,
and she is extremely valued and esteemed. Her Son the Count _de Welderen_,
Deputy of the Province of _Guelderland_, to the States General, is not
inferior to her in Politeness. He was very young when he was admitted a
Member of the State in the room of his Father, and was soon after
appointed Ambassador to _England_, in order to congratulate their
_Britannic_ Majesties on their Accession to the Throne. His Expence in
_England_ was very splendid, but the _English_ did not so much mind the
young Ambassador’s Magnificence, as his prudent Conduct. He brought back
with him the Applauses of their Majesties, and the Court of _England_, the
Esteem of honest Men, and the Affection of the Citizens of _London_. At
his Return to the _Hague_, the Count _de Welderen_ resumed his Seat in the
Assembly of the States General. He lives still in a grand Manner, and his
House is one of the gayest in the Country. He has a younger Brother a
Member of the Council of State, (they call him the _Waldgrave_) who is a
young Gentleman of great Merit.

My Lady _Cadogan_, the Dowager of my Lord _Cadogan_, a trusty Friend of
the late Duke of _Marlborough_, and his Successor in his Employments,
keeps an Assembly every _Sunday_ Night. She is Mother to the Duchess of
_Richmond_, who is look’d upon at the Court of _England_, as one of its
Ornaments; and she has another Daughter, _viz._ my Lady _Margaret_, one of
the most amiable Ladies at the _Hague_.

The Countess _de Wartemberg_, the Dowager of the Prime Minister of
_Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_, lives retired at the _Hague_, much after
the same Manner as the Duchess of _Mazarine_ did at _London_. She turns
Night into Day, and Day into Night. Her House is open to all Foreigners,
and there is very great[112]Play. But she is not so fond as the Duchess
of _Mazarine_ was, of Pieces of Wit, and Men of Learning. If a _St.
Evremond_ wrote or said ever such good Things, I believe she would always
give the Preference to a young _Alcides_.

By the Account I have now given you of the Families, you perceive, Sir,
that here are so many, that a Man cannot be at a Loss where to go. There
is not a Day but some Assembly is held here at one House or another
alternatively. There are no Plays performed here for the present, they
being, as I think I have told you, prohibited by the States, by reason of
the Worms that infest the Dykes upon the Sea Coasts of this Province. The
Comedians continue here nevertheless, and there is an Opera which an
_Hebrew_ Anti-Comedian has sent for from _Paris_, on Purpose to ruin the
Comedy, when the Theatres are open. On the other hand, an Anabaptist, a
zealous Man for the Comedy, rather than that the Opera and its Protector
should triumph, stands up stifly for the Comedy. All the People at the
_Hague_ are Parties in this great Quarrel; but ’tis my Opinion, that in
order to reconcile them, the States will permit neither the one nor the
other. This Schism would be a very copious Subject for exercising the Pens
of the Writers of Comedy; and I am surprised that some Wit or other does
not regale the Public with their Thoughts upon it, the rather because they
are not here in any Danger of Persecution from the Lieutenant of the

You will, no doubt, think it a Phænomenon, to find that a _Hebrew_, whom
in _Germany_ we treat with a sort of Disdain, which perhaps is neither
very Generous, nor very Christian, should concern himself in the
Spectacles, and presume to force an intire Town to conform to his Taste:
But you are to know, Sir, that the Jews are treated in this Government
upon quite another Footing than they are elsewhere; and really, as for the
_Portugueze_ Jews, they deserve it; for a _Texeyra_, a _Schwartzo_, a
_Dulis_, have done such generous Actions as are worthy of the most
virtuous Christians. They live like Noblemen, and indeed such you would
take them to be. They are admitted into all Assemblies, and even their
Wives appear there: They treat and receive all Persons of Distinction at
their Houses: They relieve our Poor, contribute to our Churches, and
differ in nothing from us, but in frequenting the Synagogue.

The Nobles of the greatest Distinction in the Province, are the
_Wassenaars_, and the _Boetselaars_.[114] The former are divided into
several Branches, whereof that of _Obdam_ is the eldest. The Emperor
_Charles_ III. raised this Branch to the Dignity of Count of the Empire.
The present Count _d’Obdam_ is Grandson to the famous Admiral of that
Name, who delivered _Copenhagen_, and in Gratitude for whose Services, the
King of _Denmark_ conferred the Order of the Elephant upon him, which no
Foreigner had been honour’d with before, unless he were a Prince. After
this Admiral’s Death, the same Order descended to his Son, who died a
Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Horse in the Service of
the Republic. The present Count _d’Obdam_ is Knight of the Order of St.
_John_, and, together with his[115] Brother, is of distinguish’d Rank in
this Government. He spent Part of his Youth at the Court of _Berlin_,
where his Father was Envoy Extraordinary. At that Time nobody was so brisk
and gay; but he is thoroughly changed, and lives now very much retired,
and applies himself wholly to Devotion and Business.

Of the Blood of _Nassau Orange_, those Princes, Founders of the Republic,
there remains no more than one young Prince, besides the Counts
_d’Auverquerque_, _Zeist_ and _Laleck_, who are by the Left Venter. The
Prince is Hereditary Stadtholder of _Frieseland_, Stadtholder of
_Groningen_, Stadtholder and Captain General of the Province of
_Guelderland_, and the Country of _Drente_. He bids fair some Day or
other to be a worthy Possessor of the Station of the Princes whose Name he

_Maurice_, Count _d’Auverquerque_, is the Son of a Peer of _Great
Britain_, who was promoted to that Dignity by King _William_ III.[117] He
is a Major General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons. He is a
Nobleman of distinguished Merit, and signalized himself very much in the
last War.

M. _de Zeist_, one of the richest Nobles of this Province, is Deputy of
the Province of _Utrecht_, in which he has a great Estate.

The Count _de Laleck_ is the oldest Lieutenant General of Horse in the
Service of the States. He has a Regiment, and is Governor of _Menin_, one
of the Barrier Towns. The three last-mentioned Counts are Cousins, and
form three Branches. They are descended from Prince _Maurice_ of _Orange_,
and _Anne_ of _Mechlin_. My Grandmother was a Daughter of that Prince.

I am still to give you an Account of M. _Hogendorp_, Receiver General of
the State, an Office which in this Country, as well as elsewhere, is
liable to Envy, and exposes him that exercises it, to the Censure of the
Public. M. _Hogendorp_ has had his Share of both, for several Years: And
tho’ his Enemies have not been wanting in any Thing to ruin him, yet he
stands his Ground, and the States approve of his Conduct. He lives with as
great Magnificence and Splendor almost as any Subject of the Republic.

In one of my former, I gave you an Account of two living Preachers at
_Amsterdam_; and here I cannot refrain the mention of a certain Minister
lately dead, whose Name is illustrious among those of his own Communion,
and ours too. The Person I mean, is M. _Saurin_, who was always reckoned
here, and in all the Provinces, one of the most eloquent Preachers, since
the Repeal of the Edict of _Nantes_.

A great Number of Epitaphs have been made for this famous Preacher; but as
they are all good for nothing, I content myself with sending you an
Epitaph on those very Epitaphs.


                        On the EPITAPHS made for
                               M. SAURIN.

      _Sous ces tisons, sans titres, sans paraphes,
      Incognito gisent vingt Epitaphes,
      Qu’ont arraché de leurs maigres cerveaux,
      Incognito vingt chétifs Pôetereaux;
      Difaut vouloir par detestable rime
      Loiier encor certain Esprit sublime,
      Dont rien ne dis, savon qu’à ses talens,
      Vivant trouva force contradisans.
      Chantres grossiers du bourbeux Marecage,
      Pour Dieu, cessez votre maudit ramage!
      Si noblement chanter n’est votre fort,
      Dires tont court, Le_ grand Saurin _est mort._

_It may be thus Engslish’d_:

                                 _i. e._

      Under these Firebrands
      lie _incognito_, no less than a
      Score of Epitaphs, without
      Title or Subscription, rack’d
      _incognito_ from the sterile Brains
      of as many paltry Poetasters,
      pretending by detestable Doggrel
      to extol a certain sublime
      Genius, of which I say nothing,
      but that whilst he was
      alive, he met with a great
      many who contradicted his
      Talents. But, for God’s sake,
      ye stupid Bards of the muddy
      Fens, leave off your cursed
       croaking! And as you have
      not the Gift of noble Poetry,
      say nothing more, than that the.
      GREAT SAURIN is dead.

During my Stay at the _Hague_, I heard much Talk of one _Armand_ a
_Frenchman_, whose extraordinary Adventures were at that Time the
Discourse of all Companies. He did not want Understanding, but he was one
of the oddest and most extravagant Mortals breathing. His Passions, which
sometimes rose to a Degree of Fury, were the Cause of all his
Misfortunes. I have been promised the History of him, and if my Friend
keep his Word with me, I will not fail to send it to you[118].

           _The History of_ John Barre, _called_ ARMAND.

_JOHN BARRE_, a Native of the Province of _Burgundy_, appeared at
_Amsterdam_ in 1720, by the Name of _Armand_. He was a handsome Man, in
the Prime of his Age, and seemed to have had a good Education. He said he
was come from _France_, because he had killed a Man in a Duel. Any other
Man besides himself, in a Case of the like Nature, would have been at a
terrible _Nonplus_ to find himself pursued by Justice, and forced to fly
from his native Country, and his Friends, without Money, into a strange
Land, of which he understood not the Language, and thrown into a great
City, in the midst of a numerous People, where a poor Man is so hard put
to it to make an Acquaintance. But _Armand_ was never at a Loss for
Stratagems to relieve him. Being a bold intriguing Man, an excellent
Tongue-pad, and a Poet into the Bargain, or at least very ready of making
Verses, he quickly found Means to get Acquaintance. He might even have
passed for a Man of Quality, if Necessity had not forced him to make use
of a Talent which was a plain Discovery of the contrary; for he shewed
himself a complete Writing-Master, and made excellent Scholars in a very
little Time.

With this Resource, _Armand_ might have lived very happy; but the Violence
of his Temper, and his satirical Humour, made him quickly lose his
Patrons and best Friends. Besides these Defects, of which he was beyond
all measure guilty, he was suspicious, haughty, self-will’d beyond
Comparison, fantastical in every Part of his Behaviour, and an extravagant
Admirer of his own Productions; so that a Person was sure of being thought
the worst Enemy he had, if he did not applaud every thing he did; and
’twas enough to put him into a Fury, if one did not think as well of his
Verses, as he did himself. Two or three Passages only are sufficient to
demonstrate this to be true.

He lodged at the House of a Burgher, who had so great an Opinion of him,
that he thought himself happy in having such Opportunities of Familiarity
with a Man who had won his Heart by his Wit and his Behaviour. As they
often eat and drank together, _Armand_ invited his Landlord one Day with
all his Family and some Relations to a Supper, when, according to his
usual Way, he had provided a magnificent Repast. When they were seated at
Table, a Lady of the Company thought fit to call for a particular Sort of
Bread, which she had been used to eat; whereupon the Landlord immediately
sent out of the Room for some; which _Armand_ perceiving, and mistrusting
that they thought he had not provided Bread enough, he rose nastily from
Table, and went out, but came back again in a Moment, with a Basket full
of Bread, which he turned topsy-turvy upon the Table: And as if this Piece
of Rudeness was not enough, he ran out of the House like a Madman, and
spent the rest of the Evening in walking up and down, at a great Rate,
before his Door.

Having heard, that M. _P----_, Agent for the Naval Affairs of _France_ at
_Rotterdam_, made Verses in a very pretty Manner; he went by the
Inspiration of _Apollo_, to pay him a Visit; and after having made him a
Compliment on his Quality of Poet, he presented him some Verses of his own
making, of which he earnestly desired that he would give him his Opinion.
M. _P----_, who was not so fond of Flattery as _Armand_, made him Answer,
That he had been misinformed; that he was far from being a good Judge of
Poetry, and therefore hoped he would not look upon him in that Light.
_Armand_ took his Answer for a downright Affront, and retired bluntly from
him, not without abusing him. Nor did Mr. _C----r_, to whom he paid a
Visit for the same Purpose, fare a whit better; and to be revenged of both
those Gentlemen, he wrote an Epigram against them, which he pasted up one
_Sunday_ at the Door of the _French_ Church.

_Armand_ being disgusted with the Reception he met with from the Wits at
_Rotterdam_, had recourse to the Merchants. He went to see M. _C----t_, a
Person of known Probity, either to present his Verses to him, or to offer
him his Service, in Quality of a Writing-Master. As M. _C----t_ was a
little hard of Hearing, he thought it proper to apprize our Poet of it in
the first Place; but he, imagining that ’twas only a Pretence to dismiss
him, turned his Back upon him, and went away very much incensed at the
Affront which he thought he had received. He had even the Rashness to fix
up a very offensive Paper some Days after, at the Exchange, to tarnish the
honest Man’s Reputation; and the same being immediately torn down by M.
_C----t_’s Friends, _Armand_, as soon as he heard of it, put up another,
even more insulting than the former. M. _C----t_, to prevent his being
again exposed to such Insults, carried his Complaints to the chief
Magistrate of _Rotterdam_, who summoned the Author of the Advertisement
to appear before him. _Armand_ obeyed the Writ, and pleaded in his own
Defence, that being a Foreigner, he did not know he had done any thing
that was prohibited by the Laws of the Country; but that having been
lately informed of the contrary, he was willing to make the Person injured
any Amends that should be thought proper, and promised at the same Time to
depart the City forthwith. The Magistrate put up with his Reasons, and
only insisted, on the Performance of his Promise. Therefore he left the
City, and set out to his former Quarters at _Amsterdam_.

The ill Success of his Verses was so far from abating his versifying
Humour, that his Passion for Poetry was only become the stronger. At his
Return to _Amsterdam_, he began to write Satires against his Enemies at
_Rotterdam_, whom he accused of having ruined all his Projects. Then he
undertook to turn the tender Amours of _Abelard_ and _Eloisa_ into
Burlesque Verse. This Piece, full of Obscenities, and of satirical Lashes
of his Enemies, quickly ran thro’ all the Coffee-houses; and when he
thought he had put the finishing Stroke to it, he met with a Bookseller,
who was willing to undertake the Printing of it, tho’ it had been despised
by all good Judges.

While this Work was printing, _Armand_ contracted a Friendship with the
Count _de Bucquoy_, so well known for his Adventures and Extravagances.
This Count too pretended to write Verses, and was as great a Rattle as
_Armand_. Their Resemblance of each other so much in Temper, was judged at
first to be such a Cement as would have consolidated their Friendship for
a long Time: But a too great Freedom taken by the Count embroiled them
implacably, and gave Rise to a Scene which had like to have been tragical.
The Count, who was not yet perfectly acquainted with his Friend’s
Blind-side, took it into his Head one Day, as he was in _Armand_’s
Chamber, to make a Criticism upon his Poetry, which was a little too
severe. _Armand_, to whom nobody had ever presumed before to talk at that
Rate, was in a furious Passion, and called his Censor an impudent Fool,
and a Fortune-Hunter. At last the two Poets fell to Blows; but _Armand_
being the strongest Man, he forced the Count out of his Chamber, kick’d
him down Stairs, and so drove him into the Street.

We proceed now to that fatal Accident of _Armand_’s Life, which was the
Cause of all his Misfortunes, and brought him at last to the Scaffold.
_Armand_ had contracted a Friendship of a long standing, with a Person of
_Bayonne_, one _B----_, a young Fellow, who tho’ destitute of a Fortune,
had been so lucky as to marry a very rich Heiress. At the Time when the
Public believed there was the strictest Union subsisting betwixt them,
they were strangely surprized to hear that _B----_ had informed against
his Friend, for a horrible Outrage; and that upon this Accusation _Armand_
was arrested, and committed to Prison. _B----_ pretended that being one
Day in _Armand_’s Chamber, _Armand_ shut the Door upon him, and forced
him, with a Dagger at his Throat, to sign a Bond for a thousand Ducats.
_Armand_’s general Character was enough to condemn him; whereas _B----_,
on the contrary, passed for a young Man of an unblameable Behaviour; but,
to his Misfortune, the Affair was so circumstanced, that it could not be
duly prov’d; for, instead of calling out for Help, at least, as he went
out of the Room, he retired without saying one Word, and did not so much
as go and make his Complaint till two Days after: But for want of direct
Evidence against the Prisoner, he caused Inquiry to be made into his Life
and Conversation, and discovered, that _Armand_ was but a borrowed Name,
and that his true one was _John Barré_; that he had a Wife and four
Children; that he had been Receiver of the Salt-Office at _Vezelay_ in
_Burgundy_; in short, that he had kill’d his Brother-in-Law in the
Country, with a Fowling-Piece; and that having fled for it, he was
outlaw’d and condemn’d to be hang’d.

When _Armand_ appear’d before the Judges, he fairly own’d what his
Accusers had alledg’d against him, with regard to his Name, the Place of
his Residence, and the Cause of his Flight; but he deny’d his having
murder’d his Brother-in-Law, tho’ he confessed that he had kill’d him in
his own Defence. As what he had done in _France_, was quite out of the
Question; the Judges were only for adhering to the Point in hand. _Armand_
said, that _B----_ had of his own Accord given him a Bond for a thousand
Ducats, in Acknowledgment for the Service he had done him, in lending him
some Money, and promoting his Marriage. He pleaded his own Cause very
courageously, without the least Trembling or Self-Contradiction. _B----_,
on the contrary, seemed to falter in every thing that he said, which made
it suspected by some, that he had only charg’d _Armand_, in order to have
a Pretext for not paying the Sum that he had promised him. Yet others,
with more Probability, ascribed _B----_’s Faint-heartedness upon this
Occasion to his natural Timorousness, and to the Confusion into which an
Accusation of this Nature, laid without any Proofs to support it, must
needs cast him.

_Armand_ being very urgent for an Issue of the Affair, the Judges, who
found nothing that could support _B----_’s Pretensions, passed a Sentence,
Whereby the latter was to pay the thousand Ducats, and the Defendant was
to be set at Liberty, after giving Security for the said Sum, in case of
an Appeal to the Court of _Holland_, saving to himself the Liberty of
prosecuting his Adversary for Costs, Damages, Interest, and Reparation of
Honour. _B----_ did not fail to appeal from that Sentence to the Court, as
did like wise _Armand_, who having given the Security required, and
received the thousand Ducats, shews himself thro’ the whole Town, with a
long Beard, which he suffered to grow in Prison, and which he swore should
not be taken off till he had carried his Cause at the Court.

In order to hasten the Decision of the Affair, he repaired to the _Hague_,
where the Court at length passed a Sentence, which confirmed that of
_Amsterdam_; and then he sued for Repair of Honour, and for Damages and
Interests. _B----_ finding himself by this Means cast in all his Demands,
and fearing the Consequences of the Law-Suit, thought fit to set his
Affairs in Order, and withdrew to _France_. The Court immediately clapp’d
a Seal upon his Effects, summon’d him three times to appear, and ’tis
probable that he would have been condemned upon an Outlawry, if _Armand_’s
Misbehaviour had not put a sudden Stop to the Courte of Justice. The
Occasion of this Incident was as follows:

_Armand_ was so impatient for the Issue of his Process, that he went every
Day to teaze his Judges, who sometimes were not at Leisure to grant him
Audience. Upon a certain Day, as he came to the Door of the
Attorney-General, one of the Domestics told him, his Master was not at
home; and the Man was going to shut the Door against him, when _Armand_
said, _I know the contrary, and must needs speak with him_. Upon this they
fell to abusing one another, when _Armand_, losing all Patience, struck
the Domestic several Blows, and put the whole House in an Alarm, for which
he was carried to Prison; from whence however he might have had a speedy
Deliverance, if he would but have confessed his Fault, and made the
Attorney-General proper Satisfaction: But instead of doing this, he
behaved to Mr. Attorney in a strange Manner, and threatened to be revenged
of him. But he paid dear for his Insolence, and was sentenced to lie in
Prison twelve Years. He remained there till 1734, when the Court thought
fit to remove him to another Town, till the Expiration of the Term
mentioned in the Sentence. _Armand_ being acquainted with this Resolution,
imagined, no doubt, that he was now to be treated with more Severity than
ever, and perhaps that he should be privately dispatched; and from that
Time he had no Command of himself. He formed a Design to murder the
Archers when they came to meddle with him, or at least to prevent their
seizing him; and for this Purpose he had taken one of the Bed-posts, which
he not only armed with Nails, but fastened the Blade of a Penknife at one
End of it. Being thus prepared for his Defence, on the Day appointed for
his Removal; two Archers came to take him, of whom he ripp’d up the Guts
of one, and broke two Ribs of the other. After this, none of the Archers
durst venture to come near him, till the following Stratagem was thought
of, by which they effectually quelled him. Two Archers were ordered to
make each a Hole in the Wall of the Prison, and at the very Instant when
_Armand_ was peeping through one of them, to examine the Cause of it, a
Pistol was discharg’d in his Face, loaded with Sand, which put his Eyes,
Tongue and Face into such an Agony, that he was not able to defend
himself, but surrendered, and begged Quarter. At the same Time he was
seized, and clapped in Irons. When he was under Examination, he confessed,
that his Design was to murder any one that offered to remove him; and that
he would do it again, if it were in his Power; which Circumstance was such
an Aggravation of his Crime, that he was condemned to lose his Head.

The View of approaching Death was so far from being shocking to him, that
he seemed perfectly unconcerned. But what was very observable in this
unaccountable Man, was that the dreadful Prospect of the infamous Death he
had so justly deserved, was so far from engrossing his Thoughts, that it
did not in the least abate the Fondness he had always discovered for his
Verses; so that at the very Time when a Minister was preparing him for
Eternity, he interrupted him short, by telling him, _Sir, Here are some
Verses of my own composing; I desire you would let me read them to you. I
always loved to divert myself with Works of this Sort_. An Attorney, who
was present at the same Time, performing the Office of a Comforter, seemed
to be shock’d at the Reading of a Composition so unsuitable to one in such
Circumstances; but _Armand_, looking on him with a very angry Countenance,
told him in plain Terms, That he was an Ass; and that he wondered how a
Man of his Profession, an Attorney, at constant Variance with Heaven, and
for ever and ever accursed, should take it into his Head to turn
Comforter, and pretend to make Peace between God and Man.

The Day of Execution being[119] come, he was carried before the Judges to
hear Sentence of Death passed upon him: But they had scarce begun to
pronounce it, when he grew strangely outrageous, and said, ’twas unjust
to read his Sentence to him in a Language which he did not understand. It
was to no Purpose that they told him, it should be explained to him in
_French_; for he still rav’d on in the same Strain; so that they were
obliged to stop his Mouth with a Handkerchief, which they held tight
behind, by both Ends. However, upon his making a Sign that it strain’d him
too much, they slacken’d it, and then he promised, that if they would take
it quite off, he would keep a profound Silence. He was attended to the
Place of Execution by a Minister, and saluted such of his Acquaintance as
he saw mixed in the Crowd, with a Smile. When he was on the Scaffold, and
fixed his Eyes on the Gallows, he turned pale, saying, that he had been
promised different Treatment, and that he did not think he should be
turned out of the World in the Manner for which he saw that Preparation.
They encouraged him, by telling him, that he should only have his Head cut
off, if he did not use Violence; but that if he did, he should be hanged,
and hoisted up to the Gallows by a Pully, there for that Purpose. He made
Answer, that he did not care to swing out of the World by a Halter. He
then asked the Executioner, if he was perfect in his Business; to which he
answered in the Affirmative, adding, That he had by his Dexterity made
sixteen Heads leap already, with very good Success, and that he hoped his
would be the seventeenth to do him Honour. Then _Armand_ demanded where
the Sword was, and the Executioner told him, that it should be ready at
the Time. At last the fatal Moment being come, he fell on his Knees, and
as soon as his Eyes were blinded, he had his Head struck off at one Blow.

I have nothing particular to tell you of the Palace at _Honslaerdyck_, and
of the[120] _House in the Wood_, which belong to the King of _Prussia_,
because they are neither of ’em what they were formerly. They are running
so to Decay, that shortly they will not deserve the Mention. As I passed
to _Honslaerdyck_, I went thro’ the Village of _Loosduinen_, where I saw
in a Church, the Basin, in which, ’tis said, were baptized the three
hundred and sixty-five Children, of which a Countess of _Holland_ was
delivered at one[121] Birth, in Pursuance of the Wish, or rather Curse of
a poor Woman, who having a Charge of Children, and coming to beg Alms of
her, was not only denied, but rebuked for having so many Children;
whereupon she wished, that the Countess, who was then pregnant, might be
brought to Bed of as many Children as there were Days in the Year; which
happened accordingly. This remarkable Event is set forth in a Picture
carefully preserved in the Church.

The Palace of[122] _Ryswic_, where the Peace was signed in 1697, being in
no better Condition than that of _Honslaerdyck_, I did not think fit to
strike out of the fine Road to DELFT, to go and see it. This Town, which
is a League from the _Hague_, has nothing remarkable to be view’d, besides
the Tomb of _William_ I. Prince of _Orange_, who was assassinated at
_Delft_, in 1584, by _Balthasar Gerard_, of the _Franche Comté_. The
Republic which caused this _Mausoleum_ to be erected, spar’d no Cost to
leave Posterity a Monument worthy of its Founders, and of their Gratitude
for the signal Services which had been done them by that Hero. The Arsenal
for the Land Service of this State, is at _Delft_, and there are few in
_Europe_ that are better furnished, or kept more in Order. This Town
drives a great Trade in earthen Ware. As it is at the same Distance from
_Ryswic_ as the _Hague_, the Ambassadors of _France_ resided here during
the Congress. ’Tis now inhabited by several People, who either from being
weary of the World, or by Reason of Misfortunes, have chose Retirement.
From hence you will imagine, ’tis not a very gay Place, so that I made no
Stay here, nor no Acquaintance.

ROTTERDAM, three Leagues from _Delft_, is by much the most populous Place,
and is only inferior to _Amsterdam_, on Account of its Commerce. Its
Situation on the _Maese_, six Leagues from the Sea, gives it a
Communication with all the Towns of _Holland_, and the neighbouring
Provinces, both by means of that River, and several Canals and Rivers that
fall into it. Its greatest Trade is with _England_ and _France_, and here
are three _English_ Churches, _viz._ One that is Episcopal, or of the
Church of _England_ by Law establish’d, one _Presbyterian_, and one
_Scots_. As to us Catholics, we have several Churches here in Chambers,
and the Jews have a neat Synagogue.

The Statue of _Erasmus_, the Restorer of the _Latin_ Tongue, which is
placed in the Market-place, is altogether plain. This learned Man is
represented in the Habit of a Doctor, holding a Book in his Hand. The
Pedestal is plainly decorated with a _Latin_ Inscription, as is the House
where he was born, which is preserved just as it was then, and is a very
small and mean Building. ’Tis said, that on the same Square where
_Erasmus_’s Statue stands, the Magistrates intend to erect a Stadthouse,
of which they are really in great Need, that which they have being a very
sorry one. If this Project takes, it were to be wished that they may
employ a more able Architect, and a more diligent one than they have made
use of in building an Exchange, which has been a long Time begun, and is
but half finish’d yet. ’Tis true, that as it is, ’tis too large for the
Number of Merchants that meet in it; but after all, ’tis amazing that a
City, which has the Reputation of being wealthy, should let one of its
principal Edifices stand unfinish’d.

There are some magnificent Houses in this Town, but its greatest Ornament
is its Canals, broad and deep enough for the Entrance of Shipping, which
is a great Convenience to its Trade. I know not how sociable the People
are at _Rotterdam_; for tho’ I have gone through it several times, I never
stay’d long enough there to make any Acquaintance in it. I always took the
Air for most part upon the fine Kay that runs along the _Maese_, which is
beautified with a pleasant Row of Trees on one Side, and noble Houses on
the other.

From _Rotterdam_ I went thro’ _Maeslandsluys_ to the BRILLE, a well
fortified Town upon the _Maese_, near the Mouth of that River. This Town
is famous in the History of the _Netherlands_, because in the Year 1572,
_William de Lumai_, Count _de la Marck_, and some of his Confederates, who
went out to Sea, to avoid falling into the Hands of the Duke of _Alva_,
took it by Surprize, and there laid the first Foundations of the Liberty
of the United Provinces.

When I left the _Brille_, I came to HELVOETSLUYS, the saddest Place in all
_Holland_. The Winds, which have been boisterous for some Days, hinder the
Packet-Boat and me from setting out for _England_. In the mean time, I am
very ill here. I am cramm’d twice a Day with boil’d Ducks, roasted Ducks,
and others tossed up with a high Ragoû, and yet I am ask’d if I will not
please to have more Seasoning. Perhaps it was this Town only that a
certain _Frenchman_ had seen, when he said that he had taken Notice of but
three Things in _Holland_, and they began all three with the Syllable Ca,
_viz._ _Canals_, _Canards_ (Ducks), and _Canaille_, _i. e._ Mob; for
certainly there are other Things to be seen in the rest of Holland, where
there are as many genteel People as in any Country in the World. Nay, I
dare affirm, that a certain Candour prevails here, which is perhaps not so
general elsewhere. ’Tis rare for a _Dutchman_ to know the Arts of Tricking
and Cheating, and he is of a friendly Disposition, if his Purse be out of
the Question. If they were not so much in Love with their Money, there
would be as few Faults to find with this Nation as any. I could like to
live with ’em very well. When one treats them with Civility, one may do
any thing with ’em. And it was a Saying of the Emperor _Charles_ V. _You
must give the_ Dutch _good Words, leave ’em the Shadow of Liberty, but
make them pay well for it_.

Be these People as much as they will for their own Interest, they are
charitable, and would have every one live. They have not perhaps that gay
Wit, which is of all Things so taking; but then they have good Sense. I
have often taken a Place in the Boats, on purpose to hear what was said
there; and have been surprised to find the common People talk of Trade, of
the Interests of the State, and of other Countries, of the Manners of
different People, of the History of their own Country, and in short, of a
thousand other Things, with more Justness, perhaps, than a great many
Epigrammatists, Stanza-makers, and Rhymesters could do elsewhere.

For the rest, this Country is as charming in some Things, as it is
disagreeable in others. ’Tis certain, that the People are now and then too
insolent; yet a _Dutchman_ does not care to be the first to give an
Affront; and unless a Foreigner provokes him by his Pride, or his
Pertness, he will indulge himself in his Phlegm.

I can’t imagine why Foreigners take a Pleasure to run down _Holland_, as a
Country where they have been skinn’d. This might have been the Case with
’em in such a Hole as _Helvoetsluys_, or else at _Rotterdam_, when one
_Carpentier_, a _French_ Refugee, kept the Sign there of the Marshal _de
Turenne_; but ’tis not so in a good Town, where every Foreigner, I mean
such as are willing to be sociable, and to eat at the Landlord’s Table,
know what they have for their Money. The Ordinary is settled, Wine,
Lodging, and every Thing at a certain Price. Suppers are the only Meals
that plunge deep in a Man’s Purse, of which a Foreigner must be cautious.
As to Carriages, either by Land or Water, the Fare is fixed; and ’tis
impossible for a Man to be cheated, unless it be in frosty Weather, when
’tis certain one is at the Mercy both of the Watermen and Coachmen.

’Tis wrong also for some Foreigners to cry out, as they do, against
Justice, which I find more impartial here than elsewhere. But it does not
always act with the Vivacity which a Foreigner would wish for, who often
has neither the Time, nor the Means, nor the Inclination to wait for it.
He then finds fault with Justice, when he ought rather to blame the
Situation of his Affairs.

I fear that you will be angry with me for having abused your Attention by
this long Letter, which I now conclude, by assuring you, that nobody can
be more intirely than I am, &c.


                              LETTER LIII.

  _SIR_,                                     _London, April 12, 1733._

’Tis not possible for me to be insensible how greatly I am obliged to you
for that Uneasiness which you seem to be under, till you can hear of my
Arrival in some safe Harbour of this Kingdom, tho’ ’tis no more than what
I expected from such a Friend as you. I should have prevented your Anxiety
upon this Score, if I had not thought it proper to take a little View of
this Country, before I wrote one Word to you about it; and now I flatter
myself that I am able to satisfy your Curiosity.

I had one of the most favourable Passages that could be; for in less than
eighteen Hours, I came from _Helvoetsluys_ to _Harwich_, which is the
Harbour for the Packet-Boats that pass betwixt this Kingdom and _Holland_.

_Harwich_ not seeming to me to be worth a Traveller’s Notice, I only
stopped to hire Horses, and came with all Speed to London. _That City_,
which for its Extent, the Number of its Inhabitants, and their Wealth, may
pass, not only for the Capital of a powerful Kingdom, but even for the
Capital of _Europe_: _That City_, where True Liberty bears Rule; where the
Arts and Sciences are cultivated and protected; where the Inhabitants
enjoy the Goods of Fortune without vain Ostentation; where Merit is
considered, and Birth highly valued, when ’tis accompanied with Virtue:
_That City_, in fine, where are still to be found those _Roman_ Souls,
which other Nations admire, but know not how to imitate.

Yet _London_, with all the Attributes I have now given it, with its
magnificent Structures, both sacred and profane, cannot be rank’d among
the finest Cities; for many of its Streets being dirty and ill-paved, its
Houses of Brick, not very high, nor adorn’d with Architecture, but
blacken’d with the unmerciful Smoke of Coal-fires, gives it a dark Hue,
which renders it far less agreeable than it would be otherwise.

The Riches of _London_, if not of all _England_, are owing to the
_Thames_, and the Citizens set more Value by this River, than by any other
Advantage that they enjoy: Of this a certain old Alderman had the Courage
to give King _Charles_ II. a convincing Proof, at a Time when that Monarch
was so extremely angry with the City of _London_, that when the Lord Mayor
and Aldermen went to Court, with a View to pacify him, he exclaimed
bitterly against them, and told ’em, that he knew how to make them feel
the whole Weight of his Resentment, and that he would for that End remove
his Court to _Oxford_. At this the old Alderman, who pretended to be hard
of Hearing, said to a Nobleman that was present at the Audience, loud
enough to be over-heard by the King, _What says his Majesty_, my Lord?
_Will he in his Wrath take the_ Thames _from us?_ Meaning thereby, that
since the King could not take that River from the City, the Inhabitants
would not be sorry for his going to _Oxford_. Indeed, in all my Travels I
never saw a finer Sight than this River, from its Mouth to
_London_-Bridge: For besides its being continually covered with Ships,
Barges, Boats, &c. going up and down with the Tide, its Banks are adorned
with a Variety of fine Scenes, such as Towns, Villages, and
Country-Houses. Among others, there’s the great and magnificent Hospital
of _Greenwich_, founded in the Reign of _Charles_ II. for disabled Seamen,
or the Invalids of the Navy. Tho’ this Structure is not yet finish’d, it
may be rank’d amongst the most considerable in _Europe_, and is not
inferior in Grandeur to many Royal Palaces. Its Situation also is so
charming, that were it for that alone, it were worth while to take a Turn
on Purpose to see it.

_London_ stands on the Left-side of the River, where it forms a Crescent.
The famous Bridge upon which Queen _Elizabeth_ caused the Head of the Earl
of _Essex_ to be exposed, after having flatter’d him that he should one
Day be a Partner in her Throne, is eight hundred Feet long, and sixty
broad; but the Prospect of the River is stopp’d by Houses on both Sides,
which are neither fine nor lofty.

St. _Paul_’s Church, the Cathedral of _London_, is, next to St. _Peter_’s
at _Rome_, the greatest and most stately Temple in _Europe;_ and I even
question, whether it would not be more magnificent than St. _Peter_’s, if
it had such a Square or Colonnade before it, as that has; but I mean only
the Outside of it; for as to the Inside, they are not to be compar’d. The
principal Front of St. _Paul_’s is of that sort of Architecture which the
old _Romans_, those Masters in the Art of Building, would not perhaps have
thought unworthy of their Time; tho’ ’tis certain this beautiful Front is
render’d the less majestic by two little Towers or Steeples of a very
_Gothic_ Taste, which are placed upon the two Angles of the Building. This
whole Fabric stands by itself, and is built in the Form of a Cross, with
a great Dome in the middle. The Entrance to it is by three grand Porticos
on the North, South, and West. Opposite to the principal Front there’s an
Area, encompass’d with an Iron Palisado, in the midst of which is a white
marble Statue of Queen _Anne_, in whose Reign this Church was finish’d;
which was begun so long ago as after the Great Fire, in the Reign of
_Charles_ II. The Queen is there represented standing with all her
Regalia. She holds in her Right hand a Sceptre; but ’tis so much like a
Wax Taper, that one would almost swear she was performing an[123] _Amende
honorable_: And really, this Statue is unworthy of the Queen whom it
represents; of the Church before which it stands, and of the City of
_London_, by whose Order ’twas erected. All the Church is of very white
Stone, which the Smoke, that Bane of _London_, has rendered black on one
Side. The Inside of it is as plain as the Outside is magnificent. The Dome
only is painted of an _Ash_ Colour. The Choir (for the Church of _England_
retains the Use of Choirs) is separated from the Nave, by a Wall of just
such a Height as to support the Organs, which by this Means serve the
Choir and the Nave of the Church alike, but disfigure both. The Seats, or
Stalls of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, when they assist at _Te Deum_, are
of Wood, and built like those of the Canons in our Churches. The
subterraneous Parts are very magnificent, and contain Vaults, in which
are interred such People as they belong to.

The famous Monument erected in Memory of that sad Conflagration which
consumed one Third of the City, in the Reign of King _Charles_ II. is a
very lofty Pillar of the _Doric_ Order, fluted, and has a Stair-case in
the Inside of it, which goes up to a Platform at the Top, from whence
there’s a Prospect of the whole City, and a great many fine Scenes.

The _Royal-Exchange_, where the Merchants meet at One o’Clock every Day,
is a large square Building of Free-stone. The grand Portico is adorned
with Columns, and has a Tower on the Top, with Chimes in it. The Inside of
it consists of a Court surrounded with Piazzas, over which are placed the
Statues of the Kings that have reigned in _England_; which are of
Free-stone, and all done by bad Hands. The Statue of King _Charles_ II. in
whose Reign this Edifice was built, stands in the midst of this Court, and
is of white Marble, representing the King in the Habit of a _Roman_
Emperor. This is not one of the worst Statues in _London_; where indeed
Sculpture is of all Arts the least cultivated; but why, I can’t conceive;
since most of the _English_ Nobility have been in _Italy_, and have there
acquired a Taste for what is fine and curious.

The famous Tower of _London_, which is, as it were, the Citadel of this
Metropolis, stands on the Bank of the _Thames_, at the Extremity of the
City, going down the River. It contains several Buildings, but without
Uniformity. Here are kept the Jewels of the Crown, and the Crown itself,
Lions, and other outlandish Creatures, and the Arsenal of Arms; and in
this Tower are confined certain Prisoners of State; but thro’ good
Fortune, the Reign of King _George_ II. now upon the Throne, has been so
free from Punishment or Severity, that the Tower is empty of Prisoners.

As one goes up the _Thames_ towards St. _James_’s, End of the Town, where
the King and most of the Nobility reside, one passes along by a Palace
called the _Savoy_, because it was built by the Princes of _Savoy_, Uncles
of Queen _Eleanor_ of _Provence_, Wife to _Henry_ III. This Building has
nothing in it from one End to the other, but what is very deformed. The
Chamber is still to be seen here in which _John_ II. King of _France_ was
imprisoned, who, like _Regulus_, came and re-delivered himself into the
Custody of his Conqueror, when he found the Estates of his Kingdom not
disposed to perform the Terms of Peace, which he had signed, and which
were the Condition of his having obtained Leave to go to _France_.

The Palace of _Whitehall_, which is the common Landing-place for People
that come out of the City by Water, is nothing to what it was possibly
before the unhappy Fire began, by which it was consumed in the Reign of
_William_ and _Mary_. There’s a Pile of Building yet standing, which is
magnificent, and is called the _Banquetting-House_. I was here shewn the
very Window which the unfortunate _Charles_ I. came out of, when the
Usurper _Cromwel_ made him walk from the Throne to the Scaffold. All the
Buildings called by the Name of _Whitehall_, are now in the Hands of
private Owners, by Grants of the late King _George_ I.

St. _James_’s Palace, where the King lives, is only separated from
_Whitehall_ by St. _James_’s Park. This House has nothing in it answerable
to the Majesty of the Prince who resides in it, and there are few Princes
in _Europe_ worse lodged than the King of _England_. I have been assured,
that the Nation offered the late King _George_ I. to build him a new
Palace; but that he made Answer, that since so many Kings, his
Predecessors, had lived in that Palace, and been content with it, he
thought it would do as well for him; and that he did not desire, that, for
the sake of accommodating him, the Nation should be put to any sort of
Inconvenience; but that its Funds might be employed in something that was
more urgent, and more useful.

St. _James_’s Park is the same Thing here as the _Thuilleries_ are at
_Paris_; only this Park is more plain and artless; for here is Meadow
Ground, with Walks of Trees, and a Canal in the middle of the whole. Mean
time this Simplicity has a certain Beauty, which cannot be describ’d, tho’
the Spectator feels it, and prefers it to the finest Gardens. _Charles_
II. who was vastly fond of walking out for the Air, had a mind to make
Embellishments in the Park, and for this End sent to _Paris_ for the
famous _Le Neautre_, the Man that laid out the Garden of the
_Thuilleries_, and the Park at _Versailles_. But this _Frenchman_, after
having viewed the Park well, advised the King to let it stand as it did,
assuring him that he could not make any thing better than it was. The
grand Walk called the Mall, is full of People every Hour of the Day, but
especially in the Morning and Evening; and their Majesties often walk in
it with the Royal Family, who are attended only by half a dozen Yeomen of
the Guard, and permit all Persons, without Distinction of Rank or
Character, to walk there at the same Time with ’em; for which Reason the
Crowd of People here is sometimes too great; but then it forms one of the
most diversified Scenes imaginable: The Ladies and Gentlemen always appear
here in rich Dresses; for the _English_, who Twenty Years ago did not wear
Gold lace, but in their Army, are now embroidered and bedawb’d as much as
the _French_; I speak of Persons of Quality; for the Citizen still
contents himself with a Suit of fine Cloth, a good Hat and Wig, and fine
Linen: Every body in general is well clad here, and even the Beggars don’t
make so ragged an Appearance as they do elsewhere.

Of the fine Houses that open to the Park, those of _Marlborough_ and
_Buckingham_ are the most considerable. The former is very richly
furnished, and adorned with admirable Paintings. ’Tis occupied by the
Dowager of that great Duke of _Marlborough_, who led the _English_ to
triumph where-ever he came, and made the proudest of Kings to tremble.

_Buckingham_ House is not so big as _Marlborough_ House, but infinitely
better situate; for it fronts the great Walk of St. _James_’s Park, and is
only separated from it by Grates of Iron. ’Tis one grand Building, with
two advanced Wings, one on each Side, that are united to the main Body of
the Building, by two open Galleries, forming a Semi-circle. In the middle
of the Court there’s a fine Water-work, and behind the House a great and
magnificent Garden, at the End whereof there was to be a Canal, which was
actually begun, but remains unfinish’d. This fine House is occupied by the
Duchess Dowager of _Buckingham_, a natural Daughter of King _James_ II.

St. _James_’s Quarter of the Town, and all the Out-parts of _London_ in
general, are very regularly built, the Streets strait, broad and airy, and
want nothing but to be better paved; which is a great Misfortune, that
cannot be remedied but by an excessive Expence. They say, that _Lewis_
XIV. offered _Charles_ II. to furnish him Stones enough to pave _London_,
provided _Charles_ would furnish him with Gravel from _England_, to lay in
the Gardens of his Royal Palaces. Whether this be true, I know not; but
it seems to me that the Advantage would have been for the _English_
Prince. Be it as it will, the Bargain was not struck, and _London_ is
still the Sufferer for want of it.

There are several great and fine Squares here, some of which, in my
Opinion, would be more beautiful, were it not for the Fancy of adorning
them with Gardens, which perhaps is owing to the Want of Stones for paving
them. As these are encompassed with Iron Palisadoes, they look very much
like Church-yards. St. _James_’s Square is the most considerable in
_London_, not only for its Bigness, but for the Residence of Persons of
the greatest Quality. Instead of a Garden, it contains a great fine Piece
of Water, surrounded with an iron Balustrade. Three Sides of this Square
are very regular; and it were to be wished, that the Proprietors of the
fourth Side would be prevailed to build that in the same Manner. In this
Square live the Earl of _Strafford_, Ambassador from Queen _Anne_ to the
Congress at _Utrecht_; and the Duke of _Norfolk_, a _Roman_ Catholic, Earl
Marshal, first Duke, and first Baron of _England_, Chief of the
Illustrious Family of _Howard_; from whence was descended _Catharine_ the
Fifth Wife of _Henry_ VIII. who had not a more happy Fate than the
unfortunate _Anne Bullen_, who preceded her. The Duke of _Norfolk_’s House
here has very fine Furniture, and most magnificent Pictures.

_Grosvenor_’s Square, which is just finished, is even larger than St.
_James_’s Square, and its Houses are much more magnificent. In the middle
of the Garden is the Statue of King _George_ I. on Horseback, of Lead,
gilt, and indeed very ill executed. Of the many Statues that there are in
_London_, the best is that of _Charles_ I. represented on Horseback in
Brass. It owes its Preservation to a sort of Miracle: The Usurper
_Cromwell_ having caused it to be pulled down, and exposed to Sale, a
Founder, who happen’d to be a zealous Royalist, bought it, and buried it
under Ground, till the Restoration of _Charles_ II. to whom he made a
Present of it; and this Prince caused it to be set up at _Charing-Cross_,
where it still continues. When I see it, I always look upon it as an Image
that has escap’d the Fury of the _Iconoclastes_.

Since, the Accession of the _Hanover_ Family to the Throne of _Great
Britain_, _London_ is infinitely larger than it was. There’s one intire
Quarter goes by the Name of _Hanover_. The Parliament being apprehensive,
that in Process of Time the Town would grow too big to support itself,
pass’d an Act some Years ago for restraining the building on new
Foundations; and if this had been done twenty Years ago, this City would
nevertheless have been too large.

I say nothing to you of the other Squares, because my Design is only to
give you a general Idea of _London_, and not a very exact Plan, that being
a Business which I leave to some Traveller who is better instructed.
Besides, to tell you the plain Truth, I am quite weary of entertaining you
with Towers and Walls. Therefore I shall only say a Word or two more as to
Houses and Churches. The House of the Duke of _Montagu_, Son-in-Law to the
late Duke of _Marlborough_, is the most considerable. The Apartments are
large and well laid out, and the Cielings exceeding fine, particularly
those of the great Stair-case and Salon, wherein the Story of _Phaethon_
is represented in a wonderful Manner. But all these fine Apartments are
not furnish’d, and ’tis even said, that the Duke intends to lett his House
to the Count _de Montijo_, the _Spanish_ Ambassador.

Of the modern Churches that of St. _James_, which is the Parochial Church
of the Court, is the finest, having a Portico before it, supported by
Columns, after the Manner of the _Rotunda_ at _Rome_.

The Abby Church of _Westminster_, in which the Kings are crown’d and
interred, is a great Fabric, which contains the Tombs of several Kings,
and other Persons illustrious either for their Birth or Merit. _Henry_ the
VIIth’s Chapel, wherein that wise King is interred with his Queen, is very
magnificent, as is also the Tomb of the Dukes of _Newcastle_. That of the
late Mr. _Craggs_, who was Secretary of State to King _George_ the Ist, is
plain, but of a beautiful Contrivance: It represents that Minister in the
_Grecian_ Manner, and leaning in a very noble Attitude upon an Urn. The
famous _St. Evremont_ has a Place here amongst the Men of Learning: The
Representation of him is in Form of a large Medal, on which there is a
short Inscription, denoting that this Mausoleum was erected for him by his
Friend my Lord _Galloway_.

Amongst the Reliques which are still preserved in this Church, there is
one, which for its Antiquity, I believe, has not its Equal, it being the
Stone which served for _Jacob_’s Pillar, when he dreamt of that mysterious
Ladder which reached up to Heaven. This precious Relique is very much
neglected, and I cannot imagine how it came to be so abandoned by that
pious King _James_ II. The _English_ would do well to make a Present of it
to the Republic of _Venice_, where this Stone would quadrate exactly with
the Piece of _Moses_’s Rock in St. _Mark_’s Church. The Cardinal
_Cienfuegos_ shew’d me a Piece of it, when I was last at _Rome_: He told
me, that he stole it in his Return from _Portugal_, where he had been
Ambassador, when he came to _London_ with a Commission from the Emperor to
King _George_ I. He added, that it was the only Robbery he was ever guilty
of in his Life; and that he should have been exceeding scrupulous of
committing it, if this Stone had been as much honour’d in _England_ as it
deserved; but that finding it neglected and despised, he could not help
filching a Piece of it, which he was so fortunate as to strike off with a
Key, at the very Nick of Time when the Keeper of it happen’d to be looking
another way. I told him, that I did not think that he needed to have been
so very scrupulous of this Theft; that I was persuaded, that if he had
given the Keeper a Guinea at most, he might have had a much greater Piece;
and that perhaps for a Trifle more he might have brought away the whole
Stone. O Lord! cry’d the Cardinal, lifting up his Eyes to Heaven, I wish
then I had purchased it.

In _Westminster_ Abbey I also saw the Stone Chair which _Edward_ I. that
proud Conqueror of _Scotland_, caused to be brought from the Abbey of
_Scoon_ to that of _Westminster_, in order to give the _Scots_ to
understand that they had no longer any Sovereign Power in their Country.
Ever since that Time the Kings of _England_ have made it a Rule to be
seated in that Chair on the Day of their Coronation.

The Palace of _Westminster_, tho’ formerly noted for the Residence of the
Kings, and now for the Assembly of the Parliament, is altogether plain.
The Hall where the Royal Feast is celebrated on the Coronation-Day, is one
of the largest in _Europe_.

The Room where the Lords meet, which is called the House of Peers, is not
much ornamented, nor is the King’s Throne in it at all magnificent: They
say, that a new Parliament-House is speedily to be erected; which is an
Undertaking that deserves an able Hand to conduct it, the Parliament of
_Great Britain_ being, next to the Dyet of the Empire, the most august
Body in the Universe.

When the King goes to meet his Parliament, ’tis with all the Splendor of
Royalty, and he appears there with the Crown on his Head, dress’d in Royal
Robes. His Throne is at the Bottom of the Room, whereas that of the King
of _France_, when he holds his Courts of Justice, is plac’d in a Corner,
with his Peers on each Side of him. But here the Prince of _Wales_ alone,
as Heir of the Crown, sits in the same Line with the King, and the Peers
sit upon Benches by the Sides of the Room, and across it. I have not yet
had the Honour to see his present Majesty in his Parliament; but I saw the
late King his Father there; and I assure you, that the Sight of this
august Assembly inspired me with such Sentiments of Respect, as I don’t
know that I was ever impress’d with before. When I saw that King, the Best
and most Just of Monarchs, come to give the Royal Assent to what the Peers
of the Kingdom, or rather the Fathers of the People, had agreed to, I
thought I saw _Augustus_ in the Capitol approving the Decrees of the
Senate, and the Senate applauding the Actions of the Emperor. Nevertheless
the Parliament does not always applaud the King’s Measures; but on the
contrary makes a noble Stand against them when they tend to incroach upon
the public Liberty. ’Tis true, that since the late Revolution, which
depriv’d the _Stuart_ Family of the Throne, the Kings and their
Parliaments have always agreed very well. Such is the Genius of the
Nation, that a mild just King is sure of their Love and Respect, and he
finds them as obedient to his Will, as a Tyrant King finds them reluctant.
All that find Fault with the _English_ for Disaffection to their Kings,
have not duly read their History, or are fond of Slavery; and they who
think a King of _Great Britain_ is to be pity’d because he is not
absolute, have a false Notion of kingly Power. A Monarch of _England_ is
capable of doing as much Good as any King in the World; but he can do no
Wrong. And what can a King, if he be an honest Man, (pardon me this
Expression, ’tis a Character not unworthy of a King) desire more? What
needs there more to satisfy his Ambition? And is it possible, that a Man
can be pitied, because ’tis not in his Power to make Millions of People
miserable? For my part, I think that the _English_, who do not stand up
for their Laws and Liberties, are altogether as criminal, as they who
oppose the Will of their Sovereign in a State where Arbitrary Power is
once established.

What I admire in the _English_, is not only the Firmness with which they
plead for their Rights, but their Manner of doing it. In other Nations we
see Deputies from Parliaments or States makeing Remonstrances to their
Sovereign, which are studied and concerted. An _Englishman_, on the
contrary, makes his upon the Spot: He first hearkens attentively to what
the Court Party has to propose, and if he finds it detrimental to the
State, he opposes it solidly; not with Expressions that are flourish’d and
far-fetch’d, but strongly represents the Inconveniencies of the Thing, and
enforces what he says by the Quotation of Laws and Precedents. A true
_English_ Nobleman or Gentleman sacrifices every thing he has, for his
Country: The Court and its Favours are not strong enough to captivate him:
He can renounce both, when he thinks himself engaged in Honour to oppose
the Court Measures in Parliament, and he lays down his Employments. A King
has seldom the Pleasure of turning a Man out, and much less that of being
solicited by the Person in Disgrace to restore him to Favour. An
_Englishman_ who should write such Letters as _Bussi Rabutin_ wrote to
_Lewis_ XIV. would, I believe, be as much despised in _England_, as
_Bussi_ was esteemed in _France_. They that are out of Favour, are not
shunn’d here as they are elsewhere; and they are so far from being
abandoned by their Friends, that a Nobleman has often a greater Levee in
his Disgrace than he had when in Favour. At the same Time I can’t but
think, that this Indifference for standing well or ill with the Court, is
sometimes push’d too far. I have been told, _a propos_, that Queen
_Catharine_ of _Portugal_, Wife of _Charles_ II. having forbad a certain
Lady to come to Court, for having behav’d in a Manner that gave Offence,
the Lady made her Answer, That she would obey her, and that she assured
her Majesty, she would never give herself the Trouble to visit her again,
’till she could see her for Six-pence; by which she meant, when the Queen
was dead, and exposed to View at _Westminster_.

His present Majesty having some Years ago forbad the D----ess of _Q----y_
to come to Court, for some disrespectful Behaviour, the Duke who was that
Lady’s Husband, and likewise disapproved her Conduct, immediately resign’d
his Employment of V----e A----l of _Sc----d_, and absented himself from
Court; but the D----ss and he were nevertheless seen as public Abroad as
ever, and received abundance of Visits at Home. In short, a Man is only
shunn’d here for being a Criminal, or a Coward.

There’s no King serv’d with greater Respect than a King of _Great
Britain_: Even the Peers minister to him upon the Knee. His Family is very
numerous; his Guards, which are spruce, form a considerable Body; his
Court is always very much throng’d; and in short, he wants nothing of the
Honours of Royalty. Since the late Revolution, a King is not accountable
for any Thing he does; and the Ministers alone are culpable, and
responsible to the Parliament for any Thing that happens wrong.

The present King is not tall, but very well shap’d, has a stately Port, a
very grave Countenance, and speaks little, but with great Propriety. The
_French_, _English_, and the _Italian_ Languages are as familiar to him as
the _German_. He reads a vast deal, and knows more than most do, who wear
the Royal Diadem. Being not puffed up with Pageantry, and vain Grandeur,
he does not give into superfluous Magnificence; but is an Œconomist,
without Avarice; liberal, without being profuse; an Enemy to Vice, and a
Friend to Virtue; sober and regular in his Ways and Manners; of a lively
Temper, full of Spirit and Ambition, but submitting both the one and the
other to Reason. He is active and laborious; understands Affairs, has a
quick Apprehension, and a wonderful Memory. As Electoral Prince of
_Hanover_, he gave Proofs of his Valour in the _Netherlands_ at the
Battles of _Oudenarde_ and _Malplaquet_; as Prince of _Wales_, he shew’d
that Adversity could not abate his Courage; and as King and Elector, he
makes it evident, that he can both forgive an Injury, and forget it. His
People are happy under his Reign. In _England_ his only Study is to
maintain the Peace and Balance of _Europe_, to make Commerce flourish, and
to render the Nation one of the most powerful in the World. At _Hanover_
he endeavours, by good Offices to his Subjects there, to alleviate their
Sorrow for his Absence. He has not made any miserable since he begun his
Reign; and if the Blessings of the People help to prolong the Days of
their Kings, his _Britannic_ Majesty may hope for one of the longest of

The Queen is a Princess in whose Person every thing that challenges
Respect does at the same time command Affection. Her Presence is majestic,
but accompany’d with Modesty and Good-nature; her Behaviour is the most
courteous that can be; and her Wit, which is both solid and sparkling, is
adorn’d with a thousand fine Accomplishments. She ever look’d upon all the
trifling Amusements of her Sex with Disdain; and particularly never
affected Ornament in Dress. The reading of choice Authors was always one
of her greatest Pleasures; and her Majesty may be said to be one of the
most learned Princesses in _Europe_. Having lost the Margrave of
_Brandenburg Anspach_ her Father, when she was very young, and her Mother
the Princess of _Saxe-Eysenach_ marrying again to _John George_ IV.
Elector of _Saxony_, she was left under the Guardianship of _Frederic_
Elector of _Brandenburg_, afterwards King of _Prussia_; by which means she
spent Part of her early Days at the Court of _Berlin_, where the
Electoress, who was Sister to the late King _George_ I. gave her a
Tincture of her own Politeness, and inspired her with those sublime
Sentiments, for which she was admired by all that approach’d her. The
young Princess of _Anspach_ had at that time all the Charms of Nature; and
the Fame of her Beauty attracted the Addresses of _Charles_ III. King of
_Spain_, our august Emperor, who offered her his Hand and his Crown: But
the Princess was so strongly attach’d to her Religion, that she refused
both. God reserv’d her, no doubt, to make _Great Britain_ happy, and she
married the Electoral Prince of _Brunswic-Lunenbourg_. Not many Years
after this, she saw (but without any visible Emotion of Joy) her
Father-in-Law and her Husband call’d to the Possession of one of the chief
Thrones in the World. I was then at _Hanover_, and will venture to assure
you, that the whole Electoral Family heard of this new Addition to their
Greatness with a Moderation which render’d them worthy of their Fortune;
and the Princess in particular demonstrated, that she was thoroughly
satisfy’d in her Mind, that she could be happy without a Crown, and that
both her Father-in-Law and her Husband were already Kings in her Eye,
because they so highly deserved that Title. When she became Princess of
_Wales_, she was so prudent as to keep fair with both the Parties which
then divided the Royal Family. The late King had a sincere Esteem for her,
and she in return paid him very great Respect. And[124]now that she is
Queen, her Majesty contributes all that’s in her Power to make the
Subjects happy. The King lets her into a Share of Affairs, and leaves the
Regency of the Kingdom to her in his Absence.

Among the Joys of their _Britannic_ Majesties we ought to reckon the
numerous Family with which Heaven has bless’d ’em. It consists of two
Princes and five Princesses. The eldest, who has the Style and Title of
Prince of _Wales_, tho’ he is not very tall, has a majestic Air, and when
among the Courtiers, is easily distinguish’d to be the chief Personage. He
is extremely civil, affable, good-natured and polite. It may be truly said
of him, that he has the Soul of a King; for few Princes are more generous.
He loves Pleasures and Magnificence; he is gallant, has a penetrating
Genius, talks very much, but always with Judgment, and to the Point. He is
Master of several Languages, and understands History and Geography. He is
perfect in all his Exercises, and really is not ignorant of any one Thing
that a Prince of his Rank ought to know. The _Hanoverians_, among whom he
was educated, ador’d him, and the _English_ seem altogether as fond of

The young Duke of _Cumberland_, second Son to their Majesties, resembles
what the Painters represent to us by the Name of _Cupid_. He has Sense
infinitely superior to his Age, is very dexterous, and an apt Scholar. He
speaks _English_, _High-Dutch_, _Latin_, and _French_; and I think more
than this cannot be expected of a Prince who is not yet full thirteen
Years of Age[125].

Of the five Princesses I shall only mention the three eldest, the other
two being as yet too young for a Character. The eldest, whom they call the
_Princess Royal_[126], has an excellent Shape, and an Aspect of Modesty
and Goodness, which wins the Hearts of all that see her. Her Temper is as
engaging as her Physiognomy; and her Mind, which is disengaged from all
Trifles, is more solid than might be expected from her Age. The reading of
good Books, Conversation with Persons of Merit, and her Application to
Music, are her chief Employments. She is extremely civil, and obligeing;
and they say, she is generous and beneficent. ’Tis a Pleasure to see her
on Horseback; she dances with a very good Grace, and really has all the
Virtues becoming her high Birth.

The Princesses _Amelia_ and _Caroline_, were they not the most shining
Beauties, have personal Charms, and such Qualities of the Mind as cannot
fail in time of making some Prince or other happy.

With these Characters of the Royal Family I shall conclude my Letter,
which is already long enough: I shall give you the rest of my Remarks
without Delay. In the mean time be assured, that I am always with an
inviolable Attachment, &c.


                              LETTER LIV.

  _SIR_,                                        _London, May 4, 1733._

The last brought us to the Royal Family, and what relates to the Court.
The latter is more numerous than brilliant, if it be certain that
Pleasures form the Splendor of a Court. Of these their Majesties don’t
seem to be fond, at least of those noisy Pleasures, that instead of
unbending the Mind, which ought to be the Aim of all Pleasures, only serve
to fatigue it.

’Tis very easy to obtain the Honour of being introduced to their
Majesties, and the Royal Family, nothing more being necessary, than to
send in one’s Name to the Duke of _Grafton_, his Majesty’s Lord
Chamberlain, and my Lord _Grantham_, the Queen’s Master of the Horse.
People go to the King’s Levee, and the Queen’s Drawing-Room, as they do in
_France_. Their Majesties dine in Public only upon _Sundays_, when none
eat with ’em but their Children. The Table is in Form of an oblong Square,
in the Middle of which sit the King and Queen, with the Prince of _Wales_
on the Right, and the three eldest Princesses on the Left. The Service
here is performed in the same Manner as it is in _France_. The Table is
plac’d in the midst of a Hall, surrounded with Benches to the very
Cieling, which are fill’d with an infinite Number of Spectators. The same
Room serves also for the Balls, when there are any at Court. Three times
a Week there’s an Apartment here, called the _Drawing-Room_, which is
open’d at Ten o’Clock at Night. About this Hour the Ladies repair to the
said Apartment, which consists of three great Salons, made by the
Direction of Queen _Anne_, which are the only tolerable Rooms in all St.
_James_’s Palace. The King comes to it attended not only by the Queen, who
is led by the Prince of _Wales_, but by the Princesses her Daughters.
Their Majesties converse there for a few Moments with such Persons as they
are pleased to distinguish; after which the Queen makes a profound Curtsy
to the King, and goes to play for about an Hour with the Princess-Royal,
and two Ladies, whom her Majesty singles out of the Company, and a little
before Midnight their Majesties retire. Upon those Days that there’s no
Drawing-Room, the King and Queen are generally at the Opera, or the
Play-house. In fine Weather they take the Air in St. _James_’s Park, or
the Suburbs of _London_. In Summer-time their Majesties are for the most
part at _Kensington_, _Windsor_, or _Hampton-Court_, the two last of which
Palaces are beautiful. The first of these was built by the famous Cardinal
_Wolsey_, the Favourite of King _Henry_ VIII. and before _Lewis_ XIV.
began to build; was reckon’d the finest Palace in _Europe_.

The King does not hunt much, but employs most of his Time with his
Ministers, consulting the Welfare of his Dominions. Of these Sir ROBERT
WALPOLE is the Principal, and he is the only Commoner in _Great Britain_
that is honoured with the Order of the Garter. This Minister, who is not
less applauded by the Court Party, than he is censured by the contrary
Faction, has the general Veneration and Esteem of all the Courts of
_Europe_; where ’tis confess’d to be owing to his Direction that the
Cabinet of St. _James_’s gives Motion at this Time to all _Europe_, and
that he is the Soul of all Councils, all Deliberations, and all
Resolutions. Sir _Robert Walpole_ seems, in my Opinion, to be attended
with the Fate of my Lord Duke of _Marlborough_, who, tho’ admir’d by the
whole World, and even by those to whom he did most Mischief, was hardly
valued in his own Country, which he crown’d with Glory and Prosperity. I
shall say nothing to you at present of this Gentleman’s private Character,
because I am not yet well enough acquainted with it. As I have no Business
with him, I see him pass along; and that’s all. I want some Neutral Man
(that is to say, one who is neither for nor against this Minister) that
knows him well, and will let me into the Knowledge of him too. If I am so
fortunate as to find out such a Person, I will impart to you such Lights
as he shall give me. Mean time I hear him talk’d of in Public as one that
understands the Constitution of the Kingdom better than any Man in it, who
thoroughly knows the Strength and Weakness of the State, and one whom
nothing terrifies, nothing astonishes: And I may add, there’s no Man more
bold and enterprizing. He perfectly knows his Countrymen, and has the true
Art of Government: And no Body speaks with more Eloquence in Parliament;
where whatever he proposes seldom fails of being pass’d; and the
Lower-house is, as one may say, determined by him.

His greatest Opponents in Parliament are Mr. _P----y_ in the House of
Commons, and my Lord _St----d_ in the House of Peers. This Lord, you know,
was for a long time Ambassador from Queen _Anne_ to the Court of _Berlin_,
and afterwards to the States General; and that it was he that sign’d the
Treaty of Peace at _Utrecht_: He was a Member of the Privy Council when
the Queen died; but King _George_ I. did not think fit continue him; at
which his Lordship being disgusted, absented from Court, and became in
Parliament the Censor of the Ministers. After the Death of King _George_
I. the Earl paid his Respects to their present Majesties, who received him
with very great Marks of Distinction; which however did not hinder his
constant Opposition to the Measures of the Court: Yet it cannot be deny’d
that his Lordship behav’d with very great Prudence in the Changes that
happened upon the Accession of the _Brunswic_ Family to the Throne. This
Lord, speaking to me one Day of those Alterations, in the Voyage which I
made hither in 1728, told me, that if he had been rul’d by the Duke of
_Ormond_, he would have been in the same miserable Circumstances as that
Duke. “He did all he could, _said he_, to persuade me to quit the Kingdom
with him; but he was so far from decoying me away, that I made use of all
the Rhetoric I was Master of, to persuade him to stay at home, because we
had neither of us done any thing but by Order of the Queen our Mistress;
that therefore we had nothing to fear, and that the worst that could
happen to us would be a Censure. But the Duke had such a Terror upon him,
that all these Arguments were not powerful enough to encourage him; and
but a few Hours before he went off, he came and conjured me to leave the
Kingdom with him. I made him this Answer: _I have nothing to reproach
myself with_, my Lord, _I have obeyed the Queen, and I have too high an
Opinion of the Justice of my Country, and too great a Confidence in the
Equity of the King, to fear any Thing_. The Answer which the Duke made me
was, _Well then_, my Lord, _I must take the same Farewel of you as the_
Prince of Orange _did of_ Count Egmont. FAREWEL, COUNT WITHOUT A HEAD. To
which I replied, FAREWEL, DUKE WITHOUT A DUCHY. The Event has shewn, that
I was a better Prophet than the Duke of _Ormond_: For I enjoy my Estate in
Peace, whereas what he had is taken from him.” In the same Conversation
the Earl talked a great deal to me of their Majesties, and in Terms of the
profoundest Respect. He expressed an infinite Value for the King, who when
Prince of _Wales_, said he, always treated him with very great Regard and
Goodness. Nevertheless this Lord seldom appears at Court: He spends the
Summer in the Country, and the Winter at _London_, where once a Week he
has an Assembly; but in other respects he lives very retired, and at no
great Expence.

The Duke of _Newcastle_ is Secretary of State. This Nobleman is extremely
civil, very rich, and lives grand. He has the Province of foreign Affairs,
in Conjunction with my Lord _Harrington_, who, when he was only Colonel
_Stanhope_, gain’d Reputation as Ambassador in _Spain_, and at the
Congress of _Soissons_. I knew this Minister at _Madrid_ in 1719, and can
vouch for him, that he is one of the worthiest and soberest Men in the
World. He is good-natur’d, modest, generous, and mighty sincere. He is shy
of new Acquaintance, but when once a Man knows him, the better he will
like him.

I don’t think that the Ministers of this Country, or the Nobility, are so
haughty as they are represented in our Country; and have Reason to think,
that they who say the _English_ are not civil to Foreigners, have not been
very conversant with ’em. ’Tis true, they are not so engaging as the
_French_; but when a Man is known among them, gives into their Ways, and
courts their Favour, in short, they are, methinks, as courteous and civil
as any other People in the World. An _Englishman_ won’t be saying at every
Turn, _That he has the Honour to be your most humble Servant; that he has
the Honour to say, to hear_, and so of the rest. He will say it perhaps
once in a Conversation, and that’s all; nor, on the other hand, does he
want to be loaded with Compliments, Acknowledgments, and impertinent Bows.
As he is above Trifles, he looks upon all those frothy Expressions as
frivolous; and this it is that makes our young Travellers think, that the
_English_ are not polite. Such far-fetcht and bombast Phrases are commonly
all that those Sparks have learnt at a great deal of Expence in their
Travels to _France_, and they are perfectly astonished, when they come
into a Land of good Sense, and see so little Notice taken of what they
have paid for so dear, and what has cost them so much Pains to acquire.

There are some _English_ People, who upon certain Occasions seem to forget
the Persons they were great with but the Day before. In my former Voyage
to this Country, I was at first surprised at this sort of Behaviour, and
ascribed the Cause of it to the Pride of the _English_; but I was
convinced afterwards, that it was owing much more to a melancholy Temper,
which is general to almost the whole Nation. An _Englishman_ of this Cast
is not the less a Friend upon that Account, and if one does not take
Notice of that Unevenness of Temper, he will naturally come to himself,
and they readily forgive their Friend for any Absence of Thought. In
short, the _English_ have their Failings, because they are but Men; but I
shall always pay very great Credit to an _Englishman_, when he tells me,
that he is my Friend. In order to acquire the Friendship of these People,
’tis absolutely necessary to speak their Language. Many of them
understand _French_ and _Italian_, but they don’t care to speak foreign
Languages; and when they do, ’tis either from Necessity or Constraint. Now
Constraint is what the _English_ don’t at all like; for as they enjoy the
greatest Liberty of any People in the World, they have an Aversion to
every Thing which cramps it.

Their Manners differ extremely from those of the _French_, which is what
the latter are at a Loss to account for; because they have been always so
much imitated by all other Nations, that they think themselves the
Directors of Mankind, and that the _English_ do them an Injustice in not
following their Copies. To give you my Judgment as to the Manners of these
two Nations, is what I shall not undertake, being restrained from it by
several Considerations, especially the Fear of doing Wrong either to the
one or the other, and that I should not give a right Judgment in so great
a Cause. They are both perhaps not exempt from very great Failings; but it
seems to me, that the _English_ are not the Slaves of that Tyrant, Custom,
and chuse to follow their Genius and good Sense. They don’t surfeit
themselves with those Nothings which the _French_ call Politeness, and
which seem to be invented only to pass away the Time. In fine, to speak my
Mind plainly, if I was but twenty Years of Age, I could like to be a
complete _Frenchman_; but now that I am forty, I am perfectly reconciled
to the Manners and Customs of the _English_.

A Zeal for Religion seems to me to be the only Point in which there is a
Conformity of Temper between the two Nations: And tho’ they differ widely
in Principles, yet they both cry out loudly for the Privileges of their
Church, and both have equally their Fanatics. For tho’ _London_ has not
such as are Devotees to St. _Paris_, it has other Sectaries, who are as
senseless. For the rest, the two Nations may boast of having produced a
great Number of good Men, as appears from the many good Books of Devotion
and Morality, for which we are obliged to them. And as for Libertines, I
think neither Nation has reason to reproach the other, and that there are
as many at _London_ as at _Paris_.

The _English_ are run down for their Cruelty, but I know not for what
Reason, unless it be, that in a Battle they do not readily give Quarter,
and are apt to pursue their Advantage too far. I fansy it would be easy to
prove, that other Nations, who charge the _English_ with this Vice, are
more cruel than they. For in short, the Barbarities committed in the
Conquest of _Mexico_, the burning of the _Palatinate_, the Massacre of St.
_Bartholomew_, the _Sicilian_ Vespers, the Assassinations of the best of
Kings, are Cruelties that are not to be matched in the History of
_England_. We don’t hear of those Assassinations in this Country, that are
committed elsewhere; and even the Highwaymen seem to be more humane here
than Abroad; for they generally content themselves with what is given
them, without shedding of Blood; and some of them are so generous, as to
give Money to People whom other Highwaymen had stripped. ’Tis
inconceiveable how many Stratagems these Rogues make use of to carry their
Points. I have been told a great many Stories upon this Head, of which I
give you the following, because I think ’twas very well contrived.

As a Nobleman was travelling in his Coach, the Roads were so extremely
bad, that his Servants who were on Horseback, were forced to turn out of
the High-Road into a By-Way. His Lordship came by Degrees into a Vale,
where he met with a Man on Horseback, who putting a Gun into the Coach,
said to him, _My Lord, this is a good Gun; ’tis worth a hundred Pieces
between Friends; I would advise you to buy it_. The Nobleman understood
his Meaning, but being defenceless, he drew a hundred Guineas out of his
Purse, which the Highwayman took, and gave him the Gun. The first Thing
that my Lord did, was to present it at the Highwayman; but he told him,
that he was not afraid of him; for, in short, the Gun was not charged, so
that my Lord could not recover his Money.

As the Highwaymen are so artful in committing Robberies, they are much
more so in escaping Justice. A Highwayman, who had also committed a Murder
near _London_, some Years ago, rode fifty _French_ Leagues that Day, upon
the same Horse. When he came to the Place where he thought himself safe,
he took out his Watch; and shewing it to the People of the Inn where he
sat up, _I call you to witness_, said he, _that at such an Hour I came
hither, and I desire you to give me a Certificate of it in Writing_. They
gave him one accordingly, which Piece of Paper saved his Life; for when he
was apprehended, his Judges being assured that he was the Murderer, were
just going to condemn him, when he ask’d them, At what o’Clock the Murder
was committed? The Judges having told him the Hour, _How come you to
think_, said he, _that ’twas possible for me so be guilty of the Crime of
which you accuse me, when I was that very Day fifty Leagues from the Place
where ’twas committed_? The Judges, thinking it out of the Power of Man to
be there, and so far off too, in that Time, set the Culprit at Liberty.
Mean time, the President being persuaded that he was guilty, ask’d him
privately how it was; and the Highwayman, after having made him promise
to keep the Secret, confessed the Fact.

I could tell you a Number of such Stories, not so much to convince you,
that the _English_ are not cruel, as to prove to you, that their
Highwaymen are cunning. All the Laws here are mild, and not severe. There
are no Tortures, nor are such made use of, even in Conspiracies. Nobody is
condemned to die, if he be not found guilty before two Tribunals or
Juries, composed of Persons who are, as near as can be, Men of equal Rank
with the Party accused. The first Tribunal must consist of more than
twelve Persons, but twelve is the Number by whom the Bill must be found.
The second Tribunal consists precisely of twelve Jurymen, who must all be
agreed in their Verdict, and be shut up together, without being allowed
Victuals or Drink, till they are all of the same Opinion. There are but
two Sorts of Execution known here, _viz._ Hanging and Beheading, of which
the last is reserved only for such as are Peers of the Realm.

It seems to me, by what I have now told you, that the _English_ are as
humane, and more so, than we are, who refine upon Tortures and Executions;
as if ’twere nothing to make a Man suffer, and that ’twas not enough to
take that Life from him, which no Monarch in the World can prolong one
Moment, much less restore to him from whom he has once taken it.

The Execution of Criminals here is a perfect Shew to the People, by Reason
of the Courage with which most of ’em go to the fatal Tree. I lately saw
five carried to the Gallows, who were dressed, and seemed to be as well
pleased, as if they were going to a Feast. The Executions here are not
performed with that terrible Apparatus as they are elsewhere. There is not
that Number of Halbardiers, nor all that Gravity, which sometimes strikes
a greater Awe than the Execution itself. A Criminal goes to the Gallows
here in a Cart. When he is directly under it, he is fastened to the Top of
it, when a Smack of a Whip makes the Horses draw away the Cart, and the
Criminal remains hanging. I am told, that his Friends or Neighbours pull
him by the Feet, in order to dispatch him the sooner. They who die without
Fainting, are always extolled to the Skies by the Populace, and the least
of their Characters are, that they died like brave Gentlemen.

’Tis one of the distinguishing Characters of an _Englishman_, to be
intrepid in the Article of Death. We are forbid by Religion, to approve of
that Contempt of Life; yet we can’t help admiring it in the _Romans_, from
whom the _English_ have, no doubt, derived the Practice of putting an End
to their Days, when Life is a Burden to them. These Self-Murders are but
too frequent here, and are committed by Persons of good Families, as well
as by the Dregs of the People. I gave you an Instance in one of my Letters
from _Paris_, of a certain Bookbinder and his Wife, who hang’d themselves
at _London_, for fear of that Misery in Life which they thought
unavoidable. I could give you other Instances as tragical, if I were not
apprehensive, that such melancholy Catastrophes would give you Horror.
Mean time you must agree with me in the Impossibility of accounting for
such a strange odd Turn of Mind in these People; for in short, other
Nations don’t seem by their Actions to have any more Religion than the
_English_, and they are all equally sensible of Misfortunes; yet one
rarely hears of a Foreigner makeing an Attempt upon himself. How come the
_English_ then to be so free with Life? Does it proceed from a greater
Sense of Courage, or of Cowardice?

A great many of ’em hang themselves purely for Love. I own to you, that if
I were so forsaken by God, as to commit such a foolish Prank, it should be
for an _English_ Woman. They have, in my Opinion, such an Air of Modesty
and Good-nature, and withal, such a bashful Simplicity, as charm me, and
such tender languishing Eyes too, as tho’ not universally pleasing, yet
captivate me to such a Degree, that if I was but twenty Years of Age, I
should have gone very much astray. Most of the _English_ Women are
handsome; they have the finest Hair in the World, and are only obliged to
pure Nature for the Beauty of their Complexions. ’Tis a Pleasure to see
them blush. The frankest of ’em retain an Air of Modesty, which would
persuade one, that they don’t affect to be wicked. They are commonly very
richly dressed, but not altogether in the Taste of the _French_ Ladies,
which is the only Fault that I find with ’em. They seem to affect Dressing
to their Disadvantage. Their Gowns so close before, with strait Sleeves,
which don’t reach beyond the Elbow, make them look as if they had no
Shoulders nor Breasts. And what is worse than all, they have broad flat
Rumps to their Gowns, and Hoop-Petticoats, narrow at the Top, and
monstrously wide at the Bottom. They are always laced, and ’tis as rare to
see a Woman here without her Stays on, as it is to see one at _Paris_ in a
full Dress. I wish the _English_ Ladies would take Pattern by the _French_
a little more in their Dress; for in my Judgment, the Knots of Ribban in
their Cornets, and a thousand Trinkets with which the latter set
themselves off, are very becoming to the Sex. On the other hand, I should
be glad, if the young Gentlemen did not imitate the _French_ Air and
Dress so much as they do; but kept to the Manners of their own Country,
which are more suitable to the Men. They say, that among the good
Qualities of the Women here, they are equally susceptible themselves of
the Passion of Love, which they are so apt to kindle in the Men. This is
very good, and perfectly natural; for in my Opinion, nothing is so ill
becoming to the Fair Sex as Hard-heartedness, the rather, because I
believe ’tis possible for a Woman to be in Love, without abandoning

The Ladies here have little to employ them; their Amusement being to give
and receive Visits, to go often to Court, to have the Pleasure of being
seen, which really is of all Pleasures that which they seem to take most
Delight in. This is the Motive that carries them to the public Walks,
Concerts, and Theatres; in all which Places they are mightily reserved,
have but little Talk, and their chief Conversation is the Flutter of their
Fans. I was one Day paying a Visit at a House where there was an Assembly
of twenty Women, and not one Man besides myself: They look’d upon one
another, but did not speak a Word. I may defy you to shew me any other
Place where there’s a Score of Women in Company, and not one Tongue
stirring. As for the rest, the Women here enjoy great Liberty. They turn
out in a Morning, with a black velvet Mask on their Faces, a Coif on, in
form of a Hat, with the Brims down, a round Gown, and a white Apron; and
in this Trim they go to the Park, or whithersoever they please. They take
the Air very much on Horseback. In short, they do what they have a Mind
to. Mean time the Husbands are seldom of their Parties, and trouble
themselves very little whither they go, being too much Philosophers, and
of too good Sense, to make their Honour dependent on the Virtue of their
Wives, which at the same time, I verily believe, to be in less Danger here
than elsewhere, it being not the Genius of the _English_, to take a great
deal of Pains for an Amour; and I am persuaded, that _Hercules_’s Love for
_Omphale_ will never be equalled in this Country.

The Pleasures of this great City are of many and various Kinds; yet I have
known _Englishmen_, at their Return from _Paris_, say, they thought
_London_ too dull a Place for ’em to live in. Others would argue with me,
that there’s more Diversion at _Rome_. You know, Sir, what I have related
to you, of the Pleasures both of _Rome_ and _Paris_; and after I have
given you an Account of those of _London_, such as they are, or may be
taken, you shall be the Judge betwixt those _Frenchify’d_ or _Italianized
Englishmen_, and me.

A Man of Sense, a Scholar, a Devotee; in one Word, a Man, is never at a
Loss here for suitable Company, and I defy him to meet with better on the
other Side of the Herring-Pond: The irregular Man, or rather the Deboshee,
has here his full Swing: And the fine Gentleman, whom I place in a Medium
betwixt the two Extremes, has enough to regale his Appetite. As the
Species of the latter, is the most prevailing, we will shew how he passes
his Time: He rises late, puts on a Frock, (which is a close-body’d Coat,
without Pockets or Plaits, and with strait Sleeves) and leaving his Sword
at home, takes his Cane, and goes where he pleases. The Park is commonly
the Place he walks to, because ’tis the Exchange for Men of Quality. There
he has it at his Choice to make any Engagement whatsoever. Then he goes
home to dress, and afterwards saunters to some Coffee-house, or
Chocolate-house, frequented by the Person he would see; for ’tis a sort
of Rule with the _English_, to go, once a Day at least, to Houses of this
Sort, where they talk of Business and News, read the Papers, and often
look at one another, without opening their Lips; and ’tis very well they
are so mute; for if they were as talkative as the People of many other
Nations, the Coffee-houses would be intolerable, and there would be no
hearing what one Man said, where there are so many. The Chocolate-house in
St. _James_’s-street, whither I go every Morning, to pass away the Time,
is always so full that a Man can scarce turn about in it. Here are Dukes,
and other Peers, mixed with Gentlemen; and to be admitted, there needs
nothing more than to dress like a Gentleman. At one o’Clock, they go to
Court, to the King’s Levee, and from thence to the Queen’s Apartment,
where is commonly a great Number of Ladies, very well dressed. At three
o’Clock they all retire to their several Appointments. Dinners here are
very expensive, and parties at Taverns very much in Fashion. At private
Houses the Ladies retire as soon as Dinner is over, and the Men remain at
the Table; upon which, the Cloth being taken off, the Footmen place a
Bottle of Wine, or more, if all the Guests don’t drink the same Sort, with
Glasses well rinsed, and then they withdraw, only one waits at the
Beaufet. The Bottle now goes round; every one fills his Glass as he
pleases, and drinks as much, or as little as he will; but they always
drink too much, because they sit too long at it.

When the Company breaks up from Table, if it be fine Weather, they go out
again for the Air, either in a Coach to _Hide_ Park, where the Ring is, or
else on Foot to St. _James_’s Park. In the Winter they make Visits till
the Plays begin; but these Representations really deserve a separate
Article, and you shall have it by-and-by at large. After the Opera’s or
Plays are over, the Company goes to the Assemblies, which are alternative,
sometimes at one Lord’s House, and sometimes at another’s, or else they
repair to the _Drawing-room_. At Midnight they go to Supper. The Companies
formed at the Taverns are the merriest, and _Bacchus_ is commonly seconded
by _Venus_. At Day light the jolly Carousers retire home. Judge, after
what I have now said, whether a young Gentleman has not as much to amuse
himself at _London_, as at _Paris_ and _Rome_. Believe me, that they who
say that this City is too melancholy for ’em, only say so to give
themselves an Air.

At private Houses the Tables are served with as much Neatness and Delicacy
as in any Country in the World. There are three Dishes commonly at each
Course, and Plates are often laid two or three deep, which is the Reason
that People always eat more than they would otherwise, and that Abundance
of Time is spent at Table. There is excellent Beef here; and I am in Love
with their Puddings, which are made of Flour, Eggs, Crumbs of Bread, and
in short, a thousand Ingredients that I know nothing of, but all together
make very good Fare. There’s one Custom established in these Houses, which
to be sure you would not dislike, _viz._ That at the first Time of a Man’s
Introduction to a Family, he salutes the Mistress of the House with a
Kiss, which tho’ but a very modest one, ’tis a Pleasure to see a Colour
come into the Lady’s Cheeks, as if they had committed a Fault. A second
Custom, which is not so agreeable as the former, is, that after a Man has
been entertained, something must be given to the Servants of the House:
And this Gift must be proportioned to the Rank of the Master of the House
at whose Table you have sat; so that if a Duke gives me a Dinner four
times a Week, his Footmen would pocket as much of my Money, as would
serve my Expences at the Tavern for a Week. I wonder why the _English_
keep up this Custom, those especially who live so magnificently, and pay
their Domestics so handsomely, that I believe they are as happy as any of
their Class in the World.

The Tavern Reckonings run excessive high, but then there’s the best of
Attendance and Accommodation; in which respect I prefer them to the
Cabarets of _Paris_, where the Table Linen is generally very course and

The Assemblies here are so throng’d, that there’s hardly any stirring.
Nevertheless, there are seldom more than three or four Gaming-Tables.
Almost every body is standing. They are in perpetual Motion, like a Swarm
of Ants; they jostle and squeeze by one another, then ask Pardon, pass
mutual Compliments, and just inquire after one another’s Health; but ’tis
in a manner impossible to hold a Conversation.

The gayest and most numerous Assembly in _Europe_ is upon the Ball-Days at
the Grand Theatre in the _Hay Market_. I can safely say, that I never saw
a finer Sight in my Life. Sometimes there are no less than three thousand
in Company. Every Person pays a Guinea, for which they are accommodated
with all manner of Refreshments, and all the Sorts of Wines imaginable,
besides a stately Desert of Fruit and Sweetmeats. All this numerous
Assembly parades in several Rooms richly adorned, and completely
illuminated. In several of these they dance, and in others there’s Play.
The Entertainment opens with a Concert perform’d by the ablest Musicians
in _London_. Then the Ball begins, and holds till next Morning. At these
Balls the Company are often mask’d, and then the King and the Prince of
_Wales_ honour them with their Presence; but the Queen and the Princesses
are never there. At all these Entertainments, every body appears very well
dressed, and the Ladies especially are stuck all over with Jewels; for
there is no Country in the World where there are finer Diamonds. The
_English_ Dances are Country-dances, which require several Couples at a
time; and all that perform in them, close in by Turns, which gives
Opportunities of making an Acquaintance. The Tunes to which they dance are
so brisk, that I fansy they would be more agreeable to the Vivacity of the
_French_, than the Sedateness of the _English_.

As to Plays, the _English_ are fond of them, and have more of ’em than any
other Nation. They have an _Italian_ Opera, which is the best and most
magnificent in _Europe_. They pay a Guinea for the Boxes, half a Guinea
for the Pit, and a Crown for the Gallery. But though ’tis always crouded,
yet it won’t defray the Expences of Acting; so that several of the
Nobility contribute to the Salaries of the Actors, which are extravagant;
but then they have the best Voices of _Italy_. An Actor, whose Name is
_Senesino_, has one thousand five hundred Pounds a Year, besides Presents
in Abundance. The Music of these Operas is generally composed by one
_Handel_, who is esteemed by a great many People beyond all Expression,
but others reckon him no extraordinary Man; and for my own part, I think
his Music not so affecting as ’tis elegant. The Decorations are very fine,
and the Room is very large, and much more beautiful than that at _Paris_.
The Company sit for most part in the Pit, where the Ladies form
Semi-Circles, so that all their Faces are seen, which makes a very good
Effect. I forgot to tell you, that the whole is well illuminated with Wax
candles. There’s Dancing between the Acts, when there is no burlesque

Besides the _Italian_ Opera, there’s an _English_ one, where they sing
only the Tunes, the rest being recited. This, I think, is more just, than
when the whole is sung; at least a Man does not sing when he is killing or
beating himself.

The _English_ Comedy is no less esteemed by the _English_, than it has
been severely criticiz’d by the _French_, who say, ’tis not comparable to
theirs. The Wits of both Nations have treated this important Subject very
gravely, and have alike shewn their Presumption. I am far from giving my
Judgment betwixt them; but I must say, that it seems to me, that the
_French_ are too much cramp’d by their Rules, and the _English_ not
enough. Thus do the two Nations discover the Difference of their Taste,
the one for Obedience, the other for Liberty. Tho’ the _English_ are not
such nice Observers of the Simplicity of the Subject, and the Unity of
Place, yet they seem to me to abound in happy Sentiments: And how much
prejudiced soever they may be said to be in Favour of their own
Productions, yet they do not want an Esteem for such _French_ Pieces,
where they meet with Sentiments that are agreeable. The Tragedy of
_Brutus_ by _Voltaire_ is just translated here, which is a Piece that has
had a better Run even at _London_, than at _Paris_; and as it was composed
by the Author in _England_, he was so intirely captivated with the Freedom
of Thinking among the _English_, that he had in some measure forgot he was
a _Frenchman_, and speaks in it of Kings as if they were but Men.

The Plays lead me to give you an Account of the rest of those Pleasures in
which the _English_ seem to take Delight. They hunt much, but in a Manner
very different from us. They ride exceeding hard, and hunt a poor Hare
with as much Eagerness as they pursue a routed Enemy. Their Hounds, and
their Horses too, encourage their Keenness for the Sport, there being not
the like in the World for Speed; so that _England_ furnishes almost all
the Nobility in _Europe_ with Horses and Dogs, as the King of _Denmark_
does with Falcons.

The Swiftness of the _English_ Horses is the Reason that there are
Horse-Races every Year at a Place called _Newmarket_; and this really is
what Travellers may say is worth seeing. These Races continue for several
Days successively, and infinitely surpass those which are seen in _Italy_.
They are run round a large Plain. Two Horses mounted by Jockeys contend
which shall run fastest. The Riders are weighed, and to the lightest of
them they give that Weight which he wants of the other. They ride without
a Saddle, and with such Velocity, that the Eye can scarce keep Pace with
’em. Upon these Occasions, Wagers are laid of several thousand Pounds
Sterling: And it seems to be a Festival celebrated to the Honour of
_Plutus_, the God of Riches; for the Jockey that wins the Prize is sure to
be refreshed with a Shower of Guineas, every one crouding to reward him.
Such is the Custom of the _English_, who not only pay those handsomely who
contribute to their Pleasures, but load them with Presents. This is to be
seen at all the Prize-sightings, Rope-dancings, Tumblings, and such
Diversions, where every one throws down Money upon the Stage to them that
play their Part best. The Actors at the Opera and the Play-houses have
also Gratuities, besides their Salaries; for once a Year, every Performer
has a Benefit-Night, as they call it, which is the Surplus Money then
taken, over and above the Charges of the House; and if the Person be a
Favourite of the Town, as Notice is given by Play-Bills pasted up, for
whose Benefit the Play is to be acted, People send for more Tickets than
they shall make use of, for the Party’s Encouragement. This Generosity of
the _English_ towards those who give them Pleasure, extends in a
particular Manner towards their Mistresses, for whom they think nothing
too fine, nor too dear. Thus, ’tis not to Assiduity that they are willing
to be obliged for the Favours which they receive, but to their Money, and
their Presents; wherein they differ widely from certain Abbés of _Rome_,
of whom no less than five or six club for the keeping of one Mistress.

These Abbés put me in mind of a numerous Tribe here, called _Chaplains_,
whose bonny Countenances are a pretty evident Proof, that at the
Reformation of the Church of _England_, their Revenues were not very much
impaired. Whether these Gentlemen are more sober than our Clergy, I know
not; but by Appearances I am almost tempted to think, that they have the
same Thirst for Honour and Wealth, the same Cares and Uneasiness; in fine,
that they are Men alike. The Difference is, that the _English_ are subject
to the Laws, that their Passions are kept within Bounds, and that the
Laity are not so superstitious as to take them for Oracles. ’Tis said that
they make admirable Sermons, the constant Tenor of which is to reform
Mankind, and to guide them in the Path of Virtue. They read them instead
of pronouncing them by Heart, which prevents them from falling into that
extravagant Gesticulation, and those mad Rants and Enthusiasm, which
commonly irritate more than edify. But I think I have said enough to you
of the Clergy, when I had undertaken to give you a farther Account of the
_English_ Diversions. Those of the Vulgar are, the Battles of Animals,
Prize-fighters, Wrestlers, and in a Word, all Manner of Diversions that
contribute to the shedding of Blood; for here, Wounds go for nothing, and
Death itself is but little dreaded. I fansy the _English_ are descended
from _Mutius Scævola_, because, like that _Roman_, they despise Pain.
Among the Pleasures of the Populace there are some too that are mixed with
Insolence; of which I saw an Instance a few Days ago in St. _James_’s
Park. A Man had laid a Wager, that he would run round the Park in so many
Minutes; and that he might be the less incumbered in his Race, he stripped
himself stark naked, so that his Hand served him for a Fig-leaf. In this
State of Nature he travers’d along the Mall, thro’ an infinite Concourse
of People. The Ladies, astonish’d at such a Sight, knew not how to keep
their Countenances: Some turned their Heads aside, others hid their Faces
with their Fans, but they all made a Row, as well as the Men, to let him
pass by. After he had finished his Race, he gravely put on his Cloaths,
near _Whitehall_, where he left ’em; and as he had won the Wager,
abundance of People, instead of checking him for his Insolence, threw him
Money. Judge by this, if any People are so good-natur’d and happy as the

Among the Pleasures of this Nation, I must not forget to mention the
Parties they make for the Country. This the _English_ set a great Value
upon, and really well they may; for indeed their Country is very
beautiful. It produces them every thing but Wine. Their Fields have always
a fresh Verdure, the Gentlemens Country-Seats are superb, and in the
Country the _English_ live with the Grandeur of Noblemen, whereas at
_London_ they live for most part like mere private Men.

Nothing can be more agreeable to the Eye, than the Suburbs of _London_,
particularly along the _Thames_. I cannot conceive how a Native of
_England_, and one too that has a Fortune to depend on, can resolve to
leave these Regions, as a great many _English_ nevertheless do, who prefer
Countries to which Nature has not been so kind, before their own. I
confess, that if I had one thousand Pounds Sterling a Year in _England_, I
would renounce the most shining Offers of Fortune elsewhere; for the
Climate here is mild, without that excessive Heat or Cold which is so
troublesome in other Parts of the World: And indeed, ’tis for this Cause
that the Fruits here are not so kindly as elsewhere, and that the Grape
does not grow here for the Production of Wine; but then, this Defect is
supplied by the Grapes of _Spain_ and _Portugal_, which are imported here
in Abundance.

One of the most agreeable Prospects in the Country here, is to see the
happy Condition of the Peasants, who are all well lodged, well clad, and
well fed. Their Lot is happier than that of many Gentlemen in certain
Provinces that I know. Here is nothing of that excessive Subordination
which is demanded by the Grandees of other Countries. A Gentleman who
makes a Visit to a Lord, is receiv’d by him as his Equal, without being
made sensible of the Difference that has happened betwixt them on the
Score of Birth. Nevertheless, the great Men are very much honoured here;
for while they are civil, every body strives to pay them all Sorts of
Deference, but nobody thinks he is born to be insulted by them.

The Great Men here, as well as in _France_, don’t scruple to marry Women
of inferior Families. Indeed there ought to be a great Distinction made
between the _English_ Merchant and the Merchants of other Countries. The
_English_ are often descended from the greatest Families in the Kingdom,
and we have seen some of them go from behind their Compter to a Peerage,
when by Right of Succession they rise from Cadets to be the eldest of
their Families. Thus, when a Nobleman marries a Merchant’s Daughter, she
sometimes proves his Cousin, or a Lady of a distinguish’d Family; whereas
in _France_, she is always the Daughter of a Plebeian.

These, Sir, are the few Remarks that I have made upon this Country, and I
wish they may entertain you. As I propose to make some longer Stay here, I
may hereafter send you farther Observations on what occurs. In the mean
time, continue me in the Honour of your Remembrance, and be thoroughly
persuaded, that no Person in the World is more particularly than I am, &c.



                         An Alphabetical INDEX

                                 TO THE

                             SECOND VOLUME.


  _Abbés_, _Italian_, 69, 70.
    Five or six club for one Mistress, 469.

  _Abbesses_ that preach’d, bless’d and confess’d, 195.

  _Academy, French._
    Its Invitation to the Stage-Players, and their Return of the Favour,
        266, 267.

  _Acquaviva_, Cardinal, 4, 44, 55.

  ---- _Charles_, Pr. of, 136.

  _Acunha, Lewis de_, 406.

  _Agasias_ the _Ephesian_, 49.

  _Agnus Dei_’s, their Fabrication and Distribution, Origin and
      Consecration, 99, _&c._

  _Agrippa_, Emperor, 7.

  _Agrippina_, the Mother of _Nero_, 332.

  _Aignan_, (_St._) Duke _de_, 85, 123.

  AIX LA CHAPELLE, _t._ 327.
    Reliques exposed there, 329.

  _Aix_ Parliament.
    The _Jansenists_ with the Members hang’d, 194.
    An Epigram, making them greater Sinners than _Pilate_, _ibid._

  _Alacoque Maria_, made a Saint by a Bishop, 202.

  _Alais_, Count de, 217.

  _Albano_ Cardinal, 15, 16, 37, 78, 88.

  ---- Painter, 359.

  _Albemarle_, Earl and Countess, 407, 408.

  _Alberoni_’s Proposal to the Cardinals, to take away the Franchises of
      Churches, 75.
    _Clement_ XIth’s Design to deprive him of the Hat, 88.

  _Albert_, Archduke of _Austria_, 313.

  _Albert the Great_, Bishop of _Ratisbon_, 327.

  _Albert_, Cardinal of _Brandenbourg_, 336, 342.

  _Albin, St._ Abbé of, 291.

  _Alcmaer_, t. 392.

  _Alegre_, Marshal, 339.

  _Alexander Farnese_, 39.

  _Alexander_ VI. Pope, 97.

  ALEXANDRIA _de la Paille_, t. 151.

  _Aliberti_, Count, his Theatre, 65.

  _Alincourt_, Marquis _de_, 174, 175.
    Remarkable Preferment of his Son to the See of _Lyons_, 175, 176.

  _Almanza_ Victory, to what ascrib’d, 259.

  _Alstein_, a _German_ Minister, 382.

  _Altelli_, General of the _Corsicans_, 150.

  _Alva_, Duke of, 317.

  _Ambiorix_, King, 321.

  _Ambrun_, Council of, 240.

  _Amelia_, Princess, 448.

  _Amende honorable_, Punishment, what, 433.

  _Amerongen_, Brigadier _de_.
    The Token he gave of his Love for a Lady, at the Hazard of his Life,

  AMSTERDAM, _t._ 317, 371.

  _Anabaptist_, _Dutch_, his Zeal for Comedy, 410, 411.

  ANDERNACH, _t._ 348.

  _Angelo, Michael_, 33, 37.

  _St. Angelo_, Castle, 31.

  _Angervilliers_, M. _de_, 238, 239.

  _Anne_ of _Austria_, 198.

  ---- of _Bavaria_, the Palatine, 218.

  ---- Queen of _England_, Reflection on her Statue at St. _Paul_’s, 433.

  ---- Princess Royal of _England_, 448.

  _Anna Maria Frances_ of _Saxe-Lawenburg_, Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Antin_, Duke of, 188, 199.
    His Son, 226.

  _Antonine_ Pillar, 3.

  _Antoninus Caracalla_, Emperor, 38.

  _Antoninus_ and _Faustina_’s Temple at _Rome_, 35.

  ANTWERP, _t._ 317.

  _Ara Ubiorum_ of the Ancients, 338.

  _Archduchess_, Governess of the _Netherlands_, 299, to 302, 304.

  _Ardicinio_, Cardinal, 87.

  _Aremberg_, Duke _de_, (just made Generalissimo of the Imperial Forces
      in the _Austrian Netherlands_) 297, 298, 299, 306.

  _Argenson_, M. _de_, Keeper of the Seals, 210, 236, 245, 385.

  _Armagnac_, M. _de_, 251.

  _Armand_ his extraordinary Adventures, 414, _&c._

  _Armenonville_, M. _de_, 236.

  _Arno_, R. 141.

  _Ascanio_, the _Spanish_ Minister, 132.

  _Asfeldt_, Baron _de_, 339.

  _Asperen_, Count _de_, 403.

  _Assassins_, Sanctuary at _Rome_, 75, 76.

  _Assemblies_, at _Rome_, 69, 70, 71.

  _Astalli_, Cardinal, his Elopement when the Pope went to deprive him of
      his Hat, 93 to 95.

  ASTI, _t._ 151.

  _Astrologer_, _Turkish_, his Prophecy relating to himself, Father,
      Grandfather, and Great-Grandfather, 140.

  _Athlone_, Earl of, 366.

  _Aubigny_, _Theodore de_, Admiral, the famous Protestant and Author,

  ---- _Frances de_, his Grand-daughter, who was Marchioness _de
      Maintenon_, 262 to 265.
      Her Family, 264.

  _Audenarde_, Battle, to what the _French_ ascribe the Loss of it, 153.

  _Audiences_, the Ceremony of those given by the Pope, 55, _&c._

  _August_, Snow in that Month, 13.

  _Augustus_, Emperor, 7.

  ---- King of _Poland_. The Countess of _Wartemberg_’s Attack upon him,

  _Auricular Confession_, why abolish’d throughout the _East_, 195.

  _Author_, the, his Amour with an old Coquet of the pious Sort, 286,
    ---- At what Age he could like to be a _Frenchman_, and at what an
        _Englishman_, 455.
    ---- His Father’s Death, 321.

  _Auverquerque, Maurice_, Count _de_, 412, 413.

  AUXERRE, _t._ 183.

  _Ayrolles_, M. _de_, 405.


  _Bacharach_, Wine, 352.

  _Baden_, Princess, marry’d to the Duke of _Orleans_, 206.
    Treaty there, 255.
    How Prince _Lewis_ was surpriz’d by M. _Villars_, 256.

  _Bagnolet_ Village, 206.

  _Baker_ castrated by his jealous Wife, 183.

  _Balbi, James_, a _Genoese_ Nobleman, 146.

  _Balls_ at the _Haymarket_, magnificent, 465.

  _Banchieri_, Cardinal, 16, 18, 44, 54, 112.

  _Bank Bills_, French, 245 to 248.

  ---- Of _Amsterdam_, 380.

  _Barberini_ Family, more barbarous than the Barbarians, 7.

  ---- Cardinal, 15, 78, 96.

  ---- Palace, 40, 64.

  _Barcelona_ reduc’d, 257.

  _Bareith_, Prince of, 404.

  _Baron_, a _French_ Comedian and Coxcomb, 200.

  _Barre, John_, his extraordinary Adventures, 414, _&c._

  _Barricades_ of _Paris_ erected, 283.

  _Bavaria_, Elector of, 214, 303.

  _Beaufort_, Count _de_, 323.

  _Beaujolois_, Mademoiselle _de_, 208.

  _Becker_, M. _de_, Chancellor, 363.

  _Belisarius_’s Statue, 48.

  _Belle-Isle_, Count _de_, 210, 217, 227.

  _Benedict_ XIII. Pope, 26. His Credulity abus’d by the Cardinals,
      particularly _Coscia_; and his great Humility and Sanctity, 26 to
    A Reflection on his Ministers, 114.

  _Benefices_, Instances of Pluralities, 337, 342.

  _Benefit-Nights_ at the Theatre, 468.

  BENSBERG, _t._ 357.

  _Bentivoglio_, Cardinal, 4, 13, 14, 85.
    His Dissatisfaction with the Emperor about _Parma_, 120.
    Death and Successor, 130.

  ---- Marquis, 14.

  _Berg_, Country, 361.

  _Bernini Lorenzo_, Architect, 6, 8.

  ---- The Sculptor, 9, 34, 48, 101.

  _Berry_, Duke of, 206.

  _Berwic, James_, (late) Duke. His Parentage and Preferments, 257 to
    His too great Obsequiousness to the Regent and Court of _France_,
        258, 259.
    His Death and Successor, 259.
    His great Aversion to the _English_, and Ingratitude to the King of
        _Spain_, 258, 259.

  _Beverwert_, M. _de_, 401.

  _Bichi_, Cardinal, 116, 117, 118.

  BINGEN, _t._ 352.

  _Binger-Loch_, a Cascade upon the _Rhine_, 351.

  _Bissi_, Cardinal, 14.

  _Blanc_, M. _le_, Secretary, 210, 227, 238.

  _Blaspiel_, Baron and Baroness _de_, 363, 364.

  _Bleickert_ Wine, 348.

  _Blood Divine_, suck’d by the Pope, 21.

  _Bodies Human_, a Thought concerning them, 272.

  _Boerhaave_, Professor, 397.

  _Boetselaars_, 412.

  _Bois_, Cardinal _de_, 230, 291, 292.
    Story of his Marriage, 293.
    His brutish Conversation, and Habit of Swearing, 294, 295.
    His Tomb, and Remark upon it, 295.

  BOLOGNA, _t._ 129, _&c._

  _Bolognetti_, Cardinal, 37.

  ---- Countess, 69.

  _Boniface_ VIII. Pope. His Order about the Cardinals Robes, 86.

  BONN, _t._ 337.

  _Bonnet_, (_St._) an Officer, 338.

  _Bookselling Trade_, the Centre of it, 386.

  _Bookbinder_ and his Wife, Suicides, 270 to 273.

  _Bork_, M. _de_, 363.

  _Borghese_, Prince, his Palace, 46, 48, 49.
    His Family the Favourites of St. _Peter_, 47.

  _Borghese, Scipio_, Cardinal, 47, 48, 49.

  _Borgia_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _---- Casar_, Duke _de Valentinois_, his Contrivance to poison a
      Cardinal, like to have been fatal to himself, 97, 98.

  _Borgo_, Marquis _del_, 157, 161.

  _Bossu_, Cardinal _de_, 318.

  _Bot_, General, 362.

  _Boufflers_, Marshal, 253, 315.

  _Bougir_’s House at _Aix la Chapelle_, 331.

  _Bourbon_, Duke of, 182, 186, 207, 290, 291.
    How he lost an Eye, 208.
    Made Superintendant of the King’s Education, and Prime Minister, 209,
        210, 221.
    Displac’d, 211, 226, 230.
    His Marriage, 212.

  ---- Duchess of, 216, 217.

  _Brandenburg Anspach_, Margrave, 446.

  _Breteuil_, M. 210, 238, 293.

  _Brignole_, Messieurs, of _Genoa_, 147.

  BRILLE, _t._ 427.

  _Brioche, Swiss_, burnt for a Conjurer, 385.

  _Brosse_, M. _de_, 405.

  _Brouffel_ arrested by _Anne_ of _Austria_, 283.

  BRUGES, _t._ 312.

  _Bruhl_, Seat of the Elector of _Cologne_, 340.

  _Brunette_, Fort _de la_, 169.

  _Brunswic_, Duchess of, 218.

  _---- Lunenburg, Antony-Ulric_, Duke, 361.

  BRUSSELS, _t._ 298.
    Its Trade, and the Pleasures of the Court and the City, 308, 317.

  _Brutus_’s Tragedy by _Voltaire_, 265, 266, 467.

  _Bucentaur_ of _Venice_, the Oath taken by her Captain, 315.

  _Buckingham_ House, 437.

  ---- Duchess Dowager, _ib._

  _Bullen, Anne_, Queen, 438.

  _Buonarota, Mich. Angelo_, 6, 24.

  _Buoncompagno_, Cardinal, his Comparison of the Pope to the Holy
      Sepulchre, 29.
    His Funeral, 107.

  _Burgomasters, Dutch_, 376.

  _Burgundians_, their Character, 182.

  _Burgundy_, Wine, counterfeited, 348.

  _Burgundy_, Duke, his Honour vindicated, 154.
    How much he is still venerated in _France_, 204.

  _Bussy, Rabutin_’s Letters, 182, 443.


  _Cadiere_, Mademoiselle _la_, her Affair with _Girard_ her Father
      Confessor, 193.
    Her Recantation of the Charge against him, 194.

  _Cadogan_, Earl and Countess, 409.

  _Calf_, M. disowns his Son by reason of his Dress, 390.

  CAMBRAY, _t._ 291.
    Congress, 295, 296.

  _Campagna di Roma_, infested by Locusts, 41.

  _Campo Vaccino_, Square, at _Rome_, 34.

  _Canals_, _Canards_, and _Canaille_ 428.

  _Canons_, where they have the Title of Counts, 180.

  _Capitol_, of _Rome_, 33.

  _Caponi_, Marquis _de_, 346.

  _Carache, Annibal_, Painter, 39, 359.

  _Caraffa, John Peter_, Cardinal, 126.

  _Cardinals in Petto_, what, 82.
    The slavish Life of the Cardinals, with all their Dignity, 83.
    Their Manner of going Abroad, 83, 84.
    Their Dress, and a Vindication of ’em from Luxury, 84.
    The Vanity of their Pretension to an Equality with crown’d Heads, 85.
    Their Manner of Visiting, and their several Orders, 86.
    Why their Hats are Red, and their Robes and Bonnets Scarlet, _ib._
    How they came to the Title of Eminency, _ib._
    Who the greatest Pushers for the Hat, and who have resign’d it, 87.
    Their Consinement to the Dominions of the Holy See, 90, 93.
    Why they always take their own Liquor with them, 97.

  _Carignan_, Prince of, 201.

  _Carlos_, Don, his Journey to _Tuscany_, 139, 233, 318.
    A Prophecy of _Nostradamus_ apply’d to him, 139.

  _Carnival_, at _Rome_, 64.

  _Caroline_, Princess, 448.

  _Carolis_, Cardinal, 37.

  _Carpentier_, a _French_ Refugee in _Holland_, 429.

  _Carpinetti_, Duke, 42.

  _Casimir, John_ of _Poland_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.
    King, 336.

  _Cassius, Florus_, 340.

  _Castor_ and _Pollux_, represented by two great Horses, 33.

  _Catharine_, Queen, Wife to _Hen._ VIII. 438.
    Wife to _Char._ II. threatened by a Lady never to be visited again,
        till she could be seen for 6 _d._ 444.

  _Catinat_, Marshal de, 252.

  _Cellamare_, Prince of, 180, 222.

  _Cenis_, Mountain, 168, 169, 170.

  _Cevennois_ Rebellion suppressed, how, 253.

  CHALONS, upon the _Saone_, t. 180.

  _Chamber_ of Justice in _France_, 249.

  CHAMBERRY, _t._ 171.

  _Chantilly_, Seat, 290.

  _Chaplains, English_, 469.

  _Charlemagne_, Emperor, 325, 330.

  _Charles Emanuel_ II. of _Savoy_, his finishing a Road on the _Alpes_,
      which the _Romans_ began, 171.

  _Charles_ V. Emperor, 311, 400.
    His Declaration about the _Dutch_, 428.

  ---- VI. Emperor. 328.
    His Addresses to the Princess (the late Queen of _Great Britain_)

  _Charles_ I. King of _England_, the Window from which he walk’d to the
      Scaffold, 435.
    His Statue. 438.

  ---- II. King of _England_, his Statue, 434.
    His Menace of the City of _London_, 431.
    His Design to improve St. _James_’s Park, 436.

  ---- King of _Sardinia_, his dutiful Conduct towards his Father, at and
      after his Abdication, 155.
    His Queen, 165.

  _Charni_, Marquis _de_, General, 137.

  _Charolois_, Count _de_, 212 to 217.

  ---- Madem. _de_, 217, 218.

  _Charost_, Duke _de_, 226, 227.

  _Chartres_, Duke _de_, 206, 209, 268.

  ---- Madem. _de_, 207.

  _Châtelain_, M. _de_, 383.

  _Chauvelin_, M. _de_, Keeper of the Seals, (just remov’d) 236.

  _Chelles_, Abbess of, 207.

  _Chesterfield_, Earl of, 403.

  _Children_, 365
    born at once, 425.

  _Chimay_, Prince _de_, 318.

  _Chocolate-house_, in St. _James_’s _street_, 463.

  CHOISY, _t._ 188, 189.

  _Christina_, Queen of _Sweden_, 11, 25.
    A cruel Action of hers, 184.

  _Church_, built by a Lottery, 201.

  _Churchill, Arabella_, 257.

  _Cibo_, Cardinal, 143.
    _Alaric_, ibid.

  _Cicero_’s, in _Italy_, what, 261.

  _Cicisbei_, the Name of those who gallant the _Genoese_ Ladies, 148.

  _Cienfuegos_, Cardinal, 15, 16, 17, 45, 78, 85.
    His Dissatisfaction with the Emperor in the Affair of _Parma_, 120.
    The Theft he committed in _Westminster_ Abbey, 440.

  _Claude_, of _Lorain_, Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Clement Augustus_, Elector of _Cologne_, 332, 336, 342.
    His Revenue, 337.
    His Brothers, 341.
    His Aggrandisement asserted to be for the Interest of Popery, 342,

  _Clement_ XI. (Pope) his Design against Cardinal _Alberoni_, 88.

  ---- XII. Pope, 6.
    His Election, 13.
    Adoration of the Cardinals to him, 17, 18.
    His Coronation, 19.
    Our Author’s Audience, 55.
    His Promotion of Cardinals, 77, 78, 115.
    His great Age and Ailments, 88.
    His Severity, 91, 167.
    General Character, 114.
    Concern for losing the Duchy of _Parma_, 114.

  ---- _James_, the Assassin, 269.

  _Clermont_, Count _de_, 212, 216.
    Mademoiselle _de_, 217, 218.

  CLEVES, _t._ 363.

  _Cloud_, _St._ Duke of, 192.
    Palace of, 268.

  _Clovis_, King of _France_, 269.

  COBLENTZ, _t._ 349.

  _Coffee-Houses_, much frequented by the _English_, 463.

  _Cologne_, Elector of, 213.
    City, 332, 336.

  _Colonna_, Cardinal, 15, 42.

  ---- Signior, a Prelate, 122.

  ---- Constable, and Family, 42, 82.

  _Comedies_, _French_ and _Dutch_, 385.

  _Comptroller_ General’s Office in _France_, compar’d to the Post of the
      _Grand Vizier_, 239.

  _Conclave_, for the Choice of a Pope, 13, 70.

  _Concord_, Temple of, at _Rome_, 35.

  _Conde_, Family, 182, 208.
    _Hon. Julius_ of _Bourbon_, Prin. 218, _Louisa Benedictina_, Princ.

  _Consistories_ of _Rome_, 81.

  _Constantine_, Arch. at _Rome_, 34.

  _Conti_, Cardinal, 91.

  ---- Family of, 218.

  ---- Princess Dowager of, 188, 217-220.

  ---- _Lewis_ of _Bourbon_, Prince, his Marriage, 208, 217.

  ---- Mademoiselle, 209.

  _Cornetto, Adrian_, Cardinal, a Design to poison him, 97.

  _Cornicchini, Augustin_, the Statuary, 9.

  _Coronation_ Chair, of the _English_ Sovereigns, 441.

  _Corpus Christi_, Ceremonies on that Day at _Rome_, 124.
    and at _St. Sulpice_, 202.

  _Correggio_, Painter, 359.

  _Corsica_, Island, more Cost than Worship to the _Genoese_, 150.

  _Corsicans_, call’d the Devils of _Italy_, 143.
    Their War with the _Genoese_, 149, _&c._

  _Corsini_, Cardinal, 6.
    His Election to be Pope, 13.
    His Nephew, _Neri Corsini_, a Cardinal, 19, 78, 119.
    _Bartholomew_, another, 52, 92.
    _Philip_, his great Nephew, 44.
    Character of his Nephews, 119.
    Mesdames, the Popes Nieces, 69, 103, 104.
    His Antipathy to Cardinal _Bichi_, 117.

  _Cortona, Peter_, Painter, 40, 359.

  _Coscia_, Cardinal, his Abuse of the Pope’s Credulity, 27, 28.
    His Bargain with _Ruspoli_’s Father, to get his Son a Cardinal’s Hat,
    Another of his Bargains of that sort, 83.
    His Treatment by the Popes, 89, 90, 91.
    His Imprisonment, 91.

  _Cosmo_, I. II. III. Great Dukes of _Tuscany_, 135.
    Statue of the First, 140.

  _Costa_, Auditor General of _Corsica_, 150.

  _Coster, Laurence_, of _Harlem_, 395.

  _Courland_, Dukes Kettlers, 135, 136.

  COURTRAY, _t._ 313.

  _Craggs_, Secretary, his Monument, 440.

  _Crescens_, St., Disciple of St. _Paul_, 353.

  _Crumpiper, Henry_, 302.

  _Culmbache, Brandenburgh_, Princess of, 307, 404.

  _Cumberland_, (Prince _William_) D. of, 447.

  _Cumiane_, Mademoiselle _de_, 156.

  _Curtius_’s Statue, 48.

  _Cyr, St._ Abbey of, 261.


  _Daguesseau_, M. Chancellor, 235, 236.

  _Dalberg_, Baron _de_, 354.

  _Damasus_ II. Pope, 22.

  _Dammartin_, Count _de_, 213.

  _Dangeau_, M. _de_, 216.

  _Daphne_’s Metamorphosis, 48.

  _Davia_, Cardinal, 14.

  _David_ with his Sling, a Statue, 48.

  _Daun_, Marshal, 152, 304.

  _Dauphin_, of _France_, whence that Title, 173.

  _Dauphiné_, 172, 173.

  DELFT, _t._ 400, 425.

  _Denain_, Battle, 251, 404.

  _Denys_, Saint, 192.

  _Devenish_, M. _de_, 314.

  _Devils_ of _Italy_, who, 143.

  _Devos_’s Tapistry, 308.

  _Dickson_, Colonel, 314.

  DIJON, _t._ 181.

  _Dirce_, her Fable, 38.

  _Dobelstein_, Baron _de_, 331.

  _Dohna_, _Alexander de_, Count, 349.

  ---- _Ferassier de_, Count, 404.

  _Dombes_, Prince of, 221, 224.

  ---- Principality, 179, 180, 220.

  _Doria_, Cardinal, 55, 91, 116.

  ---- General, 147.

  _Ducks_, in abundance, 418.

  DUISBOURG, _t._ 362.

  _Dulis_, a _Jew_, 411.

  _Dunbar_, Lord, his Station at the Pretender’s Court, 58.
    His Marriage of Princess _Sobleski_ by Proxy, 62.

  _Duncan_, M. _de_, 407.

  _Dunchstein_, Mineral Water, 349.

  DUSSELDORF, _t_ 358.

  _Dutch_, vindicated from Treachery, 368, 428.
    Their common Food, 372.
    Their Coffee-houses, and Comedies, 385.
    Assemblies, 386.
    Dress, 390.
    Lasses, 393.

  _Dyck, Van_, Painter, 359.


  ECHELLES, _t._ 171.

  _Edward_ I. King of _England_, the Trophy he brought from _Scotland_,
      of his Conquest, 441.

  _Egmont_, Count, the Prince of _Orange_’s Farewell of him, 453.

  ---- Palace in _Brussels_, 299.

  _Elbeue, de_, Commandeur, the _Tuscan_ Minister, 131, 134.

  _Eleanor_, of _Toledo_, Gr. Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  ---- of _Provence_, Wife to K. _Hen._ III. 435.

  _Eminency_, how that Title came to the Cardinals, 86.

  _Emperors, German_, their Manner of giving Audience, 215.

  ENCKHUISEN, _t._ 392.

  _England_’s Kings, their Power and Court, 442, 443, 444.
    Its Soil and Climate, 470, 471.

  _Englishmen_, said to be better Abroad than at Home, 326.
    Their Manners, 453, _&c._ 463.
    The Dress of the Courtier and the Citizen, 436, 437, 460.
    Genius of the Nation, 442, 462.
    Vindicated from Disaffection to their Kings, 442.
    Applauded for defending their Rights, 443.
    Their friendly, tho’ melancholy Tempers, and their Aversion to
        Constraint, 454, 455.
    Their Diversions, 467, 469, 470.
    Their Manners compared with the French 455.
    Vindicated from Cruelty, 457, 458.
    Their too great Freedom with Life, 459.
    Their Womens Beauty, 460, 461.
    Their Behaviour in Public, 461.
    Why the _English_ are supposed to be descended from _Mutius Scavola_,
    An Influence of their Good-nature and Happiness, _ibid._
    Blam’d for preferring other Countries to their own, 471.
    Their different Living in the Country from the City, 470.

  _Epernon_, Duke _de_, 226.

  _Epitaph_ upon Epitaphs, 414.

  _Erasmus_’s Statue, 426.

  _Essex_, Earl of, his Head expos’d, 432.

  _Estrades_, Count _de_, Ambassador, 401.

  _Estrées_, Marshal _de_, _Victor Maria_, his Conduct, Character,
      Dignities, Family, Estate, and his fine Diamonds, 260.

  ---- _Gabriella de_, Mistress to _Henry_ IV. of _France_, 260.

  _Eu_, Count _de_, 221, 225.

  _Eugene_, of _Savoy_, Prince, 143, 259.

  _St. Evremont_, M. his Monument, 440.

  _Eysenach, Saxe_, Princess of, 446.


  _Fagel, Gressier_, 406.

  _Farnese, Francis_, Duke of _Parma_, 114.

  _Farnese_, Palace, at _Rome_, 37.

  _Faustina, Signora_, 66.

  _Faustus, John_ of _Mentz_, 395.

  _Fest_, Ceremony of washing them on _Holy Thursday_, 98.

  _Feldtbruck_, Mademoiselle _de_, the severe Test she requir’d of her
      Lover’s Affection, 320.

  _Fenelon_, Archbishop of _Cambray_, 291, 403.

  ---- Brigadier and Ambassador, 403.

  _Ferdinand de Medicis_, Duke of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Ferrayo_, Cardinal, 116, 117, 118.

  _Ferrero_, Cardinal, 167.

  _Filippucci_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _Fine Gentleman_, his Character, 462.

  _Fiochi_, of the Cardinals, what it means, 83.

  _Fireworks of Germany_, expensive, 187.

  _Flax_, why burnt at the Pope’s Coronation, 20.

  _Flemings_, unsociable, 312.

  _Flemish Woman_, good Topers, _ibid._

  _Fleury_, Cardinal _de_, made Prime Minister, 211.
    His Character, 228 to 235, 283.

  FLORENCE, _t._ 130, _&c._

  _Florentin_, Count _de St._ 237, 238.

  _Flowers_, beautiful, where, 395.

  FONTAINEBLEAU, Palace and Town, 184, 188.

  _Fontana_, the Architect, 8, 9.

  _Force_, Duke _de la_, 243.

  _France_, whether ’twas her Interest to enter into the last War, 232 to

  _Francis_, I. King of _France_, 184.

  _Francis de Medicis_, Great Duke of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Frangipani_, Marquis, 52.

  _Frederic_, King of _Bohemia_, 366.

  ---- Elector of _Brandenburg_, 338, 362, 446.

  ---- _Augustus_, King of _Poland_, 360, 361.

  _Frederic_, King of _Prussia_, 361, 362, 367, 399.

  _Frejus_, Bishop of, 228, 229, 230.

  _French_, how they accounted for the Loss of so many Battles in the
      last War, 153.
    Not so modest as the Allies, 295.
    Their Levity, 196, 197, 279.
    Their good Qualities, 197, 275, 276.
    Their Fashions, by whom to be followed, and by whom avoided, 460,

  _Frêne_, M. _du_, a famous French Comedian, 266.

  FRIBOURG, _t._ 254.

  _Fridlingen_ Battle, 252.

  _Frouley_, Count _de_, Ambassador, 202.

  _Fugger_, Countess _de_, 348.

  _Furius Camillus_, the Dictator, his Vow, 35.

  _Furstenberg_, Princess, 307.


  _Galen, Bernard de_, Bishop, the Terror of the _Dutch_, 343.

  _Galloway_, Lord, 440.

  _Gamarre_, the _Spanish_ Ambassador’s Dispute with M. _de Thon_, a
      _French_ Ambassador, about Precedency, 400.

  _Gamesters_, order’d to the Gallies, 30.

  _Gaming_, prohibited by the Pope, 70.

  ---- One of the Plagues of the _French_ Nation, 198.
    What their Ladies call a Man who does not play, and what the Men say
        of Gaming in general, 199, 200.
    How Gamesters are caress’d at many Womens Houses, and the great
        Emoluments of Gaming, 201.
    Who have a Grant for licensing it, _ibid._

  _Gardening_, in _Italy_, declin’d, 33, 47.

  _Gasse_, Count _de_, 212.

  _Gaston, John_. See _Tuscany_’s Great Duke.

  _Gaydon_, Major, in the Pretender’s Service, 61, 62.

  _Gendre, Peter le_, 175.

  GENOA, _t._ 144.
    Its Neighbourhood, 151.
    Its Bombardment by the _French_, 144.
    Character of the _Genoese_, 148.
    Their War with the _Corsicans_, 149.

  _Gentili_, Cardinal, 116.

  _Gentlemen_, whether that Title be more due to Stage-Players, than to
      Rope-Dancers or Tumblers, 268.

  _George_ I. King 436.
    His Statue, 438.
    Compar’d to _Augustus_, 442.

  _George_ II. King, 434, 445.
    His Queen, 445, 446, 447.
    Their Manner of Dining in Public, 449.
    Drawing-Room, 456.

  _Gerard, Balthasar_, the Assassin, 425.

  _Gergy_, Parson of _St. Sulpice_, 202.

  ---- His Brother, Bishop of _Soissons_, ibid.

  ---- Another, Ambassador at _Venice_, ibid.

  _Germain_, (_St._) Abbat and Friers, ibid.

  _German_ Princes, wiser than the _Italian_, 128.

  _Germany_, the Strength of the Protestants and Papists there, 343.

  _Gevres_, Duke, 201.

  GHENT, _t._ 310, 317.

  _Giafferi_, Leader of the _Corsican_ Rebels, 150.

  _Girard_, Father, his Affair with a Lady at Confession, 193, _&c._

  _Giudici_, Cardinal, 37, 90.

  _Gladiators_, Statue, 49.

  _Golofskin_, Count _de_, 404.

  _Golstein_, Countess _de_, 331.

  _Gondrin_, Marquis _de_, 226.

  _Gondulphus_, Bishop, his Ghost, 329.

  _Gondy_, Francis _de_, Archbishop of _Paris_, 192.

  _Gonzague_, Cardinals, their Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _Goudenau_, Marshal _de_, 346.

  _Grafton_, Duke, 449.

  _Grammont_, Duke _de_, 199.

  _Grana_, Marquis _de_, 297.

  _Grantham_, Earl of, 449.

  _s’Gravesande_, Professor, 397.

  Great Duke of _Tuscany_, by whom the Title was invented, 135.

  _Greenwich_ Hospital, 432.

  _St. Gregory the Great_, Pope, 31.

  _Gregory_ XIII. Pope, 32.

  _Gregory_ XV. Pope, 192.

  GRENOBLE, _t._ 173.

  _Greys_, M. 405.

  _Grilli_ (Locusts) apply’d to a Family of that Name, 41.

  _Grimani_, Cardinal Legate, 129, 130.

  _Grosvenor_’s Square, 438.

  _Guadagno_, Cardinal, 115.

  _Guiccardi_, Count, 149.

  _Guido_, Painter, 359.


  _Hackney_, the Ceremony of presenting it to the See of _Rome_ for
      _Naples_, 42 to 46.

  HAGUE, Village, 398, _&c._

  HALLE, _t._ 298.

  _Handel_, the Composer, 466.

  _Handkerchief_ of our Saviour, a Relique to be seen in three Places,

  _Hanover Family_, the Temper with which they received the News of their
      Accession to the _British_ Throne, 446.

  _Hapsbourg_, Count, 328.

  _Harlai_, President, his Repartee to the _French_ Comedians, 267.

  HARLEM, _t._ 394.

  _Harrach, Frederic_, Count _de_, 303.

  _Harrington_, Lord, 453.

  HARWICH, _t._ 430.

  _Hass_, M. the _Saxon_, 66.

  _Hats_, Cardinals, why red, 86.

  _Hatto_, Bishop, pursued and gnawed by Rats, 352.

  _Hawitz_, Grand Marshal, 149.

  _Haxhausen_, General, 332.

  _Hayes_, Mr. and Mrs. styl’d Lord and Lady _Inverness_, 58, 59.

  _Hazard_, Play, prohibited by the Pope, 70.

  _Heidelberg_ Library, 25.

  HELVOETSLUYS, _t._ 417 to 429.

  _Henneberg_, Countess of. See _Holland_.

  _Henry_ III. King of _France_, his Assassination, 269.
    Ill Omens observ’d at his Consecration, _ibid._

  ---- King of _England_, his Wife, 435.

  ---- VIIth’s Chapel, 440.

  _Henry_ of _Portugal_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _St. Henry_ of _Bavaria_, Emperor, 331.

  _Herenhausen_ Water-Works, 269.

  _Hermaphrodite_ Statue, 49.

  _Herod_, whither banish’d, 173.

  _Hesse Rhinfels_, Princess of, (late) Queen of _Sardinia_, 165, 212.

  ---- _Eleonora_, Duchess of _Bourbon_, her Marriage, 212.

  _Hesse Cassel_, Prince _Williams_, 320.
    Landgrave, 351.

  ---- _Charles_, Landgrave, 361.

  _Highwayman_’s remarkable Escape, 457.

  _Hildebold_, Archbishop of _Cologn_, 327.

  _Hochstet_, Battle, to what the _French_ ascribe the Loss of it, 153.

  _Hogendorp_, M. 413.

  _Hohen-Zollern_, Count de, 344.

  _Holland, Florence_ IV. Count of, 425.

  _Holland_, Countess of, his Daughter, deliver’d of three hundred
      sixty-five Children at a Birth, 425.

  _Holy Ghost_, Picture of a Cardinal taking Aim at him with a Fusee, 17.

  _Holy Week_, how observed at _Rome_, 96.

  _Hompesch_, General, 399.

  _Honslaerdyck_, Palace, 425.

  _Hoornbeck_, Pensionary, 406.

  HORNE, _t._ 392.

  _Horses_, Dogs, and Falcons, where they abound most, 468.

  _House_, in the Wood, 425.

  _Howard_, Family of, 438.


  _Jacob_’s Pillow, 440.

  _Jagellon_, K. of _Poland_, 336.

  _St. James_’s Palace and Park, 435, 436.
    Square, 438.
    Church, 439.

  _James_ II. King, censur’d for neglecting a very precious Relique, 440.

  _Jew, Dutch_, his Zeal for the Opera, in Opposition to an Anabaptist,
      who was as hot for Comedy, 410, 411.

  _Jews_, at _Amsterdam_, 388, 411.

  _Imperiali_, Cardinal, 13, 14, 93.
      _NB._ He dy’d in _January_ 1736-7.

  _India_, Company, _Dutch_, 388.

  _Infanta_ of _Spain_, sent back from _France_, 210, 211.

  _Ingelheim_, Baron _de_, 354.

  _Innocent_ IV. Pope, his Order about Cardinals Hats, 86.

  _Innocent_ X. Pope, 90, 93.

  _Inquisition_, at _Rome_, not so bad as represented, 125.
    Congregation of the Holy Office, 126.

  _Invalids_, Hospital, at _Paris_, 198.

  _Inverness_, Lord and Lady, 58, 59.

  _Joan_, of _Austria_, Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Joannino_, the Duke of _Tuscany_’s _Favourite_, 132, 133.

  _Johannesburg_ Wine, 352.

  JOHN ST. DE MAURIENNE, _t._ 170.

  _John-William_, Elector Palatine, 358, 359.

  _John_ II. King of _France_, why compar’d to _Regulus_, 435.

  _John_ III. King of _Portugal_, 87.

  _Joseph Clement_, Elector of _Cologne_, 345.

  _Isis_, Goddess, and her Temple, 190.

  _Italians_, their revengeful Temper, 14.
    Jealousy and Niggardliness, 73, 74.
    Their Disposition towards the _French_ and _Germans_, 16.
    Their Behaviour at Executions, 110, 111, 112.
    Their Hatred to one another, 127.
    The Formality of settling the Interviews of their petty Princes, 128.
    Why they are the Jest of Foreigners, _ibid._
    Who the most polite, 139.

  _Italians_, of the _Netherlands_, who, 324.

  _Italy_, Devils of, who so called, 143.

  _Judgement_, Day of, a remarkable Painting, 24.

  JULIERS, _t._ 332, 361.


  KEISERSWAERT, _t._ 347, 361.

  _Keppel_, M. _de_, 407, 408.

  _Kettlers_ Family, Dukes of _Courland_, 135.
    Their Parallel with the _Medicis_ of _Tuscany_, 136.

  _Keys_ of _St. Peter_, what they denote, 23.

  _Kings_ of _Cologne_, 333.

  _Kroon, Theodore_, Van der, 369.


  _Lacqueys_, at _Paris_, the Favourites of their Ladies and young
      Masters, 275.
    A Conversation between those of two Cardinals, about their
        Pre-eminence, 294.

  _Lalaing_, Count _de_, 312.

  _Lalock, Nassau_, Count _de_, 314, 315, 412, 413.

  LANDAU, _t._ 254.

  LANEBOURG, _t._ 170.

  _Lansquenet_, The _French_ King’s Party at that Game, 199.

  _Lateran_ Church, the Ceremony of the Pope’s taking Possession of it,

  _Lauzun_, M. _de_, 179.

  _Law, John_, the Projector, 210, 239.
    King of _Sardinia_’s Advice to him, 239.
    His Death, and his Widow and Son, 240.
    A Copy of Verses on him, 241.
    His Coat of Arms, 243.
    The Homage paid to him in his Prosperity, 244.
    Description of his Person, and Remarks on his System, 245, _&c._ to
        250, 380.

  LEGHORN, _t._ the grand Appearance there on the Arrival of the
      _Spanish_ Fleet, in which they expected Don _Carlos_, 139.
    Description of the City, _&c._ 140, _&c._

  _Leie_, Count _de la_, 350.

  _Lenoirs_ Tapistry Manufacture, 308.

  _Leo_ III. Pope, his Present to _Charlemain_, 99.

  _Leopold_, Archduke, 342.

  _Lepanto_, Victory, 43.

  LERICI, _t._ 143.

  _Lewis d’Ors_, worn in a Lady’s Ears for Pendants, 218.

  _Lewis_, the Pious, 327.

  ---- Duke of _Burgundy_, 363.

  _Lewis_ XIV. his Statue, _&c._ at _Lyons_, 178.
    At _Dijon_, 181.
    His Debt, 246.
    His Offer to _Charles_ II. of Stones for Gravel, 437.

  ---- XVth’s Marriage, 185-211.
    His Character, 203, 204.
    His Queen and Children, 204, 205.

  _Lewis_, Pr. of _Baden_, how surpriz’d by M. _Villars_, 256.

  LEYDEN, _t._ 396.

  ---- University, 397.

  _St. Liberius_ I. Pope, 13.

  _Lichtenstein_, Princess _de_, 303.

  LIEGE, _t._ 321 to 324.

  LIMBURG, _t._ 326.

  LINTZ, _t._ 348.

  _Lippe_, Count _de la_, 344.

  _Liria_, Duke of, 257, 259.

  LISLE, _t._ 296, 315, 316.

  _Livery_, Servants at _Rome_, their poor Wages, 105.
    The Practice of Jubileeing them, what, 106.
    Some kept only for Sundays and Holidays, _ibid._

  _Lobkowitz_, Princess, 307.

  _Locusts_, in _Italy_, curs’d by the Pope and banish’d to the Sea, 41.

  LONDON, _t._ 430.
    to the End. King _Charles_ IId’s Menace against this City ridicul’d
        by one of the Aldermen, 431.
    Its Increase since the Accession of the Present Royal Family to the
        Crown, 439.

  ---- Prov’d to be more populous than _Paris_, 190, 191.
    It’s Bridge, 432.
    Cathedral, _ibid._
    Monument, Burse, and Tower, 434.
    Streets not well pav’d, 437, 438.
    Its Diversions, 462, _&c._
    Assemblies, 465.
    Dances and Plays, 464 to 467.


  MACON, _t._ 180.

  MAESTRICHT, _t._ 319, 329

  _Mailly_, Cardinal, 229.

  _Maine_, Duke of, 179, 180, 181, 220, _&c._
    Duchess, her Imprisonment, 180, 222, 223.
    His Degradation, 209, 222.

  ---- Mademoiselle _de_, 225.

  _Maintenon_, Madame _de_, 261.
    _Lewis_ XIVth’s Reprimand of her for leaving him in his last
        Sickness, 262.
    Her Retirement, Death, Tomb and Epitaph, 162, 263, _&c._
    Her Family and Pension to the last, 264.

  ---- Who is the present Marquis, _ibid._

  _Malines_, Lady of, 314.

  _Malplaquet_, Battle, 253.

  _Malta_, Grand Master’s Title, 86.
    His Ambassador’s Reception by the Pope, 121.

  _Malusius_, 340.

  _Maratti, Charles_, a Designer, 32.

  _Marble_, rich Quarries of it, 143.

  _Mark William, de Lumay_, Count _de la_, 427.

  _Marcus Aurelius Antonius_, his Equestrian Statue, for which the
      _Venetians_ offer’d as many Sequins as could be put into the
      Horse’s Belly, 33.

  _Marez_, a noted old Actress of _Lyons_, 177, 178.

  _Margaretta Louisa_ of _Orleans_, Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _Mari_, (_Spanish_) Admiral, 137, 148.

  MARIENBOURG, _t._ 336.

  MARIENSTEAL, _t._ _ibid._

  _Marlborough_’s Duke, and Palace, 437.

  MARPURG, t. 336.

  _Marquis de L----_, his Fortune made by an old Lady, 285.

  _Marr_, Lady, her meeting Princess _Sobleski_, 63.

  _Mary Magdalen_ of _Austria_, Duchess of _Tuscany_, 135.

  _St. Mary Majors_ Church at _Rome_, 12.

  _Mary de la Rovero_, Duchess of _Urbino_, 135.

  _Mary de Medicis_, Regent of _France_, 145.

  _Masch_, M. _de_, 404

  MASSA DI CARRARA, _t._ 142.

  _Maternus_, Bishop, 323.

  _Mathurias_, Order of, 184.

  _Matilda_, Countess, 11.

  _Maurepas_, Count _de_, 237.

  _Maurice_, Prince, 314, 399.

  _Maurice_, M. _de St._ Prime Minister, 213.

  _Maurice_, Cardinal of _Savoy_, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _Maximilian_ II. Emperor, his Answer to _Cosmo_ of _Tuscany_, when he
      wanted the Title of King, 135.

  _Mazarine_, Cardinal, 335.

  _Mazarine_, Duchess _de_, 238, 409, 410.

  MECHLIN, _t._ 317, 318.

  _Medicis_, Family of, 135.
    Their Parallel with the Family _Kettlers_, of _Courland_, 136.

  _Medicis_, _Ferdinand de_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  ---- _Bernard de_, 136.

  ---- _Juvence de_, ibid.

  ---- _Octaviano de_, ibid.

  ---- _Mary de_, Queen, 334.

  ---- _Mary-Anne_, Electress _Palatine_, 359, 361.

  MELUN, _t._ 240.

  MENIN, _t._ 314.

  _Mentz, Francis Lewis_, Elector of, 336, 342, 353.

  ---- _Philip Charles_, Elector, 353.

  MENTZ, _t._ ibid.

  ---- _Francis, Lotharius_, Elector, _ibid._

  _Merchants_, Difference betwixt the _English_ and Foreigners, 471.

  _Mercy_, Count _de_, 255.

  _Metternich_, Count _de_, 350.

  _Michael Angelo_, 33, 37.

  _Mignard_, the Painter, 269.

  _Milan_, conquer’d, 256.

  _Milciades_, an _Italian_ Game at Cards, 70.

  _Mirandola, Picus de_, Cardinal, 53.

  _Misset_, M. 61, 62.

  _Missisippi_ Scheme, and its Projector, Verses thereupon, 241, _&c._
    Its Fate compar’d to that of the _South-Sea_ Scheme, 244.
    A curious Account of it, 246 to 250.

  _Misson_, Mr. his Account of the Pope’s Coronation reflected on, 22.
    His being always furnish’d with Mathematical Instruments, 141.

  _Mistresses_, Generosity of the _English_ to theirs, 469.

  ---- Kept in Partnership, _ib._

  _Modena_, Princes of, 148.

  _Molland_, Palace, 363.

  _Mondragone_ Seat, near _Rome_, 48.

  _Money_, the Scarcity of it in _France_, 217.
    Worship paid to it at _Amsterdam_, 381, 382.

  MONS, _t._ 297.

  _Montague_ House, 439.

  _Montcallier_ Castle, 152.

  _Monte Cavallo_ Palace, 32.

  _Montespan_, Marchioness, 188, 205, 216, 226, 264.

  _Montesquiou_, Marshal, 260.

  _Monti_, Marquis, the Pretender’s Landlord. 58.

  _Montijo_, Count _de_, 439.

  _Montpensier_, Mademoiselle _de_, her Fame in the Civil Wars of
      _France_, 179.
    Her Restraint from marrying, _ibid._

  _Montrevel_, Marshal _de_, 253.

  _Monulphus_, Bishop of _Tongres_, his Ghost, 329.

  _Morville_, M. _de_, 237.

  _Mouchi_, Madame _de_, 316.

  _Mouths_ of the Cardinals, the Ceremony of Opening and Shutting them by
      the Pope, 80.

  _Muley Ismael_ of _Morocco_, his pretended Demand of the Princess of
      _Conti_ in Marriage, 219.

  MULHEIM, _t._ 335.

  _Murder_, how punish’d at _Rome_, 74.

  _Mutius Scavola_, a Conceit that the _English_ are descended from him,


  NAMUR, _t._ 317, 319.

  _Naples_, the Tribute paid for it to the See of _Rome_, 43 to 46.

  _Nassau_, Princes of, 309.

  ---- _Zeist_, Count _de_, 367.

  ---- _Orange_, Prince of, 412.

  _Navona_, Square, 5.
    The Ceremony of watering it, 66.

  _Neautre_, M. _le_, 436.

  _Nectarius_, Patriarch, 195.

  _Nephews_ of the Popes, their general Character, 40.

  _Nesle_, Marquis _de_, 309.

  _Netherlands, Austrian_, Pride and Poverty of the Nobility and Gentry,
      305, 306.

  _Newbourgh, Lewis-Antony de_, 336.

  ---- _Francis_, Elector of _Mentz_, 336, 342.

  _Neuhoff Theodore_, Baron _de_, proclaim’d K. of _Corsica_, 150.

  _Neville Camillus, Nicolas_ and _Charles_, _de la_, 175.

  NEUWIDT, _t._ and Count _de_, 349.

  _Newcastle_, Duke of, 453.

  _Newmarket_ Races, 468.

  NEWPORT, _t._ 313.

  NIMEGUEN, _t._ 365, 370.

  _Noailles, Lewis-Antony_, Cardinal, 192, 294.

  ---- Duke _de_, 207, 264.

  _Noailles, Maria Victoria de_, 226.

  ---- Duchess _d’Estrées_, 260.

  _Nocera_, a Canon, 92.

  _Nordkirchen_, Seat, 346.

  _Norfolk_, Duke of, 438.

  _Nostradamus_, a Prophecy of his apply’d to _Don Carlos_, 139.

  _Nothast_, Baron _de_, 346, 347.

  NOVALAISE, _la_, _t._ 169.

  _Nouvelles Ecclesiastiques_, prohibited by the Archbishops of _Paris_,
    Differences about it, betwixt the Court and Parliament, 277, 278.

  _Nuncios_, of the Pope, 77.


  _Obdam_, Count _de_, 412.

  _Odyck_, M. _de_, 367.

  _Oels_, Baron _de_, 350.

  _Olivieri_, Cardinal, 44, 54.

  _Openord, Giles Maria_, Architect, 201.

  _Operas_, in _France_, the Distinction paid to the Actors, 267.

  _Orange_, Palace in _Brussels_, 299, 300. at the Hague, 425.

  ---- Princes of, 309, 401, 401, 412, 413, 425.

  _Orbano_, R. 171.

  _Orleans_, Dukes of, 173, 174, 179, 206, 207, 209, 212, 221, 229, 230,
      236, 268, 269, 283, 292, 293, 295.

  ---- Duchess, 185.
    Dowager, 205, 206.
    _Henrietta_, Duchess of, her Death, 269.
    His Sisters, 207, 208.
    _Philippa_, her Death, 208.
    _Louisa Diana_, her Marriage and Issue, 208, 217.

  ORLEANS, _t._ taken, 179.


  _Pagan_ Impertinences, reviv’d in the Christian Religion, 203.

  _Pain_, despis’d by our Nation, 470.

  _Palatine_, Electress Dowager, 130.
    _John-William_, Elector, 358, 359, 360.

  _Pallas_, a _French_ Officer, who married both Mother and Daughter,
      acquitted by the Inquisition, 116.

  _Palmquist_, Ambassador, 405.

  _Pamphili_, Princes, 6, 41, 42.
     Palace, 41.

  ---- _Camillus_, Cardinal, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.

  _Pantheon_, at _Rome_, 7.

  _Paris_, Abbé, his pretended Miracles, 195, _&c._ 284.

  _Paris_, Brothers, 210, 227, 245.

  PARIS, _t._ 189, _&c._
    Whether most populous, this City, or _London_, 190, 191.
    Number of its People, Streets, Houses, 192.
    Expence of its Lanthorns, and its Revenues, _ibid._
    Archbishop’s Title, _ibid._
    By whom founded, and most beautify’d, 190, 192.
    Its Prerogatives, 192.
    Governor, 201.
    Lacqueys, 274, 275.
    Parliaments, 283.
    What _Charles_ V. meant when he said, He could put this City into his
        Glove, 310.
    Parliament House, 441, 442.

  _Parma_, Dukes of, the Office they are to perform for the Pope, 52.
    The Pope’s Concern for the Loss of the Duchy, 114, 120.

  _Patricians_, of _Germany_, 333, 334.

  _Paul_ III. Pope, 38, 40.
    His Order about the Cardinals Caps, 86.
    His Establishment of the Inquisition, 126.

  ---- IV. Pope, the Solicitor of it, _ibid._

  ---- V. Pope, 32, 47, 48.

  _Peasants, English_, their Happiness, 471.

  _Pericon_, M. Magistrate at _Lyons_, 176.

  _Perauss_, Count _de la_, 161, 162, 163.

  _Peter, St. d’Arena_ Suburbs of _Genoa_, 148.

  _Peter, St._ why describ’d as holding three Keys, 23.
    His Church and Chair, at _Rome_, 7 to 12.
    Who buried in it, 11.
    His Miracles, what, 39.

  PETITBOURG, _t._ 188.

  _Petits Colets_, the Petits Maitres of _Rome_, 70, 73.

  _Petronilla_, St. 11.

  _Peyrome_, _la_, Surgeon, 292.

  _Phaethon_’s, Story finely painted, 439.

  _Pharao_, plaid in the Conclave of Cardinals, 70.

  _Philibert_, Prince of _Piedmont_, his submissive Speech to _Phillip_
      IV. King of _Spain_, 145.

  _Philips_, Mr. Preceptor to the Duke, 448.

  _Philipsburg_, Siege of, 259.

  _Picus, de Mirandola_, Cardinal, 53.

  _Piedmontese_, their Court and Character, 165, 166, 168.

  PIETRA SANTA, _t._ 142.

  _Pignatelli_, Cardinal, 86.

  _Pilate_, whither banish’d, 173.

  _Pilgrims_, Hospital at _Rome_, 76.

  _Pin, Joseph_, Painter, 359.

  PISA, _t._ 141.
    Pride of the People, _ibid._

  _Pius_ V. Pope, 80, 126.

  _Pizzighitone_, taken, 255.

  _Platen_, Count _de_, Post-master of _Hanover_, 238.
    His Daughter’s Marriage and Pension from King _George_ I. and II.

  _Plettenburg_, Count _de_, 341, 344, 345, 346.

  _Polignac_, Cardinal, 85.

  PONT DE BONVOISIN, _t._ 172.

  _Pontchartrain_, M. _de_, Chancellor, 235, 237.

  _Ponthievre_, Duke _de_, 226.

  _Popelsdorf_, Village, 340.

  _Popes_, the Days on which the Cardinals kiss their Feet, 17.
    Character of their Nephews, 40.
    Reception of Ambassadors, 121.

  _Pope_, who was the first that was crown’d, 22.
    Compar’d to the Holy Sepulchre, 29.

  _Portail_, M. _de_, President, 249.

  _Portland_, Earl of, 408.

  _Portugal_, _Henry_, Cardinal of, his Resignation of the Hat, 87.
    Its broils with the Court of _Rome_, 116 to 119.

  _Poultier_, M. Intendant at _Lyons_, 176.

  _P----y, William_, 451.

  _Poyntz, Stephen_, Esq, 448.

  _Pragmatic Sanction_, 403.

  _Prebends_, bought and sold, 369.

  _Precedence_, Disputes about it betwixt Ambassadors, 400 to 403.

  _Pretender_, his Pension and Honours from the Pope, 57, 58.
    His Landlord, Courtiers, and Domestics, Style, and Stature, and his
        Sons, 58, 59.
    His Treatment from the Imperial and _French_ Cardinals, 58.
    His Aspect and Character, 59.
    His Mistress, _ibid._
    His Protestant Chapel, and Table, _ibid._
    His Wife, 60, 61.
    Prophecy of his coming to the _British_ Throne, 63.

  _Preys_, M. 405.

  _Prie_, Marchioness, 166, 227, 304.

  _Priests_, _Italian_, a heavy Charge against them, 112.

  ---- _Flemish_, always railing at one another, 314.

  _Printing_, where invented, 395.

  _Procession_ Chair, of the Popes, 17.

  _Prussia_, _Ducal_ or _Brandenburg_, 336.
    _Fredric_, K. of, 338.

  _Pucelage_, its Meaning, 284.

  _Pucelle_, a Counsellor, banish’d from the Parliament at _Paris_, 282,
    Verses on his Exile, 284.

  _Pussenburg_, Baron _de_, 296.

  _Puppet-player_, burnt for a Conjurer, 385.

  _Purpora_, the Singer, 66.

  _Pyrrhus_’s Saying, after he had defeated the _Romans_, 253.


  _Q----y_, Duke of, his Behaviour on the Duchess’s being forbid the
      Court, 444.

  QUIERI, _t._ 151.

  _Quinaut_, the famous Comedian, 266.


  _Rabutyn_, _Bussy_’s, Letters, 181, 443.

  _Raby_, Lord, his Amour, 410.

  _Race_, run round St. _James_’s Park, by a naked Man, 470.

  _Ramillies_, Battle, to what the _French_ ascribe the Loss of it, 153.

  _Raphael_, Painter, 24, 359.

  _Rastadt_, Treaty, 254.

  _Ratisbon_, _Theodore_, Bishop of, 349.

  _Rats_, Tower in the _Rhine_, 352.

  _Ratto_, Signior, 4.
    Bishop of _Cordoua_, 85.

  _Regulas, John_ II. K. of _France_ compar’d to him, 435.

  _Reimbrants_, Painter, 359.

  _Reliques_, at _Aix_, the Time and Manner of exposing them, 329, 330.

  _Remi_, (S.) a noted Better at the _French_ Court, 199, 200.

  _Restitution_, by the Popes, what, 88.

  _Retirement_, Verses in Praise of it, 223.

  _Retz_, Duke of, 174.

  _Rhebinder_, Marshal, 158, 159, 166.

  RHEIMS, _t._ 269.

  RHEN, _t._ 366.

  _Rhenish_ Wine, where the best, 352.

  RHINBECK, _t._ 347.

  _Rhine_, R. 349.

  _Rhinfields_ Castle, 351.

  _Richardi_, Marquis, and his Son Don _Vincenzo_, 134.

  _Richelieu_, Cardinal’s Ingratitude to Q. _Mary de Medicis_, 334, 335.

  _Richmond_, Duchess, 409.

  _Ridelsheim_, Wine, 352.

  _Rinuccini_, Marquis, 132, 134, 137.

  _Ripperda_, Duke _de_, 296.

  _Rivoli_ Castle, 158.

  _Robbery_, on the Highway, remarkable, 457.

  _Robert_, (the Pious) K. of _France_, 98.

  _Rochebonne_, M. Archbishop of _Lyons_, 174, 176.

  _Roche, Sur-yon_, Mademoiselle _de la_, 218.

  _Rodolph_ I. Emperor, a miraculous Appearance at his Coronation, 327,

  _Roer_, River, 332.

  _Rohan_, Cardinal, 186.

  ---- Prince, 205.

  _Roll_, Baron _de_, 346.

  _Rolling_, Baron _de_, 354.

  _Romain, Julius_ Painter, 359.

  _Roman_ Princes, their high Pretensions, 102, 104.

  ---- Princesses and Popes Nieces more humble than formerly, 103.
    How they are lighted to the Plays, 105.
    Their unwieldy Coaches, and scrub Liveries, 106.
    Why they never wear Mourning, 108.

  ROME, _t._ Manners of the People, 67, 72, 73, 406.
    Its Squares, 2, _&c._
    Churches, 6, _&c._
    Palaces, 24, _&c._ 36, _&c._
    Theatres, 65.
    Their Diversions and Repasts, 68, 69.
    Our Author’s Dislike of this City, 68, 72.
    Why young Gentlemen ought to visit it, 72.
    Its Hospitals, 76.
    Consistories, 81.
    The Time when all Ceremonies are laid aside, 105.
    Their Funerals, 107, 108.
    Mourning, 108.
    Their Fireworks, 109.
    Its Governor, 109, 110.
    Senator, 110.
    Executions, 111, 113.
    Their Hatred of other _Italians_, 127.

  _Rota_, Tribunal of, 109.

  _Rotonda_ Church, 7.

  ROTTERDAM, _t._ 426.

  _Rubempré_, Prince and Princess _de_, 300, 309.

  _Rubens_, Painter, 317, 358, 359.

  _Ruhi_, Marquis _de_, 318.

  _Ruspanti_, Pensioners, why so call’d, 133.

  _Ruspoli_, Signior, his Promotion to be a Cardinal, 77 to 80.

  ---- Prince’s, Funeral, 108.

  _Rysnic_, 370, 425.


  _Sacrament_, Holy, the Grandeur and Solemnity of the Pope’s Procession
      with it, 124, and of the Parish of _St. Sulpice_ in _France_, 202.

  _Saltzu, Herman de_, 336.

  _Salviati_, Painter, 39.

  _Santa Croce_, Prince of, 42.

  SANTEN, _t._ 362.

  _Santini_, Marquis, 341.

  _Santa-Buona_, Duke, 60.

  _Sardam_, Village, 389.

  _Sardini_, Prelate, his Imprisonment, 92.

  _Sardinia_, K. the Pope’s Grant to him, _ibid._

  _Sardinia, Victor Amedeus_ late K. of, his Abdication and Imprisonment,
      156 to 164.
    Son’s Duty to him, 157 to 164.

  _Sarno_, Duke of, 136.

  SARZANA, _t._ 143.

  _Sastago_, Count _de_, 318.

  _Savoy_, Duchess of, 156.
    Palace in the _Strand_, 435.

  _Savoy_, Princes of, 435.

  _Savoyards_, Character, 171.

  _Saurin_, M. 414.

  _Saxony_, _John George_ IV. Elector of, 446.

  _Scaliger_’s Character of _Lyons_, 173.

  _Scarlet_, why the Cardinals Robes and Caps are of that Colour, 86.

  _Scarron, Paul_, the Poet, who was Madame _de Maintenon_’s Husband,

  _Schasberg_, Count _de_, 361.

  _Scheld_ River, 3.

  SCHEVELING, _t._ 400.

  SCHLANGENBADT, _t._ 357.

  _Schourff_, Baron _de_, 346.

  _Schouts_, _Dutch_, 376.

  SCHWALBACH, _t._ and Waters, 356.

  _Schwartzo_, a _Jew_, 411.

  _Sculpture_, not the best in _London_, 434.

  _Seaux_, the Duke of _Maine_’s Seat, 223.

  _Schonborn_, Countess _de_, 350.

  ---- _Francis-George_, Count _de_, Bishop of _Triers_, 350.

  ---- Bishops of _Spires_, and _Bamberg_, 350, 353.

  _Sebastian, St._ Marchioness _de_, 156, 157, _&c._ 160, 162, 164.

  ---- K. of _Portugal_, 87.

  ---- _St._ t. taken, 258.

  _Seignelay_, Marquis of, his Bombardment of _Genoa_, 144.

  _Senator_, of _Rome_, 110.

  _Seneca_’s Statue, 49.

  _Senesino_, the Singer, 466.

  _Senez_, Bishop of, 240.

  SENS, _t._ 183.
    Mademoiselle _de_, 217, 218.

  SERSARA, _t._ 143.

  _Servants_, the Custom of treating ’em in _England_, ridiculed, 465.

  SESTRI, _t._ 143.

  _Ships_, the Difference betwixt the _English_ and _Spaniards_, and
      those of three Decks, and two, 138.

  _Sinzendorf_, Count, 232, 403.

  ---- Countess, her Conversion to Popery by a Flash of Lightning, 149.

  _Sixtus_ IV. his Power as to Hell and Purgatory, 25.

  ---- V. Pope, 8, 9, 25, 31.

  _Skates, Dutch_, describ’d, 384.

  _Slingeland_, the (late) Grand Pensionary of _Holland_, 406.

  _Smith, Richard_, Bookbinder, and his Wife, their tragical Catastrophe,
      270, _&c._
    Their Apology for killing themselves and their Child, and the
        Confession of their Faith, 271, 272.

  _Snow_, in _August_, 13.

  _Sobieski_, Prince and Princess. 61, 63.
    Her Arrest, as she went to be marry’d to the Pretender, 61.
    Her Escape, 61, 62.
    Her Reception at _Rome_ by Lady _Marr_, &c. and the Cardinals, 63.
    Her Death, _ibid._

  _Sodomite_, the pert Answer of one to a Cardinal, 112.

  _Soissons_, Congress, 295, 296.

  _Solare_, Chevalier _de_, 162, 163, 164.

  SPA, _t._ and Waters, 325.
    Great Resort to it, 326.

  _Spain_, Q. Dowager of _Lewis_ I. her Marriage, and her silent Visit
      from _Lewis_ XV. 207.
    Her Retirement to a Convent. 208.

  _Spaniards_ Arrival at _Leghorn_, 134, 136, 137.
    Comparison between their Officers and Ships, and the _English_, 138.

  _Sparr_, Baron _de_, 346, 347.

  _Speik_, Madame _de_, 361.

  _Spigo_, Marquisate, and Marchioness, 157, 158, 160.

  _Spinola, John Baptist_, Cardinal, 130.

  _Spork_, M. _de_, 405.

  _Stadthouse_, at _Amsterdam_, 377 to 380.

  _Stage_ Players, the extravagant Respect paid to ’em in _France_, 266,
    A Joke put upon them by President _Harlai_, 267.

  _Stampa_, General, 120.

  _Stein_, Baron, 311.

  _Stilletto_, the frequent Use of it at _Rome_, 73, 74.

  _Stoves, Dutch_, describ’d, 372.

  _Strafford_, Earl of, 438, 451, 452.
    His prophetical Conversation with the D. of _Ormond_, 453.

  _Strappa Corda_, what, 111.

  _Strickland_, Bishop, 319.

  _Strozzi_, Duke, 52.

  _Suarez_, Madame, 135.

  _Sudarini_, Marquis, his Present of a fine Coach to his
      Daughter-in-law, 106.

  _Sulpice, St._ the Parson’s, Lottery, 201.
    His Parsonage a fat one, 202.
    Its Seminary, _ibid._

  _Surnames_, the Moderns blamed for not giving them to their Heroes as
      well as the Ancients, 251.

  SUSA, _t._ 168.


  _Tallard_, Duchess, 205, 211.

  _Tancin_, Archbishop of _Ambrun_, 240.

  _Tapistry_ Manufactures, 308.

  _Targa_, Bp. Cardinal _Coscia_’s Brother, 91.

  _Tavannes_, Count _de_, 182.

  _Taverns, English_, better than the _French_, 465.

  _Tenebra_, a fine Piece of Music, 96.

  _Terrasson_, Abbé, 243.

  _Teutonic_ Order, Masters of it, 326.

  _Texeria_, a _Jew_, 411.

  _Thames_ River, 431, 432.

  _Theatres_ at _Paris_, better open’d than shut, 385.

  _Theodore_, Baron _de Neuhoff_, proclaim’d K. of _Corsica_, 150.

  _Tholouse_, Count _de_, and Countess, 199, 220, 221, 226.
    Her Sister, 260.

  _Thou_, M. _de_, Ambassador, his Dispute with a _Spaniard_ about
      Precedency, 400.

  _Tingry_, Prince _de_, 296.

  _Tintoret_, Painter, 359.

  TIRLEMONT, _t._ 319.

  _Titian_, Painter, 359.

  _Titus_’s Arch at _Rome_, 34.

  TONGRES, _t._ 323.

  _Torcy_, M. _de_, 237.

  _Tour_ and _Taxis_, Prince and Princess, 306, 307, 308.
    His Mother and Children, 307.

  _Tour, Humbert de la_, 172, 173.

  _Touraine, la_, 216.

  _Tranquillity_, Christian, a Poem, on the Disputes of the Times, 279.

  _Treaties_ of Peace, three concluded successively in the Dominions of
      the _Dutch_, 370.

  _Tremouille_, Cardinal _de_, 215.

  TREVOUX, _t._ 179, 180.

  _Triers, Francis-George_, Count _de Schonborn_, the present Bishop,
      350, 351.

  _Triple Crown_, by what Pope first worn, 22.

  _Trotti_, Marquis _de_, 346.

  _Tuilleries_, in _France_, Garden, 436.

  _Tulip-Root_, of great Value, 395.

  TURIN, _t._ 152.
    Its University, 167.
    Its Siege, 152, 153.

  _Tuscans_, the great Hopes they entertained of _Don Carlos_, 139.

  _Tuscany_’s Great Duke, his Manner of giving Audience in Bed, with his
      Lap-Dogs, and his hearty Reception of our Author, 131, 132, 134.
    His Indolence in his Bed-chamber, and Deshabille, 133.
    His Kindness to Pilgrims, and Fondness for the _Germans_, ibid.
    His Pensioners and Paymaster, _ibid._
    Who influenced him to recognise Don _Carlos_ for his Successor, 134.

  _Twicked, Wassenaer de_, 412.

  _Tyburn_ Executions, 458, 459.


  _Vahal_, River, 365.

  _Val de Grace Church_, 198.

  VALENCIENNES, _t._ 296.

  _Valere_, Mademoiselle _de_, 188, 219.

  _Valois, Philip de_, 172.

  _Vander Borg_’s Tapistry, 308.

  _Vander Duin_, Messieurs, 408.

  _Vandyke_, 359.

  _Varengeville, Joanna de_, Wife of the Marshal _Villars_, 255.

  _Vatican_ Palace, 24, 31.

  ---- Library, 25.

  _Vauhan_, M. Engineer, 315.

  _Vayrac_, Abbé, the Author, 273.
    His pleasant Rencounter with a pert Coxcomb of a Counsellor, 273,
    His Plagiarism, 274.

  _Vendosme_, Duke de, 253. Why he has not left his Fellow, 254.

  _Venerie Castle_, 155.

  _Venice_ and _Amsterdam_ compar’d, 371.

  _Ventadour_, Duke and Duchess _de_, 205, 334.

  _Vermillon_’s Tapistry, 308.

  _Veronese, Paul_, Painter, 359.

  _Versailles_ Park, 436.

  _Vespasian_’s Amphitheatre, 35.

  _Uhlefeldt_, Count _de_, 403.

  _Uhlefeldt_, Mademoiselle _de_, her unhappy Fate in the Fire at
      _Brussels_, 301, 403.

  VIAREGGIO Forest and Village, 141, 142.

  _Victor_, King of _Sardinia_, his Abdication and Imprisonment, 155 to
    His Advice to the famous _John Law_, 239.
    His Treaty with _France_ and _Spain_, 252.

  _Vienna_ Treaty, 296.

  VIENNE, _t._ 173.

  _Villars_, Marshal de, _Francis Hector_, 250 to 256.
    Our Author’s smart Answer to him, when he boasted of his Clemency at
        _Denain_, 251.
    His Invention of a Surname for the Marshal, which put him in good
        Humour, 252.
    His Creation as Marshal of _France_, _ib._
    His Conduct in the _Cevennois_ and in _Flanders_, 253.
    His Preferment to the Government of _Provence_, and his Compliment to
        the Memory of his deceased Predecessor, 254.
    His remarkable Expressions to the _French_ King, when he went to the
        Command in _Germany_, and when he had purchas’d an Estate,
    His Command, Sickness and Death, in _Italy_, 255.
    His Family and Character, _ibid._ 256.
    His nimble Trip from a Ball to a Battle, _ibid._
    A Sonnet made on him when he set out last for _Italy_, _ibid._
    His Scruple to accept of a Commission to act against the King of
        _Spain_, 258.

  _Villeroy_, M. 174, 178, 229.
    The Family, _ibid._ 175.

  _Vinci, Leonard_, 66.

  _Vintimille_, N. N. Archbishop of _Paris_, 192.
    His Concern for the Goodness of his Mutton, greater than for that of
        the Pasture of his Sheep, 193.
    His equal Respect to different Orders, and an Epigram upon his
        Mandate, in favour of the _Constitution Unigenitus_, 193.

  _Viol_, holy, at _St. Rheims_, the Story of it, 269, 270.

  _Visconti_, Count _de_, and Countess, 300, 302, 307, 308.

  _Vitriarius_, Professor, 397.

  _Voisin_, M. Secretary at War, 235.

  _Voltaire_, the Poet, his Tragedy of _Brutus_ admir’d, 265.
    Criticis’d, 266, 467.

  _Urban_ V. Pope, 22.

  _Urban_ VIII. Pope, his Order about the Cardinals Title, 86.

  _Vrilliere_, M. Secretary of State, 209, 237, 238.

  ---- Madame _de_, 238.

  _Ursini_, Cardinal, his Election to be Pope, 26, 27.

  _Ushers_ of the Pope, their Privilege, 81.

  UTRECHT, _t._ 367, 368, _&c._

  ---- its Walls resembling those of Jericho, 368.
    _Lewis_ XIV. afraid of its Cellars, _ibid._

  _Uxelles_, Marshal de, 354.


  _Wager_, Admiral’s Arrival at _Leghorn_, whither he convoy’d the
      _Spaniards_, 136.

  _Waldeck_, Prince, 21, 57.

  _Wales_, _Frederic_, Pr. of, 447.

  _Wallingford_, Ld. his Marriage, 240.

  _Walpole_, Sir _Robert_, 450, 451.

  _Walpol_, Baron _de_, 350.

  _Walrave_, Colonel, 362.

  _Wartemberg_, Countess de, 409, 410.
    Her innumerable Adventures of Gallantry, 409.

  _Wassenaars_, of _Holland_, 412.

  _Water-works_, finer than those of _St. Cloud_, 269.

  _Watteville_, Mademoiselle de, 311.

  _Welderen_, Count _de_, 407, 408, 409.

  _Werf, Vander_, a Painter, 359.

  WESEL, _t._ 362.

  _Westminster_ Abbey and Palace, 440, 441.

  _Wetzler_ Chamber, 324.

  _Whitehall_, Palace, 435.

  _Whitworth_, Lady, her smart Rebuke of Cardinal _Corsini_, for
      pretending to meddle with Houshold Affairs at _Cambray_ Congress,

  _William_ l. Pr. of _Orange_’s Assassination, 425.

  _William_ III. Prince of _Orange_’s Dispute for Precedency with the
      Count _d’Estrades_, 401.

  ---- Disputes adjusted relating to his Succession, 405, 406.

  ---- _Charles-Henry_, Prince of, 412, 413.

  _Windmills_ of _Holland_, 389.

  _Windsor_ Palace, by whom built, 450.

  _Wirtemberg_, _Lewis_, Pr. of, his, saying to the _Genoese_, about
      _Corsica_, 150.

  ---- _Alexander_, Pr. of, 307.

  _Wogan_, Mr. in the Pretender’s Service, 61, 62.

  _Wolffgang de Neubourgh_, Duke, 359.

  _Wolsey_, Cardinal 450.

  _Women_ Lying-in, a Protection to their Husbands, 396.

  _Worms_, fatal to the Dykes of _Holland_, 392, 393.

  _Wrangel_, Marshal _de_, 309.

  _Wurmbrand_, Count _de_, ibid.

  _Wuytiers Barkman_, Bp. of _Utrecht_, 369.

  _Wynendale_ Battle, to what the _French_ ascribe the Loss of it, 153.


  ZEIST, _t._ 367.

  ---- Count _de_, 412, 413.

  _Zuchro_, Painter, 39.

  _Zumjungen_, Marshal _de_, 308, 309.



[1] His Eminency died in the Beginning of the Year 1733, after which,
Signior _Thomas Ratto_, and _Ottinelli_, heretofore Auditor of the
_Rota_, and now Bishop of _Cordoua_, had the Care of the _Spanish_
Affairs, in which he was succeeded by Cardinal _Acquaviva_.

[2] Now Pope _Clement_ XII. whose Nephews and Nieces dwell in it.

[3] The last Hackney that was presented on the Part of the House of
_Austria_, was deliver’d by the Prince of _Santa Croce_, whom the
Emperor appointed for that Ceremony, because _Spain_ having conquer’d
the Kingdom of _Naples_, the Constable was not willing to concern
himself in the Affair, before it was finally decided. This was in the
Year 1734.

[4] He is now a Cardinal and Archbishop of _Benevento_.

[5] This Princess, who was born _July_ 6. 1702. O. S. died _Jan._ 7.

[6] As the Baron above three Years since durst not venture much Money on
the fulfilling of this Prophecy, we may now say it is not worth a

[7] His Eminency is return’d to _France_, and succeeded in his Embassy
by the Duke of _St. Aignan_.

[8] The Death of this Cardinal has been already mention’d. His Successor
is M. _Ratto_, Bishop of _Cordoua_.

[9] _Henry_ was Son to King _Emanuel_, and _Sebastian_ was Grandson of
_John_ III. Brother to the Cardinal _Henry_.

[10] He did it however in the Year 1733.

[11] Since these Letters were wrote, he is actually return’d, and
hitherto he is come but poorly off. Tho’ his Fate be not yet intirely
determin’d, ’tis certain that he will not be degraded. A Sentence has
been pass’d upon him, and ratify’d, whereby he is declar’d
excommunicate, and out of a Possibility of being absolv’d, but by the
Pope, even _in articulo mortis_; he is also to be confin’d in a
Fortress, depriv’d of the Power of Speaking or Voting, _&c._ But as
_omnia venalia Roma_, even more now than in _Jugurtha_’s Time, the
Cardinal _del Gindici_, who is a Friend of his Eminency _Coscia_, gave
him to understand, that the Pope was resolv’d to treat him as a Grand
_Vizier_ in Disgrace; that he must absolutely refund, and that all his
Sins shou’d be blotted out. Consequently his Eminency submitted to
implore his Holiness’s Clemency, on Condition of paying well for it; and
in fine, his Pardon has been tax’d at thirty thousand Ducats. He has
clamour’d against it not a little; but the Holy Father wou’d not abate
an Ace of it, and the Cardinal was forc’d to acquiesce; however, as he
always watches for the Death of the Pope, he desir’d to pay it at
several Terms; and upon depositing ten thousand Crowns down, he
immediately receiv’d Absolution, his Guards were taken off, and he had
Liberty granted him to walk about in the Castle of _St. Angelo_, and to
converse there with his Brother the Bishop of _Targa_. He pleads
Poverty, and shuffles off his Payments from one time to another, in
constant Expectation that the Gout will rise into the Pope’s Stomach,
and take him out of his Way. At length, in 1734, he paid down ten
thousand Crowns more. But a Collector of Taxes, from whom he formerly
receiv’d a great Present to procure him an Acquittance from the Chamber,
to which he ow’d seventy thousand Crowns, died lately insolvent, and
without making good the Fraud; and as _Cæsar_, they say, _loses
nothing_, the Chamber comes upon Cardinal _Coscia_, who is condemn’d to
pay this Deficiency too, and the Pope won’t hear any Talk of compounding

[12] He Afterwards created him a Cardinal; but he died at _Benevento_ in
1733. Nobody after his Death wou’d accept of this Benefice, till the
Pope gave it to the Abbat _Conti_, a _Roman_, who only took it upon
Condition that his Holiness wou’d give him a red Hat to boot; which he
did accordingly, at the last Promotion of Cardinals.

[13] It was publish’d in the News-papers of 1732, that this Gentleman
was sentenc’d to be beheaded, but that his Holiness had commuted that
Sentence to ten Years Imprisonment. It was afterwards said in the public
News, that the Pope had shorten’d it, first, to seven Years, and then to
three Years Imprisonment. At length the Pope was for removing him to
_Perousa_, or elsewhere; but the Prelate wou’d not go, and said, If he
cou’d not have his intire Liberty, he wou’d live and die in the Castle
of _St. Angelo_.

[14] The Origin of this Ceremony, if we may believe Father _Sirmond_ and
_Ciccarelli_, was this: It comes from a Custom they had at _Rome_, of
distributing to the People upon every _Whitsunday_ the Remainder of the
Paschal Wax-taper, which was consecrated on _Holy Saturday_. The Vulgar,
who are always superstitious, appropriated several Virtues to this
consecrated Wax, particularly that ’twas a Preservative against the
Delusions of the Devil, and the Injuries of Lightning, _&c._ and they
us’d to burn little Pieces of this Wax in their Houses. There being not
enough left of the Paschal Wax-taper to satisfy the Cravings of the
People, the Archdeacon took it into his Head to take some other Wax,
which he sprinkled with Oil, bless’d it, and made little Bits of it in
the Form of a Lamb, and then distributed them to the People. Afterwards
they only flatted those Pieces of Wax, and impress’d ’em with the Stamp
of a Lamb bearing the Standard of the Cross. They believe that none but
such as are in Orders have the Power to touch them, and they are cover’d
neatly with embroider’d Stuff to be given to the Laity. There is nothing
by which the Monks more successfully impose upon the Credulous; for to
such they distribute _Agnus Dei_’s that were never on t’other Side of
the _Alps_.

[15] He is the Pope’s Vicechamberlain.

[16] When he was at the Congress at _Cambray_, he had a Fancy to
regulate every Plenipotentiary’s Houshold; and indeed, that was all he
did there. One Day he took it into his Head to give his Œconomical Rules
at my Lord _Whitworth_’s, but he did not find my Lady very compliant;
for, said she, M. _le Marquis, We make use of the +Italians+ to regulate
our +Concerts+; but as for the Table, pray give us leave to consult the

[17] Cardinal _Grimani_ succeeded Cardinal _Bentivoglio_ in the
Legateship of _Bologna_, as soon as the present Pope had created him a
Cardinal; but he died in the Legateship, and his Holiness conferr’d it
upon _John Baptist Spinola_, whom he had just before advanc’d to the

[18] Nevertheless there is a Difference between these two Families: The
Duke _Ferdinand_ the last Survivor of that of _Kettler_, but of the
Family of _Medicis_ there are Princes still living, who have an
incontestable Right to the Succession; for ’tis certain, that _Bernard
de Medicis_, the eldest Brother of Pope _Leo_ XI. descended from
_Juvenco de Medicis_, Brother of _Sylvester Clarissimus_, the Head of
the present reigning Branch, which _Bernard de Medicis_ was the Son of
_Ottaviano_, the last Standard-bearer of _Florence_ in 1528. This
_Bernard_ purchas’d the Barony of _Ottajano_ near Mount _Vesuvius_ in
the Kingdom of _Naples_, to which he transferr’d this Branch of the
_Medicis_; and the present Prince of _Ottajano_, and Duke of _Sarno_,
who married _Theresa_, Daughter of _Charles_ Prince of _Acquaviva_, is
his Great Great Grandson.

[19] The Count _de Charni_ signs N. _d’Orleans C. de Charni_. He is a
Bastard of the _Orleans_ Family, but by whom is not known. He has
advanc’d himself at the Court of _Spain_, and is now Commandant of
_Naples_, and Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom.

[20] This Prince went thro’ _France_, and arriv’d at _Florence_ the
Beginning of the Year 1732.

[21] This young Prince died in 1734, as his illustrious Uncle did in the
Year following.

[22] The _Spaniards_ took it at the Beginning of the War, and ’twas the
first of their Exploits.

[23] _Giafferi_ did all he could; but was obliged to submit to Force,
the Republic being assisted by the Troops which the Emperor had
assembled in _Lombardy_, to oppose the Enterprizes he was then
apprehensive of from the _Spaniards_. _Giafferi_ was arrested, but by a
great deal of Art and Cunning he obtain’d his Freedom, after the
_Genoese_ thought the _Corsicans_ were disarmed, destitute of Leaders,
and reduced to a Sense of their Duty; and he retired to _Tuscany_. But
the _Corsicans_ being no better treated than they were before their
Accommodation, took up Arms again, upon which _Giafferi_ procured them
all manner of Assistance, and actually returned to that Island, and put
himself at the Head of the Malecontents, who seemed to have a fair
Chance of regaining their Liberties. They were so uppish in Expectation
of foreign Assistance, that they rejected some new Concessions made to
them by the _Genoese_, in _Dec, 1734_, declar’d _Aitelli_ General of the
Forces, and one _Costa_, a Man of great Intrigues, General-Auditor of
the Island; and, at the same time, made Proposals to the King of _Spain_
to take them under his Protection, having renounced all Subjection to
the Republic of _Genoa_, declar’d themselves a free and independent
People, and resolv’d to defend their Liberties to the last Man. At
length they receiv’d some Recruits of Money and Ammunition by one
_Theodore_, who call’d himself the Baron _de Neuhoff_, and arriv’d in
_March_ 1736. on Board an _English_ Ship from _Tunis_; but in the Name
of what Power he acted, is as yet a Mystery. He had the Success to be
proclaim’d King of _Corsica_, and Copper Money was coin’d there with his
Effigies; but he has since been obliged to abandon the Island; and the
_French_ have taken upon them to accommodate Matters between the
_Genoese_ and _Corsicans_. It must be left to Time, to shew whether the
_Genoese_ will have Reason to be pleased with this formidable Mediation.
After all, that Republic has too much Cause to remember the Saying of
Prince _Lewis_ of _Wirtemberg_, who, when he return’d with the Imperial
Troops from suppressing the former Rebellion, told them, That the Island
was not worth the Expences which the Republic had been at in reducing
the _Corsicans_, and what they must be at continually to keep them in

[24] The Prince had a Kindness for Mademoiselle _de Cumiane_, before she
was married to the Count _de St. Sebastian_, when she was Maid of Honour
to Madame Royale. She was afterwards a Lady of Honour to the Duchess of
_Savoy_, and at last Tire-Woman to the Princess of _Piedmont_, late
Queen of _Sardinia_. She has been a Widow since 1723. After she was
married to the Count _de St. Sebastian_, she still preserv’d the King’s
Friendship and Esteem, and was always in great Credit with him. When she
became a Widow, the old Flames of Love broke out again; the King gave
her an Apartment at Court, where he cou’d see her without being seen,
and he took Care of her Family.

[25] ’Tis said, that the real Motive of this Abdication was his
Perplexity on Account of the Succession of _Parma_ and _Tuscany_, and
the Introduction of the Infante _Don Carlos_ into _Italy_. They say he
had enter’d into Engagements relating to this Affair, first with the
Court of _Vienna_, and afterwards with _Spain_; and it not being
possible for him to satisfy either of those Courts without exposing
himself to the Resentment of the other, he resolved to abdicate, at
least for a Time, because he knew of no other Way to extricate himself
from the Dilemma.

[26] The Abdication was performed the 3d of _September_, in the Castle
of _Rivoli_. The declar’d Motives, were the Fatigues of a Reign of fifty
Years, the Infirmities of old Age, and the Necessity of some Interval of
Retirement, between a Throne and a Tomb.

[27] The King was not marry’d to the Countess of _St. Sebastian_, till
he came to _Chamberry_, where she met him; for he set out from _Turin_
without her. When he marry’d her, he gave her one hundred thousand
Crowns, with which she purchased the Marquisate of _Spigo_ for her
Children, and then exchang’d her Title of Countess of _St. Sebastian_
for that of Marchioness of _Spigo_.

[28] _Victor Amedeus_ took it into his Head to reascend the Throne, as
soon as he heard of the Conclusion of the Treaty of _Vienna_, by which
the Emperor consented to the Introduction of the _Spaniards_. He then
let the Marchioness _del Spigo_ into the true Motives of his Abdication,
and into the Measures he intended to take for reascending the Throne.
This ambitious Woman encourag’d him, and being withal a very cunning
intriguing Person, she left no Stone unturn’d to bring a Project to
bear, which would set her on the Throne; and she engag’d all her Friends
and Relations in the Affair, of whom some betray’d her.

[29] These Proofs were his sending for the Marquis _del Borgo_ to
_Montcallier_, demanding the Instrument of Abdication from him, giving
him but twelve Hours time to fetch it, and his appearing before the
Citadel of _Turin_, with a View of getting into it, and of animating the
Garison to assist him in his Enterprise.

[30] These were all Privy Counsellors and Great Men, who being assembled
by Order of the King, and consulted on the imminent Danger of his being
dethron’d were all of Opinion for putting _Victor Amedeus_ and his
Consort under an Arrest.

[31] He died _Oct._ 31. 1732.

[32] She died _Jan._ 13. 1735. and his Majesty has since married Sister
of the present Great Duke of _Tuscany_.

[33] There is now but one Prince, the youngest being dead; but there are
three Princesses.

[34] This is the Cardinal _Ferrera_, Bishop of _Verceil_.

[35] This wou’d be very extraordinary, as Mr. _Addison_ observes, were
it not for other neighbouring Mountains that rise above it.

[36] This shews another Mistake of _Misson_, who says this Side is the
most rugged.

[37] The _French_ are not the only People who boast of the Grandeur and
other Advantages of _Lyons_, as appears from this Epigram by _Scaliger_.

_Flumineis Rhodanus qua se fugat incitus undis, Quaque pigro dubitat
flumine mitis Arar, Lugdunum jacet, antiquo novus orbis in orbe,
Lugdunumque vetus orbis in orbe novo. Quod nolis, alibi quaras; hic
quare quod optas: Aut hic, aut nusquam, vincre vota potes. Lugduni
quodcunque potest dare mundus habebis: Plura petas, hac urbs & tibi
plura dabit._

i. e.

_Where +Rhone+ impetuous rolls, and where the slow And gentle +Sâon+
with milder Streams does flow, There +Lyons+ stands; where we united
find, What scatter’d thro’ the World delights the Mind; And if you still
seek more with greedy eye, +Lyons+ can ev’n more Wonders still supply._

[38] Her Amours with M. _de Lauzun_ have made a great Noise.

[39] This Misfortune came upon the Duke and Duchess of _Maine_, merely
from a Suspicion which the Regent entertain’d, that the Duke had a Hand
in the pretended Conspiracy of the Prince of _Cellamare_, the Ambassador
of _Spain_; which, they said, was to remove the Duke of _Orleans_ from
the Regency, and to vest it in the King of _Spain_, who wou’d have put
the Duke of _Maine_ in his Place, according to _Lewis_ XIVth’s last
Will. The bare Suspicion however amounted to fix the Guilt upon this
Prince, and all that belong’d to him. It were to be wish’d, that some
Eye-witness of what was then transacted at Court, and in _Bretagne_,
wou’d give the Public an exact Account of it.

[40] The Friar, who in the other Orders is a Prior, is call’d a Minister
in this Order, which it better known in _France_ by the Name of the

[41] In all Appearance, the _Latin_ Name _Lutetia_ comes from
_Leucothecia_, which signifies _white Town_, a Name that _Strabo_ gives
to this City, the Houses of which were plaister’d. By Abbreviation it
was call’d _Lutetia_. As to the Name _Paris_, ’tis certain, that it
comes from _Para-Isis_, near _Isis_, a well-known Goddess, who had
several Temples in this Canton; where she was so particularly
worshipp’d, that from her Name the Inhabitants were call’d
_Para-Isians_, the Neighbours of _Isis_. They, who have carefully
examin’d the Gate of the _Carmelites_ Church, and the Building of its
Chapel, will own, that it was formerly the Temple of this Goddess; whose
Statue, in Iron, holding a Handful of Ears of Corn, is still on the
Front of the Building.

[42] The Author does not say _whither_ nor _from whence_ those Sheep are
stray’d. All those Sheep feed in the same Pasture, or at least, there
are but few of ’em that feed in the Pastures to which M. _de Vintimille_
could wish to bring the others. Some Slanderers don’t scruple to say,
that this _good_ Prelate gives himself more Uneasiness about the
_Excellency of the Dishes_ at his Table, than the Goodness of the
Pasture for his Sheep: For he has been seen to give the same Welcome to
the _Jesuits_, and the _Fathers of the Oratory_, to the _Capuchins_ and
the _Benedictins_, &c. For the Sake of such of our Readers as have a
Taste for _French_ Poetry, we insert the following _Epigram_; which was
made upon this Prelate’s Mandate in Favour of the Constitution:

_Le Public est un Sot, d’être scandalisé Du Mandement que +Vintimille+
Vient de repandre dans la Ville, Me disoit ce Matin un Docteur avisé! Il
est, dit il, d’Usage indispensable, Pour qu’un Saint soit canonisé,
D’entendre l’Avocat du Diable._

[43] This is a Thing in Question; and the Negative seems to be plainly
proved by the Opinions of the Counsellors of the Parlement, all Men of
unexceptionable Character, who voted for putting the Reverend Father to

[44] He is now Archbishop of _Sens_, and very well known for the famous
Story of _Maria Aliacoque_, a celebrated Saint of his own making.

[45] The Count _de Gergy_ died in 1733 in his Embassy, and was succeeded
by the Count _de Froulay_.

[46] As the Parson of St. _Sulpice_ stretches his Invention to the
utmost, how to allure the Multitude, in 1734 he out-did all that he had
ever done before, so that his Procession was more like the March of an
Army than any thing else, because of the many Trumpets, Kettle-drums,
Hunting-horns, _&c._ which made the Air echo with their Flourishes. It
may by Degrees come to be like the Processions at _Cambray_, _Antwerp_,
_Brussels_, and other Towns of the _Netherlands_; where, to the Scandal
of the Christian Religion, we see the Revival of all the Impertinencies
of the Pagan.

[47] The Mode of _Bagnolette_, _i. e._ Bathing-tubs, came from this
Village, to which the Country-women carry them.

[48] _Philippa Elisabeth_ of _Orleans_. She died of the Small-pox _May_
21, 1734. unmarried, and universally lamented.

[49] _Louisa Diana_ of _Orleans_. She was married in 1732. to _Lewis_ of
_Bourbon_, Prince of _Conti_, by whom she had a Son, born _Sept._ 1,
1734. while the Prince was in the King’s Army upon the _Rhine_.

[50] It should have been observ’d in the Article of _Turin_, that this
Queen died the second of _January_, 1735, O. S. and the King has since
marry’d the eldest Sister of the present Duke of _Lorain_.

[51] He is married since 1732, to _Louisa-Diana_ of _Orleans_, youngest
Daughter of the late Regent.

[52] The Origin of the Fable is this. _Mehemed Ben Aschen_, or the Son
of _Aschen_, Admiral of _Sale_, was deputed from the King of _Morocco_,
but I know not in what Year, to the Court of _France_. When this Corsair
was at _Paris_, he heard great Talk of the Princess of _Conti_’s Beauty,
and of the particular Affection which the King had for her: In order to
ingratiate himself with the _French_, he gave out, that the Emperor his
Master having seen the Picture of that Princess among other Effects
which belong’d to a Christian who was taken into Slavery, he thought her
the most beautiful of her Sex; and that his _Moorish_ Majesty said, That
if he had such a Lady in his Seraglio, he should never desire any other.
_Mehemed_’s Story was presently carried far and near, but it was told
quite different from the Truth; for it was reported in a very little
time, that he was come to demand the Princess in Marriage for _Muley
Ismael_ his Master. As there seem’d to be something mysterious in the
Picture, a Messenger was sent in all Haste to the Ambassador’s Lodgings,
to know the Name of the Slave from whom it was taken; but his
_Mahometan_ Excellency so prevaricated, that his Answer was far from
being satisfactory. Nevertheless, his pretended Demand of this Princess
was so much the Subject of Conversation among the _French_ for several
Months, that according to the Custom of this People, they at length made
a Sonnet upon it, which follows.

To the Tune of _Je ne suis né ni Roi ni Prince_.

_Votre beauté, grande Princesse, Porte les traits dont l’Amour blesse,
Jusques aux plus sauvages dieux: L’Afrique avec vous capitule, Et les
conquétes de vos yeux Vont plus loin que celles d’Hercule._

_S’il est bien vrai qu’il vous adore, Que je plains ce pauvre Roi Maure,
D’être sensible à vos appas! En vain envers vous il s’explique; La
France ne donnera pas Son Ange au Diable de l’Afrique._

Which may be thus English’d,

_Your Beauty, Great Princess, Carries Love’s killing Shafts To Nations
the most savage; +Afric+ with you capitulates, And the Conquests of your
Eyes Even those of +Hercules+ surmount._

_If it be true that he adores you, How do I pity the poor Negro King,
Who is so smitten with your Charms! In vain he makes his Passion known
to you; For sure +France+ will never give Her Angel to the Devil of

[53] ’Tis a Letter _from a Gentleman retir’d from the World, to a Friend
of his_, wherein he celebrates the happy Innocence, and the Freedom of
his tranquil Retreat, in a Style that cannot but be pleasing to the
Admirers of _French_ Poetry; and for their Sakes we insert the Original,
with only an _English_ Paraphrase in the Margin.

Je vois regner sur ce rivage The Author begins with expressing
L’Innocence et la Liberté. his Surprise at the Concurrence Que d’Objects
dans ce paisage, of Objects of different Qualities Malgre leur
contrarieté, in his Retirement; such as M’étonnent par leur Assémbláge!
Abundance with Frugality, Abondante frugalité, Authority with
Indulgence, Riches Autorité sans Esclaváge with Sobriety, Richesses sans
Libertinagé, Charges, Noblesse, sans fuerté. Honours with Humility: And
having Mon choix est fait, ce voisinage therefore fix’d on this Spot for
Détermine ma volonté. his Residence, he implores the Bienfaisante
Divinité, Sanction of the Divine Providence Ajoutez y votre suffrage. to
his Choice.

Disciple de l’Adversité, Here he says, that having been Je viens faire
dans le village train’d-up in the School of Le volontaire apprentissage
Adversity, he prefers a voluntary D’une tardive obscurité. Obscurity in
the Village; that he Aussi bien, de mon plus bel âge has experienc’d the
Instability of J’apperçois l’instabilité. Youth; that he has seen the
Return J’ai deja, de compte arrêté, of 40 Springs, which he regrets
Quarante fois vu le feuillage that he has so ill improv’d; and Par le
Zéphyr ressuscité. promises to make a better Use of Du Printems j’ai mal
profité: the Summer of his Life. J’en ai regret; et de l’Eté Je veux
faire un meilleur usage.

J’apporte dans mon Hermitage, He says he brings to his Hermitage Un cœur
des longtems rebuté a Heart which has been for a long Du prompt et
funeste esclavage, Time the fatal Slave of foolish Fruit de la folle
vanité. Vanity; but that now he is become Paisan sans rusticité, a
Peasant without Clownishness, a Hermite sans patelinage, Hermit without
Bigotry; and that Mon but est la tranquillité. Tranquillity being his
Aim, he Je veux pour unique partage, desires no other Portion in Life La
paix d’un cœur qui se dégage but the Peace of his Mind, Des filets de la
Volupté. disentangled from the Snares of Pleasure.

L’incorruptible probité, Here he declares, that De mes Ayeux noble
Heritage, incorruptible Probity, the noble A la Cour ne m’a point
quitté. Inheritance he deriv’d from his Libre et franc, sans être
sauvage, Ancestors, did not forsake him at Du Courtisan fourbe et volage
Court, where being frank and free, L’exemple ne m’a point gâté, without
being rude, the Example of L’infatigable activité, the crafty giddy
Courtier had not tainted him. He observes the good Effect of his former
Miscarriage; that it has made him active and indefatigable; and he hopes
Reste d’un utile naufrage, from henceforwards to be happy in Mes Etudes,
mon Jardinage, his Studies, in his Garden, and Un Repas sans art
appreté, in a plain Diet dress’d by his D’une Epouse œconome et sage
frugal prudent Wife, whose good La belle humeur, le bon ménage, Nature
is equal to her Œconomy. Vont faire ma félicité.

C’est dans ce Port, qu’en sureté In this Port, says he, my Vessel Ma
Barque ne craint point l’orage. dreads no Storm. Let who will defy Qu’un
autre à son tour emporté, the Rage of the Winds, while he Au gré de sa
cupidité, coasts along the Shore, I laugh at Sur le sein de l’humide
plage, his Presumption, and wish him a Des Vents ose affronter la rage;
good Voyage; but reserve my Je ris de sa témerité, Courage for a more
important Et lui souhaite un bon voyage. Passage, and approach with Je
réserve ma fermeté Boldness to the Gates of Eternity. Pour un plus
important passage; Et je m’approche avec courage, Des portes de

Je sai que la mortalité The Poet concludes with a Du Genre humain est
l’appanage: Reflection, that since Mortality Pourquoi seul serois-je
excepté? is intail’d upon all Mankind, why La vie est un pelerinage:
should he alone think to be De son cours la rapidité, exempted? And he
says, that since Loin de m’alarmer, me soulage. Life is but a
Pilgrimage, the De sa fin, quand je l’envisage, Rapidity of its Race,
instead of L’infallible necessité alarming, comforts him; and that Ne me
sauroit faire d’outrage. the infallible Necessity of his Brulez de l’Or
empaqueté, Death, when he seriously considers Il n’en perit que
l’embalage: the Matter, is no more an Injury C’est tour. Un si leger
dommage to him, than the burning of a Bale Devroit-il être regreté? of
Gold is to the Metal, which remains intire, tho’ the Case that contains
it is consum’d; which, he adds, is too trifling a Loss to be regarded.

[54] The King gave this young Duke, when he was but nine Years old, the
Reversion of the Post of Great Admiral, for a New-Year’s Gift, on the
first of _January_ 1734. He is handsome, well-set, all Life and Spirit,
and gives very fair Hopes of being a great Man.

[55] As soon as he arrived, the Place _de Vendosme_, or the Square of
_Lewis le Grand_, where M. _Daguesseau_ liv’d, was set apart for the
Stock-jobbing Trade, which was before carried on in the Street
_Quinquempoix_; and one Morning, a Paper was found at the Chancellor’s
Door, with these Words, _Et homo factus est, & habitabit cum nobis_.

[56] He is actually join’d in the Administration with the Cardinal _de
Fleury_, who was very glad to nominate a Person for his Coadjutor.

[57] He died some time ago at _Paris_, very much lamented by all that
knew him.

[58] The present Archbishop of _Ambrun_, famous for his Zeal for the
Constitution, for the Persecution of the Bishop of _Senez_, and for his
little Council at _Ambrun_.

[59] He died at _Maestricht_ in the Year 1734, a Cornet in the Regiment
of the Prince of _Orange-Friseland_. But Mr. _Law_ has left an amiable
Daughter, who has had a fine Education, and married to Lord
_Wallingford_, Son to the Earl of _Banbury_.

[60] These Verses are not in the first Edition of these Memoirs, but are
added, by the Bookseller, to the second.

[61] _James Nompar_ of _Caument_, Duke _de la Force_, an assiduous
humble Servant of Mr. _Law_, and who, by his Management, during the
_Missisippi_ Scheme, drew a great many Pasquinades upon himself, of
which this is not the severest.

[62] The Abbé _Terrasson_, who wrote in Favour of the Scheme.

[63] _Law_ had three Cocks for his Arms.

[64] As these Lines will not admit of a Version to the Satisfaction of
an _English_ Reader, ’tis sufficient to acquaint him, that they are a
Satire upon the Humour which prevail’d at that Time, among People of all
Ranks, from the Duke to his Scullion, to be Adventurers in Mr. _Law_’s
Scheme; a Madness which was contemporary, and equally mischievous with
the Delusion that was so predominant in our own Country, in that fatal
Year of 1720, when so many People were, as we may term it, cast away in
the _South-Sea_, and the lesser Whirlpools, call’d _Bubbles_, of which
there was almost an infinite Number.

[65] This, with the Calculation annexed to it, is an Addition by the
Editor, to the second Edition, which was not in the first Edition of
these Memoirs.

[66] There was a Label affixed to the Gate of the _Palais_ Royal, with
these Words, _Esurientes implevit bonis, & Divites dimisit inanes_, i.
e. The Hungry he hath fill’d with good Things, but the Rich he hath sent
empty away.

[67] He was of the _Lorain_ Family, and was succeeded in his Office of
Master of the Horse by his Son Prince _Charles_.

[68] The King of _France_ having declar’d War against the Emperor in
1733, in Conjunction with the Kings of _Spain_ and _Sardinia_, his
Majesty gave the Marshal _de Villars_ the Command of his Army in
_Italy_; to which Country he repair’d after the Conquest of the
_Milanese_ had been very far advanc’d. He took _Pizzighitone_; but the
Imperial Army being at length form’d, the Count _de Merci_, who
commanded it, having taken the Field with it on a sudden, by passing the
_Po_, made so many Motions, that the old Marshal, being forc’d to be
_every-where_, according to his old Phrase, fell sick upon it, and was
oblig’d to leave the Army. Some do not stick to say, that he had Orders
for it from Court, where his Conduct was not approv’d: Be this as it
will, his Distemper growing worse upon his Arrival at _Turin_, he died
there the 17th of _June_ 1734, in the 84th Year of his Age, in the same
Room, as ’tis said, where he was born, his Father the Marquis _de
Villars_ being then there by Order of the King. In 1702 he married
_Joanna-Angelica Roque de Varengeville_, whose Father was the King’s
Ambassador at _Venice_. The Family of _Villars_ is originally of
_Lyons_, and first began to be distinguish’d in the Person of _Claude de
Villars_, Lord of _Chapelle_, and _Masclas_, second Son to _Francis de
Villars_, born about _Ann._ 1516. The Marshal was to the last a Man of
uncommon Gaiety and Gallantry; for whether Fighting or Dancing, he
appear’d with the same Vivacity and good Humour, and seem’d an Enemy to
none except the Jesuits. What did not consist with such a Temper, was
his Love of Money; and he inrich’d himself too much by the Spoils of
War, and the Contributions he used to raise for Safe-guards, _&c._ But
as for his Soldier-like Character, this one Story of him may suffice; In
1702 the Marshal order’d his Army to pass the _Rhine_ at _Haguenau_, the
same Night that he invited several Gentlemen and ladies to a Ball, where
he danc’d till two o’Clock in the Morning, and then mounted his Horse
unobserv’d, and follow’d his Army; with which he surprised the Prince of
_Baden_, and fought a Battle by the Time the Ball was broke up; for
which Action the King gave him the Marshal’s Batoon. The Conquests of
_Milan_ and other Places in _Italy_, which he made in 1733, were
accompany’d also with Dancing and Balls; but Age and Infirmities, at
last, made a Conquest of him. His Memory and his Judgment so fail’d him,
that he became troublesome to the Army; but his fighting Humour still
prevail’d, and he would have endanger’d all, had not the King of
Sardinia prevail’d on the King of _France_ to recall him. However, the
King of _Sardinia_ took Leave of him in the Field with great Civility,
and at his Arrival at _Turin_, where he fell ill of a Dysentery,
accompany’d with a Fever, of which he died, he was receiv’d very
graciously by the late Queen, who presented him with a Diamond Sword,
valued at 300 Pistoles.

The following Sonnet was presented to the Marshal, when he set out for

_Villars, tes grands Exploits qui sauverent la France, Dans les Siecles
futurs t’immortaliseront. La Paix fut le doux fruit de ta haute
prudence; Mais de nouveaux Lauriers doivent ceindre ton front._

_Le Pere de ton Roi, l’Espagne & le Piémont, Sur toi seul aujourd’hui
fondent leurs Esperances. Arme ton bras vainquer, cours venger leur
affront; L’Allemand pourra-i-il soutenir ta présence?_

_Les grands Cœurs en tout tems conservent leur valeur, L’Age respecte en
eux leur prémiere vigueur, Ils savent s’affranchir des Loix de la

_Semblables aux Lauriers que leur main va cueillir, Qui des ans, des
saisons ne craiguent point l’injure, Les Héros ont le droit le ne jamais

i. e.

_+Villars+, thy great Exploits, which sav’d all +France+, In future Ages
will immortalise thee. The Peace was the kind Product of thy great
Wisdom; But new Laurels are still to deck thy Brow._

_The Father of thy King, +Spain+, and +Piedmont+ too, Upon thee alone do
now found all their Hopes. Haste with thy conqu’ring Arm their Quarrel
to avenge; Will +Germany+ be able to withstand thy Presence?_

_Great Souls always retain their Valour; To their former Vigour Age
itself pays a Respect; They can shake off the Yoke of Nature’s Laws._

_Like to the Laurels gather’d by their Hands, Which are Proof against
the Injuries of Years and Seasons, Heroes never stoop to old Age._

[69] By Mrs. _Arabella Churchill_, Sister to the late Duke of

[70] The King, having appointed the Marshal _de Villars_ to command in
_Italy_, thought fit to send the Marshal _de Berwic_ to oppose Prince
_Eugene_, whom the Emperor had nominated for the Command on the _Rhine_.
He began the Siege of _Philipsburg_; but on the first of _June_, O. S.
1734, as he went to take a View of the Trenches, he was kill’d with a
Cannon Ball between his two Grandsons. He is succeeded in all his Titles
by his Son the Duke _de Liria_, now Duke of _Berwic_, _&c._ who has been
lately at the Court of _Naples_.

It will be doing no Dishonour to the Marshal, to say he made War his
Trade, which he studied with an unwearied Application; and as he never
wanted Courage, so none had more military Knowledge. Having consider’d
War as a Science, he left little to Chance, or even Bravery; but
depended upon Skill and Discipline, which was the Thing that gain’d him
the Battle of _Almanza_. As he was so regular and mechanical a Warrior,
he was himself the Life and Soul of his Army, not as he was belov’d, but
as he was much fear’d by his Soldiers, whom he never spar’d, and least
of all, his own Countrymen, that came to serve in _France_. He was
reserved even to his General Officers, rarely consulting them, nor so
much as communicating the Orders he had receiv’d, or the Designs he had
projected, but as they had their own Parts to execute in them. Tho’ he
was the best regular General of his Time, yet he was the least
enterprizing one. He was never a great Favourite at the Court of
_France_, which is something to be wonder’d at, considering the Use he
was made of upon every Occasion; for as a Soldier of Fortune, he had no
Obligations but for his Appointments; and yet attach’d himself to
_France_ preferably to any other Nation. As he was bred up in the War
against the _English_, his Enmity to them became a second Nature, which
is suppos’d to be the Reason that he never did one of that Nation any
Service, beside those of his own Family. As the Marshal took care to be
obey’d by the Officers and Soldiers of the Armies he commanded, he was
always obsequious himself to the Orders of the Court, of which there
needs no other Proof, than the Instance above-mention’d; when he
appear’d in Arms against _Spain_ with Alacrity, after he had receiv’d
the highest Honours from King _Philip_.

He had the Title of Duke of _Berwic_, and likewise the Garter conferr’d
on him by King _James_. He was born in 1671, so that when he died, he
was sixty-three Years of Age.

[71] The Family of _Estrées_, originally of _Picardy_, was in Possession
of the Dignities of the Crown before _Gabriella_; for her Grandfather
was Great Master of the Artillery of _France_.

[72] This is the common Name in _Italy_ for Interpreters or Expounders
of Antiquities.

[73] Here should have been added, _of the Poet_ Paul Scarron. She was
the Daughter of _Constans d’Aubigny_, Baron of _Surincan_, and of _Joan
de Cardillac_. _Charles d’Aubigny_, Governor of _Berry_, and Knight of
the King’s Orders, who died in 1703, was her Brother. Her Grandfather
was _Theodore Agrippa d’Aubigny_, Admiral of _Bretagne_ and _Guienne_,
celebrated for his Zeal for the Protestant Religion, and Author of a
_History of his own Time_, of the _Confession_ of _Saney_, and of the
Baron _de Faneste_. Every body knows, that the Attachment of his Widow
_Scarron_ to Madame _de Montespan_, made her Way to _Lewis_ XIV. who was
so pleas’d with her Humour, that she continued in the highest Favour
till that Monarch’s Death; and enjoy’d a Pension of 50,000 Livres, which
was punctually paid her by _Lewis_ XV. every Year as long as she liv’d.
After her Death, the Duke de _Noailles_ became Marquis _de Maintenon_ in
Right of his Wife.

[74] This alludes to a Joke of the President _de Harlai_, who when he
was accosted by the Comedians, in the Name of their _Troop_, which that
worthy Gentleman never car’d for, especially since _Tartuffe_, and the
Comedians saying to him, _My Lord, the_ Company _of Comedians_, &c. The
President made Answer, _Gentlemen_, the Troop _of the Parliament_, &c.

[75] The Author refers here to the Works directed by Mr. BENSON, one of
the present Auditors of the Imprest (for which see p. 67. of the First
Volume of these Memoirs).

[76] The Bottle called the Holy Phial, is kept at _Rheims_, in the Tomb
of St. _Remy_, in the Church of that Name. It has not been filled since
the Coronation of _Clovis_, when ’tis said this Phial was brought from
Heaven, with the Oil with which that first Christian King of _France_
was consecrated; and the Frier who shews it at _Rheims_, says very
seriously, That when the King is sick, it dries away; so that when he
dies, there is not a Drop left in the Bottle; but that as soon as his
Successor is proclaimed, it fills again of its own Accord. I tell you no
more than what I heard with my own Ears, and tho’ I could not help
smiling at it, the Frier was not angry. The Liquefaction of this Oil is
altogether as miraculous as that of St. _Januarius_’s Blood at _Naples_.

[77] The Abbé _de Vayrac_ was of a good Family in _Guienne_, and had all
the Vivacity natural to that Province, which stood him in the stead of
Wit; but it was of the abusive Kind. If ever an Author was a Plagiary,
he was. He published a _State_ of _Spain_, and a _State_ of the Empire;
which last brought him under an ignominious Sentence of the Court of
_Vienna_. He had also composed a History of _Portugal_, which he could
not obtain a Licence for Printing, because it appear’d that he had paid
greater Compliments in it to the _Portuguese_, than to the _French_. He
died in the Beginning of the Year 1733, as he returned from a Journey he
had made to _Holland_.

[78] In 1643.

[79] This famous Counsellor was restor’d not long after, at the pressing
Instances of his Brethren, and has merited the Elogiums of the Minister
himself, as well as of all _France_.

[80] _Pucelage_ is the _French_ Word for _Virginity_.

[81] Neither was he included in the Promotion of the four Marshals of
_France_, which the King made in 1734, tho’ he had served with great
Bravery ever since the Beginning of the last War between _France_ and

[82] This Minister pleases them to Perfection. They all like his
Behaviour, and the Diligence with which he dispatches Business. In a
Word, he is beloved and adored.

[83] In _November_ 1736, she was delivered of a Son.

[84] Prince _Christian_ II. Son of the Prince _de la Tour_. He resigned
his Canonship of Cologn, on purpose to serve in the Emperor’s Army.

[85] The Marshal _de Zumjungen_ dy’d the 25th of _August_ 1732. The
Count _de Wurmbrand_ commanded till another was appointed.

[86] _Gand_ signifies _Ghent_ in the _German_, and _Glove_ in the

[87] He is the Great Great Grandson of Prince _Maurice_, by the Lady _de

[88] The Emperor lately appointed him to relieve the Count _de Sastago_,
Viceroy of _Sicily_, at the Time that Don _Carlos_, King of _Naples_,
went to make a Descent upon _Sicily_, with twenty thousand Men, under
the Command of the Count _de Montemar_, Duke of _Bitonto_.

[89] M. _d’Amerongen_, who is descended of one of the best Families in
the Province of _Utrecht_, having lost his elder Brother, who was in the
Regency, has quitted his Service to succeed him in the Government.

[90] It was burnt quite to the Ground in the Beginning of the Year 1734.

[91] VOL. I. LETTER V.

[92] He succeeded _Francis Lewis_ of _Neubourg_, Elector of _Mentz_, who
was chose Grand Master the 12th of _July_ 1694, In the Room of his
Brother, _Lewis Anthony_ of _Neubourg_; and he is the fourteenth Grand
Master since the Defection of _Prussia_, formerly the Seat of this
Order, which has existed ever since the Year 1190; when it was
instituted in the Holy Land, by _Henry_ King of _Jerusalem_. A Duke of
_Masovia_, having invited to his House _Herman de Salsza_, the fourth
Grand Master of the new Order, chose in 1210, he gave him, and his
Knights, Lands upon the Frontiers of _Prussia_; the Inhabitants whereof
being _Pagans_, did great Mischief to his Subjects, and he promised to
leave them all the Lands that they conquered from those People, which
the Emperor and the Pope confirmed. Before the Year 1250, they took
_Prussia_, _Courland_, and a Part of _Livonia_; and put all the _Pagans_
to Death that refused to turn Christian. The _Teutonic_ Knights, being
driven out of the Holy Land, by the taking of _Acre_, went and
established the principal House of their Order at _Marpurg_, in the
Beginning of the fourteenth Century; from whence they transferred it to
_Marienbourg_ in _Prussia_. The Order made such a rapid Progress, that
in the Beginning of the following Century, it was in a Condition to
oppose _Jagellon_, King of _Poland_, with an Army of eighty-three
thousand Men; which that Prince, _Anno_ 1410, cut in Pieces. After that
time the Order was scarce ever at Peace, but was always at Variance,
either with the _Poles_, or the _Lithuanians_, or with the _Russians_,
or with its own Subjects; till it was obliged to make a dishonourable
Peace in 1446, with _Casimir_ King of _Poland_. The Grand Masters, from
that Time to 1510, when _Albert_ of _Brandenbourg_ was chose Grand
Master, could not repair their Losses. The latter having embraced the
Protestant Religion, made a Bargain in 1515, with the King of _Poland_,
and yielded all _Russia_ to him, on Condition of holding of him in Fee,
what was afterwards called _Ducal Prussia_, or _Brandenbourg Prussia_,
which now forms the Kingdom of _Prussia_; and the rest was incorporated
with _Poland_, and forms the Palatinates of _Culm_, _Marienbourg_, _&c._
Thus were the _Teutonic_ Knights obliged to retire to _Germany_, where
their Order is shared into twelve Provinces, each of which has its
particular Commandeurs; and their oldest Commandeur is called the
Provincial Commandeur. These twelve Commandeurs depend on the Grand
Master, and have a Right to chuse him. The Grand Master’s Residence is
at _Marien-shal_ in Franconia, and his Revenue about twenty thousand
Crowns. ’Tis said, the Order does not yet despair, that some Day or
other, it will be able to recover its lost Dominions.

[93] He is dead.

[94] He was Grand Master of the _Teutonic_ Order, Bishop of
_Strasbourg_, _Halberstadt_, _Passau_, _Olenitz_ and _Breslaw_; Abbot of
_Hirchsfeldt_, _Murbach_ and _Luders_.

[95] Nevertheless, he was disgrac’d in 1733, for a very trifling Cause,
which made the Count _de la Lippe_, also, lose all his Employments; and
his own Disgrace has been attended with that of his whole Family, and
with great Alterations at the Elector’s Court, where the Count _de
Hohen-Zollern_ is now Grand Master of the Houshold, and First Minister;
and the Baron _de Hornstein_ Great Chamberlain.

[96] He was scarce twenty-eight Years of Age.

[97] The Baron _de Roll_ has succeeded him in his Place.

[98] The Count, who is a Lover of the Sciences, intends to make a
_Lycaum_ of his Castle, and a little _Athens_ of his Town. He begins by
forming a numerous Library, and longs to get the Learned about him. But
the main Point is to make a good Choice of them; and the first Choice
which the Count has made of a Man who has already engrossed his Favour,
does not promise well for the future.

[99] He died in 1734.

[100] On the Road, two Leagues from _Cleves_, there’s the Palace of
_Meiland_, where the King of _Prussia_ resided at the Beginning of the
Illness which he contracted in 1734, as he returned from the Imperial
Army on the _Rhine_.

[101] The Name of this Prelate was _Barkman Wuytiers_. He died in 1733,
at no very great Age, with the Character of a Man of the strictest
Virtue. The Court of _Rome_, and the _Jesuits_, conceiv’d great Hopes
after his Death. The latter, after having been banished out of the
United Provinces by very severe Laws; employed the Mediation of a
certain Court to succeed in their Design of getting an Apostolical Vicar
accepted in the Place of the Archbishop of _Utrecht_; but this Design,
which was look’d upon as dangerous to the Liberty of the Republic,
miscarry’d, and the Deceased was succeeded by _Theodore van der Kroon_.

[102] What is said throughout this Article, of their Manner of living,
must be understood only of the common People, and not of Persons of any
distinguished Rank, nor even of the Merchants.

[103] As there is no Dignity superior to that of the Burgomaster, they
who attain to it succeed one another in the several Functions, without
passing to other Employments: They are the Members of the Council, who
are sent to the College of Counsellor-Deputies, or who fill the Posts of
Treasurers, _&c._ But the Burgomasters are they who go to the Assemblies
of the States of the Province, with the Pensionary or Syndic of the
City, who is the Spokesman.

[104] He is since dead.

[105] This Minister was succeeded in 1734, by the Count _d’Uhlefeld_,
Son to the Lady who has the chief Direction of the Houshold to the
Archduchess, Governess of the _Austrian Netherlands_. He is come to a
Post which was so well fill’d before, in a very difficult Juncture,
which has given him an Opportunity to discover the great Talents he has
for Negotiation. As his Family is one of the best regulated, so it may
be said to be one of the most magnificent. The Count _de Sinzendorff_
died suddenly about the End of _September, 1734_, at the Seat of the
Count _d’Asperen_, at the very Instant when he was preparing to return
to _Vienna_.

[106] These Differences were indeed adjusted during the Time that M. _de
Masch_ resided here with a Ministerial Character; but he had no Hand in
the Accommodation, it being negotiated only by M. _Luiscius_ the King’s
Resident, and M. _Duncan_, the Prince of _Orange_’s Privy-Counsellor, or

[107] Upon the Death of the King of _Poland_, he was confirmed by the
new Elector of _Saxony_.

[108] M. _Preys_. He has resided at the _Hague_ for several Years, and
was here during the Time of the Ambassador _Palmquist_, whom he
Succeeded. He is a Minister of consummate Knowledge in Affairs, and is
consulted by others of a more modern Standing, both with Pleasure and

[109] M. _Greys_ has for several Years had the Care, as Envoy
Extraordinary, of the King of Denmark’s Interests with the States
General. He was bred up to be a Minister at the Altar, but had more
Inclination to be a Minister of the Cabinet, in which he succeeded, and
is very much esteem’d, but sees very little Company.

[110] This able Minister died in _December, 1736_.

[111] M. _de Keppel_ married the Widow of the late Count _de Welderen_,
one of the greatest Men of this Republic, who left three Sons and five
Daughters, that are the Ornament of the Nobility of _Guelderland_, and
the Darlings of the _Hague_, where Foreigners have an easy and agreeable
Access to this Lady’s House. M. _de Keppel_, one of the finest Gentlemen
of his Time, and one of the bravest Officers of the State, died in 1733,
leaving only one Son, who is an Officer in the Horse Guards.

[112] The good Lady died of the Small Pox in 1735 in a very advanced
Age. Tho’ she had made a Profession of Devotion for a certain time, she
had not intirely lost her Taste for Gallantry, in which she certainly
out-stripped the Lady _Mazarine_; for she declared herself, that it
would be more easy to number the Shells upon the Shore at _Scheveling_,
than her Adventures of Gallantry. She never missed her Aim but at one
Man, and that was King _Augustus_. She did all she could to engage his
Caresses, if not his Affection, but without Success; and every body
knows the Adventure of my Lord _Raby_, who having an Amour with the
Countess at _Berlin_, surprised her with King _Augustus_ striving to get
loose from her close Embraces. Nor is this a Wonder; for tho’ the King
of _Poland_ did not want Gallantry, yet he was for a Woman of some
Politeness, of which the Countess had no Share; for being the Daughter
of a Waterman at _Emmeris_, she had not the completed Education. She had
Beauty indeed, but was in every other respect a coarse Lady.
Nevertheless, during her Residence at the _Hague_, the Youth who had
nothing else to employ their Time, constantly reported to her House, and
among these she had always some favourite Spark. Every body knows her
Intrigues with the famous Count _de F----_; and her Last Will and
Testament has render’d several others immortal. You will be surprised to
know the End of this Woman, who had been so much talked of, who had
regaled so many People in her Time, and to whom every body had easy
Access. She dies, is immediately removed out of her Chamber, and put
into a Coffin in the Entry of her House, which is sealed up, and she is
interred without one of her ungrateful Favourites vouchsafing to attend
her Funeral, or indeed any body but the Bearers, and a few Neighbours,
who were insulted by the Mob.

[113] The Issue of this Dispute betwixt the Jew and the Anabaptist has
been, that the latter has lost the Day, the Comedians being gone. The
victorious Jew has hit upon an Expedient to metamorphose his future
Opera into a public Concert, which he gives every _Monday_ in the
Afternoon, where one sees all the People of Fashion of both Sexes; and
there they sing Opera Acts, and the finest _French_ Cantatas.

[114] Of the latter, there died a Baron in _December_, 1736, who was one
of the principal Men, and held the greatest Offices of any in the
Republic, next to the Grand Pensionary _Slingeland_, whom he survived
but a few Days.

[115] M. _de Wassenaar-Twickel_, a Name which he derives from a fine
Estate in the Province of _Over-Yssel_, of which he is Deputy.

[116] _William Charles Henry Friso_, Prince of _Orange_, was married
_March_ 14. 1734. to the Princess Royal of _Great Britain_.

[117] The Count _d’Auverquerque_ died Velt-Marshal of the Republic,
about the End of the Campaign of 1708.

[118] As the History of this extraordinary Man came to the Hands of the
Bookseller since the Publication of the first Edition, he thought he
should do a Pleasure to the Public, by inserting it in this.

[119] He was executed in _July_, 1734.

[120] Or the _Palace of Orange_ in the Wood at the _Hague_. It was
yielded to the Prince of _Orange_ by his Treaty of Partition with the
King of _Prussia_.

[121] _Margaret_, Daughter of _Florence_ IV. Count of _Holland_. She was
Countess of _Henneberg_.

[122] This belongs also to the Prince of _Orange_.

[123] This is an ignominious Punishment inflicted Abroad for such
heinous Offences at deserve neither Banishment, nor Whipping, nor Death.
The Criminal who suffers it, stands in a Shirt, with a Rope about the
Neck, holding a burning Taper in one Hand, attended by the Executioner,
and other inferior Officers of Justice, and in this Posture begs Pardon
of the King, of Justice, and the Public, for the Offence committed.

[124] This most Excellent Princess departed this Life the 20th of _Nov._
1737, to the infinite Regret of the King and Kingdom.

[125] His Governor is the Hon. _Stephen Poyntz_, Esq; and his Preceptor
in the learned Languages _Jenkin Thomas Philips_, Esq; formerly
Secretary to the Commissioners for the Fifty New Churches, and since
preferr’d to be his Majesty’s Historiographer.

[126] Her Royal Highness, as is well known, is since married to the
Prince of _Orange_.

                        TRANSCRIBER’S AMENDMENTS

Transcriber’s Note: Blank pages have been deleted. On pages that remain,
some unnecessary page numbers may have been deleted when they fall in the
middle of lists. Some illustrations may have been moved. Footnotes are now
immediately preceding this note. We have rendered consistent on a
per-word-pair basis the hyphenation or spacing of such pairs when repeated
in the same grammatical context. We have corrected inconsistencies in the
application of accents to the same word when repeated in the same
grammatical context. Paragraph formatting has been made consistent. The
publisher’s inadvertent omissions of important punctuation have been
corrected. A table of contents has been added.

The following list indicates any additional changes. The page number
represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext
except for footnotes since they have been moved.

    Page          Change

      7  the Condu ctof[Conduct of] the Popes,
      8  not a Man spoke a Work[Word].
      9  in a Posture of Astonish mentat[Astonishment at] the Appearance
     17  proclaimed Pope on _Wedcesday[Wednesday]_ the 12th
     20  After this, th y[they] went all, both Cardinals and Prelates
     87  {footnote} _Sebastian_ was Grandon[Grandson] of _John_ III.
    110  intituled[intitled] Captain of the Appeals;
    122  chief Lackeys of the Cardinals rideing[riding]
    202  the famous Story of _Maria Aliacoque[Alacoque]_, a celebrated
    208  as she allighted[alighted] from the Coach,
    222  Assistance from the King his Maste[Master]:
    225  {footnote} Et lui southaite[souhaite] un bon voyage.
    229  intent upon carrrying[carrying] his Point,
    232  Count _Sinzendorf’s[Sinzendorff’s]_ coming from _Vienna_
    244  a Madness which was co-temporary[contemporary],
    264  After her Death, the Duke de _Noalies[Noailles]_ became
    292  General of the Coriers[Couriers], Posts and Relays
    294  about their Master’s Preeminency[Pre-eminency].
    309  and lives very handsomly[handsomely],
    309  but lives handsomly[handsomely] upon what he has
    313  The Inhabitants have a livid unwholsome[unwholesome] Complexion.
    351  His Disbursments[Disbursements] seem to me to be very moderate
    359  _Paul Veronese_, _Tintoret_, _Corregio[Correggio]_,
    376  are commonly employed as Tresurers[Treasurers] of the City,
    389  and the _Amsterdamers[Amsterdammers]_ themselves cannot
    419  a young Man of an unblamable[unblameable] Behaviour;
    425  of the _Franche Comte[Comté]_. The Republic
    443  that of being sollicited[solicited] by the Person in Disgrace
  Index  _Churchil[Churchill], Arabella_, 257.
  Index  Womens Houses, and the great Emoluments of Gameing[Gaming],
  Index  _Hagendorp[Hogendorp]_, M. 413.
  Index  _Lewid’ors[Lewis d’Ors]_, worn in a Lady’s Ears for Pendants
  Index  _Peyronie[Peyrome]_, _la_, Surgeon, 292.
  Index  _Popes_, the Days on which he[the] Cardinals kiss
  Index  _Rochebone[Rochebonne]_, M. Archbishop of _Lyons_, 174, 176.
  Index  _Terasson[Terrasson]_, Abbé, 243.
  Index  _Tintorit[Tintoret]_, Painter, 359.
  Index  _Tourlane[Touraine], la_, 216.
  Index  _Walpot[Walpol]_, Baron _de_, 350.
  Index  His Conduct in the _Cevennios[Cevennois]_ and in
  Index  _Wassienaurs[Wassenaars]_, of _Holland_, 412.
  Index  _William_ l. Pr. of _Orange_’s Assasination[Assassination], 425.
  Index  Disputes adjusted relateing[relating] to his Succession,

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume II - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels From - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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