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Title: The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume IV - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts.
Author: Pöllnitz, Karl Ludwig von
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume IV - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

            [Illustration: _Lestevenon de Berkenroode._]

                     [Illustration: Decoration.]





                           Baron de POLLNITZ.


                    The OBSERVATIONS He made in his
                  late TRAVELS from _Prussia_, through

                             _ENGLAND_, &c.

                 Discovering not only the PRESENT STATE
                     of the Chief CITIES and TOWNS;


                The CHARACTERS of the PRINCIPAL PERSONS
                         at the Several COURTS.

                                VOL. IV.


            Printed for DANIEL BROWNE, at the _Black Swan_,
              without _Temple-Bar_; and JOHN BRINDLEY, at
                the _King’s-Arms_, in _New Bond-street_.

                            M. DCC. XXXVIII.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                       MEMOIR                  1

                       APPENDIX              301

                       INDEX                 356

                      [Illustration: Decoration.]


                                 OF THE

                           Baron DE POLLNITZ.

                                VOL. IV.

_To Madame_ DE ----.

The Conduct of the Court of _Spain_, tho’ it really made the Court of
_Vienna_ uneasy, did not hinder the Emperor from carrying on the War
against the _Turks_ with Vigour: And Heaven so prosper’d the Imperial
Arms, that in 1718 Prince _Eugene_ gain’d the most signal Victory near
_Belgrade_ that the Christians could have hop’d for. Soon after that
Battle the victorious Troops reduc’d _Belgrade_, and at length the _Turks_
were forc’d to sue for a Peace: While every Thing seem’d to have a
Tendency that way, _Spain_ put to Sea the most formidable Fleet she had
ever equipp’d since that unfortunate one call’d, _The Invincible Armado_;
and sent it to the Coast of _Sicily_, where it put a numerous Army on
Shore, under Command of the Marquis _de Lede_. The Count _de Maffei_
Viceroy of the Kingdom for the Duke of _Savoy_, who was King of _Sicily_,
made all the Resistance possible, considering the Weakness of his Army;
and tho’ not able to save the Island, yet he made such a Defence as
hinder’d the _Spanish_ Army from pushing its Conquests farther by giving
Time to Admiral _Bing_, who commanded the _English_ Fleet, to enter the
_Mediterranean_, and execute the Orders he had to attack the _Spanish_
Fleet. These Orders imported, that he was to act in a friendly manners in
case that _Spain_ desisted from its Enterprizes against the Neutrality of
_Italy_; but otherwise to make a vigorous Resistance. Admiral _Bing_
communicated these Orders to Cardinal _Alberoni_, who answer’d him
gravely, _That he had nothing to do but to put them in Execution_. The
Admiral did so with a Vengeance; for on the 11th of _August_ he gave
Battle to the _Spanish_ Fleet, and intirely defeated it. As soon as the
Duke Regent was inform’d of the News, he sent away a Courier to the
_French_ Ambassador at _Madrid_, with Letters from the Earl of _Stairs_ to
the _English_ Ambassador Earl _Stanhope_. The Design of his Royal Highness
was to engage the latter to return to _Madrid_, from whence he set out on
the 27th of _August_, that he might make fresh Instances there for a Peace
with Cardinal _Alberoni_, who to be sure was a little stunn’d at this
Reverse of Fortune. But the Earl, whether he did not meet the Courier, or
whether he did not think it proper to return to _Spain_, arriv’d at
_Paris_ on the 9th of _September_.

Mean Time the War betwixt the Emperor and the _Turks_ was at an End, and
Orders were actually given for sending the Imperial Troops into _Italy_.
The Regent despairing at that Time of persuading the King of _Spain_ to a
Peace, order’d the Abbat _du Bois_, the _French_ Ambassador at _London_,
to sign the Treaty commonly call’d _The Quadruple Alliance_, in
Conjunction with the Ambassadors of _England_ and the Emperor. He also
repeated his Orders to the Duke of _St. Aignan_, to try all the means
imaginable to prevail on the King of _Spain_ to accede to the Terms that
were propos’d to him by the Quadruple Alliance; but his Catholic Majesty
persisted so long in his Refusal, that his Royal Highness resolv’d to
declare War against him, and the Duke of _St. Aignan_ had Orders to demand
his Audience of Leave.

At that Time the Regent happily discover’d a Conspiracy that was form’d
against him in the very Heart of the Kingdom. The King of _England_ had
before appriz’d him, that there was some Contrivance on Foot; but the
Names of the Conspirators, and what they were to do, was a Secret. Mean
time the Regent suspecting that all these Intrigues were only fomented by
the Minister of _Spain_, he caus’d the Prince _de la Cellamare_,
Ambassador from that Crown, to be so narrowly watch’d that he was soon let
into the Secret of the whole Intrigue carrying on against him, which was
in short no less than to remove him from the Regency. The _Spanish_
Minister for the better Success had caus’d a Body of Troops to be
assembled in _France_, where they stroll’d about like Fellows that dealt
in unlicens’d Salt, and other Contraband Goods; but upon a particular Day
they were to enter _Paris_, invest the Royal Palace, and to secure the
Person of the Regent. The Conspiracy was detected almost at the same
Instant that it was to have been executed; and of this the Prince _de
Cellamare_ himself was partly the Cause; not that I suspect him of having
betray’d the _Spanish_ Minister, but probably he was too credulous of
every one that came to him; for I was told, that the Pacquet containing
the whole Mystery of the Conspiracy, and the Names of the Conspirators,
was put into the Hands of the Abbat _Portocarrero_, in Presence of a
Couple of Domesticks, whose infidelity was not perhaps Proof against the
Lewidors of the Royal Palace. Besides, this Abbat, tho’ a Person of Merit,
had not perhaps Experience or Wisdom enough to behave as was absolutely
necessary in so ticklish an Affair. Be this as it will, he set out for
_Madrid_ with such Dispatches committed to his Care as contain’d the
Fortunes of a great Number of People. He had not travell’d far, when, as
he was passing a Ford, his Chaise broke, and he had like to have been
drown’d; but notwithstanding the Danger of his Person, he seem’d to be
more in Pain for his Trunk than for his Life. This Earnestness for the
Preservation of his Trunk gave a Suspicion to those who attended him; and
the Spies whom the Regent had planted upon him, advertis’d that Prince of
it time enough for him to give his Orders to the Commandant of _Poictiers_
to cause him to be arrested, and his Trunk to be secur’d. The Abbat was
accordingly arrested[1], and brought back to _Paris_. The Prince _de
Cellamare_, being inform’d of what had pass’d, claim’d the Trunk, saying
it contain’d the Memoirs of his Embassy: He was given to understand, that
his Word was not to be taken, and the Trunk being open’d at the Royal
Palace, there was all the Scheme of the Conspiracy, and the List of the
Persons that were enter’d into it. The Thing that gave the Regent most
Vexation was, to see the Names of Persons there, upon whom he had heap’d
his Favours. His Royal Highness acted in this delicate Conjuncture with
all the Moderation possible, and his Behaviour was in every Respect so
discreet, that it was hardly discernible that any Thing extraordinary was
passing in _France_; he caus’d the Abbat _Portocarrero_ to be releas’d, as
an insignificant Tool; but as to the Prince _de Cellamare_, he was invited
to a Conference at the Royal Palace, to which he no sooner arriv’d, but
Messengers were sent to clap a Seal on his Effects. The Ministers went
with him afterwards to his own House, where he was surpriz’d to find a
Guard that was charg’d to be answerable for his Person. Some Days after
this, all his Papers were examin’d, and Three Boxes were fill’d with them
in his Presence, which were seal’d and carry’d to the _Louvre_, there to
be kept till the King of _Spain_ sent Persons that he could confide in to
fetch them. At length on the 13th of _December_, the Prince _de Cellamare_
set out from _Paris_ with a Guard: As for the Smugglers, they vanish’d as
soon as the Conspiracy was brought to Light: All this pass’d in the Month
of _December_, 1718.

The 29th of the same Month the Duke and Duchess of _Maine_ were arrested:
The Duke had been the Day before to pay a Visit to the Duchess of
_Orleans_ at the Royal Palace, and stay’d there Three Hours, after which
he return’d to lye at _Seaux_; where next Morning a Lieutenant of the
Guards came and told him, that he had Orders to carry him under a strong
Guard to the Castle of _Dourlens_. The same Day at Seven in the Morning,
the Marquis _D’Ancenis_, who was Captain of the Guards after the Death of
his Father the Duke of _Charost_, during whose Life he had the Post in
Reversion, had an Order to arrest the Duchess of _Maine_: This Officer had
supp’d but the Night before with the Princess, and stayed with her very
late; guess then how he must be surpriz’d when he came Home, and found the
_Letter de Cachet_ or Warrant, which put him upon an Office that he would
have been glad to be excused from serving; but the Order must be obeyed,
and therefore he went next Day to the Princess’s Apartment, who was then
in Bed, as were also her Ladies; so that the Servants were very much
startled to see M. _D’Ancenis_ there again so early, and scrupled at first
to awake the Duchess; but, as they imagined the Marquis was come about an
Affair of great Consequence, the Ladies let him in: The Princess, being
wak’d out of her Sleep by the Noise of the Door, as it open’d, ask’d, Who
was there? M. _D’Ancenis_ having told her his Name, she said to him
hastily, _Oh! my God! What have I done to you, that you should disturb me
so soon in the Morning?_ He then told her the melancholy Commission that
he was sent upon. They say, her Ladyship was much more provok’d at this
Disgrace than the Duke her Husband; and she could not help dropping some
Words which shew’d plain enough that she was impatient under her
Misfortune. However, she was quickly dress’d, and getting into a Coach
with Three of her Waiting-Women, she was conducted to the Castle of
_Dijon_: All her chief Domestics were committed, some to the _Bastille_,
and others to _Vincennes_. The Prince of _Dombes_ and the Count _de Eu_
were banish’d to _Eu_, where they had so much Liberty however, that this
Change of Fortune had not altogether the Air of Disgrace. As for
_Maidemoiselle de Maine_, the Princess of _Conty_ took her Home with her.
The Cardinal _de Polignac_, who was very much attach’d to the Family of
_Maine_, also shar’d their Fate; for he was banish’d to his Abbey of
_Anchin_, and had but Two Hours allow’d him to set his Affairs in Order.

While these Things pass’d in _France_, the King of _Spain_, or rather his
Minister, caus’d the Duke of _St. Aignan_, the Ambassador of _France_, to
be very ill treated, who having taken Leave of the King and Queen, stay’d
some Days longer to settle his domestic Affairs, perhaps also to see what
Turn Things would take, in case the King of _Spain_, who was then
dangerously ill, should die. I am assur’d that the King having told him,
that by his Will he left the Regency to the Queen and Cardinal _Alberoni_,
the Ambassador made Answer, That his Testamentary Settlement might
probably be of as little Effect as _Lewis_ XIV’s was. This Answer
displeas’d the Cardinal, who thought of nothing but of being reveng’d; and
indeed some time after, the Marquis _de Grimaldo_, Secretary of State,
went to the Duke of _St. Aignan_, and signify’d an Order to him from the
King, to leave _Madrid_ in Twenty-four Hours, and the Kingdom in Twelve
Days. ’Twas 10 o’Clock at Night when this Order was notify’d, and next
Day, _viz._ the 14th of _December_, at 7 o’Clock in the Morning, the
Ambassador’s House was surrounded by a Party of Life-Guards, commanded by
an Exempt, who having plac’d Centinels at all the Doors of his Lodging,
enter’d the Duke’s Apartment, who was still a-bed with his Duchess, made
them dress themselves with all Speed, and then conducted them out of the

Cardinal _Alberoni_, who did not yet know, that the Plot he had laid was
discover’d, wrote with Speed to the Prince of _Cellamare_, that he might
guess what to expect after the Treatment that had been shewn to the
Ambassador of _France_; tho’ he told him, that ought not to be a Reason
for using him in the same manner, and that the Duke _de St. Aignan_’s
Misbehaviour had made it necessary to take that Course with him. He
exhorted him not to stir from _Paris_, till he was compell’d to it by
Force, nor even then, till he had made all the convenient Protests. He
said to him in the Conclusion, _Put the Case that your Excellency be
oblig’d to go, you will first set Fire to all your Mines_. Little did he
think how terribly they were at that Time countermin’d!

This Letter, which was a farther Confirmation of the Prince _de
Cellamare_’s Conspiracy, and the Affront put upon the Ambassador of the
most Christian King, intirely convinc’d the Regent, that the _Spanish_
Minister was resolv’d to go all Lengths. War was declar’d on both Sides,
in which _Spain_ did not come off with Honour. I shall have further
Occasion to speak of it to you some Time hereafter.

I am next to give you an Account, how it far’d with myself at this Time:
Tho’ I had no Hand in this Plot, yet I was shrewdly suspected; for several
Conferences were held at my House: I was intimate with those who were
deepest in the Secret, and in Fine, whether it proceeded from Prudence,
or from a Panic, I resolv’d to take Care of myself. I set out from _Paris_
in a very great Hurry, with a Design to repair to the Palatine Court, and
stay there till the Storm was quite over. I went to _Germany_ thro’
_Lorrain_, but had much ado to get thither, because I had no Passport, and
Orders were arriv’d from Court, to stop all that travell’d without one; I
therefore thought of the following Stratagem.

       *       *       *       *       *

About a League from _Toul_, which is the last Place in _France_, I feign’d
myself sick, that I might have some colour for halting there, and
dismissing my Postilion. At that Village I lay all Night, and rising very
early next Morning, I told my Landlady that I would go to _Toul_ on Foot,
and desir’d her to send my Boots according to a Direction I left with her.
My Design was to go into _Toul_ as a Townsman; for I hop’d, that my being
on Foot, and not having the Air of a Traveller, I should pass without
Molestation; but I was quite mistaken; for the Guard stopp’d me, and ask’d
me, Who I was, and, Wither I was bound? I said, That I was a _German_,
that I had been the _Valet de Chambre_ of a _German_ Nobleman, who dy’d at
_Paris_, and that I was returning from thence Homewards. The Officer
carry’d me before the King’s Lieutenant, who, I thought, was a mere Brute;
yet I think I should be in the Wrong to complain, for I gave myself out
for a Footman, and really as such he treated me: He put several Questions
to me, which I always made Answer to like a most submissive Lackey, in
Hopes of soothing his sullen Humour; but nothing could defend me from his
Reproaches: _You are not a Footman_, said he, _I rather believe you are
some Bankrupt; therefore tell me the Truth, or I’ll instantly throw you
into a Dungeon._ I still affirm’d, that I was a Footman; but the
Lieutenant, not well pleas’d with my Answer, committed me to the
Guard-House, where he left me Five or Six Hours, and then sent me Word,
that I might go to an Inn: I was conducted thither by a Soldier, who was
always a Guard upon me, and next Day carry’d me again before the King’s
Lieutenant, who took me into his Closet, and told me, ’Twas to no Purpose
for me to think of concealing myself any longer from him; for that he was
just inform’d who I was, by a Person who knew me. I own, _Madame_, that I
began to be afraid, yet I stood to my Text still, with all the Assurance
that could be. He then call’d one of his Domestics, and bid him fetch the
Man that knew me; but ’twas well for me, that this Person had no Existence
but in his Imagine. Mean Time he seem’d to be out of Patience that he did
not come; and at last told me, that I must return to the Guard-House, and
not stir from thence till I had fully satisfy’d him who and what I was.
Then I happen’d to hit upon an Expedient which prov’d a lucky one; I told
him, That I was very willing to remain in Custody till I had receiv’d an
Answer from the Landlady of the Inn where my Master dy’d, who would make
good what I had affirm’d. Upon this he order’d Paper to be given me; and I
wrote in short to my Landlady at _Paris_, by the Name of a _Valet de
Chambre_, whom I left there when I came away. As she was a Woman of quick
Apprehension, and knew my Hand-Writing, I persuaded myself that she would
easily comprehend the Meaning of it. When my Letter was finish’d, I shew’d
it to the King’s Lieutenant, who read it, and told me, That he would
undertake both for its Delivery, and an Answer to it. In the mean Time he
remanded me back to my Inn, and in Two Hours after, sent to tell me, that
I might pursue my Journey. You will naturally imagine, that I took him at
the first Word. I accordingly walk’d out of _Toul_ on Foot, but I hir’d a
Horse at a Village belonging to the Principality of _Elbœuf_, and went to
_Nancy_, where I had the Precaution to provide myself with a Passport,
which the Innkeeper, where I lay, procur’d me, by the Name of a certain
Merchant of that City. I did not think fit to go to _Strasbourg_, where
perhaps I might have been known; but went to _Haguenau_; from thence to
_Fort Louis_, where I pass’d the _Rhine_; and at last arriv’d at
_Heidelberg_ in the Beginning of the Year 1719.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Palatine Court resided at _Heidelberg_[2], but ’twas not the same
Elector that I had the Honour to mention to you before, for he was dead,
and was succeeded by his Brother Prince _Charles_, who kept a numerous and
magnificent Court, and was the Darling of all his Family. He was so good
to his Domestics, that there are few such to be found among Princes; and
yet without debasing his Rank, of which he understood every Part of its
Dignity, and perfectly knew how to have the Respect paid that was due to
him: Being withal generous, good-natur’d, affable and charitable; he lov’d
People should speak to him with Freedom. He was very regular in his
Conduct, even to a Degree of Devotion, yet in no respect an Enemy to
Pleasures; on the contrary, he often procured them for his Court; and he
was especially fond of Dancing, which he perform’d indeed too well for a

The Elector has had Two Wives, but he has had only one Child, a Daughter,
marry’d to the Hereditary Prince of _Sultzbach_, who is the Elector’s
presumptive Heir. She is a very lovely Princess, tho’ somewhat pitted with
the Small Pox; she is not tall, but perfectly well-shap’d; she is complete
Mistress of every Thing which young Princesses are usually taught; she
dances and sings with a very good Grace, and especially the _Italian_
Airs, which she plays at the same time to Perfection upon the Harpsichord.
The Prince her Husband was a clever handsome Man, and his Outside was a
sufficient Indication of his Endowments: He had so grave an Air, that one
would be apt to suspect him of a little Austerity, yet this did not render
him a whit the less polite; and, above all Things, he was very civil to
Foreigners. He shew’d an extraordinary Respect to the Elector, who, on his
Part, gave him all the possible Marks of a Tenderness for him. This young
Prince had a Son by this Marriage, who dwelt at _Neubourg_, where he had
been brought up; it being apprehended that the Fatigues of Travelling
would be hurtful to his Health, but, notwithstanding this Precaution, the
young Prince dy’d in 1724.

The Elector was a very early Riser; as soon as he was up, he spent some
Time in Prayer; then the Great Chamberlain or Grand Master of the Wardrobe
talk’d to him about Affairs of State, or such as were Domestic; when those
Gentlemen were retir’d, the Prince employed himself in reading Dispatches,
or in Writing; after which he dress’d himself: About 11 o’Clock he went
to Mass, accompany’d by the Prince his Son-in-Law, and the Princess his
Daughter: When he held a Council there, ’twas after Mass was over: Upon
other Days he play’d at Billiards till Dinner-time, which held a long
while, and sometimes a little too much was drank at it; which indeed they
could not well help, the Wine there was so delicious. After Dinner was
over, his Electoral Highness went with the Princess his Daughter to her
Apartment, where he stay’d a little while, and then retir’d to his own,
where he caus’d himself to be undress’d, and went to Bed for a few Hours.
About 5 or 6 o’Clock in the Evening he was dress’d, after which he gave
public Audiences, or else apply’d himself to something in his Study. At 7
o’Clock he went into the Assembly Room, where he found the Princess and
the whole Court; and after having chatted some Time, he sate down to
Picquet, or to a Pair of Tables; but when the Game was over, he retired,
and the Princess went to Supper.

In the Afternoon, when the Elector was withdrawn, the Princess went into
her Lady of Honour’s Apartment, where there was always a great Assembly,
and often a Concert, in which the Princess sung some _Italian_ Song or
other, together with _Signora Claudia_, one of her Waiting-Women. This
little Concert was made up also of some Musicians selected out of the
Elector’s Band, and is one of the completest that I ever heard. The Prince
of _Sultzbach_ assisted at it sometimes; but he most commonly retir’d to
his Apartment at the same Time that the Elector did to his.

As these Two Princes shew’d me great Marks of their Goodness, the
Courtiers too, in Imitation of their Masters, were mighty civil to me: I
was invited to the best Houses, and treated every Day with grand Feasts,
and fresh Parties of Pleasure; and in a Word I pass’d the little Time I
stay’d at _Heidelberg_ very pleasantly. I was so charm’d with that Court,
that I had a great Mind to put in for some Employment there; and for that
end I engag’d some Persons, who I thought could do me most Service; but
notwithstanding the Courtiers seem’d so fond of me, I found a Cabal in my
Way, which was powerful enough to hinder me from obtaining my Wish. These
were, to my Misfortune, Persons of very good Credit, who did not care to
see any body in Place, but such, as they knew, would truckle to them. The
Great Chamberlain, to whom I plainly saw I was not acceptable, was one of
those who made the greatest Opposition to my Advancement. ’Tis true, that
I drew his Resentment upon me by my own Rashness and Folly: For one Day,
as I was attending the Elector from the Princess’s Apartment to his own, I
went into a Room which, according to the Custom of the Court, no body was
permitted to enter, except the Great Chamberlain; but this was more than I
then knew, and therefore I went boldly into the Room, when a Harbinger of
the Court came, and, with a very impertinent Air, bad me _turn out_----I
ask’d him, Whether he had his Order for saying so from the Elector? He
said, No; but from the Great Chamberlain: I then made him an Answer in a
Style that surpriz’d him, and bad him tell the Grand Chamberlain something
that I knew he would not be pleas’d with: At the same time I talk’d both
against the Chamberlain and his Emissary in such a manner as gave Vent to
my Spleen, but excluded me from the Service of one of the best Princes in
the World. I took Leave afterwards of the Elector, who bad me Farewel,
made me a considerable Present, and moreover gave me Letters of
Recommendation to _Vienna_, where I intended to solicit some Employment.

I shall now give you a brief Account of the City and Castle of
_Heidelberg_: The City stands on the Banks of the _Neckar_, with high
Mountains on each Side, and only a narrow Passage between them, from which
however there’s a Prospect of the noblest Plain in _Germany_. In this City
there was formerly a famous University, founded by _Rupert the Ruddy_,
Count Palatine and Duke of _Bavaria_ in 1346. Here was to be seen one of
the finest Libraries in _Europe_, but General _Tilly_ carry’d it off in
1622, and sent it to _Rome_, where it makes a considerable Part of the
_Vatican_ Library. _Lewis_ the Dauphin of _France_, Grandfather of _Lewis_
XV. made himself Master of _Heidelberg_ by a Capitulation in 1698.
nevertheless, all manner of Disorders were committed in it; a Part of the
Electoral Palace was blown up, the City was burnt, and the very Corpses of
the Electors, which were in the Coffins with the Ornaments of their
Dignity, were dragg’d out of their Graves into the Square: And the
_French_ would undoubtedly have committed greater Cruelties, if the Army
of the Empire had not advanc’d towards _Heidelberg_, of which the
_Germans_ made themselves Masters; and the Governor was prosecuted for
Treachery, and sentenc’d to have his Choice, Whether to die by the Sword,
or to have his Coat of Arms defac’d, his Sword broke, to be kick’d by the
Hangman, and turn’d out of the Army with his Life: But he was so
mean-spirited, as to prefer Infamy to Death, and retir’d to _Hildesheim_,
where he has the Misfortune to be still living.

Some Time after this, the Marshal _de Lorge_ attack’d _Heidelberg_, but he
could not master it, tho’ the Place was defenceless. A Song was made upon
him, the Burden of which was, _He would have taken_ Heidelberg, _if he had
found the Door open_. There’s no Sign now that _Heidelberg_ was ever
ruin’d; ’tis well rebuilt; and if the present Elector had continued his
Residence in it, would have been one of the finest Towns in _Germany_; but
’twas owing to the Protestants, that the Elector remov’d to _Manheim_.
What gave Occasion to it was this: The Protestants of _Heidelberg_ and the
Catholics have one Church between them, where the Nave of it belongs to
the Protestants, and the Choir to the Catholics. When the present Elector
had fix’d his Residence at _Heidelberg_, he desir’d that this Church, in
which the Electors are interr’d, might be intirely Catholic; and for this
end he made a Proposal to the Protestants, to give up the Nave, and
engag’d that another Church should be built for them. The Inhabitants were
very willing to consent to it, but the Ministers oppos’d it, and
represented to the Citizens, that ’twas of dangerous Consequence to resign
that Church, which was included in the Treaty of _Westphalia_, and in all
the Treaties that had been made with the Princes of _Neubourgh_, on their
Accession to the Electorate; that, after such a Resignation was once made,
they could no longer expect the Protection of the Powers of their own
Communion; and finally, that even the new Church, which was promis’d to be
built for them, might with very great Ease be taken from them. The Elector
having declar’d that he would be obey’d, the Ministers apply’d to the
Protestant Body at the Dyet of the Empire. The Affair made a great Noise;
and the Elector threatened the Inhabitants to abandon them; but they did
not seem to be much concern’d at it, because they imagin’d, that if the
Court went, the Regency and the Courts of Justice would remain with them,
as they did in the Time of the late Elector. Nevertheless they were out in
their Calculation, and the Elector, justly incens’d at the Disrespect of
his Subjects, abandon’d them, and transfer’d his Court and all the
Tribunals to _Manheim_; so that the Citizens, whose sole Dependance was on
the Court, or the Officers of those Tribunals, are now very poor. They
were quickly sensible of the Error they had committed, and went and threw
themselves at the Elector’s Feet; but the Prince gave no Ear to them, and
has caus’d the City and Castle of _Manheim_ to be rebuilt.

The Castle of _Heidelberg_ to this Day shews the Marks of the Disorder
committed there by the _French_; for there’s a great Part of it in Ruins;
and out of Four considerable Mansions, of which it consisted, there was
only one that was not damag’d. That which remains of the Palace is in a
Stile of Architecture, which I should be at a Loss to explain; ’tis
neither Gothic nor Modern, but a _Rhapsody_ of all the Orders heap’d one
upon another, without Fancy or Judgment; as if the Architect who conducted
the Work, had only design’d a Building of great Expence, without troubling
himself whether it was done well or ill. This Palace stands upon a very
high Hill, with a magnificent Terrass towards the Town, from whence
there’s a Prospect of the Plain and of the Country too for several
Leagues. The Inside of the Palace is scarce more regular than the
Outside. The Elector’s Apartment consists of a long Suite of Rooms,
without Beauty or Proportion. Nor is there any thing agreeable in the
whole but its Situation, which is owing to the Prospect that it commands.
The other Apartments are very small, and of pretty difficult Access,
because of a great many little Steps that lead up and down to them.

In the Vaults of this Palace there’s the Tun, so famous for its enormous
Size; ’tis said to contain 26,250 Gallons _Paris_ Measure. The Electors
have had frequent Carousals on the Platform which is over it. I own to
you, that I can’t comprehend what Pleasure there can be in Tippling-Bouts
of this Kind, at a Place where one cannot be at Ease; since a Man need not
be very tall, for his Head to touch the Roof of the Vault, which besides
is very dark.

As I was preparing to set out for _Vienna_ where I intended, as I said, to
sollicit Employment, I receiv’d a Letter from _Paris_, with Advice that
the Storm I so much dreaded was dispers’d, and that all my Fears were ill
grounded, the Regent having no manner of Suspicion of me, but on the
contrary, more inclin’d than ever to shew me the Effects of his
Protection; thereupon I was earnestly exhorted to return to _Paris_, which
Advice coming from a good Hand, I made no Scruple to comply with it.

       *       *       *       *       *

At my Arrival there I went to the Royal Palace as before: The Regent gave
me a very good Reception, and _Madame_ made me so welcome, that it
confirm’d my Hopes, that I should at length obtain something at the Court
of _France_. I found People very much divided about the War which had been
just declar’d against _Spain_: The _French_ were indeed for a War, but
they were sorry to make it against a Prince who was born among them, and
for whose Establishment they had expended so many Millions, and so much
Blood. The Regent was even at a Loss to find any one to command the Army,
because several had excus’d themselves. Only the Marshal _de Berwic_, the
Natural Son of _James_ II. King of _England_, prefer’d the Service of the
Regency to the old Obligations he had to the King of _Spain_. His Catholic
Majesty, whose Forces this Duke had commanded, had heap’d Favours upon
him; he had not only made him and his Son Grandees of _Spain_, but had
moreover granted to both of ’em the Golden Fleece, and the Duchy of
_Liria_ for his Son and his Posterity. Nevertheless, he accepted of the
Command with Pleasure, and set out for _Spain_.

The Regent having engag’d the Prince of _Conti_ to take upon him the
Command of the Cavalry, order’d him 100,000 Crowns for his Equipage, and
granted him 60,000 Livres a Month to keep an open Table; besides which,
his Horses were to be kept at the King’s Expence. When his Royal Highness
had appointed these Two Generals, he was not very much at a Loss for
subaltern Officers: To encourage them to serve with the more Zeal, there
was a great Promotion, consisting of 6 Lieutenant-Generals, 72
Major-Generals, and 196 Brigadiers. The Regent also gave Pensions to above
Threescore Officers, who repair’d to the Marshal _de Berwic_ in _Navarre_,
where the Campaign was open’d by the Siege of _Fontarabia_. At the same
Time the Regent caus’d a Manifesto to be publish’d, which was couch’d in
Terms full of Regard to the King of _Spain_, Cardinal _Alberoni_ being
reproach’d for every Thing that was blameworthy in that Prince’s Conduct;
and accus’d of being the Author of the War between the Two Crowns, and of
having hinder’d the King his Master from accepting the Treaty of the
Quadruple Alliance, a Treaty which had not been concluded, said the
Regent, but for the Welfare of _Europe_, and particularly of _France_ and
_Spain_. His Royal Highness protested, that the War was only made to
induce the King of _Spain_ to a Peace; and affirm’d, That _France_ did not
mean to make any Conquest upon his Dominions; and that if she was
compell’d to do it, she should be always ready to restore such Conquests
at the Peace.

Cardinal _Alberoni_ dispers’d several Pieces in the Name of his Master, by
which he invited the _French_ Soldiers to take the Part of his Catholic
Majesty; and to succeed the better in this Design, he engag’d the King of
_Spain_ to head his Army, hoping, that upon his very first Appearance, one
Half of the Army of _France_ would desert to his Standard. The Cardinal
being full of Notions so chimerical and so injurious to Officers and
Troops, as incapable of Cowardice as of Treachery; he oblig’d the
_Chevalier de S----_ who had been a Colonel in _France_, but by
Misfortunes was forc’d to go to _Spain_, to write to some of the chief
Commanders, and solicit them to come over with their Regiments to the
_Spanish_ Service. The _Chevalier_, who built Hopes of a considerable
Fortune upon the Success of this Project, wrote to the Lieutenant-Colonel
of _Normandy_, and sent the Letter to him by an Officer, who was indeed a
Gentleman, but at that Time committed an Action unworthy of that
Character. This Officer came to the _French_ Army, and gave the Letter to
the Person it was directed to, who carrying it to the Marshal _de
Berwic_, he caus’d the unfortunate Courier to be arrested, and hang’d up
in Two Hours after. The Cardinal was very much mortify’d by having
miscarry’d in this Attempt, not considering that the same was
impracticable, by reason the Fidelity of the _French Officers_ was never
to be corrupted; but it was not so at that Time with the _Soldiers_, of
whom a great Number deserted to the _Spanish_ Army. Persons of Credit, who
at that Time saw Cardinal _Alberoni_ in private, assur’d me, that Minister
was so fully persuaded that whole Regiments at a Time would come over to
the _Spanish_ Service; that when he was told 50 or 100 Deserters, more or
less, were newly come; _What signifies that_, said he? _His Majesty wants
to see Colours and Standards arrive, and not a Handful of Men._ The
Cardinal had a great many Fortune-hunters about him, who were continually
telling him, that intire Battalions were just coming over; and by the
Favour of such Predictions, which never came to any Thing, they got out of
him what they wanted, for no other Consideration but a sorry improbable
Scheme, and which tended even sometimes to deceive the Minister and betray
him. One may guess at the Character of those Gentlemen by one _F----_, who
had been a Reformado-Colonel in _France_, but being press’d hard by
merciless Creditors, could find no other Means to escape from their ill
Humour, than by taking Shelter under Cardinal _Alberoni_. This _F----_ was
a terrible Rattle, and could rodomontade better than any body. The
Minister made him a Brigadier, and withal gave him a Gratuity of 100
Pistoles; but our Spark not thinking this sufficient, wanted forsooth to
be a Major-General, and teiz’d the Cardinal for it to such a Degree, that
to get rid of such an importunate Solicitor, his Eminency was oblig’d to
promise him, that it should not be long before he should be prefer’d. My
Gentleman had no Time to wait, and renew’d his Solicitations; but being
put off, he was quite out of Patience, and at last declar’d, that he would
serve no longer if he was not made a Major-General. His Eminence grew
angry, so that _F----_ thought it was proper to submit, or at least to
assume a submissive Air. Mean while he study’d Revenge, and imagin’d the
only way to make his Fortune in _France_ would be, to seize the Cardinal,
and run away with him to the Regent. The Thing that remain’d to be
consider’d was, what Methods he should take to succeed; and ’tis even
said, that he had laid his Plot so well, that had it not been for the
Treachery of one of the Conspirators who discover’d the whole Mystery, the
same would have succeeded. The Cardinal caus’d _F----_ to be arrested, and
sent Prisoner to _Pampeluna_, and from thence to the Castle of _Segovia_,
where he was try’d, and would infallibly have been beheaded, but Cardinal
_Alberoni_ happen’d to be disgrac’d at the same Time, as I shall have the
Honour to tell you anon.

While these Trifles pass’d in the _Spanish_ Army, the _French_ went on
furiously to Action. _Fontarabia_ was closely besieg’d, upon which the
King and Queen made as if they would relieve it; but while they were
consulting about it, the Marshal _de Berwic_ oblig’d it to capitulate.
This Conquest, tho’ to the Advantage of _France_, did not abate one Jot of
that Aversion which the _French_ had to the War. The People contributed to
it not without Reluctance; nevertheless it was the Regent’s Interest to
continue it; and as he perceiv’d they were already so over-burden’d with
Taxes, that ’twas in vain to think of creating new ones, he contriv’d new
Methods to fill the Treasury. He obtain’d an Arret of Council for making a
considerable Number of Bank Bills, those which had been made before having
been soon snatch’d up. Then the Council pass’d another Arret, for
diminishing the Value of the Species. The Bustle this Arret occasion’d at
_Paris_ is not to be imagin’d; every body was glad to part with their
Cash, upon which they apprehended there would be a Loss, and they hurry’d
to receive Paper in Exchange, upon the Promise which the Council had made,
that the Value of the Bills should be fix’d, so as never to rise nor fall.
Nevertheless, it was not long before the People seriously reflected upon
the Invalidity of the Matter, into which their Gold and Silver was
transform’d, and the Hurry to the Bank abated. But the Regent soon
contriv’d a way to bring in the little Cash that remain’d in private
Hands; for he caus’d an Arret of Council to pass, which forbad any one’s
having more than 500 Livres about him, upon the Penalty of a great Fine.
In Pursuance of this Arret, People began again to change their Species for
Bank Bills, which were in Truth more commodious than Cash, because People
might then carry the Value of several Millions about them, without
sweating under the Load. This was a rare way to thrive, when a Man carry’d
his whole Estate thus in his Pocket!

By this Means did the Duke Regent provide for the immense Charges of the
War with _Spain_, which was carry’d on with Vigour; and soon after the
taking of _Fontarabia_, the _French_ Army laid Siege to _St. Sebastian_,
which held but Twenty-five Days, when both the Town and Castle

As long as the War continued with Success in _Spain_ I never left
soliciting at the Royal Palace, but always in vain. I spent most of my
Time in the Regent’s Antichamber, and now-and-then went for Recreation to
the House of _Madame de R----_, whom I have not had the Honour of
mentioning to you for a good while, but my Passion was now grown cool, so
that all those Visits were but a melancholy Relief in the Situation that I
then stood in. My Friends made me reflect seriously on the small Hopes I
ought to entertain of succeeding at the Court of _France_. The _Abbe de
Asfeld_ perceiving the Anxiety I was under, took the Advantage of it to
drive me, as I may term it, from a Place where I lost my Time, and spent
the little Money I had to no Purpose; therefore I left _Paris_ once more,
and travelled by the Way of _Metz_, to avoid the troublesome Questions of
the King’s Lieutenant at _Toul_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I pass’d thro’ St. MENEHOULT, which is a Town in _Champagne_, built in a
Morass, between Two Eminencies. A little after I was there, it had the
Misfortune to be burnt. I was told, that the Jews of _Metz_ offer’d to
rebuild it intirely, on condition they might be permitted to have a
Synagogue there.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _St. Menehoult_ I went to VERDUN, an Episcopal City, whose Bishops
take the Titles of Counts of _Verdun_, and Princes of the Holy Empire.
This Diocese makes Part of the Three Bishopricks yielded to _France_ by
_Lorrain_. The Cathedral is dedicated to our Lady. In this Church there’s
a Well, which is preserv’d there for a Supply of Water in case of Fire,
because the Place being on a very high Ground, it would be difficult to
bring Water to it.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Verdun_ I went to METZ, where I made some Stay. This is a very large
Town, at the Conflux of the _Moselle_ and the _Seille_. It was heretofore
the Capital of _Austrasia_, and afterwards reckon’d as an imperial City
till 1552, that the Constable of _Montmorency_ made a Conquest of it for
_Henry_ II. King of _France_. The Emperor _Charles_ V. try’d in vain to
retake it, when the Duke of _Guise_, who commanded in the Place, acquir’d
great Reputation in the Defence of it, and oblig’d him to raise the Siege,
at which the Emperor was so mortify’d, that he resign’d his Dominions, and
retir’d to a Cloyster. _Metz_, _Toul_ and _Verdun_ were confirm’d to
_France_ in 1559, by the Treaty of _Chateau-Cambresis_, and this Cession
was afterwards confirm’d by the Peace of _Munster_ in 1648.

The Cathedral of _Metz_, which is dedicated to St. _Stephen_, is a Church
of greater Note for its Antiquity than for its Beauty. The most remarkable
Thing in it is its baptismal Font, which is of one intire Piece of
_Porphyry_ about 10 Foot in Length.

There is very good Company at _Metz_, and I should have been glad to have
stay’d there longer, if my private Affairs would have permitted it. There
is a Parliament, which consists of a good Number of Men of Quality, who
are all very rich. Besides, here is always a strong Garison, and several
Persons of easy Fortunes, who commonly spend the Winter here. When I was
here, _M. de Saillant_ was the commanding Officer. He liv’d with
Splendor, and I commonly din’d with him, and supp’d with the Intendant of
the Province, who was then _M. de Celi_ of the _Harlay_ Family, and was
very much esteem’d.

       *       *       *       *       *

When I set out from _Metz_, I struck into the Road for _Germany_, and went
to SPIRES. This Town may be consider’d as a Monument of the Ravage of War,
there being a great many Ruins to be seen in it, which are the Remains of
the Houses burnt by the _French_, in the War they made for the Destruction
of the Palatinate. It was formerly the Seat of the Imperial Chamber, which
after ’twas ruin’d, was transfer’d to _Wetzlar_. _Spires_ is the See of a
Bishop Suffragan to the Bishop of _Mentz_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I pass’d the _Rhine_ at _Spires_, over a Bridge of Boats, and arrived in a
few Hours at _Heidelberg_, from whence I went to _Stutgard_, and so to
ULM.[3] This is one of the most considerable Cities in _Germany_, and has
magnificent Structures both sacred and prophane, and great Squares adorn’d
with Fountains. Our Lady’s, which is the most considerable of all the
Churches, belongs to the Lutherans, who are the Magistrates of the City;
but the Roman Catholics are allow’d the free Exercise of their Religion
here. This City was formerly but a Village, which _Charlemain_ granted to
the Abbey of _Reichenau_. The Inhabitants of _Ulm_ redeem’d their Liberty
on the Payment of a considerable Sum, after which they got their Town made
an Imperial City, and at last it became the Capital of _Swabia_.

_Ulm_ is very well fortify’d; it maintains a stout Garison, and its
Ramparts are furnish’d with good Cannon; nevertheless, the Elector of
_Bavaria_ took it with Ease in the Beginning of the late War, when that
Prince declar’d for his Nephew the King of _Spain_, tho’ ’tis said, his
Electoral Highness had a Correspondence at the same time in the Town. But
the Battle of _Hochstet_ help’d to restore it to its Liberty, and
notwithstanding the Menaces of the _Marshal de Villars_, it receiv’d an
Imperial Garison.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Ulm_ I went to AUGSBOURG[4], a very ancient City, where a _Roman_
Colony was planted by the Emperor _Augustus_, from whom it had the Latin
Name _Augusta_. It has from time to time undergone several Revolutions: In
1518 _Luther_ came hither to give a public Account of his Doctrine; and in
1530, _Charles_ V. summon’d the Dyet of the Empire hither, which Dyet was
famous for the noted _Confession_ of _Augsbourg_, that the Protestants
presented to the Emperor. In another Dyet held in 1548, the same _Charles_
V. propos’d that Formulary call’d the _Interim_, with regard to the
Communion in both Kinds, and the Marriage of Priests: This Formulary has
done irreparable Injury to the Catholic Religion.

_Augsbourg_ had a very great Share in the Civil Wars between our
Ancestors, on account of Religion. During that Period, the Protestants
seiz’d the City, and turn’d out the Bishop and Clergy; but _Charles_ V.
having retaken it, re-establish’d the _Romish_ Religion in it, and alter’d
the whole Government, which continued in that State till the Beginning of
_April_ 1552, when the Protestants took it again, and restor’d what the
Emperor had destroy’d; and at length a Peace was concluded at _Augsbourg_;
but the City did not long enjoy the Sweets of it, and Violences were soon
committed on both Sides. The famous _Gustavus Adolphus_, King of _Sweden_,
came to the Aid of the Protestants. He arriv’d at _Augsbourg_ in 1632. The
Inhabitants paid him extraordinary Honours, which was very provoking to
the Catholic Princes, and to the Duke of _Bavaria_, who Two Years after
punish’d them for it. This Prince having declared himself the Protector of
the ancient Religion, besieg’d _Augsbourg_, and reduc’d the Citizens to
such Extremity, that they eat Rats, Cats, and even human Flesh. It was
settled at the Peace of _Westphalia_, that the Catholics and Lutherans
should tolerate one another, which was afterwards punctually observ’d.
Nevertheless, this City was again molested by the Elector of _Bavaria_ in
the last War, when he made himself Master of it, but his Troops abandon’d
it immediately after the Battle of _Hochstet_. After the Peace of
_Westphalia_, the Emperor _Leopold_ summon’d the Dyet of the Empire to
_Augsbourg_ in 1690, and there he caus’d himself to be crown’d, and his
Son _Joseph_ to be elected King of the _Romans_.

The assembling of the Dyets, and the flourishing Trade at _Augsbourg_,
have render’d it one of the most magnificent Cities in _Germany_. Its
Squares are large, its Streets spacious, and its Fountains very beautiful.
The Town-House is one of the finest Buildings that I have seen. ’Tis a
vast square Edifice, well built of Free-Stone. The Porch is all of Marble.
Almost all the Rooms are wainscotted and ceil’d with very fine Timber.
There’s a Hall 110 Feet long, 58 broad, and 52 Feet in Height, the
Pavement of which is Marble, and its Walls adorn’d with Paintings,
intermix’d with Emblems and Devices relating to the Government. The
Ceiling, which exceeds all the rest for its Beauty, has Compartments, the
Squares and Pannels whereof are inrich’d with Sculptures, very finely
gilt, and full of beautiful Pictures and other Ornaments. The Cathedral is
large and spacious, with a most remarkable great Gate, all of Brass, over
which there are several Scripture Passages, represented in _Basso-Relievo_
of very nice Workmanship. The Episcopal Palace has nothing extraordinary.
The present Bishop is of the Family of _Newbourg_, and Brother to the
Elector of _Triers_, and the Elector Palatine. The Dignity of Prince of
the Empire is annex’d to that of Bishop of _Augsbourg_, in the same manner
as it is to all the Bishopricks of _Germany_. He is chose by the Chapter,
which is compos’d of Canons, who are noble by Sixteen Descents. The
Bishop’s Sovereignty extends over almost all the Territory of _Augsbourg_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I am now going to give you an Account of one of the most splendid Courts
in all _Germany_, I mean that of _Bavaria_, which I had the Honour to see
at MUNICH, whither I went at my Departure from _Augsbourg_.[5]_Munich_,
which is the Capital of _Bavaria_, stands upon the River _Iser_, that
falls into the _Danube_, for which Reason the Neighbourhood is almost all
Meadow Land. The Town is not large, but very well built, so that I have
scarce seen any that makes so gay an Appearance. _Munich_ contains several
stately Buildings, both sacred and profane. Among the former, the Two
finest, that I took Notice of, are, our Lady’s Church, and that of the

In our Lady’s Church there’s a magnificent Tomb of the Emperor _Lewis_ IV.
adorn’d with Figures of Marble and Brass. There’s one Thing remarkable in
this Church, and that is, at the Entrance of the great Gate there’s a
particular Place, from whence, as one stands, we observe such a Regularity
in the Disposition of the Pillars which support the Roof, that there is
not a Window to be perceiv’d in it, tho’ there are a great many.

The Jesuits Church is also extremely magnificent. It consists intirely of
one Nave, very lofty and spacious, the Roof of which is very noble, and
adorn’d all over with Sculpture. The Vestry contains a great deal of
Wealth in Relics, and in Vessels of Gold and Silver.

Their College is as magnificent as their Church, there can be nothing
finer; and I could not help thinking the Outside of it exceeded the
Electoral Palace. In the Inside there are great Rooms, which serve as
Classes for the Scholars that come to study with them.

The Elector’s Palace deserves a diligent View, for it may compare with the
Palaces of the most powerful Sovereigns; and I think that, excepting the
Palace of the _Tuileries_, there’s none so big. Yet for all this it has
one Defect, common to the Palaces of all Sovereigns, it having been built
at several Times, and being by Consequence irregular. The first Time I saw
it, I own to you that I was disgusted at this Irregularity; and that it
fell vastly short of the Idea I had conceiv’d of the Building from what I
had read of it in the Relations publish’d by Travellers.

Of all the Parts of the Electoral Palace, there’s not one that is more
magnificent than that which is commonly call’d the _Emperor’s Apartment_:
The principal Room in it is a Hall, which is 118 Feet long, and 52 broad,
and may be reckon’d a complete Piece of Work; ’tis adorn’d with fine
Paintings, representing sacred and profane History, which are rang’d in
exact Order, one over-against the other; and under each of the historical
Passages there are _Latin_ Verses explaining the Subject: The
Chimney-piece is as magnificent as the rest of the Apartment; on the Top
of it there’s the Statue of _Porphyry_, of admirable Workmanship,
representing _Virtue_, holding a Spear in her Right Hand, and a Branch of
gilt Palm in her Left. The Ceiling is adorn’d with gilt Compartments, and
with Paintings of a noble Design.

Going out of the great Hall, we pass thro’ a very spacious Antichamber
into the Hall of Audience, which is very much ornamented, as is all the
rest. ’Tis there that the Electors give Audience to the foreign Ministers,
and there are Eight great Compartments, shewing the different manners
after which the foreign Princes give Audience to Ambassadors. There are
other Pictures representing the Histories of several Judgments pass’d by
Sovereigns, that have administer’d Justice in Person; and these Pictures
are accompany’d with Hieroglyphics, Emblems and Devices suitable to the

The long Gallery is very magnificent, both for its Extent and for the
Pieces it contains. ’Tis adorn’d with _Basso Relievo’s_ of a noble Design,
and with costly Pictures, among which are the Effigies and Names of 36
Princes, the Predecessors of the present Elector. There are also very fine
Maps of the several Provinces, Cities and Appendages of his Electoral
Highness’s Dominions. There’s another Gallery not quite so big indeed, but
as finely adorn’d, and especially with very large Pictures, which
represent the Histories of the Princes and Princesses of the Family of
_Bavaria_. The Stair-case which leads to the grand Apartment I just now
mention’d, is answerable to all the rest in Magnificence, there being
nothing to be seen all about it but marble and Gold.

The Apartment which the Elector commonly resides in is very spacious, but
irregular. I thought the Chambers and Closets a little too dark. The whole
is adorn’d with rich Ceilings and magnificent Tapestries. The Electoress’s
Apartment communicates with the Elector’s by a private Gallery. All the
Princes and Princesses are equally well lodg’d, tho’ the Chambers of the
Apartments are a little too small.

The great Chapel is very fine, and would be much more so, if it was more
lightsome. The Electoress has one, which joins to her Apartment, but is
not near so large as the former, and has the same Fault; tho’ otherwise
’tis a notable Piece of Building, and contains extraordinary Wealth.

The Garden of the Electoral Palace is not of the modern Taste. Round the
one half of it there’s a grand Piazza, adorn’d with Pictures, representing
the several Histories of the Princes of the _Bavarian_ Family, which
Pictures, I am told, were the Model for the Hangings in the Elector’s
Wardrobe. At the End of this Piazza there’s a very fine House, the lower
Parts of which serve as a Greenhouse for the Orange Trees. In the upper
Part there are very commodious Apartments; where, in the Summertime, the
Elector has a Drawing-Room. Near this Orangery there’s a Sort of Menagery,
in which are kept Lyons and other wild Beasts.

The same Piazza leads also to the Riding-House, which is one of the finest
I ever saw. ’Tis 366 Feet in Length, and 76 in Breadth. It has 80 great
Windows, and all round within there runs a fine Corridor or Gallery to
hold the Spectators, when there are any Carrousels or Tournaments. This
Corridor is parted by the Elector’s Box, which is big enough to contain
all the Electoral Family, and adorn’d with very rich Sculptures. The
Gallery of the Palace, which reaches to the grand Piazza of the Garden,
leads also to the Opera Room, which is very large, and very high. The
Stage is answerable to the Grandeur and Magnificence of the Room, and the
Decorations are superb, and very numerous. As the Electoral Prince is very
fond of Music, he prefers the Opera to any other Performance, and gives
Orders himself for what may serve to render it most splendid. You will
judge that no Cost is spar’d, the Decorations, Machines, Habits and every
Thing being equally noble, and well contriv’d.

Upon the Days that any Feast is celebrated at Court, as Birth-days and the
like, when there’s an Opera, at the Overture there descends from the Top
of the Stage a Lustre of extraordinary Grandeur and Structure, which rises
up again immediately after the first Act; a Custom, for which I never
could yet hear of any good Reason. This Lustre surprizes the more, because
it comes unexpected. The Ceiling opens to let it down, as well as to take
it up again.

’Tis said, that when the Great _Gustavus Adolphus_, King of _Sweden_, made
his victorious Entry at _Munich_, one of that great Monarch’s Generals
advis’d him to burn the Palace of the Electors, but he refus’d to do it,
in which he was Greater than the Great _Alexander_, who reduc’d the
superb Palace of _Darius_ to a Heap of Ashes. The only Thing that made the
_Swedish_ Monarch uneasy was, that he could not carry to _Sweden_ the fine
Chimney-piece in the great Hall, that I mention’d to you.

I will next treat of the Princes that compose the August Family of
_Bavaria_, which is one of the most Illustrious in _Europe_. The Elector’s
Name was _Maximilian Emanuel Mary_: No Man could have a grander Air, or a
better Shape than this Prince had; and with those external Qualities, he
had others, without which the former are of little or no Value. He was
generous, affable, compassionate, and in Consequence ador’d by his
Subjects: He knew how to support his Dignity with Grandeur: His Expence
was great, but well-judg’d: He marry’d to his first Wife the Archduchess,
Daughter of the Emperor _Leopold_, by whom he had a Son, who was snatch’d
from him by Death, when the young Prince was become Heir to one of the
chief Crowns in the World, after the Death of _Charles_ II. King of
_Spain_, by Right of Succession from his Grandmother, who was the Daughter
of _Philip_ IV.

After the Death of the Electoress, the Elector marry’d a Princess of
_Poland_, _viz. Theresa Cunegonda Sobieski_, Daughter to King _John
Sobieski_. This Princess lives so retir’d, that, excepting her own Family,
she sees no body but Two or Three Ladies and her Confessor. She resides
most commonly at _Taco_, a Seat given her by the Elector. When the
Princess is at _Munich_, she employs herself in Works of Charity, one
while visiting sick Women, at other Times the several Convents; and in
these Visits she never fails to leave Marks of her Bounty.

The Elector has had several Children by her: The First is the Electoral
Prince, whose Name is _Albert Cajetan_: This Prince gave Proof in the War
in _Hungary_, and at the Siege of _Belgrade_, that he would be the Heir of
the great Qualities of the Elector his Father, as well as of his
Dominions: He acquir’d a high Reputation at _Vienna_, and every body was
charm’d with the grand Presence and Talents of this Prince, whose
Deportment to all that came to him could not be exceeded for Civility. He
talk’d _Latin_, _French_ and _Italian_ with as much Ease as his native

The Duke _Ferdinand_ is the Elector’s Second Son, tho’ he was first
marry’d to a Princess of _Neubourg_, a Niece of the Elector Palatine. This
Duke is the handsomest of the Elector’s Sons; he is perfectly well-shap’d,
and has the finest Head of Hair that can be seen; in short, he is a very
amiable Prince: He loves Pleasure, but is not a Slave to it; his favourite
Sport is Hunting, which he follows commonly with the Princes his Brothers.

Duke _Clement_ is the Elector’s Third Son, and he who has hitherto been
Fortune’s greatest Favourite. When I went to _Munich_, this Prince had
been newly elected Bishop of _Munster_ and _Paderborn_, in the Room of the
Duke his Brother, who dy’d at _Rome_ a little after his Election to the
Bishoprick. Duke _Clement_ was already Bishop of _Ratisbon_, when he was
chose Bishop of _Munster_ and _Paderborn_; but he resign’d _Ratisbon_ to
Duke _Theodore_, the last of the _Bavarian_ Princes. These Four Princes,
and a Princess, who turn’d Nun at the Time that I was at _Munich_, are the
Elector’s whole Family, and the only Princes of the House of _Bavaria_.

You know, _Madame_, that the Electoral Dignity pass’d to this Family after
the Disgrace of _Frederic_ Elector Palatine, King of _Bohemia_, who having
been put under the Ban of the Empire, was turn’d out of the _Upper
Palatinate_, which was given to the _Bavarian_ Family, as a Reward for the
Attachment they had shewn to the House of _Austria_, and for the Expences
they were at in the War. At the Treaty of _Westphalia_ this Grant was
confirm’d to the _Bavarian_ Family, and the Son of the unfortunate
_Frederic_ recover’d his Dignity of Elector, with this Difference, that
whereas before he was the first Elector, he was now become the last. The
Dukes of _Bavaria_ remain’d in Possession of the _Upper Palatinate_, and
of the Dignity of first Elector. There’s none of ’em all that came up to
the Elector _Maximilian Emanuel_, and never was the Court of _Munich_ so
splendid and numerous, as in his Time: The Ceremonial observ’d there is
very much the same with that of the Imperial Court.

As to the Amusements of the Court of _Bavaria_, they pass’d their Time
much after this manner: The Elector, who was an early Riser, went to Mass
about 10 o’Clock, and afterwards held a Council, if it happen’d to be
Council-Day, or otherwise his Electoral Highness play’d at Passage till
Dinner-time. Then he return’d to his own Apartment, where he din’d
privately, and during that Time, no body was admitted, except the Princes,
the Officers in Waiting, and the Chamberlains. The Princes also din’d by
themselves, tho’ they often admitted Gentlemen to eat with them. The
Electoress, the Princess and the Duchess had also their separate Tables
serv’d by the Elector’s Officers, which occasion’d an amazing Expence, as
did also the Hunting Equipages; for the Elector went one Way, the
Electoral Prince another, and Duke _Ferdinand_ another, so that there were
near 400 Horses running here and there every Day. When they return’d from
the Chace, the Princes went and pass’d the Evening with the Duchess, where
they found a great Assembly of Ladies; the Elector also went thither
sometimes, and play’d at Pharao, or some other Game. Towards Supper-time
he retired to his Apartment, where he supp’d with the Ladies. The Princes
went and supp’d with the Electoral Prince, and the Duchess supp’d at her
own House with the Gentlemen and Ladies.

On the Drawing-Room Days (which were Three Times a Week) Things were
order’d otherwise. The Ladies went to the Electoress’s Apartment, or to
the Orangery, according to the Place where the Drawing-Room was appointed.
When it was kept at the Electoress’s Apartment, the Ladies went thither in
the Court Dress, whereas at the Orangery they might appear in a Mantua.
The Elector and the Princes were also there: His Electoral Highness
convers’d awhile with the Ladies; after which they sat down to Play, and
every one chose what Game or Partner they lik’d best. When the Play was
over, the Company went into another Room, where there was a great Table
well serv’d, at which, after the Elector, the Princes and the Ladies had
taken their Places, if there was Room, they admitted Gentlemen to sit down
with them, either Foreigners, or even such as were in the Elector’s
Service. At this Table no Rank was observ’d, and the very Princes sat down
where they could get Places.

When the Court was at _Nymphenbourg_, the Elector’s Pleasure-house, the
Diversions were much the same as at the Orangery, except that they took
the Air more; and that the Ladies might enjoy this Pleasure to greater
Perfection, there was always a Number of Calashes, each drawn by a Pair of
Horses, which carry’d Two Ladies, and was drove by some Gentleman, while
One or Two others stood behind them. Those who prefer’d taking the Air by
Water, might easily be accommodated, there being for that Purpose upon the
Canal Gondolas and Gondoliers after the _Venetian_ manner, which were
always ready for Hire.

On _Sundays_, Holidays and Days of Rejoicing, the Elector din’d in public,
with the Princes and Princesses of his Family, during which the
Chamberlains waited, and at Night there was a Concert. The Ladies in their
Court Dress met in the Apartment of the Electoress or the Duchess, and
accompany’d those Princesses to the Opera, after which they return’d to
the same Apartment; where, till Supper-time, they play’d; upon those Days
the Ladies din’d with the Elector: Sometimes too, they carry’d Services
for Three or Four Persons, and laid them upon the Gaming Tables, which was
very convenient for those who were not willing to separate Company: After
Supper there was commonly a Ball.

During the Summer, the Elector never fail’d to repair every _Thursday_
Evening to the Orangery, to hold a Drawing-Room, after which he went and
lay at _Nymphenbourg_, from whence he return’d upon _Saturdays_, to hold
Councils on _Sundays_ in the Morning; and in the Afternoon he went to some

This, which was the common Life at Court, was very often diversify’d, by
Parties for Hunting, Fishing, or other Pleasures. The Elector himself gave
Direction for all the Feasts he made, and I believe it would have been
difficult to have found any body that understood the Matter so well; every
Thing being conducted with such charming Delicacy and Regularity, that I
own to you, _Madame_, I thought myself in some enchanted Island. What
contributed to render the Court of _Munich_ yet more splendid, was, the
Presence of the Count _de Charolois_, a Prince of the Blood of _France_,
who made some Stay here at his Return from the War in _Hungary_[6]. That
young Prince being spurr’d on by Glory, thought he could not better
signalize his Valour, than by bearing Arms against the Infidels, with whom
the Emperor had just declared War; but as he plainly foresaw, it would be
difficult for him to obtain Leave from his Mother and the Regent to go out
of the Kingdom, he resolv’d to get away without speaking a Word of it to
any body but Two Persons that he carry’d along with him. The Day that he
put this Project in Execution, he set out early in the Morning, on
Pretence of going a Hunting. He travell’d Seven Post Stages without
Baiting, with the Horses of the Duke his Brother, and he was got as far as
the _Austrian Netherlands_, when they thought at _Chantilly_ he was but in
the Forest. He went to _Liege_, and from thence to _Bon_, but always with
an Equipage that did not denote his Quality. From _Bon_ he proceeded thro’
_Munich_ to _Vienna_; from whence without visiting either the Emperor or
Empress he repair’d to _Belgrade_, which was then besieg’d by Prince
_Eugene_ of _Savoy_. He distinguish’d himself greatly in this Campaign,
and gave Demonstration that he was worthy of his Illustrious Blood. After
the Reduction of _Belgrade_, he went to _Vienna_, where he stay’d some
time, and then travell’d to _Italy_, from whence he return’d to _Munich_.
The Elector, who had been perfectly well receiv’d by the Duchess, who was
the young Count’s Mother, took a Pleasure to shew his Gratitude to the
Prince her Son. He therefore lodg’d him at the Castle, and defray’d his
and his Attendants Charges all the Time that he stay’d at _Munich_; he
provided a Table for him in his Apartment for Twelve People; and when he
din’d with the Elector, which he never did but with Ladies in Company; and
when they were to go out a Hunting, his Gentlemen had a Table allow’d
them, which was spread for Eight; but some Difficulties in the Point of
Rank prevented the Count from dining in public with the Elector and the
Princes. His Electoral Highness gave him a certain Number of Officers,
Pages and Footmen to wait on him, and Care was taken to chuse such only to
attend him as talk’d _French_; but he soon acquainted himself with the
_German_ Language to such a Degree, that the Country-People understood him
better than they did me. Of this I had Experience one Day as I went a
Hunting with him, when he bad me ask something of a Peasant, who I saw by
his Looks did not know what I meant; but the Count accosted him with the
same Demand, and the Peasant understood him immediately, by reason of the
_Bavarian_ Accent, in which that Prince express’d himself happily: He
return’d to _Chantilly_ the 1st of _May_ 1720.

Three Quarters of a League from _Munich_ is the stately Palace of
NYMPHENBOURG[7], to which I have had the Honour to acquaint you the Court
repaired very often. ’Tis impossible for a Place to be more charming; the
Gardens especially are very beautiful: A grand Avenue leads to
_Nymphenbourg_, which runs from _Munich_ to the Iron Gates of the Palace.
In the Front of this Palace, next to the Court, there are Three Pavilions,
which are connected by Two Apartments for Lodgings. The middlemost
Pavilion, which is larger than the other Two, is square, and contains a
great Hall, finely adorn’d with Architecture, and an Apartment on each
Side. The Two Side Pavilions are terminated by Two large Pavilions, that
run further out, and form Two Wings. On the Side next to the Court there
are Steps, by which there is an Ascent up to the Hall; and on the opposite
Side there are others, which lead down to the Garden. From the Steps on
the Court-side is a Prospect of a large Canal, lin’d on each Side with a
Row of Elms, which is separated from the Court by a Grate.

As to the Apartments, they are all of the utmost Magnificence, but the
only one that I shall speak of now is the Elector’s. The first Room at the
Entrance is very fine, considering its Extent, but not much adorn’d, being
altogether bare white Walls, so that only the Ceiling is painted. As one
turns to the Right, we enter an Antichamber, which is a Thorowfare both to
the Elector’s Apartment, and to another on the Left Hand, then occupied by
the Count _de Charolois_. This Antichamber is wainscotted throughout, and
leads to a Gallery, which is also completely wainscotted, the Pannels
being painted white with gilt Fillets. There we saw in Compartments very
fine Pictures, which represent either Hunting, or the Prospects of the
Elector’s several Houses. From this Gallery is an Entrance into a large
Antichamber, all over wainscotted, and adorn’d with Chimney and
Pier-Glasses and magnificent Pictures. From thence, turning to the Left,
we enter into a large Closet, the Furniture of which is a fine Sky-blue
Damask, lac’d with Gold. The Ceilings, Doors and Window-Shutters are
painted white, with gilt _Basso Relievo’s_. In this Closet as well as in
the Chamber next to it, are a great many very fine Pier-Glasses and Marble
Tables: The latter is the Bedchamber; the Furniture and Bed are of blue
Damask, as is also the Closet: Out of this Chamber there’s a Passage to a
second Closet, furnish’d in the same Taste. These Three Pieces follow one
another, and look into the Garden: The last mention’d Closet terminates
the Elector’s Apartment, which communicates by little Offices and a
Stair-case to a small Apartment which his Electoral Highness lives in, the
great Apartment being only for keeping his Court. On the other Side of the
Palace are the Apartments of the Electoress and the Princes, who are all
lodg’d there very commodiously.

The Gardens of this Palace are very well laid out: As one enters them by
the Steps from the Castle, the first Thing one sees is a very fine
_Parterre_, which reaches to a Wood, that is cut into Three great Walks,
in Form of a Goose-Foot; in the midst whereof are Three Canals of Spring
Water, the middlemost of which runs out of Sight, and has its Issue by
Three Waterfalls, in Form of a Cascade. The Wood consists of Groves,
adorn’d with Bowers, and noble Water-Works. On the Right Hand of the
Garden is a Grove, which contains a Mall; and a little further is a very
great Mall, in Form of a Horse-shoe. The Two Ends run to the grand Walk,
and contain between them a Pavilion, built in Form of a Cross arch’d,
consisting of Two Stories, and forming an Octogon Saloon in the middle
with Four Windows, between which are Four Summer Houses, one of which is
an Antichamber, the second a Bedchamber, the third a Closet, and the
fourth a Stair-case. This House is built in the Form of a Pagod’s Temple,
and all the Furniture is _Indian_, which is the Reason that ’tis call’d
_Pagodenbourg_. Over-against this pretty House, on the Left of the great
Canal, are Bagnio’s. Nothing in the World can be better contriv’d, and
more charming: All the Ceilings, the _Basso Relievo’s_ and other Ornaments
have some Relation or other to the Use for which this House is
appropriated. The Baths are of Marble, adorn’d with Statues and Vessels of
very great Price.

Tho’ the Elector seem’d to be mightily delighted with _Nymphenbourg_, yet
he was about building another Palace, which was to be call’d
_Schleisheim_: According to the Designs that I saw of it, this Palace must
be much larger and more noble than _Nymphenbourg_, so that they said, that
_Schleisheim_ would be the _Versailles_ of _Bavaria_, and _Nymphenbourg_
the _Marly_.

I spent my Time so agreeably while I stay’d at _Munich_, that indeed I was
very loth to quit a Place so charming: Nevertheless, I set out with a
Heart full of Gratitude for all the Favours I had receiv’d from the
Elector, and the Princes his Children.

       *       *       *       *       *

I lay the first Night at _Wasserbourg_[8], and from thence went to PASSAU,
which makes a Part of _Lower Bavaria_, and is a Bishoprick Suffragan of
_Saltzbourg_.[9]_Passau_ is famous for the Treaty which was concluded
there between the Emperor _Charles_ and _Mauric_ Elector of _Saxony_,
whereby the Protestant Religion was establish’d and secur’d in _Germany_,
where before it was only tolerated. This is a very pretty City, has fine
Houses, and several Churches. The Cathedral, which is a quite new
Structure, is very large, and in the Inside very magnificent, being
adorn’d all over with Pilasters, and other Embellishments of Architecture,
and the Roof painted in _Fresco_. I was at Divine Service there on
_Whitsunday_, and as every body then made the best Appearance they could,
I observ’d the meanest Women of the Town were dress’d in Gowns of black
Velvet, and scarlet Petticoats with Gold Lace, and that some of ’em had
Pearl Necklaces of Five or Six Rows; and others Gold Chains with Rings,
and Ear Pendants of Diamonds.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Passau_ I went down the _Danube_ to _Lintz_, the Capital of _Upper
Austria_; and from thence to VIENNA[10], the Capital of _Austria_, and the
ordinary Residence of the Emperors, ever since _Maximilian_. This City,
which was heretofore but a Bishoprick, was lately erected into an
Archbishoprick, and the Archbishop takes the Title of Prince. The
Cathedral Church, which is dedicated to St. _Stephen_, is an old Building,
very magnificent, but dark: The City stands upon the _Danube_, an Arm of
which separates it from the Suburb, which is call’d _Leopoldstat_: The
_Turks_ have made more than one vain Attempt to be Masters of _Vienna_.
_Soliman_ II. besieg’d it _Sept._ 25, 1529, but on the 14th of _October_
following _Charles_ V. oblig’d him to raise the Siege. In 1693 the _Turks_
made another Attempt, and besieg’d it with an Army of above 200,000 Men,
when the Emperor _Leopold_ retir’d with all his Family to the Castle of
_Lintz_, and left the Command of the City to the Count _de Staremberg_:
The Count was forc’d to sustain terrible Attacks from the _Turks_, who
push’d on their Works with Vigor, and the Place could hold out no longer,
when _John Sobieski_ King of _Poland_ advanced to relieve it, at the Head
of an Army of _Poles_. He came in Sight of the Enemy on the 11th of
_September_, and next Day gave them Battle, and obtain’d a complete
Victory; for the _Turks_ abandon’d both their Camp and their Artillery,
and the Conquerors took a prodigious Booty, particularly such a vast
Number of black Cattle, that ’tis said they were sold for Five or Six
Florins apiece. The Emperor no sooner receiv’d the Tidings that the Siege
was rais’d, but he set out from _Lintz_ for _Vienna_, where he visited the
King of _Poland_ in the open Field, and made his grateful Acknowledgments
to him for the signal Service he had then done him.

_Vienna_ receiv’d a great deal of Damage at this Siege; Part of the
Imperial Palace being reduc’d to Ashes, as well as several other grand
Structures. The Emperor immediately set about repairing those Losses, and
the Palace was rebuilt as it was before; and several of the Nobility also
caus’d such magnificent Palaces to be erected, that in a short time the
Town recover’d its former Splendor.

The Imperial Palace is large, but has nothing else scarce to boast of, for
the Apartments are low, dark, and without Ornaments, and the Furniture is
very ancient, tho’ scarce any Princes have a finer Treasure in Tapistry;
and why ’tis not us’d, I can’t imagine: The Apartments of the Empress
Dowager were the only ones fit to lodge in; for that Princess took Care to
have them not only rais’d higher, but inlaid and wainscotted, which has
given them a certain Air of Majesty they had not before. This Princess’s
Apartment is hung with black Velvet, it being the Custom of the Imperial
Court, for the Empress Dowagers never to quit their Mourning. The
Bedchamber and the Closet call’d _la Retirade_ or the Withdrawing-Room,
are the only Two Pieces that are not hung with black, the whole Furniture
thereof being grey. For the rest, were a Stranger to see the Palace of
_Vienna_, and to have no Notion of what it is before-hand, he would scarce
imagine it to be the Residence of the first Prince of _Europe_.

The Palace of _la Favorita_ in the Suburb of _Vienna_, where the Emperor
spends the Summer, is even inferior to that in the City. ’Tis a very large
House, built upon the Highway, without any Court before it, without
Symmetry or Architecture, and which, as to the Outside, looks more like a
Convent, than a Royal Palace. The Inside perfectly answers the Outside.
There’s an Ascent to the Apartments by a great Stair-case, all of Timber,
that leads to a Guard Chamber, which is a Room of no great Extent, and
without any manner of Ornament; and from thence there’s an Entrance into
other Apartments but half furnish’d, and very low, which in short is the
Fault of all the Apartments. The Gardens of the Palace are as
inconsiderable as the Building; they being full of large Fruit-trees, but
in very bad Order, and I saw nothing there that can be call’d a fine

Mean time the Court Nobility are far from being so ill lodg’d as the
Emperor, for they have all stately Houses, both in the City and Suburbs.
Prince _Eugene_ of _Savoy_’s Palace is the most magnificent Building that
one shall see; for whether you examine the Outside or the Inside of it,
the whole is of the best Contrivance, and the utmost Magnificence. The
first Hall, which forms the first Piece of the grand Apartment, is all
wainscotted, and adorn’d with large Pictures, representing the chief
Battles won by Prince _Eugene_. From this Hall we enter into a large
Antichamber, where we see a Suit of Tapistry Hangings, made by the famous
_Devos_ of _Brussels_, where that skilful Artist has represented the
principal Transactions of the War to as great Perfection as possible: Out
of this Antichamber we go into the Bedchamber; I never saw any thing so
rich as the Furniture is there; the Tapistry is roll’d up in Pilasters of
green Velvet, embroider’d with Gold, with Figures in Needle Work so finely
drawn, that they seem to be Miniatures. This Piece is intirely furnish’d
in all that Taste: The Closet next to the Bedchamber is all over gilt; and
every thing in general in this Apartment is superb; the Paintings,
Looking-Glasses, Marble Tables, the very Arms and Andirons being of most
curious Workmanship: I ought not to omit the many fine Lustres, of which
that in the Bedchamber is the most magnificent; and I have been told, that
it cost 40,000 Florins: As to the Ceiling and other Pieces of Masonry,
they are indeed very fine, but not so elegant as noble.

After having taken a full View of the Prince’s Apartments, I was shew’d
the Library, which is in as good a Condition as any in _Europe_. The Books
are rang’d in delightful Order, and the pompous Bindings form the finest
Scene that can be. Hither the Prince comes every now-and-then to unbend
himself from the Fatigues of his great Employments.

The Prince has a magnificent Garden in the Suburb of _Vienna_, which has a
Court before it, that is separated from the Street by an Iron Grate of
very curious Workmanship. In this Court is a very large Piece of Water,
with a Row of Chestnut-Trees on each Side, that leads to the House, or
rather the Castle, for ’tis a great and stately Building: They were still
at Work upon it when I saw it. This House fronts the Garden, and takes up
almost the whole Breadth of it. The Garden is shelving, for which Reason
it was thought proper to place a very fine Cascade in the middle of it.
There’s a very neat Structure at the End of it, which, like the House,
takes in the whole Breadth of it. Below Stairs is a great Saloon, all
lin’d with Marble of several Colours, and a Ceiling adorn’d with fine
Paintings: From this Saloon there’s a Passage to a Room on the Left, the
Ceiling and Wainscot of which are very fine; and then we enter into a
large Closet, and next to that is a Bedchamber, with a Gallery and another
large Closet at the End of that; so much for what is on the Left of the
Saloon. On the Right Hand is another large Apartment, and the Chapel. The
Backside of the Building looks into a great Court, where are the Stables
and Coach-houses: ’Tis pity that this Prince, after he had been at so much
Expence in this Building, did not buy the Ground where the Empress has
since built a Convent. The Prince was advis’d to it at that very Time, but
he refus’d, and said, he would not purchase the whole Suburb; to be sure
he repents it by this time; for the Convent, which the Empress has caus’d
to be erected there, is a great Inconvenience to that Prince, who cannot
stir one Step at Home, without being overlook’d by the Nuns.

On the other Side of the City is another Suburb, which is very
considerable, and the Walks there are very fine. The _Prat_, for Instance,
is a Place mightily frequented; ’tis a Wood in an Island, form’d by the
_Danube_, where there is such a surprizing Concourse of People in fine
Weather, that it may well enough be call’d, _The_ Boulogne _Grove of_
Vienna. As one returns out of this Walk we come to another, call’d _The
Emperor’s Garden_: Here was formerly a beautiful Palace, but the _Turks_
having burnt it the last time they besieg’d _Vienna_, there is nothing of
it to be seen now but the Ruins: The Garden is a large Spot of Ground,
and, with a little Expence, might be made very fine, but no body seems to
think about it, which I have been told is owing to the surprizing Swarms
of Insects the _Danube_ brings hither at certain Times of the Year, so
that People who come hither to walk, are forc’d to desert it: When they
can come without this Annoyance, the Gentry usually repair hither in the
Evening; adjoining to this Garden is a very fine Wood, in which are cut
out noble Walks: This, _Madame_, is all that is most remarkable in
_Vienna_ and its Suburbs, as to the Buildings; I will next endeavour to
give you an Idea of this Court.

The Court of _Vienna_ is, in my Opinion, the plainest, and at the same
time the most magnificent in _Europe_: To explain this seeming Paradox, I
must acquaint you, that, as to the external Appearance of the Emperor’s
Houshold, nothing is so plain, nor indeed so dismal: His Liveries are of
black Cloth, with a Lace of yellow and white Silk: The Cloathing of his
Guards is much the same; and besides, they are not many in Number. The
Palace, as I have had the Honour to tell you, is very inconsiderable; yet
taking the Court all together, and considering the Number of Great and
Petty Officers, the many rich Noblemen that spend high, and the several
Princes that are in the Service of his Imperial Majesty, it must be
confess’d, that there is not a Court in _Europe_ so splendid as that of
_Vienna_. At the Time that I was there, the Emperor had in his Service Two
Brothers of a King, Two Princes of Royal Blood, and a great Number of
Princes of Sovereign or other Honourable Families: Nor is there a Court
where there is a more sudden Transition from the meanest to the most
stately external Appearance, and this they commonly run to such an
Extreme, that they absolutely renounce Elegancy, to incumber themselves
with Magnificence: For on solemn Days, as those of Births, Marriages,
_&c._ one sees nothing but Gold, Lace and Diamonds without Number: And as
soon as these Holidays, which are call’d _Gala_, are expir’d, they all
resume their former Plainness.

After having given you this general Idea of the Court of _Vienna_, I will
acquaint you how they commonly spend their Time: First of all, as soon as
the Emperor is risen, he is dress’d; then he reads some Dispatches, and
sometimes gives Audience to some Minister, or assists in Council. He
afterwards goes to Mass, either at his own Chapel, or to some Church,
according to the Festival. On the Days of Ceremony or Festival he is
accompany’d by the Nuncio and the Ambassadors, upon which Occasion the
Emperor rides thither with very great Pomp. The Grooms of the Imperial
Stables on Horseback begin the Cavalcade, then comes an Equerry, and a
Coach drawn by Six Horses, in which sits the Master of the Horse: He is
follow’d by the Chamberlains, the Knights of the Golden Fleece, and the
Ministers, all on Horseback, in black Cloaths, and Cloaks trimm’d with
Lace. After these come the Footmen and Heydukes, in an antic Dress, and
bare-headed. Their Imperial Majesties Coach comes next, between Two Files
of the Hundred _Swiss_: The Emperor rides always with his Face to the
Horses, and the Empress over-against him, unless the Emperor goes into the
Country, and then the Empress sits by his Side. The Pages and some of the
inferior Officers of the Chamber follow on Horseback, and then Three or
Four Coaches, with Six Horses, in which are the Empress’s Ladies: The
Cavalcade is clos’d by a Company of the Garison at _Vienna_, which is
maintain’d at the Charge of the City, and mounts Guard at the Emperor’s
Palace, his Imperial Majesty having no other Foot Guards.

After Mass is ended, the Emperor returns to his Apartment, preceded by all
his Court, as when he came. The Nuncio and the Ambassadors are covered, as
is also the Emperor; then come the Empress and the Archduchesses, each led
by the Steward of their Houshold.

When the Emperor is return’d to his Apartment, he retires to a Chamber
call’d _la Retirade_, or the Withdrawing-Room, where he stays till
Dinner-time, which, when ’tis serv’d up, the great Chamberlain goes and
acquaints the Emperor, who comes and sits down at Table with the Empress,
attended by all the Ladies. A Chamberlain or Treasurer of the Chambers
presents the Bason for their Majesties to wash in, who afterwards seat
themselves in Two-arm Chairs: The Table did not appear to me to be serv’d
with very great Delicacy. The Plate is old-fashion’d, and all the Dishes
were set without any Regularity. Their Imperial Majesties have particular
Plates to themselves, for which Reason small Plates are commonly made use
of; and I have seen no less than Five or Six Spoons upon the Table at a
Time: The Emperor covers himself as soon as he is seated; then the Nuncio
and Ambassadors likewise cover themselves, and keep their Standing round
the Table, till their Majesties have drank; their Liquor is presented to
them by a Chamberlain; after their Majesties have drank to one another’s
Healths, the Steward, the great Chamberlain, the Master of the Horse and
the Captain of the Guards step forward to receive the Emperor’s Orders,
and to know how his Majesty will dispose of himself in the Afternoon. The
Ladies of Honour and the Officers belonging to the Empress advance to that
Princess in like manner, to know her Pleasure, and then every body
retires, unless there is Music, which happens very often: The Dinner does
not last much above an Hour: Their Majesties stay at Table till every
thing is taken away, even so much as the Cloth, but then a fresh one is
laid on, upon which the Treasurer places a Bason and an Ewer of Silver
gilt, and presents them to their Majesties to wash. The great Chamberlain
presents the Napkin to the Emperor, as the Lady of Honour does to the
Empress: This done, their Majesties retire to their Withdrawing-Rooms,
tho’ they often go out a Hunting, or to shoot at a Mark.

When the Emperor shoots at a Mark, several Persons are enter’d down in a
List to shoot with him, and there are Prizes distributed by those who are
of the Society of Shooters, of whom the Emperor gives the first Prize, the
Empress the second, and then all the rest, according to the Seniority of
their Admission into the Society. At their Return from this Diversion, the
Emperor grants Audience to those that send to desire it by the great
Chamberlain, who takes Care to let them know the Time when his Majesty is
to be spoke with. These Audiences are given without Ceremony, and they
that receive them are introduc’d by the Chamberlain in waiting. The
Emperor stands up and is cover’d, leaning with his Back against a Table,
with a Canopy over him, and an Arm-Chair by his Side: The Person that
approaches for Audience bends the Knee Three times, first as he comes in,
next when he is in the middle of the Room, and the third time when he
begins to speak. The Emperor hearkens with Attention, gives a gracious
Answer, and if there be any thing obscure in what is deliver’d to him, he
desires an Explanation. When the Person has made an End of speaking, he
bends one Knee to the Ground, and stretches forth his Hand, as a Signal
that he desires to kiss that of the Emperor, which his Majesty never
refuses. Then the Person retires, going backwards, and making the Three
Obeisances that he made at Entrance. The same Ceremonies are observ’d in
the Audiences of the Empresses; in order to obtain one from the Empress
Regent, Application is made to the great Steward of her Household, who
desires it, and then notifies what Hour will be most convenient for the
Empress to grant it. At these Audiences there attends but one Lady of
Honour, who keeps her proper Distance far enough to be out of the Hearing
of what is said, while her Majesty’s great Steward stays at the Door in
the Antichamber.

A shocking Abuse is crept into the Court of _Vienna_, in the Article of
Audiences: The next Day after they have been had, the Domestics of the
great Chamberlain and the great Steward come to demand a Fee for the
Service done by their Masters in giving the Notice to their Majesties; and
I have known some so impertinent, as to fix the Sum they claim’d a Right
to. The Hundred _Swiss_ and the very Ushers come likewise to wish happy
Success to the Audience that has been obtain’d, merely for what they can

As soon as the Audiences are over, the Empress goes into a Room call’d,
_The Looking-Glass Room_, because ’tis the only one in her Apartment where
there are such Glasses: There her Majesty finds the Ladies, who kiss her
Hand one after the Other, after which the Empress sits down to Play; none
but the Ladies have the Honour to play with her, or have Permission to
enter into that Room, excepting indeed the Emperor, the great
Chamberlain, the great Steward, and the Princes who are related to the
Empress. While they are at Play, the Ladies are seated round the Table,
without observing any Precedence; nor is it even as ’tis in _France_,
where the Honour of the Tabouret or Stool to sit on is paid only to the
Duchesses; for at _Vienna_ those who are call’d Duchesses by way of
Railery, are treated as if they were such in Reality.

There’s another Custom at _Vienna_, very different from the Practice at
other Courts of _Europe_: Here are no Days fix’d for Drawing-Rooms or
Circles, so that the Ladies, when they think proper, send to the Lady of
Honour in waiting, to know of her at what time they may pay their Court to
the Empress; and then they repair to the Palace at the Time appointed.

Towards Supper-time the Emperor goes to see the Empress; when the Company
gives over Play, and the Empress rises, and admits those Ladies that are
not to stay at Supper to kiss her Hand; after which their Majesties seat
themselves at Table, which is serv’d much after the same manner as at
Dinner: Their Majesties always sup in the Empress’s Apartment, where Two
Wax Candles are plac’d upon the Table, which are chang’d Three or Four
Times by one of the Maids of Honour: When she takes off a Candle, to give
it to the Treasurer to snuff it, she makes a profound Curt’sy, and makes
another when she replaces it on the Table. On the _Gala_ or Festival Days,
there is Music during the Repast. After the Bason has been presented to
their Majesties to wash their Hands in, the Governess or Mother of the
Maids presents the Napkin to the Emperor; and a Maid of Honour, who is at
the same time Lady of the Golden Key, presents it to the Empress. When
the Archduchesses sup with their Majesties, the same Bason is presented to
them that the Emperor has wash’d in, and a Maid of Honour presents them
with the Napkin; and when the Emperor is risen from the Table, the Two
first Archduchesses give the Emperor his Hat, and the Empress her Fan and
Gloves; but, in the Absence of the Archduchesses, this is done by a Lady
of Honour and a Maid of Honour, who must also be a Lady of the Golden Key:
After this, the Ladies who waited at Supper kiss the Empress’s Hand, as
her Majesty goes out of the Room, into the Chamber of Looking-Glasses. As
soon as their Majesties are in this Chamber every body retires, to go to
the Assembly, which, when I was at _Vienna_, was held at the House of
_Madame de Rabutin_, whither came all the _Beau Monde_. Prince _Eugene_ of
_Savoy_ was there too every Night, where he play’d constantly at Picquet
with the Countess _de Badiani_ and some other Ladies. About 11 o’Clock the
Company retir’d to the Places where they had appointed to sup, tho’ Supper
is a Meal they seldom indulge themselves with, all the grand
Entertainments being made at Dinners, and those extremely late.

The Empresses Dowagers are serv’d at Table with the same Ceremonies as the
Empress Regent, and they commonly eat alone, with only the Archduchesses
their Daughters. The Empress Mother always ate in private, but on
_Sundays_ and Days of Festival or _Gala_, the Empress Dowager din’d in

I had the Honour to acquaint you before, when I was mentioning the
Empresses Dowagers, that they never quit their Mourning; but this must be
only understood of their Persons, for their Officers and other Domestics
are clad in Colours: Yet, as to their Maids of Honour, let the Day of
_Gala_ be never so grand, the Bodies of their Gowns must be a black
Ground, embroider’d with Gold and Silver, but their Petticoats may be of
what Colour they please. Those Princesses are never at any Play or Ball:
As for the Archduchesses, it being the Custom at _Vienna_ for Sisters to
dress alike, they must be dress’d all in their Hair upon the Days of
Ceremony and _Gala_, as well as their Maids of Honour: They generally wear
the Court Dresses; but on the Days of grand Ceremony they wear Robes, much
like Children’s Vests, and very wide Petticoats with great Trains.

Upon the Days of _Gala_ there are commonly Operas and Comedies: Their
Imperial Majesties sit in the Pit, the Emperor in the chief Place, and the
Empress on his Left, and the Archduchesses are in the same Row. All those
of the Imperial Family have Arm-Chairs of the same Size and Height, with a
Stand behind, upon which is a Wax Candle. Their Operas are magnificent, as
to the Decorations and Habits, and good Judges have assur’d me, that their
Music is excellent; but for my own Part I think them as sad as most of the
_Italian_ Operas, because neither of ’em are accompany’d with Dances, or
any agreeable Entertainment.

I think, _Madame_, that I have related within a Trifle every Thing that is
remarkable at _Vienna_, whether at Court or in the City: I shall now give
you a short Account of the Persons who compos’d that august Court at the
Time that I stay’d there.

_Charles_ VI. was then upon the Imperial Throne, who is the second Son of
the Emperor _Leopold_: After the Death of _Charles_ II. King of _Spain_,
he was own’d King of that Monarchy by all the Princes of the Grand
Alliance, and he then took the Name of _Charles_ III. He went to his
Kingdom, and shew’d the _Spanish_ Nation, that he was worthy of being
their Sovereign. The Death of the Emperor _Joseph_, his Eldest Brother,
oblig’d him to return to _Germany_, and when he was at _Genoa_ he heard,
that he was chose Emperor. I have already had the Honour to give you an
Account of his Coronation. The Reign of this Monarch has been signaliz’d
by happy Events; the famous Peace concluded with _France_, restor’d that
Tranquillity to the Empire which it had been for a long time depriv’d of,
and that which was concluded some Years after with the _Turks_, secur’d
the Happiness of _Hungary_, and all the hereditary Dominions.

The Name of the Empress is _Elizabeth Christina_ of _Wolfembuttle
Blanckenberg_: She is a Princess, who, besides all the Qualities of the
Mind, has the most advantagious Aspect: She is the finest Personage at her
Court, and ’tis easy to see by her majestic Carriage, that she was form’d
by Nature to wear one of the chief Crowns in the World: She is very
magnificent in her Apparel, and especially in Diamonds, of which she has
to the Value of several Millions, and the Number is daily increasing by
considerable Presents she receives from the Emperor. This Prince does
Justice to the Merit of his august Spouse, who on her Part makes it her
whole Care to give him Proofs of her Affection; ’tis impossible to find a
more perfect Unity than that which is between their Imperial Majesties:
There are Three Princesses by this Marriage; I had the Honour to see only
the Two Eldest, for the Third was born some Years after my Journey to

She that is first in Rank, next to the Empress and the Archduchesses her
Daughters, was the Empress, Dowager of the Emperor _Leopold_, _Eleonora
Magdalena Theresa_ of _Newbourg_: She was the Mirrour of the whole Court
for Piety; for she spent most of her Time in Prayers at the Altars, or
else in bestowing Charities, which were always very great. The Greatness
of her Birth seem’d to make her uneasy, and she was vex’d to see the
Honours which her Rank and Merit had entail’d upon her; she dy’d in a very
advanc’d Age: She had several Princes and Princesses by the Emperor
_Leopold_, as 1. _Joseph-Jacob_, who dy’d Emperor at _Vienna_, the 17th of
_April_ 1711. 2. _Charles_, the present Emperor, and Three Archduchesses;
the one marry’d to the King of _Portugal_; another, Governess of the
_Netherlands_; and the Third, who resides at the Court of _Vienna_.

The Empress Dowager of the Emperor _Joseph_ resides also at the Court of
_Vienna_, and her Name is _Wilhelmina-Amelia_: She is the Daughter of the
late Duke of _Hanover_, Uncle to the King of _England_. After the Death of
her Father, who left no Male Issue, this Princess went and stay’d some
time in _France_, and her Sister having marry’d the Prince of _Modena_,
she accompany’d her into that Country, where she stay’d till her Marriage,
which was concluded at _Modena_ with the Emperor _Joseph_, then King of
the _Romans_; for whom the Duke her Brother-in-Law marry’d her as Proxy:
She went afterwards to _Vienna_, where she was the Admiration of the whole
Court, not only for the Lustre of her Person, but for the other Qualities
with which Nature has endow’d her: She took Care to cultivate her Mind
with much Reading, and especially by the Study of the Languages, to which
she gave great Application with Success, and she understands _French_ and
_Italian_ as well as her native Language. This Princess had several
Children by the Emperor her Husband, of whom there are but Two Princesses
living; the one call’d _Maria-Josepha_, marry’d to the Electoral Prince of
_Saxony_, now King of _Poland_; and the other call’d _Maria-Amelia_,
marry’d to the Electoral Prince, now the Elector, of _Bavaria_.

These, _Madame_, were the Persons of whom the Imperial Family then
consisted: I had the Honour in a few Days after my Arrival to kiss the
Hands of all this august Family, and was afterwards introduc’d to the
Ministers; so that in a very little time I was known by the whole Court,
and was so happy, as to acquire some Friends of Distinction, who gave me
Marks of their good Will, without putting me to the Trouble of dancing
Attendance, and desir’d Prince _Eugene_ to give me an Employment: I had
the Honour to wait on that Prince with particular Letters of
Recommendation, that I brought from the Elector Palatine. The Prince, who
receiv’d me very kindly, told me, that he could not insure me a Place,
because the Colonels dispos’d of all the Employments in their Regiments;
but that he would oblige me to the utmost of his Power; and indeed some
time after, he was so good as to speak for me to the Count _Max----_ of
_S----_, who gave me a Company in his Regiment, which was then in
_Sicily_. I was mightily charm’d with this Present, and imagin’d that
Fortune was at length weary of having so long thwarted me: Yet when I
began to think coolly of the Matter, I had some Reflections which made me
relapse into my former Melancholy: I was not in Cash, and I saw that I
could not avoid being at a considerable Expence. Besides, I had contracted
some dribbling Debts, which I wanted to clear before I left _Vienna_: My
Equipage was so much out of Repair, that it would cost some Money to
remount it; and finally, there was a Necessity for my going to _Sicily_;
all which Things were not to be done with a trifling Expence: Upon this
Occasion I receiv’d fresh Proofs of the Affection of my Friends, who all
interested themselves for me effectually: _Madamoseille de K----_, Maid of
Honour to the Empress Dowager, procur’d me a Gratuity from her Imperial
Majesty; and the Countess of _W----_, at whose House I was every Day,
advanc’d me a Thousand Ducats, saying, That I should pay her when I was
able, or rather, when I was preferr’d to be a Lieutenant-General. She
accompany’d her Generosity too with some Advice, that was truly wise and
christian, and seem’d to come rather from the Lips of a Mother than a
Friend. This Lady was heartily glad that I had chang’d my Religion, and
was the more willing to assist me in making an End of my Affairs, for Fear
that I should be overcome by the Temptation of turning Protestant again,
for the Sake of getting Employment in my own Country.

You see, _Madame_, by what I have just had the Honour to mention to you,
that I was now in a Condition to quit _Vienna_ with Credit, and indeed my
Stay there was no longer than to be a Spectator of Two great Solemnities,
of which I am next to give you a Description: The first was the Entry of a
_Turkish_ Ambassador, and the second the Marriage of the Archduchess
_Maria-Josepha_ with the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_; upon both which
Occasions the Imperial Court made the fullest Display of its Magnificence.

As to the Entry of the Ambassador, I may venture to say, it was only
magnificent on the Part of the Imperial Court, for in Truth the
Mahometan’s whole Train and Equipage were very inconsiderable. This
Ambassador’s Name was _Ibrahim Basha_; he had 600 Men in his Retinue, but
they were all very shabbily rigg’d. Till the Day of his Entry he stay’d in
a Camp, which he had caus’d to be form’d Two Leagues from _Vienna_; I went
thither with some Friends to see him: He receiv’d us with very great
Civility, and made us a Present of Coffee and Sweetmeats. During this
Collation I took a minute View of the Inside of his Tent, which was really
stately, and the largest that I ever saw: On the Ground there was a noble
Carpet spread, and over that a Sort of Foot-cloth of Crimson Sattin,
embroider’d with Gold, on which sate the Ambassador, with rich Cushions
about him of the same: On this same Foot-cloth, at the Ambassador’s Right
Hand sate the Secretary of the Embassy: Round the Ambassador there was
about a Score of Turks tolerably well dress’d, and among them Three or
Four clever likely young Fellows; in particular I observ’d a Moor there,
that was the handsomest Man I ever saw: His Dress was richer than the Garb
of the other Turks, and, as I was told, he was the Ambassador’s special
Favourite. After we had talk’d awhile with him, and were taking our Leave
of him, he was so civil as to offer to shew us his Camp, which we with
Pleasure accepted, and set out accordingly with a Person that the
Ambassador gave us for our Guide.

This Camp took up more Space of Ground than would have serv’d for 2000
Men. The Tents were a great way from one another, and plac’d without any
Order. Their Horses, Oxen and Camels were all stow’d _higledy pigledy_.
But the Ambassador’s particular Equipage was in a Sort of Park, inclos’d
by Toils like those that are us’d in Hunting: Every thing was to the last
Degree slovenly, the inferior Domestics especially were the most
disagreeable Gentry I ever saw; they had not Cloaths to their Backs, but
what were in Rags and Tatters; and the chief Domestics were but little
better rigg’d; several of them however were mighty civil to us, and
desirous to regale us in their Tents.

Some Days after this our Visit, the Ambassador made his Entry with great
Ceremony; the Marshal of the Court went and met him Half a League out of
_Vienna_, at the Head of the Magistrates of the City, those made free by
the Court, all the Trading Companies and Gentlemen, all well mounted and
richly dress’d: The Ambassador was dragg’d along by a Pair of wretched
Horses in one of his own Coaches, which was a little low Chariot, made
almost like the cover’d Waggons of _Holland_, except that instead of Wax
Cloth and Leather, it was cover’d with a red Cloth. When the Ambassador
and the Marshal of the Court came near to one another, they both alighted,
and after mutual Compliments mounted their Horses: There were carry’d
before the Ambassador Three Horse-Tails and the Standard of _Mahomet_,
which is a great Pair of Colours of green Taffeta, all sprinkled with
Crescents of Gold: He who carry’d it was on Horseback, and that the End of
the Colours might not trail upon the Ground, a Man that was on Foot held
up the Corners of it. The Ambassador was preceded by all his Equipage, in
which there was Half a Dozen of Waggons, cover’d with ragged Tilts, and
drawn each by Four scrubbed Horses, that were led by Carters, whose
Cloaths were in a very bad Pickle. After this Equipage came the
Ambassador’s Officers, and then twelve Horses, of which the Sultan made a
Present to the Emperor. Behind the Ambassador there march’d a Company of
_Spahis_, that carry’d Pikes, with small Standards at the End of various
Colours. These were follow’d by a Company of _Janizaries_, who, tho’ but
meanly clad, made a very warlike Appearance, their Arms and Legs being
both naked: The March was closed by a Regiment of _Hussars_.

This Train pass’d before the Palace call’d _la Favorita_, in View of the
Emperor and Empress, and then went thro’ the City, passing the Bridge over
the _Danube_, into the Suburb of _Leopoldstat_, where a House was prepar’d
for him, according to antient Custom, which is, that no _Turkish_
Ambassador must ever lodge in the City of _Vienna_.

The Ambassador seem’d to be very scrupulous in his Observation of the
Ceremonial: He was loth to consent, that the _Janizaries_ should carry
their Muskets on their Shoulders, when they pass’d before the Emperor at
his Palace _la Favorita_; and pleaded in Excuse, that the _Janizaries_ did
not march so even in Presence of the Sultan. He stood also upon his
Punctilio in some other Trifles, to which however he was oblig’d to
submit, or he was threaten’d that he should not make his Entry. The
Ambassador on his Part to shew his Resentment, caus’d only Two Horse-Tails
to be carry’d erect, and the Third downwards; but seeing that no body
car’d for his being out of Humour, he soon came to himself again, and then
was treated with Civility. He seem’d to be very fond of good Order, and
caus’d some of his Domestics, who had committed certain Enormities, to be
severely punish’d.

While the Ambassador stay’d at _Leopoldstat_, _Vienna_ swarm’d with
_Turks_, most of whom having never been out of their own Country, star’d
with so much Surprise at every thing they saw, that it afforded daily
Diversion to the Public. One Day I observ’d a _Turk_ entring _St.
Stephen_’s Church at the Time when there was no Service, nor so much as a
Soul in the Church. I was so curious as to follow him at a Distance, and
to observe all his Motions, which made me very merry: The Place at which
he discover’d the greatest Astonishment was the Choir, the Form of the
Clergy’s Stalls there, the Construction of the High Altar; in a Word,
every thing was to him a perfect Novelty: But the Thing which seem’d to
puzzle him most of all was, a noble Lamp burning in the midst of the
Choir: He turn’d round and round it again, and view’d it on every Side for
a long while, but seem’d as much confounded as at first, wondring to be
sure how they did to kindle it. Mean time, after a little Pause, he
observ’d a String underneath it, which he took into his Head to pull, and
finding that all came towards him, he brought the Lamp down to the Ground.
I observ’d that he was mightily pleas’d that he had found out the Meaning
of the Difficulty which had so much perplex’d him; and when the Fire was
so near him, he pull’d a long Pipe out of his Pocket with so much Gravity,
that I could not help smiling; and after he had lighted it at the Lamp,
he hoisted it to the Place it was in before, and then went out.

Not many Days after the Entry of the _Turkish_ Ambassador was the Ceremony
of the Marriage of the Archduchess _Maria-Josepha_ to the Electoral Prince
of _Saxony_. The Marriage had been projected a long time, and ’tis even
said, that the Emperor _Joseph_ had promis’d the King of _Poland_ in
Writing to give his Eldest Daughter to the Electoral Prince, on Condition
that he would turn to the Catholic Religion. Meantime, while this Match
hung in Suspence, the Electoral Prince of _Bavaria_ enter’d the List,
which very much embarras’d the Court of _Vienna_, who did not know for
which Match to determine. The Person employ’d in this Negotiation by the
_Saxon_ Court was the Count _de Wackerbarth_. Soon after him the Electoral
Prince in Person came to the Court of _Vienna_, and when he was oblig’d to
return, he left the Count _de Lagnasco_ there to take Care of his
Interest; who at length obtain’d the Emperor’s Consent, and the Count _de
F----_ came with the Character of Ambassador to demand the Princess of the
Emperor, which was done with very great Solemnity. As I was curious to
know the Ceremonies usual upon such Occasions, I went to the Count _de
F----_, on the Day that he was to go on the Emperor for his Audience. Who
should I see arrive but the Count _D’Oropesa_, a Grandee of _Spain_,
Knight of the Golden Fleece, and one of the Emperor’s Chamberlains, in a
Coach drawn by Six Horses, follow’d by a second Coach and Six, with the
Emperor’s Arms and Liveries: His Imperial Majesty’s Footmen and the
Count’s Lackeys walk’d on each Side of the first Coach. The Count _de
F----_ receiv’d the Count _D’Oropesa_ as he alighted out of his Coach, and
conducted him into a Room, where Two Chairs of State were plac’d under a
Canopy of Crimson Velvet, inrich’d with Embroidery and Gold Fringe; and
over the Chairs was plac’d the Picture of the King of _Poland_. The Two
Counts seated themselves in the Chairs of State, the Ambassador giving the
Right Hand to the Count. They were both cover’d, talk’d for about a
Quarter of an Hour, and then went out. The Ambassador stepp’d first into
the Emperor’s Coach, and then the Count _D’Oropesa_, the former riding
forwards, and the latter backwards over-against him. Four of the principal
_Saxon_ Gentlemen in the Ambassador’s Retinue went into the second Coach.
Then the March began, when one of the Coaches of the Court led the Way,
follow’d by one of the Ambassador’s Officers, at the Head of Twenty-four
of his Excellency’s Lackeys; the Coach wherein the Two Counts rode
follow’d next; the Emperor’s Footmen and the Count _D’Oropesa_’s Lackeys
walking on each Side: Then came Eight of the Ambassador’s Pages, Four of
whom were in the _German_, and Four in the _Polish_ Dress; their Coats
were of blue Velvet lac’d with Gold: Four Pages of the Back-stairs clad in
blue Cloth lac’d with Gold follow’d the other Pages, and Three of the
Ambassador’s Coaches with Six Horses each clos’d the March: In this Order
did the Train arrive at the Palace; the Ambassador’s first Coach enter’d
alone into the Inner Court, the Two others stay’d in the Outer Court. The
Ambassador found the Emperor under a Canopy, and in the Name of the King
his Master demanded the Archduchess of him in Marriage for the Electoral
Prince: The Emperor made him Answer, that he was very willing, on
condition that the Empress, Mother to the Archduchess, and the Archduchess
herself gave their Consent. After this Audience the Ambassador was
conducted to the Empress Regent, and to the Empress Mother, of whom he
made the same Demand, almost in the same Terms. The Princesses answer’d,
That if the Emperor was willing, and the Empress _Amelia_ and the
Archduchess consented to it, they should see the Marriage concluded with
Pleasure: Then the Ambassador was conducted to an Audience of the Empress
_Amelia_, of whom he made the same Demand, telling her too of the Answer
he had receiv’d from the Emperor and the Empresses. This Empress made
Answer, That the Emperor’s Will was always Her’s, that the Electoral
Prince was a Match that she lik’d, and that she hop’d the Archduchess her
Daughter would not be against it; and that she would go that Instant, and
let her know what he came about: At the same time she turn’d to the
Countess of _Caraffa_, her Lady of Honour, and bad her send for the
Archduchess: This Princess, being in an adjacent Room, came that Moment,
dress’d most richly: And the Empress told her what the Ambassador had just
declar’d to her on the Part of the King of _Poland_, relating to her
Marriage with his Son the Electoral Prince: She added, that the Emperor,
the Empresses and Herself had agreed to the Match; that nevertheless she
was left absolutely to her own Disposal, and that the Emperor did not mean
to constrain her: The Archduchess made Answer, That she had no Objection
to the Marriage, and that she obey’d their Imperial Majesties Orders with
Respect. After this Declaration the Ambassador advanc’d, and addressing
himself to the Archduchess, presented her with the Electoral Prince’s
Picture adorn’d with Diamonds, which this Princess accepted, and without
looking on it gave it to the Empress her Mother: The Empress, after having
diligently view’d it, went to fasten it to the Body of the Archduchess’s
Gown, but the Ambassador desir’d her Imperial Majesty to grant him that
Honour; and after this Ceremony he return’d to his Palace as he came.

The Emperor, the Empress Regent and the Empress Mother went to the
Apartment of the Empress Dowager, where, after mutual Compliments of
Congratulation, their Majesties din’d together. In the Evening the Emperor
and the Empresses went to pay a Visit to the Archduchess, that was to be
marry’d, where the whole Court was present, and there was great Play,
after which their Imperial Majesties and the Archduchess went and supp’d
with the Empress _Amelia_.

Some Days after this, the Ambassador of _Poland_ went again in Ceremony,
but with his own Coaches, to the Palace _la Favorita_, where, in the
Presence of all the Imperial Family, all the Ministers and Privy
Counsellors, and the Knights of the Golden Fleece, he solemnly renounc’d
the Right of Succession in the Name of the King his Master, and of the
Electoral Prince of _Saxony_, in case it pleas’d God that the Emperor
should dye without Male Issue. The Count _de Sinzendorf_, Chancellor of
the Court, read the Act of Renunciation to all present, after which the
Emperor demanded the Consent of the Archduchess, and the Princess giving
her said Consent, the Emperor order’d an Oath thereupon to be
administer’d to her, which she took accordingly before the Archbishop of
_Valencia_. This Prelate being dress’d in his Pontificalibus before an
Altar that had been erected in the Chamber, gave the Book of the Gospels
to the Princess, who laying her Hands thereon, solemnly renounc’d the
Rights of Succession. The Ambassador swore the same Thing in the Name of
the King his Master, and the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_.

In a few Days after this was done, the Electoral Prince set out from
_Dresden_, and came to a House made ready for him Two Leagues from
_Vienna_. Having sent Notice of his Arrival to the Emperor, the Empresses
and the Archduchess, the Emperor dispatch’d the Count _de Molard_ the
chief Steward of his Kitchen to him, as the Empresses and the
Archduchesses did the Gentlemen of their Housholds, to compliment him
thereupon: Next Day the Prince came _incognito_ to the Convent of Nuns
founded by the Empress _Amelia_, who also repair’d thither with the Two
Archduchesses her Daughters. After an Interview of about Half an Hour, the
Archduchess, that was to be marry’d, and the Electoral Prince of _Saxony_,
went to the Church, and there confess’d; which done, the Prince return’d
to his House, which, as I have had the Honour to observe to you, was Two
Leagues from _Vienna_. He came again from thence next Day at Six in the
Evening, and alighted at the Palace _la Favorita_, where being conducted
into the great Chamberlain’s Apartment, he there chang’d his Cloaths, and
was then introduc’d by the great Chamberlain to the Emperor, and his
Imperial Majesty led him to the Empress’s Apartment, where were the Two
Empress Dowagers and all the Archduchesses. The Emperor presented the
Prince to them, and then they went to the Chapel in the following Order:
The March was begun by all the Lords and Ladies of the Court; then came
the Electoral Prince, with one of his Gentlemen, bearing a Wax Candlestick
before him. The Emperor immediately follow’d the Prince, and then came the
Three Empresses and the Archduchess, who was supported by the Two Empress
Dowagers, the Empress Regent walking foremost, as she always did
where-ever they went: The latter had on a Straw-colour’d Gown of Silver
Tissue, adorn’d with Diamonds, and her Head Dress was adorn’d all over
with Pearls like Pears. The Archduchess, whom I shall hereafter call the
_Electoral Princess_, was also very richly dress’d; she wore a Fardingale,
and her Gown was of Silver Brocade adorn’d with Diamonds: Next to the
Princess the Three Archduchesses walk’d one after another, led each by
their Equerries: These Princesses were follow’d by their Ladies, whose
Dresses were of extraordinary Magnificence. As soon as the Electoral
Prince and Princess were arriv’d in the Chapel, they received the nuptial
Benediction from the Archbishop of _Vienna_. When the Ceremony was ended,
the Imperial Family return’d to the Empress’s Closet, where they stay’d
near Two Hours, and then repair’d to the Table, in the same Order as they
observ’d when they went to the Church. The Hall of the Festival was set
off in an extraordinary manner; the Table was plac’d upon a Floor rais’d
Three Steps, which form’d an oblong Square. The Emperor and the Three
Empresses sate at one End; the Electoral Princess sate on the Right Side
of the Table, and at the Right Hand of the Empress Mother; the Electoral
Prince, who had the second Place on the Right Hand of the Princess, had a
Chair with only a Back to it, and was serv’d by one of his own
Chamberlains; whereas the Princess and the Archduchesses sate in
Arm-chairs, and were attended by the Emperor’s Chamberlains: Over-against
the Princess, on the Left Hand of the Empress _Amelia_, sate the
Archduchess her Daughter, and the Two Archduchesses the Emperor’s Sisters:
The Court Ladies stood all round the Table till their Imperial Majesties
had each drank once, and then they went to sit down at Tables serv’d in
different Rooms, but return’d to the Desart: There was such a Number of
Services, that the Supper held a long time, during which it was animated
by excellent Music: In the same Room a Sort of Gallery was erected for the
_Turkish_ Ambassador, who saw all the Supper, and was attended by 30 of
his Domestics. Care was taken to serve him with Sweetmeats and other
Refreshments; and the Interpreter having ask’d him what he thought of the
Magnificence of the Court of _Vienna_; he answer’d very gallantly, That
noble as this Appearance was, there was nothing so grand in the whole
Entertainment as the Person of the Empress.

After Supper was ended, the Empress Dowagers led the Princess into her own
Apartment, and did not retire till she was in Bed: Next Day the Prince and
Princess receiv’d the Compliments of the whole Court; they din’d
afterwards with the Emperor and the Empresses, and at Night went and saw a
new Opera, that was compos’d upon account of their Nuptials. The Emperor
sate there as usual, with the Empress on his Left Hand, and the
Archduchesses one after another in the same Row; the Electoral Princess
preserv’d the Precedence due to her Birth; the Electoral Prince sate in
the same Line as the Emperor, but after all the Archduchesses. The Opera
was most magnificent, yet I thought it very tedious, for really ’twas too
long; and besides, the Heat was intolerable: When the Opera was over, the
Imperial Family supp’d together, as they did next Day at Dinner, which was
the last Meal that the Prince and Princess made at _Vienna_; for as soon
as they rose from Table, they took Leave of the Emperor and the Empresses,
and set out for _Dresden_. There arose some Difficulty touching the
Ceremonial that was to be observ’d as they pass’d thro’ _Prague_, to avoid
which the Electoral Prince went before, and pass’d round the Town; but the
Princess made her Entry there.

       *       *       *       *       *

As soon as the Princess was gone, I began to think what a tedious Journey
I should have before I could join my Regiment, which, as I have had the
Honour to tell you, was in _Sicily_. As this Journey would naturally keep
me a long time out of my own Country, I was willing first of all to settle
my Affairs. For this Reason I desir’d a Month’s Furlough, and went to
_Dresden_, from whence I sent for my Steward to come and meet me. I chose
to stay at _Dresden_ rather than _Berlin_, not only on account of the
Solemnity of the Princess’s Entry, of which I was fond to be a Spectator,
but because of the Enemies I had at the Court of _Prussia_, who would
perhaps have done me some ill Office with the King. Having set out from
_Vienna_ a few Days after the Electoral Princess, I arrived at _Dresden_
the same Day that her Highness made her Entry there. The Preparations
made for receiving the Princess were of the utmost Magnificence, so that
one could hardly imagine any thing more rich and gay. In order to give you
some Idea of the _Polish_ Magnificence, I will resume my Narrative from
the Time of the Princess’s Departure from _Prague_.

As soon as the King had Notice that the Princess was gone from _Prague_,
he sent the Count _de Wackerbarth_, Grand Master of the Artillery, at the
Head of several Gentlemen, to meet her: The Count, who met the Princess on
the Frontiers of _Bohemia_, complimented her in the King’s Name, and
presented those Officers to her which his Majesty sent to attend her; for
till then she had been waited on by the Officers of the Emperor, who had
all along defray’d her Expences. Her Highness proceeded in her Journey to
_Pirna_, the first Town in _Saxony_, where she was receiv’d by the
Electoral Prince, and saluted by the Cannon of the Castle of
_Sonnenstein_. Next Day, at 7 o’Clock in the Morning, the Prince and
Princess went on board the _Bucentaure_, which was a Galley finely rigg’d,
and call’d by that Name, because ’twas built after the Model of the
_Bucentaure_ of _Venice_: Their Galley was accompany’d by 100 Gondolas,
painted and richly gilded, and by 12 Fregates, from 6 to 12 Guns each: All
the Gondoliers and Sailors had Jackets of Sky-blue Sattin, and Breeches of
yellow Sattin, lac’d with Silver. With this gallant Fleet, worthy to carry
_Thetis_ and _Amphitrite_, the Prince and Princess arriv’d within Half a
League of _Dresden_.

The King went in Cavalcade to the Place where the Princess landed, some
Hours before her Arrival, and was attended by the Nobility of his Court,
all richly dres’d. The King especially was attir’d most sumptuously, in
shorn Velvet of a purple Colour, adorn’d with Diamonds, to the Value of
Two Millions of Crowns: He caus’d his Standard to be carry’d before him by
a _Polander_, arm’d _cap-a-pie_. As soon as he came to the Landing-Place,
he made a Review of the Train that was to compose the Entry, and retir’d
afterwards to a magnificent Tent, lin’d with yellow Velvet, adorn’d with
Silver Lace, to wait the Arrival of the Princess.

As soon as the _Bucentaure_ came near enough to be seen from Land, she
made a triple Discharge of all her Artillery, which were answer’d by the
Cannon of Five Yatchts that were at Anchor on the _Elbe_, over-against the
King’s Tent, and from the Batteries on Shore.

During this the King went to the Ships, over a Bridge erected for that
Purpose, and cover’d with green Tapistry, sprinkled with Flowers. The
_Bucentaure_ dropping her Anchor, the Princess made ready to meet the
King: When she came near him, she would fain have kiss’d his Hand, but the
Monarch embrac’d her tenderly, and conducted her to his Tent, where he had
some Conversation with the Prince and Princess, and then left them to
return to _Dresden_.

The Prince and Princess sate down to Table, and a grand Breakfast was
serv’d up; then the Boards of the Tent were struck down, that their
Highnesses might see the Troops and Equipage march by that were to compose
their Retinue at their Entry into _Dresden_: All this lasted about Two
Hours; then came a stately Coach drawn by Eight Horses, being the Equipage
that was for the Princess, who sate in it alone, while the Prince her
Husband rode on Horseback, and they made their Entry with all the Pomp
and Magnificence possible.

I own to you, _Madame_, that I was so charmed with the Disposition that
was observ’d in this Procession, and especially with the Richness and
Elegancy of the Habiliments, that I cannot resist the Temptation I feel to
give you the Particulars, but must submit to it, tho’ I run the Risque
perhaps of being thought too tedious.

The Cavalcade was open’d by the King’s Harbinger on Horseback, in the
_Saxon_ Livery, which was yellow Cloth, with broad Lace of blue Velvet,
mix’d with Silver Lace.

Then came 2 Post Masters.

The Baron _de Mordax_, Post Master General, preceded by his Domestics on

40 Post Masters of _Saxony_ clad in white with yellow Lace, the whole
edg’d with Silver, as were also the Housings of their Horses, which were
all over black.

100 Postilions dress’d in yellow with blue Lace, they had Caps like
Dragoons, and the Housings of their Horses were embroider’d with the
King’s Arms.

120 Led Horses richly caparison’d, belonging to the chief Lords of the

A Kettle-Drummer and 6 Trumpets, dress’d in the antique Garb in black
Cloth and yellow, with Gold Lace.

50 Halberdiers on Horseback, dress’d also in the antique manner, in the
yellow, black and gold Colours, bearing Halberds: These represented the
ancient Guards of the Electors of _Saxony_.

The Nobility of _Lusatia_ dress’d in black Velvet, with Buttons and
Button-holes of Gold.

24 Horses cover’d with great Housings of yellow Cloth, adorn’d with 2
Silver Lace Edgings, and the embroider’d Arms of the 24 Cities or
Provinces of _Saxony_ and _Poland_.

A Kettle-Drummer and 6 Trumpets, habited like the former.

The Nobility of _Saxony_ dress’d in black Velvet Coats, with Buttons and
Loops of Gold, and Waistcoats of Gold Brocade.

50 Halberdiers on Horseback, dress’d and arm’d like the former.

A Regiment of Dragoons, whose Regimental Cloaths were red, fac’d with
grey, and edg’d with Silver Galoon; the Housings of the Horses were
likewise red, and embroider’d with Silver; and the Dragoons were dress’d
exactly like the Officers, only they had not Silver Lace.

120 Coaches and 6 Horses belonging to the Chamberlains and Ministers, each
preceded by Lackeys and Running-Footmen, and surrounded by Heydukes, with
2 Pages in Front.

The King’s Huntsmen, consisting of 200 Persons, dress’d in green with
Silver Lace.

A Regiment of Horse-Grenadiers, cloath’d in red, turn’d up with green: The
Officers had Gold Lace, and their Caps were likewise embroider’d with

An Equerry of the Princess Royal, attended by 2 Grooms in the _Saxon_
Livery on Horseback.

25 Hunting Horses, all _English_, belonging to the Electoral Prince: The
Horses were cover’d with Housings of yellow Cloth, lac’d with Silver, and
embroider’d with the Arms of _Poland_ and _Saxony_.

Another of the Electoral Prince’s Equerries, at the Head of 36 Led Horses
belonging to his Highness, which had Housings of yellow Velvet, adorn’d
with Lace and Fringe of Silver; the Arms of _Poland_ and _Saxony_ being
embroider’d upon each of the Saddle-cloths in 2 Escutcheons under a Royal

A Regiment of _Cuirassiers_, having their Cuirasses gilt, with white and
straw-colour’d Plumes on their Helmets.

A Herald at Arms, wearing a Vest of yellow and blue Velvet, embroider’d
with Silver, and a Cap of black Velvet, adorn’d with white and blue Plumes
of Feathers.

A Kettle-Drummer and 12 Trumpeters in the Livery of _Saxony_.

3 of the King’s Equerries, follow’d by 36 _English_ Horses, belonging to
his Majesty, with Housings like to those of the Prince’s Hunting Horses.

The Governor and Sub-Governor of the Pages, in Cloaks of black Damask,
adorn’d with black and Gold Lace.

24 of the King’s Pages, dress’d in the antique Mode, with Cloaks of blue
and yellow Sattin, adorn’d with Lace, in the _Saxon_ Livery; and with
black Velvet Caps, adorn’d with white and blue Plumes.

40 Manag’d Horses, with Housings of yellow Velvet, embroider’d with
Silver, led by Grooms in the _Saxon_ Livery on Horseback.

An Equerry, follow’d by a Couple of Grooms in the _Saxon_ Livery on

24 Coaches of the King as Elector, with Sets of Horses of several Colours.

A Kettle-Drummer and 12 Trumpeters in the _Saxon_ Livery.

A Litter of the King’s, plated all over with Silver, and adorn’d with
yellow Velvet, embroider’d with Silver, carry’d by a Couple of Mules,
richly harness’d: Their Bells were all of Silver, and their Pannels of
yellow Velvet, embroider’d with Silver; they had great Plumes on their
Heads of blue and white Feathers, and the Muleteers were dress’d in the
_Spanish_ Mode, but in the _Saxon_ Livery.

After this Litter there follow’d 24 Mules, cover’d with yellow Cloth
Housings, lac’d with Silver, and embroider’d with the Royal Arms; they had
blue and white Plumes of Feathers, and their Bells and Paniers were of
solid Silver.

A Regiment of _Cuirassiers_, whose Cuirasses were wash’d with Silver, and
Helmets tufted with red and white Plumes.

A Herald at Arms, with a Vest of straw-colour’d Velvet, embroider’d with
Gold, with the Arms of _Poland_.

2 Equerries in the _Polish_ Habit.

A Kettle-Drummer and 12 of the King’s Trumpeters in the _Polish_ Dress, in
Scarlet with blue Velvet Lace, mix’d with Gold Lace.

36 _Polish_ Led Horses, having red Velvet Housings, with the King’s Arms
in Gold Embroidery.

A Governor of the _Polish_ Pages on Horseback, follow’d by 24 Pages in the
_Polish_ Habit, of Scarlet with Vests of blue Sattin, the whole edg’d with
an open Gold Lace.

3 of the King’s Equerries in the _Polish_ Dress, Follow’d by 24 _Turkish_
Horses richly caparison’d _alamode de Turky_, led by Grooms in the
_Polish_ Livery, but _Turkish_ Habit, walking on Foot, and bearing each on
their Left Arm a Tyger’s Skin, edg’d with scarlet Velvet, lac’d with Gold,
and embroider’d with the King’s Arms.

24 open Calashes, drawn each by 6 _Polish_ Horses, drove by Coachmen and
Postilions in the _Polish_ Habit.

A Litter of red _Spanish_ Leather, lin’d with straw-colour’d Velvet,
embroider’d with Gold, carry’d by 2 Mules, caparison’d after the _Turkish_
Mode, with Pannels of scarlet Velvet, embroider’d with Gold, and drove by
Muleteers in the _Turkish_ Dress, but with the _Polish_ Livery.

24 Mules caparison’d after the _Turkish_ manner, with scarlet Velvet
embroider’d with Gold.

A Regiment of Horse-Grenadiers dress’d in red, fac’d with blue, as were
also the Officers, only with the Addition of a Silver Lace.

All the Colonels and Generals of the Troops dress’d uniform in Scarlet,
with gilt Buttons.

The Veldt Marshal the Count _de Flemming_.

A Regiment of Dragoons in a red Livery fac’d with blue; only the Officers
had their Facings and Vest embroider’d with Silver.

2 Harbingers of the Court.

All the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber, the Chamberlains and Ministers on
Horseback, who were follow’d at some Distance by the Grand Marshal.

A Regiment of Dragoons, dress’d in red with yellow Facings, and the Coats
of the Officers edg’d with a Gold Lace.

12 Running-Footmen with blue Damask Jackets lac’d with Silver, and Sashes
of yellow Damask, embroider’d with Silver, and encompass’d with a Silver
Fringe; these were follow’d by 24 Heydukes in the _Saxon_ Livery.

The Hundred _Swiss_ Guards, dress’d after the antique manner in the
_Saxon_ Liveries, walking in Two Files, with their Officers in the
_French_ Mode at their Head, in Sky-blue Coats, all of the same Pattern,
with Silver Buttons and Button-holes, and Belts of Silver.

The Electoral Prince of _Saxony_ was in the midst of the Hundred _Swiss_;
he had a Coat on of Cloth of Silver, embroider’d with Gold and Diamonds,
and was mounted on a fine _Spanish_ Horse, the intire Equipage whereof was
of Gold adorn’d with Diamonds. The Count _de Lutzelbourg_, great Steward
of his Houshold, and the Baron _de Galen_, one of the Prince’s
Chamberlains, immediately follow’d him.

The Prince was attended by 36 Footmen in the _Saxon_ Livery, and by a
Company of the King’s Life-Guards.

Then came at a little Distance a Moor on Horseback, in the _Turkish_
Dress, all in Gold and Silver Brocade, bearing a Quiver of Arrows; he was
follow’d by 24 Moors, dress’d also in the _Turkish_ Habit, in scarlet
Cloaths edg’d with blue and Gold Lace, and long Vests of white Sattin; and
upon their Turbans they wore very fine Tufts of Feathers.

Immediately after came the Princess’s Coach between Two Files of the
Hundred _Swiss_; ’twas adorn’d with crimson Velvet, cover’d all over with
Gold Embroidery; the Roof was adorn’d with 8 great Plumes of white
Feathers, and in the middle there were Tufts of Herons Feathers: This
Equipage was drawn by 8 stately _Neapolitan_ Horses, which had Harnesses
of Crimson Velvet embroider’d with Gold, and Plumes of white Feathers upon
their Heads, with noble Housings of Crimson Velvet embroider’d with Gold,
and edg’d with Gold Fringe, which hung down to the Ground: The Coachman,
Postilions and 8 Grooms led the Horses by Strings and Reins of Gold, and
they had Coats of crimson Velvet, with Waistcoats fac’d with blue Velvet,
and adorn’d with a broad Gold Lace.

Immediately after her Highness’s Coach the chief Steward of her Houshold
follow’d on Horseback, attended by 24 Turks in Scarlet, with fine Tufts of
Feathers on their Turbans.

A Company of the Life-Guards.

5 Coaches with the _Saxon_ Livery, in which sat the Princess’s chief Lady
and her Maids of Honour.

A Regiment of Horse, in a red Livery fac’d with blue, clos’d the March.

With this pompous Train the Princess arriv’d at the Palace: The Streets
thro’ which her Highness pass’d were lin’d with 5000 Foot in new Cloaths:
The Electoral Prince handed the Princess out of her Coach, and led her
into the grand Apartment, where were the King and Queen and the whole
Court: From the very Entrance of the Palace to the Guard-Room the Hundred
_Swiss_ were drawn up in Two Rows under Arms: The Guard-Room was lin’d
with the Horse-Guards in scarlet Coats fac’d with blue, and blue Cloth
Waistcoats embroider’d with Gold: The Life-Guards form’d the second Row,
next to the Horse-Guards.

The King and Queen went to the third Antichamber to meet the Princess,
when the King presented her to the Queen, whose Hand her Highness offer’d
to kiss; but her Majesty embrac’d her, and taking her by the Hand, led her
after the King into the Chamber of Audience: They stay’d there a few
Moments, and then their Majesties and their Highnesses went into the
Closet, from whence the Queen led her back in a little time to the Chamber
of Audience, where she presented all the Ladies to her. Afterwards the
Princess being fatigued retir’d to her Apartment, and the Court broke up
till next Morning, when there was a _Te Deum_ sung, during which there
was a triple Discharge of the Cannon from the Ramparts, and of the small
Arms from all the Infantry: After this Solemnity was over, the King and
Queen din’d in State, at a Table forming an oblong Square, rais’d Three
Steps from the Floor, and plac’d under a magnificent Canopy: The Prince
and Princess din’d with their Majesties, the Prince at one End of the
Table near the King, and the Princess at the other End by the Queen: They
had Arm-Chairs, but not so high as were those of their Majesties.

At the same time there were 9 Tables spread for 30 Guests apiece, for the
Ladies, the Courtiers, and the Foreigners: There was a fine Concert of
Music during the Dinner, and at Night an _Italian_ Opera.

The Court did not assemble next Day till the Evening, when there was a
grand Ball, which the King open’d with the Queen: Their Majesties danc’d a
_Polish_ Dance to the Music of Kettle-Drums and Trumpets: When the Dance
was over, the King led the Queen to a Place that was rais’d Three Steps
above the Floor, under a rich Canopy. He then danc’d with the Princess,
who danc’d afterwards with the Queen; and then the Queen danc’d with the
Prince, who danc’d afterwards with the Princess: When all these Dances
were ended, they began Minuets, and the Ball lasted till 2 o’Clock in the
Morning, only it was thrice interrupted by Three Collations, which were
serv’d up by 24 _Polish_ Pages, as many _Saxon_ Pages, and by the same
Number of Moors and Turks, who had all the same Habits as they wore upon
the Day of the Entry, which was a Sight as singular as it was

The next Day after this Ball, which was the 5th of _September_, a Comedy
was perform’d by _French_ Comedians, who play’d _Ariane_, and _l’Ete des

On the 6th there was a Battle of Beasts in Areas that were built for the

On the 7th there was a grand _Italian_ Opera, intitul’d _Theophanes_, in
which the famous Musicians _Senesino_ and _Bercelli_ perform’d
surprisingly. The Opera being longer than ordinary, the King, who sat in
the Pit, supp’d there with the Queen and their Royal Highnesses: And at
the same time there were little Tables serv’d in the Boxes for the Ladies.

There were also several very splendid Feasts on the Days following: On the
10th all these Rejoicings were concluded by a Pastoral, that was play’d in
the Garden of the King’s Palace. There the King supp’d with the Queen and
their Royal Highnesses, and 10 Tables were spread for 20 Guests at each,
and serv’d all with Porcelain for the Court and Foreigners: After Supper
there was a fine Firework play’d, representing the carrying off of the
Golden Fleece: That was the last of the Entertainments I was present at,
and I made ready to set out for _Sicily_, where my Employment required my
Presence: Yet, before I leave _Dresden_, I must say a Word or two
concerning the August Family, which resided there at that time.

The Royal Family consisted then of but Four Persons, the King, the Queen,
the Electoral Prince and Princess.

The King is one of the best Princes that I ever knew; ’tis impossible to
see him without being captivated by his graceful Mien; and his Civility
wins the Hearts of all his Courtiers; he has all the Qualities fitting for
a great King: His Father dying without Issue, he succeeded him in the
Electorate of _Saxony_; and soon after, upon the Death of _John Sobieski_,
the _Poles_ chose him for their King: When he was no more than Elector, he
commanded the Emperor’s Army, and gave authentic Proofs of his Wisdom and

The Queen is of the Family of _Brandenbourgh Bareith_, and was espous’d to
the King, even before he was Elector: She is a Princess of a stately Port,
and must have formerly been a Toast, on account of her Beauty, at the Time
when she had more Colour in her Face, and less Flesh upon her Bones than
she has now. She is very fond of Retirement, and bestows great Charities:
She resides commonly at _Torgau_, or at _Pretsch_, and comes but very
seldom to _Dresden_: She has a separate House from the King’s, which is
very suitable to her Dignity; she has also a separate Chapel, the King
having given her the old Chapel at _Dresden_ and caus’d another to be
built for Himself and the Catholics.

The Electoral Prince resembles the Queen very much: He is tall and very
well set, and his Air plainly discovers him to be what he is: He delights
very much in Hunting, and those Pleasures that require Exercise; which to
be sure is very serviceable to him, for I thought him inclinable to grow
fat: This Prince was very carefully educated by the Electoress his
Grandmother, who was a Princess of _Denmark_: When he was able to support
the Fatigues of Travelling the King sent him to _Italy_, and from thence
to _France_, with a Retinue becoming the Son of a King; after which the
Prince went to _Vienna_, and ’twas during the Stay he made at the Court
that he had an Opportunity of observing the great Qualities of the
Archduchess, now the Electoral Princess: You’ll judge by the Account I
have had the Honour to give you of this Princess, that it were almost
impossible but she must be very much belov’d at the Court of _Saxony_; and
she soon got the good Wishes of the whole Nation, so that the very People
who conceiv’d some Umbrage at the Prince’s Marriage, for Fear of their
Religion, were quickly reconcil’d to it: For indeed what Violence was
there room to apprehend from a Princess so highly distinguish’d for her
Moderation and Good-nature?

These, _Madame_, were at the time the whole Royal Family; but now ’tis
augmented by several Princes and Princesses, whom the Electoral Prince has
had by the Princess his Spouse. Tho’ the Royal Family was not numerous
when I was there, yet the Number and Magnificence of the Princes and
Courtiers, who were then at _Dresden_, made it very splendid: I had the
Honour to know most of them very well, and found them all alike, behaving
affable to Foreigners, and agreeable to their Birth: I don’t undertake now
to give you the Characters of those whom I had the Honour to be
particularly acquainted with, being sensible that perhaps it would be a
little too tedious: Nothing remains for me therefore but to give you some
Account of the City of _Dresden_. [11] _Dresden_ is one of the finest
Towns in _Germany_ for its Situation and its Structures; ’tis the Capital
of _Misnia_ in _Upper Saxony_. _Charlemain_ was the first that caus’d it
to be fortify’d; it has been for time out of Mind the ordinary Residence
of the Dukes and Electors of _Saxony_, who have caus’d its Fortifications
to be considerably augmented, and ’tis now a very strong Place: ’Tis
divided by the River _Elbe_ into Two Parts, call’d _The New Town_ and _The
Old Town_. In the latter stands the Prince’s Palace, which was formerly a
very fine Building, but only a Part of it is remaining, the rest being
consum’d by Fire. That which still exists contains very fine Apartments,
which the King has accommodated to the modern Taste, and they are nobly
furnished; but they belong only to the King and Queen; and the Prince and
Princess live in a separate Palace, which communicates therewith by
Galleries: This Palace was built by the Countess of _Cosel_, who liv’d in
it when she was in high Favour. The Rooms are a little of the smallest,
but perfectly well dispos’d, and they are adorn’d with fine Paintings, and
very richly furnish’d: Near the King’s Palace there’s a very fine Garden,
call’d _Zuinger-Garten_, which is semi-circled in the Shape of a
Horse-shoe, with magnificent Buildings that form Arches, over which there
runs an open Gallery, which unites Three large Pavilions: In the
middlemost there’s a fine Grotto, on a Level with the Garden. The upper
Story contains a very beautiful Saloon fac’d with Marble, with gilded
Ornaments; the Ceiling is magnificent; the Windows instead of common Glass
are embellished with very fine large Plate-Glass. The rest of the
Building, which joins to this Garden, is of the same Magnificence, but yet
perhaps a little too much incumber’d with carv’d Work.

Next to the Garden there is nothing finer to be seen than the King’s
Stables and Riding-House. Over the Stables there are very fine large
Rooms, in which is kept all the Furniture for the Horses: In this Part
there is also a Number of stately Buildings, which render _Old Dresden_ a
very agreeable Place. The Streets are broad, most of them regular and well
pav’d, and great Care is taken to keep up good Government in it.

This Quarter communicates with the new Town by a very beautiful
Stone-Bridge: The first thing one meets with entring into _New Dresden_ is
a House that belongs to the King, and is call’d _The Palace of_ Holland,
because all the China Ware or Furniture, with which ’tis adorn’d, came
from that Country: The Gardens of this House are very pleasant; and its
Situation most charming by reason of the River _Elbe_, which runs just by

The Inhabitants of _Dresden_ are Lutherans, as well as those of the rest
of _Saxony_, and the Catholics have not so much as one Church in it; for
the King being not willing to infringe the Laws of the Country, is content
to have one Chapel there for himself and his Family. The Elector of
_Saxony_ bears the Title of _Grand Marshal of the Empire_, and is the
Third in Rank among the Secular Electors.

Thus, _Madame_, have I given you what I saw most remarkable in the
Electorate of _Saxony_: I own to you, I lik’d the Country very much, and
the Civilities that I had the Honour to receive from the King, made me
wish one while for a Place in his Service; but I made no Attempt for it,
and very seriously bethought myself of my Journey to _Sicily_.

When I left _Dresden_, I took the Road to MUNICH, to which I made very
great Haste, because I was so teiz’d with my old Ailment, for which _La
Peronie_ had me under Cure at _Paris_, that I did not care to delay,
putting myself into the Hands of a Surgeon: The Person, who undertook me,
was no less a Man than the Elector’s own Surgeon; who indeed gave me Ease
for a few Days, but afterwards I was tormented worse than ever. However, I
took the Opportunity of the easy Intervals I enjoy’d from the Surgeon’s
Remedies to pay my Compliments to the Princes: I accompany’d them in
Hunting and other Parties of Pleasure, as if I had been in perfect Health:
The Count _de Charolois_, who was still at the Court of _Bavaria_, made an
Agreement with the Princes of _Bavaria_, to ride Post to _Saltzbourg_, to
see an _Italian_ Opera, which the Archbishop gave there every Year to
celebrate his Birth-Day: The _Bavarian_ Princes set out first, and lodged
in a paltry Cabaret in the Suburbs, because they had a Mind to be _incog._
The Count _de Charolois_ set out from _Munich_ at 8 o’Clock at Night, with
only one Gentleman and myself: We rode all Night, and next Day at 5 in the
Evening arriv’d at SALTZBOURG: We alighted at the same Cabaret where the
_Bavarian_ Princes were, and went all together to the Opera: It was begun
before we came, for which I was not a little sorry, because it was a Piece
that was well worth seeing from the Beginning to the End of it: I assure
you, _Madame_, that I never saw any thing so extraordinary: The Theatre,
the Actors, the Performance were all to the utmost Degree ridiculous! The
Opera Room was so low, that the Actors almost touch’d the Ceiling with
their Heads: The Singing and Dancing were something comical: What most
diverted me were the Interludes, which were _executed_ by the Archbishop’s
Pages. They consisted of Three Entries: The first was of Shepherds, who
were known by their Dress; and they had not only Crooks in their Hands,
but Sheep appear’d every now-and-then upon the Scene: The second Entry was
of Huntsmen, who had all Hunting Horns; and while these danc’d, some, who
mov’d the Machine, made the Skins of Hares stuff’d with Straw skip up and
down the Stage: The third was of Fishermen, who carry’d Lines, to which
were fasten’d Trouts; others appear’d with Nets full of live Fish, which
made a very odd Shew, and was certainly the only one of the Kind: I must
not forget to tell you, that, during the Performance, such Complaisance
was shewn to all the Spectators, that they were presented with great
Silver Goblets full of Wine or Beer to refresh them: The Princes diverted
themselves very much with this Piece, and ’twas a long rime before they
could get the Archbishop’s Opera out of their Heads: For my Part, I can
scarce forbear Laughing to this Day, whenever I think on’t.

Notwithstanding all that the Princes could do to be _incog._ they were
known, and the Archbishop, who was inform’d of their Arrival upon the very
Day, immediately sent one of his Gentlemen to invite them to Supper,
desiring at the same time to be excus’d for not waiting on them in Person,
which he assur’d them he should have done, if he had not been made
acquainted, that they were willing to be _incog._ The _Bavarian_ Princes
were ready enough to accept of the Archbishop’s Supper; and for my own
Part, I had so little Hopes of finding any thing that was good in that
pitiful Cabaret where we were, that I should have been glad with all my
Heart to have been at the Archbishop’s Table. But the Count _de Charolois_
would by no means accept of the Invitation, and out of Complaisance to
him, the _Bavarian_ Princes refus’d it likewise; however, they paid the
Archbishop a Visit, and the Count _de Charolois_ went along with them by
the Name of the Count _de Dammartin_; I had also the Honour to accompany
them: The Archbishop receiv’d the Princes without any Ceremony, according
to their Desire, and they stood all the time of the Visit, which was very
short. The Princes return’d to the Inn, where we had a Supper, serv’d up
exactly in the _Gout_ of our Opera. Mean time, we had not eaten any thing
for 24 Hours; and to refresh us, the first Dish that was brought in was
Lobsters and a Sallad, and the next a Leveret, which was not dress’d
enough, and therefore we sent it to the Kitchen to be turn’d into a Ragou;
but ’tis probable, that our Cook had not Experience enough to make Ragous;
for he only put our Leveret in a large Kettle of Water, and boil’d it to a
Jelly; and in this Condition it was serv’d up: This insipid Dish was
follow’d by a Couple of Ducks and Four Thrushes. Notwithstanding the
Scantiness of this Repast, they did not rise from Table till late at
Night, and then the Princes of _Bavaria_ went to Bed, but as for the Count
_de Charolois_, he would stay in the Place no longer than he had supp’d,
and I had the Honour to go off with him. We return’d to _Munich_, but went
by the way of _Alten-Ottingen_, in order to see the Treasure that is kept
in the Vestry of the miraculous Chapel of the Virgin: This Treasure, which
contain’d very fine Things, was inrich’d with Abundance of noble
Presents, made by most of the Sovereigns in _Europe_. From thence we set
out for _Munich_, where we arriv’d after a Ramble of Three Days and as
many Nights, in which we could boast of having travell’d near 40 _German_
Leagues, to see the most scoundrel Opera that could ever be imagin’d.

The Fatigue of this Journey made my Disorder much worse: The Surgeons at
_Munich_ even refus’d to take me in hand, and all my Friends advis’d me to
make a Tour to _Paris_, where the most able Professors in Arts of all
Sorts are more easy to be found. I was very loth to take their Advice, for
’twas high time for me to think of going to my Regiment, and I was afraid,
that by a longer Delay I should suffer: At the same time I was so horribly
plagued by my Distemper, that I resolv’d to go to _Paris_. But, before I
set out, I wrote to the Count _de S----_, to tell him the Condition I was
in, tho’ I assur’d him that I would stay no longer at _Paris_ than was
necessary for my Cure. Whether my Declaration was relish’d or not I can’t
tell; all that I know for certain is, that I receiv’d no Answer. I was
sorry to leave _Munich_, and no doubt, _Madame_, you are surpriz’d to find
me going for _Paris_, as it were in spite of my Will, and I assure you,
that I made Reflections upon my Indifference for this City, in which I
always found so many things to charm me, tho’ I was fully sensible, that
the Miscarriage I had in all my Undertakings was the thing that made me
heartily weary of staying in it.

       *       *       *       *       *

This therefore was the first time that I may say I set out for _Paris_
with Regret: I went thither by the way of _Strasbourg_, and when I
arriv’d I put myself again into the Hands of _la Peronie_, who in less
than a Month’s Time made me sound! During that Space I notify’d my Arrival
to some particular Friends, who kept me Company till I was perfectly
cur’d. They told me surprizing News, of which I had already been informed
by several Letters; but ’twas all so improbable, I never could believe it
to be true. Millions was the Word in every body’s Mouth, and he that was
but a Lackey one Day, was the next a Lord. ’Twas sufficient only to be
seen in the famous Street of _Quinquempoix_, and unless you were quite
forsaken by your Guardian Angel, you were sure of going off of the Place
with immense Wealth. I was advis’d to do as others did, and to try if
Fortune was still resolv’d to frown upon me: A great many Persons were
nam’d to me that had actually got Millions, who came first into the Street
with almost nothing in their Pockets; that was my Case exactly: But the
Hopes of good Luck made me resolve to try my Fortune, as soon as I was
able to stir abroad: And thither I actually went, and put myself in the
Rank with those who sacrific’d to Fortune: I had the best Luck in the
World at first setting out, and without knowing how or which way, found
myself possess’d in a little time of a considerable Sum, such that I am
even asham’d to tell you how much it amounted to, since you would
absolutely pronounce me a Madman, for not knowing when I had enough; but
in short I began so well, that I thought it would be cowardly to stop, and
therefore I push’d on; but was quickly sensible that I had committed a
gross Blunder in not drawing back; for my Millions vanish’d almost in the
same manner as they came, and without knowing why or wherefore, I found my
Purse empty, and was forc’d, whether I would or no, to renounce that Sort
of Negociation.

While the domestic Affairs of the Kingdom were in this Fluctuation, the
Army of _France_ press’d the _Spaniards_ very hard. The Campaign in
_Navarre_ prov’d very successful. I have already had the Honour to
acquaint you of the Taking of _Fontarabia_, which was follow’d soon after
by the Conquest of _St. Sebastian_. The _Germans_ on their Part made
themselves Masters of almost all _Sicily_, so that the King of _Spain_
seem’d almost reduced to a Necessity of demanding Peace, and that very
soon. Cardinal _Alberoni_ was not disturb’d at the Advantages of his
Enemy, and had a very great Dependence on the Uneasiness of the People of
_Bretagne_, where he had a Party actually form’d, that was to declare
openly against _Spain_, upon the first Motion which that Crown should make
towards the Coasts of that Province. The Cardinal caus’d the Duke of
_Ormond_ to sail to that Province, but ’twas to no Purpose; for the Regent
had been appriz’d of all these Schemes, and so well concerted his
Measures, that ’twas impossible for the Duke of _Ormond_ to undertake any
thing on that Side. Nevertheless, some Malecontent _Bretons_, who were
Refugees in _Spain_, assur’d me, that if the Duke had arriv’d sooner, the
Blow would not have fail’d, the whole Province would have revolted, and
caus’d the States General to assemble, and declare the King of _Spain_
Regent. For my Part, who knew all the Leaders of this Party full well, I
did not think the Success of this Affair so very sure. Those Gentlemen
were indeed Persons of a great deal of Sense, but of stronger Passions;
and to say all in a few Words, they play’d at high Game, to think of
surprizing the Regent! His Wisdom prevented all the Calamities which the
Kingdom was threaten’d with: He sent a Sovereign Court to _Bretagne_, of
which _M. de Chateauneuf_ was President, and he supported its Authority by
a Body of Troops under the Command of the Marshal _de Montesquiou_. They
began to make a Search after the Authors of the Rebellion, and ’twas
expected that a great deal of Blood would be spilt, yet there were only a
few Gentlemen, who paid for all with the Loss of their Heads. They say,
that among those Gentlemen One might have escap’d, if he had thought fit;
but when he was going on board, and saw the Waves very swelling, he
remember’d that some body had told him, he should perish _par la Mer_, i.
e. by Sea, and the Fear of Drowning made him turn back, so that he was
apprehended, and had his Head cut off by a Hangman, whose Name was _la
Mer_. A great Matter of Triumph this was to the Fortune-tellers!

Besides these, Warrants were issued against several other Gentlemen, but
they being not afraid of the Sea, made no Scruple to expose themselves to
it: Some fled to _Spain_, and some to _Hanover_, where the King of
_England_ granted them an _Asylum_, without violating the Alliance made
with _France_, which imported, that the Two Kings should give no Shelter
in their Kingdoms to the revolted Subjects of either; for the Duchy of
_Hanover_ being an Electorate, was not included in this Treaty.

’Twas well for a great many People of _Bretagne_, that Warrants were
issued out against them; for most of them had but little to leave behind,
and they were receiv’d in _Spain_ as Persons that had sacrific’d their All
for that Crown. Most of these were made Colonels by the Cardinal, tho’ he
knew not whether they had ever been in the Service, while others, that had
really abandoned considerable Estates, were so unfortunate as to have the
least Reward.

       *       *       *       *       *

These were the Transactions at _Paris_ during the little time I stay’d
there; for as soon as I found myself able to walk, I set out in good
earnest for _Sicily_; but not being quite well enough to ride Post, I made
but short Days journeys. I lay the first Night at _Melun_, and din’d the
next Day at MORET, which is a Village near _Fontainebleau_, with a
Convent, where they say, that the Negro Princess, of whom the Queen _Mary
Theresa_ was deliver’d, is a Nun.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Moret_ I went to _Sens_, and from thence to AUXERRE, which City I
found in an Uproar, on account of a very tragical Adventure: A Baker
having been very familiar for some time with the Wife of a Pastry-cook,
was reproach’d for it by his own Wife, who even threaten’d she would make
him smart for it; but the Baker, not at all terrify’d by her Menaces,
proceeded in his Amour as usual; while his Wife being desperate, and
raging with Jealousy to find herself depriv’d of conjugal Duty, was
resolv’d her Rival should not have the Pleasure of his Company any longer;
and therefore, as he was one Night in Bed with her, she took a Razor, and
shav’d him so close, that it was no more in his Power to give her any
Jealousy. The poor Man was in a very bad way when I happen’d to be at
_Auxerre_. I had this Story from my Landlady, where I quarter’d, who told
it me not without great Lamentation.

From _Auxerre_ I went to DIJON[12], the Capital of _Burgundy_, and the
Seat of the Parliament and of the Governor of the Province. In this City
the States of _Burgundy_ hold their Assemblies, and the Duke of
_Burgundy_, who is Governor of the Province, commonly presides there in
the King’s Name. The Parliament of the Province was establish’d here by
_Philip_ Duke of _Burgundy_, and confirm’d by _Lewis_ XI. Here is also a
Chamber of Accompts, a Mint, and a Presidial Court.

’Tis a very fine Country from _Dijon_ to _Chalons_[13], all along by those
excellent Vineyards which produce the choicest Wines of _Burgundy_. At
_Chalons_ I found a Conveniency to go to _Lyons_: The Road is the finest
that can be travell’d, for we go all the Way by the River _Saone_, which
forms the most charming Vista, and with the greatest Variety of Prospects
that can be imagin’d. I pass’d by _Trevoux_, the Capital of the
Principality of _Dombes_, which belongs to the Duke of _Maine_, to whom it
was given as a Legacy by the last Will and Testament of the late
_Madamoseille_ of _France_, Daughter to the late _Gaston_ Duke of

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Trevoux_ ’tis but a few Days Journey to LYONS: Before we come to
this City, one sees upon the Right Hand of the Road that dismal Castle of
_Pierre-Encise_, to which those Criminals are commonly sent, who are
condemned to perpetual Imprisonment.

LYONS[14] is the Capital of the _Lyonnois_, on the Conflux of the _Rhone_
the _Saone_. ’Tis one of the finest and most magnificent Cities in
_France_: Its Situation is charming, its Squares superb, and its
Buildings, both sacred and profane, very noble. _St. John_’s which is the
Cathedral Church, is a magnificent Structure of _Gothic_ Architecture,
where, among other Remarkables, is that fine Clock, which is reckon’d a
Master-piece. The Canons have the Title of _Counts of_ Lyons, and are
oblig’d to produce the same Proofs of their Qualification as the Knights
of _Malta_.

The Town-House is one of the most magnificent Buildings of the kind, and I
know of none but the Stadthouse at _Amsterdam_ that exceeds it. The Square
in which ’tis built is call’d _la Place des Terreaux_: ’Tis a very
beautiful Quadrangular Structure; and there is to be seen the fine Abby of
the Ladies of _St. Peter_, now in Possession of a Daughter of the _Marshal
de Villeroy_.

The Square of _Bellecour_ is the finest Part of all the City; ’tis adorn’d
with an Equestrian Statue of _Lewis_ XIV. erected upon a Pedestal of white
Marble, at the Expence of the _Marshal de Villeroy_, Governor of _Lyons_
and the _Lyonnois_, in Acknowledgment of that Monarch’s continued Favours
to him and all his Family.

After one is out of the Square of _Bellecour_, we come to the magnificent
Stone-Bridge, which unites the Two Quarters of the City that are separated
by the _Saone_. As we go off this Bridge, we advance upon a stately Key,
that runs along the River, and is call’d the _Villeroy Key_, because it
was built by Order of the Marshal of that Name. The Family of _Villeroy_
is mightily belov’d and respected throughout the _Lyonnois_, and while I
was there, all the Dignities of this Province were fill’d by one Gentleman
or other of that Name. The Marshal himself was the Governor, and the
Reversion of his Post was secur’d to his Son the Duke _de Villeroy_, and
to the Dukes of _Rets_ and _Alincourt_ his Grandsons: The latter of these
is Lieutenant-General of the Province: The Archbishoprick was occupy’d by
one of the Marshal’s Sons, as the Abby of the Nuns of _St. Peter_ was by
one of his Daughters.

The Commerce of _Lyons_ is still very flourishing, tho’ it was much more
so before the famous Scheme of the Bank Bills, which did great Detriment
to its Manufactures: Yet for all that, there’s not a Town in _France_
where there are such wealthy Merchants: Their Conversation too is very
amiable, and they live for most Part like People of Rank; I don’t mean in
Point of Magnificence, for which there needs nothing but Money, but by
reason of their easy and polite Behaviour, which always denotes a good

       *       *       *       *       *

I embark’d on the _Rhone_ at _Lyons_ for _Avignon_: There are considerable
Towns upon this River which yield noble Prospects: Such is the City of
VIENNE, the Capital of the _Viennois_, with the Title of an
Archbishoprick: Here are stately Vestigies of the Magnificence of the
_Romans_, who spar’d no Cost to render this a considerable Place: We are
assur’d, that _Pilate_ was banish’d hither, and they even shew a House,
Half a League or more from the City, where ’tis said he liv’d. But I
should be glad to know in the first Place, Whether ’tis really true that
he ever came into this City? You may believe as much of it as you please.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Vienne_ I proceeded to _Valence_ and PONT ST. ESPRIT: In this latter
Town I saw that noble Bridge which is the Admiration of all Foreigners;
’tis one of the finest and most stately in _Europe_: It has 23 Arches, the
Pillars of which are very large with Overtures, in the Nature of Doors, to
give a freer Passage to the _Rhone_ when its Waters swell. They say, that
in these Pillars there are Vaults, where they us’d to put the Fanatics of
the _Cevennes_: The Passage of this Bridge is defended by a Citadel.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Pont St. Esprit_ ’tis but a little way to AVIGNON, which is a City
of _Provence_ that belongs to the Pope. _Clement_ VI. purchas’d it of
_Joan_ Queen of _Provence_ for a very moderate Sum; since which time it
has ever been subject to the Holy See. The Popes made it the Place of
their Residence for above 70 Years; but _Gregory_ XI. re-establish’d the
Holy See at _Rome_ about the Year 1377. Several Factions arising
afterwards among the Christian Princes on account of the Election of the
Popes, some of the Anti-Popes liv’d here. The Cathedral, which is
magnificent tho’ very ancient, is dedicated to our Lady of _Dombes_.
_Avignon_ is in general a very well built City, the Streets being broad,
strait and lightsome. The adjacent Country is charming and very fruitful,
and I thought there was nothing wanting in it but a greater Number of

       *       *       *       *       *

I took Post at _Avignon_, and went to AIX, which is the Capital of
_Provence_, and an Archbishop’s See; there are also a Parliament and an
University: This is without Dispute one of the finest Towns in the
Kingdom: I was charm’d with the Beauty of the _Course_, which is the
Rendezvous of People in the Summer Evenings: ’Tis in the middle of a fine
spacious Street, the Houses whereof are truly magnificent, and several
beautiful Rows of Trees adorn’d with Fountains make it a very pleasant
Walk. The middle Row, which is separated from the rest by a Rail, is for
the Foot Passengers. From one End of the Course there’s a Prospect of the
Country, and the other is limited by the City. At the End next to the
Country there’s a Fountain, and a Balustrade of white Marble Breast-high.
There’s another Course without the City, which is bigger than the former,
and every whit as beautiful. The Metropolitan Church of _St. Saviour_ is
remarkable for its Baptismal Font, which is a Piece of admirable
Structure: ’Tis all of white Marble, supported by filetted Columns, that
compass it in Form of a little Dome. This Church has a very high Tower,
which is a _Hexagon_, and much esteem’d by good Judges.

The Palace where the Parliament assembles is a noble Building, in the
Rooms whereof no Cost has been spar’d for Gilding, Painting and Carving.
The great Hall is adorn’d with Hangings of blue Velvet, sprinkled with
_Fleurs de Lys_ of Gold: The King’s Throne with the upper and lower Seats
are cover’d with the like Tapistry: The Persons that compose the
Parliament of _Aix_ are almost all Men of Quality, which contributes very
much to make a Man’s Residence here agreeable: The Nobility in this Place
live with Distinction. Besides the Parties made for Gaming, and the Walks,
there are Concerts of Music upon certain Days of the Week, to which
Foreigners are admitted _Gratis_, the Musicians being paid by a certain
Number of People of Quality, who hire them for the whole Season.

After Five or Six Days Stay at _Aix_, I set out for MARSEILLES: This is an
Episcopal City of _Provence_, which by being situate on the
_Mediterranean_ is one of the most considerable Cities in _France_ for
Commerce, and engrosses almost the whole Trade of the _Levant_. ’Tis
divided into the upper and lower Towns: The former is the _Old
Marseilles_, the Houses of which are very dark, and the Streets narrow and
very irregular. In this Part stands the Cathedral of our Lady _la Major_.

The Lower Town is very fine, the Streets broad, most of ’em strait, and
the Houses very magnificent, especially those by the Side of the _Course_,
which is one of the finest in the World: ’Tis very much like that at
_Aix_. This Part of _Marseilles_ owes its Embellishment and Aggrandizement
to _Lewis_ XIV. who caus’d Works to be erected there worthy of so great a
Prince. _Marseilles_ has a noble Harbour, it being a large Bason, almost
encompass’d with Houses, and defended by Two Castles, of which that on the
Right Hand is very high, and commands a great way at Sea: That on the Left
contains the Arsenal, which is one of the finest that I have seen, and
every thing in it is so regularly dispos’d, that it forms a charming View.

The Harbour of _Marseilles_ is the Station for the King’s Galleys, on
board of which there’s a great Number of Slaves, who do almost all the
hard Work; they load and unload the Ships: Some of ’em are allow’d to walk
about the Town and to trade, but are obliged to pay something to the Man
that accompanies them, and to lie aboard at Night. Others, who are charg’d
with enormous Crimes, are fasten’d Two, Three and Four together to great
Chains, which does not hinder them however from working for their
Livelihood. The great Trade of _Marseilles_ and the Wealth of its
Inhabitants give this City an Air of Opulence, which is seldom to be found
elsewhere: There is hardly a Place where one meets with better Chear, and
where ’tis easier to be accommodated with every thing that a Gentleman can
desire to pass his Time agreeably. Comedies, Concerts, Gaming, Taking the
Air, in short, Pleasures of all Sorts make this a most charming Place to
live in, even for People that are ever so opposite to one another in
Characters and Temper.

The Suburbs of _Marseilles_ are magnificent: They contain above 20,000
little Houses, call’d by the Country-people _Bastides_, and all
encompass’d with very fine Vineyards and Gardens, which render these
Habitations very charming in the fine Weather. ’Twas to these Houses that
most of the Inhabitants retir’d during the last Plague with which
_Provence_ was afflicted, and which held so long as to carry off a great
Part of the Citizens. This Desolation would have been much greater, and
would perhaps have penetrated into the Heart of _France_, had it not been
for the great Care taken by the Regent, that no Correspondence should be
kept with the People of _Marseilles_.

_Provence_ in general is a fine Country, and a very pleasant Place to live
in at all times, but especially in the Winter. At that time too the Sky is
clearest, and there are then some Days, which naturally ought rather to be
plac’d to the Account of Summer. I remember I was walking on the Harbour
of _Marseilles_ one Day in this Season at 2 or 3 o’Clock in the Afternoon,
and that I was forc’d to withdraw, the Weather was so hot. Yet I observ’d
that not many Days after a Wind arose, (that the People of the Country
call _Mistral_) which was extremely cold, and the more disagreeable to me,
because ’tis not easy to get warm in this Country, here being no Wood but
some Roots or Branches of Olive-trees, which do not make a very good Fire.
Besides, most of the Rooms, especially in the Inns, are without Chimneys,
so that one is oblig’d to make Use of a Pan of Coals, which is very
inconvenient, to such especially as are not us’d to this Method of warming

After having for a few Days saunter’d in and about _Marseilles_, I thought
it proper to inquire what Ship was bound to _Sicily_; but with all my
Inquiry, I could not find out any, and was under a Necessity of going
either to _Genoa_ or _Leghorn_. I was assur’d that ’twas but a little way,
and that I should be there in a very few Days, so that I agreed for my
Passage with a Merchant that was bound to _Leghorn_. The contrary Wind
kept us a Fortnight in the Harbour, and then we sail’d; but were forc’d to
put into _La Cienta_, a little Town and Port of _Provence_. There I stayed
Three Days for a fair Wind, to proceed in my Voyage, and at last finding
’twas to no Purpose, I resolv’d to leave my Trunks and Servants aboard the
Ship, and to go by Land.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first Day I went and lay at TOULON a City of _Provence_, and one of
the best Harbours in _Europe_. In this Harbour lie the King’s Ships, and
here is the great Arsenal of the Admiralty of _France_, where _Lewis_ XIV.
caus’d Works to be made worthy of so great a Monarch. The Road of _Toulon_
is as considerable as the Harbour, and Ships ride there perfectly safe.
They say, ’tis large enough to contain all the Ships in the
_Mediterranean_. The City of itself is but small, and were it not for the
Sea-Officers, ’twould be a melancholy Place to live in. These Gentlemen
have caused a House to be erected here, which serves for their Assemblies,
it being composed of several Rooms very well adorn’d. Here are the
Pictures of the Count _de Tholouse_ great Admiral, the Marshals _de Tesse_
and _de Etrees_, and several Generals and naval Officers; together with
noble Sea-Charts. Here one is always sure to find Company enough, and that
which is select. At Night they meet in these Rooms, where is all manner of
Play: The Sea-Officers make the Entertainments, in which they acquit
themselves with all possible Grace and Politeness; and a Foreigner is
always so heartily welcome there, that they strive who shall treat him
with most Civility.

You know, _Madame_, that the Allies attempted to make themselves Masters
of _Toulon_, during the last War. The Duke of _Savoy_ came first before
the Place, but was soon oblig’d to raise the Siege, for Want of being
supported by the _English_ Fleet, which was kept back by contrary Winds.
Others impute the Raising of this Siege to the Menaces of _Charles_ XII.
of _Sweden_, who was at that time in _Saxony_, to declare for _France_, if
the Duke of _Savoy_’s Army stay’d any longer before _Toulon_. Be this as
it will, the Duke’s Forces retir’d, after having lost some of their
principal Officers, among others the brave Prince of _Saxe-Gotha_, Brother
to the Reigning Duke, who was kill’d as he went to take a View of the

From _Toulon_ I went to FREJUS, a Town upon the Sea; ’tis very ancient,
and the Citizens pretend that most of its old Monuments were built by the
_Romans_: Such are the Ruins of a Causey, that reach’d as far as _Arles_,
near the Mouth of the _Rhone_, and the Remains of an ancient _Circus_,
which seems to have been a very spacious one. ’Tis said that a great
Aqueduct in the Neighbourhood brought as much Water to it from the
Distance of 10 Leagues, as was sufficient to support a Naval Combat within
the Circumference of this _Circus_. Going out of _Frejus_ there’s a long
Mole or Causey cut by several small Canals, over which there are Bridges,
said to have been made by the _Romans_.

       *       *       *       *       *

As I pursued my Journey, I pass’d near ANTIBES, a strong Place on the
Sea-Shore, which was heretofore the See of a Bishop, till it was
translated to _Grasse_ in _Upper Provence_. From thence I cross’d the
_Var_, which River separates _France_ from the Dominions of the King of
_Sardinia_; and the Fourth Day after my Departure I arriv’d at _Nice_.

       *       *       *       *       *

NICE was formerly very well fortify’d, and its Castle especially was
reckon’d impregnable; for it bravely held out against the Army of
_Francis_ I. and that of _Barbarossa_ the _Turk_ in 1543. But _Lewis_ XIV.
had better Success, for he made himself Master both of the City and of the
Castle, which he caus’d to be intirely demolish’d; and having also caus’d
the other Fortifications of the Town to be destroy’d, he restor’d it in
this Condition to its Sovereign. At _Nice_ we begin to see Orange-trees in
such Abundance, that they grow in the open Fields like other common
Trees, and they bear Fruit alike both in Summer and Winter.

As ’twas very fine Weather when I arriv’d at _Nice_, I was advis’d to go
on board, in order to avoid the bad Roads in the Passage of the Mountains;
I took the Advice, and went on board a small Vessel, that was navigated by
only Two Men; but I soon repented of it, for in Half an Hour after we put
off to Sea we had bad Weather, in which I had like to have been cast away,
and ’twas not less than a Miracle that I arriv’d at VILLA-FRANCA, a small
Sea-Port in the County of _Nice_.

This Town is remarkable for nothing but its Harbour, which contains Six of
the King of _Sardinia_’s Galleys: ’Twas here that this Prince embark’d
with his Queen and his whole Court, when he went to take Possession of
_Sicily_: And after their Majesties had been consecrated and crown’d at
_Palermo_, they came and landed at _Villa-Franca_ in their Return to
_Turin_. The Night that I came to this Town there happen’d a terrible
Storm, which abated indeed next Day, but the Sea was still in such a Foam,
that I did not care to trust it. The Day following proving however as fair
as one could desire, I immediately put to Sea, but fell into the same
Danger as I had been expos’d to before. The Winds, or rather all the
Devils in the Air, were let loose against me; I was, I confess to you,
cruelly afraid, especially when I saw my Pilots change Countenance.
Nevertheless, I put on the Air of a Man of Courage, told ’em the Danger
was not so great as they apprehended, and that they need not be
discourag’d. In short, I don’t remember every thing that I said to ’em,
and perhaps too my Language was not so coherent as if I had been upon
_Terra Firma_. Whatever it was, I arriv’d safe at MONACO, a little Town
which belongs to a Prince of that Name. The Castle, which looks towards
the Sea, is built in the _Italian_ Taste, but is a very plain Building.
There is a _French_ Garison in the Town, which is a Detachment from the
Garison of _Antibes_. The Prince of _Monaco_, who is Sovereign of the
Country, marry’d a Princess of _Lorrain_, by whom he only had Daughters.
He marry’d the Eldest of them, and the Heiress of all his Estate, to the
Duke _de Valentinois_, Son to _M. de Matignon_.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Monaco_ I went to _St. Remo_, the first Town in the Dominions of
_Genoa_, where I took a Boat, which carry’d me to SAVONA, a City in the
State of _Genoa_, with the Title of a Bishoprick. This is one of the best
Towns in the Republic, and without Dispute the safest Sea-Port in its
Dominions. The _Genoese_ have caus’d a City to be built here with Two
Fortresses, and several other Works, which render it a Place of very great
Importance to the Republic.

I was so heartily out of Conceit with the Sea, that I hir’d Mules to carry
me to _Genoa_, whither Two Thirds of the Road are scarce passable, by
reason of the continual Ascents and Descents, which are very fatiguing.
The only thing that made my Journey agreeable was, riding all along by the
Sea-side, which being cover’d with Shipping, forms a very fine Prospect.
After one has travell’d some Leagues from _Genoa_, the Road becomes very
good; for besides that the Way is very even, one sees a great many noble
Houses, with Gardens in Form of Terrace-Walks, which compose one of the
most stately Amphitheatres that can be seen, and so it is all the Way to

       *       *       *       *       *

GENOA is an Archbishoprick, the Capital of the State of _Genoa_, and the
ordinary Residence of the Doge and Senate. ’Tis the finest and most
magnificent City in _Italy_; ’tis not very long that this Republic has
enjoy’d its Liberty, it being the famous _Andrew Doria_ who acquir’d it
for his Country during the Reign of _Francis_ I. King of _France_, to whom
_Genoa_ was subject. Since that time this City is very much increas’d: I
enter’d it by the Gate adjoining to the Mole, which in my Opinion is the
most proper Entrance, to give a Stranger at the first View a grand Idea of
_Genoa_. I was amaz’d at the Magnificence of this Mole, and at the Beauty
of the Harbour, which is surrounded with fine Houses, built in Form of an
Amphitheatre. But nothing can compare with the Church of the _Annunciade_,
where nought is to be seen but Gold, Marble, and the richest Paintings and
Sculptures. At the very first Entrance one sees Two Rows of chamfer’d
Pillars, of red vein’d Marble, lin’d with white Marble; the Capitals of
the Columns are all over gilt, and they support a Dome, which is also
gilt, and inrich’d with very fine Paintings. The Pavement is of Squares of
Marble in Compartments. I don’t undertake to give a farther Detail of the
Beauties of this Church, the same having been already so exactly related
by so many Travellers, that it would be only a Repetition of what has been
said a hundred times over.

The Streets of _Genoa_ are, properly speaking, rather Galleries than
Streets, there being nothing but Structures and Palaces of the utmost
Magnificence, look which way one will. That which struck me most of all
was the Palace of _Balbi_; I never saw any so regular, and with Fronts so
conformable to the Rules of Architecture; but then it must be consider’d,
’tis in this grand Outside only that all the Magnificence of the Houses of
_Genoa_ consists; for when you enter into one of the greatest and richest
Palaces, there’s not a Mortal to be seen, so that one would think there
are no Domestics, and sometimes ’tis a difficult Matter to find the Master
of the House. In a Word, the great Houses of _Genoa_ are mere Solitudes,
excepting on Assembly Days, of which there are some held here every
Evening at the House of one Nobleman or another. Then the Apartments are
nobly illuminated, and there’s all manner of Refreshments serv’d up in
Profusion. Assemblies of this kind, and a sorry _Italian_ Opera, were all
the Pleasures at _Genoa_ while I was there; so that a Stranger does not
know what to do here with his Time. Here are also very few Entertainments
made, and the Envoys, who are generally they that make the most, conform,
when they are at _Genoa_, to the Temper of the People, which is to give
their Guests nothing to eat or drink. In my time there was none here but
the _English_ Envoy, who did not follow that Custom, for ’twas a Pleasure
to him to treat his Friends with good Cheer.

While I was at _Genoa_ the Republic chose a new Doge: I saw him go to the
Cathedral, and take the usual Oath: The Procession was on Foot; ’twas
begun by some of the Doge’s Officers, after whom Eight Pages, in Habits of
crimson Velvet lac’d with Gold, went before the Doge, who was dress’d in a
long Robe of crimson Velvet, with a Sort of square Cap of the same: He was
supported by the General of the _Genoese_ Arms on his Right Hand, and by
another Officer of the Republic on his Left Hand, and he walk’d between
Two Files of the Hundred _Swiss_. The Senators follow’d two and two,
dress’d in long Gowns of black Velvet. The Archbishop met the Doge about
the middle of the Church, where was a Cushion of crimson Velvet for the
Doge, and other Cushions for the Senators, who all kneel’d down as well as
the Doge, and after a short Prayer the Archbishop led the Doge up to the
Altar; then the Prelate took the Book of the Gospels, and presented it to
the Doge, who, falling on his Knees, and laying his Hand on the Book, took
an Oath to maintain the Republic in their Rights and Privileges; this
done, the Doge return’d to his Palace, where he was complimented by all
the Senators, and crown’d Doge of _Genoa_, and King of _Corsica_: Next Day
he gave a great Feast to above 300 Persons.

The Doge of _Genoa_ is a living Example of the Instability of human
Grandeur: His lasts but Two Years, at the Expiration of which Word is
brought to him, that his Time is out, and that he must quit the Ducal
Palace, and retire to his own. A Man to be a Doge must be completely 50
Years of Age: You know how very much his Authority is limited; he can do
neither Good nor Harm; the only Occasion wherein he makes a little Figure
is, when he receives and dispatches Ambassadors in Ceremony.

Another Office, which is even less durable, is that of General of the
Arms, which no one Man can exercise above Two Months, for Fear, no doubt,
lest he who is invested with it should acquire too much Power.

This Republic was formerly very much inclin’d to espouse the Interests of
_Spain_, when that Crown possess’d the _Milanese_, and the Kingdom of
_Naples_, because most of the _Genoese_ Nobles had their Estates in those
Countries; but now that the same are pass’d under the Emperor’s Dominion,
the Republic is oblig’d to carry it very fair to his Imperial Majesty, or
else the Doge might be sent for to _Vienna_, as he was once by _Lewis_
XIV. to _Versailles_.

I was at _Genoa_ when the Republic sent a Galley to _Antibes_, to meet the
famous Cardinal _Alberoni_, who, after having experienc’d the Inconstancy
of Fortune in _Spain_, went to _Italy_, with a Design to retire to the
Duchy of _Parma_, his native Country. The Disgrace of this Cardinal
surpriz’d all _Europe_, except the Duke of _Orleans_ the Regent of
_France_, who was the Author of it. During the Truce to which the Cardinal
had prevail’d on the King of _Spain_ to give his Consent, the Duke
improv’d that Interval to negociate that Minister’s Removal; and that he
might succeed the better in his Design, he engag’d the Duke of _Parma_,
who was the Queen of _Spain_’s Father-in-Law and Uncle, to act in Concert
with him, for inducing the King of _Spain_ to put away his Prime Minister.
The Duke of _Parma_ charged _Scotti_, his Minister at _Madrid_, to
negotiate this Affair, in which he met at first with astonishing
Obstacles; but at last the Advantages he promis’d the Queen, on the Part
of the Regent of _France_, both for herself and her Children, crown’d the
Negociation with Success. The Cardinal was dismiss’d, perhaps, with more
Precipitancy than he ought to have been, considering the Attachment he had
always shewn to the Queen, and the Care he had taken to rouse _Spain_
from the Lethargy into which that Crown was fallen when he was declar’d
Prime Minister. ’Twas on the 5th of _January_ that Cardinal _Alberoni_
found himself all at once abandon’d by every body, and oblig’d to fly from
a Country where he had appear’d with more Authority than the King himself.
The Order was signify’d to him by Don _Miguel Durand_, Secretary of State,
and was in the very Hand-writing of the King, who deliver’d it to the
Secretary as he was going to the _Pardo_ to hunt. His Catholic Majesty
thereby order’d his Minister to concern himself no more with State
Affairs, to leave _Madrid_ in eight Days, and the Kingdom in three Weeks;
and moreover, the Cardinal was forbid coming all that while to any Place
where the King and Queen were.

The Disgrace of this Minister cou’d not but be the more pleasing to the
Duke of _Orleans_, because it happen’d at a Time when the Cardinal was
taking his Measures for accommodating Matters with _England_; whither he
had sent _M. de Seissan_, formerly a Colonel in _France_, afterwards
Lieutenant-General in _Poland_, and now Captain-General in _Spain_, to
treat with my Lord _Stanhope_, who was then at the Head of the Affairs of
that Kingdom. _M. de Seissan_ embark’d at the _Groyne_, after having been
detain’d there a good while by contrary Winds: When he was out at Sea, he
met with a severe Tempest, in which he had like to have been cast away;
but at length he arriv’d at _London_. He went immediately to my Lord
_Stanhope_, to whom he was known, and as he was going up Stairs, who
should he meet coming down booted and spurr’d, but the very Courier from
_France_ that brought my Lord _Stanhope_ Letters from the Abbot,
afterwards the Cardinal, _du Bois_, acquainting my Lord of Cardinal
_Alberoni_’s Disgrace. _M. de Seissan_, who knew nothing of the Change
that had been made at the Court of _Madrid_ while he was buffeted and
toss’d about by the Winds and Waves, went in to my Lord _Stanhope_, and
told him, That he was come to surrender himself his Prisoner, because he
came from _Spain_ without a Passport, unless he wou’d receive the _Carte
blanche_ he brought him for Peace, instead of such Passport. At the same
time he produc’d to the _English_ Minister the Full Power which he had
from Cardinal _Alberoni_ to treat of a Peace. My Lord _Stanhope_ did not
interrupt him; but when he had done speaking, he ask’d him if it had been
long since he left _Madrid_: _M. de Seissan_ telling him all the Delays
that had happen’d in his Voyage, my Lord gave him the Abbot _Du Bois_’s
Letter to read. The Envoy of _Spain_ was Thunder-struck when he read this
Letter, and said thereupon to my Lord, That he had nothing to say to all
this, and that he resign’d himself to his Discretion, to deal with him as
he thought fit. My Lord answer’d him very civilly, That he should be sorry
to abuse the Confidence he had repos’d in him, by coming to him without a
Passport, and that he would leave him at his Liberty to return to _Spain:_
which he did accordingly, without Delay.

’Twas said that Cardinal _Alberoni_ was so piqu’d against the King and
Queen of _Spain_, that he study’d Revenge; and that therefore as soon as
he was got out of the Kingdom, he wrote to the Regent, to desire his
Protection, and to allure him, that if he would be so good as to give him
Shelter at _Paris_, he would let him into the Detail of the most secret
Affairs of the _Spanish_ Court. I do not think that any Credit ought to be
given to Reports of this Nature, invented for no other End but to blacken
the Reputation of a Minister in Disgrace. Be this as it will, the History
of these Times, whether True or False, does Honour to the Regent; for they
say that this Prince rejected the Cardinal’s Offers, and contented himself
with sending him a Passport, that he might go to _Italy_. I saw him
actually arrive there: He landed in the Dominions of _Genoa_, where his
Eminency, depending on the Public Faith, and upon the gracious Reception
he had from the Republic, which sent a Deputation to meet him, thought
himself perfectly secure. But Fortune, who was in full Cry after him to
run him down, was not content with his being disgrac’d by the King of
_Spain_; for the Pope wrote to the Doge and Senate, demanding that the
Cardinal might be arrested; which was no sooner said than done. Thus, in
less than two Months, this unfortunate Cardinal saw himself banish’d from
a Court where he was the Dispencer of Favours, pillag’d upon the Road, and
depriv’d of all his Papers, in danger of being murder’d by the Miquelets,
and at last arrested in his own Country, where he arriv’d in Confidence
that the Public Faith would have been his Safeguard. If any Events require
Courage to support them, such as these do; but of this Virtue Cardinal
_Alberoni_ had an eminent Share, and I was always astonish’d to see with
what Intrepidity he behav’d in his Adversity.

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had stay’d a while at _Genoa_, I went to _Sarzana_[15], and from
thence to PISA[16], which is a City in the Dominions of _Tuscany_, with a
University and an Archbishoprick, and was formerly a Republic of no small
Consequence in the _Mediterranean_, till it was conquered by the Dukes of
_Tuscany_ of the Family of the _Medicis_, who have ever since remain’d
Masters of it. The City of _Pisa_ has pompous Buildings: The Metropolitan
Church call’d the _Dome_, is of admirable Beauty: ’Tis built in the
_Gothic_ Order, and its Roof is Supported by 76 Marble Pillars: The Dome
and Roof of the Choir are also painted in the _Gothic_ Style. This great
Church is hung all over with Crimson Velvet, adorn’d with broad Gold Lace:
In this Church is a Chapel with a very magnificent Altar, the Antipendium
of which, and the Tabernacle, are solid Silver of admirable Workmanship.
Great Notice is also taken of the Gates of this Church, which are all of
cast Iron, with very fine Basso-Relievo’s upon them, representing
Historical Passages of the old Old Testament. Near this Church is the
great Church-yard, which is encompass’d with a Gallery, whose Walls
painted in Fresco represent the History of the City of _Pisa_. At a small
Distance from this Church-yard is the Baptistery, which is a Chapel built
of a round Figure, in the Form of a Dome, supported by Pillars of Oriental
Granite, bigger and higher than usual: The Pavement and Steps of the Altar
are of very curious Stones inlaid in the Mosaic Manner; and the Preacher’s
Pulpit is an admirable Piece of Work of white Marble.

St. _Stephen_’s Church is also worthy of the Attention of the curious
Traveller, for its costly Paintings, Gilding, Marble Statues, and
particularly the rich Spoils taken from the Infidels. In this Church meets
the Chapter of the Knights of St. _Stephen_, which was instituted by the
Great Duke _Cosmo_ I. _Anno_ 1561, after he had obtain’d a Victory. The
Knights of this Order must be Noble by four Descents: They make a Vow of
Conjugal Fidelity; and they wear a Red Cross like the Cross of _Malta_,
which is fasten’d to a Red Ribbon as the Golden Fleece is, and the Cross
is also embroider’d upon the Habit and Mantle. Without this Church, in the
Square, is the Statue of the Great Duke _Cosmo_ I. in Brass.

I carefully examin’d the famous Tower that leans to one Side: ’Tis round,
and incompass’d with white Marble Pillars that support the Galleries that
run round it. I can scarce believe that this Tower was built sloping at
first, and am more apt to think it owing to some violent Earthquake, which
is a Misfortune very frequent in this Part of the World. They say this
Tower is 188 Foot in Height: There’s an Ascent to the Platform or Terrass,
which is encompass’d with Banisters, by a Stair-case of 193 Steps.

The Country about _Pisa_ is very pleasant: There’s a Grove of Cypress at
its Gates, whose continual Verdure is delightful. You know, _Madame_, that
at _Pisa_ was concluded that famous Treaty between _Alexander_ VII. and
_Lewis_ XIV. wherein the Satisfaction was settled which the Holy Father
was to give the King, for the Affront his Ambassador the Duke of _Crequy_
had receiv’d at _Rome_.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Pisa_ I went in a Day to FLORENCE[17], the Capital of _Tuscany_, and
the ordinary Residence of the Great Dukes. ’Tis call’d _Florence the
Fair_, and not without Reason; for ’tis one of the largest and finest
Cities in _Europe_.

The Cathedral Church is a magnificent and most spacious Pile: The Outside
is fac’d all over with Marble of various Colours: The Inside contains
immense Treasures, in Pictures, Statues, and other most curious Pieces.
Near the Cathedral is a Church commonly call’d the Chapel of the
Baptistery, which is also intirely fac’d with Marble. The Church of the
_Annunciade_ is another Structure in the high Stile; in every Part of
which are stately Paintings, Works in Gold, Brass, _&c._ the whole of the
utmost Delicacy: Yet notwithstanding the Richness of these Buildings, it
may be said without Aggravation, that they are trifling in Comparison with
the stately Church of St. _Lawrence_. ’Tis of a Hexagon Figure: In the
Middle of every Front is a double Pilaster of Jasper, with a Chapiter of
Brass gilt, which supports a Cornice and an Entablature of the same, each
Pilaster representing the Emblems of precious Stones. At the six Angles
there are six Tombs of very costly Marble, and over each a Cushion
sprinkled with precious Stones, which supports very rich Crowns plac’d at
the Foot of the Statues of the Great Dukes: These Statues, which are of
Brass gilt, and twice as big as the Life, are plac’d in Niches of black
Marble. The Pedestals of the six Tombs are overcast with Porphyry and a
sort of Agat call’d Chalcedony, on which are inscrib’d, in Letters of
Gold, the Epitaphs of the Princes whose Bodies are therein contain’d. All
the rest of the Wall is lin’d with the best Marble, and costly Stones
plac’d in Compartiments or Pannels, the Squares of which are of Brass
gilded: The High Altar is of _Lapis Lazuli_ or Azure-stone inrich’d with
Jewels. The Thing which strikes the Eye most of all is the Tabernacle, the
Magnificence whereof is worthy of the rest. In a Word, I take it to be the
only Building that can compare with the famous Temple of _Solomon_, of
which there is so glorious a Description in the Scriptures.

Every one knows that ’twas the famous _Cosmo di Medicis_ who laid the
Foundations of the Principality of _Florence_, and that ’twas Pope _Pius_
IV. who gave it the Title of the Great Duchy. When I came hither, the
Great Duke _Cosmo_ III. was still living, who, tho’ very old, had a great
deal of Vigour. He was a Man of the most civil Behaviour in the World,
which, added to his fair Hair, gain’d him the Love and Veneration of all
that approach’d him. I had the Honour to pay my Devoirs to him one
Evening, as I was introduc’d to an Audience of him by his First Minister.
I found him all alone in the Room, standing and leaning against a Table,
upon which were two Wax Candles; After I had made my Obeisance to him, he
cover’d himself, and bad me be cover’d too: I intreated him to humour the
profound Respect I had for his Highness so far as to let me remain
uncover’d; but then he took off his Hat, and press’d me to put on mine,
which I did as soon as he was cover’d, in conformity to this grand Maxim,
That ’tis the Duty of private Men to keep in the Posture which Princes
require of them: But I will own frankly, that it gave me some Uneasiness
to speak with my Hat upon my Head to a Prince of the Great Duke’s Age and
Dignity. His Highness, before he enter’d into Conversation with me, ask’d
me whether I spoke _Italian_? I told him that I could talk it a little,
but that I did not think I understood enough of it to undertake to speak
it in the Presence of so great a Prince as he: To this he made Answer,
_And I can speak some broken French_. Nevertheless, he did me the Honour
to talk with me a good while in that Language, with abundance of
Good-nature. Next Day I got myself introduc’d to the Great Prince by Mr.
_Tyrrel_, a Gentleman of his Bedchamber. The Prince receiv’d me very
kindly, said he remember’d that he had seen _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_, my
Cousin, attending the late Queen at _Berlin_, and that he was at my
Mother’s House while he stay’d in _Germany_; and he offer’d me his
Protection upon all Occasions whenever I wanted it. This Prince was
married to a Princess of _Saxe-Lawenbourg_, Dowager of the Prince
_Palatine_ of _Newbourg_, who was the Elector _Palatine_’s Brother.

The Great Duke _Cosmo_ III. who died in 1723, married _Margaret Louisa_ of
_Orleans_, Daughter of _Gaston_ of _France_, Duke of _Orleans_, Brother of
_Lewis_ XIII. by whom he had two Sons and a Daughter. The eldest Son,
whose Name was _Ferdinand de Medicis_, died at _Florence_, _October_ 30,
1713. without any Issue by his Wife, who was _Violante Beatrix_ of
_Bavaria_. The second, now the Great Duke, is _John Gaston de
Medicis_[18]. The Princess, his Sister, is _Anna-Maria-Louisa_ of
_Florence_[19], who married the Elector _Palatine, John William_ of
_Newbourg_; and after that Prince’s Death retir’d to the Dominions of the
Great Duke, in which she usually resides.

The Palace of the Great Duke is the most stately Building that one can
see. All the Relations of Travellers give very large Descriptions of it,
but they may be all said to come far short of the real State of it. The
Gallery especially is a matchless Piece: ’Tis about 400 Feet long, and has
a Row of antique Statues and Busts on each Side. This Gallery leads into
several Rooms, which are all full of the greatest Curiosities one would
wish to see. In one there are the Pictures of all the famous Painters done
by themselves: The second is adorn’d with Porcellane of all Sorts: There
is a Table too of great Beauty, inlaid with precious Stones. The other
Rooms contain Pictures, Antiquities, and wonderful fine Cabinets of inlaid
Work: I was particularly surpriz’d at a couple of Pictures in Wax in one
of these Rooms, which are both fine Rarities; but the Artist could not
have chose a more melancholy Subject; for the one represents a
Church-yard, and the other a City infected with a Plague. There is no
looking upon these two Pictures without being struck at the same time with
Admiration and Horror.

There is a Piece that makes Part of the Gallery which is worthy of a nice
Observation: ’Tis an Octagon Saloon pav’d with Marble of various Colours:
The Walls are hung with Crimson Velvet; and the Ceiling of the Dome is
lin’d with Mother of Pearl, which makes a very fine Effect. But among all
the Rarities which this stately Saloon contains, nothing is comparable to
the Great Duke’s famous Diamond: I saw the Model of it, which is all that
they now shew of it; the present King of _Denmark_ being the last Person
to whom the late Great Duke shew’d it in 1769, which creates a Suspicion
that this Diamond is not new at _Florence_: Many People assur’d me it was
sold, and that the Grand Signior was the Purchaser of it. Be it where it
will, the Weight of this Diamond was 139 Carats and a half.

       *       *       *       *       *

After having stay’d some time at _Florence_, I set out for _Rome_, taking
SIENNA in my Way, which is an Archiepiscopal City that makes a Part of
_Tuscany_. The Cathedral Church is built all of black and white Marble.
From _Sienna_ I went to MONTEFIASCONE, a City and Bishoprick in the
Patrimony of St. _Peter_. My Design was to have gone through this Town
without stopping, but the bad Weather oblig’d me to stay at the
Post-house: There was such a deep Snow, and at the same time the Wind was
so high, and the Cold so terrible, that the Inhabitants told me, that in
the Memory of Man they had not known it so violent. I made no great
Scruple to believe them, especially after what happen’d to me at the
Post-house. The Master of the House carry’d me up Stairs into a great
Room, where I found two Gentlemen, the one an _Italian_, the other a
_German_, who were both come from _Rome_, and obliged, as I was, by the
bad Weather to stay at _Montefiascone_. As we were talking together by the
Fire-side, I observ’d a very odd Motion as if we had been rock’d. As I had
never felt an Earthquake, I concluded this to be one; but the _Italian_
told me the Motion was too regular, and that, to be sure, it proceeded
from some other Cause: And in a very few Moments we were convinc’d that it
was the Wind which shook us in this Manner. As we had Reason to fear that
the House would tumble upon our Heads, we desir’d our Landlord to put us
in some Place where our Lives would not be in so much Danger. The Man
laugh’d to see us so affrighted, and to encourage us he said that his
House had totter’d as much for these 30 Years past, without receiving any
Damage, and that therefore it was like to stand a good while longer: But
this was not Reason sufficient to satisfy me of the Stability of his
House; on the contrary, thought I, an Earthquake which had happen’d to a
House off and on for a matter of 30 Years, must, ere long, bring it to the
Ground: And besides, as I had always met with bad Fortune, it was but
prudent not to expose myself in Harm’s Way; I resolv’d therefore to go
down Stairs, the two Gentlemen in my Company did the same, and our
Landlord carry’d us to an opposite House, where really we were in a worse
Pickle than before. The Fire was no sooner kindled, but we had like to
have been suffocated with the Smoak; and we were fain to set open every
Window and Door, to let in Air; but the Violence of the Wind was such that
we could bear the Room no longer, and we were oblig’d to shift our
Quarters again. We went into the Town, in Hopes of faring better there;
but ’twas our Lot to fall into one of the most detestable
Victualling-Houses in the World; yet we resolv’d to stay there, because
there fortunately happen’d to be a Chimney that did not smoak; but while
we were thinking we should have some Amends for the Cold we had suffer’d
in these Removes, as if it had been decreed that we should have one thing
or another to plague us all Day long, this very Chimney took Fire, which
alarming the Town, every body flock’d to the Place, and by good Luck the
Fire was soon extinguish’d; nevertheless, the Mob join’d in a Halloo
against us, as if we had been the Incendiaries, so that I expected every
Moment we should be sent to Gaol, till we scatter’d our Money, and then
our Fears vanish’d; but the Consequence of all this Noise was, that we
were forbid to have a Fire in our Chamber, so that we were forc’d to put
up with that which was made in one of the nastiest Kitchens that could be.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Montefiascone_ I went in a Day and half to ROME[20], to which City
all the Way from _Florence_ is over Hills and Mountains: The Roads
belonging to the Dominions of _Tuscany_ are kept in good Order, and Care
has been taken to render them as passable as the Nature of them will
permit, by levelling Hills, and making noble Causeys; but as soon as one
enters the Ecclesiastical State, the Ways are so terribly bad, that ’tis a
hard Matter to get through them. I stopp’d my Chaise about a League from
_Rome_ upon an Eminence, from whence is a Descent to _Ponte-Mole_. There I
cast my Eyes over that great City, and had a Fore-Taste of the Pleasure I
should have, when I came to take my Progress thro’ its several Quarters.
After having satisfy’d this first Curiosity, I proceeded on my Journey: I
pass’d the _Tyber_ over the _Ponte-Mole_, and struck into a pav’d Road,
which carry’d me for a long time between Gardens and Pleasure-houses, till
I came to the famous City of _Rome_. I enter’d it thro’ the Gate _del
Popoli_, which led me into a triangular Square of the same Name,
consisting of Two Rows of very sorry Houses, and of a Third, which is
somewhat better. Here are Two broad Streets, which open in Form of a
Goose’s Foot, and are separated from one another by Two fine Churches of
equal Architecture. In the midst of this Square is the famous Obelisk
erected by _Sixtus_ V.

From this Square I went to the Custom-house, where I had my Baggage
search’d. There’s a magnificent Front to this Custom-house, which is a
stately Portico, supported by large Pillars of Oriental Granite. As soon
as the Searchers had done rummaging all my Things, I went on to the
_Hotel_ of _Monte d’Or_ on the Square of _Spain_, which is but an
indifferent Place, being a long and very irregular Square encompass’d with
a Parcel of ill-contriv’d Houses, and a Fountain at one End, which serves
for a Watering Place.

Next Day after my Arrival, my Curiosity carry’d me to visit _St. Peter_’s
Church: The first thing I saw in my Way, going from my Lodgings, was the
Bridge of _St. Angelo_ upon the _Tyber_, which fronts the Castle of the
same Name: This Bridge is of a fine Breadth, with Marble Banisters on each
Side, on which, at proper Distances, are Angels of Marble, of wonderful
Workmanship. The Castle of _St. Angelo_ is, as I have said, over-against
the Bridge: This is a great Tower, encompass’d with Bastions, which serves
as a Citadel to the City of _Rome_, and a Place of Retreat to the Pope in
a time of War or Rebellion; it communicates by a long Gallery with the
_Vatican_ Palace: As we go off of the Bridge of _St. Angelo_, we pass for
some time on the Banks of the _Tyber_, over a Key that is on the left
Hand. From thence we go thro’ several Streets to the famous Square of _St.
Peter_’s Church, which may be term’d the chief Square in the Universe. It
was design’d by the celebrated _Bernini_, and executed in the manner as
it now appears to us by Pope _Alexander_ VII. ’Tis an Oval, encompass’d
with a great Gallery, supported by 324 Pillars of Free-Stone; the Top is
adorn’d with a Balustrade, on which, at proper Spaces, are the Statues of
the Twelve Apostles and other Saints, and the Arms of Pope _Alexander_
VII. In this Square we see the famous Obelisk, which was rais’d by Order
of _Sixtus_ V. in 1586, in the middle between Two noble Fountains. The
Gallery, that runs round _St. Peter_’s Square, leads on both Sides to the
Portico of the Church, which is a Piece of Work that one can never be
weary of admiring. For whether we consider the Materials, or the Skill of
the Architect by whom it was conducted, they are equally surprizing. The
Pavement of the Portico is of Marble, and the Ceiling of Stucco gilt: It
leads on the Right Hand to the grand Stair-case of the _Vatican_, and
there’s a cover’d Gallery over it, where the Pope appears upon
_Holy-Thursday_ and _Easter-Day_ to anathematize Heretics, Schismatics and
Infidels; and also to bless the People, who at that time are all kneeling
in the Square, and in the Streets which lead to it. The principal Entrance
of the Portico is answerable to the great Gate of the Church, which is of
Brass, and on one Side of it is that call’d _la Porta Santa_, or the Holy
Gate, that is never open’d except on the grand Jubilees, which are only
once in 25 Years.

But let the Outside of this stately Edifice be as magnificent as it will,
’tis not to compare to the Inside, where is nothing but Gold, Silver,
Brass, Marble, Precious Stones, Paintings and Carvings by the greatest
Masters. In a Word, in this august Temple we see the Master-Pieces of the
most skilful Artists in all manner of Works; and if a Man has never so
little Taste for Curiosities, he will at every Turn discover new Beauties.

The Plan of this Building is a Cross, with a very spacious and lofty Dome
in the middle; the Ceiling of which is gilded and painted in _Mosaic_.
Under this Dome stands the High Altar, which is not to be parallel’d for
its Magnificence: ’Tis rais’d some Steps from the Ground, and stands by
itself; there is none but the Pope, or, in his Absence, the Dean of the
sacred College, that can say Mass at it: Four wreathed Columns of Brass,
with Vine-Leaves twining about them, support a superb Canopy or Pavilion,
which is intirely of Brass: ’Tis adorn’d with _Basso-Relievo_’s, and
especially of Bees, to denote the Arms of Pope _Urban_ VIII. of the
_Barberini_ Family, who caus’d this noble Pavilion to be erected. Over
each Pillar is an Angel of Brass gilt, 17 Feet high. The Cornices of the
Pillars are wide enough for Children to play and walk between them: Under
the Altar is the Tomb of the Apostles _St. Peter_ and _St. Paul_, to which
is a Descent by Two Flights of Marble Steps, in Form of a Horse-shoe. The
whole is adorn’d with Compartments of Marble and precious Stones, the
Workmanship of which even surpasses the Beauty of the Materials. These
Steps are encompass’d with Banisters of Brass, on which a great Number of
Silver Lamps is perpetually burning, except on _Good Friday_.

_St. Peter_’s Chair is over-against the great Altar; ’tis all of Brass,
and very high; ’tis supported by the Four Fathers of the Church, whose
Colossal Statues are of Brass gilt: Over the Chair is a Glory of Brass,
which reaches to the Roof, and underneath is a magnificent Altar, on the
Sides whereof are Two Tombs of Popes.

I have already done myself the Honour to acquaint you, that I did not
propose to give a particular Detail of all the fine Things which most of
the _Italian_ Cities, and especially _Rome_, offer to the Eyes of the
curious Spectator; for I should in that case only repeat what a hundred
Travellers have already describ’d at large; I therefore silently pass over
several Monuments, with which you are perfectly acquainted, by the reading
of several Travels to _Italy_: I will only tell you by the way, that I was
astonish’d at the Beauty of the Tomb of the famous _Christina_ Queen of
_Sweden_, who, after having made a voluntary Resignation of her Crown, and
turn’d Catholic, at last fix’d her Residence at _Rome_, where she dy’d.
This Princess was interr’d in _St. Peter_’s Church, where a magnificent
Tomb of Marble and Brass was erected for her; and there’s her Picture in a
Medallion, which is very fine. On one Side of this Princess’s Tomb, is
that of the famous Countess _Matilda_, whose Memory ought to be very dear
to the Popes, she having been one of the most signal Benefactrices which
the Church ever had.

Besides the Inside and Outside of _St. Peter_’s Church, there are Places
under Ground which are very magnificent: One sees several Chapels there
lin’d with Marble, whose Altars are adorn’d with _Mosaic_ Paintings, to
fortify them against the Damps. The Roof of this Church is also worth
seeing; one ascends first to the Dome by a Stair-case, rising gradually
without Steps; after which one ascends by another, which is not so
commodious, to a Globe at the Top of the Dome, which supports its Cross:
From hence there’s a Prospect of the Country for near 40 Miles.

I went from _St. Peter_’s Church to see the _Vatican_ Palace, which joins
to it: This was formerly the Pope’s common Residence, but for some time
past they have given the Palace of _Monte Cavallo_ the Preference to it,
that being said to be in a much healthier Air. The _Vatican_ is a very
irregular Pile, of several Pieces of Buildings coupled together, which
compose an Edifice of a prodigious Size, where by Consequence there must
be a great Number of Apartments. ’Tis accompany’d with a Garden, at the
End of which is a House call’d _Belvedere_, because of the fine Prospect
there is from it. In this Palace there are all the most curious Things one
would wish to see in Pictures and in Statues. The Pope’s Apartments are
very fine, and hung with crimson Damask or Velvet, adorn’d with a broad
Lace and Fringe of Gold. I enter’d into a great Apartment, which was
heretofore richly furnish’d for the Reception of _Philip_ V. King of
Spain, at the time when he was in _Italy_, and expected at _Rome_.

The famous _Vatican_ Library is also worth the Traveller’s View, being
full of very scarce Books and curious MSS. You know, it has been very much
augmented by the _Heidelberg_ Library, and that of the Duke of _Urbino_.

After having satisfy’d my Curiosity with regard to these Structures, I
thought of making some Visits: I went to the Marquis _C----_, and to the
Duke _S----_, for whom I had Letters given me at _Florence_. Those
Gentlemen were mighty civil to me, and offer’d to shew me the Curiosities
at _Rome_, and to introduce me to the Assemblies. In Fact the Marquis
_C----_ carry’d me the very same Day to _Madame de B----_, where I found
a very fine Assembly of Ladies and Gentlemen, and especially _Abbes_,
smart Fellows, who were able to read Lectures to the nicest
_Petit-Maitres_ in the Art of Coquetry. The Ladies were very well dress’d,
and for most part amiable, but not very easy of Access to such as had not
the Honour of wearing the little Band. The young Abbes had taken Care to
engross them so, that there seem’d to be no Possibility of coming near
them. After some Chat, and swallowing good Store of Chocolate, we went
into another Room, where the Company sat down to several Sorts of Play.
There I thought with myself, of what Advantage it would have been for me
to be _Monsieur l’ Abbe_. Every one of these Gentlemen readily found
Partners, but for my part, as they did not do me the Honour to offer me
the Cards, I was perfectly idle; and had it not been for the Person that
introduc’d me, with whom I talk’d now-and-then, I should have made a very
queer Figure: I did not think fit to stay till the Assembly broke up, and
was very glad when I got out.

Next Day I took an Antiquarian with me, to serve as my Guide, to shew me
the greatest Curiosities at _Rome_: He carry’d me first to the most
considerable Squares; and of these the first that I saw was the _Trajan_
Square, in the middle whereof stands the famous _Trajan_ Pillar, so call’d
from the Emperor _Trajan_, who began it, tho’ ’twas not finish’d till
after his Death: ’Tis 128 Feet in Height, and has a Stair-case that leads
to the Top, consisting of 123 Steps. The Outside of this Pillar is of
Marble, and represents _Trajan_’s principal Actions in _Basso-Relievo_.
This Column was rais’d higher by Pope _Sixtus_ V. who had _St. Peter_’s
Statue plac’d on the Top of it, instead of an Urn, which they say
contain’d the Ashes of the Emperor _Trajan_.

My Antiquarian conducted me afterwards to the Place _Navona_, which forms
a long Square, with a Number of Houses round it, which are neither regular
nor magnificent. There are in the middle Three Fountains, very convenient
for the Purpose they serve, which is to lay all that Part of the Town
under Water in extreme hot Weather, for the Refreshment of Persons of
Quality, who come thither at that time in their Coaches.

We went to see the Church of _St. John de Lateran_, which may be deem’d
the Mother and Chief of all the Churches in _Christendom_: It owes its
Foundation to the Emperor Constantine, who caus’d it to be built with
extraordinary Magnificence; it has had the Misfortune of being twice burnt
down, but was rebuilt both times with the same Magnificence: ’Tis not
indeed so large, nor of such modern Architecture as _St. Peter_’s Church,
but every whit as beautiful. The Pavement is all of Marble, and the Roof
supported by Four Rows of Pillars, which are of an extraordinary Height
and Circumference. Near this Church is a Chapel, built in Form of a Dome,
which, ’tis said, was _Constantine_’s Baptistery, but this last Article is
not absolutely certain.

From this Church I went to the _Scala-Santa_, which is a Building of
Free-Stone, but no Part of it extraordinary: Three Portico’s form the
principal Front; that in the middle leads to the _Scala-Santa_, or Holy
Stair-case; so call’d because ’tis said the Steps of it are the same that
form’d the Stair-case of _Pilate_’s Palace, by which our Lord descended,
after he was scourg’d. Every body goes up these Stairs on their Knees; it
leads to a Chapel, with Grates inclosing precious Relics, particularly a
Picture of Jesus Christ, which, they affirm, was painted by the Angels.
’Tis for this very Reason, that this Chapel is call’d the
_Sancta-Sanctorum_. On one Side of this _Scala-Santa_ there are Two little
Stair-cases, for those that don’t care to ascend the Holy Stairs upon
their Knees; or for those who go down, after having perform’d this Act of

When I had seen the _Scala-Santa_, my Guide conducted me to the
_Coliseum_, which is a large Amphitheatre, built of Stone: They say, that
_Vespasian_ began this superb Structure, and that his Son _Titus_ finish’d
it, and entertain’d the Public with a Battle of wild Beasts in it, of
which here were to the Number of 5000. The Inside of the _Coliseum_ is an
Oval, encompass’d with Galleries and an Amphitheatre, which, according to
the Opinion of some Authors, contain’d above 85,000 Spectators: ’Tis great
Pity that so stately a Building was not preserv’d. _Urban_ VIII. of the
_Barberini_ Family, permitted his Nephews to demolish a Part of the
_Coliseum_, and to build therewith the _Barberini_ Palace. The little that
remains of it is so much fallen to Ruin, that ’tis very probable, the next
Generation will know nothing of this magnificent Structure, but by the
Prints that we have of it.

The _Pantheon_, or our Lady _de la Rotonda_, is the only ancient Edifice
that has been preserv’d: ’Tis 228 Feet in Diameter; and from its Centre to
the Top of the Dome ’tis 144 Feet: _Agrippa_, the Favourite and Son-in-Law
of the Emperor _Augustus_, caus’d this Temple to be built in Honour of all
the Heathen Gods; and ’tis now a Church, dedicated to _All the Saints_.
The only Light it has, is from a great Opening in the middle of the Roof,
which, tho’ somewhat lofty, is not supported by any Pillar: It was
formerly cover’d with Brass, but _Urban_ VIII. caus’d it to be taken off,
and employ’d in the building of the High Altar of _St. Peter_’s Church;
which occasion’d his Enemies to say, _That the_ Barberini _had done, what
the_ Barbarians _durst not attempt_.

At my Return from this Ramble I found at my Lodgings the Duke _de S----_,
who came to carry me to the Assembly at _Madame de S----_. The Company
there was not very numerous, nor did I find it any more diverting than
that to which I was introduc’d before: There were few Ladies, and scarce
any Gentlemen of the Sword, but Abbes in Abundance: I plainly perceiv’d,
that the Assemblies at _Rome_ were not the most entertaining to a
Foreigner, and therefore I resolv’d, which I think was much better, to
employ myself in viewing the various Curiosities of the City. I went to
the Capitol, being every where accompany’d by my trusty Antiquarian: ’Tis
a Building compos’d of Three distinct Apartments, detach’d from one
another; Two of which form the advanc’d Wings, and all Three are built of
Free-Stone: They stand upon a Hill, to which is an Ascent by a great
Marble Stair-case: The Court before this Building is a spacious Oval, to
which is a Descent by Three Steps of Marble: In the middle is the
Equestrian Statue of the Emperor _Marcus Aurelius_, a noble Remnant of

From the Capitol I went to the Pope’s Palace, call’d _Monte-Cavallo_, from
the Name of the Hill on which it stands. This of all the Palaces of _Rome_
is one that enjoys the finest Prospect, and the best Air: It was built by
Order of Pope _Paul_ V. The Gardens which belong to it are large, but not
so beautiful, as to be answerable to the Magnificence of the Palace. After
having sufficiently view’d it, I return’d to my Quarters, where I had
appointed the Marquis _de A----_ to come and go along with me to the
Cardinal _Corsini_. His Eminency, who had an Assembly at is House every
Night, gave me a very kind Reception, and I found a numerous Company
there, which was much more to my Satisfaction than the Two Assemblies I
had been at before. The Cardinal did the Honours of his House perfectly
well, and took Care that every body should have a Part, either at Play, or
in Conversation. I paid my Court to him constantly, and did not fail to be
at his Assembly every Night, till I left the City: The rest of the Time I
spent in rambling thro’ the several Quarters of _Rome_, to see what was
most remarkable.

After having made this Progress thro’ the Inside of the City, I had a Mind
also to view the Out-parts: I was conducted to the famous Vineyards of the
_Pamphili_ and _Borghese_ Families, which the _Italians_ prefer before all
the Gardens in _Europe_; wherein I am not quite of their Opinion. The
Statues in these Vineyards are, to my Mind, not to be parallel’d of the
Sort, but, as to the Agriculture or Waters, the Gardens of _France_
outstrip them by far. At the Entrance of the _Borghese_ Vineyard is a
large Portico of Marble, which fronts a Walk, at the End whereof is a very
large Square, encompass’d with a Marble Balustrade, adorn’d with Statues
of the same. This Square serves as a Court to the House, which is not very
large, but contains immense Wealth in Statues and Paintings. The Outside
is fac’d with _Basso-Relievo’s_ of Marble, amongst which the Statue of
_Quintus Curtius_ on Horseback, casting himself headlong into the Gulph,
is especially to be admir’d.

The _Pamphili_’s Vineyard is in my Opinion the finest Place in the Suburbs
of _Rome_. The Gardens have an Air of Grandeur and Proportion, which I
have not observ’d any where else. The Outside and Inside of the House are
lin’d alike with _Basso-Relievo_’s of Marble of admirable Workmanship.
There are also noble Statues, but most of ’em a little damag’d, by reason
of the various Fits of Devotion and Lukewarmness of a Prince _Pamphili_,
who did these Statues irreparable Injury: For this Prince, in the first
hot Fits of his Devotion, caus’d the Nudities of the Statues of this
Garden to be plaister’d over; but when that Zeal was abated, he had a Mind
to see his Statues again in their former Condition, which being not
possible to be done without breaking off the Plaister with the Strokes of
a Hammer; the Workman, for Want of due Care, gave some by which several of
those Statues were considerably damaged.

All the various Curiosities took up a great deal of my Time, as well as
the famous _Borghese_ and _Farnese_ Palaces, those of _Colonna_,
_Palavicini_, _Barberini_, and others, the Description of which I omit.
After having thus satisfy’d myself, I thought of being introduced to the
Pope, and for that Purpose apply’d to the Cardinal _del Giudice_, to whom
I had Letters of Recommendation, as I had to the Cardinals _Gualtieri_ and
_Ottoboni_. I had the Honour to have favourable Audiences of all their
three Eminencies. As I was a _German_, I paid my first Visit to the
Cardinal _del Giudice_, who at that Time had the Care of the Emperor’s
Affairs. After a short Stay in his Antichamber, I was Introduc’d to an
Audience of him by one of his Gentlemen. This Prelate was not well that
Day, and I found him in his Night-Gown, lying on a Couch-Bed; but as soon
as he saw me enter, he rose and advanc’d to receive me; after which he sat
down again, and made me take an Arm-Chair over-against him. When the
Audience was over, he got up, and conducted me to the very Door of his
Chamber, where I found his Eminency’s Gentlemen, two of whom waited on me
to the Head of the Stairs, and another went down with me, and attended me
to my Coach.

Cardinal _Gualtieri_ receiv’d me also in a most obliging Manner. He gave
me Audience in his Closet, where, after the first Greeting, he sat down in
an Arm-Chair, made me do the like, and oblig’d me to be cover’d: I was
very loth to take that Liberty, but he would be obey’d; and in this
Situation I stay’d an Hour at least. I was charm’d with the Behaviour of
this Prelate, who of all the Cardinals took the least State upon him. The
Tokens he gave me of his Kindness, made me attach myself to him; and I was
very assiduous in my Attendance upon him all the Time that I stay’d at
_Rome_. He sent one of his Gentlemen with me to the Cardinal _Ottoboni_,
Protector of the Affairs of _France_, whom I found in his Closet standing,
and in that Posture he remain’d all the Time of my Visit. When I withdrew,
I was attended in the same Manner as I had been at the House of the
Cardinal _del Giudice_.

After I had made a Visit to these three Cardinals, the Cardinal _del
Giudice_ introduced me to the Pope, who was at that Time _Clement_ XI. of
the _Albani_ Family. The Cardinal had an Audience of his Holiness by
himself first, and then he introduc’d me. I fell on my Knees at the Door,
according to Custom, and then rising again, advanc’d to the Middle of the
Room, where I was preparing for a second Genuflexion; but the Pope
prevented me, by beckoning me with his Hand to advance, and calling out to
me _Aventi, Aventi_, i.e. Come forwards. I obey’d till I came to his Feet,
when I fell on my Knees and kiss’d an embroider’d Cross which was on his
Holiness’s Slippers. The Pope gave me his Blessing, and commanded me to
rise. He did me the Honour to talk to me a good while, concerning the good
Fortune I had to embrace the Catholic Religion; ask’d me several Questions
relating to my Conversion, and seem’d so overjoy’d at the Grace God had
given me, that he could not refrain shedding some Tears. He then ask’d me
News about the Sate of Religion in _Germany_, and highly extoll’d the Zeal
which the Elector _Palatine_ manifested for the Catholic Religion. He
concluded with exhorting me to continue stedfast in the Opinion I had been
so happy as to embrace; and when his Holiness dismiss’d me, he made me a
Present of several _Agnis Dei’s_, two little Medals, one of Gold the other
of Silver, and a Dispensation to eat Flesh in Lent.

I stay’d at _Rome_ till Lent was over, that I might have a Sight of the
Ceremonies of the Holy Week; at which Time the Court of the Sovereign
Pontiff appears in its utmost Splendor. His Holiness set out on
_Wednesday_ in the Holy Week from _Monte Cavallo_ for the _Vatican_
Palace, with very great Ceremony, and a numerous Retinue: The Prelates and
Officers of his Holiness’s Houshold went first, who were all on Horseback
in wide Cassocks, which really made a very scurvy Figure; for, in my
Opinion, long Gowns and flapp’d Hats do not seem to be a suitable Equipage
for Riding. After them came a couple of Grooms, leading a White Horse
richly accouter’d, the same which was for his Holiness’s Riding; but on
that Day he was carried in a Sedan of Crimson Velvet embroider’d with
Gold, which was followed by a Litter in the same Taste, and by a
magnificent Coach drawn by six dapple grey Horses. On the Sides of the
Pope’s Chair march’d two Files of the Hundred _Swiss_, and the Light-Horse
clos’d the March. In this Manner did the Pope make his Entry to the
_Vatican_ Palace.

The next Day, which was Holy _Thursday_, I desir’d Cardinal _Gualtieri_ to
get me a Place where I might see the Ceremonies of that Grand Day; and his
Eminency was so good as to gratify my Wish. When I arriv’d at the Church,
the Pope was already in his Chapel, seated on a Throne erected on the
Right Side of the Altar, with a Cardinal on each Side of him, who, I
observ’d, sat upon Stools. The Constable _Colonna_ stood near the Pope,
with a drawn Sword in his Hand. As soon as the Mass was ended, the holy
Father descended from his Throne, and plac’d himself in a Chair of State
which was of Crimson Velvet embroider’d with Gold: Eight Men of the Pope’s
Livery rais’d the Chair upon their Shoulders, and carry’d it in that
Manner to the Gallery which is over the Portico of _St. Peter_’s Church.
The Pope was preceded by his Houshold, and by all the Cardinals, who
walk’d two and two, in the midst of a couple pf Files of the Hundred
_Swiss_. All _St. Peter_’s Square, and the Streets leading to it, were
full of People: His Holiness’s Light-Horse and Gendarmery were also
there, together with the Foot-Guards, all drawn up in Order of Battle,
with their Officers at their Head. As soon as his Holiness appear’d, there
was a Flourish of the Kettle-Drums and Trumpets, which was quickly
succeeded with a profound Silence. During this the Pope order’d a Cardinal
to read the Bull of Excommunication and _Anathema_, against Heretics,
Schismatics, Pagans, and all others, that did not pay due Obedience to the
Holy See, or with-held its Estates; in short, against all those that lead
irregular Lives. While this Bull was reading, the Pope held a Wax Taper,
or rather a Torch, lighted, and as soon as the Cardinal had done reading
it, the Pope rose, that is to say, the Eight Men who carry’d him lifted
him up a little higher, and then his Holiness with a loud Voice pronounc’d
the Excommunication, which done he threw the Torch out of his Hand into
the Square, as a Symbol of the Thunder of the Church; and in a few Moments
after, the Pope took off the said Excommunication, on Condition,
nevertheless, that the Persons anathematis’d would repent and do public
Penance for their Errors. Then he gave his Blessing to all that were
present, and to the whole City of _Rome_ in general, by turning himself
about towards the Three other Parts of the Town. At the same Time all the
Cannon of the Castle of _St. Angelo_ were fir’d, and all the Bells of the
City were rung, which was accompany’d with the Sound of the Trumpets,
Kettle-Drums, and other Drums of the Soldiery, that were posted in _St.
Peter_’s Square. During this, his Holiness was carry’d back into his
Chapel, where the Tiara which he had wore during the whole Ceremony, was
taken off, and then he went up to the Altar, where he took the Holy
Sacrament and carry’d it with great Devotion to a magnificent Sepulchre,
which had been built in the little Chapel. After this Ceremony, the Pope
retir’d to put on his ordinary Habit, and then went, attended by the
Cardinals, into a Room, where Thirteen Priests of different Nations being
plac’d all in a Row, dress’d in long White Robes, his Holiness wash’d
their Feet, and gave to each a Medal and a Nosegay of Flowers. This
Ceremony being ended, the Pope, follow’d by those Thirteen Priests, went
into a second Room, where was a Table very neatly spread, at which the
Priests sat down, and were serv’d by the Pope and the Cardinals. The
Chevalier _de St. George_ and his Princess were present at this Ceremony,
with whom the Pope had some Conversation; and when his Holiness left them,
he said, _I have been washing of Feet, I am going now to wash Hands_: at
the same Time he presented the Water for that Purpose to the Thirteen
Clergymen whom he had attended during the Dinner.

When the Pope was retir’d, the Cardinals went into a great Room, where
they found a Table sumptuously spread. At Night the Pope and the Sacred
College assisted at the _Miserere_, which was sung in the great Chapel
with Instrumental Music.

Upon _Easter-Day_ the Pope was present at High-Mass, with all the
Cardinals; after which his Holiness, dress’d in his Pontificalibus and the
Tiara on his Head, was carry’d in the same Manner as upon Holy _Thursday_,
to the Gallery which fronts _St. Peter_’s Square, where the Soldiers were
drawn up in Batallia, and the People on their Knees to receive the Pope’s
Benediction; which was no sooner given, than there was a general Discharge
of all the Artillery from the Castle of _St. Angelo_: Then the Pope
retir’d to his Palace, and each of the Cardinals to his respective
Habitation. Thus ended the Ceremonies of the Holy Week, during which I
observ’d, that the Churches were always so throng’d, that the People were
ready to be stifled: Yet I believe that the _Italians_ frequent the
Churches during this holy Season, more for the sake of hearing the
excellent Music that is perform’d in them, than from any Motive of

       *       *       *       *       *

Immediately after the Holy Week was ended, I set out Post from _Rome_ with
several Foreigners that had the same Curiosity as myself, to see the
famous City of NAPLES. This City, which is the Metropolis of a Kingdom of
the same Name, stands on the Brink of the Sea, where it forms a Basin,
which the Town encompasses in Form of a Half Moon: From thence it rises
like an Amphitheatre, towards Hills which are cover’d with Vineyards and
delightful Gardens, from whence is the finest Prospect that can be
imagin’d. Upon one of these Hills is the famous Castle of _St. Elmo_,
built by _Charles_ V. which is a Fortress that commands the whole City.

_Naples_ is the See of an Archbishop, whose Metropolitan Church is
dedicated to _St. Januarius_; and in this Church is preserv’d the Head of
that Saint, and some Drops of his Blood in a Glass Phyal. We are assur’d,
that every Year, upon that Saint’s Festival, the very Instant that they
put the Phyal to the Head, the Blood, which was before condens’d, turns
Liquid. All the People of _Naples_ are Eye-Witnesses of this Miracle, and
seem, in my Mind, to have a great Devotion for the Saint. Of this we may
easily judge by the Magnificence of his Church, which shines throughout
with Gold, Silver, Marble, _&c._ and ’tis moreover adorn’d with very
beautiful Paintings.

The Viceroy’s Palace is one of the noblest Structures in the World: The
Beauty of the Architecture and the Disposition of the Apartments give the
same Pleasure to the Spectator, as the magnificent Prospect the Viceroy
has from a Balcony that ranges before the Windows, to which I never saw
any thing equal for its Extent, or its agreeable Variety. The fine
Gardens, the Harbour, the Arsenal, the lofty Hills, the terrible Mount
_Vesuvius_, in short, the whole City of _Naples_, all, _Madame_,
contribute to the Prospect from the Viceroy’s Palace. The Person who then
enjoy’d that Dignity was the Cardinal _Schrotenbach_, not much belov’d by
the _Neapolitans_, who shew’d a very public Concern for the Loss of the
Count _de Gallas_ his Predecessor. I question whether the Hatred they bore
to this new Viceroy was well grounded, for several People own’d to me
ingenuously, that he did every thing in his Power to make them happy. His
Court perhaps, which was too melancholy, and not much frequented, did not
please the _Neapolitans_, who love Grandeur. Besides, the Cardinal seldom
appeared in public, whereas these People love to see their Viceroy often,
and are fond to see him in Procession, with all the Pomp befitting a
Nobleman, vested with a Dignity which they look upon as superior to any
other whatsoever; for it must be observ’d, that a _Neapolitan_ thinks
nothing comparable to the Vice-royalty of _Naples_. And to shew what a
grand Idea they have of this Dignity, they tell a Story, That a
_Neapolitan_ Lady, at an Audience she had of the King of _Spain_, wish’d,
in order to complete his Happiness, that it would please God to make him
one Day Viceroy of _Naples_.

I found in this City the Prince _T----_, whom I knew at _Vienna_. This
Nobleman offer’d to introduce me to several Assemblies, with which he
assur’d me I should not be displeas’d. I was glad to accept of his Offer,
upon his Assurance that they consisted of quite other Sort of People than
the Assemblies at _Rome_. I there made an Acquaintance with several
_Neapolitan_ Gentlemen, who were as civil to me as could be, and were so
complaisant, as to carry me to those Parts of the City which were most
remarkable. I was charm’d with the noble Walk, form’d by the _Cours_,
along by the Sea-side, where I met with a great Number of Coaches, which
seem’d to me to have more of the _French_ Air than those of _Rome_, bating
only, that they were all drawn by Mules, or very sorry Horses. After I had
taken a Walk, I was invited to make one of a Party at Supper, where I was
promis’d good Chear and good Company; which I freely accepted, and had the
Pleasure of seeing the Performance as good as the Promise. The
Entertainment was most delicate, and very amiable Ladies were also of the
Party: I should have had an intire Pleasure in conversing with them; but,
for Want of understanding _Italian_, I could only talk by Signs, a Method
of Conversation very troublesome for Persons that would have desir’d
nothing better than to hold a Discourse. After Supper they propos’d a
Match at Pharao; the Prince _T----_ offer’d to cut the Cards, and had such
a Run of bad Luck, that in a little time I saw him lose considerable
Sums. I won to my Share 260 Pistoles, which that Gentleman sent me next
Day, together with a great Basket of green Peas, and good Store of Fruit.

While I stay’d at _Naples_, I could not help going to see the famous Mount
_Vesuvius_, of which I had heard so much Talk; but when I found myself at
the Top of this dreadful Mountain, I repented of my Labour, for I imagin’d
I should have been requited for the Pains I took, by the Sight of
something marvellous, when I came to the Top; but so far from it, that I
saw nothing but Smoak issuing from several very great Cavities, which it
would not have been prudent to approach; and indeed I had no manner of
Temptation to it, so that I return’d but little wiser than I went: What I
remark’d in particular was, that as I struck my Foot against the Ground, I
heard a Noise, very much like the Sound of an empty Cask; and that’s all I
am able to tell you of Mount _Vesuvius_. As to the Form of this Mountain,
it would be in vain to describe it, because it changes its Shape every
time it throws out Fire. I found it much more painful to descend the Mount
than I did to ascend it, for the Abundance of bak’d Clods, calcin’d
Stones, sulphurous Matter, and the Heaps of Ashes, made the Descent so
difficult, that when I came to the Bottom, I found myself so fatigued,
that I could scarce remount my Horse: I perceiv’d that the soft Boots I
wore, were intirely burnt, undoubtedly by the Sulphur and Lime, of which
the Mountain is intirely compos’d. I was then told, that it had not cast
out any Flames for a long time, but that this would infallibly happen very
soon, because new Holes were discover’d in it, and that the Earth, which
visibly broke away, began to sink. I thought such a Mountain was a very
bad Neighbour to so considerable a City as _Naples_; yet the _Neapolitans_
don’t seem to be much terrify’d at it. Indeed when the Flames actually
break out, they are not the same Men; they then flock in Crouds to the
Churches, every body falls to Prayer, and they make public Promises to
change their Lives; but no sooner do they think all the Danger to be over,
than they relapse into the same Degree of Debauchery as ever: In which
they resemble those Wits, who, when they are in perfect Health, seem to
set Death at Defiance; but when they feel its Approaches, discover such
faint Hearts as give the Lye to their pretended Heroism.

Next Day I went to see the great _Carthusian_ Church of _St. Martin_,
which is most happily situated: The Church and Convent are Two stately
Structures, which contain immense Wealth: The Treasury and Sacristy are
full of noble Ornaments, Vessels of Gold and Silver, richly wrought and
adorn’d for most part with precious Stones; and the Friars have very
convenient Lodgings, every one having a Chamber, a Closet, a Library, and
a little Garden to himself.

       *       *       *       *       *

I went afterwards to POZZUOLI or PUTEOLI, where I saw a Road, or rather a
Cavern, of a very singular Structure, which is cut out partly in the Rock,
and partly in the Sand: ’Tis 30 or 40 Feet in Height, and broad enough for
Two Coaches to go abreast. This Road, which is very long, receives no
Light but from the Extremities, and a Hole in the middle; for which
reason, in the greatest Part of it, one is forc’d to grope out the Way in
the Dark, and to take Care to call out at proper Distances, to give
Notice where one is, a Precaution without which People would be in Danger
of running foul of one another.

After I had pass’d this Cavern, I found myself near that call’d _la Grotte
du Chien_, or the Dog’s Grotto, which is but a narrow Cavern, and at most
only Five Feet in Height, so that few People can stand upright in it. I
there saw the Experiment usually made there: A Dog was laid flat with his
Face to the Ground, which the very same Instant fell into Convulsions, and
soon after shew’d no Sign at all of Life. Upon this he was thrown out of
the Cavern as dead, when a Man took him, and put him into the Lake, which
is but 25 or 30 Paces from the Cavern, and the Dog immediately recover’d
his Spirits. After this Experiment was over, which I leave to be accounted
for by wiser Heads than mine, I went to _Puteoli_, which in Truth has
nothing of its ancient Splendor remaining. And I can’t imagine why
Foreigners make it a Sort of Law to go to it; for there’s nothing now to
be seen here, except old Ruins of no Signification.

The Impatience I had to see the famous City of _Venice_ did not permit me
to continue long at _Naples_, so that I stay’d there no longer than was
necessary to receive an Answer to a Letter, which I wrote at my Arrival
there, to the Count _de S----_, in _Sicily_; wherein I pretended, that
Affairs of the utmost Importance had prevented me from having the Honour
of joining him as soon as I wish’d; but you must know, that this was all
mere Compliment of mine, for several of my Friends had put me very much
out of Conceit with going to serve in _Sicily_. And the Letter, which the
Count _de S----_ return’d in Answer to mine, completed my Disgust; for he
wrote in a Style that I did not like, and the Lectures he was pleas’d to
give me, made me resolve not to expose myself to the Danger of receiving a
second Letter: I wrote to him therefore, that he was welcome to dispose of
my Commission, and that my Affairs did not permit me to enter into the
Service so soon. From that time I determin’d to continue my Travels, and
to try my Fortune at the _Spanish_ Court, to which I had for a long while
been desirous of going; but you will soon perceive, that I was just as
fortunate at that Court as I was at all the rest.

Having therefore no longer any Restraint upon me in my Travels, I chose to
satisfy my Curiosity, and from _Naples_ I set out for _Venice_. I made the
best of my Way thro’ several little Towns of _St. Peter’s_ Patrimony, in
which there was nothing remarkable, besides sorry Victualling-houses, but
stopp’d at LORETTO, a little Town in the Marquisate of _Ancona_, the
Suburbs whereof I thought very charming: The Town itself is very pretty,
and advantagiously situate, being plac’d on a Hill, from whence is a noble
Prospect of the _Adriatic_ Sea, or Gulph of _Venice_. The Inhabitants of
_Loretto_ are all very rich, yet all their Trade consists in Strings of
Beads, Images of the Virgin, and other Things of that Sort; but then
there’s such a vast Resort of Pilgrims thither at every Turn, that the
Money they lay out for Lodging, and for the Purchase of Images and Beads,
is sufficient alone to maintain the Inhabitants handsomly.

You know, _Madame_, that the Business of a Pilgrimage to _Loretto_ is to
visit a Chapel, which was formerly the House where the Holy Virgin dwelt,
when the Angel brought her the Tidings that she should be the Mother of
the Saviour of the World: ’Tis surprizing at first Dash to find a House
in _Italy_, which was formerly built in a Country so far off; but when one
comes to be a little acquainted with History, the Astonishment presently
subsides; for this House shifted its Place several times before it fix’d
in the Marquisate of _Ancona_: It was first, they say, remov’d by Angels
from _Nazareth_, which was really its original Country, into _Dalmatia_,
where it stay’d Three Years. When that Term was expir’d, the said Angels
remov’d it a second time, and carry’d it to the Territory of _Recanati_,
in the Marquisate of _Ancona_: But as every Day produc’d some Murder or
Robbery in those Parts, the Angels, alarm’d at such a Neighbourhood,
carry’d away the House a third time, and plac’d it some Distance from the
Spot, where it stands now. But there it did not stay long; for a Couple of
Friars, to whom the Ground belong’d on which the House was plac’d at that
time, having a warm Contention which should be the Proprietor of it, the
Angels soon put an End to the Dispute, by removing the Building the fourth
and last time, and putting it where it now stands: To do Honour to this
House, and perhaps also to fix it here, Care was taken to build a very
magnificent Church, in the middle of which ’tis inclos’d. The Walls of
this Church are lin’d with white Marble, wrought in _Basso-Relievo_ by the
ablest Workmen of that Time; containing the whole History of the Holy
Virgin: There are also between double Columns of the _Corinthian_ Order
Two Rows of Niches, one above the other, in the lowermost Row whereof are
the Statues of the Prophets, and in the uppermost those of the Sybils; the
whole being of admirable Workmanship. The House of the Virgin, which is
commonly call’d _Santa Casa_, seem’d to me to be built of Brick: ’Tis much
longer than broad: ’Tis divided by an Altar into Two unequal Parts, in the
least whereof is the miraculous Statue of the Virgin, which stands in a
Nich, bearing the Infant Jesus in her Right Arm. The Mother and Child have
each a Triple Crown of Gold, adorn’d with precious Stones. The whole Habit
consists of a long Mantle of Gold Brocade, embroider’d with Pearls and
Diamonds. The Sanctuary is lighted by several Lamps of solid Gold, of a
prodigious Size, particularly one, not only remarkable for its Bigness,
but for the Richness of the Workmanship, which was sent to _Loretto_ by
the Republic of _Venice_, to fulfil a Vow of that Republic, during the
time of a Plague, which made cruel Ravages in a great Part of the State of

As to the Divine Service, it may be said to be perform’d at _Loretto_, to
the utmost Degree of Exactness; nor is there any thing more edifying than
to see with what Devotion Pilgrims from all Countries come to visit the
_Santa Casa_. They enter it upon their Knees, and devoutly kiss the Walls
of it, as well as the Chimney, in which they pretend, the Holy Virgin
dress’d her Meat. They also apply their Beads and Images to a Porringer,
which, they say, was the very same that serv’d for the Holy Virgin’s

As I went out of the Church, I was carry’d to a great Room, where I saw
immense Riches. There are 17 large Presses, all full of Jewels and
Vessels, for most part of Gold, or of some more precious Matter. In this
Room I also saw the Virgin’s numerous Suits of Apparel, of which she has
Change for every Day in the Year, and so rich, that I declare I never saw
any thing like it. After I had well view’d this costly Wardrobe, I went
to see the Palace, which is a very spacious Building, not a great way from
the Church. I was shew’d the Wardrobe of it, where is a deal of fine
Tapistry, and I afterwards went to see the Arsenal, which is not very

When I had intirely satisfy’d my Curiosity at _Loretto_, I set out for
_Bologna_, and went by the very Gates of _Ancona_, which is a Sea-Port in
the Pope’s Dominions; but I made no Stay at it, because I had been told
before-hand, there was nothing in it worth seeing, and went and din’d at
Fano, a very pretty little Town, where I saw a Triumphal Arch with Three
Gates, the Inscriptions whereof were quite defac’d, and I could find no
body wise enough to let me into the History of this Fragment, which I
thought very ancient.

       *       *       *       *       *

From thence I went to PESARO, a little Town not far from the Sea, and very
much celebrated for the Fertility of its Soil. Here is a very large
Square, and in the middle of it a magnificent Fountain. This City and the
whole Duchy of _Urbino_ were united to the Holy See during the Pontificate
of _Urban_ VIII. whose Statue, still to be seen in the great Square, was
erected in Memory of that Event.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Pesaro_ I went in a Day to RIMINI, an Episcopal City which stood
formerly, on the Sea-side; but has not had that Advantage for a long Time,
the Sea being retir’d from it above half a Mile. This was the first Place
that _Cæsar_ took at the Beginning of the Civil War. The Emperor
_Augustus_ embellish’d it with a Triumphal Arch, which is to be seen here
at this Day; as are also the Ruins of an Amphitheatre, and of a Marble
Bridge well preserv’d, over which there are two Inscriptions that denote
it was built by the Emperors _Augustus_ and _Tiberius_. All the way from
_Rimini_ to _Bologna_ I saw nothing remarkable.

       *       *       *       *       *

[21]BOLOGNA is an Archbishoprick, and the second in the Ecclesiastical
State: ’Tis commonly call’d _Bologna the Fat_, because of its fruitful
Soil. ’Twas heretofore independent of the Holy See, and had very
advantagious Terms for submitting to it. It has a Right, among Others, of
having always at _Rome_ an Auditor pf the _Rota_, and an Ambassador; which
is punctually observ’d: And the Pope, on his Part, has a Legate here, who
is always a Cardinal, and lodges in the Palace, which indeed is ancient,
but very spacious, and the Apartments are conveniently distributed. Over
the Portico of this Palace is a Statue of Brass erected to the Honour of
_Gregory_ XIII. which is look’d upon as a Master-piece of Art, and weighs,
as they say, 11,000 Pound; and on one Side of it is another of _Boniface_
VIII. which is not a bad one.

As to the Manners of the Inhabitants of _Bologna_, I cannot but speak in
Praise of them: They have all the Civility and Regard to Foreigners that
one can wish for. There is Abundance of Gentry here, who live with more
Grandeur and Freedom than in any other Part of _Italy_; and, to say all
that I think of this City in one Word, if I were to settle in _Italy_,
’tis the only Town I would chuse to live in.

After some Stay here, I set out for _Venice_, in a Boat call’d _The
Messenger_, which goes off from _Bologna_ every Morning, or at least
several times in a Week: ’Tis the most detestable Vessel that a Gentleman
can be stow’d in; but you must go with that or none. We had not gone far,
but, when we were still some Miles from _Ferrara_, we found the Water was
too shallow, so that every Soul in the Boat was forc’d to go ashore, where
we put our Baggage into Waggons, and our Persons into a sort of Coach,
almost like the Stage-Coaches of _France_. The Outside of this Vehicle was
so unpromising, that I profess I was very loth to get within it; besides,
the Coachman seem’d to be fuddled, and his Horses being very sprightly,
requir’d the Driver to be in his sober Senses. Nevertheless, having at
that Time no other Way to proceed but to trust myself in that Carriage, or
to foot it all the rest of the Journey, I did as others did, and we all
ventur’d boldly into the Coach. We set out with such a Pace as made me
terribly uneasy all the Way; yet our Coachman drove cleverly thro’ the
most difficult Places, and carry’d us safe to _Ferrara_: But we had scarce
enter’d that City, when our Charioteer, ’tis like to shew his Skill, made
his Horses double their Pace just as we were to turn into a Street;
whereupon they ran with such Fury, that, turning a little too short, one
of the Wheels behind passing over a high Bank, our Coach overturn’d so
suddenly, that the two Persons who sat next the Door were kill’d on the
Spot, and the others dangerously wounded. For my own Part, I came off with
a Blow on my Head, which made me have a swell’d Face for Seven or Eight
Days. My _Valet de Chambre_, who sat over-against me, had his Wrist put
out of Joint: And, in short, out of Eight of us that were in Company,
there was not one but had some Harm. What surpriz’d me more than any thing
was, that I had the least, which, perhaps, is the first time that I ever
met with a Companion that came off worse than myself. I could have wish’d
to have walk’d about _Ferrara_[22], but my swell’d Face hinder’d me; and
therefore, without Loss of Time, I put my Baggage on board a Vessel which
carry’d me to VENICE[23], where I arriv’d at Midnight.

I kept my Chamber for some Days, till I was recovered of my Fall, and then
took a Tour about the several Parts of the City, sometimes in the Gondola,
and at other times on Foot. The former Method of Travelling, tho’ very
pleasant, is apt to frighten such as are not us’d to it, who often think
themselves in danger of drowning, especially at the Turnings out of one
Street into another; for then one would think the Boat was ready to be
swallow’d up in the Canal; which indeed might very well be the Case with
Boatmen of less Understanding than the Gondoliers of _Venice_; but these
are so dexterous that one never hears of any Misfortune.

The first Thing I went to see was the famous Church dedicated to _St.
Mark_, the Protector of the Republic. The Front is adorn’d with Five
Portico’s, of which the middle one is bigger and more spacious than the
others. On the Top of it there are Four Horses of Brass, said to have
formerly belong’d to a Chariot of the Sun, that serv’d for an Ornament to
the Triumphal Arch which the Senate of _Rome_ caus’d to be erected for
the Emperor _Nero_, after the Victory he gain’d over the _Parthians_. The
Emperor _Constantine_ caus’d them to be remov’d afterwards to
_Constantinople_, but the _Venetians_ brought them back again, after they
had made themselves Masters of that City. Besides these Four Horses, the
Front of the Church is adorn’d with other Statues. The Roof consists of
several Domes, over which there are very fine Crosses. The Inside of the
Church is truly magnificent: The Walls are lin’d throughout with Marble;
the Pavement is also of Marble of perfect _Mosaic_ Workmanship; and the
Roof is lin’d in the same manner.

From thence I went to the Palace of the Doge, the Architecture of which I
took to be very irregular. The Hall where the Nobles meet, is a prodigious
large Room: The Doge’s Throne, which is plac’d at one End of it, is higher
than the rest by some Steps: There the Nobles sit upon Benches fronting
the Throne, which form Eleven Rows, or Walks, wide enough for a Person to
pass easily between them: The Throne and the Seats of the Nobles are very
plain: The Beauty of this Room consists intirely in Pictures that are
worth seeing: There is one that represents the Taking of _Constantinople_
by the _Venetians_; and on the other Side is the History of Pope
_Alexander_ III. and of the Emperor _Frederic Barbarossa_, with the
Pictures of the several Doges.

There is a large Square call’d _The Broglio_, before the Doge’s Palace,
where the Nobles commonly take the Air; and tho’ there be no Covering to
it, nor any Verdure, yet ’tis very pleasant because of the Neighbourhood
of the Sea, the Prospect of which is boundless and most delightful. The
Resort of Ships, Galleys, and Gondolas, continually coming in and out
here, affords another Scene, which is the more amusing because of its
Variety. Besides this, one has the Pleasure too of discovering several
little Islands that are said to be inhabited by none but Fryars, who have
magnificent Churches and Convents there. At that End of this Square, next
to the great Canal, there are Two fine Pillars of Marble; on one of which
are the Arms of the Republic, _viz._ a Winged Lyon; and on the second is
the Statue of _St. Theodore_, the ancient Patron of the Republic.

I had not the Honour of seeing the Doge, and therefore shall say nothing
of him, only that he seems to me but an imaginary Prince, and in Effect no
more than the First Slave of the Republic. All the Lustre he has, is to be
at the Head of the Senate and the Nobles in all the Assemblies and
Ceremonies; for the rest, his Credit, if he may be said to have any, is
extremely bounded. The Ceremony in which he appears with all his Splendor,
is that which is perform’d every Year at _Venice_, upon Ascention-Day:
Then the Doge, at the Head of the Senate and all the Nobility, goes on
board a stately Vessel call’d the _Bucentaure_; and when he is advanc’d a
little way into the Gulph, he throws a Gold Ring into the Sea, and says,
_We marry thee, O Sea, in Token of that True and Perpetual Dominion which
the Republic has over Thee_. And indeed, the _Venetians_ look upon the
_Adriatic Sea_ as their peculiar Property.

The _Venetian_ Nobles are as scrupulous in Matters of State, as the modern
_Romans_ are in those of Ceremony; insomuch that they break off all
Correspondence with any Man that keeps Company with an Ambassador; of
which I myself had Experience. As I had known _M. de Q----_ at the King of
_England_’s Court at _Hanover_, and _M. G----_ at the Court of _Vienna_, I
thought that when I saw them return’d to _Venice_, I could not do better
than to pay them a Visit, in order to be introduc’d into good Families. I
went to them accordingly, and was receiv’d with all possible Civility by
those Gentlemen, who next Day return’d my Visit, when I observ’d in the
Course of the Conversation, which was not very long, that Notice had been
taken of my being so often at the House of the Imperial Ambassador; and I,
for my own Part, gave them to understand, that I was not dispos’d to make
a Sacrifice of the Ambassador’s Family in Compliment to them. The Person
who then resided there with that Character was the Count _de Colloredo_,
at whose House there was an Assembly every Night of all the Foreigners of
most Distinction at _Venice_. He had with him the Countess of _Colloredo_,
whom, no doubt, you have seen at the House of her Brother _M. de
Blaspiel_, when she was the Widow of the Count _de Collonitz_. The
Ambassador and his Lady were perfectly complaisant to all Persons that
came to their House, and there was every Day very good Company. I made an
Aquaintance there with the Marchioness _de R----_, Daughter of the
celebrated _Madame de M----_. This Lady had left the Court of _France_ and
her Family, and, after having travell’d thro’ several Countries, came and
settled at _Venice_. I confess I was heartily concern’d to see a Lady, who
must have been very amiable in her Time, reduc’d, by a natural Uneasiness
of her Temper, which perhaps too was Hereditary, to lead so strolling a

While I stay’d at _Venice_, the Hereditary Prince of _Modena_ came and
spent a few Days there. The _Venetians_ made several Entertainments for
him, which gave me the Pleasure of seeing the _Venetian_ Ladies in all
their Dresses, or else I should have gone away without seeing one of them;
for the Jealousy of their Husbands confines them almost always within
Doors, so that ’tis impossible to see them, but in the Time of the
Carnival, or on some Days of Festival. While the Prince of _Modena_ stay’d
at _Venice_, there was a sort of Carnival, which gave the Town an Air of
Gaiety that is not common to it. I was surpriz’d at the magnificent
Dresses of the Ladies, especially at the Number of their Jewels; for as to
the rest of their Habit, there was something odd in it, as there is always
in the Dress of the _Italians_. They were very constant at the Balls which
were made for that Prince, who could not fail of being pleas’d to see how
fond the Republic was to caress him. They also entertain’d him with a
Diversion call’d the _Regatte_, which is a Contention of small Vessels to
out-sail one another, and makes a very pleasant Shew. They are divided
into Four little Squadrons, which are distinguish’d from one another by
little Flags or Streamers of several Colours, and every Squadron is
conducted by a great Bark richly gilded and adorn’d with very fine
Paintings. The Seamen who are on board these Vessels, are always dress’d
after a very gallant Manner: These Squadrons strive which shall gain the
Prize appointed for that which arrives first at the Mark. The Prince of
_Modena_ seem’d to be mightily delighted with the Entertainment. In a few
Days after it, he set out from _Venice_. I thought also of proceeding in
my Travels thro’ _Italy_, and went to _Padua_ with the same Gondoliers
that had serv’d me while I stay’d at _Venice_.

       *       *       *       *       *

[24]PADUA is an Episcopal City, famous for its University; and more
ancient, they say, than _Rome_ and _Venice_. ’Tis thought to have been
founded by _Antenor_ the _Trojan_ Prince, whose Tomb is still to be seen
there. Its Soil is extremely fertile, and from thence came the Proverb,
_Bologne la Grasse, mais Padoue la passe_, i. e. _Bologne_ the _Fat_, but
_Padua_ the _Fatter_. As to the outside Appearance of the Town, I took
such a cursory View of it indeed, that what I saw of it gave me no great
Idea of it; for where-ever I came, every thing had a very dirty Hue: The
Pavement was much out of Order, and the Houses of a despicable Taste; but
I thought the Churches of _St. Anthony_ and _St. Justina_ really

The first, where lies the Body of _St. Anthony_, is fac’d with
_Basso-Relievo’s_ of white Marble, representing the principal Miracles
wrought by that Saint. The Altar is richly adorn’d, and illuminated with
Thirty-nine great Silver Lamps that burn Night and Day.

_St. Justina_’s Church, tho’ far inferior to _St. Anthony_’s in point of
Magnificence, is one of the finest in all _Italy_. The High Altar is, in
all respects, a finish’d Piece of Work, and is intirely of Marble; as are
also Twenty-four other Altars in the same Church, every one of which is of
a particular Architecture. Round the Choir are Pews adorn’d with
_Basso-Relievo’s_, representing the Prophecies contain’d in the Old
Testament relating to _Jesus Christ_; and the fulfilling of them in the
New. On one Side of this Church is a huge Monastery, which has Six
Cloysters, several Courts, and a Number of very magnificent Gardens. I
went afterwards to see the Hall of the Town-house, which is one of the
largest in _Europe_, being 256 Feet in Length, and 86 in Breadth: The Roof
is very fine, and the Workmanship thereof bold, having no Pillar to
support it; but the Fault of it is ’tis pretty dark, though I know not
what should hinder its having more Light, the Situation of it being such
that it might be procur’d for a very small Charge.

From _Padua_ I went to _Modena_, by the Way of _Ferrara_ and _Bologna_.
The Soil of _Padua_ being very marshy, the Roads are terrible, and I had
as much to do as ever I had in my Life to reach to _Ferrara_, where I took
Water, for fear that I had the same bad Way to get to _Bologna_. The very
Day that I arriv’d at the latter, I set out for _Modena_, to which is a
very plain Road thro’ a most agreeable Country, where the Eye is feasted
at every Turn with a pleasing Variety.

       *       *       *       *       *

MODENA is the Capital of a Duchy of the same Name. This was the City in
which _Mark Anthony_ besieg’d _Brutus_, after the Murder of _Cæsar_. The
Dukes of _Modena_ are of the Family of _Est_, and depend on the Empire. I
had the Honour of making my Compliments to the Duke Regent, who receiv’d
me in the most obliging Manner that could be. He was still in Mourning for
the Empress _Leonora_, Mother to the Emperor. He receiv’d me standing: As
soon as ever I had made my Obeisance he put on his Hat, forc’d me to put
on mine, talk’d kindly to me for a good while, and I went away very well
satisfy’d with my Audience.

As I had no Design to stay long at _Modena_, I did but glance over the
several Quarters of this City, in which I found no Structure, either
sacred or prophane, that deserves a Traveller’s Regard. The Streets of
_Modena_ are narrow, nasty, and ill-pav’d, the Street of the _Course_
being the only one that is tolerable. The Duke’s Palace will be grand and
magnificent when finish’d; as much as I saw of it carry’d up, being
sufficient to form a great Idea of what the rest will be. The Duke’s
Apartments are spacious and richly furnish’d: There was one of them
fitting up for _Madamoiselle de Valois_, the Daughter of the Duke of
_Orleans_ the Regent, now the Princess of _Modena_, who they expected
would soon be their Sovereign; and all Hands were at work to give her a
Reception worthy of what she was already, and of what she was like to be.
This Princess had need be Mistress of her Temper to bear the kind of Life
they live at the Court of _Modena_, to which none can compare for
Tranquillity; insomuch that it may be said, the very Gloominess of it is
enough to incline a Person to Melancholy, especially one that comes to it
from so gay a Court as that of _France_. In short, the Life of the Court
of _Modena_ is the Life of a Convent: When they rise, they go to Mass, and
dine betimes; after Dinner they take a Turn out for the Air; in the
Evening they play for some Time, sup at Eight a Clock, and by Ten they are
in Bed. This, _Madame_, is the common Custom at the Court of _Modena_; at
least they liv’d thus when I was there: but the Arrival of the Princess
perhaps might make some Alteration in that irksome Repetition of the same
thing over again in Life, which is by no means suitable to a Sovereign

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Modena_ I went to REGGIO, a City and Bishoprick between _Parma_ and
_Modena_. This Town is noted for its Fairs, which are said to have some
Resemblance with ours at _Francfort_ and _Leipsic_. I have been told, that
during these Fairs there’s always a noble Opera perform’d in this Town.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Reggio_ I struck into the Road to PARMA, an Episcopal City, and
Capital of a Duchy of the same Name. The Cathedral is a magnificent Pile,
and the Dome is adorn’d with Paintings, which are much admir’d by the best
Judges. As to the rest of the City, it appear’d to me to be large and very
well built. Its Inhabitants are polite, generous and ingenious, and
there’s a good Number of Nobility here, but they live so much after the
_Italian_ manner, that ’tis not an easy Matter to get acquainted with

The Court of _Parma_ is but little, if any thing, gayer than that of
_Modena_: I was perfectly well receiv’d by the then Duke, _viz._ _Francis
Farnese_, who, by a Dispensation, of which there are few Examples in the
Catholic Church, had marry’d his Brother’s Widow. This Princess is call’d
_Dorothy_ of _Neubourg_: She is Sister of the Elector Palatine, and had by
her first Husband _Elizabeth Farnese_, the present Queen of _Spain_: She
having no Issue by her second, the Duchy of _Parma_, by the Death of Duke
_Francis_ _Feb. 22, 1727_, devolv’d to his Brother _Anthony Farnese_, who
marry’d _Henrietta_ Princess of _Modena_. As there is Reason to believe
that this Marriage too will prove sterile, the famous _Farnese_ Family,
which owes its Advancement to _Paul_ III. will be extinct in this
_Anthony_. The said Pope, a little after his Exaltation to the
Pontificate, gave the Investiture of the Dominions of _Parma_ and
_Placentia_ to _Lewis Farnese_ his Bastard, who marry’d a Bastard Daughter
of the Emperor _Charles_ V. yet this double Bastardy has not been a Bar to
the matching of this with the chief Families in _Europe_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I stay’d Three Days at _Parma_, and then proceeded on my Journey; I pass’d
thro’ PIACENZA or PLACENTIA, so call’d from its pleasant Situation; Nature
having not form’d a finer Country any where than that betwixt this City
and _Parma_: Here is a very fine Castle, and a noble Square, in which is
the Court of Justice. The Houses are very well built, but not lofty, tho’
indeed it would not signify any thing if they were higher, it being so
thinly inhabited, that it looks like a Desert; for sometimes one shall
walk a long while in this City, and not meet a Soul.

I stay’d but a Day at _Piacensa_, and went directly to MILAN, the capital
City of one of the finest Duchies in the World: ’Tis one of the most
beautiful Cities in all _Italy_, and the most magnificent in Buildings,
both sacred and profane. The Metropolitan Church is, next to _St. Peter_’s
at _Rome_, one of the finest Pieces of Work that can be imagin’d: ’Tis all
white Marble within and without, and there’s a great Number of Statues of
the same. The Roof is supported by 160 Columns of white Marble, which are
each valued at 10,000 Crowns. The Tower at the Top of it is also worth
visiting, its Situation being so advantagious, that one sees several
Cities from it, and a good Part of _Lombardy_.

There are several other noble Churches, of which I don’t propose to give
you a Description, nor of many other elegant Structures, that are likewise
richly furnish’d; for the _Milanese_ Gentry love Magnificence: Their
Apartments have a certain grand and noble Air, which the _Italians_ for
most part rarely affect. The People of Quality here are very sociable:
There’s an Assembly every Night at one House or other by Turns, and in all
Places there’s great Freedom. Every one has his favourite Amusement; some
chat, others play. They commonly sup together, after the Gaming is over,
and sometimes they have a sort of Ball. You perceive, _Madame_, by what I
have already said of _Milan_, that ’tis a very agreeable Place to live in:
I forgot to mention one distinguishing Quality of the _Milanese_, which
is, that they are not at all jealous, a Fault that seems so predominant in
the Temper of the _Italians_, that I cannot imagine how they escape it.

You must know, that never was City subject to more Revolutions than
_Milan_: It has been besieg’d 40 times, and 22 times taken, but was never
worse treated than it was by the Emperor _Frederic_ I. surnam’d
_Barbarossa_. This Prince, after he had taken it, caus’d it to be
demolish’d, and sow’d it with Salt; only a few Churches were spar’d. The
Duchy of _Milan_, which, by its Situation, lies convenient for many
Sovereigns, has always prov’d a Source of Wars for _Italy_: You have read
no doubt in several Histories, what Misfortunes this Duchy has entail’d
upon the neighbouring Provinces, especially during the Reigns of _Charles_
V. and _Francis_ I. King of _France_. The latter having demanded the
_Milanese_ for his second Son the Duke of _Orleans_, the Emperor promis’d
to give him the Investiture of it, but he was so little a Slave to his
Word, that he gave himself no Trouble to discharge his Promise, which bred
an implacable Hatred between those Two Monarchs: It was indeed suspended
more than once, but ’twas always to gain a Breathing-time, for they hated
each other as long as they liv’d.

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had stay’d awhile at _Milan_, I set out for the Court of _Savoy_.
The first City I stopped at was CASAL, formerly one of the strongest and
most important Fortresses in _Italy_: The Citadel especially was by all
good Judges look’d upon as one of the Wonders of the World. _Lewis_ XIV.
who had Possession of it for a long time, caus’d such fortifications to be
made there, as are hardly to be match’d. That Monarch observing the
Bigness of the Buildings, caus’d an Intrenchment and a second Rampart to
be made, which form’d a new Bastion in the Centre of the first; but now
there remain only some Vestigies of those fine Works; the Fortifications
both of the City and Citadel having been demolish’d in 1695, according to
a Capitulation made between the _Germans_ and the _French_, when the
former made themselves Masters of the Place.

_Casal_ belong’d heretofore to the Dukes of _Mantua_, but now, by the
Emperor’s Grant thereof, it belongs to the King of _Sardinia_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I went in one Day from _Casal_ to[25]TURIN, the capital City of
_Piedmont_, the See of an Archbishop, and the chief Seat of the Duke of
_Savoy_. ’Tis not very large, but is in the main a very pretty Town, the
Streets being broad and strait, the Houses generally uniform, and
intermingled with noble Edifices: Here is also a Citadel, one of the
strongest that can be imagin’d, every Part of it being countermin’d. There
is a Well of a very singular Construction, which, tho’ very deep, is so
contrived, that several Horses may go down and up again, without meeting
one another: This is perform’d by means of a double Stair-case without
Steps, which winds so many times, that it makes the Descent easy.

The Entrance into _Turin_ thro’ the new Gate gives one a grand Idea of the
City: We come first into a great and very long Street, the Houses of which
are all of the same Architecture: About the middle of it is the Square of
_St. Charles_, which is encompass’d with Houses perfectly uniform, which
would make a much more grand Appearance, if the Piazza’s, that run round
it, were but higher. After one has pass’d the Square of _St. Charles_, the
same new Street brings us to a second Square, that fronts the King’s
Palace, on the Right Hand of which stands the Palace where liv’d _Madame
Royale_, the King’s Mother: These Two Palaces have a Communication with
each other by a Gallery.

There is nothing magnificent in the Outside of the King’s Palace, but then
the Apartments are of an elegant Taste, and richly furnish’d, and here’s a
great Number of Paintings, which good Judges reckon excellent Pieces. The
Apartment of the King and Queen takes up the first Story, and forms a
double Apartment, with a Guard-Room before it. The finest Part of the
Palace is the famous Chapel of the Holy Handkerchief; tho’ this Chapel be
a Part of the Cathedral, I make no Scruple to call it the Chapel of the
Palace, because the King always hears Mass there. I thought it a very
gloomy Place, undoubtedly because ’tis lin’d with black Marble of a
greenish Cast; and besides, there was no Brass nor Gilding to enliven all
this Black. I ask’d, what could be the Reason, why they chose black Marble
preferably to any other; and was told, that ’twas in Remembrance of the
Death of our Saviour Jesus Christ, whose Holy Handkerchief is preserv’d
over the Altar: This Altar is so made, that Two Priests may say Mass at it
together, without seeing or interrupting one another.

On one Side of the King’s Palace stands, as I had the Honour to tell you,
the Palace of _Madame Royale_ the King’s Mother. This Building was very
inconsiderable heretofore, the Apartments being very plain, and the only
Stair-case leading to it extremely incommodious: But _Madame Royale_, who
did not value Money, caus’d great Alterations to be made in it: Among
other Embellishments she built one intire Front, for the Sake of having
one of the finest Stair-cases to it in the World; for which Reason they
say now, _That here’s a Stair-case without a Palace_, as they said before,
_That ’twas a Palace without a Stair-case_. Indeed the rest of the
Building is by no means answerable to the Magnificence of the Front and
the Stair-case; yet, as mean an Appearance as it makes without, the
Apartments within are magnificent; for look which way soever, one sees
nothing but Marble, noble Gilding, Paintings by the greatest Masters,
Pier-Glasses of a wonderful Size and Beauty, and other very rich
Furniture. This Palace had only one Garden to it, which was encompass’d on
the Three Sides by Streets and very fine Squares: The Back-Part look’d
towards that call’d the Street of the _Po_, which is one of the finest in

The Royal Family consisted first and foremost of King _Victor Amadeus_,
who marry’d a Granddaughter of _France_, nam’d _Anna-Maria_ of _Orleans_,
Daughter of _Philip_ Duke of _Orleans_, Brother to _Lewis_ XIV. and to
_Henrietta_ of _England_, by whom he has had Two Princes and Two
Princesses: The first of the Princes was _Philip-Joseph_, who dy’d the 22d
of _March_, 1715, at 15 Years of Age: The second, who is the present King
by the Resignation of the King his Father, is _Charles-Emanuel_, who
marry’d first _Anne-Christina_ of _Sultzbach_, and his second Wife was
_Polyxena_ of _Hesse Rhinfels_.

The Two Princesses were _Mary-Adelaide_ of _Savoy_, (marry’d to the Duke
of _Burgundy_, Dauphin of _France_, Father of _Lewis_ XV.) who dy’d the
12th of _February_, 1712: And _Mary-Louisa_ of _Savoy_, (the first Wife of
_Philip_ V. the present King of _Spain_) who dy’d the 14th of _February_,

The Queen was still living while I was at _Turin_: She was one of the most
courteous Princesses in the World, lov’d dearly to converse with her
Courtiers, and was perfectly civil to Foreigners that had the Honour to be
introduc’d to her: She dy’d the 26th of _August_, 1728.

_Madame Royale_ the King’s Mother was very ancient; yet ’twas easy to
discover, that she had once her Share of Beauty, and she had still a fine
Shape and a majestic Air, in Spite of her great Age.

The first Prince of the Blood of the _Savoy_ Family is _Victor Amedeus_,
the Prince of _Carignan_: This Prince happen’d not to be at _Turin_ when
I was there, his Affairs having requir’d his Presence for some time in
_France_: I had the Honour of paying my Compliments to the Princess his
Consort, who, you know, is the King’s Daughter, by the Countess of
_Verrue_. Before her Marriage she went by the Title of _Madamoseille de
Suza_: This Princess is indeed not very tall, but she is a perfect Beauty,
the Features of her Face, which are regular, being improv’d moreover by a
fair clear Complexion. All these external Perfections are supported
likewise by the best Sense and a generous Soul: She is so good-natur’d, so
civil, and has such a happy manner of expressing herself, as wins the
Hearts at the same time as it procures the Respect of those that hear her:
She has a Vivacity of Temper, which charms, and a Generosity, which is not
confin’d to Words only; and she is never better pleas’d, than when she has
an Opportunity of doing Service: This, _Madame_, is not a feign’d
Character, for I say no more than what I was Eye-Witness of myself, and
what the whole City of _Turin_ said of this Princess: And I saw with what
Regret they parted with her, when she set out to see her Husband at
_Paris_, which she did while I was at _Turin_.

I was a constant Attendant at Court to pay my Duty to the King and all the
Royal Family: The Time that one had the Honour of speaking to his Majesty
was commonly when he went from Mass, for it was very rare to see him the
rest of the Day. After this the Company us’d to go to the Prince of
_Piedmont_’s Apartment, which was over the King’s; but one had not the
Pleasure of waiting on that Prince so often or so long as it were to be
wish’d, because he was then very much taken up with his Studies: The best
time to see him was in the Evening, when he came to the Queen’s
Drawing-Room, which was open’d about 6 or 7 o’Clock: Then the Ladies came
in their Court Dress, and were admitted into the Queen’s Chamber, where a
Chair of State was plac’d between Two Rows of Stools: The Queen came out
of her Closet with the Princesses, and as soon as she was in Reach of her
Chair, she made a Curtesy to the Right and Left, and then sate down: The
Princesses also seated themselves in Folding Chairs; but the Ladies stood
behind the Princesses, and the Gentlemen behind the Ladies: The Queen,
after a Conversation with the Princesses and the Ladies, arose, paid her
Compliments again to the Right and Left, and then retir’d; tho’ sometimes
she stopp’d in the same Chamber, to talk to such Ladies or Gentlemen as
she had a Mind to distinguish.

From the Queen’s Drawing-Room the Company went to the Apartment of _Madame
Royale_. This Princess had a Drawing-Room in the same manner as the Queen,
only with this Difference, that the Prince of _Piedmont_ was not there,
and that after it was over, her Royal Highness permitted those Persons
that she had a Mind to honour, to follow her into her Bedchamber, where
she talk’d a long time with them, being supported all the while by one of
her Equerries.

After her Drawing-Room was over, there was no other Person of the Royal
Family to be seen more for that Night, and then the Nobility us’d to
repair to the Princess of _Villa-Franca_’s Assembly, where there was
Variety of Gaming: There were always several Tables for Ombre, Pharo,
Lansquenet, _&c._ and I play’d there with Fortune very much on my Side, as
I had done ever since I had been in _Italy_, where Gaming, in short, had
defray’d all my Expences; insomuch that when I got to the other Side of
the Mountains, I found that I was still a Gainer by about 200 Pistoles.

I found a great many Foreigners in the Service of the King of _Sardinia_:
The Commander of his Forces was _M. de Rhebinder_, a _Swede_, who gave
Foreigners a complete Reception, and his House was one of the best in
_Turin_. _M. de Schulembourg_, whose Family you know perfectly well, was a
Lieutenant-General: This Nobleman being a _Lutheran_, had obtain’d Leave
to have a Chaplain of his own Religion. I shall not mention the other
foreign Officers to you, because I had no particular Acquaintance with

Before I leave _Turin_, I fancy you will not be displeas’d with some
Account of the King’s Houshold, which tho’ not numerous, is very
magnificent. His Majesty has Three Companies of Life-Guards, which are
distinguish’d by the Names of _Sardinia_, _Savoy_, and _Piedmont_, and are
very well cloath’d. The King has a considerable Number of Pages, who are
brought up much more carefully than at our _German_ Courts, where one very
often forgets that the Pages are Gentlemen. Their Livery is Scarlet, with
a blue and white Velvet Lace.

The Prince of _Piedmont_ was serv’d by the King’s Officers.

The Queen had her separate Houshold. She had a Lady of Honour, a
Tire-Woman, and Six Maids of Honour, who were to be cashier’d, and they
talk’d of appointing Six Ladies of the Bedchamber, that were marry’d, to
attend the Queen’s Person in their room.

_Madame Royale_ had also her Houshold and her Guards. As she was naturally
fond of Splendor, all her Court made a very gay Appearance. She had
likewise in her Service the same Number of Ladies and Maids of Honour as
the Queen had.

There happen’d an Adventure at the Court of her Royal Highness which made
a very great Noise. Among this Princess’s Maids of Honour, who were all
very amiable, there was one that so far excell’d the rest, that her Beauty
engag’d her a great many Admirers from all Parts. Among others that
enter’d the Lists, was a young _Piedmontese_, whom I knew full well. He
was a very handsome lively Man, but a mere Rattle; so that after having
set all Engines at work to carry his Point, and sigh’d a long time, he
found himself just as far advanc’d as the first Day that he began.
However, this young Lover was not dishearten’d, but continu’d his
Addresses with a Constancy which really deserv’d some Regard; but whether
’twas owing to Virtue, or perhaps to the Fear of disgusting some favourite
Lover, the Damsel remain’d inflexible. The _Piedmontese_ being thus
rebuff’d, thought he was bound in Honour not to survive such Treatment;
but in so critical an Affair he resolv’d to do nothing rashly. He believ’d
that when the cruel Fair One saw the Despair into which she had cast him,
and the dreadful Extreme to which he was reduc’d, it might engage her to
treat him with less Severity; but it happen’d quite otherwise, insomuch
that the silly young Fellow having declar’d in plain Terms that he would
kill himself if he was to suffer Martyrdom any longer, the Damsel answer’d
him very indifferently, _Kill yourself if you will_, _what’s that to me?_
This Expression, indeed, made the young _Piedmontese_ not so desirous to
be his own Executioner as he pretended; but nevertheless he was resolv’d
to frighten his Mistress, and leaving her very abruptly, he went and
fill’d a Bladder with Blood, and putting it very artfully under his Shirt,
he return’d to the Damsel, and threaten’d even to destroy himself in her
Presence, if she persisted in her Refusal of his Addresses. The Answer he
received being much of the same kind with the former, he cry’d out in a
Passion, _What, will you have my Life, Mademoiselle? Well then, so be it_:
At the same Instant he drew his Sword, and having prick’d the Bladder, he
fell down as if he was a dead Man; Upon this the Damsel gave a dreadful
Shriek, and Help came immediately. The great Effusion of Blood was
terrifying at the first Sight; but when the young Spark was set upon his
Legs, ’twas quickly perceiv’d by his Countenance, that the Sacrifice he
had made did not cost him very dear. The worse Luck for him, it happen’d
that _Madame Royale_ was inform’d of it that very Instant; for the
Tragi-Comedy being presently divulg’d in her Antichamber, that Princess,
in order to teach the Puppy not to fail hereafter in the Respect due to
Princes, caus’d him to be committed to a Castle not far from _Turin_,
where he was for about Two Years a Prisoner.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Turin_ I went the same Day to the Foot of Mount _Cenis_. I saw
nothing remarkable all the Way, except the Town of SUSA, in which were
formerly kept the Titles and Charters of the House of _Savoy_; but the
Emperor _Frederic_ I. set Fire to it, and burnt them all.

At a little Distance from _Susa_ is a Fortress call’d LA BRUNETTE, which
is worth the Traveller’s Notice: It commands the Passage of the _Alps_,
which hereafter will for that reason be more difficult for the _French_ to
pass than formerly. Next Day after my Arrival at the Foot of Mount
_Cenis_, I prepared to pass that terrible Mountain: For this Purpose I
dismounted my Chaise, and put it with my Trunks upon the Backs of Mules;
after which I plac’d myself in a sort of Arm-Chair; and Two Men, who were
reliev’d every now-and-then by Two others, carry’d me over it in Five
Hours time. When I was on the Top of it I stopp’d, in hopes of discovering
a great Tract of Country; but saw nothing, except a great Lake, and fine
rich Meadows. On the Top of this Mountain there was a House of
Entertainment, where the Mule-Drivers and Chair-Men always refresh
themselves. This surely is the dismalest Place in the World, it being
situate in the middle of a frightful Desert, which is always, or at least
Nine Months in the Year, cover’d with Snow. One thing remarkable is, that
no Robbery is committed in this wild Place, tho’ the People upon the
Skirts of it are not to be trusted.

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had been over Mount _Cenis_, I went to _Lanebourg_, the first
Village in _Savoy_, where Travellers get again into their Chaises. As soon
as my Equipage was remounted, I traveled to[26] CHAMBERY, the Capital of
_Savoy_. This is a City situate between Two Mountains, upon the Rivers
_Laise_ and _Albans_. ’Tis the Residence of a Parliament, consisting of
Fifteen Senators and Four Presidents, which is oblig’d for its
Institution to _Amedeus_ VIII. Duke of _Savoy_.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Chambery_ I went to GENEVA, a little Republic, which is an Ally of
the _Swiss_ Cantons. The City stands upon a Lake, of which it claims the
Sovereignty, as the Republic of _Venice_ does that of the _Adriatic_ Sea.
This Lake contributes very much to the Embellishment of _Geneva_, which is
built upon a Hill, in Form of an Amphitheatre; so that on one Side it
looks over the Lake, on the Banks of which are Vineyards and very pretty
Country-Houses; and on the other Side is a Prospect of a noble Plain,
Gardens, very fine Pastures, and a curious Walk form’d by a very long
Mall: On each Side are the Mountains of _Savoy_, the Tops of which being
cover’d with Snow, form a very agreeable View.

’Tis true, that as to the _Genevese_, the Situation of their City would be
much more advantageous, if their Prospect was not so confin’d; or, at
least, if they had nothing to fear from that which forms so charming a
Point of View: For which way soever these Republicans turn their Eyes,
they easily see the Limits of their Dominions; and this little Republic
only subsists by the Jealousy of the Sovereigns their Neighbours, who will
not suffer any one of themselves to make a Conquest of it. Mean time these
People make a Parade of their Forces, and have been at considerable
Expence in fortifying the Place, tho’ for what Reason I cannot imagine;
since if any one of the neighbouring Powers came to attack _Geneva_, and
the City was not supported by the others, it would be oblig’d to
surrender, whether fortify’d or not. I should have thought it better to
have employ’d the Money expended on their new Fortifications, in
embellishing their City, and to have contented themselves with the old
Fortifications, which were more than sufficient to have given them Time
for receiving Succours in case of an Attack.

I went to see the Arsenal, which appear’d to me to be well furnish’d, and
they have always a considerable Garison, the Soldiers of which must be all
Voluntiers; and if they once take a Dislike to the Service, they may
demand their Dismission, and their Officer cannot refuse it: Yet
notwithstanding this Liberty, the Garison is not always completer than it
should be.

The _Genevese_ have the Reputation of being rich, and not without
Foundation; for they drive a considerable Trade, and every body there is
either a Merchant or a Manufacturer. Yet they affect a great deal of
Plainness, both in their Buildings and their Furniture. Their Houses are
not lofty, nor the Apartments very large; and both their Houshold-stuff
and Cloaths are very modest; there being a Decree of the Senate, which
forbids them to make use of Gilding in their Furniture or Apparel, for
fear, ’tis like, that Luxury, which formerly prov’d the Ruin of the
_Roman_ Republic, should be equally destructive to their petty State.

The Senate of _Geneva_ commonly assembles in their Town-House, opposite to
which is a Guard-Room, where the Soldiers present their Arms, as the
Senators go in or out of the Assembly, or when they walk in Ceremony: Upon
these Occasions the Senate and the Ministers form Two Rows, the former on
the Right Hand, and the latter on the Left.

The Town-House has nothing very remarkable, every thing being very plain.
In the great Hall I observ’d the Figures of Queen _Anne_ of _England_,
_Frederic_ I. King of _Prussia_, _Frederic William_ the Great Elector of
_Brandenbourg_, and the Landgrave of _Hesse-Cassel_; which are all so many
Proofs of those Princes Communion with the _Genevese_. You know that they
are all of the _Calvinist_ Religion, and very careful not to suffer any
other Sect to herd with them. The _Lutherans_ have a little Chamber there,
which serves for their Church, they being expresly forbid to build one. As
for the _Roman Catholics_, they are look’d upon at _Geneva_ to be all
Idolaters; insomuch that the late King of _France_ had much ado to get
Leave for Mass to be said at his Resident’s House: The _Genevese_
Ministers at the Time that _Lewis_ XIV. caus’d this Demand to be made of
the Republic, employ’d all their Engines to hinder its being granted; but
all their Measures were in vain: and they were given to understand, that
it would be imprudent to disoblige so great a Prince.

The Reverend Gentlemen their Ministers make so considerable a Figure in
the State, that I must just mention them. They are reverenc’d as so many
Bishops; every one of them in his respective Pulpit issues his Mandate,
and decides Matters of Faith in the Dernier Resort: But tho’ they are all
of the same Religion, they are some times very different from one another
in Opinion. Nevertheless, be they ever so divided one among another, they
join hand in hand when they have a Mind to inveigh against the Pope, the
Court of _Rome_, the Bishops, and especially the Jesuits; for they can’t
endure the latter: And ’tis rare for a Minister to be so much Master of
his Temper, as to keep strictly to his Text, without rambling from it to
lash those Fryars.

As to the Gentlemen of the Government, it must be confess’d they are very
charitable. They have caus’d a magnificent Hospital to be built, on which
they have settled great Revenues, and where the Poor are very well
maintain’d. Here poor Passengers are admitted for one Day, and, after
having been entertain’d with Lodging and Food, are dismiss’d the next Day,
with some Money in their Pockets to proceed in their journey. This same
Hospital serves also for a House of Correction for loose young Fellows and
Women, over whom the Police at _Geneva_ carries a very strict Hand. I wish
I could say as much of the Trading Part of this City, who it may be are
very civil People; but the Dispute I had with one of the most eminent of
them, makes me very much suspect their Honesty; and this was what gave me
an Opportunity to know a little of the Character of the Tradesmen of
_Geneva_. ’Tis true, that I had nothing to do but with one of them; but as
I was recommended to him alone, as a Man of the greatest Integrity in
_Geneva_, I think I do not judge rashly of all the rest, by laying no more
Dishonesty to their Charge than what I met with in this so much applauded

When I was preparing to quit _Geneva_, I had about the Value of 400
Pistoles, Part old Species and Part _Spanish_ Pistoles; but I heard at the
same time, that such Pieces were prohibited to pass in _France_, and
therefore I was advis’d to get rid of them, and to take Bills of Exchange
for them upon _Lyons_. I made no Hesitation to comply with this Advice,
and went to find out the Man that was recommended to me for the honestest
Banker in all _Geneva_. As Bills began at that time to sink very much in
Credit, I bargain’d with him, that I should not be put off at _Lyons_,
upon any Pretence whatever, with any thing less than ready Money. As all
this was only verbal, the Banker made me the most solemn Promise, and
back’d it with an Oath, that it should be as I would have it. Relying on
Promises, which were in Appearance so authentic, I told down my Money, and
when he took it, he added, That if the Banker at _Lyons_ should happen to
refuse me Specie, I need only send him back his Bill of Exchange, and I
might depend on being paid in ready Money. Not doubting of this honest
Man’s Sincerity, I set out from _Geneva_ with his Bill of Exchange, and a
small matter of Money that I had reserv’d, just to bear my Expences on the
Road. As soon as I came to _Lyons_, I went to the Banker to whom the
_Genevese_ directed me, and presented my Bill of Exchange, for which I saw
he was going to give me Paper; but I immediately refus’d to be paid in
that sort of Coin, and told him the Agreement I had made at _Geneva_. He
said to me, that he was not oblig’d to stand to an Agreement which he was
no ways privy to, and advis’d me to send back my Bill to _Geneva_. I took
his Advice, and wrote to my Banker, that what we had agreed upon would not
be comply’d with; but he was so tedious in returning me an Answer, that I
thought once I should have had neither Money nor Bills, and that by
consequence my Case would have been very melancholy, the little Sum I had
reserv’d for my Journey to _Lyons_ being soon spent. However, at Three
Weeks End the _Genevese_ Banker sent back my Bill of Exchange, and
stiffly deny’d that he had made any other Bargain with me, than that I
should be paid in the Current Money, which was Bills. I plainly perceiv’d
that there was no Remedy but Submission, therefore I took the Bills and
set out Post from _Lyons_ for _Paris_.

I found great Alterations in this City since I was here last. The Peace
with _Spain_ was establish’d: Most of the Prisoners that had been
concern’d in the Prince of _Cellamare_’s Affair, were then at Liberty:
Some, indeed, that were the most guilty, or the most useless to the State,
had been banish’d the Kingdom; and the greatest Part were retir’d to
_Spain_, where I saw some of them in such a poor Plight, that they wish’d
themselves again in the _Bastille_, where they were at least well fed.

The Duke Regent, for his Part, after having thus pacify’d some Persons to
whom his Authority gave Umbrage, had made Provision also for the
Establishment of some of his Daughters. For the One he had provided the
Abbey of _Chelles_, upon the Resignation of _Madame de Villars_, who was
the Abbess. The Second, who was call’d _Madamoiselle de Valois_, had been
just marry’d to the Hereditary Prince of _Modena_, and set out with a
Paraphernalia more grand than what is given to the Daughters of _France_.
The same Honours were paid to her upon the Road, as are commonly paid to
the Daughters of the King; and that there might be Substance answerable
to all this Splendor, the Duke of _Modena_ had bargain’d for a very
considerable Portion, payable in the Species of _Italy_, rather than be
expos’d to all the Revolutions of the _French_ Coin; in which that Prince
made a wise Bargain, for every Day was remarkable for one _Arret_ or
other relating to the Species. Nevertheless, those _Arrets_ did not look
as if they would be long in Force; at least, the Thing which they had
principally in View, absolutely came to nothing. There being therefore no
Gold nor Silver of which they could lower the Value, it was thought
expedient to touch the only Species left, I mean the Bank Bills, which in
their Turn were subject to various Revolutions, that were of the worse
Consequence to those wretched Effect; because, as they had no intrinsic
Value, they might very easily relapse into their original Nothing. They
say, that the Disaster which befel these Bills, was owing to Mr. _Law_’s
Enemies, who envy’d the Credit which they saw this Foreigner had with the
Regent; and of this nothing was a greater Demonstration than the
Difficulty they had to succeed in their Undertaking. But at length they
brought their Designs to bear; and after having remonstrated several
times, but always to no Purpose, that the Bills did a considerable Injury
to Trade; that several Merchants were oblig’d to shut up their Shops,
because ’twas impossible to trade without Money; that private People,
whose Substance lay intirely in Annuities, being paid off in Bills, could
not subsist long, since Tradesmen would not accept of those Bills for more
than the Value express’d upon them: In fine, the Regent being quite
wearied out with the continual Solicitations of these Remonstrants,
yielded to their Importunity, and consented to the suppressing of the
Bills. But as it was very evident that it would be impossible to annul
them all at once, it was resolv’d to do it by Degrees: Therefore, on the
21st of _May_, there came out an _Arret_, which lower’d the Bills from
_10 per Cent. per Month_, to one half of their Value. This _Arret_
occasion’d some Tumult; all _Paris_ was ready to rise in Arms, and so
great was the Throng of People one pay to the Bank, that several were
stifled in the Crowd, whose Bodies were carry’d by the mutinous Mob to the
Court of the Royal Palace. Mr. _Law_, to whom they ow’d a Grudge for
having given the Hint of so pernicious a Project, did not dare to shew his
Head. In short, the Ferment seem’d to work so strong, that the Regent
plainly perceiv’d ’twas impossible, at that Juncture, to inforce the
_Arret_ that had been newly issued; and chose to have it revok’d, in hopes
of regaining the Confidence of the Public. But it was intirely lost, every
one deserted the Bank; and notwithstanding the Menaces given out, that the
Species would be lower’d, People rather chose to keep their Money, which
would be always worth something, than to incumber themselves with Bills,
which, whenever the Prince took the Whim, would only be attended with the
melancholy Reflection by the Possessors, that they were once well to pass.
In Fact, notwithstanding the Revocation of the _Arret_, the Bills sunk
considerably every Day. Then it was that the Term of _Realising_ became
the favourite Word of the Time, that is to say, when the Generality of
private Men, who had any Bills, endeavour’d to exchange them, not for
Money, which at that Time seem’d to be bury’d again in the Earth, from
whence its Original was dug, but for real Effects: Some bought Diamonds,
others Plate, some Merchandize: In short, every wise Man got rid of his
Paper; and even the Nobility turn’d Merchants: Particularly one of them,
who was of the first Rank[27], had a considerable Warehouse stor’d with
Coffee, Wax-Candles, Grocery-Wares, and the like Goods, to sell again. The
Parliament took Cognisance of these Acquisitions, but his only Punishment
was the Mortification he receiv’d from those Gentlemen; and he was left in
Possession of the Grocery-Wares, Coffee, _&c._

At this very critical Time, when the Bills were reduc’d, did I arrive at
_Paris_; which City was then like a Wood for harbouring Robbers and
Murderers; and, in Fact, the Ease of carrying the Fortunes of a great many
People in a Pocket-Book was a great Temptation to Thieves: Moreover,
notwithstanding the Scarcity of Money, Luxury, Debauchery and Gaming were
arriv’d at the highest Pitch, and young Deboshees were guilty of the most
shocking Enormities to satisfy their Extravagance: To this Purpose I was
told a Story, that about the End of _Lent_ 1721, the Count _de Horn_, a
young Nobleman, related to the chief Families in _Europe_, was one of
Three that basely murder’d a poor Wretch, who got his Livelihood by
negociating Shares and Bills for other People: As this Man’s Letter-Case
seem’d to be full of Effects, that must amount to a considerable Sum, the
Count appointed him to come to a Tavern in _St. Martin_’s Street, on
Pretence of buying some Shares of him; when he came, he took him into a
Back-Room, which he had bespoke for the Purpose; and just as he was
opening his Letter-Case upon the Table, the Count and Two Comrades threw a
Cloth over his Head, and then cruelly stabb’d him with Daggers: The
unhappy Man made such a Noise while they were in the Act of murdering him,
that it brought some body up Stairs, but they had taken Care to fasten
the Chamber-Door in the Inside, so that ’twas impossible to enter it, and
the Count and his Accomplices made their Escape out of a Window, that
look’d into a little Street on one Side of the Tavern, from whence, tho’
they were in the second Story, they got down very easily, by the Favour of
some Beams, which were laid across the Street to support the Two Houses:
The Count’s Comrades thought of nothing less than flying their Country,
but there was only one of them that was so fortunate as to get into
foreign Parts, the other was apprehended about the Fish-Market, and
carry’d before a Commissary. The Count, on his Part, instead of
endeavouring to make his Escape, went and complain’d to a Commissary, of
an Attempt that had been made to assassinate him: His wild Stare and his
bloody Hand and Ruffles made the Commissary suspect there was something
more than ordinary in this Complaint, and he desir’d that he would carry
him to the Place where he said that he ran such a Risque of his Life;
which he scrupling to do, the Commissary sent for the Archers to carry him
thither by Force. The Count, before he set out, desir’d Leave to step
aside, to ease himself from the Impression, which he pretended the Danger
had made upon him; but, as it came out afterwards, it was only to drop the
Letter-Case, of which he had robb’d the Stockjobber, into the Privy: This
done, he set out with the Commissary, and the Truth of the Fact was soon
discover’d; for the Vintner having caus’d the Room to be broke open, the
Sight of the Corpse and the bloody Daggers were so many Evidences of the
Count’s Guilt, who was thereupon committed Prisoner to the _Chatelet_,
try’d the following Week, and condemn’d, together with his Accomplice, to
be broke alive upon the Wheel in the Place _de Greve_; which Sentence was
executed accordingly on the _Tuesday_ in the Holy Week. While he was yet a
Prisoner, all the foreign Nobility at _Paris_ labour’d hard to obtain his
Pardon, or at least that he might only be beheaded; to the end that the
Infamy of his Punishment on the Wheel might not be cast as a Reproach upon
his Family: But the Duke Regent made no other Answer, than that the Count
was as near akin to him as he was to them, but that ’twas the Crime, and
not the Punishment, that brought a Stain upon Families: The Count _de
Horn_ made a truly Christian Exit; for the religious Principles, which he
had once imbib’d from an Education suitable to his Birth, but which he had
the Misfortune to stifle, reviv’d at this dreadful Crisis; and made him
submit to dye with a Resignation which we seldom see in Persons that come
to such a violent Death.

The Fall of the Bills was not the only Misfortune that _France_ labour’d
under; for it was visited at the same time by a Pestilence: I was one Day
at the Duke Regent’s Levee, when he himself declar’d the melancholy News,
that at _Marseilles_ there was a Plague: This at first struck a sensible
Damp upon People, but ’twas quickly forgot, and they abandon’d themselves
more than ever to Pleasures, Feasting, Gallantry, _&c._ Gaming indeed was
not carry’d to that Height as usual, because it could not be done without
ready Money, the Bills having no Credit then, except what was forc’d; but
as to Trade, it decay’d every Day more and more; and the Merchants, who
had so long stiffly refus’d the Bank Bills, were nevertheless soon oblig’d
to accept them, being sensible, that if they rejected them any longer,
they should be under a Necessity, either to make no more Sales, or to sell
upon Credit; which was an Alternative equally destructive of Trade, which
is only to be supported by the Circulation of Species, or at least by
something equivalent.

Humanity, and the Concern I had for the Fate of my Friends, made me a
Sharer in the public Calamities; but for the rest, I pass’d my Time well
enough: I went to an Estate of a Friend of mine near _Orleans_, where I
spent about Six Weeks, and then return’d to _Paris_, where I stay’d no
longer than just to make due Preparation for my Tour to _Spain_: I
travell’d by the way of _Lyons_ and _Languedoc_, purely for the Pleasure
of seeing several of my Friends, who had Estates in those Places, and from
_Lyons_ I proceeded to _Vienne_ in _Dauphine_: From thence I repass’d the
_Rhosne_, and travelling thro’ the _Vivarese_, I went to an Estate near
_Nismes_, that belong’d to a Friend of mine, with whom I stay’d a Month:
At _Nismes_ I went to take a View of the famous Amphitheatres, which are
the precious Remains of the _Roman_ Antiquities.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Nismes_ I went to MONTPELIER, which in my Opinion is one of the most
agreeable Cities in the World; and where, next to _Paris_, there’s the
most good Company: The Situation of it is charming, it being not far from
the Sea, and encompass’d with very fertile Fields, that form a very
charming Prospect. The Houses are not well built, but are all very neat
within, and well furnish’d: The Streets are so narrow, that ’tis difficult
to pass them with an Equipage, so that Gentlemen commonly make Use of
Sedans: The Out-parts of the Town are very pleasant, especially towards
the Sea. In this Part is a great Square, in Form of a Terrace, surrounded
with Trees, in the middle of which is a magnificent Equestrian Statue of
_Lewis_ XIV. on a great Pedestal of white Marble: The Connoisseurs say,
’tis a complete Piece in all its Parts.

       *       *       *       *       *

After having spent some Days at _Montpelier_, I proceeded towards
_Toulouse_: I went first thro’ BEZIERS, an Episcopal City, the Situation
of which is so pleasant, that ’tis become a common Proverb, _If God were
to chuse his Residence upon Earth, he would certainly chuse_ Beziers. ’Tis
even said, that the Inhabitants of the Country, the Gentry especially,
have more Sense and Conduct than they have elsewhere: Yet, at different
Courts, I have seen several Persons, Natives of this City, who were really
so stupid, that the Notion I have of the Inhabitants of _Beziers_ is the
very contrary of what they would fain make me believe.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Beziers_ I travell’d to CASTELNAUDARI, in the Neighbourhood of which
City was fought the Battle wherein the famous Constable _Montmorency_ was
taken in Arms against his King. _Lewis_ XIII. having, at the Solicitation
of Cardinal _Richelieu_, order’d his Head to be cut off, he receiv’d the
Stroke of Death with a Constancy worthy of his Name, and of a better

       *       *       *       *       *

From this City I went in a very little time to Toulouse, the Capital of
_Languedoc_, and the Seat of a Parliament, which is the second in the
Kingdom: The Cathedral, dedicated to _St. Stephen_, is a magnificent Pile
of Building, in a large Square, adorn’d with a fine Fountain, in which
rises an Obelisk, that is a complete Piece of Work: The Archbishop’s
Palace, which joins to the Cathedral, is an entire new Building, wherein
no Cost has been spar’d: As to the Houses of _Toulouse_, in common they
are well enough built, but without any Ornament: The Streets are pretty
broad, but very nasty; so that I inferr’d, the Civil Government here was
not very strict: As to the People of _Toulouse_, I own to you, _Madame_,
that I could like their Way of Living well enough: They have all a great
Share of Wit, but the worst on’t is, they are conceited, which does them a
Prejudice: But they are very civil, especially to Foreigners, whom they
entertain perfectly well: I don’t think that I ever fed better, and liv’d
more merrily than I did with these People, who are all of ’em good Jokers:
The Accent of this Country too, especially of the Women, sets off whatever
they say to such an Advantage, as seems to give a witty Turn to even the
most common Thoughts: Little Songs or Ballads are, as it were, the Fruits
of the Soil: Every one is a Sonneteer, and if their Verses are not equally
good, yet they are all relish’d alike, they have such a happy way of
setting them off.

To the Honour of the _Languedocians_ be it spoken, there is not a Province
in _France_, nor even in _Europe_, where ’tis pleasanter Travelling: The
Roads are magnificent, the Inns well provided with every thing that a
Traveller, were he hard to please, can desire; and all at a reasonable

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Toulouse_ I travell’d to PAU, a City and Parliament of _Bearn_,
famous for the Birth of _Henry_ IV. on the 1st of _December, Anno 1557_,
for which Reason _Catherine de Medicis_ his Mother-in-Law, who did not
love him, call’d him the _Bearnois_: In the Castle is still to be seen the
Chamber where this Prince was born: This City consists but of one great
Street, at the End whereof stands the Castle, which is very ancient. The
Houses in general seem’d very inconsiderable, they being all low, small,
and without Ornament; but the Suburbs are very pleasant: As one goes out
of the Gate, towards the _Pyrenees_, there’s a very thick Wood, with
several Alleys cut out in it, that form a noble Walk: From this Wood,
which stands upon very high Ground to the _Pyrenees_, one sees an
extensive Valley, in which runs a very fine River, on the Banks whereof
are several scattering Villages and little Hamlets, that form one of the
most agreeable Prospects.

       *       *       *       *       *

In Travelling from _Pau_ to BAYONNE ’twas plain that we were got out of
_Languedoc_, the Roads being terrible, and the Inns detestable, for which
Reason I did not halt at all by the Way, but made Haste to _Bayonne_: The
next Day after I arriv’d, I went to pay a Visit to the King’s Lieutenant,
who commanded there: He was a Native of _Canada_, and, if I am not
mistaken, had been a Major or Lieutenant-Colonel in the Regiment of
_Normandy_: The Duke Regent had made him a Brigadier, and at the same time
created him a Knight of _St. Lewis_, at that great Promotion of Knights
which he made at the Beginning of the War with _Spain_: He had given him
for his Assistant one _Dadoncourt_, as a Man that he could depend on; and
’twas this Gentleman that receiv’d me, the King’s Lieutenant being at that
time absent from _Bayonne_: I lik’d this _Dadoncourt_ at first Sight: He
entertain’d me politely, and when I told him my Intention to go to
_Spain_; he said, I might do as I pleas’d, and that he saw nothing to
hinder it: He came next Day to see me, and invited me to dine with him: I
accepted his Kindness, but afterwards repented it; for the Company was far
from being select, and the Conversation very much disgusted me: In my
first Interview with _Dadoncourt_ I made Mention to him of a Visit that I
had paid to the Count _de S----_ in _Languedoc_: He talk’d of this to me
very much while we were at Dinner, and he declar’d his Astonishment, that
the Duke Regent had restor’d him to his Liberty, instead of cutting off
his Head, as he had deserv’d: _Really_, said he, with some Warmth of
Temper, to which I fancy the Wine had in some measure contributed, _His
Royal Highness was too good-natur’d; all those Rascals, that presum’d to
have a Hand in the Prince of_ Cellamare_’s Affair, ought to have paid for
it with their Heads_: I could not help being amaz’d at the Man’s Pertness,
and told him very mildly, that the Regent had behav’d most wisely, and
that it would have been too cruel to put People of the first Quality to
Death, the Spilling of whose Blood would perhaps have rous’d some
Vengeance: _Alas! Sir_, said he, _What could have been done? The Duke of_
Orleans _was sure of the Guards and Garisons; every body in the Country
would certainly have stood up in his Defence, and I myself would have been
the Hangman to have tuck’d up the first Gentleman that had offer’d to make
a Disturbance_: I plainly saw that I had to do with a surly Companion; and
perceiving also that he was fuddled, I let him run on as much as he would,
in magnifying the Attachment he pretended he had to the Duke Regent; but
made a Promise to myself, that it should be the last time I would visit a
Man that was so bloody-minded.

After Dinner was over, I went to have Audience of the Queen of _Spain_,
_Mary-Anne_ of _Neubourg_, the Dowager of _Charles_ II. When I came to the
Palace, or rather to a very pitiful House, where the Queen was lodg’d, I
found one of her Equerries, who carry’d me to an Antichamber, and leaving
me for a few Moments, he came again, and conducted me to the Apartment of
the Duchess of _Liquares_, Lady of Honour to the Queen; who was
prodigiously civil to me, but, as she understood no Language besides the
_Spanish_, it was impossible for us to converse, otherwise than by Signs,
of which she gave me a good Number, and which I answer’d by as many Bows.
As good Luck would have it, we were disengag’d from one another by an
Order that came to her, to carry me to the Queen: I found her Majesty
standing all alone in her Chamber, and dress’d in Black after the
_Spanish_ Mode: I saw in the next Chamber some of the Maids of Honour, who
were also in the _Spanish_ Dress, and peep’d in at the Door, which was
left half open: The Queen receiv’d me very graciously, ask’d my Name and
my Country, and seem’d overjoy’d to find a _German_, who was tolerably
acquainted with a Country for which she had always an Affection: She
inquir’d what News I brought of the Elector and the Princes her Brothers:
I was qualify’d to satisfy her Majesty in all those Questions, because I
had the Honour of paying my Court punctually to the Elector Palatine, and
the Princes her Brothers: In fine, after an Audience of an Hour and more,
the Queen dismiss’d me, when I stoop’d with one Knee to the Ground, and
kiss’d her Hand, according to the Custom that is observ’d in _Spain_.

The next and the following Days I had the Honour to pay my Duty to her;
sometimes in the Capuchins Convent, where she heard Mass very often; and
sometimes in that of the Cordeliers, to which her Majesty went almost
every Afternoon to Prayers: At other times I repair’d to a Garden behind
the House, where her Majesty frequently took a Walk after she had din’d.
This Princess always express’d herself in such a kind familiar manner as
charm’d me, and she was often glad to be disencumber’d from that Ceremony,
which is no less fatiguing to the Princes who grant Audience, than to
those who are admitted to it: She did me the Honour to ask me one Day,
Whether I did not wonder to see her in such mean Lodgings, and with such a
despicable Court? I own’d to her, that at first I was a little surpriz’d
at her Majesty’s preferring such a Mansion to the old Castle in the Town,
which really look’d more like a Palace than the House she liv’d in: _But_,
said she, _I am so us’d to my little Habitation, that I can’t find in my
Heart to leave it: I retir’d to it during the Contention between the
Houses of_ Austria _and_ Bourbon, _that I might not be so much exposed to
Company, as I must have been unavoidably, if I had resided in the Castle,
where every Passenger, either from_ Spain _or_ France, _would no doubt
have been desirous of seeing me; all which Visits would infallibly have
given Umbrage to one or other of the Two Parties, if not to Both; and I
had good Reasons to keep fair with each._

Another Day, when I had the Honour to discourse with her about _Spain_ and
_Germany_, I took the Freedom to tell her, that I wonder’d why her
Majesty chose rather to stay at _Bayonne_, than to live in one or other of
those Countries where I fancy’d she would have more Authority, and more
People of Quality to attend her. _As for your Persons of Quality_, said
the Queen, _I do not give myself much Trouble about them: All Men are
alike to crown’d Heads, and are great no farther than as we bring them to
our Courts, and honour them with our Confidence. A Man that you now call a
Scrub, perhaps, if I were to give him a Post To-morrow, and admit him to
my Service, he is to me as great a Lord as if his Ancestors had liv’d and
dy’d in the same Employment. And as for residing in_ Spain _or in_
Germany, _I have weighty Reasons against dwelling in either. For in_ Spain
_I should be oblig’d to live in a Convent, which is my utter Aversion. In_
Germany _I should, indeed, have all my Family about me; but the Court of_
Spain _would, perhaps, be uneasy at my living in the Empire, and I should
be teiz’d in respect to my Dowry, which I am very willing to preserve_.

All these Reasons, and what was more than all, a long Acquaintance, made
her loth to quit _Bayonne_; and that Retirement she enjoy’d there, was
more agreeable to her Taste, than the Bustle of a numerous Court, where
very often the Prince and the Courtier tread on one another’s Toes. The
Air of Freedom which reign’d at this little Court, and the Queen’s
Goodness in conversing with me so often, was the reason that I put off my
Journey to _Spain_ from one Day to another. At last, however, after
various Delays, I prepar’d in good earnest for my Departure. But at the
very Time when I thought I had nothing more to do than to take my Leave of
her Majesty, a very disgraceful Incident happen’d to me, which put me as
much out of Conceit with _Bayonne_ as I was before in Love with it. By
some imprudent Jokes that I had thrown out in Conversation, I had incurr’d
the Displeasure of the King’s Lieutenant, who made use of a specious
Pretext in order to be reveng’d of me. I will tell you my Tale in a few
Words as follows:

There was a Woman at the Queen’s Court, who, by her Frankness, in which
there was a Mixture of Impertinence, made her Court to the Queen with so
much Art, that her Majesty was kinder to her than any Services she was
capable of performing could deserve at her Hands. This Woman’s Name was
_la Borde_: She was a Merchant’s Widow, but married afterwards
clandestinely to the Queen’s _Major-Domo_, and had the intire Government
of her Majesty’s House, where she did not fail to give her daily

The Queen having permitted this Woman to sit in her Presence, it made her
so vain, that she forgot her mean Original, and affected the Air of a
Princess; but so ill did it become her, that she was quickly hated for it,
not only by the Queen’s Officers, but by the whole City of _Bayonne_. The
only Person who was attach’d to her, was the King’s Lieutenant; and that,
for no other Reason, but because this Officer being in a poor Plight when
he came first to _Bayonne_, and having moreover little to depend on, was
oblig’d to solicit the Queen for some Gratifications, in which _Madame la
Borde_ had employ’d her Interest to serve him: And serve him she did
without much Difficulty, because the Queen is so good-natur’d and
generous, that she is never better pleas’d than when she is bestowing
Favours. The Grotesque Figure of the King’s Lieutenant, and the queer
Dress of the Lady _la Borde_, were an inexhaustible Fund of Mirth for the
Queen’s Houshold. In short, ’twas impossible for a Person of the most
serious Gravity, not to laugh on the one hand at the old shock Pate of the
Lieutenant, who was vulgarly call’d _The Eternal Father_, and on the other
hand to see Dame _la Borde_, who was commonly wrapp’d up in Three or Four
Night-Gowns of different Colours one over another, and one shorter than
the other, whose favourite Head-Geer was Cornets fix’d on, with a careless
Air, by Scarlet Ribbons, and who had a monstrous Nosegay of Flowers ty’d
to one Side of her, with a Straw-colour’d Ribbon, and the Picture of some
unknown Saint fasten’d also to the other, by a Ribbon of the same Colour:
And to all these Gowns, a little Lackey, every whit as ridiculous as the
Mistress, was the Train-Bearer. I profess to you, _Madame_, that I could
not contain myself at the Sight of such ridiculous Figures; and therefore,
being once with some Company at Supper, when I was in a gay Humour, I let
fall some very severe Banters upon this charming Couple; of which the
King’s Lieutenant being inform’d, vow’d Revenge; and I was advertis’d by a
_German_ Cordelier, who was the Queen’s Confessor, that there was a Design
to apprehend me. But not being conscious of any Crime I had committed to
deserve it, I thought, at first, ’twas only given out to terrify me.
Nevertheless, I went to _Dadoncourt_, and, without mentioning any Name,
acquainted him of the Warning that had been given to me. He swore by his
Honour, and call’d to God to witness it, that he never had a Thought of
arresting me; and that I was free to go when and where I pleas’d. Upon
this I went back to my Quarters, almost persuaded that I had been falsly
alarm’d; but no sooner was I in my Chamber, but the Major of the Place
enter’d, with a subaltern Officer and a couple of Soldiers, with their
Bayonets at the End of their Musquets. He told me, that he was come in the
King’s Name to arrest me, and that he had Orders to commit me to the
Citadel, together with my _Valet de Chambre_. He also demanded all my
Papers, and the Keys of my Coffers; and whatever he ask’d for I gave him.
He left my Cloaths, _&c._ to the Care of my Landlord, charging him to be
answerable for them; and then carry’d me to the Citadel, where I was put
into one Room, and my _Valet de Chambre_ into another; and a Centinel was
clapp’d at my Door, who was order’d to let no Person whatsoever come to
speak to me. Towards the Evening, when they brought me Supper, I desir’d
Pen, Ink, and Paper, which was presently granted, and I wrote to the
King’s Lieutenant, to be inform’d of the Reason why he had put me under an
Arrest, and at the same Time to know whether I might be permitted to write
into _France_ to the Duke Regent and my Friends. He sent me Answer next
Day, that the only Cause of my being a Prisoner was, that I had discover’d
too much Friendship to the Count _de S----_: That I ought to remember what
I said of the Count before his Face, in Presence of Witnesses, which had
given him a Suspicion that I was but too deeply concern’d in the
Conspiracy he had fomented against the Regent: That in Consequence,
especially as he had not the Honour to know me, he should have thought it
a Failure of his Duty, if he had not secur’d my Person: That, for the
rest, he would write to Court, and that, if it appear’d I was not guilty
of any thing, I should soon be set at Liberty. He concluded his Letter
with Assurances of his Friendship, and a Protestation that he would do
what he could to serve me.

Since I knew not what I could do better, as my Circumstances then were, I
was glad to depend upon the good Offices which the King’s Lieutenant
proffer’d to do me; and in order to compose myself a little, I lay a Bed
as long as ever ’twas possible; for the only Remedy that could render my
Imprisonment tolerable was Sleep: But when I awak’d, a thousand different
Thoughts rack’d my Brain: Projects brooded over Projects, and I imagin’d
Schemes without Number for Deliverance out of my Scrape; but they were no
other than so many Castles in the Air, which instantly vanish’d as soon as
I came to serious Reflection.

Having pass’d my Time thus for several Days, I receiv’d a Visit, which at
first did not please me. Who should enter my Room, but an Officer, a
Serjeant, and Four Soldiers, with their Bayonets in their Musquets. The
Officer told me I must go with him to the Major of the Citadel, who was
appointed to examine me. Being in a Situation wherein ’twas my wisest way
to be tractable, I follow’d the Officer. When we came before the Major, we
found him sitting in an Elbow-Chair: He was wonderful civil to me, and
desir’d me to excuse him for not rising up to receive me, because he was
so afflicted with the Gout that he could not stir. Then he pray’d me to
sit down, and ask’d me who and what I was, whence and whither I was bound,
and the like: To all those Questions I return’d very _Laconic_ Answers,
which, together with the Questions, were reduc’d to Writing, and I was
made to sign them; and then I was carry’d back to my Chamber.

Two Days after this my _Valet de Chambre_ was set at Liberty, and had
Leave to attend me. I was also permitted to receive a Visit from one
Father _Thomas_, a _German_ Capuchin. These two Favours, granted both at
once, pleas’d me mightily; and I entertain’d great Hopes that my own
Liberty was approaching: So that every time I heard the Rattle of the
Keys, I imagin’d my Keeper was coming to tell me that I was no longer his
Prisoner. I flatter’d myself that the Duke Regent would give Orders for my
Discharge, and therefore was impatient to hear from him: But when I heard,
the Message was very different from what I expected: For _Dadoncourt_ sent
me a Note, acquainting me, that he had receiv’d Orders from Court to
confine me more closely. He not only executed his Orders, but I really
believe he exceeded them; for, not content with depriving me a second Time
of my _Valet de Chambre_, and forbidding Father _Thomas_ to come near me,
’twas no Thanks to him that I had not been starv’d to Death with Hunger
and Cold. He was afraid that my bare Imprisonment was not Punishment
enough, and therefore he treated me with all the Severity that could be.
My Commons were retrench’d one half; and as to Firing, it was intirely
suppress’d, for fear I should set Fire to the Citadel. I therefore wrote
to him, and made an Offer to purchase it at my own Expence, if he would
give me Leave: But he made me Answer, that a _Prussian_ could not be so
chilly as to be sensible of the Cold in _Guyenne_; and he was so
impertinent as to add, that if I was really cold, he would have me keep
my Bed. Nor was this all: Money was so scarce with me, that I was resolv’d
to discount the Bank Bills I had left, which were almost sunk to nothing.
But _Dadoncourt_ no sooner heard of it, than he sent the Banker an Order
not to discount them, for fear, perhaps, that I should make use of the
Money to corrupt my Keepers. Moreover, he abus’d his Authority to such a
Degree, that he caus’d my Cloaths &_c_. to be sold, to pay for what I had
run up at my Quarters while I stay’d at _Bayonne_. I would fain have
prevented this Sale, but ’twas to no Purpose, for I could not get Leave so
much as to send a Friend thither to take Care that every thing was done
with tolerable Decency; so that _Dadoncourt’s Valet de Chambre_ bought the
whole for one Eighth Part of the Value; and I could never get a just
Account what the Profit of the Sale amounted to. ’Tis true, that when I
was restor’d to my Liberty, they did not demand any Money of me.

So many Injuries offer’d to me, one upon the Neck of another, exasperated
me not a little. I wrote several Letters not only to the Duke of
_Orleans_, but _M. le Blanc_, Secretary of War, and sent them to the
Post-House at _Acqs_ by a Soldier, who undertook to deliver them for some
Money, which I handed to him, together with my Letters, thro’ a Chink of
my Door: But it all signify’d nothing. I likewise wrote a Letter to the
Queen of _Spain_, but that Princess, who then deem’d me a State Criminal,
did not care to be concern’d for me: Which Denial of her’s completed my
Despair, and I took it so much to Heart, that I fell sick, but they would
not allow me a Physician.

At this very Time the Baron _de Montbel_ came to _Bayonne_, and hearing
that I was a Prisoner in the Citadel, he desir’d to see me. This Baron,
who was by Birth a _Frenchman_, went to _Berlin_ at the Time of the
Revocation of the Edict of _Nantes_: He had an Employment given him at
that Court, and had been a Captain in the Regiment which was my late
Father’s. He was going at this Time to _Spain_. _Dadoncourt_ refus’d
point-blank to let him come and see me. Then the Baron desir’d Leave to
send me his Compliments by my _Valet de Chambre_, which _Dadoncourt_
granted, but ’twas only to affront me the more grosly; for my _Valet de
Chambre_ was no sooner enter’d into the Citadel, but he was search’d, in
order to know if he had not Letters for me; and none being found upon him,
_Dadoncourt_ said he was sure that the Baron had given him Letters to
deliver to me, and that he must and should produce them. My Man still
denying that he had receiv’d any Letter, was thrown into a Dungeon, where
he was threatened he should lie till he rotted, if he did not confess that
Letters had been given or offer’d to him for me.

This, _Madame_, was my melancholy Situation at _Bayonne_, having been
arrested on sham Pretences, pining with Hunger and Cold, depriv’d of all
Help, abandon’d by a Princess on whose Protection I had great Dependance,
and having nothing to comfort me: I had a good Conscience indeed, which
did not reproach me with any thing laid to my Charge; but this is a weak
Support, when a Man is to cope with such Enemies as make no more to
destroy the Innocent than the Guilty! A Persecution so unjust plung’d me
sometimes into Melancholy, and at other times made me raving mad; so that
when I came to myself, I was afraid I should lose all my Reason. At last
this Disturbance of my Mind, all these Passions subsided happily in a
Philosophical Calm, which restor’d me to myself. When I was composed, I
reason’d justly enough: I consider’d, that to fret and vex myself to
Death, would be the greatest Folly I could be guilty of; and that there
was no other Remedy but Time and Patience: I resolv’d therefore to
acquiesce like a true Philosopher; and I said to myself, that I had
nothing more to do but to be as easy as I could in the Citadel, till
_Lewis_ XV. was declar’d of Age.

I had just begun to be reconcil’d to my Chamber and to Silence, when News
was brought me of my Liberty: ’Twas on the 31st of _January_ that
_Dadoncourt’s Valet de Chambre_ came and told me, that his Master had
received Orders from Court to let me out of the Citadel; but that, as it
was late, he desir’d me to stay there that Night, and that next Day I
might go where I pleas’d: I consented to lye one Night more in the
Citadel; but next Day _Dadoncourt_, without Regard to the Assurance he had
sent me that I should have my full Liberty, and, by Consequence, either
stay or set out that Instant, as I pleas’d; sent to ask me what time I
intended to go for _Spain_; adding, that he had received Orders to send me
thither, and not to suffer me to stay any longer in _Bayonne_: I return’d
him a short Answer, but said enough to him to give him to understand, that
I was not in a Condition to set out, because, as my whole Substance
consisted in Bank Bills, which were at that time worth little or nothing,
I was under a Necessity of staying till I had discounted them, and that in
the mean time I was content to remain in the Citadel, till I could raise
Money, unless he himself would be so kind as to assist me: I added, that
if I must not discount my Bills, I desir’d Leave at least to go to
_Holland_, where I should find Relations or Friends who would serve me:
_Dadoncourt_ return’d me an Answer with all the Sauciness and Impertinence
of a Man of his Kidney: He sent to tell me, that he was neither a
Money-Changer, nor a Banker, to discount my Bills; that I could not stay
in the Citadel, because he had Orders to turn me out of it; and lastly,
that he would not suffer me to go to _Holland_, because he was by the same
Order injoin’d to send me to _Spain_: I thought this a blunt Sort of an
Answer; for, in short, as he knew who I was, he might, and even ought, to
have us’d me more politely; and even supposing that his Orders were as
urgent as he pretended, yet a Gentleman would have known better than to
notify them in that manner: I therefore saw myself under a Necessity of
travelling to _Spain_, with nothing but my Staff to support me; which
would certainly have been the Case, had it not been for Father _Thomas_,
who helped me to 40 Pistoles, upon Two thousand Livres worth of Bank
Bills; which Money I made use of to bear my Travelling-Expences: The
Luggage I had to carry was not very cumbersome; for I have had the Honour
to acquaint you, that _Dadoncourt_ had taken Care of that by selling off
what I had. My Journey to _Spain_ being reckon’d an Affair of the utmost
Importance, I had a Guard put upon me to conduct me to the Frontiers,
where they were so civil, as to shew me the Orders from Court, which were
executed with the utmost Strictness: They were contain’d in a Letter
directed to _Dadoncourt_ from _M. le Blanc_ the Secretary at War, in
Substance as follows: _His Royal Highness is willing, Sir, that you should
release the Baron_ de Pollnitz, _who is a Prisoner in the Citadel of_
Bayonne, _on Condition that he depart the Kingdom; and for this Reason I
desire you to cause him to be conducted to the Frontier of_ Spain.

My Guard took Leave of me on the Frontiers and I continued my Journey to
_Pampeluna_: By the Way I saw the famous _Pyrenean_ Mountains, the Passage
of which is very different from that of the _Alps_, there being not an Inn
to be met with but what looks much more like a Den of Thieves: The
Inhabitants of these Mountains have something mischievous in their very
Physiognomy, which makes Travellers afraid of ’em. I was forc’d to spend
one Night with my _Valet de Chambre_ in a Cabaret, where there being a
Score of these Fellows, we resolv’d to sit up all Night without going to
Bed; and I fancy, that in so doing, we acted very wisely, for those
Mountaineers look’d like a Parcel of Cut-throats: I set out as early as
possible in the Morning from this horrible Place for PAMPELUNA, where I
arriv’d towards the Evening: I alighted at an Inn, which was recommended
to me as the best in Town, but I found it every whit as bad as those that
I had met with in my Passage from _Bayonne_: The Bread, the Wine, their
Meat, Bedding and every thing was detestably bad: However, as I thought I
had a better Chance for my Life there, than in the Houses of Entertainment
among the Mountains; I made myself amends for sitting up all the last
Night, and slept soundly till next Day.

I went and paid a Visit to the Prince of _Castillone_ Viceroy of
_Navarre_, who was prodigiously civil to me: I let him into the true
State of my Affairs, and what I had suffer’d from the King’s Lieutenant at
_Bayonne_: This Nobleman seem’d to be concern’d at my present Condition,
and was so kind as to make me an Offer of whatever I wanted; but as to the
Treatment I had met with from the King’s Lieutenant, it surpriz’d him not
at all: He told me too, that I was not the first Man who had been so
treated, and that he could not imagine how it happen’d, that the Regent
was not informed of all the Acts of Injustice committed at _Bayonne_: He
advis’d me to write to his Royal Highness, and to give him an exact
Account of all my Treatment: _If this_, said he, _does not procure you
some Amends, I am certain, at least, that ’twill get him a Reprimand_: I
did as _M. de Castillone_ advis’d me; I wrote both to the Regent and to
_M. le Blanc_, but ’twas all to no Purpose; for my Enemies had made such a
Devil of me to the Prince and the Minister, that not content with
returning me no Answer, they wrote to _M. de M----_, who had the Care of
the _French_ Affairs at _Madrid_, to thwart me in every thing he could:
And he, for his Part, punctually observ’d his Instructions, not so much in
pure Obedience to his Prince, as for the Pleasure he took in doing me

_M. de Castillone_ was so good-natur’d as to shew me what was most
remarkable at _Pampeluna_: We took a Walk together without the Town, the
Situation of which I thought very fine: ’Tis encompass’d with Walls, and
fortify’d with Bastions and Half-Moons: Yet all this Fortification would
be of little Defence, were it not for the Citadel, which was repair’d, and
considerably augmented, during the Ministry of the Cardinal _Alberoni_.

All the Road from _Pampeluna_ to _Madrid_ is quite disagreeable, there
being nothing to be seen but rusty Fields, here and there a ragged
Village; and what was still more vexatious, Houses of Entertainment, where
there was scarce any thing to be had: But ’tis much worse when we leave
_Navarre_, and enter _Castile_, there being nothing at all to be had in
their Public-Houses: You are accommodated with a Chamber indeed, and
that’s all; for if you want to eat any thing, you must send out your
Domestics to buy it, and dress it yourselves: But, however, the
Necessaries of Life may be easily had any where, and at a moderate Price:
I travell’d thro’ the whole Country without meeting with any Disaster,
which is not a little astonishing, Murders and Robberies being very common
in _Spain_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I arriv’d on a _Sunday_-Night at ALCALA, a City in _New-Castile_, famous
for its University: This City is oblig’d for its Magnificence to the
Cardinal _Ximenes_, who, being Prime Minister under _Ferdinand_ of
_Arragon_, and _Isabel_ of _Castile_, spar’d no Cost to render this City
one of the most beautiful in _Spain_: The first thing that he did was to
build very fine Colleges; and when he became Regent of _Spain_, after the
Death of _Ferdinand_, he founded an University here.

       *       *       *       *       *

’Tis but Seven Leagues from _Alcala_ to MADRID, but this Capital is not to
be seen till one comes just upon it, because it stands in a Bottom on the
River _Mancanares_: The Entrance into _Madrid_ has a feint Resemblance for
a little way, with the Entrance into _Rome_, thro’ the Gate _del Popoli_:
Three Streets, in the Shape of a Goose’s Foot, lead to the Centre of the
City: I went into that on the Right Hand, which carry’d me to the Square
of _St. Domingo_, where was a _French_ Inn, to which I had been
recommended: When I alighted out of my Chaise, I was heartily embrac’d by
a Man whom I had formerly seen in the Service of King _Stanislaus_ of
_Poland_, and afterwards at _Paris_, but he was oblig’d to fly from that
City, for Fear of falling into the Hands of Justice.

This Man was accus’d of being One in Three who had robb’d and murder’d an
Abbe: Tho’ he was run away, the Trial took its Course, and he was
condemn’d in Outlawry to be broke alive on the Wheel, which Sentence was
executed accordingly in Effigie: After several Tours he came at last to
_Madrid_, where all that come from _France_ are receiv’d with open Arms:
He had chang’d his Name of _Le G----_ for that of the Baron _D----_. I
recollected him perfectly the very Moment that he embraced me, but his
Affair in _France_ was still so fresh in my Memory, that I did not think
fit to make a very affectionate Return for the Civilities of this new
Baron, but ask’d a great many Pardons that I could not call him to Mind:
The Man seem’d still very eager to be known to me, and said, _Pray, are
not you the Baron_ de Pollnitz? _Don’t you remember to have seen me at_
Berlin, _then at_ Hanover, _&c._ I still pretended Ignorance; but my
Gentleman proceeded to rub up my Memory, and talk’d a great deal to me of
his Journey to _Paris_, and mention’d several Circumstances: Being at last
fatigued with all this long Detail, I thought it would oblige him to give
him some Glimpse that I knew him; and therefore mention’d the Names of
several People that we had been with together, to make him believe that I
was in Quest of his; and at length seeing him overjoy’d to think that I
was like to find out his Name by beating the Bush, I chose to give him
that Satisfaction, and said to him, tho’ with an Air of great Uncertainty,
_Pray, Sir, Was not your Name_Le G----? At the very Mention of this Name
my Friend chang’d Countenance, turn’d from red to pale, and retir’d at
last without giving me an Answer, or, at least, ’twas with such a low
Voice, that I could not understand a Syllable of what he said. For my own
Part, I thought of nothing but calling to my Landlord for a Room; and
after I had rested myself a little, I went down at Night to sup at my
Landlord’s Table, where some of the Company happen’d to be the very same
Officers that had seen me talking with _Le G----_. They ask’d me, if I was
acquainted with the Gentleman that accosted me, and what was his Name: I
made no Scruple to satisfy them, and not knowing that he had alter’d his
Name upon his leaving _France_, I said, without thinking any Harm, that
’twas _Le G----_, I had no sooner pronounc’d his Name, but one of the
Company cry’d out, _Ah! Morblieu! the very Man that assassinated the Abbe_
V. _How durst such a Villain come hither to sollicit an Employment!_ I
plainly saw that I had committed an Oversight, in discovering a Name to
those Strangers, which had put the Person who bore it so much out of
Countenance; but I thought at the same time, that _Le G----_ had been
guilty of a much greater, in putting me under that Necessity: I
endeavour’d to set all to Rights again, by saying, that perhaps I was
mistaken, and that the Baron _D----_ was not _Le G----_: but they would
not admit of it; they all exaggerated the Baseness of the Murder that had
forc’d him to fly from _France_; and, in short, the Story was so toss’d
about in an Instant, that the pretended Baron was oblig’d to leave
_Madrid_: I have been told since, that he retir’d to _Portugal_, where
Fortune has been pretty Favourable to him.

I had not been long at _Madrid_ before I met with several of my
Acquaintance: The very Day after my Arrival I receiv’d Visits from above a
Score of Officers, _French_ and _Germans_, whom I had seen at several
Courts: At my Quarters I also found the Baron _de Montbel_, who had taken
so much fruitless Pains to inquire after my Health when I was a Prisoner
in the Citadel of _Bayonne_: To be short, in a very little time, I found
as many, and even more Acquaintance than I wanted, especially at my first
coming to _Madrid_, where I did not aim at keeping any Company more than
was necessary to my obtaining an Employment: I thought immediately how I
should be introduc’d to the King and Queen: The Person who procur’d me
Audience from his Majesty was one _la Roche_, a _Frenchman_ by Birth, who
was the King’s chief _Valet de Chambre_, Secretary of his Dispatches, and
likewise Introducer of Ambassadors.

’Twas in a private Audience that I had the Honour of waiting on his
Majesty: This is different from a public Audience, in that the latter,
which is generally for common People, is granted with the Doors open, and
in Presence of the Grandees, who are standing on both Sides of the Hall,
and cover’d: The King is then seated in a Chair of State, plac’d under a
Canopy: From the Entrance of the Audience Room to the King’s Chair Three
Genuflections are made; and when the Persons, who are honour’d with the
Audience, are advanc’d near his Majesty’s Person, they deliver what they
have to say upon their Knees: _Philip_ V. never makes any other Answer,
than _I will see, I will consider it_. After such Audience is ended, the
Person who officiates as Master of the Ceremonies gives Notice with an
audible Voice, when there is to be a private Audience. The Grandees then
retire, and the Doors are shut, and I had my Audience in the manner
following: I found the King alone in his Chamber, made my Three Obeisances
to him, and when I came near to him fell on my Knees: I then said to him,
that having heard his Majesty’s Piety and his Zeal for the Catholic
Religion highly extoll’d in all Places where-ever I had been; I thought I
could not do better than to come and prostrate myself at his Feet, and to
offer him my most humble Service; that I had incurr’d the Displeasure of
my Sovereign, and lost all Expectation of ever being able to serve with
Satisfaction in my own Country, because I had embrac’d the _Romish_
Religion, whereof I shew’d his Majesty a Testimonial, sign’d by the
Cardinal _de Noailles_: I also shew’d him a Letter from the King of
_Prussia_, with the Grant of the first Pension annex’d to the Office of
Gentleman of the Bedchamber, which I had still no doubt enjoy’d, had I not
alter’d my Religion: The King took the King of _Prussia_’s Letter, and the
Testimonial of the Cardinal _de Noailles_, look’d upon both of them, and
return’d them to me, saying, _I will consider your Request, and will soon
dispatch you_: I then presented a Memorial to him, which he put in his
Pocket, after which I arose, and went backwards out of the Chamber,
repeating my Three Obeisances.

From the King’s Audience I went to that of the Queen, to which I was
introduc’d by her chief _Major-Domo_: This Princess was dress’d in the
_Amazons_ Habit, because she was going a Hunting with the King; her first
Lady of Honour and some of the Ladies of the Bedchamber were present: I
also saw in the Door-way between the Chamber of Audience and the Queen’s
own Chamber the Prince of _Asturias_, who dy’d King of _Spain_ in 1724,
the _Infantes_ his Brothers, and the _Infanta Maria-Anna Victoria_. I
deliver’d myself to the Queen in very near the same Words as I had just
before to the King, and she return’d me a gracious Answer, that _She
should be always glad to serve me as far as lay in her Power_: I withdrew,
hugely delighted with so obliging an Answer.

This, _Madame_, was my first setting out at the Court of _Spain_: It was
natural, in the first Place, to look after the Main-Chance; for, as I have
had the Honour to acquaint you, I had but little Cash; and what was worse
Luck than all, no Effects, from which I could hope to raise any, so that
if I had thrown myself ever so little into Company, I should have run the
Risque of being soon a Beggar: The obliging manner in which the King and
Queen had been pleas’d to receive me, was a reviving Cordial to my
drooping Spirits: I began to entertain fresh Hopes, and thinking myself
already in some Share of Favour, I went abroad among my Acquaintance, I
found old Friends, and made new ones, and I had good Success at Play,
which I thought a happy Omen, and enabled me to frequent the Court with
that Ease and Freedom, which Persons seldom discover whose Finances are
out of Order.

I am now to give you a short Account of the Court, and of those who made
the greatest Figure at it; I need not treat of the King, all Mankind
knows, and the late Wars sufficiently prov’d, that _Lewis_, Dauphin of
_France_, Son to _Lewis_ XIV. was his Father: He marry’d to his first Wife
_Maria-Louisa Galeriela_ of _Savoy_, who dy’d at _Madrid_ the 14th of
_February_, 1714, and whose Memory is still dear to the _Spaniards_; they
greatly miss the _Savoyard_, as they call this Princess; The King of
_Spain_ had several Children by her; the Eldest was _Don Lewis_, Prince of
_Asturias_, afterwards King of _Spain_, by the Resignation of the King his
Father in 1724, but this young Prince dy’d the same Year: The Name of the
second was _Don Philip_, who was born at _Madrid_ in 1712, and dy’d in
1721; and the third _Don Ferdinand_, now Prince of _Asturias_.

After the Death of that Princess the King marry’d _Elizabeth Farnese_,
Niece and Daughter-in-Law to the Duke of _Parma_: By this Princess the
King has also had several Princes and Princesses: The Eldest Prince is
_Don Carlos_, and was destin’d by the Quadruple Alliance to the Succession
of _Tuscany_ and the Duchies of _Parma_ and _Placentia_: The second is
_Don Philip_, who was born the 15th of _March_, 1720.

The Queen is tall and handsome, well-shap’d, but slender, and much pitted
with the Small-Pox. She has a vast and enterprizing Genius, which no
Difficulties can terrify. She made it very plain as soon as she set her
Foot on _Spanish_ Ground, that she would not suffer herself to be led by
the Nose: For before she had even seen the Face of the King, she banish’d
the Princess of _Ursins_, both from the Court and Kingdom, because of the
Ascendant she knew that Princess had over the King. She thought also of
removing the _French_ from about him, and endeavour’d to put his Majesty
out of Conceit with his own Countrymen. The _Spaniards_ were at first well
enough pleas’d with all these Alterations, and hop’d that at length one of
their own Nation would be singled out for Prime Minister; but they had the
Mortification to see themselves govern’d by a Foreigner. The Abbot
(afterwards Cardinal) _Alberoni_, by Birth a _Parmesan_, was advanc’d to
the chief Dignities both in Church and State, and govern’d _Spain_ with
such seeming Success, as made the Subjects entertain great Hopes of him.
He gave the Queen a Glimpse of mighty Fortune that was to befal her Son:
But a more refin’d Set of Politics knock’d all those vain Projects on the
Head; and the Queen was so prejudic’d against him, that she was the first
who persuaded the King to remove the Cardinal; which happen’d in the
Manner that I have already had the Honour to acquaint you. The Credit of
the Queen herself, however, suffer’d some Shock by this Alteration; for
the King was for a while undetermin’d what Measures to take, but at length
he replac’d all his Confidence in the Queen, and ’tis she that still
governs, tho’, indeed, she is supported by Ministers who have great
Talents for Government.

The Person who had the Charge of Foreign Affairs when I arriv’d at
_Madrid_, was the Marquis _Grimaldo_, who had the Reputation of a Man of
the strictest Honour and Probity. I had the Favour to see him more than
once, and he always receiv’d me with very great Civility. I have been
told, that he thorowly knows the King’s good Pleasure with regard to such
private Men as make their Court to him; and that when he tells a Person
the King has a Respect for him, he need not despair of carrying any Point.
Nevertheless, I question whether such a Compliment could be safely
depended on; for, I observ’d, he paid it to a great many People: And, as
for my own Part, _M. Grimaldo_ said to me, that the King was so gracious
as to esteem me, before I had even the Honour of paying my Duty to his

_M. de Campo Florido_ had the Management of the Finances. He was a very
polite disinterested Minister; and ’tis certain that he made none of those
Purchases which are always the Consequence of a splendid Fortune. But
notwithstanding his being so disinterested, this Minister had the same
Fate as all that have the Management of the Finances, not to be belov’d:
And tho’ when he first came to the Direction of the Finances, he found
them in a very bad State, no Allowance was made him upon that Score, but
an Account was demanded from him of the Wealth which others had

_M. de Castelar_ was Secretary at War, and had been just preferr’d to that
Employment as I arriv’d at _Madrid_. He is the civillest Minister I ever
knew: And tho’ he had such a Weight of Affairs upon him, he had an easy
Air, which was a Pleasure to all that had any Business with him. He had
another Quality, not very common to Gentlemen in the Ministry, which was
to keep no body in Suspence; for People very soon knew what they had to
trust to: And whether ’twas a Grant or a Refusal, they were equally
satisfy’d with the Minister, who gave with Pleasure, and never refus’d a
Request but when ’twas not in his Power to grant it.

These, _Madame_, were the Ministers then employ’d in the several Offices.
At that time there was no Prime Minister in _Spain_; for, after Cardinal
_Alberoni_’s Disgrace, the King manag’d Affairs himself, or rather the
Queen govern’d as the real Sovereign. But as great as her Sway was, she
had much ado to get the better of the King’s Confessor, who had a great
Share in all Affairs. This was the famous Father _Daubanton_, a Jesuit,
who had an Ascendant over the King to such a Degree, that nothing of
Moment was transacted without his Opinion. He was therefore, in Reality,
the Prime Minister of _Spain_; at least he only wanted the Title, for he
perform’d the Functions of such a one, but without the Wit, the Finesse,
and the Policy of the disgrac’d Minister; for he was severe, merciless,
and so hard-hearted, that when he saw Officers reduc’d to the last
Extremity for want of their Pay, it gave him no Disturbance. To him I
apply’d, as every body else did, to beg the Honour of his Protection; and
when I came near him, I found him a haughty proud Man, and one that was
extremely rigid. ’Tis true, that when he had to do with Persons from whom
he expected any Services, all this Stateliness was laid aside; he was then
quite another Man: And was so perfect a Matter of the Art of dissembling,
that Civility, Good-nature, and Humility seem’d painted so strongly in his
Features, as would induce one to think nothing could be more sincere, and
that this external Appearance was the pure Expression of his secret
Thoughts. The _Roman_ Purple was, they say, the Centre of all his Views;
and, being wholly ambitious of this Dignity, he thought every Measure
equally right that had a Tendency to a red Hat. Cardinal _Alberoni_
wheedled him with the Hopes of it one while, just to get some Services of
him that he then stood in need of. The Regent of _France_ also gave him a
Prospect of it, as a Reward that he might infallibly depend on, if he
could prevail on his Catholic Majesty to sign the Treaty of the Quadruple
Alliance. This Jesuit set heartily about it, and succeeded; but the Hat,
so much aspir’d after, was given to another; and all the Thanks that the
Reverend Father had for his Pains, was an Abbey for one pf his Nephews.
Something offer’d before I left _Spain_, which will give me occasion to
speak to you of this Cardinal again.

Cardinal _Borgia_ was also in very high Favour, but a wrong Person to
apply to for Services; which indeed was owing to his Indolence more than
any other Reason; for, as to a friendly Temper, I do not think there ever
was a Man who possess’d that Virtue in a more eminent Degree. He was
withal very devout, but was reckon’d so unlearned, that I have been
assur’d he did not know a word of _Latin_; and upon this Head I heard the
following Story, which I do not retail to you for Gospel. I was told, that
when the Duke of _St. Aignan_, the Ambassador of _France_, was preparing
to make this Cardinal a Visit, he was appris’d that his Eminency did not
understand _French_. The Ambassador thought it would do every whit as well
if he convers’d with him in _Latin_, and therefore he greeted him in that
Language; but he found, to his great Surprize, that the Prelate made
Answer to him in _Spanish_, that he did not understand the _French_
Tongue; and somebody, who was present at the Audience, telling the
Cardinal, that the Ambassador spoke to him not in _French_ but in
_Latin_, the Cardinal said, _Aye, but I do not understand Latin-French_:
So that there was a Necessity of carrying on the Conversation by an

Tho’ the Characters of the Ministers and Favourites were so different,
there was a Necessity of my conforming to them all, in Hopes that the
Steps I had taken would not be in vain. I took great Care therefore to see
them all, to desire them to speak in my Favour. Whether they did so, I
know not; nor whether the little Ray of Fortune which began to shine upon
me, but soon vanish’d, was the Effect of their Recommendations, or to an
Impression I had made upon the King’s Heart, by the Narrative I had given
him of the State of my Affairs, the Disorder of which had been owing in
the first Place to my changing my Religion, which had forc’d me to quit
the Service of my Sovereign. Be this as it will, I received a very
favourable Answer to the Memorial which I had the Honour of presenting to
the King: He granted me a Lieutenant-Colonel’s Commission in the future
Regiment of _Sicily_, together with the _Soldo vivo_, which amounted to
about Sixteen Pistoles a Month. What they call the _Soldo vivo_ in _Spain_
is, when the same Pay is advanc’d as if the Corps was actually on an
Establishment or Footing. I thought this very handsome Pay, and that my
Affairs were already in a promising way. I found that with such a Sum an
Officer might maintain himself very well in his Quarters. I actually
form’d Schemes for a Settlement; and, having paid dear for my Folly, I
began to talk of House-keeping. I computed, that with what would now be my
Income from _Spain_, and what was to revert to me from my own Family, I
should be able to repair my tatter’d Equipage, and to appear in a decent
Manner, till such time as Fortune, which now began to be something kinder
than usual, had put me in a Condition to make the Figure I aspir’d to.

As soon as the King had admitted me into his Service, I did not fail to
wait on him with my most humble Acknowledgments: I had also the Honour of
thanking the Queen, to whom I made my Compliment in _High-Dutch_, and that
Princess return’d me her Answer in the same Language. Soon after this I
set out for _Arragon_, where the Regiment in which I was to serve was then
in Quarters. But as I came into _Spain_ with very little Money, I was soon
oblig’d to return to _Madrid_, to desire some small Gratuity, till I
receiv’d my Pay. Some of my Friends advis’d me to ask boldly for a
handsome round Sum, or for a Pension upon Benefices; because if I depended
on my Pay for Subsistance, I should be very much out in my Reckoning; that
in _Spain_, more than elsewhere, they were backward in their Pay, and
always one Year in Arrear, and sometimes two or three, according as they
dun the Minister, or dawb the Treasurer’s Fist. This News put me a little
out of Temper, and from that time I began to perceive that Fortune would
jilt me as much in _Spain_ as she had done elsewhere: Nevertheless, my
Courage did not quite fail me, I apply’d to the Secretary at War, who
referred me to Father _Daubanton_, and the latter told me, with all the
Solemnity that could be, that ’twas none of his Business. You see,
_Madame_, that this was a fine Setting out: However, I was not
dishearten’d: And being so much us’d as I was to Rebuffs, I had as lieve
be deny’d twice as once. I rapp’d at various Doors, but they were all
either shut against me, or, if open’d, ’twas to no Purpose. I resolv’d to
address myself immediately to the King, and had the Honour of presenting a
Petition to him, in which I gave him an Account of my present Situation:
1st, By the Disaster of the Bank Bills; and, 2dly, by the strange
Procedure of the King’s Lieutenant at _Bayonne_. The King, when he took my
Petition, answer’d, _I will consider it._ It must be observ’d, that the
King was then at _Aranjuez_, for which Reason there was no Minister with
him but _M. de Grimaldo_. This was the Minister to whom the other
Secretaries of War and the Finances, and the President of the Council of
_Castile_, were oblig’d to address their Dispatches, which was some
Hindrance to Business; but, in short, such is the Practice of the
_Spanish_ Court. For the Councils only attend the King at _Buen Retiro_,
and this because ’tis in _Madrid_ itself; for as soon as the King goes
from his Capital City, all Affairs pass thro’ the Hands of a single

I waited therefore upon _M. de Grimaldo_, to know the Result of my
Petition. This Minister, according to his laudable Custom, told me, that
the King had a very great Esteem for me: This thread-bare Answer was very
little Comfort to me; and even tho’ it were true that his Majesty honour’d
me with his Esteem, I saw plainly that mine was a Situation in which the
Esteem of Princes is mere Whip-Cream, if it be not accompany’d with
something solid. I earnestly press’d _M. de Grimaldo_ that he would be so
kind as to procure me something else besides Esteem. At last, after
several Goings backward and forward, the Minister said to me one Day,
with a Smile, that my Affairs went on swimmingly: I immediately thought my
Business done, and wanted nothing but to know the Value of the Gratuity or
Pension that was granted to me: But there was nothing in it; the good Turn
that my Affairs had taken, was only to be referr’d back again to Father
_Daubanton_. I waited, therefore, on the Reverend Father, and, with all
possible Respect, ask’d him, what was the Effect of a Petition that had
been referr’d to him? And to this humble Request I added another, still
more humble, which was to obtain the Honour of his Protection: But my
Compliment and my Respects were not very welcome, and he answer’d me, very
short: _Do you imagine, Sir, that I have nothing else to do, but to think
of your Petition: I have not yet seen it, Sir, nor do I know whether it
has ever been sent to me._ I reply’d, but still with the profoundest
Respect, that _M. de Grimaldo_ had told me that----_Alas!_ said he,
interrupting me, _M. de Grimaldo! M. de Grimaldo!_ And the Words were no
sooner out of his Mouth, but he whipp’d into his Closet, and slapp’d the
Door in my Face. I saw plainly that the Wind did not sit right for his
Reverence, and therefore lay by till next Day: Then I made up to him again
much about the Time that I knew he us’d to go to the King, and planted
myself in a Nook of his Entry, in the humble Posture of a Supplicant: The
Jesuit, his Companion, seeing me there, desir’d me to walk into the
Antichamber; but I could not be prevail’d on to accept of an Honour which
I said did not belong to me; tho’ the Truth was, that I chose to stay in
the Entry, as the surest Place of speaking with the Confessor; for I had
observ’d, that the Reverend Father often put the Bite upon People that
waited for him in the Antichamber, by stealing out at a private Door that
open’d into the Entry where I then was. I stay’d there a full Hour, when,
as I had before imagin’d, I saw my Gentleman slipping out at the private
Door: I accosted him in the Passage, and humbly put him in Mind, that I
had the Honour of speaking to him the Day before: I found him in a little
better Humour than he was then, for he promis’d me that he would speak to
the King, and bid me attend him for the Answer next Day. You will imagine
that I did not fail to be there: He told me then, that he had not an
Opportunity as yet of speaking to the King about my Affair, but that he
would infallibly mention it to him in a few Days: Mean time these Days
amounted insensibly to Weeks, and the Weeks to Months, which had like to
have put me out of all manner of Patience. I could not be reproach’d with
Want of Solicitation, for certainly there was not a Morning but I took my
Walk in the Confessor’s Antichamber, where he saw me sure enough, and
would sometimes honour me with a Nod, and at other times with a Frown:
And, in fine, after having so often danc’d Attendance, all I could obtain
was a formal Denial.

I own to you, _Madame_, I was a little stunn’d by this Shock: For I had
neither Money nor Credit, and knew not who I could ask to lend me a Sum,
till I receiv’d a Quarter’s Wages: Besides, how could I depend upon such
Pay as was put off from one Year to another? In this sad Situation I was
so fortunate as to make an Acquaintance with Mr. _Stanhope_, by the means
of one _Holtzendorff_, that Minister’s Secretary, who was a Native of
_Berlin_, and has a Brother a _Valet de Chambre_ to the King of
_Prussia_. He was glad to shew me his Acknowledgment of some Services my
Relations had done him, by bringing me acquainted with his Master. Mr.
_Stanhope_ was wonderfully kind to me, and even interceded in my Favour
with the Confessor, and with _M. Scotti_, the Minister of _Parma_, who
could do any thing with the Queen; but Mr. _Stanhope_ had no better
Success than I had: However, he did me all the Services in his Power,
press’d me to accept of his Table, offer’d me also his Equipage, and
advanc’d me some Money: In a Word, he treated me as the best Friend I had
could have done; and I may say, that I have substantial Obligations to
that Gentleman, because, if it had not been for him, _all my Days_ in
Spain _would have been Sorrows, and my Travel Grief_[28].

While I lost so much Time in solliciting Father _Daubanton_, I did not
omit to take Notice of what was remarkable, not only at _Madrid_ but the
Royal Palaces, to which the Court remov’d from time to time. _Madrid_ is,
properly speaking, the Capital City of all _Spain_, and the common
Residence of its Kings, who have a large Palace there, the chief Front of
which was built by the Emperor _Charles_ V. The Inside has been alter’d
for the better, and much embellish’d by _Philip_ V. The Castle is at the
End of a large Court which forms a long Square: The Two Sides of this
Court are lin’d with low Buildings, Part whereof serves as a Guard-house
for the _Spanish_ and _Walloon_ Guards, who range themselves in Two Rows
in this Court, when the King or any of the Royal Family passes thro’ it.
At the Entrance of this Court there are Three grand Portico’s. The Front
of the Palace on the Court-side consists of a main Pile of Building, in
the Centre between Two very narrow Pavilions; and at the Entrance of each
is a great Gate: The middlemost, which is the principal, is very darksome,
and leads into a very spacious Area, arch’d over, where several Coaches
may turn at one and the same time: This separates Two Square Courts of the
same Size and Structure, encompass’d with a Range of Free-Stone Pillars,
that form a Piazza which runs all round it. In the Court, which is on the
Right Hand, is the Stair-Case, which leads up to the Apartments of the
King and Queen; and in the other are the Offices of the Ministers.

The King’s Apartment consists in the first Place of a Guard-Room, which is
neither spacious nor lightsome: On the Left Side of this Room is a very
long Row of Chambers, very narrow and low, without a Ceiling, or any other
Ornaments, but very rich Tapistry: At the End of this Row there are Three
Apartments, built by Order of the Princess of _Ursins_: The first of these
is a large Saloon, very high and well proportion’d, inlaid and
wainscotted, and in the Compartments are to be seen the Pictures of
several Kings, Queens and Princes of _Spain_, painted by the ablest
Masters: The second Piece is an Octogon, contriv’d in that Form for the
Sake of Four little Offices in the Angles of the Square: From this
Apartment is a Passage to the King’s Chamber, which is very large, and
intirely furnish’d with crimson Damask, adorn’d with Gold Lace and Fringe,
tho’ the Tapistry can scarce be seen, ’tis so much hid by excellent
Pictures and noble Pier-Glasses.

The Queen’s Apartment is not so large, nor near so fine as the King’s: Her
Majesty has a Guard-Room separate from the King’s: Their Majesties may
walk on the same Floor to the Chapel, which is not very large, but richly
adorn’d: The Gallery is no higher than the Pavement of the Chapel, which
is of very fine Marble: The Windows of the Chapel are all of Glass: None
but the _Infantes_ fit in the Gallery, and the Grandees of _Spain_ are
seated upon Forms, that are plac’d on each Side from the Gallery to the
Altar: I am apt to think, that the Cardinals are allow’d a Great Chair and
a Reading Desk in the Chapel, even tho’ his Majesty be present: At least,
I saw, that the Cardinal _Borgia_ had that Privilege.

In this Palace the King us’d to pass the Winter till Mid-Lent, and then
his Majesty went to the Palace of _Retiro_, which stands near the Gate of
_Alcala_: ’Tis a vast large Building, but without Ornament or
Architecture, and looks more like a Convent than a Royal House: The Inside
too is perfectly answerable to the Outside: The Rooms are very small, the
Tapistries and Paintings very rich, but the _Spaniards_ are so negligent,
that they suffer the Rats to gnaw the fine Hangings, and take no Care to
repair them: There are noble Pictures also in another Room of this same
Palace, which represent the principal Actions of the Duke of _Feria_,
several of which Pictures, more is the Pity, have been cut into Quarters
to enlarge the Entry of the Room.

The Gardens of this Palace are inconsiderable. _Philip_ V. it seems
intended once to have embellish’d them, and had actually caus’d the Works
for it to be begun, but the same have since been discontinued: There’s
nothing in them remarkable besides a Statue of Brass, which is plac’d in
the middle of a little Flower-Garden wall’d in: ’Tis a Statue of _Philip_
II. on Horseback, and one of the boldest Pieces of Sculpture in _Europe_:
The Horse is represented curvetting with his whole Body, resting upon only
one of his Haunches: The rest of the Gardens is nothing but a great
Inclosure with irregular Walks: I saw a very fine Piece of Water there:
The King’s Mall is worth seeing, as is also the Menagery, which is full of
very uncommon Animals.

The King and the Queen, whether they are at _Madrid_ or at _Retiro_,
always live in the same manner: They were not the most early Risers, and
when the Levee was notify’d, their Majesties did not rise for all that
immediately; but the King first had a Couple of new-laid Eggs, and then
some Chocolate for his Breakfast: The Queen only drank some Chocolate:
After this their Majesties sent for the Marquis _de Grimaldo_, with whom
they talk’d about Business, after which they arose: Then Father
_Daubanton_ came in, and stay’d with the King a full Hour: His Majesty
went afterwards to Mass, and when Chapel was over, the King gave Audience
to his Subjects, or else went to the Council of _Castile_: Sometimes he
employ’d himself in his Closet till Dinner, when he sat down quite in
private, with none but the Queen: After Dinner their Majesties went out
together a Hunting, and return’d somewhat late: As soon as they were come
back, they were serv’d with a Collation, which consisted of cold
Partridge, of the like to which Collations _M. de Grimaldo_ was admitted:
When these were ended, the King gave Audience in his Closet to the Foreign
Ministers, or other Persons of Distinction: During these Audiences the
King was commonly standing and bare-headed, and the Queen was all the
while behind a Screen, near enough for her to hear every Word that was
said: After these Audiences, when the King had a Mind to do Business, he
sent for the Marquis _de Castelar_ or _Campoflorido_, who stay’d but Half
an Hour with him at most. Then his Majesty spent the rest of the Evening
with the Infants, the Ladies of the Bedchamber and their Associates; and
sometimes there was Play till Supper was ready, at which _M. de Scotti_,
the Minister of _Parma_, and a very great Favourite, was generally
present, to converse with their Majesties: As soon as they arose from
Table they went to Bed.

The Pleasures of the Court when in the Country, were little, if any thing,
more gay than those at _Madrid_: I saw the Court more than once at
_Aranjuez_, where I took Notice, that they spent their Afternoons either
in Hunting or taking the Air in the Gardens of the Palace: In these
Airings their Majesties shot Crows with small Hand-Guns, which would kill
at a good Distance: The Queen generally hit her Mark better than the King.
While their Majesties hunted on one Side of the Castle, the Prince of
_Asturias_, accompany’d by the _Infante_ his Brother and his Governors,
hunted on the other Side, and did not return till Night.

The King spent the _Easter_-Holidays while I was here at the Palace of
_Retiro_: This gave me an Opportunity of seeing the Processions of the
Holy Week, which were made upon every _Good-Friday_, to the Palace of
_Retiro_, where the King and the Queen, the Prince of _Asturias_ and the
Infants saw them pass: I will frankly confess to you, that I never saw
any thing so pitiful, not to say scandalous, as this sort of Processions:
It seem’d as if they had been resolv’d to turn the most sacred thing in
the World into Ridicule: The Subject of the Procession was no less than
the Sufferings and Death of our Saviour; but the whole was represented in
so burlesque a manner, that really I am surpriz’d, why a Court of
Inquisition, which very often sentences People to be burnt for imaginary
Crimes, does not severely punish those that are Partakers at such
Festivals: In the Procession which I saw, our Saviour was represented as
big as the Life in various Attitudes: In one Part of it he was exhibited
on Mount _Calvary_, clad in a Night-Gown of purple Taffeta, praying to his
Father to remove the Cup from him, which was reach’d forth to him by a
little Angel, that was fasten’d only by a Wire, that it might look as if
it hover’d in the Air: Afterwards other Persons came with the Image of our
Saviour bound to a Cross, and as big as the Life, having on his Head not a
Crown of Thorns, but a long natural Perriwig well powder’d, and adorn’d
with a Knot of colour’d Ribbons: In short, every Circumstance of the
Suffering and Death of Jesus Christ was represented to the Life, and in
such Postures as were more comical some than others: Every Image was
guarded by 4, 6, or 8 Men, arm’d _cap-a-pie_, and bearing Halberds in
their Hands: Between every Image march’d the Clergy, and the several
Orders of Friars: At the Head of the Procession there walk’d Men who were
cover’d all over with black Cloth, so that ’twas not possible to see so
much as their Faces, there being only a little Hole made in the Garment
for them to see and breathe thro’, tho’ they also made Use of it to blow
a sort of Horns, very much like those of Sow-Gelders. They had Hats upon
their Heads, with high Crowns like Sugar-Loaves: This sable Company was
follow’d by other Men, and by little Boys, stark naked from the Head to
the Waist, whose Bodies were twin’d about with Straw-Bands, and their Arms
tied to a Piece of Wood, which oblig’d them to hold them extended, as if
they had been fasten’d to a Cross: There was also a Company of Flagellant
Friars, but they did not presume to come in Sight of the King, and
therefore they stay’d and join’d in the Procession, as it came back from
_Buen Retiro_.

There were Processions also in the same Taste during the _Easter_ Week,
when the Holy Sacrament was carry’d to the Sick: The Streets and Balconies
were on this Occasion hung with Tapistry: The Sacrament, which was carry’d
under a Canopy, was preceded by a great Number of Priests and Friars, who
had all Wax-Tapers in their Hands: There was also a numerous Symphony, and
a great many Dancers, in Masks of several Sorts, leaping and playing
Gambols with Castanets snapping in their Hands: And in this manner they
danc’d before the Holy Sacrament, and continued it even in the Church,
till such time as the Benediction was pronounc’d.

I speak to you of these Ceremonies, _Madame_, as one that saw them with my
own Eyes: I had a Description given to me of them before, which was pretty
much like it, but I took all that had been told me as pure Calumny,
invented to run down the Worship which the Church of _Rome_ pays to the
greatest of our Mysteries; the rather, because they, that had given me the
Account of it, were _Calvinists_: I was willing to be an Eye-Witness
myself of every thing which I had been assur’d was observ’d in the
Ceremonial of the _Spanish_ Church: For this Reason I attended all these
Processions with the greatest Eagerness that could be, and was really
scandaliz’d to see that verify’d which I had only imagin’d to be the
Inventions of the Enemies of the Church of _Rome_.

’Tis such unpleasant Walking in the Streets of _Madrid_, that I question
whether that might not make me the more out of Temper with those
Superstitions: For this, tho’ a very fine City, and adorn’d with Squares,
in which there are noble Fountains, and tho’ it has Streets moreover which
are very spacious, strait and lightsome, ’tis nevertheless so very nasty,
that there are few Towns like it, which are ever so little govern’d: From
all the Houses they throw out a great deal of Ordure, which, they pretend,
wastes away in one Night’s Time, the Air of _Madrid_ is so corrosive: Yet
I experienc’d the contrary, and was terribly annoy’d with the Stench of
it: But for all this, the daily Nuisance of the Streets of _Madrid_ is
nothing in comparison of what one is forc’d to suffer upon the Days of
Solemnity; for on such Days the Streets are generally clean’d, and then
all the Soil being put in Motion, ’tis hardly possible to bear it,
especially in a dry Season, when the whole being reduc’d into fine Dust,
the very Air we breathe is tainted with it, and it penetrates every thing
that one eats: I heard an _Italian_ Physician say, he was sure that ’twas
scarce possible for a Foreigner, be he ever so circumspect and retir’d, to
spend Three or Four Years at _Madrid_ without being attack’d with a
Distemper which we look upon with Horror; but the _Spaniards_ are not at
all frighten’d at it, for they say, that in many Families ’tis hereditary.
The Doctor said, that every thing they breath’d, eat or drank, was
poison’d by the Nastiness of _Madrid_.

What can be the Reason why the People are so very slovenly I can’t
imagine, for there are considerable Sums distributed every Year to keep
the Streets clean: Perhaps it may be only owing to the Sloth of the
_Spaniards_, for I don’t know a Nation upon Earth that is so much in Love
with Idleness; and I am certain, that if they inhabited a Soil not so
fruitful as their’s is, they would soon die with Hunger: In the Winter
they delight to spend their Time in basking in the Sun: In the Summer they
sleep all Day long, or else drink Ice-Waters, and they reserve their Walks
for the Night: The Country-People, who in all other Parts are so inur’d to
Labour, are as idle in _Spain_ as the Town’s-People: They can hardly be
said to till the Ground, for they only scrape away the Surface of it, and
then scatter their Seed: Yet ’tis surprizing, that every thing comes up
here as well as in a Country that is better cultivated.

The _Spaniards_ being too indolent for Exercises that require any Labour,
delight most of all in Walking, and in frequenting the Play-house, where
they are sure of meeting with what is most diverting at _Madrid_: Yet I
can assure you, there is nothing so lamentable as the _Spanish_
Representations, and the Place where they are exhibited is horrible: ’Tis
very dark, and over the Benches which are plac’d in Form of an
Amphitheatre, are the Boxes for the Ladies, who look thro’ Grates. The
Theatre is made after the manner of _Rome_, being a Row of Portico’s, that
are screen’d by Curtains, thro’ which the Comedians enter upon the Stage:
The whole is very indifferently lighted; but that which disgusted me more
than any thing, was a Common-Sewer, of which I was sensible as soon as I
enter’d the House, but could not presently discover where it was for Want
of Light: It runs precisely under the middle of the Pit, and the Stench of
it is intolerable. The Actors are very ill dress’d, and for the Generality
very ill favour’d, or ill shap’d: The Actresses are more tolerable, but
not much: The Plays are hardly better than those who perform them; yet the
_Spaniards_ say, they are excellent Pieces. What most of all diverted me
was their Dances between the Acts, than which it would be difficult to
meet with any thing more ridiculous: Most of their Theatrical Performances
are sacred Pieces, in which even the Mysteries of our Religion bear a
Part: A Friend of mine actually assured me, that he saw the Holy Sacrament
administer’d at it to a pretended sick Person, which, if true, I can’t
imagine how the Inquisition, that is so severe in other respects, can
tolerate such Abuses.

Now I am speaking of the Inquisition, I was an Eye-Witness of the Severity
of this Tribunal while I was in _Spain_: For not many Days after my
Arrival at _Madrid_, I saw several Persons burnt who were convicted of
Judaism: Among those poor unhappy Sufferers was a young Woman of about 18
or 20 Years of Age, the beautifullest that I saw in _Spain_: She went to
her Execution with Joy imprinted on her Countenance, and dy’d with the
Courage for which our Martyrs are so celebrated: Some time after this
Execution the Inquisition made a great Search all over _Spain_: Above 40
Persons were taken up in one Night at _Madrid_, and among the rest one
_Peralte_, a famous Physician, who seem’d to have been fated by his Star
to die by the Inquisition: His Mother, who was their Prisoner when she
was deliver’d of him, was burnt soon after her Lying-in: Young _Peralte_
was brought up in the Catholic Religion, but at 30 Years of Age he was
accus’d, and convicted of Judaism: His Punishment for this time was only
Three Years Imprisonment, but at length he was apprehended a second time,
and after I left _Madrid_, I heard the poor Wretch was burnt there; in
which the Prayers of his Mother were answer’d, for I was assur’d, that
when this Woman mounted her Funeral Pile, she pray’d that her Son might
one Day or other die the same Death: I was very glad that I was not at
_Madrid_ at the time of this _Peralte_’s Execution, for I had some
Knowledge of him, and tho’ he was really a Bigot to Judaism, I thought him
one of the civillest Men in the World.

I did not set out from _Madrid_ to join my Regiment, but went a quite
different Way, in order to touch some Money which I did not know how to
come at in _Spain_: And that I did not, was surely no Fault of mine, for I
don’t believe that ever any Courtier haunted Levees with so much Assiduity
as I did, not only those of the King and Queen, but even the Father
Confessor’s Levee, whose Protection alone would have done my Business, if
he would but have honour’d me with it: I was therefore every Day either in
the King’s Antichamber, or in the Reverend Father’s, if not in both; and I
follow’d the Court to all the Pleasure-houses about _Madrid_: I saw the
Escurial, a stately Building, which _Philip_ II. caus’d to be erected in
Memory of the Victory he gain’d over the _French_ near _St. Quentin_: ’Tis
impossible to see a finer Structure than this is. _Philip_ II. intended at
first to build only a Church and a Convent here, but afterwards he
thought of having a Mansion here for himself, which is a perfect one of
the kind: The Escurial is the Place where the Kings of _Spain_ are bury’d:
The Vault in which their Bodies are deposited is a Master-piece of
Architecture; every Place here shines with Gold and precious Stones.

_Philip_ V. was at this time building a Palace, now call’d _St.
Ildephonso_, the Plan of which I thought was magnificent: The Situation of
it was very advantageous, and it was to be furnish’d with noble Gardens.

The Pleasure-house which I most frequented while I was in _Spain_ is
_Aranjuez_, situate Seven Leagues from _Madrid_, on the Banks of the
_Tagus_, which runs round all its Gardens: The Neighbourhood of it is very
magnificent: _Charles_ V. caus’d Avenues to be made to it, which are now
in their full Beauty: ’Twas at _Aranjuez_ that I determin’d at last to
take my Leave of his Majesty; for seeing there was no Possibility of
getting any thing, I resolv’d to go to _Holland_, and from thence to
_Germany_, in order to settle some Family Affairs: I thought once too I
should not have had Leave to be gone, for the King did not seem inclinable
to grant it: He was somewhat scrupulous upon this head, for fear I should
change my Religion, till Father _Daubanton_, who was not so delicate in
things of this Nature, said two Words to his Majesty, and then he
consented to let me go: This was the only Obligation I ever receiv’d from
that Reverend Father: When I took my Leave of the King, he order’d me to
return as soon as possible, which I promis’d, and really design’d; but
Fortune, which always thwarted my Undertakings, made me steer a quite
contrary Course. Mr. _Stanhope_, who was always as generous to me as
possible, was also very serviceable to me at my Departure, for he lent me
40 Pistoles for my Journey.

I set out from _Madrid_ in Company with a Nephew of _M. de Seissan_, who
was going to see his Uncle at _Bilbao_: The Name of this young Gentleman
was the Baron _D’V----_: It was not long before I had cause to repent of
having taken such a Companion with me; for he was one of those young
Officers who are always ready to clap their Hands on their Swords for the
least thing in the World: He was moreover so hasty, or rather so stupid,
that he never took time to hear what was said to him, for which Reason he
very often imagin’d, that he was insulted when People had been at the
Expence of paying him a Compliment: This, _Madame_, is a Part of the
Character of the Spark with whom it was my Destiny to travel: He was so
apt to enter into Conversation with every body he met upon the Road, that
it had like to have cost us dear on the first Day of our setting out; for
as we were travelling in the midst of a pretty thick sort of a Forest, I
perceiv’d at a Distance Four Men well arm’d, advancing towards us in the
main Road. As we could not avoid passing between them, I advis’d my
Companion to be ready with his Pistols: Those Gentlemen seeing us well
prepar’d, let us pass, but as we both took them for _Frenchmen_, the Baron
_D’V----_ would needs stop our Chaise to enter into Discourse with them,
and asked them who they were: They made Answer that they were _French_
Officers, who had fled their Country for an Affair of Honour: They asked
in their Turn what News from _Madrid_; during which I observ’d that they
were coming a little too near our Chaise, whereupon I broke off the
Discourse, by ordering the Postilion to proceed with all the Haste
possible, because we had Business: At the same time the pretended Officers
doubled their Pace in order to keep up with us; but by good Luck for us we
discovered from a little Eminence a Convoy of about 40 Mules, and several
Persons on Horseback that were coming our Way: Our Pursuers no sooner
perceiv’d them, but they turn’d about their Horses, and rode off with such
Speed, as confirm’d me in my private Suspicion, that we had been talking
with Highwaymen; which soon after appear’d to be past all Doubt by our
meeting with several Alguasils or Messengers that were scouring the
Country in quest of Four Men, who we could easily guess by the Description
they gave of them must be the same that we had like to have been embroil’d

Upon the second Day’s Journey my Companion and I had some Words together
about paying our Quota’s: As I was the Caterer, and in all my Life-time
never car’d to pinch my Belly, the Baron thought that I was not frugal
enough, and refus’d at first to pay his Shot. However, he comply’d at
last, but, as the Expence always run in his Head, he never gave me one
kind Look all the Way, and even affected not to speak to me: For my own
Part, when I saw him in such a moody Disposition, I chose to be as silent
as he, and since I could do nothing better, I fell quietly asleep, and ere
I awak’d we had gone a good way: My Fellow-Traveller never open’d his Lips
till we came to _Burgos_.

       *       *       *       *       *

BURGOS is the Capital of _Old Castile_, and was formerly the Seat of the
Kings of _Spain_: It has nothing remarkable but a very great Square,
surrounded with Houses of an exact Uniformity, supported by Pillars, which
form a Gallery round the Square. The Cathedral Church is a magnificent
Structure, but intirely in the _Gothic_ Taste.

Near _Burgos_ is a very numerous Abby of Nuns of Quality, who as well as
all the Convents of _Spain_ have considerable Revenues: The Country from
_Burgos_ to _Vittoria_ is finer and better cultivated than in _New
Castile_, and the Villages seem more populous: I saw Peasants there so
active to what the _Spaniards_ generally are, that I thought myself in
another World.

       *       *       *       *       *

VITTORIA is a trading Town, situate in a fertile Plain, full of Villages:
The Streets are very narrow, and the Houses, which are all of Timber,
project in such a manner over the Streets, that opposite Neighbours may
almost shake Hands from one Side of the Way to the other, which makes the
Streets very darksome. This was the City, to which the Queen _Mary-Louisa_
of _Savoy_ retir’d with her Children and the Treasures of the Crown, when
the Archduke _Charles_ the present Emperor, after the Battle of
_Saragossa_ advanc’d towards _Madrid_, and thereby oblig’d King _Philip_
to quit _Spain_.

We lodg’d at the Post-house, where we found much better Accommodation than
we had yet met with any where in _Spain_: But when we came to pay, behold
another new Scene! for my Part, I pay’d my Share without grumbling,
because I always observ’d, that make never so many Words it must come to
that at last: Therefore, after having given what they told me was my Part
of the Reckoning, I stay’d but a little while in my Chamber, to see if I
had left nothing behind me, when all on a sudden I heard a great Noise in
the Yard, upon which putting my Head out of the Window, I was very much
astonish’d to see my Baron pulling the Coifs of the Landlady and Three or
Four Maid-Servants, who were pommelling him to some Tune. I ran down
Stairs ready to break my Neck, in order to rescue him out of the Clutches
of those Termagants, and ’twas well I did, for the Landlady had snatch’d
up a great Kitchen-Knife, with which she was going to run at him when I
parted them, and with some Money the Landlady was pacify’d: What gave
Occasion to the Quarrel was the Baron’s Refusal to pay what was demanded
of him, and his pretending to go away without leaving any Money: The
Landlady, who was not to be jested with, had seiz’d him by the Collar, and
he, in order to get rid of her, gave her a Slap in the Face; and the
Landlady insisted absolutely upon Satisfaction for the Affront she had
receiv’d; but at last, after a great deal of Clamour, they let us go.

At _Vittoria_ we quitted our Chaise and took Horses, because of the bad
Roads we were to go thro’ to _Bilbao_, in a Country abounding with Hills
and Woods, which are the Shelter of Robbers: We alighted at a Cabaret,
which was a lonely House in the midst of a Wood, and were quickly
surrounded by 7 or 8 arm’d Men, who really had the Appearance of Ruffians:
They ask’d us if we were Officers, and if we had no others in our Company:
I had Presence of Mind enough to tell them, that we had left a Company of
Horsemen just behind, whom we expected every Minute at that same Cabaret,
and accordingly I order’d the proper Quantity of Hay to be got ready for
the Horses: I know not whether this News frighten’d them; however, they
soon left us, and rode farther into the Wood: We presently remounted our
Horses, and proceeded on our Journey: About a League from the Cabaret we
came to one of the highest Mountains that I had ever seen in my Life: As
it was very steep, winding Roads were cut out to ascend it, wide enough
for Two laden Mules to go abreast. At the Foot of this Hill was a charming
Valley, which, after having travell’d Three or Four Leagues in it, carry’d
us to _Bilbao_: This Valley is water’d by a River, the Banks of which are
lin’d with Vines and several other Sorts of Trees: All this Country is
extremely populous, so that one can’t go 200 Paces without coming to a
House: Here is also a prodigious Number of Forges, and they cry up their
Iron for the best in all _Spain_.

       *       *       *       *       *

BILBAO is the Capital of _Biscay_, and the prettiest Town that I saw in
_Spain_: Its Walks especially are very beautiful: This City carries on a
great Trade in Wool with _Holland_, _England_ and _France_, and there are
commonly in its Harbour several Ships of these Three Nations. It was
formerly a free Port, which tended very much to the flourishing of its
Trade; but _Philip_ V. suppress’d that Franchise, and establish’d a
Custom-house, which occasion’d a very great Disturbance. The
Country-People, who were those that signaliz’d themselves most for the
Preservation of their Privileges, took Arms, and engag’d several of the
Citizens to join them: These Rebels committed a Thousand Outrages, kill’d
several People, and set Fire to the Houses of such as they suspected had
any Concern in the Establishment of the Custom-house: However, the
Insurrection was quickly suppress’d, the Authors of the Tumult were
seiz’d, and several of the most mutinous were hang’d, which Examples of
Justice had an Effect upon the Rabble; but, however, they were dealt with
very gently, for this Tumult gave the Government a fair Handle to have
depriv’d them of a great many most extraordinary Privileges, and such too,
as were in some respect incompatible with the Good of the Public: For
Instance, A Native of _Biscay_ cannot be sentenc’d to Death for any Crime
whatsoever except High-Treason and Heresy; all their other Crimes, how
enormous soever, being only punishable by Imprisonment or the Galleys.
_Catalonia_ formerly enjoy’d the same Privileges, till it was depriv’d of
them by _Philip_ V. when he reduc’d that Province.

Near _Bilbao_ on a very high Mountain is a miraculous Chapel, which has
been mightily inrich’d by the frequent Pilgrimages that have been made to
it for a long time past: But of every thing that I saw in it, nothing
struck me more than the High Altar: ’Tis only of Wood indeed, without
Painting or Gilding, but the Workmanship of it is surprizing, and it may
be look’d upon as Art’s Master-piece; I have been told, that he, who made
this curious Piece of Work, was accus’d of Judaism, and burnt for it, some
time after he had finish’d it: But, in good Truth, the Inquisition ought
to have pardon’d him, purely for his Ingenuity.

I stay’d longer at _Bilbao_ than I expected: I was every Day in Hopes of
finding some Vessel that was going to _Holland_; but at last being tir’d
with waiting, I went on board a Merchant-Ship of _Bilbao_ that was bound
for _London_, by which means I had a Sight of _England_ sooner than I
expected: We had so fair a Wind during the whole Passage, that the Sixth
Day after we set Sail, I found myself actually in LONDON[29].

       *       *       *       *       *

All the Places we pass’d by in the Way to this famous City form a Prospect
beyond any thing whatsoever: Nothing can compare with the beautiful Scene
in the Channel, to see the Multitude of Ships continually going up and
down on one Side or the other: The noble Shores of the _Thames_, cover’d
with magnificent Houses and beautiful Gardens, give a grand Idea of the
Riches of _England_: I was pleas’d to see the noble Foundery of Cannon,
Bombs and Bullets, and the Dock for the King’s Ships, whereof I saw
several lying at Anchor, which were all stately Vessels, and worthy of so
wealthy a Nation as the _English_. I was above all surpriz’d at the Bulk
of one of those Men of War, which they told me was that the Admiral goes
on board of when _England_ sends him out to Sea. On the left Side of the
_Thames_ also, before one comes to _London_, we see a magnificent Building
for the Invalid Sailors: And near this Hospital lie the King’s Yatchs,
which serve to carry his Majesty and his Court over to _Holland_, when he
repairs to his _German_ Dominions: The King’s Yatch is very large, and
richly carv’d and gilt: From this Place to _London-Bridge_ is nothing to
be seen but Ships and Boats continually coming and going, and both Sides
of the River are lin’d with Ships at Anchor, which forms a magnificent
Shew: I fancy that ’tis impossible for a Foreigner to behold the continual
Motion upon this River without Amazement: I shot the famous Bridge of
_London_, which, considering the Length of it, and the Tides of Flood and
Ebb, to which it is expos’d, ought really to be reckon’d one of the
principal Bridges of the World: The Breadth of it is by no means
answerable to the Length, and what renders it still narrower is, the
Houses and Shops built upon it, which are none of the best, and yield a
bad Prospect.

I went ashore near _Whitehall_, which was formerly a magnificent Palace,
and the Residence of the Kings of _England_, but had the Misfortune to be
consum’d by Fire in the Reign of _William_ III. and _Mary_: What remains
of all this Palace is only one great Pavilion of very fine Architecture,
which was formerly a Banquetting-house, and is now a Chapel. ’Twas at
_Whitehall_ that the unfortunate _Charles_ I. was beheaded, and in the
Remains of this Palace the Window is still to be seen, thro’ which that
Prince pass’d to the Scaffold, that was erected over-against it.

The Palace of _Whitehall_ faces _St. James_’s Park, which is the same to
_London_ as the _Thuilleries_ are to _Paris_, tho’ the former is much more
frequented than the latter; but that which takes off very much from the
Pleasure of the Walks is, the Promiscuousness of the Company,
Livery-Servants and the Mobility being suffer’d to walk here as well as
Persons of Distinction: In the middle of this Park is a spacious noble
Canal, which is a very great Ornament to it: The Walks are kept in good
Order, and especially that call’d the _Mall_, which is the longest of all:
On the Right Hand of this Walk going from _Whitehall_ stands _St. James_’s
Palace, which is now the ordinary Residence of the Monarchs of _England_:
’Tis a very ancient Building, which was formerly a Convent, and has still
very much the Appearance of one; so that, were it not for the Guards
about it, a Stranger would hardly imagine it to be the Palace of a
Sovereign Prince: There are Two Entrances to it, one on _St. James_’s
Side, and the other towards _Whitehall_, and at each there attends a
Company of the Foot-Guards with a Pair of Colours, and of these there are
Two that always stand Centry with their Swords drawn. The King of _Great
Britain_’s Guard is the sprucest that I ever saw: They are all of a proper
Size, but not Soldiers for mere Shew, as they are every where else, those
who are admitted being oblig’d to bring Certificates of their Service:
They are distinguish’d by the Terms of Life-Guards, the Grenadier-Guards,
the Halberdiers and the Foot-Guards: The Life-Guards wear scarlet Cloth
lac’d with Gold at all the Seams, and fac’d with blue: They are always
booted when they are upon Guard, and dare not be seen without their Boots
till they are reliev’d. The Habit of the Horse-Grenadiers is like that of
the Life-Guards, but they wear Caps of Sky-blue Cloth, which have the
Order of the Garter embroider’d on the Front with Gold and Silver. The
Habit of the Halberdiers is somewhat uncommon: They are dress’d after the
antique manner in scarlet, with a Lace in the King’s Livery, which is of
blue Velvet with a broad Gold Lace in the middle; and they wear Caps of
black Velvet, adorn’d with white Feathers: The Foot-Guards have red
Cloaths with blue Facings: This, _Madame_, was what I observ’d when I made
my Entrance into _London_.

I steer’d my Course to _St. Anne_’s Quarter, where I had a Direction to
some honest _French_ Refugees: After I had rested a few Days, I took some
Measures to make my Appearance at Court, but without Success: The King and
his _German_ Court had been so prejudic’d against me by _Madamoiselle de
Pollnitz_, that ’twas impossible for me to obtain an Audience of his
Majesty. The Princess of _Wales_ was concern’d at my Situation, and so
good as to make me a Present, but the _Germans_ who were at Court were,
like their Master, shy of me, so that I was fain to content myself with
keeping no Company but the _English_, of whom I met with several that I
had seen in _France_, and with whom I renew’d my Acquaintance: They us’d
me with all the Civility imaginable, and took Care to carry me to the
several Quarters of _London_, where there was any thing worth seeing: They
first shew’d me _St. Paul_’s Cathedral, which, next to _St. Peter_’s at
_Rome_, is the biggest and the most magnificent Church in _Europe_: It was
begun after the great Fire of _London_, in the Reign of _Charles_ II. and
not finish’d till the Reign of Queen _Anne_: The Outside of the Structure
is as magnificent as the Inside: The first thing that presents itself is
the Statue of Queen _Anne_ on the right Side of the West-Entrance, which
is the Front: She is represented standing upright, as big as the Life,
dress’d in the Royal Robes, with a Sceptre in one Hand, and a Globe in the
other: Both the Statue and the Pedestal on which it is plac’d are of
Marble: But I did not think this Monument answerable to what might have
been expected from a Nation so famous as the _English_ for their elegant
Taste in the Arts and Sciences: Nor did I judge more favourably of some
other Pieces of Sculpture in the Inside of _St. Paul_’s Church, which did
not seem to be the Performances of Masters. I thought the Choir by much
too small, considering the Bigness of the Nave: The Choir is separated
from the Body of the Church by a Balustrade of Wood, resembling a Gate,
over which the Organs are plac’d to a disadvantagious View, owing, as I
take it, to the Chasms on the Sides: Opposite to the Entrance of the Choir
is the Communion-table, fenc’d round with a Balustrade and a Form whereon
the Communicants kneel: At the Right Hand of this Table is the Seat of the
Archbishop of _Canterbury_, which is rais’d some Steps above the Ground;
and over it is a Canopy, like to those of the Catholic Bishops: All round
the Choir are little Pews or Stalls like the Boxes in a Play-house, and
there the Magistrates usually sit, when they come to the Church in a Body:
The Preacher’s Pulpit, which is plac’d in the middle of the Choir, is a
plain Piece of Work of Wallnut-Wood, and of an octogon Figure, so
contriv’d, that one does not see the Stairs by which the Preacher goes up
to it: On the Right Hand of the Door of the Choir is a Canopy, and a Seat
like to that of the Archbishop of _Canterbury_, which is for the Bishop of

From _St. Paul_’s I went to see _Westminster_-Abbey, which being in a Part
of the Town at a good Distance from _St. Paul_’s, oblig’d me to take a
Hackney-Coach: These Vehicles are very common at _London_; but being made
without a Spring, are intolerably uneasy: However, they are of excellent
Service to rid a great deal of Ground in a little time; for the Horses,
which are very good, gallop for most Part, but the Pavement they run upon
being the worst in _Europe_, it gives terrible Shocks to those who make
Use of this Equipage, as I experienc’d in my Jaunt to the Abbey of
_Westminster_. This is the Church in which the Kings of _England_ are
consecrated and interr’d: ’Tis a very ancient Pile, without any other
Beauty but its Bulk: There is a good Number of Chapels within it, in which
are the Tombs of several Kings, Queens, and even of private Persons; but
of these there are few worthy of Remark: ’Twas in this Church I saw that
call’d _St. Edward_’s Chair, which is of Wood, without any Ornament; and
they say, it is the Chair which that Saint made Use of: The Kings are
seated in it at the time of their Coronation: On one Side of this Chair is
a Press, wherein is preserv’d in Waxwork the Effigy of General _Monk_,
who, after the Death of _Cromwell_, restor’d _Charles_ II. to the Throne
of his Ancestors. In a Chapel hard by I was shewn another Statue in
Waxwork, which represents _Charles_ II. himself as big as the Life,
dress’d in his Robes as Knight of the Garter: In the same Chapel I also
saw the Waxwork Statue of the Duchess of _Richmond_, in her Habit as

In this Church I met With an _English_ Gentleman, an old Friend of mine,
who carry’d me to the Parliament-house, where the King was expected that
very Day, to put an End to that Session: And really I had not been long
there before I saw the King enter in his royal Robes, and the Crown upon
his Head: As I was inform’d his Stay there would be short, I went out, and
plac’d myself in his Passage, that I might see his Retinue: I saw him go
into his Coach, drawn by Eight Horses, attended by his Horse-Guards, and
preceded by another Coach, in which sate the principal Officers of the
Crown: The King of _England_ never rides with this Attendance, but when he
goes to meet his Parliament; for he is generally carry’d in a Sedan, with
Six Footmen walking before, and Six Halberdiers, or Yeomen of the Guard,
by the Sides of the Chair; while the Officers that are in Waiting
commonly follow his Majesty in Coaches, drawn each by a Pair of Horses:
The Prince and Princess of _Wales_ are attended, when they go out, much in
the same manner: I observ’d a Custom among the Livery-Servants of the King
and their Royal Highnesses, which I saw at no other Court, _viz_. That
when they are in Waiting, they wear, instead of a Hat, plain Caps of black
Velvet, made like the Caps of Running-Footmen.

After I had seen the King pass by, I went and din’d with my Lord ----,
whose Brother I had seen in _Spain_: There I spent the Afternoon, and at
Night he carry’d me to the Opera, where I was highly pleas’d, not only
with the Performers, who were the best Voices in _Europe_, but with the
Orchestre, which could not be finer nor better fill’d; yet, for all that,
I don’t think it comes up to the Opera at _Paris_; for this at _London_ is
quite destitute of Dances, or at least when there are any, they are so ill
executed, that they are intolerable to Persons of a nice Taste: The
Stage-Dresses are indeed much richer than those of the _French_ Actors;
but then they are not of that clever Fancy, which the _French_ alone may
boast to be their peculiar Perfection: The _English_ Stage has another
Defect, and that is, the extreme Want of Performers, for they know nothing
of Chorus’s, and when the Scene demands the Appearance of any Retinue,
’tis generally compos’d of People that they pick up where they can get
them; for which Reason they all look very silly and confus’d: The Place
where the Boxes are, is in a manner round: ’Tis small, but very lofty, and
I thought the Seats very well laid out: The whole Company sits down, even
those in the Pit, in which there are Benches that form an Amphitheatre,
which is not very high, but almost of a circular Figure, so that every
body faces the Stage: This Place is so well lighted with Wax-Candles, that
it dazzles one’s Eyes, which is a very great Diminution to the Lustre of
the Theatre: The King, who was at the Opera when I was there, sate in a
Box on the Right Side of the Stage, without any Distinction, and convers’d
all the time with Three Ladies that were in his Box.

Some Days after this I went to the _English_ Comedy: I shall say nothing
of the Play that was acted there, because, as I did not understand the
Language, I could only judge of it from the Applause that was given to it:
The Actors seem’d to be excellent, at least, if I might judge, by their
Gesture and Carriage, so that it would be a difficult Matter to find any
that appear to better Advantage.

The little Prospect I had of obtaining any Employment at the Court of
_England_, and the visible Decay of my Finances, forc’d me to think of
departing very soon: Therefore, without Loss of Time, I made my Tours
about the City of _London_, in order to see what was most worthy of
Remark: I found very fine Courts, and more Squares than in any other City
I ever saw, which would have been more magnificent, if they had not been
spoil’d by inclosing them with wooden Pales, to convert the Ground within
into Gardens. The Houses are commonly very small, most of them have no
Courts before them, and there are few that have Gardens: But I must except
a good many Hotels or Palaces, that are very magnificent; such as the Duke
of _Montague_’s House, which is built in an exquisite Taste: The Court
before it is very large and beautiful; and the Garden perfectly answers
the Beauty of the Building: The Stair-case is worth seeing by those of the
nicest Skill: The Ceiling represents _Phaeton_ asking Leave of the Sun to
drive his Chariot, and the Fall of _Phaeton_ is describ’d at the Entrance
of the Saloon, just at the Top of the Stair-case: The Apartments on each
Side of this Saloon are also very beautiful, and most richly furnish’d.

I went afterwards to see my Lord _Marlborough_’s House, which is very
magnificent, and full of Pictures, done by the most able Hands, whereof
the greatest Number was by _Vandyke_: After having in like manner taken a
View of several other great Houses, of which I don’t undertake to give a
Description, I was shew’d a Column, which in my Opinion far surpass’d the
famous Pillar of _Trajan_: ’Twas the _Monument_, erected in Memory of the
terrible Fire that happen’d at _London_, soon after the Restoration of
_Charles_ II. to the Throne of _England_: ’Tis pity but this Pillar had
more Room to stand in, it being pent up in a pretty close Nook, which is
the very Spot where the Fire first broke out: There’s a _Latin_
Inscription upon it, shewing all the Circumstances of that sad Misfortune:
In the Pedestal of this Monument is a Door, that opens to Stairs cut out
in the Pillar, by which People ascend to the Top of it; and in all
_London_ there is not a Place from whence there is a more extensive
Prospect of the Country, except it be the Cupola of _St. Paul_’s.

Not far from this Monument is that Structure which is call’d the _Royal
Exchange_, where the Merchants meet every Week-day from Noon till Two
o’clock: ’Tis a very large quadrangular Building, and its principal Front
is very magnificent: The Square, where the Merchants meet, is encompass’d
with a fine Gallery, supported by great Arches of beautiful Architecture:
In the middle of it is a Marble Statue of _Charles_ II. who is represented
standing upright, and dress’d in his Royal Robes: In certain Niches over
the Arches there are the Statues of the Kings and Queens of _England_,
which are all of Stone, and so imperfectly done, that they are a Blemish,
rather than an Ornament to the Exchange: Near this Building is another
Statue of _Charles_ II. on Horseback, which is a Monument of white Marble,
but so ill perform’d, that I believe it would have been better if it had
never been put up: The Equestrian Statue of _Charles_ I. erected betwixt
the _Haymarket_ and _Whitehall_, which is all of Brass, is much better
executed: Good Judges particularly admire the Horse, which is one of the
boldest Pieces that is to be seen, and was cast by the same Workman that
cast the Horse of _Henry_ IV. at _Paris_; but the Statue of the King was
done by another Hand: _Cromwell_, who had no Respect for the Blood of his
Sovereign, did not care to have his Statue preserv’d, but caus’d it to be
pull’d down, and set to Sale: A Founder, that was a zealous Royalist,
purchas’d it, on Pretence that he would melt it down, but, as soon as he
had it brought Home, he caus’d it to be bury’d under Ground, where it
remain’d till _Charles_ II. was restor’d to the Throne, and then he made a
Present of it to that Prince, who caus’d it to be erected on that Pedestal
of white Marble which we now see.

A little Distance from the _Exchange_ is the famous Tower of _London_,
which is of the same Use to this City as the _Bastille_ is to _Paris_,
with this Difference however, that ’tis not so easy for a King of
_England_ to store it, as it is for a King of _France_ to fill the
_Bastille_: This Tower is properly speaking a Citadel, form’d of a Number
of Houses, surrounded with Fortifications: Here is the Arsenal, which is
the best furnish’d, and kept in the best Condition of any in _Europe_: In
this Tower are also preserv’d the Ornaments and Treasury of the Crown: The
principal Pieces are 1. The Crown of _Edward the Confessor_, with which
the Kings of _England_ are crown’d: ’Tis of solid Gold, set with Diamonds
and other precious Stones. 2. The Crown of State, which the King wears
when he meets the Parliament: It has a remarkable Pearl, an Emerald, and a
Ruby upon it, so large, that the Value of them is not to be estimated:
After I had seen this Crown, I was shew’d that which serv’d for the
Coronation of Q. _Mary_, the Daughter of _James_ II. ’Tis cover’d all over
with Diamonds, admirable both for their Size and Beauty: Then I saw the
Prince of _Wales_’s Crown, which is all over plain, without any Jewels;
and besides these, I had the Sight of many other rich Things, of which I
don’t pretend to give you the Particulars: I will only add, that the
Method of exposing them to View is very well contriv’d, to prevent their
being stole; for they are only seen thro’ a large Iron Grate, so strong,
that it would be a hard Matter to force it.

After I had seen the Treasury, I was carry’d into another Room, where I
saw all the Statues of the Kings of _England_, from _William the
Conqueror_, Duke of _Normandy_, to _James_ II. They are represented in
Armour, and on Horseback, but the whole is of Wood colour’d, which makes
them frightful Objects.

As you might happen to think me tedious if I were to be more particular, I
chuse to pass over many things in Silence, and shall only say a Word or
two of the Character of the _English_ People: I thought _Englishmen_ were
much the same in their own Country as the _French_ are out of _France_,
that is to say, haughty, scornful, and such as think nothing good enough;
and in like manner they are when abroad, what the _French_ are in their
own Country, good-natur’d, civil and affable: Of all Nations I found the
_Italians_ were most esteem’d in _England_, the _French_ and _Germans_
being in some Degree hated: But their Hatred to the _Germans_ is of no
older Date than the Reign of the Elector of _Hanover_; for till then the
_English_ look’d upon us as if they neither lov’d nor envy’d us, but now
they have a Notion, that the Money of _England_ goes over to _Germany_;
and seem to think, that we had no Coin, till they call’d the House of
_Hanover_ to govern them[30]. As to their Hatred of the _French_, ’tis of
a longer standing, insomuch that it would be a difficult Task to determine
the Age of it; and I am apt to think, it runs in their Blood; for the
Antipathy extends even to the minutest Things; for Example, in the Article
of Dress; when the _French_ wear little Hats, the _English_ wear theirs
with monstrous broad Brims; and when they know that great Hats are worn in
_France_, they reduce the Brims of theirs till they are as much too
narrow; and ’tis the very same case with regard to the rest of their
Dress; so that I am persuaded, the _English_ would soon quit any Fashion,
were it ever so becoming and elegant, if once the _French_ thought fit to
follow it[31]. But how changeable soever they are in their Fashions, as
well as the _French_, yet they have not the Fancy which the latter are
remarkable for, and know not how to dress to Advantage; for, in short,
there’s not a People upon Earth that set themselves off so ill as the
_English_ do, and really they had need to be as well-shap’d as they are
for the Generality, or their Dress would be insupportable.

The _English_ Women are also perfectly well-shap’d, and are for most part
pretty, and very agreeable Companions; but, like the Men, they han’t the
Art of Dress; and tho’ they are always very neat in their Cloaths, yet
they have such an odd way of putting them on, as if they endeavour’d to
disfigure themselves: When they go out in a Deshabille, they commonly put
on a Camblet Cloak as long as their Petticoats, which is clos’d before,
and on each Side there is a Slit, thro’ which they put their Arms: They
have withal a Hood of the same Stuff as the Cloak, which is tied under the
Chin with a colour’d Ribbon[32]. Nor is this Dress unbecoming to the Sex,
for ’tis very often us’d by the Citizens Wives and Daughters, and is also
much worn among the gay Ladies, when they go upon Intrigues with their
Lovers; at which time they repair thus rigg’d on board certain Wherries,
that carry them to Houses of Entertainment design’d for such Interviews;
the very Boats too seem to be made to the Purpose, being cover’d with
scarlet Cloth, or very neat Stuffs, and the Watermen being us’d to the
Business, manage it as well as the Gondoliers of _Venice_.

That amiable Freedom which reigns in _England_ gives the People an Air of
Gaiety that is to be met with no where else so universally: The Nobility,
the Citizens, and the lower Rank of People have all their Recreations; and
whereas in other Countries the Rich alone seem to have a Right to
Pleasures, the _English_ Nation has Diversions for all Classes; and the
Mechanic, as well as his Lordship, knows how to make himself merry, when
he has done his Day’s Work. The _English_ are very much for Shows; Battles
especially, of what nature soever, are an agreeable Amusement to them, and
of these they have all Kinds: Sometimes they engage Bulls with other
Beasts, and at other times they have Cock-fighting: You have undoubtedly
heard talk, how these little Animals will fight: The Cocks of _England_
are the best in the World for this Sport, that being a Species, of which
there is not the like in other Countries: Their Bill is very long, and
when they have once begun to fight, they battle it with such Fury, that
one, if not both, is generally left dead upon the Spot. Before they are
exposed in the Pit where they are to engage, little Spurs are fasten’d to
their Feet, with which those Animals gall each other dextrously: The
_English_, who are no indifferent Spectators of the Engagement, form
themselves immediately into several Parties in Favour of the Combatants;
and, according to the Custom of their Country, lay considerable Wagers;
for, it must be observ’d, there is no Nation in the World so fond of
laying Wagers as the _English_.

The Battles of Animals are not the only ones to be seen in _England_,
there being very often Combats of Gladiators, when the Wretches for
pitiful Lucre fight with one another at Swords, and very often wound each
other cruelly: The _English_ delight very much in this sort of
Prize-fighting: They shout loud Applauses when either of the Two wounds
his Antagonist, and when the Battle is over, the Two Combatants shake
Hands, and make each other a low Bow, to shew they don’t bear one another
any Malice: I can’t conceive how they find any Fellows to take up such an
Exercise; the rather, because ’tis liable to very fatal Consequences; for
they say, that by their Laws, he who wounds his Adversary, shall be at the
Expence of curing him, and he that kills him, is to be hang’d without

There’s another sort of Prize-fighters, who fight every Evening in the
Summer in a Square near _St. James_’s, with no other Weapons but
Quarter-staves, or wooden Swords, with which they break one another’s
Ribs, or knock one another on the Head, and the Victor is generally
regal’d by some or other of the Spectators. I have also seen, as I have
been going over the Square, a pack of Wrestlers, that endeavour’d to throw
one another down, and when one of the Two has tripp’d up his Adversary’s
Heels, he politely gave him his Hand to help him up again: At all these
Performances considerable Wagers are laid, as I have already had the
Honour to tell you.

After having seen every thing at _London_ worth a Stranger’s Curiosity, I
was prevail’d on, before I left _England_, to go and take a View of the
Royal Palaces in the Country: I saw _Hampton Court_ and _Windsor_, which
are Two magnificent Palaces, yet Trifles in comparison with the Royal
Palaces of _France_: _Kensington_ Palace pleas’d me well enough: ’Tis a
House that formerly belong’d to an _English_ Nobleman, of whom King
_William_ bought it, because ’twas so near _London_: They were making some
Alterations at it when I was there: The King’s Apartment is very spacious,
but not the most magnificent, and ’tis adorn’d with some Paintings by
_Vandyke_, which are of uncommon Beauty; One of these Pictures represents
King _Charles_ I. on Horseback, and in another are his Queen, her
Waiting-women and all her Children: I never saw any thing better done than
these Two Pieces are. _Kensington_ Gardens would be very fine for a
private Person, but for a King, methinks I could wish them to be somewhat
more magnificent.

Having finish’d my Travels in _England_, where I stay’d near a Month, with
a View of the Royal Palaces, I embark’d for _Holland_; but had not a quick
Passage, by reason of a Calm, that surpriz’d us at Sea, so that we could
neither go forwards nor backwards: At length, in Five Days after we had
left _London_, we arriv’d in the Mouth of the _Maese_, where we bore a
hard Gale of Wind, which blew all Night: Next Day we got safe into the
_Maese_, and by Noon came to _Rotterdam_, from whence I set out the same
Day for the HAGUE.

       *       *       *       *       *

As soon as I arriv’d there I thought of renewing my Wardrobe, and
refitting my Equipage. Tho’ all this would not come to a great deal, yet
being then very short of Money, I was forc’d to go a borrowing: I
therefore gave Letters of Attorny to my Creditors, to receive an Annuity
which came to me from my Family, and of which I shar’d one Third with my
Brother, and _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_. As my Brother and I were Minors
when my Grandmother left us that Annuity, _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_ being
the eldest of the Family, qualify’d herself to receive it: She was first
paid the whole upon her own Receipts, but afterwards she gave each of us
our Share, which she all along continued to do ever since I was of Age: My
Creditors were glad to accept of the Powers which I delegated to them,
but, for their greater Security, they desir’d me to make myself sure and
certain that _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_ would punctually pay them: I wrote
immediately, and desir’d them to write to her likewise; but as my good
Cousin was never a hearty Friend to me, she thought fit to thwart me in
the Expedient I had contriv’d to raise Money: Instead of doing me the
Honour to write me an Answer, she wrote to my Creditors, to caution them
to be upon their Guard; that I only meant to cheat them, that I had no
Share in any such Annuity, and that every Word I had told them about it
was a Lye. My Creditors were somewhat startled at this Intelligence, and
imagin’d that they had to do with a Knave, who only intended to bilk them,
and that they should be left without Remedy if I once gave them the Slip:
I did every thing on my Part to make them easy; I told them that
_Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_ had conceal’d the Truth from them, on Purpose
to involve me in Trouble; and that I would engage she should retract the
Letters she had sent them: Besides this, I offer’d to pay them out of the
Income of my own Estate: But all I could say to them signify’d nothing;
their Jealousy had taken deep Root, and they resolv’d, in order to secure
their Debts, to arrest me: And so they actually did; for one _Sunday_
Morning I was accosted by some ill-favour’d Companions, who desir’d me to
remove with a good Grace to the Prisons at the _Hague_, if I did not like
to be carry’d thither by Force. I was a little confounded at such a Visit,
and saw that I must instantly lose my Liberty, and perhaps for a long time
too, when _Madame Pyll_, a Tradeswoman at the _Hague_, to whom I was
already indebted, was so kind as to advance me what was necessary to pay
my Creditors; by which means I got out of the Clutches of those
impertinent Fellows.

Not many Days after this happen’d, other Creditors being inform’d of it,
imagin’d that the only infallible Method for their being paid was, to take
the same Course with me, and they also resolv’d to arrest me: Accordingly,
Notice was brought to me at 6 o’Clock in the Morning, that ’twas
apprehended there was a Design form’d against me, and that some Serjeants
were sauntring about to nab me: I had my Breeches on indeed, but nothing
more than a Night-gown; and not caring to take the Trouble of dressing
myself intirely, especially as I knew that there were not many People
stirring at the _Hague_ at that time, I thought it best to steal off in my
Night-gown: I made my Escape to the House of my dear _Madame Pyll_: I
could have wish’d this good Woman would have once more pacify’d those
ravenous Hounds, but I had not the Assurance to mention it to her; and
only desir’d she would give me Shelter for a little while, which she
granted with Pleasure: But I was soon under a Necessity of shifting my
Quarters, for the Catch-Polls being inform’d where I was harbour’d, were
actually coming to take me, when this honest Woman help’d me to slip out
at the Back-door, and lent me a Cloak, in which having muffled myself up,
I had nothing to think of but how to get away from the _Hague_: I put
myself on board the _Delft_ Passage-Boat, and went in quest of _Texera_, a
rich _Portuguese_, who had a House half a League from the _Hague_. We were
such good Friends, that I was persuaded he would not abandon me in the
Situation he found me in: And indeed, with all the Generosity possible, he
advanc’d me what Money I wanted, and had me conducted to _Honslaerdyk_,
where I stay’d Two Days in the Castle: My Keeper happen’d to be one that
was Waiting-woman to my late Mother, who did me all the Services she was
capable of, and went and acquainted _Pyll_ where I was; upon which she
came to see me, and brought me my Cloaths: I then consider’d what I had to
do next: I had a great mind to return to the _Hague_, to treat with the
Creditors who prosecuted me; but considering, that perhaps as soon as I
had made these easy, others would give me fresh Trouble, I resolv’d to go
to _Germany_, where I should be nearer at hand to write to my Family for
the settling of my Affairs; for I was still under a Prohibition to go to
_Berlin_; tho’ why I was thus forbid to go to my own native Place, I knew

I went the Road to _Aix la Chapelle_, in Hopes that I should there find
the Count _de L----_, to whom I had lent 400 Ducats 7 or 8 Years ago. He
was then in the Service of the Elector Palatine, and I was assur’d that he
was in waiting about _Aix_. The first Day I went to _Dort_, and from
thence to BOIS LE DUC.

This is a pretty considerable Place in _Dutch Brabant_: ’Tis encompass’d
all round with Marshes, and may easily be laid under Water for several
Leagues round, which makes it one of the strongest Places in _Europe_:
’Twas _Henry_ of _Brabant_ that gave it the Name of _Bois le Duc_, or
_Bolduc_, i. e. the _Duke’s Wood_, because he directed the Building of it
in 1171, in the same Place where he caus’d a Wood to be cut down.

At _Bois le Duc_ I went into the _Diligence_, which is the Name of the
Stage-Coach that goes to MASTRICHT: I made an Acquaintance in it with an
_English_ Gentleman that was going to _Aix la Chapelle_, to make use of
the Waters: He came directly from _England_, and being, as ’tis probable,
over-burden’d with his Guineas, he was at every turn exclaiming against
the Cheapness of every thing on this Side of the Water: But a little
Adventure he was engag’d in at _Mastricht_ alter’d his Opinion: He went
out all alone the very Night we came thither, with a Design, he said, to
take a little Walk about the Town; and in his Ramble he met with a very
amiable young Creature upon the great Square, with whom he enter’d into a
Conversation: After having parley’d with her some time, he offer’d to wait
upon her to her Lodgings, and she was not so unsociable, but she accepted
of his Proposal: My _Englishman_ thought himself a happy Mortal, and the
Damsel appear’d so amiable in his Eyes, that he begg’d her Permission when
he was at her Quarters to treat her with some Refreshments: When they had
empty’d some Bottles, and the _Englishman_ was ready to take his Leave, he
threw down a Guinea, and thought he paid full enough, but the Damsel
demanded another: The Gentleman scrupled to give it, and insisted upon it
with some Warmth, that a Guinea was sufficient in all Conscience to
discharge the Expence he had put her to: No doubt he should have paid
more Respect to such civil Company. The offended Damsel call’d the
Landlady, who fell upon the poor _Englishman_ like a mad Woman: These Two
were join’d by a Third Fury, who all together pummell’d the _Englishman_
soundly, tore his Cravat, and turn’d him out of Doors without so much as
giving him his Perriwig: To complete his Misfortune, it rain’d as hard as
it could pour, and the Night was so dark, that he could not see which way
to steer his Course: He knew not who to ask for; and besides, he had
forgot both the Inn, and the Name of the Street where we lodg’d: At last,
being quite weary of running up and down the Streets so long, he took it
into his Head to knock at every Door, from whence he met with no Return
but hard Names: While he was rapping at one Door, he was surpriz’d by the
Patroll, who carry’d him to the Watch-house: It was well for him that the
Officer upon Guard was not an ill-natur’d Man, for he had the Patience to
hear him give a very confus’d Description of the Inn, of which he had
absolutely forgot the Name; and upon his saying that there were several
other Inns in the same Street where his was, they guess’d pretty near
where-abouts it was: Then the Officer lent him a Cloak, and having given
him a Watchman to go along with him, they thundred at the Doors of several
Inns, which not being the Inn that they wanted, there would certainly have
been some Uproar, if it had not been for the Watchman that the
_Englishman_ had to attend him: At last, as they were still wandring about
in quest of the Inn which neither of them knew any thing of, the
_Englishman_’s Lacquey, who was seeking his Master, met him, and carried
him to his Quarters: You must know, that this Adventure made it a very
disagreeable Night to me; for being extremely tired, I went to Bed as soon
as I had supp’d, and the _Englishman_ being to lie in my Chamber, his
Lacquey, who staid up there for him, disturb’d me sadly; for when he saw
’twas late, and that his Master was not return’d, he came every
now-and-then to my Bed-side, and wak’d me to know what he should do; so
that, to get rid of him, I advis’d him at last to turn out, and look for
him. As soon as they came into the Room, I was forc’d to undergo the
Penance of hearing the whole Story of his Adventure: The Lacquey was in a
terrible Wrath with the honest People that had insulted his Master, and he
propos’d to go out that Moment, and break open the Doors, and turn the
House out of the Windows; but the Master having more Wit in his Anger,
thought it best to bear his Disgrace with Patience, and to rest his Bones
after so much Fatigue.

       *       *       *       *       *

We set out next Day for _Aix la Chapelle_; but the Count _de L----_ whom I
thought to have found there, was at that time in the _Palatinate_, and
therefore having nothing to do at _Aix_, I took Leave of my _Englishman_,
and proceeded in my Journey towards _Cologne_: As soon as I came thither,
I fell ill of a Fever, nevertheless I push’d on, and was preparing to go
up the _Rhine_, but when I came to ANDERNACH, a little Town in the
Dominions of _Cologne_, I found myself so ill, that I was absolutely
oblig’d to stop: Mean time my Fever prov’d a continual one, and I was in a
Place where I could not expect much Relief: The Mistress of the House
where I was told me, that there was an able Physician some Leagues from
_Andernach_, upon which I jogg’d on thither as well as I could, and in a
Fortnight’s time my Fever left me: Some Days after this I propos’d going
towards _Mentz_, but when I came to _Coblentz_, I found myself worse than
ever, and not being willing to change my Doctor, I return’d down the
_Rhine_, and went to spend another Fortnight with the Man that had cur’d
me before: Nevertheless, my Distemper grew worse, and even affected my
Mind so much, that I imagin’d I should never be cur’d where I was: I had
withal conceiv’d such a mortal Aversion to my Doctor, that I could no
longer bear the Sight of him; and fancy’d that a Physician of _Cologne_,
whom I knew, was the only Man that could cure me, for which Reason I was
wonderfully impatient to go to _Cologne_; and notwithstanding all the
Arguments of my Doctor to convince me that in the Condition which I was
then in it would be Death for me to undertake a Voyage, yet I embark’d in
a Vessel, and went down the _Rhine_: When I arriv’d at _Cologne_, I put
myself with Confidence under the Care of the Physician of whom I had such
an Opinion, and after having taken his Drugs about Two Days, whether it
was owing to their Virtue, or to the Force of my Imagination, the Fever
visibly diminish’d, and at last quite left me.

When I was perfectly recover’d, I went up the _Rhine_ again to _Mentz_,
where I hop’d to have found my Cousins; but I was told, that they were at
their Estate in _Franconia_: This unlucky Absence of theirs perplex’d me
very much, and what to do now I could not tell: I chose to go to _Zell_,
where my Brother liv’d, and by good Luck I met with a Coach that was going
to _Hanover_: From _Hanover_ I went to _Zell_, where I heard that my
Brother was at _Berlin_, and I resolv’d to advance that way; but lest I
might be known, instead of going to the Neighbourhood of _Berlin_, I
repair’d to _Leipsic_, from whence I wrote to my Agent to know how Things
went, and if there were any Hopes of settling my Affairs: He sent me
Answer, that there was no Probability of it as long as my Estate remain’d
under a Sequestration; that indeed a Loan of Money would enable me to
obtain a Replevy by compounding with my Creditors; but that he did not see
how it was possible to borrow any Money, unless _Madamoiselle de
Pollnitz_, to whom my Estate was entail’d, would consent to it: He
concluded with telling me, that he knew of no other Method to get me out
of this Difficulty, than to obtain an Order from the King of _Prussia_. I
knew as well as he, that such an Order was the most expeditious Method to
bring me out of Trouble; but how could I obtain it, when I was not
permitted so much as to appear at Court? However, I thought it my Duty to
leave no Stone unturn’d this Bout for obtaining such Permission, tho’ I
had been deny’d it several times. I resolv’d to implore the Protection of
the Prince of _Anhalt-Dessau_, who had always given me Proofs of his
Kindness, as had also the Princesses his Sisters.

       *       *       *       *       *

I went therefore to DESSAU, which is but Six Leagues from _Leipsick_: At
that time none were there but the Princesses, for the Prince had been
absent several Days, and was not expected till the Night following: I
wrote to _Madame_ the Duchess of _Radzivil_, the Eldest of the Princesses,
to desire that she would stand my Friend with the Prince her Brother: This
Princess was so good as to send me one of her Officers to assure me that
she would do every thing in her Power to prevail on the Prince to protect
me; and she even desir’d me to write a Letter to the Prince, which she
promis’d me to deliver to him with her own Hands: I laid hold on the
Princess’s kind Offer, sent her the Letter she desired of me, and as soon
as the Prince was return’d, she had the Goodness to deliver it to him: I
hop’d to carry all my Points after such a Recommendation; yet so far was I
from seeing the Effect which I expected, that the Prince desir’d his
Sister to engage me to make the best of my way out of _Dessau_, because if
I staid there any longer, he should be oblig’d to put me under an Arrest:
The Duchess, when she sent me this Message, was so kind as to sweeten it
with one of the civillest Compliments that could be, and made me an Offer
of Money, imagining, to be sure, that in the Condition I was in, I might
have need of it: I most humbly thank’d her for all the Marks of Kindness
with which she was pleas’d to honour me, and desir’d her to be assur’d,
that I would that Instant pray Obedience to the Prince’s Orders: And
indeed, as I knew that with this Prince Execution follow’d close at the
Heels of his Menaces, I speedily made an Enquiry for a Coach to carry me
to _Barbi_, which is the Residence of a Duke of _Saxony_ of the Branch of
_Weissenfels_, where I hop’d to meet with a Friend of mine, who was in
that Prince’s Service; but ’twas impossible for me to find either Horse or
Coach in all _Dessau_, for nobody would stir by reason of the Sacredness
of the Day, it being the Fourth _Sunday_ in _Advent_: Mean time, as I
still dreaded the Prince’s Anger, I resolv’d to set out on Foot: I made a
Man shoulder my Portmanteau, which was then all my Equipage, and went
with him to a little Town in the Duchy of _Magdebourg_, where I took a
Chaise that carry’d me to BARBI.

       *       *       *       *       *

I there found the Friend that I wanted, who receiv’d me as well as I could
wish: This was the late Baron _de Chalisac_ whom you knew; but he did not
fail to chide me a little, for letting my Affairs run into such Confusion;
and advis’d me to go to my Brother, and concert proper Measures with him
for the Advantage of both of us: He also lent me 40 Crowns for my Journey:
I spent the _Christmas_-Holidays with him, during which he heard, that my
Brother was return’d to ZELL: I was very glad of this News, and next Day
after the Holidays I set out to meet him: I found him in a very good
Humour with me: He convinc’d me, that I had Reason to suspect my Steward,
and advis’d me at the same time to turn him off, and to take his in his
Room, whom he knew to be honest: I gave him full Power to examine my
Steward’s Accompts, and he made it out as clear as the Sun at Noon-day,
that I had been bubbled: My Brother, in order to oblige me thoroughly,
help’d me to some Money, and moreover, put my Affairs in such a State,
that my Creditors might not only be satisfy’d in a little time, but I had
something left over-and-above to subsist me.

My Affairs being thus settled, I had nothing to think of now but which way
to steer my Course, to the end it might be said at least, that I had some
sort of Business or other: I could have lik’d the Service well enough, but
there was no War, nor none like to be very soon: Moreover, I had paid my
Court with so little Success to different Sovereigns, that indeed I was
under no Temptation to enter the Lists again: I might indeed have
return’d to _Spain_, where I had obtain’d an Employ, but what signify’d
it, where the Salaries are not paid, and the Establishment obliges one to
spend high? This Fluctuation of different Ideas puzzled me the more,
because which way soever I look’d, I saw nothing but Difficulty, and not
the least Glimpse of any other Condition that I could embrace: One Friend
advis’d me to take Orders in the Church, which was a Proposition that I
thought at first a little extraordinary; yet when I had seriously
consider’d the Matter, I judg’d it would not be so wrong a Step as I
imagin’d; that sooner or later I should not fail of having some
Preferment: In a Word, a Number of temporal Motives gave Birth to a
Project in my Mind, which ought only to have been the Effect of a
Spiritual Call: I was advis’d first of all to make my Court to the
Cardinal of _Saxe_, who was at _Ratisbon_: This Prince, who from a
_Lutheran_ turn’d _Roman-Catholic_, was very fond of new Converts.

I went therefore to find out his Eminency at _Ratisbon_: My Brother
accompany’d me as far as _Brunswick_, where we stay’d some Days, after
which he took Leave of me, and return’d to _Zell_; and I for my Part went
to _Barbi_, to see the Baron _de Chalisac_ to whom I gave an Account of
the Settlement I had made with my Brother, and of my Resolution to think
now of the main Chance: He was overjoy’d to find me in such a Disposition;
and after I had spent a few Days with him, I proceeded to _Zeitz_, by the
way of _Leipsick_.

       *       *       *       *       *

You know that ZEITZ is a Town which has always been the Appenage of a
Branch of the _Saxon_ Family: The last Duke that was in Possession of it
marry’d a Princess of _Brandenbourg_, Sister of our late King. That Duke
chang’d his Religion twice towards the Close of his Life: The first time
he turn’d _Catholic_, in Imitation of his Brother the Cardinal of _Saxe_;
and the second time he return’d to the _Lutheran_ Religion, in which he
had been educated: As he left but one Daughter, who was marry’d to Prince
_William_ of _Hesse-Cassel_, his Dominions ought to have fallen to the
Cardinal, and to one of his Nephews; but they being both of them
_Catholics_, are disinherited by virtue of an Article of the Treaty of
_Westphalia_: Mean time the King of _Poland_, who is a _Catholic_, seiz’d
them, and continues Master of them, so that those Dominions are govern’d
by a Regency, which receives its Orders from _Dresden_: The King of
_Poland_ made an Accommodation with the Cardinal and the young Prince, by
giving each of them a Sum of Money, and engaging moreover to pay the late
Duke’s Debts.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Zeitz_ I went to HOFF, the first Town in the Marquisate of
_Brandenbourg-Bareith_, from whence I proceeded to _Bareith_, the Capital
of the Margraviate of that Name, and from thence to _Erlangen_: Of both
these Towns I shall have occasion to make Mention hereafter: From
_Erlangen_ I went to NUREMBERG[33], which passes for the best built City
in all _Germany_: The Houses are all very beautiful, lofty, and perfectly
lightsome, and most of them are painted on the Outside, like those of
_Augsbourg_: The Town-house, in which the Senate assembles, is a Structure
remarkably beautiful, is very large, and completely well built: The
principal Front is adorn’d by Three great Portico’s with Marble Pillars:
The Inside is every whit answerable to the Magnificence of the Outside,
there being very fine Rooms in it, adorn’d with noble Paintings.

The Territory of _Nuremberg_ is considerable, there being several Towns
and Villages depending on it: The _Brandenbourg_ Family have had frequent
Disputes with the Republic on account of some Lands, that they claim for
their Appurtenances; upon which Blood has been spilt more than once; nay,
in the Reign of the Emperor _Frederic_ III. there was actually an open War
upon that Occasion: At present _Nuremberg_ is secure against any manner of
Insult; it having good Ramparts, an Arsenal well furnish’d, and a numerous

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had stay’d Two Days at _Nuremberg_, I set out for AICHSTEDT, which
is the See of a Bishop, who is Prince of the Empire: I had the Honour of
waiting on the then Bishop of the See, who was of the Family of the Barons
of _Knebel_ of _Katzenellebogen_, and a Prelate not only of a noble
Extraction, but extraordinary Merit: Having a Letter of Recommendation to
him, I desir’d Audience of him, and he granted it to me with great Marks
of Distinction; for he sent me one of his Coaches, and gave me the most
civil Reception in the World: Being at that time violently afflicted with
the Gout, he was seated, and made me sit down likewise; and after a good
deal of Discourse, he invited me to Supper: The Supper was attended by a
Concert, which his Musicians came to perform in his Chamber: It was a very
numerous Band, and perfectly well adapted: I made my Court to him for the
Five or Six Days that I stay’d at _Aichstedt_, and when I went away, he
made me a Present of a Gold Snuffbox, which weigh’d 25 Ducats: He took it
out of a Cabinet that he shew’d me, in which I observ’d a great many very
valuable Jewels, particularly a Diamond Cross, reckon’d worth between 5
and 600,000 Florins: This Prelate had moreover the Complaisance to defray
my Expences at my Inn, so that when I came to call for the Reckoning, I
was very much surpriz’d to find that I had been beholden to the Prince to
clear it.

       *       *       *       *       *

At my Departure from _Aichstedt_ I took the direct Road to _Ratisbon_,
which carry’d me thro’ INGOLSTADT, a strong Place of _Bavaria_: It serv’d
for the Residence of several Dukes of _Bavaria_, whose Castle is still to
be seen, where lives the Governor, who is always a General Officer of the
Elector’s Troops.

From _Ingolstadt_ Half a Day’s Journey brought me to RATISBON, an Imperial
City of _Bavaria_, and a Suffragan Bishoprick of _Saltzbourg_: There I
found the Cardinal of _Saxe_, who was come thither to preside at the Dyet,
in quality of the Emperor’s Commissary: He had for his Adjunct the Baron
_de Kirchner_, who had the Title of Joint Commissioner at the Dyet, and
had the Care of all Affairs: This Post of Commissioner at the Dyet is the
most honourable that the Emperor has in his Nomination; insomuch that a
Commissioner does not yield Precedence to an Elector; and his very
Instructions import, that if a King comes to _Ratisbon_, he must not yield
him the Preference: The Cardinal of _Lamberg_, who was the Cardinal of
_Saxe_’s Predecessor in the Post of Commissioner at the Dyet, had some
Broil with the Electors, and with the Court of _Vienna_, because he gave
way to the Duke of _Lorrain_: This Prince passing thro’ _Ratisbon_ to take
Possession of his Dominions, after the Treaty of _Ryswick_, sent Notice to
the Cardinal of his Arrival, upon which he went immediately, and pay’d his
Royal Highness a Visit, invited him to dine at his House, sent his Coaches
for the Duke, and gave him the Right Hand upon all Occasions: Of this the
Electors Envoys complain’d; but the Cardinal, not much intoxicated with
his Dignity, made them Answer, That he thought it was a Deference which he
ow’d to the Duke of _Lorrain_, not as a Sovereign Prince, but as the
Emperor’s Nephew: He made Use of the same Argument at the Court of
_Vienna_, where, tho’ for that one time only, his Conduct was approv’d.

This is not the only Prerogative enjoy’d by the Commissioner to the Dyet:
He has a Right to have Guards, and is commonly serv’d by Gentlemen: When
an Electoral Minister repairs to the Cardinal for Audience, he is receiv’d
as he alights out of his Coach by Four Gentlemen, who conduct him to the
Chamber of Audience; There’s a Guard-Room, in which there are 50 Soldiers,
always drawn up in a Line with Muskets on their Shoulders: Next to this
Room is the Chamber of Audience: When the Minister enters it, the
Commissioner advances half way to meet him; They then sit down in Two
Chairs of State, under the same Canopy; in such manner that the
Commissioner is placed in the middle, and the Envoy’s almost over against
him, but a little to one Side, so that it stands partly upon the Carpet,
with the Back turn’d half way towards the Door. When the Audience is over,
the Commissioner accompanies the Envoy half way out of the Chamber, from
whence Four Gentlemen reconduct him to his Coach: The Envoys of the
Princes are only receiv’d by Three Gentlemen. The Commissioner expects
them in the Chamber of Audience standing, and leaning upon a Table, which
is under a Canopy, with a Chair of State by his Side: When the Envoy is
enter’d, the Commissioner sits down, and puts on his Hat, and the Envoy
does the same: His Chair of State stands over-against the Commissioner’s,
with its Back turn’d towards the Door, and plac’d in such a manner, that
the Envoy’s Feet do but barely touch the Commissioner’s Carpet: When the
Audience is ended, Three Gentlemen reconduct the Envoy to his Coach: The
Deputies of the Free States of the Empire have a Chair with only a Back,
and no Arms to it, when they have Audience of the Commissioner, and only
one Gentleman receives and reconducts them.

When the Commissioner gives any public Feast, he must send an Invitation
to the Ministers of the Electors and of the Princes Three Days
before-hand; and the Table must be plac’d under a Canopy, where the
Commissioner has the chief Seat; and the Ministers place themselves on his
Right and Left, according to the Rank of their Masters.

I had the Honour to pay my Respects to the Cardinal Commissioner, who
receiv’d me with all the Good-nature possible, and talk’d to me in such a
manner, as gave me Hopes of Success: The Envoys of the Princes spoke to
him also in my Favour, and they thought him well dispos’d to serve me: I
remain’d thus Four Months at _Ratisbon_ in continual Hopes, but still
without seeing my Affairs settled: I was resolv’d to be somewhat urgent
with him, that I might know without Delay what I had to depend upon: The
Cardinal was so good as not to refuse me to my Face, but he sent me Word
by one of the Elector’s Envoys, who spoke to me for him, that ’twas in
vain for me to stay at _Ratisbon_; that he could do me no Service; and he
said also, without giving any Reason for it, that even tho’ the whole Dyet
was to intercede for me, he would do nothing for me: This Expression,
which I could not think an ambiguous one, made me cease to sollicit him.

At this same time the Emperor declar’d the Marriage of his Niece the
Archduchess with _Charles-Albert Cajetan_, the Electoral Prince of
_Bavaria_: The Elector of _Bavaria_ had waited for this News a long time,
and he receiv’d it almost at the same Instant when he heard that his Third
Son the Duke _Clement_, the Bishop of _Munster_ and _Paderborn_, had been
elected Coadjutor of _Cologne_, in spite of the Opposition which several
Powers had secretly fomented against him in the Chapter. The Cardinal of
_Saxe_ had conceiv’d some Hopes of attaining to this Dignity; but he
desisted from his Pretensions for a very considerable Sum of Money in
Hand, and for the Grant of the Provostship of _Alten-Ottingen_ in
_Bavaria_ to the Prince his Nephew. _M. de Plettenberg_, the Envoy of
_Munster_, gave a grand Feast on account of his Master’s new Dignity: He
caus’d a great Room and several Tents to be erected at the Gates of
_Ratisbon_, where there was Play under the Tents, and a Supper in the long
Room: The Cardinal of _Saxe_ was present at it, and the Envoys with their
Ladies, and all the Quality there in general were invited to it: After the
Feast there was a Firework, to give time to prepare the long Room for the
Ball, which held till Day-light.

Not long after this Entertainment the Cardinal of _Saxe_ set out for
_Hungary_, where he was to preside in quality of Primate of that Kingdom,
at the Dyet which met there this Year: The Emperor and Empress assisted at
it, to settle the Affairs of the Succession of that Crown, the Right of
which the States of the Country acknowledg’d to belong to the
Archduchesses, Daughters of their Imperial Majesties, and to their
Posterity, in case it should please God not to grant their Majesties a

After the Cardinal was gone, I stay’d at _Ratisbon_ no longer than was
absolutely necessary to take Leave of the Ministers of the Electors and
the other Envoys, from whom I had receiv’d all manner of Civilities; for
many of them, not content with shewing me the utmost Complaisance,
extended their Regards further, and knowing the State of my Affairs, they
had behav’d with a Generosity to me, which I shall always remember with
Gratitude; and happy should I be, could I one Day or other find an
Opportunity to shew them Proofs of it! The only one I can give them now
is, to mention their Names to you: The Regard you always had for me will
no doubt engage you, _Madame_, to esteem them as such generous Friends
deserve, which will be an Advantage they will prize the more, because as
they have the Honour to be acquainted with you, they know full well that
you never grant your Esteem, where it is not justly merited.

The Count _de Konigsfelt_, the Envoy of _Bavaria_, was one of those who
strove most with the Cardinal to serve me: This Minister liv’d very grand
at _Ratisbon_: Every thing about him was of the utmost Magnificence: His
Table was exquisite, his Music perfectly well compos’d, his Equipages of a
noble Fancy, and he had a great Number of Domestics, all well cloath’d:
All this external Appearance diffus’d an Air of Grandeur throughout this
Minister’s Houshold, which gave a sublime Idea of the Prince whom he
represented: The Sollicitations of this Minister for me were warmly
seconded by the other Envoys, who also drew their Purse-strings for me:
These were the Baron _de Kirchner_, the Joint Commissioner; _M. de
Vriesberg_, the Envoy of _Hanover_; _M. de Plettenberg_, the Envoy of
_Munster_; the Baron _de Duremberg_; the Envoy of _Hesse-Cassel_; and _M.
de Hagen_, the Envoy of the Duke of _Saxe-Gotha_.

After having discharg’d what I thought Politeness and Gratitude demanded
of me, I set out from _Ratisbon_, to meet my Brother, who was at
_Dusseldorff_ solliciting a Law-Suit, which we were jointly carrying on
with _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_, and which we lost, no doubt because it
was not the Decree of Providence that we should enjoy the good Things of
this World.

       *       *       *       *       *

When I set out from _Ratisbon_ I took the shortest Road, which was to go
thro’ _Nuremberg_, _Wurtzbourg_ and _Francfort_: I stopp’d a few Days at
WURTZBOURG[34], one of the richest and most considerable Bishopricks in
the Empire: The Bishop assumes the Title of Duke of _Franconia_: He, who
then possess’d this See, was of the Family _Schonborn_: This Prelate kept
up a Court and Houshold as considerable as any Prince in _Germany_: I saw
him in all his Glory upon the Festival of the Patron of the Cathedral: He
went from his House to the Church, with a Pomp truly Royal. I saw first
the Bishop’s Harbinger, follow’d by all the Domestics and Gentlemen of his
Court: Then came Six Coaches, drawn each by Six Horses, with the Bishop’s
Arms: Afterwards there follow’d Two of the Prince’s Running-Footmen, and
24 of his other Footmen, all dress’d in his Livery, which was Purple, with
Lace of green Velvet, mix’d with Silver Lace, and they had Waistcoats of
green Cloth, lac’d with Silver: After the Footmen march’d 18 Pages with
Cloaks of the Bishop’s Livery, lin’d with green Sattin: These were
follow’d by above 50 Gentlemen, who walk’d immediately before a stately
Coach, in which the Prince rode alone: His Master of the Horse, and the
Captain of his Guards walk’d on Foot by the Sides of the Coach, which was
guarded by Two Files of the Hundred _Swiss_, dress’d in the antique
manner: 50 Life-Guards in Habits of purple Cloth lac’d with Silver, and
with Bandoleers of green Velvet, lac’d also with Silver, follow’d the
Coach: The March was, clos’d by Three fine Coaches, drawn each by Six
Horses, with the Bishop’s Arms: Arriving with this Train at his Cathedral,
he was receiv’d at the Gate by all the Chapter in a Body: A _Domicellaire_
carry’d the Banner of _Franconia_, and the Marshal of the Bishop’s Court
bore the Sword of State, to denote the Sovereignty of the Duchy of
_Franconia_: The Prelate being conducted to the Vestry, and there array’d
in his Pontificalibus, walk’d into the Choir: His Throne was rais’d Three
Steps from the Floor, and plac’d under a magnificent Canopy, all of
Tapistry, with a Silver Ground: As soon as he was seated the Office
began, by a very fine Piece of Music, perform’d by the Bishop’s Musicians:
After a very short Anthem the Prelate took the Holy Sacrament from the
Altar, and carry’d it in Procession out of the Church: He went all round
the Cathedral with it, preceded by the _Domicellaire_, and the Marshal of
his Court, bearing one the Banner of _Franconia_, and the other the Sword:
The Streets thro’ which the Procession pass’d were lin’d with 4000 Men of
the Bishop’s Troops, which he had order’d into the Town to give the
greater Splendor to the Ceremony: When the Procession was return’d to the
Church, Mass was sung to Music, and the Bishop officiated: The Ceremony
being ended, he return’d to his Palace, with the same Train that attended
him to the Church.

The City of _Wurtzbourg_ resembles the Magnificence of its Bishop, and has
Buildings both sacred and profane, which are very grand: I will give you a
more particular Account of some of them, after I have added a Word or Two
of the City itself: ’Tis an ancient City, and has been subject to many
Revolutions: ’Twas taken in 1526 by the Peasants of _Swabia_ and
_Franconia_, who rebell’d against their Lords upon a Supposition that
_Luther_, who at that time preach’d up Rebellion against the Authority of
the Pope, would likewise approve of their Revolt from their Sovereigns:
_Luther_, however, instead of approving of their Conduct, wrote
strenuously against them, but there was a Necessity of employing other
Methods than Remonstrances to reclaim them: _George Truchses_ of
_Waldbourg_, Colonel of the _Swabian_ League, soon reduc’d them to their
Duty: He fac’d them with a good Number of Soldiers, and the Peasants were
so rash as to make Head against them; for which, however, they suffer’d
dearly, for they were defeated in several Engagements; and I was assur’d,
that it cost the Lives of above 50,000 of them: After this Defeat
_Wurtzbourg_ remain’d quiet till _William of Grumbach_, who had some
Complaint against the Bishop, caus’d him to be assassinated: The Chapter
of _Wurtzbourg_ prepar’d to revenge the Death of their Bishop, but
_Grumbach_ resolv’d to prevent them, and putting himself at the Head of
1200 Men, he surpriz’d the City in 1563, abandon’d it to the Pillage of
his Soldiers, and by that means forc’d the Chapter to come to Terms with
him: The Emperor _Ferdinand_ II. being soon inform’d of _Grumbach_’s
Transactions, put him under the Ban of the Empire; whereupon _Grumbach_
retir’d to _John-Frederic_, Duke of _Saxony_, Son to that _John-Frederic_
whom the Emperor _Charles_ V. had degraded from the Electoral Dignity:
This Misfortune of the Father ought to have been a Warning to the Son not
to grant his Protection to such a Rebel as _Grumbach_: Nevertheless, it
was no Restraint to him: The Emperor, incens’d at such Conduct, put the
Duke also under the Ban of the Empire, and charg’d _Augustus_, Elector of
_Saxony_, to see the Ban put in Execution: This Elector acquitted his
Commission so well, that he secur’d _John-Frederic_, and sent him to the
Emperor, who caus’d him to be committed Prisoner to _Neustad_, where,
after 26 Years Imprisonment, the unhappy Prince dy’d: _Grumbach_, who was
also arrested, was condemn’d to be broke alive, and his Accomplices were

Ever since this Expedition _Wurtzbourg_ has enjoy’d a profound
Tranquillity; which has render’d it so rich and powerful as it is at this
Day: Its Buildings both sacred and profane, as I have already had the
Honour to mention to you, are very magnificent, and its Cathedral is a
vast great Building, which contains immense Wealth: All the Ornaments of
the Altar, the Pulpit, and the Two great Candlesticks before the Altar,
are of solid Silver, as are also several Statues of our Saviour, the Holy
Virgin, and some Saints as big as the Life: Besides all this Wealth there
are beautiful and magnificent Hangings in the Choir, which represent some
Passages of the Old Testament History: The Choir is higher than the Nave
by several Steps: The High Altar consists of Four Pillars of black Marble,
which form a Semicircle, and support a Cupola of Wood gilt, and very
curiously wrought, which has on the Top of all a Ducal Crown: There are
Chapels in the Body of the Church, where Vessels of Gold and Silver cast a
Lustre on all Sides: The Bishop was building a Chapel by the Cathedral,
which, when finish’d, must be very magnificent, for the Inside was to be
lin’d throughout with Marble, which that Prelate had sent for from _Italy_
for the Purpose: He hasten’d it the more, _because_, said he to me upon a
time, _I design to have my Bones laid there_. Perhaps this Prince was
persuaded in his Mind that he had not long to live, for within a few
Months he dy’d: He was succeeded by _Christopher-Francis_ of _Houtten de
Stoltzenberg_, heretofore a Member of the Chapter of _Wurtzbourg_.

Besides the Cathedral there are several other fine Churches to be seen
here, of which that of the Jesuits is one of the most magnificent: I
afterwards went to see the Castle, which stands upon a Hill that looks
over all the Town and Country: The Road that leads to it is very rough,
and so incommodious for Coaches, that the late Bishop abandon’d it, and
chose to dwell in a particular House in the Town, till the noble Castle
which he was building was finish’d: I could not help thinking it wrong in
him to leave a Structure so magnificent, and so suitable for a Sovereign,
in which it may be said, that no Cost has been spar’d: ’Tis encompass’d on
all Sides with Ramparts and other Works, which secure it from any Attack:
The Inner Rooms of the Castle are indeed ancient, but they have lost
nothing of that Air of Grandeur which denotes it to have been the
Residence of a Prince: I never saw any thing look so fine as the Vaults in
this Castle, which, because they can have no more Day-light than what
peeps in at the Door, are illuminated by a great many Candles upon gilded
Sconces: These Vaults are full of Barrels, most of which are of a
monstrous Size, and they are all adorn’d with Carving, and full of Wine,
of which they don’t fail to let Foreigners have a Taste.

As we go from the Court of the Castle one enters the Court of the Arsenal,
which is a Building of Brick and Free-Stone: The lower Rooms are perfectly
well arch’d over, and contain about 160 Brass Guns, the Generality of
which are 24 Pounders, and some carry from 40 to 48 Pound Ball. The
Pillars that support the Arch are garnish’d as well as the Walls with all
the Instruments that are necessary for Gunners, and with every thing
belonging to a Train of Artillery, even to the Harness of Horses: The
Bases were adorn’d with Boxes full of Musket-Balls: Underneath there are
large fine Cellars stor’d with Provisions enough to maintain 6000 Men for
a Year. The upper Rooms serve for the Arms, of which I was assur’d there
were enough for 40,000 Men, Horse and Foot, all rang’d in such Order, that
’tis a Pleasure to see them: The hollow Spaces are full of Flints and
Balls: The Court of this Arsenal, and all the Bastions of the Castle are
full of Bombs and Bullets: In short, to examine this Castle well, one
would take it for the Temple of _Mars_, rather than for the Palace of a
Minister of Peace.

The new Castle which the Bishop was building when I went into his Capital
stands in the Town itself, near the Gate that leads to _Nuremberg_: ’Twill
be one of the finest in _Europe_, if the Model I have seen of it be
exactly pursued: All the Foundations were already finish’d, and about a
Fourth Part of the Castle carry’d up to the first Story: But tho’ there
was no Want of Labour, yet it requires a good deal of Time to bring to
Perfection a Structure which is 360 and odd Feet in Front, and forms Five
great Courts: The Bishop’s Design was to make the principal Stair-case of
Marble, and to line the Chapel, the Guard-Chamber, the great Rooms of the
Palace, and all the Chimneys and Doors with the same: The Gardens were to
be answerable to the Magnificence of the Building, and the Bishop had
actually demolish’d the Ramparts, and fill’d up the Ditches; but Death
stopp’d him in the midst of his Undertaking, and he has left his Successor
to take care, that the Work be finish’d according to the Plan of it, which
has been admir’d by those who are good Judges.

After I had seen the Two Castles, I went to visit the great Hospital,
which is a very fine Establishment: This Building is compos’d of a great
Pavilion in the middle of Two very large Wings: The principal Entrance is
thro’ the Pavilion, to which there is an Ascent by Two Steps; and on the
Right and Left are Two fine Galleries in Form of Arches, which serve as
Corridors to lead to the necessary Offices for maintaining the poor
Pensioners of the Hospital: At the Top of the Stair-case of the Pavilion
is an Entry, which leads to a couple of close Galleries, in which are the
Chambers of the Pensioners, and to a large fine Room, all over carv’d,
painted and gilt: On the Left Hand are Two great Closets, in which the
Bishops retire during the Holy Week. The second Story is like the first;
there’s a Room like to that I have been speaking of, wherein the Bishop,
assisted by his Chapter, washes the Feet of the Poor upon _Holy-Thursday_,
and afterwards regales, and serves them at Table, accompany’d by the
Canons of his Chapter, who, when all is over, dine with him in the Room
below Stairs: Behind this Hospital is a very fine Garden, adorn’d with
Fountains, Grotto’s, and a fine Orangery, kept in very good Order; which
is for the Pensioners to walk in when they please: The late Bishop, who
was in every thing magnificent, design’d to enlarge this Building with
Four Pavilions, like to that subsisting, which would have form’d a fine
Court in the middle: There are other Hospitals also at _Wurtzbourg_ to the
Number of 15 or 16, all so well endow’d, as fully proves the Good-nature
and Wealth of the People of this Country.

After I had stay’d at _Wurtzbourg_, I embark’d on the _Maine_, in which is
most pleasant Sailing betwixt Vineyards and fine Plains, that form a
Prospect as agreeably diversify’d as can be wish’d: When I arriv’d at
_Francfort_ I heard of the Death of _Madamoiselle de Pollnitz_, to whose
Estate in _Holland_ I was joint Heir with my Brother, but her other
Estates went to her Mother, who was still living.

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Francfort_ I went to _Dusseldorp_, where I found my Brother, who was
still in an ill Humour with the Judges, for having made us lose our Cause:
For my Part, as I was more inur’d to Disappointments, I endeavour’d to
comfort him, and advis’d him to go to _Berlin_, and sell what Estate we
had there: The Death of my dear Cousin set us at Liberty to proceed to
this Sale; for now the Entail was only between my Brother and me: My
Brother set out therefore for _Berlin_, and I went to HAMBOURG, to wait
the Issue of the Sale: I stay’d there from _November_ to _Easter_, and
spent the Winter very happily: I have already had the Honour to acquaint
you, speaking of this City, that here was generally good Company: But this
Winter there was more than usual, most of the People of Quality that had
Houses in the Neighbourhood coming thither to pass the Season, and there
were moreover several Ministers sent to the Circle of _Lower Saxony_, who
were for most Part charming good Company: Such a one was _M. Poussin_, the
Envoy of _France_, who was really a Minister of great Parts and uncommon
Merit: The other Envoys were all likewise choice Companions: Besides these
Ministers there were several other Families at _Hambourg_ where Foreigners
of any tolerable Rank were perfectly well entertain’d: The Count _de Nat_,
a Lieutenant-General in the Emperor’s Service, and formerly Minister of
State to the Duke of _Holstein_, and General of his Forces, kept a grand
House there, which was noted for one of the best in _Hambourg_, where was
a great Resort of Company every Day without the least Confusion: And there
was a charming Air of Liberty throughout, which receiv’d additional Lustre
from the noble and gracious Deportment of the Countess, that Minister’s
Wife, to all Strangers that came to her: I need not give you a more
particular Account of this Lady; for I remember to have heard you speak of
her, as a Person of distinguish’d Merit, and who, with a great Share of
Wit, was to the utmost degree polite. The Count _de Guldenstein_ made a
considerable Figure also at _Hambourg_; his Table was delicate, and always
furnish’d with the best of Company; judge, _Madame_, whether I could think
the time tedious in a City, where from Morning till Night there was a
continual Round of Pleasure: We din’d to Day at one House, To-morrow at
another; and in the Afternoons there was Play, which was sometimes
interrupted by Adjournments to the Opera, with which I was very well
pleas’d: I found the Orchestre excellent, the Decorations noble, the
Dances very well executed, the Actors richly dress’d, and such as
endeavour’d to play their Parts for the best.

       *       *       *       *       *

I set out from _Hambourg_ with a numerous Company to go to the Fair of
KIEL, which begins the next Day after _Epiphany_, and holds Three Weeks:
All this time _Hambourg_ is a perfect Desert, for every body hurries to
this Fair, because ’tis there that they are commonly paid their Rents,
that Leases are renew’d with the Farmers, and that Money is let out to
Advantage: Tho’ I had no Business of this nature to transact there, yet I
was determin’d not to stay behind so much good Company as went from

The Town itself is inconsiderable; it stands between Hills on an Arm of
the Sea, where it forms a Lake, and washes the Walls of the Duke’s Castle,
which is in very bad Repair, and quite unfurnish’d: And there’s a Garden
to it, which is in as bad Order as the Building: This Town is so populous
all the Fair-time, that ’tis difficult to get a Lodging: The Gentry meet
every Evening at a House, where is Variety of Play, and very often there
are Parties made for Supper, which is generally follow’d with a Ball:
There is moreover a _German_ Comedy, which, tho’ detestable, is well

After the Fair was over, I went and pass’d Two Days with a Friend of mine
at an Estate of his Three Leagues from _Kiel_: Then I return’d to
_Hambourg_, where I stay’d till _Easter_, and having receiv’d News from
_Berlin_, that no Purchaser could be found who was willing to give so much
Money for my Estate as I demanded; I resolv’d to go thither, in order to
make some Settlement about it with my Brother; I kept there _incog._ as
well as I could, for I made myself known to only Two or Three Friends
besides my Steward: When my Business was done I set out from _Berlin_ with
my Brother, in order to go to his House at _Zell_; where I intended to
stay till the proper Season for taking the Waters at _Carelsbadt_.

       *       *       *       *       *

When that time came, I departed from _Zell_: I stay’d some time at
BLANKENBERG, where the Empress’s Father and Mother then resided: This is
no considerable Town: There is a Castle, which, by its Situation upon a
very high Hill, is mightily inconvenient for the Duke’s Domestics, who all
live in the Town: ’Tis an old Building, which the Father of the present
Duke has caus’d to be repair’d and fitted up, as well as possible in the
modern Taste: The Apartments are small, the only large one being a very
beautiful Saloon, the Walls whereof are adorn’d with Pilasters, and
Pictures between them of the Princes and Princesses, Parents to the Duke
and Duchess: And at the End of the Saloon are Chimneys, over which are the
Pictures of the Duke and Duchess themselves at full Length.

To this Castle is a very fine Park adjoining, in which the Duchess has a
Menagery, or rather, a Farm-house, where she has a great Number of Cows
that she sent for from _Swisserland_, in a Stable which is kept
extraordinary clean.

The Duke and Duchess were so kind to me, that I long’d to be in their
Service: I had no longer any Thoughts of being a Clergyman, and was then
at entire Liberty to make serious Reflections upon all the Projects that
had enter’d into my Head: Having then a Fancy to serve the Duke of
_Blankenberg_, I took my Measures for that End almost as soon as I had
thought of it: The Privy Counsellor undertook to speak for me, and at
first he had a very favourable Answer, but at last it far’d with me in
this Attempt, as it had in all the rest; I receiv’d a great many
Compliments, and yet was deny’d.

After having stay’d awhile at _Blankenberg_, I took Leave of the Duke and
Duchess: The Princess was so good as to accept of a Couple of very pretty
Dogs I had brought with me; and me made me a Present of a Gold Medal worth
25 Ducats, stamp’d with the Effigy of the Duke her Husband, very much like

From _Blankenberg_ I went to BARBI[35], where I had the Honour of waiting
upon the Duke of _Saxony_, who commonly resides there: This Prince was
heretofore in the Service of the late King of _Prussia_, when he was only
Elector: He had left the Service a long time, and retir’d to his Town of
_Barbi_, where he has erected a noble Castle, the Apartments of which are
perfectly well furnish’d: There’s a superb Saloon, with a Chamber of
Audience on one Side of it, and a Closet, that are both worth seeing; all
the Furniture being of crimson Velvet embroider’d with Gold, of admirable

       *       *       *       *       *

From _Barbi_ I proceeded to CARELSBADT by the way of _Leipsick_: I was
soon weary of using the Waters, because the Season was so far advanc’d,
that most of the Water-Drinkers were gone: Having therefore nothing to
write to you of any of the Acquaintance which is commonly made at Places
of this nature, I shall only treat of _Carelsbadt_ itself: ’Tis a very
dirty Place, and inhabited only by Artificers, who work in old Iron: The
Waters taken here are of Two Kinds, and they are distinguish’d by the
Names of the _Sproudel_ and the _Muhlbadt_: The _Sproudel_-Water is
extremely hot, and gushes out of the Ground with a most vehement Stream,
as big as a Man about the Waist: Its Waters are not only hot, but scalding
hot, which is the more surprizing, because the Fountain from whence they
flow, is on the Side of a River very rapid, and very cold: Yet, in the
midst of this River, one sees mineral Waters, which smoak as if they were
boiling in a Caldron.

As to the _Muhlbadt_ ’tis but little more than lukewarm: ’Tis not very
long that the Physicians have prescrib’d the Use of this Water, which
formerly serv’d to wash diseased Cattle in with very good Success; but the
Physicians taking the nature of this Water into Consideration, have since
recommended it to those People who find the Waters of the _Sproudel_ too
violent in their Operation: I have made Use of both, and they work’d with
me very well: They have no ill Taste; and ’tis certain, that if it were
ever so little disagreeable, it would be impossible for People to drink so
much of it, as they do every Day: The thing that I dislike them most for,
is, that they must be taken in one’s Chamber, which must be also kept
close shut up, because the _Sproudel_ makes one sweat largely, so that
were ever so little Air to be let into the Room, one should be in Danger
of catching Rheumatisms: People scarce ever stir out till Three or Four
Hours after they have done drinking the Waters; and the rest of the Day
there’s an absolute Necessity of walking about to prevent sleeping, which
after Dinner is dangerous: The worst on’t is, that as necessary as Walking
is, there’s not one agreeable Place to walk in, the Walks being all
extremely narrow, and nothing but Rocks to be seen, look which way one
will: The finest Walk of all is in a square Place, which is planted with
Rows of Lime-Trees: Opposite to this Square is a great House, where there
are very fine Rooms, in which the Persons of Quality, who drink the
Waters, assemble at Five o’Clock, and play till Eight, the Hour for
Supper, at which Meal People ought to be very sparing; Regimen being one
of the most necessary things to be observ’d in the Taking of those

When I had done taking them I set out Post for PRAGUE, where I knew that
their Imperial Majesties were to be present for their Consecration and
Coronation: I arriv’d there the Day before their Majesties were to make
their Entry, which was perform’d with great Magnificence, but would have
been abundantly more pompous, if the bad Weather had not prevented the
intended Cavalcade, which would have been one of the noblest Sights in the
World: The Emperor propos’d to have enter’d this Capital on Horseback, at
the Head of all the Nobility of _Bohemia_, and they had all laid out
prodigious Sums in Horses and Equipages; but a monstrous Shower of Rain
fell, which frustrated all the Preparations: Their Majesties made their
Entry in a magnificent Coach lin’d with crimson Velvet, richly embroider’d
with Gold: The Emperor, who sate alone in the Back part of it, was dress’d
in a Habit of Silver Brocade embroider’d with Gold, with a Hat on in the
Imperial Fashion, with straw-colour’d Plumes: The Empress, who sate
over-against him, was dress’d in a green silver’d Stuff all cover’d with
Diamonds: The Two young Archduchesses follow’d in another Coach, with the
Princess of _Aversberg_ their Governess in Company.

As soon as it was known in the City that their Majesties were coming, all
the Bells were rung, the Cannon fir’d from the Ramparts, and the Burghers
and Garison made several Salvo’s of the Small Arms: The Magistrates of the
Three Towns which compose the City of _Prague_ receiv’d their Majesties at
the City Gates, where the chief Burgomaster of the Quarter call’d the _Old
Town_ gave them the Keys of the Three Towns, and congratulated them on
their Arrival at the City of _Prague_: After he had ended his Speech,
their Majesties were welcom’d a second time by the Cannon of the Ramparts,
and by the Salvo’s of the Small Arms from the Burghers and the Garison:
They then continued their March towards the Palace, and in their Passage
met with the Friars and Nuns, who saluted them at the Gates of their
several Convents: The Emperor and the Empress stopp’d their Coach every
now-and-then, on Purpose to be seen by those Friars; but there was no
Convent that was treated with so many Marks of Distinction as that of the
Jesuits: They had the Honour of complimenting their Majesties in a Speech,
with which they seem’d well satisfy’d: When they were arriv’d at the
Palace, their Majesties alighted from the Coach, and went to the
Metropolitan Church, which joins to the Palace: The Archbishop of
_Prague_, at the Head of the Bishops his Suffragans and his Chapter,
receiv’d them as they alighted out of the Coach, and after having
complimented them in the Name of all the Clergy, he conducted them to
their Praying-Desk, which was plac’d over-against the High Altar, and
there their Majesties receiv’d the Blessing of the Holy Sacrament: After
this there was a _Te Deum_, during which there was a triple Discharge of
the Cannon and Small Arms: This done, they retir’d to their Apartments
thro’ a cover’d Gallery, which runs from the Church to the Castle: At
Night they supp’d in public with the Two young Archduchesses.

Next Day their Majesties receiv’d the Compliments of the Three Estates of
the Kingdom: On the following Days the Court return’d to their old Custom;
I mean, they liv’d at _Prague_, after the same manner as they did at
_Vienna_, till every thing was ready for the Ceremonies of the
Consecration and Coronation, which were to be perform’d on Two different

Mean time I amus’d myself in viewing what was most remarkable in the Town,
and had Reason to be very well pleas’d with the Steps, which I was oblig’d
to take to be well acquainted with this Capital[36], which may in my
Opinion be reckon’d among the first Towns in _Europe_: It stands in a
pleasant and fruitful Country, and the Palace and Pleasure-houses round it
form a sort of Amphitheatre, which the River of _Moldaw_ divides into Two
Parts, that are join’d by one of the finest Bridges in the World.

_Prague_ is divided into Three Parts, _viz._ The _Old Town_, which alone
is as big as the other two Thirds of the City, namely, The _Little Town_
and The _New Town_: In the _Little Town_ stands the Metropolitan Church,
and the Castle of the Kings of _Bohemia_, upon a Hill which they call
_Ratschin_: This is the first Quarter of _Prague_ that one comes to from
_Nuremberg_ or _Carelsbadt_.

The Metropolitan would be a great and noble Church, if it was finish’d; or
rather, if it was rebuilt; for ’twas burnt by the _Swedes_ in 1648; what
remains of it is inconsiderable, excepting however some very fine Chapels,
that contain the Relics of certain Saints, for whom _Bohemia_ has a
singular Veneration: Such is the Chapel in which rests the Body of _St.
Wenceslaus_ King of _Bohemia_, by whom the Church was founded: This Saint
is the Patron of _Bohemia_, and the whole Kingdom has a great Confidence
in his Intercession: On one Side of the Choir is a stately Mausoleum,
which contains the Body of _St. John Nepomucene_, who was beatify’d in
1721 with very great Pomp, in Presence of the Empress, who was at the
Charge of the Ceremony: The City of _Prague_, in order to do Honour to the
Memory of this Saint, has caus’d his Statue in Brass, as big as the Life,
to be erected upon the Bridge, from whence the Emperor _Wenceslaus_,
surnam’d the _Nero_ and _Caligula_ of _Germany_, threw him into the
_Moldaw_, because that Friar, who was his Empress’s Confessor, refus’d to
reveal her Confession to him.

The Palace of the Kings of _Bohemia_, which joins to the Metropolitan
Church, is a Heap of several Pavilions without any Regularity, and without
much Ornament: The Inside is as ordinary as the Outside, yet for a little
Expence it might easily be made a tolerable Structure: The only thing I
observ’d here that could be call’d magnificent, was the Situation of it,
for from their Majesties Apartments there’s the finest View that can be

As one goes from the Palace upon the same Hill, one sees the great Houses
of _Schwartzenbourg_, _Martinitz_, and _Tschermin_, which are noble
Buildings, and most richly furnish’d: The last especially has more the Air
of a Sovereign’s Palace than of the House of a Subject; and he that
inhabits it is one of the richest in the Emperor’s Hereditary Dominions: I
heard say, that he lent the Emperor 1500,000 Florins, which makes Three
Millions of _French_ Livres, when the Exchange is at Par.

I went down the Hill _Ratschin_ to go farther into the City: And on the
Descent of it I saw at the Right Hand the Palace of _Kinski_, which
belongs to the Great Chancellor of _Bohemia_; and at the Left Hand the
Palace of the Count _de Collobradt_, surnam’d the _Bulky_, and very
justly so, for I don’t think he has his Fellow in the World; and yet it
may be expected, that he will be bigger still, for he is as yet but 24
Years old. These Two Houses are very beautiful, but yet they are somewhat
eclipsed by the Palaces of _Colloredo_, _Wallenstein_, and the Count
_Francis-Charles de Collobradt_: The Palace of this latter excells the
others in Contrivance and Magnificence, and is adorn’d throughout with
very fine Gildings and Paintings, done by the best Masters: The Apartments
are richly furnish’d, and neither Gold has been spar’d, nor Pier-Glasses,
of which there’s a great Number, and yet not so many as to confound the
Sight: To this House belongs a very fine Garden, which is kept in good
Order, and at the End of it is a Hill, the Declivity whereof is soften’d
by several Terraces cut out on it, which form very pleasant Walks,
especially when ’tis consider’d, that all this is in the middle of a City.

I went afterwards to see the _Old Town_, to which one must pass over a
noble Stone-Bridge, and the only one at _Prague_: The Piles of this Bridge
are adorn’d with the Statues of several Saints; and some that compose
noble Groupes: Among these Statues is that of _St. John Nepomucene_, at
the Foot of which are People always at Prayers. On the same Side, but
nearer the old City, is a great Crucifix of Copper gilt, which the _Jews_
were compell’d to set up in this Place, as a Punishment for some Crimes
they had committed.

At the End of the Bridge stands the Gate of the _Old Town_: The first
thing one observes there, is the Great Convent and College of the Jesuits:
’Tis a prodigious Building, and worthy of a Society so considerable:
Beyond that I saw a magnificent Palace, which they told me belongs to the
Count _de Gallasch_, Son to the Count of the same Name, who died Viceroy
of _Naples_: ’Tis one of the finest Buildings in _Prague_, setting aside
its Situation, which is not the best: There are many other Palaces and
magnificent Houses, the particular Description of which might be tedious:
All that I shall say to you of this Part of the Town, is, that the Streets
are very narrow, and withal darksome: The _New Town_ is by far superior;
the Streets are spacious and beautiful, and the whole Quarter is much
better built than the other Two.

The City of _Prague_ and the Kingdom of _Bohemia_ in general have formerly
been subject to great Revolutions: The _Hussites_ committed sad Disorders
there, and had like to have ruin’d the whole Country by their Cabals; so
that there was a Necessity of drawing the Sword against them, and when
they were totally extirpated, the Protestants of _Luther_’s Communion
became so powerful there, that they presum’d, under Pretence of Religion,
to revolt from the Emperor _Ferdinand_ their Sovereign: They ran
tumultuously to the Castle, and having made themselves Masters of it, they
threw the Emperor’s Commissioners, who then held their Assembly there, out
of the Windows of the Hall: Those on the Spot were the Barons _de Slavata_
and _de Martinitz_; and the Secretary _Fabricius_ had the same Fate; but
happily for all Three, there was not one of them wounded: After this _Coup
d’Eclat_ the Rebels rais’d Troops, solemnly protested against the Election
of _Ferdinand_ II. to the Empire, and offer’d the Crown of _Bohemia_ to
_Frederic_ V. Elector and Count Palatine of the _Rhine_: This Prince
could not easily determine himself to receive a Crown, which he could not
so soon expect to possess in Quiet; but his Wife, who was the Daughter of
_James_ I. King of _England_, did not amuse herself with any such
Reflections and probably upon the Principle, _That to reign is glorious,
tho’ it were only for a Moment_: This Princess so wrought upon the
Elector, that the said Prince, for Want of knowing his own Interest
better, consented at length to put himself at the Head of the Rebels, who
had the Assurance to crown him with Solemnity in the Metropolitan Church
of _Prague_: The Emperor, justly provok’d at the Behaviour of his Subject,
sent Troops to reduce them to Reason: _Frederic_, on his Part, put himself
at the Head of a considerable Army; but ’twas impossible for him to stand
before the Emperor’s Troops; which being commanded by the famous _Tilly_,
beat him to such a Degree, that he thought himself very happy, that he
could retire with the Queen his Wife, and abandon the Throne to his lawful
Sovereign: This Rebellion involv’d _Germany_ in that unhappy War call’d,
_The War of Thirty Years_; because in Fact it lasted so long, till a
Period was put to it by the Peace of _Westphalia_.

During the Course of this War _Bohemia_ had frequent Cause to repent that
it ever was the Occasion of it: The City of _Prague_, and in particular
the _Little Town_, was almost intirely plunder’d and burnt in 1648 by the
_Swedes_, who were introduced into it by one _Ottowalsky_, then a Captain
of Horse in the Service of the Emperor _Ferdinand_ III. This Officer
having conceiv’d a Disgust at something, made a Trip to _Koningsmark_ the
_Swedish_ General, and offer’d to introduce him to _Prague_, if he would
follow him with his Army: For this Purpose he told him, that the Citizens
were intirely secure against any Apprehension of an Attack from the
_Swedes_; and that they were fully persuaded, they would never venture to
make the least Attempt, considering the Handful of Soldiers which their
Army consisted of. _Koningsmark_ relish’d _Ottowalsky_’s Project, and on
the Day fix’d he follow’d him with his little Army, which did not amount
to above 3000 Men: He found every thing true that his Guide had told him,
and in the Night-time enter’d the Place by a Bridge, that serv’d to carry
over the Materials employ’d in the new Fortifications: _Koningsmark_
push’d on directly to the Castle, which he enter’d with the same Ease as
he had enter’d the Town: But by good Luck the Emperor happen’d at that
time to be gone from thence for awhile to _Lintz_: The _Swedes_ plunder’d
the Castle and the City for Three Days successively; and they took so
considerable a Booty, that _Colloredo_, who commanded in the Place, lost
to his own Share about 1200,000 Crowns: While the _Swedes_ were busy in
plundering that call’d the _Little Town_, the Alarm spread over the River
to the _Old Town_, where the Burghers and Garison ran to their Arms, and
by that means preserv’d their Quarter from the Fate which threaten’d them:
Mean time the _Swedes_ made extraordinary Efforts to get over to them, and
’tis even said, that they would probably have succeeded, had it not been
for the Jesuits, who perceiving that the Garison and Burghers were in
Danger of being overpower’d, arm’d their Scholars, and sent them out to
their Assistance.

The City of _Prague_ is now secure from such Insults, having good Walls
and excellent Ramparts, well furnish’d with Cannon: The Castle is
likewise very well fortify’d: A Citadel has been also built for the
Defence of the _New Town_, and as none but Catholics are suffer’d to live
there, the Protestants, who are absolutely excluded out of it, would find
it a difficult Task to foment another Rebellion there.

       *       *       *       *       *

After I had spent some time at _Prague_, and found that the Ceremony of
their Majesties Coronation would not be perform’d so soon as expected, I
resolv’d to be gone: Having already laid out a good deal of Money at
_Prague_, I reflected with myself, that if I stay’d there any longer, it
might be out of my Power to answer all my Schemes: For you must know,
_Madame_, that I set out from _Berlin_ with a considerable Sum of Money,
and with a Design, while I was so well able, to pay off all my Creditors:
I began with those in _Holland_, and for this Purpose went to the HAGUE
about the latter End of _August_, and stay’d there till _February_: The
first Visit I paid was to my dear _Madame Pyll_, who had been so generous
a Friend to me, that I could not avoid paying her off first: I then made
several small Payments up and down, by which means the Debts I had
contracted in this Country were quickly discharg’d; and being still pretty
strong in Cash, I pass’d my Time at the _Hague_ as well as I could have
done at the most splendid Court; My Debts in this Country being now
clear’d, and the Ease with which I had satisfy’d other Debts that were
standing out farther off, gave me that Tranquillity of Mind which I had
not enjoy’d for a long time; and tho’ I had yet no fix’d Establishment, I
thought what a great Happiness it was for a Man to be even with the

My Brother came to me at the _Hague_, from whence we set out together for
_Zell_, where I stay’d till the Return of the fine Weather, and then
resolv’d to go a second time to CARELSBADT, not so much for the Sake of
the Waters as to see the Company there, which is always numerous, and of
the best Sort, when one goes earlier thither than I did the first time:
There was a prodigious Concourse there this bout, and all Persons of the
greatest Distinction: I had the Honour there of paying my Compliments to
the Elector of _Triers_, and the Margravine of _Anspach_, who came thither
for the Waters.

From _Carelsbadt_ I cross’d the _Rhine_, to that Side of it where I had
been offer’d a Settlement; but, upon mature Consideration, I resolv’d to
preserve my Liberty, and lest my Philosophy should flag in the Sentiments
of that Independency which it inspir’d me with, I set out immediately, for
fear of being engag’d in a sort of Combat, wherein there’s no gaining the
Victory but by Flight.

       *       *       *       *       *

I pass’d thro’ BAREITH[37], where I had the Honour of paying my Respects
to the Margrave and the Margravine, who receiv’d me with all the
Complaisance possible: The Margrave is a tall handsome Man, and serv’d in
the last Wars with very great Distinction: This Prince is fond of Pleasure
and Magnificence, for which Reason his Court is one of the most numerous
and splendid in _Germany_; and it has an Air of Grandeur throughout, from
which all manner of Constraint is intirely banish’d: The Margravine has
all the Qualities that a great Princess can possibly desire; she is one
of the finest Ladies in _Germany_, is tall, perfectly handsome, and has a
Presence, which at first Sight denotes her Dignity: ’Tis pity this
Princess had not given a Male Heir to her Dominions; for she has yet but
one Child, a Daughter, and if there are no Princes, the Prince of
_Culmbach_ will be Heir of the Margrave’s Dominions: The deceased King of
_Prussia_ had bought the Reversion, by which he cut off the Margraves of
_Culmbach_; but after his Majesty’s Death those Princes entring their
Protest against a Bargain that had been struck to their Prejudice, the
present King has compounded the Matter with them; and by virtue of the
Accommodation the Princes of _Culmbach_ are engag’d to pay a considerable
Sum to the King at different Terms, one of which elaps’d at the Death of
the Margrave of _Bareith_, as the other will do when the young Prince of
_Anspach_ also dies, because then his Dominions revert in like manner to
the Princes of _Culmbach_.

I follow’d the Margrave’s Court to _Himmelscron_, which is one of his
Hunting-Seats: ’Twas formerly a Convent, and since turn’d into a Castle,
which is charmingly situated on a little Hill, inviron’d with Meadows,
where the Margrave had a Camp of 2000 Men of his own Troops, which were
all in good Condition, and they appear’d to me to be nicely disciplin’d:
His Officers are all Men of Merit, and a good Mien: On the Side of the
Meadow where the Camp was, is a Mall, planted with Four Rows of Elms, the
finest that are to be seen: At the End of this Mall, which is one of the
longest in _Europe_, is a Play-house, and about the middle of this Mall a
very large Pavilion, with a Room where the Prince and Princess play’d
every Night with the Nobility of their Court.

The Margrave’s Table, which was always magnificently serv’d, especially at
Dinner, is made in Form of a Horse-shoe: The Princess always sate in the
middle, having on her Left Hand the Princess her Daughter and the young
Princess of _Culmbach_, and on her Right the Ladies of her Court and the
Gentlemen: The Margrave sate over-against her in the Inside of the
Horse-shoe, with several Gentlemen on his Right and Left Hand: Besides the
Margrave’s Table, there were Two others for Sixteen Guests each in another
Room, for such Gentlemen as could not be admitted to the Table of the
Margrave: After the Fruit was serv’d, a great Salver was set upon the
Table with a Coffee-pot and Cups, all of Silver, and every one there drank
Coffee without rising from the Table.

Immediately after Dinner was over, the Margravine and the Princesses
retired, but the Margrave stay’d in the Room to talk with the Courtiers:
This Prince commonly stood, leaning only against a Table, and the
Conversation was spirited every now-and-then by the Circulation of
Bumpers: The Margrave was a good Toper, but he left every Person that
attended him to his free Liberty.

About Six o’Clock, when the Princess was near upon going out, the Margrave
went to the Mall where there was Play at Ombre or Picquet till
Supper-time, after which they return’d to the Castle. The Prince had
another very fine House just without _Bareith_, which is call’d
_Brandebourg_: It stands on the Side of a great Lake, where are several
Galleys, Yachts and Gondola’s, which he often engages in Combats with one
another; and of this he gave us a very noble Representation, from a
Theatre built on the Side of the Lake, so that when the Bottom of it was
laid open, the Theatre appears level with the Lake, and has a Prospect of
it for half a League.

In the middle of the Lake is an Island with a Fortification, which the
Margrave orders his Troops every now-and-then to attack and defend, on
Purpose to refresh their Memories with the military Evolutions.

About half a League from this House is another, call’d the _Hermitage_,
because no Persons can go to it, but such as are appointed; and likewise,
because all the time that the Margrave stays there, the Prince, Princess
and all their Retinue are dress’d like Hermits: An Avenue leads to this
House, at the End of which is a large Grotto representing Mount
_Parnassus_, with _Apollo_, the _Nine Muses_, and _Pegasus_, forming so
many Fountains: This Mount is open on the Four Sides, and gives Passage
into a Court, or rather a Square, where there are several Rows of Trees:
The middle Walk leads to the Castle, the Architecture whereof is perfectly
rustic, and it seems to have been built out of the very Rock: At the
Entrance of it one meets with a very fine Work, adorn’d with Shell-work
and several Statues representing the Rivers and Nymphs: As we go out of
the Grotto we enter into a little square Garden-Plot, which is encompass’d
with a rustic Building, and at the End of the Garden is the main Pavilion,
with Two Wings, which communicate with another by means of a magnificent
Saloon, fac’d all over with Marble: The Right Wing of the Saloon contains
an Apartment consisting of several Chambers, which belongs to the
Margrave, who is Father-Superior of the Hermits; and on the same Side are
a Dozen Cells for as many Hermits: On the opposite Side is the same Number
of Apartments for the Margravine and the Hermit-Ladies: The great Saloon
serves for the Refectory, where the Hermits of both Sexes have their

The Garden is large, and kept in very good Order: At the End of it is a
Cascade, that falling from the Top of a Hill, has a charming Effect: On
the Sides of the Cascade are Terraces, and very commodious Slopings,
furnish’d on both Sides with a Palisade of Yoke-Elms that is breast-high;
and on each Side are Fir-trees, with Paths between them, each of which
leads to a Pavilion, whereof every Hermit has one: These Pavilions are
built and furnish’d after the manner of a Hermitage: The Hermits were
oblig’d to retire thither after Dinner, in order to observe a profound
Silence; but this Custom is mitigated in some measure, and they are now at
Liberty to visit one another: The Superior and the Superioress commonly
pay them a Visit: Towards the time of Recreation the Superioress tinkles
her Bell, to which the Prioress answers by her’s, and the Hermits of both
Sexes tinkle their’s also, as a Token that they have heard their Summons
to their Superior. When they are arriv’d there, they go out together, and
repair to the Place of Recreation, where they amuse themselves with all
manner of Play, and at the Hour of Supper they repair to the Refectory:
Sometimes the Hermit-Ladies regale the Prior with Dishes of their own
preparing in the Superioress’s Kitchen: The Hermits for their own Part may
take the Pleasure of Hunting: You perceive, _Madame_, that ’tis pleasant
Living enough in such a Solitude, and that there’s nothing too severe in
its Statutes. When the Court have spent their appointed Time at the
_Hermitage_, they all return to _Bareith_.

After I had been thus an Eye-Witness of the free and easy Life that People
lead at the Court of the Margrave, I took Leave of the Prince and
Princess, with a Design to proceed in my Journey, not so much to seek an
Employment, as to satisfy the Debts, which I had been oblig’d to contract
at a time, when they allowed me no more out of my Estate than barely what
they could not possibly take away from me: Here, _Madame_, I conclude the
Account of my Rambles. How tedious soever a Narrative of so little Concern
may appear to you, be so good as not to take it amiss of me, and to
consider, that I wrote it only in Obedience to Orders often repeated: Some
Person more self-interested might have scrupled such Obedience; nor did I
want Reasons to alledge for my Excuse; only I was afraid lest such
obstinate Silence on my Part should be deem’d unworthy of that profound
Respect, with which I am, and ever shall be,

                    _Your Most Humble_,
                        _And Most Obedient Servant_,
                            DE POLLNITZ.

                     [Illustration: Decoration.]


                          PROFESSION of FAITH,

                     Deliver’d to His EMINENCY, the

                        Cardinal ---- at _Rome_.

                     _Translated from the_ ITALIAN.


Ever since there was a Diversity of Religions in the World, the Conduct of
Persons that have chang’d one for another has been liable to the Censure
of those whose Communion they abandon, and given Rise to Variety of
Reflections among People of that new Communion which they embrace; and a
Reproach has been often cast upon Proselytes, that either Interest or
Ignorance was the Cause of their Change: What the World will think of me
for renouncing the Heresy of _Calvin_, and taking up with what I thought
the soundest Doctrine; that is to say, for entering into the Bosom of that
Church to which the Heterodoxy of my Ancestors had made me a Stranger, I
know not: But be it what it will, I am ever ready to account to all
Mankind for an Action, of which I revere the Remembrance; and which I am
only sorry, I had not done sooner.

As to _Interest_, I don’t think it can possibly be said, that it had any
Share in my Conversion: For the Light that I stood in with the King of
_Prussia_, the Rank I bore at his Court, either upon the Score of my
Family, or for the Employments I had there, and the Wealth and Fortune of
which I was Possessor; all these Advantages, compar’d with the Situation I
am in at present, must convince the World, that Interest was not the
Motive which engag’d me to change my Religion.

As to _Ignorance_; I should be vain indeed if I thought myself a Man of
Learning, or if I aim’d at the Character: However, I will venture to say,
that I am not ignorant of any of the principal Articles of the Orthodox
Religion which I profess: For this I appeal to your Lordship, as you are
my Bishop, in Quality of Vicar General of _Upper_ and _Lower Saxony_, with
which his Holiness has dignify’d you: I intreat, that you will be pleas’d
to give your Attention to the Confession of Faith which I have hereunto
annex’d: Pray, my Lord, examine whether it be orthodox, since to your
Judgment I intirely refer it; and if there unluckily happens to be any
thing in it which is not conformable to the Sentiments of the Catholic
Religion, I absolutely submit myself to your Decision; the rather, because
I shall always count it an Honour to be one of your Diocesans, and ever be
desirous from the Bottom of my Soul to improve by your Lordship’s

Upon reading that Passage of the Apostle to the _Ephesians_, Chap. iv.
Ver. 5. _Unus Dominus, una Fides, unum Baptisma_; i. e. One Lord, one
Faith, one Baptism; I enquir’d, what was the true Faith: And when I had
divested myself of all Opinions which I had imbib’d from my Education, the
very first Reflection that I made led me to examine into the Origin of the
pretended Reformed Religion, and after what manner it began. I found, that
in all Countries Interest, Ambition, Licentiousness, Revenge were the
Motives that gave Rise to the Establishment of that Religion: I
scrutiniz’d the Lives and Morals of the Leaders of those Sects; and
discover’d, that they were generally passionate Men, inclin’d to Choler,
addicted to sensual Pleasures, Men that led irregular Lives, and made no
Account of their Promises. Consequently I could not persuade myself, that
God would have made Choice of such Persons for reforming his Church,
supposing even that it stood in need of it: I carry’d my Reflections
farther; I consider’d the Disagreement between the very Pretenders to
Reformation, and perceiv’d, that their Body is a Body without a Head,
where every Prince, and every Sovereign makes himself Arbiter of the
Articles of Faith, and assumes to himself the Authority of the Pope: Every
Parson is with them a Bishop, every one explains the Holy Scripture after
his own way, and in the Sense that he himself understands it; and every
one adopts to himself a particular System of religious Principles and
Opinions; they are Sheep without a Shepherd: In short, the Pretenders to
Reformation are continually at Variance with each other; they reject and
condemn one another’s Doctrines, and never agree, but when they act in
Opposition to the Pope, or the Catholics. Moreover, their Religion is not
now, what it was at the Time of its Establishment: The _Calvinists_ were
formerly unanimous in the Belief of Predestination: But now there’s hardly
any of them of that Opinion, except the _Swiss_ and _Dutch_: The others
reject it, as to the Point of Salvation, and only allow of it with regard
to the Hour of Death, and the Accidents of Life, which, according to them,
are fix’d by inevitable Destiny. Heretofore also, both the _Lutherans_ and
_Calvinists_ agreed universally, that Salvation was attainable in the
Catholic Religion; but now they think otherwise; and for some Years past,
they have thought fit to declare in their Writings, that the Catholics are

I also reflected on the Number of different Sects that are sprung out of
the Two Religions, and did not find one of them but what flatter’d
themselves with a Conceit, that their’s was the true Religion, tho’ they
were all of opposite Sentiments to each other: I could not imagine, how
these Divisions could be the Mark of the true Church; it being impossible
to conceive, that a Church under such Direction can be the true Church.

When I afterwards came to consider the Establishment and Ordination of
their Ministers, I could not look upon them as such, being persuaded, as
St. _Paul_ says, That Bishops are of divine Institution; and that they
alone have the Power of ordaining Priests.

Tradition, which is rejected by the Protestants in all Points where it
makes against them, but espous’d by them when it seems in their Favour,
was an Article which I thought requir’d my utmost Regard. For really when
the Protestants say, they don’t believe Tradition, methinks they are
inconsistent with themselves in receiving the Holy Scripture, and taking
it for the Word of God, because this is a Truth, which they cannot know
but by Tradition: And if they allow of Tradition with regard to the
Scripture, Why don’t they admit of it when religious Tenets are the Points
in Question? How can they know, unless it be by Tradition, that the Books
of the _Maccabees_, _Esther_, _Esdras_ and _Ecclesiasticus_ are
Apocryphal, and not Canonical? Who told them, that the rest of the Bible
was dictated by the Holy Spirit? In short, Who gave them Authority to
reject those other Books? What Motive could have induc’d them to it,
unless it was, that those very Books prove Things to them, which they are
not willing to believe? In short, I look’d into _Calvinism_ for some Marks
of the true Church, but could find none; because the true Church must be
one, and united to Jesus Christ in the same manner as the Body is to the
Head; and because ’tis Jesus Christ who founded the Church, who own’d it
for his Spouse, for the Daughter of God the Father, and at the same time
to be the only infallible Church.

Having discovered none of these Marks in the Protestant Religion, and
finding them, on the other hand, in the Catholic Religion, I could not
help thinking the latter to be the only one in which I might hope for my
Salvation: This was what determin’d me to study the Doctrines of it, and
these that follow are what I have conceiv’d in my Mind, and what I firmly
believe in.

       *       *       *       *       *

I. I receive the Holy Scriptures intire without the least Diminution, and
believe them to be of Divine Inspiration. I believe, that _Moses_ and the
Prophets, the Evangelists and the Apostles wrote them by the same
Inspiration. I give the same Explanation to the Holy Scriptures as the
Catholic Church does, which alone has the Right of interpreting them. I
believe also, that those same Scriptures are the Basis and Foundation of
Religion, and that none but those who can explain them as the Church does,
ought to read them.

       *       *       *       *       *

II. Upon the Evidence of the Holy Scriptures, I believe in one God alone,
the most perfect of all Beings; a Spirit pure, free, disengag’d from all
Matter; which knows all Things, is infinitely wise, omnipotent,
unspeakably gracious and merciful, just and holy; who suffereth not Sin to
go unpunish’d, and who cannot change; who is of infinite Glory and
Majesty; who is the eternal and inexhaustible Source of Goodness and
Charity, and from whom proceedeth every thing that is good and perfect;
who diffuseth himself in all his Creatures; who is the Father of all
Things, and who of his infinite Mercy vouchsafed to give us his only Son
for our Salvation.

       *       *       *       *       *

III. I believe in the most Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy
Ghost, who, tho’ Three distinct Persons, are nevertheless but One God:
These three Persons are eternal, and equal in Majesty and Glory.

       *       *       *       *       *

IV. I call the _Father_, God the Father, because the same Scripture gives
him that Title, _Deut._ xxxii. Ver. 6. _Is not He thy Father that hath
bought thee? Hath he not made thee, and established thee?_ And in another
Passage, _Mal._ ii. Ver. 10. _Have we not all one Father? Hath not one God
created us?_ The New Testament also gives him the same Appellation: In the
Epistle to the _Romans_, Chap. viii. Ver. 15. St. _Paul_ says, _For ye
have not received the Spirit of Bondage again to fear; but ye have
received the Spirit of Adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. Behold,_
(says St. _John_, I _Ep._ Chap. iii. Ver. 1.) _what manner of Love the
Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the Sons of God:
Therefore the World knoweth us not, because it knew him not._

       *       *       *       *       *

V. I believe in _Jesus Christ_, the only Son of God, and God himself; by
whom all Things were made, who has created Heaven and Earth, whom the
Angels adore and glorify; who knows the Hearts of Men; whose Power is
everlasting, and who vouchsafed to come into the World to be our Saviour
and our Redeemer.

       *       *       *       *       *

VI. I believe in _Jesus_ the Son of God, because the Belief of this Truth
is the Basis of our Salvation, and of our Redemption. Besides, we are
assur’d of this by the Holy Scriptures. St. _John_ says in his first
Epistle, Chap. iv. Ver. 15. _Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son
of God_, God _dwelleth in Him, and He in God._ Jesus Christ, speaking of
himself, says in St. _Matthew_, Chap. xvi. Ver. 17. _Blessed art thou
Simon Barjona, for Flesh and Blood hath not revealed it unto Thee, but my
Father which is in Heaven._

       *       *       *       *       *

VII. I believe, that the _Holy Ghost_ is God as well as the Father, and as
the Son; that he is like them from all Eternity; that he is equal with
them; that he is infinitely perfect; that he is the Sovereign Good, the
Sovereign Wisdom: that he has the same Essence, the same Nature with the
Father and the Son, from whom he proceedeth from all Eternity.

       *       *       *       *       *

VIII. I believe likewise in the Holy Ghost, upon the Evidence of the
sacred Scriptures, which give him this Name upon several Occasions, but
more particularly in the New Testament than in the Old. In the New
Testament we are commanded to be baptized _In the Name of the Father, and
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost_, Matt. Chap, xxviii. Ver. 19. St.
_Peter_ said to _Ananias_ and _Saphira_, Acts Chap. v. Ver. 3. _Ananias,
Why hath Satan filled thine Heart to lie to the Holy Ghost?_ And a little
after he said, _Thou hast not lied unto Men, but unto God_: He here gives
the Appellation of _God_, to him whom he had call’d but just before the
_Holy Ghost_. St. _Paul_, in his first Epistle to the _Corinthians_, Chap.
xii. Ver. 6. after having spoke of God, says, that ’tis of the Holy Spirit
that he had been speaking. _And there are Diversities of Operations, but
it is the same God which worketh all in all._ And then he adds in the
Eleventh Verse, _But all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit,
dividing to every Man severally as he will._ Finally, the Scripture
commonly joins the Person of the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Son,
as I have already said, speaking of Baptism. And in Ordination it makes
Use of the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: It
ascribes to him, whatever we think agreeable to God alone: It gives him,
for Instance, Temples; _Know ye not_, (says St. _Paul_, 1 _Cor._ Chap. vi.
Ver. 19.) _that your Body is the Temple of the Holy Ghost, which is in
you?_ The same Scripture also ascribes to it the Power of sanctifying and
quickening our Souls, of penetrating into what is the most secret in the
Godhead, of speaking by the Oracles of the Prophets; and finally, of being
omnipresent: Those are the Attributes of God alone, and such as are only
suitable to him. I therefore make no Scruple to believe, that the Holy
Ghost is truly God, as well as the Father and the Son; that he is the
Third Person of the most Holy Trinity; and that, as such, I ought to
worship, pray to him, and praise him.

       *       *       *       *       *

IX. I firmly and religiously believe, that God is the Creator of all
Things visible and invisible; that his Power is infinite, and that nothing
induc’d him to create the World, but his mere Goodness, which he was
indeed pleas’d to communicate to the Things that he created: He form’d the
Body of Man from the Clay of the Earth, and dispos’d it in such a manner,
that it was capable of being immortal and impassible, not by its own
Nature, but thro’ special Grace. As to our Soul, he made it after his own
Image and Likeness, he gave it Free Will, and so temper’d its Inclinations
and Desires, that it was intirely subject to Reason; and besides all these
Advantages, he also gave it original Righteousness: But _Adam_, the common
Father of all Men, for not observing the Injunction that God had laid upon
him not to eat of the Fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil,
forfeited, as to himself and his Descendants too, that Righteousness in
which he had been created: By Consequence all the Human Race was depriv’d
of that Dignity and Excellency in which he was created; and since this
Fall it was not possible for Mankind to be restor’d to its primitive State
by any Power whatsoever, not even by the Angels themselves; so that, for
the Remedy of our Misfortunes, there was an absolute Necessity that the
Son of God by his Almighty Efficacy should come and unite himself to our
frail Nature, to destroy the infinite Malignity of Sin, and to reconcile
God to us by shedding his Blood, as he has done for us; for which may he
be for ever glorify’d.

       *       *       *       *       *

X. I constantly and firmly believe, that God discover’d himself to
_Moses_, that he reveal’d to him every thing that is contain’d in the Book
of _Genesis_, and that he gave him the Table of the Ten Commandments: I
believe with St. _Augustin_, that the Decalogue is the Summary of all
Laws: I believe also, as Jesus Christ himself teaches in St. _Matthew_,
Chap. xxii. Ver. 40. That _on these Two Commandments_, the Love of God,
and the Love of one’s Neighbour, _hang all the Law and the Prophets_.

       *       *       *       *       *

XI. I believe, that ’tis an indispensable Duty to obey the Law of God;
because God himself is the Author of it, and because Jesus Christ has
confirm’d and declar’d the same by his own Mouth. I believe also, that
whosoever would be sav’d, must obey his Commandments: To think otherwise
would be Impiety.

       *       *       *       *       *

XII. Besides the Commandments of God, I believe ’tis absolutely necessary
to believe in the Creed, as it was receiv’d by the Fathers of the Council
of _Trent_. I acknowledge that Council to be œcumenical: I receive all the
Decisions of it without Exception; and I deem them all to be orthodox, and
to be sure Rules for conducting me to my Salvation.

       *       *       *       *       *

XIII. _I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth;
and in Jesus Christ, his only Son our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy
Ghost, born of the Virgin_ Mary, _suffered under_ Pontius Pilate, _was
crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into Hell; the Third Day he rose
again from the Dead, he ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at the Right
Hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the
Quick and the Dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church,
the Communion of Saints, the Forgiveness of Sins, the Resurrection of the
Body, and the Life everlasting._

Having already mention’d the Reasons why I believe in God the Father, the
Son, and the Holy Ghost, I will say no more upon this Head, and proceed to
other Articles of the Creed.

       *       *       *       *       *

XIV. In the Creed our Saviour is call’d _Lord_; for since God the Son is
everlasting, as well as God the Father, so he is Lord of all Things, as is
God the Father. Jesus Christ, as Man, is also for several Reasons call’d
Lord: First of all, because he is our Redeemer, and has deliver’d us from
our Sins; which made St. _Paul_ say in his Epistle to the _Philippians_,
Chap. ii. Ver. 8, 9, 10, 11. _And being found in Fashion as a Man, he
humbled himself, and became obedient unto Death, even the Death of the
Cross: Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a Name
which is above every Name; that at the Name of Jesus every Knee should
bow, of things in Heaven, and Things in Earth, and Things under the Earth:
And that every Tongue should confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the
Glory of God the Father._ Jesus Christ says also, speaking of himself, in
St. _Matthew_, Chap. xxviii. Ver. 18. _All Power is given unto me in
Heaven and in Earth._ In short, considering the Favours we have receiv’d
from Jesus Christ, Are we not his true Slaves? Is it not He who has
redeemed us? Is it not He that is our Lord? Ought we not to be for ever at
the Service of our Redeemer?

       *       *       *       *       *

XV. I believe, _that he was conceiv’d of the Holy Ghost, and born of the
Virgin_ Mary.

By these Words I confess, that when Jesus Christ, the Son of God, our only
Lord, did for our Sakes take the human Nature upon him in the Womb of the
Virgin _Mary_, he was not conceiv’d after the common manner of other Men,
but in a supernatural way; that is to say, by the Operation of the Holy
Ghost; so that the same Person being still God, as he had been from all
Eternity, became Man, tho’ he was not so before. St. _John_ says upon this
Head, Chap. i. Ver. 1. _In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was
with God, and the Word was God._ And he adds afterwards, Ver. 14. _And the
Word was made Flesh, and dwelt among us._

       *       *       *       *       *

XVI. I believe, _that he was conceiv’d by the Operation of the Holy
Ghost_. By these Words I don’t understand, that the said Person alone
wrought the Mystery of the Incarnation. ’Tis true, that the Son alone
assum’d the human Nature; but then ’tis as true, that the Three Persons of
the most Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, equally
contributed to this Mystery: Every Thing which God does, is the common
Action of the Three Persons; they have all an equal Share in it, and the
one never acts without the other. The only thing which is not common to
them is, the Manner in which one Person proceeds from the other; the Son
alone is ingender’d of the Father, and the Holy Ghost proceedeth both from
the Father and the Son. Finally, I believe, that this Conception is
miraculous, and I humbly adore the Mystery of it, without presuming to
penetrate into it, the very Attempt of which would put me in Danger of
being cast away.

       *       *       *       *       *

XVII. I believe, _that he was born of the Virgin_ Mary.

These Words teach me, that Jesus Christ was born as a Man is, and that I
am oblig’d to honour the Virgin _Mary_ as the Mother of God, which I do
accordingly with the profoundest Respect, and with an intire Confidence,
because the Protection of the Holy Virgin is the best Protection that I
can chuse, next to Jesus Christ.

       *       *       *       *       *

XVIII. I believe, _that suffer’d under_ Pontius Pilate, _that he was
crucified, that he died, and that he was buried_.

The Belief of this Article is of absolute Necessity; and a Person can
never think of it too much, because ’tis as the Basis which supports the
Catholic Faith and Religion; and really when this Article is established,
all the rest is prov’d easily. For this Reason I firmly believe, that
Jesus Christ was put upon the Cross for our Salvation: I believe also,
that in the inferior Part of the Soul he felt all the Torments which he
was made to suffer, because he was truly Man: I believe also that he
suffer’d great Pains of the Mind; such Pains as forc’d him to utter these
Words in _Matt._ Chap. xxvi. Ver. 38. _My Soul is exceeding sorrowful,
even unto Death._ As to the Death of Jesus Christ, I believe, that he
actually dy’d upon the Cross; because all the Evangelists say, he there
yielded up the Ghost: Tho’ I am persuaded that his Soul was separated from
his Body, I believe also, that the Deity was still united to his Body in
the Sepulchre, and to his Soul in Hell. Jesus Christ died, to the end
that, as the Apostle says to the _Hebrews_, Chap. ii. Ver. 14, 15. _He
might destroy him that had the Power of Death, that is the Devil, and
deliver them, who, through Fear of Death, were all their Life-time subject
to Bondage._ But the Death of Jesus Christ was voluntary; he went himself
to meet Death, and he himself determin’d the Place and Time of his Death,
as is plainly prov’d by the Words of the Prophet _Isaiah_, _And the Lord
said the same Thing unto himself before he suffered_. He was offer’d up,
because he desir’d it, and our Lord says himself, speaking of his Passion,
in St. _John_, Chap. x. Ver. 17, 18. _I lay down my Life that I might take
it again: No Man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have
Power to lay it down, and I have Power to take it again._

       *       *       *       *       *

XIX. When I say, that _Jesus Christ was buried_; I believe not only that
his Body was buried, but also that God himself was laid in the Sepulchre.
For since the Deity never abandon’d the Body of our Saviour, which was
laid in the Sepulchre, we are under a Necessity of owning, that God was

       *       *       *       *       *

XX. I believe, that _Jesus Christ descended into Hell_.

Hereby I understand, that when our Lord dy’d, his Soul descended into
Hell, and stay’d there as long as his Body remain’d in the Sepulchre.

By the Descent into Hell, I understand, that our Lord actually descended
into those Places where the Souls are detain’d, that have not yet receiv’d
the eternal Beatitude; and thereby he has not only demonstrated, that
every thing which he had said of his Divinity was true, but that he was
also the Son of God, as he had before prov’d by Abundance of Prodigies and
Miracles. Indeed all Men who descended into those secret Places, descended
into them as Slaves, but Jesus Christ descended into them free and
victorious; he destroy’d the Power of the Devils, who exercis’d their
Tyranny, and retain’d the Souls of Men there, by reason of their Sins.
Jesus Christ being victorious, releas’d those Souls out of the Prison in
which they were languishing, as St. _Paul_ affirms, when he says to the
_Colossians_, Chap. ii. Ver. 15. _And having spoiled Principalities and
Powers, he made a Shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it._

       *       *       *       *       *

XXI. I believe, _that on the Third Day Jesus Christ rose again from the
Dead_: When I say, that our Lord rose again, I don’t only understand that
he came to Life again, but that he also rose again by his own inherent
Power; which is particularly correspondent with Jesus Christ, and also
proves his Divinity; the rather, because the Resurrection of the Dead is
contrary to the Order of Nature, there being no Person that has the Power
of passing from Death to Life. St. _Paul_ says upon this Head to the
_Corinthians_, 2 _Cor._ Chap. xiii. Ver. 4. _For though he was crucified
through Weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God._

As the Godhead of Jesus Christ was never separated from his Body, he was
able by his own Power to raise himself again, and to restore himself to
Life. _David_ had foretold this Truth, _Psalm_ xcviii. Ver. 1. _His Right
Hand and his Holy Arm hath gotten him the Victory._ Our Lord himself
confirm’d this Truth, when he said in St. _John_, Chap. x. Ver. 17, 18. _I
lay down my Life, that I might take it again_; and _I have Power to take
it again_. In another Place he says, speaking to the _Jews_, St. _John_
Chap. ii. Ver. 19. _Destroy this Temple, and in Three Days I will raise it

When I say, that our Lord rose again the Third Day, I don’t therefore
imagine, that he was Three intire Days in the Sepulchre; he was laid there
on the _Friday_ Night, and rose again the _Sunday_ Morning following,
which makes the Three Days. Jesus Christ plac’d this Interval between his
Death and Resurrection, to shew, that he was truly Man; and at the same
time that there might be no Doubt of his Death. I am firmly persuaded,
that ’tis absolutely necessary to believe the Mystery of the Resurrection,
which I take to be one of the most important Truths of our Religion, as
St. _Paul_ proves, who, speaking to the _Corinthians_, says in the
Fifteenth Chapter, Ver. 14, 17. _And if Christ be not risen, then is our
Preaching vain, and your Faith is also vain; for ye are yet in your Sins._
I believe also, that the Resurrection of Jesus Christ was absolutely
necessary in the first Place to shew the Justice of God, in rewarding him
who had been set at nought; and was so dutiful, as to give up his Life.
The Apostle says to the _Philippians_, Chap. ii. Ver. 8. _And being found
in Fashion as a Man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto Death,
even the Death of the Cross._ Secondly, To maintain and strengthen our
Hopes, which ought to be firm and constant. For since Jesus Christ rose
again, we ought likewise to hope, that we shall one Day rise again. Upon
this Subject St. _Peter_ says in his first Epistle, Chap. i. Ver. 3, 4.
_Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which, according
to his abundant Mercy, hath begotten us again unto a lively Hope, by the
Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the Dead, to an Inheritance
uncorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away._

       *       *       *       *       *

XXII. I believe, _that Jesus Christ ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at
the Right Hand of God, the Father Almighty_.

By our Lord’s Ascension I understand, that Jesus Christ, after having
completed the Mystery of our Redemption, ascended, as Man, with Body and
Soul into Heaven, where he had been all along as God, being present in all
Places by his Deity; that he ascended to it by his own Power, and not by
any foreign Efficacy, like _Elias_, who was translated to Heaven in a
fiery Chariot.

By these Words, _he sitteth at the Right Hand of God, the Father
Almighty_, I don’t believe, that he actually sitteth, this being one of
the figurative Expressions us’d in the Scripture: God has _nothing_
corporeal, and by Consequence has no Right Hand, and is not seated:
Therefore when the Creed saith, that Jesus Christ sitteth on his Right
Hand, ’tis also a figurative Term, which the Scripture makes Use of to
denote the glorious State to which our Lord Jesus Christ, as Man, was
advanc’d above all other Creatures. This Expression _he sitteth_,
signifies the stable and permanent Possession of the Glory and Sovereign
Power which Jesus Christ receiv’d from his Father, who, according to the
Apostle to the _Ephesians_, Chap. i. Ver. 20, 21. _Raised him from the
Dead, and set him at his own Right Hand in the heavenly Places, far above
all Principality and Power, and Might and Dominion, and every Name that is
named, not only in this World, but also in that which is to come._

As to the Ascension of Jesus Christ into Heaven, I believe, that it was
absolutely necessary: ’Twas requisite that Jesus Christ should set up his
Throne in Heaven to prove, that his Kingdom was not of this World, that it
was not a transitory or an earthly Kingdom, as the _Jews_ fancied, but
that his Kingdom was spiritual.

He also chose to ascend into Heaven, to the end that his Ascension might
raise a Desire in us to follow him, and at the same time to fulfil the
Promise that he made to his Apostles, when he told them, _John_ xvi. Ver.
7. _It is expedient for you, that I go away; for if I go not away, the
Comforter will not come unto you: But if I depart, I will send him unto
you._ Finally, Jesus Christ ascended into Heaven, to be our Advocate with
his Father; as St. _John_ says in his first Epistle, Chap. ii. Ver. 1, 2.
_My little Children, these Things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And
if any Man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the
righteous: And he is the Propitiation for our Sins._

Jesus Christ ascended also into Heaven, to prepare a Place there for us,
as he had promis’d us, and in quality of our Head, to take Possession of
Glory For us, and to open for us the Gates of it, which had, ever since
the Fall of _Adam_ till that time, been shut up.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXIII. I believe, _that Jesus Christ shall come to judge the Quick and the
Dead_, because the Holy Scripture assures me, that the Son of God is to
come twice upon Earth. The first time was, when for our Salvation he was
pleas’d to assume the human Nature; and the second will be, when he cometh
at the End of the World to judge all Mankind; when this will happen I know
not, but that it will happen, I am however very certain. Of this St.
_Matthew_ assures me, Chap. xxiv. Ver. 36. _But of that Day and Hour
knoweth no Man, no not the Angels of Heaven, but my Father only._

As to the Manner how we shall be judg’d; I believe, there are Two ways:
The first Judgment will be, when my Soul forsakes my Body. I shall appear
that Instant before God’s Tribunal, to give him an exact Account of every
thing that I have done, said, and thought. The second will be, when I
shall appear with all Mankind that ever had a Being in the World, to
receive the Judgment that it shall then please God to pronounce: Every one
will there appear as he has been in this Life; and this Judgment will be
the universal Judgment: This universal Judgment is absolutely necessary;
and because Men have only committed Good and Evil by the Instrumentality
of their Bodies, ’tis but just that their Bodies, as well as their Souls,
should have a Share in the Reward or Punishment due to the Good and to the
Wicked; which can only be done, when all Men rise again, and at the time
of the universal Judgment. In fine, what persuades me that there must be
an universal Judgment is, that Jesus himself assures us of it in St.
_Matthew_, and tells us of all the Signs that are to be the Forerunners of
that great Day. In like manner the _Acts_ of the Apostles also prove it to
us, Chap. i. Ver. 11. _This same Jesus which is taken up from you into
Heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into Heaven._

       *       *       *       *       *

XXIV. I believe _in the Holy Ghost_.

My Lord, As I have already declar’d what I believe with regard to this
Article, and have nothing to add to it, I proceed to the Reasons that
oblige me to believe in the _Holy Catholic Church_.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXV. By the Church I understand with St. _Augustin_ all the Believers in
general that are dispers’d throughout the World. There is only one Church,
but ’tis divided into the Church _Triumphant_ and the Church _Militant_.
The former is compos’d of all the Saints, and all the Blessed that are in
Paradise; and who after having triumph’d over the World, the Flesh and the
Devil, are safe in the Enjoyment of eternal Happiness, and exempt from the
Miseries of this Life. The other Church is the Assembly of all the
Faithful who are still living: This Church is call’d the Church
_Militant_, because of the continual Warfare which the Faithful have to
maintain against their cruel Enemies the World, the Flesh, and the Devil:
There are some, who, to these Two Churches, add a Third, which they call
the _Passive_ Church, because it consists of those who yet languish in the
Pains of Purgatory, and are there to remain till they are thoroughly
purified, that they may then be able to enter into the _Triumphant_
Church, and thereby form one and the same Church.

I exclude out of the Church Infidels, Heretics, Schismatics, and Persons
excommunicate. Infidels are no Part of the Church, because they never
enter’d into it, never understood it, and never partook of any of the
Sacraments. Heretics and Schismatics are excluded from the Church, because
they are separate from it: They are nevertheless under the Power of the
Church, which has a Right to judge, punish, and excommunicate them.
Finally, Excommunicated Persons are excluded from the Church, because the
Church herself has judg’d them, and cut them off from her Body; and she
never more admits them to her Communion without their Conversion.

As to the Marks and Properties of the Church, I believe, that they
consist, in the first Place, in its Unity, _Canticles_ Chap. vi. Ver. 9.
_My Dove, my Undefiled, is but one._ She is conducted and govern’d by an
_Invisible_ Head, and by a _Visible_ Head: The former is Jesus Christ,
whom God the Father has appointed the Head of his whole Church. The
Visible Head is he, who, as lawful Successor of St. _Peter_, possesses the
See of the Church of _Rome_. I believe, that this Head is absolutely
necessary, as having been establish’d by Jesus Christ himself, when he
said to St. _Peter_, _thou art Peter, and upon this Rock I will build my
Church_, Matt. Chap. xvi. Ver. 18. St. _Peter_ was the first to whom the
Episcopal See was given, which he establish’d first at _Antioch_, but
afterwards translated to _Rome_, where he kept his See, as Chief of all
the Apostles; to the end that the Unity of one See might be secur’d to him
by them all, and that the other Apostles might never take it into their
Heads to assume to themselves another. A Man that should offer to erect a
See, in Prejudice of that which Jesus Christ hath established to be the
Centre of Unity, would be deem’d as a Schismatic, and as a Heretic. In
Fact, Jesus Christ, as God, gives Men a Share of his Dignities: He is the
High-priest, and he honours Men with the Dignity of the Priesthood: ’Tis
he that is the true _Peter_, and he communicates this Quality of _Peter_
to another. Thus he makes his Servants Sharers of what is proper and
particular to himself: He establish’d St. _Peter_ to be the Pastor and
Head of all Believers, and was willing that he should have the same Power
as himself, to govern his Church.

The other Property of the Church is its _Holiness_. St. _Peter_ assures us
of this in his first Epistle, Chap. ii. Ver. 9. _But ye are a chosen
Generation, a holy Nation._ ’Tis call’d holy, because ’tis consecrated to
the Service of God: ’Tis a Custom to call every thing that is set apart
for Divine Worship holy: This was a Custom, even under the Old Law, when
the Priests Vestments, the Levites, and the Altars were call’d holy. A
farther Proof of the Church’s Holiness is, that the Holy Spirit presides
over it, and that he govern’d it by the Ministry of the Apostles. The
Apostles were the first that receiv’d the Holy Ghost, and since their Time
such has been God’s infinite Love to his Church, the Holy Spirit has ever
remain’d with it. Therefore this very Church, which is govern’d by the
Holy Spirit, cannot be mistaken in Matters of Faith, nor even in Point of

       *       *       *       *       *

XXVI. I believe the _Communion of Saints_.

I declare, and mean by these Words, that I partake in all the Sacraments,
especially those of Baptism and the Eucharist: Baptism qualifies me for
partaking of all the Sacraments, and the Eucharist demonstrates this
Communion in a more particular manner: And indeed, tho’ all the Sacraments
unite me to God, and make me Partaker of his Grace, which they convey to
me, yet all these Attributes are more peculiar to the Eucharist.

I also acknowledge a Communion, of which Charity is the principal, and am
united, as St. _Ambrose_ calls it, by the Bands of Love and Society, with
all that fear God.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXVII. I believe the _Forgiveness of Sins_.

This is a Truth which ought absolutely to be believ’d; for upon this
Occasion our Lord said to his Disciples, a little before he ascended into
Heaven, St. _Luke_ Chap, xxiv, Ver. 46, 47. _Thus it is written, and thus
it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the Dead the Third Day: And
that Repentance and Remission of Sins should be preached in his Name among
all Nations, beginning at Jerusalem._ Thus Jesus Christ himself has
oblig’d us absolutely to believe the Forgiveness of Sins: The Sacrament of
Baptism remits Sins instantly; the Church has this Power also, because it
has receiv’d the Keys of Heaven, not only to remit Sins by the Sacrament
of Baptism, but also to forgive all those People their Sins who truly
repent of them, even tho’ they were to persevere in their Sins to the last
Day of their Lives: This the Holy Scripture teaches us in more Places than
one. In St. _Matthew_, Chap, xvi. Ver. 19. our Lord said to St. _Peter_,
_And I will give unto Thee the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven; and
whatsoever thou shalt bind en Earth, shall be bound in Heaven; and
whatsoever thou shalt loose on Earth, shall be loosed in Heaven._ In
another Place Jesus Christ says also, speaking to his Apostles, _Matt._
xviii, Ver. 18. _Whatsoever ye shall bind on Earth, shall be bound in
Heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on Earth, shall be loosed in
Heaven._ This induces me to believe, that I ought to use that Power which
Jesus Christ has given to his Church, of remitting Sins, as a most
salutary Remedy for the Diseases of my Soul. And I have Recourse to the
Sacrament of Penance, as the only Means in my own Power to cleanse me from
my Sins.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXVIII. I believe the _Resurrection of the Body_, and look upon it as the
Basis on which the Hope of our Salvation is founded: This is what St.
_Paul_ says to the _Corinthians_, first Epistle, Chap. xv. Ver. 13, 14.
_But if there be no Resurrection of the Dead, then is Christ not risen.
And if Christ be not risen, then is our Preaching vain, and your Faith is
also vain._ Therefore nothing is more certain than the Resurrection of the
Body. The Old and New Testament prove this by several Examples: We read in
the Old Testament, that _Elias_ and _Elisha_ brought several of the Dead
to Life: And in the New Testament, besides the Dead who were rais’d again
to Life by Jesus Christ, there is Mention also of some that were brought
to Life again by the Apostles: Now as all those dead People were rais’d to
Life again, I firmly believe, that all Mankind must rise again: _Job_
says, Chap. xix. Ver. 26. _That he hopes to see God in his own Flesh._ And
_Daniel_, Chap. xii. Ver. 2. says, speaking of the Dead, _And many of them
that sleep in the Dust of the Earth shall awake, some to everlasting
Life, and some to Shame, and everlasting Contempt._

There are divers other Passages in the New Testament, which prove the
Resurrection of the Dead; particularly that Passage in St. _Matthew_,
Chap. xxii. where we have an Account of the Dispute which Jesus Christ had
with the _Sadducees_; those Parts of the Gospel which mention the last
Judgment, and several Passages in the Epistles of St. Paul to the
_Corinthians_ and the _Thessalonians_. In the first Epistle to the
_Corinthians_, Chap. xv. Ver. 42. ’tis said, _So also is the Resurrection
of the Dead; it is sown in Corruption, it is raised in Incorruption_.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXIX. I believe _the Life everlasting._

By the Life everlasting, I mean eternal Happiness: ’Tis so call’d, in the
first Place, that it may not be imagin’d to consist in Things temporal, or
the perishable Goods of this World; and then ’tis to satisfy us, that when
we are once in Possession of this true Happiness, we can never lose it. I
am of Opinion also, that ’tis not possible for Words to express the Nature
of this Happiness to Perfection; for indeed, tho’ the Holy Scripture gives
it several Names, such as _the Kingdom of God_, _the new Jerusalem_, _the
Mansions or Habitations of the everlasting Father_; yet none of these
Expressions is strong enough to give us an Idea of its Excellency and
Extensiveness: The Fruition of God will undoubtedly be our greatest
Happiness: Jesus Christ says the same thing, speaking to God his Father,
St. _John_ Chap. xvii. Ver. 3. _And this is Life eternal, that they might
know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent._ St.
_John_ seems to explain these Words in his first Epistle, when he says,
Chap. iii. Ver. 2. _Beloved, now are we the Sons of God, and it doth not
yet appear what we shall be; but we know, that when he shall appear we
shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is._

       *       *       *       *       *

XXX. I receive and believe _the Holy Sacraments of the Church_. Of these I
believe that there are Seven; and I look upon them as Things that were
instituted for Signs to us of other Things, because they discover to us
the Disposition of the Heart, by what passes externally: The Holy
Scripture tells us very clearly, that they must be look’d upon as Symbols:
The Apostle says, speaking of Circumcision, which had been a Sacrament
under the Old Law, and which was a Command laid upon _Abraham_, _Romans_
Chap. iv. Ver. 11. _And he received the Sign of Circumcision, a Seal of
the Righteousness of the Faith._ And in another Place the same Apostle
assures us, _Rom._ vi. 3. that _So many of us as were baptized into Jesus
Christ, were baptized into his Death_.

Our Lord Jesus Christ instituted the Seven Sacraments, not only to
signify, but also to produce and operate what they signify.

The Sacraments are Symbols of the Grace of God, who sanctifies our Souls,
and gives them all the Christian Virtues: The first of all these
Sacraments is Baptism, which qualifies us to be Partakers of all the
others; and ’twas instituted like all the other Sacraments by our Lord
Jesus Christ: ’Tis impossible to be a Christian, or to hope for Life
everlasting, without being baptiz’d.

In St. _John_, Chap. iii. Ver. 5. Jesus said, _Except a Man be born of
Water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God._ This
relates to Infants as well as to adult Persons, because Infants having
sinned in _Adam_, they are under an absolute Necessity of receiving the
Grace and Righteousness of Jesus Christ to reign in eternal Life. Baptism
is a Sacrament which is receiv’d but once: _One Lord, one Faith, one
Baptism_, says the Apostle to the _Ephesians_, Chap. iv. Ver. 5. because,
as Jesus Christ cannot die a second time, so we cannot die a second time
to Sin by Baptism.

As to the Sacrament of _Confirmation_, it was likewise instituted by our
Lord Jesus Christ: I think that People ought to be very cautious of
neglecting a Sacrament so holy, and which is a Means that God employs to
make us Partakers of so many of his Graces. As, by Baptism, we become the
Soldiers of Jesus Christ, by the Sacrament of Confirmation we receive Arms
to combat our Enemies. By Baptism the Holy Spirit gives us the Fullness of
Grace to recover Innocence, and by Confirmation he gives us Grace to
acquire the Perfection of Righteousness. By Baptism we are born again to
Newness of Life, and Confirmation gives us Strength to fight the good
Fight. By Baptism we are wash’d and purify’d, and by Confirmation we are
strengthen’d. Regeneration in a time of Tranquillity saves of its own
Accord such as receive Baptism, and Confirmation puts Weapons into their
Hands, and makes them ready for the Battle. In fine, I believe, that all
Catholics ought to take all possible Care to receive this Sacrament,
because Jesus Christ was pleas’d, that his Apostles should receive it;
which was the Case, according to St. _Luke_, when the Holy Ghost descended
upon them in so miraculous a manner at the Feast of _Pentecost_. ’Tis
said in the _Acts_ of the Apostles, Chap. ii. Ver. 2. _And suddenly there
came a Sound from Heaven, as of a rushing mighty Wind, and it filled all
the House where they were sitting, and they were all filled with the Holy
Ghost._ As we are given to understand by these Words, that all the
Disciples who were assembled in that House, which was the Figure of the
Church, receiv’d the Holy Ghost, so all that are in the Church are under a
Necessity of receiving the Sacrament of Confirmation, which is prov’d by
the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Feast of _Pentecost_. Finally, I
believe, that by this Sacrament God confirms in us what he begun with
Baptism, and that by Confirmation he makes us perfect Christians.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXI. I believe, that the Holy Sacrament of the _Eucharist_ is a true
Sacrament, and I look upon it as one of the greatest Mysteries of Faith.
And what gives me the more Veneration for it is, that the Heretics
themselves are persuaded, that it was instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ.
I believe with St. _Augustin_ and the whole Church, that this Sacrament
consists of Two Things, _viz._ The visible Elements of Bread and Wine, and
the invisible Flesh and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. For this Reason I
adore the Sacrament of the Eucharist. By this _Sacrament_ I understand the
Body and Blood of our Lord. I suspend all my Senses, I wean my Mind from
them, and believe with Submission, that the Holy Eucharist is really the
Body of our Lord, that is to say, the very same Body which was born of the
Virgin _Mary_, and which sitteth at the Right Hand of the Father
everlasting. I believe, there remaineth nothing of the Substance of Bread
and Wine, which I take intirely upon the Authority of our Lord Jesus
Christ, who said, _Matt._ xxvi. 26, 28. _This is my Body, this is my
Blood._ St. _Paul_ confirms me in this Sentiment, when, after having
mention’d the Consecration of the Bread and Wine by Jesus Christ, he said
to the _Corinthians_, I Ep. Chap. xi. Ver. 28, 29. _Let a Man examine
himself, and so let him eat of that Bread, and drink of that Cup: For he
that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh Damnation to
himself, not discerning the Lord’s Body._ If this Sacrament was only the
Memorial and Sign of the Passion of Jesus Christ, as the Heretics will
have it to be, I don’t think that St. _Paul_ would have us’d such earnest
Expressions to exhort Believers to examine themselves before they
approached to this Sacrament. The same Apostle St. _Paul_ assures us also
of the real Presence of the Body of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist, when he
says in his first Epistle to the _Corinthians_, Chap. x. Ver. 16. _The Cup
of Blessing which we bless, is it not the Communion of the Blood of
Christ? The Bread which we break, is it not the Communion of the Body of
Christ?_ But besides these Words of the Apostle, Jesus Christ says in St.
_John_, Chap. vi. Ver. 51. _The Bread that I will give is my Flesh, which
I will give for the Life of the World_: And a little after in Ver. 53. he
adds, _Except ye eat the Flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his Blood, ye
have no Life in you. For_, says he again, Ver. 55. _my Flesh is Meat
indeed, and my Blood is Drink indeed_.

Besides all these Passages of holy Writ, which are a Proof to me of the
real Presence of our Lord in the Eucharist, the Testimony of all the holy
Fathers ever since the Church had a Beginning, who have all unanimously
believ’d the real Presence of the Body of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist,
farther confirms me in this Opinion. In fine, the real Presence is what
the Church believes, which is enough for me, who acknowledge her Decisions
to be infallible. But the Protestants will object to me; If, after the
Consecration of the Eucharist, ’tis really chang’d into our Lord’s Body,
how comes it that you still call it Bread? To this I answer, That ’tis
because the Eucharist still preserves the Species and the Appearances of
Bread, and retains the Property of nourishing the Body, which is one
Quality of Bread. The Holy Scripture itself is likewise accustom’d to give
Names to Things, according to their outward Appearance. ’Tis said in
_Genesis_, that Three Men appeared to _Abraham_, tho’ in Fact they were
Three Angels: And in the _Acts_ of the Apostles, those Angels that
appear’d to the Apostles after the Resurrection of Jesus Christ are call’d

Being therefore convinc’d of the real Presence of our Lord’s Body in the
most holy Eucharist, I undoubtedly believe, that I ought to worship it:
This I am commanded to do by the holy Council of _Trent_, Session XIII.
Canon 5. where, speaking of the Eucharist, it says, that it ought to be
ador’d with the Worship due to God.

The Wisemen worshipp’d Jesus Christ when he came into the World in the
Stable; and the holy Writ assures us, that he was worshipp’d by the
Apostles in _Galilee_. Why then shan’t we worship him now in the
Eucharist, since we are persuaded, that he really exists there? That’s the
Doctrine which St. _Austin_ taught us upon the xcviiith Psalm, _Nemo illam
carnem manducet, nisi prius adoraverit, et non solum non peccamus_
_adorando, sed peccamus non adorando_, i. e. Let none eat of that Flesh,
till he has first ador’d it; for we not only do not sin by worshipping it,
but we sin by not worshipping it.

As to the manner of communicating, I believe, ’tis sufficient to receive
the Communion in one Kind: First of all, because the Church has so thought
fit, and had great Reasons for it: Secondly, tho’ our Lord Jesus Christ,
as the Council of _Trent_ says, instituted this august Sacrament at the
Supper under the Species of Bread and Wine, and gave it to his Apostles in
both those Kinds, it does not from thence follow, that he establish’d it
for a Law to distribute the holy Mysteries to all the Believers in both
Kinds: For he himself often speaks but of one Kind, as when he says in St.
_John_, Chap. vi. Ver. 51. _If any Man eat of this Bread, he shall live
for ever; and the Bread which I will give is my Flesh, which I will give
for the Life of the World:_ And Ver. 58. _He that eateth of this Bread
shall live for ever._

I believe, that the holy Eucharist was instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ
for Two Reasons: First of all, that it might serve as Nourishment for our
Souls, for the Preservation of its spiritual Life; and in the second
Place, that the Church might always have a Sacrifice to offer to God for
the Forgiveness of our Sins: For as we offend God so often, and as our
Sins incense him against us, the Church offers up the Sacrifice of the
Eucharist, to engage God the Father to suspend the just Severity of his
Wrath and Vengeance, and to obtain his Mercy.

The Paschal Lamb, which the _Israelites_ both offer’d up, and ate as a
Sacrifice, and as a Sacrament, was the Type of the Eucharist. Our Lord
could not give us a greater Token of the Love which he bore to us, than
to leave us this visible Sacrifice, which is a Renovation of that bloody
Sacrifice, which he offered himself to his Father upon the Cross, that we
might honour his Memory to the End of all Ages.

By the Sacrifice of the Eucharist, I understand the holy Mass; and as the
Sacrament of the Eucharist is an Action meritorious for us, and procures
us great Advantages when we receive it, I believe, that I merit by the
holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and that it is my Satisfaction to God for my
Sins: I believe, that this Sacrifice is the very same which was offer’d
upon the Cross: I believe, that ’tis the same Victim, that is to say, our
Lord Jesus Christ, who once offer’d himself up on the Tree of the Cross:
And in Fact the Victim, which offer’d itself up in a bloody manner, and
that which offers itself in an unbloody manner, is the same; there are not
Two Victims. And this Sacrifice is renew’d every Day in the Eucharist,
according to the Command which God gave us, when he said to us, _This do
in Remembrance of Me_, Luke xxii. Ver. 19. I believe, that none but Jesus
Christ is Priest in this Sacrifice: The Ministers, who consecrate the Body
and Blood of our Lord, do not offer that Sacrifice themselves, but supply
the Place of Jesus Christ himself: This is evident from the Words of the
Consecration; the Priest does not say, _This is the Body of Jesus Christ_,
but _This is my Body_; and by Consequence he says so, because he is in the
Place of Jesus Christ, and because, by the Virtue of those Words, he
changes the Substance of the Bread and Wine into that of the Body and
Blood of Jesus Christ: Therefore the Mass is not only a Sacrifice of
Praise and Thanksgiving, or a mere Commemoration of the Sacrifice which
was completed upon the Tree of the Cross; but I also believe, that ’tis an
effectual Sacrifice, which reconciles me to God, and gains me his Favour.
And if we offer this holy Victim with a pure Heart, a lively Faith, and
have a deep Sorrow for our Sins, I doubt not but God will shew us Mercy,
and that we shall obtain the Assistance of his divine Grace whenever we
need it: Nay, I am persuaded, that ’tis in a manner impossible, that, for
the Sake of this sacred Victim, God should not grant us the Grace of
Repentance, and the Remission of our Sins.

By Consequence the holy Sacrifice of the Mass is not only useful both to
him that offers it, and to him that really partakes of it, but I also
believe it to be advantageous to all the Faithful in general, both to the
Living, and to those who die in the Grace of God, before they are purify’d
from the Spots of their Sins. According to the constant Tradition of the
Apostles, the holy Sacrifice of the Mass may be offer’d up for those
Believers who die in the Grace of God before they are intirely cleans’d
from their Faults; and ’tis likewise offer’d up to remove Afflictions and
public Calamities, and to atone for the Sins of the Living, and the Pains
which they have deserv’d. From hence I conclude, that the Sacrifice of the
Mass is offer’d particularly for the Benefit and Advantage of all the

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXII. I admit and receive _Penance_ for the Fourth Sacrament: It was
own’d by the Church, and instituted as such by our Lord Jesus Christ, to
the end that there might be no room to doubt of the Remission of Sins,
which God promis’d by those Words of _Ezekiel_, _If the Wicked
repenteth, he shall live for ever._ I believe, that Jesus Christ
initiated this Sacrament, that it might serve as a Canal to convey his
precious Blood to us for the effacing of the Sins which we have committed
after Baptism; and to the end that we might be intirely persuaded, that
’tis to Jesus Christ alone we are beholden for the Grace of our
Reconciliation with God.

I believe Penance to be a Sacrament in the same manner as Baptism is one:
Baptism cancels all Sins, and particularly Original Sin; and for the same
Reason Penance, which obliterates all Sins either in Thought or in Deed,
that were committed after Baptism, must be truly and properly a Sacrament.
Besides, that which is perform’d externally by the Penitent and the
Priest, shews the internal Operation in the Soul of the Penitent. ’Tis
absolutely necessary to believe, that Penance is a Sacrament, because it
contains whatever is essential to a Sacrament: ’Tis the Sign of a holy
Thing; for on the one hand the Penitent expresses fully by his Words and
Actions, that he departs from the Uncleanness of his Sins, and, on the
other Hand, the Priest, by conferring this Sacrament, shews the Remission
of Sins, which God in his Goodness grants to the Penitent: I am convinced
of this Truth, by what Jesus Christ said to St. _Peter_ and the Apostles,
_Matt._ xvi. Ver. 19. _And I will give unto Thee the Keys of the Kingdom
of Heaven: And whatsoever thou shalt bind on Earth, shall be bound in
Heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on Earth, shall be loosed in
Heaven._ These Words leave me no room to doubt of the Forgiveness of Sins:
Therefore the Absolution which the Priest pronounces, shews the Remission
of Sins, and ’tis Absolution which operates it in the Soul of the

The Sacrament of Penance differs from the other Sacraments, in regard that
the Matter of the other Sacraments consists of something natural or
artificial, whereas the Three Acts of the Penitent, Contrition, Confession
and Satisfaction are, as it were, the Matter of the Sacrament of Penance:
These Acts may also be call’d the Parts of this Sacrament: God absolutely
requires them of the Penitent, and they are indeed absolutely necessary to
make the Sacrament of Penance intire, and that the Penitent may obtain the
intire and perfect Remission of his Sins. And when I say, that these Acts
are, as it were, the Matter of Penance, ’tis not that I think they are not
the real Matter of it, but to shew, that I don’t think that they are of
the Nature of the Matter of the other Sacraments: For the Matter of the
other Sacraments is altogether external, with regard to the Person who
receives them, as the Water in Baptism, and the Chrism in Confirmation. I
look upon Confession, as a Part that is absolutely necessary in the
Sacrament of Penance.

Tho’ I believe, that perfect Contrition cancels all Sins, yet, as ’tis
absolutely necessary, that for producing this Effect it should proceed
from a Love purely filial and disinterested towards God, that it should be
lively, strong and fervent, and that the Sorrow which produces it in the
Soul, may be proportionable to the Heinousness of the Sins committed; and
as there are few Persons, whose Sorrow can attain to that Pitch, and by
Consequence there would be few that could by this means hope to obtain the
Pardon of their Sins; it was therefore necessary, that God, who is
infinitely good, and infinitely merciful, should provide for our Salvation
by giving us a more easy Method; and this he has done by granting to his
Church the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven: Therefore, according to the
Doctrine of the Council of _Trent_, I look upon it as a certain Truth,
that every Man who performs an Act of Contrition, which necessarily
includes a Resolution not to offend God any more for the future, obtains,
by virtue of the Keys which the Church has receiv’d, Pardon and Remission
of his Sins, after he has confessed them to a Priest: And I believe, that
he obtains such Remission of his Sins, even tho’ his Sorrow be not of that
Degree as to be able of itself to procure him such Pardon.

I receive and admit of the Doctrine of the Holy Fathers, who all
unanimously teach, that Heaven is open’d to us purely by the Keys of the

I believe, that our Lord Jesus Christ instituted Confession, and that his
Institution of it was merely owing to his Goodness and Mercy, when the
Apostles being assembled all together after his Resurrection, he breathed
on them, and said, _John_ xx. Ver. 22, 23. _Receive ye the Holy Ghost;
whosesoever Sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever
Sins ye retain, they are retained._

’Tis therefore evident, that our Lord granted to the Priests the Power of
retaining and remitting Sins, and that at the same time he made them the
Judges: ’Tis for this Reason that we ought to conceal nothing from them,
and we are oblig’d to accuse ourselves of every Circumstance of our Sins,
that they may be able to judge us, and prescribe a Penance to us
proportionable to our Crimes. I do not only believe, that Jesus Christ
instituted Confession, but I believe also, that he commanded us the Use of
it as necessary; and a Sinner, who has committed a mortal Sin, cannot
recover the Life of his Soul but by this Means. The Saviour of the World
clearly demonstrated this Truth to us, when he express’d the Power of
administring this Sacrament by the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven; and as
’tis impossible to enter into a Place that is shut up, but by means of the
Person who has the Keys of it, in like manner nobody can enter into Heaven
after he has caus’d himself to be shut out of it by Sin, unless the
Priest, to whom our Lord has given the Custody of the Keys, open the Gates
of it: Those Cases of Necessity must however be excepted, where perfect
Contrition is sufficient without Confession: If it were otherwise, our
Lord needed not to have said, _Whatsoever ye shall loose on Earth, it
shall be loosed in Heaven_; nor would it have been necessary for Jesus
Christ to have given the Keys of Heaven to the Church.

Finally, I believe Satisfaction to be absolutely necessary, and I take it
to be of Two Sorts: The first is that, whereby we intirely satisfy God
according to the utmost Severity of his supreme Justice for our Sins, of
what Quality soever they be; and the Satisfaction by which we at last
reconcile ourselves to God. ’Tis to our Lord Jesus Christ alone that we
are oblig’d for this Satisfaction; ’tis he that has merited it for us by
making full Satisfaction to God with the Blood which he shed upon the
Cross, to redeem us from our Sins. There was no created Being, that could
possibly discharge so great a Debt; but as St. _John_ says, 1 Ep. Chap.
ii. Ver. 2. _He is the Propitiation for our Sins, and not for ours only,_
_but also for the Sins of the whole World._ This Satisfaction, which flows
from the Merits of Jesus Christ, is full and intire, and proportionable to
the Enormity of all the Sins of Mankind.

I also receive and allow of a second Sort of Satisfaction, call’d
Canonical, which is accomplish’d in a certain Space of Time prescrib’d by
the Canons, and gives Power to the Priests to impose a Penance upon the
Penitents, before they absolve them from their Sins, and this is that
which worketh the Satisfaction.

Finally, I am persuaded, that Satisfaction is a sort of Remedy, which
wipes out all the Stains which our Souls have contracted by the Foulness
of Sin. By means of this Satisfaction we suffer the Punishment inflicted
on us during a certain time for the Expiation of our Sins.

Upon the Whole I infer, that ’tis absolutely necessary that we should be
excited to the Practice of this Satisfaction; for tho’ God remits to us in
Penance the Guilt of Sin, and the Pains of everlasting Death, which are
due to it, he does not therefore always remit to us the temporal
Punishments which are due to Sin: This appears from several Instances in
sacred Writ, as the Third Chapter of _Genesis_; the Twelfth and Twentieth
Chapters of _Numbers_, and several other Passages, and especially in that
which speaks of _David_: For tho’ the Prophet _Nathan_ told him, that God
had forgiven him his Sin, and assur’d him that he should not die, yet
_David_ voluntarily impos’d great Mortifications upon himself, and
implor’d the Mercy of God in these Terms, _Psalm_ li. Vcr. 2, 3. _Wash me
throughly from mine Iniquity, and cleanse me from my Sin: For I
acknowledge my Transgressions, and my Sin is ever before me._ Tho’ _David_
had perform’d that Act of Penance, tho’ he had so earnestly begg’d for
the Pardon of his Sin, yet God punish’d him by the Death of that Son, who
was the Fruit of his Adultery, by the Rebellion of his Son _Absalom_, whom
he lov’d tenderly, and by several other Afflictions, which he had
threaten’d him with before. As to the Reason, why all the Punishments for
Sin are not remitted to us by the Sacrament of Penance, as well as that of
Baptism, I think it but Justice, as the Council of _Trent_ says, that
they, who before Baptism have sinn’d thro’ Ignorance, should be pardon’d
after one manner; and that they should be pardon’d after another manner,
who having been once delivered from the Captivity of the Devil and Sin,
and having also receiv’d the Holy Spirit, have not fear’d to grieve it.
’Tis owing to the Goodness of God that he does not suffer our Sins to be
remitted without the making a Satisfaction for them, to the end that we
might not imagine them to be less than they are, and that we might not
fall into greater Disorders by an injurious Contempt of the Holy Spirit,
and thereby _heap up Wrath against the Day of Wrath_. For really the
Penalties of Satisfaction are as a Bridle to check us in our Sins; they
are sure Marks of our Sorrow for having offended God; and finally, ’tis by
those Punishments that we make Satisfaction to the Church our Mother,
which we have highly offended by our Sins; for, as St. _Augustin_ says,
tho’ God does not reject a contrite and an humble Heart, yet, as the
Sorrow we have conceiv’d in our Hearts for having offended God, can only
be discover’d by Words and other external Signs, the Holy Fathers were in
the Right to fix certain Times for Penance, to the end that we might make
Satisfaction to the Church, in whose Bosom our Sins were committed.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXIII. I thank God, for that after he had given me Entrance into the true
Life by the Sacrament of Baptism, he also instituted the Sacrament of
_Extreme Unction_, for my more easy Passage into Heaven, after my
Departure from this Life. I believe, that our Lord Jesus Christ instituted
the Sacrament of extreme Unction, when he sent out his Disciples two and
two before him into the Towns and Villages. ’Tis said, that they preach’d
to the People, that they exhorted them to Repentance, that they cast out
many Devils, and anointed several that were sick with Oyl, and cur’d them
all. ’Twas our Lord that commanded them to perform this Unction, which he
instituted rather for the Salvation of the Soul than for the Health of the
Body, and he gave a Virtue to it which was altogether divine and
supernatural: Several great Saints so evidently assure us of this Truth,
that I have no room to doubt, but Extreme Unction is one of the Seven
Sacraments of the Church, and that ’twas instituted for the Relief of the
Sick when they are at the Point of Death: This is observable in the
Epistle of St. _James_, Chap. v, Ver. 14, 15. _Is any sick among you? Let
him call for the Elders of the Church, and let them pray aver him,
anointing him with Oyl in the Name of the Lord: And the Prayer of Faith
shall save the Sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have
committed Sins, they shall be forgiven him._ The Apostle, by telling us
that Sins are forgiven by this Unction, gives us also to understand at the
same time, that it is a true Sacrament: and this has been the Decision of
several Councils, but chiefly that of _Trent_.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXIV. I esteem and honour the Sacrament of the _Ordination_, as the Sixth
Sacrament of the Church, and I believe it to be absolutely necessary,
because the other Sacraments intirely depend upon it: For, were it not for
the Sacrament of Ordination, some of the Sacraments could not be
administer’d, and others would also be depriv’d of all the solemn
Ceremonies, and of all religious Worship. I believe therefore, that
Ordination is one of the most eminent Sacraments: It renders the Priests
and Bishops Interpreters of God’s Will; it enables them to represent God
upon Earth, and to operate in Quality of his Substitutes; and for this
Reason the Holy Scripture calls them Angels, and even Gods. What can there
be more miraculous than the Power which this Sacrament gives to the
Priests to consecrate the Elements, to offer the Body and Blood of our
Lord, and to forgive Sins? Have we not Cause to wonder, that the Apostles
and Disciples were sent over all the World in the same manner as Jesus
Christ was sent by his Father? The Priests were also sent abroad, _for the
perfecting of the Saints, for the Work of the Ministry, and for the
edifying of the Body of Christ_, _Ephes._ iv. Ver. 12.

I believe, that no Man can or ought to assume to himself the Character of
Bishop or Priest, unless he has been call’d by the lawful Ministers of the
Church, that is to say, by the Bishops. The Apostle, speaking to the
_Hebrews_, says, _No Man taketh this Honour unto himself_, Chap. v. Ver.
4. And God himself says in _Jeremiah_, Chap. xxiii. Ver. 21. _I have not
sent these Prophets, yet they ran._

As to the Power of Ordination, I believe, it extends to the Eucharist, and
every thing that can relate to it: This is a Truth establish’d by sundry
Passages of Holy Scripture, and especially by that Saying of our Lord to
his Disciples, _John_ xx. Ver. 21, 22, 23. _As my Father hath sent me,
even so send I you; receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whosesoever Sins ye remit,
they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever Sins ye retain, they are
retained._ And in St. _Matthew_, Chap. xviii. Ver. 18. he also says,
_Verily I say unto you, whatsoever you shall bind on Earth, shall be bound
in Heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on Earth, shall be loosed in

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXV. I believe, that _Marriage_ is the Seventh Sacrament of the Church.

It cannot be deny’d, that _Marriage_ was instituted by God himself; ’tis
so very evident from _Genesis_, Chap. i. Ver. 27, 28. _Male and Female
created he them, and the Lord blessed them, and said unto them, Be
fruitful, and multiply_: And in another Place, _viz._ Gen. ii. Ver. 18. he
said, _It is not good that the Man should be alone, I will make him an
Help meet for him_. Jesus Christ in the New Testament ascribes the
Institution of Marriage to God his Father in _Matt._ xix. and _Mark_ x.

I believe, that Marriage is a Sacrament not to be dissolv’d: _What God
hath joined together, let no Man put asunder_, Matt. xix. Ver. 6. These
are the very Words too of the Council of _Trent_. There are certain Cases
however, wherein the Pope, as the Vicar of Jesus Christ, and Successor of
St. _Peter_, may break and annul the Marriage.

What farther convinces me that Marriage is a Sacrament, is that Passage of
the Apostle St. _Paul_ to the _Ephesians_, Chap. v. Ver. 28 to 32. _So
ought Men to love their Wives as their own Bodies: He that loveth his
Wife, loveth himself; For no Man ever yet hated his own Flesh, but
nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the Church: For we are
Members of his Body, of his Flesh, and his Bones. For this Cause shall a
Man leave his Father and Mother, and shall be joined unto his Wife, and
they two shall be one Flesh. This is a great Mystery; but I speak
concerning Christ and the Church._ Since St. _Paul_ calls Marriage a
Sacrament, I see no Reason why I should not regard it as such; nor do I
know why the Heretics will not allow it to be a Sacrament.

Thus, my Lord, have I given you my Sentiments on the principal Articles of
Religion: All that remains for me now is, to treat of Purgatory, the
Invocation and the Worship of the Saints, Prayers for the Dead, and the
Respect due to the visible Head of the Church. In giving your Lordship an
Account of my Opinion in these Articles, I shall take Care, my Lord, to be
as brief as possible, for fear you should think me tedious.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXVI. By _Purgatory_, I mean a Place where the Souls of the Faithful who
die in Grace are detain’d to suffer, till they are intirely purify’d from
what hinders their enjoying celestial Light, _into which any Thing that
defileth, can in no wise enter_, Rev. xxi. Ver. 27. The Church was always
of this Opinion, and St. _Justin Martyr_ own’d, that the Souls of
Believers were in extreme Necessity of being reliev’d by the Prayers of
the Living: That Purgatory was an Article of Faith was what Pope _Eugene_
declar’d, or rather he renew’d what had been all along believ’d by the
Church. The Protestants are as much in the Wrong to say, that Purgatory is
a new Invention of the Priests, as when they give the same Name to several
other Articles of Faith that were always believ’d, tho’ they have been
renew’d by several Councils, as often as the Church saw there was
Occasion: For Instance, in the Fourth Century, in the Time of that Heretic
_Arius_, the Council of _Nice_ declar’d, that the Son of God was of the
same Essence as the Father; yet this was a Truth which the Church had
always believ’d. St. _Augustin_, to whose Opinions even the Heretics pay a
Respect, assures me, that in his Time ’twas the Custom throughout the
whole Church, and what had been establish’d by Tradition, to pray for the
Dead, to the end that God might deal mercifully with them. These Prayers
could only be for the Souls of Believers that were in Purgatory; for the
Blessed, instead of having any Need of our Prayers, do themselves pray for
us: And as to the Reprobate, Prayers can be of no Service to them; they
are damn’d to all Eternity, and never can be releas’d out of their Pains:
From hence I infer, that the Church has ever admitted a Third Place, which
is Purgatory. Several ancient Councils assure me of this Truth, and
particularly the Council of _Carthage_, Chap. XXIX. and since that the
Holy Council of _Trent_. I also take that Passage in St. _John’s
Revelations_, Chap. v. Ver. 13. to be a favourable Explanation of my
Sentiments on the Subject of Purgatory; _And every Creature which is in
Heaven, and on the Earth, and under the Earth, and such as are in the
Sea, and all that are in them, heard I, saying, Blessing and Honour, and
Glory and Power be unto him that sitteth upon the Throne, and unto the
Lamb for ever and ever._ I cannot think these Words can be apply’d either
to Devils, or to the Reprobate; they must necessarily refer to the Souls
suffering in Purgatory; these the Apostle meant by Creatures that are
_under the Earth_, because ’tis certain, that the Devils and the Reprobate
do not praise God.

Now, admitting it for a certain Truth, that there is a Purgatory, I
believe, without making any Doubt of it, that we ought to pray for the
Dead, and for the Deliverance of suffering Souls, because they are a Part
of the Church, and a Part the more to be regarded, since, tho’ they
suffer, they are sure one Day of enjoying everlasting Felicity. Besides,
those Souls that are deliver’d by my Prayers, and by the Sacrifices
offer’d up for them, do afterwards become my Friends with God. But tho’
these Reasons were not sufficient, the Church prays for the Dead, and
that’s enough for me.

St. _Austin_ and several of the Fathers of the Church assure me, that the
Custom of Praying for the Dead came to them by Tradition from the very
Time of the Apostles: And the Holy Scripture informs us, that this Custom
was formerly establish’d in the Old Testament, which is clearly prov’d by
that Passage in the _Maccabees_, Chap. xii. Ver. 43. _And when he had made
a Gathering throughout the Company to the Sum of Two thousand Drachms of
Silver, he sent it to Jerusalem to offer a Sin-Offering, doing therein
very well and honestly, in that he was mindful of the Resurrection_: And
in the same Chapter, Ver. 45. _It is a holy and good Thought to pray for
the Dead, that they may be delivered from Sin._----Methinks these Passages
plainly prove, that the _Jews_, of whom the true Church consisted before
the Coming of our Lord, pray’d and sacrific’d for the Dead.

I believe therefore, that all manner of Persons may and ought to pray for
the Dead: But the Sacrifice of the Holy Mass can only be celebrated by the
Priests: and the Mass is profitable to him that says it, to the Person
that causes it to be said, and to the Soul for whom it is said.

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXVII. I firmly believe, that the _Invocation of the Saints_ is very
useful to us for our Salvation, and that ’tis not contrary to the Commands
of God, as the Heretics affirm. For the Worship of God is nothing more
than honouring God in his Saints, just as (if I may be permitted the
Comparison) I honour my King by honouring his Ministers. Would God, who
has commanded us to honour our Parents, Persons advanc’d in Years, our
Governors and Superiors, forbid us to honour the Saints and Angels, who
are his Ministers, and by Consequence our Superiors?

The Heretics, who so loudly condemn the _Invocation of the Saints_, and
treat it as Idolatry, do nevertheless pray every Day in their Temples and
particular Meetings, that it may please God to order their Guardian Angel
to guide and preserve them. Now, if they grant, that an Angel is their
Protector, can they, without Ingratitude, refuse Honour to their
Benefactor? I believe with the Church, that the Angels and Saints preserve
us, and deliver us every Day from several great Dangers both of Soul and
Body. Charity engages them to pray for us, and to offer up our Prayers
and Tears to the Lord: They watch continually over us, and guard us
without Intermission. For this Reason Jesus Christ recommends to his
Disciples, _Matt._ xviii. Ver. 10. _Take heed that ye despise not one of
these little ones; for I say unto you, that in Heaven their Angels do
always behold the Face of my Father which is in Heaven._

The Invocation of Saints was a Practice even in the Old Testament Time:
When _Jacob_ gave his Blessing to his Sons, _Gen._ xlviii. Ver. 16. he
said these Words, _The Angel, which redeemed me from all Evil, bless the
Lads; and let my Name be named on them, and the Name of my Fathers Abraham
and Isaac, and let them grow into a Multitude in the midst of the Earth._
What can be a better Proof of the Invocation of the Angels, and the Holy
Patriarchs? The Scripture gives us another Proof of it in 1 _Sam._ vii.
Ver. 8. where the Children of _Israel_ said to _Samuel_, _Cease not to cry
unto the Lord our God for us, that he will save us out of the Hand of the
Philistines._ From thence I infer, that by honouring the Saints who are
dead in the Lord, by calling upon them, by worshipping their sacred
Relics, we do in no wise rob God of any Part of his Glory; on the
contrary, I believe, we augment it. The Honour, which we pay to the
Saints, strengthens our Hope, renders it more lively, more vehement, and
creates a greater Desire in us to tread in their Steps.

Jesus Christ himself was persuaded, that in his State, as Man, the
Protection of the Angels was able to deliver him out of the Hand of the
_Jews_; and of this he gave Demonstration, when he commanded St. _Peter_
to put up his Sword again into his Place, because, said he, _Matt._ xxvi.
Ver. 53. _Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall
presently give me more than Twelve Legions of Angels?_ St. _Augustin_, in
the Eighth Book of _The City of God_, Chap. xvii. says, _Summa Religionis
est imitari quem colis_, i. e. _The Sum and Substance of Religion is, to
imitate the Being you worship._ From hence I infer, that we ought to
imitate the Saints, to honour and respect them; and by honouring them, we
call upon them, because by honouring them, we have an Opportunity to lay
our Necessities before them, to the end that they may obtain that
Assistance and Favour of God which is necessary for us.

I say, that we ought also to call more particularly upon the Holy Virgin
than the other Saints: Because she is the Mother of God, would it not be
impious to say, that she deserves not to be invok’d? Who is more proper
than a Mother to obtain Favour from a Son? Who can better reconcile us
with God than the Virgin? She flies to the Holy Altar of Reconciliation,
and does not only repair thither as a Supplicant, but as an Empress,
according to the very Words of St. _Peter Damien_, Serm. xliv. Nativ.
Virg. _Accedis ante illud aureum reconciliationis humanæ Altare, non solum
rogans, sed imperans, Domina, non Ancilla_, i. e. _Thou presentest thyself
before that Golden Altar of Mankind’s Reconciliation, not only petitioning
as a Servant, but commanding as a Sovereign._ What can excuse us from
honouring and reverencing the Being, by whom we receive our Deliverance,
our Preservation, and our Life? As St. _Augustin_ says, (_De Sancta
Virginitate_, Chap. VI.) _Per Evam Mors, per Mariam Salus_, _i. e._ By
_Eve_ came Death, by _Mary_ Salvation.

I have no Reason to doubt but the Saints hear us, because I believe the
Testimonies of the Holy Fathers: St. _Gregory_ of _Nazianzen_ was of this
Opinion, when he says in his Twentieth Epistle, _Illud persuasum Sanctorum
animum res nostras sentire_, i. e. I am persuaded, that the Saints are
sensible of our Affairs; and St. _Gregory_ of _Nissa_, in the Nineteenth
Prayer which he makes to St. _Theodore_, says; _Quanquam tu vitam hanc
transcendisti, humanas tamen molestias et necessitates non ignoras;
impetra nobis pacem_, i. e. Altho’ thou art got beyond this Life, yet thou
art not ignorant of the Troubles and Necessities of Mankind; intercede for
Peace for us. There are several other Holy Men, who have believ’d and
declar’d, that the Angels meet those that pray, in order to receive and
conduct them to the Throne of Glory, _Et suspicientes eos usque ad Thronum
Gloria sancti Dei perducunt._ Because the Saints hear our Prayers, I
infer, that we are obliged to pray for them: And indeed if the Saints did
not hear us, ’twould be to no more Purpose to invoke them, than it would
be for their hearing us, if we did not call upon them.

I honour therefore and call upon the Blessed, who enjoy celestial Glory,
and I will invoke them even to the last Breath of my Life, at which time I
shall have more need of their Assistance: I will invoke them as long as I
live: The Holy Scripture teaches me that God himself has given Praise to
some of the Saints. In fine, upon their Protection do I found my Hopes; if
it be true, that the Saints in Heaven rejoice when but one Sinner is
converted and repenteth, how can I doubt but the Saints, when they are
invok’d by Penitents, will relieve them, and obtain that Pardon for their
Sins, and that Grace which they stand in need of?

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXVIII. Since we ought to call upon the Saints, and since they hear our
Prayers, I believe, that I am oblig’d to honour their Images, their Tombs,
as well as their sacred Relics; and if I have a Respect for a Piece of
Painting that represents the Likeness of my King, or of any Sovereign, hew
much more Reason have I to venerate whatsoever represents to me the
Saints, who are far above the Princes of this World, because they are the
Friends of God, and our Protectors with him?

The Use of Images has been allow’d at all times: God himself order’d the
making of Figures and Images: For Example, the Cherubims of Propitiation
and the Brazen Serpent were made by his Command. And when the Heretics
say, that God forbids Images, they are in the Wrong: God indeed forbids us
to make Images to worship them, but this is what I am not guilty of; for
the Respect which I pay to Images is not for the Sake of what they are,
but for what they represent to me: ’Tis not to the Images that I address
my Prayer; and whenever I fall on my Knees before an Image, ’tis because I
am willing to honour and pray to the Saint, whom it represents to me.

Images put me in Mind of the History of the Old and New Testament: They
remind me of all the Favours God has bestow’d upon me; which engages me
the more fervently to love and serve him. Finally, the Images of the
Saints create a Desire in us to imitate the Sanctity of their Lives and

       *       *       *       *       *

XXXIX. As to _Merit_: ’Tis certain that Heaven cannot be won but by good
Works: Heaven is only promis’d to us, as a Reward: In order to be
convinc’d of this Truth, I need only have Regard to the Words which Jesus
Christ says to the Righteous, _Matt_. xxv. Ver. 34, 35. _Come, ye blessed
of my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the Foundation of
the World: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me Meat; I was thirsty, and
ye gave me Drink; I was a Stranger, and ye took me in._ Our Lord calls the
Righteous into his Holy Paradise, because they gave him to eat, when he
was hungry; and to drink, when he was thirsty: From these Words I infer,
that Heaven is not a mere Gift, it must be won by good Works: Does not
Jesus Christ say in another Place, _Mark_ ix. Ver. 42. _That if but a Cup
of Water be given to drink in his Name, the Giver shall not lose his
Reward_, but shall have a Torrent of Delights? Nothing can be more clear,
nothing more evident to prove, that we are capable of meriting with God,
than what St. _Paul_ says in his first Epistle to the _Corinthians_, Chap.
iii. Ver. 8. _And every Man shall receive his own Reward, according to his
own Labour_: This is my Reason for thinking, that he who has done most,
shall receive the greatest Reward. ’Tis therefore that Jesus Christ says,
_In my Father’s House are many Mansions_, John xiv. Ver. 2. I do therefore
believe, that I ought not to be idle nor slothful, and that, on the
contrary, I should strive without ceasing to acquire the Kingdom of Heaven
by my good Works. Jesus Christ says in St. _Matthew_, Chap. xi. Ver. 12.
_That the Kingdom of Heaven suffereth Violence, and the Violent take it
by Force._ He says also in another Place, _If thou wilt enter into Life,
keep my Commandments._ Now, in order to enable us to do these good Works,
I believe the Grace of God to be necessary for us; and this Grace of God
is obtain’d by the Fervency of our Prayers, and the Steadiness of our

       *       *       *       *       *

XL. I proceed to the _Authority of the Visible Head of the Church_: By
this Head I understand, as I have already said, the Pope, who is the
lawful Successor of St. _Peter_; and, as such, I believe, that he is
infallible, not only in the Government of the Church, but also in all
Matters of Faith: I rely solely upon what Jesus Christ said upon this
Subject, when he gave the Keys to St. _Peter_, _Thou art Peter, and upon
this Rock will I build my Church_, Matt. xvi. Ver. 18. By this Act Jesus
Christ establish’d St. _Peter_ for the Head and Prince of the Church: The
following Words of Jesus Christ are an intire Confirmation of this Truth,
_Matt._ xvi. Ver. 18. _And the Gates of Hell shall not prevail against
it_, that is to say, against the Church, and by Consequence against its
Head. ’Tis therefore true, that God granted an absolute Authority to St.
_Peter_ and his Successors, which Authority has a Resemblance with that
which God granted under the Old Law, to _Aaron_ and his Family.

In Consideration of this supreme Dignity I believe, that I cannot pay
Respect and Submission enough to the Pope; and I think what I advance is
prov’d in the first Place, because to honour the Vicar of Jesus Christ, is
paying Devotion to himself: Secondly, ’tis honouring St. _Peter_, to
honour his Successor; and lastly, I believe, that I am the more worthy to
be a Member of the Church, when I honour him who is the Head of it.

I therefore kiss his Feet, as I would those of Jesus Christ himself: I
fall prostrate before him, as I would before St. _Peter_; and am intirely
persuaded, that this Token of Adoration, so far from being liable to the
Charge of Idolatry, as the Heretics think, can, on the contrary, be only
deem’d a Thing agreeable to God, and what tends to his Glorification. We
are told in the Old Testament, that Jacob _bowed himself to the Ground to_
Esau _seven times_, Gen. xxxiii. Ver. 3, 7. His Children, with _Leah_ and
_Rachel_, also ador’d him: _Joseph_ was ador’d by his Brethren: _Abigail_
ador’d _David_, and _Bathsheba_ _Solomon_. None of these Acts of Adoration
were made to God, but to Men; why then shall we refuse to adore the Head
of _Christendom_? Tho’ St. _Peter_ refus’d to be ador’d by
_Cornelius_,’twas because he was very sensible, that _Cornelius_, being a
Gentile, would pay him Obeisance and Worship little inferior to that which
was due to God; but this is no Argument that St. _Peter_ did not receive
the Honours that were due to him, as being the Head of the Church: In
fine, when I cast myself at the Pope’s Feet, I have a Share in his
Benediction, I humbly desire it, and I adore in him the Power which he has
to bless me. I am also persuaded, that none but the Pope has a Right to
assemble a Council; and I believe, that every Assembly which is held by
the Name of a Council, without the Participation of the Pope, cannot be
deem’d an Œcumenical Council. A Body is incapable of acting without its
Head, for ’tis the Head by which the Body is always directed: Consequently
the Church cannot assemble, act, nor decide, without the Pope, who is its
Head, and who, by Consequence, has the sole Right of Decision; because he
is the Rock on which Jesus Christ has founded his Church, and because
without him there would be no Church. I therefore with Submission receive
all the Decisions of a Council where the Pope either presides in Person,
or by his Legates; and I look upon all Assemblies of Priests that are met,
or are held by the Command of any other Power than the Pope, as mere
Assemblies of the Clergy.

       *       *       *       *       *

Thus, my Lord, have I given you the sincere Declaration of my Faith, such
as it is imprinted on my Heart: I believe it Holy, and I believe it
Canonical; and hope, that when your Lordship sees it in Writing, you will
give it the same Approbation that you were pleased to honour it with when
I had the Favour of making it to you by Word of Mouth. If, contrary to my
Intention, I have deviated from the Track of Truth, I intreat you, my
Lord, to lend me your Hand, to vouchsafe to be my Guide, and to lead me to
that Piety which you profess, and by which all Mankind is edified: Make me
worthy of the Dignity of the Priesthood, of which I am ambitious. But this
is trespassing too far upon your Eminency’s Attention, and ’tis high time
to put an End to a Letter, which nothing can excuse the Length of, but the
Sacredness of the Subject whereof it treats. I shall think myself
exceeding happy, if I have explain’d myself with sufficient Perspicuity,
and if the Sentiments I lay before your Lordship can render me deserving
of the Honour of your Esteem. I am, with infinite Respect,

           _My_ LORD,
              _Your_ LORDSHIP’S
                 _Most Humble, and_
                    _Most Obedient Servant_,
                       Charles-Lewis, _Baron_ de Pollnitz.

                            END of VOL. IV.

                      [Illustration: Decoration.]

              AN Alphabetical INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME.


  AGRIPPA, 132.

  AICHSTED, _t._, 266.

  _St. Aignan_ (Duke of), 3.
    Order’d to quit _Spain_, 7, 8.
    His Converse with the Cardinal _Borgia_, 214.

  AIX, in _Provence_, _t._, 100.

  _Alberoni_ (Cardinal), 2, 7, 8, 19, 20, 94, 211, 213, _&c._
    Impos’d on by Fortune-hunters, 21.
    His Disgrace, Resentment, and Consequences of his Disgrace, 112 to

  _Albert-Cajetan Charles_, Electoral Prince of _Bavaria_, 35.
    His Marriage with the Archduchess, 270.

  ALCALA, _t._, 204.

  _Alexander_ VII. (Pope), 126.

  _Alliance_ (Quadruple), 3.

  ALTEN-OTTINGEN, _t._, 91.

  _Amedeus_ VIII. (Duke of _Savoy_), 174.

  _Amphitheatre_ (of _Vespasian_), 132.

  _D’Ancenis_, (Marquis), 6.

  ANCONA, _t._, 150.

  ANDERNACH, _t._, 259.

  _Anhalt-Dessau_ (Prince of), 261.

  _Anne_ (Queen) her Statue, 241.

  ANTIBES, _t._, 106.

  _Aranjuez_ (Palace), 224, 231.

  _Asfeld_ (Abbe de), 24.

  _Asturias_ (Prince of), 210.

  _Audiences_, an Abuse in that Article at _Vienna_, 55.

  AUGSBOURG, _t._, 27 to 29, 265.
    Its Bishop, the Manner of his Election, and his Sovereignty, 29.

  _Augustus_ II. King of _Poland_, 84, 85.
    His Queen, 85.

  _Augustus_ III. See _Poland_, 2nd Electoral Prince of _Saxony_.

  AVIGNON, _t._, 100.

  _Aurelius Marcus_ (Emperor), 133.

  AUXERRE, _t._, 96.


  _Bank_ Bills of _France_, 23, 180 to 185.

  BARBI, _t._, 262, 284.

  _Bareith_, Margrave and Margravine, 295.

  _Bavaria_, (Elector of) his Palace and Court, 31, 32, _&c._
    Electoral Prince of _Bavaria_’s Marriage to the Archduchess, 270.

  BAYONNE, _t._, 188.

  _Belgrade_, Prince _Eugene_’s Victory near it, 1.
    The Siege of it, 40.

  _Bernini_, a famous Designer, 126.

  _Berwick_ (Marshal) His Ingratitude to the King of Spain, 19.
    He takes _Fontarabia_, 22.

  BEZIERS, _t._, 186.

  BILBAO, _t._, 235, 236, _&c._

  _Bing_, (Admiral) his Expedition to the _Mediterranean_, 2, 3.

  _Biscay_, (Province) its Privileges, 237.

  BLANKENBERG, _t._, 282.

  _Bohemia_, (St. _Wenceslaus_ King of), 288.

  _Bois_, (Abbat de) Ambassador, 3, 113, 114.

  BOIS-LE-DUC, _t._, 257.

  BOLOGNA, _t._, 151.

  _Borgia_, (Cardinal) his Ignorance, 214.

  _Brittany_, Consequences of the Discontent of that Province, 94, _&c._

  BRUNETTE, LA, _t._, 173.

  _Bucentaures_, _Saxon_ and _Venetian_, 74, 75, 155.

  BURGOS, _t._, 233.

  _Burgundy_, States and Parliament, 97.

  ---- Wine, where the best, 97.


  _Campo Florido_, (M. de), 212, 224.

  _Carignan_, (Prince and Princess of), 167, 168.

  _Carlos_, Don, 210.

  CARELSBADT, _t._, 284, 295.

  CASAL, _t._, 164.

  _Castelar_, (M. de), 212, 224.

  CASTELNAUDARI, _t._, 186.

  _Castillone_, (Prince of) Viceroy of _Navarre_, 202, 203.

  _Catalonia_, 237.

  _Celi_, (M. de), 26.

  _Cellamare_, (Prince of) his Conspiracy, 3, _&c._
    Put under an Arrest, 5.

  _Cenis_, M., 173.

  _Chalisac_, (Baron de), 263.

  CHALONS, _t._, 97.

  _Chamber_, Imperial, 26.

  CHAMBERY, _t._, 173.

  _Charles_ I. King, beheaded, 239.
    His Statue, 246,
    and Picture, 253.

  _Charles_ II. Effigy, 243, 247.

  _Charles_ V. (Emperor) why he resign’d his Dominions, 25, 220.

  _Charles_ VI. (Emperor), 57, 58.
    His Empress, 58, 59.
    Their Entry at _Prague_, 286.

  _Charles_ XII. King of _Sweden_, 105.

  _Charles Emanuel_, King of _Sardinia_, 167.

  _Charolois_, (Count de), 39, 89, 91.

  _Charost_, (Duke of), 6.

  _Chateauneuf_, (M. de), 95.

  _Christina_, Queen of _Sweden_, 128.

  CIEUTA, _t._, 104.

  _Clement_, Duke of _Bavaria_, 35, 270.

  _Clement_ VI. Pope, 100.

  _Collobradt_ (Count of), 290.

  _Colloredo_, Count and Countess, 156, 293.

  _Conti_ (Prince of), 19.

  _Conti_ (Princess of), 7.

  _Cosel_ (Countess of), 87.

  _Cosmo_ I. Great Duke of _Tuscany_, 117.

  ---- III., 119.
    His Family, 120.
    _De Medicis_, 119.

  _Crowns_, Royal, 248.

  _Culmbach_ (Prince of), 296.


  _Dadoncourt_, M. 188, _&c._ to, 201.

  _Dammartin_ (Count de), 91.

  _Daubanton_ the Jesuit Confessor to the King of _Spain_,
   his Credit and Character, 213, 218, 223.

  DESSAU, _t._, 261.

  _Devos_, Tapistry-Maker, 47.

  _Diamond_ of the Great Duke of _Tuscany_, 121.

  DIJON, _t._, 97.

  _Doge_ of _Genoa_, 110, 111.

  _Dombes_ (Prince of) his Banishment, 7.

  _Doria, Andrew_, 109.

  DRESDEN, _t._ Electoral Prince and Princess of _Saxony’s_ Entrance
      there, 74, 75, _&c._
    Description of the City, 86, _&c._

  _Duke, French_, a great Dealer in Grocery, 182.

  _Durand, Don Miguel_, Secretary, 113.

  _Duremberg_ (Baron de) Envoy, 272.


  _Elizabeth-Christina_, Empress of _Germany_, 58, 59.

  St. _Elmo_ Castle, 141.

  _Emperor_, see _Charles_ VI.

  _Empress_, see _Elizabeth_ the Dowager, 59.

  _English_, their Character, 249, _&c._
    What happen’d to an _Englishman_ at _Maestricht_, 257, _&c._

  _Escurial_ Palace, 230.

  _D’Eu_ (Count) his Banishment, 7.

  _Eugene_ (Prince) his Victory near _Belgrade_, 1.
    His Palace, 47.


  FANO, _t._, 150.

  _Farnese, Francis_, Duke of _Parma_, 161, _&c._

  _La Favorita_ Palace, 46.

  _Ferdinand_ II. Emperor, 291.

  _Ferdinand_ Duke of _Bavaria_, 35.

  FLORENCE, _t._ 117 to 122.

  _Fontarabia_ besieg’d, 19.
    Taken, 22, 94.

  _Force_, Duke de la, 182.

  _Francis_ I. King of _France_, 164.

  _Franconia_ (Duke of), 272, _&c._

  _Frederic_ Elector Palatine, his Disgrace, 36, 291, 292.
    His Son’s Disgrace, 275.

  FREJUS, _t._, 106.


  _Galas_, Festival Days at _Vienna_, 55, 56, 57.

  _Galen_ (Baron de), 81.

  _Gallas_ (Count de), 142, 291.

  GENEVA, _t._, 174.
    Its Ministers and Magistrates, 175, 176.
    The Character of its Merchants, 177.

  _Genoa_, 108, 109.
    Its Doge, 110, 111.

  _Giudice_ (Cardinal), 135, 136.

  GRASSE, _t._, 106.

  _Gregory_ XI. (Pope), 100.

  ---- XIII. (Pope) his Statue, 151.

  _Grimaldo_ (Marquis de), 7, 211, 212, 217, 218, 223.

  _Gualtieri_ (Cardinal), 135, 136.

  _Guards_, the late King _George_’s, 240.

  _Guise_ (Duke of), 25.

  _Guldenstein_ (Count de), 281.

  _Gustavus Adolphus_ King of _Sweden_, 28.
    Greater than the Great _Alexander_, 34.


  _Hackney_ Coaches, 242.

  _Hagen_, M. Envoy of _Saxe-Gotha_, 272.

  HAGUE, _t._, 253, _&c._

  HAMBOURG, _t._, 280.

  HEIDELBERG, _t._, 11, _&c._ 15.
    Its fine Library carried to _Rome_, and other great Ravages committed
        there, 15, 17.
    Its famous Tun, 18.

  _Henry_ II. King of _France_, 25.

  ---- IV. King of _France_, 187.

  _Hermitage_, 298.

  _Himmelscron_ Castle, 296.

  HOFF, _t._, 265.

  _Holtzendorff_ M., 219.

  _Holy_ Week, how solemniz’d at _Rome_, 138, _&c._
    At _Madrid_, 224.

  _Horn_ (Count de) his Catastrophe, 182.

  _Horses_, Statues of, finely cast, 247.

  _Hussites_, 291.


  _St. James_’s Park and Palace, 239.
    Square, 252.

  _Januarius_ St., 141.

  _Ibrahim_ Basha, the _Turkish_ Ambassador’s Entry at _Vienna_, 62 to

  _St. Ildephonso_ Palace, 231.

  INGOLDSTAT, _t._, 267.

  _Inquisition_ of _Spain_, 229.

  _Interim_, a Formulary so call’d, 27.

  _St. John_ de Nepomucene, 289, 290.

  _Joseph_ (afterwards Emperor) chose King of the _Romans_, 28.
    His Marriage, 59.


  _Kensington_ Palace, 253.

  KIEL, _t._, 281.

  _Kinski_’s Palace, 289.

  _Kirchner_ (Baron de), 267, 272.

  _Konigsfelt_ (Count de), 271.

  _Koningsmark_ (General), 292, 293.


  _La Borde_, her Story and Character, 193, _&c._

  _Lagnasco_ (Count de), 66.

  _Lake_ of _Geneva_, 174.

  _Lamberg_ (Cardinal of), 267.

  LANEBOURG, _t._, 173.

  _Languedocians_, 187.

  _Lateran_ Church, 131.

  _Law_, John, the Projector, 180, _&c._

  _Lede_ (Marquis de), 2.

  _Le G----_, 205, 206.

  _Leopold_ (Emperor) crown’d, 28.

  _Lewis_ Dauphin of _France_, 15.

  _Lewis_ IV. King of _France_, his Tomb, 29.

  _Lignares_ (Duchess de), 190.

  LONDON, _t._, 238, _&c._

  LORETTO, _t._, 147.
    The miraculous or holy House there, 148, 149.

  _Lorge_ (Marshal de) lampoon’d for his fruitless Attack upon
      _Heidelberg_, 16.

  _Lorrain_ (Duke of), 120.

  _Luther_, Martin, 27, 274.

  _Lutzelbourg_ (Count de), 81.

  _Lyons_, _t._, 97.


  MADRID, _t._, 205.
    Palaces and Court, 220, 221, _&c._

  _Maffei_ (Count de) Viceroy of _Sicily_, 2.

  _Maine_, Duke and Duchess arrested, 5, 6.
    Madamoiselle _De_, 7.

  _Manheim_, why the Elector Palatine remov’d thither from _Heidelberg_,
      16, 17.

  _Marcus-Aurelius_, Emperor, 133.

  _Maria-Josepha_ Electoral Princess of _Saxony_, 60.
    Her Marriage, 66.
    Entry at _Dresden_, 74, _&c._

  _Maria-Amelia_ Electoral Princess of _Bavaria_, 60.

  _Marlborough_ House, 246.

  _Marriage_ of the Sea by the Doge of _Venice_, 155.

  MARSEILLES, _t._, 102.
    Plague there, 184.

  _Mary-Ann_ Queen Dowager of _Spain_, 190.

  MASTRICHT, _t._, 257.

  _Matignon_ (M. de), 108.

  _Maximilian-Emanuel Mary_ Elector of _Bavaria_, 34.
    His Family, Court and Palaces, 29 to 44.

  _St._ MENEHOULT, _t._, 24.

  METZ, _t._, 35.

  MILAN, _t._, 162.
    Duchy, 163, _&c._

  _Ministers_, Lutheran, see _Dresden_.
    ---- of _Geneva_, see _Geneva_.

  MODENA, _t._, 159.
    Princes, 157, 159, 160, 179.

  _Molard_ (Count de), 70.

  MONACO, _t._, 108.

  _Monk_ (General), 343.

  _Montague_ House, 245.

  _Monthel_ (Baron de), 199, 207.

  MONTEFIASCONE, _t._, 123, _&c._

  _Montesquiou_ (Marshal de), 95.

  _Montmorency_ (Constable of), 25, 186.

  MONTPELIER, _t._, 185.

  _Monument_ described, 246.

  MORET, _t._, 96.

  MUNICH, _t._, 29.


  NAPLES, _t._, 141.

  _Nat_ (Count de), 280.

  _Neapolitan_ Lady’s odd Compliment to the King of _Spain_, 143.

  NICE, _t._, 106.

  NISMES, _t._, 185.

  _Nobles Venetian_, their Scrupulousness, 155.

  NUREMBERG, _t._, 265.

  _Nymphenbourg_ Palace, 38, 41.


  _Opera’s_ at _London_, 244.

  _Orleans_ (Duke of) his Regency 22, _&c._
    His Answer to those that solicited him in Favour of the Count _De
        Horn_, 184.

  _Oropesa_ (Count de), 66, 67.

  _Ottowalski_, Captain, 292, 293.


  PADUA, _t._, 158.

  _Palatinate_ Upper, why given to the _Bavarian Family_, 36.

  _Palatine, Charles-Philip_ of _Neubourg_ Elector 11, 12, 13.

  PAMPELUNA, _t._, 202.

  _Pamphili_ Prince, 135.

  _Pantheon_ Church at _Rome_, 132.

  _Parliament_ of _Great-Britain_, Ceremony of the King’s coming to it,

  PARMA, _t._, 161.
    The Dukes, 112, 161, 162.
    The Dukes Court, 161.

  PASSAU, _t._, 44.
    Treaty concluded there, _ibid._

  PAU, _t._, 187.

  _St. Paul’s_ Church 241.

  _Peralte_ a Physician, fated to die by the Inquisition, 229.

  PESARO, _t._, 150.

  _Philip_ V., 210, 220.
    See _Spain_.

  _Pierre_ Encise Castle, 97.

  _Pilate_, whither banish’d, 99.

  PIRNA, _t._ 74.

  PISA, _t._, 116, 117.

  PLACENTIA, _t._, 162.

  _Plague_ at _Marseilles_, 184.

  _Plays_ at _London_, 245.

  _Plettenberg_ M. Envoy, 271, 272.

  _Poland_, King, Queen and Prince, 84, 85.
    Queen of, Wife of _Augustus_ II., 85.
    The Wife of _Augustus_ III. her Reception in _Saxony_, and Entry at
        _Dresden_, 66 to 73.
    _Polish_ Magnificence, 74, _&c._

  _Polignac_ (Cardinal de) his Banishment, 7.

  _Pollnitz_ (Madamoiselle de), 241, 261, 272.
    Her Death, 279.

  _Pollnitz_ (_Charles-Lewis_ Baron de) our Author, his precipitate
      Departure from _Paris_, and Arrest at _Toul_, 8, 9.
    His Enlargement, 11.
    His good Reception at the Palatine Court, 13, 14.
    His Folly there, 14.
    His Return to _Paris_, 18.
    Being weary of soliciting in vain, he leaves _France_, 24.
    He obtains a Company at _Vienna_ and a Supply to remount his
        Equipage, 60.
    Gets a Furlough, 7.
    His Fistula plagues him again, 89.
    His Journey to _Paris_ for a Cure, 92, 93.
    He gains great Sums by the Stocks, and loses them, 93, 94.
    His Departure to go and join his Regiment in _Sicily_, 96.
    His Danger of being cast away at Sea, 107.
    His Reception by the Great Duke of _Tuscany_, 119.
    What sad Lodgings he had at _Montefiascone_, 122.
    The Danger he was in at that Place, 124.
    His Reception at _Rome_, 129, _&c._
    His Visits, 134 to 136, _&c._
    His Audience of the Pope, 137.
    His Resignation of his Commission, 146, 147.
    What happen’d to him at _Ferrara_, 152.
    His Reception by the Duke of _Modena_, 159,
      and the Duke of _Parma_, 161.
    How he was trick’d by a Merchant at _Geneva_, 177.
    Returns to _Paris_, 179.
    Ill-us’d by one _Dadoncourt_ an Officer at _Bayonne_, 188, _&c._
    His Reception by the Queen Dowager of _Spain_, 190.
    His imprudent Language, and Arrest thereupon, 193, _&c._
    His Release, 200, 202.
    The Adventure he met with when became to _Madrid_, 205.
    His Reception by the Court of _Spain_, 207.
    His Solicitations there for some Post, 208.
    His Commission to be a Lieutenant-Colonel, but receives no Pay, 215,
    His melancholy Situation, and Relief by Mr. _Stanhope_, 219, 232.
    His Departure from _Madrid_, and the Danger he ran, 232.
    His ill Reception at the Court of _England_, 241.
    His Voyage to _Holland_, 253.
    His Arrest for Debt at the _Hague_, and his Deliverance by a
        Tradeswoman, 255.
    His Danger of being a second time arrested, and his Escape, 256.
    His Sickness in the Road to _Germany_, as he went thither to settle
        his Affairs, 259, 260.
    His ill Reception at _Dessau_ by the Prince Of _Anhalt_, 262.
    How he settled his Affairs with his Brother, and had Thoughts of
        turning a Clergyman, 263, _&c._
    His fruitless Application to the Cardinal of _Saxe-Zeits_ at
        _Ratisbon_, 269, 270.
    His good Reception there by the Ministers, 271, 272.
    Makes new Settlements with his Brother, 280.
    His Treatment by the Duke of _Blankenberg_, 283.
    His Journey to _Holland_ to satisfy his Creditors, 294, 300.
    His Confession of Faith, see Appendix.

  PONT ST. ESPRIT, _t._, 99.

  _Portocarrero_, Abbat, arrested, 4.
    Releas’d, 5.

  _Poussin_, M. Minister, 280.

  POZZUOLI, _t._, 145.

  PRAGUE, _t._, 286, 288, _&c._

  _Prize-fighters_, 252.

  _Processions_ in _Spain_ scandalous, 225, 226.

  _Provence_, Country, 103.

  PUTEOLI, _t._, 145.

  _Pyll_, Mrs., our Author’s Obligation to her, 255, 294.

  _Pyrenees_ Mountains, 188, 202.


  _Quadruple_ Alliance, 3.

  _Quinquempoix_ Street, 93.


  _Rabutin_ (Madame de), 56.

  _Radzivil_ (Duchess of), 261.

  RATISBON, _t._, 267, 268, 269.

  _Regatte_, a naval Race so called, 157.

  REGIO, _t._, 161.

  _Rhebinder_ (General de), 170.

  _Richmond_ (Duchess of) her Statue, 243.

  RIMINI, _t._, 150.

  _La Roche_ (M. de), 207.

  ROME, _t._, 124, _&c._
    Assemblies there, 133, 134.

  _Royal_ Exchange, 246.

  _Rupert_ (Count Palatine and Duke of _Bavaria_), 15.


  _Saillant_ (M. de), 25.

  ST. MENEHOULT. _t._, 24.

  _Saltzbourg_, a ridiculous Entertainment given there by the Archbishop,
      89, 90.

  SAVONA, _t._, 108.

  _Savoy_, (Family of) see _Turin_.

  _Saxe-Zeits_ (Cardinal), 264.
    Duke, 265.

  ---- _Gotha_ (Prince of), 105.

  _Saxony_, Ceremonies of the Electoral Prince’s Marriage with the
      Archduchess, 66 to 73.
    Their Entry at _Dresden_, 74, _&c._
    The Electoral Family, 84, 85, _&c._

  _Schleisheim_ Palace, 43.

  _Schrotenbach_ Cardinal, Viceroy of _Naples_, 142.

  _Schulembourg_ (M. de), 170.

  _Scotti_ M. the Minister of _Parma_, 220.

  ST. SEBASTIAN, _t._ taken, 24, 94.

  _Seissan_, M. de, an odd Accident he met with, 113.

  SENLIS, _t._

  _Sicily_, _Spanish_ Expedition to that Island, 1, 2.

  SIENNA, _t._, 124.

  _Sixtus_ V. Pope, 125, 126.

  _Sobieski, Theresa-Cunegunda_, Electress of _Bavaria_, 34.

  ---- _John_, King of _Poland_, 45.

  _Soho_ Quarter, 240.

  _Spain_ (Queen of) Dowager of _Charles_ II., 190.
    Court of, 190, 191, _&c._ 210, _&c._
    Character of the present Queen, 210.

  _Spanish_ Entertainments, 228.

  ---- Inquisition, 229.

  SPIRES, _t._, 26.

  _Stair-case_, holy, 131, 132.

  _Stairs_, Earl, 2.

  _Stanhope_, Earl, 2, 113, 114.

  _Stanhope_, Mr. his Friendship to the Author, 219, 220, 232.

  _Staremberg_ (Count de), 45.

  _St. Stephen_ (Knights of), 117.

  _Suicide_, Counterfeit, 172.

  _Sultzbach_ (Hereditary Prince of), 12.

  SUSA, _t._, 172.


  _Tapistry_ Hangings made by the famous _Devos_, 47.

  _Texeitra_ a rich _Portuguese_, 256.

  _Thames_ River, 238.

  _Thursday_ (holy) Ceremonies on that Day at _Rome_, 138, _&c._

  _Tilly_ General, 15.

  TOUL, _t._, 9, _&c._

  TOULON, _t._, 105.

  TOULOUSE, _t._, 186.

  _Tower_ of _London_, 247, 248.

  TREVOUX, _t._, 97.

  _Tschermin’s_ great House, 289.

  _Tun_ of _Heidelberg_, 18.

  _Turin_, _t._, 164, _&c._
    Duke of _Savoy_’s Court and Family, 165 to 172.
    An Adventure which happen’d there, 171.

  _Turkish_ Ambassador’s Entry at _Vienna_, 62 to 66.

  _Turks_ defeated by the Imperial Arms, 1, 3.

  _Tuscany_, (_Cosmo_ III. Great Duke of) how he received the Author,
    His Family, 120.
    The Roads in this Country, 124.


  _V----_, (the Baron de) Nephew of M. _de Seissan_, his Character, 232.
    His Fray with his Landlady, 235.

  _Valentinois_ (Duke of), 108.

  _Valois_ (Madamoiselle de), 179.
    See _Modena_.

  _Var_ R., 106.

  _Vatican_ Palace at _Rome_, 129.
    Pope’s Entry to it, 137.

  VENICE, _t._, 153.

  VERDUN, _t._, 24.

  _Vespasian’s_ Amphitheatre, 133.

  _Vesuvius_ M., 144.

  _Victor Amedeus_, King of _Sardinia_, 167.

  VIENNA, _t._, 44.
    Court, 50, 51.
    _Turks_ Attempts upon it, 45.

  VIENNE, in _Dauphiny_, _t._, 99.

  VILLA-FRANCA, _t._, 107.

  _Villeroy_, Family, 98.

  VITTORIA, _t._, 234.

  ULM, _t._, 26.

  _Urban_ VIII. Pope, 127, 133, 150.

  _Urbino_, Duchy, 150

  _Vriesberg_ (M. de) Envoy of _Hanover_, 272.

  _Ursins_ (Princess of), 210.


  _Wackerbarth_, Count, 66.

  _Wales_ (Prince and Princess of) their Attendants, 244.

  _Wenceslaus_ St. King of _Bohemia_, 288, 289.

  WESTMINSTER, _t._, 243, _&c._

  _Whitehall_ Palace, 230.

  _Wilhelmina-Amelia_ Empress Dowager, 59.

  WURTZBOURG, _t._, 272, _&c._


  _Ximenes_, Cardinal, 204.


  ZEITS, _t._, 256. See _Saxe-Zeits_.

  _Zinzendorf_ (Count de), 69.


                     [Illustration: Decoration.]

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7. The Riches of a HOP-GARDEN Explain’d, from the several Improvements
arising by that beneficial _Plant_, as well to Private Cultivators of it
as to the Publick; with the Observations and Remarks of the most
celebrated Hop-Planters in _Britain_: Wherein such Rules are laid down for
the Management of the _Hop_, as may improve the most barren Ground, from
One Shilling to Thirty or Forty Pounds an Acre _per Annum_. In which is
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the Ground, the Planting, &c. to the Kilning or Drying of the _Hop_.
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       *       *       *       *       *


[1] _Dec. 2, 1718._

[2] See Vol. I. p. 321, &c.

[3] See Vol. I. p. 276.

[4] See Vol. I. p. 273.

[5] See Vol. I. p. 258.

[6] See Vol. I. p. 212 to 215.

[7] See Vol. I. p. 268.

[8] See Vol. II. p. 364.

[9] See Vol. I. p. 364.

[10] See Vol. I. p. 224 to 257.

[11] See Vol. I. p. 87, &c.

[12] See Vol. II. p. 181.

[13] See Vol. II. p. 180.

[14] See Vol. II. p. 173, &c.

[15] See Vol. II. p. 143.

[16] See Vol. II. p. 141.

[17] See Vol. I. p. 425. Vol. II. p. 130.

[18] This Prince died in _June_ 1737, and is succeeded by the Duke of

[19] She is now Regent for the Duke of _Lorrain_, who is at the Head of
the Imperial Army against the _Turks_.

[20] See Vol. II. p. 1, &c.

[21] See Vol. I. p. 423.

[22] See Vol. I. p. 423.

[23] See Vol. I. p. 395, &c.

[24] See Vol. I. p. 422.

[25] See Vol. I. p. 152, 167.

[26] See Vol. II. p. 171.

[27] The Duke _de la Force_.

[28] Eccles. ii. 23.

[29] See Vol. II. p. 450, &c.

[30] Our Author made too short a Stay at this time in _England_, and was
too much circumscrib’d in his Conversation while he was here; or surely he
would not have ventur’d to have charg’d our Country in general with the
idle Surmises of the ignorant Vulgar.

[31] Since the Author wrote, this Antipathy seems to be much abated.

[32] When our Author was here, short Cloaks were hardly in the Fashion.

[33] See Vol. I. p. 196.

[34] See Vol. I. p. 185.

[35] See Vol. I. p. 82.

[36] See Vol. I. p. 210.

[37] See Vol. I. p. 204.

                        TRANSCRIBER’S AMENDMENTS

Transcriber’s Note: Blank pages have been deleted. On pages that remain,
some unnecessary page numbers may have been deleted when they fall in the
middle of lists. Some illustrations may have been moved. Footnotes have
been moved to above this paragraph. When the author’s preference can be
determined, we have rendered consistent on a per-word-pair basis the
hyphenation or spacing of such pairs when repeated in the same grammatical
context. The publisher’s inadvertent omissions of important punctuation
have been corrected. A table of contents has been added. Duplicative front
matter has been removed.

The following list indicates any additional changes. The page number
represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext
except for footnotes and illustrations since they may have been moved.

  Page          Change
    3 Minister of _Spoin_[_Spain_],
    7 the Kiug[King] and Queen,
   11 {footnote} See Vol. I. [p.] 268.
   30 the Palace of the _Tuilleries_[_Tuileries_],
  113 His Catholick[Catholic] Majesty thereby order’d
  114 Thunder-struck when he ready[read] this Letter,
  128 there’s her Picture in a Medaillon[Medallion],
  132 Galleries and an Amphitheatre, which, acccording[according]
  134 a Marble Ballustrade[Balustrade], adorn’d with Statues of the
  224 I saw the Court more than once at _Aranjues[Aranguez]_,
  272 the Baron _de Durremberg_[_Duremburg_];
  284 but scalding hot, which is the more surprizeing[surprizing],
  288 _St. Winceslaus_[_Wenceslaus_] King of _Bohemia_
  346 the Comeing[Coming] of our Lord,

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Memoirs of Charles-Lewis, Baron de Pollnitz, Volume IV - Being the Observations He Made in His Late Travels from - Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, - England, &C. in Letters to His Friend. Discovering Not - Only the Present State of the Chief Cities and Towns; but - the Characters of the Principal Persons at the Several - Courts." ***

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