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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 2 of 4: E-M)
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 2 of 4: E-M)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *

In this version [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; [.e] "e with dot
above"; and so forth.




LONDON: 47 Paternoster Row
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street


THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORDS.--Every word is given in its _alphabetical_
order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after
and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has
its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are
also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its
meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the
signification of the affix: thus the meanings of _Darkness_ are obtained by
prefixing the meaning of _ness_, _state of being_, to those of _Dark_.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not
yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at
the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

THE PRONUNCIATION.--The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word,
by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used
has its ordinary unvarying sound, _no consonant being employed that has
more than one sound_. The same sounds are always represented by the same
letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No
consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of _th_,
which is printed in common letters when sounded as in _thick_, but in
italics when sounded as in _th_en. _Unmarked vowels_ have always their
short sounds, as in _lad_, _led_, _lid_, _lot_, _but_, _book_. The _marked
vowels_ are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of
each page:--

f[=a]te, fär; m[=e], h[.e]r; m[=i]ne; m[=o]te; m[=u]te; m[=oo]n; _th_en.

The vowel _u_ when marked thus, _ü_, has the sound heard in Scotch _bluid_,
_gude_, the French _du_, almost that of the German _ü_ in _Müller_. Where
more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first
is more accepted.

THE SPELLING.--When more than one form of a word is given, that which is
placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our
modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but
rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally
speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German.
The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the
representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern
English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional
forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the
present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise
of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an
enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling
reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise
moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without
unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the
superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of
progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A.
H. Murray:--the dropping of the final or inflexional silent _e_; the
restoration of the historical _-t_ after breath consonants; uniformity in
the employment of double consonants, as in _traveler_, &c.; the discarding
of _ue_ in words like _demagogue_ and _catalogue_; the uniform levelling of
the agent _-our_ into _-or_; the making of _ea = [)e]_ short into _e_ and
the long _ie_ into _ee_; the restoration of _some_, _come_, _tongue_, to
their old English forms, _sum_, _cum_, _tung_; a more extended use of _z_
in the body of words, as _chozen_, _praize_, _raize_; and the correction of
the worst individual monstrosities, as _foreign_, _scent_, _scythe_,
_ache_, _debt_, _people_, _parliament_, _court_, _would_, _sceptic_,
_phthisis_, _queue_, _schedule_, _twopence-halfpenny_, _yeoman_, _sieve_,
_gauge_, _barque_, _buoy_, _yacht_, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be
established in good usage, by the adoption of _-or_ for _-our_, as _color_,
_labor_, &c.; of _-er_ for _-re_, as _center_, _meter_, &c.; _-ize_ for
_-ise_, as _civilize_, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an
unaccented vowel, as _traveler_ for _traveller_; the adoption of _e_ for
_oe_ or _æ_ in _hemorrhage_, _diarrhea_, &c.

THE MEANINGS.--The current and most important meaning of a word is usually
given first. But in cases like _Clerk_, _Livery_, _Marshal_, where the
force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the
original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage

THE ETYMOLOGY.--The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings,
within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given
elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the
etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, BAN, BASE, the student is
referred to it; also that here the sign--is always to be read as meaning
'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or
correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are
inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the
rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its
Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose
that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon
are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed
from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given,
though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is
referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.

       *       *       *       *       *


  _aor._                    aorist.
  _abbrev._                 abbreviation.
  _abl._                    ablative.
  _acc._                    according.
  _accus._                  accusative.
  _adj._                    adjective.
  _adv._                    adverb.
  _agri._                   agriculture.
  _alg._                    algebra.
  _anat._                   anatomy.
  _app._                    apparently.
  _arch._                   archaic.
  _archit._                 architecture.
  _arith._                  arithmetic.
  _astrol._                 astrology.
  _astron._                 astronomy.
  _attrib._                 attributive.
  _augm._                   augmentative.
  _B._                      Bible.
  _biol._                   biology.
  _book-k._                 book-keeping.
  _bot._                    botany.
  _c._ (_circa_)            about.
  _c._, _cent._             century.
  _carp._                   carpentry.
  _cf._                     compare.
  _chem._                   chemistry.
  _cog._                    cognate.
  _coll._, _colloq._        colloquially.
  _comp._                   comparative.
  _conch._                  conchology.
  _conj._                   conjunction.
  _conn._                   connected.
  _contr._                  contracted.
  _cook._                   cookery.
  _corr._                   corruption.
  _crystal._                crystallography.
  _dat._                    dative.
  _demons._                 demonstrative.
  _der._                    derivation.
  _dial._                   dialect, dialectal.
  _Dict._                   Dictionary.
  _dim._                    diminutive.
  _dub._                    doubtful.
  _eccles._                 ecclesiastical history.
  _e.g._                    for example.
  _elect._                  electricity.
  _entom._                  entomology.
  _esp._                    especially.
  _ety._                    etymology.
  _fem._                    feminine.
  _fig._                    figuratively.
  _fol._                    followed; following.
  _fort._                   fortification.
  _freq._                   frequentative.
  _fut._                    future.
  _gen._                    genitive.
  _gener._                  generally.
  _geog._                   geography.
  _geol._                   geology.
  _geom._                   geometry.
  _ger._                    gerundive.
  _gram._                   grammar.
  _gun._                    gunnery.
  _her._                    heraldry.
  _hist._                   history.
  _hort._                   horticulture.
  _hum._                    humorous.
  _i.e._                    that is.
  _imit._                   imitative.
  _imper._                  imperative.
  _impers._                 impersonal.
  _indic._                  indicative.
  _infin._                  infinitive.
  _inten._                  intensive.
  _interj._                 interjection.
  _interrog._               interrogative.
  _jew._                    jewellery.
  _lit._                    literally.
  _mach._                   machinery.
  _masc._                   masculine.
  _math._                   mathematics.
  _mech._                   mechanics.
  _med._                    medicine.
  _metaph._                 metaphysics.
  _mil._                    military.
  _Milt._                   Milton.
  _min._                    mineralogy.
  _mod._                    modern.
  _Mt._                     Mount.
  _mus._                    music.
  _myth._                   mythology.
  _n._, _ns._               noun, nouns.
  _nat. hist._              natural history.
  _naut._                   nautical.
  _neg._                    negative.
  _neut._                   neuter.
  _n.pl._                   noun plural.
  _n.sing._                 noun singular.
  _N.T._                    New Testament.
  _obs._                    obsolete.
  _opp._                    opposed.
  _opt._                    optics.
  _orig._                   originally.
  _ornith._                 ornithology.
  _O.S._                    old style.
  _O.T._                    Old Testament.
  _p._, _part._             participle.
  _p.adj._                  participial adjective.
  _paint._                  painting.
  _paleog._                 paleography.
  _paleon._                 paleontology.
  _palm._                   palmistry.
  _pa.p._                   past participle.
  _pass._                   passive.
  _pa.t._                   past tense.
  _path._                   pathology.
  _perf._                   perfect.
  _perh._                   perhaps.
  _pers._                   person.
  _pfx._                    prefix.
  _phil._, _philos._        philosophy.
  _philol._                 philology.
  _phon._                   phonetics.
  _phot._                   photography.
  _phrenol._                phrenology.
  _phys._                   physics.
  _physiol._                physiology.
  _pl._                     plural.
  _poet._                   poetical.
  _pol. econ._              political economy.
  _poss._                   possessive.
  _Pr.Bk._                  Book of Common
  _pr.p._                   present participle.
  _prep._                   preposition.
  _pres._                   present.
  _print._                  printing.
  _priv._                   privative.
  _prob._                   probably.
  _Prof._                   Professor.
  _pron._                   pronoun;
  _prop._                   properly.
  _pros._                   prosody.
  _prov._                   provincial.
  _q.v._                    which see.
  _R.C._                    Roman Catholic.
  _recip._                  reciprocal.
  _redup._                  reduplication.
  _refl._                   reflexive.
  _rel._                    related; relative.
  _rhet._                   rhetoric.
  _sculp._                  sculpture.
  _Shak._                   Shakespeare.
  _sig._                    signifying.
  _sing._                   singular.
  _spec._                   specifically.
  _Spens_.                  Spenser.
  _subj._                   subjunctive.
  _suff._                   suffix.
  _superl._                 superlative.
  _surg._                   surgery.
  _term._                   termination.
  _teleg._                  telegraphy.
  _Tenn._                   Tennyson.
  _Test._                   Testament.
  _theat._                  theatre; theatricals.
  _theol._                  theology.
  _trig._                   trigonometry.
  _ult._                    ultimately.
  _v.i._                    verb intransitive.
  _voc._                    vocative.
  _v.t._                    verb transitive.
  _vul._                    vulgar.
  _zool._                   zoology.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Amer.       American.
  Ar.         Arabic.
  A.S.        Anglo-Saxon.
  Austr.      Australian.
  Bav.        Bavarian.
  Beng.       Bengali.
  Bohem.      Bohemian.
  Braz.       Brazilian.
  Bret.       Breton.
  Carib.      Caribbean.
  Celt.       Celtic.
  Chal.       Chaldean.
  Chin.       Chinese.
  Corn.       Cornish.
  Dan.        Danish.
  Dut.        Dutch.
  Egypt.      Egyptian.
  Eng.        English.
  Finn.       Finnish.
  Flem.       Flemish.
  Fr.         French.
  Fris.       Frisian.
  Gael.       Gaelic.
  Ger.        German.
  Goth.       Gothic.
  Gr.         Greek.
  Heb.        Hebrew.
  Hind.       Hindustani.
  Hung.       Hungarian.
  Ice.        Icelandic.
  Ind.        Indian.
  Ion.        Ionic.
  Ir.         Irish.
  It.         Italian.
  Jap.        Japanese.
  Jav.        Javanese.
  L.          Latin.
  Lith.       Lithuanian.
  L. L.       Low or Late Latin.
  M. E.       Middle English.
  Mex.        Mexican.
  Norm.       Norman.
  Norw.       Norwegian.
  O. Fr.      Old French.
  Pers.       Persian.
  Peruv.      Peruvian.
  Pol.        Polish.
  Port.       Portuguese.
  Prov.       Provençal.
  Rom.        Romance.
  Russ.       Russian
  Sans.       Sanskrit.
  Scand.      Scandinavian.
  Scot.       Scottish.
  Singh.      Singhalese.
  Slav.       Slavonic.
  Sp.         Spanish.
  Sw.         Swedish.
  Teut.       Teutonic.
  Turk.       Turkish.
  U.S.        United States.
  W.          Welsh.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

E the fifth letter in our own and the cognate alphabets, with four
sounds--e.g. _e_ in _e_vil, _i_ in _E_ngland, _u_ in the last syllable of
elev_e_n, Italian _e_ in pr_e_y. A subscript _e_ is commonly used to
lengthen the previous vowel, as in not, not_e_; bit, bit_e_; (_mus._) the
third note or sound of the natural diatonic scale, and the third above the
tonic C.

EACH, [=e]ch, _adj._ every one in any number separately considered.--_adv._
EACH'WHERE, everywhere. [A.S. _['æ]lc_, supposed to be for _á-ge-líc_, from
_á_ (=_aye_), pfx. _ge-_, and _líc_, like--i.e. aye-like.]

EADISH, obsolete form of EDDISH.

EAGER, [=e]'g[.e]r, _adj._ excited by desire: ardent to do or obtain:
(_obs._) earnest: keen, severe, sour, acid, bitter.--_adv._ EA'GERLY.--_n._
EA'GERNESS. [O. Fr. _aigre_--L. _acer_, _acris_, sharp.]


EAGLE, [=e]'gl, _n._ a name given to many birds of prey in the family
_Falconidæ_: a military standard carrying the figure of an eagle: a gold
coin of the United States, worth ten dollars.--_adjs._ EA'GLE-EYED,
EA'GLE-SIGHT'ED, having a piercing eye: discerning; EA'GLE-FLIGHT'ED,
mounting high.--_ns._ EA'GLE-HAWK, a name applied to several eagles of
comparatively small size; EA'GLE-OWL, a genus of large owls, the largest in
Europe; EA'GLE-STONE, a variety of argillaceous oxide of iron occurring in
egg-shaped masses; EA'GLET, a young or small eagle.--_adj._ EA'GLE-WINGED,
having an eagle's wings.--_ns._ EA'GLE-WOOD, another name for agalloch or
calambac; SPREAD'-EA'GLE (see Spread). [O. Fr. _aigle_--L. _aquila_.]

EAGRE, [=e]'g[.e]r, _n._ rise of the tide in a river (same as Bore). [Ety.
dub.; hardly from A.S. _égor_, flood.]


EAN, [=e]n, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Shak._) to bring forth young.--_n._
EAN'LING, a young lamb. [A.S. _éanian_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _n._ a spike, as of corn.--_v.i._ to put forth ears.--_n._
EAR'-COCK'LE, a disease of wheat.--_adj._ EARED, of corn, having ears.
[A.S. _éar_; Ger. _ähre_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _v.t._ (_obs._) to plough or till.--_n._ EAR'ING (_obs._),
ploughing. [A.S. _erian_; cf. L. _ar[=a]re_, Gr. _aroein_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _n._ the organ of hearing, or the external part merely: the
sense or power of hearing: the faculty of distinguishing sounds: attention:
anything like an ear.--_ns._ EAR'ACHE, an ache or pain in the ear; EAR'BOB,
an earring; EAR'-CAP, a covering to protect the ear from cold; EAR'DROP, an
ornamental pendant hanging from the ear; EAR'DRUM, the drum or middle
cavity of the ear, tympanum (q.v.).--_adj._ EARED, having ears.--_n._
EAR'-HOLE, the aperture of the ear.--_adj._ EAR'-KISS'ING, whispered.--_n._
EAR'LAP, the tip of the ear: an ear-cap.--_adj._ EAR'LESS, wanting
ears.--_ns._ EAR'LOCK, a curl near the ear worn by Elizabethan dandies;
EAR'MARK, a mark set on the ears of sheep whereby their owners may
distinguish them: a distinctive mark.--_v.t._ to put an earmark on.--_n._
EAR'-PICK, an instrument for clearing the ear.--_adj._ EAR'-PIERC'ING,
shrill, screaming.--_ns._ EAR'RING, an ornamental ring worn in the ear;
EAR'-SHELL, any shell of the family _Haliotidæ_; EAR'SHOT, the distance at
which a sound can be heard; EAR'-TRUM'PET, a tube to aid in hearing;
EAR'WAX, a waxy substance secreted by the glands of the ear; EAR'WIG, an
insect which was supposed to creep into the brain through the ear: a
flatterer.--_v.t._ to gain the ear of: to bias: to torment by private
importunities (A.S. _éarwicga_, _éare_, ear, _wicga_, earwig).--_n._
EAR'WITNESS, a witness that can testify from his own hearing.--ABOUT ONE'S
EARS, said of a house falling, &c.; BE ALL EARS, to give every attention;
GIVE EAR, to attend; GO IN AT ONE EAR AND OUT AT THE OTHER, used of words
which make no permanent impression; HAVE A PERSON'S EAR, to be secure of
his favourable attention; HAVE ITCHING EARS, to be desirous of hearing
novelties (2 Tim. iv. 3); LEND AN EAR, to listen; OVER HEAD AND EARS,
overwhelmed: deeply engrossed or involved; SET BY THE EARS, to set at
strife; SPEAK IN THE EAR, to whisper; TICKLE THE EAR, to flatter; TURN A
DEAF EAR, to refuse to listen; WALLS HAVE EARS, a proverbial phrase
implying that there may be listeners behind the wall. [A.S. _éare_; cf. L.
_auris_, Ger. _ohr_.]


EARL, [.e]rl, _n._ an English nobleman ranking between a marquis and a
viscount:--_fem._ COUNT'ESS.--_ns._ EARL'DOM, the dominion or dignity of an
earl; EARL'-MAR'SHAL, an English officer of state, president of the
Heralds' College--the Scotch form _Earl-marischal_. [A.S. _eorl_, a
warrior, hero; cf. Ice. _jarl_.]


EARLY, [.e]r'li, _adj._ in good season: at or near the beginning of the
day: relating to the beginning: happening in the near future.--_adv._ near
the beginning: soon.--_n._ EAR'LINESS.--EARLY AND LATE, at all times; EARLY
BIRD, an early riser; EARLY ENGLISH (_archit._), generally applied to the
form of Gothic in which the pointed arch was first employed in Britain. The
Early English succeeded the _Norman_ towards the end of the 12th century,
and merged into the _Decorated_ at the end of the 13th.--KEEP EARLY HOURS,
to rise and go to bed betimes; SMALL AND EARLY (_coll._), applied to
evening parties; THE EARLY BIRD CATCHES THE WORM, a proverb in favour of
early rising. [A.S. _árlíce_--_['æ]r_, before.]

EARN, [.e]rn, _v.t._ to gain by labour: to acquire: to deserve.--_n.pl._
EARN'INGS, what one has earned: money saved. [A.S. _earnian_, to earn; cog.
with Old High Ger. _aran_, to reap; Ger. _ernte_, harvest.]

EARN, [.e]rn, _v.i._ to yearn. [A variant of _yearn_.]

EARNEST, [.e]r'nest, _adj._ showing strong desire: determined: eager to
obtain: intent: sincere: serious.--_n._ seriousness: reality.--_adv._
EAR'NESTLY.--_n._ EAR'NESTNESS. [A.S. _eornost_, seriousness; Ger.

EARNEST, [.e]r'nest, _n._ money given in token of a bargain made--also
EAR'NEST-MON'EY, EAR'NEST-PENN'Y: a pledge: first-fruits. [ETY. obscure;
possibly conn. with _arles_.]

EARST, obsolete form of ERST.

EARTH, [.e]rth, _n._ the name applied to the third planet in order from the
sun: the matter on the surface of the globe: soil: dry land, as opposed to
sea: the world: the inhabitants of the world: dirt: dead matter: the human
body: a fox's hole: (_pl._) the name applied by the alchemists and earlier
chemists to certain substances now known to be oxides of metal, which were
distinguished by being infusible, and by insolubility in water.--_v.t._ to
hide or cause to hide in the earth: to bury.--_v.i._ to burrow: to
hide.--_ns._ EARTH'-BAG, a sack of earth used in fortifications;
EARTH'-BATH, a bath of earth or mud; EARTH'-BOARD, the board of a plough,
or other implement, that turns over the earth.--_adjs._ EARTH'-BORN, born
from or on the earth; EARTH'-BOUND, bound or held by the earth, as a tree;
EARTH'-BRED, mean, grovelling.--_n._ EARTH'-CLOS'ET, a system consisting of
the application of earth to the deodorisation of fæcal matters.--_adjs._
EARTH'-CRE[=A]'TED, made of earth; EARTH'EN, made of earth or clay:
earthly.--_ns._ EARTH'ENWARE, crockery; EARTH'-FALL, a landslide.--_adj._
EARTH'-FED, contented with earthly things.--_ns._ EARTH'FLAX, asbestos;
EARTH'-HOG (see AARDVARK); EARTH'-HOUSE, the name given to the ancient
underground dwellings in Ireland and Scotland, also called _Picts' houses_;
EARTH'-HUNG'ER, the passion for acquiring land; EARTH'INESS; EARTH'LINESS;
EARTH'LING, a dweller on the earth.--_adjs._ EARTH'LY, belonging to the
earth: vile: worldly; EARTH'LY-MIND'ED, having the mind intent on earthly
things.--_ns._ EARTH'LY-MIND'EDNESS; EARTH'-NUT, the popular name of
certain tuberous roots growing underground; EARTH'-PEA, the hog-peanut;
EARTH'-PLATE, a buried plate of metal forming the earth-connection of a
telegraph-wire, lightning-conductor, &c.; EARTH'QUAKE, a quaking or shaking
of the earth: a heaving of the ground; EARTH'-SHINE, the faint light
visible on the part of the moon not illuminated by the sun; EARTH'-TREM'OR,
a slight earthquake.--_adv._ EARTH'WARD, toward the earth.--_ns._
EARTH'WORK, a fortification of earth; EARTH'-WORM, the common worm: a mean
person, a poor creature.--_adj._ EARTH'Y, consisting of, relating to, or
resembling earth: inhabiting the earth: gross: unrefined. [A.S. _eorthe_;
cf. Dut. _aarde_, Ger. _erde_.]

EASE, [=e]z, _n._ freedom from pain or disturbance: rest from work: quiet:
freedom from difficulty: naturalness.--_v.t._ to free from pain, trouble,
or anxiety: to relieve: to calm.--_adj._ EASE'FUL, ease-giving: quiet, fit
for rest.--_n._ EASE'MENT, relief: assistance: support:
gratification.--_adv._ EAS'ILY.--_n._ EAS'INESS.--_adj._ EAS'Y, at ease:
free from pain: tranquil: unconstrained: giving ease: not difficult:
yielding: not straitened (in circumstances): not tight: not strict, as in
'easy virtue.'--_interj._ EASY! a command to lower, or to go gently, to
stop rowing, &c.--_n._ EAS'Y-CHAIR, an arm-chair for ease or rest.--_adj._
EAS'Y-G[=O]'ING, good-natured: indolent.--EASE ONE'S SELF, to relieve
EASY, when the honours are evenly divided at whist: ILL AT EASE,
uncomfortable; STAND AT EASE, used of soldiers, when freed from
'attention;' TAKE IT EASY, to be quite unconcerned: to be in no hurry; TAKE
ONE'S EASE, to make one's self comfortable. [O. Fr. _aise_; cog. with It.
_agio_; Prov. _ais_, Port. _azo_.]

EASEL, [=e]z'l, _n._ the frame on which painters support their pictures
while painting. [Dut. _ezel_, or Ger. _esel_, an ass.]

EASLE, [=e]s'l, _n._ (_Burns_) hot ashes. [A.S. _ysle_; cf. Ice. _usli_.]

EASSEL, a Scotch form for _eastward_, easterly.

EAST, [=e]st, _n._ that part of the heavens where the sun first shines or
rises: one of the four cardinal points of the compass.--_adj._ toward the
rising of the sun.--_ns._ EAST'-END, the eastern part of London, the
habitation of the poorer classes; EAST'-END'ER.--_adjs._ EAST'ER, EAST'ERN,
toward the east: connected with the east: dwelling in the east.--_n._
EAST'ERLING, a native of the East: a trader from the shores of the
Baltic.--_adj._ EAST'ERLY, coming from the eastward: looking toward the
east.--_adv._ on the east: toward the east.--_adjs._ EAST'ERNMOST,
EAST'MOST, situated farthest east.--_ns._ EAST'-IN'DIAMAN, a vessel used in
the East India trade; EAST'ING, the course gained to the eastward: distance
eastward from a given meridian; EAST'LAND, the land in the East.--_adv._
EAST'WARD, toward the east.--EAST-BY-SOUTH (NORTH), 11¼ degrees from due
east; EAST-SOUTH (NORTH)-EAST, 22½ degrees from due east.--EASTWARD
POSITION, the position of the celebrant at the Eucharist, when he stands in
front of the altar and facing it, instead of the usual practice of standing
at the north end of the altar, facing southward.--ABOUT EAST (_slang_), in
proper manner; THE EAST, the countries to the east of Europe; TURNING TO
THE EAST, a practice for both clergy and laity during service, esp. while
singing the creeds, the _Gloria Patri_, and the _Gloria in Excelsis._ [A.S.
_east_; Ger. _ost_; akin to Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, the dawn.]

EASTER, [=e]st'[.e]r, _n._ a Christian festival commemorating the
resurrection of Christ, held on the Sunday after Good-Friday.--_n._
EAST'ER-DAY, Easter Sunday.--_ns.pl._ EAST'ER-DUES, -OFF'ERINGS, 'customary
sums' which from time immemorial have been paid to the parson by his people
at Easter.--_ns._ EAST'ER-EGG, eggs stained of various colours, given as
presents on Easter; EAST'ERTIDE, Eastertime, either Easter week or the
fifty days between Easter and Whitsuntide. [A.S. _éastre_; Ger. _ostern_.
Bede derives the word from _Eastre_, a goddess whose festival was held at
the spring equinox.]

EAT, [=e]t, _v.t._ to chew and swallow: to consume: to corrode.--_v.i._ to
take food:--_pr.p._ eat'ing; _pa.t._ ate ([=a]t or et); _pa.p._ eaten
([=e]tn) or (_obs._) eat (et).--_adj._ EAT'ABLE, fit to be eaten.--_n._
anything used as food (chiefly _pl._).--_ns._ EAT'AGE, grass or fodder for
horses, &c.: the right to eat; EAT'ER, one who, or that which, eats or
corrodes; EAT'ING, the act of taking food.--_p.adj._ that eats:
corroding.--_ns._ EAT'ING-HOUSE, a place where provisions are sold ready
dressed: a restaurant; GOOD'-EAT'ING, something good for food.--EAT AWAY,
to destroy gradually: to gnaw; EAT IN, used of the action of acid; EAT ITS
HEAD OFF, used of an animal which costs as much for food as it is worth;
EAT ONE'S HEART, to pine away, brooding over misfortune; EAT ONE'S TERMS,
to study for the bar, with allusion to the number of times in a term that a
student must dine in the hall of an Inn of Court; EAT ONE'S WORDS, to
retract: to recant; EAT OUT, to finish eatables: to encroach upon; EAT THE
AIR (_Shak._) to be deluded with hopes; EAT UP, to devour: to consume,
absorb; EAT WELL, to have a good appetite. [A.S. _etan_; cf. Ger. _essen_,
Ice. _eta_, L. _ed[)e]re_, Gr. _edein_.]

EATH, [=e]th, _adj._ (_obs._) easy.--_adv._ EATH'LY. [A.S. _éathe_, easily;
cf. Old High Ger. _odi_, easy.]

EAU, [=o], _n._ the French word for water, used in English in various
combinations.--EAU CRÉOLE, a fine Martinique liqueur, made by distilling
the flowers of the mammee-apple with spirit of wine; EAU DE COLOGNE (see
under COLOGNE-EARTH); EAU DE VIE, brandy.

EAVES, [=e]vz, _n.pl._ the projecting edge of the roof: anything
projecting.--_ns._ EAVES'DRIP, EAVES'DROP, the water which falls from the
eaves of a house: the place where the drops fall.--_v.i._ and _v.t._
EAVES'DROP, to stand under the eaves or near the windows of a house to
listen: to listen for secrets.--_ns._ EAVES'DROPPER, one who thus listens:
one who tries to overhear private conversation; EAVES'DROPPING. [A.S.
_efes_, the clipped edge of thatch; cf. Ice. _ups_.]

EBB, eb, _n._ the going back or retiring of the tide: a decline or
decay.--_v.i._ to flow back: to sink: to decay.--_n._ EBB'-TIDE, the ebbing
or retiring tide. [A.S. _ebba_; Ger. _ebbe_; cog. with _even_.]

EBENEZER, eb-en-[=e]z'er, _n._ a memorial stone set up by Samuel after the
victory of Mizpeh (1 Sam. vii. 12): a name sometimes applied to a chapel or
meeting-house. [Heb., 'stone of help.']

EBIONITE, [=e]'bi-on-[=i]t, _n._ a name applied to Jewish Christians who
remained outside the Catholic Church down to the time of Jerome. They held
the Mosaic laws binding on Christians, and denied the apostolate of Paul
and the miraculous birth of Jesus.--_v.t._ E'BIONISE.--_adj._
EBIONIT'IC.--_ns._ EBION[=I]T'ISM, E'BIONISM. [Heb. _eby[=o]n_, poor.]

EBLIS, eb'lis, _n._ the chief of the fallen angels or wicked jinns in
Mohammedan mythology.--Also IB'LEES.

EBON, eb'on, EBONY, eb'on-i, _n._ a kind of wood almost as heavy and hard
as stone, usually black, admitting of a fine polish.--_adj._ made of ebony:
black as ebony.--_v.t._ EB'ONISE, to make furniture look like ebony.--_ns._
EB'ONIST, a worker in ebony; EB'ONITE, vulcanite (see under VULCAN).
[L.,--Gr. _ebenos_; cf. Heb. _hodn[=i]m_, pl. of _hobni_, _obni_--_eben_, a

ÉBOULEMENT, [=a]-bool'mong, _n._ the falling in of the wall of a
fortification: a landslide or landslip. [Fr.]

EBRACTEATE, -D, e-brak't[=e]-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) without bracts.

EBRIATED, [=e]'bri-[=a]t-ed, _adj._ intoxicated.--_n._ EBR[=I]'ETY,
drunkenness.--_adj._ E'BRI[=O]SE, drunk.--_n._ EBRIOS'ITY. [L.
_ebri[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to make drunk.]

ÉBRILLADE, [=a]-br[=e]-lyad', _n._ the sudden jerking of a horse's rein
when he refuses to turn. [Fr.]

EBULLIENT, e-bul'yent, _adj._ boiling up or over: agitated:
enthusiastic.--_ns._ EBULL'IENCE, EBULL'IENCY, a boiling over; EBULLI'TION,
act of boiling: agitation: an outbreak. [L. _ebullient-em_,
_ebull[=i]re_--_e_, out, and _bull[=i]re_, to boil.]

EBURNINE, eb-ur'nin, _adj._ of or like ivory--also EBUR'NEAN.--_ns._
EBURN[=A]'TION, a morbid change of bone by which it becomes very hard and
dense; EBURNIFIC[=A]'TION, art of making like ivory. [L. _ebur_.]

ÉCARTÉ, [=a]-kär't[=a], _n._ a game for two, played with the thirty-two
highest cards, one feature being the right to discard or throw out certain
cards for others. [Fr.,--_e_, out, _carte_, a card.]

ECAUDATE, [=e]-kaw'd[=a]t, _adj._ tailless.

ECBASIS, ek'ba-sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure in which the speaker treats of
things according to their consequences.--_adj._ ECBAT'IC, denoting a mere
result, not an intention. [Gr.]

ECBLASTESIS, ek-blas-t[=e]'sis, _n._ (_bot._) the production of buds within

ECBOLE, ek'bo-l[=e], _n._ (_rhet._) a digression: (_mus._) the raising or
sharping of a tone.--_adj._ ECBOL'IC, promoting parturition.--_n._ a drug
with this quality. [Gr.]

ECCALEOBION, ek-kal-e-[=o]'bi-on, _n._ a machine for the artificial
hatching of eggs. [Gr., 'I call out life.']

ECCE, ek'si, Latin word for 'behold.'--ECCE HOMO, behold the man (John,
xix. 5)--in art, a Christ crowned with thorns.

ECCENTRIC, -AL, ek-sen'trik, -al, _adj._ departing from the centre: not
having the same centre as another, said of circles: out of the usual
course: not conforming to common rules: odd.--_n._ ECCEN'TRIC, a circle not
having the same centre as another: (_mech._) a contrivance for taking an
alternating rectilinear motion from a revolving shaft: an eccentric
fellow.--_adv._ ECCEN'TRICALLY.--_n._ ECCENTRIC'ITY, the distance of the
centre of a planet's orbit from the centre of the sun: singularity of
conduct: oddness. [Fr.,--Low L. _eccentricus_--Gr. _ek_, out of, _kentron_,

ECCHYMOSIS, ek-ki-m[=o]'sis, _n._ a discoloration of the surface produced
by blood effused below or in the texture of the skin.--_adjs._ EC'CHYMOSED,
ECCHYMOT'IC. [Gr.,--_ek_, out of, and _chymos_, juice.]

ECCLESIA, e-kl[=e]'zi-a, _n._ a popular assembly, esp. of Athens, where the
people exercised full sovereignty, and all above twenty years could vote:
applied by the Septuagint commentators to the Jewish commonwealth, and from
them to the Christian Church.--_adj._ ECCL[=E]'SIAL.--_ns._
ECCL[=E]'SIARCH, a ruler of the church; ECCL[=E]'SIAST, the
preacher--Solomon formerly considered as the author of Ecclesiastes: an
ecclesiastic; ECCL[=E]'SIASTES, one of the books of the Old Testament,
traditionally ascribed to Solomon; ECCLESIAS'TIC, one consecrated to the
church, a priest, a clergyman.--_adjs._ ECCL[=E]'SIASTIC, -AL, belonging to
the church.--_adv._ ECCLESIAS'TICALLY, in an ecclesiastical manner.--_ns._
ECCLESIAS'TICISM, attachment to ecclesiastical observances, &c.: the
churchman's temper or spirit; ECCLESIAS'TICUS, name of a book of the
Apocrypha; ECCLESIOL'ATRY, excessive reverence for church forms and
traditions.--_adj._ ECCLESIOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ ECCLESIOL'OGIST, a student of
church forms and traditions; ECCLESIOL'OGY, the science of building and
decorating churches: the science relating to the church. [Low L.,--Gr.
_ekklesia_, an assembly called out of the world, the church--_ek_, out, and
_kalein_, to call.]

ECCOPROTIC, ek-[=o]-prot'ik, _adj._ laxative, mildly cathartic.--_n._ a

ECCRINOLOGY, ek-ri-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the branch of physiology relating to
the secretions.

ECCRISIS, ek'ri-sis, _n._ expulsion of waste or morbid matter.--_n._
ECCRIT'IC, a medicine having this property. [Gr.]

ECDYSIS, ek'di-sis, _n._ the act of casting off an integument, as in
serpents. [Gr.]

ECHE, [=e]k, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to eke out: to augment. [A.S. _écan_; akin to
L. _aug[=e]re_, to increase. See EKE.]

ECHELON, esh'e-long, _n._ an arrangement of troops in battalions or
divisions placed parallel to one another, but no two on the same alignment,
each having its front clear of that in advance. [Fr., from _échelle_, a
ladder or stair. See SCALE.]

ECHIDNA, ek-id'na, _n._ a genus of Australian toothless burrowing
monotremate mammals, armed with porcupine-like spines, laying eggs instead
of bringing forth the young.--_n._ ECHID'NINE, serpent-poison. [Formed from
Gr. _echidna_, a viper.]

ECHINATE, -D, ek'in-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ prickly like a hedgehog: set with
prickles or bristles.--_ns._ ECH[=I]'NITE, a fossil sea-urchin;
ECH[=I]'NODERM, one of the ECHINODER'MATA, a class of animals having the
skin strengthened by calcareous plates, or covered with spikes.--_adjs._
ECHINODER'MATOUS, relating to the Echinodermata; ECH'INOID, like a
sea-urchin.--_n._ one of the ECHINOI'DEA.--_n._ ECH[=I]'NUS, a sea-urchin:
(_archit._) the convex projecting moulding of eccentric curve in Greek
examples, supporting the abacus of the Doric capital. [Gr. _echinos_, a
hedgehog, and _derma_, skin.]

ECHO, ek'[=o], _n._ the repetition of sound caused by a sound-wave coming
against some opposing surface, and being reflected: a device in verse in
which a line ends with a word which recalls the sound of the last word of
the preceding line: imitation: an imitator:--_pl._ ECHOES
(ek'[=o]z).--_v.i._ to reflect sound: to be sounded back: to
resound.--_v.t._ to send back the sound of: to repeat a thing said: to
imitate: to flatter slavishly:--_pr.p._ ech'[=o]ing; _pa.p._
ech'[=o]ed.--_ns._ ECH'OISM, the formation of imitative words; ECH'OIST,
one who repeats like an echo.--_adj._ ECH'OLESS, giving no echo,
unresponsive.--_ns._ ECHOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the length of
sounds; ECHOM'ETRY, the art of measuring such.--CHEER TO THE ECHO, to
applaud most heartily, so that the room resounds. [L.,--Gr. _[=e]ch[=o]_, a

ÉCLAIRCISSEMENT, ek-l[=a]r-sis'mong, _n._ the act of clearing up anything:
explanation.--COME TO AN ÉCLAIRCISSEMENT, to come to an understanding: to
explain conduct that seemed equivocal. [Fr. _éclaircir_, pr.p. _-cissant_,
_é_--L. _ex_, out, _clair_--L. _clarus_, clear.]

ECLAMPSIA, ek-lamp'si-a, _n._ a term often erroneously applied as
synonymous with epilepsy, while it is really the equivalent of convulsions,
but usually restricted to such as are due to such local or general causes
as teething, child-bearing, &c.--also ECLAMP'SY.--_adj._ ECLAMP'TIC.
[Formed from Gr. _eklampein_, to shine forth.]

ÉCLAT, [=a]-klä', _n._ a striking effect: applause: splendour: social
distinction, notoriety. [Fr. _éclat_, from O. Fr. _esclater_, to break, to

ECLECTIC, ek-lek'tik, _adj._ selecting or borrowing: choosing the best out
of everything: broad, the opposite of exclusive.--_n._ one who selects
opinions from different systems, esp. in philosophy.--_adv._
ECLEC'TICALLY.--_n._ ECLEC'TICISM, the practice of an eclectic: the
doctrine of the ECLEC'TICS, a name applied to certain Greek thinkers in the
2d and 1st centuries B.C., later to Leibnitz and Cousin. [Gr.
_eklektikos_--_ek_, out, _legein_, to choose.]

ECLIPSE, e-klips', _n._ an obscuration of one of the heavenly bodies by the
interposition of another, either between it and the spectator, or between
it and the sun: loss of brilliancy: darkness.--_v.t._ to hide a luminous
body wholly or in part: to darken: to throw into the shade, to cut out,
surpass.--_p.adjs._ ECLIPSED', darkened, obscured; ECLIPS'ING, darkening,
obscuring.--_n._ ECLIP'TIC, the name given to the great circle of the
heavens round which the sun _seems_ to travel, from west to east, in the
course of a year: a great circle on the globe corresponding to the
celestial ecliptic.--_adj._ pertaining to an eclipse or the ecliptic.
[Through O. Fr. and L. from Gr. _ekleipsis_--_ek_, out, _leipein_, to

ECLOGITE, ek'loj-[=i]t, _n._ a crystalline rock, composed of smaragdite and
red garnet. [Gr. _eklog[=e]_, selection--_ek_, out, _legein_, to choose.]

ECLOGUE, ek'log, _n._ a short pastoral poem like Virgil's _Bucolics_. [L.
_ecloga_--Gr. _eklog[=e]_, a selection, esp. of poems--_ek_, out of,
_legein_ to choose.]

ECONOMY, ek-on'o-mi, _n._ the management of a household or of money
matters: a frugal and judicious expenditure of money: a system of rules or
ceremonies: a dispensation, as 'the Christian economy:' regular operations,
as of nature.--_adjs._ ECONOM'IC, -AL, pertaining to economy: frugal:
careful.--_adv._ ECONOM'ICALLY.--_ns._ ECONOM'ICS, the science of household
management: political economy; ECONOMIS[=A]'TION, act of
economising.--_v.i._ ECON'OMISE, to manage with economy: to spend money
carefully: to save.--_v.t._ to use prudently: to spend with
frugality.--_ns._ ECONOM[=I]'SER, ECON'OMIST, one who is economical: one
who studies political economy.--POLITICAL ECONOMY (see under POLITIC). [L.
_oeconomia_--Gr. _oikonomia_--_oikos_, a house, _nomos_, a law.]

ÉCORCHÉ, [=a]-kor'sh[=a], _n._ a figure in which the muscles are
represented stripped of the skin, for purposes of artistic study. [Fr.
_écorcher_, to flay.]

ÉCOSSAISE, [=a]-ko-s[=a]z', _n._ a kind of country-dance of Scotch origin,
or music appropriate to such.--DOUCHE ÉCOSSAISE, the alternation of hot and
cold douches. [Fr., fem. of _Écossais_, Scotch.]

ECOSTATE, [=e]-kos't[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) not costate: ribless.

ECPHLYSIS, ek'fli-sis, _n._ (_path._) vesicular eruption.

ECPHONESIS, ek-f[=o]-n[=e]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure of speech which
uses questions, interjections, &c., for variety: in Greek use, the part of
the service spoken in an audible tone.

ECPHRACTIC, ek-frak'tik, _adj._ (_med._) serving to remove
obstructions.--_n._ a drug with such properties.

ECRASEUR, [=a]-kra-z[.e]r, _n._ (_surg._) an instrument for removing
tumours. [Fr.]

ECSTASY, ek'sta-si, _n._ a word applied to states of mind marked by
temporary mental alienation and altered or diminished consciousness:
excessive joy: enthusiasm, or any exalted feeling.--_v.t._ to fill with
joy.--_adjs._ EC'STASIED, enraptured; ECSTAT'IC, causing ecstasy: amounting
to ecstasy: rapturous.--_n._ one given to ecstasy: something spoken in a
state of ecstasy.--_adv._ ECSTAT'ICALLY. [Through O. Fr. and Low L. from
Gr. _ekstasis_--_ek_, aside, _histanai_, to make to stand.]

ECTAL, ek'tal, _adj._ (_anat._) outer, external--opp. to _Ental._--_adv._
EC'TAD. [Gr. _ektos_, without.]

ECTASIS, ek'ta-sis, _n._ the pronunciation of a vowel as long.

ECTHLIPSIS, ek-thlip'sis, _n._ omission or suppression of a letter. [Gr.]

ECTHYMA, ek-th[=i]'ma, _n._ a pustular disease of the skin, in which the
pustules often reach the size of a pea, and have a red, slightly elevated,
hardish base. [Gr., _ek_, _thyein_, to boil.]

ECTOBLAST, ek'to-blast, _n._ the outer wall of a cell.--_adj._

ECTODERM, ek'to-d[.e]rm, _n._ the external germinal layer of the embryo.
[Gr. _ektos_, outside, _derma_, skin.]

ECTOPARASITE, ek-t[=o]-par'a-s[=i]t, _n._ an external parasite.

ECTOPIA, ek-t[=o]'pi-a, _n._ (_path._) morbid displacement of
parts.--_adj._ ECTOP'IC.

ECTOPLASM, ek'to-plasm, _n._ the exterior protoplasm or sarcode of a

ECTOZOA, ek-t[=o]-z[=o]'a, _n.pl._ external parasites generally--opp. to
_Entozoa_.--_n._ ECTOZ[=O]'AN, one of the Ectozoa.

ECTROPION, -UM, ek-tr[=o]p'i-on, -um, _n._ eversion of the margin of the
eyelid, so that the red inner surface is exposed.--_adj._ ECTROP'IC. [Gr.
_ek_, out, and _trepein_, to turn.]

ECTYPE, ek't[=i]p, _n._ a reproduction or copy.--_adj._ EC'TYPAL.--_n._
ECTYPOG'RAPHY. [Gr. _ek_, out, and _typos_, a figure.]

ÉCU, [=a]'kü, or [=a]-k[=u]', _n._ a French silver coin, usually considered
as equivalent to the English crown--there were also gold _écus_ weighing
about 60 grains: a common name for the five-franc piece. [Fr.,--L.
_scutum_, a shield.]

ECUMENIC, -AL, ek-[=u]-men'ik, -al, _adj._ general, universal, belonging to
the entire Christian Church.--Also OECUMEN'IC, -AL.

ECZEMA, ek'ze-ma, _n._ a common skin disease, in which the affected portion
of the skin is red, and is covered with numerous small papules, which
speedily turn into vesicles.--_adj._ ECZEM'ATOUS. [Gr., from
_ekzein_--_ek_, out, _zeein_, to boil.]

EDACIOUS, e-d[=a]'shus, _adj._ given to eating: gluttonous.--_adv._
ED[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ ED[=A]'CIOUSNESS; EDAC'ITY. [L. _edax_,
_ed[=a]cis_--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]

EDDA, ed'a, _n._ the name of two Scandinavian books--the 'Elder' Edda, a
collection of ancient mythological and heroic songs (9th-11th century); and
the 'Younger' or prose Edda, by Snorri Sturluson (_c._ 1230), mythological
stories, poetics, and prosody. [Ice., 'great-grandmother.']

EDDISH, ed'dish, _n._ pasturage, or the eatable growth of grass after
mowing. [Dubiously referred to A.S. _edisc_, a park.]

EDDY, ed'i, _n._ a current of water or air running back, contrary to the
main stream, thus causing a circular motion: a whirlpool: a
whirlwind.--_v.i._ to move round and round:--_pr.p._ edd'ying; _pa.p._
edd'ied.--_n._ EDD'YING, the action of the verb _eddy_. [Prob. from A.S.
_ed_, back; cf. Ice. _ida_--_id_, back.]

EDELWEISS, [=a]'del-v[=i]s, _n._ a small white composite, with pretty white
flower, found growing in damp places at considerable altitudes (5000-7000
feet) throughout the Alps. [Ger. _edel_, noble, _weiss_, white.]


EDEN, [=e]'den, _n._ the garden where Adam and Eve lived: a
paradise.--_adj._ EDEN'IC. [Heb. _[=e]den_, delight, pleasure.]

EDENTATE, -D, e-den't[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ without teeth: wanting front
teeth--also EDEN'TAL.--_ns._ EDENT[=A]'TA, a Cuvierian order of mammals,
having no teeth or very imperfect ones; EDENT[=A]'TION,
toothlessness.--_adj._ EDEN'TULOUS, edentate. [L. _edent[=a]tus_,
toothless--_e_, out of, _dens_, _dentis_, a tooth.]

EDGE, ej, _n._ the border of anything: the brink: the cutting side of an
instrument: something that wounds or cuts: sharpness of mind or appetite:
keenness.--_v.t._ to put an edge on: to place a border on: to exasperate:
to urge on: to move by little and little.--_v.i._ to move sideways.--_n._
EDGE'-BONE, the haunch-bone.--_adjs._ EDGED; EDGE'LESS, without an edge:
blunt.--_ns._ EDGE'-RAIL, a rail of such form that the carriage-wheels roll
on its edges, being held there by flanges; EDGE'-TOOL, EDGED TOOL, a tool
with a sharp edge.--_advs._ EDGE'WAYS, EDGE'WISE, in the direction of the
edge: sideways.--_ns._ EDG'INESS, angularity, over-sharpness of outline;
EDG'ING, any border or fringe round a garment: a border of box, &c., round
a flower-bed.--_adj._ EDG'Y, with edges, sharp, hard in outline.--EDGE IN A
WORD, to get a word in with difficulty; EDGE OF THE SWORD, a rhetorical
phrase for the sword as the symbol of slaughter.--OUTSIDE EDGE, figure in
skating, made on the outer edge of the skate.--PLAY WITH EDGE-TOOLS, to
deal carelessly with dangerous matters.--SET ON EDGE, to excite; SET THE
TEETH ON EDGE, to cause a strange grating feeling in the teeth; to rouse an
instinctive dislike. [A.S. _ecg_; cf. Ger. _ecke_, L. _acies_.]

EDIBLE, ed'i-bl, _adj._ fit to be eaten.--_n._ something for food.--_ns._
EDIBIL'ITY, ED'IBLENESS, fitness for being eaten. [L.
_edibilis_--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]

EDICT, [=e]'dikt, _n._ something proclaimed by authority: an order issued
by a king or lawgiver.--_adj._ EDICT'AL.--_adv._ EDICT'ALLY. [L.
_edictum_--_e_, out, _dic[)e]re_, _dictum_, to say.]

EDIFY, ed'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to build: to build up the faith of: to strengthen
spiritually towards faith and holiness: to comfort: to improve the
mind:--_pr.p._ ed'ifying; _pa.p._ ed'ified.--_n._ EDIFIC[=A]'TION,
instruction: progress in knowledge or in goodness.--_adj._ ED'IFICATORY,
tending to edification.--_n._ ED'IFICE, a large building or house.--_adj._
EDIFIC'IAL, structural.--_n._ ED'IFIER, one who edifies.--_adj._ ED'IFYING,
instructive: improving.--_adv._ ED'IFYINGLY. [Fr. _édifier_--L.
_ædific[=a]re_--_ædes_, a house, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]


EDIT, ed'it, _v.t._ to prepare the work of an author for publication: to
superintend the publication of (a newspaper, &c.): to compile, garble, or
cook up materials into literary shape.--_ns._ EDI'TION, the publication of
a book: the number of copies of a book printed at a time; ED'ITOR, one who
edits a book: one who conducts a newspaper or journal:--_fem._
ED'ITRESS.--_adj._ EDIT[=O]'RIAL, of or belonging to an editor.--_n._ an
article in a newspaper written by the editor, a leading article.--_adv._
EDIT[=O]'RIALLY.--_n._ ED'ITORSHIP. [L. _ed[)e]re_, _ed[)i]tum_--_e_, out,
_d[)a]re_, to give.]

EDUCATE, ed'[=u]-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to bring up children: to train: to teach:
to cultivate any power.--_adj._ ED'UCABLE.--_n._ EDUC[=A]'TION, the
bringing up or training, as of a child: instruction: strengthening of the
powers of body or mind.--_adj._ EDUC[=A]'TIONAL.--_adv._
EDUC[=A]'TIONALLY.--_n._ EDUC[=A]'TIONIST, one skilled in methods of
educating or teaching: one who promotes education.--_adj._ ED'UCATIVE, of
or pertaining to education: calculated to teach.--_n._ ED'UCATOR. [L.
_educ[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_educ[)e]re_--_e_, out, _duc[)e]re_, to lead.]

EDUCE, [=e]-d[=u]s', _v.t._ to draw out: to extract: to cause to
appear.--_n._ inference.--_adj._ EDUC'IBLE, that may be educed or brought
out and shown.--_ns._ E'DUCT, what is educed; EDUC'TION, the act of
educing; EDUC'TION-PIPE, the pipe by which the exhaust steam is led from
the cylinder of a steam-engine into the condenser or the atmosphere;
EDUC'TOR, he who, or that which, educes. [L. _educ[)e]re_, _eductum_--_e_,
out, and _duc[)e]re_, to lead.]

EDULCORATE, [=e]-dul'k[=o]-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to sweeten: to free from acids,
&c.--_adj._ EDUL'CORANT.--_n._ EDULCOR[=A]'TION.--_adj._

EE, [=e], Scotch form of _eye_:--_pl._ EEN.

EEL, _n._ a name widely applied in popular usage, but justifiably extended
to all the members of the family _Murænidæ_--the body is much elongated,
cylindrical or ribbon-shaped.--_ns._ EEL'-BAS'KET, a basket for catching
eels; EEL'-POUT, in England, a Burbot (q.v.); in parts of Scotland, a
Blenny (q.v.): a well-known fish, with a slimy body, living chiefly in mud;
EEL'-SPEAR, an instrument with broad prongs for catching eels. [A.S.
_['æ]l_; Ger., Dut. _aal_.]

E'EN, [=e]n, a contraction of _even_.

E'ER, [=a]r, a contraction of _ever_.

EERIE, EERY, [=e]'ri, _adj._ exciting fear: weird: affected with fear:
timorous.--_adv._ EE'RILY.--_n._ EE'RINESS (_Scot._). [M. E. _arh_,
_eri_--A.S. _earg_, timid.]

EFFABLE, ef'a-bl, _adj._ capable of being expressed. [Fr.,--L.
_eff[=a]ri_--_ex_, out, _f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

EFFACE, ef-f[=a]s', _v.t._ to destroy the surface of a thing: to rub out:
to obliterate, wear away.--_adj._ EFFACE'ABLE, that can be rubbed
out.--_n._ EFFACE'MENT. [Fr. _effacer_--L. _ex_, out, _facies_, face.]

EFFECT, ef-fekt', _n._ the result of an action: impression produced:
reality: the consequence intended: (_pl._) goods: property.--_v.t._ to
produce: to accomplish.--_ns._ EFFEC'TER, EFFEC'TOR.--_adjs._ EFFEC'TIBLE,
that may be effected; EFFEC'TIVE, having power to effect: causing
something: powerful: serviceable.--_adv._ EFFEC'TIVELY.--_n._
EFFEC'TIVENESS.--_adjs._ EFFECT'LESS, without effect, useless; EFFEC'TUAL,
successful in producing the desired effect: (_Shak._) decisive.--_n._
accomplish.--_n._ EFFECTUA'TION.--EFFECTUAL CALLING (_theol._), the
invitation to come to Christ which the elect receive.--FOR EFFECT, so as to
make a telling impression; GENERAL EFFECT, the effect produced by a
picture, &c., as a whole; GIVE EFFECT TO, to accomplish, perform; IN
EFFECT, in truth, really: substantially.--LEAVE NO EFFECTS, to die without
property to bequeath.--TAKE EFFECT, to begin to operate: to come into
force. [Fr.,--L. _effic[)e]re_, _effectum_, to accomplish--_ex_, out,
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

EFFEIR, EFFERE, e-f[=e]r', _n._ Scotch form of _affair_.

EFFEMINATE, ef-fem'in-[=a]t, _adj._ womanish: unmanly: weak: cowardly:
voluptuous.--_n._ an effeminate person.--_v.t._ to make womanish: to unman:
to weaken.--_v.i._ to become effeminate.--_n._ EFFEM'INACY, womanish
softness or weakness: indulgence in unmanly pleasures.--_adv._
EFFEM'INATELY.--_n._ EFFEM'INATENESS. [L. _effemin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to
make womanish--_ex_, out, and _femina_, a woman.]

EFFENDI, ef-fen'di, _n._ a Turkish title for civil officials and educated
persons generally. [Turk.; from Gr. _authent[=e]s_, an absolute master.]

EFFERENT, ef'e-rent, _adj._ conveying outward or away.

EFFERVESCE, ef-f[.e]r-ves', _v.i._ to boil up: to bubble and hiss: to froth
or bubbling from the disengagement of gas; EFFERVES'CIBLE. [L.
_effervesc[)e]re_--_ex_, inten., and _ferv[=e]re_, to boil.]

EFFETE, ef-f[=e]t', _adj._ exhausted: worn out with age. [L. _eff[=e]tus_,
weakened by having brought forth young--_ex_, out, _fetus_, a bringing
forth young.]

EFFICACIOUS, ef-fi-k[=a]'shus, _adj._ able to produce the result
intended.--_adv._ EFFIC[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ EFFIC[=A]'CIOUSNESS;
EFFICAC'ITY; EF'FICACY, virtue: energy. [Fr.,--L. _efficax_,

EFFICIENT, ef-fish'ent, _adj._ capable of producing the desired result:
effective.--_n._ the person or thing that effects.--_ns._ EFFI'CIENCE,
EFFI'CIENCY, power to produce the result intended, adequate
fitness.--_adv._ EFFI'CIENTLY. [Fr.,--L. _efficiens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of
_effic[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

EFFIERCE, ef-f[=e]rs', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to make fierce.

EFFIGY, ef'fi-ji, _n._ a likeness or figure of a person: the head or
impression on a coin: resemblance--(_arch._) EFFIG'IES.--BURN IN EFFIGY, to
burn a figure of a person, expressing dislike or contempt. [Fr.,--L.
_effigies_--_effing[)e]re_--_ex_, inten., _fing[)e]re_, to form.]

EFFLORESCE, ef-flo-res', _v.i._ to blossom forth: (_chem._) to become
covered with a white dust: to form minute crystals.--_ns._ EFFLORES'CENCE,
EFFLORES'CENCY, production of flowers: the time of flowering: a redness of
the skin: the formation of a white powder on the surface of bodies, or of
minute crystals.--_adj._ EFFLORES'CENT, forming a white dust on the
surface: shooting into white threads. [L. _effloresc[)e]re_--_ex_, out,
_floresc[)e]re_, to blossom--_flos_, _floris_, a flower.]

EFFLUENT, ef'floo-ent, _adj._ flowing out.--_n._ a stream that flows out of
another stream or lake.--_n._ EF'FLUENCE, a flowing out: that which flows
from any body: issue. [L. _effluens_, _-entis_, _pr.p._ of
_efflu[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

EFFLUVIUM, ef-fl[=oo]'vi-um, _n._ minute particles that flow out from
bodies: disagreeable vapours rising from decaying matter:--_pl._
EFFLU'VIA.--_adj._ EFFLU'VIAL. [Low L.,--L. _efflu[)e]re_.]

EFFLUX, ef'fluks, _n._ act of flowing out: that which flows out.--Also
EFFLUX'ION. [L. _efflu[)e]re_, _effluxum_.]

EFFODIENT, e-f[=o]'di-ent, _adj._ (_zool._) habitually digging.

EFFOLIATION, e-f[=o]-li-[=a]'shun, _n._ the removal or fall of the leaves
of a plant.

EFFORCE, ef-f[=o]rs', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to compel. [Fr. _efforcer_--Late L.
_efforti[=a]re_--_ex_, out, _fortis_, strong.]

EFFORT, ef'fort, _n._ a putting forth of strength: attempt:
struggle.--_adj._ EF'FORTLESS, making no effort: passive. [Fr.,--L. _ex_,
out, _fortis_, strong.]

EFFRAY, an obsolete form of _affray_.

EFFRONTERY, ef-frunt'[.e]r-i, _n._ shamelessness: impudence: insolence. [O.
Fr.,--L. _effrons_, _effrontis_--_ex_, out, _frons_, _frontis_, the

EFFULGE, ef-fulj', _v.i._ to shine forth: to beam:--_pr.p._ effulg'ing;
_pa.p._ effulged'.--_n._ EFFUL'GENCE, great lustre or brightness: a flood
of light.--_adj._ EFFUL'GENT, shining forth: extremely bright:
splendid.--_adv._ EFFUL'GENTLY. [L. _effulg[=e]re_, to shine out, pr.p.
_effulgens_, _-entis_--_ex_, out, _fulg[=e]re_, to shine.]

EFFUSE, ef-f[=u]z', _v.t._ to pour out: to pour forth, as words: to
shed.--_n._ effusion, loss.--_adj._ loosely spreading, not compact,
expanded.--_n._ EFF[=U]'SION, act of pouring out: that which is poured out
or forth: quality of being effusive.--_adj._ EFF[=U]'SIVE, pouring forth
abundantly: gushing: expressing emotion in a pronounced manner.--_adv._
EFF[=U]'SIVELY.--_n._ EFF[=U]'SIVENESS. [L. _effund[)e]re_,
_effusum_--_ex_, out, _fund[)e]re_, to pour.]

EFT, eft, _n._ a kind of lizard: a newt. [A.S. _efeta_. Origin obscure. See

EFT, eft, _adj._ ready (_Shak._, _Much Ado_, IV. ii. 38).

EFT, eft, _adv._ (_Spens._) afterwards, again, forthwith, moreover.--_adv._
EFTSOONS' (_obs._), soon afterwards, forthwith. [A.S. _æft_, _eft_, after,
again. See AFT.]

EGAD, [=e]-gad', _interj._ a minced oath. [_By God_.]

EGAL, [=e]'gal, _adj._ (_Shak._) equal.--_n._ EGAL'ITY, equality. [Fr.
_égalité_--_égal_--L. _æquus_, equal.]

EGER, [=e]'g[.e]r, _n._ Same as EAGRE.

EGENCE, [=e]'jens, _n._ exigence.

EGESTION, ej-est'yun, _n._ the passing off of excreta from within the
body.--_v.t._ EGEST', to discharge.--_n.pl._ EGEST'A, things thrown out,
excrements.--_adj._ EGEST'IVE. [L. _eger[)e]re_--_e_, out, _ger[)e]re_, to

EGG, eg, _n._ an oval body laid by birds and certain other animals, from
which their young are produced: anything shaped like an egg.--_ns._
EGG'-APP'LE, or PLANT, the brinjal or aubergine, an East Indian annual with
egg-shaped fruit; EGG'-BIRD, a sooty tern; EGG'-C[=O]'SY, a covering put
over boiled eggs to keep in the heat after being taken from the pot:
EGG'-CUP, a cup for holding an egg at table; EGG'ER, EGG'LER, one who
collects eggs; EGG'ERY, a place where eggs are laid; EGG'-FLIP, a hot drink
made of ale, with eggs, sugar, spice, &c.; EGG'-GLASS, a small sand-glass
for regulating the boiling of eggs; EGG'-NOG, a drink compounded of eggs
and hot beer, spirits, &c.; EGG'-SHELL, the shell or calcareous substance
which covers the eggs of birds; EGG'-SLICE, a kitchen utensil for lifting
fried eggs out of a pan; EGG'-SPOON, a small spoon used in eating eggs from
the shell.--A BAD EGG (_coll._), a worthless person; PUT ALL ONE'S EGGS
INTO ONE BASKET, to risk all on one enterprise; TAKE EGGS FOR MONEY, to be
put off with mere promises of payment; TEACH YOUR GRANDMOTHER TO SUCK EGGS,
spoken contemptuously to one who would teach those older and wiser than
himself; TREAD UPON EGGS, to walk warily, to steer one's way carefully in a
delicate situation. [A.S. _æg_; cf. Ice. _egg_, Ger. _ei_, perh. L. _ovum_,
Gr. _[=o]on_.]

EGG, eg, _v.t._ to instigate. [Ice. _eggja_--_egg_, an edge; cog. with A.S.
_ecg_. See EDGE.]


EGLANDULAR, [=e]-glan'd[=u]-lar, _adj._ having no glands.

EGLANTINE, eg'lan-t[=i]n, _n._ a name given to the sweet-brier, and some
other species of rose, whose branches are covered with sharp prickles.
[Fr.,--O. Fr. _aiglent_, as if from a L. _aculentus_, prickly--_acus_, a
needle, and suff. _lentus_.]

EGLATERE, eg-la-t[=e]r', _n._ (_Tenn._) eglantine.

EGMA, eg'ma, _n._ (_Shak._) a corruption of _enigma_.

EGO, [=e]'g[=o], _n._ the 'I,' that which is conscious and thinks.--_ns._
E'G[=O]ISM (_phil._), the doctrine that we have proof of nothing but our
own existence: (_ethics_), the theory of self-interest as the principle of
morality: selfishness; E'G[=O]IST, one who holds the doctrine of egoism:
one who thinks and speaks too much of himself.--_adjs._ EG[=O]IST'IC, -AL,
pertaining to or manifesting egoism.--_ns._ EG[=O]'ITY, the essential
element of the ego; E'G[=O]THEISM, the deification of self.--_v.i._
E'GOTISE, to talk much of one's self.--_ns._ E'GOTISM, a frequent use of
the pronoun I: speaking much of one's self: self-exaltation; E'GOTIST, one
full of egotism.--_adjs._ EGOTIST'IC, -AL, showing egotism: self-important:
conceited.--_adv._ EGOTIST'ICALLY. [L. _ego_, I.]

EGOPHONY, [=e]-gof'o-ni, _n._ a tremulous resonance heard in auscultation
in cases of pleurisy.--Also ÆGOPH'ONY. [Gr. _aix_, a goat, _phon[=e]_,

EGREGIOUS, e-gr[=e]'ji-us, _adj._ prominent: distinguished: outrageous:
enormous (in bad sense).--_adv._ EGR[=E]'GIOUSLY.--_n._ EGR[=E]'GIOUSNESS.
[L. _egregius_, chosen out of the flock--_e_, out, _grex_, _gregis_, a

EGRESS, [=e]'gres, _n._ act of going out: departure: the way out: the power
or right to depart.--_n._ EGRES'SION, the act of going out. [L. _egredi_,
_egressus_--_e_, out, forth, and _gradi_, to go.]

EGRET, [=e]'gret, _n._ a form of _aigrette_.

EGYPTIAN, [=e]-jip'shi-an, _adj._ belonging to Egypt.--_n._ a native of
Egypt: a gipsy.--_adj._ EGYPTOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ EGYPTOL'OGIST; EGYPTOL'OGY,
the science of Egyptian antiquities.--EGYPTIAN DARKNESS, darkness like that
of Exod. x. 22.

EH, [=a], _interj._ expressing inquiry or slight surprise.--_v.i._ to say

EIDENT, [=i]'dent, _adj._ busy: (_Scot._) diligent. [M. E. _ithen_--Ice.
_iðinn_, diligent.]

EIDER, [=i]'d[.e]r, _n._ the eider-duck, a northern sea-duck, sought after
for its fine down.--_n._ EI'DER-DOWN, the soft down of the eider-duck, used
for stuffing quilts. [Prob. through Sw. from Ice. _æðar_, gen. of _æðr_, an

EIDOGRAPH, [=i]'do-graf, _n._ an instrument for copying drawings. [Gr.
_eidos_, form, _graphein_, to write.]

EIDOLON, [=i]-d[=o]'lon, _n._ an image: a phantom or apparition: a
confusing reflection or reflected image:--_pl._ EID[=O]'LA. [Gr. See IDOL.]

EIFFEL-TOWER, [=i]f'el-tow'[.e]r, _n._ a colossal building--from the iron
structure, 985 feet high, erected (1887-89) in the Champ-de-Mars at Paris
by Gustave _Eiffel_.

EIGHT, [=a]t, _n._ the cardinal number one above seven: the figure (8 or
viii.) denoting eight.--_adj._ noting the number eight.--_adjs._ and _ns._
EIGHT'EEN, eight and ten, twice nine; EIGHT'EENM[=O], same as OCTODECIMO
(q.v.); EIGHT'EENTH, the ordinal number corresponding to eighteen.--_n._
EIGHT'FOIL (_her._), an eight-leaved grass.--_adjs._ EIGHT'FOLD, eight
times any quantity; EIGHTH, the ordinal number corresponding to
eight.--_n._ an eighth part.--_adv._ EIGHTH'LY, in the eighth
place.--_adjs._ and _ns._ EIGHT'IETH, the ordinal number corresponding to
eighty; EIGHT'Y, eight times ten, fourscore.--AN EIGHT, a crew of a
rowing-boat, consisting of eight oarsmen; AN EIGHT-OAR, or simply EIGHT,
the boat itself; AN EIGHT DAYS, a week; FIGURE OF EIGHT, a figure shaped
like an 8 made in skating; PIECE OF EIGHT, a Spanish coin; THE EIGHTS,
annual bumping boat-races which take place in the summer term in Oxford and
Cambridge between the various colleges. [A.S. _eahta_; Ger. _acht_, L.
_octo_, Gr. _okt[=o]_.]

EIGNE, [=a]n, _adj._ first-born. [Corrupt spelling of _ayne_--Fr. _aîné_.]

EIKON, [=i]'kon, _n._ Same as ICON.

EILD, [=e]ld, _adj._ (_Scot._) not yielding milk. [See YELD.]

EILD. Same as ELD (q.v.).

EINE, [=e]n, _n.pl._ (_obs._) eyes. [See EEN, under EE.]

EIRACK, [=e]'rak, _n._ (_Scot._) a young hen.

EIRENICON, [=i]-r[=e]'ni-kon, _n._ a proposal calculated to promote
peace.--_adj._ EIR[=E]'NIC. [Gr.,--_eir[=e]n[=e]_, peace.]

EIRIE, [=e]'ri, _n._ Same as EERIE.

EISTEDDFOD, es-teth'vod, _n._ a congress of Welsh bards and musicians held
in various towns for the preservation and cultivation of national poetry
and music. [W.; lit. 'session,' _eistedd_, to sit.]

EITHER, _[=e]'_th_[.e]r_, or _[=i]'_th_[.e]r_, _adj._ or _pron._ the one or
the other: one of two: each of two.--_conj._ correlative to _or_: (_B._)
or. [A.S. _['æ]gðer_, a contr. of _['æ]ghthwæðer_=_á_, aye, the pfx. _ge-_,
and _hwæther_, the mod. _whether_. See also EACH.]

EJACULATE, e-jak'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to eject: to utter with
suddenness.--_v.i._ to utter ejaculations.--_n._ EJACUL[=A]'TION, a sudden
utterance in prayer or otherwise: what is so uttered.--_adjs._
EJAC'ULATIVE; EJAC'ULATORY, uttered in short, earnest sentences. [L. _e_,
out, and _jacul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

EJECT, e-jekt', _v.t._ to cast out: to dismiss: to dispossess of: to
expel.--_ns._ E'JECT, a coinage of Prof. Clifford for an inferred
existence, a thing thrown out of one's own consciousness, as distinguished
from _object_, a thing presented in one's consciousness; EJEC'TION,
discharge: expulsion: state of being ejected: vomiting: that which is
ejected.--_adj._ EJEC'TIVE.--_ns._ EJECT'MENT, expulsion; dispossession:
(_law_) an action for the recovery of the possession of land; EJECT'OR, one
who ejects or dispossesses another of his land: any mechanical apparatus
for ejecting. [L. _eject[=a]re_, freq. of _ejic[)e]re_, _ejectum_--_e_,
out, _jac[)e]re_, to throw.]

EKE, [=e]k, _v.t._ to add to or increase: to lengthen.--_n._ E'KING, act of
adding: what is added.--EKE OUT, to supplement: to prolong. [A.S. _écan_,
akin to L. _aug[=e]re_, to increase.]

EKE, [=e]k, _adv._ in addition to: likewise. [A.S. _éac_; Ger. _auch_; from
root of _eke_, _v.t_.]

ELABORATE, e-lab'or-[=a]t, _v.t._ to labour on: to produce with labour: to
take pains with: to improve by successive operations.--_adj._ wrought with
labour: done with fullness and exactness: highly finished.--_adv._
ELAB'ORATELY.--_ns._ ELAB'ORATENESS; ELABOR[=A]'TION, act of elaborating:
refinement: the process by which substances are formed in the organs of
animals or plants.--_adj._ ELAB'ORATIVE.--_ns._ ELAB'ORATOR, one who
elaborates; ELAB'ORATORY=LABORATORY. [L. _elabor[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_,
out, _labor[=a]re_--_labor_, labour.]

ÉLAN, [=a]-long', _n._ impetuosity, dash. [Fr.]

ELANCE, e-lans', _v.t._ to throw out, as a lance. [Fr. _élancer_.]

ELAND, [=e]'land, _n._ the South African antelope, resembling the elk in
having a protuberance on the larynx. [Dut.; Ger. _elend_, the elk--Lith.
_élnis_, the elk.]

ELAPSE, e-laps', _v.i._ to slip or glide away: to pass silently, as
time.--_n._ ELAP'SION. [L. _elapsus_, _elabi_--_e_, out, away, _labi_,
_lapsus_, to slide.]

ELASMOBRANCHIATE, e-las-mo-brang'ki-[=a]t, _adj._ pertaining to a class,
subclass, or order of fishes including sharks and skates, having lamellar
branchiæ or plate-like gills.

ELASTIC, e-las'tik, _adj._ having a tendency to recover the original form:
springy: able to recover quickly a former state or condition after a shock:
flexible: yielding.--_n._ a piece of string, cord, &c. made elastic by
having india-rubber woven in it.--_adv._ ELAS'TICALLY.--_ns._ ELASTIC'ITY,
springiness: power to recover from depression; ELAS'TICNESS. [Coined from
Gr. _elastikos_, _elaunein_, fut. _elasein_, to drive.]

ELATE, e-l[=a]t', _adj._ lifted up: puffed up with success:
exalted.--_v.t._ to raise or exalt: to elevate: to make proud.--_adv._
ELAT'EDLY.--_ns._ ELAT'EDNESS; EL'ATER, an elastic filament in certain
liverworts and scale-mosses: a skip-jack beetle; ELAT[=E]'RIUM, a substance
contained in the juice of the fruit of the squirting cucumber, yielding the
purgative ELAT'ERIN; EL[=A]'TION, pride resulting from success. [L.
_el[=a]tus_, pa.p. of _efferre_--_e_, out, _ferre_, to carry.]

ELBOW, el'b[=o], _n._ the joint where the arm bows or bends: any sharp turn
or bend.--_v.t._ to push with the elbow: to jostle.--_ns._ EL'BOW-CHAIR, an
arm-chair; EL'BOW-GREASE, humorously applied to vigorous rubbing;
EL'BOW-ROOM, room to extend the elbows: space enough for moving or acting:
freedom.--AT ONE'S ELBOW, close at hand; BE OUT AT ELBOW, to wear a coat
ragged at the elbows; UP TO THE ELBOWS, completely engrossed. [A.S.
_elnboga_--_el-_, allied to L. _ulna_, the arm, _boga_, a bend--_bugan_, to
bend. See ELL; BOW, _n._ and _v.t._]

ELCHEE, elt'shi, _n._ an ambassador.--Also EL'CHI, ELT'CHI. [Turk.]

ELD, eld, _n._ old age, senility: former times, antiquity.

ELDER, eld'[.e]r, _n._ a genus of plants consisting chiefly of shrubs and
trees, with pinnate leaves, small flowers (of which the corolla is
wheel-shaped and five-cleft), and three-seeded berries--the Common Elder is
the Scotch _Bourtree_.--_ns._ ELD'ER-BERR'Y, the acidulous purple-black
drupaceous fruit of the elder; ELD'ER-GUN, a popgun made of elder-wood by
extracting the pith; ELD'ER-WINE, a pleasant wine made from
elder-berries.--ELDER-FLOWER WATER, distilled water, with an agreeable
odour, made from the flowers. [A.S. _ellærn_, _ellen_.]

ELDER, eld'[.e]r, _adj._ older: having lived a longer time: prior in
origin.--_n._ one who is older: an ancestor: one advanced to office on
account of age: one of a class of office-bearers in the Presbyterian
Church--equivalent to the _presbyters_ of the New Testament.--_n._
ELD'ERLINESS.--_adj._ ELD'ERLY, somewhat old: bordering on old age.--_n._
ELD'ERSHIP, state of being older: the office of an elder.--_adj._ ELD'EST,
oldest. [A.S. _eldra_, _yldra_, comp. of _eald_, old.]

ELDING, el'ding, _n._ (_prov._) fuel. [Ice.,--_eldr_, fire.]

EL DORADO, el d[=o]-rä'd[=o], the golden land of imagination of the Spanish
conquerors of America: any place where wealth is easily to be made. [Sp.
_el_, the, _dorado_, pa.p. of _dorar_, to gild.]

ELDRITCH, el'drich, _adj._ (_Scot._) weird, hideous. [Der. obscure: perh.
conn. with _elf_.]

ELEATIC, el-e-at'ik, _adj._ noting a school of philosophers, specially
connected with _Elea_, a Greek city of Lower Italy, and including
Zenophanes, Parmenides, and Zeno.--_n._ one belonging to this school.

ELECAMPANE, el'e-kam-p[=a]n', _n._ a composite plant allied to Aster,
formerly much cultivated for its medicinal root. [Formed from Low L. _enula

ELECT, e-lekt', _v.t._ to choose out: to select for any office or purpose:
to select by vote.--_adj._ chosen: taken by preference from among others:
chosen for an office but not yet in it (almost always after the noun, as
'consul elect').--_n._ one chosen or set apart.--_n._ ELEC'TION, the act of
electing or choosing: the public choice of a person for office, usually by
the votes of a constituent body: freewill: (_theol._) the exercise of God's
sovereign will in the predetermination of certain persons to salvation:
(_B._) those who are elected.--_v.i._ ELECTIONEER', to labour to secure the
election of a candidate.--_n._ ELECTIONEER'ER.--_n._ and _adj._
ELECTIONEER'ING, the soliciting of votes and other business of an
election.--_adj._ ELECT'IVE, pertaining to, dependent on, or exerting the
power of choice.--_adv._ ELECT'IVELY.--_ns._ ELECTIV'ITY; ELECT'OR, one who
elects: one who has a vote at an election: the title formerly belonging to
those princes and archbishops of the German Empire who had the right to
elect the Emperor:--_fem._ ELECT'RESS, ELECT'ORESS.--_adjs._ ELECT'ORAL,
ELECT[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to elections or to electors: consisting of
electors.--_ns._ ELECT'ORATE, the dignity or the territory of an elector:
the body of electors; ELECT'ORSHIP.--THE ELECT (_theol._), those chosen by
God for salvation. [L. _e_, out, _leg[)e]re_, to choose.]

ELECTRIC, e-lek'trik, _adj._ pertaining to or produced by
electricity.--_n._ any electric substance: a non-conductor of electricity,
as amber, glass, &c.--_adj._ ELEC'TRICAL.--_adv._ ELEC'TRICALLY.--_ns._
ELEC'TRIC-EEL (see GYMNOTUS); ELECTRI'CIAN, one who studies, or is versed
in, the science of electricity; ELECTRIC'ITY, name of the cause of certain
phenomena of attraction and repulsion: the phenomena themselves: the
science which investigates the nature and laws of these phenomena.--_adj._
communicate electricity to: to excite suddenly: to astonish: to adapt to
electricity as the motive power:--_pa.p._ elec'trified.--_n._
ELEC'TRISATION.--_v.t._ ELEC'TR[=I]SE, to electrify.--_ns._ ELEC'TRODE,
either of the poles of a galvanic battery; ELEC'TROLIER, a device for
suspending a group of incandescent lamps; ELEC'TRUM, amber: an alloy of
gold and silver.--ELECTRIC RAILWAY, a railway on which electricity is the
motive-power; ELECTRIC SPARK, one of the forms in which accumulated
electricity discharges itself; ELECTRIC STORM, a violent disturbance in the
electrical condition of the earth. [L. _electrum_--Gr. _elektron_, amber,
in which electricity was first observed.]

ELECTRO-BIOLOGY, e-lek'tro-b[=i]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science which treats of
the electricity developed in living organisms: that view of animal
magnetism according to which the actions, feelings, &c. of a person are
controlled by the will of the operator.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-BALLIS'TIC, of an
apparatus for determining by electricity the velocity of a
projectile.--_ns._ ELEC'TRO-BIOL'OGIST; ELEC'TRO-CHEM'ISTRY, that branch of
chemical science which treats of the agency of electricity in effecting
chemical changes.--_v.t._ ELEC'TROCUTE, to inflict a death penalty by means
of electricity.--_ns._ ELECTROC[=U]'TION, capital punishment by
electricity; ELEC'TRO-DYNAM'ICS, the branch of physics which treats of the
action of electricity; ELEC'TRO-DYNAMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring
the strength of electro-dynamic action; ELEC'TRO-ENGRAV'ING, an etching
process in which the etched plate is placed in an electro-bath to deepen
the 'bite;' ELEC'TRO-GILD'ING, electroplating with gold;
ELEC'TRO-KINET'ICS, that branch of science which treats of electricity in
motion; ELECTROL'OGY, the science of applied electricity.--_v.t._
ELEC'TROLYSE, to subject to electrolysis.--_ns._ ELECTROL'YSIS, the process
of chemical decomposition by electricity; ELEC'TROLYTE, a body which admits
of electrolysis.--_adj._ ELECTROLYT'IC.--_n._ ELEC'TRO-MAG'NET, a piece of
soft iron rendered magnetic by a current of electricity passing through a
coil of wire wound round it.--_adj._ ELEC'TRO-MAGNET'IC.--_ns._
ELEC'TRO-MAG'NETISM, a branch of science which treats of the relation of
electricity to magnetism; ELEC'TRO-MET'ALLURGY, a name given to certain
processes by which electricity is applied to the working of metals, as in
electroplating and electrotyping; ELECTROM'ETER, an instrument for
measuring the quantity of electricity.--_adjs._ ELECTROMET'RIC, -AL,
pertaining to the measurement of electricity.--_ns._ ELECTROM'ETRY, the
science of electrical measurements; ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TION, the passage of an
electric current in a voltaic circuit: motion produced by electricity
employed as power.--_adjs._ ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TIVE, pertaining to the motion
of electricity or the laws governing it.--_n._ ELEC'TRO-M[=O]'TOR, an
apparatus for applying electricity as a motive-power.--_adj._
ELEC'TRO-NEG'ATIVE, appearing, as an element in electrolysis, at the
positive electrode: having the property of becoming negatively electrified
by contact with a dissimilar substance.--_ns._ ELEC'TROPH[=O]NE, an
instrument for producing sounds resembling trumpet-tones by electric
currents of high tension; ELECTROPH'ORUS, an instrument for obtaining
statical electricity by means of induction; ELEC'TRO-PHYSIOL'OGY, the study
of the electric phenomena of living organisms.--_v.t._ ELEC'TROPLATE, to
plate or cover with silver by electrolysis.--_n._ ELEC'TROPLATING.--_adjs._
ELEC'TRO-P[=O]'LAR, having, as an electrical conductor, one end or surface
positive and the other negative; ELEC'TRO-POS'ITIVE, attracted by bodies
negatively electrified, or by the negative pole of a voltaic battery:
assuming positive potential when in contact with another substance.--_ns._
ELEC'TROSCOPE, an instrument for detecting the presence of electricity in a
body and the nature of it; ELEC'TRO-STAT'ICS, that branch of science which
treats of electricity at rest; ELEC'TRO-TINT, a style of etching by means
of galvanism; ELEC'TROTYPE, the art of copying an engraving or type on a
metal deposited by electricity.--_adj._ ELECTROTYP'IC.--_ns._
ELEC'TROTYPIST; ELEC'TROTYPY, the art of copying.--_adj._
ELEC'TRO-V[=I]'TAL, electrical and dependent upon vital processes.

ELECTUARY, e-lek't[=u]-ar-i, _n._ a composition of medicinal powders with
honey or sugar. [Low L. _electuarium_--Gr. _ekleikton_--_ekleichein_, to
lick up.]

ELECTRON. See page 1208.

ELEEMOSYNARY, el-e-mos'i-nar-i, _adj._ relating to charity or almsgiving:
dependent on charity: given in charity. [Gr. _ele[=e]mosyn[=e]_,
compassionateness, alms--_eleos_, pity. See ALMS.]

ELEGANT, el'e-gant, _adj._ pleasing to good taste: graceful: neat: refined:
nice: richly ornamental.--_ns._ EL'EGANCE, EL'EGANCY, the state or quality
of being elegant: the beauty of propriety: refinement: that which is
elegant; ELEGANTE (el-e-gangt'), a lady of fashion.--_adv._ EL'EGANTLY.
[Fr.,--L. _elegans_, _-antis_--_e_, out, and root of _leg[)e]re_, to

ELEGY, el'e-ji, _n._ a song of mourning: a funeral-song: a poem written in
elegiac metre.--_adj._ ELEG[=I]'AC, belonging to elegy: mournful: used in
elegies, esp. noting the kind of metre, alternate hexameter and pentameter
lines.--_n._ elegiac verse.--_adj._ ELEG[=I]'ACAL.--_ns._ EL[=E]'GIAST,
EL'EGIST, a writer of elegies.--_v.i._ EL'EG[=I]SE, to write an
elegy.--_v.t._ to write an elegy on. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _elegos_, a lament.]

ELEMENT, el'e-ment, _n._ a first principle: one of the essential parts of
anything: an ingredient: the proper state or sphere of any thing or being:
(_pl._) the rudiments of learning: the bread and wine used in the
Eucharist: fire, air, earth, and water, supposed by the ancients to be the
foundation of everything: (_chem._) the simplest known constituents of all
compound substances: (_astron._) those numerical quantities, and those
principles deduced from astronomical observations and calculations, which
are employed in the construction of tables exhibiting the planetary
motions.--_adj._ ELEMENT'AL, pertaining to elements or first principles:
fundamental: belonging to or produced by elements.--_n._ ELEMENT'ALISM, the
theory which resolves the divinities of antiquity into the elemental
powers.--_adv._ ELEMENT'ALLY.--_adj._ ELEMENT'ARY, of a single element:
primary: uncompounded: pertaining to the elements: treating of first
principles.--ELEMENTAL SPIRITS, beings in medieval belief who presided over
the four 'elements,' living in and ruling them. [Fr.,--L. _elementum_, pl.
_elementà_, first principles.]

ELEMI, el'em-i, _n._ a fragrant resinous substance, obtained from the
Manila pitch-tree, Arbol de la Brea.--_n._ EL'EMIN, the crystallisable
portion of elemi. [Cf. Fr. _élémi_, Sp. _elemi_; perh. Ar.]

ELENCH, e-lengk', ELENCHUS, e-lengk'us, _n._ refutation: a
sophism.--_adjs._ ELENCH'IC, -AL, ELENC'TIC. [L.,--Gr.
_elengchos_--_elengchein_, to refute.]

ELEPHANT, el'e-fant, _n._ the largest quadruped, having a very thick skin,
a trunk, and two ivory tusks: a special size of paper.--_ns._ ELEPHAN'TIAC,
one affected with elephantiasis; ELEPHANT[=I]'ASIS, a disease chiefly of
tropical climates, consisting of an overgrowth of the skin and connective
tissue of the parts affected, with occasional attacks of inflammation
resembling erysipelas.--_adjs._ ELEPHANT'INE, pertaining to an elephant:
like an elephant: very large or ungainly; ELEPHANT'OID,
elephant-like.--_ns._ EL'EPHANT-SEAL, the largest of the seals, the male
measuring about 20 feet in length; EL'EPHANT'S-FOOT, a plant of which the
root-stock forms a large fleshy mass resembling an elephant's foot, used as
food by the Hottentots; EL'EPHANT-SHREW, name applied to a number of
long-nosed, long-legged Insectivora, natives of Africa, and notable for
their agile jumping over loose sand.--A WHITE ELEPHANT, a gift which
occasions the recipient more trouble than it is worth--a white elephant
being a common gift of the kings of Siam to a courtier they wished to ruin.
[M. E. _olifaunt_--O. Fr. _olifant_--L. _elephantum_, _elephas_,
_-antis_--Gr. _elephas_, acc. to some from Heb. _eleph_, _aleph_, an ox.]

ELEUSINIAN, el-[=u]-sin'i-an, _adj._ relating to _Eleusis_ in
Attica.--ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, the mysteries of Demeter celebrated at

ELEUTHERIAN, el-[=u]-th[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ bountiful.

ELEUTHEROMANIA, el-[=u]th-er-o-m[=a]'ni-a, _n._ mad zeal for freedom.--_n._
ELEUTHEROM[=A]'NIAC (_Carlyle_), one possessed with such. [Formed from Gr.
_eleutheros_, free, and _mania_.]

ELEVATE, el'e-v[=a]t, _v.t._ to raise to a higher position: to raise in
mind and feelings: to improve: to cheer: to exhilarate: to
intoxicate.--_p.adjs._ EL'EVATE, -D, raised: dignified: exhilarated.--_ns._
ELEV[=A]'TION, the act of elevating or raising, or the state of being
raised: exaltation: an elevated place or station: a rising ground: height:
(_archit._) a representation of the flat side of a building, drawn with
mathematical accuracy, but without any attention to effect: (_astron._,
_geog._) the height above the horizon of an object on the sphere, measured
by the arc of a vertical circle through it and the zenith: (_gun._) the
angle made by the line of direction of a gun with the plane of the horizon;
EL'EVATOR, the person or thing that lifts up: a lift or machine for raising
grain, &c., to a higher floor: a muscle raising a part of the body.--_adj._
EL'EVATORY, able or tending to raise. [L. _elev[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_,
out, up, _lev[=a]re_, to raise--_levis_, light. See LIGHT (2).]

ELÈVE, [=a]-lev', _n._ a pupil. [Fr.]

ELEVEN, e-lev'n, _n._ the cardinal number next above ten: the figure (11 or
xi.) denoting eleven: a team of eleven cricketers.--_adj._ noting the
number eleven.--_adj._ and _n._ ELEV'ENTH, the ordinal number corresponding
to eleven.--ELEVENTH HOUR, the very last moment, referring to Matt. xx. 6,
9. [A.S. _endleofon_; cf. Goth. _ainlif_.]

ELF, elf, _n._ in European folklore, a supernatural being, generally of
human form but diminutive size, more malignant than a fairy: a dwarf: a
tricky being:--(_pl._) ELVES.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) of the hair, to
entangle.--_n._ ELF'-CHILD, a changeling, or a child supposed to have been
left by elves in place of one stolen by them.--_adj._ ELF'IN, of or
relating to elves.--_n._ a little elf: a child.--_adjs._ ELF'ISH, ELV'AN,
ELV'ISH, elf-like, mischievous: tricky: disguised.--_n._ ELF'-LAND, the
land of the elves or fairies.--_n.pl._ ELF'-LOCKS (_Shak._) locks of hair
clotted together, supposed to have been done by elves.--_ns._ ELF'-SHOT,
ELF'-BOLT, ELF'-AR'ROW, an arrow-head of flint or stone. [A.S. _ælf_; cf.
Ice. _álfr_, Sw. _elf_.]


ELICIT, e-lis'it, _v.t._ to entice: to bring to light: to deduce.--_n._
ELICIT[=A]'TION. [L. _elic[)e]re_, _elicitum_.]

ELIDE, e-l[=i]d', _v.t._ to rebut: to cut off, as a syllable.--_n._
ELI'SION, the suppression of a vowel or syllable. [L. _elid[)e]re_,
_elisum_--_e_, out, _læd[)e]re_, to strike.]

ELIGIBLE, el'i-ji-bl, _adj._ fit or worthy to be chosen: legally qualified:
desirable.--_n._ (_coll._) a person or thing eligible.--_ns._
EL'IGIBLENESS, ELIGIBIL'ITY, fitness to be elected or chosen: the state of
being preferable to something else: desirableness.--_adv._ EL'IGIBLY.
[Fr.,--L. _elig[)e]re_. See ELECT, _v.t._]

ELIMINATE, [=e]-lim'in-[=a]t, _v.t._ to thrust out: to remove, cancel: to
leave out of consideration.--_adj._ ELIM'INABLE.--_n._ ELIMIN[=A]'TION. [L.
_elimin[)a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _limen_, _liminis_, a threshold.]



ELITE, [=a]-l[=e]t, _n._ a chosen or select part: the best of anything.
[Fr. _élite_--L. _electa_ (_pars_, a part, understood). See ELECT, _v.t._]

ELIXIR, e-liks'[.e]r, _n._ more fully, ELIXIR VITÆ, or ELIXIR OF LIFE, a
liquor once supposed to have the power of indefinitely prolonging life or
of transmuting metals: the quintessence of anything: a substance which
invigorates: (_med._) a compound tincture. [Low L.,--Ar. _al-iks[=i]r_, the
philosopher's stone, from _al-_, the, _iks[=i]r_, prob. from Late Gr.
_x[=e]rion_, a desiccative powder for wounds--Gr. _x[=e]ros_, dry.]

ELIZABETHAN, e-liz-a-beth'an, _adj._ pertaining to Queen _Elizabeth_
(1533-1603) or her time--of dress, manners, literature, &c.--_n._ a poet or
dramatist of that age.--ELIZABETHAN ARCHITECTURE, a name applied to the
mixed style which sprang up on the decline of Gothic, marked by Tudor
bow-windows and turrets decorated with classic cornices and pilasters, long
galleries, enormous square windows, large apartments, plaster ceilings
wrought into compartments, &c.

ELK, elk, _n._ the largest species of deer, found in the north of Europe
and in North America.--IRISH ELK, a giant deer now extinct, known from the
remains found in the Pleistocene diluvium, esp. of Ireland. [Perh. from the
Scand., Ice. _elgr_, Sw. _elg_.]

ELL, el, _n._ a measure of length originally taken from the arm: a cloth
measure equal to 1¼ yd.--_n._ ELL'WAND, a measuring rod.--GIVE HIM AN INCH
AND HE'LL TAKE AN ELL, a proverb, signifying that to yield one point
entails the yielding of all. [A.S. _eln_; Dut. _el_, Ger. _elle_, L.
_ulna_, Gr. _[=o]len[=e]_.]

ELLAGIC, e-laj'ik, _adj._ pertaining to gall-nuts.

ELLEBORIN, el'[=e]-b[=o]-rin, _n._ a very acrid resin found in winter

ELLIPSE, el-lips', _n._ an oval: (_geom._) a figure produced by the section
of a cone by a plane passing obliquely through the opposite sides.--_ns._
ELLIP'SIS (_gram._), a figure of syntax by which a word or words are left
out and implied:--_pl._ ELLIP'S[=E]S; ELLIP'SOGRAPH, an instrument for
describing ellipses; ELLIP'SOID (_math._), a surface every plane section of
which is an ellipse.--_adjs._ ELLIPSOI'DAL; ELLIP'TIC, -AL, pertaining to
an ellipse: oval: pertaining to ellipsis: having a part understood.--_adv._
ELLIP'TICALLY.--_n._ ELLIPTIC'ITY, deviation from the form of a circle or
sphere: of the earth, the difference between the equatorial and polar
diameters. [L.,--Gr. _elleipsis_--_elleipein_, to fall short--_en_, in,
_leipein_, to leave.]

ELLOPS, el'ops, _n._ a kind of serpent or fish. [Gr.]

ELM, elm, _n._ a genus of trees of the natural order _Ulmaceæ_, with
serrated leaves unequal at the base, and small flowers growing in clusters
appearing before the leaves.--_adjs._ ELM'EN, made of elm; ELM'Y, abounding
with elms. [A.S. _elm_; Ger. _ulme_, L. _ulmus_.]

ELMO'S FIRE, el'm[=o]z f[=i]r, _n._ the popular name of an electric
appearance sometimes seen like a brush or star of light at the tops of
masts, spars, &c.--Also known as the Fire of St Elias, of St Clara, of St
Nicholas, and of Helena, as well as _composite_ or _composant_ (_corpus
sanctum_) on the Suffolk sea-board. [Explained as a corr. of _Helena_, name
of the sister of Castor and Pollux, or of St Erasmus, a 3d-cent. bishop,
Italianised as _Ermo_, _Elmo_.]

ELOCUTION, el-o-k[=u]'shun, _n._ the art of effective speaking, more esp.
of public speaking, regarding solely the utterance or delivery:
eloquence.--_adj._ ELOC[=U]'TIONARY.--_n._ ELOC[=U]'TIONIST, one versed in
elocution: a teacher of elocution. [Fr.,--L. _elocution-em_, _eloqui_,
_eloc[=u]tus_--_e_, out, _loqui_, to speak.]

ÉLOGE, [=a]-l[=o]zh', ELOGIUM, [=e]-l[=o]'ji-um, ELOGY, el'o-ji, _n._ a
funeral oration: a panegyric.--_n._ EL'OGIST, one who delivers an éloge.
[Fr. _éloge_--L. _elogium_, a short statement, an inscription on a tomb,
perh. confused with _eulogy_.]

ELOHIM, e-l[=o]'him, _n._ the Hebrew name for God.--_n._ EL[=O]'HIST, the
writer or writers of the Elohistic passages of the Old Testament.--_adj._
ELOHIST'IC, relating to Elohim--said of those passages in the Old Testament
in which Elohim is used as the name for the Supreme Being instead of
Jehovah. [Heb., pl. of _Eloah_--explained by Delitzsch as a plural of

ELOIN, ELOIGN, e-loin', _v.t._ to convey to a distance, to separate and
remove.--_ns._ ELOIN'MENT, ELOIGN'MENT. [O. Fr. _esloignier_ (Fr.
_éloigner_)--Low L. _elong[=a]re_. See ELONGATE.]

ELONGATE, e-long'g[=a]t, _v.t._ to make longer: to extend.--_p.adjs._
ELONG'ATE, -D.--_n._ ELONG[=A]'TION, act of lengthening out: distance. [Low
L. _elong[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _longus_, long.]

ELOPE, e-l[=o]p, _v.i._ to escape privately, said esp. of a woman, either
married or unmarried, who runs away with a lover: to run away, bolt.--_n._
ELOPE'MENT, a secret departure, esp. of a woman with a man. [Cf. Old Dut.
_ontl[=o]pen_, Ger. _entlaufen_, to run away.]

ELOQUENT, el'o-kwent, _adj._ having the power of speaking with fluency,
elegance, and force: containing eloquence: persuasive.--_n._ EL'OQUENCE,
the utterance of strong emotion in correct, appropriate, expressive, and
fluent language: the art which produces fine speaking: persuasive
speech.--_adv._ EL'OQUENTLY. [L. _eloquens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _eloqui_.]

ELSE, els, _pron._ other.--_adv._ otherwise: besides: except that
mentioned.--_advs._ ELSE'WHERE, in or to another place; ELSE'WISE, in a
different manner: otherwise. [A.S. _elles_, otherwise--orig. gen. of _el_,
other; cf. Old High Ger. _alles_ or _elles_.]

ELSIN, el'sin, _n._ (_Scot._) an awl. [From Old Dut. _elssene_ (mod.
_els_), from same root as _awl_.]


ELUCIDATE, e-l[=u]'si-d[=a]t, _v.t._ to make lucid or clear: to throw light
upon: to illustrate.--_n._ ELUCID[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ EL[=U]'CIDATIVE,
EL[=U]'CIDATORY, making clear: explanatory.--_n._ EL[=U]'CIDATOR. [Low L.
_elucid[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, inten., _lucidus_, clear.]


ELUDE, e-l[=u]d', _v.t._ to escape by stratagem: to baffle.--_adj._
EL[=U]'DIBLE.--_n._ EL[=U]'SION, act of eluding: evasion.--_adj._
EL[=U]'SIVE, practising elusion: deceptive.--_adv._ EL[=U]'SIVELY.--_n._
EL[=U]'SORINESS.--_adj._ EL[=U]'SORY, tending to elude or cheat: evasive:
deceitful. [L. _elud[)e]re_, _elusum_--_e_, out, _lud[)e]re_, to play.]

ELUL, [=e]'lul, _n._ the 12th month of the Jewish civil year, and 6th of
the ecclesiastical. [Heb.,--_âlal_, to reap.]

ELUTRIATE, e-l[=u]'tri-[=a]t, _v.t._ to separate by means of water the
finer particles of earth and pigments from the heavier portions.--_ns._
EL[=U]'TION, washing from impurity; ELUTRI[=A]'TION. [L. _elutri[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to wash out, _elu[)e]re_--_e_, out, _lu[)e]re_, to wash.]

ELVAN, elv'an, _n._ the miner's name in the south-west of England for a
granular crystalline rock, composed of quartz and orthoclase, which forms
veins associated with granite.--Also ELV'ANITE. [Prob. Corn. _elven_,


ELYSIUM, e-lizh'i-um, _n._ (_myth._) among the Greeks, the abode of the
blessed after death: any delightful place.--_adj._ ELYS'IAN, pertaining to
Elysium: delightful: glorious. [L.,--Gr. _[=e]lysion_ (_pedion_), the
Elysian (plain).]

ELYTRUM, el'it-rum, _n._ the fore-wing of beetles, modified to form more or
less hard coverings for the hind pair--also EL'YTRON:--_pl._
EL'YTRA.--_adjs._ EL'YTRAL; ELYT'RIFORM; ELYTRIG'EROUS. [Gr. _elytron_, a

ELZEVIR, el'ze-vir, _adj._ published by the _Elzevirs_, a celebrated family
of printers at Amsterdam, Leyden, and other places in Holland, whose small
neat editions were chiefly published between 1592 and 1681: pertaining to
the type used in their 12mo and 16mo editions of the Latin classics.--_n._
a special form of printing types.

EM, em, _n._ the name of the letter M: (_print._) the unit of measurement
in estimating how much is printed on a page.

'EM, [.e]m, _pron._ him: (_coll._) them. [Orig. the unstressed form of
_hem_, dat. and accus. pl. of _he_; but now used coll. as an abbreviation
of _them_.]

EMACIATE, e-m[=a]'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make meagre or lean: to deprive of
flesh: to waste.--_v.i._ to become lean: to waste away.--_p.adjs._
EM[=A]'CIATE, -D.--_n._ EMACI[=A]'TION, the condition of becoming emaciated
or lean: leanness. [L. _emaci[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, inten.,
_maci[=a]re_, to make lean--_macies_, leanness.]

EMANATE, em'a-n[=a]t, _v.i._ to flow out or from: to proceed from some
source: to arise.--_adj._ EM'ANANT, flowing from.--_ns._ EMAN[=A]'TION, a
flowing out from a source, as the universe considered as issuing from the
essence of God: the _generation_ of the Son and the _procession_ of the
Spirit, as distinct from the origination of created beings: that which
issues or proceeds from some source; EM'ANATIST.--_adjs._ EM'ANATIVE,
EM'ANATORY, EMAN[=A]'TIONAL. [L. _eman[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out from,
_man[=a]re_, to flow.]

EMANCIPATE, e-man'si-p[=a]t, _v.t._ to set free from servitude: to free
from restraint or bondage of any kind.--_ns._ EMANCIP[=A]'TION, the act of
setting free from bondage or disability of any kind: the state of being set
free; EMANCIP[=A]'TIONIST, an advocate of the emancipation of slaves;
EMAN'CIPATOR; EMAN'CIPIST, a convict who has served his time of punishment
in a penal colony. [L. _emancip[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, away from,
_mancip[=a]re_, to transfer property--_manceps_, _-cipis_, one who gets
property, from _manus_, the hand, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

EMARGINATE, e-mär'jin-[=a]t, _v.t._ to take away the margin of.--_p.adj._
(_bot._) depressed and notched instead of pointed at the summit, as a leaf:
(_min._) having all the edges of the primitive form crossed by a face:
(_zool._) having the margin broken by a notch or segment of a circle.--_n._
EMARGIN[=A]'TION. [L. _emargin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out,
_margin[=a]re_, to provide with a margin--_margo_, a margin.]

EMASCULATE, e-mas'k[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to deprive of the properties of a
male: to castrate: to deprive of masculine vigour: to render
effeminate.--_ns._ EMASCUL[=A]'TION; EMAS'CUL[=A]TOR.--_adj._
EMAS'CUL[=A]TORY. [Low L. _emascul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, neg.,
_masculus_, dim. of _mas_, a male.]

EMBACE, em-b[=a]s', _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as EMBASE.

EMBALE, em-b[=a]l', _v.t._ to make up, as into a bale: to bind up: to
enclose. [Fr. _emballer_--_em_--L. _in_, _balle_, a bale.]

EMBALL, em-bawl', _v.t._ to encircle: ensphere.--_n._ EMBALL'ING.

EMBALM, em-bäm', _v.t._ to preserve from decay by aromatic drugs, as a dead
body: to perfume: to preserve with care and affection.--_ns._ EMBALM'ER;
EMBALM'ING; EMBALM'MENT. [Fr. _embaumer_, from _em_, in, and _baume_. See

EMBANK, em-bangk', _v.t._ to enclose or defend with a bank or dike.--_n._
EMBANK'MENT, the act of embanking: a bank or mound made to keep water
within certain limits: a mound constructed so as to carry a level road or
railway over a low-lying place. [Coined from _em_, in, and _bank_.]

EMBAR, em-bär', _v.t._ to shut in; to hinder or stop:--_pr.p._ embar'ring;
_pa.p._ embarred'.--_n._ EMBAR'RING.


EMBARGO, em-bär'g[=o], _n._ a temporary order from the Admiralty to prevent
the arrival or departure of ships: a stoppage of trade for a short time by
authority:--_pl._ EMBAR'GOES.--_v.t._ to lay an embargo on: to
seize.--_pr.p._ embar'g[=o]ing; _pa.p._ embar'g[=o]ed. [Sp.,--_embargar_,
to impede, to restrain--Sp. _em_, in, _barra_, a bar. See BARRICADE and

EMBARK, em-bärk', _v.t._ to put on board ship: to engage in any
affair.--_v.i._ to go on board ship: to engage in a business: to
enlist.--_n._ EMBARK[=A]'TION, a putting or going on board: that which is
embarked: (_obs._) a vessel.--_p.adjs._ EMBARKED'; EMBARK'ING.--_n._
EMBARK'MENT. [Fr. _embarquer_, from _em_, in, _barque_, a bark.]

EMBARRASS, em-bar'as, _v.t._ to encumber: to involve in difficulty, esp. in
money matters: to perplex.--_p.adj._ EMBARR'ASSED, perplexed:
constrained.--_n._ EMBARR'ASSMENT, perplexity or confusion: difficulties in
money matters.--EMBARRAS DES RICHESSES, a superabundance of materials, an
abundance so great that choice is difficult. [Fr. _embarrasser_--_em_, in,
_barre_, bar.]

EMBASE, em-b[=a]z', _v.t._ (_obs._) to bring down: to degrade.--_p.adj._
EMBASED'.--_n._ EMBASE'MENT. [_Em_ and _base_.]

EMBASSY, em'bas-i, _n._ the charge or function of an ambassador: the person
or persons sent on an undertaking.--_ns._ EM'BASSADE, EM'BASSAGE (same as

EMBATHE, em-b[=a]_th_' _v.t._ to bathe.

EMBATTLE, em-bat'l, _v.t._ to furnish with battlements.--_p.adj._
EMBATT'LED, furnished with battlements: (_her._) having the outline like a
battlement.--_n._ EMBATT'LEMENT (same as BATTLEMENT). [_Em_, and O. Fr.
_bastiller_, from the same root as _battlement_, _bastille_, and _baste_,
to sew. The form of this word is due to a confusion with Eng. _battle_.]

EMBATTLE, em-bat'l, _v.t._ to range in order of battle: to arm--_p.adj._
EMBATT'LED, arranged for battle. [O. Fr. _embataillier_--_en_, in,
_bataille_, battle.]

EMBAY, em-b[=a]', _v.t._ to enclose in a bay: to land-lock.--_n._
EMBAY'MENT, a bay. [_Em_, in, into, and _bay_.]

EMBAY, em-b[=a]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bathe. [_Em_, in, and Fr. _baigner_.

EMBED, em-bed', IMBED, im-, _v.t._ to place in a mass of matter: to lay, as
in a bed.--_n._ EMBED'MENT, the act of embedding: state of being embedded.

EMBELLISH, em-bel'ish, _v.t._ to make beautiful with ornaments: to
decorate: to make graceful: to illustrate pictorially, as a book.--_n._
embellishing or adorning: decoration: ornament. [Fr. _embellir_,
_embellissant_--_em_, in, _bel_, _beau_, beautiful.]

EMBER, em'b[.e]r, _n._ a live piece of coal or wood: chiefly in _pl._
red-hot ashes: smouldering remains of a fire. [A.S. _['æ]merge_; Ice.
_eimyrja_. The _b_ is simply euphonic.]

EMBER-DAYS, em'b[.e]r-d[=a]z, _n.pl._ the three Fast-days in each quarter
(Wednesday, Friday, Saturday)--following the first Sunday in Lent,
Whitsunday, Holy Cross Day (Sept. 14th), and St Lucia's Day (Dec.
13th).--_n._ EM'BER-WEEK, the week in which the ember-days occur. [A.S.
_ymbryne_, a circuit--_ymb_, round (Ger. _um_, L. _ambi-_), and _ryne_, a
running, from _rinnan_, to run.]

EMBER-GOOSE, em'b[.e]r-g[=oo]s, _n._ a kind of sea-fowl, the Great Northern
Diver. [Norw. _emmer_; Ger. _imber_.]

EMBEZZLE, em-bez'l, _v.t._ to appropriate fraudulently what has been
entrusted.--_ns._ EMBEZZ'LEMENT, fraudulent appropriation of another's
property by the person to whom it was entrusted; EMBEZZ'LER. [Perh. from
root of _imbecile_, the primary sense being to weaken: (_obs._) BEZZ'LE, to
squander, from O. Fr. _besiler_, to destroy, is the same word.]

EMBITTER, em-bit'[.e]r, _Imbitter_, im-, _v.t._ to make bitter: to increase
(ill-feeling).--_p.adj._ EMBITT'ERED, soured.--_n._ EMBITT'ERER.--_p.adj._

EMBLAZON, em-bl[=a]'zn, _v.t._ to deck in blazing colours: (_her._) to
blazon or adorn with figures: to depict heraldically.--_v.t._ EMBLAZE', to
illuminate.--_ns._ EMBL[=A]'ZONER; EMBL[=A]'ZONMENT, an emblazoning;
EMBL[=A]'ZONRY, the art of emblazoning or adorning: devices on shields.
[_Em_, and _blaze_, _blazon_.]

EMBLEM, em'blem, _n._ a picture representing to the mind something
different from itself: a type or symbol: (_Milton_) an inlaid
ornament.--_v.t._ to symbolise.--_n._ EMBL[=E]'MA, an inlaid
ornament:--_pl._ EMBL[=E]'MATA.--_adjs._ EMBLEMAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to or
containing emblems: symbolical: representing.--_adv._
EMBLEMAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ EMBLEM'ATISE, EM'BLEMISE, to represent by an
emblem:--_pr.p._ emblem'at[=i]sing; _pa.p._ emblem'at[=i]sed.--_n._
EMBLEM'ATIST, a writer or inventor of emblems. [L. _embl[=e]ma_--Gr. _em_
(=_en_), in, _ballein_, to cast.]

EMBLEMENTS, em'bl-ments, _n.pl._ crops raised by the labour of the
cultivator, but not fruits nor grass. [O. Fr. _emblaer_, to sow with
corn--Low L. _imblad[=a]re_--_in_, in, _bladum_, wheat.]

EMBLOOM, em-bl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to cover with bloom.

EMBLOSSOM, em-blos'om, _v.t._ to cover with blossom.

EMBODY, em-bod'i, IMBODY, im-, _v.t._ to form into a body: to make
corporeal: to make tangible: to express (an idea in words): to
organise.--_v.i._ to unite in a body or mass.--_p.adj._ EMBOD'IED.--_n._
EMBOD'IMENT, act of embodying: state of being embodied: that in which
something is embodied. [_Em_, in, and _body_.]

EMBOGUE, em-b[=o]g', _v.i._ to discharge itself.

EMBOIL, em-boil', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to burn with anger.--_v.t._ to cause to
burn with anger: to irritate.

EMBOLDEN, em-b[=o]ld'n, IMBOLDEN, im-, _v.t._ to make bold or courageous.
[_Em_, to make, and _bold_.]

EMBOLISM, em'bo-lizm, _n._ the insertion of days in an account of time to
produce regularity: an intercalated prayer for deliverance from evil coming
after the Lord's Prayer: (_med._) the presence of obstructing clots in the
blood-vessels.--_adjs._ EMBOLIS'MAL, EMBOLIS'MIC.--_n._ EM'BOLUS, the clot
of fibrin obstructing a blood-vessel, causing embolism. [Fr.,--Gr.
_embolismos_--_emballein_, to cast in.]

EMBONPOINT, ang-bong-pwang', _adj._ stout, plump, full in figure, mostly of
women: well-fed.--_n._ stoutness, plumpness, well-fed condition. [Fr.,--_en
bon point_, in good form.]

EMBORDER, em-bord'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Milton_) to border.

EMBOSCATA, em-bos-k[=a]'ta, _n._ an erroneous form of It. _imboscáta_, an

EMBOSOM, em-booz'um, IMBOSOM, im-, _v.t._ to take into the bosom: to
receive into the affections: to enclose or surround. [_Em_, in, into, and

EMBOSS, em-bos', _v.t._ to produce (a raised pattern) by pressure upon
sheet-metal, leather, cloth, &c.: to ornament with raised-work: (_Spens._)
to cover with armour: to be wrapped in.--_p.adj._ EMBOSSED', formed or
covered with bosses: raised, standing out in relief: (_bot._) having a
protuberance in the centre.--_ns._ EMBOSS'ER; EMBOSS'MENT, a prominence
like a boss: raised-work. [_Em_, in, into, and _boss_.]

EMBOSS, em-bos', _v.i._ (_Milton_) to plunge into the depths of a
wood.--_v.t._ to make to foam at the mouth. [O. Fr. _embosquer_, _em_--L.
_in_, in, _bosc_, a wood. See AMBUSH.]

EMBOUCHURE, ang-boo-shür', _n._ the mouth of a river: the mouth-hole of a
wind musical instrument. [Fr.,--_em-boucher_, to put to the mouth--_en_,
in, _bouche_, a mouth.]

EMBOUND, em-bownd', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to bound, enclose.

EMBOW, em-b[=o]', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to bow or arch.--_p.adj._ EMBOWED',
arched, vaulted: bent like a bow: the heraldic term noting anything bent
like a bow--as, e.g., the arm of a man. [_Em_ and _bow_.]

EMBOWEL, em-bow'el, _v.t._ properly, to enclose in something else; but also
used for disembowel, to remove the entrails from:--_pr.p._ embow'elling;
_pa.p._ embow'elled.--_n._ EMBOW'ELMENT. [_Em_, in, into, and _bowel_.]

EMBOWER, em-bow'er, IMBOWER, im-, _v.t._ to place in a bower: to shelter,
as with trees.--_p.adjs._ EMBOW'ERED; EMBOW'ERING.--_n._ EMBOW'ERMENT.
[_Em_, in, and _bower_.]

EMBOX, em-boks', _v.t._ to set in a box. [_Em_, in, _box_.]

EMBRACE, em-br[=a]s', _v.t._ to take in the arms: to press to the bosom
with affection: to take eagerly or willingly: to comprise: to admit, adopt,
or receive.--_v.i._ to join in an embrace.--_n._ an embracing: fond
pressure in the arms.--_ns._ EMBRACE'MENT; EMBRAC'ER.--_adjs._ EMBRAC'ING,
EMBRAC'IVE.--_adv._ EMBRAC'INGLY.--_n._ EMBRAC'INGNESS. [O. Fr. _embracer_
(Fr. _embrasser_)--L. _in_, in, into, _bracchium_, an arm. See BRACE.]

EMBRACE, em-br[=a]s', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to brace, to fasten, or
bind:--_pr.p._ embrac'ing; _pa.p._ embraced'. [_Em_, in, and _brace_.]

EMBRACER, em-br[=a]'ser, _n._ (_law_) one who influences jurors by corrupt
means to deliver a partial verdict--also EMBR[=A]'CEOR, EMBR[=A]'SOR.--_n._
EMBRAC'ERY, the offence of an embracer. [O. Fr. _embraceor_, from
_embraser_, to set on fire.]

EMBRAID, em-br[=a]d', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to braid.

EMBRANCHMENT, em-bransh'ment, _n._ a branching off, as an arm of a river, a
spur of a mountain, &c. [Fr.]

EMBRANGLE, em-brang'gl, IMBRANGLE, im-, _v.t._ to confuse, perplex.--_n._
EMBRAN'GLEMENT. [_Em_, in, and _brangle_.]


EMBRASURE, em-br[=a]'zh[=u]r, _n._ a door or window with the sides slanted
on the inside: an opening in a wall for cannon. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _embraser_,
to slope the sides of a window, _em_--L. _in_, _braser_, to skew.]

EMBRAVE, em-br[=a]v', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to make brave or showy, to
decorate: to inspire with bravery.

EMBREAD, _v.t._ (_Spens._) embraid.

EMBREATHE, em-br[=e]_th_', _v.t._ to breathe into, to inspire with. [_En_
and _breathe_.]

EMBROCATE, em'br[=o]-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to moisten and rub, as a sore with a
lotion.--_n._ EMBROC[=A]'TION, act of embrocating: the lotion used. [Low L.
_embroc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, from Gr. _embroch[=e]_, a lotion--_embrechein_,
to soak in--_em_ (=_en_), in, into, _brechein_, to wet.]


EMBROIDER, em-broid'[.e]r, _v.t._ to ornament with designs in needlework,
originally on the border.--_ns._ EMBROID'ERER; EMBROID'ERY, the art of
producing ornamental patterns by means of needlework on textile fabrics,
&c.: ornamental needlework: variegation or diversity: artificial ornaments.
[M. E. _embrouderie_--O. Fr. _embroder_, _em_, and _broder_, prob. Celt.,
acc. to Skeat. Bret. _brouda_, to pierce; confused with Fr. _border_, to

EMBROIL, em-broil', _v.t._ to involve in a broil, or in perplexity
(_with_): to entangle: to distract: to throw into confusion.--_n._
EMBROIL'MENT, a state of perplexity or confusion: disturbance. [Fr.
_embrouiller_--_em_, in, _brouiller_, to break out.]

EMBRONZE, em-bronz', _v.t._ to form in bronze.

EMBROWN, em-brown', IMBROWN, im-, _v.t._ to make brown: to darken,
obscure.--_p.adj._ EMBROWN'ING.

EMBRUE, em-br[=oo]', _v.t._ Same as IMBRUE.

EMBRYO, em'bri-[=o], EMBRYON, em'bri-on, _n._ the young of an animal in its
earliest stages of development: the part of a seed which forms the future
plant: the beginning of anything:--_pl._ EM'BRYOS, EM'BRYONS.--_ns._
EMBRYOC'TOMY, destruction of the fetus in the uterus; EMBRYOG'ENY, the
formation and development of the embryo; EMBRYOG'RAPHY, description of the
embryo.--_adjs._ EMBRYOLOG'IC, -AL, of or pertaining to embryology.--_ns._
EMBRYOL'OGIST; EMBRYOL'OGY, science of the embryo or fetus of
animals.--_adjs._ EM'BRYONATE, -D, in the state of an embryo; EMBRYON'IC,
EMBRYOT'IC, of or relating to anything in an imperfect state:
rudimentary.--_ns._ EMBRYOT'OMY, the division of a fetus to effect
delivery; EMBRYUL'CIA, forcible extraction of a fetus. [Low L.,--Gr.
_embryon_--_em_ (=_en_), in, _bryein_, to swell.]

EME, [=e]m, _n._ (_obs._) an uncle. [A.S. _éam_; Dut. _oom_.]

EMEND, e-mend', _v.t._ to remove faults or blemishes from: to correct or
improve.--_adj._ EMEND'ABLE, that may be emended.--_n.pl._ EMEND'ALS, funds
set apart for repairs in the accounts of the Inner Temple.--_v.t._
EM'ENDATE, to correct errors.--_ns._ EMEND[=A]'TION, removal of an error or
fault: correction; EM'END[=A]TOR, a corrector of errors in writings: one
who corrects or improves.--_adj._ EMEN'D[=A]TORY, mending or contributing
to correction. [L. _emend[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _menda_, a fault.]

EMERALD, em'[.e]r-ald, _n._ a very highly esteemed mineral of the same
species with the beryl, from which it differs in scarcely anything but its
colour, a beautiful velvety green.--_n._ EM'ERALD-COPP'ER (see
DIOPTASE).--EMERALD ISLE, a name for Ireland, owing to its greenness;
EMERALD TYPE (_print._), a small size of type. [O. Fr. _esmeralde_--L.
_smaragdus_--Gr. _smaragdos_.]

EMERGE, e-m[.e]rj', _v.i._ to rise out of: to issue or come forth: to
reappear after being concealed: to come into view: to result.--_ns._
EMER'GENCE, EMER'GENCY, act of emerging: sudden appearance: an unexpected
occurrence: pressing necessity; EMER'GENCY-MAN, a man provided for any
special service, esp. in Irish evictions, and in saving the crops and other
property of men boycotted.--_adj._ EMER'GENT, emerging: suddenly appearing:
arising unexpectedly: urgent.--_adv._ EMER'GENTLY.--_n._ EMER'SION, act of
emerging: (_astron._) the reappearance of a heavenly body after being
eclipsed by another or by the sun's brightness. [L. _emerg[)e]re_,
_emersum_--_e_, out of, _merg[)e]re_, to plunge.]

EMERITUS, e-mer'i-tus, _adj._ honourably discharged from the performance of
public duty, esp. noting a retired professor.--_n._ one who has been
honourably discharged from public duties:--_pl._ EMER'ITI. [L. _emeritus_,
having served one's time--_emer[=e]ri_, to deserve, do one's duty--_e_,
sig. completeness, and _mer[=e]re_, to deserve.]

EMERODS, em'e-rodz, _n.pl._ (_B._) now HEMORRHOIDS.

EMERY, em'[.e]r-i, _n._ a very hard mineral, a variety of corundum, used as
powder for polishing, &c.--_v.t._ to rub or coat with emery.--_ns._
EM'ERY-P[=A]'PER, paper covered with emery-powder for polishing;
EM'ERY-POW'DER, ground emery; EM'ERY-WHEEL, a wheel coated with emery for
polishing. [O. Fr. _esmeril_, _emeril_--Low L. _smericulum_--Gr.
_sm[=e]ris_--_smaein_, to rub.]

EMETIC, e-met'ik, _adj._ causing vomiting.--_n._ a medicine that causes
vomiting.--_n._ EM'ESIS, vomiting.--_adj._ EMET'ICAL.--_adv._
EMET'ICALLY.--_n._ EM'ETIN, the alkaloid forming the active principle of
ipecacuanha-root, violently emetic.--_adj._ EM'ETO-CATHART'IC, producing
both vomiting and purging.--_n._ EMETOL'OGY, the study of emesis and
emetics, [Through L., from Gr. _emetikos_--_emeein_, to vomit.]


ÉMEUTE, em-üt', _n._ a popular rising or uproar. [Fr.]

EMICANT, em'i-kant, _adj._ beaming forth.--_n._ EMIC[=A]'TION.

EMICTION, e-mik'shun, _n._ the discharging of urine: urine.--_adj._
EMIC'TORY, promoting the flow of urine. [L. _eming[)e]re_, _emictum_--_e_,
out, _ming[)e]re_, to make water.]

EMIGRATE, em'i-gr[=a]t, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to remove from one country to
another as a place of abode.--_adj._ EM'IGRANT, emigrating or having
emigrated.--_n._ one who emigrates.--_n._ EMIGR[=A]'TION.--_adj._
EMIGR[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ EMIGR[=A]'TIONIST, an advocate or promoter of
emigration.--_adj._ EMIGR[=A]'TORY.--_n._ EMIGRÉ ([=a]-m[=e]-gr[=a]), a
royalist who quitted France during the Revolution. [L. _emigr[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_e_, from, _migr[=a]re_, to remove.]

EMINENT, em'i-nent, _adj._ rising above others: conspicuous: distinguished:
exalted in rank or office.--_ns._ EM'INENCE, EM'INENCY, a part eminent or
rising above the rest: a rising ground: height: distinction: a title of
honour: homage: a title given in 1631 to cardinals, till then styled Most
Illustrious.--_adj._ EMINEN'TIAL.--_adv._ EM'INENTLY.--EMINENT DOMAIN
(_dominium eminens_), the right by which the supreme authority in a state
may compel a proprietor to part with what is his own for the public use.
[L. _eminens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _emin[=e]re_--_e_, out, _min[=e]re_, to

EMIR, em-[=e]r', or [=e]'mir, _n._ a title given in the East and in the
north of Africa to all independent chieftains, and also to all the supposed
descendants of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima.--_n._ EM'IRATE, the
office of an emir. [Ar. _am[=i]r_, ruler.]

EMIT, e-mit', _v.t._ to send out: to throw or give out: in issue: to utter
(a declaration):--_pr.p._ emit'ting; _pa.p._ emit'ted.--_n._ EM'ISSARY, one
sent out on a secret mission: a spy: an underground channel by which the
water of a lake escapes.--_adj._ that is sent forth.--_n._ EMIS'SION, the
act of emitting: that which is issued at one time.--_adjs._ EMIS'SIVE,
EMIS'SORY, emitting, sending out.--EMISSION THEORY, the theory that all
luminous bodies emit with equal velocities a number of elastic corpuscles,
which travel in straight lines, are reflected, and are refracted. [L.
_emitt[)e]re_, _emissum_--_e_, out of, _mitt[)e]re_, to send.]

EMMANUEL, em-an'[=u]-el, IMMANUEL, im-, _n._ the symbolical name of the
child announced by Isaiah (Isa. vii. 14), and applied to the Messiah (Matt.
i. 23). [Heb.,--_im_, with, _anu_, us, _el_, God.]

EMMARBLE, em-mär'bl, _v.t._ to turn to marble, to petrify. [_Em_ and

EMMENAGOGUES, em-en'a-gogz, _n.pl._ medicines intended to restore, or to
bring on for the first time, the menses.--_adj._ EMMENAGOG'IC
(-goj'ik).--_n._ EMMENOL'OGY, knowledge about menstruation. [Gr.
_emm[=e]na_, menses, _ag[=o]gos_, drawing forth.]

EMMET, em'et, _n._ (_prov._) the ant. [A.S. _['æ]mete_.]

EMMETROPIA, em-e-tr[=o]'pi-a, _n._ the normal condition of the refractive
media of the eye.--_adj._ EMMETROPI'C. [Gr., _en_, in, _metron_, measure,
_[=o]ps_, the eye.]

EMMEW, e-m[=u]', _v.t._ to confine.--Also IMMEW'.

EMMOVE, em-m[=oo]v', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to move, to excite.

EMMOLLIENT, e-mol'yent, _adj._ softening: making supple.--_n._ (_med._) a
substance used to soften the textures to which they are applied, as
poultices, fomentations, &c.--_n._ EMOLLES'CENCE, incipient fusion.--_v.t._
EMMOLL'IATE, to soften: to render effeminate.--_n._ EMOLLI'TION, the act of
softening or relaxing. [L. _emoll[=i]re_, _emollitum_--_e_, inten.,
_moll[=i]re_, to soften--_mollis_, soft.]

EMOLUMENT, e-mol'[=u]-ment, _n._ advantage: profit arising from employment,
as salary or fees.--_adj._ EMOLUMEN'TAL. [L. _emolimentum_--_emol[=i]ri_,
to work out--_e_, sig. completeness, _mol[=i]re_, to toil.]

EMONG, e-mung', _prep._ (_obs._) among.--Also EMONGST'.

EMOTION, e-m[=o]'shun, _n._ a moving of the feelings: agitation of mind:
(_phil._) one of the three groups of the phenomena of the mind.--_adj._
EM[=O]'TIONAL.--_n._ EM[=O]'TIONALISM, tendency to emotional excitement,
the habit of working on the emotions, the indulgence of superficial
emotion.--_adv._ EM[=O]'TIONALLY.--_adjs._ EM[=O]'TIONLESS; EM[=O]'TIVE,
pertaining to the emotions. [L. _emotion-em_--_emov[=e]re_, _em[=o]tum_, to
stir up--_e_, forth, _mov[=e]re_, to move.]

EMP-. For words not found under this, see IMP-.

EMPÆSTIC, em-p[=e]'stik, _adj._ pertaining to the art of embossing,
stamped. [Gr. _empaiein_, to emboss.]

EMPACKET, em-pak'et, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to pack up.

EMPAIR, em-p[=a]r', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to impair.

EMPANEL, em-pan'el, IMPANEL, im-, _v.t._ to enter the names of a jury on a
panel.--_n._ EMPAN'ELMENT.

EMPANOPLY, em-pan'[=o]-pli, _v.t._ to invest in full armour.

EMPATRON, em-p[=a]'trun, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to patronise.

EMPEOPLE, em-p[=e]'pl, _v.t._ (_obs._) to fill with people: to form into a
people or community.

EMPERISH, em-per'ish, _v.t._ (_obs._) to impair.

EMPEROR, em'p[.e]r-or, _n._ the head of the Roman Empire: the highest title
of sovereignty:--_fem._ EM'PRESS.--_ns._ EM'PEROR-MOTH, except the
Death's-head, the largest British moth, its expanse of wings being about
three inches; EM'PERORSHIP; EM'PERY, empire, power. [O. Fr. _emperere_--L.
_imperator_ (fem. _imperatrix_)--_imper[=a]re_, to command.]

EMPHASIS, em'fa-sis, _n._ stress of the voice on particular words or
syllables to make the meaning clear: impressiveness of expression or weight
of thought: intensity:--_pl._ EM'PHASES (-s[=e]z).--_v.t._ EM'PHAS[=I]SE,
to make emphatic.--_adjs._ EMPHAT'IC, -AL, uttered with or requiring
emphasis: forcible: impressive.--_adv._ EMPHAT'ICALLY.--_n._
EMPHAT'ICALNESS. [L.,--Gr.,--_em_ (=_en_), in, into, and
_phasis_--_phaein_, _phainein_, to show.]

EMPHLYSIS, em'fli-sis, _n._ a vesicular tumour. [Gr., _en_, in,
_phlysis_--_phlyein_, to break out.]

EMPHRACTIC, em-frak'tik, _adj._ stopping the pores of the skin.--_n._ a
substance with this property. [Gr., _en_, in, _phrassein_, to stop.]

EMPHYSEMA, em-fis-[=e]'ma, _n._ (_med._) an unnatural distention of a part
with air.--_adj._ EMPHYSEM'ATOUS. [Gr.,--_emphysaein_, to inflate.]

EMPHYTEUSIS, em-fit-[=u]'sis, _n._ in Roman law, a perpetual right in a
piece of land, for which a yearly sum was paid to the proprietor.--_adj._
EMPHYTEU'TIC. [L.,--Gr.,--_emphyteuein_, to implant.]

EMPIERCE, em-p[=e]rs', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to pierce.

EMPIGHT, em-p[=i]t', _p.adj._ (_Spens._) fixed. [_Em_ and _pitch_.]

EMPIRE, em'p[=i]r, _n._ supreme control or dominion: the territory under
the dominion of an emperor. [Fr.,--L. _imperium_--_imper[=a]re_, to

EMPIRIC, -AL, em-pir'ik, -al, _adj._ resting on trial or experiment: known
only by experience.--_n._ EMPIR'IC, one who makes trials or experiments:
one whose knowledge is got from experience only: a quack.--_adv._
EMPIR'ICALLY.--_ns._ EMPIR'ICISM (_phil._) the system which, rejecting all
_a priori_ knowledge, rests solely on experience and induction: dependence
of a physician on his _experience_ alone without a regular medical
education: the practice of medicine without a regular education: quackery:
EMPIR'ICIST, one who practises empiricism.--_adj._ EMPIRIC[=U]T'IC
(_Shak._), empirical. [Fr.,--L. _empiricus_--Gr. _empeirikos_--_em_, in,
_peira_, a trial.]

EMPLACEMENT, em-pl[=a]s'ment, _n._ the act of placing: (_mil._) a platform
placed for guns.

EMPLASTER, em-plas't[.e]r, _n._ and _v._ same as PLASTER.--_adj._
EMPLAS'TIC, glutinous: adhesive.--_n._ a medicine causing constipation.

EMPLECTON, em-plek'ton, _n._ masonry in which the outsides of the walls are
ashlar and the insides filled up with rubbish.--Also EMPLEC'TUM. [Gr.]

EMPLOY, em-ploy', _v.t._ to occupy the time or attention of: to use as a
means or agent: to give work to.--_n._ a poetical form of
_employment_.--_adj._ EMPLOY'ABLE, that may be employed.--_ns._ EMPLOY'É,
one who is employed:--_fem._ EMPLOY'ÉE; EMPLOY[=EE]', a person employed;
EMPLOY'ER; EMPLOY'MENT, act of employing: that which engages or occupies:
occupation. [Fr. _employer_--L. _implic[=a]re_, to infold--_in_, in, and
_plic[=a]re_, to fold. _Imply_ and _implicate_ are parallel forms.]

EMPLUME, em-pl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to furnish with a plume.

EMPOISON, em-poi'zn, _v.t._ to put poison in: to poison.--_p.adj._

EMPORIUM, em-p[=o]'ri-um, _n._ a place to which goods are brought from
various parts for sale: a shop: a great mart:--_pl._ EMP[=O]'RIA. [L.,--Gr.
_emporion_--_emporos_, a trader, _em_ (=_en_), in, _poros_, a way.]

EMPOVERISH, em-pov'[.e]r-ish, _v.t._ See IMPOVERISH.

EMPOWER, em-pow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to authorise.


EMPRESSEMENT, ang-pres'mang, _n._ cordiality. [Fr.]

EMPRISE, em-pr[=i]z', _n._ (_Spens._) an enterprise: a hazardous
undertaking. [O. Fr. _emprise_--L. _in_, in, _prehend[)e]re_, to take.]

EMPTION, emp'shun, _n._ act of buying, purchase.--_adj._ EMP'TIONAL. [L.
_em[)e]re_, to buy.]

EMPTY, emp'ti, _adj._ having nothing in it: unfurnished: without effect:
unsatisfactory: wanting substance: foolish.--_v.t._ to make empty: to
deprive of contents.--_v.i._ to become empty: to discharge its
contents:--_pa.p._ emp'tied.--_n._ an empty vessel, box, sack, &c.:--_pl._
EMP'TIES.--_ns._ EMP'TIER: EMP'TINESS, state of being empty: want of
substance: unsatisfactoriness: inanity.--_adj._ EMP'TY-HAND'ED, carrying
nothing, esp. of a gift.--_n._ EMP'TYING.--COME AWAY EMPTY, to come away
without having received anything. [A.S. _['æ]metig_--_['æ]metta_, leisure,
rest. The _p_ is excrescent.]

EMPTYSIS, emp'ti-sis, _n._ hemorrhage from the lungs.

EMPURPLE, em-pur'pl, _v.t._ to dye or tinge purple.

EMPUSA, em-p[=u]'za, _n._ a goblin or spectre sent by Hecate.--Also
EMPUSE'. [Gr. _empousa_.]

EMPYEMA, em-pi-[=e]'ma, _n._ a collection of pus in the pleura. [Gr.,--_em_
(=_en_), in, and _pyon_, pus.]

EMPYESIS, em-pi-[=e]'sis, _n._ pustulous eruption. [Gr.]

EMPYREAL, em-pir'[=e]-al, or em-pir-[=e]'al, _adj._ formed of pure fire or
light: pertaining to the highest and purest region of heaven:
sublime.--_adj._ EMPYREAN (em-pi-r[=e]'an, or em-pir'e-an), empyreal.--_n._
the highest heaven, where the pure element of fire was supposed by the
ancients to subsist: the heavens. [Coined from Gr. _empyros_, fiery--_em_
(=_en_), in, and, _pyr_, fire.]

EMPYREUMA, em-pir-[=u]'ma, _n._ the burned smell and acrid taste which
result when vegetable or animal substances are burned:--_pl._
[Gr.,--_empyreuein_, to kindle.]

EMRODS (_obs._), for EMERODS.

EMU, EMEU, [=e]'m[=u], _n._ a genus of running birds or _Ratitæ_ in the
cassowary family, belonging to Australia.--_n._ E'MU-WREN, a small
Australian bird of genus _Stipiturus_. [Port. _ema_, an ostrich.]

EMULATE, em'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to strive to equal or excel: to imitate,
with a view to equal or excel: to rival.--_adj._ (_Shak._) ambitious.--_n._
EMUL[=A]'TION, act of emulating or attempting to equal or excel: rivalry:
competition: contest: (_obs._) jealous rivalry.--_adj._ EM'ULATIVE,
inclined to emulation, rivalry, or competition.--_n._ EM'ULATOR:--_fem._
EM'ULATRESS.--_adj._ EM'ULATORY, arising from or expressing
emulation.--_v.t._ EM'ULE (_obs_), to emulate.--_adj._ EM'ULOUS, eager to
emulate: desirous of like excellence with another: engaged in competition
or rivalry.--_adv._ EM'ULOUSLY--_n._ EM'ULOUSNESS. [L. _æmul[=a]ri_,
_æmul[=a]tus_--_æmulus_, striving with.]

EMULGENT, e-mul'jent, _adj._ milking or draining out, chiefly referring to
the action of the kidneys. [L. _emulgens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of
_emulg[=e]re_, to milk.]

EMULSION, e-mul'shun, _n._ a milky liquid prepared by mixing oil and water
by means of another substance that combines with both.--_adj._ EMUL'SIC,
pertaining to emulsion.--_v.t._ EMUL'SIFY.--_n._ EMUL'SIN, a peculiar
ferment present in the bitter and sweet almond, which forms a constituent
of all almond emulsions.--_adj._ EMUL'SIVE. [Fr.,--L. _emulg[=e]re_,
_emulsum_, to milk out--_e_, out, and _mulg[=e]r_e, to milk.]

EMUNCTORY, e-mungk'tor-i, _n._ an organ of the body that carries off waste:
an excretory duct.--_v.t._ EMUNGE', to clean. [L. _emung[)e]re_,
_emunctum_, to blow the nose, to cleanse.]

EMURE, a variant of _immure_.

EMYS, em'is, _n._ a genus of marsh tortoises, found in South and Middle
Europe, North Africa, and South-west Asia. [Gr. _emys_.]

ENABLE, en-[=a]'bl, _v.t._ to make able: to give power, strength, or
authority to.

ENACT, en-akt', _v.t._ to perform: to act the part of: to establish by
law.--_n._ (_Shak._) that which is enacted.--_adjs._ ENACT'ING, ENACT'IVE,
that enacts.--_ns._ ENACT'MENT, the passing of a bill into law: that which
is enacted: a law; ENACT'OR, one who practises or performs anything: one
who forms decrees or establishes laws; ENACT'URE (_Shak._), action.

ENALLAGE, en-al'a-j[=e], _n._ (_gram._) the exchange of one case, mood, or
tense for another. [Gr.,--_en_, and _allassein_, to change.]

ENAMEL, en-am'el, _n._ the name given to vitrified substances applied
chiefly to the surface of metals: any smooth hard coating, esp. that of the
teeth: anything enamelled.--_v.t._ to coat with or paint in enamel: to form
a glossy surface upon, like enamel:--_pr.p._ enam'elling; _pa.p._
enam'elled.--_adj._ EN-AM'ELLAR.--_ns._ ENAM'ELLER, ENAM'ELLIST;
ENAM'ELLING. [O. Fr. _enameler_--_en_, in, _esmail_, enamel. Cf. Eng.
_Smelt_, _Melt_.]

ENAMOUR, en-am'ur, _v.t._ to inflame with love: to charm.--_p.adjs._
ENAM'OURED; ENAM'OURING.--BE ENAMOURED (with _of_, _with_), to be in love.
[O. Fr. _enamourer_--_en_, to make, _amour_--L. _amor_, love.]

ENANTHESIS, en-an-th[=e]'sis, _n._ an eruption on the skin from internal
disease. [Gr.]

ENANTIOPATHY, en-an-ti-op'a-thi, _n._ a synonym of allopathy. [Gr.
_enantios_, opposite, _pathos_, suffering.]

ENANTIOSIS, e-nan-ti-[=o]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) the expression of an idea by
negation of its contrary, as 'he is no fool'='he is wise.' [Gr.]

ENARCHED, en-ärcht', _adj._ (_her._) arched, like an arch.

ENARCHING, a variant of _inarching_.

ENARMED, en-ärmed', _adj._ (_her._) having horns, hoofs, &c. of a different
colour from the body.

ENARRATION, [=e]-na-r[=a]'shun, _n._ narration.

ENARTHROSIS, en-ar-thr[=o]'sis, _n._ (_anat._) a joint of 'ball-and-socket'
form, allowing motion in all directions.--_adj._ ENARTHR[=O]'DIAL.
[Gr.,--_en_, in, and _arthroein_, _arthr[=o]sein_, to fasten by a
joint--_arthron_, a joint.]

ENATE, [=e]'n[=a]t, _adj._ growing out.

ENAUNTER, en-än't[.e]r, _conj._ (_obs._) lest by chance. [Contr. from _in

ENCÆNIA, en-s[=e]'ni-a, _n._ the annual commemoration of founders and
benefactors at Oxford, held in June.--Also ENC[=E]'NIA. [L.,--Gr.
_egkainia_, a feast of dedication--_en_, in, _kainos_, new.]

ENCAGE, en-k[=a]j', _v.t._ to shut up in a cage.

ENCAMP, en-kamp', _v.t._ to form into a camp.--_v.i._ to pitch tents: to
halt on a march.--_n._ ENCAMP'MENT, the act of encamping: the place where
an army or company is encamped: a camp.

ENCANTHIS, en-kan'this, _n._ a small tumour of the inner angle of the eye.

ENCARNALISE, en-kär'nal-[=i]z, _v.t._ to embody: to make carnal.

ENCARPUS, en-kar'pus, _n._ a festoon ornamenting a frieze. [Gr.]

ENCASE, en-k[=a]s', INCASE, in-, _v.t._ to enclose in a case: to surround,
cover.--_n._ ENCASE'MENT, the enclosing substance: a covering.

ENCASHMENT, en-kash'ment, _n._ payment in cash of a note, draft, &c.

ENCAUSTIC, en-kaws'tik, _adj._ having the colours burned in.--_n._ an
ancient method of painting in melted wax.--ENCAUSTIC TILE, a decorative
glazed and fired tile, having patterns of different coloured clays inlaid
in it and burnt with it. [Fr.,--Gr.,--_egkaiein_, _egkausein_--_en_, in,
_kaiein_, to burn.]

ENCAVE, en-k[=a]v', _v.t._ to hide in a cave.

ENCEINTE, äng-sangt', _n._ (_fort._) an enclosure, generally the whole area
of a fortified place. [Fr.,--_enceindre_, to surround--L. _in_, in,
_cing[)e]re_, _cinctum_, to gird.]

ENCEINTE, äng-sangt', _adj._ pregnant, with child. [Fr.,--L. _incincta_,
girt about.]

ENCEPHALON, en-sef'al-on, _n._ the brain.--_adj._ ENCEPHAL'IC, belonging to
the head or brain.--_ns._ ENCEPHAL[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the brain;
ENCEPH'ALOCELE, a protrusion of portion of the brain through the skull,
where the bones are incomplete in infancy.--_adj._ ENCEPH'ALOID, resembling
the matter of the brain.--_n._ ENCEPHALOT'OMY, dissection of the
brain.--_adj._ ENCEPH'ALOUS, cephalous. [Gr.,--_en_, in, _kephal[=e]_, the

ENCHAFE, en-ch[=a]f', _v.t._ (_obs._) to make warm.

ENCHAIN, en-ch[=a]n', _v.t._ to put in chains: to hold fast: to link
together.--_n._ ENCHAIN'MENT [Fr. _enchainer_--_en_, and _chaîne_, a
chain--L. _catena_.]

ENCHANT, en-chant', _v.t._ to act on by songs or rhymed formulas of
sorcery: to charm: to delight in a high degree.--_p.adj._ ENCHANT'ED, under
the power of enchantment: delighted: possessed by witches or spirits.--_n._
ENCHANT'ER, one who enchants: a sorcerer or magician: one who charms or
delights:--_fem._ ENCHANT'RESS.--_adv._ ENCHANT'INGLY, with the force of
enchantment: in a manner to charm or delight.--_n._ ENCHANT'MENT, act of
enchanting: use of magic arts: that which enchants. [Fr. _enchanter_--L.
_incant[=a]re_, to sing a magic formula over--_in_, on, _cant[=a]re_, to

ENCHARGE, en-chärj', _v.t._ to enjoin: to entrust. [O. Fr. _encharger_. See

ENCHASE, en-ch[=a]s', _v.t._ to fix in a border: to set with jewels: to
engrave: to adorn with raised or embossed work.--_p.adj._ ENCHASED'. [Fr.
_enchâsser_--_en_, in, _châssis_, _caisse_, a case--L. _capsa_, a case. See
CHASE, _n._ CHASE, _v.t._, is a contraction.]

ENCHEASON, en-ch[=e]'zn, _n._ (_Spens._) reason, cause, occasion. [O. Fr.
_encheson_, _encheoir_, to fall in; influenced by L. _occasio_, occasion.]

ENCHEER, en-ch[=e]r', _v.t._ to cheer, comfort.

ENCHIRIDION, en-ki-rid'i-on, _n._ a book to be carried in the hand for
reference: a manual. [Gr. _encheiridion_--_en_, in, and _cheir_, the hand.]

ENCHONDROMA, en-kon-dr[=o]'ma, _n._ (_path._) an abnormal cartilaginous
growth. [Formed from Gr. _en_, in, _chondros_, cartilage.]

ENCHORIAL, en-k[=o]'ri-al, _adj._ belonging to or used in a country: used
by the people, noting esp. the written characters used by the common people
in Egypt as opposed to the hieroglyphics.--Also ENCHOR'IC. [Gr.
_ench[=o]rios_--_en_, in, and _ch[=o]ra_, a place, country.]

ENCHYMATOUS, en-kim'a-tus, _adj._ infused, distended by infusion.

ENCINCTURE, en-singk't[=u]r, _v.t._ to surround with a girdle.--_n._ an

ENCIRCLE, en-s[.e]rk'l, _v.t._ to enclose in a circle: to embrace: to pass
round.--_n._ ENCIRC'LING.

ENCLASP, en-klasp', _v.t._ to clasp.

ENCLAVE, en-kl[=a]v', or äng-kl[=a]v', _n._ a territory entirely enclosed
within the territories of another power.--_v.t._ to surround in this way.
[Fr.,--Late L. _inclav[=a]re_--L. _in_, and _clavis_, a key.]

ENCLITIC, en-klit'ik, _adj._ that inclines or leans upon.--_n._ (_gram._) a
word or particle which always follows another word, so united with it as to
seem a part of it.--_n._ EN'CLISIS.--_adv._ ENCLIT'ICALLY. [Gr.
_engklitikos_--_en_, in, _klinein_, to bend.]

ENCLOISTER, en-klois't[.e]r, _v.t._ to immure.

ENCLOSE, en-kl[=o]z', INCLOSE, in-, _v.t._ to close or shut in: to confine:
to surround: to put in a case, as a letter in an envelope, &c.: to fence,
esp. used of waste land.--_ns._ ENCLOS'ER; ENCLOS'URE, the act of
enclosing: state of being enclosed: that which is enclosed: a space fenced
off: that which encloses: a barrier. [Fr.,--L. _includ[)e]re_,
_inclusum_--_in_, in, _claud[)e]re_, to shut.]

ENCLOTHE, en-kl[=o]_th_', _v.t._ to clothe.

ENCLOUD, en-klowd', _v.t._ to cover with clouds.

ENCOLOUR, en-kul'ur, _v.t._ to colour, tinge.

ENCOLPION, en-kol'pi-on, _n._ an amulet: a Greek pectoral cross.--Also

ENCOLURE, engk-ol-[=u]r', _n._ (_Browning_) a horse's mane.

ENCOMIUM, en-k[=o]'mi-um, _n._ high commendation: a eulogy:--_pl._
ENC[=O]'MIUMS.--_n._ ENC[=O]'MIAST, one who utters or writes encomiums: a
praiser.--_adjs._ ENCOMIAS'TIC, -AL, bestowing praise.--_adv._
ENCOMIAS'TICALLY. [L.,--Gr. _egk[=o]mion_, a song of praise--_en_, in,
_k[=o]mos_, festivity.]

ENCOMPASS, en-kum'pas, _v.t._ to surround or enclose: (_obs._) to go
round.--_n._ ENCOM'PASSMENT.

ENCORE, äng-k[=o]r', _adv._ again: once more.--_n._ a call for the
repetition of a song, &c.: the repetition of a song, &c.--_v.t._ to call
for a repetition of. [Fr. (It. _ancora_)--perh. from L. (_in_) _hanc
horam_, till this hour, hence=still.]

ENCOUNTER, en-kown'ter, _v.t._ to meet face to face, esp. unexpectedly: to
meet in contest: to oppose.--_n._ a meeting unexpectedly: an interview: a
fight: (_Shak._) behaviour. [O. Fr. _encontrer_--L. _in_, in, _contra_,

ENCOURAGE, en-kur'[=a]j, _v.t._ to put courage in: to inspire with spirit
or hope: to incite: to patronise: to cherish.--_ns._ ENCOUR'AGEMENT, act of
encouraging: that which encourages; ENCOUR'AGER,--_p.adj._ ENCOUR'AGING,
giving ground to hope for success.--_adv._ ENCOUR'AGINGLY. [O. Fr.
_encoragier_ (Fr. _encourager_)--_en_, to make, _corage_, courage.]

ENCRADLE, en-kr[=a]'dl, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to lay in a cradle.

ENCRATITE, en'kra-t[=i]t, _n._ one of a heretical sect in the early church,
who abstained from marriage, and from flesh and wine.--_n._ EN'CRATISM.
[Formed from Gr. _egkrat[=e]s_, continent--_en_, in, _kratos_, strength.]

ENCREASE, obsolete form of _increase_.

ENCRIMSON, en-krim'zn, _v.t._ to tinge with a crimson colour.--_p.adj._

ENCRINITE, en'kri-n[=i]t, _n._ a common fossil crinoid, found thick in
limestone and marble--called also _Stone-lily_.--_adjs._ ENCR[=I]'NAL,
ENCRIN'IC, ENCRIN[=I]'TAL, ENCRINIT'IC, relating to or containing
encrinites. [Formed from Gr. _en_, in, _krinon_, a lily.]

ENCROACH, en-kr[=o]ch', _v.i._ to seize on the rights of others: to
intrude: to trespass.--_n._ ENCROACH'ER.--_adv._ ENCROACH'INGLY.--_n._
ENCROACH'MENT, act of encroaching: that which is taken by encroaching. [O.
Fr. _encrochier_, to seize--_en-_, and _croc_, a hook.]

ENCRUST, en-krust', INCRUST, in-, _v.t._ to cover with a crust or hard
coating: to form a crust on the surface of.--_v.i._ to form a crust.--_n._
ENCRUST[=A]'TION, act of encrusting: a crust or layer of anything: an
inlaying of marble, mosaic, &c. [Fr.,--L. _incrust[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_in_, on, _crusta_, crust.]

ENCUMBER, en-kum'b[.e]r, _v.t._ to impede the motion of: to hamper: to
embarrass: to burden: to load with debts.--_ns._ ENCUM'BERMENT, the act of
encumbering: the state of being encumbered; ENCUM'BRANCE, that which
encumbers or hinders: a legal claim on an estate: one dependent on
another--e.g. 'a widow without encumbrances'=a widow without children;
ENCUM'BRANCER. [O. Fr. _encombrer_, from _en-_, and _combrer_.]

ENCURTAIN, en-kur'tin, _v.t._ to curtain, to veil.

ENCYCLICAL, en-sik'lik-al, _adj._ sent round to many persons or
places.--_n._ a letter addressed by the pope to all his bishops condemning
current errors or advising the Christian people how to act in regard to
great public questions.--Also ENCYC'LIC. [Gr. _engkyklios_--_en_, in,
_kyklos_, a circle.]

ENCYCLOPÆDIA, ENCYCLOPEDIA, en-s[=i]-klo-p[=e]'di-a, _n._ the circle of
human knowledge: a work containing information on every department, or on a
particular department, of knowledge, generally in alphabetical order: a
name specially given to the work of the French writers Diderot, D'Alembert,
and others in the third quarter of the 18th century.--_adjs._
ENCYCLOPÆ'DIAN, embracing the whole circle of learning; ENCYCLOPÆ'DIC, -AL,
pertaining to an encyclopædia: full of information.--_ns._ ENCYCLOPÆ'DISM,
knowledge of everything; ENCYCLOPÆ'DIST, the compiler, or one who assists
in the compilation, of an encyclopædia: esp. a writer for the French
Encyclopédie (1751-65). [Formed from Gr. _engkyklopaideia_--_engkyklios_,
circular, _paideia_, instruction.]

ENCYST, en-sist', _v.t._ or _v.i._ to enclose or become enclosed in a cyst
or vesicle.--_ns._ ENCYST[=A]'TION, ENCYST'MENT.--_adj._ ENCYST'ED.


END, end, _n._ the last point or portion: termination or close: death:
consequence: object aimed at: a fragment.--_v.t._ to bring to an end: to
destroy.--_v.i._ to come to an end: to cease.--_n._ END'-ALL, that which
ends all.--_adj._ END'ED, brought to an end: having ends.--_n._ END'ING,
termination: conclusion: that which is at the end: (_gram._) the
terminating syllable or letter of a word.--_adj._ END'LESS, without end:
everlasting: objectless.--_adv._ END'LESSLY.--_n._ END'LESSNESS.--_adv._
END'LONG, lengthwise: continuously: on end.--_adj._ END'MOST,
farthest.--_n._ END'SHIP (_obs._) a village.--_advs._ END'WAYS, END'WISE,
on the end: with the end forward.--END FOR END, with the position of the
ends reversed; ENDLESS SCREW, an arrangement for producing slow motion in
machinery, consisting of a screw whose thread gears into a wheel with skew
teeth; END ON, having the end pointing directly to an object--(_naut._)
opp. to _Broadside on_: (_min._) opp. to _Face on_.--A SHOEMAKER'S END, a
waxed thread ending in a bristle.--AT LOOSE ENDS, in disorder; AT ONE'S
WITS' END, at the end of one's ability to decide or act.--BEGIN AT THE
WRONG END, to manage badly; BE THE END OF, to cause the death of.--COME TO
THE END OF ONE'S TETHER, to go as far as one's powers permit.--HAVE AT
ONE'S FINGER-ENDS, to be thoroughly acquainted, to have in perfect
readiness.--IN THE END, after all: at last.--LATTER END, the end of
life.--MAKE BOTH ENDS MEET, to live within one's income (both ends meaning
both ends of the year).--NO END (_coll._), very much, a great deal.--ON
END, erect.--ROPE'S END (see ROPE). [A.S. _ende_; cf. Ger. and Dan. _ende_,
Goth. _andeis_; Sans. _ánta_.]

ENDAMAGE, en-dam'[=a]j, _v.t._ same as DAMAGE.--_n._ ENDAM'AGEMENT, damage,
injury, loss.

ENDANGER, en-d[=a]n'j[.e]r, _v.t._ to place in danger: to expose to loss or
injury.--_ns._ ENDAN'GERER; ENDAN'GERMENT, hazard, peril.

ENDEAR, en-d[=e]r', _v.t._ to make dear or more dear.--_adjs._ ENDEARED',
beloved; ENDEAR'ING.--_adv._ ENDEAR'INGLY.--_n._ ENDEAR'MENT, act of
endearing: state of being endeared: that which excites or increases
affection: a caress.

ENDEAVOUR, en-dev'ur, _v.i._ to strive to accomplish an object: to attempt
or try.--_v.t._ to attempt.--_n._ an exertion of power towards some object:
attempt or trial.--_n._ ENDEAV'OURMENT (_Spens._), endeavour.--DO ONE'S
ENDEAVOUR, to do one's utmost. [Fr. _en devoir_--_en_, in (with force of
'to do' or 'make,' as in _en-amour_, _en-courage_), and _devoir_, duty.]

ENDECAGON, en-dek'a-gon, _n._ a plane figure of eleven sides--also
HENDEC'AGON.--_adjs._ ENDECAG'YNOUS, having eleven pistils;
ENDECAPHYL'LOUS, having eleven leaflets; ENDECASYLLAB'IC, having eleven

ENDEICTIC, en-d[=i]k'tik, _adj._ showing, exhibiting.--_n._ ENDEIX'IS, an
indication. [Gr.]

ENDEMIC, -AL, en-dem'ik, -al, ENDEMIAL, en-d[=e]'mi-al, _adj._ peculiar to
a people or a district, as a disease.--_n._ ENDEM'IC, a disease affecting a
number of persons simultaneously, in such manner as to show a distinct
connection with certain localities.--_adv._ ENDEM'ICALLY.--_ns._
ENDEMI'CITY, state of being endemic; ENDEMIOL'OGY, knowledge of endemic
diseases. [Gr. _end[=e]mios_--_en_, in, and _d[=e]mos_, a people, a

ENDENIZEN, en-den'i-zn, _v.t._ to naturalise, to make a denizen.

ENDERMIC, -AL, en-d[.e]rm'ik, -al, _adj._ through or applied directly to
the skin--also ENDERMAT'IC.--_n._ EN'DERON, the corium, derma, or true
skin. [Gr. _en_, in, and _derma_, the skin.]

ENDEW, en-d[=u]', _v.t._ (_obs._) to endow.--Also ENDUE'.


ENDITE, obsolete form of _indite_.

ENDIVE, en'div, _n._ an annual or biennial plant of the same genus as
chicory, used as a salad. [Fr.,--L. _intubus_.]

ENDOCARDIUM, en-do-kar'di-um, _n._ the lining membrane of the
heart.--_adjs._ ENDOCAR'DIAC, ENDOCAR'DIAL.--_n._ ENDOCARD[=I]'TIS, disease
of the internal surface of the heart, resulting in the deposit of fibrin on
the valves. [Gr. _endon_, within, _kardia_, heart.]

ENDOCARP, en'do-kärp, _n._ the inner coat or shell of a fruit. [Gr.
_endon_, within, and _karpos_, fruit.]

ENDOCHROME, en'd[=o]-kr[=o]m, _n._ the colouring matter, other than green,
of vegetable cells, esp. of algæ: (_zool._) the coloured endoplasm of a
cell. [Gr. _endon_, within, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

ENDODERM, en'do-derm, _n._ the inner layer of the Blastoderm (q.v.). [Gr.
_endon_, within, _derma_, skin.]

ENDOGAMY, en-dog'am-i, _n._ the custom forbidding a man to marry any woman
who is not of his kindred.--_adj._ ENDOG'AMOUS. [Gr. _endon_, within,
_gamos_, marriage.]

ENDOGEN, en'do-jen, _n._ a plant that grows from within, or by additions to
the inside of the stem, as the palm, grasses, &c.--_adj._ ENDOG'ENOUS,
increasing by internal growth. [Gr. _endon_, within, and _gen[=e]s_, born.]

ENDOLYMPH, en'd[=o]-limf, _n._ the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of
the ear.

ENDOMORPH, en'do-morf, _n._ a mineral enclosed within another mineral, the
latter being termed a _perimorph_. [Gr. _endon_, within, _morph[=e]_,

ENDOPHAGY, en-d[=o]'faj-i, _n._ in cannibalism, the practice of eating one
of the same stock. [Gr. _endon_, within, _phagos_, an eater.]

ENDOPARASITE, en-d[=o]-par'a-s[=i]t, _n._ an internal parasite.

ENDOPHLOEUM, en-d[=o]-fl[=e]'um, _n._ (_bot._) the inner bark.

ENDOPHYLLOUS, en-d[=o]-fil'us, _adj._ (_bot._) being or formed within a
sheath, as the young leaves of monocotyledons.

ENDOPLASM, en'd[=o]-plazm, _n._ (_bot._) the granular and fluid part of the
protoplasm of a cell--opp. to _Ectoplasm_: (_zool._) the interior
protoplasm of a protozoan.--Also EN'DOSARC.

ENDOPLEURA, en-d[=o]-pl[=oo]'ra, _n._ (_bot._) the innermost coat of a

ENDORHIZAL, en-d[=o]-r[=i]'zal, _adj._ (_bot._) having the radicle of the
embryo enclosed within a sheath, as in endogenous plants.--Also

ENDORSE, en-dors', INDORSE, in-, _v.t._ to write one's name on the back of:
to assign by writing on the back of: to give one's sanction to: to lay on
the back, to load.--_adj._ ENDORS'ABLE.--_ns._ ENDORS[=EE]', the person to
whom a bill, &c., is assigned by endorsement; ENDORSE'MENT, act of
endorsing: that which is written on a bill: sanction; ENDORS'ER. [Changed
from M. E. _endosse_ under the influence of Low L. _indors[=a]re_--_in_,
on, _dorsum_, the back.]

ENDOSKELETON, en-d[=o]-skel'e-ton, _n._ the internal skeleton or framework
of the body.--_adj._ ENDOSKEL'ETAL.

ENDOSMOSIS, en-dos-m[=o]'sis, _n._ the passage of a fluid inwards through
an organic membrane, to mix with another fluid inside--also
EN'DOSMOSE.--_n._ ENDOSMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring endosmotic
action.--_adjs._ ENDOSMOMET'RIC; ENDOSMOT'IC, pertaining to or of the
nature of endosmosis.--_adv._ ENDOSMOT'ICALLY. [Gr. _endon_, within, and

ENDOSOME, en'd[=o]-s[=o]m, _n._ the innermost part of the body of a
sponge.--_adj._ EN'DOS[=O]MAL.

ENDOSPERM, en'd[=o]-sperm, _n._ (_bot._) the albumen of a seed.--_adj._

ENDOSS, en-dos', _v.t._ (_obs._) to endorse: (_Spens._) to write. [M. E.
_endosse_--O. Fr. _endosser_.]

ENDOSTEUM, en-dos't[=e]-um, _n._ (_anat._) the internal periosteum.--_adj._
ENDOS'T[=E]AL.--_n._ ENDOST[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the endosteum.

ENDOSTOME, en'd[=o]-st[=o]m, _n._ (_bot._) the foramen of the inner
integument of an ovule: the inner peristome of mosses.

ENDOW, en-dow', _v.t._ to give a dowry or marriage-portion to: to settle a
permanent provision on: to enrich with any gift or faculty: to
present.--_ns._ ENDOW'ER; ENDOW'MENT, act of endowing: that which is
settled on any person or institution: a quality or faculty bestowed on any
one. [Fr. _en_ (=L. _in_), _douer_, to endow--L. _dot[=a]re_--_dos_,
_dotis_, a dowry.]

ENDUE, en-d[=u]', INDUE, in-, _v.t._ to put on, as clothes: to invest or
clothe with: to supply with.--_n._ ENDUE'MENT, adornment. [O. Fr.
_enduire_--L. _induc[)e]re_--_in_, into, _duc[)e]re_, to lead. In certain
senses the word is closely related to _indu[)e]re_, to put on.]

ENDURE, en-d[=u]r', _v.t._ to remain firm under: to bear without sinking:
to tolerate.--_v.i._ to remain firm: to last.--_adj._ ENDUR'ABLE, that can
be endured or borne.--_n._ ENDUR'ABLENESS.--_adv._ ENDUR'ABLY.--_ns._
ENDUR'ANCE, state of enduring or bearing: continuance: a suffering
patiently without sinking: patience; ENDUR'ER.--_adv._ ENDUR'INGLY. [O. Fr.
_endurer_--L. _indur[=a]re_--_in_, in, _durus_, hard.]

ENDYMION, en-dim'i-on, _n._ a beautiful youth whom Selene (the moon)
wrapped in perpetual sleep that she might kiss him without his knowledge.

ENE, [=e]n, _adv._ (_Spens._) once. [A.S. _['æ]ne_--_án_, one.]

ENEID, e-n[=e]'id, _n._ Same as ÆNEID.

ENEMA, en'e-ma, or e-n[=e]'ma, _n._ a liquid medicine thrown into the
rectum: an injection. [Gr.,--_enienai_, to send in--_en_, in, and _hienai_,
to send.]

ENEMY, en'e-mi, _n._ one who hates or dislikes: a foe: a hostile
army.--_adj._ (_obs._) hostile.--HOW GOES THE ENEMY? (_slang_) what o'clock
is it?--THE ENEMY, THE OLD ENEMY, the Devil; THE LAST ENEMY, death. [O. Fr.
_enemi_ (mod. Fr. _ennemi_)--L. _inimicus_--_in_, neg., _amicus_, a

ENEMY, a prov. form of _anemone_.

ENERGUMEN, en-er-g[=u]'men, _n._ one possessed: a demoniac. [Low L.,--Gr.
_energoumenos_--_energein_--_en_, in, _ergon_, work.]

ENERGY, en'[.e]r-ji, _n._ power of doing work: power exerted: vigorous
operation: strength: (_physics_) the term, as applied to a material system,
used to denote the power of doing work possessed by that system.--_adjs._
ENERGET'IC, -AL, having or showing energy: active: forcible:
effective.--_adv._ ENERGET'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ ENERGET'ICS, the science of the
general laws of energy.--_adj._ ENER'GIC, exhibiting energy.--_v.t._
EN'ERGISE, to give strength or active force to.--_v.i._ to act with
force:--_pr.p._ en'erg[=i]sing; _pa.p._ en'erg[=i]sed.--CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY (see CONSERVATION). [Gr. _energeia_--_en_, in, _ergon_, work.]

ENERVATE, en-[.e]r'v[=a]t, _v.t._ to deprive of nerve, strength, or
courage: to weaken.--_adj._ weakened: spiritless.--_n._
ENERV[=A]'TION.--_adj._ ENER'VATIVE.--_v.t._ ENERVE' (_obs._), to enervate.
[L. _enerv[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out of, _nervus_, a nerve.]

ENEW, e-n[=u]', _v.t._ in falconry, to drive back to the water: to pursue.
[O. Fr. _enewer_--_en_, in, _eau_, water.]

ENFEEBLE, en-f[=e]'bl, _v.t._ to make feeble: to weaken.--_n._
ENFEE'BLEMENT, weakening: weakness.

ENFELON, en-fel'on, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to make fierce.

ENFEOFF, en-fef', _v.t._ to give a fief to: to invest with a possession in
fee: to surrender.--_n._ ENFEOFF'MENT, act of enfeoffing: the deed which
invests with the fee of an estate. [O. Fr. _enfeffer_--_en-_, and _fief_.

ENFEST, en-fest, _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as INFEST.

ENFETTER, en-fet'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to bind in fetters.

ENFIERCE, en-f[=e]rs', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to make fierce.

ENFILADE, en-fi-l[=a]d', _n._ a number of rooms with the doors opening into
a common passage: a fire that rakes a line of troops, &c., from end to end;
a situation or a body open from end to end.--_v.t._ to rake with shot
through the whole length of a line. [Fr.,--_enfiler_--_en_ (=L. _in_), and
_fil_, a thread. See FILE, a line or wire.]

ENFILED, en-f[=i]ld', _p.adj._ (_her._) thrust through with a sword. [See

ENFIRE, en-f[=i]r', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to set on fire, inflame.

ENFLESH, en-flesh', _v.t._ to turn into flesh.

ENFLOWER, en-flow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to cover with flowers.

ENFOLD, en-f[=o]ld', INFOLD, in-, _v.t._ to wrap up.--_n._ ENFOLD'MENT, act
of enfolding: that which enfolds.

ENFORCE, en-f[=o]rs', _v.t._ to gain by force: to give force to: to put in
force: to give effect to: to urge: (_Spens._) to attempt.--_adj._
ENFORCE'ABLE.--_adv._ ENFORC'EDLY, by violence, not by choice.--_n._
ENFORCE'MENT, act of enforcing: compulsion: a giving effect to: that which
enforces. [O. Fr. _enforcer_--_en_ (=L. _in_), and _force_.]

ENFOREST, en-for'est, _v.t._ to turn into forest.

ENFORM, en-form', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to fashion.

ENFOULDERED, en-fowl'd[.e]rd, _p.adj._ (_Spens._) mixed with lightning or
fire. [_En_, in, and O. Fr. _fouldre_ (Fr. _foudre_)--L. _fulgur_,
lightning, _fulg[)e]re_, to flash.]

ENFRAME, en-fr[=a]m', _v.t._ to put in a frame.

ENFRANCHISE, en-fran'chiz, _v.t._ to set free: to give a franchise or
political privileges to.--_n._ ENFRAN'CHISEMENT, act of enfranchising:
liberation: admission to civil or political privileges. [O. Fr.
_enfranchir_--_en_, and _franc_, free. See FRANCHISE.]

ENFREE, en-fr[=e]', ENFREEDOM, en-fr[=e]'dum, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to set free,
to give freedom to.

ENFREEZE, en-fr[=e]z', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to freeze: turn to ice:--_pr.p._
enfreez'ing: _pa.p._ enfr[=o]z'en, enfr[=o]z'ened.

ENGAGE, en-g[=a]j', _v.t._ to bind by a gage or pledge: to render liable:
to gain for service: to enlist: to gain over: to betroth: (_archit._) to
fasten: to win: to occupy: to enter into contest with: (_obs._) to
entangle.--_v.i._ to pledge one's word: to become bound: to take a part: to
enter into conflict.--_p.adj._ ENGAGED', pledged: promised, esp. in
marriage: greatly interested: occupied: (_archit._) partly built or sunk
into, or so appearing: geared together, interlocked.--_n._ ENGAGE'MENT, act
of engaging: state of being engaged: that which engages: betrothal:
promise: employment: a fight or battle.--_p.adj._ ENGAG'ING, winning:
attractive.--_adv._ ENGAG'INGLY.--ENGAGE FOR, to answer for. [Fr.
_engager_--_en gage_, in pledge. See GAGE.]

ENGAOL, en-j[=a]l', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to put in gaol.

ENGARLAND, en-gär'land, _v.t._ to put a garland round.

ENGARRISON, en-gar'i-sn, _v.t._ to establish as a garrison.

ENGENDER, en-jen'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to beget: to bear: to breed: to sow the
seeds of: to produce.--_v.i._ to be caused or produced.--_ns._ ENGEN'DRURE,
ENGEN'DURE, act of engendering: generation. [Fr. _engendrer_--L.
_ingener[=a]re_--_in_, and _gener[=a]re_, to generate.]

ENGILD, en-gild', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to gild.

ENGINE, en'jin, _n._ a complex and powerful machine, esp. a prime mover: a
military machine: anything used to effect a purpose: a device: contrivance:
(_obs._) ability, genius.--_v.t._ to contrive: to put into action.--_ns._
EN'GINE-DRIV'ER, one who manages an engine, esp. who drives a locomotive;
ENGINEER', an engine maker or manager: one who directs works and engines: a
soldier belonging to the division of the army called Engineers, consisting
of men trained to engineering work.--_v.i._ to act as an engineer.--_v.t._
to arrange, contrive.--_ns._ ENGINEER'ING, the art or profession of an
engineer; EN'GINE-MAN, one who drives an engine; EN'GINE-ROOM, the room in
a vessel in which the engines are placed; EN'GINERY, the art or business of
managing engines: engines collectively: machinery; EN'GINE-TURN'ING, a kind
of ornament made by a rose-engine, as on the backs of watches, &c.--CIVIL
ENGINEER (see CIVIL). [O. Fr. _engin_--L. _ingenium_, skill. See

ENGIRD, en-g[.e]rd', _v.t._ to gird round.

ENGIRDLE, en-g[.e]rd'l, ENGIRT, en-g[.e]rt', _v.t._ to surround, as with a
girdle: to encircle.

ENGLISH, ing'glish, _adj._ belonging to _England_ or its inhabitants.--_n._
the language of the people of England.--_v.t._ to translate a book into
English: to make English.--_ns._ ENG'LANDER, an Englishman; ENG'LISHER,
ENG'LISHMAN, a native or naturalised inhabitant of England; ENG'LISHRY, the
fact of being an Englishman; in Ireland, the population of English
descent.--OLD ENGLISH, or _Anglo-Saxon_, the language spoken in England
from 450 till about 1150; MIDDLE ENGLISH till 1500; MODERN ENGLISH from
1500 onwards (EARLY ENGLISH often means Early Middle English; (_archit._),
see EARLY).--PRESENTMENT OF ENGLISHRY, the offering of proof that a person
murdered belonged to the English race, to escape the fine levied on the
hundred or township for the murder of a Norman. [A.S. _Englisc_, from
_Engle_, _Angle_, from the Angles who settled in Britain.]

ENGLOBE, en-gl[=o]b', _v.t._ to enclose as in a globe.

ENGLOOM, en-gl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to make gloomy.

ENGLUT, en-glut', _v.t._ to glut, to fill: to swallow.

ENGORE, en-g[=o]r', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to gore: to wound.

ENGORGE, en-gorj', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to devour, to glut.--_v.i._ (_Milton_)
to feed voraciously.--_adj._ ENGORGED', filled to excess with blood.--_n._
ENGORGE'MENT, the act of swallowing greedily: (_med._) an obstruction of
the vessels in some part of the system.

ENGOUEMENT, ang-g[=oo]'mang, _n._ excessive fondness. [Fr.]

ENGOULED, en-g[=oo]ld', _adj._ (_her._) of bends, crosses, &c., the
extremities of which enter the mouths of animals.--Also ENGOUL'EE.

ENGRACE, en-gr[=a]s', _v.t._ to put grace into.

ENGRAFF, obsolete form of _engraft_.

ENGRAFT, en-graft', INGRAFT, in-, _v.t._ to graft (a shoot of one tree)
into another: to introduce something: to fix deeply.--_ns._
ENGRAFT[=A]'TION, act of engrafting: ENGRAFT'MENT, engrafting: the thing
engrafted: a scion.

ENGRAIL, en-gr[=a]l', _v.t_ (_her._) to make a border composed of a series
of little semicircular indents: to make rough.--_v.i._ to form an edging or
border: to run in indented lines.--_n._ ENGRAIL'MENT, the ring of dots
round the edge of a medal: (_her._) indentation in curved lines. [O. Fr.
_engresler_ (Fr. _engrêler_)--_gresle_, hail. See GRAIL.]

ENGRAIN, en-gr[=a]n', INGRAIN, in-, _v.t._ to dye of a fast or lasting
colour: to dye in the raw state: to infix deeply.--_n._ ENGRAIN'ER. [Orig.
'to dye in grain' (meaning _with grain_)--i.e. cochineal.]

ENGRASP, en-grasp', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to grasp.

ENGRAVE, en-gr[=a]v', _v.t._ to cut out with a graver a representation of
anything on wood, steel, &c.: to imprint: to impress deeply.--_ns._
ENGRAV'ER; ENGRAV'ERY, the art of the engraver; ENGRAV'ING, act or art of
cutting or incising designs on metal, wood, &c., for the purpose of
printing impressions from them in ink on paper, or other similar
substance--in metal, the lines to be printed are sunk or incised; in wood,
the lines to be printed appear in relief, the wood between them being cut
away: an impression taken from an engraved plate: a print. [Fr. _en_ (=L.
_in_), and _grave_, _v._]

ENGRAVE, en-gr[=a]v', _v.t._ to deposit in the grave.

ENGRIEVE, en-gr[=e]v', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to grieve.

ENGROOVE, en-gr[=oo]v', INGROOVE, in-, _v.t._ to cut a groove or furrow in:
to make into a groove.

ENGROSS, en-gr[=o]s', _v.t._ to occupy wholly, monopolise: to absorb: to
copy a writing in a large hand or in distinct characters: to write in legal
form: to make gross.--_ns._ ENGROSS'ER; ENGROSS'ING, the conduct of those
who buy merchandise in large quantities to obtain command of the market;
ENGROSS'MENT, act of engrossing: that which has been engrossed: a fair
copy.--ENGROSSING A DEED, the writing it out in full and regular form on
parchment or paper for signature. [From Fr. _en gros_, in large--L. _in_,
in, _grossus_, large. See GROSS.]

ENGUARD, en-gärd', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to guard or defend.

ENGUICHÉ, äng-g[=e]-sh[=a]', _adj._ (_her._) having a different tincture
inside the mouth, of trumpets, &c. [Fr.]

ENGULF, en-gulf', INGULF, in-, _v.t._ to swallow up wholly, as in a gulf:
to cast into a gulf: to overwhelm.--_n._ ENGULF'MENT.

ENGYSCOPE, en'ji-sk[=o]p, _n._ a kind of reflecting microscope.--Also
EN'GISCOPE. [Gr. _enggys_, near, _skopein_, to view.]

ENHALO, en-h[=a]'l[=o], _v.t._ to surround with a halo.

ENHANCE, en-hans', _v.t._ to heighten: to add to, increase.--_n._
ENHANCE'MENT, act of enhancing: state of being enhanced: aggravation.
[Prob. from O. Fr. _enhaucer_--L. _in_, and _altus_, high.]

ENHARMONIC, -AL, en-har-mon'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to music constructed
on a scale containing intervals less than a semitone: pertaining to that
scale of music current among the Greeks, in which an interval of 2½ tones
was divided into two quarter tones and a major third.--_adv._
ENHARMON'ICALLY. [L.,--Gr.,--_en_, in, _harmonia_, harmony.]

ENHEARSE, en-h[.e]rs', INHEARSE, in-, _v.t._ to put in a hearse.

ENHEARTEN, en-härt'n, _v.t._ to encourage: to cheer.

ENHUNGER, en-hung'g[.e]r, _v.t._ to make hungry.

ENHYDROUS, en-h[=i]'drus, _adj._ containing water or other fluid.--_n._
ENHY'DRITE, a mineral containing water. [Gr. _en_, in, and _hyd[=o]r_,

ENHYPOSTATIC, en-h[=i]-p[=o]-stat'ik, _adj._ possessing substantial or
personal existence, possessing personality not independently but by union
with a person.--_n._ ENHYPOST[=A]'SIA.--_v.t._ ENHYPOS'TATISE.

ENIGMA, en-ig'ma, _n._ a statement with a hidden meaning to be guessed:
anything very obscure: a riddle.--_adjs._ ENIGMAT'IC, -AL, relating to,
containing, or resembling an enigma: obscure: puzzling.--_adv._
ENIGMAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ENIG'MATISE, to utter or deal in riddles.--_ns._
ENIG'MATIST, one who enigmatises; ENIGMATOG'RAPHY, science of enigmas and
their solution. [L. _ænigma_--Gr. _ainigma_--_ainissesthai_, to speak
darkly--_ainos_, a fable.]

ENISLE, en-[=i]l', INISLE, in-, _v.t._ to isolate.

ENJAMBMENT, en-jamb'ment, _n._ in verse, the continuation of a sentence
beyond the end of the line. [Fr.,--_enjamber_--_en_, in, _jambe_, leg.]

ENJOIN, en-join', _v.t._ to lay upon, as an order: to order or direct with
authority or urgency.--_n._ ENJOIN'MENT. [Fr. _enjoindre_--L.
_injung[)e]re_--_in_, and _jung[)e]re_, to join.]

ENJOY, en-joi', _v.t._ to joy or delight in: to feel or perceive with
pleasure: to possess or use with satisfaction or delight: to have the use
of: to have sexual intercourse with.--_adj._ ENJOY'ABLE, capable of being
enjoyed or of giving joy.--_n._ ENJOY'MENT, state or condition of enjoying:
satisfactory possession or use of anything; pleasure: happiness. [O. Fr.
_enjoier_, to give joy to--_en_ (=L. _in_), and _joie_, joy; or O. Fr.
_enjoir_, to enjoy--_en_, and _joir_--L. _gaud[=e]re_, to rejoice.]

ENKERNEL, en-k[.e]r'nel, _v.t._ to enclose in a kernel.

ENKINDLE, en-kin'dl, _v.t._ to kindle or set on fire: to inflame: to
rouse.--_p.adj._ ENKIN'DLED.

ENLACE, en-l[=a]s', _v.t._ to encircle, surround: to embrace.--_n._

ENLARD, en-lärd', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to grease, to baste.

ENLARGE, en-lärj', _v.t._ to make larger: to increase in size or quantity:
to expand: to amplify discourse: to set free.--_v.i._ to grow large or
larger: to be diffuse in speaking or writing: to expatiate.--_adj._
enlarging: state of being enlarged: increase: extension: diffuseness of
speech or writing: a setting at large: release. [O. Fr. _enlarger_--_en_
(=L. _in_), _large_, large.]

ENLEVEMENT, en-l[=e]v'ment, _n._ (_Scots law_) abduction of a woman or

ENLIGHTEN, en-l[=i]t'n, _v.t._ to lighten or shed light on: to make clear
to the mind: to impart knowledge to: to elevate by knowledge or
religion--(_obs._) ENLIGHT'.--_n._ ENLIGHT'ENMENT, act of enlightening:
state of being enlightened: the spirit of the French philosophers of the
18th century.

ENLINK, en-lingk', _v.t._ to connect closely.

ENLIST, en-list', _v.t._ to enrol: to engage as a soldier, &c.: to employ
in advancing an object.--_v.i._ to engage in public service, esp. as a
soldier: to enter heartily into a cause.--_n._ ENLIST'MENT, act of
enlisting: state of being enlisted.

ENLIVEN, en-l[=i]v'n, _v.t._ to put life into: to excite or make active: to
make sprightly or cheerful: to animate.--_ns._ ENLIV'ENER; ENLIV'ENMENT.

ENLOCK, en-lok', _v.t._ to lock up, enclose.

ENLUMINE, en-l[=oo]'min, _v.t._ (_Spens._). See ILLUMINE.

ENMARBLE, en-mär'bl, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to turn to marble, to harden.

ENMESH, en-mesh', EMMESH, em-, IMMESH, im-, _v.t._ to catch in a mesh or
net, to entangle.

ENMEW, en-m[=u]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to coop up, as in a cage.

ENMITY, en'mi-ti, _n._ the quality of being an enemy: unfriendliness:
ill-will: hostility. [O. Fr. _enemistié_--L. _inimicus_. See ENEMY.]

ENMOSSED, en-most', _p.adj._ covered with moss.

ENMOVE, en-m[=oo]v', _v.t._ Same as EMMOVE.


ENNEA, en'[=e]-a, a prefix in words of Greek origin, signifying nine.--_n._
EN'NEAD, the number nine, a system of nine objects.--_adj._
ENNEAD'IC.--_n._ EN'NEAGON, a polygon with nine angles.--_adjs._
ENNEAG'ONAL; ENNEAG'YNOUS, having nine pistils or styles; ENNEAH[=E]'DRAL,
having nine faces.--_n._ ENNEAN'DRIA, the ninth Linnæan class of plants,
with nine stamens.--_adjs._ ENNEAN'DRIAN; ENNEAPHYL'LOUS, nine-leaved;
ENNEASPER'MOUS, having nine seeds.

ENNOBLE, en-n[=o]'bl, _v.t._ to make noble: to elevate, distinguish: to
raise to nobility.--_n._ ENN[=O]'BLEMENT, the act of making noble: that
which ennobles. [Fr. _ennoblir_--Fr. _en_ (=L. _in_), and _noble_.]

ENNUI, äng-nw[=e]', _n._ a feeling of weariness or disgust from satiety,
&c.: the occasion of ennui.--_v.t._ to weary: to bore.--_adj._ ENNUYÉ
(äng-nw[=e]-y[=a]'), bored. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _anoi_--L. _in odio_, as _in odio
habeo_, lit. 'I hold in hatred,' i.e. I am tired of. See ANNOY.]

ENODAL, [=e]-n[=o]'dal, _adj._ without nodes.

ENOMOTY, e-nom'[=o]-ti, _n._ a band of sworn soldiers, esp. the smallest
Spartan subdivision. [Gr.]

ENORMOUS, e-nor'mus, _adj._ excessive: immense: atrocious--(_obs._)
ENORM'.--_n._ ENOR'MITY, state or quality of being enormous: that which is
enormous: a great crime: great wickedness.--_adv._ ENOR'MOUSLY.--_n._
ENOR'MOUSNESS. [L. _enormis_--_e_, out of, _norma_, rule.]

ENORTHOTROPE, en-or'th[=o]-tr[=o]p, _n._ a toy consisting of a card on
which confused objects are transformed into various pictures, by causing it
to revolve rapidly. [Gr. _en_, in, _orthos_, upright, _tropos_, turning.]

ENOUGH, e-nuf', _adj._ sufficient: giving content: satisfying want.--_adv._
sufficiently.--_n._ sufficiency: as much as satisfies desire or want. [A.S.
_ge-nóh_, _ge-nóg_; Goth. _ga-nóhs_; Ger. _ge-nug_; Ice. _g-nóg-r_.]

ENOUNCE, e-nowns', _v.t._ to enunciate: to proclaim: to utter or
articulate. [Fr. _énoncer_--L. _enunti[=a]re_.]

ENOW=ENOUGH, but often used as its plural.

ENOW, e-now', _adv._ just now: (_Scot._) soon. [Contr. from 'even now.']

EN PASSANT, äng pas'ang, _adv._ in passing: by the way. [Fr.]


ENRACE, en-r[=a]s', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to give race or origin to.

ENRAGE, en-r[=a]j', _v.t._ to make angry.--_p.adj._ ENRAGED', angered:
furious.--_n._ ENRAGE'MENT, act of enraging, state of being enraged,
excitement. [O. Fr. _enrager_--_en_ (=L. _in_), and _rage_, rage.]

ENRANGE, en-r[=a]nj', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to arrange: to rove over.

ENRANK, en-rangk', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to place in order.

ENRAPTURE, en-rap't[=u]r, _v.t._ to put in rapture: to transport with
pleasure or delight.--_p.adjs._ ENRAP'TURED, ENRAPT', delighted:

ENRAVISH, en-rav'ish, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to enrapture.

ENREGIMENT, en-rej'i-ment, _v.t._ to form in a regiment.

ENREGISTER, en-rej'is-t[.e]r, _v.t._ to register: to enrol.

ENRICH, en-rich', _v.t._ to make rich: to fertilise: to adorn: to
enhance.--_n._ ENRICH'MENT, act of enriching; that which enriches.

ENRIDGE, en-rij', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to form into ridges.

ENRING, en-ring', _v.t._ to encircle: to put a ring on.

ENROBE, en-r[=o]b', _v.t._ to dress, clothe, or invest.

ENROL, ENROLL, en-r[=o]l', _v.t._ to insert in a roll or register: to
enlist: to record: to leave in writing:--_pr.p._ enr[=o]l'ling; _pa.p._
enr[=o]lled'.--_ns._ ENROL'LER; ENROL'MENT, act of enrolling: that in which
anything is enrolled: a register. [O. Fr. _enroller_ (Fr. _enrôler_)--_en_,
and _rolle_, roll.]

ENROOT, en-r[=oo]t', _v.t._ to fix by the root: to implant firmly:
(_Shak._) to join firmly, as root by root.

ENROUGH, en-ruf', _v.t._ to make rough.

ENROUND, en-rownd', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to surround.

ENS, enz, _n._ an entity, as opposed to an attribute. [A late _pr.p._ form,
from L. _esse_, to be.]

ENSAMPLE, en-sam'pl, _n._ example.--_v.t._ to give an example of. [O. Fr.
_essample_. See EXAMPLE.]

ENSANGUINE, en-sang'gwin, _v.t._ to stain or cover with blood.--_p.adj._

ENSATE, en's[=a]t, _adj._ ensiform.

ENSCHEDULE, en-shed'[=u]l, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to insert in a schedule.

ENSCONCE, en-skons', _v.t._ to cover or protect as with a sconce or
earth-work: to hide safely.

ENSEAL, en-s[=e]l', _v.t._ to put one's seal to: to seal up.

ENSEAM, en-s[=e]m', _v.t._ to mark as with a seam.

ENSEAM, en-s[=e]m', _v.t._ to cover with grease. [_Seam_, grease.]

ENSEAM, en-s[=e]m', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to contain. [Der. obscure; cf. Ice.
_semja_, to put together.]

ENSEAR, en-s[=e]r', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to dry up.

ENSEMBLE, äng-sangb'l, _n._ all the parts of a thing taken together.--TOUT
ENSEMBLE, general appearance or effect. [Fr. _ensemble_, together--L. _in_,
in, _simul_, at the same time.]

ENSEPULCHRE, en-sep'ul-k[.e]r, _v.t._ to put in a sepulchre.

ENSEW (_Spens._). Same as ENSUE.

ENSHIELD, en-sh[=e]ld', _v.t._ to shield or protect.--_adj._ (_Shak._)
shielded or protected.

ENSHRINE, en-shr[=i]n', _v.t._ to enclose in or as in a shrine: to preserve
with affection.

ENSHROUD, en-shrowd', _v.t._ to cover with a shroud: to cover up.

ENSIFORM, en'si-form, _adj._ having the shape of a sword. [L. _ensis_, a
sword, and _forma_, form.]

ENSIGN, en's[=i]n, _n._ a sign or mark: the sign or flag distinguishing a
nation or a regiment: one who carries the colours: until 1871, the title
given to officers of the lowest commissioned rank in the British
infantry.--_ns._ EN'SIGN-BEAR'ER; EN'SIGNCY, EN'SIGNSHIP, the rank or
commission of an ensign in the army. [O. Fr. _enseigne_--L. _insignia_, pl.
of _insigne_, a distinctive mark--_in_, and _signum_, a mark.]

ENSILAGE, en'sil-[=a]j, _n._ the storing of green fodder, &c., in
pits.--_v.t._ EN'SILE, to store by ensilage. [Fr.,--Sp. _en_, and
_silo_--L.,--Gr. _siros_, pit for corn.]

ENSKY, en-sk[=i]', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to place in the sky.

ENSLAVE, en-sl[=a]v', _v.t._ to make a slave of: to subject to the
influence of.--_p.adj._ ENSLAVED'.--_ns._ ENSLAVE'MENT, act of enslaving:
state of being enslaved: slavery: bondage; ENSLAV'ER.

ENSNARE, en-sn[=a]r', INSNARE, in-, _v.t._ to catch in a snare: to entrap:
to entangle.

ENSNARL, en-snärl', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to entangle.

ENSORCELL, en-s[=o]r'sel, _v.t._ to bewitch. [O. Fr. _ensorceler_--_en_,
and _sorcier_, a sorceror.]

ENSOUL, en-s[=o]l', INSOUL, in-, _v.t._ to join with the soul: to animate
as a soul.

ENSPHERE, en-sf[=e]r', INSPHERE, in-, _v.t._ to enclose in a sphere: to
give a spherical form.

ENSTAMP, en-stamp', _v.t._ to mark as with a stamp.

ENSTEEP, en-st[=e]p', _v.t._ to steep: to lay under water.

ENSTYLE, en-st[=i]l', _v.t._ to style, call.

ENSUE, en-s[=u]', _v.i._ to follow, to come after: to result (with
_from_).--_v.t._ (_B._, _arch._) to follow after:--_pr.p._ ens[=u]'ing;
_pa.p._ ens[=u]ed'. [O. Fr. _ensuir_ (Fr. _ensuivre_)--L. _in_, after,
_sequi_, to follow.]

ENSURE, en-sh[=oo]r', _v.t._ to make sure. [See INSURE.]

ENSWATHE, en-sw[=a]th', INSWATHE, in-, _v.t._ to wrap in a swathe.--_n._

ENSWEEP, en-sw[=e]p', _v.t._ to sweep over.

ENTABLATURE, en-tab'lat-[=u]r, _n._ that part of a design in classic
architecture which surmounts the columns and rests upon the capitals.
[Prob. through Fr. from It. _intavolatura_--_in_, in, _tavola_, a table.]

ENTAIL, en-t[=a]l', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to carve. [O. Fr. _entailler_--Low L.
_en_, into, _tale[=a]re_, to cut.]

ENTAIL, en-t[=a]l', _v.t._ to settle an estate on a series of heirs, so
that the immediate possessor may not dispose of it: to bring on as an
inevitable consequence:--_pr.p._ entail'ing; _pa.p._ entailed'.--_n._ an
estate entailed: the rule of descent of an estate.--_ns._ ENTAIL'ER;
ENTAIL'MENT, act of entailing: state of being entailed. [O. Fr.
_entailler_, to cut into--_en_, in, into, _tailler_, to cut--L. _talea_, a

ENTAL, en'tal, _adj._ internal. [Gr. _entos_, within.]

ENTAME, en-t[=a]m', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to tame.

ENTANGLE, en-tang'gl, _v.t._ to twist into a tangle, or so as not to be
easily separated: to involve in complications: to perplex: to
ensnare.--_n._ ENTANG'LEMENT, a confused state: perplexity.

ENTASIS, en'ta-sis, _n._ (_archit._) the swelling outline of the shaft of a
column--also ENT[=A]'SIA: constrictive or tonic spasm.--_adj._ ENTAS'TIC.
[Gr.,--_en_, in, _teinein_, to stretch.]

ENTELECHY, en-tel'ek-i, _n._ (_phil._) actuality: distinctness of realised
existence. [Gr. _entelecheia_--_en_, in, _telos_, perfection, _echein_, to

ENTELLUS, en-tel'us, _n._ the hanuman of India.

ENTENDER, en-tend'[.e]r, _v.t._ to make tender: to weaken.

ENTER, en't[.e]r, _v.i._ to go or come in: to penetrate: to engage in: to
form a part of.--_v.t._ to come or go into: to join or engage in: to begin:
to put into: to enrol or record: to cause to be inscribed, as a boy's name
at school, a horse for a race, &c.--_n._ (_Shak._) ingoing.--_adj._
EN'TERABLE.--_ns._ EN'TERCLOSE, a passage between two rooms; EN'TERER;
EN'TERING.--ENTER A PROTEST, to write it in the books: thence simply, to
protest; ENTER INTO, to become a party to: to be interested in: to be part
of; ENTER ON, to begin: to engage in. [Fr. _entrer_--L. _intrare_, to go
into, related to _inter_, between.]

ENTERDEAL, obsolete form of _interdeal_.

ENTERIC, en-ter'ik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the intestines.--_ns._
ENTERADENOG'RAPHY, description of the intestinal glands; ENTERADENOL'OGY,
the branch of anatomy relating to the intestinal glands; ENTERAL'GIA,
intestinal neuralgia; ENTER[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the intestines;
EN'TEROCELE, a hernial tumour containing part of the intestines;
ENTEROGASTR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the stomach and bowels; EN'TEROLITE,
EN'TEROLITH, an intestinal concretion or calculus; ENTEROL'OGY, a treatise
on the internal parts of the body; EN'TERON, the entire intestine or
alimentary canal:--_pl._ EN'TERA; ENTEROP'ATHY, disease of the intestines;
ENTEROPNEUST'A, a class of worm-like animals, having the paired respiratory
pouches opening from the front part of the alimentary canal; ENTEROT'OMY,
dissection or incision of the intestines. [Gr. _enterikos_--_enteron_,

ENTERPRISE, en't[.e]r-pr[=i]z, _n._ that which is attempted: a bold or
dangerous undertaking: an adventure: daring.--_v.t._ to undertake.--_n._
EN'TERPRISER, an adventurer.--_p.adj._ EN'TERPRISING, forward in
undertaking: adventurous.--_adv._ EN'TERPRISINGLY. [O. Fr. _entreprise_,
pa.p. of _entreprendre_--_entre_, in, _prendre_--L. _prehend[)e]re_, to

ENTERTAIN, en-t[.e]r-t[=a]n', _v.t._ to receive and treat hospitably: to
hold the attention of and amuse by conversation: to amuse: to receive and
take into consideration: to keep or hold in the mind: to harbour.--_n._
ENTERTAIN'ER.--_p.adj._ ENTERTAIN'ING, affording entertainment:
amusing.--_adv._ ENTERTAIN'INGLY.--_n._ ENTERTAIN'MENT, act of
entertaining: hospitality at table: that which entertains: the provisions
of the table: a banquet: amusement: a performance which delights. [Fr.
_entretenir_--L. _inter_, among, _ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

ENTERTAKE, en-t[.e]r-t[=a]k', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to entertain.


ENTHEASM, en'th[=e]-azm, _n._ divine inspiration, ecstasy.--_adj._

ENTHELMINTHA, en-thel-min'tha, _n.pl._ a general name of intestinal worms.

ENTHRAL, en-thrawl', INTHRAL, in-, _v.t._ to bring into thraldom or
bondage: to enslave: to shackle.--_ns._ ENTHRAL'DOM, condition of being
enthralled; ENTHRAL'MENT, act of enthralling: slavery.

ENTHRONE, en-thr[=o]n', _v.t._ to place on a throne: to exalt to the seat
of royalty: to install as a bishop: to exalt.--_ns._ ENTHRONE'MENT,
ENTHRONIS[=A]'TION, the act of enthroning or of being enthroned.--_v.t._
ENTHR[=O]'NISE, to enthrone, as a bishop: to exalt.

ENTHUSIASM, en-th[=u]'zi-azm, _n._ intense interest: intensity of feeling:
passionate zeal.--_n._ ENTH[=U]'SIAST, one inspired by enthusiasm: one who
admires or loves intensely.--_adjs._ ENTHUSIAS'TIC, -AL, filled with
enthusiasm; zealous: ardent.--_adv._ ENTHUSIAS'TICALLY. [Through L., from
Gr. _enthusiasmos_, a god-inspired zeal--_enthousiazein_, to be inspired by
a god--_en_, in, _theos_, a god.]

ENTHYMEME, en'thi-m[=e]m, _n._ (_rhet._) an argument consisting of only two
propositions, an antecedent and a consequent: a syllogism in which the
major proposition is suppressed.--_adj._ ENTHYMEMAT'ICAL. [From L. from Gr.
_enthym[=e]ma_, a consideration--_enthymeesthai_, to consider--_en_, in,
_thymos_, the mind.]

ENTICE, en-t[=i]s', _v.t._ to induce by exciting hope or desire: to tempt:
to lead astray.--_adj._ ENTICE'ABLE.--_ns._ ENTICE'MENT, act of enticing:
that which entices or tempts: allurement; ENTIC'ER.--_p.adj._
ENTIC'ING.--_adv._ ENTIC'INGLY. [O. Fr. _enticier_, provoke; prob. related
to L. _titio_, a firebrand.]

ENTIRE, en-t[=i]r', _adj._ whole: complete: unmingled: not castrated,
specially of a horse.--_n._ the whole: completeness: a stallion: porter or
stout as delivered from the brewery.--_adv._ ENTIRE'LY.--_ns._ ENTIRE'NESS,
ENTIRE'TY, completeness: the whole.--IN ITS ENTIRETY, in its completeness.
[O. Fr. _entier_--L. _integer_, whole, from _in_, not, _tang[)e]re_, to

ENTITLE, en-t[=i]'tl, _v.t._ to give a title to: to style: to give a claim
to. [O. Fr. _entiteler_--Low L. _intitul[=a]re_--_in_, in, _titulus_,

ENTITY, en'ti-ti, _n._ being: existence: a real substance. [Low L.
_entitat-em_--_ens_ (q.v.).]

ENTOBLAST, en't[=o]-blast, _n._ the nucleolus of a cell.

ENTOCELE, en't[=o]-s[=e]l, _n._ morbid displacement of parts.

ENTOIL, en-toil', _v.t._ to entangle or ensnare.

ENTOMB, en-t[=oo]m', _v.t._ to place in a tomb: to bury.--_n._ ENTOMB'MENT,
burial. [O. Fr. _entoumber_--_en_, in, _tombe_, a tomb.]

ENTOMOLOGY, en-to-mol'o-ji, _n._ the science which treats of
insects.--_adjs._ ENTOM'IC, -AL, relating to insects.--_n._ ENTOMOG'RAPHY,
descriptive entomology.--_adj._ EN'TOMOID, insect-like.--_n._ ENTOM'OLITE,
a fossil insect.--_adj._ ENTOMOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ENTOMOLOG'ICALLY.--_v.t._
ENTOMOL'OGISE.--_ns._ ENTOMOL'OGIST, one learned in entomology.--_n.pl._
ENTOMOPH'AGA, a sub-section of _Hymenoptera terebrantia_, or boring
hymenopterous insects.--_adjs._ ENTOMOPH'AGAN, ENTOMOPH'AGOUS,
insectivorous; ENTOMOPH'ILOUS, insect-loving--of such flowers as are
specially adapted for fertilisation by the agency of insects.--_ns._
EN'TOMOTAXY, preparation of insects for preservation; ENTOMOT'OMIST;
ENTOMOT'OMY, dissection of insects. [Gr. _entoma_, insects, _logia_, a
discourse, _phagein_, to eat, _philein_, to love, _taxis_, arrangement,
_temnein_, to cut.]

ENTOMOSTOMATA, en-to-mo-stom'a-ta, _n.pl._ a family of mollusca. [Gr.
_entomos_, cut into--_en_, in, _temnein_, to cut, _stoma_, a mouth.]

ENTOMOSTRACA, en-to-mos'tra-ka, _n.pl._ a general name for the lower orders
of crustacea--_Phyllopods_, _Ostracods_, _Copepods_, and
_Cirripedes_:--_sing._ ENTOMOS'TRACAN.--_adj._ ENTOMOS'TRACOUS. [Gr.
_entomos_, cut in--_en_, in, _temnein_, to cut, _ostrakon_, a shell.]

ENTONIC, en-ton'ik, _adj._ showing high tension.

ENTOPERIPHERAL, en-t[=o]-pe-rif'e-ral, _adj._ situated or originated within
the periphery or external surface of the body.

ENTOPHYTE, en'to-f[=i]t, _n._ a parasitic plant which grows in a living
animal.--_adj._ ENTOPHYT'IC.--_adv._ ENTOPHYT'ICALLY.--_adj._ EN'TOPHYTOUS.
[Gr. _enton_, within, and _phyton_, a plant.]

ENTOTIC, en-tot'ik, _adj._ of the interior of the ear.

ENTOURAGE, äng-t[=oo]-razh', _n._ surroundings: followers.
[Fr.,--_entourer_, to surround--_en_, in, _tour_, a circuit.]

ENTOZOA, en-to-z[=o]'a, _n.pl._ animals that live inside of other animals:
internal parasites such as Tapeworms (q.v.):--_sing._
ENTOZOOL'OGY.--_adj._ ENTOZOOT'IC. [Gr. _entos_, within, _z[=o]on_, an

ENTR'ACTE, äng-trakt', _n._ the time between two acts in a play: (_mus._)
an instrumental piece performed between acts. [Fr., _entre_, between,
_acte_, an act.]

ENTRAIL, en-tr[=a]l', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to interlace, entwine.--_n._
(_Spens._) twisting, entanglement. [O. Fr. _entreillier_--_en_, and
_treille_, trellis-work.]

ENTRAILS, en'tr[=a]lz, _n.pl._ the internal parts of an animal's body, the
bowels: the inside of anything: (_obs._) the seat of the emotions. [O. Fr.
_entraille_--Low L. _intralia_--_inter_, within.]

ENTRAIN, en-tr[=a]n', _v.t._ to put into a railway train, esp. used of

ENTRAIN, en-tr[=a]n', _v.t._ to draw after. [Fr. _entraîner_.]

ENTRAMMEL, en-tram'el, _v.t._ to trammel, fetter.

ENTRANCE, en'trans, _n._ act of entering: power or right to enter: the
place for entering, the door: the beginning.--_n._ EN'TRANT, one who, or
that which, enters. [Fr. _entrer_--L. _intr[=a]re_, to enter.]

ENTRANCE, en-trans', _v.t._ to put into a trance: to fill with rapturous
delight.--_n._ ENTRANCE'MENT, state of trance or of excessive
joy.--_p.adj._ ENTRANC'ING, charming, transporting.

ENTRAP, en-trap', _v.t._ to catch, as in a trap: to ensnare: to
entangle.--_ns._ ENTRAP'MENT, act of entrapping: the state of being
entrapped: ENTRAP'PER. [O. Fr. _entraper_--_en_, in, _trappe_, a trap.]

ENTREASURE, en-trezh'[=u]r, _v.t._ to lay up, as in a treasury.

ENTREAT, en-tr[=e]t', _v.t._ to ask earnestly: to beseech: to pray for:
(_orig._) to treat, to deal with--so in _B._--_v.i._ to pray.--_adjs._
ENTREAT'ABLE; ENTREAT'FUL (_Spens._); ENTREAT'ING, that entreats.--_adv._
ENTREAT'INGLY, in an entreating manner: with solicitation.--_adj._
ENTREAT'IVE, pleading.--_ns._ ENTREAT'MENT, act of entreating: (_Shak._)
discourse; ENTREAT'Y, act of entreating; earnest prayer. [O. Fr.
_entraiter_--_en_, and _traiter_, to treat.]

ENTRÉE, äng-tr[=a]', _n._ entry, freedom of access, admittance: a made dish
served at dinner between the chief courses: (_mus._) an introduction or
prelude: the act of entering, a formal entrance. [Fr.]

ENTREMETS, äng-tr'm[=a]', _n._ any dainty served at table between the chief
courses--formerly ENTREMES, ENTREMESSE. [O. Fr. _entremes_--_entre_,
between, _mes_ (mod. _mets_), a dish.]

ENTRENCH, en-trensh', INTRENCH, in-, _v.t._ to dig a trench around: to
fortify with a ditch and parapet.--_v.i._ to encroach.--_n._ ENTRENCH'MENT,
an earthen parapet thrown up to give cover against an enemy's fire and the
ditch or trench from which the earth is obtained: any protection: an
encroachment.--ENTRENCH UPON, to encroach upon.

ENTREPAS, äng'tr'pä, _n._ a gait between a walk and a trot, an amble. [Fr.]

ENTREPÔT, äng'tr'p[=o], _n._ a storehouse: a bonded warehouse: a seaport
through which exports and imports pass. [Fr.]

ENTRESOL, en'ter-sol, or äng'tr'sol, _n._ a low story between two main
stories of a building, generally above the first story; in London, usually
between the ground-floor and the first story. [Fr.,--_entre_, between,
_sol_, the ground.]

ENTROCHITE, en'tr[=o]-k[=i]t, _n._ a wheel-like joint of an encrinite or
fossil crinoid--also EN'TROCHUS.--_adj._ EN'TROCHAL. [Gr. _en_, in,
_trochos_, a wheel.]

ENTROPION, -UM, en-tr[=o]'pi-on, -um, _n._ inversion of the edge of the
eyelid. [Gr. _entrop[=e]_.]

ENTROPY, en'trop-i, _n._ a term in physics signifying 'the available

ENTRUST, en-trust', INTRUST, in-, _v.t._ to give in trust: to commission:
to commit to another, trusting his fidelity.--_n._ ENTRUST'MENT.

ENTRY, en'tri, _n._ act of entering: a passage into a short lane leading
into a court: act of committing to writing: the thing written: (_law_) the
taking possession of.--_n._ EN'TRY-MON'EY, the money paid on entering a
society, club, &c.--PORT OF ENTRY (see PORT).

ENTWINE, en-tw[=i]n', _v.t._ to interlace: to weave.

ENTWIST, en-twist', _v.t._ to twist round.

ENUBILATE, [=e]-n[=u]'bi-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to clear from clouds.--_adj._

ENUCLEATE, en-[=u]'kle-[=a]t, _v.t._ to lay bare, explain: to
extract.--_n._ ENUCLE[=A]'TION. [L. _enucle[=a]re_--_e_, out, _nucleus_, a

ENUMERATE, e-n[=u]'mer-[=a]t, _v.t._ to count the number of: to name
over.--_n._ ENUMER[=A]'TION, act of numbering: a detailed account: a
summing up.--_adj._ EN[=U]'MERATIVE.--_n._ EN[=U]'MERATOR, one who
enumerates. [L. _e_, out, _numer[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to number.]

ENUNCIATE, e-nun'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to state formally: to pronounce
distinctly.--_adj._ ENUN'CIABLE, capable of being enunciated.--_n._
ENUNCI[=A]'TION, act of enunciating: manner of uttering or pronouncing: a
distinct statement or declaration: the words in which a proposition is
expressed.--_adjs._ ENUN'CI[=A]TIVE, ENUN'CI[=A]TORY, containing
enunciation or utterance: declarative.--_n._ ENUN'CI[=A]TOR, one who
enunciates. [L. _enunti[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _nunti[=a]re_, to
tell--_nuntius_, a messenger.]

ENURE, e-n[=u]r', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to practise.--_v.i._ to belong. [_En-_,
and _ure_--O. Fr. _oeuvre_--work.]

ENURESIS, en-[=u]-r[=e]'sis, _n._ incontinence of urine.

ENVASSAL, en-vas'al, _v.t._ to reduce to vassalage.

ENVAULT, en-vawlt', _v.t._ to enclose in a vault.


ENVELOP, en-vel'up, _v.t._ to cover by wrapping: to surround entirely: to
hide.--_n._ ENVELOPE (en'vel-[=o]p, sometimes, but quite unnecessarily,
äng'vel-[=o]p), that which envelops, wraps, or covers, esp. the cover of a
letter.--_adj._ ENVEL'OPED (_her._), entwined, as with serpents, laurels,
&c.--_n._ ENVEL'OPMENT, a wrapping or covering on all sides. [O. Fr.
_enveloper_; origin obscure. Skeat refers it to the assumed Teut. root of
M. E. _wlappen_, Eng. _lap_.]

ENVENOM, en-ven'um, _v.t._ to put venom into: to poison: to taint with
bitterness or malice. [O. Fr. _envenimer_--_en_, and _venim_, venom.]

ENVERMEIL, en-v[.e]r'mil, _v.t._ (_Milt._) to dye red, to give a red colour
to. [O. Fr. _envermeiller_--_en_, in, _vermeil_, red, vermilion.]

ENVIRON, en-v[=i]'run, _v.t._ to surround: to encircle: to invest:--_pr.p._
env[=i]'roning; _pa.p._ env[=i]'roned.--_n._ ENV[=I]'RONMENT, a
surrounding: conditions influencing development or growth.--_n.pl._
ENVIRONS (en-v[=i]'runz, or en'vi-), the places that environ: the outskirts
of a city: neighbourhood. [Fr. _environner_--_environ_, around--_virer_, to
turn round; cf. _veer_.]

ENVISAGE, en-viz'[=a]j, _v.t._ to face: to consider.--_n._ ENVIS'AGEMENT.
[Fr. _envisager_--_en_, and _visage_, the visage.]

ENVOY, en'voi, _n._ a messenger, esp. one sent to transact business with a
foreign government: a diplomatic minister of the second order.--_n._
EN'VOYSHIP. [For Fr. _envoyé_--_envoyer_, to send.]

ENVOY, ENVOI, en'voi, _n._ the concluding part of a poem or a book: the
author's final words, esp. now the short stanza concluding a poem written
in certain archaic metrical forms. [O. Fr. _envoye_--_envoiier_, to
send--_en voie_, on the way--L. _in_, on, _via_, a way.]

ENVY, en'vi, _v.t._ to look upon with a grudging eye: to hate on account of
prosperity:--_pr.p._ en'vying; _pa.p._ en'vied.--_n._ grief at the sight of
another's success: a wicked desire to supplant one: a desire for the
advantages enjoyed by another: (_B._) ill-will.--_adj._ EN'VIABLE, that is
to be envied.--_n._ EN'VIABLENESS, the state or quality of being
enviable.--_adv._ EN'VIABLY.--_n._ EN'VIER, one who envies.--_adj._
EN'VIOUS, feeling envy: directed by envy: (_Spens._) enviable.--_adv._
EN'VIOUSLY.--_ns._ EN'VIOUSNESS; EN'VYING (_B._), jealousy, ill-will. [Fr.
_envie_--L. _invidia_--_in_, on, _vid[=e]re_, to look.]

ENWALL, en-wawl', INWALL, in-, _v.t._ to enclose within a wall.

ENWALLOW, en-wol'[=o], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to roll about, to wallow.

ENWHEEL, en-hw[=e]l', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to encircle.

ENWIND, en-w[=i]nd', INWIND, in-, _v.t._ to wind itself round.

ENWOMB, en-w[=oo]m', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to make pregnant: (_Shak._) to
conceive in the womb: to contain.

ENWRAP, en-rap', INWRAP, in-, _v.t._ to cover by wrapping: to perplex: to
engross.--_n._ ENWRAP'MENT.--_p.adj._ ENWRAP'PING.

ENWREATHE, en-r[=e]_th_', INWREATHE, in-, _v.t._ to wreathe: to encircle as
with a wreath.

ENZONE, en-z[=o]n', _v.t._ to enclose as with a zone.

ENZOOTIC, en-z[=o]-ot'ik, _adj._ endemic among animals in a particular
district.--_n._ a disease of this character.

ENZYM, ENZYME, en'zim, _n._ any of the unorganised ferments: leavened
bread--opp. to _Azym_ (q.v.).--_adj._ ENZYMOT'IC. [Gr. _en_, in, _zym[=e]_,

EOAN, [=e]-[=o]'an, _adj._ of or pertaining to dawn. [L.,--Gr. _[=e][=o]s_,

EOCENE, [=e]'[=o]-s[=e]n, _adj._ (_geol._) first in time of the three
subdivisions of the Tertiary formation. [Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, daybreak,
_kainos_, new.]



EOTHEN, [=e]-[=o]'then, _adv._ from the east--the name given by Kinglake to
his book of travel in the East (1844). [Gr., lit. 'from morn,' 'at earliest

EOZOÖN, [=e]-[=o]-z[=o]'on, _n._ an assumed organism whose remains
constitute reefs of rocks in the Archæan system in Canada.--_adj._
EOZ[=O]'IC. [Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, dawn, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

EPACRID, ep'a-krid, _n._ a plant of order _Epacridaceæ_, a small order of
heath-like shrubs or small trees. [Gr. _epi_, upon, _akris_, a summit.]

EPACT, [=e]'pakt, _n._ the moon's age at the beginning of the year: the
excess of the solar month or year above the lunar: (_pl._) a set of
nineteen numbers used for fixing the date of Easter and other church
festivals, by indicating the age of the moon at the beginning of each civil
year in the lunar cycle. [Fr.,--Gr. _epaktos_, brought on--_epi_, on,
_agein_, to bring.]

EPAGOGE, ep-a-g[=o]'j[=e], _n._ induction, proof by example.

EPALPATE, [=e]-pal'p[=a]t, _adj._ having no palps or feeders.

EPANADIPLOSIS, ep-a-na-di-pl[=o]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure by which a
sentence begins and ends with the same word, as in Phil. iv. 4. [Gr.]

EPANALEPSIS, ep-a-na-lep'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) repetition or resumption, as
in 1 Cor. xi. 18 and 20. [Gr.]

EPANODOS, e-pan'[=o]-dos, _n._ recapitulation of the chief points in a
discourse. [Gr.]

EPANORTHOSIS, ep-an-or-th[=o]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) the retracting of a
statement in order to correct or intensify it, as 'For Britain's guid! for
her destruction!' [Gr.]

EPANTHOUS, ep-an'thus, _adj._ growing upon flowers. [Gr. _epi_, upon,
_anthos_, a flower.]

EPARCH, ep'ärk, _n._ the governor of a Greek province.--_n._ EP'ARCHY, the
province or territory ruled over by an eparch. [Gr. _eparchos_--_epi_,
upon, _arch[=e]_, dominion.]

EPAULEMENT, e-pawl'ment, _n._ a side-work of a battery or earthwork to
protect it from a flanking fire.--_n._ EPAULE', the shoulder of a bastion.
[Fr.,--_épauler_, to protect--_épaule_, shoulder.]

EPAULET, EPAULETTE, ep'ol-et, _n._ a shoulder-piece: a badge of a military
or naval officer (now disused in the British army): an ornament on the
shoulder of a lady's dress. [Fr. _épaulette_--_épaule_, the shoulder.]

EPEIRA, ep-[=i]r'a, _n._ a genus of spiders, the type of the _Epeiridæ_,
including the common garden spider. [Gr. _epi_, on, _eiros_, wool.]

EPENCEPHALON, ep-en-sef'a-lon, _n._ the hindmost of the divisions of the
brain.--_adj._ EPENCEPHAL'IC.

EPENTHESIS, e-pen'the-sis, _n._ the insertion of a letter or syllable
within a word.--_adj._ EPENTHET'IC. [Gr.]

EPEOLATRY, ep-e-ol'a-tri, _n._ worship of words. [Gr. _epos_, word,
_latreia_, worship.]

EPERGNE, e-p[.e]rn', _n._ an ornamental stand for a large dish for the
centre of a table. [Perh. from Fr. _épargne_, saving--_épargner_, to save.]

EPEXEGESIS, ep-eks-e-j[=e]'sis, _n._ the addition of words to make the
sentence more clear.--_adjs._ EPEXEGET'IC, -AL.--_adv._ EPEXEGET'ICALLY.
[Gr. _epi_, in addition, _ex[=e]geisthai_, to explain.]

EPHA, EPHAH, [=e]'fa, _n._ a Hebrew measure for dry goods. [Heb.; prob. of
Egyptian origin.]

EPHEBE, ef-[=e]b', _n._ (_Greek antiquities_) a young citizen from 18 to 20
years of age. [L. _eph[=e]bus_--Gr. _eph[=e]bos_--_epi_, upon,
_h[=e]b[=e]_, early manhood.]

EPHEMERA, ef-em'er-a, _n._ the Mayfly, a genus of short-lived insects: that
which lasts a short time.--_adj._ EPHEM'ERAL, existing only for a day:
daily: short-lived.--_n._ anything lasting a short time.--_ns._
EPHEMERAL'ITY; EPHEM'ERID, an insect belonging to the group
_Ephemeridæ_.--_adj._ EPHEMERID'IAN.--_ns._ EPHEM'ERIS, an account of daily
transactions: a journal: an astronomical almanac:--_pl._ EPHEMERIDES
(ef-e-mer'i-d[=e]z); EPHEM'ERIST, one who studies the daily motions of the
planets; EPHEM'ERON, an insect that lives but a day.--_adj._ EPHEM'EROUS.
[Through L.,--Gr. _eph[=e]meros_, living a day--_epi_, for, _h[=e]mera_, a

EPHESIAN, ef-[=e]'zi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Ephesus_.--_n._ an
inhabitant of Ephesus: (_Shak._) 'a jolly companion.'

EPHOD, ef'od, _n._ a kind of linen surplice worn by the Jewish priests: a
surplice, generally. [Heb. _aphad_, to put on.]

EPHOR, ef'or, _n._ a class of magistrates whose office apparently
originated at Sparta, being peculiar to the Doric states.--_n._ EPH'ORALTY.
[Gr. _epi_, upon, and root of _horaein_, to see.]

EPIBLAST, ep'i-blast, _n._ Same as ECTODERM.

EPIC, ep'ik, _adj._ applied to a poem which recounts a great event in an
elevated style: lofty: grand.--_n._ an epic or heroic poem: a story
comparable to those in epic poems.--_ns._ EP'ICISM; EP'ICIST.--EPIC
DIALECT, the Greek in which the books of Homer are written. [L.
_epicus_--Gr. _epikos_--_epos_, a word.]

EPICALYX, ep-i-k[=a]'liks, _n._ an external or accessory calyx outside of
the true calyx, as in _Potentilla_.

EPICARP, ep'i-kärp, _n._ (_bot._) the outermost layer of the pericarp or
fruit. [Gr. _epi_, upon, _karpos_, fruit.]

EPICEDIUM, ep-i-s[=e]'di-um, _n._ a funeral ode.--_adjs._ EPIC[=E]'DIAL,
EPIC[=E]'DIAN, elegiac. [L.,--Gr. _epik[=e]deion_--_epi_, upon, _k[=e]dos_,

EPICENE, ep'i-s[=e]n, _adj._ and _n._ common to both sexes: (_gram._) of
either gender. [Through L.,--Gr. _epikoinos_--_epi_, upon, _koinos_,

EPICHEIREMA, ep-i-k[=i]-r[=e]'ma, _n._ a syllogism confirmed in its major
or minor premise, or in both, by an incidental proposition. [Gr.
_epicheir[=e]ma_, attempt--_epi_, upon, _cheir_, the hand.]

EPICLINAL, ep-i-kl[=i]'nal, _adj._ (_bot._) placed on the torus or
receptacle of a flower.

EPICURE, ep'i-k[=u]r, _n._ a follower of _Epicurus_ (341-270 B.C.), a Greek
philosopher, who taught that pleasure was the chief good: one given to
sensual enjoyment: one devoted to the luxuries of the table.--_adj._
EPICUR[=E]'AN, pertaining to Epicurus: given to luxury.--_n._ a follower of
Epicurus: one given to the luxuries of the table.--_n._ EPICUR[=E]'ANISM,
the doctrine of Epicurus: attachment to these doctrines.--_v.i._
EP'ICURISE, to play the epicure, to feast, riot: to profess the philosophy
of Epicurus.--_n._ EP'ICURISM, the doctrines of Epicurus: luxury: sensual

EPICYCLE, ep'i-s[=i]-kl, _n._ a circle having its centre on the
circumference of a greater circle on which it moves.--_adj._
EPICY'CLIC.--_n._ EPICY'CLOID, a curve described by every point in the
plane of a circle moving on the convex circumference of another
circle.--_adj._ EPICYCLOI'DAL. [Gr. _epi_, upon, _kyklos_, a circle.]

EPIDEICTIC, -AL, ep-i-d[=i]k'tik, -al, _adj._ done for show or display.
[Gr. _epi_, upon, _deiknynai_, to show.]

EPIDEMIC, -AL, ep-i-dem'ik, -al, _adj._ affecting a community at a certain
time: general.--_n._ EPIDEM'IC, a disease falling on great numbers in one
place, simultaneously or in succession.--_adv._ EPIDEM'ICALLY.--_n._
EPIDEMIOL'OGY, the science of epidemics. [Gr. _epid[=e]mos_,
general--_epi_, among, _d[=e]mos_, the people.]

EPIDERMIS, ep-i-d[.e]r'mis, _n._ scarf-skin or cuticle, forming an external
covering of a protective nature for the true skin or corium.--_adjs._
_epidermis_--_epi_, upon, _derma_, the skin.]

EPIDOTE, ep'i-d[=o]t, _n._ a silicate of aluminium, iron, and calcium.

EPIGASTRIUM, ep-i-gas'tri-um, _n._ the part of the abdomen which chiefly
corresponds to the situation of the stomach, extending from the sternum
towards the navel.--_adj._ EPIGAS'TRIC. [Gr. _epi_, upon, _gast[=e]r_, the

EPIGENE, ep'i-j[=e]n, _adj._ applied to the geological agents of change
which affect chiefly the superficial position of the earth's crust, as the
atmosphere, water, &c.--_adjs._ EPIG'ENOUS, growing on the surface of a
part; EPIG[=E]'OUS, growing on the earth--also EPIG[=E]'AL. [Gr. _epi_,
upon, _gennaein_, to produce.]

EPIGENESIS, ep-i-jen'e-sis, _n._ the development of the organism by the
growth and differentiation of a single germ--i.e. by the division or
segmentation of a fertilised egg-cell.--_n._ EPIGEN'ESIST.--_adj._
EPIGENET'IC. [Gr. _epi_, upon, _genesis_, genesis.]

EPIGLOTTIS, ep-i-glot'is, _n._ the cartilage at the root of the tongue that
partly closes the aperture of the larynx.--_adj._ EPIGLOTT'IC. [Gr. _epi_,
upon, _gl[=o]tta_ (_gl[=o]ssa_), the tongue.]

EPIGRAM, ep'i-gram, _n._ any concise and pointed or sarcastic saying: a
short poem on one subject ending with an ingenious thought.--_adjs._
EPIGRAMMAT'IC, -AL, relating to or dealing in epigrams: like an epigram:
concise and pointed.--_adv._ EPIGRAMMAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ EPIGRAM'MATISE, to
make an epigram on.--_n._ EPIGRAM'MATIST, one who writes epigrams. [Through
Fr. and L., from Gr. _epigramma_--_epi_, upon, _gramma_, a
writing--_graphein_, to write.]

EPIGRAPH, ep'i-graf, _n._ an inscription, esp. on a building: a citation or
motto at the commencement of a book or its parts.--_v.t._ to provide with
an epigraph.--_ns._ EPIG'RAPHER, EPIG'RAPHIST.--_adj._ EPIGRAPH'IC.--_n._
EPIG'RAPHY. [Gr. _epi-graph[=e]_--_epi_, upon, _graphein_, to write.]

EPIGYNOUS, e-pij'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) growing upon the top of the ovary.

EPILEPSY, ep'i-lep-si, _n._ a chronic functional disease of the nervous
system, manifested by recurring attacks of sudden insensibility or
impairment of consciousness, commonly accompanied by peculiar convulsive
seizures.--_n._ EPILEP'TIC, an epileptic patient.--_adjs._ EPILEP'TIC, -AL;
EPILEP'TOID. [Gr. _epilepsia_--_epi_, upon, _lambanein_, _l[=e]psesthai_,
to seize.]

EPILOGUE, ep'i-log, _n._ the conclusion of a book: a speech or short poem
at the end of a play.--_adjs._ EPILOG'IC (-loj'ik), EPILOGIS'TIC.--_v.i._
EPIL'OGISE ('o-j[=i]z), to write an epilogue. [Fr.--L.--Gr. _epilogos_,
conclusion--_epi_, upon, _legein_, to speak.]

EPINASTY, ep'i-nas-ti, _n._ (_bot._) curvature of an organ, caused by a
more active growth on its upper side.--_adj._ EPINAS'TIC.--_adv._

EPIPERIPHERAL, ep-i-pe-rif'e-ral, _adj._ situated on the periphery or outer
surface of the body.

EPIPETALOUS, ep-i-pet'a-lus, _adj._ (_bot._) inserted or growing on a

EPIPHANY, e-pif'an-i, _n._ a church festival celebrated on Jan. 6, in
commemoration of the manifestation of Christ to the wise men of the East:
the manifestation of a god. [Gr. _epiphaneia_, appearance--_epi_, to,
_phainein_, to show.]

EPIPHLOEUM, ep-i-fl[=e]'um, _n._ (_bot._) the corky envelope of the bark
next the epidermis.

EPIPHRAGM, ep'i-fram, _n._ (_bot._) the dilated apex of the columella in
urn-mosses: the disc with which certain molluscs close the aperture of
their shell.

EPIPHYLLOSPERMOUS, ep-i-fil-[=o]-sper'mus, _adj._ (_bot._) bearing fruit on
the back of the fronds, as ferns.

EPIPHYLLOUS, ep-i-fil'us, _adj._ (_bot._) growing upon a leaf, esp. on its
upper surface.

EPIPHYSIS, ep-if'i-sis, _n._ any portion of a bone having its own centre of
ossification: the pineal gland: a small upper piece of each half of an
alveolus of a sea-urchin:--_pl._ EPIPH'YSES. [Gr.]

EPIPHYTE, ep'i-f[=i]t, _n._ one of a species of plants attached to trees,
and deriving their nourishment from the decaying portions of the bark, and
perhaps also from the air.--_adjs._ EPIPHY'TAL, EPIPHYT'IC. [Gr. _epi_,
upon, and _phyton_, a plant.]

EPIPLASTRON, ep-i-plas'tron, _n._ the anterior lateral one of the nine
pieces of which the plastron of a turtle may consist.

EPIPLOON, e-pip'l[=o]-on, _n._ the great omentum.--_adj._ EPIPL[=O]'IC.

EPIPOLISM, e-pip'[=o]-lizm, _n._ fluorescence.--_adj._ EPIPOL'IC. [Gr.]

EPIRHIZOUS, ep-i-r[=i]'zus, _adj._ growing on a root.

EPISCOPACY, e-pis'ko-pas-i, _n._ the government of the church by bishops:
the office of a bishop: the period of office: the bishops, as a
class.--_adj._ EPIS'COPAL, governed by bishops: belonging to or vested in
bishops.--_adj._ EPISCOP[=A]'LIAN, belonging to bishops, or government by
bishops.--_n._ one who belongs to the Episcopal Church.--_n._
EPISCOP[=A]'LIANISM, episcopalian government and doctrine.--_adv._
EPIS'COPALLY.--_ns._ EPIS'COPANT (_Milt._); EPIS'COPATE, a bishopric: the
office of a bishop: the order of bishops.--_v.i._ (_Milt._) to act as a
bishop.--_v.t._ EPIS'COP[=I]SE.--_n._ EPIS'COPY (_Milt._), survey,
superintendence. [L. _episcopatus_--Gr. _episkopos_, an overseer.]

EPISEMON, ep-i-s[=e]'mon, _n._ the characteristic device of a city, &c.:
one of three obsolete Greek letters used as numerals--[vau], vau; [koppa],
koppa; and [san], san, sampi.

EPISODE, ep'i-s[=o]d, _n._ a story introduced into a narrative or poem to
give variety: an interesting incident.--_adjs._ EP'IS[=O]DAL,
EPIS[=O]'DIAL, EPIS[=O]D'IC, EPIS[=O]D'ICAL, pertaining to or contained in
an episode: brought in as a digression.--_adv._ EPIS[=O]D'ICALLY, by way of
episode: incidentally. [Gr. _epeisodion_--_epi_, upon, _eisodos_, a coming
in--_eis_, into, _hodos_, a way.]

EPISPASTIC, ep-i-spas'tik, _adj._ producing a blister on the skin.--_n._ a

EPISPERM, ep'i-sp[.e]rm, _n._ the outer integument of a seed. [Gr. _epi_,
upon, and _sperma_, seed.]

EPISTAXIS, ep-is-tak'sis, _n._ bleeding from the nose.

EPISTEMOLOGY, ep-is-t[=e]-mol'oj-i, _n._ the theory of knowledge.--_adj._
EPISTEMOLOG'ICAL. [Gr. _epist[=e]m[=e]_, knowledge, _logia_, discourse.]

EPISTERNUM, ep-i-ster'num, _n._ the interclavicle: the epiplastron: the
presternum of mammals.--_adj._ EPISTER'NAL.

EPISTILBITE, ep-i-stil'b[=i]t, _n._ a whitish hydrous silicate of
aluminium, calcium, and sodium.

EPISTLE, e-pis'l, _n._ a writing sent to one, a letter: esp. a letter to an
individual or church from an apostle, as the Epistles of Paul: the extract
from one of the apostolical epistles read as part of the communion
service.--_v.i._ (_Milt._) to preface.--_ns._ EPIS'TLER, EPIS'TOLER, a
letter-writer; EPIS'TLER, one who reads the liturgical epistle in the
communion service.--_adjs._ EPIS'TOLARY, EPIS'TOLATORY, EPISTOL'IC, -AL,
pertaining to or consisting of epistles or letters: suitable to an epistle:
contained in letters.--_n._ EPIS'TOLET, a short letter.--_v.i._
EPIS'TOLISE, to write a letter.--_ns._ EPIS'TOLIST, a writer of letters;
EPISTOLOG'RAPHY, letter-writing. [O. Fr.,--L. _epistola_--Gr.
_epistol[=e]_--_epi_, _stellein_, to send.]

EPISTROPHE, e-pis'tr[=o]-f[=e], _n._ (_rhet._) a form of repetition in
which successive clauses end with the same word, as in 2 Cor. xi. 22: a
refrain in music.

EPISTYLE, ep'i-st[=i]l, _n._ Same as ARCHITRAVE. [Gr. _epi_, upon,
_stylos_, a pillar.]

EPITAPH, ep'i-taf, _n._ a commemorative inscription on a tombstone or
monument.--_v.t._ to write an epitaph upon.--_adjs._ EPITAPH'IAN,
EPITAPH'IC.--_n._ EP'ITAPHIST, a writer of epitaphs. [Gr.
_epitaphion_--_epi_, upon, _taphos_, a tomb.]

EPITASIS, e-pit'a-sis, _n._ the main action of a Greek drama, leading to
the catastrophe--opp. to _Protasis_.

EPITHALAMIUM, ep-i-tha-l[=a]'mi-um, _n._ a song or poem in celebration of a
marriage.--_adj._ EPITHALAM'IC. [Gr. _epithalamion_--_epi_, upon,
_thalamos_, a bedchamber, marriage.]

EPITHELIUM, ep-i-th[=e]'li-um, _n._ the cell-tissue which invests the outer
surface of the body and the mucous membranes connected with it, and also
the closed cavities of the body.--_adj._ EPITH[=E]'LIAL.--_n._
EPITHELI[=O]'MA, carcinoma of the skin.--_adj._ EPITHELIOM'ATOUS.
[Gr.,--_epi_, upon, _th[=e]l[=e]_, nipple.]

EPITHEM, ep'i-them, _n._ (_med._) a soft external application. [Gr.
_epithema_--_epi_, upon, _tithenai_, to place.]

EPITHET, ep'i-thet, _n._ an adjective expressing some real quality of the
thing to which it is applied, or an attribute expressing some quality
ascribed to it: (_Shak._) term, expression.--_v.t._ to term.--_adj._
EPITHET'IC, pertaining to an epithet: abounding with epithets.--_n._
EPITH'ETON (_Shak._), epithet. [Gr. _epithetos_, added--_epi_, on,
_tithenai_, to place.]

EPITHYMETIC, ep-i-thim-et'ik, _adj._ pertaining to desire. [Gr.,--_epi_,
upon, _thymos_, the soul.]

EPITOME, e-pit'o-me, _n._ an abridgment or short summary of anything, as of
a book.--_adj._ EPITOM'ICAL, like an epitome.--_v.t._ EPIT'OMISE, to make
an epitome of: to shorten: to condense.--_ns._ EPIT'OMISER, EPIT'OMIST, one
who abridges.--IN EPITOME, on a small scale. [Gr.,--_epi_, _temnein_, to

EPITONIC, ep-i-ton'ik, _adj._ overstrained. [Gr.,--_epi_, upon, _teinein_,
to stretch.]

EPITRITE, ep'i-tr[=i]t, _n._ (_pros._) a foot made up of three long
syllables and one short. [L.,--Gr.,--_epi_, in addition, _tritos_, the

EPIZEUXIS, ep-i-z[=u]k'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) the immediate repetition of a
word for emphasis. [Gr.]

EPIZOON, ep-i-z[=o]'on, _n._ a parasitic animal that lives on the bodies of
other animals and derives its nourishment from the skin--also
EPIZ[=O]'AN:--_pl._ EPIZ[=O]'A.--_adj._ EPIZOOT'IC, pertaining to epizoa:
(_geol._) containing fossil remains: epidemic, as applied to animals. [Gr.
_epi_, upon, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

EPOCH, ep'ok, or [=e]'-, _n._ a point of time fixed or made remarkable by
some great event from which dates are reckoned: a period remarkable for
important events: (_astron._) the mean heliocentric longitude of a planet
in its orbit at any given time.--_adjs._ EP'OCHAL;
EP'OCH-M[=A]'KING.--MAKE, MARK, AN EPOCH, to begin an important era. [Gr.
_epoch[=e]_--_epechein_, to stop--_epi_, upon, _echein_, to hold.]

EPODE, ep'[=o]d, _n._ a kind of lyric poem invented by Archilochus, in
which a longer verse is followed by a shorter one: the last part of a lyric
ode, sung after the strophe and antistrophe.--_adj._ EPOD'IC. [Gr.
_ep[=o]dos_--_epi_, on, _[=o]d[=e]_, an ode.]

EPONYM, ep'o-nim, _n._ a mythical personage created to account for the name
of a tribe or people: a special title.--_adj._ EPON'YMOUS. [Gr. _epi_,
upon, to, _onoma_, a name.]

EPOPEE, ep'o-p[=e], EPOPOEIA, ep-o-p[=e]'ya, _n._ epic poetry: an epic
poem. [Formed from Gr. _epopoiia_--_epos_, a word, an epic poem, _poiein_,
to make.]

EPOPT, ep'opt, _n._ one initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. [Gr.
_epi_, upon, and root _op-_, to see.]

EPOS, ep'os, _n._ the elementary stage of epic poetry: an epic poem: a
series of events such as are treated in epic poetry. [L.,--Gr. _epos_, a

EPROUVETTE, ep-roov-et', _n._ a machine for testing the strength of
gunpowder. [Fr.,--_éprouver_, to try.]

EPSOM, ep'sum, _n._ a useful purgative medicine, acting as a refrigerant,
and sometimes as a diuretic.--Also EP'SOM-SALT. [From _Epsom_, a town in

EPULOTIC, ep-[=u]-lot'ik, _adj._ cicatrising.--_n._ a cicatrising

EQUABLE, [=e]'kwa-bl, or ek'wa-bl, _adj._ equal and uniform: smooth: not
variable: of even temper.--_ns._ EQUABIL'ITY, E'QUABLENESS, the state or
condition of being equable.--_adv._ E'QUABLY. [L.
_æquabilis_--_æqu[=a]re_--_æquus_, equal.]

EQUAL, [=e]'kwal, _adj._ identical: of the same value: adequate: in just
proportion: fit: equable: uniform: equitable: evenly balanced: just.--_n._
one of the same age, rank, &c.--_v.t._ to be, or to make, equal
to:--_pr.p._ [=e]'qualling; _pa.p._ [=e]'qualled.--_n._ EQUALIS[=A]'TION,
the act of making equal: state of being equalised.--_v.t._ E'QUALISE, to
make equal.--_adj._ and _n._ EQUALIT[=A]R'IAN, of or pertaining to the
equality of mankind.--_n._ EQUAL'ITY, the condition of being equal:
sameness: evenness.--_adv._ E'QUALLY.--_n._ E'QUALNESS, the state of being
equal: evenness: uniformity.--_v.t._ EQU[=A]TE', to reduce to an average or
to a common standard of comparison: to regard as equal:--_pr.p._
equ[=a]t'ing; _pa.p._ equ[=a]t'ed.--_ns._ EQU[=A]'TION, the act of making
equal: (_alg._) a statement of the equality of two quantities: reduction to
a mean proportion; EQU[=A]'TOR (_geog._), a great circle passing round the
middle of the globe and dividing it into two equal parts: (_astron._) the
equinoctial.--_adj._ EQUAT[=O]'RIAL, of or pertaining to the equator.--_n._
an instrument for observing and following a celestial body in any part of
its diurnal course.--_adv._ EQUAT[=O]'RIALLY, so as to have motion or
direction parallel to the equator.--EQUAL TO THE OCCASION, fit or able for
an emergency.--EQUATION OF TIME, the reduction from mean solar time to
apparent solar time.--AN EQUAL (_Spens._), a state of equality.--PERSONAL
EQUATION, any error common to all the observations of some one person, any
tendency to error or prejudice due to the personal characteristics of some
person for which allowance must be made. [L. _æqualis_--_æqu[=a]re_, to
make equal--_æquus_, equal.]

EQUANIMITY, [=e]-kwa-nim'i-ti, _n._ equality or evenness of mind or
temper.--_adj._ EQUAN'IMOUS.--_adv._ EQUAN'IMOUSLY. [L.
_æquanimitas_--_æquus_, equal, _animus_, the mind.]

EQUERRY, ek'we-ri, _n._ in the royal household, an official under the
Master of the Horse, whose main duty is to accompany the sovereign when
riding in state. [Fr. _écurie_--Low L. _scuria_, a stable--Old High Ger.
_scûr_ (Ger. _scheuer_), a shed.]

EQUESTRIAN, e-kwes'tri-an, _adj._ pertaining to horses or horsemanship: on
horseback.--_n._ one who rides on horseback:--_fem._ EQUESTRIENNE'.--_n._
EQUES'TRIANISM, horsemanship. [L. _equester_, _equestris_--_eques_, a
horseman--_equus_, a horse.]

EQUI-, [=e]'kwi, a prefix meaning equal, from L. _æquus_.--_adj._
EQUIAN'GULAR, consisting of or having equal angles.--_n._ EQUIBAL'ANCE,
equal weight.--_adjs._ EQUIDIFF'ERENT, having equal differences;
EQUIDIS'TANT, equally distant.--_adv._ EQUIDIS'TANTLY.--_adj._
EQUILAT'ERAL, having all sides equal.--_v.t._ EQUIL[=I]'BR[=A]TE, to
balance: to counterpoise.--_ns._ EQUILIBR[=A]'TION; EQUILIB'RITY,
EQUILIB'RIUM, equal balancing: equality of weight or force: level position;
EQUIMUL'TIPLE, a number multiplied by the same number as another.--_adj._
EQUIP[=E]'DAL, equal-footed.--_ns._ EQUIPEN'DENCY, act of hanging in
equipoise; E'QUIPOISE, equality of weight or force: the state of a balance
when the two weights are equal.--_v.t._ to counterbalance.--_n._
EQUIS[=O]'NANCE, the consonance which exists between octaves.--_adj._
E'QUIVALVE, having valves equal in size or form.

EQUINE, [=e]'kw[=i]n, EQUINAL, [=e]-kw[=i]n'al, _adj._ pertaining to a
horse or horses.--_n._ EQUIN'IA, horse-pox, glanders, farcy. [L.
_equinus_--_equus_, a horse.]

EQUINOX, [=e]'kwi-noks, _n._ the time when the sun crosses the equator,
making the night equal in length to the day, about 21st March and 23d
Sept.--_adj._ EQUINOC'TIAL, pertaining to the equinoxes, the time of the
equinoxes, or to the regions about the equator.--_n._ a great circle in the
heavens corresponding to the equator of the earth.--_adv._ EQUINOC'TIALLY,
in the direction of the equinox.--EQUINOCTIAL GALES, high gales popularly
supposed to prevail about the times of the equinoxes--the belief is
unsupported by observation. [L. _æquus_, equal, _nox_, _noctis_, night.]

EQUIP, e-kwip', _v.t._ to fit out: to furnish with everything needed for
any service or work:--_pr.p._ equip'ping; _pa.p._ equipped'.--_n._
E'QUIP[=A]GE, that with which one is equipped: furniture required for any
service, as that of a soldier, &c.: a carriage and attendants,
retinue.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to furnish with an equipage.--_n._ EQUIP'MENT,
the act of equipping: the state of being equipped: things used in equipping
or furnishing: outfit. [Fr. _équiper_, prob. Ice. _skipa_, to set in order,
_skip_, a ship.]

EQUIPOLLENT, e-kwi-pol'ent, _adj._ having equal power or force:
equivalent.--_n._ an equivalent.--_ns._ EQUIPOLL'ENCE, EQUIPOLL'ENCY. [L.
_æquus_, equal, _pollens_, _pollentis_, pr.p. of _poll[=e]re_, to be able.]

EQUIPONDERATE, [=e]-kwi-pon'd[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.i._ to be equal in weight: to
balance.--_adj._ equal in weight.--_n._ EQUIPON'DERANCE.--_adj._
EQUIPON'DERANT. [L. _æquus_, equal, _pondus_, _ponderis_, weight.]

EQUISETUM, ek-wi-s[=e]'tum, _n._ a genus of herbaceous plants having
leafless articulated and whorled stems and branches--also
[L.,--_equus_, a horse, _seta_, a bristle.]

EQUITATION, ek-wi-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the art of riding on horseback.--_adjs._
EQ'UITANT, riding: straddling, overlapping; EQUIV'OROUS, eating
horse-flesh. [L.,--_equit[=a]re_--_equus_, a horse.]

EQUITY, ek'wi-ti, _n._ right as founded on the laws of nature: moral
justice, of which laws are the imperfect expression: the spirit of justice
which enables us to interpret laws rightly: fairness.--_adj._ EQ'UITABLE,
possessing or showing equity: held or exercised in equity.--_n._
EQ'UITABLENESS.--_adv._ EQ'UITABLY. [Fr. _equité_--L. _æquitas_--_æquus_,

EQUIVALENT, e-kwiv'a-lent, _adj._ equal in value, power, meaning, &c.--_n._
a thing equivalent.--_n._ EQUIV'ALENCE.--_adv._ EQUIV'ALENTLY. [Fr.,--L.
_æquus_, equal, _valens_, _valentis_, pr.p. of _val[=e]re_, to be worth.]

EQUIVOCAL, e-kwiv'[=o]-kal, _adj._ capable of meaning two or more things:
of doubtful meaning: capable of a double explanation: suspicious:
questionable.--_adv._ EQUIV'OCALLY.--_n._ EQUIV'OCALNESS.--_v.i._
EQUIV'OC[=A]TE, to use equivocal or doubtful words in order to
mislead.--_ns._ EQUIVOC[=A]'TION, act of equivocating or using ambiguous
words to mislead; EQUIV'OC[=A]TOR.--_adj._ EQUIV'OC[=A]TORY, containing or
characterised by equivocation.--_ns._ E'QUIVOKE, E'QUIVOQUE, an equivocal
expression: equivocation: a quibble. [L. _æquus_, equal, _vox_, _vocis_,
the voice, a word.]

ERA, [=e]'ra, _n._ a series of years reckoned from a particular point, or
that point itself: an important date. [Late L. _æra_, a number, orig.
'counters,' pieces of copper used in counting, being the neut.pl. of _æs_,
_æris_, copper.]

ERADIATE, e-r[=a]'di-[=a]t, _v.i._ to shoot out like a ray of
light:--_pr.p._ er[=a]'diating; _pa.p._ er[=a]'diated.--_n._
ERADI[=A]'TION, the act of eradiating; emission of radiance. [L. _e_, out,
_radius_, a ray.]

ERADICATE, e-rad'i-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to pull up by the roots: to
destroy.--_adj._ ERAD'ICABLE, that may be eradicated.--_p.adj._
ERAD'IC[=A]TED, rooted up: (_her._) said of a tree, or part of a tree, torn
up by the roots.--_n._ ERADIC[=A]'TION, the act of eradicating: state of
being eradicated.--_adj._ ERAD'IC[=A]TIVE, serving to eradicate or drive
thoroughly away.--_n._ ERAD'IC[=A]TOR. [L. _eradic[=a]re_, to root
out--_e_, out, _radix_, _radicis_, a root.]

ERASE, e-r[=a]s', _v.t._ to rub or scrape out: to efface: to
destroy.--_adj._ ER[=A]'SABLE.--_p.adj._ ERASED', rubbed out: effaced:
(_her._) torn off, so as to leave jagged edges.--_ns._ ER[=A]'SER, one who,
or that which, erases, as _ink-eraser_; ER[=A]'SION, ERASE'MENT,
ER[=A]'SURE, the act of erasing: a rubbing out: the place where something
written has been rubbed out. [L. _erad[)e]re_--_e_, out, _rad[)e]re_,
_rasum_, to scrape.]

ERASTIAN, e-rast'yan, _n._ a follower of Thomas _Erastus_ (1524-83), a
Swiss physician, who denied the church the right to inflict excommunication
and disciplinary penalties: one who minimises the spiritual independence of
the church, subordinating her jurisdiction to the state--a position not
held by Erastus at all.--_adj._ relating to the Erastians or their
doctrines.--_n._ ERAST'IANISM, control of church by state.

ERATO, er'a-t[=o], _n._ the Muse of lyric poetry.

ERBIUM, er'bi-um, _n._ a rare metal, the compounds of which are present in
the mineral gadolinite, found at Ytterby in Sweden. [From Ytt_erby_.]

ERE, [=a]r, _adv._ before, sooner.--_prep._ before.--_conj._ sooner
than.--_advs._ ERELONG', before long: soon; ERENOW', before this time;
EREWHILE', formerly: some time before. [A.S. _['æ]r_; cf. Dut. _eer_.]

EREBUS, er'e-bus, _n._ (_myth._) the dark and gloomy cavern between earth
and Hades: the lower world, hell. [L.,--Gr. _Erebos_.]

ERECT, e-rekt', _v.t._ to set upright: to raise: to build: to exalt: to
establish.--_adj._ upright: directed upward.--_adj._ ERECT'ED.--_ns._
ERECT'ER, ERECT'OR, one who, or that which, erects or raises: a muscle
which assists in erecting a part or an organ: an attachment to a compound
microscope for making the image erect instead of inverted.--_adj._
ERECT'ILE, that may be erected.--_ns._ ERECTIL'ITY, quality of being
erectile; EREC'TION, act of erecting: state of being erected: exaltation:
anything erected: a building of any kind.--_adj._ ERECT'IVE, tending to
erect.--_adv._ ERECT'LY.--_n._ ERECT'NESS. [L. _erectus_, _erig[)e]re_, to
set upright--_e_, out, _reg[)e]re_, to direct.]

EREMACAUSIS, er-e-ma-kaw'sis, _n._ (_chem._) slow combustion or oxidation.
[Gr. _erema_, slowly, _kausis_--_kaiein_, to burn.]

EREMITE, er'e-m[=i]t, _n._ a recluse who lives apart, from religious
motives: a hermit.--_adjs._ EREMIT'IC, -AL.--_n._ ER'EMITISM, state of
being an eremite. [Late L.,--Gr. _er[=e]mos_, desert.]

ERETHISM, er'e-thizm, _n._ excitement or stimulation of any organ.--_adjs._

ERF, erf, _n._ a garden-plot in South Africa. [Dut.]

ERG, erg, _n._ the unit of work in the centimetre-gramme-second
system--that is, the quantity of work done by a force which, acting for one
second upon a mass of one gramme, produces a velocity of one centimetre per
second. [Gr. _erg-on_, work.]

ERGO, [.e]r'go, _adv._ (_logic_) therefore, used to mark the conclusion of
a syllogism.--_v.i._ ER'GOTISE, to wrangle. [L. _ergo_, therefore.]

ERGOT, [.e]r'got, _n._ a disease, consisting of a parasitical fungus, found
on the seed of certain plants, esp. rye and some other grasses.--_ns._
ER'GOTINE, the active principle of ergot of rye; ER'GOTISM, poisoning
caused by eating bread made of rye diseased with ergot;
ERGOTIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ ER'GOTISE. [Fr.]

ERIC, er'ik, _n._ the blood-fine paid by a murderer to his victim's family
in old Irish law.--Also ER'IACH, ER'ICK.

ERICA, e-r[=i]'ka, _n._ the scientific name for heath.--_adj._
ERIC[=A]'CEOUS, belonging to plants of the genus _Erica_. [L.,--Gr.
_ereik[=e]_, heath.]


ERINITE, er'i-n[=i]t, _n._ native arseniate of copper found in Cornwall and
Ireland. [_Erin_, old name of Ireland.]

ERINYS, e-r[=i]'nis, _n._ one of the Furies:--_pl._ ERINYES

ERIOMETER, er-i-om'e-ter, _n._ an optical instrument for measuring small
diameters of fibres, &c. [Gr. _erion_, wool, _metron_, a measure.]

ERISTIC, -AL, er-is'tik, -al, _adj._ of or pertaining to controversy. [Gr.
_erizein_, to strive--_eris_, strife.]

ERL-KING, [.e]rl'-king, _n._ for German _erl-könig_, a mistranslation
(meaning 'alder-king') of the Danish _ellerkonge_ (i. e. _elverkonge_, king
of the elves).

ERMELIN, [.e]r'me-lin, _n._ (_arch._) ermine.

ERMINE, [.e]r'min, _n._ a well-known carnivore belonging to the genus which
includes polecat, weasel, ferret, &c.--its white fur often used as an
emblem of purity: ermine fur used for the robes of judges and
magistrates.--_adj._ ER'MINED, adorned with ermine. [O. Fr. _ermine_ (Fr.
_hermine_), perh. from L. (_mus_) _Armenius_, lit. mouse of Armenia, whence
it was brought to Rome; but acc. to Skeat from Old High Ger. _harmin_ (Ger.
_hermelin_), ermine-fur.]

ERNE, [.e]rn, _n._ the eagle. [A.S. _earn_; cf. Ice. _orn_, Dut. _arend_.]

ERNE, [.e]rn, _v.i._ obsolete form of _earn_, to yearn.

ERODE, e-r[=o]d', _v.t._ to eat away: to wear away.--_n._ ER[=O]'DENT, a
caustic drug.--_adj._ ER[=O]SE', gnawed.--_n._ ER[=O]'SION, act or state of
eating or being eaten away.--_adj._ ER[=O]'SIVE, having the property of
eating away. [L. _e_, out, _rod[)e]re_, _rosum_, to gnaw.]

EROSTRATE, e-ros'tr[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having no beak.

EROTESIS, er-[=o]-t[=e]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure consisting of an
oratorical question.--_adj._ EROTET'IC. [Gr.]

EROTIC, er-ot'ik, _adj._ pertaining to love: amatory.--_n._ an amatory
poem.--_ns._ EROTOM[=A]'NIA, morbid sexual passion; EROTOM[=A]'NIAC, one
affected with this. [Gr. _er[=o]tikos_--_er[=o]s_, _er[=o]tos_, love.]

ERR, er, _v.i._ to wander from the right way: to go astray: to mistake: to
sin.--_adj._ ERR'ABLE, capable of erring.--_n._ ERRAT'IC, a wanderer: an
erratic boulder.--_adjs._ ERRAT'IC, -AL, wandering: having no certain
course: not stationary: irregular.--_adv._ ERRAT'ICALLY.--_n._ ERR[=A]'TUM,
an error in writing or printing, esp. one noted in a list at the end of a
book:--_pl._ ERR[=A]'TA.--_adj._ ERR[=O]'NEOUS, erring: full of error:
wrong: mistaken: (_obs._) wandering.--_adv._ ERR[=O]'NEOUSLY.--_ns._
ERR[=O]'NEOUSNESS; ERR'OR, a deviation from truth, right, &c.: a blunder or
mistake: a fault: sin; ERR'ORIST. [Fr. _errer_--L. _err[=a]re_, to stray;
cog. with Ger. _irren_, and _irre_, astray.]

ERRAND, er'and, _n._ a message: a commission to say or do something.--A
FOOL'S ERRAND, a useless undertaking; GO AN ERRAND, to go with messages;
MAKE AN ERRAND, to invent a reason for going. [A.S. _['æ]rende_; Ice.
_eyrindi_; prob. conn. with Goth. _áirus_, Ice. _árr_, a messenger.]

ERRANT, er'ant, _adj._ wandering: roving: wild: (_obs._) thorough (cf.
ARRANT).--_n._ a knight-errant.--_adv._ ERR'ANTLY.--_n._ ERR'ANTRY, an
errant or wandering state: a rambling about like a knight-errant. [Fr.,--L.
_errans_, _errantis_, pr.p. of _err[=a]re_.]

ERRHINE, er'in, _adj._ affecting the nose.--_n._ a sternutatory. [Gr.,
_en_, in, _rhis_, _rhinos_, the nose.]

ERSE, [.e]rs, _n._ the name given by the Lowland Scotch to the language of
the people of the West Highlands, as being of Irish origin--now sometimes
used for Irish, as opposed to Scotch, Gaelic. [_Irish_.]

ERST, [.e]rst, _adv._ at first: formerly.--_adv._ ERST'WHILE, formerly.
[A.S. _['æ]rest_, superl. of _['æ]r_. See ERE.]

ERUBESCENT, er-[=oo]-bes'ent, _adj._ growing red: blushing.--_ns._
ERUBES'CENCE, ERUBES'CENCY. [L. _erubescens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of
_erubesc[)e]re_, to grow red--_e_, out, and _rubesc[)e]re_--_rub[=e]re_, to
be red. See RUBY.]

ERUCTATE, e-ruk't[=a]t, _v.t._ to belch out, as wind from the
stomach.--_n._ ERUCT[=A]'TION, the act of belching: a violent ejection of
wind or other matter from the earth, as a volcano, &c. [L. _eruct[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _ruct[=a]re_, to belch forth.]

ERUDITE, er'[=oo]-d[=i]t, _adj._ learned.--_n._ a learned person.--_adv._
ER'UDITELY.--_n._ ERUDI'TION, state of being erudite or learned: knowledge
gained by study: learning, esp. in literature. [L. _erud[=i]re_,
_erud[=i]tum_, to free from rudeness--_e_, from, _rudis_, rude.]

ERUPT, e-rupt', _v.i._ to break out or through, as a volcano.--_n._
ERUP'TION, a breaking or bursting forth: that which bursts forth: a
breaking out of spots on the skin.--_adjs._ ERUP'TIONAL; ERUPT'IVE,
breaking forth: attended by or producing eruption: produced by
eruption.--_n._ ERUPT'IVENESS. [L. _erump[)e]re_, _eruptum_.--_e_, out,
_rump[)e]re_, to break.]

ERYNGO, e-ring'go, _n._ a genus of evergreen plants resembling thistles,
the young leaves of _E. maritimum_ (sea-holly) being sometimes eaten as a
salad. [L. _eryngion_--Gr. _[=e]ryngos_.]

ERYSIMUM, er-is'i-mum, _n._ a genus of _Cruciferæ_, allied to Hedge-mustard
and Dame's Violet. [Formed through L. from Gr. _erysimon_.]

ERYSIPELAS, er-i-sip'e-las, _n._ an inflammatory disease, generally in the
face, marked by a bright redness of the skin.--_adj._ ERYSIPEL'ATOUS. [Gr.;
prob. from the root of _erythros_, red, _pella_, skin.]

ERYTHEMA, er-i-th[=e]'ma, _n._ a name applied to certain skin diseases, but
scarcely used by any two writers in exactly the same sense.--_adjs._
ERYTHEMAT'IC, ERYTHEM'ATOUS. [Gr.,--_erythainein_, to redden--_erythros_,

ERYTHRITE, e-rith'r[=i]t, _n._ a reddish hydrous arseniate of
cobalt.--_adj._ ERYTHRIT'IC.

ESCALADE, es-ka-l[=a]d', _n._ the scaling of the walls of a fortress by
means of ladders.--_v.t._ to scale: to mount and enter by means of
ladders--sometimes written ESCAL[=A]'DO. [Fr.,--Sp. _escalada_--_escala_, a
ladder--L. _scala_.]

ESCALLOP, es-kal'up, _n._ a variant of _scallop_.--_adj._ ESCALL'OPED.
(_her._), covered with scallop-shells.


ESCAPE, es-k[=a]p', _v.t._ to free from: to pass unobserved: to evade: to
issue.--_v.i._ to flee and become safe from danger: to be passed without
harm.--_n._ act of escaping: flight from danger or from prison.--_adj._
ESCAP'ABLE.--_ns._ ESCAP[=A]DE', an escape: a mischievous freak;
ESC[=A]PE'MENT, act of escaping: means of escape: part of a timepiece
connecting the wheelwork with the pendulum or balance, and allowing a tooth
to escape at each vibration; ESCAPE'-VALVE, a valve on a boiler so as to
let the steam escape when wanted. [O. Fr. _escaper_ (Fr. _échapper_)--L.
_ex cappa_, (lit.) 'out of one's cape or cloak.']

ESCARMOUCHE, e-skär'moosh, _n._ (_obs._) a skirmish. [Fr.]

ESCARP, es-kärp', _v.t._ to make into a scarp or sudden slope.--_n._ a
scarp or steep slope: (_fort._) the side of the ditch next the
rampart.--_n._ ESCARP'MENT, the precipitous side of any hill or rock:
escarp. [Fr. _escarper_, to cut down steep, from root of _scarp_.]

ESCHALOT, esh-a-lot'. See SHALLOT.

ESCHAR, es'kär, _n._ a slough or portion of dead or disorganised tissue,
gen. of artificial sloughs produced by the application of caustics.--_adj._
ESCHAROT'IC, tending to form an eschar: caustic.--_n._ a caustic substance.
[L.,--Gr. _eschara_, a hearth.]

ESCHATOLOGY, es-ka-tol'o-ji, _n._ (_theol._) the doctrine of the last or
final things, as death, judgment, the state after death.--_adjs._
ESCHATOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ ESCHATOL'OGIST. [Gr. _eschatos_, last, _logia_, a

ESCHEAT, es-ch[=e]t', _n._ property which falls to the state for want of an
heir, or by forfeiture: (_Spens._) plunder.--_v.t._ to confiscate.--_v.i._
to fall to the lord of the manor or the state.--_adj._ ESCHEAT'ABLE.--_ns._
ESCHEAT'AGE; ESCHEAT'OR. [O. Fr. _eschete_--_escheoir_ (Fr. _échoir_)--Low
L.,--L. _ex_, out, _cad[)e]re_, to fall.]

ESCHEW, es-ch[=oo]', _v.t._ to shun: to flee from: to abstain from. [O. Fr.
_eschever_; cog. with Ger. _scheuen_, to shun.]

ESCLANDRE, e-sklang'dr, _n._ notoriety: any unpleasantness. [Fr.,--L.

ESCORT, es'kort, _n._ a body of men, or a single man, accompanying any one
on a journey, for protection, guidance, or merely courtesy:
attendance.--_v.t._ ESC[=O]RT', to attend as guide or guard. [Fr.
_escorte_--It. _scorta_--_scorgere_, to guide--L. _ex_, out,
_corrig[)e]re_, to set right.]

ESCOT, es-kot', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to pay a reckoning for, to maintain. [O.
Fr. _escoter_, _escot_=_scot_, a tax.]

ESCRITOIRE, es-kri-twor', _n._ a writing-desk.--_adj._ ESCRIT[=O]'RIAL.
[Fr. _escritoire_--Low L. _scriptorium_--L. _scrib[)e]re_, _scriptum_, to

ESCROLL, es-kr[=o]l', _n._ (_her._). Same as SCROLL.

ESCUAGE, es'k[=u]-[=a]j, _n._ scutage.

ESCULAPIAN, es-k[=u]-l[=a]'pi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Esculapius_, and
hence to the art of healing.--Also ÆSCUL[=A]'PIAN. [_Æsculapius_, god of

ESCULENT, es'k[=u]-lent, _adj._ eatable: fit to be used for food by
man.--_n._ something that is eatable. [L. _esculentus_, eatable--_esca_,
food--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]

ESCUTCHEON, es-kuch'un, _n._ a shield on which a coat of arms is
represented: a family shield: the part of a vessel's stern bearing her
name.--_adj._ ESCUTCH'EONED ('und), having an escutcheon.--ESCUTCHEON OF
PRETENCE, an escutcheon placed with the arms of an heiress in the centre of
her husband's coat.--A BLOT ON THE ESCUTCHEON, a stain on one's good name.
[O. Fr. _escuchon_--L. _scutum_, a shield.]

ESEMPLASTIC, es-em-plas'tik, _adj._ shaping into one.

ESKAR, ESKER. Same as ASAR (q.v.).

ESKIMO, es'ki-m[=o], _n._ and _adj._ one of a nation constituting the
aboriginal inhabitants of the whole northern coast of America, and spread
over the Arctic islands, Greenland, and the nearest Asiatic coast.--_n._
ESKIMO DOG, a half-tamed variety, widely distributed in the Arctic regions,
and indispensable for drawing the sledges. [Said by Dr Rink to be from an
Indian word=eaters of raw flesh.]

ESLOIN, es-loin'. See ELOIN.

ESNECY, es'ne-si, _n._ the right of first choice belonging to the eldest.


ESOTERIC, es-o-ter'ik, _adj._ inner: secret: mysterious: (_phil._) taught
to a select few--opp. to _Exoteric_.--_adv._ ESOTER'ICALLY.--_ns._
ESOTER'ICISM, ESOT'ERISM, the holding of esoteric opinions.--ESOTERIC
BUDDHISM (see THEOSOPHY). [Gr. _es[=o]terikos_--_es[=o]ter[=o]_, inner, a
comp. form from _es[=o]_, within.]

ESPALIER, es-pal'y[.e]r, _n._ a lattice-work of wood on which to train
fruit-trees: a fruit-tree trained on stakes: (_obs._) a row of trees so
trained.--_v.t._ to train as an espalier. [Fr.,--It. _spalliera_, a support
for the shoulders--_spalla_, a shoulder. Cf. EPAULET.]

ESPARTO, es-par't[=o], _n._ a strong kind of grass found in the south of
Europe, esp. in Spain, used for making baskets, cordage, paper, &c.
[Sp.,--L. _spartum_--Gr. _sparton_, a kind of rope.]

ESPECIAL, es-pesh'al, _adj._ special: particular: principal:
distinguished.--_adv._ ESPEC'IALLY.--IN ESPECIAL, in particular. [O.
Fr.,--L. _specialis_--_species_.]

ESPERANCE, es'p[.e]r-ans, _n._ (_Shak._) hope. [Fr.,--L. _sperans_, pr.p.
of _sper[=a]re_, to hope.]

ESPIÈGLE, es-pi-[=a]'gl, _adj._ roguish, frolicsome.--_n._ ESPIÈG'LERIE,
raillery: frolicsomeness. [Fr.]

ESPIONAGE, es'pi-on-[=a]j, _n._ practice or employment of spies.
[Fr.,--_espionner_--_espion_, a spy.]

ESPLANADE, es-pla-n[=a]d', _n._ a level space between a citadel and the
first houses of the town: any level space for walking or driving in.
[Fr.,--Sp. _esplanada_--L. _explan[=a]re_--_ex_, out, _planus_, flat.]

ESPOUSE, es-powz', _v.t._ to give in marriage: to take as spouse: to wed:
to take with a view to maintain: to embrace, as a cause.--_ns._ ESPOUS'AL,
the act of espousing or betrothing: the taking upon one's self, as a cause:
(_pl._) a contract or mutual promise of marriage; ESPOUS'ER. [O. Fr.
_espouser_ (Fr. _épouser_)--L. _spons[=a]re_--_spond[=e]re_, _sponsum_, to

ESPRIT, es-pr[=e]', _n._ spirit: liveliness.--ESPRIT DE CORPS (es-pr[=e]'
d' k[=o]r), regard for the character of that body to which one belongs;
ESPRIT FORT (es-pr[=e]' f[=o]r), a person of strong character. [Fr.
_esprit_, spirit, _corps_, body, _fort_, strong.]

ESPY, es-p[=i]', _v.t._ to watch: to see at a distance: to catch sight of:
to observe: to discover unexpectedly.--_n._ ESP[=I]'AL, the act of espying:
observation. [O. Fr. _espier_, from root of _spy_.]

ESQUIMAU, es'ki-m[=o] (_pl._ ESQUIMAUX, es'ki-m[=o]z). Same as ESKIMO.

ESQUIRE, es-kw[=i]r', _n._ (_orig._) a squire or shield-bearer: an
attendant on a knight: a landed proprietor: a title of dignity next below a
knight: a title given to younger sons of noblemen, &c.: a general title of
respect in addressing letters. [O. Fr. _esquier_ (Fr. _écuyer_)--L.
_scutarius_--_scutum_, a shield.]

ESS, the name of the letter S (q.v.).

ESSAY, es'[=a], _n._ a trial: an experiment: a written composition less
elaborate than a treatise.--_v.t._ ESSAY', to try: to attempt: to make
experiment of:--_pr.p._ essay'ing; _pa.p._ essayed'.--_ns._ ESSAY'ER,
ES'SAYIST, one who essays: a writer of essays; ESSAYETTE', ES'SAYKIN, a
little essay.--_adjs._ ES'SAYISH; ESSAYIS'TIC. [O. Fr. _essai_--L.
_exagium_, weighing--_exag[)e]re_, to try, examine.]

ESSE, es'i, _n._ used in phrase IN ESSE, in existence, opposed to _In
posse_, in potentiality. [L. _esse_, to be.]

ESSENCE, es'ens, _n._ the inner distinctive nature of anything: the
qualities which make any object what it is: a being: the extracted virtues
of any drug: the solution in spirits of wine of a volatile or essential
oil: a perfume.--_adj._ ESSEN'TIAL, relating to or containing the essence:
necessary to the existence of a thing: indispensable or important in the
highest degree: highly rectified: pure.--_n._ something necessary: a
leading principle.--_n._ ESSENTIAL'ITY, the quality of being essential: an
essential part.--_adv._ ESSEN'TIALLY.--_n._ ESSEN'TIALNESS. [Fr.,--L.
_essentia_--_essens_, _-entis_, assumed pr.p. of _esse_, to be.]

ESSENE, es-s[=e]n', _n._ one of a small religious fraternity among the
ancient Jews leading retired ascetic lives and holding property in
common.--_n._ ESSEN'ISM. [Bishop Lightfoot prefers the der. from Heb.
_ch[=a]sh[=a]_, to be silent, whence _chashsh[=a][=i]m_, 'the silent ones'
who meditate on mysteries.]

ESSOIN, es-soin', _n._ (_law_) excuse for not appearing in court:
(_Spens._) excuse.--_n._ ESSOIN'ER. [O. Fr. _essoine_ (Fr. _exoine_),
_es_--L. _ex_, out, _soin_, care.]

ESSORANT, es'[=o]-rant, _adj._ (_her._) about to soar.

ESTABLISH, es-tab'lish, _v.t._ to settle or fix: to confirm: to prove a
point: to ordain: to found: to set up in business: to institute by law as
the recognised state church, and to support officially and
financially.--_p.adj._ ESTAB'LISHED, fixed: ratified: instituted by law and
supported by the state.--_ns._ ESTAB'LISHER; ESTAB'LISHMENT, act of
establishing: fixed state: that which is established: a permanent civil or
military force: one's residence and style of living: the church established
by law.--_adj._ ESTABLISHMENT[=A]R'IAN, maintaining the principle of the
established church.--_n._ one who maintains this principle. [O. Fr.
_establir_, pr.p. _establissant_--L. _stabil[=i]re_--_stabilis_,
firm--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

ESTACADE, es-ta-k[=a]d', _n._ a dike of piles in a morass, river, &c.,
against an enemy. [Fr.,--Sp.]

ESTAFETTE, es-ta-fet', _n._ a military courier or express. [Fr.,--It.
_staffetta_--Old High Ger. _stapho_, a step.]

ESTAMINET, es-tam-in-[=a]', a restaurant where smoking is allowed. [Fr.]

ESTATE, es-t[=a]t', _n._ condition or rank: position: property, esp. landed
property: fortune: an order or class of men in the body-politic: (_pl._)
dominions: possessions.--_v.t._ to give an estate to: (_arch._) to bestow
upon.--_n._ ESTATES'MAN, statesman.--MAN'S ESTATE, the state of manhood;
THE ESTATES OF THE REALM are three--Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and
Commons; but often misused for the legislature--king, lords, and
commons.--The ancient parliament of Scotland consisted of the king and the
THREE ESTATES--viz.: (1) archbishops, bishops, abbots, and mitred priors;
(2) the barons and the commissioners of shires and stewartries; (3) the
commissioners from the royal burghs;--in France, the nobles, clergy, and
THIRD ESTATE (_tiers état_) remained separate down to 1789; THE FOURTH
ESTATE, often used humorously for the press. [O. Fr. _estat_ (Fr.
_état_)--L. _status_, a state.]

ESTEEM, es-t[=e]m', _v.t._ to set a high estimate or value on: to regard
with respect or friendship: to consider or think.--_n._ high estimation or
value: favourable regard.--_p.adj._ ESTEEMED', respected.--_adj._
ES'TIMABLE, that can be estimated or valued: worthy of esteem: deserving
our good opinion.--_adv._ ES'TIMABLY.--_v.t._ ES'TIM[=A]TE, to judge of the
worth of a thing: to calculate.--_n._ reputation: a valuing in the mind:
judgment or opinion of the worth or size of anything: a rough calculation:
estimation.--_n._ ESTIM[=A]'TION, act of estimating: a reckoning of value:
esteem, honour: importance: conjecture.--_adj._ ES'TIM[=A]TIVE.--_n._
accounts given before parliament showing the probable expenditure for the
year. [Fr. _estimer_--L. _æstim[=a]re_.]


ESTHONIAN, es-th[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Esthonia_, the most
northerly of the Baltic provinces of Russia, or its population, language,
or customs.--_ns._ ESTH, an Esthonian of the original Finnish stock;
ESTH'LANDER, an Esthonian of the mixed race, in which the German element


ESTOP, es-top', _v.t._ to stop or bar: (_law_) to hinder,
preclude:--_pr.p._ estop'ping; _pa.p._ estop'ped.--_ns._ ESTOP'P[=A]GE, the
state of being estopped; ESTOP'PEL, a conclusive admission, which cannot be
denied by the party whom it affects. [O. Fr. _estoper_--_estoupe_--L.
_stuppa_, tow. See STOP.]

ESTOVERS, es-t[=o]'v[.e]rz, _n.pl._ (_law_) necessaries allowed by law, as
wood to a tenant for necessary repairs, &c.--COMMON OF ESTOVERS, the right
of taking necessary wood from another's estate for household use and the
making of implements of industry. [O. Fr. _estovoir_, necessaries.]

ESTRADE, es-träd', _n._ a low platform. [Fr.,--Sp. _estrado_.]

ESTRANGE, es-tr[=a]nj', _v.t._ to treat as an alien: to alienate: to divert
from its original use or possessor.--_p.adj._ ESTRANGED', alienated:
_estranger_ (Fr. _étranger_)--L. _extrane[=a]re_--_extraneus_. See

ESTRAY, e-str[=a]', _n._ a beast found within a manor or lordship, and not
owned.--_v.i._ to stray. [See ASTRAY.]

ESTREAT, e-str[=e]t', _n._ (_law_) a true extract, copy, or note of some
original writing or record, esp. of fines and amercements to be levied by
bailiffs or other officers.--_v.t._ to extract from the records of a court,
as a forfeited recognisance: to levy fines under an estreat. [O. Fr.
_estraite_--L. _extrah[)e]re_--_ex_, out, and _trah[)e]re_, to draw. See

ESTRICH, es'trich, ESTRIDGE, es'trij, _n._ (_obs._) the ostrich.

ESTUARY, es't[=u]-ar-i, _n._ the wide lower part of a river where it
becomes tidal.--_adjs._ ESTU[=A]'RIAN, ES'T[=U]ARINE. [L.
_æstuarium_--_æstus_, tide.]

ESURIENT, es-[=u]'ri-ent, _adj._ hungry: penurious.--_n._ ES[=U]'RIENCE,
hunger: neediness. [L. _esuriens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _esur[=i]re_, to be
hungry--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]

ET CETERA, et set'er-a, usually written ETC. or &C., a phrase meaning 'and
so on.'--_n._ something in addition, which can easily be understood. [L.
_et_ and, _cetera_, the rest.]

ETCH, ech, _v.t._ or _v.i._ to make designs on metal, glass, &c. by eating
out the lines with an acid.--_ns._ ETCH'ER, one who etches; ETCH'ING, the
act or art of etching or engraving: the impression from an etched plate;
ETCH'ING-GROUND, the coating of wax or varnish on a plate prepared for
etching; ETCH'ING-NEED'LE, a fine-pointed steel instrument used in etching.
[From Ger. _ätzen_, to corrode by acid; from same root as Ger. _essen_. See

ETERNAL, [=e]-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ without beginning or end of existence:
everlasting: ceaseless: unchangeable--(_arch._) ETERNE'.--_v.t._
ETER'NALISE, ETER'NISE, to make eternal: to immortalise.--_n._ ETER'NALIST,
one who thinks that matter has existed from eternity.--_adv._
ETER'NALLY.--_n._ ETER'NITY, eternal duration: the state or time after
death.--THE ETERNAL, an appellation of God; THE ETERNITIES, the eternal
reality or truth. [Fr. _éternel_--L. _æternus_, _æviternus_--_ævum_--Gr.
_aion_, a period of time, an age.]

ETESIAN, e-t[=e]'zhan, _adj._ periodical: blowing at stated seasons, as
certain winds. [L. _etesius_--Gr. _et[=e]sios_, annual--_etos_, a year.]

ETHE, [=e]th, _adj._ (_Spens._) easy. [A.S. _eath._]

ETHER, [=e]'th[.e]r, _n._ the clear, upper air: the subtile medium supposed
to fill all space: a colourless, transparent, volatile liquid of great
mobility and high refractive power, and possessing a fragrant odour and a
fiery, passing to a cooling, taste.--_adj._ ETH[=E]'REAL, consisting of
ether: heavenly: airy: spirit-like.--_n._ ETHEREALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
ETH[=E]'REALISE, to convert into ether, or the fluid ether: to render
spirit-like.--_n._ ETHEREAL'ITY.--_adv._ ETH[=E]'REALLY.--_adj._
ETH[=E]'REOUS (_Milt._), ethereal.--_n._ ETHERIFIC[=A]'TION.--_adj._
E'THERIFORM.--_n._ ETHERIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ E'THERISE, to convert into
ether: to stupefy with ether.--_n._ E'THERISM, the condition induced by
using ether. [L.,--Gr. _aith[=e]r_, _aithein_, to light up.]

ETHIC, eth'ik, _adj._ relating to morals: treating of morality or
duty.--_n._ (more commonly in _pl._ ETH'ICS) the science of morals, that
branch of philosophy which is concerned with human character and conduct: a
treatise on morals.--_adj._ ETH'ICAL, relating to the science of
ethics.--_adv._ ETH'ICALLY.--_n._ ETH'ICIST, one versed in ethics.--ETHICAL
DATIVE, the dative of a first or second personal pronoun implying an
indirect interest in the fact stated, used colloquially to give a livelier
tone to the sentence. [Gr. _[=e]thikos_--_[=e]thos_, custom.]

ETHIOPIAN, [=e]-thi-[=o]'pi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Ethiopia_, a name
given to the countries south of Egypt inhabited by the negro races.--_n._ a
native of Ethiopia: a blackamoor--(_arch._) ETHIOP.--_adj._
ETHIOP'IC.--_n.pl._ [=E]'THIOPS, a term applied by the ancient chemists to
certain oxides and sulphides of the metals which possessed a dull, dingy,
or black appearance. [Gr. _Aithiops_, sun-burnt, Ethiopian--_aithein_, to
burn, _[=o]ps_, the face.]

ETHMOID, -AL, eth'moid, -al, _adj._ resembling a sieve.--ETHMOID BONE, one
of the eight somewhat cubical bones which collectively form the cranial
box. [Gr. _[=e]thmos_, a sieve, and _eidos_, form.]

ETHNIC, -AL, eth'nik, -al, _adj._ concerning nations or races: pertaining
to the heathen.--_ns._ ETH'NIC, a heathen; ETH'NICISM, heathenism;
ETHNOG'RAPHER.--_adj._ ETHNOGRAPH'IC.--_n._ ETHNOG'RAPHY, the scientific
description of the races of the earth.--_adj._ ETHNOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._
ETHNOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ ETHNOL'OGIST; ETHNOL'OGY, the science that treats
of the varieties of the human race. [L.,--Gr. _ethnos_, a nation; Gr.
_graph[=e]_, writing, _logia_, discourse.]

ETHOLOGY, [=e]-thol'o-ji, _n._ a discourse on ethics: the science of
character.--_adjs._ ETHOLOG'IC, -AL, relating to ethology: treating of
morality.--_ns._ ETHOL'OGIST, one versed in ethology or ethics; [=E]'THOS,
habitual character and disposition: the quality of a work of art which
produces a high moral impression. [Gr. _[=e]thos_, custom, _logia_, a

ETHYL, [=e]'thil, _n._ a colourless, inflammable gas, insoluble in water,
soluble in alcohol--supposed base of ether. [Gr. _aith[=e]r_, ether,
_hyl[=e]_, base.]

ETIOLATE, [=e]-ti-o-l[=a]t', _v.t._ (_med._, _bot._) to cause to grow pale
from want of light and fresh air.--_v.i._ to become pale from disease or
absence of light.--_n._ ETIOL[=A]'TION. [Fr. _étioler_, to become pale, to
grow into stubble, _éteule_, stubble--L. _stipula_, a stalk.]

ETIOLOGY, [=e]-ti-ol'o-ji, _n._ Same as ÆTIOLOGY.

ETIQUETTE, et-i-ket', _n._ forms of ceremony or decorum: ceremony: the
unwritten laws of courtesy observed between members of the same profession,
as 'medical etiquette.' [Fr. See TICKET.]

ETNA, et'na, _n._ a vessel for heating water, &c., at table or in the
sick-room, in a cup placed in a saucer is which alcohol is burned.--_adj._
ÆTN[=E]'AN. [From the volcano, Mount _Ætna_.]

ETONIAN, et-[=o]n'i-an, _n._ and _adj._ one educated at _Eton_
College.--ETON JACKET, a boy's dress-coat, untailed.

ETRURIAN, et-r[=u]'ri-an, _adj._ and _n._ of or belonging to
_Etruria_.--_adj._ and _n._ ETRUS'CAN, of or belonging to ancient Etruria
or its people, language, art, &c.--sometimes jocularly put for Tuscan.

ETTLE, et'l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to purpose, intend.--_v.t._ to guess.--_n._
purpose, intent. [Ice., _ætla_, to think, from root of Goth. _aha_,

ÉTUDE, [=a]-tüd', _n._ (_mus._) a composition intended either to train or
to test the player's technical skill. [Fr.]

ETUI, ETWEE, et-w[=e]', _n._ a small case for holding valuables. [Fr.]

ETYMOLOGY, et-i-mol'o-ji, _n._ the investigation of the derivation and
original signification of words: the science that treats of the origin and
history of words: the part of grammar relating to inflection.--_adjs._
-CUM, an etymological dictionary.--_v.t._ ETYMOL'OGISE, to give, or search
into, the etymology of a word.--_ns._ ETYMOL'OGIST, one skilled in or who
writes on etymology; ET'YMON, the origin of a word: an original root: the
genuine or literal sense of a word. [O. Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _etymos_, true,
_logia_, an account.]

ETYPIC, -AL, [=e]-tip'ik, -al, _adj._ unconformable to type.

EUCALYPTUS, [=u]-kal-ip'tus, _n._ the 'gum-tree,' a large Australian
evergreen, beneficial in destroying the miasma of malarious
districts.--_ns._ EU'CALYPT, a eucalyptus; EUCALYP'TOL, a volatile,
colourless, limpid oil. [Coined from Gr. _eu_, well, _kalyptos_,
covered--_kalyptein_, to cover.]

EUCHARIST, [=u]'ka-rist, _n._ the sacrament of the Lord's Supper: the
elements of the sacrament, as 'to receive the Eucharist.'--_adjs._
EUCHARIST'IC, -AL. [Gr. _eucharistia_, thanksgiving--_eu_, well, and
_charizesthai_, to show favour--_charis_, grace, thanks.]

EUCHLORINE, [=u]-kl[=o]'rin, _n._ a very explosive green-coloured gas,
prepared by the action of strong hydrochloric acid on chlorate of
potash.--_adj._ EUCHL[=O]'RIC. [Gr. _eu_, well, _chloros_, green.]

EUCHOLOGION, [=u]-ko-l[=o]'ji-on, _n._ a formulary of prayers, primarily
that of the Greek Church.--Also EUCHOL'OGY. [Gr. _euchologion_--_euch[=e]_,
a prayer, _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

EUCHRE, [=u]'k[.e]r, _n._ an American game at cards for two, three, or four
persons, with the 32, 28, or 24 highest cards of the pack--if a player
fails to make three tricks he is _euchred_, and his adversary scores
against him.--_v.t._ to outwit. [Ety. uncertain; prob. Ger., like the term
_bower_ (q.v.), used in the game; some have suggested a Sp. _yuca_.]

EUCLASE, [=u]'kl[=a]s, _n._ a silicate of aluminium and glucinum occurring
in pale-green transparent crystals. [Fr.,--Gr. _eu_, well, _klasis_,

EUCLIDEAN, [=u]-klid'e-an, or [=u]-kli-d[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to
Euclid, a mathematician of Alexandria about 300 B.C.

EUDEMONISM, EUDÆMONISM, [=u]-d[=e]'mon-izm, _n._ the system of ethics that
makes happiness the test of rectitude--whether _Egoistic_, as Hobbes, or
_Altruistic_, as Mill.--_ns._ EUD[=E]'MONIST, EUDÆ'MONIST. [Gr.
_eudaimonia_, happiness--_eu_, well, _daim[=o]n_, a god.]

EUDIOMETER, [=u]-di-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
purity of, or the quantity of oxygen contained in, the air.--_adjs._
EUDIOMET'RIC, -AL.--_n._ EUDIOM'ETRY. [Gr. _eudios_, clear, _metron_,

EUGE, [=u]'j[=e], _interj._ well! well done! [L.]

EUGENIC, [=u]-jen'ik, _adj._ pertaining to race culture.--_n.pl._
EUGEN'ICS, the science of such.--_n._ EU'GENISM.

EUGENIN, [=u]'je-nin, _n._ a substance procured from the distilled water of

EUGH, EUGHEN, obsolete forms of _yew_, _yewen_.

EUGUBINE, [=u]'g[=u]-bin, _adj._ pertaining to the ancient town of
_Eugubium_ or _Iguvium_ (mod. _Gubbio_), or to its famous seven tablets of
bronze, the chief monument of the ancient Umbrian tongue.

EUHARMONIC, [=u]-har-mon'ik, _adj._ producing perfectly concordant sounds.

EUHEMERISM, [=u]-h[=e]'me-rizm, _n._ the system which explains mythology as
growing out of real history, its deities as merely magnified men.--_v.t._
and _v.i._ EUH[=E]'MERISE.--_n._ and _adj._ EUH[=E]'MERIST.--_adj._
EUHEMERIS'TIC.--_adv._ EUHEMERIS'TICALLY. [From _Euhemerus_, a 4th-cent.
(B.C.) Sicilian philosopher.]

EULOGIUM, [=u]-l[=o]'ji-um, EULOGY, [=u]'lo-ji, _n._ a speaking well of: a
speech or writing in praise of.--_adjs._ EULOG'IC, -AL, containing eulogy
or praise.--_adv._ EULOG'ICALLY.--_v.t._ EU'LOG[=I]SE, to speak well of: to
praise.--_n._ EU'LOGIST, one who praises or extols another.--_adj._
EULOGIST'IC, full of praise.--_adv._ EULOGIST'ICALLY. [Late L.
_eulogium_--Gr. _eulogion_ (classical _eulogia_)--_eu_, well, _logia_, a

EUMENIDES, [=u]-men'i-d[=e]z, _n.pl._ the Erinyes or Furies--the
euphemistic name for these. [Gr. _eu_, well, _menos_, mind.]

EUNOMY, [=u]'n[=o]-mi, _n._ equal, righteous law. [Gr.]

EUNUCH, [=u]'nuk, _n._ a castrated man--often employed as chamberlain in
the East.--_v.t._ EU'NUCHATE.--_n._ EU'NUCHISM, the state of being a
eunuch. [Gr. _eunouchos_--_eun[=e]_, a couch, _echein_, to have charge of.]

EUONYM, [=u]'[=o]-nim, _n._ a fitting name for anything. [Gr.]

EUPATRID, [=u]-pat'rid, _n._ a member of the Athenian aristocracy. [Gr.
_eupatrid[=e]s_--_eu_, well--_pat[=e]r_, father.]

EUPEPSY, [=u]-pep'si, _n._ good digestion--opp. to _Dyspepsia_.--_adj._
EUPEP'TIC, having good digestion.--_n._ EUPEPTIC'ITY. [Gr.
_eupepsia_--_eu_, well, _pepsis_, digestion--_peptein_, to digest.]

EUPHEMISM, [=u]'fem-izm, _n._ a figure of rhetoric by which an unpleasant
or offensive thing is designated by an indirect and milder term.--_v.t._ or
_v.i._ EU'PHEMISE, to express by a euphemism: to use euphemistic
terms.--_adj._ EUPHEMIST'IC.--_adv._ EUPHEMIST'ICALLY. [Gr.
_euph[=e]mismos_--_euph[=e]mos_--_eu_, well, _ph[=e]m[=e]_--_phanaí_, to

EUPHONY, [=u]'fo-ni, _n._ an agreeable sound: a pleasing, easy
pronunciation--also EUPH[=O]'NIA.--_adjs._ EUPHON'IC, -AL, EUPH[=O]'NIOUS,
pertaining to euphony: agreeable in sound.--_adv._
EUPH[=O]'NIOUSLY.--_v.t._ EU'PHON[=I]SE, to make euphonious.--_n._
EUPH[=O]'NIUM, the bass instrument of the saxhorn family: a variation of
the harmonica, invented by Chladni in 1790. [Gr. _euph[=o]nia_--_eu_, well,
_ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

EUPHORBIA, [=u]-for'bi-a, _n._ the _Spurge_ genus.--_n._ EUPHOR'BIUM, a gum
resin. [L.,--_Euphorbus_, a physician to Juba, king of Mauritania.]

EUPHRASY, [=u]'fra-zi, _n._ (_bot._) the plant eyebright, formerly regarded
as beneficial in disorders of the eyes. [Gr. _euphrasia_,
delight--_euphrainein_, to cheer--_eu_, well, _phr[=e]n_, the heart.]

EUPHROSYNE, [=u]-fros'i-n[=e], _n._ one of the three Charities or Graces:
merriment. [Gr. _euphr[=o]n_, cheerful.]

EUPHUISM, [=u]'f[=u]-izm, _n._ an affected and bombastic style of language:
a high-flown expression.--_v.i._ EU'PHUISE.--_n._ EU'PHUIST.--_adj._
EUPHUIST'IC. [From _Euphues_, a popular book by John Lyly (1579-80).--Gr.
_euphy[=e]s_, graceful--_eu_, well, _phy[=e]_, growth--_phyesthai_, to

EURASIAN, [=u]-r[=a]'zi-an, _adj._ descended from a European on the one
side and an Asiatic on the other: of or pertaining to Europe and Asia taken
as one continent. [From the combination of _Europe_ and _Asia_.]

EUREKA, [=u]-r[=e]'ka, _n._ a brilliant discovery. [Gr. perf. indic. of
_euriskein_, to find; the cry of Archimedes as he ran home naked from the
bath, where a method of detecting the adulteration of Hiero's crown had
suddenly occurred to him.]

EURIPUS, [=u]-r[=i]'pus, _n._ an arm of the sea with strong currents: the
water-channel between the arena and cavea of a Roman hippodrome. [Gr.]

EUROCLYDON, [=u]-rok'li-don, _n._ the tempestuous wind by which St Paul's
ship was wrecked (Acts, xxvii. 14). [Gr., from _euros_, the east wind,
_klyd[=o]n_, a wave--_klyzein_, to dash over.]

EUROPEAN, [=u]-ro-p[=e]'an, _adj._ belonging to _Europe_.--_n._ a native or
inhabitant of Europe.

EURUS, [=u]'rus, _n._ the east wind. [L.,--Gr. _euros_, the east wind.]

EUSEBIAN, [=u]-s[=e]'bi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Eusebius_ of Cæsarea,
father of ecclesiastical history (died 340), or to the Arian _Eusebius_ of
Nicomedia (died 342).

EUSKARIAN, [=u]s-k[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ Basque. [Basque _Euskara_, the Basque

EUSTACHIAN, [=u]-st[=a]'ki-an, _adj._ pertaining to the tube leading from
the middle ear to the pharynx, or to the rudimentary valve at the entrance
of the inferior vena cava in the heart. [Named from the Italian physician
Bartolommeo _Eustachio_ (died 1574).]

EUTAXY, [=u]'tak-si, _n._ good order.--_adj._ EUTAXIT'IC. [Gr.]

EUTERPEAN, [=u]-t[.e]r'pe-an, _adj._ relating to EUTER'PE, the muse who
presided over music--hence relating to music. [Gr. _Euterp[=e]_--_eu_,
well, _terpein_, to delight.]

EUTHANASIA, [=u]-than-[=a]'zi-a, _n._ an easy mode of death.--Also
EUTHAN'ASY. [Gr. _euthanasia_--_eu_, well, _thanatos_, death.]

EUTROPHY, [=u]'tr[=o]-fi, _n._ healthy nutrition. [Gr.]

EUTYCHIAN, [=u]-tik'i-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the doctrine of
_Eutyches_, a 5th-cent. archimandrite of Constantinople, who held that
after the incarnation of Christ all that was human in Him became merged in
the divine, and that Christ had but one nature.--_n._ a follower of

EVACUATE, e-vak'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to throw out the contents of: to
discharge: to withdraw from.--_adj._ EVAC'UANT, purgative.--_n._
EVACU[=A]'TION, act of emptying out: a withdrawing from: that which is
discharged.--_adj._ EVAC'U[=A]TIVE.--_n._ EVAC'U[=A]TOR, one who evacuates:
(_law_) one who nullifies or makes void. [L. _e_, out, _vacu[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to empty--_vacuus_, empty.]

EVADE, e-v[=a]d', _v.t._ to escape or avoid artfully: to baffle. [L.
_evad[)e]re_--_e_, out, _vad[)e]re_, to go.]

EVAGATION, e-vag-[=a]'shun, _n._ wandering: a digression. [Fr.,--L.
_evag[=a]ri_--_e_, out, _vag[=a]ri_, to wander.]

EVAGINATE, [=e]-vaj'i-n[=a]t, _v.t._ to draw from a sheath.--_n._

EVALUATE, e-val'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to determine the value of.--_n._

EVANESCENT, ev-an-es'ent, _adj._ fleeting; imperceptible.--_v.i._
EVANESCE', to fade away.--_n._ EVANES'CENCE.--_adv._ EVANES'CENTLY. [L.
_evanescens_, _-entis_--_e_, _vanesc[)e]re_, to vanish--_vanus_, empty.]

EVANGEL, e-van'jel, _n._ (_poet._) good news, esp. the gospel: a salutary
principle, esp. relating to morals, politics, &c.--_adjs._ EVANGEL'IC, -AL,
of or pertaining to the gospel: relating to the four gospels: according to
the doctrine of the gospel: maintaining the truth taught in the gospel:
Protestant: applied to the school which insists especially on the total
depravity of unregenerate human nature, the justification of the sinner by
faith alone, the free offer of the gospel to all, and the plenary
inspiration and exclusive authority of the Bible.--_n._ EVANGEL'ICAL, one
who belongs to the evangelical school.--_adv._ EVANGEL'ICALLY.--_ns._
EVANGELIS[=A]'TION, act of proclaiming the gospel.--_v.t._ EVAN'GEL[=I]SE,
to make known the good news: to make acquainted with the gospel.--_v.i._ to
preach the gospel from place to place.--_ns._ EVAN'GELISM; EVAN'GELIST, one
who evangelises: one of the four writers of the gospels: an assistant of
the apostles: one authorised to preach, but without a fixed charge;
EVANGELIS'TARY, a book containing passages from the gospels to be read at
divine service--also EVANGELIST[=A]'RION, EVAN'GELIARY.--_adj._
EVANGELIS'TIC, tending or intended to evangelise.--_n._ EVAN'GELY (_obs._),
the gospel. [L. _evangelicus_--Gr. _euangelikos_--_eu_, well, _angellein_,
to bring news.]

EVANISH, e-van'ish, _v.i._ to vanish: to die away.--_ns._ EVAN'ISHMENT,

EVAPORATE, e-vap'or-[=a]t, _v.i._ to fly off in vapour: to pass into an
invisible state: to depart, vanish.--_v.t._ to convert into steam or
gas.--_adj._ EVAP'ORABLE, able to be evaporated or converted into
vapour.--_n._ EVAPOR[=A]'TION, act of evaporating or passing off in steam
or gas: the process by which a substance changes into the state of
vapour.--_adj._ EVAP'OR[=A]TIVE.--_ns._ EVAP'ORATOR; EVAPOROM'ETER. [L.
_e_, off, _vapor[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_vapor_, vapour.]

EVASION, e-v[=a]-'zhun, _n._ act of evading or eluding: an attempt to
escape the force of an argument or accusation: an excuse.--_adjs._
EV[=A]'SIBLE, capable of being evaded; EV[=A]'SIVE, that evades or seeks to
evade: not straightforward: shuffling.--_adv._ EV[=A]'SIVELY.--_n._

EVE, [=e]v, EVEN, [=e]v'n, _n._ (_poet._) evening: the night before a day
of note: the time just preceding a great event. [A.S. _['æ]fen_; Dut.
_avond_; Ger. _abend_.]

EVECTION, e-vek'shun, _n._ (_astron._) a lunar inequality resulting from
the combined effect of the irregularity of the motion of the perigee, and
alternate increase and decrease of the eccentricity of the moon's orbit.
[L. _evection-em_--_e_, out, _veh[)e]re_, _vectum_, to carry.]

EVEN, [=e]v'n, _adj._ flat: level: uniform: (_Shak._) straightforward:
parallel: equal on both sides: not odd, able to be divided by 2 without a
remainder.--_v.t._ to make even or smooth: to put on an equality: (_Shak._)
to act up to.--_adv._ exactly so: indeed: so much as: still.--_n._
EV'EN-CHRIS'TIAN (_obs._), fellow-Christian.--_adj._ EV'EN-DOWN,
straight-down (of rain): downright, honest.--_adv._ thoroughly.--_adj._
EV'EN-HAND'ED, with an equal, fair, or impartial hand: just.--_adv._
EV'ENLY.--_adj._ EV'EN-MIND'ED, having an even or calm mind: equable.--_n._
EV'ENNESS.--BE EVEN WITH, to be revenged on: to be quits with. [A.S.
_efen_; Dut. _even_, Ger. _eben_.]

EVENING, [=e]v'ning, _n._ the close of the daytime: the decline or end of
life: an evening party or gathering.--_ns._ EV'ENFALL, early evening,
twilight; EVE'NING-DRESS, the dress worn by ladies and gentlemen at evening
parties; EVE'NING-PRIM'ROSE, a species of _Oenothera_, native of Virginia,
but now naturalised in many parts of Europe on river-banks, in thickets,
&c.--eaten after dinner it incites to wine-drinking; EVE'NING STAR, applied
to Venus, when seen in the west setting soon after the sun; EV'ENSONG,
evening prayer, the Anglican form appointed to be said or sung at evening:
the time proper for such; EV'ENTIDE, the time of evening, evening. [A.S.
_['æ]fnung_, from _['æ]fen_, even.]

EVENT, e-vent', _n._ that which happens: the result: any incident or
occurrence: an item in a programme or series of sports.--_adjs._ EVENT'FUL,
full of events: momentous; EVENT'[=U]AL, happening as a consequence:
final.--_n._ EVENT[=U]AL'ITY, a contingency: (_phren._) the propensity to
take notice of events, changes, or facts.--_adv._ EVENT'[=U]ALLY, finally:
at length. [L. _eventus_--_even[)i]re_--_e_, out, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

EVENTRATION, e-ven-tr[=a]'shun, _n._ act of opening the belly; protrusion
of an organ from the abdomen.

EVER, ev'[.e]r, _adv._ always: eternally: at any time: at all times:
continually: in any degree.--_n._ EV'ERGLADE, a large shallow lake or
marsh: chiefly in _pl._ such a marsh in southern Florida, enclosing
thousands of islets covered with dense thickets.--_adj._ EV'ERGREEN, always
green.--_n._ a plant that remains green all the year.--_adv._ EVERMORE',
unceasingly: eternally.--EVER AND ANON, now and then.--EVERGLADE STATE,
Florida.--EVER SO, to any extent; FOR EVER, to all eternity; SELDOM OR
EVER, used for seldom if ever, or seldom or never. [A.S. _['æ]fre_, always;
der. uncertain; perh. cog. with Goth. _aiws_.]

EVERLASTING, ev-[.e]r-last'ing, _adj._ endless: eternal.--_n._
FLOWER, the popular name of certain plants, whose flowers may be kept for
years without much diminution of beauty; FROM, or TO, EVERLASTING, from, or
to, all eternity; THE EVERLASTING, God.

EVERT, e-vert', _v.t._ to turn inside out.--_n._ EVER'SION. [L.
_evert[)e]re_--_e_, out, _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]

EVERY, ev'[.e]r-i, _adj._ each one of a number: all taken
separately.--_pron._ EV'ERYBODY, every person.--_adj._ EV'ERYDAY, of or
belonging to every day, daily: common, usual: pertaining to week-days, in
opposition to Sunday.--_pron._ EV'ERYTHING, all things: all.--_advs._
EV'ERYWAY, in every way or respect; EV'ERYWHEN, at all times; EV'ERYWHERE,
in every place.--EVERY BIT, the whole; EVERY NOW AND THEN, or AGAIN, at
intervals; EVERY OTHER, every second--e.g. every other day, every alternate
day. [A.S. _['æ]fre_, ever, and _['æ]lc_, each.]

EVICT, e-vikt', _v.t._ to dispossess by law: to expel from.--_ns._
EVIC'TION, the act of evicting from house or lands: the dispossession of
one person by another having a better title of property in land; EVIC'TOR.
[L. _evictus_, pa.p. of _evinc[)e]re_, to overcome.]

EVIDENT, ev'i-dent, _adj._ that is visible or can be seen: clear to the
mind: obvious.--_n._ EV'IDENCE, that which makes evident: means of proving
an unknown or disputed fact: information in a law case, as 'to give
evidence:' a witness.--_v.t._ to render evident: (_obs._) to attest,
prove.--_adjs._ EVIDEN'TIAL, EVIDEN'TIARY, furnishing evidence: tending to
prove.--_advs._ EVIDEN'TIALLY; EV'IDENTLY (_N.T._), visibly.--IN EVIDENCE,
received by the court as competent evidence: plainly visible,
conspicuous--a penny-a-liner's phrase adopted from the Fr. _en evidence_;
TURN KING'S (QUEEN'S) EVIDENCE (of an accomplice in a crime), to give
evidence against his partners. [L. _evidens_, _-entis_--_e_, out,
_vid[=e]re_, to see.]

EVIL, [=e]'vl, _adj._ wicked: mischievous: disagreeable:
unfortunate.--_adv._ in an evil manner: badly.--_n._ that which produces
unhappiness or calamity: harm: wickedness: depravity: sin.--_ns._
E'VIL-DO'ER, one who does evil; E'VIL-EYE, a supposed power to cause evil
or harm by the look of the eye.--_adj._ E'VIL-F[=A]'VOURED, having a
repulsive appearance: ugly.--_n._ E'VIL-F[=A]'VOUREDNESS (_B._), ugliness:
deformity.--_adv._ E'VILLY, in an evil manner: not well.--_adj._
E'VIL-MIND'ED, inclined to evil: malicious: wicked.--_ns._ E'VILNESS, state
of being evil: wickedness; E'VIL-SPEAK'ING, the speaking of evil:
slander.--_adj._ E'VIL-STARRED (_Tenn._), born under the influence of an
unpropitious star, unfortunate.--_n._ E'VIL-WORK'ER, one who works or does
evil.--THE EVIL ONE, the devil.--SPEAK EVIL OF, to slander. [A.S. _yfel_;
Dut. _euvel_; Ger. _übel_. _Ill_ is a doublet.]

EVINCE, e-vins', _v.t._ to prove beyond doubt: to show clearly: to make
evident.--_n._ EVINCE'MENT.--_adj._ EVINC'IBLE, that may be evinced or made
evident.--_adv._ EVINC'IBLY.--_adj._ EVINC'IVE, tending to evince, prove,
or demonstrate. [L. _evinc[)e]re_--_e_, inten., _vinc[)e]re_, to overcome.]

EVIRATE, [=e]'vir-[=a]t, _v.t._ to castrate: to render weak or unmanly. [L.
_evir[=a]re_--_e_, out, _vir_, a man.]

EVISCERATE, e-vis'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to tear out the viscera or bowels: to
gut.--_n._ EVISCER[=A]'TION. [L. _e_, out, _viscera_, the bowels.]

EVITE, e-v[=i]t', _v.i._ to avoid.--_v.t._ EV'ITATE (_Shak._) to
avoid.--_n._ EVIT[=A]'TION, the act of shunning. [L. _evit[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _vit[=a]re_, to shun.]

EVITERNAL, ev-i-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ eternal.--_adv._ EVITER'NALLY.--_n._

EVOKE, e-v[=o]k', _v.t._ to call out: to draw out or bring forth.--_v.t._
EV'OCATE, to call up (spirits) from the dead.--_n._ EVOC[=A]'TION. [L.
_evoc[=a]re_--_e_, out, and _voc[=a]re_, to call.]

EVOLUTION, ev-ol-[=u]'shun, _n._ the act of unrolling or unfolding: gradual
working out or development: a series of things unfolded: the doctrine
according to which higher forms of life have gradually arisen out of lower:
(_arith._, _alg._) the extraction of roots: (_pl._) the orderly movements
of a body of troops or of ships of war.--_adjs._ EVOL[=U]'TIONAL,
EVOL[=U]'TIONARY, of or pertaining to evolution.--_ns._ EVOL[=U]'TIONISM,
the theory of evolution; EVOL[=U]'TIONIST, one skilled in evolutions or
military movements: one who believes in evolution as a principle in
science.--_adj._ EV'OL[=U]TIVE. [L. _evolutionem_--_evolv[)e]re_.]

EVOLVE, e-volv', _v.t._ to unroll: to disclose: to develop: to
unravel.--_v.i._ to disclose itself: to result.--_n._ EV'OL[=U]TE
(_math._), an original curve from which another curve (the _involute_) is
described by the end of a thread gradually unwound from the former.--_adj._
EVOLV'ABLE, that can be drawn out.--_n._ EVOLVE'MENT.--_adj._ EVOLV'ENT.
[L. _evolv[)e]re_--_e_, out, _volv[)e]re_, _vol[=u]tum_, to roll.]

EVULGATE, e-vul'g[=a]t, _v.t._ to divulge: to publish. [L. _evulg[=a]re_,
_[=a]tum_--_e_, out, _vulgus_, the people.]

EVULSION, e-vul'shun, _n._ a plucking out by force. [L. _e_, out,
_vell[)e]re_, _vulsum_, to pluck.]

EWE, [=u], _n._ a female sheep.--_ns._ EWE'-CHEESE, cheese made from the
milk of ewes; EWE'-LAMB, a female lamb: a poor man's one possession--used
in reference to 2 Sam. xii.; EWE'-NECK, of horses, a thin hollow
neck.--_adj._ EWE'-NECKED. [A.S. _eowu_; cf. L. _ovis_, Gr. _oïs_, Sans,
_avi_, a sheep.]

EWER, [=u]'[.e]r, _n._ a large jug with a wide spout, placed on a washstand
to hold water. [Through Fr. from L. _aquarium_--_aqua_, water, whence also
Fr. _eau_.]

EWEST, [=u]'est, _adj._ (_Scot._) near.

EWFT, eft, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as EFT (1).

EWHOW, [=a]'hwow, _interj._ (_Scot._) an exclamation of sorrow.

EWIGKEIT, [=a]'vih-k[=i]t, _n._ eternity. [Ger.]

EX, eks, used adjectively in words like _ex_-emperor, to signify _late_.
See Prefixes in Appendix.

EXACERBATE, egz-as'[.e]r-b[=a]t, or eks-, _v.t._ to embitter: to provoke:
to render more violent or severe, as a disease.--_ns._ EXACERB[=A]'TION,
EXACERBES'CENCE, increase of irritation or violence, esp. the increase of a
fever or disease: embitterment. [L. _exacerb[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, and
_acerb[=a]re_, from _acerbus_, bitter.]

EXACT, egz-akt', _v.t._ to force from: to compel full payment of: to make
great demands, or to demand urgently: to extort: to inflict.--_v.i._ to
practice extortion.--_adj._ precise: careful: punctual: true: certain or
demonstrable.--_p.adj._ EXACT'ING, compelling full payment of: unreasonable
in making demands.--_ns._ EXAC'TION, act of exacting or demanding strictly:
an oppressive demand: that which is exacted, as excessive work or tribute;
EXACT'ITUDE, exactness: correctness.--_adv._ EXACT'LY.--_ns._ EXACT'MENT;
EXACT'NESS, quality of being exact: accuracy; EXACT'OR, -ER, one who
exacts: an extortioner: one who claims rights, often too strictly:--_fem._
EXACT'RESS.--EXACT SCIENCES, the mathematical sciences, of which the
results are demonstrable. [L. _exig[)e]re_, _exactum_--_ex_, out,
_ag[)e]re_, to drive.]

EXAGGERATE, egz-aj'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to magnify unduly: to represent too
strongly: to intensify.--_n._ EXAGGER[=A]'TION, extravagant representation:
a statement in excess of the truth.--_adjs._ EXAGG'ERATIVE, EXAGG'ERATORY,
containing exaggeration or tending to exaggerate.--_n._ EXAGG'ERATOR. [L.
_exagger[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, _agger[=a]re_, to heap up--_agger_, a

EXALBUMINOUS, eks-al-b[=u]'min-us, _adj._ (_bot._) without albumen.--Also

EXALGIN, eks-al'jin, _n._ an anodyne obtained from coal-tar products.
[Gr.,--_ex_, out, _algos_, pain.]

EXALT, egz-awlt', _v.t._ to elevate to a higher position: to elate or fill
with the joy of success: to extol: (_chem._) to refine or subtilise.--_n._
EXALT[=A]'TION, elevation in rank or dignity: high estate: elation:
(_astrol._) the position of a planet in the zodiac where it was supposed to
wield the greatest influence.--_p.adj._ EXALT'ED, elevated: lofty:
dignified.--_n._ EXALT'EDNESS. [L. _exalt[=a]re_--_ex_, _altus_, high.]

EXAMINE, egz-am'in, _v.t._ to test: to inquire into: to question.--_n._
EX[=A]'MEN, examination.--_adj._ EXAM'INABLE.--_ns._ EXAM'INANT, an
examiner; EXAM'INATE, one who is examined; EXAMIN[=A]'TION, careful search
or inquiry: trial: testing of capacity of pupils, also contracted to EXAM.;
EXAMIN[=EE]', one under examination; EXAM'INER, EXAM'IN[=A]TOR, one who
examines.--_p.adj._ EXAM'INING, that examines, or is appointed to examine.
[Fr.,--L. _examin[=a]re_--_examen_ (=_exagmen_), the tongue of a balance.]

EXAMPLE, egz-am'pl, _n._ that which is taken as a specimen of the rest, or
as an illustration of the rule, &c.: the person or thing to be imitated or
avoided: a pattern: a warning: a former instance.--_v.t._ to exemplify: to
instance.--_n._ EXAM'PLAR, a pattern, model.--_adj._ EXAM'PLARY, serving
for an example. [O. Fr.,--L. _exemplum_--_exim[)e]re_, to take out--_ex_,
out of, _em[)e]re_, _emptum_, to take.]

EXANIMATE, egz-an'i-m[=a]t, _adj._ lifeless: spiritless: depressed.--_n._
EXANIM[=A]'TION.--_adj._ EXAN'IMOUS [L. _exanim[=a]tus_--_ex_, neg.,
_animus_, spirit, life.]

EXANTHEMA, eks-an-th[=e]'ma, _n._ one of a class of febrile diseases with
distinctive eruptions on the skin, appearing at a definite period and
running a recognisable course:--_pl._ EXANTH[=E]'MATA.--_adjs._
appearing of an exanthema. [Gr.,--_ex_, out, _antheein_, to blossom.]

EXARCH, eks'ärk, _n._ name formerly given to the vicegerent of the
Byzantine empire in Italy: a bishop: (_Gr. Church_) an ecclesiastical
inspector.--_n._ EXARCH'ATE, the office of an exarch. [Gr.
_exarchos_--_ex_, and _archein_, to lead.]

EXASPERATE, egz-as'p[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make very angry: to irritate in
a high degree.--_p.adj._ irritated.--_adjs._ EXAS'PERATING, EXAS'PERATIVE,
provoking.--_ns._ EXASPER[=A]'TION, act of irritating; state of being
exasperated: provocation: rage: aggravation; EXAS'PERATOR. [L. _ex_,
inten., _asper[=a]re_, to make rough--_asper_, rough.]

EXCALIBUR, eks-kal'ib-[.e]r, _n._ the name of King Arthur's sword. [O. Fr.
_escalibor_--_caliburn_; cf. Ir. _caladbolg_, a famous sword.]

EXCAMBION, eks-kam'bi-on, _n._ legal term for the exchange of lands--also
EXCAM'BIUM.--_v.t._ EXCAMB', to exchange. [Low L. _excambi[=a]re_.]

EXCAVATE, eks'ka-v[=a]t, _v.t._ to hollow or scoop out: to dig out.--_ns._
EXCAV[=A]'TION, act of excavating: a hollow or cavity made by excavating;
EX'CAVATOR, one who excavates: a machine used for excavating. [L.
_excav[=a]re_--_ex_, out, _cavus_, hollow.]

EXCEED, ek-s[=e]d', _v.t._ to go beyond the limit or measure of: to surpass
or excel.--_v.i._ to go beyond a given or proper limit.--_p.adj._
EXCEED'ING, surpassing, excessive.--_adv._ EXCEED'INGLY, very much:
greatly. [L. _ex_, beyond, _ced[)e]re_, _cessum_, to go.]

EXCEL, ek-sel', _v.t._ to be superior to: to exceed: to surpass.--_v.i._ to
have good qualities in a high degree: to perform very meritorious actions:
to be superior:--_pr.p._ excel'ling; _pa.p._ excelled'.--_ns._ EX'CELLENCE,
EX'CELLENCY, great merit: any excellent quality: worth: greatness: a title
of honour given to persons high in rank or office.--_adj._ EX'CELLENT,
surpassing others in some good quality: of great virtue, worth, &c.:
superior: valuable.--_adv._ EX'CELLENTLY.--_adj._ EXCEL'SIOR (L. _comp._),
higher still. [L. _excell[)e]re_--_ex_, out, up, and a word from the root
of _celsus_, high.]

EXCEPT, ek-sept', _v.t._ to take or leave out: to exclude.--_v.i._ to
object.--_prep._ leaving out: excluding: but.--_adj._ and _n._
EXCEPT'ANT.--_prep._ EXCEPT'ING, with the exception of, except.--_n._
EXCEP'TION, the act of excepting: that which is excepted: exclusion:
objection: offence.--_adj._ EXCEP'TIONABLE, objectionable.--_adv._
EXCEP'TIONABLY.--_adj._ EXCEP'TIONAL, peculiar.--_adv._
EXCEP'TIONALLY.--_adjs._ EXCEP'TIOUS, disposed to take exception;
EXCEPT'IVE, including, making, or being an exception; EXCEPT'LESS
(_Shak._), making an exception, usual.--_n._ EXCEPT'OR. [L. _excip[)e]re_,
_exceptum_--_ex_, out, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

EXCERPT, ek's[.e]rpt, or ek-s[.e]rpt', _n._ a passage selected from a book,
an extract.--_v.t._ EXCERPT', to select: to extract.--_ns._ EXCERPT'ING,
EXCERP'TION; EXCERP'TOR. [L. _excerptum_, pa.p. of _excerp[)e]re_--_ex_,
out, _carp[)e]re_, to pick.]

EXCESS, ek-ses', _n._ a going beyond what is usual or proper: intemperance:
that which exceeds: the degree by which one thing exceeds another.--_adj._
EXCES'SIVE, beyond what is right and proper: immoderate: violent.--_adv._
_excessus_--_exced[)e]re_, _excessum_, to go beyond.]

EXCHANGE, eks-ch[=a]nj', _v.t._ to give or leave one place or thing for
another: to give and take mutually: to barter.--_n._ the giving and taking
one thing for another: barter: the thing exchanged: process by which
accounts between distant parties are settled by bills instead of money: the
difference between the value of money in different places: the building
where merchants, &c., meet for business.--_n._ EXCHANGEABIL'ITY.--_adj._
EXCHANGE'ABLE, that may be exchanged.--_n._ EXCHAN'GER, one who exchanges
or practises exchange: (_B._) a money-changer, a banker. [O. Fr.
_eschangier_ (Fr. _échanger_)--Low L. _excambi[=a]re_--L. _ex_, out,
_camb[=i]re_, to barter.]

EXCHEAT, eks-ch[=e]t', _n._ (_Spens._). Same as ESCHEAT.

EXCHEQUER, eks-chek'[.e]r, _n._ a superior court which had formerly to do
only with the revenue, but now also with common law, so named from the
chequered cloth which formerly covered the table, and on which the accounts
were reckoned.--_v.t._ to proceed against a person in the Court of
Exchequer.--EXCHEQUER BILL, bill issued at the Exchequer, under the
authority of acts of parliament, as security for money advanced to the
EXCHEQUER, originally a revenue court, became a division of the High Court
of Justice in 1875, and is now merged in the Queen's Bench Division. [From
root of _check_, _checker_.]

EXCIDE, ek-sid', _v.t._ to cut off. [L. _excid[)e]re_--_ex_, out,
_cæd[)e]re_, to cut.]

EXCIPIENT, ek-sip'i-ent, _n._ a substance mixed with a medicine to give it
consistence, or used as a vehicle for its administration.

EXCISE, ek-s[=i]z', _n._ a tax on certain home commodities and on licenses
for certain trades; the department in the civil administration which is
concerned with this tax.--_v.t._ to subject to excise duty.--_adj._
EXCIS'ABLE, liable to excise duty.--_n._ EXCISE'MAN, an officer charged
with collecting the excise. [Old Dut. _excijs_--O. Fr. _acceis_, tax--Low
L. _accens[=a]re_, to tax--_ad_, to, _census_, tax.]

EXCISE, ek-s[=i]z', _v.t._ to cut off or out.--_n._ EXCI'SION, a cutting
out or off of any kind: extirpation. [L. _excid[)e]re_, to cut out--_ex_,
out, _cæd[)e]re_, to cut.]

EXCITE, ek-s[=i]t', _v.t._ to call into activity: to stir up: to rouse: to
irritate.--_ns._ EXC[=I]TABIL'ITY, EXC[=I]T'ABLENESS.--_adj._
EXC[=I]T'ABLE, capable of being excited, easily excited.--_ns._ EXCITANT
(ek'sit-ant, or ek-s[=i]t'ant), that which excites or rouses the vital
activity of the body: a stimulant; EXCIT[=A]'TION, act of exciting: means
of excitement: state of excitement.--_adjs._ EXC[=I]T'[=A]TIVE,
EXC[=I]T'[=A]TORY, tending to excite.--_p.adj._ EXC[=I]T'ED,
agitated.--_ns._ EXCITE'MENT, agitation: that which excites;
EXC[=I]T'ER.--_p.adj._ EXC[=I]T'ING, tending to excite.--_adj._
EXC[=I]'TO-M[=O]'TOR, exhibiting muscular contraction. [Fr.,--L.
_excit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_exci[=e]re_--_ex_, out, _ci[=e]re_, to set in

EXCLAIM, eks-kl[=a]m', _v.i._ to cry out: to utter or speak
vehemently.--_n._ an exclamation, outcry.--_n._ EXCLAM[=A]'TION, vehement
utterance: outcry: an uttered expression of surprise, and the like: the
mark expressing this (!): an interjection.--_adjs._ EXCLAM'ATIVE,
EXCLAM'ATORY, containing or expressing exclamation. [Fr. _exclamer_--L.
_exclam[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, _clam[=a]re_, to shout.]

EXCLAVE, eks'kl[=a]v, _n._ a part of a country, province, &c. disjoined
from the main part--opp. to _Enclave_.

EXCLUDE, eks-kl[=oo]d', _v.t._ to close or shut out: to thrust out: to
hinder from entrance: to hinder from participation: to except.--_ns._
EXCLU'SION, a shutting or putting out: ejection: exception; EXCLU'SIONISM;
EXCLU'SIONIST, one who excludes, or would exclude, another from a
privilege.--_adj._ EXCLU'SIVE, able or tending to exclude: debarring from
participation: sole: not taking into account.--_n._ one of a number who
exclude others from their society.--_adv._ EXCLU'SIVELY.--_ns._
DEALING, the act of abstaining deliberately from any business or other
transactions with persons of opposite political or other convictions to
one's own--a euphemism for _boycotting_ (q.v.). [L. _exclud[)e]re_--_ex_,
out, _claud[)e]re_, to shut.]

EXCOGITATE, eks-koj'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ to discover by thinking: to think
earnestly or laboriously.--_n._ EXCOGIT[=A]'TION, laborious thinking:
invention: contrivance. [L. _excogit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out,
_cogit[=a]re_, to think.]

EXCOMMUNICATE, eks-kom-[=u]n'i-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to put out of or expel from
the communion of the church: to deprive of church privileges.--_adj._
EXCOMMUN'ICABLE.--_ns._ EXCOMMUNIC[=A]'TION, act of expelling from the
communion of a church--(_Milt._) EXCOMMUN'ION.--_adj._ EXCOMMUN'ICATORY, of
or pertaining to excommunication. [From Late L. _excommunic[=a]re_--L.
_ex_, out, _communis_, common.]

EXCORIATE, eks-k[=o]'ri-[=a]t, _v.t._ to strip the skin from.--_n._
EXCORI[=A]'TION, the act of excoriating: the state of being excoriated. [L.
_excori[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, from, _corium_, the skin.]

EXCORTICATE, eks-kor'ti-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to strip the bark off.--_n._

EXCREMENT, eks'kre-ment, _n._ useless matter discharged from the animal
pertaining to or containing excrement. [L.
_excrementum_--_excern[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _cern[)e]re_, to sift.]

EXCRESCENCE, eks-kres'ens, _n._ that which grows out unnaturally from
anything else: an outbreak: a wart or tumour: a superfluous part.--_ns._
EX'CREMENT, an outgrowth; EXCRES'CENCY, state of being excrescent:
excrescence.--_adjs._ EXCRES'CENT, growing out: superfluous;
EXCRESCEN'TIAL. [Fr.,--L.,--_excresc[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _cresc[)e]re_, to

EXCRETE, eks-kr[=e]t', _v.t._ to separate from: to eject.--_ns.pl._
EXCR[=E]'TA, EXCR[=E]TES', matters discharged from the animal body.--_n._
EXCR[=E]'TION, act of excreting matter from the animal system: that which
is excreted.--_adjs._ EXCR[=E]'TIVE, able to excrete; EXCR[=E]'TORY, having
the quality of excreting.--_n._ a duct that helps to receive and excrete
matter. [L. _ex_, from, _cern[)e]re_, _cretum_, to separate.]

EXCRUCIATE, eks-kr[=oo]'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to torture: to rack: to pain,
grieve.--_p.adj._ EXCRU'CI[=A]TING, extremely painful: racking: torturing:
agonising.--_adv._ EXCRU'CIATINGLY.--_n._ EXCRUCI[=A]'TION, torture:
vexation. [L. _ex_, out, _cruci[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to crucify--_crux_,
_crucis_, a cross.]

EXCULPATE, eks-kul'p[=a]t, _v.t._ to clear from the charge of a fault or
crime: to absolve: to vindicate.--_n._ EXCULP[=A]'TION.--_adj._
EXCUL'PATORY, tending to free from the charge of fault or crime. [L. _ex_,
from, _culpa_, a fault.]

EXCURSION, eks-kur'shun, _n._ a going forth: an expedition: a trip for
pleasure or health: a wandering from the main subject: a
digression.--_adj._ EXCUR'RENT (_bot._), projecting beyond the edge or
point.--_vs.i._ EXCURSE', to digress; EXCUR'SIONISE, to go on an
excursion.--_n._ EXCUR'SIONIST, one who goes on a pleasure-trip.--_adj._
EXCUR'SIVE, rambling: deviating.--_adv._ EXCUR'SIVELY.--_ns._
EXCUR'SIVENESS; EXCUR'SUS, a dissertation on some particular point appended
to a book or chapter.--EXCURSION TRAIN, a special train, usually with
reduced fares, for persons making an excursion. [L. _excursio_--_ex_, out,
_curr[)e]re_, _cursum_, to run.]

EXCUSE, eks-k[=u]z', _v.t._ to free from blame or guilt: to forgive: to
free from an obligation: to release, dispense with: to make an apology or
ask pardon for.--_n._ (eks-k[=u]s') a plea offered in extenuation of a
fault: indulgence.--_adj._ EXCUS'ABLE, admitting of justification.--_n._
EXCUS'ABLENESS.--_adv._ EXCUS'ABLY.--_adj._ EXCUS'ATORY, making or
containing excuse: apologetic.--EXCUSE ME, an expression used as an apology
for any slight impropriety, or for controverting a statement that has been
made. [L. _excus[=a]re_--_ex_, from, _causa_, a cause, accusation.]

EXEAT, eks'[=e]-at, _n._ formal leave, as for a student to be out of
college for more than one night. [L., 'let him go out.']

EXECRATE, eks'e-kr[=a]t, _v.t._ to curse: to denounce evil against: to
detest utterly.--_adj._ EX'ECRABLE, deserving execration: detestable:
accursed.--_adv._ EX'ECRABLY.--_n._ EXECR[=A]'TION, act of execrating: a
curse pronounced: that which is execrated.--_adj._ EX'ECR[=A]TIVE, of or
belonging to execration.--_adv._ EX'ECR[=A]TIVELY.--_adj._ EX'ECR[=A]TORY.
[L. _exsecr[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to curse--_ex_, from, _sacer_, sacred.]

EXECUTE, eks'e-k[=u]t, _v.t._ to perform: to give effect to: to carry into
effect the sentence of the law: to put to death by law.--_adj._
EXEC'UTABLE, that can be executed.--_ns._ EXEC'UTANT, one who executes or
performs; EX'ECUTER; EXEC[=U]'TION, act of executing or performing:
accomplishment: completion: carrying into effect the sentence of a court of
law: the warrant for so doing: the infliction of capital punishment;
EXEC[=U]'TIONER, one who executes, esp. one who inflicts capital
punishment.--_adj._ EXEC'UTIVE, designed or fitted to execute: active:
qualifying for or pertaining to the execution of the law.--_n._ the power
or authority in government that carries the laws into effect: the persons
who administer the government.--_adv._ EXEC'UTIVELY.--_n._ EXEC'UTOR, one
who executes or performs: the person appointed to see a will carried into
effect:--_fem._ EXEC'UTRESS, EXEC'UTRIX.--_adj._ EXECUT[=O]'RIAL.--_n._
EXEC'UTORSHIP.--_adj._ EXEC'UTORY, executing official duties: designed to
be carried into effect. [Fr. _exécuter_--L. _exsequi_, _exsecutus_--_ex_,
out, _sequi_, to follow.]

EXEDRA, eks'e-dra, _n._ a raised platform with steps, in the open air: an
apse, recess, niche--also EX'HEDRA:--_pl._ EX'EDRÆ. [L.]

EXEGESIS, eks-e-j[=e]'sis, _n._ the science of interpretation, esp. of the
Scriptures.--_ns._ EX'EGETE, EXEGET'IST, one who interprets the
Scriptures.--_adjs._ EXEGET'IC, -AL, pertaining to exegesis:
explanatory.--_adv._ EXEGET'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ EXEGET'ICS, the science of
exegesis. [Gr. _ex[=e]gesis_--_ex[=e]geesthai_, to explain--_ex_, out,
_h[=e]geesthai_, to guide.]

EXEME, eks-[=e]m', _v.t._ (_Scot._) to release, exempt. [L.
_exim[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _em[)e]re_, to take.]

EXEMPLAR, egz-em'plar, _n._ a person or thing to be imitated: the ideal
model of an artist: a type: an example.--_adv._ EX'EMPLARILY.--_ns._
EXEM'PLARINESS, the state or quality of being exemplary; EXEMPLAR'ITY,
exemplariness: exemplary conduct.--_adj._ EXEMPLARY (egz-em'plar-i, or
egz'em-plar-i), worthy of imitation or notice. [O. Fr. _exemplaire_--Low L.
_exemplarium_--_exemplum_, example.]

EXEMPLIFY, egz-em'pli-f[=i], _v.t._ to illustrate by example: to make an
attested copy of: to prove by an attested copy:--_pr.p._ exem'plifying;
_pa.p._ exem'plified.--_adj._ EXEM'PLIF[=I]ABLE.--_n._ EXEMPLIFIC[=A]'TION,
act of exemplifying: that which exemplifies: a copy or transcript. [L.
_exemplum_, example, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

EXEMPT, egz-emt', _v.t._ to free, or grant immunity (with _from_).--_adj._
taken out: not liable to: released: unaffected by.--_n._ EXEMP'TION, act of
exempting: state of being exempt: freedom from any service, duty, &c.:
immunity. [Fr.,--L. _exim[)e]re_, _exemptum_--_ex_, out, _em[)e]re_, to

EXENTERATE, eks-en't[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to disembowel.--_p.adj._
disembowelled.--_n._ EXENTER[=A]'TION. [L. _exenter[=a]re_--Gr. _ex_, out,
_enteron_, intestine.]

EXEQUATUR, eks-e-kw[=a]'tur, _n._ an official recognition of a consul or
commercial agent given by the government of the country in which he is to
be. [L. _exequatur_='let him execute'--the opening word.]

EXEQUY, eks'e-kwi (only in _pl._ EXEQUIES, eks'e-kwiz), _n._ a funeral
procession: funeral rites.--_adj._ EX[=E]'QUIAL. [L. _exequiæ_--_ex_, out,
_sequi_, to follow.]

EXERCISE, eks'[.e]r-s[=i]z, _n._ a putting in practice: exertion of the
body for health or amusement: discipline: a lesson, task, academical
disputation, &c.: (_Shak._) skill: (_pl._) military drill: an act of
worship or devotion: a discourse, the discussion of a passage of Scripture,
giving the coherence of text and context, &c.--the _addition_, giving the
doctrinal propositions, &c.: the Presbytery itself.--_v.t._ to train by
use: to improve by practice: to afflict: to put in practice: to use: to
wield.--_adj._ EX'ERCISABLE. [O. Fr. _exercice_--L. _exercitium_--L.
_exerc[=e]re_, _-citum_--_ex_, out, _arc[=e]re_, to shut up.]

EXERCITATION, egz-er-sit-[=a]'shun, _n._ the putting into practice:
employment: exercise: a discourse. [L. _exercit[=a]re_--_exerc[=e]re_, to

EXERGUE, eks'erg, or egz-erg', _n._ the part on the reverse of a coin,
below the main device, often filled up by the date, &c.--_adj._ EXER'GUAL.
[Fr.,--Gr. _ex_, out, _ergon_, work.]

EXERT, egz-[.e]rt', _v.t._ to bring into active operation: to do or
perform.--_n._ EXER'TION, a bringing into active operation: effort:
attempt.--_adj._ EXERT'IVE, having the power or tendency to exert: using
exertion. [L. _exser[)e]re_, _exsertum_--_ex_, out, _ser[)e]re_, to put

EXEUNT, eks'[=e]-unt. See EXIT.

EXFOLIATE, eks-f[=o]'li-[=a]t, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to come off, or send off,
in scales.--_n._ EXFOLI[=A]'TION.--_adj._ EXF[=O]'LIATIVE. [L.
_exfoli[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, off, _folium_, a leaf.]

EXHALE, egz-h[=a]l', _v.t._ to emit or send out as vapour: to
evaporate.--_v.i._ to rise or be given off as vapour.--_adjs._ EXHAL'ABLE,
that can be exhaled; EXHAL'ANT, having the quality of exhaling.--_n._
EXHAL[=A]'TION, act or process of exhaling: evaporation: that which is
exhaled: vapour: steam. [Fr. _exhaler_--L. _exhal[=a]re_--_ex_, out,
_hal[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to breathe.]

EXHALE, egz-h[=a]l', _v.t._ to draw out: (_Shak._) to cause to flow. [Pfx.
_ex-_, and _hale_, to draw.]

EXHAUST, egz-awst', _v.t._ to draw out the whole of: to use the whole
strength of: to wear or tire out: to treat of or develop completely.--_n._
the exit of steam from the cylinder when it has done its work in propelling
the piston--escaping by the _exhaust-pipe_ and regulated by the
_exhaust-valve_.--_p.adj._ EXHAUST'ED, drawn out: emptied: consumed: tired
out.--_n._ EXHAUST'ER, he who or that which exhausts.--_adj._ EXHAUST'IBLE,
that may be exhausted.--_n._ EXHAUST'ION, act of exhausting or consuming:
state of being exhausted: extreme fatigue.--_adjs._ EXHAUST'IVE, tending to
exhaust; EXHAUST'LESS, that cannot be exhausted. [L. _exhaur[=i]re_,
_exhaustum_--_ex_, out, _haur[=i]re_, to draw.]

EXHEREDATE, eks-her'i-d[=a]t, _v.t._ (_rare_) to disinherit.--_n._
EXHERED[=A]'TION. [L. _exhered[=a]re_--_ex_, out, _heres_, _-edis_, heir.]

EXHIBIT, egz-ib'it, _v.t._ to hold forth or present to view: to present
formally or publicly.--_n._ (_law_) a document produced in court to be used
as evidence: something exhibited: an article at an exhibition.--_ns._
EXHIB'ITER, EXHIB'ITOR; EXHIBI'TION, presentation to view: display: a
public show, esp. of works of art, manufactures, &c.: that which is
exhibited: an allowance or bounty to scholars in a university;
EXHIBI'TIONER, one who enjoys an exhibition at a university;
EXHIBI'TIONIST.--_adjs._ EXHIB'ITIVE, serving for exhibition:
representative; EXHIB'ITORY, exhibiting.--MAKE AN EXHIBITION OF ONE'S SELF,
to behave foolishly, exciting ridicule. [L. _exhib[=e]re_, _-itum_--_ex_,
out, _hab[=e]re_, _-itum_, to have.]

EXHILARATE, egz-il'a-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to make hilarious or merry: to enliven:
to cheer.--_adj._ EXHIL'ARANT, exhilarating: exciting joy, mirth, or
pleasure.--_n._ an exhilarating medicine.--_p.adj._ EXHIL'AR[=A]TING,
cheering: gladdening.--_adv._ EXHIL'AR[=A]TINGLY.--_n._ EXHILAR[=A]'TION,
state of being exhilarated: joyousness.--_adjs._ EXHIL'AR[=A]TIVE,
EXHIL'AR[=A]TORY. [L. _exhilar[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, inten., _hilaris_,

EXHORT, egz-hort', or egz-[=o]rt', _v.t._ to urge strongly to good deeds,
esp. by words or advice: to animate: to advise or warn.--_n._
EXHORT[=A]'TION, act of exhorting: language intended to exhort: counsel: a
religious discourse.--_adjs._ EXHORT'ATIVE, EXHORT'ATORY, tending to exhort
or advise. [L. _exhort[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_ex_, inten., _hort[=a]ri_, to

EXHUME, eks-h[=u]m', _v.t._ to take out of the ground or place of burial:
to disinter: to bring to light--also EX'HUMATE.--_ns._ EXHUM[=A]'TION, act
of exhuming: disinterment; EXHUM'ER, one who exhumes. [L. _ex_, out of,
_humus_, the ground.]

EXIES, ek'siz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) ecstasy: hysterics. [Perh. from _access_,
an attack, a fit.]

EXIGENT, eks'i-jent, _adj._ pressing: demanding immediate attention or
action.--_n._ end, extremity: (_Browning_) a needed amount.--_adj._
EXIGEANT', exacting.--_n.fem._ EXIGEANTE'.--_ns._ EX'IGENCE, EX'IGENCY,
pressing necessity: emergency: distress.--_adj._ EX'IGIBLE, capable of
being exacted.--_ns._ EXIG[=U]'ITY, EXIG'UOUSNESS.--_adj._ EXIG'UOUS,
small: slender. [L. _exigens_, _-entis_--_exig[)e]re_--_ex_, out,
_ag[)e]re_, to drive.]

EXILE, eks'[=i]l, or egz'[=i]l, _n._ state of being sent out of one's
native country: expulsion from home: banishment: one away from his native
country.--_v.t._ to expel from one's native country, to banish.--_n._
EX'[=I]LEMENT, banishment.--_adj._ EXIL'IC, pertaining to exile, esp. that
of the Jews in Babylon. [O. Fr. _exil_--L. _exsilium_, banishment--_ex_,
out of, and root of _sal[=i]re_, to leap.]

EXILITY, eks-il'i-ti, _n._ slenderness, smallness: refinement. [L.
_exilis_, slender, contraction for _exigilis_.]

EXIMIOUS, eg-zim'i-us, _adj._ excellent, distinguished. [L.
_eximius_--_exim[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _em[)e]re_, to take.]

EXIST, egz-ist', _v.i._ to have an actual being: to live: to continue to
be.--_n._ EXIST'ENCE, state of existing or being: continued being: life:
anything that exists: a being.--_adjs._ EXIST'ENT, having being: at present
existing; EXISTEN'TIAL. [L. _exist[)e]re_, _exsist[)e]re_--_ex_, out,
_sist[)e]re_, to make to stand.]

EXIT, eks'it, _n._ a direction in playbooks to an actor to go off the
stage: the departure of a player from the stage: any departure: a way of
departure: a passage out: a quitting of the world's stage, or life:
death:--_pl._ EX'EUNT.--_v.i._ to make an exit. [L. _exit_, he goes out,
_exeunt_, they go out--_ex[=i]re_, to go out--_ex_, out, and _[=i]re_,
_itum_, to go.]

EX LIBRIS, eks l[=i]'bris, _n._ a book-plate--lit. 'from the books of.'

EXODE, ek's[=o]d, _n._ the concluding part of a Greek drama: a farce or
afterpiece. [Gr.]

EXODUS, eks'o-dus, _n._ a going out or departure, esp. that of the
Israelites from Egypt (1491 B.C., Usher): the second book of the Old
Testament.--_adj._ EXOD'IC.--_n._ EX'ODIST, one who goes out: an emigrant.
[L.,--Gr. _exodos_--_ex_, out, _hodos_, a way.]

EXOGAMY, eks-og'a-mi, _n._ the practice of marrying only outside of one's
own tribe.--_adj._ EXOG'AMOUS. [Gr. _exo_, out, _gamos_, marriage.]

EXOGEN, eks'o-jen, _n._ a plant belonging to the great class that increases
by layers growing on the outside of the wood.--_adj._ EXOG'ENOUS (-oj'),
growing by successive additions to the outside. [L. _ex[=o]_, outside, and
_gen_, root of _gignesthai_, to be produced.]

EXOMIS, eks-[=o]'mis, _n._ a sleeveless vest, worn by workmen and
slaves--(_Browning_) EX[=O]'MION. [Gr. _ex[=o]mis_--_ex_, out, _[=o]mos_,

EXON, eks'on, _n._ one of the four officers of the yeomen of the Royal
Guard. [App. intended to express the pronunciation of Fr. _exempt_ (Dr

EXONERATE, egz-on'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to free from the burden of blame or
obligation: to acquit.--_n._ EXONER[=A]'TION, act of exonerating or freeing
from a charge or blame.--_adj._ EXON'ERATIVE, freeing from a burden or
obligation. [L. _exoner[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, from, _onus_, _oneris_,

EXOPHAGY, eks-of'a-ji, _n._ the custom among cannibals of eating only the
flesh of persons not of their own tribe.--_adj._ EXOPH'AGOUS. [Formed from
Gr. _ex[=o]_, outside, _phagein_, to eat.]

EXORABLE, ek's[=o]-ra-bl, _adj._ capable of being moved by entreaty.--_n._
EXOR[=A]'TION, entreaty.

EXORBITANT, egz-or'bi-tant, _adj._ going beyond the usual limits:
excessive.--_ns._ EXOR'BITANCE, EXOR'BITANCY, extravagance:
enormity.--_adv._ EXOR'BITANTLY.--_v.i._ EXOR'BIT[=A]TE, to stray. [L.
_exorbitans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _exorbit[=a]re_--_ex_, out of, _orbita_, a
track--_orbis_, a circle.]

EXORCISE, eks'or-s[=i]z, or eks-or'-, _v.t._ to adjure by some holy name:
to call forth or drive away, as a spirit: to deliver from the influence of
an evil spirit.--_ns._ EX'ORCISM, act of exorcising or expelling evil
spirits by certain ceremonies: a formula for exorcising; EX'ORCIST, one who
exorcises or pretends to expel evil spirits by adjurations: (_R.C. Church_)
the third of the minor orders. [Through Late L., from Gr.
_exorkizein_--_ex_, out, _horkos_, an oath.]

EXORDIUM, egz-or'di-um, _n._ the introductory part of a discourse or
composition.--_adj._ EXOR'DIAL, pertaining to the exordium: introductory.
[L. _exord[=i]ri_--_ex_, out, _ord[=i]ri_, to begin.]

EXOSKELETON, ek-s[=o]-skel'e-tun, _n._ any structure produced by the
hardening of the integument, as the scales of fish, but esp. when bony, as
the carapace of the turtle, &c.--_adj._ EXOSKEL'ETAL. [Gr. _ex[=o]_,
outside, _skeleton_.]

EXOSMOSE, eks'os-m[=o]z, _n._ the passage outward of fluids, gases, &c.
through porous media, esp. living animal membranes--also
EXOSM[=O]'SIS.--_adj._ EXOSMOT'IC. [L.,--Gr. _ex_, out, _[=o]smos_,

EXOSTOME, eks'os-t[=o]m, _n._ the small opening in the outer coating of the
ovule of a plant. [Gr. _ex[=o]_, without, _stoma_, a mouth.]

EXOSTOSIS, eks-os-t[=o]'sis, _n._ (_anat._) morbid enlargement of a bone.
[Gr. _ex_, out, _osteon_, a bone.]

EXOTERIC, -AL, eks-o-ter'ik, -al, _adj._ external: fit to be communicated
to the public or multitude--opp. to _Esoteric_.--_n._ EXOTER'ICISM. [Gr.
_ex[=o]terikos_--comp. formed from _ex[=o]_, outside.]

EXOTIC, egz-ot'ik, _adj._ introduced from a foreign country--the opposite
of _indigenous_.--_n._ anything of foreign origin: something not native to
a country, as a plant, a word, a custom.--_ns._ EXOT'ICISM, EX'OTISM.
[L.,--Gr. _ex[=o]tikos_--_ex[=o]_, outside.]

EXPAND, eks-pand', _v.t._ to spread out: to lay open: to enlarge in bulk or
surface: to develop, or bring out in fuller detail.--_v.i._ to become
opened: to enlarge.--_ns._ EXPANSE', a wide extent of space: the firmament;
EXPANSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ EXPANS'IBLE, capable of being expanded.--_adv._
EXPANS'IBLY.--_adj._ EXPANS'ILE, capable of expansion.--_n._ EXPAN'SION,
act of expanding: state of being expanded: enlargement: that which is
expanded: immensity: extension.--_adj._ EXPANS'IVE, widely extended:
diffusive.--_adv._ EXPANS'IVELY.--_ns._ EXPANS'IVENESS; EXPANSIV'ITY. [L.
_expand[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _pand[)e]re_, _pansum_, to spread.]

EX PARTE, eks pär'ti, _adj._ on one side only: partial: prejudiced. [L.
_ex_, out, _pars_, _partis_, part.]

EXPATIATE, eks-p[=a]'shi-[=a]t, _v.i._ to range at large: to enlarge in
discourse, argument, or writing.--_n._ EXPATI[=A]'TION, act of expatiating
or enlarging in discourse.--_adjs._ EXP[=A]'TIATIVE, EXP[=A]'TIATORY,
expansive.--_n._ EXP[=A]'TIATOR. [L. _exspati[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_ex_, out
of, _spati[=a]ri_, to roam--_spatium_, space.]

EXPATRIATE, eks-p[=a]'tri-[=a]t, _v.t._ to send out of one's native
country: to banish, or exile.--_n._ EXPATRI[=A]'TION, act of expatriating:
exile, voluntary or compulsory. [Low L. _expatri[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_,
out of, _patria_, fatherland.]

EXPECT, eks-pekt', _v.t._ to wait for: to look forward to as something
about to happen: to anticipate: to hope.--_n._ (_Shak._)
expectation.--_ns._ EXPECT'ANCE, EXPECT'ANCY, act or state of expecting:
that which is expected: hope.--_adj._ EXPECT'ANT, looking or waiting
for.--_n._ one who expects: one who is looking or waiting for some benefit
or office.--_adv._ EXPECT'ANTLY.--_ns._ EXPECT[=A]'TION, act or state of
expecting: prospect of future good: that which is expected: the ground or
qualities for anticipating future benefits or excellence: promise: the
value of something expected: (_pl._) prospect of fortune or profit by a
will; EXPECT[=A]'TION-WEEK, the period between Ascension Day and
Whitsunday--during this time the Apostles continued praying in expectation
of the Comforter.--_adj._ EXPECT'ATIVE, giving rise to expectation:
reversionary.--_n._ an expectancy.--_n._ EXPECT'ER (_Shak._), one who waits
for a person or thing.--_adv._ EXPECT'INGLY, in a state of expectation. [L.
_exspect[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, _spect[=a]re_, to look, freq. of
_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

EXPECTORATE, eks-pek'to-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to expel from the breast or lungs by
coughing, &c.: to spit forth.--_v.i._ to discharge or eject phlegm from the
throat.--_adj._ EXPEC'TORANT, tending to promote expectoration.--_n._ a
medicine which promotes expectoration.--_n._ EXPECTOR[=A]'TION, act of
expectorating: that which is expectorated: spittle.--_adj._
EXPEC'TOR[=A]TIVE, having the quality of promoting expectoration. [L.
_expector[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out of, from, _pectus_, _pectoris_, the

EXPEDIENT, eks-p[=e]'di-ent, _adj._ suitable: advisable: (_Shak._)
hasty.--_n._ that which serves to promote: means suitable to an end:
contrivance.--_ns._ EXP[=E]'DIENCE (_Shak._), haste, despatch: expediency;
EXP[=E]'DIENCY, fitness: desirableness: self-interest.--_adj._
EXPEDIEN'TIAL.--_adv._ EXP[=E]'DIENTLY. [L. _expediens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of

EXPEDITE, eks'pe-d[=i]t, _v.t._ to free from impediments: to hasten: to
send forth: to despatch.--_adj._ free from impediment: unencumbered: quick:
prompt.--_adv._ EX'PEDITELY.--_n._ EXPEDI'TION, speed: promptness: any
undertaking by a number of persons: a hostile march or voyage: those who
form an expedition.--_adjs._ EXPEDI'TIONARY; EXPEDI'TIOUS, characterised by
expedition or rapidity: speedy: prompt.--_adv._ EXPEDI'TIOUSLY.--_n._
EXPEDI'TIOUSNESS, quickness.--_adj._ EXPED'ITIVE. [L. _exped[=i]re_,
_-itum_--_ex_, out, _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

EXPEL, eks-pel', _v.t._ to drive out: eject: to discharge: to banish:
(_Shak._) to keep off:--_pr.p._ expel'ling; _pa.p._ expelled'. [L.
_expell[)e]re_, _expulsum_--_ex_, out, _pell[)e]re_, to drive.]

EXPEND, eks-pend', _v.t._ to lay out: to employ or consume in any way: to
spend.--_ns._ EXPEND'ITURE, act of expending or laying out: that which is
expended: the process of using up: money spent; EXPENSE' (_Shak._),
expenditure: outlay: cost: (_pl._) the cost of a lawsuit (_Scots
law_).--_adj._ EXPENS'IVE, causing or requiring much expense:
OF, to pay the cost of. [L. _expend[)e]re_--_ex_, out, _pend[)e]re_,
_pensum_, to weigh.]

EXPERIENCE, eks-p[=e]'ri-ens, _n._ thorough trial of: practical
acquaintance with any matter gained by trial: repeated trial: long and
varied observation, personal or general: wisdom derived from the changes
and trials of life.--_v.t._ to make trial of, or practical acquaintance
with: to prove or know by use: to suffer, undergo.--_p.adj._
EXP[=E]'RIENCED, taught by experience: skilful: wise.--_adjs._
EXP[=E]'RIENCELESS, having no experience; EXPERIEN'TIAL, pertaining to or
derived from experience.--_ns._ EXPERIEN'TIALISM;
EXPERIEN'TIALIST.--EXPERIENCE MEETING, a religious meeting, where those
present relate their religious experiences. [Fr.,--L. _experientia_, from
_exper[=i]ri_--_ex_, inten., and old verb _per[=i]ri_, to try.]

EXPERIMENT, eks-per'i-ment, _n._ a trial: something done to prove some
theory, or to discover something unknown.--_v.i._ to make an experiment or
trial: to search by trial.--_adj._ EXPERIMENT'AL, founded or known by
experiment: taught by experience: tentative.--_v.i._
experiments.--_adv._ EXPERIMENT'ALLY.--_n._ EXPERIMENT[=A]'TION.--_adj._
EXPERIMENT'ATIVE. [L. _experimentum_, from _exper[=i]ri_, to try

EXPERT, eks-p[.e]rt', _adj._ taught by practice: having a familiar
knowledge: having a facility of performance: skilful, adroit.--_n._
EX'PERT, one who is expert or skilled in any art or science: a specialist:
a scientific or professional witness.--_adv._ EXPERT'LY.--_n._ EXPERT'NESS.
[Fr.,--L. _expertus_--_exper[=i]ri_, to try thoroughly.]

EXPIATE, eks'pi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make complete atonement for: to make
satisfaction or reparation for.--_p.adj._ (_Shak._) expired.--_adj._
EX'PIABLE, capable of being expiated, atoned for, or done away.--_ns._
EXPI[=A]'TION, act of expiating or atoning for: the means by which
atonement is made: atonement; EX'PI[=A]TOR, one who expiates.--_adj._
EX'PI[=A]TORY, having the power to make expiation or atonement. [L.
_expi[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, inten., _pi[=a]re_, to appease, atone for.]

EXPIRE, eks-p[=i]r', _v.t._ to breathe out: to emit or throw out from the
lungs: to emit in minute particles.--_v.i._ to breathe out the breath of
life: to die out (of fire): to die: to come to an end.--_adj._
EXP[=I]'RABLE, that may expire or come to an end.--_ns._ EXP[=I]'RANT, one
expiring; EXPIR[=A]'TION, the act of breathing out: (_obs._) death: end:
that which is expired.--_adj._ EXP[=I]'RATORY, pertaining to expiration, or
the emission of the breath.--_p.adj._ EXP[=I]'RING, dying: pertaining to or
uttered at the time of dying.--_n._ EXP[=I]'RY, the end or termination:
expiration. [Fr. _expirer_--L. _ex_, out, _spir[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to

EXPISCATE, eks-pis'k[=a]t, _v.t._ to find out by skilful means or by strict
examination.--_n._ EXPISC[=A]'TION.--_adj._ EXPIS'CATORY. [L.
_expisc[=a]ri_, _expisc[=a]tus_--_ex_, out, _pisc[=a]ri_, to
fish--_piscis_, a fish.]

EXPLAIN, eks-pl[=a]n', _v.t._ to make plain or intelligible: to unfold and
illustrate the meaning of: to expound: to account for.--_adj._
EXPLAIN'ABLE, that may be explained or cleared up.--_ns._ EXPLAIN'ER, one
who explains; EXPLAN[=A]'TION, act of explaining or clearing from
obscurity: that which explains or clears up: the meaning or sense given to
anything: a mutual clearing up of matters.--_adv._ EXPLAN'ATORILY.--_adj._
EXPLAN'ATORY, serving to explain or clear up: containing
explanations.--EXPLAIN AWAY, to modify the force of by explanation,
generally in a bad sense. [O. Fr. _explaner_--L. _explan[=a]re_--_ex_, out,
_plan[=a]re_--_planus_, plain.]

EXPLETIVE, eks'ple-tiv, _adj._ filling out: added for ornament or merely to
fill up.--_n._ a word or syllable inserted for ornament or to fill up a
vacancy: an oath.--_adj._ EX'PLETORY, serving to fill up: expletive. [L.
_expletivus_--_ex_, out, _pl[=e]re_, to fill.]

EXPLICATE, eks'pli-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to unfold, develop: to lay open or
explain the meaning of.--_adj._ EX'PLICABLE, capable of being explicated or
explained.--_n._ EXPLIC[=A]'TION, act of explicating or explaining:
explanation.--_adjs._ EX'PLIC[=A]TIVE, EX'PLIC[=A]TORY, serving to
explicate or explain. [L. _explic[=a]re_, _explic[=a]tum_ or
_explicitum_--_ex_, out, _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

EXPLICIT, eks-plis'it, _adj._ not implied merely, but distinctly stated:
plain in language: outspoken: clear: unreserved.--_adv._ EXPLIC'ITLY.--_n._
EXPLIC'ITNESS. [L. _explicitus_, from _explic[=a]re_.]

EXPLICIT, eks'plis-it, _n._ a term formerly put at the end of a book,
indicating that it is finished. [Contr. from L. _explicitus_ est liber, the
book is unrolled.]

EXPLODE, eks-pl[=o]d', _v.t._ to cry down, as an actor: to bring into
disrepute, and reject: to cause to blow up.--_v.i._ to burst with a loud
report: to burst into laughter.--_p.adj._ EXPL[=O]'DED, rejected,
discarded.--_n._ EXPL[=O]'SION, act of exploding: a sudden violent burst
with a loud report: a breaking out of feelings, &c.--_adj._ EXPL[=O]'SIVE,
liable to or causing explosion: bursting out with violence and noise.--_n._
something that will explode.--_adv._ EXPL[=O]'SIVELY.--_n._
EXPL[=O]'SIVENESS. [L. _explod[)e]re_, _explosum_--_ex_, out,
_plaud[)e]re_, to clap the hands.]

EXPLOIT, eks-ploit', _n._ a deed or achievement, esp. an heroic one: a
feat.--_v.t._ to work up: to utilise for one's own ends.--_adj._
EXPLOIT'ABLE.--_ns._ EXPLOIT'AGE, EXPLOIT[=A]'TION, the act of successfully
applying industry to any object, as the working of mines, &c.: the act of
using for selfish purposes. [O. Fr. _exploit_--L. _explicitum_, ended.]

EXPLORE, eks-pl[=o]r', _v.t._ to search for the purpose of discovery: to
examine thoroughly.--_n._ EXPLOR[=A]'TION, act of searching
thoroughly.--_adjs._ EXPLOR'ATIVE, EXPLOR'ATORY, serving to explore:
searching out.--_n._ EXPLOR'ER, one who explores.--_p.adj._ EXPLOR'ING,
employed in or intended for exploration. [Fr.,--L. _explor[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to search out--prob. from _ex_, out, _plor[=a]re_, to make to

EXPONENT, eks-p[=o]'nent, _n._ he who, or that which, points out, or
represents: (_alg._) a figure which shows how often a quantity is to be
multiplied by itself, as _a_^3: an index: an example, illustration.--_adj._
EXPONEN'TIAL (_alg._), pertaining to or involving exponents.--_n._ an
exponential function.--EXPONENTIAL CURVE, a curve expressed by an
exponential equation; EXPONENTIAL EQUATION, one in which the _x_ or _y_
occurs in the exponent of one or more terms, as 5^{_x_} = 800; EXPONENTIAL
FUNCTION, a quantity with a variable exponent; EXPONENTIAL SERIES, a series
in which exponential quantities are developed; EXPONENTIAL THEOREM gives a
value of any number in terms of its natural logarithm, and from it can at
once be derived a series determining the logarithm. [L. _exponens_--_ex_,
out, _pon[)e]re_, to place.]

EXPONIBLE, eks-p[=o]'ni-bl, _adj._ able to be, or requiring to be,

EXPORT, eks-p[=o]rt', _v.t._ to carry or send out of a country, as goods in
commerce.--_n._ EX'PORT, act of exporting: that which is exported: a
commodity which is or may be sent from one country to another, in
traffic.--_adj._ EXPORT'ABLE, that may be exported.--_ns._ EXPORT[=A]'TION,
act of exporting, or of conveying goods from one country to another;
EXPORT'ER, the person who exports, or who ships goods to a foreign or
distant country for sale--opp. to _Importer_. [L. _export[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out of, _port[=a]re_, to carry.]

EXPOSE, eks-p[=o]z', _v.t._ to lay forth to view: to deprive of cover,
protection, or shelter: to make bare: to abandon (an infant): to explain:
to make liable to: to disclose: to show up.--_ns._ EXPOSÉ
(eks-p[=o]-z[=a]'), an exposing: a shameful showing up: a formal recital or
exposition; EXPOS'EDNESS, the act of exposing: the state of being exposed;
EXPOS'ER; EXPOSI'TION, act of exposing: a setting out to public view: the
abandonment of a child: a public exhibition: act of expounding, or laying
open of the meaning of an author: explanation: commentary.--_adj._
EXPOS'ITIVE, serving to expose or explain: explanatory: exegetical.--_n._
EXPOS'ITOR, one who, or that which, expounds: an interpreter:--_fem._
EXPOS'ITRESS.--_adj._ EXPOS'ITORY, serving to explain: explanatory.--_n._
EXP[=O]'SURE (_Shak._, EXPOS'TURE), act of laying open or bare: act of
showing up an evil: state of being laid bare: openness to danger: position
with regard to the sun, influence of climate, &c. [Fr. _exposer_--L.
_expon[)e]re_, to expose.]

EXPOSTULATE, eks-post'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to reason earnestly with a person
on some impropriety of his conduct: to remonstrate: (_Shak._) to discuss:
(_Milt._) to claim.--_n._ EXPOSTUL[=A]'TION, act of expostulating, or
reasoning earnestly with a person against his conduct:
remonstrance.--_adjs._ EXPOST'ULATIVE, EXPOST'ULATORY, containing
expostulation.--_n._ EXPOST'ULATOR. [L. _expostul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_,
inten., _postul[=a]re_, to demand.]

EXPOUND, eks-pownd', _v.t._ to expose, or lay open the meaning of: to
explain: to interpret: to explain in a certain way.--_n._ EXPOUND'ER, one
who expounds: an interpreter. [O. Fr. _espondre_--L. _expon[)e]re_--_ex_,
out, _pon[)e]re_, to place.]

EXPRESS, eks-pres', _v.t._ to press or force out: to emit: to represent or
make known by a likeness or by words: to declare, reveal: to out into
words: to state plainly: to designate.--_adj._ pressed or clearly brought
out: exactly representing: directly stated: explicit: clear: intended or
sent for a particular purpose.--_adv._ with haste: specially: with an
express train.--_n._ a messenger or conveyance sent on a special errand: a
regular and quick conveyance: (_U.S._) a system organised for the speedy
and safe transmission of parcels or merchandise.--_n._ EXPRESS'AGE, the
system of carrying by express.--_adj._ EXPRESS'IBLE.--_ns._ EXPRES'SION,
act of expressing or forcing out by pressure: act of representing or giving
utterance to: faithful and vivid representation by language, art, the
features, &c.: that which is expressed: look: feature: the manner in which
anything is expressed: tone of voice or sound in music.--_adjs._
EXPRES'SIONAL, of or pertaining to expression; EXPRES'SIONLESS.--_n._
EXPRES'SION-STOP, a stop in a harmonium, by which the performer can
regulate the air to produce expression.--_adj._ EXPRES'SIVE, serving to
express or indicate: full of expression: vividly representing: emphatic:
significant.--_adv._ EXPRES'SIVELY.--_n._ EXPRES'SIVENESS.--_adv._
EXPRESS'LY.--_ns._ EXPRESS'-R[=I]'FLE, a modern sporting rifle for large
game at short range, with heavy charge of powder and light bullet;
EXPRESS'-TRAIN, a railway-train at high speed and with few stops;
EXPRES'SURE, the act of expressing: (_Shak._) expression. [O. Fr.
_expresser_--L. _ex_, out, _press[=a]re_, freq. of _prem[)e]re_, _pressum_,
to press.]

EXPROMISSION, eks-pr[=o]-mish'un, _n._ the intervention of a new debtor,
substituted for the former one, who is consequently discharged by the
creditor.--_n._ EXPROMIS'SOR.

EXPROPRIATE, eks-pr[=o]'pri-[=a]t, _v.t._ to dispossess.--_n._
EXPROPRI[=A]'TION. [L. _expropri[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, _proprium_,

EXPUGNABLE, eks-pug'na-bl, or eks-p[=u]'-, _adj._ (_rare_) capable of being
stormed.--_v.t._ EXP[=U]GN', to overcome.--_n._ EXPUGN[=A]'TION. [Fr.,--L.

EXPULSION, eks-pul'shun, _n._ the act of expelling: banishment.--_v.t._
EXPULSE' (_obs._), to expel forcibly, eject.--_adj._ EXPUL'SIVE, able or
serving to expel. [L. _expulsio_. See EXPEL.]

EXPUNGE, eks-punj', _v.t._ to wipe out: to efface.--_n._ EXPUNC'TION. [L.
_expung[)e]re_, to prick out, erase--_ex_, out, _pung[)e]re_, to prick.]

EXPURGATE, eks'pur-g[=a]t, or eks-pur'-, _v.t._ to purge out or render
pure: to purify from anything noxious or erroneous.--_ns._ EXPURG[=A]'TION,
act of expurgating or purifying: the removal of anything hurtful or evil:
exculpation; EXPURGATOR (eks'pur-g[=a]-tor, or eks-pur'ga-tor), one who
expurgates or purifies.--_adjs._ EXPURGAT[=O]'RIAL, EXPUR'GATORY, tending
to expurgate or purify.--_v.t._ EXPURGE', to purify, expurgate. [L.
_expurg[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, _purg[=a]re_, to purge.]

EXQUISITE, eks'kwi-zit, _adj._ of superior quality: excellent: of delicate
perception or close discrimination: not easily satisfied: fastidious:
exceeding, extreme, as pain or pleasure.--_n._ one exquisitely nice or
refined in dress: a fop.--_adv._ EX'QUISITELY.--_n._ EX'QUISITENESS. [L.
_exquisitus_--_ex_, out, _quær[)e]re_, _quæsitum_, to seek.]

EXSANGUINOUS, eks-sang'gwin-us, _adj._ without blood: anæmic--also
_sanguis_, blood.]

EXSCIND, ek-sind', _v.t._ to cut off. [L. _ex_, off, _scind[)e]re_, to

EXSECT, ek-sekt', _v.t._ to cut out.--_n._ EXSEC'TION. [L. _ex_, out,
_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

EXSERT, eks-sert', _v.t._ to protrude.--_p.adj._ EXSERT'ED,
projecting.--_adj._ EXSER'TILE.--_n._ EXSER'TION.

EXSICCATE, ek'si-k[=a]t, or ek-sik'-, _v.t._ to dry up.--_adj._
EXSICC'ANT.--_n._ EXSICC[=A]'TION.--_adj._ EXSICC'ATIVE.--_n._
EX'SICC[=A]TOR. [L. _exsicc[=a]re_--_ex-_, _siccus_, dry.]

EXSPUTORY, ek-sp[=u]'t[=o]-ri, _adj._ that is spit out or rejected. [L.
_expu[)e]re_, _exsputum_, to spit out.]

EXSTIPULATE, ek-stip'[=u]-l[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) without stipules.

EXSUCCOUS, eks-suk'us, _adj._ destitute of sap.

EXSUFFLICATE, eks-suf'fli-k[=a]t, _adj._ (_Shak._) puffed out,
contemptible, abominable.--_v.t._ EXSUF'FL[=A]TE, to exorcise. [Prob. from
L. _ex_, out, and _suffl[=a]re_, to blow out--_sub_, under, _fl[=a]re_, to

EXTANT, eks'tant, _adj._ standing out, or above the rest: still standing or
existing. [L. _extans_, _antis_--_ex_, out, _st[=a]re_, to stand.]


EXTEMPORE, eks-tem'po-re, _adv._ on the spur of the moment: without
preparation: suddenly.--_adj._ sudden: rising at the moment: of a speech
delivered without help of manuscript.--_adjs._ EXTEM'PORAL,
EXTEMPOR[=A]'NEOUS, EXTEM'PORARY, done on the spur of the moment: hastily
prepared: speaking extempore: done without preparation: off-hand.--_advs._
EXTEMPORIS[=A]'TION, the act of speaking extempore.--_v.i._ EXTEM'PORISE,
to speak extempore or without previous preparation: to discourse without
notes: to speak off-hand. [L. _ex_, out of, _tempus_, _temporis_, time.]

EXTEND, eks-tend', _v.t._ to stretch out: to prolong in any direction: to
enlarge, expand: to widen: to hold out: to bestow or impart: (_law_) to
seize: to make a valuation of property by the oath of a jury.--_v.i._ to
stretch: to be continued in length or breadth.--_adj._ EXTEND'ANT (_her._),
displayed.--_adv._ EXTEND'EDLY.--_adjs._ EXTEND'IBLE; EXTENSE' (_obs._),
extensive.--_n._ EXTENSIBIL'ITY.--_adjs._ EXTENS'IBLE, EXTENS'ILE, that may
be extended.--EXTEN'SION, a stretching out, prolongation, or enlargement:
that property of a body by which it occupies a portion of space: (_logic_)
a term, opposed to _Intension_, referring to the extent of the application
of a term or the number of objects included under it (UNIVERSITY EXTENSION,
the enlargement of the aim of a university, in providing instruction for
those unable to become regular students).--_adj._ EXTEN'SIONAL.--_ns._
EXTEN'SIONIST; EXTEN'SITY, sensation from which perception of extension is
derived.--_adj._ EXTENS'IVE, large: comprehensive.--_adv._
EXTENS'IVELY.--_ns._ EXTENS'IVENESS; EXTEN'SOR, a muscle which extends or
straightens any part of the body; EXTENT', the space or degree to which a
thing is extended: bulk: compass: scope: the valuation of property: (_law_)
a writ directing the sheriff to seize the property of a debtor, for the
recovery of debts of record due to the Crown: (_Shak._) seizure, attack:
(_Shak._) maintenance: (_Shak._) behaviour.--_adj._ stretched out. [L.
_extend[)e]re_, _extentum_, or _extensum_--_ex_, out, _tend[)e]re_, to

EXTENUATE, eks-ten'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to lessen: to underrate: to weaken
the force of: to palliate.--_p.adj._ EXTEN'UATING, palliating.--_adv._
EXTEN'UATINGLY.--_n._ EXTENU[=A]'TION, act of representing anything as less
wrong or criminal than it is: palliation: mitigation.--_adjs._
EXTEN'UATIVE, EXTEN'UATORY, tending to extenuate: palliative.--_n._
EXTEN'UATOR. [L. _extenu[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, inten., _tenuis_, thin.]

EXTERIOR, eks-t[=e]'ri-or, _adj._ outer: outward, external: on or from the
outside: foreign.--_n._ outward part or surface: outward form or
deportment: appearance.--_n._ EXTERIOR'ITY.--_adv._ EXT[=E]'RIORLY,
outwardly. [L. _exterior_, comp. of _exter_, outward--_ex_, out.]

EXTERMINATE, eks-t[.e]r'mi-n[=a]t, _v.t._ to destroy utterly: to put an end
to: to root out.--_adj._ EXTER'MINABLE, that can be exterminated: used in
the sense of 'illimitable' by Shelley.--_n._ EXTERMIN[=A]'TION, complete
destruction or extirpation.--_adjs._ EXTER'MIN[=A]TIVE, EXTER'MIN[=A]TORY,
serving or tending to exterminate.--_n._ EXTER'MIN[=A]TOR.--_v.t._
EXTER'MINE (_Shak._), to exterminate. [L. _extermin[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out of, _terminus_.]

EXTERNAL, eks-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ exterior: lying outside: outward:
belonging to the world of outward things: that may be seen: not innate or
intrinsic: accidental: foreign.--_n._ exterior: (_pl._) the outward parts:
outward or non-essential forms and ceremonies.--_n._ EXT[=E]'RIOR, an
exterior thing, the outside.--_adj._ EXTERN', external, outward.--_n._ a
day-scholar.--_n._ EXTERNALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ EXTER'NALISE, to give form
to.--_ns._ EXTER'NALISM, undue regard to mere externals or non-essential
outward forms, esp. of religion; EXTERNAL'ITY, external character:
superficiality: undue regard to externals.--_adv._ EXTER'NALLY.--_n._
EXTER'NAT, a day-school. [L. _externus_--_exter_.]

EXTERRANEOUS, eks-ter-r[=a]'ne-us, _adj._ belonging to or coming from
abroad, foreign.--_adjs._ EXTERRIT[=O]'RIAL, EXTRATERRIT[=O]'RIAL, exempt
from territorial jurisdiction. [L. _exterraneus_--_ex_, out of, _terra_,
the earth.]

EXTERSION, eks-ter'shun, _n._ the act of rubbing out.

EXTINCT, eks-tingkt', _adj._ put out: extinguished: no longer existing:
dead.--_adj._ EXTINCT'ED, extinguished.--_ns._ EXTINCTEUR (eks-tang'tür,
eks-tingk'tür--see EXTINGUISHER); EXTINC'TION, a quenching or destroying:
destruction: suppression.--_adj._ EXTINCT'IVE, tending to extinguish.--_n._
EXTINCT'URE (_Shak._), extinction.

EXTINE, eks'tin, _n._ (_bot._) the outer coat of the pollen-grain or of a

EXTINGUISH, eks-ting'gwish, _v.t._ to quench: to destroy, annihilate: to
obscure by superior splendour.--_v.i._ to die out.--_adj._
EXTING'UISHABLE.--_ns._ EXTING'UISHER, one who, or that which,
extinguishes: a small hollow conical instrument for putting out a
candle--also in Fr. form EXTINCTEUR; EXTING'UISHMENT, the act of
extinguishing: (_law_) putting an end to a right by consolidation or union.
[L. _extingu[)e]re_, _extinctum_--_ex_, out, _stingu[)e]re_, to quench.]

EXTIRPATE, eks't[.e]r-p[=a]t, _v.t._ to root out: to destroy totally: to
exterminate--(_obs._) EXTIRP'.--_adj._ EXTIRP'ABLE.--_ns._ EXTIRP[=A]'TION,
extermination: total destruction; EXTIRP'ATOR.--_adj._ EXTIRP'ATORY. [L.
_exstirp[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, and _stirps_, a root.]

EXTOL, eks-tol', _v.t._ to magnify: to praise:--_pr.p._ extolling; _pa.p._
extolled'.--_n._ EXTOL'MENT, the act of extolling: the state of being
extolled. [L. _extoll[)e]re_--_ex_, up, _toll[)e]re_, to lift or raise.]

EXTORT, eks-tort', _v.t._ to gain or draw from by compulsion or
violence.--_p.adj._ wrongfully obtained.--_adj._ EXTORS'IVE, serving or
tending to extort.--_adv._ EXTORS'IVELY.--_n._ EXTOR'TION, illegal or
oppressive exaction: that which is extorted.--_adjs._ EXTOR'TIONARY,
pertaining to or implying extortion; EXTOR'TION[=A]TE, oppressive.--_ns._
EXTOR'TIONER, one who practises extortion; EXTOR'TIONIST.--_adj._
EXTOR'TIONOUS. [L. _extorqu[=e]re_, _extortum_--_ex_, out, _torqu[=e]re_,
to twist.]

EXTRA, eks'tra, _adj._ beyond or more than the usual or the necessary:
extraordinary: additional.--_adv._ unusually.--_n._ what is extra or
additional, as an item above and beyond the ordinary school curriculum:
something over and above the usual course or charge in a bill, &c.: a
special edition of a newspaper containing later news, &c.--_adjs._
EX'TRA-CONDENSED' (_print._), extremely narrow in proportion to the height;
EX'TRA-CON'STELLARY, outside of the constellations; EXTRAD[=O]'TAL, not
forming part of the dowry; EX'TRA-FOLI[=A]'CEOUS (_bot._), situated outside
of or away from the leaves; EX'TRA-FOR[=A]'NEOUS, outdoor;
EX'TRA-JUDI'CIAL, out of the proper court, or beyond the usual course of
legal proceeding.--_adv._ EX'TRA-JUDI'CIALLY.--_adjs._ EX'TRA-LIM'ITAL, not
found within a given faunal area: lying outside a prescribed area--also
EXTRALIM'ITARY; EX'TRA-MUN'DANE, beyond the material world;
EX'TRA-M[=U]'RAL, without or beyond the walls; EX'TRA-OFFI'CIAL, not being
within official rights, &c.; EX'TRA-PAR[=O]'CHIAL, beyond the limits of a
parish; EX'TRA-PHYS'ICAL, not subject to physical laws;
EX'TRA-PROFES'SIONAL, outside the usual limits of professional duty;
EXTR'A-PRO'VINCIAL, outside the limits of a particular province;
EX'TRA-REG'ULAR, unlimited by rules; EX'TRA-S[=O]'LAR, beyond the solar
system; EX'TRA-TROP'ICAL, situated outside the tropics; EX'TRA-[=U]'TERINE,
situated outside the uterus; EXTRAVAS'CULAR, situated outside of the
vascular system. [Perh. a contraction for _extraordinary_.]

EXTRACT, eks-trakt', _v.t._ to draw out by force or otherwise: to choose
out or select: to find out: to distil.--_n._ EX'TRACT, anything drawn from
a substance by heat, distillation, &c., as an essence: a passage taken from
a book or writing.--_adjs._ EXTRACT'ABLE, EXTRACT'IBLE;
EXTRACT'IFORM.--_n._ EXTRAC'TION, act of extracting: derivation from a
stock or family: birth: lineage: that which is extracted.--_adj._
EXTRACT'IVE, tending or serving to extract.--_n._ an extract.--_n._
EXTRACT'OR, he who, or that which, extracts.--EXTRACT THE ROOT OF A
QUANTITY, to find its root by a mathematical process; EXTRACTIVE MATTER,
the soluble portions of any drug. [L. _extrah[)e]re_, _extractum_--_ex_,
out, _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

EXTRADITION, eks-tra-dish'un, _n._ a delivering up by one government to
another of fugitives from justice.--_adj._ EXTRAD[=I]'TABLE.--_v.t._
EX'TRADITE, to hand over to justice. [L. _ex_, from,
_traditio_--_trad[)e]re_, _traditum_, to deliver up.]

EXTRADOS, eks-tr[=a]'dos, _n._ the convex surface of an arch or vault.

EXTRANEOUS, eks-tr[=a]n'yus, _adj._ external: foreign: not belonging to or
dependent on a thing: not essential.--_n._ EXTRAN[=E]'ITY.--_adv._
EXTRAN'EOUSLY. [L. _extraneus_, external, _ex_, from, _extra_, outside.]

EXTRAORDINARY, eks-tror'di-nar-i, or eks-trä-or'-, _adj._ beyond ordinary:
not usual or regular: wonderful: special or supernumerary, as 'physician
extraordinary' in a royal household, and 'extraordinary professor' in a
German university, both being inferior to the ordinary official.--_n.pl._
EXTRAOR'DINARIES, things that exceed the usual order, kind, or
method.--_adv._ EXTRAOR'DINARILY.--_n._ EXTRAOR'DINARINESS. [L. _extra_,
outside, _ordo_--_inis_, order.]

EXTRAUGHT, eks-trawt' (_Shak._), _pa.p._ of EXTRACT.

EXTRAVAGANT, eks-trav'a-gant, _adj._ wandering beyond bounds: irregular:
unrestrained: excessive: profuse in expenses: wasteful.--_ns._
EXTRAV'AGANCE, excess: lavish expenditure: (_Milt._) digression;
EXTRAV'AGANCY (_Shak._), vagrancy: extravagance.--_adv._
EXTRAV'AGANTLY.--_v.i._ EXTRAV'AG[=A]TE, to wander: to exceed proper
bounds. [L. _extra_, beyond, _vagans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _vag[=a]ri_, to

EXTRAVAGANZA, eks-trav-a-gan'za, _n._ an extravagant or eccentric piece of
music or literary production: extravagant conduct or speech. [It.]

EXTRAVASATE, eks-trav'a-s[=a]t, _v.t._ to let out of the proper
vessels.--_adj._ let out of its proper vessel: extravasated.--_n._
EXTRAVAS[=A]'TION, act of extravasating: the escape of any of the fluids of
the living body from their proper vessels through a rupture in their walls.
[L. _extra_, out of, _vas_, a vessel.]

EXTREAT, eks-tr[=e]t', _n._ (_Spens._) extraction.

EXTREME, eks-tr[=e]m', _adj._ outermost: most remote: last: highest in
degree: greatest: excessive: most violent: most urgent: stringent.--_n._
the utmost point or verge: end: utmost or highest limit or degree: great
necessity.--_adv._ EXTR[=E]ME'LY.--_ns._ EXTR[=E]'MISM;
EXTR[=E]'MIST.--_adj._ EXTREM'ITAL.--_n._ EXTREM'ITY, the utmost limit: the
highest degree: greatest necessity or distress: (_pl._) the hands and
feet.--EXTREME UNCTION (see UNCTION).--GO TO EXTREMES, to go too far: to
use extreme measures.--IN EXTREMIS (L.), at the point of death; IN THE
EXTREME, in the last, highest degree: extremely; THE LAST EXTREMITY, the
utmost pitch of misfortune: death. [O. Fr. _extreme_--L. _extremus_,
superl. of _exter_, on the outside.]

EXTRICATE, eks'tri-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to free from hinderances or perplexities:
to disentangle: to set free.--_adj._ EX'TRICABLE.--_n._ EXTRIC[=A]'TION,
disentanglement: act of setting free. [L. _extric[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ex_,
out, _tricæ_, hinderances.]

EXTRINSIC, -AL, eks-trin'sik, -al, _adj._ external: not contained in or
belonging to a body: foreign: not essential--opp. to _Intrinsic_.--_n._
EXTRINSICAL'ITY.--_adv._ EXTRIN'SICALLY. [Fr.,--L. _extrinsecus_--_exter_,
outside, _secus_, beside.]

EXTRORSE, eks-trors', _adj._ turned outward.--Also EXTROR'SAL. [L. _extra_,
outside, _versus_, turned.]

EXTRUDE, eks-tr[=oo]d', _v.t._ to force or urge out: to expel: to drive
off.--_n._ EXTRU'SION, act of extruding, thrusting, or throwing out:
expulsion.--_adjs._ EXTRU'SIVE, EXTRU'SORY. [L. _extrud[)e]re_,
_extrusum_--_ex_, out, _trud[)e]re_, to thrust.]

EXUBERANT, eks-[=u]'b[.e]r-ant, _adj._ plenteous: overflowing: happy:
lavish.--_ns._ EX[=U]'BERANCE, EX[=U]'BERANCY, quality of being exuberant:
an overflowing quantity: superfluousness: outburst.--_adv._
EX[=U]'BERANTLY.--_v.i._ EX[=U]'BER[=A]TE, to be exuberant. [L.
_exuberans_, pr.p. of _exuber[=a]re_--_ex_, inten., _uber_, rich.]

EXUDE, eks-[=u]d', _v.t._ to discharge by sweating: to discharge through
pores or incisions, as sweat, moisture, &c.--_v.i._ to flow out of a body
through the pores.--_n._ EXUD[=A]'TION, act of exuding or discharging
through pores: that which is exuded. [L. _exud[=a]re_--_ex_, out,
_sud[=a]re_, to sweat.]

EXUL, eks'ul, _n._ (_Spens._) an exile.

EXULCERATE, egz-ul'ser-[=a]t, _v.t._ to exasperate, afflict.--_n._
EXULCER[=A]'TION, ulceration: exasperation. [L. _exculcer[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_ex_, out, _ulcer[=a]re_.]

EXULT, egz-ult', _v.i._ to rejoice exceedingly: to triumph.--_ns._
EXULT'ANCE, EXULT'ANCY, exultation: triumph.--_adj._ EXULT'ANT, exulting:
triumphant.--_n._ EXULT[=A]'TION, rapturous delight: transport.--_adv._
EXULT'INGLY. [L. _exsult[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, from _exsil[=i]re_--_ex_, out
or up, _sal[=i]re_, to leap.]

EXUVIÆ, eks-[=u]'vi-[=e], _n.pl._ cast-off skins, shells, or other
coverings of animals: (_geol._) fossil shells and other remains of
animals.--_adj._ EX[=U]'VIAL.--_v.i._ EX[=U]'VI[=A]TE, to lay aside an old
covering or condition for a new one.--_n._ EXUVI[=A]'TION, the act of
exuviating. [L., from _exu[)e]re_, to draw off.]

EYALET, [=i]'a-let, _n._ a division of the Turkish Empire--_vilayet_.
[Turk.,--Ar. _iy[=a]lah[=a]l_, to govern.]

EYAS, [=i]'as, _n._ an unfledged hawk.--_adj._ (_Spens._) unfledged.--_n._
EY'AS-MUS'KET, an unfledged male hawk: (_Shak._) a child. [_Eyas_, a corr.
of _nyas_--Fr. _niais_--L. _nidus_, nest.]

EYE, [=i], _n._ (_obs._) a brood. [For _nye_, _neye_; _a neye_=an eye. See

EYE, [=i], _n._ the organ of sight or vision, more correctly the globe or
movable part of it: the power of seeing: sight: regard: aim: keenness of
perception: anything resembling an eye, as the hole of a needle, loop or
ring for a hook, &c.: the seed-bud of a potato: (_pl._) the foremost part
of a ship's bows, the hawse-holes.--_v.t._ to look on: to observe
narrowly.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to appear:--_pr.p._ ey'ing or eye'ing; _pa.p._
eyed ([=i]d).--_ns._ EYE'-BALL, the ball, globe, or apple of the eye;
EYE'-BEAM, a glance of the eye; EYE'BRIGHT, a beautiful little plant of the
genus _Euphrasia_, formerly used as a remedy for diseases of the eye (see
EUPHRASY); EYE'BROW, the hairy arch above the eye.--_v.t._ to provide with
artificial eyebrows.--_adj._ EYE'BROWLESS, without eyebrows.--_p.adj._
EYED, having eyes: spotted as if with eyes.--_ns._ EYE'-DROP (_Shak._), a
tear; EYE'-FLAP, a blinder on a horse's bridle; EYE'-GLANCE, a quick look;
EYE'GLASS, a glass to assist the sight, esp. such as stick on the nose by
means of a spring: the eye-piece of a telescope and like instrument:
(_Shak._) the lens of the eye; EYE'LASH, the line of hairs that edges the
eyelid.--_adj._ EYE'LESS, without eyes or sight: deprived of eyes:
blind.--_ns._ EYE'LET, EYE'LET-HOLE, a small eye or hole to receive a lace
or cord, as in garments, sails, &c.: a small hole for seeing through: a
little eye.--_v.i._ to make eyelets.--_ns._ EYE'LIAD, obsolete form of
_oeillade_; EYE'LID, the lid or cover of the eye: the portion of movable
skin by means of which the eye is opened or closed at pleasure;
EYE'-[=O]'PENER, something that opens the eyes literally or figuratively, a
startling story: a drink, esp. in the morning; EYE'-PIECE, the lens or
combination of lenses at the eye-end of a telescope; EYE'-PIT, the socket
of the eye; EYE'-SALVE, salve or ointment for the eyes; EYE'-SERV'ANT, a
servant who does his duty only when under the eye of his master;
EYE'-SERV'ICE, service performed only under the eye or inspection of an
employer: formal worship; EYE'-SHOT, the reach or range of sight of the
eye: a glance; EYE'SIGHT, power of seeing: view: observation; EYE'SORE,
anything that is offensive to the eye or otherwise; EYE'-SPLICE, a kind of
eye or loop formed by splicing the end of a rope into itself; EYE'-SPOT, a
spot like an eye.--_adj._ EYE'-SPOT'TED (_Spens._), marked with spots like
eyes.--_ns._ EYE'-STONE, a small calcareous body used for removing
substances from under the eyelid; EYE'-STRING, the muscle which raises the
eyelid; EYE'-TOOTH, one of the two canine teeth of the upper jaw, between
the incisors and premolars; EYE'-WA'TER, water flowing from the eye: a
lotion for the eyes; EYE'-WINK (_Shak._), a rapid lowering and raising of
the eyelid: a glance: the time of a wink; EYE'-WIT'NESS, one who sees a
thing done.--EYE FOR EYE, _lex talionis_ (Ex. xxi. 24); EYE OF DAY, the
sun.--ALL MY EYE (_slang_) unreal; BE ALL EYES, to give all attention; BE A
(_coll._), to see; CRY ONE'S EYES OUT, to weep bitterly; CUT ONE'S
EYE-TOOTH, to cease to be a child: to be shrewd; GIVE AN EYE TO, to attend
to; GREEN EYE, jealousy; HAVE AN EYE TO, to contemplate: to have regard to;
IN EYE, in sight; IN ONE'S MIND'S EYE, in contemplation; IN THE EYES OF, in
the estimation, opinion, of; IN THE WIND'S EYE, against the wind; KEEP
ONE'S EYE ON, to observe closely: to watch; MAKE A PERSON OPEN HIS EYES, to
cause him astonishment; MAKE EYES AT, to look at in an amorous way: to
ogle; MIND YOUR EYE (_slang_), take care; MY EYE! a mild asseveration;
NAKED EYE (see NAKED); OPEN A PERSON'S EYES, to make him see: to show him
something of which he is ignorant; PIPE, or PUT THE FINGER IN, THE EYE, to
weep; SEE EYE TO EYE, from Is. lii. 8, but used in the sense of 'to think
alike;' SEE WITH HALF AN EYE, to see without difficulty; UNDER THE EYE OF,
under the observation of; UP TO THE EYES, deeply engaged. [A.S. _éage_; cf.
Goth. _augo_, Ger. _auge_, Dut. _oog_, Ice. _auga_.]

EYNE, [=i]n, _n.pl._ (_arch._) eyes.

EYOT, [=i]'ot, _n._ a little island. [A variant of _ait_.]

EYRE, [=a]r, _n._ a journey or circuit: a court of itinerant
justices.--JUSTICES IN EYRE, itinerant judges who went on circuit. [O. Fr.
_eire_, journey, from L. _iter_, a way, a journey--_[=i]re_, _itum_, to

EYRY, EYRIE, old spellings of _aerie_.

       *       *       *       *       *

F the sixth letter in the English and Latin alphabets--its sound called a
labio-dental fricative, and formed by bringing the lower lip into contact
with the upper teeth: (_mus._) the fourth note of the natural diatonic
scale of C: as a medieval Roman numeral=40; [=F]=40,000.--THE THREE F'S,
fair rent, fixity of tenure, and free sale.

FA', fä, _v._ and _n._ a Scotch form of _fall_.

FA'ARD, färd, _adj._ a Scotch form of _favoured_.

FABACEOUS, f[=a]-b[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ bean-like. [L. _faba_, a bean.]

FABIAN, f[=a]'bi-an, _adj._ delaying, avoiding battle, cautious, practising
the policy of delay.--_n._ a member of a small group of Socialists in
England, called by this name. [From Q. _Fabius_ Maximus, surnamed Cunctator
('delayer'), from the masterly tactics with which he wore out the strength
of Hannibal, whom he dared not meet in battle.]

FABLE, f[=a]'bl, _n._ a narrative in which things irrational, and sometimes
inanimate, are, for the purpose of moral instruction, feigned to act and
speak with human interests and passions: any tale in literary form, not
necessarily probable in its incidents, intended to instruct or amuse: the
plot or series of events in an epic or dramatic poem: a fiction or myth: a
ridiculous story, as in 'old wives' fables,' a falsehood: subject of common
talk.--_v.i._ to tell fictitious tales: (_obs._) to tell
falsehoods.--_v.t._ to feign: to invent.--_p.adj._ F[=A]'BLED,
mythical.--_n._ F[=A]'BLER, a writer or narrator of fictions.--_adj._
FAB'ULAR.--_v.i._ FAB'UL[=I]SE, to write fables, or to speak in
fables.--_ns._ FAB'ULIST, one who invents fables; FABULOS'ITY,
FAB'ULOUSNESS.--_adj._ FAB'ULOUS, feigned, false: related in fable:
immense, amazing.--_adv._ FAB'ULOUSLY. [Fr. _fable_--L. _fabula_,
_f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

FABLIAU, fab-li-[=o]', _n._ one of a group of over a hundred metrical
tales, usually satirical in quality, produced in France from about the
middle of the 12th to the end of the 13th century:--_pl._ FAB'LIAUX. [Fr.]

FABRIC, fab'rik, or f[=a]'brik, _n._ workmanship: texture: anything framed
by art and labour: building, esp. the construction and maintenance of a
church, &c.: manufactured cloth: any system of connected parts.--_v.t._
(_Milt._) to construct.--_n._ FAB'RICANT, a manufacturer. [Fr.
_fabrique_--L. _fabrica_--_faber_, a worker in hard materials.]

FABRICATE, fab'ri-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to put together by art and labour: to
manufacture: to produce: to devise falsely.--_n._ FABRIC[=A]'TION,
construction: manufacture: that which is fabricated or invented: a story: a
falsehood.--_adj._ FAB'RICATIVE.--_n._ FAB'RICATOR. [L. _fabric[=a]ri_,
_-[=a]tus_--_fabrica_, fabric.]

FAÇADE, fa-s[=a]d', _n._ the exterior front or face of a building.
[Fr.,--_face_, after It. _facciata_, the front of a building--_faccia_, the

FACE, f[=a]s, _n._ the front part of the head, including forehead, eyes,
nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin: the outside make or appearance: front or
surface of anything: the edge of a cutting-tool, &c.: the part of a
coal-seam actually being mined: cast of features, any special appearance or
expression of the countenance: look, configuration: boldness, effrontery;
presence: (_B._) anger or favour.--_v.t._ to meet in the face or in front:
to stand opposite to: to resist: to put an additional face or surface on;
to cover in front.--_v.i._ to turn the face, as in military tactics--'right
face,' &c.--_ns._ FACE'-ACHE, neuralgia in the nerves of the face;
FACE'-CARD, a playing-card bearing a face (king, queen, or knave);
FACE'-CLOTH, a cloth laid over the face of a corpse.--_adj._ FACED, having
the outer surface dressed, with the front, as of a dress, covered
ornamentally with another material.--_n._ FACE'-GUARD, a kind of mask to
guard or protect the face.--_adj._ FACE'LESS, without a face.--_ns._
FAC'ER, one who puts on a false show: a bold-faced person: (_slang_) a
severe blow on the face, anything that staggers one; FAC'ING, a covering in
front for ornament or protection.--FACE DOWN, to abash by stern looks; FACE
OUT, to carry off by bold looks; FACE THE MUSIC (_U.S. slang_), to accept
the situation at its worst; FACE-TO-FACE, in front of, in actual presence
of.--ACCEPT ONE'S FACE, to show him favour or grant his request; FLY IN THE
FACE OF, to set one's self directly against; HAVE TWO FACES, or BE
TWO-FACED, to be disingenuous; ON THE FACE OF IT, on its own showing:
palpably plain; PULL A LONG FACE, to look dismal and unhappy; PUT A GOOD
FACE ON, to assume a bold or contented bearing as regards; RIGHT FACE! LEFT
FACE! RIGHT ABOUT FACE! words of command, on which the soldiers
individually turn to the side specified; RUN ONE'S FACE (_U.S. slang_), to
obtain things on credit by sheer impudence; SET ONE'S FACE AGAINST, to
oppose strenuously; SHOW ONE'S FACE, to appear, to come in view; SHUT THE
DOOR IN HIS FACE, to shut the door before him, refusing him admittance; TO
HIS FACE, in his presence, openly. [Fr. _face_--L. ''facies'', form, face;
perh. from _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FACET, fas'et, _n._ a small surface, as of a crystal.--_v.t._ to cut a
facet upon, or cover with facets.--_adj._ FAC'ETED, having or formed into
facets. [Fr. _facette_, dim. of _face_.]

FACETIOUS, fa-s[=e]'shus, _adj._ witty, humorous, jocose: bawdy--(_obs._ or
_arch._) FACETE'.--_n.pl._ FACETIÆ (fa-s[=e]'shi-[=e]), witty or humorous
sayings or writings: a bookseller's term for improper books--of all degrees
of indecency.--_adv._ FAC[=E]'TIOUSLY.--_n._ FAC[=E]'TIOUSNESS. [Fr., from
L. _fac[=e]tia_--_facetus_, merry, witty.]

FACIAL, f[=a]'shal, _adj._ of or relating to the face.--_adv._
F[=A]'CIALLY.--FACIAL ANGLE, in craniometry, the angle formed by lines
drawn to show to what extent the jaws are protruding and the forehead

FACIES, f[=a]'shi-[=e]z, _n._ general aspect of anything: the face,
features. [L.]

FACILE, fas'il, _adj._ easily persuaded: affable: yielding: easy of access
or accomplishment: courteous: easy.--_n._ FAC'ILENESS.--_v.t._
FACIL'IT[=A]TE, to make easy: to lessen difficulty.--_ns._
FACILIT[=A]'TION; FACIL'ITY, quality of being facile; dexterity: easiness
to be persuaded: pliancy: easiness of access: affability: (_Scots law_) a
condition of mental weakness short of idiocy, but such as makes a person
easily persuaded to do deeds to his own prejudice:--_pl._ FACIL'ITIES,
means that render anything easily done. [Fr.,--L. _facilis_,
easy--_fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FACINOROUS, fa-sin'o-rus, _adj._ atrociously wicked.--_n._ FACIN'OROUSNESS.
[L. _facinorosus_--_facinus_, a crime--_fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FAC-SIMILE, fak-sim'i-l[=e], _n._ an exact copy, as of handwriting, a coin,
&c.--_adj._ exactly corresponding.--_v.t._ to make a fac-simile of, to
reproduce.--_n._ FAC-SIM'ILIST. [L. _fac_, imper. of _fac[)e]re_, to make,
_simile_, neut. of _similis_, like.]

FACT, fakt, _n._ a deed or anything done: anything that comes to pass:
reality, or a real state of things, as distinguished from a mere statement
or belief, a datum of experience: truth: the assertion of a thing done: an
evil deed, a sense now surviving only in 'to confess the fact,' 'after' or
'before the fact.'--_adj._ FACT'UAL, pertaining to facts: actual.--_ns._
FACTUAL'ITY; FACT'UM, a thing done, a deed.--AS A MATTER OF FACT, in
reality.--THE FACT OF THE MATTER, the plain truth about the subject in
question. [L. _factum_--_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FACTION, fak'shun, _n._ a company of persons associated or acting together,
mostly used in a bad sense: a contentious party in a state or society:
dissension.--_adj._ FAC'TIONAL.--_ns._ FAC'TIONARY, a member of a faction;
FAC'TIONIST.--_adj._ FAC'TIOUS, turbulent: disloyal.--_adv._
FAC'TIOUSLY.--_n._ FAC'TIOUSNESS. [L. _factionem_--_fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FACTITIOUS, fak-tish'us, _adj._ made by art, in opposition to what is
natural or spontaneous: conventional.--_adv._ FACTI'TIOUSLY.--_n._
FACTI'TIOUSNESS.--_adjs._ FAC'TITIVE, causative; FAC'TIVE (_obs._), making.
[L. _factitius_--_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FACTOR, fak'tor, _n._ a doer or transactor of business for another: one who
buys and sells goods for others, on commission: (_Scot._) an agent managing
heritable estates for another: (_math._) one of two or more parts, which,
when multiplied together, result in a given number--e.g. 6 and 4 are
factors of 24: an element in the composition of anything, or in bringing
about a certain result.--_ns._ FAC'TORAGE, the fees or commission of a
factor.--_adj._ FACT[=O]'RIAL, of or pertaining to a factor.--_v.t._
FAC'TORISE (_U.S._), to warn not to pay or give up goods: to attach the
effects of a debtor in the hands of a third person.--_ns._ FAC'TORSHIP;
FAC'TORY, a manufactory: a trading settlement in a distant
country.--JUDICIAL FACTOR, a person appointed by the Court to manage the
estate of a person under some incapacity. [L.,--_fac[)e]re_.]

FACTOTUM, fak-t[=o]'tum, _n._ a person employed to do all kinds of work for
another. [Low L.,--L. _fac_, imper. of _fac[)e]re_, to do, _totum_, all.]

FACTURE, fak't[=u]r, _n._ the act or the result of making, workmanship.

FACULA, fak'[=u]-la, _n._ a spot brighter than the rest of the surface,
sometimes seen on the sun's disc:--_pl._ FAC'ULÆ. [L., 'a torch,' dim. of
_fax_, torch.]

FACULTY, fak'ul-ti, _n._ facility or power to act: any particular ability
or aptitude: an original power of the mind: any physical capability or
function: personal quality or endowment: right, authority, or privilege to
act: license: a department of learning at a university, or the professors
constituting it: the members of a profession: executive ability.--_adj._
FAC'ULT[=A]TIVE, optional: of or pertaining to a faculty.--COURT OF
FACULTIES, a court established by Henry VIII., whereby authority is given
to the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant dispensations and faculties.
[Fr.,--L. _facultatem_--_facilis_, easy.]

FACUNDITY, fa-kun'di-ti, _n._ (_obs._) eloquence.

FAD, fad, _n._ a weak or transient hobby, crotchet, or craze: any
unimportant belief or practice intemperately urged.--_adjs._ FAD'DISH,
given to fads--also FAD'DY.--_ns._ FAD'DISNNESS; FAD'DISM; FAD'DIST, one
who is a slave to some fad. [Ety. dub.]

FADAISE, fa-d[=a]z', _n._ a trifling thought or expression. [Fr.]

FADDLE, fad'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to trifle.--_n._ nonsense,
trifling--usually in _fiddle-faddle_.

FADE, f[=a]d, _v.i._ to lose strength, freshness, or colour gradually: to
vanish.--_adj._ insipid: weak.--_adv._ F[=A]'DEDLY.--_adj._
FADE'LESS.--_adv._ FADE'LESSLY.--_n._ F[=A]'DING (_Shak._), the burden of a
song.--_adj._ F[=A]'DY, wearing away. [O. Fr. _fader_--_fade_--L.
_vapidum_, acc. to Gaston Paris.]

FADGE, faj, _v.i._ to agree: to succeed, turn out well. [Ety. dub.; not
conn. with A.S. _fégan_, to join.]

FÆCES, FECES, f[=e]'s[=e]z, _n.pl._ sediment after infusion or
distillation: dregs: the solid excrements.--_adj._ FÆ'CAL, of or pertaining
to fæces. [L., pl. of _fæx_, _fæcis_, grounds.]

FAERIE, FAERY, f[=a]'[.e]r-i, _n._ (_arch._) the world of fairies,
fairyland: (_obs._) a fairy. [A variant of _fairy_.]

FAG, fag, _v.i._ to become weary or tired out: to work hard: to be a
fag.--_v.t._ to weary: to use as a fag:--_pr.p._ fag'ging; _pa.p._
fagged.--_n._ at Eton, Winchester, &c., a schoolboy forced to do menial
offices for one older, who in turn protects him: a tiresome piece of work:
drudgery.--_ns._ FAG'GERY, drudgery: fagging; FAG'GING, laborious drudgery:
a usage in virtue of which senior boys are authorised to exact a variety of
services from the junior boys.--TO FAG OUT, to field, as a fag, in cricket.
[Ety. dub.; perh. a corr. of _flag_, to droop, which see.]

FAG-END, fag'-end, _n._ the end of a web of cloth that hangs loose: the
untwisted end of a rope: the refuse or meaner part of a thing.

FAGGOT, FAGOT, fag'ut, _n._ a bundle of sticks for fuel, fascines, &c.: a
stick: anything like a faggot: a bundle of pieces of iron or steel cut off
into suitable lengths for welding: a soldier numbered on the muster-roll,
but not really existing: a voter who has obtained his vote expressly for
party purposes, on a spurious or sham qualification.--_adj._ got up for a
purpose, as in 'Faggot vote.'--_v.t._ to tie together.--_ns._ FAGG'OTING,
FAG'OTING, a kind of embroidery in which some of the cross-threads are
drawn together in the middle. [Fr. _fagot_, a bundle of sticks, perh. from
L. _fax_, a torch.]

FAGOTTO, fag-ot'o, _n._ a bassoon.--_n._ FAGOTT'IST, one who plays on the
bassoon. [It.]

FAHLERZ, fäl'erts, _n._ gray copper, or gray copper ore. [Ger.]

FAHRENHEIT, fä'ren-h[=i]t, or far'en-[=i]t, _n._ the name applied to a
thermometer, the freezing-point of which is marked at 32, and the
boiling-point at 212 degrees (see THERMOMETER for the relations between the
two scales). [Named from the inventor, Gabriel D. _Fahrenheit_

FAIENCE, f[=a]'yäns, _n._ a fine kind of pottery, glazed and painted. [Fr.;
prob. from _Faenza_ in Italy.]

FAIK, f[=a]k, _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Scot._) to abate: to excuse.

FAIL, f[=a]l, _n._ a turf, sod.--_n._ FAIL'-DIKE (_Scot._), a turf-wall.
[Perh. from Gael. _fàl_, a sod.]

FAIL, f[=a]l, _v.i._ to fall short or be wanting (with _in_): to fall away:
to decay: to die: to prove deficient under trial, examination, pressure,
&c.: to miss: to be disappointed or baffled: to be unable to pay one's
debts.--_v.t._ to be wanting to: not to be sufficient for: to leave undone,
omit: to disappoint or desert any one:--_pr.p._ fail'ing; _pa.p._
failed.--_n._ (_Shak._) failure.--_p.adj._ FAILED, decayed, worn out:
bankrupt.--_n._ FAIL'ING, a fault, weakness: a foible.--_prep._ in default
of.--_n._ FAIL'URE, a falling short, or cessation: omission: decay:
bankruptcy.--FAIL OF, to come short of accomplishing any purpose; WITHOUT
FAIL, infallibly. [O. Fr. _faillir_--L. _fall[)e]re_, to deceive; cf. Dut.
_feilen_, Ger. _fehlen_, Ice. _feila_.]

FAIN, f[=a]n, _adj._ glad or joyful: inclined (with _to_): content to
accept, for want of better: compelled: (_Spens._) wont.--_v.i._ (_Spens._)
to delight.--_adv._ gladly.--_adv._ FAIN'LY, gladly.--_n._ FAIN'NESS,
eagerness. [A.S. _fægen_, joyful: cf. Ice. _feginn_, glad.]

FAIN, f[=a]n, _v.i._ (_Spens._). Same as FEIGN.

FAINÉANT, f[=a]-nyang', _adj._ and _n._ do-nothing, applied esp. to the
later Merovingian kings of France, mere puppets, under whom the mayors of
the Palace really governed the country.--_ns._ FAI'NEANCE (_Kingsley_),
FAI'NEANCY, FAINEANT'ISE. [Fr., _faire_, to do, _néant_, nothing.]

FAINT, f[=a]nt, _adj._ wanting in strength: fading: lacking distinctness:
not bright or forcible: weak in spirit: lacking courage: depressed: done in
a feeble way.--_v.i._ to become feeble or weak: to lose strength, colour,
&c.: to swoon: to fade or decay: to vanish: to lose courage or spirit: to
become depressed.--_v.t._ (_rare_) to render faint.--_n._ a
swoon.--_p.adj._ FAINT'ED (_Milt._), exhausted.--_adjs._ FAINT'-HEART,
FAINT'-HEART'ED, cowardly: timorous.--_adv._ FAINT'-HEART'EDLY.--_ns._
FAINT'-HEART'EDNESS; FAINT'ING.--_adj._ FAINT'ISH, slightly faint.--_n._
FAINT'ISHNESS.--_adv._ FAINT'LY.--_n._ FAINT'NESS, want of strength:
feebleness of colour, light, &c.: dejection.--_adj._ FAINT'Y, faintish. [O.
Fr. _feint_ (Fr. _feindre_), feigned--L. _fing[)e]re_, to feign.]

FAIR, f[=a]r, _adj._ bright: clear: free from blemish: pure: pleasing to
the eye: beautiful: free from a dark hue: of a light shade: free from
clouds or rain: favourable: unobstructed: open: prosperous: frank:
impartial: just: pleasing: plausible: hopeful: moderate: pretty good.--_n._
that which is fair: (_arch._) a woman.--_v.t._ to make fair.--_v.i._ to
clear up, as the weather from rain.--_adv._ kindly, honestly, clearly:
straight: (_Shak._) favourably.--_adjs._ FAIR'-AND-SQUARE, honest--also
used adverbially; FAIR'-BOD'ING (_Shak._), auspicious.--_n._ FAIR'-COP'Y,
the state of a document copied after final correction.--_adjs._
FAIR'-FACED, with a light complexion: beautiful: specious; FAIR'-HAIRED,
having fair or light-coloured hair; FAIR'-HAND, having a fair appearance;
FAIR'ISH, somewhat fair: pretty well, pretty drunk.--_adv._
FAIR'LY.--_adj._ FAIR'-MIND'ED, judging fairly.--_ns._ FAIR'NESS;
FAIR'-PLAY, honest dealing: justice.--_adjs._ FAIR'-SEEM'ING, appearing
fair; FAIR'-SPOK'EN, bland and civil in language and address.--_ns._
FAIR'-TRADE, free-trade: a euphemism for smuggling: a mild form of the
protective system, in which the basis of economic policy is supposed to be
reciprocity or free-trade only with such nations as grant similar
privileges--also used adverbially; FAIR'-WAY, the part of a river,
roadstead, &c. by which vessels enter or leave.--_adj._ FAIR'-WEATH'ER,
suitable only for fair weather or favourable circumstances.--BE IN A FAIR
WAY TO, to be likely to succeed in; KEEP FAIR WITH, to keep on amiable
terms with; STAND FAIR WITH, to be in the good graces of.--THE FAIR, THE
FAIR SEX, the female sex. [A.S. _fæger_.]

FAIR, f[=a]r, _n._ a great periodical market for one kind of merchandise,
or for the general sales and purchases of a district: a collection of
miscellaneous goods for sale on behoof of charity at a bazaar, &c.--_n._
FAIR'ING, a present given at a fair, any complimentary gift.--A DAY AFTER
THE FAIR, too late; GET ONE'S FAIRING (_Scot._), to get one's deserts. [O.
Fr. _feire_--L. _feria_, holiday.]

FAIRY, f[=a]r'i, _n._ an imaginary being, generally of diminutive and
graceful human form, capable of kindly or unkindly acts towards man:
fairy-folk collectively: an enchantress, or creature of overpowering
charm.--_adj._ like a fairy, fanciful, whimsical, delicate.--_adv._
FAIR'ILY.--_n.pl._ FAIR'Y-BEADS, the separate joints of the stems of fossil
crinoids found in carboniferous limestone.--_ns._ FAIR'Y-BUTT'ER, a name
applied in northern England to certain gelatinous fungi; FAIR'YDOM;
FAIR'YHOOD, FAIR'YISM; FAIR'YLAND, the country of the fairies.--_adj._
FAIR'Y-LIKE, like or acting like fairies.--_n._ FAIR'Y-MON'EY, money given
by fairies, which quickly changes into withered leaves, &c.: money
found.--_ns.pl._ FAIR'Y-RINGS, -CIR'CLES, spots or circles in pastures,
either barer than the rest of the field, or greener--due to the outwardly
spreading growth of various fungi.--_ns._ FAIR'Y-STONE, a fossil echinite
found abundantly in chalk-pits; FAIR'Y-TALE, a story about fairies: an
incredible tale. [O. Fr. _faerie_, enchantment--_fae_ (mod. _fée_). See

FAITH, f[=a]th, _n._ trust or confidence in any person: belief in the
statement of another: belief in the truth of revealed religion: confidence
and trust in God: the living reception by the heart of the truth as it is
in Christ: that which is believed: any system of religious belief, esp. the
religion one considers true--'the faith;' fidelity to promises: honesty:
word or honour pledged.--_adjs._ FAITHED (_Shak._), credited; FAITH'FUL,
full of faith, believing: firm in adherence to promises, duty, allegiance,
&c.: loyal: conformable to truth: worthy of belief: true.--_adv._
FAITH'FULLY, sincerely, truthfully, exactly.--_ns._ FAITH'FULNESS;
FAITH'-HEAL'ING, a system of belief based on James, v. 14, that sickness
may be treated without any medical advice or appliances, if the prayer of
Christians be accompanied in the sufferer by true faith.--_adj._
FAITH'LESS, without faith or belief: not believing, esp. in God or
Christianity: not adhering to promises, allegiance, or duty:
trustworthiness.--_adj._ FAITH'WORTHY, worthy of faith or belief.--BAD
FAITH, treachery.--FATHER OF THE FAITHFUL, Abraham: the caliph.--IN GOOD
FAITH, with sincerity.--THE FAITHFUL, believers. [M. E. _feith_,
_feyth_--O. Fr. _feid_--L. _fides_--_fid[)e]re_, to trust.]

FAITOR, f[=a]'tor, _n._ an impostor: an evil-doer, a scoundrel.--Often
FAI'TOUR. [O. Fr. _faitor_--L. _factor_.]

FAKE, f[=a]k, _v.t._ to fold, coil.--_n._ a coil of rope, &c.

FAKE, f[=a]k, _v.t._ to steal: to make up an article so as to hide its
defects.--_n._ FAKE'MENT, any swindling device. [Prof. Skeat thinks it
merely the Mid. Dut. _facken_, to catch; Mr Bradley suggests the earlier
_feak_, _feague_, Ger. _fegen_, to furbish up.]

FAKIR, fa-k[=e]r', or f[=a]'k[.e]r, _n._ a member of a religious order of
mendicants or penitents in India, &c.--_n._ FAKIR'ISM, religious
mendicancy. [Ar. _faqîr_, a poor man, _fakr_, _faqr_, poverty.]

FA-LA, fä-lä, _n._ an old kind of madrigal.

FALBALA, fal'ba-la, _n._ a trimming for women's petticoats: a furbelow.
[Ety. dub.; cf. _furbelow_.]

FALCADE, fal'k[=a]d', _n._ the motion of a horse when he throws himself on
his haunches in a very quick curvet. [Fr.,--L. _fulcatus_, bent.]

FALCATE, -D, fal'k[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_astron._, _bot._) bent like a
sickle, as the crescent moon, and certain leaves.--_ns._ FALC[=A]'TION;
FAL'CULA, a falcate or falciform claw.--_adj._ FAL'CULATE. [L. _falx_, a

FALCHION, fawl'shun, _n._ a short, broad sword, bent somewhat like a
sickle.--_adj._ FAL'CIFORM, sickle-shaped. [O. Fr. _fauchon_, through Low
L., from L. _falx_, a sickle.]

FALCON, fol'kon, or faw'kn, _n._ a bird of prey formerly trained to the
pursuit of game: a kind of cannon.--_ns._ FAL'CONER, one who sports with,
or who breeds and trains, falcons or hawks for taking wild-fowl; FAL'CONET,
a small field-gun in use till the 16th century.--_adj._ FAL'CON-EYED,
keen-eyed.--_ns._ FAL'CON-GEN'TIL, -GEN'TLE, the female and young of the
goshawk.--_adj._ FAL'CONINE.--_n._ FAL'CONRY, the art of training or
hunting with falcons. [O. Fr. _faucon_--Low L. _falc[=o]n-em_--L. _falx_, a
hook or sickle.]

FALDAGE, fal'd[=a]j, _n._ the right, often reserved by the lord of a manor,
of folding his tenant's sheep in his own fields for the sake of the manure:
a fee paid for exemption from the foregoing.

FALDERAL, fäl'der-al, _n._ a meaningless refrain in songs: any kind of
flimsy trifle--also FOL'DEROL and FAL DE ROL.--FALDERAL IT, to sing
unmeaning sounds.

FALDETTA, fal-det'a, _n._ a Maltese woman's combined hood and cape. [It.]

FALDSTOOL, fawld'st[=oo]l, _n._ a folding or camp stool: a kind of stool
for the king at his coronation: a bishop's armless seat: a small desk in
churches in England, at which the litany should be sung or said.--_n._
FALD'ISTORY, a bishop's seat within the chancel. [Low L.
_faldistolium_--Old High Ger. _faldan_ (Ger. _falten_), to fold, _stuol_
(Ger. _stuhl_), stool.]

FALERNIAN, fa-ler'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to a district (_Falernus ager_)
in Campania, famous of old for its wine.--_n._ FALER'NE, a modern sweet
white wine, produced near Naples.

FALL, fawl, _v.i._ to drop down: to descend by the force of gravity: to
become prostrate: (of a river) to discharge itself: to slope down: to sink
as if dead: to vanish: to die away: to lose strength, subside: to decline
in power, wealth, value, or reputation: to be overthrown: to be compelled
to yield: to become downcast: to sink into sin, to yield to temptation: to
depart from the faith: to become dejected: to pass gently into any state,
as 'to fall in love,' 'to fall asleep:' to befall: to issue, occur: to
enter upon with haste or vehemence: to rush: to be dropped in birth: to be
required or necessary: to fall away:--_pr.p._ fall'ing; _pa.t._ fell;
_pa.p._ fallen (faw'ln).--_n._ the act of falling, in any of its senses:
descent by gravity, a dropping down: that which falls--a trap-door, &c.: as
much as comes down at one time, as 'a fall of snow,' &c.: overthrow: death:
descent from a better to a worse position: slope or declivity: descent of
water: a cascade: length of a fall: outlet of a river: decrease in value: a
sinking of the voice: the time when the leaves fall, autumn: a bout at
wrestling: the yielding of a city or stronghold to the enemy: that which
falls: a lapse into sin, esp. that of Adam and Eve, called 'the Fall:' a
kind of collar worn in the 17th century.--_adj._ FALL'EN, in a degraded
state, ruined.--_ns._ FALL'ING, that which falls; FALL'ING-BAND (see BAND);
portion of an exploded meteor; FALL'TRANK, a medicine compounded of certain
aromatic and astringent Swiss plants, of repute for accidents; FALL'-TRAP,
a trap which operates by falling.--FALL-A, to begin; FALL ACROSS, to meet
by chance; FALL AMONG, to come into the midst of; FALL AWAY, to decline
gradually, to languish: to grow lean: to revolt or apostatise; FALL BACK,
to retreat, give way; FALL BACK, FALL EDGE, no matter what may happen; FALL
BACK UPON, to have recourse to some expedient or resource in reserve; FALL
BEHIND, to slacken, to be outstripped; FALL FLAT, to fail completely, as a
shopman in attracting attention or purchasers, a new book, &c.; FALL FOUL,
to come in collision: to quarrel (with _of_); FALL IN (_with_), to concur
or agree: to comply: to place themselves in order, as soldiers; FALL OFF,
to separate or be broken: to die away, to perish: to revolt or apostatise;
FALL ON, to begin eagerly: to make an attack: to meet; FALL ON ONE'S FEET,
to come well out of a difficulty, to gain any unexpected good fortune; FALL
OUT, to quarrel: to happen or befall; FALL OVER (_Shak._), to go over to
the enemy; FALL SHORT, to be deficient (with _of_); FALL THROUGH, to fail,
come to nothing; FALL TO, to begin hastily and eagerly: to apply one's self
to; FALL UPON, to attack: to attempt: to rush against.--TRY A FALL, to take
a bout at wrestling. [A.S. _feallan_; Ger. _fallen_; prob. conn. with L.
_fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

FALL, fawl, _n._ the cry given when a whale is sighted, or harpooned: the
chase of a whale.--LOOSE FALL, the losing of a whale. [Prob. from the
north-eastern Scotch pronunciation of _whale_.]

FALLACY, fal'a-si, _n._ something fallacious: deceptive appearance: an
apparently genuine but really illogical argument: (_obs._)
deception.--_adj._ FALL[=A]'CIOUS, calculated to deceive or mislead: not
well founded: causing disappointment: delusive.--_adv._
FALL[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_n._ FALL[=A]'CIOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _fallace_, deceit--L.
_fallacia_, from _fallax_, deceptive--_fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

FALLAL, fal'lal', or fal-lal', _n._ a piece of ribbon worn as a streamer,
any trifling ornament.--_adj._ foppish, trifling.--_n._ FALLAL'ERY.--_adv._

FALLIBLE, fal'i-bl, _adj._ liable to error or mistake.--_n._ FALLIBIL'ITY,
liability to err.--_adv._ FALL'IBLY. [Fr.,--Low L. _fallibilis_, from
_fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

FALLOPIAN, fal-l[=o]'pi-an, _adj._ denoting two tubes or ducts through
which the ova pass from the ovary to the uterus in the human subject. [So
called because supposed to have been discovered by the Italian anatomist
_Fallopius_ (1523-62).]

FALLOW, fal'[=o], _adj._ left untilled or unsowed for a time.--_n._ land
that has lain a year or more untilled or unsown after having been
ploughed.--_v.t._ to plough land without seeding it.--_ns._ FALL'OWNESS,
state of being fallow or untilled; GREEN FALL'OW, fallow where land is
cleaned by a green crop, as turnips. [Ety. dub.; prob. an assumed A.S.
_fealgian_, that may be confounded with the following word, from the
reddish colour of unsown land.]

FALLOW, fal'[=o], _adj._ of a brownish-yellow colour.--_ns._ FALL'OW-CHAT,
FALL'OW-FINCH, the wheatear or stonechat; FALL'OW-DEER, a yellowish-brown
deer smaller than the red-deer, with broad flat antlers. [A.S. _falu_; cf.
Ger. _fahl_, Ice. _folr_.]

FALSE, fawls, _adj._ deceptive or deceiving: untruthful: unfaithful to
obligations: untrue: not genuine or real, counterfeit: hypocritical: not
well founded, or not according to rule: artificial, as opposed to natural,
of teeth, &c.--_adv._ incorrectly: faithlessly.--_n._ (_Shak._) falsehood:
untruth.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to betray.--_ns._ FALSE CONCEPTION, a uterine
growth consisting of some degenerate mass instead of a foetus; FALSE'FACE,
a mask.--_adjs._ FALSE'-FACED (_Shak._), hypocritical; FALSE'-HEART'ED,
treacherous, deceitful.--_n._ FALSE'HOOD, state or quality of being false:
want of truth: want of honesty: deceitfulness: false appearance: an untrue
statement: a lie.--_adv._ FALSE'LY.--_ns._ FALSE'NESS; FALS'ER (_Spens._),
a deceiver, a liar.--_adjs._ FALSID'ICAL, deceptive; FALS'ISH, somewhat
false.--_ns._ FALS'ISM, a self-evident falsity; FALS'ITY, quality of being
false: a false assertion.--PLAY ONE FALSE, to act falsely or treacherously
to a person; PUT IN A FALSE POSITION, to bring any one into a position in
which he must be misunderstood. [O. Fr. _fals_ (mod. _faux_)--L. _falsus_,
pa.p. of _fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

FALSETTO, fawl-set'o, _n._ a forced voice of a range or register above the
natural, the head voice. [It. _falsetto_, dim. of _falso_, false.]

FALSIFY, fawls'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to forge or counterfeit: to prove
untrustworthy: to break by falsehood:--_pr.p._ fals'ifying; _pa.p._
fals'ified.--_adj._ FALS'IF[=I]ABLE, capable of being falsified.--_ns._
FALSIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making false: the giving to a thing the
appearance of something which it is not; FALS'IFIER, one who falsifies.
[Fr.,--Low L. _falsific[)a]re_--L. _falsus_, false, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FALSTAFFIAN, fal'staf-i-an, _adj._ like Shakespeare's
_Falstaff_--corpulent, jovial, humorous, and dissolute.

FALTER, fawl't[.e]r, _v.i._ to stumble: to fail or stammer in speech: to
tremble or totter: to be feeble or irresolute.--_n._ any
unsteadiness.--_n._ FAL'TERING, feebleness, deficiency.--_adv._
FAL'TERINGLY, in a faltering or hesitating manner. [Prob. a freq. of
_falden_, fold. The conn. with _fault_, in which the _l_ is late, is

FALX, falks, _n._ a sickle-shaped part or process, as of the dura mater of
the skull: a chelicera: a poison-fang of a snake: a rotula of a
sea-urchin:--_pl._ FALCES (fal's[=e]z). [L., a sickle.]

FAMBLE, fam'bl, _n._ (_slang_) the hand--also FAM.--_v.t._ to feel or
handle. [Der. obscure; perh. from the obs. verb _famble_, in its probable
original sense, 'to grope, fumble.']

FAME, f[=a]m, _n._ public report or rumour: renown or celebrity, chiefly in
good sense.--_v.t._ to report: to make famous.--_n._ F[=A]'MA, report,
rumour, fame.--_adjs._ FAMED, renowned; FAME'LESS, without renown.--FAMA
CLAMOSA (_Scot._), any notorious rumour ascribing immoral conduct to a
minister or office-bearer in a church.--HOUSE OF ILL FAME, a brothel.
[Fr.,--L. _fama_, from _f[=a]ri_, to speak; cog. with Gr. _ph[=e]m[=e]_,
from _phanai_, to say.]

FAMILIAR, fa-mil'yar, _adj._ well acquainted or intimate: showing the
manner of an intimate: free: unceremonious: having a thorough knowledge of:
well known or understood: private, domestic: common, plain.--_n._ one well
or long acquainted: a spirit or demon supposed to attend an individual at
call: a member of a pope's or bishop's household: the officer of the
Inquisition who arrested the suspected.--_v.t._ FAMIL'IARISE, to make
thoroughly acquainted: to accustom: to make easy by practice or
study.--_n._ FAMILIAR'ITY, intimate acquaintanceship: freedom from
constraint: any unusual or unwarrantable freedom in act or speech toward
another, acts of license--usually in _pl._--_adv._ FAMIL'IARLY. [O. Fr.
_familier_--L. _familiaris_, from _familia_, a family.]

FAMILY, fam'i-li, _n._ the household, or all those who live in one house
under one head, including parents, children, servants: the children of a
person: the descendants of one common progenitor: race: honourable or noble
descent: a group of animals, plants, languages, &c. more comprehensive than
a genus.--_ns._ FAM'ILISM, the family feeling; FAM'ILIST, one of the
16th-cent. mystical sect known as the Family of Love, which based religion
upon love independently of faith.--FAMILY BIBLE, a large Bible for family
worship, with a page for recording family events; FAMILY COACH, a large
carriage able to carry a whole family; FAMILY MAN, a man with a family: a
domesticated man.--BE IN THE FAMILY WAY, to be pregnant; IN A FAMILY WAY,
in a domestic manner. [L. _familia_--_famulus_, a servant.]

FAMINE, fam'in, _n._ general scarcity of food: extreme scarcity of
anything, as in 'famine prices,' &c.: hunger: starvation. [Fr., through an
unrecorded Low L. _famina_, from L. _fames_, hunger.]

FAMISH, fam'ish, _v.t._ to starve.--_v.i._ to die or suffer extreme hunger
or thirst.--_n._ FAM'ISHMENT, starvation. [Obs. _fame_, to starve--L.
_fames_, hunger.]

FAMOUS, f[=a]'mus, _adj._ renowned: noted.--_v.t._ to make famous.--_adv._
F[=A]'MOUSLY.--_n._ F[=A]'MOUSNESS. [O. Fr.,--L. _famosus_--_fama_.]

FAMULUS, fam'[=u]-lus, _n._ a private secretary or factotum: an attendant,
esp. on a magician or scholar.--_n._ FAM'ULIST, a collegian of inferior
position (Dr Murray doubts the word). [L. _famulus_, a servant.]


FAN, fan, _n._ an instrument for winnowing grain: a broad, flat instrument
used by ladies to cool themselves: a wing: a small sail to keep a windmill
to the wind: the agitation of the air caused by a fan.--_v.t._ to cool with
a fan: to winnow: to ventilate: to remove by waving a fan:--_pr.p._
fan'ning; _pa.p._ fanned.--_ns._ FAN'-BLAST, in ironworks the blast
produced by a fan, as distinguished from that produced by a blowing-engine;
FAN'-CRICK'ET, the mole-cricket, fen-cricket, or churr-worm.--_adj._
FAN'-NERVED, in entomology, having a fan-like arrangement of the nervures
or veins of the wings.--_ns._ FAN'LIGHT, a window resembling in form an
open fan; FAN'NER, a machine with revolving fans, used for winnowing grain,
&c.; FAN'-PALM, a species of palm 60 or 70 feet high, with fan-shaped
leaves, used for umbrellas, tents, &c.; FAN'-TAIL, an artificial fan-tailed
variety of the domestic pigeon; FAN'-TR[=A]C'ERY (_archit._), tracery
rising from a capital or a corbel, and diverging like the folds of a fan
over the surface of a vault; FAN'-WHEEL, a wheel with fans on its rim for
producing a current of air. [A.S. _fann_, from L. _vannus_, a fan; cf. Fr.

FANAL, f[=a]'nal, _n._ (_arch._) a lighthouse, a beacon. [Fr.,--Gr.
_phanos_, a lantern, _phainein_, to show.]

FANATIC, fa-nat'ik, _adj._ extravagantly or unreasonably zealous, esp. in
religion: excessively enthusiastic.--_n._ a person frantically or
excessively enthusiastic, esp. on religious subjects.--_adj._ FANAT'ICAL,
fanatic, (_Shak._) extravagant.--_adv._ FANAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ FANAT'ICISE,
to make fanatical.--_v.i._ to act as a fanatic.--_n._ FANAT'ICISM, wild and
excessive religious enthusiasm. [Fr.,--L. _fanaticus_, belonging to a
temple, inspired by a god, _fanum_, a temple.]

FANCY, fan'si, _n._ that faculty of the mind by which it recalls,
represents, or makes to appear past images or impressions: an image or
representation thus formed in the mind: an unreasonable or capricious
opinion: a whim: capricious inclination or liking: taste: (_Shak._)
love.--_adj._ pleasing to, or guided by, fancy or caprice: elegant or
ornamental.--_v.t._ to portray in the mind: to imagine: to have a fancy or
liking for: to be pleased with: to breed animals:--_pr.p._ fan'cying;
_pa.p._ fan'cied.--_p.adj._ FAN'CIED, formed or conceived by the fancy:
imagined.--_n._ FAN'CIER, one who has a special liking for anything, or who
keeps a special article for sale: one who is governed by fancy.--_adj._
FAN'CIFUL, guided or created by fancy: imaginative: whimsical:
wild.--_adv._ FAN'CIFULLY.--_n._ FAN'CIFULNESS.--_adj._ FAN'CILESS,
destitute of fancy.--_ns._ FAN'CY-BALL, a ball at which fancy-dresses in
various characters are worn; FAN'CY-DRESS, dress arranged according to the
wearer's fancy, to represent some character in history or fiction;
FAN'CY-FAIR, a special sale of fancy articles for some charitable
purpose.--_adj._ FAN'CY-FREE (_Shak._), free from the power of
love.--_n.pl._ FAN'CY-GOODS, fabrics of variegated rather than simple
pattern, applied generally to articles of show and ornament.--_n._
FAN'CY-MONG'ER (_Shak._), one who deals in tricks of imagination.--_adj._
FAN'CY-SICK (_Shak._), of distempered mind, love-sick.--_ns._
FAN'CY-STITCH, a more intricate and decorative stitch than _plain-stitch_;
FAN'CY-STROKE (_billiards_), an unusual stroke, or one made to show off
one's skill; FAN'CY-WORK, ornamental needlework.--THE FANCY, sporting
characters generally, esp. pugilists: pugilism. [Contracted from

FAND, fand (_Spens._), _pa.t._ of FIND.

FAND, fand, FOND, fond, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to try, attempt. [A.S.

FANDANGO, fan-dan'go, _n._ an old Spanish dance for two, in ¾ time, with
castanets, proceeding gradually from a slow and uniform to the liveliest
motion: a gathering for dancing, a ball. [Sp.]

FANE, f[=a]n, _n._ (_obs._) a flag: weathercock. [_Vane_.]

FANE, f[=a]n, _n._ a temple. [L. _fanum_.]

FANFARE, fan-f[=a]r', _n._ a flourish of trumpets or bugles--also
FANFARADE'.--_ns._ FAN'FARON, one who uses bravado: a blusterer, braggart;
FAN'FARONADE, vain boasting: bluster: ostentation.--_v.i._ to bluster. [Fr.
_fanfare_, perh. from the sound.]

FANG, fang, _n._ the tooth of a ravenous beast: a claw or talon: the
venom-tooth of a serpent: (_Shak._) a grip, catch.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to
seize upon, catch.--_adjs._ FANGED, having fangs, clutches, or anything
resembling them; FANG'LESS, having no fangs or tusks: toothless.--LOSE THE
FANG (of a pump), to be dry, to have no water (_Scot._). [A.S. _fang_, from
_fón_, to seize; Ger. _fangen_, to catch, Dut. _vangen_.]

FANGLE, fang'gl, _n._ (_Milt._) fancy.--_adj._ FANG'LED (_obs._ save in
_newfangled_, q.v.), newly made, new-fashioned: showy, gaudy.--_n._

FANION, fan'yun, _n._ a small marking-flag used at a station in surveying.
[O. Fr.,--Low L. _fano_.]

FANNEL, fan'el, _n._ a vexillum or banner.

FANON, fan'on, _n._ a cloth for handling the holy vessels or the offertory
bread: a maniple or napkin used by the celebrant at mass: an orale: a
fannel: one of the lappets of a mitre: (_surg._) a fold of linen laid under
a splint. [O. Fr.]

FANTASIA, fan-tä'zi-a, _n._ a musical composition, not governed by the
ordinary musical rules. [It., from Gr. _phantasia_. See FANCY.]

FANTASY, PHANTASY, fan'ta-si, _n._ fancy: imagination: mental image: love:
whim, caprice.--_v.t._ to fancy, conceive mentally.--_adj._ FAN'TASIED,
filled with fancies.--_n._ FAN'TASM (same as PHANTASM).--_adj._ FAN'TASQUE,
fantastic.--_ns._ FAN'TAST, a person of fantastic ideas; FANTAS'TIC, one
who is fantastical.--_adjs._ FANTAS'TIC, -AL, fanciful: not real:
capricious: whimsical: wild.--_adv._ FANTAS'TICALLY.--_n._
FANTAS'TICO (_Shak._), a fantastic. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _phantasticus_--Gr.
_phantastikos_, _phantazein_, to make visible. _Fancy_ is a doublet.]

FANTOCCINI, fan-to-ch[=e]'n[=e], _n.pl._ puppets worked by machinery:
dramatic performances by puppets. [It., pl. of _fantoccino_, dim. of
_fantoccio_, a puppet--_fante_, a boy.]

FANTOM, fan'tom, _n._ Same as PHANTOM.

FAP, fap, _adj._ (_Shak._) fuddled, drunk.

FAQUIR, fak-[=e]r', _n._ Same as FAKIR.

FAR, fär, _adj._ remote: more distant of two: remote from or contrary to
purpose or design.--_adv._ to a great distance in time, space, or
proportion: remotely: considerably or in great part: very much: to a great
height: to a certain point, degree, or distance.--_v.t._ (_prov._) to
remove to a distance.--_adjs._ FAR'-AWAY', distant: abstracted,
absent-minded; FAR'-FETCHED, fetched or brought from a remote place:
forced, unnatural--(_obs._) FAR'FET.--_advs._ FAR'-FORTH (_Spens._), very
far; FAR'MOST, most distant or remote.--_n._ FAR'NESS, the state of being
far: remoteness, distance.--_adj._ and _adv._ FAR'-OFF, distant.--_adjs._
FAR'-REACH'ING, exerting influence to a great distance and for a long time;
FAR'-SIGHT'ED, seeing to a great distance: having defective eyesight for
near objects; FAR'-SOUGHT, sought for at a distance; FAR'-SPENT, far
advanced.--FAR AND AWAY, by a great deal; BY FAR, in a very great degree;
I'LL SEE YOU FAR (or FARTHER) FIRST, I will not do it by any means; IN SO
FAR AS, to the extent that. [A.S. _feor_; Dut. _ver_; Ice. _fiarre_; Ger.

FAR, fär, _n._ (_prov._) a litter of pigs.

FARAD, far'ad, _n._ the name of the practical unit of electrical
capacity--the capacity of a conductor which when raised to a potential of
one volt has a charge of one coulomb.--_adj._ FARAD'IC.--_n._
millionth part of a farad. [From Michael _Faraday_ (1791-1867).]

FARAND, FARRAND, far'and, _adj._ (_Scot._) having a certain favour or
appearance, esp. in such compound forms as _auld-farand_, old-fashioned;
_ill-faured_, ill-favoured, &c. [M. E. _farand_, comely. Origin obscure;
most prob. the verb _fare_ (q.v.).]

FARCE, färs, _n._ a style of comedy marked by low humour and extravagant
wit: ridiculous or empty show.--_n._ FAR'CEUR, a joker.--_adj._
FAR'CICAL.--_n._ FARCICAL'ITY, farcical quality.--_adv._
FAR'CICALLY.--_v.t._ FAR'CIFY, to turn into a farce. [Fr. _farce_,
stuffing, from L. _farc[=i]re_, to stuff, applied, acc. to H. Bradley, to
words put between _Kyrie_ and _Eleison_ in religious services, then to the
interpolated _gag_ in a religious play, next a buffoon performance.]

FARCE, färs, _v.t._ to cram: to stuff, fill with stuffing: (_Shak._) to
swell out.--_n._ FAR'CING, stuffing. [O. Fr. _farsir_--L. _farc[=i]re_, to

FARCY, fär'si, _n._ a disease of horses like glanders--(_obs._)
FAR'CIN.--_adj._ FAR'CIED.--_n._ FAR'CY-BUD, a swollen lymphatic gland, as
in farcy. [Fr. _farcin_--Low L. _farciminum_.]

FARD, färd, _n._ white paint for the face.--_v.t._ to paint with such, to
embellish. [Fr., of Teut. origin, Old High Ger. _farwjan_, to colour.]

FARDAGE, fär'd[=a]j, _n._ (_naut._) loose wood or other material stowed
among the cargo to keep it from shifting, or put under it to keep it above
the bilge. [Fr.]

FARDEL, fär'del, _n._ a pack: anything cumbersome or irksome.--_adj._
FAR'DEL-BOUND, constipated, esp. of cattle and sheep, by the retention of
food in the third stomach. [O. Fr. _fardel_ (Fr. _fardeau_), dim. of
_farde_, a burden--Ar. _fardah_, a package (Devic).]

FARDING-BAG, fär'ding-bag, _n._ the first stomach of a cow or other

FARE, f[=a]r, _v.i._ to get on or succeed: to happen well or ill to: to be
in any particular state, to be, to go on: to feed.--_n._ the price of
passage--(_orig._) a course or passage: those conveyed in a carriage: food
or provisions for the table.--_interj._ FAREWELL', may you fare well! a
wish for safety or success.--_n._ well-wishing at parting: the act of
departure.--_adj._ parting: final. [A.S. _faran_; Ger. _fahren_.]

FARINA, fa-r[=i]'na, or fa-r[=e]'na, _n._ ground corn: meal: starch: pollen
of plants.--_adjs._ FARIN[=A]'CEOUS, mealy; FARINOSE', yielding farina.

FARL, färl, _n._ (_Scot._) the quarter of a round cake of flour or oatmeal.
[_Fardel_, a fourth part.]

FARM, färm, _n._ land let or rented for cultivation or pasturage, with the
necessary buildings: (_Spens._) habitation: (_Shak._) a lease.--_v.t._ to
let out as lands to a tenant: to take on lease: to grant certain rights in
return for a portion of what they yield, as to farm the taxes: to
cultivate, as land.--_adj._ FARM'ABLE.--_ns._ FARM'-BAI'LIFF; FARM'ER, one
who farms or cultivates land: the tenant of a farm: one who collects taxes,
&c., for a certain rate per cent.:--_fem._ FARM'ERESS; FARM'ERING, the
business of a farmer.--_n.pl._ FARM'ERS-GEN'ERAL, the name given before the
French Revolution to the members of a privileged association in France, who
leased the public revenues of the nation.--_ns._ FARM'ERY, the buildings of
a farm; FARM'-HOUSE, a house attached to a farm in which the farmer lives;
FARM'ING, the business of cultivating land; FARM'-L[=A]'BOURER.--_n.pl._
FARM'-OFF'ICES, the offices or outbuildings on a farm.--_ns._ FARM'STEAD, a
farm with the buildings belonging to it; FARM'-YARD, the yard or enclosure
surrounded by the farm buildings. [A.S. _feorm_, goods, entertainment, from
Low L. _firma_--L. _firmus_, firm. The Low L. _firma_ meant a fixed
payment, also a signature (whence our 'firm' in business); from 'rent'
_farm_ passed to 'lease,' then to 'a tract of land held on lease.' _Farm_
is therefore a doublet of _firm_.]

FARO, f[=a]r'o, _n._ a game of chance played by betting on the order in
which certain cards will appear when taken singly from the top of the pack.
[Perh. from King _Pharaoh_ on one of the cards.]

FARRAGO, far-r[=a]'g[=o], _n._ a confused mass.--_adj._ FARR[=A]'GINOUS,
miscellaneous, jumbled. [L., _far_, grain.]

FARRIER, far'i-[.e]r, _n._ one who shoes horses: one who cures the diseases
of horses.--_n._ FARR'IERY, the art of curing the diseases of cattle. [O.
Fr. _ferrier_, through Low L. _ferrarius_, from L. _ferrum_, iron.]

FARROW, far'[=o], _n._ a litter of pigs.--_v.i._ or _v.t._ to bring forth
pigs. [A.S. _fearh_, a pig; Ger. _ferkel_.]

FARROW, far'r[=o], _adj._ not producing young in a particular season, said
of cows. [Ety. dub.; with _farrow cow_ cf. Flem. _verwekoe_, _varwekoe_.]

FARSE, färs, _n._ an explanation of the Latin epistle in the
vernacular.--_v.t._ to extend by interpolation.

FART, fart, _v.i._ to break wind.--_n._ a noisy expulsion of wind. [A.S.
_feortan_; Ger. _farzen_.]

FARTHER, fär'_th_[.e]r, _adj._ (_comp._ of FAR) more far or distant:
tending to a greater distance: longer: additional.--_adv._ at or to a
greater distance; more remotely: beyond: moreover.--_adjs._ and _advs._
FAR'THERMORE, furthermore; FAR'THERMOST, furthermost.--_adj._ FARTHEST
(_superl._ of FAR), most far, distant, or remote.--_adv._ at or to the
greatest distance. [A rather recent form, comp. of _far_, the euphonic _th_
being inserted from the analogy of _further_.]

FARTHING, fär'_th_ing, _n._ the fourth of a penny: anything very small:
(_B._) the rendering for two names of coins, one the fourth part of the
other--_assarion_, used as the Gr. equivalent of the L. _as_, and
_kodrantes_ (L. _quadrans_), a coin equivalent to two _lepta_.--_n._
FAR'THINGFUL. [A.S. _féorthing_, a fourth part--_féortha_, fourth, and dim.
_-ing_, or _-ling_.]

FARTHINGALE, fär'_th_ing-g[=a]l, _n._ a kind of crinoline of whalebone for
distending women's dress. [O. Fr. _verdugale_--Sp. _verdugado_, hooped,
_verdugo_, rod.]

FASCES, fas'[=e]z, _n.pl._ a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle,
borne before the ancient Roman principal magistrates. [L. _fascis_, a

FASCIA, fash'i-a, _n._ (_archit._) a flat space or band between mouldings:
(_anat._) a layer of condensed connective tissue between some muscle and
any other tissue.--_adjs._ FAS'CIAL; FAS'CIATED.--_n._ FASCI[=A]'TION
(_bot._), a form of monstrosity by the flattening of a single stem, or the
lateral union of several stems. [L.]

FASCICLE, fas'i-kl, _n._ a little bundle: (_bot._) a close cluster, the
flowers crowded together, as in the sweet-william--also
in a bundle.--_n._ FASCIC'ULUS, a fascicle: a part of a book issued in
parts. [L. _fasciculus_, dim. of _fascis_, a bundle.]

FASCINATE, fas'i-n[=a]t, _v.t._ to control by the glance: to charm: to
captivate: to enchant, esp. by the evil eye.--_adj._ FAS'CINATING,
charming, delightful.--_n._ FASCIN[=A]'TION, the act of charming: power to
harm by looks or spells: mysterious attractive power exerted by a man's
words or manner: irresistible power of alluring: state of being fascinated.
[L. _fascin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_; perh. allied to Gr. _baskainein_, to

FASCINE, fas-s[=e]n', _n._ (_fort._) a brushwood faggot bound together with
wire, yarn, or withes, used to fill ditches, &c. [Fr.,--L.
_fascina_--_fascis_, a bundle.]

FASH, fash, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to trouble, annoy.--_v.i._ to be vexed at, to
take trouble or pains.--_n._ pains, trouble.--_adj._ FASH'IOUS,
troublesome, vexatious.--_ns._ FASH'IOUSNESS, FASH'ERY. [O. Fr. _fascher_
(Fr. _fâcher_)--L. _fastidium_, _fastidiosus_, fastidious.]

FASHION, fash'un, _n._ the make or cut of a thing: form or pattern:
prevailing mode or shape of dress: a prevailing custom: manner: genteel
society: appearance.--_v.t._ to make: to mould according to a pattern: to
suit or adapt.--_adj._ FASH'IONABLE, made according to prevailing fashion:
prevailing or in use at any period: observant of the fashion in dress or
living: moving in high society: patronised by people of fashion.--_n._ a
person of fashion.--_n._ FASH'IONABLENESS.--_adv._ FASH'IONABLY.--_ns._
(_Shak._), behaving like a fop.--AFTER, or IN, A FASHION, in a way: to a
certain extent; IN THE FASHION, in accordance with the prevailing style of
dress, &c.--opp. to _Out of fashion_. [O. Fr. _fachon_--L.
_faction-em_--_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FAST, fast, _adj._ firm: fixed: steadfast: fortified: (of sleep) sound
(_Shak._).--_adv._ firmly, unflinchingly: soundly or sound (asleep):
quickly: close, near.--_n._ FAST-AND-LOOSE, the name of a cheating game
practised at fairs--called also _Prick-the-garter_.--_adj._ FAST'-HAND'ED,
close-fisted.--_adv._ FAST'LY (_Shak._), firmly.--_n._ FAST'NESS,
fixedness: a stronghold, fortress, castle.--FAST BY, close to.--PLAY FAST
AND LOOSE (from the foregoing), to be unreliable, to say one thing and do
another; HARD-AND-FAST (see HARD). [A.S. _fæst_; Ger. _fest_.]

FAST, fast, _adj._ quick: rapid: rash: dissipated.--_adv._ swiftly: in
rapid succession: extravagantly.--_adj._ FAST'ISH, somewhat fast. [A
special use of _fast_, firm, derived from the Scand., in the sense of

FAST, fast, _v.i._ to keep from food: to go hungry: to abstain from food in
whole or part, as a religious duty.--_n._ abstinence from food: special
abstinence enjoined by the church: the day or time of fasting.--_ns._
FAST'-DAY, a day of religious fasting: (_Scot._) a day for humiliation and
prayer, esp. before celebrations of the Lord's Supper; FAST'ENS, short for
_Fastens-eve_ (Scot. _Fasten-e'en_ and _Fastern's-e'en_), _Fastens
Tuesday_, Shrove Tuesday; FAST'ER, one who fasts: FAST'ING, religious
abstinence. [A.S. _fæstan_, to fast; Ger. _fasten_, to keep: perh. allied
with _fast_, firm, in the sense of making strict.]

FASTEN, fas'n, _v.t._ to make fast or tight: to fix securely: to attach
firmly one thing to another: to confirm.--_v.i._ to fix itself.--_n._
FAS'TENING, that which fastens.

FASTI, fas't[=i], _n.pl._ those days among the ancient Romans on which it
was lawful to transact legal or public business--opp. to _Nefasti_: an
enumeration of the days of the year, a calendar. [L.]

FASTIDIOUS, fas-tid'i-us, _adj._ affecting superior taste: over-nice:
difficult to please.--_adv._ FASTID'IOUSLY.--_n._ FASTID'IOUSNESS. [L.
_fastidiosus_--_fastidium_, loathing--_fastus_, pride, _tædium_, loathing.]

FASTIGIATE, fas-tij'i-[=a]t, _adj._ pointed, sloping to a point or
edge--also FASTIG'IATED.--_n._ FASTIG'IUM, the apex of a building: the
pediment of a portico. [L. _fastig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_fastigium_, a
gable-end, roof.]

FAT, fat, _adj._ plump, fleshy: fruitful, esp. profitable: gross: thick,
full-bodied, esp. of printing-types.--_n._ an oily substance under the
skin: solid animal oil: the richest part of anything.--_v.t._ to make
fat.--_v.i._ to grow fat:--_pr.p._ fat'ting; _pa.p._ fat'ted.--_adj._
FAT'BRAINED (_Shak._), dull of apprehension.--_ns._ FAT'-HEN (_prov._), any
one of various plants of thick succulent foliage, esp. pigweed, orach, and
ground-ivy; FAT'LING, a young animal fattened for slaughter.--_adj._ small
and fat.--_n._ FAT'-LUTE, a mixture of pipe-clay and linseed-oil, for
filling joints, &c.--_adv._ FAT'LY, grossly: in a lumbering manner.--_n._
FAT'NESS, quality or state of being fat: fullness of flesh: richness:
fertility: that which makes fertile.--_v.t._ FAT'TEN, to make fat or
fleshy: to make fertile.--_v.i._ to grow fat.--_ns._ FAT'TENER, he who, or
that which, fattens; FAT'TENING, the process of making fat: state of
growing fat; FAT'TINESS.--_adjs._ FAT'TISH, somewhat fat; FAT'-WITTED,
dull, stupid; FAT'TY, containing fat or having the qualities of fat.--FAT
IMAGES, those in relief.--THE FAT IS IN THE FIRE, things have gone to
confusion. [A.S. _fæt_; Ger. _fett_.]

FAT, fat, _n._ a vessel for holding liquids: a vat: a dry measure of nine
bushels. [See VAT.]

FATA MORGANA, fä'tä mor-gä'nä, a striking kind of mirage seen most often in
the Strait of Messina. [Supposed to be caused by the fairy (_fata_)
_Morgana_ of Arthurian romance.]

FATE, f[=a]t, _n._ inevitable destiny or necessity: appointed lot:
ill-fortune: doom: final issue: (_pl._) the three goddesses of fate,
Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, who determined the birth, life, and death of
men--the FATAL SISTERS.--_adj._ F[=A]T'AL, belonging to or appointed by
fate: causing ruin or death: mortal: calamitous.--_ns._ F[=A]T'ALISM, the
doctrine that all events are subject to fate, and happen by unavoidable
necessity; F[=A]T'ALIST, one who believes in fatalism.--_adj._
F[=A]T'ALISTIC, belonging to or partaking of fatalism.--_n._ FATAL'ITY, the
state of being fatal or unavoidable: the decree of fate: fixed tendency to
disaster or death: mortality: a fatal occurrence.--_adv._
F[=A]T'ALLY.--_adjs._ F[=A]T'ED, doomed: destined: (_Shak._) invested with
the power of destiny: (_Dryden_) enchanted; FATE'FUL, charged with
fate.--_adv._ FATE'FULLY.--_n._ FATE'FULNESS. [L. _fatum_, a
prediction--_fatus_, spoken--_f[=a]ri_, to speak.]

FATHER, fä'_th_[.e]r, _n._ a male parent: an ancestor or forefather: a
fatherly protector: a contriver or originator: a title of respect applied
to a venerable man, to confessors, monks, priests, &c.: a member of certain
fraternities, as 'Fathers of the Oratory,' &c.: the oldest member of any
profession or other body: one of a group of ecclesiastical writers of the
early centuries, usually ending with Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine: the
first person of the Trinity.--_v.t._ to adopt: to ascribe to one as his
offspring or production.--_ns._ FA'THERHOOD, state of being a father:
fatherly authority; FA'THER-IN-LAW, the father of one's husband or wife;
FA'THERLAND, the land of one's fathers--from the Ger. _Vaterland_;
FA'THER-LASH'ER, a name applied to two bull-heads found on the British
coasts, belonging to the Gurnard family.--_adj._ FA'THERLESS, destitute of
a living father: without a known author.--_ns._ FA'THERLESSNESS;
FA'THERLINESS.--_adj._ FA'THERLY, like a father in affection and care:
paternal.--_n._ FA'THERSHIP.--HOLY FATHER, the Pope.--BE GATHERED TO ONE'S
FATHERS (_B._), to die and be buried. [A.S. _fæder_; Ger. _vater_, L.
_pater_, Gr. _pat[=e]r_.]

FATHOM, fa_th_'um, _n._ a nautical measure=6 feet: depth: (_Shak._)
penetration.--_v.t._ to try the depth of: to comprehend or get to the
bottom of.--_adjs._ FATH'OMABLE; FATH'OMLESS.--_n._ FATH'OM-LINE, a
sailor's line and lead for taking soundings. [A.S. _faethm_; Dut. _vadem_,
Ger. _faden_.]

FATIDICAL, fa-tid'ik-al, _adj._ having power to foretell future events:
prophetical.--_adv._ FATID'ICALLY. [L. _fatidicus_--_fatum_, fate,
_dic[)e]re_, to tell.]

FATIGUE, fa-t[=e]g', _n._ weariness from labour of body or of mind: toil:
military work, distinct from the use of arms.--_v.t._ to reduce to
weariness: to exhaust one's strength: to harass.--_pr.p._ fatigu'ing;
_pa.p._ fatigued'.--_adj._ FAT'IGATE (_Shak._), fatigued.--_n._
FATIGUE'-D[=U]'TY, the part of a soldier's work distinct from the use of
arms--also in _fatigue-dress_, &c.--_adv._ FATIGU'INGLY. [Fr.,--L.
_fatig[=a]re_, to weary.]

FATISCENT, f[=a]-tis'ent, _adj._ gaping.--_n._ FATIS'CENCE.

FATTRELS, fat'relz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) ends of ribbon. [O. Fr. _fatraille_,

FATUOUS, fat'[=u]-us, _adj._ silly: imbecile: without reality--also
FAT[=U]'ITOUS.--_n._ FAT[=U]ITY, unconscious stupidity: imbecility. [L.

FAUBOURG, f[=o]'b[=oo]rg, _n._ a suburb just beyond the walls, or a
district recently included within a city. [O. Fr. _forbourg_, lit.
'out-town'--_fors_ (Fr. _hors_)--L. _foris_, out of doors, and O. Fr.
_bourg_, town.]

FAUCES, faw's[=e]z, _n.pl._ the upper part of the throat, from the root of
the tongue to the entrance of the gullet.--_adj._ FAU'CAL, produced in the
fauces, as certain Semitic guttural sounds. [L.]

FAUCET, faw'set, _n._ a pipe inserted in a barrel to draw liquid. [Fr.

FAUGH, faw, _interj._ an exclamation of contempt or disgust. [Prob. from
the sound.]

FAULCHION, an obsolete form of _falchion_.

FAULT, fawlt, _n._ a failing: error: blemish: imperfection: a slight
offence: (_geol._, _min._) a displacement of strata or veins: (_tennis_) a
stroke in which the player fails to serve the ball into the proper
place.--_adj._ FAULT'FUL (_Shak._), full of faults or crimes.--_adv._
FAULT'ILY.--_n._ FAULT'INESS.--_adj._ FAULT'LESS, without fault or
defect.--_adv._ FAULT'LESSLY.--_n._ FAULT'LESSNESS.--_adj._ FAULT'Y,
imperfect, defective: guilty of a fault: blamable.--AT FAULT, open to
blame: (of dogs) unable to find the scent; FIND FAULT (_with_), to censure
for some defect. [O. Fr. _faute_, _falte_--L. _fall[)e]re_, to deceive.]

FAUNA, fawn'a, _n._ animals collectively, or those of a particular country,
or of a particular geological period:--_pl._ FAUN'Æ, FAUN'AS.--_n._ FAUN, a
Roman rural deity, protector of shepherds.--_adj._ FAUN'AL.--_n._ FAUN'IST,
one who studies a fauna. [L. _faunus_, from _fav[=e]re_, _fautum_, to

FAUTEUIL, f[=o]-tey', _n._ an arm-chair, esp. a president's chair, the seat
of one of the forty members of the French Academy. [Fr.]

FAUTOR, faw'tor, _n._ a favourer or supporter. [O. Fr. _fauteur_--L.
_fautor_--_fav[=e]re_, to favour.]

FAVEOLATE, f[=a]-v[=e]'[=o]-l[=a]t, _adj._ honeycombed.--Also FAVOSE'.

FAUVETTE, f[=o]-vet', _n._ a name applied to warblers in general. [Fr.]

FAVONIAN, fav-[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to the west wind, favourable.
[L. _Favonius_, the west wind.]

FAVOUR, f[=a]'vur, _n._ countenance: good-will: a kind deed: an act of
grace or lenity: indulgence: partiality: advantage: a knot of ribbons worn
at a wedding, or anything worn publicly as a pledge of a woman's favour:
(_arch._) countenance, appearance: a letter or written communication:
(_Shak._) an attraction or grace.--_v.t._ to regard with good-will: to be
on the side of: to treat indulgently: to afford advantage to: (_coll._) to
resemble.--_adj._ F[=A]'VOURABLE, friendly: propitious: conducive to:
advantageous.--_n._ F[=A]'VOURABLENESS.--_adv._ F[=A]'VOURABLY.--_p.adj._
F[=A]'VOURED, having a certain appearance, featured--as in _ill-favoured_,
_well-favoured_.--_ns._ F[=A]'VOUREDNESS; F[=A]'VOURER; F[=A]'VOURITE, a
person or thing regarded with favour or preference: one unduly loved: a
kind of curl of the hair, affected by ladies of the 18th century.--_adj._
esteemed, preferred.--_n._ F[=A]'VOURITISM, the practice of showing
partiality.--_adj._ F[=A]'VOURLESS, without favour: (_Spens._) not
favouring.--FAVOURS TO COME, favours still expected; CURRY FAVOUR (see
CURRY). [O. Fr.,--L. _favor_--_fav[=e]re_, to favour, befriend.]

FAVUS, f[=a]v'us, _n._ a disease of the skin, chiefly of the hairy scalp.
[L. 'a honeycomb.']

FAW, faw, _n._ a gipsy. [From the surname _Faa_.]

FAWN, fawn, _n._ a young deer.--_adj._ resembling a fawn in colour.--_v.i._
to bring forth a fawn. [O. Fr. _faon_, through Low L. from L. _foetus_,

FAWN, fawn, _v.i._ to cringe, to flatter in a servile way (with
_upon_).--_n._ (_rare_) a servile cringe or bow: mean flattery.--_ns._
FAWN'ER, one who flatters to gain favour; FAWN'ING, mean flattery:
sycophancy.--_adv._ FAWN'INGLY.--_n._ FAWN'INGNESS. [A variant of _fain_,
to rejoice--A.S. _fægen_, glad.]

FAY, f[=a], _n._ a fairy. [O. Fr. _fee_--L. _fata_, a fairy--L. _fatum_,

FAY, f[=a], _n._ (_Shak._) faith.

FAY, f[=a], _v.i._ to fit, unite closely.--_v.t._ to fit together closely.
[A.S. _fégan_; Ger. _fügen_.]

FAY, FEY, f[=a], _v.t._ (_prov._) to clean out, as a ditch.

FEAGUE, f[=e]g, _v.t._ (_obs._) to whip: to perplex. [Cog. with Dut.
_vegen_, Ger. _fegen_.]

FEAL, f[=e]'al, _adj._ (_obs._) loyal, faithful.

FEAL, f[=e]l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to conceal.

FEALTY, f[=e]'al-ti, or f[=e]l'ti, _n._ the vassal's oath of fidelity to
his feudal lord: loyalty. [O. Fr. _fealte_--L. _fidelitat-em_--_fidelis_,
faithful--_fid[)e]re_, to trust.]

FEAR, f[=e]r, _n._ a painful emotion excited by danger: apprehension of
danger or pain: alarm: the object of fear: aptness to cause fear: (_B._)
deep reverence: piety towards God.--_v.t._ to regard with fear: to expect
with alarm: (_B._) to stand in awe of: to venerate: (_obs._) to terrify: to
make afraid.--_v.i._ to be afraid: to be in doubt.--_adj._ FEAR'FUL,
timorous: exciting intense fear: terrible.--_adv._ FEAR'FULLY.--_n._
FEAR'FULNESS.--_adj._ FEAR'LESS, without fear: daring: brave.--_adv._
DREADNAUGHT).--_adj._ FEAR'SOME, causing fear, frightful.--_adv._
FEAR'SOMELY. [A.S. _f['æ]r_, fear, _f['æ]ran_, to terrify; cf. Ger.
_gefahr_, Ice. _fár_, harm, mischief.]

FEAR, f[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a companion. [See FERE.]

FEASIBLE, f[=e]z'i-bl, _adj._ practicable.--_ns._ FEAS'IBLENESS,
FEASIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ FEAS'IBLY. [Fr. _faisable_, that can be
done--_faire_, _faisant_--L. _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FEAST, f[=e]st, _n._ a day of unusual solemnity or joy: a festival in
commemoration of some event--_movable_, such as occurs on a specific day of
the week succeeding a certain day of the month, as _Easter_; _immovable_,
at a fixed date, as Christmas: a rich and abundant repast: rich enjoyment
for the mind or heart.--_v.i._ to hold a feast: to eat sumptuously: to
receive intense delight.--_v.t._ to entertain sumptuously.--_ns._
FEAST'-DAY; FEAST'ER.--_adj._ FEAST'FUL, festive, joyful, luxurious.--_ns._
FEAST'ING; FEAST'-RITE, a rite or custom observed at feasts.--_adj._
FEAST'-WON (_Shak._), won or bribed by feasting.--FEAST OF FOOLS, FEAST OF
ASSES, medieval festivals, held between Christmas and Epiphany, in which a
burlesque bishop was enthroned in church, and a burlesque mass said by his
orders, and an ass driven round in triumph.--DOUBLE FEAST (_eccles._), one
on which the antiphon is doubled. [O. Fr. _feste_ (Fr. _fête_)--L.
_festum_, a holiday, _festus_, solemn, festal.]

FEAT, f[=e]t, _n._ a deed manifesting extraordinary strength, skill, or
courage.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to fashion.--_adj._ neat, deft.--_adj._
FEAT'EOUS, dexterous, neat.--_adv._ FEAT'LY, neatly,
dexterously--(_Spens._) FEAT'EOUSLY. [Fr. _fait_--L. _factum_--L.
_fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FEATHER, fe_th_'[.e]r, _n._ one of the growths which form the covering of a
bird: a feather-like ornament: the feathered end of an arrow: nature, kind,
as in 'birds of a feather:' birds collectively: anything light or
trifling.--_v.t._ to furnish or adorn with feathers.--_ns._ FEATH'ER-BED, a
mattress filled with feathers; FEATH'ER-BOARD'ING (same as
WEATHER-BOARDING, q.v.).--_p.adj._ FEATH'ERED, covered or fitted with
feathers, or anything feather-like: like the flight of a feathered animal,
swift: smoothed as with feathers.--_ns._ FEATH'ER-EDGE, an edge of a board
or plank thinner than the other edge; FEATH'ER-GRASS, a perennial grass, so
called from the feathery appearance of its awns; FEATH'ER-HEAD,
FEATH'ER-BRAIN, a frivolous person; FEATH'ERINESS; FEATH'ERING, plumage:
the fitting of feathers to arrows: (_archit._) an arrangement of small arcs
or foils separated by projecting cusps, frequently forming the feather-like
ornament on the inner mouldings of arches; FEATH'ER-STAR, a crinoid of
feathery appearance and radiate structure; FEATH'ER-WEIGHT, the lightest
weight that may be carried by a racing-horse: a boxer, wrestler, &c., of a
class below the light-weights--hence one of small importance or
ability.--_adj._ FEATH'ERY, pertaining to, resembling, or covered with
feathers.--FEATHER AN OAR, to turn the blade of the oar horizontally as it
comes out of the water, thus lessening the resistance of the air; FEATHER
ONE'S NEST, to accumulate wealth for one's self while serving others in a
position of trust.--A FEATHER IN ONE'S CAP, some striking mark of
distinction; BE IN HIGH FEATHER, to be greatly elated or in high spirits;
MAKE THE FEATHERS FLY, to throw into confusion by a sudden attack; SHOW THE
WHITE FEATHER, to show signs of cowardice--a white feather in a gamecock's
tail being considered as a sign of degeneracy. [A.S. _feðer_; Ger. _feder_;
L. _penna_, Gr. _pteron_.]

FEATURE, f[=e]t'[=u]r, _n._ the marks by which anything is recognised: the
prominent traits of anything: the cast of the face: (_pl._) the
countenance.--_v.t._ (_coll._) to have features resembling.--_adjs._
FEAT'URED, with features well marked; FEAT'URELESS, destitute of distinct
features; FEAT'URELY, handsome. [O. Fr. _faiture_, from fut. part. of L.
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FEBRICULE, feb'ri-k[=u]l, _n._ a slight fever.--_adj._ FEBRI'CULOSE.--_n._
FEBRICULOS'ITY. [L. _febricula_, dim. of _febris_, fever.]

FEBRIFIC, fe-brif'ik, _adj._ producing fever, feverish.--Also
FEBRIF[=A]'CIENT. [L. _febris_, fever, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FEBRIFUGE, feb'ri-f[=u]j, _n._ a medicine for removing fever.--_adj._
FEBRIF'UGAL (or feb'-). [L. _febris_, fever, _fug[=a]re_, to put to

FEBRILE, f[=e]'bril, or feb'ril, _adj._ pertaining to fever:
feverish.--_n._ FEBRIL'ITY. [Fr.,--L. _febris_, fever.]

FEBRONIANISM, feb-r[=o]'ni-an-izm, _n._ a system of doctrine antagonistic
to the claims of the Pope and asserting the independence of national
churches, propounded in 1763 by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim under the
pseudonym 'Justinus _Febronius_.'

FEBRUARY, feb'r[=oo]-ar-i, _n._ the second month of the year. [L.
_Februarius_ (_mensis_), the month of expiation, _februa_, the feast of



FECK, fek, _n._ (_Scot._) strength, value, quantity, number: the bulk of
anything.--_adj._ FECK'LESS, spiritless.--_adv._ FECK'LY, mostly. [Corr. of

FECULA, fek'[=u]-la, _n._ starch obtained as a sediment by breaking down
certain plants or seeds in water. [L. _fæcula_, dim. of _fæx_, dregs.]

FECULENT, fek'[=u]-lent, _adj._ containing fæces or sediment: muddy:
foul.--_ns._ FEC'ULENCE, FEC'ULENCY.

FECUND, fek'und, _adj._ fruitful: fertile: prolific.--_v.t._ FEC'UND[=A]TE,
FECUND'[=A]TE, to make fruitful: to impregnate.--_ns._ FECUND[=A]'TION, the
act of impregnating: the state of being impregnated; FECUND'ITY,
fruitfulness: prolificness in female animals. [Fr.,--L. _fecundus_,

FED, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of FEED.

FEDARY, fed'ar-i (_Shak._). Same as FEDERARY.

FEDERAL, fed'[.e]r-al, _adj._ pertaining to or consisting of a treaty or
covenant: confederated, founded upon mutual agreement: of a union or
government in which several states, while independent in home affairs,
combine for national or general purposes, as in the United States (in the
American Civil War, _Federal_ was the name applied to the states of the
North which defended the Union against the _Confederate_ separatists of the
South).--_n._ a supporter of federation: a Unionist soldier in the American
Civil War.--_n._ FED'ERACY.--_v.t._ FED'ERALISE.--_ns._ FED'ERALISM, the
principles or cause maintained by federalists; FED'ERALIST, a supporter of
a federal constitution or union; FED'ERARY (_Shak._), a
confederate.--_adj._ FED'ER[=A]TE, united by league: confederated.--_n._
FEDER[=A]'TION, the act of uniting in league: a federal union.--_adj._
FED'ER[=A]TIVE, united in league.--FEDERAL (or COVENANT) THEOLOGY, that
first worked out by Cocceius (1603-69), based on the idea of two covenants
between God and man--of Works and of Grace (see COVENANT). [Fr.
_fédéral_--L. _foedus_, _foederis_, a treaty, akin to _fid[)e]re_, to

FEE, f[=e], _n._ price paid for services, as to a lawyer or physician:
recompense, wages: the sum exacted for any special privilege: a grant of
land for feudal service: an unconditional inheritance--FEE'-SIM'PLE,
possession: ownership.--_v.t._ to pay a fee to: to hire:--_pr.p._ fee'ing;
_pa.p._ feed.--_ns._ FEE'-GRIEF (_Shak._), a private grief; FEE'ING-MAR'KET
(_Scot._), a fair or market at which farm-servants are hired for the year
or half-year following; FEE'-TAIL, an entailed estate, which on failure of
heirs reverts to the donor.--BASE FEE, a qualified fee, a freehold estate
of inheritance to which a qualification is annexed; CONDITIONAL FEE, a fee
granted on condition, or limited to particular heirs: the estate of a
mortgagee of land, possession of which is conditional on payment; GREAT
FEE, the holding of a tenant of the Crown. [A.S. _feoh_, cattle, property:
a special kind of property, property in land; Ger. _vieh_, Ice. _fé_;
allied to L. _pecus_, cattle, _pecunia_, money.]

FEEBLE, f[=e]'bl, _adj._ weak: wanting in strength of body, energy, or
efficiency: showing weakness or incapacity: faint: dull.--_adj._
FEE'BLE-MIND'ED, weak-minded: irresolute.--_n._ FEE'BLENESS--(_Spens._)
FE'BLESSE.--_adv._ FEE'BLY. [O. Fr. _foible_, for _floible_--L. _flebilis_,
lamentable, from _fl[=e]re_, to weep.]

FEED, f[=e]d, _v.t._ to give food to: to nourish: to furnish with necessary
material: to foster.--_v.i._ to take food: to nourish one's self by
eating:--_pr.p._ feed'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ fed.--_n._ an allowance of
provender, esp. to cattle: the motion forward of anything being fed to a
machine: (_Milt._) a meal: (_Shak._) pasture land.--_ns._ FEED'ER, he who
feeds, or that which supplies: an eater: one who abets another: one who
fattens cattle: (_obs._) a parasite; FEED'-HEAD, the cistern that supplies
water to the boiler of a steam-engine; FEED'-HEAT'ER, an apparatus for
heating the water supplied to a steam-boiler; FEED'ING, act of eating: that
which is eaten: pasture: the placing of the sheets of paper in position for
a printing or ruling machine; FEED'ING-BOTT'LE, a bottle for supplying
liquid food to an infant; FEED'-PIPE, a pipe for supplying a boiler or
cistern with water; FEED'-PUMP, a force-pump for supplying a steam-engine
boiler with water. [A.S. _fédan_, to feed.]

FEE-FAW-FUM, f[=e]'-faw'-fum', _n._ a nursery word for anything frightful.

FEEL, f[=e]l, _v.t._ to perceive by the touch: to handle or try by touch:
to be conscious of: to be keenly sensible of: to have an inward persuasion
of.--_v.i._ to know by the touch: to have the emotions excited: to produce
a certain sensation when touched, as to feel hard or hot:--_pr.p._
feel'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ felt.--_n._ the sensation of touch.--_ns._
FEEL'ER, a remark cautiously dropped, or any indirect stratagem, to sound
the opinions of others: (_pl._) jointed fibres in the heads of insects,
&c., possessed of a delicate sense of touch, termed _antennæ_; FEEL'ING,
the sense of touch: perception of objects by touch: consciousness of
pleasure or pain: tenderness: emotion: sensibility, susceptibility,
sentimentality: opinion as resulting from emotion: (_pl._) the affections
or passions.--_adj._ expressive of great sensibility or tenderness: easily
affected.--_adv._ FEEL'INGLY.--FEEL AFTER (_B._), to search for. [A.S.
_félan_, to feel; Ger. _fühlen_; prob. akin to L. _palp[=a]re_, to quiver.]

FEER, f[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a companion, a spouse. [A.S. _ge-féra_, a
companion--_ge-féran_, to travel.]


FEET, f[=e]t, _pl._ of FOOT.--_adj._ FEET'LESS, without feet.

FEIGN, f[=a]n, _v.t._ to invent: to imagine: to make a show or pretence of,
to counterfeit, simulate.--_adj._ FEIGNED, pretended: simulating.--_adv._
FEIGN'EDLY.--_ns._ FEIGN'EDNESS; FEIGN'ING. [Fr. _feindre_, pr.p.
_feignant_, to feign.--L. _fing[)e]re_, _fictum_, to form.]

FEINT, f[=a]nt, _n._ a false appearance: a pretence: a mock-assault: a
deceptive movement in fencing, boxing, &c.--_v.i._ to make a feint. [Fr.,
see above.]

FELDSPAR, feld'spär, _n._ (_min._) a general term for the most important
rock-forming group of minerals--all anhydrous silicates of alumina--divided
into those in which the minerals crystallise in _monoclinic_ and in
_triclinic_ forms--also FEL'SPAR, FELD'SPATH.--_adjs._ FELDSPATH'IC,
FELD'SPATHOSE. [Ger. _feldspath_--_feld_, a field, _spath_, spar.]

FELICITY, fe-lis'i-ti, _n._ happiness: delight: a blessing: a happy
event.--_v.t._ FELIC'IT[=A]TE, to express joy or pleasure to: to
congratulate.--_n._ FELICIT[=A]'TION, the act of congratulating.--_adj._
FELIC'ITOUS, happy: prosperous: delightful: appropriate.--_adv._
FELIC'ITOUSLY. [Fr.,--L. _felicitat-em_, from _felix_, _-icis_, happy.]

FELINE, f[=e]'l[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to the cat or the cat kind: like a
cat.--_ns._ FELIN'ITY; F[=E]'LIS, the cats as a genus, the typical genus of
family F[=E]'LIDÆ and subfamily F[=E]L[=I]'NÆ. [L. _felinus_--_felis_, a

FELL, fel, _n._ a barren hill. [Ice. _fjall_; Dan. _fjeld_.]

FELL, fel, _pa.t._ of FALL.

FELL, fel, _v.t._ to cause to fall: to bring to the ground: to cut
down.--_adj._ FELL'ABLE.--_n._ FELL'ER, a cutter of wood. [A.S. _fellan_,
causal form of _feallan_, to fall.]

FELL, fel, _n._ a skin.--_n._ FELL'MONGER, a dealer in skins. [A.S. _fel_;
cf. L. _pellis_, Gr. _pella_, Ger. _fell_.]

FELL, fel, _n._ (_Spens._) anger, melancholy. [L. _fel_, bile.]

FELL, fel, _adj._ cruel: fierce: bloody: deadly: keen, eager, spirited:
(_Scot._) very great, huge.--_adj._ FELL'-LURKING (_Shak._), lurking with
treacherous purpose.--_n._ FELL'NESS.--_adv._ FELL'Y. [O. Fr. _fel_,
cruel--L. _fello_. See FELON.]

FELLAH, fel'ä, _n._ an Arabic name applied contemptuously by the Turks to
the labouring or agricultural population of Egypt--descendants of the
ancient Egyptian, intermingled with Syrians, Arabs, &c.:--_pl._ FELL'AHS,
FELL'AHÎN. [Ar., 'tiller of the soil.']

FELLIC, fel'ik, _adj._ obtained from bile--also FELLIN'IC.--_adj._
FELLIF'LUOUS, flowing with gall. [L. _fel_, gall.]


FELLONOUS, fel'lon-us, _adj._ (_Spens._) fell.--_adj._ FEL'LONEST, most

FELLOW, fel'[=o], _n._ an associate: a companion and equal: one of a pair,
a mate: a member of a university who enjoys a fellowship: a member of a
scientific or other society: an individual, a person generally: a worthless
person.--_ns._ FELL'OW-CIT'IZEN, one belonging to the same city;
FELL'OW-COMM'ONER, at Cambridge and elsewhere, a privileged class of
undergraduates, dining at the Fellows' table; FELL'OW-CREA'TURE, one of the
same race; FELL'OW-FEEL'ING, feeling between fellows or equals: sympathy;
FELL'OW-HEIR, a joint-heir.--_adv._ FELL'OWLY (_Shak._),
companionable.--_ns._ FELL'OW-MAN, a man of the same common nature with
one's self; FELL'OW-SERV'ANT, one who has the same master; FELL'OWSHIP, the
state of being a fellow or partner: friendly intercourse: communion: an
association: an endowment in a college for the support of graduates called
Fellows: the position and income of a fellow: (_arith._) the proportional
division of profit and loss among partners.--GOOD FELLOWSHIP,
companionableness; RIGHT HAND OF FELLOWSHIP, the right hand given by one
minister or elder to another at an ordination in some churches. [M. E.
_felawe_--Ice. _félagi_, a partner in goods, from _fé_ (Ger. _vieh_),
cattle, property, and _lag_, a laying together, a law. Cf. Eng. FEE, and

FELLY, fel'[=i], FELLOE, fel'[=o], _n._ one of the curved pieces in the
circumference of a wheel: the circular rim of the wheel. [A.S. _felg_; Ger.

FELON, fel'on, _n._ one guilty of felony: a convict: a wicked person: an
inflamed sore.--_adj._ wicked or cruel.--_adj._ FEL[=O]'NIOUS, wicked:
depraved: done with the deliberate intention to commit crime.--_adv._
FEL[=O]'NIOUSLY.--_n._ FEL[=O]'NIOUSNESS, the quality of being
felonious.--_adj._ FEL'ONOUS (_Spens._), felonious.--_ns._ FEL'ONRY, a body
of felons; FEL'ONY, (_orig._) a crime punished by total forfeiture of
lands, &c.: a grave crime, beyond a misdemeanour, as that punishable by
penal servitude or death. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _fellonem_, _fello_, a traitor,
prob. L. _fel_, gall.]

FELSITE, fel's[=i]t, _n._ a fine-grained, compact rock, a variety of
quartz-porphyry--also FEL'STONE.--_adj._ FELSIT'IC. [Fr.,--Ger. _fels_,


FELT, felt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of FEEL.

FELT, felt, _n._ a fabric formed without weaving, by means of the natural
tendency of the fibres of wool and certain kinds of hair to interlace with
and cling to each other.--_v.t._ to make into felt: to cover with
felt.--_v.t._ FELT'ER, to mat together like felt.--_n._ FELT'ING, the art
or process of making felt: the felt itself. [A.S. _felt_; cf. Dut. _vilt_,
Ger. _filz_.]

FELUCCA, fe-luk'a, _n._ a class of small merchant-vessels, used in the
Mediterranean, with two masts, lateen sails, and often a rudder at each
end. [It. _feluca_, which, like Fr. _felouque_, is from Ar. _fulk_, a

FEMALE, f[=e]'m[=a]l, _adj._ of the sex that produces young: pertaining to
females: (_bot._) having a pistil or fruit-bearing organ.--_n._ one of the
female sex, a woman.--_ns._ FEMAL'ITY, FEMINAL'ITY, the female
nature.--_adj._ FEM'INAL.--_n._ FEMIN[=E]'ITY, the quality of being
female.--_adj._ FEM'ININE, pertaining to women: tender: womanly: (_gram._)
the gender denoting females.--_adv._ FEM'ININELY.--_ns._ FEM'ININENESS;
FEMININ'ITY, the nature of the female sex.--FEMALE SCREW, a screw cut upon
the inward surface of a cylindrical hole in wood or metal; FEMININE RHYME,
a rhyme between words that terminate each in an unaccented syllable. [Fr.
_femelle_--L. _femella_, dim. of _femina_, a woman.]

FEMERELL, fem'er-el, _n._ a louvre or covering on the roof of a kitchen,
&c., to allow the smoke to escape.

FEMUR, f[=e]'mer, _n._ the thigh-bone.--_adj._ FEM'ORAL, belonging to the
thigh.--FEMORAL ARTERY, the main artery of the thigh. [L.
_femoralis_--_femur_, thigh.]

FEN, fen, _n._ a kind of low marshy land often, or partially, covered with
water: a morass or bog.--_ns._ FEN'-BERR'Y, the cranberry; FEN'-FIRE, the
Will-o'-the-wisp.--_adjs._ FEN'NY, FEN'NISH; FEN'-SUCKED (_Shak._), drawn
out of bogs. [A.S. _fenn_; Ice. _fen_.]

FEN, fen, _v.t._ an exclamatory phrase in boys' games, meaning 'Check!'
'Bar!' [Cf. FEND.]

FENCE, fens, _n._ a wall or hedge for enclosing animals or for protecting
land: the art of fencing: defence: a receiver of stolen goods, also a
receiving-house.--_v.t._ to enclose with a fence: to fortify.--_v.i._ to
practise fencing: to conceal the truth by equivocal answers.--_adjs._
FENCED, enclosed with a fence; FENCE'LESS, without fence or enclosure,
open.--_n._ FENC'ER, one who practises fencing with a sword.--_adj._
FENC'IBLE, capable of being fenced or defended.--_n.pl._ FENC'IBLES,
volunteer regiments raised for local defence during a special crisis:
militia enlisted for home service.--_p.adj._ FENC'ING, defending or
guarding.--_n._ the act of erecting a fence: the art of attack and defence
with a sword or other weapon.--_n._ FENC'ING-MAS'TER, one who teaches
fencing.--FENCE THE TABLES, in the ancient usage of Scotland, to debar from
partaking in communion those guilty of any known sin.--SIT ON THE FENCE, to
be still hesitating as between two opinions; SUNK FENCE, a ditch or
water-course. [Abbrev. of _defence_.]

FEND, fend, _v.t._ to ward off: to shut out: to defend.--_v.i._ to offer
resistance: to make provision for.--_n._ self-support, the shift one makes
for one's self.--_adj._ FEND'Y, shifty. [Abbrev. of _defend_.]

FENDER, fend'[.e]r, _n._ a metal guard before a fire to confine the ashes:
a protection for a ship's side against piers, &c., consisting of a bundle
of rope, &c.--_ns._ FEND'ER-BEAM, a fender of wood, protecting a ship's
side in dock: a permanent buffer at the end of a railway siding;
FEND'ER-BOARD, a board protecting the steps of a carriage from the dust
thrown up by the wheels. [_Fend_.]

FENESTELLA, fen-es-tel'a, _n._ a niche on the south side of an altar,
containing the piscina, and sometimes the credence: a genus of Polyzoa,
like the recent 'lace coral,' very common in Palæozoic rocks. [L., dim. of
_fenestra_, a window.]

FENESTRAL, fe-nes'tral, _adj._ belonging to or like a window: with
transparent spots--also FENES'TR[=A]TE.--_n._ FENESTR[=A]'TION, the
arrangement of windows in a building. [L. _fenestralis_--_fenestra_,

FENGITE, fen'j[=i]t, _n._ a transparent alabaster for window panes.

FENIAN, f[=e]'ne-an, _n._ a member of an association of Irishmen founded in
New York in 1857 for the overthrow of the English government in
Ireland.--_adj._ belonging to the legendary Fenians, or to the modern
conspirators.--_n._ F[=E]'NIANISM. [Old Ir. _Féne_, one of the names of the
ancient population of Ireland, confused in modern times with _fíann_, the
militia of Finn and other ancient Irish kings.]

FENKS, fengks, _n._ the refuse of whale-blubber.--Also FINKS.

FENNEC, fen'ek, _n._ a little African fox with large ears. [Moorish.]

FENNEL, fen'el, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous plants, allied to Dill, but
distinguished by the cylindrical, strongly-ribbed fruit, the flower
yellow.--_n._ FENN'EL-FLOW'ER, the _Nigella Damascena_, or ragged lady.
[A.S. _finul_--L. _foeniculum_, fennel--_fenum_, hay.]

FENT, fent, _n._ (_prov._) a slit, crack: a remnant or odd piece. [O. Fr.
_fente_--L. _find[)e]re_, to cleave.]

FENUGREEK, fen'[=u]-gr[=e]k, _n._ a genus of leguminous plants, allied to
clover and melilot. [L. _fenum-græcum_, 'Greek hay.']


FEOFF, fef, _n._ a fief.--_v.t._ to grant possession of a fief or property
in land.--_ns._ FEOFFEE', the person invested with the fief; FEOFF'ER,
FEOFF'OR, he who grants the fief; FEOFF'MENT, the gift of a fief or feoff.
[O. Fr. _feoffer_ or _fiefer_--O. Fr. _fief_. See FEE.]

FERACIOUS, fe-r[=a]'shus, _adj._ fruitful.--_n._ FERAC'ITY (_rare_). [L.
_ferax_, _-acis_--_ferre_, to bear.]

FER-DE-LANCE, f[=a]r'de-längs', _n._ the lance-headed or yellow viper of
tropical America.

FERE, f[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a mate, companion, equal. [A.S. _geféra_, a
companion, _ge-féran_, to travel.]

FERETORY, fer'e-tor-i, _n._ a shrine for relics carried in processions. [L.
_feretrum_--_ferre_, to bear.]

FERIAL, f[=e]'ri-al, _adj._ pertaining to holidays (_feriæ_), belonging to
any day of the week which is neither a fast nor a festival. [Fr.,--L.
_feria_, a holiday.]

FERINE, f[=e]'rin, _adj._ pertaining to, or like, a wild beast:
savage.--_n.pl._ FERÆ (f[=e]'r[=e]), wild animals.--_adj._ F[=E]'RAL, wild,
run wild.--_n._ FER'ITY, wildness.--F[=E]RÆ NATURÆ, those animals that are
wild or not domesticated, including game animals--deer, hares, pheasants,
&c. [L. _ferinus_--_fera_, a wild beast--_ferus_; akin to Gr. _th[=e]r_,
Ger. _thier_, a beast.]

FERINGHEE, fer-ing'g[=e], _n._ a Hindu name for an Englishman.--Also
FARIN'GEE. [A corr. of _Frank_.]

FERLY, fer'li, _adj._ fearful: sudden: singular.--_n._ a wonder.--_v.i._ to
wonder. [A.S. _f['æ]rlic_, sudden; cf. Ger. _ge-fährlich_, dangerous.]

FERM, f[.e]rm, _n._ a farm: (_Spens._) abode, lodging.

FERMATA, fer-mä'ta, _n._ (_mus._) a pause or break. [It.]

FERMENT, f[.e]r'ment, _n._ what excites fermentation, as yeast, leaven:
internal motion amongst the parts of a fluid: agitation: tumult.--_v.t._
FERMENT', to excite fermentation: to inflame.--_v.i._ to rise and swell by
the action of fermentation: to work, used of wine, &c.: to be in excited
action: to be stirred with anger.--_n._ FERMENTABIL'ITY.--_adj._
FERMENT'ABLE, capable of fermentation.--_n._ FERMENT[=A]'TION, the act or
process of fermenting: the change which takes place in liquids exposed to
air: the kind of spontaneous decomposition which produces alcohol: restless
action of the mind or feelings.--_adj._ FERMENT'ATIVE, causing or
consisting in fermentation.--_n._ FERMENT'ATIVENESS.--_adj._
FERMENTES'CIBLE, capable of being fermented. [Fr.,--L. _fermentum_, for
_fervimentum_--_ferv[=e]re_, to boil.]

FERMETURE, fer'me-t[=u]r, _n._ a mechanism for closing the chamber of a
breech-loading gun. [Fr.,--L. _firm[=a]re_, to make fast.]

FERN, fern, _n._ one of the beautiful class of higher or vascular
cryptogamous plants--the natural order _Filices_.--_ns._ FERN'ERY, a place
for rearing ferns; FERN'-OWL, the European goatsucker or night-jar;
FERN'-SEED, the spores of ferns, which, properly gathered, render the
bearers invisible; FERN'SHAW, a thicket of ferns; FERN'TICLE, a
freckle.--_adjs._ FERN'TICLED; FERN'Y. [A.S. _fearn_; Ger. _farn_.]

FEROCIOUS, fe-r[=o]'shus, _adj._ savage, fierce: cruel.--_adv._
FER[=O]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ FER[=O]'CIOUSNESS; FEROC'ITY, savage cruelty of
disposition: untamed fierceness. [L. _ferox_, _ferocis_, wild--_ferus_,

FERRANDINE, fer'an-din, _n._ a silk and wool or silk and hair cloth.--Also

FERRARA, fer-ä'ra, _n._ a make of sword-blade highly esteemed in Scotland
from about the close of the 16th century--often ANDREA FERRARA--said to
have been made at Belluno in Venetia by Cosmo, Andrea, and Gianantonio
_Ferrara_. [Perh. a native of _Ferrara_, or prob. merely the It. _ferrajo_,
a cutler--L. _ferrarius_, a smith.]

FERREOUS, fer'e-us, _adj._ pertaining to, or made of, iron. [L.
_ferreus_--_ferrum_, iron.]

FERRET, fer'et, _n._ ribbon woven from spun silk. [Corr. from It.
_fioretto_--L. _flos_, _floris_, a flower.]

FERRET, fer'et, _n._ a half-tamed albino variety of the polecat, employed
in unearthing rabbits.--_v.t._ to drive out of a hiding-place: to search
out cunningly:--_pr.p._ ferr'eting; _pa.p._ ferr'eted.--_n._ FERR'ETER, one
who uses a ferret to catch rabbits, &c.: one who searches minutely. [O. Fr.
_furet_, a ferret--Low L. _furon-em_, robber--L. _fur_, a thief.]

FERRIAGE, fer'ri-[=a]j, _n._ See FERRY.

FERRIC, fer'ik, _adj._ pertaining to or obtained from iron: noting an acid
compounded of iron and oxygen.--_ns._ FERR'ATE, a salt formed by the union
of ferric acid with a base; FERROCYANOGEN (fer-o-s[=i]-an'[=o]-jen), a
compound radical supposed by chemists to exist in ferrocyanic acid and the
ferrocyanides, the chief of which is potassium ferrocyanide, yielding
Prussian blue; FERR'OTYPE, a photographic process in which the negative was
developed by a saturated solution of protosulphate of iron. [L. _ferrum_,

FERRIFEROUS, fer-rif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing or yielding iron. [L.
_ferrum_, iron, _ferre_, to bear.]

FERRUGINOUS, fer-r[=oo]'jin-us, _adj._ of the colour of iron-rust
impregnated with iron.--_n._ FERRU'GO, a disease of plants, commonly called
rust. [L. _ferrugineus_--_ferrugo_, _-inem_, iron-rust--_ferrum_, iron.]

FERRULE, fer'il, or fer'[=oo]l, _n._ a metal ring or cap on a staff, &c.,
to keep it from splitting.--Also FERR'EL. [O. Fr. _virole_--L. _viriola_, a

FERRY, fer'i, _v.t._ to carry or convey over a water in a boat:--_pr.p._
ferr'ying; _pa.p._ ferr'ied.--_n._ a place where one is carried by boat
across a water: the right of conveying passengers: the ferry-boat.--_ns._
FERR'IAGE, provision for ferrying: the fare paid for such; FERR'Y-BOAT;
FERR'Y-MAN. [A.S. _ferian_, to convey, _faran_, to go; Ger. _fähre_, a
ferry--_fahren_, to go, to carry.]

FERTILE, f[.e]r'til, _adj._ able to bear or produce abundantly: rich in
resources: inventive: fertilising.--_adv._ FER'TILELY.--_n._
FERTILIS[=A]'TION, the act or process of fertilising.--_v.t._ FER'TILISE,
to make fertile or fruitful: to enrich.--_ns._ FER'TILISER, one who, or
that which, fertilises; FERTIL'ITY, fruitfulness: richness: abundance.
[Fr.,--L. _fertilis_--_ferre_, to bear.]

FERULE, fer'[=oo]l, _n._ a cane or rod used for striking children in
punishment.--_n._ FER'ULA, a staff of command.--_adj._ FERUL[=A]'CEOUS,
pertaining to canes or reeds. [L. _ferula_, a cane--_fer[=i]re_, to

FERVENT, f[.e]r'vent, _adj._ ardent: zealous: warm in feeling.--_n._
FER'VENCY, eagerness: warmth of devotion.--_adv._ FER'VENTLY.--_adjs._
FERVES'CENT, growing hot; FER'VID, very hot: having burning desire or
emotion: zealous.--_n._ FERVID'ITY.--_adv._ FER'VIDLY.--_ns._ FER'VIDNESS;
FER'VOUR, heat: heat of mind, zeal. [Fr.,--L. _ferv[=e]re_, to boil.]

FESCENNINE, fes'e-nin, _adj._ scurrilous.--FESCENNINE VERSES consisted of
dialogues in rude extempore verses, generally in Saturnian measure, in
which the parties rallied and ridiculed one another. The style, afterwards
popular at Rome, originated in the Etruscan town _Fescennium_.

FESCUE, fes'k[=u], _n._ a genus of grasses, very nearly allied to
Brome-grass, and including many valuable pasture and fodder grasses: a
small straw or wire used to point out letters to children when learning to
read. [O. Fr. _festu_--L. _fest[=u]ca_, a straw.]

FESSE, FESS, fes, _n._ (_her._) one of the ordinaries--a band over the
middle of an escutcheon, one-third its breadth. [Fr. _fasce_--L. _fascia_,
a band.]

FESTAL, fes'tal, _adj._ pertaining to a feast or holiday: joyous:
gay.--_adv._ FES'TALLY.--_n._ FESTIL'OGY, a treatise on ecclesiastical

FESTER, fes't[.e]r, _v.i._ to become corrupt or malignant: to
suppurate.--_v.t._ to cause to fester or rankle.--_n._ a wound discharging
corrupt matter. [O. Fr. _festre_--L. _fistula_, an ulcer.]

FESTINATE, fes'ti-n[=a]t, _v.t._ to accelerate.--_adj._ (_Shak._) hurried,
hasty.--_adv._ FES'TINATELY (_Shak._), hastily.--_n._ FESTIN[=A]'TION. [L.
_festina[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to hurry.]

FESTIVE, fes'tiv, _adj._ festal: mirthful.--_n._ FES'TIVAL, a joyful
celebration: a feast.--_adv._ FES'TIVELY.--_n._ FESTIV'ITY, social mirth:
joyfulness: gaiety.--_adj._ FES'TIVOUS, festive. [L. _festivus_--_festus_.]

FESTOON, fes-t[=oo]n', _n._ a garland suspended between two points:
(_archit._) an ornament like a wreath of flowers, &c.--_v.t._ to adorn with
festoons.--_n._ FESTOON'-BLIND, a window-blind of cloth gathered into rows
of festoons in its width. [Fr. _feston_--Low L. _festo_(_n-_), a
garland--L. _festum_.]

FET, FETT, fet, _v.t._ obsolete form of _fetch_.


FETCH, fech, _v.t._ to bring: to go and get: to obtain as its price: to
accomplish in any way: to bring down, to cause to yield: to reach or
attain.--_v.i._ to turn: (_naut._) to arrive at.--_n._ the act of bringing:
space carried over: a stratagem.--_adj._ FETCH'ING, fascinating.--FETCH AND
CARRY, to perform humble services for another; FETCH A PUMP, to pour water
in so as to make it draw; FETCH OUT, to draw forth, develop; FETCH TO, to
revive, as from a swoon; FETCH UP, to recover: to come to a sudden stop.
[A.S. _feccan_, an altered form of _fetian_, to fetch; cf. Ger. _fassen_,
to seize.]

FETCH, fech, _n._ the apparition, double, or wraith of a living
person.--_n._ FETCH'-CAN'DLE, a nocturnal light, supposed to portend a
death. [Ety. unknown.]

FÊTE, f[=a]t, _n._ a festival: a holiday.--_v.t._ to entertain at a
feast.--_n._ FÊTE'-DAY, a birthday.--FÊTE CHAMPÊTRE, an outdoor
entertainment. [Fr.]

FETIAL, f[=e]'shal, _adj._ pertaining to the Roman _fetiales_, heraldic,
ambassadorial.--Also F[=E]'CIAL.

FETICH, FETISH, f[=e]'tish, _n._ an object, either natural or artificial,
capable of being appropriated by an individual whose possession of it
procures the services of a spirit lodged within it.--_ns._ F[=E]'TICHISM,
F[=E]'TISHISM, the worship of a fetich: a belief in charms.--_adjs._
FETICHIST'IC, FETISHIST'IC. [Fr. _fétiche_--Port. _feitiço_, magic: a name
given by the Portuguese to the gods of West Africa--Port. _feitiço_,
artificial--L. _factitius_--_fac[)e]re_, to make.]


FETID, f[=e]'tid, or fet'id, _adj._ stinking: having a strong offensive
odour.--_ns._ F[=E]'TIDNESS, F[=E]'TOR, FOE'TOR. [L.
_foetidus_--_foet[=e]re_, to stink.]

FETLOCK, fet'lok, _n._ a tuft of hair that grows behind on horses' feet:
the part where this hair grows.--_adj._ FET'LOCKED, tied by the fetlock.
[History obscure; often explained as compounded of _foot_ and _lock_ (of
hair); cf. Ger. _fiszloch_.]

FETTER, fet'[.e]r, _n._ a chain or shackle for the feet: anything that
restrains--used chiefly in _pl._--_v.t._ to put fetters on: to
restrain.--_adjs._ FETT'ERED, bound by fetters: (_zool._) of feet bent
backward and apparently unfit for walking; FETT'ERLESS, without fetters,
unrestrained.--_n._ FETT'ERLOCK (_her._) a shackle or lock. [A.S.
_feter_--_fét_, feet, pl. of _fót_, foot.]

FETTLE, fet'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to arrange, mend.--_v.i._ to potter fussily
about.--_n._ preparedness, ready condition. [Prob. A.S. _fetel_, a belt.]


FEU, f[=u], _n._ (_Scot._) a tenure where the vassal, in place of military
services, makes a return in grain or in money: a right to the use of land,
houses, &c., in perpetuity, for a stipulated annual payment
(FEU'-D[=U]'TY).--_v.t._ to vest in one who undertakes to pay the
feu-duty--_n._ FEU'AR, one who holds real estate in consideration of a
payment called feu-duty. [O. Fr. _feu_. See the variant FEE.]

FEUD, f[=u]d, _n._ a war waged by private individuals, families, or clans
against one another on their own account: a bloody strife.--RIGHT OF FEUD,
the right to protect one's self and one's kinsmen, and punish injuries. [O.
Fr. _faide_, _feide_--Low L. _faida_--Old High Ger. _f[=e]hida_. See FOE.]

FEUD, f[=u]d, _n._ a fief or land held on condition of service.--_adj._
FEUD'AL, pertaining to feuds or fiefs: belonging to feudalism.--_n._
FEUDALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ FEUD'ALISE.--_ns._ FEUD'ALISM, the system,
during the Middle Ages, by which vassals held lands from lords-superior on
condition of military service; FEUD'ALIST; FEUDAL'ITY, the state of being
feudal: the feudal system.--_adv._ FEUD'ALLY.--_adjs._ FEUD'ARY,
FEUD'ATORY, holding lands or power by a feudal tenure--also _ns._--_ns._
FEUD'IST, a writer on feuds: one versed in the laws of feudal tenure. [Low
L. _feudum_, from root of _fee_.]

FEUILLETON, f[.e]'lye-tong, _n._ the portion of a newspaper set apart for
intelligence of a non-political character--criticisms on art or letters, or
a serial story--usually marked off by a line.--_n._ FEUIL'LETONISM,
superficial qualities in literature, &c. [Fr. dim. of _feuillet_, a
leaf--L. _folium_, a leaf.]

FEVER, f[=e]'v[.e]r, _n._ disease marked by great bodily heat and
quickening of pulse: extreme excitement of the passions, agitation: a
painful degree of anxiety.--_v.t._ to put into a fever.--_v.i._ to become
fevered.--_adj._ F[=E]'VERED, affected with fever, excited.--_ns._
F[=E]'VER-FEW, a composite perennial closely allied to camomile, so called
from its supposed power as a febrifuge; F[=E]'VER-HEAT, the heat of fever:
an excessive degree of excitement.--_adj._ F[=E]'VERISH, slightly fevered:
indicating fever: fidgety: fickle: morbidly eager.--_adv._
F[=E]'VERISHLY.--_n._ F[=E]'VERISHNESS.--_adj._ F[=E]'VEROUS, feverish:
marked by sudden changes. [A.S. _féfor_--L. _febris_.]

FEW, f[=u], _adj._ small in number: not many.--_n._ FEW'NESS.--A FEW, used
colloquially for 'a good bit;' A GOOD FEW, a considerable number; IN FEW=in
a few (words), briefly; SOME FEW, an inconsiderable number; THE FEW, the
minority. [A.S. _féa_, pl. _féawe_; Fr. _peu_; L. _paucus_, small.]

FEWTER, f[=u]'t[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to set close, to fix in rest, as a
spear. [O. Fr. _feutre_--_feutre_, felt.]

FEWTRILS, f[=u]'trilz, _n.pl._ (_prov._) little things, trifles. [See

FEY, FAY, f[=a], _adj._ doomed, fated soon to die, under the shadow of a
sudden or violent death--often marked by extravagantly high spirits. [M. E.
_fay_, _fey_--A.S. _f['æ]ge_, doomed; cf. Dut. _veeg_, about to die.]

FEZ, fez, _n._ a red brimless cap of wool or felt, fitting closely to the
head, with a tassel of black or blue, worn in Turkey, Egypt, &c.--in Africa
usually called _tarbûsh_. [From _Fez_ in Morocco.]

FIACRE, f[=e]-ä'kr, _n._ a hackney-coach. [Fr., from the Hôtel de St
_Fiacre_ in Paris, where first used.]

FIANCÉE, f[=e]-ong-s[=a]', _n._ a woman betrothed:--_masc._ FIANCÉ. [Fr.,
_fiancer_, to betroth--L. _fidentia_, confidence, _fid[)e]re_, to trust.]

FIARS, f[=i]'arz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) the prices of grain legally _struck_ or
fixed for the year at the _Fiars_ Court, so as to regulate the payment of
stipend, rent, and prices not expressly agreed upon. [Conn. with _fiar_,
the holder of a _fee_ (q.v.).]

FIASCO, fi-as'ko, _n._ a failure in a musical performance: a failure of any
kind. [It. _fiasco_, bottle, perh. from L. _vasculum_, a little vessel,
_vas_, a vessel.]

FIAT, f[=i]'at, _n._ a formal or solemn command: a short order or warrant
of a judge for making out or allowing processes, letters-patent,
&c.--(_Spens._) F[=I]'AUN.--_v.t._ to sanction, [L. 'let it be done,' 3d
pers. sing. pres. subj. of _fi[)e]ri_, passive of _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

FIB, fib, _n._ something said falsely: a mild expression for a lie.--_v.i._
to tell a fib or lie: to speak falsely:--_pr.p._ fib'bing; _pa.p._
fibbed.--_ns._ FIB'BER, one who fibs; FIB'BERY (_rare_), the habit of
fibbing; FIB'STER, a fibber. [An abbrev. of _fable_.]

FIBRE, f[=i]'b[.e]r, _n._ a conglomeration of thread-like tissue such as
exists in animals or vegetables: any fine thread, or thread-like substance:
material, substance.--_adjs._ F[=I]'BRED, having fibres; F[=I]'BRELESS,
having no fibres; F[=I]'BRIFORM, fibrous in form or structure.--_ns._
F[=I]'BRIL, a small fibre; one of the extremely minute threads composing an
animal fibre; FIBRIL'LA, a fibril, filament.--_n.pl._ FIBRIL'LÆ.--_n._
FIBRILL[=A]'TION, the process of becoming fibrillated.--_adj._
F[=I]'BRILLOUS, formed of small fibres.--_ns._ F[=I]'BRIN, a proteid
substance which appears in the blood after it is shed, and by its
appearance gives rise to the process of coagulation or clotting;
FIBRIN[=A]'TION, the process of adding fibrin to the blood.--_adj._
F[=I]'BRINOUS, of or like fibrin.--_n._ FIBROCAR'TILAGE, a firm elastic
material like fibrous tissue and cartilage.--_adj._ F[=I]'BROID, of a
fibrous character.--_ns._ F[=I]'BROIN, the chief chemical constituent of
silk, cobwebs, and the horny skeleton of sponges; FIBR[=O]'MA, a tumour or
growth consisting largely of fibrous matter; FIBR[=O]'SIS, a morbid growth
of fibrous matter.--_adj._ F[=I]'BROUS, composed of fibres.--_n._
F[=I]'BROUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _fibra_, a thread.]

FIBROLINE, fib'r[=o]-l[=e]n, _n._ a yarn manufactured from the waste in
hemp, flax, and jute spinning works, for backs of carpets, &c.

FIBULA, fib'[=u]-la, _n._ a clasp or buckle; the outer of the two bones
from the knee to the ankle.--_adjs._ FIB'ULAR, FIB'ULATE, FIB'ULOUS. [L.]

FICHU, f[=e]-shü', _n._ a three-cornered cape worn over the shoulders, the
ends crossed upon the bosom: a triangular piece of muslin, &c., for the
neck. [Fr.]

FICKLE, fik'l, _adj._ inconstant: changeable.--_n._ FICK'LENESS. [A.S.
_ficol_; _gefic_, fraud.]

FICO, f[=e]'ko, _n._ (_Shak._) a motion of contempt by placing the thumb
between two fingers. [It.,--L.]

FICTILE, fik'til, _adj._ used or fashioned by the potter, plastic. [L.
_fictilis_--_fing[)e]re_, to form or fashion.]

FICTION, fik'shun, _n._ a feigned or false story: a falsehood: romance: the
novel, story-telling as a branch of literature: a supposition of law that a
thing is true, which is either certainly not true, or at least is as
probably false as true.--_adj._ FIC'TIONAL.--_n._ FIC'TIONIST, a writer of
fiction.--_adj._ FICTI'TIOUS, imaginary: not real: forged.--_adv._
FICTI'TIOUSLY.--_adj._ FIC'TIVE, fictitious, imaginative.--_n._ FIC'TOR,
one who makes images of clay, &c. [Fr.,--L. _fiction-em_--_fictus_, pa.p.
of _fing[)e]re_.]

FID, fid, _n._ a conical pin of hard wood, used by sailors to open the
strands of a rope in splicing: a square bar of wood or iron, with a
shoulder at one end, used to support the weight of the topmast or
top-gallant-mast when swayed up into place.

FIDDLE, fid'l, _n._ a stringed instrument of music, called also a
_Violin_.--_v.t._ or _v.i._ to play on a fiddle: to be busy over trifles,
to trifle:--_pr.p._ fidd'ling; _pa.p._ fidd'led.--_ns._ FIDD'LE-BLOCK, a
long block having two sheaves of different diameters in the same plane;
FIDD'LE-BOW, a bow strung with horse-hair, with which the strings of the
fiddle are set vibrating.--_interjs._ FIDD'LE-DE-DEE, FIDD'LESTICK (often
_pl._), nonsense!--_v.i._ FIDD'LE-FADD'LE, to trifle, to dally.--_n._
trifling talk.--_adj._ fussy, trifling.--_interj._ nonsense!--_n._
ornament at a ship's bow, over the cut-water, consisting of a scroll
turning aft or inward; FIDD'LER, one who fiddles: a small crab of genus
_Gelasimus_; FIDD'LE-STRING, a string for a fiddle; FIDD'LE-WOOD, a
tropical American tree yielding valuable hard wood.--_adj._ FIDD'LING,
trifling, busy about trifles.--FIDDLER'S GREEN, a sailor's name for a place
of frolic on shore.--PLAY FIRST, or SECOND, FIDDLE, to take the part of the
first, or second, violin-player in an orchestra: to take a leading, or a
subordinate, part in anything; SCOTCH FIDDLE, the itch. [A.S. _fiðele_;
Ger. _fiedel_. See VIOLIN.]

FIDELITY, fi-del'i-ti, _n._ faithful performance of duty: faithfulness to a
husband or wife: honesty: firm adherence. [L. _fidelitat-em_--_fidelis_,
faithful--_fid[)e]re_, to trust.]

FIDGET, fij'et, _v.i._ to be unable to rest: to move uneasily:--_pr.p._
fidg'eting; _pa.p._ fidg'eted.--_n._ irregular motion: restlessness:
(_pl._) general nervous restlessness, with a desire of changing the
position.--_v.i._ FIDGE, to move about restlessly: to be eager.--_n._
FIDG'ETINESS.--_adj._ FIDG'ETY, restless: uneasy. [Perh. related to _fike_

FIDUCIAL, fi-d[=u]'shi-al, _adj._ showing confidence or reliance: of the
nature of a trust.--_adv._ FID[=U]'CIALLY.--_adj._ FID[=U]'CIARY,
confident: unwavering: held in trust.--_n._ one who holds anything in
trust: (_theol._) one who depends for salvation on faith without works, an
Antinomian. [L. _fiducia_, confidence, from _fid[)e]re_, to trust.]

FIE, f[=i], _interj._ denoting disapprobation or disgust. [Scand., Ice.
_fý_, _fei_, fie! cf. Ger. _pfui_.]

FIEF, f[=e]f, _n._ land held of a superior in fee or on condition of
military service: a feud. [Fr.,--Low L. _feudum_.]

FIELD, f[=e]ld, _n._ country or open country in general: a piece of ground
enclosed for tillage or pasture: the range of any series of actions or
energies: the locality of a battle: the battle itself: room for action of
any kind: a wide expanse: (_her._) the surface of a shield: the background
on which figures are drawn: the part of a coin left unoccupied by the main
device: those taking part in a hunt: all the entries collectively against
which a single contestant has to compete: all the parties not individually
excepted, as 'to bet on the field' in a horse-race.--_v.t._ at cricket and
base-ball, to catch or stop and return to the fixed place.--_v.i._ to stand
in positions so as to catch the ball easily in cricket.--_ns._
FIELD'-ALLOW'ANCE, a small extra payment to officers on active service;
FIELD'-ARTILL'ERY, light ordnance suited for active operations in the
field; FIELD'-BED, a camp or trestle bedstead; FIELD'-BOOK, a book used in
surveying fields.--_n.pl._ FIELD'-COL'OURS, small flags used for marking
the position for companies and regiments, also any regimental headquarters'
flags.--_n._ FIELD'-DAY, a day when troops are drawn out for instruction in
field exercises: any day of unusual bustle.--_adj._ FIELD'ED (_Shak._),
encamped.--_ns._ FIELD'ER, one who fields; FIELD'FARE, a species of thrush,
having a reddish-yellow throat and breast spotted with black; FIELD'-GLASS,
a binocular telescope slung over the shoulder in a case; FIELD'-GUN, a
light cannon mounted on a carriage; FIELD'-HAND, an outdoor farm labourer;
FIELD'-HOS'PITAL, a temporary hospital near the scene of battle;
FIELD'-ICE, ice formed in the polar seas in large surfaces, distinguished
from icebergs; FIELD'ING, the acting in the field at cricket as
distinguished from batting; FIELD'-MAR'SHAL, an officer of the highest rank
in the army; FIELD'-MEET'ING, a conventicle; FIELD'-MOUSE, a species of
mouse that lives in the fields; FIELD'-NIGHT, a night marked by some
important gathering, discussion, &c.; FIELD'-OFF'ICER, a military officer
above the rank of captain, and below that of general; FIELD'PIECE, a cannon
or piece of artillery used in the field of battle; FIELD'-PREACH'ER, one
who preaches in the open air; FIELD'-PREACH'ING; FIELDS'MAN, a
fielder.--_n.pl._ FIELD'-SPORTS, sports of the field, as hunting, racing,
&c.--_n._ FIELD'-TRAIN, a department of the Royal Artillery responsible for
the safety and supply of ammunition during war.--_advs._ FIELD'WARD,
-WARDS, toward the fields.--_n.pl._ FIELD'WORKS, temporary works thrown up
by troops in the field, either for protection or to cover an attack upon a
stronghold.--FIELD OF VISION, the compass of visual power.--KEEP THE FIELD,
to keep the campaign open: to maintain one's ground. [A.S. _feld_; cf. Dut.
_veld_, the open country, Ger. _feld_.]

FIEND, f[=e]nd, _n._ the devil: one actuated by the most intense wickedness
or hate.--_adj._ FIEND'ISH, like a fiend; malicious.--_n._
FIEND'ISHNESS.--_adj._ FIEND'LIKE, like a fiend: fiendish. [A.S. _feónd_,
pr.p. of _feón_, to hate; Ger. _feind_, Dut. _vijand_.]

FIERCE, f[=e]rs, _adj._ ferocious: violent: angry.--_adv._ FIERCE'LY.--_n._
FIERCE'NESS. [O. Fr. _fers_ (Fr. _fier_)--L. _ferus_, wild, savage.]

FIERY, f[=i]r'i, or f[=i]'[.e]r-i, _adj._ ardent: impetuous:
irritable.--_adv._ FIER'ILY.--_ns._ FIER'INESS; FIER'Y-CROSS (see
CROSS).--_adjs._ FIER'Y-FOOT'ED, swift in motion; FIER'Y-HOT, impetuous;
FIER'Y-NEW, hot from newness; FIER'Y-SHORT, short and passionate.

FIFE, f[=i]f, _n._ a smaller variety of the flute, usually with only one
key.--_v.i._ to play on the fife.--_ns._ FIFE'-M[=A]'JOR (_obs._), the
chief fifer in a regiment; FIF'ER, one who plays on a fife; FIFE'-RAIL, the
rail round the mainmast for belaying-pins. [Fr. _fifre_, Ger. _pfeife_,
both, acc. to Littré, from L. _pip[=a]re_, to chirp.]

FIFISH, f[=i]'fish, _adj._ (_Scot._) whimsical, cranky. [_Fife_.]

FIFTEEN, fif't[=e]n, _adj._ and _n._ five and ten.--_adj._ FIF'TEENTH, the
fifth after the tenth: being one of fifteen equal parts.--_n._ a fifteenth
part.--THE FIFTEEN, the Jacobite rising of 1715. [A.S. _fíftyne_--_fíf_,
five, _týn_, ten.]

FIFTH, fifth, _adj._ next after the fourth.--_n._ one of five equal parts:
(_mus._) a tone five diatonic degrees above or below any given
tone.--_adv._ FIFTH'LY, in the fifth place.--_ns._ FIFTH'-MON'ARCHISM;
FIFTH'-MON'ARCHIST.--FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN, an extreme sect of the time of the
Puritan revolution, who looked for the establishment of a new reign of
Christ on earth, in succession to Daniel's four great monarchies of
Antichrist. [A.S. _fífta_.]

FIFTY, fif'ti, _adj._ and _n._ five tens or five times ten.--_adj._
FIF'TIETH, the ordinal of fifty.--_n._ a fiftieth part. [A.S.
_fíftig_--_fíf_, five, _tig_, ten.]

FIG, fig, _n._ the fig-tree (_Ficus_), or its fruit, growing in warm
climates: a thing of little consequence.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to insult by a
contemptuous motion of the fingers.--_ns._ FIG'-LEAF, the leaf of the
fig-tree: an imitation of such a leaf for veiling the private parts of a
statue or picture: any scanty clothing (from Gen. iii. 7): a makeshift;
FIG'-TREE, the tree which produces figs. [Fr. _figue_--L. _ficus_, a fig.]

FIG, fig, _n._ (_coll._) figure: dress.--_v.t._ to dress, get up.--_n._
FIG'GERY, dressy ornament.

FIGARO, fig'ar-o, _n._ a type of cunning and dexterity from the dramatic
character, first barber and then valet-de-chambre, in the _Barbier de
Seville_ and the _Mariage de Figaro_, by Beaumarchais: the name adopted by
a famous Paris newspaper founded 1854.

FIGHT, f[=i]t, _v.i._ to strive with: to contend in war or in single
combat.--_v.t._ to engage in conflict with: to gain by fight: to cause to
fight:--_pr.p._ fight'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ fought (fawt).--_n._ a
struggle: a combat: a battle or engagement.--_n._ FIGHT'ER.--_adj._
FIGHT'ING, engaged in or fit for war.--_n._ the act of fighting or
contending.--_ns._ FIGHT'ING-COCK, a gamecock, a pugnacious fellow;
FIGHT'ING-FISH (_Betta pugnax_), a small Siamese fresh-water fish, kept for
its extraordinary readiness for fighting, bets being laid on the
issue.--FIGHT IT OUT, to struggle on until the end; FIGHT SHY OF, to avoid
from mistrust.--LIVE LIKE FIGHTING-COCKS, to get the best of meat and
drink. [A.S. _feohtan_; Ger. _fechten_.]

FIGMENT, fig'ment, _n._ a fabrication or invention. [L.
_figmentum_--_fing[)e]re_, to form.]

FIGULINE, fig'[=u]-lin, _adj._ such as is made by the potter,
fictile.--_n._ an earthen vessel:--_pl._ pottery.
[L.--_figulinus_--_figulus_, potter.]

FIGURE, fig'[=u]r, _n._ the form of anything in outline: the representation
of anything in drawing, &c.: a drawing: a design: a statue: appearance: a
character denoting a number: value or price: (_rhet._) a deviation from the
ordinary mode of expression, in which words are changed from their literal
signification or usage: (_logic_) the form of a syllogism with respect to
the position of the middle term: steps in a dance: a type or
emblem.--_v.t._ to form or shape: to make an image of: to mark with figures
or designs: to imagine: to symbolise: to foreshow: to note by
figures.--_v.i._ to make figures: to appear as a distinguished
person.--_n._ FIGURABIL'ITY, the quality of being figurable.--_adjs._
FIG'URABLE; FIG'URAL, represented by figure.--_n._ FIG'URANTE, a ballet
dancer, one of those dancers who dance in troops, and form a background for
the solo dancers:--_masc._ FIG'URANT.--_adj._ FIG'URATE, of a certain
determinate form: (_mus._) florid.--_n._ FIGUR[=A]'TION, act of giving
figure or form: (_mus._) mixture of chords and discords.--_adj._
FIG'URATIVE (_rhet._), representing by, containing, or abounding in
figures: metaphorical: flowery: typical.--_adv._ FIG'URATIVELY.--_ns._
FIG'URATIVENESS, state of being figurative; FIG'URE-CAST'ER, an astrologer;
FIG'URE-CAST'ING, the art of preparing casts of animal or other
forms.--_adj._ FIG'URED, marked or adorned with figures.--_ns._
FIG'URE-DANCE, a dance consisting of elaborate figures; FIG'UREHEAD, the
figure or bust under the bowsprit of a ship; FIG'URE-WEAV'ING, the weaving
of figured fancy fabrics; FIG'URINE, a small carved or sculptured figure,
often specially such as are adorned with painting and gilding; FIG'URIST,
one who uses or interprets figures.--FIGURATE NUMBERS, any series of
numbers beginning with unity, and so formed that if each be subtracted from
the following, and the series so formed be treated in the same way, by a
continuation of the process, equal differences will be obtained. [Fr.,--L.
_figura_, _fing[)e]re_, to form.]

FIKE, f[=i]k, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to fidget restlessly.--_n._ restlessness:
any vexatious requirement or detail in work.--_n._ FIK'ERY, fuss.--_adj._
FIK'Y. [Prob. Ice. _fíkja_.]

FILACEOUS, fil-[=a]'shus, _adj._ composed of threads. [L. _filum_, a

FILACER, fil'[=a]-ser, _n._ an officer in the Court of Common Pleas who
formerly filed original writs and made out processes on them.--Also
FIL'AZER. [O. Fr. _filacier_--_filace_, a file for papers--L. _filum_.]

FILAMENT, fil'a-ment, _n._ a slender or thread-like object: a fibre:
(_bot._) the stalk of the stamen which supports the pollen-containing
anther.--_adjs._ FILAMENT'ARY, FILAMENT'OSE; FILAMENT'OID, like a filament;
FILAMENT'OUS, thread-like. [Fr.,--L. _filum_, a thread.]

FILANDERS, fil-an'd[.e]rz, _n.pl._ a disease in hawks caused by a small
intestinal worm, the _filander_. [Fr. _filandres_--L. _filum_.]

FILAR, f[=i]'lar, _adj._ pertaining to a thread.

FILATURE, fil'a-t[=u]r, _n._ the reeling of silk, or the place where it is
done.--_n._ FIL'ATORY, a machine for forming or spinning threads. [Fr.,--L.
_filum_, a thread.]

FILBERT, fil'bert, _n._ the nut of the cultivated hazel--(_obs._) FIL'BERD.
[Prob. from St _Philibert_, whose day fell in the nutting season, Aug. 22

FILCH, filch, _v.t._ to steal: to pilfer.--_n._ FILCH'ER, a thief.--_adv._
FILCH'INGLY. [Ety. unknown.]

FILE, f[=i]l, _n._ a line or wire on which papers are placed in order: the
papers so placed: a roll or list: a line of soldiers ranged behind one
another: the number of men forming the depth of a battalion.--_v.t._ to put
upon a file: to arrange in an orderly manner: to put among the records of a
court: to bring before a court.--_v.i._ to march in a file.--_n._
FILE'-LEAD'ER.--FILE OFF, to wheel off at right angles to the first
direction; FILE WITH, to rank with, to be equal to.--SINGLE FILE, INDIAN
FILE, of men marching one behind another. [Fr. _file_--L. _filum_, a

FILE, f[=i]l, _n._ a steel instrument with sharp-edged furrows for
smoothing or rasping metals, &c.: any means adopted to polish a thing, as a
literary style: a shrewd, cunning person, a deep fellow: a
pickpocket.--_v.t._ to cut or smooth with, or as with, a file: to polish,
improve.--_n._ FILE'-CUT'TER, a maker of files.--_adj._ FILED, polished,
smooth.--_ns._ FILE'-FISH, a fish of genus _Balistes_, the skin granulated
like a file; FIL'ER, one who files; FIL'ING, a particle rubbed off with a
file. [A.S. _feól_; Ger. _feile_; Dut. _vijl_.]

FILE, f[=i]l, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to defile, pollute.

FILEMOT, fil'e-mot, _adj._ of a dead-leaf colour--also _n._ the colour
itself. [Fr. _feuillemorte_, a dead leaf.]

FILIAL, fil'yal, _adj._ pertaining to or becoming a son or daughter:
bearing the relation of a child.--_adv._ FIL'IALLY. [Fr.,--Low L.
_filialis_--L. _filius_, a son.]


FILIBUSTER, FILLIBUSTER, fil'i-bus-t[.e]r, _n._ a lawless military or
piratical adventurer, as in the West Indies: a buccaneer.--_v.i._ to
obstruct legislation wantonly by endless speeches, motions, &c.--_n._
FIL'IBUSTERISM, the character or actions of a filibuster. [Sp.
_filibustero_, through Fr. _flibustier_, _fribustier_, from Dut.
_vrijbueter_, _vrijbuiter_ (cf. Eng. _freebooter_, Ger. _freibeuter_), from
_vrij_, free, _buit_, booty.]

FILICES, fil'i-sez, _n.pl._ the ferns.--_adjs._ FIL'ICAL; FILIC'IFORM;

FILIFORM, fil'i-form, _adj._ having the form of a filament: long and
slender. [L. _filum_, thread, _forma_, form.]

FILIGREE, fil'i-gr[=e], _n._ a kind of ornamental metallic lacework of gold
and silver, twisted into convoluted forms, united and partly consolidated
by soldering--earlier forms, FIL'IGRAIN, FIL'IGRANE.--_adj._ FIL'IGREED,
ornamented with filigree. [Fr. _filigrane_--It. _filigrana_--L. _filum_,
thread, _granum_, a grain.]

FILIOQUE, fil-i-[=o]'kwe, _n._ the clause inserted into the Nicene Creed at
Toledo in 589, which asserts that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son, as
well as from the Father--not accepted by the Eastern Church. [L., 'and from
the son.']

FILL, fil, _v.t._ to make full: to put into until all the space is
occupied: to supply abundantly: to satisfy: to glut: to perform the duties
of: to supply a vacant office.--_v.i._ to become full: to become
satiated.--_n._ as much as fills or satisfies: a full supply: a single
charge of anything.--_ns._ FILL'ER, he who, or that which, fills: a vessel
for conveying a liquid into a bottle; FILL'ING, anything used to fill up,
stop a hole, to complete, &c., as the woof, in weaving: supply. [A.S.
_fyllan_, _fullian_--_ful_, full.]

FILL, fil, _n._ (_Shak._) the thill or shaft of a cart or carriage. [See

FILLET, fil'et, _n._ a little string or band, esp. to tie round the head:
meat or fish boned and rolled, roasted or baked: a piece of meat composed
of muscle, esp. the fleshy part of the thigh: (_archit._) a small space or
band used along with mouldings.--_v.t._ to bind or adorn with a
fillet:--_pr.p._ fill'eting; _pa.p._ fill'eted. [Fr. _filet_, dim. of
_fil_, from L. _filum_, a thread.]

FILLIBEG, PHILIBEG, fil'i-beg, _n._ the kilt, the dress or petticoat
reaching nearly to the knees, worn by the Highlanders of Scotland. [Gael.
_feileadhbeag_--_feileadh_, plait, fold, _beag_, little.]

FILLIP, fil'ip, _v.t._ to strike with the nail of the finger, forced from
the ball of the thumb with a sudden jerk: to incite, drive:--_pr.p._
fill'iping; _pa.p._ fill'iped.--_n._ a jerk of the finger from the thumb:
anything which excites. [A form of _flip_.]

FILLISTER, fil'is-ter, _n._ a rabbeting plane used in making window-sashes.

FILLY, fil'i, _n._ a young mare: a lively, wanton girl. [Dim. of _foal_.]

FILM, film, _n._ a thin skin or membrane: a very slender thread: the
coating on a plate prepared to act as a medium for taking a
picture.--_v.t._ to cover with a film, or thin skin.--_n._
FILM'INESS.--_adj._ FILM'Y, composed of film or membranes. [A.S. _filmen_,
extended from _fell_, a skin.]

FILOPLUME, f[=i]'lo-pl[=oo]m, _n._ a long slender feather. [Formed from L.
_filum_, thread, _pluma_, a feather.]

FILOSE, f[=i]'l[=o]s, _adj._ ending in a thread-like process.--_n._
FILOSELLE', ferret or floss silk. [L. _filum_, thread.]

FILTER, fil'ter, _n._ a contrivance arranged for purifying a liquid of
solid insoluble matter by passing it through some porous substance which
does not allow the solid particles to pass through.--_v.t._ to purify
liquor by a filter.--_v.i._ to pass through a filter: to percolate.--_ns._
FIL'TER-P[=A]'PER, porous paper for use in filtering; FIL'TER-PUMP, a
contrivance devised by the chemist Bunsen for accelerating the filtering
process. [O. Fr. _filtre_--Low L. _filtrum_, felt.]

FILTH, filth, _n._ foul matter: anything that defiles, physically or
morally.--_adv._ FILTH'ILY.--_n._ FILTH'INESS.--_adj._ FILTH'Y, foul:
unclean: impure. [A.S. _fýldh_--_fúl_, foul.]

FILTRATE, fil'tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to filter or percolate.--_n._ FILTR[=A]'TION,
act or process of filtering.

FIMBLE, fim'bl, _n._ the male plant of hemp, yielding a weaker and shorter
fibre than the _Carl hemp_ or female plant. [Dut. _femel_.]

FIMBRIATE, -D, fim'bri-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ fringed.--_n._ FIM'BRIA, a
fringing filament.--_v.t._ FIM'BRIATE, to fringe: to hem.--_adj._
FIM'BRICATE, fimbriate. [L. _fimbri[=a]tus_--_fimbriæ_, fibres.]

FIMETARIOUS, fim-[=e]-t[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ growing on dung.


FIN, fin, _n._ the organ by which a fish balances itself and swims.--_n._
FIN'-BACK, a finner or fin-whale.--_adjs._ FIN'-FOOT'ED, having feet with
toes connected by a membrane; FINNED, having fins; FIN'NY, furnished with
fins.--_n._ FIN'-RAY, one of the rods or rays supporting a fish's
fin.--_adj._ FIN'-TOED, having feet with membranes connecting the toes, as
aquatic birds. [A.S. _finn_; L. _pinna_, a fin.]

FINABLE, f[=i]n'a-bl, _adj._ liable to a fine.

FINAL, f[=i]'nal, _adj._ last: decisive, conclusive: respecting the end or
motive: of a judgment ready for execution.--_ns._ F[=I]'NALISM;
F[=I]'NALIST; FINAL'ITY, state of being final: completeness or
conclusiveness.--_adv._ F[=I]'NALLY.--FINAL CAUSE (see CAUSE). [Fr.,--L.
_finalis_--_finis_, an end.]

FINALE, fi-nä'l[=a], _n._ the end: the last passage in a piece of music:
the concluding piece in a concert. [It. _finale_, final--L. _finis_.]

FINANCE, fi-nans', _n._ money affairs or revenue, esp. of a ruler or state:
public money: the art of managing or administering the public
money.--_v.t._ to manage financially, to furnish with sums of
money.--_adj._ FINAN'CIAL, pertaining to finance.--_n._ FINAN'CIALIST, a
financier.--_adv._ FINAN'CIALLY.--_n._ FINANCIER', one skilled in finance:
an officer who administers the public revenue.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to
finance. [Fr.,--Low L. _financia_--Low L. _fin[=a]re_, to pay a
fine--_finis_. See FINE (2).]

FINCH, finsh, _n._ a name applied to many Passerine birds, esp. to those of
the genus _Fringilla_ or family _Fringillidæ_--_bullfinch_, _chaffinch_,
_goldfinch_, &c.--_adjs._ FINCH'-BACKED, FINCHED, striped or spotted on the
back. [A.S. _finc_; Ger. _fink_.]

FIND, f[=i]nd, _v.t._ to come upon or meet with: to discover or arrive at:
to perceive: to experience: to supply: to determine after judicial
inquiry:--_pr.p._ f[=i]nd'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ found.--_ns._ FIND'ER;
FIND'-FAULT (_Shak._), one who finds fault with another; FIND'ING, act of
one who finds: that which is found: a judicial verdict: (_pl._) the
appliances which some workmen have to supply, esp. of
shoemakers--everything save leather.--FIND ONE IN (something), to supply
one with something; FIND ONE'S ACCOUNT (in anything), to find satisfactory
profit or advantage in it; FIND ONE'S LEGS, to rise, or to recover the use
of one's legs, as after being drunk, &c.; FIND ONE'S SELF, to feel, as
regards health, happiness, &c.; FIND OUT, to discover. [A.S. _findan_; Ger.


FINE, f[=i]n, _adj._ excellent: beautiful: not coarse or heavy: subtle:
thin: slender: exquisite: nice: delicate: overdone: showy: splendid:
striking or remarkable (often _ironically_): pure, refined: consisting of
small particles; sharp, keen.--_v.t._ to make fine: to refine: to purify:
to change by imperceptible degrees.--_adv._ (_Scot._) for finely,
well.--_v.t._ FINE'-DRAW, to draw or sew up a rent so finely that it is not
seen.--_p.adj._ FINE'-DRAWN, drawn out too finely.--_adj._ FINE'ISH,
somewhat fine.--_adv._ FINE'LY.--_ns._ FINE'NESS; FIN'ER (same as REFINER);
FIN'ERY, splendour, fine or showy things: a place where anything is fined
or refined: a furnace for making iron malleable.--_adjs._ FINE'-SPOK'EN,
using fine phrases; FINE'-SPUN, finely spun out: artfully contrived.--FINE
ARTS, as painting, sculpture, music, those chiefly concerned with the
beautiful--opp. to the _Useful_ or _Industrial arts_. [Fr.,--L. _finitus_,
finished, from _fin[=i]re_, to finish, _finis_, an end.]

FINE, f[=i]n, _n._ a composition: a sum of money imposed as a
punishment.--_v.t._ to impose a fine on: to punish by fine: (_Shak._) to
pledge or pawn.--_adj._ FINE'LESS (_Shak._), endless.--IN FINE, in
conclusion. [Low L. _finis_, a fine--L. _finis_, an end.]

FINEER, fi-n[=e]r', _v.i._ to get goods on credit by fraudulent artifice.
[Prob. Dut.; cog. with FINANCE.]

FINESSE, fi-nes', _n._ subtlety of contrivance: artifice: an endeavour by a
player holding (say) queen and ace to take the trick with the lower
card.--_v.i._ to use artifice.--_ns._ FINES'SER; FINES'SING. [Fr.]

FINGER, fing'g[.e]r, _n._ one of the five terminal parts of the hand: a
finger-breadth: skill in the use of the hand or fingers: execution in
music.--_v.t._ to handle or perform with the fingers: to pilfer: to toy or
meddle with.--_v.i._ to use lightly with the fingers, as a musical
instrument.--_ns._ FING'ER-AL'PHABET, a deaf and dumb alphabet;
FING'ER-BOARD, the board, or part of a musical instrument, on which the
keys for the fingers are placed; FING'ER-BOWL, -GLASS, a bowl for holding
the water used to cleanse the fingers after a meal; FING'ER-BREADTH, the
breadth of a finger, the fourth part of a palm, forming 1/16 of a
foot.--_adj._ FING'ERED, having fingers, or anything like fingers.--_ns._
FING'ER-GRASS, grass of genus _Digitaria_; FING'ER-HOLE, a hole in the side
of the tube of a flute, &c., capable of being closed by the player's finger
to modify the pitch of tone; FING'ERING, act or manner of touching with the
fingers, esp. a musical instrument: a thick woollen yarn for stockings;
FING'ERLING, a very diminutive being: the parr; FING'ER-MARK, a mark, esp.
a soil made by the finger; FING'ER-PLATE, a thin plate of metal or
porcelain laid along the edge of a door at the handle, to prevent soiling
by the hand; FING'ER-POST, a post with a finger pointing, for directing
passengers to the road; FING'ER-STALL, a covering of leather for protecting
the finger.--FINGER-AND-TOE (see ANBURY).--A FINGER IN THE PIE, a share in
the doing of anything, often of vexatious meddling; HAVE AT ONE'S
FINGER-ENDS, to be perfect master of a subject; HAVE ONE'S FINGERS ALL
THUMBS, to have awkward fingers. [A.S. _finger_; Ger. _finger_.]


FINIAL, fin'i-al, _n._ the bunch of foliage, &c., at the termination of the
pinnacles, gables, spires, &c., in Gothic architecture. [From L.

FINICAL, fin'i-kal, _adj._ affectedly fine or precise in trifles: nice:
foppish.--_n._ FINICAL'ITY, state of being finical: something
finical.--_adv._ FIN'ICALLY.--_ns._ FIN'ICALNESS, the quality of being
finical: foppery; FIN'ICKING, fussiness and fastidiousness.--_adjs._
FIN'ICKING, FIN'IKIN, particular about trifles.

FINING, f[=i]n'ing, _n._ process of refining or purifying.--_n._
FIN'ING-POT, a pot or vessel used in refining.

FINIS, f[=i]'nis, _n._ the end: conclusion. [L.]

FINISH, fin'ish, _v.t._ to end or complete the making of anything: to
perfect: to give the last touches to: to put an end to, to destroy.--_n._
that which finishes or completes: the end of a race, hunt, &c.: last touch,
careful elaboration, polish: the last coat of plaster to a wall.--_p.adj._
FIN'ISHED, brought to an end or to completion: complete: perfect.--_n._
FIN'ISHER, one who finishes, completes, or perfects: in bookbinding, the
one who puts the last touches to the book in the way of gilding and
decoration. [Fr. _finir_, _finissant_--L. _fin[=i]re_--_finis_, an end.]

FINITE, f[=i]'n[=i]t, _adj._ having an end or limit: subject to limitations
or conditions, as time, space--opp. to _Infinite_ (q.v.).--_adj._
F[=I]'N[=I]TELESS, without end or limit.--_adv._ F[=I]'N[=I]TELY.--_ns._
F[=I]'N[=I]TENESS, FIN'IT[=U]DE. [L. _fin[=i]tus_, pa.p. of _fin[=i]re_.]

FINN, fin, _n._ a native of _Finland_ in the north-west of Russia.--_adjs._
FIN'NIC, FIN'NISH, pertaining to the Finns in the widest sense.

FINNAN-HADDOCK, fin'an-had'uk, _n._ a kind of smoked haddock, esp. that
prepared at _Findon_, near Aberdeen.--Also FIN'DON-HADD'OCK.

FIORD, FJORD, fyord, _n._ name given in Scandinavia to a long, narrow,
rock-bound inlet. [Norw.]

FIORIN, f[=i]'o-rin, _n._ a species of creeping bent-grass.

FIORITE, f[=i]-[=o]'r[=i]t, _n._ a kind of siliceous incrustation found in
the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. [From Santa _Fiore_ in Tuscany.]

FIR, f[.e]r, _n._ the name of several species of cone-bearing, resinous
trees, valuable for their timber.--_adj._ FIR'RY, abounding in firs. [A.S.
_furh_ (_wudu_); cf. Ger. _föhre_.]

FIRE, f[=i]r, _n._ the heat and light caused by burning: flame: anything
burning, as fuel in a grate, &c.: a conflagration: torture or death by
burning: severe trial: anything inflaming or provoking: ardour of passion:
vigour: brightness of fancy: enthusiasm: sexual passion.--_v.t._ to set on
fire: to inflame: to irritate: to animate: to cause the explosion of: to
discharge.--_v.i._ to take fire: to be or become irritated or inflamed: to
discharge firearms.--_n._ FIRE'-ALARM', an alarm of fire, an apparatus for
giving such.--_n.pl._ FIRE'ARMS, arms or weapons which are discharged by
fire exploding gunpowder.--_ns._ FIRE'-AR'ROW, a small iron dart or arrow
furnished with a combustible for setting fire to ships; FIRE'BALL, a ball
filled with combustibles to be thrown among enemies: a meteor;
FIRE'-BALLOON', a balloon carrying a fire placed in the lower part for
rarefying the air to make itself buoyant: a balloon sent up arranged to
ignite at a certain height; FIRE'-BAS'KET, a portable grate for a bedroom;
FIRE'-BLAST, a blast or blight affecting plants, in which they appear as if
scorched by the sun; FIRE'-BOAT, a steamboat fitted up to extinguish fires
in docks; FIRE'BOX, the box or chamber (usually copper) of a steam-engine,
in which the fire is placed; FIRE'BRAND, a brand or piece of wood on fire:
one who inflames the passions of others; FIRE'BRICK, a brick so made as to
resist the action of fire, used for lining furnaces, &c.; FIRE'-BRIGADE', a
brigade or company of men for extinguishing fires or conflagrations;
FIRE'-BUCK'ET, a bucket for carrying water to extinguish a fire; FIRE'CLAY,
a kind of clay, capable of resisting fire, used in making firebricks;
FIRE'COCK, a cock or spout to let out water for extinguishing fires;
FIRE'DAMP, a gas, carburetted hydrogen, in coal-mines, apt to take fire and
explode when mixed with atmospheric air; FIRE'-DOG (same as ANDIRON);
FIRE'-DRAKE, a fiery meteor, a kind of firework; FIRE'-EAT'ER, a juggler
who pretends to eat fire: one given to needless quarrelling, a professed
duellist; FIRE'-EN'GINE, an engine or forcing-pump used to extinguish fires
with water; FIRE'-ESCAPE', a machine used to enable people to escape from
fires.--_adj._ FIRE'-EYED (_Shak._), having fiery eyes.--_ns._ FIRE'-FLAG
(_Coleridge_), FIRE'FLAUGHT (_Swinburne_), a flash of lightning; FIRE'-FLY,
a name applied to many phosphorescent insects, all included with the
_Coleoptera_ or beetles, some giving forth a steady light, others flashing
light intermittently (glow-worms, &c.); FIRE'-GUARD, a framework of wire
placed in front of a fireplace.--_n.pl._ FIRE'-[=I]'RONS, the irons--poker,
tongs, and shovel--used for a fire.--_ns._ FIRE'LIGHT'ER, a composition of
pitch and sawdust, or the like, for kindling fires; FIRE'LOCK, a gun in
which the fire is caused by a lock with steel and flint; FIRE'MAN, a man
whose business it is to assist in extinguishing fires: a man who tends the
fires, as of a steam-engine; FIRE'-MAS'TER, the chief of a
fire-brigade.--_adj._ FIRE'-NEW, new from the fire: brand new:
bright.--_ns._ FIRE'-PAN, a pan or metal vessel for holding fire;
FIRE'PLACE, the place in a house appropriated to the fire: a hearth;
FIRE'PLUG, a plug placed in a pipe which supplies water in case of fire;
FIRE'-POL'ICY, a written instrument of insurance against fire up to a
certain amount; FIRE'-POT, an earthen pot filled with combustibles, used in
military operations.--_adj._ FIRE'PROOF, proof against fire.--_ns._
FIRE'-PROOFING, the act of rendering anything fireproof: the materials
used; FIR'ER, an incendiary; FIRE'-RAIS'ING, the crime of arson.--_adj._
FIRE'-ROBED (_Shak._), robed in fire.--_ns._ FIRE'-SCREEN, a screen for
intercepting the heat of the fire; FIRE'-SHIP, a ship filled with
combustibles, to set an enemy's vessels on fire; FIRE'SIDE, the side of the
fireplace: the hearth: home.--_adj._ homely, intimate.--_ns._ FIRE'-STICK,
the implement used by many primitive peoples for obtaining fire by
friction; FIRE'STONE, a kind of sandstone that bears a high degree of heat;
FIRE'-WA'TER, ardent spirits; FIRE'WOOD, wood for burning.--_n.pl._
FIRE'WORKS, artificial works or preparations of gunpowder, sulphur, &c., to
be fired chiefly for display or amusement.--_ns._ FIRE'-WOR'SHIP, the
worship of fire, chiefly by the Parsees in Persia and India;
FIRE'-WOR'SHIPPER; FIR'ING, a putting fire to: discharge of guns: firewood:
fuel: cauterisation; FIR'ING-PAR'TY, a detachment told off to fire over the
grave of one buried with military honours, or to shoot one sentenced to
death; FIR'ING-POINT, the temperature at which an inflammable oil will take
fire spontaneously.--FIRE OFF, to discharge a shot; FIRE OUT (_Shak._), to
expel; FIRE UP, to start a fire: to fly into a passion.--SET THE THAMES ON
FIRE, to do something striking; TAKE FIRE, to begin to burn: to become
aroused about something. [A.S. _fýr_; Ger. _feuer_; Gr. _pyr_.]

FIRK, f[.e]rk, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to whip or beat: to rouse.

FIRKIN, f[.e]r'kin, _n._ a measure equal to the fourth part of a barrel: 9
gallons: 56 lb. of butter. [With dim. suff. _-kin_, from Old Dut. _vierde_,

FIRLOT, f[.e]r'lot, _n._ an old Scotch dry measure, the fourth part of a

FIRM, f[.e]rm, _adj._ fixed: compact: strong: not easily moved or
disturbed: unshaken: resolute: decided.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to fix, establish,
confirm.--_adj._ FIRM'LESS, wavering.--_adv._ FIRM'LY.--_n._ FIRM'NESS. [O.
Fr. _ferme_--L. _firmus_.]

FIRM, f[.e]rm, _n._ the title under which a company transacts business: a
business house or partnership. [It. _firma_, from L. _firmus_. See FARM.]

FIRMAMENT, f[.e]r'ma-ment, _n._ the solid sphere in which the stars were
thought to be fixed: the sky.--_adj._ FIRMAMENT'AL, pertaining to the
firmament: celestial. [Fr.,--L. _firmamentum_--_firmus_, firm.]

FIRMAN, f[.e]r'man, or fer-män', _n._ any decree emanating from the Turkish
government. [Pers. _fermán_; Sans. _pramâna_, command.]

FIRN, firn, or fern, _n._ snow on high glaciers while still granular--the
French _névé_. [Ger. _firn_, of last year; cf. obs. Eng. _fern_, former.]

FIRST, f[.e]rst, _adj._ foremost: preceding all others in place, time, or
degree: most eminent: chief.--_adv._ before anything else, in time, space,
rank, &c.--_adjs._ FIRST'-BEGOT'TEN, begotten or born first: eldest;
FIRST'-BORN, born first.--_n._ the first in the order of birth: the eldest
child.--_adj._ FIRST'-CLASS, of the first class, rank, or quality.--_ns._
FIRST'-DAY, Sunday; FIRST'-FLOOR (see FLOOR); FIRST'-FOOT (_Scot._), the
first person to enter a house after the beginning of the new year;
FIRST'-FRUIT, FIRST'-FRUITS, the fruits first gathered in a season: the
first profits or effects of anything, bishoprics, benefices, &c.--_adj._
FIRST'-HAND, obtained without the intervention of a second party.--_n._
FIRST'LING, the first produce or offspring, esp. of animals.--_adv._
FIRST'LY, in the first place.--_adjs._ FIRST'-RATE, of the first or highest
rate or excellence: pre-eminent in quality, size, or estimation;
FIRST'-WA'TER, the first or highest quality, purest lustre--of diamonds and
pearls. [A.S. _fyrst_; the superl. of _fore_ by adding _-st_.]

FIRTH, f[.e]rth. Same as FRITH.

FISC, fisk, _n._ the state treasury: the public revenue: one's
purse.--_adj._ FISC'AL, pertaining to the public treasury or revenue.--_n._
a treasurer: a public prosecutor, the chief law officer of the crown under
the Holy Roman Empire: (_Scot._) an officer who prosecutes in petty
criminal cases--fully, _Procurator-fiscal_. [O. Fr.,--L. _fiscus_, a



FISH, fish, _n._ a vertebrate that lives in water, and breathes through
gills: the flesh of fish: a piece of wood fixed alongside another for
strengthening:--_pl._ FISH, or FISH'ES.--_v.t._ to search for fish: to
search by sweeping: to draw out or up: (_naut._) to strengthen, as a weak
spar: to hoist the flukes of: to seek to obtain by artifice.--_ns._
FISH'-BALL, -CAKE, a ball of chopped fish and mashed potatoes,
fried.--_adj._ FISH'-BELL'IED, swelled out downward like the belly of a
fish.--_ns._ FISH'-CARV'ER, a large flat implement for carving fish at
table--also _Fish'-knife_, _Fish'-slice_, and _Fish'-trow'el_; FISH'-COOP,
a square box with a hole in its bottom, used in fishing through a hole in
the ice; FISH'-CREEL, an angler's basket, a wicker-basket used for carrying
fish; FISH'-DAY, a day on which fish is eaten instead of meat; FISH'ER, one
who fishes, or whose occupation is to catch fish: a North American
carnivore--a kind of marten or sable, the pekan or wood-shock; FISH'ERMAN,
a fisher; FISH'ERY, the business of catching fish: a place for catching
fish; FISH'-FAG, a woman who sells fish; FISH'-GARTH, an enclosure on a
river for the preserving or taking of fish--also FISH'-WEIR; FISH'-GOD, a
deity in form wholly or partly like a fish, like the Philistine Dagon;
FISH'-HOOK, a barbed hook for catching fish.--_v.t._ FISH'IFY (_Shak._), to
turn to fish.--_n._ FISH'INESS.--_adj._ FISH'ING, used in fishery.--_n._
the art or practice of catching fish.--_ns._ FISH'ING-FROG, the
angler-fish; FISH'ING-ROD, a long slender rod to which a line is fastened
for angling; FISH'ING-TACK'LE, tackle--nets, lines, &c.--used in fishing;
FISH'-JOINT, a joint or splice made with fish-plates; FISH'-KETT'LE, a long
oval dish for boiling fish; FISH'-LADD'ER, FISH'-WAY, an arrangement for
enabling a fish to ascend a fall, &c.; FISH'-LOUSE, a name widely applied
to any of the Copepod crustaceans which occur as external parasites, both
on fresh-water and marine fishes; FISH'-MEAL (_Shak._), a meal of fish:
abstemious diet; FISH'MONGER, a dealer in fish; FISH'-PACK'ING, the process
of packing or canning fish for the market; FISH'-PLATE, an iron plate
fitted to the web of a rail, used in pairs, one on each side of the
junction of two rails; FISH'-POND, a pond in which fish are kept;
FISH'-SALES'MAN, one who receives consignments of fish for sale by auction
to retail dealers; FISH'-SAUCE, sauce proper to be eaten with fish, as
anchovy, &c.; FISH'-SCRAP, fish or fish-skins from which oil or glue has
been extracted; FISH'-SPEAR, a spear or dart for striking fish;
FISH'-STRAIN'ER, a metal colander for taking fish from a boiler.--_adj._
FISH'-TAIL, shaped like the tail of a fish.--_ns._ FISH'-TORP[=E]'DO, a
self-propelling torpedo; FISH'-WIFE, FISH'-WOM'AN, a woman who sells fish
about the streets.--_adj._ FISH'Y, consisting of fish: like a fish:
abounding in fish: dubious, as a story: equivocal, unsafe.--_ns._
BAIT'-FISH, such fish as are used for bait, fish that may be caught with
bait; BOTT'OM-FISH, those that feed on the bottom, as halibut, &c.--FISH
FOR, to seek to gain by cunning or indirect means; FISHERMAN'S LUCK,
getting wet and catching no fish; FISHERMAN'S RING, a signet-ring with the
device of St Peter fishing, used in signing papal briefs.--A QUEER FISH, a
NOR FOWL, to be neither one thing nor another, in principle, &c.; HAVE
OTHER FISH TO FRY, to have something else to do, or to take up one's mind;
distinctions, show undue partiality. [A.S. _fisc_; Ger. _fisch_; Ice.
_fiskr_; L. _piscis_; Gr. _ichthys_; Gael. _iasg_.]

FISKERY, fisk'er-i, _n._ (_Carlyle_) friskiness.--_v.i._ FISK (_obs._), to
jump about. [Prob. a freq. of A.S. _fýsan_, to hurry, or of _fésian_, to
feeze; Sw. _fjäska_, to fidget.]

FISSILE, fis'il, _adj._ that may be cleft or split in the direction of the
grain.--_adjs._ FISSICOS'TATE, having the ribs divided; FISSILING'UAL,
having the tongue cleft.--_ns._ FISSIL'ITY, cleavableness; FIS'SION, a
cleaving or breaking up into two parts.--_adj._ FISS'IVE. [L. _fissilis_,
from _find[)e]re_, _fissum_, to cleave.]

FISSIPAROUS, fis-sip'a-rus, _adj._ propagated by spontaneous fission or
self-division.--_ns._ FISSIP'ARISM, FISSIPA'RITY.--_adv._ FISSIP'AROUSLY.
[L. _fissus_, pa.p. of _find[)e]re_, to cleave, _par[)e]re_, to bring

FISSIPED, fis'i-ped, _adj._ cloven-footed--also _n._

FISSIROSTRAL, fis-i-ros'tral, _adj._ having a deeply cleft or gaping beak,
as swallows, &c. [L. _fissus_, cleft, _rostrum_, a beak.]

FISSLE, fis'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to rustle: to whistle.

FISSURE, fish'[=u]r, _n._ a narrow opening or chasm: a cleft, slit, or
furrow: any groove or sulcus, esp. one of the furrows on the surface of the
brain, as the longitudinal fissure separating the hemispheres.--_adj._
FISS'[=U]RED, cleft, divided. [Fr.,--L. _fiss[=u]ra_, from _find[)e]re_,
_fissum_, to cleave.]

FIST, fist, _n._ the closed or clenched hand.--_v.t._ to strike or grip
with the fist.--_n._ FISTI[=A]'NA, anecdotes about boxing and
boxers.--_adj._ FIST'IC (_Dickens_), pugilistic.--_ns._ FIST'ICUFF, a blow
with the fist: (_pl._) boxing, blows; FIST'-LAW, the law of brute
force.--_adj._ FIST'Y. [A.S. _fýst_; Ger. _faust_.]

FISTULA, fist'[=u]-la, _n._ a narrow passage or duct: the tube through
which the wine of the eucharist was once sucked from the chalice--also
_Calamus_.--_adjs._ FIST'ULAR, hollow like a pipe; FIST'ULATE, -D, hollowed
like a fistula.--_v.i._ FIST'ULATE, to assume such a form.--_adjs._
FIST'ULIFORM; FIST'ULOSE, FIST'ULOUS, of the form of a fistula. [L.
_fistula_, a pipe.]

FIT, fit, _adj._ adapted to any particular end or standard, prepared for:
qualified: convenient: proper: properly trained and ready, as for a
race.--_v.t._ to make fit or suitable: to suit one thing to another: to be
adapted to: to qualify.--_v.i._ to be suitable or becoming:--_pr.p._
fit'ting; _pa.p._ fit'ted.--_advs._ FIT'LIEST (_Milt._), most fitly;
FIT'LY.--_ns._ FIT'MENT (_Shak._), something fitted to an end; FIT'NESS;
FIT'TER, he who, or that which, makes fit.--_adj._ FIT'TING, fit:
appropriate.--_n._ anything used in fitting up, esp. in _pl._--_adv._
FIT'TINGLY.--_ns._ FIT'TING-OUT, a supply of things, fit and necessary;
FIT'TING-SHOP, a shop in which pieces of machinery are fitted
together.--FIT OUT, to furnish, supply with stores, as a ship; FIT UP, to
provide with things suitable.--NOT FIT TO HOLD A CANDLE TO (see CANDLE).
[First recorded about 1440; app. cog. with FIT, _n._]

FIT, fit, _n._ a sudden attack by convulsions, as apoplexy, epilepsy, &c.:
convulsion or paroxysm: a temporary attack of anything, as laughter, &c.: a
sudden effort or motion: a passing humour.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to wrench, as
by a fit.--_adj._ FIT'FUL, marked by sudden impulses: spasmodic.--_adv._
spasmodic and irregular bursts of activity; BY FITS, irregularly. [A.S.
_fitt_, a struggle--prob. orig. 'juncture,' 'meeting;' cf. Ice. _fitja_, to
knit, Dut. _vitten_, to accommodate.]

FIT, fit, _n._ a song, or part of a song or ballad.--Also FITT, FITTE,
FYTTE. [A.S. _fitt_, a song.]

FITCH, fich, _n._ now _vetch_: (_B._) Isa. xxviii. 25, black cummin
(_Nigella sativa_): in Ezek. iv. 9, a kind of bearded wheat, spelt. [See

FITCHÉ, FITCHÉE, fich'[=a], _adj._ (_her._) cut to a point. [Fr. _ficher_,
to fix.]

FITCHEW, fich'[=oo], _n._ a polecat.--Also FITCH'ET. [O. Fr. _fissel_, from
root of Dut. _visse_, nasty.]

FITZ, fits, _n._ (a prefix) son of: used in England, esp. of the
illegitimate sons of kings and princes, as _Fitzclarence_, &c. [Norman Fr.
_fiz_ (Fr. _fils_)--L. _filius_.]

FIVE, f[=i]v, _adj._ and _n._ four and one.--_n._ FIVE'-FING'ER, a name for
various plants (cinque-foil, oxlip, &c.): a species of starfish.--_adj._
FIVE'FOLD, five times folded, or repeated in fives.--_ns._ FIV'ER
(_coll._), a five-pound note; FIVE'-SQUARE (_B._), having five corners or
angles.--FIVE ARTICLES, FIVE POINTS, statements of the distinctive
doctrines of the Arminians and Calvinists respectively--the former
promulgated in 1610, the latter sustained by the Synod of Dort in 1619 (see
CALVINISM).--BUNCH OF FIVES, the fist. [A.S. _fíf_; Ger. _fünf_; Goth.
_fimf_; W. _pump_; L. _quinque_; Gr. _pente_, _pempe_; Sans. _pancha_.]

FIVES, f[=i]vz, _n._ (_Shak._) vives, a disease of horses.

FIVES, f[=i]vz, _n.pl._ a game of handball played in a roomy court against
a wall, chiefly at the great public schools of England.

FIX, fiks, _v.t._ to make firm or fast: to establish: to drive into: to
settle: to put into permanent form: to establish as a fact: to direct
steadily: to regulate: to deprive of volatility.--_v.i._ to settle or
remain permanently: to become firm: to congeal.--_n._ (_coll._) a
difficulty: a dilemma.--_adj._ FIX'ABLE, capable of being fixed.--_ns._
FIX[=A]'TION, act of fixing, or state of being fixed: steadiness, firmness:
state in which a body does not evaporate; FIX'ATIVE, that which fixes or
sets colours; FIX'ATURE, a gummy preparation for fixing the hair.--_adj._
FIXED, settled: not apt to evaporate: steadily directed towards: fast,
lasting, permanent: substantively for fixed stars (_Par. Lost_, III.
481).--_adv._ FIX'EDLY.--_ns._ FIX'EDNESS; FIX'ER; FIXID'ITY, FIX'ITY,
fixedness.--_n.pl._ FIX'INGS, things needed for putting in order,
arrangement.--_adj._ FIX'IVE.--_ns._ FIX'TURE, a movable that has become
fastened to anything, as to land or to a house: a fixed article of
furniture: a fixed or appointed time or event, as a horse-race; FIX'URE
(_Shak._), stability, position, firmness.--FIXED AIR, the name given by Dr
Joseph Black in 1756 to what in 1784 was named by Lavoisier carbonic acid;
FIXED BODIES (_chem._), a term applied to those substances which remain
fixed, and are not volatilised at moderately high temperatures; FIXED OILS,
those which, on the application of heat, do not volatilise without
decomposition; FIXED STARS, stars which appear always to occupy the same
position in the heavens--opp. to _Planets_. [L., _fixus_, _fig[)e]re_, to
fix, prob. through O. Fr. _fix_, or Low L. _fix[=a]re_.]

FIZGIG, fiz'gig, _n._ a giddy girl: a firework of damp powder: a gimcrack:
a crotchet.--Also FIS'GIG.

FIZZ, fiz, _v.i._ to make a hissing or sputtering sound.--_n._ any frothy
drink, as soda-water, or esp. champagne.--_adj._ FIZ'ZENLESS (_Scot._),
pithless--also F[=U]'SIONLESS.--_v.i._ FIZ'ZLE, to hiss or sputter: to come
to a sudden stop, to fail disgracefully.--_n._ a state of agitation or
worry: an abortive effort.--_adj._ FIZ'ZY, given to fizz. [Formed from the

FLABBERGAST, flab'[.e]rgast, _v.t._ (_coll._) to stun, confound. [Prob.
conn. with _flabby_, and _gast_, to astonish.]

FLABBY, flab'i, _adj._ easily moved: soft, yielding: hanging loose.--_n._
FLABB'INESS. [From _flap_.]

FLABELLATE, flä-bel'[=a]t, _adj._ fan-shaped--also FLABELL'IFORM.--_ns._
FLABELL[=A]'TION, the action of fanning; FLAB'ELLUM (_eccles._), a fan,
anciently used to drive away flies from the chalice during the celebration
of the eucharist. [L., a fan.]

FLACCID, flak'sid, _adj._ flabby: lax: easily yielding to pressure: soft
and weak.--_adv._ FLAC'CIDLY.--_ns._ FLAC'CIDNESS, FLACCID'ITY, want of
firmness. [Fr.,--L. _flaccidus_--_flaccus_, flabby.]

FLACK, flak, _v.i._ (_prov._), to flap, flutter.--_v.t._ to flap or flick
with something.

FLACKER, flak'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_prov._) to flap, flutter.

FLACKET, flak'et, _n._ a flask, bottle.

FLACON, flak-ong', _n._ a scent-bottle, &c. [Fr.]

FLAFF, flaf, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to flap: to pant.--_n._ a flutter of the
wings: a puff.--_v.i._ FLAF'FER, to flutter. [Imit.]

FLAG, flag, _v.i._ to grow languid or spiritless.--_pr.p._ flag'ging;
_pa.p._ flagged.--_n._ FLAG'GINESS.--_adj._ FLAG'GY, limp, flabby. [Perh.
O. Fr. _flac_--L. _flaccus_; prob. influenced by imit. forms as _flap_.]

FLAG, flag, _n._ a popular name for many plants with sword-shaped leaves,
mostly growing in moist situations, sometimes specially the species of iris
or flower-de-luce--esp. the yellow flag: the acorus or sweet flag: (_B._)
reed-grass.--_ns._ FLAG'-BAS'KET, a basket made of reeds for carrying
tools; FLAG'GINESS.--_adj._ FLAG'GY, abounding in flags.--_n._ FLAG'-WORM,
a worm or grub bred among flags or reeds. [Ety. obscure; cf. Dut. _flag_.]

FLAG, flag, _n._ the ensign of a ship or of troops: a banner.--_v.t._ to
decorate with flags: to inform by flag-signals.--_ns._ FLAG'-CAP'TAIN, in
the navy, the captain of the ship which bears the admiral's flag;
FLAG'-LIEUTEN'ANT, an officer in a flag-ship, corresponding to an
aide-de-camp in the army; FLAG'-OFF'ICER, a naval officer privileged to
carry a flag denoting his rank--admiral, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, or
commodore; FLAG'-SHIP, the ship in which an admiral sails, and which
carries his flag; FLAG'STAFF, a staff or pole on which a flag is
displayed.--FLAG OF DISTRESS, a flag displayed as a signal of
distress--usually upside down or at half-mast; FLAG OF TRUCE, a white flag
displayed during war when some pacific communication is intended between
the hostile parties; BLACK FLAG, a pirate's flag, pirates generally; DIP
THE FLAG, to lower the flag and then hoist it--a token of respect; HANG OUT
THE RED FLAG, to give a challenge to battle; STRIKE, or LOWER, THE FLAG, to
pull it down as a token of respect, submission, or surrender; WHITE FLAG,
an emblem of peace; YELLOW FLAG, hoisted to show pestilence on board, also
over ships, &c., in quarantine, and hospitals, &c., in time of war. [Prob.
Scand.; Dan. _flag_; Dut. _vlag_, Ger. _flagge_.]

FLAG, flag, _n._ a stone that separates in flakes or layers: a flat stone
used for paving--also FLAG'STONE.--_v.t._ to pave with flagstones.--_n._
FLAG'GING, flagstones: a pavement of flagstones. [A form of _flake_; Ice.
_flaga_, a flag or slab.]

FLAGELLATE, flaj'el-[=a]t, _v.t._ to whip or scourge.--_ns._
flaj'-), one who scourges himself in religious discipline.--_adjs._
(_bot._) a runner: (_biol._) a large cilium or appendage to certain
infusorians, &c. [L. _flagell[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_flagellum_, dim. of
_flagrum_, a whip.]

FLAGEOLET, flaj'o-let, _n._ the modern form of the old flute-à-bec, or
straight flute, the simplest kind of which is the tin whistle with six
holes. [Fr., dim. of O. Fr. _flageol_, _flajol_, a pipe; not through a
supposed Low L. _flaut[=i]olus_--from _flauta_, a flute.]

FLAGITATE, flaj'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ (_Carlyle_) to entreat, importune.--_n._

FLAGITIOUS, fla-jish'us, _adj._ grossly wicked: guilty of enormous
crimes.--_adv._ FLAGI'TIOUSLY.--_n._ FLAGI'TIOUSNESS. [L.
_flagitiosus_--_flagitium_, a disgraceful act--_flagr[=a]re_, to burn.]

FLAGON, flag'un, _n._ a vessel with a narrow neck for holding liquids. [Fr.
_flacon_ for _flascon_--Low L. _flasco_. See FLASK.]

FLAGRANT, fl[=a]'grant, _adj._ glaring: notorious: enormous.--_ns._
FL[=A]'GRANCE, FL[=A]'GRANCY.--_adv._ FL[=A]'GRANTLY. [L. _flagrans_,
_pr.p._ of _flagr[=a]re_, to burn.]

FLAIL, fl[=a]l, _n._ an implement for threshing corn, consisting of a
wooden bar (the _swingle_) hinged or tied to a handle: a medieval weapon
with spiked iron swingle.--_v.t._ to strike with, or as if with, a flail.
[A.S. _fligel_, prob. from L. _flagellum_, a scourge.]

FLAIR, fl[=a]r, _n._ perceptiveness, discernment. [Fr.]

FLAKE, fl[=a]k, _n._ a small flat layer or film of anything: a very small
loose mass, as of snow or wool.--_v.t._ to form into flakes.--_ns._
FLAKE'-WHITE, the purest white-lead for painting, in the form of scales or
plates; FLAK'INESS.--_adj._ FLAK'Y. [Prob. Scand.; Ice. _flóke_, flock of
wool; Old High Ger. _floccho_.]

FLAKE, fl[=a]k, _n._ (_Scot._) a movable hurdle for fencing; (_naut._) a
stage hung over a ship's side for caulking, &c. [Scand.; cf. Ice. _flake_;
Dut. _vlaak_.]

FLAM, flam, _n._ a whim: an idle fancy: a falsehood.--_v.t._ to impose upon
with such. [Prob. from _flim-flam_ or _flamfew_, a trifle, a corr. of Fr.

FLAMBEAU, flam'b[=o], _n._ a flaming torch:--_pl._ FLAM'BEAUX ('b[=o]z).
[Fr., _flambe_--L. _flamma_.]

FLAMBOYANT, flam-boi'ant, _adj._ of the latest style of Gothic architecture
which prevailed in France in the 15th and 16th centuries, corresponding to
the Perpendicular in England--from the flame-like forms of the tracery of
the windows, &c.: of wavy form: gorgeously coloured. [Fr. _flamboyer_, to

FLAME, fl[=a]m, _n._ gaseous matter undergoing combustion: the gleam or
blaze of a fire: rage: ardour of temper: vigour of thought: warmth of
affection: love: (_coll._) the object of love.--_v.i._ to burn as flame: to
break out in passion.--_adjs._ FL[=A]ME'-COL'OURED (_Shak._), of the colour
of flame, bright yellow; FL[=A]ME'LESS.--_n._ FL[=A]ME'LET, a small
flame.--_adj._ FL[=A]M'ING, red: gaudy: violent.--_adv._
FL[=A]M'INGLY.--_n._ FLAMMABIL'ITY.--_adjs._ FLAMMIF'EROUS, producing
flame; FLAMMIV'OMOUS, vomiting flames.--_n._ FLAM'MULE, the flames in
pictures of Japanese deities.--_adj._ FL[=A]M'Y, pertaining to, or like,
flame. [O. Fr. _flambe_--L. _flamma_--_flagr[=a]re_, to burn.]

FLAMEN, fl[=a]'men, _n._ a priest in ancient Rome devoted to one particular
god.--_adj._ FLAMIN'ICAL. [L., from same root as _fla-gr[=a]re_, to burn.]

FLAMINGO, fla-ming'g[=o], _n._ a tropical bird of a flaming or bright-red
colour, with long legs and neck. [Sp. _flamenco_--L. _flamma_, a flame.]

FLANCH, flansh, _n._ a flange: (_her._) an ordinary formed on each side of
a shield by the segment of a circle.--_adj._ FLANCHED, charged with a pair
of flanches. [Prob. related to _flank_.]

FLANCONADE, flang-ko-n[=a]d', _n._ (_fencing_) a thrust in the flank or
side. [Fr., from _flanc_, the side.]

FLÂNEUR, flä-nür', _n._ one who saunters about with gossip.--_n._
FLÂN'ERIE. [Fr. _flâner_, to lounge.]

FLANGE, flanj, _n._ a projecting or raised edge or flank, as of a wheel or
of a rail.--_adj._ FLANGED.--_n._ FLANGE'-RAIL, a rail having a flange on
one side to prevent wheels running off. [Corr. of _flank_.]

FLANK, flangk, _n._ the side of an animal from the ribs to the thigh: the
side or wing of anything, esp. of an army or fleet: a body of soldiers on
the right and left extremities.--_v.t._ to attack or pass round the side
of: to protect the flanks of one's own army by detached bodies of troops,
or field-works, or to threaten those of the enemy by directing troops
against them.--_v.i._ to be posted on the side: to touch.--_n._ FLANK'ER, a
fortification which commands the flank of an assailing force.--_v.t._
(_obs._) to defend by flankers: to attack sideways.--FLANK COMPANY, the
company on the right or left when a battalion is in line; FLANK FILES, the
soldiers marching on the extreme right and left of a company, &c. [Fr.
_flanc_, perh. L. _flaccus_, flabby.]

FLANNEL, flan'el, _n._ a soft woollen cloth of loose texture for
undergarments, &c.: the garment itself: (_pl._) the garb of cricketers,
&c.--_v.t._ to wrap in or rub with flannel.--_n._ FLANNELETTE', a cotton
fabric, made in imitation of flannel.--_adjs._ FLANN'ELLED; FLANN'ELLY.
[Orig. _flannen_, acc. to Skeat, from W. _gwlanen_--_gwlan_, wool; acc. to
Diez, the equivalent Fr. _flanelle_ is from the O. Fr. _flaine_, a

FLAP, flap, _n._ the blow or motion of a broad loose object: anything broad
and flexible hanging loose, as the tail of a coat: a portion of skin or
flesh detached from the underlying part for covering and growing over the
end of an amputated limb.--_v.t._ to beat or move with a flap.--_v.i._ to
move, as wings: to hang like a flap:--_pr.p._ flap'ping; _pa.p._
flapped.--_ns._ FLAP'DOODLE, the food of fools: transparent nonsense, gross
flattery, &c.; FLAP'-DRAG'ON, a play in which small edibles, as raisins,
are snatched from burning brandy, and swallowed.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
swallow or devour, as in flap-dragon.--_adj._ FLAP'-EARED (_Shak._), having
ears hanging like a flap.--_n._ FLAP'-JACK (_Shak._), a kind of broad, flat
pancake.--_adj._ FLAP'-MOUTHED.--_n._ FLAP'PER. [Prob. imit.]

FLARE, fl[=a]r, _v.i._ to burn with a glaring, unsteady light: to glitter
or flash: to display glaringly.--_n._ an unsteady light.--_p.adj._
FL[=A]'RING, giving out an unsteady light: gaudy.--_adv._
FL[=A]'RINGLY.--_adj._ FL[=A]'RY. [Prob. Scand.; cf. Norw. _flara_, to

FLASH, flash, _n._ a momentary gleam of light: a sudden burst, as of
merriment: a short transient state.--_v.i._ to break forth, as a sudden
light: to break out into intellectual brilliancy: to burst out into
violence.--_v.t._ to cause to flash: to expand, as blown glass, into a
disc: to send by some startling or sudden means.--_n._ FLASH'-HOUSE, a
brothel.--_adv._ FLASH'ILY.--_ns._ FLASH'INESS; FLASH'ING, the act of
blazing: a sudden burst, as of water; FLASH'-POINT, the temperature at
which an inflammable liquid takes fire--in the case of petroleum, &c.,
ascertained by placing oil in a vessel called a tester (used open and
closed), and heating it up to a point at which sufficient vapour is
generated as to give off a small flash when a light is applied to
it.--_adj._ FLASH'Y, dazzling for a moment: showy but empty: (_Milt._)
vapid: gay--also FLASH, vulgarly showy, gay but tawdry: pertaining to
thieves, vagabonds, &c., as the '_flash_ language'=thieves' cant or slang:
'_flash_ notes'=counterfeit notes.--FLASH IN THE PAN (see PAN). [Prob.
imit.; cf. Sw. prov. _flasa_, to blaze.]

FLASK, flask, _n._ a narrow-necked vessel for holding liquids: a bottle: a
pocket-bottle: a horn or metal vessel for carrying powder.--_n._ FLASK'ET,
a vessel in which viands are served: (_Spens._) a basket.--FLORENCE FLASK,
a narrow-necked globular glass bottle of thin glass, as those in which
olive-oil is brought from Italy. [A.S. _flasce_; Ger. _flasche_; prob. not
Teut. acc. to Diez, but from Low L. _flasco_--L. _vasculum_, a flask.]

FLAT, flat, _adj._ smooth: level: wanting points of prominence and
interest: monotonous: vapid, insipid: dejected: unqualified, positive:
(_mus._) opposite of sharp.--_n._ a level plain: a tract covered by shallow
water: something broad: a story or floor of a house, esp. when fitted up as
a separate residence for a family: a simpleton, a gull: (_mus._) a
character (b) which lowers a note a semitone.--_ns._ FLAT'BOAT, a large
flat-bottomed boat for floating goods down the Mississippi, &c.;
FLAT'-FISH, a name applied to marine bony fishes that have a flat body,
such as the flounder, turbot, &c.--_adj._ FLAT'-FOOT'ED, having flat feet:
resolute.--_adj._ and _n._ FLAT'-HEAD, having an artificially flattened
head, as some American Indians of the Chinooks--the name is officially but
incorrectly applied to the Selish Indians in particular.--_n._
FLAT'-[=I]'RON, an iron for smoothing cloth.--_advs._ FLAT'LING, FLAT'LONG
(_Spens._, _Shak._), with the flat side down: not edgewise; FLAT'LY.--_ns._
FLAT'NESS; FLAT'-RACE, a race over open or clear ground.--_v.t._ FLAT'TEN,
to make flat.--_v.i._ to become flat.--_n._ FLAT'TING, a mode of
house-painting in which the paint is left without gloss.--_adj._ FLAT'TISH,
somewhat flat.--_adj._ or _adv._ FLAT'WISE, flatways, or with the flat side
downward.--_n._ FLAT'-WORM, a tapeworm. [From a Teut. root found in Ice.
_flatr_, flat, Sw. _flat_, Dan. _flad_, Old High Ger. _flaz_.]

FLATTER, flat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to soothe with praise and servile attentions:
to please with false hopes or undue praise.--_n._ FLATT'ERER.--_adj._
FLATT'ERING, uttering false praise: pleasing to pride or vanity.--_adv._
FLATT'ERINGLY.--_n._ FLATT'ERY, false praise. [O. Fr. _flater_ (Fr.
_flatter_); Teut.; cf. Ice. _fladhra_.]

FLATULENT, flat'[=u]-lent, _adj._ affected with air in the stomach: apt to
generate such: empty: vain.--_ns._ FLAT'ULENCE, FLAT'ULENCY, distension of
the stomach or bowels by gases formed during digestion: windiness,
emptiness.--_adv._ FLAT'ULENTLY.--_n._ FL[=A]'TUS, a puff of wind: air
generated in the stomach or intestines. [Fr.,--Low L. _flatulentus_--L.
_fl[=a]re_, _flatum_, to blow.]

FLAUGHT, flaht, _n._ (_Scot._) a flight, a flapping.--_n._ FLAUGH'TER, a
fluttering motion.--_v.i._ to flutter, flicker. [See FLIGHT.]

FLAUNT, flawnt, _v.i._ to fly or wave in the wind: to move or display
ostentatiously: to carry a gaudy or saucy appearance.--_n._ (_Shak._)
anything displayed for show.--_n._ FLAUNT'ER.--_adj._ FLAUNT'ING.--_adv._
FLAUNT'INGLY, in a flaunting or showy manner.--_adj._ FLAUNT'Y, showy.
[Prob. imit.; Skeat suggests Sw. prov. _flanka_, to waver.]


FLAVESCENT, fla-ves'ent, _adj._ yellowish or turning yellow. [L.
_flavescens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _flavesc[)e]re_, to become
yellow--_flavus_, yellow.]

FLAVIAN, fl[=a]v'i-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the Flavian emperors of
Rome--_Flavius_ Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian (69-96 A.D.).

FLAVINE, fl[=a]'vin, _n._ a concentrated preparation of quercitron bark,
till recently an important yellow dye. [L. _flavus_, yellow.]

FLAVOUR, fl[=a]'vur, _n._ that quality of anything which affects the smell
or the palate: a smack or relish.--_v.t._ to impart flavour to.--_adj._
FL[=A]'VOROUS.--_n._ FL[=A]'VOURING, any substance used to give a
flavour.--_adj._ FL[=A]'VOURLESS. [O. Fr. _flaur_; prob. related to L.
_fragr[=a]re_ or to _fl[=a]re_.]

FLAW, flaw, _n._ a gust of wind: a sudden rush, uproar. [Cf. Dut. _vlaag_,
Sw. _flaga_.]

FLAW, flaw, _n._ a break, a crack: a defect.--_v.t._ to crack or
break.--_adjs._ FLAW'LESS; FLAW'Y. [Ice. _flaga_, a slab.]

FLAWN, flawn, _n._ a custard, pancake. [O. Fr. _flaon_--Low L.
_fladon-em_--Old High Ger. _flado_.]

FLAX, flax, _n._ the fibres of the plant Linum, which are woven into linen
cloth: the flax-plant.--_ns._ FLAX'-COMB, a toothed instrument or heckle
for cleaning the fibres of flax; FLAX'-DRESS'ER, one who prepares flax for
the spinner by the successive processes of rippling, retting, grassing,
breaking, and scutching.--_adj._ FLAX'EN, made of or resembling flax: fair,
long, and flowing.--_ns._ FLAX'-MILL, a mill for working flax into linen;
FLAX'-SEED, linseed; FLAX'-WENCH, a female who spins flax.--_adj._ FLAX'Y,
like flax: of a light colour.--NEW ZEALAND FLAX, a valuable fibre, quite
different from common flax, obtained from the leaf of _Phormium tenax_, the
flax lily or flax bush. [A.S. _fleax_; Ger. _flachs_.]

FLAY, fl[=a], _v.t._ to strip off the skin:--_pr.p._ flay'ing; _pa.p._
flayed.--_ns._ FLAY'ER; FLAY'-FLINT, a skinflint. [A.S _fléan_; Ice. _flá_,
to skin.]

FLEA, fl[=e], _n._ a well-known wingless insect of great agility,
ectoparasitic on warm-blooded animals.--_ns._ FLEA'-BANE, a genus of plants
which emit a strong smell said to have the power of driving away fleas;
FLEA'-BITE, the bite of a flea: a small mark caused by the bite: (_fig._) a
trifle.--_adj._ FLEA'-BIT'TEN, bitten by fleas: (_fig._) mean: having small
reddish spots on a lighter ground, of horses.--A FLEA IN ONE'S EAR, a
caution, rebuff, anything specially irritating. [A.S. _fléah_; cf. Ger.
_floh_, Dut. _vloo_.]

FLEAM, fl[=e]m, _n._ an instrument for bleeding cattle. [Fr. _flamme_--Gr.
_phlebotomon_, a lancet--_phleps_, _phlebos_, a vein, and _tem-nein_, to

FLÈCHE, fl[=a]sh, _n._ a spire generally: the slender spire rising from the
intersection of the nave and transepts in some large churches: (_fort._) a
parapet with two faces forming a salient angle at the foot of a glacis.
[Fr., 'an arrow.']

FLECK, flek, _n._ a spot or speckle: a little bit of a thing.--_vs.t._
FLECK, FLECK'ER, to spot: to streak.--_adjs._ FLECKED, spotted, dappled;
FLECK'LESS, without spot. [Ice. _flekkr_, a spot; Ger. _fleck_, Dut.


FLED, fled, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of FLEE.

FLEDGE, flej, _v.t._ to furnish with feathers or wings.--_v.i._ to acquire
feathers for flying.--_n._ FLEDG'LING, a little bird just fledged.--_adj._
FLEDG'Y (_Keats_), feathery. [M. E. _fligge_, _flegge_--A.S. _flycge_,
fledged (cf. Ger. _flügge_)--_fléogan_, to fly (Ger. _fliegen_).]

FLEE, fl[=e], _v.i._ to run away, as from danger: to disappear.--_v.t._ to
keep at a distance from:--_pr.p._ flee'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ fled.--_n._
FL[=E]'ER. [A.S. _fléon_, akin to _fléogan_, to fly; Ger. _fliehen_, akin
to _fliegen_, to fly.]

FLEECE, fl[=e]s, _n._ the coat of wool shorn from a sheep at one time:
anything like a fleece.--_v.t._ to clip wool from: to plunder: to cover, as
with wool.--_adjs._ FLEECED, having a fleece; FLEECE'LESS.--_ns._ FLEE'CER,
one who strips or plunders; FLEECE'-WOOL, that shorn from the living
animal.--_adj._ FLEEC'Y, woolly. [A.S. _fléos_; Dut. _vlies_, Ger.

FLEECH, fl[=e]ch, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to flatter, coax, beg.--_ns._

FLEER, fl[=e]r, _v.t._ or _v.i._ to make wry faces in contempt, to
mock.--_n._ mockery.--_n._ FLEER'ING.--_adv._ FLEER'INGLY. [Cf. Norw.
_flira_, Sw. _flissa_, to titter.]

FLEET, fl[=e]t, _n._ a number of ships in company, esp. ships of war: a
division of the navy, commanded by an admiral. [A.S. _fléot_, a
ship--_fléotan_, to float; conn. with Dut. _vloot_, Ger. _flotte_.]

FLEET, fl[=e]t, _adj._ swift: nimble: transient: (_prov._)
shallow.--_adjs._ FLEET'-FOOT (_Shak._), fleet or swift of foot; FLEET'ING,
passing quickly: temporary.--_advs._ FLEET'INGLY; FLEET'LY.--_n._
FLEET'NESS. [Prob. Ice. _fliótr_, swift; but ult. cog. with succeeding

FLEET, fl[=e]t, _v.i._ to flit, pass swiftly.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to make to
pass quickly:--_pr.p._ fleet'ing; _pa.p._ fleet'ed. [A.S. _fléotan_, to

FLEET, fl[=e]t, _n._ a shallow creek or bay, as in North_fleet_,
_Fleet_-ditch, &c.--THE FLEET, or FLEET PRISON, a London gaol down to 1842,
long a place of confinement for debtors--clandestine marriages were
solemnised here down to 1754 by broken-down clergymen confined for debt.
[A.S. _fléot_, an inlet.]

FLEMISH, flem'ish, _adj._ of or belonging to the _Flemings_ or people of
Flanders, or their language.--_n._ FLEM'ING, a native of Flanders.--FLEMISH
SCHOOL, a school of painting formed by the brothers Van Eyck, reaching its
height in Rubens, Vandyck, and Teniers; FLEMISH STITCH, a stitch used in
making certain kinds of point-lace. [Dut. _Vlaamsch_.]

FLENCH, flensh, _v.t._ to cut up the blubber of, as a whale.--Also FLENSE,
FLINCH. [Dan. _flense_.]

FLESH, flesh, _n._ the soft substance which covers the bones of animals:
animal food: the bodies of beasts and birds, not fish: the body, not the
soul: animals or animal nature: mankind: kindred: bodily appetites: the
present life: the soft substance of fruit: the part of a fruit fit to be
eaten: (_B._) man's visible nature (as opposed to _Pneuma_ or _Spirit_),
his human or bodily nature, the seat of sin, but not originally or
necessarily evil.--_v.t._ to train to an appetite for flesh, as dogs for
hunting: to accustom: to glut: to use upon flesh, as a sword, esp. for the
first time.--_ns._ FLESH'-BROTH, broth made by boiling flesh; FLESH'-BRUSH,
a brush used for rubbing the skin to excite circulation; FLESH'-COL'OUR,
pale red, like the normal colour of the cheek of a child.--_adj._ FLESHED
(flesht), having flesh: fat.--_ns._ FLESH'ER (_Scot._), a butcher;
FLESH'-FLY, a fly that deposits its eggs in and feeds on flesh; FLESH'HOOD
(_Mrs Browning_), the state of being in the flesh; FLESH'-HOOK, a hook for
drawing flesh from a pot; FLESH'INESS.--_n.pl._ FLESH'INGS, thin
flesh-coloured dress worn by dancers, actors, &c.--_adj._ FLESH'LESS,
without flesh: lean.--_ns._ FLESH'LINESS; FLESH'LING (_Spens._), one wholly
devoted to sensuality.--_adj._ FLESH'LY, corporeal: carnal: not
spiritual--also _adv._ FLESH'LY-MIND'ED, given to sensual pleasures:
carnally-minded.--_ns._ FLESH'-MEAT, flesh of animals used for food;
FLESH'MENT (_Shak._), act of fleshing or initiating, excitement arising
from success; FLESH'MONGER, one who deals in flesh: (_Shak._) a procurer, a
pimp; FLESH'-POT, a pot or vessel in which flesh is cooked: (_fig._)
abundance of flesh, high living; FLESH'-POTTERY, sumptuous living;
FLESH'-TINT, the tint or colour that best represents the human body;
FLESH'-WORM, a worm that feeds on flesh; FLESH'-WOUND, a wound not reaching
beyond the flesh.--_adj._ FLESH'Y, fat: pulpy: plump.--AN ARM OF FLESH,
human strength or help; IN THE FLESH, in life, alive: (_B._) under control
of the lower nature. [A.S. _fl['æ]sc_; cog. forms in all Teut. languages;
Ger. _fleisch_, &c.]

FLETCH, flech, _v.i._ to feather.--_n._ FLETCH'ER, one who makes arrows.
[Fr. _flèche_, an arrow.]


FLEUR-DE-LIS, fl[=oo]r'-de-l[=e]', _n._ the flower of the lily: (_her._) a
bearing explained as representing three flowers of the white lily joined
together, or the white iris--commonly called _Flower-de-luce_:--_pl._
FLEURS'-DE-LIS'--the arms of the Bourbons and of France.--_ns._ FLEUR'ET,
an ornament like a small flower: a fencing-foil; FLEUR'Y (_her._),
decorated with a fleur-de-lis, or with the upper part only. [Fr., _lis_
being for L. _lilium_, a lily.]

FLEW, fl[=oo], _pa.t._ of FLY.

FLEWED, fl[=oo]d, _adj._ (_Shak._) having large chops (of dogs). [Ety.

FLEXIBLE, fleks'i-bl, FLEXILE, fleks'il, _adj._ easily bent: pliant:
docile.--_v.t._ FLEX, to bend or make a flexure of.--_adjs._ FLEXAN'IMOUS,
influencing the mind; FLEXED, bent.--_ns._ FLEX'IBLENESS, FLEXIBIL'ITY,
pliancy: easiness to be persuaded.--_adv._ FLEX'IBLY.--_ns._ FLEX'ION,
FLEC'TION, a bend: a fold: the action of a flexor muscle; FLEX'OR, a muscle
which bends a joint, as opposed to _Extensor_.--_adjs._ FLEX'[=U]OUS,
FLEX'[=U]OSE, of windings and turnings: variable.--_n._ FLEX'[=U]RE, a bend
or turning: (_math._) the curving of a line or surface: the bending of
loaded beams: (_Shak._) obsequious bowing. [L. _flexibilis_,
_flexilis_--_flect[)e]re_, _flexum_, to bend.]

FLEY, FLAY, fl[=a], _v.t._ to cause to fly: to frighten.--_v.i._ to be
frightened. [M. E. _flayen_--A.S. _flégan_, _fléogan_, to fly; Ice.
_fleyja_, Goth. _flaugjan_.]

FLIBBERTIGIBBET, flib'er-ti-jib'et, _n._ a flighty person: an imp. [Most
prob. jargon.]

FLICK, flik, _v.t._ to strike lightly.--_n._ a flip.

FLICKER, flik'[.e]r, _v.i._ to flutter and move the wings, as a bird: to
burn unsteadily, as a flame.--_n._ an act of flickering, a flickering
movement.--_v.i._ FLICHT'ER, (_Scot._), to flutter, quiver.--_adv._
FLICK'ERINGLY. [A.S. _flicorian_; imit.]

FLIER, FLYER, fl[=i]'[.e]r, _n._ one who flies or flees: a part of a
machine with rapid motion.

FLIGHT, fl[=i]t, _n._ a passing through the air: a soaring: excursion: a
sally: a series of steps: a flock of birds flying together: the birds
produced in the same season: a volley or shower: act of fleeing: hasty
removal.--_adj._ FLIGHT'ED (_Milt._), flying.--_adv._ FLIGHT'ILY.--_n._
FLIGHT'INESS.--_adj._ FLIGHT'Y, fanciful: changeable: giddy. [A.S.

FLIM-FLAM, flim'-flam, _n._ a trick. [Formed like _skimble-skamble_,
_whim-wham_, &c.]

FLIMP, flimp, _v.t._ (_slang_) to snatch a watch while a confederate prods
the victim in the back.

FLIMSY, flim'zi, _adj._ thin: without solidity, strength, or reason:
weak.--_n._ transfer-paper: (_slang_) a bank-note: reporters' copy written
on thin paper.--_adv._ FLIM'SILY, in a flimsy manner.--_n._ FLIM'SINESS.
[First in 18th century. Prob. an onomatopoeic formation suggested by

FLINCH, flinsh, _v.i._ to shrink back: to fail.--_ns._ FLINCH'ER;
FLINCH'ING, the act of flinching or shrinking.--_adv._ FLINCH'INGLY. [M. E.
_flecchen_--O. Fr. _fléchir_, prob. from L. _flect[)e]re_, to bend.]

FLINDER, flin'der, _n._ a splinter or small fragment--usually in _pl._
[Norw. _flindra_, a splinter.]

FLINDERSIA, flin-der'si-a, _n._ a genus of Australian and African trees,
yielding African and Madeira mahogany, or Calcedra wood. [From the
Australian explorer, Captain Matthew _Flinders_, 1774-1814.]

FLING, fling, _v.t._ to strike or throw from the hand: to dart: to send
forth: to scatter: to throw (of a horse).--_v.i._ to act in a violent and
irregular manner: to kick out with the legs: to upbraid: to sneer:--_pr.p._
fling'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ flung.--_n._ a cast or throw: a taunt:
complete freedom, full enjoyment of pleasure: a lively Scotch
country-dance.--FLING OUT, to speak or act recklessly.--FULL FLING, at the
utmost speed, recklessly. [Ice. _flengja_; Sw. _flänga_.]

FLINT, flint, _n._ a hard mineral, a variety of quartz, from which fire is
readily struck with steel: anything proverbially hard.--_adj._ made of
flint, hard.--_n._ FLINT'-GLASS, a very fine and pure kind of glass, so
called because originally made of calcined flints.--_adjs._ FLINT'-HEART,
-ED (_Shak._), having a hard heart.--_v.t._ FLINT'IFY, to turn to
flint.--_ns._ FLINT'INESS; FLINT'-LOCK, a gun-lock having a flint fixed in
the hammer for striking fire and igniting the priming.--_adj._ FLINT'Y,
consisting of or like flint: hard: cruel.--FLINT IMPLEMENTS, arrow, axe,
and spear heads, &c. made by man before the use of metals, commonly found
in prehistoric graves, &c. [A.S. _flint_; Dan. _flint_; Gr. _plinthos_, a

FLIP, flip, _n._ a hot drink of beer and spirits sweetened.

FLIP, flip, _v.t._ to fillip, to touch lightly: to toss up with a motion of
the thumb.--_v.i._ to flap.--_n._ a fillip, a snap.--_adv._ FLIP'-FLAP,
with a repeated flapping movement.--_n._ a coster's dance: a form of
somersault: a cracker.--_ns._ FLIP'-FLOP, the sound of a regular footfall;
FLIP'PER, a fin: (_slang_) hand.--_adj._ FLIP'PERTY-FLOP'PERTY, that goes
flip-flap, loose, dangling. [Attenuated from _flap_.]

FLIPE, fl[=i]p, _v.t._ to fold back, as a sleeve. [Prob. Scand.; cf. Dan.
_flip_, a flap.]

FLIPPANT, flip'ant, _adj._ quick and pert of speech: thoughtless.--_ns._
FLIPP'ANCY, FLIPP'ANTNESS, pert fluency of speech: pertness.--_adv._
FLIPP'ANTLY. [Skeat explains as for _flipp_ _-and_ (Old Northumbrian
_pr.p._ ending)--Ice. _fleipa_, to prattle.]

FLIRT, fl[.e]rt, _v.t._ to move about quickly like a fan, to flick,
rap.--_v.i._ to trifle with love: to play at courtship: to move briskly
about.--_n._ a pert, giddy girl: one who coquets for amusement, usually of
a woman.--_n._ FLIRT[=A]'TION the act of flirting.--_adj._ FLIRT[=A]'TIOUS
(_coll._), giving to flirting.--_ns._ FLIRT'-GILL (_Shak._), a pert or
wanton woman; FLIRT'ING.--_adv._ FLIRT'INGLY, in a flirting manner.--_adj._
FLIRT'ISH, betokening a flirt. [Onomatopoeic, like _flick_, _flip_, _flirk_
(a jerk), _spurt_, _squirt_.]

FLISK, flisk, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to skip or caper about: to fret at the
yoke.--_n._ a whim: a large-tooth comb.--_adj._ FLISK'Y. [Onomatopoeic.]

FLIT, flit, _v.i._ to flutter on the wing: to fly quickly: to be unsteady
or easily moved: (_Scot._) to remove from place to place:--_pr.p._
flit'ting; _pa.p._ flit'ted.--_n._ FLIT'TING, a removal from one house to
another: a wandering. [Ice. _flytja_; Sw. _flytta_.]

FLITCH, flich, _n._ the side of a hog salted and cured. [A.S. _flicce_;
Ice. _flikki_.]

FLITTER, flit'[.e]r, _v.i._ to flutter.--_n._ FLITT'ER-MOUSE, a bat.

FLITTERN, flit'ern, _n._ (_prov._) a young oak.

FLITTERS, flit'ers, _n.pl._ fragments, tatters.

FLIX, fliks, _n._ fur, beaver-down.

FLOAT, fl[=o]t, _v.i._ to swim on a liquid: to be buoyed up: to move
lightly and irregularly: to circulate, as a rumour: to drift about
aimlessly.--_v.t._ to cause to swim: to cover with water: to set
agoing.--_n._ anything swimming on water: a raft: the cork or quill on a
fishing-line: a plasterer's trowel.--_adj._ FLOAT'ABLE.--_ns._ FLOAT'AGE,
FLOT'AGE, the floating capacity of a thing: anything that floats;
FLOAT'-BOARD, a board on the rim of an undershot water-wheel on which the
water acts and moves the wheel; FLOAT'ER.--_adj._ FLOAT'ING, swimming: not
fixed: circulating.--_n._ action of the verb _float_: the spreading of
plaster on the surface of walls.--_ns._ FLOAT'ING-BATT'ERY, a vessel or
hulk heavily armed, used in the defence of harbours or in attacks on marine
fortresses; FLOAT'ING-BRIDGE, a bridge of rafts or beams of timber lying on
the surface of the water; FLOAT'ING-DOCK (see DOCK); FLOAT'ING-IS'LAND, an
aggregation of driftwood, roots, &c., capable of bearing soil, floated out
from a river delta or the like; FLOAT'ING-LIGHT, a ship, bearing a light,
moored on sunken rocks, to warn seamen of danger.--_adv._
FLOAT'INGLY.--_n._ FLOAT'-STONE, a porous, sponge-like variety of quartz,
so light as to float for a while on water.--_adj._ FLOAT'Y. [A.S.
_flotian_, to float; Ice. _flota_.]

FLOCK, flok, _n._ a company of animals, as sheep, birds, &c.: a company
generally: a Christian congregation.--_v.i._ to gather in flocks or in
crowds.--_n._ FLOCK'-MAS'TER, an owner or overseer of a flock. [A.S.
_flocc_, a flock, a company; Ice. _flokkr_.]

FLOCK, flok, _n._ a lock of wool.--_n._ FLOCCILL[=A]'TION, a delirious
picking of the bed-clothes by a patient.--_adjs._ FLOC'COSE, woolly;
FLOC'C[=U]LAR; FLOC'C[=U]LATE.--_n._ FLOC'C[=U]LENCE.--_adj._
FLOC'C[=U]LENT, woolly, flaky.--_ns._ FLOC'C[=U]LUS, a small flock or tuft:
a small lobe of the inferior surface of the cerebellum; FLOC'CUS, a flock
or tuft of wool or wool-like hairs: the downy plumage of unfledged
birds:--_pl._ FLOCCI (flok'si); FLOCK'-BED, a bed stuffed with flock or
refuse wool; FLOCK'-P[=A]'PER, wall-paper covered with a rough surface
formed of flock.--_adj._ FLOCK'Y. [O. Fr. _floc_--L. _floccus_, a lock of

FLOE, fl[=o], _n._ a field of floating ice. [Prob. Norse _flo_, layer. The
usual Danish word is _flage_.]

FLOG, flog, _v.t._ to beat or strike: to lash: to chastise with
blows:--_pr.p._ flog'ging; _pa.p._ flogged.--_n._ FLOG'GING. [Late; prob.
an abbrev. of _flagellate_.]

FLOOD, flud, _n._ a great flow of water: (_B._) a river: an inundation: a
deluge: the rise or flow of the tide: any great quantity.--_v.t._ to
overflow: to inundate: to bleed profusely, as after parturition:--_pr.p._
flood'ing; _pa.p._ flood'ed.--_ns._ FLOOD'-GATE, a gate for letting water
flow through, or to prevent it: an opening or passage: an obstruction;
FLOOD'ING, an extraordinary flow of blood from the uterus; FLOOD'MARK, the
mark or line to which the tide rises; FLOOD'-TIDE, the rising or inflowing
tide.--THE FLOOD, the deluge in the days of Noah. [A.S. _flód_; Dut.
_vloed_, Ger. _fluth_. Cog. with _flow_.]

FLOOR, fl[=o]r, _n._ the part of a room on which we stand: a platform: the
rooms in a house on the same level, a story: any levelled area.--_v.t._ to
furnish with a floor: (_coll._) to vanquish, stump.--_ns._ FLOOR'CLOTH, a
covering for floors made of canvas oil-painted on both sides; FLOOR'ER, a
knock-down blow; a decisive retort, &c.: an examination question one cannot
answer; FLOOR'ING, material for floors: a platform.--_n.pl._
FLOOR'-TIM'BERS, the timbers placed immediately across a ship's keel, on
which her bottom is framed.--_ns._ FIRST'-FLOOR, the floor in a house above
the ground-floor--in United States mostly identical with GROUND-FLOOR, the
floor of a house on a level with the ground. [A.S. _flór_; Dut. _vloer_, a
flat surface, Ger. _flur_, flat land; W. _llawr_.]

FLOP, flop, _v.t._ to cause to hang down.--_v.i._ to plump down suddenly:
to break down.--_n._ a fall plump on the ground.--_adv._ FLOP'PILY.--_n._
FLOP'PINESS.--_adj._ FLOP'PY. [A form of _flap_.]

FLORA, fl[=o]'ra, _n._ the collective plants or vegetable species of a
region, country, or district: a work containing a descriptive enumeration
of these.--_adj._ FL[=O]'RAL, pertaining to Flora or to flowers: (_bot._)
containing the flower.--_adv._ FL[=O]'RALLY.--_n._ FLORÉAL
(fl[=o]-r[=a]-al'), the 8th month of the French revolutionary calendar,
April 20-May 20.--_adj._ FL[=O]'RE[=A]TED, decorated with floral
ornament.--_n._ FLORES'CENCE, a bursting into flower: (_bot._) the time
when plants flower.--_adj._ FLORES'CENT, bursting into flowers.--_n._
FL[=O]'RET (_bot._), the flowers of any small and closely crowded
inflorescence which resembles at first sight a single flower--e.g.
composites, teasels, grasses, &c.--_adj._ FL[=O]RICUL'TURAL.--_ns._
FL[=O]'RICULTURE, the culture of flowers or plants; FL[=O]RICUL'TURIST, a
florist.--_adj._ FLOR'ID, bright in colour: flushed with red: containing
flowers of rhetoric or lively figures: richly ornamental.--_adv._
FLOR'IDLY.--_n._ FLOR'IDNESS.--_adjs._ FL[=O]RIF'EROUS, bearing or
producing flowers; FL[=O]'RIFORM, flower-shaped.--_ns._ FL[=O]RIL[=E]'GIUM,
an anthology or collection of choice extracts; FLOR'IST, a cultivator of
flowers: one who writes an account of plants. [L. _Flora_, the goddess of

FLORENTINE, flor'en-tin, _adj._ pertaining to _Florence_ in Tuscany.--_n._
a native or inhabitant thereof: a durable silk textile fabric--also
FLOR'ENCE: a pie with no crust beneath the meat.

FLORIN, flor'in, _n._ an English silver coin worth 2s., first minted in
1849: in Austria the unit of account, otherwise called _gulden_, with a
value about 2s.: in Holland sometimes called _guilder_, and worth about 1s.
8d.: (_orig._) a Florentine gold coin with a lily stamped on one side,
first struck in the 11th century. [Fr., from It. _fiorino_--_fiore_, a
lily--L. _flos_.]

FLORUIT, fl[=o]'r[=u]-it, _n._ the period during which a person flourished.
[L., 3d pers. sing. perf. of _flor[=e]re_, to flourish.]

FLOSCULE, flos'k[=u]l, _n._ a floret.--_adjs._ FLOS'CULAR, FLOS'CULOUS,
composed of many floscules or tubular florets. [L. _flosculus_, dim. of
_flos_, a flower.]

FLOSS, flos, _n._ the loose downy or silky substance in the husks of
certain plants, as the bean--also FLOSH.--_n._ FLOSS'-SILK, very fine silk
fibre extremely soft and downy and with a high lustre, used chiefly for
embroidery.--_adj._ FLOSS'Y. [Prob. O. Fr. _flosche_, down: or from some
Teut. word cog. with _fleece_--cf. Ice. _flos_, nap.]

FLOTA, fl[=o]'ta, _n._ a commercial fleet: formerly the fleet which
annually conveyed the produce of America to Spain. [Sp., 'a fleet.']


FLOTANT, fl[=o]t'ant, _adj._ (_her._) floating in air or in water.

FLOTATION, flo-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of floating: the science of
floating bodies: act of floating a company or commercial
enterprise.--PLANE, or LINE, OF FLOTATION, the plane or line in which the
horizontal surface of a fluid cuts a body floating in it.

FLOTILLA, flo-til'a, _n._ a fleet of small ships. [Sp., dim. of _flota_, a

FLOTSAM, flot'sam, _n._ goods lost by shipwreck, and found floating on the
sea (see JETSAM). [Anglo-Fr. _floteson_ (Fr. _flottaison_)--O. Fr.
_floter_, to float.]

FLOUNCE, flowns, _v.i._ to move abruptly or impatiently--_n._ an impatient
gesture. [Prob. cog. with Norw. _flunsa_, to hurry, Sw. prov. _flunsa_, to

FLOUNCE, flowns, _n._ a plaited strip sewed to the skirt of a
dress.--_v.t._ to furnish with flounces.--_n._ FLOUN'CING, material for
flounces. [Earlier form _frounce_--O. Fr. _fronce_, _fronche_, prob. from
L. _frons_, forehead; or Old High Ger. _runza_, a wrinkle, Ger. _runze_.]

FLOUNDER, flown'd[.e]r, _v.i._ to struggle with violent and awkward motion:
to stumble helplessly in thinking or speaking. [Prob. an onomatopoeic
blending of the sound and sense of earlier words like _founder_, _blunder_.
Skeat compares Dut. _flodderen_, to splash.]

FLOUNDER, flown'd[.e]r, _n._ a small flat-fish, generally found in the sea
near the mouth of rivers. [Anglo-Fr., _floundre_, O. Fr. _flondre_, most
prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Ice. _flyðra_, Sw. _flundra_.]

FLOUR, flowr, _n._ the finely-ground meal of wheat or other grain: the fine
soft powder of any substance.--_v.t._ to reduce into or sprinkle with
flour.--_v.i._ to break up into fine globules of mercury in the
amalgamation process.--_ns._ FLOUR'-BOLT, a machine for bolting flour;
FLOUR'-MILL, a mill for making flour.--_adj._ FLOUR'Y, covered with flour.
[Fr. _fleur_ (_de farine_, of meal), fine flour--L. _flos_, _floris_, a

FLOURISH, flur'ish, _v.i._ to thrive luxuriantly: to be prosperous: to use
copious and flowery language: to move in fantastic figures: to display
ostentatiously: (_mus._) to play ostentatious passages, or ostentatiously:
to play a trumpet-call: to make ornamental strokes with the pen: to boast
or brag.--_v.t._ to adorn with flourishes or ornaments: to swing about by
way of show or triumph: (_Shak._) to gloss over.--_n._ decoration: showy
splendour: a figure made by a bold stroke of the pen: the waving of a
weapon or other thing: a parade of words: a musical prelude: a
trumpet-call.--_adjs._ FLOUR'ISHED, decorated with flourishes;
FLOUR'ISHING, thriving: prosperous: making a show.--_adv._
FLOUR'ISHINGLY.--_adj._ FLOUR'ISHY, abounding in flourishes.--FLOURISH OF
TRUMPETS, a trumpet-call sounded on the approach of great persons; any
ostentatious introduction. [O. Fr. _florir_, L. _flos_, flower.]

FLOUSE, flows, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_prov._) to splash.--Also FLOUSH.

FLOUT, flowt, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to jeer, mock, or insult: to treat with
contempt.--_n._ a mock: an insult.--_adv._ FLOUT'INGLY, with flouting:
insultingly.--_n._ FLOUT'ING-STOCK (_Shak._), an object for flouting.
[Prob. a specialised use of _floute_, M. E. form of _flute_, to play on the
flute. So with Dut. _fluiten_.]

FLOW, fl[=o], _v.i._ to run, as water: to rise, as the tide: to move in a
stream, as air: to glide smoothly: to circulate, as the blood: to abound:
to hang loose and waving: (_B._) to melt.--_v.t._ to cover with
water.--_n._ a stream or current: the setting in of the tide: abundance:
copiousness: free expression.--_n._ FLOW'AGE, act of flowing: state of
being flooded.--_adj._ FLOW'ING, moving, as a fluid: fluent or smooth:
falling in folds or in waves.--_adv._ FLOW'INGLY.--_n._ FLOW'INGNESS. [A.S.
_flówan_; Ger. _fliessen_.]

FLOW, flow, _n._ a morass: (_Scot._) a flat, moist tract of land. [Ice.
_floi_, a marsh--_flóa_, to flood.]

FLOWER, flow'[.e]r, _n._ a growth comprising the reproductive organs of
plants: the blossom of a plant: the best of anything: the prime of life:
the person or thing most distinguished: a figure of speech: ornament of
style: (_pl._) menstrual discharge (_B._).--_v.t._ to adorn with figures of
flowers.--_v.i._ to blossom: to flourish.--_ns._ FLOW'ERAGE, a gathering of
flowers; FLOW'ER-BELL, a blossom shaped like a bell; FLOW'ER-BUD, a bud
with the unopened flower; FLOW'ER-CLOCK, a collection of flowers so
arranged that the time of day is indicated by their times of opening and
closing; FLOW'ER-DE-LUCE, the old name for the common species of iris
(q.v.), or for the heraldic emblem conventionalised therefrom (see
FLEUR-DE-LIS); FLOW'ERET, a little flower: a floret; FLOW'ER-HEAD, a
compound flower in which all the florets are sessile on the receptacle;
FLOW'ERINESS; FLOW'ERING-RUSH, a monocotyledonous plant usually reckoned
under the order _Alismaceæ_, with large linear three-edged leaves and an
umbel of rose-coloured flowers.--_adjs._ FLOW'ER-KIR'TLED,
FLOW'ERY-KIR'TLED (_Milt._), dressed in robes or garlands of flowers;
FLOW'ERLESS (_bot._) having no flowers.--_ns._ FLOW'ER-POT, a utensil in
culture whereby plants are rendered portable;, FLOW'ER-SERV'ICE, a church
service where offerings of flowers are made, to be afterwards sent to
hospitals; FLOW'ER-SHOW, an exhibition of flowers; FLOW'ER-STALK, the stem
that supports the flower.--_adj._ FLOW'ERY, full of, or adorned with,
flowers: highly embellished, florid.--FLOWER OF JOVE, a caryophyllaceous
plant, with heads of purple or scarlet flowers, and leaves silky-white with
hairs. [O. Fr. _flour_ (Fr. _fleur_)--L. _flos_, _floris_, a flower.]

FLOWN, fl[=o]n, _pa.p._ of _fly_.

FLOWN, fl[=o]n, _adj._ inflated, flushed: (_Milt._) overflown.

FLUATE, fl[=oo]'[=a]t, _n._ Same as FLUORIDE.

FLUCTUATE, fluk't[=u]-[=a]t, _v.i._ to float backward and forward: to roll
hither and thither: to be irresolute.--_v.t._ to cause to move hither and
thither.--_adjs._ FLUC'TUANT; FLUC'TU[=A]TING.--_ns._ FLUCTU[=A]'TION, a
rising and falling like a wave: motion hither and thither: agitation:
unsteadiness; FLUCTUOS'ITY.--_adj._ FLUC'TUOUS. [L. _fluctu[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_fluctus_, a wave--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLUE, fl[=oo], _n._ a smoke-pipe or small chimney. [Prob. related to
_flue_, to expand, splay out.]

FLUE, fl[=oo], _n._ light down: soft down or fur.--_adj._ FLU'EY. [Ety.
unknown; conn. with _fluff_.]

FLUE, fl[=oo], _adj._ (_prov._) shallow, flat.--Also FLEW.

FLUENT, fl[=oo]'ent, _adj._ ready in the use of words: voluble: marked by
copiousness.--_n._ the variable quantity in fluxions.--_ns._ FLU'ENCE
(_Milt._), FLU'ENCY, FLU'ENTNESS, readiness or rapidity of utterance:
volubility.--_adv._ FLU'ENTLY. [L. _fluens_, _fluentis_, pr.p. of
_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLUFF, fluf, _n._ a soft down from cotton, &c.: anything downy.--_n._
FLUFF'INESS.--_adj._ FLUFF'Y. [Perh. conn. with _flue_, light down.]

FLUGELMAN, fl[=oo]'gl-man', _n._ Same as FUGLEMAN.--_n._ FLÜ'GEL-HORN, a
hunting-horn, a kind of keyed bugle.

FLUID, fl[=oo]'id, _adj._ that flows, as water: liquid or gaseous.--_n._ a
substance in which the particles can move about with greater or less
freedom from one part of the body to another.--_adjs._ FLU'IDAL; FLUID'IC;
FLUID'IFORM.--_vs.t._ FLUID'IFY, FLU'IDISE, to make fluid.--_ns._
FLU'IDISM; FLUID'ITY, FLU'IDNESS, a liquid or gaseous state.--_adv._
FLU'IDLY. [Fr.,--L. _fluidus_, fluid--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ a flounder: a parasitic trematoid worm which causes
the liver-rot in sheep, so called because like a miniature flounder: a
variety of kidney potato. [A.S. _flóc_, a plaice; cf. Ice. _flóke_.]

FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ the part of an anchor which fastens in the
ground.--_adj._ FLUK'Y. [Prob. a transferred use of the foregoing.]

FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ a successful shot made by chance, as at billiards:
any unexpected advantage.

FLUME, fl[=oo]m, _n._ an artificial channel for water to be applied to some
industrial purpose: (_U.S._) a narrow defile with upright walls, the bottom
occupied by a torrent.--BE, or GO, UP THE FLUME, to come to grief, to be
done for. [O. Fr. _flum_--L. _flumen_, a river--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLUMMERY, flum'[.e]r-i, _n._ an acid jelly made from the husks of oats: the
Scotch sowens: anything insipid: empty compliment. [W. _llymru_--_llymrig_,
harsh, raw--_llym_, sharp, severe.]

FLUMMOX, flum'oks, _v.t._ (_slang_) to perplex: defeat.

FLUMP, flump, _v.t._ (_coll._) to throw down violently.--_v.i._ to throw
one's self down heavily.--_n._ the dull sound so produced. [Imit.]

FLUNG, flung, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _fling_.

FLUNKEY, flung'ki, _n._ a livery servant: a footman: a mean, cringing
fellow.--_n._ FLUN'KEYDOM.--_adj._ FLUN'KEYISH.--_n._ FLUN'KEYISM. [Perh.
orig. _flanker_, one who runs along by the side of.]

FLUOR, fl[=oo]'or, _n._ a mineral often described as chemically fluate of
lime, but really calcium fluoride, found abundantly in Derbyshire--also
FLU'OR-SPAR, FLU'ORITE.--_ns._ FLUORES'CEIN, a coal-tar product, little
used in dyeing, the colour not being fast; FLUORES'CENCE, a peculiar blue
appearance exhibited by certain substances exposed to sunlight, and
especially observable in a dilute solution of sulphate of quinine.--_adjs._
FLUORES'CENT, having the property of fluorescence; FLUOR'IC.--_ns._
FLU'ORIDE, a binary compound of fluorine with another element; FLU'ORINE,
an elementary substance allied to chlorine, obtained chiefly from fluor;
FLU'OROTYPE, a photographic process in which salts of fluoric acid were
employed for the purpose of producing images in the camera; FLUOSIL'ICATE,
a compound of fluosilicic acid with some base.--_adj._ FLUOSILIC'IC,
composed of silicon and fluorine. [A name given by the alchemists to all
mineral acids because of their _fluidity_, from L. _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLURRY, flur'i, _n._ a sudden blast or gust: agitation: bustle: the
death-agony of the whale: a fluttering assemblage of things, as
snowflakes.--_v.t._ to agitate, to confuse:--_pr.p._ flurr'ying; _pa.p._
flurr'ied.--_v.t._ FLURR, to scatter.--_v.i._ to fly up. [Prob.
onomatopoeic, suggested by _flaw_, _hurry_, &c.]

FLUSH, flush, _n._ a flow of blood to the face causing redness: sudden
impulse: bloom, freshness, vigour: abundance.--_v.i._ to become red in the
face: to flow swiftly.--_v.t._ to make red in the face: to cleanse by a
copious flow of water: to elate, excite the spirits of: mostly in the
_pa.p._ flushed (with victory).--_adj._ (of weather) hot and heavy:
abounding: well supplied, as with money: (_Shak._) in full bloom.--_n._
FLUSH'-BOX, a rectangular tank supplied with water for flushing the bowls
of water-closets.--_adj._ FLUSHED, suffused with ruddy colour:
excited.--_ns._ FLUSH'ER, one who flushes sewers; FLUSH'ING, action of the
verb _flush_: sudden reddening; FLUSH'NESS, quality of being flush.--_adj._
FLUSH'Y, reddish. [Prob. orig. identical with succeeding word, but meaning
influenced by phonetic association with _flash_, the senses relating to
colour by _blush_.]

FLUSH, flush, _v.i._ to start up like an alarmed bird.--_v.t._ to rouse and
cause to start off.--_n._ the act of starting: (_Spens._) a bird, or a
flock of birds so started. [Prob. onomatopoeic; suggested by _fly_,
_flutter_, and _rush_.]

FLUSH, flush, _v.t._ to make even: to fill up to the level of a surface
(often with _up_).--_adj._ having the surface level with the adjacent
surface. [Prob. related to _flush_ above.]

FLUSH, flush, _n._ in card-playing, a hand in which all the cards or a
specified number are of the same suit.--_adj._ in poker, consisting of
cards all of the same suit.--STRAIGHT, or ROYAL, FLUSH, in poker, a
sequence of five cards of the same suit. [Prob. Fr. _flux_--L. _fluxus_,

FLUSTER, flus't[.e]r, _n._ hurrying: confusion: heat.--_v.t._ to make hot
and confused: to fuddle.--_v.i._ to bustle: to be agitated or
fuddled.--_v.t._ FLUS'TER[=A]TE, to fluster.--_n._
FLUSTER[=A]'TION.--_adj._ FLUS'TERED, fuddled: flurried.--_n._
FLUS'TERMENT.--_adj._ FLUS'TERY, confused. [Ice. _flaustr_, hurry.]

FLUSTRA, flus'tra, _n._ one of the commonest genera of marine Polyzoa.

FLUTE, fl[=oo]t, _n._ a musical pipe with finger-holes and keys sounded by
blowing: in organ-building, a stop with stopped wooden pipes, having a
flute-like tone: one of a series of curved furrows, as on a pillar, called
also _Fluting_: a tall and narrow wine-glass: a shuttle in
tapestry-weaving, &c.--_v.i._ to play the flute.--_v.t._ to play or sing in
soft flute-like tones: to form flutes or grooves in.--_adj._ FLUT'ED,
ornamented with flutes, channels, or grooves.--_ns._ FLUT'ER; FLUTI'NA
(t[=e]'-), a kind of accordion; FLUT'ING-MACHINE', a machine for
corrugating sheet-metal, also a wood-turning machine for forming twisted,
spiral, and fluted balusters; FLUT'IST.--_adj._ FLUT'Y, in tone like a
flute. [O. Fr. _fleüte_; ety. dub.]

FLUTTER, flut'[.e]r, _v.i._ to move about with bustle: to vibrate: to be in
agitation or in uncertainty: (_obs._) to be frivolous.--_v.t._ to throw
into disorder: to move in quick motions.--_n._ quick, irregular motion:
agitation: confusion: a hasty game at cards, &c. [A.S. _flotorian_, to
float about, from _flot_, the sea, stem of _fléotan_, to float.]

FLUVIAL, fl[=oo]'vi-al, _adj._ of or belonging to rivers.--_n._
FLU'VIALIST.--_adjs._ FLUVIAT'IC, FLU'VIATILE, belonging to or formed by
rivers. [L. _fluvialis_--_fluvius_, a river, _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

FLUX, fluks, _n._ act of flowing: a flow of matter: quick succession: a
discharge generally from a mucous membrane: matter discharged: excrement:
the term given to the substances employed in the arts to assist the
reduction of a metallic ore and the fusion of a metal.--_v.t._ to
melt.--_v.i._ to flow.--_ns._ FLUX'[=A]TION, the act of flowing or passing
be melted.--_ns._ FLUXIL'ITY; FLUX'ION, a flowing or discharge: a
difference or variation: (_math._) the rate of change of a continuously
varying quantity: (_pl._) the name given after Newton to that branch of
mathematics which with a different notation is known after Leibnitz as the
differential and integral calculus.--_adjs._ FLUX'IONAL, FLUX'IONARY,
variable: inconstant.--_n._ FLUX'IONIST, one skilled in fluxions.--_adj._
FLUX'IVE (_Shak._), flowing with tears. [O. Fr.,--L. _fluxus_--_flu[)e]re_,
to flow.]

FLY, fl[=i], _v.i._ to move through the air on wings: to move swiftly: to
pass away: to flee: to burst quickly or suddenly: to flutter.--_v.t._ to
avoid, flee from: to cause to fly, as a kite:--_pr.p._ fly'ing; _pa.t._
flew (fl[=oo]); _pa.p._ flown (fl[=o]n).--_n._ a popular name best
restricted in its simplicity to the insects forming the order _Diptera_,
but often so widely used with a prefix--e.g. _butterfly_, _dragon-fly_,
_May-fly_--as to be virtually equivalent to insect: a fish-hook dressed
with silk, &c., in imitation of a fly: a light double-seated carriage, a
hackney-coach: (_mech._) a flywheel: (_pl._) the large space above the
proscenium in a theatre, from which the scenes, &c., are
controlled.--_adj._ wide-awake: (_slang_) knowing.--_adjs._ FLY'AWAY,
flighty; FLY'-BIT'TEN, marked by the bite of flies.--_n._ FLY'BLOW, the egg
of a fly.--_adj._ FLY'BLOWN, tainted with the eggs which produce
maggots.--_ns._ FLY'BOAT, a long, narrow, swift boat used on canals;
FLY'BOOK, a case like a book for holding fishing-flies; FLY'-CATCH'ER, a
small bird, so called from its catching flies while on the wing;
FLY'-FISH'ER, one who fishes with artificial flies as bait; FLY'-FISH'ING,
the art of so fishing; FLY'-FLAP'PER, one who drives away flies with a
fly-flap; FLY'ING-BRIDGE, a kind of ferry-boat which is moved across a
river by the action of the combined forces of the stream and the resistance
of a long rope or chain made fast to a fixed buoy in the middle of the
river; FLY'ING-BUTT'RESS, an arch-formed prop which connects the walls of
the upper and central portions of an aisled structure with the vertical
buttresses of the outer walls; FLY'ING-CAMP, a body of troops for rapid
motion from one place to another; FLY'ING-DUTCH'MAN, a Dutch black spectral
ship, whose captain is condemned for his impieties to sweep the seas around
the Cape of Storms unceasingly, without ever being able to reach a haven;
FLY'ING-FISH, a fish which can leap from the water and sustain itself in
the air for a short time, by its long pectoral fins, as if flying;
FLY'ING-FOX, a large frugivorous bat; FLY'ING-L[=E]'MUR, a galeopithecoid
insectivore whose fore and hind limbs are connected by a fold of skin,
enabling it to make flying leaps from tree to tree; FLY'ING-PAR'TY, a small
body of soldiers, equipped for rapid movements, used to harass an enemy;
FLY'ING-PHALAN'GER, a general popular name for the petaurists;
FLY'ING-SHOT, a shot fired at something in motion; FLY'ING-SQUID, a squid
having broad lateral fins by means of which it can spring high out of the
water; FLY'ING-SQUIRR'EL, a name given to two genera of squirrels, which
have a fold of skin between the fore and hind legs, by means of which they
can take great leaps in the air; FLY'LEAF, a blank leaf at the beginning
and end of a book; FLY'-LINE, a line for angling with an artificial fly;
FLY'-MAK'ER, one who ties artificial flies for angling; FLY'MAN, one who
works the ropes in the flies of a theatre; FLY'P[=A]PER, a porous paper
impregnated with poison for destroying flies; FLY'-POW'DER, a poisonous
powder used for killing flies; FLY'-RAIL, that part of a table which turns
out to support the leaf.--_adj._ (_Shak._) moving slow as a fly on its
feet.--_ns._ FLY'-ROD, a light flexible rod used in fly-fishing, usually in
three pieces--butt, second-joint, and tip; FLY'-TRAP, a trap to catch
flies: (_bot._) the spreading dog-bane, also the Venus's fly-trap;
FLY'WHEEL, a large wheel with a heavy rim applied to machinery to equalise
the effect of the driving effort.--FLY AT, to attack suddenly; FLY IN THE
FACE OF, to insult: to oppose; FLY OPEN, to open suddenly or violently; FLY
OUT, to break out in a rage; FLY THE KITE, to obtain money as by
accommodation bills, the endorser himself having no money; FLY UPON, to
seize: to attack.--A FLY IN THE OINTMENT, some slight flaw which corrupts a
thing of value (Eccles. x. i.); BREAK A FLY ON THE WHEEL, to subject to a
punishment out of all proportion to the gravity of the offence; LET FLY, to
attack: to throw or send off; MAKE THE FEATHERS FLY (see FEATHERS). [A.S.
_fléogan_, pa.t. _fleáh_; Ger. _fliegen_.]

FLYTE, FLITE, fl[=i]t, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to scold, to brawl.--_n._ FLYTE,
FLYT'ING, a scolding, or heated dispute. [A.S. _flítan_, to strive; Ger.

FOAL, f[=o]l, _n._ the young of a mare or of a she-ass.--_v.i._ and _v.t._
to bring forth a foal.--_ns._ FOAL'FOOT, colts-foot; FOAL'ING, bringing
forth of a foal or young. [A.S. _fola_; Ger. _fohlen_, Gr. _p[=o]los_; L.

FOAM, f[=o]m, _n._ froth: the bubbles which rise on the surface of liquors:
fury.--_v.i._ to gather foam: to be in a rage.--_v.t._ (_B._) to throw out
with rage or violence (with _out_).--_adv._ FOAM'INGLY.--_adjs._ FOAM'LESS,
without foam; FOAM'Y, frothy. [A.S. _fám_; Ger. _feim_, prob. akin to L.

FOB, fob, _n._ a trick.--_v.t._ to cheat. [Prob. a corr. of O. Fr. _forbe_,
a rogue; or Ger. _foppen_, to jeer.]

FOB, fob, _n._ a small pocket in the waistband of trousers for a watch: a
chain with seals, &c., hanging from the fob. [If orig. a secret pocket,
perh. connected with the above.]

FOCUS, f[=o]'kus, _n._ (_opt._) a point in which several rays meet and are
collected after being reflected or refracted, while a _virtual_ focus is a
point from which rays tend after reflection or refraction--the _principal_
focus is the focus of parallel rays after reflection or refraction: any
central point:--_pl._ F[=O]'CUSES, FOCI (f[=o]'s[=i]).--_v.t._ to bring to
a focus: to concentrate:--_pa.p._ f[=o]'cussed.--_adj._ F[=O]'CAL, of or
belonging to a focus.--_v.t._ F[=O]'CALISE, to bring to a focus: to
concentrate.--_n._ FOCIMETER (f[=o]-sim'e-t[.e]r), an instrument for
assisting in focussing an object in or before a photographic
camera--usually a lens of small magnifying power.--FOCUSSING CLOTH, a cloth
thrown over a photographic camera and the operator's head and shoulders to
exclude all light save that coming through the lens.--CONJUGATE FOCI, two
points so situated that if a light be placed at one, its rays will be
reflected to the other; IN FOCUS, placed or adjusted so as to secure
distinct vision, or a sharp, definite image. [L. _focus_, a hearth.]

FODDER, fod'[.e]r, _n._ food for cattle, as hay and straw.--_v.t._ to
supply with fodder.--_ns._ FODD'ERER; FODD'ERING. [A.S. _fódor_; Ger.

FODIENT, f[=o]'di-ent, _adj._ and _n._ digging.

FOE, f[=o], _n._ an enemy: one who, or that which, injures or hinders
anything: an ill-wisher.--_ns._ FOE'MAN, an enemy in war:--_pl._ FOE'MEN;
F[=O]'EN (_Spens._), pl. of foe. [M. E. _foo_--A.S. _fáh_, _fá_ (adj.),
allied to the compound n. _gefá_; cf. _féogan_, to hate.]

FOETUS, FETUS, f[=e]'tus, _n._ the young of animals in the egg or in the
womb, after its parts are distinctly formed, until its birth.--_adjs._
FOE'TAL, F[=E]'TAL, pertaining to a foetus; FOE'TICIDAL.--_ns._ FOE'TICIDE,
F[=E]'TICIDE, destruction of the foetus. [L., from obs. _feu[=e]re_, to
bring forth, whence _femina_, _fecundus_, &c.]

FOG, fog, _n._ a thick mist: watery vapour rising from either land or
water.--_v.t._ to shroud in fog.--_v.i._ to become coated with a uniform
coating.--_ns._ FOG'-BANK, a dense mass of fog sometimes seen at sea
appearing like a bank of land; FOG'-BELL, a bell rung by the motion of the
waves or wind to warn sailors from rocks, shoals, &c. in foggy
weather.--_adj._ FOG'-BOUND, impeded by fog.--_ns._ FOG'-BOW, a whitish
arch like a rainbow, seen in fogs.--_adv._ FOG'GILY.--_n._
FOG'GINESS.--_adj._ FOG'GY, misty: damp: clouded in mind: stupid.--_n._
FOG'-HORN, a horn used as a warning signal by ships in foggy weather: a
sounding instrument for warning ships off the shore during a fog: a
siren.--_adj._ FOG'LESS, without fog, clear.--_ns._ FOG'-RING, a bank of
fog in the form of a ring; FOG'-SIG'NAL, an audible signal used on board
ship, &c., during a fog, when visible signals cease to be of use;
FOG'-SMOKE, fog. [The origin of the word is hopelessly misty; Mr Bradley
connects with succeeding word; Prof. Skeat connects with Dan. _fog_, as in
_snee-fog_, thick falling snow; cf. Ice. _fok_, a snowdrift.]

FOG, fog, FOGGAGE, fog'[=a]j, _n._ grass which grows in autumn after the
hay is cut: (_Scot._) moss.--_v.i._ to become covered with fog. [Origin
unknown; W. _ffwg_, dry grass, is borrowed.]

FOGY, FOGEY, f[=o]'gi, _n._ a dull old fellow; a person with antiquated
notions.--_adjs._ F[=O]'GRAM, antiquated.--_n._ a fogy.--_ns._
F[=O]'GRAMITE; FOGRAM'ITY; F[=O]GYDOM.--_adj._ F[=O]'GYISH.--_n._
F[=O]'GYISM. [Prob. a substantive use of _foggy_ in sense of 'fat,'
'bloated,' 'moss-grown.']

FOH, f[=o], _interj._ an exclamation of abhorrence or contempt.

FOIBLE, foi'bl, _n._ a weak point in one's character: a failing. [O. Fr.
_foible_, weak.]

FOIL, foil, _v.t._ to defeat: to puzzle: to disappoint: (_Spens._) to beat
down or trample with the feet:--_pr.p._ foil'ing; _pa.p._ foiled.--_n._
failure after success seemed certain: defeat: a blunt sword used in
fencing, having a button on the point.--PUT TO THE FOIL, to blemish. [O.
Fr. _fuler_, to stamp or crush--Low L. _fullare_--_fullo_, a fuller of

FOIL, foil, _n._ a leaf or thin plate of metal, as tin-foil: a thin leaf of
metal put under precious stones to increase their lustre or change their
colour: anything that serves to set off something else: a small arc in the
tracery of a window, &c. (_trefoiled_, _cinquefoiled_, _multifoiled_,
&c.).--_adj._ FOILED.--_n._ FOIL'ING. [O. Fr. _foil_ (Fr. _feuille_)--L.
_folium_, a leaf.]

FOIN, foin, _v.i._ to thrust with a sword or spear.--_n._ a thrust with a
sword or spear.--_adv._ FOIN'INGLY. [O. Fr. _foine_--L. _fuscina_, a

FOISON, foi'zn, _n._ plenty: autumn.--_adj._ FOI'SONLESS, weak,
feeble--(_Scot._) FIZZ'ENLESS. [O. Fr.,--L. _fusion-em_--_fund[)e]re_,
_fusum_, to pour forth.]

FOIST, foist, _v.t._ to bring in by stealth: to insert wrongfully: to pass
off as genuine (with _in_ or _into_ before the thing affected, and _upon_
before the person).--_n._ FOIST'ER. [Prob. Dut. prov. _vuisten_, to take in
the hand; _vuist_, fist.]

FOLD, f[=o]ld, _n._ the doubling of any flexible substance: a part laid
over on another: (_pl._) complex arrangements, intricacy.--_v.t._ to lay
one part over another: to enclose in a fold or folds, to wrap up: to
embrace.--FOLD, in composition with numerals=times, as in TEN'FOLD.--_n._
FOLD'ER, the person or thing that folds: a flat knife-like instrument used
in folding paper.--_adj._ FOLD'ING, that folds, or that can be folded, as
_folding-bed_, _-chair_, _-joint_, _-net_, _-table_, &c.--_ns._ FOLD'ING, a
fold or plait; FOLD'ING-DOOR, a door consisting of two parts hung on
opposite jambs, so that their edges come into contact when the door is
closed; FOLD'ING-MACHINE', a mechanism that automatically folds printed
sheets. [A.S. _fealdan_, to fold; pa.t. _feóld_; Ger. _falten_.]

FOLD, f[=o]ld, _n._ an enclosure for protecting domestic animals, esp.
sheep: a flock of sheep: (_fig._) a church: the Christian Church.--_v.t._
to confine in a fold.--_n._ FOLD'ING. [A.S. _fald_, a fold, stall.]

FOLDEROL, fol'de-rol, _n._ mere nonsense: silly trifle: (_pl._) trivial
ornaments. [Formed from meaningless syllables, the refrain of old songs.]

FOLIACEOUS, f[=o]-li-[=a]'shus, _adj._ pertaining to or consisting of
leaves or laminæ. [L. _foliaceus_--_folium_, a leaf.]

FOLIAGE, f[=o]'l[=i]-[=a]j, _n._ leaves: a cluster of leaves: (_archit._) a
representation of leaves, flowers, and branches used for
ornamentation.--_adjs._ F[=O]'LIAGED, worked like foliage; F[=O]'LIAR,
pertaining to leaves: resembling leaves.--_v.t._ F[=O]'LI[=A]TE (_orig._),
to beat into a leaf: to cover with leaf-metal.--_adj._ F[=O]'LI[=A]TED,
beaten into a thin leaf: decorated with leaf ornaments: (_mus._) having
notes added above or below, as in a plain-song melody.--_ns._
F[=O]'LI[=A]TION, the leafing, esp. of plants: the act of beating a metal
into a thin plate, or of spreading foil over a piece of glass to form a
mirror: (_geol._) the alternating and more or less parallel layers or folia
of different mineralogical nature, of which the crystalline schists are
composed: (_archit._) decoration with cusps, lobes, or foliated tracery;
F[=O]'LIATURE, foliation. [O. Fr. _fueillage_--L. _folium_, a leaf.]

FOLIO, f[=o]'li-[=o], _n._ a sheet of paper once folded: a book of such
sheets: the size of such a book: one of several sizes of paper adapted for
folding once into well-proportioned leaves: (_book-k._) a page in an
account-book, or two opposite pages numbered as one: (_law_) a certain
number of words taken as a basis for computing the length of a document: a
wrapper for loose papers.--_adj._ pertaining to or containing paper only
once folded.--_v.t._ to number the pages of: to mark off the end of every
folio in law copying.--IN FOLIO, in sheets folded but once: in the form of
a folio. [Abl. of L. _folium_, the leaf of a tree, a leaf or sheet of

FOLIOLE, f[=o]'li-[=o]l, _n._ (_bot._) a single leaflet of a compound
leaf.--_adj._ F[=O]'LIOLATE, of or pertaining to leaflets. [Fr., dim. of L.
_folium_, a leaf.]

FOLK, f[=o]k, _n._ people, collectively or distributively: a nation or race
(rarely in _pl._): (_arch._) the people, commons: (_pl._) those of one's
own family, relations (_coll._):--generally used in _pl._ FOLK or FOLKS
(f[=o]ks).--_ns._ FOLKE'THING, the lower house of the Danish parliament or
Rigsdag; FOLK'LAND, among the Anglo-Saxons, public land as distinguished
from _boc-land_ (bookland)--i.e. land granted to private persons by a
written charter; FOLK'LORE, a department of the study of antiquities or
archæology, embracing everything relating to ancient observances and
customs, to the notions, beliefs, traditions, superstitions, and prejudices
of the common people--the science which treats of the survivals of archaic
beliefs and customs in modern ages (the name _Folklore_ was first suggested
by W. J. Thoms--'Ambrose Merton'--in the _Athenæum_, August 22, 1846);
FOLK'LORIST, one who studies folklore; FOLK'MOTE, an assembly of the people
among the Anglo-Saxons; FOLK'-RIGHT, the common law or right of the people;
FOLK'-SONG, any song or ballad originating among the people and
traditionally handed down by them: a song written in imitation of such;
FOLK'-SPEECH, the dialect of the common people of a country, in which
ancient idioms are embedded; FOLK'-TALE, a popular story handed down by
oral tradition from a more or less remote antiquity. [A.S. _folc_; Ice.
_fólk_; Ger. _volk_.]

FOLLICLE, fol'i-kl, _n._ (_anat._) a gland: (_bot._) a
seed-vessel.--_adjs._ FOLLIC'ULAR, pertaining to or consisting of
follicles; FOLLIC'ULATED; FOLLIC'ULOUS. [Fr.,--L. _folliculus_, dim. of
_follis_, a wind-bag.]

FOLLOW, fol'[=o], _v.t._ to go after or behind: to come after, succeed: to
pursue: to attend: to imitate: to obey: to adopt, as an opinion: to keep
the eye or mind fixed on: to pursue, as an object of desire: to result
from, as an effect from a cause: (_B._) to strive to obtain.--_v.i._ to
come after another: to result.--_n._ (_billiards_) a stroke which causes
the ball to follow the one which it has struck.--_ns._ FOLL'OW-BOARD, in
moulding, the board on which the pattern is laid; FOLL'OWER, one who comes
after: a copier: a disciple: a servant-girl's sweetheart; FOLL'OWING, the
whole body of supporters.--_adj._ coming next after.--FOLLOW HOME, to
follow closely: to follow to the end; FOLLOW ON (_B._), to continue
endeavours; FOLLOW SUIT, in card-playing, to play a card of the same suit
as the one which was led: to do anything on the same lines as another;
FOLLOW UP, to pursue an advantage closely. [A.S. _folgian_, _fylgian_, app.
a compound, but obscure; Ger. _folgen_.]

FOLLY, fol'i, _n._ silliness or weakness of mind: a foolish act: criminal
weakness: (_B._) sin: a monument of folly, as a great structure left
unfinished, having been begun without a reckoning of the cost.--_v.i._ to
act with folly. [O. Fr. _folie_--_fol_, foolish.]

FOMENT, fo-ment', _v.t._ to bathe with warm water: to encourage: to
instigate (usually to evil).--_ns._ FOMENT[=A]'TION, a bathing or lotion
with warm water: encouragement; FOMENT'ER. [Fr.,--L.
_foment[=a]re_--_fomentum_ for _fovimentum_--_fov[=e]re_, to warm.]

FOMES, f[=o]'miz, _n._ any porous substance capable of absorbing and
retaining contagious effluvia:--_pl._ FOM[=I]'TES. [L., touchwood.]

FON, fon, _n._ (_Spens._) a fool, an idiot.--_v.i._ to be foolish, play the
fool.--_adv._ FON'LY, foolishly.

FOND, fond, _adj._ foolishly tender and loving: weakly indulgent: prizing
highly (with _of_): very affectionate: kindly disposed: (_obs._)
foolish.--_v.i._ to dote.--_v.t._ FOND'LE, to treat with fondness: to
caress.--_ns._ FOND'LER; FOND'LING, the person or thing fondled.--_adv._
FOND'LY, in a fond manner, foolishly.--_n._ FOND'NESS. [For _fonned_, pa.p.
of M. E. _fonnen_, to act foolishly, _fon_, a fool; fondly conn. by some
with Sw. _fåne_, fool, Ice. _fáni_, swaggerer.]

FOND. See FAND (2).

FONE, f[=o]n, _n._ (_Spens._) _pl._ of _foe_.

FONT, font, _n._ the vessels used in churches as the repository of the
baptismal water, usually a basin or cup hollowed out of a solid block of
marble, &c.--_adj._ FONT'AL, pertaining to a font or origin.--_ns._
FONT'LET, a little font; FONT'-STONE, a baptismal font of stone. [L.
_font-em_, _fons_, a fountain.]

FONT, font, FOUNT, fownt, _n._ a complete assortment of types of one sort,
with all that is necessary for printing in that kind of letter. [Fr.
_fonte_--_fondre_--L. _fund[)e]re_, to cast.]

FONTANELLE, fon-ta-nel', _n._ a gap between the bones of the skull of a
young animal: an opening for the discharge of pus.--Also FONTANEL'. [Fr.]

FONTANGE, fong-tanzh', _n._ a tall head-dress worn in the 17th and 18th
centuries. [Fr., from _Fontanges_, the territorial title of one of Louis
XIV.'s drabs.]

FONTARABIAN, fon-ta-r[=a]'bi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Fontarabia_ or
Fuenterrabia on the Pyrenees, where Roland was overpowered and slain by the

FONTICULUS, fon-tik'[=u]-lus, _n._ a small ulcer produced by caustics, &c.:
the depression just over the top of the breast-bone. [L., dim. of _fons_.]

FONTINALIS, fon-tin-[=a]'lis, _n._ a genus of aquatic mosses allied to
_Hypnum_, almost without stalk. [Formed from L. _fons_.]

FOOD, f[=oo]d, _n._ what one feeds on: that which, being digested,
nourishes the body: whatever sustains or promotes growth.--_adjs._
FOOD'FUL, able to supply food abundantly; FOOD'LESS, without food. [A.S.
_fóda_; Goth. _fódeins_, Sw. _föda_.]

FOOD, f[=oo]d, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as FEUD.

FOOL, f[=oo]l, _n._ one who acts stupidly: a person of weak mind: a jester:
a tool or victim, as of untoward circumstances: (_B._) a wicked
person.--_v.t._ to deceive: to treat with contempt.--_v.i._ to play the
fool: to trifle.--_adjs._ FOOL'-BEGGED (_Shak._), taken for a fool,
idiotical, absurd; FOOL'-BORN (_Shak._), foolish from one's birth, arising
from folly.--_n._ FOOL'ERY, an act of folly: habitual folly.--_adj._
FOOL'-HAPP'Y, happy or lucky without contrivance or judgment.--_n._
foolishly bold: rash or incautious; FOOL'ISH, weak in intellect: wanting
discretion: ridiculous: marked with folly: deserving ridicule: (_B._)
sinful, disregarding God's laws.--_adv._ FOOL'ISHLY.--_ns._ FOOL'ISHNESS,
FOOL'ING, foolery.--_adj._ FOOL'ISH-WIT'TY (_Shak._), wise in folly and
foolish in wisdom.--_ns._ FOOL'S'-ERR'AND, a silly or fruitless enterprise:
search for what cannot be found; FOOL'S'-PARS'LEY, an umbelliferous plant
in Britain, not to be mistaken for parsley, being poisonous.--FOOL AWAY, to
spend to no purpose or profit; FOOL'S CAP, a kind of head-dress worn by
professional fools or jesters, usually having a cockscomb hood with bells;
FOOL'S PARADISE, a state of happiness based on fictitious hopes or
expectations; FOOL WITH, to meddle with officiously; MAKE A FOOL OF, to
bring a person into ridicule: to disappoint; PLAY THE FOOL, to behave as a
fool: to sport. [O. Fr. _fol_ (Fr. _fou_), It. _folle_--L. _follis_, a

FOOL, f[=oo]l, _n._ crushed fruit scalded or stewed, mixed with cream and
sugar, as 'gooseberry fool.' [Prob. a use of preceding suggested by

FOOLSCAP, f[=oo]lz'kap, _n._ a long folio writing or printing paper,
varying in size (17×13½ in., 16¾×13½ in., &c.), so called from having
originally borne the water-mark of a fool's cap and bells.

FOOT, foot, _n._ that part of its body on which an animal stands or walks
(having in man 26 bones): the lower part or base: a measure=12 in.,
(_orig._) the length of a man's foot: foot-soldiers: a division of a line
of poetry:--_pl._ FEET.--_v.i._ to dance: to walk:--_pr.p._ foot'ing;
_pa.p._ foot'ed.--_ns._ FOOT'BALL, a large ball for kicking about in sport:
play with this ball; FOOT'-BATH, act of bathing the feet: a vessel for this
purpose; FOOT'-BOARD, a support for the foot in a carriage or elsewhere:
the foot-plate of a locomotive engine; FOOT'BOY, an attendant in livery;
FOOT'BREADTH, the breadth of a foot, an area of this size; FOOT'BRIDGE, a
narrow bridge for foot-passengers; FOOT'CLOTH (_Shak._), a sumpter-cloth
which reached to the feet of the horse.--_p.adj._ FOOT'ED, provided with a
foot or feet: (_Shak._) having gained a foothold, established.--_ns._
FOOT'FALL, a setting the foot on the ground: a footstep; FOOT'GEAR, shoes
and stockings.--_n.pl._ FOOT'GUARDS, guards that serve on foot, the élite
of the British infantry.--_ns._ FOOT'HILL, a minor elevation distinct from
the higher part of a mountain and separating it from the valley (usually in
_pl._); FOOT'HOLD, space on which to plant the feet: that which sustains
the feet; FOOT'ING, place for the foot to rest on: firm foundation:
position: settlement: tread: dance: plain cotton lace.--_adj._ FOOT'LESS,
having no feet.--_ns._ FOOT'-LICK'ER (_Shak._), a fawning, slavish
flatterer; FOOT'LIGHT, one of a row of lights in front of and on a level
with the stage in a theatre, &c.; FOOT'MAN, a servant or attendant in
livery: (_B._) a soldier who serves on foot: a runner:--_pl._ FOOT'MEN;
FOOT'MARK, FOOT'PRINT, the mark or print of a foot: a track; FOOT'NOTE, a
note of reference at the foot of a page; FOOT'PAD, a highwayman or robber
on foot, who frequents public paths or roads; FOOT'-PASS'ENGER, one who
travels on foot; FOOT'PATH, a narrow way which will not admit carriages;
FOOT'-PLATE, the platform on which the driver and stoker of a locomotive
engine stand; FOOT'-POST, a post or messenger that travels on foot;
FOOT'-POUND, the force needed to raise one pound weight the height of one
foot--the usual unit in measuring mechanical force; FOOT'-RACE, a race on
foot; FOOT'-ROPE, a rope stretching along under a ship's yard for the men
standing on when furling the sails: the rope to which the lower edge of a
sail is attached; FOOT'ROT, a name applied to certain inflammatory
affections about the feet of sheep; FOOT'RULE, a rule or measure a foot in
length; FOOT'-SOL'DIER, a soldier that serves on foot.--_adj._ FOOT'-SORE,
having sore or tender feet, as by much walking.--_ns._ FOOT'-STALK
(_bot._), the stalk or petiole of a leaf; FOOT'-STALL, a woman's stirrup;
FOOT'STEP, the step or impression of the foot: a track: trace of a course
pursued.--_n.pl._ FOOT'STEPS, course, example.--_ns._ FOOT'STOOL, a stool
for placing one's feet on when sitting: anything trodden upon;
FOOT'-WARM'ER, a contrivance for keeping the feet warm; FOOT'WAY, a path
for passengers on foot.--_p.adj._ FOOT'WORN, worn by many feet, as a stone:
foot-sore.--FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE (see MURRAIN).--FOOT IT, to walk: to
dance.--COVER THE FEET (_B._), a euphemism for, to ease nature.--PUT ONE'S
BEST FOOT FOREMOST, to appear at greatest advantage; PUT ONE'S FOOT IN IT,
to spoil anything by some indiscretion; SET ON FOOT, to originate. [A.S.
_fót_, pl. _fét_; Ger. _fuss_, L. _pes_, _pedis_, Gr. _pous_, _podos_,
Sans. _p[=a]d_.]

FOOTY, foot'i, _adj._ (_prov._) mean.--Also FOUGHT'Y. [Prob. an A.S.
_fúhtig_; cog. with Dut. _vochtig_.]

FOOZLE, f[=oo]z'l, _n._ (_coll._) a tedious fellow: a bungled stroke at
golf, &c.--_v.i._ to fool away one's time.--_n._ FOOZ'LER.--_p.adj._
FOOZ'LING. [Cf. Ger. prov. _fuseln_, to work slowly.]

FOP, fop, _n._ an affected dandy.--_ns._ FOP'LING, a vain affected person;
FOP'PERY, vanity in dress or manners: affectation: folly.--_adj._ FOP'PISH,
vain and showy in dress: affectedly refined in manners.--_adv._
FOP'PISHLY.--_n._ FOP'PISHNESS. [Cf. Ger. _foppen_, to hoax.]

FOR, for, _prep._ in the place of: for the sake of: on account of: in the
direction of: with respect to, by reason of: appropriate or adapted to, or
in reference to: beneficial to: in quest of: notwithstanding, in spite of:
in recompense of: during.--FOR ALL (_N.T._), notwithstanding; FOR IT, to be
done for the case, usually preceded by a negative; FOR TO (_B._), in order
to.--AS FOR, as far as concerns. [A.S. _for_; Ger. _für_, _vor_, akin to L.
and Gr. _pro_, Sans. _pra_, before in place or time.]

FOR, for, _conj._ the word by which a reason is introduced: because: on the
account that.--FOR BECAUSE and FOR THAT=because; FOR WHY=why.

FORAGE, for'aj, _n._ fodder, or food for horses and cattle: provisions: the
act of foraging.--_v.i._ to go about and forcibly carry off food for horses
and cattle, as soldiers.--_v.t._ to plunder.--_ns._ FOR'AGE-CAP, the
undress cap worn by infantry soldiers; FOR'AGER. [Fr. _fourrage_, O. Fr.
_feurre_, fodder, of Teut. origin.]

FORAMEN, fo-r[=a]'men, _n._ a small opening:--_pl._ FORAM'INA.--_adjs._
FORAM'INATED, FORAM'INOUS, pierced with small holes: porous.--_n.pl._
FORAMINIF'ERA, an order of _Rhizopoda_, furnished with a shell or test,
usually perforated by pores (_foramina_).--_n._ FORAMIN'IFER, one of
great hole in the occipital bone for the passage of the medulla oblongata
and its membranes. [L.,--_for[=a]re_, to pierce.]

FORASMUCH, for'az-much, _conj._ because that.

FORAY, for'[=a], _n._ a sudden incursion into an enemy's country.--_v.t._
to ravage.--_n._ FOR'AYER. [Ety. obscure, but ult. identical with _forage_

FORBADE, for-bad', _pa.t._ of _forbid_.

FORBEAR, for-b[=a]r', _v.i._ to keep one's self in check: to
abstain.--_v.t._ to abstain from: to avoid voluntarily: to spare, to
withhold.--_n._ FORBEAR'ANCE, exercise of patience: command of temper:
clemency.--_adjs._ FORBEAR'ANT, FORBEAR'ING, long-suffering:
patient.--_adv._ FORBEAR'INGLY. [A.S. _forberan_, pa.t. _forbær_, pa.p.
_forboren_. See pfx. _for-_ and _bear_.]

FORBID, for-bid', _v.t._ to prohibit: to command not to do: (_Shak._) to
restrain.--_n._ FORBID'DANCE, prohibition: command or edict against a
thing.--_adj._ FORBID'DEN, prohibited: unlawful.--_adv._ FORBID'DENLY
(_Shak._), in a forbidden or unlawful manner.--_adj._ FORBID'DING,
repulsive: raising dislike: unpleasant.--_adv._ FORBID'DINGLY.--_n._
consanguinity within which marriage is not allowed; FORBIDDEN FRUIT, or
_Adam's apple_, a name fancifully given to the fruit of various species of
Citrus, esp. to one having tooth-marks on its rind. [A.S. _forbéodan_,
pa.t. _forbéad_, pa.p. _forboden_. See pfx. _for-_, and _bid_; cf. Ger.

FORBORE, for-b[=o]r', _pa.t._ of _forbear_.--_pa.p._ FORBORNE'.

FORBY, for-b[=i]', _prep._ (_Spens._) near, past: (_Scot._) besides.

FORÇAT, for-sä', _n._ in France, a convict condemned to hard labour. [Fr.]


FORCE, f[=o]rs, _n._ strength, power, energy: efficacy: validity:
influence: vehemence: violence: coercion or compulsion: military or naval
strength (often in _pl._): an armament: (_mech._) any cause which changes
the direction or speed of the motion of a portion of matter.--_v.t._ to
draw or push by main strength: to compel: to constrain: to compel by
strength of evidence: to take by violence: to ravish: (_hort._) to cause to
grow or ripen rapidly: to compel one's partner at whist to trump a trick by
leading a card of a suit of which he has none: to make a player play so as
to reveal the strength of his hand.--_v.i._ to strive: to hesitate.--_p._
and _adj._ FORCED, accomplished by great effort, as a forced march:
strained, excessive, unnatural.--_n._ FORC'EDNESS, the state of being
forced: distortion.--_adj._ FORCE'FUL, full of force or might: driven or
acting with power: impetuous.--_adv._ FORCE'FULLY.--_adj._ FORCE'LESS,
weak.--_ns._ FORCE'-PUMP, FORC'ING-PUMP, a pump which delivers the water
under pressure through a side-pipe; FORC'ER, the person or thing that
forces, esp. the piston of a force-pump.--_adj._ FORC'IBLE, active:
impetuous: done by force: efficacious: impressive.--_adj._ and _n._
FORC'IBLE-FEE'BLE, striving to look strong while really weak.--_n._
FORC'IBLENESS.--_adv._ FORC'IBLY.--_ns._ FORC'ING (_hort._), the art of
hastening the growth of plants; FORC'ING-HOUSE, a hothouse for forcing
plants; FORC'ING-PIT, a frame sunk in the ground over a hotbed for forcing
plants.--FORCE AND FEAR (_Scot._), that amount of constraint or compulsion
which is enough to annul an engagement or obligation entered into under its
influence; FORCE THE PACE, to keep the speed up to a high pitch by
emulation with one not competing for a place: to hasten unduly, or by any
expedient; FORCIBLE DETAINER, and ENTRY, detaining property or forcing an
entry into it by violence or intimidation. [Fr.,--Low L., _fortia_--L.
_fortis_, strong.]

FORCE, f[=o]rs, FOSS, fos, _n._ a waterfall. [Ice. _foss_, _fors_.]

FORCE, f[=o]rs, _v.t._ (_cook._) to stuff, as a fowl.--_n._ FORCE'MEAT,
meat chopped fine and highly seasoned, used as a stuffing or alone. [A
corr. of _farce_.]

FORCEPS, for'seps, _n._ a pair of tongs, pincers, or pliers for holding
anything difficult to be held with the hand.--_adj._ FOR'CIP[=A]TED, formed
and opening like a forceps.--_n._ FORCIP[=A]'TION, torture by pinching with
forceps. [L., from _formus_, hot, and _cap[)e]re_, to hold.]

FORD, f[=o]rd, _n._ a place where water may be crossed on foot: a stream
where it may be crossed.--_v.t._ to cross water on foot.--_adj._ FORD'ABLE.
[A.S. _ford_--_faran_, to go; Ger. _furt_--_fahren_, to go on foot; akin to
Gr. _poros_, and to Eng. _fare_, _ferry_, and _far_.]

FORDO, for-d[=oo]', _v.t._ (_arch._) to ruin: to overcome, to
exhaust:--_pr.p._ fordo'ing; _pa.t._ fordid'; _pa.p._ fordone'. [A.S.
_f[=o]rdón_; Ger. _verthun_, to consume.]

FORE, f[=o]r, _adj._ in front of: advanced in position: coming
first.--_adv._ at the front: in the first part: previously: (_golf_) a
warning cry to any person in the way of the ball to be played.--FORE AND
AFT, lengthwise of a ship.--AT THE FORE, displayed on the foremast (of a
flag); TO THE FORE, forthcoming: (_Scot._) in being, alive. [A.S. _fore_,
radically the same as _for_, prep.--to be distinguished from pfx. _for-_
(Ger. _ver-_ in _vergessen_, L. _per_).]

FORE-ADMONISH, f[=o]r-ad-mon'ish, _v.t._ to admonish beforehand.

FORE-ADVISE, f[=o]r-ad-v[=i]z', _v.t._ to advise beforehand.

FOREANENT, f[=o]r-a-nent', _prep._ (_Scot._), opposite to.

FOREARM, f[=o]r'ärm, _n._ the part of the arm between the elbow and the

FOREARM, f[=o]r-ärm', _v.t._ to arm or prepare beforehand.

FOREBEAR, f[=o]r-b[=a]r', _n._ (_Scot._) an ancestor, esp. in _pl._

FOREBODE, f[=o]r-b[=o]d', _v.t._ to feel a secret sense of something
future, esp. of evil.--_ns._ FOREBODE'MENT, feeling of coming evil;
FOREBOD'ER; FOREBOD'ING, a boding or perception beforehand; apprehension of
coming evil.--_adv._ FOREBOD'INGLY.

FORE-BODY, f[=o]r'-bod'i, _n._ the part of a ship in front of the mainmast.

FORE-BRACE, f[=o]r'-br[=a]s, _n._ a rope attached to the fore yard-arm, for
changing the position of the foresail.

FORE-BY, f[=o]r-b[=i]' (_Spens._). Same as FORBY.

FORECABIN, f[=o]r-kab'in, _n._ a cabin in the forepart of the vessel.

FORECAST, f[=o]r-kast', _v.t._ to contrive or reckon beforehand: to
foresee: to predict.--_v.i._ to form schemes beforehand.--_ns._ FORE'CAST,
a previous contrivance: foresight: a prediction; FORECAST'ER.

FORECASTLE, f[=o]r'kas-l, FO'C'SLE, f[=o]k'sl, _n._ a short raised deck at
the fore-end of a vessel: the forepart of the ship under the maindeck, the
quarters of the crew.

FORECHOSEN, f[=o]r-ch[=o]z'n, _p.adj._ chosen beforehand.

FORE-CITED, f[=o]r-s[=i]t'ed, _p.adj._ quoted before or above.

FORECLOSE, f[=o]r-kl[=o]z', _v.t._ to preclude: to prevent: to stop.--_n._
FORECLOS'URE, a foreclosing: (_law_) the process by which a mortgager,
failing to repay the money lent on the security of an estate, is compelled
to forfeit his right to redeem the estate. [O. Fr. _forclos_, pa.p. of
_forclore_, to exclude--L. _foris_, outside, and _claud[)e]re_, _clausum_,
to shut.]

FOREDAMNED, f[=o]r-damd', _p.adj._ (_Spens._) utterly damned.

FOREDATE, f[=o]r-d[=a]t', _v.t._ to date before the true time.

FOREDAY, f[=o]r'd[=a], _n._ (_Scot._) forenoon.

FOREDECK, f[=o]r'dek, _n._ the forepart of a deck or ship.

FOREDOOM, f[=o]r-d[=oo]m', _v.t._ to doom beforehand.

FORE-END, f[=o]r'-end, _n._ the early or fore part of anything.

FOREFATHER, f[=o]r'fä-th[.e]r, _n._ an ancestor.

FOREFEEL, f[=o]r-f[=e]l', _v.t._ to feel beforehand.--_adv._

FOREFINGER, f[=o]r'fing-g[.e]r, _n._ the finger next the thumb.

FOREFOOT, f[=o]r'foot, _n._ one of the anterior feet of a quadruped.

FOREFRONT, f[=o]r'frunt, _n._ the front or foremost part.

FOREGLEAM, f[=o]r'gl[=e]m, _n._ a glimpse into the future.

FOREGO, f[=o]r-g[=o]', _v.t._ to go before, precede: chiefly used in its
_pr.p._ foreg[=o]'ing and _pa.p._ foregone'.--_ns._ FOREG[=O]'ER;
CONCLUSION, a conclusion come to before examination of the evidence.

FOREGO, f[=o]r-g[=o]', _v.t._ to give up: to forbear the use of.--Better

FOREGROUND, f[=o]r'grownd, _n._ the part of a picture nearest the
observer's eye, as opposed to the _background_ or _distance_.

FOREHAMMER, f[=o]r'häm-[.e]r, _n._ a sledge-hammer.

FOREHAND, f[=o]r'hand, _n._ the part of a horse which is in front of its
rider.--_adj._ done beforehand.--_adj._ FORE'HANDED, forehand, as of
payment for goods before delivery, or for services before rendered:
seasonable: (_U.S._) well off: formed in the foreparts.

FOREHEAD, f[=o]r'hed, _n._ the forepart of the head above the eyes, the
brow: confidence, audacity.

FORE-HORSE, f[=o]r'-hors, _n._ the foremost horse of a team.

FOREIGN, for'in, _adj._ belonging to another country: from abroad: alien:
not belonging to, unconnected: not appropriate.--_adj._ FOR'EIGN-BUILT,
built in a foreign country.--_ns._ FOR'EIGNER, a native of another country;
FOR'EIGNNESS, the quality of being foreign: want of relation to something:
remoteness. [O. Fr. _forain_--Low L. _foraneus_--L. _foras_, out of doors.]

FOREJUDGE, f[=o]r-juj', _v.t._ to judge before hearing the facts and
proof.--_n._ FOREJUDG'MENT.

FOREKING, f[=o]r'king, _n._ (_Tenn._) a preceding king.

FOREKNOW, f[=o]r-n[=o]', _v.t._ to know beforehand: to foresee.--_adj._
FOREKNOW'ING.--_adv._ FOREKNOW'INGLY.--_n._ FOREKNOWL'EDGE, knowledge of a
thing before it happens.--_adj._ FOREKNOWN'.

FOREL, for'el, _n._ a kind of parchment for covering books. [O. Fr.
_forrel_, a sheath, _forre_, _fuerre_.]

FORELAND, f[=o]r'land, _n._ a point of land running forward into the sea, a

FORELAY, f[=o]r-l[=a]', _v.t._ to contrive antecedently: to lay wait for in

FORELEG, f[=o]r'leg, _n._ one of the front legs of a quadruped, chair, &c.

FORELIE, f[=o]r-l[=i], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to lie before.

FORELIFT, f[=o]r-lift', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to raise any anterior part.

FORELOCK, f[=o]r'lok, _n._ the lock of hair on the forehead.--TAKE TIME BY
THE FORELOCK, to seize the occasion promptly, so as to anticipate

FOREMAN, f[=o]r'man, _n._ the first or chief man, one appointed to preside
over, or act as spokesman for, others: an overseer:--_pl._ FORE'MEN.

FOREMAST, f[=o]r'mast, _n._ the mast that is forward, or next the bow of a
ship.--_n._ FORE'MASTMAN, any sailor below the rank of petty officer.

FOREMEAN, f[=o]r-m[=e]n', _v.t._ to intend beforehand.--_pa.p._ FORE'MEANT.

FORE-MENTIONED, f[=o]r-men'shund, _adj._ mentioned before in a writing or

FOREMOST, f[=o]r'm[=o]st, _adj._ first in place: most advanced: first in
rank or dignity. [A.S. _forma_, first, superl. of _fore_, and superl.
suffix _-st_. It is therefore a double superl.; the old and correct form
was _formest_, which was wrongly divided _for-mest_ instead of _form-est_,
and the final _-mest_ was mistaken for _-most_.]

FORENAME, f[=o]r'n[=a]m, _n._ the first or Christian name.

FORE-NAMED, f[=o]r'-n[=a]md, _adj._ mentioned before.

FORENENST, f[=o]r-nenst', _prep._ (_Scot._) opposite.

FORENIGHT, f[=o]r'n[=i]t, _n._ (_Scot._) the early part of the night before
bedtime, the evening.

FORENOON, f[=o]r'n[=oo]n, _n._ the part of the day before noon or
midday.--_adj._ pertaining to this part of the day.

FORENOTICE, f[=o]r-n[=o]'tis, _n._ notice of anything before it happens.

FORENSIC, fo-ren'sik, _adj._ belonging to courts of law, held by the Romans
in the forum: used in law pleading: appropriate to, or adapted to,
argument.--FORENSIC MEDICINE, medical jurisprudence, the application of
medical knowledge to the elucidation of doubtful questions in a court of
justice. [L. _forensis_--_forum_, market-place, akin to _fores_.]

FORE-ORDAIN, f[=o]r-or-d[=a]n', _v.t._ to arrange beforehand: to
predestinate.--_n._ FORE-ORDIN[=A]'TION.

FOREPART, f[=o]r'pärt, _n._ the part before the rest: the front: the
beginning: (_B._) the bow of a ship.

FOREPAST, f[=o]r'past, _p.adj._ (_Shak._) former.

FOREPAYMENT, f[=o]r'p[=a]-ment, _n._ payment beforehand.

FOREPEAK, f[=o]r'p[=e]k, _n._ the contracted part of a ship's hold, close
to the bow.

FOREPLAN, f[=o]r'plan, _v.t._ to plan beforehand.

FOREPOINT, f[=o]r'point, _v.t._ to foreshadow.

FORE-QUOTED, f[=o]r-kw[=o]t'ed, _p.adj._ quoted or cited before in the same

FORERAN, f[=o]r-ran', _pa.t._ of _forerun_.

FORE-RANK, f[=o]r'-rangk, _n._ the rank which is before all the others: the

FOREREACH, f[=o]r'r[=e]ch, _v.i._ (_naut._) to glide ahead, esp. when going
in stays (with _on_).--_v.t._ to sail beyond.

FORE-READ, f[=o]r'-r[=e]d, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to signify by tokens: to
foretell:--_pa.p._ fore-read'.--_n._ FORE'-READ'ING.

FORE-RECITED, f[=o]r'-re-s[=i]t'ed, _p.adj._ (_Shak._) recited or named

FORE-RENT, f[=o]r'-rent, _n._ (_Scot._) rent due before the first crop is

FORERUN, f[=o]r-run', _v.t._ to run or come before: to precede.--_n._
FORERUN'NER, a runner or messenger sent before: a sign that something is to

FORESAID, f[=o]r'sed, _adj._ described or spoken of before.

FORESAIL, f[=o]r's[=a]l, _n._ a sail attached to the foreyard on the
foremast. See SHIP.

FORE-SAY, f[=o]r-s[=a]', _v.t._ to predict or foretell: (_Shak._) to

FORESEE, f[=o]r-s[=e]', _v.t._ or _v.i._ to see or know
beforehand.--_p.adj._ FORESEE'ING.--_adv._ FORESEE'INGLY.

FORESHADOW, f[=o]r-shad'[=o], _v.t._ to shadow or typify beforehand.--_n._

FORESHIP, f[=o]r'ship, _n._ (_B._) the forepart of a ship.

FORESHORE, f[=o]r'sh[=o]r, _n._ the part immediately before the shore: the
sloping part of a shore included between the high and low water marks.

FORESHORTENING, f[=o]r-short'n-ing, _n._ a term in drawing signifying that
a figure or portion of a figure projecting towards the spectator is so
represented as to truly give the idea of such projection.--_v.t._

FORESHOW, f[=o]r-sh[=o]', _v.t._ to show or represent beforehand: to
predict.--Also FORESHEW'.

FORESIDE, f[=o]r's[=i]d, _n._ the front side.

FORESIGHT, f[=o]r's[=i]t, _n._ act of foreseeing: wise forethought,
prudence: the sight on the muzzle of a gun: a forward reading of a

FORESIGNIFY, f[=o]r-sig'ni-f[=i], _v.t._ to betoken beforehand: to
foreshow: to typify.

FORESKIN, f[=o]r'skin, _n._ the skin that covers the glans penis: the

FORESKIRT, f[=o]r'sk[.e]rt, _n._ (_Shak._) the loose part of a coat before.


FORESLOW, f[=o]r-sl[=o]', _v.i._ (_Shak._) to delay.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to
hinder.--Better FORSLOW'.

FORESPEAK, f[=o]r-sp[=e]k', _v.t._ to predict: (_Shak._) to gainsay:
(_Scot._) to engage beforehand.


FORESPURRER, f[=o]r-spur'[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) one who rides before.

FOREST, for'est, _n._ a large uncultivated tract of land covered with trees
and underwood: woody ground and rude pasture: a preserve for large game, as
a deer forest: a royal preserve for hunting, governed by a special code
called the FOREST LAW.--_adj._ pertaining to a forest: silvan:
rustic.--_v.t._ to cover with trees.--_n._ FOR'ESTAGE, an ancient service
paid by foresters to the king: the right of foresters.--_adjs._ FOR'ESTAL;
FOR'EST-BORN (_Shak._), born in a wild.--_ns._ FOR'ESTER, one who has
charge of a forest: an inhabitant of a forest; FOR'EST-FLY, a dipterous
insect sometimes called _Horse-fly_, from the annoyance it causes
horses.--_adj._ FOR'ESTINE.--_ns._ FOR'EST-MAR'BLE, a fissile limestone
belonging to the middle division of the Jurassic System, so called because
the typical beds are found in Wychwood _Forest_, Oxfordshire; FOR'EST-OAK,
the timber of the Australian beefwood trees; FOR'ESTRY, the art of
cultivating forests; FOR'EST-TREE, a timber-tree. [O. Fr. _forest_ (Fr.
_forêt_)--Low L. _forestis_ (_silva_), the outside wood, as opposed to the
_parcus_ (park) or walled-in wood--L. _foris_, out of doors.]

FORESTALL, f[=o]r-stawl', _v.t._ to buy up the whole stock of goods before
they are brought to market, so as to sell again at higher prices: to
anticipate.--_ns._ FORESTALL'ER, one who forestalls; FORESTALL'ING, the act
of buying provisions before they come to the market, in order to raise the
price: anticipation: prevention.

FORESTAY, f[=o]r'st[=a], _n._ a rope reaching from the foremast-head to the
bowsprit end to support the mast.

FORETASTE, f[=o]r-t[=a]st', _v.t._ to taste before possession: to
anticipate: to taste before another.--_n._ FORE'TASTE, a taste beforehand:

FORETEACH, f[=o]r-t[=e]ch', _v.t._ to teach beforehand.

FORETELL, f[=o]r-tel', _v.t._ to tell before: to prophesy.--_v.i._ to utter
prophecy.--_n._ FORETELL'ER.

FORETHINK, f[=o]r-thingk', _v.t._ to anticipate in the mind: to have
prescience of.--_n._ FORE'THOUGHT, thought or care for the future:
provident care.

FORETOKEN, f[=o]r't[=o]-kn, _n._ a token or sign beforehand.--_v.t._
FORET[=O]'KEN, to signify beforehand.

FORETOOTH, f[=o]r't[=oo]th, _n._ a tooth in the forepart of the
mouth:--_pl._ FORE'TEETH.

FORETOP, f[=o]r'top, _n._ (_naut._) the platform at the head of the
foremast: a lock of natural hair or in a wig, lying on the forehead, or
brushed up straight.--_n._ FORETOP'MAST, in a ship, the mast erected at the
head of the foremast, at the top of which is the FORE'TOP-GALL'ANT-MAST.

FOREVER, for-ev'[.e]r, _adv._ for ever, for all time to come: to
eternity.--_adv._ FOREV'ERMORE, for ever hereafter.

FOREVOUCHED, f[=o]r-vowcht', _p.adj._ (_Shak._) affirmed or told before.

FOREWARD, f[=o]r'wawrd, _n._ advance-guard: (_Shak._) the front.

FOREWARN, f[=o]r-wawrn', _v.t._ to warn beforehand: to give previous
notice.--_n._ FOREWARN'ING, warning beforehand.

FOREWEIGH, f[=o]r-w[=a]', _v.t._ to estimate beforehand.

FOREWIND, f[=o]r'wind, _n._ (_Shak._) a favourable wind.

FOREWOMAN, f[=o]r'woom-an, _n._ a woman who oversees the employees in any
shop or factory, a head-woman:--_pl._ FORE'WOMEN.

FOREWORD, f[=o]r'wurd, _n._ a preface.

FORFAIRN, f[=o]r-f[=a]rn', _adj._ (_Scot._) worn out: exhausted.

FORFEIT, for'fit, _v.t._ to lose the right to by some fault or
crime:--_pr.p._ for'feiting; _pa.p._ for'feited.--_n._ that which is
forfeited: a penalty for a crime, or breach of some condition: a fine:
something deposited and redeemable by a sportive fine or penalty, esp. in
_pl._, a game of this kind.--_adj._ forfeited.--_adj._ FOR'FEITABLE.--_ns._
FOR'FEITER (_Shak._), one who incurs punishment by forfeiting his bond;
FOR'FEITURE, act of forfeiting: state of being forfeited: the thing
forfeited. [O. Fr. _forfait_--Low L. _forisfactum_--L. _forisfac[)e]re_, to

FORFEND, for-fend', _v.t._ (_arch._) to ward off, avert.

FORFEX, f[=o]r'feks, _n._ a pair of scissors.

FORFOUGHTEN, for'fäh-ten, _adj._ (_Scot._) exhausted, as by fighting.

FORGAT, for-gat', old _pa.t._ of _forget_.

FORGATHER, for-ga_th_'er, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to meet, to take up company

FORGAVE, for-g[=a]v', _pa.t._ of _forgive_.

FORGE, f[=o]rj, _n._ the workshop of a workman in iron, &c.: a furnace,
esp. one in which iron is heated: a smithy: a place where anything is
shaped or made.--_v.t._ to form by heating and hammering: to form: to make
falsely: to fabricate: to counterfeit or imitate for purposes of
fraud.--_v.i._ to commit forgery.--_ns._ FORGE'MAN; FORG'ER, one who forges
or makes one guilty of forgery; FORG'ERY, fraudulently making or altering
any writing: that which is forged or counterfeited.--_adj._ FORG'ETIVE
(_Shak._), that may forge or produce.--_n._ FORG'ING, a piece of metal
shaped by hammering: act of one who forges: a form of overreaching in which
the horse strikes the fore shoe with the toe of the hind one, clicking. [O.
Fr. _forge_--L. _fabrica_--_faber_, a workman.]

FORGE, f[=o]rj, _v.t._ to move steadily on (with _ahead_).

FORGET, for-get', _v.t._ to lose or put away from the memory: to
neglect:--_pr.p._ forget'ting; _pa.t._ forgot'; _pa.p._ forgot',
forgot'ten.--_adjs._ FORGET'ABLE, FORGET'TABLE; FORGET'FUL, apt to forget:
inattentive.--_adv._ FORGET'FULLY.--_ns._ FORGET'FULNESS; FORGET'-ME-NOT, a
small herb (_Myosotis palustris_) with beautiful blue flowers, regarded as
the emblem of friendship: a keepsake [a word adapted by Coleridge from the
German _Vergissmeinnicht_]; FORGET'TER, one who fails to bear in mind: a
heedless person.--_adv._ FORGET'TINGLY.--FORGET ONE'S SELF, to lose one's
self-control or dignity, to descend to words and deeds unworthy of one's
self. [A.S. _forgietan_--pfx. _for-_, away, _gitan_, to get.]

FORGIVE, for-giv', _v.t._ to pardon: to overlook an offence or debt:
(_Spens._) to give up.--_v.i._ to be merciful or forgiving.--_adj._
FORGIV'ABLE, capable of being forgiven.--_n._ FORGIVE'NESS, pardon:
remission: disposition to pardon.--_adj._ FORGIV'ING, ready to pardon:
merciful: compassionate. [A.S. _forgiefan_--pfx. _for-_, away, _giefan_, to
give; cf. Ger. _ver-geben_.]



FORHAIL, for-h[=a]l', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to overtake.

FORHENT, for-hent', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to overtake.

FORHOW, for-how', _v.t._ (_Scot._) to desert or abandon. [A.S. _forhogian_,
pfx. _for-_, away, _hogian_, to care.]

FORISFAMILIATE, f[=o]-ris-fa-mil'i-[=a]t, _v.t._ to put a son in possession
of land which he accepts as his whole portion of his father's property,
said of a father.--_v.i._ to renounce one's title to a further share of the
paternal estate, said of a son:--_pr.p._ f[=o]risfamil'i[=a]ting; _pa.p._
f[=o]risfamil'i[=a]ted.--_n._ F[=O]RISFAMILI[=A]'TION. [Low L.
_forisfamili[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--L. _foris_, out of doors, _familia_, a

FORJESKIT, for-jes'kit, _adj._ (_Scot._) tired out.

FORK, fork, _n._ an instrument with two or more prongs at the end: one of
the points or divisions of anything fork-like: the bottom of a sump into
which the water of a mine drains--also FORCQUE: (_pl._) the branches into
which a road or river divides, also the point of separation.--_v.i._ to
divide into two branches: to shoot into blades, as corn.--_v.t._ to form as
a fork: to pitch with a fork: to bale a shaft dry.--_n._ FORK'-CHUCK, a
forked lathe-centre used in wood-turning.--_adjs._ FORKED, FORK'Y, shaped
like a fork.--_adv._ FORK'EDLY.--_ns._ FORK'EDNESS, FORK'INESS; FORK'ER;
FORK'HEAD, the forked end of a rod in a knuckle-joint or the like;
FORK'-TAIL, a fish with forked tail: the kite.--FORK OUT, OVER (_slang_),
to hand or pay over. [A.S. _forca_--L. _furca_.]

FORLORN, for-lorn', _adj._ quite lost: forsaken; wretched.--_v.t._ FORLORE'
(_Spens._).--_adv._ FORLORN'LY.--_n._ FORLORN'NESS. [A.S. _forloren_, pa.p.
of _forléòsan_, to lose--pfx. _for-_, away, and _léòsan_, to lose; Ger.
_verloren_, pa.p. of _verlieren_, to lose.]

FORLORN-HOPE, for-lorn'-h[=o]p, _n._ a body of soldiers selected for some
service of uncommon danger. [From the Dut. _verloren hoop_, the lost

FORM, form, _n._ shape of a body: the boundary-line of an object: a model:
a mould: mode of being: mode of arrangement: order: regularity: system, as
of government: beauty or elegance: established practice: ceremony: fitness
or efficiency for any undertaking: a blank schedule to be filled in with
details: a specimen document to be copied or imitated: (_phil._) the
inherent nature of an object, that which the mind itself contributes as the
condition of knowing, that in which the essence of a thing consists:
(_print._) the type from which an impression is to be taken arranged and
secured in a chase--often FORME:--(_in the fol. senses pron._ f[=o]rm), a
long seat, a bench: the pupils on a form, a class: the bed of a hare, which
takes its shape from the animal's body.--_v.t._ to give form or shape to:
to make: to contrive: to settle, as an opinion: to combine: to go to make
up: to establish: (_gram._) to make by derivation.--_v.i._ to assume a
form.--_adj._ FORM'AL, according to form or established mode: ceremonious,
punctilious, methodical: having the form only: (_Shak._) embodied in a
form: having the power of making a thing what it is: essential:
proper.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ FORM'ALISE.--_ns._ FORM'ALISM, excessive
observance of form or conventional usage, esp. in religion: stiffness of
manner; FORM'ALIST, one having exaggerated regard to rules or established
usages; FORMAL'ITY, the precise observance of forms or ceremonies:
established order: sacrifice of substance to form.--_adv._ FORM'ALLY.--_n._
FORM[=A]'TION, a making or producing: structure: (_geol._) a group of
strata of one period.--_adj._ FORM'ATIVE, giving form, determining,
moulding: (_gram._) inflectional, serving to form, not radical.--_n._ a
derivative.--_p.adj._ FORMED, trained, mature.--_n._ FORM'ER.--_adj._
according to good social usage, or the opposite; TAKE FORM, to assume a
definite appearance. [O. Fr. _forme_--L. _forma_, shape.]

FORMALIN, for'ma-lin, _n._ a formic aldehyde used as an antiseptic,
germicide, or preservative in foods.

FORMAT, for'ma, _n._ of books, &c., the size, form, shape in which they are
issued. [Fr.]

FORMATE, form'[=a]t, _n._ a salt composed of formic acid and a base.--Also

FORMER, form'[.e]r, _adj._ (_comp._ of _fore_) before in time or order:
past: first mentioned.--_adv._ FORM'ERLY, in former times: heretofore.
[Formed late on analogy of M. E. _formest_ by adding comp. suff. _-er_ to
base of A.S. _forma_, first, itself a superlative form.]

FORMIC, for'mik, _adj._ pertaining to ants, as formic acid, originally
obtained from ants.--_adj._ FOR'MICANT, crawling like an ant: very small
and unequal, of a pulse.--_n._ FOR'MICARY, an ant-hill.--_adj._ FOR'MICATE,
resembling an ant.--_n._ FORMIC[=A]'TION, a sensation like that of ants
creeping on the skin. [L. _formic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to creep like an

FORMIDABLE, for'mi-da-bl, _adj._ causing fear: adapted to excite
[Fr.,--L. _formidabilis_--_formido_, fear.]

FORMULA, form'[=u]-la, _n._ a prescribed form: a formal statement of
doctrines: (_math._) a general expression for solving problems: (_chem._) a
set of symbols expressing the components of a body:--_pl._ FORMULÆ
(form'[=u]-l[=e]), FORM'ULAS.--_adjs._ FORM'ULAR, FORMULARIS'TIC.--_ns._
FORMULARIS[=A]'TION, FORMUL[=A]'TION; FORM'ULARY, a formula: a book of
formulæ or precedents.--_adj._ prescribed: ritual.--_vs.t._ FORM'UL[=A]TE,
FORM'ULISE, to reduce to or express in a formula: to state or express in a
clear or definite form. [L., dim. of _forma_.]

FORNENT, for-nent', _adv._ and _prep._ (_Scot._) right opposite to.

FORNICATE, for'ni-k[=a]t, _adj._ arched: (_bot._) arching over.--_n._
FORNIC[=A]'TION. [L. _fornicatus_--_fornix_, an arch.]

FORNICATE, for'ni-k[=a]t, _v.i._ to commit lewdness: to have unlawful
sexual intercourse.--_ns._ FORNIC[=A]'TION, sexual intercourse between two
unmarried persons, or an unmarried and married person: (_B._) adultery, and
applied frequently by a figure to idolatry; FOR'NICATOR, an unmarried
person guilty of lewdness:--_fem._ FOR'NICATRESS. [L. _fornix_, an arch,

FORNIX, for'niks, _n._ something resembling an arch: an arched formation of
the brain. [L.]

FORPINE, for-p[=i]n', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to waste away.

FORPIT, for'pit, _n._ (_Scot._) the fourth part of some other measure, now
of a peck.--Also FOR'PET.

FORRIT, for'it, _adv._ (_Scot._) forward.

FORSAKE, for-s[=a]k', _v.t._ to desert: to abandon:--_pr.p._ fors[=a]k'ing;
_pa.t._ forsook'; _pa.p._ fors[=a]k'en.--_adj._ FORS[=A]K'EN.--_adv._
FORS[=A]K'ENLY.--_ns._ FORS[=A]K'ENNESS; FORS[=A]K'ING, abandonment. [A.S.
_forsacan_--_for-_, away, _sacan_, to strive.]

FORSAY, for-s[=a]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to forbid, to renounce. [A.S.
_forsecgan_--_for_, against, _secgan_, to say.]

FORSLACK, for-slak', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to relax, delay.

FORSLOW, for-sl[=o]', _v.t._ See FORESLOW.

FORSOOTH, for-s[=oo]th', _adv._ in truth: certainly.

FORSPEAK, for-sp[=e]k', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to forbid, to prohibit: (_Scot._)
to bewitch.

FORSPEND, for-spend', _v.t._ to spend completely:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._

FORSTALL, for-stawl', _v.t._ Same as FORESTALL.

FORSWAT, for-swat', _adj._ (_Spens._) exhausted with heat. [Pfx. _for-_,
inten., and _swat_, old _pa.t._ of sweat.]

FORSWEAR, for-sw[=a]r', _v.t._ to deny upon oath:--_pa.t._ forswore';
_pa.p._ forsworn'.--_n._ FORSWORN'NESS.--FORSWEAR ONE'S SELF, to swear

FORSWINK, for-swingk', _v.t._ to exhaust by labour.--_p.adj._ FORSWONK'
(_Spens._), over-laboured. [Pfx. _for-_, inten., and obs. _swink_, labour.]

FORT, f[=o]rt, _n._ a small fortress: an outlying trading-station, as in
British North America.--_adj._ FORT'ED (_Shak._), guarded by forts.
[Fr.,--L. _fortis_, strong.]

FORTALICE, fort'al-is, _n._ a small outwork of a fortification. [Low L.
_fortalitia_--L. _fortis_.]

FORTE, f[=o]rt, _n._ that in which one excels.

FORTE, f[=o]r'te, _adj._ (_mus._) strongly, loud:--_superl._
FORTIS'SIMO.--_n._ a loud passage in music. [It.]

FORTH, f[=o]rth, _adv._ before or forward in place or order: in advance:
onward in time: (_Shak._) completely, outright: abroad: (_B._)
out.--_prep._ (_Shak._) out of, forth from.--_v.i._ FORTH'COME, to come
forth.--_adj._ FORTH'COMING, just coming forth: about to appear.--_ns._
FORTH'GOING, a going forth: a proceeding out; FORTH'-ISS'UING, coming
forth; FORTH'-PUT'TING, action of putting forth: (_U.S._)
forwardness.--_adj._ forward.--_adv._ FORTH'RIGHT, straightforward.--_n._
(_Shak._) a straight path.--_adj._ straightforward: honest.--_adv._
FORTHWITH', immediately.--AND SO FORTH, and so on, and more besides. [A.S.
_forth_--_fore_, before; Dut. _voort_, Ger. _fort_.]

FORTHINK, for-thingk', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to be sorry for.

FORTHY, for'thi, _adv._ (_Spens._) therefore. [A.S. _forthý_--_for_, and
_thý_, instrumental case of _thaet_, that.]


FORTIFY, for'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to strengthen against attack with forts, &c.:
to invigorate: to confirm:--_pa.p._ for'tif[=i]ed.--_adj._
FORTIF[=I]'ABLE.--_ns._ FORTIFIC[=A]'TION, the art of strengthening a
military position by means of defensive works: the work so constructed:
that which fortifies; FOR'TIFIER. [Fr. _fortifier_--Low L.
_fortific[=a]re_--_fortis_, strong, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

FORTILAGE, f[=o]r'ti-l[=a]j, _n._ (_Spens._) a fort. [_Fortalice_.]


FORTITION, for-tish'un, _n._ principle of trusting to chance. [L. _fors_,

FORTITUDE, for'ti-t[=u]d, _n._ mental power of endurance: firmness in
meeting danger: (_obs._) strength, power of resistance or attack.--_adj._
FORTIT[=U]'DINOUS. [L. _fortitudo_--_fortis_.]

FORTLET, f[=o]rt'let, _n._ a little fort.

FORTNIGHT, fort'n[=i]t, _n._ two weeks or fourteen days.--_adj._ and _adv._
FORT'NIGHTLY, once a fortnight. [Contr. of _A.S._ _féowertýne niht_,
fourteen nights.]

FORTRESS, for'tres, _n._ a fortified place: a defence.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
guard. [O. Fr. _forteresse_, another form of _fortelesce_ (q.v. under

FORTUITOUS, for-t[=u]'i-tus, _adj._ happening by chance.--_ns._
FORT[=U]'ITISM; FORT[=U]'ITIST.--_adv._ FORT[=U]'ITOUSLY.--_ns._
FORT[=U]'ITOUSNESS, FORT[=U]'ITY. [L. _fortuitus_.]

FORTUNE, for't[=u]n, _n._ whatever comes by lot or chance: luck: the
arbitrary ordering of events: the lot that falls to one in life: success:
wealth.--_v.i._ to befall.--_v.t._ to determine.--_adj._ FOR'TUN[=A]TE,
happening by good fortune: lucky: auspicious: felicitous.--_adv._
FOR'TUN[=A]TELY.--_ns._ FOR'TUN[=A]TENESS; FOR'TUNE-BOOK, a book helpful in
telling fortunes.--_adj._ FOR'TUNED, supplied by fortune.--_n._
FOR'TUNE-HUNT'ER, a man who hunts for marriage with a woman of
fortune.--_adj._ FOR'TUNELESS, without a fortune: luckless.--_v.i._
FOR'TUNE-TELL, to reveal futurity: to tell one his fortune.--_ns._
FOR'TUNE-TELL'ER, one who pretends to foretell one's fortune;
FOR'TUNE-TELL'ING.--_v.t._ FOR'TUN[=I]SE (_Spens._), to make fortunate or
happy. [Fr.,--L. _fortuna_.]

FORTY, for'ti, _adj._ and _n._ four times ten.--_adj._ FOR'TIETH.--_n._ a
fortieth part.--FORTY WINKS, a short nap, esp. after dinner.--THE FORTY,
the French Academy. [A.S. _féowertig_--_feower_, four, _tig_, ten.]

FORUM, f[=o]'rum, _n._ a market-place, esp. the market-place in Rome, where
public business was transacted and justice dispensed: the courts of law as
opposed to the Parliament. [L., akin to _foras_, out of doors.]

FORWANDER, for-won'd[.e]r, _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Spens._) to wander till
wearied, to weary with wandering.

FORWARD, for'ward, _adj._ near or at the forepart: in advance of something
else: ready: too ready: presumptuous: officious: earnest: early
ripe.--_v.t._ to help on, to quicken: to send on.--_advs._ FOR'WARD,
FOR'WARDS, towards what is before or in front: onward:
progressively.--_ns._ FOR'WARDER; FOR'WARDING, the act of sending forward
merchandise, &c., for others.--_adv._ FOR'WARDLY.--_n._ FOR'WARDNESS. [A.S.
_foreweard_--_fore_, and _-weard_, sig. direction. _Forwards_--M. E.
_forwardes_--was orig. the gen. form (cf. Ger. _vorwärts_).]

FORWASTE, for-w[=a]st', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to lay waste utterly.

FORWEARY, for-w[=e]'ri, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to weary out.

FORWENT, for-went' (_Spens._), _pa.t_ of _forego_.

FORWORN, for-w[=o]rn', _adj._ (_Spens._) much worn.


FOSS, FOSSE, fos, _n._ (_fort._) a ditch or moat, either with or without
water, the excavation of which has contributed material for the walls of
the fort it protects: an abyss.--_adj._ FOSSED.--_n._ FOSS'WAY, an ancient
Roman road having a ditch on either side. [Fr. _fosse_--L.
_fossa_--_fod[)e]re_, _fossum_, to dig.]

FOSSA, fos'a, _n._ (_anat._) a pit or depression in a body, esp. that in an
animal integument forming a point of attachment for an organ.--_n._
FOSSETTE', a dimple or small depression. [L., a ditch.]

FOSSET-SELLER, fos'et-sel'[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) one who sells faucets.
[_Fosset_, obs. form of _faucet_.]

FOSSICK, fos'ik, _v.i._ to be troublesome: to undermine another's diggings,
or work over waste-heaps for gold: to search about for any kind of
profit.--_ns._ FOSS'ICKER, a mining gleaner who works over old diggings,
and scratches about in the beds of creeks; FOSS'ICKING. [Ety. dub.]

FOSSIL, fos'il, _n._ the petrified remains of an animal or vegetable found
embedded in the strata of the earth's crust: anything antiquated.--_adj._
dug out of the earth: in the condition of a fossil: antiquated.--_adj._
FOSSILIF'EROUS, bearing or containing fossils.--_n._ FOSSILIFIC[=A]'TION,
the act of becoming fossil.--_vs.t._ FOSSIL'IFY, FOSS'IL[=I]SE, to convert
into a fossil.--_v.i._ to be changed into a stony or fossil state.--_ns._
FOSSILIS[=A]'TION, a changing into a fossil; FOSS'ILISM, the science of
fossils; FOSS'ILIST, one skilled in fossils; FOSSILOL'OGY, FOSSIL'OGY,
paleontology. [Fr. _fossile_--L. _fossilis_--_fod[)e]re_, to dig.]

FOSSORIAL, fo-s[=o]'ri-al, _adj._ digging, burrowing.--_n._ FOSS'OR, a
grave-digger. [L. _fossor_--_fod[)e]re_, to dig.]

FOSSULATE, fos'[=u]-l[=a]t, _adj._ (_anat._) having one or more long narrow
grooves or depressions.

FOSTER, fos't[.e]r, _v.t._ to bring up or nurse: to encourage.--_ns._
FOS'TER[=A]GE, the act of fostering or nursing; FOS'TER-BROTH'ER, a male
child, fostered or brought up with another of different parents;
FOS'TER-CHILD, a child nursed or brought up by one who is not its parent;
FOS'TER-DAUGH'TER; FOS'TERER; FOS'TER-FA'THER, one who brings up a child in
place of its father; FOS'TERLING, a foster-child; FOS'TER-MOTH'ER, one who
suckles a child not her own; FOS'TER-NURSE (_Shak._), a nurse;
FOS'TER-PAR'ENT, one who rears a child in the place of its parent;
FOS'TER-SIS'TER, one brought up as a sister by the same parents, but not a
sister by birth; FOS'TER-SON, one brought up as a son, though not a son by
birth. [A.S. _fóstrian_, to nourish, _fóstor_, food.]

FOSTER, fos't[.e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a forester.

FOTHER, fo_th_'[.e]r, _v.t._ to stop or lessen a leak in a ship's bottom
whilst afloat by means of a heavy sail closely thrummed with yarn and
oakum. [Perh. from Dut. _voederen_ (mod. _voeren_) or Low Ger. _fodern_, to

FOTHER, fo_th_'[.e]r, _n._ a load, quantity: a definite weight--of lead,
19½ cwt. [A.S. _fóðer_; Ger. _fuder_.]

FOU, f[=oo], _adj._ (_Scot._) full: drunk.

FOU, f[=oo], _n._ (_Scot._) a bushel.

FOUD, fowd, _n._ a bailiff or magistrate in Orkney and Shetland.--_n._
FOUD'RIE, his jurisdiction. [Ice. _fógeti_; Ger. _vogt_; from L.
_vocatus_--_voc[=a]re_, to call.]

FOUDROYANT, f[=oo]-droi'ant, _adj._ quick like lightning. [Fr.
_foudroyer_--_foudre_, lightning.]

FOUET, f[=oo]'et, _n._ (_Scot._) the house-leek.--Also FOU'AT.

FOUGADE, foo-gäd', _n._ (_mil._) a small mine from six to twelve feet under
ground, charged either with powder or loaded shells, and sometimes loaded
with stones.--Also FOUGASSE'. [Fr.]

FOUGHT, fawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._--FOUGHTEN (fawt'n), old _pa.p._ of

FOUL, fowl, _adj._ filthy: loathsome: obscene: impure: stormy: unfair:
running against: distressing, pernicious: choked up, entangled: (_Shak._)
homely, ugly.--_v.t._ to make foul: to soil: to effect a collision.--_v.i._
to come into collision:--_pr.p._ foul'ing; _pa.p._ fouled.--_n._ act of
fouling: any breach of the rules in games or contests.--_adj._ FOUL'-FACED
(_Shak._), having a hatefully ugly face.--_n._ FOUL'-FISH, fish during the
spawning season.--_adv._ FOUL'LY.--_adjs._ FOUL'-MOUTHED, FOUL'-SPOK'EN,
addicted to the use of foul or profane language.--_ns._ FOUL-MOUTHED'NESS;
FOUL'NESS; FOUL'-PLAY, unfair action in any game or contest, dishonest
dealing generally.--CLAIM A FOUL, to assert that the recognised rules have
been broken, and that a victory is therefore invalid; FALL FOUL OF, to come
against: to assault; MAKE FOUL WATER, used of a ship, to come into such
shallow water that the keel raises the mud. [A.S. _fúl_; Ger. _faul_, Goth.

FOULARD, f[=oo]l'ard, _n._ a soft untwilled silk fabric: a silk
handkerchief. [Fr.]

FOULDER, fowl'd[.e]r, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to flame, to gleam. [O. Fr.
_fouldre_--L. _fulgur_, lightning.]

FOULÉ, f[=oo]-l[=a]', _n._ a light woollen dress material with a glossy
surface. [Fr.]

FOUMART, f[=oo]'märt, _n._ an old name for the polecat, from its offensive
smell. [M. E. _fulmard_--A.S. _fúl_, foul, _mearð_, a marten.]

FOUND, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _find_.--_n._ FOUND'LING, a little child
found deserted.--FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, an institution where such are brought

FOUND, fownd, _v.t._ to lay the bottom or foundation of: to establish on a
basis: to originate: to endow.--_v.i._ to rely.--_ns._ FOUND[=A]'TION, the
act of founding: the base of a building: the groundwork or basis: a
permanent fund for a benevolent purpose or for some special object;
FOUND[=A]'TIONER, one supported from the funds or foundation of an
institution; FOUND[=A]'TION-MUS'LIN, -NET, gummed fabrics used for
stiffening dresses and bonnets; FOUND[=A]TION-STONE, one of the stones
forming the foundation of a building, esp. a stone laid with public
ceremony; FOUND'ER, one who founds, establishes, or originates: an
endower:--_fem._ FOUND'RESS. [Fr. _fonder_--L. _fund[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to
found--_fundus_, the bottom.]

FOUND, fownd, _v.t._ to form by melting and pouring into a mould: to
cast.--_ns._ FOUND'ER, one who melts and casts metal, as a brassfounder;
FOUND'ING, metal-casting; FOUND'RY, FOUND'ERY, the art of founding or
casting: the house where founding is carried on. [Fr. _fondre_--L.
_fund[)e]re_, _fusum_, to pour.]

FOUNDER, fownd'[.e]r, _v.i._ to go to the bottom: to fill with water and
sink.--_v.t._ to cause to sink: to disable by injuring the feet (of a
horse).--_adj._ FOUND'EROUS, causing to founder. [O. Fr. _fondrer_, to fall
in, _fond_, bottom--L. _fundus_, bottom.]

FOUNT. See FONT (2).

FOUNTAIN, fownt'[=a]n, _n._ a spring of water, natural or artificial: the
structure for a jet of water: the source of anything: a reservoir for
holding oil, &c., in a lamp.--_ns._ FOUNT, a spring of water: a source;
FOUNT'AIN-HEAD, the head or source of a fountain: the beginning.--_adj._
FOUNT'AINLESS, wanting fountains or springs of water.--_n._ FOUNT'AIN-PEN,
a pen having a reservoir for holding ink.--_adj._ FOUNT'FUL, full of
springs. [Fr. _fontaine_--Low L. _font[=a]na_--L. _fons_, _fontis_, a
spring---_fund[)e]re_, to pour.]

FOUR, f[=o]r, _adj._ and _n._ two and two, a cardinal number.--_adjs._
FOUR'FOLD, folded four times: multiplied four times; FOUR'-FOOT'ED, having
four feet; FOUR'-HAND'ED, having four hands: of a game, played by four
people; FOUR'-INCHED (_Shak._), four inches broad.--_ns._ FOUR'-IN-HAND, a
vehicle drawn by four horses, driven by one person: a team of four horses
drawing a carriage--also _adj._; FOUR'PENNY, a small silver coin worth
fourpence formerly coined in England.--_adj._ worth fourpence.--_n._
FOUR'-POST'ER, a large bed with four posts on which to hang
curtains.--_adjs._ FOUR'SCORE, four times a score--80; FOUR'SOME, by fours:
anything in which four act together--also _n._; FOUR'SQUARE, having four
equal sides and angles: square.--_adjs._ and _ns._ FOUR'TEEN, four and ten;
FOUR'TEENTH, four or the fourth after the tenth.--_adj._ FOURTH, next after
the third.--_n._ one of four equal parts.--_adv._ FOURTH'LY.--_adj._
FOURTH'-RATE, of the fourth class or order.--_n._ FOUR'-WHEEL'ER, a
carriage or cab with four wheels.--GO ON ALL FOURS, to go on hands and
knees. [A.S. _féower_; Ger. _vier_, L. _quatuor_, Gr. _tessares_.]

FOURCHETTE, f[=oo]r-shet', _n._ a small forked instrument used for
supporting the tongue in the operation of cutting the frenum: a forked
piece between glove fingers, uniting the front and back parts. [Fr.]

FOURCROYA, f[=oo]r-kr[=o]'ya, _n._ a neotropical genus of _Amaryllidaceæ_,
nearly allied to Agave (q.v.), and yielding a similar fibre. [Named from A.
F. de _Fourcroy_, a French chemist (1755-1809).]

FOURGON, f[=oo]r-gong', _n._ a baggage-wagon. [Fr.]

FOURIERISM, f[=oo]'ri-[.e]r-izm, _n._ the socialistic system of F. M.
Charles _Fourier_ (1772-1837), based on the harmony educed by the free-play
of his twelve radical passions.

FOUTRE, f[=oo]'t[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) a gross term of contempt, used
interjectionally.--Also FOU'TER. [O. Fr. _foutre_--L. _futuere_, to

FOUTH, footh, _n._ (_Scot._) abundance.--Also FOWTH.

FOVEA, f[=o]'v[=e]-a, _n._ (_anat._) a depression or pit.--_adjs._
F[=O]'VEAL; F[=O]'VEATE, pitted.--_n._ FOV[=E]'OLA, a small
depression--also FOV[=E]'OLE. [L.]

FOVILLA, f[=o]-vil'a, _n._ (_bot._) the contents of a pollen-grain.

FOWL, fowl, _n._ a bird: a bird of the barn-door or poultry kind, a cock or
hen: the flesh of fowl:--_pl._ FOWLS, FOWL.--_v.i._ to kill fowls by
shooting or snaring.--_ns._ FOWL'ER, a sportsman who takes wild-fowl;
FOWL'ING; FOWL'ING-NET, a net for catching birds; FOWL'ING-PIECE, a light
gun for small-shot, used in fowling. [A.S. _fugol_; Ger. _vogel_.]

FOX, foks, _n._ an animal of the family _Canidæ_, genus _Vulpes_, of
proverbial cunning:--_fem._ VIX'EN: any one notorious for cunning.--_ns._
FOX'-BAT, a flying-fox, a fruit-bat; FOX'-BRUSH, the tail of a fox;
FOX'-EARTH, a fox's burrow.--_adj._ FOXED, discoloured, spotted.--_ns._
FOX'-[=E]'VIL, alopecia; FOX'GLOVE, a plant with glove-like flowers, whose
leaves are used as a soothing medicine; FOX'HOUND, a hound used for chasing
foxes; FOX'-HUNT; FOX'-HUNT'ER; FOX'-HUNT'ING; FOX'INESS, decay: having a
harsh, sour taste: state of being spotted, as books; FOX'-SHARK, a large
shark of over 12 feet, occasionally seen off British coasts; FOX'SHIP
(_Shak._), the character of a fox, craftiness; FOX'-TAIL, a genus of
grasses, generally characterised by a bushy head; FOX'-TERR'IER, a kind of
terrier trained to unearth foxes; FOX'-TRAP, a trap for catching foxes;
FOX'-TROT, a pace with short steps, as in changing from trotting to
walking.--_adj._ FOX'Y, of foxes: cunning, suspicious, causing suspicion:
(_paint._) having too much of the reddish-brown or fox-colour.--FOX AND
GEESE, a game played with pieces on a board, where the object is for
certain pieces called the geese to surround or corner one called the fox.
[A.S. _fox_; Ger. _fuchs_.]

FOY, foi, _n._ (_Spens._) allegiance. [Fr. _foi_, faith.]

FOY, foi, _n._ (_prov._) a parting entertainment.

FOYER, fwo-y[=a]', _n._ in theatres, a public room opening on the lobby.
[Fr.,--L. _focus_, hearth.]

FOZY, f[=o]z'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) spongy.--_n._ FOZ'INESS, softness, want of
spirit. [Cf. Dut. _voos_, spongy.]

FRAB, frab, _v.t._ to worry.--_adj._ FRAB'BIT, peevish.

FRACAS, fra-kä', _n._ uproar: a noisy quarrel. [Fr.,--It.
_fracasso_--_fracassare_, to make an uproar.]

FRACTION, frak'shun, _n._ a fragment or very small piece: (_arith._) any
part of a unit: a technical term to indicate the breaking of the bread in
the sacrifice of the Eucharist.--_v.t._ FRACT (_Shak._), to break, to
violate.--_adjs._ FRACT'ED (_her._), having a part displaced, as if broken;
FRAC'TIONAL, belonging to or containing a fraction or fractions;
FRAC'TIONARY, fractional: unimportant.--_v.t._ FRAC'TIONATE, to separate
the elements of a mixture by distillation or otherwise.--_n._
FRACTION[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ FRAC'TIONISE, to break up into fractions.--_n._
FRAC'TIONLET, a small fraction.--_adj._ FRAC'TIOUS, ready to quarrel:
cross.--_adv._ FRAC'TIOUSLY.--_ns._ FRAC'TIOUSNESS; FRAC'TURE, the breaking
of any hard body: the breach or part broken: the breaking of a
bone.--_v.t._ to break through.--COMPOUND, COMMINUTED, COMPLICATED FRACTURE
(see the respective adjectives); GREENSTICK FRACTURE, a fracture where the
bone is partly broken, partly bent, occurring in the limbs of children;
SIMPLE FRACTURE, a fracture when the bone only is divided. [O. Fr.
_fraccion_--L. _fraction-em_--_frang[)e]re_, _fractum_, to break.]

FRAGARIA, fr[=a]-g[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of perennial plants with creeping
stolons, the fruit the strawberry. [L. _fragum_, the strawberry.]

FRAGILE, fraj'il, _adj._ easily broken: frail: delicate.--_n._ FRAGIL'ITY,
the state of being fragile. [Fr.,--L. _fragilis_, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

FRAGMENT, frag'ment, _n._ a piece broken off: an unfinished
portion.--_adj._ FRAG'MENTAL (also -ment').--_adv._ FRAG'MENTARILY.--_n._
fragments or pieces: broken. [Fr.,--L. _fragmentum_, _frang[)e]re_, to

FRAGOR, fr[=a]'gor, _n._ a crash. [L.]

FRAGRANT, fr[=a]'grant, _adj._ sweet-scented.--_ns._ FR[=A]'GRANCE,
FR[=A]'GRANCY, pleasantness of smell or perfume: sweet or grateful
influence.--_adv._ FR[=A]'GRANTLY.--_n._ FR[=A]'GRANTNESS. [Fr.,--L.
_fragrans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _fragr[=a]re_, to smell.]

FRAIL, fr[=a]l, _adj._ wanting in strength or firmness: weak:
unchaste.--_adj._ FRAIL'ISH, somewhat frail.--_adv._ FRAIL'LY.--_ns._
FRAIL'NESS, FRAIL'TY, weakness: infirmity. [O. Fr. _fraile_--L. _fragilis_,

FRAIL, fr[=a]l, _n._ a rush: a basket made of rushes. [O. Fr. _frayel_; of
dubious origin.]

FRAISE, fr[=a]z, _n._ (_fort._) a palisade of pointed stakes planted in the
rampart horizontally or in an inclined position: a tool used for enlarging
a drill-hole: a 16th-cent. ruff.--_v.t._ to fence with a fraise. [Fr.]

FRAISE, fr[=a]z, _n._ (_prov._) commotion.

FRAMBOESIA, fram-b[=e]'zi-a, _n._ the yaws (q.v.). [Fr. _framboise_, a

FRAME, fr[=a]m, _v.t._ to form: to shape: to construct by fitting the parts
to each other: to plan, adjust, or adapt to an end: to contrive or devise:
to constitute: to put a frame or border round, as a picture: to put into a
frame: (_Spens._) to support.--_v.i._ (_dial._) to move: (_B._) to
contrive.--_n._ the form: a putting together of parts: a case made to
enclose or support anything: the skeleton of anything: state of mind: in
gardening, a movable structure used for the cultivation or the sheltering
of plants, as a 'forcing-frame,' 'cucumber-frame,' &c.: (_Shak._) the act
of devising.--_ns._ FRAME'-BRIDGE, a bridge constructed of pieces of timber
framed together; FRAME'-HOUSE, a house consisting of a skeleton of timber,
with boards or shingles laid on; FRAME'-MAK'ER, a maker of frames for
pictures; FRAM'ER, he who forms or constructs: one who makes frames for
pictures, &c.; FRAME'-SAW, a thin saw stretched in a frame for greater
rigidity; FRAME'WORK, the work that forms the frame: the skeleton or
outline of anything; FRAM'ING, the act of constructing: a frame or setting.
[A.S. _framian_, to be helpful, _fram_, forward.]

FRAMPOLD, fram'p[=o]ld, _adj._ (_Shak._) peevish, cross-grained:
quarrelsome.--Also FRAM'PEL. [Prob. _fram_, from, _poll_, head.]

FRANC, frangk, _n._ a French silver coin, forming since 1795 the unit of
the French monetary system, and now also used in Belgium, Switzerland,
equal to fully 9½d. sterling, the equivalent of the Italian _lira_, the
Greek _drachma_. [O. Fr. _franc_, from the legend _Francorum rex_ on the
first coins.]

FRANCHISE, fran'chiz, or -ch[=i]z, _n._ liberty: a privilege or exemption
belonging to a subject by prescription or conferred by grant: the right of
voting for a member of Parliament.--_v.t._ to enfranchise: to give one the
franchise.--_ns._ FRAN'CHISEMENT (_Spens._), freedom, release; FRAN'CHISER,
one who has the franchise. [O. Fr., from _franc_, free.]

FRANCISCAN, fran-sis'kan, _adj._ belonging to the order of mendicant friars
in the R.C. Church founded by St _Francis_ of Assisi (1182-1226).--_n._ a
monk of this order. [L. _Franciscus_, Francis.]

FRANCO-, frangk'[=o], French, in combinations as _Franco-German_,
_Franco-Russian_, &c.

FRANCOLIN, frang'k[=o]-lin, _n._ a genus of birds of the grouse family,
closely allied to partridges. [Fr.]

FRANC-TIREUR, frang-t[=e]-r[.e]r', _n._ a French sharp-shooter, one of an
armed band of French peasants and others prominent in the later stages of
the Franco-Prussian war. [Fr. _franc_, free, _tireur_, a shooter.]

FRANGIBLE, fran'ji-bl, _adj._ easily broken.--_n._ FRANGIBIL'ITY. [See

FRANGIPANE, fran'ji-p[=a]n, _n._ a kind of pastry-cake, filled with cream,
almonds, and sugar: a perfume from the flower of the red jasmine, or in
imitation of it.--Also FRAN'GIPANI. [Fr., from a personal name.]

FRANION, fran'yun, _n._ (_Spens._) a paramour: a boon-companion. [Origin

FRANK, frangk, _adj._ free, open: (_obs._) liberal: open or candid in
expression: (_Spens._) unrestrained.--_v.t._ to send free of expense, as a
letter.--_n._ the signature of a person who had the right to frank a
letter.--_n._ FRANK'-FEE, a species of tenure in fee-simple, the opposite
of copyhold.--_adv._ FRANK'LY, candidly: (_obs._) gratuitously.--_ns._
FRANK'NESS; FRANK'-PLEDGE, a system of mutual suretyship by which the
members of a tithing were made responsible for one another;
FRANK'-TEN'EMENT, freehold. [O. Fr. _franc_--Low L. _francus_--Old High
Ger. _Franko_, one of the tribe called Franks, a free man.]

FRANK, frangk, _n._ one of the German tribes from _Franconia_ who conquered
Gaul in the 5th century, and founded France: the name given in the East to
a native of Western Europe.--_adj._ FRANK'ISH.

FRANK, frangk, _n._ (_Shak._) a pig-sty.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to shut up in a
sty, to cram, to fatten. [O. Fr. _franc_.]

FRANKALMOIGN, frangk'al-moin, _n._ (_Eng. law_) a form of land-tenure in
which no obligations were enforced except religious ones, as praying, &c.
[O. Fr. _franc_, free, _almoigne_, alms.]

FRANKENSTEIN, frangk'en-st[=i]n, _n._ any creation which brings anxiety or
disaster to its author--from the _Frankenstein_ in Mrs Shelley's romance so
named, who by his skill forms an animate creature like a man, only to his
own torment.

FRANKINCENSE, frangk'in-sens, _n._ a sweet-smelling vegetable resin from
Arabia, used in sacrifices. [O. Fr. _franc encens_, pure incense.]

FRANKLIN, frangk'lin, _n._ an old English freeholder, free from feudal
servitude to a subject-superior. [Low L. _francus_, frank.]

FRANTIC, fran'tik, _adj._ mad, furious: wild.--_advs._ FRAN'TICALLY,
FRAN'TICLY (_Shak._).--_adj._ FRAN'TIC-MAD, raving mad.--_n._ FRAN'TICNESS,
the state of being frantic. [O. Fr. _frenetique_--L. _phreneticus_--Gr.
_phren[=e]tikos_, mad, _phren[=i]tis_, inflammation of the
brain--_phr[=e]n_, the mind; see FRENZY.]

FRANZY, fran'zi, _adj._ (_prov._) cross: particular.

FRAP, frap, _v.t._ to strike: (_naut._) to secure by many turns of a
lashing. [Fr. _frapper_, to strike.]

FRAPPÉ, fra-p[=a], _adj._ iced, cooled. [Fr.]

FRATCH, frach, _n._ (_prov._) a quarrel or brawl.--_adjs._ FRATCH'ETY,

FRATER, fr[=a]'ter, _n._ the refectory of a monastery. [O. Fr. _fraitur_
for _refreitor_.--Low L. _refect[=o]rium_.]

FRATERNAL, fra-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ belonging to a brother or brethren:
becoming brothers.--_ns._ FRATE (frä'te), a friar:--_pl._ FRÄ'TI;
FR[=A]'TER, a friar: comrade; FRATER'CULA, a genus of marine diving-birds,
the puffins or masked auks.--_adv._ FRATER'NALLY.--_n._ FRATERNIS[=A]'TION,
the associating as brethren.--_v.i._ FRAT'ERNISE, to associate as brothers:
to seek brotherly fellowship.--_ns._ FRAT'ERNISER; FRATER'NITY, the state
of being brethren: a society formed on a principle of brotherhood; FRAT'RY,
the common-room of a monastic establishment, the chapter-house--also
FRAT'ERY: a fraternity: a convent of friars. [Fr.,--Low L.
_fraternalis_--_frater_, a brother, Eng. _brother_, Gr. _phrat[=e]r_, a
clansman, Sans. _bhr[=a]ta_.]

FRATRICIDE, frat'ri-s[=i]d, _n._ one who kills his brother: the murder of a
brother.--_adj._ FRAT'RICIDAL. [Fr.,--L. _frater_, _fratris_, _cæd[)e]re_,
to kill.]

FRAU, frow, _n._ a married woman, a wife.--_n._ FRÄU'LEIN, a young lady,
miss--often in England for a German governess. [Ger.]

FRAUD, frawd, _n._ deceit: imposture: (_Milt._) a snare: a deceptive trick:
(_coll._) a cheat: a fraudulent production.--_adj._ FRAUD'FUL,
deceptive.--_adv._ FRAUD'FULLY.--_ns._ FRAUD'ULENCE, FRAUD'ULENCY.--_adj._
FRAUD'ULENT, using fraud: dishonest.--_adv._ FRAUD'ULENTLY.--FRAUDULENT
BANKRUPTCY, a bankruptcy in which the insolvent is accessory, by
concealment or otherwise, to the diminution of the funds divisible among
his creditors.--PIOUS FRAUD, a deception practised with a good end in view:
(_coll._) a religious humbug. [O. Fr.,--L. _fraus_, _fraudis_, fraud.]

FRAUGHT, frawt, _n._ a load, cargo: the freight of a ship.--_v.t._ to fill,
store.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to form the freight of a vessel.--_p.adj._
freighted, laden: filled.--_n._ FRAUGHT'AGE (_Shak._), loading, cargo.
[Prob. Old Dut. _vracht_. Cf. FREIGHT.]

FRAXINELLA, frak-si-nel'a, _n._ a common name for cultivated species of
dittany.--_n._ FRAX'INUS, the genus of _Oleaceæ_ containing the common ash.

FRAY, fr[=a], _n._ an affray, a brawl.--_v.t._ (_B._) to frighten. [Abbrev.
of _affray_.]

FRAY, fr[=a], _v.t._ to wear off by rubbing: to ravel out the edge of a
stuff.--_v.i._ to become frayed.--_n._ FRAY'ING, the action of the verb
fray: ravellings. [Fr. _frayer_--L. _fric[=a]re_, to rub.]

FRAZIL, fräz'il, _n._ anchor-ice. [Canadian Fr.; prob. Fr. _fraisil_,

FRAZZLE, fraz'l, _v.t._ (_U.S._) to fray, wear out.--_n._ state of being
worn out.

FREAK, fr[=e]k, _n._ a sudden caprice or fancy: sport: an abnormal
production of nature, a monstrosity.--_ns._ FREAK'INESS,
FREAK'ISHNESS.--_adjs._ FREAK'ISH, FREAK'FUL, apt to change the mind
suddenly: capricious.--_adv._ FREAK'ISHLY. [A late word; cf. A.S.
_frícian_, to dance.]

FREAK, fr[=e]k, _v.t._ to spot or streak: to variegate.--_n._ a streak of

FRECK, frek, _adj._ (_Scot._) prompt, eager.--Also FRACK.

FRECKLE, frek'l, _v.t._ to spot: to colour with spots.--_n._ a yellowish or
brownish-yellow spot on the skin, esp. of fair-haired persons: any small
spot.--_n._ FRECK'LING, a little spot.--_adjs._ FRECK'LY, FRECK'LED, full
of freckles. [Ice. _freknur_ (pl.), Dan. _fregne_.]

FREE, fr[=e], _adj._ not bound: at liberty: not under arbitrary government:
unimpeded: set at liberty: guiltless: frank: lavish: not attached: exempt
(with _from_): having a franchise (with _of_): gratuitous: bold, indecent:
idiomatic, as a translation.--_v.t._ to set at liberty: to deliver from
what confines: to rid (with _from_, of):--_pr.p._ free'ing; _pa.p._
freed.--_ns._ FREE'-AG'ENCY, state or power of acting freely, or without
necessity or constraint upon the will; FREE'-AG'ENT; FREE'-AND-EAS'Y, a
kind of public-house club where good fellows gather to smoke and sing;
FREE'-BENCH, a widow's right to dower out of her husband's lands, so long
as unmarried and chaste; FREE'-BOARD, the space between a vessel's line of
flotation and the upper side of the deck; FREE'BOOTER (Dut. _vrijbuiter_),
one who roves about freely in search of booty: a plunderer;
FREE'BOOTERY.--_adj._ FREE'BOOTING, acting the part of a freebooter:
robbing.--_n._ the practice of a freebooter: robbery, pillage.--_n._
FREE'BOOTY.--_adj._ FREE'BORN, born of free parents.--_ns._ FREE'-CIT'Y, a
city having independent government; FREE'-COST, freedom from charges;
FREED'MAN, a man who has been a slave, and has been freed or set free;
FREE'DOM, liberty: frankness: separation: privileges connected with a city:
improper familiarity: license; FREE'-FISH'ER, one who has a right to take
fish in certain waters.--_adjs._ FREE-FOOT'ED (_Shak._) not restrained in
movement; FREE'-HAND, applied to drawing by the unguided hand;
FREE'-HAND'ED, open-handed: liberal; FREE'-HEART'ED, open-hearted:
liberal.--_ns._ FREE'-HEART'EDNESS, liberality: frankness; FREE'HOLD, a
property held free of duty except to the king; FREE'HOLDER, one who
possesses a freehold; FREE'-L[=A]'BOUR, voluntary, not slave, labour;
FREE'-LANCE, one of certain roving companies of knights and men-at-arms,
who after the Crusades wandered about Europe, selling their services to any
one; FREE'-LIV'ER, one who freely indulges his appetite for eating and
drinking: a glutton; FREE'-LOVE, the claim to freedom in sexual relations,
unshackled by marriage or obligation to aliment.--_adv._ FREE'LY.--_ns._
FREE'MAN, a man who is free or enjoys liberty: one who holds a particular
franchise or privilege:--_pl._ FREE'MEN; FREE'M[=A]SON, one of a secret
society of so-called speculative masons, united in lodges for social
enjoyment and mutual assistance, and laying dubious claim to a connection
with the medieval organisations of free operative masons.--_adj._
FREEMASON'IC.--_n._ FREEM[=A]'SONRY, the institutions, practices, &c. of
Freemasons.--_adj._ FREE'-MIND'ED, with a mind free or unperplexed: without
a load of care.--_ns._ FREE'NESS; FREE'-PORT, a port where no duties are
levied on articles of commerce; FREE'-SCHOOL, a school where no tuition
fees are exacted; FREE'-SHOT (Ger. _Freischütz_), the name given to a
legendary hunter and marksman who gets a number of bullets (_Freikugeln_)
from the devil, six of which always hit the mark, while the seventh is at
the disposal of the devil himself.--_adjs._ FREE'-SOIL, in favour of free
territory, opposed to slavery; FREE'-SP[=O]K'EN, accustomed to speak
without reserve.--_ns._ FREE'-SP[=O]K'ENNESS; FREE'STONE, an easily
quarried stone composed of sand or grit.--_adj._ having a stone from which
the pulp easily separates, as a peach--opp. to _Clingstone_.--_adj._
FREE'-SWIM'MING, swimming freely, as an aquatic animal.--_ns._
FREE'THINKER, one who professes to be free from conventional authority in
religion: a rationalist; FREE'THINKING, FREE'-THOUGHT, the habit of mind of
a freethinker.--_adj._ FREE'-TONGUED, free-spoken.--_ns._ FREE'-TRADE, free
or unrestricted trade: free interchange of commodities without protective
duties; FREE'-TRAD'ER, one who practises or advocates this; FREE'-WILL,
freedom of the will from restraint: liberty of choice: power of
self-determination.--_adj._ spontaneous.--FREE-CELL FORMATION, the
formation of several cells from and in the protoplasm of the mother-cell;
FREE CHURCH, that branch of the Presbyterians in Scotland which left the
Established Church in the Disruption of 1843, finding spiritual
independence impossible within it: a church whose sittings are open to all:
(_pl._) a term often applied to the Nonconformist churches generally; FREE
LIST, the list of persons admitted without payment to a theatre, &c., or of
those to whom a book, &c., is sent; FREE ON BOARD (F.O.B.), a phrase
meaning that goods are to be delivered on the vessel or other conveyance
without charge.--FREE STATES, in America, before the Civil War of 1861-65,
those of the United States in which slavery did not exist, as opposed to
_Slave States_.--MAKE FREE WITH, to take undue liberties with. [A.S.
_freo_; Ger. _frei_, Ice. _frí_.]

FREEMARTIN, fr[=e]'mar-tin, _n._ a cow-calf born as a twin with a
bull-calf, usually barren.

FREEZE, fr[=e]z, _v.i._ to become ice or like a solid body.--_v.t._ to
harden into ice: to cause to shiver, as with terror:--_pr.p._ freez'ing;
_pa.t._ fr[=o]ze; _pa.p._ froz'en.--_adj._ FREEZ'ABLE.--_ns._
FREEZ'ING-MIX'TURE, a mixture, as of pounded ice and salt, producing cold
sufficient to freeze a liquid by the rapid absorption of heat;
FREEZ'ING-POINT, the temperature at which water freezes, marked 32° on the
Fahrenheit thermometer, and 0° on the centigrade. [A.S. _fréosan_, pa.p.
_froren_; Dut. _vreizen_, Ger. _frieren_, to freeze.]

FREIGHT, fr[=a]t, _n._ the lading or cargo, esp. of a ship; the charge for
transporting goods by water.--_v.t._ to load a ship.--_ns._ FREIGHT'AGE,
money paid for freight; FREIGHT'ER, one who freights a vessel. [Prob. Old
Dut. _vrecht_, a form of _vracht_.]


FREIT, fr[=e]t, _n._ (_Scot._) any superstitious belief in things as good
or bad omens--also FREET.--_adj._ FREIT'Y, FREET'Y, superstitious. [Scand.;
Ice. _frétt_, news.]

FREMD, fremd, _adj._ and _n._ (_Scot._) strange, a stranger--Spenser has
FRENNE, a stranger.--THE FREMD, the world of strangers. [M. E. _fremd_,
_fremed_--A.S. _fremde_; cf. Dut. _vreemd_, Ger. _fremd_.]

FREMESCENT, frem-es'ent, _adj._ raging, riotous.--_n._ FREMES'CENCE. [L.
_frem[)e]re_, to roar.]

FREMITUS, frem'i-tus, _n._ a palpable vibration, as of the walls of the
chest. [L.]

FRENCH, frensh, _adj._ belonging to _France_ or its people.--_n._ the
people or language of France.--_ns._ FRENCH'-BEAN, the common kidney bean,
eaten, pods and all, as a table vegetable; FRENCH'-BERR'Y, a small berry,
the fruit of certain species of buckthorn, used in dyeing yellow;
FRENCH'-CHALK, an indurated clay, extremely dense, and of a smooth glossy
surface and white colour; FRENCH'ERY, French fashions collectively;
FRENCH'-HORN, a musical wind-instrument somewhat resembling a bugle;
FRENCHIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ FRENCH'IFY, to make French or Frenchlike: to
infect with the manner of the French.--_ns._ FRENCH'INESS; FRENCH'MAN, a
native or naturalised inhabitant of France:--_fem._ FRENCH'WOMAN;
FRENCH'-POL'ISH, a varnish for furniture, consisting chiefly of shellac
dissolved in some spirit; FRENCH'-POL'ISHER; FRENCH'-POL'ISHING, the method
of coating furniture with French-polish.--_adj._ FRENCH'Y, with an
exaggerated French manner.--FRENCH MERINO, a fine twilled cloth of merino
wool; FRENCH POX (_obs._), syphilis; FRENCH ROOF, a modified
mansard-roof--really American; FRENCH WHITE, finely pulverised talc; FRENCH
WINDOW, a long window opening like a folding-door, and serving for exit and
entrance.--TAKE FRENCH LEAVE, to depart without notice or permission, to
disappear suspiciously.

FRENETIC, -AL, fre-net'ik, -al, _adj._ frenzied: mad: distracted.--Also

FRENUM, fr[=e]'num, _n._ a ligament restraining the motion of a part.--Also
FRÆ'NUM. [L., a bridle.]

FRENZY, fren'zi, _n._ a violent excitement: mania.--_v.t._ to render
frenzied.--_adjs._ FREN'ZIED, FREN'ZICAL, partaking of frenzy. [Through O.
Fr. and L.,--from Late Gr. _phren[=e]sis_=Gr. _phrenitis_, inflammation of
the brain--_phr[=e]n_, the mind.]

FREQUENT, fr[=e]'kwent, _adj._ coming or occurring often.--_ns._
FR[=E]'QUENCE (_Milt._), a crowd, an assembly; FR[=E]'QUENCY, repeated
occurrence of anything.--_v.t._ FREQUENT', to visit often.--_ns._
FR[=E]'QUENTAGE, habit of frequenting; FREQUENT[=A]'TION, the act of
visiting often.--_adj._ FREQUENT'ATIVE (_gram._), denoting the frequent
repetition of an action.--_n._ (_gram._) a verb expressing this
repetition.--_n._ FREQUENT'ER.--_adv._ FR[=E]'QUENTLY.--_n._
FR[=E]'QUENTNESS. [L. _frequens_, _frequentis_; cog. with _farc[=i]re_, to

FRESCADE, fres-k[=a]d', _n._ a cool walk. [Fr.,--It. _frescata_.]

FRESCO, fres'k[=o], _n._ a painting executed with colours, consisting
chiefly of natural earths, upon walls covered with damp freshly-laid
plaster.--_v.t._ to paint in fresco:--_pr.p._ fres'c[=o]ing; _pa.p._
fres'c[=o]ed.--_adj._ FRES'COED.--_ns._ FRES'COER; FRES'COING; FRES'COIST.
[It. _fresco_, fresh.]

FRESH, fresh, _adj._ in a state of activity and health: new and strong, not
stale or faded: recently produced or obtained: untried: having renewed
vigour: healthy, refreshing, invigorating: brisk: (_slang_) tipsy: not
salt.--_n._ (_Shak._) a small stream of fresh water: (_Scot._) a thaw, open
weather.--_adj._ FRESH'-BLOWN, newly blown, as a flower.--_v.t._ FRESH'EN,
to make fresh: to take the saltness from.--_v.i._ to grow fresh: to grow
brisk or strong.--_ns._ FRESH'ENER; FRESH'ET, a pool or stream of fresh
water: the sudden overflow of a river from rain or melted snow.--_adj._
FRESH'ISH.--_adv._ FRESH'LY.--_ns._ FRESH'MAN, one in the rudiments of
knowledge, esp. a university student in his first year--also FRESH'ER;
FRESH'MANSHIP, FRESH'ERDOM.--_adj._ FRESH'-NEW (_Shak._), unpractised,
wholly unacquainted; FRESH'WA'TER, of or pertaining to water not salt:
accustomed to sail only on fresh water--hence unskilled, raw. [A.S.
_fersc_; cf. Dut. _versch_, Ger. _frisch_.]

FRET, fret, _v.t._ to wear away by rubbing, to rub, chafe, ripple, disturb:
to eat into: to vex, to irritate.--_v.i._ to wear away: to vex one's self:
to be peevish:--_pr.p._ fret'ting; _pa.p._ fret'ted, (_B._) fret.--_n._
agitation of the surface of a liquid: irritation: the worn side of the
banks of a river.--_adj._ FRET'FUL, peevish.--_adv._ FRET'FULLY.--_n._
FRET'FULNESS.--_p.adj._ FRET'TING, vexing.--_n._ peevishness. [A.S.
_fretan_, to gnaw--pfx. _for-_, inten., and _etan_, to eat; Ger.

FRET, fret, _v.t._ to ornament with raised work: to variegate:--_pr.p._
fret'ting; _pa.p._ fret'ted. [O. Fr. _freter_.]

FRET, fret, _n._ a piece of interlaced ornamental work: (_archit._) an
ornament consisting of small fillets intersecting each other at right
angles: (_her._) bars crossed and interlaced.--_ns._ FRET'-SAW, a saw with
a narrow blade and fine teeth, used for fret-work, scroll-work, &c.;
FRETTE, a hoop for strengthening a cannon shrunk on its breach.--_adjs._
FRET'TED, FRET'TY, ornamented with frets.--_n._ FRET'-WORK, ornamental work
consisting of a combination of frets, perforated work. [O. Fr. _frete_,

FRET, fret, _n._ a short wire on the finger-board of a guitar or other
instrument.--_v.t._ to furnish with frets. [Prob. same as the above.]

FRIABLE, fr[=i]'a-bl, _adj._ apt to crumble: easily reduced to
powder.--_ns._ FR[=I]'ABLENESS, FRIABIL'ITY. [Fr.,--L.
_friabilis_--_fri[=a]re_, _fri[=a]tum_, to crumble.]

FRIAR, fr[=i]'ar, _n._ a member of one of the mendicant monastic orders in
the R.C. Church--the Franciscans (_Friars Minor_ or _Gray Friars_),
Dominicans (_Friars Major_, _Friars Preachers_, or _Black Friars_),
Carmelites (_White Friars_), and Augustinians (_Austin Friars_).--_adj._
FR[=I]'ARLY, like a friar.--_n._ FR[=I]'ARY, a monastery.--FRIARS' BALSAM
(see BENZOIN); FRIAR'S CAP, the wolf's-bane; FRIAR'S COWL, the wake-robin;
FRIAR'S LANTERN, the ignis-fatuus or Will-o'-the-wisp. [O. Fr. _frere_--L.
_frater_, a brother.]

FRIBBLE, frib'l, _v.i._ to trifle.--_n._ a trifler.--_ns._ FRIBB'LEDOM;
FRIBB'LEISM; FRIBB'LER.--_adj._ FRIBB'LISH, trifling. [Onomatopoeic; prob.
influenced by _frivol_.]

FRICANDEAU, frik-an-d[=o]', _n._ a thick slice of veal, &c., larded. [Fr.,
perh. from _friand_, dainty, nice, and perh. ult. conn. with _fricassee_.]

FRICASSEE, frik-as-s[=e]', _n._ a dish made of fowl, rabbit, &c. cut into
pieces and cooked in sauce.--_v.t._ to dress as a fricassee:--_pr.p._
fricassee'ing; _pa.p._ fricasseed'. [Fr. _fricassée_; origin unknown.]

FRICTION, frik'shun, _n._ the act of rubbing: (_statics_) a force acting in
the tangent plane of two bodies, when one slides or rolls upon another, and
always in a direction opposite to that in which the moving body tends:
difficulty, unpleasantness.--_adjs._ FRIC'ATIVE, produced by friction, used
of those consonants which are produced by the breath being forced through a
narrow opening; FRIC'TIONAL, relating to, moved by, or produced by
friction.--_n._ FRIC'TION-GEAR'ING, a method of imparting the motion of one
wheel or pulley to another by mere contact.--_adj._ FRIC'TIONLESS, having
no friction.--_n.pl._ FRIC'TION-WHEELS, wheels that lessen friction.
[Fr.,--L. _frictionem_--_fric[=a]re_, _frictum_, to rub.]

FRIDAY, fr[=i]'d[=a], _n._ the sixth day of the week.--BLACK FRIDAY, Good
Friday, from the black vestments of the clergy and altar in the Western
Church: any Friday marked by a great calamity; GOOD FRIDAY, the Friday
before Easter, kept in commemoration of the Crucifixion; HOLY FRIDAY,
Friday in an ember-week--also GOLDEN FRIDAY, sometimes put for Good Friday
itself. [A.S. _Frígedæg_, day of (the goddess) _Fríg_--Latinised
_Frigga_--wife of Odin.]

FRIDGE, frij, _v.t._ (_Sterne_) to rub or fray.

FRIED, fr[=i]d, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _fry_.

FRIEND, frend, _n._ one loving or attached to another: an intimate
acquaintance: a favourer: one of a society so called: (_Scot._) a
relative.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to befriend.--_adj._ FRIEND'ED, supplied with
friends.--_n._ FRIEND'ING (_Shak._), friendliness.--_adj._ FRIEND'LESS,
without friends: destitute.--_n._ FRIEND'LESSNESS.--_adv._
FRIEND'LILY.--_n._ FRIEND'LINESS.--_adj._ FRIEND'LY, like a friend: having
the disposition of a friend: favourable: pertaining to the Friends or
Quakers.--_n._ FRIEND'SHIP, attachment from mutual esteem: friendly
assistance.--FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, or _Benefit societies_, associations,
chiefly among mechanics, &c., for relief during sickness, old age,
widowhood, by provident insurance.--BE FRIENDS WITH, to be on intimate or
friendly relations with; HAVE A FRIEND AT COURT, to have a friend in a
position where his influence is likely to prove useful; SOCIETY OF FRIENDS,
the designation proper of a sect of Christians better known as Quakers.
[A.S. _fréond_, pr.p. of _fréon_, to love; Ger. _freund_.]

FRIER, fr[=i]'[.e]r, _n._ (_Milt._) a friar.

FRIEZE, fr[=e]z, _n._ a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one
side.--_adj._ FRIEZED, napped. [Fr. _frise_.]

FRIEZE, fr[=e]z, _n._ (_archit._) the part of the entablature between the
architrave and cornice, often ornamented with figures.--_v.t._ to put a
frieze on. [O. Fr. _frize_; It. _fregio_; perh. L. _Phrygium_, Phrygian.]

FRIGATE, frig'[=a]t, _n._ in the Royal Navy, formerly a vessel in the class
next to ships of the line, carrying 28 to 60 guns on the maindeck and a
raised quarter-deck and forecastle--not now denoting a distinct class of
vessels.--_ns._ FRIG'ATE-BIRD, a large tropical sea-bird, with very long
wings; FRIGATOON', a small Venetian vessel with square stern and two masts.
[O. Fr. _fregate_--It. _fregata_; ety. dub.]

FRIGHT, fr[=i]t, _n._ sudden fear: terror: anything inspiring terror or
alarm, a figure of grotesque or ridiculous appearance.--_vs.t._ FRIGHT,
FRIGHT'EN, to make afraid: to alarm.--_adjs._ FRIGHT'ABLE, FRIGHT'ENABLE,
timid; FRIGHT'FUL, terrible: shocking.--_adv._ FRIGHT'FULLY.--_n._
FRIGHT'FULNESS.--_adj._ FRIGHT'SOME, frightful: feeling fright. [A.S.
_fyrhto_; cf. Ger. _furcht_, fear.]

FRIGID, frij'id, _adj._ frozen or stiffened with cold: cold: without spirit
or feeling: unanimated.--_n._ FRIGID'ITY, coldness: coldness of affection:
want of animation.--_adv._ FRIG'IDLY.--_n._ FRIG'IDNESS.--_adj._
FRIGORIF'IC, causing cold.--FRIGID ZONES, the parts of the earth's surface
within the circle drawn with the poles as centre, and a radius of 23½
degrees. [L. _frigidus_--_frig[=e]re_, to be cold--_frigus_, cold.]

FRIGOT, frig'ot, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as FRIGATE.

FRIJOLE, fr[=e]-h[=o]l', _n._ the common Mexican bean. [Sp.]

FRILL, fril, _v.i._ to ruffle, as a hawk its feathers, when
shivering.--_v.t._ to furnish with a frill.--_n._ a ruffle: a ruffled or
crimped edging of linen.--_ns._ FRILLED'-LIZ'ARD, a lizard with an
extraordinary frilled membrane attached to the hinder part of the head,
neck, and chest, and covering its shoulders; FRILL'ING, frilled edging.
[Usually conn. with O. Fr. _friller_, to shiver; but prob. related to

FRIMAIRE, fr[=e]-m[=a]r', _n._ the third month of the French revolutionary
calendar, Nov. 21-Dec. 20. [Fr. _frimas_, frost.]

FRINGE, frinj, _n._ loose threads forming an ornamental border: anything
like a fringe, even a girl's hair cut in front and falling over the brow:
the extremity.--_v.t._ to adorn with fringe: to border.--_adjs._ FRINGED;
FRINGE'LESS; FRING'ENT, fringing.--_n._ FRINGE'-TREE, in the United States,
a large shrub with very numerous snow-white flowers in panicled
racemes.--_adj._ FRING'Y, ornamented with fringes. [O. Fr. _frenge_--L.
_fimbria_, threads, fibres, akin to _fibra_, a fibre.]

FRINGILLACEOUS, frin-ji-l[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ pertaining to the finches or
_Fringillidæ_.--Also FRINGIL'LIFORM, FRINGIL'LINE. [L. _fringilla_.]

FRIPPERY, frip'[.e]r-i, _n._ worn-out clothes: the place where old clothes
are sold: useless trifles.--_adj._ useless: trifling.--_n._ FRIPP'ER, one
who deals in old clothes. [O. Fr. _freperie_, _frepe_, a rag.]


FRISEUR, fris-[.e]r', _n._ a hair-dresser.--_n._ FRIS'URE, mode of curling
the hair. [Fr. _friser_, to curl.]

FRISIAN, friz'i-an, _adj._ and _n._ pertaining to the people of
_Friesland_, or to their language.--Also FRIES'IAN, FRIES'IC, FRIES'ISH.

FRISK, frisk, _v.i._ to gambol: to leap playfully.--_n._ a frolic.--_n._
FRISK'ER.--_adj._ FRISK'FUL, brisk, lively.--_adv._ FRISK'ILY.--_n._
FRISK'INESS.--_adj._ FRISK'ING.--_adv._ FRISK'INGLY.--_adj._ FRISK'Y,
lively: jumping with gaiety: frolicsome. [O. Fr. _frisque_; acc. to Skeat,
from Ice. _frískr_, Sw. and Dan. _frisk_.]

FRISKET, frisk'[.e]t, _n._ (_print._) the light frame between the tympan
and the form, to hold in place the sheet to be printed. [Fr. _frisquette_.]

FRIT, frit, _n._ the mixed materials of which glass is made, after being
heated until they fuse partially without melting.--_v.t._ to fuse partially
without melting:--_pr.p._ _frit'ting_; _pa.p._ frit'ted. [Fr. _fritte_--It.
_fritta_.--L. _frig[)e]re_, _frictum_, to roast.]

FRIT, frit, _n._ a small fly destructive to wheat.

FRITH, frith, FIRTH, f[.e]rth, _n._ a narrow inlet of the sea, esp. at a
river-mouth. [Ice. _fiörðr_; Norw. _fiord_.]

FRITH, frith, _n._ peace.--_ns._ FRITH'BORG (_A.S. law_), one of the
tithings or groups of ten men into which the hundred was divided, the
members of each being accountable for a fellow-member's misdeeds;
FRITH'GILD, a union of neighbours pledged to one another for the
preservation of peace; FRITH'SOKEN, the jurisdiction to punish for breaches
of the peace; FRITH'STOOL, a chair of sanctuary, placed near the altar in a
church--as at Hexham and Beverley. [A.S. _frith_, peace; Ger. _friede_.]

FRITH, frith, _n._ forest. [A.S. _(ge)fyrhðe_.]

FRITILLARY, frit'il-lar-i, _n._ a genus of plants of the order _Liliaceæ_,
with drooping purple flowers: a species of butterfly. [L. _fritillus_, a

FRITTER, frit'[.e]r, _n._ a piece of meat fried: a kind of pancake, a slice
of some fruit sweetened, fried, and served hot: a fragment.--_v.t._ to
break into fragments.--_n._ FRITT'ERER, one who wastes time. [O. Fr.
_friture_--L. _frig[)e]re_, _frictum_, to fry.]

FRIVOLOUS, friv'ol-us, _adj._ trifling: silly.--_n._ FRIVOL'ITY, act or
habit of trifling: levity.--_adv._ FRIV'OLOUSLY.--_n._ FRIV'OLOUSNESS. [Fr.
_frivole_--L. _frivolus_.]

FRIZZ, FRIZ, friz, _v.t._ to curl: to render rough and tangled.--_n._ a
curl, a wig.--_adjs._ FRIZZED, having the hair curled or crisped into
frizzes; FRIZZ'Y. [O. Fr. _friser_, to curl; perh. conn. with _frieze_,

FRIZZLE, friz'l, _v.t._ to form in small short curls.--_v.i._ to go into
curls.--_n._ a curl.--_ns._ FRIZETTE', FRISETTE', a cluster of small curls
worn over the forehead.--_adj._ FRIZZ'LY. [Related to _frizz_ and

FRO, fr[=o], _adv._ from: back or backward.--_prep._ (_obs._) from. [A
shortened form of _from_; but perh. directly derived from Ice. _frá_,

FROCK, frok, _n._ a wide-sleeved garment worn by monks: a loose upper
garment worn by men: a sailor's jersey: a gown worn by females: an undress
regimental coat.--_v.t._ to furnish with a frock: to invest with priestly
office.--_n._ FROCK'-COAT, a double-breasted full-skirted coat for
men.--_adj._ FROCKED, clothed in a frock.--_n._ FROCK'ING, cloth suitable
for frocks, coarse jean.--_adj._ FROCK'LESS, wanting a frock. [O. Fr.
_froc_, a monk's frock--Low L. _frocus_--L. _floccus_, a flock of wool; or
more prob. (acc. to Brachet and Littré) from Low L. _hrocus_--Old High Ger.
_hroch_ (Ger. _rock_), a coat.]

FROG, frog, _n._ a genus of tailless amphibians, with webbed feet,
remarkable for its rapid swimming and leaping: a soft, horny substance in
the middle of the sole of a horse's foot, forking towards the heel: a
section of a rail or rails at a point where two lines cross, or of a switch
from one line to another.--_ns._ FROG'-BIT, a small aquatic plant, allied
to the water-soldier, but with floating leaves; FROG'-EAT'ER, one who eats
frogs, a Frenchman; FROG'-FISH, a name for various fishes, esp. the angler;
FROG'GERY, frogs collectively: a place where frogs abound.--_adj._ FROG'GY,
having or abounding in frogs.--_ns._ FROG'-HOP'PER, FROG'-SPIT (see
FROTH-FLY); FROG'LING, a little frog.--FROG MARCH, a method of carrying a
refractory or drunken prisoner face downwards between four men, each
holding a limb. [A.S. _frogga_, _frox_; cog. with Ice. _froskr_; Ger.

FROG, frog, _n._ an ornamental fastening or tasselled button for a frock or
cloak.--_adj._ FROGGED, in uniforms, of ornamental stripes or workings of
braid or lace, mostly on the breast of a coat.

FROISE, froiz, _n._ a kind of pancake or omelette, often with slices of
bacon.--Also _Fraise_. [Fr.]

FROLIC, frol'ik, _adj._ merry: pranky.--_n._ gaiety: a wild prank: a
merry-making.--_v.i._ to play wild pranks or merry tricks: to
gambol:--_pr.p._ frol'icking; _pa.p._ frol'icked.--_adj._ FROL'ICSOME, gay:
sportive.--_adv._ FROL'ICSOMELY.--_n._ FROL'ICSOMENESS. [Dut. _vrolijk_,
merry; cf. Ger. _fröhlich_, joyful, gay.]

FROM, from, _prep._ forth: out of, as from a source: away: at a distance:
springing out of: by reason of. [A.S. _fram_, _from_; akin to Goth. _fram_,
Ice. _frá_.]

FROND, frond, _n._ (_bot._) a leaf-like expansion in many cryptogamous
plants, organs in which the functions of stem and leaf are
combined.--_adjs._ FROND'ED, having fronds; FROND'ENT, leafy.--_n._
FRONDES'CENCE, act of putting forth leaves: the season for putting forth
leaves.--_adjs._ FRONDES'CENT, springing into leaf; FRONDIF'EROUS, bearing
or producing fronds; FRONDOSE', covered with fronds. [L. _frons_,
_frondis_, a leaf.]

FRONDE, frond, _n._ the name given to certain factions in France during the
minority of Louis XIV., hostile to the court and the minister
Mazarin.--_n._ FROND'EUR, a member of the Fronde: an irreconcilable. [Fr.,
a sling--L. _funda_.]

FRONT, frunt, _n._ the forehead: the whole face: the forepart of anything:
a kind of wig worn by ladies: the most conspicuous part: boldness:
impudence.--_adj._ of, relating to, or in the front.--_v.t._ to stand in
front of or opposite: to oppose face to face.--_v.i._ to stand in front or
foremost: to turn the front or face in any direction.--_n._ FRONT'AGE, the
front part of a building.--_adj._ FRONT'AL, of or belonging to the front or
forehead.--_n._ a front-piece: something worn on the forehead or face:
(_archit._) a pediment over a door or window: a hanging of silk, satin,
&c., embroidered for an altar--now usually covering only the top, the
_superfrontal_--formerly covering the whole of the front, corresponding to
the _antependium_.--_adjs._ FRONT'ATE, -D (_bot._), growing broader and
broader: (_zool._) having a prominent frons or forehead; FRONT'ED, formed
with a front; FRONT'LESS, void of shame or modesty.--_adv._
FRONT'LESSLY.--_n._ FRONT'LET, a band worn on the forehead.--_advs._
FRONT'WARD, -S, towards the front.--COME TO THE FRONT, to become
conspicuous: to attain an important position; IN FRONT OF, before. [O.
Fr.,--L. _frons_, _frontis_, the forehead.]

FRONTIER, front'[=e]r, _n._ the boundary of a territory: (_Shak._) an
outwork.--_adj._ lying on the frontier: bordering.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to
place on the frontier.--_n._ FRONT'IERSMAN, one settled on the borders of a
country. [O. Fr. _frontier_--L. _frons_.]

FRONTISPIECE, front'i-sp[=e]s, _n._ (_archit._) the principal face of a
building: a figure or engraving in front of a book.--_v.t._ to put as a
frontispiece, to furnish with such. [Fr.,--Low L. _frontispicium_--frons,
forehead, _spec[)e]re_, to see; not conn. with _piece_.]

FRONTON, fron'ton, _n._ (_archit._) a pediment.--Also FRON'TOON. [Fr.]

FRORE, fr[=o]r, FROREN, fr[=o]'ren, _adj._ frozen, frosty.--_adj._
FR[=O]'RY (_Spens._), frozen. [A.S. _froren_, pa.p. of _fréosan_, to

FROST, frost, _n._ the state of the atmosphere in which water freezes:
state of being frozen: frozen dew, also called _hoar-frost_: (_slang_) a
disappointment, a cheat.--_v.t._ to cover with hoar-frost or with anything
resembling hoar-frost: to sharpen (the points of a horse's shoe) that it
may not slip on ice.--_n._ FROST'-BITE, the freezing or depression of
vitality in a part of the body by exposure to cold.--_v.t._ to affect with
frost.--_adjs._ FROST'-BIT'TEN, bitten or affected by frost; FROST'-BOUND,
bound or confined by frost; FROST'ED, covered by frost or any fine powder:
injured by frost.--_adv._ FROST'ILY.--_ns._ FROST'INESS; FROST'ING, the
composition, resembling hoar-frost, used to cover cake, &c.--_adj._
FROST'LESS, free from frost.--_n._ FROST'-NAIL, a projecting nail in a
horse-shoe serving as an ice-calk.--_v.t._ to put in such nails.--_ns._
FROST'-SMOKE, vapour frozen in the atmosphere, and having a smoke-like
appearance; FROST'-WORK, work resembling hoar-frost on shrubs, &c.--_adj._
FROST'Y, producing or containing frost: chill in affection: frost-like.
[A.S. _frost_, _forst_--_fréosan_; cf. Ger. _frost_.]

FROTH, froth, _n._ the foam on liquids caused by boiling, or any agitation:
(_fig._) an empty show in speech: any light matter.--_v.t._ to cause froth
on.--_v.i._ to throw up froth.--_ns._ FROTH'ERY, mere froth; FROTH'-FLY,
also FROTH'-HOP'PER, FROG'-HOP'PER, FROG'-SPIT, common names for numerous
insects parasitic on plants, on which the larvæ and pupæ are found
surrounded by a frothy spittle.--_adv._ FROTH'ILY.--_n._
FROTH'INESS.--_adjs._ FROTH'LESS, free from froth; FROTH'Y, full of froth
or foam: empty: unsubstantial. [Scand., as in Ice. _froða_, Dan. _fraade_.]

FROUNCE, frowns, _v.t._ to plait: to curl: to wrinkle up: to frown.--_n._ a
plait or curl.--_v.i._ (_obs._) to frown or wrinkle the brow. [O. Fr.
_froncier_. See FLOUNCE (2), of which it is an older form.]

FROW, frow, _n._ a Dutchwoman. [Dut. _vrouw_.]

FROWARD, fr[=o]'ward, _adj._ (_Spens._) turned from: self-willed: perverse:
unreasonable--opp. to _Toward_.--_adv._ FR[=O]'WARDLY.--_n._
FR[=O]'WARDNESS. [A.S. _fra_, away, with affix _-ward_.]

FROWN, frown, _v.i._ to wrinkle the brow as in anger: to look
angry.--_v.t._ to repel by a frown.--_n._ a wrinkling or contraction of the
brow in displeasure, &c.: a stern look.--_adj._ FROWN'ING, gloomy.--_adv._
FROWN'INGLY. [From O. Fr. _froignier_ (mod. _refrogner_), to knit the brow;
origin unknown.]

FROWY, frow'i, _adj._ (_Spens._) musty, rancid.

FROWZY, frow'zi, _adj._ rough and tangled.--Also FROW'SY. [Perh. conn. with

FROZEN, fr[=o]z'n, _pa.p._ of _freeze_.

FRUCTIDOR, fruk-ti-d[=o]r', _n._ the twelfth month in the French
revolutionary calendar, Aug. 18-Sept. 16. [Fr.,--L. _fructus_, fruit; Gr.
_d[=o]ron_, a gift.]

FRUCTIFY, fruk'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make fruitful: to fertilise.--_v.i._ to
bear fruit.--_adj._ FRUCT'ED (_her._), bearing fruit.--_n._ FRUCTES'CENCE,
the time for the ripening of fruit.--_adj._ FRUCTIF'EROUS, bearing
fruit.--_ns._ FRUCTIFIC[=A]'TION, act of fructifying, or producing fruit:
(_bot._) a term denoting sometimes the whole reproductive system, sometimes
the 'fruit' itself; FRUC'TOSE, fruit sugar or levulose; FRUC'TUARY, one
enjoying the fruits of anything.--_adj._ FRUC'TUOUS, full of fruit.
[Fr.,--L.,--_fructus_, fruit.]

FRUGAL, fr[=oo]'gal, _adj._ economical in the use of means: thrifty.--_ns._
FRU'GALIST, one who is frugal; FRUGAL'ITY, economy: thrift.--_adv._
FRU'GALLY. [L. _frugalis_--_frugi_, fit for food--_frux_, _frugis_, fruit.]

FRUGIFEROUS, fr[=oo]-jif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ fruit-bearing.--_adj._
FRUGIV'OROUS, feeding on fruits or seeds. [L. _frux_, _frugis_--_ferre_, to
carry, _vor[=a]re_, to eat.]

FRUIT, fr[=oo]t, _n._ the produce of the earth, which supplies the wants of
men and animals: the part of a plant which contains the seed: the offspring
of animals: product, consequence, effect, advantage--(_Spens._)
FRUICT.--_v.i._ to produce fruit.--_ns._ FRUIT'AGE, fruit collectively:
fruits; FRUIT'-BUD, a bud that produces fruit; FRUIT'-CAKE, a cake
containing raisins, &c.; FRUIT'ERER, one who deals in fruit:--_fem._
FRUIT'ERESS; FRUIT'ERY, a place for storing fruit: fruitage.--_adj._
FRUIT'FUL, producing fruit abundantly: productive.--_adv._
FRUIT'FULLY.--_ns._ FRUIT'FULNESS; FRUIT'ING, process of bearing fruit;
FRUIT'-KNIFE, a knife with a blade of silver, &c., for cutting
fruit.--_adj._ FRUIT'LESS, barren: without profit: useless.--_adv._
FRUIT'LESSLY.--_ns._ FRUIT'LESSNESS; FRUIT'-TREE, a tree yielding edible
fruit.--_adj._ FRUIT'Y, like, or tasting like, fruit.--SMALL FRUITS,
strawberries, currants, &c. [O. Fr. _fruit_, _fruict_--L.
_fructus_--_frui_, _fructus_, to enjoy.]

FRUITION, fr[=oo]-ish'un, _n._ enjoyment: use or possession of anything,
esp. accompanied with pleasure.--_adj._ FRU'ITIVE, of or pertaining to
fruition. [O. Fr. _fruition_--L. _frui_, to enjoy.]

FRUMENTATION, fr[=oo]-men-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a largess of grain bestowed on
the starving or turbulent people in ancient Rome.--_adjs._
FRUMENT[=A]'CEOUS, made of or resembling wheat or other grain;
FRUMENT[=A]'RIOUS, pertaining to corn. [L.
_frumentation-em_--_frument[=a]ri_, to provide with corn--_frumentum_,

FRUMENTY, fr[=oo]'men-ti, _n._ food made of hulled wheat boiled in
milk.--Also FUR'METY. [O. Fr. _frumentee_, wheat boiled--_frument_--L.

FRUMP, frump, _n._ a dowdy and cross-grained woman: (_obs._) a flout or
snub.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to snub.--_adjs._ FRUMP'ISH, FRUMP'Y, sour-tempered:

FRUMPLE, frum'pl, _v.t._ (_prov._) to wrinkle.

FRUSH, frush, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to break, bruise, or crush.--_adj._ broken
or crushed: brittle.--_n._ an onset, attack. [O. Fr. _froissier_, to
bruise--L. _frustum_, fragment.]

FRUSH, frush, _n._ (_prov._) the frog of a horse's foot: a disease in that
part of a horse's foot.

FRUSTRATE, frus'tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to make vain or of no effect: to bring to
nothing: to defeat.--_p.adj._ vain, ineffectual, defeated.--_adj._
FRUS'TRABLE, capable of being frustrated.--_n._ FRUSTR[=A]'TION,
disappointment: defeat.--_adjs._ FRUS'TRATIVE, tending to frustrate;
FRUS'TRATORY, disappointing. [L. _frustr[=a]ri_,
_frustr[=a]tus_--_frustra_, in vain.]

FRUSTULE, frus't[=u]l, _n._ the siliceous two-valved shell of a diatom,
with its contents.

FRUSTUM, frus'tum, _n._ a slice of a solid body: the part of a cone which
remains when the top is cut off by a plane parallel to the base. [L.
_frustum_, a bit.]

FRUTESCENT, fr[=oo]-tes'ent, _adj._ becoming shrubby; FRU'TEX, a
shrub.--_adjs._ FRU'TICOSE, FRU'TICOUS, shrub-like: shrubby; FRUTIC'ULOSE,
like a small shrub. [L. _frutesc[)e]re_--_frutex_, _fruticis_, a shrub.]

FRUTIFY, fr[=oo]'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Shak._)=FRUCTIFY.

FRY, fr[=i], _v.t._ to dress food with oil or fat in a pan over the fire:
to vex.--_v.i._ to undergo the action of heat in a frying-pan: to simmer:
(_Spens._) to boil:--_pr.p._ fry'ing; _pa.p._ fried.--_n._ a dish of
anything fried.--_n._ FRY'ING-PAN, a flat iron vessel or pan for frying
with.--OUT OF THE FRYING-PAN INTO THE FIRE, out of one evil or danger
merely to fall into a greater. [Fr. _frire_--L. _frig[)e]re_; cf. Gr.

FRY, fr[=i], _n._ a swarm of fishes just spawned: a number of small
things.--SMALL FRY, small things collectively, persons or things of little
importance. [M. E. _fri_--Ice. _frió_; Dan. and Sw. _frö_.]

FUAR. Same as FEUAR.

FUB, fub, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to put off, to cheat: to steal.--_n._ FUB'BERY
(_obs._), deception.--FUB OFF, to put off or evade by a trick or a lie.
[See FOB.]

FUBBY, fub'i, FUBSY, fub'zi, _adj._ chubby. [Ety. dub.]

FUCHSIA, f[=u]'shi-a, a plant with long pendulous flowers, native to South
America. [Named after Leonard _Fuchs_, a German botanist, 1501-66.]

FUCUS, f[=u]'kus, _n._ a genus of seaweed containing the wrack and other
species: a dye: a disguise.--_adj._ FUCIV'OROUS, eating seaweed.--_n._
F[=U]'COID, fossil seaweed.--_adj._ containing fucoids.--_adj._
F[=U]'CUSED, painted. [L. _fucus_, seaweed.]

FUD, fud, _n._ (_Scot._) a hare's tail: the buttocks.

FUDDLE, fud'l, _v.t._ to stupefy with drink.--_v.i._ to drink to excess or
habitually:--_pr.p._ fudd'ling; _pa.p._ fudd'led.--_n._ intoxicating
drink.--_ns._ FUDD'LE-CAP, a hard drinker; FUDD'LER, a drunkard.--_adj._
FUDD'LING, tippling. [Cf. Dut. _vod_, soft, Ger. prov. _fuddeln_, to

FUDGE, fuj, _n._ stuff: nonsense: an exclamation of contempt.--_v.i._ and
_v.t._ to botch or bungle anything.--_adj._ FUD'GY, irritable: awkward.

FUEL, f[=u]'el, _n._ anything that feeds a fire, supplies energy,
&c.--_v.t._ (_arch._) to furnish with fuel.--_adj._ F[=U]'ELLED, furnished
with fuel.--_n._ F[=U]'ELLER, one who, or that which, supplies fuel for
fires. [O. Fr. _fowaille_--L. _focale_--L. _focus_, a fireplace.]

FUERO, fw[=a]'r[=o], _n._ the constitution of certain practically
autonomous states and communities in northern Spain and south-western
France--the Basque provinces, Navarre, Bearn, &c.: modes and tenures of
property, &c., nearly equivalent to the French customary law. [Sp.,--L.

FUFF, fuf, _n._ (_Scot._) a puff: the spitting of a cat: a burst of
anger.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to puff.--_adj._ FUFF'Y, light and soft.

FUGACIOUS, f[=u]-g[=a]'shus, _adj._ apt to flee away: fleeting.--_ns._
FUG[=A]'CIOUSNESS, FUGAC'ITY. [L. _fugax_, _fugacis_, from _fug[)e]re_, to

FUGITIVE, f[=u]j'i-tiv, _adj._ apt to flee away: uncertain: volatile:
perishable: temporary: occasional, written for some passing occasion.--_n._
one who flees or has fled from his station or country: one hard to be
caught.--_ns._ F[=U]'GIE (_Scot._), a cock that will not fight, a runaway;
F[=U]'GIE-WARR'ANT, a warrant to apprehend a debtor about to abscond, prob.
from the phrase _in meditatione fugæ_; FUGIT[=A]'TION (_Scots law_),
absconding from justice: outlawry.--_adv._ FUG'ITIVELY.--_n._
FUG'ITIVENESS. [Fr.,--L. _fugitivus_, _fug[)e]re_, to flee.]

FUGLEMAN, f[=u]'gl-man, _n._ a soldier who stands before a company at drill
as an example: a ringleader, mouthpiece of others.--_v.i._ F[=U]'GLE
(_Carlyle_), to act like a fugleman. [Ger. _flügelmann_, the leader of a
file--_flügel_, a wing, _mann_, man.]

FUGUE, f[=u]g, _n._ (_mus._) a form of composition in which the subject is
given out by one part and immediately taken up by a second, its _answer_,
during which the first part supplies an accompaniment or counter-subject,
and so on.--_n._ FUG'UIST, one who writes or plays fugues. [Fr.,--It.
_fuga_--L. _fuga_, flight.]

FULCRUM, ful'krum, _n._ (_mech._) the prop or fixed point on which a lever
moves: a prop:--_pl._ FUL'CRUMS, FUL'CRA.--_adj._ FUL'CRATE, supported with
fulcrums. [L. _fulcrum_, a prop, _fulc[=i]re_, to prop.]

FULFIL, fool-fil', _v.t._ to complete: to accomplish: to carry into
effect:--_pr.p._ fulfil'ling; _pa.p._ fulfilled'.--_ns._ FULFIL'LER;
FULFIL'LING, FULFIL'MENT, full performance: completion: accomplishment.
[A.S. _fullfyllan_--_full_, full, _fyllan_, to fill.]

FULGENT, ful'jent, _adj._ shining: bright.--_n._ FUL'GENCY.--_adv._
FUL'GENTLY.--_adj._ FUL'GID, flashing.--_ns._ FUL'GOR, FUL'GOUR,
splendour.--_adj._ FUL'GOROUS, flashing. [L. _fulgent_, pr.p. of
_fulg[=e]re_, to shine.]

FULGURATE, ful'g[=u]-r[=a]t, _v.i._ to flash as lightning.--_adjs._
FUL'GURAL, pertaining to lightning; FUL'GURANT, flashing like
lightning.--_ns._ FULGUR[=A]'TION, in assaying, the sudden and final
brightening of the fused globule; FUL'GUR[=I]TE, a tube of vitrified sand
frequent in loose sandhills--prob. due to lightning--_adj._ FUL'GUROUS,
resembling lightning.

FULHAM, ful'am, _n._ a die loaded at the corner.--Also FULL'AM, FULL'AN.
[Prob. the place-name _Fulham_.]

FULIGINOUS, f[=u]-lij'i-nus, _adj._ sooty: smoky.--_n._
FULIGINOS'ITY.--_adv._ FULIG'INOUSLY. [L., _fuligo_, soot.]

FULL, fool, _adj._ having all it can contain: having no empty space:
abundantly supplied or furnished: abounding: containing the whole matter:
complete: perfect: strong: clear: (_coll._) drunk: at poker, consisting of
three of a kind and a pair.--_n._ completest extent, as of the moon:
highest degree: the whole: time of full-moon.--_v.t._ to draw up or pucker
the cloth on one side more than on the other.--_adv._ quite: to the same
degree: with the whole effect: completely.--_adjs._ FULL'-[=A]'CORNED
(_Shak._), full-fed with acorns; FULL'-AGED, having reached one's
majority.--_n._ FULL'-BLOOD, an individual of pure blood.--_adjs._
FULL'-BLOOD'ED; FULL'-BLOOMED, in perfect bloom; FULL'-BLOWN, blown or
fully expanded, as a flower; FULL'-BOTT'OMED, having a full or large
bottom, as a wig.--_n._ FULL'-DRESS, the dress worn on occasions of state
or ceremony.--_adjs._ FULL'-EYED, with large prominent eyes; FULL'-FACED,
having a full or broad face; FULL'-FED, fed to plumpness; FULL'-FRAUGHT
(_Shak._), full-stored; FULL'-GROWN, grown to maturity; FULL'-HAND'ED,
bearing something valuable, as a gift; FULL'-HEART'ED, full of heart or
courage: elated; FULL'-HOT (_Shak._), heated to the utmost; FULL'-LENGTH,
extending the whole length (_n._ a portrait showing such); FULL-MANNED
(_Shak._), having a full crew.--_ns._ FULL'-MOON, the moon with its whole
disc illuminated, when opposite the sun; FULL'NESS, FUL'NESS, the state of
being filled so as to have no part vacant: the state of abounding in
anything: completeness: satiety: largeness: force and volume, as of sound:
(_Shak._) plenty, wealth.--_adjs._ FULL'-ORBED, having the orb or disc
fully illuminated, as the full-moon: round; FULL'-SAILED, unbounded,
absolute: moving onwards under full sail; FULL-SPLIT (_slang_), with all
one's might or speed; FULL'-SUMMED, complete in all its parts.--_n._
FULL'-SWING, the full extent or utmost limit.--_adj._ FULL'-WINGED
(_Shak._), having perfect or strong wings.--_adv._ FULL'Y, completely:
entirely.--FULL BACK (_football_), see BACK.--AT THE FULL, at the height,
as of one's good fortune, &c.; IN FULL, without reduction; IN THE FULLNESS
OF TIME, at the proper or destined time.--TO THE FULL, in full measure,
completely. [A.S. _full_; Goth. _fulls_, Ice. _fullr_, Ger. _voll_.]

FULL, fool, _v.t._ to press or pound cloth in a mill: to scour and thicken
in a mill.--_ns._ FULL'AGE, the charge for fulling cloth; FULL'ER, a
bleacher or cleanser of cloth; FULLER'S-EARTH, a soft earth or clay,
capable of absorbing grease, used in fulling or bleaching cloth;
FULLER'S-THISTLE, -WEED, the teasel; FULL'ERY, the place or works where
fulling of cloth is carried on; FULL'ING-MILL, a mill in which woollen
cloth is fulled. [O. Fr. _fuler_--Low L. _full[=a]re_--L. _fullo_, a

FULLER, fool'er, _n._ a half-round set-hammer.

FULMAR, ful'mar, _n._ a species of petrel inhabiting the Shetland Isles,
&c., valuable for its down, feathers, and oil. [Perh. Norse _fúll_, foul.]

FULMINATE, ful'min-[=a]t, _v.i._ to thunder or make a loud noise: to issue
decrees with violence, or with menaces of grave censure.--_v.t._ to cause
to explode: to send forth, as a denunciation--(_Milt._) FUL'MINE.--_n._ a
compound of fulminic acid with mercury, &c.--_adj._ FUL'MINANT,
fulminating: (_path._) developing suddenly.--_n._ a thunderbolt,
explosive.--_adj._ FUL'MINATING, crackling, exploding, detonating.--_n._
FULMIN[=A]'TION, act of fulminating, thundering, or issuing forth: a
chemical explosion: a denunciation.--_adjs._ FUL'MINATORY; FULMIN'EOUS,
FUL'MINOUS, pertaining to thunder and lightning; FULMIN'IC, pertaining to
an acid used in preparing explosive compounds. [L. _fulmin[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_fulmen_ (for _fulgimen_), lightning--_fulg[=e]re_, to shine.]

FULSOME, fool'sum, _adj._ cloying or causing surfeit: nauseous: offensive:
gross: disgustingly fawning.--_adj._ FUL'SOMELY.--_n._ FUL'SOMENESS. [A.S.
_full_, full, and affix _-some_.]

FULVOUS, ful'vus, _adj._ deep or dull yellow: tawny.--Also FUL'VID. [L.
_fulvus_, tawny.]

FUM, fum, _n._ a fabulous Chinese bird, one of the symbols of imperial
dignity.--Also FUNG.

FUMACIOUS, f[=u]-m[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ smoky: fond of smoking.

FUMADO, f[=u]-m[=a]'do, _n._ a smoked fish, esp. a pilchard. [Sp.,--L.
_fum[=a]re_, to smoke.]

FUMAGE, f[=u]m'[=a]j, _n._ hearth-money.

FUMAROLE, f[=u]m'a-r[=o]l, _n._ a smoke-hole in a volcano or sulphur-mine.
[Fr. _fumerole_--L. _fumus_, smoke.]

FUMBLE, fum'bl, _v.i._ to grope about awkwardly: to handle awkwardly: to
stammer in speech: to find by groping.--_v.t._ to manage awkwardly.--_n._
FUM'BLER.--_adv._ FUM'BLINGLY. [Dut. _fommelen_, to fumble; cf. Dan.
_famle_, Ice. _fâlma_, to grope about.]

FUME, f[=u]m, _n._ smoke or vapour: any volatile matter: heat of mind,
rage, a passionate person: anything unsubstantial, vain conceit.--_v.i._ to
smoke: to throw off vapour: to be in a rage: to offer incense to.--_n._
FUM'ATORY, a place for smoking or fumigation.--_adjs._ F[=U]'MID, smoky;
FUMIF'EROUS, producing fumes.--_n._ FUMOS'ITY, quality of being fumous:
(_pl._) the fumes arising from over eating or drinking.--_adjs._ FUM'OUS,
FUMOSE', FUM'Y, producing fumes. [O. Fr. _fum_--L. _fumus_, smoke.]

FUMET, f[=u]'met, _n._ the dung of deer, hares, &c. [O. Fr. _fumets_,
_fumer_--L. _fim[=a]re_, to dung.]

FUMETTE, f[=u]-met', _n._ the scent of game when high.--Also FUMET'. [Fr.]

FUMIGATE, f[=u]m'i-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to expose to smoke or gas, to expose to
fumes, as of sulphur, for purposes of disinfecting: to perfume.--_ns._
FUMIG[=A]'TION, act of fumigating or of applying purifying smoke, &c., to;
FUM'IGATOR, a brazier for burning disinfectants, &c.--_adj._ FUM'IGATORY.
[L. _fumig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

FUMITORY, f[=u]m'i-to-ri, _n._ a plant of a disagreeable smell.--_n._
FUM'ITER (_Shak._). [O. Fr. _fume-terre_, earth-smoke--L. _fumus_, smoke,
_terra_, earth.]


FUN, fun, _n._ merriment: sport.--BE GREAT FUN, to be very amusing; IN FUN,
in joke, not seriously; LIKE FUN (_coll._), in a rapid manner; NOT TO SEE
THE FUN OF, not to take as a joke. [Prob. a form of obs. _fon_, to befool.
Skeat refers to Ir. _fonn_, delight.]

FUNAMBULATE, f[=u]-nam'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to walk on a rope.--_ns._
rope-walker.--_adj._ FUNAM'BULATORY. [L. _funis_, a rope, _ambul[=a]re_, to

FUNCTION, fungk'shun, _n._ the doing of a thing: duty peculiar to any
office: faculty, exercise of faculty: the peculiar office of any part of
the body or mind: power: a solemn service: (_math._) a quantity so
connected with another that any change in the one produces a corresponding
change in the other: the technical term in physiology for the vital
activity of organ, tissue, or cell.--_adj._ FUNC'TIONAL, pertaining to or
performed by functions--opp. to _Organic_ or _Structural_.--_vs.t._
one who discharges any duty: one who holds an office.--_adj._
FUNC'TIONLESS, having no function. [O. Fr.,--L. _function-em_--_fungi_,
_functus_, to perform.]

FUND, fund, _n._ a sum of money on which some enterprise is founded or
expense supported: a supply or source of money: a store laid up: supply:
(_pl._) permanent debts due by a government and paying interest.--_v.t._ to
form a debt into a stock charged with interest: to place money in a
fund.--_adj._ FUND'ABLE, capable of being converted into a fund or into
bonds.--_p.adj._ FUND'ED, invested in public funds: existing in the form of
bonds.--_n._ FUND'HOLD'ER, one who has money in the public funds.--_adj._
FUND'LESS, destitute of supplies or money. [Fr. _fond_--L. _fundus_, the

FUNDAMENTAL, fun-da-ment'al, _adj._ essential, basal, primary:
important.--_n._ that which serves as a groundwork: an essential.--_ns._
FUND'AMENT, the lower part or seat of the body; FUNDAMENTAL'ITY.--_adv._
FUNDAMENT'ALLY. [Fr.,--L. _fundamentum_, _fund[=a]re_, to found.]

FUNDUS, fun'dus, _n._ the bottom of anything: (_anat._) the rounded base of
a hollow organ. [L.]

FUNERAL, f[=u]'n[.e]r-al, _n._ burial: the ceremony, &c., connected with
burial.--_adj._ pertaining to or used at a burial.--_adjs._ FUN[=E]B'RIAL,
FUN[=E]B'RAL, FUN[=E]B'RIOUS; F[=U]'NERARY, FUN[=E]R'EAL, pertaining to or
suiting a funeral: dismal: mournful. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _funeralis_--L.
_funus_, _fun[)e]ris_, a funeral procession.]

FUNEST, f[=u]-nest', _adj._ causing or portending death, lamentable.
[Fr.,--L. _funestus_, destructive.]

FUNGIBLES, fun'ji-blz, _n.pl._ (_law_) movable effects which perish by
being used, and which are estimated by weight, number, and measure. [Low L.
_fungibilis_--L. _fungi_, to perform. See FUNCTION.]

FUNGUS, fung'gus, _n._ one of the lowest of the great groups of cellular
cryptogams, including mushrooms, toadstools, mould, &c.: proud-flesh formed
on wounds:--_pl._ FUNGI (fun'j[=i]), or FUNGUSES (fung'gus-ez).--_adjs._
FUNG'AL, FUNG[=A]'CEOUS, like a fungus; FUN'GIC ('jik), FUN'GIFORM, having
the form of a fungus; FUNGIV'OROUS, feeding on mushrooms; FUNG'OID,
resembling a mushroom.--_ns._ FUNGOL'OGIST, a student of fungi; FUNGOL'OGY,
the science of fungi; FUNGOS'ITY, quality of being fungous.--_adj._
FUNG'OUS, of or like fungus: soft: spongy: growing suddenly: ephemeral. [L.
_fungus_, a mushroom--Gr. _sphonggos_, _sponggos_, a sponge.]

FUNICLE, f[=u]'ni-kl, _n._ a small cord or ligature: a fibre.--_adj._
F[=U]NIC'[=U]LAR.--_n._ F[=U]NIC'[=U]LUS, the umbilical cord.--FUNICULAR
RAILWAY, a cable-railway, esp. one ascending a hill. [L. _funiculus_, dim.
of _funis_, a cord.]

FUNK, fungk, _n._ (_coll._) abject terror or fright.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to
shrink through fear: to shirk.--_adj._ FUNK'Y.

FUNK, fungk, _n._ touchwood: a spark. [Cf. Dut. _vonk_.]

FUNK, fungk, _v.t._ to stifle with smoke. [Ety. dub.]

FUNKIA, funk'i-a, _n._ a genus of _Liliaceæ_ allied to the day lilies,
native to China. [From the German botanist, H. C. _Funck_, 1771-1839.]

FUNNEL, fun'el, _n._ a tube or passage for the escape of smoke, &c.: an
instrument (smaller at one end than the other) for pouring fluids into
bottles, &c.--_adj._ FUNN'ELLED, provided with a funnel.--_n._ FUNN'EL-NET,
a net shaped like a funnel. [Prob. through Fr. from L.
_infundibulum_--_fund[)e]re_, to pour.]

FUNNEL, fun'el, _n._ (_prov._) the offspring of a stallion and a
she-ass.--Also FUMM'EL.

FUNNY, fun'i, _adj._ full of fun: droll: perplexing, odd.--_adv._
FUNN'ILY.--_ns._ FUNN'INESS, FUNN'IMENT.--FUNNY BONE, a popular name given
to what is really the comparatively unprotected ulnar nerve, which, when
struck by a blow, shoots a singular tingling sensation down the forearm to
the fingers; FUNNY MAN, the clown in a circus.

FUNNY, fun'i, _n._ a light clinker-built pleasure-boat, with a pair of

FUR, fur, _n._ the short, fine hair of certain animals: their skins with
the fur prepared for garments: rabbits, hares, as opposed to partridges,
pheasants (feathers): (_Milt._) kind or class, from the idea of particular
furs being worn by way of distinction: a fur-like coating on the tongue,
the interior of boilers, &c.--_v.t._ to line with fur: to cover with morbid
fur-like matter:--_pr.p._ fur'ring; _pa.p._ furred.--_adj._ FURRED, made of
fur, provided with fur.--_ns._ FUR'RIER, a dealer in furs and fur goods;
FUR'RIERY, furs in general: trade in furs; FUR'RING, fur trimmings: a
coating on the tongue: strips of wood fastened on joists, &c., to make a
level surface or provide an air-space: strips of wood nailed on a wall to
carry lath.--_adj._ FUR'RY, consisting of, covered with, or dressed in fur.
[O. Fr. _forre_, _fuerre_, sheath.]

FURACIOUS, f[=u]-r[=a]'shus, _adj._ thievish.--_ns._ FUR[=A]'CIOUSNESS,

FURBELOW, fur'be-l[=o], _n._ the plaited border of a gown or petticoat, a
flounce. [Fr., It., and Sp. _falbala_; of unknown origin. The word
simulates an English form--_fur-below_.]

FURBISH, fur'bish, _v.t._ to purify or polish: to rub up until bright: to
renovate. [O. Fr. _fourbiss-_, _fourbir_, from Old High Ger. _furban_, to

FURCATE, fur'k[=a]t, _adj._ forked: branching like the prongs of a
fork--also FUR'CATED.--_ns._ FURC[=A]'TION, a forking or branching out;
FUR'CIFER, a genus of South American deer with furcate antlers.--_adjs._
FURCIF'EROUS, of insects bearing a forked appendage; FUR'CIFORM,
fork-shaped.--_n._ FUR'C[=U]LA, the united pair of clavicles of a bird,
forming a single forked bone--the merry-thought.--_adj._ FUR'CULAR,
furcate: shaped like a fork. [L., from _furca_, a fork.]

FURFUR, fur'fur, _n._ dandruff, scurf--also FUR'FAIR.--_adj._
FURF[=U]R[=A]'CEOUS, branny: scaly--also FUR'F[=U]ROUS.--_n._
FURF[=U]R[=A]'TION, the falling of scurf. [L.]

FURFUROL, fur'fur-ol, _n._ a volatile oil obtained when wheat-bran, sugar,
or starch is acted on by dilute sulphuric acid. [L. _furfur_, bran.]

FURIOUS, f[=u]'ri-us, _adj._ full of fury: violent.--_adj._ F[=U]'RIBUND,
raging.--_ns._ FURIOS'ITY, madness; FURI[=O]'SO, a furious person.--_adv._
F[=U]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ F[=U]'RIOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _furieus_--L.
_furi[=o]sus_--_furia_, rage.]

FURL, furl, _v.t._ to draw or roll up, as a sail. [Contr. of obs. _furdle_,
from _fardel_.]

FURLONG, fur'long, _n._ 40 poles: one-eighth of a mile. [A.S.
_furlang_--_furh_, furrow, _lang_, long.]

FURLOUGH, fur'l[=o], _n._ leave of absence.--_v.t._ to grant leave of
absence. [Dut. _verlof_; cf. Ger. _verlaub_.]


FURNACE, fur'n[=a]s, _n._ an oven or enclosed fireplace for melting ores
and other purposes: a time or place of grievous affliction or
torment.--_v.t._ to exhale like a furnace: to subject to the heat of a
furnace. [O. Fr. _fornais_--L. _fornax_--_fornus_, an oven.]

FURNIMENT, fur'ni-ment, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as FURNITURE.

FURNISH, fur'nish, _v.t._ to fit up or supply completely, or with what is
necessary: to equip (_with_).--_adj._ FUR'NISHED, stocked with
furniture.--_n._ FUR'NISHER.--_n.pl._ FUR'NISHINGS, fittings of any kind,
esp. articles of furniture, &c., within a house: (_Shak._) any incidental
part.--_n._ FUR'NISHMENT. [O. Fr. _furniss-_, _furnir_--Old High Ger.
_frummjan_, to do.]

FURNITURE, fur'ni-t[=u]r, _n._ movables, either for use or ornament, with
which a house is equipped: equipage, the trappings of a horse, &c.:
decorations: the necessary appendages in some arts, &c.: (_print._) the
pieces of wood or metal put round pages of type to make proper margins and
fill the spaces between the pages and the chase. [Fr. _fourniture_.]

FUROR, f[=u]'ror, _n._ fury: excitement, enthusiasm.--Also FUR[=O]'RE. [L.]

FURROW, fur'[=o], _n._ the trench made by a plough: any groove: a wrinkle
on the face.--_v.t._ to form furrows in: to groove: to wrinkle.--_n._
FURR'OW-WEED (_Shak._), a weed on ploughed land.---_adj._ FURR'OWY. [A.S.
_furh_; cf. Ger. _furche_, L. _porca_.]

FURTHER, fur'th[.e]r, _adv._ to a greater distance or degree: in
addition.--_adj._ more distant: additional.--_adv._ FUR'THERMORE, in
addition to what has been said, moreover, besides.--_adjs._ FUR'THERMOST,
most remote; FUR'THERSOME, tending to further or promote.--_adv._
FUR'THEST, at the greatest distance.--_adj._ most distant.--WISH ONE
FURTHER, to wish one somewhere else than here and now. [A.S. _furðor_, a
comp. of _fore_, with comp. suff.]

FURTHER, fur'_th_[.e]r, _v.t._ to help forward, promote.--_ns._
FUR'THERANCE, a helping forward; FUR'THERER, a promoter, advancer.--_adj._
FUR'THERSOME, helpful. [A.S. _fyrðran_.]

FURTIVE, fur'tiv, _adj._ stealthy: secret.--_adv._ FUR'TIVELY. [Fr.,--L.
_furtivus_--_fur_, a thief.]

FURUNCLE, f[=u]'rung-kl, _n._ an inflammatory tumour.--_adjs._ FURUN'CULAR,
FURUN'CULOUS. [L. _furunculus_.]

FURY, f[=u]'ri, _n._ rage: violent passion: madness: (_myth._) one of the
three goddesses of fate and vengeance, the Erinyes, or euphemistically
Eumenides--Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megæra--hence a passionate, violent
woman. [Fr. _furie_--L. _furia_--_fur[)e]re_, to be angry.]

FURZE, furz, _n._ the whin or gorse, a prickly evergreen bush with
beautiful yellow flowers.--_adjs._ FURZ'Y, FURZ'EN, overgrown with furze.
[A.S. _fyrs_.]

FUSAROLE, f[=u]'sa-r[=o]l, _n._ (_archit._) an astragal.--Also F[=U]'SAROL.
[Fr.,--L. _fusus_, spindle.]

FUSCOUS, fus'kus, _adj._ brown: dingy--(_Charles Lamb_) FUSC. [L. _fuscus_,
akin to _furvus_.]

FUSE, f[=u]z, _v.t._ to melt: to liquefy by heat.--_v.i._ to be melted: to
be reduced to a liquid.--_n._ FUSIBIL'ITY.--adjs. F[=U]'SIBLE, that may be
fused or melted--(_Milt._) F[=U]'SILE, F[=U]'SIL.--_ns._ F[=U]'SING-POINT,
the temperature at which any solid substance becomes liquid; F[=U]'SION,
act of melting: the state of fluidity from heat: a close union of things,
as if melted together.--AQUEOUS FUSION, the melting of certain crystals by
heat in their own water of crystallisation; DRY FUSION, the liquefaction
produced in salts by heat after the water of crystallisation has been
expelled; IGNEOUS FUSION, the melting of anhydrous salts by heat without
decomposition. [L. _fund[)e]re_, _fusum_, to melt.]

FUSE, f[=u]z, _n._ a tube filled with combustible matter for firing mines,
discharging shells, &c. [It. _fuso_--L. _fusus_, a spindle.]

FUSEE, FUZEE, f[=u]-z[=e]', _n._ the spindle in a watch or clock on which
the chain is wound: a match used for lighting a pipe or cigar in the open
air: a fuse: a fusil.--_adj._ F[=U]'SIFORM, spindle-shaped: tapering at
each end. [O. Fr. _fusée_, a spindleful--Low L. _fusata_--L. _fusus_, a

FUSEL-OIL, f[=u]'zel-oil, _n._ a nauseous oil in spirits distilled from
potatoes, barley, &c. [Ger. _fusel_, bad spirits.]

FUSIL, f[=u]'zil, _n._ a flint-lock musket. [O. Fr. _fuisil_, a
flint-musket, same as It. _focile_--Low L. _focile_, steel (to strike fire
with), dim. of L. _focus_, a fireplace.]

FUSIL, f[=u]'zil, _n._ (_her._) an elongated rhomboidal figure. [O. Fr.
_fusel_--L. _fusus_, a spindle.]

FUSILIER, FUSILEER, f[=u]-zil-[=e]r', _n._ formerly a soldier armed with a
fusil, now simply a historical title borne by a few regiments of the
British army (Northumberland, Royal Scots, &c.).

FUSILLADE, f[=u]z'il-[=a]d, _n._ a simultaneous or continuous discharge of
firearms.--_v.t._ to shoot down by a simultaneous discharge of
firearms.--_n._ FUSILL[=A]'TION, death by shooting. [Fr.,--_fusil_, a

FUSS, fus, _n._ a bustle or tumult: haste, flurry.--_v.i._ to be in a
bustle.--_adv._ FUSS'ILY.--_n._ FUSS'INESS, a needless state of
bustle.--adj. FUSS'Y. [Imit.]

FUST, fust, _n._ the shaft of a column. [O. Fr. _fust_ (Fr. _fût_)--L.
_fustis_, a stick.]

FUST, _v.i._ See FUSTY.

FUSTANELLE, fus-ta-nel', _n._ a white kilt worn by Greek men. [Mod. Gr.
_phoustani_, Albanian _fustan_--It. _fustagno_, fustian.]

FUSTET, fus'tet, _n._ the smoke-tree or Venetian sumach, or its wood.
[Fr.,--L. _fustis_, a stick.]

FUSTIAN, fust'yan, _n._ a kind of coarse, twilled cotton fabric, including
moleskin, velveteen, corduroy, &c.: a pompous and unnatural style of
writing or speaking: bombast: a liquor made of white wine with yolk of
eggs, lemon, spices, &c.--adj. made of fustian: bombastic.--_v.i._
FUST'IANISE (_Holmes_), to write bombastically.--_n._ FUST'IANIST, one who
writes bombast. [O. Fr. _fustaigne_ (Fr. _futaine_)--It. _fustagno_--Low L.
_fustaneum_, from Ar. _Fostat_ (a suburb of Cairo) in Egypt, where first

FUSTIC, fus'tik, _n._ the wood of a West Indian tree, formerly much used as
a dye.--Also FUS'TOC. [Fr. _fustoc_, yellow--Sp. _fustoc_--L. _fustis_.]

FUSTIGATION, fus-ti-g[=a]'shun, _n._ a beating with a stick.--_v.t._
FUS'TIGATE, to thrash with a stick. [L. _fustig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to beat
with a stick--_fustis_, a stick.]

FUSTILARIAN, fus-ti-l[=a]'ri-an, _n._ (_Shak._) a low fellow, a
scoundrel.--_n._ FUS'TILUGS (_prov._), a frowzy woman.

FUSTY, fust'i, _adj._ smelling of the wood of the cask, as wine:
ill-smelling.--_v.i._ Fust (_Shak._) to grow or smell mouldy.--_adj._
Fust'ed, mouldy.--_n._ Fust'iness. [O. Fr. _fust_, wood of a cask--L.

FUSUS, f[=u]'sus, _n._ a genus of Gasteropods, usually referred to the
Murex family. [L.]

FUTCHEL, fuch'el, _n._ a piece of timber lengthwise of a carriage,
supporting the splinter-bar and the pole.

FUTHORC, f[=u]'thork, _n._ the Runic alphabet. [From the first six letters,
_f_, _u_, _þ_, _o_ or _a_, _r_, _k_.]

FUTILE, f[=u]'t[=i]l, _adj._ useless: unavailing: trifling.--_adv._
F[=U]'TILELY.--_ns._ FUTILIT[=A]'RIAN, one who gives himself to profitless
pursuits; FUTIL'ITY, uselessness. [Fr.,--L. _futilis_--_fund[)e]re_, to

FUTTOCK, fut'uk, _n._ one of the separate pieces of timber composing the
frame of a ship.--_ns. pl._ FUTT'OCK-PLATES, iron plates with dead-eyes,
crossing the sides of the top-rim perpendicularly; FUTT'OCK-SHROUDS, short
pieces of rope or chain which secure the lower dead-eyes and futtock-plates
of topmast rigging to a band round a lower mast. [Perh. corrupted from

FUTURE, f[=u]t'[=u]r, _adj._ about to be: that is to come: (_gram._)
expressing what will be.--_n._ time to come.--_n._ FUT'URE-PER'FECT
(_gram._), a tense expressing action viewed as past in reference to an
assumed future time (L. _amavero_=I shall have loved).--_v.i._ FUT'URISE,
to form the future tense.--_ns._ FUT'URIST, one whose chief interests are
in what is to come; FUTURITION (-ish'un), future existence: accomplishment;
FUTUR'ITY, time to come: an event or state of being yet to come. [Fr.,--L.
_futurus_, fut.p. of _esse_, to be.]

FUZE, f[=u]z, _n._ Same as FUSE.

FUZZ, fuz, _v.i._ to fly off in minute particles with a fizzing sound like
water from hot iron.--_n._ fine light particles, as dust, down, &c.--_n._
FUZZ'BALL, a kind of fungus, whose head is full of a fine dust. [Ety. dub.]

FUZZLE, fuz'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to intoxicate.

FUZZY, fuz'i, _adj._ covered with fuzz, fluffy.--_adv._ FUZZ'ILY.--_n._

FY, f[=i], _interj._ Same as FIE.

FYKE, f[=i]k, _n._ a bag-net for catching fish. [Dut. _fuik_.]

FYLFOT, FILFOT, fil'fot, _n._ an ancient symbol in the form of a Greek
cross, with each arm continued at right angles, called also _Gammadion_,
_Gammation_, and _Svastika_. [Prob. _fill-foot_, meaning a device for
filling the foot of a painted window.]

FYRD, fird, _n._ the military force of the whole nation, all males capable
of bearing arms, in Anglo-Saxon times. [A.S. _fyrd_, army.]

FYTTE. See FIT (3).

       *       *       *       *       *

G the seventh letter of our alphabet, and in the Roman not originally
differentiated from C, but substituted there for the disused Z: (_mus._)
the fifth note of the diatonic scale of C minor--also _sol_, the scale or
key having that note for its tonic: (_nat. phil._) a symbol for
acceleration of gravity, which is about 32 feet per second: in the medieval
system of Roman numerals=400, or [=G]=400,000.

GAB, gab, _v.i._ (_coll._) to chatter, prate.--_n._ idle talk, prattling: a
jest, a witticism: (_Scot._) the mouth.--_n._ GAB'BER, jabber.--_adj._
GAB'BY, garrulous.--GIFT OF THE GAB, a talent for talking.

GAB, gab, _v.i._ to brag. [O. Fr. _gabber_, to mock.]

GABBART, gab'ärt, _n._ a flat river vessel with a long hatchway.--Also
GABB'ARD. [Fr. _gabare_--Prov. and It. _gabarra_.]

GABBATHA, gab'a-thä, _n._ the place where Pilate sat at the trial of Jesus,
a tessellated pavement outside the prætorium. [Heb., 'platform.']

GABBLE, gab'l, _v.i._ to talk inarticulately: to chatter: to cackle like
geese.--_ns._ GABB'LE; GABB'LER; GABB'LING, GABB'LEMENT. [Freq. of _gab_.]

GABBRO, gab'ro, _n._ a rock composed of feldspar and diallage--also
_Euphotide_.--_n._ GABB'RONITE, a compact variety of scapolite, resembling
gabbro. [It.]

GABELLE, gab-el', _n._ a tax, impost duty, formerly in France, esp. the tax
on salt.--_n._ G[=A]'BELER. [Fr. _gabelle_--Low L. _gabella_,

GABERDINE, gab-er-d[=e]n', _n._ a loose upper garment, formerly worn by
Jews. [O. Fr. _gauvardine_; per. Mid. High Ger. _wallevart_, pilgrimage,
whence also Sp. _gabardina_, &c.]

GABERLUNZIE, gab-er-lun'zi, -yi, _n._ (_Scot._) a pouch carried by Scottish
beggars: a strolling beggar.

GABION, g[=a]'bi-un, _n._ (_fort._) a bottomless basket of wicker-work
filled with earth, used for shelter from the enemy's fire while digging
trenches, or in forming the foundation of a jetty.--_ns._ G[=A]'BIONADE, a
work formed of gabions; G[=A]'BIONAGE, gabions collectively.--_adj._
G[=A]'BIONED, furnished with gabions. [Fr.,--It. _gabbione_, a large
cage--_gabbia_--L. _cavea_, a cage.]

GABLE, g[=a]'bl, _n._ (_archit._) the triangular part of an exterior wall
of a building between the top of the side-walls and the slopes on the
roof--(_Scot._) G[=A]'VEL.--_adj._ G[=A]'BLED.--ns. G[=A]'BLE-END, the
end-wall of a building on the side where there is a gable; G[=A]'BLET
(_dim._), a small gable, as an ornament on buttresses, &c.;
G[=A]'BLE-WIN'DOW, a window in the gable-end of a building, or a window
with its upper part shaped like a gable. [The northern form _gavel_ is
prob. Ice. _gafl_; Sw. _gafvel_, Dan. _gavl_. The southern form gable is
prob. through O. Fr. _gable_, _jable_ from Ice. _gafl_.]


GABY, g[=a]'bi, _n._ a simpleton. [Hardly related to _gape_.]

GAD, gad, _n._ a pointed bar of steel: a tool used in mining: a graver: a
rod or stick, a goad: the bar across a Scotch condemned cell, on which the
iron ring ran which fastened the shackles--also GADE, GAID.--_n._ GAD'LING,
one of the spikes on the knuckles of a gauntlet.--UPON THE GAD (_Shak._),
upon the spur of the moment. [Ice. _gadd-r_, a spike.]

GAD, gad, _interj._ a minced form of God.--_interjs._ GAD'SO, an
exclamation of surprise; GAD'ZOOKS, an obsolete minced oath.

GAD, gad, _v.i._ to rove about restlessly: to wander or ramble in speech,
&c., to straggle in growth:--_pr.p._ gad'ding; _pa.p._ gad'ded.--_ns._ GAD,
GAD'ABOUT, one who walks idly about; GAD'DER.--_adv._ GAD'DINGLY--_n._
GAD'DISHNESS. [Prob. conn. with _gad_ in _gadfly_; or obsolete _gadling_,

GADFLY, gad'fl[=i], _n._ a fly which pierces the skin of cattle in order to
deposit its eggs: a mischievous gadabout. [From _gad_, n., _fly_.]

GADGE, gaj, _n._ an instrument of torture (_Browning_).

GADHELIC, gad-el'ik, _adj._ of or belonging to that branch of the Celtic
race which comprises the Erse of Ireland, the Gaels of Scotland, and the
Manx of the Isle of Man, as distinguished from the _Cymric_. [Ir.
_Gaedheal_ (pl. _Gaedhil_), a Gael.]

GADOID, g[=a]'doid, _adj._ pertaining to the _Gadidæ_, or cod-fishes.--_n._
a fish of this family.--_n._ G[=A]'DEAN, a fish of this family.--_adj._
G[=A]'DINE.--_n._ G[=A]'DUS, the typical genus of the same. [Gr. _gados_.]

GADOLINITE, gad'[=o]-lin-[=i]t, _n._ a silicate of the yttrium and cerium
metals, containing also beryllium and iron. [From the Finnish chemist
_Gadolin_ (1760-1852).]

GADROON, gad-r[=oo]n', _n._ one of a set of convex curves or arcs joined at
their extremities to form a decorative pattern--in plate, &c.--_adj._
GADROONED'.--_n._ GADROON'ING. [Fr. _godron_.]

GADSMAN, gadz'man, _n._ (_Scot._) one who drives horses at the plough.
[_Gad_ and _man_.]

GADWALL, gad'wawl, _n._ a northern fresh-water duck.

GAE, g[=a], a Scotch form of _go_.

GAEL, g[=a]l, _n._ a Scotch Highlander.--_adj._ GAELIC (g[=a]l'ik),
pertaining to the Gaels.--_n._ the Scottish-Highland dialect.--_v.t._
GAEL'ICISE.--_n._ GAEL'ICISM. [Gael. _Gaidheal_.]

GAFF, gaf, _n._ a hook used esp. for landing large fish after they have
been hooked on the line and spent by the skill of the angler: (_naut._) the
spar to which the head of a fore-and-aft sail is bent.--_v.t._ to hook or
bind by means of a gaff.--_n._ GAFF'-TOP-SAIL, a small sail, the head of
which is extended on a small gaff which hoists on the top-mast, and the
foot on the lower gaff. [Fr. _gaffe_.]

GAFF, gaf, _n._ (_slang_) a low theatre: a fair.

GAFF, gaf, _v.i._ (_slang_) to gamble.--_ns._ GAFF'ER; GAFF'ING.

GAFFER, gaf'[.e]r, _n._ originally a word of respect applied to an old man,
now familiar: the foreman of a squad of workmen. [Corr. of _godfather_, as
_gammer_ of _godmother_.]

GAG, gag, _v.t._ to forcibly stop the mouth: to silence: to choke up: to
introduce gag into a piece:--_pr.p._ gag'ging; _pa.p._ gagged.--_n._
something thrust into the mouth or put over it to enforce silence, or
distend the jaws during an operation: the closure applied in a debate: a
mouthful which produces nausea, the fat of fresh beef boiled: (_slang_) an
actor's interpolation: a joke or hoax.--_n._ GAG'GER, one who gags. [Prob.
imitative of sound made in choking.]

GAG, gag, _v.t._ (_slang_) to deceive.--v.i. to practise imposture.--n. a
made-up story, lie: (_U.S._) a laughing-stock.

GAGE, g[=a]j, _n._ a pledge: something thrown down as a challenge, as a
glove.--_v.t._ to bind by pledge or security: offer as a guarantee: to
stake, wager. [O. Fr. _guage_, from Teut. See WED.]


GAGE, g[=a]j, _n._ name applied to several varieties of plum. [See

GAGGLE, gag'l, _n._ a flock of geese, or of women.--_v.i._ to cackle.--_n._
GAGG'LING, cackling.--_adj._ garrulous.

GAG-TOOTH, gag'-t[=oo]th, _n._ a projecting tooth.--_adj._ GAG'-TOOTHED.


GAIKWAR, g[=i]k'war, _n._ name of the ruler of Baroda in India. [Marathi
_g[=a]e_--Sans. _go_, a cow, bull.]

GAIN, g[=a]n, _v.t._ to obtain by effort: to earn: to be successful in: to
draw to one's own party, bribe: to reach: to make advance: (_N. T._) to
escape.--_n._ that which is gained: profit.--_adj._ GAIN'ABLE.--_n._
GAIN'ER.--_adj._ GAIN'FUL.--_adv._ GAIN'FULLY.--_n._ GAIN'FULNESS.--_n.pl._
GROUND); GAIN UPON, to overtake by degrees. [O. Fr. _gain_, _gaain_,
_gaigner_, _gaaignier_, from Teut., as in _weidenen_, to graze, to seek
forage, _weida_, pasture.]

GAIN, g[=a]n, _adj._ (_prov._) near, straight. [Ice. _gegn_.]

GAINGIVING, g[=a]n'giv-ing, _n._ (_Shak._) misgiving.

GAINLY, g[=a]n'li, _adj._ agile, handsome. See UNGAINLY.

GAINSAY, g[=a]n's[=a], _v.t._ to contradict: to deny: to dispute.--_ns._
GAIN'SAYER (_B._), an opposer; GAIN'SAYING.--_v.t._ GAIN'STRIVE (_Spens._),
to strive against. [A.S. _gegn_, against, and _say_.]

GAINST, a poetic abbreviation of _against_.

GAIR, g[=a]r, _n._ (_Scot._) gore.



GAIT, g[=a]t, _n._ way or manner of walking, step, pace.--_adj._ GAIT'ED,
having a particular gait. [A special use of _gate_.]

GAIT, g[=a]t, _n._ (_prov._) a sheaf of corn: charge for pasturage.

GAITER, g[=a]t'[.e]r, _n._ a covering of cloth, &c., for the ankle, fitting
down upon the shoe. [Fr. _guêtre_, _guietre_.]

GAL, gal, _n._ (_prov._) a girl.

GALA, g[=a]'la, _n._ festivity.--_n._ G[=A]'LA-DRESS, gay costume for a
gala-day. [Fr. _gala_, show--It. _gala_, finery.]

GALACTIC, ga-lak'tik, _adj._ pertaining to or obtained from milk:
(_astron._) pertaining to the Milky-Way.--_ns._ GALAC'TAGOGUE, a medicine
which promotes the secretion of milk; GALAC'TIA, a morbid flow or
deficiency of milk; GALAC'TIN, lactose; GALACTOM'ETER, an instrument for
finding the quality of milk by indicating its specific gravity;
GALACTOPH'AGIST, one who lives on milk.--_adjs._ GALACTOPH'AGOUS, living on
milk-producing.--_n._ GALACTORRHOE'A, a too abundant flow of milk. [Gr.
_gala_, _galaktos_, milk.]

GALAGE, an obs. form of _galosh_.

GALAGO, ga-l[=a]'go, _n._ a genus of large-eared, long-tailed African
lemurs, arboreal and nocturnal in habit, living on fruit and insects.


GALANTINE, gal'an-t[=i]n, _n._ a dish of poultry or veal, boned, tied up
tight, cooked, and served cold. [Fr.,--Low L. _galatina_ for _gelatina_,
jelly. See GELATINE.]

GALANTY SHOW, gal-an'ti sh[=o], _n._ a shadow pantomime produced by
throwing shadows of miniature figures on a wall or screen. [Prob. It.
_galanti_, pl. of _galante_. See GALLANT.]

GALATIAN, ga-l[=a]'shi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Galatia_ in Asia
Minor--colonised by Gauls in the 3d century B.C.--_n._ a native of Galatia.

GALAXY, gal'ak-si, _n._ the Milky-Way, or the luminous band of stars
stretching across the heavens: any splendid assemblage. [Through Fr. and
L., from Gr. _galaxias_--_gala_, milk.]

GALBANUM, gal'ban-um, _n._ a resinous juice obtained from an Eastern plant,
used in medicine and in the arts, and by the Jews in the preparation of the
sacred incense.--Also GAL'BAN. [L.,--Gr. _chalban[=e]_, prob. an Eastern

GALE, g[=a]l, _n._ a strong wind between a stiff breeze and a hurricane:
(_coll._) a state of noisy excitement. [Prob. elliptical for _gale_ (or
_gall_) _wind_. Mr Bradley disfavours the Scand. ety., which connects with
Dan. _gal_, mad, Norw. _galen_, raging.]

GALE, g[=a]l, _n._ a shrub growing in marshy spots, usually called
SWEET-GALE. [Prob. A.S. _gagel_; cf. Ger. _gagel_, a myrtle-bush.]

GALE, g[=a]l, _n._ a periodic payment of rent. [_Gavel._]

GALEATE, -D, g[=a]'le-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._, _ornith._, and _anat._)
helmeted. [L. _gale[=a]tus_--_galea_, a helmet.]

GALENA, g[=a]-l[=e]'na, _n._ a mineral which is essentially a sulphide of
lead--also GAL[=E]'NITE.--_adjs._ GAL[=E]'NIC, -AL, GAL[=E]'NOID. [L.
_galena_, lead-ore.]

GALENIC, -AL, g[=a]-len'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to _Galen_, the 2d-cent.
Greek physician, or to his methods and theories.--_ns._ G[=A]'LENISM;

GALEOPITHECUS, g[=a]-li-o-pi-th[=e]'kus, _n._ a flying lemur.--_adjs._

GALILEAN, gal-i-l[=e]'an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Galileo_, a great
Italian mathematician (1564-1642).--GALILEAN LAW, the law of the uniform
acceleration of falling bodies; GALILEAN TELESCOPE, a telescope with a
concave lens for its eye-piece.

GALILEAN, gal-i-l[=e]'an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Galilee_, one of the
Roman divisions of Palestine.--_n._ a native of Galilee: a Christian.

GALILEE, gal'i-l[=e], _n._ (_archit._) a porch or chapel at the west end of
some abbey churches, in which penitents were placed, and where
ecclesiastics met women who had business with them.--GALILEE PORCH, a
galilee which has direct communication with the exterior. [Prob. suggested
from Mark, xvi. 7, 'He goeth before you into _Galilee_.']

GALIMATIAS, gal-i-m[=a]'shi-as, _n._ nonsense, gibberish: any confused
mixture of unlike things. [Fr.]

GALINGALE, gal'in-g[=a]l, _n._ the aromatic root of certain E. Indian
plants of genera _Alpinia_ and _Kæmpferia_, formerly much used in medicine
and cookery: the tuber of _Cyperus longus_, of ancient medicinal repute:
also the whole plant.--Also GALAN'GAL. [O. Fr. _galingal_--Ar.
_khalanj[=a]n_--Chin. _ko-liang-kiang_--_Ko_, a Chinese province, _liang_,
mild, and _kiang_, ginger.]

GALIONGEE, gal-yon-j[=e]', _n._ a Turkish sailor. [Turk.
_q[=a]ly[=u]nj[=i]_, deriv. of _q[=a]ly[=u]n_--It. _galeone_, galleon.]

GALIPOT, gal'i-pot, _n._ the white resin which exudes from pine, yielding,
when refined, white, yellow, or Burgundy pitch. [Fr.]

GALL, gawl, _n._ the greenish-yellow fluid secreted from the liver, called
bile: bitterness: malignity.--_ns._ GALL-BLADD'ER, a pear-shaped bag lying
on the under side of the liver, a reservoir for the bile; GALL'-STONE, a
hard concretion in the gall-bladder or biliary ducts.--GALL AND WORMWOOD,
anything extremely disagreeable and annoying.--IN THE GALL OF BITTERNESS,
in a state of extreme hostility to God (Acts, viii. 23). [A.S. _gealla_,
gall; cf. Ger. _galle_, Gr. _chol[=e]_, L. _fel_.]

GALL, gawl, _n._ a light nut-like ball which certain insects produce on the
oak-tree, used in dyeing--also GALL'-NUT.--_v.t._ to fret or hurt the skin
by rubbing: to annoy: to enrage.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to act in a galling
manner.--_ns._ GALL'ATE, a salt of gallic acid; GALL'FLY, an insect which
occasions gall on plants by puncturing.--_adj._ GALL'ING,
irritating.--_adv._ GALL'INGLY.--GALLIC ACID, a crystalline substance
obtained from gall-nuts, and used in making ink. [Fr. _galle_--L. _galla_,

GALLANT, gal'ant, _adj._ brave: noble: (rare) gay, splendid, magnificent:
courteous or attentive to ladies: amorous, erotic (sometimes
gal-ant').--_n._ a gay, dashing person: a man of fashion: suitor,
seducer.--_adv._ GALL'ANTLY.--_ns._ GALL'ANTNESS; GALL'ANTRY, bravery:
intrepidity: attention or devotion to ladies, often in a bad sense, amorous
intrigue: (_Shak._) gallants collectively. [Fr. _galant_--O. Fr. _gale_, a
merrymaking; prob. Teut.]

GALLEASS, gal'e-as, _n._ (_Shak._) a vessel of the same construction as a
galley, but larger and heavier.--Also GALL'IASS. [O. Fr. _galeace_--It.
_galeaza_, augmented from, _galea_, galley.]

GALLEON, gal'i-un, _n._ a large Spanish vessel with lofty stem and stern,
mostly used formerly for carrying treasure. [Sp. _galeon_. Cf. GALLEY.]

GALLERY, gal'[.e]r-i, _n._ a balcony surrounded by rails: a long passage:
the upper floor of seats in a church or theatre: the persons occupying the
gallery at a theatre: a room for the exhibition of works of art: (_fort._)
a covered passage cut through the earth or masonry: a level or drive in a
mine.--_adj._ GALL'ERIED, furnished with, or arranged like, a
gallery.--PLAY TO THE GALLERY, to play so as to win the applause of the
least intelligent amongst the spectators. [O. Fr. _galerie_ (It.

GALLEY, gal'i, _n._ a long, low-built ship with one deck, propelled by
oars: a state barge: the captain's boat on a war-ship: the place where the
cooking is done on board ship: a kind of boat attached to a ship-of-war:
(_print._) a flat oblong tray in which the compositor places the type he
has set up.--_ns._ GALL'EY-PROOF, an impression taken from type on a
galley; GALL'EY-SLAVE, one condemned for crime to work like a slave at the
oar of a galley. [O. Fr. _galie_--Low L. _galea_.]

GALLIAMBIC, gal-i-am'bik, _adj._ constituting a _galliambus_, a verse
consisting of four Ionics a minore ([uu--]), with variations and
substitutions. [Used by the _Galli_, priests of the Phrygian goddess

GALLIARD, gal'yard, _adj._ (_arch._) brisk, lively.--_n._ a spirited dance
for two, common in the 16th and 17th centuries: a gay fellow.--_n._
GALL'IARDISE, gaiety: a merry trick. [O. Fr. _gaillard_; cf. Sp.

GALLIC, gal'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Gaul_ or France.--_adj._ GALL'ICAN,
of or pertaining to France: esp. pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church in
France.--_n._ one holding Gallican doctrines.--_n._ GALL'ICANISM, the
spirit of nationalism within the French Church--as opposed to
_Ultramontanism_, or the absolute subjection of everything to the personal
authority of the pope.--_adv._ GALLICE (gal'i-s[=e]), in French.--_n._
GALL'ICISM, the use in English or any other language of a word or idiom
peculiar to the French.--_vs.t._ GALL'IC[=I]ZE, GALL'IC[=I]SE, to make
French in opinions, habits, &c. [L. _Gallicus_--_Gallia_, Gaul.]

GALLIGASKINS, gal-i-gas'kinz, _n.pl._ large open hose or trousers: leggings
worn by sportsmen. [A corr. of O. Fr. _garguesque_--It. _Grechesco_,
Greekish--L. _Græcus_, Greek.]

GALLIMAUFRY, gal-i-maw'fri, _n._ (_Shak._) any inconsistent or absurd
medley: a medley of persons. [O. Fr. _galimafrée_, a ragout, hash.]

GALLINACEOUS, gal-in-[=a]'shus, _adj._ pertaining to the order of birds to
which the domestic fowl, pheasant, &c. belong. [L. _gallina_, a
hen--_gallus_, a cock.]

GALLINULE, gal'i-n[=u]l, _n._ a genus of aquatic birds closely allied to
the coots, of which the common water-hen is a species. [L. _gallinula_,
dim. of _gallina_, a hen.]

GALLIO, gal'i-o, _n._ a careless, easy-going man who keeps himself free
from trouble and responsibility. [From the proconsul of Achaia in 53 A.D.,
Junius Annæus _Gallio_, who refused to listen to the Jewish clamour against
Paul (Acts, xviii. 12-17).]

GALLIOT, GALIOT, gal'i-ot, _n._ a small galley: an old Dutch cargo-boat,
also a bomb-ketch. [Fr. _galiote_--Low L. _galea_, galley.]

GALLIPOT, gal'i-pot, _n._ a small glazed pot for containing medicine.
[Prob. _pottery_ such as was brought in _galleys_; not likely to be the Old
Dut. _gleipot_, a glazed pot.]

GALLIUM, gal'i-um, _n._ a rare malleable metal, grayish-white, brilliant in

GALLIVANT, gal-i-vant', _v.i._ to spend time frivolously, esp. in flirting.
[Perh. a variation of _gallant_.]

GALLIVAT, gal'i-vat, _n._ a large two-masted Malay boat.

GALLIWASP, gal'i-wasp, _n._ a West Indian lizard.

GALLIZE, gal'[=i]z, _v.t._ to treat unfermented grape-juice with water and
sugar, so as to increase the quantity of wine produced. [From Dr L. _Gall_
of Treves.]

GALLOGLASS, gal'lo-glas, _n._ a soldier or armed retainer of a chief in
ancient Ireland and other Celtic countries.--Also GAL'LOWGLASS. [Ir.
_gallóglách_--Ir. _gall_, foreign, _óglách_, youth.]

GALLOMANIA, gal-o-m[=a]'ni-a, _n._ a mania for French ways.

GALLON, gal'un, _n._ the standard measure of capacity=4 quarts. [O. Fr.
_galun_, _galon_, _jalon_; app. cog. with Fr. _jale_, a bowl.]

GALLOON, ga-l[=oo]n', _n._ a kind of lace: a narrow ribbon made of silk or
worsted, or of both.--_adj._ GALLOONED', adorned with galloon. [Fr.
_galon_, _galonner_; prob. cog. with _gallant_.]

GALLOP, gal'up, _v.i._ to move by leaps, as a horse: to ride a galloping
horse: to move very fast.--_v.t._ to cause to gallop.--_n._ the pace at
which a horse runs when the forefeet are lifted together and the hindfeet
together: a ride at a gallop.--_n._ GALL'OPER, one who, or that which,
gallops.--_part._ and _adj._ GALL'OPING, proceeding at a gallop: (_fig._)
advancing rapidly, as in the phrase, 'a galloping consumption.'--CANTERBURY
GALLOP, a moderate gallop of a horse (see CANTER). [O. Fr. _galop_,
_galoper_; prob. Teut., related to _leap_. There is a Flemish and a Middle
High Ger. _walop_ (n.). The root is seen in Old Fries. _walla_, to boil;
cf. WELL (1).]

GALLOPADE, gal-up-[=a]d', _n._ a quick kind of dance--then, the music
appropriate to it: a sidewise gallop.--_v.i._ to move briskly: to perform a
gallopade. [Fr.]

GALLOVIDIAN, gal-o-vid'yan, _adj._ belonging to Galloway.--_n._ a native

GALLOW, gal'l[=o], _v.t._ (_Shak._) to frighten or terrify. [A.S.
_a-g['æ]lwian_, to astonish.]

GALLOWAY, gal'o-w[=a], _n._ a small strong horse, 13-15 hands high,
originally from _Galloway_ in Scotland: a breed of large black hornless

GALLOWS, gal'us, _n._ a wooden frame on which criminals are executed by
hanging--a _pl._ used as a _sing._, and having (_Shak._) the double _pl._
'gallowses' (used also _coll._ originally for a pair of braces for
supporting the trousers): (_Shak._) a wretch who deserves the gallows: any
contrivance with posts and cross-beam for suspending objects: a rest for
the tympan of a hand printing-press: the main frame of a
beam-engine.--_ns._ GALL'OWS-BIRD, a person who deserves hanging;
GALL'OWS-BITTS, a frame fixed in a ship's deck to support spare
spars.--_adj._ GALL'OWS-FREE, free from danger of hanging.--_n._
GALL'OWSNESS (_slang_), recklessness.--_adj._ GALL'OWS-RIPE, ready for the
gallows.--_n._ GALL'OWS-TREE, a tree used as a gallows.--CHEAT THE GALLOWS,
to escape hanging though deserving it. [M. E. _galwes_ (pl.)--A.S. _galga_;
Ger. _galgen_.]

GALLY, gal'i, _v.i._ (_prov._) to scare, daze.--_ns._ GALL'Y-BEG'GAR,
GALL'ICROW, GALL'YCROW, a scarecrow.

GALOOT, ga-l[=oo]t', _n._ (_U.S._) a recruit, a clumsy fellow.

GALOP, gal'op, _n._ a lively round dance of German origin: music for such a
dance. [Fr.; cf. GALLOP.]

GALOPIN, gal'o-pin, _n._ (_Scot._) a kitchen boy. [O. Fr.,--_galoper_, to

GALORE, ga-l[=o]r', _adv._ in abundance, plentifully.--_n._ abundance. [Ir.
_go leór_, sufficiently--_go_, an adverbialising particle, _leór_,

GALOSH, ga-losh', _n._ a shoe or slipper worn over another in wet
weather--also GALOCHE', GOLOSH'. [Fr. _galoche_--Gr. _kalopodion_, dim. of
_kalopous_, a shoemaker's last--_k[=a]lon_, wood, _pous_, the foot.]



GALUMPH, gal-umf', _v.i._ to march along boundingly and exultingly. [A
coinage of Lewis Carroll.]

GALVANISM, gal'van-izm, _n._ a branch of the science of electricity which
treats of electric currents produced by chemical agents.--_adj._ GALVAN'IC,
belonging to or exhibiting galvanism.--_n._ GALVANIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
GAL'VAN[=I]SE, to subject to the action of a galvanic current: to confer a
false vitality upon.--_ns._ GAL'VANIST, GAL'VAN[=I]SER; GALVAN'OGRAPH, a
printing-surface resembling an engraved copper-plate, produced by an
electrotype process from a drawing made with viscid ink on a silvered
plate: an impression taken from such a plate; GALVANOG'RAPHY;
GALVANOL'OGIST, a student of galvanology; GALVANOL'OGY, the science of
galvanic phenomena; GALVANOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the strength
of galvanic currents; GALVANOM'ETRY.--_adj._ GALVANOPLAS'TIC.--_ns._
GALVANOPLAS'TY, electrotypy; GALVAN'OSCOPE, an instrument for detecting the
existence and direction of an electric current.--GALVANIC BATTERY, a series
of zinc or copper plates susceptible of galvanic action; GALVANISED IRON,
the name given to iron coated with zinc to prevent rusting. [From Luigi
_Galvani_, of Bologna, the discoverer (1737-98).]

GALWEGIAN, gal-w[=e]'ji-an, _adj._ belonging to Galloway.--_n._ a native
thereof.--Also GALLOW[=E]'GIAN.

GAM, gam, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to make a call on, to exchange courtesies with:
to gather in a flock, as whales.--_n._ a school or herd of whales. [Prob. a
corr. of _jam_.]

GAM, gam, _n._ (_Scot._) the mouth:--_pl._ tusks.

GAM, gam, _n._ (_slang_) a leg.

GAMA-GRASS, gä'ma-gräs, _n._ a grass with very large culms, 4 to 7 feet
high, grown in Mexico.

GAMASH, gam-ash', _n._ a kind of leggings or gaiters.

GAMB, gamb, _n._ a leg or shank: (_her._) a beast's whole foreleg=GAMB'A
(_anat._), the metacarpus or metatarsus of ruminants, &c.: short for _viol
da gamba_. [Low L. _gamba_, a leg. See GAMBOL.]

GAMBADO, gam-b[=a]'do, _n._ a leather covering for the legs to defend them
from mud in riding: boots affixed to the saddle in place of stirrups. [It.
_gamba_, the leg.]

GAMBADO, gam-b[=a]'do, _n._ a bound or spring of a horse: a fantastic
movement, a caper. [Sp. _gambada_; cf. GAMBOL.]

GAMBESON, gam'be-son, _n._ an ancient coat for defence, worn under the
habergeon, of leather, or of cloth stuffed and quilted.--Also GAM'BISON.
[O. Fr.--Low L. _gambes[=o]n-em_; prob. Teut., as in _wambâ_, the belly.]

GAMBET, gam'bet, _n._ the redshank.

GAMBIER, gam'b[=e]r, _n._ an astringent substance prepared from the leaves
of a shrub of the East Indies, and largely used in tanning and
dyeing.--Also GAM'BIR. [Malayan.]

GAMBIST, gam'bist, _n._ a player on the gamba or _viol da gamba_.

GAMBIT, gam'bit, _n._ a mode of opening a game of chess by sacrificing a
pawn early in the game for the purpose of making a powerful attack. [It.
_gambetto_, a tripping up--_gamba_, leg.]

GAMBLE, gam'bl, _v.i._ to play for money in games of chance or skill: to
engage in wild financial speculations.--_v.t._ to squander away.--_n._ a
gambling transaction.--_ns._ GAM'BLER, one who gambles, esp. who makes it
his business; GAM'BLING-HOUSE, a house kept for the accommodation of people
who play at games of hazard for money. [For _gamm-le_ or _gam-le_, a freq.
which has ousted M. E. _gamenen_--A.S. _gamenian_, to play at
games--_gamen_, a game.]

GAMBOGE, gam-b[=o]j', or gam-b[=oo]j', _n._ a yellow gum-resin used as a
pigment and in medicine.--_adjs._ GAMBOG'IAN, GAMBOG'IC. [From _Cambodia_,
in Asia, whence brought about 1600.]

GAMBOL, gam'bol, _v.i._ to leap, skip: to frisk in sport:--_pr.p._
gam'bolling; _pa.p._ gam'bolled.--_n._ a skipping: playfulness. [Formerly
_gambold_--O. Fr. _gambade_--It. _gambata_, a kick--Low L. _gamba_, leg.]

GAMBREL, gam'brel, _n._ the hock of a horse: a crooked stick used by
butchers for suspending a carcass while dressing it.--GAMBREL ROOF, a
curved or hipped roof. [O. Fr. _gamberel_; cf. Fr. _gambier_, a hooked
stick; prob. Celt. _cam_, crooked.]

GAMBROON, gam-br[=oo]n', _n._ a twilled cloth of worsted and cotton, or
linen. [Prob. _Gambroon_ in Persia.]

GAME, g[=a]m, _n._ sport of any kind: an exercise or contest for recreation
or amusement, esp. athletic contests: the stake in a game: the manner of
playing a game: the requisite number of points to be gained to win a game:
jest, sport, trick, artifice: any object of pursuit or desire: (_Shak._)
gallantry: the spoil of the chase: wild animals protected by law and hunted
by sportsmen, the flesh of such--hares, pheasants, partridges, grouse,
blackcock.--_adj._ of or belonging to such animals as are hunted as game:
plucky, courageous: (_slang_) having the spirit to do something.--_v.i._ to
gamble.--_ns._ GAME'-BAG, a bag for holding a sportsman's game, also the
whole amount of game taken at one time; GAME'COCK, a cock trained to fight;
GAME'KEEPER, one who has the care of game.--_n.pl._ GAME'-LAWS, laws
relating to the protection of certain animals called game.--_adv._
GAMELY.--_ns._ GAME'NESS; GAME'-PRESERV'ER, one who preserves game on his
property for his own sport or profit.--_adj._ GAME'SOME, playful.--_ns._
GAME'SOMENESS, sportiveness: merriment; GAME'STER, one viciously addicted
to gambling: a gambler; GAME'-TEN'ANT, one who rents the privilege of
shooting or fishing over a particular estate or district; GAM'ING,
gambling; GAM'ING-HOUSE, a gambling-house, a hell; GAM'ING-T[=A]'BLE, a
table used for gambling.--_adj._ GAM'Y, having the flavour of dead game
kept till tainted: (_coll._) spirited, plucky.--BIG GAME, the larger
animals hunted; DIE GAME, to keep up courage to the last; MAKE A GAME OF,
to play with real energy or skill; MAKE GAME OF, to make sport of, to
ridicule; RED GAME, the Scotch ptarmigan; ROUND GAME, a game, as at cards,
in which the number of players is not fixed; THE GAME IS NOT WORTH THE
CANDLE (see CANDLE); THE GAME IS UP, the game is started: the scheme has
failed. [A.S. _gamen_, play; Ice. _gaman_, Dan. _gammen_.]

GAME, g[=a]m, _adj._ (_slang_) crooked, lame. [Most prob. not the Celt.
_cam_, crooked.]

GAMIC, gam'ik, _adj._ having a sexual character, of an ovum--opp. to
_Agamic_.--_ns._ GAMETE (gam-[=e]t'), a sexual protoplasmic body;
GAMOGEN'ESIS, sexual reproduction.--_adjs._ GAMOPET'ALOUS (_bot._), having
the petals united at the base; GAMOPHYL'LOUS, having cohering perianth
leaves; GAMOSEP'ALOUS, having the sepals united. [Gr. _gamos_, marriage.]

GAMIN, gam'in, _n._ a street Arab, a precocious and mischievous imp of the
pavement. [Fr.]

GAMMA, gam'a, _n._ the third letter of the Greek alphabet.--_ns._

GAMMER, gam'[.e]r, _n._ an old woman--the correlative of _gaffer_ (q.v.).

GAMMERSTANG, gam'er-stang, _n._ (_prov._) a tall, awkward person, esp. a
woman: a wanton girl.

GAMMOCK, gam'ok, _n._ (_prov._) a frolic, fun.--_v.i._ to frolic, to lark.

GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ (mostly _coll._) a hoax: nonsense, humbug.--_v.t._ to
hoax, impose upon.--_ns._ GAMM'ONER; GAMM'ONING. [A.S. _gamen_, a game.]

GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ the preserved thigh of a hog. [O. Fr.
_gambon_--_gambe_, a leg.]

GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ (_naut._) the lashing of the bowsprit.--_v.t._ to lash
the bowsprit with ropes.

GAMP, gamp, _n._ (_slang_) a large, clumsy, or untidily tied up
umbrella.--_adj._ GAMP'ISH, bulging. [So called from Mrs Sarah _Gamp_, a
tippling monthly nurse in Dickens's _Martin Chuzzlewit_.]

GAMUT, gam'ut, _n._ the musical scale: the whole extent of a thing. [So
called from the Gr. _gamma_, which marked the last of the series of notes
in the musical notation of Guido Aretinus, and L. _ut_, the beginning of an
old hymn to St John ('Ut queant laxis') used in singing the scale.]

GANCH, ganch, _v.t._ to impale.--Also GAUNCH. [O. Fr. _gancher_--It.
_gancio_, a hook.]

GANDER, gan'd[.e]r, _n._ the male of the goose: a simpleton: (_U.S._) a man
living apart from his wife.--_ns._ GAN'DERCLEUGH, the place of abode of the
hypothetical Jedediah Cleishbotham, editor of the _Tales of my Landlord_;
GAN'DERISM; GAN'DER-PAR'TY, a social gathering of men only. [A.S. _gandra_,
from ganra, with inserted _d_; Dut. and Low Ger. _gander_.]

GANESA, ga-n[=e]'sa, _n._ the elephant-headed Hindu god of foresight and

GANG, gang, _n._ a number of persons or animals associated for a certain
purpose, usually in a bad sense: a number of labourers working together
during the same hours: the range of pasture allowed to cattle: a set of
tools, &c., used together for any kind of work.--_ns._ GANG'ER, GANGS'MAN,
the foreman of a squad, as of plate-layers. [A.S. _gang_ (Dan. _gang_, Ger.
_gang_, a going), _gangan_, to go.]

GANG, gang, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to go.--_n.pl._ GANG'-DAYS, the three days
preceding Ascension Day or Holy Thursday.--_n._ GANG'ER, a walker: a
fast-going horse. [A.S. _gangan_, to go.]

GANGLION, gang'gli-on, _n._ a tumour in the sheath of a tendon: an
enlargement in the course of a nerve: any special centre of nervous
action:--_pl._ GANG'LIA, GANG'LIONS.--_adjs._ GANG'LIAC, GANG'LIAL,
GANGLION'IC, pertaining to a ganglion; GANG'LIATE, -D, provided with a
ganglion or ganglia; GANG'LIFORM, GANG'LIOFORM, having the form of a
ganglion; GANG'LIONARY, composed of ganglia.--_n._ GANG'LION-CELL
(_anat._), a nerve-cell with nucleus and nucleones.--BASAL GANGLIA, ganglia
situated at the bottom of the cerebrum. [Gr.]

GANGREL, gang'rel, _n._ and _adj._ a vagrant. [From _gang_--A.S. _gangan_,
to go, walk.]

GANGRENE, gang'gr[=e]n, _n._ loss of vitality in some part of the body: the
first stage in mortification.--_v.t._ to mortify.--_v.i._ to become
putrid.--_v.i._ GANG'RENATE, to become mortified.--_adjs._ GANGRENES'CENT,
becoming mortified; GANG'RENOUS, mortified. [L. _gangræna_--Gr.
_gangraina_, _grainein_, to gnaw.]

GANG-SAW, gang-saw, _n._ an arrangement of saws set in one frame.

GANGUE, GANG, gang, _n._ in mining, the stony matrix in which metallic ores
occur. [Fr.,--Ger. _gang_, a vein.]

GANGWAY, gang'w[=a], _n._ a passage or way by which to go into or out of
any place, esp. a ship: a way between rows of seats, esp. the cross-passage
in the House of Commons, about half-way down the House, giving access to
the rear-benches. The members 'above the gangway' are the ministers and
ex-ministers, with their more immediate supporters. [A.S. _gangweg_; cf.
_gang_ and way.]

GANISTER, GANNISTER, gan'is-ter, _n._ a hard, close-grained siliceous
stone, which often forms the stratum that underlies a coal-seam.

GANJA, gan'ja, _n._ an intoxicating preparation of Indian hemp.

GANNET, gan'et, _n._ a web-footed fowl found in the northern seas, the
best-known of which is the solan goose. [A.S. _ganot_, a sea-fowl; Dut.

GANOID, gän'oid, _adj._ belonging to an order of fishes once very large,
but now decadent, including only seven genera (sturgeons, &c.).--_adj_.
GANOI'DIAN. [Gr. _ganos_, brightness, _eidos_, appearance.]

GANT, gänt, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to yawn--also GAUNT.--_n._ a yawn.

GANTLET, gant'let, _n._ a glove. [Same as GAUNTLET.]

GANTLET, gant'let, GANTLOPE, gant'l[=o]p, _n._ a punishment consisting of
driving a criminal through a lane formed by two files of men, who each
strike him as he passes.--RUN THE GANTLET, to undergo the punishment of the
gantlet: to be exposed to unpleasant remarks or treatment. [Confused with
_gauntlet_, but from Sw. _gatlopp_--_gata_ (Eng. _gate_), a street, line of
soldiers, _lopp_ (Eng. _leap_), course.]

GANTRY, gan'tri, _n._ a stand for barrels: a platform for a
travelling-crane, &c.--Also GAUN'TRY.

GANYMEDE, gan'i-m[=e]d, _n._ a cup-bearer, pot-boy, from the beautiful
youth who succeeded Hebe as cup-bearer to Zeus, being carried off to
Olympus by the eagle of Zeus: a catamite.

GAOL, GAOLER, old spellings of JAIL, JAILER.

GAP, gap, _n._ an opening made by rupture or parting: a cleft: a passage: a
deep ravine in a mountain-ridge: any breach of continuity.--_v.t._ to
notch: to make a gap in.--_adjs._ GAP'PY, full of gaps; GAP-TOOTHED,
lacking some of the teeth.--STAND IN THE GAP, to stand forward in active
defence of something; STOP A GAP, to repair a defect, close a breach. [M.
E. _gappe_--Ice. _gap_, an opening.]

GAPE, g[=a]p, _v.i._ to open the mouth wide: to yawn: to stare with open
mouth: to be open, like a gap.--_n._ act of gaping: width of the mouth when
opened.--_ns._ GAP'ER; GAPES, a disease of birds, owing to the presence of
trematode worms in the windpipe, shown by their uneasy gaping.--_adj._
GAP'ING, with mouth open in admiration.--_adv._ GAP'INGLY. [Ice. _gapa_, to
open the mouth; Ger. _gaffen_, to stare.]

GAR, gär, GARFISH, gär'fish, _n._ a long slender fish of the pike family,
with a pointed head. [A.S. _gár_, a dart.]

GAR, gär, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to cause, to compel. [Norse _ger(v)a_, to make
(A.S. _gierwan_, _giarwian_), Sw. _göra_, Dan. _gjöre_; cf. YARE.]

GARANCINE, gar'an-sin, _n._ a manufactured product of madder, used as a
dye. [Fr.,--_garance_, madder.]

GARB, gärb, _n._ fashion of dress: external appearance.--_v.t._ to clothe,
array. [O. Fr. _garbe_--It. _garbo_, grace; of Teut. origin.]

GARB, gärb, _n._ a sheaf of grain, frequently used in heraldry. [O. Fr.
_garbe_--Teut., as in Old High Ger. _garba_, a handful (Ger. _garbe_, Dut.

GARBAGE, gär'b[=a]j, _n._ refuse, as the bowels of an animal: any worthless
matter. [Of doubtful origin; prob. O. Fr. _garbe_, a sheaf; not conn. with

GARBLE, gär'bl, _v.t._ to select what may serve our own purpose, in a bad
sense: to mutilate, corrupt, or falsify.--_n._ GAR'BLER, one who selects.
[Most prob. It. _garbellare_--Ar. _ghirbál_, a sieve.]

GARBOARD-STRAKE, gär'b[=o]rd-str[=a]k, _n._ the first range of planks laid
on a ship's bottom next the keel. [Dut. _gaarboord_.]

GARBOIL, gär'boil, _n._ (_Shak._) disorder, uproar. [O. Fr. _garbouil_--It.
_garbuglio_, conn. with L. _bull[=i]re_, to boil.]

GARÇON, gär-song', _n._ a boy: a waiter. [Fr.]

GARDANT, gärd'ant, _adj._ (_her._) said of an animal represented as
full-faced and looking forward. [Fr., pr.p. of _garder_, to look.]

GARDEN, gär'dn, _n._ a piece of ground on which flowers, &c., are
cultivated: a pleasant spot.--_ns._ GAR'DENER; GAR'DEN-GLASS, a bell-glass
for covering plants; GAR'DENING, the act of laying out and cultivating
gardens; GAR'DEN-PAR'TY, a party held on the lawn or in the garden of a
private house.--GARDEN OF EDEN (see EDEN); HANGING GARDEN, a garden formed
in terraces rising one above another--e.g. those of Nebuchadnezzar at
Babylon; MARKET GARDENER, a gardener who raises vegetables, fruits, &c. for
sale; PHILOSOPHERS OF THE GARDEN, followers of Epicurus who taught in a
garden. [O. Fr. _gardin_ (Fr. _jardin_); from Teut.]

GARDENIA, gär-d[=e]'ni-a, _n._ a genus of _Cinchonaceæ_, tropical and
subtropical trees and shrubs, with beautiful and fragrant flowers. [Named
from the American botanist, Dr Alex. _Garden_ (died 1791).]

GARDYLOO, gär'di-l[=oo], _n._ the old warning cry of housewives in
Edinburgh before throwing their slops out of the window into the street.
[Pseudo-Fr. _gare de l'eau_--should be _gare l'eau_, 'beware of the

GARE, g[=a]r, _adj._ (_Scot._) greedy, miserly.

GAREFOWL, g[=a]r'fowl, _n._ the great auk, razor-billed auk. [Ice.


GARGANTUAN, gär-gan't[=u]-an, _adj._ like Gargantua--i.e. enormous,
prodigious.--_ns._ GARGAN'TUISM; GARGAN'TUIST. [From _Gargantua_, the hero
of Rabelais, described as a giant of vast appetite.]

GARGARISM, gär'ga-rizm, _n._ a gargle.--_v.t._ GAR'GARISE.

GARGET, gar'get, _n._ a swelling in the throat of cattle and pigs:
inflammation of a cow's udder.--Also GAR'GIL.

GARGLE, gär'gl, _v.t._ to wash the throat, preventing the liquid from going
down by expelling air against it.--_n._ a preparation for washing the
throat. [O. Fr. _gargouiller_--_gargouille_, the throat.]


GARGOYLE, gär'goil, _n._ a projecting spout, conveying the water from the
roof-gutters of buildings, often representing human or other figures. [O.
Fr. _gargouille_--L. _gurgulio_, throat.]

GARIBALDI, gar-i-bal'di, _n._ a woman's loose blouse, an imitation of the
red shirts worn by the followers of the Italian patriot _Garibaldi_

GARISH, GAIRISH, g[=a]r'ish, _adj._ showy: gaudy.--_adv._ GAR'ISHLY.--_n._
GAR'ISHNESS. [Earlier _gaurish_, _gawrish_--_gaure_, to stare, perh. a
freq. of _gaw_, to stare, cf. Ice. _gá_, to heed.]

GARLAND, gär'land, _n._ a wreath of flowers or leaves: a name for a book of
extracts in prose or poetry: (_Shak._) the thing most prized.--_v.t._ to
deck with a garland.--_n._ GAR'LAND[=A]GE, a decoration of
garlands.--_adj._ GAR'LANDLESS.--_n._ GAR'LANDRY, garlands
collectively.--CIVIC GARLAND, a crown of oak-leaves bestowed on a Roman
soldier who saved a fellow-citizen's life in battle. [O. Fr. _garlande_;
prob. Old High Ger. _wiara_, fine ornament.]

GARLICK, gär'lik, _n._ a bulbous-rooted plant of genus Allium, having a
pungent taste and very strong smell.--_adj._ GAR'LICKY, like garlick. [A.S.
_gárléac_--_gár_, a spear, _léac_, a leek.]

GARMENT, gär'ment, _n._ any article of clothing, as a coat or gown.--_v.t._
to clothe with a garment.--_adjs._ GAR'MENTED; GAR'MENTLESS.--_n._
GAR'MENTURE, clothing. [O. Fr. _garniment_--_garnir_, to furnish.]

GARNER, gär'n[.e]r, _n._ a granary or place where grain is stored up: a
store of anything--e.g. experience.--_v.t._ to store as in a
garner.--_v.i._ (_rare_) to accumulate.--_n._ GAR'NERAGE, a storehouse. [O.
Fr. _gernier_ (Fr. _grenier_)--L. _granarium_, -_ia_, a granary.]

GARNET, gär'net, _n._ a precious stone belonging to a group of minerals
crystallising in the cubical system. [O. Fr. _grenat_--Low L. _granatum_,
pomegranate; or Low L. _granum_, grain, cochineal, red dye.]

GARNISH, gär'nish, _v.t._ to adorn: to furnish: to surround with ornaments,
as a dish.--_n._ entrance-money: something placed round a principal dish at
table, whether for embellishment or relish: a gift of money, esp. that
formerly paid by a prisoner to his fellow-prisoners on his first
admission.--_ns._ GAR'NISHEE, a person warned not to pay money owed to
another, because the latter is indebted to the garnisher who gives the
warning (_v.t._ to attach a debtor's money in this way); GARNISHEE'MENT;
which garnishes or embellishes: ornament: apparel: trimming; GAR'NISHRY,
adornment. [O. Fr. _garniss_-, stem of _garnir_, to furnish, old form
_warnir_, from a Teut. root seen in A.S. _warnian_, Ger. _warnen_, Eng.

GARRET, gar'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a watch-tower: a room next the roof of a
house.--_p.adj._ GARR'ETED, provided with garrets: lodged in a
garret.--_ns._ GARRETEER', one who lives in a garret: a poor author;
GARR'ET-MAS'TER, a cabinet-maker, locksmith, &c., working on his own
account for the dealers. [O. Fr. _garite_, a place of safety, _guarir_,
_warir_, to preserve (Fr. _guérir_)--Teut., Old High Ger. _warjan_, to

GARRISON, gar'i-sn, _n._ a supply of soldiers for guarding a fortress: a
fortified place.--_v.t._ to furnish a fortress with troops: to defend by
fortresses manned with troops.--GARRISON TOWN, a town in which a garrison
is stationed. [O. Fr. _garison_--_garir_, _guerir_, to furnish--Teut., Old
High Ger. _warjan_, to defend.]

GARRON, gar'on, _n._ a small horse.--Also GARR'AN. [Ir.]

GARROT, gar'ot, _n._ a name applied to various ducks. [Fr.]

GARROT, gar'ot, _n._ (_surg._) a tourniquet. [Fr.]

GARROTTE, GAROTTE, gar-rot', _n._ a Spanish mode of strangling
criminals.--_v.t._ to strangle by a brass collar tightened by a screw,
whose point enters the spinal marrow: to suddenly render insensible by
semi-strangulation, and then to rob:--_pr.p._ garrott'ing, garott'ing;
_pa.p._ garrott'ed, garott'ed.--_ns._ GARROTT'ER, GAROTT'ER, one who
garrottes; GARROTT'ING, GAROTT'ING. [Sp. _garrote_; cf. Fr. _garrot_, a

GARRULOUS, gar'[=u]-lus, _adj._ talkative.--_ns._ GARRUL'ITY,
GARR'ULOUSNESS, talkativeness: loquacity.--_adv._ GARR'ULOUSLY. [L.
_garrulus_--_garr[=i]re_, to chatter.]

GARTER, gär't[.e]r, _n._ a band used to tie the stocking to the leg: the
badge of the highest order of knighthood in Great Britain, called the
_Order of the Garter_.--_v.t._ to bind with a garter.--GARTER KING-OF-ARMS,
the chief herald of the Order of the Garter. [O. Fr. _gartier_ (Fr.
_jarretière_)--O. Fr. _garet_ (Fr. _jarret_), the ham of the leg, prob.
Celt. as Bret. _gar_, the shank of the leg.]

GARTH, gärth, _n._ an enclosure or yard: a garden: a weir in a river for
catching fish. [Ice. _garðr_, a court; cf. A.S. _geard_; Ger. _garten_,

GARUDA, gär'[=oo]-da, _n._ a Hindu demigod, with the body and legs of a
man, the head and wings of a bird, emblem of strength and speed. [Sans.]

GARVIE, gär'vi, _n._ (_Scot._) a sprat.--Also GAR'VOCK. [Gael. _garbhag_.]

GAS, gas, _n._ a vaporous substance not condensed into a liquid at ordinary
terrestrial temperatures and pressures--esp. that obtained from coal, used
in lighting houses: (_coll._) frothy talk:--_pl._ GAS'ES.--_v.t._ to supply
with gas: (_U.S._) to impose on by talking gas.--_v.i._ to vapour, talk
boastfully.--_ns._ GASALIER', GASELIER', a hanging frame with branches for
gas-jets, formed on false analogy from _chandelier_; GAS'-BAG, a bag for
holding gas: a boastful, talkative person; GAS'-BRACK'ET, a pipe, mostly
curved, projecting from the wall of a room, used for illuminating purposes;
GAS'-BURN'ER, a piece of metal fitted to the end of a gas-pipe, with one or
more small holes so arranged as to spread out the flame; GAS'-COAL, any
coal suitable for making illuminating gas; GAS'-CONDENS'ER, an apparatus
for freeing coal-gas from tar; GAS[=E]'ITY, G[=A]'SEOUSNESS.--_adj._
GASEOUS (g[=a]'se-us).--_ns._ GAS'-EN'GINE, an engine in which motion is
communicated to the piston by the alternate admission and condensation of
gas in a closed cylinder; GAS'-FIT'TER, one who fits up the pipes and
brackets for gas-lighting; GAS'-FIX'TURE, a bracket or chandelier for gas;
GAS'-FUR'NACE, a furnace of which the fuel is gas; GAS'HOLDER, a large
vessel for storing gas; GASIFIC[=A]'TION, the process of converting into
gas.--_v.t._ GAS'IFY, to convert into gas.--_ns._ GAS'-JET, a gas-burner;
GAS'-LAMP, a lamp lighted by gas; GAS'-MAIN, one of the principal
underground pipes conveying gas from the works to the places where it is
consumed; GAS'-MAN, a man employed in the manufacture of gas: the man who
controls the lights of the stage; GAS'-M[=E]'TER, an instrument for
measuring the quantity of gas consumed at a particular place in a given
time; GAS'OGENE (same as GAZOGENE); GAS'OLENE, rectified petroleum;
GASOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring gas: a place for holding
gas.--_adjs._ GASOMET'RIC, -AL.--_ns._ GAS'-PIPE, a pipe for conveying gas;
GAS'SING, idle talking; GAS'-STOVE, an apparatus in which coal-gas is used
for heating and cooking purposes.--_adj._ GAS'SY, full of gas, gaseous:
(_slang_) given to vain and boastful talk.--_ns._ GAS'-TANK, a reservoir
for coal-gas; GAS'-TAR, coal-tar.--_adj._ GAS'-TIGHT, sufficiently close to
prevent the escape of gas.--_ns._ GAS'-WA'TER, water through which coal-gas
has been passed; GAS'-WORKS, an establishment where illuminating gas is
manufactured. [A word invented by the Dutch chemist J. B. Van Helmont
(1577-1644)--the form suggested by Gr. _chaos_.]

GASCONADE, gas-ko-n[=a]d', _n._ boasting talk.--_ns._ GAS'CON, a native of
Gascony; GAS'CONISM. [Fr.,--_Gascon_, from their proverbial boastfulness.]

GASH, gash, _v.t._ to make a deep cut into anything, esp. into flesh.--_n._
a deep, open wound. [Formerly _garse_--O. Fr. _garser_, pierce with a
lancet--Low L. _garsa_. Perh. corrupted from Gr. _charassein_, to cut.]

GASH, gash, _adj._ (_Scot._) shrewd: talkative: trim.--_v.i._ to tattle.
[Prob. a corr. of _sagacious_.]

GASH, gash, _adj._ (_Scot._) ghastly, hideous--also GASH'FUL,
GASH'LY.--_n._ GASH'LINESS.--_adv._ GASH'LY. [From _ghastful_, through
association with _gash_.]

GASKET, gas'ket, _n._ (_naut._) a canvas band used to bind the sails to the
yards when furled: a strip of tow, &c., for packing a piston, &c.--Also
GAS'KIN. [Cf. Fr. _garcette_, It. _gaschetta_; ety. dub.]

GASKINS, gas'kinz, _n._ (_Shak._). See GALLIGASKINS.

GASP, gasp, _v.i._ to gape in order to catch breath: to desire
eagerly.--_n._ the act of opening the mouth to catch the breath.--_pr.p._
and _adj._ GASP'ING, convulsive, spasmodic.--_adv._ GASP'INGLY.--THE LAST
GASP, the utmost extremity. [Ice. _geispa_, to yawn, by metathesis from
_geipsa_, cf. _geip_, idle talk.]

GAST, gast, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to make aghast, to frighten or terrify. [A.S.
_g['æ]stan_; cf. AGHAST.]

GASTEROPOD, gas'ter-o-pod, _n._ one of a class of molluscs, embracing
whelks, limpets, snails, &c., having in general a muscular disc under the
belly, which serves them as feet--also GAS'TROPOD:--_pl._
GASTEROP'ODA.--_adj._ GASTEROP'ODOUS. [Formed from Gr. _gast[=e]r_, the
stomach, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

GASTRÆA, gas-tr[=e]'a, _n._ (_biol._) a hypothetic animal form assumed by
Hæckel as the ancestor of all metazoic animals:--_pl._ GASTRÆ'Æ.--_n._
GAS'TRULA, that embryonic form of metazoic animals which consists of a
two-layered sac enclosing a central cavity and having an opening at one
end:--_pl._ GRAS'TRULÆ.--_adj._ GAS'TRULAR.

GASTRALGIA, gas-tral'ji-a, _n._ pain in the stomach or bowels. [Gr.
_gast[=e]r_, the stomach, _algos_, pain.]

GASTRIC, gas'trik, _adj._ belonging to the stomach--also GAS'TRAL.--_ns._
GASTR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the stomach; GASTROL'OGER.--_adj._
GASTROLOG'ICAL.--_n._ GASTROL'OGY, cookery, good eating.--GASTRIC FEVER, a
bilious remittent fever; GASTRIC JUICE, the digestive liquid secreted by
the glands of the stomach. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, the belly.]

GASTROCNEMIUS, gas-trok-n[=e]'mi-us, _n._ a superficial muscle of the
posterior tibial region helping to extend the foot. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_,
stomach, _kn[=e]m[=e]_, the leg.]

GASTROMANCY, gas'tro-man-si, _n._ a means of divination by ventriloquism:
divination by large-bellied glasses. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _manteia_,

GASTRONOME, gas'tro-n[=o]m, _n._ one who pays great attention to his diet,
an epicure--also GASTRON'OMER, GASTRON'OMIST.--_adjs._ GASTRONOM'IC, -AL,
pertaining to gastronomy.--_ns._ GASTRON'OMY, the art or science of good
of good eating; GAS'TROSOPH, one skilled in matters of eating;
GASTROS'OPHER; GASTROS'OPHY. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _nomos_,
law--_nemein_, to distribute.]

GASTROSTOMY, gas-tros'to-mi, _n._ an operation performed in a case of
stricture of the gullet, to introduce food into the stomach through an
external opening. [Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _stoma_, mouth.]

GASTROTOMY, gas-trot'o-mi, _n._ the operation of cutting open the belly.
[Gr. _gast[=e]r_, belly, _tom[=e]_, a cutting--_temnein_, to cut.]

GASTRO-VASCULAR, gas-tr[=o]-vas'k[=u]-lar, _adj._ common to the functions
of digestion and circulation.

GAT, gat (_B._) _pa.t._ of _get_.

GAT, gat, _n._ an opening between sandbanks, a strait. [Ice.]

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ a passage into a city, enclosure, or any large building:
a narrow opening or defile: a frame in the entrance into any enclosure: an
entrance.--_v.t._ to supply with a gate: at Oxford and Cambridge, to punish
by requiring the offender to be within the college gates by a certain
hour.--_adj._ G[=A]'TED, punished with such restriction.--_ns._ GATE'-FINE,
the fine imposed for disobedience to such orders; GATE'-HOUSE (_archit._),
a building over or near the gate giving entrance to a city, abbey, college,
&c.; GATE'-KEEP'ER, GATE'MAN, one who watches over the opening and shutting
of a gate.--_adj._ GATE'LESS, not having a gate.--_ns._ GATE'-MON'EY, the
money taken for entrance to an athletic or other exhibition, sometimes
simply 'gate;' GATE'-TOW'ER, a tower built beside or over a gate;
GATE'-VEIN, the great abdominal vein; GATE'WAY, the way through a gate: the
gate itself: any entrance.--GATE OF JUSTICE, a gate as of a city, temple,
&c., where a sovereign or judge sat to dispense justice; GATES OF DEATH, a
phrase expressing the near approach of death.--BREAK GATES, at Oxford and
Cambridge, to enter college after the prescribed hour; IVORY GATE, in
poetical imagery, the semi-transparent gate of the house of sleep, through
which dreams appear distorted into pleasant and delusive shapes; STAND IN
THE GATE (_B._), to occupy a position of defence. [A.S. _geat_, a way; Dut.
_gat_, Ice. _gat_; not in Goth. and High Ger.; prob. related to _get_ or

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a way, path: manner of doing, esp. in
adverbial phrases like 'this gate,' 'any gate,' 'some gate.' [Ice. _gata_;
Da. _gade_, Ger. _gasse_.]

GATE, g[=a]t, _n._ (_Spens._) a goat. [A.S. _gat._]

GÂTEAU, gat-[=o]', _n._ cake.--VEAL GATEAU, minced veal made up like a
pudding, and boiled in a shape or mould. [Fr.]

GATHER, ga_th_'[.e]r, _v.t._ to collect: to acquire: in sewing, to plait:
to learn by inference.--_v.i._ to assemble or muster: to increase: to
suppurate.--_n._ a plait or fold in cloth, made by drawing the thread
through (_pl._ that part of the dress which is gathered or drawn
in).--_ns._ GATH'ERER, one who collects: a gleaner: in glass manufacturing,
a workman who collects molten glass on the end of a rod preparatory to
blowing; GATH'ERING, a crowd or assembly: a tumour or collection of matter;
GATH'ERING-COAL, -PEAT, a coal, peat, put into a fire at night, with the
hot embers gathered about it, to keep the fire alive till morning;
GATH'ERING-CRY, a summons to assemble for war.--GATHER BREATH, to recover
wind; GATHER GROUND, to gain ground; GATHER ONE'S SELF TOGETHER, to collect
all one's powers, like one about to leap; GATHER TO A HEAD, to ripen: to
come into a state of preparation for action or effect; GATHER WAY, to get
headway by sail or steam so as to answer the helm. [A.S. _gaderian_,
_gæderian_, _(tó)gædere_, together; cf. _geador_, together, _g['æ]d_,


GAUCHE, g[=o]sh, _adj._ left-handed: clumsy.--_n._ GAUCHE'RIE (-r[=e]),
clumsiness: awkwardness. [Fr.]

GAUCHO, gow'ch[=o], _n._ a native of the La Plata pampas of Spanish
descent, noted for marvellous horsemanship.--Less correctly GUA'CHO.

GAUCIE, GAUCY, GAWCY, GAWSY, gä'si, _adj._ _(Scot.)_ portly, jolly.

GAUD, gawd, _n._ an ornament: a piece of finery:--_pl._ showy ceremonies,
gaieties.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) make merry.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to adorn with
gauds: to paint, as the cheeks.--_ns._ GAUDE[=A]'MUS, a rejoicing,
students' merrymaking; GAUD'ERY, finery.--_adv._ GAUD'ILY.--_ns._
GAUD'INESS, showiness; GAUD'Y, an English university feast or
festival.--_adj._ showy: gay.--_n._ GAUD'Y-DAY. [L. _gaudium_,
delight--_gaud[=e]re_, to rejoice.]

GAUGE, GAGE, g[=a]j, _n._ a measuring-rod: a standard of measure:
estimate.--_v.t._ to measure the contents of any vessel: to estimate
ability.--_adj._ GAUGE'ABLE, capable of being gauged.--_ns._ GAUG'ER, an
excise officer whose business is to gauge or measure the contents of casks;
GAUG'ING, the art of measuring casks containing excisable liquors;
GAUG'ING-ROD, an instrument for measuring the contents of casks; BROAD'-,
NARR'OW-GAUGE, in railroad construction, a distance between the rails
greater or less than 56½ inches, called _standard gauge_. [O. Fr. _gauge_
(Fr. _jauge_), _gauger_; prob. related to _jale_, bowl, to _galon_, gallon,
or to _jalon_, measuring stake.]

GAUL, gawl, _n._ a name of ancient France: an inhabitant of Gaul.--_adj._
GAUL'ISH. [Fr.,--L. _Gallus_; perh. conn. with A.S. _wealh_, foreign.]

GAULT, gawlt, _n._ a series of beds of clay and marl, between the Upper and
the Lower Greensand: brick earth--also GALT.--_n._ GAULT'ER, one who digs

GAULTHERIA, gal-t[=e]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of evergreen aromatic plants--one
species, the U.S. _winter-green_, yielding a valued volatile oil. [From the
Canadian botanist M. _Gaultier_.]

GAUM, gawm, _v.t._ to smear: (_obs._) to handle clumsily.--_adj._ GAUM'Y,

GAUN, gän, Scotch for going.

GAUNT, gänt, _adj._ thin: of a pinched appearance: causing
emaciation.--_adv._ GAUNT'LY.--_n._ GAUNT'NESS. [Skeat compares Norw.
_gand_, pointed stick, and Sw. prov. _gank_, a lean horse.]

GAUNTLET, gänt'let, _n._ the iron glove of armour, formerly thrown down in
challenge: a long glove covering the wrist.--_p.adj._ GAUNT'LETED, wearing
a gauntlet or gauntlets.--_n._ GAUNT'LET-GUARD, a guard of a sword or
dagger, protecting the hand very thoroughly.--RUN THE GAUNTLET (see
GANTLET).--THROW DOWN, TAKE UP, THE GAUNTLET, to give, to accept a
challenge. [Fr. _gantelet_, double dim. of _gant_, a glove, of Scand.
origin; cf. Old Sw. _vante_, a glove, Ice. _vöttr_, a glove, Dan. _vante_.]


GAUP, GAWP, gawp, _v.i._ (prov.) to gape in astonishment.--_ns._ GAUP'US,
GAWP'US, a silly person.

GAUR, gowr, _n._ a species of ox inhabiting some of the mountain jungles of
India. [Hindustani.]

GAUZE, gawz, _n._ a thin, transparent fabric, originally of silk, now of
any fine hard-spun fibre: material slight and open like gauze.--_adj._
GAUZE'-WINGED, having gauzy wings.--_n._ GAUZ'INESS.--_adj._ GAUZ'Y.--_n._
WIRE'-GAUZE (see WIRE). [Fr. _gaze_, dubiously referred to _Gaza_ in

GAVAGE, ga-väzh', _n._ a process of fattening poultry by forcing them to
swallow food at fixed intervals: (_med._) a similar method of forced
feeding. [Fr. _gaver_--_gave_, the crop of a bird.]

GAVE, g[=a]v, _pa.t._ of _give_.

GAVEL, g[=a]'vel, a prov. form of _gable_.

GAVEL, gav'el, _n._ an old Saxon and Welsh form of tenure by which an
estate passed, on the holder's death, to all the sons equally.--_v.t._ to
divide or distribute in this way.--_ns._ GAV'ELKIND, a tenure now peculiar
to Kent by which the tenant at fifteen can sell the estate or devise it by
will, the estate cannot escheat, and on an intestacy the lands descend from
the father to all sons in equal portions; GAV'ELMAN, a tenant holding land
in gavelkind. [A.S. _gafol_, tribute; cog. with _giefan_, to give.]

GAVIAL, g[=a]'vi-al, _n._ the East Indian species of crocodile, with very
long slender muzzle. [Adapted from Hindustani _ghariy[=a]l_, a crocodile.]

GAVOTTE, ga-vot', n. a lively kind of dance, somewhat like a country-dance,
originally a dance of the _Gavotes_, the people of Gap, in the Upper Alps:
the music for such a dance.

GAWD, gawd, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as GAUD.

GAWK, gawk, _adj._ left, as in _gawk-handed_.--_ns._ GAWK'IHOOD,
GAWK'INESS, quality of being gawky.--_adj._ GAWK'Y, awkward, stupid,
ungainly.--_n._ a lout. [Prob. a contr. of _gaulick_-, _galloc_-,
_gallish_-(_handed_); most prob. not related to Fr. _gauche_.]

GAY, g[=a], _adj._ lively: bright: sportive, merry: wanton, dissipated, of
loose life: showy: (_prov._) spotted.--adv. (_Scot._) fairly,
considerably.--_ns._ GAI'ETY, GAY'ETY, GAY'NESS.--_advs._ GAI'LY, GAY'LY;
GAY'SOME, gladsome.--GAY SCIENCE, a rendering of _gai saber_, the Provençal
name for the art of poetry. [O. Fr. _gai_--Old High Ger. _wâhi_, pretty,
not _gâhi_, swift (Diez).]

GAYAL, GYAL, g[=i]'al, _n._ a kind of East Indian ox, long domesticated,
dark brown in colour, with short curved horns. [Hindi.]

GAY-YOU, g[=i]'-[=u], _n._ a narrow, flat-bottomed fishing-boat, of two or
three masts, used in Annam.

GAZE, g[=a]z, _v.i_, to look fixedly.--_n._ a fixed look: the object gazed
at--(_Spens._) GAZE'MENT.--_adj._ GAZE'FUL (_Spens._), looking
intently.--_ns._ GAZE'-HOUND, a hound that pursues by sight rather than
scent; GAZ'ER, one who gazes; GAZ'ING-STOCK, a person exposed to public
view, generally in a bad sense.--AT GAZE, in the attitude of gazing. [Prob.
cog. with obs. _gaw_, to stare, Ice. _gá_, to heed. Some compare the Sw.
_gasa_, to stare.]

GAZEBO, g[=a]-z[=e]'b[=o], _n._ a summer-house with a wide prospect.
[Humorously formed from _gaze_.]

GAZEL, gaz'el, _n._ a form of GHAZAL (q.v.).

GAZELLE, GAZEL, ga-zel', _n._ a small species of antelope with beautiful
dark eyes, found in Arabia and North Africa. [Fr.,--Ar. _ghaz[=a]l_, a

GAZETTE, ga-zet', _n._ a newspaper: one of the three official newspapers of
the United Kingdom, published in Edinburgh, London, and Dublin, with record
of every appointment in the public service.--_v.t._ to publish in a
gazette:--_pr.p._ gazett'ing; _pa.p._ gazett'ed.--_n._ GAZETTEER', a
geographical dictionary: (_orig._) a writer for a gazette, official
journalist.--_v.t._ to describe in gazetteers.--_adj._ GAZETTEE'RISH, like
a gazetteer in style.--APPEAR, HAVE ONE'S NAME, IN THE GAZETTE, to be
mentioned in one of the three official newspapers, esp. of bankrupts.
[Fr.,--It. _gazzetta_, a small coin; or from It. _gazzetta_, in the sense
of a magpie=a chatterer.]

GAZOGENE, gaz'o-j[=e]n, _n._ an instrument for manufacturing aerated
waters, usually for domestic use, by the action of an acid on an alkali
carbonate. [Fr., _gaz_, gas, Gr. _gen[=e]s_--_gignesthai_, to become.]

GAZON, ga-zon', _n._ a sod or piece of turf, used in fortification.--_n._
GAZOON', used erroneously by Hogg for a compact body of men. [Fr.,

GAZY, g[=a]'zi, _adj._ affording a wide prospect: given to gazing.

GEACH, g[=e]ch, _n._ (_slang_) a thief.--_v.t._ to steal.

GEAL, j[=e]'al, adj. pertaining to the earth regarded as a planet. [Gr.
_g[=e]_, earth.]

GEAL, j[=e]l, _v.i._ to congeal.

GEAN, g[=e]n, _n._ the European wild cherry. [O. Fr. _guigne_.]

GEAR, g[=e]r, _n._ a state of preparation: dress: harness: tackle:
(_mech._) connection by means of toothed wheels: (_obs._) a matter,
affair.--_v.t._ to put in gear, as machinery.--_p.adj._ GEARED, connected
with the motor by gearing.--_ns._ GEAR'ING, harness: working implements:
(_mech._) a train of toothed wheels and pinions; GEAR'-WHEEL, a wheel with
teeth or cogs which impart or transmit motion by acting on those of another
wheel; DRIV'ING-GEAR, those parts in a machine most nearly concerned in
imparting motion.--MULTIPLYING GEARING, a combination of cog-wheels for
imparting motion from wheels of larger to wheels of smaller diameter, by
which the rate of revolution is increased; OUT OF GEAR, out of running
order, unprepared; STRAIGHT GEARING, the name given when the planes of
motion are parallel--opposed to _Bevelled gearing_, when the direction is
changed (see BEVEL). [M. E. _gere_, prob. Ice. _gervi_; cf. A.S. _gearwe_,
Old High Ger. _garawi_, Eng. _yare_ and _gar_, v.]

GEASON, g[=e]'zn, _adj._ (_Spens._) rare: wonderful. [A.S. _g['æ]sne_,
_gésne_, wanting, barren.]

GEAT, j[=e]t, _n._ the hole in a mould through which the metal is poured in

GEBBIE, geb'i, _n._ (_Scot._) the stomach.

GEBUR, ge-b[=oo]r', _n._ a tenant-farmer in the early English community.

GECK, gek, _n._ a dupe: scorn, object of scorn.--_v.t._ to mock.--_v.i._ to
scoff at. [Prob. Low Ger. _geck_; Dut. _gek_, Ger. _geck_.]

GECKO, gek'[=o], _n._ one of a family of small dull-coloured lizards called
_Geckotidæ_. [Malay _g[=e]koq_.]

GED, ged, _n._ (_prov._) the pike or luce. [Ice. _gedda_.]

GEE, g[=e], _n._ (_prov._) a fit of ill-temper, usually in phrase 'to take
the gee.'

GEE, j[=e], _v.i._ of horses, to move to the offside--the right, the driver
standing on the left.--_v.t._ to cause so to move.--_v.i._ to go, to suit,
get on well.--_n._ GEE-GEE, a horse.--GEE UP, to proceed faster.

GEESE, _pl._ of _goose_.

GEËZ, g[=e]-ez', GIZ, g[=e]z, _n._ the ancient language of Ethiopia, a
Semitic tongue closely related to Arabic.

GEGG, geg, _n._ (_Scot._) a hoax, trick.--_v.t._ to hoax.--_n._ GEG'GERY,

GEHENNA, ge-hen'a, _n._ the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, in which the
Israelites sacrificed their children to Moloch, and to which, at a later
time, the refuse of the city was conveyed to be slowly burned--hence
(_N.T._) hell. [L.,--Heb. _Ge_, valley of, and _Hinnom_.]

GEISHA, g[=a]'sha, _n._ a Japanese dancing-girl.

GEIST, g[=i]st, _n._ spirit, any inspiring or dominating principle. [Ger.]

GELASTIC, jel-as'tik, _adj._ risible.

GELATINE, GELATIN, jel'a-tin, _n._ an animal substance which dissolves in
hot water and forms a jelly when cold.--_adj._ GELATIG'ENOUS, producing
gelatine.--_vs.t._ GELAT'IN[=A]TE, GELAT'IN[=I]SE, to make into gelatine or
jelly.--_vs.i._ to be converted into gelatine or jelly.--_ns._
form of gelatine; GELA'TINOID, like gelatine; GELAT'INOUS, resembling or
formed into jelly.--_n._ GEL[=A]'TION, solidification by cold.--EXPLOSIVE
GELATINE, a powerful explosive made by gently heating nitro-glycerine in a
water-bath, then dissolving gun-cotton in it. [Fr.,--It. _gelatina_,
_gelata_, jelly.]

GELD, geld, _n._ a historical term meaning money: tribute. [A.S. _geld_,
_gyld_, payment; Ice. _giald_, money.]

GELD, geld, _v.t._ to emasculate, castrate: to spay: to deprive of anything
essential, to enfeeble: to deprive of anything objectionable.--_ns._
GELD'ER; GELD'ING, act of castrating: a castrated animal, esp. a horse.
[Ice. _gelda_; Dan. _gilde_.]


GELID, jel'id, _adj._ icy cold: cold.--_adv._ GEL'IDLY.--_ns._ GEL'IDNESS,
GELID'ITY. [L. _gelidus_--_gelu_, frost.]

GELOTOMETER, jel-ot-om'e-ter, _n._ (_Landor_) a gauge for measuring

GELSEMIUM, jel-s[=e]'mi-um, _n._ the yellow or Cardina jasmine, a climbing
plant of the Atlantic Southern United States, having large fragrant
blossoms and perennial dark-green leaves. [It. _gelsomino_, jasmine.]

GELT, gelt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _geld_.

GELT, gelt, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as GILT.

GEM, jem, _n._ any precious stone, esp. when cut: anything extremely
valuable or attractive, a treasure.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to bud: to adorn with
gems: to bespangle:--_pr.p._ gem'ming; _pa.p._ gemmed.--_ns._
GEM'-CUT'TING, the art of cutting and polishing precious stones;
GEM'-ENGRAV'ING, the art of engraving figures on gems.--_adj._ GEM'MEOUS,
pertaining to gems.--_n._ GEM'MERY, gems generally.--_adj._ GEM'MY, full of
gems, brilliant. [A.S. _gim_; Old High Ger. _gimma_--L. _gemma_, a bud.]

GEMARA, ge-mär'a, _n._ the second part of the Talmud, consisting of
commentary and complement to the first part, the Mishna. [Aramaic,

GEMATRIA, ge-m[=a]'tri-a, _n._ a cabbalistic method of interpreting the
Hebrew Scriptures by interchanging words whose letters have the same
numerical value when added. [Rabbinical Heb.,--Gr. _ge[=o]metria_,

GEMEL-RING, jem'el-ring, _n._ a ring with two or more links.--_n._ GEM'EL,
a twin.--_adj._ GEMELLIP'AROUS, producing twins. [O. Fr. _gemel_ (Fr.
_jumeau_)--L. _gemellus_, dim. of _geminus_, twin, and _ring_.]

GEMINATE, jem'in-[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) in pairs.--_v.t._ (_rare_) to
double.--_n._ GEMIN[=A]'TION, a doubling: repetition of a word to add
emphasis: (_philol._) the doubling of a consonant originally single. [L.
_gemin[=a]re_, _[=a]tum_--_geminus_, twin.]

GEMINI, jem'i-n[=i], _n.pl._ the twins, a constellation containing the two
bright stars Castor and Pollux.--_adj._ GEM'INOUS (_bot._), double, in
pairs.--_n._ GEM'INY (_Shak._), twins, a pair: used as a mild oath or
interjection, from the common Latin oath _O Gemini_, or simply
_Gemini_--spelt also _geminy_, _gemony_, _jiminy_. [L., pl. of _geminus_,

GEMMAN, jem'an, _n._ gentleman.--Also GEM'MAN.

GEMMATION, jem-m[=a]'shun, _n._ (_bot._) act or time of budding:
arrangement of buds on the stalk.--_n._ GEM'MA, a bud:--_pl._
GEM'MÆ.--_adjs._ GEMM[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to leaf-buds; GEM'M[=A]TE,
having buds; GEM'MATIVE; GEMMIF'EROUS, producing buds.--_n._
GEMMIPAR'ITY.--_adj._ GEMMIP'AROUS (_zool._), reproducing by buds growing
on the body.--_n._ GEM'M[=U]LE, a little gem or leaf-bud.--_adj._
GEMMULIF'EROUS, bearing gemmules. [Fr.,--L. _gemm[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

GEMOT, GEMOTE, ge-m[=o]t', _n._ a meeting or assembly. [A.S. _gemót_. Cf.

GEMSBOK, jemz'bok, _n._ a species of antelope, found in South Africa, about
the size of a stag, with long straight horns. [Dut.]

GENAPPE, je-nap', _n._ a smooth worsted yarn used with silk in fringes,
braid, &c. [_Genappe_ in Belgium.]

GENDARME, jang-darm', _n._ originally a mounted lancer, but since the
Revolution one of a corps of military police, divided into legions and
companies:--_pl._ GENDARMES', GENSDARMES'.--_n._ GENDAR'MERIE, the armed
police of France. [Fr. _gendarme_, sing. from pl. _gens d'armes_,
men-at-arms--_gens_, people, _de_, of, _armes_, arms.]

GENDER, jen'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to beget.--_v.i._ (_B._) to copulate. [An
abbrev. of _engender_.]

GENDER, jen'd[.e]r, _n._ kind, esp. with regard to sex: (_gram._) the
distinction of nouns according to sex. [Fr. _genre_--L. _genus_, _generis_,
a kind, kin.]

GENEALOGY, jen-e-al'o-ji, _n._ history of the descent of families: the
pedigree of a particular person or family.--_adj._ GENEALOG'ICAL.--_adv._
GENEALOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ GENEAL'OGISE, to investigate or treat of
genealogy.--_n._ GENEAL'OGIST, one who studies or traces genealogies or
descents.--GENEALOGICAL TREE, the lineage of a family or person under the
form of a tree with roots, branches, &c. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.
_genealogia_--_genea_, birth, _legein_, to speak of.]


GENERAL, jen'[.e]r-al, _adj._ relating to a genus or whole class: including
many species: not special: not restricted: common: prevalent: public:
loose: vague.--_n._ a class embracing many species: an officer who is head
over a whole department: a military officer who commands a body of men not
less than a brigade (often _general officer_): the chief commander of an
army in service: (_R.C. Church_) the head of a religious order, responsible
only to the Pope: (_Shak._) the public, the vulgar.--_n._ GENERAL'[=E],
esp. in _pl._ GENERALIA, general principles.--_adj._
include under a general term: to infer (the nature of a class) from one or
a few instances.--_v.i._ to reason inductively.--_n._ GENERAL'ITY.--_advs._
GEN'ERALLY, GEN'ERAL (_obs._), in a general or collective manner or sense:
in most cases: upon the whole.--_n._ GEN'ERALSHIP, the position of a
military commander: military tactics.--GENERAL ASSEMBLY (see ASSEMBLY);
GENERAL EPISTLE, one addressed to the whole Church (same as CATHOLIC
EPISTLE); GENERAL PRACTITIONER, a physician who devotes himself to general
practice rather than to special diseases; GENERAL PRINCIPLE, a principle to
which there are no exceptions within its range of application; GENERAL
SERVANT, a servant whose duties are not special, but embrace domestic work
of every kind.--IN GENERAL, mostly, as a general rule. [O. Fr.,--L.

GENERALISSIMO, jen-[.e]r-al-is'i-mo, _n._ the chief general or commander of
an army of two or more divisions, or of separate armies. [It.]

GENERATE, jen'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to produce: to bring into life: to
originate.--_adj._ GEN'ERABLE, that may be generated or produced.--_ns._
GEN'ERANT (_math._), a line, point, or figure that produces another figure
by its motion; GENER[=A]'TION, a producing or originating: a single stage
in natural descent: the people of the same age or period: offspring,
progeny, race: (_pl._) genealogy, history (_B._); GENER[=A]'TIONISM,
traducianism.--_adj._ GEN'ER[=A]TIVE, having the power of generating or
producing.--_ns._ GEN'ER[=A]TOR, begetter or producer: the principal sound
in music; GEN'ER[=A]TRIX (_geom._), the point, line, or surface which, by
its motion, generates another magnitude.--_adjs._ GENET'IC, -AL, pertaining
to genesis or production.--_adv._ GENET'ICALLY.--_ns._ GEN'ETRIX,
GEN'ITRIX, a female parent; GEN'ITOR, a progenitor; GEN'ITURE,
birth.--ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS, a complication in the life-history of
plants, when the organism produces offspring unlike itself, but giving rise
in turn to forms like the original parents; SPONTANEOUS GENERATION, the
origination of living from non-living matter: abiogenesis. [L.
_gener[=a]re_, -_[=a]tum_--_genus_, a kind.]


GENEROUS, jen'[.e]r-us, _adj._ of a noble nature: courageous: liberal:
bountiful: invigorating in its nature, as wine: (_obs._) nobly
born.--_adv._ GEN'EROUSLY.--_ns._ GEN'EROUSNESS, GENEROS'ITY, nobleness or
liberality of nature: (_arch._) nobility of birth. [Fr. _généreux_--L.
_generosus_, of noble birth--_genus_, birth.]

GENESIS, jen'e-sis, _n._ generation, creation, or production: the first
book of the Bible, so called from its containing an account of the
Creation:--_pl._ GEN'ES[=E]S.--_adjs._ GENES'IAC, -AL, GENESIT'IC,
pertaining to Genesis. [L.,--Gr.,--_gignesthai_, to beget.]


GENET, jen'et, _n._ a carnivorous animal, allied to the civet, of a gray
colour, marked with black or brown, a native of Africa, Asia, and Southern
Europe: its fur, made into muffs and tippets.--Also GEN'ETTE. [Fr.
_genette_--Sp. _gineta_--Ar. _jarnait_, a genet.]

GENETHLIAC, -AL, j[=e]-neth'li-ak, -al, _adj._ pertaining to a birthday or
nativity.--_n._ a birthday poem.--_n._ GENETHL[=I]'ACON, a birthday
ode.--_adjs._ GENETHLIALOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ GENETHLIAL'OGY, the art of
casting nativities.

GENEVA, je-n[=e]'va, _n._ a spirit distilled from grain and flavoured with
juniper-berries, also called _Hollands_.--_n._ GENEVETTE', a wine made from
wild fruits flavoured with juniper-berries. [Dut. _genever_, _jenever_, O.
Fr. _genevre_ (Fr. _genièvre_)--L. _juniperus_, the juniper; corrupted to
_Geneva_ by confusion with the town of that name. See GIN.]

GENEVAN, j[=e]-n[=e]'van, _adj._ pertaining to _Geneva_.--_n._ an
inhabitant of Geneva: an adherent of Genevan or Calvinistic
theology.--_adjs._ and _ns._ GEN[=E]'VAN, GENEV[=E]SE'.--_n._
GEN[=E]'VANISM, Calvinism.--GENEVA BIBLE, a version of the Bible with racy
notes produced by English exiles at Geneva in 1560; GENEVA CONVENTION, an
international agreement of 1865 providing for the neutrality of hospitals,
and the security of sanitary officers, naval and military chaplains; GENEVA
CROSS, a red cross on a white ground displayed for protection in war of
persons serving in hospitals, &c.; GENEVA GOWN, the dark, loose preaching
gown affected by the early Geneva reformers, and still the common form of
pulpit-gown among Presbyterians; GENEVAN THEOLOGY, so called from Calvin's
residence in Geneva and the establishment of his doctrines there.

GENIAL, j[=e]'ni-al, _adj._ pertaining to generation, producing: cheering:
kindly: sympathetic: healthful.--_v.t._ G[=E]'NIALISE, to impart geniality
to.--_ns._ GENIAL'ITY, G[=E]'NIALNESS.--_adv._ G[=E]'NIALLY. [Fr.--L.
_genialis_, from _genius_, the spirit of social enjoyment.]

GENIAL, jen'i-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to the chin. [Gr.
_geneion_--_genys_, the jaw.]

GENICULATE, -D, je-nik'[=u]-l[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) bent abruptly like
the knee: jointed: knotted.--_v.t._ GENIC'ULATE, to form joints in.--_n._
GENICUL[=A]'TION. [L. _genicul[=a]re_, -[=a]tum--_geniculum_, a little
knee--_genu_, the knee.]

GENIE, j[=e]'ni, _n._ a jinnee. [Fr. _génie_--L. _genius_.]

GENIPAP, jen'i-pap, _n._ a large West Indian tree with excellent fruit.

GENISTA, j[=e]-nis'ta, _n._ a large genus of shrubby, leguminous plants,
with simple leaves and yellow flowers. [L. _genista_, broom.]

GENITAL, jen'i-tal, _adj._ belonging to generation or the act of
producing.--_n.pl._ GEN'ITALS (also GENIT[=A]'LIA), the exterior organs of
generation. [L. _genitalis_--_gign[)e]re_, _genitum_, to beget.]

GENITIVE, jen'i-tiv, _adj._ (_gram._) applied to a case properly denoting
the class or kind to which a thing belongs, represented in modern English
by the possessive case.--_adj._ GENIT[=I]'VAL. [L. _genitivus_
(_gign[)e]re_, _genitum_, to beget), as if indicating origin, a
mistranslation of Gr. _genikos_--_genos_, a class.]

GENIUS, j[=e]n'yus, or j[=e]'ni-us, _n._ the special inborn faculty of any
individual: special taste or disposition qualifying for a particular
employment: a man having such power of mind: a good or evil spirit,
supposed by the ancients to preside over every person, place, and thing,
and esp. to preside over a man's destiny from his birth: prevailing spirit
or tendency: type or generic exemplification--(_obs._) G[=E]N'IO:--_pl._
GENIUSES (j[=e]n'yus-ez).--GENIUS LOCI (L.), the presiding divinity of a
place:--_pl._ GENII (j[=e]'ni-[=i]). [L. _genius_--_gign[)e]re_, _genitum_,
to beget.]

GENOESE, je-n[=o]-[=e]z', _adj._ relating to _Genoa_--also GENOVESE'.--_n._
an inhabitant of Genoa.

GENOUILLÈRE, zhe-n[=oo]-y[=a]r, _n._ the knee-piece in armour.

GENRE, zhangr, _n._ kind, style: a style of painting scenes from familiar
or rustic life. [Fr. _genre_, kind--L. _genus_.]

GENS, jenz, _n._ in ancient Rome, a clan including several families
descended from a common ancestor: a tribe:--_pl._ GEN'TES. [L.]

GENT, jent, _adj._ (_Spens._) noble. [O. Fr.,--L. _gentilis_, gentle.]

GENT, jent, _n._ familiar abbrev. of _gentleman_: one who apes the

GENTEEL, jen-t[=e]l', _adj._ well-bred: graceful in manners or in form:
fashionable.--_adj._ GENTEEL'ISH, somewhat genteel.--_adv._
manners and usages of genteel or well-bred society. [Fr. _gentil_--L.
_gentilis_, belonging to the same _gens_, or clan--later, well-bred.]

GENTIAN, jen'shan, _n._ a plant the root of which is used in medicine, said
by Pliny to have been brought into use by _Gentius_, king of Illyria,
conquered by the Romans in 167 B.C.--_ns._ GENTIANEL'LA, a name for several
species of gentian, esp. _Gentiana acaulis_, with deep-blue flowers;
GEN'TIANINE, a yellow crystalline bitter compound obtained from the yellow

GENTILE, jen't[=i]l, _n._ (_B._) any one not a Jew: any one not a
Christian.--_adj._ of or belonging to a _gens_ or clan: belonging to any
nation but the Jews: (_gram._) denoting a race or country.--_adjs._
GENTIL'IC, tribal; GEN'TILISH, heathenish.--_n._ GEN'TILISM,
paganism.--_adjs._ GENTILI'TIAL, GENTILI'TIAN, GENTILI'TIOUS, pertaining to
a gens. [L. _gentilis_--_gens_, a nation.]

GENTLE, jen'tl, _adj._ well-born: mild and refined in manners: mild in
disposition: amiable: soothing: moderate: gradual.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
make gentle.--_n._ (_obs._) a person of good family: (_Shak._) a trained
falcon: the larva of the flesh-fly, used as a bait in angling.--_n._
GENTILESSE', the quality of being gentle, courtesy.--_v.t._ GEN'TILISE, to
raise to the class of gentleman.--_n._ GENTIL'ITY, good birth or
extraction: good breeding: politeness of manners: genteel people: marks of
gentility.--_n.pl._ GEN'TLEFOLK, people of good family.--_adj._
GEN'TLE-HEART'ED, having a gentle or kind disposition.--_n._ GEN'TLEHOOD,
position or character attaching to gentle birth.--_n._ GEN'TLENESS.--_adv._
GENT'LY.--_n._ GEN'TRICE, gentle birth, courtesy.--GENTLE READER, courteous
reader, an old-fashioned phrase common in the prefaces of books.--THE
GENTLE CRAFT, a phrase used to specify shoe-making, also angling; THE
GENTLE (or GENTLER) SEX, women in general as opposed to the _stern_ or
_sterner sex_. [Fr.,--L. _gentilis_. See GENTEEL.]

GENTLEMAN, jen'tl-man, _n._ a man of good birth: one who without a title
wears a coat of arms: more generally every man above the rank of yeoman,
including the nobility: one above the trading classes: a man of refined
manners: a polite term used for man in general: (_Shak._) a
body-servant:--_pl._ GEN'TLEMEN--also a word of address:--_fem._
GEN'TLEWOMAN.--_ns._ GEN'TLEMAN-AT-ARMS, a member of the royal bodyguard,
instituted in 1509, and now composed of military officers of service and
distinction only; GEN'TLEMAN-COMM'ONER, a member of the higher class of
commoners at Oxford University; GEN'TLEMANHOOD, GEN'TLEMANSHIP, the
condition or character of a gentleman.--_adjs._ GEN'TLEMANLIKE,
GEN'TLEMANLY, well-bred, refined, generous; GEN'TLEMANLINESS.--_adj._
GEN'TLEWOMANLY, like a refined and well-bred woman.--_n._
GEN'TLEWOMANLINESS.--GENTLEMAN FARMER, a landowner who resides on his
estate and superintends the cultivation of his own soil; GENTLEMAN OF THE
CHAPEL-ROYAL, a lay-singer who assists the priests in the choral service of
the royal chapel; GENTLEMAN'S GENTLEMAN, a valet, or gentleman's
body-servant; GENTLEMAN USHER, a gentleman who serves as an usher at court,
or as an attendant on a person of rank.

GENTOO, jen-t[=oo]', _n._ a Hindu. [Port. _gentio_, a Gentile.]

GENTRY, jen'tri, _n._ the class of people below the rank of nobility:
(_coll._) people of a particular, esp. an inferior, stamp: (_Shak._) noble
birth. [Apparently an altered form of _gentrice_, from O. Fr. _genterise_,
_gentelise_, formed from adj. _gentil_, gentle.]

GENTY, jen'ti, _adj._ (_Scot._) neat, pretty, graceful.

GENUFLECT, jen-[=u]-flekt', _v.i._ to bend the knee in worship or
respect.--_ns._ GENUFLEC'TION, GENUFLEX'ION. [L. _genu_, the knee,
_flect[)e]re_, to bend.]

GENUINE, jen'[=u]-in, _adj._ natural, not spurious or adulterated: real:
pure: (_zool._) conformable to type.--_adv._ GEN'UINELY.--_n._
GEN'UINENESS. [L. _genuinus_--_gign[)e]re_, to beget.]

GENUS, j[=e]'nus, _n._ (_zool._) a group consisting of a number of species
closely connected by common characters or natural affinity: (_log._) a
class of objects comprehending several subordinate species:--_pl._ GENERA
(jen'[.e]ra).--_adjs._ GENER'IC, -AL, pertaining to a genus: relating to
gender: of a general nature, not special: distinctly
characteristic.--_adv._ GENER'ICALLY. [L. _genus_, _generis_, birth; cog.
with Gr. _genos_--_gignesthai_.]

GEO, GIO, gy[=o], _n._ (_prov._) a gully, creek. [Ice. _gjá_.]

GEOCENTRIC, -AL, j[=e]-o-sen'trik, -al, _adj._ having the earth for its
centre: (_astron._) as seen or measured from the earth.--_adv._
GEOCEN'TRICALLY.--_n._ GEOCEN'TRICISM. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _kentron_,
a centre.]

GEOCYCLIC, j[=e]-[=o]-sik'lik, _adj._ pertaining to the revolutions of the

GEODE, j[=e]'[=o]d, _n._ (_min._) a rounded nodule of stone with a hollow
interior.--_adj._ GEODIF'EROUS, bearing or producing geodes. [Fr.,--Gr.
_ge[=o]d[=e]s_, earth-like, earthen--_g[=e]_, earth, _eidos_, form.]

GEODESY, je-od'e-si, _n._ a science whose object is to measure the earth
and its parts on a large scale.--_ns._ GEOD[=E]'SIAN, GEOD'ESIST, one
skilled in geodesy.--_adjs._ GEODES'IC, -AL, GEODET'IC, -AL, pertaining to
or determined by geodesy. [Fr. _géodésie_--Gr. _ge[=o]daisia_--_g[=e]_, the
earth, _daiein_, to divide.]

GEOGNOSY, je-og'no-si, _n._ the study of the materials of the earth's
substance, now frequently called _Petrography_--also GEOGN[=O]'SIS.--_n._
G[=E]'OGNOST.--_adjs._ GEOGNOST'IC, -AL.--_adv._ GEOGNOST'ICALLY. [Fr.
_géognosie_--Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _gn[=o]sis_, knowledge.]

GEOGONY, je-og'o-ni, _n._ the doctrine of the production or formation of
the earth--also GEOG'ENY.--_adj._ GEOGON'IC. [Gr., _g[=e]_, the earth,
_gon[=e]_, generation.]

GEOGRAPHY, je-og'ra-fi, _n._ the science which describes the surface of the
earth and its inhabitants: a book containing a description of the
earth.--_n._ GEOG'RAPHER.--_adjs._ GEOGRAPH'IC, -AL, relating to
DISTRIBUTION).--DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY, that part of geography which
consists in a statement of facts; HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY, that part of
geography which investigates the changes which have occurred in the
governmental control of territory; PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (see PHYSICAL);
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY, geography that gives an account of the different
communities of mankind. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _ge[=o]graphia_--_g[=e]_, the
earth, _graph[=e]_, a description--_graphein_, to write.]

GEOLATRY, j[=e]-ol'a-tri, _n._ earth-worship. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth,
_latreia_, worship.]

GEOLOGY, je-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science relating to the history and
development of the earth's crust, together with the several floras and
faunas which have successively clothed and peopled its surface.--_ns._
GEOLO'GIAN, GEOL'OGIST.--_adjs._ GEOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to
geology.--_adv._ GEOLOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ GEOL'OGISE.--DYNAMICAL GEOLOGY, the
study of natural operations based on the belief that the effects of
Nature's agents in the present will further interpret the records of such
actions in the past; STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY, that geology which treats of the
mode in which rocks are built up in the earth's crust. [Fr. _géologie_--Gr.
_g[=e]_, the earth, _logia_, a discourse.]

GEOMANCY, j[=e]'o-man-si, _n._ divination by figures or lines drawn on the
earth.--_n._ G[=E]'OMANCER.--_adj._ GE'OMANTIC, pertaining to geomancy.
[Fr. _géomancie_--Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _manteia_, divination.]

GEOMETRY, je-om'e-tri, _n._ that branch of mathematics which treats of
magnitude and its relations: a text-book of geometry.--_ns._ GEOM'ETER,
GEOMETRI'CIAN, one skilled in geometry.--_adjs._ GEOMET'RIC, -AL.--_adv._
GEOMET'RICALLY.--_v.i._ GEOM'ETRISE, to study geometry.--_n._ GEOM'ETRIST.
[Fr. _géométrie_--L., Gr. _geometria_--_g[=e]_, the earth, _metron_, a

GEOMYS, j[=e]'[=o]-mis, _n._ the typical genus of _Geomyidæ_, the pouched
rats or pocket-gophers. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _mys_, mouse.]

GEONOMY, j[=e]-on'o-mi, _n._ the science of the physical laws relating to
the earth.--_adj._ GEONOM'IC. [Gr. _g[=e]_, earth, _nomos_, law.]

GEOPHAGY, j[=e]-of'a-ji, _n._ the act or practice of eating earth--also
GEOPH'AGISM.--_n._ GEOPH'AGIST.--_adj._ GEOPH'AGOUS. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the
earth, _phagein_, to eat.]

GEOPONIC, -AL, j[=e]-o-pon'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to tilling the earth
or to agriculture.--_n.pl._ GEOPON'ICS, the science of agriculture. [Fr.
_géoponique_--Gr. _ge[=o]ponikos_--_g[=e]_, the earth, _ponos_, labour.]

GEORAMA, j[=e]-o-rä'ma, _n._ an apparatus for exhibiting the seas, lakes,
rivers, and mountains on the earth's surface. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth,
_horama_, a view--_horaein_, to see.]

GEORDIE, j[=o]r'di, _n._ a guinea, from the figure of St _George_ upon the
back: a safety-lamp for miners invented by _George_ Stephenson: a
coal-pitman, a collier-boat.

GEORGE, jorj, _n._ a jewelled figure of St _George_ slaying the dragon,
worn by Knights of the Garter.

GEORGIAN, jorj'i-an, _adj._ relating to the reigns of the four _Georges_,
kings of Great Britain: belonging to _Georgia_ in the Caucasus, its people,
language, &c.: pertaining to the American State of _Georgia_.--Also _n._

GEORGIC, jorj'ik, _adj._ relating to agriculture or rustic affairs.--_n._ a
poem on husbandry. [L. _georgicus_--Gr. _ge[=o]rgikos_--_ge[=o]rgia_,
agriculture--_g[=e]_, the earth, _ergon_, a work.]

GEOSCOPY, j[=e]-os'k[=o]-pi, _n._ knowledge of the earth or its soil gained
from observation. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _skopein_, to view.]

GEOSELENIC, j[=e]-o-se-len'ik, _adj._ relating to the earth and the moon in
their mutual relations. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _sel[=e]n[=e]_, the moon.]

GEOSTATIC, j[=e]-o-stat'ik, _adj._ capable of sustaining the pressure of
earth from all sides.--_n.pl._ GEOSTAT'ICS, the statics of rigid bodies.
[Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _statikos_, causing to stand.]

GEOTECTONIC, j[=e]-o-tek-ton'ik, _adj._ relating to the structure of the
earth. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _tekt[=o]n_, a builder.]

GEOTHERMIC, j[=e]-o-ther'mik, _adj._ pertaining to the internal heat of the
earth.--_n._ GEOTHERMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring subterranean
temperatures. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _thermos_, heat.]

GEOTROPISM, j[=e]-ot'ro-pizm, _n._ (_bot._) tendency to growth
downward.--_adj._ GEOTROP'IC. [Gr. _g[=e]_, the earth, _tropos_, a

GERAH, g[=e]'ra, _n._ (_B._) the smallest Hebrew weight and coin, 1/20th of
a shekel, worth about 1½d. [Heb. _g[=e]r[=a]h_.]

GERANIUM, je-r[=a]'ni-um, _n._ a genus of plants with seed-vessels like a
crane's bill. [L.,--Gr. _geranion_--_geranos_, a crane.]

GERATOLOGY, jer-at-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science of the phenomena of decadence.
[Gr. _g[=e]ras_, old age, _logia_, discourse.]

GERBE, jerb, _n._ something resembling a sheaf of wheat: a kind of
firework. [Fr.]

GERENT, j[=e]'rent, _n._ one who holds an office, a manager, ruler.--_adj._

GERFALCON, GYRFALCON, j[.e]r'fawl-kon, -fawk'n, _n._ a large falcon, found
in the northern regions of both the Old and New Worlds. [O. Fr.
_gerfaucon_--Low L. _gyrofalco_, most prob. Old High Ger. _gîr_, a vulture
(Ger. _geier_). See FALCON.]

GERM, j[.e]rm, _n._ a rudimentary form of a living thing, whether a plant
or animal: (_bot._) the seed-bud of a plant: a shoot: that from which
anything springs, the origin: a first principle.--_v.i._ to put forth buds,
sprout.--_n._ GERM'ICIDE, that which destroys germs. [Fr. _germe_--L.
_germen_, a bud.]

GERMAN, j[.e]r'man, _adj._ of the first degree, as _cousins_ _german_:
closely allied.--_n._ one from the same stock or closely allied.--_adj._
GERMANE', nearly related: relevant, appropriate. [O. Fr. _germain_--L.
_germanus_, prob. for _germinanus_--_germen_, _-inis_, origin.]

GERMAN, j[.e]r'man, _n._ a native of Germany; the German language:--_pl._
GER'MANS.--_adj._ of or from Germany.--_adjs._ GERMANESQUE', marked by
German characteristics; GERMAN'IC, pertaining to Germany.--_adv._
GERMAN'ICALLY.--_v.i._ GER'MANISE, to show German qualities.--_adj._
GER'MANISH, somewhat German in qualities.--_ns._ GER'MANISM, an idiom of
the German language; GER'MANIST.--_adj._ GERMANIS'TIC, pertaining to the
study of German.--_n._ GER'MAN-SIL'VER, an alloy of copper, nickel, and
zinc, white like silver, and first made in Germany.--HIGH GERMAN, the
variety of Teutonic speech, originally confined to 'High' or Southern
Germany, but now accepted as the literary language throughout the whole of
Germany; LOW GERMAN, properly _Plattdeutsch_, the general name for the
dialects of Germany which are not High German, but also applied by
philologists to all the West Germanic dialects except High German
(including English, Dutch, Frisian), and formerly in a still wider sense
including also Gothic and Scandinavian. [L. _Germani_, 'shouters,' from
Celt. _gairm_, a loud cry; or 'neighbours'--i.e. to the Gauls, from Celt.
(Old Ir.) _gair_, a neighbour.]

GERMANDER, j[.e]r'man-d[.e]r, _n._ a large genus of labiate herbs with
aromatic, bitter, and stomachic properties. [Low L. _germandra_--Gr.
_chamandrya_, _chamaidrys_--_chamai_, on the ground, _drys_, oak.]

GERMANIUM, j[.e]r-m[=a]'ni-um, _n._ an element discovered in 1885 in

GERMEN, j[.e]rm'en, _n._ a disused botanical synonym for Ovary
(q.v.)--(_Shak._) GERM'IN.--_adj._ GERM'INAL, pertaining to a germ. [See

GERMINAL, zh[=a]r-m[=e]-nal', _n._ the seventh month of the French
revolutionary calendar, March 21-April 19.

GERMINATE, j[.e]rm'in-[=a]t, _v.i._ to spring from a germ: to begin to
grow.--_v.t._ to produce.--_adj._ GERM'INANT, sprouting: sending forth
germs or buds.--_n._ GERMIN[=A]'TION.--_adj._ GERM'INATIVE. [L.
_germin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_germen_, a bud.]

GERN, j[.e]rn, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to grind or yawn.

GERONTOCRACY, jer-on-tok'ra-si, _n._ government by old men. [Gr.
_ger[=o]n_, an old man, _kratos_, power.]

GEROPIGIA, jer-o-pij'i-a, _n._ a mixture of grape-juice, brandy, &c., used
to sophisticate port-wine. [Port.]

GERRYMANDER, jer-i-man'der, _v.t._ (_Amer._) to rearrange the voting
districts in the interests of a particular party or candidate: to
manipulate facts, arguments, &c. so as to reach undue conclusions.--_n._ an
arrangement of the above nature. [Formed from the name of Governor Elbridge
_Gerry_ (1744-1814) and _Salamander_, from the likeness to that animal of
the gerrymandered map of Massachusetts in 1811.]

GERUND, jer'und, _n._ a part of the Latin verb which has the value of a
verbal noun--e.g. _amandum_, loving.--_ns._ GER'UND-GRIND'ER, a teacher,
tutor; GER'UND-GRIND'ING.--_adj._ GERUND'IAL.--_n._ GERUND'IVE, the future
passive participle of a Latin verb. [L. _gerundium_--_ger[)e]re_, to bear.]

GERVAO, ger-vä'o _n._ a small medicinal verbenaceous shrub of the West
Indies, &c. [Braz.]

GESSO, jes'[=o], _n._ a plaster surface, prepared as a ground for painting.

GEST, jest, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as GIST.

GEST, jest, _n._ an exploit: demeanour, bearing: a tale of adventure, a
romance.--GESTA ROMANORUM ('deeds of the Romans'), the title of a
collection of short stories and legends in Latin, with moralisations
appended, which probably took its present form in England about the
beginning of the 14th century. [L. _gesta_, things done--_ger[)e]re_,
_gestum_, to bear.]

GESTATION, jes-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of carrying the young in the womb,
pregnancy.--_adjs._ GES'TANT, laden; GES'TATORY, pertaining to gestation.
[Fr.,--L. _gestation-em_--_gest[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to carry--_ger[)e]re_,
to bear.]

GESTICULATE, jes-tik'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to make gestures when speaking: to
play antic tricks.--_adj._ GES'TIC, pertaining to motion, esp.
dancing.--_ns._ GESTICUL[=A]'TION, act of making gestures in speaking: a
gesture; GESTIC'UL[=A]TOR, one who makes gestures.--_adj._
GESTIC'UL[=A]TORY, representing or abounding in gesticulations. [L.
_gesticul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_--_gesticulus_, dim. of _gestus_,
gesture--_ger[)e]re_, to carry.]

GESTURE, jes't[=u]r, _n._ a posture, or movement of the body: an action
expressive of sentiment or passion: (_Shak._) behaviour.--_adj._ GES'TURAL.
[Low L. _gestura_--L. _gestus_, from L. _ger[)e]re_, to carry.]

GET, get, _v.t._ to obtain: to seize: to procure or cause to be: to beget
offspring: to learn: to persuade: (_B._) to betake, to carry.--_v.i._ to
arrive or put one's self in any place, state, or condition: to
become:--_pr.p._ get'ting; _pa.t._ got; _pa.p._ got, (_obs._)
got'ten.--_ns._ GET'TER, one who gets or obtains: one who begets; GET'TING,
a gaining: anything gained: procreation; GET'-UP, equipment: general
appearance.--GET AHEAD, ALONG, to make progress, advance; GET AT, to reach,
attain; GET OFF, to escape; GET ON, to proceed, advance; GET OUT, to
produce: to go away; GET OVER, to surmount; GET ROUND, to circumvent: to
persuade, talk over; GET THROUGH, to finish; GET UP, to arise, to ascend:
to arrange, prepare. [A.S. _gitan_, to get.]

GEUM, j[=e]'um, _n._ a genus of perennial herbs, of order _Rosaceæ_,
contains the avens or herb-bennet, &c. [L.]

GEWGAW, g[=u]'gaw, _n._ a toy: a bauble.--_adj._ showy without value. [Acc.
to Skeat, a reduplicated form of A.S. _gifan_, to give; preserved also in
Northern Eng., as _giff-gaff_, interchange of intercourse.]

GEY (_Scot._). See GAY.

GEYSER, g[=i]s[.e]r, _n._ a hot spring, as in Iceland, which spouts water
into the air. [Ice., _geysa_, to gush.]

GHAST, gast, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to strike aghast: to affright.--_adj._
GHAST'FUL (_Spens._), dreary, dismal.--_adv._ GHAST'FULLY,
frightfully.--_ns._ GHAST'LINESS, GHAST'NESS (_Shak._).--_adj._ GHAST'LY,
death-like: hideous. [A.S. _g['æ]stlic_, terrible. See AGHAST.]

GHAT, GHAUT, gawt, _n._ in India, a mountain-pass: a chain of mountains:
landing-stairs for bathers on the sides of a river or tank. [Hind.

GHAZAL, gaz'al, _n._ a form of Persian verse in which the first two lines
rhyme, and for this rhyme a new one must be found in the second line of
each succeeding couplet: a piece of music in which a simple theme is
constantly recurring.--Also GAZ'EL, GHAZ'EL. [Pers. _arghazel_, a


GHAZI, gä'z[=e], _n._ a veteran Mohammedan soldier, one who has fought for
the faith. [Ar., 'a warrior.']

GHEBER, GHEBRE, g[=e]'b[.e]r, _n._ Same as GUEBRE.

GHEE, g[=e], _n._ an Indian clarified butter, generally prepared from
buffaloes' milk. [Hind. _gh[=i]_.]

GHERKIN, g[.e]r'kin, _n._ a small cucumber used for pickling. [Dut.
_agurkje_, a gherkin; a word of Eastern origin, as in Pers. _khiyár_, a
cucumber, Byzantine _angourion_, a water-melon.]

GHETTO, get'[=o], _n._ the Jews' quarter in Italian cities, to which they
used to be strictly confined. [It.]

GHIBELLINE, gib'e-lin, _n._ one of a party in Italy in the Middle Ages
which supported the imperial authority, as opposed to the Guelfs. [See

GHOST, g[=o]st, _n._ the soul of man: a spirit appearing after death:
(_Shak._) a dead body: (_slang_) one who writes a statesman's speeches for
him, &c.--_v.i._ to appear to.--_adj._ GHOST'-LIKE.--_n._
GHOST'LINESS.--_adj._ GHOST'LY, spiritual, religious: pertaining to
apparitions.--_ns._ GHOST'-MOTH, a species of moth very common in Britain,
its caterpillar destructive to hop-gardens; GHOST'-ST[=O]'RY, a story in
which ghosts figure; GHOST'-WORD, a fictitious word that has originated in
the blunder of a scribe or printer--common in dictionaries.--GIVE UP THE
GHOST (_B._), to die.--HOLY GHOST, the Holy Spirit, the third person in the
Trinity. [A.S. _gást_; Ger._ geist_.]

GHOUL, g[=oo]l, _n._ an Eastern demon which devours the dead.--_adj._
GHOUL'ISH. [Pers.]

GHYLL, an unnecessary variant of gill, a ravine.

GIAMBEAUX, zham'b[=o], _n.pl._ (_Spens._) armour for the legs.
[Fr.,--_jambe_, leg.]

GIANT, j[=i]'ant, _n._ an individual whose stature and bulk exceed those of
his species or race generally: a person of extraordinary powers:--_fem._
G[=i]'antess.--_adj._ gigantic.--_ns._ G[=I]'ANTISM, G[=i]'antship, the
quality or character of a giant.--_adj._ G[=I]'ANTLY, giant-like.--_n._
G[=I]'ANT-POW'DER, a kind of dynamite.--_adj._ G[=I]'ANT-RUDE (_Shak._),
enormously rude or uncivil.--_n._ G[=I]'ANTRY, giants collectively. [O. Fr.
_geant_ (Fr. _géant_)--L.,--Gr. _gigas_, _gigantos_.]

GIAOUR, jowr, _n._ infidel, a term applied by the Turks to all who are not
of their own religion. [Turk. _jawr_--Ar. _káfir_, an infidel.]

GIB, jib, _n._ the projecting arm of a crane: a wedge-shaped piece of metal
holding another in place, &c.--_v.t._ to fasten with such.

GIB, jib, _n._ a cat--Also GIB'-CAT (_Shak._). [A corr. of _Gilbert_, as
'_Tom-cat_,' hardly for _glib_=_lib_.]

GIBBE, jib, _n._ (_Shak._) an old worn-out animal.

GIBBERISH, gib'[.e]r-ish, _n._ rapid, gabbling talk: unmeaning
words.--_adj._ unmeaning.--_v.i._ GIBB'ER, to speak senselessly or
inarticulately.--_n._ GIBB'LE-GABBLE, gabble. [See GABBLE.]

GIBBET, jib'et, _n._ a gallows on which criminals were suspended after
execution: the projecting beam of a crane.--_v.t._ to expose on a gibbet.
[O. Fr. _gibet_, a stick; origin unknown.]

GIBBON, gib'un, _n._ a genus of tailless anthropoid apes, with very long
arms, natives of the East Indies.

GIBBOUS, gib'us, _adj._ hump-backed: swelling, convex, as the moon when
nearly full--also GIBB'OSE.--_ns._ GIBBOS'ITY, GIBB'OUSNESS.--_adv._
GIBB'OUSLY. [L. _gibbosus_=_gibberosus_--_gibber_, a hump.]

GIBE, JIBE, j[=i]b, _v.t._ to sneer at: to taunt.--_n._ a taunt:
contempt.--_n._ GIB'ER, one who gibes.--_adv._ GIB'INGLY. [Ice. _geipa_, to
talk nonsense.]

GIBEL, gib'el, _n._ the Prussian carp, without barbules.

GIBEONITE, gib'[=e]-on-[=i]t, _n._ a slave's slave--from Josh., ix.

GIBLETS, jib'lets, _n.pl._ the internal eatable parts of fowl, taken out
before cooking it.--_adj._ GIB'LET, made of giblets. [O. Fr. _gibelet_;
origin unknown; not a dim. of _gibier_, game.]

GIBUS, zh[=e]'bus, _n._ a crush-hat, opera-hat. [Fr.]

GID, gid, _n._ staggers in sheep.--Also STUR'DY (q.v.).

GIDDY, gid'i, _adj._ unsteady, dizzy: that causes giddiness: whirling:
inconstant: thoughtless.--_adv._ GIDD'ILY.--_n._ GIDD'INESS.--_adjs._
GIDD'Y-HEAD'ED, thoughtless, wanting reflection; GIDD'Y-PACED (_Shak._),
moving irregularly. [From A.S. _giddian_, to sing, be merry, _gid_, a

GIE, g[=e], _v._ a Scotch form of _give_.

GIER-EAGLE, j[=e]r'-[=e]'gl, _n._ (_B._) a species of eagle. [See

GIF, gif, _conj._ an obsolete form of _if_.

GIFT, gift, _n._ a thing given: a bribe: a quality bestowed by nature: the
act of giving.--_v.t._ to endow with any power or faculty.--_adj._ GIFT'ED,
endowed by nature: intellectual.--_ns._ GIFT'-HORSE, a horse given as a
gift; GIFT'LING, a little gift.--LOOK A GIFT HORSE IN THE MOUTH, to
criticise a gift. [_Give._]

GIG, gig, _n._ a light, two-wheeled carriage: a long, light boat: (_U.S._)
sport, fun.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ GIG'GIT (_U.S._), to convey or move
rapidly.--_ns._ GIG'MAN, one who drives or keeps a gig--a favourite term of
Carlyle's for a narrow philistinism based on the possession of a little
more money than others, whence GIG'MANESS, GIGMAN'ITY, GIG'M[=A]NIA. [M. E.
_gigge_, a whirling thing (cf. WHIRLIGIG); prob. related to Ice. _geiga_,
to turn in a wrong direction. Cf. JIG.]

GIGANTIC, j[=i]-gan'tik, _adj._ suitable to a giant: enormous--also
GIGANT[=E]'AN.--_adj._ GIGANTESQUE', befitting a giant.--_adv._
GIGAN'TICALLY.--_ns._ GIGAN'TICIDE, the act of killing a giant;
GIGANTOL'OGY, description of giants; GIGANTOM'ACHY, a war of giants. [L.
_gigas_, _gigantis_, a giant, _cæd[)e]re_, to kill.]

GIGGLE, gig'l, _v.i._ to laugh with short catches of the breath, or in a
silly manner.--_n._ a laugh of this kind.--_ns._ GIGG'LER; GIGG'LING. [M.
E. _gagelen_, to cackle; cf. Ice. _gagl_, a goose.]

GIGLET, gig'let, _n._ a giddy girl: a wanton--also GIG'LOT.--_adj._
(_Shak._) inconstant. [Prob. Ice. _gikkr_, a pert person; perh. related to
_gig_. See JIG.]

GIGOT, jig'ut, _n._ a leg of mutton. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _gigue_, a leg: a
fiddle; a word of unknown origin.]


GILD, gild, _v.t._ to cover or overlay with gold: to cover with any
gold-like substance: to gloss over: to adorn with lustre:--_pr.p._
gild'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ gild'ed or gilt.--_ns._ GILD'ER, one who
coats articles with gold; GILD'ING, act or trade of a gilder: gold laid on
any surface for ornament.--GILDED CHAMBER, the House of Lords; GILD THE
PILL, to do something to make a disagreeable thing seem less so. [A.S.
_gyldan_--gold. See GOLD.]

GILL, gil, _n._ one of the breathing organs in fishes and certain other
aquatic animals: the flap below the bill of a fowl. [Cf. Dan. _giælle_, a
gill; Ice. _gjölnar_ (pl.), gills; Sw. _gäl_.]

GILL, jil, _n._ a measure=¼ pint.--_n._ GILL'-HOUSE, a dram-shop. [O. Fr.
_gelle_; cf. Low L. _gillo_, a flask; allied to Fr. _jale_, a large bowl,
Eng. _gallon_.]

GILL, jil, _n._ a girl, because of the commonness of the name _Gillian_,
cf. 'Jack and Jill:' ground-ivy: beer flavoured with ground-ivy.--_n._
GILL'-FLIRT, a wanton girl. [From _Gillian_ or _Juliana_ (from _Julius_), a
female name, contracted _Gill_, _Jill_.]

GILL, gil, _n._ a small ravine, a wooded glen.--Also GHYLL. [Ice.]

GILLIE, GILLY, gil'i, _n._ a youth, a man-servant, esp. to one hunting.
[Gael. _gille_, a lad, Ir. _giolla_.]

GILLYFLOWER, jil'i-flow-[.e]r, _n._ popular English name for stock,
wallflower, &c., from its clove-like smell. [O. Fr. _giroflée_--Gr.
_karyophyllon_, the clove-tree--_karyon_, a nut, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

GILPY, GILPEY, gil'pi, _n._ (_Scot._) a boisterous boy or girl.

GILRAVAGE, gil-rav'[=a]j, _n._ (_Scot._) a noisy frolic, disorder.--_v.i._
to plunder, spoil.

GILT, gilt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p_ of _gild_.--_n._ that which is used for
gilding.--_adjs._ GILD'ED; GILT'-EDGED, having the edges gilt: of the
highest quality, as 'gilt-edged securities'=those stocks whose interest is
considered perfectly safe.--_n._ GILT'-HEAD, a popular name for several
fishes, esp. a sparoid fish with a half-moon-shaped gold spot between the

GILT, gilt, _n._ (_Shak._) money.

GIMBAL, gim'bal, _n._ a contrivance for suspending the mariner's compass,
so as to keep it always horizontal. [Through Fr. from L. _gemelli_, twins.]


GIMCRACK, jim'krak, _n._ a toy: a gewgaw: a trivial mechanism--also
JIM'CRACK.--_n._ GIM'CRACKERY. [Prov. _gim_ or _jim_, neat, and _crack_, a
lively boy.]

GIMLET, gim'let, _n._ a small tool for boring holes by turning it with the
hand.--_v.t._ to pierce with a gimlet: (_naut._) to turn round (an anchor)
as if turning a gimlet.--_adj._ GIM'LET-EYED, very sharp-sighted. [O. Fr.
_gimbelet_, from Teut.; cf. Eng. _wimble_.]

GIMMAL, gim'al, _n._ a gimbal: (_Shak._) anything consisting of parts
moving within each other or interlocked--a quaint piece of mechanism--also
GIMM'ER.--_adj._ (_Shak._) made or consisting of double rings.

GIMMER, gim'[.e]r, _n._ a two-year-old ewe. [Ice. _gymbr_; cf. Sw.
_gimmer_, Dan. _gimmer_.]

GIMP, gimp, _n._ a kind of trimming, &c., of silk, woollen, or cotton
twist.--_v.t._ to make or furnish with gimp. [Fr. _guimpe_, from Old High
Ger. _wimpal_, a light robe; Eng. _wimple_.]

GIN, jin, _n._ Same as _Geneva_, of which it is a contraction.--_ns._
GIN'-FIZZ, a drink of gin, lemon-juice, effervescing water, &c.;
GIN-PAL'ACE, GIN'-SHOP, a shop where gin is sold; GIN'-SLING, a cold
beverage of gin and water, sweetened and flavoured.

GIN, jin, _n._ the name of a variety of machines, esp. one with pulleys for
raising weights, &c.: a pump worked by rotary sails: (_B._) a trap or
snare.--_v.t._ to trap or snare: to clear cotton of its seeds by a
machine:--_pr.p._ gin'ning; _pa.p._ ginned.--_ns._ GIN'-HORSE, a
mill-horse; GIN'-HOUSE, a place where cotton is ginned. [Contr. from

GIN, jin, _n._ an Australian native woman.

GIN, gin, _v.i._ to begin.--_n._ GIN'NING, beginning.

GIN, gin, a prov. form of _against_.

GIN, gin, a Scotch form of _gif_=_if_.

GINETE, ch[=e]-n[=a]'t[=a], _n._ a trooper, horse-soldier. [Sp.]

GING, ging, _n._ a gang or company. [A.S. _genge_, a troop, _gangan_, to
go. See GANG.]

GINGELLY-OIL, jin-jel'i-oil, _n._ the oil of Indian sesame.

GINGER, jin'j[.e]r, _n._ the root of a plant in the East and West Indies,
with a hot and spicy taste, useful as a condiment or stomachic.--_ns._
GINGERADE', an aerated drink flavoured with ginger; GIN'GERBEER, an
effervescent drink flavoured with ginger; GIN'GERBREAD, sweet bread
flavoured with ginger; GIN'GER-COR'DIAL, a cordial made of ginger,
lemon-peel, raisins, water, and sometimes spirits; GIN'GERNUT, a small cake
flavoured with ginger and sweetened with molasses.--_adj._ GIN'GEROUS, like
ginger.--_ns._ GIN'GERPOP, weak gingerbeer; GIN'GERSNAP, a thin brittle
cake spiced with ginger; GIN'GER-WINE, a liquor made by the fermentation of
sugar and water, and flavoured with various spices, chiefly
ginger.--GINGERBREAD WARE, or WORK, cheap and tawdry ornamental work.--TAKE
THE GILT OFF THE GINGERBREAD, to destroy the illusion. [M. E.
_gingivere_--O. Fr. _gengibre_--L. _zingiber_--Gr. _zingiberis_--Sans.
_çriñga-vera_--_çriñga_, horn, _vera_, shape.]

GINGERLY, jin'j[.e]r-li, _adv._ with soft steps: cautiously. [From a Scand.
root, seen in Sw. _gingla_, to totter.]

GINGHAM, ging'ham, _n._ a kind of cotton cloth, woven from coloured yarns
into stripes or checks, manufactured chiefly for dresses. [Fr. _guingan_,
acc. to Littré, a corr. of _Guingamp_, in Brittany.]

GINGING, gin'jing, _n._ (_prov._) the lining of a shaft.

GINGIVAL, jin-j[=i]'val, _adj._ pertaining to the gums.--_n._
GINGIV[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the gums. [L. _gingivæ_.]

GINGKO, ging'k[=o], _n._ a Chinese tree, allied to the yew, with edible
fruit--the Maiden-hair-tree. [Jap. _gingk[=o]_--Chin. _yin-hing_--_yin_,
silver, _hing_, apricot.]

GINGLE, jing'l. Same as JINGLE.

GINGLYMUS, jing'gli-mus (or ging'-), _n._ a joint that permits flexion and
extension in a single plane, as at the elbow and ankle:--_pl._
GING'LYM[=I]. [Gr.]

GINNET, jin'net, _n._ obsolete form of _jennet_.


GINNY-CARRIAGE, jin'i-kar'[=a]j, _n._ a small strong carriage used for
conveying materials on a railway.

GINSENG, jin'seng, _n._ a plant of genus _Aralia_, and its root, a Chinese
panacea for exhaustion of body or mind. [Chin. _jin-tsan_.]

GIP, jip, _n._ Same as GYP.

GIPSY, GYPSEY, GYPSY, jip'si, _n._ one of a wandering race, originally from
India, now scattered over Europe: one with a dark complexion: a sly,
roguish woman.--_adj._ unconventional, outdoor.--_ns._ GIP'SYDOM;
GIP'SYISM.--GIPSY HAT, a hat for women, with large flaps at the sides;
GIPSY TABLE, a form of light fancy table; GIPSY WAGON, a wagon or van like
a dwelling on wheels, used by gipsies and travelling photographers.
[_Egyptian_, because once supposed to come from Egypt.]

GIRAFFE, ji-raf', _n._ the camelopard, an African quadruped with remarkably
long neck and legs. [Fr.,--Sp. _girafa_--Ar. _zar[=a]f_.]

GIRANDOLE, jir'an-d[=o]l, _n._ a branched chandelier, generally projecting
from a wall, and used as a stand for candles or lamps, or for flowers: a
rotating firework. [Fr.,--It. _girandola_--_girare_--L. _gyr[=a]re_, to
turn round--_gyrus_--Gr. _gyros_, a circle.]

GIRASOL, jir'a-sol, _n._ a bluish-white translucent opal with reddish
reflections. [It.,--_girare_, and _sole_--L. _sol_, the sun.]

GIRD, g[.e]rd, _v.i._ to gibe, jeer (with _at_).--_v.t._ (_obs._) to
taunt.--_n._ (_obs._) a sneer. [A.S. _gyrd_, _gierd_, rod.]

GIRD, g[.e]rd, _v.t._ to bind round: to make fast by binding: to surround:
to clothe, furnish:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ gird'ed or girt.--_n._ GIRD'ER,
one of the principal pieces of timber in a floor binding the others
together: in engineering, any simple or compound beam of wood, iron, or
steel used to support joisting, walls, arches, &c., in various kinds of
bridges.--GIRD ONE'S SELF, to tuck up loose garments under the girdle: to
brace the mind for any trial or effort. [A.S. _gyrdan_; cf. Ger. _gürten_,
_garden_, Eng. _yard_.]

GIRDING, g[.e]rd'ing, _n._ (_B._) a covering.

GIRDLE, g[.e]rd'l, _n._ that which encircles, esp. a band or belt for the
waist: an enclosure, compass, limit: in jewellery, a horizontal line
surrounding a stone.--_v.t._ to bind, as with a girdle: to enclose: to make
a circular incision, as through the bark of a tree to kill it.--_n._
GIRD'LE-BELT, a belt for girding the waist.--_p.adj._ GIRD'LED (_Shak._),
surrounded with, or as with, a girdle.--_n._ GIRD'LER, one who girdles: a
maker of girdles. [A.S. _gyrdel_--_gyrdan_, to gird.]

GIRDLE, g[.e]rd'l, _n._ a Scotch form of _griddle_.

GIRKIN, g[.e]r'kin, _n._ Same as GHERKIN.

GIRL, g[.e]rl, _n._ a female child: a young unmarried woman: a
maid-servant.--_n._ GIRL'HOOD, the state or time of being a girl.--_adj._
GIRL'ISH, of or like a girl.--_adv._ GIRL'ISHLY--_n._ GIRL'ISHNESS. [Prob.
from Old Low Ger. _gör_, a child, with dim. suffix _-l_.]

GIRLOND, obsolete form of _garland_.

GIRN, g[.e]rn, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to grin, snarl. [_Grin._]

GIRNEL, g[.e]r'nel, _n._ (_Scot._) a granary, meal-chest. [Variant of

GIRONDIST, ji-rond'ist, _n._ a member of the moderate republican party
during the French Revolution, so called because its earliest leaders,
Vergniaud, Guadet, &c., were sent up to the Legislative Assembly (Oct.
1791) by the _Gironde_ department.--Also GIRON'DIN.

GIRR, gir, _n._ (_Scot._) a hoop.

GIRT, g[.e]rt, _v.t._ to gird.--_pa.p._ of a ship moored so taut by her
cables to two oppositely placed anchors as to be prevented from swinging to
the wind or tide.

GIRTH, g[.e]rth, _n._ belly-band of a saddle: measure round the
waist.--Also GIRT.

GIST, jist, _n._ the main point or pith of a matter. [From an old French
proverb, 'I know where the hare _lies_'--_i.e._ I know the main point--O.
Fr. _gist_ (Fr. _gît_)--O. Fr. _gesir_ (Fr. _gésir_), to lie--L.

GITTERN, git'ern, _n._ a kind of guitar, a cithern.--_v.i._ to play on the
gittern. [Most prob. Old Dut. _ghiterne_--L. _cithara_--Gr. _kithara_. See

GIUST, j[=oo]st, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as JOUST.

GIUSTO, j[=u]s't[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) suitable, regular. [It.,--L.
_justus_, just.]

GIVE, giv, _v.t._ to bestow: to impart: to yield: to grant: to permit: to
afford: to furnish: to pay or render, as thanks: to pronounce, as a
decision: to show, as a result: to apply, as one's self: to allow or
admit.--_v.i._ to yield to pressure: to begin to melt: to grow soft: to
open, or give an opening or view, to lead (with _upon_, _on_,
_into_):--_pr.p._ giv'ing; _pa.t._ g[=a]ve; _pa.p._ given
(giv'n).--_p.adj._ GIV'EN, bestowed: specified: addicted, disposed to:
admitted, supposed.--_ns._ GIV'ER, one who gives or bestows; GIV'ING, the
act of bestowing: (_Shak._) an alleging of what is not real.--GIVE AND
TAKE, to give and get fairly, fair measure on both sides; GIVE BIRTH TO, to
bring forth: to originate; GIVE CHASE, to pursue; GIVE EAR, to listen; GIVE
FORTH, to emit, to publish; GIVE GROUND, place, to give way, to yield; GIVE
IN TO, to yield assent or obedience to; GIVE IT TO ONE (_coll._), to scold
or beat anybody severely; GIVE LINE, HEAD, REIN, &c., to give more liberty
or scope--the metaphor from angling and driving; GIVE ONE'S SELF AWAY, to
betray one's secret by a slip of the tongue, &c.; GIVE OUT, to report, to
emit; GIVE OVER, to cease; GIVE THE LIE TO, to charge openly with
falsehood; GIVE TONGUE, to bark; GIVE UP, to abandon; GIVE WAY, to fall
back, to yield, to withdraw: to begin rowing--usually as a command to a
crew. [A.S. _giefan_; Goth. _giban_, Ger. _geben_.]

GIVES, j[=i]vz, _n._ Same as GYVES.

GIZZ, giz, _n._ (_Scot._) the face.

GIZZARD, giz'ard, _n._ the muscular stomach of a bird. [M. E. _giser_--O.
Fr. _gezier_--L. _gigerium_, only in pl. _gigeria_, cooked entrails of

GIZZEN, giz'n, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to shrink from dryness so as to leak: to
wither.--_adj._ leaky.

GLABROUS, gl[=a]'brus, _adj._ smooth: having no hairs or any
unevenness.--_adj._ GL[=A]'BR[=A]TE, smooth, glabrous. [L. _glaber_,

GLACÉ, gla-s[=a]', _adj._ iced: glossy, lustrous, esp. of a thin silk
material. [Fr.]

GLACIAL, gl[=a]'shi-al, _adj._ icy: frozen: pertaining to ice or its
action, esp. to glaciers.--_ns._ GL[=A]'CIALIST, one who attributes the
phenomena of the drift in geology to the action of glaciers;
GL[=A]CI[=A]'TION, the act of freezing: ice: the process of becoming
covered with glaciers. [Fr.,--L. _glacialis_--_glacies_, ice.]

GLACIER, gl[=a]'sh[=e]r, or glas'i-[.e]r, _n._ a field or, more properly, a
slowly moving river of ice, such as is found in the hollows and on the
slopes of lofty mountains. [Fr.,--_glace_, ice--L. _glacies_, ice.]

GLACIS, gl[=a]'sis, or gla-s[=e]', _n._ a gentle slope: (_fort._) a smooth
sloping bank. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _glacer_, to freeze--_glace_, ice.]

GLAD, glad, _adj._ pleased: cheerful: bright: giving pleasure.--_v.t._ to
make glad:--_pr.p._ glad'ding; _pa.p._ glad'ded.--_v.t._ GLAD'DEN, to make
glad: to cheer: to animate.--_adj._ GLAD'FUL (_Spens._).--_n._
GLAD'FULNESS.--_adv._ GLAD'LY.--_n._ GLAD'NESS.--_adj._ GLAD'SOME, glad:
joyous: gay.--_adv._ GLAD'SOMELY.--_n._ GLAD'SOMENESS. [A.S. _glæd_; Ger.
_glatt_, smooth, Ice. _glaðr_, bright, Dan. _glad_.]

GLADE, gl[=a]d, _n._ an open space in a wood.--_adj._ GL[=A]'DY, having
glades. [Scand.; Ice. _glaðr_, bright, Norw. _glette_, a clear spot among

GLADIATOR, glad'i-[=a]-tor, _n._ in ancient Rome, a professional combatant
with men or beasts in the arena.--_adjs._ GLAD'I[=A]TE, sword-shaped;
GL[=A]'DIUS, the cuttle-bone or pen of a cuttle-fish. [L., a
swordsman--_gladius_, a sword.]

GLADIOLE, glad'i-[=o]l, GLADIOLUS, gla-d[=i]'o-lus, glad-i-[=o]'lus, _n._
the plant sword-lily:--_pl._ GLAD[=I]'OL[=I]. [L. _gladiolus_, dim. of

GLADSTONE, glad'ston, _n._ a four-wheeled two-seated carriage with driver's
seat and dickey: a kind of light travelling-bag, opening wide. [From the
great statesman, W. E. _Gladstone_ (1809-98).]

GLAGOLITIC, glag-o-lit'ik, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Glagol_, an ancient
Slavonic alphabet, apparently derived from the cursive Greek of the 9th
century, only used in the liturgical books of the Dalmatian Slavs. [Old
Bulgarian _glagolu_, a word.]

GLAIKIT, gl[=a]k'it, _adj._ (_Scot._) giddy, foolish.--_ns._ GLAIK, a
deception, a quick glance; GLAIK'ITNESS, levity.--FLING THE GLAIKS IN
FOLK'S EEN (_Scot._), to throw dust in people's eyes. [See GLEEK.]

GLAIR, gl[=a]r, _n._ the clear part of an egg used as varnish: any viscous,
transparent substance: mud.--_v.t._ to varnish with white of eggs.--_adjs._
GLAIR'Y, GLAIR'EOUS, GL[=A]R'EOUS. [Fr. _glaire_--Low L. _clara ovi_, white
of egg--L. _clarus_, clear.]

GLAIVE, gl[=a]v, _n._ a weapon like a halberd, fixed on a long shaft, its
edge on the outer curve.--Also GLAVE. [O. Fr. _glaive_--L. _gladius_, a

GLAMOUR, glam'[.e]r, _n._ the supposed influence of a charm on the eyes,
making them see things as fairer than they are: fascination: enchantment.
[Merely a corruption of _gramarye_ or _grammar_, meaning grammar, then

GLANCE, glans, _n._ a sudden shoot of light: a darting of the eye: a
momentary view: a term applied to minerals exhibiting a pseudo-metallic
lustre.--_v.i._ to dart a ray of light or splendour: to snatch a momentary
view: to fly off obliquely: to make a passing allusion.--_v.t._ to dart
suddenly or obliquely: to hint.--_n._ GLANCE'-COAL, any hard coal, like
anthracite, so called from its metallic lustre.--_adv._ GLANC'INGLY. [From
a Teut. root seen in Sw. _glans_, Dut. _glans_, Ger. _glanz_, lustre, and
allied to Eng. _glint_.]

GLAND, gland, _n._ a secreting structure, which in various ways alters the
material brought to it by the blood, extracting and excreting waste
products as in the kidneys, or manufacturing valuable by-products, such as
the glycogen and bile of the liver: (_bot._) a small cellular spot which
secretes oil or aroma.--_adjs._ GLANDIF'EROUS, bearing acorns or nuts;
GLAND'IFORM, resembling a gland: nut-shaped; GLAND'[=U]LAR, GLAND'[=U]LOUS,
containing, consisting of, or pertaining to glands.--_n._ GLAND'[=U]LE, a
small gland.--_adj._ GLAND[=U]LIF'EROUS. [F. _glande_--L. _glans_,
_glandis_, an acorn.]

GLANDERS, gland'[.e]rz, _n._ a malignant, contagious, and fatal disease of
the horse or ass, showing itself esp. on the mucous membrane of the nose,
upon the lungs, and on the lymphatic system.--_adj._ GLAND'ERED, affected
with glanders.

GLARE, gl[=a]r, _n._ a clear, dazzling light: overpowering lustre: a
piercing look.--_v.i._ to shine with a clear, dazzling light: to be
ostentatiously splendid: to look with piercing eyes.--_adj._ GLAR'ING,
bright and dazzling: barefaced: notorious.--_adv._ GLAR'INGLY.--_n._
GLAR'INGNESS. [Perh. from A.S. _glær_, a pellucid substance, amber.]


GLASS, glas, _n._ a combination of silica with some alkali or alkaline
earth, such as lime, &c., used for window panes, mirrors, lenses, &c.:
anything made of glass, esp. a drinking-vessel, a mirror, &c.: the quantity
of liquid a glass holds: any fused substance like glass, with a vitreous
fracture: (_pl._) spectacles.--_adj._ made of glass.--_v.t._ to case in
glass.--_ns._ GLASS'-BLOW'ER, one who blows and fashions glass;
GLASS'-BLOW'ING, the process of making glass, by taking a mass of glass
reduced by heat to a viscid state, and inflating it; GLASS'-COACH, a coach
for hire having glazed windows; GLASS'-CRAB, the larval form of rock
lobsters, &c., but formerly regarded as adults, and made into a genus or
even family; GLASS'-CUT'TER; GLASS'-CUT'TING, the act or process of
cutting, shaping, and ornamenting the surface of glass.--_adj._
GLASS'-FACED (_Shak._), reflecting the sentiments of another, as in a
mirror.--_n._ GLASS'FUL, the contents of a glass.--_adj._ GLASS'-GAZ'ING
(_Shak._), addicted to viewing one's self in a mirror.--_ns._
GLASS'-GRIND'ING, the ornamenting of glass by rubbing with sand, emery,
&c.; GLASS'-HOUSE, a glass manufactory: a house made of glass.--_adv._
the art of producing pictures on glass by means of staining it chemically;
GLASS'-P[=A]'PER, paper coated with finely pounded glass, and used like
sand-paper; GLASS'-SOAP, an oxide of manganese and other substances used by
glass-blowers to remove colouring from glass; GLASS'WARE, articles made of
glass; GLASS'-WORK, articles made of glass; GLASS'WORT, a plant so called
from its yielding soda, used in making glass.--_adjs._ GLASS'Y, made of or
like glass; GLASS'Y-HEAD'ED (_Tenn._), having a bald, shining head.--_ns._
CUT'-GLASS, flint-glass shaped or ornamented by cutting or grinding on a
wheel; GROUND'-GLASS, any glass that has been depolished by a sand-blast,
grinding, or etching with acids, so as to destroy its transparency;
PLATE'-GLASS, glass cast in large thick plates.--LIVE IN A GLASS HOUSE=to
be open to attack or retort.--MUSICAL GLASSES (see HARMONICA).--WATER, or
SOLUBLE, GLASS, the soluble silicate of soda or of potash formed when
silica is fused with an excess of alkali, used for hardening artificial
stone, as a cement, and for rendering calico, &c., uninflammable. [A.S.
_glæs_; Dut., Ger., and Sw. _glas_; cog. with _glow_, _gleam_, _glance_,

GLASSITE, glas'[=i]t, _n._ one of a religious sect founded by John _Glas_
(1695-1773), a minister of the Church of Scotland, who was deposed in 1730
for maintaining that a congregation with its eldership is, in its
discipline, subject to no jurisdiction but that of Jesus Christ. The sect
is now better known as the Sandemanians, from the name of Glas's

GLASWEGIAN, glas-w[=e]j'i-an, _n._ and _adj._ a native or citizen of

GLAUBERITE, glaw'ber-[=i]t, _n._ a grayish-white mineral, a compound of the
sulphates of sodium and calcium, found chiefly in rock-salt. [From the
German Johann Rudolf _Glauber_, 1604-68.]


GLAUCOMA, glawk-[=o]'ma, _n._ an insidious disease of the eye, marked by
increased tension within the eyeball, growing dimness of vision, and an
excavation of the papilla of the optic nerve--also GLAUC[=O]'SIS.--_adj._

GLAUCONITE, glaw'k[=o]-n[=i]t, _n._ the mineral, a silicate of iron, which
gives a green colour to some of the beds of the greensand strata, whence
their name.--_adj._ GLAUCONIT'IC. [Fr.,--Gr. _glaukos_, bluish-green.]

GLAUCOUS, glaw'kus, _adj._ sea-green: grayish-blue: (_bot._) covered with a
fine green bloom.--_n._ GLAUCES'CENCE.--_adj._ GLAUCES'CENT, somewhat
glaucous. [L. _glaucus_, bluish--Gr. _glaukos_, blue or gray.]

GLAUCUS, glaw'kus, _n._ a genus of Gasteropods, in the warmer parts of the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. [Gr. _glaukos_, a fish--_glaukos_,

GLAUM, gläm, _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Scot._) to grasp eagerly (with _at_).

GLAUR, glär, a Scotch form of _glair_.

GLAUX, gläks, _n._ a genus of _Primulaceæ_, called also _Sea milkwort_ and
_Black saltwort_, common along sea-coasts of northern Europe--formerly used
in soda-making. [L.,--Gr. _glaux_, milk-vetch.]


GLAZE, gl[=a]z, _v.t._ to furnish or set with glass: to cover with a thin
surface of glass or something glassy: to give a glassy surface to.--_n._
the glassy coating put upon pottery: any shining exterior.--_ns._
GL[=A]Z'ER, a workman who glazes pottery, paper, &c.; GL[=A]'ZIER, one who
sets glass in window-frames, &c. (for _glazer_; like _law-y-er_ for
_law-er_); GL[=A]Z'ING, the act or art of setting glass: the art of
covering with a vitreous substance: (_paint._) semi-transparent colours put
thinly over others to modify the effect. [M. E. _glasen_--_glas_, glass.]

GLEAM, gl[=e]m, _v.i._ to glow or shine: to flash.--_n._ a small stream of
light: a beam: brightness.--_n._ GLEAM'ING, a sudden shoot of
light.--_adj._ GLEAM'Y, casting beams or rays of light. [A.S. _gl['æ]m_,
gleam, brightness (see GLIMMER); akin to _glass_, _glow_.]

GLEAN, gl[=e]n, _v.t._ to gather in handfuls after the reapers: to collect
(what is thinly scattered).--_v.i._ to gather the corn left by a
reaper.--_n._ that which is gleaned: the act of gleaning.--_ns._ GLEAN'ER;
GLEAN'ING. [O. Fr. _glener_ (Fr. _glaner_), through Low L. _glen[=a]re_,
_glena_, from Teut.]

GLEBE, gl[=e]b, _n._ the land belonging to a parish church or
ecclesiastical benefice: (_mining_) a piece of earth containing ore:
(_arch._) turf.--ADJS. GLEB'OUS, GLEB'Y, cloddy, turfy. [Fr.,--L. _gleba_,
a clod.]

GLEDE, gl[=e]d, _n._ (_B._) the common kite, a rapacious bird. [A.S.
_glida_, from, _glídan_, to glide.]

GLEDGE, glej, _v.i._ to squint: to look cunningly.--_n._ a knowing look.
[See GLEY.]

GLEE, gl[=e], _n._ joy: mirth and gaiety: (_mus._) a song or catch in
parts.--_adj._ GLEE'FUL, merry.--_ns._ GLEE'MAID'EN, a female minstrel;
GLEE'MAN, a minstrel.--_adj._ GLEE'SOME, merry. [A.S. _gleó_, mirth; Ice.

GLEED, gl[=e]d, _n._ a hot coal or burning ember. [A.S. _gléd_; cf. Dut.
_gloed_, Ger. _glut_, Sw. _glöd_.]

GLEEK, gl[=e]k, _n._ (_Shak._) a jest or scoff, a trick: an old game at
cards for three, each having twelve, and eight being left for the
stock.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to gibe or sneer, to spend time in sport or fun.
[Prob. cog. with A.S. _gelác_, play, Ice. _leik_.]

GLEET, gl[=e]t, _n._ a glairy discharge from a mucous surface.--_adj._
GLEET'Y. [O. Fr. _glete_, _glecte_, a flux.]

GLEG, gleg, _adj._ clever: apt: (_Scot._) sharp. [Ice. _glöggr_, clever;
cf. A.S. _gleáw_, wise, Ger. _glau_, clear.]

GLEN, glen, _n._ a narrow valley worn by a river: a depression between
hills. [Celt., as in Gael. and Ir. _gleann_, W. _glyn_.]

GLENE, gl[=e]'n[=e], _n._ the pupil, eyeball: a socket.--_adjs._
GL[=E]'NOID, -AL, slightly cupped. [Gr.]

GLENGARRY, glen-gar'i, _n._ a cap of thick-milled woollen, generally rising
to a point in front, with ribbons hanging down behind--worn by the
Highlanders of Scotland. [_Glengarry_, a glen in West Inverness-shire.]

GLENLIVET, glen-l[=e]v'et, _n._ a good Scotch whisky. [_Glenlivet_, a
valley in Banffshire.]

GLEY, gl[=i], gl[=e], _v.i._ to squint.--_p.adj._ GLEYED (_Scot._),
squint-eyed. [Ice. _gljá_, to glitter; Dan. _glo_.]


GLIB, glib, _adj._ moving easily: voluble.--_v.i._ to move freely.--_adv._
GLIB'LY.--_n._ GLIB'NESS. [A contr. of Dut. _glibberig_, slippery.]

GLIB, glib, _n._ (_Spens._) a bush of hair hanging over the eyes. [Gael., a
lock of hair.]

GLIB, glib, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to emasculate, to castrate. [Perh. an error
for _lib_, to castrate.]

GLIDE, gl[=i]d, _v.i._ to slide smoothly and easily: to flow gently: to
pass rapidly.--_n._ act of gliding: the joining of two sounds without a
break: a smooth and sliding kind of waltz-step.--_adj._ GLID'DERY,
slippery.--_n._ GL[=I]D'ER, one who, or that which, glides.--_adv._
GL[=I]D'INGLY. [A.S. _glídan_, to slip; Ger. _gleiten_.]

GLIFF, glif, _n._ a fright, a scare: (_Scot._) a moment.--Also GLIFT. [M.
E. _gliffen_, to be terrified.]

GLIM, glim, _n._ (_coll._) a light: (_slang_) an eye. [A.S. _gleomu_; cf.
Ger. _glimm_, a spark.]

GLIMMER, glim'[.e]r, _v.i._ to burn or appear faintly.--_n._ a faint light:
feeble rays of light: (_min._) mica.--_ns._ GLIMM'ER-GOWK (_Tenn._), an
owl; GLIMM'ERING, a glimmer: an inkling.--_adv._ GLIMM'ERINGLY. [M. E.
_glimeren_; most prob. directly Scand.; Dan. _glimre_, to glimmer, Sw.
prov. _glim_, a glance.]

GLIMPSE, glimps, _n._ a short gleam: a weak light: transient lustre: a
hurried view: fleeting enjoyment: the exhibition of a faint
resemblance.--_v.i._ to appear by glimpses.--_v.t._ to get a glimpse of.
[M. E. _glimsen_, to glimpse, a variant of _glimmer_.]

GLINT, glint, _v.i._ to shine, gleam: (_Burns_) to move quickly.--_v.t._ to
reflect.--_n._ a gleam. [From Scand.; Old Dan. _glinte_, to shine.]

GLISK, glisk, _n._ (_Scot._) a glimpse. [M. E. _glissen_--A.S. _glisian_,
to glance.]

GLISSADE, glis-[=a]d', _v.i._ to slide or glide down.--_n._ act of sliding
down a slope.

GLIST, glist, _n._ a dark ferruginous mineral found in lodes, micaceous
iron ore.

GLISTEN, glis'n, _v.i._ to glitter or sparkle with light: to shine.--_n._
glitter. [M. E. _glis-ien_, to shine--A.S. _glisnian_, to shine; cf. Dut.

GLISTER, glis't[.e]r, _v.i._ to sparkle, glitter.--_adj._ GLIS'TERING
(_Shak._), glittering. [M. E. _glistren_; see above.]

GLIT, a Scotch form of _gleet_.

GLITTER, glit'[.e]r, _v.i._ to glisten, to sparkle with light: to be
splendid: to be showy.--_n._ lustre: brilliancy.--_adjs._ GLITT'ERAND
(_Spens._), sparkling, glittering; GLITT'ERING, shining: splendid:
brilliant.--_adv._ GLITT'ERINGLY. [M. E. _gliteren_; cf. Ice. _glitra_,
Mid. High Ger. _glitzern_.]

GLOAMING, gl[=o]m'ing, _n._ twilight, dusk--(_Scot._) GLOAMIN. [A.S.
_glómung_; akin to _gloom_.]

GLOAT, gl[=o]t, _v.i._ to look eagerly, in a bad sense: to view with a
wicked joy. [Ice. _glotta_, to grin.]

GLOBATE, -D, gl[=o]b'[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ like a globe: circular. [L.
_glob[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to form into a ball--_globus_.]

GLOBE, gl[=o]b, _n._ a ball: a round body, a sphere: the earth: a sphere
representing the earth (terrestrial globe) or the heavens (celestial
globe): (_obs._) a group.--_v.t._ to form in a circle.--_ns._ GLOBE'-FISH,
one of a genus of fishes found in warm seas, remarkable for its power of
swelling out its body to a globular form; GLOBE'-FLOW'ER, a small
palæarctic genus of plants of the order _Ranunculaceæ_, with a globe of
large showy sepals enclosing the small inconspicuous linear petals;
GLOBE'-TROT'TER, one who travels for pleasure around the world;
GLOBE'-TROT'TING; GL[=O]'BIN, a proteid constituent of red blood
corpuscles.--_adjs._ GL[=O]BOSE', GL[=O]B'OUS, resembling a globe.--_n._
(_Milt._) a globe.--_n._ GL[=O]BOS'ITY.--_adjs._ GLOB'[=U]LAR,
GLOB'[=U]LOUS, GLOB'[=U]LOSE, like a globe: spherical.--_n._
GLOB[=U]LAR'ITY.--_adv._ GLOB'[=U]LARLY.--_ns._ GLOB'[=U]LE, a little globe
or round particle--also GLOB'[=U]LET; GLOB'[=U]LIN, GLOB'[=U]LINE, a
substance closely allied to albumen, which forms the main ingredient of the
blood globules, and also occurs in the crystalline lens of the eye;
GLOB'[=U]LITE, the name given by Vogelsang to minute crystallites of
spherical, drop-like form.--_adj._ GL[=O]B'Y (_Milt._), round. [O. Fr.,--L.
_globus_; _gleba_, a clod.]

GLOBIGERINA, glob-i-je-r[=i]'na, _n._ a genus typical of _Globigerinidæ_, a
pelagic family of foraminifers.

GLODE, gl[=o]d (_Spens._), _pa.t._ of _glide_.

GLOME, gl[=o]m, _n._ (_bot._) a globular head of flowers.--_adj._
GLOM'EROUS. [L. _glomus_=_globus_.]

GLOMERATE, glom'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to gather into a ball: to collect into
a spherical mass.--_adj._ growing in rounded or massive forms:
conglomerate.--_n._ GLOMER[=A]'TION, act of gathering into a ball: a body
formed into a ball. [L. g_lomer[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_glomus_, _glomeris_, a
clew of yarn.]

GLOOM, gl[=oo]m, _n._ partial darkness: cloudiness: heaviness of mind,
sadness: hopelessness: sullenness.--_v.i._ to be sullen or dejected: to be
cloudy or obscure.--_v.t._ to fill with gloom.--_adv._ GLOOM'ILY.--_n._
GLOOM'INESS.--_p.adj._ GLOOM'ING (_Shak._), shining obscurely.--_n._
twilight: gloaming.--_adj._ GLOOM'Y, dim or obscure: dimly lighted: sad,
melancholy. [A.S. _glóm_, gloom; prov. Ger. _glumm_, gloomy.]

GLORIA, gl[=o]'ri-a, _n._ a doxology.--GLORIA IN EXCELSIS, the 'Greater
Doxology'--'Glory be to God on high;' GLORIA PATRI, the 'Lesser
Doxology'--'Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost,
as it was,' &c. [L. _gloria_, glory.]

GLORIFY, gl[=o]'ri-f[=i], _v.t._ to make glorious: to honour: to exalt to
glory or happiness: to ascribe honour to, to worship:--_pa.p._
gl[=o]'rified.--_n._ GLORIFIC[=A]'TION. [L. _gloria_, glory, _fac[)e]re_,
to make.]

GLORY, gl[=o]'ri, _n._ renown: honour: the occasion of praise: an object of
pride: excellency: splendour: brightness: in religious symbolism, a
combination of the nimbus and the aureola, but often erroneously used for
the nimbus: a burst of sunlight: a luminous glow of reflected light upon
clouds: vain-glory: (_B._) the presence of God: the manifestation of God to
the blessed in heaven: heaven.--_v.i._ to boast: to be proud of anything:
to exult:--_pa.p._ gl[=o]'ried.--_adj._ GL[=O]'RIED (_Milt._), illustrious,
honourable.--_ns._ GL[=O]'RIOLE, a halo or glory; GLORI[=O]'SA, a genus of
_Liliaceæ_, of which the best-known species, a native of India, is a
herbaceous perennial, with beautiful red and yellow flowers.--_adj._
GL[=O]'RIOUS, noble, splendid: conferring renown: (_coll._) elated,
tipsy.--_adv._ GL[=O]'RIOUSLY.--_ns._ GL[=O]'RIOUSNESS; GL[=O]'RY-HOLE, an
opening through which to see the inside of a furnace: a place for
concealing articles of value; GL[=O]'RYING, boasting; GL[=O]'RY-PEA, a
leguminous Australian plant with red flowers. [O. Fr. _glorie_--L. _gloria_
(for _cloria_), akin to _clarus_, from root of L. _clu[=e]re_, Gr.
_klu-ein_, to be famed; Eng. _loud_.]

GLOSS, glos, _n._ brightness or lustre, as from a polished surface:
external show.--_v.t._ to give a superficial lustre to: to render
plausible: to palliate. [Ice. _glossi_, brightness, _glóa_, to glow. See

GLOSS, glos, _n._ a remark to explain a subject: a comment.--_v.i._ to
comment or make explanatory remarks.--_adj._ GLOSS[=A]'RIAL, relating to a
glossary: containing explanation.--_ns._ GLOSS'ARIST, a writer of a
glossary; GLOSS'ARY, a vocabulary of words requiring special explanation: a
dictionary; GLOSS[=A]'TOR, GLOSS'ER, a writer of glosses or comments, a
commentator; GLOSS'IC, a phonetic alphabet devised by Mr A. J. Ellis
(1814-90) for the scientific expression of speech-sounds--to be used
concurrently with the _Nomic_ or existing English orthography;
GLOSS[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the tongue; GLOSS'OCELE, swelled tongue;
of glossaries or comments.--_adj._ GLOSSOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ GLOSSOL'OGIST;
GLOSSOL'OGY, the science of language, comparative philology: the knowledge
of the definition of technical terms--also GLOTTOL'OGY; GLOSSOT'OMY,
dissection of the tongue. [L. _glossa_, a word requiring explanation--Gr.
_gl[=o]ssa_, the tongue.]

GLOSSY, glos'i, _adj._ smooth and shining: highly polished.--_adv._

GLOTTIS, glot'is, _n._ the opening of the larynx or entrance to the
windpipe.--_adj._ GLOTT'AL; GLOTT'IC, pertaining to the tongue or to
glottology. [Gr. _gl[=o]ttis_--_gl[=o]tta_, the tongue.]


GLOUT, glowt, _v.i._ to be sulky.--_n._ a sulky look, the sulks. [See

GLOVE, gluv, _n._ a covering for the hand, with a sheath for each finger: a
boxing-glove.--_v.t._ to cover with, or as with, a glove.--_adj._ GLOVED,
covered with a glove.--_ns._ GLOVE'-FIGHT, a boxing-match in which the
hands are gloved; GLOVE'-MON'EY, a gratuity given to servants, officers of
a court, &c.; GLOV'ER, one who makes or sells gloves; GLOVE'-SHIELD, a
shield worn by a knight on the left-hand gauntlet to parry blows;
GLOVE'-STRETCH'ER, a scissors-shaped instrument for inserting into the
fingers of gloves to stretch them.--HANDLE WITHOUT GLOVES, to treat with
vigour or with scant ceremony; THROW DOWN, TAKE UP, THE GLOVE, to offer, or
to accept, a challenge. [A.S. _glóf_; cf. Scot. _loof_, Ice. _lôfi_, palm.]

GLOW, gl[=o], _v.i._ to shine with an intense heat: to feel great heat of
body: to be flushed: to feel the heat of passion: to be ardent.--_n._
shining or white heat: unusual warmth: brightness of colour: vehemence of
passion.--_p.adj._ GLOW'ING, shining with intense light, white with heat:
ardent, fervent, fiery.--_adv._ GLOW'INGLY.--_ns._ GLOW'-LAMP, an
incandescent lamp, usually electric; GLOW'-WORM, a name given to many
beetles in the sub-family _Lampyrides_, having phosphorescent structures on
the abdomen. [A.S. _glówan_, to glow; Ger. _glühen_, Ice. _glóa_, to glow.]

GLOWER, glow'[.e]r, _v.i._ to stare frowningly: to scowl.--_n._ a fierce or
threatening stare.

GLOXINIA, glok-sin'i-a, _n._ a genus of plants of the order _Gesneraceæ_,
almost stemless, with bright bell-shaped flowers. [From _Gloxin_, a German

GLOZE, gl[=o]z, _v.i._ to give a false meaning to: to flatter: to wheedle:
(_obs._) to comment.--_v.t._ to palliate by specious explanation.--_n._
(_obs._) an explanation.--_n._ GL[=O]'ZING, flattery, deceit. [See GLOSS

GLUCINUM, gl[=oo]-s[=i]'num, _n._ a white metal prepared from beryl--its
oxide, GLUC[=I]'NA, white, tasteless, insoluble in water.--_adj._
GL[=U]'CIC, pertaining to sugar.--_ns._ GLUCIDE'--Saccharin (q.v.);
GLUCOHÆ'MIA, the presence of an excessive quantity of glucose in the blood;
GLUC[=O]SE', the peculiar kind of sugar in the juice of fruits: the
sugar-syrup obtained by the conversion of starch into sugar by sulphuric
acid--grape-sugar, &c.; GLU'COSIDE, any of those vegetable products which,
on treatment with acids or alkalies, yield a sugar or some closely allied
carbohydrate; GLUCOS[=U]R'IA, the presence of glucose in the urine. [Gr.
_glykys_, sweet.]

GLUE, gl[=oo], _n._ an adhesive substance obtained by boiling the skins,
hoofs, &c. of animals.--_v.t._ to join with glue:--_pr.p._ glu'ing; _pa.p._
glued.--_ns._ GLUE'-POT, a vessel for melting glue; GLU'ER, one who cements
with glue.--_adj._ GLU'EY, containing glue: sticky: viscous.--_n._
GLU'EYNESS.--_adj._ GLU'ISH, having the nature of glue.--_n._ MARINE'-GLUE,
not a glue, but a cementing composition, used in shipbuilding, for paying
seams in ships' decks after being caulked. [Fr. _glu_--Low L. _glus_,
_glutis_--_glu[)e]re_, to draw together.]

GLUM, glum, _adj._ frowning: sullen: gloomy.--_adv._ GLUM'LY.--_n._
GLUM'NESS.--_adj._ GLUMP'ISH, glum.--_n.pl._ GLUMPS, the sulks.--_adj._
GLUMP'Y, sulky. [M. E. _glomben_, _glommen_, to frown: prob. related to Sw.
_glomma_, Low Ger. _glummen_.]

GLUME, gl[=oo]m, _n._ a term applied to certain bracts in grasses and
[L. _gluma_, husk--_glub[)e]re_, to peel off bark.]

GLUT, glut, _v.t._ to swallow greedily: to feast to satiety: to supply in
excess:--_pr.p._ glut'ting; _pa.p._ glut'ted.--_n._ an over-supply:
anything that obstructs the passage. [L. _glut[=i]re_, to swallow.]

GLUTÆUS, GLUTEUS, gl[=oo]-t[=e]'us, _n._ one of the natal or buttock
muscles.--_adjs._ GLUT[=E]'AL, GLUT[=E]'AN. [Gr. _gloutos_, the rump.]

GLUTEN, gl[=oo]'ten, _n._ the nitrogenous part of the flour of wheat and
other grains, insoluble in water.--_ns._ GLU'TIN, GL[=I]'ADIN, the
separable viscid constituent of wheat-gluten, soluble in alcohol. [L.
_gluten_, the same as _glus_. See GLUE.]

GLUTINATE, gl[=oo]'tin-[=a]t, _v.t._ to unite, as with glue.--_n._
GLUTIN[=A]'TION.--_adj._ GLU'TINATIVE, having the quality of cementing:
tenacious.--_ns._ GLUTINOS'ITY, GLU'TINOUSNESS.--_adj._ GLU'TINOUS, gluey:
tenacious: (_bot._) covered, as a leaf, with slimy moisture. [L.
_glutin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

GLUTTON, glut'n, _n._ one who eats to excess: a popular name of the
wolverine, a carnivorous quadruped of the weasel family.--_v.i._
GLUTT'ONISE, to eat to excess, like a glutton.--_adjs._ GLUTT'ONOUS,
GLUTT'ONISH, given to, or consisting in, gluttony.--_adv._
GLUTT'ONOUSLY.--_n._ GLUTT'ONY, excess in eating. [Fr. _glouton_--L.
_gluton-em_--_glutt[=i]re_, to devour.]

GLYCERINE, glis'[.e]r-in, _n._ a colourless, viscid, neutral, inodorous
fluid, of a sweet taste, soluble in water and alcohol. [Fr.,--Gr.
_glykeros_--_glykys_, sweet.]

GLYCOCOLL, gl[=i]'k[=o]-kol, _n._ amido-acetic acid, a crystalline solid of
sweetish taste, very soluble in water, a product of various processes of
decomposition of animal matters.--Also GLY'CIN. [Formed from Gr. _glykys_,
sweet, _kolla_, glue.]

GLYCOGEN, gl[=i]'k[=o]-jen, _n._ animal starch, a substance first
discovered by Claude Bernard in the human liver--when pure, a white,
amorphous, tasteless powder, insoluble in alcohol. [Formed from Gr.
_glykys_, sweet, _gen[=e]s_, producing.]

GLYCOL, gl[=i]'kol, _n._ the type of a class of artificial compounds
forming chemically a link between alcohol and glycerine. [Formed from
_glyc_(erine) and (alcoh)_ol_.]

GLYCONIC, gl[=i]-kon'ik, _adj._ and _n._ of or pertaining to the ancient
Greek poet _Glycon_, or the verse attributed to him, consisting of four
feet--one a dactyl, the others trochees.

GLYPH, glif, _n._ (_archit._) an ornamental channel or fluting, usually
vertical.--_adjs._ GLYPH'IC; GLYPHOGRAPH'IC.--_ns._ GLYPHOG'RAPHY, a
process of taking a raised copy of a drawing by electrotype; GLYPH'OGRAPH,
a plate formed by this process.--_adj._ GLYP'TIC, pertaining to carving on
stone, &c.: (_min._) figured.--_n.pl._ GLYP'TICS, the art of engraving,
esp. on precious stones.--_adj._ GLYPTOGRAPH'IC.--_ns._ GLYPTOG'RAPHY, the
art of engraving on precious stones; GLYPTOTH[=E]'CA, a place for keeping
sculpture. [Gr. _glyph[=e]_--_glyphein_, to carve.]

GLYPTODON, glip'to-don, _n._ a gigantic fossil armadillo of South America
with fluted teeth. [Gr. _glyptos_, carved, _odous_, _odontos_, tooth.]

GMELINA, mel'i-na, _n._ a genus of verbenaceous trees. [From Samuel
Gottlieb _Gmelin_ (1744-74).]

GNAPHALIUM, na-f[=a]'li-um, _n._ a genus of composite herbs of the aster
family, the cudweed or everlasting. [L.,--Gr. _gnaphalion_, a downy plant.]

GNAR, när, _v.i._ to snarl or growl.--Also GNARR, KNAR, GNARL. [From a
Teut. root found in Ger. _knurren_, Dan. _knurre_, to growl; formed from
the sound.]

GNARL, närl, _n._ a twisted knot in wood.--_adj._ GNARLED, knotty, twisted.
[From a Teut. root, as in Ger. _knurren_, Dan. _knort_, a knot, gnarl, and
prob. akin to _gnarl_ in the sense of pressing close together.]

GNASH, nash, _v.t._ to strike the teeth together in rage or pain.--_v.i._
to grind the teeth.--_n._ a sudden snap.--_adv._ GNASH'INGLY. [M. E.
_gnasten_--Sw. _knastra_, to crash; cf. Ger. _knastern_, Dan. _knaske_.]

GNAT, nat, _n._ a genus of dipterous insects of numerous species, esp.
abundant in marshy districts--the female lives on the blood of
animals.--_n._ GNAT'LING. [A.S. _gnæt_; Ice. _gnata_, to clash.]

GNATHIC, nath'ik, _adj._ of the jaws--also GN[=A]'THAL.--_ns._ GNATH'ISM,
the classification of mankind based on measurements of the jaw;
GNATH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the cheek or upper jaw; GNATHOPLAST'Y, the
formation of a cheek by plastic surgery; GNATHOP'ODA, the xiphosura: the
arthropoda. [Gr. _gnathos_, the jaw.]

GNATHONIC, -AL, nä-thon'ik, -al, _adj._ flattering. [From _Gnatho_, a
character in Terence's _Eunuchus_--Gr. _gnathos_, the jaw.]

GNAW, naw, _v.t._ to bite so as to make a noise with the teeth: to bite off
by degrees: to corrode or wear away: to bite in agony or rage: (_fig._) to
torment.--_v.i._ to use the teeth in biting.--_n._ GNAW'ER, a rodent. [A.S.
_gnagan_; cf. Dut. _knagen_, Ice. _naga_, prov. Eng. _nag_, to tease.]

GNEISS, n[=i]s, _n._ (_geol._) a species of stratified rock composed of
quartz, feldspar, and mica.--_adjs._ GNEISS'OID, having some of the
characters of gneiss; GNEISS'OSE, having the structure of gneiss. [Ger.
_gneiss_, a miners' word of unknown origin.]

GNOME, n[=o]m, _n._ a pithy and sententious saying, generally in verse,
embodying some moral sentiment or precept.--GNOMIC POETS, a class of
writers of this form in Greek literature. [Gr. _gn[=o]m[=e]_, an
opinion--_gn[=o]nai_, _gign[=o]skein_, to know.]

GNOME, n[=o]m, _n._ a sprite guarding the inner parts of the earth and its
treasures: a dwarf or goblin. [Fr.,--a word traced by Littré to Paracelsus,
and perh. formed from Gr. _gn[=o]m[=e]_, intelligence.]

GNOMON, n[=o]'mon, _n._ the pin of a dial, whose shadow points to the hour:
the index of the hour-circle of a globe: (_geom._) the name given to the
sum of any three of the parts of a rectangle when divided into four parts
by cross-lines parallel to its sides: interpreter, as in Bengel's _Gnomon
Novi Testamenti_.--_adjs._ GNOMON'IC, -AL, pertaining to the art of
dialling.--_adv._ GNOMON'ICALLY.--_ns._ GNOMON'ICS, the art of dialling;
GNOMONOL'OGY, a treatise on dialling. [Gr. _gn[=o]m[=o]n_, an
interpreter--_gn[=o]nai_, to know.]

GNOSTIC, nos'tik, _n._ (_theol._) one of a sect in the beginning of the
Christian era which maintained that knowledge (_gn[=o]sis_) and not faith
(_pistis_) was the way of salvation, allegorised away the great facts of
Christ's person and work, and represented individual life as the result of
a process of emanation from the original essence.--_adj._ having knowledge:
knowing, cunning: pertaining to the Gnostics.--_ns._ GN[=O]'SIS, knowledge:
mystical knowledge; GNOS'TICISM, the eclectic doctrines of the Gnostics.
[Gr. _gn[=o]stikos_, good at knowing--_gign[=o]skein_, to know.]

GNU, n[=u], _n._ a genus of antelopes native to South Africa, of which the
best-known species has characters of the ox, buffalo, and horse.

GO, g[=o], _v.i._ to pass from one place to another: to be in motion: to
proceed: to walk: to depart from: to lead in any direction: to extend: to
tend: to be about to do: to pass in report: to pass, as in payment: to be
accounted in value: to happen in a particular way: to turn out: to fare: to
give way:--_pr.p._ g[=o]'ing; _pa.t._ went; _pa.p._ gone (gon).--_n._
affair, matter, as in 'a pretty go:' fashion, as in 'all the go:' energy,
activity.--_adj._ GO'-AHEAD', dashing, energetic.--_ns._ GO'-BETWEEN',
G[=O]'ER-BETWEEN' (_Shak._), one who is agent between two parties; GO'-BY,
escape by artifice: evasion: any intentional disregard: in coursing, the
act of passing by or ahead in motion.--_adj._ GO-TO-MEET'ING (_coll._),
used of clothes, good and fit for public use.--GO ABOUT (_B._), to set
one's self about: to seek: to endeavour; GO ABOUT ONE'S BUSINESS, to attend
to one's duties: to be off; GO ABROAD, to go to a foreign country: to leave
one's house; GO AGAINST, to invade: to be repugnant to; GO ASIDE, to err:
to withdraw, retire; GO AT, to attack; GO BEYOND (_B._), to overreach; GO
DOWN, to sink, decline: to be believed or accepted; GO FAR, to last long;
GO FOR, to pass for: to attack: to take up a line of policy; GO FOR
NOTHING, to have no value; GO HARD WITH, to be in real difficulty or
danger; GO IN AND OUT, to come and go freely; GO IN FOR, to be in favour
of: to aim after; GO IN UNTO, to have sexual intercourse with; GO IT, to
act in a striking or dashing manner--often in _imperative_ by way of
encouragement; GO OFF, to leave: to die: to explode: to fade; GO ON, to
proceed; GO ONE BETTER, to take a bet and add another more to it: to excel
another in fitness for some purpose; GO ONE'S WAY, to depart; GO OUT, to
become extinct or expire; GO OVER, to study, to examine; GO THE WHOLE HOG,
to go to the fullest extent; GO THROUGH, to perform thoroughly, to
accomplish; GO THROUGH FIRE AND WATER, to undertake any trouble or risks
for one's end (from the usage in ancient ordeals); GO TO, come now (a kind
of interjection, like the L. _agedum_, the Gr. [Greek: age nun]); GO TO
PIECES, to break up entirely, to be dismembered; GO TO THE WALL, to be
pushed aside, passed by; GO UNDER, to be called by some title or character:
to be overwhelmed or ruined, to die; GO WELL, to prosper; GO WITH, to
accompany: to agree, accord; GO WITHOUT SAYING, to be plainly self-evident
(Fr. _Cela va sans dire_).--GREAT GO, a degree examination, compared with
LITTLE GO, a preliminary examination in the university of Cambridge; LET
GO, to release, to quit hold of; NO GO, not possible: of no use. [A.S.
_gán_, contr. for _gangan_, to go; cf. Ger. _gehen_, Dut. _gaan_.]

GOAD, g[=o]d, _n._ a sharp-pointed stick, often shod with iron, for driving
oxen: a stimulus.--_v.t._ to drive with a goad: to urge forward. [A.S.
_gád_, a goad; cf. Ice. _gaddr_, a goad.]

GOAF, g[=o]f, _n._ a rick: the coal-waste left in old workings.

GOAL, g[=o]l, _n._ a mark set up to bound a race: the winning-post--also
the starting-post: the end aimed at: the two upright posts between which
the ball is kicked in the game of football: the act of sending the ball
between or over the goal-posts: an end or aim. [Fr. _gaule_, a pole; prob.
of Teut. origin, as Old Fris. _walu_, a staff, Goth. _walus_; but acc. to
Littré from L. _vallus_, a stake.]

GOAT, g[=o]t, _n._ the well-known quadruped, allied to the sheep.--_ns._
GOAT'CH[=A]FER, the dor or dung-beetle; GOAT[=EE]', a beard left on the
chin, while the rest of the face is shaven; GOAT'-HERD, one who tends
goats.--_adj._ GOAT'ISH, resembling a goat, esp. in smell: lustful:
wanton.--_ns._ GOAT'ISHNESS; GOAT'-MOTH, a large moth common throughout
Europe and Asia, having a thick heavy body, and measuring three inches or
more across the wings; GOAT'S'-BEARD, GOAT'S'-RUE, GOAT'S'-THORN, names of
plants; GOAT'SKIN, the skin of the goat, leather made from it; GOAT'SUCKER,
a kind of swallow erroneously thought to suck goats. [A.S. _gát_; Ger.
_geiss_, Dut. _geit_.]

GOB, gob, _n._ the mouth: a mouthful, lump: refuse coal.--_v.i._ to pack
away such as a support to the walls.--_ns._ GOB'BING, GOB'BIN, coal refuse.

GO-BANG, g[=o]-bang', _n._ a game played on a checker-board of 256 squares,
with fifty coloured counters, the object being to get five counters in a
row. [Jap. _goban_.]

GOBBET, gob'et, _n._ a mouthful: (_obs._) a little lump.--GOBE MOUCHE, a
silly credulous fellow. [O. Fr. _gobet_, from Celt.; Gael. _gob_, the

GOBBLE, gob'l, _v.t._ to swallow in lumps: to swallow hastily.--_v.i._ to
make a noise in the throat, as a turkey.--_n._ (_golf_) a rapid straight
_putt_ so strongly played that if the ball had not gone into the hole, it
would have gone a long way past.--_n._ GOBB'LER, a turkey-cock. [O. Fr.
_gober_, to devour; Celt.]

GOBELIN, gob'e-lin, _n._ a rich French tapestry. [From the _Gobelins_, a
famous family of French dyers settled in Paris as early as the 15th

GOBLET, gob'let, _n._ a large drinking-cup without a handle. [O. Fr.
_gobelet_, dim. of _gobel_--Low L. _cupellus_, a dim. of L. _cupa_, a cask.
See Cup.]

GOBLIN, gob'lin, _n._ a frightful phantom: a fairy: a mischievous sprite.
[O. Fr. _gobelin_--Low L. _gobelinus_--Gr. _kobalos_, a mischievous

GOBY, g[=o]'bi, _n._ a genus of small carnivorous sea-fishes, with nests of
seaweed. [L. _gobius_--Gr. _k[=o]bios_.]

GO-CART, g[=o]'-kärt, _n._ a wheeled apparatus for teaching children to

GOD, god, _n._ the Supreme Being: the Creator and Preserver of the world:
an object of worship, an idol: (_B._) a ruler:--_fem._ GOD'DESS: (_pl._)
the occupants of the gallery of a theatre.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to
deify.--_interj._ GOD'-A-MER'CY (_Shak._), probably a corruption of 'God
have mercy!'--_ns._ GOD'CHILD; GOD'DAUGHTER; GOD'DESS-SHIP (_Byron_), state
or quality of a goddess; GOD'FATHER, GOD'MOTHER, the persons who, at
baptism, guarantee a child's religious education.--_adjs._ GOD'-FORSAK'EN,
miserable, as if forsaken by God; GOD'-FEAR'ING, reverencing God.--_n._
GOD'HEAD, state of being a god: deity: divine nature--also rarely
GOD'HOOD.--_adj._ GOD'LESS, living without God: impious:
atheistical.--_adv._ GOD'LESSLY.--_n._ GOD'LESSNESS.--_adj._ GOD'LIKE, like
God: divine.--_ns._ GODLI'NESS; GOD'LING (_Dryden_), a little god.--_adj._
GOD'LY, like God in character: pious: according to God's law.--_advs._
GOD'LY, GOD'LILY.--_ns._ GOD'LY-HEAD (_Spens._), goodness; GOD'SEND, an
unexpected piece of good fortune; GOD'SHIP, the rank or character of a god:
a divinity; GOD'-SMITH (_Dryden_), a maker of idols; GOD'SON; GOD'SPEED, a
wish for good speed or success.--_adv._ GOD'WARD, toward God.--GOD'S ACRE,
a burial-ground (imitated from Ger. _Gottesacker_); GOD'S TRUTH, an
absolute truth--an emphatic asseveration.--HOUSEHOLD GODS, among the
Romans, the special gods presiding over the family: anything bound up with
home interests. [A.S. _god_; Ger. _gott_, Goth. _guth_, Dut. _god_; all
from a Teut. root _gutha_, God, and quite distinct from _good_.]

GOD-DEN, a variant of _good-den_.

GODROON, go-dr[=oo]n', _n._ (_archit._) an inverted fluting or beading.
[Fr. _godron_, a plait.]

GODWIT, god'wit, _n._ a genus of birds of the snipe family, with long bill
and long slender legs, with a great part of the tibia bare. [Perh. from
A.S. _gód_, good, _wiht_, creature.]

GOËL, g[=o]'[=a]l, _n._ the avenger of blood among the Hebrews, the nearest
relative whose duty it was to hunt down the murderer. [Heb.]

GOER, g[=o]'[.e]r, _n._ one who, or that which, goes: a horse, considered
in reference to his gait.

GOETY, g[=o]'[=e]-ti, _n._ black magic.--_adj._ GOET'IC. [Gr., _go[=e]s_, a

GOFF, a variant of _golf_.

GOFFER, gof'[.e]r, _v.t._ to plait or crimp.--_n._ GOFF'ERING, plaits or
ruffles, or the process of making them; indented tooling on the edge of a
book. [O. Fr. _gauffrer_--_goffre_, a wafer.]

GOGGLE, gog'l, _v.i._ to strain or roll the eyes.--_adj._ rolling: staring:
prominent.--_n._ a stare or affected rolling of the eye: (_pl._) spectacles
with projecting eye-tubes: blinds for shying horses.--_adj._ GOGG'LE-EYED,
having prominent, distorted, or rolling eyes. [Prob. related to Ir. and
Gael. _gog_, to nod.]

GOGLET, gog'let, _n._ a water-cooler.

GOING, g[=o]'ing, _n._ the act of moving: departure: (_B._) course of
life.--GOING FORTH (_B._), an outlet; GOINGS, or GOINGS OUT (_B._), utmost
extremity: departures or journeys; GOINGS ON, behaviour.

GOITRE, GOITER, goi't[.e]r, _n._ a tumour on the forepart of the throat,
being an enlargement of one of the glands (see CRETINISM).--_adjs._
GOI'TRED, GOI'TERED, affected with goitre; GOI'TROUS, pertaining to goitre.
[Fr. _goître_--L. _guttur_, the throat.]

GOLD, g[=o]ld, _n._ one of the precious metals much used for coin: money:
riches: anything very precious: yellow, gold colour.--_adj._ made of or
like gold.--_ns._ GOLD'-BEAT'ER, one whose trade is to beat gold into
gold-leaf; GOLD'-BEAT'ERS'-SKIN, the outer coat of the cæcum of the ox;
GOLD'-BEAT'ING.--_adj._ GOLD'-BOUND (_Shak._), encompassed with
gold.--_ns._ GOLD'-CLOTH, cloth woven with threads of gold; GOLD'-CREST, a
golden-crested bird of genus _Regulus_; GOLD'-DIG'GER, one who digs for or
mines gold, esp. a placer-miner; GOLD'-DUST, gold in dust or very fine
particles, as it is sometimes found in rivers.--_adj._ GOLD'EN, made of
gold: of the colour of gold: bright: most valuable: happy: highly
favourable.--_v.t._ to become golden.--_ns._ GOLD'EN-AGE, an early period
in history, a time of innocence and happiness; GOLD'EN-EYE, a species of
oceanic ducks which breed in the Arctic regions, and are winter visitants
of Britain.--_adj._ GOLD'EN-HILT'ED (_Tenn._), having a hilt made of, or
mounted with, gold.--_adv._ GOLD'ENLY (_Tenn._), splendidly,
delightfully.--_ns._ GOLD'EN-ROD, any herb of the genus _Solidago_, of the
aster family; GOLD'-F[=E]'VER, a mania for seeking gold; GOLD'-FIELD, a
region where gold is found; GOLD'FINCH, the most beautiful of English
finches, with very handsome plumage, in which black, crimson-red, yellow,
and white are, in the adult male, exquisitely mingled; GOLD'FISH, a Chinese
and Japanese fresh-water fish, nearly allied to the carp--in its native
waters it is brownish, but when domesticated becomes golden-yellow;
GOLD'-FOIL, gold beaten into thin sheets, used by dentists; GOLD'ILOCKS,
GOLD'YLOCKS, a common name for Ranunculus (q.v.); GOLD'-LACE, lace made of
gold-thread; GOLD'-LEAF, gold beaten extremely thin, or into leaves;
GOLD'-LIL'Y, the yellow lily; GOLD'-MINE, a mine from which gold is dug;
GOLD'-PLATE, vessels and utensils of gold collectively; GOLD'SMITH, a
worker in gold and silver; GOLD'SPINK (_Scot._), the goldfinch; GOLD'STICK,
the colonel of a regiment of life-guards who attends the sovereign on state
occasions--he receives a gold rod with his commission; GOLD'-THREAD, a
ranunculaceous plant found from Denmark to Siberia, with evergreen leaves,
resembling those of the strawberry: a thread formed of a strip of gold-leaf
laid over a thread of silk; GOLD'-WASH'ER, one who obtains gold by washing
it from sand and GRAVEL: a cradle or other implement for washing gold from
auriferous dirt; GOLD'-WIRE, wire made of or covered with gold.--Golden
beetle, the name popularly given to many members of the _Chrysomela_ genus
of coleopterous insects, marked by their metallic splendour of colour;
GOLDEN BULL (L. _bulla_ _aurea_), an edict issued by the Emperor Charles
IV. in 1356, mainly for the purpose of settling the law of imperial
elections; GOLDEN FLEECE, in Greek mythology, the fleece of the ram
Chrysomallus, the recovery of which was the object of the famous expedition
of the Argonauts--it gave its name to a celebrated order of knighthood in
Austria and Spain, founded in 1429; GOLDEN HORDE, the Kipchaks, a Turkic
people, whose empire was founded in central and southern Russia by Batu in
the 13th century; GOLDEN LEGEND (L. _aurea legenda_), a celebrated medieval
collection of lives of the greater saints, the work of Jacobus de Voragine
(1230-98); GOLDEN NUMBER for any year, the number of that year in the
Metonic Cycle, and as this cycle embraces nineteen years, the golden
numbers range from one to nineteen; GOLDEN ROSE, a rose formed of wrought
gold, and blessed by the Pope in person on the fourth Sunday in Lent,
usually presented to some Catholic prince. [A.S. _gold_; Ice. _gull_, Ger.
_gold_, Goth. _gulth_, Russ. _zlato_, Gr. _chrysos_.]

GOLF, golf, _n._ a game played with a club and ball, in which he who drives
the ball into a series of small holes in the ground with fewest strokes is
the winner.--_ns._ GOLF'ER; GOLF'ING. [Dut. _kolf_, a club; cf. Ger.
_kolbe_, Ice. _kólfr_.]

GOLGOTHA, gol'go-tha, _n._ the scene of our Lord's crucifixion, near
Jerusalem: a charnel-house. [Heb.]

GOLIARD, gol'yard, _n._ a medieval monk who amused his superiors at table
by merry jests.--_n._ GOL'IARDERY.--_adj._ GOLIAR'DIC.--_n._ GOL'IAS, the
title assumed by the authors of several medieval satirical poems--Walter
Map makes 'Bishop Golias' the type of the ribald priest. [O. Fr.]

GOLIATH, g[=o]-l[=i]'ath, _n._ a giant.--_v.i._ to exaggerate
extravagantly.--_n._ GOL[=I]'ATH-BEE'TLE, a genus of tropical beetles of
very large size, the male sometimes measuring about four inches. [From
_Goliath_, the Philistine giant in 1 Sam. xvii.]

GOLLAR, gol'ar, _v.i._ (prov.) to scold or speak loudly.


GOLOMYNKA, g[=o]-l[=o]-ming'ka, _n._ a fish found only in Lake Baikal,
resembling the gobies.

GOLOSH, go-losh', _n._ Same as GALOSH.

GOMARIST, g[=o]'mar-ist, _n._ a follower of Francis _Gomarus_ (1563-1641),
a vehement opponent of the Arminians, who mainly through his influence were
expelled from the Reformed Church at the Synod of Dort in 1618.

GOMBEENISM, gom-b[=e]n'izm, _n._ the practice of depending on
money-lenders.--_n._ GOMBEEN'MAN, a grasping and usurious money-lender in

GOMERIL, gom'[.e]r-il, _n._ (_Scot._) a stupid fellow.

GOMPHIASIS, gom-f[=i]'a-sis, _n._ looseness of the teeth, esp. the
molars.--_n._ GOMPH[=O]'SIS, a kind of synarthrosis or immovable
articulation, as of the teeth in the jaw. [Gr., _gomphios_, a tooth.]

GOMUTI, g[=o]-m[=oo]'ti, _n._ the sago-palm: the black fibre it
yields.--Also GOMU'TO. [Malay.]

GONAD, gon'ad, _n._ (_biol._) a mass of undifferentiated generative tissue.

GONAGRA, gon'a-gra, _n._ gout in the knee.--_ns._ GONAL'GIA, any painful
affection of the knee; GONARTHR[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the knee-joint.
[Gr. _gony_, knee, _agra_, a taking, _algos_, pain.]

GONDOLA, gon'do-la, _n._ a long, narrow boat (averaging 30 feet by 4) used
chiefly on the canals of Venice--(_Spens._) GON'DELAY.--_n._ GONDOLIER
(gon'dol-[=e]r), one who rows a gondola. [It., a dim. of _gonda_--Gr.
_kondy_--a drinking-vessel, said to be a Pers. word.]

GONE, gon, _pa.p._ of go, lost, passed beyond help: weak, faint, feeling a
sinking sensation: wide of the mark, of an arrow: (_slang_) entirely given
up to (with on).--_ns._ GONE'NESS, a sinking sensation; GON'ER (_slang_),
one ruined beyond recovery.

GONFALON, gon'fa-lon, _n._ an ensign or standard with streamers--also
GON'FANON.--_n._ GONFALONIER', one who bears a gonfalon: the chief
magistrate in many Italian cities because of his bearing this flag. [O. Fr.
_gonfanon_--Mid. High Ger. _gundfano_--_gund_, battle, _fano_ (Ger.
_fahne_), a flag.]

GONG, gong, _n._ a Chinese instrument of percussion, made of a mixture of
metals, and shaped into a basin-like form, flat and large, with a rim a few
inches deep. [Malay.]

GONGORISM, gong'gor-izm, _n._ a florid, inverted, and pedantic style of
writing, introduced by the Spanish poet Luis de _Góngora_ y Argote
(1561-1627), some of whose distinctive features reappeared in Euphuism.

GONGYLUS, gon'ji-lus, _n._ a round deciduous body connected with the
reproduction of certain seaweeds. [Gr., 'round.']

GONIATITES, g[=o]-ni-a-t[=i]'t[=e]z, _n._ a genus of fossil cephalopodous
mollusca, kindred to the Ammonites. [Gr. _gonia_, an angle, _lithos_, a

GONIDIA, g[=o]-nid'i-a, _n.pl._ an old term in lichenology for the green
cells (algal constituents) of the thallus:--_sing._ GONID'IUM, a naked or
membranous-coated propagative cell produced asexually. [Formed from Gr.
_gon[=e]_, generation, seed.]

GONIOMETER, g[=o]-ni-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring solid
angles, indispensable to the crystallographer. [_G[=o]nia_, an angle,
_metron_, measure.]

GONOPHORE, gon'o-f[=o]r, _n._ the ultimate generative zooid of a hydrozoan,
originating directly the generative elements. [Gr. _gonos_, seed,
_pherein_, to bear.]

GONORRHEA, gon-or-r[=e]'a, _n._ a specific contagious inflammatory
discharge of mucus from the membrane of the urethra or vagina. [Gr.
_gonorrhoia_--_gonos_, seed, _rheein_, to flow.]

GOOD, good, _adj._ having qualities, whether physical or moral, desirable
or suitable to the end proposed: promoting success, welfare, or happiness:
virtuous: pious: kind: benevolent: proper: fit: competent: satisfactory:
sufficient: valid: sound: serviceable: beneficial: real: serious, as in
'good earnest:' not small, considerable, as in 'good deal:' full, complete,
as in 'good measure:' unblemished, honourable, as in 'good name:'--_comp._
bett'er; _superl._ best.--_n._ that which promotes happiness, success,
&c.--opp. to _Evil_: prosperity: welfare: advantage, temporal or spiritual:
moral qualities: virtue: (_B._) possessions: (_pl._) household furniture:
movable property: merchandise (in composition, the equivalent of U.S.
_freight_).--_interj._ well! right!--_adv._ well.--_ns._ GOOD'-BREED'ING,
polite manners formed by a good breeding or education; GOOD'-BROTH'ER
(_Scot._), a brother-in-law.--_n._ or _interj._ GOOD'-BYE, contracted from
'God be with you:' farewell, a form of address at parting.--_adj._
GOOD'-CONDI'TIONED, being in a good state.--_ns._ or _interjs._ GOOD'-DAY,
a common salutation, a contraction of 'I wish you a good day;' GOOD'-DEN, a
corruption of _good-e'en_; GOOD'-E'EN, GOOD'-[=E]V'EN, GOOD'-[=E]VE'NING, a
salutation on meeting or parting in the evening.--_adj._ GOOD'-FACED
(_Shak._), having a handsome face.--_ns._ GOOD'-FELL'OW, a jolly or boon
companion: a reveller; GOOD'-FELL'OWSHIP, merry or pleasant company:
conviviality.--_n.pl._ GOOD'-FOLK, a euphemism for the fairies, of whom it
is best to speak respectfully.--_adj._ GOOD'-FOR-NOTH'ING, worthless,
useless.--_n._ an idle person.--_ns._ GOOD'-FR[=I]'DAY, a fast in memory of
our Lord's crucifixion, held on the Friday of Passion-week;
GOOD'-H[=U]'MOUR, a cheerful temper, from the old idea that temper depended
on the humours of the body.--_adj._ GOOD'-H[=U]'MOURED.--_adv._
GOOD'-H[=U]'MOUREDLY.--_n._ GOOD'INESS, weak, priggish, or canting
goodness.--_adj._ GOOD'ISH, pretty good, of fair quality or
quantity.--_interj._ GOOD'-LACK, an expression of surprise or pity--a
variation of 'Good Lord,' under the influence of _alack_.--_n._
GOOD'LINESS.--_adv._ GOOD'LY (_Spens._), excellently, kindly.--_adj._
good-like: good-looking: fine: excellent:--_comp._ GOOD'LIER; _superl._
GOOD'LIEST.--_ns._ GOOD'LYHEAD (_Spens._), goodness; GOOD'LYHOOD, grace;
GOODMAN' (_B._), the man or master of the house--the correlative to it is
GOODWIFE'.--_ns._ and _interjs._ GOOD'-MORN'ING, GOOD'-MORR'OW, a
salutation at meeting in the morning.--_n._ GOOD'-N[=A]'TURE, natural
goodness and mildness of disposition.--_adj._ GOOD'-N[=A]'TURED.--_adv._
GOOD'-N[=A]'TUREDLY.--_n._ GOOD'NESS, virtue: excellence: benevolence: a
term of emphasis, as in 'For goodness' sake;' 'Oh, goodness!'--_n._ and
_interj._ GOOD'-NIGHT, a common salutation, a contraction of 'I wish you a
good night.'--_interj._ GOOD'-NOW, an exclamation of wonder, surprise, or
entreaty.--_ns._ GOODS'-EN'GINE, an engine used for drawing goods-trains;
GOOD'-SENSE, sound judgment; GOOD'-SPEED, a contraction of 'I wish you good
speed;' GOODS'-TRAIN, a train of goods wagons.--_adj._ GOOD'-TEM'PERED,
possessing a good temper.--_ns._ GOOD'-WIFE, the mistress of a family;
GOOD'-WILL, benevolence; well-wishing: the established custom or popularity
of any business or trade--often appearing as one of its assets, with a
marketable money value; GOOD'Y, good-wife: good-woman: probably formed from
_good-wife_.--_adj._ GOOD'Y, mawkishly good: weakly benevolent or
pious--also GOOD'Y-GOOD'Y.--_n._ a sweetmeat.--GOOD FOR ANYTHING, ready for
any kind of work; GOODMAN'S CROFT, a strip of ground, or corner of a field,
once left untilled in Scotland, to avert the malice of the devil from the
crop.--GOOD TEMPLAR, a member of a temperance society founded in the United
States in 1852, and introduced into England in 1868, its organisation
modelled on that of the Freemasons, with lodges, passwords and grips, and
insignia.--AS GOOD AS, the same as, no less than; BE AS GOOD AS ONE'S WORD,
to be depended on; FOR GOOD, FOR GOOD AND ALL, finally, in conclusion, to
end the whole matter; Make good, to fulfil, perform; STAND GOOD, to be
lastingly good: to remain; THINK GOOD, to be disposed, to be willing. [A.S.
_gód_; closely akin to Dut. _goed_, Ger. _gut_, Ice. _góðr_, Goth. _gods_.]

GOORKHA, g[=oo]r'kä, _n._ one of the dominant race in Nepal, descended from
Hindu immigrants, and claiming a Rajput origin, short, thick-set men,
making excellent soldiers.


GOOSANDER, g[=oo]s-an'd[.e]r, _n._ a web-footed bird in the duck family, in
the same genus as the Mergansers, a native of the Arctic regions. [Formed
from _goose_ and _gander_.]

GOOSE, g[=oo]s, _n._ (_pl._ GEESE) a web-footed animal like a duck, but
larger and stronger: a tailor's smoothing-iron, from the likeness of the
handle to the neck of a goose: a stupid, silly person: a game of chance
once common in England, in which the players moved counters forward from
one compartment on a board to another, the right to a double move being
secured when the card bearing the picture of a goose was reached.--_v.t._
(_slang_) to hiss off the stage.--_ns._ GOOSE'-CAP, a silly person;
GOOSE'-CORN, a coarse rush; GOOSE'-EGG, a zero, denoting a miss or failure
to score at an athletic or other contest; GOOSE'-FISH, a common name in
America for the angler-fish (see ANGLER); GOOSE'-FLESH, a puckered
condition of the skin, like that of a plucked goose, through cold, fear,
&c.; GOOSE'-FOOT, pigweed; GOOSE'-GRASS, a species of Bedstraw (q.v.), a
common weed in hedges and bushy places in Britain, Europe, and America;
GOOSE'-NECK, an iron swivel forming the fastening between a boom and a
mast: a bent pipe or tube with a swivel-joint; GOOSE'-QUILL, one of the
quills or large wing-feathers of a goose, used as pens; GOOS'ERY, a place
for keeping geese: stupidity; GOOSE'-SKIN, a kind of thin soft leather;
GOOSE'-STEP (_mil._), the marking of time by raising the feet alternately
without making progress; GOOSE'-WING, one of the clews or lower corners of
a ship's mainsail or foresail when the middle part is furled or tied up to
the yard.--_adj._ GOOSE'-WINGED, having only one clew set: in fore-and-aft
rigged vessels, having the mainsail on one side and the foresail on the
other, so as to sail wing-and-wing.--_n._ GOOS'EY, a goose: a blockhead.
[A.S. _gós_; Ice. _gás_, Ger. _gans_, L. _anser_, Gr. _ch[=e]n_, Sans.

GOOSEBERRY, g[=oo]z'ber-i, _n._ the berry or fruit of a shrub of the same
name.--PLAY GOOSEBERRY, to accompany lovers, &c., for propriety. [Prof.
Skeat says _goose-_ is for _grose-_ or _groise-_, which appears in O. Fr.
_groisele_, _grosele_, gooseberry, Scot. _grossart_, from the Mid. High
Ger. _krus_ (Ger. _kraus_), crisp, curled.]


GOPHER, g[=o]'f[.e]r, _n._ a name in America applied to the prairie dog,
the pouched rat, and to the land tortoise of the southern states.--_v.i._
to burrow, to mine in a small way. [Fr. _gaufre_.]

GOPHER, g[=o]'f[.e]r, _n._ (_B._) a kind of wood, generally supposed
identical with cypress. [Heb.]

GOPURA, g[=o]'p[=oo]-ra, _n._ in Southern India, a pyramidal tower over the
gateway of a temple.

GORAL, g[=o]'ral, _n._ a Himalayan goat-antelope.

GORAMY, g[=o]'ra-mi, _n._ a fish found in the Eastern Archipelago, highly
esteemed for the table, and used in Mauritius, the West Indies, &c.--Also

GOR-BELLIED, gor'-bel-id, _adj._ (_Shak._) big-bellied, gluttonous. [Obs.
_gore_--A.S. _gor_, filth, and _belly_.]

GORCOCK, gor'kok, _n._ the moorcock or red grouse:--_fem._ GOR'HEN.
[_Gor-_, from _gorse_, furze; or imit.]

GORCROW, gor'kr[=o], _n._ the carrion-crow. [A.S. _gor_, filth, carrion,
and _crow_.]

GORDIAN, gord'yan, _adj._ intricate: difficult.--_v.t._ (_Keats_) to tie
up, knot.--CUT THE GORDIAN KNOT, to overcome a difficulty by violent
measures--Alexander, unable to untie the fateful knot tied by _Gordius_,
king of Phrygia, having cut it through with his sword.

GORDIUS, gor'di-us, _n._ a genus typical of _Gordiidæ_, a family of
nematode worms with a hair-like body.

GORE, g[=o]r, _n._ clotted blood: blood.--_adv._ GOR'ILY (_Tenn._), in a
gory or bloody manner or state.--_adj._ GOR'Y, covered with gore:
bloody.--GORY DEW, a dark-red slimy film sometimes seen on damp walls and
in shady places. [A.S. _gor_, blood, dung; Sw. _gorr_, Ice. _gor_, gore.]

GORE, g[=o]r, _n._ a triangular piece let into a garment to widen it: a
triangular piece of land.--_v.t._ to shape like or furnish with gores: to
pierce with anything pointed, as a spear or horns.--_n._ GOR'ING, a piece
of cloth cut diagonally to increase its apparent width.--_adj._ cut
gradually sloping, so as to be broader at the clew than at the earing--of a
sail. [A.S. _gára_, a pointed triangular piece of land--_gár_, a spear with
triangular blade.]

GORGE, gorj, _n._ the throat: a narrow pass among hills: (_fort._) the
entrance to an outwork.--_v.t._ to swallow greedily: to glut.--_v.i._ to
feed.--_adj._ GORGED, having a gorge or throat: glutted: (_her._) having a
crown or coronet about the neck.--_n._ GORG'ET, a piece of armour for the
throat: a military ornament round the neck (see ARMOUR).--HAVE ONE'S GORGE
RISE, to be disgusted or irritated; HEAVE THE GORGE, to retch. [O. Fr.,--L.
_gurges_, a whirlpool.]

GORGEOUS, gor'jus, _adj._ showy: splendid: magnificent.--_adv._
GOR'GEOUSLY.--_n._ GOR'GEOUSNESS. [O. Fr. _gorgias_, gaudy--_gorgias_, a
ruff--_gorge_, the throat.]

GORGON, gor'gun, _n._ one of three fabled female monsters (Stheno, Euryale,
and Medusa), of horrible aspect, winged, with hissing serpents for
hair--every one who looked on Medusa was turned to stone: anything very
ugly.--_adjs._ GOR'GON, GORG[=O]'NEAN, GORGONESQUE', GORG[=O]'NIAN, like a
gorgon: very ugly or terrific.--_n._ GORGONEI'ON, a mask of the
gorgon.--_v.t._ GOR'GONISE (_Tenn._), to turn to stone. [L. _gorgon_--Gr.
_gorg[=o]_--_gorgos_, grim.]

GORGONZOLA, gor-gon-z[=o]'la, _n._ a highly esteemed cheese.

GORILLA, gor-il'a, _n._ a great African ape, the largest known anthropoid,
generally referred to the same genus with the chimpanzee. [African.]

GORMAND, older form of _gourmand_.--_v.i._ GOR'MAND[=I]SE, to eat hastily
or voraciously.--_ns._ GOR'MAND[=I]SER; GOR'MAND[=I]SING, the act or habit
of eating voraciously; GOR'MANDISM, gluttony.

GORSE, gors, _n._ a prickly shrub growing on waste places, the furze or
whin.--_adj._ GORS'Y. [A.S. _gorst_.]

GOSHAWK, gos'hawk, _n._ a short-winged hawk, once used for hunting
wild-geese and other fowl, not having a toothed bill, like the falcons
proper. [A.S. _góshafoc_--_gós_, goose, _hafoc_, hawk.]

GOSLING, goz'ling, _n._ a young goose. [A.S. _gós_, goose, double dim.

GOSPEL, gos'pel, _n._ the Christian revelation: the narrative of the life
of Christ, as related by Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John: the stated portion
of these read at service: the teaching of Christ: a system of religious
truth: absolute truth.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to instruct in the gospel.--_n._
GOS'PELLER, a preacher: an evangelist.--_v.t._ GOS'PELLISE, to square with
the gospel. [A.S. _godspell_; commonly derived from A.S. _gód_, good, and
_spell_, story, and so a translation of Gr. _eu-anggelion_, good news; but
more prob. from _god_, God, and _spell_, a narrative, God-story; so also
the Ice. is _guðspjall_, God-story, and not _góðspjall_, good-story; and
the Old High Ger. was _gotspell_, _got_ (God) _-spel_, not _guot_ (good)

GOSS, gos, _n._ (_Shak._). See GORSE.

GOSSAMER, gos'a-m[.e]r, _n._ very fine spider-threads which float in the
air or form webs on bushes in fine weather: any thin material.--_adj._
light, flimsy.--_adj._ GOSS'AMERY, like gossamer: flimsy. [M. E.
_gossomer_; Prof Skeat thinks it is a corr. of 'goose-summer' or
'summer-goose,' from the downy appearance of the film. Ger. _sommer-fäden_,
summer-threads, also _mädchen-sommer_, maiden-summer.]

GOSSAN, gos'an, _n._ (_prov._) decomposed rock, usually ferruginous,
forming the upper part of a metallic vein.--Also GOZZ'AN.

GOSSIP, gos'ip, _n._ one who runs about telling and hearing news: idle
talk: a familiar acquaintance: a boon-companion.--_v.i._ to run about
telling idle tales: to talk much: to chat: (_Shak._) to stand godfather
to.--_n._ GOSS'IPING, the act or practice of one who gossips or
tattles.--_p.adj._ having the character of one who gossips: tattling.--_n._
GOSS'IPRY.--_adj._ GOSS'IPY. [Orig. a sponsor in baptism, or one related in
the service of _God_; M. E. _gossib_ (earlier form, _godsib_)--_God_, and
_sib_, related; cf. Ger. _sippe_, Ice. _sif_, affinity, Scot. _sib_,

GOSSOON, go-s[=oo]n', _n._ a boy-servant in Ireland. [From Fr. _garçon_, a

GOSSYPIUM, go-sip'i-um, _n._ a malvaceous genus of herbs and shrubs, native
to the tropics, yielding the cotton of commerce. [L. _gossypion_.]

GOT, GOTTEN. See under GET.

GOTH, goth, _n._ one of an ancient Teutonic nation, originally settled on
the southern coasts of the Baltic, which migrated to Dacia in the 3d
century, and later founded kingdoms in Italy, southern France, and Spain: a
rude or uncivilised person, a barbarian.--_adj._ GOTH'IC, belonging to the
Goths or their language: barbarous: romantic: denoting a style of
architecture with high-pointed arches, clustered columns, &c. (applied in
reproach at the time of the Renaissance).--_v.t._ GOTH'ICISE, to make
Gothic: to bring back to barbarism.--_n._ GOTH'ICISM, a Gothic idiom or
style of building: rudeness of manners. [The native names _Gutans_ (sing.
_Guta_) and _Gutôs_ (sing. _Guts_), _Gutthiuda_, 'people of the Goths;'
Latinised as _Gothi_, _Gotthi_.]

GOTHAMITE, goth'a-m[=i]t, GOTHAMIST, goth'a-mist, _n._ a simpleton: a
wiseacre. [From _Gotham_, a village of Nottinghamshire, with which name are
connected many of the simpleton stories of immemorial antiquity. So of
Gordon in Scotland, Kampan in Holland, the Schildburgers in Germany, &c.]

GOUACHE, gwash, _n._ a method of water-colour painting with opaque colours,
mixed with water, honey, and gum, presenting a dead surface: work painted
according to this method. [Fr.]

GOUDA, gow'da, _n._ a kind of cheese from _Gouda_.

GOUGE, gowj, or g[=oo]j, _n._ a chisel, with a hollow blade, for cutting
grooves or holes.--_v.t._ to scoop out, as with a gouge: to force out, as
the eye with the thumb. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _guvia_, a kind of chisel.]

GOUJEERS, g[=oo]'j[=e]rz, _n._ (_Shak._) venereal disease.--_Goujere_,
often GOOD YEAR, used as a slight imprecation, as pox; cf. 2 _Henry IV._,
II. iv. 64. [Perh. Fr. _gouge_, a prostitute, _goujat_, a blackguard.]

GOURA, gow'ra, _n._ a genus of beautifully crested, ground-loving pigeons,
native to New Guinea.


GOURD, g[=o]rd, or g[=oo]rd, _n._ a large fleshy fruit: rind of a gourd
used as a drinking-cup: the gourd plant: (_pl._) hollow dice used by
cheating gamblers.--_ns._ GOURD'INESS; GOURD'-WORM, a fluke or trematode
worm, esp. the liver-fluke.--_adj._ GOURD'Y, having the legs swollen--of a
horse. [O. Fr. _gourde_, contr. from _cougourde_--L. _cucurbita_, a gourd.]

GOURMAND, g[=oo]r'mand, _n._ one who eats greedily: a glutton.--_adj._
voracious: gluttonous--also GOR'MAND.--_n._ GOURMET (goor-m[=a]', or
-met'), an epicure, originally one with a delicate taste in wines. [Fr.
_gourmand_, a glutton; origin unknown.]

GOUSTY, gows'ti, _adj._ dreary.--_adj._ GOUS'TROUS, stormy: (_Scot._) rude.
[Same as GUSTY.]

GOUT, gowt, _n._ an acute inflammation of the smaller joints, and esp. of
the great toe, in persons of luxurious habits and past middle life:
(_obs._) a drop.--_adv._ GOUT'ILY.--_ns._ GOUT'INESS; GOUT'WORT, GOUT'WEED,
an umbelliferous European plant, long supposed to be good for gout.--_adj._
GOUT'Y, relating to gout: diseased with or subject to gout. [O. Fr.
_goutte_--L. _gutta_, a drop, the disease supposed to be caused by a
defluxion of humours.]

GOUT, g[=oo], _n._ taste: relish. [Fr.,--L. _gustus_, taste.]

GOVERN, guv'[.e]rn, _v.t._ to direct: to control: to rule with authority:
(_gram._) to determine the mood, tense, or case of.--_v.i._ to exercise
authority: to administer the laws.--_adj._ GOV'ERNABLE.--_ns._ GOV'ERNALL
(_Spens._), government; GOV'ERNANCE, government: control: direction:
behaviour; GOVERNANTE (guv-[.e]r-nant', or guv'-), a governess (_obs._);
GOV'ERNESS, a lady who has charge of the instruction of young ladies: a
tutoress (_Daily-governess_, one who goes every day to her pupils' house;
_Nursery_-, having charge of young children only, tending as well as
teaching them; _Resident_-, living in the family of her pupils).--_v.i._ to
act as governess.--_n._ GOV'ERNESS-CART, a light two-wheeled vehicle with
two face-to-face seats at the sides only.--_adj._ GOV'ERNING, having
control.--_n._ GOV'ERNMENT, a ruling or managing: control: system of
governing: the body of persons authorised to administer the laws, or to
govern a state: the territory over which sovereign power extends: (_gram._)
the power of one word in determining the form of another: (_Shak._)
conduct.--_adj._ of or pursued by government.--_adj._ GOVERNMENT'AL,
pertaining to or sanctioned by government.--_ns._ GOV'ERNOR, a ruler: one
invested with supreme authority: a tutor: (_slang_) a father or master:
(_mach._) a regulator, or contrivance for maintaining uniform velocity with
a varying resistance: (_B._) a pilot; GOV'ERNOR-GEN'ERAL, the supreme
governor in a country: a viceroy; GOV'ERNORSHIP.--GOVERNMENTAL THEORY (see
GROTIAN). [O. Fr. _governer_--L. _gubern[=a]re_--Gr. _kybernan_.]

GOWAN, gow'an, _n._ (_Scot._) the wild daisy. [Ir. and Gael. _gugan_, bud,

GOWD, Scotch for _gold_.

GOWF, gowf, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to strike, cuff. [A modification of _golf_.]

GOWK, GOUK, gowk, _n._ a stupid fellow, a fool.

GOWL, gowl, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to cry or howl. [M. E. _goulen_--Scand., Ice.
_gaula_, to bellow.]

GOWN, gown, _n._ a woman's upper garment: a long loose robe worn officially
by clergymen, lawyers, college lecturers, &c.--_v.t._ to invest with the
gown.--_adj._ GOWNED, dressed in a gown.--_ns._ GOWN'MAN, GOWNS'MAN, one
whose professional habit is a gown, as a divine or lawyer, and esp. a
member of an English university. [M. E. _goune_--W. _gwn_, akin to _gwnio_,
to stitch; Ir. _gunn_, Gael. _gun_.]

GOWPEN, gowp'en, _n._ (_Scot._) the hollow of the hand or of the two hands
held together: a handful. [Scand.; Ice. _gaupn_, Sw. _göpen_, Dan. _gövn_;
Low Ger. _göpse_, _göpsch_, Ger. dial. _gauf_, _gaufel_.]

GRAAFIAN, grä'fi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the follicle or little sac in the
ovary in which an ovum matures--in mammals. [Named from the discoverer of
these, Regnier de _Graaf_, 1641-73.]

GRAAL. Same as GRAIL, a dish.

GRAB, grab, _n._ a vessel on the Malabar coast, having two or three masts.

GRAB, grab, _v.t._ (_coll._) to seize or grasp suddenly: to lay hands
on:--_pr.p._ grab'bing; _pa.p._ grabbed.--_n._ a sudden grasp or catch,
acquisition by violent or unjust means: that which is seized: a simple card
game.--_ns._ GRAB'-BAG, a bag containing a variety of articles to be
obtained by putting in the hand and seizing one, as at charity bazaars,
&c.: any dishonest means of seizing such profit or spoil as comes handiest;
GRAB'BER. [Scand.; Sw. _grabba_, to grasp; Ger. _greifen_, to seize.]

GRABBLE, grab'l, _v.i._ to grope. [Freq. of _grab_.]

GRACE, gr[=a]s, _n._ easy elegance in form or manner: what adorns and
commends to favour: embellishment: favour: pardon: the undeserved mercy of
God: divine influence: eternal life or salvation: a short prayer at meat:
an act or decree of the governing body of an English university: a
ceremonious title in addressing a duke or an archbishop: (_pl._) favour,
friendship (with _good_): (_myth._) the three sister goddesses in whom
beauty was deified (the Greek Charites), Euphrosyne, Aglaia,
Thalia.--_v.t._ to mark with favour: to adorn.--_n._ GRACE'-CUP, a cup or
health drunk at the last of the feast.--_adjs._ GRACED (_Shak._), virtuous,
chaste; GRACE'FUL, elegant and easy: marked by propriety or fitness,
becoming.--_adv._ GRACE'FULLY.--_n._ GRACE'FULNESS.--_adjs._ GRACE'LESS,
wanting grace or excellence: depraved: wicked.--_adv._ GRACE'LESSLY.--_n._
GRACE'LESSNESS.--_ns._ GRACE'-NOTE (_mus._), a note introduced as an
embellishment, not being essential to the harmony or melody; GRACE'-STROKE,
a finishing stroke, _coup de_ _grâce_; GRACI[=O]'SO, a clown in Spanish
comedy, a favourite.--_adj._ GR[=A]'CIOUS, abounding in grace or kindness:
benevolent: proceeding from divine favour: acceptable.--_adv._
GR[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ GR[=A]'CIOUSNESS, state or quality of being
gracious, affability; GR[=A]CIOUS'ITY, the same, but usually in a bad
sense, as implying duplicity.--DAYS OF GRACE, three days allowed for the
payment of a note or bill of exchange, after being due according to its
date; FALL FROM GRACE, to backslide, to lapse from the state of grace and
salvation--an impossibility according to Calvinists.--GOOD GRACIOUS, an
exclamation of surprise.--IN THE GOOD GRACES OF, in the friendship of;
SAVING GRACE, divine grace so bestowed as to lead to salvation; TAKE HEART
OF GRACE, to take courage from favour shown. [Fr.,--L. _gratia_,
favour--_gratus_, agreeable; Gr. _charis_, grace.]

GRACILE, gras'il, _adj._ slender, gracefully slight in form.--_n._
GRACIL'ITY. [L. _gracilis_, slender.]

GRACKLE, grak'l, _n._ the common name of many birds of the starling family,
all tropical or subtropical.--Also GRAK'LE. [L. _graculus_, a jackdaw.]

GRADE, gr[=a]d, _n._ a degree or step in rank or dignity: the degree of
slope on a road as compared with the horizontal: a class of animals
produced by crossing a common breed with one purer--also _adj._: a group of
animals branching off from a common stem.--_v.t._ GR[=A]'DATE, to cause to
blend gradually from one tint of colour to another.--_v.i._ to effect
gradation.--_adv._ GRAD[=A]'TIM, gradually.--_n._ GRAD[=A]'TION, a rising
step by step: progress from one degree or state to another: position
attained: state of being arranged in ranks: (_mus._) a diatonic succession
of chords: (_paint._) the gradual blending of tints.--_adjs._
GRAD[=A]'TIONAL; GRAD[=A]'TIONED, formed by gradations or stages;
GRAD'ATORY, proceeding step by step, adapted for walking or forward
movement; GR[=A]'DIENT, gradually rising: rising with a regular
slope.--_n._ the degree of slope on a road or railway: the difference in
the height of the barometer between one place and another place at some
distance: an incline.--_ns._ GR[=A]D'IENTER, a surveyor's instrument for
determining grades; GR[=A]D'IN, GRADINE', one of a series of rising seats,
as in an amphitheatre: a raised step or ledge behind an altar; GRADIN'O, a
decoration for the gradin.--_adj._ GRAD'[=U]AL, advancing by grades or
degrees: regular and slow.--_n._ in the Roman Church, the portion of the
mass between the epistle and the gospel, formerly always sung from the
steps of the altar: the book containing such anthems--also GRAIL.--_ns._
GRAD'[=U]ALISM, GRAD[=U]AL'ITY.--_adv._ GRAD'[=U]ALLY.--_v.t._
GRAD'[=U][=A]TE, to divide into regular intervals: to mark with degrees: to
proportion.--_v.i._ to pass by grades or degrees: to pass through a
university course and receive a degree.--_n._ one admitted to a degree in a
college, university, or society.--_p.adj._ GRAD'[=U][=A]TED, marked with
degrees, as a thermometer.--_ns._ GRAD'UATESHIP; GRAD[=U][=A]'TION;
GRAD'[=U][=A]TOR, a mathematical instrument for graduating or dividing
lines into regular intervals; GRADUC'TION (_astron._), the division of
circular arcs into degrees, minutes, &c.; GR[=A]'DUS, a dictionary of Greek
or Latin prosody--contraction of _gradus ad Parnassum_, a step or stair to
Parnassus, the abode of the Muses.--DOWN, and UP, GRADE, a descending or
ascending part, as of a road. [Fr.,--L. _gradus_, a step--_gradi_, to

GRADELY, gr[=a]d'li, _adv._ (_prov._) readily, speedily.--Also GRAITH'LY.

GRADGRIND, gräd'gr[=i]nd, _n._ one who regulates all human things by rule
and compass and the mechanical application of statistics, allowing nothing
for sentiment, emotion, and individuality. [From Thomas _Gradgrind_ in
Dickens's _Hard Times_.]

GRAF, gräf, _n._ a German title of dignity equivalent to Count:--_fem._

GRAFF, graf, _n._ (_Scot._) a grave. A variant of grave.

GRAFF, _n._ and _v._ (_B._). Same as GRAFT.

GRAFFITO, graf-f[=e]'to, _n._ the name given to certain classes of mural
inscriptions, such as the scribblings of schoolboys and idlers, found at
Pompeii, Rome, and other ancient cities:--_pl._ GRAFFITI (-f[=e]'t[=e]).
[It.--_graffiare_, to scratch--Low L. _graphium_, a style.]

GRAFT, graft, _v.t._ to make an incision in a tree or plant, and insert in
it a small branch of another, so as to make a union of the two: to insert
in something anything not belonging to it: to incorporate one thing with
another: to transplant, as a piece of tissue, from one part to
another.--_v.i._ to insert cuttings into a tree.--_n._ a small branch used
in grafting.--_ns._ GRAFT'ER; GRAFT'ING. [O. Fr. _graffe_ (Fr.
_greffe_)--L. _graphium_--a style or pencil (which the inserted slip
resembled)--Gr. _graphein_, to write.]

GRAIL, gr[=a]l, _n._ (_Spens._) small particles of any kind, as sand. [O.
Fr. _graile_ (Fr. _grêle_), hail--L. _gracilis_, slender.]


GRAIL, gr[=a]l, _n._ in medieval legend, the Holy Cup used by Christ at the
Last Supper. [Orig. the _San Greal_, 'Holy Dish' (not _Sang Real_, 'Holy
Blood'), in which it is said Joseph of Arimathea collected our Lord's
blood; from O. Fr. _graal_ or _greal_, a flat dish--Low L. _gradale_, a
flat dish, app. a corr. of Low L. _cratella_, a dim. of _crater_, a bowl.
Diez suggests as the origin a lost _cratalis_, from _cratus_, Low L. form
of _crater_.]

GRAIN, gr[=a]n, _n._ a single small hard seed: (_coll._) the seeds of
certain plants which form the chief food of man: corn, in general: a minute
particle: a very small quantity: the smallest British weight, supposed to
be the average weight of a seed or well-ripened ear of corn: the
arrangement of the particles or fibres of anything, as stone or wood:
texture, as of leather: the crimson dye made from cochineal insects, which,
in the prepared state, resemble grains of seed--hence to _dye in grain_ is
to dye deeply, also to dye in the wool: innate quality or character of
anything.--_v.t._ to form into grains, cause to granulate: to paint in
imitation of wood, marble, &c.: in tanning, to take the hair off.--_n._
GRAIN'AGE, duties on grain.--_adj._ GRAINED, rough: furrowed.--_ns._
GRAIN'ER, one who paints in imitation of the grain of wood; GRAIN'ING,
painting so as to imitate the grain of wood: a process in tanning in which
the grain of the leather is raised.--_adj._ GRAIN'Y, having grains or
kernels.--GRAINS OF PARADISE, an aromatic and pungent seed imported from
Guinea.--AGAINST THE GRAIN, against the fibre of the wood--hence against
the natural temper or inclination; WITH A GRAIN OF SALT, with reservation,
as of a story that cannot be admitted (L. _cum grano salis_). [Fr.,--L.
_granum_, seed, akin to _corn_.]

GRAIN, gr[=a]n, _n._ a prong, fork: a kind of harpoon.

GRAINING, gr[=a]n'ing, _n._ a kind of dace found in the Mersey and in Swiss
lakes: a small fish of the same genus, resembling the dace.

GRAIP, gr[=a]p, _n._ (_Scot._) a three or four pronged fork used for
lifting dung or digging potatoes. [A form of _grope_. Cf. Sw. _grepe_, Dan.

GRAITH, gr[=a]th, _n._ apparatus for work, travelling, &c.,
equipment.--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to make ready, to dress.--_adjs._ GRAITH,
GR[=A]DE, ready, free.--LIFT ONE'S GRAITH, to collect one's tools and leave
the mine. [Ice. _greidhr_, ready; cf. A.S. _ger['æ]de_, ready.]


GRALLÆ, gral'[=e], GRALLATORES, gral-a-t[=o]'r[=e]z, _n.pl._ an old order
of wading and running birds, including rails, snipes and curlews, cranes,
herons and bitterns, storks, and numerous other families.--_adjs._
_grallator_--_grallæ_, stilts, contr. of _gradulæ_, dim. of _gradus_, a
step--_gradi_, to step.]

GRALLOCH, GRALLOCK, gral'ok, _v.t._ to disembowel.

GRAM, gram, _n._ (_Rossetti_) misery.--Also GRAME. [A.S. _grama_, anger.]

GRAM, gram, _n._ a word used in commerce for chick peas exported from
British India. [Anglo-Ind., perh. from Port, _grão_--L. _granum_, a grain.]

GRAM, GRAMME, gram, _n._ the unit of mass in the metric system, equal to
15.432 troy grains. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _gramma_, a letter, a small weight.]

GRAMARY, gram'a-ri, _n._ magic: enchantment.--Also GRAM'ARYE. [M. E.
_gramery_, skill in grammar, hence magic--O. Fr. _gramaire_, grammar.]

GRAMERCY, gra-m[.e]r'si, _interj._ great thanks--an obsolete expression of
obligation, with surprise. [O. Fr. _grammerci_, _grantmerci_, great

GRAMINEÆ, gr[=a]-min'[=e]-[=e], _n.pl._ the order of grasses.--_adjs._
GRAMIN[=A]'CEOUS, GRAMIN'EAL, GRAMIN[=E]'OUS, like or pertaining to grass:
grassy; GRAMINIF[=O]'LIOUS, bearing leaves; GRAMINIV'OROUS, feeding or
subsisting on grass and herbs. [L. _gramen_, _graminis_, grass, _folium_, a
leaf, _vor[=a]re_, to eat greedily.]

GRAMMAR, gram'ar, _n._ the science of the right use of language: a book
which teaches grammar: any elementary work.--_ns._ GRAMM[=A]'RIAN, one
versed in, or who teaches, grammar; GRAMM'AR-SCHOOL, a school in which
grammar, esp. Latin grammar, is taught: a higher school, in which Latin and
Greek are taught.--_adjs._ GRAMMAT'IC, -AL, belonging to, or according to,
the rules of grammar.--_adv._ GRAMMAT'ICALLY.--_n._ GRAMMAT'ICASTER, a
piddling grammarian.--_v.t._ GRAMMAT'IC[=I]SE, to make grammatical.--_v.i._
to act the grammarian.--_ns._ GRAMMAT'ICISM, a point of grammar;
GRAMM'ATIST, a grammarian. [O. Fr. _gramaire_; from Low L. _gramma_, a
letter, with the termination _-arius_--Gr. _gramma_, a letter--_graphein_,
to write.]


GRAMOPHONE, gram'o-f[=o]n, _n._ an instrument of the phonograph type for
recording and reproducing articulate speech--invented by E. Berliner. [Gr.
_gramma_, a letter, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

GRAMPUS, gram'pus, _n._ a large voracious fish of the dolphin family,
common in almost all seas. [A sailor's corr. of It. _gran pesce_, or Sp.
_gran pez_, great fish--L. _grandis piscis_, great fish.]

GRANADILLA, gran-a-dil'a, _n._ the edible fruit of a species of
passion-flower. [Sp.]

GRANARY, gran'ar-i, _n._ a storehouse for grain or threshed corn. [L.

GRAND, grand, _adj._ of great size, extent, power, or dignity: splendid:
illustrious: noble: sublime: chief: covering the whole field, or including
all details: (_mus._) containing all the parts proper to a given form of
composition: of the second degree of parentage or descent, as
_Grand'father_, a father or mother's father; _Grand'child_, a son or
daughter's child; so _Grand'mother_, _Grand'son_, _Grand'daughter_,
&c.--_ns._ GRAN'DAM, an old dame or woman: a grandmother; GRAND'-DUKE, a
title of sovereignty over a grand-duchy, first created by the Pope in 1569
for the rulers of Florence and Tuscany, assumed by certain German reigning
princes and by the princes of the imperial family of Russia; GRANDEE',
since the 13th century the most highly privileged class of nobility in the
kingdom of Castile, in which the members of the royal family were included:
a man of high rank or station; GRANDEE'SHIP; GRANDEUR (grand'[=u]r),
vastness: splendour of appearance: loftiness of thought or deportment;
GRANDIL'OQUENCE.--_adj._ GRANDIL'OQUENT, speaking grandly or bombastically:
pompous--(_rare_) GRANDIL'OQUOUS.--_adv._ GRANDIL'OQUENTLY.--_adj._
GRAN'DIOSE, grand or imposing: bombastic.--_adv._ GRAN'DIOSELY.--_ns._
GRANDIOS'ITY; GRAND'-JU'ROR, member of a GRAND'-JU'RY, a special jury which
decides whether there is sufficient evidence to put an accused person on
trial.--_adv._ GRAND'LY.--_ns._ GRAND'MAMMA, GRAND'MA, a grandmother;
GRAND'-MAS'TER, title of the head of the religious orders of knighthood
(Hospitallers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights): the head, for the time
being, of the Freemasons, &c.--_adj._ GRAND'MOTHERLY, like a grandmother,
over-anxious to direct the whole life of another.--_ns._ GRAND'-NEPH'EW,
the grandson of a brother or sister; GRAND'NESS; GRAND'-NIECE, the
granddaughter of a brother or sister; GRAND'PAPA, GRAND'PA, a grandfather;
GRAND'-PAR'ENT, a grandfather or grandmother; GRAND'-PIÄ'NO, a large kind
of piano, of great compass and power; GRAND'SIRE, a grandfather: any
ancestor; GRAND'STAND, an elevated erection on a race-course, &c.,
affording a good view; GRAND'-UN'CLE, the brother of a grandfather or
VIZIR (see VIZIR). [Fr. _grand_--L. _grandis_, great.]

GRANDISONIAN, gran-di-s[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ like the novelist Richardson's
hero, Sir Charles _Grandison_, polite and chivalrous to an extreme and
tedious degree.

GRANGE, gr[=a]nj, _n._ a farm-house with its stables and other buildings:
(_Milt._) a granary: (_U.S._) a lodge of the order of 'Patrons of
Husbandry.'--_n._ GRAN'GER, a member of a farmer's grange.--_adj._
pertaining to such. [O. Fr. _grange_, barn--Low L. _granea_--L. _granum_,

GRANGERISM, gr[=a]n'jer-izm, _n._ the practice of cutting plates and
title-pages out of many books to illustrate one book.--_v.t._ GRAN'GERISE,
to practise grangerism. [From James _Granger_ (1716-76), whose
_Biographical History of England_ (1769) gave an impetus to this.]

GRANIFEROUS, gran-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing seeds like grain.--_adjs._
GRAN'IFORM, formed or shaped like a grain or seed; GRANIV'OROUS, eating
grain: feeding on seeds. [L. _granum_, grain, _ferre_, to carry, _forma_,
form, _vor[=a]re_, to devour.]

GRANITE, gran'it, _n._ an igneous crystalline rock, composed of grains of
quartz, feldspar, and mica, and of a whitish, grayish, or reddish
colour.--_adj._ GRANIT'IC, pertaining to, consisting of, or like
granite.--_n._ GRANITIFIC[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ GRANIT'IFORM, GRAN'ITOID, of
the form of or resembling granite; GRANOLITH'IC, composed of cement formed
of pounded granite. [It. _granito_, granite, lit. grained--L. _granum_,

GRANNY, gran'i, _n._ a grandmother: an old woman--also GRAND'AM.--_n._
GRANN'Y-KNOT, a knot like a reef-knot, but having the second tie across,
difficult to untie when jammed.

GRANT, grant, _v.t._ to bestow or give over: to give possession of: to
admit as true what is not yet proved: to concede.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to
consent.--_n._ a bestowing: something bestowed, an allowance: a gift:
(_Eng. law_) conveyance of property by deed.--_adj._ GRANT'ABLE.--_ns._
GRANT[=EE]' (_law_), the person to whom a grant, gift, or conveyance is
made; GRANT'ER, GRANT'OR (_law_), the person by whom a grant or conveyance
is made.--TAKE FOR GRANTED, to presuppose as certainly true. [O. Fr.
_graanter_,_ craanter_, _creanter_, to promise, as if from a Low L.
_credent[=a]re_--L. _cred[)e]re_, to believe.]

GRANULE, gran'[=u]l, _n._ a little grain: a fine particle.--_adjs._
GRAN'[=U]LAR, GRAN'[=U]LARY, GRAN'[=U]LOSE, GRAN'[=U]LOUS, consisting of or
like grains or granules.--_adv._ GRAN'[=U]LARLY.--_v.t._ GRAN'[=U]L[=A]TE,
to form or break into grains or small masses: to make rough on the
surface.--_v.i._ to be formed into grains.--_adj._ granular: having the
surface covered with small elevations.--_n._ GRAN[=U]L[=A]'TION, act of
forming into grains, esp. of metals by pouring them through a sieve into
water while hot: (_pl._) the materials of new texture as first formed in a
wound or on an ulcerated surface.--_adjs._ GRAN[=U]LIF'EROUS;
GRAN'[=U]LIFORM.--_n._ GRAN'[=U]L[=I]TE, a schistose but sometimes massive
aggregate of quartz and orthoclase with garnets. [L. _granulum_, dim. of
_granum_, grain.]

GRAPE, gr[=a]p, _v.i._ a Scotch form of _grope_.

GRAPE, gr[=a]p, _n._ the fruit of the grape-vine, or of any of the many
species of the genus _Vitis_: a mangy tumour on the legs of horses:
grapeshot.--_n._ GRAPE'-HY'ACINTH, a genus of bulbous-rooted plants, nearly
allied to the hyacinths.--_adj._ GRAPE'LESS, without the flavour of the
grape, said of wine.--_ns._ GRAP'ERY, a place where grapes are grown;
GRAPE'SHOT, shot or small iron balls clustered or piled on circular plates
round an iron pin, which scatter on being fired; GRAPE'-STONE, the stone or
seed of the grape; GRAPE'-SU'GAR, dextrose; GRAPE'-VINE, the vine that
bears grapes.--_adj._ GRAP'Y, made of or like grapes.--SOUR GRAPES, things
despised because they cannot be attained (from Æsop's fable of the fox and
the grapes). [O. Fr. _grappe_, a cluster of grapes; from Old High Ger.
_chrapho_, a hook. It properly meant a hook, then clustered fruit, hooked
on, attached to, a stem (Brachet).]

GRAPH, graf, _n._ a representation by means of lines, exhibiting the nature
of the law according to which some phenomena vary: _-graph_ is used as a
terminal in many Greek compounds to denote an agent which writes, &c., as
_telegraph_, _seismograph_, or the thing written, as in _autograph_,
&c.--_adjs._ GRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to writing, describing, or
delineating: picturesquely described: vivid.--_adv._ GRAPH'ICALLY.--_ns._
GRAPH'ICNESS; GRAPHIOL'OGY, the science or art of writing or delineating,
or a treatise thereon; GRAPH'IS, a genus of lichens, remarkable for the
resemblance which the fructification assumes to the forms of the letters of
Oriental alphabets; GRAPH'[=I]TE, a mineral, commonly called blacklead or
plumbago (though containing no lead), largely used in making
pencils.--_adj._ GRAPHIT'IC.--_ns._ GRAPH'IUM, a stylus; GRAPHOL'OGY, the
science of estimating character, &c., from handwriting.--GRAPHIC ARTS,
painting, drawing, engraving, as opposed to music, sculpture, &c.; GRAPHIC
GRANITE, a variety of granite with markings like Hebrew characters. [Gr.
_graph[=e]_, a writing--_graphein_, to write.]

GRAPHOLITE, graf'o-l[=i]t, _n._ a kind of slate for writing on.--_n._
GRAPHOM'ETER, an instrument used by surveyors for measuring
angles.--_adjs._ GRAPHOMET'RIC, -AL, pertaining to or determined by a
graphometer.--_ns._ GRAPH'OPHONE, an instrument for recording sounds, based
on the principle of the phonograph; GRAPH'OTYPE, a process intended to
supersede wood-engraving, but superseded by zincotype. [Gr. _graphein_, to
write, _lithos_, a stone, _metron_, a measure, _phon[=e]_, a sound,
_typos_, an impression.]

GRAPNEL, grap'nel, _n._ a small anchor with several claws or arms: a
grappling-iron. [Fr. _grappin_--_grappe_, a hook, with dim. suff. _-el_.]

GRAPPLE, grap'l, _v.t._ to seize: to lay fast hold of.--_v.i._ to contend
in close fight.--_ns._ GRAPP'LEMENT (_Spens._), a grappling, close fight;
GRAPP'LING-[=I]'RON, a large grapnel for seizing hostile ships in naval
engagements. [O. Fr. _grappil_--_grappe_, a hook.]

GRAPTOLITE, grap'to-l[=i]t, _n._ one of a group of fossil hydrozoa, having
simple or branched polyparies, usually strengthened by a horny-like
rod--the 'solid axis.' [Gr. _graptos_--_graphein_, to write, _lithos_, a

GRASP, grasp, _v.t._ to seize and hold by clasping with the fingers or
arms: to catch at: to comprehend.--_v.i._ to endeavour to seize: to catch
(with _at_).--_n._ gripe of the hand: reach of the arms: power of seizing:
mental power of apprehension.--_adj._ GRASP'ABLE.--_n._ GRASP'ER.--_p.adj._
GRASP'ING, seizing: avaricious: encroaching.--_adv._ GRASP'INGLY.--_n._
GRASP'INGNESS.--_adj._ GRASP'LESS, feeble, relaxed. [M. E.
_graspen_--_grapsen_, as clasp--M. E. _claspen_; allied to _grope_,

GRASS, gras, _n._ common herbage: an order of plants (_Gramineæ_), the most
important in the whole vegetable kingdom, with long, narrow leaves and
tubular stem, including wheat, rye, oats, rice, millet, and all those which
supply food for nearly all graminivorous animals: short for
asparagus--sparrow-grass: time of grass, spring or summer: the surface of a
mine.--_v.t._ to cover with grass: to feed with grass: to bring to the
grass or ground, as a bird or a fish--(various perennial fodder grasses are
_timothy_, _fox-tail_, _cock's-foot_, and the _fescue grasses_, _Italian
rye-grass_, &c.).--_ns._ GRASS'-CLOTH, a name applied to different kinds of
coarse cloth, the fibre of which is rarely that of a grass, esp. to the
Chinese summer-cloth made from _Boehmeria nivea_, which is really a nettle;
GRASS'-CUT'TER, one of the attendants on an Indian army, whose work is to
provide provender for the baggage-cattle; GRASS'ER, an extra or temporary
worker in a printing-office.--_adjs._ GRASS'-GREEN, green with grass: green
as grass; GRASS'-GROWN, grown over with grass.--_ns._ GRASS'HOPPER, a
saltatorial, orthopterous insect, nearly allied to locusts and crickets,
keeping quiet during the day among vegetation, but noisy at night;
GRASS'INESS; GRASS'ING, the exposing of linen in fields to air and light
for bleaching purposes; GRASS'-LAND, permanent pasture; GRASS'-OIL, a name
under which several volatile oils derived from widely different plants are
grouped; GRASS'-PLOT, a plot of grassy ground; GRASS'-TREE, a genus of
Australian plants, with shrubby stems, tufts of long wiry foliage at the
summit, and a tall flower-stalk, with a dense cylindrical spike of small
flowers; GRASS'-WID'OW, a wife temporarily separated from her husband,
often also a divorced woman, or one deserted by her husband; GRASS'-WRACK,
the eel-grass growing abundantly on the sea-coast.--_adj._ GRASS'Y, covered
with or resembling grass, green.--GO TO GRASS, to be turned out to pasture,
esp. of a horse too old to work: to go into retirement, to rusticate: to
fall violently (of a pugilist); LET THE GRASS GROW UNDER ONE'S FEET, to
loiter, linger.--SPANISH GRASS (see ESPARTO). [A.S. _gærs_, _græs_; Ice.,
Ger., Dut., and Goth. _gras_; prob. allied to _green_ and _grow_.]

GRASSUM, gräs'um, _n._ (_Scots law_) a lump sum paid by persons who take a
lease of landed property--in England, 'premium' and 'fine.'

GRATE, gr[=a]t, _n._ a framework composed of bars with interstices, esp.
one of iron bars for holding coals while burning.--_adj._ GRAT'ED, having a
grating.--_ns._ GRATICUL[=A]'TION, the division of a design into squares
for convenience in making an enlarged or diminished copy; GRAT'ING, the
bars of a grate: a partition or frame of bars. [Low L. _grata_, a grate--L.
_crates_, a hurdle. See CRATE.]

GRATE, gr[=a]t, _v.t._ to rub hard or wear away with anything rough: to
make a harsh sound: to irritate or offend.--_n._ GRAT'ER, an instrument
with a rough surface for grating down a body.--_adj._ GRAT'ING, rubbing
hard on the feelings: harsh: irritating.--_adv._ GRAT'INGLY. [O. Fr.
_grater_, through Low L., from Old High Ger. _chraz[=o]n_ (Ger. _kratzen_),
to scratch, akin to Sw. _kratta_.]

GRATEFUL, gr[=a]t'f[=oo]l, _adj._ causing pleasure: acceptable: delightful:
thankful: having a due sense of benefits.--_adv._ GRATE'FULLY.--_ns._
GRATE'FULNESS; GRATIFIC[=A]'TION, a pleasing or indulging: that which
gratifies: delight; GRAT'IFIER.--_v.t._ GRAT'IFY, to do what is agreeable
to: to please: to soothe; to indulge:--_pa.p._ grat'ified.--_p.adj._
GRAT'IFYING. [O. Fr. _grat_--L. _gratus_, pleasing, thankful, and suff.

GRATILLITY, gra-til'i-ti, _n._ (_Shak._) gratuity.

GRATIS, gr[=a]'tis, _adv._ for nothing: without payment or recompense. [L.,
contr. of _gratiis_, abl. pl. of _gratia_, favour--_gratus_.]

GRATITUDE, grat'i-t[=u]d, _n._ warm and friendly feeling towards a
benefactor: thankfulness. [Fr.,--Low L. _gratitudo_---L. _gratus_.]

GRATUITY, gra-t[=u]'i-ti, _n._ a present: an acknowledgment of service,
generally pecuniary.--_adj._ GRAT[=U]'ITOUS, done or given for nothing:
voluntary: without reason, ground, or proof.--_adv._ GRAT[=U]'ITOUSLY.
[Fr.,--Low L. _gratuitatem_--L. _gratus_.]

GRATULATORY, grat'[=u]-la-tor-i, _adj._ congratulatory.--_adj._ GRAT'ULANT,
congratulatory.--_v.t._ GRAT'UL[=A]TE, to congratulate.--_n._
GRATUL[=A]'TION, congratulation.

GRAVAMEN, grav-[=a]'men, _n._ grievance: the substantial or chief ground of
complaint or accusation: the name for the statement of abuses, grievances,
&c. sent by the Lower to the Upper House of Convocation. [L.,--_gravis_,

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _v.t._ to carve or cut on a hard substance: to
engrave.--_v.i._ to engrave:--_pa.p._ graved or gr[=a]v'en.--_n._ a pit
graved or dug out, esp. one in which to bury the dead: any place of burial:
the abode of the dead: (_fig._) death: destruction.--_n.pl._
GRAVE'-CLOTHES, the clothes in which the dead are buried.--_n._
GRAVE'-DIG'GER, one who digs graves.--_adj._ GRAVE'LESS (_Shak._), without
a grave, unburied.--_ns._ GRAVE'-MAK'ER (_Shak._), a grave-digger;
GRAVE'-STONE, a stone laid over, or placed at the head of, a grave as a
memorial; GRAVE'YARD, a yard or enclosure used as a burial-ground.--WITH
ONE FOOT IN THE GRAVE, on the very borders of death. [A.S. _grafan_; Dut.
_graven_, Ger. _graben_; Gr. _graphein_, to scratch, L. _scrib[)e]re_, to

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _v.t._ to smear with graves or greaves, a mixture of
tallow, rosin, &c. boiled together.--_ns.pl._ GRAVES, GREAVES,
tallow-drippings. [See GREAVES.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _adj._ of importance: serious: not gay or showy: sober:
solemn; weighty: (_mus._) not acute: low.--_n._ the grave accent, or its
sign (`).--_adv._ GRAVE'LY.--_n._ GRAVE'NESS. [Fr.,--L. _gravis_.]

GRAVE, gr[=a]v, _n._ a count, prefect, a person holding office, as in
landgrave, margrave, burgrave, &c. [Dut. _graaf_, Ger. _graf_.]

GRAVEL, grav'el, _n._ small stones often intermixed with sand: small
collections of gravelly matter in the kidneys or bladder.--_v.t._ to cover
with gravel: to puzzle, perplex:--_pr.p._ grav'elling; _pa.p._
grav'elled.--_adj._ GRAV'ELLY.--_ns._ GRAV'EL-PIT, a pit from which gravel
is dug; GRAV'EL-WALK, a footpath covered with gravel. [O. Fr. _gravele_
(Fr. _gravier_); prob. Celt., as in Bret. _grouan_, sand, W. _gro_,

GRAVEN, gr[=a]v'n, _pa.p._ of _grave_, to carve, engrave.

GRAVEOLENT, grav'[=e]-o-lent, _adj._ giving forth an offensive smell.--_n._

GRAVER, gr[=a]v'[.e]r, _n._ an engraver: a tool for engraving on hard
substances, a burin.

GRAVID, grav'id, _adj._ heavy, esp. as being with child: pregnant. [L.
_gravidus_--_gravis_, heavy.]

GRAVIGRADE, grav'i-gr[=a]d, _adj._ walking heavily.--_n._ an animal like
the megatherium, &c.

GRAVING, gr[=a]v'ing, _n._ an act of graving or cutting out on hard
substances: that which is graved or cut out: carved-work: act of cleaning a
ship's bottom.--_n._ GRAV'ING-DOCK, a dock into which ships are taken to
have their bottoms cleaned.

GRAVITY, grav'i-ti, _n._ weightiness: that attraction between bodies, or
acceleration of one toward another, of which the fall of a body to the
ground is an example: state of being grave or sober: relative importance:
(_mus._) lowness of a note.--_n._ GRAVIM'ETER, an instrument for
determining specific gravities.--_v.i._ GRAV'IT[=A]TE, to be acted on by
gravity: to tend towards the earth: to be strongly attracted towards
anything.--_n._ GRAVIT[=A]'TION, act of gravitating: the tendency of all
bodies to attract each other.--_adj._ GRAV'IT[=A]TIVE.--SPECIFIC GRAVITY
(see SPECIFIC). [Fr. _gravité_--L. _gravitat-em_--_gravis_, heavy.]

GRAVY, gr[=a]v'i, _n._ the juices from meat while cooking.--_n._
GRAV'Y-BOAT, a vessel for gravy or sauce. [Earlier _greavy_; prob.
originally an adj. formed _greaves_, the dregs of tallow.]

GRAY, GREY, gr[=a], _adj._ of a white colour mixed with black:
ash-coloured: (_fig._) aged, gray-haired, mature.--_n._ a gray colour: an
animal of a grayish colour, as a horse, &c.--_v.t._ to cause to become
gray: to give a soft effect to a photograph by covering the negative while
printing with a ground-glass plate: to depolish.--_v.i._ to grow or become
gray.--_n._ GRAY'BEARD, one with a gray beard--hence an old man: a coarse
earthenware vessel for holding liquors, a bellarmine.--_adjs._
GRAY'-COAT'ED (_Shak._), having a gray coat; GRAY'-EYED (_Shak._), having
gray eyes.--_n._ GRAY'-FLY (_Milt._), the trumpet or gad fly.--_adjs._
GRAY'-HAIRED, GRAY'-HEAD'ED, having gray hair.--_n._ GRAY'HOUND (same as
GREYHOUND).--_adj._ GRAY'ISH, somewhat gray.--_ns._ GRAY'-LAG, the common
gray or wild goose; GRAY'LING, a silvery gray fish of the salmon family,
but with a smaller mouth and teeth, and larger scales.--_adv._
GRAY'LY.--_ns._ GRAY'NESS; GRAY'-OWL, the common tawny owl; GRAY'STONE, a
grayish or greenish volcanic rock allied to basalt; GRAYWETH'ER (see
GREYWETHER).--GRAY MARE (see MARE). [A.S. _gr['æ]g_; allied to Ger. _grau_,
and L. _ravus_, tawny.]

GRAYWACKE, GREYWACKE, grä'wak-e, _n._ a kind of sandstone, consisting of
rounded pebbles and sand firmly united together. [Ger. _grauwacke_--_grau_,
gray, _wacke_, a flint.]

GRAZE, gr[=a]z, _v.t._ to eat or feed on grass: to feed or supply with
grass: (_obs._) to tend while grazing.--_v.i._ to eat grass: to supply
grass.--_ns._ GRAZ'ER, an animal which grazes; GRAZIER (gr[=a]'zh[.e]r),
one who grazes or pastures cattle and rears them for the market; GRAZ'ING,
the act of feeding on grass: the feeding or raising of cattle. [From

GRAZE, gr[=a]z, _v.t._ to pass lightly along the surface. [Ety. dub.; perh.
only a special use of _graze_ above; perh. coined from _rase_ (Fr.
_raser_), the initial _g_ due to the analogy of _grate_.]

GREASE, gr[=e]s, _n._ soft thick animal fat: oily matter of any kind: an
inflammation in the heels of a horse, marked by swelling, &c.--_v.t._
(sometimes pron. gr[=e]z) to smear with grease, to lubricate--also used
figuratively, to cause to go easily: (_obs._) to bribe--as in to 'grease
the palm.'--_adv._ GREAS'ILY.--_n._ GREAS'INESS.--_adj._ GREAS'Y, of or
like grease or oil: smeared with grease: smooth: fat. [O. Fr. _gresse_,
fatness, _gras_, fat--L. _crassus_, gross.]

GREAT, gr[=a]t, _adj._ large: long continued: superior: distinguished:
highly gifted: noble: mighty: sublime: of high rank: chief: proud,
arrogant: weighty: difficult: important: pregnant, teeming: indicating one
degree more remote in the direct line of descent, as GREAT'-GRAND'FATHER,
GREAT'-GRAND'SON.--_adj._ GREAT'-BEL'LIED (_Shak._), pregnant.--_n._
GREAT'COAT, an overcoat.--_v.t._ GREAT'EN (_Browning_), to make
great.--_v.i._ to become great.--_ns._ GREAT'-GRAND'CHILD, the child of a
grandchild; GREAT'-GRAND'MOTHER, the mother of a grand-parent.--_adj._
GREAT'-HEART'ED, having a great or noble heart: high-spirited:
noble.--_adv._ GREAT'LY.--_ns._ GREAT'NESS; GREAT'-PRIM'ER (see PRIMER);
GREATS, the final examination in the Honours Schools at Oxford, &c.;
GREAT'-UN'CLE, usually grand-uncle, a grandfather's or grandmother's
brother.--GREAT DANE, one of a breed of large close-haired dogs from
Denmark, a boar-hound; GREAT POWERS, the chief countries of Europe--France,
Germany, Russia, Great Britain, Austro-Hungary; GREAT SCHISM, the division
between the Latin and Greek Churches, begun in the 9th century, and
culminating in 1054; GREAT SEA, the Mediterranean; GREAT UNWASHED, an
absurd term sometimes applied to the working classes generally.--GREATER
BRITAIN, the whole colonial empire of Great Britain.--THE GREAT, people of
rank. [A.S. _greát_; Dut. _groot_, Ger. _gross_; perh. allied to _grand_,
_gross_, _grow_.]

GREAVE, gr[=e]v, _n._ (_Spens._) a groove, a grove.


GREAVES, gr[=e]vz, _n.pl._ the sediment of melted tallow pressed into cakes
for dogs' food.--Also GRAVES. [Prov. Sw. _grevar_, tallow-leavings; cf.
Ger. _griebe_.]

GREAVES, gr[=e]vz, _n.pl._ ancient armour for the legs, of leather, &c. [O.
Fr. _greves_--_greve_, shin-bone.]

GREBE, gr[=e]b, _n._ an aquatic bird, having a long conical beak, short
wings, and no tail. [Fr. _grèbe_; from Celt., as in Bret. _krib_, a comb,
W. _crib_, crest.]

GRECIAN, gr[=e]'shan, _adj._ pertaining to Greece.--_n._ a native of
Greece: one well versed in the Greek language and literature: (_B._) a
Hellenising Jew, or Jew who spoke Greek: one of the senior boys of Christ's
Hospital: (_slang_) an Irish labourer newly over.--_v.t._ GR[=E]'CISE, to
make Grecian: to translate into Greek.--_v.i._ to speak Greek.--_n._
GR[=E]'CISM, an idiom of the Greek language.--_adj._ GR[=E]'CO-R[=O]'MAN,
of or pertaining to both Greece and Rome, esp. to the art cultivated by
Greeks under Roman domination (see also WRESTLING).--GRECIAN BEND, a
foolish mode of walking with a slight bend forward, at one time affected by
a few women who fondly thought to imitate the pose of a figure like the
Venus of Milo. [Fr. _Grec_--L. _Græcus_--Gr. _Graikos_.]

GRECQUE, grek, _n._ a vessel with a perforated bottom for making coffee
without grounds: a Greek fret.

GREE, gr[=e], _n._ (_Spens._) good-will, favour: the prize of the
day.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to agree. [O. Fr. _gre_--L. _gratus_, pleasing. See

GREE, gr[=e], _n._ degree, rank: a step:--_pl._ GREES, GRECE, GRESE,
steps--in turn used as a sing. and spelt GREECE, GREESE, GRIECE, GRIZE, a
flight of steps, a staircase, a degree (GREES'ING, GRES'SING, and even
GR[=E]'CIAN are obs. forms).--_adj._ GRIECED, having steps. [O. Fr.
_gre_--L. _gradus_. See GRADE.]

GREEDY, gr[=e]d'i, _adj._ having a voracious appetite: covetous: eagerly
desirous.--_n._ GREED, an eager desire or longing: covetousness.--_adv._
GREED'ILY.--_n._ GREED'INESS. [A.S. _gr['æ]dig_; Dut. _gretig_.]

GREEK, gr[=e]k, _adj._ Grecian.--_n._ a Grecian: the language of Greece:
(_B._) a Greek by race, or more frequently a Gentile as opposed to a Jew, a
Hellenising Jew, a Jew naturalised in foreign countries: a cunning rogue, a
merry fellow: any language of which one is ignorant, jargon, anything
unintelligible.--_adj._ GREEK'ISH.--GREEK ARCHITECTURE, the orders
developed in ancient Greece (Corinthian, Doric, Ionic); GREEK CHURCH, the
church of those Christians who follow the ancient rite of the East and
accept the first seven councils, rejecting all later innovations and papal
supremacy--it is called Orthodox by reason of its vindications of dogma,
and Eastern from its geographical distribution; GREEK CROSS (see CROSS);
GREEK FIRE, a composition, burning either in or under water, supposed to
have been made of asphalt, nitre, and sulphur, long kept secret by the
Greeks of the Byzantine empire for their exclusive use in war; GREEK GIFT,
a treacherous gift (from Virgil's _Æneid_, ii. 49).--AT THE GREEK CALENDS,
never, the Greeks having no calends.

GREEN, gr[=e]n, _adj._ of the colour of growing plants: growing: vigorous:
new: unripe: inexperienced, simple, raw, easily imposed on: young.--_n._
the colour of growing plants: a small green or grassy plat, esp. that
common to a village or town for public or merely ornamental purposes: the
plot of grass belonging to a house or group of houses, usually at the back:
(_golf_) the whole links on which the game is played, the putting-ground
round the individual holes, generally counted as 20 yards from the hole all
round: (_pl._) fresh leaves: wreaths: the leaves and stems of green
vegetables for food, esp. plants of the cabbage kind, spinach, &c.: a
political party at Constantinople, under Justinian, opposed to the
Blues.--_ns._ GREEN'BACK, popular name for the paper money first issued by
the United States in 1862; GREEN'-CLOTH, a gaming-table: a department of
the royal household, chiefly concerned with the commissariat--from the
green cloth on the table round which its officials sat; GREEN'-CROP, a crop
of green vegetables, as grasses, turnips, &c.; GREEN'-EARTH, a mineral of a
green colour and earthy character, used as a pigment by painters in
water-colours; GREEN'ERY, green plants: verdure.--_adj._ GREEN'-EYED,
having green eyes: (_fig._) jealous--GREEN-EYED MONSTER, jealousy.--_ns._
GREEN'FINCH, GREEN LINNET, a native bird of the finch family, of a green
colour, slightly mixed with gray and brown; GREEN'GROCER, a grocer or
dealer who retails greens, or fresh vegetables and fruits; GREEN'-HAND, an
inferior sailor; GREEN'-HEART, or _Bebeeru_, a very hard variety of wood
found in the West Indies and South America; GREEN'HORN, a raw,
inexperienced youth; GREEN'HOUSE, a building, chiefly covered with glass
and artificially heated, for the protection of exotic plants, or to quicken
the cultivation of other plants or fruit; GREEN'ING (_Keats_), a becoming
green: a kind of apple green when ripe.--_adj._ GREEN'ISH, somewhat
green.--_n._ GREEN'ISHNESS.--_adv._ GREEN'LY, immaturely,
unskilfully.--_ns._ GREEN'NESS; GREEN'ROOM, the retiring-room of actors in
a theatre, which originally had the walls coloured green; GREEN'SAND, a
sandstone in which green specks of iron occur; GREEN'SHANK, a bird of the
snipe family, in the same genus as the redshank and some of the sandpipers;
GREEN'-SICK'NESS, chlorosis (see under CHLORINE); GREEN'-SNAKE, a harmless
colubrine snake common in the southern United States; GREEN'STONE, a rock
term, now disused, for any dark-green basic crystalline (trap-rock);
GREEN'SWARD, sward or turf green with grass; GREEN'-TEA (see TEA); GREENTH,
greenness, verdure; GREEN'-TUR'TLE (see TURTLE); GREEN'-VIT'RIOL (see
VIT'RIOL); GREEN'-WEED, a name given to certain half-shrubby species of
genista; GREEN'WOOD, a wood or collection of trees covered with leaves:
wood newly cut--also used as an _adj._, as in 'the greenwood
shade.'--_adj._ GREEN'Y.--GREEN IN MY EYE, in a colloquial question=Do I
look credulous or easily imposed on?--GREEN, or EMERALD, ISLE,
IRELAND.--GREENSTICK FRACTURE (see FRACTURE). [A.S. _gréne_; Ger. _grün_,
Dut. _groen_, green, Ice. _grænn_, allied to _grow_.]

GREENGAGE, gr[=e]n'g[=a]j, _n._ a green and very sweet variety of plum.
[Said to be named from Sir W. _Gage_ of Hengrave Hall, near Bury, before


GREET, gr[=e]t, _v.t._ to salute or address with kind wishes: to send kind
wishes to: to congratulate.--_v.i._ to meet and salute:--_pr.p._ greet'ing;
_pa.p._ greet'ed.--_n._ GREET'ING, expression of kindness or joy:
salutation. [A.S. _grétan_, to go to meet; Dut. _groeten_, Ger. _grüssen_,
to salute.]

GREET, gr[=e]t, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to cry, weep.--_adj._ GREET'ING,
mournful.--_n._ weeping. [A.S. _gr['æ]tan_; Goth. _gretan_.]

GREEVE, gr[=e]v, _n._ (_Scot._) a reeve, a steward.--Also GREAVE, GRIEVE.
[Not like _reeve_ from A.S. _geréfa_; but from Ice. _greifi_; cf. Ger.

GREFFIER, gref'ier, _n._ a registrar, a prothonotary. [Fr.]

GREGARIOUS, gre-g[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ associating or living in flocks and
herds.--_adj._ GREG[=A]'RIAN.--_n._ GREG[=A]-RIANISM.--_adv._
GREG[=A]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ GREG[=A]'RIOUSNESS. [L. _gregarius_--_grex_,
_gregis_, a flock.]

GREGORIAN, gre-g[=o]'ri-an, _adj._ belonging to or established by Pope
_Gregory_; as the Gregorian chant or tones, introduced by Gregory I. (6th
century), and the calendar, reformed by Gregory XIII. (1582): one of an
18th-century English brotherhood.

GREIT, gr[=e]t. Same as GREET (2).

GREMIAL, gr[=e]'mi-al, _n._ a piece of cloth laid on a bishop's knees to
keep his vestments clean from oil at ordinations. [Fr.,--L. _gremium_, the

GRENADE, gre-n[=a]d', _n._ a small shell of iron or annealed glass, filled
with powder and bits of iron, and thrown from the hand, or with a shovel
over a parapet. [Fr.,--Sp. _granada_--L. _granatus_, full of
seeds--_granum_, a grain, seed.]

GRENADIER, gren-a-d[=e]r', _n._ (_orig._) a soldier who threw grenades:
then, a member of the first company of every battalion of foot: now only
used as the title of the first three battalions of the foot-guards.

GRENADINE, gren-a-d[=e]n', _n._ a thin kind of silk used for ladies'
dresses, shawls, &c. [Fr.]

GRESSORIAL, gres-[=o]'ri-al, _adj._ adapted for walking, belonging to the
_Gressoria_, a sub-order of orthopterous insects with slender bodies and
long legs. [L. _gressus_, pa.p. of _gradi_, to walk.]

GRETNA, gret'na.--GRETNA-GREEN MARRIAGE, a runaway marriage across the
Border to _Gretna_ in Dumfriesshire.

GRÈVE, gr[=a]v, _n._ the Tyburn of ancient Paris.

GREVES, gr[=e]vz, _n.pl._ (_Milt._) armour for the legs--a form of

GREW, gr[=oo], _pa.t._ of _grow_.

GREY, gr[=a]. Same as GRAY.--GREY FRIARS (see FRIAR); GREY HEN, a stone
bottle for holding liquor; GREYS=_Scots Greys_ (see SCOT).

GREYHOUND, gr[=a]'hownd, _n._ a tall and slender dog, kept for the chase,
with great powers of speed and great keenness of sight. [M. E. _greihund_;
Ice. _greyhundr_--Ice. _grey_, a dog, _hundr_, a hound.]

GREYWETHER, gr[=a]-we_th_'er, _n._ a large block of hard sandstone found
sporadically over south and south-east England.--Also GRAYWETH'ER, but not
_Grayweather_. [_Gray_ and _wether_--i.e. 'gray ram.']

GRICE, gr[=i]s, _n._ a little pig.--Also GRISE. [Ice.]

GRIDDLE, grid'l, _n._ a flat iron plate for baking cakes. [O. Fr. _gredil_,
_grëil_--Low L. _craticulum_, dim. of _cratis_, a hurdle.]

GRIDE, gr[=i]d, _v.t._ to cut with a grating sound, to pierce harshly: to
grate, jar upon:--_pr.p._ gr[=i]d'ing; _pa.p._ gr[=i]d'ed.--_n._ a harsh
grating sound. [_Gird._]

GRIDELIN, grid'e-lin, _n._ a kind of violet-gray colour. [Fr. _gris de
lin_, gray of flax.]

GRIDIRON, grid'[=i]-urn, _n._ a frame of iron bars for broiling flesh or
fish over the fire: a frame of wood or iron cross-beams to support a ship
during repairs.--_v.t._ to cover with parallel bars or lines.--_n._ GRID, a
grating of parallel bars: a gridiron: (_elect._) a battery-plate somewhat
like a grating, esp. a zinc plate in a primary battery, or a lead plate in
a secondary or storage battery. [M. E. _gredire_, a griddle. From the same
source as _griddle_; but the term. -_ire_ became confused with M. E. _ire_,


GRIEF, gr[=e]f, _n._ heaviness of heart: sorrow: regret: mourning: cause of
sorrow: affliction: (_B._) bodily as well as mental pain.--_adjs._
GRIEF'FUL (_Spens._), full of grief; GRIEF'LESS, sorrowless; GRIEF'SHOT
(_Shak._), pierced with grief. [Fr.,--L. _gravis_, heavy.]


GRIEVE, gr[=e]v, _v.t._ to cause grief or pain of mind to: to make
sorrowful: to vex: (_B._) also to inflict bodily pain.--_v.i._ to feel
grief: to mourn.--_n._ GRIEV'ANCE, cause of grief: burden: hardship:
injury: grief.--_adv._ GRIEV'INGLY (_Shak._), in sorrow,
sorrowfully.--_adj._ GRIEV'OUS, causing grief: burdensome: painful:
atrocious: hurtful.--_adv._ GRIEV'OUSLY, in a grievous manner: (_B._)
severely.--_n._ GRIEV'OUSNESS. [O. Fr. _grever_--L. _grav[=a]re_, _gravis_,

GRIFFIN, grif'in, GRIFFON, grif'un, _n._ an imaginary animal, with the body
and legs of a lion, and the crooked beak and wings of an eagle: a new-comer
in India, a novice: a watchful guardian, esp. over a young woman: a
duenna.--_adj._ GRIFF'INISH.--_n._ GRIFF'INISM. [Fr. _griffon_--L.
_gryphus_--Gr. _gryps_--_grypos_, hook-nosed.]

GRIG, grig, _n._ a cricket, grasshopper: a small lively eel, the sand-eel.
[Prob. a form of _crick_, in _cricket_.]

GRILL, gril, _v.t._ to broil on a gridiron: to torment.--_v.i._ to undergo
torment, to be in a broil.--_n._ a grated appliance for broiling meat, &c.,
a gridiron.--_ns._ GRILL'[=A]DE, anything grilled or broiled on a gridiron;
GRILL'[=A]GE, a construction of cross-beams supporting an erection on
marshy grounds.--_adj._ GRILLED, embossed with small rectangular
indentations.--_n._ GRILL'-ROOM, a restaurant, where beefsteaks, &c., are
grilled to one's order. [Fr. _griller_--_gril_, a gridiron--L. _craticula_,
dim. of _cratis_, a grate.]

GRILLE, gril, _n._ a lattice, or grating, or screen, or open-work of metal,
generally used to enclose or protect a window, shrine, &c.: a grating in a
convent or jail door. [Fr. See GRILL.]

GRILSE, grils, _n._ a young salmon on its first return from salt water.
[Skeat suggests a corr. of Dan. _graalax_, Sw. _grålax_, 'gray salmon,'
from Dan. _graa_, Sw. _grå_, gray; and Dan., Sw., Ice. _lax_, Ger. _lachs_,
a salmon. Others suggest Ir. _greal sach_.]

GRIM, grim, _adj._ of forbidding aspect: ferocious: ghastly: sullen: stern,
unyielding.--_adv._ GRIM'LY.--_n._ GRIM'NESS. [A.S. _grim_; Ger.
_grimmig_--_grimm_, fury, Dut. _grimmig_, Ice. _grimmr_.]

GRIMACE, gri-m[=a]s', _n._ a distortion of the face, in jest, &c.: a
smirk.--_v.i._ to make grimaces.--_adj._ GRIMACED', with a grimace:
distorted. [Fr.; of uncertain origin, perh. from Ice. _gríma_, a mask.]

GRIMALKIN, gri-mal'kin, _n._ an old cat, a cat generally. [_Gray_, and
_malkin_, a dim. of _Moll_=Mary.]

GRIME, gr[=i]m, _n._ ingrained dirt.--_v.t._ to soil deeply.--_adv._
GRIM'ILY.--_n._ GRIM'INESS.--_adjs._ GRIM'-LOOKED (_Shak._), having a grim
or dismal aspect; GRIM'Y, foul, dirty. [From a Teut. root seen in Dan.
_grim_, soot, Fris. _grime_, a dark spot on the face.]


GRIN, grin, _v.i._ to set the teeth together and withdraw the lips: to
smile with some accompanying distortion of the features, expressive of
derision, stupid admiration, &c.--_v.t._ to express by grinning:--_pr.p._
grin'ning; _pa.p._ grinned.--_n._ act of grinning: a forced or sardonic
smile.--_p.adj._ GRIN'NING, making grins. [A.S. _grennian_; Ice. _grenja_,
Ger. _greinen_, Dut. _grijnen_, to grumble, Scot. _girn_; allied to Eng.
_groan_, Fr. _grogner_.]

GRIN, grin, _n._ a snare or trap. [A.S. _grín_.]

GRIND, gr[=i]nd, _v.t._ to reduce to powder by friction: to wear down or
sharpen by rubbing: to rub together: to oppress or harass: to set in motion
by a crank.--_v.i._ to be moved or rubbed together: to drudge at any
tedious task: to read hard:--_pr.p._ gr[=i]nd'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
ground.--_n._ hard or distasteful work: laborious study for a special
examination, &c.--_ns._ GRIND'ER, he who, or that which, grinds: a double
or jaw tooth that grinds food: a coach or crammer of students for
examination: a hard student; GRIND'ERY, a place where knives, &c., are
ground, or where they are sold: shoemakers' materials; GRIND'ING, act or
process of reducing to powder.--_p.adj._ harassing.--_n._ GRIND'STONE, a
circular revolving stone for grinding or sharpening tools.--KEEP ONE'S NOSE
TO THE GRINDSTONE, to subject one to severe continuous toil or
punishment.--TAKE A GRINDER (_Dickens_), to put the left thumb to the nose,
and to work a visionary coffee-mill round it with the right--a gesture of
contempt. [A.S. _grindan_.]

GRINGO, gring'g[=o], _n._ an Englishman or American among Spanish-speaking
Americans. [Sp. 'gibberish,' prob. _Griego_, Greek.]

GRIP, grip, _n._ a small ditch or trench, a drain.--Also GRIPE. [M. E.
_grip_, _grippe_; cf. Low Ger. _gruppe_.]

GRIP, grip, _n._ grasp or firm hold with the hand, &c.: the handle or part
by which anything is grasped: a mode of grasping, a particular mode of
grasping hands for mutual recognition, as by Freemasons: a clutching device
connecting a car with a moving traction-cable: oppression: pinching
distress.--_v.t._ to take fast hold of, to grasp or gripe:--_pr.p._
grip'ping; _pa.p._ gripped, gript.--_v.t._ GR[=I]PE, to grasp with the
hand: to seize and hold fast: to squeeze: to give pain to the bowels.--_n._
fast hold, grasp: forcible retention: a griffin: a usurer: (_pl._) severe
spasmodic pain in the intestines.--_n._ GR[=I]P'ER.--_p.adj._ GR[=I]P'ING,
avaricious: of a pain that catches or seizes acutely.--_adv._
GR[=I]P'INGLY, in a griping or oppressive manner.--_ns._ GRIPPE, influenza
or epidemic catarrh; GRIP'PER, one who, or that which, grips.--_adj._
GRIP'PLE (_Spens._), griping, grasping: greedy.--_n._ a gripe.--_n._
GRIP'-SACK, a hand-satchel.--LOSE ONE'S GRIP, to lose hold or control.
[A.S. _grípan_, _grap_, _gripen_; Ice. _grípa_, Ger. _grei'fen_, Dut.
_grijpen_; allied to grab.]

GRIQUA, grek'wa, _n._ one of a mixed race in South Africa, descended from
Boer fathers and Hottentot or Bush women.

GRISAILLE, gr[=e]-z[=a]l', _n._ a style of decorative painting in grayish
tints in imitation of bas-reliefs: a stained-glass window in this style.
[Fr.,--_gris_, gray.]

GRIS-AMBER, gris'-am'b[.e]r, _n._ (_Milt._)--ambergris.


GRISELDA, gris-el'da, _n._ a woman of exemplary gentleness and patience,
from the name of the heroine of a tale retold by Boccaccio, Petrarch, and
Chaucer (_Clerkes Tale_).

GRISEOUS, gris'[=e]-us, _adj._ bluish-gray.

GRISETTE, gri-zet', _n._ a gay young Frenchwoman of the lower class. [Fr.
_grisette_, a gray gown, which used to be worn by that class--_gris_,

GRISKIN, gris'kin, _n._ (_prov._) the spine of a hog. [Obs. _gris_,
_grice_, a pig--Ice. _griss_, a young pig.]

GRISLED, griz'ld. Same as GRIZZLED.

GRISLY, griz'li, _adj._ frightful: hideous.--_n._ GRIS'LINESS. [A.S.
_gryslíc_, _ágrísan_, to dread; Ger. _grässlich_.]

GRIST, grist, _n._ corn for grinding at one time: supply: profit.--_n._
GRIST'-MILL, a mill for grinding grain.--Bring grist to the mill, to be a
source of profit. [A.S. _grist_, _gerst_, a grinding; from root of

GRISTLE, gris'l, _n._ a soft elastic substance in animal bodies--also
called _Cartilage_.--_n._ GRIST'LINESS.--_adj._ GRIST'LY. [A.S.
_gristle_--_grist_, grinding.]

GRIT, grit, _n._ the coarse part of meal: gravel: a kind of hard sandstone:
firmness of character, spirit: (_pl._) oats coarsely ground, groats.--_ns._
GRIT'STONE; GRIT'TINESS.--_adj._ GRIT'TY, having hard particles: sandy:
determined, plucky. [A.S. _greót_; Dut. _grut_, groats, Ger. _gries_,

GRIT, grit, a Scotch form of _great_.

GRIZE. See GREE (2).

GRIZZLE, griz'l, _n._ a gray colour.--_adjs._ GRIZZ'LED, gray, or mixed
with gray; GRIZZ'LY, of a gray colour.--_n._ the grizzly bear (_Ursus
horribilis_) of the Rocky Mountains. [M. E. _grisel_--Fr. _gris_,
gray--Mid. High Ger. _grís_, gray, Ger. _greis_.]

GROAN, gr[=o]n, _v.i._ to utter a moaning sound in distress: (_fig._) to be
afflicted: to express disapprobation of a speaker by means of audible
groans or similar sounds.--_n._ a deep moaning sound as of distress: a
sound of disapprobation.--_adj._ GROAN'FUL (_Spens._), sad,
agonising.--_n._ GROAN'ING, a deep moan as of pain: any low rumbling sound.
[A.S. _gránian_.]

GROAT, grawt, or gr[=o]t, _n._ an English silver coin, worth
fourpence--only coined after 1662 as Maundy money--the silver
fourpenny-piece, coined from 1836-56, was not called a groat: a very small
sum, proverbially. [Old Low Ger. _grote_, a coin of Bremen--orig. _grote
sware_, 'great pennies,' as compared with the smaller copper coins, five to
the groat.]

GROATS, gr[=o]ts, _n.pl._ the grain of oats deprived of the husks. [M. E.
_grotes_, prob. Ice. _grautr_, barley; cog. with A.S. _grút_, coarse meal.]

GROBIAN, gr[=o]'bi-an, _n._ a boorish rude fellow. [Ger. _grob_, coarse;
cf. _gruff_--Dut. _grof_.]

GROCER, gr[=o]s'[.e]r, _n._ a dealer in tea, sugar, &c.--_n._ GROC'ERY
(generally used in _pl._), articles sold by grocers. [Earlier _grosser_ or
_engrosser_, a wholesale dealer; O. Fr. _grossier_--_gros_, great.]

GROG, grog, _n._ a mixture of spirits and cold water, without sugar.--_ns._
GROG'-BLOSS'OM, a redness of the nose due to drinking; GROG'GERY (_U.S._),
a low public-house; GROG'GINESS, state of being groggy; GROG'GING,
extracting the spirit from the wood of empty spirit-casks with
water.--_adj._ GROG'GY, affected by grog, partially intoxicated: (_boxing_)
weak and staggering from blows: applied to a horse that bears wholly on his
heels in trotting.--_n._ GROG'-SHOP, a dram-shop. [From 'Old Grog,' the
nickname of Admiral Vernon, who introduced it about 1745--from his
_grogram_ breeches.]

GROGRAM, grog'ram, _n._ a kind of coarse cloth of silk and mohair. [O. Fr.

GROIN, groin, _n._ the part of the body on either side of the belly where
the thigh joins the trunk: (_archit._) the angular curve formed by the
crossing of two arches.--_v.t._ to form into groins, to build in
groins.--_n._ GROIN'-CEN'TRING, the centring of timber during
construction.--_adj._ GROINED, having angular curves made by the
intersection of two arches.--_n._ GROIN'ING.--UNDERPITCH GROINING, a kind
of vaulting used when the main vault of a groined roof is higher than the
transverse intersecting vault, as in St George's Chapel, Windsor--sometimes
called _Welsh groining_. [Ice. _grein_, division, branch--greina, to
divide; Sw. _gren_, branch, space between the legs; Scot. _graine_,
_grane_, the branch of a tree or river.]

GROIN, groin, _v.i._ (_obs._) to grunt, to growl. [O. Fr. _grogner_--L.
_grunn[=i]re_, to grunt.]

GROLIER, gr[=o]'lye, _n._ a book or a binding from the library of the
French bibliophile, Jean _Grolier_ (1479-1565).--_adj._ GROLIERESQUE',
after the style of Grolier's bindings, with geometrical or arabesque
figures and leaf-sprays in gold lines.

GROMMET, grom'et, _n._ a ring formed of a single strand of rope, laid in
three times round, fastening the upper edge of a sail to its stay: a
ship-boy. [O. Fr.]

GROMWELL, grom'wel, _n._ a herb of the borage family. [O. Fr. _grumel_--L.
_grumulus_, a hillock.]

GROOM, gr[=oo]m, _n._ one who has the charge of horses: a title of several
officers of the royal household: a bridegroom.--_v.t._ to tend, as a
horse.--_n._ GROOMS'MAN, the attendant on a bridegroom at his marriage.
[Prob. from A.S. _guma_ (in bride_groom_), a man, Goth. _guma_, Ice.
_gumi_, L. _homo_.]

GROOVE, gr[=oo]v, _n._ a furrow, or long hollow, such as is cut with a
tool.--_v.t._ to grave or cut a groove or furrow in. [Prob. Dut. _groef_,
_groeve_, a furrow; cog. with Ger. _grube_, a pit, Ice. _gróf_, Eng.

GROPE, gr[=o]p, _v.i._ to search for something, as if blind or in the
dark.--_v.t._ to search by feeling.--_adv._ GROP'INGLY, in a groping
manner. [A.S. _grápian_, to seize; allied to _grab_, _gripe_.]

GROSBEAK, gr[=o]s'b[=e]k, _n._ a name applied to not a few highly
specialised finches (_Fringillidæ_), with thick, heavy, seed-crushing
bills--also to many other birds, as the cardinal grosbeaks and the
rose-breasted grosbeak. [_Gross_ and _beak_.]

GROSCHEN, gr[=o]'shen, _n._ a small silver coin till 1873-76 current in the
north of Germany, in value 1/30th of a thaler. [Ger.,--L. _grossus_,

GROSER, gr[=o]'ser, _n._ (_prov._) a gooseberry--(_Scot._)
GROS'SART.--_adj._ GROSSUL[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to the gooseberry. [See

GROSS, gr[=o]s, _adj._ coarse: rough: dense: palpable, glaring, shameful:
whole: coarse in mind: stupid: sensual: obscene.--_n._ the main bulk: the
whole taken together: a great hundred--i.e. twelve dozen.--_adv._
GROSS'LY.--_n._ GROSS'NESS.--IN GROSS, in bulk, wholesale. [Fr. _gros_--L.
_grossus_, thick.]

GROTESQUE, gr[=o]-tesk', _adj._ extravagantly formed: ludicrous.--_n._
(_art_) extravagant ornament, containing animals, plants, &c. not really
existing.--_adv._ GROTESQUE'LY.--_ns._ GROTESQUE'NESS; GROTESQU'ERY. [Fr.
_grotesque_--It. _grotesca_--_grotta_, a grotto.]

GROTIAN, gr[=o]'shi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Hugo _Grotius_
(1583-1645), the Latinised form of Huig van _Groot_, founder of the science
of international law.--GROTIAN THEORY, the theory that man is essentially a
social being, and that the principles of justice are of perpetual
obligation and in harmony with his nature; GROTIAN, or GOVERNMENTAL, THEORY
OF THE ATONEMENT, a divine acquittal for Christ's sake, rather than a real
satisfaction on the part of Christ.

GROTTO, grot'[=o], _n._ a cave: a place of shade, for pleasure--also
GROT:--_pl._ GROTT'OS--_n._ GROTT'O-WORK, a grotto-like structure. [It.
_grotta_ (Fr. _grotte_)--L. _crypta_--Gr. _krypt[=e]_, a crypt.]

GROUND, grownd, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _grind_.

GROUND, grownd, _n._ the surface of the earth: a portion of the earth's
surface: land, field, soil: the floor, &c.: position: field or place of
action: (_lit._ or _fig._) that on which something is raised: foundation:
sufficient reason: (_art_) the surface on which the figures are
represented.--_v.t._ to fix on a foundation or principle: to instruct in
first principles: to cover with a layer of plaster, &c., as a basis for
painting: to coat with a composition, as a surface to be etched.--_v.i._ to
strike the bottom and remain fixed.--_ns._ GROUND'AGE, the tax paid by a
ship for the space occupied while in port; GROUND'-ANG'LING, fishing
without a float, with a weight placed a few inches from the hook--called
also _Bottom-fishing_; GROUND'-ASH, a sapling of ash; GROUND'-BAIT, bait
dropped to the bottom of the water.--_adv._ GROUND'EDLY (_Browning_), on
good grounds.--_ns._ GROUND'ER, at baseball, &c., a ball thrown low rather
than rising into the air; GROUND'-FLOOR, the floor of a house on a level
with the street or exterior ground; GROUND'-GAME, hares, rabbits, as
distinguished from winged game; GROUND'-HOG, the American marmot, or
woodchuck: the aardvark of Africa; GROUND'-HOLD (_Spens._), ground-tackle;
GROUND-ICE, the ice formed at the bottom of a water first--also
AN'CHOR-ICE; GROUND'ING, the background of embroidery, &c.;
GROUND'-[=I]'VY, a common British creeping-plant whose leaves were once
used for flavouring ale (_gill-ale_ or _gell-ale_).--_adj._ GROUND'LESS,
without ground, foundation, or reason.--_adv._ GROUND'LESSLY.--_ns._
GROUND'LESSNESS; GROUND'LING, a fish which keeps near the bottom of the
water, esp. the spinous loach: a spectator in the pit of a theatre---hence
one of the common herd: (_pl._) the vulgar.--_adj._ (_Lamb_) base.--_ns._
GROUND'-NUT, ground-bean, or pea-nut, the fruit of the annual leguminous
plant _Arachis hypogæa_; GROUND'-OAK, a sapling of oak; GROUND'-PLAN, plan
of the horizontal section of the lowest or ground story of a building:
GROUND'-PLOT, the plot of ground on which a building stands; GROUND'-RENT,
rent paid to a landlord for the use of the ground for a specified term,
usually in England ninety-nine years.--_n.pl._ GROUNDS, dregs of drink:
sediment at the bottom of liquors (explained by Skeat as Celtic--Gael.
_grunndas_, lees, _grunnd_, bottom, Ir. _gruntas_, _grunnt_,
bottom).--_ns._ GROUND'SELL, GROUND'SILL, the timber of a building which
lies next to the ground; GROUND-SQUIRR'EL, the chipmuck or hackee;
GROUND'-SWELL, a broad, deep undulation of the ocean, proceeding from a
distant storm; GROUND'-TACK'LE, the tackle necessary for securing a vessel
at anchor; GROUND'WORK, that which forms the ground or foundation of
anything: the basis: the essential part: the first principle.--GROUND
ANNUAL, in the law of Scotland, an annual payment, sometimes called a
rent-charge, made for land--a substitute for feu-duty.--BE ON ONE'S OWN
GROUND, to be dealing with a matter in which one is specially versed; BREAK
GROUND, to take the first step in any project; FALL TO THE GROUND, to come
to nothing; GAIN GROUND, to advance, to obtain an advantage; GIVE GROUND,
to yield advantage; LOSE GROUND, to retire, to lose advantage; SLIPPERY
GROUND, an insecure footing; STAND, or HOLD, ONE'S GROUND, to stand firm.
[A.S. _grund_; most prob. _grund-en_, pa.p. of _grindan_, and orig. meaning
'earth ground small;' cog. with Ger. _grund_, Ice. _grunnr_.]

GROUNDSEL, grownd'sel, _n._ an annual plant, about a foot high, with small
yellow flowers. [A.S. _grundeswelge_--_grund_, ground, _swelgan_, to

GROUP, gr[=oo]p, _n._ a number of persons or things together: a number of
individual things related, in some definite way differentiating them from
others: (_art_) a combination of figures forming a harmonious
whole.--_v.t._ to form into a group or groups.--_v.i._ to fall into
harmonious combination.--_n._ GROUP'ING (_art_), the act of disposing and
arranging figures or objects in a group. [Fr. _groupe_--It. _groppo_, a
bunch, knot--Teut.; cf. Ger. _kropf_, protuberance.]

GROUSE, grows, _n._ the heathcock or moorfowl, a plump bird with a short
curved bill, short legs, and feathered feet, which frequents Scotch moors
and hills--the _Scotch ptarmigan_, _red-grouse_: any bird of the family
_Tetraonidæ_, and sub-family _Tetraoninæ_. [Prob. from the older _grice_
(on the analogy of _mouse_, _mice_)--O. Fr. _griesche_, gray.]

GROUT, growt, _n._ coarse meal: the sediment of liquor: lees: a thin coarse
mortar: a fine plaster for finishing ceilings.--_n._ GROUT'ING, the filling
up or finishing with grout: the stuff so used.--_adj._ GROUT'Y, thick,
muddy: sulky. [A.S. _grút_, coarse meal; cog. with Dut. _grut_, Ice.
_grautr_, porridge, Ger. _grütze_, groats.]

GROVE, gr[=o]v, _n._ a wood of small size, generally of a pleasant or
ornamental character: an avenue of trees: (_B._) an erroneous translation
of _Asherah_, the wooden upright image of the lewdly worshipped goddess
Ashtoreth; also of Heb. _eshel_ in Gen. xxi. 33.--GROVES OF ACADEME, the
shady walks of the Academy at Athens, any place of learned pursuits. [A.S.
_gráf_, a grove--_grafan_, pa.t. _gróf_, to dig.]

GROVEL, grov'el, _v.i._ to crawl on the earth, esp. in abject fear, &c.: to
be base or mean:--_pr.p._ grov'elling; _pa.p._ grov'elled.--_n._
GROV'ELLER.--_adj._ GROV'ELLING, mean. [Explained by Skeat as due to M. E.
_groveling_, flat on the ground, properly an _adv._, also _grofling_--Ice.

GROW, gr[=o], _v.i._ to become enlarged by a natural process: to advance
towards maturity: to increase in size: to develop: to become greater in any
way: to extend: to improve: to pass from one state to another: to
become.--_v.t._ to cause to grow: to cultivate:--_pa.t._ grew (gr[=oo]);
_pa.p._ grown.--_ns._ GROW'ER; GROW'ING; GROWTH, a growing: gradual
increase: progress: development: that which has grown: product.--GROW ON,
to gain in the estimation of; GROW OUT OF, to issue from, result from: to
pass beyond in development, to give up; GROW TO, to advance to; GROW
TOGETHER, to become united by growth; GROW UP, to advance in growth, become
full-grown; to take root, spring up. [A.S. _grówan_; Ice. _gróa_; conn.
with _green_.]

GROWL, growl, _v.i._ to utter a deep, murmuring sound like a dog: to
grumble surlily.--_v.t._ to express by growling.--_n._ a murmuring,
snarling sound, as of an angry dog.--_ns._ GROWL'ER, one who growls: a fish
of the Perch family, abundant in North American rivers, so named from the
sound it emits: (_slang_) a four-wheeled cab: (_Amer._) a jug or pitcher
used for carrying beer; GROWL'ING, grumbling, snarling: a rumbling
sound.--_adv._ GROWL'INGLY. [Dut. _grollen_, to grumble; allied to Gr.
_gryllizein_, to grunt.]

GROYNE, groin, _n._ a wooden breakwater. [GROIN.]

GRUB, grub, _v.i._ to dig in the dirt: to be occupied meanly: (_slang_) to
eat.--_v.t._ to dig or root out of the ground (generally followed by up):
(_slang_) to supply with victuals:--_pr.p._ grub'bing; _pa.p._
grubbed.--_n._ the larva of the beetle, moth, &c.: (_slang_) something to
eat.--_n._ GRUB'BER, he who, or that which, grubs: an agricultural
implement for grubbing out weeds, &c., or for clearing and stirring up the
soil, with obliquely placed _tines_ or teeth set in a frame and moved
forward on wheels.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ GRUB'BLE, to grope.--_n._
GRUB'-STREET, a street in London inhabited by booksellers' hacks and shabby
writers generally.--_adj._ applied to any mean literary production. [Prob.
A.S. _grápian_, to grope.]

GRUDGE, gruj, _v.t._ to murmur at: to look upon with envy: to give or take
unwillingly.--_v.i._ to show discontent.--_n._ secret enmity or envy: an
old cause of quarrel.--_adjs._ GRUDGE'FUL (_Spens._), full of grudge,
envious; GRUDG'ING, given to grudge.--_adv._ GRUDG'INGLY, unwillingly. [M.
E. _grochen_, _grucchen_--O. Fr. _grocer_, _groucer_, from an imitative
root seen in Gr. _gry_, the grunt of a pig; also in _growl_, _grunt_.]

GRUEL, gr[=oo]'el, _n._ a thin food made by boiling oatmeal in water. [O.
Fr. _gruel_ (Fr. _gruau_), groats--Low L. _grutellum_, dim. of _grutum_,
meal--Old Low Ger. _grut_, groats, A.S. _grút_.]

GRUESOME, gr[=oo]'sum, _adj._ horrible: fearful: dismal,
depressing.--_vs.i._ GRUE, GREW, to shudder: to feel horror or
repulsiveness. [Scand.; Dan. _gru_, horror, with suff. _-som_; cf. Dut.
_gruwzaam_, Ger. _grausam_.]

GRUFF, gruf, _adj._ rough, stern, or abrupt in manner: churlish.--_adv._
GRUFF'LY.--_n._ GRUFF'NESS. [Dut. _grof_; cog. with Sw. _grof_, Ger.
_grob_, coarse.]

GRUM, grum, _adj._ morose: surly: deep in the throat, as a sound.--_adv._
GRUM'LY.--_n._ GRUM'NESS. [A.S. _grom_; cf. Dan. _grum_.]

GRUMBLE, grum'bl, _v.i._ to murmur with discontent: to growl: to
rumble.--_n._ the act of grumbling.--_ns._ GRUM'BLER; GRUMBLET[=O]'NIAN,
one of the country party as opposed to the court party, after 1689.--_adv._
GRUM'BLINGLY. [Old Dut. _grommelen_, freq. of _grommen_ to mutter.]

GRUME, gr[=oo]m, _n._ a thick consistence of fluid: a clot, as of
blood.--_adjs._ GRUM'OUS, GRUM'OSE, thick: clotted. [O. Fr. _grume_, a
bunch (Fr. _grumeau_, a clot)--L. _grumus_, a little heap.]

GRUMPH, grumf, _n._ (_Scot._) a grunt.--_v.i._ to grunt.--_n._ GRUMPH'IE, a

GRUMPY, grum'pi, _adj._ surly: dissatisfied: melancholic.--_adv._
GRUM'PILY. [_Grumble_.]

GRUNDY, grund'i, MRS, the invisible _censor morum_ who is frequently
appealed to in the phrase, 'But what will Mrs Grundy say?' in Thomas
Morton's play, _Speed the Plough_ (1800).

GRUNT, grunt, _v.i._ to make a sound like a pig: to utter guttural
sounds.--_n._ a short, guttural sound, as of a hog.--_ns._ GRUNT'ER;
GRUNT'ING.--_adv._ GRUNT'INGLY. [M. E. _grunten_--A.S. _grunian_; cf. Ger.
_grunzen_, L._ grunn[=i]re_; all imit.]

GRUTCH, gruch, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to grudge.

GRUYÈRE, gr[=oo]-y[=a]r', _n._ a famous whole-milk cheese, made at
_Gruyère_ and many other places in the canton of Freiburg, Switzerland.

GRYDE, gr[=i]d, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to gride.

GRYFON, GRYPHON, grif'on, _n._ obsolete forms of _griffin_.--Also GRYPE.

GRYPOSIS, gri-p[=o]'sis, _n._ a curvature, esp. of the nails.

GRYSIE, gr[=i]z'i, _adj._ (_Spens._) grisly: squalid: moist.

GUACHARO, gwä'chä-r[=o], _n._ the oil-bird, a South American nocturnal
frugivorous goatsucker. [Sp.]

GUACHO, gwä'k[=o], _n._ a tropical American climbing composite: the
medicinal substance in the leaves.

GUAIACUM, gw[=a]'ya-kum, _n._ a genus of trees in the West Indies, that
yield a greenish resin used in medicine. [Sp. _guayaco_, from a Haytian

GUAN, gwän, _n._ the yacou, a South American genus of large arboreal
game-birds, giving loud cries.

GUANACO, gwä-nä'ko, _n._ a cameloid ruminant widely spread in South

GUANO, gwä'n[=o], _n._ the long-accumulated excrement of certain sea-fowl,
found on certain coasts and islands, esp. about South America, much used
for manure.--_adj._ GUANIF'EROUS.--_n._ GUÄ'NIN, a yellowish-white,
amorphous substance, a constituent of guano, also of the liver and pancreas
of mammals. [Sp. _guano_, or _huano_, from Peruv. _huanu_, dung.]

GUARANA, gwä-rä'na, _n._ a paste prepared from the pounded seeds of
_Paullinia sorbilis_, a climbing Brazilian shrub, made in round or oblong
cakes--_Guarana Bread_.

GUARANTEE, gar-an-t[=e]', GUARANTY, gar'an-ti, _n._ a warrant or surety: a
contract to see performed what another has undertaken: the person who makes
such a contract, one responsible for the performance of some action, the
truth of some statement, &c.--_v.t._ to undertake that another shall
perform certain engagements: to make sure:--_pr.p._ guarantee'ing; _pa.p._
guaranteed'.--_n._ GUAR'ANTOR, one who makes a guaranty.--GUARANTEE
ASSOCIATIONS, joint-stock companies on the insurance principle, which
become security for the integrity of cashiers, &c. [O. Fr. _garantie_,
pa.p. of _garantir_, to warrant--_garant_, warrant. See WARRANT.]

GUARD, gärd, _v.t._ to ward, watch, or take care of: to protect from danger
or attack: to protect the edge of, as by an ornamental border.--_v.i._ to
watch: to be wary.--_n._ that which guards from danger: a man or body of
men stationed to protect: one who has charge of a coach or railway-train:
state of caution: posture of defence: part of the hilt of a sword: a
watch-chain: (_pl._) troops attached to the person of a sovereign:
(_cricket_) the pads which protect the legs from swift balls.--_adj._
GUARD'ABLE.--_n._ GUARD'AGE (_Shak._), wardship.--_adjs._ GUARD'ANT
(_her._), having the face turned towards the beholder; GUARD'ED, wary:
cautious: uttered with caution.--_adv._ GUARD'EDLY.--_ns._ GUARD'EDNESS;
GUARD'HOUSE, GUARD'ROOM, a house or room for the accommodation of a guard
of soldiers, where defaulters are confined; GUARD'IAN, one who guards or
takes care of: (_law_) one who has the care of an orphan minor.--_adj._
protecting.--_n._ GUARD'IANSHIP.--_adj._ GUARD'LESS, without a guard:
defenceless.--_ns._ GUARD'SHIP, a ship of war that superintends marine
affairs in a harbour and protects it: (_Swift_) guardianship; GUARDS'MAN, a
soldier of the guards.--GUARDIAN ANGEL, an angel supposed to watch over a
particular person: a person specially devoted to the interests of
another.--MOUNT GUARD, to go on guard-duty; ON, or OFF, ONE'S GUARD, on the
watch, or the opposite; RUN THE GUARD, to get past a guard or sentinel
without detection. [O. Fr. _garder_--Old High Ger. _warten_; A.S.
_weardian_, Eng. _ward_.]

GUARISH, g[=a]r'ish, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to heal. [O. Fr. _guarir_ (Fr.
_guérir_), to heal.]

GUAVA, gwä'va, _n._ a genus of trees and shrubs of tropical America, with
yellow, pear-shaped fruit made into jelly. [Sp. _guayaba_--Braz.]

GUBBINS, gub'ins, _n.pl._ a half-savage race in Devonshire, described by
the pastoral poet William Browne and by Fuller in his _Worthies_.

GUBERNATION, g[=u]-b[.e]r-n[=a]'shun, _n._ government, rule.--_adj._
GUBERNAT[=O]'RIAL. [L. _gubern[=a]re_, govern.]

GUDDLE, gud'l _v.t._ (_Scot._) to catch fish with the hands by groping
under the stones or banks of a stream.

GUDGEON, guj'un, _n._ a genus of small, carp-like fishes common in the
fresh waters of Europe--easily caught: a person easily cheated.--_adj._
foolish.--_v.t._ to impose on, cheat. [O. Fr. _goujon_--L. _gobion-em_--Gr.
_k[=o]bios_. See GOBY.]

GUDGEON, guj'un, _n._ the bearing of a shaft, esp. when made of a separate
piece: a metallic journal-piece let into the end of a wooden shaft: a pin.
[O. Fr. _goujon_, the pin of a pulley.]

GUE, g[=u], _n._ a rude kind of violin used in Shetland.

GUEBRE, GUEBER, g[=e]'b[.e]r, _n._ a follower of the ancient Persian
religion as reformed by Zoroaster. [Pers. _gabr_; see GIAOUR; cf. Ar.
_kafir_, unbeliever.]

GUELDER-ROSE, gel'd[.e]r-r[=o]z, _n._ a species of _Viburnum_ with large
white ball-shaped flowers--also called _Snowball-tree_. [From _Gueldres_ in

GUELF, GUELPH, gwelf, _n._ one of a papal and popular party in Italy in the
Middle Ages which was opposed to the emperors.--_adj._ GUELF'IC, belonging
to the Guelfs, in modern times the royal family of Hanover and England.
[The party names _Guelf_ and _Ghibelline_ are from _Welf_ and _Waiblingen_,
two families which in the 12th century were at the head of two rival
parties in the German Empire.]

GUERDON, g[.e]r'dun, _n._ a reward or recompense.--_v.t._ to reward. [O.
Fr. _guerdon_, _guerredon_ (It. _guidardone_)--Low L. _widerdonum_, corr.
from Old High Ger. _widarlón_ (A.S. _wiðerleán_)--_wider_ (A.S. _wiðer_),
against, and _lón_ (A.S. _leán_), reward; or more prob. the latter part of
the word is from L. _donum_, a gift.]

GUEREZA, ger'e-za, _n._ a large, long-haired, black-and-white African
monkey, with a bushy tail.

GUERILLA, GUERRILLA, g[.e]r-ril'a, _n._ a mode of harassing an army by
small bands adopted by the Spaniards against the French in the Peninsular
war: a member of such a band.--_adj._ conducted by or conducting petty
warfare. [Sp. _guerrilla_, dim. of _guerra_ (Fr. _guerre_)--Old High Ger.

GUERNSEY, g[.e]rn'zi, _n._ a sailor's closely-fitting knitted woollen
shirt: one of a breed of dairy cattle from the island: the red-legged
partridge. [From _Guernsey_ in the Channel Islands.]

GUESS, ges, _v.t._ to form an opinion on uncertain knowledge: to
conjecture, to think.--_v.i._ to judge on uncertain knowledge: to
conjecture rightly.--_n._ judgment or opinion without sufficient evidence
or grounds.--_adj._ GUESS'ABLE, that may be guessed.--_n._ GUESS'ER, one
who guesses or conjectures.--_adv._ GUESS'INGLY, by way of
conjecture.--_n._ GUESS'WORK, work done by guess: random action. [M. E.
_gessen_; cog. with Dut. _gissen_; Dan. _gisse_, Ice. _giska_, for
_gitska_--_geta_, to get, think, A.S. _gitan_, whence Eng. _get_. See

GUEST, gest, _n._ a visitor received and entertained.--_n._ GUEST'-CHAM'BER
(_B._), a chamber or room for the accommodation of guests.--_v.i._ GUEST'EN
(_Scot._), to stay as a guest.--_adv._ GUEST'WISE, in the manner or
capacity of a guest. [A.S. _gest_, _gæst_; allied to Dut. and Ger. _gast_,
L. _hostis_, stranger, enemy.]

GUEUX, g[=u], _n.pl._ the name assumed by the confederation (1565) of
nobles and others to resist the introduction of the Inquisition into the
Low Countries by Philip II. of Spain. [Fr., 'beggars.']

GUFFAW, guf-faw', _v.i._ to laugh loudly.--_n._ a loud laugh. [From the

GUGGLE, gug'l, _v.i._ to make a noise with the mouth or throat, to gurgle.
[Formed from _gurgle_.]


GUIDE, g[=i]d, _v.t._ to lead or direct: to regulate: to influence.--_n._
he who, or that which, guides: one who directs another in his course of
life: a soldier or other person employed to obtain information for an army:
a guide-book: anything calculated to maintain in a certain direction or
position.--_adj._ GUID'ABLE.--_ns._ GUID'AGE, guidance; GUID'ANCE,
direction: government; GUIDE'-BOOK, a book of information for
tourists.--_adj._ GUIDE'LESS, having no guide.--_ns._ GUIDE'POST, a post
erected at a roadside to guide the traveller; GUID'ER, one who guides, a
director; GUID'ON, a forked guide-flag carried by a cavalry company or
mounted battery, also the officer bearing it. [O. Fr. _guider_; prob. from
a Teut. root, as in A.S. _witan_, to know, _wís_, wise, Ger. _weisen_, to
show, conn. with _wit_, _wise_.]

GUILD, GILD, gild, _n._ an association of men for mutual aid: a
corporation: (_orig._) an association in a town where payment was made for
mutual support and protection.--_ns._ GUILD'-BROTH'ER, a fellow-member of a
guild; GUILD'HALL, the hall of a guild, esp. in London; GUILD'RY (_Scot._),
a guild, the members of such. [A.S. _gild_, money--_gildan_, to pay.]

GUILDER, GILDER, gild'[.e]r, _n._ an old Dutch and German gold coin: now a
silver coin=1s. 8d.: (_Shak._) money generally. [Dut. _gulden_--Ger.
_gulden_, gold.]

GUILE, g[=i]l, _n._ wile, jugglery: cunning: deceit.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to
beguile.--_p.adj._ GUILED, armed with deceit: treacherous.--_adj._
GUILE'FUL, crafty: deceitful.--_adv._ GUILE'FULLY.--_n._
GUILE'FULNESS.--_adj._ GUILE'LESS, without deceit: artless.--_adv._
GUILE'LESSLY.--_ns._ GUILE'LESSNESS; GUIL'ER (_Spens._), a deceiver. [O.
Fr. _guile_, deceit; from a Teut. root, as in A.S. _wíl_, Ice. _vel_, a

GUILLEMOT, gil'e-mot, _n._ a genus of diving birds of the Auk family, with
long, straight, feathered bill and very short tail. [Fr., prob. Celt.;
Bret. _gwelan_, gull, and O. Fr. _moette_, a sea-mew, from Teut.]

GUILLOCHE, gil-losh', _n._ an ornament formed of two or more bands
intertwining in a continued series.--_v.t._ to decorate with intersecting
curved lines. [Fr.; said to be from the name of its inventor, _Guillot_.]

GUILLOTINE, gil'[=o]-t[=e]n, _n._ an instrument for beheading--consisting
of an upright frame down which a sharp heavy axe descends on the neck of
the victim--adopted during the French Revolution, and named after Joseph
Ignace _Guillotin_ (1738-1814), a physician, who first proposed its
adoption: a machine for cutting paper, straw, &c.: a surgical instrument
for cutting the tonsils.--_v.t._ to behead with the guillotine.--_n._
GUILL'OTINEMENT, death by the guillotine.

GUILT, gilt, _n._ punishable conduct: the state of having broken a law:
crime: wickedness.--_adv._ GUILT'ILY.--_n._ GUILT'INESS.--_adj._
GUILT'LESS, free from crime: innocent.--_adv._ GUILT'LESSLY.--_n._
GUILT'LESSNESS.--_adj._ GUILT'Y, justly chargeable with a crime: wicked:
pertaining to guilt.--_adv._ GUILT'Y-LIKE (_Shak._), guiltily.--GUILTY OF
(sometimes in _B._), deserving. [Orig. a payment or fine for an offence;
A.S. _gylt_, guilt--_gildan_, to pay, to atone.]

GUILT, gilt, _p.adj._ (_Spens._) gilded.

GUINEA, gin'i, _n._ an English gold coin, no longer used=21s., so called
because first made of gold brought from _Guinea_, in Africa.--_ns._
GUIN'EA-CORN, a cereal extensively cultivated in Central Africa and
India--also _Indian millet_; GUIN'EA-FOWL, a genus of African birds in the
pheasant family, having dark-gray plumage with round spots of white,
generally larger on the back and under surface; GUIN'EA-GRASS, a grass of
the same genus with millet, a native of _Guinea_ and Senegal; GUIN'EA-HEN
(_Shak._), a courtesan; GUIN'EA-PEPP'ER (see PEPPER); GUIN'EA-PIG, a small
South American rodent, somewhat resembling a small pig, the cavy: (_slang_)
a professional company director, without time or real qualifications for
the duties; GUIN'EA-WORM, a very slender thread-like nematode worm common
in tropical Africa.

GUIPURE, g[=e]-p[=oo]r', _n._ a kind of lace having no ground or mesh, the
pattern fixed by interlacing threads: a species of gimp. [Fr. _guipure_--O.
Fr. _guiper_, prob. Teut.; cf. Goth. _veipan_, to weave.]

GUISE, g[=i]z, _n._ manner, behaviour: external appearance: dress.--_v.t._
(_arch._) to dress.--_v.i._ to act as a guiser.--_ns._ GUIS'ER (_Scot._),
GUIS'ARD, a person in disguise: a Christmas mummer. [O. Fr. _guise_; from
Old High Ger. _wísa_ (Ger. _weise_), a way, guise, which is cog. with A.S.
_wíse_, way, _wís_, wise.]

GUITAR, gi-tär', _n._ a six-stringed musical instrument, somewhat like the
lute, well adapted for accompanying the voice. [Fr. _guitare_--L.
_cithara_--Gr. _kithara_, a lyre or lute. See CITHERN.]

GULA, g[=u]'la, _n._ a piece in some insects, esp. in the beetles, &c.,
forming the lower surface of the head, behind the mentum, bounded laterally
by the genæ or cheeks: the upper part of a bird's throat, between mentum
and jugulum.--_adj._ G[=U]'LAR. [L., 'throat.']

GULCH, gulch, _n._ (_U.S._) a ravine or narrow rocky valley, a
gully.--_v.t._ (_prov._) to swallow greedily. [Prob. the _n._ and _v._ are

GULDEN, g[=oo]l'den, _n._ a certain gold or silver coin in Germany in the
Middle Ages: the unit of account in Austria, having the value of about 2s.

GULES, g[=u]lz, _n._ (_her._) a red colour, marked in engraved figures by
perpendicular lines.--_adj._ G[=U]'LY. [O. Fr. _gueules_; acc. to Brachet,
from Pers. _ghul_, a rose; acc. to others, from L. _gula_, the throat.]

GULF, gulf, _n._ a hollow or indentation in the sea-coast: a deep place in
the earth: an abyss: a whirlpool: anything insatiable: in Oxford and
Cambridge examinations, the place of those next to the pass, but not bad
enough to fail.--_v.t._ to engulf.--_n._ GULF'-WEED, a large olive-brown
sea-weed with stalked air-bladders.--_adj._ GULF'Y, full of gulfs or
whirlpools.--GULF STREAM, a great current of warm water flowing out of the
Gulf of Mexico through the Strait of Florida, along the eastern coast of
the United States of America, then deflected near the banks of Newfoundland
diagonally across the Atlantic. [O. Fr. _golfe_--Late Gr. _kolphos_--Gr.
_kolpos_, the bosom.]

GULL, gul, _n._ a web-footed sea-fowl belonging to the family _Laridæ_.
[Celt.; Corn. _gullan_, W. _gwylan_, Bret. _gwelan_--_gwela_, to weep, to

GULL, gul, _v.t._ to beguile: to deceive.--_n._ a trick: one easily
cheated: (_Shak._) a nestling.--_ns._ GULL'-CATCH'ER (_Shak._), a cheat;
GULL'ER; GULL'ERY, imposture; GULLIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ GULL'IBLE, easily
deceived.--_n._ GULLOS'ITY. [Same word as _gull_, a seafowl, the bird being
thought stupid.]

GULLET, gul'et, _n._ the throat: the passage in the neck by which food is
taken into the stomach.--_n._ GULOS'ITY, gluttony. [O. Fr. _goulet_, dim.
of O. Fr. _goule_ (Fr. _gueule_)--L. _gula_, the throat.]

GULLY, gul'i, _n._ (_Scot._) a big knife.--Also GULL'EY.

GULLY, gul'i, _n._ a channel worn by running water: a ditch: a
ravine.--_v.t._ to wear a gully or channel in.--_p.adj._ GULL'IED.--_ns._
GULL'Y-HOLE, a manhole into a drain, &c.; GULL'Y-HUNT'ER, one who picks up
things from gutters. [Prob. _gullet_.]

GULP, gulp, _v.t._ to swallow eagerly or in large draughts.--_n._ a
swallow: as much as is swallowed at once. [Dut. _gulpen_--_gulp_, a great

GUM, gum, _n._ the firm fleshy tissue which surrounds the teeth: (_slang_)
insolence.--_n._ GUM'BOIL, a boil or small abscess on the gum. [A.S.
_góma_, jaws; Ice. _gómr_, Ger. _gaumen_, palate.]

GUM, gum, _n._ a substance which exudes from certain trees and plants, and
hardens on the surface, including those containing arabin, bassorin, and
gum-resins.--_v.t._ to smear or unite with gum:--_pr.p._ gum'ming; _pa.p._
gummed.--_ns._ GUM'-AR'ABIC, a gum obtained from various species of acacia;
GUM'-DRAG'ON, tragacanth; GUM'-ELAS'TIC, india-rubber or caoutchouc;
GUM'-JU'NIPER, sandarac.--_adj._ GUMMIF'EROUS, producing gum.--_ns._
GUM'MINESS; GUM'MING, act of fastening with gum, esp. the application of
gum-water to a lithographic stone: a disease, marked by a discharge of gum,
affecting stone-fruit; GUMMOS'ITY, gumminess.--_adjs._ GUM'MOUS, GUM'MY,
consisting of or resembling gum: producing or covered with gum.--_ns._
GUM'-RASH, red-gum; GUM'-RES'IN, a vegetable secretion formed of resin
mixed with more or less gum or mucilage; GUM'-TREE, a name applied to
various American and Australian trees; CHEW'ING-GUM (see CHEW). [O. Fr.
_gomme_--L. _gummi_--Gr. _kommi_; prob. Coptic _kom[=e]_, gum.]

GUMBO, gum'b[=o], _n._ the okra or its mucilaginous pods: a soup of which
okra is an ingredient, also a dish of okra-pods seasoned: Creole patois in

GUMPTION, gump'shun, _n._ sense: shrewdness: common-sense.--_adj._
GUMP'TIOUS. [Doubtless conn. with A.S. _gýman_, to observe; cf. Goth.

GUN, gun, _n._ a firearm or weapon, from which balls or other projectiles
are discharged, usually by means of gunpowder--now generally applied to
cannon: one who carries a gun, a member of a shooting-party.--_v.i._
(_Amer._) to shoot with a gun.--_ns._ GUN'-BARR'EL, the barrel or tube of a
gun; GUN'BOAT, a boat or small vessel of light draught, fitted to carry one
or more guns; GUN'-CARR'IAGE, a carriage on which a gun or cannon is
supported; GUN'-COTT'ON, an explosive prepared by saturating cotton with
nitric acid; GUN'-FIRE (_mil._), the hour at which the morning or evening
gun is fired; GUN'-FLINT, a piece of flint fitted to the hammer of a
flint-lock musket; GUN'-MET'AL, an alloy of copper and tin in the
proportion of 9 to 1, used in making guns; GUN'NAGE, the number of guns
carried by a ship of war; GUN'NER, one who works a gun or cannon: (_naut._)
a petty officer who has charge of the ordnance on board ship; GUN'NERY, the
art of managing guns, or the science of artillery; GUN'NING, shooting game;
GUN'-PORT, a port-hole; GUN'POWDER, an explosive powder used for guns and
firearms; GUN'-ROOM, the apartment on board ship occupied by the gunner, or
by the lieutenants as a mess-room; GUN'SHOT, the distance to which shot can
be thrown from a gun.--_adj._ caused by the shot of a gun.--_adj._
GUN'-SHY, frightened by guns (of a sporting dog).--_ns._ GUN'SMITH, a smith
or workman who makes or repairs guns or small-arms; GUN'STICK, a ramrod;
GUN'STOCK, the stock or piece of wood on which the barrel of a gun is
fixed; GUN'STONE (_Shak._), a stone, formerly used as shot for a gun;
GUN'-TACK'LE (_naut._), the tackle used on board ship by which the guns are
run to and from the port-holes; GUN'-WAD, a wad for a gun; GAT'LING-GUN, a
revolving battery-gun, invented by R. J. _Gatling_ about 1861, usually
having ten parallel barrels, capable of firing 1200 shots a minute;
MACHINE'-GUN (see MACHINE).--AS SURE AS A GUN, quite sure, certainly; BLOW
GREAT GUNS, to blow tempestuously--of wind; GREAT GUN, a cannon: (_coll._)
a person of great importance; SON OF A GUN, a rogue, rascal. [M. E.
_gonne_, from W. _gwn_, a bowl, a gun, acc. to Skeat.]

GUNNEL, gun'l, _n._ Same as GUNWALE.

GUNNY, gun'i, _n._ a strong coarse cloth manufactured in India from jute,
and used as sacking. [Hind. _gon_, _goní_, sacking--Sans. _goní_, a sack.]


GUNWALE, GUNNEL, gun'el, _n._ the wale or upper edge of a ship's side next
to the bulwarks, so called because the upper guns are pointed from it.

GURGE, gurj, _n._ (_Milt._) a whirlpool. [L. _gurges_.]

GURGLE, gur'gl, _v.i._ to flow in an irregular noisy current: to make a
bubbling sound. [Through an It. _gorgogliare_, from _gorgo_--L. _gurges_.]


GURLY, gur'li, _adj._ (_obs._) fierce, stormy.

GURNARD, gur'nard, _n._ a genus of fishes having the body rounded,
tapering, and covered with small scales, an angular head, the eyes near the
summit, and the teeth small and very numerous--(_obs._) GUR'NET. [From O.
Fr. _grongnard_--_grogner_, to grunt--L. _grunn[=i]re_, to grunt.]

GURRAH, gur'a, _n._ a coarse Indian muslin.

GURRY, gur'i, _n._ fish-offal.

GURU, g[=oo]'r[=oo], _n._ a spiritual teacher, any venerable person.--Also
GOO'ROO. [Hind.--Sans.]

GUSH, gush, _v.i._ to flow out with violence or copiously: to be effusive,
or highly sentimental.--_n._ that which flows out: a violent issue of a
fluid.--_n._ GUSH'ER, an oil-well not needing to be pumped.--_adj._
GUSH'ING, rushing forth with violence, as a liquid: flowing copiously:
effusive.--_adv._ GUSH'INGLY.--_adj._ GUSH'Y, effusively sentimental.
[Scand.; Ice. _gusa_, _gjósa_; Dut. _gudsen_. See GEYSER.]

GUSSET, gus'et, _n._ the piece of cloth in a shirt which covers the armpit:
an angular piece of cloth inserted in a garment to strengthen some part of
it.--_v.t._ to make with a gusset: to insert a gusset into. [O. Fr.
_gousset_--_gousse_--It. _guscio_, a pod, husk.]

GUST, gust, _n._ a sudden blast of wind: a violent burst of
passion.--_adjs._ GUST'FUL, GUST'Y, stormy: irritable.--_n._ GUST'INESS.
[Ice. _gustr_, blast.]

GUST, gust, _n._ sense of pleasure of tasting: relish: gratification.--_n._
GUST[=A]'TION, the act of tasting: the sense of taste.--_adjs._
GUST'[=A]TIVE, GUS'T[=A]TORY, of or pertaining to gustation.--_n._ GUST'O,
taste: zest. [L. _gustus_, taste; cf. Gr. _geuein_, to make to taste.]

GUT, gut, _n._ the alimentary canal: intestines prepared for
violin-strings, &c. (gut for angling, see SILKWORM-GUT): (_pl._) the
bowels.--_v.t._ to take out the bowels of: to plunder:--_pr.p._ gut'ting;
_pa.p._ gut'ted.--_n._ GUT'-SCRAP'ER, a fiddler.--_v.t._ and _v.i._
GUT'TLE, to eat greedily. [A.S. _gut_, _geótan_, to pour; prov. Eng. _gut_,
Ger. _gosse_, a drain.]

GUTTA, gut'a, _n._ a drop: one of the small drop-like ornaments on the
under side of the mutules and regulæ of the Doric entablature: a small
round colour-spot:--_pl._ GUTT'Æ.--_adjs._ GUTT'ATE, -D, containing drops:
spotted. [L.]

GUTTA-PERCHA, gut'a-p[.e]rch'a, _n._ the solidified juice of various trees
in the Malayan Islands. [Malay _gatah_, _guttah_, gum, _percha_, the tree
producing it.]

GUTTER, gut'[.e]r, _n._ a channel at the eaves of a roof for conveying away
water: a channel for water: (_print._) one of a number of pieces of wood or
metal, grooved in the centre, used to separate the pages of type in a form:
(_pl._) mud, dirt (_Scot._).--_v.t._ to cut or form into small
hollows.--_v.i._ to become hollowed: to run down in drops, as a
candle.--_ns._ GUTT'ER-BLOOD, a low-born person; GUTT'ER-SNIPE, a neglected
child, a street Arab.--_adj._ GUTTIF'EROUS, exuding gum or resin. [O. Fr.
_goutiere_--_goute_--L. _gutta_, a drop.]

GUTTURAL, gut'ur-al, _adj._ pertaining to the throat: formed in the throat:
harsh or rasping in sound.--_n._ (_gram._) a letter pronounced in the
throat or the back part of the mouth (_k_, _c_ hard, _q_, _g_,
_ng_).--_v.t._ GUTT'URALISE, GUTT'URISE, to form (a sound) in the
throat.--_adv._ GUTT'URALLY.--_n._ GUTT'URALNESS. [Fr.,--L. _guttur_, the

GUY, g[=i], _n._ (_naut._) a rope to steady any suspended weight.--_v.t._
to keep in position by a guy. [Sp. _guia_, a guide.]

GUY, g[=i], _n._ an effigy of _Guy_ Fawkes, dressed up grotesquely on the
anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot (5th Nov.): an odd figure.

GUZZLE, guz'l, _v.i._ to eat and drink with haste and greediness.--_v.t._
to swallow with exceeding relish.--_n._ GUZZ'LER. [O. Fr. (_des-_)
_gouziller_, to swallow down; _gosier_, the throat.]

GWINIAD, gwin'i-ad, _n._ a fresh-water fish of about 10 or 12 inches in
length, found in some of the lakes of Wales and Cumberland--the
_Fresh-water Herring_. [W.,--_gwyn_, white.]

GYGIS, j[=i]'jis, _n._ a genus of small terns, white, with black bill,
long-pointed wings, and a slightly forked tail. [Gr. _gyg[=e]s_, a

GYMKHANA, jim-kä'na, _n._ a place of public resort for athletic games, &c.,
also a meeting for such sports. [A factitious word, according to
Yule-Burnell, prob. based on _gend-kh[=a]na_ ('ball-house'), the usual
Hind. name for an English racket-court.]

GYMNASIUM, jim-n[=a]'zi-um, _n._ a school for gymnastics: a school for the
higher branches of literature and science: (_orig._) a public place or
building where the Greek youths exercised themselves, with running and
wrestling grounds, baths, and halls for conversation:--_pl._
GYMN[=A]'SIA.--_adj._ GYMN[=A]'SIAL.--_n._ GYMN[=A]'SIAST.--_adj._
GYMN[=A]'SIC.--_n._ GYM'NAST, one who teaches or practises
gymnastics.--_adjs._ GYMNAS'TIC, -AL, pertaining to athletic exercises:
athletic, vigorous.--_adv._ GYMNAS'TICALLY.--_n.pl._ used as _sing_.
GYMNAS'TICS, athletic exercises, devised to strengthen the muscles and
bones, esp. those of the upper half of the body: the art of performing
athletic exercises.--_adj._ GYM'NIC (_Milt._). [L.,--Gr.
_gymnasion_--_gymnazein_, _gymnos_, naked.]

GYMNOCARPOUS, jim-no-kär'pus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the fruit naked, or
not invested with a receptacle. [Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _karpos_, fruit.]

GYMNOCITTA, jim-no-sit'a, _n._ a genus of crow-like American jays with
naked nostrils. [Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _kitta_, _kissa_, a jay.]

GYMNOCLADUS, jim-nok'lad-us, _n._ a genus of North American trees, the pods
slightly aperient. [Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _klados_, a branch.]

GYMNOGYNOUS, jim-noj'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) having a naked ovary. [Gr.
_gymnos_, naked, _gyn[=e]_, female.]

GYMNORHINAL, jim-n[=o]-r[=i]'nal, _adj._ having the nostrils bare or
unfeathered, as certain jays and auks. [Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _hris_,
_hrin-os_, the nose.]

GYMNOSOPHIST, jim-nos'of-ist, _n._ the name given by the Greeks to those
ancient Hindu philosophers who wore little or no clothing, and lived
solitarily in mystical contemplation.--_n._ GYMNOS'OPHY. [Gr. _gymnos_,
naked, _sophos_, wise.]

GYMNOSPERM, jim'n[=o]-sp[.e]rm, _n._ one of the lower or more primitive
group of seed plants--also GYM'NOGEN.--_adj._ GYMNOSPER'MOUS (_bot._),
having the seeds unenclosed in a capsule.--_n._ GYM'NOSPORE, a naked spore.
[Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _sperma_, seed.]

GYMNOTUS, jim-n[=o]'tus, _n._ the most powerful of the electric fishes,
occurring in the fresh waters of Brazil and Guiana.--Also _Electric eel_.
[Formed from Gr. _gymnos_, naked, _n[=o]tos_, the back.]

GYNÆCEUM, GYNECIUM, jin-[=e]-s[=e]'um, _n._ an apartment in a large house
exclusively appropriated to women. [Gr. _gyn[=e]_, a woman, _oikos_, a

GYNANDRIA, ji-nan'dri-a, _n._ a Linnæan class of plants, in which the
stamens are united with the pistil.--_n._ GYNAN'DER, a plant of the
gynandria: a masculine woman.--_adjs._ GYNAN'DRIAN, GYNAN'DROUS. [Gr.
_gyn[=e]_, a female, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

GYNARCHY, jin'är-ki, _n._ government by a female. [Gr. _gyn[=e]_, a woman,
_arch[=e]_, rule.]

GYNECIAN, GYNÆCIAN, ji-n[=e]'shi-an, _adj._ relating to women.--_adjs._
GYN[=E]'CIC, GYNÆ'CIC, pertaining to women's diseases.--_n._ GYNOE'CIUM,
the collective pistils of a flower.

GYNECOCRACY, jin-[=e]-kok'ra-si, _n._ government by women--also
GYNOC'RACY.--_adj._ GYNECRAT'IC. [Gr. _gyn[=e]_, a woman, _kratein_, to

GYNECOLOGY, GYNÆCOLOGY, jin-[=e]-kol'-o-ji, _n._ that branch of medicine
which treats of the diseases and affections peculiar to woman and her
physical organism.--_adj._ GYNECOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ GYNECOL'OGIST. [Gr.
_gyn[=e]_, a woman, _legein_, to speak.]

GYNEOLATRY, j[=i]n[=e]-ol'at-ri, _n._ excessive worship of woman. [Gr.
_gyn[=e]_, a woman, _latreia_, worship.]

GYNOPHORE, jin'o-f[=o]r, _n._ (_bot._) an elongation or internode of the
receptacle of a flower.

GYP, jip, _n._ a male servant who attends to college rooms at Cambridge.
[Perh. a contr. from _gypsy_; hardly from Gr. _gyps_, a vulture.]

GYPSUM, jip'sum, _n._ a valuable mineral of a comparatively soft kind,
burned in kilns, and afterwards ground to a fine powder, called _plaster of
Paris_.--_adjs._ GYP'SEOUS, of or resembling gypsum; GYPSIF'EROUS,
producing or containing gypsum. [L.,--Gr. _gypsos_, chalk.]


GYRATE, j[=i]'r[=a]t, _v.i._ to whirl round a central point: to move
round.--_adj._ (_bot._) winding round.--_n._ GYR[=A]'TION, act of whirling
round a central point: a spiral motion.--_adjs._ GY'RATORY, GYR[=A]'TIONAL,
moving in a circle. [L. _gyr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to move in a circle.]

GYRE, j[=i]r, _n._ a circular motion.--_n._ GY'RA, the richly embroidered
border of a robe:--_pl._ GY'RÆ.--_adjs._ GY'RAL, whirling, rotating;
GYROID'AL, spiral in arrangement or movement. [L. _gyrus_--Gr. _gyros_, a
ring, round.]

GYRE-CARLIN, g[=i]r-kar'lin, _n._ (_Scot._) a witch. [Ice. _gýgr_, a witch,
_karlinna_, a carline.]


GYROMANCY, j[=i]'ro-man-si, _n._ divination by walking in a circle till
dizziness caused a fall towards one direction or another. [Gr. _gyros_, a
circle, _manteia_, divination.]

GYRON, GIRON, j[=i]'ron, _n._ (_her._) a bearing consisting of two straight
lines drawn from any given part of the field and meeting in an acute angle
in the fesse-point.--_adjs._ GYRONNET'TY, GYRON'NY, GIRON'NY. [Fr., acc. to
Skeat, from the Old High Ger. _gérun_, accus. of _géro_, a spear, _gér_;
cf. A.S. _gár_, a spear.]

GYROSCOPE, j[=i]'ro-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for the exhibition of
various properties of rotation, and the composition of rotations.--_adj._
GYROSCOP'IC. [Gr. _gyros_, a circle, _skopein_, to see.]

GYROSE, j[=i]'r[=o]s, _adj._ (_bot._) turned round like a crook.

GYROSTAT, j[=i]'r[=o]-stat, _n._ an instrument contrived for illustrating
the dynamics of rotating rigid bodies.--_adj._ GYROSTAT'IC. [Gr. _gyros_,
round, _statikos_, static.]

GYRUS, j[=i]'rus, _n._ one of the rounded edges into which the surface of
the cerebral hemisphere is divided by the fissures or sulci. [Gr. _gyros_,
a circle.]

GYTE, g[=i]t, _adj._ (_Scot._) crazy, mad.

GYTE, g[=i]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a child: a first year's boy at Edinburgh High
School. [Prob. a corr. of _get_, offspring.]

GYTRASH, g[=i]'trash, _n._ (_prov._) a ghost.

GYVE, j[=i]v, _v.t._ to fetter.--_n.pl._ GYVES, shackles, fetters. [M. E.
_gives_, _gyves._ Of Celt. origin; cf. W. _gefyn_, Ir. _geimheal._]

       *       *       *       *       *

H the eighth letter in our alphabet, its sound that of a strongly-marked
continuous guttural, produced at the back of the palate, not existing in
English, but heard in the Scotch _loch_ and the German _lachen_. In Old
English _h_ was a guttural, or throat sound, but it gradually softened down
to a spirant, and has now become almost a vowel: (_chem._) a symbol
denoting hydrogen: in medieval Roman notation=200, [=H]=200,000.

HA, hä, _interj._ denoting surprise, joy, or grief; and, when repeated,
laughter: in continued speech, often an involuntary sound expressive of
hesitation. [Imit.]

HA', haw, _n._ (_Scot._) hall.

HAAF, häf, _n._ a deep-sea fishing-ground off the coast of Shetland.--_n._
HAAF'-FISH'ING, deep-sea fishing, as for cod. [Ice. _haf_, sea.]

HAAR, här, _n._ (_Scot._) a fog.

HABBLE, häb'l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to perplex.--_v.i._ to stutter or
stammer.--_n._ a perplexity, a squabble. [_Hobble_.]

HABEAS-CORPUS (_ad subjiciendum_), h[=a]'be-as-kor'pus, _n._ a writ to a
jailer to produce the body of one detained in prison, and to state the
reasons of such detention.--_n._ HABEN'DUM, the clause in a deed beginning
'habendum et tenendum' ('to have and to hold'), which determines the
interest or estate granted by the deed. [L., lit. 'have the body,' from L.
_hab[=e]re_, to have, and _corpus_, the body.]

HABENARIA, hab-[=e]-n[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of tuberous orchidaceous
plants. [L. _habena_, a thong.]

HABERDASHER, hab'[.e]r-dash-[.e]r, _n._ a seller of small-wares, as
ribbons, tape, &c.--_n._ HAB'ERDASHERY, goods sold by a haberdasher. [O.
Fr. _hapertas_; ety. dub.; not Ice.]

HABERDINE, ha-ber-d[=i]n', _n._ (_obs._) dried salt cod. [Old Dut.
_abberdaan_, also _labberdaen_; prob. from Le _Labourd_, or _Lapurdum_

HABERGEON, ha-b[.e]r'je-un, _n._ a piece of armour to defend the neck and
breast. [Fr. _haubergeon_, dim. of O. Fr. _hauberc_.]

HABILE, hab'il, _adj._ (_obs._) able, capable. [Fr.,--L. _habilis._ See

HABILIMENT, ha-bil'i-ment, _n._ a garment: (_pl._) clothing,
dress.--_adjs._ HAB'ILABLE (_Carlyle_), capable of being clothed;
HABIL'ATORY, having reference to dressing. [Fr. _habillement_--_habiller_,
to dress--L. _habilis_, fit, ready--_hab[=e]re_.]

HABILITATION, ha-bil-i-t[=a]'shun, _n._ (_Bacon_) qualification: (_U.S._)
the act of supplying money to work a mine.--_n._ HABILIT[=A]'TOR, one who
does so.--_v.i._ HABIL'ITATE, to acquire certain necessary qualifications,
esp. for the office of teacher in a German university (Ger. _habilitiren_).
[Low L. _habilitation -em_--L. _habilis_, able.]

HABILITY, ha-bil'i-ti, _n._ an obsolete form of _ability_.

HABIT, hab'it, _n._ ordinary course of conduct: tendency to perform certain
actions: general condition or tendency, as of the body: practice: custom:
outward appearance: dress, esp. any official or customary costume: a
garment, esp. a tight-fitting dress, with a skirt, worn by ladies on
horseback.--_v.t._ to dress:--_pr.p._ hab'iting; _pa.p._ hab'ited.--_adj._
HAB'ITED, clothed, dressed.--_ns._ HAB'IT-MAK'ER, one who makes women's
riding-habits; HAB'IT-SHIRT, a thin muslin or lace under-garment worn by
women on the neck and shoulders, under the dress.--_adj._ HABIT'[=U]AL,
formed or acquired by frequent use: customary.--_adv._
HABIT'[=U]ALLY.--_v.t._ HABIT'[=U][=A]TE, to cause to acquire a habit: to
accustom.--_ns._ HABIT[=U][=A]'TION; HAB'IT[=U]DE, tendency from acquiring
a habit: usual manner; HABITUÉ (hab-it'[=u]-[=a]), a habitual frequenter of
any place of entertainment, &c.--HABIT AND REPUTE, a phrase in Scotch law
to denote something so notorious that it affords strong and generally
conclusive evidence of the facts to which it refers; HABIT OF BODY, the
general condition of the body as outwardly apparent: any constitutional
tendency or weakness. [Fr.,--L. _habitus_, state, dress--_hab[=e]re_, to

HABITABLE, hab'it-a-bl, _adj._ that may be dwelt in.--_ns._ HABITABIL'ITY,
HAB'ITABLENESS.--_adv._ HAB'ITABLY.--_ns._ HAB'ITANT, an inhabitant;
HAB'ITAT, the natural abode or locality of an animal or plant: place of
abode generally; HABIT[=A]'TION, act of inhabiting: a dwelling or
residence: a group, lodge, company, as of the so-called 'Primrose League.'
[Fr.,--L. _habitabilis_--_habit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to inhabit, freq. of
_hab[=e]re_, to have.]

HABLE, h[=a]'bl, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as HABILE.

HACHEL, hach'el, _n._ (_Scot._) a sloven.

HACHURE, hash'[=u]r, _n._ Same as HATCHING.

HACIENDA, as-i-en'da, _n._ an estate or establishment. [Sp.,--L.
_facienda_, things to be done, _fac[)e]re_, to do.]

HACK, hak, _v.t._ to cut: to chop or mangle: to notch: to kick (another) at
football.--_n._ a cut made by hacking: a kick on the shin.--_n._ HACK'ING,
the operation of picking a worn grindstone, &c., with a
hack-hammer.--_adj._ short and interrupted, as a broken, troublesome
cough.--_n._ HACK'-LOG, a chopping-block. [A.S. _haccian_, in composition
_tó-haccian_; cf. Dut. _hakken_, Ger. _hacken._]

HACK, hak, _n._ a horse kept for hire, esp. a poor one: any person
overworked on hire: a literary drudge.--_adj._ hired, mercenary: used
up.--_v.t._ to offer for hire: to use roughly.--_n._ HACK'-WORK, literary
drudgery for which a person is hired by a publisher, as making
dictionaries, &c. [Contr. of _hackney_.]

HACK, hak, _n._ a grated frame, as a rack for feeding cattle, a place for
drying bricks, &c. [_Hatch_.]

HACKBERRY, hak'ber-i, _n._ an American tree, allied to the elm. [See

HACKBUT, hak'but, _n._ an arquebuse--also HAG'BUT.--_n._ HACKBUTEER'. [O.
Fr. _haquebute_, from Dut. _haakbus._ See ARQUEBUSE.]

HACKEE, hak'[=e], _n._ the United States chipmuck or ground-squirrel.

HACKERY, hak'er-i, _n._ a native bullock-cart. [Hind. _chhakr[=a]_, a

HACKLE, hak'l, _n._ an instrument with iron teeth for sorting hemp or flax:
any flimsy substance unspun: a feather in a cock's neck: part of the
dressing of a fly-hook used by anglers.--_v.t._ to dress with a hackle, as
flax: to tear rudely asunder.--_n._ HACK'LER, a flax-dresser,
heckler.--_adj._ HACK'LY, rough and broken, as if hacked or chopped:
(_min._) covered with sharp points. [Cf. Dut. _hekel_, Ger. _hechel_.]

HACKLET, hak'let, _n._ a kind of sea-bird, prob. the shear-water--also
HAG'LET.--The HAGDEN is the Greater Shear-water (_Puffinus major_).

HACKNEY, hak'ni, _n._ a horse for general use, esp. for hire: (_obs._) a
person hired for any mean work.--_v.t._ to carry in a hackney-coach: to use
much: to make commonplace.--_adjs._ HACK'NEY, HACK'NEYED, let out for hire:
devoted to common use: much used.--_ns._ HACK'NEY-COACH, a coach let out
for hire; HACK'NEY-COACH'MAN; HACK'NEYMAN, one who keeps hackney horses.
[O. Fr. _haquenee_, an ambling nag; further history unknown.]

HACQUETON (_Spens._). A form of _acton_.

HAD, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _have_: (_B._) held.--_ns._ HAD'DING, HAD'DIN
(_Scot._), a holding, residence.

HADDOCK, had'uk, _n._ a sea-fish of the cod family--(_Scot._) HADD'IE. [M.
E. _haddoke_; ety. unknown.]

HADE, h[=a]d, _n._ (_min._) the dip or underlie of a lode or fault.--_v.i._
to underlay or incline from the vertical.

HADES, h[=a]'d[=e]z, _n._ the unseen world: the abode of the dead
indefinitely, hell. [Gr. _haid[=e]s_, _had[=e]s_, dubiously derived from
_a_, neg., and _idein_, to see.]

HADITH, had'ith, _n._ the body of traditions about Mohammed, supplementary
to the Koran. [Ar.]

HADJ, HAJJ, haj, _n._ a Mohammedan pilgrimage to Mecca or Medina.--_ns._
HADJI, HAJJI (haj'i), one who has performed a Hadj. [Ar., 'a pilgrimage.']

HADROSAURUS, had-r[=o]-sä'rus, _n._ a very large Dinosaurian of the
Cretaceous epoch--abundant in New Jersey. [Gr. _hadros_, thick, _sauros_, a

HAE, h[=a], a Scotch form of _have._

HÆCCEITY, hek-s[=e]'i-ti, h[=e]k-, _n._ Duns Scotus's word for that element
of existence on which individuality depends, hereness-and-nowness. [Lit.
'thisness,' L. _hæc_.]

HÆMACYTE, HEM-, h[=e]'ma-s[=i]t, _n._ a blood-corpuscle.--_n._
HÆMACYTOM'ETER, an instrument for determining the number of such in a given
quantity of blood.

HÆMADYNAMICS, HEM-, h[=e]-ma-di-nam'iks, _n._ the dynamics or theory of the
circulation of the blood.

HÆMAL, HEMAL, h[=e]'mal, _adj._ relating to the blood or blood-vessels:
ventral, the opposite of _Neural_.--_n._ HÆ'MACHROME, the colouring matter
of the blood.--_adj._ HÆ'MATOID, resembling blood.--HÆMAL ARCH, the
position of a vertebra enclosing and protecting the heart and other
viscera; HÆMAL CAVITY, the thoracic-abdominal cavity, containing the heart,
&c. [Gr. _haima_, blood.]

HÆMANTHUS, h[=e]-man'thus, _n._ a genus of bulbous plants native to Africa,
including the Cape tulip. [Gr. _haima_, blood, _anthos_, a flower.]

HÆMASTATIC, HEM-, -AL, h[=e]-ma-stat'ik, -al, _adj._ serving to stop the
flow of blood.--_n.pl._ HÆMASTAT'ICS, the statics of the blood and
blood-vessels. [Gr. _haima_, blood, _statikos_, static.]

HÆMATEIN, HEM-, h[=e]-ma-t[=e]'in, _n._ an organic principle derived from
the colouring matter of logwood.

HÆMATEMESIS, h[=e]-ma-tem'e-sis, _n._ a vomiting of blood from the stomach.
[Gr. _haima_, _haimat-os_, blood, _emein_, to vomit.]

HÆMATIN, HEM-, h[=e]'ma-tin, hem'a-tin, _n._ a brown substance associated
with hemoglobin in the blood.--_adjs._ HÆMAT'IC, HÆ'MIC--_n.pl._ HÆMAT'ICS,
that branch of medical science concerned with the blood.

HÆMATITE, HEM-, hem'a-t[=i]t, h[=e]'ma-t[=i]t, _n._ (_min._) a valuable ore
of iron, consisting chiefly of peroxide of iron--its two chief varieties,
Red Hæmatite and Brown Hæmatite.--_adj._ HÆMATIT'IC.

HÆMATOBLAST, h[=e]'ma-to-blast, hem'-, _n._ one of the minute colourless
discs, smaller than either the red or white corpuscles, found in the blood.
[Gr. _haima_, _haimat-os_, blood, _blastos_, a germ.]

HÆMATOCELE, HEM-, h[=e]'ma-to-s[=e]l, _n._ a tumour containing blood. [Gr.
_haima_, blood, _k[=e]l[=e]_, a tumour.]

HÆMATOLOGY, h[=e]-ma-tol'o-ji, _n._ the branch of biology which relates to
the blood.

HÆMATOSIS, h[=e]-ma-t[=o]'sis, _n._ the formation of blood, the conversion
of venous into arterial blood.--_n._ HÆMAT[=O]'SIN, hæmatin.

HÆMATOXYLIN, HEM-, h[=e]-ma-tok'si-lin, _n._ a dye obtained from the
logwood-tree. [Gr. _haima_, blood, _xylon_, wood.]

HÆMATOZOA, h[=e]-ma-to-z[=o]'a, _n._ parasites occurring in the blood. [Gr.
_haima_, _haimat-os_, blood, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

HÆMATURIA, h[=e]-ma-t[=u]'ri-a, _n._ the discharge of blood with the urine,
usually from disease of the kidneys or bladder. [Gr. _haima_, blood,
_ouron_, urine.]

HÆMOGLOBIN, HEM-, h[=e]-mo-gl[=o]'bin, _n._ the red substance in the red
blood-corpuscles. [Gr. _haima_, blood, L. _globus_, a ball.]

HÆMONY, h[=e]'mo-ni, _n._ a plant with sovereign properties against magic,
&c., in Milton's _Comus_. [Prob. formed from Gr. _haim[=o]nios_,

HÆMOPHILIA, h[=e]-mo-fil'i-a, hem-o-, _n._ a constitutional tendency to
excessive bleeding when any blood-vessel is even slightly injured.

HÆMOPHTHALMIA, h[=e]-mof-thal'mi-a, _n._ effusion of blood into the eye.
[Gr. _haima_, blood, _ophthalmos_, the eye.]

HÆMOPTYSIS, h[=e]-mop'ti-sis, _n._ expectoration of blood. [Gr. _haima_,
blood, _ptysis_, a spitting.]

HÆMORRHAGE, HEM-, hem'or-[=a]j, _n._ a discharge of blood from the
blood-vessels.--_adj._ HÆMORRHAG'IC. [Gr. _haimorrhagia_--_haima_, blood,
_rh[=e]gnynai_, to burst.]

HÆMORRHOIDS, HEM-, hem'or-oidz, _n.pl._ dilated veins liable to discharge
blood, esp. piles.--_adj._ HÆMORRHOID'AL. [Gr. _haimorrhoides_--_haima_,
blood, _rhein_, to flow.]

HÆMOSTASIA, h[=e]-mo-st[=a]'si-a, _n._ stagnation of blood in any part: any
operation for arresting the flow of blood, as the ligation of an
artery.--_adj._ HÆMOSTAT'IC, stopping or preventing hæmorrhage, styptic.
[Gr. _haima_, blood, _stasis_, a standing.]

HAET, HAIT, h[=a]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a whit.

HAFFET, haf'et, _n._ (_Scot._) the side of the head, the temples. [Prob.
_half-head_--A.S. _healf-héafod_.]

HAFFLIN, haf'lin, _adj._ (_Scot._) half-grown.--_n._ a fool.

HAFT, haft, _n._ a handle.--_v.t._ to set in a haft: to establish firmly.
[A.S. _hæft_; Ger. _heft_.]

HAG, hag, _n._ an ugly old woman, originally a witch: one of the Round
Mouths, allied to the lamprey.--_adj._ HAG'GISH, hag-like.--_adv._
HAG'GISHLY.--_adj._ HAG'-RID'DEN, ridden by witches, as a horse: troubled
by nightmare.--_ns._ HAG'-SEED, a witch's offspring; HAG'SHIP, the
personality of a hag; HAG'WEED, the common broom, a broomstick being
usually bestridden by a witch in her flight through the air. [A.S.
_hægtesse_, a witch; Ger. _hexe_.]

HAG, hag, _n._ (_Scot._) any broken ground in a moss or bog: brushwood to
be cut down.

HAGBERRY, hag'ber-i, _n._ the bird-cherry--sometimes HACK'BERRY. [Prob.
Scand.; Ice. _heggr_.]



HAGGADA, ha-gä'da, _n._ a free Rabbinical homiletical commentary on the
whole Old Testament, forming, together with the _Halacha_, the Midrash, but
from its especial popularity often itself styled the Midrash--also
HAGGÄ'DAH, AGÄ'DAH.--_adjs._ HAGGAD'IC, HAGGADIST'IC, pertaining to the
Haggada, said of free interpretation, opposed to _Halachic_ or legal.--_n._

HAGGARD, hag'ard, _adj._ lean: hollow-eyed: wild, applied to an untrained
hawk--(_arch._) HAGG'ED.--_n._ HAGG'ARD, a hawk.--_adv._ HAGG'ARDLY. [O.
Fr. _hagard_, prob. related to _haie_, hedge.]

HAGGARD, hag'ard, _n._ a stackyard. [_Hay-yard_.]

HAGGIS, hag'is, _n._ a Scotch dish made of the heart, lungs, and liver of a
sheep, calf, &c., chopped up with suet, onions, oatmeal, &c., seasoned and
boiled in a sheep's stomach-bag. [Ety. unknown; not Fr. _hachis_, hash,
assimilated with _hag_, _hack._]

HAGGLE, hag'l, _v.t._ to cut unskilfully: to mangle.--_v.i._ to be slow and
hard in making a bargain: to stick at trifles, to cavil.--_n._ HAGG'LER. [A
variant of _hackle_, itself a freq. of _hack_, to cut.]

HAGIARCHY, h[=a]'ji-ar-ki, _n._ government by priests.--Also HAGIOC'RACY.
[Gr. _hagios_, sacred, _arch[=e]_, rule.]

HAGIOGRAPHA, hag-i-og'ra-fa, _n.pl._ the last of the three Jewish divisions
of the Old Testament, comprehending the books of Psalms, Proverbs, Job,
Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Ruth, Esther, Chronicles, Canticles, Lamentations,
Ecclesiastes.--_adj._ HAGIOG'RAPHAL.--_n._ HAGIOG'RAPHER, one of the
writers of the Hagiographa: a sacred writer.--_adjs._ HAGIOGRAPH'IC, -AL,
pertaining to the Hagiographa. [Gr. _hagiographa_ (_biblia_)--_hagios_,
holy, _graphein_, to write.]

HAGIOLOGY, hag-i-ol'o-ji, _n._ history of saints.--_n._ HAGIOG'RAPHER, a
writer of saints' lives.--_adjs._ HAGIOGRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to the
writing of saints' lives.--_ns._ HAGIOG'RAPHY, the lives of saints as a
branch of literature; HAGIOL'ATER, one who worships saints; HAGIOL'ATRY,
the worship of saints.--_adjs._ HAGIOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ HAGIOL'OGIST, one
versed in the legends of saints. [Gr. _hagios_, holy, _logia_, discourse.]

HAGIOSCOPE, hag'-, or h[=a]'ji-o-sk[=o]p, _n._ an oblique opening in the
screen or chancel wall of a church to afford a view of the chief altar to
those in a side chapel or aisle, a squint.--_adj._ HAGIOSCOP'IC. [Gr.
_hagios_, holy, _skopein_, to look.]

HAH, hä, _interj._ Same as HA.

HA-HA, imitation of the sound of laughter.

HA-HA, HAWHAW, haw-haw', _n._ a sunk fence, or a ditch not seen till close
upon it.

HAHNEMANNIAN, hä-ne-man'i-an, _adj._ of or relating to C. F. S. _Hahnemann_
(1755-1843), founder of the homeopathic method of treatment.

HAIDUK, h[=i]'duk, _n._ one of those, from the forests of eastern Hungary,
who in the 16th century maintained a guerilla warfare against the Turks.
[Hung. _hajduk_, pl. of _hajdu_, a cowherd.]

HAIK, haik, _n._ an oblong piece of cloth which Arabs wrap round the head
and body.--Also HAICK, HAIQUE, HYKE.

HAIKH, haih, _n._ a branch of the Iranic group of Aryan languages,
including Armenian and Ossetian: the native name of Armenia.--_adj._

HAIL, h[=a]l, _v.t._ to greet: to call to, at a distance: to address one
passing.--_n._ a call: greeting.--_interj._ or _imper._ (_lit._) may you be
in health.--_n._ HAIL'-FELL'OW, a familiar friend.--_adj._ on hearty and
intimate terms--'Hail, fellow! well met,' often used as a kind of
descriptive adjective.--HAIL FROM, to come from. [Ice. _heill_, health.]

HAIL, h[=a]l, _n._ frozen rain or particles of ice falling from the
clouds.--_v.i._ to rain hail.--_v.t._ to pour down in rapid
succession.--_ns._ HAIL'SHOT, small shot which scatters like hail;
HAIL'STONE, a single stone or ball of hail; HAIL'-STORM, a storm
accompanied with hail.--_adj._ HAIL'Y. [A.S. _hagol_; Ger. _hagel_.]

HAIN, h[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to save, preserve: to spare.--_adj._ HAINED,
saved, kept carefully.--_n._ HAIN'ING, an enclosure. [Ice. _hegna_, to
protect; cf. Sw. _hägna_; Dan. _hegne_.]

HAIN'T, HAINT=have not, has not.

HAIR, h[=a]r, _n._ a filament growing from the skin of an animal: the whole
mass of hairs which forms a covering for the head or the whole body:
(_bot._) minute hair-like processes on the cuticle of plants: anything very
small and fine: particular course, quality, or character: (_mech._) a
locking spring or other safety contrivance in the lock of a rifle, &c.,
capable of being released by a slight pressure on a hair-trigger.--_ns._
very narrow escape): a very small distance; HAIR'-BRUSH, a brush for the
hair; HAIR'CLOTH, cloth made partly or entirely of hair; HAIR'DRESSER, one
who dresses or cuts hair: a barber.--_adj._ HAIRED, having hair--as
_black-haired_, _fair-haired_, &c.--_ns._ HAIR'-GRASS, a kind of grass
found generally on poor soil, the bracts of whose florets are generally
awned near the base; HAIR'INESS.--_adj._ HAIR'LESS, without hair.--_ns._
HAIR'-LINE, a line made of hair, used in fishing: a slender line made in
writing or drawing: (_print._) a very thin line on a type; HAIR'-OIL,
perfumed oil used in dressing the hair; HAIR'-PEN'CIL, an artist's brush
made of a few fine hairs; HAIR'-PIN, a pin used in hairdressing;
HAIR'-POW'DER, a white powder for dusting the hair; HAIR'-SHIRT, a
penitent's shirt of haircloth; HAIR'-SPACE, the thinnest metal space used
by compositors; HAIR'-SPLIT'TER, one who makes too nice distinctions;
HAIR'-SPLIT'TING, the art of making minute and over-nice distinctions;
HAIR'SPRING, a very fine hair-like spring coiled up within the
balance-wheel of a watch; HAIR'-STROKE, in writing, a fine stroke with the
pen: a hair-line; HAIR'-TRIGG'ER, a trigger which discharges a gun or
pistol by a hair-like spring; HAIR'-WORK, work done or something made with
hair, esp. human; HAIR'WORM, a worm, like a horse-hair, which lives in the
bodies of certain insects.--_adj._ HAIR'Y, of or resembling hair: covered
with hair.--AGAINST THE HAIR, against the grain: contrary to what is
natural; A HAIR OF THE DOG THAT BIT HIM, a smaller dose of that which
caused the trouble, esp. used of the morning glass after a night's
debauch--a homeopathic dose; COMB A PERSON'S HAIR THE WRONG WAY, to
irritate or provoke him; KEEP ONE'S HAIR ON (_slang_) to keep cool; MAKE
THE HAIR STAND ON END, to give the greatest astonishment or fright to
another; NOT TO TURN A HAIR, not to be ruffled or disturbed; PUT UP THE
HAIR, to dress the hair up on the head instead of wearing it hanging; SPLIT
HAIRS, to make superfine distinctions; TO A HAIR, TO THE TURN OF A HAIR,
exactly, with perfect nicety. [A.S. _h['æ]r_, Ger., Dut., and Dan. _haar_,

HAIRST, h[=a]rst, a Scotch form of _harvest_.

HAITH, h[=a]th, _interj._ (_Scot._) by my faith!


HAKE, h[=a]k, _n._ a gadoid fish resembling the cod--varieties are the
_Silver Hake_, the _Merluccio_, the _Squirrel-hake_, &c.--_ns._ H[=A]'KED,
HAC'OT (_prov._), the pike (A.S. _hacod_; Ger. _hecht_). [Prob. Scand.; cf.
Norw. _hake-fisk_, lit. 'hook-fish.']

HAKE, h[=a]k, _n._ (_prov._) a hook, esp. a pot-hook: a pike. [Prob. Ice.
_haki_; cf. Dut. _haak_.]

HAKE, h[=a]k, _v.i._ to idle or loiter about. [Cf. Dut. _haken_, to

HAKEEM, HAKIM, ha-k[=e]m', _n._ a physician. [Ar.]

HAKIM, h[=a]'kim, _n._ a judge or governor in Mohammedan India.

HALACHAH, HALAKAH, HALACHA, ha-lak'ä, _n._ an amplification of points not
explicitly set forth in the Mosaic law, deduced from it by analogy, and
arranged in the collection of legal precepts designated
_Halachoth_.--_adj._ HALACH'IC, pertaining to halachoth, legal as opposed
to homiletic or haggadic. [Heb.,--_h[=a]lak_, to walk.]

HALATION, ha-l[=a]'shun, _n._ a _halo_-like appearance in a photograph,
caused by reflection of light.

HALBERD, hal'b[.e]rd, _n._ a weapon consisting of a wooden shaft some six
feet long, surmounted by an axe-like instrument balanced on the opposite
side by a hook or pick.--_n._ HALBERDIER', one armed with a halberd. [O.
Fr. _halebard_--Mid. High Ger. _helmbarde_ (Ger. _hellebarde_)--_halm_,
handle, or _helm_, helmet; Old High Ger. _barta_ (Ger. _barte_), an axe.]

HALCYON, hal'si-un, _n._ the kingfisher, once believed to make a floating
nest on the sea, which remained calm while it was hatching.--_adj._ calm:
peaceful: happy--hence HALCYON-DAYS, a time of peace and happiness.
[L.,--Gr., _alky[=o]n_; as if _hals_, the sea, _kyein_, to conceive.]

HALD, a Scotch form of _hold_.

HALE, h[=a]l, _adj._ healthy: robust: sound of body.--_n._ (_Spens._)
welfare.--_n._ HALE'NESS. [Northern A.S. _hál_; the S. forms _hôl_, _hool_,
produce _whole_. There is a parallel N. form from Norse _heill_.]

HALE, h[=a]l, _v.t._ to drag. [A variant of _haul_.]

HALF, häf, _n._ one of two equal parts: a contraction of half-year, as in a
school session:--_pl._ HALVES (hävz).--_adj._ having or consisting of one
of two equal parts: being in part: incomplete, as measures.--_adv._ in an
equal part or degree: in part: imperfectly.--_v.i._ to divide into two
equal parts.--_ns._ HALF'-AND-HALF, a mixture of beer or porter and ale;
HALF'-BACK, in football, a position on the right or left side of the field,
between the quarter-back and full-back, or directly behind the forwards: a
player occupying this position.--_adj._ HALF'-BAKED, underdone: incomplete:
half-witted.--_v.t._ HALF'-BAPTISE', to baptise privately and
hastily.--_ns._ HALF'-BIND'ING, a style of bookbinding in which the backs
and corners are of leather, and the sides of paper or cloth; HALF'-BLOOD,
relation between those who are of the same father or mother, but not of
both.--_adj._ HALF'-BLOOD'ED.--_ns._ HALF'-BOARD (_naut._), a manoeuvre by
which a sailing-ship gains distance to windward by luffing up into the
wind; HALF'-BOOT, a boot reaching half-way to the knee.--_adj._
HALF'-BOUND, bound only partly in leather, as a book.--_n._ HALF'-BREED,
one that is half-blooded.--_adj._ HALF'-BRED, half or not well bred or
trained: wanting in refinement.--_ns._ HALF'-BROTH'ER, HALF'-SIS'TER, a
brother or sister by one parent only; HALF'-CAP (_Shak._), a cap only
partly taken off: a slight salute; HALF'-CASTE, a person one of whose
parents belongs to a Hindu caste, and the other is a European: any
half-breed; HALF'-CHEEK (_Shak._), a face in profile; HALF'-COCK, the
position of the cock of a gun when retained by the first notch (see COCK);
HALF'-CROWN, a silver coin in England, of the value of two shillings and
sixpence.--_adj._ HALF'-DEAD, almost dead, nearly exhausted.--_n._
HALF'-DOLL'AR, a silver coin of the United States, worth 50 cents.--_adj._
HALF'-DONE, not fully cooked, roasted, &c.--_n._ HALF'-DOZ'EN,
six.--_adjs._ HALF'-ED'UCATED, imperfectly educated; HALF'EN (_Spens._),
half.--_adv._ HALF'ENDEAL (_Spens._), half.--_adjs._ HALF'-FACED (_Shak._),
showing only part of the face: wretched-looking; HALF'-HEART'ED, cold,
ungenerous: lukewarm: indifferent.--_adv._ HALF'-HEART'EDLY.--_ns._
HALF'-HEART'EDNESS; HALF'-HOLIDAY, half of a working day for recreation;
HALF'-KIR'TLE, a kind of jacket worn by women in the 16th and 17th
centuries; HALF'-LENGTH, a portrait or photograph showing the upper part of
the body.--_adj._ of half-length.--_ns._ HALF'LING, a half-grown person,
between a boy and a man; HALF'-MAST, the position of a flag lowered
half-way down, in respect for the dead or in signal of distress;
HALF'-MEAS'URE, any means inadequate for the end proposed; HALF'-MOON, the
moon at the quarters when but half of it is illuminated: anything
semicircular; HALF'-MOURN'ING, a mourning costume less than deep or full
mournings.--_adj._ HALF'-N[=A]'KED, as nearly naked as clothed.--_ns._
HALF'-NOTE (_mus._), a minim, being one-half of a semibreve or whole note;
HALF'-ONE (_golf_), a handicap of one stroke every second hole; HALF'-PAY,
reduced pay, as of naval or military officers when not in active
service.--_adj._ receiving half-pay.--_ns._ HALFPENNY (h[=a]'pen-i), a
copper coin worth half a penny: the value of half a penny: (_Shak._)
anything very small:--_pl._ HALFPENCE (h[=a]'pens); HALF'PENNYWORTH, the
worth or value of a halfpenny; HALF'-PIKE, a pike with a shaft only half
the length of the ordinary; HALF'-PRICE, a reduced charge of admission,
&c.--_adj._ at half the usual prices.--_adj._ HALF'-ROUND (_Milt._),
semicircular.--_ns._ HALF'-ROY'AL, a special kind of millboard or
pasteboard; HALF'-SHELL, one-half of a bivalve, as in oysters 'on the
half-shell.'--_adj._ HALF'-SIGHT'ED, short-sighted.--_n._ HALF'-SOV'EREIGN,
an English gold coin, worth ten shillings.--_adj._ HALF'-STARVED, having
insufficient food.--_ns._ HALF'-SUIT, the body armour of the 17th century;
HALF'-SWORD (_Shak._), fight within half a sword's length: close fight;
HALF'-TIDE, the tide half-way between flood and ebb.--_adj._ left dry at
half-tide.--_ns._ HALF'-TIM'ER, one who works only half the usual time,
esp. a pupil in an elementary school allowed to be absent half the
school-day at some employment; HALF'-TINT, an intermediate tint;
HALF'-T[=I]'TLE, a short title of a book at the head of the first page of
the text, or a title of any subdivision of a book when printed in a full
page; HALF'-TRUTH, a statement conveying only part of the truth.--_adv._
HALF'-WAY, at half the way or distance: imperfectly.--_adj._ equally
distant from two points.--_adjs._ HALF'-WIT'TED, weak in intellect;
HALF'-YEAR'LY, occurring at every half-year or twice in a year.--_adv._
twice in a year.--_n._ BETT'ER-HALF, a wife.--HALF-SEAS-OVER,
half-drunk.--NOT HALF, to a very slight extent: (_slang_) not at all.--CRY
HALVES, to claim a half-share; GO HALVES, to share equally with a person.
[A.S. _healf_ (Ger. _halb_, Dan. _halv_); original meaning 'side.']

HALIBUT, hal'i-but, _n._ the largest kind of flat-fishes, in form more
elongated than the flounder or the turbot.--Also HOL'IBUT. [M. E. _hali_,
holy, and _butte_, a flounder, plaice, the fish being much eaten on fast or
holy days; cf. Dut. _heilbot_, Ger. _heilbutt_.]

HALICORE, hal-ik'o-ri, _n._ a dugong.

HALIDOM, hal'i-dom, _n._ (_Spens._) holiness--used chiefly as an oath.
[A.S. _hálig_, holy, and affix _-dom_.]

HALIEUTICS, hal-i-[=u]'tiks, _n._ a treatise on fishes or fishing.
[L.,--Gr.,_--hals_, the sea.]

HALIOTIS, hal-i-[=o]'tis, _n._ a genus of univalve shells, the ear-shells,
supplying mother-of-pearl.--_adj._ HAL'IOTOID. [Gr. _hals_, sea, _ous_,
_[=o]tis_, ear.]

HALITUS, hal'i-tus, _n._ a vapour.--_adj._ HALIT'UOUS. [L.]

HALL, hawl, _n._ a large room or passage at the entrance of a house: a
large chamber for public business--for meetings, or for the sale of
particular goods: an edifice in which courts of justice are held: a
manor-house: the main building of a college, and in some cases, as at
Oxford and Cambridge, the specific name of a college itself: an unendowed
college: a licensed residence for students: the great room in which the
students dine together--hence also the dinner itself: a place for special
professional education, or for conferring professional degrees or licenses,
as a Divinity Hall, Apothecaries' Hall.--_ns._ HALL'AGE, toll paid for
goods sold in a hall; HALL'-DOOR, the front door of a house.--A HALL! A
HALL! a cry at a mask or the like for room for the dance, &c.; BACHELOR'S
HALL, a place free from the restraining presence of a wife; LIBERTY HALL, a
place where every one can do as he pleases. [A.S. _heall_; Dut. _hal_, Ice.
_holl_, &c.]

HALLAN, hal'an, _n._ (_Scot._) a partition to keep out the cold between the
door of a cottage and the fireplace.--_n._ HALLANSH[=A]K'ER, a sturdy

HALLELUJAH, HALLELUIAH, hal-e-l[=oo]'ya, _n._ the exclamation 'Praise (ye)
the Lord' (Jah or Jehovah), which occurs in many songs and anthems: a song
of praise to God, a musical composition based on the word, as the
Hallelujah (chorus) in Handel's _Messiah_.--_n._ HALLEL (hal-el', hal'el),
the hymn of praise chanted during the Passover supper, consisting of Psalms
cxiii.-cxviii. inclusive. [Heb., 'Praise ye Jehovah,' _halelu_, praise ye,
and _J[=a]h_, Jehovah.]


HALLION, hal'yon, _n._ a lazy rascal.--Also HALL'IAN, HALL'YON.

HALL-MARK, hawl'-märk, _n._ the authorised impression of certain symbols
made on articles of gold and silver at the various assay offices in the
United Kingdom to indicate their true value and the fineness of the metal:
any mark of genuineness or good quality.--_v.t._ to assay and mark

HALLOO, hal-l[=oo]', _n._ a hunting cry: a cry to draw attention.--_v.i._
to cry after dogs: to raise an outcry.--_v.t._ to encourage or chase with
shouts.--_interjs._ HALLO'! HALLOA'! used to call attention.--HALLOO BEFORE
ONE IS OUT OF THE WOOD, to count on safety before one is out of danger.
[Imit., A.S. _éalá_.]

HALLOW, hal'[=o], _v.t._ to make holy: to set apart for religious use: to
reverence.--_n._ a saint.--_ns._ HALL'OWE'EN, the evening before
All-Hallows or All-Saints' Day; HALL'OWMAS, the Feast of All-Saints, 1st
November. [A.S. _hálgian_--_hálig_, holy.]

HALLUCINATION, hal-l[=u]-sin-[=a]'shun, _n._ error: delusion: the
perception of things that do not externally exist.--_v.i._ HALL[=U]'CINATE,
to suffer illusion.--_adjs._ HALL[=U]'CINATIVE, HALL[=U]'CINATORY,
partaking of or tending to produce hallucination. [L.
_hallucinationem_--_alucin[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to wander in mind.]

HALLUX, hal'uks, _n._ the first or innermost digit of the foot, the great
toe. [L. _allex_.]

HALM, HAULM, hawm, _n._ the stalk of any kind of grain. [A.S. _healm_; Ger.

HALMA, hal'ma, _n._ a game played on a checkered board of 256 squares, by
two or four persons, with thirteen to nineteen men each--also _Hoppity_: in
the Greek pentathlon the long jump with weights in the hands.
[Gr.,--_hallesthai_, to leap.]

HALMATURUS, hal-ma-t[=u]'rus, _n._ a genus of kangaroos.

HALO, h[=a]'l[=o], _n._ a luminous circle round the sun or moon, due to the
presence of ice-crystals in the air: (_paint._) the bright ring round the
heads of saints, hence any ideal or sentimental glory attaching to a
thing:--_pl._ HALOS (h[=a]'l[=o]z).--_v.t._ to surround with a halo.--_n._
HAL'OSCOPE, an instrument exhibiting the phenomena connected with halos,
parhelia, &c. [L. _halos_--Gr. _hal[=o]s_, threshing-floor.]

HALOGEN, hal'o-jen, _n._ a substance which by combination with a metal
forms a saline compound.--_adjs._ HALOG'ENOUS; HA'LOID, like
sea-salt.--_ns._ HAL'OMANCY, divination by means of salt; HAL'OPHYTE, the
salt-wort, found in salt-marshes, &c. [Gr. _hals_, salt, _gen[=e]s_,

HALSE, hawls, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to clasp round the neck, to embrace.--_n._
(_obs._) the neck, throat--(_Scot._) HAWSE. [A.S. _heals_, neck; Ger.

HALSER, hawz'[.e]r, _n._ See HAWSER.

HALT, hawlt, _v.i._ to stop from going on: (_mil._) to stop in a
march.--_v.t._ to stop.--_n._ (_mil._) a stop in marching. [Orig. a Ger.
military term, _halt_, stoppage.]

HALT, hawlt, _n._ a halting or limping.--_adj._ lame, crippled,
limping.--_v.i._ to be lame, to limp: to walk unsteadily: to vacillate: to
proceed lamely or imperfectly, to be at fault, as in logic, rhythm,
&c.--_ns._ HALT'ING; HALT'ING-PLACE. [A.S. _halt_, _healt_; Dan. and Sw.

HALTER, hawlt'[.e]r, _n._ a head-rope for holding and leading a horse: a
rope for hanging criminals: a strong strap or cord.--_v.t._ to catch or
bind with a rope. [A.S. _hælftre_; Ger. _halfter_.]

HALVE, häv, _v.t._ to divide into halves or two equal parts: to join two
pieces of timber by notching or lapping.--_adj._ HALVED, divided into
halves: (_bot._) appearing as if one side were cut away.--_n.pl._ HALVES
(see HALF).

HALYARD, HALLIARD, hal'yard, _n._ (_naut._) a rope or purchase for hoisting
or lowering a sail, yard, or flag, named from their use or position, as
'peak-halyards,' 'signal-halyards,' &c. [Skeat explains it as _hale_ and
_yard_; more prob. merely _hale-ier_.]

HAM, ham, _n._ the back of the thigh: the thigh of an animal, esp. of a hog
salted and dried. [A.S. _hamm_; cf. dial. Ger. _hamme_.]

HAMADRYAD, ham'a-dr[=i]-ad, _n._ (_myth._) a wood-nymph who lived and died
with the tree in which she dwelt:--_pl._ HAM'ADRYADS, HAMADRY'ADES
(-[=e]z). [Gr. _hamadryas_--_hama_, together, _drys_, a tree.]

HAMARTHRITIS, ham-ar-thr[=i]'tis, _n._ gout in all the joints. [Gr. _hama_,
together, _arthritis_, gout.]

HAMARTIALOGY, ham-ar-ti-al'o-ji, _n._ that section of theology which treats
of the nature and effects of sin. [Gr. _hamartia_, sin, _logia_,

HAMATE, h[=a]'m[=a]t, _adj._ hooked, uncinate.--_adj._ HAM'IFORM, hamate.

HAMBLE, ham'bl, _v.t._ to mutilate, to cut out the balls of a dog's feet,
making him useless for hunting.--_v.i._ to walk lame, to limp. [A.S.

HAMBURG, ham'burg, _n._ a black variety of grape--often _Black Hamburg_: a
small-sized variety of the domestic fowl, with blue legs, including the
_Black_, _Gold-_ and _Silver-pencilled_, and _Gold-_ and _Silver-spangled

HAME, h[=a]m, _n._ one of the two curved bars to which the traces are
attached in the harness of a draught-horse. [Cf. Dut. _haam_, Low Ger.

HAMESUCKEN, h[=a]m'suk-n, _n._ (_Scots law_) the assaulting of a man in his
own house. [A.S. _hám-sócn_, lit. 'home seeking,' an attack upon a house,
also the fine exacted for such; cf. Ger. _heimsuchung_.]

HAMILTONIAN, ham-il-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to James _Hamilton_
(1769-1831), or his method of teaching languages without grammar, by a
literal interlinear word-for-word translation: pertaining to the philosophy
of Sir W. _Hamilton_ (1788-1856).

HAMITIC, ham-it'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Ham_, a son of Noah, or the races
that used to be called his descendants, or their languages.--_n.pl._
HAM'ITES, a physical and linguistic group, stretching across the north of
Africa--the African branch of the Caucasic family--comprising Berbers, the
Fellahin, &c.

HAMLET, ham'let, _n._ a cluster of houses in the country: a small
village.--_adj._ HAM'LETED, located in a hamlet. [O. Fr. _hamel_ (Fr.
_hameau_), and dim. affix _-et_--from Teut., Old Fris. _ham_, a home, Ger.
_heim_, A.S. _hám_, a dwelling.]

HAMMAL, ham'al, _n._ a Turkish porter.

HAMMAM, ham'am, _n._ an Oriental bathing establishment, a Turkish
bath.--Also HUM'MAUM, HUM'MUM. [Ar.]


HAMMER, ham'[.e]r, _n._ a tool for beating metal or driving nails: a
striking-piece in the mechanism of a clock or piano: that part of the lock
of a firearm which falls with a sharp blow and causes the discharge of the
piece: the baton of an auctioneer, a knock from which signifies that an
article is sold: a small bone of the ear, the malleus.--_v.t._ to drive,
shape, or fashion with a hammer: to contrive by intellectual labour, to
excogitate (with _out_): to declare (a person) a defaulter on the Stock
Exchange: to beat down the price of (a stock), to depress (a
market).--_ns._ HAMM'ER-BEAM, a horizontal piece of timber in place of a
tie-beam at or near the feet of a pair of rafters; HAMM'ERHEAD,
HAMM'ER-FISH, a rapacious fish of the shark family--from the shape of its
head.--_adj._ HAMM'ERHEADED, with a head shaped like a hammer: dull in
intellect, stupid.--_n._ HAMM'ERING, a dented, appearance on silverware
effected by successive blows of a hammer.--_adj._ HAMM'ERLESS, without a
hammer--of a gun.--_n._ HAMM'ERMAN, a man who hammers, as a blacksmith,
goldsmith, &c.--HAMMER-AND-TONGS, with great noise and vigour,
violently.--BRING TO THE HAMMER, to sell, or cause to sell, by auction; UP
TO THE HAMMER, first-rate. [A.S. _hamor_; Ger. _hammer_, Ice. _hamarr_.]

HAMMERCLOTH, ham'[.e]r-kloth, _n._ the cloth which covers a coach-box.
[Skeat thinks it an adaptation of Dut. _hemal_, heaven, a covering, with
the addition of _cloth_, by way of giving a sort of sense.]

HAMMOCHRYSOS, ham-o-kr[=i]'sos, _n._ a sparkling stone of the ancients,
perhaps yellow micaceous schist. [Gr., _hammos_, sand, _chrysos_, gold.]

HAMMOCK, ham'uk, _n._ a piece of strong cloth or netting suspended by the
corners, and used as a bed by sailors. [Sp. _hamaca_, of Carib origin.]

HAMOSE, h[=a]'mos, _adj._ hooked--also H[=A]'MOUS.--_adjs._ HAM'ULAR, like
a small hook; HAM'ULATE, having a small hook at the tip.--_n._ HAM'ULUS, a
small hook or hook-like process. [L. _hamus_, hook.]

HAMPER, ham'p[.e]r, _v.t._ to impede or perplex: to shackle.--_n._ a chain
or fetter.--_p.adj._ HAM'PERED, fettered, impeded.--_adv._
HAM'PEREDLY.--_n._ HAM'PEREDNESS. [First about 1350, in Northern writers,
prob. rel. to Ice. _hemja_ (pt.t. _hamdi_), to restrain; Ger. _hemmen_.]

HAMPER, ham'p[.e]r, _n._ a large basket for conveying goods.--_v.t._ to put
in a hamper.--_ns._ HAN'AP, a large drinking-cup; HAN'APER, an old name for
a receptacle for treasure, paper, &c., long the name of an office in the
Court of Chancery. [For _hanaper_--O. Fr. _hanapier_--_hanap_, a
drinking-cup--Old High Ger. _hnapf_; A.S. _hnæp_, a bowl.]

HAMSHACKLE, ham'shak-l, _v.t._ to shackle a cow or horse by a rope joined
to the head and fore-leg: to fetter, restrain. [_Hamper_ and _shackle_.]

HAMSTER, ham'st[.e]r, _n._ a genus of rodent mammals of the family
_Muridæ_, having cheek-pouches reaching back almost to the shoulders.

HAMSTRING, ham'string, _n._ the great tendon at the back of the knee or
hock of the hind-leg of a quadruped.--_v.t._ to lame by cutting the

HAN, han (_Spens._), _pl._ of _have_.



HANCE, hans, _n._ (_naut._) a curved rise from a lower to a higher
part--sometimes HANCH, HAUNCH: (_archit._) the arc of smaller radius at the
springing of an elliptical or many-centred arch--also HAUNCH. [O. Fr.
_hauce_, _haulce_, rise.]

HANCH, hansh, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to snap at with the jaws.

HAND, hand, _n._ the extremity of the arm below the wrist: that which does
the duty of a hand by pointing, as the hand of a clock: the fore-foot of a
horse: a measure of four inches: an agent or workman: (_pl._) work-people
in a factory: performance, agency, co-operation: power or manner of
performing: skill: possession: style of handwriting, sign-manual: side:
direction: the set of cards held by a single player at whist, &c.: a single
round at a game.--_v.t._ to give with the hand: to lead or conduct:
(_naut._) to furl, as sails.--_ns._ HAND'-BAG, a bag for small articles,
carried in the hand; HAND'-BALL, the sport of throwing and catching a ball;
HAND'-BARR'OW, a barrow without a wheel, carried by men: HAND'-BAS'KET, a
small portable basket; HAND'-BELL, a small bell held by the hand when rung,
a table-bell; HAND'BILL, a pruning-hook used in the hand: a bill or loose
sheet with some announcement; HAND'BOOK, a manual or book of reference: a
guide-book for travellers; HAND'BREADTH, the breadth of a hand: a palm;
HAND'-CART, a small cart drawn by hand.--_adj._ HAND'ED (_Milt._), with
hands joined: (_Shak._) having a hand of a certain sort.--_ns._ HAND'ER;
HAND'FAST, a firm grip, handle: a contract, esp. a betrothal.--_adj._
bound, espoused: tight-fisted.--_adj._ HAND'FASTED, betrothed.--_n._
HAND'FASTING, betrothal: a private or even probationary form of
marriage.--_adj._ Hand'-foot'ed, having feet like hands, chiropod.--_ns._
HAND'FUL, as much as fills the hand: a small number or quantity:--_pl._
HAND'FULS; HAND'-GALL'OP, an easy gallop, in which the speed of the horse
is restrained by the bridle-hand; HAND'-GLASS, a glass or small glazed
frame used to protect plants: a small mirror; HAND'-GRENADE', a grenade to
be thrown by the hand; HAND'GRIP, grasp, grip, close struggle; HAND'ICUFFS,
HAND'YCUFFS, fighting hand to hand.--_adj._ HAND'LESS, awkward.--_ns._
HAND-LINE, a fishing-line worked by hand without a rod; HAND'-LIST, a list
for easy reference; HAND'-LOOM, a weaver's loom worked by hand, as
distinguished from a power-loom.--_adj._ HAND'-MADE, manufactured by hand,
not by a machine.--_ns._ HAND'MAID, HAND'MAIDEN, a female servant;
HAND'-MILL, a mill worked by hand for coffee, pepper, &c., a quern;
HAND'-OR'GAN, a portable organ, played by means of a crank turned by the
hand; HAND'-P[=A]'PER, a particular make of paper, early in use at the
Record Office, with the water-mark of a hand pointing; HAND'-POST, a
finger-post, guide; HAND'-PROM'ISE, a form of betrothal amongst the Irish
peasantry; HAND'RAIL, a rail supported by balusters, as in staircases, to
hold by.--_adv. phrase_, HAND'-RUN'NING, straight on, continuously.--_ns._
HAND'-SAW, a saw manageable by the hand--also the same as HERN'SHAW, in the
proverb, 'not to know a hawk from a handsaw;' HAND'-SCREEN, a small screen
used to protect the face from the heat of the fire or sun; HAND'-SCREW, an
appliance for raising heavy weights, a jack; HAND'SPIKE, a bar used with
the hand as a lever.--_n.pl._ HAND'STAVES (_B._), probably javelins.--_ns._
HANDS'-TURN, a helping hand, aid; HAND'WORK, work done by hand, as
distinguished from machinery; HAND'WRITING, the style of writing peculiar
to each person: writing.--_adj._ HAND'-WROUGHT, made with the hands, not by
machinery.--HAND AND [IN] GLOVE (_with_), on very intimate terms; HAND
DOWN, to transmit in succession; HAND IN HAND, in union, conjointly; HAND
OF GOD, a term used for unforeseen unpreventable accidents, as lightning,
tempest, &c.; HAND OVER HAND, by passing the hands alternately one before
or above the other; HAND OVER HEAD, rashly; HANDS DOWN, with ease; HANDS
OFF! keep off! refrain from blows! HANDS UP, a bushranger's call to
surrender; HAND TO HAND, at close quarters; HAND TO MOUTH, without thought
for the future, precariously.--A BIRD IN THE HAND, any advantage at present
held; A COOL HAND, a person not easily abashed; AT ANY HAND, IN ANY HAND
(_Shak._), at any rate, in any case; AT FIRST HAND, from the producer or
seller, or from the first source direct; AT HAND, near in place or time; AT
SECOND HAND, from an intermediate purchaser or source; BEAR A HAND, make
haste to help; BEAR IN HAND (_Shak._), to keep in expectation; BE HAND AND
GLOVE, to be very intimate and familiar; BELIEVED ON ALL HANDS, generally
believed; BLOODY, or RED, HAND, granted to baronets of Great Britain and
Ireland in 1611; BY THE STRONG HAND, by force; CAP IN HAND, humbly; CHANGE
HANDS, to pass from one owner to another; COME TO ONE'S HAND, to be easy to
do; DEAD MAN'S HAND, HAND-OF-GLORY, a charm to discover hidden treasure,
&c., made from a mandrake root, or the hand of a man who has been executed,
holding a candle; FOR ONE'S OWN HAND, on one's own account; FROM GOOD
HANDS, from a reliable source; GAIN THE UPPER HAND, to obtain the mastery;
GET ONE'S HAND IN, to become familiar with.--HANDWRITING ON THE WALL, any
sign foreshadowing disaster (from Dan. v. 5).--HAVE A HAND IN, to be
concerned in; HAVE CLEAN HANDS, to be honest and incorruptible; HAVE FULL
HANDS, to be fully occupied; HOLD HAND (_Shak._), to compete successfully;
HOLD IN HAND, to restrain; IN HAND, as present payment: in preparation:
under control; KISS THE HAND, in token of submission; LAY HANDS ON, to
seize; LAYING ON OF HANDS, the laying on of the hands of a bishop or
presbyters in ordination; LEND A HAND, to give assistance; OFF-HAND, OUT OF
HAND, at once, immediately, without premeditation; OFF ONE'S HANDS, no
longer under one's responsible charge; OLD HAND, one experienced, as
opposed to _Young hand_; ON ALL HANDS, on all sides; ON HAND, ready,
available: in one's possession; ON ONE'S HANDS, under one's care or
responsibility; POOR HAND, an unskilful one; SECOND-HAND, inferior, not
new; SET THE HAND TO, to engage in, undertake; SHOW ONE'S HAND, to expose
one's purpose to any one; STAND ONE'S HAND (_slang_), to pay for a drink to
another; STRIKE HANDS, to make a contract; TAKE IN HAND, to undertake; TAKE
OFF ONE'S HANDS, to relieve of something troublesome; TO ONE'S HAND, in
readiness; UNDER ONE'S HAND, with one's proper signature attached; WASH
ONE'S HANDS (_of_), to disclaim the responsibility for anything (Matt.
xxvii. 24); WITH A HEAVY HAND, oppressively; WITH A HIGH HAND, without
taking other people into consideration, audaciously. [A.S. _hand_; in all
Teut. tongues, perh. rel. to Goth. _hinthan_, to seize.]

HANDCUFF, hand'kuf, _n._ esp. in _pl._ HAND'CUFFS, shackles for the hand
locked upon the wrists of a prisoner.--_v.t._ to put handcuffs on:--_pr.p._
hand'cuffing; _pa.p._ hand'cuffed (-kuft). [_Hand_ and _cuff_.]

HANDICAP, hand'i-kap, _v.t._ to impose special disadvantages or impediments
upon in order to offset advantages, and make a better contest--in a
horse-race the superior horse carries a heavier weight, while foot-runners
are placed at different distances, or start at different times: (_fig._) to
place at a disadvantage by some burden or disability.--_n._ any contest so
adjusted, or the condition imposed.--_n._ HAND'ICAPPER, one who handicaps.
[_Hand_ in the _cap_, from the usage in an ancient kind of sport and method
of settling a bargain by arbitration.]

HANDICRAFT, hand'i-kraft, _n._ a manual craft or trade.--_n._
HAND'ICRAFTSMAN, a man skilled in a manual art:--_fem._ HAND'ICRAFTSWOMAN.

HANDIWORK, HANDYWORK, hand'i-wurk, _n._ work done by the hands, performance
generally: work of skill or wisdom: creation.

HANDJAR, HANJAR, hand'jar, _n._ a Persian dagger.

HANDKERCHIEF, hang'k[.e]r-chif, _n._ a piece of linen, silk, or cotton
cloth for wiping the nose, &c.: a neckerchief.--THROW THE HANDKERCHIEF, to
call upon next--from the usage in a common game.

HANDLE, hand'l, _v.t._ to touch, hold, or use with the hand: to make
familiar by frequent touching: to manage: to discuss: to practise: to trade
or do business in.--_v.i._ to use the hands.--_n._ that part of anything
held in the hand: (_fig._) that of which use is made: a tool: occasion,
opportunity, pretext.--_ns._ HAND'LER, a person skilful in any special kind
of manipulation; HAND'LING, the touching or managing with the hand: action:
manner of touch.--A HANDLE TO THE NAME, an adjunct of honour, as 'Dr,'
'Col.,' &c.; GIVE A HANDLE, to furnish an occasion to. [A.S.
_handlian_--_hand_, a hand.]

HANDSEL, HANSEL, hand'sel, han'sel, _n._ the first sale or using of
anything: earnest-money or part-payment by way of binding a bargain:
(_Scot._) a gift made on the first Monday of the year to a child or
servant: a New-year's gift.--_v.t._ to give a handsel: to use or do
anything the first time. [A.S. _handselen_, a giving into the hands of
another; or Ice. _handsal_.]

HANDSOME, han'sum, _adj._ good-looking, well-proportioned, graceful: with
dignity: liberal or noble: generous: ample.--_adv._ HAND'SOMELY.--_n._
HAND'SOMENESS. [_Hand_ and -_some_; cf. Dut. _handzaam_.]

HANDY, han'di, _adj._ dexterous: ready to the hand: convenient:
near.--_adv._ HAND'ILY.--_ns._ HANDI'NESS; HAND'Y-MAN, a man for doing odd

HANDY-DANDY, hand'i-dand'i, _n._ (_Shak._) an old game among children, in
which something is rapidly changed from one hand into the other, while
another guesses in which hand it is. [A jingle on _hand_.]

HANG, hang, _v.t._ to hook or fix to some high point: to suspend: to
decorate with pictures, &c., as a wall: to put to death by suspending and
choking.--_v.i._ to be hanging, so as to allow of free motion: to lean, or
rest for support: to drag: to hover or impend: to be in suspense: to
linger:--_pr.p._ hang'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ hanged or hung.--_n._ action
of hanging, bending down, &c.: a declivity: mode in which anything hangs: a
slackening of motion: a hanging mass (NOT A HANG, not a bit, not in the
least).--_n._ HANGABIL'ITY.--_adj._ HANG'ABLE, liable to be hanged:
punishable by hanging.--_n._ HANG'-DOG, a low fellow.--_adj._ like such a
fellow, esp. in his sneaking look.--_ns._ HANG'ER, that on which anything
is hung: a short sword, curved near the point; HANG'ER-ON, one who hangs on
or sticks to a person or place: an importunate acquaintance: a
dependent.--_adj._ HANG'ING, deserving death by hanging.--_n._ death by the
halter: that which is hung, as drapery, &c.:--used chiefly in _pl._--_ns._
HANG'ING-BUTT'RESS, a buttress not standing solid on a foundation, but
hanging or supported on a corbel; HANG'MAN, a public executioner; HANG'NAIL
(see AGNAIL).--_n.pl._ HANG'-NESTS, a family of finch-like perching birds
peculiar to America--often called _American orioles_, many weaving curious
purse-like nests.--HANG BACK, to hesitate; HANG BY A THREAD, to be in a
very precarious position--from the sword of Damocles; HANG, DRAW, AND
QUARTER, to execute by hanging, cutting down while still alive,
disembowelling, and cutting the body in pieces for exposure at different
places; HANG FIRE, to be long in exploding or discharging, as a gun: to
hesitate; HANG IN DOUBT, to remain in a state of uncertainty; HANG IN THE
BALANCE, to be in doubt or suspense; HANG OFF, to let go, to hold off; HANG
ON, to cling to, to regard with admiration: to depend upon: to weigh down
or oppress: to be importunate; HANG OUT (_slang_), to lodge or reside; HANG
OVER, to project over; HANG TOGETHER, to keep united; HANG UP ONE'S HAT, to
make one's self completely at home in a house. [A.S. _hangian_, causal form
of _hón_, pa.t. _heng_, pa.p. _hangen_; Dut. and Ger. _hangen_, Goth.

HANGAR, hang'ar, _n._ a covered shed for carriages.

HANK, hangk, _n._ two or more skeins of thread tied together: a string,
clasp, or other means of fastening. [Ice. _hanki_, a hasp.]

HANKER, hangk'[.e]r, _v.i._ to long for with eagerness: to linger about
(with _after_, _for_).--_n._ HANK'ERING, a lingering craving for something.
[A freq. of _hang_, in sense to hang on; cf. Dut. _hunkeren_.]

HANKY-PANKY, hangk'i-pangk'i, _n._ jugglery, trickery. [A meaningless
jingle, like _hocus-pocus_, &c.]

HANOVERIAN, han-o-v[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Hanover_, as of the
brown rat, and the dynasty that came to the throne of England in
1714.--_n._ a supporter of the house of Hanover, as opposed to a Jacobite.

HANSARD, han'sard, _n._ a name applied to the printed reports of the
debates in parliament, from Luke _Hansard_ (1752-1828), whose descendants
continued to print these down to the beginning of 1889.--_v.t._
HAN'SARDISE, to confront a member with his former opinions as recorded in
his speeches in _Hansard_.

HANSE, hans, _n._ a league.--_adjs._ HANSE, HANSEAT'IC, applied to certain
commercial cities in Germany whose famous league for mutual defence and
commercial association began in a compact between Hamburg and Lübeck in
1241.--_ns._ HAN'ASTER, HAN'STER, the ancient Oxford name for persons
paying the entrance-fee of the guild-merchant, and admitted as freemen of
the city. [O. Fr. _hanse_--Old High Ger. _hansa_, a band of men (Ger.

HANSOM-CAB, han'sum-kab, _n._ a light two-wheeled cab or hackney-carriage
with the driver's seat raised behind. [From the name of the inventor,
Joseph Aloysius _Hansom_, 1803-82.]

HA'N'T, h[=a]nt, a coll. contr. for _have not_ or _has not_.

HANTLE, han'tl, _n._ (_Scot._) a considerable number. [Cf. Dan. _antal_,
Dut. _aantal_, Ger. _anzahl_. Some explain as _hand_ and _tale_, number.]

HAP, hap, _n._ chance: fortune: accident.--_v.i._ to befall.--_n._
HAP-HAZ'ARD, that which happens by hazard: chance, accident.--_adj._
chance, accidental.--_adv._ at random.--_adv._ HAP-HAZ'ARDLY.--_n._
HAP-HAZ'ARDNESS.--_adj._ HAP'LESS, unlucky: unhappy.--_adv._
HAP'LESSLY.--_n._ HAP'LESSNESS.--_adv._ HAP'LY, by hap, chance, or
accident: perhaps: it may be.--_v.i._ HAPP'EN, to fall out: to take place:
to chance to be.--_n._ HAPP'ENING. [Ice. _happ_, good luck.]

HAP, hap, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to wrap up from the cold or rain.--_n._ a cloak
or other covering.

HAPLODON, hap'l[=o]-don, _n._ a peculiar terrestrial rodent regarded as a
connecting-link between beavers and squirrels, its single species (_H.
rufus_) popularly known as the _Sewellel_, _Boomer_, and _Mountain Beaver_.
[Gr. _haploos_, single, _odous_, _odontos_, tooth.]

HAPLOGRAPHY, hap-log'raf-i, _n._ the inadvertent writing of a letter or
word, or series of letters or words, once, when it should be written twice.
[Gr. _haploos_, single, _graphia_, _graphein_, to write.]

HAP'ORTH, h[=a]'p[.e]rth, for _halfpennyworth_.

HAPPY, hap'i, _adj._ lucky, successful: possessing or enjoying pleasure or
good: secure of good: furnishing enjoyment: dexterous, apt,
felicitous.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to make happy.--_v.t._ HAPP'IFY, to make
happy.--_adv._ HAPP'ILY.--_n._ HAPP'INESS.--_adj._ HAPP'Y-GO-LUCK'Y,
easy-going: taking things as they come.--_adv._ in any way one
pleases.--HAPPY DESPATCH, a euphemism for the _Hara-kiri_ (q.v.). [_Hap_.]

HAQUETON, hak'ton, _n._ a stuffed jacket worn under the mail--same as Acton

HARA-KIRI, har'a-kir'e, _n._ involuntary suicide by disembowelment,
formerly practised in Japan by daimios and members of the military class,
unable to outlive disgrace, or in order to anticipate execution. [Japanese
_hara_, belly, _kiri_, cut.]

HARANGUE, ha-rang', _n._ a loud speech addressed to a multitude: a popular,
pompous address.--_v.i._ to deliver a harangue.--_v.t._ to address by a
harangue:--_pr.p._ haranguing (-rang'ing); _pa.p._ harangued
(-rangd').--_n._ HARANG'UER. [O. Fr. _arenge_, _harangue_, from Old High
Ger. _hring_ (Ger. _ring_), a ring of auditors.]

HARASS, har'as, _v.t._ to fatigue: to annoy or torment.--_p.adj._
HAR'ASSED.--_adv._ HAR'ASSEDLY.--_n._ HAR'ASSER.--_p.adj._
HAR'ASSING.--_adv._ HAR'ASSINGLY.--_n._ HAR'ASSMENT. [O. Fr. _harasser_;
prob. from _harer_, to incite a dog.]

HARBINGER, här'bin-j[.e]r, _n._ a forerunner, pioneer, originally one who
goes forward to provide lodging.--_v.t._ to precede, as a harbinger. [M. E.
_herbergeour_. See HARBOUR.]

HARBOUR, här'bur, _n._ any refuge or shelter: a port for ships--obs. form
_Har'borough_.--_v.t._ to lodge or entertain: to protect: to possess or
indulge, as thoughts.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_n._ HAR'BOURAGE, place of
shelter: entertainment.--_n.pl._ HAR'BOUR-DUES, charges for the use of a
harbour.--_n._ HAR'BOURER, one who harbours or entertains.--_adj._
HAR'BOURLESS.--_n._ HAR'BOUR-MAS'TER, the public officer who has charge of
a harbour.--HARBOUR OF REFUGE, a harbour constructed to give shelter to
ships on some exposed coast: any protection for one in distress. [M. E.
_herberwe_--an assumed A.S. _herebeorg_--_here_, army, _beorg_, protection;
cf. Ger. _herberge_, Ice. _herbergi_.]

HARD, härd, _adj._ not easily penetrated, firm, solid: difficult to
understand or accomplish: violent, vehement: rigorous: close, earnest,
industrious: coarse, scanty: stingy, niggardly: difficult to bear, painful:
unjust: difficult to please: unfeeling: severe: stiff: constrained:
intractable, resistant in some use, as water, &c.: strong, spirituous: (of
silk) without having the natural gum boiled off: surd or breathed, as
opposed to sonant or voiced.--_n._ a firm beach or foreshore: hard
labour.--_adv._ with urgency, vigour, &c.: earnestly, forcibly: with
difficulty: close, near, as in HARD BY.--_adv._ HARD-A-LEE, close to the
lee-side, &c.--_adj._ HARD'-AND-FAST', rigidly laid down and adhered
to.--_adv._ HARD APORT! a command instructing the helmsman to turn the
tiller to the left or port side of the ship, thus causing the ship to
swerve to the right or starboard.--_ns._ HARD'-BAKE, a sweetmeat made of
boiled sugar and almonds; HARD'BEAM, the hornbeam.--_adjs._ HARD'-BILLED,
having a hard bill or beak--of birds; HARD'-BITT'EN, given to hard biting,
tough in fight; HARD'-CURED, cured thoroughly, as fish, by drying in the
sun.--_n._ HARD'-DRINK'ER, a constant drunkard.--_adj._ HARD'-EARNED,
earned with toil or difficulty.--_v.t._ HARD'EN, to make hard or harder: to
make firm: to strengthen: to confirm in wickedness: to make
insensible.--_v.i._ to become hard or harder, either lit. or fig.--_adj._
HARD'ENED, made hard, unfeeling.--_n._ HARD'ENER.--_adj._ HARD'-FAV'OURED,
having coarse features.--_n._ HARD'-FAV'OUREDNESS.--_adj._ HARD'-FEAT'URED,
of hard, coarse, or forbidding features.--_n._
HARD'-FEAT'UREDNESS.--_adjs._ HARD'-FIST'ED, having hard or strong fists or
hands: close-fisted: niggardly; HARD'-FOUGHT, sorely contested;
HARD'-GOTT'EN, obtained with difficulty; HARD'-GRAINED, having a close firm
grain: uninviting.--_n._ HARD'-HACK, the steeple-bush, an erect shrub of
the rose family, with rose-coloured or white flowers.--_adjs._
HARD'-HAND'ED, having hard hands: rough: severe; HARD'-HEAD'ED, shrewd,
intelligent; HARD'-HEART'ED, having a hard or unfeeling heart:
cruel.--_adv._ HARD'-HEART'EDLY.--_n._ HARD'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adj._
HARD'ISH, somewhat hard.--_n._ HARD'-L[=A]'BOUR, labour imposed on certain
classes of criminals during their imprisonment.--_adv._ HARD'LY, with
difficulty: scarcely, not quite: severely, harshly.--_adj._ HARD'-MOUTHED,
having a mouth hard or insensible to the bit: not easily managed.--_n._
HARD'-PAN, the hard detritus often underlying the superficial soil: the
lowest level.--_adjs._ HARD'-RULED (_Shak._), ruled with difficulty;
HARD'-RUN, greatly pressed; HARD'-SET, beset by difficulty: rigid;
HARD'-SHELL, having a hard shell: rigidly orthodox.--_ns._ HARD'SHIP, a
hard state, or that which is hard to bear, as toil, injury, &c.;
HARD'-TACK, ship-biscuit.--_adj._ HARD'-VIS'AGED, of a hard, coarse, or
forbidding visage.--_ns._ HARD'WARE, trade name for all sorts of articles
made of the baser metals, such as iron or copper; HARD'WAREMAN.--_adj._
HARD'-WON, won with toil and difficulty.--_n.pl._ HARD'WOOD-TREES, forest
trees of comparatively slow growth, producing compact hard timber, as oak,
ash, elm, walnut, beech, birch, &c.--HARD HIT, seriously hurt, as by a loss
of money: deeply smitten with love; HARD LINES, a hard lot; HARD METAL, an
alloy of two parts of copper with one of tin for gun metal; HARD MONEY,
money emphatically, prop. coin; HARD OF HEARING, pretty deaf; HARD
SWEARING, swearing (as a witness) persistently to what is false, perjury;
HARD UP, short of money.--BE HARD PUT TO IT, to be in great straits or
difficulty; DIE HARD, to die only after a desperate struggle for life.
[A.S. _heard_; Dut. _hard_, Ger. _hart_, Goth. _hardus_; allied to Gr.
_kratys_, strong.]


HARDS, härdz, _n.pl._ also HURDS, coarse or refuse flax or hemp from which
is made the coarse fabric HARD'EN, HERD'EN, HURD'EN.

HARDY, härd'i, _adj._ daring, brave, resolute: confident: impudent: able to
bear cold, exposure, or fatigue.--_ns._ HARD'IHOOD, HARD'INESS, HARD'IMENT
(_arch._).--_adv._ HARD'ILY. [O. Fr. _hardi_--Old High Ger. _hartjan_, to
make hard.]

HARE, h[=a]r, _n._ a common and very timid animal, with a divided upper lip
and long hind-legs, which runs swiftly by leaps.--_ns._ HARE-AND-HOUNDS, a
boys' game in which some set off on a long run across country, dropping
pieces of paper (the scent) as they go, and others try to overtake,
following their trail; HARE'BELL, a plant with blue bell-shaped
flowers.--_adjs._ HARE'-BRAINED, giddy: heedless; HARE'-FOOT, swift of foot
like a hare; HAR'ISH, somewhat like a hare.--_n._ HARE'-LIP, a fissure in
the upper human lip like that of a hare.--_adj._ HARE'-LIPPED.--_n._
HARE'S'-EAR, a genus of umbelliferous plants having yellow flowers.--FIRST
CATCH YOUR HARE, make sure you have a thing first before you think what to
do with it--from a direction in Mrs Glasse's cookery-book, where catch,
however, was a misprint for 'case'=skin; HOLD WITH THE HARE AND RUN WITH
THE HOUNDS, to play a double and deceitful game, to be with both sides at
once; JUGGED HARE, hare cut into pieces and stewed with wine and other
seasoning; MAD AS A MARCH HARE, from the gambols of the hare during the
breeding season. [A.S. _hara_; Dut. _haas_, Dan. _hare_, Ger. _hase_.]

HARELD, har'eld, _n._ a genus of northern sea-ducks. [Norw.
_havella_--_hav_, sea.]

HAREM, h[=a]'rem, _n._ the portion of a Mohammedan house allotted to
females: the collection of wives and concubines belonging to one Mussulman.
[Ar. _haram_, anything forbidden--_harama_, to forbid.]

HARICOT, har'i-ko, -kot, _n._ a kind of ragout or stew of mutton and beans
or other vegetables: the kidney-bean or French bean. [Fr. _haricot_.]

HARI-KARI, an incorrect form of _hara-kiri_.

HARK, härk, _interj._ or _imper._ listen.--_n._ a whisper.--_n._
HARK'-BACK, a backward move.--HARK BACK, to revert to the original point.

HARL, härl, _n._ the skin of flax: any filamentous substance.

HARL, härl, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to drag along the ground: to rough-cast a wall
with lime.--_v.i._ to drag one's self: to troll for fish.--_n._ act of
dragging: a small quantity, a scraping of anything.

HARLEIAN, har-l[=e]'an, här'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to Robert _Harley_,
Earl of Oxford (1661-1724), and his son, Edward Harley, esp. in reference
to the library of books and MSS. collected by them--the latter in the
British Museum since 1753.

HARLEQUIN, här'le-kwin, or -kin, _n._ the leading character in a pantomime,
the lover of Columbine, in a tight spangled dress, with a wand, by means of
which he is supposed to be invisible and to play tricks: a buffoon.--_v.i._
to play the harlequin.--_n._ HARLEQUIN[=A]DE', the portion of a pantomime
in which the harlequin plays a chief part.--HARLEQUIN DUCK, a species of
northern sea-duck, so called from its variegated markings. [Fr.
_harlequin_, _arlequin_ (It. _arlecchino_), prob. the same as O. Fr.
_Hellequin_, a devil in medieval legend, perh. of Teut. origin.]

HARLOCK, här'lok, _n._ (_Shak._) a flower not identified, not charlock=wild
mustard, or _hardock_=burdock.

HARLOT, här'lot, _n._ a woman who prostitutes her body for hire, a
whore.--_adj._ wanton: lewd.--_n._ HAR'LOTRY, prostitution, unchastity:
(_obs._) a woman given to such: meretriciousness. [O. Fr. _herlot_,
_arlot_, a base fellow; origin dub., perh. from Old High Ger. _karl_ (A.S.

HARM, härm, _n._ injury: moral wrong.--_v.t._ to injure.--_adj._ HARM'FUL,
hurtful.--_adv._ HARM'FULLY.--_n._ HARM'FULNESS.--_adj._ HARM'LESS, not
injurious, innocent: unharmed.--_adv._ HARM'LESSLY.--_n._ HARM'LESSNESS.
[A.S. _hearm_; Ger. _harm_.]

HARMALA, här'ma-la, _n._ wild rue--also HAR'MEL.--_ns._ HAR'MALINE, a white
crystalline alkaloid obtained from the seeds of wild rue; HAR'MALOL,
HAR'MINE, other alkaloids from the same source. [Gr., from Semitic; cf. Ar.

HARMAN, här'man, _n._ (_slang_) a policeman--also HAR'MAN-BECK: (_pl._) the

HARMATTAN, har-mat'an, _n._ a hot, dry, noxious wind which blows
periodically from the interior of Africa to the Atlantic along the Guinea
coast during December, January, and February. [Fanti.]

HARMONIC, -AL, har-mon'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to harmony: musical:
concordant: recurring periodically.--_n._ a secondary tone, overtone; a
note on a stringed instrument produced by lightly stopping a string:
(_math._) one of a class of functions that enter into the development of
the potential of a nearly spherical mass due to its attraction.--_adv._
HARMON'ICALLY.--_n.pl._ HARMON'ICS, used as _sing._ the science of harmony
or of musical sounds--as _pl._ consonances, the component sounds included
in what appears to the ear to be a single sound.--_adj._ HARM[=O]'NIOUS,
having harmony: symmetrical, congruous: concordant.--_adv._
HAR'MON[=I]SE, to be in harmony: to agree.--_v.t._ to make in harmony: to
cause to agree: (_mus._) to provide parts to.--_ns._ HARMON[=I]S'ER;
HAR'MONIST, one skilled in harmony: a musical composer.--HARMONIC ENGINE,
an invention of Edison's, in which the energy of an electric current is
used, by means of two small electro-magnets, to keep up the vibrations of a
large and heavily-weighted tuning-fork whose arms are connected with two
pistons working a miniature pump; HARMONIC PROGRESSION, a series of numbers
the reciprocals of which are in arithmetical progression; HARMONIC
PROPORTION, the relation of three quantities in harmonic progression--the
2d a _harmonic mean_ between the 1st and 3d, as in the three numbers 2, 3,
and 6; HARMONIC TRIAD, the common chord.

HARMONIUM, har-m[=o]'ni-um, _n._ a reed-organ, esp. one in which the air is
compressed in the bellows and driven thence through the reeds.--_ns._
HARMON'ICA, the musical glasses--an instrument invented by Franklin, the
sounds of which were produced from bell-shaped glasses placed on a
framework that revolved on its centre, while the rims were touched by the
moistened finger: a musical instrument consisting of a series of glass or
metal plates played by striking with a small mallet: a mouth-organ or
harmonicon; HARMON'ICON, a mouth-organ: an acoustic apparatus by which a
musical note is evolved when a long dry tube, open at both ends, is held
over a jet of burning hydrogen; HARMON'IPHONE, a musical instrument played
with a keyboard, in which the sounds are produced by reeds set in a tube,
and vibrating under pressure from the breath; HARM[=O]'NIUMIST, one who
plays the harmonium; HARMON'OGRAPH, an instrument for tracing curves
representing sonorous vibrations; HARMONOM'ETER, one for measuring the
harmonic relations of sounds.

HARMONY, här'mo-ni, _n._ a fitting together of parts so as to form a
connected whole, agreement in relation: in art, a normal state of
completeness and order in the relations of things to each other: (_mus._) a
simultaneous combination of accordant sounds: the whole chordal structure
of a piece, as distinguished from its melody or its rhythm: concord, music
in general: a collation of parallel passages regarding the same event
arranged to demonstrate the substantial unity--as of the Gospels.--HARMONY,
or MUSIC, OF THE SPHERES, a harmony formed by the regular movements of the
heavenly bodies throughout space, determined by the relation to each other
of the intervals of separation; PRE-ESTABLISHED HARMONY, the designation of
Leibnitz for his theory of the divinely established relation between body
and mind--the movements of monads and the succession of ideas, as it were a
constant agreement between two clocks. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.
_harmonia_--_harmos_, a fitting--_arein_, to fit.]

HARMOST, här'most, _n._ a Spartan governor of a subject city or
province.--_n._ HAR'MOSTY; the office of such.

HARMOTOME, här'm[=o]-t[=o]m, _n._ a hydrous silicate of aluminium and
barium.--Also _Cross-stone_.

HARNESS, här'nes, _n._ the equipments of a horse: formerly, the armour of a
man or horse: equipment for any kind of labour.--_v.t._ to equip with
armour: to put the harness on a horse.--_n._ HAR'NESS-CASK, a tub, a cask
with rimmed cover on a ship's deck holding the salt meat for daily
use.--DIE IN HARNESS, to die at one's work. [O. Fr. _harneis_, armour;
dubiously referred to Celt., as in Bret. _harnez_, old iron, also armour.]

HARNS, härnz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) the brains. [A.S. _hærnes_, most prob.
Norse _hjarne_; cf. Ger. _hirn_.]

HARO, hä'ro, _n._ an old term for a form of appeal in the Channel Islands,
a demand for protection against harm, or for assistance to arrest an
adversary.--Also HA'ROW, HAR'ROW (_Spens._), a mere exclamation of
distress. [O. Fr. _haro_, _harou_, of unknown origin; not _ha Rou!_ an
appeal to Rolf, Rollo, or Rou, the first Duke of Normandy.]

HARP, härp, _n._ a musical stringed instrument much esteemed by the
ancients.--_v.i._ to play on the harp: to dwell tediously upon
anything.--_v.t._ to give voice to.--_ns._ HARP'ER, HARP'IST, a player on
the harp.--_n.pl._ HARP'INGS (_naut._), the fore-parts of the wales
surrounding the bow extensions of the rib-bands.--_n._ HARP'-SHELL, a genus
of gasteropodous molluscs with inflated shell.--HARP ON ONE STRING, to
dwell constantly on one topic. [A.S. _hearpe_; Ger. _harfe_.]

HARPOON, här-p[=oo]n', _n._ a dart for striking and killing whales.--_v.t._
to strike with the harpoon.--_ns._ HARPOON'ER, HARPOONEER', one who uses a
harpoon; HARPOON'-GUN, a gun from which a harpoon or toggle-iron may be
discharged. [Fr. _harpon_--_harpe_, a clamp--L. _harpa_, Gr. _harp[=e]_,

HARPSICHORD, härp'si-kord, _n._ an old-fashioned keyed musical instrument,
where the sound is produced by the twitching of the strings by a piece of
crow-quill or hard leather. [O. Fr. _harpechorde_.]

HARPY, här'pi, _n._ (_myth._) a rapacious and filthy monster, with the body
of a woman and the wings, feet, and claws of a bird of prey, considered as
a minister of the vengeance of the gods: (_her._) a vulture with the head
and breast of a woman: a South American eagle, larger than the golden
eagle, and of great strength and rapacity: a rapacious person. [L.
_harp[=y]ia_--Gr., pl. _harpyiai_, 'snatchers,' symbols of the
storm-wind--_harpazein_, to seize.]


HARRIDAN, har'i-dan, _n._ a vixenish old woman. [Prob. O. Fr. _haridelle_,
a lean horse, a jade.]

HARRIER, har'i-[.e]r, _n._ a small kind of dog with a keen smell, for
hunting hares: (_pl._) a name taken by some clubs of cross-country runners
(see HARE-AND-HOUNDS). [Formed from _hare_, like _graz-i-er_.]

HARROVIAN, har-[=o]'vi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Harrow_.--_n._ one
educated at the public school there.

HARROW, har'[=o], _n._ a frame of wood or iron toothed with spikes for
smoothing and pulverising ploughed land, and for covering seeds
sown.--_v.t._ to draw a harrow over: to harass: to tear.--_adj._
HARR'OWING, acutely distressing to the mind.--_adv._ HARR'OWINGLY.--_n._
CHAIN'-HARR'OW, a harrow composed of rings for breaking clods of
earth.--UNDER THE HARROW, in distress or anxiety. [A.S. _hearge_; cf. Ice.
_herfi_, Dan. _harv_.]


HARRY, har'i, _v.t._ to plunder: to ravage: to destroy: to harass:--_pr.p._
harr'ying; _pa.p._ harr'ied.--_n._ HARR'IER, one who, or that which,
harries: a kind of hawk so named from its harrying or destroying small
animals.--HARRYING, or HARROWING, OF HELL, the spoiling of hell, the
delivery by Christ, upon His descent into hell after the crucifixion, of
the souls of patriarchs and prophets there held in bondage by Satan (1 Pet.
iii. 19)--a favourite subject of Christian art, and of our own medieval
writers of Mysteries. [A.S. _hergian_, from A.S. _here_, gen. _herg-es_, an
army; Ger. _heer_.]

HARSH, härsh, _adj._ rough: bitter: jarring: abusive: severe:
unkind.--_v.t._ HARSH'EN, to render harsh.--_adv._ HARSH'LY.--_n._
HARSH'NESS. [M. E. _harsk_, a northern word; cf. Sw. _härsk_ and Dan.
_harsk_, rancid, Ger. _harsch_, hard.]

HART, härt, _n._ the stag or male deer from the age of six years, when the
crown or sur-royal antler begins to appear:--_fem._ HIND.--_ns._
HART'EBEEST, HART'BEEST, a South African antelope; HARTS'HORN, the antlers
of the red deer: a solution of ammonia, orig. a decoction of the shavings
of a hart's horn; HARTS'TONGUE, a genus of widely distributed ferns, one
species native to Britain, common in moist woods.--HART OF GREASE, a hart
of the season when fat. [A.S. _heort_; Dut. _hert_, Ger. _hirsch_.]

HARUM-SCARUM, h[=a]'rum-sk[=a]'rum, _adj._ flighty: rash.--_n._ a giddy,
rash person. [Prob. compounded of _hare_, from the sense of haste and
fright, and _scare_.]

HARUSPEX, ha-rus'peks, _n._ (_pl._ HARUS'PICES) a soothsayer or diviner
among the Etruscans, and from them adopted by the Romans, who foretold
future events from the inspection of the entrails of animals offered in
sacrifice--also HARUS'PICE.--_ns._ HARUSPIC[=A]'TION, HARUS'PICY,
divination as by a haruspex. [L., from an assumed _haru_, cog. with Sans.
_hirâ_, entrails, and L. _spec[)e]re_, to view.]

HARVEST, här'vest, _n._ the time of gathering in the ripened crops: the
crops gathered in: fruits: the product of any labour: consequences.--_v.t._
to reap and gather in.--_ns._ HAR'VEST-BUG, -LOUSE, -TICK, a mite or tick
of minute size, abundant late in summer, and very troublesome to people
with delicate skins; HAR'VESTER, a reaper in harvests; HAR'VEST-FEAST, the
feast made at the ingathering of harvest; HAR'VEST-FIELD, a field where a
harvest is or has been; HAR'VEST-FLY, in U.S. the popular name for a
species of cicada; HAR'VEST-HOME, the bringing home of the harvest: the
feast held at the bringing home of the harvest; HAR'VEST-LORD, the
head-reaper at the harvest; HAR'VEST-MAN (_B._), a labourer in harvest;
HAR'VEST-MOON, the full moon nearest the autumnal equinox, rising nearly at
the same hour for several days; HAR'VEST-MOUSE, a very small species of
mouse, building its nest in the stalks of growing corn; HAR'VEST-QUEEN, an
image of Ceres, the queen or goddess of fruits, in ancient times carried
about on the last day of harvest. [A.S. _hærfest_; Ger. _herbs_t, Dut.

HAS, haz, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of _have_.

HASH, hash, _v.t._ to hack: to mince: to chop small.--_n._ that which is
hashed: a mixed dish of meat and vegetables in small pieces: a mixture and
preparation of old matter: (_Scot._) a stupid fellow.--_adj._ HASH'Y.--MAKE
A HASH OF, to spoil or ruin completely; SETTLE A PERSON'S HASH (_slang_),
to silence him: to make an end of him. [O. Fr.,--Fr. _hacher_--_hache_,

HASHISH, hash'ish, -[=e]sh, _n._ name given to the leaves of the Indian
hemp, from which an intoxicating preparation is made. See BHANG and

HASK, hask, _n._ (_Spens._) a fish-basket made of rushes. [Prob. from root
of _hassock_.]

HASLET, has'let, _n._ the edible entrails of an animal, esp. the hog.--Also
HARS'LET. [O. Fr. _hastelet_, _haste_, a spit--L. _hasta_, a spear.]

HASP, hasp, _n._ a clasp: the clasp of a padlock: a spindle: a skein of
yarn.--_v.t._ to fasten with a hasp. [A.S. _hæpse_; Dan. and Ger. _haspe_.]

HASSOCK, has'uk, _n._ a thick cushion used as a footstool or for kneeling
on in church: Kentish rag-stone. [A.S. _hassuc_; prob. W. _hesg_, sedge.]

HAST, hast, 2d pers. sing. pres. ind. of _have_.

HASTATE, -D, hast'[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) spear-shaped.--Also
HAST'IFORM. [L. _hast[=a]tus_--_hasta_, spear.]

HASTE, h[=a]st, _n._ speed, quickness, a hurry: rashness:
vehemence.--_vs.t._ HASTE, HASTEN (h[=a]s'n), to put to speed: to hurry on:
to drive forward.--_vs.i._ to move with speed: to be in a hurry:--_pr.p._
h[=a]st'ing, hastening (h[=a]s'ning); _pa.p._ h[=a]st'ed, hastened
(h[=a]s'nd).--_n._ HAST'ENER.--_adv._ HAST'ILY.--_n._ HAST'INESS, hurry:
rashness: irritability.--_adj._ HAST'Y, speedy: quick: rash: eager:
passionate.--_n._ HAST'Y-PUDD'ING, flour, milk, or oatmeal and water
porridge.--_adj._ HAST'Y-WIT'TED, rash.--MAKE HASTE, to hasten. [O. Fr.
_haste_ (Fr. _hâte_), from Teut.; cf. A.S. _h['æ]st_, Dut. _haast_, Ger.

HAT, hat, _n._ a covering for the head, generally with crown and brim: the
dignity of a cardinal, so named from his red hat.--_v.t._ to provide with,
or cover with, a hat.--_ns._ HAT'BAND, the ribbon round a hat, often a
mourning-band; HAT'-BOX, a box in which a hat is carried; HAT'-PEG, -RACK,
-RAIL, -STAND, &c., a contrivance on which hats are hung.--_adj._ HAT'TED,
covered with a hat.--_ns._ HAT'TER, one who makes or sells hats: a miner
who works by himself; HAT'TING, giving a hat; HAT'-TRICK, any conjurer's
trick with a hat: a House of Commons mode of securing a seat by placing
one's hat on it: in cricket, the feat of a bowler who takes three wickets
by three successive balls--deserving a new hat.--CHIMNEY-POT, COCKED, and
AS A HATTER, completely insane: very angry; PASS ROUND THE HAT, to beg for
contributions, to take up a collection. [A.S. _hæt_, Dan. _hat_.]

HATCH, hach, _n._ a door with an opening over it, a wicket or door made of
cross-bars; the covering of a hatchway.--_v.t._ to close as with a
hatch.--_ns._ HATCH'-BOAT, a kind of half-decked fishing-boat; HATCH'WAY,
the opening in a ship's deck into the hold, or from one deck to
another.--UNDER HATCHES, below deck, off duty, under arrest. [A.S. _hæc_, a
gate; Dut. _hek_, a gate.]

HATCH, hach, _v.t._ to produce, especially from eggs, by incubation: to
originate: to plot.--_v.i._ to produce young: to be advancing towards
maturity.--_n._ act of hatching: brood hatched.--_ns._ HATCH'ER, one who,
or that which, hatches; HATCH'ERY, a place for hatching eggs, esp. those of
fish, by artificial means.--COUNT THE CHICKENS BEFORE THEY ARE HATCHED, to
depend too securely on some future and uncertain event. [Early M. E.
_hacchen_, from an assumed A.S. _hæccean_; cf. Mid. High Ger. _hecken_, Sw.

HATCH, hach, _v.t._ to shade by minute lines crossing each other in drawing
and engraving.--_n._ HATCH'ING, the mode of so shading. [O. Fr. _hacher_,
to chop.]

HATCHEL, hach'el, _n._ and _v._ Same as HACKLE.

HATCHET, hach'et, _n._ a small axe used by one hand.--_adjs._
HATCH'ET-FACED, having a thin, sharp-featured face; HATCH'ETY, like a
hatchet.--BURY THE HATCHET, to put an end to war, from the habit of the
North American Indians. [Fr. _hachette_, _hacher_, to chop.]


HATCHMENT, hach'ment, _n._ the arms of a deceased person within a black
lozenge-shaped frame, meant to be placed on the front of his house.
[Corrupted from _achievement_.]

HATE, h[=a]t, _v.t._ to dislike intensely: to dislike: to despise
relatively to something else.--_n._ extreme dislike: hatred.--_adjs._
HATE'ABLE, deserving to be hated; HATE'FUL, exciting hate: odious:
detestable: feeling or manifesting hate.--_adv._ HATE'FULLY.--_ns._
HATE'FULNESS; HAT'ER; HAT'RED, extreme dislike: enmity: malignity. [A.S.
_hete_, hate, _hatian_, to hate; Ger. _hasz_.]

HATE, HAET, h[=a]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a whit.

HATHOR, hath'or, _n._ name of an Egyptian goddess, ranked among the second
class of deities, who was the daughter of Ra, the sun.

HATTER, hat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to trouble, annoy: to batter.

HATTI, hat'i, _n._ a Turkish decree of the highest authority, differing
from a firman in being signed by the Sultan himself--in full, HATTI-SHERIF

HAUBERK, haw'b[.e]rk, _n._ a tunic, worn by the Norman soldiers, covered
with rings or mascles, reaching to the knees, slit at the sides or in the
front and back for convenience in riding, though sometimes ending in short
trousers, originally a piece of armour for the neck. [O. Fr. _hauberc_--Old
High Ger. _halsberg_--_hals_, neck, _bergan_, to protect.]

HAUGH, häh, _n._ (_Scot._) a level plain, generally near a river. [A.S.
_healh_, _halh_, a corner.]

HAUGHTY, haw'ti, _adj._ proud: arrogant: contemptuous: (_arch._) bold:
(_Spens._) high--Shakespeare has HAUGHT.--_adv._ HAUGHT'ILY.--_n._
HAUGHT'INESS. [O. Fr. _halt_, _haut_, high--L. _altus_, high.]

HAUL, hawl, _v.t._ to drag: to pull with violence.--_v.i._ to tug, to try
to draw something: to alter a ship's course, to sail generally.--_n._ a
pulling: a draught, as of fishes: a source of interest or profit.--_ns._
HAUL'AGE, act of hauling: charge for hauling or pulling a ship or boat;
turn a ship's course away from an object; HAUL UP, to come or bring to rest
after hauling. [_Hale_.]

HAULD, häld, a Scotch form of _hold_, as in the prov. phrase, 'out of house
and hauld'=homeless and completely destitute.


HAULT, hawlt, _adj._ (_Spens._). HAUGHTY.

HAUNCH, hawnsh, _n._ the fleshy part of the hip and buttock: (_Shak._) the
hip, the hind-part, the rear: (_archit._) the middle part between the
vertex or crown and the springing of an arch.--_adjs._ HAUNCH'LESS;
HAUNCH'Y. [O. Fr. _hanche_; prob. Ger., Old High Ger. _anchâ_, leg.]

HAUNCH, hawnsh, _v.t._ (_prov._) to throw with an underhand movement.--_n._
a jerked underhand throw.

HAUNT, hawnt, _v.t._ to frequent: to follow importunately: to intrude upon
continually: to inhabit or visit as a ghost.--_v.i._ to be much about: to
appear or visit frequently.--_n._ a place much resorted to: (_Shak._) habit
of frequenting.--_p.adj_ HAUNT'ED, frequented, infested, esp. by ghosts or
apparitions.--_n._ HAUNT'ER.--_adv._ HAUNT'INGLY. [O. Fr. _hanter_; acc. to
Littré, a corr. of L. _habit[=a]re_.]

HAUSTELLUM, haws-tel'um, _n._ the sucking organ or proboscis of an insect
or a crustacean:--_pl._ HAUSTELLA.--_adj._ HAUS'TELLATE, provided with

HAUSSMANNIZE, hows'man-[=i]z, _v.t._ to open out, widen, and straighten
streets, and generally rebuild, as Baron _Haussmann_ did to Paris when
prefect of the Seine (1853-70).--_n._ HAUSSMANNIZ[=A]'TION.

HAUSTORIUM, haws-t[=o]'ri-um, _n._ a small sucker of a parasitic plant,
penetrating the tissues of the host:--_pl._ HAUST[=O]'RIA.

HAUTBOY, h[=o]'boi, _n._ an older form of Oboe (q.v.): a large kind of
strawberry. [Fr. _hautbois_--_haut_, high, _bois_, wood.]

HAUTEUR, h[=o]-t[=a]r', _n._ haughtiness: arrogance.--_adj._ HAUT
(_Milt._), haughty.--_ns._ HAUT-GOÛT, flavour, spice, a taint: a highly
seasoned dish; HAUT-PAS, a dais; HAUT'-RELIEF', high relief.--HAUT TON,
high fashion, people of high fashion. [Fr.]

HAÜYNE, hä'win, _n._ a rock-forming mineral, a silicate of alumina and soda
or lime, with sodium and calcium sulphate. [Named from René Just _Haüy_, a
French mineralogist (1743-1822).]

HAVANA, ha-van'a, _n._ a fine quality of cigar, named from _Havana_, the
capital of Cuba, fondly supposed to be made there.--Also HAVANN'A(H).

HAVE, hav, _v.t._ to own or possess: to hold, contain: to hold control of:
to grasp the meaning of: to allow to be done, to cause: to regard, hold in
opinion, esteem: to obtain: to enjoy: to bear or beget: to effect: to be
affected by: to get the better of, outwit, to have hold upon:--_pr.p._
hav'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ had.--_ns._ HAV'ER, one who has or possesses,
a holder: (_Scots law_) a term to denote the person in whose custody a
document is; HAV'ING, act of possessing: possession, estate: behaviour:
(_Scot._ esp. in _pl._) good manners.--_adj._ greedy.--Have as good, lief,
to be as willing; HAVE AT, attack, thrust; HAVE DONE (_with_), to come to
the end of one's dealings; HAVE IT OUT, to have something finally settled;
HAVE ON, to wear; HAVE RATHER, to prefer; HAVE UP, to call to account
before a court of justice, &c. [A.S. _habban_, pa.t. _hæfde,_ pa.p.
_gehæfd_; Ger. _haben_, Dan. _have_.]

HAVELOCK, hav'lok, _n._ a white cover for a military cap, with a long rear
flap as a protection from the sun. [From Gen. Henry _Havelock_, 1795-1857.]

HAVEN, h[=a]'vn, an inlet of the sea, or mouth of a river, where ships can
get good and safe anchorage: any place of safety: an asylum.--_v.t._ to
shelter.--_p.adj._ H[=A]'VENED, sheltered, as in a haven. [A.S. _hæfen_;
Dut. _haven_, Ger. _hafen_.]

HAVER, h[=a]v'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to talk nonsense, or foolishly.--_n._
HAV'EREL, a foolish person.--_n.pl._ HAV'ERS, foolish talk.

HAVERSACK, hav'[.e]r-sak, _n._ a bag of strong linen for a soldier carrying
his rations in.--_n._ HAV'ER (_prov._), oats. [Fr. _havresac_--Ger.
_habersack_, oat-sack--_haber_, _hafer_, oats.]

HAVERSIAN, hav-er'si-an, _adj._ pertaining to or named after Clopton
_Havers_, a 17th-cent. English anatomist who investigated the
blood-vascular system of bone.

HAVILDAR, hav'il-dar, _n._ the highest rank of non-commissioned officer
among native troops in India and Ceylon. [Pers.]

HAVIOUR, h[=a]v'[=u]r, _n._ (_obs._) behaviour.

HAVOC, hav'ok, _n._ general waste or destruction: devastation.--_v.t._ to
lay waste.--_interj._ an ancient hunting or war cry. [O. Fr. _havot_,
plunder, of Teut. origin.]

HAW, haw, _n._ a hedge or enclosure: a field: the berry of the
hawthorn.--_ns._ HAW'-BUCK, a clown; HAW'FINCH, the common grosbeak;
HAW'THORN, a shrub or small tree, much planted both for hedges and for
ornament: the white flower of the hawthorn. [A.S. _haga_, a yard or
enclosure; Dut. _haag_, a hedge, Ger. _hag_, a hedge, Ice. _hagi_, a

HAW, haw, _v.i._ to speak with hesitation or a drawling manner, real or
affected--hence _adj._ HAW-HAW, in an affected tone of voice.--_n._ a
hesitation in speech: loud vulgar laughter.--_v.i._ to guffaw, to laugh
boisterously. [Imit.]

HAW, haw, _n._ the nictitating membrane or third eyelid, as of a horse;
also a disease of this membrane.

HAWK, hawk, _n._ the name of several birds of prey allied to the falcons: a
rapacious person.--_v.i._ to hunt birds with hawks trained for the purpose:
to attack on the wing.--_ns._ HAWK'-BELL, a small bell attached to a hawk's
leg; HAWK'BIT, a genus of plants of order _Compositæ_, closely related to
the dandelion; HAWK'ER.--_adj._ HAWK'-EYED.--_n._ HAWK'ING.--_adj._
HAWK'ISH.--_n._ HAWK'-MOTH, a very large kind of moth, so called from its
hovering motion.--_adj._ HAWK'-NOSED, having a nose like a hawk's
beak.--_ns._ HAWKS'BEARD, a genus of annual and biennial plants of order
_Compositæ_, closely related to hawkweed; HAWK'WEED, a genus of perennial
plants of order _Compositæ_.--KNOW A HAWK FROM A HANDSAW (prob. for
_hernshaw_), to be able to judge between things pretty well. [A.S. _hafoc_;
Dut. _havik_, Ger. _habicht_, Ice. _haukr_.]

HAWK, hawk, _v.i._ to force up matter from the throat.--_n._ the effort to
do this. [_Imit._]

HAWK, hawk, _n._ a plasterer's tool.

HAWKED, hawkt, _adj._ (_Scot._) spotted, streaked.--_ns._ HAW'KEY, HAW'KIE,
a dark cow with white-striped face.

HAWKER, hawk'[.e]r, _n._ one who carries about goods for sale on his back,
a pedlar.--_v.t._ HAWK, to carry about for sale: to cry for sale. [Cf. Low
Ger. and Ger. _höker_, Dut. _heuker_.]

HAWM, hawm, _v.i._ (_prov._) to lounge about.

HAWSE, hawz, _n._ the part of a vessel's bow in which the hawse-holes are
cut.--_n.pl._ HAWSE'-HOLES, the holes in a ship's bow through which the
cables pass.--_ns._ HAWSE'-PIPE, an iron pipe fitted into a hawse-hole, to
save the wood; HAWSE'-TIM'BER, one of the upright timbers in the bow in
which the hawse-holes are cut. [Ice. _háls_, the neck.]

HAWSER, häz'[.e]r, _n._ a small cable, a large rope used in
warping.--_adj._ HAWS'ER-LAID, made of three sma