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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 99, September 20, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 99, September 20, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Saxon characters have been marked in braces as in
{Eafel}. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts (or
emphasis in Greek). A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries"
has been added at the end.]



NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 99 SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 20. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      Venerable Bede's Mental Arithmetic                         201

      Hyphenism, Hyphenic, Hyphenization                         203

      Gray and Cowley                                            204

      Minor Notes:--Ὑπωπιάζω--Meaning of
      Whitsunday--Anagrammatic Pun by William Oldys--Ballad of
      Chevy Chase: Ovid--Horace Walpole at Eton                  205

      QUERIES:--

      Continental Watchmen and their Songs                       206

      Minor Queries:--Quotation from Bacon--Carmagnoles--The
      Use of Tobacco by the Elizabethan Ladies--Covines--Story
      referred to by Jeremy Taylor--Plant in Texas--Discount
      --Sacre Cheveux--"Mad as a March Hare"--Payments for
      Destruction of Vermin--Fire unknown--Matthew Paris's
      Historia Minor--Mother Bunche's Fairy Tales--Monumental
      Symbolism--Meaning of "Stickle" and "Dray"--Son of the
      Morning--Gild Book                                         208

      REPLIES:--

      Pope and Flatman                                           209

      Test of the Strength of a Bow                              210

      Baskerville the Printer                                    211

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Mazer Wood and Sin-eaters--"A
      Posie of other Men's Flowers"--Table Book--Briwingable
      --Simnels--A Ship's Berth--Suicides buried in Cross-roads
      --A Sword-blade Note--Domesday Book of Scotland--Dole-bank
      --The Letter "V"--Cardinal Wolsey--Nervous--Coleridge's
      Essays on Beauty--"Nao" or "Naw," a Ship--Unde derivatur
      Stonehenge--Nick Nack--Meaning of Carfax--Hand giving the
      Benediction--Unlucky for Pregnant Women to take an
      Oath--Borough-English--Date of a Charter                   211

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     215

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               215

      Notices to Correspondents                                  215

      Advertisements                                             216



Notes.


VENERABLE BEDE'S MENTAL ALMANAC.

If our own ancient British sage, the Venerable Bede, could rise up from
the dust of eleven centuries, he might find us, notwithstanding all our
astounding improvements, in a worse position, in one respect at least,
than when he left us; and as the subject would be one in which he was
well versed, it would indubitably attract his attention.

He might then set about teaching us from his own writings a mental
resource, far superior to any similar device practised by ourselves, by
which the day of the week belonging to any day of the month, in any year
of the Christian era, might easily and speedily be found.

And when the few, who would give themselves the trouble of thoroughly
understanding it, came to perceive its easiness of acquirement, its
simplicity in practice, and its firm hold upon the memory, they might
well marvel how so admirable a facility should have been so entirely
forgotten, or by what perversion of judgment it could have been
superseded by the comparatively clumsy and impracticable method of the
Dominical letters.

Let us hear his description of it in his own words:

  "QUÆ SIT FERIA IN CALENDIS.

  "Simile autem huic tradunt argumentum ad inveniendam diem
  Calendarum promptissimum.

  "Habet ergo regulares Januarius II, Februarius V, Martius V,
  Apriles I, Maius III, Junius VI, Julius I, Augustus IIII,
  September VII, October II, November V, December VII. Qui videlicet
  regulares hoc specialiter indicant, quota sit feria per Calendas,
  eo anno quo septem concurrentes adscripti sunt dies: cæteris vero
  annis addes concurrentes quotquot in præsenti fuerunt adnotati ad
  regulares mensium singulorum, et ita diem calendarum sine errore
  semper invenies. Hoc tantum memor esto, ut cum imminente anno
  bisextili unus concurrentium intermittendus est dies, eo tamen
  numero quem intermissurus es in Januario Februarioque utaris: ac
  in calendis primum Martiis per illum qui circulo centinetur solis
  computare incipias. Cum ergo diem calendarum, verbi gratia,
  Januarium, quærere vis; dicis Januarius II, adde concurrentes
  septimanæ dies qui fuerunt anno quo computas, utpote III, fiunt
  quinque; quinta feria intrant calendæ Januariæ. Item anno qui sex
  habet concurrentes, sume v regulares mensis Martii, adde
  concurrentes sex, fiunt undecim, tolle septem, remanent quatuor,
  quarta feria sunt Calendæ Martiæ."--Bedæ Venerabilis, _De Temporum
  Ratione_, caput xxi.

The meaning of this may be expressed as follows:--Attached to the twelve
months of the year are certain fixed numbers called regulars, ranging
from I to VII, denoting the days of the week in their usual order. These
regulars, in any year whereof the concurrent, or solar epact, is 0 or 7,
express, of themselves, the commencing day of each month: but in other
years, whatever the solar epact of the year may be, that epact must be
added to the regular of any month to indicate, in a similar manner, the
commencing day of that month.

It follows, therefore, that the only burthen the memory need be charged
with is the distribution of the regulars among the several months;
because the other element, the solar epact (which also ranges from 1 to
7), may either be obtained from a short mental calculation, or, should
the system come into general use, it would soon become a matter of
public notoriety during the continuance of each current year.

Now, these solar epacts have several practical advantages over the
Dominical letters. 1. They are numerical in themselves, and therefore
they are found at once, and used directly, without the complication of
converting figures into letters and letters into figures. 2. They
increase progressively in every year; whereas the Dominical letters have
a crab-like retrogressive progress, which impedes facility of practice.
3. The _rationale_ of the solar epacts is more easily explained and more
readily understood: they are the accumulated odd days short of a
complete week; consequently the accumulation must increase by 1 in every
year, except in leap years, when it increases by 2; because in leap
years there are 2 odd days over 52 complete weeks. But this irregularity
in the epact of leap year does not come into operation until the
additional day has actually been added to the year; that is, not until
after the 29th of February. Or, as Bede describes it, "_in leap years
one of the concurrent days is intermitted, but the number so intermitted
must be used for January and February; after which, the epact obtained
from cyclical tables_ (or from calculation) _must be used for the
remaining months_." By which he means, that the epacts increase in
arithmetical succession, except in leap years, when the series is
interrupted by one number being passed over; the number so passed over
being used for January and February only. Thus, 2 being the epact of
1851, 3 would be its natural successor for 1852; but, in consequence of
this latter being leap year, 3 is intermitted (except for January and
February), and 4 becomes the real epact, as obtained from calculation.

To calculate the solar epact for any year, Bede in another place gives
the following rule:

  "Si vis scire concurrentes septimanæ dies, sume annos Domini et
  eorum quartum partem adjice: his quoque quatuor adde, (quia)
  quinque concurrentes fuerunt anno Nativitatis Domini: hos partire
  per septem et remanent Epactæ Solis."

That is: take the given year, add to it its fourth part, and also the
constant number 4 (which was the epact preceding the first year of the
Christian era), divide the sum by 7, and what remains is the solar
epact. (If there be no remainder, the epact may be called either 0 or
7.)

This is an excellent rule; the same, I believe, that is to this day
prescribed for arriving at the Dominical letter of the Old Style. Let it
be applied, for example, to find upon what day of the week the battle of
Agincourt was fought (Oct. 25, 1415). Here we have 1415, and its fourth
353, and the constant 4, which together make 1772, divided by 7 leaves 1
as the solar epact; and this, added to 2, the _regular_ for the month of
October, informs us that 3, or Tuesday, was the first day of that month;
consequently it was the 22nd, and Friday, the 25th, was Saint Crispin's
day.

But this rule of Bede's, in consequence of the addition, since his time,
of a thousand years to the number to be operated upon, is no longer so
convenient as a _mental_ resource.

It may be greatly simplified by separating the centuries from the odd
years, by which the operation is reduced to two places of figures
instead of four. Such a method, moreover, has the very great advantage
of assimilating the operation of finding the solar epact, in both
styles, the Old and the New; the only remaining difference between them
being in the rules for finding the _constant number_ to be added in each
century. These rules are as follow:--

_For the Old Style._--In any date, divide the number of centuries by 7,
and deduct the remainder from 4 (or 11); the result is the constant for
that century.

_For the New Style._--In any date, divide the number of centuries by 4,
double the remainder, and deduct it from 6: the result is the constant
for that century.

_For the Solar Epact, in either Style._--To the odd years of any date
(rejecting the centuries) add their fourth part, and also the constant
number found by the preceding rules; divide the sum by 7, and what
remains is the solar epact.

As an example of these rules in _Old Style_, let the former example be
repeated, viz. A.D. 1415:

First, since the centuries (14), divided by 7, leave no remainder, 4 is
the constant number. Therefore 15, and 3 (the fourth), and 4 (the
constant), amount to 22, from which eliminating the sevens, remains 1 as
the solar epact.

For an example in _New Style_, let the present year be taken. In the
first place, 18 divided by 4 leaves 2, which doubled is 4, deducted from
6 results 2, the constant number for the present century. Therefore 51,
and 12 (the fourth), and 2 (the constant), together make 65, from which
the sevens being eliminated, remains 2, the solar epact for this year.

But in appreciating the practical facility of this method, we must bear
in mind that _the constant_, when once ascertained for any century,
remains unchanged throughout the whole of that century; and that _the
solar epact_, when once ascertained for any year, can scarcely require
recalculation during the remainder of that year: furthermore, that
although the rule for calculating the epact, as just recited, is so
extremely simple, yet even that slight mental exertion may be spared to
the mass of those who might benefit by its application to current
purposes; because it might become an object of general notoriety in each
current year. And I am not without hope that "NOTES AND QUERIES" will
next year set the example to other publications, by making the current
solar epact for 1852 a portion of its "heading," and by suffering it to
remain, incorporated with the date of each impression, throughout the
year.

Let us now recur to the allotment of _the regulars_ at the beginning of
Bede's description. Placed in succession their order is as follows:--

      April and July                 I, or Sunday
      January and October           II, or Monday
      May                          III, or Tuesday
      August                      IIII, or Wednesday
      March, Feb., and November      V, or Thursday
      June                          VI, or Friday
      September and December       VII, or Saturday

There is no great difficulty in retaining this in the memory; but should
uncertainty arise at any time, it may be immediately corrected by a
mental reference to the following lines, the alliterative jingle of
which is designed to house them as securely in the brain as the immortal
and never-failing, "Thirty days hath September." The order of the
allotment is preserved by appropriating as nearly as possible a line to
each day of the week; while the absolute connexion here and there of
certain days, by name, with certain months, forms a sort of interweaving
that renders mistake or misplacement almost impossible.

      "April loveth to link with July,
      And the merry new year with October comes by,
      August for Wednesday, Tuesday for May,
      March and November and Valentine's Day,
      Friday is June day, and lastly we seek
      September and Christmas to finish the week."

Now, since we have ascertained, from the short calculation before
recited, that the solar epact of this present year of 1851 is 2, and
since the regular of October is also 2, we have but to add them together
to obtain 4 (or Wednesday) as the commencing day of this next coming
month of October. And, if we wish to know the day of the month belonging
to any other day of the week in October, we have but to subtract the
commencing day, which is 4, from 8, and to the result add the required
day. Let the latter, for example, be Sunday; then 4 from 8 leaves 4,
which added to 1 (or Sunday), shows that Sunday, in the month of October
1851, is either 5th, 12th, 19th, or 26th.

This additional application is here introduced merely to illustrate the
great facilities afforded by the purely numerical form of Bede's
"_argumentum_,"--such as must gradually present themselves to any person
who will take the trouble to become thoroughly and practically familiar
with it.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds, September, 1851.


HYPHENISM, HYPHENIC, HYPHENIZATION.

Where our ancestors wanted words, they made them, or imported them ready
made. But we are become so particular about the etymological force of
newly coined words, that we can never please ourselves, but rather
choose to do without than to tolerate anything exceptionable. We have to
learn again that a word cannot be like Burleigh's nod, but must be
content to indicate the whole by the expression of some prominent part,
or of some convenient part, prominent or not.

Among the uses to which the "NOTES AND QUERIES" might be put, is the
suggestion of words. It very often happens that one who is apt at
finding the want is not equally good for the remedy, and _vice versâ_.
By the aid of this journal the blade might find a handle, or the handle
a blade, as wanted, with the advantage of criticism at the formation;
while an author who coins a word, must commit himself before he can have
much advice.

The above remarks were immediately suggested by my happening to think of
a word for a thing which gives much trouble, and requires more attention
than it has received, but not more than it may receive if it can be
fitly designated by a single word. A _clause_ of a sentence, both by
etymology and usage, means any part of it of which the component words
cannot be separated, but must all go together, or all remain together:
it is then a component of the sentence which has a finished meaning in
itself. The proper mode of indicating the clauses takes its name from
the means, and not from the end: we say _punctuation_, not
_clausification_. This may have been a misfortune, for it is possible
that punctuation might have been better studied, if its name had
imported its object. But there is another and a greater misfortune,
arising from the total want of a name. In a sentence, not only do
collections of words form minor sentences, but they also form compound
words: sometimes eight or ten words are really only one. When two words
are thus compounded, we use a hyphen: but those who have attempted to
use more than one hyphen have been laughed out of the field; though
perspicuity, logic, and algebra were all on their side. The _Morning
Post_ adopted this practice in former days; and Horace Smith (or James,
as the case may be,) ridiculed them in a parody which speaks of "the
not-a-bit-the-less-on-that-account-to-be-universally-detested monster
Buonaparte." It is, I think, much to be regretted that the use of the
hyphen is so restricted: for though, like the comma, it might be
abused, yet the abuse would rather tend to clearness.

But, without introducing a further use of the hyphen, it
would be desirable to have a distinct name for a combination
of words; which, without being such a recognised and permanent
compound as _apple-tree_ or _man in the moon_, is nevertheless
one word in the particular sentence in hand. And the name is
easily found. The word hyphen being Greek (ὑφ' ἕν),
and being made a substantive, we might join Greek suffixes to it,
and speak of _hyphenisms_ and _hyphenic_ phrases. For example,
the following I should call a hyphenic error. When the British
Museum recently published _A Short Guide to that Portion of
the Library of printed Books now open to the Public_, a review
pronounced the title a misnomer; because the _books_ are not
open to the public, but are in locked glass cases. The reviewer
read it "library of printed-books-now-open-to-the-public," instead
of "library-of-printed-books now open to the public." And though in
this case the reviewer was very palpably wrong, yet there are many
cases in which a real ambiguity exists.

A neglect of mental hyphenization often leads to mistake as to an
author's meaning, particularly in this age of morbid implication. For
instance, a person writes something about "a Sunday or other
day-for-which-there-is-a-special-service;" and is taken as meaning "a
Sunday-or-other-day for which," &c. The odds are that some readers will
suppose him, by speak of Sundays _with_ special service, to imply that
some are _without_.

    M.


GRAY AND COWLEY.

Some spirited publisher would confer a serious obligation on the
classical world by bringing out an edition of Gray's _Poems_, with the
parallel passages annexed. "Taking him for all in all," he is one of our
most perfect poets: and though Collins might have rivalled him (under
circumstances equally auspicious), he could have been surpassed by
Milton alone. In 1786, Gilbert Wakefield attempted to do for Gray what
Newton and Warton had done for Milton (and, for one, I thank him for
it); but his illustrations, though almost all good and to the point, are
generally from books which every ordinary reader knows off by heart.
Besides, Wakefield is so very egotistical, and at times so very puerile,
that he is too much for most people. However, his volume, _The Poems of
Mr. Gray, with Notes_, by Gilbert Wakefield, B.A., late Fellow of Jesus
College, Cambridge: London, 1786, would furnish a good substratum for
the volume I am now recommending.

Not to speak of Milton's English poems and the great masterpieces of
ancient times, with which so learned a scholar as Gray was, of course,
familiar, he draws largely from the Greek anthology, from Nonnus, from
Milton's Latin poems, from Cowley, and I had almost said from the prose
works of Bishop Jeremy Taylor. His admiration of the great "Shakspeare
of Divinity" is proved from a portion of one of his letters to Mason;
and some other day I may furnish an illustration or two. Indeed, were
any publisher to undertake the generous office I mention, I dare say
that many a secret treasure would be unlocked, and many an "orient pearl
at random strung" be forthcoming for his use. Let me first mention
Gray's opinion of Cowley, and then add in confirmation one or two
passages out of many. He says in a note to his "Ode on the Progress of
Poesy:"

  "We have had in our language not other odes of the sublime kind
  than that of Dryden 'On St. Cecilia's Day:' for _Cowley (who had
  his merit) yet wanted judgment, style, and harmony for such a
  task_. That of Pope is not worthy of so great a man."

We must submit to Gray's oracular sentence, for he himself was
pre-eminently gifted in the three great qualities in which he declares
the deficiency of Cowley (at least if we are to judge from his English
poems; for the prosody of his Latin efforts seems sadly deficient). At
times Cowley's "harmony" is not first-rate, and his "style" is deeply
impregnated with the fantastic conceits of the day; but he is still a
poet, and a great one too. And I think that in some of his writings Gray
had Cowley evidently in mind; _e.g._ in the _epitaph_ to his "Elegy in a
Country Churchyard:"

      "Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere,
        Heaven did a recompence as largely send:
      He gave to mis'ry (all he had) a tear;
        He gained from Heav'n ('twas all he wish'd) a friend."

Cowley had previously written:

      "Large was his soul; as large a soul as e'er
      Submitted to _inform_ a _body_ here.
      High as the place 'twas shortly in _Heav'n_ to have,
          But low, and humble as his _grave_.
      So _high_ that all the _virtues_ there did come,
          As to their chiefest seat,
          Conspicuous, and great;
      So _low_ that for _me_ too it made a room."

      _On the Death of Mr. William Hervey._
      _Miscellanies_, page 18. London, 1669.

Again--

      "The attick warbler pours her _throat_
      Responsive to the cuckoo's note,
        The _untaught_ harmony of spring."

      Gray, Ode I. _On the Spring._

      "Hadst thou all the charming notes
      Of the wood's poetic _throats_."

      Cowley, _Ode to the Swallow_.

      "Teaching their Maker in their _untaught_ lays."

      Cowley, _Davideis_ lib. i. sect 63. p. 20.

Again:

      "Where'er the oak's thick branches stretch
        A broader browner shade,
      Where'er the rude and moss-grown beech
        O'ercanopies the glade,
      Beside some water's rushy brink,
      With me the Muse shall sit, and think," &c.

      Gray, Ode I. _On the Spring._

      "O magnum Isacidum decus! O pulcherrima castra!
      O arma ingentes olim paritura triumphos!
      Non sic herbarum vario subridet Amictu,
      Planities pictæ vallis, montisque supini
      Clivus, perpetuis Cedrorum versibus altus.
      Non sic æstivo quondam nitet hortus in anno,
      Frondusque, fructusque ferens, formosa secundum
      Flumina, mollis ubi viridisque supernatat umbra."

      Cowley, _Davideidos_ lib. i. ad finem.

I do not mean that Gray may not have had other poets in his mind when
writing these lines (for there is nothing new or uncommon about them);
but rather a careful going over of Cowley's poems convinces me that Gray
was sensible of his "merits," and often corrects his want of "judgment"
by his own refined and most exquisite taste. I must give one more
instance; and I think that Bishop Hall's allusion to his life at
Emmanuel College, and Bishop Ridley's "Farewell to Pembroke Hall," must
every one fall into the background before Cowley. Gray's poem ought to
be too well known to require quoting:

      "Ye distant spires, ye antique towers,
        That crown the wat'ry glade,
      Where grateful Science still adores
        Her Henry's holy shade;
      And ye that from the stately brow
      Of Windsor's heights th' expanse below
        Of grove, of lawn, of mead survey,
      Whose turf, whose shade, whose flowers among
      Wanders the hoary Thames along
        His silver winding way.

      "Ah, happy hills! ah, pleasing shade!
        Ah, fields beloved in vain!
      Where once my careless childhood stray'd,
        A stranger yet to pain.
      I feel the gales that from ye blow,
      A momentary bliss bestow,
        As waving fresh their gladsome wing,
      My weary soul they seem to soothe,
      And, redolent of joy and youth,
        To breathe a second spring."

      Ode III. _On a distant Prospect of Eton College._

Cowley was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; and if I rightly
remember Bonney's _Life of Bishop Middleton_, his affecting allusions to
Cambridge had the highest praise of that accomplished scholar and
divine:

      "O mihi jucundum Grantæ super omnia nomen!
        O penitus toto corde receptus amor!
      O pulchræ sine luxu ædes, vitæque beatæ,
        Splendida paupertas, ingenuusque decor!
      O chara ante alias, magnorum nomine Regum
        Digna domus! Trini nomine digna Dei
      O nimium Cereris cumulati munere campi,
        Posthabitis Ennæ quos colit illa jugis!
      O sacri fontes! et sacræ vatibus umbræ
        Quas recreant avium Pieridumque chori!
      O Camus! Phoebo multus quo gratior amnis
        Amnibus auriferis invidiosus inops!
      Ah mihi si vestræ reddat bona gaudia sedis,
        Detque Deus doctâ posse quiete frui!
      Qualis eram cum me tranquilla mente sedentem
        Vidisti in ripâ, Came serene, tuâ;
      Mulcentem audisti puerili flumina cantu;
        Ille quidem immerito, sed tibi gratus erat.
      Nam, memini ripa cum tu dignatus utrâque
        Dignatum est totum verba referre nemus.
      Tunc liquidis tacitisque simul mea vita diebus,
        Et similis vestræ candida fluxit aquæ.
      At nunc coenosæ luces, atque obice multo
        Rumpitur ætatis turbidus ordo meæ.
      Quid mihi Sequanâ opus, Tamesisve aut Thybridis undâ?
      Tu potis es nostram tollere, Came, sitim."

      _Elegia dedicatoria, ad illustrissimam Academiam
      Cantabrigiensem_, prefixed to Cowley's Works,
      Lond. 1669, folio.

    RT.

  Warmington, Sept. 8. 1851.


Minor Notes.

_Ὑπωπιάζω._--I "keep under my body," &c. 1 Cor. ix. 27.
One can scarcely allude to this passage without remembering the
sarcastic observations of Dr. South upon a too literal interpretation of
it. (_Sermons_, vol. i. p. 12. Dublin, 1720.) And yet deeper and more
spiritual writers by no means pass the literal interpretation by with
indifference. Bishop Andrewes distinctly mentions ὑπωπιασμός,
or _suggillatio_, amongst the "circumstantiæ orationis;" as also
ἐκδίκησις, _vindicta_, or _revenge_, 2 Cor. vii. II. (_Preces Privatæ_,
pag. 14. Londini, 1828.) Bishop J. Taylor is equally explicit in a
well-known and remarkable passage:

  "If the lust be upon us, and sharply tempting, by inflicting any
  smart to overthrow the strongest passion by the most violent pain,
  we shall find great ease for the present, and the resolution and
  apt sufferance against the future danger; and this was St. Paul's
  remedy: 'I bring my body under;' he used some rudeness towards
  it."--_Holy Living_, sect. iii. _Of Chastity. Remedies against
  Uncleanness_, 4.

The word ὑπώπια occurs only once in the LXX, but that seems in
a peculiarly apposite way: "_ὑπώπια καὶ συντρίμματα συναντᾷ κακοῖς_,
πληγαὶ δὲ εἰς ταμιεῖα κοιλίας." As our English version
translates it: "The blueness of a wound cleanseth away evil (or, is a
purging medicine against evil, margin), so do stripes the inward parts
of the belly." (Proverbs xx. 30.) If it were not absolute presumption to
differ from the great Dr. Jackson, one would feel inclined to question,
or at least to require further proof of some observations of his. He
says, in treating of our present passage:

  "The very literal importance of those three words in the
  original--ὑποπιάζω, κηρῦξας, and   ἀδόκιμος--cannot be so well
  learned from any Dictionary or Lexicon, as from such as write of
  the Olympic Games, or of that kind of tryal of masteries, which in
  his time or before was in use. The word ὑποπιάζω is proper
  (I take it) unto wrestlers, whose practice it was to keep under
  other men's bodies, not their own, or to keep their antagonists
  from all advantage of hold, either gotten or aimed at. But our
  apostle did imitate their practice upon his own body, not on any
  others; for his own body was his chief antagonist."--_Works_,
  vol. ii. p. 644. Lond. 1673.

Suidas makes some remarks upon the word, but they are not very much to
our purpose.

    RT.

  Warmington.

_Meaning of Whitsunday._--I long ago suggested in your pages that
Whitsun Day, or, as it was anciently written, Witson Day, meant Wisdom
Day, or the day of the outpouring of Divine wisdom; and I requested the
attention of your learned correspondents to this subject. I cannot
refrain from thanking C. H. for his fourth quotation from Richard Rolle
(Vol. iv., p. 50.) in confirmation of this view.

      "This day _witsonday_ is cald,
      For _wisdom & wit_ seuene fald
      Was youen to þ'e apostles as þis day
      For _wise_ in alle þingis wer thay,
      To spek w't outen mannes lore
      Al maner langage eueri whore."

    H. T. G.

_Anagrammatic Pun by William Oldys._--Your correspondent's Query
concerning Oldys's _Account of London Libraries_ (Vol. iv., p. 176.),
reminded me of the following punning anagram on the name of that
celebrated bibliographer, which may claim a place among the first
productions of its class. It was Oldys himself, and is attached to one
of his own transcripts in the British Museum:

      "In word and _Will I am_ a friend to you,
      And one friend _Old is_ worth a hundred new."

    BLOWEN.

_Ballad of Chevy Chase: Ovid._--Addison, in his critique on the ballad
of "Chevy Chase," after quoting the stanza--

      "Against Sir Hugh Montgomery,
        So right his shaft he set,
      The grey goose wing that was thereon
        In his heart's blood was wet,"

says that "the thought" in that stanza "was never touched by any other
poet, and is such a one as would have shined in Homer or Virgil." It is
perhaps true that there is no passage in any other writer exactly
resembling this, but it is not quite true that the thought has not been
_touched_; for there is something approaching to it in Ovid's
_Metamorphoses_, where the slaughter of Niobe's children by the arrows
of Apollo is described:

      "Altera per jugulum _pennis tenus_ acta sagitta est:
      _Expulit hanc sanguis_; seque ejaculatus in altum
      Emicat."--VI. 260.

The author of this ballad would appear, from the passages cited by
Addison, to have been well read in the Latin poets. Had Addison
recollected the above passage of Ovid, he would doubtless have adduced
it.

    J. S. W.

  Stockwell.

_Horace Walpole at Eton._--The following anecdote of Horace Walpole
while at Eton was related by the learned Jacob Bryant, one of his
school-fellows, and has not, I believe, been printed; it is at all
events very much at your service.

In those days the Etonians were in the habit of acting plays, and
amongst others _Tamerlane_ was selected for representation. The cast of
parts has unluckily not been preserved, but it is sufficient for us to
know that the lower boys were put into requisition to personate the
mutes. After the performance the wine, which had been provided for the
actors, had disappeared, and a strong suspicion arose that the lower
boys behind the scenes had made free with it, and Horace Walpole
exclaimed, "The mutes have swallowed the liquids!"

    BRAYBROOKE.



Queries.


CONTINENTAL WATCHMEN AND THEIR SONGS.

The inquiries I made in Vol. iii., p. 324., respecting the Bellman and
his Songs, have been answered by most interesting information (pp. 377.
451. 485.); and the references made by the Editor to V. Bourne's
translation was most acceptable. The interest of this subject is
increased by finding that the Custos Nocturnus exists at the present day
in other countries, resembling very much in duties, costume, and chants
the Westminster Bellman. I venture to send you extracts from W. Hurton's
_Voyage from Leith to Lapland_, and Dr. Forbes's _Physician's Holiday_.

  "During the past year of 1849 it has been my lot to reside at four
  of the most remarkable capitals of Europe, and successively to
  experience what spring is in London, what summer is in Paris, what
  autumn is in Edinburgh, and what winter is in Copenhagen. Vividly,
  indeed, can I dwell on the marvellous contrast of the night aspect
  of each: but one of the most interesting peculiarities I have
  noticed in any of them, is that presented by the watchmen of the
  last-named. When I first looked on these guardians of the night, I
  involuntarily thought of Shakspeare's Dogberry and Verges. The
  sturdy watchers are muffled in uniform great coats, and also wear
  fur caps. In their hand they carry a staff of office, on which
  they screw, when occasion requires, that fearful weapon the
  'morning star.' They also sometimes may be seen with a lanthorn at
  their belt: the candle contained in the lanthorn they place at the
  top of their staff, to relight any street-lamps which require
  trimming. In case of fire, the watchmen give signals from the
  church towers, by striking a number of strokes, varying with the
  quarter of the city in which the fire occurs; and they also put
  from the tower flags and lights pointed in the direction where the
  destructive element is raging. From eight o'clock in the evening,
  until four (Query, until five) o'clock in the morning, all the
  year round, they chant a fresh verse at the expiration of each
  hour, as they go their rounds. The cadence is generally deep and
  guttural, but with a peculiar emphasis and tone; and from a
  distance it floats on the still night air with a pleasing and
  impressive effect, especially to the ear of a stranger. The verses
  in question are of great antiquity, and were written, I am told,
  by one of the Danish bishops. They are printed on a large sheet of
  paper, with an emblematical border, rudely engraved in the old
  style; and in the centre is a large engraving exactly representing
  one of the ancient watchmen, in the now obsolete costume, with his
  staff and 'morning star' in hand, a lanthorn at his belt, and his
  dog at his feet.

  "A copy of the broadside has been procured me, and my friend Mr.
  Charles Beckwith has expressly made for me a verbatim translation
  of the verses; and his version I will now give at length. I am
  induced to do this, because, not only are the chants most
  interesting in themselves, as a fine old relic of Scandinavian
  customs, but there seems to me a powerful poetical spirit
  pervading them. At the top of the sheet are the lines which in the
  translation are--

      'Watch and pray,
      For time goes;
      Think and directly,
      You know not when.'

  "In large letters over the engraving of the watchman are the words
  (translated):

      'Praised be God! our Lord, to whom
      Be love, praise, and honour.'

  "I will now give the literal version, printed exactly in the same
  arrangement of lines, letters, and punctuation, as the original:

      '_Copenhagen Watchman's Song._

              Eight o'clock,
      When darkness blinds the earth
          And the day declines,
        That time then us reminds
          Of death's dark grave;
      Shine on us, Jesus sweet,
          At every step
      To the grave-place,
      And grant a blissful death.'

  "Every hour between eight and five o'clock inclusive has its own
  chant. The last is--

              'Five o'clock.
      O Jesu! morning star!
        Our King unto thy care
      We so willingly commend,
        Be Thou his sun and shield!
      Our clock it has struck five
          Come mild Sun,
          From mercy's pale,
      Light up our house and home.'"

      _Voyage from Leith to Lapland in 1850_,
      by W. Hurton, vol. i. p. 104.

Dr. Forbes writes:

  "We had very indifferent rest in our inn, owing to the over-zeal
  of the Chur watchmen, whose practice it is to perambulate the town
  through the whole night, twelve in number, and who on the present
  occasion displayed a most energetic state of vigilance. They not
  only called, but sung out, every hour, in the most sonorous
  strains, and even chanted a long string of verses on the striking
  of some.... I suppose the good people of Chur think nothing of
  these chantings, or from habit hear them not; but a tired
  traveller would rather run the risk of being robbed in
  tranquillity, than be thus sung from his propriety during all the
  watches of the night."--_A Physician's Holiday_, pp. 80, 81.

Dr. Forbes gives a copy of a "Watch Chant at Chur," with a translation,
pp. 81, 82. At p. 116. he says:

  "In our hotel at Altorf we were again saluted, during the vigils
  of the night, but in a very mitigated degree, with some of the
  same patriotic and pious strains which had so disturbed us at
  Chur. As chanted here, however, they were far from unwelcome. The
  only other place, I think, where we heard these Wächterrufe was
  Neufchatel. These calls are very interesting relics of the old
  times, and must be considered indicative as well of the simple
  habits of the old time, as of the pious feelings of the people of
  old."

He then gives the Evening and Morning Chants in the town of Glarus, and
the chant in use in some places in the canton of Zurich; but in Zurich
itself the chant is no longer heard.

Dr. Forbes concludes the twelfth chapter with the following observation:

  "The same antiquity, and also the inveteracy of old customs to
  persist, is strikingly shown by the fact that in some parts of the
  canton of Tessino, where the common language of the people is
  Italian, the night watch-call is still in old German."

The apparent universality of the Bellman throughout Europe gives rise to
questions that would, I apprehend, extend beyond the object of "NOTES
AND QUERIES;" such as, Is pure religion benefited by the engrafting of
it upon stocks so familiar as the bellman or watchman? What are the
causes that the old ecclesiastic bellman is no longer heard in some
countries, whilst in others he continues with little or no variation?
Has religion lost or gained by the change?

Dr. Forbes's notice of the Tessino watchman calls up the public crier in
England, another class of bellmen, asking for a hearing, with his "O
yes! O yes!" Little does he think that he is speaking French.

    F. W. J.


Minor Queries.

151. _Quotation from Bacon._--In Lord Campbell's Life of Lord Bacon
(_Lives of the Lord Chancellors_, vol. ii. p. 314.) he gives an extract
from Lord Bacon's speech in the House of Commons, on his proposed bill
for "Suppressing Abuses in Weights and Measures." In the following
sentence there is a word which seems to require explanation:

  "The fault of using false weights and measures is grown so
  intolerable and common, that if you would build churches you shall
  not need for battlements and _halls_, other than false weights of
  lead and brass."

The use of lead for the battlements of churches seems obvious enough:
but what can _halls_ mean, unless it be a misprint for _bells_, for
which brass would be required?

    PEREGRINUS.

152. _Carmagnoles._--Can any of your readers tell me the exact meaning
of the _Carmagnoles_ of the French Revolution? Is the "Marseillaise" a
Carmagnole song? If the word be derived from Carmagnuola in Piedmont,
what is the story of its origin?

    W. B. H.

153. _The Use of Tobacco by the Elizabethan Ladies._--In _An
Introduction to English Antiquities, by James Eccleston, B.A._, 8vo.
1847, p. 306., the author, speaking of the ladies of the reign of
Elizabeth, has the following passage:

  "It is with regret we add, that their teeth were at this time
  generally black and rotten, a defect which foreigners attributed
  to their inordinate love for sugar, but which may, perhaps, be
  quite as reasonably ascribed to their frequent habit of taking the
  Nicotian weed to excess."

Does the author mean to insinuate by the above, that the Elizabethan
ladies indulged in the "filthy weed" by "smoaking" or "chewing?" I have
always understood that the "Nicotian weed" _whitened_ the teeth rather
than _blackened_ them, but should be glad to be enlightened upon the
subject by some of your scientific readers.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

154. _Covines_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--Remembering to have seen it stated
by one of your correspondents, that witches or sorcerers were formerly
divided into classes or companies of twelve, called _covines_, I should
feel obliged by a reference to the authorities from which this statement
is derived. They were not alleged at the time.

    A. N.

155. _Story referred to by Jeremy Taylor._--Jeremy Taylor (_Duct.
Dubit._, book iii. chap. ii. rule 5. quæst. 2.) states:

  "The Greek that denied the depositum of his friend, and offered to
  swear at the altar that he had restored it already, did not
  preserve his conscience and his oath by desiring his friend to
  hold the staff in which he had secretly conveyed the money. It is
  true, he delivered it into his hand, desiring that he would hold
  it till he had sworn; but that artifice was a plain cozenage, and
  it was prettily discovered. For the injured person, in indignation
  at the perjury, smote the staff upon the ground, and broke it, and
  espied the money."

Whence is the above incident derived?

    A TR.

156. _Plant in Texas._--I shall be glad to learn the scientific name of
the plant to which the following extract from the _Athenæum_ (1847, p.
210.) refers:--

  "It is a well-known fact that in the vast prairies of Texas a
  little plant is always to be found which, under all circumstances
  of climate, changes of weather, rain, frost, or sunshine,
  invariably turns its leaves and flowers to the north," &c.

   .א .ת

157. _Discount._--Can any of your readers inform me how discount
originated, and where first made use of?

    JAMES C.

158. _Sacre Cheveux._--The motto of the arms of the family of _Halifax_
of Chadacre in Suffolk, and of Lombard Street, is--

      "SACRE CHEVEUX."

It does not seem to bear allusion to the crest, a griffin, nor to any of
the charges in the coat, which I do not at the moment accurately
remember. If you will enlighten me as to the meaning and origin of the
motto, I shall be obliged.

    S. A.

159. "_Mad as a March Hare._"--In Mr. Mayhew's very interesting work,
_London Labour and the London Poor_, Part xxxiii. p. 112., a collector
of hareskins, in giving an account of his calling, says:

  "Hareskins is in--leastways I c'lects them--from September to the
  end of March, when hares, they says, goes mad."

Perhaps the allusion to the well-known saying, "as mad as a March hare,"
on this occasion was made without the collector of hareskins being aware
of the existence of such a saying. Is anything known of its origin? I
imagine that Mr. Mayhew's work will bring many such sayings to light.

    L. L. L.

160. _Vermin, Payments for Destruction of, and Ancient Names._--Can you
afford me any information as to the authority (act of parliament, or
otherwise,) by which churchwardens in old times paid sums of money for
the destruction of vermin in the several parishes in England; and by
what process of reasoning, animals now deemed innocuous were then
thought to merit so rigorous an extirpation?

In some old volumes of churchwardens' accounts to which I have access, I
find names which it is impossible to associate with any description of
vermin now known. Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to
identify them: such as _glead_, _ringteal_, _greas'head_, _baggar_. My
own impression as to the latter name was, that it was only another way
of spelling badger; but as, in the volume to which I refer, the word
_bowson_ occurs, which the historian Dr. Whitaker pronounces to be
identical with that species of vermin, my surmise can scarcely be
correct.

    J. B. (Manchester).

161. _Fire unknown._--Leibnitz (_Sur l'Entendement humain_, liv. i. §
4.) speaks of certain islanders to whom fire was unknown. Is there any
authentic account of savages destitute of this essential knowledge?

    C. W. G.

162. _Matthew Paris's Historia Minor._--During the last few years I have
made occasional, but unsuccessful, inquiries after the _Historia Minor_
of Matthew Paris. It is quoted at some length by Archbishop Parker
(_Antiquit. Eccles. Brit._, ed. Hanov. 1605, p. 158.). It is also
referred to, apparently upon Parker's authority, by several divines of
the succeeding age; by one or more of whom (as well as by Watt) the MS.
is spoken of as deposited in the Royal Library at St. James's. The words
produced by Parker do not occur in Matthew Paris's _Major History_;
though the editor of the second edition of the larger work would appear
to have consulted the _Hist. Minor_, either in the _Biblioth. Reg._, or
the Cottonian Library, or else in the Library of Corpus Coll.,
Cambridge. Can any one gratify my curiosity by saying whether this MS.
is known to exist, and (if so) where?

    J. SANSOM.

163. _Mother Bunche's Fairy Tales._--Who wrote _Mother Bunche's Fairy
Tales_?

    DALSTONIA.

164. _Monumental Symbolism._--In the south aisle of Tylehurst church,
Berks, is a beautiful monument to the memory of Sir Peter Vanlore,
Knight, and his lady, in recumbent positions, at whose feet is the
statue of their eldest son in armour kneeling. In the front of the tomb
are the figures of ten of their children in processional form--first,
two daughters singly; the rest two and two, four of which have skulls in
their right hands, and a book in their left, probably to denote their
being deceased at the time the monument was erected. At the feet of one
of the youngest children is represented a very small figure of a child
lying in a shroud, the date 1627.

Query, What do the books symbolise?

    JULIA R. BOCKETT.

  Southcote Lodge.

165. _Meaning of "Stickle" and "Dray."_--In Wm. Browne's _Pastoral_,
"The Squirrel Hunt," we read of--

      "Patient anglers, standing all the day
      Near to some shallow _stickle_, or deep bay."

The word _stickle_ appears to me to be used here for a pool. Is it ever
so used now, or has that meaning become obsolete? I do not find it in
Richardson's _Dictionary_.

In the Lake District, in the Langdales, is Harrison's Stickle or Stickle
Tarn, which I think confirms my view of the meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *

      "Whilst he from tree to tree, from spray to spray,
      Gets to the wood, and hides him in his _dray_."

Cowper uses the word _dray_ with reference to the same animal:

      "Chined like a squirrel to his _dray_."

      "A Fable," Southey's _Edit._ viii. 312.

What is the correct meaning of this word? Richardson, from Barrett,
says, "a _dray_ or _sledde_, which goeth without wheels." And adds,
"also applied to a carriage with low, heavy wheels, dragged heavily
along, as a brewer's _dray_."

He then quotes the passage from Cowper, containing the above line.

    F. B. RELTON.

166. _Son of the Morning._--

          "Son of the morning, rise! approach you here!
          Come--but molest not yon defenceless urn:
          Look on this spot--a nation's sepulchre!
          Abode of gods, whose shrines no longer burn.
          Even gods must yield--religions take their turn:
          'Twas Jove's--'tis Mahomet's--and other creeds
          Will rise with other years, till man shall learn
          Vainly his incense soars, his victim bleeds;
      Poor child of Doubt and Death, whose hope is built on reeds."

How many read the above beautiful stanza from _Childe Harold_, Canto II.
Stanza 3., without asking themselves who the "Son of the morning" is.
Perhaps some of your literary correspondents and admirers of Byron may
be able to tell us. I enclose my own solution for your information.

    AN OLD BENGAL CIVILIAN.

167. _Gild Book._--The Gild-Book of the "Holy Trinity Brotherhood" of
St. Botolph's without Aldersgate, London, once belonged to Mr. W. Hone,
by whom it is quoted in his _Ancient Mysteries_, p. 79. If any of the
readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" would be so kind as to let me know where
this MS. is to be found, I should be very thankful.

    D. ROCK.

  Buckland, Faringdon.



Replies.


POPE AND FLATMAN.

(Vol. iv., p. 132.)

In the edition of Pope's _Works_ published by Knapton, Lintot, and
others, 1753, 9 vols., I find the following note to the Ode entitled
"The Dying Christian to his Soul:"--

  "This Ode was written in imitation of the famous Sonnet of Hadrian
  to his departing Soul, but as much superior to his original in
  sense and sublimity as the Christian religion is to the pagan."

This is confirmed by the correspondence of Pope with Steele, vol. vii.
pp. 185, 188, 189, 190. Letters 4, 7, 8, and 9.

That Pope also derived some hints at least from Flatman's Ode is, I
think, certain, from the following extract from a bookseller's catalogue
of a few years' date:

  "Flatman, Thos., Poems and Songs. Portrait slightly damaged. 8vo.,
  new, cf. gt. back, 8s. With autograph of Alex. Pope.

  "MS. Note at p. 55.--'This next piece, _A Thought on Death_, is
  remarkable as being the verses from which Pope borrowed some of
  the thoughts in his Ode of The Dying Christian to his Soul.'"

    F. B. RELTON.

The question whether Flatman borrowed from Pope or Pope from Flatman
(the former seems far more probable) may perhaps be decided by the date
of Flatman's composition, if that can be ascertained. Pope's ode was
composed in November, 1712, as recorded in the interesting series of
letters in the correspondence between Pope and Steele (_Letters_ iv. to
ix.) and in the 532nd number of the _Spectator_. From Steele's letter it
appears that the stanzas were composed for music: is any setting of them
known, anterior to that by Harwood, which has obtained such universal
popularity, in spite of its many undeniable errors in harmony? Is
anything known of this composer? he certainly was not deficient either
in invention or taste, and must have written other pieces worthy to be
remembered.

    E. V.

It seems probable that the coincidence between the passages of Thomas
Flatman and Pope, indicated at p. 132., arises from both imitating the
_alliteration_ of the original:

      "_Animula, vagula, blandula,_
      Hospes, comesque corporis,
      Quæ nunc abibis in loca,
      _Pullidula, rigida, undula_?
      Nec, ut soles, dabis jocos."

Casaubon (_Hist. Ang. Script._, t. i. p. 210. ed. Lug. Bat.) has totally
lost sight of this in his Greek translation.

    THEODORE BUCKLEY.


TEST OF STRENGTH OF A BOW.

(Vol. iv., p. 56.)

Although unable to answer all the Queries of TOXOPHILUS, the subjoined
information may possibly advantage him. His Queries of course have
reference to the long bow, and not to the arbalest, or cross-bow. The
length of this bow appears to have varied according to the height and
strength of the bowman; for in the 12th year of the reign of Edward IV.
an act was passed ordaining that every Englishman should be possessed of
a bow of his own height. Bishop Latimer also, in one of his sermons,
preached before Edward VI., and published in 1549, wherein he enforces
the practice of archery, has the following passage:

  "In my time my father taught me how to draw, how to lay my body in
  my bow, and not to draw with strength of arms, as other nations
  do, but with strength of body. I had my bows brought me according
  to my age and strength: as I increased in them, so my bows were
  made bigger and bigger."

The length of the full-sized bow appears to have been about six feet:
the arrow, three.

The distance to which an arrow could be shot from the long bow of course
depended, in a great measure, upon the quality and toughness of the
wood, as well as upon the skill and strength of the archer; but I
believe it will be found that the tougher and more unyielding the bow,
the greater the strength required in bending it, and consequently the
greater the force imparted to the arrow. The general distance to which
an arrow could be shot from the long bow seems to have been from eleven
to twelve score yards; although there are instances on record of
individuals shooting from 400 to 500 yards.

The best bows used by our ancestors were made of yew, as it appears from
a statute made in the thirty-third year of the reign of Henry VIII., by
which it was enacted--

  "That none under the age of seventeen should shoot with a bow of
  yew, except his parents were worth 10_l._ per annum in lands, or
  40 marks in goods: and for every bow made of yew, the bowyer not
  inhabiting London or the suburbs should make four, and the
  inhabitant there two, bows of other wood."

These restrictions were doubtless owing to the great scarcity of yew.
The other woods most in request were elm, witch-hazel, and ash. By the
statute 8th of Elizabeth, cap. 3., it was ordained that every bowyer
residing in London should have always ready fifty bows of either of the
before-mentioned woods. By this statute also the prices at which the
bows were to be sold were regulated.

I believe the ancient bows were made of one piece; whether there is any
advantage to be derived in having a bow of more than two pieces, I leave
for some one better qualified than myself to determine.

As regards arrows, Ascham, in his _Toxophilus_, has enumerated fifteen
sorts of wood of which arrows were made in his time, viz. brasell,
turkie-wood, fusticke, sugercheste, hard-beam, byrche, ash, oak,
service-tree, alder, blackthorn, elder, beach, aspe, and sallow; of
these aspe and ash were accounted the best; the one for target-shooting,
the other for war. The author of _The Field Book_ says:

  "That an arrow weighing from twenty to four-and-twenty
  pennyweights, made of yew, was considered by archers the best that
  could be used."

    DAVID STEVENS.

  Godalming.

The method of trying and proving a bow is stated by Ascham to be thus:

  "By shooting it in the fields, and _sinking_ it with _dead heavy_
  shafts; looking where it _comes_ most, and providing for that
  place betimes, lest it pinch and so fret. When the bow has thus
  been shot in, and appears to contain good shooting wood, it must
  be taken to a skilful workman, to be cut shorter, scraped, and
  dressed fitter, and made to come circularly round; and it should
  be whipped at the ends, lest it snap in sunder or fret sooner than
  the archer is aware of."

It is calculated that an arrow may be shot 110 yards for every 20 lbs.
weight of the bow.

As regards the length of the old English bow, the statute 5th of Edward
IV. cap. 4., runs thus:

  "That every Englishman, and Irishmen that dwell with Englishmen
  and speak English, that be between sixteen and sixty in age, shall
  have an English bow of his own length."

Ascham recommended for men of average strength arrows made of birch,
hornbeam, oak, and ash.

The foregoing is extracted from a work entitled _The English Bowman_, by
T. Roberts, 1801.

    PHILOSOPHUS.


BASKERVILLE THE PRINTER.

(Vol. iv., pp. 40. 123.)

Hansard's _Typographia_, i. 8vo. 1825, Preface, p. xii--xiii.:

  "Of the more modern portraits something remains to be said, and
  particularly of that of Baskerville. It has been hitherto supposed
  that no likeness is extant of this first promoter of fine
  printing, and author of various improvements in the Typographic
  Art, as well as in the arts connected with it. At the time when I
  was collecting information for that part of my work in which Mr.
  Baskerville is particularly mentioned (p. 310. _et seq._), I
  thought it a good opportunity to make inquiry at Birmingham
  whether any portrait or likeness of him remained; for a long time
  the inquiry was constantly answered in the negative, but at last
  it occurred to a friend to make a search among the family of the
  late Mrs. Baskerville, and he was successful. Mr. Baskerville
  married the widow of a Mr. Eaves; her maiden name was Ruston; she
  had two children by her former husband, a son and a daughter: the
  latter married her first cousin, Mr. Josiah Ruston, formerly a
  respectable druggist at Birmingham, and she survived her husband.
  At the sale of some effects after her decease, portraits of her
  mother and her father-in-law, Mr. Baskerville, were purchased by
  Mr. Knott of Birmingham. Some of Mr. Ruston's family and friends
  who are still living, consider this likeness of Mr. Baskerville as
  a most excellent and faithful resemblance. It was taken by one
  Miller, an artist of considerable eminence in the latter part of
  Baskerville's time. The inquiries of my friend Mr. Grafton, of
  Park Grove, near Birmingham, at once brought this painting into
  notice: and at his solicitation Mr. Knott kindly permitted Mr.
  Raven of Birmingham, an artist of much celebrity, to copy it for
  my use and the embellishment of this work; to which, I think, the
  united talents of Mr. Craig and Mr. Lee have done ample justice."

The portrait faces p. 310. of Mr. Hansard's book, and there may be found
an account, though somewhat different, of the exhumation alluded to by
MR. ST. JOHNS (Vol. iv., p. 123.), which took place in May, 1821.

    CRANMORE.

In answer to an inquirer I beg respectfully to state that the body of
the eminent printer now reposes, as it has for some years, in the vaults
of Christ Church in our town.

    WILLIAM CORNISH.

  New Street, Birmingham.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Mazer Wood and Sin-eaters_ (Vol. iii., pp. 239. 288.).--The following
extract from Hone's _Year Book_, p. 858., will add to the explanation
furnished by S. S. S., and will also give an instance of the singular
practices which prevailed among our ancestors:--

  "Among the Lansdowne MSS. in the British Museum are statements in
  Aubrey's own handwriting to this purport. In the county of
  Hereford, was an old custom at funerals, to hire poor people, who
  were to take upon them the sins of the party deceased. One of them
  (he was a long, lean, ugly, lamentable, poor rascal), I remember,
  lived in a cottage on Rosse highway. The manner was, that when the
  corpse was brought out of the house, and laid on the bier, a loaf
  of bread was brought out, and delivered to the sin eater, over the
  corpse, as also a _mazard bowl_ of maple, full of beer (which he
  was to drink up), and sixpence in money, in consideration whereof
  he took upon him, _ipso facto_, all the sins of the defunct, and
  freed him or her from walking after they were dead."

Perhaps some of your readers may be able to throw some light on this
curious practice of _sin-eating_, or on the existence of regular
_sin-eaters_.

    E. H. B.

  Demerary.

  [Mr. Ellis, in his edition of Brande's _Popular Antiquities_, vol.
  ii. p. 155. 4to. has given a curious passage from the Lansdowne
  MSS. concerning a sin-eater who lived in Herefordshire, which has
  been quoted in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xcii. pt. i. p.
  222.]

"_A Posie of other Men's Flowers_" (Vol. iv., pp. 58. 125.).--If D. Q.
should succeed in finding this saying in Montaigne's Works, I hope he
will be kind enough to send an "Eureka!" to "NOTES AND QUERIES," as by
referring to pp. 278. 451. of your second volume he will see that I am
interested in the question.

I am still inclined to think that the metaphor, _in its present concise
form_ at all events, does _not_ belong to Montaigne, though it may owe
its origin to some passage in the _Essays_. See, for example, one in
book i. chap. 24.; another in book ii. chap. 10., in Hazlitt's second
edition, 1845, pp. 54. 186.

But I have not forgotten Montaigne's motto, "Que sçais-je?" The chances
are that I am wrong. I should certainly like to see his right to the
saying satisfactorily proved by reference to book, chapter, and page.

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.

At the conclusion of the preface to the thick 8vo. edition of the
_Elegant Extracts, Verse_, published by C. Dilly, 1796, you will find
these words:--

  "I will conclude my preface with the _ideas of Montaigne_. 'I have
  here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought
  nothing of my own but the thread that ties them.'"

    R. S. S.

  56. Fenchurch Street.

_Table Book_ (Vol. i., p. 215.).--See _Transactions of the Royal Irish
Academy_, vol. xxi., Antiq. pp. 3-15, and some specimens in the museum
of the Academy. (_Proceedings_, vol. iii. p. 74.)

    R. H.

_Briwingable_ (Vol. iv., p. 22.).--I cannot find this word in any
authority to which I have access. I derive it from Sax. {briþan}, to
brew, and {Eafel}, a tax; and think it the same as _tolsester_, a duty
payable to the lord of the manor by ale-brewers, mentioned in Charta 55
Hen. III.: "Tolsester cerevisie, hec est pro quolibet braccino per annum
unam lagenam cerevisie."

    F. J.

_Simnels_ (Vol. iii., pp. 390. 506.).--T. very sensibly suggests that
Lambert _Simnel_ is a nickname derived from a kind of cake still common
in the north of England, and eaten in Lent. I have never met with
_Simnel_ as a surname, and have actually been told, as a child, that the
Simnels were called after Lambert; which is so far worthy of note as
that it connects the two together in tradition, though, no doubt, as T.
suggests, it is Lambert who was called after the Simnels. As a child I
took the liberty to infer, in consequence, that Parkins (gingerbread of
oatmeal instead of flour, and also common in the north of England) were
called after Perkin Warbeck. I am aware of the superior claim of
Peterkin now; but the coincidence may perhaps amuse your correspondents.

    †

_A Ship's Berth_ (Vol. iv., p. 83.).--I would suggest to your
correspondents S. S. S. (2) another derivation for our word _berth_.

The present French _berceau_, a cradle, was in the Norman age written
_berȝ_, as appears in a MSS. _Life of St. Nicholas_ in the Bodleian
Library. This Life has been printed at Bonn by Dr. Nicolaus Delius,
1850; but in the print the character ȝ has been represented by the
ordinary z. This is a pity, because, as all know who are familiar with
our MSS. of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, this figure ȝ took
not unfrequently the place of ð (th); and on this account it is a
character which ought to be scrupulously preserved in editing. _Berȝ_
then was probably pronounced _berth_, or possibly with a little more of
the sibilant than is now found in the latter. How easily the _sibilant_
and the _th_ run into one another may be seen by the third person
singular of our present Indicative:

      saith      says.
      doth       does.
      hopeth     hopes.

    J. E.

  Oxford, August 2. 1851.

_Suicides buried in Cross-roads_ (Vol. iv., p. 116.).--P. M. M. makes
inquiry respecting a practice formerly observed of _burying murderers in
cross-roads_. I have often heard that _suicides_ were formerly interred
in such places, and that a stake used to be driven through the body. I
know of two places in the neighbourhood of _Boston_ in Lincolnshire,
where such burials are stated to have taken place. One of these is about
a mile and a half south of Boston, on what is called the _low_ road to
Freiston; a very ancient _hawthorn tree_ marks the spot, and the tree
itself is said to have sprung from the stake which was driven through
the body of the self-murderer. The tradition was told me sixty years
since, and the interment was _then_ said to have occurred _a hundred
years ago_; the suicide's name was at that time traditionally
remembered, and was told to me, but I cannot recall it. The tree
exhibits marks of great age, and is preserved with care; it still bears
"may," as the flower of the whitethorn is called, and _haws_ in their
season.

The second grave (as it is reported) of this kind is on the high road
from Boston to Wainfleet, at the intersection of a road leading to
Butterwick, at a place called _Spittal Hill_; near the site of the
ancient hospital or infirmary, which was attached to the Priory of St.
James at Freiston. This spot is famous in the traditions of the
neighbourhood as the scene of the appearance of a sprite or hobgoblin,
called the "_Spittal Hill_ TUT;" which takes, in the language of the
district, the shape of a SHAG _foal_, and is said to be connected with
the history of the suicide buried there.

TUT is a very general term applied in Lincolnshire to any fancied
supernatural appearance. Children are frightened by being told of _Tom
Tut_; and persons in a state of panic, or unreasonable trepidation, are
said to be _Tut-gotten_.

    P. T.

  Stoke Newington, Aug. 30.

_A Sword-blade Note_ (Vol. iv., p. 176.).--The sword-blade note, to
which R. J. refers, was doubtless a note of the Sword-blade Company,
which was intimately connected with the South Sea Company. In the
narrative respecting the latter company, given in _The Historical
Register_ for 1720, is an account of a conference between the South Sea
Directors and those of the Bank of England: therein is the following
passage:

  "And when it was urg'd that the _Sword Blade_ Company should come
  into the Treaty; _By no means_, reply'd _Sir Gilbert_ [Heathcote];
  _for if the_ South Sea _Company be wedded to the Bank, he ought
  not to be allow'd to keep a Mistress_. The Event show'd that the
  Bank acted with their usual Prudence, in not admitting the _Sword
  Blade_ Company into a Partnership."--_Historical Register_ for
  1720, p. 368.

At p. 377. of the same work it is stated, that on the 24th of September
the Sword-blade Company, "who hitherto had been the chief cash keepers
to the South Sea Company," stopped payment, "being almost drain'd of
their ready money."

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to elucidate the rise,
transactions, and "winding up" of the Sword-blade Company.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept. 6. 1851.

_Domesday Book of Scotland_ (Vol. iv., p. 7.).--Your correspondent
ABERDONIENSIS is informed that what he is in quest of was published by
the "Bannatyne Club," under the name of the "Ragman Rolls," in 1834,
4to. It is entitled, _Instrumenta Publica sive Processus super
Fidelitatibus et Homagiis Scotorum Domino Regi Angliæ factis_, A.D.
M.CC.XCI.--M.CC.XCVI.

  "The documents contained in this volume have not been selected in
  the view of reviving or illustrating the ancient National
  Controversy as to the feudal dependence of Scotland on the English
  Crown. It has been long known that in these Records may be found
  the largest and most authentic enumerations now extant of the
  Nobility, Barons, Landholders and Burgesses, as well as of the
  Clergy of Scotland, prior to the fourteenth century. No part of
  the public Records of Scotland prior to that era has been
  preserved, and whatever may have been their fate, certain it is,
  that to these English Records of our temporary national
  degradation, are we now indebted for the only genuine Statistical
  Notices of the Kingdom towards the close of the thirteenth
  century."

  [Star symbol] "This singular document, so often quoted and
  referred to, was never printed _in extenso_."

    T. G. S.

  Edinburgh.

_Dole-bank_ (Vol. iv., p. 162.).--In processions on Holy Thursday, it
was usual to _deal_ cakes and bread to the children and the poor of the
parish at boundary-banks, that they might be duly remembered. Hence the
name.

    R. S. H.

  Morwenstow.

_The Letter "V"_ (Vol. iv., p. 164.).--If S. S. will turn again to my
remarks on this letter, he will see that I did not state that _Tiverton_
was ever pronounced _Terton_. I accede to what he has said of
_Twiverton_; Devonshire was inadvertently written for Somersetshire.
With regard to the observations of A. N. (p. 162.), he will find those
remarks were confined to the _v_ between two vowels, _i.e._ without any
other consonant intervening; and, therefore, other forms of contraction
did not fall within the scope of them. I refrained from adverting to any
such words as Elvedon and Kelvedon (pronounced respectively Eldon and
Keldon), because the abbreviation of these may be referable to another
cause. In passing I would mention that I think there can be no
reasonable doubt that the word _dool_, about which he inquires, is no
other than the Ang.-Sax. _dāl_, a division, from _daelan_, to divide;
and whence our words _deal_ and _dole_. But to return to the letter _v_,
if MR. SINGER be correct as to _devenisch_ in the MS. of the _Hermit of
Hampole_ being written for Danish (p. 159.), it seems an example of the
peculiar use of this letter to which I have invited attention, for the
writer hardly intended it to be pronounced as three syllables if he
meant Danish. However, if that MS. be a transcript, may not the supposed
_v_ have been originally an _n_, which was first mis-read _u_, and then
copied as a _v_?

    W. S. W.

_Cardinal Wolsey_ (Vol. iv., p. 176.).--The following anecdote, taken
from a common-place book of Sir Roger Wilbraham, who was Master of the
Requests in the time of Queen Elizabeth, appears to have some bearing on
the subject referred to in the page of your publication which I have
quoted above:--

  "Cooke, attorney, at diner Whitsunday[1] ista protulit.

  "Wolsey, a prelate, was flagrante crimine taken in fornication by
  S'r Anthony Pagett of y'e West, and put in y'e stokes. After being
  made Cardinall, S'r Anthony sett up his armes on y'e middle Temple
  gate: y'e Cardinall passing in pontificalibus, and spying his owne
  armes, asked who sett them up. Answare was made y't y'e said Mr.
  Pagett. He smiled saying, he is now well reclaymed; for wher
  before he saw him in disgrace, now he honoured him."

  [Footnote 1: This was probably in 1598.]

    W. L.

_Nervous_ (Vol. iv., p. 7.).--_Nervous_ has unquestionably the double
meaning assigned to it in MR. BANNEL'S Query. The propriety of the
English practice, in this respect, may be doubted. _Nervous_ is
correctly equivalent to Lat. _nervosus_; Fr. _nerveux_, strong,
vigorous. In the sense of _nervous weakness_, or, perhaps more
correctly, _nervine weakness_, the word should probably be _nervish_,
analogous to _qualmish_, _squeamish_, _aguish_, _feverish_, &c. In
Scotland, though the English may regard it as a vulgarism, I have heard
the word used in this form.

    F. S. Q.

_Coleridge's Essays on Beauty_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--I have copies of
the _Essays_ referred to. They were republished about 1836 in Fraser's
_Literary Chronicle_.

    MORTIMER COLLINS.

  Guernsey.

_"Nao" or "Naw," a Ship_ (Vol. iv., p. 28.).--I have already answered
GOMER upon the imaginary word _naw_, a ship: I beg now to remark on MR.
FENTON'S _nav_. If _nav_ was a ship at all, I am at a loss to know why
it should be "a much older term." It would probably be subsequent to the
introduction of the Latin noun, which it docks of its final _is_. The
word or name is quoted from a Triad, the ninety-seventh of that series
which contains the mention of Llewelyn ap Griffith, the last prince of
Wales; and what makes it "one of the oldest" Triads, I have no idea. Nor
do I know what ascertains the date of any of them; or removes the date
of the composition of any one of them beyond the middle ages.

But _Nevydd_ is no very uncommon proper name of men and women, derived
from _nev_, heaven; and _nav neivion_ is simply "lord of lords." It
forms the plural like _mab_, _meibion_, and _march_, _meirchion_. Mr.
Walters gives _nav_ under no words but _lord_. David ap Gwelyn either
mentions the navigation of the lords, the Trojan chieftains, to Britain;
or else that of Nevydd Nav Neivion, cutting short his title. But the
former is the plain sense of the thing. If MR. FENTON will only turn to
Owen's _Dictionary_ (from which _naw_, a ship, is very properly
excluded) he will there find the quotation from Gwalchmai; in which the
three Persons of the Trinity are styled the _Undonion Neivion_,
"harmonizing or consentaneous Lords." He will scarcely make bold to turn
them into ships.

    A. N.

_Unde derivatur Stonehenge_ (Vol. iv., p. 57.).--Your correspondent P.
P. proposes to interpret this word, _horse-stones_, from _hengst_, the
Saxon for a horse; and to understand thereby large stones, as the words
_horse-chesnut_, _horse-daisy_, _horse-mushroom_, &c., mean large ones.
But, if he had duly considered the arguments contained in Mr. Herbert's
_Cyclops Christianus_, pp. 162-4., he would have seen the necessity of
showing, that in Anglo-Saxon and English the description can follow, in
composition, the thing described; which it seems it can do in neither.
In support of his stone-horse, he should have produced a chesnut-horse
in the vegetable sense; a daisy-horse, or a mushroom-horse. Till he does
that, the grammatical canon appealed to by that author, will remain in
as full force against the stone-horse as against the stone-hanging.

    E. A. M.

_Nick Nack_ (Vol. iii., p. 179.).--A rude species of music very common
amongst the boys in Sheffield, called by them _nick-a-nacks_. It is made
by two pieces of bone, sometimes two pieces of wood, placed between the
fingers, and beaten in time by a rapid motion of the hand and fingers.
It is one of the periodical amusements of the boys going along the
streets.

  "And with his right drew forth a truncheon of a white ox rib, and
  two pieces of wood of a like form; one of black Eben, and the
  other of incarnation Brazile; and put them betwixt the fingers of
  that hand, in good symmetry. Then knocking them together, made
  such a noise, as the lepers of Britany use to do with their
  clappering clickets; yet better resounding, and far more
  harmonious."--_Rabelais_, book ii. c. 19.

    H. J.

_Meaning of Carfax_ (Vol. iii., p. 508.).--E. J. S. says "Carfoix
reminds me of Carfax in Oxford. Are the names akin to each other?" When
at Oxford I used to hear that Carfax was properly Quarfax, a contraction
for _quatuor facies_, four faces. The church, it will be remembered,
looks one way to High Street, another to Queen Street, a third to the
Cornmarket, and the fourth to St. Aldates's.

    H. T. G.

_Hand giving the Benediction_ (Vol. iii., p. 477.).--Rabbi Bechai tells
us of the solemn blessing in Numbers vi. 25, 26, 27., in which the name
Jehovah is thrice repeated, that, when the high priest pronounced it on
the people, "elevatione manuum _sic digitos composuit ut_ TRIADA
_exprimerent_."

    W. FRASER.

_Unlucky for Pregnant Women to take an Oath_ (Vol. iv., p. 151.).--I beg
to inform COWGILL that Irishwomen of the lower order almost invariably
refuse to be sworn while pregnant. Having frequently had to administer
oaths to heads of families applying for relief during the famine in
Ireland in 1847-8-9, I can speak with certainty as to the fact, though I
am unable to account for the origin of the superstition.

    BARTANUS.

  Dublin.

_Borough-English_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.).--_Burgh_ or _Borough-English_ is
a custom appendant to _ancient_ boroughs, such as existed in the days of
Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror, and are contained in the
Book of Domesday. Taylor, in his _History of Gavelkind_, p. 102.,
states, that in the villages round the city of Hereford, the lands are
all held in the tenure of Borough-English. There appears also to be a
customary descent of lands and tenements in some places called
_Borow-English_, as in Edmunton: vid. _Kitchin of Courts_, fol. 102. The
custom of _Borough-English_, like that of gavelkind, and those of London
and York, is still extant; and although it may have been in a great
measure superseded by _deed_ or _will_, yet, doubtless, instances occur
in the present day of its vitality and consequent operation.

    FRANCISCUS.

_Date of a Charter_ (Vol. iv., p. 152.).--I suspect that the charter to
which MR. HAND refers, is one of the time of Henry II., and not of Henry
III. The latter sent no daughter to Sicily; but Joan, the daughter of
the former, was married to William, king of Sicily, in the year 1176, 22
Henry II. In the Great Roll of that year (Rot. 13 b.) are entries of
payments for hangings in the king's chamber on that occasion, and of
fifty marks given to Walter de Constantiis, Archdeacon of Oxford, for
entertaining the Sicilian ambassadors. See Madox's _Exchequer_, i. 367.,
who also in p. 18. refers to Hoveden, P. 2. p. 548. This may perhaps
assist in the discovery of the precise date, which I cannot at present
fix.

    Φ.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_The Jansenists: their Rise, Persecutions by the Jesuits, and existing
Remnant; a Chapter in Church History_: by S. P. Tregelles, LL.D., is an
interesting little monograph, reprinted with additions from Dr. Kitto's
_Journal of Biblical Literature_, and enriched with portraits of
Jansenius, St. Cyran, and the Mère Angelique. The history of the
Jansenist Church lingering in separate existence at Utrecht affords a
new instance of Catholicity of doctrine apart from the Papal communion;
and as such cannot fail to have a peculiar interest for many of our
readers.

The long, brilliant, and important reign of Louis XIV. has had many
chroniclers. The _Mémoires_ written by those who figured in its busy
scenes are almost innumerable; many, as may be supposed from the
character of the monarch and the laxity of the court, being little
calculated for general perusal. Mr. James therefore did good service
when he presented the reading world with his historical view of _The
Life and Times of Louis XIV._, a work in which, while he has done full
justice to the talents and genius of the monarch, and the brilliancy of
the circle by which he was surrounded, he has not allowed that splendour
so to dazzle the eyes of the spectator as to blind him to the real
infamy and heartlessness with which it was surrounded. We are therefore
well pleased to see Mr. James's history reprinted as the two new volumes
of Bohn's _Standard Library_.

Mr. L. A. Lewis of 125. Fleet Street will sell on Friday next two
extraordinary Collections of Tracts on Trade, Coinage, Commerce, Banks,
Public Institutions, and Trade generally. The First, in 167 Vols., in
fol., 4to., and 8vo., commences with Milles' _Customer's Replie_, 1604.
The Second, in 20 Vols., collected upwards of a century since, commences
with H. Gilbert's _Discourse of a Discoverie for a New Passage to
Cataia_, 1576. Both series should be secured for a Public Library.

CATALOGUE RECEIVED.--J. Millers' (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 28
of Cheap Books for Ready Money.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

OTHONIS LEXICON RABBINICUM.

PLATO. Vols. VIII. X. XI. of the Bipont Edition.

PARKINSON'S SERMONS. Vol. I.

ATHENÆUM. Oct. and Nov. 1848. Parts CCL., CCLI.

WILLIS' PRICE CURRENT. Nos. I. III. V. XXIV. XXVI. XXVII.--XLV.

RABBI SALEMO JACOBES COMMENTAR ÜBER DEN PENTATEUCH VON L. HAYMANN. Bonn,
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RABBI SALEMO JACOBES ÜBER DAS ERSTE BUCH MOSIS VON L. HAYMANN. Bonn,
1833.

No. 3. of SUMMER PRODUCTIONS, or PROGRESSIVE MISCELLANIES, by Thomas
Johnson. London, 1790.

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. Folio. London, 1624.

THE APOLOGETICS OF ATHENAGORAS, Englished by D. Humphreys. London, 1714.
8vo.

BOVILLUS DE ANIMÆ IMMORTALITATE, ETC. Lugduni, 1522. 4to.

KUINOEL'S NOV. TEST. Tom. I.

THE FRIEND, by Coleridge. Vol. III. Pickering.

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Notices to Correspondents.

F. R. A. _The lines referred to by_ DR. RIMBAULT (Vol. iv., p. 181.)
_are not those quoted in that page by_ A TEMPLAR _from the_ Cobleriana,
_but those beginning_--

      "As by the Templars' holds you go,"

_respecting which a Query appeared in our_ 3rd Vol. p. 450.

J. VARLEY, Jun. _The lines are quoted by Washington Irving, from
Shakspeare's_ Winter's Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3.

RT. _will perceive that his communications reach us in a very available
form._

O. T. D. _is thanked for his suggestions, which shall be adopted as far
as practical. He will find that his communication respecting_
Pallavicino _has been anticipated in our_ 3rd Vol., pp. 478. 523.

PHILO, _whose Query appeared in our Number of July 19th, will find a
letter at our Publisher's._

ALTRON. _There is no Agent for the sale of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES" _in
Dublin. It will however no doubt be supplied by any bookseller there
from whom it may be ordered._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Dr. M. Sutcliffe--Description of a
Dimple--Carli the Economist--Decretorum Doctor--Versicle--Querelle
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Mayor a Privy Councillor--Inscription on a Claymore--Queen
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  THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

  PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected
  by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music
  arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
  including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments,
  and a Concise SYSTEM of CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical
  Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco
  cloth, price 25_s._ To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
  Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post Office
  Order for that amount; and by order, of the principal Booksellers
  and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with
    our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it
    appears."--_Musical World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
    Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

  Also, lately published,

  J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the
  Chapel Royal St. James, price 2_s._

  C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.


Price 2_s._ 6_d._; by Post 3_s._

  ILLUSTRATIONS AND ENQUIRIES RELATING TO MESMERISM. Part I. By the
  Rev. S. R. MAITLAND, DD. F.R.S. F.S.A. Sometime Librarian to the
  late Archbishop of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

    "One of the most valuable and interesting pamphlets we ever
    read."--_Morning Herald._

    "This publication, which promises to be the commencement of a
    larger work, will well repay serious perusal."--_Ir. Eccl. Journ._

    "A small pamphlet in which he throws a startling light on the
    practice of modern Mesmerism."--_Nottingham Journal._

    "Dr. Maitland, we consider, has here brought Mesmerism to the
    'touchstone of truth,' to the test of the standard of right or
    wrong. We thank him for this first instalment of his inquiry, and
    hope that he will not long delay the remaining portions."--_London
    Medical Gazette._

    "The Enquiries are extremely curious, we should indeed say
    important. That relating to the Witch of Endor is one of the most
    successful we ever read. We cannot enter into particulars in this
    brief notice; but we would strongly recommend the pamphlet even to
    those who care nothing about Mesmerism, or _angry_ (for it has
    come to this at the last) with the subject."--_Dublin Evening
    Post._

    "We recommend its general perusal as being really an endeavour, by
    one whose position gives him the best facilities, to ascertain the
    genuine character of Mesmerism, which is so much
    disputed."--_Woolmer's Exeter Gazette._

    "Dr. Maitland has bestowed a vast deal of attention on the subject
    for many years past, and the present pamphlet is in part the
    result of his thoughts and inquiries. There is a good deal in it
    which we should have been glad to quote ... but we content
    ourselves with referring our readers to the pamphlet
    itself."--_Brit. Mag._

  PIPER, BROTHERS, & CO., 23. Paternoster Row.


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  also, the Net Cost of Articles, when Discounts are allowed on the
  invoiced Prices. Adapted for the assistance of Traders in their
  Purchases, Sales, and taking Stock. The Calculations are upon
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  to 75 per Cent.

  _The following Example will show the Application of the
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  which it is proposed to sell at 15 per Cent. profit.

  Refer to the page showing that rate of per centage, find the cost
  price in the first column, and, by looking to the same line of the
  second, the price to be asked is shown to be 2_s._ 8-1/4_d._

  By CHARLES ODY ROOKS, ACCOUNTANT.

  London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.


Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 6_s._ 6_d._ in cloth,

  THE COMPLETE ANGLER; or the Contemplative Man's Recreation, by
  IZAAC WALTON and CHARLES COTTON: with a new Biographical
  Introduction and Notes, and embellished with eighty-five
  Engravings on Copper and Wood.

  London: HENRY KENT CAUSTON, Gracechurch Street.


Extremely Rare Tracts.

  MR. L. A. LEWIS will SELL, at his HOUSE, 125. Fleet Street, on
  Friday, 26th, some BOOKS, from an old family library, including an
  extraordinary assemblage of Tracts on trade, coinage, commerce,
  banks, public institutions, &c., in 187 vols., collected more than
  one hundred years ago, containing numerous articles of excessive
  rarity: Acta Eruditorum ab anno 1682 ad 1727, 57 vols.; Valpy's
  edition of the Delphin and Variorum Classics, 141 vols.; some
  curious Manuscripts; early printed Books: to which is added, the
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  of England; in which will be found a series of Books relating to
  Catholics, Black Letter, Theology, &c.


Mr. Noble's Stereotype Plates.

  MR. L. A. LEWIS is preparing to SELL, shortly, at his House, 125.
  Fleet Street, the important assemblage of STEREOTYPE PLATES, the
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  including that popular series of Novels, Tales, and Romances
  published under the title of _Novel Newspaper_, in 680 sheets.
  Catalogues are preparing, and will be forwarded on application on
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  MR. L. A. LEWIS will have SALES by AUCTION of Libraries, small
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  every Friday. Property sent in on the previous Saturday will be
  certain to be sold (if required) in the following week.


2 vols., sold separately, 8_s._ each.

  SERMONS. By the Rev. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., Vicar of Ecclesfield.

    "In the effective simplicity with which Mr. Gatty applies the
    incidents and precepts of the Gospel to the every-day concerns of
    life, he has no superior. His faith is that of a sincere and
    genuine scriptural Churchman."--_Britannia._

    "Of all sermons I have ever seen, they are by far the best adapted
    to such congregations as I have had to preach to; at any rate, in
    my opinion. And as a further proof of their adaptation to the
    people's wants (and indeed the best proof that could be given), I
    have been requested by some of my parishioners to lend them
    sermons, which were almost _verbatim et literatim_ transcripts of
    yours. That you may judge of the extent to which I have been
    indebted to you, I may mention that out of about seventy sermons
    which I preached at W----, five or six were Paley's and fifteen or
    sixteen yours. For my own credit's sake, I must add, that all the
    rest were entirely my own."--_Extracted from the letter of a
    stranger to the Author._

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 20. 1851.



      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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