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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 7 - "Crocoite" to "Cuba"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 7 - "Crocoite" to "Cuba"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE CROWLAND: "The dissolution of the monastery in 1539 was
      fatal to the progress of the town, which had prospered under the
      thrifty rule of the monks, and it rapidly sank into the position of
      an unimportant village." 'unimportant' amended from 'umimportant'.

    ARTICLE CROWNE, JOHN: "The king exacted one more comedy, which
      should, he suggested, be based on the No pued esser of Moreto."
      'be' amended from 'he'.

    ARTICLE CRUSADES: "Taking a route midway between the eastern route
      of the crusaders of 1097 and the western route of Louis VII. in
      1148 ..." 'western' amended from 'westerh'.

    ARTICLE CRUSADES: "... beginning as charitable societies, developed
      into military clubs, and developed again from military clubs into
      chartered companies, possessed of banks, navies and considerable
      territories." 'societies' amended from 'socities'.

    ARTICLE CUBA: "The range near Baracoa is extremely wild and
      broken." 'extremely' amended from 'entremely'.

    ARTICLE CUBA: "The total commercial movement of the island in the
      five calendar years 1902-1906 averaged $177,882,640 ..."
      'commercial' amended from 'commerical'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME VII, SLICE VII

                 Crocoite to Cuba



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  CROCOITE                          CROWE, EYRE EVANS
  CROCUS                            CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER
  CROESUS                           CROW INDIANS
  CROFT, SIR HERBERT                CROWLAND
  CROFT, SIR JAMES                  CROWLEY, ROBERT
  CROFT, WILLIAM                    CROWN (coin)
  CROFTER                           CROWN and CORONET
  CROKER, JOHN WILSON               CROWN DEBT
  CROKER, RICHARD                   CROWNE, JOHN
  CROKER, THOMAS CROFTON            CROWN LAND
  CROLL, JAMES                      CROWN POINT
  CROLY, GEORGE                     CROWTHER, SAMUEL ADJAI
  CROMAGNON RACE                    CROYDON
  CROMARTY, GEORGE MACKENZIE        CROZAT, PIERRE
  CROMARTY                          CROZET ISLANDS
  CROMARTY FIRTH                    CROZIER, WILLIAM
  CROME, JOHN                       CROZIER
  CROMER, EVELYN BARING             CRUCIAL
  CROMER                            CRUCIFERAE
  CROMORNE                          CRUDEN, ALEXANDER
  CROMPTON, SAMUEL                  CRUDEN
  CROMPTON                          CRUELTY
  CROMWELL, HENRY                   CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE
  CROMWELL, OLIVER                  CRUNDEN, JOHN
  CROMWELL, RICHARD                 CRUSADES
  CROMWELL, THOMAS                  CRUSENSTOLPE, MAGNUS JAKOB
  CRONJE, PIET ARNOLDUS             CRUSIUS, CHRISTIAN AUGUST
  CROOKES, SIR WILLIAM              CRUSTACEA
  CROOKSTON                         CRUSTUMERIUM
  CROP                              CRUVEILHIER, JEAN
  CROPSEY, JASPER FRANCIS           CRUZ E SILVA, ANTONIO DINIZ DA
  CROQUET                           CRYOLITE
  CRORE                             CRYPT
  CROSBY, HOWARD                    CRYPTEIA
  CROSS, and CRUCIFIXION            CRYPTOBRANCHUS
  CROSSBILL                         CRYPTOGRAPHY
  CROSSEN                           CRYPTOMERIA
  CROSSING                          CRYPTO-PORTICUS
  CROSSKEY, HENRY WILLIAM           CRYSTAL-GAZING
  CROSS RIVER                       CRYSTALLITE
  CROSS-ROADS, BURIAL AT            CRYSTALLIZATION
  CROSS SPRINGER                    CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
  CROTCH, WILLIAM                   CRYSTAL PALACE, THE
  CROTCHET                          CSENGERY, ANTON
  CROTONA                           CSIKY, GREGOR
  CROTONIC ACID                     CSOKONAI, MIHALY VITEZ
  CROTON OIL                        CSOMA DE KÖRÖS, ALEXANDER
  CROUP                             CTENOPHORA
  CROUSAZ, JEAN PIERRE DE           CTESIAS
  CROW                              CTESIPHON
  CROWBERRY                         CUBA
  CROWD



CROCOITE, a mineral consisting of lead chromate, PbCrO4, and
crystallizing in the monoclinic system. It is sometimes used as a paint,
being identical in composition with the artificial product
chrome-yellow; it is the only chromate of any importance found in
nature. It was discovered at Berezovsk near Ekaterinburg in the Urals in
1766; and named crocoise by F. S. Beudant in 1832, from the Greek
[Greek: krokos], saffron, in allusion to its colour, a name first
altered to crocoisite and afterwards to crocoite. It is found as
well-developed crystals of a bright hyacinth-red colour, which are
translucent and have an adamantine to vitreous lustre. On exposure to
light much of the translucency and brilliancy is lost. The streak is
orange-yellow; hardness 2½-3; specific gravity 6.0. In the Urals the
crystals are found in quartz-veins traversing granite or gneiss: other
localities which have yielded good crystallized specimens are Congonhas
do Campo near Ouro Preto in Brazil, Luzon in the Philippines, and Umtali
in Mashonaland. Gold is often found associated with this mineral.
Crystals far surpassing in beauty any previously known have been found
in the Adelaide Mine at Dundas, Tasmania; they are long slender prisms,
3 or 4 in. in length, with a brilliant lustre and colour.

Associated with crocoite at Berezovsk are the closely allied minerals
phoenicochroite and vauquelinite. The former is a basic lead Chromate,
Pb3Cr2O9, and the latter a lead and copper phosphate-chromate, 2(Pb,
Cu)CrO4. (Pb, Cu)3(PO4)2. Vauquelinite forms brown or green monoclinic
crystals, and was named after L. N. Vauquelin, who in 1797 discovered
(simultaneously with and independently of M. H. Klaproth) the element
chromium in crocoite.     (L. J. S.)



CROCUS, a botanical genus of the natural order Iridaceae, containing
about 70 species, natives of Europe, North Africa, and temperate Asia,
and especially developed in the dry country of south-eastern Europe and
western and central Asia. The plants are admirably adapted for climates
in which a season favourable to growth alternates with a hot or dry
season; during the latter they remain dormant beneath the ground in the
form of a short thickened stem protected by the scaly remains of the
bases of last season's leaves (known botanically as a "corm"). At the
beginning of the new season of growth, new flower- and leaf-bearing
shoots are developed from the corm at the expense of the food-stuff
stored within it. New corms are produced at the end of the season, and
by these the plant is multiplied.

These crocuses of the flower garden are mostly horticultural varieties
of _C. vernus_, _C. versicolor_ and _C. aureus_ (Dutch crocus), the two
former yielding the white, purple and striped, and the latter the yellow
varieties. The crocus succeeds in any fairly good garden soil, and is
usually planted near the edges of beds or borders in the flower garden,
or in broadish patches at intervals along the mixed borders. The corms
should be planted 3 in. below the surface, and as they become crowded
they should be taken up and replanted with a refreshment of the soil, at
least every five or six years. Crocuses have also a pleasing effect when
dotted about on the lawns and grassy banks of the pleasure ground.

Some of the best of the varieties are:--_Purple_: David Rizzio, Sir J.
Franklin, purpureus grandiflorus. _Striped_: Albion, La Majestueuse, Sir
Walter Scott, Cloth of _Silver_, Mme Mina. _White_: Caroline Chisholm,
Mont Blanc. _Yellow_: Large Dutch.

The species of crocus are not very readily obtainable, but those who
make a specialty of hardy bulbs ought certainly to search them out and
grow them. They require the same culture as the more familiar garden
varieties; but, as some of them are apt to suffer from excess of
moisture, it is advisable to plant them in prepared soil in a raised
pit, where they are brought nearer to the eye, and where they can be
sheltered when necessary by glazed sashes, which, however, should not be
closed except when the plants are at rest, or during inclement weather
in order to protect the blossoms, especially in the case of winter
flowering species. The autumn blooming kinds include many plants of very
great beauty. The following species are recommended:--

Spring flowering:--_Yellow_: _C. aureus_, _aureus_ var. _sulphureus_,
_chrysanthus_, _Olivieri_, _Korolkowi_, _Balansae_, _ancyrensis_,
_Susianus_, _stellaris_. _Lilac_: _C. Imperati_, _Sieberi_, _etruscus_,
_vernus_, _Tomasinianus_, _banaticus_. _White_: _C. biflorus_ and vars.,
_candidus_, _vernus_ vars. _Striped_: _C. versicolor_, _reticulatus_.

Autumn flowering:--_Yellow_: _C. Scharojani_. _Lilac_: _C. asluricus_,
_cancellatus_ var., _cilicicus_, _byzantinus_ (_iridiflorus_),
_longiflorus_, _medius_, _nudiflorus_, _pulchellus_, _Salzmanni_,
_sativus_ vars. _speciosus_, _zonatus_. _White_: _caspius_,
_cancellatus_, _hadrialicus_, _marathonisius_.

Winter flowering:--_C. hyemaeis_, _laevigatus_, _vitellinus_.



CROESUS, last king of Lydia, of the Mermnad dynasty, (560-546 B.C.),
succeeded his father Alyattes after a war with his half-brother. He
completed the conquest of Ionia by capturing Ephesus, Miletus and other
places, and extended the Lydian empire as far as the Halys. His wealth,
due to trade, was proverbial, and he used part of it in securing
alliances with the Greek states whose fleets might supplement his own
army. Various legends were told about him by the Greeks, one of the most
famous being that of Solon's visit to him with the lesson it conveyed
of the divine nemesis which waits upon overmuch prosperity (Hdt. i. 29
seq.; but see SOLON). After the overthrow of the Median empire (549
B.C.) Croesus found himself confronted by the rising power of Cyrus, and
along with Nabonidos of Babylon took measures to resist it. A coalition
was formed between the Lydian and Babylonian kings, Egypt promised
troops and Sparta its fleet. But the coalition was defeated by the rapid
movements of Cyrus and the treachery of Eurybatus of Ephesus, who fled
to Persia with the gold that had been entrusted to him, and betrayed the
plans of the confederates. Fortified with the Delphic oracles Croesus
marched to the frontier of his empire, but after some initial successes
fortune turned against him and he was forced to retreat to Sardis. Here
he was followed by Cyrus who took the city by storm. We may gather from
the recently discovered poem of Bacchylides (iii. 23-62) that he hoped
to escape his conqueror by burning himself with his wealth on a funeral
pyre, like Saracus, the last king of Assyria, but that he fell into the
hands of Cyrus before he could effect his purpose.[1] A different
version of the story is given (from Lydian sources) by Herodotus
(followed by Xenophon), who makes Cyrus condemn his prisoner to be burnt
alive, a mode of death hardly consistent with the Persian reverence for
fire. Apollo, however, came to the rescue of his pious worshipper, and
the name of Solon uttered by Croesus resulted in his deliverance.
According to Ctesias, who uses Persian sources, and says nothing of the
attempt to burn Croesus, he subsequently became attached to the court of
Cyrus and received the governorship of Barene in Media. Fragments of
columns from the temple of Attemis now in the British Museum have upon
them a dedication by Croesus in Greek.

  See R. Schubert, _De Croeso et Solone fabula_ (1868); M. G. Radet, _La
  Lydie et le monde grec au temps des Mermnades_ (1892-1893); A. S.
  Murray, _Journ. Hell. Studies_, x. pp. 1-10 (1889); for the
  supposition that Croesus did actually perish on his own pyre see G. B.
  Grundy, _Great Persian War_, p. 28; Grote, _Hist. of Greece_ (ed.
  1907), p. 104. Cf. CYRUS; LYDIA.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This is probably a Greek legend (cf. the Attic vase of about 500
    B.C. in _Journ. of Hell. Stud._, 1898, p. 268).



CROFT, SIR HERBERT, Bart. (1751-1816), English author, was born at
Dunster Park, Berkshire, on the 1st of November 1751, son of Herbert
Croft (see below) of Stifford, Essex. He matriculated at University
College, Oxford, in March 1771, and was subsequently entered at
Lincoln's Inn. He was called to the bar, but in 1782 returned to Oxford
with a view to preparing for holy orders. In 1786 he received the
vicarage of Prittlewell, Essex, but he remained at Oxford for some years
accumulating materials for a proposed English dictionary. He was twice
married, and on the day after his second wedding day he was imprisoned
at Exeter for debt. He then retired to Hamburg, and two years later his
library was sold. He had succeeded in 1797 to the title, but not to the
estates, of a distant cousin, Sir John Croft, the fourth baronet. He
returned to England in 1800, but went abroad once more in 1802. He lived
near Amiens at a house owned by Lady Mary Hamilton, said to have been a
daughter of the earl of Leven and Melville. Later he removed to Paris,
where he died on the 26th of April 1816. In some of his numerous
literary enterprises he had the help of Charles Nodier. Croft wrote the
Life of Edward Young inserted in Johnson's _Lives of the Poets_. In 1780
he published _Love and Madness, a Story too true, in a series of letters
between Parties whose names could perhaps be mentioned were they less
known or less lamented_. This book, which passed through seven editions,
narrates the passion of a clergyman named James Hackman for Martha Ray,
mistress of the earl of Sandwich, who was shot by her lover as she was
leaving Covent Garden in 1779 (see the Case and Memoirs of the late Rev.
Mr James Hackman, 1779). _Love and Madness_ has permanent interest
because Croft inserted, among other miscellaneous matter, information
about Thomas Chatterton gained from letters which he obtained from the
poet's sister, Mrs Newton, under false pretences, and used without
payment. Robert Southey, when about to publish an edition of
Chatterton's works for the benefit of his family, published (November
1799) details of Croft's proceedings in the _Monthly Review_. To this
attack Croft wrote a reply addressed to John Nichols in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, and afterwards printed separately as _Chatterton and Love and
Madness ..._ (1800). This tract evades the main accusation, and contains
much abuse of Southey. Croft, however, supplied the material for the
exhaustive account of Chatterton in A. Kippis's _Biographia Britannica_
(vol. iv., 1789). In 1788 he addressed a letter to William Pitt on the
subject of a new dictionary. He criticized Samuel Johnson's efforts, and
in 1790 he claimed to have collected 11,000 words used by excellent
authorities but omitted by Johnson. Two years later he issued proposals
for a revised edition of Johnson's _Dictionary_, but subscribers were
lacking and his 200 vols. of MS. remained unused. Croft was a good
scholar and linguist, and the author of some curious books in French.

  _The Love Letters of Mr H. and Miss R. 1775-1779_ were edited from
  Croft's book by Mr Gilbert Burgess (1895). See also John Nichols's
  _Illustrations ..._ (1828), v. 202-218.



CROFT, SIR JAMES (d. 1590), lord deputy of Ireland, belonged to an old
family of Herefordshire, which county he represented in parliament in
1541. He was made governor of Haddington in 1549, and became lord deputy
of Ireland in 1551. There he effected little beyond gaining for himself
the reputation of a conciliatory disposition. Croft was all his life a
double-dealer. He was imprisoned in the Tower for treason in the reign
of Mary, but was released and treated with consideration by Elizabeth
after her accession. He was made governor of Berwick, where he was
visited by John Knox in 1559, and where he busied himself actively on
behalf of the Scottish Protestants, though in 1560 he was suspected,
probably with good reason, of treasonable correspondence with Mary of
Guise, the Catholic regent of Scotland; and for ten years he was out of
public employment. But in 1570 Elizabeth, who showed the greatest
forbearance and favour to Sir James Croft, made him a privy councillor
and controller of her household. He was one of the commissioners for the
trial of Mary queen of Scots, and in 1588 was sent on a diplomatic
mission to arrange peace with the duke of Parma. Croft established
private relations with Parma, for which on his return he was sent to the
Tower. He was released before the end of 1589, and died on the 4th of
September 1590.

Croft's eldest son, Edward, was put on his trial in 1589 on the curious
charge of having contrived the death of the earl of Leicester by
witchcraft, in revenge for the earl's supposed hostility to Sir James
Croft. Edward Croft was father of Sir Herbert Croft (d. 1622), who
became a Roman Catholic and wrote several controversial pieces in
defence of that faith. His son Herbert Croft (1603-1691), bishop of
Hereford, after being for some time, like his father, a member of the
Roman church, returned to the church of England about 1630, and about
ten years later was chaplain to Charles I., and obtained within a few
years a prebend's stall at Worcester, a canonry of Windsor, and the
deanery of Hereford, all of which preferments he lost during the Civil
War and Commonwealth. By Charles II. he was made bishop of Hereford in
1661. Bishop Croft was the author of many books and pamphlets, several
of them against the Roman Catholics; and one of his works, entitled _The
Naked Truth, or the True State of the Primitive Church_ (London, 1675),
was very celebrated in its day, and gave rise to prolonged controversy.
The bishop died in 1691. His son Herbert was created a baronet in 1671,
and was the ancestor of Sir Herbert Croft (q.v.), the 18th century
writer.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See Richard Bagwell, _Ireland under the Tudors_, vol.
  i. (3 vols., London, 1885); David Lloyd, _State Worthies from the
  Reformation to the Revolution_ (2 vols., London, 1766); John Strype,
  _Annals of the Reformation_ (Oxford, 1824), which contains an account
  of the trial of Edward Croft; S. L. Lee's art. "Croft, Sir James," in
  _Dict. of National Biography_, vol. xiii.; and for Bishop Croft see
  Anthony à Wood, _Athenae Oxonienses_ (ed. Bliss, 1813-1820); John Le
  Neve, _Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae_ (ed. by T. D. Hardy, Oxford, 1854).



CROFT (or CROFTS), WILLIAM (1678-1727), English composer, was born in
1678, at Nether Ettington in Warwickshire. He received his musical
education in the Chapel Royal under Dr Blow. He early obtained the place
of organist of St Anne's, Soho, and in 1700 was admitted a gentleman
extraordinary of the Chapel Royal. In 1707 he was appointed
joint-organist with Blow; and upon the death of the latter in 1708 he
became solo organist, and also master of the children and composer of
the Chapel Royal, besides being made organist of Westminster Abbey. In
1712 he wrote a brief introduction on the history of English church
music to a collection of the words of anthems which he had edited under
the title of _Divine Harmony_. In 1713 he obtained his degree of doctor
of music in the university of Oxford. In 1724 he published an edition of
his choral music in 2 vols. folio, under the name of _Musica Sacra, or
Select Anthems in score, for two, three, four, five, six, seven and
eight voices, to which is added the Burial Service, as it is
occasionally performed in Westminster Abbey_. This handsome work
included a portrait of the composer and was the first of the kind
executed on pewter plates and in score. John Page, in his _Harmonia
Sacra_, published in 1800 in 3 vols. folio, gives seven of Croft's
anthems. Of instrumental music, Croft published six sets of airs for two
violins and a bass, six sonatas for two flutes, six solos for a flute
and bass. He died at Bath on the 14th of August 1727, and was buried in
the north aisle of Westminster Abbey, where a monument was erected to
his memory by his friend and admirer Humphrey Wyrley Birch. Burney in
his _History of Music_ devotes several pages of his third volume (pp.
603-612) to Dr Croft's life, and criticisms of some of his anthems.
During the earlier period of his life Croft wrote much for the theatre,
including overtures and incidental music for _Courtship à la mode_
(1700), _The Funeral_ (1702) and _The Lying Lover_ (1703).



CROFTER, a term used, more particularly in the Highlands and islands of
Scotland, to designate a tenant who rents and cultivates a small holding
of land or "croft." This Old English word, meaning originally an
enclosed field, seems to correspond to the Dutch _kroft_, a field on
high ground or downs. The ultimate origin is unknown. By the Crofters'
Holdings (Scotland) Act 1886, a crofter is defined as the tenant of a
holding who resides on his holding, the annual rent of which does not
exceed £30 in money, and which is situated in a crofting parish. The
wholesale clearances of tenants from their crofts during the 19th
century, in violation of, as the tenants claimed, an implied security of
tenure, has led in the past to much agitation on the part of the
crofters to secure consideration of their grievances. They have been the
subject of royal commissions and of considerable legislation, but the
effect of the Crofters Act of 1886, with subsequent amending acts, has
been to improve their condition markedly, and much of the agitation has
now died out. A history of the legislation dealing with the crofters is
given in the article SCOTLAND.



CROKER, JOHN WILSON (1780-1857), British statesman and author, was born
at Galway on the 20th of December 1780, being the only son of John
Croker, the surveyor-general of customs and excise in Ireland. He was
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated in 1800.
Immediately afterwards he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, and in 1802 he
was called to the Irish bar. His interest in the French Revolution led
him to collect a large number of valuable documents on the subject,
which are now in the British Museum. In 1804 he published anonymously
_Familiar Epistles to J. F. Jones, Esquire, on the State of the Irish
Stage_, a series of caustic criticisms in verse on the management of the
Dublin theatres. The book ran through five editions in one year. Equally
successful was the _Intercepted Letter from Canton_ (1805), also
anonymous, a satire on Dublin society. In 1807 he published a pamphlet
on _The State of Ireland, Past and Present_, in which he advocated
Catholic emancipation.

In the following year he entered parliament as member for Downpatrick,
obtaining the seat on petition, though he had been unsuccessful at the
poll. The acumen displayed in his Irish pamphlet led Spencer Perceval to
recommend him in 1808 to Sir Arthur Wellesley, who had just been
appointed to the command of the British forces in the Peninsula, as his
deputy in the office of chief secretary for Ireland. This connexion led
to a friendship which remained unbroken till Wellington's death. The
notorious case of the duke of York in connexion with his abuse of
military patronage furnished him with an opportunity for distinguishing
himself. The speech which he delivered on the 14th of March 1809, in
answer to the charges of Colonel Wardle, was regarded as the most able
and ingenious defence of the duke that was made in the debate; and
Croker was appointed to the office of secretary to the Admiralty, which
he held without interruption under various administrations for more than
twenty years. He proved an excellent public servant, and made many
improvements which have been of permanent value in the organization of
his office. Among the first acts of his official career was the exposure
of a fellow-official who had misappropriated the public funds to the
extent of £200,000.

In 1827 he became the representative of the university of Dublin, having
previously sat successively for the boroughs of Athlone, Yarmouth (Isle
of Wight), Bodmin and Aldeburgh. He was a determined opponent of the
Reform Bill, and vowed that he would never sit in a reformed parliament;
his parliamentary career accordingly terminated in 1832. Two years
earlier he had retired from his post at the admiralty on a pension of
£1500 a year. Many of his political speeches were published in pamphlet
form, and they show him to have been a vigorous and effective, though
somewhat unscrupulous and often virulently personal, party debater.
Croker had been an ardent supporter of Peel, but finally broke with him
when he began to advocate the repeal of the Corn Laws. He is said to
have been the first to use (Jan. 1830) the term "conservatives." He was
for many years one of the leading contributors on literary and
historical subjects to the _Quarterly Review_, with which he had been
associated from its foundation. The rancorous spirit in which many of
his articles were written did much to embitter party feeling. It also
reacted unfavourably on Croker's reputation as a worker in the
department of pure literature by bringing political animosities into
literary criticism. He had no sympathy with the younger school of poets
who were in revolt against the artificial methods of the 18th century,
and he was responsible for the famous _Quarterly_ article on Keats. It
is, nevertheless, unjust to judge Croker by the criticisms which
Macaulay brought against his _magnum opus_, his edition of Boswell's
_Life of Johnson_ (1831). With all its defects the work had merits which
Macaulay was of course not concerned to point out, and Croker's
researches have been of the greatest value to subsequent editors. There
is little doubt that Macaulay had personal reasons for his attack on
Croker, who had more than once exposed in the House the fallacies that
lay hidden under the orator's brilliant rhetoric. Croker made no
immediate reply to Macaulay's attack, but when the first two volumes of
the _History_ appeared he took the opportunity of pointing out the
inaccuracies that abounded in the work. Croker was occupied for several
years on an annotated edition of Pope's works. It was left unfinished at
the time of his death, but it was afterwards completed by the Rev.
Whitwell Elwin and Mr W. J. Courthope. He died at St Albans Bank,
Hampton, on the 10th of August 1857.

Croker was generally supposed to be the original from which Disraeli
drew the character of "Rigby" in _Coningsby_, because he had for many
years had the sole management of the estates of the marquess of
Hertford, the "Lord Monmouth" of the story; but the comparison is a
great injustice to the sterling worth of Croker's character.

  The chief works of Croker not already mentioned were his _Stories for
  Children from the History of England_ (1817), which provided the model
  for Scott's _Tales of a Grandfather_; _Letters on the Naval War with
  America_; _A Reply to the Letters of Malachi Malagrowther_ (1826);
  _Military Events of the French Revolution of 1830_ (1831); a
  translation of Bassompierre's _Embassy to England_ (1819); and several
  lyrical pieces of some merit, such as the _Songs of Trafalgar_ (1806)
  and _The Battles of Talavera_ (1809). He also edited the _Suffolk
  Papers_ (1823), _Hervey's Memoirs of the Court of George II._ (1817),
  the _Letters of Mary Lepel, Lady Hervey_ (1821-1822), and _Walpole's
  Letters to Lord Hertford_ (1824). His memoirs, diaries and
  correspondence were edited by Louis J. Jennings in 1884 under the
  title of _The Croker Papers_ (3 vols.).



CROKER, RICHARD (1843-   ), American politician, was born at Blackrock,
Ireland, on the 24th of November 1843. He was taken to the United States
by his parents when two years old, and was educated in the public
schools of New York City, where he eventually became a member of
Tammany Hall and active in its politics. He was an alderman from 1868 to
1870, a coroner from 1873 to 1876, a fire commissioner in 1883 and 1887,
and city chamberlain from 1889 to 1890. After the fall of John Kelly he
became the leader of Tammany Hall (q.v.), and for some time almost
completely controlled the organization. His greatest political success
was his bringing about the election of Robert A. van Wyck as first mayor
of greater New York in 1897, and during van Wyck's administration Croker
is popularly supposed to have dominated completely the government of the
city. After Croker's failure to "carry" the city in the presidential
election of 1900 and the defeat of his mayoralty candidate, Edward M.
Shepard, in 1901, he resigned from his position of leadership in
Tammany, and retired to a country life in England and Ireland. In 1907
he won the Derby with his race-horse Orby.



CROKER, THOMAS CROFTON (1798-1854), Irish antiquary and humorist, was
born in Cork on the 15th of January 1798. He was apprenticed to a
merchant, but in 1819, through the interest of John Wilson Croker, who
was, however, no relation of his, he became a clerk in the Admiralty.
Moore was indebted to him in the production of his _Irish Melodies_ for
"many curious fragments of ancient poetry." In 1825 he produced his most
popular book, the _Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of
Ireland_, which he followed up by the publication of his _Legends of the
Lakes_ (1829), his _Adventures of Barney Mahoney_ (1852), and an edition
of the _Popular Songs of Ireland_ (1839). In 1827 he was made a member
of the Irish Academy; in 1839 and 1840 he helped to found the Camden and
Percy Societies, and in 1843 the British Archaeological Association. He
wrote _Narratives Illustrative of the Contests in Ireland in 1641 and
1688_ (1841), for the Camden Society, _Historical Songs of Ireland_, &c.
(1841), for the Percy Society, and several other works. He was also a
member of the Hakluyt and the Antiquarian Society. He died in London on
the 8th of August 1854.



CROLL, JAMES (1821-1890), Scottish man of science, was born of a peasant
family at Little Whitefield, in the parish of Cargill, in Perthshire, on
the 2nd of January 1821. He was regarded as an unpromising boy, but a
trifling circumstance aroused a passion for reading, and he made great
progress in self-education. He was apprenticed to a wheelwright at
Collace in Perthshire, but being debarred by ill-health from manual
labour, he became successively a shop-keeper and an insurance agent. In
1859 he was made keeper of the Andersonian Museum in Glasgow, a humble
appointment, which, however, gave him congenial occupation. In 1857,
being deeply impressed by the metaphysics of Jonathan Edwards, he had
published an anonymous volume entitled _The Philosophy of Theism_; but
his connexion with the Museum induced him to take up physical science,
and from 1861 onwards he studied with such perseverance that he was
enabled to contribute papers to the _Philosophical Magazine_ and other
journals. For that magazine in 1864 he wrote his celebrated essay "On
the Physical Cause of the Changes of Climate during Geological Epochs."
This led to his receiving an appointment on the Scottish Geological
Survey in 1867, and for thirteen years he took charge of the Edinburgh
Office. In 1875 he summed up his researches upon the ancient condition
of the earth in his _Climate and Time, in their Geological Relations_,
in which he contends that terrestrial revolutions are due in a measure
to cosmical causes. This theory excited warm controversy. Croll's
replies to his opponents are collected in his _Climate and Cosmology_
(1885). He had been compelled by ill-health to withdraw from the public
service in 1880; yet, working under the greatest difficulties, and
harassed by the inadequacy of his retiring pension, he managed to
produce _Stellar Evolution_, discussing, among other things, the age of
the sun, in 1889; and _The Philosophical Basis of Evolution_, partly a
critique of Herbert Spencer's philosophy, in 1890. He died on the 15th
of December 1890. The soundness of Croll's astronomical theory regarding
the glacial period has since been criticized by E. P. Culverwell in the
_Geological Magazine_ for 1895, and by others; and it is now generally
abandoned. Nevertheless it must be admitted that his character as a
scientific worker under great discouragements was nothing less than
heroic. The hon. degree of LL.D. was conferred on him in 1876 by the
university of St Andrews; and he was elected F.R.S. in the same year.

  An _Autobiographical Sketch of James Croll, with Memoir of his Life
  and Work_, was prepared by J. C. Irons, and published in 1896.



CROLY, GEORGE (1780-1860), British divine and author, son of a Dublin
physician, was born on the 17th of August 1780. He was educated at
Trinity College, Dublin, and after ordination was appointed to a small
curacy in the north of Ireland. About 1810 he came to London, and
occupied himself with literary work. A man of restless energy, he claims
attention by his extraordinary versatility. He wrote dramatic criticisms
for a short-lived periodical called the _New Times_; he was one of the
earliest contributors to _Blackwood's Magazine_; and to the _Literary
Gazette_ he contributed poems, reviews and essays on all kinds of
subjects. In 1819 he married Margaret Helen Begbie. Efforts to secure an
English living for Croly were frustrated, according to the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ (Jan. 1861), because Lord Eldon confounded him with a Roman
Catholic of the same name. Excluding his contributions to the daily and
weekly press his chief works were:--_Paris in 1815_ (1817), a poem in
imitation of _Childe Harold; Catiline_ (1822), a tragedy lacking in
dramatic force; _Salathiel: A Story of the Past, the Present and the
Future_ (1829), a successful romance of the "Wandering Jew" type; _The
Life and Times of his late Majesty George the Fourth_ (1830); _Marston;
or, The Soldier and Statesman_ (1846), a novel of modern life; _The
Modern Orlando_ (1846), a satire which owes something to _Don Juan_; and
some biographies, sermons and theological works.

Croly was an effective preacher, and continued to hope for preferment
from the Tory leaders, to whom he had rendered considerable services by
his pen; but he eventually received, in 1835, the living of St
Stephen's, Walbrook, London, from a Whig patron, Lord Brougham, with
whose family he was connected. In 1847 he was made afternoon lecturer at
the Foundling hospital, but this appointment proved unfortunate. He died
suddenly on the 24th of November 1860, in London.

  His _Poetical Works_ (2 vols.) were collected in 1830. For a list of
  his works see Allibone's _Critical Dictionary of English Literature_
  (1859).



CROMAGNON RACE, the name given by Paul Broca to a type of mankind
supposed to be represented by remains found by Lartet, Christy and
others, in France in the Cromagnon cave at Les Eyzies, Tayac district,
Dordogne. At the foot of a steep rock near the village this small cave,
nearly filled with debris, was found by workmen in 1868. Towards the top
of the loose strata three human skeletons were unearthed. They were
those of an old man, a young man and a woman, the latter's skull bearing
the mark of a severe wound. The skulls presented such special
characteristics that Broca took them as types of a race. Palaeolithic
man is exclusively long-headed, and the dolichocephalic appearance of
the crania (they had a mean cephalic index of 73.34) supported the view
that the "find" at Les Eyzies was palaeolithic. It is, however,
inaccurate to state that brachycephaly appears at once with the
neolithic age, dolichocephaly even of a pronounced type persisting far
into neolithic times. The Cromagnon race may thus be, as many
anthropologists believe it, early neolithic, a type of man who spread
over and inhabited a large portion of Europe at the close of the
Pleistocene period. Some have sought to find in it the substratum of the
present populations of western Europe. Quatrefages identifies Cromagnon
man with the tall, long-headed, fair Kabyles (Berbers) who still survive
in various parts of Mauritania. He suggests the introduction of the
Cromagnon from Siberia, "arriving in Europe simultaneously with the
great mammals (which were driven by the cold from Siberia), and no doubt
following their route."

  See A. H. Keane's _Ethnology_ (1896); Mortillet, _Le Préhistorique_
  (1900); Sergi, _The Mediterranean Race_ (1901); Lord Avebury,
  _Prehistoric Times_, p. 317 of 1900 edition.



CROMARTY, GEORGE MACKENZIE, 1ST EARL OF (1630-1714), Scottish statesman,
was the eldest son of Sir John Mackenzie, Bart., of Tarbat (d. 1654),
and belonged to the same family as the earls of Seaforth. In 1654 he
joined the rising in Scotland on behalf of Charles II. and after an
exile of six years he returned to his own country and took some part in
public affairs after the Restoration. In 1661 he became a lord of
session as Lord Tarbat, but having been concerned in a vain attempt to
overthrow Charles II.'s secretary, the earl of Lauderdale, he was
dismissed from office in 1664. A period of retirement followed until
1678 when Mackenzie was appointed lord justice general of Scotland; in
1681 he became lord clerk register and a lord of session for the second
time, and from 1682 to 1688 he was the chief minister of Charles II. and
James II. in Scotland, being created viscount of Tarbat in 1685. In
1688, however, he deserted James and soon afterwards made his peace with
William III., his experience being very serviceable to the new
government in settling the affairs of Scotland. From 1692 to 1695 Tarbat
was again lord clerk register, and having served for a short time as a
secretary of state under Queen Anne he was created earl of Cromarty in
1703. He was again lord justice general from 1704 to 1710. He warmly
supported the union between England and Scotland, writing some pamphlets
in favour of this step, and he died on the 17th of August 1714. Cromarty
was a man of much learning, and among his numerous writings may be
mentioned his _Account of the conspiracies by the earls of Gowry and R.
Logan_ (Edinburgh, 1713).

The earl's grandson George, 3rd earl of Cromarty (c. 1703-1766),
succeeded his father John, the 2nd earl, in February 1731. In 1745 he
joined Charles Edward, the young pretender, and he served with the
Jacobites until April 1746 when he was taken prisoner in
Sutherlandshire. He was tried and sentenced to death, but he obtained a
conditional pardon although his peerage was forfeited. He died on the
28th of September 1766.

This earl's eldest son was John Mackenzie, Lord Macleod (1727-1789), who
shared his father's fortunes in 1745 and his fate in 1746. Having
pleaded guilty at his trial Macleod was pardoned on condition that he
gave up all his rights in the estates of the earldom, and he left
England and entered the Swedish army. In this service he rose to high
rank and was made Count Cromarty. The count returned to England in 1777
and was successful in raising, mainly among the Mackenzies, two splendid
battalions of Highlanders, the first of which, now the Highland Light
Infantry, served under him in India. In 1784 he regained the family
estates and he died on the 2nd of April 1789. Macleod wrote an account
of the Jacobite rising of 1745, and also one of a campaign in Bohemia in
which he took part in 1757; both are printed in Sir W. Fraser's _Earls
of Cromartie_ (Edinburgh, 1876).

Macleod left no children, and his heir was his cousin, Kenneth Mackenzie
(d. 1796), a grandson of the 2nd earl, who also died childless. The
estates then passed to Macleod's sister, Isabel (1725-1801), wife of
George Murray, 6th Lord Elibank. In 1861 Isabel's descendant, Anne
(1829-1888), wife of George, 3rd duke of Sutherland, was created
countess of Cromartie with remainder to her second son Francis
(1852-1893), who became earl of Cromartie in 1888. In 1895, two years
after the death of Francis, his daughter Sibell Lilian (b. 1878) was
granted by letters patent the title of countess of Cromartie.



CROMARTY, a police burgh and seaport of the county of Ross and Cromarty,
Scotland. Pop. (1901) 1242. It is situated on the southern shore of the
mouth of Cromarty Firth, 5 m. E. by S. of Invergordon on the opposite
coast, with which there is daily communication by steamer, and 9 m. N.E.
of Fortrose, the most convenient railway station. Before the union of
the shires of Ross and Cromarty, it was the county town of
Cromartyshire, and is one of the Wick district group of parliamentary
burghs. Its name is variously derived from the Gaelic _crom_, crooked,
and _bath_, bay, or _ard_, height, meaning either the "crooked bay," or
the "bend between the heights" (the high rocks, or Sutors, which guard
the entrance to the Firth), and gave the title to the earldom of
Cromarty. The principal buildings are the town hall and the Hugh Miller
Institute. The harbour, enclosed by two piers, accommodates the herring
fleet, but the fisheries, the staple industry, have declined. The town,
however, is in growing repute as a midsummer resort. The thatched house
with crow-stepped gables in Church Street, in which Hugh Miller the
geologist was born, still stands, and a statue has been erected to his
memory. To the east of the burgh is Cromarty House, occupying the site
of the old castle of the earls of Ross. It was the birthplace of Sir
Thomas Urquhart, the translator of Rabelais.

Cromarty, formerly a county in the north of Scotland, was incorporated
with Ross-shire in 1889 under the designation of the county of Ross and
Cromarty. The nucleus of the county consisted of the lands of Cromarty
in the north of the peninsula of the Black Isle. To this were added from
time to time the various estates scattered throughout Ross-shire--the
most considerable of which were the districts around Ullapool and Little
Loch Broom on the Atlantic coast, the area in which Ben Wyvis is
situated, and a tract to the north of Loch Fannich--which had been
acquired by the ancestors of Sir George Mackenzie (1630-1714),
afterwards Viscount Tarbat (1685) and 1st earl of Cromarty (1703).
Desirous of combining these sporadic properties into one shire, Viscount
Tarbat was enabled to procure their annexation to his sheriffdom of
Cromarty in 1685 and 1698, the area of the enlarged county amounting to
nearly 370 sq. m. (See ROSS AND CROMARTY.)



CROMARTY FIRTH, an arm of the North Sea, belonging to the county of Ross
and Cromarty, Scotland. From the Moray Firth it extends inland in a
westerly and then south-westerly direction for a distance of 19 m.
Excepting at the Bay of Nigg, on the northern shore, and Cromarty Bay,
on the southern, where it is about 5 m. wide (due N. and S.), and at
Alness Bay, where it is 2 m. wide, it has an average width of 1 m. and a
depth varying from 5 to 10 fathoms, forming one of the safest and most
commodious anchorages in the north of Scotland. Besides other streams it
receives the Conon, Peffery, Skiack and Alness, and the principal places
on its shores are Dingwall near the head, Cromarty near the mouth,
Kiltearn, Invergordon and Kilmuir on the north. The entrance is guarded
by two precipitous rocks--the one on the north 400 ft., that on the
south 463 ft. high--called the Sutors from a fancied resemblance to a
couple of shoemakers (_Scotice_, souter), bending over their lasts.
There are ferries at Cromarty, Invergordon and Dingwall.



CROME, JOHN (1769-1821), English landscape painter, founder and chief
representative of the "Norwich School," often called Old Crome, to
distinguish him from his son, was born at Norwich, on the 21st of
December 1769. His father was a weaver, and could give him only the
scantiest education. His early years were spent in work of the humblest
kind; and at a fit age he became apprentice to a house-painter. To this
step he appears to have been led by an inborn love of art and the desire
to acquaint himself by any means with its materials and processes.
During his apprenticeship he sometimes painted signboards, and devoted
what leisure time he had to sketching from nature. Through the influence
of a rich art-loving friend he was enabled to exchange his occupation of
house-painter for that of drawing-master; and in this he was engaged
throughout his life. He took great delight in a collection of Dutch
pictures to which he had access, and these he carefully studied. About
1790 he was introduced to Sir William Beechey, whose house in London he
frequently visited, and from whom he gathered additional knowledge and
help in his art. In 1805 the Norwich Society of Artists took definite
shape, its origin being traceable a year or two further back. Crome was
its president and the largest contributor to its annual exhibitions.
Among his pupils were James Stark, Vincent, Thirtle and John Bernay
(Barney) Crome (1794-1842), his son. J. S. Cotman, too, a greater artist
than any of these, was associated with him. Crome continued to reside at
Norwich, and with the exception of his short visits to London had little
or no communication with the great artists of his own time. He first
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1806; but in this and the following
twelve years he exhibited there only fourteen of his works. With very
few exceptions Crome's subjects are taken from the familiar scenery of
his native county. Fidelity to nature was his dominant aim. "The bit of
heath, the boat, and the slow water of the flattish land, trees most of
all--the single tree in elaborate study, the group of trees, and how the
growth of one affects that of another, and the characteristics of
each,"--these, says Frederick Wedmore (_Studies in English Art_), are
the things to which he is most constant. He still remains, says the same
critic, of many trees the greatest draughtsman, and is especially the
master of the oak. His most important works are--"Mousehold Heath, near
Norwich," now in the National Gallery; "Clump of Trees, Hautbois
Common"; "Oak at Poringland"; the "Willow"; "Coast Scene near Yarmouth";
"Bruges, on the Ostend River"; "Slate Quarries"; the "Italian
Boulevards"; and the "Fishmarket at Boulogne." He executed a good many
etchings, and the great charm of these is in the beautiful and faithful
representation of trees. Crome enjoyed a very limited reputation during
his life, and his pictures were sold at low prices; but since his death
they have been more and more appreciated, and have given him a high
place among English painters of landscape. He died at Norwich on the
22nd of April 1821. His son, J. B. Crome, was his assistant in teaching,
and his best pictures were in the same style, his moonlight effects
being much admired.

  A collection of "Old" Crome's etchings, entitled _Norfolk Picturesque
  Scenery_, was published in 1834, and was re-issued with a memoir by
  Dawson Turner in 1838, but in this issue the prints were retouched by
  other hands.



CROMER, EVELYN BARING, 1ST EARL (1841-   ), British statesman and
diplomatist, was born on the 26th of February 1841, the ninth son of
Henry Baring, M.P., by Cecilia Anne, eldest daughter of Admiral Windham
of Felbrigge Hall, Norfolk. Having joined the Royal Artillery in 1858,
he was appointed in 1861 A.D.C. to Sir Henry Storks, high commissioner
of the Ionian Islands, and acted as secretary to the same chief during
the inquiry into the Jamaica outbreak in 1865. Gazetted captain in 1870,
he went in 1872 as private secretary to his cousin Lord Northbrook,
Viceroy of India, where he remained until 1876, when he became major,
received the C.S.I., and was appointed British commissioner of the
Egyptian public debt office. Up to this period Major Baring had given no
unusual signs of promise, and the appointment of a comparatively untried
major of artillery as the British representative on a Financial Board
composed of representatives of all the great powers was considered a
bold one. Within a very short time it was recognized that the
Englishman, though keeping himself carefully in the background, was
unmistakably the predominant factor on the board. He was mainly
responsible for the searching report, issued in 1878, of the commission
of inquiry that had been instituted into the financial methods of the
Khedive Ismail; and when that able and unscrupulous Oriental had to
submit to an enforced abdication in 1879, it was Major Baring who became
the British controller-general and practical director of the Dual
Control. Had he remained in Egypt, the whole course of Egyptian history
might have been altered, but his services were deemed more necessary in
India, and under Lord Ripon he became financial member of council in
June 1880. He remained there till 1883, leaving an unmistakable mark on
the Indian financial system, and then, having been rewarded by the
K.C.S.I., he was appointed British agent and consul-general in Egypt and
a minister plenipotentiary in the diplomatic service.

Sir Evelyn Baring was at that time only a man of forty-two, who had
gained a reputation for considerable financial ability, combined with an
abruptness of manner and a certain autocracy of demeanour which, it was
feared, would impede his success in a position which required
considerable tact and diplomacy. It was a friendly colleague who wrote--

  "The virtues of Patience are known,
     But I think that, when put to the touch,
   The people of Egypt will own, with a groan,
     There's an Evil in Baring too much."

When he arrived in Cairo in 1883 he found the administration of the
country almost non-existent. Ismail had ruled with all the vices, but
also with all the advantages, of autocracy. Disorder in the finances,
brutality towards the people, had been combined with public tranquillity
and the outer semblance of civilization. Order, at least, reigned from
the Sudan to the Mediterranean, and such trivial military disturbances
as had occurred had been of Ismail's own devising and for his own
purposes. Tewfik, who had succeeded him, had neither the inclination nor
character to be a despot. Within three years his government had been all
but overthrown, and he was only khedive by the grace of British
bayonets. Government by bayonets was not in accord with the views of the
House of Commons, yet Ismail's government by the kourbash could not be
restored. The British government, under Mr Gladstone, desired to
establish in Egypt a sort of constitutional government; and as there
existed no single element of a constitution, they had sent out Lord
Dufferin (the first marquess of Dufferin) to frame one. That gifted
nobleman, in the delightful lucidity of his picturesque report, left
nothing to be desired except the material necessary to convert the
flowing periods into political entities.[1] In the absence of that, the
constitution was still-born, and Sir Evelyn Baring arrived to find, not
indeed a clean slate, but a worn-out papyrus, disfigured by the efforts
of centuries to describe in hieroglyph a method of rule for a docile
people.

From that date the history of Sir Evelyn Baring, who became Baron Cromer
in 1892, G.C.B. in 1895, viscount in 1897, and earl in 1901, is the
history of Egypt, and requires the barest mention of its salient points
here. From the outset he realized that the task he had to perform could
only be effected piecemeal and in detail, and his very first measure was
one which, though severely criticized at the time, has been justified by
events, and which in any case showed that he shirked no responsibility,
and was capable of adopting heroic methods. He counselled the
abandonment, at least temporarily, by Egypt of its authority in the
Sudan provinces, already challenged by the mahdi. His views were shared
by the British ministry of the day and the policy of abandonment
enforced upon the Egyptian government. At the same time it was decided
that efforts should be made to relieve the Egyptian garrisons in the
Sudan and this resolve led to the mission of General C. G. Gordon (q.v.)
to Khartum. Lord Cromer subsequently told the story of Gordon's mission
at length, making clear the measure of responsibility resting upon him
as British agent. The proposal to employ Gordon came from the British
government and twice Sir Evelyn rejected the suggestion. Finally,
mistrusting his own judgment, for he did not consider Gordon the proper
person for the mission, Baring yielded to pressure from Lord Granville.
Thereafter he gave Gordon all the support possible, and in the critical
matter of the proposed despatch of Zobeir to Khartum, Baring--after a
few days' hesitation--cordially endorsed Gordon's request. The request
was refused by the British government--and the catastrophe which
followed at Khartum rendered inevitable.

The Sudan crisis being over, for the time, Sir Evelyn Baring set to work
to reorganize Egypt itself. This work he attacked in detail. The very
first essential was to regulate the financial situation; and in Egypt,
where the entire revenue is based on the production of the soil,
irrigation was of the first importance. With the assistance of Sir Colin
Scott Moncrieff, in the public works department, and Sir Edgar Vincent,
as financial adviser, these two great departments were practically put
in order before he gave more than superficial attention to the rest. The
ministry of justice was the next department seriously taken in hand,
with the assistance of Sir John Scott, while the army had been reformed
under Sir Evelyn Wood, who was succeeded by Sir Francis (afterwards
Lord) Grenfell. Education, the ministry of the interior, and gradually
every other department, came to be reorganized, or, more correctly
speaking, formed, under Lord Cromer's carefully persistent direction,
until it may be said to-day that the Egyptian administration can safely
challenge comparison with that of any other state. In the meantime the
rule of the mahdi and his successor, the khalifa, in the temporarily
abandoned provinces of the Sudan, had been weakened by internal
dissensions; the Italians from Massawa, the Belgians from the Congo
State, and the French from their West African possessions, had gradually
approached nearer to the valley of the Nile; and the moment had arrived
at which Egypt must decide either to recover her position in the Sudan
or allow the Upper Nile to fall into hands hostile to Great Britain and
her position in Egypt. Lord Cromer was as quick to recognize the moment
for action and to act as he had fifteen years earlier been prompt to
recognize the necessity of abstention. In March-September 1896 the first
advance was made to Dongola under the Sirdar, Sir Herbert (afterwards
Lord) Kitchener; between July 1897 and April 1898 the advance was pushed
forward to the Atbara; and on the 2nd of September 1898, the battle of
Omdurman finally crushed the power of the khalifa and restored the Sudan
to the rule of Egypt and Great Britain. In the negotiations which
resulted in the Anglo-French Declaration of the 8th of April 1904,
whereby France bound herself not to obstruct in any manner the action of
Great Britain in Egypt and the Egyptian government acquired financial
freedom, Lord Cromer took an active part. He also successfully guarded
the interests of Egypt and Great Britain in 1906 when Turkey attempted
by encroachments in the Sinai Peninsula to obtain a strategic position
on the Suez Canal. To have effected all this in the face of the greatest
difficulties--political, national and international--and at the same
time to have raised the credit of the country from a condition of
bankruptcy to an equality with that of the first European powers,
entitles Lord Cromer to a very high place among the greatest
administrators and statesmen that the British empire has produced. In
April 1907, in consequence of the state of his health, he resigned
office, having held the post of British agent in Egypt for twenty-four
years. In July of the same year parliament granted £50,000 out of the
public funds to Lord Cromer in recognition of his "eminent services" in
Egypt. In 1908 he published, in two volumes, _Modern Egypt_, in which he
gave an impartial narrative of events in Egypt and the Sudan since 1876,
and dealt with the results to Egypt of the British occupation of the
country. Lord Cromer also took part in the political controversies at
home, joining himself to the free-trade wing of the Unionist party.

Lord Cromer married in 1876 Ethel Stanley, daughter of Sir Rowland
Stanley Errington, eleventh baronet, but was left a widower with two
sons in 1898; and in 1901 he married Lady Katherine Thynne, daughter of
the 4th marquess of Bath.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1892 Lord Dufferin wrote to Lord Cromer: "These institutions
    were a good deal ridiculed at the time, but as it was then uncertain
    how long we were going to remain, or rather how soon the Turks might
    not be reinvested with their ancient supremacy, I desired to erect
    some sort of barrier, however feeble, against their intolerable
    tyranny." In 1906 Lord Cromer bore public testimony to the good
    results of the measures adopted on Lord Dufferin's "statesmanlike
    initiative." Such results were, however, only possible in consequence
    of the continuance of the British occupation.



CROMER, a watering-place in the northern parliamentary division of
Norfolk, England, 139 m. N.E. by N. from London by the Great Eastern
railway; served also by the Midland and Great Northern joint line. Pop.
of urban district (1901) 3781. Standing on cliffs of considerable
elevation, the town has repeatedly suffered from ravages of the sea. A
wall and esplanade extend along the bottom of the cliffs, and there is a
fine stretch of sandy beach. There is also a short pier. The church of
St Peter and St Paul is Perpendicular (largely restored) with a lofty
tower. On a site of three acres stands the convalescent home of the
Norfolk and Norwich hospital. There is an excellent golf course. The
herring, cod, lobster and crab fisheries are prosecuted. The village of
Sheringham (pop. of urban district, 2359), lying to the west, is also
frequented by visitors. A so-called Roman camp, on an elevation
overlooking the sea, is actually a modern beacon.



CROMORNE, also CRUMHORNE[1] (Ger. _Krummhorn_; Fr. _tournebout_), a wind
instrument of wood in which a cylindrical column of air is set in
vibration by a reed. The lower extremity is turned up in a half-circle,
and from this peculiarity it has gained the French name _tournebout_.
The reed of the cromorne, like that of the bassoon, is formed by a
double tongue of cane adapted to the small end of a conical brass tube
or crook, the large end fitting into the main bore of the instrument. It
presents, however, this difference, that it is not, like that of the
bassoon, in contact with the player's lips, but is covered by a cap
pierced in the upper part with a raised slit against which the
performer's lips rest, the air being forced through the opening into the
cap and setting the reed in vibration. The reed itself is therefore not
subject to the pressure of the lips. The compass of the instrument is in
consequence limited to the simple fundamental sounds produced by the
successive opening of the lateral holes. The length of the cromornes is
inconsiderable in proportion to the deep sounds produced by them, which
arises from the fact that these instruments, like all tubes of
cylindrical bore provided with reeds, have the acoustic properties of
the stopped pipes of an organ. That is to say, theoretically they
require only half the length necessary for the open pipes of an organ or
for conical tubes provided with reeds, to produce notes of the same
pitch. Moreover, when, to obtain an harmonic, the column of air is
divided, the cromorne will not give the octave, like the oboe and
bassoon, but the twelfth, corresponding in this peculiarity with the
clarinet and all stopped pipes or bourdons. In order, however, to obtain
an harmonic on the cromorne, the cap would have to be discarded, for a
reed only overblows to give the harmonic overtones when pressed by the
lips. With the ordinary boring of eight lateral holes the cromorne
possesses a limited compass of a ninth. Sometimes, however, deeper
sounds are obtained by the addition of one or more keys. By its
construction the cromorne is one of the oldest wind instruments; it is
evidently derived from the Gr. aulos[2] and the Roman tibia, which
likewise consisted of a simple cylindrical pipe of which the air column
was set in vibration, at first by a double reed, and, we have reason to
believe, later by a single reed (see AULOS and CLARINET). The Phrygian
aulos was sometimes curved (see Tib. ii. i. 85 _Phrygio tibia curva
sono_; Virgil, _Aen._ xi. 737 _curva choros indixit tibia Bacchi_).[3]

  [Illustration: Bass Tournebout.]

  Notwithstanding the successive improvements that were introduced in
  the manufacture of wind instruments, the cromorne scarcely ever varied
  in the details of its construction. Such as we see it represented in
  the treatise by Virdung[4] we find it again about the epoch of its
  disappearance.[5] The cromornes existed as a complete family from the
  15th century, consisting, according to Virdung, of four instruments;
  Praetorius[6] cites five--the deep bass, the bass, the tenor or alto,
  the cantus or soprano and the high soprano, with compass as shown. A
  band, or, to use the expression of Praetorius, an "accort" of
  cromornes comprised 1 deep bass, 2 bass, 3 tenor, 2 cantus, 1 high
  soprano = 9.

  [Illustration: Music notes.]

  Mersenne[7] explains the construction of the cromorne, giving careful
  illustrations of the instrument with and without the cap. From him we
  learn that these instruments were made in England, where they were
  played in concert in sets of four, five and six. Their scheme of
  construction and especially the reed and cap is very similar to that
  of the chalumeau of the musette (see BAG-PIPE), but its timbre is by
  no means so pleasant. Mersenne's cromornes have ten fingerholes, Nos.
  7 and 8 being duplicates for right and left-handed players. They were
  probably sometimes used, as was the case with the hautbois de Poitou
  (see BAG-PIPE), without the cap, when an extended compass was
  required.

  The cromornes were in very general use in Europe from the 14th to the
  17th century, and are to be found in illustrations of pageants, as for
  instance in the magnificent collection of woodcuts designed by Hans
  Burgmair, a pupil of Albrecht Dürer, representing the triumph of the
  emperor Maximilian,[8] where a bass and a tenor Krumbhorn player
  figure in the procession among countless other musicians. In the
  inventory of the wardrobe, &c., belonging to Henry VIII. at
  Westminster, made during the reign of Edward VI., we find eighteen
  crumhornes (see British Museum, Harleian MS. 1419, ff. 202b and 205).
  The cromornes did not always form an orchestra by themselves, but were
  also used in concert with other instruments and notably with flutes
  and oboes, as in municipal bands and in the private bands of princes.
  In 1685 the orchestra of the Neue Kirche at Strassburg comprised two
  tournebouts or cromornes, and until the middle of the 18th century
  these instruments formed part of the court band known as "Musique de
  la Grande Écurie" in the service of the French kings. They are first
  mentioned in the accounts for the year 1662, together with the
  tromba-marina, although the instrument was already highly esteemed in
  the 16th century. In that year five players of the cromorne were
  enrolled among the musicians of the Grande Écurie du Roi;[9] they
  received a yearly salary of 120 livres, which various supplementary
  allowances brought up to about 330 livres. In 1729 one of the cromorne
  players sold his appointment for 4000 francs. This was a sign of the
  failing popularity of the instrument. The duties of the cromorne and
  tromba-marina players consisted in playing in the great
  _divertissements_ and at court functions and festivals in honour of
  royal marriages, births and thanksgivings.

  Cromornes have become of extreme rarity and are not to be found in all
  collections. The Paris Conservatoire possesses one large bass cromorne
  of the 16th century, the Kgl. Hochschule für Musik,[10] Berlin, a set
  of seven, and the Ambroser Sammlung, Vienna, a cromorne in
  E[flat].[11] The museum of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at
  Brussels has the good fortune to possess a complete family which is
  said to have belonged to the duke of Ferrara, Alphonso II. d'Este, a
  prince who reigned from 1559 to 1597. The soprano (cantus or discant)
  has the same compass as above, while those of the alto, the tenor
  (furnished with a key) and the bass are as shown.

  [Illustration: Music notes.]

  The bass (see figure), besides having two keys, is distinguished from
  the others by two contrivances like small bolts, which slide in
  grooves and close the two holes that give the lowest notes of the
  instrument. The use of these bolts, placed at the extremity of the
  tournebout and out of reach of the fingers of the instrumentalist,
  renders necessary the assistance of a person whose sole mission is to
  attend to them during the performance. E. van der Straeten[12]
  mentions a key belonging to a large cromorne bearing the date 1537, of
  which he gives a large drawing. A cromorne appears in a musical scene
  with a trumpet in Hermann Finck's _Practica Musica_.[13]

  The "Platerspil," of which Virdung gives a drawing, is only a kind of
  cromorne. It is characterized by having, instead of a cap to cover the
  reed, a spherical receiver surrounding the reed, to which the tube for
  insufflation is adapted. The Platerspiel is also frequently classified
  among bagpipes. In the _Cantigas di Sante Maria_,[14] a MS. of the
  13th century preserved in the Escorial, Madrid, two instruments of
  this type are represented. One of these has two straight, parallel
  pipes, slightly conical; the other is frankly conical with wide bore
  turned up at the end.

  Other instruments belonging by their most important characteristics of
  cylindrical bore and double reed to the same family as the cromorne,
  although the bore was somewhat differently disposed, are the racket
  bassoon and the sourdine or sordelline. The latter was introduced into
  the orchestra by Cavaliere in his opera _Rappresentazione di anima e
  di corpo_, and is described by Giudotto[15] in his edition of the
  score as "Flauti overo due tibie all' antica che noi chiamiamo
  sordelline," a description which tallies with what has been said above
  concerning the aulos and tibia.     (V. M. and K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Crumhorne need not be regarded as a corruption of the German,
    since the two words of which it is composed were both in use in
    medieval England. _Crumb_ = curved; _crumbe_ = hook, bend; _crome_ =
    a staff with a hook at the end of it. See Stratmann's _Middle English
    Dictionary_ (1891), and Halliwell, _Dictionary of Archaic and
    Provincial Words_ (London, 1881).

  [2] See A. Howard, "Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard Studies_, iv. (Boston,
    1893).

  [3] See also A. A. Howard, op. cit., "Phrygian Aulos," pp. 35-38.

  [4] _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel, 1511).

  [5] See Diderot and d'Alembert's _Encyclopédie_ (Paris, 1751-1780),
    t. 5, "Lutherie," pl. ix.

  [6] _Organographia_ (Wolfenbüttel, 1618).

  [7] _L'Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636-1637), book v. pp. 289 and
    290. Cf. "Musette," pp. 282-287 and 305.

  [8] See "Triumphzug des Kaisers Maximilian I." Beilage zum II. Band
    des _Jahrb. der Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses_ (Vienna,
    1884-1885), pl. 20. Explanatory text and part i. in Band i. of the
    same publication, 1883-1884. A French edition with 135 plates was
    also published in Vienna by A. Schmidt, and in London by J. Edwards
    (1796). See also Dr August Reissmann, _Illustrierte Geschichte der
    deutschen Musik_ (Leipzig, 1881), where a few of the plates are
    reproduced.

  [9] See J. Écorcheville, "Quelques documents sur la musique de la
    grande écurie du roi," _Sammelband d. Intern. Musik. Ges._ Jahrg.
    ii., Heft 4 (1901, Leipzig, London, &c.), pp. 630-632.

  [10] Oskar Fleischer, _Führer_ (Berlin, 1892), p. 29, Nos. 400 to
    406.

  [11] For an illustration see Captain C. R. Day, _Descriptive
    Catalogue_ (London, 1891), pl. iv. E. and p. 99.

  [12] _Histoire de la musique aux Pays-Bas avant le XIX^e siècle_
    (Brussels, 1867-1888), vol. vii. p. 336, and description, p. 333 et
    seq.

  [13] Wittenberg, 1556; reproduced by A. Reissmann, op. cit., pp. 233
    and 226.

  [14] Reproduced in Riaño's _Notes on Early Spanish Music_ (London,
    1887), pp. 119-127.

  [15] See Hugo Goldschmidt, "Das Orchester der italienischen Oper im
    17. Jahrh." _Sammelband der Intern. Musikgesellschaft_, Jahrg. ii.,
    Heft 1 (Leipzig, 1900), p. 24.



CROMPTON, SAMUEL (1753-1827), English inventor, was born on the 3rd of
December 1753 at Firwood near Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire. While yet a
boy he lost his father, and had to contribute to the family resources by
spinning yarn. The defects of the spinning jenny imbued him with the
idea of devising something better, and for five or six years the effort
absorbed all his spare time and money, including what he earned by
playing the violin at the Bolton theatre. About 1779 he succeeded in
producing a machine which span yarn suitable for use in the manufacture
of muslin, and which was known as the muslin wheel or the
Hall-in-the-Wood wheel (from the name of the house in which he and his
family resided), and later as the spinning mule. After his marriage in
1780 a good demand arose for the yarn which he himself made at
Hall-in-the-Wood, but the prying to which his methods were subjected
drove him, in the absence of means to take out a patent, to the choice
of destroying his machine or making it public. He adopted the latter
alternative on the promise of a number of manufacturers to pay him for
the use of the mule, but all he received was about £60. He then resumed
spinning on his own account, but with indifferent success. In 1800 a sum
of £500 was raised for his benefit by subscription, and when in 1809
Edmund Cartwright, the inventor of the power-loom obtained £10,000 from
parliament, he determined also to apply for a grant. In 1811 he made a
tour in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and Scotland to
collect evidence showing how extensively his mule was used, and in 1812
parliament allowed him £5000. With the aid of this money he embarked in
business, first as a bleacher and then as a cotton merchant and spinner,
but again without success. In 1824 some friends, without his knowledge,
bought him an annuity of £63. He died at Bolton on the 26th of June
1827.



CROMPTON, an urban district of Lancashire, England, 2½ m. N. of Oldham,
within the parliamentary borough of Oldham. Pop. (1901) 13,427. At Shaw,
a populous village included within it, is a station on the Lancashire &
Yorkshire railway. Cotton mills and the collieries of the neighbourhood
employ the large industrial population.



CROMWELL, HENRY (1628-1674), fourth son of Oliver Cromwell, was born at
Huntingdon on the 20th of January 1628, and served under his father
during the latter part of the Civil War. His active life, however, was
mainly spent in Ireland, whither he took some troops to assist Oliver
early in 1650, and he was one of the Irish representatives in the
Little, or Nominated, Parliament of 1653. In 1654 he was again in
Ireland, and after making certain recommendations to his father, now
lord protector, with regard to the government of that country, he became
major-general of the forces in Ireland and a member of the Irish council
of state, taking up his new duties in July 1655. Nominally Henry was
subordinate to the lord-deputy, Charles Fleetwood, but Fleetwood's
departure for England in September 1655 left him for all practical
purposes the ruler of Ireland. He moderated the lord-deputy's policy of
deporting the Irish, and unlike him he paid some attention to the
interests of the English settlers; moreover, again unlike Fleetwood, he
appears to have held the scales evenly between the different Protestant
sects, and his undoubted popularity in Ireland is attested by Clarendon.
In November 1657 Henry himself was made lord-deputy; but before this
time he had refused a gift of property worth £1500 a year, basing his
refusal on the grounds of the poverty of the country, a poverty which
was not the least of his troubles. In 1657 he advised his father not to
accept the office of king, although in 1634 he had supported a motion to
this effect; and after the dissolution of Cromwell's second parliament
in February 1658 he showed his anxiety that the protector should act in
a moderate and constitutional manner. After Oliver's death Henry hailed
with delight the succession of his brother Richard to the office of
protector, but although he was now appointed lieutenant and governor
general of Ireland, it was only with great reluctance that he remained
in that country. Having rejected proposals to assist in the restoration
of Charles II., Henry was recalled to England in June 1659 just after
his brother's fall; quietly obeying this order he resigned his office at
once. Although he lost some property at the Restoration, he was allowed
after some solicitation to keep the estate he had bought in Ireland. His
concluding years were passed at Spinney Abbey in Cambridgeshire; he was
unmolested by the government, and he died on the 23rd of March 1674. In
1653 Henry married Elizabeth (d. 1687), daughter of Sir Francis Russell,
and he left five sons and two daughters.



CROMWELL, OLIVER (1599-1658), lord protector of England, was the 5th and
only surviving son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon and of Elizabeth
Steward, widow of William Lynn. His paternal grandfather was Sir Henry
Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, a leading personage in Huntingdonshire, and
grandson of Richard Williams, knighted by Henry VIII., nephew of Thomas
Cromwell, earl of Essex, Henry VIII.'s minister, whose name he adopted.
His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk, which
was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with
the royal house of Stuart. Oliver was born on the 25th of April 1599,
was educated under Dr Thomas Beard, a fervent puritan, at the free
school at Huntingdon, and on the 23rd of April 1616 matriculated as a
fellow-commoner at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a hotbed of
puritanism, subsequently studying law in London. The royalist anecdotes
relating to his youth, including charges of ill-conduct, do not deserve
credit, the entries in the register of St John's, Huntingdon, noting
Oliver's submission on two occasions to church censure being forgeries;
but it is not improbable that his youth was wild and possibly
dissolute.[1] According to Edmund Waller he was "very well read in the
Greek and Roman story." Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was
able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language. According
to James Heath in his _Flagellum_, "he was more famous for his exercises
in the fields than in the schools, being one of the chief match-makers
and players at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous game or
sport." On the 22nd of August 1620 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir
James Bourchier, a city merchant of Tower Hill, and of Felstead in
Essex; and his father having died in 1617 he settled at Huntingdon and
occupied himself in the management of his small estate. In 1628 he was
returned to parliament as member for the borough, and on the 11th of
February 1629 he spoke in support of puritan doctrine, complaining of
the attempt by the king to silence Dr Beard, who had raised his voice
against the "flat popery" inculcated by Dr Alabaster at Paul's Cross. He
was also one of the members who refused to adjourn at the king's command
till Sir John Eliot's resolutions had been passed.

During the eleven years of government without parliament very little is
recorded of Cromwell. His name is not connected with the resistance to
the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts,
but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up
knighthood. The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace
for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in
defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an
alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of
temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy
council for angry words spoken against the mayor, for which he
afterwards apologized. He also defended the rights of the commoners of
Ely threatened by the "adventurers" who had drained the Great Level, and
he was nicknamed afterwards by a royalist newspaper "Lord of the Fens."
He was again later the champion of the commoners of St Ives in the Long
Parliament against enclosures by the earl of Manchester, obtaining a
commission of the House of Commons to inquire into the case, and drawing
upon himself the severe censure of the chairman, the future Lord
Clarendon, by his "impetuous carriage" and "insolent behaviour," and by
the passionate vehemence he imparted into the business. Bishop Williams,
a kinsman of Cromwell's, relates at this time that he was "a common
spokesman for sectaries, and maintained their part with great
stubbornness"; and his earliest extant letter (in 1635) is an appeal for
subscriptions for a puritan lecturer. There appears to be no foundation
for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the
point of abandoning England for America, though there can be little
doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind
at this period. He viewed the "innovations in religion" with abhorrence.
According to Clarendon he told the latter in 1641 that if the Grand
Remonstrance had not passed "he would have sold all he had the next
morning and never have seen England more." In 1631 he converted his
landed property into money, and John Hampden, his cousin, a patentee of
Connecticut in 1632, was on the point of emigrating. Cromwell was
perhaps arrested in his project by his succession in 1636 to the estate
of his uncle Sir Thomas Steward, and to his office of farmer of the
cathedral tithes at Ely, whither he now removed. Meanwhile, like Bunyan
and many other puritans, Cromwell had been passing through a trying
period of mental and religious change and struggle, beginning with deep
melancholy and religious doubt and depression, and ending with "seeing
light" and with enthusiastic and convinced faith, which remained
henceforth the chief characteristic and impulse in his career.


  Cromwell's first parliamentary efforts.

He represented Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments of 1640, and
at once showed extraordinary zeal and audacity in his opposition to the
government, taking a large share in business and serving on numerous and
important committees. As the cousin of Hampden and St. John he was
intimately associated with the leaders of the parliamentary party. His
sphere of action, however, was not in parliament. He was not an orator,
and though he could express himself forcibly on occasion, his speech was
incoherent and devoid of any of the arts of rhetoric. Clarendon notes on
his first appearance in parliament that "he seemed to have a person in
no degree gracious, no ornament of discourse, none of those talents
which use to reconcile the affections of the standers by; yet as he grew
into place and authority his parts seemed to be renewed." He supported
stoutly the extreme party of opposition to the king, but did not take
the lead except on a few less important occasions, and was apparently
silent in the debates on the Petition of Right, the Grand Remonstrance
and the Militia. His first recorded intervention in debate in the Long
Parliament was on the 9th of November 1640, a few days after the meeting
of the House, when he delivered a petition from the imprisoned John
Lilburne. He was described by Sir Philip Warwick on this occasion:--"I
came into the House one morning well clad and perceived a gentleman
speaking whom I knew not, very ordinarily apparelled; for it was a plain
cloth suit which seemed to have been made by an ill country tailor; his
linen was plain and not very clean; ... his stature was of a good size;
his sword stuck close to his side; his countenance swollen and reddish;
his voice sharp and untunable and his eloquence full of fervour ... I
sincerely profess it much lessened my reverence as to that great council
for he was very much hearkened unto." On the 30th of December he moved
to the second reading of Strode's bill for annual parliaments. His chief
interest from the first, however, lay in the religious question. He
belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the
petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the
9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch
Bill in May. On the 6th of November he carried a motion entrusting the
train-bands south of the Trent to the command of the earl of Essex. On
the 14th of January 1642, after the king's attempt to seize the five
members, he moved for a committee to put the kingdom in a posture of
defence. He contributed £600 to the proposed Irish campaign and £500 for
raising forces in England--large sums from his small estate--and on his
own initiative in July 1642 sent arms of the value of £100 down to
Cambridge, seized the magazine there in August, and prevented the king's
commission of array from being executed in the county, taking these
important steps on his own authority and receiving subsequently
indemnity by vote of the House of Commons. Shortly afterwards he joined
Essex with sixty horse, and was present at Edgehill, where his troop was
one of the few not routed by Rupert's charge, Cromwell himself being
mentioned among those officers who "never stirred from their troops but
fought till the last minute."


  Beginning of Civil War.

During the earlier part of the year 1643 the military position of
Charles was greatly superior to that of the parliament. Essex was
inactive near Oxford; in the west Sir Ralph Hopton had won a series of
victories, and in the north Newcastle defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton
Moor, and all Yorkshire except Hull was in his hands. It seemed likely
that the whole of the north would be laid open and the royalists be able
to march upon London and join Charles and Hopton there. This stroke,
which would most probably have given the victory to the king, was
prevented by the "Eastern Association," a union of Norfolk, Suffolk,
Essex, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, constituted in December 1642
and augmented in 1643 by Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire, of which
Cromwell was the leading spirit. His zeal and energy met everywhere with
conspicuous success. In January 1643 he seized the royalist high sheriff
of Hertfordshire in the act of proclaiming the king's commission of
array at St Albans; in February he was at Cambridge taking measures for
the defence of the town; in March suppressing royalist risings at
Lowestoft and Lynn; in April those of Huntingdon, when he also
recaptured Crowland from the king's party. In May he defeated a greatly
superior royalist force at Grantham, proceeding afterwards to Nottingham
in accordance with Essex's plan of penetrating into Yorkshire to relieve
the Fairfaxes; where, however, difficulties, arising from jealousies
between the officers, and the treachery of John Hotham, whose arrest
Cromwell was instrumental in effecting, obliged him to retire again to
the association, leaving the Fairfaxes to be defeated at Adwalton Moor.
He showed extraordinary energy, resource and military talent in stemming
the advance of the royalists, who now followed up their victories by
advancing into the association; he defeated them at Gainsborough on the
28th of July, and managed a masterly retreat before overwhelming numbers
to Lincoln, while the victory on the 11th of October at Winceby finally
secured the association, and maintained the wedge which prevented the
junction of the royalists in the north with the king in the south.


  Cromwell's soldiers.

One great source of Cromwell's strength was the military reforms he had
initiated. At Edgehill he had observed the inferiority of the
parliamentary to the royalist horse, composed as it was of soldiers of
fortune and the dregs of the populace. "Do you think," he had said,
"that the spirits of such base, mean fellows will ever be able to
encounter gentlemen that have honour and courage and resolution in them?
You must get men of a spirit that is likely to go as far as gentlemen
will go or you will be beaten still." The royalists were fighting for a
great cause. To succeed the parliamentary soldiers must also be inspired
by some great principle, and this was now found in religion. Cromwell
chose his own troops, both officers and privates, from the "religious
men," who fought not for pay or for adventure, but for their faith. He
declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his
regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best
would fight best, and that he knew nothing could "give the like courage
and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will." The superiority
of these men--more intelligent than the common soldiers, better
disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and
fighting for a great cause--not only over the other parliamentary troops
but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle. According to
Clarendon the latter, though frequently victorious in a charge, could
not rally afterwards, "whereas Cromwell's troops if they prevailed, or
though they were beaten and routed, presently rallied again and stood in
good order till they received new orders"; and the king's military
successes dwindled in proportion to the gradual preponderance of
Cromwell's troops in the parliamentary army. At first these picked men
only existed in Cromwell's own troop, which, however, by frequent
additions became the nucleus of a regiment, and by the time of the New
Model included about 11,000 men.

In July 1643 Cromwell had been appointed governor of the Isle of Ely; on
the 22nd of January 1644 he became second in command under the earl of
Manchester as lieutenant-general of the Eastern Association, and on the
16th of February 1644 a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms with
greatly increased influence. In March he took Hillesden House in
Buckinghamshire; in May was at the siege of Lincoln, when he repulsed
Goring's attempt to relieve the town, and subsequently took part in
Manchester's campaign in the north. At Marston Moor (q.v.) on the 2nd of
July he commanded all the horse of the Eastern Association, with some
Scottish troops; and though for a time disabled by a wound in the neck,
he charged and routed Rupert's troops opposed to him, and subsequently
went to the support of the Scots, who were hard pressed by the enemy,
and converted what appeared at one time a defeat into a decisive
victory. It was on this occasion that he earned the nickname of
"Ironsides," applied to him now by Prince Rupert, and afterwards to his
soldiers, "from the impenetrable strength of his troops which could by
no means be broken or divided."

The movements of Manchester after Marston Moor were marked by great
apathy. He was one of the moderate party who desired an accommodation
with the king, and was opposed to Cromwell's sectaries. He remained at
Lincoln, did nothing to prevent the defeat of Essex's army in the west,
and when he at last advanced south to join Essex's and Waller's troops
his management of the army led to the failure of the attack upon the
king at Newbury on the 27th of October 1644. He delayed supporting the
infantry till too late, and was repulsed; he allowed the royal army to
march past his outposts; and a fortnight afterwards, without any attempt
to prevent it, and greatly to Cromwell's vexation, permitted the moving
of the king's artillery and the relief of Donnington Castle by Prince
Rupert. "If you beat the king ninety-nine times," Manchester urged at
Newbury, "yet he is king still and so will his posterity be after him;
but if the king beat us once we shall all be hanged and our posterity be
made slaves." "My lord," answered Cromwell, "if this be so, why did we
take up arms at first? This is against fighting ever hereafter. If so
let us make peace, be it ever so base." The contention brought to a
crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on
the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an
accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the
other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the
complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the
establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of
the Church of England. On the 25th of November Cromwell charged
Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full
victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used
expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of
desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents
to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in
battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else. The
lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons
eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of
the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second
of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their
commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of
April 1645.


  The battle of Naseby.

Meanwhile Cromwell had been ordered on the 3rd of March by the House to
take his regiment to the assistance of Waller, under whom he served as
an admirable subordinate. "Although he was blunt," says Waller, "he did
not bear himself with pride or disdain. As an officer he was obedient
and did never dispute my orders or argue upon them." He returned on the
19th of April, and on the 23rd was sent to Oxfordshire to prevent a
junction between Charles and Prince Rupert, in which he succeeded after
some small engagements and the storming of Blechingdon House. His
services were felt to be too valuable to be lost, and on the 10th of May
his command was prolonged for forty days. On the 28th he was sent to Ely
for the defence of the eastern counties against the king's advance; and
on the 10th of June, upon Fairfax's petition, he was named by the
Commons lieutenant-general, joining Fairfax on the 13th with six hundred
horse. At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he
commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir
Marmaduke Langdale, subsequently falling upon and defeating the royalist
centre, and pursuing the fugitives as far as the outskirts of Leicester.
At Langport again, on the 10th of July 1645, his management of the
troops was largely instrumental in gaining the victory. As the king had
no longer a field army, the war after Naseby resolved itself into a
series of sieges which Charles had no means of raising. Cromwell was
present at the sieges of Bridgwater, Bath, Sherborne and Bristol; and
later, in command of four regiments of foot and three of horse, he was
employed in clearing Wiltshire and Hampshire of the royalist garrisons.
He took Devizes and Laycock House, Winchester and Basing House, and
rejoined Fairfax in October at Exeter, and accompanied him to Cornwall,
where he assisted in the defeat of Hopton's forces and in the
suppression of the royalists in the west. On the 9th of January 1646 he
surprised Lord Wentworth's brigade at Bovey Tracey, and was present with
Fairfax at the fall of Exeter on the 9th of April. He then went to
London to give an account of proceedings to the parliament, was thanked
for his services and rewarded with the estate of the marquess of
Worcester. He was present again with Fairfax at the capitulation of
Oxford on the 24th of June, which practically terminated the Civil War,
when he used his influence in favour of granting lenient terms. He then
removed with his family from Ely to Drury Lane, London, and about a year
later to King Street, Westminster.

The war being now over, the great question of the establishment of
Presbyterianism or Independency had to be decided. Cromwell, without
naming himself an adherent of any denomination, fought vigorously for
Independency as a policy. In 1644 he had remonstrated at the removal by
Crawford of an anabaptist lieutenant-colonel. "The state," he said, "in
choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions. If they be
willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies. Take heed of being sharp
... against those to whom you can object little but that they square not
with you in every opinion concerning matters of religion." He had
patronized Lilburne and welcomed all into his regiment, and the
Independents had spread from his troops throughout the whole army. But
while the sectarians were in a vast majority in the army, the parliament
was equally strong in Presbyterianism and opposed to toleration. The
proposed disbandment of the army in February 1647 would have placed the
soldiers entirely in the power of the parliament; while the negotiations
of the king, first with the Scots and then with the parliament, appeared
to hazard all the fruits of victory. The petition from the army to the
parliament for arrears of pay was suppressed and the petitioners
declared enemies of the state. In consequence the army organized a
systematic opposition, and elected representatives styled Agitators or
Agents to urge their claims.


  Parliament and the army.

Cromwell, though greatly disliking the policy of the Presbyterians, yet
gave little support at first to the army in resisting parliament. In May
1647 in company with Skippon, Ireton and Fleetwood, he visited the army,
inquired into and reported on the grievances, and endeavoured to
persuade them to submit to the parliament. "If that authority falls to
nothing," he said, "nothing can follow but confusion." The
Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king
under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on
their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment
of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears. A mutiny
was the consequence. The soldiers refused to disband, and on the 3rd of
June Cromwell, whom, it was believed, the parliament intended to arrest,
joined the army. "If he would not forthwith come and lead them," they
had told him, "they would go their own way without him." The supremacy
of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the
Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.

Possession of the king's person now became an important consideration.
On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the
king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by
his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket
to the headquarters of the army. Cromwell soon restored order, and the
representative council, including privates as well as officers chosen to
negotiate with the parliament, was subordinated to the council of war.
The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London. In a letter to the
city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any
wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of
Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration. Subsequently, in the
declaration of the 14th of June, arbitrary power either in the
parliament or in the king was denounced, and demand was made for a
representative parliament, the speedy termination of the actual
assembly, and the recognition of the right to petition. Cromwell used
his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on
London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing
permanent could be effected, urging that "whatsoever we get by treaty
will be firm and durable. It will be conveyed over to posterity." The
army faction gradually gathered strength in the parliament. Eleven
Presbyterian leaders impeached by the army withdrew of their own accord
on the 26th of June, and the parliament finally yielded. Fairfax was
appointed sole commander-in-chief on the 19th of July, the soldiers
levied to oppose the army were dismissed, and the command of the city
militia was again restored to the committee approved by the army. These
votes, however, were cancelled later, on the 26th of July, under the
pressure of the royalist city mob which invaded the two Houses; but the
two speakers, with eight peers and fifty-seven members of the Commons,
themselves joined the army, which now advanced to London, overawing all
resistance, escorting the fugitive members in triumph to Westminster on
the 6th of August, and obliging the parliament on the 20th to cancel the
last votes, with the threat of a regiment of cavalry drawn up by
Cromwell in Hyde Park.

Cromwell and the army now turned with hopes of a settlement to Charles.
On the 4th of July Cromwell had had an interview with the king at
Caversham. He was not insensible to Charles's good qualities, was
touched by the paternal affection he showed for his children, and is
said to have declared that Charles "was the uprightest and most
conscientious man of his three kingdoms." The _Heads of the Proposals_,
which, on Charles raising objections, had been modified by the influence
of Cromwell and Ireton, demanded the control of the militia and the
choice of ministers by parliament for ten years, a religious toleration,
and a council of state to which much of the royal control over the army
and foreign policy would be delegated. These proposals without doubt
largely diminished the royal power, and were rejected by Charles with
the hope of maintaining his sovereign rights by "playing a game," to use
his own words, i.e. by negotiating simultaneously with army and
parliament, by inflaming their jealousies and differences, and finally
by these means securing his restoration with his full prerogatives
unimpaired. On the 9th of September Charles refused once mere the
_Newcastle Propositions_ offered him by the parliament, and Cromwell,
together with Ireton and Vane, obtained the passing of a motion for a
new application; but the terms asked by the parliament were higher than
before and included a harsh condition--the exclusion from pardon of all
the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of
Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and
members of the Church of England.

Meanwhile the failure to come to terms with Charles and provide a
settlement appeared to threaten a general anarchy. Cromwell's moderate
counsels created distrust in his good faith amongst the soldiers, who
accused him of "prostituting the liberties and persons of all the people
at the foot of the king's interest." The agitators demanded immediate
settlement by force by the army. The extreme republicans, anticipating
Rousseau, put forward the _Agreement of the People_. This was strongly
opposed by Cromwell, who declared the very consideration of it had
dangers, that it would bring upon the country "utter confusion" and
"make England like Switzerland." Universal suffrage he rejected as
tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of
either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the
abstract principles brought into the debate. Political problems were not
to be so resolved, but practically. With Cromwell as with Burke the
question was "whether the spirit of the people of this nation is
prepared to go along with it." The special form of government was not
the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability. The
great problem was to found a stable government, an authority to keep
order. If every man should fight for the best form of government the
state would come to desolation. He reproached the soldiers for their
insubordination against their officers, and the army for its rebellion
against the parliament. He would lay hold of anything "if it had but the
force of authority," rather than have none. Cromwell's influence
prevailed and these extreme proposals were laid aside.


  Flight of the king.

Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by
his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke
Castle in the Isle of Wight, his object being to negotiate independently
with the Scots, the parliament and the army. His action, however, in the
event, diminished rather than increased his chances of success, owing to
the distrust of his intentions which it inspired. Both the army and the
parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on
the 27th of December 1647, entered into the _Engagement_ with the Scots
by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three
years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together
with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to
invade England and restore him to his throne. This alliance, though the
exact terms were not known to Cromwell--"the attempt to vassalize us to
a foreign nation," to use his own words--convinced him of the
uselessness of any plan for maintaining Charles on the throne; though he
still appears to have clung to monarchy, proposing in January 1648 the
transference of the crown to the prince of Wales. A week after the
signing of the treaty he supported a proposal for the king's deposition,
and the vote of _No Addresses_ was carried. Meanwhile the position of
Charles's opponents had been considerably strengthened by the
suppression of a dangerous rebellion in November 1647 by Cromwell's
intervention, and by the return of troops to obedience. Cromwell's
difficulties, however, were immense. His moderate and trimming attitude
was understood neither by the extreme Independents nor by the
Presbyterians. He made one attempt to reconcile the disputes between the
army and the politicians by a conference, but ended the barren
discussion on the relative merits of aristocracies, monarchies and
democracies, interspersed with Bible texts, by throwing a cushion at the
speaker's head and running downstairs. On the 19th of January 1648
Cromwell was accused of high treason by Lilburne. Plots were formed for
his assassination. He was overtaken by a dangerous illness, and on the
2nd of March civil war in support of the king broke out.

Cromwell left London in May to suppress the royalists in Wales, and took
Pembroke Castle on the 11th of July. Meanwhile behind his back the
royalists had risen all over England, the fleet in the Downs had
declared for Charles, and the Scottish army under Hamilton had invaded
the north. Immediately on the fall of Pembroke Cromwell set out to
relieve Lambert, who was slowly retreating before Hamilton's superior
forces; he joined him near Knaresborough on the 12th of August, and
started next day in pursuit of Hamilton in Lancashire, placing himself
at Stonyhurst near Preston, cutting off Hamilton from the north and his
allies, and defeating him in detail on the 17th, 18th and 19th at
Preston and at Warrington. He then marched north into Scotland,
following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the
Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who
disapproved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired
"union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English,
Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ... a more glorious
work in our eyes than if we had gotten the sacking and plunder of
Edinburgh ... and made a conquest from the Tweed to the Orcades."


  Cromwell supports the Remonstrance.

The incident of the Second Civil War and the treaty with the Scots
exasperated Cromwell against the king. On his return to London he found
the parliament again negotiating with Charles, and on the eve of making
a treaty which Charles himself had no intention of keeping and regarded
merely as a means of regaining his power, and which would have thrown
away in one moment all the advantages gained during years of bloodshed
and struggle. Cromwell therefore did not hesitate to join the army in
its opposition to the parliament, and supported the Remonstrance of the
troops (20th of November 1648), which included the demand for the king's
punishment as "the grand author of all our troubles," and justified the
use of force by the army if other means failed. The parliament, however,
continued to negotiate, and accordingly Charles was removed by the army
to Hurst Castle on the 1st of December, the troops occupied London on
the 2nd; while on the 6th and 7th Colonel Pride "purged" the House of
Commons of the Presbyterians. Cromwell was not the originator of this
act, but showed his approval of it by taking his seat among the fifty or
sixty Independent members who remained.

The disposal of the king was now the great question to be decided.
During the next few weeks Cromwell appears to have made once more
attempts to come to terms with Charles; but the king was inflexible in
his refusal to part with the essential powers of the monarchy, or with
the Church; and at the end of December it was resolved to bring him to
trial. The exact share which Cromwell had in this decision and its
sequel is obscure, and the later accounts of the regicides when on their
trial at the Restoration, ascribing the whole transaction to his
initiation and agency, cannot be altogether accepted. But it is plain
that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was
the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in
resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots. To Algernon Sidney, who
refused to take part in proceedings on the plea that neither the king
nor any man could be tried by such a court, Cromwell replied, "I tell
you, we will cut off his head with the crown upon it."


  The execution of Charles I.

The execution of the king took place on the 30th of January 1649. This
event, the turning-point in Cromwell's career, casts a shadow, from one
point of view, over the whole of his future statesmanship. He himself
never repented of the act, regarding it, on the contrary, as "one which
Christians in after times will mention with honour and all tyrants in
the world look at with fear," and as one directly ordained by God.
Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of
the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold. On the one hand, there
was no law except that of force by which an offence could be attributed
to the sovereign, the anointed king, the source of justice. The
ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by
a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients
were excluded by the army. The tribunal was composed, not of judges--for
all unanimously refused to sit on it--but of fifty-two men drawn from
among the king's enemies. The execution was a military and not a
national act, and at the last scene on the scaffold the triumphant
shouts of the soldiery could not overwhelm the groans and sobs raised by
the populace. Whatever crimes might be charged against Charles, his past
conduct might appear to be condoned by the act of negotiating with him.
On the other hand, the execution seemed to Cromwell the only alternative
to anarchy, or to a return to despotism and the abandonment of all they
had fought for. Cromwell had exhausted every expedient for arriving at
an arrangement with the king by which the royal authority might be
preserved, and the repeated perfidy and inexhaustible shiftiness of
Charles had proved the hopelessness of such attempts. The results
produced by the king's execution were far-reaching and permanent. It is
true that Puritan austerity and the lack of any strong central authority
after Oliver's death produced a reaction which temporarily restored
Charles's dynasty to the throne; but it is not less true that the
execution of the king, at a later time when all over Europe absolute
monarchies "by divine right" were being established on the ruins of the
ancient popular constitutions, was an object lesson to all the world;
and it produced a profound effect, not only in establishing
constitutional monarchy in Great Britain after James II., with the dread
of his father's fate before him, had abdicated by flight, but in giving
the impulse to that revolt against the idea of "the divinity that doth
hedge a king" which culminated in the Revolution of 1789, and of which
the mighty effects are still evident in Europe and beyond.


  Cromwell in Ireland.

The king and the monarchy being now destroyed in England, Cromwell had
next to turn his attention to the suppression of royalism in Ireland and
in Scotland. In Ireland Ormonde had succeeded in uniting the English and
the Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only
a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young
king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the
island. Accordingly in March 1649 Cromwell was appointed lord-lieutenant
and commander-in-chief for its reduction. But before starting he was
called upon to suppress disorder at home. He treated the Levellers with
some severity and showed his instinctive dislike to revolutionary
proposals. "Did not that levelling principle," he said, "tend to the
reducing of all to an equality? What was the purport of it but to make
the tenant as liberal a fortune as the landlord, which I think if
obtained would not have lasted long." Equally characteristic was his
treatment of the mutinous army, in which he suppressed a rebellion in
May. He landed at Dublin on the 13th of August. Before his arrival the
Dublin garrison had defeated Ormonde with a loss of 5000 men, and
Cromwell's work was limited to the capture of detached fortresses. On
the 10th of September he stormed Drogheda, and by his order the whole of
its 2800 defenders were put to the sword without quarter. Cromwell, who
was as a rule especially scrupulous in protecting non-combatants from
violence, justified his severity in this case by the cruelties
perpetrated by the Irish in the rebellion of 1641, and as being
necessary on military and political grounds in that it "would tend to
prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which were the
satisfactory grounds of such actions which otherwise cannot but work
remorse and regret." After the fall of Drogheda Cromwell sent a few
troops to relieve Londonderry, and marched himself to Wexford, which he
took on the 11th of October, and where similar scenes of cruelty were
repeated; every captured priest, to use Cromwell's own words, being
immediately "knocked on the head," though the story of the three hundred
women slaughtered in the market-place has no foundation.

The surrender of Trim, Dundalk and Ross followed, but at Waterford
Cromwell met with a stubborn resistance and the advent of winter obliged
him to raise the siege. Next year Cromwell penetrated into Munster.
Cashel, Cahir and several castles fell in February, and Kilkenny in
March; Clonmel repulsing the assault with great loss, but surrendering
on the 10th of May 1650. Cromwell himself sailed a fortnight later,
leaving the reduction of the island, which was completed in 1652, to
his generals. The re-settlement of the conquered and devastated country
was now organized on the Tudor and Straffordian basis of colonization
from England, conversion to Protestantism, and establishment of law and
order. Cromwell thoroughly approved of the enormous scheme of
confiscation and colonization, causing great privations and sufferings,
which was carried out. The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates,
all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were
distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the
government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New
England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred
to new proprietors. The suppression of Roman Catholicism was zealously
pursued by Cromwell; the priests were hunted down and imprisoned or
exiled to Spain or Barbados, the mass was everywhere forbidden, and the
only liberty allowed was that of conscience, the Romanist not being
obliged to attend Protestant services.

These methods, together with education, "assiduous preaching ...
humanity, good life, equal and honest dealing with men of different
opinion," Cromwell thought, would convert the whole island to
Protestantism. The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade
was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights
in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate
the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted
both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and
English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at
Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 1659. These advantages,
however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were
excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and
Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony
in Ireland with England. A just administration, too, did not compensate
for unjust laws or produce contentment; the policy of conversion and
colonization was unsuccessful, the descendants of many of Cromwell's
soldiers becoming merged in the Roman Catholic Irish, and the union with
England, political and commercial, being extinguished at the
Restoration. Cromwell's land settlement--modified by the restoration
under Charles II. of about one-third of the estates to the
royalists--survived, and added to the difficulties with which the
English government was afterwards confronted in Ireland.


  The battles of Dunbar and Worcester.

Meanwhile Cromwell had hurried home to deal with the royalists in
Scotland. He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own
country and to forestall their invasion; but Fairfax refused and
resigned, and Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th of June
1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces of the Commonwealth. He
entered Scotland in July, and after a campaign in the neighbourhood of
Edinburgh which proved unsuccessful in drawing out the Scots from their
fortresses, he retreated to Dunbar to await reinforcements from Berwick.
The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the
town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell
had omitted to secure. Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous
situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except
from the sea. But Leslie descended the hill to complete his triumph, and
Cromwell immediately observed the disadvantages of his antagonist's new
position, cramped by the hill behind and separated from his left wing. A
stubborn struggle on the next day, the 3rd of September, gave Cromwell a
decisive victory. Advancing, he occupied Edinburgh and Leith. At first
it seemed likely that his victories and subsequent remonstrances would
effect a peace with the Scots; but by 1651 Charles II. had succeeded in
forming a new union of royalists and presbyterians, and another campaign
became inevitable. Some delay was caused in beginning operations by
Cromwell's dangerous illness, during which his life was despaired of;
but in June he was confronting Leslie entrenched in the hills near
Stirling, impregnable to attack and refusing an engagement. Cromwell
determined to turn his antagonist's position. He sent 14,000 men into
Fifeshire and marched to Perth, which he captured on the 2nd of August,
thus cutting off Leslie from the north and his supplies. This movement,
however, left open the way to England, and Charles immediately marched
south, in reality thus giving Cromwell the wished-for opportunity of
crushing the royalists finally and decisively. Cromwell followed through
Yorkshire, and uniting with Lambert and Harrison at Evesham proceeded to
attack the royalists at Worcester; where on the 3rd of September after a
fierce struggle the great victory, "the crowning mercy" which terminated
the Civil War, was obtained over Charles.

Monk completed the subjugation of Scotland by 1654. The settlement here
was made on more moderate lines than in Ireland. The estates of only
twenty-four leaders of the defeated cause were forfeited by Cromwell,
and the national church was left untouched though deprived of all powers
of interference with the civil government, the general assembly being
dissolved in 1653. Large steps were made towards the union of the two
kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at
Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the
administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable
jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the
council of nine appointed by the Protector. In 1658 the improved
condition of Scotland was the subject of Cromwell's special
congratulation in addressing parliament. But as in Ireland so Cromwell's
policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance
of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of
the national independence. It also vanished at the Restoration.

On the 12th of September 1651 Cromwell made his triumphal entry into
London at the conclusion of his victorious campaigns; and parliament
granted him Hampton Court as a residence with £4000 a year. These
triumphs, however, had all been obtained by force of arms; the more
difficult task now awaited Cromwell of governing England by parliament
and by law. As Milton wrote:--

  "Cromwell! our chief of men, who through a cloud
    Not of war only, but detractions rude,
    Guided by faith and matchless fortitude,
    To peace and truth thy glorious way hast ploughed,
                ... Peace hath her victories
    No less renowned than war."


  Cromwell expels the Long Parliament.

Cromwell's moderation and freedom from imperiousness were acknowledged
even by those least friendly to his principles. Although the idol of his
victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic
power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a
member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of
his ability. While occupied with work on committees and in
administration he pressed forward several schemes of reform, including a
large measure of law reform prepared by a commission presided over by
Matthew Hale, and the settlement of the church; but very little was
accomplished by the parliament, which seemed to be almost exclusively
taken up with the maintenance and increase of its own powers; and
Cromwell's dissatisfaction, and that of the army which increased every
day, was intensified by the knowledge that the parliament, instead of
dissolving for a new election, was seeking to perpetuate its tenure of
power. At length, in April 1653, a "bill for a new representation" was
discussed, which provided for the retention of their seats by the
existing members without re-election, so that they would also be the
sole judges of the eligibility of the rest. This measure, which placed
the whole powers of the state--executive, legislative, military and
judicial--in the hands of one irresponsible and permanent chamber, "the
horridest arbitrariness that ever was exercised in the world," Cromwell
and the army determined to resist at all costs. On the 15th of April
they proposed that the parliament should appoint a provisional
government and dissolve itself. This compromise was refused by the
parliament, which proceeded on the 20th to press through its last stages
the "bill for a new representation." Cromwell hastened to the House, and
at the last moment, on the bill being put to the vote, whispering to
Harrison, "This is the time; I must do it," he rose, and after alluding
to the former good services of the parliament, proceeded to overwhelm
the members with reproaches. Striding up and down the House in a
passion, he made no attempt to control himself, and turning towards
individuals as he hurled significant epithets at each, he called some
"whoremasters," others "drunkards, corrupt, unjust, scandalous to the
profession of the Gospel." "Perhaps you think," he exclaimed, "that this
is not parliamentary language; I confess it is not, neither are you to
expect any such from me." In reply to a complaint of his violence he
cried, "Come, come, I will put an end to your prating. You are no
parliament, I say you are no parliament. I will put an end to your
sitting." By his directions Harrison then fetched in a small band of
Cromwell's musketeers and compelled the speaker Lenthall to vacate the
chair. Looking at the mace he said, "What shall we do with this bauble?"
and ordered a soldier to take it away. The members then trooped out,
Cromwell crying after them, "It is you that have forced me to this; for
I have sought the Lord night and day that He would rather slay me than
put me upon the doing this work." He then snatched the obnoxious bill
from the clerk, put it under his cloak, and commanding the doors to be
locked went back to Whitehall. In the afternoon he dissolved the council
in spite of John Bradshaw's remonstrances, who said, "Sir, we have heard
what you did at the House this morning...; but you are mistaken to think
that the parliament is dissolved, for no power under heaven can dissolve
them but themselves; therefore take you notice of that." Cromwell had no
patience with formal pedantry of this sort; and in point of strict
legality "The Rump" of the Long Parliament had little better title to
authority than the officers who expelled it from the House. After this
Cromwell had nothing left but the army with which to govern, and
"henceforth his life was a vain attempt to clothe that force in
constitutional forms, and make it seem something else so that it might
become something else."[2]

By the dissolution of the Long Parliament Cromwell as commander-in-chief
was left the sole authority in the state. He determined immediately to
summon another parliament. This was the "Little" or "Barebones
Parliament," consisting of one hundred and forty persons selected by the
council of officers from among those nominated by the congregations in
each county, which met on the 4th of July 1653. This assembly, however,
soon showed itself impracticable and incapable, and on the 12th of
December the speaker, followed by the more moderate members, marched to
Whitehall and returned their powers to Cromwell, while the rest were
expelled by the army.

Cromwell, who had no desire to exercise arbitrary power and whose main
object therefore was to devise some constitutional limit to the
authority which circumstances had placed in his hands, now accepted the
written constitution drawn up by some of the officers, called the
_Instrument of Government_, the earliest example of a "fixed government"
based on "fundamentals," or constitutional guarantees, and the only
example of it in English history. Its authors had wished Oliver to
assume the title of king, but this he repeatedly refused; and in the
instrument he was named Protector, a parliament was established, limited
in powers but whose measures were not restricted by the Protector's veto
unless they contravened the constitution, the Protector's executive
power being also limited by the council. The Protector and the council
together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a
settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the
clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the
first time with authority a principle of toleration,"[3] though this
toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans. On the 16th
of December 1653 Cromwell was installed in his new office, dressed as a
civilian in a plain black coat instead of in scarlet as a general, in
order to demonstrate that military government had given place to civil;
for he approached his task in the same spirit that had prompted his
declaration to the Little Parliament of his wish "to divest the sword of
all power in the Civil administration."


  The government of the Protector.

In the interval between his nomination as Protector and the summoning of
his first parliament in September 1654, Cromwell was empowered together
with his council to legislate by ordinances; and eighty-two were issued
in all, dealing with numerous and various reforms and including the
reorganization of the treasury, the settlement of Ireland and Scotland
and the union of the three kingdoms, the relief of poor prisoners, and
the maintenance of the highways. These ordinances in many instances
showed the hand of the true statesman. Cromwell was essentially a
conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of
its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of
the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing
system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil. He was
out-voted by his council on the question of commutation of tithes, and
his enlightened zeal for reforming the "wicked and abominable" sentences
of the criminal law met with complete failure. Most of these ordinances
were subsequently confirmed by parliament, and, "on the whole, this body
of dictatorial legislation, abnormal in form as it is, in substance was
a real, wise and moderate set of reforms."[4] His ordinances for the
"Reformation of Manners," the product of the puritan spirit, had but a
transitory effect. The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance
of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital
crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing,
race-meetings and cock-fights--the last as tending to the disturbance of
the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the
dishonour of God." Cromwell himself was no ascetic and saw no harm in
honest sport. He was exceedingly fond of horses and hunting, leaping
ditches prudently avoided by the foreign ambassadors. Baxter describes
him as full of animal spirits, "naturally of such a vivacity, hilarity
and alacrity as another man is when he hath drunken a cup of wine too
much," and notes his "familiar rustic carriage with his soldiers in
sporting." He was fond of music and of art, and kept statues in Hampton
Court Gardens which scandalized good puritans. He preferred that
Englishmen should be free rather than sober by compulsion. Writing to
the Scottish clergy, and rejecting their claim to suppress dissent in
order to extirpate error, he said, "Your pretended fear lest error
should step in is like the man who would keep all wine out of the
country lest men should be drunk. It will be found an unjust and unwise
jealousy to deprive a man of his natural liberty upon a supposition he
may abuse it. When he doth abuse it, judge." It is probable that very
little of this moral legislation was enforced in practice, though
special efforts were made under the government of the major-generals.
Cromwell expected more results from the effects of education and
culture. A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted
to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education
was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth. Cromwell was especially
interested in the universities. In 1649 he had been elected D.C.L. at
Oxford, and in 1651 chancellor of the University, an office which he
held till 1657, when he was succeeded by his son Richard. He founded a
new readership in Divinity, and presented Greek MSS. to the Bodleian. He
appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and
defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who
clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford
"yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all
parts of learning." In 1657 he founded a new university at Durham, which
was suppressed at the Restoration. He patronized learning. Milton and
Marvell were his secretaries. He allowed the royalists Hobbes and Cowley
to return to England, and lived in friendship with the poet Waller.


  Cromwell's church policy.

Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national
church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots,
who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the church. He
improved the incomes of poor livings by revenues derived from episcopal
estates and the fines of delinquents. An important feature of his church
government was the appointment on the 20th of March 1654 of the
"Triers," thirty-eight clerical and lay commissioners, who decided upon
the qualifications of candidates for livings, and without whose
recommendation none could be appointed; while an ordinance of August
1654 provided for the removal of the unfit, the latter class including
besides immoral persons those holding "popish" or blasphemous opinions,
those publicly using the English Prayer Book, and the disaffected to the
government. Religious toleration was granted, but with the important
exception that some harsh measures were enacted against Anglicans and
Roman Catholics, to neither of whom was liberty of worship accorded. The
acts imposing fines for recusancy, repealed in 1650, were later executed
with great severity. In 1655 a proclamation was issued for administering
the laws against the priests and Jesuits, and some executions were
carried out. Complete toleration in fact was only extended to Protestant
nonconformists, who composed the Cromwellian established church, and who
now meted out to their antagonists the same treatment which they
themselves were later to receive under the _Clarendon Code_ of Charles
II.


  His religious toleration.

Cromwell himself, however, remained throughout a staunch and constant
upholder of religious toleration. "I had rather that Mahommedanism were
permitted amongst us," he avowed, "than that one of God's children
should be persecuted." Far in advance of his contemporaries on this
question, whenever his personal action is disclosed it is invariably on
the side of forbearance and of moderation. It is probable, from the
absence of evidence to the contrary, that much of this severe
legislation was never executed, and it was without doubt Cromwell's
restraining hand which moderated the narrow persecuting spirit of the
executive. In practice Anglican private worship appears to have been
little interfered with; and although the recusant fines were rigorously
exacted, the same seems to have been the case with the private
celebration of the mass. Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote
that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better
treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.
Cromwell's strong personal inclination towards toleration is clearly
seen in his treatment of the Jews and Quakers. He was unable, owing to
the opposition of the divines and of the merchants, to secure the full
recognition of the right to reside in England of the former who had for
some time lived in small numbers and traded unnoticed and untroubled in
the country; but he obtained an opinion from two judges that there was
no law which forbade their return, and he gave them a private assurance
of his protection, with leave to celebrate their private worship and to
possess a cemetery.

Cromwell's policy in this instance was not overturned at the
Restoration, and the great Jewish immigration into England with all its
important consequences may be held to date practically from these first
concessions made by Cromwell. His personal intervention also alleviated
the condition of the Quakers, much persecuted at this time. In an
interview in 1654 the sincerity and enthusiasm of George Fox had greatly
moved Cromwell and had convinced him of their freedom from dangerous
political schemes. He ordered Fox's liberation, and in November 1657
issued a general order directing that Quakers should be treated with
leniency, and be discharged from confinement. Doctrines directly
attacking Christianity Cromwell regarded, indeed, as outside toleration
and to be punished by the civil power, but at the same time he mitigated
the severity of the penalty ordained by the law. In general the
toleration enjoyed under Cromwell was probably far larger than at any
period since religion became the contending ground of political parties,
and certainly greater than under his immediate successors. Lilburne and
the anabaptists, and John Rogers and the Fifth Monarchy men, were
prosecuted only on account of their direct attacks upon the government,
and Cromwell in his broad-minded and tolerant statesmanship was himself
in advance of his age and his administration. He believed in the
spiritual and unseen rather than in the outward and visible unity of
Christendom.


  Foreign policy.

In foreign policy Cromwell's chief aims appear to have been to support
and extend the Protestant faith, to promote English trade, and to
prevent a Stuart restoration by foreign aid--the religious mission of
England in the world, her commercial interests, and her political
independence being indissolubly connected in his mind. The beginning of
his rule inherited a war with France and Holland; the former consequent
on Cromwell's failure to obtain terms for the Huguenots or the cession
of Dunkirk, and the latter--for which he was not responsible--the result
of commercial rivalry, of disputes concerning the rights of neutrals, of
bitter memories of Dutch misdeeds in the East Indies, and of dynastic
causes arising from the stadtholder, William II. of Orange, having
married Mary, daughter of Charles I. In 1651 the Dutch completed a
treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which
England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed
the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with
England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade. War was declared in May
1652 after a fight between Blake and Tromp off Dover, and was continued
with signal victories and defeats on both sides till 1654. The religious
element, however, which predominated in Cromwell's foreign policy
inclined him to peace, and in April of that year terms were arranged by
which England on the whole was decidedly the gainer. The Dutch
acknowledged the supremacy of the English flag in the British seas,
which Tromp had before refused; they accepted the Navigation Act, and
undertook privately to exclude the princes of Orange from the command of
their forces. The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties
with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for
English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with
Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and
allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies. The two great Roman
Catholic powers now both bid for Cromwell's alliance. Cromwell wisely
inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France
alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the
western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either
France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with
either. In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies
with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and
for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in
the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag,
made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships
of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and
liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.

The incident of the massacre of the Protestant Vaudois at this time
decided Cromwell's policy in favour of France. In response to Cromwell's
splendid championship of the persecuted people--which has been well
described as "one of the noblest memories of England"--France undertook
to put pressure upon Savoy, in consequence of which the persecution
ceased for a time; but Cromwell's intervention had less practical effect
than has generally been supposed, though "never was the great conception
of a powerful state having duties along with interests more
magnanimously realized."[5] The treaty of Pinerolo withdrew the edict
ordering the persecutions, but they were soon afterwards renewed, and in
1658 formed the subject of another remonstrance by Cromwell to Louis
XIV. in his last extant public letter before his death. The treaty of
Westminster (24th of October 1655) dealt chiefly with commercial
subjects, and contained a clause promising the expulsion from France of
political exiles. Meanwhile the West Indian expedition had been defeated
at Hispaniola, and war was declared by Spain, who now promised help to
Charles II. for regaining his throne. Cromwell sent powerful English
fleets to watch the coast of Spain and to prevent communications with
the West Indies and America; on the 8th of September 1656 a fleet of
treasure ships was destroyed off Cadiz by Stayner, and on the 20th of
April 1657 Blake performed his last exploit in the destruction of the
whole Spanish fleet of sixteen treasure ships in the harbour of Santa
Cruz in Teneriffe. These naval victories were followed by a further
military alliance with France against Spain, termed the treaty of Paris
(the 23rd of March 1657). Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to
join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward
Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the
3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the
4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted
against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.

Such was the character of Cromwell's policy abroad. The inspiring
principle had been the defence and support of Protestantism, the
question with Cromwell being "whether the Christian world should be all
popery." He desired England to be everywhere the protector of the
oppressed and the upholder of "true religion." His policy was in
principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and--in the
following generation--of William of Orange. He appreciated, without
over-estimating, the value of England's insular position. "You have
accounted yourselves happy," he said in January 1658, "in being
environed by a great ditch from all the world beside. Truly you will not
be able to keep your ditch nor your shipping unless you turn your ships
and shipping into troops of horse and companies of foot, and fight to
defend yourselves on _terra firma_." He did not regard himself merely as
the trustee of the national resources. These were not to be employed for
the advancement of English interests alone. "God's interest in the
world," he declared, "is more extensive than all the people of these
three nations. God has brought us hither to consider the work we may do
in the world as well as at home." In 1653 he had made the astonishing
proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the
habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining
the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed
allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples
willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the
Holy Gospel." Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported
Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed
Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained
of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as
the national enemy. But Cromwell's dream of putting himself at the head
of European Protestantism never even approached realization. War broke
out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and
Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual
aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great
conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh
persecutions. On the other hand, Cromwell could justly boast "there is
not a nation in Europe but is very willing to ask a good understanding
with you." He raised England to a predominant position among the Powers
of Europe, and anticipated the triumphs of the elder Pitt. "It was hard
to discover," wrote Clarendon, "which feared him most, France, Spain or
the Low Countries." The vigour and success with which he organized the
national resources and upheld the national honour, asserted the British
sovereignty of the seas, defended the oppressed, and caused his name to
be feared and respected in foreign courts where that of Stuart was
despised and neglected, command praise and admiration equally from
contemporaries and from modern critics, from his friends and from his
opponents. "He once more joined us to the continent," wrote Marvell,
while Dryden describes him as teaching the British lion to roar.
"Cromwell's greatness at home," said Clarendon, "was a mere shadow of
his greatness abroad." "It is strange," wrote Pepys in 1667 under a
different régime, "how everybody nowadays reflect upon Oliver and
commend him, what brave things he did, and made all the neighbour
princes fear him." To Cromwell more than to any other British ruler
belongs the credit of having laid the foundation of England's maritime
supremacy and of her over-sea empire.


  Cromwell and the empire.

Cromwell's colonial policy aimed definitely at the recognition and
extension of the British empire. By March 1652 the whole of the
territory governed by the Stuarts had submitted to the authority of the
Commonwealth, and the Navigation Act of the 9th of October 1651, by
which colonial goods could only be imported to England in British ships
and all foreign trade to the colonies was restricted to products of the
exporting country, sought to bind the colonies to England and to support
the interests of the shipowners and merchants, and therefore of the
English maritime supremacy, the act being, moreover, memorable as the
first public measure which treated the colonies as a whole and as an
integral part of Great Britain. The hindrance, however, to the general
development of trade which the act involved aroused at once loud
complaints, to which Cromwell turned a deaf ear, continuing to seize
Dutch ships trading in forbidden goods. In the internal administration
of the colonies Cromwell interfered very little, maintaining specially
friendly relations with the New Englanders, and showing no jealousy of
their desire for self-government. The war with France, Holland and Spain
offered opportunities of gaining additional territory. A small
expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam
(New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and
the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick
taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or
Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole
territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining
British territory till its cession in 1667. In December 1654 Cromwell
despatched Penn and Venables with a fleet of thirty-eight ships and 2500
soldiers to the West Indies, their numbers being raised by recruits at
the islands to 7000 men. The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a
disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of
the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was
almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to
England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower. Cromwell, however,
persevered, reminding Fortescue, who was left in command, that the war
was one against the "Roman Babylon," that they were "fighting the Lord's
battles"; and he sent out reinforcements under Sedgwick, offering
inducements to the New Englanders to migrate to Jamaica. In spite of
almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the
fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the
Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island
were successfully resisted. In 1658 Colonel Edward Doyley, the governor,
gained a decisive victory over thirty companies of Spanish foot, and
sent ten of their flags to Cromwell. The Protector, however, did not
live to witness the final triumph of his undertaking, which gave to
England, as he had wished, "the mastery of those seas," ensuring the
English colonies against Spanish attacks, and being maintained and
followed up at the Restoration.


  Parliamentary difficulties.

  The major-generals.

Meanwhile, the first parliament of the Protectorate had met in September
1654. A scheme of electoral reform had been carried by which members
were taken from the small and corrupt boroughs and given to the large
hitherto unrepresented towns, and which provided for thirty
representatives from Scotland and from Ireland. Instead, however, of
proceeding with the work of practical legislation, accepting the
Instrument of Government without challenge as the basis of its
authority, the parliament immediately began to discuss and find fault
with the constitution and to debate about "Fundamentals." About a
hundred members who refused to engage not to attempt to change the form
of government were excluded on the 12th of September. The rest sat on,
discussing the constitution, drawing up lists of damnable heresies and
of incontrovertible articles of faith, producing plans for the reduction
of the army and demanding for themselves its control. Incensed by the
dilatory and factious proceedings of the House, Cromwell dismissed the
parliament on the 22nd of January 1655. Various dangerous plots against
his government and person were at this time rife. Vane, Ludlow, Robert
Overton, Harrison and Major Wildman, the head of the Levellers, were all
arrested, while the royalist rising under Penruddock was crushed in
Devonshire. Other attacks upon his authority were met with the same
resort to force. The judges and lawyers began to question the legality
of his ordinances, and to doubt their competency to convict royalist
prisoners of treason. A merchant named Cony refused to pay customs not
imposed by parliament, his counsel declaring their levy by ordinance to
be contrary to Magna Carta, and Chief Justice Rolle resigning in order
to avoid giving judgment. Cromwell was thus inevitably drawn farther
along the path of arbitrary government. He arrested the persons who
refused to pay taxes, and sent Cony's lawyers to the Tower. Hitherto he
had been scrupulously impartial in raising the best men to the judicial
bench, including the illustrious Matthew Hale, but he now appointed
compliant judges, and, alluding to Magna Carta in terms impossible to
transcribe for modern readers, declared that "it should not control his
actions which he knew were for the safety of the Commonwealth." The
country was now divided into twelve districts each governed by a
major-general, to whom was entrusted the duty of maintaining order,
stamping out disaffection and plots, and executing the laws relating to
public morals. They had power to transport royalists and those who could
not produce good characters, and supported themselves by a special tax
of 10% on the incomes of the royalist gentry. Enormous numbers of
ale-houses were closed--a proceeding which excited intense resentment
and was probably no slight cause of the royalist reaction. Still more
serious an encroachment upon the constitution perhaps even than the
institution of the major-generals was Cromwell's tampering with the
municipal franchise by confiscating the charters, depriving the
burgesses, now hostile to his government, of their parliamentary votes,
and limiting the franchise to the corporation; thereby corrupting the
national liberties at their very source, and introducing an evil
precedent only too readily followed by Charles II. and James II.


  Refusal of the crown.

It was in these embarrassed and perilous circumstances that Cromwell
summoned a new parliament in the summer of 1656. In spite of the
influence and interference of the major-generals a large number of
members hostile to the government were returned, of whom Cromwell's
council immediately excluded nearly a hundred. The major-generals were
the object of general attack, while the special tax on the royalists was
declared unjust, and the bill for its continuation rejected by a large
majority. An attempt at the assassination of Cromwell by Miles
Sindercombe added to the general feeling of anxiety and unrest. The
military rule excited universal hostility; there was an earnest desire
for a settled and constitutional government, and the revival of the
monarchy in the person of Cromwell appeared the only way of obtaining
it. On the 23rd of February 1657 the _Remonstrance_ offering Cromwell
the crown was moved by Sir Christopher Packe in the parliament and
violently resisted by the officers and the army party, one hundred
officers waiting upon Cromwell on the 27th to petition against his
acceptance of it. On the 25th of March the _Remonstrance_, now termed
the _Petition and Advice_, and including a new scheme of government, was
passed by a majority of 123 to 62 in spite of the opposition of the
officers; and on the 31st it was presented to Cromwell in the Banqueting
House at Whitehall whence Charles I. had stepped out on to the scaffold.
Cromwell replied by requesting a brief delay to ask counsel of God and
his own heart. On the 8th of May about thirty officers presented a
petition to parliament against the revival of the monarchy, and
Fleetwood, Desborough and Lambert threatened to lay down their
commissions. Accordingly Cromwell the same day refused the crown
definitely, greatly to the astonishment both of his followers and his
enemies, who considered his decision a fatal neglect of an opportunity
of consolidating his rule and power. In particular, his acceptance of
the crown would have guaranteed his followers, under the act of Henry
VII., from liability in the future to the charge of high treason for
having given allegiance to himself as a _de facto_ king. Cromwell
himself, however, seems to have regarded the question of title as of
secondary importance, as merely (to use his own words) "a feather in the
hat," "a shining bauble for crowds to gaze at or kneel to." "Your
father," wrote Sir Francis Russell to Henry Cromwell, "hath of late made
more wise men fools than ever; he laughs and is merry, but they hang
down their heads and are pitifully out of countenance."

On the 25th of May the petition was presented to Cromwell again, with
the title of Protector substituted for that of King, and he now accepted
it. On the 26th of June 1657 he was once more installed as Protector,
this time, however, with regal ceremony in contrast with the simple
formalities observed on the first occasion, the heralds proclaiming his
accession in the same manner as that of the kings. Cromwell's government
seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national
approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a
constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the
ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the
right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of
parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now
established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was
guaranteed in its elections. Difficulties, however, appeared immediately
the parliament got to work. The republicans hostile to the Protectorate,
excluded before, now returned, took the places vacated by strong
supporters of Cromwell who had been removed to the Lords, and attacked
the authority of the new chamber, opened communications with the
disaffected in the city and army, protested against unparliamentary
taxation and arbitrary imprisonment, and demanded again the supremacy of
parliament. In consequence Cromwell summoned both Houses to his presence
on the 4th of February 1658, and having pointed out the perils to which
they were once more exposing the state, dissolved parliament, dismissing
the members with the words, "let God be judge between me and you."

During the period following the dissolution Cromwell's power appeared
outwardly at least to be at its height. The revolts of royalists and
sectaries against his government had been easily suppressed, and the
various attempts to assassinate him, contemptuously referred to by
Cromwell as "little fiddling things," were anticipated and prevented by
an excellent system of police and spies, and by his bodyguard of 160
men. The victory at Dunkirk increased his reputation, while Louis XIV.
showed his respect for the ruler of England by the splendid reception
given to the Protector's envoy, Lord Fauconberg, and by a complimentary
mission despatched to England.

The great career, the incidents of which we have been following, was
now, however, drawing to a close. Cromwell's health had long been
impaired by the hardships of campaigning. Now at the age of 58 he was
already old, and his firm, strong signature had become feeble and
trembling. The responsibilities and anxieties of government unassisted
by parliament, and the continued struggle against the force of anarchy,
weighed upon him and exhausted his physical powers. "It has been
hitherto," Cromwell said, "a matter of, I think, but philosophical
discourse, that a great place, a great authority, is a great burthen. I
know it is." "I can say in the presence of God, in comparison of whom we
are but like poor creeping ants upon the earth, I would have lived under
my woodside to have kept a flock of sheep rather than undertook such a
government as this." "I doubt not to say," declared his steward
Maidston, "it drank up his spirits, of which his natural constitution
afforded a vast stock, and brought him to his grave."


  Death.

Domestic bereavements added further causes of grief and of weakened
vitality. On the 6th of February 1658 he lost his favourite daughter,
Elizabeth Claypole, and he was much cast down by the shock of his
bereavement and of her long sufferings. Shortly afterwards he fell ill
of an intermittent fever, but seemed to recover. On the 20th of August
George Fox met him riding at the head of his guards in the park at
Hampton Court, but declared "he looked like a dead man." The next day he
again fell ill and was removed from Hampton Court to Whitehall, where
his condition became worse. The anecdotes believed and circulated by the
royalists that Cromwell died in all the agonies of remorse and fear are
entirely false. On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who
slept in his bedchamber and who heard him praying, declared, "a public
spirit to God's cause did breathe in him to the very last." During the
next few days he grew weaker and resigned himself to death. "I would,"
he said, "be willing to be further serviceable to God and his people,
but my work is done." For the first time doubts as to his spiritual
state seemed to have troubled him. "Tell me is it possible to fall from
grace?" he asked the attendant minister. "No, it is not possible," the
latter replied. "Then," said Cromwell, "I am safe, for I know that I was
once in grace." He refused medicine to induce sleep, declaring "it is
not my design to drink or to sleep, but my design is to make what haste
I can to be gone." Towards the morning of the 3rd of September he again
spoke, "using divers holy expressions, implying much inward consolation
and peace," together with "some exceeding self-debasing words,
annihilating and judging himself." He died on the afternoon of the same
day, his day of triumph, the anniversary both of Dunbar and of
Worcester. His body was privately buried in the chapel of Henry VII. in
Westminster Abbey, the public funeral taking place on the 23rd of
November, with great ceremony and on the same scale as that of Philip
II. of Spain, and costing the enormous sum of £60,000. At the
Restoration his body was exhumed, and on the 30th of January 1661, the
anniversary of the execution of Charles I., it was drawn on a sledge
from Holborn to Tyburn, together with the bodies of Ireton and Bradshaw,
accompanied by "the universal outcry and curses of the people." There it
was hanged on a gallows, and in the evening taken down, when the head
was cut off and set up upon Westminster Hall, where it remained till as
late as 1684, the trunk being thrown into a pit underneath the gallows.
According to various legends Cromwell's last burial place is stated to
be Westminster Abbey, Naseby Field or Newburgh Abbey; but there appears
to be no evidence to support them, or to create any reasonable doubt
that the great Protector's dust lies now where it was buried, in the
neighbourhood of the present Connaught Square.


  Cromwell's military genius.

As a military commander Cromwell was as prompt as Gustavus, as ardent as
Condé, as exact as Turenne. These, moreover, were soldiers from their
earliest years. Condé's fame was established in his twenty-second year,
Gustavus was twenty-seven and Turenne thirty-three at the beginning of
their careers as commanders-in-chief. Cromwell, on the other hand, was
forty-three when he fought in his first battle. In less than two years
he had taken his rank as one of the great cavalry leaders of history.
His campaigns of 1648 and 1651 placed him still higher as a great
commander. Worcester, his crowning victory, has been indicated by a
German critic as the prototype of Sédan. Yet his early military
education could have consisted at most of the perusal of the _Swedish
Intelligencer_ and the practice of riding. It is not, therefore, strange
that Cromwell's first essays in war were characterised more by energy
than technical skill. It was some time before he realized the spirit of
cavalry tactics, of which he was later so complete a master. At first he
speaks with complacence of a _mêlée_, and reports that he and his men
"agreed to charge" the enemy. But before long he came to understand, as
no other commander of the age save Gustavus understood it, the value of
true "shock-action." Of Marston Moor he writes, "we never charged but we
routed them"; and thereafter his battles were decided by the shock of
closed squadrons, the fresh impulse of a second and even a third line,
and above all by the unquestioning discipline and complete control over
their horses to which he trained his men. This gave them not merely
greater steadiness, but, what was far more important, the power of
rallying and reforming for a second effort. The Royalist cavalry was
disorganized by victory as often as by defeat, and illustrated on
numerous fields the now discredited maxim that cavalry cannot charge
twice in one day. Cromwell shares with Frederick the Great the credit of
founding the modern cavalry spirit. As a horsemaster he was far superior
to Murat. His marches in the eastern campaign of 1643 show a daily
average at one time of 28 m. as against the 21 of Murat's cavalry in the
celebrated pursuit after Jena. And this result he achieved with men of
less than two years' service, men, too, more heavily equipped and worse
mounted than the veterans of the _Grande Armée_. It has been said that
his battles were decided by shock action; the real emphasis should be
laid upon the word "decided." The swift, unhesitating charge was more
than unusual in the wars of the time, and was possible only because of
the peculiar earnestness of the men who fought the English war. The
professional soldiers of the Continent could rarely be brought to force
a decision; but the English, contending for a cause, were imbued with
the spirit of the modern "nation in arms"; and having taken up arms
wished to decide the quarrel by arms. This feeling was not less
conspicuous in the far-ranging rides, or raids, of the Cromwellian
cavalry. At one time, as in the case of Blechingdon, they would perform
strange exploits worthy of the most daring hussars; at another their
speed and tenacity paralyses armies. Not even Sheridan's horsemen in
1864-65 did their work more effectively than did the English squadrons
in the Preston campaign. Cromwell appreciated this feeling at its exact
worth, and his pre-eminence in the Civil War was due to this highest
gift of a general, the power of feeling the pulse of his army.
Resolution, vigour and clear sight marked his conduct as a
commander-in-chief. He aimed at nothing less than the annihilation of
the enemy's forces, which Clausewitz was the first to define, a hundred
and fifty years later, as the true objective of military operations. Not
merely as exemplifying the tactical envelopment, but also as embodying
the central idea of grand strategy, was Worcester the prototype of
Sédan. The contrast between a campaign of Cromwell's and one of
Turenne's is far more than remarkable, and the observation of a military
critic who maintains that Cromwell's art of war was two centuries in
advance of its time, finds universal acceptance.

At a time when throughout the rest of Europe armies were manoeuvring
against one another with no more than a formal result, the English and
Scots were fighting decisive battles; and Cromwell's battles were more
decisive than those of any other leader. Until his fiery energy made
itself felt, hardly any army on either side actually suffered rout; but
at Marston Moor and Naseby the troops of the defeated party were
completely dissolved, while at Worcester the royalist army was
annihilated. Dunbar attested his constancy and gave proof that Cromwell
was a master of the tactics of all arms. Preston was an example like
Austerlitz of the two stages of a battle as defined by Napoleon, the
first _flottante_, the second _foudroyante_.

Cromwell's strategic manoeuvres, if less adroit than those of Turenne or
Montecucculi, were, in accordance with his own genius and the temper of
his army, directed always to forcing a decisive battle. That he was also
capable of strategy of the other type was clear from his conduct of the
Irish War. But his chief work was of a different kind and done on a
different scale. The greatest feat of Turenne was the rescue of one
province in 1674-1675; Cromwell, in 1648 and again in 1651, had
two-thirds of England and half of Scotland for his theatre of war.
Turenne levelled down his methods to suit the ends which he had in view.
The task of Cromwell was far greater. Any comparison between the
generalship of these two great commanders would therefore be misleading,
for want of a common basis. It is when he is contrasted with other
commanders, not of the age of Louis XIV., but of the Civil War, that
Cromwell's greatness is most conspicuous. Whilst others busied
themselves with the application of the accepted rules of the Dutch, the
German, and other formal schools of tactical thought, Cromwell almost
alone saw clearly into the heart of the questions at issue, and evolved
the strategy, the tactics, and the training suited to the work to which
he had set his hand.


  Cromwell's statesmanship.

Cromwell's career as a statesman has been already traced in its
different spheres, and an endeavour has been made to show the breadth
and wisdom of his conceptions and at the same time the cause of the
immediate failure of his constructive policy. Whether if Cromwell had
survived he would have succeeded in gradually establishing legal
government is a question which can never be answered. His administration
as it stands in history is undoubtedly open to the charge that after
abolishing the absolutism of the ancient monarchy he substituted for it,
not law and liberty, but a military tyranny far more despotic than the
most arbitrary administration of Charles I. The statement of Vane and
Ludlow, when they refused to acknowledge Cromwell's government, that it
was "in substance a re-establishment of that which we all engaged
against," was true. The levy of ship money and customs by Charles sinks
into insignificance beside Cromwell's wholesale taxation by ordinances;
the inquisitional methods of the major-generals and the unjust and
exceptional taxation of royalists outdid the scandals of the extra-legal
courts of the Stuarts; the shipment of British subjects by Cromwell as
slaves to Barbados has no parallel in the Stuart administration; while
the prying into morals, the encouragement of informers, the attempt to
make the people religious by force, were the counterpart of the Laudian
system, and Cromwell's drastic treatment of the Irish exceeded anything
dreamed of by Strafford. He discovered that parliamentary government
after all was not the easy and plain task that Pym and Vane had
imagined, and Cromwell had in the end no better justification of his
rule than that which Strafford had suggested to Charles I.,--"parliament
refusing (to give support and co-operation in carrying on the
government) you are acquitted before God and man." The fault was no
doubt partly Cromwell's own. He had neither the patience nor the tact
for managing loquacious parliamentary pedants. But the chief
responsibility was not his but theirs. John Morley (_Oliver Cromwell_,
p. 297) has truly observed of the execution of Charles I., that it was
"an act of war, and was just as defensible or just as assailable, and on
the same grounds, as the war itself." The parliamentary party took leave
of legality when they took up arms against the sovereign, and it was
therefore idle to dream of a formally legal sanction for any of their
subsequent revolutionary proceedings. An entirely fresh start had to be
made. A new foundation had to be laid on which a new system of legality
might be reared. It was for this that Cromwell strove. If the Rump or
the Little Parliament had in a business-like spirit assumed and
discharged the functions of a constituent assembly, such a foundation
might have been provided. It was only when five years had passed since
the death of the king without any "settlement of the nation" being
arrived at, that Cromwell at last accepted a constitution drafted by his
military officers, and attempted to impose it on the parliament. And it
was not until the parliament refused to acknowledge the Instrument as
the required starting point for the new legality, that Cromwell in the
last resort took arbitrary power into his hands as the only method
remaining for carrying on the government. For much as he hated
arbitrariness, he hated anarchy still more. While therefore Cromwell's
administration became in practice little different from that of
Strafford, the aims and ideals of the two statesmen had nothing in
common. It is therefore profoundly true, as observed by S. R. Gardiner
(_Cromwell_, p. 315), that "what makes Cromwell's biography so
interesting in his perpetual effort to walk in the paths of legality--an
effort always frustrated by the necessities of the situation. The
man--it is ever so with the noblest--was greater than his work." The
nature of Cromwell's statesmanship is to be seen rather in his struggles
against the retrograde influences and opinions of his time, in the many
political reforms anticipated though not originated or established by
himself, and in his religious, perhaps fanatical, enthusiasm, than in
the outward character of his administration, which, however, in spite of
its despotism shows itself in its inner spirit of justice, patriotism
and self-sacrifice, so immeasurably superior to that of the Stuarts.


  Personal character.

Cromwell's personal character has been inevitably the subject of
unceasing controversy. According to Clarendon he was "a brave bad man,"
with "all the wickedness against which damnation is pronounced and for
which hell fire is prepared." Yet he cannot deny that "he had some
virtues which have caused the memory of some men in all ages to be
celebrated"; and admits that "he was not a man of blood," and that he
possessed "a wonderful understanding in the natures and humour of men,"
and "a great spirit, an admirable circumspection and sagacity and a most
magnanimous resolution." According to contemporary republicans he was a
mere selfish adventurer, sacrificing the national cause "to the idol of
his own ambition." Richard Baxter thought him a good man who fell before
a great temptation. The writers of the next century generally condemned
him as a mixture of knave, fanatic and hypocrite, and in 1839 John
Forster endorsed Landor's verdict that Cromwell lived a hypocrite and
died a traitor. These crude ideas of Cromwell's character were
extinguished by Macaulay's irresistible logic, by the publication of
Cromwell's letters by Carlyle in 1845, which showed Cromwell clearly to
be "not a man of falsehoods, but a man of truth"; and by Gardiner, whom,
however, it is somewhat difficult to follow when he represents Cromwell
as "a typical Englishman." In particular that conception which regarded
"ambition" as the guiding motive in his career has been dispelled by a
more intimate and accurate knowledge of his life; this shows him to have
been very little the creator of his own career, which was largely the
result of circumstances outside his control, the influence of past
events and of the actions of others, the pressure of the national will,
the natural superiority of his own genius. "A man never mounts so high,"
Cromwell said to the French ambassador in 1647, "as when he does not
know where he is going." "These issues and events," he said in 1656,
"have not been forecast, but were providences in things." His
"hypocrisy" consists principally in the Biblical language he employed,
which with Cromwell, as with many of his contemporaries, was the most
natural way of expressing his feelings, and in the ascription of every
incident to the direct intervention of God's providence, which was
really Cromwell's sincere belief and conviction. In later times
Cromwell's character and administration have been the subject of almost
too indiscriminate eulogy, which has found tangible shape in the statue
erected to his memory at Westminster in 1899. Here Cromwell's effigy
stands in the midst of the sanctuaries of the law, the church, and the
parliament, the three foundations of the state which he subverted, and
in sight of Whitehall where he destroyed the monarchy in blood. Yet
Cromwell's monument is not altogether misplaced in such surroundings,
for in him are found the true principles of piety, of justice, of
liberty and of governance.

John Maidston, Cromwell's steward, gives the "character of his person."
"His body was compact and strong, his stature under six foot (I believe
about two inches), his head so shaped as you might see it a storehouse
and a shop both of a vast treasury of natural parts." "His temper
exceeding fiery, as I have known, but the flame of it, ... kept down for
the most part, was soon allayed with those moral endowments he had. He
was naturally compassionate towards objects in distress even to an
effeminate measure; though God had made him a heart wherein was left
little room for fear, ... yet did he exceed in tenderness towards
sufferers. A larger soul I think hath seldom dwelt in a house of clay
than his was. I believe if his story were impartially transmitted and
the unprejudiced world well possessed with it, she would add him to her
nine worthies." By his wife Elizabeth Bourchier, Cromwell had four sons,
Robert (who died in 1639), Oliver (who died in 1644 while serving in his
father's regiment), Richard, who succeeded him as Protector, and Henry.
He also had four daughters. Of these Bridget was the wife successively
of Ireton and Fleetwood, Elizabeth married John Claypole, Mary was wife
of Thomas Belasyse, Lord Fauconberg; and Frances was the wife of Sir
Robert Rich, and secondly of Sir John Russell. The last male descendant
of the Protector was his great-great-grandson, Oliver Cromwell of
Cheshunt, who died in 1821. By the female line, through his children
Henry, Bridget and Frances, the Protector has had numerous descendants,
and is the ancestor of many well-known families.[6]

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A detailed bibliography, with the chief authorities for
  particular periods, will be found in the article in the _Dict. of Nat.
  Biography_, by C. H. Firth (1888). The following works may be
  mentioned: S. R. Gardiner's _Hist. of England_ (1883-1884) and of the
  _Great Civil War_ (1886), _Cromwell's Place in History_ (1897),
  _Oliver Cromwell_ (1901), and _History of the Commonwealth and
  Protectorate_ (1894-1903); _Cromwell_, by C. H. Firth (1900); _Oliver
  Cromwell_, by J. Morley (1904); _The Last Years of the Protectorate,
  1656-1658_, 2 vols., by C. H. Firth (1909); _Oliver Cromwell_, by
  Fred. Harrison (1903); _Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell_, by
  T. Carlyle, ed. by S. C. Lomas, with an introd. by C. H. Firth (the
  best edition, rejecting the spurious Squire papers, 1904); _Oliver
  Cromwell_, by F. Hoenig (1887); _Oliver Cromwell, the Protector_, by
  R. F. D. Palgrave (1890); _Oliver Cromwell ... and the Royalist
  Insurrection ... of March 1655_, by the same author (1903); _Oliver
  Cromwell_, by Theodore Roosevelt (1900); _Oliver Cromwell_, by R.
  Pauli (tr. 1888); _Cromwell, a Speech delivered at the Cromwell
  Tercentenary Celebration 1899_, by Lord Rosebery (1900); _The Two
  Protectors_, by Sir Richard Tangye (valuable for its illustrations,
  1899); _Life of Sir Henry Vane_, by W. W. Ireland (1905); _Die Politik
  des Protectors Oliver Cromwell in der Auffassung und Tätigkeit ... des
  Staatssekretärs John Thurloe_, by Freiherr v. Bischofshausen (1899);
  _Cromwell as a Soldier_, by T. S. Baldock (1899); _Cromwell's Army_,
  by C. H. Firth (1902); _The Diplomatic Relations between Cromwell and
  Charles X. of Sweden_, by G. Jones (1897); _The Interregnum_, by F. A.
  Inderwick (dealing with the legal aspect of Cromwell's rule, 1891);
  _Administration of the Royal Navy_, by M. Oppenheim (1896); _History
  of the English Church during the Civil Wars_, by W. Shaw (1900); _The
  Protestant Interest in Cromwell's Foreign Relations_, by J. N. Bowman
  (1900); _Cromwell's Jewish Intelligencies_ (1891), _Crypto-Jews under
  the Commonwealth_ (1894), _Menasseh Ben Israel's Mission to Oliver
  Cromwell_ (1901), by L. Wolf.     (P. C. Y.; C. F. A.; R. J. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

   [1] _Life of Sir H. Vane_, by W. W. Ireland, 222.

   [2] C. H. Firth, Cromwell, p. 324.

   [3] John Morley, Oliver Cromwell, p. 393.

   [4] Frederic Harrison, _Oliver Cromwell_, p. 214.

   [5] John Morley, _Oliver Cromwell_, p. 483.

   [6] Frederic Harrison, _Cromwell_, p. 34.



CROMWELL, RICHARD (1626-1712), lord protector of England, eldest
surviving son of Oliver Cromwell and of Elizabeth Bourchier, was born on
the 4th of October 1626. He served in the parliamentary army, and in
1647 was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn. In 1649 he married Dorothy,
daughter of Richard Mayor, or Major, of Hursley in Hampshire. He
represented Hampshire in the parliament of 1654, and Cambridge
University in that of 1656, and in November 1655 was appointed one of
the council of trade. But he was not brought forward by his father or
prepared in any way for his future greatness, and lived in the country
occupied with field sports, till after the institution of the second
protectorate in 1657 and the recognition of Oliver's right to name his
successor. On the 18th of July he succeeded his father as chancellor of
the university of Oxford, on the 31st of December he was made a member
of the council of state, and about the same time obtained a regiment and
a seat in Cromwell's House of Lords. He was received generally as his
father's successor, and was nominated by him as such on his death-bed.
He was proclaimed on the 3rd of September 1658, and at first his
accession was acclaimed with general favour both at home and abroad.
Dissensions, however, soon broke out between the military faction and
the civilians. Richard's elevation, not being "general of the army as
his father was," was distasteful to the officers, who desired the
appointment of a commander-in-chief from among themselves, a request
refused by Richard. The officers in the council, moreover, showed
jealousy of the civil members, and to settle these difficulties and to
provide money a parliament was summoned on the 27th of January 1659,
which declared Richard protector, and incurred the hostility of the army
by criticizing severely the arbitrary military government of Oliver's
last two years, and by impeaching one of the major-generals. A council
of the army accordingly established itself in opposition to the
parliament, and demanded on the 6th of April a justification and
confirmation of former proceedings, to which the parliament replied by
forbidding meetings of the army council without the permission of the
protector, and insisting that all officers should take an oath not to
disturb the proceedings in parliament. The army now broke into open
rebellion and assembled at St James's. Richard was completely in their
power; he identified himself with their cause, and the same night
dissolved the parliament. The Long Parliament (which re-assembled on
the 7th of May) and the heads of the army came to an agreement to effect
his dismissal; and in the subsequent events Richard appears to have
played a purely passive part, refusing to make any attempt to keep his
power or to forward a restoration of the monarchy. On the 25th of May
his submission was communicated to the House. He retired into private
life, heavily burdened with debts incurred during his tenure of office
and narrowly escaping arrest even before he quitted Whitehall. In the
summer of 1660 he left England for France, where he lived in seclusion
under the name of John Clarke, subsequently removing elsewhere, either
(for the accounts differ) to Spain, to Italy, or to Geneva. He was long
regarded by the government as a dangerous person, and in 1671 a strict
search was made for him but without avail. He returned to England about
1680 and lived at Cheshunt, in the house of Sergeant Pengelly, where he
died on the 12th of July 1712, being buried in Hursley church in
Hampshire. Richard Cromwell was treated with general contempt by his
contemporaries, and invidiously compared with his great father.
According to Mrs Hutchinson he was "gentle and virtuous but a peasant in
his nature and became not greatness." He was nevertheless a man of
respectable abilities, of an irreproachable private character, and a
good speaker.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_, and
  authorities there cited; Noble's _Memoirs of the Protectoral House of
  Cromwell_ (1787); _Memoirs of the Protector ... and of his Sons_, by
  O. Cromwell (1820); _The Two Protectors_, by Sir R. Tangye (1899);
  _Kebleland and a Short Life of Richard Cromwell_, by W. T. Warren
  (1900); _Letters and Speeches of O. Cromwell_, by T. Carlyle (1904);
  _Eng. Hist. Review_, xiii. 93 (letters) and xviii. 79; _Cal. of State
  Papers, Domestic, Lansdowne MSS._ in British Museum.     (P. C. Y.)



CROMWELL, THOMAS, EARL OF ESSEX (1485?-1540), born probably not later
than 1485 and possibly a year or two earlier, was the only son of Walter
Cromwell, _alias_ Smyth, a brewer, smith and fuller of Putney. His
grandfather, John Cromwell, seems to have belonged to the
Nottinghamshire family, of whom the most distinguished member was Ralph,
Lord Cromwell (1394?-1456), lord treasurer; and he migrated from
Norwell, Co. Notts, to Wimbledon some time before 1461. John's son,
Walter, seems to have acquired the _alias_ Smyth from being apprenticed
to his uncle, William Smyth, "armourer," of Wimbledon. He was of a
turbulent, vicious disposition, perpetually being fined in the
manor-court for drunkenness, for evading the assize of beer, and for
turning more than his proper number of beasts on to Putney Common. Once
he was punished for a sanguinary assault, and his connexion with
Wimbledon ceased in 1514 when he "falsely and fraudulently erased the
evidences and terrures of the lord." Till that time he had flourished
like the bay-tree.

Under these circumstances the absence of Thomas Cromwell's name from the
Wimbledon manor rolls is almost a presumption of respectability. Perhaps
it would be safer to attribute it to Cromwell's absence from the manor.
He is said to have quarrelled with his father--no great crime
considering the father's character--and fled to Italy, where he served
as a soldier in the French army at the battle of the Garigliano (Dec.
1503). He escaped from the battle-field to Florence, where he was
befriended by the banker Frescobaldi, a debt which he appears to have
repaid with superabundant interest later on. He is next heard of at
Antwerp as a trader, and about 1510 he was induced to accompany a
Bostonian to Rome in quest of some papal indulgences for a Boston gild;
Cromwell secured the boon by the timely present of some choice
sweetmeats to Julius II. In 1512 there is some slight evidence that he
was at Middelburg, and also in London, engaged in business as a merchant
and solicitor. His marriage must have taken place about the same time,
judging from the age of his son Gregory. His wife was Elizabeth Wykes,
daughter of a well-to-do shearman of Putney, whose business Cromwell
carried on in combination with his own.

For about eight years after 1512 we hear nothing of Cromwell. A letter
to him from Cicely, marchioness of Dorset, in which he is seen in
confidential business relations with her ladyship, is probably earlier
than 1520, and it is possible that Cromwell owed his introduction to
Wolsey to the Dorset family. On the other hand, it is stated that his
cousin, Robert Cromwell, vicar of Battersea under the cardinal, gave
Thomas the stewardship of the archiepiscopal estate of York House. At
any rate he was advising Wolsey on legal points in 1520, and from that
date he occurs frequently not only as mentor to the cardinal, but to
noblemen and others when in difficulties, especially of a financial
character; he made large sums as a money-lender.

In 1523 Cromwell emerges into public life as a member of parliament. The
official returns for this election are lost and it is not known for what
constituency he sat, but we have a humorous letter from Cromwell
describing its proceedings, and a remarkable speech which he wrote and
perhaps delivered, opposing the reckless war with France and indicating
a sounder policy which was pursued after Wolsey's fall. If, he said, war
was to be waged, it would be better to secure Boulogne than advance on
Paris; if the king went in person and were killed without leaving a male
heir, he hinted there would be civil war; it would be wiser to attempt a
union with Scotland, and in any case the proposed subsidy would be a
fatal drain on the resources of the realm. Neither Henry nor Wolsey was
so foolish as to resent this criticism, and Cromwell lost nothing by it.
He was made a collector of the subsidy he had opposed--a doubtful favour
perhaps--and in 1524 was admitted at Gray's Inn; but he now became the
most confidential servant of the cardinal. In 1525 he was Wolsey's agent
in the dissolution of the smaller monasteries which were designed to
provide the endowments for Wolsey's foundations at Oxford and Ipswich, a
task which gave Cromwell a taste and a facility for similar enterprises
on a greater scale later on. For these foundations Cromwell drew up the
necessary deeds, and he was receiver-general of cardinal's college,
constantly supervising the workmen there and at Ipswich. His ruthless
vigour and his accessibility to bribes earned him such unpopularity that
there were rumours of his projected assassination or imprisonment. All
this constituted a further bond of sympathy between him and his master,
and Cromwell grew in Wolsey's favour until his fall. His wife had died
in 1527 or 1528, and in July 1529 he made his will, in which one of the
chief beneficiaries was his nephew, Richard Williams, alias Cromwell,
the great-grandfather of the protector.

Wolsey's disgrace reduced Cromwell to such despair that Cavendish once
found him in tears and at his prayers "which had been a strange sight in
him afore." Many of the cardinal's servants had been taken over by the
king, but Cromwell had made himself particularly obnoxious. However, he
rode to court from Esher to "make or mar," as he himself expressed it,
and offered his services to Norfolk. Possibly he had already paved the
way by the pensions and grants which he induced Wolsey to make through
him, out of the lands and revenues of his bishoprics and abbeys, to
nobles and courtiers who were hard pressed to keep up the lavish style
of Henry's court. Cromwell could be most useful to the government in
parliament, and the government, represented by Norfolk, undertook to use
its influence in procuring him a seat, on the natural understanding that
Cromwell should do his best to further government business in the House
of Commons. This was on the 2nd of November 1529; the elections had been
made, and parliament was to meet on the morrow. A seat was, however,
found or made for Cromwell at Taunton. He signalized himself by a
powerful speech in opposition to the bill of attainder against Wolsey
which had already passed the Lords. The bill was thrown out, possibly
with Henry's connivance, though no theory has yet explained its curious
history so completely as the statement of Cavendish and other
contemporaries, that its rejection was due to the arguments of Cromwell.
Doubtless he championed his fallen chief not so much for virtue's sake
as for the impression it would make on others. He did not feel called
upon to accompany Wolsey on his exile from the court.

Cromwell had now, according to Cardinal Pole, whose story has been too
readily accepted, been converted into an "emissary of Satan" by the
study of Machiavelli's _Prince_. In the one interview which Pole had
with Cromwell, the latter, so Pole wrote ten years later in 1539,
recommended him to read a new Italian book on politics, which Pole says
he afterwards discovered was Machiavelli's _Prince_. But this discovery
was not made for some years: the _Prince_ was not published until 1532,
three years after the conversation; there is evidence that Cromwell was
not acquainted with it until 1537 or 1539, and there is nothing in the
_Prince_ bearing on the precise point under discussion by Pole and
Cromwell. On the other hand, the point is discussed in Castiglione's _Il
Cortegiano_ which had just been published in 1528, and of which Cromwell
promised to lend Bonner a copy in 1530. The _Cortegiano_ is the
antithesis of the _Prince_; and there is little doubt that Pole's
account is the offspring of an imagination heated by his own perusal of
the Prince in 1538, and by Cromwell's ruin of the Pole family at the
same time; until then he had failed to see in Cromwell the Machiavellian
"emissary of Satan."

Equally fanciful is Pole's ascription of the whole responsibility for
the Reformation to Cromwell's suggestion. It was impossible for Pole to
realize the substantial causes of that perfectly natural development,
and it was his cue to represent Henry as having acted at the diabolic
suggestion of Satan's emissary. In reality the whole programme, the
destruction of the liberties and confiscation of the wealth of the
church by parliamentary agency, had been indicated before Cromwell had
spoken to Henry. The use of Praemunire had been applied to Wolsey;
laymen had supplanted ecclesiastics in the chief offices of state; the
plan of getting a divorce without papal intervention had been the
original idea, which Wolsey had induced the king to abandon, and it had
been revived by Cranmer's suggestion about the universities. The root
idea of the supreme authority of the king had been asserted in Tyndale's
_Obedience of a Christian Man_ published in 1528, which Anne Boleyn
herself had brought to Henry's notice: "this," he said, "is a book for
me and all kings to read," and Campeggio had felt compelled to warn him
against these notions, of which Pole imagines that he had never heard
until they were put into his head by Cromwell late in 1530. In the same
way Cromwell's influence over the government from 1529-1533 has been
grossly exaggerated. It was not till 1531 that he was admitted to the
privy council nor till 1534 that he was made secretary, though he had
been made master of the Jewel-House, clerk of the Hanaper and master of
the Wards in 1532, and chancellor of the exchequer (then a minor office)
in 1533. It is not till 1533 that his name is as much as mentioned in
the correspondence of any foreign ambassador resident in London. This
obscurity has been attributed to deliberate suppression: but no secrecy
was made about Cranmer's suggestion, and it was not Henry's habit to
assume a responsibility which he could devolve upon others. It is said
that Cromwell's life would not have been safe, had he been known as the
author of this policy; but that is not a consideration which would have
appealed to Henry, and he was just as able to protect his minister in
1530 as he was in 1536. Cromwell, in fact, was not the author of that
policy, but he was the most efficient instrument in its execution.

He was Henry's parliamentary agent, but even in this capacity his power
has been overrated, and he is supposed to have invented those
parliamentary complaints against the clergy, which were transmuted into
the legislation of 1532. But the complaints were old enough; many of
them had been heard in parliament nearly twenty years before, and there
is ample evidence to show that the petition against the clergy
represents the "infinite clamours" of the Commons against the Church,
which the House itself resolved should be "put in writing and delivered
to the king." The actual drafting of the statute, as of all the
Reformation Acts between 1532 and 1539, was largely Cromwell's work; and
the success with which parliament was managed during this period was
also due to him. It was not an easy task, for the House of Commons more
than once rejected government measures, and members were heard to
threaten Henry VIII. with the fate of Richard III.; they even complained
of Cromwell's reporting their proceedings to the king. That was his
business rather than conveying imaginary royal orders to the House.
"They be contented," he wrote in one of these reports, "that deed and
writing shall be treason," but words were only to be misprision: they
refused to include an heir's rebellion or disobedience in the bill "as
rebellion is already treason, and disobedience is no cause of forfeiture
of inheritance." There was, of course, room for manipulation, which
Cromwell extended to parliamentary elections; but parliamentary opinion
was a force of which he had to take account, and not a negligible
quantity.

From the date of his appointment as secretary in 1534, Cromwell's
biography belongs to the history of England, but it is necessary to
define his personal attitude to the revolution in which he was the
king's most conspicuous agent. He was included by Foxe in his _Book of
Martyrs_ to the Protestant faith: more recent historians regard him as a
sacrilegious ruffian. Now, there were two cardinal principles in the
Protestantism of the 16th century--the supremacy of the temporal
sovereign over the church in matters of government, and the supremacy of
the Scriptures over the Church in matters of faith. There is no room for
doubt as to the sincerity of Cromwell's belief in the first of these two
articles: he paid at his own expense for an English translation of
Marsiglio of Padua's _Defensor Pacis_, the classic medieval advocate of
that doctrine; he had a scheme for governing England by means of
administrative councils nominated by the king to the detriment of
parliament; and he urged upon Henry the adoption of the maxim of the
Roman civil law--_quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem_. He wanted,
in his own words, "one body politic" and no rival to the king's
authority; and he set the divine right of kings against the divine right
of the papacy. There is more doubt about the sincerity of Cromwell's
attachment to the second article; it is true that he set up a Bible in
every parish church, and regarded them as invaluable; and the
correspondents who unbosom themselves to him are all of a Protestant way
of thinking. But Protestantism was the greatest support of absolute
monarchy. Hence its value in Cromwell's eyes. Of religious conviction
there is in him little trace, and still less of the religious
temperament. He was a polished representative of the callous, secular
middle class of that most irreligious age. Sentiment found no place, and
feeling little, in his composition; he used the axe with as little
passion as the surgeon does the knife, and he operated on some of the
best and noblest in the land. He saw that it was wiser to proscribe a
few great opponents than to fall on humbler prey; but he set law above
justice, and law to him was simply the will of the state.

In 1534 Cromwell was appointed master of the Rolls, and in 1535
chancellor of Cambridge University and visitor-general of the
monasteries. The policy of the Dissolution has been theoretically
denounced, but practically approved in every civilized state, Catholic
as well as Protestant. Every one has found it necessary, sooner or
later, to curtail or to destroy its monastic foundations; only those
which delayed the task longest have generally lagged farthest behind in
national progress. The need for reform was admitted by a committee of
cardinals appointed by Paul III. in 1535, and it had been begun by
Wolsey. Cromwell was not affected by the iniquities of the monks except
as arguments for the confiscation of their property. He had boasted that
he would make Henry VIII. the richest prince in Christendom; and the
monasteries, with their direct dependence on the pope and their
cosmopolitan organization, were obstacles to that absolute authority of
the national state which was Cromwell's ideal. He had learnt how to
visit monasteries under Wolsey, and the visitation of 1535 was carried
out with ruthless efficiency. During the storm which followed, Henry
took the management of affairs into his own hands, but Cromwell was
rewarded in July 1536 by being knighted, created lord privy seal, Baron
Cromwell, and vicar-general and viceregent of the king in "Spirituals."

In this last offensive capacity he sent a lay deputy to preside in
Convocation, taking precedence of the bishops and archbishops, and
issued his famous Injunctions of 1536 and 1538; a Bible was to be
provided in every church; the _Paternoster_, Creed and Ten Commandments
were to be recited by the incumbent in English; he was to preach at
least once a quarter, and to start a register of births, marriages and
deaths. During these years the outlook abroad grew threatening because
of the alliance, under papal guarantee, between Charles V. and Francis
I.; and Cromwell sought to counterbalance it by a political and
theological union between England and the Lutheran princes of Germany.
The theological part of the scheme broke down in 1538 when Henry
categorically refused to concede the three reforms demanded by the
Lutheran envoys. This was ominous, and the parliament of 1539, into
which Cromwell tried to introduce a number of personal adherents, proved
thoroughly reactionary. The temporal peers were unanimous in favour of
the Six Articles, the bishops were divided, and the Commons for the most
part agreed with the Lords. Cromwell, however, succeeded in suspending
the execution of the act, and was allowed to proceed with his one
independent essay in foreign policy. The friendship between Francis and
Charles was apparently getting closer; Pole was exhorting them to a
crusade against a king who was worse than the Turk; and anxious eyes
searched the Channel in 1539 for signs of the coming Armada. Under these
circumstances Henry acquiesced in Cromwell's negotiations for a marriage
with Anne of Cleves. Anne, of course, was not a Lutheran, and the state
religion in Cleves was at least as Catholic as Henry's own. But her
sister was married to the elector of Saxony, and her brother had claims
on Guelders, which Charles V. refused to recognize. Guelders was to the
emperor's dominions in the Netherlands what Scotland was to England, and
had often been used by France in the same way, and an alliance between
England, Guelders, Cleves and the Schmalkaldic League would, Cromwell
thought, make Charles's position in the Netherlands almost untenable.
Anne herself was the weak point in the argument; Henry conceived an
invincible repugnance to her from the first; he was restrained from an
immediate breach with his new allies only by fear of Francis and
Charles. In the spring of 1540 he was reassured on that score; no attack
on him from that quarter was impending; there was a rift between the two
Catholic sovereigns, and there was no real need for Anne and her German
friends.

From that moment Cromwell's fate was sealed; the Lords loathed him as an
upstart even more than they had loathed Wolsey; he had no church to
support him; Norfolk and Gardiner detested him from pique as well as on
principle, and he had no friend in the council save Cranmer. As lay
viceregent he had given umbrage to nearly every churchman, and he had
put all his eggs in the one basket of royal favour, which had now failed
him. Cromwell did not succumb without an effort, and a desperate
struggle ensued in the council. In April the French ambassador wrote
that he was tottering to his fall; a few days later he was created earl
of Essex and lord great chamberlain, and two of his satellites were made
secretaries to the king; he then despatched one bishop to the Tower, and
threatened to send five others to join him. At last Henry struck as
suddenly and remorselessly as a beast of prey; on the 10th of June
Norfolk accused him of treason; the whole council joined in the attack,
and Cromwell was sent to the Tower. A vast number of crimes was laid to
his charge, but not submitted for trial. An act of attainder was passed
against him without a dissentient voice, and after contributing his mite
towards the divorce of Anne, he was beheaded on Tower Hill on the 28th
of July, repudiating all heresy and declaring that he died in the
Catholic faith.

In estimating Cromwell's character it must be remembered that his father
was a blackguard, and that he himself spent the formative years of his
life in a vile school of morals. A ruffian he doubtless was, as he says,
in his youth, and he was the last man to need the tuition of
Machiavelli. Nevertheless he civilized himself to a certain extent; he
was not a drunkard nor a forger like his father; from personal
immorality he seems to have been singularly free; he was a kind master,
and a stanch friend; and he possessed all the outward graces of the
Renaissance period. He was not vindictive, and his atrocious acts were
done in no private quarrel, but in what he conceived to be the interests
of his master and the state. Where those interests were concerned he
had no heart and no conscience and no religious faith; no man was more
completely blighted by the 16th century worship of the state.

  The authorities for the early life of Cromwell are the Wimbledon manor
  rolls, used by Mr John Phillips of Putney in _The Antiquary_ (1880),
  vol. ii., and the _Antiquarian Mag._ (1882), vol. ii.; Pole's
  _Apologia_, i. 126; Bandello's _Novella_, xxxiv.; Chapuys' letter to
  Granvelle, 21 Nov. 1535; and Foxe's _Acts and Mon._ From 1522 see
  _Letters and Papers of Henry VIII._, vols. iii.-xvi.; Cavendish's
  _Life of Wolsey_; Hall's _Chron._; Wriothesley's _Chron._ These and
  practically all other available sources have been utilized in R. B.
  Merriman's _Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell_ (2 vols., 1902). For
  Cromwell and Machiavelli see Paul van Dyke's _Renascence Portraits_
  (1906), App.     (A. F. P.)



CRONJE, PIET ARNOLDUS (c. 1840-   ), Boer general, was born about 1840 in
the Transvaal and in 1881 took part in the first Boer War in the rank of
commandant. He commanded in the siege of the British garrison at
Potchefstroom, though he was unable to force their surrender until after
the conclusion of the general armistice. The Boer leader was at this
time accused of withholding knowledge of this armistice from the
garrison (see POTCHEFSTROOM). He held various official positions in the
years 1881-1899, and commanded the Boer force which compelled the
surrender of the Jameson raiders at Doornkop (Jan. 2, 1896). In the war
of 1899 Cronje was general commanding in the western theatre of war, and
began the siege of Kimberley. He opposed the advance of the British
division under Lord Methuen, and fought, though without success, three
general actions at Belmont, Graspan and Modder River. At Magersfontein,
early in December 1899, he completely repulsed a general attack made
upon his position, and thereby checked for two months the northward
advance of the British column. In the campaign of February 1900, Cronje
opposed Lord Roberts's army on the Magersfontein battleground, but he
was unable to prevent the relief of Kimberley; retreating westward, he
was surrounded near Paardeberg, and, after a most obstinate resistance,
was forced to surrender with the remnant of his army (Feb. 27, 1900). As
a prisoner of war Cronje was sent to St Helena, where he remained until
released after the conclusion of peace (see TRANSVAAL: _History_).



CROOKES, SIR WILLIAM (1832-   ), English chemist and physicist, was born
in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal
College of Chemistry under A. W. von Hofmann, whose assistant he became
in 1851. Three years later he was appointed an assistant in the
meteorological department of the Radcliffe observatory, Oxford, and in
1855 he obtained a chemical post at Chester. In 1861, while conducting a
spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of
sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been
noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he
succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was
shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862. During the
next eight years he carried out a minute investigation of this metal and
its properties. While determining its atomic weight, he thought it
desirable, for the sake of accuracy, to weigh it in a vacuum, and even
in these circumstances he found that the balance behaved in an anomalous
manner, the metal appearing to be heavier when cold than when hot. This
phenomenon he explained as a "repulsion from radiation," and he
expressed his discovery in the statement that in a vessel exhausted of
air a body tends to move away from another body hotter than itself.
Utilizing this principle he constructed the radiometer (q.v.), which he
was at first disposed to regard as a machine that directly transformed
light into motion, but which was afterwards perceived to depend on
thermal action. Thence he was led to his famous researches on the
phenomena produced by the discharge of electricity through highly
exhausted tubes (sometimes known as "Crookes' tubes" in consequence),
and to the development of his theory of "radiant matter" or matter in a
"fourth state," which led up to the modern electronic theory. In 1883 he
began an inquiry into the nature and constitution of the rare earths. By
repeated fractionations he was able to divide yttrium into distinct
portions which gave different spectra when exposed in a high vacuum to
the spark from an induction coil. This result he considered to be due,
not to any removal of impurities, but to an actual splitting-up of the
yttrium molecule into its constituents, and he ventured to draw the
provisional conclusion that the so-called simple bodies are in reality
compound molecules, at the same time suggesting that all the elements
have been produced by a process of evolution from one primordial stuff
or "protyle." A later result of this method of investigation was the
discovery of a new member of the rare earths, monium or victorium, the
spectrum of which is characterized by an isolated group of lines, only
to be detected photographically, high up in the ultra-violet; the
existence of this body was announced in his presidential address to the
British Association at Bristol in 1898. In the same address he called
attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with
the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would
within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused
by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are
essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation,
as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the
ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the
nitrogen of the air. An authority on precious stones, and especially the
diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of
the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first
to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the
spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium
salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide
screen. In addition to many other researches besides those here
mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical
technology, including _Select Methods of Chemical Analysis_, which went
through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time
to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some
measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws. He was
knighted in 1897, and received the Royal (1875), Davy (1888), and Copley
(1904) medals of the Royal Society, besides filling the offices of
president of the Chemical Society and of the Institution of Electrical
Engineers. He married Ellen, daughter of W. Humphrey, of Darlington, and
their golden wedding was celebrated in 1906.



CROOKSTON, a city and the county-seat of Polk county, Minnesota, U.S.A.,
on the Red Lake river in the Red River valley, about 300 m. N.W. of
Minneapolis, and about 25 m. E. of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Pop.
(1890) 3457; (1900) 5359; (1905, state census) 6794, 2049 being
foreign-born, including 656 from Norway (2 Norwegian weeklies are
published), 613 from Canada, 292 from Sweden; (1910 U.S. census) 7559.
Crookston is served by the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific
railways. It has a Carnegie library, and the St Vincent and Bethesda
hospitals, and is the seat of a Federal Land Office and of a state
agricultural high school (with an experimental farm). Dams on the Red
Lake river provide a fine water-power, and among the city's manufactures
are lumber, leather, flour, farm implements, wagons and bricks. The city
is situated in a fertile farming region, and is a market for grain,
potatoes and other agricultural products, and lumber. Crookston was
settled about 1872, was incorporated in 1879, received its first city
charter in 1883, and adopted a new one in 1906. It was named in honour
of William Crooks, an early settler.



CROP (a word common in various forms, such as Germ. _Kropf_, to many
Teutonic languages for a swelling, excrescence, round head or top of
anything; it appears also in Romanic languages derived from Teutonic, in
Fr. as _croupe_, whence the English "crupper"; and in Ital. _groppo_,
whence English "group"), the _ingluvies_, or pouched expansion of a
bird's oesophagus, in which the food remains to undergo a preparatory
process of digestion before being passed into the true stomach. From the
meaning of "top" or "head," as applied to a plant, herb or flower, comes
the common use of the word for the produce of cereals or other
cultivated plants, the wheat-crop, the cotton-crop and the like, and
generally, "the crops"; more particular expressions are the
"white-crop," for such grain crops as barley or wheat, which whiten as
they grow ripe and "green-crop" for such as roots or potatoes which do
not, and also for those which are cut in a green state, like clover (see
AGRICULTURE). Other uses, more or less technical, of the word are, in
leather-dressing, for the whole untrimmed hide; in mining and geology,
for the "outcrop" or appearance at the surface of a vein or stratum and,
particularly in tin mining, of the best part of the ore produced after
dressing. A "hunting-crop" is a short thick stock for a whip, with a
small leather loop at one end, to which a thong may be attached. From
the verb "to crop," i.e. to take off the top of anything, comes "crop"
meaning a closely cut head of hair, found in the name "croppy" given to
the Roundheads at the time of the Great Rebellion, to the Catholics in
Ireland in 1688 by the Orangemen, probably with reference to the
priests' tonsures, and to the Irish rebels of 1798, who cut their hair
short in imitation of the French revolutionaries.



CROPSEY, JASPER FRANCIS (1823-1900), American landscape painter, was
born at Rossville, Staten Island, New York, on the 18th of February
1823. After practising architecture for several years, he turned his
attention to painting, studying in Italy from 1847 to 1850. In 1851 he
was elected a member of the National Academy of Design. From 1857 to
1863 he had a studio in London, and after his return to America enjoyed
a considerable vogue, particularly as a painter of vivid autumnal
effects, along the lines of the Hudson River school. He was one of the
original members of the American Water Color Society. He continued
actively in this profession until within a few days of his death, at
Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, on the 22nd of June 1900. He made the
architectural designs for the stations of the elevated railways in New
York City.



CROQUET (from Fr. _croc_, a crook, or crooked stick), a lawn game played
with balls, mallets, hoops and two pegs. The game has been evolved,
according to some writers, from the _paille-maille_ which was played in
Languedoc at least as early as the 13th century. Under the name of _le
jeu de la crosse_, or _la crosserie_, a similar game was at the same
period immensely popular in Normandy, and especially at Avranches, but
the object appears to have been to send the ball as far as possible by
driving it with the mallet (see _Sports et jeux d'adresse_, 1904, p.
203). Pall Mall, a fashionable game in England in the time of the
Stuarts, was played with a ball and a mallet, and with two hoops or a
hoop and a peg, the game being won by the player who ran the hoop or
hoops and touched the peg under certain conditions in the fewest
strokes. Croquet certainly has some resemblance to _paille-maille_,
played with more hoops and more balls. It is said that the game was
brought to Ireland from the south of France, and was first played on
Lord Lonsdale's lawn in 1852, under the auspices of the eldest daughter
of Sir Edmund Macnaghten. It came to England in 1856, or perhaps a few
years earlier, and soon became popular.

In 1868 the first all-comers' meeting was held at Moreton-in-the-Marsh.
In the same year the All England Croquet Club was formed, the annual
contest for the championship taking place on the grounds of this club at
Wimbledon.[1] But after being for ten years or so the most popular game
for the country house and garden party, croquet was in its turn
practically ousted by lawn tennis, until, with improved implements and a
more scientific form of play, it was revived about 1894-1895. In
1896-1897 was formed the United All England Croquet Association, on the
initiative of Mr Walter H. Peel. Under the name of the Croquet
Association, with more than 2000 members and nearly a hundred affiliated
clubs (1909), this body is the recognized ruling authority on croquet in
the British Islands. Its headquarters are at the Roehampton Club, where
the championship and champion cup competitions are held each year.

_The Game and its Implements._--The requisites for croquet are a level
grass lawn, six hoops, two posts or pegs, balls, mallets, and hoop-clips
to mark the progress of the players. The usual game is played between
two sides, each having two balls, the side consisting of two players in
partnership, each playing one ball, or of one player playing both balls.
The essential characteristic of croquet is the scientific combination
between two balls in partnership against the other two. The balls are
distinguished by being coloured blue, red, black and yellow, and are
played in that order, blue and black always opposing the other two.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Diagram of croquet ground, showing setting of
hoops and pegs, and order of play in accordance with the official Laws
(1909) of the Croquet Association.]

The ground for match play measures 35 yds. by 28 yds., and should be
carefully marked out with white lines. In each corner a white spot is
marked 1 yd. from each boundary. The hoops are made of round iron, not
less than ½ in. and not more than ¾ in. in diameter, and standing 12 in.
out of the ground. For match play they are 3¾ or 4 in. across, inside
measurement. They are set up as in the accompanying diagram, the numbers
and arrows indicating the order and direction in which they must be
passed. Each hoop is run twice, and each peg struck once. The pegs may
be struck from any direction.

The pegs are 1½ in. in diameter and when fixed stand 18 in. above the
ground. The balls were formerly made of boxwood (earlier still of
beechwood); composition balls are now in general use for tournaments.
They must be 3-5/8 in. in diameter and 15 oz. to 16½ oz. in weight. It
will be seen that for match play the hoops are only 1/8 or at the most
3/8 in. wider than the diameter of the ball. The mallets may be of any
size and weight, but the head must be made of wood (metal may be used
only for weighting or strengthening purposes), and the ends must be
parallel and similar. Only one mallet may be used in the course of a
game, except in the case of _bona fide_ damage.

The object of the player is to score the points of the game by striking
his ball through each of the hoops and against each of the pegs in a
fixed order; and the side wins which first succeeds in scoring all the
points with both the balls of the side. A metal clip corresponding in
colour with the player's ball is attached to the hoop or peg which that
ball has next to make in the proper order, as a record of its progress
in the game. No point is scored by passing through a hoop or hitting a
peg except in the proper order. Thus, if a player has in any turn or
turns driven his ball successively through hoops 1, 2, and 3, his clip
is attached to hoop 4, and the next point to be made by him will be
that hoop; and so on till all the points (hoops and pegs) have been
scored. Each player starts in turn from any point in a "baulk" or area 3
ft. wide along the left-hand half of the "southern" boundary, marked A
on the diagram, of the lawn--till 1906, from a point 1 ft. in front of
the middle of hoop 1. If he fails either to make a point or to
"roquet"[2] (i.e. drive his ball against) another ball in play, his turn
is at an end and the next player in order takes his turn in like manner.
If he succeeds in scoring a point, he is entitled (as in billiards) to
another stroke; he may then either attempt to score another point, or he
may roquet a ball. Having roqueted a ball--provided he has not already
roqueted the same ball in the same turn without having scored a point in
the interval--he is entitled to two further strokes: first he must "take
croquet," i.e. he places his own ball (which from the moment of the
roquet is "dead" or "in hand") in contact with the roqueted ball on any
side of it, and then strikes his own ball with his mallet, being bound
to move or shake both balls perceptibly. If at the beginning of a turn
the striker's ball is in contact with another ball, a "roquet" is held
to have been made and "croquet" must be taken at once. After taking
croquet the striker is entitled to another stroke, with which he may
score another point, or roquet another ball not previously roqueted in
the same turn since a point was scored, or he may play for safety. Thus,
by skilful alternation of making points and roqueting balls, a "break"
may be made in which point after point, and even all the points in the
game (for the ball in play), may be scored in a single turn, in addition
to 3 or 4 points for the partner ball. The chief skill in the game
perhaps consists in playing the stroke called "taking croquet" (but see
below on the "rush"). Expert players can drive both balls together from
one end of the ground to the other, or send one to a distance while
retaining the other, or place each with accuracy in different directions
as desired, the player obtaining position for scoring a point or
roqueting another ball according to the strategical requirements of his
position. Care has, however, to be taken in playing the croquet-stroke
that both balls are absolutely moved or perceptibly shaken, and that
neither of them be driven over the boundary line, for in either event
the player's next stroke is forfeited and his turn brought summarily to
an end.

There are three distinct methods of holding the mallet among good
players. A comparatively small number still adhere to the once universal
"side stroke," in which the player faces more or less at right angles to
the line of aim, and strikes the ball very much like a golfer, with his
hands close together on the mallet shaft. The majority use "front play,"
in which the player faces in the direction in which he proposes to send
the ball. The essential characteristic of this stroke is that eye, hand
and ball should be in the same vertical plane, and the stroke is rather
a swing--the "pendulum stroke"--than a hit. There are two ways of
playing it. The majority of right-handed front players swing the mallet
outside the right foot, holding it with the left hand as a pivot at the
top of the shaft, while the right hand (about 12 in. lower down) applies
the necessary force, though it must always be borne in mind that the
heavy mallet-head, weighing from 3 to 3½ lb. or even more, does the work
by itself, and the nearer the stroke is to a simple swing, like that of
a pendulum, the more likely it is to be accurate. Either the right or
the left foot may be in advance, and should be roughly parallel to the
line of aim, the player's weight being mainly on the rear foot. Most of
the best Irish and some English players swing the mallet between their
feet, using a grip like that of the side player or golfer, with the
hands close together, and often interlocking. It is claimed that the
loss of power caused by the hampered swing--usually compensated by an
extra heavy mallet--is more than counterbalanced by the greater accuracy
in aim. The beginner is well advised to try all these methods, and adopt
that which comes most natural to him. Skirted players, of course, are
unable to use the Irish stroke; and, as one of the most meritorious
features of croquet is that it is the only out-of-door game in which men
and women can compete on terms of real equality, this has been put
forward as a reason for barring it, if it is actually an advantage.

When a croquet ground is thoroughly smooth and level, the game gives
scope for considerable skill; a great variety of strokes may be played
with the mallet, each having its own well-defined effect on the
behaviour of the balls, while a knowledge of angles is essential.
Skilful tactics are at least as necessary as skilful execution to enable
the player so to dispose the balls on the ground while making a break
that they may most effectively assist him in scoring his points. The
tactics of croquet are in this respect similar to those of billiards,
that the player tries to make what progress he can during his own break,
and to leave the balls "safe" at the end of it; he must also keep in
mind the needs of the other ball of his side by leaving his own ball, or
the last player's ball, or both, within easy roqueting distance or in
useful positions, and that of the next player isolated. Good judgment is
really more valuable than mechanical skill. Croquet is a game of
combination, partners endeavouring to keep together for mutual help, and
to keep their opponents apart. It is important always to leave the next
player in such a position that he will be unable to score a point or
roquet a ball; a break, however profitable, which does not end by doing
this is often fatal. Formerly this might be done by leaving the next
player's ball in such a position that either a hoop or a peg lay between
it and all the other balls ("wiring"), or so near to a hoop or peg that
there was no room for a proper stroke to be taken in the required
direction. Under rule 36 of the _Laws of Croquet_ for 1906, a ball left
in such a position, provided it were within a yard of the obstacle
("close-wired"), might at the striker's option be moved one yard in any
direction. This rule left to the striker whose ball was "wired" more
than a yard from the hoop or peg ("distance-wired") the possibility of
hitting his ball in such a way as to jump the obstacle. The jump-shot
is, however, very bad for the lawn, and in 1907 a further provision was
made by which the player whose ball is left "wired" from all the other
balls by the stroke of an opponent may lift it and play from the "baulk"
area. This practically means that "wiring" is impossible. The most that
can be done is to "close-wire" the next player from two balls and leave
him with a difficult shot at the third. If, however, the next player's
ball has not been moved by the adversary, the adversary is entitled to
wire the balls as best he can.

The following is a specimen of elementary croquet tactics. If a player
is going up to hoop 5 (diagram 1) in the course of a break, he should
have contrived, if possible, to have a ball waiting for him at that hoop
and another at hoop 6. With the aid of the first he runs hoop 5 and
sends it on to the turning peg, stopping his ball in taking croquet
close to the ball at 6. The corner hoops are the difficult ones, and
after running hoop 6 the assisting ball is croqueted to 1 back, the peg
being struck with the aid of the ball already there, which is again
struck and driven to 2 back. If the player has been able to leave the
fourth ball in the centre of the ground (known as a centre ball), he
hits this after taking croquet, takes croquet, going off it to the ball
at 1 back, and continues the break, leaving the centre ball where it
will be useful for 3 back and 4 back. A first-class player should,
however, be able to make a break with 3 balls almost as easily as with
4. A useful device, especially in a losing game, is to get rid of the
opponent's advanced ball if a "rover" (i.e. one which has run all the
hoops and is for the winning peg) by croqueting it in such a way that it
hits the peg and is thus out of the game. This can be done only by a
ball which is itself also a rover. The opponent has then only one turn
out of every three, and may be rendered practically helpless by leaving
him always in a "safe" position. Inasmuch as a skilful player can cause
an opponent's ball to pass through the last two or even three hoops in
the course of his turn and then peg it out, it is considered prudent to
leave unrun the last three hoops until the partner's ball is well
advanced. There is a perennial agitation in the croquet world for a law
prohibiting the player from pegging out his opponent's ball. Many good
players also think it desirable that the four-ball break should be
restricted or wholly forbidden, e.g. by barring the dead ball.

To "rush" a ball is to roquet it hard so that it proceeds for a
considerable distance in a desired direction. This stroke requires
absolute accuracy and often considerable force, which must be applied in
such a way as to drive the player's ball evenly; otherwise it is very
liable, especially if the ground be not perfectly smooth, to jump the
object ball. The rush stroke is absolutely essential to good play, as it
enables croquet to be taken (e.g.) close to the required hoop, whereas
to croquet into position from a great distance and also provide a ball
for use after running the hoop is extremely difficult, often impossible.
To "rush" successfully, the striker's ball must lie near the object
ball, preferably, though not necessarily, in the line of the rush. By
means of the rush it is possible to accomplish the complete round with
the assistance of one ball only. To "cut" a ball is to hit it on the
edge and cause it to move at some desired angle. "Rolling croquet" is
made either by hitting near the top of the player's ball which gives it
"follow," or by making the mallet so hit the ball as to keep up a
sustained pressure. The first impact must, however, result in a
distinctly audible single tap; if a prolonged rattle or a second tap is
heard the stroke is foul. The passing stroke is merely an extension of
this. Here the player's ball proceeds a greater distance than the
croqueted ball, but in somewhat the same direction. The "stop stroke" is
made by a short, sharp tap, the mallet being withdrawn immediately after
contact; the player's ball only rolls a short distance, the other going
much farther. The "jump stroke" is made by striking downwards on to the
ball, which can thus be made to jump over another ball, or even a hoop.
"Peeling" (a term derived from Walter H. Peel, a famous advocate of the
policy) is the term applied to the device of putting a partner's or an
opponent's ball through the hoops with a view to ultimately pegging it
out.

The laws of croquet, and even the arrangement of the hoops, have not
attained complete uniformity wherever the game is played. Croquet
grounds are not always of full size, and some degree of elasticity in
the rules is perhaps necessary to meet local conditions. The laws by
which matches for the championship and all tournaments are governed are
issued annually by the Croquet Association; and though from time to time
trifling amendments may be made, they have probably reached permanence
in essentials.

  See _The Encyclopaedia of Sport; The Complete Croquet Player_ (London,
  1896); the latest _Laws of Croquet_, published annually by the Croquet
  Association, and its official organ _The Croquet Gazette_. For the
  principles of the game and its history in England, see C. D. Locock,
  _Modern Croquet Tactics_ (London, 1907); A. Lillie, _Croquet up to
  Date_ (London, 1900).

_Croquet in the United States: Roque._--Croquet was brought to America
from England soon after its introduction into that country, and enjoyed
a wide popularity as a game for boys and girls before the Civil War (see
Miss Alcott's _Little Women_, cap. 12). American croquet is quite
distinct from the modern English game. It is played on a lawn 60 ft. by
30, and preserves the old-fashioned English arrangement of ten hoops,
including a central "cage" of two hoops. The balls, coloured red, white,
blue and black, are 3¼ in. in diameter, and the hoops are from 3½ to 4
in. wide, according to the skill of the players. This game, however, is
not taken seriously in the United States; the _Official Croquet Guide_
of Mr Charles Jacobus emphasizes "the ease with which the game can be
established," since almost every country home has a grass plot, and "no
elaboration is needed." The scientific game of croquet in the United
States is known as "roque." Under this title a still greater departure
from the English game has been elaborated on quite independent lines
from those of the English Croquet Association since 1882, in which year
the National Roque Association was formed. Roque also suffered from the
popularity of lawn tennis, but since 1897 it has developed almost as
fast as croquet in England. A great national championship tournament is
held in Norwich, Conn., every August, and the game--which is fully as
scientific as modern English croquet--has numerous devotees, especially
in New England.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Diagram of roque ground, showing setting of
arches and stakes and order of play, in accordance with the official
laws (1906) of the National Roque Association.]

Roque is played, not on grass, but on a prepared surface something like
a cinder tennis-court. The standard ground, as adopted by the National
Association in 1903, is hexagonal in shape, with ten arches (hoops) and
two stakes (pegs) as shown in diagram 2. The length is 60 ft., width 30,
and the "corner pieces" are 6 ft. long. An essential feature of the
ground is that it is surrounded by a raised wooden border, often lined
with india-rubber to facilitate the rebound of the ball, and it is
permissible to play a "carom" (or rebounding shot) off this border; a
skilful player can often thus hit a ball which is wired to a direct
shot. A boundary line is marked 28 in. inside the border, on which a
ball coming to rest outside it must be replaced. The hoops are run in
the order marked on the diagram, so that the game consists of 36 points.
Red and white are always partners against blue and black, and the
essential features and tactics of the game are, _mutatis mutandis_, the
same as in modern English croquet--i.e. the skilful player goes always
for a break and utilizes one or both of the opponent's balls in making
it. The balls are 3¼ in. in diameter, of hard rubber or composition, and
the arches are 3-3/8 or 3½ in. wide for first- and second-class players
respectively; they are made of steel ½ in. in diameter and stand about 8
in. out of the ground. The stakes are 1 in. in diameter and only 1½ in.
above the ground. The mallets are much shorter than those commonly
employed in England, the majority of players using only one hand, though
the two-handed "pendulum stroke," played between the legs, finds an
increasingly large number of adherents, on account of the greater
accuracy which it gives. The "jump shot" is a necessary part of the
player's equipment, as dead wiring is allowed; it is supplemented by the
carom off the border or off a stake or arch, and roque players justly
claim that their game is more like billiards than any other out-of-door
game.

The game of roque is opened by scoring (stringing) for lead from an
imaginary line through the middle wicket (cage), the player whose ball
rests nearest the southern boundary line having the choice of lead and
balls. The balls are then placed on the four corner spots marked A in
diagram, partner balls being diagonally opposite one another, and the
starting ball having the choice of either of the upper corners. The
leader, say red, usually begins by shooting at white; if he misses, a
carom off the border will leave him somewhere near his partner, blue.
White then shoots at red or blue, with probably a similar result. Blue
is then "in," with a certain roquet and the choice of laying for red or
going for an immediate break himself. The general strategy of the game
corresponds to that of croquet, the most important differences being
that "pegging out" is not allowed, and that on the small ground with its
ten arches and two stakes the three-ball break is usually adopted, the
next player or "danger ball" being wired at the earliest opportunity.

  See Spalding's _Official Roque Guide_, edited by Mr Charles Jacobus
  (New York, 1906).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This was largely the work of W. T. Whitmore-Jones (1831-1872),
    generally known as W. Jones Whitmore, who subsequently formed the
    short-lived National Croquet Club, and was largely responsible for
    the first codification of the laws.

  [2] The words "roquet" and "croquet" are pronounced as in French,
    with the t mute.



CRORE (Hindustani _karor_), an Anglo-Indian term for a hundred _lakhs_
or ten million. It is in common use for statistics of trade and
especially coinage. In the days when the rupee was worth its face value
of 2s., a crore of rupees was exactly worth a million sterling, but now
that the rupee is fixed at 15 to the £1, a crore is only worth £666,666.



CROSBY, HOWARD (1826-1891), American preacher and teacher,
great-grandson of Judge Joseph Crosby of Massachusetts and of Gen.
William Floyd of New York, a signer of the Declaration of Independence,
was born in New York City on the 27th of February 1826. He graduated in
1844 from the University of the City of New York (now New York
University); became professor of Greek there in 1851, and in 1859 became
professor of Greek in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, where
two years later he was ordained pastor of the first Presbyterian church.
From 1870 to 1881 he was chancellor of the University of the City of New
York; from 1872 to 1881 was one of the American revisers of the English
version of the New Testament; and in 1873 was moderator of the general
assembly of the Presbyterian Church. He took a prominent part in
politics, urged excise reform, opposed "total abstinence," was one of
the founders and was the first president of the New York Society for the
Prevention of Crime, and pleaded for better management of Indian affairs
and for international copyright. Among his publications are _The Lands
of the Moslem_ (1851), _Bible Companion_ (1870), _Jesus: His Life and
Works_ (1871), _True Temperance Reform_ (1879), _True Humanity of
Christ_ (1880), and commentaries on the book of Joshua (1875), Nehemiah
(1877) and the New Testament (1885).

His son, ERNEST HOWARD CROSBY (1856-1907), was a social reformer, and
was born in New York City on the 4th of November 1856. He graduated at
the University of the City of New York in 1876 and at Columbia Law
School in 1878; served in the New York Assembly in 1887-1889, securing
the passage of a high-licence bill; in 1889-1894 was a judge of the
Mixed Tribunal at Alexandria, Egypt, resigning upon coming under the
influence of Tolstoy; and died in New York City on the 3rd of January
1907. He was the first president (1894) of the Social Reform Club of New
York City, and was president in 1900-1905 of the New York
Anti-Imperialist League; was a leader in settlement work and in
opposition to child labour, and was a disciple of Tolstoy as to
universal peace and non-resistance, and of Henry George in his belief in
the "single tax" principle. His writings, many of which are in the
manner of Walt Whitman, comprise _Plain Talk in Psalm and Parable_
(1899), _Swords and Ploughshares_ (1902), and _Broadcast_ (1905), all in
verse; an anti-military novel, _Captain Jinks, Hero_ (1902); and essays
on Tolstoy (1904 and 1905) and on Garrison (1905).



CROSS, and CRUCIFIXION (Lat. _crux_, _crucis_[1]). The meaning
ordinarily attached to the word "cross" is that of a figure composed of
two or more lines which intersect, or touch each other transversely.
Thus, two pieces of wood, or other material, so placed in juxtaposition
to one another, are understood to form a cross. It should be noted,
however, that Lipsius and other writers speak of the single upright
stake to which criminals were bound as a cross, and to such a stake the
name of _crux simplex_ has been applied. The usual conception, however,
of a cross is that of a compound figure.

Punishment by crucifixion was widely employed in ancient times. It is
known to have been used by nations such as those of Assyria, Egypt,
Persia, by the Greeks, Carthaginians, Macedonians, and from very early
times by the Romans. It has been thought, too, that crucifixion was also
used by the Jews themselves, and that there is an allusion to it (Deut.
xxi. 22, 23) as a punishment to be inflicted.

Two methods were followed in the infliction of the punishment of
crucifixion. In both of these the criminal was first of all usually
stripped naked, and bound to an upright stake, where he was so cruelly
scourged with an implement, formed of strips of leather having pieces of
iron, or some other hard material, at their ends, that not merely was
the flesh often stripped from the bones, but even the entrails partly
protruded, and the anatomy of the body was disclosed. In this pitiable
state he was reclothed, and, if able to do so, was made to drag the
stake to the place of execution, where he was either fastened to it, or
impaled upon it, and left to die. In this method, where a single stake
was employed, we have the _crux simplex_ of Lipsius. The other method is
that with which we are more familiar, and which is described in the New
Testament account of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. In such a case,
after the scourging at the stake, the criminal was made to carry a
gibbet, formed of two transverse bars of wood, to the place of
execution, and he was then fastened to it by iron nails driven through
the outstretched arms and through the ankles. Sometimes this was done as
the cross lay on the ground, and it was then lifted into position. In
other cases the criminal was made to ascend by a ladder, and was then
fastened to the cross. Probably the feebleness, or state of collapse,
from which the criminal must often have suffered, had much to do in
deciding this. It is not quite clear which of these two plans was
followed in the case of the crucifixion of Christ, but the more general
opinion has been that He was nailed to the cross on the ground, and that
it was then lifted into position. The contrary opinion, has, however,
prevailed to some extent, and there are representations of the
crucifixion which depict Him as mounting a ladder placed against the
cross. Such representations may, however, have been due to a pious
desire, on the part of their authors, to emphasize the voluntary
offering of Himself as the Saviour of the World, rather than as being
intended for actual pictures of the scene itself. It may be noted,
however, that among the "Emblems of the Passion," as they are called,
and which were very favourite devices in the middle ages, the ladder is
not infrequently found in conjunction with the crown of thorns, nails,
spear, &c.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

From its simplicity of form, the cross has been used both as a religious
symbol and as an ornament, from the dawn of man's civilization. Various
objects, dating from periods long anterior to the Christian era, have
been found, marked with crosses of different designs, in almost every
part of the old world. India, Syria, Persia and Egypt have all yielded
numberless examples, while numerous instances, dating from the later
Stone Age to Christian times, have been found in nearly every part of
Europe. The use of the cross as a religious symbol in pre-Christian
times, and among non-Christian peoples, may probably be regarded as
almost universal, and in very many cases it was connected with some form
of nature worship. Two of the forms of the pre-Christian cross which are
perhaps most frequently met with are the tau cross, so named from its
resemblance to the Greek capital letter [Tau], and the _svastika_ or
_fylfot_[2] [svastika], also called "_Gammadion_" owing to its form
being that of four Greek capital letters _gamma_ [Gamma] placed
together. The tau cross is a common Egyptian device, and is indeed
often called the Egyptian cross. The _svastika_ has a very wide range of
distribution, and is found on all kinds of objects. It was used as a
religious emblem in India and China at least ten centuries before the
Christian era, and is met with on Buddhist coins and inscriptions from
various parts of India. A fine sepulchral urn found at Shropham in
Norfolk, and now in the British Museum, has three bands of cruciform
ornaments round it. The two uppermost of these are plain circles, each
of which contains a plain cross; the lowest band is formed of a series
of squares, in each of which is a _svastika_. In the Vatican Museum
there is an Etruscan fibula of gold which is marked with the _svastika_,
but it is a device of such common occurrence on objects of pre-Christian
origin, that it is hardly necessary to specify individual instances. The
cross, as a device in different forms, and often enclosed in a circle,
is of frequent occurrence on coins and medals of pre-Christian date in
France and elsewhere. Indeed, objects marked with pre-Christian crosses
are to be seen in every important museum.

The death of Christ on a cross necessarily conferred a new significance
on the figure, which had hitherto been associated with a conception of
religion not merely non-Christian, but in its essence often directly
opposed to it. The Christians of early times were wont to trace, in
things around them, hidden prophetical allusions to the truth of their
faith, and such a testimony they seem to have readily recognized in the
use of the cross as a religious emblem by those whose employment of it
betokened a belief most repugnant to their own. The adoption by them of
such forms, for example, as the tau cross and the _svastika_ or _fylfot_
was no doubt influenced by the idea of the occult Christian significance
which they thought they recognized in those forms, and which they could
use with a special meaning among themselves, without at the same time
arousing the ill-feeling or shocking the sentiment of those among whom
they lived.

It was not till the time of Constantine that the cross was publicly used
as the symbol of the Christian religion. Till then its employment had
been restricted, and private among the Christians themselves. Under
Constantine it became the acknowledged symbol of Christianity, in the
same way in which, long afterwards, the crescent was adopted as the
symbol of the Mahommedan religion. Constantine's action was no doubt
influenced by the vision which he believed he saw of the cross in the
sky with the accompanying words [Greek: en toutô nika], as well as by
the story of the discovery of the true cross by his mother St Helena in
the year 326. The legend is that, when visiting the holy places in
Palestine, St Helena was guided to the site of the crucifixion by an
aged Jew who had inherited traditional knowledge as to its position.
After the ground had been dug to a considerable depth, three crosses
were found, as well as the superscription placed over the Saviour's head
on the cross, and the nails with which he had been crucified. The cross
of the Lord was distinguished from the other two by the working of a
miracle on a crippled woman who was stretched upon it. This finding, or
"invention," of the holy cross by St Helena is commemorated by a
festival on the 3rd of May, called the "Invention of the Holy Cross."
The legend was widely accepted as true, and is related by writers such
as St Ambrose, Rufinus, Sulpicius Severus and others, but it is
discounted by the existence of an older legend, according to which the
true cross was found in the reign of Tiberius, and while St James the
Great was bishop of Jerusalem, by Protonice, the wife of Claudius.

In recent times an attempt has been made to reconcile the two accounts,
by attributing to St Helena the rediscovery of the true cross,
originally found by Protonice, and which had been buried again on the
spot. A change was made in 1895 in the _Diario Romano_, when the word
_Ritrovamento_ was substituted for that of _Invenzione_, in the name of
the festival of the 3rd of May. After St Helena's discovery a church was
built upon the site, and in it she placed the greater portion of the
cross. The remaining portion she conveyed to Byzantium, and thence
Constantine sent a piece to Rome, where it is said to be still preserved
in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, which was built to receive so
precious a relic. It is exposed for the veneration of the faithful on
Good Friday, 3rd of May, and the third Sunday in Lent, each year.

Another festival of the holy cross is kept on the 14th of September, and
is known as the "Exaltation of the Holy Cross." It seems to have
originated with the dedication, in the year 335, of the churches built
on the sites of the crucifixion and the holy sepulchre. The observance
of this festival passed from Jerusalem to Constantinople, and thence to
Rome, where it appears to have been introduced in the 7th century. By
some it is thought that the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross had its
origin in Constantine's vision of the cross in the sky in the year 317,
but whether it originated then, or, as is more generally supposed, at
the dedication of the churches at Jerusalem, there is no doubt that it
was afterwards kept with much greater solemnity in consequence of the
recovery of the portion of the cross St Helena had left at Jerusalem,
which had been taken away in the Persian victory, and was restored to
Jerusalem by Heraclitus in 627. Pope Clement VIII. (1592-1604) raised
the festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross to the dignity,
liturgically known as that of a Greater Double.

Before leaving the story of St Helena and the cross, it may be
convenient to allude briefly to the superscription placed over the
Saviour's head, and the nails, which it is said that she found with the
cross. The earlier tradition as to the superscription is obscure, but it
would seem that it ought to be considered part of the relic which
Constantine sent to Rome. By some means it was entirely lost sight of
until the year 1492, when it is said that it was accidentally found in a
vault in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme at Rome. Pope Alexander
III. published a bull certifying to the truth of this rediscovery of the
relic, and authenticated its character.

As regards the nails, a question has arisen whether there were three or
four. In the earliest pictures of the Crucifixion the feet are shown as
separately nailed to the cross, but at a later period they are crossed,
and a single nail fixes them. In the former case there would be four
nails, and in the latter only three. Four is the number generally
accepted, and it is said that one was cast by St Helena into the sea,
during a storm, in order to subdue the waves, another is said (but the
legend cannot be traced far back) to have been beaten out into the iron
circlet of the crown of Lombardy, while the remaining two are reputed to
be preserved among the relics at Milan and Trier respectively.

The employment of the cross as the Christian symbol has been so manifold
in its variety and application, and the different forms to which the
figure has been adapted and elaborated are so complex, that it is only
possible to deal with the outline of the subject.

We learn from Tertullian and other early Christian writers of the
constant use which the Christians of those days made of the sign of the
cross. Tertullian (_De Cor. Mil._ cap. iii.) says: "At each journey and
progress, at each coming in and going out, at the putting on of shoes,
at the bath, at meals, at the kindling of lights, at bedtime, at sitting
down, whatsoever occupation engages us, we mark the brow with the sign
of the cross." With so frequent an employment of the sign of the cross
in their domestic life, it would be strange if we did not find that it
was very frequently used in the public worship of the church. The
earliest liturgical forms are comparatively late, and are without
rubrics, but the allusions by different writers in early times to the
ceremonial use of the sign of the cross in the public services are so
numerous, and so much importance was attached to it, that we are left in
no manner of doubt on the point. St Augustine, indeed, speaks of the
sacraments as not duly ministered if the use of the sign of the cross
were absent from their ministration (_Hom. cxviii. in S. Joan._). Of the
later liturgical use of the sign of the cross there is little need to
speak, as a reference to the service books of the Greek and Latin
churches will plainly indicate the frequency of, and the importance
attached to, its employment. Its occasional use is retained by the
Lutherans, and in the Church of England it is authoritatively used at
baptism, and at the "sacring" or anointing of the sovereign at the
coronation.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

Passing from the sign to the material figures of the cross, a very usual
classification distinguishes three main forms: (1) the _crux immissa_,
or _capitata_ [Latin cross] (fig. 3) known also as the Latin cross, or
if each limb is of the same length, + (fig. 4) as the Greek cross; (2)
the _crux decussata_, formed like the letter ×, and (3) the _crux
commissa_ or tau cross, already mentioned. It was on a crux immissa that
Christ is believed to have been crucified. The _crux decussata_ is known
as St Andrew's cross, from the tradition that St Andrew was put to death
on a cross of that form. The _crux commissa_ is often called St
Anthony's cross, probably only because it resembles the crutch with
which the great hermit is generally depicted.

The cross in one form or other appears, appropriately, on the flags and
ensigns of many Christian countries. The English cross of St George is a
plain red cross on a white ground, the Scottish cross of St Andrew is a
plain diagonal white cross on a blue ground, and the Irish cross of St
Patrick is a plain diagonal red cross on a white ground. These three
crosses are combined in the Union Jack (see FLAG).

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

The cross has also been adopted by many orders of knighthood. Perhaps
the best known of these is the cross of the knights of Malta. It is a
white cross of eight points on a black ground (fig. 5) and is the proper
Maltese cross, a name which is often wrongly applied to the cross
_patée_ (fig. 6). The knights of the Garter use the cross of St George,
as do those of the order of St Michael and St George, the knights of the
Thistle use St Andrew's cross, and those of St Patrick the cross of St
Patrick charged with a shamrock leaf. The cross of the Danish order of
the Dannebrog (fig. 7) affords a good example of this use of the cross.
It is in form a white cross patée, superimposed upon a red one of the
same form, and is surmounted by the royal cipher and crown, and has upon
its surface the royal cipher repeated, and the legend, or motto, "_Gud
og Kongen_" = "God and the King." (For crosses of monastic orders see
COSTUME.)

Akin to the crosses of knightly orders are those which figure as charges
on coats of arms. The science of heraldry evolved a wonderful variety of
cross-forms during the period it held sway in the middle ages. The
different forms of cross used in heraldry are, in fact, so numerous that
it is only the larger works on that subject which attempt to record them
all. For such crosses see HERALDRY.

In the middle ages the cross form, in one way or another, was
predominant everywhere, and was introduced whenever opportunity offered
itself for doing so. The larger churches were planned on its outline, so
that the ridge line of their roofs proclaimed it far and wide. This was
more particularly followed in the north of Europe, but when it was first
introduced is not quite certain. All the ancient cathedral churches of
England and Wales are cruciform in plan, except Llandaff.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Cross of the Dannebrog.]

The artistic skill and ingenuity of the medieval designer has produced
cross designs of endless variety, and of singular elegance and beauty.
Some of the most beautiful of these designs are the gable crosses of the
old churches. Fig. 8 shows the west gable cross of Washburn church,
Worcestershire; fig. 9 that of the nave of Castle Acre church, Norfolk;
and fig. 10 the east gable cross of Hethersett church in that county.
They may be taken as good examples of a type of cross which is often of
great beauty, but it is overlooked, owing to its bad position for
observation.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Other architectural crosses, of great beauty of design, are those which
occur on the grave slabs of the middle ages. Instances of a plainer type
occur in Saxon times, but it was not till after the 11th century that
they were fashioned after the intricate and beautiful designs with which
our ancient churches are, as a rule, so plentifully supplied. Sometimes
these crosses are incised in the slab, and almost as often they are
executed in low relief. The long shaft of the cross is most commonly
plain, but there are a very large number of instances in which this is
not so, and in which branches, with leaf designs, are thrown out at
intervals the entire length of the shaft. In some cases the shaft rises
from a series of steps at its base, and in such a case the name of a
Calvary cross is applied to it. Fig. 11, from Stradsett church, Norfolk,
and fig. 12 from Bosbury church, Herefordshire, are good examples of the
designs at the head of sepulchral crosses. Often, by the side of the
cross, an emblem or symbol is placed, denoting the calling in life of
the person commemorated. Thus a sword is placed to indicate a knight or
soldier, a chalice for a priest, and so forth; but it would be
travelling beyond the scope of this article to enter into a discussion
as to such symbols.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

Of upright standing crosses, the Irish and Iona types are well known,
and their great artistic beauty and elaboration and excellence of
sculpture are universally recognized. These crosses are sometimes spoken
of as "Runic Crosses"; and the interlacing knotwork design with which
many of them are ornamented is also at times spoken of as "Runic." This
is an erroneous application of the word, and has arisen from the fact
that some of these crosses bear inscriptions in Runic characters.
Standing crosses, of different kinds, were commonly set up in every
suitable place during the middle ages, as the mutilated bases and shafts
still remaining readily testify. Such crosses were erected in the centre
of the market place, in the churchyard, on the village green, or as
boundary stones, or marks to guide the traveller. Some, like the Black
Friars cross at Hereford, were preaching stations, others, like the
beautiful Eleanor crosses at Northampton, Geddington and Waltham, were
commemorative in character. Of these latter crosses, which marked the
places where the funeral procession of Queen Eleanor halted, there were
originally ten or more, erected between 1241 and 1294. They were placed
at Lincoln, Northampton, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St Albans,
Waltham and London (Cheapside and Charing Cross). The cross at
Geddington differs in outline from those at Northampton and Waltham, and
it is not recorded on the roll of accounts for the nine others, all of
which are mentioned, but there is no real doubt that it commemorates the
resting of the coffin of the queen in Geddington church on its way from
Harby. These crosses, like the Black Friars cross at Hereford, are
elaborate architectural erections, and very similar to them in this
respect are the beautiful market crosses at Winchester, Chichester,
Salisbury, Devizes, Shepton Mallet, Leighton Buzzard, &c. Of churchyard
crosses, as distinguished from memorial crosses in churchyards, one only
is believed to have escaped in a perfect condition the ravages of time,
and the fanaticism of the past. It stands in the churchyard of Somerby,
in Lincolnshire (Tennyson's birthplace), and is a tall shaft surmounted
by a pedimented tabernacle, on one side of which is the crucifixion, and
on the other the figure of the Virgin and Child. Churchyard crosses may
have been used as occasional preaching stations, for reading the Gospel
in the Palm Sunday procession, and generally for public proclamations,
made usually at the conclusion of the chief Sunday morning service, much
in the same way that market crosses were used on market days as places
for proclamations in the towns.

Of the ecclesiastical use of the sign of the cross mention has already
been made, and it is desirable to mention briefly one or two instances
of the ecclesiastical use of the cross itself. From a fairly early
period it has been the prerogative of an archbishop or metropolitan, to
have a cross borne before him within the limits of his province. The
question urged between the archbishops of Canterbury and York about the
carrying of their crosses before them, in each other's province, was a
fruitful source of controversy in the middle ages. The archiepiscopal
cross must not be confused with the crozier or pastoral staff. The
latter, which is formed with a crook at the end, is quite distinct, and
is used by archbishops and bishops alike, who bear it with the left hand
in processions, and when blessing the people. The archiepiscopal cross,
on the contrary, is always borne before the archbishop, or during the
vacancy of the archiepiscopal see before the guardian of the
spiritualities _sede vacante_. The bishop of Dol in Brittany, of
ordinary diocesan bishops, alone possessed the privilege of having a
cross borne before him in his diocese. Good illustrations of the
archiepiscopal cross occur on the monumental brasses of Archbishop
Waldeby, of York (1397), at Westminster Abbey, and of Archbishop
Cranley, of Dublin (1417) in New College chapel, Oxford.

The custom of carrying a cross at the head of an ecclesiastical
procession can be traced back to the end of the 4th century. The cross
was originally taken from the altar, and raised on a pole, and so borne
before the procession. Afterwards a separate cross was provided for
processions, but in poor churches, where this was not the case, the
altar cross continued to be used till quite a late period. A direction
to this effect occurs as late as 1829, in the _Rituel_ published for the
diocese of La Rochelle in that year. In England altar crosses were not
very usual in the middle ages.

As a personal ornament the cross came into common use, and was usually
worn suspended by a chain from the neck. A cross of this kind, of very
great interest and beauty, was found about 1690, on the breast of Queen
Dagmar, the wife of Waldemar II., king of Denmark (d. 1213). It is of
Byzantine design and workmanship, and is of enamelled gold (fig. 13
shows both sides of it); on one side is the Crucifixion, and on the
other side the half figure of our Lord in the centre, with the Virgin
and St John the Evangelist on either side, and St Chrysostom and St
Basil above and below. From the way in which such crosses were worn,
hanging over the chest, they are called pectoral crosses. At the present
day a pectoral cross forms part of the recognized insignia of a Roman
Catholic bishop, and is worn by him over his robes, but this official
use of the pectoral cross is not ancient, and no instance is known of it
in England before the Reformation. The custom appears to have taken
rise in the 16th century on the continent. It was not unusual to wear
cruciform reliquaries, as objects of personal adornment, and such a
reliquary was found on the body of St Cuthbert, when his tomb was opened
in 1827, but it was placed under, and not over his episcopal vestments,
and formed no part of his bishop's attire. The custom of wearing a
pectoral cross over ecclesiastical robes has, curiously enough, been
copied from the comparatively modern Roman Catholic usage by the
Lutheran bishops and superintendents in Scandinavia and Prussia; and in
Sweden the cross is now delivered to the new bishop, on his installation
in office, by the archbishop of Upsala, together with the mitre and
crozier. Within the last generation the use of a pectoral cross, worn
over their robes as part of the insignia of the episcopal office, has
been adopted by some bishops of the Church of England, but it has no
ancient sanction or authority.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Dagmar Cross.]

  AUTHORITIES.--Mortillet, _Le Signe de la croix avant le Christianisme_
  (Paris, 1866); Bingham, _Antiquities of the Christian Church_;
  Lipsius, _De Cruce Christi_; Lady Eastlake, _History of our Lord_,
  vol. ii.; Cutts, _Manual of Sepulchral Slabs and Crosses_; (Anon.)
  _Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome_, part ii. (London,
  1897); Veldeuer, _History of the Holy Cross_ (reprint, 1863).
       (T. M. F.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Derivatives of the Latin _crux_ appear in many forms in European
    languages, cf. Ger. _Kreuz_, Fr. _croix_, It. _croce_, &c.; the
    English form seems Norse in origin (O.N. _Krosse_, mod. _Kors_). The
    O.E. name was _rod_, rood (q.v.).

  [2] The acceptance of this word as the English equivalent for this
    peculiar form of the cross rests only, according to the _New English
    Dictionary_, on a MS. of about 1500 in the Lansdowne collection,
    which gives details for the erection of a memorial stained-glass
    window, "... the fylfot in the nedermost pane under ther I knele
    ..."; in the sketch given with the instructions a cross occupies the
    space indicated. It is a question, therefore, whether "fylfot" is a
    name for any device suitable to "fill the foot" of any design, or the
    name peculiar to this particular form of cross. The word is not, as
    was formerly accepted, a corruption of the O. Eng. _feowerfete_,
    four-footed.



CROSSBILL (Fr. _Bec-croisé_, Ger. _Kreuzschnabel_), the name given to a
genus of birds, belonging to the family _Fringillidae_, or finches, from
the unique peculiarity they possess among the whole class of having the
horny sheaths of the bill crossing one another obliquely,[1] whence the
appellation _Loxia_ ([Greek: loxos], _obliquus_), conferred by Gesner on
the group and continued by Linnaeus. At first sight this singular
structure appears so like a deformity that writers have not been wanting
to account it such,[2] ignorant of its being a piece of mechanism most
beautifully adapted to the habits of the bird, enabling it to extract
with the greatest ease, from fir-cones or fleshy fruits, the seeds which
form its usual and almost invariable food. Its mode of using this unique
instrument seems to have been first described by Townson (_Tracts on
Nat. Hist._, p. 116, London, 1799), but only partially, and it was
Yarrell who, in 1829 (_Zool. Journ._, iv. pp. 457-465, pl. xiv. figs.
1-7), explained fully the means whereby the jaws and the muscles which
direct their movements become so effective in riving asunder cones or
apples, while at the proper moment the scoop-like tongue is
instantaneously thrust out and withdrawn, conveying the hitherto
protected seed to the bird's mouth. The articulation of the mandible to
the quadrate-bone is such as to allow of a very considerable amount of
lateral play, and, by a particular arrangement of the muscles which move
the former, it comes to pass that so soon as the bird opens its mouth
the point of the mandible is brought immediately opposite to that of the
maxilla (which itself is movable vertically), instead of crossing or
overlapping it--the usual position when the mouth is closed. The two
points thus meeting, the bill is inserted between the scales or into
the pome, but on opening the mouth still more widely, the lateral motion
of the mandible is once more brought to bear with great force to wrench
aside the portion of the fruit attacked, and then the action of the
tongue completes the operation, which is so rapidly performed as to defy
scrutiny, except on very close inspection. Fortunately the birds soon
become tame in confinement, and a little patience will enable an
attentive observer to satisfy himself as to the process, the result of
which at first seems almost as unaccountable as that of a clever
conjuring trick.

The common crossbill of the Palaearctic region (_Loxia curvirostra_) is
about the size of a skylark, but more stoutly built. The young (which on
leaving the nest have not the tips of the bill crossed) are of a dull
olive colour with indistinct dark stripes on the lower parts, and the
quills of the wings and tail dusky. After the first moult the difference
between the sexes is shown by the hens inclining to yellowish-green,
while the cocks become diversified by orange-yellow and red, their
plumage finally deepening into a rich crimson-red, varied in places by a
flame-colour. Their glowing hues, are, however, speedily lost by
examples which may be kept in confinement, and are replaced by a dull
orange, or in some cases by a bright golden-yellow, and specimens have,
though rarely, occurred in a wild state exhibiting the same tints. The
cause of these changes is at present obscure, if not unknown, and it
must be admitted that their sequence has been disputed by some excellent
authorities, but the balance of evidence is certainly in favour of the
above statement. Depending mainly for food on the seeds of conifers, the
movements of crossbills are irregular beyond those of most birds, and
they would seem to rove in any direction and at any season in quest of
their staple sustenance. But the pips of apples are also a favourite
dainty, and it is recorded by the old chronicler Matthew Paris (_Hist.
Angl._ MS. fol. 252), that in 1251 the orchards of England were ravaged
by birds, "pomorum grana, & non aliud de eisdem pomis comedentes,"
which, from his description, "Habebant autem partes rostri cancellatas,
per quas poma quasi forcipi vel cultello dividebant," could be none
other but crossbills. Notice of a like visitation in 1593 is recorded,
but of late it has become evident that not a year passes without
crossbills being observed in some part or other of England, while in
certain localities in Scotland they seem to breed annually. The nest is
rather rudely constructed, and the eggs, generally four in number,
resemble those of the greenfinch, but are larger in size. This species
ranges throughout the continent of Europe,[3] and occurs in the islands
of the Mediterranean and in the fir-woods of the Atlas. In Asia it would
seem to extend to Kamtschatka and Japan, keeping mainly to the
forest-tracts.

Three other forms of the genus also inhabit the Old World--two of them
so closely resembling the common bird that their specific validity has
been often questioned. The first of these, of large stature, the
parrot-crossbill (_L. pityopsittacus_), comes occasionally to Great
Britain, presumably from Scandinavia, where it is known to breed. The
second (_L. himalayana_), which is a good deal smaller, is only known
from the Himalaya Mountains. The third, the two-barred crossbill (_L.
taenioptera_), is very distinct, and its proper home seems to be the
most northern forests of the Russian empire, but it has occasionally
occurred in western Europe and even in England.

The New World has two birds of the genus. The first (_L. americana_),
representing the common British species, but with a smaller bill, and
the males easily recognizable by their more scarlet plumage, ranges from
the northern limit of coniferous trees to the highlands of Mexico, or
even farther. The other (_L. leucoptera_) is the equivalent of the
two-barred crossbill, but smaller. It has twice occurred in England.
     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This peculiarity is found as an accidental malformation in the
    crows (_Corvidae_) and other groups; it is comparable to the
    monstrosities seen in rabbits and other members of the order
    _Glires_, in which the incisor teeth grow to an inordinate length.

  [2] A medieval legend ascribes the conformation of bill and
    coloration of plumage to a divine recognition of the bird's pity,
    bestowed on Christ at the crucifixion.

  [3] Dr Malmgren found a small flock on Bear Island (lat. 74½° N.),
    but to this barren spot they must have been driven by stress of
    weather.



CROSSEN, or KROSSEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on
the Oder, here crossed by a bridge, at the influx of the Bober, 31 m.
S.E. of Frankfort-on-Oder by rail. Pop. (1900) 7369. Of the churches in
the town three are Protestant and one Roman Catholic. Besides the
modern school (Realprogymnasium), there are a technical school for
viniculture and fruit-growing and a dairy school. There are
manufactories of copper and brass ware, cloth, &c., while in the
surrounding country the chief industries are fruit and grape growing.
There is a brisk shipping trade, mainly in wine, fruit and fish. Crossen
was founded in 1005 and was important during the middle ages as a point
of passage across the Oder. It attained civic rights in 1232, was for a
time the capital of a Silesian duchy, which, on the death of Barbara of
Brandenburg, widow of the last duke, passed to Brandenburg (1482). In
May 1886 the town was devastated by a whirlwind.



CROSSING, in architecture, the term given to the intersection of the
nave and transept, frequently surmounted by a tower or by a dome on
pendentives.



CROSSKEY, HENRY WILLIAM (1826-1893), English geologist and Unitarian
minister, was born at Lewes in Sussex, on the 7th of December 1826.
After being trained for the ministry at Manchester New College
(1843-1848), he became pastor of Friargate chapel, Derby, until 1852,
when he accepted charge of a Unitarian congregation in Glasgow. In 1869
he removed to Birmingham, where until the close of his life he was
pastor of the Church of the Messiah. While in Glasgow his interest was
awakened in geology by the perusal of A. C. Ramsay's _Geology of the
Isle of Arran_, and from 1855 onwards he devoted his leisure to the
pursuit of this science. He became an authority on glacial geology, and
wrote much, especially in conjunction with David Robertson, on the
post-tertiary fossiliferous beds of Scotland (_Trans. Geol. Soc.
Glasgow_). He also prepared for the British Association a valuable
series of Reports (1873-1892) on the erratic Blocks of England, Wales
and Ireland. In conjunction with David Robertson and G. S. Brady he
wrote the _Monograph of the Post Tertiary Entomostraca of Scotland_, &c.
for the Palaeontographical Society (1874); and he edited H. Carvill
Lewis' _Papers and Notes on the Glacial Geology of Great Britain and
Ireland_, issued posthumously (1894). He died at Edgbaston, Birmingham,
on the 1st of October 1893.

  See _H. W. Crosskey: his Life and Work_, by R. A. Armstrong (with
  chapter on his geological work by Prof. C. Lapworth, 1895).



CROSS RIVER, a river of West Africa, over 500 m. long. It rises in 6° N,
10° 30´ E. in the mountains of Cameroon, and flows at first N.W. In 8°
48´ E., 5° 50´ N. are a series of rapids; below this point the river is
navigable for shallow-draught boats. At 8° 20´ E., 6° 10´ N., its most
northern point, the river turns S.W. and then S., entering the Gulf of
Guinea through the Calabar estuary. The Calabar river, which rises about
5° 30´ N., 8° 30´ E., has a course parallel to, and 10 to 20 m. east of,
the Cross river. Near its mouth, on its east bank, is the town of
Calabar (q.v.). It enters the estuary in 4° 45´ N. The Cross, Calabar,
Kwa and other streams farther east, which rise on the flanks of the
Cameroon Mountains, form a large delta. The Calabar and Kwa rivers are
wholly within the British protectorate of Southern Nigeria, as is the
Cross river from its mouth to the rapids mentioned. The upper course of
the river is in German territory.



CROSS-ROADS, BURIAL AT, in former times the method of disposing of
executed criminals and suicides. At the cross-roads a rude cross usually
stood, and this gave rise to the belief that these spots were selected
as the next best burying-places to consecrated ground. The real
explanation is that the ancient Teutonic peoples often built their
altars at the cross-roads, and as human sacrifices, especially of
criminals, formed part of the ritual, these spots came to be regarded as
execution grounds. Hence after the introduction of Christianity,
criminals and suicides were buried at the cross-roads during the night,
in order to assimilate as far as possible their funeral to that of the
pagans. An example of a cross-road execution-ground was the famous
Tyburn in London, which stood on the spot where the Oxford, Edgware and
London roads met.



CROSS SPRINGER, in architecture, the block from which the diagonal ribs
of a vault spring or start: the top of the springer is known as the
skewback (see ARCH).



CROTCH, WILLIAM (1775-1847), English musician, was born in Green's Lane,
Norwich, on the 5th of July 1775. His father was a master carpenter. The
child was extraordinarily precocious, and when scarcely more than two
years of age he played upon an organ of his parent's construction
something like the tune of "God save the King." At the age of four he
came to London and gave daily recitals on the organ in the rooms of a
milliner in Piccadilly. The precocity of his musical intuition was
almost equalled by a singularly early aptitude for drawing. In 1786 he
went to Cambridge as assistant to Dr Randall the organist. His oratorio
_The Captivity of Judah_ was played at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, on the
4th of June 1789. He was then only fourteen years of age. His intention
of entering the church carried him to Oxford in 1788, but the superior
attractions of a musical career acquired an increasing influence over
him, and in 1790 he was appointed organist of Christ Church. At the
early age of twenty-two he was appointed professor of music in the
university of Oxford, and there in 1799 he took his degree of doctor in
that art. In 1800 and the four following years he read lectures on music
at Oxford. Next he was appointed lecturer on music to the Royal
Institution, and subsequently, in 1822, principal of the London Royal
Academy of Music. His last years were passed at Taunton in the house of
his son, the Rev. W. R. Crotch, where he died suddenly on the 29th of
December 1847. He published a number of vocal and instrumental
compositions, of which the best is his oratorio _Palestine_, produced in
1812. In 1831 appeared an 8vo volume containing the substance of his
lectures on music, delivered at Oxford and in London. Previously, he had
published three volumes of _Specimens of Various Styles of Music_. Among
his didactic works is _Elements of Musical Composition and
Thorough-Bass_ (London, 1812). The oratorio bearing the title _The
Captivity of Judah_, and produced on the occasion of the installation of
the duke of Wellington as chancellor of the university of Oxford in
1834, is a totally different work from that which he wrote upon the same
subject as a boy of fourteen. He arranged for the pianoforte a number of
Handel's oratorios and operas, besides symphonies and quartetts of
Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. The great expectations excited by his
infant precocity were not fulfilled; for he manifested no extraordinary
genius for musical composition. But he was an industrious student and a
sound artist, and his name remains familiar in English musical history.



CROTCHET (from the Fr. _croche_, a hook; whence also the Anglicized
"crochet," pronounced as in French, for the knitting-work done with a
hook instead of on pins), properly a small hook, and so used of the
hook-like _setae_ or bristles found in certain worms which burrow in
sand. In music, a "crotchet" is a note of half the value of a minim and
double that of a quaver; it is marked by a round black head and a line
without a tail or hook; the French _croche_ is used of a "quaver" which
has a tail, but in ancient music the _semiminima_, the modern crotchet,
is marked by an open note with a hook. Derived either from an old French
proverbial phrase, _il a des crochues en teste_, or from a meaning of
twist or turn, as in the similar expression "crank," comes the sense of
a whim, fancy or perverse idea, seen also in the adjective "crotchety"
of a fussy unreasonable person.



CROTONA, CROTO or CROTON (Gr. [Greek: Krotôn], mod. Cotrone) a Greek
town on the E. coast of the territory of the Bruttii (mod. _Calabria_),
on a promontory 7 m. N.W. of the Lacinian promontory. It was founded by
a colony of Achaeans led by Myscellus in 710 B.C. Its name was,
according to the legend, that of a local prince who afforded hospitality
to Heracles, but was accidentally killed by him and buried on the spot.
Like Sybaris, it soon became a city of power and wealth. It was
especially celebrated for its successes in the Olympic games from 588
B.C. onwards, Milo being the most famous of its athletes. Pythagoras
established himself here between 540 and 530 B.C. and formed a society
of 300 disciples (among whom was Milo), who acquired considerable
influence with the supreme council of 1000 by which the city was ruled.
In 510 B.C. Crotona was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites, with whom
it had previously been on friendly terms, and raze their city to the
ground. Shortly afterwards, however, an insurrection took place, by
which the disciples of Pythagoras were driven out, and a democracy
established. The victory of the Locrians and Phlegians over Crotona in
480 B.C. marked the beginning of its decline. It suffered after this
from the attacks of Dionysius I., who became its master for twelve
years, of the Bruttii, and of Agathocles, and even more from the
invasion of Pyrrhus, after which in 277 the Romans obtained possession
of it. Livy states that the walls had a length of 12 m. and that about
half the area within them had at that time ceased to be inhabited. After
the battle of Cannae Crotona revolted from Rome, and Hannibal made it
his winter quarters for three years. It was made a colony by the Romans
at the end of the war (194 B.C.). After that time but little is heard of
it, though Petronius mentions the corrupt morals of its inhabitants; but
it continues to be mentioned down to the Gothic wars. The importance of
the city was mainly due to its harbour, which, though not a good one,
was the only port between Tarentum and Rhegium. The original settlement
occupied the hill above it (143 ft.) and later became the acropolis. Its
healthy situation was famous in antiquity, and to this was ascribed its
superiority in athletics; it was the seat also of a medical school which
in the days of Herodotus was considered the first in Greece. Of the
exact site of the ancient city and its remains practically nothing is
known; a few fragments of the productions of its art preserved in
private hands at Cotrone are described by F. von Duhn in _Notizie degli
scavi_, 1897, 343 seq.     (T. As.)



CROTONIC ACID (C4H6O2). Three acids of this empirical formula are known,
viz. crotonic acid, isocrotonic acid and methacrylic acid; the
constitutional formulae are--

     HC·CO(2)H,          HC·CO2H               /CH3
      ··                    ··           CH2:C
     HC·CH3             CH3·CH                 \CO2H.
  Crotonic Acid.   Isocrotonic Acid.   Methacrylic Acid.

The isomerism of crotonic and isocrotonic acids is to be explained on
the assumption of a different spatial arrangement of the atoms in the
molecule (see STEREOCHEMISTRY).

Crotonic acid, so named from the fact that it was erroneously supposed
to be a saponification product of croton oil, may be prepared by the
oxidation of croton-aldehyde, CH3·CH:CH·CHO, obtained by dehydrating
aldol, or by treating acetylene successively with sulphuric acid and
water; by boiling allyl cyanide with caustic potash; by the distillation
of ß-oxybutyric acid; by heating paraldehyde with malonic acid and
acetic acid to 100° C. (T. Komnenos, _Ann._, 1883, 218, p. 149).

  CH2(COOH)2 + CH3CHO -> CH3CH:C(COOH)2 -> CH3·CH:CH·COOH;

or by heating pyruvic acid with an excess of acetic anhydride and sodium
acetate to 160-180° C. (B. Homolka, _Ber._, 1885, 18, p. 987). It
crystallizes in needles (from hot water) which melt at 72° C. and boil
at 180-181° C. It is moderately soluble in cold water. It combines
directly with bromine, and, with fuming hydrobromic acid at 100° C., it
gives chiefly [alpha]-brombutyric acid. With hydriodic acid it gives
only ß-iodobutyric acid. Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid;
nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture
to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to
[alpha]ß-dioxybutyric acid.

Isocrotonic acid (Quartenylic acid) is obtained from ß-chlorisocrotonic
acid, formed when acetoacetic ester is treated with phosphorus
pentachloride and the product poured into water, by the action of sodium
amalgam (A. Geuther). It is an oil, possessing a smell like that of
butyric acid. It boils at 171.9° C., with partial conversion into
crotonic acid; the transformation is complete when the acid is heated to
170-180° C. in a sealed tube. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to
ß[gamma]-dioxybutyric acid.

Methacrylic acid was first obtained in the form of its ethyl ester by E.
Frankland and B. F. Duppa (_Annalen_, 1865, 136, p. 12) by acting with
phosphorus pentachloride on oxyisobutyric ester (CH3)2·C(OH)·COOC2H5. It
is, however, more readily obtained by boiling citra- or
meso-brompyrotartaric acids with alkalis. It crystallizes in prisms,
which are soluble in water, melt at 16° C., and boil at 160.5° C. When
fused with an alkali, it forms propionic acid; with biomine it yields
[alpha]ß-dibromisobutyric acid. Sodium amalgam reduces it to isobutyric
acid. A polymeric form of methacrylic acid has been described by F.
Engelhorn (_Ann._, 1880, 200, p. 70).



CROTON OIL (_Crotonis Oleum_), an oil prepared from the seeds of _Croton
Tiglium_, a tree belonging to the natural order Euphorbiaceae, and
native or cultivated in India and the Malay Islands. The tree is from 15
to 20 ft. in height, and has few and spreading branches, alternate,
oval-oblong leaves, acuminate at the point, and covered when young with
stellate hairs, and terminal racemes of small, downy, greenish-yellow,
monoecious flowers. The male blossoms have five petals and fifteen
stamens; the females have no petals but a large oblong ovary bearing
three bifid styles. The fruit or capsule is obtusely three-cornered, and
about the size of a hazel-nut; it contains three cells each enclosing a
seed. The seeds resemble those of the castor-oil plant; they are about
half an inch long, and two-fifths of an inch broad, and have a
cinnamon-brown, brittle integument; between the two halves of the kernel
lie the large cotyledons and radicle. The ocular distinction between the
two kinds of seeds may be of great practical importance. The most
obvious distinction is that the castor-oil seeds have a polished and
mottled surface. The kernels contain from 50 to 60% of oil, which is
obtained by pressing them, when bruised to a pulp, between hot plates.
Croton oil is a transparent and viscid liquid of a brownish or
pale-yellow tinge, and acrid, peculiar and persistent taste, a
disagreeable odour and acid reaction. It is soluble in volatile oils,
carbon disulphide, and ether, and to some extent in alcohol. It contains
acetic, butyric and valeric acids, with glycerides of acids of the same
series, and a volatile body, C5H8O2, tiglic acid, metameric with angelic
acid, and identical with methylcrotonic acid, CH3·CH:C(CH3)(CO2H). The
odour is due to various volatile acids, which are present to the extent
of about 1%. A substance called crotonal appears to be responsible for
its external, but not its internal, action. The latter is probably due
to crotolinic acid, C9H14O2, which has active purgative properties. The
maximum dose of croton oil is two minims, one-fourth of that quantity
being usually ample.

Applied to the skin, croton oil acts as a powerful irritant, inducing so
much inflammation that definite pustules are formed. The destruction of
the true skin gives rise to ugly scars which constitute, together with
the pain caused by this application, abundant reason why croton oil
should never be employed externally. Despite the pharmacopoeial liniment
and the practice of a few, it may be said that this employment of croton
oil is now entirely without justification or excuse.

Taken internally, even in the minute doses already detailed, croton oil
very soon causes much colic and the occurrence of a fluid diarrhoea
which usually recurs several times. It is characteristic of this
purgative that it is a hydragogue even in minimal dose, the fluid
secretions of the bowel being most markedly increased. The drug appears
to act only upon the small intestine. In somewhat larger doses it
produces severe gastro-enteritis. The flow of bile is somewhat
increased. Such effects may all be produced, even up to the discharge of
blood, by the absorption of croton oil from the skin.

The minuteness of the dose, the certainty of the action, and the large
amount of fluid drained away constitute this the best drug for
administration to an unconscious patient (especially in cases of
apoplexy, when it is desirable to remove fluid from the body), or to
insane patients who refuse to take any drug. One drop of the oil, placed
on the back of the tongue, must inevitably be swallowed by reflex
action. A dose should never be repeated. The characters of this drug
obviously contra-indicate its use in all cases of organic disease or
obstruction of the bowel, in pregnancy, or in cases of constipation in
children or the aged.



CROUP, a name formerly given to diseases characterized by distress in
breathing accompanied by a metallic cough and some hoarseness of
speech. It is now known that these symptoms are often associated with
diphtheria (q.v.), spasmodic laryngitis (q.v.), and a third disease,
spasmodic croup, to which the term is now alone applied. This occurs
most frequently in children above two years of age; the child goes to
bed quite well, and a few hours later suddenly awakes with great
difficulty in inspiration, the chest wall becomes markedly retracted,
and there is a metallic cough. The child becomes cyanosed, and, to the
inexperienced nurse, seems in an almost moribund condition. In the
course of four or five minutes, normal respiration starts again, and the
attack is over for the time being; but it may recur several times a day.
The seizure may be accompanied by convulsions, and death has occurred
from dyspnoea. The best treatment is to plunge the child into a warm
bath, and sponge the back and chest with cold water. Subsequently this
can be done two or three times a day. Should the cyanosis become very
severe, respiration can be restarted by making the child sick, either
with a dose of ipecacuanha wine, or by forcing one's finger down the
throat. Generally the bowels should be attended to; and the throat
carefully examined for enlarged tonsils or adenoids, which if present
should be treated.



CROUSAZ, JEAN PIERRE DE (1663-1750), Swiss writer, was born at Lausanne.
He was a many-sided man, whose numerous works on many subjects had a
great vogue in their day, but are now forgotten. He has been described
as an _initiateur plutôt qu'un créateur_, chiefly because he introduced
at Lausanne the philosophy of Descartes in opposition to the reigning
Aristotelianism, and also as a Calvinist pendant (for he was a pastor)
of the French _abbés_ of the 18th century. He studied at Geneva, Leyden
and Paris, before becoming (1700) professor of philosophy and
mathematics at the academy of Lausanne, of which he was four times
rector before 1724, when the theological disputes connected with the
_Consensus_[1] led him to accept a chair of philosophy and mathematics
at Groningen. In 1726 he was appointed governor to the young prince
Frederick of Hesse-Cassel, and in 1735 returned to Lausanne with a good
pension. In 1737 he was reinstated in his old chair, which he retained
to his death. Gibbon, describing his first stay at Lausanne (1752-1755),
writes in his _Autobiography_, "the logic of de Crousaz had prepared me
to engage with his master Locke and his antagonist Bayle."

  The most important of his works are: _Nouvel Essai de logique_ (1712),
  _Géométrie des lignes et des surfaces rectilignes et circulaires_
  (1712), _Traité du beau_ (1714), _Examen du traité de la liberté de
  penser d'Antoine Collins_ (1718), _De l'éducation des enfants_ (1722,
  dedicated to the then Princess of Wales), _Examen du pyrrhonisme
  ancien et moderne_ (1733, an attack chiefly on Bayle), _Examen de
  l'essai de M. Pope sur l'homme_ (1737, an attack on the Leibnitzian
  theory of that poem), _Logique_ (6 vols., 1741), _De l'esprit humain_
  (1741), and _Réflexions sur l'ouvrage intitulé: La Belle Wolfienne_
  (1743).     (W. A. B. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The "Consensus ecclesiarum Helveticarum reformatarum" was a
    document drawn up in 1675 and imposed in 1722--as a test of strict
    Protestant orthodoxy as to the doctrine of grace--by Bern on its
    subjects in Lausanne and Vaux.



CROW (Dutch, _kraai_, Ger. _Krähe_, Fr. _corbeau_, Lat. _corvus_), a
name most commonly applied in Britain to the bird properly called a rook
(_Corvus frugilegus_), but perhaps originally peculiar to its congener,
nowadays usually distinguished as the black or carrion-crow (_C.
corone_). By ornithologists it is also used in a far wider sense, as
under the title crows, or _Corvidae_, is included a vast number of birds
from almost all parts of the world, and this family is probably the most
highly developed of the whole class _Aves_. Leaving out of account the
best known of these, as the raven, rook, daw, pie and jay, with their
immediate allies, our attention will here be confined to the crows in
general; and then the species of the family to which the appellation is
more strictly applicable may be briefly considered. All authorities
admit that the family is very extensive, and is capable of being parted
into several groups, but scarcely any two agree. Especially must reserve
be exercised as regards the group _Streperinae_, or piping crows,
belonging to the Australian Region, and referred by some writers to the
shrikes (_Laniidae_): and the jays too have been erected into a distinct
family (_Garrulidae_), though it seems hardly possible to separate them
even as a subfamily from the pies (_Pica_ and its neighbours), which
lead almost insensibly to the typical crows (_Corvinae_). Dismissing
these subjects for the present, it will perhaps be most convenient to
treat of the two groups which are represented by the genera
_Pyrrhocorax_ or choughs, and _Corvus_ or true crows in the most limited
sense.

_Pyrrhocorax_ comprehends at least two very good species, which have
been needlessly divided generically. The best known of them is the
Cornish chough (_P. graculus_), formerly a denizen of the precipitous
cliffs of the south coast of England, of Wales, of the west and north
coasts of Ireland, and some of the Hebrides, but now greatly reduced in
numbers, and only found in such places as are most free from the
intrusion of man or of daws (_Corvus monedula_), which last seem to be
gradually dispossessing it of its sea-girt strongholds, and its present
scarcity is probably in the main due to its persecution by its kindred.
In Britain, indeed, it would appear to be only one of the survivors of a
more ancient fauna, for in other countries where it is found it has been
driven inland, and inhabits the higher mountains of Europe and North
Africa. In the Himalayas a larger form occurs, which has been
specifically distinguished (_P. himalayanus_), but whether justifiably
so may be doubted. The general colour is a glossy black, and it has the
bill and legs bright red. The remaining species (_P. alpinus_) is
altogether a mountaineer, and does not affect a sea-shore life.
Otherwise it frequents much the same kind of localities, but it does not
occur in Britain. The alpine chough is somewhat smaller than its
congener, and is easily distinguished by its shorter and bright yellow
bill. Remains of both have been found in French caverns the deposits in
which were formed during the "Reindeer Age." Commonly placed by
systematists next to _Pyrrhocorax_ is the Australian genus _Corcorax_,
represented by a single species (_C. melanorhamphus_), but this
assignment of the bird, which is chiefly a frequenter of woodlands,
cannot be admitted without hesitation.

Coming now to what may be literally considered crows, our attention is
mainly directed to the black or carrion-crow (_Corvus corone_) and the
grey, hooded or Royston crow (_C. cornix_). Both these inhabit Europe,
but their range and the time of their appearance are very different. The
former is, speaking generally, a summer visitant to the south-western
part of Europe, and the latter occupies the north-eastern portion--an
irregular line drawn diagonally from about the Firth of Clyde to the
head of the Adriatic roughly marking their respective distribution. But
both are essentially migrants, and hence it follows that when the black
crow, as summer comes to an end, retires southward, the grey crow moves
downward, and in many districts replaces it during winter. Further than
this, it has been incontestably proved that along or near the boundary
where these two birds march they not infrequently interbreed, and it is
believed that the hybrids, which sometimes wholly resemble one or other
of the parents and at other times assume an intermediate plumage, pair
indiscriminately among themselves or with the pure stock. Hence it has
seemed to many ornithologists who have studied the subject, that these
two birds, so long unhesitatingly regarded as distinct species, are only
local races of one and the same dimorphic species. No structural
difference--or indeed any difference except that of range (already
spoken of) and colour--can be detected, and the problem they offer is
one of which the solution is exceedingly interesting if not important to
zoologists in general.[1] Almost omnivorous in their diet, there is
little edible that comes amiss to them, and, except in South America,
they are mostly omnipresent. The fish-crow of North America (_C.
ossifragus_) demands a few words, since it betrays a taste for maritime
habits beyond that of other species, but the crows of Europe are not
averse on occasion to prey cast up by the waters. The house-crow of
India (_C. splendens_) is not very nearly allied to its European
namesakes, from which it can be readily distinguished by its smaller
size and the lustrous tints of its darkest feathers; while its
confidence in the human race has been so long encouraged by its
intercourse with an unarmed and inoffensive population that it becomes a
plague to the European abiding or travelling where it is abundant.
Hardly a station or camp in British India is free from a crowd of
feathered followers of this species, ready to dispute with the kites and
the cooks the very meat at the fire.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] As bearing upon this question may be mentioned the fact that the
    crow of Australia (_C. australis_) is divisible into two forms or
    races, one having the irides white, the other of a dark colour. It is
    stated that they keep apart and do not intermix.



CROWBERRY, or CRAKEBERRY, the English name for a low-growing heath-like
shrub, found on heaths and rocks in Scotland, Ireland and mountainous
parts of England. It is known botanically as _Empetrum nigrum_, and has
slender, wiry, spreading branches covered with short, narrow, stiff
leaves, the margins of which are recurved so as to form a hollow
cylinder concealing the hairy under face of the leaf--a device to avoid
excessive loss of water from the leaf under the exposed conditions in
which the plant grows. The minute flowers are succeeded by black,
edible, berry-like fruits, one-fourth to one-third of an inch in
diameter. The plant has a wide distribution, occurring in suitable
localities throughout the north temperate zone, and on the Andes of
South America.



CROWD, CROUTH, CROWTH (Welsh _crwth_; Fr. _crout_; Ger. _Chrotta_,
_Hrotta_), a medieval stringed instrument derived from the lyre,
characterized by a sound-chest having a vaulted back and an open space
left at each side of the strings to allow the hand to pass through in
order to stop the strings on the finger-board. The Welsh crwth, which
survived until the end of the 18th century, is best represented by a
specimen of that date preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and
described and illustrated by Carl Engel.[1] The instrument consists of a
rectangular sound-chest 22 in. long, 9½ in. wide and 2 in. deep; the
body is scooped out of a single block, the flat belly being glued on.
Right through the sound-chest on each side of the finger-board is the
characteristic open space left for the hand to pass through. There are
two circular sound-holes; the left foot of the flat bridge, which lies
obliquely across the belly, passes through the left sound-hole and rests
inside on the back of the instrument. Six catgut strings fastened to a
tail-piece are wound round pegs at the top of the crwth; four of these
strings lie over the sound-board and bridge, and are set in vibration by
means of a bow, while the two others, used as drones and stretched
across the left-hand aperture, are twanged by the thumb of the left
hand. The shape and shallowness of the bridge make it impossible to
sound a single string with the bow; the arrangement of the strings
suggests that they were intended to be sounded in pairs. The instrument
is tuned thus: [Music notes].

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Welsh Crwth, 18th century.]

  At the beginning of the 19th century, William Bingley[2] heard a Welsh
  peasant playing national airs on a crwth strung as follows:--[Music
  notes]. Sir John Hawkins[3] relates that in his time there was still a
  Welshman living in Anglesea who understood how to play the crwth
  according to traditional usage. Edward Jones[4] and Daines
  Barrington[5] both give an account of the Welsh crwth of the 18th
  century which agrees substantially with Engel's; the illustration
  communicated by Daines Barrington shows the strings of the crwth drawn
  through holes at the top, and fastened on the back, as on the Persian
  rebab and other Oriental stringed instruments. On these somewhat
  scanty authentic records of the instrument, several historians of
  music have based an illogical claim that the crwth, or rather chrotta
  or rotta, mentioned by Venantius Fortunatus as a British instrument,
  was the Welsh crwth as it was known in the 18th century, and was the
  earliest bowed instrument, and therefore the ancestor of the violin.
  The lines of Fortunatus, who was bishop of Poictiers during the second
  half of the 6th century, ran thus:--[6]

    "Romanusque lyra, plaudat tibi Barbarus harpa,
     Graecus Achilliaca, chrotta Britanna canat."

  The bow is not mentioned by Fortunatus, and there is no ground
  whatever for believing that the Welsh crwth was played with a bow in
  the 6th century, or indeed for several centuries after. The stringing
  of the Welsh crwth with the two drone strings still twanged, the form
  of the body without incurvations, the flat bridge which rendered
  bowing, even in the most highly developed specimens of the 18th
  century, a difficult task, together with what is known of the early
  history of the chrotta and rotta derived from the lyre and cithara and
  like them twanged by fingers or plectrum, all make the claim
  untenable. Carl Engel was probably the first to expose the fallacy in
  his work on the violin.[7]

  British lexicographers all agree in deriving the words crwth, crowd
  and other forms of the name, from some word meaning a bulging
  protuberant bellying form, while in German the etymology of the word
  _Chrotta_ is given as _Chrota_ or _Chreta_, the O.H.G. for _Kröte_ =
  toad, _Schildkröte_ = tortoise. This word _Chrotta_ was undoubtedly
  the German equivalent term for the lyre of Hermes, having as back a
  tortoise-shell, [Greek: chelys] in Greek and _testudo_ in Latin.
  Chrotta was also spelt _hrotta_, and it is easy to see how this became
  rotta. A thoughtful and suggestive treatment of the whole subject will
  be found in Engel's work, to which reference has been made. Just as
  the lyre and cithara, which appeared to be similar to the casual
  observer, and are indeed still confused at the present day, were
  instruments differing essentially in construction[8]; so there were,
  during the early middle ages, while lyre and cithara were still in
  transition, two types of chrotta or rotta. (1) The rotta or improved
  cithara had a body either rectangular with the corners rounded, or
  guitar-shaped with incurvations, back and sound-board being nearly or
  quite flat, joined as in the cithara by ribs or sides. This rotta must
  be reckoned among the early ancestors of the violin before the advent
  of the bow; it was known both as rotta and cithara, and with a neck
  added it became the guitar-fiddle. (2) The tortoise or lyre chrotta
  consisted of a protuberant, very convex back cut out of a block of
  wood, to which was glued a flat sound-board, at first like the lyre,
  without intermediary ribs. This instrument became the crwth, and there
  was no further development. The first step in the transition of both
  lyre and cithara was the incorporation of arms and cross-bar into the
  body, the same outline being preserved; the second step was the
  addition of a finger-board against which the strings were stopped,
  thus increasing the compass while restricting the number of strings to
  three or four; the third step, observed only in the rotta-cithara,
  consisted in the addition of a neck,[9] as in the guitar. The crwth,
  crowd, crouth did not undergo this third transition even when the bow
  was used to set the strings in vibration.

  [Illustration: Drawn from a plate in Auguste de Bastard's _Peintures
  et ornements de la bible de Charles le Chauve_.

  FIG. 2.--Early Crwth, 9th century.]

  The earliest representation of the crwth yet discovered dates from the
  Carolingian period. In the miniatures of the Bible of Charles the
  Bald,[10] in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, one of the musicians
  of King David is seen stopping strings on the finger-board with his
  left hand and plucking them with the right (fig. 2); this crwth has
  only three strings, and may be the crwth _trîthant_ of Wales. A second
  example occurs in the Bible of St Paul,[11] another of the magnificent
  MSS. prepared for Charles the Bald, and preserved during the middle
  ages in the monastery of St Paul _extra muros_ in Rome (now deposited
  in that of St Calixtus in Rome). Other representations are in the
  miniatures of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. To Edward Heron-Allen
  (_De fidiculis opuscula_, viii., 1895) is due the discovery of a
  representation of the Welsh crwth, showing the form still retained in
  the 18th cent. On the seal of Roger Wade (1316) is a crwth differing
  but little from the specimen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The
  14th-century instrument had four strings instead of six, and the foot
  of the bridge does not appear to pass through the sound-hole--a detail
  which may have escaped the notice of the artist who cut the seal. The
  original seal lies in the muniment room at Berkeley Castle in
  Gloucestershire attached to a defeasance of a bond between the
  _crowder_ and his debtor Warren de l'Isle, and a cast (see fig. 3) is
  preserved at the British Museum. The British Museum also possesses two
  interesting MSS. which concern the crwth: one of these (Add. MS. 14939
  ff. 4 and 27) contains an extract made by Lewis Morris in 1742 from an
  ancient Welsh MS. of "Instructions supposed to be wrote for the
  Crowd"; the other (Add. MS. 15036 ff. 65b and 66) consists of tracings
  from a 16th-century Welsh MS. copied in 1610 of a bagpipe, a harp and
  a _krythe_, together with the names of those who played the last at
  the Eisteddfod. The drawing is crude, and shows an instrument similar
  to Roger Wade's crowd, but having three strings instead of four.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Crowd on a 14th-century Seal.]

  The genealogical tree of the violin given below shows the relative
  positions of both kinds of rotta and chrotta.

               Egyptian lyre-kissar                            Assyrian ketharah
                        |                                              |
                        |                                   +----------+---------+
               Greek lyre or chelys                         |                    |
                        |                             Greek cithara      Persian cithara
                   Roman testudo                            |                    |
                        |                            Roman fidicula     Arab cuitra, guitra
          +-------------+-------------+--------+            |                or cuitara
          |             |             |        |            |                    |
        Latin    Old High Germ.  Anglo-Saxon  Welsh    Cithara in                |
       chrotta,     Chrota or       crowd     crwth    transition,       Moorish guitarra
     rotta, rote      Chreta                            or rotta
                                                            |
                      +-------------------------------------+----------------+
                      |                                     |                |
              Spanish viguela or                    Guitarra Latina     Fidel, fidula,
               vihuela de arco                     or vihuela de mano  fyella, fythele,
                      |                                     |               &c.
                      |                                     |                |
                      |                              Spanish guitar          |
              +-------+---------+---------------+                            |
              |                 |               |                            |
        Italian viola     French vielle   Guitar-fiddle                    Fiddle
              |             or viole
           Violin

  The Welsh crwth was therefore obviously not an exclusively Welsh
  instrument, but only a late 18th-century survival in Wales of an
  archaic instrument once generally popular in Europe but long obsolete.
  An interesting article on the subject in German by J. F. W. Wewertem
  will be found in _Monatshefte für Musik_ (Berlin, 1881), Nos. 7-12, p.
  151, &c.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See _Early History of the Violin Family_ (London, 1883), pp.
    24-36.

  [2] See _A Tour round North Wales_ (London, 1804), vol. ii. p. 332.

  [3] _History of Music_ (London, 1766), vol. ii. bk. iii. ch. iii.,
    description and illustration.

  [4] _Musical and Poetical Relicks of Welsh Bards_ (London, 1794),
    illustration of crwth, also reproduced by Carl Engel; see note above.

  [5] _Archaeologia_, vol. iii. (London, 1775).

  [6] Venantius Fortunatus, Poëmata, lib. vii. cap. 8, p. 245; see
    Migne's _Patrologia Sacra_, vol. 88.

  [7] _Op. cit._ chapters "Crwth," "Chrotta," "Rotta."

  [8] See Kathleen Schlesinger, _Orchestral Instruments_, part ii.,
    "The Precursors of the Violin Family" (London, 1909), pp. 14 to 23,
    with illustrations.

  [9] See also Kathleen Schlesinger, op. cit. ch. vii., "The Cithara in
    Transition," pp. 111-135 with illustrations.

  [10] See Auguste de Bastard, _Peintures et ornements des MSS. de
    France_, and _Peintures, ornements, &c., de la bible de Charles le
    Chauve_, in facsimile (Paris, 1883).

  [11] See J. O. Westwood, _Photographic Facsimile of the Bible of St
    Paul_ (London, 1876).



CROWE, EYRE EVANS (1799-1868), English journalist and historian, was
born about the year 1799. He commenced his work as a writer for the
London newspaper press in connexion with the _Morning Chronicle_, and he
afterwards became a leading contributor to the _Examiner_ and the _Daily
News_. Of the latter journal he was principal editor for some time
previous to his death. The department he specially cultivated was that
of continental history and foreign politics. He published _Lives of
Foreign Statesmen_ (1830), _The Greek and the Turk_ (1853), and _Reigns
of Louis XVIII. and Charles X._ (1854). These were followed by his most
important work, the _History of France_ (5 vols., 1858-1868). It was
founded upon original sources, in order to consult which the author
resided for a considerable time in Paris. He died in London on the 25th
of February 1868.



CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER (1828-1896), English consular official and art
critic, son of Eyre Crowe, was born in London on the 25th of October
1828. At an early age he showed considerable aptitude for painting and
entered the studio of Delaroche in Paris, where his father was
correspondent of the _Morning Chronicle_. During the Crimean War he was
the correspondent of the _Illustrated London News_, and during the
Austro-Italian War represented _The Times_ in Vienna. He was British
consul-general in Leipzig from 1860 to 1872, and in Düsseldorf from 1872
to 1880, when he was appointed commercial attaché in Berlin, being
transferred in a like capacity to Paris in 1882. In 1883 he was
secretary to the Danube Conference in London; in 1889 plenipotentiary at
the Samoa Conference in Berlin; and in 1890 British envoy at the
Telegraph Congress in Paris, in which year he was made K.C.M.G. During a
sojourn in Italy, 1846-1847, he cemented a lifelong friendship with the
Italian critic Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle (1820-1897), and together
they produced several historical works on art of classic importance,
notably _Early Flemish Painters_ (London, 1857); _A New History of
Painting in Italy from the Second to the Sixteenth Century_ (London,
1864-1871, 5 vols.). In 1895 Crowe published _Reminiscences of
Thirty-Five Years of My Life_. He died at Schloss Gamburg in Bavaria on
the 6th of September 1896.

  Crowe and Cavalcaselle's great _History of Painting_ was under
  revision by Crowe up to the time of his death, and then by S. A.
  Strong (d. 1904) and Langton Douglas, who in 1903 brought out vols. i.
  and ii. of Murray's new six-volume edition, the 3rd vol., edited by
  Langton Douglas, appearing in 1909. A reprint of the original edition,
  brought up to date by annotations by Edward Huttons, was published by
  Dent in 3 vols. in 1909.



CROW INDIANS, or ABSAROKAS (the name for a species of hawk), a tribe of
North American Indians of Siouan stock. They are now settled to the
number of some 1800 on a reservation in southern Montana to the south of
the Yellowstone river. Their original range included this reservation
and extended eastward and southward, and no part of the country for
hundreds of miles around was safe from their raids. They have ever been
known as marauders and horse-stealers, and, though they have generally
been cunning enough to avoid open war with the whites, they have robbed
them whenever opportunity served. Physically they are tall and athletic,
with very dark complexions.



CROWLAND, or CROYLAND, a market-town in the S. Kesteven or Stamford
parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England; in a low fen district
on the river Welland, 8 m. N.E. of Peterborough, and 4 m. from Postland
station on the March-Spalding line of the Great Northern and Great
Eastern railways, and Peakirk on the Great Northern. Pop. (1901) 2747. A
monastery was founded here in 716 by King Æthelbald, in honour of St
Guthlac of Mercia (d. 714), a young nobleman who became a hermit and
lived here, and, it was said, had foretold Æthelbald's accession to the
throne. The site of St Guthlac's cell, not far from the abbey, is known
as Anchor (anchorite's) Church Hill. After the abbey had suffered from
the Danish incursions in 870, and had been burnt in that year and in
1091, a fine Norman abbey was raised in 1113. Remains of this building
appear in the ruined nave and tower arch, but the most splendid fragment
is the west front, of Early English date, with Perpendicular
restoration. The west tower is principally in this style. The north
aisle is restored and used as the parish church. Among the abbots was
Ingulphus (1085-1109), to whom was formerly attributed the _Historia
Monasterii Croylandensis_. A curious triangular bridge remains,
apparently of the 14th century, but referred originally to the middle of
the 9th century, which spanned three streams now covered, and affords
three footways which meet at an apex in the middle.

The town of Crowland grew up round the abbey. By a charter dated 716,
Æthelbald granted the isle of Crowland, free from all secular services,
to the abbey with a gift of money, and leave to build and enclose the
town. The privileges thus obtained were confirmed by numerous royal
charters extending over a period of nearly 800 years. Under Abbot
Ægelric the fens were tilled, the monastery grew rich, and the town
increased in size, enormous tracts of land being held by the abbey at
the Domesday Survey. The town was nearly destroyed by fire (1469-1476),
but the abbey tenants were given money to rebuild it. By virtue of his
office the abbot had a seat in parliament, but the town was never a
parliamentary borough. Abbot Ralph Mershe in 1257 obtained a grant of a
market every Wednesday, confirmed by Henry IV. in 1421, but it was
afterwards moved to Thorney. The annual fair of St Bartholomew, which
originally lasted twelve days, was first mentioned in Henry III.'s
confirmatory charter of 1227. The dissolution of the monastery in 1539
was fatal to the progress of the town, which had prospered under the
thrifty rule of the monks, and it rapidly sank into the position of an
unimportant village. The abbey lands were granted by Edward VI. to Lord
Clinton, from whose family they passed in 1671 to the Orby family. The
inhabitants formerly carried on considerable trade in fish and wild
fowl.

  See R. Gough, _History and Antiquities of Croyland_ (Bibl. Top. Brit.
  iii. No. 11) (London, 1783); W. G. Searle, _Ingulf and the Historia
  Croylandensis_ (Camb. Antiq. Soc., No. 27); Dugdale, _Monasticon_, ii.
  91 (London, 1846; Cambridge, 1894).



CROWLEY, ROBERT (1518?-1588), English religious and social reformer, was
born in Gloucestershire, and educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, of
which he was successively demy and fellow. Coming to London, he set up a
printing-office in Ely Rents, Holborn, where he printed many of his own
writings. As a typographer, his most notable production was an edition
of _Pierce Plowman_ in 1550, and some of the earliest Welsh printed
books came from his press. As an author, his first venture seems to have
been his "Information and Petition against the Oppressors of the poor
Commons of this realm," which internal evidence shows to have been
addressed to the parliament of 1547. It contains a vigorous plea for a
further religious reformation, but is more remarkable for its attack on
the "more than Turkish tyranny" of the landlords and capitalists of that
day. While repudiating communism, Crowley was a Christian Socialist, and
warmly approved the efforts of Protector Somerset to stop enclosures. In
his _Way to Wealth_, published in 1550, he laments the failure of the
Protector's policy, and attributes it to the organized resistance of the
richer classes. In the same year he published (in verse) _The Voice of
the last Trumpet blown by the seventh Angel_; it is a rebuke in twelve
"lessons" to twelve different classes of people; and a similar
production was his _One-and-Thirty Epigrams_ (1550). These, with
_Pleasure and Pain_ (1551), were edited for the Early English Text
Society in 1872 (Extra Ser. xv.). The dozen or more other works which
Crowley published are more distinctly theological: indeed, the failure
of the temporal policy he advocated seems to have led Crowley to take
orders, and he was ordained deacon by Ridley on the 29th of September
1551. During Mary's reign he was among the exiles at Frankfort. At
Elizabeth's accession he became a popular preacher, was made archdeacon
of Hereford in 1559, and prebendary of St Paul's in 1563, and was
incumbent first of St Peter's the Poor in London, and then of St Giles'
without Cripplegate. He refused to minister in the "conjuring garments
of popery," and in 1566 was deprived and imprisoned for resisting the
use of the surplice by his choir. He stated his case in "A brief
Discourse against the Outward Apparel and Ministering Garments of the
Popish Church," a tract "memorable," says Canon Dixon, "as the first
distinct utterance of Nonconformity." He continued to preach
occasionally, and in 1576 was presented to the living of St Lawrence
Jewry. Nor had he abandoned his connexion with the book trade, and in
1578 he was admitted a freeman of the Stationers' Company. He died on
the 18th of June 1588, and was buried in St Giles'. The most important
of his works not hitherto mentioned is his continuation of Languet and
Cooper's _Epitome of Chronicles_ (1559).

  See J. M. Cowper's _Pref. to the Select Works of Crowley_ (1872);
  Strype's Works; Gough's _General Index to Parker Soc. Publ._;
  Machyn's _Diary_; Macray's _Reg. Magdalen College_; Newcourt's _Rep.
  Eccles. Lond._; Hennessy's _Nov. Rep. Eccl._ (1898); Le Neve's _Fasti
  Eccl. Angl._; Pocock's Burnet; Pollard's _England under Somerset_; R.
  W. Dixon's _Church History_.     (A. F. P.)



CROWN, an English silver coin of the value of five shillings, hence
often used to express the sum of five shillings. It was originally of
gold and was first coined in the reign of Henry VIII. Edward VI.
introduced silver crowns and half-crowns, and down to the reign of
Charles II. crowns and half-crowns and sometimes double crowns were
struck both in gold and silver. In the reign of Edward VI. also was
introduced the practice of dating coins and marking them with their
current value. The "Oxford crown" struck in the reign of Charles I. was
designed by Rawlins (see NUMISMATICS: _Medieval_). Since the reign of
Charles II. the crown has been struck in silver only. At one time during
the 19th century it was proposed to abandon the issue of the crown, and
from 1861 until 1887 none was struck, but since the second issue in 1887
it has been freely in circulation again.



CROWN and CORONET, an official or symbolical ornament worn on or round
the head. The crown (Lat. _corona_) at first had no regal significance.
It was a garland, or wreath, of leaves or flowers, conferred on the
winners in the athletic games. Afterwards it was often made of gold, and
among the Romans was bestowed as a recognition of honourable service
performed or distinction won, and on occasion it took such a form as to
correspond with, or indicate the character of, the service rendered. The
_corona obsidionalis_ was formed of grass and flowers plucked on the
spot and given to the general who conquered a city. The _corona civica_,
made of oak leaves with acorns, was bestowed on the soldier who in
battle saved the life of a Roman citizen. The mural crown (_corona
muralis_) was the decoration of the soldier who was the first to scale
the walls of a besieged city, and was usually a circlet of gold adorned
with a series of turrets. The naval crown (_corona navalis_), decorated
in like manner with a series of miniature prows of ships, was the reward
of him who gained a notable victory at sea. These latter crowns form
charges in English heraldry (see HERALDRY).

Many other forms of crown were used by the Romans, as the conqueror's
triumphal crown of laurel, the myrtle crown, and the convivial, bridal,
funeral and other crowns. Some of the emperors wore crowns on occasion,
as Caligula and Domitian, at the games, and stellate or spike crowns are
depicted on the heads of several of the emperors on their coins, but no
idea of imperial sovereignty was indicated thereby. The Roman people,
who had accepted imperial rule as a fact, were very jealous of the
employment of its emblem on the part of their rulers. That emblem was
the diadem, and although the diadem and crown are frequently confused
with each other they were quite distinct, and it is well to bear this in
mind. The diadem, which was of eastern origin, was a fillet or band of
linen or silk, richly embroidered, and was worn tied round the forehead.
Selden (_Titles of Honour_, chap. viii. sect. 8) says that the diadem
and crown "have been from ancient times confounded, yet the diadem
strictly was a very different thing from what a crown now is or was, and
it was no other then than only a fillet of silk, linen, or some such
thing." It is desirable to remember the distinction, for, although
diadem and crown are now used as synonymous terms, the two were
originally quite distinct. The confusion between them has, perhaps, come
about from the fact that the modern crown seems to be rather an
evolution from the diadem than the lineal descendant of the older
crowns. The linen or silk diadem was eventually exchanged for a flexible
band of gold, which was worn in its place round the forehead. The
further development of the crown from this was readily effected by the
addition of an upper row of ornament. Thus the medieval and modern
crowns may be considered as radiated diadems, and so the diadem and
crown have become, as it were, merged in one another.

Among the historical crowns of Europe, the Iron Crown of Lombardy, now
preserved at Monza, claims notice. It is a band of iron, enclosed in a
circlet formed of six plates of gold, hinged one to the other, and
richly jewelled and enamelled. It is regarded with great reverence,
owing to a legend that the inner band of iron has been hammered out of
one of the nails of the true cross. The crown is so small, the diameter
being only 6 in., and the circlet only 2½ in. in width, that doubts have
been felt as to whether it was originally intended to be worn on the
head or was merely meant to be a votive crown. The legend as to the iron
being that of one of the nails of the cross is rejected by Muratori and
others, and cannot be traced far back. How it arose or how any credence
came to be reposed in the legend, it is difficult to surmise. Another
historical crown is that of Charlemagne, preserved at Vienna. It is
composed of a series of four larger and four smaller plaques of gold,
rounded at the tops and set together alternately. The larger plaques are
richly ornamented with emeralds and sapphires, and the smaller plaques
have each an enamelled figure of Our Lord, David, Solomon, and Hezekiah
respectively. A jewelled cross rises from the large front plaque, and an
arch bearing the name of the emperor Conrad springs across from the back
of this cross to the back of the crown.

At Madrid there is preserved the crown of Svintilla, king of the
Visigoths, 621-631. It is a circlet of thick gold set with pearls,
sapphires and other stones. It has been given as a votive offering at
some period to a church, as was often the custom. Attached to its upper
rim are the chains whereby to suspend it, and from the lower rim hang
letters of red-coloured glass or paste which read +SVINTILANVS REX
OFFERET. Two other Visigothic crowns are also preserved with it in the
Armeria Real.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The Papal Tiara (without the _infulae_).]

[Illustration: Figs. 2-4 from Meyer's _Konversations Lexikon_.

FIG. 2.--Crown of the Holy Roman Empire.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Crown of the German Empire.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Crown of the Austrian Empire.]

In 1858 a most remarkable discovery was made near Toledo, of eight gold
crowns of the 7th century, fashioned lavishly with barbaric splendour.
They are now in the Cluny Museum at Paris, having been purchased for
£4000, the intrinsic value of the gold, without reckoning that of the
jewels and precious stones, being not less than £600. The largest and
most magnificent is the crown of Reccesvinto, king of the Visigoths from
653 to 675. It is composed of a circlet of pure gold set with pearls and
precious stones in great profusion, which gives it a most sumptuous
appearance. It is 9 in. in diameter and more than ½ in. in thickness,
the width of the circlet being 4 in. It has also been given as a votive
offering to a church, and has the chains to hang it by attached to the
upper rim, while from the lower rim depend pearls, sapphires and a
series of richly jewelled letters 2 in. each in depth, which read
+RECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET. The second of these crowns in size is
generally thought to be that of the queen of Reccesvinto. It has no
legend, but merely a cross hanging from it. The six others are smaller,
and are all most richly ornamented. They are believed to have been the
crowns of Reccesvinto's children. From one of them hangs a legend which
relates that they were an offering to a church, which has been
identified with much probability as that of Sorbas, a small town in the
province of Almeria. It has been surmised that in the disturbances which
soon afterwards followed they were buried out of sight for safety, where
they were eventually discovered absolutely unharmed centuries
afterwards. For a detailed description of these most remarkable crowns
the reader must be referred to a paper by the late Mr Albert Way
(_Archaeological Journal_, xvi. 253). Mr Way, in the article alluded to,
says of the custom of offering crowns to churches that frequent notices
of the usage may be found in the lives of the Roman pontiffs by
Anastasius. "They are usually described as having been placed over the
altar, and in many instances mention is made of jewelled crosses of gold
appended within such crowns as an accessory ornament.... The crowns
suspended in churches suggested doubtless the sumptuous pensile
luminaries, frequently designated from a very early period as _coronae_,
in which the form of the royal circlet was preserved in much larger
proportions, as exemplified by the remarkable _corona_ still to be seen
suspended in the cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle over the crypt in which
the body of Charlemagne was deposited."

Of modern continental crowns the imperial crown of Austria (fig. 4) may
be mentioned. It is composed of a circlet of gold, adorned with precious
stones and pearls, heightened with fleurs-de-lys, and is raised above
the circlet in the form of a cap which is opened in the middle, so that
the lower part is crescent-shaped; across this opening from front to
back rises an arched fillet, enriched with pearls and surmounted by an
orb, on which is a cross of pearls.

The papal _tiara_ (a Greek word, of Persian origin, for a form of
ancient Persian popular head-dress, standing high erect, and worn
encircled by a diadem by the kings), the triple crown worn by the popes,
has taken various forms since the 9th century. It is important to
remember that the tiaras in old Italian pictures are inventions of the
artists and not copied from actual examples. In its present shape,
dating substantially from the Renaissance, it is a peaked head-covering
not unlike a closed mitre (q.v.), round which are placed one above the
other three circlets or open crowns.[1] Two bands, or _infulae_, as they
are called, hang from it as in the case of a mitre. The tiara is the
crown of the pope as a temporal sovereign (see TIARA).

Pictorial representations in early manuscripts, and the rude effigies on
their coins, are not very helpful in deciding as to the form of crown
worn by the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings of England before the Norman
Conquest. In some cases it would appear as if the diadem studded with
pearls had been worn, and in others something more of the character of a
crown. We reach surer ground after the Conquest, for then the great
seals, monumental effigies, and coins become more and more serviceable
in determining the forms the crown took.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.

Royal Crowns. William I. to Henry IV.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.

Royal Crowns. Henry V. to Charles I.]

The crown of William the Conqueror and his immediate successors seems to
have been a plain circlet with four uprights, which terminated in
trefoils (fig. 5), but Henry I. enriched the circlet with pearls or gems
(fig. 6), and on his great seal the trefoils have something of the
character of fleurs-de-lys. The effigy of Richard I. at Fontevrault
shows a development of the crown; the trefoil heads are expanded, and
are chased and jewelled. The crown of John is shown on his effigy at
Worcester, though unfortunately it is rather badly mutilated. It shows,
however, that the upper ornament was of fleurons set with jewels. Fig. 7
shows generally this development of the crown in a restored form. The
crown on the effigy of Henry III. at Westminster had a beaded row below
the circlet, which is narrow and plain, and from it rises a series of
plain trefoils with slightly raised points between them. The tomb was
opened in 1774, and on the king's head was found an imitation crown of
tin or latten gilt, with trefoils rising from its upper edge. This,
although only made of base metal for the king's burial, may nevertheless
be taken as exhibiting the form of the royal crown at the time, and it
may be usefully compared with that on the effigy of the king, which was
made in Edward I.'s reign (fig. 8). Edward I. used a crown of very
similar design. In the crown of Edward II. we have perhaps the most
graceful and elegant of all the forms which the English medieval crown
assumed (fig. 9), and it seems to have continued without any marked
alteration during the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II. The crown on
the head of the effigy of Henry IV. at Canterbury evidently represents
one of great magnificence, both of design and ornament. What is perhaps
lost of the grace of form of the crown of Edward II. is made up for by a
profusion of adornment and ornamentation unsurpassed at any later period
(fig. 10). The circlet is much wider and is richly chased and jewelled,
and from it rise eight large leaves, the intervening spaces being filled
with fleurs-de-lys of definite outline. It will be noted that this crown
is, like its predecessors, what is known as an open crown, without any
arches rising from the circlet, but in the accounts of the coronation of
Henry IV. by Froissart and Waurin it is distinctly stated that the crown
was arched in the form of a cross. This is the earliest mention of an
arched crown, which is not represented on the great seal till that of
Edward IV. in 1461. The crown, as shown on Henry IV.'s effigy, very
probably represents the celebrated "Harry crown" which was afterwards
broken up and employed as surety for the loan required by Henry V. when
he was about to embark on his expedition to France. Fig. 11 shows the
crown of Henry V. The crown of Henry VI. seems to have had three
arches, and there is the same number shown on the crown of Henry VII.,
which ensigns the hawthorn bush badge of that king. The crown of Edward
IV. (fig. 12) shows two arches, and a crown similarly arched appears on
the great seal of Richard III. Crowns, both open and arched, are
represented in sculpture and paintings until the end of the reign of
Edward IV., and the royal arms are occasionally ensigned by an open
crown as late as the reign of Henry VIII. The crown of Henry VII. on his
effigy in Westminster Abbey shows a circlet surmounted by four crosses
and four fleurs-de-lys alternately, and has two arches rising from it. A
similar crown appears on the great seal of Henry VIII. The crown of
Henry VII. (fig. 13), which ensigns the royal arms above the south door
of King's College chapel, Cambridge, has the motto of the order of the
Garter round the circlet. Fig. 14 shows the form of crown used by Edward
VI., but a tendency (not shown in the illustration) began of flattening
the arches of the crown, and on some of the coins of Elizabeth the
arches are not merely flattened, but are depressed in the centre, much
after the character of the arches of the crown on many of the silver
coins of the 19th century prior to 1887. The crowns of James I. and
Charles I. had four arches, springing from the alternate crosses and
fleurs-de-lys of the circlet (fig. 15). The crown which strangely enough
surmounts the shield with the arms of the Commonwealth on the coins of
Oliver Cromwell (as distinguished from those of the Commonwealth itself,
which have no crown) is a royal crown with alternate crosses and
fleurs-de-lys round the circlet, and is surmounted by three arches,
which, though somewhat flattened, are not bent. On them rests the orb
and cross. The crown used by Charles II. (fig. 16) shows the arches
depressed in the centre, a feature of the royal crown which seems to
have been continued henceforward till 1887, when the pointed form of the
arches was resumed, in consonance with an idea that such a form
indicated an imperial rather than a regal crown, Queen Victoria having
been proclaimed empress of India in 1877. In the foregoing account the
changes of the form of the crowns of the kings have been briefly
noticed. Those crowns were the personal crowns, worn by the different
kings on various state occasions, but they were all crowned before the
Commonwealth with the ancient crown of St Edward, and the queens consort
with that of Queen Edith. There were, in fact, two sets of regalia, the
one used for the coronations and kept at Westminster, and the other that
used on other occasions by the kings and kept in the Tower. The crowns
of this latter set were the personal crowns made to fit the different
wearers, and are those which have been briefly described. The crown of
St Edward, with which the sovereigns were crowned, had a narrow circlet
from which rose alternately four crosses and four fleurs-de-lys, and
from the crosses sprang two arches, which at their crossing supported an
orb and cross. These arches must have been a later addition, and
possibly were first added for the coronation of Henry IV. (_vide
supra_). Queen Edith's crown had a plain circlet with, so far as can be
determined, four crosses of pearls or gems on it, and a large cross
patée rising from it in front, and arches of jewels or pearls
terminating in a large pearl at the top. A valuation of these ancient
crowns was made at the time of the Commonwealth prior to their
destruction. From this valuation we learn that St Edward's crown was of
gold filigree or "wirework" as it is called, and was set with stones,
and was valued at £248. Queen Edith's crown was found to be only of
silver-gilt, with counterfeit pearls, sapphires and other stones, and
was only valued at £16. At the Restoration an endeavour was made to
reproduce as well as possible the old crowns and regalia according to
their ancient form, and a new crown of St Edward was made on the lines
of the old one for the coronation of Charles II. The framework of this
crown, bereft of its jewels, is in the possession of Lady Amherst of
Hackney. The crowns of James II., William III. and Anne generally
resembled it in form (fig. 16). The later crowns of the Georges and
William IV. are represented in general form in fig. 17. Although the
marginal note in the coronation order of Queen Victoria indicates "K.
Edward's crown" as that with which the late queen was to be crowned, it
was actually the state or imperial crown worn by the sovereign when
leaving the church after the ceremony that was used. It had been altered
for the coronation, and the arches were formed of oak leaves (fig. 18).
Fig. 19 shows Queen Victoria's crown with raised arches and without the
inner cap of estate, which since the reign of Henry VII. has been
degraded into forming a lining to the crowns of the sovereigns and the
coronets of the peers. Fig. 20 shows the coronation crown of King Edward
VII. The crown of Scotland, preserved with the Scottish regalia at
Edinburgh, is believed to be composed of the original circlet worn by
King Robert the Bruce. James V. made additions to it in 1535, and in
general characteristics it much resembles an English crown of that date.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.

Recent Forms of the English Crown.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

[Illustration: FIG. 20.

Coronation Crowns of Queen Victoria and King Edward VII.]

The kings of arms in England, Scotland and Ireland wear crowns, the
ornamentation of which round the upper rim of the circlet is composed of
a row of acanthus or oak leaves. Round the circlet is the singularly
inappropriate text from Psalm li., "_Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam
misericordiam tuam_." The form of these crowns seems to have been
settled in the reign of Charles II. Before that period they varied at
different times, according to representations given of them in grants of
arms, &c.

This brings us to the crowns of lesser dignity, known for that reason as
coronets, and worn by the five orders of peers.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.

Coronets of Dukes, Marquesses and Earls.]

The use of crowns by dukes originated in 1362, when Edward III. created
his sons Lionel and John dukes of Clarence and Lancaster respectively.
This was done by investing them with a sword, a cap of maintenance or
estate, and with a circlet of gold set with precious stones, which was
imposed on the head. Previous to this dukes had been invested at their
creation by the girding on of a sword only. In 1387 Richard II. created
Richard de Vere marquess of Dublin, and invested him by girding on a
sword, and by placing a golden circlet on his head. The golden circlet
was confined to dukes and marquesses till 1444, when Henry VI. created
Henry Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, premier earl, and the letters patent
effecting this concede that the earl and his heirs shall wear a golden
circlet on the head on feast days, even in the royal presence. As to the
form of these circlets we have no clear knowledge. The dignity of a
viscount was first created by Henry VI. in 1439, but nothing is said of
any insignia pertaining to that dignity. It is believed that a circlet
of gold with an upper rim of pearls was first conferred on a viscount by
James I., who conceded it to Robert Cecil, Viscount Cranborne. However,
in 1625-1626 it is definitely recorded that the viscounts carried their
coronets in their hands in the coronation procession from Westminster
Hall to the Abbey church. The use of a coronet by the barons dates from
the coronation of Charles II., and by letters patent of the 7th of
August 1661 their coronet is described as a circle of gold with six
pearls on it.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

[Illustration: FIG. 25.

Coronets of Viscounts and Barons.]

At the present day the coronet of a duke (fig. 21) is formed of a
circlet of gold, from which rise eight strawberry leaves. The coronet of
a marquess (fig. 22) differs from that of a duke in having only four
strawberry leaves, the intervening spaces being occupied by four low
points which are surmounted by pearls. The coronet of an earl (fig. 23)
differs again by having eight tall rays on each of which is set a pearl,
the intervening spaces being occupied by strawberry leaves one-fourth of
the height of the rays. The coronet of a viscount (fig. 24) has sixteen
small pearls fixed to the golden circlet, and the coronet of a baron
(fig. 25) has six large pearls similarly arranged.

  AUTHORITIES.--L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_
  (London, 1901); _The Ancestor_, Nos. i. and ii. (London, 1902);
  Stothard, _The Monumental Effigies of Great Britain_ (London, 1817).
       (T. M. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A coloured drawing, done in the first half of the 18th century,
    of the magnificent tiara made by the celebrated goldsmith, Caradosso,
    for Julius II., is in the Print-Room, British Museum. It was
    re-fashioned by Pius VI., but went with other treasure as part of the
    indemnity to Napoleon. The splendid emerald at the summit, which was
    engraved with the arms of Gregory XIII., was restored by Napoleon and
    now adorns another papal tiara at Rome. In this drawing the three
    crowns (a feature introduced at the beginning of the 14th century)
    are represented by three bands of X-shaped ornament in enamelled
    gold.



CROWN DEBT, in English law, a debt due to the crown. By various
statutes--the first dating from the reign of Henry VIII. (1541)--the
crown has priority for its debts before all other creditors. At common
law the crown always had a lien on the lands and goods of debtors by
record, which could be enforced even when they had passed into the hands
of other persons. The difficulty of ascertaining whether lands were
subject to a crown lien or not was often very great, and a remedy was
provided by the Judgments Act 1839, and the Crown Suits Act 1865. Now
by the Land Charges Act 1900, no debt due to the crown operates as a
charge on land until a writ of execution for the purpose of enforcing it
has been registered under the Land Charges Registration and Searches Act
1888. By the Act of 1541 specialty debts were put practically on the
same footing as debts by record. Simple contract debts due to the crown
also become specialty debts, and the rights of the crown are enforced by
a summary process called an _extent_ (see WRIT).



CROWNE, JOHN (d. c. 1703), British dramatist, was a native of Nova
Scotia. His father "Colonel" William Crowne, accompanied the earl of
Arundel on a diplomatic mission to Vienna in 1637, and wrote an account
of his journey. He emigrated to Nova Scotia where he received a grant of
land from Cromwell, but the French took possession of his property, and
the home government did nothing to uphold his rights. When the son came
to England his poverty compelled him to act as gentleman usher to an
Independent lady of quality, and his enemies asserted that his father
had been an Independent minister. He began his literary career with a
romance, _Pandion and Amphigenia, or the History of the coy Lady of
Thessalia_ (1665). In 1671 he produced a romantic play, _Juliana, or the
Princess of Poland_, which has, in spite of its title, no pretensions to
rank as an historical drama. The earl of Rochester procured for him,
apparently with the sole object of annoying Dryden by infringing on his
rights as poet-laureate, a commission to supply a masque for performance
at court. _Calisto_ gained him the favour of Charles II., but Rochester
proved a fickle patron, and his favour was completely alienated by the
success of Crowne's heroic play in two parts, _The Destruction of
Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian_ (1677). This piece contained a thinly
disguised satire on the Puritan party in the description of the
Pharisees, and about 1683 he produced a distinctly political play, _The
City Politiques_, satirizing the Whig party and containing characters
which were readily recognized as portraits of Titus Oates and others.
This made him many enemies, and he petitioned the king for a small place
that would release him from the necessity of writing for the stage. The
king exacted one more comedy, which should, he suggested, be based on
the _No pued esser_ of Moreto. This had already been unsuccessfully
adapted, as Crowne discovered later, by Sir Thomas St Serfe, but in
Crowne's hands it developed into _Sir Courtly Nice, It Cannot Be_
(1685), a comedy which kept its place as a stock piece for nearly a
century. Unfortunately Charles II. died before the play was completed,
and Crowne was disappointed of his reward. He continued to write plays,
and it is stated that he was still living in 1703, but nothing is known
of his later life.

Crowne was a fertile writer of plays with an historical setting, in
which heroic love was, in the fashion of the French romances, made the
leading motive. The prosaic level of his style saved him as a rule from
the rant to be found in so many contemporary heroic plays, but these
pieces are of no particular interest. He was much more successful in
comedy of the kind that depicts "humours."

  _The History of Charles the Eighth of France, or The Invasion of
  Naples by the French_ (1672) was dedicated to Rochester. In _Timon_,
  generally supposed to have been written by the earl, a line from this
  piece--"whilst sporting waves smil'd on the rising sun"--was held up
  to ridicule. _The Ambitious Statesman, or The Loyal Favourite_ (1679),
  one of the most extravagant of his heroic efforts, deals with the
  history of Bernard d'Armagnac, Constable of France, after the battle
  of Agincourt; _Thyestes, A Tragedy_ (1681), spares none of the horrors
  of the Senecan tragedy, although an incongruous love story is
  interpolated; _Darius, King of Persia_ (1688), _Regulus_ (acted 1692,
  pr. 1694) and _Caligula_ (1698) complete the list of his tragedies.
  _The Country Wit: A Comedy_ (acted 1675, pr. 1693), derived in part
  from Molière's _Le Sicilien, ou l'amour peintre_, is remembered for
  the leading character, Sir Mannerly Shallow; _The English Frier; or
  The Town Sparks_ (acted 1689, pr. 1690), perhaps suggested by
  Molière's _Tartuffe_, ridicules the court Catholics, and in Father
  Finical caricatures Father Petre; and _The Married Beau; or The
  Curious Impertinent_ (1694), is based on the _Curioso Impertinente_ in
  Don Quixote. He also produced a version of Racine's _Andromaque_, an
  adaptation from Shakespeare's Henry VI., and an unsuccessful comedy,
  _Justice Busy_.

  See _The Dramatic Works of John Crowne_ (4 vols., 1873), edited by
  James Maidment and W. H. Logan for the _Dramatists of the
  Restoration_.



CROWN LAND, in the United Kingdom, land belonging to the crown, the
hereditary revenues of which were surrendered to parliament in the reign
of George III.

In Anglo-Saxon times the property of the king consisted of (a) his
private estate, (b) the demesne of the crown, comprising palaces, &c.,
and (c) rights over the folkland of the kingdom. By the time of the
Norman Conquest the three became merged into the estate of the crown,
that is, land annexed to the crown, held by the king as king. The king,
also, ceased to hold as a private owner,[1] but he had full power of
disposal by grant of the crown lands, which were increased from time to
time by confiscation, escheat, forfeiture, &c. The history of the crown
lands to the reign of William III. was one of continuous alienation to
favourites. Their wholesale distribution by William III. necessitated
the intervention of parliament, and in the reign of Queen Anne an act
was passed limiting the right of alienation of crown lands to a period
of not more than thirty-one years or three lives. The revenue from the
crown lands was also made to constitute part of the civil list. At the
beginning of his reign George III. surrendered his interest in the crown
lands in return for a fixed "civil list" (q.v.). The control and
management of the crown lands is now regulated by the Crown Lands Act
1829 and various amending acts. Under these acts their management is
entrusted to the commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues, who
have certain statutory powers as to leasing, selling, exchanging, &c.

In theory, also, state lands in the British colonies are supposed to be
vested in the crown, and they are called crown lands; actually, however,
the various colonial legislatures have full control over them and power
of disposal. The term "crown-lands," in Austria, is applied to the
various provinces into which that country is divided. (See AUSTRIA.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The duchy of Lancaster, which was the private property of Henry
    IV. before he ascended the throne, was assured to him and his heirs
    by a special act of parliament. In the first year of Henry VII. it
    was united to the crown, but as a separate property.



CROWN POINT, a village of Essex county, New York, U.S.A., in a township
of the same name, about 90 m. N.E. of Albany and about 10 m. N. of
Ticonderoga, on the W. shore of Lake Champlain. Pop. of the township
(1890) 3135; (1900) 2112; (1905) 1890; (1910) 1690; of the village,
about 1000. The village is served by the Delaware & Hudson Railway and
by the Champlain Canal. Among the manufactures are lumber and
woodenware. Graphite has been found in the western part of the township,
and spar is mined. In 1609 Champlain fought near here the engagement
with the Iroquois Indians which marked the beginning of the long enmity
between the Five (later Six) Nations and the French. Subsequently Dutch
and English traders trafficked in the vicinity, the latter maintaining
here for many years a regular trading-post. In 1731 the French built
here Fort Frédéric, the first military post at Crown Point, and the
place was subsequently for many years of considerable strategic
importance, owing to its situation on Lake Champlain, which with Lake
George furnished a comparatively easy route from Canada to New York.
Twice during the French and Indian War, in 1755 and again in 1756,
English and colonial expeditions were sent against it in vain; it
remained in French hands until 1759, when, after Lord Jeffrey Amherst's
occupation of Ticonderoga, the garrison joined that of the latter place
and retreated to Canada. Crown Point was then occupied by Amherst, who
during the winter of 1759-1760 began the construction, about a quarter
of a mile from the old Fort Frédéric, of a large fort, which was
garrisoned but was never completed; the ruins of this fort (not of Fort
Frédéric) still remain. At the outbreak of the War of Independence, on
the 11th of May 1775, the fort, whose garrison then consisted of only a
dozen men, was captured by Colonel Seth Warner and a force of "Green
Mountain Boys," sent from Ticonderoga by Ethan Allen; and it remained in
American hands save for a brief period in 1777, when it was occupied by
a detachment of Burgoyne's invading army.



CROWTHER, SAMUEL ADJAI (1809?-1891), African missionary-bishop, was born
at Ochugu in the Yoruba country, West Africa, and was sold into slavery
in 1821. Next year he was rescued, with many other captives, by H.M.
ship "Myrmidon," and was landed at Sierra Leone. Educated there in a
missionary school, he was baptized on the 11th of December 1825. In time
he became a teacher at Furah Bay, and afterwards an energetic missionary
on the Niger. He came to England in 1842, entered the Church Missionary
College at Islington, and in June 1843 was ordained by Bishop Blomfield.
Returning to Africa, he laboured with great success amongst his own
people and afterwards at Abeokuta. Here he devoted himself to the
preparation of school-books, and the translation of the Bible and
Prayer-Book into Yoruba and other dialects. He also established a trade
in cotton, and improved the native agriculture. In 1857 he commenced the
third expedition up the Niger, and after labouring with varied success,
returned to England and was consecrated, on St Peter's Day 1864, first
bishop of the Niger territories. Before long a commencement was made of
the missions to the delta of the Niger, and between 1866 and 1884
congregations of Christians were formed at Bonny, Brass and New Calabar,
but the progress made was slow and subject to many impediments. In 1888
the tide of persecution turned, and several chiefs embraced
Christianity, and on Crowther's return from another visit to England,
the large iron church known as "St Stephen's cathedral" was opened.
Crowther died of paralysis on the 31st of December 1891, having
displayed as a missionary for many years untiring industry, great
practical wisdom, and deep piety.



CROYDON, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Surrey,
England, suburban to London, 10 m. S. of London Bridge. Pop. (1891)
102,695; (1901) 133,895. The borough embraces a great residential
district. Several railway stations give it communication with all parts
of the metropolis, the principal railways serving it being the London,
Brighton & South Coast and the South-Eastern & Chatham. It stands near
the sources of the river Wandle, under Banstead Downs, and is a place of
great antiquity. The original site, farther west than the present town,
is mentioned in Domesday Book. The derivation indicated is from the O.
Fr. _croie dune_, chalk hill. The supposition that here was the Roman
station of _Noviomagus_ is rejected. The site is remarkable for the
number of springs which issue from the soil. One of these, called the
"Bourne," bursts forth a short way above the town at irregular intervals
of one to ten years or more; and after running a torrent for two or
three months, as quickly vanishes. Until its course was diverted it
caused destructive floods. This phenomenon seems to arise from rains
which, falling on the chalk hills, sink into the porous soil and
reappear after a time from crevices at lower levels. The manor of
Croydon was presented by William the Conqueror to Archbishop Lanfranc,
who is believed to have founded the archiepiscopal palace there, which
was the occasional residence of his successors till about 1750, and of
which the chapel and hall remain. Addington Park, 3½ m. from Croydon,
was purchased for the residence, in 1807, of the archbishop of
Canterbury, but was sold in consequence of Archbishop Temple's decision
to reside at the palace, Canterbury. The neighbouring church, which is
Norman and Early English, contains several memorials of archbishops.
Near the park a group of tumuli and a circular encampment are seen.
Croydon is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Canterbury. The
parish church of St John the Baptist appears to have been built in the
14th and 15th centuries, but to have contained remains of an older
building. The church was restored or rebuilt in the 16th century, and
again restored by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1857-1859. It was destroyed by
fire, with the exception of the tower, on the 5th of January 1867, and
was at once rebuilt by Scott on the old lines. In 1596 Archbishop
Whitgift founded the hospital or almshouse which bears his name, and
remains in its picturesque brick buildings surrounding two quadrangles.
His grammar school was housed in new buildings in 1871, and is a
flourishing day school. The principal public building of Croydon is that
erected by the corporation for municipal business; it included
court-rooms and the public library. At Addiscombe in the neighbourhood
was formerly a mansion dating from 1702, and acquired by the East India
Company in 1809 for a Military College, which on the abolition of the
Company became the Royal Military College for the East Indian Army, and
was closed in 1862. Croydon was formed into a municipal borough in 1883,
a parliamentary borough, returning one member, in 1885, and a county
borough in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36
councillors. Area, 9012 acres.



CROZAT, PIERRE (1661-1740), French art collector, was born at Toulouse,
one of a family who were prominent French financiers and collectors. He
became treasurer to the king in Paris, and gradually acquired a
magnificent collection of pictures and _objets d'art_. Between 1729 and
1742 a finely illustrated work was published in two volumes, known as
the _Cabinet Crozat_, including the finest pictures in French
collections. Most of his own treasures descended to his nephews, Louis
François (d. 1750), Joseph Antoine (d. 1750), and Louis Antoine (d.
1770), and were augmented by them, being dispersed after their deaths;
the collection of Louis Antoine Crozat went to St Petersburg.



CROZET ISLANDS, an uninhabited group in the Indian Ocean, in 46°-47° S.
and 51° E. They are mountainous, with summits from 4000 to 5000 ft.
high, and are disposed in two divisions--Penguin or Inaccessible, Hog,
Possession and East Islands; and the Twelve Apostles. Like Kerguelen,
and other clusters in these southern waters, they appear to be of
igneous formation; but owing to the bleak climate and their inaccessible
character they are seldom visited, and have never been explored since
their discovery in 1772 by Marion-Dufresne, after one of whose officers
they are named. Possession, the highest, has a snowy peak said to exceed
5000 ft. Hog Island takes its name from the animals which were here let
loose by an English captain many years ago, but have since disappeared.
Rabbits burrow in the heaps of scoria on the slopes of the mountains.



CROZIER, WILLIAM (1855-   ), American artillerist and inventor, born at
Carrollton, Carroll county, Ohio, on the 19th of February 1855, was the
son of Robert Crozier (1827-1895), chief justice of Kansas in 1863-1866,
and a United States senator from that state from December 1873 to
February 1874. He graduated at West Point in 1876, was appointed a 2nd
lieutenant in the 4th Artillery, and served on the Western frontier for
three years against the Sioux and Bannock Indians. From 1879 to 1884 he
was instructor in mathematics at West Point, and was superintendent of
the Watertown (Massachusetts) Arsenal from 1884 to 1887. In 1888 he was
sent by the war department to study recent developments in artillery in
Europe, and upon his return he was placed in full charge of the
construction of gun carriages for the army, and with General Adelbert R.
Buffington (1837-   ), the chief of ordnance, he invented the
Buffington-Crozier disappearing gun carriage (1896). He also invented a
wire-wound gun, and perfected many appliances connected with heavy and
field ordnance. In 1890 he attained the rank of captain. During the
Spanish-American War he was inspector-general for the Atlantic and Gulf
coast defences. In 1899 he was one of the American delegates to the
Peace Conference at the Hague. He later served in the Philippine Islands
on the staffs of Generals John C. Bates and Theodore Schwan, and in 1900
was chief of ordnance on the staff of General A. R. Chaffee during the
Pekin Relief Expedition. In November 1901 he was appointed
brigadier-general and succeeded General Buffington as chief of ordnance
of the United States army. His _Notes on the Construction of Ordnance_,
published by the war department, are used as text-books in the schools
for officers, and he is also the author of other important publications
on military subjects.



CROZIER, or pastoral staff, one of the insignia of a bishop, and
probably derived from the _lituus_ of the Roman augurs. It is
crook-headed, and borne by bishops and archbishops alike (see PASTORAL
STAFF). The word "crozier" or "crosier" represents the O. Fr. _crocier_,
Med. Lat. _crociarius_, the bearer of the episcopal crook (Med. Lat.
_crocea_, _croccia_, &c., Fr. _croc_). The English representative of
_crocea_ was _crose_, later _crosse_, which, becoming confused with
"cross" (q.v.), was replaced by "crozier-staff" or "crozier's staff,"
and then, at the beginning of the 16th century, by "crozier" (see J. T.
Taylor, _Archaeologia_, Iii., "On the Use of the Terms Crosier, Pastoral
Staff and Cross").



CRUCIAL (from Lat. _crux_, a cross), that which has the form of a cross,
as the "crucial ligaments" of the knee-joint, which cross each other,
connecting the femur and the tibia. From Francis Bacon's expression
_instantia crucis_ (taken, as he says, from the finger-post or _crux_ at
cross-roads) for a phenomenon which decides between two causes which
have each similar analogies in its favour, comes the use of "crucial"
for that which decides between two alternatives, hence, generally, as a
synonym for "critical." The word is also used, with a reference to the
use of a "crucible," of something which tests and tries.



CRUCIFERAE, or Crucifer family, a natural order of flowering plants,
which derives its name from the cruciform arrangement of the four petals
of the flower. It is an order of herbaceous plants, many of which, such
as wallflower, stock, mustard, cabbage, radish and others, are
well-known garden or field-plants. Many of the plants are annuals; among
these are some of the commonest weeds of cultivation, shepherd's purse
(_Capsella Bursa-pastoris_), charlock (_Brassica Sinapis_), and such
common plants as hedge mustard (_Sisymbrium officinale_),
Jack-by-the-hedge (_S. Alliaria_ or _Alliaria officinalis_). Others are
biennials producing a number of leaves on a very short stem in the first
year, and in the second sending up a flowering shoot at the expense of
the nourishment stored in the thick tap-root during the previous
season. Under cultivation this root becomes much enlarged, as in turnip,
swede and others. Wallflower (_Cheiranthus Cheiri_) (fig. 1) is a
perennial. The leaves when borne on an elongated stem are arranged
alternately and have no stipules. The flowers are arranged in racemes
without bracts; during the life of the flower its stalk continues to
grow so that the open flowers of an inflorescence stand on a level (that
is, are corymbose). The flowers are regular, with four free sepals
arranged in two pairs at right angles, four petals arranged crosswise in
one series, and two sets of stamens, an outer with two members and an
inner with four, in two pairs placed in the middle line of the flower
and at right angles to the outer series. The four inner stamens are
longer than the two outer; and the stamens are hence collectively
described as tetradynamous. The pistil, which is above the rest of the
members of the flower, consists of two carpels joined at their edges to
form the ovary, which becomes two-celled by subsequent ingrowth of a
septum from these united edges; a row of ovules springs from each edge.
The fruit is a pod or siliqua splitting by two valves from below upwards
and leaving the placentas with the seeds attached to the _replum_ or
framework of the septum. The seeds are filled with the large embryo, the
two cotyledons of which are variously folded. In germination the
cotyledons come above ground and form the first green leaves of the
plant.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Wallflower (_Cheiranthus Cheiri_), reduced. 1,
Flower in vertical section. 2, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower
in _Barbarea_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Cruciferae._ Floral Diagram (_Brassica_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Cardamine pratensis._ Flower with Perianth
removed. (After Baillon.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Cruciferous Fruits. (After Baillon.)

  A, _Cheiranthus Cheiri._
  B, _Lepidium sativum._
  C, _Capsella Bursa-pastoris._
  D, _Lunaria biennis_, showing the septum after the carpels have fallen
       away.
  E, _Crambe maritima._]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Seeds of _Cruciferae_ cut across to show the
radicle and cotyledons. (After Baillon.)

  A, _Cheiranthus Cheiri._
  B, _Sisymbrium Alliaria._

Figures 2-5 are from Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.]

Pollination is effected by aid of insects. The petals are generally
white or yellow, more rarely lilac or some other colour, and between the
bases of the stamens are honey-glands. Some or all of the anthers become
twisted so that insects in probing for honey will touch the anthers with
one side of their head and the capitate stigma with the other. Owing,
however, to the close proximity of stigma and anthers, very slight
irregularity in the movements of the visiting insect will cause
self-pollination, which may also occur by the dropping of pollen from
the anthers of the larger stamens on to the stigma.

Cruciferae is a large order containing nearly 200 genera and about 1200
species. It has a world-wide distribution, but finds its chief
development in the temperate and frigid zones, especially of the
northern hemisphere, and as Alpine plants. In the subdivision of the
order into tribes use is made of differences in the form of the fruit
and the manner of folding of the embryo. When the fruit is several times
longer than broad it is known as a siliqua, as in stock or wallflower;
when about as long as broad, a silicula, as in shepherd's purse.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Honesty (_Lunaria biennis_), showing Flower and
Fruit. Reduced.]

The order is well represented in Britain--among others by _Nasturtium_
(_N. officinale_, water-cress), _Arabis_ (rock-cress), _Cardamine_
(bitter-cress), _Sisymbrium_ (hedge mustard, &c.; _S. Irio_ is London
rocket, so-called because it sprang up after the fire of 1666),
_Brassica_ (cabbage and mustard), _Diplotaxis_ (rocket), _Cochlearia_
(scurvy-grass), _Capsella_ (shepherd's purse), _Lepidium_ (cress),
_Thlaspi_ (penny-cress), _Cakile_ (sea rocket), _Raphanus_ (radish), and
others. Of economic importance are species of _Brassica_, including
mustard (_B. nigra_), white mustard, used when young in salads (_B.
alba_), cabbage (q.v.) and its numerous forms derived from _B.
oleracea_, turnip (_B. campestris_), and swede (_B. Napus_), _Raphanus
sativus_ (radish), _Cochlearia Armoracia_ (horse-radish), _Nasturtium
officinale_ (water-cress), _Lepidium sativum_ (garden cress). _Isatis_
affords a blue dye, woad. Many of the genera are known as ornamental
garden plants; such are _Cheiranthus_ (wallflower), _Matthiola_ (stock),
_Iberis_ (candy-tuft), _Alyssum_ (Alison), _Hesperis_ (dame's violet),
Lunaria (honesty) (fig. 6), _Aubrietia_ and others.



CRUDEN, ALEXANDER (1701-1770), author of the well-known concordance
(q.v.) to the English Bible, was born at Aberdeen on the 31st of May
1701. He was educated at the grammar school, Aberdeen, and studied at
Marischal College, intending to enter the ministry. He took the degree
of master of arts, but soon after began to show signs of insanity owing
to a disappointment in love. After a term of confinement he recovered
and removed to London. In 1722 he had an engagement as private tutor to
the son of a country squire living at Eton Hall, Southgate, and also
held a similar post at Ware. Years afterwards, in an application for the
title of bookseller to the queen, he stated that he had been for some
years corrector for the press in Wild Court. This probably refers to
this time. In 1729 he was employed by the 10th earl of Derby as a reader
and secretary, but was discharged on the 7th of July for his ignorance
of French pronunciation. He then lodged in a house in Soho frequented
exclusively by Frenchmen, and took lessons in the language in the hope
of getting back his post with the earl, but when he went to Knowsley in
Lancashire, the earl would not see him. He returned to London and opened
a bookseller's shop in the Royal Exchange. In April 1735 he obtained the
title of bookseller to the queen by recommendation of the lord mayor and
most of the Whig aldermen. The post was an unremunerative sinecure. In
1737 he finished his concordance, which, he says, was the work of
several years. It was presented to the queen on the 3rd of November
1737, a fortnight before her death.

Although Cruden's biblical labours have made his name a household word
among English-speaking people, he was disappointed in his hopes of
immediate profit, and his mind again became unhinged. In spite of his
earnest and self-denying piety, and his exceptional intellectual powers,
he developed idiosyncrasies, and his life was marred by a harmless but
ridiculous egotism, which so nearly bordered on insanity that his
friends sometimes thought it necessary to have him confined. He paid
unwelcome addresses to a widow, and was confined in a madhouse in
Bethnal Green. On his release he published a pamphlet dedicated to Lord
H. (probably Harrington, secretary of state) entitled _The London
Citizen exceedingly injured, or a British Inquisition Displayed_. He
also published an account of his trial, dedicated to the king. In
December 1740 he writes to Sir H. Sloane saying he has been employed
since July as Latin usher in a boarding-school at Enfield. He then found
work as a proof-reader, and several editions of Greek and Latin classics
are said to have owed their accuracy to his care. He superintended the
printing of one of Matthew Henry's commentaries, and in 1750 printed a
small _Compendium of the Holy Bible_ (an abstract of the contents of
each chapter), and also reprinted a larger edition of the _Concordance_.

About this time he adopted the title of "Alexander the Corrector," and
assumed the office of correcting the morals of the nation, especially
with regard to swearing and Sunday observance. For this office he
believed himself divinely commissioned, but he petitioned parliament for
a formal appointment in this capacity. In April 1755 he printed a letter
to the speaker and other members of the House of Commons, and about the
same time an "Address to the King and Parliament." He was in the habit
of carrying a sponge, with which he effaced all inscriptions which he
thought contrary to good morals. In September 1753, through being
involved in a street brawl, he was confined in an asylum in Chelsea for
seventeen days at the instance of his sister, Mrs Wild. He brought an
unsuccessful action against his friends, and seriously proposed that
they should go into confinement as an atonement. He published an account
of this second restraint in "The Adventures of Alexander the Corrector."
He made attempts to present to the king in person an account of his
trial, and to obtain the honour of knighthood, one of his predicted
honours. In 1754 he was nominated as parliamentary candidate for the
city of London, but did not go to the poll. In 1755 he paid unwelcome
addresses to the daughter of Sir Thomas Abney, of Newington (1640-1722),
and then published his letters and the history of his repulse in the
third part of his "Adventures." In June and July 1755 he visited Oxford
and Cambridge. He was treated with the respect due to his learning by
officials and residents in both universities, but experienced some
boisterous fooling at the hands of the undergraduates. At Cambridge he
was knighted with mock ceremonies. There he appointed "deputy
correctors" to represent him in the university. He also visited Eton,
Windsor, Tonbridge and Westminster schools, where he appointed four boys
to be his deputies. (An _Admonition to Cambridge_ is preserved among
letters from J. Neville of Emmanuel to Dr Cox Macro, in the British
Museum.) _The Corrector's Earnest Address to the Inhabitants of Great
Britain_, published in 1756, was occasioned by the earthquake at Lisbon.
In 1762 he saved an ignorant seaman, Richard Potter, from the gallows,
and in 1763 published a pamphlet recording the history of the case.
Against John Wilkes, whom he hated, he wrote a small pamphlet, and used
to delete with his sponge the number 45 wherever he found it, this being
the offensive number of the _North Briton_. In 1769 he lectured in
Aberdeen as "Corrector," and distributed copies of the fourth
commandment and various religious tracts. The wit that made his
eccentricities palatable is illustrated by the story of how he gave to a
conceited young minister whose appearance displeased him _A Mother's
Catechism dedicated to the young and ignorant_. The _Scripture
Dictionary_, compiled about this time, was printed in Aberdeen in two
volumes shortly after his death. Alexander Chalmers, who in his boyhood
heard Cruden lecture in Aberdeen and wrote his biography, says that a
verbal index to Milton, which accompanied the edition of Thomas Newton,
bishop of Bristol, in 1769, was Cruden's.

The second edition of the Bible _Concordance_ was published in 1761, and
presented to the king in person on the 21st of December. The third
appeared in 1769. Both contain a pleasing portrait of the author. He is
said to have gained £800 by these two editions. He returned to London
from Aberdeen, and died suddenly while praying in his lodgings in Camden
Passage, Islington, on the 1st of November 1770. He was buried in the
ground of a Protestant dissenting congregation in Dead Man's Place,
Southwark. He bequeathed a portion of his savings for a £5 bursary at
Aberdeen, which preserves his name on the list of benefactors of the
university.     (D. Mn.)



CRUDEN, a village and parish on the E. coast of Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Pop. of parish (1901) 3444. It is situated at the head of Cruden Bay,
29¾ m. N.N.E. of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland railway
company's branch line from Ellon to Boddam. The golf-course of 18 holes
is one of the best in Scotland, and there is a sandy beach, with good
bathing. There is some good fishing at Port Erroll, also called Ward of
Cruden. Prehistoric remains have been found in the parish, and near
Ardendraught, not far from the shore, Malcolm II. is said to have
defeated Canute in 1014. The Water of Cruden, which rises a few miles to
the west, flows through the village into the North Sea. Slains Castle, a
seat of the earl of Erroll, lies to the north of Cruden, but must not be
confounded with the old castle of Slains, about 5 m. to the south-west,
near the point where, according to tradition, the "St Catherine" of the
Spanish Armada foundered in 1588. The Bullers of Buchan are within 2 m.
walk of Cruden.



CRUELTY (through the O. Fr. _crualté_, mod. _cruauté_, from the Lat.
_crudelitas_), the intentional infliction of pain or suffering. It is
only necessary to deal here with the legal relations involved. Statutory
provision for the prevention of cruelty to those who are unable to
protect themselves has been particularly marked in the 19th century. The
increase of legislation for the protection of children, lunatics and
animals is a proof of the growing humanitarianism of the age. There was
at one time a tendency among jurists to question whether, for instance,
the prevention of cruelty to animals was not a recognition of a certain
quasi-right in animals, or whether it was merely that such exhibitions
as bull- and bear-baiting, cock-fights, &c., were demoralizing to the
public generally. The true fact seems to be that the first introduction
of such legislation was undoubtedly due to the desire for the promotion
of humanity, but that the principle, for the recognition of which the
time was not yet ripe, had to be excused in the eyes of the public by
the plea that cruelty had a demoralizing effect upon spectators (see A.
V. Dicey, _Law and Opinion in England_, p. 188; T. E. Holland,
_Jurisprudence_, 10th ed., p. 372).

_Cruelty to Animals._--The English common law has never taken cognizance
of the commission of acts of cruelty upon animals, and direct
legislation upon the subject, dating from the 19th century, was due in a
great measure to public agitation, supported by the Royal Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (founded in 1824). Various acts
were passed in 1822 (known as Martin's Act), 1835 and 1837, and these
were amended and consolidated by the Cruelty to Animals Acts 1849 and
1854, which, with the Wild Animals in Captivity Protection Act 1900, are
the main acts upon the subject. There are also, in addition, many other
acts that impose certain liabilities in respect of animals and
indirectly prevent cruelty. The Cruelty to Animals Acts 1849 and 1854
render liable to prosecution and fine practically any act of cruelty to
an animal; such acts as dubbing a cock, cropping the ears of a dog or
dishorning cattle, are offences. The latter practice, however, is
allowed both in Scotland and Ireland, the courts having held that the
advantages to be obtained from dishorning outweigh the pain caused by
the operation. The word "animal" is defined as meaning "any domestic
animal" of whatever kind or species, and whether a quadruped or not. The
act of 1849 also forbids bull- and bear-baiting, or fighting between any
kinds of animals; requires the provision of food and water to animals
impounded; lays down regulations as to the treatment of animals sent for
slaughter, and imposes a penalty for improperly conveying animals. The
Wild Animals in Captivity Protection Act 1900 extends to wild animals in
captivity that protection which the acts of 1849 and 1854 conferred on
domestic animals, making exception of any act done or any omission in
the preparation of animals for the food of man or for sport. The word
"animal" in the act includes bird, beast, fish or reptile. The Dogs Act
1865 rendered owners of dogs liable for injuries to cattle and sheep;
the Dogs Act 1906 extended the owner's liability for injury done to any
cattle by a dog, and further, where a dog is proved to have injured
cattle or chased sheep it may be treated as a dangerous dog and must be
kept under proper control or be destroyed. The Drugging of Animals Act
1876 imposes a penalty on giving poisonous drugs to any domestic animal
unlawfully. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1876 was passed for the purpose
of regulating the practice of vivisection (q.v.). The Ground Game Act
1880, prohibits night shooting, or the use of spring traps above ground
or poison. The Injured Animals Act 1907 enables police constables to
cause any animal when mortally or seriously injured to be slaughtered.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1894 and orders under it are for the purpose
of securing animals from unnecessary suffering, as well as from disease.
Finally, the Wild Birds Protection Acts 1880 to 1904, with various game
acts (see GAME LAWS), extend the protection of the law to wild birds.
The acts establish a close time for wild birds and impose penalties for
shooting or taking them within that time; prohibit the exposing or
offering for sale within certain dates any wild bird recently killed or
taken unless bought or received from some person residing out of the
United Kingdom; the taking or destroying of wild birds' eggs, the
setting of pole traps, and the taking of a wild bird by means of a hook
or other similar instrument.

For the law relating to the prevention of cruelty to children see
CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO; for cruelty in the sense of such conduct as
entitles a husband or wife to judicial separation see DIVORCE.
     (T. A. I.)



CRUIKSHANK, GEORGE (1792-1878), English artist, caricaturist and
illustrator, was born in London on the 27th of September 1792. By
natural disposition and collateral circumstances he may be accepted as
the type of the born humoristic artist predestined for this special form
of art. His grandfather had taken up the arts, and his father, Isaac
Cruikshank, followed the painter's profession. Amidst these surroundings
the children were born and brought up, their first playthings the
materials of the arts their father practised. George followed the family
traditions with amazing facility, easily surpassing his compeers as an
etcher. When the father died, about 1811, George, still in his teens,
was already a successful and popular artist. All his acquisitions were
native gifts, and of home-growth; outside training, or the serious
apprenticeship to art, were dispensed with, under the necessity of
working for immediate profit. This lack of academic training the artist
at times found cause to regret, and at some intervals he made exertions
to cultivate the knowledge obtainable by studying from the antique and
drawing from life at the schools. From boyhood he was accustomed to turn
his artistic talents to ready account, disposing of designs and etchings
to the printsellers, and helping his father in forwarding his plates.
Before he was twenty his spirited style and talent had secured popular
recognition; the contemporary of Gillray, Rowlandson, Alken, Heath,
Dighton, and the established caricaturists of that generation, he
developed great proficiency as an etcher. Gillray's matured and trained
skill had some influence upon his executive powers, and when the older
caricaturist passed away in 1815, George Cruikshank had already taken
his place as a satirist. Prolific and dexterous beyond his competitors,
for a generation he delineated Tories, Whigs and Radicals with fine
impartiality. Satirical capital came to him from every public
event,--wars abroad, the enemies of England (for he was always fervidly
patriotic), the camp, the court, the senate, the Church; low life, high
life; the humours of the people, the follies of the great. In this
wonderful gallery the student may grasp the popular side of most
questions which for the time being engaged public attention. George
Cruikshank's technical and manipulative skill as an etcher was such that
Ruskin and the best judges have placed his productions in the foremost
rank; in this respect his works have been compared favourably with the
masterpieces of etching. He died at 263 Hampstead Road on the 1st of
February 1878. His remains rest in St Paul's cathedral.

A vast number of Cruikshank's spirited cartoons were published as
separate caricatures, all coloured by hand; others formed series, or
were contributed to satirical magazines, the _Satirist_, _Town Talk_,
_The Scourge_ (1811-1816) and the like ephemeral publications. In
conjunction with William Hone's scathing tracts, G. Cruikshank produced
political satires to illustrate the series of facetiae and miscellanies,
like _The Political House that Jack Built_ (1819).

Of a more genially humoristic order are his well-known book
illustrations, now so deservedly esteemed for their inimitable fun and
frolic, among other qualities, such as the weird and terrible, in which
he excelled. Early in this series came _The Humorist_ (1819-1821) and
_Life in Paris_ (1822). The well-known series of _Life in London_,
conjointly produced by the brothers I. R. and G. Cruikshank, has enjoyed
a prolonged reputation, and is still sought after by collectors. Grimm's
_Collection of German Popular Stories_ (1824-1826), in two series, with
22 inimitable etchings, are in themselves sufficient to account for G.
Cruikshank's reputation. To the first fourteen volumes (1837-1843) of
_Bentley's Miscellany_ Cruikshank contributed 126 of his best plates,
etched on steel, including the famous illustrations to _Oliver Twist_,
_Jack Sheppard_, _Guy Fawkes_ and _The Ingoldsby Legends_. For W.
Harrison Ainsworth, Cruikshank illustrated _Rookwood_ (1836) and _The
Tower of London_ (1840); the first six volumes of _Ainsworth's Magazine_
(1842-1844) were illustrated by him with several of his finest suites of
etchings. For C. Lever's _Arthur O'Leary_ he supplied 10 full-page
etchings (1844), and 20 spirited graphic etchings for Maxwell's lurid
_History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798_ (1845). Of his own
speculations, mention must be made of _George Cruikshank's Omnibus_
(1841) and _George Cruikshank's Table Book_ (1845), as well as his
_Comic Almanack_ (1835-1853). _The Life of Sir John Falstaff_ contained
20 full-page etchings (1857-1858). These are a few leading items amongst
the thousands of illustrations emanating from that fertile imagination.
As an enthusiastic teetotal advocate, G. Cruikshank produced a long
series of pictures and illustrations, pictorial pamphlets and tracts;
the best known of these are _The Bottle_, 8 plates (1847), with its
sequel, _The Drunkard's Children_, 8 plates (1848), with the ambitious
work, _The Worship of Bacchus_, published by subscription after the
artist's oil painting, now in the National Gallery, London, to which it
was presented by his numerous admirers.

  See _Cruikshank's Water-Colours_, with introduction by Joseph Grego
  (London, 1903).     (J. Go.*)



CRUNDEN, JOHN (d. 1828), English architectural and mobiliary designer.
Most of his early inspiration was drawn from Chippendale and his school,
but he fell later under the influence of a bastard classicism. He
produced a very large number of designs which were published in numerous
volumes; among the most ambitious were ornamental centres for ceilings
in which he introduced cupids with bows and arrows, Fame sounding her
trumpet, and such like motives. Sport and natural history supplied him
with many other themes, and one of his ceilings is a hunting scene
representing a "kill." His principal works were _Designs for Ceilings_;
_Convenient and Ornamental Architecture_; _The Carpenter's Companion for
Chinese Railings, Gates_, &c. (1770); _The Joiner and Cabinet-maker's
Darling_, or _Sixty Designs for Gothic, Chinese, Mosaic and Ornamental
Frets_ (1765); and _The Chimney Piece Maker's Daily Assistant_ (1776).
Much of his work was either absurd or valueless.



CRUSADES, the name given to the series of wars for delivering the Holy
Land from the Mahommedans, so-called from the cross worn as a badge by
the crusaders. By analogy the term "crusade" is also given to any
campaign undertaken in the same spirit.

1. _The Meaning of the Crusades._--The Crusades may be regarded partly
as the _decumanus fluctus_ in the surge of religious revival, which had
begun in western Europe during the 10th, and had mounted high during the
11th century; partly as a chapter, and a most important chapter, in the
history of the interaction of East and West. Contemporaries regarded
them in the former of these two aspects, as "holy wars" and "pilgrims'
progresses" towards Christ's Sepulchre; the reflective eye of history
must perhaps regard them more exclusively from the latter point of view.
Considered as holy wars the Crusades must be interpreted by the ideas
of an age which was dominated by the spirit of otherworldliness, and
accordingly ruled by the clerical power which represented the other
world. They are a _novum salutis genus_--a new path to Heaven, to tread
which counted "for full and complete satisfaction" _pro omni
poenitentia_ and gave "forgiveness of sins" (_peccaminum remissio_)[1];
they are, again, the "foreign policy" of the papacy, directing its
faithful subjects to the great war of Christianity against the infidel.
As such a _novum salutis genus_, the Crusades connect themselves with
the history of the penitentiary system; as the foreign policy of the
Church they belong to that clerical purification and direction of feudal
society and its instincts, which appears in the institution of "God's
Truce" and in chivalry itself. The penitentiary system, according to
which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the
sanction of penance--penance which must be performed as a condition of
admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist--had been from early times a
great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races. Penance
might consist in fasting; it might consist in flagellation; it might
consist in pilgrimage. The penitentiary pilgrimage, which seems to have
been practised as early as A.D. 700, was twice blessed; not only was it
an act of atonement in itself, like fasting and flagellation; it also
gained for the pilgrim the merit of having stood on holy ground. Under
the influence of the Cluniac revival, which began in the 10th century,
pilgrimages became increasingly frequent; and the goal of pilgrimage was
often Jerusalem. Pilgrims who were travelling to Jerusalem joined
themselves in companies for security, and marched under arms; the
pilgrims of 1064, who were headed by the archbishop of Mainz, numbered
some 7000 men. When the First Crusade finally came, what was it but a
penitentiary pilgrimage under arms--with the one additional object of
conquering the goal of pilgrimage? That the Pilgrims' Progress should
thus have turned into a Holy War is a fact readily explicable, when we
turn to consider the attempts made by the Church, during the 11th
century, to purify, or at any rate to direct, the feudal instinct for
private war (_Fehde_). Since the close of the 10th century diocesan
councils in France had been busily acting as legislatures, and enacting
"forms of peace" for the maintenance of God's Peace or Truce (_Pax Dei_
or _Treuga Dei_). In each diocese there had arisen a judicature
(_judices pacis_) to decide when the form had been broken; and an
executive, or _communitas pacis_, had been formed to enforce the
decisions of the judicature. But it was an easier thing to consecrate
the fighting instinct than to curb it; and the institution of chivalry
represents such a clerical consecration, for ideal ends and noble
purposes, of the martial impulses which the Church had hitherto
endeavoured to check. In the same way the Crusades themselves may be
regarded as a stage in the clerical reformation of the fighting laymen.
As chivalry directed the layman to defend what was right, so the
preaching of the Crusades directed him to attack what was wrong--the
possession by "infidels" of the Sepulchre of Christ. The Crusades are
the offensive side of chivalry: chivalry is their parent--as it is also
their child. The knight who joined the Crusades might thus still indulge
the bellicose side of his genius--under the aegis and at the bidding of
the Church; and in so doing he would also attain what the spiritual side
of his nature ardently sought--a perfect salvation and remission of
sins. He might butcher all day, till he waded ankle-deep in blood, and
then at nightfall kneel, sobbing for very joy, at the altar of the
Sepulchre--for was he not red from the winepress of the Lord? One can
readily understand the popularity of the Crusades, when one reflects
that they permitted men to get to the other world by fighting hard on
earth, and allowed them to gain the fruits of asceticism by the ways of
hedonism. Nor was the Church merely able, through the Crusades, to
direct the martial instincts of a feudal society; it was also able to
pursue the object of its own immediate policy, and to attempt the
universal diffusion of Christianity, even at the edge of the sword, over
the whole of the known world.

Thus was renewed, on a greater scale, that ancient feud of East and
West, which has never died. For a thousand years, from the Hegira in 622
to the siege of Vienna in 1683, the peril of a Mahommedan conquest of
Europe was almost continually present. From this point of view, the
Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the
East--a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a
Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia. They protected Europe
from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a
time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages
developed. But the relation of East and West during the Crusades was not
merely hostile or negative. The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was the
meeting-place of two civilizations: on its soil the East learned from
the West, and--perhaps still more--the West learned from the East. The
culture developed in the West during the 13th century was not only
permitted to develop by the protection of the Crusades, it grew upon
materials which the Crusades enabled it to import from the East. Yet the
debt of Europe to the Crusades in this last respect has perhaps been
unduly emphasized. Sicily was still more the meeting-place of East and
West than the kingdom of Jerusalem; and the Arabs of Spain gave more to
the culture of Europe than the Arabs of Syria.

2. _Historical Causes of the Crusades._--Within fifteen years of the
Hegira Jerusalem fell before the arms of Omar (637), and it continued to
remain in the hands of Mahommedan rulers till the end of the First
Crusade. For centuries, however, a lively intercourse was maintained
between the Latin Church in Jerusalem, which the clemency of the Arab
conquerors tolerated, and the Christians of the West. Charlemagne in
particular was closely connected with Jerusalem: the patriarch sent him
the keys of the city and a standard in 800; and in 807 Harun al-Rashid
recognized this symbolical cession, and acknowledged Charlemagne as
protector of Jerusalem and owner of the church of the Sepulchre.
Charlemagne founded a hospital and a library in the Holy City; and later
legend, when it made him the first of crusaders and the conqueror of the
Holy Land, was not without some basis of fact. The connexion lasted
during the 9th century; kings like Alfred of England and Louis of
Germany sent contributions to Jerusalem, while the Church of Jerusalem
acquired estates in the West. During the 10th century this intercourse
still continued; but in the 11th century interruptions began to come.
The fanaticism of the caliph Hakim destroyed the church of the Sepulchre
and ended the Frankish protectorate (1010); and the patronage of the
Holy Places, a source of strife between the Greek and the Latin Churches
as late as the beginning of the Crimean War, passed to the Byzantine
empire in 1021. This latter change in itself made pilgrimages from the
West increasingly difficult: the Byzantines, especially after the schism
of 1054, did not seek to smooth the way of the pilgrim, and Victor II.
had to complain to the empress Theodora of the exactions practised by
her officials. But still worse for the Latins was the capture of
Jerusalem by the Seljukian Turks in 1071. Without being intolerant, the
Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they
displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the
Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made
Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and
unquiet region. The native Christians suffered; the pilgrims of the West
found their way made still more difficult, and that at a time when
greater numbers than ever were thronging to the East. Western Christians
could not but feel hampered and checked in their natural movement
towards the fountain-head of their religion, and it was natural that
they should ultimately endeavour to clear the way. In much the same way,
at a later date and in a lesser sphere, the closing of the trade-routes
by the advance of the Ottoman Turks led traders to endeavour to find new
channels, and issued in the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope and the
discovery of America. Nor, indeed, must it be forgotten that the search
for new and more direct connexions with the routes of Oriental trade is
one of the motives underlying the Crusades themselves, and leading to
what may be called the 13th-century discovery of Asia.

It was thus natural, for these reasons, that the conquest of the Holy
Land should gradually become an object for the ambition of Western
Christianity--an object which the papacy, eager to realize its dream of
a universal Church subject to its sway, would naturally cherish and
attempt to advance. Two causes combined to make this object still more
natural and more definite. On the one hand, the reconquest of lost
territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding
steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the
other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear
and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event,
the immediate occasion of the holy war. As early as 970 the recovery of
the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by
emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their
conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the
temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms.
At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad
caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the
Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans
into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard. In the centre of the
Mediterranean the fight between Christian and Mahommedan had been long,
but was finally inclining in favour of the Christian. The Arabs had
begun the conquest of Sicily from the East Roman empire in 827, and they
had attacked the mainland of Italy as early as 840. The popes had put
themselves at the head of Italian resistance: in 848 Leo IV. is already
promising a sure and certain hope of salvation to those who die in
defence of the cross; and by 916, with the capture of the Arab fortress
on the Garigliano, Italy was safe. Then came the reconquest of the
Mediterranean islands near Italy. The Pisans conquered Sardinia at the
instigation of Benedict VIII. about 1016; and, in a thirty years' war
which lasted from 1060 to 1090, the Normans, under a banner blessed by
Pope Alexander II., wrested Sicily from the Arabs. The Norman conquest
of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and
it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest
Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a
scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily. But while the
Christians of the West were thus winning fresh ground from the
Mahommedans, in the course of the 11th century, the East Roman empire
had now to bear the brunt of a Mahommedan revival under the Seljuks--a
revival which, while it crushed for a time the Greeks, only acted as a
new incentive to the Latins to carry their arms to the East. The
Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the
caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad. Under
the rule of their sultans, who assumed the rôle of mayors of the palace
in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards
towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire. While they
wrested Jerusalem from the former (1071), in the same year they
inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern emperor at Manzikert. The
result of the defeat was the loss of almost the whole of Asia Minor; the
dominions of the Turks extended to the sea of Marmora. An appeal for
assistance, such as was often to be heard again in succeeding centuries,
was sent by Michael VII. of Constantinople to Gregory VII. in 1073.
Gregory listened to the appeal; he projected--not, indeed, as has often
been said, a crusade,[2] but a great expedition, which should recover
Asia Minor for the Eastern empire, in return for a union of the Eastern
with the Western Church. In 1074 Gregory actually assembled a
considerable army; but his disagreement with Robert Guiscard, followed
by the outbreak of the war of investitures, hindered the realization of
his plans, and the only result was a precedent and a suggestion for the
events of 1095. The appeal of Michael VII. was re-echoed by Alexius
Comnenus himself. Brave and sage as he was, he could hardly cope at one
and the same time with the hostility of the Normans on the west, of the
Petchenegs (Patzinaks) on the north, and of the Seljuks on the east and
south. Already in 1087 and 1088 he had appealed to Baldwin of Flanders,
verbally and by letter,[3] for troops; and Baldwin had answered the
appeal. The same appeal was made, more than once, to Urban II.; and the
answer was the First Crusade. The First Crusade was not, indeed, what
Alexius had asked or expected to receive. He had appealed for
reinforcements to recover Asia Minor; he received hundreds of thousands
of troops, independent of him, and intending to conquer Jerusalem for
themselves, though they might incidentally recover Asia Minor for the
Eastern empire on their way. Alexius may almost be compared to a
magician, who has uttered a charm to summon a ministering spirit, and is
surrounded on the instant by legions of demons. In truth the appeal of
Alexius had set free forces in the West which were independent of, and
even ultimately hostile to, the interests of the Eastern empire.

The primary force, which thus transmuted an appeal for reinforcements
into a holy war for the conquest of Palestine, was the Church. The
creative thought of the middle ages is clerical thought. It is the
Church which creates the Carolingian empire, because the clergy thinks
in terms of empire. It is the Church which creates the First Crusade,
because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war
against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre;
because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity,
and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable
channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal
Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.
But it would be a mistake to regard the Crusades (as it would be a
mistake to regard the Carolingian empire) as a _pure_ creation of the
Church, or as _merely_ due to the policy of a theocracy directing men to
the holy war which is the only war possible for a theocracy. It would be
almost truer, though only half the truth, to say that the clergy gave
the name of Crusade to sanctify interests and ambitions which, while set
on other ends than those of the Church, happened to coincide in their
choice of means. There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer
prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East,
of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns,
anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply,
by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean. The former
was the driving force which made the First Crusade successful, where
later Crusades, without its stimulus, for the most part failed; the
latter was the one staunch ally which alone enabled Baldwin I. and
Baldwin II. to create the kingdom of Jerusalem. So far as the Crusades
led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of
these two forces. Unregulated enthusiasm might of itself have achieved
little or nothing; enthusiasm caught and guided by the astute Norman,
and the no less astute Venetian or Genoese, could not but achieve
tangible results. The principality or the emporium, it is true, would
supply motives to the prince and the merchant only; and it may be urged
that to the mass of the crusaders the religious motive was all in all.
In this way we may return to the view that the First Crusade, at any
rate, was _un fait ecclésiastique_. It is indeed true that to thousands
the hope of acquiring spiritual merit must have been a great motive; it
is also true, as the records of crusading sermons show, that there was a
strong element of "revivalism" in the Crusades, and that thousands were
hurried into taking the cross by a gust of that uncontrollable
enthusiasm which is excited by revivalist meetings to-day. But it must
also be admitted that there were motives of this world to attract the
masses to the Crusades. Famine and pestilence at home drove men to
emigrate hopefully to the golden East. In 1094 there was pestilence from
Flanders to Bohemia: in 1095 there was famine in Lorraine. _Francigenis
occidentalibus facile persuaderi poterat sua rura relinquere; nam
Gallias per annos aliquot nunc seditio civilis, nunc fames, nunc
mortalitas nimis afflixerat._[4] No wonder that a stream of emigration
set towards the East, such as would in modern times flow towards a newly
discovered gold-field--a stream carrying in its turbid waters much
refuse, tramps and bankrupts, camp-followers and hucksters, fugitive
monks and escaped villeins, and marked by the same motley grouping, the
same fever of life, the same alternations of affluence and beggary,
which mark the rush for a gold-field to-day.

Such were the forces set in movement by Urban II., when, after holding a
synod at Piacenza (March, 1095), and receiving there fresh appeals from
Alexius, he moved to Clermont, in the S.E. of France, and there on the
26th of November delivered the great speech which was followed by the
First Crusade. In this speech he appealed, indeed, for help for the
Greeks, _auxilio ... saepe acclamato indigis_ (Fulcher i. c. i.); but
the gist of his speech was the need of Jerusalem. Let the truce of God
be observed at home; and let the arms of Christians be directed to the
winning of Jerusalem in an expedition which should count for full and
complete penance. Like Gregory, Urban had thus sought for aid for the
Eastern empire; unlike Gregory, who had only mentioned the Holy
Sepulchre in a single letter, and then casually, he had struck the note
of Jerusalem. The instant cries of _Deus vult_ which answered the note
showed that Urban had struck aright. Thousands at once took the cross;
the first was Bishop Adhemar of Puy, whom Urban named his legate and
made leader of the First Crusade (for the holy war, according to Urban's
original conception, must needs be led by a clerk). Fixing the 15th of
August 1096 as the time for the departure of the crusaders, and
Constantinople as the general rendezvous, Urban returned from France to
Italy. It is noticeable that it was on French soil that the seed had
been sown.[5] Preached on French soil by a pope of French descent, the
Crusades began--and they continued--as essentially a French (or perhaps
better Norman-French) enterprise; and the kingdom which they established
in the East was essentially a French kingdom, in its speech and its
customs, its virtues and its vices. It was natural that France should be
the home of the Crusades. She was already the home of the Cluniac
movement, the centre from which radiated the truce of God, the chosen
place of chivalry; she could supply a host of feudal nobles, somewhat
loosely tied to their place in society, and ready to break loose for a
great enterprise; she had suffered from battle and murder, pestilence
and famine, from which any escape was welcome. To the Normans
particularly the Crusades had an intimate appeal. They appealed to the
old Norse instinct for wandering--an instinct which, as it had long
before sent the Norseman eastward to find his El Dorado of Micklegarth,
could now find a natural outlet in the expedition to Jerusalem: they
appealed to the Norman religiosity, which had made them a people of
pilgrims, the allies of the papacy, and, in England and Sicily,
crusaders before the Crusades: finally, they appealed to that desire to
gain fresh territory, upon which Malaterra remarks as characteristic of
Norman princes.[6] No wonder, then, that the crusading armies were
recruited in France, or that they were led by men of the stock of the
d'Hautevilles. Meanwhile newly-conquered England had its own problems to
solve; and Germany, torn by civil war, and not naturally quick to
kindle, could only deride the "delirium" of the crusader.[7]

3. _Course of the First Crusade._--The First Crusade falls naturally
into two parts. One of these may be called the Crusade of the people:
the other may be termed the Crusade of the princes. Of these the
people's Crusade--prior in order of time, if only secondary in point of
importance--may naturally be studied first. The sermon of Urban II. at
Clermont became the staple for wandering preachers, among whom Peter the
Hermit distinguished himself by his fiery zeal.[8] Riding on an ass from
place to place through France and along the Rhine, he carried away by
his eloquence thousands of the poor. Some three or four months before
the term fixed by Urban II., in April and May 1096, five divisions of
_pauperes_ had already collected. Three of these, led by Fulcher of
Orleans, Gottschalk and William the Carpenter respectively, failed to
reach even Constantinople. The armies of Fulcher and Gottschalk were
destroyed by the Hungarians in just revenge for their excesses (June);
the third, after joining in a wild _Judenhetze_ in the towns of the
valley of the Rhine, during which some 10,000 Jews perished as the
first-fruits of crusading zeal, was scattered to the winds in Hungary
(August). Two other divisions, however, reached Constantinople in
safety. The first of these, under Walter the Penniless, passed through
Hungary in May, and reached Constantinople, where it halted to wait for
the Hermit, in the middle of July. The second, led by Peter himself,
passed safely through Hungary, but suffered severely in Bulgaria, and
only attained Constantinople with sadly diminished numbers at the end of
July. These two divisions (which in spite of good treatment by Alexius
began to commit excesses against the Greeks) united and crossed the
Bosporus in August, Peter himself remaining in Constantinople. By the
end of October they had perished utterly at the hands of the Seljuks; a
heap of whitening bones also remained to testify to the later crusaders,
when they passed in the spring of 1097, of the fate of the people's
Crusade.

Meanwhile the knights had already begun to assemble in March 1096. In
small bands, and by divers ways, they streamed gradually southward and
eastward, in a steady flow, throughout 1096. But three large divisions,
under three considerable leaders, were pre-eminent among the rest.
Godfrey of Bouillon, with his brother Baldwin, led the crusaders of
Lorraine along "the road of Charles the Great," through Hungary, to
Constantinople, where he arrived on the 23rd of December. Raymund of
Toulouse (the first prince to join the crusading movement) along with
Bishop Adhemar, the papal commissary, led the Provençals down the coast
of Illyria, and then due east to Constantinople, arriving towards the
end of April 1097. Bohemund of Otranto, the destined leader of the
Crusade, with his nephew Tancred, led a fine force of Normans by sea to
Durazzo, and thence by land to Constantinople, which he reached about
the same time as Raymund. To the same great rendezvous other leaders
also gathered, some of higher rank than Godfrey or Raymund or Bohemund,
but none destined to exercise an equal influence on the fate of the
Crusade. Hugh of Vermandois, younger brother of Philip I. of France, had
reached Constantinople in November 1096, in a species of honourable
captivity, and had done Alexius homage; Robert of Normandy and Stephen
of Blois, to whom Urban II. had given St Peter's banner at Lucca, only
arrived--the last of the crusaders--in May 1097 (their original
companion in arms, Count Robert of Flanders, having left them to winter
at Bari, and crossed to Constantinople before the end of 1096).

Thus was gathered at Constantinople, in the spring of 1097, a great
host, which Fulcher computes at 600,000 men (I. c. iv.), Urban II. at
300,000, and which was probably some 150,000 strong.[9] Before we follow
this host into Asia, we may pause to inquire into the various factors
which would determine its course, or condition its activity. On the
Western side, and among the crusaders themselves, there were two factors
of importance, already mentioned above--the aims of the adventurer
prince, and the interests of the Italian merchant; while on the Eastern
side there are again two--the policy of the Greeks, and the condition of
the Mahommedan East. We have already seen that among the princes who
joined the First Crusade there were some who were rather _politiques_
than _dévots_, and who aimed at the acquisition of temporal profit as
well as of spiritual merit. Of these the type--and, it may almost be
said, the inspirer of the rest--was Bohemund. From the first he had an
Eastern principality in his mind's eye; and if we may judge from the
follower of Bohemund who wrote the _Gesta Francorum_, there had already
been some talk at Constantinople of Antioch as the seat of this
principality. Bohemund's policy seems to have inspired Baldwin, the
brother of Godfrey of Bouillon to emulation; on the one hand he strove
to thwart the endeavours of Tancred, the nephew of Bohemund, to begin
the foundation of the Eastern principality for his uncle by conquering
Cilicia, and, on the other, he founded a principality for himself in
Edessa. Raymond of Provence, the third and last of the great
_politiques_ of the First Crusade, was, like Baldwin, envious of
Bohemund; and jealousy drove him first to attempt to wrest Antioch from
Bohemund, and then to found a principality of Tripoli to the south of
Antioch, which would check the growth of his power. The political
motives of these three princes, and the interaction of their different
policies, was thus a great factor in determining the course and the
results of the First Crusade. The influence of the Italian towns did not
make itself greatly felt till after the end of the First Crusade, when
it made possible the foundation of a kingdom in Jerusalem, in addition
to the three principalities established by Bohemund, Baldwin and
Raymond; but during the course of the Crusade itself the Italian ships
which hugged the shores of Syria were able to supply the crusaders with
provisions and munition of war, and to render help in the sieges of
Antioch and Jerusalem.[10] Sea-power had thus some influence in
determining the victory of the crusaders.

In the East the conditions were, on the whole, favourable to the
crusaders. The one difficulty--and it was serious--was the attitude
adopted by Alexius. Confronted by crusaders where he had asked for
auxiliaries, Alexius had two alternative policies presented to his
choice. He might, in the first place, have frankly admitted that the
crusaders were independent allies, and treating them as equals, he might
have waged war in concert with them, and divided the conquests achieved
in the war. A boundary line might have been drawn somewhere to the N.W.
of Antioch; and the crusaders might have been left to acquire what they
could to the south and east of that line. Unhappily, clinging to the
conviction that all the lands which the crusaders would traverse were
the "lost provinces" of his empire, he induced the crusaders to do him
homage, so that, whatever they conquered, they would conquer in his
name, and whatever they held, they would hold by his grant and as his
vassals. Thus Hugh of Vermandois became the man of Alexius in November
1096; Godfrey of Bouillon was induced, not without difficulty, to do
homage in January 1097; and in April and May the other leaders,
including Bohemund and the obstinate Raymond himself, followed his
example. The policy of Alexius was destined to produce evil results,
both for the Eastern empire and for the crusading movement. The West had
already its grievances against the East: the Greek emperors had taken
advantage of their protectorate of the Holy Places to lay charges on
the pilgrims, against which the Papacy had already been forced to
remonstrate; nor were the Italian towns, with the exception of favoured
Venice, disposed to be friendly to the great monopolist city of
Constantinople. The old dissension of the Eastern and Western Churches
had blazed out afresh in 1054; and the policy of Alexius only added new
rancours to an old grudge, which culminated in the Latin conquest of
Constantinople in 1204. On the other hand, the success of the crusading
movement was imperilled, both now and afterwards, by the jealousy of the
Comneni. Always hostile to the principality, which Bohemund established
in spite of his oath, they helped by their hostility to cause the loss
of Edessa in 1144, and thus to hasten the disintegration of the Latin
kingdom of Jerusalem. Yet one must remember, in justice to Alexius, the
gravity of the problem by which he was confronted; nor was the conduct
of the crusaders themselves such that he could readily make them his
brethren in arms.

The condition of Asia Minor and Syria in 1097 was almost altogether such
as to favour the success of the crusaders. The Seljukian sultans had
only achieved a military occupation of the country which they had
conquered. There were Seljukian garrisons in towns like Nicaea and
Antioch, ready to offer an obstinate resistance to the crusaders; and
here and there in the country there were Seljukian armies, either
cantoned or nomadic. But the inhabitants of the towns were often hostile
to the garrisons, and over wide tracts of country there were no forces
at all. Accordingly, when the crusaders had captured the town at Nicaea,
and defeated the Seljukian field-army at Dorylaeum their way lay clear
before them through Asia Minor. Not only so, but they could count, at
the very least, on a benevolent neutrality from the native population;
while from the Armenian principalities in the S.E. of Asia Minor, which
survived unsubdued in the general deluge of Seljukian conquest, they
could expect active assistance (the hope of which will explain the
north-easterly line of march which they followed after leaving
Heraclea). But the purely military character of the Seljukian occupation
helped the crusaders in yet another way. Strong generals were needed in
the separate divisions of the empire, and these, as has always been the
case in Eastern empires, made themselves independent in their spheres of
command, because there was no organization to keep them together under a
single control. On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great
Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved. A new sultan,
Barkiyaroq or Barkiarok, ruled in Bagdad (1094-1104); but in Asia Minor
Kilij Arslan held sway as the independent sultan of Konia (Iconium),
while the whole of Syria was also practically independent. Not only was
Syria thus weakened by being detached from the body of the Seljukian
empire; it was divided by dissensions within, and assailed by the
Fatimite caliph of Egypt from without. In 1095 two brothers, Ridwan and
Dekak, ruled in Aleppo and Damascus respectively; but they were at war
with one another, and Yagi-sian, the ruler of Antioch, was a party to
their dissensions. Ridwan and Yagi-sian were only stopped in an attack
on Damascus by news of the approach of the crusaders, which led the
latter to throw himself hastily into Antioch, in the autumn of 1097.
Meanwhile the Fatimites were not slow to take advantage of these
dissensions. A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of
Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad,
who was the head of the Sunnites. The difference may be compared to the
dissension between the Greek and the Latin Churches; but it had perhaps
more of the nature of a political difference. In any case, it hampered
the Mahommedans as much as the jealousy between Alexius and the Latins
hampered the progress of the Crusade. The crusading princes were well
enough aware of the gulf which divided the caliph of Cairo from the
Sunnite princes of Syria; and they sought by envoys to put themselves
into connexion with him, hoping by his aid to gain Jerusalem (which was
then ruled for the Turks by Sokman, the son of the amir Ortok).[11] But
the caliph preferred to act for himself, and took advantage of the wars
of the Syrian princes, and of the terror inspired by the advance of the
crusaders to conquer Jerusalem (August 1098). But though the leaders of
the First Crusade did not succeed in utilizing the dissensions of the
Mahommedans as fully as they desired, it still remains true that these
dissensions very largely explain their success. It was the disunion of
the Syrian amirs, and the division between the Abbasids and the
Fatimites, that made possible the conquest of the Holy City and the
foundation of the kingdom of Jerusalem. When a power arose in Mosul,
about 1130, which was able to unify Syria--when, again, in the hands of
Saladin, unified Syria was in turn united to Egypt--the cause of Latin
Christianity in the East was doomed.

We are now in a position to follow the history of the First Crusade. By
the beginning of May 1097 the crusaders were crossing the Bosporus, and
entering the dominions of Kilij Arslan. Their first operation was the
siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured,
with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18). Alexius took
possession of the town; and though he rewarded the crusading princes
richly, some discontent was excited by his action. After the capture of
Nicaea, the field-army of Kilij Arslan had to be met. In a long and
obstinate encounter, it was defeated at Dorylaeum (July 1); and the
crusaders marched unmolested in a south-easterly direction to Heraclea.
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to
take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus--thus
beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of
Antioch. The main army turned to the N.E., in the direction of Caesarea
(in order to bring itself into touch with the Armenian princes of this
district), and then marched southward again to Antioch. At Marash, half
way between Caesarea and Antioch, Baldwin, who had meanwhile wrested
Tarsus from Tancred, rejoined the ranks; but he soon left the main body
again, and struck eastward towards Edessa, to found a principality
there. At the end of October the crusaders came into position before
Antioch, which was held by Yagi-sian, and began the siege of the city,
which lasted from October 21, 1097, to June 3, 1098. The great figure in
the siege was naturally Bohemund (who had also been the hero of
Dorylaeum). He repelled attempts at relief made by Dekak (Dec. 31, 1097)
and Ridwan (Feb. 9, 1098); he put the besiegers in touch with the
Genoese ships lying in the harbour of St Simeon, the port of Antioch
(March 1098)--a move which at once served to remedy the want of
provisions from which the crusaders suffered, and secured materials for
the building of castles, with which Bohemund sought--in the Norman
fashion--to overawe the besieged city. But it was finally by the
treachery of one of Yagi-sian's commanders, the amir Firuz, that
Bohemund was able to effect its capture. The other leaders had, however,
to promise him possession of the city, before he would bring his
negotiations with Firuz to a conclusion; and the matter was so long
protracted that an army of relief under Kerbogha of Mosul was only at a
distance of three days' march, when the city was taken (June 3, 1098).
The besiegers were no sooner in the city, than they were besieged in
their turn by Kerbogha; and the twenty-five days which followed were the
worst period of stress and strain which the crusaders had to encounter.
Under the pressure of this strain "spiritualistic" phenomena began to
appear. It was in the ranks of the Provençals, where the religiosity of
Count Raymund seems to have extended to his followers, that these
phenomena appeared; and they culminated in the discovery of the Holy
Lance, which had pierced the side of the Saviour. The excitement
communicated itself to the whole army; and the nervous strength which it
gave enabled the crusaders to meet and defeat Kerbogha in the open
(June 28), but not before many of their number, including even Count
Stephen of Blois, had deserted and fled.

With the discovery of the Lance, which became as it were a Provençal
asset, Count Raymund assumes a new importance. Mingled with the
religiosity of his nature there was much obstinacy and self-seeking; and
when Kerbogha was finally repelled, he began to dispute the possession
of Antioch with Bohemund, pleading in excuse his oath to Alexius. The
struggle lasted for some months, and helped to delay the further
progress of the crusaders. Raymund, indeed, left Antioch in November,
and moved S.E. to Marra; but his men still held two positions in
Antioch, from which they were not dislodged by Bohemund till January
1099. Expelled from Antioch, the obstinate Raymund endeavoured to
recompense himself in the south (where indeed he subsequently created
the county of Tripoli); and from February to May 1099 he occupied
himself with the siege of Arca, to the N.E. of Tripoli. It was during
the siege of Arca that Peter Bartholomew, to whom the vision of the Holy
Lance had first appeared, was subjected, with no definite result, to the
ordeal of fire--the hard-headed Normans doubting the genuine character
of any Provençal vision, the more when, as in this case, it turned to
the political advantage of the Provençals. The siege was long
protracted; the mass of the pilgrims were anxious to proceed to
Jerusalem, and, as the altered tone of the author of the _Gesta_
sufficiently indicates, thoroughly weary of the obstinate political
bickerings of Raymund and Bohemund. Here Godfrey of Bouillon finally
came to the front, and placing himself at the head of the discontented
pilgrims, he forced Raymund to accept the offers of the amir of Tripoli,
to desist from the siege, and to march to Jerusalem (in the middle of
May 1099). Bohemund remained in Antioch: the other leaders pressed
forward, and following the coast route, arrived before Jerusalem in the
beginning of June. After a little more than a month's siege, the city
was finally captured (July 15). The slaughter was terrible; the blood of
the conquered ran down the streets, until men splashed in blood as they
rode. At nightfall, "sobbing for excess of joy," the crusaders came to
the Sepulchre from their treading of the winepress, and put their
blood-stained hands together in prayer. So, on that day of July, the
First Crusade came to an end.

It remained to determine the future government of Jerusalem; and here
the eternal problem of the relations of Church and State emerged. It
might seem natural that the Holy City, conquered in a holy war by an
army of which the pope had made a churchman, Bishop Adhemar, the leader,
should be left to the government of the Church. But Adhemar had died in
August 1098 (whence, in large part, the confusion and bickerings which
followed in the end of 1098 and the beginning of 1099); nor were there
any churchmen left of sufficient dignity or weight to secure the triumph
of the ecclesiastical cause. In the meeting of the crusaders on the 22nd
of July, some few voices were raised in support of the view that a
"spiritual vicar" should first be chosen in the place of the late
patriarch of Jerusalem (who had just died in Cyprus), before the
election of any lay ruler was taken in hand. But the voices were not
heard; and the princes proceeded at once to elect a lay ruler. Raymund
of Provence refused to accept their nomination, nominally on the pious
ground that he did not wish to reign where Christ had suffered on the
cross; though one may suspect that the establishment of a principality
in Tripoli--in which he had been interrupted by the pressure of the
pilgrims--was still the first object of his ambition. The refusal of
Raymund meant the choice of Godfrey of Bouillon, who had, as we have
seen, become prominent since the siege of Arca; and Godfrey accordingly
became--not king, but "advocate of the Holy Sepulchre," while a few days
afterwards Arnulf, the chaplain of Robert of Normandy, and one of the
sceptics in the matter of the Holy Lance, became "vicar" of the vacant
patriarchate. Godfrey's first business was to repel an Egyptian attack,
which he accomplished successfully at Ascalon, with the aid of the other
crusaders (August 12). At the end of August the other crusaders
returned,[12] and Godfrey was left with a small army of 2000 men, and
the support of Tancred, now prince of Galilee, to rule in some four
isolated districts--Jaffa, Jerusalem, Ramlah and Haifa. At the end of
the year came Bohemund and Godfrey's brother Baldwin (now count of
Edessa) on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The result of Bohemund's visit was
new trouble for Godfrey. Bohemund procured the election of Dagobert, the
archbishop of Pisa, to the vacant patriarchate, disliking Arnulf, and
perhaps hoping to find in the new patriarch a political supporter.
Bohemund and Godfrey together became Dagobert's vassals; and in the
spring Godfrey even seems to have entered into an agreement with the
patriarch to cede Jerusalem and Jaffa into his hands, in the event of
acquiring other lands or towns, especially Cairo, or dying without
direct heirs. When Godfrey died in July 1100 (after successful forays
against the Mahommedans which took him as far as Damascus), it might
seem as if a theocracy were after all to be established in Jerusalem, in
spite of the events of 1099.

4. _The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem under the First Three Kings,[13]
1100-1143._--The theocracy, however, was not destined to be established.
Godfrey had died without direct heirs; but in far Edessa there was his
brother Baldwin, ready to take his place. Dagobert had at first
consented to the dying Godfrey's wish that Baldwin should be his
successor; but when Godfrey died he saw an opportunity too precious to
be missed, and opposed Baldwin, counting on the support of Bohemund, to
whom he sent an appeal for assistance.[14] But a party in Jerusalem,
headed by the late "vicar" Arnulf, opposed itself to the hierarchical
pretensions of Dagobert and the Norman influence by which they were
backed; and this party, representing the Lotharingian laity, carried the
day. Baldwin was summoned from Edessa; and when he arrived, towards the
end of the year, he was crowned king by Dagobert himself. Thus was
founded, on Christmas day 1100, the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem; and thus
was the possibility of a theocracy finally annihilated. A feudal kingdom
of Frankish seigneurs was to be planted on the soil of Palestine,
instead of a _dominium temporale_ of the patriarch like that of the pope
in central Italy. Nor were any great difficulties with the Church to
hamper the growth of this kingdom. For two years, indeed, a struggle
raged between Baldwin I. and Dagobert: Baldwin accused the patriarch of
treachery, and attempted to force him to contribute to the defence of
the kingdom. But in 1102 the struggle ceased with the deposition of the
patriarch and the victory of the king; and though it was renewed for a
time by the patriarch Stephen in the reign of Baldwin II. (1128-1130),
the new struggle was of short duration, and was soon ended by Stephen's
death.

The establishment of a kingdom in Jerusalem in 1100 was a blow, not only
to the Church but to the Normans of Antioch. At the end of 1099 any
contemporary observer must have believed that the capital of Latin
Christianity in the East was destined to be Antioch. Antioch lay in one
of the most fertile regions of the East; Bohemund was almost, if not
quite, the greatest genius of his generation; and when he visited
Jerusalem at the end of 1099, he led an army of 25,000 men--and those
men, at any rate in large part, Normans. What could Godfrey avail
against such a force? Yet the principality of Godfrey was destined to
higher things than that of Bohemund. Jerusalem, like Rome, had the
shadow of a mighty name to lend prestige to its ruler; and as residence
in Rome was one great reason of the strength of the medieval papacy, so
was residence in Jerusalem a reason for the ultimate supremacy of the
Lotharingian kings. Jerusalem attracted the flow of pilgrims from the
West as Antioch never could; and though the great majority of the
pilgrims were only birds of passage, there were always many who stayed
in the East. There was thus a steady immigration into the kingdom, to
strengthen its armies and recruit with new blood the vigour of its
inhabitants. Still more important perhaps was the fact that the ports of
the kingdom attracted the Italian towns; and it was therefore to the
kingdom that they lent the strength of their armies and the skill of
their siege-artillery--in return, it is true, for concessions of
privileges so considerable as to weaken the resources of the kingdom
they helped to create. While Jerusalem possessed these advantages,
Antioch was not without its defects. It had to meet--or perhaps it would
be more true to say, it brought upon itself--the hostility of strong
Mahommedan powers in the vicinity. As early as 1100 Bohemund was
captured in battle by Danishmend of Sivas; and it was his captivity,
depriving the patriarch as it did of Norman assistance, which allowed
the uncontested accession of Baldwin I. Again, in 1104, the Normans,
while attempting to capture Harran, were badly defeated on the river
Balikh, near Rakka; and this defeat may be said to have been fatal to
the chance of a great Norman principality.[15] But the hostility of
Alexius, aided and abetted by the jealousy of Raymund of Toulouse, was
almost equally fatal. Alexius claimed Antioch; was it not the old
possession of his empire, and had not Bohemund done him homage? Raymund
was ready to defend the claims of Alexius; was not Bohemund a successful
rival? Thus it came about that Alexius and Raymund became allies; and by
the aid of Alexius Raymund established, from 1102 onwards, the
principality which, with the capture of Tripoli in 1109, became the
principality of Tripoli, and barred the advance of Antioch to the south.
Meanwhile the armies of Alexius not only prevented any farther advance
to the N.W., but conquered the Cilician towns (1104). No wonder that
Bohemund flung himself in revenge on the Eastern empire in 1108--only,
however, to meet with a humiliating defeat at Durazzo.

Thus it was that Baldwin waxed while Bohemund waned. The growth of
Baldwin's kingdom, as it was suggested above, owed more to the interests
of Italian traders than it did to crusading zeal. In 1100, indeed, it
might appear that a new Crusade from the West, which the capture of
Antioch in 1098 had begun, and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 had
finally set in motion, was destined to achieve great things for the
nascent kingdom. Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should
deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of
the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his
muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who
had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem. The new
crusaders cherished high plans; they would free Bohemund and capture
Bagdad. But each of the three sections of their army was routed in turn
in Asia Minor by the princes of Sivas, Aleppo and Harran, in the middle
of 1101; and only a few escaped to report the crushing disaster. Baldwin
I. had thus no assistance to expect from the West, save that of the
Italian towns. From an early date Italian ships had followed the
crusaders. There were Genoese ships in St Simeon's harbour in the spring
of 1098 and at Jaffa in 1099; in 1099 Dagobert, the archbishop of Pisa,
led a fleet from his city to the Holy Land; and in 1100 there came to
Jaffa a Venetian fleet of 200 sail, whose leaders promised Venetian
assistance in return for freedom from tolls and a third of each town
they helped to conquer. But it was the Genoese who helped Baldwin I.
most. The Venetians already enjoyed, since 1080, a favoured position in
Constantinople, and had the less reason to find a new emporium in the
East; while Pisa connected itself, through Dagobert, with Antioch[16]
rather than with Jerusalem, and was further, in 1111, invested by
Alexius with privileges, which made an outlet in the Holy Land no longer
necessary. But the Genoese, who had helped with provisions and
siege-tackle in the capture of Antioch and of Jerusalem, had both a
stronger claim on the crusaders, and a greater interest in acquiring an
eastern emporium. An alliance was accordingly struck in 1101 (Fulcher
II. c. vii.), by which the Genoese promised their assistance, in return
for a third of all booty, a quarter in each town captured, and a grant
of freedom from tolls. In this way Baldwin I. was able to take Arsuf and
Caesarea in 1101 and Acre in 1104. But Genoese aid was given to others
beside Baldwin (it enabled Raymund to capture Byblus in 1104, and his
successor, William, to win Tripoli in 1109); while, on the other hand,
Baldwin enjoyed other aid besides that of the Genoese. In 1110, for
example, he was enabled to capture Sidon by the aid of Sigurd of Norway,
the Jorsalafari, who came to the Holy Land with a fleet of 55 ships,
starting in 1107, and in a three years' "wandering," after the old Norse
fashion, fighting the Moors in Spain, and fraternizing with the Normans
in Sicily. At a later date, in the reign of Baldwin II., Venice also
gave her aid to the kings of Jerusalem. Irritated by the concessions
made by Alexius to the Pisans in 1111, and furious at the revocation of
her own privileges by John Comnenus in 1118, the republic naturally
sought a new outlet in the Holy Land. A Venetian fleet of 120 sail came
in 1123, and after aiding in the repulse of an attack, which the
Egyptians had taken advantage of Baldwin II.'s captivity to deliver,
they helped the regent Eustace to capture Tyre (1124), in return for
considerable privileges--freedom from toils throughout the kingdom, a
quarter in Jerusalem, baths and ovens in Acre, and in Tyre one-third of
the city and its suburbs, with their own court of justice and their own
church. After thus gaining a new footing in Tyre, the Venetians could
afford to attack the islands of the Aegean as they returned, in revenge
for the loss of their privileges in Constantinople; but the hostility
between Venice and the Eastern empire was soon afterwards appeased, when
John Comnenus restored the old privileges of the Venetians. The
Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their
quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged
commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.

In this way the kingdom of Jerusalem expanded until it came to embrace a
territory stretching along the coast from Beirut (captured in 1110[17])
to el-Arish on the confines of Egypt--a territory whose strength lay not
in Judaea, like the ancient kingdom of David, but, somewhat
paradoxically (though commercial motives explain the paradox), in
Phoenicia and the land of the Philistines. With all its length, the
territory had but little breadth: towards the north it was bounded by
the amirate of Damascus; in the centre, it spread little, if at all,
beyond the Jordan; and it was only in the south that it had any real
extension. Here there were two considerable annexes. To the south of the
Dead Sea stretched a tongue of land, reaching to Aila, at the head of
the eastern arm of the Red Sea. This had been won by Baldwin I., by way
of revenge for the attacks of the Egyptians on his kingdom; and here, as
early as 1116, he had built the fort of Monreal, half way between Aila
and the Dead Sea. To the east of the Dead Sea, again, lay a second strip
of territory, in which the great fortress was Krak (Kerak) of the
Desert, planted somewhere about 1140 by the royal butler, Paganus, in
the reign of Fulk of Jerusalem. These extensions in the south and east
had also, it is easy to see, a commercial motive. They gave the kingdom
a connexion of its own with the Red Sea and its shipping; and they
enabled the Franks to control the routes of the caravans, especially
the route from Damascus to Egypt and the Red Sea. Thus, it would appear,
the whole of the expansion of the Latin kingdom (which may be said to
have attained its height in 1131, at the death of Baldwin II.) may be
shown to have been dictated, at any rate in large part, by economic
motives; and thus, too, it would seem that two of the most powerful
motives which sway the mind of man--the religious motive and the desire
for gain--conspired to elevate the kingdom of Jerusalem (at once the
country of Christ, and a natural centre of trade) to a position of
supremacy in Latin Syria. During this process of growth the kingdom
stood in relation to two sects of powers--the three Frankish
principalities in northern Syria, and the Mahommedan powers both of the
Euphrates and the Nile--whose action affected its growth and character.

Of the three Frankish principalities, Edessa, founded in 1098 by Baldwin
I. himself, was a natural fief of Jerusalem. Baldwin de Burgh, the
future Baldwin II., ruled in Edessa as the vassal of Baldwin I. from
1100 to 1118; and thereafter the county was held in succession by the
two Joscelins of Tell-bashir until the conquest of Edessa by Zengi in
1144. Lying to the east of the Euphrates, at once in close contact with
the Armenians, and in near proximity to the great route of trade which
came up the Euphrates to Rakka, and thence diverged to Antioch and
Damascus, the county of Edessa had an eventful if brief life. The county
of Tripoli, the second of these principalities, had also come under the
aegis of Jerusalem at an early date. Founded by Raymund of Toulouse,
between 1102 and 1105, with the favour of Alexius and the alliance of
the Genoese, it did not acquire its capital of Tripoli till 1109. Even
before the conquest of Tripoli, there had been dissensions between
William, the nephew and successor of Raymund, and Bertrand, Raymund's
eldest son, which it had needed the interference of Baldwin I. to
compose; and it was only by the aid of the king that the town of Tripoli
had been taken. At an early date therefore the county of Tripoli had
already come under the influence of the kingdom. Meanwhile the
principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of
Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was,
during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its
Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan
princes of Mardin and Mosul. On the death of Roger in 1119, the
principality came under the regency of Baldwin II. of Jerusalem, until
1126, when Bohemund II. came of age. Bohemund had married a daughter of
Baldwin; and on his death in 1130 Baldwin II. had once more become the
guardian of Antioch. From his reign therefore Antioch may be regarded as
a dependency of Jerusalem; and thus the end of Baldwin's reign (1131)
may be said to mark the time when the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem stands
complete, with its own boundaries stretching from Beirut in the north to
el-Arish and Aila in the south, and with the three Frankish powers of
the north admitting its suzerainty.

The Latin power thus established and organized in the East had to face
in the north a number of Mahommedan amirs, in the south the caliph of
Egypt. The disunion between the Mahommedans of northern Syria and the
Fatimites of Egypt, and the political disintegration of the former, were
both favourable to the success of the Franks; but they had nevertheless
to maintain their ground vigorously both in the north and the south
against almost incessant attacks. The hostility of the decadent
caliphate of Cairo was the less dangerous; and though Baldwin I. had at
the beginning of his reign to meet annual attacks from Egypt, by the end
he had pushed his power to the Red Sea, and in the very year of his
death (1118) he had penetrated along the north coast of Egypt as far as
Farama (Pelusium). The plan of conquering Egypt had indeed presented
itself to the Franks from the first, as it continued to attract them to
the end; and it is significant that Godfrey himself, in 1100, promised
Jerusalem to the patriarch, "as soon as he should have conquered some
other great city, and especially Cairo." But the real menace to the
Latin kingdom lay in northern Syria; and here a power was eventually
destined to rise, which outstripped the kings of Jerusalem in the race
for Cairo, and then--with the northern and southern boundaries of
Jerusalem in its control--was able to crush the kingdom as it were
between the two arms of a vice. Until 1127, however, the Mahommedans of
northern Syria were disunited among themselves. The beginning of the
12th century was the age of the atabegs (regents or stadtholders). The
atabegs formed a number of dynasties, which displaced the descendants of
the Seljukian amirs in their various principalities. These dynasties
were founded by emancipated mamelukes, who had held high office at court
and in camp under powerful amirs, and who, on their death, first became
stadtholders for their descendants, and then usurped the throne of their
masters. There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin
(1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,
represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr
about 1101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman
about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.[18] But the greatest of the
atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris--Maudud, who died in 1113;
Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself,
who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.

Before the accession of Zengi, there had been constant fighting, which
had led, however, to no definite result, between the various Mahommedan
princes and the Franks of northern Syria. The constant pressure of
Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin de Burgh of Edessa led to a series of
retaliations between 1110 and 1115; Edessa was attacked in 1110, 1111,
1112 and 1114; and in 1113 Maudud of Mosul had even penetrated as far as
the vicinity of Acre and Jerusalem.[19] But the dissensions of the
Mahommedans made their attacks unavailing; in 1115, for instance, we
find Antioch actually aided by Ilghazi and Tughtigin against Aksunkur of
Mosul. Again, in the reign of Baldwin II., there was steady fighting in
the north; Roger of Antioch was defeated by Ilghazi at Balat in 1119,
and Baldwin II. himself was captured by Balak, the successor of Ilghazi,
in 1123, but on the whole the Franks held the upper hand. Baldwin
conquered part of the territory of Aleppo (in 1121 and the following
years), and extorted a tribute from Damascus (1126). But when Zengi
established himself in Mosul in 1127, the tide gradually began to turn.
He created for himself a great and united principality, comprising not
only Mosul, but also Aleppo,[20] Harran, Nisibin and other districts;
and in 1130, Alice, the widow of Bohemund II., sought his alliance in
order to maintain herself in power at Antioch. In the beginning of the
reign of Fulk of Jerusalem (1131-1143) the progress of Zengi was steady.
He conquered in 1135 several fortresses in the east of the principality
of Antioch, and in this year and the next pressed the count of Tripoli
hard; while in 1137 he defeated Fulk at Barin, and forced the king to
capitulate and surrender the town. If Fulk had been left alone to wage
the struggle against Zengi, and if Zengi had enjoyed a clear field
against the Franks, the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem might have come
far sooner than it did.[21] But there were two powers which aided Fulk,
and impeded the progress of Zengi--the amirate of Damascus and the
emperors of Constantinople. The position of Damascus is a position of
crucial importance from 1130 to 1154. Lying between Mosul and Jerusalem,
and important both strategically and from its position on the great
route of commerce from the Euphrates to Egypt, Damascus became the
arbiter of Syrian politics. During the greater part of the period
between 1130 and 1154 the policy of Damascus was guided by the vizier
Muin-eddin Anar, who ruled on behalf of the descendants of the atabeg
Tughtigin. He saw the importance of finding an ally against the ambition
of Zengi, who had already attacked Damascus in 1130. The natural ally
was Jerusalem. As early as 1133 the alliance of the two powers had been
concluded; and in 1140 the alliance was solemnly renewed between Fulk
and the vizier. Henceforth this alliance was a dominant factor in
politics. One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of
the alliance in 1147--a breach which was widened by the attack directed
against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus
by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing
as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to
Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.

The alliance of the emperors of Constantinople was of far more dubious
value to the kings of Jerusalem. We have already seen that it was the
theory of the Eastern emperors--a theory which logically followed from
the homage of the crusaders to Alexius--that the conquests of the
crusaders belonged to their empire, and were held by the crusading
princes as fiefs. We have seen that the action of Bohemund at Antioch
was the negation of this theory, and that Alexius in consequence helped
Raymund to establish himself in Tripoli as a thorn in the side of
Bohemund, and sent an army and a fleet which wrested from the Normans
the towns of Cilicia (1104). The defeat of Bohemund at Durazzo in 1108
had resulted in a treaty, which made Antioch a fief of Alexius; but
Tancred (who in 1107 had recovered Cilicia from the Greeks) refused to
fulfil the terms of the treaty, and Alexius (who attempted--but in
vain--to induce Baldwin I. to join an alliance against Tancred in 1112)
was forced to leave Antioch independent. Thus, although Alexius had been
able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of
land round the whole coast of Asia Minor,--the interior remaining
subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas,--he
left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in
the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118. Not for 20 years after his
death did the Eastern empire make any attempt to gain Cilicia or wrest
homage from Antioch. But in 1137 John Comnenus appeared, instigated by
the opportunity of dissensions in Antioch, and received its long-denied
homage, as well as that of Tripoli; while in the following year he
entered into hostilities with Zengi, without, however, achieving any
considerable result. In 1142 he returned again, anxious to create a
principality in Cilicia and Antioch for his younger son Manuel. The
people of Antioch refused to submit; a projected visit to Jerusalem,
during which John was to unite with Fulk in a great alliance against the
Moslem, fell through; and in the spring of 1143 the emperor died in
Cilicia, with nothing accomplished. On the whole, the interference of
the Comneni, if it checked Zengi for the moment in 1138, may be said to
have ultimately weakened and distracted the Franks, and to have helped
to cause the loss of Edessa (1144), which marks the turning-point in the
history of the kingdom of Jerusalem.

5. _Organization of the Kingdom._--Before we turn to describe the Second
Crusade, which the loss of Edessa provoked, and to trace the fall of the
kingdom, which the Second Crusade rather hastened than hindered, we may
pause at this point to consider the organization of the Frankish
colonies in Syria. The first question which arises is that of the
relation of the kingdom of Jerusalem to the three counties or
principalities of Antioch, Tripoli and Edessa, which acknowledged their
dependence upon it. The degree of this dependence was always a matter of
dispute. The rights of the king of Jerusalem chiefly appear when there
is a vacancy or a minority in one of the principalities, or when there
is dissension either inside one of the principalities or between two of
the princes. On the death of one of the princes without heirs of full
age, the kings of Jerusalem were entitled to act as regents, as Baldwin
II. did twice at Antioch, in 1119 and 1130; but the kings regarded this
right of regency as a burden rather than a privilege, and it is indeed
characteristic of the relation of the king to the three princes, that it
imposes upon him duties without any corresponding rights. It is his duty
to act as regent; it is his duty to compose the dissensions in the
principality of Antioch, and to repress the violences of the prince
towards his patriarch (1154); it is his duty to reconcile Antioch with
Edessa, when the two fall to fighting. The princes on their side acted
independently: if they joined the king with their armies, it was as
equals doing a favour; and they sometimes refused to join until they
were coerced. They made their own treaties with the Mahommedans, or
attacked them in spite of the king's treaties; they dated their
documents by the year of their own reign, and they had each their
separate laws or assizes. There was, in a word, co-ordination rather
than subordination; nor did the kings ever attempt to embark on a policy
of centralization.

The relation of the king to his own barons within his immediate kingdom
of Jerusalem is not unlike the relation of the king to the three
princes. In Norman England the king insisted on his rights; in Frankish
Jerusalem the barons insisted on his duties. The circumstances of the
foundation of the kingdom explain its characteristics. As the crusaders
advanced to Jerusalem, says Raymund of Agiles (c. xxxiii.), it was their
rule that the first-comer had the right to each castle or town, provided
that he hoisted his standard and planted a garrison there. The feudal
nobility was thus the first to establish itself, and the king only came
after its institution--the reverse of Norman England, where the king
first conquered the country, and then plotted it out among his nobles.
The predominance of the nobility in this way became as characteristic of
feudalism in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem as the supremacy of the
crown was of contemporary feudalism in England; and that predominance
expressed itself in the position and powers of the high court, in which
the ultimate sovereignty resided. The kingdom of Jerusalem consisted of
a society of peers, in which the king might be _primus_, but in which he
was none the less subject to a punctilious law, regulating his position
equally with that of every member of the society. In such a society the
election of the head by the members may seem natural; and in the case of
Godfrey and the first two Baldwins this was the case. But the conception
of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to
hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like
other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the
kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity. Yet the high court, which
decided all problems of descent, would naturally intervene if a problem
of descent arose, as it frequently did, in the kingdom; and thus the
barons had the right of deciding between different claimants, and also
of formally "approving" each new successor to the throne. The conception
of the kingdom as a fief not only subjected it to the jurisdiction of
the high court; it involved the more disastrous result that the kingdom,
like other fiefs, might be carried by an heiress to her husband; and the
proximate causes of the collapse of the kingdom in 1187 depend on this
fact and the dissensions which it occasioned.

Thus conceived as the holder of a great fief, the king had only the
rights of _suzerain_ over the four great baronies and the twelve minor
fiefs of his kingdom. He had not those rights of sovereign which the
Norman kings of England inherited from their Anglo-Saxon predecessors,
or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able
therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which
William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the
Salisbury oath of 1086. Amalric I. indeed, by his _assise sur la
ligèce_, attempted to reach the vassals of his vassals; he admitted
arrière-vassaux to the _haute cour_, and encouraged them to carry their
cases to it in the first instance. But this is the only attempt at that
policy of _immédiatisation_ which in contemporary England was carried to
far greater lengths; and even this attempt was unsuccessful. No alliance
was actually formed between the king and the mesne nobility against the
immediate baronage. The body of the tenants-in-chief continued to limit
the power of the crown: their consent was necessary to legislation, and
grants of fiefs could not be made without their permission. Nor was the
crown only limited in this way. The _duties_ of the king towards his
tenants are prominent in the _assises_. The king's oath to his men binds
him to respect and maintain their rights, which are as prominent as are
his duties; and if the men feel that the royal oath has not been kept,
they may lawfully refuse military service (_gager le roi_), and may even
rise in authorized and legal rebellion. The system of military service
and the organization of justice corresponded to the part which the
monarchy was thus constrained to play. The vassal was bound to pay
military service, not, as in western Europe, for a limited period of
forty days, but for the whole year--the Holy Land being, as it were, in
a perpetual state of siege. On the other hand, the vassal was not bound
to render service, unless he were _paid_ for his service; and it was
only famine, or Saracen devastation, which freed the king from the
obligation of paying his men. The king was also bound to insure the
horses of his men by a system called the _restor_: if a vassal lost his
horse otherwise than by his own fault, it must be replaced by the
treasury (which was termed, as it also was in Norman Sicily, the
_secretum_).[22] But the king had another force in addition to the
feudal levy--a paid force of _soudoyers_,[23] holding fiefs, not of
land, but of pay (_fiefs de soudée_). Along with this paid cavalry went
another branch of the army, the Turcopuli, a body of light cavalry,
recruited from the Syrians and Mahommedans, and using the tactics of the
Arabs; while an infantry was found among the Armenians, the best
soldiers of the East, and the Maronites, who furnished the kingdom with
archers. To all these various forces must be added the knights and
native levies of the great orders, whose masters were practically
independent sovereigns like the princes of Antioch and Tripoli;[24] and
with these the total levy of the kingdom may be reckoned at some 25,000
men. But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than
in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two
orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is
the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the
fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli. These
fortresses, garrisoned not by the king, as in Norman England, but by
their possessors, would only strengthen the power of the feudatories,
and help to dissipate the kingdom into a number of local units.

In the organization of its system of justice the kingdom showed its most
characteristic features. Two great central courts sat in Jerusalem to do
justice--the high court of the nobles, and the court of burgesses for
the rest of the Franks. (1) The high court was the supreme source of
justice for the military class; and in its composition and procedure the
same limitation of the crown, which appears in regard to military
service, is again evident. The high court is not a _curia regis_, but a
_curia baronum_, in which the theory of _judicium parium_ is fully
realized. If the king presides in the court, the motive of its action is
none the less the preservation of the rights of the nobles, and not, as
in England, the extension of the rights of the crown. It is a court of
the king's peers: it tries cases of dispute between the king and his
peers--with regard, for instance, to military service--and it settles
the descent of the title of king. (2) The court of burgesses was almost
equally sovereign within its sphere. While the body of the noblesse
formed the high court, the court of the burgesses was composed of twelve
legists (probably named by the king) under the presidency of the
_vicomte_--a knight also named by the king, who was a great financial as
well as a judicial officer. The province of the court included all acts
and contracts between burgesses, and extended to criminal cases in which
burgesses were involved. Like the high court, the court of burgesses had
also its assizes[25]--a body of unwritten legal custom. The independent
position of the burgesses, who thus assumed a position of equality by
the side of the feudal class, is one of the peculiarities of the kingdom
of Jerusalem. It may be explained by reference to the peculiar
conditions of the kingdom. Burgesses and nobles, however different in
status, were both of the same Frankish stock, and both occupied the same
superior position with regard to the native Syrians. The commercial
motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the
class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view
of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally
prosperous. Finally, when one remembers how, during the First Crusade,
the _pedites_ had marched side by side with the _principes_, and how,
from the beginning of 1099, they had practically risen in revolt against
the selfish ambitions of princes like Count Raymund, it becomes easy to
understand the independent position which the burgesses assumed in the
organization of the kingdom. Burgesses could buy and possess property in
towns, which knights were forbidden to acquire; and though they could
not intermarry with the feudal classes, it was easy and regular for a
burgess to thrive to knighthood. Like the nobles, again, the burgesses
had the right of confirming royal grants and of taking part in
legislation; and they may be said to have formed--socially, politically
and judicially--an independent and powerful estate. Yet (with the
exception of Antioch, Tripoli and Acre in the course of the 13th
century) the Frankish towns never developed a communal government: the
domain of their development was private law and commercial life.

Locally, the consideration of the system of justice administered in the
kingdom involves some account of three things--the organization of the
fiefs, the position of the Italian traders in their quarters, and the
privileges of the Church. Each fief was organized like the kingdom. In
each there was a court for the noblesse, and a court (or courts) for the
bourgeoisie. There were some thirty-seven _cours de bourgeoisie_
(several of the fiefs having more than one), each of which was under the
presidency of a _vicomte_, while all were independent of the court of
burgesses at Jerusalem. Of the feudal courts there were some twenty-two.
Each of these followed the procedure and the law of the high court; but
each was independent of the high court, and formed a sovereign court
without any appeal. On the other hand, the revolution wrought by Amalric
I. in the status of the _arrière-vassaux_, which made them members of
the high court, allowed them to carry their cases to Jerusalem in the
first instance, if they desired. Apart from this, the characteristic of
seignorial justice is its independence and its freedom from the central
court; though, when we reflect that the central court is a court of
seigneurs, this characteristic is seen to be the logical result of the
whole system. Midway between the seignorial _cours de bourgeoisie_ and
the privileged jurisdictions of the Italian quarter, there were two
kinds of courts of a commercial character--the _cours de la fonde_ in
towns where trade was busy, and the _cours de la chaîne_ in the
sea-ports. The former courts, under their bailiffs, gradually absorbed
the separate courts which the Syrians had at first been permitted to
enjoy under their own _reïs_; and the bailiff with his 6 assessors (4
Syrians and 2 Franks) thus came to judge both commercial cases and cases
in which Syrians were involved. The _cours de la chaîne_, whose
institution is assigned to Amalric I. (1162-1174), had a civil
jurisdiction in admiralty cases, and, like the _cours de la fonde_, they
were composed of a bailiff and his assessors. Distinct from all these
courts, if similar in its sphere, is the court which the Italian quarter
generally enjoyed in each town under its own consuls--a court privileged
to try all but the graver cases, like murder, theft and forgery. The
court was part of the general immunity which made these quarters
_imperia in imperio_: their exemptions from tolls and from financial
contributions is parallel to their judicial privileges. Regulated by
their mother-town, both in their trade and their government, these
Italian quarters outlasted the collapse of the kingdom, and continued to
exist under Mahommedan rulers. The Church had its separate courts, as in
the West; but their province was perhaps greater than elsewhere. The
church courts could not indeed decide cases of perjury; but, on the
other hand, they tried all matters in which clerical property was
concerned, and all cases of dispute between husband and wife. In other
spheres the immunities and exemptions of the Church offered a far more
serious problem, and especially in the sphere of finance. Perhaps the
supreme defect of the kingdom of Jerusalem was its want of any financial
basis. It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte
and paid into the _secretum_ or treasury--a revenue composed of tolls on
the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies
and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and
of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers. But his expenditure was
large: he had to pay his feudatories; and he had to provide fiefs in
money and kind to those who had not fiefs of land. The contributions
sent to the Holy Land by the monarchs of western Europe, as commutations
in lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal
policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might
procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide
measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted
in 1183. To any such measure the privileges of the Italian quarters, and
still more those of the Church, were inimical. In spite of provisions
somewhat parallel to those of the English statute of mortmain, the
clergy continued to acquire fresh lands at the same time that they
refused to contribute to the defence of the kingdom, and rigorously
exacted the full quota of tithe from every source which they could tap,
and even from booty captured in war. The richest proprietor in the Holy
Land,[26] but practically immune from any charges on its property, the
Church helped, unconsciously, to ruin the kingdom which it should have
supported above all others. It refused to throw its weight into the
scale, and to strengthen the hands of the king against an over-mighty
nobility. On the other hand, it must be admitted that the Church did
not, after the first struggle between Dagobert and Baldwin I., actively
oppose by any hierarchical pretensions the authority of the crown. The
assizes may speak of patriarch and king as conjoint seigneurs in
Jerusalem; but as a matter of fact the king could secure the nomination
of his own patriarch, and after Dagobert the patriarchs are, with the
temporary exception of Stephen in 1128, the confidants and supporters of
the kings. It was the two great orders of the Templars and the
Hospitallers which were, in reality, most dangerous to the kingdom.
Honeycombed as it was by immunities--of seigneurs, of Italian quarters,
of the clergy--the kingdom was most seriously impaired by these
overweening immunists, who, half-lay and half-clerical, took advantage
of their ambiguous position to escape from the duties of either
character. They built up great estates, especially in the principality
of Tripoli; they quarrelled with one another, until their dissensions
prevented any vigorous action; they struggled against the claims of the
clergy to tithes and to rights of jurisdiction; they negotiated with the
Mahommedans as separate powers; they conducted themselves towards the
kings as independent sovereigns. Yet their aid was as necessary as their
influence was noxious. Continually recruited from the West, they
retained the vigour which the native Franks of Palestine gradually lost;
and their corporate strength gave a weight to their arms which made them
indispensable.

In describing the organization of the kingdom, we have also been
describing the causes of its fall. It fell because it had not the
financial or political strength to survive. "Les vices du gouvernement
avaient été plus puissants que les vertus des gouvernants." But the
vices were not only vices of the government: they were also vices,
partly inevitable, partly moral, in the governing race itself. The
climate was no doubt responsible for much. The Franks of northern Europe
attempted to live a life that suited a northern climate under a southern
sun. They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full
armour--chain mail, long shield and heavy casque--as if they were on
their native French soil. The ruling population was already spread too
thin for the work which it had to do; and exhausted by its efforts, it
gradually became extinct. A constant immigration from the West, bringing
new blood and recruiting the stock, could alone have maintained its
vigour; and such immigration never came. Little driblets of men might
indeed be added to the numbers of the Franks; but the great bodies of
crusaders either perished in Asia Minor, as in 1101 and 1147, or found
themselves thwarted and distrusted by the native Franks. It was indeed
one of the misfortunes of the kingdom that its inhabitants could never
welcome the reinforcements which came to their aid.[27] The barons
suspected the crusaders of ulterior motives, and of designing to get new
principalities for themselves. In any case the native Frank, accustomed
to commercial intercourse and diplomatic negotiations with the
Mahommedans, could hardly share the unreasoning passion to make a dash
for the "infidel." As with the barons, so with the burgesses: they
profited too much by their intercourse with the Mahommedans to abandon
readily the way of peaceful commerce, and they were far more ready to
hinder than to help any martial enterprise. Left to itself, the native
population lost physical and moral vigour. The barons alternated between
the extravagances of Western chivalry and the attractions of Eastern
luxury: they returned from the field to divans with frescoed walls and
floors of mosaic, Persian rugs and embroidered silk hangings. Their
houses, at any rate those in the towns, had thus the characteristics of
Moorish villas; and in them they lived a Moorish life. Their sideboards
were covered with the copper and silver work of Eastern smiths and the
confectioneries of Damascus. They dressed in flowing robes of silk, and
their women wore oriental gauzes covered with sequins. Into these divans
where figures of this kind moved to the music of Saracen instruments,
there entered an inevitable voluptuousness and corruption of manners.
The hardships of war and the excesses of peace shortened the lives of
the men; the kingdom of Jerusalem had eleven kings within a century.
While the men died, the women, living in comparative indolence, lived
longer lives. They became regents to their young children; and the
experience of all medieval minorities reiterates the lesson--woe to the
land where the king is a child and the regent a woman. Still worse was
the frequent remarriage of widowed princesses and heiresses. By the
assizes of the high court, the widow, on the death of her husband, took
half of the estate for herself, and half in guardianship for her
children. _Liberae ire cum terra_, widows carried their estates or
titles to three or four husbands; and as in 15th-century England, the
influence of the heiress was fatal to the peace of the country. At
Antioch, for instance, after the death of Bohemund II. in 1130, his
widow Alice headed a party in favour of the marriage of the heiress
Constance to Manuel of Constantinople, and did not scruple to enter into
negotiations with Zengi of Mosul. Her policy failed; and Constance
successively married Raymund of Antioch and Raynald of Chatillon. The
result was the renewed enmity of the Greek empire, while the French
adventurers who won the prize ruined the prospects of the Franks by
their conduct. In the kingdom matters were almost worse. There was
hardly any regular succession to the throne; and Jerusalem, as Stubbs
writes, "suffered from the weakness of hereditary right and the
jealousies of the elective system" at one and the same time. With the
frequent remarriages of the heiresses of the kingdom, relationships grew
confused and family quarrels frequent; and when Sibylla carried the
crown to Guy de Lusignan, a newcomer disliked by all the relatives of
the crown, she sealed the fate of the kingdom.

It may be doubted--though it seems a harsh verdict to pass on a kingdom
founded by religious zeal on holy soil--whether the kingdom possessed
that moral basis which alone can give a right of survival to any
institution or organization. The crusading states had been founded by
adventurers who thirsted for gain; and the primitive appetite did not
lose its edge with the progress of time. We cannot be certain, indeed,
how far the Frankish lords oppressed their Syrian tenants: the stories
of such oppression have been discredited; while if we may trust the
evidence of a Mahommedan traveller, Ibn Jubair, the lot of the
Mahommedan who lived on Frankish manors was better than it had been
under their native lords.[28] But the habits of the Franks were none the
less habits of lawless greed: they swooped down from their castles, as
Raynald of Chatillon did from Krak of the Desert, to capture Saracens
and hold them to ransom or to plunder caravans. The lust of unlawful
gain had infected the Frankish blood, as it seems to have infected
England during the Hundred Years' War; and in either case nemesis
infallibly came. The Moslems might have endured a state of "infidels";
they could not endure a state of brigands.

6. _The History of the Kingdom and the Crusades from the Loss of Edessa
in 1144 to the Fall of Jerusalem in 1187._--The years 1143-1144 are in
many ways the turning point in the history of the Latin East. In 1143
began the reign of the first native king;[29] and about this date may be
placed the final organization of the kingdom, witnessed by the
completion of its body of customary law. At the same date, however, the
decline of the kingdom also begins; the fall of Edessa is the beginning
of the end. In 1143 John Comnenus and Fulk had just died, and Zengi,
seeing his way clear, threw himself on the great Christian outpost,
against which the tides of Mahommedan attack had so often vainly surged,
and finally entered on Christmas Day 1144. Two years later Zengi died;
but he left an able successor in his son, Nureddin, and an attempt to
recover Edessa was successfully repelled in November 1146. Not only so,
but in the spring of 1147 the Franks were unwise enough to allow the
hope of gaining two small towns to induce them to break the vital
alliance with Damascus. Thus, in itself, the position of affairs in the
Holy Land in 1147 was certainly ominous; and the kingdom might well seem
dependent for its safety on such aid as it might receive from the West.

Early in 1145 news had come from Antioch to Eugenius III. of the fall of
Edessa, and at the end of the year he had sent an encyclical to
France--the natural soil, as we have seen, of crusading zeal. The
response was instantaneous: the king of France himself, who bore on his
conscience the burden of an unpunished massacre by his troops at Vitry
in 1142,[30] took the crusading vow on the Christmas day of 1145. But
the greatest success was attained when St Bernard--no great believer in
pilgrimages, and naturally disposed to doubt the policy of a second
Crusade--was induced by the pope to become the preacher of the new
movement. To the crusading king of France St Bernard added the king of
Germany, when, in Christmas week of 1146, he induced Conrad III. to take
the vow by his sermon in the cathedral of Spires. Thus was begun the
Second Crusade,[31] under auspices still more favourable than those
which attended the beginning of the First, seeing that kings now took
the place of knights, while the new crusaders would no longer be
penetrating into the wilds, but would find a friendly basis of
operations ready to their hands in Frankish Syria. But the more
favourable the auspices, the greater proved the failure. Already at the
final meeting at Étampes, in 1147, difficulties arose. Manuel Comnenus
demanded that all conquests made by the crusaders should be his fiefs;
and the question was debated whether the crusaders should follow the
land route through Hungary, along the old road of Charlemagne, or should
go by sea to the Holy Land. In this question the envoys of Manuel and of
Roger of Sicily, who were engaged in hostilities with one another, took
opposite sides. Conrad, related by marriage to Manuel, decided in favour
of the land route, which Manuel desired because it brought the Crusade
more under his direction, and because, if the route by sea were
followed, Roger of Sicily might be able to divert the crusading ships
against Constantinople. As it was, a struggle raged between Roger and
Manuel during the whole progress of the Crusade, which greatly
contributed towards its failure, preventing, as it did, any assistance
from the Eastern empire. Nor was there any real unity among the
crusaders themselves. The crusaders of northern Germany never went to
the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for
attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe--a fact which at once
attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified
of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of
the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders
of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and
captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of
Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the
Second Crusade.[32] Among the great army of crusaders who actually
marched to Jerusalem there was little real unity. Conrad and Louis VII.
started separately, and at different times, in order to avoid
dissensions between their armies; and when they reached Asia Minor
(after encountering some difficulties in Greek territory) they still
acted separately. Eager to win the first spoils, the German crusaders,
who were in advance of the French, attempted a raid into the sultanate
of Iconium; but after a stern fight at Dorylaeum they were forced to
retreat (October 1147), and for the most part perished by the way. Louis
VII., who now appeared, was induced by this failure to take the long and
circuitous route by the west coast of Asia Minor; but even so he had
lost the majority of his troops when he reached the Holy Land in 1148.
Here he joined Conrad (who had come by sea from Constantinople) and
Baldwin III., and after some deliberation the three sovereigns resolved
to attack Damascus. The attack was impolitic: Damascus was the one ally
which could help the Franks to stem the advance of Nureddin. It proved
as futile as it was impolitic; for the vizier of Damascus,
Muin-eddin-Anar, was able to sow dissension between the native Franks
and the crusaders; and by bribes and promises of tribute he succeeded in
inducing the former to make the siege an absolute failure, at the end of
only four days (July 28th, 1148). The Second Crusade now collapsed.
Conrad returned to Constantinople in the autumn of 1148, and Louis VII.
returned by sea to France in the spring of 1149. The only effects of
this great movement were effects prejudicial to the ends towards which
it was directed. The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not
improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a
Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into
discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and
St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.

The result of the failure of the Second Crusade was the renewal of
Nureddin's attacks. The rest of the county of Edessa, including
Tell-bashir on the west, was now conquered (1150); while Raymund of
Antioch was defeated and killed (in 1149), and several towns in the east
of his principality were captured. Baldwin III. attempted to make head
against these troubles, partly by renewing the old alliance with
Damascus, partly by drawing closer to Manuel of Constantinople. For the
next twenty years, during the reigns of Baldwin and his brother Amalric
I., there is indeed a close connexion between the kingdom of Jerusalem
and the East Roman empire. Baldwin and Amalric both married into the
Comnenian house, while Manuel married Mary of Antioch, the daughter of
Raymund. In the north Manuel enjoyed the homage of Antioch, which his
father had gained in 1137, and the nominal possession of Tell-bashir,
which had been ceded to him by Baldwin III.: in the south he joined with
Amalric I. in the attempt to acquire Egypt (1168-1171). In this way he
acquired a certain ascendancy over the Latin kings: Baldwin III. rode
behind him at Antioch in 1159 without any of the insignia of royalty,
and in an inscription at Bethlehem of 1172 Amalric I. had the name of
the emperor written above his own.[33] The patronage of Constantinople,
to which Jerusalem was thus practically surrendered, contributed to some
slight extent in maintaining the kingdom against Nureddin. But there
were dissensions within, both between Baldwin and his mother, Melisinda,
who sought to protract her regency unduly, and between contending
parties in Antioch, where the hand of Constance, Raymund's widow, was a
desirable prize[34]; while from without the horns of the crescent were
slowly closing in on the kingdom. Nureddin pursued in his policy the
tactics which the Mahommedans used against the Franks in battle: he
sought to envelop their territories on every side. In 1154 fell
Damascus, and the crescent closed perceptibly in the north: the most
valuable ally of the kingdom was lost, and the way seemed clear from
Aleppo (the peculiar seat of Nureddin's power) into Egypt. On the other
hand, in 1153 Baldwin III. had taken Ascalon, which for fifty years had
mocked the efforts of successive kings, and by this stroke he might
appear to have closed for Nureddin the route to Egypt, and to have
opened a path for its conquest by the Franks. For the future, events
hinged on the situation of affairs in Egypt, and in Egypt the fate of
the kingdom of Jerusalem was finally decided (see EGYPT: _History_,
"Mahommedan Period"). There was a race for the possession of the country
between Nureddin's lieutenant Shirguh or Shirkuh and Amalric I., the
brother and successor of Baldwin III.; and in the race Shirkuh proved
the winner.

Since the days of Godfrey and Baldwin I., Egypt had been a goal of
Latin ambition, and the capture of Ascalon must obviously have given
form and strength to the projects for its conquest. Plans of attack were
sketched: routes were traced: distances were measured; and finally in
1163 there came the impulse from within which turned these plans into
action. The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of
contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the
puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I. and Nureddin
were fighting in Egypt in support of two rival viziers, Dirgham and
Shawar. For Nureddin the fight meant the acquisition of an heretical
country for the true faith of the Sunnite, and the final enveloping of
the Latin kingdom:[35] for Amalric it meant the escape from Nureddin's
net, and a more direct and lucrative contact with Eastern trade. Into
the vicissitudes of the fight it is not necessary here to enter; but in
the issue Nureddin won, in spite of the support which Manuel gave to
Amalric. Nureddin's Kurdish lieutenant, Shirguh, succeeded in
establishing in power the vizier whom he favoured, and finally in
becoming vizier himself (January 1169); and when he died, his nephew
Saladin (Sala-ed-din) succeeded to his position (March 1169), and made
himself, on the death of the caliph in 1171, sole ruler in Egypt. Thus
the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of
the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at
last faced the Christians as a solid body. But nevertheless the kingdom
of Jerusalem continued almost unmenaced, and practically undiminished,
for the next sixteen years. If a religious union had been effected
between Egypt and northern Syria, political disunion still remained; and
the Franks were safe as long as it lasted. Saladin acted as the peer of
Nureddin rather than as his subject; and the jealousy between the two
kept both inactive till the death of Nureddin in 1174. Nureddin only
left a minor in his place: Amalric, who died in the same year, left a
son (Baldwin IV.) who was not only a minor but also a leper; and thus
the stage seemed cleared for Saladin. He was confronted, however, by
Raymund, count of Tripoli, the one man of ability among the decadent
Franks, who acted as guardian of the kingdom; while he was also occupied
in trying to win for himself the Syrian possessions of Nureddin. The
task engaged his attention for nine years. Damascus he acquired as early
as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at
Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and
finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.

The hour of peril for the Latin kingdom had now at last struck. It had
done little to prepare itself for that hour. Repeated appeals had been
sent to the West from the beginning of the Egyptian affair (1163)
onwards; while in 1184-1185 a great mission, on which the patriarch of
Jerusalem and the masters of the Templars and the Hospitallers were all
present, came to France and England, and offered the crown of Jerusalem
to Philip Augustus and Henry II. in turn, in order to secure their
presence in the Holy Land.[36] The only result of these appeals was the
rise of a regular system of taxation in France and England, _ad
sustentationem Jerosolimitanae terrae_, which starts about 1185 (though
there had already been isolated taxes in 1147 and 1166), and which has
been described as the beginning of modern taxation. In the East itself,
with the exception of the tax of 1183,[37] nothing was done that was
good, and two things were done which were evil. Sibylla married her
second husband, Guy de Lusignan, in 1180--a marriage destined to be the
cause of many dissensions; for Sibylla, the eldest daughter of Amalric
I., carried to her husband--a French adventurer--a presumptive title to
the crown, which would never be admitted without dispute. In 1186 Guy
eventually became king, after the death of Baldwin V. (Sibylla's son by
her first marriage); but his coronation was in violation of the promise
given to Raymund of Tripoli (that in the event of the death of Baldwin
V. without issue the succession should be determined by the pope, the
emperor and the kings of France and England), and Guy, with a weak
title, was unable to exercise any real control over the kingdom. At this
point another French adventurer, who had already made himself somewhat
of a name in Antioch, gave the final blow to the kingdom. Raynald of
Chatillon, the second husband of Constance of Antioch, after languishing
in captivity from 1159 to 1176, had been granted the seignory of Krak,
to the east and south of the Dead Sea. From this point of vantage he
began depredations on the Red Sea (1182), building a fleet, and seeking
to attack Medina and Mecca--a policy which may be interpreted either as
mere buccaneering, or as a calculated attempt to deal a blow at
Mahommedanism in its very centre. Driven from the Red Sea by Saladin, he
turned from buccaneering to brigandage, and infested the great
trade-route from Damascus to Egypt, which passed close by his seignory.
In 1186 he attacked a caravan in which the sister of Saladin was
travelling, thus violating a four years' truce, which, after some two
years' skirmishing, Saladin and Raymund of Tripoli had made in the
previous year owing to the general prevalence of famine.[38] The
coronation of one French adventurer and the conduct of another, whom the
first was unable to control, meant the ruin of the kingdom; and Saladin
at last delivered in full force his long-deferred attack. The Crusade
was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade--the _jihad_; for though
for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the
inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his
ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem. The
acquisition of Aleppo could only make that supreme object more readily
attainable; and so Saladin had spent his time in acquiring Aleppo, but
only in order that he might ultimately "attain the goal of his desires,
and set the mosque of Asha free, to which Allah once led in the night
his servant Mahomet." Thus it was on a kingdom of crusaders who had lost
the crusading spirit that a new Crusade swept down; and Saladin's army
in 1187 had the spirit and the fire of the Latin crusaders of 1099. The
tables were turned; and fighting on their own soil for the recovery of
what was to them too a holy place, the Mahommedans easily carried the
day. At Tiberias a little squadron of the brethren of the two Orders
went down before Saladin's cavalry in May; at Hattin the levy _en masse_
of the kingdom, some 20,000 strong, foolishly marching over a sandy
plain under the heat of a July sun, was utterly defeated; and after a
fortnight's siege Jerusalem capitulated (October 2nd, 1187). In the
kingdom itself nothing was left to the Latins by the end of 1189 except
the city of Tyre; and to the north of the kingdom they only held Antioch
and Tripoli, with the Hospitallers' fortress at Margat. The fingers of
the clock had been pushed back; once more things were as they had been
at the time of the First Crusade; once more the West must arm itself for
the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem--but now it must face a
united Mahommedan world, where in 1096 it had found political and
religious dissension, and it must attempt its vastly heavier task
without the morning freshness of a new religious impulse, and with
something of the weariness of a hundred years of struggle upon its
shoulders.

7. _The Forty Years' Crusade for the Recovery of Jerusalem,
1189-1229._--The forty years from 1189 to 1229 form a period of
incessant crusading, occupied by Crusades of every kind. There are the
Third, Fifth and Sixth Crusades against the "infidel" Mahommedans
encamped in the Holy Land; there is the Albigensian Crusade against the
heretic Cathars; there is the Fourth Crusade, directed in the issue
against the schismatic Greeks; lastly, there are the Crusades waged by
the papacy against revolted Christians--John of England and Frederick
II. Our concern lies with the first kind of Crusade, and with the other
three only so far as they bear on the first, and as they illustrate the
immense widening which the term "Crusade" now underwent--a widening
accompanied by its inevitable corollary of shallowness of motive and
degradation of impulse.

_The Third Crusade, 1189-1192._--Conrad of Montferrat was, as much as
any one man, responsible for the Third Crusade. Compelled to leave the
court of Constantinople, which he had been serving, he had sailed for
the Holy Land and reached Tyre about three weeks after the battle of
Hattin. He had saved Tyre; and from it he sent his appeals to the West.
Not the least effective of these appeals was a great poster which he had
circulated in Europe, and which represented the Holy Sepulchre denied by
the horses of the Mahommedans. Meanwhile the papacy, as soon as the news
reached Rome, despatched encyclicals throughout Europe; and soon a new
Crusade was in full swing. But the Third Crusade, unlike the First, does
not spring from the papacy, which was passing through one of its epochs
of depression; it springs from the lay power, which, represented by the
three strong monarchies of Germany, England and France, was at this time
dominant in Europe. In Germany it was the solemn national diet of Mainz
(Easter 1188) which "swore the expedition" to the Holy Land; in France
and England the agreement of the two kings decided upon a joint Crusade.
The very means which Philip Augustus and Henry II. took, in order to
further the Crusade, show its lay aspect. A scheme of taxation--the
Saladin tithe--was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this
taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order
to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary
financial basis for military operations.[39] The lay basis of the Third
Crusade made it, in one sense, the greatest of all Crusades, in which
all the three great monarchs of western Europe participated; but it also
made it a failure, for the kings of France and England, changing
_caelum_, _non animum_, carried their political rivalries into the
movement, in which it had been agreed that they should be sunk.
Spiritually, therefore, the Third Crusade is inferior to the First,
however imposing it may be in its material aspects. Yet it must be
admitted that the idea of a spiritual regeneration accompanied the
crusading movement of 1188. Europe had sinned in the face of God;
otherwise Jerusalem would never have fallen; and the idea of a spiritual
reform from within, as the necessary corollary and accompaniment of the
expedition of Christianity without, breathes in some of the papal
letters, just as, during the conciliar movement, the _causa
reformationis_ was blended with the _causa unionis_.

We may conceive of the Third Crusade under the figure of a number of
converging lines, all seeking to reach a common centre. That centre is
Acre. The siege of Acre, as arduous and heroic in many of its episodes
as the siege of Troy, had been begun in the summer of 1189 by Guy de
Lusignan, who, captured by Saladin at the battle of Hattin, and released
on parole, had at once broken his word and returned to the attack. The
army which was besieging Acre was soon joined by various contingents;
for Acre, after all, was the vital point, and its capture would open the
way to Jerusalem. Two of these contingents alone concern us here--the
German and the Anglo-French. Frederick I. of Germany, using a diplomacy
which corresponds to the lay character of the Third Crusade, had sought
to prepare his way by embassies to the king of Hungary, the Eastern
emperor and the sultan of Iconium. Starting from Regensburg in May 1189,
the German army marched quietly through Hungary; but difficulties arose,
as they had arisen in 1147, as soon as the frontiers of the Eastern
empire were reached. The emperor Isaac Angelus had not only the old
grudge of all Eastern emperors against the "upstart" emperor of the
West; he had also allied himself with Saladin, in order to acquire for
his empire the patronage of the Holy Places and religious supremacy in
the Levant. The difficulties between Frederick and Isaac Angelus became
acute: in November 1189 Frederick wrote to his son Henry, asking him to
induce the pope to preach a Crusade against the schismatic Greeks. But
terms were at last arranged, and by the end of March 1190 the Germans
had all crossed to the shores of Asia Minor. Taking a route midway
between the eastern route of the crusaders of 1097 and the western route
of Louis VII. in 1148, Frederick marched by Philadelphia and Iconium,
not without dust and heat, until he reached the river Salof, in Armenian
territory. Here, with the burden of the day now past, the fine old
crusader--he had joined before in the Second Crusade, forty years
ago--perished by accident in the river; and of all his fine army only a
thousand men won their way through, under his son, Frederick of Swabia,
to join the ranks before Acre (October 1190). The Anglo-French
detachment achieved a far greater immediate success. War had indeed
disturbed the original agreement of Gisors between Philip Augustus and
Henry II., but a new agreement was made between Henry's successor,
Richard I., and the French king at Nonancourt (December 1189), by which
the two monarchs were to meet at Vezelay next year, and then follow the
sea route to the Holy Land together. They met, and by different routes
they both reached Sicily, where they wintered together (1190-1191). The
enforced inactivity of a whole winter was the mother of disputes and bad
blood; and when Philip sailed for the Holy Land, at the end of March
1191, the failure of the Crusade was already decided. Richard soon
followed; but while Philip sailed straight for Acre, Richard occupied
himself by the way in conquering Cyprus--partly out of knight-errantry,
and in order to avenge an insult offered to his betrothed wife
Berengaria by the despot of the island, partly perhaps out of policy,
and in order to provide a basis of supplies and of operations for the
armies attempting to recover Palestine. In any case, he is the founder
of the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (for he afterwards sold his new
acquisition to Guy de Lusignan, who established a dynasty in the
island); and thereby he made possible the survival of the institutions
and assizes of Jerusalem, which were continued in Cyprus until it was
conquered by the Ottoman Turks. From Cyprus Richard sailed to Acre,
arriving on the 8th of June, and in little more than a month he was
able, in virtue of the large reinforcements he brought, and in spite of
dissensions in the Christian camp which he helped to foment, to bring
the two years' siege to a successful issue (July 12th, 1191). It was
indeed time; the privations of the besiegers during the previous winter
had been terrible; and the position of affairs had only been made worse
by the dissensions between Guy de Lusignan and Conrad of Montferrat, who
had begun to claim the crown in return for his services, and had, on the
death of Sibylla, the wife of Guy, reinforced his claim by a marriage
with her younger sister, Isabella. In these dissensions it was
inevitable that Philip Augustus and Richard I., already discordant,
should take contrary sides; and while Richard naturally sided with Guy
de Lusignan, who came from his own county of Poitou, Philip as naturally
sided with Conrad. At the end of July it was decided that Guy should
remain king for his life, and Conrad should be his successor; but as
three days afterwards Philip Augustus began his return to France
(pleading ill-health, but in reality eager to gain possession of
Flanders), the settlement availed little for the success of the Crusade.
Richard stayed in the Holy Land for another year, during which he won a
battle at Arsuf and refortified Jaffa. But far more important than any
hostilities are the negotiations which, for the whole year, Richard
conducted with Saladin. They show the lay aspect of the Third Crusade;
they anticipate the Crusade of Frederick II.--for Richard was attempting
to secure the same concessions which Frederick secured by the same means
which he used. They show again the closer approximation and better
understanding with the Mahommedans, which marks this Crusade. Nothing is
more striking in these respects than Richard's proposal that Saladin's
brother should marry his own sister Johanna and receive Jerusalem and
the contiguous towns on the coast. In the event, a peace was made for
three years (September 2nd, 1192), by which Lydda and Ramlah were to be
equally divided, Ascalon was to be destroyed, and small bodies of
crusaders were to be allowed to visit the Holy Sepulchre. Meanwhile
Conrad of Montferrat, at the very instant when his superior ability had
finally forced Richard to recognize him as king, had been assassinated
(April 1192): Guy de Lusignan had bought Cyprus from Richard, and had
sailed away to establish himself there;[40] and Henry of Champagne,
Richard's nephew, had been called to the throne of Jerusalem, and had
given himself a title by marrying Conrad's widow, Isabella. In this
condition Richard left the Holy Land, when he began his eventful return,
in October 1192. The Crusade had failed--failed because a leaderless
army, torn by political dissensions and fighting on a foreign soil,
could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal under the
banner of a leader like Saladin. Yet it had at any rate saved for the
Christians the principality of Antioch, the county of Tripoli, and some
of the coast towns of the kingdom;[41] and if it had failed to
accomplish its object, it had left behind, none the less, many important
results. The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and
Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the
negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
National rivalries had been accentuated and national differences brought
into prominence by the meeting of the nations in a common enterprise;
while, on the other hand, Mahommedans and Christians had fraternized as
they had never done before during the progress of a Crusade. But what
the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement
was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the
secular state--organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and
conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation. This
after all is the great change; and even the genius of an Innocent III.
"could not make undone what had once been done." On the contrary, the
thing once done would go further; and the state would take up the name
of Crusade in order to cover, and under such cover to achieve, its own
objects and ambitions, as in the future it was destined again and again
to do.

_The Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204._--The history of the Fourth Crusade is a
history of the predominance of the lay motive, of the attempt of the
papacy to escape from that predominance, and to establish its old
direction of the Crusade, and of the complete failure of its attempt.
Until the accession of Innocent III. in 1198 the lay motive was supreme;
and its representative was Henry VI.--the greatest politician of his
day, and in many ways the greatest emperor since Charlemagne. In 1195
Amalric, the brother of Guy de Lusignan, and his successor in Cyprus,
sought the title of king from Henry and did homage; and at the same time
Leo of Lesser Armenia, in order to escape from dependence on the Eastern
empire, took the same course. Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant;
while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his
brother, Malik-al-Adil, and his sons for the possession of his
dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans. As emperor, Henry
was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his
father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the
Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the
Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of
Constantinople. The project of a Crusade and of an attack on
Constantinople wove themselves into a single thread, in a way which very
definitely anticipates the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204. In 1195 Henry
took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus
to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with
the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of
Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade. In the same
year, however, Isaac was dethroned by his brother, Alexius III.; but
Henry married Isaac's daughter Irene to his brother, Philip of Swabia,
and thus attempted to give the Hohenstaufen a new title and a valid
claim against the usurper Alexius. Thus armed he pushed forward the
preparations for the Crusade in Germany--a Crusade whose first object
would have been an attack on Alexius III.; but in the middle of his
preparations he died in Sicily in the autumn of 1197, and the Crusade
collapsed. Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German
crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric
of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of
Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy
Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the
siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization. Some of the
coast towns, too, were recovered by the German crusaders, especially
Beirut; and in 1198 the new king Amalric II. was able to make a truce
with Malik-al-Adil for the next five years.

"The true heir of Henry VI.," Ranke has said, "is Innocent III.," and
nowhere is this more true than in respect of the crusading movement.
Throughout the course of his crowded and magnificent pontificate,
Innocent III. made the Crusade his ultimate object, and attempted to
bring it back to its old religious basis and under its old papal
direction. By the spring of 1200, owing to Innocent's exertions, a new
Crusade was in full progress, especially in France, where Fulk of
Neuilly played the part once played by Peter the Hermit. Like the First
Crusade, the Fourth Crusade also--in its personnel, but not its
direction--was a French enterprise; and its leading members were French
feudatories like Theobald of Champagne (who was chosen leader of the
Crusade), Baldwin of Flanders (the future emperor of Constantinople),
and the count of Blois. The objective, which these three original chiefs
of the Fourth Crusade proposed to themselves, was Egypt.[42] Since 1163
the importance of acquiring Egypt had, as we have seen, been definitely
understood, and in the summer of 1192 Richard I. had been advised by
his counsellors that Cairo and not Jerusalem was the true point of
attack; while in 1200 there was the additional reason for preferring an
attack on Egypt, that the truce in the Holy Land between Amalric II. and
Malik-al-Adil had still three years to run. It is Egypt therefore--to
which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now
been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the
Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and
the commerce of the Indian Ocean)--it is Egypt which is henceforth the
normal goal of the Crusades. This is one of the many facts which
differentiate the Crusades of the 13th from those of the preceding
century. But, with Syria in the hands of the Mahommedans, the attack on
Egypt must necessarily be directed by sea; and thus the Crusade
henceforth becomes--what the Third Crusade, here as elsewhere the
turning-point in crusading history, had already in part been--a maritime
enterprise. Accordingly, early in 1201, envoys from each of the three
chiefs of the Fourth Crusade (among whom was Villehardouin, the
historian of the Crusade) came to Venice to negotiate for a passage to
Egypt. An agreement was made between the doge and the envoys, by which
transport and active help were to be given by Venice in return for
85,000 marks and the cession of half of the conquests made by the
crusaders. But the Fourth Crusade was not to be plain sailing to Egypt.
It became involved in a maelstrom of conflicting political motives, by
which it was swept to Constantinople. Here we must distinguish between
cause and occasion. There were three great causes which made for an
attack on Constantinople by the West. There was first of all the old
crusading grudge against the Eastern empire, and its fatal policy of
regarding the whole of the Levant as its lost provinces, to be restored
as soon as conquered, or at any rate held in fee, by the Western
crusaders--a policy which led the Eastern emperors either to give
niggardly aid or to pursue obstructive tactics, and caused them to be
blamed for the failure of the Crusades in 1101, and 1149, and in 1190.
It is significant of the final result of these things that already in
1147 Roger of Sicily, engaged in war with Manuel, had proposed the
sea-route for the Second Crusade, perhaps with some intention of
diverting it against Constantinople; and in the winter of 1189-1190
Barbarossa, as we have seen, had actually thought and spoken of an
attack on Constantinople. In the second place, there was the commercial
grudge of Venice, which had only been given large privileges by the
Eastern empire to desire still larger, and had, moreover, been annoyed
not only by alterations or revocations of those privileges, such as the
usurper Alexius III. had but recently attempted, but also by the
temporary destruction of their colony in Constantinople in 1171. Lastly,
and perhaps most of all, there is the old Norman blood-feud with
Constantinople, as old as the old Norse seeking for Micklegarth, and
keen and deadly ever since the Norman conquest of the Greek themes in
South Italy (1041 onwards). The heirs of the Norman kings were the
Hohenstaufen; and we have already seen Henry VI. planning a Crusade
which would primarily have been directed against Constantinople. It is
this Hohenstaufen policy which becomes the primary occasion of the
diversion of the Fourth Crusade. Philip of Swabia, engaged in a struggle
with the papacy, found Innocent III. planning a Guelph Crusade, which
should be under the direction of the church; and to this Guelph project
he opposed the Ghibelline plan of Henry VI., with such success that he
transmuted the Fourth Crusade into a political expedition against
Constantinople. To such a policy of transmutation he was urged by two
things. On the one hand, the death of the count of Champagne (May 1201)
had induced the crusaders to elect as their leader Boniface of
Montferrat, the brother of Conrad; and Boniface was the cousin of
Philip, and interested in Constantinople, where not only Conrad, but
another brother as well, had served, and suffered for their service at
the hands of their masters. On the other hand Alexius, the son of the
dethroned Isaac Angelus, was related to Philip through his marriage with
Irene; and Alexius had escaped to the German court to urge the
restoration of his father. On Christmas day 1201, Philip, Alexius and
Boniface all met at Hagenau[43] and formulated (one may suppose) a plan
for the diversion of the Crusade. Events played into their hands. When
the crusaders gathered at Venice in the autumn of 1202, it was found
impossible to get together the 85,000 marks promised to Venice. The
Venetians--already, perhaps, indoctrinated in the Hohenstaufen
plan--indicated to the leaders a way of meeting the difficulty: they had
only to lend their services to the republic for certain ends which it
desired to compass, and the debt was settled. The conquest of Zara, a
port on the Adriatic claimed by the Venetians from the king of Hungary,
was the only object overtly mentioned; but the idea of the expedition to
Constantinople was in the air, and the crusaders knew what was
ultimately expected. It took time and effort to bring them round to the
diversion: the pope--naturally enough--set his face sternly against the
project, the more as the usurper, Alexius III., was in negotiation with
him in order to win his support against the Hohenstaufen, and Innocent
hoped to find, as Alexius promised, a support and a reinforcement for
the Crusade in an alliance with the Greek empire. But they came round
none the less, in spite of Innocent's renewed prohibitions. In November
1202 Zara was taken; and at Zara the fatal decision was made. The young
Alexius joined the army; and in spite of the opposition of stern
crusaders like Simon de Montfort, who sailed away ultimately to
Palestine, he succeeded by large promises in inducing the army to follow
in his train to Constantinople. By the middle of July 1203
Constantinople was reached, the usurper was in flight, and Isaac Angelus
was restored to his throne. But when the time came for Alexius to fulfil
his promises, the difficulty which had arisen at Venice in the autumn of
1202 repeated itself. Alexius's resources were insufficient, and he had
to beg the crusaders to wait at Constantinople for a year in order that
he might have time. They waited; but the closer contact of a prolonged
stay only brought into fuller play the essential antipathy of the Greek
and the Latin. Continual friction developed at last into the open fire
of war; and in March 1204 the crusaders resolved to storm
Constantinople, and to divide among themselves the Eastern empire. In
April Constantinople was captured; in May Baldwin of Flanders became the
first Latin emperor of Constantinople. Venice had her own reward; a
Venetian, Thomas Morosini, became patriarch; and the doge of Venice
added "a quarter and a half" of the Eastern empire--chiefly the coasts
and the islands--to the sphere of his sway. If Venetian cupidity had not
originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary
writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity
by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial
concessions from Malik-al-Adil,[44]) yet it had at any rate profited
exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protégé
Alexius only reaped dust and ashes. For, however Ghibelline might be the
original intention, the result was not commensurate with the subtlety of
the design, and the power of the pope was rather increased than
diminished by the event of the Crusade. The crusaders appealed to
Innocent to ratify the subjugation of a schismatic people, and the union
of the Eastern and Western Churches; and Innocent, dazzled by the magic
of the _fait accompli_, not unwillingly acquiesced. He might soothe
himself by reflecting that the basis for the Crusade, which he had hoped
to find in Alexius III., was still more securely offered by Baldwin; he
could not but feel with pride that he had become "as it were pope and
apostolicus of a second world." Yet the result of the Fourth Crusade was
on the whole disastrous both for the papacy and for the crusading
movement. The pope had been forced to see the helm of the Crusades
wrenched from his grasp; and the Albigensian Crusade against the
heretics of southern France was soon afterwards to show that the example
could be followed, and that the land-hunger of the north French baronage
could exploit a Crusade as successfully as ever did Hohenstaufen policy
leagued with Venetian cupidity. The Crusade lost its _élan_ when it
became a move in a political game. If the Third Crusade had been
directed by the lay power towards the true spiritual end of all
Crusades, the Fourth was directed by the lay power to its own lay ends;
and the political and commercial motives, winch were deeply implicit
even in the First Crusade, had now become dominantly explicit. In a
simpler and more immediate sense, the capture of Constantinople was
detrimental to the movement from which it sprang. The precarious empire
which had been founded in 1204 drained away all the vigorous adventurers
of the West for its support for many years to come, and the Holy Land
was starved to feed a land less holy, but equally greedy of men.[45] No
basis for the Crusades was ever to be found in the Latin empire of the
East; and Innocent, after vainly hoping for the new Crusade which was to
emerge from Constantinople, was by 1208 compelled to return to the old
idea of a Crusade proceeding simply and immediately from the West to the
East.

_The Fifth Crusade, 1218-1221._--The glow and the glamour of the
Crusades disappear save for the pathetic sunset splendours of St Louis,
as Dandolo dies, and gallant Villehardouin drops his pen. But before St
Louis sailed for Damietta there intervened the miserable failure of one
Crusade, and the secular and diplomatic success of another. The Fifth
Crusade is the last which is started in that pontificate of
Crusades--the pontificate of Innocent III. It owed its origin to his
feverish zeal for the recovery of Jerusalem, rather than to any pressing
need in the Holy Land. Here there reigned, during the forty years of the
loss of Jerusalem, an almost unbroken peace. Malik-al-Adil, the brother
of Saladin, had by 1200 succeeded to his brother's possessions not only
in Egypt but also in Syria, and he granted the Christians a series of
truces (1198-1203, 1204-1210, 1211-1217). While the Holy Land was thus
at peace, crusaders were also being drawn elsewhere by the needs of the
Latin empire of Constantinople, or the attractions of the Albigensian
Crusade.[46] But Innocent could never consent to forget Jerusalem, as
long as his right hand retained its cunning. The pathos of the
Children's Crusade of 1212 only nerved him to fresh efforts. A shepherd
boy named Stephen had appeared in France, and had induced thousands to
follow his guidance: with his boyish army he rode on a wagon southward
to Marseilles, promising to lead his followers dry-shod through the
seas. In Germany a child from Cologne, named Nicolas, gathered some
20,000 young crusaders by the like promises, and led them into Italy.
Stephen's army was kidnapped by slave-dealers and sold into Egypt; while
Nicolas's expedition left nothing behind it but an after-echo in the
legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. But for Innocent these outbursts of
the revivalist element, which always accompanied the Crusades, had their
moral: "the very children put us to shame," he wrote; "while we sleep
they go forth gladly to conquer the Holy Land." In the fourth Lateran
council of 1215 Innocent found his opportunity to rekindle the
flickering fires. Before this great gathering of all Christian Europe he
proclaimed a Crusade for the year 1217, and in common deliberation it
was resolved that a truce of God should reign for the next four years,
while for the same time all trade with the Levant should cease. Here
were two things attempted--neither, indeed, for the first
time[47]--which 14th century pamphleteers on the subject of the Crusades
unanimously advocate as the necessary conditions of success; there was
to be peace in Europe and a commercial war with Egypt. This
statesmanlike beginning of a Crusade, preached, as no Crusade had ever
been preached before, in a general council of all Europe, presaged well
for its success. In Germany (where Frederick II. himself took the cross
in this same year) a large body of crusaders gathered together: in 1217
the south-east sent the duke of Austria and the king of Hungary to the
Holy Land; while in 1218 an army from the north-west joined at Acre the
forces of the previous year. Egypt had already been indicated by
Innocent III. in 1215 as the goal of attack, and it was accordingly
resolved to begin the Crusade by the siege of Damietta, on the eastern
delta of the Nile. The original leader of the Crusade was John of
Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying
Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband,
Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate
Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command. In spite of
dissensions between the cardinal and the king, and in spite of the
offers of Malik-al-Kamil (who succeeded Malik-al-Adil at the end of
1218), the crusaders finally carried the siege to a successful
conclusion by the end of 1219. The capture of Damietta was a
considerable feat of arms, but nothing was done to clinch the advantage
which had been won, and the whole of the year 1220 was spent by the
crusaders in Damietta, partly in consolidating their immediate position,
and partly in waiting for the arrival of Frederick II., who had promised
to appear in 1221. In 1221 Hermann of Salza, the master of the Teutonic
order, along with the duke of Bavaria, appeared in the camp before
Damietta; and as it seemed useless to wait any longer for Frederick
II.,[48] the cardinal, in spite of the opposition of King John, gave the
signal for the march on Cairo. The army reached a fortress erected by
the sultan in 1219 (afterwards, from 1221, the town of Mansura), and
encamped there at the end of July. Here the sultan reiterated terms
which he had already offered several times before--the cession of most
of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the surrender of the cross (captured by
Saladin in 1187), and the restoration of all prisoners. King John urged
the acceptance of these terms. The legate insisted on a large indemnity
in addition: the negotiations failed, and the sultan prepared for war.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of
August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which
he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the
price of the restoration of Damietta. The treaty was to last for eight
years, and could only be broken on the coming of a king or emperor to
the East. In pursuance of its terms the crusaders evacuated Egypt, and
the Fifth Crusade was at an end. It is difficult to decide whether to
blame the legate or the emperor more for its failure. If Frederick had
only come in person, a single month of his presence might have meant
everything: if Pelagius had only listened to King John, the sultan was
ready to concede practically everything which was at issue. Unhappily
Frederick preferred to put his Sicilian house in order, and the legate
preferred to listen to the Italians, who had their own commercial
reasons for wishing to establish a strong position in Egypt, and to the
Templars and Hospitallers, who did not feel satisfied by the terms
offered by the sultan, because he wished to retain in his hands the two
fortresses of Krak and Monreal.

_The Sixth Crusade_ (1228-1229) succeeded as signally as the Fifth
Crusade had failed; but the circumstances under which it took place and
the means by which it was conducted made its success still more
disastrous than the failure of 1221. The last Crusade had, after all,
been under papal control: if Richard I. had directed the Third Crusade,
and the policy of the Hohenstaufen and the Venetians had directed the
Fourth, it was a papal legate who had steered the Fifth to its ultimate
fate. The Crusade of Frederick II. in 1228-1229 finds its analogy in the
projected Crusade of Henry VI.; it is essentially lay. It is unique in
the annals of the Crusades. Alone of all Crusades (though the Fourth
Crusade offers some analogy) it was not blessed but cursed by the
papacy: alone of all the Crusades it was conducted without a single act
of hostility against the Mahommedan. St Louis, the true type of the
religious crusader, once said that a layman ought only to argue with a
blasphemer against Christian law by running his sword into the bowels of
the blasphemer as far as it would go:[49] Frederick II. talked amicably
with all unbelievers, if one may trust Arabic accounts, and he achieved
by mere negotiation the recovery of Jerusalem, for which men had vainly
striven with the sword for the forty years since 1187. It was in 1215
that the leader of this strange Crusade had first taken the vow; it was
twelve years afterwards when he finally attempted to carry the vow into
effective execution. Again and again he had excused himself to the pope,
and been excused by the pope, because the exigencies of his policy in
Germany or Sicily tied his hands. After the failure of the Fifth
Crusade--for which these delays were in part responsible--Honorius III.
had attempted to bind him more intimately to the Holy Land by arranging
a marriage with Isabella, the daughter of John of Brienne, and the
heiress of the kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1225 Frederick married Isabella,
and immediately after the marriage he assumed the title of king in right
of his wife, and exacted homage from the vassals of the kingdom.[50] It
was thus as king of Jerusalem that Frederick began his Crusade in the
autumn of 1227. Scarcely, however, had he sailed from Brindisi when he
fell sick of a fever which had been raging for some time among the ranks
of his army, while they waited for the crossing. He sailed back to
Otranto in order to recover his health, but the new pope, Gregory IX.,
launched in hot anger the bolt of excommunication, in the belief that
Frederick was malingering once more. None the less the emperor sailed on
his Crusade in the summer of 1228, affording to astonished Europe the
spectacle of an excommunicated crusader, and leaving his territories to
be invaded by papal soldiers, whom Gregory IX. professed to regard as
crusaders against a non-Christian king, and for whom he accordingly
levied a tithe from the churches of Europe. The paradox of Frederick's
Crusade is indeed astonishing. Here was a crusader against whom a
Crusade was proclaimed in his own territories; and when he arrived in
the Holy Land he found little obedience and many insults from all but
his own immediate followers. Yet by adroit use of his powers of
diplomacy, and by playing upon the dissensions which raged between the
descendants of Saladin's brother (Malik-al-Adil), he was able, without
striking a blow, to conclude a treaty with the sultan of Egypt which
gave him all that Richard I. had vainly attempted to secure by arduous
fighting and patient negotiations. By the treaty of the 18th of February
1229, which was to last for ten years, the sultan conceded to Frederick,
in addition to the coast towns already in the possession of the
Christians, Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem, with a strip of territory
connecting Jerusalem with the port of Acre. As king of Jerusalem
Frederick was now able to enter his capital: as one under
excommunication, he had to see an interdict immediately fall on the
city, and it was with his own hands--for no churchman could perform the
office--that he had to take his crown from the altar of the church of
the Sepulchre, and crown himself king of his new kingdom. He stayed in
the Holy Land little more than a month after his coronation; and leaving
in May he soon overcame the papal armies in Italy, and secured
absolution from Gregory IX. (August 1229). By his treaty with the sultan
he had secured for Christianity the last fifteen years of its possession
of Jerusalem (1229-1244): no man since Frederick II. has ever recovered
the holy places for the religion which holds them most holy. Yet the
church might ask, with some justice, whether the means he had used were
excused by the end which he had attained. After all, there was nothing
of the holy war about the Sixth Crusade: there was simply huckstering,
as in an Eastern bazaar, between a free-thinking, semi-oriental king of
Sicily and an Egyptian sultan. It was indeed in the spirit of a king of
Sicily, and not in the spirit--though it was in the rôle--of a king of
Jerusalem, that Frederick had acted. It was from his Sicilian
predecessors, who had made trade treaties with Egypt, that he had
learned to make even the Crusade a matter of treaty. The Norman line of
Sicilian kings might be extinct; their policy lived after them in their
Hohenstaufen successors, and that policy, as it had helped to divert the
Fourth Crusade to the old Norman objective of Constantinople, helped
still more to give the Sixth Crusade its secular, diplomatic,
non-religious aspect.

Forty years of struggle ended in fifteen years' possession of Jerusalem.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a
struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that
sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand
on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and
opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily. It is a struggle
between the king and the _haute cour_: it is a struggle between the
aristocratic feudalism of the Franks and the monarchical feudalism of
the Normans. Already in Cyprus, in the summer of 1228, Frederick II. had
insisted on the right of wardship which he enjoyed as overlord of the
island,[51] and he had appointed a commission of five barons to exercise
his rights. In 1229 this commission was overthrown by John of Ibelin,
lord of Beirut, against whom it had taken proceedings. John of Beirut,
like many of the Cypriot barons, was also a baron of the kingdom of
Jerusalem; and resistance in the one kingdom could only produce
difficulties in the other. Difficulties quickly arose when Frederick, in
1231, sent Marshal Richard to Syria as his legate. This in itself was a
serious matter; according to the assizes, the barons maintained, the
king must either personally reside in the kingdom, or, in the event of
his absence, be replaced by a regency. The position became more
difficult, when the legate took steps against John of Beirut without any
authorization from the high court. A gild was formed at Acre--the gild
of St Adrian--which, if nominally religious in its origin, soon came to
represent the political opposition to Frederick, as was significantly
proved by its reception of the rebellious John of Beirut as a member
(1232). The opposition was successful: by 1233 Frederick had lost all
hold on Cyprus, and only retained Tyre in his own kingdom of Jerusalem.
In 1236 he had to promise to recognize fully the laws of the kingdom:
and when, in 1239, he was again excommunicated by Gregory IX., and a new
quarrel of papacy and empire began, he soon lost the last vestiges of
his power. Till 1243 the party of Frederick had been successful in
retaining Tyre, and the baronial demand for a regency had remained
without effect; but in that year the opposition, headed by the great
family of Ibelin, succeeded, under cover of asserting the rights of
Alice of Cyprus to the regency, in securing possession of Tyre, and the
kingdom of Jerusalem thus fell back into the power of the baronage. The
very next year (1244) Jerusalem was finally and for ever lost. Its loss
was the natural corollary of these dissensions. The treaty of Frederick
with Malik-al-Kamil (d. 1238) had now expired, and new succours and new
measures were needed for the Holy Land. Theobald of Champagne had taken
the cross as early as 1230, and 1239 he sailed to Acre in spite of the
express prohibition of the pope, who, having quarrelled with Frederick
II., was eager to divert any succour from Jerusalem itself, so long as
Jerusalem belonged to his enemy. Theobald was followed (1240-1241) by
Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III., who, like his
predecessor, had to sail in the teeth of papal prohibitions; but neither
of the two achieved any permanent result, except the fortification of
Ascalon. It was, however, by their own folly that the Franks lost
Jerusalem in 1244. They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of
Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they
were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the
Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt. Jerusalem, which
had already been plundered and destroyed earlier in the year by
Chorasmians (Khwarizmians), was the prize of victory, and Ascalon also
fell in 1247.

8. _The Crusades of St Louis._--As the loss of Jerusalem in 1187
produced the Third Crusade, so its loss in 1244 produced the Seventh: as
the preaching of the Fifth Crusade had taken place in the Lateran
council of 1215, so that of the Seventh Crusade began in the council of
Lyons of 1245. But the preaching of the Crusade by Innocent IV. at Lyons
was a curious thing. On the one hand he repeated the provisions of the
Fourth Lateran council on behalf of the Crusade to the Holy Land; on the
other hand he preached a Crusade against Frederick II., and promised to
all who would join the full benefits of absolution and remission of
sins. While the papacy thus bent its energies to the destruction of the
Crusades in their genuine sense, and preferred to use for its own
political objects what was meant for Jerusalem, a layman took up the
derelict cause with all the religious zeal which any pope had ever
displayed. Paradoxically enough, it was now the turn for the papacy to
exploit the name of Crusade for political ends, as the laity had done
before; and it was left to the laity to champion the spiritual meaning
of the Crusade even against the papacy.[52] It was at the end of the
year in which Jerusalem had fallen that St Louis had taken the cross,
and by all the means in his power he attempted to ensure the success of
his projected Crusade. He sought to mediate, though with no success,
between the pope and the emperor; he descended to a whimsical piety, and
took his courtiers by guile in distributing to them, at Christmas,
clothing on which a cross had been secretly stitched. He started in 1248
with a gallant company, which contained his three brothers and the sieur
de Joinville, his biographer; and after wintering in Cyprus he directed
his army in the spring of 1249 against Egypt. The objective was
unexpected: it may have been chosen by St Louis, because he knew how
seriously the power of the sultan was undermined by the Mamelukes, who
were in the very next year to depose the Ayyubite dynasty, which had
reigned since 1171, and to substitute one of their number as sultan.
Damietta was taken without a blow, and the march for Cairo was begun, as
it had been begun by the legate Pelagius in 1221. Again the invading
army halted before Mansura (December 1249); again it had to retreat.
The retreat became a rout. St Louis was captured, and a treaty was made
by which he had to consent to evacuate Damietta and pay a ransom of
800,000 pieces of gold. Eventually St Louis was released on surrendering
Damietta and paying one-half of his ransom, and by the middle of May
1230 he reached Acre, having abandoned the Egyptian expedition. For the
next four years he stayed in the Holy Land, seeking to do what he could
for the establishing of the kingdom of Jerusalem. He was able to do but
little. The struggle of papacy and empire paralysed Europe, and even in
France itself there were few ready to answer the calls for help which St
Louis sent home from Acre. The one answer was the Shepherds' Crusade, or
Crusade of the Pastoureaux--"a religious Jacquerie," as it has been
called by Dean Milman. It had some of the features of the Children's
Crusade of 1212. That, too, had begun with a shepherd boy: the leader of
the Pastoureaux, like the leader of the children, promised to lead his
followers dry-shod through the seas; and tradition even said that this
leader, "the master of Hungary," as he was called, was the Stephen of
the Children's Crusade. But the anti-clerical feeling and action of the
Shepherds was new and ominous; and moved by its enormities the
government suppressed the new movement ruthlessly. None came to the aid
of St Louis; and in 1254, on the death of his mother Blanche, the
regent, he had to return to France.

The final collapse of the kingdom of Jerusalem had been really
determined by the battle of Gaza in 1244, and by the deposition of the
Ayyubite dynasty by the Mamelukes. The Ayyubites had always been, on the
whole, chivalrous and tolerant: Saladin and his successors,
Malik-al-Adil and Malik-al-Kamil, had none of them shown an implacable
enmity to the Christians. The Mamelukes, who are analogous to the
janissaries of the Ottoman Turks, were made of sterner and more
fanatical stuff; and Bibars, the greatest of these Mamelukes, who had
commanded at Gaza in 1244, had been one of the leaders in 1250, and was
destined to become sultan in 1260, was the sternest and most fanatical
of them all. The Christians were, however, able to maintain a footing in
Syria for forty years after St Louis' departure, not by reason of their
own strength, but owing to two powers which checked the advance of the
Mamelukes. The first of these was Damascus. The kingdom of Jerusalem, as
we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130,
when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together;
and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility
between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still
for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards). Saladin had united
Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among the
members of his family,[53] which more than once led to wars between
Damascus and Cairo. It has already been noticed that such a war between
the sons of Malik-al-Adil accounts in large measure for the success of
the Sixth Crusade; and it has been seen that the battle of Gaza was an
act in the long drama of strife between Egypt and northern Syria. The
revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more
trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a
Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan
by the emirs of Damascus. But an entirely new and far more important
factor in the affairs of the Levant was the extension of the empire of
the Mongols during the 13th century. That empire had been founded by
Jenghiz Khan in the first quarter of the century; it stretched from
Peking on the east to the Euphrates and the Dnieper on the west. Two
things gave the Mongols an influence on the history of the Holy Land and
the fate of the Crusades. In the first place, the south-western division
of the empire, comprising Persia and Armenia, and governed about 1250 by
the Khan Hulaku or Hulagu, was inevitably brought into relations, which
were naturally hostile, with the Mahommedan powers of Syria and Egypt.
In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in
any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism,"
but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early
Nestorian missions to the far East. This last fact in particular caused
western Europe to dream of an alliance with the great khan "Prester
John," who should aid in the reconquest of Jerusalem and the final
conversion to Christianity of the whole continent of Asia. The Crusades
thus widen out, towards their close, into a general scheme for the
christianization of all the known world.[54] About 1220 James of Vitry
was already hoping that 4000 knights would, with the assistance of the
Mongols, recover Jerusalem; but it is in 1245 that the first definite
sign of an alliance with the Mongols appears. In that year Innocent IV.
sent a Franciscan friar, Joannes de Piano Carpini, to the Mongols of
southern Russia, and despatched a Dominican mission to Persia. Nothing
came of either of these missions; but through them Europe first began to
know the interior of Asia, for Carpini was conducted by the Mongols as
far as Karakorum, the capital of the great khan, on the borders of
China. Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with
the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of
Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the
mission save an increase of geographical knowledge. It was in the year
1260 when it first seemed likely that any results definitely affecting
the course of the Crusades would flow from the action of the Mongols. In
that year Hulagu, the khan of Persia, invaded Syria and captured
Damascus. His general, a Christian named Kitboga, marched southwards to
attack the Mamelukes of Egypt, but he was beaten by Bibars (who in the
same year became sultan of Egypt), and Damascus fell into the hands of
the Mamelukes. Once more, in spite of Mongol intervention, Damascus and
Cairo were united, as they had been united in the hands of Saladin; once
more they were united in the hands of a devout Mahommedan, who was
resolved to extirpate the Christians from Syria.

While these things were taking place around them, the Christians of the
kingdom of Jerusalem only hastened their own fall by internal
dissensions which repeated the history of the period preceding 1187. In
part the war of Guelph and Ghibelline fought itself out in the East; and
while one party demanded a regency, as in 1243, another argued for the
recognition of Conrad, the son of Frederick II., as king. In part,
again, a commercial war raged between Venice and Genoa, which attracted
into its orbit all the various feuds and animosities of the Levant
(1257). Beaten in the war, the Genoese avenged themselves for their
defeat by an alliance with the Palaeologi, which led to the loss of
Constantinople by the Latins (1261), and to the collapse of the Latin
empire after sixty years of infirm and precarious existence. On a
kingdom thus divided against itself, and deprived of allies, the arm of
Bibars soon fell with crushing weight. The sultan, who had risen from a
Mongolian slave to become a second Saladin, and who combined the
physique and audacity of a Danton with the tenacity and religiosity of a
Philip II., dealt blow after blow to the Franks of the East. In 1265
fell Caesarea and Arsuf; in 1268 Antioch was taken, and the principality
of Bohemund and Tancred ceased to exist.[55] In the years which followed
on the loss of Antioch several attempts were made in the West to meet
the progress of the new conqueror. In 1269 James the Conqueror of
Aragon, at the bidding of the pope, turned from the long Spanish Crusade
to a Crusade in the East in order to atone for his offences against the
law matrimonial. An opportune storm, however, gave the king an excuse
for returning home, as Frederick II. had done in 1227; and though his
followers reached Acre, they hardly dared venture outside its walls, and
returned home promptly in the beginning of 1270. More serious were the
plans and the attempts of Charles of Anjou and Louis IX., in which the
Crusades may be said to have finally ended, save for sundry disjointed
epilogues in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Charles of Anjou had succeeded, as a result of the long "crusade" waged
by the papacy against the Hohenstaufen from the council of Lyons to the
battle of Tagliacozzo (1245-1268), in establishing himself in the
kingdom of Sicily. With the kingdom of Frederick II. and Henry VI. he
also took over their policy--the "forward" policy in the East which had
also been followed by the old Norman kings. On the one hand he aimed at
the conquest of Constantinople as Henry VI. had done before; and by the
treaty of Viterbo of 1267 he secured from the last Latin emperor of the
East, Baldwin II., a right of eventual succession. On the other hand,
like Frederick II., he aimed at uniting the kingdom of Jerusalem with
that of Sicily; and here, too, he was able to provide himself with a
title. On the death of Conradin, Hugh of Cyprus had been recognized in
the East as king of Jerusalem (1269); but his pretensions were opposed
by Mary of Antioch, a granddaughter of Amalric II., who was prepared to
bequeath her claims to Charles of Anjou, and was therefore naturally
supported by him. But the policy of Charles, which thus prepared the way
for a Crusade similar to those of 1197 and 1202, was crossed by that of
his brother Louis IX. Already in 1267 St Louis had taken the cross a
second time, moved by the news of Bibars' conquests; and though the
French baronage, including even Joinville himself, refused to follow the
lead of their king, Prince Edward of England imitated his example. Louis
had been led to think that the bey of Tunis might be converted, and in
that hope he resolved to begin this eighth and last of the Crusades by
an expedition to Tunis. Charles, as anxious to attack Constantinople as
he was reluctant to attack Tunis, with which Sicily had long had
commercial relations, was forced to abandon his own plans and to join in
those of his brother.[56] St Louis had barely landed in Tunis when he
sickened and died, murmuring "Jerusalem, Jerusalem" (August 1270); but
Charles, who appeared immediately after his brother's death, was able to
conduct the Crusade to a successful conclusion. Negotiating in the
spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of
Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself
and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for
his Sicilian exchequer. So ended the Eighth Crusade--much as the Sixth
had done--to the profound disgust of many of the crusaders, including
Prince Edward of England, who only arrived on the eve of the conclusion
of the treaty. Baulked of any opportunity of joining in the main
Crusade, Edward, after wintering in Sicily, conducted a Crusade of his
own to Acre in the spring of 1271. For over a year he stayed in the Holy
Land, making little sallies from Acre, and negotiating with the
Mongols, but achieving no permanent results. He returned home at the end
of 1272, the last of the western crusaders; and thus all the attempts of
St Louis and Charles of Anjou, of James of Aragon and Edward of England
left Bibars still in possession of all his conquests.

Two projects of Crusades were started before the final expulsion of the
Latins from Syria. In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had
been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to
an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael
Palaeologus as well as from many western princes. All the princes of
western Europe took the cross; not only so, but Gregory was successful
in uniting the Eastern and Western churches for the moment, and in
securing for the new Crusade the aid of the Palaeologi, now thoroughly
alarmed by the plans of Charles of Anjou. Thus was a papal Crusade
begun, backed by an alliance with Constantinople, and thus were the
plans of Charles of Anjou temporarily thwarted. But in 1276 Gregory X.
died, and all his plans died with him; there was to be no union of the
monarchs of the West with the emperor of the East in a common Crusade.
Charles was able to resume his plans. In 1277 Mary of Antioch ceded to
him her claims, and he was able to establish himself in Acre; in 1278 he
took possession of the principality of Achaea. With these bases at his
disposal he began to prepare a new Crusade, to be directed primarily
(like that of Henry VI. in 1197, and like his own projected Crusade of
1270) against Constantinople. Once more his plans were crossed finally
and fatally: the Sicilian Vespers, and the coronation of Peter of Aragon
as Sicilian king (1282), gave him troubles at home which occupied him
for the rest of his days. This was the last serious attempt at a Crusade
on behalf of the dying kingdom of Jerusalem which was made in the West;
and its collapse was quickly followed by the final extinction of the
kingdom. A precarious peace had reigned in the Holy Land since 1272,
when Bibars had granted a truce of ten years; but the fall of the great
power of Charles of Anjou set free Kala'un the successor of Bibars' son
(who reigned little more than two years), to complete the work of the
great sultan. In 1289 Kala'un took Tripoli, and the county of Tripoli
was extinguished; in 1290 he died while preparing to besiege Acre, which
was captured after a brave defence by his son and successor Khalil in
1291. Thus the kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end. The Franks evacuated
Syria altogether, leaving behind them only the ruins of their castles to
bear witness, to this very day, of the Crusades they had waged and the
kingdom they had founded and lost.

9. _The Ghost of the Crusades._--The loss of Acre failed to stimulate
the powers of Europe to any new effort. France, always the natural home
of the Crusades, was too fully occupied, first by war with England and
then by a struggle with the papacy, to turn her energies towards the
East. But it is often the case that theory develops as practice fails;
and as the theory of the Holy Roman Empire was never more vigorous than
in the days of its decrepitude, so it was with the Crusades.
Particularly in the first quarter of the 14th century, writers were busy
in explaining the causes of the failures of past Crusades, and in laying
down the lines along which a new Crusade must proceed. Several causes
are recognized by these writers as accounting for the failure of the
Crusades. Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that
the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had
allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of
Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a
Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen. Others again
find in the princes of Europe the authors of the ruin of the Crusades;
they too had preferred their own national or dynastic interests to the
cause of a common Christianity. They had indeed, as has been already
noticed, done even more; they had used the name of Crusade, from the
days of Henry VI. onwards, as a cover and an excuse for secular
ambitions of their own; and in this way they had certainly helped, in
very large measure, to discourage the old religious zeal for the Holy
War. Other writers, again, blame the commercial cupidity of the Italian
towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the
Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for
its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257),
or--still worse--entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy
against whom the Crusades were directed? On the very eve of the Fifth
Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of
Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and
the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the
sultan Kala'un. A fourth cause, on which many writers dwelt,
particularly at the time when the suppression of the Templars was in
question, was the dissensions between the two orders of Templars and
Hospitallers, and the selfish policy of merely pursuing their own
interest which was followed by both in common. But one might enumerate
_ad infinitum_ the causes of the failure of the Crusades. It is
simplest, as it is truest, to say that the Crusades did not fail--they
simply ceased; and they ceased because they were no longer in joint with
the times. The moral character of Europe in 1300 was no longer the moral
character of Europe in 1100; and the Crusades, which had been the active
and objective embodiment of the other worldly Europe of 1100, were alien
to the secular, legal, scholastic Europe of 1300. While Edward I. was
seeking to found a united kingdom in Great Britain; while the Habsburgs
were entrenching themselves in Austria; above all, while Philippe le Bel
and his legists were consolidating the French monarchy on an absolutist
basis, there could be little thought of the holy war. These were
hard-headed men of affairs--men who would not lightly embark on joyous
ventures, or seek for an ideal San Grail; nor were the popes, doomed to
the Babylonian captivity for seventy long years at Avignon, able to call
down the spark from on high which should consume all earthly ambitions
in one great act of sacrifice.

But it is long before the death of any institution is recognized; and it
was inevitable that men should busy themselves in trying to rekindle the
dead embers into new life. Pierre Dubois, in a pamphlet "_De
recuperatione Sanctae Terrae_," addressed to Edward I. in 1307,
advocates a general council of Europe to maintain peace and prevent the
dissensions which--as, for instance, in 1192--had helped to cause the
failure of past Crusades. Along with this advocacy of internationalism
goes a plea for the disendowment of the Church, in order to provide an
adequate financial basis for the future Crusade. Other proposals, made
by men well acquainted with the East, are more definitely practical and
less political in their intention. A blockade of Egypt by an
international fleet, an alliance with the Mongols, the union of the two
great orders--these are the three staple heads of these proposals.
Something, indeed, was attempted, if little was actually done, under
each of these three heads. The plan of an international fleet to coerce
the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers,
who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their
fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of
the coast of the Levant. The union of the two orders, already suggested
at the council of Lyons in 1245, was nominally achieved by the council
of Vienne in 1311; but the so-called "union" was in reality the
suppression of the Templars, and the confiscation of all their resources
by the cupidity of Philippe le Bel. The alliance with the Mongols
remained, from the first to the last, something of a chimera; and the
last visionary hope vanished when the Mongols finally embraced
Mahommedanism, as, by the end of the 14th century, they had almost
universally done.

Isolated enterprises somewhat of the character of a Crusade, but hardly
serious enough to be dignified by that name, recur during the 14th
century. The French kings are all crusaders--in name--until the
beginning of the Hundred Years' War; but the only crusader who ever
carried war in Palestine and sought to shake the hold of the Mamelukes
on the Holy Land was Peter I., king of Cyprus from 1359 to 1369. Peter
founded the order of the Sword for the delivery of Jerusalem; and
instigated by his chancellor, P. de Mézières (one of the last of the
theorists who speculated and wrote on the Crusades), he attempted to
revive the old crusading spirit throughout the west of Europe. The
mission which he undertook with his chancellor for this purpose
(1362-1365) only produced a crop of promises or excuses from sovereigns
like Edward III. or the Emperor Charles IV.; and Peter was forced to
begin the Crusade with such volunteers as he could collect for himself.
In the autumn of 1365 he sacked Alexandria; in 1367 he ravaged the coast
of Syria, and inflicted serious damages on the sultan of Egypt. But in
1369 he was assassinated, and the last romantic figure of the Crusades
died, leaving only the legacy of his memory to his chancellor de
Mézières, who for nearly forty years longer continued to be the preacher
of the Crusades to Europe, advocating--what always continued to be the
"dream of the old pilgrim"--a new order of knights of the Passion of
Christ for the recovery and defence of Jerusalem. De Mézières was the
last to advocate seriously, as Peter I. was the last to attempt, a
Crusade after the old fashion--an offensive war against Egypt for the
recovery of the Holy Sepulchre.[57] From 1350 onwards the Crusade
assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against
the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves
in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the
confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol
invasions. As early as 1308 the Ottoman Turks had begun to settle in
Europe; by 1350 they had organized their terrible army of janissaries.
They threatened at once the débris of the old Latin empire in Greece and
the archipelago, and the relics of the Byzantine empire round
Constantinople; they menaced the Hospitallers in Rhodes and the
Lusignans in Cyprus. It was natural that the popes should endeavour to
form a coalition between the various Christian powers which were
threatened by the Turks; and Venice, anxious to preserve her possessions
in the Aegean, zealously seconded their efforts. In 1344 a Crusade, in
which Venice, the Cypriots, and the Hospitallers all joined, ended in
the conquest of Smyrna; in 1345 another Crusade, led by Humbert, dauphin
of Vienne, ended in failure. The Turks continued their progress; in 1363
they captured Philippopolis, and in 1365 they entered Adrianople; the
whole Balkan peninsula was threatened, and even Hungary itself seemed
doomed. Already in 1365 Urban VI. sought to unite the king of Hungary
and the king of Cyprus in a common Crusade against the Turks; but it was
not till 1396 that an attempt was at last made to supplement by a land
Crusade the naval Crusades of 1344 and 1345. Master of Servia and of
Bulgaria, as well as of Asia Minor, the sultan Bayezid was now
threatening Constantinople itself. To arrest his progress, a Crusade,
preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and
joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the
Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mézières,
_divisio_ and _propria voluntas_, were the ruin of the crusading army,
and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated. Not the Western
Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana
and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the
progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days
of Murad II. (1422) the Ottoman power was paralysed. Under Murad,
however, it rose to its old height. To meet the new danger a new union
of the churches of the East and the West was attempted. As in 1074
Gregory VII. had dreamed of such a union, to be followed by a joint
attack of East and West on the Seljuks, so in 1439, at the council of
Florence, a new union of the two churches was again attempted and
temporarily secured, in order that a united Christendom might face the
new Turkish danger.[58] The logical result of the union was the Crusade
of 1443. An army of cosmopolitan adventurers, led by the Cardinal
Caesarini, joined the forces of Wladislaus of Poland and John Hunyadi
of Transylvania, and succeeded in forcing on Murad II. a truce of ten
years at Szegedin in 1444. But the crusaders broke the truce, to which
Caesarini had never consented; and, attempting to better what was
already good enough, they were defeated at Varna. Here the last Crusade
ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1453, Mahommed II., the successor
of Murad, captured Constantinople. It was in vain that the popes sought
to gather a new Crusade for its recovery; Pius II., who had vowed to
join the crusade in person, only reached Ancona in 1464 to find the
crusaders deserting and to die. Yet the ghost of the Crusades still
lingered. It became a convention of diplomacy, designed to cover any
particularly sharp piece of policy which needed some excuse; and the
treaty of Granada, formed between Louis XII. and Ferdinand of Aragon for
the partition of Naples in 1500, was excused as a thing necessary in the
interests of the Crusades. In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived
in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus,
Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they
were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the
Cross on their breasts."[59] "Don Henrique's scheme," it has been said,
"represents the final effort of the crusading spirit; and the naval
campaigns against the Moslem in the Indian seas, in which it culminated,
forty years after Don Henrique's death, may be described as the last
Crusade."[60]

10. _Results of the Crusades._--In one vital respect the result of the
Crusades may be written down as failure. They ended, not in the
occupation of the East by the Christian West, but in the conquest of the
West by the Mahommedan East. The Crusades began with the Seljukian Turk
planted at Nicaea; they ended with the Ottoman Turk entrenched by the
Danube. Nothing is more striking in history than the recession of
Christianity in the East after the 13th century. In the 13th century the
whole of Europe was Christian; part of Asia Minor still belonged to
Greek Christianity, and there was a Christian kingdom in Palestine. Nor
was this all. A wide missionary activity had begun in the 13th
century--an activity which was the product of the Crusades and the
contact with the Moslem which they brought, but which yet helped to
check the Crusades, substituting as it did peaceful and spiritual
conquests of souls for the violence and materialism of even a Holy War.
The Eastern mission had been begun by St Francis, who had visited and
attempted to convert the sultan of Egypt during the Fifth Crusade
(1220); within a hundred years the little seed had grown into a great
tree. A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the
Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many
Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked
that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from
Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself. But a Mahommedan
reaction came, thanks in large measure to the zeal of Timur; and central
Asia was lost to Christianity. Everywhere in the 15th century, in Europe
and in Asia, the crescent was victorious over the cross; and Crusade and
mission, whether one regards them as complementary or inimical, perished
together.[61]

But the history of the Crusades must be viewed rather as a chapter in
the history of civilization in the West itself, than as an extension of
Western dominion or religion to the East. It is a chapter very difficult
to write, for while on the one hand an ingenious and speculative
historian may refer to the influence of the Crusades almost everything
which was thought or done between 1100 and 1300, a cautious writer who
seeks to find documentary evidence for every assertion may be rather
inclined to attribute to that influence little or nothing.[62] The
dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of
scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the
Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or
at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger
part the results of other things. At most, therefore, it may be admitted
that the Crusades _contributed_ to the dissolution of feudalism by
putting property on the market and disturbing the validity of titles;
that they aided the development of towns by vastly increasing the volume
of trade; and that they furthered the growth of scholasticism by
bringing the West into contact with the mind of the East. If we seek the
peculiar and definite results of the Crusades, we must turn to narrower
issues. In the first place, the Crusades represent the attempt of a
feudal system, bound under the law of primogeniture to dispose of its
younger sons. They are attempts at feudal colonization; and as such they
resulted in a number of colonies--the kingdom of Jerusalem, the kingdom
of Cyprus, the Latin empire of Constantinople. They resulted too in a
number of "chartered companies"--that is to say, the three military
orders, which, beginning as charitable societies, developed into
military clubs, and developed again from military clubs into chartered
companies, possessed of banks, navies and considerable territories. In
the second place, as has already been noticed, the Crusades represent
the attempt of Western commerce to find new and more easy routes to the
wealth of the East; and in this respect they led to various results. On
the one hand they led to the establishment of emporia in the East--for
instance, Acre, and after the fall of Acre Famagusta, both in their day
great centres of Levantine trade. On the other hand, the commodities
which poured into Venice and Genoa from the East had to find a route for
their diffusion through Europe. The great route was that which led from
Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route
became the long red line of municipal development, along which--in
Lombardy, Germany and Flanders--the great towns of the middle ages
sprang to life. Partly as a result of this trade, ever pushing its way
farther east, and partly as a result of the Asiatic missions, which were
themselves an accompaniment and effect of the Crusades, a third great
result of the Crusades came to light in the 13th century--the discovery
of the interior of Asia, and an immense accession to the sphere of
geography. When one remembers that missionaries like Piano Carpini, and
traders like the Venetian Polos, either penetrated by land from Acre to
Peking, or circumnavigated southern Asia from Basra to Canton, one
realizes that there was, about 1300, a discovery of Asia as new and
tremendous as the discovery of America by Columbus two centuries later.
At the same time the old knowledge of nearer Asia was immensely
deepened. It has already been noticed how military reconnaissances of
the routes to Egypt came to be made; but more important were the
guide-books, of which a great number were written to guide the pilgrims
from one sacred spot of Bible history to another. There were medieval
Baedekers in abundance for the use of the annual flow of tourists, who
were carried every Easter by the vessels of the Italian towns or of the
Orders to visit the Holy Land and to bathe in Jordan, to gather palms,
and to see the miracle of fire at the Sepulchre.

Colonization, trade, geography--these then are three things closely
connected with the history of the Crusades. The development of the art
of war, and the growth of a systematic taxation, are two debts which
medieval Europe also owed to the Crusades. Partly by contact with the
Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned
new methods both of building and of attacking fortifications. The
concentric castle, with its rings of walls, began to displace the old
keep and bailey with their single wall, as the crusaders brought back
news from the East.[63] The art of the sapper and miner, the use of
siege instruments like the mangonel, and the employment of various
"fires" as missiles, were all known among the Mahommedans; and in all
these respects the Franks learned from their enemies. The common use of
armorial bearings, and the practice of the tournament, may be Oriental
in their origin; the latter has its affinities with the equestrian
exercises of the Jerid, and the former, though of prehistoric antiquity,
may have received a new impulse from contact with the Arabs. The
military development which sprang from the Crusades is thus largely a
matter of borrowing; the financial development is independent and
indigenous in the West. As early as 1147 Louis VII. had imposed a tax in
the interests of the Crusades; and that tax had been repeated by Louis,
and imitated by Henry II. in 1166, while it had been still further
extended in the Saladin tithe of 1188. The taxation of 1166 is important
as the first to fall on "moveables"; the whole scheme of taxation may be
regarded as the beginning of a modern system of taxation. But it was not
only to the lay power that the Crusades gave an excuse for taxation; the
papacy also profited. Tithes for the Crusades were first imposed on the
clergy by Innocent III. at the Lateran council of 1215; and clerical
taxation was thus part of the whole statesmanlike project of the Fifth
Crusade as it was sketched by the great pope. Henceforth tithes for the
Crusades are regular; under Gregory IX. they become a great part of the
papal resources in the Crusade against the Hohenstaufen; and in the 16th
century they are still a normal part of the government of the Church.

[Illustration: Map of Syria in the 12th cetury, before the conquests of
Saladin.]

In many other ways the Europe over which the Crusades had passed was
different from the Europe of the 11th century. In the first place, many
political changes had been wrought, largely under its influence. Always
in large part French, the Crusades had on the whole contributed to exalt
the prestige of France, until it stood at the end of the 13th century
the most considerable power in Europe. It was France which had colonized
the Levant; it was the French tongue which was used in the Levant; and
the results of the ancient and continuous connexion with the East are
still to be traced to-day. Of the other great powers of Europe, England
and Germany had been little changed by the Crusades, save that Germany
had been extended towards the East by the conquests of the Teutonic
Order; but the Eastern empire had been profoundly modified, and the
papacy had suffered a great change. The Eastern empire had been for a
time annihilated by the movement which in 1095 it had helped to evoke;
and if it rose from its ashes in 1261 for two centuries of renewed life,
it was never more than the shadow of its old self, with little hold on
Asia Minor and less on Greece and the Archipelago, which the Latins
still continued to occupy until they were finally conquered by the
Ottoman Turks. The papacy, on the other hand, had grown as a result of
the Crusades. Popes had preached them; popes had financed them; popes
had sent their legates to lead them. Through them the popes had deposed
the emperors of the West from their headship of the world, partly
because through the Crusades the popes were able to direct the common
Christianity of Europe in a foreign policy of their own without
consultation with the emperor, partly because in the 13th century they
were ultimately able to direct the Crusade itself against the empire.
Yet while they had magnified, the Crusades had also corrupted the
papacy. They became an instrument in its hands which it used to its own
undoing. It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long
Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent
victory, only served in the long run to lower its prestige in the eyes
of Europe. When we turn from the sphere of politics to the history of
civilization and culture, we find the effects of the Crusades as deeply
impressed, if not so definitely marked. The Crusades had sprung from the
policy of a theocratic government counting on the motive of
otherworldliness; they had helped in their course to overthrow that
motive, and with it the government which it had made possible. In part
they had provided a field in which the layman could prove that he too
was a priest; in part they had brought the West into a living and
continuous contact with a new faith and a new civilization. They had
torn men loose from the ancestral custom of home to walk in new ways and
see new things and hear new thoughts; and some broadening of view, some
lessening in the intensity of the old one-sidedness, was the inevitable
result. It is not so much that the West came into contact with a
particular civilization in the East, or borrowed from that civilization;
it is simply that the West came into contact with something unlike
itself, yet in many ways as high as, if not higher than, itself. The
spirit of _Nathan der Weise_ may not have been exactly the spirit
engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that
Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom
of Jerusalem. In any case the accusations made against the Templars at
the time of their suppression prove that there was, at any rate in the
ranks of those who knew the East, too little of absolute orthodoxy.
While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the
Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they
gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic
imagination. Not only was geography more studied; the Crusades gave a
great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides
innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle
ages--the _Historia transmarina_ of William of Tyre. Mathematics
received an impulse, largely, it is true, from the Arabs of Spain, but
also from the East; Leonardo Fibonacci, the first Christian algebraist,
had travelled in Syria and Egypt. The study of Oriental languages began
in connexion with the Christian missions of the East; Raymond Lull, the
indefatigable missionary, induced the council of Vienne to decide on the
creation of six schools of Oriental languages in Europe (1311). But the
new field of poetic literature afforded by the Crusades is still more
striking than this development of science. New poems in abundance dealt
with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like
that of the _Chanson_ of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or
in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the _Chanson
d'Antioche_. Nor was this all. The Crusades afforded new details which
might be inserted into old matters, and a new spirit which might be
infused into old subjects; and a crusading complexion thus came to be
put upon old tales like those of Arthur and Charlemagne. By the side of
these greater things it may seem little, and yet, just because it is
little, it is all the more significant that the Crusades should have
familiarized Europe with new plants, new fruits, new manufactures, new
colours, and new fashions in dress. Sugar and maize; lemons, apricots
and melons; cotton, muslin and damask; lilac and purple (azure and gules
are words derived from the Arabic); the use of powder and of glass
mirrors, and also of the rosary itself--all these things came to Europe
from the East and as a result of the Crusades. To this day there are
many Arabic words in the vocabulary of the languages of western Europe
which are a standing witness of the Crusades--words relating to trade
and seafaring, like tariff and corvette, or words for musical
instruments, like lute or the Elizabethan word "naker."


GENEALOGY OF THE KINGS OF JERUSALEM

        Godfrey,             Baldwin I.,          Baldwin II.,
  advocatus 1099-1100.   brother of Godfrey,   nephew of Godfrey
                           king 1100-1118.       and Baldwin I.,
                                               and king 1118-1131.
                                                       |
                                  +--------------------+--+
                                  |                       |
             Fulk of Anjou, = Melisinda                Alice = Bohemund II.
            king 1131-1143. |                                    of Antioch
                            |                                    (q.v.)
                            |
               +------------+---------------------------------------+
               |                                                    |
         Baldwin III.,                                         Amalric I.,
         king 1143-1162.                                    king 1162-1174.
                                                                    |
         +-----------+----------------------------------------------+
         |           |                                              |
    Baldwin IV.,  Sibylla = (1) William of   (2) Guy de Lusignan,   |
  king 1174-1183.               Montferrat;      king 1186-1192.    |
                                    |                               |
                               Baldwin V.,                          |
                             king 1183-1186.                        |
                                                                    |
      +-------------------------------------------------------------+
      |
  Isabella = (1) Humfred    (2) Conrad of   (3) Henry of   (4) Amalric II.,
                 of Turon.    Montferrat,     Champagne,      brother of Guy
                             acknowledged   king 1192-1197.   de Lusignan,
                             king in 1192.         |          king 1197-1205
                                   |               |          (also king of
                  +----------------+               |          Cyprus).
                  |                                |                  |
                Mary,      = John of Brienne,      |                  |
             queen under   |  king 1210-1225.      |                  |
              a regency    |                       |                  |
              from 1205-   |                       |                  |
                1210.      |                       |                  |
         +-----------------+                       |                  |
         |                                         |                  |
      Isabella = Frederick II.,                    |                  |
               |   emperor of the West             |                  |
               |   and king of Jerusalem           |                  |
               |   1225-1250.                      |                  |
               |                                   |                  |
        Conrad IV., king                           |                  |
          of Germany and                           |                  |
          of Jerusalem 1250-1255.                  |                  |
               |                                   |                  |
         Conradin, king                            |                  |
            1254-1268.                             |                  |
                                                   |                  |
     +---------------------------------------------+                  |
     |                              +---------------------------------+
     |                              |
   Alice = Hugh I. of Cyprus,   Melisinda = Bohemund IV.
         | son of Amalric II.             |
         | by his first wife.      Mary of Antioch,
         |                         who died 1277,
         |                         leaving her claims
         |                         to Charles of Anjou
         |                         (king of Sicily).
         |
      +--+------------------------------------------+
      |                                             |
   Henry I. of Cyprus = Plaisance of Antioch.   Isabella = John de Lusignan.
                      |                                  |
              Hugh II. of Cyprus.                        |
                                              Hugh (III. of Cyprus and)
                                                  I. of Jerusalem,
                                                     1269-1284.
                                                         |
                              +--------------------------+---+
                              |                              |
                          John I.,              Henry (III. of Cyprus and)
                       king of Cyprus,            II. of Jerusalem,
                         1284-1285.               king from 1285 to the
                                                  fall of the kingdom in
                                                  1291.


When all is said, the Crusades remain a wonderful and perpetually
astonishing act in the great drama of human life. They touched the
summits of daring and devotion, if they also sank into the deep abysms
of shame. Motives of self-interest may have lurked in them--otherworldly
motives of buying salvation for a little price, or worldly motives of
achieving riches and acquiring lands. Yet it would be treason to the
majesty of man's incessant struggle towards an ideal good, if one were
to deny that in and through the Crusades men strove for righteousness'
sake to extend the kingdom of God upon earth. Therefore the tears and
the blood that were shed were not unavailing; the heroism and the
chivalry were not wasted. Humanity is the richer for the memory of those
millions of men, who followed the pillar of cloud and fire in the sure
and certain hope of an eternal reward. The ages were not dark in which
Christianity could gather itself together in a common cause, and carry
the flag of its faith to the grave of its Redeemer; nor can we but give
thanks for their memory, even if for us religion is of the spirit, and
Jerusalem in the heart of every man who believes in Christ.

  LITERATURE.--In dealing with the literature of the Crusades, it is
  perhaps better, though ideally less scientific, to begin with
  chronicles and narratives rather than with documents. One of the
  results of the Crusades, as has just been suggested above, was a great
  increase in the writing of history. Crusaders themselves kept diaries
  or _itineraria_; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West--monks
  like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like
  Balderich of Dol--found a fertile subject for their pens in the
  history of the Crusades. The history of a series of actions like the
  Crusades must primarily be based on these accounts, and more
  particularly on the former: narratives must precede documents where
  one is dealing, not with the continuous life of an organized kingdom,
  but with a number of enterprises--especially when those enterprises
  have been, as in this case, excellently narrated by contemporary
  writers.

  I. _Chronicles and Narratives of the Crusades_--(1) Collections. The
  authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, _Gesta
  Dei per Francos_ (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, _Bibliothèque
  des croisades_ (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select
  passages in the authorities); the _Recueil des historiens des
  croisades_, published by the Académie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841
  onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin,
  Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the
  assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still incomplete); and the
  publications of the Société de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875),
  especially the _Archives_, of which two volumes were published in 1881
  and 1884, and the volumes of the _Revue_, published yearly from 1893
  to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews
  of books which are of great service. (2) Particular authorities. The
  Crusades--a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East
  into contact with the West--must necessarily be studied not only in
  the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in
  Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers. There are thus some four or
  five different points of view to be considered.

  The _First Crusade_, far more than any other, became the theme of a
  multitude of writings, whose different degrees of value it is
  all-important to distinguish. Until about 1840 the authority followed
  for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre. For
  the First Crusade William had followed Albert of Aix; and he had
  consequently depicted Peter the Hermit as the prime mover in the
  Crusade. But about 1840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his
  _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzüges_ proved, that Albert of Aix was
  _not_ a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be
  set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more
  contemporary authorities used. In writing his account of the First
  Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary
  Western authorities--the _Gesta Francorum_, Raymond of Agiles, and
  Fulcher. His view of the value of Albert of Aix, and his account of
  the First Crusade, have been generally followed (Kugler alone having
  attempted, to some extent, to rehabilitate Albert of Aix); and thus
  von Sybel's work may be said to mark a revolution in the history of
  the First Crusade, when its legendary features were stripped away, and
  its real progress was first properly discovered.

  Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one
  may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four
  kinds--the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on
  these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly,
  in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather
  a scientific historian than a chronicler.

  (a) The three chief eye-witnesses are the anonymous author of the
  _Gesta Francorum_, Raymund of Agiles, and Fulcher. The anonymous
  author of the _Gesta_ (see Hagenmeyer's edition, Heidelberg, 1890) was
  a Norman of South Italy, who followed Bohemund, and accordingly
  depicts the progress of the First Crusade from a Norman point of view.
  He was a layman, marching and fighting in the ranks; and thus he is
  additionally valuable as representing the opinion of the ordinary
  crusader. Finally he was an eye-witness throughout, and absolutely
  contemporary, in the sense that he wrote his account of each great
  event practically at the time of the event. He is the primary
  authority for the First Crusade. Raymund of Agiles, a Provençal clerk
  and a follower of Raymund of Toulouse, writes his _Historia Francorum
  qui ceperunt Jerusalem_ from the Provençal point of view. He gives an
  ecclesiastic's account of the First Crusade, and is specially full on
  the spiritualistic phenomena which accompanied and followed the
  finding of the Holy Lance. His book might almost be called the
  "Visions of Peter Bartholomew and others," and it is written in the
  plain matter-of-fact manner of Defoe's narratives. He too was an
  eye-witness throughout, and thoroughly honest; and his account ranks
  second to the _Gesta_. Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert
  of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his
  expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes. His
  _Historia Hierosolymitana_, which extends to 1127, and embraces not
  only the history of the First Crusade, but also that of the foundation
  of the kingdom of Jerusalem, is written on the whole from a
  Lotharingian point of view, and is thus a natural complement to the
  accounts of the Anonymus and Raymund. His account of the First Crusade
  itself is poor (he was absent at Edessa during its course), but
  otherwise he is an excellent authority. A kindly old pedant, Fulcher
  interlards his history with much discourse on geography, zoology and
  sacred history. Besides these three chief eye-witnesses we may also
  mention the _Annales Genuenses_ by the Genoese consul Caffarus,[64]
  and the _Annales Pisani_ of Bernardus Marago, useful as giving the
  mercantile and Italian side of the Crusade; the _Hierosolymita_ of
  Ekkehard, the German abbot of Aura, who first came to Jerusalem about
  1101 (partly based on the _Gesta_, but also of independent value: see
  Hagenmeyer's edition, Tübingen, 1877); and Raoul of Caen's _Gesta
  Tancredi_, composed on the basis of information supplied by Tancred
  himself. The last two works, if not actually the works of
  eye-witnesses, are at any rate first-hand, and belong to the category
  of primary writers rather than to that of later compilations. Finally,
  to contemporary writers we may add contemporary letters, especially
  those written by Stephen of Blois and Anselm of Ribemont, and the
  three letters sent to the West by the crusading princes during the
  First Crusade (see Hagenmeyer, _Epistulae et Chartae_, &c., Innsbruck,
  1901).[65]

  (b) The later compilations are chiefly based on the _Gesta_, whose
  uncouth style many writers set themselves to mend. In the first place,
  there is the _Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere_ of Tudebod, which
  according to Besly, writing in 1641, is the original from which the
  _Gesta_ was a mere plagiarism--an absolute inversion of the truth, as
  von Sybel first proved two centuries later. Secondly, besides the
  plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic _rédacteurs_ of the
  _Gesta_, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of
  their original--Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims
  (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the
  Crusades, continued by Gilo (_ob. c._ 1142). Of these, the monk Robert
  was more popular in the middle ages than either the pompous abbot
  Guibert or the quiet garden-loving archbishop of Dol.

  (c) The growth of a legend, or perhaps better, a saga of the First
  Crusade began, according to von Sybel, even during the Crusade itself.
  The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate
  in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or
  increase a contrast--the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas
  like that of _Burnt Njal_; partly the instinct of idolization, if it
  may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible
  greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance,
  the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon
  (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful
  in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober
  pages of the _Gesta_. These instincts and impulses would be at work
  already among the soldiers during the Crusade, producing a saga all
  the more readily, as there were poets in the camp; for we know that a
  certain Richard, who joined the First Crusade, sang its exploits in
  verse, while still more famous is the princely troubadour, William of
  Aquitaine, who joined the Crusade of 1100. If we are to follow von
  Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of
  its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix
  (_Historia Hierosolymitana_)--genuine saga in its inconsistencies,
  its errors of chronology and topography, its poetical colour, and its
  living descriptions of battles. Kugler, however, regards Albert as a
  copyist, somewhat in the manner of Tudebod, of an unknown writer of
  value, who belonged to the Lotharingian ranks during the Crusade, and
  settled in the kingdom of Jerusalem afterwards (see Kugler, _Albert
  von Aachen_, Stuttgart, 1885).[66] In the _Chanson des chétifs_ and
  the _Chanson d'Antioche_ the legend of the Crusades more certainly
  finds its expression. The former, composed at Antioch about 1130,
  contained an idolization of the Hermit: the latter is a poem written
  about 1180 by Graindor of Douai, who used as his basis the verses of
  the crusader Richard (see the edition of P. Paris, 1848). It shows the
  growth of the legend that Graindor regards the vision of the Hermit as
  responsible for the Crusade, and makes the Crusade led by him precede,
  and indeed occasion by its failure, the meeting at Clermont (which is
  dated in May instead of November). Into the legendary overgrowth of
  the First Crusade we cannot here enter any further[67]; but it is
  perhaps worth while to mention that the French legend of the Third
  Crusade equally perverted the truth, making Richard I. return home in
  disgrace, while Philip Augustus stays, captures Damascus and mortally
  wounds Saladin (cf. G. Paris, _L'Estoire de la guerre sainte_, Paris,
  1897; Introduction).

  (d) William of Tyre is the scientific historian and rationalizer,
  weaving into a harmonious account, which was followed by historians
  for centuries, the sober accounts of eye-witnesses and the picturesque
  details of the saga--with somewhat of a bias towards the latter in
  regard to the First Crusade. He was a native of Palestine, born about
  1130, and educated in the West. On his return he was happy in winning
  the good opinion of Amalric I.; he was made first canon and then
  archdeacon of Tyre, and tutor of the future Baldwin IV. (1170); while
  on Baldwin's accession he became chancellor of the kingdom and
  archbishop of Tyre (1174-1175). He was a man often employed on
  missions and negotiations, and as chancellor he had in his care the
  archives of the kingdom. His temper was naturally that of a trimmer;
  and he had thus many qualifications for the writing of well-informed
  and unbiassed history. He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well
  acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at
  least twice on political business, and with the history of the
  Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the
  command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the
  history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books,
  with a fragment of a twenty-third)--the _Historia rerum in partibus
  transmarinis gestarum_. He wrote the book at different times between
  1170 and 1183, when it abruptly ends, and its author as abruptly
  disappears from sight. The book falls into two parts, the first (books
  i.-xv.) derivative, the second (books xvi.-xxiii.) original. In the
  second part he had his own knowledge of events and the information of
  his contemporaries as his source: in the first he used the same
  authorities which we still possess--the _Gesta_, Fulcher, and Albert
  of Aix--in somewhat of an eclectic spirit, choosing now here, now
  there, according as he could best weave a pleasant narrative, but not
  according to any real critical principle. His book thus begins to be a
  real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but
  the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of
  the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make
  his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century
  of the Crusades. Nor was he (apart from his reception of legendary
  elements into his narrative) unworthy of the honour in which he was
  held; for he is really a great historian, in the form of his matter
  and in his conception of his subject--diligent, impartial,
  well-informed and interesting, if somewhat rhetorical in style and
  vague in chronology.

  [During the middle ages his work was current in a French translation,
  known as the _Chronique d'outre-mer_, or the _Livre_ or _Roman
  d'Éracles_ (so called from the reference at the beginning to the
  emperor Heraclius). This translation also contained a continuation by
  various hands down to 1277; while besides the continuation embedded in
  the _Livre d'Éracles_, there are separate continuations, of the nature
  of independent works, by Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer. These
  latter cover the period from 1183 to 1228; and of the two Ernoul's
  account seems primary, while that of Bernard is in large part a mere
  copy of Ernoul. But the whole subject of the continuators of William
  of Tyre is dubious.]

  To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the
  Eastern--Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian. Of these the Byzantine
  authority, the _Alexiad_ of Anna Comnena, is most important, partly
  from the position of the authoress, partly from the many points of
  contact between the Byzantine empire and the crusaders. Anna's
  narrative both furnishes a useful corrective of the prejudiced
  Western accounts of Alexius, and serves to bring Bohemund forward into
  his proper prominence. The Armenian view of the First Crusade and of
  Baldwin's principality of Edessa is presented in the _Armenian
  Chronicle_ of Matthew of Edessa. There is little in Arabic bearing on
  the First Crusade: the Arabic authorities only begin to be of value
  with the rise of the atabegs of Mosul (c. 1127). But Kemal-ud-din's
  _History of Aleppo_ (composed in the 13th century) contains some
  details on the history of the First Crusade; and the _Vie d'Ousama_
  (the autobiography of a sheik at Caesarea in northern Syria, edited
  and paraphrased by Derenbourg in the _Publications de l'École des
  langues orientales vivantes_) presents the point of view of an Arab
  whose life covered the first century of the Crusades (1095-1188).

  For the _Second Crusade_ the primary authority in the West is the work
  of Odo de Deuil, _De profectione Ludovici VII regis Francorum in
  Orientem_. Odo was a monk attached by Suger to Louis VII. during the
  Second Crusade; and he wrote home to Suger during the Crusade seven
  short letters, afterwards pieced together in a single work. The _Gesta
  Friderici Primi_ of Otto of Freising (who joined in the Second
  Crusade) gives some details from the German point of view (i. c. 44
  sqq.). The former is supplemented by the letters of Louis VII. to
  Suger; the latter by the letters of Conrad III. to Wibald, abbot of
  Stablo and Corvey. The Byzantine point of view is presented in the
  [Greek: 'Epitomê] of Cinnamus, the private secretary of Manuel, who
  continued the _Alexiad_ of Anna Comnena in a work describing the
  reigns of John and Manuel. It is from the Second Crusade that William
  of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins
  to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable
  authority emerges in Ibn Athir. His history of the Atabegs was written
  about 1200, and it presents in a light favourable to Zengi and
  Nureddin, but unfavourable to Saladin (who thrust Nureddin's
  descendants aside), the history of the great Mahommedan power which
  finally crushed the kingdom of Jerusalem.[68]

  Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is
  the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.
  Generally speaking the Arabic writings are late in point of date, and
  cold and jejune in style; while it must also be remembered that they
  are set religious works written to defend Islam. On the other hand
  they are generally written by men of affairs--governors, secretaries
  or ambassadors; and a fatalistic temper leads their authors to a
  certain impartial recording of everything, good or evil, which seems
  of moment.

  The _Third Crusade_ was narrated in the West from very different
  points of view by Anglo-Norman, French and German authorities. The
  primary Anglo-Norman authority is the _Carmen Ambrosii_, or, as it is
  called by M. Gaston Paris, _L'Estoire de la guerre sainte_. This is an
  octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman
  _trouvère_ who followed Richard I. to the Holy Land. The poem first
  came to be known by scholars about 1873, and has been edited by M.
  Gaston Paris (Paris, 1897). The _Itinerarium Peregrinorum_, a work in
  ornate Latin prose, is (except for the first book) a translation of
  the _Carmen_ masquerading under the guise of an independent work.
  There seems no doubt that it is a piece of plagiary, and that its
  writer, Richard, "canon of the Holy Trinity" in London, stands to the
  _Carmen_ as Tudebod to the _Gesta_, or Albert of Aix to his supposed
  original. The Third Crusade is also described from the English point
  of view by all contemporary writers of history in England, e.g. Ralph
  of Coggeshall, who used information gained from crusaders, and William
  of Newburgh, who had access to a work by Richard I.'s chaplain Anselm,
  which is now lost.[69] The French side is presented in Rigord's _Gesta
  Philippi Augusti_ and in the _Gesta_ (an abridgment and continuation
  of Rigord) and the _Philippeis_ of William the Breton. The two French
  writers represent Richard as a faithless vassal: in the German
  writers--Tagino, dean of Passau, who wrote a _Descriptio_ of
  Barbarossa's Crusade (1189-1190); and Ansbert, an Austrian clerk, who
  wrote _De expeditione Friderici Imperatoris_ (1187-1196)--Richard
  appears rather as a monster of pride and arrogance. From the Arabic
  point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by
  Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on
  his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its
  sympathies, but nevertheless of great value. The various continuations
  of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native
  Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a
  history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine
  authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and
  Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly
  fair."

  For the _Fourth Crusade_ the primary authority is Villehardouin's _La
  Conquête de Constantinople_, an official apology for the diversion of
  the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana
  under an appearance of frank naïveté. His work is usefully
  supplemented by the narrative (_La Prise de Constantinople_) of
  Robert de Clary, a knight from Picardy, who presents the non-official
  view of the Crusade, as it appeared to an ordinary soldier. The
  [Greek: Chronikon tôn en Rhomania] (composed in Greek verse some time
  after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek
  parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title
  "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of
  Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed
  also of the First) Crusade. The _Chronicle of the Morea_ (as this work
  is generally called) is written from the Frankish point of view, in
  spite of its Greek verse; and the Byzantine point of view must be
  sought in Nicetas.[70]

  The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth,
  enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned;
  while the _Historia orientalis_ of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken
  part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of
  events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition). The _Secreta
  fidelium Crucis_ of Marino Sanudo, a history of the Crusades written
  by a Venetian noble between 1306 and 1321, is also of value,
  particularly for the Crusade of Frederick II. The minor authorities
  for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Röhricht, in the
  publications of the Société de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the
  ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the _Historia
  Damiettina_, based on these letters, have also been edited by Röhricht
  in the _Westdeutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kunst_ (1891). The
  Sixth Crusade, that of Frederick II., is described in the chronicle of
  Richard of San Germano, a notary of the emperor, and in other Western
  authorities, e.g. Roger of Wendover. For the Crusades of St Louis the
  chief authorities are Joinville's life of his master (whom he
  accompanied to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade), and de Nangis' _Gesta
  Ludovici regis_. Several works were written on the capture of Acre in
  1291, especially the _Excidium urbis Acconensis_, a treatise which
  emerges to throw light, after many years of darkness, on the last
  hours of the kingdom. The Oriental point of view for the 13th century
  appears in Jelaleddin's history of the Ayyubite sultans of Egypt,
  written towards the end of the 13th century; in Maqrizi's history of
  Egypt, written in the middle of the 15th century; and in the
  compendium of the history of the human race by Abulfeda (+1332); while
  the omniscient Abulfaragius (whom Rey calls the Eastern St Thomas)
  wrote, in the latter half of the 13th century, a chronicle of
  universal history in Syriac, which he also issued, in an Arabic
  recension, as a _Compendious History of the Dynasties_.

  II. The documents bearing on the history of the Crusades and the Latin
  kingdom of Jerusalem are various. Under the head of charters come the
  _Regesta regni Hierosolymitani_, published by Röhricht, Innsbruck,
  1893 (with an Additamentum in 1904); the _Cartulaire générale des
  Hospitaliers_, by Delaville Leroulx (Paris, 1894 onwards); and the
  _Cartulaire de l'église du St Sépulcre_, by de Rozière (Paris, 1849).
  Under the head of laws come the assizes of the Kingdom, edited by
  Beugnot in the _Recueil des historiens des croisades_; and the assizes
  of Antioch, printed at Venice in 1876. G. Schlumberger has written on
  the coins and seals of the Latin East in various publications; while
  Rey has written an _Étude sur les monuments de l'architecture
  militaire_ (Paris, 1871). The genealogy of the Levant is given in _Le
  Livre des lignages d'outre-mer_ (published along with the assizes).

  BIBLIOGRAPHIES.--The best modern account of the original authorities
  for the Crusades is that of A. Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de
  France_, vols. ii. and iii. W. Wattenbach's _Deutschlands
  Geschichtsquellen_ gives an account of Albert of Aix (vol. ii., ed.
  1894, pp. 170-180) and of Ekkehard of Aura (ibid. pp. 189-198). Von
  Sybel's _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzüges_ contains a full study of
  the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to
  Hagenmeyer's editions of the _Gesta_ and of Ekkehard are also
  valuable. Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief
  account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far
  as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and
  H. Prutz has also a short account of some of the historians of the
  Crusades (_Kulturgeschichte_, pp. 453-469). Finally reference may be
  made to the works of Kugler and Klimke above mentioned, and to J. F.
  Michaud's _Bibliographie des croisades_ (Paris, 1822).

  _Modern Writers._--The various works of R. Röhricht present the
  soundest, if not the brightest, account of the Crusades. There is a
  _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzugs_ (Innsbruck, 1901), a _Geschichte des
  Königreichs Jerusalem_ (ibid. 1898) and a _Geschichte der Kreuzzüge in
  Umris_ (ibid. 1898). For the First Crusade von Sybel's work and
  Chalandon's _Alexis I^er Comnène_ may also be mentioned; for the
  Fourth A. Luchaire's volume on _Innocent III: La Question d'Orient_;
  while for the whole of the Crusades Norden's _Papstum und Byzanz_ is
  of value. B. Kugler's _Geschichte der Kreuzzüge_ (in Oncken's series)
  still remains a suggestive and valuable work; and L. Bréhier's
  _L'Église et l'orient au moyen âge_ (Paris, 1907) contains not only an
  up-to-date account of the Crusades, but also a full and useful
  bibliography, which should be consulted for fuller information. On
  points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and
  their Mahommedan neighbours, W. B. Stevenson's _The Crusaders in the
  East_ (Cambridge, 1907) is very valuable. On the constitutional and
  social history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem Dodu's _Histoire des
  institutions du royaume latin de Jérusalem_ is very useful; E. G.
  Rey's _Les Colonies franques en Syrie_ contains many interesting
  details; and Prutz's _Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzzüge_ contains both an
  account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the
  Crusades on the progress of civilization. The works of Gmelin and J.
  Delaville-Leroulx on the Templars and Hospitallers respectively are
  worth consulting; while for Eastern affairs the English reader may be
  referred to G. Lestrange's _Palestine under the Moslem_, and to
  Stanley Lane-Poole's _Life of Saladin_ and his _Mahommedan Dynasties_
  (the latter a valuable work of reference).     (E. Br.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Fulcher of Chartres, 1, i. For what follows, with regard to the
    Church's conversion of _guerra_ into the Holy War, cf. especially the
    passage--"Procedant contra infideles ad pugnam jam incipi dignam ...
    qui abusive _privatum certamen_ contra fideles consuescebant
    distendere quondam."

  [2] Tradition credits a pope still earlier than Gregory VII. with the
    idea of a crusade. Silvester II. is said to have preached a general
    expedition for the recovery of Jerusalem; and the same preaching is
    attributed to Sergius IV. in 1011. But the supposed letter of
    Silvester is a later forgery; and in 1000 the way of the Christian to
    Jerusalem was still free and open.

  [3] The comte de Riant impugned the authenticity of Alexius' letter
    to the count of Flanders. It is very probable that the versions of
    this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later
    writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly
    have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written
    that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than
    that of the Turks. But it is also probable that these apocryphal
    versions are based on a genuine original.

  [4] Ekkehard, _Chronica_, p. 213.

  [5] The _Chanson de Roland_, which cannot be posterior to the First
    Crusade--for the poem never alludes to it--already contains the idea
    of the Holy War against Islam. The idea of the crusade had thus
    already ripened in French poetry, before Urban preached his sermon.

  [6] Book i. c. iii. (in Muratori, _S.R.I._, v. 550).

  [7] Ekkehard, _Chronica_, 214.

  [8] Later legend ascribed the origin of the First Crusade to the
    preaching of Peter the Hermit. The legend has been followed by modern
    historians; but in point of fact Peter is a figure of secondary
    importance.(See PETER THE HERMIT.)

  [9] Godfrey's army numbered some 30,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry
    (Röhricht, _Erst. Kreuzz._ 61): Urban II. reckons Bohemund's knights
    as 7000 in number (_ibid._ 71, n. 7).

  [10] The Genoese had been invited by Urban II. in September 1096 "to
    go with their gallies to Eastern parts in order to set free the path
    to the Lord's Sepulchre."

  [11] Thus already on the First Crusade the path of negotiation is
    attempted simultaneously with the Holy War. On the Third Crusade, and
    above all on the Sixth, this path was still more seriously attempted.
    It is interesting, too, to notice the part which the laity already
    plays in directing the course of the Crusade. From the first the
    Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in
    its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise
    aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape
    of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was
    evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.

  [12] Before he left, Raymund had played in Jerusalem the same part of
    dog in the manger which he had also played at Antioch, and had given
    Godfrey considerable trouble. See the articles, GODFREY OF BOUILLON
    and RAYMUND OF TOULOUSE.

  [13] For an account of the kings of Jerusalem see the articles on the
    five BALDWINS, on the two AMALRICS, on FULK and JOHN OF BRIENNE and
    on the LUSIGNAN (family).

  [14] The genuineness of the letter (on which, by the way, depends the
    story of Godfrey's agreement with Dagobert) has been impeached by
    Prutz and Kugler, and doubted by Röhricht. It is accepted by von
    Sybel and Hagenmeyer.

  [15] Yet the north always continued to be more populous than the
    south; and the Latins maintained themselves in Antioch and Tripoli a
    century after the loss of Jerusalem. The land was richer in the
    north: it was protected by its connexion with Cyprus and Armenia: it
    was more remote from Egypt--the basis of Mahommedan power from the
    reign of Saladin onwards.

  [16] Pisa naturally connected itself with Antioch, because Antioch
    was hostile to Constantinople, and Pisa cherished the same hostility,
    since Alexius I. had in 1080 given preferential treatment to Venice,
    the enemy of Pisa.

  [17] This is the year in which the kingdom may be regarded as
    definitely founded. The period of conquest practically ends at this
    date, though isolated gains were afterwards made. The year 1110 is
    additionally important by reason of the accession of Maudud al Mosul,
    which marks the beginning of a Moslem reaction.

  [18] Ilghazi died in 1122. His successor was Balak, who ruled from
    1122 to 1124, and succeeded in capturing in 1123 Baldwin II. of
    Jerusalem. The union of Mardin and Aleppo under the sway of these two
    amirs, connecting as it did Mesopotamia with Syria, marks an
    important stage in the revival of Mahommedan power (Stevenson,
    _Crusades in the East_, p. 109).

  [19] Maudud (the brother of the sultan Mahommed) may be regarded as
    the first to begin the _jihad_, or counter-crusade, and his attack
    expedition of 1113, which carried him so far into the heart of
    Palestine, may be considered as the first act of the _jihad_
    (Stevenson, op. cit. pp. 87, 96).

  [20] Aleppo had passed from the rule of Timurtash (son of Ilghazi and
    successor of Balak) into the possession of Aksunkur, 1125.

  [21] Stevenson, however, believes that Zengi was _not_ animated by
    the idea of recovering Jerusalem. He thinks that his principal aim
    was simply the formation of a compact Mahommedan state, which was,
    indeed, in the issue destined to be the instrument of the _jihad_,
    but was not so intended by Zengi (op. cit. pp. 123-124).

  [22] There are certain connexions and analogies between the kingdom
    of Sicily and that of Jerusalem during the twelfth century. In either
    case there is an importation of Western feudalism into a country
    originally possessed of Byzantine institutions, but affected by an
    Arabic occupation. The subject deserves investigation.

  [23] The holders of fiefs (_sodeers_) both held fiefs of land and
    received pay; the paid force of _soudoyers_ only received pay. An
    instance of the latter is furnished by John of Margat, a vassal of
    the seignory of Arsuf. He has 200 bezants along with a quantity of
    wheat, barley, lentils and oil; and in return he must march with four
    horses (Rey, _Les Colonies franques en Syrie_, p. 24).

  [24] For the history of the orders see the articles on the TEMPLARS;
    ST JOHN OF JERUSALEM, KNIGHTS OF; KNIGHTS, and the TEUTONIC ORDER.
    The Templars were founded about the year 1118 by a Burgundian knight,
    Hugh de Paganis; the Hospitallers sprang from a foundation in
    Jerusalem erected by merchants of Amalfi before the First Crusade,
    and were reorganized under Gerard le Puy, master until 1120. The
    Teutonic knights date from the Third Crusade.

  [25] As was noticed above, there were apparently separate assizes for
    the three principalities, in addition to the assizes of the kingdom.
    The assizes of Antioch have been discovered and published. The
    assizes of the kingdom itself are twofold--the assizes of the high
    court and the assizes of the court of burgesses. (1) The assizes of
    the high court are preserved for us in works by legists--John of
    Ibelin, Philip of Novara and Geoffrey of Tort--composed in the 13th
    century. We possess, in other words, _law-books_ (like Bracton's
    treatise _De legibus_), but not _laws_--and law-books made after the
    loss of the kingdom to which the laws belonged. There are two vexed
    questions with regard to these law-books. (a) The first concerns the
    origin and character of the laws which the law-books profess to
    expound. According to the story of the legists who wrote these
    books--e.g. John of Ibelin--the laws of the kingdom were laid down by
    Godfrey, who is thus regarded as the great [Greek: nomothetês] of the
    kingdom. These laws (progressively modified, it is admitted) were
    kept in Jerusalem, under the name of "Letters of the Sepulchre,"
    until 1187. In that year they were lost; and the legists tell us that
    they are attempting to reconstruct _par oir dire_ the gist of the
    lost archetype. The story of the legists is now generally rejected.
    Godfrey never legislated: the customs of the kingdom gradually grew,
    and were gradually defined, especially under kings like Baldwin III.
    and Amalric I. If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law
    (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a _jus consuetudinarium_
    under Baldwin III., _quo regnum regebatur_), then the "Letters of the
    Sepulchre" are a myth--or rather, if they ever existed, they existed
    not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs,
    like the Sicilian _Defetarii_. Thus the story of the legists shrinks
    down to the regular myth of the primitive legislator, used to give an
    air of respectability to law-books, which really record an unwritten
    custom. The fact is that until the 13th century the Franks lived
    _consuetudinibus antiquis et jure non scripto_. They preferred an
    unwritten law, as Prutz suggests, partly because it suited the
    barristers (who often belonged to the baronage, for the Frankish
    nobles were "great pleaders in court and out of court"), and partly
    because the high court was left unbound so long as there was no
    written code. In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists
    to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of
    the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and
    especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of
    the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to
    take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own
    conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court. (b) The second
    difficulty concerns the text of the law-books themselves. The text of
    Ibelin became a _textus receptus_--but it also became overlaid by
    glosses, for it was used as authoritative in the kingdom of Cyprus
    after the loss of the kingdom of Jerusalem, and it needed expounding.
    Recensions and revisions were twice made, in 1368 and 1531; but how
    far the true Ibelin was recovered, and what additions or alterations
    were made at these two dates, we cannot tell. We can only say that we
    have the text of Ibelin which was used in Cyprus in the later middle
    ages. At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be
    remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest
    exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization
    of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the
    fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories. (2) The
    assizes of the court of burgesses became the basis of a treatise at
    an earlier date than the assizes of the high court. The date of the
    redaction (which was probably made by some learned burgess) may well
    have been the reign of Baldwin III., as Kugler suggests: he was the
    first native king, and a king learned in the law; but Beugnot would
    refer the assizes to the years immediately preceding Saladin's
    capture of Jerusalem. These assizes do not, of course, appear in
    Ibelin, who was only concerned with the feudal law of the high court.
    They were used, like the assizes of the high court, in Cyprus; and,
    like the other assizes, they were made the subject of investigation
    in 1531, with the object of discovering a good text. The law which is
    expounded in these assizes is a mixture of Frankish law with the
    Graeco-Roman law of the Eastern empire which prevailed among the
    native population of Syria.

    In regard to both assizes, it is most important to bear in mind that
    we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals--records made by
    lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and
    supported by legal arguments and citations of cases. But, as Prutz
    remarks, Philip of Novara _lehrt nicht die Wissenschaft des Rechts,
    sondern die des Unrechts_: he does not explain the law so much as the
    ways of getting round it.

  [26] For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not
    only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and
    Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at
    Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).

  [27] One must remember that these reinforcements would often consist
    of desperate characters. It was one of the misfortunes of Palestine
    that it served as a Botany Bay, to which the criminals of the West
    were transported for penance. The natives, already prone to the
    immorality which must infect a mixed population living under a hot
    sun, the immorality which still infects a place like Aden, were not
    improved by the addition of convicts.

  [28] The manorial system in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was a
    continuation of the village system as it had existed under the Arabs.
    In each village (_casale)_ the _rustici_ were grouped in families
    (_foci_): the tenants paid from ¼ to 1\3 of the crop, besides a
    poll-tax and labour-dues. The villages were mostly inhabited by
    Syrians: it was rarely that Franks settled down as tillers of the
    soil. Prutz regards the manorial system as oppressive. Absentee
    landlords, he thinks, rack-rented the soil (p. 167), while the
    "inhuman severity" of their treatment of villeins led to a
    progressive decay of agriculture, destroyed the economic basis of the
    Latin kingdom, and led the natives to welcome the invasion of Saladin
    (pp. 327-331).

    The French writers Rey and Dodu are more kind to the Franks; and the
    testimony of contemporary Arabic writers, who seem favourably
    impressed by the treatment of their subjects by the Franks, bears out
    their view, while the tone of the assizes is admittedly favourable to
    the Syrians. One must not forget that there was a brisk native
    manufacture of carpets, pottery, ironwork, gold-work and soap; or
    that the Syrians of the towns had a definite legal position.

  [29] After 1143 one may therefore speak of the period of the
    Epigoni--the native Franks, ready to view the Moslems as joint
    occupants of Syria, and to imitate the dress and habits of their
    neighbours.

  [30] Doubt has been cast on the view that a troubled conscience drove
    Louis to take the cross; and his action has been ascribed to simple
    religious zeal (cf. Lavisse, _Histoire de France_, iii. 12).

  [31] We speak of First, Second and Third Crusades, but, more exactly,
    the Crusades were one continuous process. Scarcely a year passed in
    which new bands did not come to the Holy Land. We have already
    noticed the great if disastrous Crusade of 1100-1101, and the
    Venetian Crusade of 1123-1124; and we may also refer to the Crusade
    of Henry the Lion in 1172, and to that of Edward I. in 1271-1272--all
    famous Crusades, which are not reckoned in the usual numbering.
    Crusades appear to have been dignified by numbers when they followed
    some crushing disaster--the loss of Edessa in 1144, or the fall of
    Jerusalem in 1187--and were led by kings and emperors; or when, like
    the Fourth and Fifth Crusades, they achieved some conspicuous success
    or failure. But it is important to bear in mind the continuity of the
    Crusades--the constant flow of new forces eastward and back again
    westward; for this alone explains why the Crusades formed a great
    epoch in civilization, familiarizing, as they did, the West with the
    East.

  [32] This body of crusaders ultimately reached the Holy Land, where
    it joined Conrad (who had lost his own original forces), and helped
    in the fruitless siege of Damascus. The services which it rendered to
    Portugal were repeated by later crusaders. Crusaders from the Low
    Countries, England and the Scandinavian north took the coast route
    round western Europe; and it was natural that, landing for provisions
    and water, they should be asked, and should consent, to lend their
    aid to the natives against the Moors. Such aid is recorded to have
    been given on the Third and the Fifth Crusades.

  [33] Manuel was an ambitious sovereign, apparently aiming at a
    world-monarchy, such as was afterwards attempted from the other side
    by Henry VI. As Henry VI. had designs on Constantinople and the
    Eastern empire, so Manuel cherished the ambition of acquiring Italy
    and the Western empire, and he negotiated with Alexander III. to that
    end in 1167 and 1169: cf. the life of Alexander III. in Muratori, _S.
    R. I._ iii. 460.

  [34] The prize was won by Raynald of Chatillon (q.v.).

  [35] Nureddin, unlike his father, was definitely animated by a
    religious motive: he fought first and foremost against the Latins
    (and not, like his father, against Moslem states), and he did so as a
    matter of religious duty.

  [36] Henry II., as an Angevin, was the natural heir of the kingdom of
    Jerusalem on the extinction of the line descended from Fulk of Anjou.
    This explains the part played by Richard I. in deciding the question
    of the succession during the Third Crusade.

  [37] The taxation levied in the West was also attempted in the East,
    and in 1183 a universal tax was levied in the kingdom of Jerusalem,
    at the rate of 1% on movables and 2% on rents and revenues. Cf. Dr A.
    Cartellieri, _Philipp II. August_, ii. pp. 3-18 and p. 85.

  [38] Stevenson argues (op. cit. p. 240) that this truce was already
    practically dissolved before Raynald struck, and that Raynald's
    "action may reasonably be viewed as the practical outcome of the
    feeling of a party."

  [39] The "economic" motive for taking the cross was strengthened by
    the papal regulations in favour of debtors who joined the Crusade.
    Thousands must have joined the Third Crusade in order to escape
    paying either their taxes or the interest on their debts; and the
    atmosphere of the gold-digger's camp (or of the cave of Adullam) must
    have begun more than ever to characterize the crusading armies.

  [40] The Crusades in their course established a number of new states
    or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem
    (1100); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the
    Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the
    Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new
    state east of the Vistula. The kingdom of Lesser Armenia, established
    in 1195, may also be regarded as a result of the Crusades. The
    history of the kingdom of Jerusalem is part of the history of the
    Crusades: the history of the other kingdoms or states touches the
    history of the Crusades less vitally. But the history of Cyprus is
    particularly important--and for two reasons. In the first place,
    Cyprus was a natural and excellent basis of operations; it sent
    provisions to the crusaders in 1191, and again at the siege of
    Damietta in 1219, while its advantages as a strategic basis were
    proved by the exploits of Peter of Cyprus in the 14th century. In the
    second place, as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem fell, its
    institutions and assizes were transplanted bodily to Cyprus, where
    they survived until the island was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
    But the monarchy was stronger in Cyprus than in Jerusalem: the fiefs
    were distributed by the monarch, and were smaller in extent; while
    the feudatories had neither the collective powers of the haute cour
    of Jerusalem, nor the individual privileges (such as jurisdiction
    over the bourgeoisie), which had been enjoyed by the feudatories of
    the old kingdom. Till 1489 the kingdom of Cyprus survived as an
    independent monarchy, and its capital, Famagusta, was an important
    centre of trade after the loss of the coast-towns in the kingdom of
    Jerusalem. In 1489 it was acquired by Venice, which claimed the
    island on the death of the last king, having adopted his widow (a
    Venetian lady named Catarina Cornaro) as a daughter of the republic.
    On the history of Cyprus, see Stubbs, _Lectures on Medieval and
    Modern History_, 156-208. The history of the kingdom of Armenia is
    closely connected with that of Cyprus. The Armenians in the
    south-east of Asia Minor borrowed feudal institutions from the Franks
    and the feudal vocabulary itself. The kingdom was involved in a
    struggle with Antioch in the early part of the 13th century. Later,
    it allied itself with the Mongols and fought against the Mamelukes,
    to whom, however, it finally succumbed in 1375.

  [41] The kingdom of Jerusalem is thus from 1192 to its final fall a
    strip of coast, to which it is the object of kings and crusaders to
    annex Jerusalem and a line of communication connecting it with the
    coast. This was practically the aim of Richard I.'s negotiations; and
    this was what Frederick II. for a time secured.

  [42] M. Luchaire, in the volume of his biography of Innocent III.
    called _La Question d'Orient_, shows how, in spite of the pope, the
    Fourth Crusade was in its very beginnings a lay enterprise. The
    crusading barons of France chose their own leader, and determined
    their own route, without consulting Innocent.

  [43] As a matter of fact, there is some doubt whether Alexius arrived
    in Germany before the spring of 1202. But there seems to be little
    doubt of Philip's complicity in the diversion of the Fourth Crusade
    to Constantinople (cf. M. Luchaire, _La Question d'Orient_, pp.
    84-86).

  [44] It is true that in 1208 Venice received commercial concessions
    from the court of Cairo. But this _ex post facto_ argument is the
    sole proof of this view; and it is quite insufficient to prove the
    accusation. Venice is _not_ the primary agent in the deflection of
    the Fourth Crusade.

  [45] Already under Innocent III. the benefits of the Crusade were
    promised to those who went to the assistance of the Latin empire of
    the East.

  [46] In 1208 Innocent excommunicated Raymund VI. of Toulouse on
    account of the murder of a papal legate who was attempting to
    suppress Manichaeism, and offered all Catholics the right to occupy
    and guard his territories. Thus was begun the First Crusade against
    heresy. Raymund at once submitted to the pope, but the Crusade
    continued none the less, because, as Luchaire says, "the baronage of
    the north and centre of France had finished their preparations," and
    were resolved to annex the rich lands of the south. In this way
    land-hunger exploited the Albigensian, as political and commercial
    motives had helped to exploit the Fourth Crusade; and in the former,
    as in the latter, Innocent had reluctantly to consent to the results
    of the secular motives which had infected a spiritual enterprise. The
    Albigensian Crusades, however, belong to French history; and it can
    only be noted here that their ultimate result was the absorption of
    the fertile lands, and the extinction of the peculiar civilization,
    of southern France by the northern monarchy. (See the article
    ALBIGENSES.)

  [47] A canon of the third Lateran council (1179) forbade traffic with
    the Saracens in munitions of war; and this canon had been renewed by
    Innocent in the beginning of his pontificate.

  [48] He had promised the pope, at his coronation in 1220, to begin
    his Crusade in August 1221. But he declared himself exhausted by the
    expenses of his coronation; and Honorius III. consented to defer his
    Crusade until March 1222. The letter of the pope informing Pelagius
    of this delay is dated the 20th of June: it would probably reach his
    hands _after_ his departure from Damietta; and thus the Cardinal gave
    the signal for the march, when, as he thought, the emperor's coming
    was imminent.

  [49] Joinville, ch. x.

  [50] John of Brienne had only ruled in right of his wife Mary. On her
    death (1212) John might be regarded as only ruling "by the courtesy
    of the kingdom" until her daughter Isabella was married, when the
    husband would succeed. That, at any rate, was the view Frederick II.
    took.

  [51] Amalric I. of Cyprus had done homage to Henry VI., from whom he
    had received the title of king (1195).

  [52] It may be argued that the Crusade against a revolted Christian
    like Frederick II. was not misplaced, and that the pope had a true
    sense of religious values when he attacked Frederick. The answer is
    partly that men like St Louis _did_ think that the Crusade was
    misplaced, and partly that Frederick was really attacked _not_ as a
    revolted Christian, but as the would-be unifier of Italy, the enemy
    of the states of the church.

  [53] The following table of the Ayyubite rulers serves to illustrate
    the text:--

           Shadhy.
              |
         +----+----+
         |         |
      Shirguh.   Ayyub (both generals in the army of the Atabegs of Mosul).
                   |
         +---------+---------------+
         |                         |
      Saladin               Malik-al-Adil I.
      + 1193                    + 1218.
                                   |
              +----------------+---+--------------+---------------------+
              |                |                  |                     |
      Malik-al-Kamil,   Malik-al-Muazzam,  Malik-al-Ashraf,   Malik-al-Salih Isma'il
      Sultan of Egypt  Sultan of Damascus    ruler of Khelat,   sultan of Damascus,
           + 1238.          + 1227.          and after 1227     1237-1244. From
              |                |             of Damascus,       him Damascus passed
              |                |             + 1237.            to Malik-al-Salih
              |          Malik-al-Nasir                         Ayyub of Egypt at
              |            of Kerak                             the battle of Gaza.
              |
              +--+--------------------+
                 |                    |
         Malik-al-Adil II.   Malik-al-Salih Najm
            deposed 1240.      al-din Ayyub, sultan
                               of Egypt, and after
                               1244 of Damascus,
                               + 1249.
                                      |
                          +-----------+
                          |
             Turanshah, deposed 1250, and
            succeeded by the Mameluke Aibek.

  [54] Though Europe indulged in dreams of Mongol aid, the eventual
    results of the extension of the Mongol Empire were prejudicial to the
    Latin East. The sultans of Egypt were stirred to fresh activity by
    the attacks of the Mongols; and as Syria became the battleground of
    the two, the Latin principalities of Syria were fated to fall as the
    prize of victory to one or other of the combatants.

  [55] Of the four Latin principalities of the East, Edessa was the
    first to fall, being extinguished between 1144 and 1150. Antioch fell
    in 1268; Tripoli in 1289; and the kingdom itself may be said to end
    with the capture of Acre, 1291.

  [56] Michael Palaeologus had actually appealed to Louis IX. against
    Charles of Anjou, who in 1270 had actively begun preparations for the
    attack on Constantinople.

  [57] The dream of a Crusade to Jerusalem survived de Mézières; a
    society which read "romaunts" of the Crusades, could not but dream
    the dream. Henry V., whose father had fought with the Teutonic
    knights on the Baltic, dreamed of a voyage to Jerusalem.

  [58] The union of 1274, conceded by the Palaeologi at the council of
    Lyons in order to defeat the plans of Charles of Anjou, had only been
    temporary.

  [59] Bréhier, _L'Église el l'Orient_, p. 347.

  [60] _Cambridge Modern History_, i. 11. It is perhaps worth remarking
    that something of the old crusading spirit seems still to linger in
    the movement of Russia towards Constantinople.

  [61] While from this point of view the Crusades appear as a failure,
    it must not be forgotten that elsewhere than in the East Crusades did
    attain some success. A Crusade won for Christianity the coast of the
    eastern Baltic (see TEUTONIC ORDER); and the centuries of the Spanish
    Crusade ended in the conquest of the whole of Spain for Christianity.

  [62] Authors like Heeren (_Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der
    Kreuzzüge_) and Michaud (in the last volume of his _Histoire des
    croisades_) fall into the error of assigning all things to the
    Crusades. Even Prutz, in his _Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzzüge_,
    over-estimates the influence of the Crusades as a chapter in the
    history of civilization. He depreciates unduly the Western
    civilization of the early middle ages, and exalts the civilization of
    the Arabs; and starting from these two premises, he concludes that
    modern civilization is the offspring of the Crusades, which first
    brought East and West together.

  [63] It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced
    ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
    Greater freedom of moulding and the use of trefoil and cinquefoil may
    be, but need not be, explained in this way. The pointed arch owes
    nothing to the Arabs; it is already used in England in early Norman
    work. Generally, one may say that Western architecture is independent
    of the East.

  [64] His somewhat legendary treatise, _De liberatione civitatum
    Orientis_, was only composed about 1155.

  [65] There is also an _Inventaire critique_ of these letters by the
    comte de Riant (Paris, 1880).

  [66] Von Sybel's view must be modified by that of Kugler, to which a
    scholar like Hagenmeyer has to some extent given his adhesion (cf.
    his edition of the _Gesta_, pp. 62-68). Hagenmeyer inclines to
    believe in an original author, distinct from Albert the copyist; and
    he thinks that this original author (whether or no he was present
    during the Crusade) used the _Gesta_ and also Fulcher, though he had
    probably also "_eigene Notizen und Aufzeichnungen_."

  [67] See Pigonneau, _Le Cycle de la croisade_, &c. (Paris, 1877); and
    Hagenmeyer, _Peter der Eremite_ (Leipzig, 1879).

  [68] On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, _Studien
    zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzüges_ (Stuttgart, 1866).

  [69] Of these writers see Archer's _Crusade of Richard I._, Appendix
    (in Nutt's series of Histories from Contemporary Writers).

  [70] The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke,
    _Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzüges_ (Breslau, 1875).



CRUSENSTOLPE, MAGNUS JAKOB (1795-1865), Swedish historian, early became
famous both as a political and a historical writer. His first important
work was a _History of the Early Years of the Life of King Gustavus IV.
Adolphus_, which was followed by a series of monographs and by some
politico-historical novels, of which _The House of Holstein-Gottorp in
Sweden_ is considered the best. He obtained a great influence over King
Charles XIV. (Bernadotte), who during the years 1830-1833 gave him his
fullest confidence, and sanctioned the official character of
Crusenstolpe's newspaper _Fäderneslandet_. In the last-mentioned year,
however, the historian suddenly became the king's bitterest enemy, and
used his acrid pen on all occasions in attacking him. In 1838 he was
condemned, for one of these angry utterances, to be imprisoned three
years in the castle of Waxholm. He continued his literary labours until
his death in 1865. Few Swedish writers have wielded so pure and so
incisive a style as Crusenstolpe, but his historical work is vitiated by
political and personal bias.



CRUSIUS, CHRISTIAN AUGUST (1715-1775), German philosopher and
theologian, was born on the 10th of January 1715 at Lenau near Merseburg
in Saxony. He was educated at Leipzig, and became professor of theology
there in 1750, and principal of the university in 1773. He died on the
18th of October 1775. Crusius first came into notice as an opponent of
the philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolff from the standpoint of religious
orthodoxy. He attacked it mainly on the score of the moral evils that
must flow from any system of determinism, and exerted himself in
particular to vindicate the freedom of the will. The most important
works of this period of his life are _Entwurf der nothwendigen
Vernunftwahrheiten_ (1745), and _Weg zur Gewissheit und Zuverlässigkeit
der menschlichen Erkenntniss_ (1747). Though diffusely written, and
neither brilliant nor profound, Crusius' philosophical books had a great
but short-lived popularity. His criticism of Wolff, which is generally
based on sound sense, had much influence upon Kant at the time when his
system was forming; and his ethical doctrines are mentioned with respect
in the _Kritik of Practical Reason_. Crusius's later life was devoted to
theology. In this capacity his sincere piety and amiable character
gained him great influence, and he led the party in the university which
became known as the "Crusianer" as opposed to the "Ernestianer," the
followers of J. A. Ernesti. The two professors adopted opposite methods
of exegesis. Ernesti wished to subject the Scripture to the same laws of
exposition as are applied to other ancient books; Crusius held firmly to
orthodox ecclesiastical tradition. Crusius's chief theological works are
_Hypomnemata ad theologiam propheticam_ (1764-1778), and _Kurzer Entwurf
der Moraltheologie_ (1772-1773). He sets his face against innovation in
such matters as the accepted authorship of canonical writings, verbal
inspiration, and the treatment of persons and events in the Old
Testament as types of the New. His views, unscholarly and uncritical as
they seem to us now, have had influence on later evangelical students of
the Old Testament, such as E. W. Hengstenberg and F. Delitzsch.

  There is a full notice of Crusius in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyclopädie_. Consult also J. E. Erdmann's _History of Philosophy_;
  A. Marquardt, _Kant und Crusius_; and art. in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie_ (1898).     (H. St.)



CRUSTACEA, a very large division of the animal kingdom, comprising the
familiar crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps and prawns, the sandhoppers
and woodlice, the strangely modified barnacles and the minute
water-fleas. Besides these the group also includes a multitude of
related forms which, from their aquatic habits and generally
inconspicuous size, and from the fact that they are commonly neither
edible nor noxious, are little known except to naturalists and are
undistinguished by any popular names. Collectively, they are ranked as
one of the classes forming the sub-phylum ARTHROPODA, and their
distinguishing characters are discussed under that heading. It will be
sufficient here to define them as Arthropoda for the most part of
aquatic habits, having typically two pairs of antenniform appendages in
front of the mouth and at least three pairs of post-oral limbs acting as
jaws.

As a matter of fact, however, the range of structural variation within
the group is so wide, and the modifications due to parasitism and other
causes are so profound, that it is almost impossible to frame a
definition which shall be applicable to all the members of the class. In
certain parasites, for instance, the adults have lost every trace not
only of Crustacean but even of Arthropodous structure, and the only clue
to their zoological position is that afforded by the study of their
development. In point of size also the Crustacea vary within very wide
limits. Certain water-fleas (Cladocera) fall short of one-hundredth of
an inch in total length; the giant Japanese crab (_Macrocheira_) can
span over 10 ft. between its outstretched claws.

The habits of the Crustacea are no less diversified than their
structure. Most of them inhabit the sea, but representatives of all the
chief groups are found in fresh water (though the Cirripedia have hardly
gained a footing there), and this is the chief home of the primitive
Phyllopoda. A terrestrial habitat is less common, but the
widely-distributed land Isopoda or woodlice and the land-crabs of
tropical regions have solved the problem of adaptation to a subaërial
life.

Swimming is perhaps the commonest mode of locomotion, but numerous forms
have taken to creeping or walking, and the robber-crab (_Birgus latro_)
of the Indo-Pacific islands even climbs palm-trees. None has the power
of flight, though certain pelagic Copepoda are said to leap from the
surface of the sea like flying-fish. Apart from the numerous parasitic
forms, the only Crustacea which have adopted a strictly sedentary habit
of life are the Cirripedia, and here, as elsewhere, profound
modifications of structure have resulted, leading ultimately to a
partial assumption of the radial type of symmetry which is so often
associated with a sedentary life.

Many, perhaps the majority, of the Crustacea are omnivorous or
carrion-feeders, but many are actively predatory in their habits, and
are provided with more or less complex and efficient instruments for
capturing their prey, and there are also many plant-eaters. Besides the
sedentary Cirripedia, numbers of the smaller forms, especially among the
Entomostraca, subsist on floating particles of organic matter swept
within reach of the jaws by the movements of the other limbs.

Symbiotic association with other animals, in varying degrees of
interdependence, is frequent. Sometimes the one partner affords the
other merely a convenient means of transport, as in the case of the
barnacles which grow on, or of the gulf-weed crab which clings to, the
carapace of marine turtles. From this we may pass through various grades
of "commensalism," like that of the hermit-crab with its protective
anemones, to the cases of actual parasitism. The parasitic habit is most
common among the Copepoda and Isopoda, where it leads to complex
modifications of structure and life-history. Perhaps the most complete
degeneration is found in the Rhizocephala, which are parasitic on other
Crustacea. In these the adult consists of a simple saccular body
containing the reproductive organs and attached by root-like filaments
which ramify throughout the body of the host and serve for the
absorption of nourishment (fig. 1).

Many of the larger species of Crustacea are used as food by man, the
most valuable being the lobster, which is caught in large quantities on
both sides of the North Atlantic. Perhaps the most important of all
Crustacea, however, with respect to the part which they play in the
economy of nature, are the minute pelagic Copepoda, of which
incalculable myriads form an important constituent of the "plankton" in
all the seas of the globe. It is on the plankton that a great part of
the higher animal life of the sea ultimately depends for food. The
Copepoda live upon the diatoms and other important microscopic vegetable
life at the surface of the sea, and in their turn serve as food for
fishes and other larger forms and thus, indirectly, for man himself.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.

  A, Group of _Peltogaster socialis_ on the abdomen of a small
    hermit-crab; in one of them the fasciculately ramified roots, r, in
    the liver of the crab are shown (Fritz Müller).
  B, Young of _Sacculina purpurea_ with its roots. (Fritz Müller.)]

_Historical Sketch._--In common with most branches of natural history,
the science of Carcinology may be traced back to its beginnings in the
writings of Aristotle. It received additions of varying importance at
the hands of medieval and later naturalists, and first began to assume
systematic form under the influence of Linnaeus. The application of the
morphological method to the Crustacea may perhaps be dated from the work
of J. C. Fabricius towards the end of the 18th century.

In the first quarter of the 19th century important advances in
classification were made by P. A. Latreille, W. E. Leach and others, and
J. Vaughan Thompson demonstrated the existence of metamorphosis in the
development of the higher Crustacea. A new epoch may be said to begin
with H. Milne-Edwards' classical _Histoire naturelle des crustacés_
(1834-1840). It is noteworthy that even at this late date the Cirripedia
(Thyrostraca) were still excluded from the Crustacea, though Darwin's
Monograph (1851-1854) was soon to make them known with a wealth of
anatomical and systematic detail such as was available, at that time,
for few other groups of Crustacea. About the same period three authors
call for special mention, W. de Haan, J. D. Dana and H. Kröyer. The new
impulse given to biological research by the publication of the _Origin
of Species_ bore fruit in Fritz Müller's _Für Darwin_, in which an
attempt was made to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the class.
The same line of work was followed in the long series of important
memoirs from the pen of K. F. W. Claus, and noteworthy contributions
were made, among many others, by A. Dohrn, Ray Lankester and Huxley. In
more recent years the long and constantly increasing list of writers on
Crustacea contains no name more honoured than that of the veteran G. O.
Sars of Christiania.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Abdominal Somite of a Lobster, separated and
viewed from in front. t, tergum; s, sternum; pl, pleuron.]


  _Morphology._

  _External Structure: Body._--As in all Arthropoda the body consists of
  a series of segments or somites which may be free or more or less
  coalesced together. In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical
  somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind
  by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a
  pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side
  of the middle line. Frequently, however, this exoskeletal somite may
  be differentiated into various regions. A dorsal and a ventral plate
  are often distinguished, known respectively as the tergum and the
  sternum, and the tergum may overhang the insertion of the limb on each
  side as a free plate called the pleuron. The name epimeron is
  sometimes applied to what is here called the pleuron, but the word has
  been used in widely different senses and it seems better to abandon
  it. The typical form of a somite is well seen, for example, in the
  segments which make up the abdomen or "tail" of a lobster or crayfish
  (fig. 2). The posterior terminal segment of the body, on which the
  opening of the anus is situated, never bears appendages. The nature of
  this segment, which is known as the "anal segment" or telson (fig. 3,
  T), has been much discussed, some authorities holding that it is a
  true somite, homologous with those which precede it. Others have
  regarded it as representing the fusion of a number of somites, and
  others again as a "median appendage" or as a pair of appendages fused.
  Its morphological nature, however, is clearly shown by its
  development. In the larval development of the more primitive
  Crustacea, the number of somites, at first small, increases by the
  successive appearance of new somites between the last-formed somite
  and the terminal region which bears the anus. The "growing point" of
  the trunk is, in fact, situated in front of this region, and, when the
  full number of somites has been reached, the unsegmented part
  remaining forms the telson of the adult.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--The Separated Somites and Appendages of the
  Common Lobster (_Homarus gammarus_).

    C, carapace covering the cephalothorax.
    Ab, abdominal somites.
    T, telson, having the uropods or appendages of the last abdominal
      somite spread out on either side of it, forming the "tail-fan."
    l, labrum, or upper lip.
    m, metastoma, or lower lip.
    1, eyes.
    2, antennule (the arrow points to the opening of the so-called
      auditory organ).
    3, antenna.
    4, mandible.
    5, maxillula (or first maxilla).
    6, maxilla (second maxilla).
    7-9, first, second and third maxillipeds.
    ex, exopodite.
    ep, epipodite.
    g, gill.
    10, sixth thoracic limb (second walking-leg) of female.
    11, last thoracic limb of male. In 10 and 11 the arrows indicate the
      genital apertures.
    13, sterna of the thoracic somites, from within.
    14, third abdominal somite, with appendages or "swimmerets."]

  In no Crustacean, however, do all the somites of the body remain
  distinct. Coalescence, or suppression of segmentation ("lipomerism"),
  may involve more or less extensive regions. This is especially the
  case in the anterior part of the body, where, in correlation with the
  "adaptational shifting of the oral aperture" (see ARTHROPODA), a
  varying number of somites unite to form the "cephalon" or head. Apart
  from the possible existence of an ocular somite corresponding to the
  eyes (the morphological nature of which is discussed below), the
  smallest number of head-somites so united in any Crustacean is five.
  Even where a large number of the somites have fused, there is
  generally a marked change in the character of the appendages after the
  fifth pair, and since the integumental fold which forms the carapace
  seems to originate from this point, it is usual to take the fifth
  somite as the morphological limit of the cephalon throughout the
  class. It is quite probable, however, that in the primitive ancestors
  of existing Crustacea a still smaller number of somites formed the
  head. The three pairs of appendages present in the "nauplius" larva
  show certain peculiarities of structure and development which seem to
  place them in a different category from the other limbs, and there is
  some ground for regarding the three corresponding somites as
  constituting a "primary cephalon." For practical purposes, however, it
  is convenient to include the two following somites also as cephalic.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Diagram of an Amphipod. (After Spence Bate and
  Westwood.)

    C, cephalon.
    Th, thorax. (Only seven of the eight thoracic somites are visible,
      the first being fused with the cephalon.)
    Ab, abdomen.

    The numbers appended to the somites do not correspond to the
    enumeration adopted in the text. 21 is the telson.]

  A remarkable feature found only in the Stomatopoda is the reappearance
  of segmentation in the anterior part of the cephalic region. Whether
  the movably articulated segments which bear the eye-stalks and the
  antennules in this aberrant group correspond to the primitive head
  somites or not, their distinctness is certainly a secondarily acquired
  character, for it is not found in the larvae, nor in any of the more
  primitive groups of Malacostraca.

  The body proper is usually divisible into two regions to which the
  names _thorax_ and _abdomen_ are applied. Throughout the whole of the
  Malacostraca the thorax consists of eight and the abdomen of six
  somites (fig. 4), and the two regions are sharply distinguished by the
  character of their appendages. In the various groups of the
  Entomostraca, on the other hand, the terms thorax and abdomen, though
  conveniently employed for purposes of systematic description, do not
  imply any homology with the regions so named in the Malacostraca.
  Sometimes they are applied, as in the Copepoda, to the limb-bearing
  and limbless regions of the trunk, while in other cases, as in the
  Phyllopoda, they denote, respectively, the regions in front of and
  behind the genital apertures.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Phyllopoda and Phyllocarida.

    1, _Ceratiocaris papilio_, U. Silurian, Lanark.
    2, _Nebalia bipes_(one side of carapace removed).
    3, _Lepidurus Angassi_: a, dorsal aspect; b, ventral aspect of head
      showing the labrum and mouth-parts.
    4, larva of _Apus cancriformis_.
    5, _Branchipus stagnalis_: a, adult female; b, first larval stage
      (Nauplius); c, second larval stage.
    6, Nauplius of _Artemia salina_.]

  A character which recurs in the most diverse groups of the Crustacea,
  and which is probably to be regarded as a primitive attribute of the
  class, is the possession of a carapace or shell, arising as a dorsal
  fold of the integument from the posterior margin of the head-region.
  In its most primitive form, as seen in the _Apodidae_ (fig. 5, 3) and
  in _Nebalia_ (fig. 5, 2), this shell-fold remains free from the trunk,
  which it envelops more or less completely. It may assume the form of a
  bivalve shell entirely enclosing the body and limbs, as in many
  Phyllopoda (fig. 6) and in the Ostracoda. In the Cirripedia it forms
  a fleshy "mantle" strengthened by shelly plates or valves which may
  assume a very complex structure. In many cases, however, the
  shell-fold coalesces with some of the succeeding somites. In the
  Decapoda (fig. 3), this coalescence affects only the dorsal region of
  the thoracic somites, and the lateral portions of the carapace
  overhang on each side, enclosing a pair of chambers within which lie
  the gills. The arrangement is similar in Schizopoda and Stomatopoda
  (fig. 7), except that the coalescence does not usually involve the
  posterior thoracic somites, several of which remain free, though they
  may be overlapped by the carapace.

  [Illustration: From Morse's _Zoology_.

  FIG. 6.--_Estheria_, sp.; D from Dubuque, Iowa; (e) the eye. L from
  Lynn, Massachusetts (nat. size). S presents a highly magnified section
  of one of the valves to show the successive moults. B an enlarged
  portion of the edge of the shell along the back, showing the overlap
  of each growth.]

  In the Isopoda and Amphipoda, where, as a rule, all the thoracic
  somites except the first are distinct (fig. 4), there seems at first
  sight to be no shell-fold. A comparison with the related Tanaidacea
  (fig. 8) and Cumacea (or Sympoda), however, leads to the conclusion
  that the coalescence of the first thoracic somite with the cephalon
  really involves a vestigial shell-fold, and, indeed, traces of this
  are said to be observed in the embryonic development of some Isopoda.
  It seems likely that a similar explanation is to be applied to the
  coalescence of one or two trunk-somites with the head in the Copepoda,
  and, if this be so, the only Crustacea remaining in which no trace of
  a shell-fold is found in the adult are the Anostracous Phyllopoda such
  as Branchipus (fig. 5, 5).

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--_Squilla mantis_ (Stomatopoda), showing the
  last four thoracic (leg-bearing) somites free from the carapace.]

  _General Morphology of Appendages._--Amid the great variety of forms
  assumed by the appendages of the Crustacea, it is possible to trace,
  more or less plainly, the modifications of a fundamental type
  consisting of a peduncle, the protopodite, bearing two branches, the
  endopodite and exopodite. This simple biramous form is shown in the
  swimming-feet of the Copepoda and Branchiura, the "cirri" of the
  Cirripedia, and the abdominal appendages of the Malacostraca (fig. 3,
  14). It is also found in the earliest and most primitive form of
  larva, known as the _Nauplius_. As a rule the protopodite is composed
  of two segments, though one may be reduced or suppressed and
  occasionally three may be present. In many cases, one of the branches,
  generally the endopodite, is more strongly developed than the other.
  Thus, in the thoracic limbs of the Malacostraca, the endopodite
  generally forms a walking-leg while the exopodite becomes a
  swimming-branch or may disappear altogether. Very often the basal
  segment of the protopodite bears, on the outer side, a lamellar
  appendage (more rarely, two), the epipodite, which may function as a
  gill. In the appendages near the mouth one or both of the protopodal
  segments may bear inwardly-turned processes, assisting in mastication
  and known as gnathobases. The frequent occurrence of epipodites and
  gnathobases tends to show that the primitive type of appendage was
  more complex than the simple biramous limb, and some authorities have
  regarded the leaf-like appendages of the Phyllopoda as nearer the
  original form from which the various modifications found in other
  groups have been derived. In a Phyllopod such as _Apus_ the limbs of
  the trunk consist of a flattened, unsegmented or obscurely segmented
  axis or corm having a series of lobes or processes known as endites
  and exites on its inner and outer margins respectively. In all the
  Phyllopoda the number of endites is six, and the proximal one is more
  or less distinctly specialized as a gnathobase, working against its
  fellow of the opposite side in seizing food and transferring it to the
  mouth. The Phyllopoda are the only Crustacea in which distinct and
  functional gnathobasic processes are found on appendages far removed
  from the mouth. The two distal endites are regarded as corresponding
  to the endopodite and exopodite of the higher Crustacea, the axis or
  corm of the Phyllopod limb representing the protopodite. The number of
  exites is less constant, but, in _Apus_, two are present, the proximal
  branchial in function and the distal forming a stiffer plate which
  probably aids in swimming. It is not altogether easy to recognize the
  homologies of the endites and exites even within the order Phyllopoda,
  and the identification of the two distal endites as corresponding to
  the endopodite and exopodite of higher Crustacea is not free from
  difficulty. It is highly probable, however, that the biramous limb is
  a simplification of a more complex primitive type, to which the
  Phyllopod limb is a more or less close approximation.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--_Tanais dubius_ (?) Kr. [female], showing the
  orifice of entrance (x) into the cavity overarched by the carapace in
  which an appendage of the maxilliped (f) plays. On four feet (i, k, l,
  m) are the rudiments of the lamellae which subsequently form the
  brood-cavity. (Fritz Müller.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--A, _Balanus_ (young), side view with cirri
  protruded. B, Upper surface of same; valves closed. C, Highly
  magnified view of one of the cirri. (Morse.)]

  The modifications which this original type undergoes are usually more
  or less plainly correlated with the functions which the appendages
  have to discharge. Thus, when acting as swimming organs, the
  appendages, or their rami, are more or less flattened, or oar-like,
  and often have the margins fringed with long plumose hairs. When used
  for walking, one of the rami, usually the inner, is stout and
  cylindrical, terminating in a claw, and having the segments united by
  definite hinge-joints. The jaws have the gnathobasic endites developed
  at the expense of the rest of the limb, the endopodite and exopodite
  persisting only as sensory "palps" or disappearing altogether. When
  specialized as bearers of sensory (olfactory or tactile) organs, the
  rami are generally elongated, many-jointed and flagelliform. This
  modification is usually only found in the antennules and antennae, but
  it may exceptionally be found in the appendages of the trunk, as, for
  instance, in the thoracic legs of some Decapods (e.g.
  _Mastigocheirus_). Very often one or other of the appendages may be
  modified for prehension, the seizing of prey or the holding of a mate.
  In this case, the claw-like terminal segment may be simply flexed
  against the preceding in the same way as the blade of a penknife shuts
  up against the handle. The penultimate segment is often broadened, so
  that the terminal claw shuts against a transverse edge (fig. 4), or,
  finally, the penultimate segment may be produced into a thumb-like
  process opposed to the movable terminal segment or finger, forming a
  perfect chela or forceps, as, for instance, in the large claws of a
  crab or lobster. This chelate condition may be assumed by almost any
  of the appendages, and sometimes it appears in different appendages in
  closely related forms, so that no very great phylogenetic importance
  can in most cases be attached to it. A peculiar modification is found
  in the trunk-limbs of the Cirripedia (fig. 9), in which both rami are
  multiarticulate and filiform and fringed with long bristles. When
  protruded from the opening of the shell these "cirri" are spread out
  to form a casting-net for the capture of minute floating prey.

  Gills or branchiae may be developed by parts of an appendage becoming
  thin-walled and vascular and either expanded into a thin lamella or
  ramified. Some of the special modifications of branchiae are referred
  to below.

  _Special Morphology of Appendages._--In many Crustacea the eyes are
  borne on stalks which are movably articulated with the head and which
  may be divided into two or three segments. The view is commonly held
  that these eye-stalks are really limbs, homologous with the other
  appendages. In spite of much discussion, however, it cannot be said
  that this point has been finally settled. The evidence of embryology
  is decidedly against the view that the eye-stalks are limbs. They are
  absent in the earliest and most primitive larval forms (nauplius),
  and appear only late in the course of development, after many of the
  trunk-limbs are fully formed. In the development of the Phyllopod
  _Branchipus_, the eyes are at first sessile, and the lateral lobes of
  the head on which they are set grow out and become movably
  articulated, forming the peduncles. The most important evidence in
  favour of their appendicular nature is afforded by the phenomena of
  regeneration. When the eye-stalk is removed from a living lobster or
  prawn, it is found that under certain conditions a many-jointed
  appendage like the flagellum of an antennule or antenna may grow in
  its place. It is open to question, however, how far the evidence from
  such "heteromorphic regeneration" can be regarded as conclusive on the
  points of homology. The fact that in certain rare cases among insects
  a leg may apparently be replaced by a wing tends to show that under
  exceptional conditions similar forms may be assumed by non-homologous
  parts.

  The antennules (or first antennae) are almost universally regarded as
  true appendages, though they differ from all the other appendages in
  the fact that they are always innervated from the "brain" (or preoral
  ganglia), and that they are uniramous in the nauplius larva and in all
  the Entomostracan orders. As regards their innervation an apparent
  exception is found in the case of _Apus_, where the nerves to the
  antennules arise, behind the brain, from the oesophageal commissures,
  but this is, no doubt, a secondary condition, and the nerve-fibres
  have been traced forwards to centres within the brain. In the
  Malacostraca, the antennules are often biramous, but there is
  considerable doubt as to whether the two branches represent the
  endopodite and exopodite of the other limbs, and three branches are
  found in the Stomatopoda and in some Caridea. In the great majority of
  Crustacea the antennules are purely sensory in function and carry
  numerous "olfactory" hairs. They may, however, be natatory as in many
  Ostracoda and Copepoda, or prehensile, as in some Copepoda. The most
  peculiar modification, perhaps, is that found in the Cirripedia
  (Thyrostraca), in the larvae of which the antennules develop into
  organs of attachment, bearing the openings of the cement-glands, and
  becoming, in the adult, involved in the attachment of the animal to
  its support.

  The antennae (second antennae) are of special interest on account of
  the clear evidence that, although preoral in position in all adult
  Crustacea, they were originally postoral appendages. In the nauplius
  larva they lie rather at the sides than in front of the mouth, and
  their basal portion carries a hook-like masticatory process which
  assists the similar processes of the mandibles in seizing food. In the
  primitive Phyllopoda, and less distinctly in some other orders, the
  nerves supplying the antennae arise, not from the brain, but from the
  circum-oesophageal commissures, and even in those cases where the
  nerves and the ganglia in which they are rooted have been moved
  forwards to the brain, the transverse commissure of the ganglia can
  still be traced, running behind the oesophagus.

  The functions of the antennae are more varied than is the case with
  the antennules. In many Entomostraca (Phyllopoda, Cladocera,
  Ostracoda, Copepoda) they are important, and sometimes the only,
  organs of locomotion. In some male Phyllopoda they form complex
  "claspers" for holding the female. They are frequently organs of
  attachment in parasitic Copepoda, and they may be completely pediform
  in the Ostracoda. In the Malacostraca they are chiefly sensory, the
  endopodite forming a long flagellum, while the exopodite may form a
  lamellar "scale," probably useful as a balancer in swimming, or may
  disappear altogether. A very curious function sometimes discharged by
  the antennules or antennae of Decapods is that of forming a
  respiratory siphon in sand-burrowing species.

  The mandibles, like the antennae, have, in the nauplius, the form of
  biramous swimming limbs, with a masticatory process originating from
  the proximal part of the protopodite. This form is retained, with
  little alteration in some adult Copepoda, where the biramous "palp"
  still aids in locomotion. A somewhat similar structure is found also
  in some Ostracoda. In most cases, however, the palp loses its
  exopodite and it often disappears altogether, while the coxal segment
  forms the body of the mandible, with a masticatory edge variously
  armed with teeth and spines. In a few Ostracoda, by a rare exception,
  the masticatory process is reduced or suppressed, and the palp alone
  remains, forming a pediform appendage used in locomotion as well as in
  the prehension of food. In parasitic blood-sucking forms the mandibles
  often have the shape of piercing stylets, and are enclosed in a
  tubular proboscis formed by the union of the upper lip (labrum) with
  the lower lip (hypostome or paragnatha).

  The maxillulae and maxillae (or, as they are often termed, first and
  second maxillae) are nearly always flattened leaf-like appendages,
  having gnathobasic lobes or endites borne by the segments of the
  protopodite. The endopodite, when present, is unsegmented or composed
  of few segments and forms the "palp," and outwardly-directed lobes
  representing the exopodite and epipodites may also be present. These
  limbs undergo great modification in the different groups. The
  maxillulae are sometimes closely connected with the "paragnatha" or
  lobes of the lower lip, when these are present, and it has been
  suggested that the paragnatha are really the basal endites which have
  become partly separated from the rest of the appendage.

  The limbs of the post-cephalic series show little differentiation
  among themselves in many Entomostraca. In the Phyllopoda they are for
  the most part all alike, though one or two of the anterior pairs may
  be specialized as sensory (_Apus_) or grasping (_Estheriidae_) organs.
  In the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca) the six pairs of biramous cirriform
  limbs differ only slightly from each other, and in many Copepoda this
  is also the case. In other Entomostraca considerable differentiation
  may take place, but the series is never divided into definite
  "tagmata" or groups of similarly modified appendages. It is highly
  characteristic of the Malacostraca, however, that the trunk-limbs are
  divided into two sharply defined tagmata corresponding to the thoracic
  and abdominal regions respectively, the limit between the two being
  marked by the position of the male genital openings. The thoracic
  limbs have the endopodites converted, as a rule, into more or less
  efficient walking-legs, and the exopodites are often lost, while the
  abdominal limbs more generally preserve the biramous form and are, in
  the more primitive types, natatory. These tagmata may again be
  subdivided into groups preserving a more or less marked individuality.
  For example, in the Amphipoda (fig. 4) the abdominal appendages are
  constantly divided into an anterior group of three natatory
  "swimmerets" and a posterior group of three limbs used chiefly in
  jumping or in burrowing. In nearly all Malacostraca the last pair of
  abdominal appendages (uropods) differ from the others, and in the more
  primitive groups they form, with the telson, a lamellar "tail-fan"
  (fig. 3, T), used in springing backwards through the water. In the
  thoracic series it is usual for one or more of the anterior pairs to
  be pressed into the service of the mouth, forming "foot-jaws" or
  maxillipeds. In the Decapoda three pairs are thus modified, and in the
  Tanaidacea, Isopoda and Amphipoda only one. In the Schizopoda and
  Cumacea the line of division is less sharp, and the varying number of
  so-called maxillipeds recognized by different authors gives rise to
  some confusion of terminology in systematic literature.

  _Gills._--In many of the smaller Entomostraca (Copepoda and most
  Ostracoda) no special gills are present, and respiration is carried on
  by the general surface of the body and limbs. When present, the
  branchiae are generally differentiations of parts of the appendages,
  most often the epipodites, as in the Phyllopoda. In the Cirripedia,
  however, they are vascular processes from the inner surface of the
  mantle or shell-fold, and in some Ostracoda they are outgrowths from
  the sides of the body. In the primitive Malacostraca the gills were
  probably, as in the Phyllopoda and in _Nebalia_, the modified
  epipodites of the thoracic limbs, and this is the condition found in
  some Schizopoda. In the Cumacea and Tanaidacea only the first thoracic
  limb has a branchial epipodite. In the Amphipoda, the gills though
  arising from the inner side of the bases of the thoracic legs are
  probably also epipodial in nature. In the Isopoda the respiratory
  function has been taken over by the abdominal appendages, both rami or
  only the inner becoming thin or flattened. In the Decapoda the
  branchial system is more complex. The gills are inserted at the base
  of the thoracic limbs, and lie within a pair of branchial chambers
  covered by the carapace. Three series are distinguished,
  _podobranchiae_, attached to the proximal segments of the appendages,
  _pleurobranchiae_, springing from the body-wall, and an intermediate
  series, _arthrobranchiae_, inserted on the articular membrane of the
  joint between the limb and the body. The podobranchiae are clearly
  epipodites, or, more correctly, parts of the epipodites, and it is
  probable that the arthro- and pleurobranchiae are also epipodial in
  origin and have migrated from the proximal segment of the limbs on to
  the adjacent body-wall.

  Adaptations for aërial respiration are found in some of the
  land-crabs, where the lining membrane of the gill-chamber is beset
  with vascular papillae and acts as a lung. In some of the terrestrial
  Isopoda or woodlice (Oniscoidea) the abdominal appendages have
  ramified tubular invaginations of the integument, filled with air and
  resembling the tracheae of insects.

  _Internal Structure: Alimentary System._--In almost all Crustacea the
  food-canal runs straight through the body, except at its anterior end,
  where it curves downwards to the ventrally-placed mouth. In a few
  cases its course is slightly sinuous or twisted, but the only cases in
  which it is actually coiled upon itself are found in the Cladocera of
  the family _Lynceidae_ (_Alonidae_) and in a single
  recently-discovered genus of Cumacea (Sympoda). As in all Arthropoda,
  it is composed of three divisions, a fore-gut or stomodaeum,
  ectodermal in origin and lined by an inturning of the chitinous
  cuticle, a mid-gut formed by endoderm and without a cuticular lining,
  and a hind-gut or proctodaeum, which, like the fore-gut, is ectodermal
  and is lined by cuticle. The relative proportions of these three
  divisions vary considerably, and the extreme abbreviation of the
  mid-gut found in the common crayfish (_Astacus_) is by no means
  typical of the class. Even in the closely-related lobster (_Homarus_)
  the mid-gut may be 2 or 3 in. long.

  In a few Entomostraca (some Phyllopoda and Ostracoda) the chitinous
  lining of the fore-gut develops spines and hairs which help to
  triturate and strain the food, and among the Ostracods there is
  occasionally (_Bairdia_) a more elaborate armature of toothed plates
  moved by muscles. It is among the Malacostraca, however, and
  especially in the Decapoda, that the "gastric mill" reaches its
  greatest perfection. In most Decapods the "stomach" or dilated portion
  of the fore-gut is divided into two chambers, a large anterior
  "cardiac" and a smaller posterior "pyloric." In the narrow opening
  between these, three teeth (fig. 10) are set, one dorsally and one on
  each side. These teeth are connected with a framework of movably
  articulated ossicles developed as thickened and calcified portions of
  the lining cuticle of the stomach and moved by special muscles in such
  a way as to bring the three teeth together in the middle line. The
  walls of the pyloric chamber bear a series of pads and ridges beset
  with hairs and so disposed as to form a straining apparatus.

  The mid-gut is essentially the digestive and absorptive region of the
  alimentary canal, and its surface is, in most cases, increased by
  pouch-like or tubular outgrowths which not only serve as glands for
  the secretion of the digestive juices, but may also become filled by
  the more fluid portion of the partially digested food and facilitate
  its absorption. These outgrowths vary much in their arrangement in the
  different groups. Most commonly there is a pair of lateral caeca,
  which may be more or less ramified and may form a massive
  "hepato-pancreas" or "liver."

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Gastric Teeth of Crab and Lobster.

    1a, Stomach of common crab, _Cancer pagurus_, laid open, showing b,
      b, b, some of the calcareous plates inserted in its muscular coat;
      g, g, the lateral teeth, which when in use are brought in contact
      with the sides of the median tooth m; c, c, the muscular coat.
    1b´ and 1b´´, The gastric teeth enlarged to show their grinding
      surfaces.
    2, Gastric teeth of common lobster, _Homarus vulgaris_.
    3a and 3b, Two crustacean teeth (of _Dithyrocaris_) from the
      Carboniferous series of Renfrewshire (these, however, may be the
      toothed edges of the mandibles).]

  The whole length of the alimentary canal is provided, as a rule, with
  muscular fibres, both circular and longitudinal, running in its walls,
  and, in addition, there may be muscle-bands running between the gut
  and the body-wall. In the region of the oesophagus these muscles are
  more strongly developed to perform the movements of deglutition, and,
  where a gastric mill is present, both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles
  co-operate in producing the movements of its various parts. The
  hind-gut is also provided with sphincter and dilator muscles, and
  these may produce rhythmic expansion and contraction, causing an
  inflow and outflow of water through the anus, which has been supposed
  to aid in respiration.

  In the parasitic Rhizocephala and in a few Copepoda (_Monstrillidae_)
  the alimentary canal is absent or vestigial throughout life.

  _Circulatory System._--As in the other Arthropoda, the circulatory
  system in Crustacea is largely lacunar, the blood flowing in spaces or
  channels without definite walls. These spaces make up the apparent
  body-cavity, the true body-cavity or coelom having been, for the most
  part, obliterated by the great expansion of the blood-containing
  spaces. The heart is of the usual Arthropodous type, lying in a more
  or less well-defined pericardial blood-sinus, with which it
  communicates by valvular openings or ostia. In the details of the
  system, however, great differences exist within the limits of the
  class. There is every reason to believe that, in the primitive
  Arthropoda, the heart was tubular in form, extending the whole length
  of the body, and having a pair of ostia in each somite. This
  arrangement is retained in some of the Phyllopoda, but even in that
  group a progressive abbreviation of the heart, with a diminution in
  the number of the ostia, can be traced, leading to the condition found
  in the closely related Cladocera, where the heart is a subglobular
  sac, with only a single pair of ostia. In the Malacostraca, an
  elongated heart with numerous segmentally arranged ostia is found only
  in the aberrant group of Stomatopoda and in the transitional
  Phyllocarida. In the other Malacostraca the heart is generally
  abbreviated, and even where, as in the Amphipoda, it is elongated and
  tubular, the ostia are restricted in number, three pairs only being
  usually present. In many Entomostraca the heart is absent, and it is
  impossible to speak of a "circulation" in the proper sense of the
  term, the blood being merely driven hither and thither by the
  movements of the body and limbs and of the alimentary canal.

  A very remarkable condition of the blood-system, unique, as far as is
  yet known among the Arthropoda, is found in a few genera of parasitic
  Copepoda (_Lernanthropus_, _Mytilicola_). In these there is a closed
  system of vessels, not communicating with the body-cavity, and
  containing a coloured fluid. There is no heart. The morphological
  nature of this system is unknown.

  _Excretory System._--The most important excretory or renal organs of
  the Crustacea are two pairs of glands lying at the base of the
  antennae and of the second maxillae respectively. The two are probably
  never functional together in the same animal, though one may replace
  the other in the course of development. Thus, in the Phyllopoda, the
  antennal gland develops early and is functional during a great part of
  the larval life, but it ultimately atrophies, and in the adult (as in
  most Entomostraca) the maxillary gland is the functional excretory
  organ. In the Decapoda, where the antennal gland alone is
  well-developed in the adult, the maxillary gland sometimes precedes it
  in the larva. The structure of both glands is essentially the same.
  There is a more or less convoluted tube with glandular walls connected
  internally with a closed "end-sac" and opening to the exterior by
  means of a thin-walled duct. Development shows that the glandular tube
  is mesoblastic in origin and is of the nature of a coelomoduct, while
  the end-sac is to be regarded as a vestigial portion of the coelom. In
  the Branchiopoda the maxillary gland is lodged in the thickness of the
  shell-fold (when this is present), and, from this circumstance, it
  often receives the somewhat misleading name of "shell-gland." In the
  Decapoda the antennal gland is largely developed and is known as the
  "green gland." The external duct of this gland is often dilated into a
  bladder, and may sometimes send out diverticula, forming a complex
  system of sinuses ramifying through the body. The green gland and the
  structures associated with it in Decapods were at one time regarded as
  constituting an auditory apparatus.

  In addition to these two pairs of glands, which are in all probability
  the survivors of a series of segmentally arranged coelomoducts present
  in the primitive Arthropoda, other excretory organs have been
  described in various Crustacea. Although the excretory function of
  these has been demonstrated by physiological methods, however, their
  morphological relations are not clear. In some cases they consist of
  masses of mesodermal cells, within which the excretory products appear
  to be stored up instead of being expelled from the body.

  _Nervous System._--The central nervous system is constructed on the
  same general plan as in the other Arthropoda, consisting of a
  supra-oesophageal ganglionic mass or brain, united by
  circum-oesophageal connectives with a double ventral chain of
  segmentally arranged ganglia. In the primitive Phyllopoda the ventral
  chain retains the ladder-like arrangement found in some Annelids and
  lower worms, the two halves being widely separated and the pairs of
  ganglia connected together across the middle line by double transverse
  commissures. In the higher groups the two halves of the chain are more
  or less closely approximated and coalesced, and, in addition, a
  concentration of the ganglia in a longitudinal direction takes place,
  leading ultimately, in many cases, to the formation of an unsegmented
  ganglionic mass representing the whole of the ventral chain. This is
  seen, for example, in the Brachyura among the Decapoda. The brain, or
  supra-oesophageal ganglion, shows various degrees of complexity. In
  the Phyllopoda it consists mainly of two pairs of ganglionic centres,
  giving origin respectively to the optic and antennular nerves. The
  centres for the antennal nerves form ganglionic swellings on the
  oesophageal connectives. In the higher forms, as already mentioned,
  the antennal ganglia have become shifted forwards and coalesced with
  the brain. In the higher Decapoda, numerous additional centres are
  developed in the brain and its structure becomes extremely complex.

  _Eyes._--The eyes of Crustacea are of two kinds, the unpaired, median
  or "nauplius" eye, and the paired compound eyes. The former is
  generally present in the earliest larval stages (nauplius), and in
  some Entomostraca (e.g. Copepoda) it forms the sole organ of vision in
  the adult. In the Malacostraca it is absent in the adult, or persists
  only in a vestigial condition, as in some Decapoda and Schizopoda. It
  is typically tripartite, consisting of three cup-shaped masses of
  pigment, the cavity of each cup being filled with columnar retinal
  cells. At their inner ends (towards the pigment) these cells contain
  rod-like structures, while their outer ends are connected with the
  nerve-fibres. In some cases three separate nerves arise from the front
  of the brain, one going to each of the three divisions of the eye. In
  the Copepoda the median eye may undergo considerable elaboration, and
  refracting lenses and other accessory structures may be developed in
  connexion with it.

  The compound eyes are very similar in the details of their structure
  (see ARTHROPODA) to those of insects (Hexapoda). They consist of a
  varying number of ommatidia or visual elements, covered by a
  transparent region of the external cuticle forming the cornea. In most
  cases this cornea is divided into lenticular facets corresponding to
  the underlying ommatidia.

  As has been already stated, the compound eyes are often set on movable
  peduncles. It is probable that this is the primitive condition from
  which the sessile eyes of other forms have been derived. In the
  Malacostraca the sessile eyed groups are certainly less primitive than
  some of those with stalked eyes, and among the Entomostraca also there
  is some evidence pointing in the same direction.

  Although typically paired, the compound eyes may occasionally coalesce
  in the middle line into a single organ. This is the case in the
  Cladocera, the Cumacea and a few Amphipoda.

  Mention should also be made of the partial or complete atrophy of the
  eyes in many Crustacea which live in darkness, either in the deep sea
  or in subterranean habitats. In these cases the peduncles may persist
  and may even be modified into spinous organs of defence.

  _Other Sense-Organs._--As in Arthropoda, the hairs or setae on the
  surface of the body are important organs of sense and are variously
  modified for special sensory functions. Many, perhaps all, of them
  are tactile. They are movably articulated at the base where they are
  inserted in pits formed by a thinning away of the cuticle, and each is
  supplied by a nerve-fibril. When feathered or provided with secondary
  barbs the setae will respond to movements or vibrations in the
  surrounding water, and have been supposed to have an auditory
  function. In certain divisions of the Malacostraca more specialized
  organs are found which have been regarded as auditory. In the majority
  of the Decapoda there is a saccular invagination of the integument in
  the basal segment of the antennular peduncle having on its inner
  surface "auditory" setae of the type just described. The sac is open
  to the exterior in most of the Macrura, but completely closed in the
  Brachyura. In the former case it contains numerous grains of sand
  which are introduced by the animal itself after each moult and which
  are supposed to act as otoliths. Where the sac is completely closed it
  generally contains no solid particles, but in a few Macrura a single
  otolith secreted by the walls of the sac is present. In the _Mysidae_
  among the Schizopoda a pair of similar otocysts are found in the
  endopodites of the last pair of appendages (uropods). These contain
  each a single concretionary otolith.

  Recent observations, however, make it very doubtful whether aquatic
  Crustacea can hear at all, in the proper sense of the term, and it has
  been shown that one function, at least, of the so-called otocysts is
  connected with the equilibration of the body. They are more properly
  termed statocysts.

  Another modification of sensory setae is supposed to be associated
  with the sense of smell. In nearly all Crustacea the antennules and
  often also the antennae bear groups of hair-like filaments in which
  the chitinous cuticle is extremely delicate and which do not taper to
  a point but end bluntly. These are known as olfactory filaments or
  aesthetascs. They are very often more strongly developed in the male
  sex, and are supposed to guide the males in pursuit of the females.

  _Glands._--In addition to the digestive and excretory glands already
  mentioned, various glandular structures occur in the different groups
  of Crustacea. The most important of these belong to the category of
  dermal glands, and may be scattered over the surface of the body and
  limbs, or grouped at certain points for the discharge of special
  functions. Such glands occurring on the upper and lower lips or on the
  walls of the oesophagus have been regarded as salivary. In some
  Amphipoda the secretion of glands on the body and limbs is used in the
  construction of tubular cases in which the animals live. In some
  freshwater Copepoda the secretion of the dermal glands forms a
  gelatinous envelope, by means of which the animals are able to survive
  desiccation. In certain Copepoda and Ostracoda glands of the same type
  produce a phosphorescent substance, and others, in certain Amphipoda
  and Branchiura, are believed to have a poisonous function. Possibly
  related to the same group of structures are the greatly-developed
  cement-glands of the Cirripedia, which serve to attach the animals to
  their support.

  _Phosphorescent Organs._--Many Crustacea belonging to very different
  groups (Ostracoda, Copepoda, Schizopoda, Decapoda) possess the power
  of emitting light. In the Ostracoda and Copepoda the phosphorescence,
  as already mentioned, is due to glands which produce a luminous
  secretion, and this is the case also in certain members of the
  Schizopoda and Decapoda. In other cases in the last two groups,
  however, the light-producing organs found on the body and limbs have a
  complex and remarkable structure, and were formerly described as
  accessory eyes. Each consists of a globular capsule pierced at one or
  two points for the entrance of nerves which end in a central
  cup-shaped "striated body." This body appears to be the source of
  light, and has behind it a reflector formed of concentric lamellae,
  while, in front, in some cases, there is a refracting lens. The whole
  organ can be rotated by special muscles. Organs of this type are best
  known in the _Euphausiidae_ among the Schizopoda, but a modified form
  is found in some of the lower Decapods.

  _Reproductive System._--In the great majority of Crustacea the sexes
  are separate. Apart from certain doubtful and possibly abnormal
  instances among Phyllopoda and Amphipoda, the only exceptions are the
  sessile Cirripedia and some parasitic Isopoda (_Cymothoidae_), where
  hermaphroditism is the rule. Parthenogenesis is prevalent in the
  Branchiopoda and Ostracoda, often in more or less definite seasonal
  alternation with sexual reproduction. Where the sexes are distinct, a
  more or less marked dimorphism often exists. The male is very often
  provided with clasping organs for seizing the female. These may be
  formed by the modification of almost any of the appendages, often the
  antennules or antennae or some of the thoracic limbs, or even the
  mandibular palps (some Ostracoda). In addition, some of the appendages
  in the neighbourhood of the genital apertures may be modified for the
  purpose of transferring the genital products to the female, as, for
  instance, the first and second abdominal limbs in the Decapoda. In the
  higher Decapoda the male is generally larger than the female and has
  stronger chelae. On the other hand, in other groups the male is often
  smaller than the female. In the parasitic Copepoda and Isopoda the
  disparity in size is carried to an extreme degree, and the minute male
  is attached, like a parasite, to the enormously larger female.

  The Cirripedia present some examples of sexual relationships which are
  only paralleled, in the animal kingdom, among the parasitic
  Myzostomida. While the great majority are simple hermaphrodites,
  capable of cross and self fertilization, it was discovered by Darwin
  that, in certain species, minute degraded males exist, attached within
  the mantle-cavity of the ordinary individuals. Since these dwarf males
  pair, not with females, but with hermaphrodites, Darwin termed them
  "complemental" males. In other species the large individuals have
  become purely female by atrophy of the male organs, and are entirely
  dependent on the dwarf males for fertilization. In spite of the
  opinion of some distinguished zoologists to the contrary, it seems
  most probable that the separation of the sexes is in this case a
  secondary condition, derived from hermaphroditism through the
  intermediate stage represented by the species having complemental
  males.

  The gonads, as in other Arthropoda, are hollow saccular organs, the
  cavity communicating with the efferent ducts. They are primitively
  paired, but often coalesce with each other more or less completely.
  The ducts are present only as a single pair, except in one genus of
  parasitic Isopoda (_Hemioniscus_), where two pairs of oviducts are
  found. Various accessory structures may be connected with the efferent
  ducts in both sexes. The oviducts may have diverticula serving as
  receptacles for the spermatozoa (in cases where internal impregnation
  takes place), and may be provided with glands secreting envelopes or
  shells around the eggs. The male ducts often have glandular walls,
  secreting capsules or spermatophores within which the spermatozoa are
  packed for transference to the female. The terminal part of the male
  ducts may be protrusible and act as an intromittent organ, or this
  function may be discharged by some of the appendages, as, for
  instance, in the Brachyura.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Side view of Crab, the abdomen extended and
  carrying a mass of eggs beneath it; e, eggs. (After Morse.)]

  The position of the genital apertures varies very greatly in the
  different groups of the class. They are farthest forward in the case
  of the female organs of the Cirripedia, where the openings are on the
  first thoracic (fourth postoral) somite. The most posterior position
  is occupied by the genital apertures of certain Phyllopoda
  (_Polyartemia_), which lie behind the nineteenth trunk-somite. It is
  characteristic of the Malacostraca that the position of the genital
  apertures is constantly different in the two sexes, the female
  openings being on the sixth, and those of the male on the eighth
  thoracic somite.

  Very few Crustacea are viviparous in the sense that the eggs are
  retained within the body until hatching takes place (some Phyllopoda),
  but, on the other hand, the great majority carry the eggs in some way
  or other after their extrusion. In some Phyllopoda (_Apus_) egg-sacs
  are formed by modification of certain of the thoracic feet. The eggs
  are retained between the valves of the shell in some Phyllopoda and in
  the Cladocera and Ostracoda, and they lie in the mantle cavity in the
  Cirripedia. In the Copepoda they are agglutinated together into masses
  attached to the body of the female. Among the Malacostraca some
  Schizopoda, the Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Isopoda and Amphipoda (sometimes
  grouped all together as Peracarida) have a marsupium or brood-pouch
  formed by overlapping plates attached to the bases of some of the
  thoracic legs. In most of the Decapoda the eggs are carried by the
  female, attached to the abdominal appendages (fig. 11). A few cases
  are known in which the developing embryos are nourished by a special
  secretion while in the brood-chamber of the mother (Cladocera,
  terrestrial Isopoda).


  _Embryology._

  The majority of the Crustacea are hatched from the egg in a form
  differing more or less from that of the adult, and pass through a
  series of free-swimming larval stages. There are many cases, however,
  in which the metamorphosis is suppressed, and the newly-hatched young
  resemble the parent in general structure. The relative size of the
  eggs and the amount of nutritive yolk which they contain are generally
  much greater in those forms which have a direct development.

  The details of the early embryonic stages vary considerably within the
  limits of the class. They are of interest, however, rather from the
  point of view of general embryology than from that of the special
  student of the Crustacea, and cannot be fully dealt with here.

  Segmentation is usually of the superficial or centrolecithal type. The
  hypoblast is formed either by a definite invagination or by the
  immigration of isolated cells, known as vitellophags, which wander
  through the yolk and later become associated into a definite
  mesenteron, or by some combination of these two methods. The
  blastopore generally occupies a position corresponding to the
  posterior end of the body. The mesoblast of the cephalic (naupliar)
  region probably arises in connexion with the lips of the blastopore
  and consists of loosely-connected cells or mesenchyme. In the region
  of the trunk, in many cases, paired mesoblastic bands are formed,
  growing in length by the division of teloblastic cells at the
  posterior end, and becoming segmented into somites. The existence of
  true coelom-sacs is somewhat doubtful. The rudiments of the first
  three pairs of appendages commonly appear simultaneously, and, even in
  forms with embryonic development, they show differences in their mode
  of appearance from the succeeding somites. Further, a definite
  cuticular membrane is frequently formed and shed at this stage, which
  corresponds to the nauplius-stage of larval development.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Nauplius of a Prawn (_Penaeus_). (Fritz
  Müller).]

  The larval metamorphoses of the Crustacea have attracted much
  attention, and have been the subject of much discussion in view of
  their bearing on the phylogenetic history of the group. In those
  Crustacea in which the series of larval stages is most complete, the
  starting-point is the form already mentioned under the name of
  _nauplius_. The typical nauplius (fig. 12) has an oval unsegmented
  body and three pairs of limbs corresponding to the antennules,
  antennae and mandibles of the adult. The antennules are uniramous, the
  others biramous, and all three pairs are used in swimming. The
  antennae have a spiniform or hooked masticatory process at the base,
  and share with the mandibles, which have a similar process, the
  function of seizing and masticating the food. The mouth is overhung by
  a large labrum or upper lip, and the integument of the dorsal surface
  of the body forms a more or less definite dorsal shield. The paired
  eyes are, as yet, wanting, but the unpaired eye is large and
  conspicuous. A pair of frontal papillae or filaments, probably
  sensory, are commonly present.

  A nauplius larva differing only in details from the typical form just
  described is found in the majority of the Phyllopoda, Copepoda and
  Cirripedia, and in a more modified form, in some Ostracoda. Among the
  Malacostraca the nauplius is less commonly found, but it occurs in the
  _Euphausiidae_ among the Schizopoda and in a few of the more primitive
  Decapoda (_Penaeidea_) (fig. 12). In most of the Crustacea which hatch
  at a later stage there is, as already mentioned, more or less clear
  evidence of an embryonic nauplius stage. It seems certain, therefore,
  that the possession of a nauplius larva must be regarded as a very
  primitive character of the Crustacean stock.

  As development proceeds, the body of the nauplius elongates, and
  indications of segmentation begin to appear in its posterior part. At
  successive moults the somites increase in number, new somites being
  added behind those already differentiated, from a formative zone in
  front of the telsonic region. Very commonly the posterior end of the
  body becomes forked, two processes growing out at the sides of the
  anus and often persisting in the adult as the "caudal furca." The
  appendages posterior to the mandibles appear as buds on the ventral
  surface of the somites, and in the most primitive cases they become
  differentiated, like the somites which bear them, in regular order
  from before backwards. The limb-buds early become bilobed and grow out
  into typical biramous appendages which gradually assume the characters
  found in the adult. With the elongation of the body, the dorsal shield
  begins to project posteriorly as a shell-fold, which may increase in
  size to envelop more or less of the body or may disappear altogether.
  The rudiments of the paired eyes appear under the integument at the
  sides of the head, but only become pedunculated at a comparatively
  late stage.

  The course of development here outlined, in which the nauplius
  gradually passes into the adult form by the successive addition of
  somites and appendages in regular order, agrees so well with the
  process observed in the development of the typical Annelida that we
  must regard it as being the most primitive method. It is most closely
  followed by the Phyllopods such as _Apus_ or _Branchipus_, and by some
  Copepoda.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Early Stages of _Balanus_. (After Spence
  Bate.)

    A, Nauplius. e, Eye.
    B, _Cypris_-larva with a bivalve shell and just before becoming
      attached (represented feet upwards for comparison with E, where it
      is attached).
    C, After becoming attached, side views.
    D, Later stage, viewed from above.
    E, Side view, later stage and with cirri extended.

    The dots indicate the actual size.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--Zoea of Common Shore-Crab in its second stage.
  (Spence Bate.)

    r, Rostral spine.
    s, Dorsal spine.
    m, Maxillipeds.
    t, Buds of thoracic feet.
    a, Abdomen.]

  In most Crustacea, however, this primitive scheme is more or less
  modified. The earlier stages may be suppressed or passed through
  within the egg (or within the maternal brood-chamber), so that the
  larva, on hatching, has reached a stage more advanced than the
  nauplius. Further, the gradual appearance and differentiation of the
  successive somites and appendages may be accelerated, so that
  comparatively great advances take place at a single moult. In the
  Cirripedia, for example, the latest nauplius stage (fig. 13, A) gives
  rise directly to the so-called _Cypris_-larva (fig. 13, B), differing
  widely from the nauplius in form, and possessing all the appendages of
  the adult. Another very common modification of the primitive method of
  development is found in the accelerated appearance of certain somites
  or appendages, disturbing the regular order of development. This
  modification is especially found in the Malacostraca. Even in those
  which have most fully retained the primitive order of development, as
  in the _Penaeidea_ and _Euphausiidae_, the last pair of abdominal
  appendages make their appearance in advance of those immediately in
  front of them. The same process, carried further, leads to the very
  peculiar larva known as the _Zoea_, in the typical form of which,
  found in the Brachyura (fig. 14), the posterior five or six thoracic
  somites have their development greatly retarded, and are still
  represented by a short unsegmented region of the body at a time when
  the abdominal somites are fully formed and even carry appendages. The
  _Zoea_ was formerly regarded as a recapitulation of an ancestral form,
  but there can be no doubt that its peculiarities are the result of
  secondary modification. It is most typically developed in the most
  specialized Decapoda, the Brachyura, while the more primitive groups
  of Malacostraca, the _Euphausiidae_, _Penaeidea_ and Stomatopoda,
  retain the primitive order of appearance of the somites, and, for the
  most part, of the limbs. At the same time, the tendency to a
  retardation in the development of the posterior thoracic somites is
  very general in Malacostracan larvae, and may perhaps be correlated
  with the fact that in the primitive Phyllocarida the whole thoracic
  region is very short and the limbs closely crowded together.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Nauplius of _Tetraclita porosa_ after the
  first moult.

  (Fritz Müller.)]

  Besides the nauplius and the zoea there are many other types of
  Crustacean larvae, distinguished by special names, though, as their
  occurrence is restricted within the limits of the smaller systematic
  groups, they are of less general interest. We need only mention the
  _Mysis_-stage (better termed Schizopod-stage) found in many Macrura
  (as, for example, the lobster), which differs from the adult in having
  large natatory exopodites on the thoracic legs.

  Most of the larval forms swim freely at the surface of the sea, and
  many show special adaptations to this habit of life. As in many other
  "pelagic" organisms, spines and processes from the surface of the body
  are often developed, which are probably less important as defensive
  organs than as aids to flotation. This is well seen in the nauplius of
  many Cirripedia (fig. 15) and in nearly all zoeae. Perhaps the most
  striking example is the zoea-like larva of the _Sergestidae_, known as
  _Elaphocaris_, which has an extraordinary armature of ramified spines.
  The same purpose is probably served by the extreme flattening of the
  body in the membranous _Phyllosoma_-larva of the rock-lobsters and
  their allies (Loricata).


_Past History._

Although fossil remains of Crustacea are abundant, from the most ancient
fossiliferous rocks down to the most recent, their study has hitherto
contributed little to a precise knowledge of the phylogenetic history of
the class. This is partly due to the fact that many important forms must
have escaped fossilization altogether owing to their small size and
delicate structure, while very many of those actually preserved are
known only from the carapace or shell, the limbs being absent or
represented only by indecipherable fragments. Further, many important
groups were already differentiated when the geological record began. The
Phyllopoda, Ostracoda and Cirripedia (Thyrostraca) are represented in
Cambrian or Silurian rocks by forms which seem to have resembled closely
those now existing, so that palaeontology can have little light to throw
on the mode of origin of these groups. With the Malacostraca the case is
little better. There is considerable reason for believing that the
_Ceratiocaridae_, which are found from the Cambrian onwards, were allied
to the existing _Nebalia_, and may possibly include the forerunners of
the true Malacostraca, but nothing is definitely known of their
appendages. In Palaeozoic formations, from the Upper Devonian onwards,
numbers of shrimp-like forms are found which have been referred to the
Schizopoda and the Decapoda, but here again the scanty information which
may be gleaned as to the structure of the limbs rarely permits of
definite conclusions as to their affinities. The recent discovery in the
Tasmanian "schizopod" _Anaspides_, of what is believed to be a living
representative of the Carboniferous and Permian _Syncarida_, has,
however, afforded a clue to the affinities of some of these
problematical forms.

True Decapods are first met with in Mesozoic rocks, the first to appear
being the _Penaeidea_, a primitive group comprising the _Penaeidae_ and
_Sergestidae_, which occur in the Jurassic and perhaps in the Trias.
Some of the earliest are referred to the existing genus _Penaeus_. The
Stenopidea, another primitive group, differing from the Penaeidea in the
character of the gills, appear in the Trias and Jurassic. The Caridea or
true prawns and shrimps appear later, in the Upper Jurassic, some of
them presenting primitive characteristics in the retention of swimming
exopodites on the walking-legs. The Eryonidea (fig. 16, 3), a group
related to the Loricata but of a more generalized type, are specially
interesting since the few existing deep-sea forms appear to be only
surviving remnants of what was, in the Mesozoic period, a dominant
group. The Mesozoic _Glyphaeidae_ have been supposed to stand in the
direct line of descent of the modern rock-lobsters and their allies
(Loricata). Some of the Loricata have persisted with little change from
the Cretaceous period to the present day.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.

  1, _Dromilites Lamarckii_, Desm.; London Clay, Sheppey.
  2, _Palaeocorystes Stokesii_, Gault; Folkestone.
  3, _Eryon arctiformis_, Schl.; Lithographic stone, Solenhofen.
  4, _Mecocheirus longimanus_, Schl.; Lithographic stone, Solenhofen.
  5, _Cypridea tuberculata_, Sby.; (Ostracoda); Weald, Sussex.
  6, _Loricula pulchella_, Sby (Cirripedia); L. Chalk, Sussex.]

The Anomura are hardly known as fossils. The Brachyura, on the other
hand, are well represented (fig 16, 1, 2). The earliest forms, from the
Lower Oolite and later, belonging chiefly to the extinct family
_Prosoponidae_, have been shown to have close relations with the most
generalized of existing Brachyura, the deep-sea _Homolodromiidae_, and
to link the Brachyura to the Homarine (lobster-like) Macrura.

A few Isopoda are known from Secondary rocks, but their systematic
position is doubtful and they throw no light on the evolution of the
group. The Amphipoda are not definitely known to occur till Tertiary
times. Stomatopoda of a very modern-looking type, and even their larvae,
occur in Jurassic rocks.

In the dearth of trustworthy evidence as to the actual forerunners of
existing Crustacea, we are compelled to rely wholly on the data afforded
by comparative anatomy and embryology in attempting to reconstruct the
probable phylogeny of the class. It is unnecessary to insist on the
purely speculative character of the conclusions to be reached in this
way, so long as they cannot be checked by the results of palaeontology,
but, when this is recognized, such speculation is not only legitimate
but necessary as a basis on which to build a natural classification.

The first attempts to reconstruct the genealogical history of the
Crustacea started from the assumption that the "theory of
recapitulation" could be applied to their larval history. The various
larval forms, especially the nauplius and zoea, were supposed to
reproduce, more or less closely, the actual structure of ancestral
types. So far as the zoea was concerned, this assumption was soon shown
to be erroneous, and the secondary nature of this type of larva is now
generally admitted. As regards the nauplius, however, the constancy of
its general character in the most widely diverse groups of Crustacea
strongly suggests that it is a very ancient type, and the view has been
advocated that the Crustacea must have arisen from an unsegmented
nauplius-like ancestor.

The objections to this view, however, are considerable. The resemblances
between the Crustacea and the Annelid worms, in such characters as the
structure of the nervous system and the mode of growth of the somites,
can hardly be ignored. Several structures which must be attributed, to
the common stock of the Crustacea, such as the paired eyes and the
shell-fold, are not present in the nauplius. The opinion now most
generally held is that the primitive Crustacean type is most nearly
approached by certain Phyllopods such as _Apus_. The large number and
the uniformity of the trunk somites and their appendages, and the
structure of the nervous system and of the heart in _Apus_, are
Annelidan characters which can hardly be without significance. It is
probable also, as already mentioned, that the leaf-like appendages of
the Phyllopoda are of a primitive type, and attempts have been made to
refer their structure to that of the Annelid parapodium. In many
respects, however, the Phyllopoda, and especially _Apus_, have diverged
considerably from the primitive Crustacean type. All the cephalic
appendages are much reduced, the mandibles have no palps, and the
maxillulae are vestigial. In these respects some of the Copepoda have
retained characters which we must regard as much more primitive. In
those Copepods in which the palps of the mandibles as well as the
antennae are biramous and natatory, the first three pairs of appendages
retain throughout life, with little modification, the shape and function
which they have in the nauplius stage, and must, in all likelihood, be
regarded as approximating to those of the primitive Crustacea. In other
respects, however, such as the absence of paired eyes and of a
shell-fold, as well as in the characters of the post-oral limbs, the
Copepoda are undoubtedly specialized.

In order to reconstruct the hypothetical ancestral Crustacean,
therefore, it is necessary to combine the characters of several of the
existing groups. It may be supposed to have approximated, in general
form, to _Apus_, with an elongated body composed of numerous similar
somites and terminating in a caudal furca; with the post-oral appendages
all similar and all bearing gnathobasic processes; and with a carapace
originating as a shell-fold from the maxillary somite. The eyes were
probably stalked, the antennae and mandibles biramous and natatory, and
both armed with masticatory processes. It is likely that the trunk-limbs
were also biramous, with additional endites and exites. Whether any of
the obscure fossils generally referred to the Phyllopoda or Phyllocarida
may have approximated to this hypothetical form it is impossible to say.
It is to be noted, however, that the Trilobita, which, according to the
classification here adopted, are dealt with under Arachnida, are not
very far removed, except in such characters as the absence of a
shell-fold and of eye-stalks, from the primitive Crustacean here
sketched.

On this view, the nauplius, while no longer regarded as reproducing an
ancestral type, does not altogether lose its phylogenetic significance.
It is an ancestral _larval_ form, corresponding perhaps to the stages
immediately succeeding the trochophore in the development of Annelids,
but with some of the later-acquired Crustacean characters superposed
upon it. While little importance is to be given to such characters as
the unsegmented body, the small number of limbs and the absence of a
shell-fold and of paired eyes, it has, on the other hand, preserved
archaic features in the form of the limbs and the masticatory function
of the antenna.

The probable course of evolution of the different groups of Crustacea
from this hypothetical ancestral form can only be touched on here. The
Phyllopoda must have branched off very early and from them to the
Cladocera the way is clear. The Ostracoda might have been derived from
the same stock were it not that they retain the mandibular palp which
all the Phyllopods have lost. The Copepoda must have separated
themselves very early, though perhaps some of their characters may be
persistently larval rather than phylogenetically primitive. The
Cirripedia are so specialized both as larvae and as adults that it is
hard to say in what direction their origin is to be sought.

For the Malacostraca, it is generally admitted that the Leptostraca
(_Nebalia_, &c.) provide a connecting-link with the base of the
Phyllopod stem. Nearest to them come the Schizopoda, a primitive group
from which two lines of descent can be traced, the one leading from the
Mysidacea (_Mysidae_ + _Lophogastridae_) to the Cumacea and the
sessile-eyed groups Isopoda and Amphipoda, the other from the
Euphausiacea (_Euphausiidae_) to the Decapoda.


_Classification._

The modern classification of Crustacea may be said to have been founded
by P. A. Latreille, who, in the beginning of the 19th century, divided
the class into Entomostraca and Malacostraca. The latter division,
characterized by the possession of 19 somites and pairs of appendages
(apart from the eyes), by the division of the appendages into two
tagmata corresponding to cephalothorax and abdomen, and by the constancy
in position of the generative apertures, differing in the two sexes, is
unquestionably a natural group. The Entomostraca, however, are certainly
a heterogeneous assemblage, defined only by negative characters, and the
name is retained only for the sake of convenience, just as it is often
useful to speak of a still more heterogeneous and unnatural assemblage
of animals as Invertebrata. The barnacles and their allies, forming the
group Cirripedia or Thyrostraca, sometimes treated as a separate
sub-class, are distinguished by being sessile in the adult state, the
larval antennules serving as organs of attachment, and the antennae
being lost. An account of them will be found in the article THYROSTRACA.
The remaining groups are dealt with under the headings ENTOMOSTRACA and
MALACOSTRACA, the annectent group Leptostraca being included in the
former.

It may be useful to give here a synopsis of the classification adopted
in this encyclopaedia, noting that, for convenience of treatment, it has
been thought necessary to adopt a grouping not always expressive of the
most recent views of affinity.

  Class _Crustacea_.
    Sub-class _Entomostraca_.
        Order _Branchiopoda_.
          Sub-orders _Phyllopoda_.
                     _Cladocera_.
                     _Branchiura_.
        Orders _Ostracoda_.
               _Copepoda_.
    Sub-classses _Thyrostraca_ (_Cirripedia_).
                 _Leptostraca_.
                 _Malacostraca_.
        Order _Decapoda_.
          Sub-orders _Brachyura_.
                     _Macrura_.
        Orders _Schizopoda_ (including _Anaspides_).
               _Stomatopoda_.
               _Sympoda_ (Cumacea).
               _Isopoda_ (including _Tanaidacea_).
               _Amphipoda_.

     (W. T. Ca.)



CRUSTUMERIUM, an ancient town of Latium, on the edge of the Sabine
territory, near the headwaters of the Allia, not far from the Tiber. It
appears several times in the early history of Rome, but was conquered in
500 B.C. according to Livy ii. 19, the _tribus Crustumina_ [or
_Clustumina_] being formed in 471 B.C. Pliny mentions it among the lost
cities of Latium, but the name clung to the district, the fertility of
which remained famous. No remains of it exist, and its exact site is
uncertain.

  See T. Ashby in _Papers of the British School at Rome_, iii. 50.



CRUVEILHIER, JEAN (1791-1874), French anatomist, was born at Limoges in
1791, and was educated at the university of Paris, where in 1825 he
became professor of anatomy. In 1836 he became the first occupant of the
recently founded chair of pathological anatomy. He died at Jussac in
1874. His chief works are _Anatomie descriptive_ (1834-1836); _Anatomie
pathologique du corps humain_ (1829-1842), with many coloured plates;
_Traité d'anatomie pathologique générale_ (1849-1864); _Anatomie du
système nerveux de l'homme_ (1845); _Traité d'anatomie descriptive_
(1851).



CRUZ E SILVA, ANTONIO DINIZ DA (1731-1799), Portuguese heroic-comic
poet, was the son of a Lisbon carpenter who emigrated to Brazil shortly
before the poet's birth, leaving his wife to support and educate her
young family by the earnings of her needle. Diniz studied Latin and
philosophy with the Oratorians, and in 1747 matriculated at Coimbra
University, where he wrote his first versus about 1750. In 1753 he took
his degree in law, and returning to the capital, devoted much of the
next six years to literary work. In 1756 he became one of the founders
and drew up the statues of the _Arcadia Lusitana_, a literary society
whose aims were the instruction of its members, the cultivation of the
art of poetry, and the restoration of good taste. The fault was not his
if these ends were not attained, for, taking contemporary French authors
as his models, he contributed much, both in prose and verse, to its
proceedings, until he left in February 1760 to take up the position of
_juiz de fora_ at Castello de Vide. On returning to Lisbon for a short
visit, he found the _Arcadia_ a prey to the internal dissensions that
caused its dissolution in 1774, but succeeded in composing them and in
1764 he went to Elvas to act as auditor of one of the regiments
stationed there. During a ten years' residence, his wide reading and
witty conversation gained him the friendship of the governor of that
fortress and the admiration of a circle comprising all that was
cultivated in Elvas. As in most cathedral and garrison towns, the
clerical and military elements dominated society, and here were mutually
antagonistic, because of the enmity between their respective leaders,
the bishop and the governor. Moreover, Elvas, being a remote provincial
centre, abounded in curious and grotesque types. Diniz, who was a keen
observer, noted these, and, treasuring them in his memory, reproduced
them, with their vanities, intrigues and ignorance, in his masterpiece,
_Hyssope_. In 1768 a quarrel arose between the bishop, a proud,
pretentious prelate, and the dean, as to the right of the former to
receive holy water from the latter at a private side door of the
cathedral, instead of at the principal entrance. The matter being one of
principle, neither party would yield what he considered his rights, and
it led to a lawsuit, and divided the town into two sections, which
eagerly debated the arguments on both sides and enjoyed the ridiculous
incidents which accompanied the dispute. Ultimately the dean died, and
was succeeded by his nephew, who appealed to the crown with success and
the bishop lost his pretension. The _Hyssope_ arose out of and deals
with this affair. It was dictated in seventeen days, in the years
1770-1772, and, in its final redaction, consists of eight cantos of
blank verse. The pressure of absolutism left open only one form of
expression, satire, and in this poem Diniz produced an original work
which ridicules the clergy and the prevailing Gallomania, and contains
episodes full of humour. It has been compared with Boileau's _Lutrin_,
because both are founded on a petty ecclesiastical quarrel, but here the
resemblance ends, and the poem of Diniz is the superior in everything
except matrification.

Returning to Lisbon in 1774, Diniz endeavoured once more to resuscitate
the _Arcadia_, but his long absence had withdrawn its chief support, its
most talented members Garção (q.v.) and Quita were no more, and he only
assisted at its demise. In April 1776 he was appointed _disembargador_
of the court of Relação in Rio de Janeiro and given the habit of Aviz.
He lived in Brazil, devouting his leisure to a study of its natural
history and mineralogy, until 1789, when he went back to Lisbon to take
up the post of _disembargador_ of the Relação of Oporto; in July 1790 he
was promoted, and became _disembargador_ of the Casa da Supplicação. In
this year he was sent again to Brazil to assist in trying the leaders of
the Republican conspiracy in Minas, in which Gonzaga (q.v.) and the
other men of letters were involved, and in December 1792 he became
chancellor of the Relação in Rio. Six years later he was named
councillor of the _Conselho Ultramarino_, but did not live to return
home, dying in Rio on the 5th of October 1799.

Diniz possessed a poetic temperament, but his love of imitating the
classics, whose spirit he failed to understand, fettered his muse, and
he seems never to have perceived that mythological comparisons and
pastoral allegories were poor substitutes for the expression of natural
feeling. The conventionalism of his art prejudiced its sincerity, and,
inwardly cherishing the belief that poetry was unworthy of the dignity
of a judge, he never gave his real talents a chance to display
themselves. His Anacreontic odes, dithyrambs and idylls earned the
admiration of contemporaries, but his Pindaric odes lack fire, his
sonnets are weak, and his idylls have neither the truth nor the
simplicity of Quita's work. As a rule Diniz's versification is weak and
his verses lack harmony, though the diction is beyond cavil.

  His poems were published in 6 vols. (Lisbon, 1807-1817). The best
  edition of _Hyssope_, to which Diniz owes his lasting fame, is that of
  J. R. Coelho (Lisbon, 1879), with an exhaustive introductory study on
  his life and writings. A French prose version of the poem by
  Boissonade has gone through two editions (Paris, 1828 and 1867), and
  English translations of selections have been printed in the _Foreign
  Quarterly Review_, and in the _Manchester Quarterly_ (April 1896).

  See also Dr Theophilo Braga, _A. Arcadia Lusitana_ (Oporto, 1899).
       (E. Pr.)



CRYOLITE, a mineral discovered in Greenland by the Danes in 1794, and
found to be a compound of fluorine, sodium and aluminium. From its
general appearance, and from the fact that it melts readily, even in a
candle-flame, it was regarded by the Eskimos as a peculiar kind of ice;
from this fact it acquired the name of cryolite (from Gr. [Greek:
kryos], frost, and [Greek: lithos], stone). Cryolite occurs in
colourless or snow-white cleavable masses, often tinted brown or red
with iron oxide, and occasionally passing into a black variety. It is
usually translucent, becoming nearly transparent on immersion in water.
The mineral cleaves in three rectangular directions, and the crystals
occasionally found in the crevices have a cubic habit, but it has been
proved, after much discussion, that they belong to the anorthic system.
The hardness is 2.5, and the specific gravity 3. Cryolite has the
formula Na3AlF6, or 3NaF·AlF3, corresponding to fluorine 54.4, sodium
32.8, and aluminium 12.8%. It colours a flame yellow, through the
presence of sodium, and when heated with sulphuric acid it evolves
hydrofluoric acid.

Cryolite occurs almost exclusively at Ivigtut (sometimes written
Evigtok) on the Arksut Fjord in S.W. Greenland. There it forms a large
deposit, in a granitic vein running through gneiss, and is accompanied
by quartz, siderite, galena, blende, chalcopyrite, &c. It is also
associated with a group of kindred minerals, some of which are evidently
products of alteration of the cryolite, known as pachnolite,
thomsenolite, ralstonite, gearksutite, arksutite, &c. Cryolite likewise
occurs, though only to a limited extent, at Miyask, in the Ilmen
Mountains; at Pike's Peak, Colorado, and in the Yellowstone Park.

Cryolite is a mineral of much economic importance. It has been
extensively used as a source of metallic aluminium, and as a flux in
smelting the metal. It is largely employed in the manufacture of certain
sodium salts, as suggested by Julius Thomsen, of Copenhagen, in 1849;
and it has been used for the production of certain kinds of porcelain
and glass, remarkable for its toughness, and for enamelled ware.

Although cryolite is known as "ice-stone" (_Eisstein_), it is not to be
confused with "ice-spar" (_Eisspath_), which is a vitreous kind of
felspar termed "glassy felspar" or rhyacolite.     (F. W. R.*)



CRYPT (Lat. _crypta_, from the Gr. [Greek: kryptein], to hide), a vault
or subterranean chamber, especially under churches. In classical
phraseology "crypta" was employed for any vaulted building, either
partially or entirely below the level of the ground. It is used for a
sewer (_crypta Suburae_, Juvenal, _Sat._ v. 106); for the "carceres," or
vaulted stalls for the horses and chariots in a circus (Sidon. Apoll.
_Carm._ xxiii. 319); for the close porticoes or arcades, more fully
known as "cryptoporticus," attached by the Romans to their suburban
villas for the sake of coolness, and to the theatres as places of
exercise or rehearsal for the performers (Plin. _Epist._ ii. 15, v. 6,
vii. 21; Sueton. _Calig._ 58; Sidon. Apoll, lib. ii. epist. 2); and for
underground receptacles for agricultural produce (Vitruv. vi. 8, Varro,
_De re rust._ i. 57). Tunnels, or galleries excavated in the living
rock, were also called _cryptae_. Thus the tunnel to the north of
Naples, through which the road passes to Puteoli, familiar to tourists
as the "Grotto of Posilipo," was originally designated _crypta
Neapolitana_ (Seneca, Epist. 57). In early Christian times _crypta_ was
appropriately employed for the galleries of a catacomb, or for the
catacomb itself. Jerome calls them by this name when describing his
visits to them as a schoolboy, and the term is used by Prudentius (see
CATACOMBS).

A crypt, as a portion of a church, had its origin in the subterranean
chapels known as "confessiones," erected around the tomb of a martyr, or
the place of his martyrdom. This is the origin of the spacious crypts,
some of which may be called subterranean churches, of the Roman churches
of S. Prisca, S. Prassede, S. Martino ai Monti, S. Lorenzo fuori le
Mura, and above all of St Peter's--the crypt being thus the germ of the
church or basilica subsequently erected above the hallowed spot. When
the martyr's tomb was sunk in the surface of the ground, and not placed
in a catacomb chapel, the original memorial-shrine would be only
partially below the surface, and consequently the part of the church
erected over it, which was always that containing the altar, would be
elevated some height above the ground, and be approached by flights of
steps. This fashion of raising the chancel or altar end of a church on a
crypt was widely imitated long after the reason for adopting it ceased,
and even where it never existed. The crypt under the altar at the
basilica of St Maria Maggiore in Rome is merely imitative, and the same
may be said of many of the crypts of the early churches in England. The
original Saxon cathedral of Canterbury had a crypt beneath the eastern
apse, containing the so-called body of St Dunstan, and other relics,
"fabricated," according to Eadmer, "in the likeness of the confessionary
of St Peter at Rome" (see BASILICA). St Wilfrid constructed crypts still
existing beneath the churches erected by him in the latter part of the
7th century at Hexham and Ripon. These are peculiarly interesting from
their similarity in form and arrangement to the catacomb chapels with
which Wilfrid must have become familiar during his residence in Rome.
The cathedral, begun by Æthelwold and finished by Alphege at Winchester,
at the end of the 10th century, had spacious crypts "supporting the holy
altar and the venerable relics of the saints" (Wulstan, _Life of St
Æthelwold_), and they appear to have been common in the earlier churches
in England. The arrangement was adopted by the Norman builders of the
11th and 12th centuries, and though far from universal is found in many
of the cathedrals of that date. The object of the construction of these
crypts was twofold,--to give the altar sufficient elevation to enable
those below to witness the sacred mysteries, and to provide a place of
burial for those holy men whose relics were the church's most precious
possession. But the crypt was "a foreign fashion," derived, as has been
said, from Rome, "which failed to take root in England, and indeed
elsewhere barely outlasted the Romanesque period" (_Essays on
Cathedrals_, ed. Howson, p. 331).

Of the crypts beneath English Norman cathedrals, that under the choir of
Canterbury (q.v.) is by far the largest and most elaborate in its
arrangements. It is, in fact, a subterranean church of vast size and
considerable altitude. The whole crypt was dedicated to the Virgin Mary,
and contained two chapels especially dedicated to her,--the central one
beneath the high altar, enclosed with rich Gothic screen-work, and one
under the south transept. This latter chapel was appropriated by Queen
Elizabeth to the use of the French Huguenot refugees who had settled at
Canterbury in the time of Edward VI. There were also in this crypt a
large number of altars and chapels of other saints, some of whose
hallowed bodies were buried here. At the extreme east end, beneath the
Trinity chapel, the body of St Thomas (Becket) was buried the day after
his martyrdom, and lay there till his translation, July 7, 1220.

The cathedrals of Winchester, Worcester and Gloucester have crypts of
slightly earlier date (they may all be placed between 1080 and 1100),
but of similar character, though less elaborate. They all contain
piscinas and other evidences of the existence of altars in considerable
numbers. They are all apsidal. The most picturesque is that of
Worcester, the work of Bishop Wulfstan (1084), which is remarkable for
the multiplicity of small pillars supporting its radiating vaults.
Instead of having the air of a sepulchral vault like those of Winchester
and Gloucester, this crypt is, in Professor Willis's words, "a complex
and beautiful temple." Archbishop Roger's crypt at York, belonging to
the next century (1154-1181), was filled up with earth when the present
choir was built at the end of the 14th century, and its existence
forgotten till its disinterment after the fire of 1829. The choir and
presbytery at Rochester are supported by an extensive crypt, of which
the western portion is Gundulf's work (1076-1107), but the eastern part,
which displays slender cylindrical and octagonal shafts, with light
vaulting springing from them, is of the same period as the
superstructure, the first years of the 13th century. This crypt, and
that beneath the Early English Lady chapel at Hereford, are the latest
English existing cathedral crypts. That at Hereford was rendered
necessary by the fall of the ground, and is an exceptional case. Later
than any of these crypts was that of St Paul's, London. This was a
really large and magnificent church of Decorated date, with a vaulted
roof of rich and intricate character resting on a forest of clustered
columns. Part of it served as the parish church of St Faith. A still
more exquisite work of the Decorated period is the crypt of St Stephen's
chapel at Westminster, than which it is difficult to conceive anything
more perfect in design or more elaborate in ornamentation. Having
happily escaped the conflagration of the Houses of Parliament in
1834--before which it was degraded to the purpose of the speaker's state
dining-room--it has been restored to its former sumptuousness of
decoration, and is now one of the most beautiful architectural gems in
England.

Of Scottish cathedrals the only one that possesses a crypt is the
cathedral of Glasgow, rendered celebrated by Sir Walter Scott in his
novel of _Rob Roy_ (ch. xx.). At the supposed date of the tale, and
indeed till a comparatively recent period, this crypt was used as a
place of worship by one of the three congregations among which the
cathedral was partitioned, and was known as "the Laigh or Barony Kirk."
It extends beneath the choir transepts and chapter-house; in consequence
of the steep declivity on which the cathedral stands it is of unusual
height and lightsomeness. It belongs to the 13th century, its style
corresponding to Early English, and is simply constructional, the
building being adapted to the locality. In architectural beauty it is
quite unequalled by any crypt in the United Kingdom, and can hardly
anywhere be surpassed. It is an unusually rich example of the style, the
clustered piers and groining being exquisite in design and admirable in
execution. The bosses of the roof and capitals of the piers are very
elaborate, and the doors are much enriched with foliage. "There is a
solidity in its architecture, a richness in its vaulting, and a variety
of perspective in the spacing of its pillars, which make it one of the
most perfect pieces of architecture in these kingdoms" (Fergusson).

In the centre of the main alley stands the mutilated effigy of St Mungo,
the patron saint of Glasgow, and at the south-east corner is a well
called after the same saint.

Crypts under parish churches are not very uncommon in England, but they
are usually small and not characterized by any architectural beauty. A
few of the earlier crypts, however, deserve notice. One of the earliest
and most remarkable is that of the church of Lastingham near Pickering
in Yorkshire, on the site of the monastery founded in 648 by Cedd,
bishop of the East Saxons. The existing crypt, though exceedingly rude
in structure, is of considerably later date than Bishop Cedd, forming
part of the church erected by Abbot Stephen of Whitby in 1080, when he
had been driven inland by the incursions of the northern pirates. This
crypt is remarkable from its extending under the nave as well as the
chancel of the upper church, the plan of which it accurately reproduces,
with the exception of the westernmost bay. It forms a nave with side
aisles of three bays, and an apsidal chancel, lighted by narrow deeply
splayed slits. The roof of quadripartite vaulting is supported by four
very dwarf thick cylindrical columns, the capitals of which and of the
responds are clumsy imitations of classical work with rude volutes.
Still more curious is the crypt beneath the chancel of the church of
Repton in Derbyshire. This also consists of a centre and side aisles,
divided by three arches on either side. The architectural character,
however, is very different from that at Lastingham, and is in some
respects almost unique, the piers being slender, and some of them of a
singular spiral form, with a bead running in the sunken part of the
spiral. Another very extensive and curious Norman crypt is that beneath
the chancel of St Peter's-in-the-East at Oxford. This is five bays in
length, the quadripartite vaulting being supported by eight low,
somewhat slender, cylindrical columns with capitals bearing grotesque
animal and human subjects. Its dimensions are 36 by 20 ft. and 10 ft. in
height. This crypt has been commonly attributed to Grymboldt in the 9th
century; but it is really not very early Norman. Under the church of St
Mary-le-Bow in London there is an interesting Norman crypt not very
dissimilar in character to that last described. Of a later date is the
remarkably fine Early English crypt groined in stone, beneath the
chancel of Hythe in Kent, containing a remarkable collection of skulls
and bones, the history of which is quite uncertain. There is also a
Decorated crypt beneath the chancel at Wimborne minster, and one of the
same date beneath the southern chancel aisle at Grantham.

Among the more remarkable French crypts may be mentioned those of the
cathedrals of Auxerre, said to date from the original foundation in
1085; of Bayeux, attributed to Odo, bishop of that see, uterine brother
of William the Conqueror, where twelve columns with rude capitals
support a vaulted roof; of Chartres, running under the choir and its
aisles, frequently assigned to Bishop Fulbert in 1029, but more probably
coeval with the superstructure; and of Bourges, where the crypt is in
the Pointed style, extending beneath the choir. The church of the Holy
Trinity attached to Queen Matilda's foundation--the "Abbaye aux Dames"
at Caen--has a Norman crypt where the thirty-four pillars are as closely
set as those at Worcester. The church of St Eutropius at Saintes has
also a crypt of the 11th century, of very large dimensions, which
deserves special notice; the capitals of the columns exhibit very
curious carvings. Earlier than any already mentioned is that of St
Gervase of Rouen, considered by E. A. Freeman "the oldest ecclesiastical
work to be seen north of the Alps." It is apsidal, and in its walls are
layers of Roman brick. It is said to contain the remains of two of the
earliest apostles of Gaul--St Mello and St Avitian. There are numerous
crypts in Germany. One at Göttingen may be mentioned, where cylindrical
shafts with capitals of singular design support "vaulting of great
elegance and lightness" (Fergusson), the curves being those of a
horseshoe arch. The crypts of the cathedrals or churches at Halberstadt,
Hildesheim and Naumburg also deserve to be noticed; that of Lübeck may
be rather called a lower choir. It is 20 ft. high and vaulted.

The Italian crypts, when found, as a rule reproduce the "confessio" of
the primitive churches. That beneath the chancel of S. Michele at Pavia
is an excellent typical example, probably dating from the 10th century.
It is apsidal and vaulted, and is seven bays in length. That at S. Zeno
at Verona (c. 1138) is still more remarkable; its vaulted roof is
upborne by forty columns, with curiously carved capitals. It is
approached from the west by a double flight of steps and contains many
ancient monuments. S. Miniato at Florence, begun in 1013, has a very
spacious crypt at the east end, forming virtually a second choir. It is
seven bays in length and vaulted. The most remarkable crypt in Italy,
however, is perhaps that of St Mark's, Venice. The plan of this is
almost a Greek cross. Four rows of nine columns each run from end to
end, and two rows of three each occupy the arms of the cross, supporting
low stunted arches on which rests the pavement of the church above. This
also constitutes a lower church, containing a _chorus cantorum_ formed
by a low stone screen, not unlike that of S. Clemente at Rome (see
BASILICA), enclosing a massive stone altar with four low columns. This
crypt is reasonably supposed to belong to the church founded by the doge
P. Orseolo in 977. There are also crypts deserving notice at the
cathedrals of Brescia, Fiesole and Modena, and the churches of S.
Ambrogio and S. Eustorgio at Milan. The former was unfortunately
modernized by St Charles Borromeo. The crypt at Assisi is really a
second church at a lower level, and being built on the steep side of a
hill is well lighted. The whole fabric is a beautiful specimen of
Italian Gothic, and both the lower and upper churches are covered with
rich frescoes.

Domestic crypts are of frequent occurrence. Medieval houses had as a
rule their chief rooms raised above the level of the ground upon vaulted
substructures, which were used as cellars and storerooms. These were
sometimes partially underground, sometimes entirely above it. The
underground vaults often remain when all the superstructure has been
swept away, and from their Gothic character are frequently mistaken for
ecclesiastical buildings. The older English towns are full of crypts of
this character, now used as cellars. They occur in Oxford and Rochester,
are very abundant in the older parts of Bristol, and, according to J. H.
Parker, "nearly the whole city of Chester is built upon a series of them
with the Rows or passages made on the top of the vaults" (_Domestic
Architecture_, iii. 91). The crypt of Gerard's Hall in London, destroyed
in the construction of New Cannon Street, figured by Parker (_Dom.
Arch._ ii. 185), was a beautiful example of the lower storey of the
residence of a wealthy merchant of the time of Edward I. It was divided
down the middle by a row of four slender cylindrical columns supporting
a very graceful vault. The finest example of a secular crypt now
remaining in England is that beneath the Guildhall of London. The date
of this is early in the 15th century--1411. It is a large and lofty
apartment, divided into four alleys by two rows of clustered shafts
supporting a rich lierne vault with ribs of considerable intricacy.
There is a fine vaulted crypt of the same date and of similar character
beneath St Mary's Hall, the Guildhall of the city of Coventry. (E. V.)



CRYPTEIA (Gr. [Greek: kryptein], to hide), a kind of secret police in
ancient Sparta, founded, according to Aristotle, by Lycurgus; there is,
however, no real evidence as to the date of its origin. The institution
was under the supervision of the ephors, who, on entering office,
annually proclaimed war against the helots (serf-class) and thus
absolved from the guilt of murder any Spartan who should slay a helot.
It was instituted primarily as a precaution against the ever-present
danger of a helot revolt, and secondarily perhaps as a training for
young Spartans, who were sent out by the ephors to keep watch on the
helots and assassinate any who might appear dangerous. Plato (_Laws_, i.
p. 633) emphasizes the former aspect, but there can be little doubt
that, at all events after the revolt of 464 (see Cimon), its more
sinister purpose was predominant, as we may gather from the secret
massacre of 2000 helots who, on the invitation of the ephors, claimed to
have rendered distinguished service (Thuc. iv. 80).

  See HELOTS; EPHOR; also A. H. J. Greenidge, _Handbook of Gk. Const.
  Hist._ (London, 1896); G. Gilbert, _Gk. Const. Antiq._ (Eng. trans.,
  London, 1895).



CRYPTOBRANCHUS, a genus of thoroughly aquatic, but lung-breathing tailed
Batrachia, of the family _Amphiumidae_, characterized by a heavy,
flattened build, a very porous tubercular skin, with a frilled fold
along each side, short stout limbs with four very short fingers and five
very short toes, and minute eyes without lids. The vertebrae are
biconcave, and although the gills are lost in the adult, ossified
gill-arches, two to four in number, persist. A strong series of vomerine
teeth extends across the palate. Three species of this genus are known.
One is the well-known fossil of Oeningen first described as _Homo
diluvii testis_ and shown by Cuvier to be nearly related to the gigantic
salamander of Japan, _Cryptobranchus maximus_, which has since been
found to inhabit China also; the third is the hellbender, mud-puppy or
water-dog of North America, _C. alleghaniensis_, also known under the
name of _Menopoma_. Both the fossil _C. scheuchzeri_ and _C. maximus_
grow to a length of over 5 ft. and are by far the largest Urodeles
known, whilst _C. alleghaniensis_ reaches the respectable length of 18
in.

The eggs are laid in rosary-like strings. They have been found, in
Japan, deposited in deep holes in the water, where they form large
clumps (70 to 80 eggs) round which the female coils herself. The
gigantic salamander has also bred in the Amsterdam zoological gardens,
the eggs numbering upwards of 500; the male, it is stated, took charge
of the eggs, and for the ten weeks which elapsed before the release of
the last larva, he kept close to them, at times crawling among the
coiled mass of egg-strings or lifting them up, evidently for the purpose
of aeration. The larva on leaving the egg is about an inch long,
provided with three branched external gills on each side, and showing
mere rudiments of the four limbs.



CRYPTOGRAPHY (from Gr. [Greek: kryptos], hidden, and [Greek: graphein],
to write), or writing in cipher, called also steganography (from Gr.
[Greek: steganê], a covering), the art of writing in such a way as to be
incomprehensible except to those who possess the key to the system
employed. The unravelling of the writing is called deciphering.
Cryptography having become a distinct art, Bacon (Lord Verulam) classed
it (under the name _ciphers_) as a part of grammar. Secret modes of
communication have been in use from the earliest times. The
Lacedemonians had a method called the _scytale_, from the staff ([Greek:
skytalê]) employed in constructing and deciphering the message. When the
Spartan ephors wished to forward their orders to their commanders
abroad, they wound slantwise a narrow strip of parchment upon the
[Greek: skytalê] so that the edges met close together, and the message
was then added in such a way that the centre of the line of writing was
on the edges of the parchment. When unwound the scroll consisted of
broken letters; and in that condition it was despatched to its
destination, the general to whose hands it came deciphering it by means
of a [Greek: skytalê] exactly corresponding to that used by the ephors.
Polybius has enumerated other methods of cryptography.

The art was in use also amongst the Romans. Upon the revival of letters
methods of secret correspondence were introduced into private business,
diplomacy, plots, &c.; and as the study of this art has always presented
attractions to the ingenious, a curious body of literature has been the
result.

John Trithemius (d. 1516), the abbot of Spanheim, was the first
important writer on cryptography. His _Polygraphia_, published in 1518,
has passed through many editions, and has supplied the basis upon which
subsequent writers have worked. It was begun at the desire of the duke
of Bavaria; but Trithemius did not at first intend to publish it, on the
ground that it would be injurious to public interests. A
_Steganographia_ published at Lyons (? 1551) and later at Frankfort
(1606), is also attributed to him. The next treatises of importance were
those of Giovanni Battista della Porta, the Neapolitan mathematician,
who wrote _De furtivis litterarum notis_, 1563; and of Blaise de
Vigenere, whose _Traité des chiffres_ appeared in Paris, 1587. Bacon
proposed an ingenious system of cryptography on the plan of what is
called the double cipher; but while thus lending to the art the
influence of his great name, he gave an intimation as to the general
opinion formed of it and as to the classes of men who used it. For when
prosecuting the earl of Somerset in the matter of the poisoning of
Overbury, he urged it as an aggravation of the crime that the earl and
Overbury "had cyphers and jargons for the king and queen and all the
great men,--things seldom used but either by princes and their
ambassadors and ministers, or by such as work or practise against or, at
least, upon princes."

Other eminent Englishmen were afterwards connected with the art. John
Wilkins, subsequently bishop of Chester, published in 1641 an anonymous
treatise entitled _Mercury, or The Secret and Swift Messenger_,--a small
but comprehensive work on the subject, and a timely gift to the
diplomatists and leaders of the Civil War. The deciphering of many of
the royalist papers of that period, such as the letters that fell into
the hands of the parliament at the battle of Naseby, has by Henry Stubbe
been charged on the celebrated mathematician Dr John Wallis (_Athen.
Oxon._ iii. 1072), whose connexion with the subject of cipher-writing is
referred to by himself in the Oxford edition of his mathematical works,
1689, p. 659; as also by John Davys. Dr Wallis elsewhere states that
this art, formerly scarcely known to any but the secretaries of princes,
&c., had grown very common and familiar during the civil commotions, "so
that now there is scarce a person of quality but is more or less
acquainted with it, and doth, as there is occasion, make use of it."
Subsequent writers on the subject are John Falconer (_Cryptomenysis
patefacta_), 1685; John Davys (_An Essay on the Art of Decyphering: in
which is inserted a Discourse of Dr Wallis_), 1737; Philip Thicknesse
(_A Treatise on the Art of Decyphering and of Writing in Cypher_), 1772;
William Blair (the writer of the comprehensive article "Cipher" in
Rees's _Cyclopaedia_), 1819; and G. von Marten (Cours _diplomatique_),
1801 (a fourth edition of which appeared in 1851). Perhaps the best
modern work on this subject is the _Kryptographik_ of J. L. Klüber
(Tübingen, 1809), who was drawn into the investigation by inclination
and official circumstances. In this work the different methods of
cryptography are classified. Amongst others of lesser merit who have
treated of this art may be named Gustavus Selenus (i.e. Augustus, duke
of Brunswick), 1624; Cospi, translated by Niceron in 1641; the marquis
of Worchester, 1659; Kircher, 1663; Schott, 1665; Ludwig Heinrich
Hiller, 1682; Comiers; 1690; Baring, 1737; Conrad, 1739, &c. See also a
paper on _Elizabethan Cipher-books_ by A. J. Butler in the
Bibliographical Society's _Transactions_, London, 1901.

Schemes of cryptography are endless in their variety. Bacon lays down
the following as the "virtues" to be looked for in them:--"that they be
not laborious to write and read; that they be impossible to decipher;
and, in some cases, that they be without suspicion." These principles
are more or less disregarded by all the modes that have been advanced,
including that of Bacon himself, which has been unduly extolled by his
admirers as "one of the most ingenious methods of writing in cypher, and
the most difficult to be decyphered, of any yet contrived" (Thicknesse,
p. 13).

The simplest and commonest of all the ciphers is that in which the
writer selects in place of the proper letters certain other letters in
regular advance. This method of transposition was used by Julius Caesar.
He, "per quartam elementorum literam," wrote _d_ for _a_, _e_ for _b_,
and so on. There are instances of this arrangement in the Jewish rabbis,
and even in the sacred writers. An illustration of it occurs in Jeremiah
(xxv. 26), where the prophet, to conceal the meaning of his prediction
from all but the initiated, writes _Sheshak_ instead of Babel (Babylon),
the place meant; i.e. in place of using the second and twelfth letters
of the Hebrew alphabet (_b_, _b_, _l_) from the beginning, he wrote the
second and twelfth (_sh_, _sh_, _k_) from the end. To this kind of
cipher-writing Buxtorf gives the name Athbash (from _a_ the first letter
of the Hebrew alphabet, and _th_ the last; _b_ the second from the
beginning, and _h_ the second from the end). Another Jewish cabalism of
like nature was called Albam; of which an example is in Isaiah vii. 6,
where Tabeal is written for Remaliah. In its adaptation to English this
method of transposition, of which there are many modifications, is
comparatively easy to decipher. A rough key may be derived from an
examination of the respective quantities of letters in a type-founder's
bill, or a printer's "case." The decipherer's first business is to
classify the letters of the secret message in the order of their
frequency. The letter that occurs oftenest is _e_; and the next in order
of frequency is _t_. The following groups come after these, separated
from each other by degrees of decreasing recurrence:--_a_, _o_, _n_,
_i_; _r_, _s_, _h_; _d_, _l_; _c_, _w_, _u_, _m_; _f_, _y_, _g_, _p_,
_b_; _v_, _k_; _x_, _q_, _j_, _z_. All the single letters must be _a_,
_I_ or _O_. Letters occurring together are _ee_, _oo_, _ff_, _ll_, _ss_,
&c. The commonest words of two letters are (roughly arranged in the
order of their frequency) _of_, _to_, _in_, _it_, _is_, _be_, _he_,
_by_, _or_, _as_, _at_, _an_, _so_, &c. The commonest words of three
letters are _the_ and _and_ (in great excess), _for_, _are_, _but_,
_all_, _not_, &c.; and of four letters--_that_, _with_, _from_, _have_,
_this_, _they_, &c. Familiarity with the composition of the language
will suggest numerous other points that are of value to the decipherer.
He may obtain other hints from Poe's tale called _The Gold Bug_. As to
messages in the continental languages constructed upon this system of
transposition, rules for deciphering may be derived from Breithaupt's
_Ars decifratoria_ (1737), and other treatises.

Bacon remarks that though ciphers were commonly in letters and alphabets
yet they might be in words. Upon this basis codes have been constructed,
classified words taken from dictionaries being made to represent
complete ideas. In recent years such codes have been adapted by
merchants and others to communications by telegraph, and have served the
purpose not only of keeping business affairs private, but also of
reducing the excessive cost of telegraphic messages to distant markets.
Obviously this class of ciphers presents greater difficulties to the
skill of the decipherer.

Figures and other characters have been also used as letters; and with
them ranges of numerals have been combined as the representatives of
syllables, parts of words, words themselves, and complete phrases. Under
this head must be placed the despatches of Giovanni Michael, the
Venetian ambassador to England in the reign of Queen Mary, documents
which have only of late years been deciphered. Many of the private
letters and papers from the pen of Charles I. and his queen, who were
adepts in the use of ciphers, are of the same description. One of that
monarch's letters, a document of considerable interest, consisting
entirely of numerals purposely complicated, was in 1858 deciphered by
Professor Wheatstone, the inventor of the ingenious crypto-machine, and
printed by the Philobiblon Society. Other letters of the like character
have been published in the _First Report of the Royal Commission on
Historical Manuscripts_ (1870). In the second and subsequent reports of
the same commission several keys to ciphers have been catalogued, which
seem to refer themselves to the methods of cryptography under notice. In
this connexion also should be mentioned the "characters," which the
diarist Pepys drew up when clerk to Sir George Downing and secretary to
the earl of Sandwich and to the admiralty, and which are frequently
mentioned in his journal. Pepys describes one of them as "a great large
character," over which he spent much time, but which was at length
finished, 25th April 1660; "it being," says he, "very handsomely done
and a very good one in itself, but that not truly alphabetical."

Shorthand marks and other arbitrary characters have also been largely
imported into cryptographic systems to represent both letters and words,
but more commonly the latter. This plan is said to have been first put
into use by the old Roman poet Ennius. It formed the basis of the method
of Cicero's freedman, Tiro, who seems to have systematized the labours
of his predecessors. A large quantity of these characters have been
engraved in Gruter's _Inscriptiones_. The correspondence of Charlemagne
was in part made up of marks of this nature. In Rees's _Cyclopaedia_
specimens were engraved of the cipher used by Cardinal Wolsey at the
court of Vienna in 1524, of that used by Sir Thomas Smith at Paris in
1563, and of that of Sir Edward Stafford in 1586; in all of which
arbitrary marks are introduced. The first English system of
shorthand--Bright's _Characterie_, 1588--almost belongs to the same
category of ciphers. A favourite system of Charles I., used by him
during the year 1646, was one made up of an alphabet of twenty-four
letters, which were represented by four simple strokes varied in length,
slope and position. This alphabet is engraved in Clive's _Linear System
of Shorthand_ (1830), having been found amongst the royal manuscripts in
the British Museum. An interest attaches to this cipher from the fact
that it was employed in the well-known letter addressed by the king to
the earl of Glamorgan, in which the former made concessions to the Roman
Catholics of Ireland.

Complications have been introduced into ciphers by the employment of
"dummy" letters,--"nulls and insignificants," as Bacon terms them. Other
devices have been introduced to perplex the decipherer, such as spelling
words backwards, making false divisions between words, &c. The greatest
security against the decipherer has been found in the use of elaborate
tables of letters, arranged in the form of the multiplication table, the
message being constructed by the aid of preconcerted key-words. Details
of the working of these ciphers may be found in the treatises named in
this article. The deciphering of them is one of the most difficult of
tasks. A method of this kind is explained in the Latin and English lives
of Dr John Barwick, whose correspondence with Hyde, afterwards earl of
Clarendon, was carried on in cryptography. In a letter dated 20th
February 1659/60, Hyde, alluding to the skill of his political opponents
in deciphering, says that "nobody needs to fear them, if they write
carefully in good cyphers." In his next he allays his correspondent's
apprehensiveness as to the deciphering of their letters.

  "I confess to you, as I am sure no copy could be gotten of any of my
  cyphers from hence, so I did not think it probable that they could be
  got on your side the water. But I was as confident, till you tell me
  you believe it, that the devil himself cannot decypher a letter that
  is well written, or find that 100 stands for Sir H. Vane. I have heard
  of many of the pretenders to that skill, and have spoken with some of
  them, but have found them all to be mountebanks; nor did I ever hear
  that more of the King's letters that were found at Naseby, than those
  which they found decyphered, or found the cyphers in which they were
  writ, were decyphered. And I very well remember that in the volume
  they published there was much left in cypher which could not be
  understood, and which I believe they would have explained if it had
  been in their power."

An excellent modification of the key-word principle was constructed by
Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort.

Ciphers have been constructed on the principle of altering the places of
the letters without changing their powers. The message is first written
Chinese-wise, upward and downward, and the letters are then combined in
given rows from left to right. In the celebrated cipher used by the earl
of Argyll when plotting against James II., he altered the positions of
the words. Sentences of an indifferent nature were constructed, but the
real meaning of the message was to be gathered from words, placed at
certain intervals. This method, which is connected with the name of
Cardan, is sometimes called the trellis or cardboard cipher.

The wheel-cipher, which is an Italian invention, the string-cipher, the
circle-cipher and many others are fully explained, with the necessary
diagrams, in the authorities named above--more particularly by Klüber in
his _Kryptographik_.     (J. E. B.)



CRYPTOMERIA, or JAPANESE CEDAR, a genus of conifers, containing a single
species, _C. japonica_, native of China and Japan, which was introduced
into Great Britain by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1844. It is
described as one of the finest trees in Japan, reaching a height of 100
or more feet, usually divested of branches along the lower part of the
trunk and crowned with a conical head. The narrow, pointed leaves are
spirally arranged and persist for four or five years; the cones are
small, globose and borne at the ends of the branchlets, the scales are
thickened at the extremity and divided into sharply pointed lobes, three
to five seeds are borne on each scale. _Cryptomeria_ is extensively used
in Japan for reafforesting denuded lands, as it is a valuable timber
tree; it is also planted to form avenues along the public roads. In
Veitch's _Manual of Coniferae_ (ed. 2, 1900, p. 265) reference is made
to "an avenue of Cryptomerias 7 m. in extent near Lake Hakone" in which
"the trees are more than 100 ft. high, with perfectly straight trunks
crowned with conical heads of foliage." Professor C. S. Sargent, in his
_Forest Flora of Japan_, says, "Japan owes much of the beauty of its
groves and gardens to the _Cryptomeria_. Nowhere is there a more solemn
and impressive group of trees than that which surrounds the temples and
tombs at Nikko where they rise to a height of 100 to 125 ft.; it is a
stately tree with no rival except in the sequoias of California." Many
curious varieties have been obtained by Japanese horticulturists,
including some dwarf shrubby forms not exceeding a few feet in height.
When grown in Great Britain _Cryptomeria_ requires a deep, well-drained
soil with plenty of moisture, and protection from cold winds.



CRYPTO-PORTICUS (Gr. [Greek: kryptos], concealed, and Lat. _porticus_),
an architectural term for a concealed or covered passage, generally
underground, though lighted and ventilated from the open air. One of the
best-known examples is the crypto-porticus under the palaces of the
Caesars in Rome. In Hadrian's villa in Rome they formed the principal
private intercommunication between the several buildings.



CRYSTAL-GAZING, or SCRYING, the term commonly applied to the induction
of visual hallucinations by concentrating the gaze on any clear deep,
such as a crystal or a ball of polished rock crystal. Some persons do
not even find a clear deep necessary, and are content to gaze at the
palm of the hand, for example, when hallucinatory pictures, as they
declare, emerge. Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand
(Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian
frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the
Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of
polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a
vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical
Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a sword-blade, a
ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything. Much depends on
what the "seer" is accustomed to use, and some persons who can "scry" in
a glass ball or a glass water-bottle cannot "scry" in ink.

The practice of inducing pictorial hallucinations by such methods as
these has been traced among the natives of North and South America,
Asia, Australia, Africa, among the Maoris, who sometimes use a drop of
blood, and in Polynesia, and is thus practically of world-wide
diffusion. This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of
examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private
non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice
always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived
through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr
Dee, after the Reformation.

The early church condemned _specularii_ (mirror-gazers), and Aubrey and
the _Memoirs_ of Saint-Simon contain "scrying" anecdotes of the 17th and
18th centuries, while Sir Walter Scott's story, _My Aunt Margaret's
Mirror_, is based on a tradition of about 1750 in a noble Scottish
family. The practice, in all times and countries, was used for purposes
of divination. The gazer detected unknown criminals, or described remote
events, or even professed to foretell things future. Sometimes the
supposed magician or medicine man himself did the scrying; occasionally
he enabled his client to see for himself; often a child was selected as
the scryer. The process was usually explained as the result of the
action of a spirit, angel or devil, and many unessential formulae,
invocations, "calls," written charms with cabbalistic signs, and
fumigations, were employed. These things may have had some effect by way
of suggestion; the scryer may have been brought by them into an
appropriate frame of mind; but, as a whole, they are tedious and
superfluous.

A person can either induce the pictorial hallucinations (he may discover
his capacity by accident, like George Sand, as she tells in her
_Memoirs_--and other cases are known), or he cannot induce them, though
he stare till his eyes water. It is almost universally found, in cases
of successful experiment, that the glass ball, for example, takes a
milky or misty aspect, that it then grows black, reflections
disappearing, and that then the pictures emerge. Some people arrive at
seeing the glass ball milky or misty, and can go no further. Others see
pictures of persons or landscapes, only in black and white, and
motionless. Others see in the glass coloured figures of men, women and
animals in motion; while in rarer cases the ball disappears from view,
and the scryer finds himself apparently looking at an actual scene. In a
few attested cases two persons have shared the same vision. In
experiments with magnifying glasses, and through spars, the ordinary
effects of magnifying and of alteration of view are sometimes produced;
sometimes they are not. The evidence, of course, is necessarily only
that of the scryers themselves, but repeated experiments by persons of
probity, and unfamiliar with the topic, combined with the world-wide
existence of the practice, prove that hallucinatory pictures are really
induced.

It has not been found possible to determine, before experiment, whether
any given man or woman will prove capable of the hallucinatory
experiences. Many subjects with strong powers of "visualization," or
seeing things "in the mind's eye," cannot scry; others are successful in
various degrees. We might expect persons who have experienced
spontaneous visual hallucinations, of the kind vulgarly styled "ghosts"
or "wraiths," to succeed in inducing pictures in a glass ball. As a
matter of fact such persons sometimes can and sometimes cannot see
pictures in the way of crystal-gazing; while many who can see in the
crystal have had no spontaneous hallucinations. It is useless to make
experiments with hysterical and visionary people, "whose word no man
relies on"; they may have the hallucinatory experiences, but they would
say that they had in any case.

The nearest analogy to crystal visions, as described, is the common
experience of "hypnagogic illusions" (cf. Alfred Maury. _Les Rêves et le
sommeil_). With closed eyes, between sleeping and waking, many people
see faces, landscapes and other things flash upon their view, pictures
often brilliant, but of very brief duration and rapid mutation.
Sometimes the subject opens his eyes to get rid of an unpleasant vision
of this kind. People who cannot scry may have these hypnagogic
illusions, and, so far, may partly understand the experience of the
scryer who is wide awake. But the visions of the scryer often endure for
a considerable time. He or she may put the glass down and converse, and
may find the picture still there when the ball is taken up again. New
figures may join the figure first seen, as when one enters a room. In
these respects, and in the awakeness of the scryer, crystal pictures
differ from hypnagogic illusions. In other ways the experiences
coincide, the pictures are either fanciful, like illustrations of some
unread history or romance, or are revivals of remembered places and
faces.

Occasionally, in hypnagogic illusions, the observer can see the picture
develop rapidly out of a blot of light or colour, beheld by the closed
eyes. One or two scryers think that they, too, can trace the picture as
it develops on the suggestion of some passage of light, colour or shadow
in the glass or crystal. But, as a rule, the scryer cannot detect any
process of development from such _points de mire_; though this may be
the actual process.

On the whole there seems little doubt that successful crystal-gazing is
the exertion of a not uncommon though far from universal faculty, like
those of "chromatic audition"--the vivid association of certain sounds
with certain colours--and the mental seeing of figures arranged in
coloured diagrams (Galton, _Inquiry into Human Faculty_, pp. 114-154).
The experience of hypnagogic illusions also seems far more rare than
ordinary dreaming in sleep. Unfortunately, while these phenomena have
been carefully studied by officially scientific characters, in England
orthodox _savants_ have disdained to observe crystal-gazing, while in
France psychologists have too commonly experimented with subjects
professionally hysterical and quite untrustworthy. Our remarks are
therefore based mainly on considerable personal study of "scrying" among
normal British subjects of both sexes, to whom the topic was previously
unknown.

The superstitious associations of crystal-gazing, as of hypnotism,
appear to bar the way to official scientific investigation, and the
fluctuating proficiency of the seers, who cannot command success, or
determine the causes and conditions of success and failure, tends in the
same direction. The existence, too, of paid professionals who lead
astray silly women, encourages the natural scientific contempt for the
study of the faculty.

The seeing of the pictures, as far as we have spoken of it, appears to
be a thing unusual, but in no way abnormal, any more than dreams or
hypnagogic illusions are abnormal. Crystal pictures, however, are
commonly dismissed as mere results of "imagination," a theory which, of
course, is of no real assistance to psychology. Persons of recognized
"imaginativeness," such as novelists and artists, do not seem more or
less capable of the hallucinatory experiences than their sober
neighbours; while persons not otherwise recognizably "imaginative" (we
could quote a singularly accurate historian) are capable of the
experiences. It is unfortunate, as it awakens prejudice, but in the
present writer's opinion it is true, that crystal-gazing sometimes is
rewarded with results which may be styled "supra-normal." In addition to
the presentation of revived memories, and of "objectivation of ideas or
images consciously or unconsciously in the mind of the percipient,"
there occur "visions, possibly telepathic or clairvoyant, implying
acquirement of knowledge by supra-normal means."[1]

A number of examples occurring during experiments made by the present
writer and by his acquaintances in 1897 were carefully recorded and
attested by the signatures of all concerned The cases, or rather a
selection of the cases, are printed in A. Lang's book, _The Making of
Religion_ (2nd ed., London, 1902, pp. 87-104). Others are chronicled in
A. Lang's Introduction to Mr N. W. Thomas's work, _Crystal Gazing_
(1905). The experiments took this form: any person might ask the scryer
(a lady who had never previously heard of crystal-gazing) "to see what
he was thinking of." The scryer, who was a stranger in a place which she
had not visited before, gave, in a long series of cases, a description
of the person or place on which the inquirer's thoughts were fixed. The
descriptions, though three or four entire failures occurred, were of
remarkable accuracy as a rule, and contained facts and incidents unknown
to the inquirers, but confirmed as accurate. In fact, some Oriental
scenes and descriptions of incidents were corroborated by a letter from
India which arrived just after the experiment; and the same thing
happened when the events described were occurring in places less remote.
On one occasion a curious set of incidents were described, which
happened to be vividly present to the mind of a sceptical stranger who
chanced to be in the room during the experiment; events unknown to the
inquirer in this instance. As an example of the minuteness of
description, an inquirer, thinking of a brother in India, an officer in
the army, whose hair had suffered in an encounter with a tiger, had
described to her an officer in undress uniform, with bald scars through
the hair on his temples, such as he really bore. The number and
proportion of successes was too high to admit of explanation by chance
coincidence, but success was not invariable. On one occasion the scryer
could see nothing, "the crystal preserved its natural diaphaneity," as
Dr Dee says; and there were failures with two or three inquirers. On the
other hand no record was kept in several cases of success.

Whoever can believe that the successes were numerous and that
descriptions were given correctly--not only of facts present to the
minds of inquirers, and of other persons present who were not
consciously taking a share in the experiments, but also of facts
necessarily unknown to all concerned--must of course be most impressed
by the latter kind of success. If the process commonly styled
"telepathy" exists (see TELEPATHY), that may account for the scryer's
power of seeing facts which are in the mind of the inquirer. But when
the scryers see details of various sorts, which are unknown to the
inquirer, but are verified on inquiry, then telepathy perhaps fails to
provide an explanation. We seem to be confronted with actual
clairvoyance (q.v.), or _vue à distance_. It would be vain to form
hypotheses as to the conditions or faculties which make _vue à distance_
possible. This way lie metaphysics, with Hegel's theory of the Sensitive
Soul, or Myers' theory of the Subliminal Self. "The intuitive soul,"
says Hegel, "oversteps the conditions of time and space; it beholds
things remote, things long past, and things to come."[2]

What we need, if any progress is to be made in knowledge of the subject,
is not a metaphysical hypothesis, but a large, carefully tested, and
well-recorded collection of examples, made by _savants_ of recognized
standing. At present we are where we were in electrical science, when
Newton produced curious sparks while rubbing glass with paper. By way of
facts, we have only a large body of unattested anecdotes of supra-normal
successes in crystal-gazing, in many lands and ages; and the scanty
records of modern amateur investigators, like the present writer. Even
from these, if the honesty of all concerned be granted (and even clever
dishonesty could not have produced many of the results), it would appear
that we are investigating a strange and important human faculty. The
writer is acquainted with no experiments in which it was attempted to
discern the future (except in trivial cases as to events on the turf,
when chance coincidence might explain the successes), and only with two
or three cases in which there was an attempt to help historical science
and discern the past by aid of psychical methods. The results were
interesting and difficult to explain, but the experiments were few.
Ordinary scryers of fancy pictures are common enough, but scryers
capable of apparently supra-normal successes are apparently rare.
Perhaps something depends on the inquirer as well as the scryer.

The method of scrying, as generally practised, is simple. It is usual to
place a glass ball on a dark ground, to sit with the back to the light,
to focus the gaze on the ball (disregarding reflections, if these cannot
be excluded), and to await results. Perhaps from five to ten minutes is
a long enough time for the experiment. The scryer may let his
consciousness play freely, but should not be disturbed by lookers-on. As
a rule, if a person has the faculty he "sees" at the first attempt; if
he fails in the first three or four efforts he need not persevere.
Solitude is advisable at first, but few people can find time amounting
to ten minutes for solitary studies of this sort, so busy and so
gregarious is mankind. The writer has no experience of trance, sleep or
auto-hypnotization produced in such experiments; scryers have always
seemed to retain their full normal consciousness. As regards scepticism
concerning the faculty we may quote what Mr Galton says about the
faculty of visualization: "Scientific men as a class have feeble power
of visual reproduction.... They had a mental deficiency of which they
were unconscious, and, naturally enough, supposed that those who
affirmed _they_ were possessed of it were romancing."

  AUTHORITIES.--A useful essay is that of "Miss X" (Miss Goodrich Freer)
  in the _Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research_, v. The
  history of crystal-gazing is here traced, and many examples of the
  author's own experiments are recorded. A. Lang's _The Making of
  Religion_, ch. v., contains anthropological examples and a series of
  experiments. In N. W. Thomas's _Crystal Gazing_ the history and
  anthropology of the subject are investigated, with modern instances.
  For Egypt, see Lane's _Modern Egyptians_, and the _Journal_ of Sir
  Walter Scott, xi. 419-421, with _Quarterly Review_, No. 117, pp.
  196-208. These Egyptian experiments of 1830 were vitiated by their
  method, the scryer being asked to see and describe a given person,
  named. He ought not, of course, to be told more than that he is to
  descry the inquirer's thoughts, and there ought never to be physical
  contact, as in holding hands, between the inquirer and the scryer
  during the experiment. There is a chapter on crystal-gazing in _Les
  Névroses et les idées fixes_ of Dr Janet (1898). His statements are
  sometimes demonstrably inaccurate (see _Making of Religion_, Appendix
  C). A curious passage on the subject, by Ibn Khaldun, an Arabian
  medieval _savant_, is quoted by Mr Thomas from the printed Extracts of
  MSS. in the Bibliothèque Nationale. There is also a chapter on
  crystal-gazing in Myers' _Human Personality_.     (A. L.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research_, v. 486.

  [2] "Philosophie der Geistes," Hegel's _Werke_, vii. 179, 406, 408
    (Berlin, 1845). Cf. Wallace's translation (Oxford, 1894).



CRYSTALLITE. In media which, on account of their viscosity, offer
considerable resistance to those molecular movements which are necessary
for the building and growth of crystals, rudimentary or imperfect forms
of crystallization very frequently occur. Such media are the volcanic
rocks when they are rapidly cooled, producing various kinds of
pitchstone, obsidian, &c. When examined under the microscope these rocks
consist largely of a perfectly amorphous or glassy base, through which
are scattered great numbers of very minute crystals (microliths), and
other bodies, termed crystallites, which seem to be stages in the
formation of crystals. Crystallites may also be produced by allowing a
solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide mixed with Canada balsam to
evaporate slowly, and their development may be watched on a microscopic
slide. Small globules appear (globulites), spherical and non-crystalline
(so far as can be ascertained). They may coalesce or may arrange
themselves into rows like strings of beads--margarites--(Gr. [Greek:
margaritês], a pearl) or into groups with a somewhat radiate
arrangement--globospherites. Occasionally they take elongated
shapes--longulites and baculites (Lat. _baculus_, a staff). The largest
may become crystalline, changing suddenly into polyhedral bodies with
evident double refraction and the optical properties belonging to
crystals. Others become long and thread-like--trichites (Gr. [Greek:
thrix, trichos], hair)--and these are often curved, and a group of them
may be implanted on the surface of a small crystal. All these forms are
found in vitreous igneous rocks. H. P. J. Vogelsang, who was the first
to direct much attention to them, believes that the globulites are
preliminary stages in the formation of crystals.

Microliths, as distinguished from crystallites, have crystalline
properties, and evidently belong to definite minerals or salts. When
sufficiently large they are often recognizable, but usually they are so
small, so opaque, or so densely crowded together that this is
impossible. In igneous rocks they are usually felspar, augite,
enstatite, and iron oxides, and are found in abundance only where there
is much uncrystallized glassy base; in contact-altered sediments, slags,
&c., microlithic forms of garnet, spinel, sillimanite, cordierite,
various lime silicates, and many other substances have been observed.
Their form varies greatly, e.g. thin fibres (sillimanite, augite), short
prisms or rods (felspar, enstatite, cordierite), or equidimensional
grains (augite, spinel, magnetite). Occasionally they are perfectly
shaped though minute crystals; more frequently they appear rounded
(magnetite, &c.), or have brush-like terminations (augite, felspar,
&c.). The larger microliths may contain enclosures of glass, and it is
very common to find that the prisms have hollow, funnel-shaped ends,
which are filled with vitreous material. These microliths, under the
influence of crystalline forces, may rank themselves side by side to
make up skeleton crystals and networks, or feathery and arborescent
forms, which obey more or less closely the laws of crystallization of
the substance to which they belong. They bear a very close resemblance
to the arborescent frost flowers seen on window panes in winter, and to
the stellate snow crystals. In magnetite the growths follow three axes
at right angles to one another; in augite this is nearly, though not
exactly, the case; in hornblende an angle of 57° may frequently be
observed, corresponding to the prism angle of the fully-developed
crystal. The interstices of the network may be partly filled up by a
later growth. In other cases the crystalline arrangement of the
microliths is less perfect, and branching, arborescent or feathery
groupings are produced (e.g. felspar, augite, hornblende). Spherulites
may be regarded as radiate aggregates of such microliths (mostly felspar
mixed with quartz or tridymite). If larger porphyritic crystals occur in
the rock, the microliths of the vitreous base frequently grow outwards
from their faces; in some cases a definite parallelism exists between
the two, but more frequently the early crystal has served merely as a
centre, or nucleus, from which the microliths and spherulites have
spread in all directions.     (J. S. F.)



CRYSTALLIZATION, the art of obtaining a substance in the form of
crystals; it is an important process in chemistry since it permits the
purification of a substance, or the separation of the constituents of a
mixture. Generally a substance is more soluble in a solvent at a high
temperature than at a low, and consequently, if a boiling concentrated
solution be allowed to cool, the substance will separate in virtue of
the diminished solubility, and the slower the cooling the larger and
more perfect will be the crystals formed. If, as sometimes appears, such
a solution refuses to crystallize, the expedient of inoculating the
solution with a minute crystal of the same substance, or with a similar
substance, may be adopted; shaking the solution, or the addition of a
drop of another solvent, may also occasion the desired result.
"Fractional crystallization" consists in repeatedly crystallizing a salt
so as to separate the substances of different solubilities. Examples are
especially presented in the study of the rare-earths. Other conditions
under which crystals are formed are given in the article
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.



CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (from the Gr. [Greek: krystallos], ice, and [Greek:
graphein], to write), the science of the forms, properties and structure
of crystals. Homogeneous solid matter, the physical and chemical
properties of which are the same about every point, may be either
amorphous or crystalline. In amorphous matter all the properties are the
same in every direction in the mass; but in crystalline matter certain
of the physical properties vary with the direction. The essential
properties of crystalline matter are of two kinds, viz. the general
properties, such as density, specific heat, melting-point and chemical
composition, which do not vary with the direction; and the directional
properties, such as cohesion and elasticity, various optical, thermal
and electrical properties, as well as external form. By reason of the
homogeneity of crystalline matter the directional properties are the
same in all parallel directions in the mass, and there may be a certain
symmetrical repetition of the directions along which the properties are
the same.

When the crystallization of matter takes place under conditions free
from outside influences the peculiarities of internal structure are
expressed in the external form of the mass, and there results a solid
body bounded by plane surfaces intersecting in straight edges, the
directions of which bear an intimate relation to the internal structure.
Such a polyhedron ([Greek: polys], many, [Greek: hedra], base or face)
is known as a crystal. An example of this is sugar-candy, of which a
single isolated crystal may have grown freely in a solution of sugar.
Matter presenting well-defined and regular crystal forms, either as a
single crystal or as a group of individual crystals, is said to be
crystallized. If, on the other hand, crystallization has taken place
about several centres in a confined space, the development of plane
surfaces may be prevented, and a crystalline aggregate of differently
orientated crystal-individuals results. Examples of this are afforded by
loaf sugar and statuary marble.

After a brief historical sketch, the more salient principles of the
subject will be discussed under the following sections:--

  I. CRYSTALLINE FORM.
          (a) Symmetry of Crystals.
          (b) Simple Forms and Combinations of Forms.
          (c) Law of Rational Indices.
          (d) Zones.
          (e) Projection and Drawing of Crystals.
          (f) Crystal Systems and Classes.
                  1. Cubic System.
                  2. Tetragonal System.
                  3. Orthorhombic System.
                  4. Monoclinic System.
                  5. Anorthic System.
                  6. Hexagonal System
          (g) Regular Grouping of Crystals (Twinning, &c.).
          (h) Irregularities of Growth of Crystals: Characters of Faces.
          (i) Theories of Crystal Structure.

  II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALS.
          (a) Elasticity and Cohesion (Cleavage, Etching, &c.).
          (b) Optical Properties (Interference figures, Pleochroism,
                &c.).
          (c) Thermal Properties.
          (d) Magnetic and Electrical Properties.

  III. RELATIONS BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE FORM AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.

Most chemical elements and compounds are capable of assuming the
crystalline condition. Crystallization may take place when solid matter
separates from solution (e.g. sugar, salt, alum), from a fused mass
(e.g. sulphur, bismuth, felspar), or from a vapour (e.g. iodine,
camphor, haematite; in the last case by the interaction of ferric
chloride and steam). Crystalline growth may also take place in solid
amorphous matter, for example, in the devitrification of glass, and the
slow change in metals when subjected to alternating stresses. Beautiful
crystals of many substances may be obtained in the laboratory by one or
other of these methods, but the most perfectly developed and largest
crystals are those of mineral substances found in nature, where
crystallization has continued during long periods of time. For this
reason the physical science of crystallography has developed side by
side with that of mineralogy. Really, however, there is just the same
connexion between crystallography and chemistry as between
crystallography and mineralogy, but only in recent years has the
importance of determining the crystallographic properties of
artificially prepared compounds been recognized.

_History._--The word "crystal" is from the Gr. [Greek: krystallos],
meaning clear ice (Lat. _crystallum_), a name which was also applied to
the clear transparent quartz ("rock-crystal") from the Alps, under the
belief that it had been formed from water by intense cold. It was not
until about the 17th century that the word was extended to other bodies,
either those found in nature or obtained by the evaporation of a saline
solution, which resembled rock-crystal in being bounded by plane
surfaces, and often also in their clearness and transparency.

The first important step in the study of crystals was made by Nicolaus
Steno, the famous Danish physician, afterwards bishop of Titiopolis, who
in his treatise _De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento_
(Florence, 1669; English translation, 1671) gave the results of his
observations on crystals of quartz. He found that although the faces of
different crystals vary considerably in shape and relative size, yet the
angles between similar pairs of faces are always the same. He further
pointed out that the crystals must have grown in a liquid by the
addition of layers of material upon the faces of a nucleus, this nucleus
having the form of a regular six-sided prism terminated at each end by a
six-sided pyramid. The thickness of the layers, though the same over
each face, was not necessarily the same on different faces, but depended
on the position of the faces with respect to the surrounding liquid;
hence the faces of the crystal, though variable in shape and size,
remained parallel to those of the nucleus, and the angles between them
constant. Robert Hooke in his _Micrographia_ (London, 1665) had
previously noticed the regularity of the minute quartz crystals found
lining the cavities of flints, and had suggested that they were built up
of spheroids. About the same time the double refraction and perfect
rhomboidal cleavage of crystals of calcite or Iceland-spar were studied
by Erasmus Bartholinus (_Experimenta crystalli Islandici
disdiaclastici_, Copenhagen, 1669) and Christiaan Huygens (_Traité de la
lumière_, Leiden, 1690); the latter supposed, as did Hooke, that the
crystals were built up of spheroids. In 1695 Anton van Leeuwenhoek
observed under the microscope that different forms of crystals grow from
the solutions of different salts. Andreas Libavius had indeed much
earlier, in 1597, pointed out that the salts present in mineral waters
could be ascertained by an examination of the shapes of the crystals
left on evaporation of the water; and Domenico Guglielmini (_Riflessioni
filosofiche dedotte dalle figure de' sali_, Padova, 1706) asserted that
the crystals of each salt had a shape of their own with the plane angles
of the faces always the same.

The earliest treatise on crystallography is the _Prodromus
Crystallographiae_ of M. A. Cappeller, published at Lucerne in 1723.
Crystals were mentioned in works on mineralogy and chemistry; for
instance, C. Linnaeus in his _Systema Naturae_ (1735) described some
forty common forms of crystals amongst minerals. It was not, however,
until the end of the 18th century that any real advances were made, and
the French crystallographers Romé de l'Isle and the abbé Haüy are
rightly considered as the founders of the science. J. B. L. de Romé de
l'Isle (_Essai de cristallographie_, Paris, 1772; _Cristallographie, ou
description des formes propres à tous les corps du règne minéral_,
Paris, 1783) made the important discovery that the various shapes of
crystals of the same natural or artificial substance are all intimately
related to each other; and further, by measuring the angles between the
faces of crystals with the goniometer (q.v.), he established the
fundamental principle that these angles are always the same for the same
kind of substance and are characteristic of it. Replacing by single
planes or groups of planes all the similar edges or solid angles of a
figure called the "primitive form" he derived other related forms. Six
kinds of primitive forms were distinguished, namely, the cube, the
regular octahedron, the regular tetrahedron, a rhombohedron, an
octahedron with a rhombic base, and a double six-sided pyramid. Only in
the last three can there be any variation in the angles: for example,
the primitive octahedron of alum, nitre and sugar were determined by
Romé de l'Isle to have angles of 110°, 120° and 100° respectively. René
Just Haüy in his _Essai d'une théorie sur la structure des crystaux_
(Paris, 1784; see also his Treatises on Mineralogy and Crystallography,
1801, 1822) supported and extended these views, but took for his
primitive forms the figures obtained by splitting crystals in their
directions of easy fracture of "cleavage," which are aways the same in
the same kind of substance. Thus he found that all crystals of calcite,
whatever their external form (see, for example, figs. 1-6 in the article
CALCITE), could be reduced by cleavage to a rhombohedron with
interfacial angles of 75°. Further, by stacking together a number of
small rhombohedra of uniform size he was able, as had been previously
done by J. G. Gahn in 1773, to reconstruct the various forms of calcite
crystals. Fig. 1 shows a scalenohedron ([Greek: skalênos], uneven) built
up in this manner of rhombohedra; and fig. 2 a regular octahedron built
up of cubic elements, such as are given by the cleavage of galena and
rock-salt.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Scalenohedron built up of Rhombohedra.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Octahedron built up of Cubes.]

The external surfaces of such a structure, with their step-like
arrangement, correspond to the plane faces of the crystal, and the
bricks may be considered so small as not to be separately visible. By
making the steps one, two or three bricks in width and one, two or three
bricks in height the various secondary faces on the crystal are related
to the primitive form or "cleavage nucleus" by a law of whole numbers,
and the angles between them can be arrived at by mathematical
calculation. By measuring with the goniometer the inclinations of the
secondary faces to those of the primitive form Haüy found that the
secondary forms are always related to the primitive form on crystals of
numerous substances in the manner indicated, and that the width and the
height of a step are always in a simple ratio, rarely exceeding that of
1 : 6. This laid the foundation of the important "law of rational
indices" of the faces of crystals.

The German crystallographer C. S. Weiss (_De indagando formarum
crystallinarum charactere geometrico principali dissertatio_, Leipzig,
1809; _Übersichtliche Darstellung der verschiedenen natürlichen
Abtheilungen der Krystallisations-Systeme_, Denkschrift der Berliner
Akad. der Wissensch., 1814-1815) attacked the problem of crystalline
form from a purely geometrical point of view, without reference to
primitive forms or any theory of structure. The faces of crystals were
considered by their intercepts on co-ordinate axes, which were drawn
joining the opposite corners of certain forms; and in this way the
various primitive forms of Haüy were grouped into four classes,
corresponding to the four systems described below under the names cubic,
tetragonal, hexagonal and orthorhombic. The same result was arrived at
independently by F. Mohs, who further, in 1822, asserted the existence
of two additional systems with oblique axes. These two systems (the
monoclinic and anorthic) were, however, considered by Weiss to be only
hemihedral or tetartohedral modifications of the orthorhombic system,
and they were not definitely established until 1835, when the optical
characters of the crystals were found to be distinct. A system of
notation to express the relation of each face of a crystal to the
co-ordinate axes of reference was devised by Weiss, and other notations
were proposed by F. Mohs, A. Lévy (1825), C. F. Naumann (1826), and W.
H. Miller (_Treatise on Crystallography_, Cambridge, 1839). For
simplicity and utility in calculation the Millerian notation, which was
first suggested by W. Whewell in 1825, surpasses all others and is now
generally adopted, though those of Lévy and Naumann are still in use.

Although the peculiar optical properties of Iceland-spar had been much
studied ever since 1669, it was not until much later that any connexion
was traced between the optical characters of crystals and their external
form. In 1818 Sir David Brewster found that crystals could be divided
optically into three classes, viz. isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial, and
that these classes corresponded with Weiss's four systems (crystals
belonging to the cubic system being isotropic, those of the tetragonal
and hexagonal being uniaxial, and the orthorhombic being biaxial).
Optically biaxial crystals were afterwards shown by J. F. W. Herschel
and F. E. Neumann in 1822 and 1835 to be of three kinds, corresponding
with the orthorhombic, monoclinic and anorthic systems. It was,
however, noticed by Brewster himself that there are many apparent
exceptions, and the "optical anomalies" of crystals have been the
subject of much study. The intimate relations existing between various
other physical properties of crystals and their external form have
subsequently been gradually traced.

The symmetry of crystals, though recognized by Romé de l'Isle and Haüy,
in that they replaced all similar edges and corners of their primitive
forms by similar secondary planes, was not made use of in defining the
six systems of crystallization, which depended solely on the lengths and
inclinations of the axes of reference. It was, however, necessary to
recognize that in each system there are certain forms which are only
partially symmetrical, and these were described as hemihedral and
tetartohedral forms (i.e. [Greek: hêmi-], half-faced, and [Greek:
tetartos], quarter-faced forms).

As a consequence of Haüy's law of rational intercepts, or, as it is more
often called, the law of rational indices, it was proved by J. F. C.
Hessel in 1830 that thirty-two types of symmetry are possible in
crystals. Hessel's work remained overlooked for sixty years, but the
same important result was independently arrived at by the same method by
A. Gadolin in 1867. At the present day, crystals are considered as
belonging to one or other of thirty-two classes, corresponding with
these thirty-two types of symmetry, and are grouped in six systems. More
recently, theories of crystal structure have attracted attention, and
have been studied as purely geometrical problems of the homogeneous
partitioning of space.

  The historical development of the subject is treated more fully in the
  article CRYSTALLOGRAPHY in the 9th edition of this work. Reference may
  also be made to C. M. Marx, _Geschichte der Crystallkunde_ (Karlsruhe
  and Baden, 1825); W. Whewell, _History of the Inductive Sciences_,
  vol. iii. (3rd ed., London, 1857); F. von Kobell, _Geschichte der
  Mineralogie von 1650-1860_ (München, 1864); L. Fletcher, _An
  Introduction to the Study of Minerals_ (British Museum Guide-Book); L.
  Fletcher, _Recent Progress in Mineralogy and Crystallography_
  [1832-1894] (Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1894).


I. CRYSTALLINE FORM

The fundamental laws governing the form of crystals are:--

1. Law of the Constancy of Angle.

2. Law of Symmetry.

3. Law of Rational Intercepts or Indices.

According to the first law, the angles between corresponding faces of
all crystals of the same chemical substance are always the same and are
characteristic of the substance.

  (a) _Symmetry of Crystals._

Crystals may, or may not, be symmetrical with respect to a point, a line
or axis, and a plane; these "elements of symmetry" are spoken of as a
centre of symmetry, an axis of symmetry, and a plane of symmetry
respectively.

_Centre of Symmetry._--Crystals which are centro-symmetrical have their
faces arranged in parallel pairs; and the two parallel faces, situated
on opposite sides of the centre (O in fig. 3) are alike in surface
characters, such as lustre, striations, and figures of corrosion. An
octahedron (fig. 3) is bounded by four pairs of parallel faces. Crystals
belonging to many of the hemihedral and tetartohedral classes of the six
systems of crystallization are devoid of a centre of symmetry.

_Axes of Symmetry._--Consider the vertical axis joining the opposite
corners a3 and a´3 of an octahedron (fig. 3) and passing through its
centre O: by rotating the crystal about this axis through a right angle
(90°) it reaches a position such that the orientation of its faces is
the same as before the rotation; the face a´1a´2a´3, for example, coming
into the position of a1a´2a3. During a complete rotation of 360° (= 90°
× 4), the crystal occupies four such interchangeable positions. Such an
axis of symmetry is known as a tetrad axis of symmetry. Other tetrad
axes of the octahedron are a2a´2 and a1a1.

An axis of symmetry of another kind is that which passing through the
centre O is normal to a face of the octahedron. By rotating the crystal
about such an axis Op (fig. 3) through an angle of 120° those faces
which are not perpendicular to the axis occupy interchangeable
positions; for example, the face a1a3a2 comes into the position of
a´2a1a´3, and a´2a1a´3 to a3a´2a´1. During a complete rotation of 360°
(= 120° × 3) the crystal occupies similar positions three times. This is
a triad axis of symmetry; and there being four pairs of parallel faces
on an octahedron, there are four triad axes (only one of which is drawn
in the figure).

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.

Axes and Planes of Symmetry of an Octahedron.]

An axis passing through the centre O and the middle points d of two
opposite edges of the octahedron (fig. 4), i.e. parallel to the edges of
the octahedron, is a dyad axis of symmetry. About this axis there may be
rotation of 180°, and only twice in a complete revolution of 360° (=
180° × 2) is the crystal brought into interchangeable positions. There
being six pairs of parallel edges on an octahedron, there are
consequently six dyad axes of symmetry.

A regular octahedron thus possesses thirteen axes of symmetry (of three
kinds), and there are the same number in the cube. Fig. 5 shows the
three tetrad (or tetragonal) axes (aa), four triad (or trigonal) axes
(pp), and six dyad (diad or diagonal) axes (dd).

Although not represented in the cubic system, there is still another
kind of axis of symmetry possible in crystals. This is the hexad axis or
hexagonal axis, for which the angle of rotation is 60°, or one-sixth of
360°. There can be only one hexad axis of symmetry in any crystal (see
figs. 77-80).

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Axes of Symmetry of a Cube.]

_Planes of Symmetry._--A regular octahedron can be divided into two
equal and similar halves by a plane passing through the corners
a1a3a´1a´3 and the centre O (fig. 3). One-half is the mirror reflection
of the other in this plane, which is called a plane of symmetry.
Corresponding planes on either side of a plane of symmetry are inclined
to it at equal angles. The octahedron can also be divided by similar
planes of symmetry passing through the corners a1a2a´1a´2 and
a2a3a´2a´3. These three similar planes of symmetry are called the cubic
planes of symmetry, since they are parallel to the faces of the cube
(compare figs. 6-8, showing combinations of the octahedron and the
cube).

A regular octahedron can also be divided symmetrically into two equal
and similar portions by a plane passing through the corners a3 and a´3,
the middle points d of the edges a1a´2 and a´1a2, and the centre O (fig.
4). This is called a dodecahedral plane of symmetry, being parallel to
the face of the rhombic dodecahedron which truncates the edge a1a2
(compare fig. 14, showing a combination of the octahedron and rhombic
dodecahedron). Another similar plane of symmetry is that passing through
the corners a3a´3 and the middle points of the edges a1a2 and a´1a´2,
and altogether there are six dodecahedral planes of symmetry, two
through each of the corners a1, a2, a3 of the octahedron.

A regular octahedron and a cube are thus each symmetrical with respect
to the following elements of symmetry: a centre of symmetry, thirteen
axes of symmetry (of three kinds), and nine planes of symmetry (of two
kinds). This degree of symmetry, which is the type corresponding to one
of the classes of the cubic system, is the highest possible in crystals.
As will be pointed out below, it is possible, however, for both the
octahedron and the cube to be associated with fewer elements of symmetry
than those just enumerated.

  (b) _Simple Forms and Combinations of Forms._

A single face a1a2a3 (figs. 3 and 4) may be repeated by certain of the
elements of symmetry to give the whole eight faces of the octahedron.
Thus, by rotation about the vertical tetrad axis a3a´3 the four upper
faces are obtained; and by rotation of these about one or other of the
horizontal tetrad axes the eight faces are derived. Or again, the same
repetition of the faces may be arrived at by reflection across the three
cubic planes of symmetry. (By reflection across the six dodecahedral
planes of symmetry a tetrahedron only would result, but if this is
associated with a centre of symmetry we obtain the octahedron.) Such a
set of similar faces, obtained by symmetrical repetition, constitutes a
"simple form." An octahedron thus consists of eight similar faces, and a
cube is bounded by six faces all of which have the same surface
characters, and parallel to each of which all the properties of the
crystal are identical.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Cube in combination with Octahedron.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Cubo-octahedron.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Octahedron in combination with Cube.]

Examples of simple forms amongst crystallized substances are octahedra
of alum and spinel and cubes of salt and fluorspar. More usually,
however, two or more forms are present on a crystal, and we then have a
combination of forms, or simply a "combination." Figs. 6, 7 and 8
represent combinations of the octahedron and the cube; in the first the
faces of the cube predominate, and in the third those of the octahedron;
fig. 7 with the two forms equally developed is called a cubo-octahedron.
Each of these combined forms has all the elements of symmetry proper to
the simple forms.

The simple forms, though referable to the same type of symmetry and axes
of reference, are quite independent, and cannot be derived one from the
other by symmetrical repetition, but, after the manner of Romé de
l'Isle, they may be derived by replacing edges or corners by a face
equally inclined to the faces forming the edges or corners; this is
known as "truncation" (Lat. _truncare_, to cut off). Thus in fig. 6 the
corners of the cube are symmetrically replaced or truncated by the faces
of the octahedron, and in fig. 8 those of the octahedron are truncated
by the cube.

  (c) _Law of Rational Intercepts._

For axes of reference, OX, OY, OZ (fig. 9), take any three edges formed
by the intersection of three faces of a crystal. These axes are called
the crystallographic axes, and the planes in which they lie the axial
planes. A fourth face on the crystal intersecting these three axes in
the points A, B, C is taken as the parametral plane, and the lengths OA
: OB : OC are the parameters of the crystal. Any other face on the
crystal may be referred to these axes and parameters by the ratio of
the intercepts

  OA   OB   OC
  -- : -- : --.
  h    k    l

Thus for a face parallel to the plane A Be the intercepts are in the
ratio OA : OB : Oe, or

  OA   OB   OC
  -- : -- : --
  1    1    2

and for a plane fgC´ they are Of : Og : OC´ or

  OA   OB   OC´
  -- : -- : ---.
  2    3     1

Now the important relation existing between the faces of a crystal is
that the denominators h, k and l are always rational whole numbers,
rarely exceeding 6, and usually 0, 1, 2 or 3. Written in the form (hkl),
h referring to the axis OX, k to OY, and l to OZ, they are spoken of as
the indices (Millerian indices) of the face. Thus of a face parallel to
the plane ABC the indices are (111), of A Be they are (112), and of fgC´
(231´). The indices are thus inversely proportional to the intercepts,
and the law of rational intercepts is often spoken of as the "law of
rational indices."

The angular position of a face is thus completely fixed by its indices;
and knowing the angles between the axial planes and the parametral plane
all the angles of a crystal can be calculated when the indices of the
faces are known.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Crystallographic axes of reference.]

Although any set of edges formed by the intersection of three planes may
be chosen for the crystallographic axes, it is in practice usual to
select certain edges related to the symmetry of the crystal, and usually
coincident with axes of symmetry; for then the indices will be simpler
and all faces of the same simple form will have a similar set of
indices. The angles between the axes and the ratio of the lengths of the
parameters OA: OB: OC (usually given as a: b: c) are spoken of as the
"elements" of a crystal, and are constant for and characteristic of all
crystals of the same substance.

The six systems of crystal forms, to be enumerated below, are defined by
the relative inclinations of the crystallographic axes and the lengths
of the parameters. In the cubic system, for example, the three
crystallographic axes are taken parallel to the three tetrad axes of
symmetry, i.e. parallel to the edges of the cube (fig. 5) or joining the
opposite corners of the octahedron (fig. 3), and they are therefore all
at right angles; the parametral plane (111) is a face of the octahedron,
and the parameters are all of equal length. The indices of the eight
faces of the octahedron will then be (111), (1´11), (11´1), (1´1´1),
(111´), (1´11´), (11´1´), (1´1´1´). The symbol {111} indicates all the
faces belonging to this simple form. The indices of the six faces of the
cube are (100), (010), (001), (1´00), (01´0), (001´); here each face is
parallel to two axes, i.e. intercepts them at infinity, so that the
corresponding indices are zero.

  (d) _Zones._

An important consequence of the law of rational intercepts is the
arrangement of the faces of a crystal in zones. All faces, whether they
belong to one or more simple forms, which intersect in parallel edges
are said to lie in the same zone. A line drawn through the centre O of
the crystal parallel to these edges is called a zone-axis, and a plane
perpendicular to this axis is called a zone-plane. On a cube, for
example, there are three zones each containing four faces, the zone-axes
being coincident with the three tetrad axes of symmetry. In the crystal
of zircon (fig. 88) the eight prism-faces a, m, &c. constitute a zone,
denoted by [a, m, a´, &c.], with the vertical tetrad axis of symmetry
as zone-axis. Again the faces [a, x, p, e´, p´, x´´´, a´´] lie in
another zone, as may be seen by the parallel edges of intersection of
the faces in figs. 87 and 88; three other similar zones may be traced on
the same crystal.

The direction of the line of intersection (i.e. zone-axis) of any two
planes (hkl) and (h1k1l1) is given by the zone-indices [uvw], where u =
kl1 - lk1, v = lh1 - hl1, and w = hk1 - kh1, these being obtained from
the face-indices by cross multiplication as follows:--

   h   k   l   h   k   l
         ×   ×   ×
   h1  k1  l1  h1  k1  l1.

Any other face (h2k2l2) lying in this zone must satisfy the equation

  h2u + k2v + l2w = 0.

This important relation connecting the indices of a face lying in a zone
with the zone-indices is known as Weiss's zone-law, having been first
enunciated by C. S. Weiss. It may be pointed out that the indices of a
face may be arrived at by adding together the indices of faces on either
side of it and in the same zone; thus, (311) in fig. 12 lies at the
intersections of the three zones [210, 101], [201, 110] and [211, 100],
and is obtained by adding together each set of indices.

  (e) _Projection and Drawing of Crystals._

The shapes and relative sizes of the faces of a crystal being as a rule
accidental, depending only on the distance of the faces from the centre
of the crystal and not on their angular relations, it is often more
convenient to consider only the directions of the normals to the faces.
For this purpose projections are drawn, with the aid of which the zonal
relations of a crystal are more readily studied and calculations are
simplified.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Stereographic Projection of a Cubic Crystal.]

The kind of projection most extensively used is the "stereographic
projection." The crystal is considered to be placed inside a sphere from
the centre of which normals are drawn to all the faces of the crystal.
The points at which these normals intersect the surface of the sphere
are called the poles of the faces, and by these poles the positions of
the faces are fixed. The poles of all faces in the same zone on the
crystal will lie on a great circle of the sphere, which are therefore
called zone-circles. The calculation of the angles between the normals
of faces and between zone-circles is then performed by the ordinary
methods of spherical trigonometry. The stereographic projection,
however, represents the poles and zone-circles on a plane surface and
not on a spherical surface. This is achieved by drawing lines joining
all the poles of the faces with the north or south pole of the sphere
and finding their points of intersection with the plane of the
equatorial great circle, or primitive circle, of the sphere, the
projection being represented on this plane. In fig. 10 is shown the
stereographic projection, or stereogram, of a cubic crystal; a¹, a²,
&c. are the poles of the faces of the cube. o¹, o², &c. those of the
octahedron, and d¹, d², &c. those of the rhombic dodecahedron. The
straight lines and circular arcs are the projections on the equatorial
plane of the great circles in which the nine planes of symmetry
intersect the sphere. A drawing of a crystal showing a combination of
the cube, octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron is shown in fig. 11, in
which the faces are lettered the same as the corresponding poles in the
projection. From the zone-circles in the projection and the parallel
edges in the drawing the zonal relations of the faces are readily seen:
thus [a¹o¹d^5], [a¹d¹a^5], [a^5o¹d²], &c. are zones. A stereographic
projection of a rhombohedral crystal is given in fig. 72.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Clinographic Drawing of a Cubic Crystal.]

Another kind of projection in common use is the "gnomonic projection"
(fig. 12). Here the plane of projection is tangent to the sphere, and
normals to all the faces are drawn from the centre of the sphere to
intersect the plane of projection. In this case all zones are
represented by straight lines. Fig. 12 is the gnomonic projection of a
cubic crystal, the plane of projection being tangent to the sphere at
the pole of an octahedral face (111), which is therefore in the centre
of the projection. The indices of the several poles are given in the
figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Gnomonic Projection of a Cubic Crystal.]

In drawing crystals the simple plans and elevations of descriptive
geometry (e.g. the plans in the lower part of figs. 87 and 88) have
sometimes the advantage of showing the symmetry of a crystal, but they
give no idea of solidity. For instance, a cube would be represented
merely by a square, and an octahedron by a square with lines joining the
opposite corners. True perspective drawings are never used in the
representation of crystals, since for showing the zonal relations it is
important to preserve the parallelism of the edges. If, however, the
eye, or point of vision, is regarded as being at an infinite distance
from the object all the rays will be parallel, and edges which are
parallel on the crystal will be represented by parallel lines in the
drawing. The plane of the drawing, in which the parallel rays joining
the corners of the crystals and the eye intersect, may be either
perpendicular or oblique to the rays; in the former case we have an
"orthographic" ([Greek: orthos], straight; [Greek: graphein], to draw)
drawing, and in the latter a "clinographic" ([Greek: klinein], to
incline) drawing. Clinographic drawings are most frequently used for
representing crystals. In representing, for example, a cubic crystal
(fig. 11) a cube face a^5 is first placed parallel to the plane on which
the crystal is to be projected and with one set of edges vertical; the
crystal is then turned through a small angle about a vertical axis until
a second cube face a² comes into view, and the eye is then raised so
that a third cube face a¹ may be seen.

  (f) _Crystal Systems and Classes._

According to the mutual inclinations of the crystallographic axes of
reference and the lengths intercepted on them by the parametral plane,
all crystals fall into one or other of six groups or systems, in each of
which there are several classes depending on the degree of symmetry. In
the brief description which follows of these six systems and thirty-two
classes of crystals we shall proceed from those in which the symmetry is
most complex to those in which it is simplest.


  1. CUBIC SYSTEM

  (Isometric; Regular; Octahedral; Tesseral).

  In this system the three crystallographic axes of reference are all at
  right angles to each other and are equal in length. They are parallel
  to the edges of the cube, and in the different classes coincide either
  with tetrad or dyad axes of symmetry. Five classes are included in
  this system, in all of which there are, besides other elements of
  symmetry, four triad axes.

  In crystals of this system the angle between any two faces P and Q
  with the indices (hkl) and (pqr) is given by the equation

                       hp + kq + lr
    COS PQ = ----------------------------------
             [root] [(h² +k² +l²) (p² +q² +r²)].

  The angles between faces with the same indices are thus the same in
  all substances which crystallize in the cubic system: in other systems
  the angles vary with the substance and are characteristic of it.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral ([Greek: holos], whole); Hexakis-octahedral).

  Crystals of this class possess the full number of elements of symmetry
  already mentioned above for the octahedron and the cube, viz. three
  cubic planes of symmetry, six dodecahedral planes, three tetrad axes
  of symmetry, four triad axes, six dyad axes, and a centre of symmetry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Rhombic Dodecahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--Combination of Rhombic Dodecahedron and
  Octahedron.]

  There are seven kinds of simple forms, viz.:--

  Cube (fig. 5). This is bounded by six square faces parallel to the
  cubic planes of symmetry; it is known also as the hexahedron. The
  angles between the faces are 90°, and the indices of the form are
  {100}. Salt, fluorspar and galena crystallize in simple cubes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Triakis-octahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Combination of Triakis-octahedron and Cube.]

  Octahedron (fig. 3). Bounded by eight equilateral triangular faces
  perpendicular to the triad axes of symmetry. The angles between the
  faces are 70° 32´ and 109° 28´, and the indices are {111}. Spinel,
  magnetite and gold crystallize in simple octahedra. Combinations of
  the cube and octahedron are shown in figs. 6-8.

  Rhombic dodecahedron (fig. 13). Bounded by twelve rhomb-shaped faces
  parallel to the six dodecahedral planes of symmetry. The angles
  between the normals to adjacent faces are 60°, and between other
  pairs of faces 90°; the indices are {110}. Garnet frequently
  crystallizes in this form. Fig. 14 shows the rhombic dodecahedron in
  combination with the octahedron.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--Icositetrahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.--Combination of Icositetrahedron and Cube.]

  In these three simple forms of the cubic system (which are shown in
  combination in fig. 11) the angles between the faces and the indices
  are fixed and are the same in all crystals; in the four remaining
  simple forms they are variable.

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.--Combination of Icositetrahedron and
  Octahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.--Combination of Icositetrahedron {211} and
  Rhombic Dodecahedron.]

  Triakis-octahedron (three-faced octahedron) (fig. 15). This solid is
  bounded by twenty-four isosceles triangles, and may be considered as
  an octahedron with a low triangular pyramid on each of its faces. As
  the inclinations of the faces may vary there is a series of these
  forms with the indices {221}, {331}, {332}, &c. or in general {hhk}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.--Tetrakis-hexahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 22.--Tetrakis-hexahedron.]

  Icositetrahedron (fig. 17). Bounded by twenty-four trapezoidal faces,
  and hence sometimes called a "trapezohedron." The indices are {211},
  {311}, {322}, &c., or in general {hkk}. Analcite, leucite and garnet
  often crystallize in the simple form {211}. Combinations are shown in
  figs. 18-20. The plane A Be in fig. 9 is one face (112) of an
  icositetrahedron; the indices of the remaining faces in this octant
  being (211) and (121).

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.--Combination of Tetrakis-hexahedron and Cube.]

  Tetrakis-hexahedron (four-faced cube) (figs. 21 and 22). Like the
  triakis-octahedron this solid is also bounded by twenty-four isosceles
  triangles, but here grouped in fours over the cubic faces. The two
  figures show how, with different inclinations of the faces, the form
  may vary, approximating in fig. 21 to the cube and in fig. 22 to the
  rhombic dodecahedron. The angles over the edges lettered A are
  different from the angles over the edges lettered C. Each face is
  parallel to one of the crystallographic axes and intercepts the two
  others in different lengths; the indices are therefore {210}, {310},
  {320}, &c., in general {hko}. Fluorspar sometimes crystallizes in the
  simple form {310}; more usually, however, in combination with the cube
  (fig. 23).

  Hexakis-octahedron (fig. 24). Here each face of the octahedron is
  replaced by six scalene triangles, so that altogether there are
  forty-eight faces. This is the greatest number of faces possible for
  any simple form in crystals. The faces are all oblique to the planes
  and axes of symmetry, and they intercept the three crystallographic
  axes in different lengths, hence the indices are all unequal, being in
  general {hkl}, or in particular cases {321}, {421}, {432}, &c. Such a
  form is known as the "general form" of the class. The interfacial
  angles over the three edges of each triangle are all different. These
  forms usually exist only in combination with other cubic forms (for
  example, fig. 25), but {421} has been observed as a simple form on
  fluorspar.

  [Illustration: FIG. 24.--Hexakis-octahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 25.--Combination of Hexakis-octahedron and Cube.]

  Several examples of substances which crystallize in this class have
  been mentioned above under the different forms; many others might be
  cited--for instance, the metals iron, copper, silver, gold, platinum,
  lead, mercury, and the non-metallic elements silicon and phosphorus.

    TETRAHEDRAL CLASS

    (Tetrahedral-hemihedral; Hexakis-tetrahedral).

  In this class there is no centre of symmetry nor cubic planes of
  symmetry; the three tetrad axes become dyad axes of symmetry, and the
  four triad axes are polar, i.e. they are associated with different
  faces at their two ends. The other elements of symmetry (six
  dodecahedral planes and six dyad axes) are the same as in the last
  class.

  [Illustration: FIG. 26.--Tetrahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.--Deltoid Dodecahedron.]

  Of the seven simple forms, the cube, rhombic dodecahedron and
  tetrakis-hexahedron are geometrically the same as before, though on
  actual crystals the faces will have different surface characters. For
  instance, the cube faces will be striated parallel to only one of the
  diagonals (fig. 90), and etched figures on this face will be
  symmetrical with respect to two lines, instead of four as in the last
  class. The remaining simple forms have, however, only half the number
  of faces as the corresponding form in the last class, and are spoken
  of as "hemihedral with inclined faces."

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--Triakis-tetrahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 29.--Hexakis-tetrahedron.]

  Tetrahedron (fig. 26). This is bounded by four equilateral triangles
  and is identical with the regular tetrahedron of geometry. The angles
  between the normals to the faces are 109° 28´. It may be derived from
  the octahedron by suppressing the alternate faces.

  Deltoid[1] dodecahedron (fig. 27). This is the hemihedral form of the
  triakis-octahedron; it has the indices {hhk} and is bounded by twelve
  trapezoidal faces.

  Triakis-tetrahedron (fig. 28). The hemihedral form {hkk} of the
  icositetrahedron; it is bounded by twelve isosceles triangles arranged
  in threes over the tetrahedron faces.

  [Illustration: FIG. 30.--Combination of two Tetrahedra.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 31.--Combination of Tetrahedron and Cube.]

  Hexakis-tetrahedron (fig. 29). The hemihedral form {hkl} of the
  hexakis-octahedron; it is bounded by twenty-four scalene triangles and
  is the general form of the class.

  [Illustration: FIG. 32.--Combination of Tetrahedron, Cube and Rhombic
  Dodecahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 33.--Combination of Tetrahedron and Rhombic
  Dodecahedron.]

  Corresponding to each of these hemihedral forms there is another
  geometrically similar form, differing, however, not only in
  orientation, but also in actual crystals in the characters of the
  faces. Thus from the octahedron there may be derived two tetrahedra
  with the indices {111} and {1´11}, which may be distinguished as
  positive and negative respectively. Fig. 30 shows a combination of
  these two tetrahedra, and represents a crystal of blende, in which the
  four larger faces are dull and striated, whilst the four smaller are
  bright and smooth. Figs. 31-33 illustrate other tetrahedral
  combinations.

  Tetrahedrite, blende, diamond, boracite and pharmacosiderite are
  substances which crystallize in this class.

    PYRITOHEDRAL[2] CLASS

    (Parallel-faced hemihedral; Dyakis-dodecahedral).

  Crystals of this class possess three cubic planes of symmetry but no
  dodecahedral planes. There are only three dyad axes of symmetry, which
  coincide with the crystallographic axes; in addition there are three
  triad axes and a centre of symmetry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 34. Pentagonal Dodecahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 35. Dyakis-dodecahedron.]

  Here the cube, octahedron, rhombic dodecahedron, triakis-octahedron
  and icositetrahedron are geometrically the same as in the first class.
  The characters of the faces will, however, be different; thus the cube
  faces will be striated parallel to one edge only (fig. 89), and
  triangular markings on the octahedron faces will be placed obliquely
  to the edges. The remaining simple forms are "hemihedral with parallel
  faces," and from the corresponding holohedral forms two hemihedral
  forms, a positive and a negative, may be derived.

  Pentagonal dodecahedron (fig. 34). This is bounded by twelve
  pentagonal faces, but these are not regular pentagons, and the angles
  over the three sets of different edges are different. The regular
  dodecahedron of geometry, contained by twelve regular pentagons, is
  not a possible form in crystals. The indices are {hko}: as a simple
  form {210} is of very common occurrence in pyrites.

  Dyakis-dodecahedron (fig. 35). This is the hemihedral form of the
  hexakis-octahedron and has the indices {hkl}; it is bounded by
  twenty-four faces. As a simple form {321} is met with in pyrites.

  [Illustration: FIG. 36.--Combination of Pentagonal Dodecahedron and
  Cube.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 37.--Combination of Pentagonal Dodecahedron and
  Octahedron.]

  Combinations (figs. 36-39) of these forms with the cube and the
  octahedron are common in pyrites. Fig. 37 resembles in general
  appearance the regular icosahedron of geometry, but only eight of the
  faces are equilateral triangles. Cobaltite, smaltite and other
  sulphides and sulpharsenides of the pyrites group of minerals
  crystallize in these forms. The alums also belong to this class; from
  an aqueous solution they crystallize as simple octahedra, sometimes
  with subordinate faces of the cube and rhombic dodecahedron, but from
  an acid solution as octahedra combined with the pentagonal
  dodecahedron {210}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 38.--Combination of Pentagonal Dodecahedron, Cube
  and Octahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 39.--Combination of Pentagonal Dodecahedron e
  {210}, Dyakis-dodecahedron f {321}, and Octahedron d {111}.]

    PLAGIHEDRAL[3] CLASS

    (Plagihedral-hemihedral; Pentagonal icositetrahedral; Gyroidal[4]).

  In this class there are the full number of axes of symmetry (three
  tetrad, four triad and six dyad), but no planes of symmetry and no
  centre of symmetry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 40.--Pentagonal Icositetrahedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 41.--Tetrahedral Pentagonal Dodecahedron.]

  Pentagonal icositetrahedron (fig. 40). This is the only simple form in
  this class which differs geometrically from those of the holosymmetric
  class. By suppressing either one or other set of alternate faces of
  the hexakis-octahedron two pentagonal icositetrahedra {hkl} and {khl}
  are derived. These are each bounded by twenty-four irregular
  pentagons, and although similar to each other they are respectively
  right- and left-handed, one being the mirror image of the other; such
  similar but nonsuperposable forms are said to be enantiomorphous
  ([Greek: enantios], opposite, and [Greek: morphê], form), and crystals
  showing such forms sometimes rotate the plane of polarization of
  plane-polarized light. Faces of a pentagonal icositetrahedron with
  high indices have been very rarely observed on crystals of cuprite,
  potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, but none of these are
  circular polarizing.

    TETARTOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Tetrahedral pentagonal dodecahedral).

  Here, in addition to four polar triad axes, the only other elements of
  symmetry are three dyad axes, which coincide with the crystallographic
  axes. Six of the simple forms, the cube, tetrahedron, rhombic
  dodecahedron, deltoid dodecahedron, triakis-tetrahedron and pentagonal
  dodecahedron, are geometrically the same in this class as in either
  the tetrahedral or pyritohedral classes. The general form is the
  Tetrahedral pentagonal dodecahedron (fig. 41). This is bounded by
  twelve irregular pentagons, and is a tetartohedral or quarter-faced
  form of the hexakis-octahedron. Four such forms may be derived, the
  indices of which are {hkl}, {khl}, {h´kl} and {k´hl}; the first pair
  are enantiomorphous with respect to one another, and so are the last
  pair. Barium nitrate, lead nitrate, sodium chlorate and sodium bromate
  crystallize in this class, as also do the minerals ullmannite (NiSbS)
  and langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3).


  2. TETRAGONAL SYSTEM

    (Pyramidal; Quadratic; Dimetric).

  In this system the three crystallographic axes are all at right
  angles, but while two are equal in length and interchangeable the
  third is of a different length. The unequal axis is spoken of as the
  principal axis or morphological axis of the crystal, and it is always
  placed in a vertical position; in five of the seven classes of this
  system it coincides with the single tetrad axis of symmetry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 42.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 43.

  Tetragonal Bipyramids.]

  The parameters are a : a : c, where a refers to the two equal
  horizontal axes, and c to the vertical axis; c may be either shorter
  (as in fig. 42) or longer (fig. 43) than a. The ratio a : c is spoken
  of as the axial ratio of a crystal, and it is dependent on the angles
  between the faces. In all crystals of the same substance this ratio is
  constant, and is characteristic of the substance; for other substances
  crystallizing in the tetragonal system it will be different. For
  example, in cassiterite it is given as a : c = 1 : 0.67232 or simply
  as c = 0.67232, a being unity; and in anatase as c = 1.7771.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral; Ditetragonal bipyramidal).

  Crystals of this class are symmetrical with respect to five planes,
  which are of three kinds; one is perpendicular to the principal axis,
  and the other four intersect in it; of the latter, two are
  perpendicular to the equal crystallographic axes, while the two others
  bisect the angles between them. There are five axes of symmetry, one
  tetrad and two pairs of dyad, each perpendicular to a plane of
  symmetry. Finally, there is a centre of symmetry.

  There are seven kinds of simple forms, viz.:--

  Tetragonal bipyramid of the first order (figs. 42 and 43). This is
  bounded by eight equal isosceles triangles. Equal lengths are
  intercepted on the two horizontal axes, and the indices are {111},
  {221}, {112}, &c., or in general {hhl}. The parametral plane with the
  intercepts a : a : c is a face of the bipyramid {111}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 44.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 45.

  Tetragonal Bipyramids of the first and second orders.]

  Tetragonal bipyramid of the second order. This is also bounded by
  eight equal isosceles triangles, but differs from the last form in its
  position, four of the faces being parallel to each of the horizontal
  axes; the indices are therefore {101}, {201}, {102}, &c., or {hol}.

  Fig. 44 shows the relation between the tetragonal bipyramids of the
  first and second orders when the indices are {111} and {101}
  respectively: ABB is the face (111), and ACC is (101). A combination
  of these two forms is shown in fig. 45.

  Ditetragonal bipyramid (fig. 46). This is the general form; it is
  bounded by sixteen scalene triangles, and all the indices are unequal,
  being {321}, &c., or {hkl}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 46.--Ditetragonal Bipyramid.]

  Tetragonal prism of the first order. The four faces intersect the
  horizontal axes in equal lengths and are parallel to the principal
  axis; the indices are therefore {110}. This form does not enclose
  space, and is therefore called an "open form" to distinguish it from a
  "closed form" like the tetragonal bipyramids and all the forms of the
  cubic system. An open form can exist only in combination with other
  forms; thus fig. 47 is a combination of the tetragonal prism {110}
  with the basal pinacoid {001}. If the faces (110) and (001) are of
  equal size such a figure will be geometrically a cube, since all the
  angles are right angles; the variety of apophyllite known as tesselite
  crystallizes in this form.

  Tetragonal prism of the second order. This has the same number of
  faces as the last prism, but differs in position; each face being
  parallel to the vertical axis and one of the horizontal axes; the
  indices are {100}.

  Ditetragonal prism. This consists of eight faces all parallel to the
  principal axis and intercepting the horizontal axes in different
  lengths; the indices are {210}, {320}, &c., or {hko}.

  Basal pinacoid (from [Greek: pinax], a tablet). This consists of a
  single pair of parallel faces perpendicular to the principal axis. It
  is therefore an open form and can exist only in combination (fig. 47).

  [Illustration: FIG. 47. Combination of Tetragonal Prism and Basal
  Pinacoid.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 49.

  Combinations of Tetragonal Prisms and Pyramids.]

  Combinations of holohedral tetragonal forms are shown in figs. 47-49;
  fig. 48 is a combination of a bipyramid of the first order with one of
  the second order and the prism of the first order; fig. 49 a
  combination of a bipyramid of the first order with a ditetragonal
  bipyramid and the prism of the second order. Compare also figs. 87 and
  88.

  Examples of substances which crystallize in this class are
  cassiterite, rutile, anatase, zircon, thorite, vesuvianite,
  apophyllite, phosgenite, also boron, tin, mercuric iodide.

    SCALENOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Bisphenoidal-hemihedral).

  Here there are only three dyad axes and two planes of symmetry, the
  former coinciding with the crystallographic axes and the latter
  bisecting the angles between the horizontal pair. The dyad axis of
  symmetry, which in this class coincides with the principal axis of the
  crystal, has certain of the characters of a tetrad axis, and is
  sometimes called a tetrad axis of "alternating symmetry"; a face on
  the upper half of the crystal if rotated through 90° about this axis
  and reflected across the equatorial plane falls into the position of a
  face on the lower half of the crystal. This kind of symmetry, with
  simultaneous rotation about an axis and reflection across a plane, is
  also called "composite symmetry."

  In this class all except two of the simple forms are geometrically the
  same as in the holosymmetric class.

  Bisphenoid ([Greek: sphên], a wedge) (fig. 50). This is a double
  wedge-shaped solid bounded by four equal isosceles triangles; it has
  the indices {111}, {211}, {112}, &c., or in general {hhl}. By
  suppressing either one or other set of alternate faces of the
  tetragonal bipyramid of the first order (fig. 42) two bisphenoids are
  derived, in the same way that two tetrahedra are derived from the
  regular octahedron.

  Tetragonal scalenohedron or ditetragonal bisphenoid (fig. 51). This is
  bounded by eight scalene triangles and has the indices {hkl}. It may
  be considered as the hemihedral form of the ditetragonal bipyramid.

  [Illustration: FIG. 50.--Tetragonal Bisphenoids.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 51.--Tetragonal Scalenohedron.]

  The crystal of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) represented in fig. 52 is a
  combination of two bisphenoids (P and P´), two bipyramids of the
  second order (b and c), and the basal pinacoid (a). Stannite
  (Cu2FeSnS4), acid potassium phosphate (H2KPO4), mercuric cyanide, and
  urea (CO(NH2)2) also crystallize in this class.

    BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Parallel-faced hemihedral).

  The elements of symmetry are a tetrad axis with a plane perpendicular
  to it, and a centre of symmetry. The simple forms are the same here as
  in the holosymmetric class, except the prism {hko}, which has only
  four faces, and the bipyramid {hkl}, which has eight faces and is
  distinguished as a "tetragonal pyramid of the third order."

  [Illustration: FIG. 52.--Crystal of Chalcopyrite.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 53.--Crystal of Fergusonite.]

  Fig. 53 shows a combination of a tetragonal prism of the first order
  with a tetragonal bipyramid of the third order and the basal pinacoid,
  and represents a crystal of fergusonite. Scheelite (q.v.), scapolite
  (q.v.), and erythrite (C4H10O4) also crystallize in this class.

    PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-tetartohedral).

  Here the only element of symmetry is the tetrad axis. The pyramids of
  the first {hhl}, second {hol} and third {hkl} orders have each only
  four faces at one or other end of the crystal, and are hemimorphic.
  All the simple forms are thus open forms.

  Examples are wulfenite (PbMoO4) and barium antimonyl dextro-tartrate
  (Ba(SbO)2(C4H4O6)·H2O).

    DITETRAGONAL PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-hemihedral).

  Here there are two pairs of vertical planes of symmetry intersecting
  in the tetrad axis. The pyramids {hhl} and {hol} and the bipyramid
  {hkl} are all hemimorphic.

  Examples are iodosuccimide (C4H4O2NI), silver fluoride (AgF·H2O), and
  penta-erythrite (C5H12O4). No examples are known amongst minerals.

    TRAPEZOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Trapezohedral-hemihedral).

  Here there are the full number of axes of symmetry, but no planes or
  centre of symmetry. The general form {hkl} is bounded by eight
  trapezoidal faces and is the tetragonal trapezohedron.

  Examples are nickel sulphate (NiSO4·6H2O), guanidine carbonate
  ((CH5N3)2H2CO3), strychnine sulphate ((C21H22N2O2)2·H2SO4·6H2O).

    BISPHENOIDAL CLASS

    (Bisphenoidal-tetartohedral).

  Here there is only a single dyad axis of symmetry, which coincides
  with the principal axis. All the forms, except the prisms and basal
  pinacoid, are sphenoids. Crystals possessing this type of symmetry
  have not yet been observed.


  3. ORTHORHOMBIC SYSTEM

    (Rhombic; Prismatic; Trimetric).

  In this system the three crystallographic axes are all at right
  angles, but they are of different lengths and not interchangeable. The
  parameters, or axial ratios, are a: b: c, these referring to the axes
  OX, OY and OZ respectively. The choice of a vertical axis, OZ = c, is
  arbitrary, and it is customary to place the longer of the two
  horizontal axes from left to right (OY = b) and take it as unity: this
  is called the "macro-axis" or "macro-diagonal" (from [Greek: makros],
  long), whilst the shorter horizontal axis (OX = a) is called the
  "brachy-axis" or "brachy-diagonal" (from [Greek: brachus], short). The
  axial ratios are constant for crystals of any one substance and are
  characteristic of it; for example, in barytes (BaSO4), a: b: c =
  0.8152 : 1 : 1.3136; in anglesite (PbSO4), a: b: c = 0.7852: 1 :
  1.2894; in cerussite (PbCO3), a : b : c = 0.6100 : 1 : 0.7230.

  There are three symmetry-classes in this system:--

    HOLOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Holohedral; Bipyramidal).

  Here there are three dissimilar dyad axes of symmetry, each coinciding
  with a crystallographic axis; perpendicular to them are three
  dissimilar planes of symmetry; there is also a centre of symmetry.
  There are seven kinds of simple forms:--

  [Illustration: FIG. 54.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 55.

  Orthorhombic Bipyramids.]

  Bipyramid (figs. 54 and 55). This is the general form and is bounded
  by eight scalene triangles; the indices are {111}, {211}, {221},
  {112}, {321}, {123}, &c., or in general {hkl}. The crystallographic
  axes join opposite corners of these pyramids and in the fundamental
  bipyramid {111} the parametral plane has the intercepts a: b: c. This
  is the only closed form in this class; the others are open forms and
  can exist only in combination. Sulphur often crystallizes in simple
  bipyramids.

  Prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the vertical axis and
  intercepting the horizontal axes in the lengths a and b or in any
  multiples of these; the indices are therefore {110}, {210}, {120} or
  {hko}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.--Macro-prism and Brachy-pinacoid.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 57.--Brachy-prism and Macro-pinacoid.]

  Macro-prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the macro-axis,
  and has the indices {101}, {201} ... or {hol}.

  Brachy-prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the brachy-axis,
  and has the indices {011}, {021} ... {okl}. The macro- and
  brachy-prisms are often called "domes."

  Basal pinacoid, consisting of a pair of parallel faces perpendicular
  to the vertical axis; the indices are {001}. The macro-pinacoid {100}
  and the brachy-pinacoid {010} each consist of a pair of parallel faces
  respectively parallel to the macro- and the brachy-axis.

  Figs. 56-58 show combinations of these six open forms, and fig. 59 a
  combination of the macro-pinacoid (a), brachy-pinacoid (b), a prism
  (m), a macro-prism (d), a brachy-prism (k), and a bipyramid (u).

  [Illustration: FIG. 58.--Prism and Basal Pinacoid.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 59.--Crystal of Hypersthene.

  Holohedral Orthorhombic Combinations.]

  Examples of substances crystallizing in this class are extremely
  numerous; amongst minerals are sulphur, stibnite, cerussite,
  chrysoberyl, topaz, olivine, nitre, barytes, columbite and many
  others; and amongst artificial products iodine, potassium
  permanganate, potassium sulphate, benzene, barium formate, &c.

    PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic).

  Here there is only one dyad axis in which two planes of symmetry
  intersect. The crystals are usually so placed that the dyad axis
  coincides with the vertical crystallographic axis, and the planes of
  symmetry are also vertical.

  The pyramid {hkl} has only four faces at one end or other of the
  crystal. The macro-prism and the brachy-prism of the last class are
  here represented by the macro-dome and brachy-dome respectively, so
  called because of the resemblance of the pair of equally sloped faces
  to the roof of a house. The form {001} is a single plane at the top of
  the crystal, and is called a "pedion"; the parallel pedion {001´}, if
  present at the lower end of the crystal, constitutes a different form.
  The prisms {hko} and the macro- and brachy-pinacoids are geometrically
  the same in this class as in the last. Crystals of this class are
  therefore differently developed at the two ends and are said to be
  "hemimorphic."

  [Illustration: FIG. 60.--Crystal of Hemimorphite.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 61.--Orthorhombic Bisphenoid.]

  Fig. 60 shows a crystal of the mineral hemimorphite (H2Zn2SiO5) which
  is a combination of the brachy-pinacoid {010} and a prism, with the
  pedion (001), two brachy-domes and two macro-domes at the upper end,
  and a pyramid at the lower end. Examples of other substances belonging
  to this class are struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O), bertrandite (H2Be4Si2O9),
  resorcin, and picric acid.

    BISPHENOIDAL CLASS

    (Hemihedral).

  Here there are three dyad axes, but no planes of symmetry and no
  centre of symmetry. The general form {hkl} is a bisphenoid (fig. 61)
  bounded by four scalene triangles. The other simple forms are
  geometrically the same as in the holosymmetric class.

  Examples: epsomite (Epsom salts, MgSO4·7H2O), goslarite (ZnSO4·7H2O),
  silver nitrate, sodium potassium dextro-tartrate (seignette salt,
  NaKC4H4O6·4H2O), potassium antimonyl dextro-tartrate (tartar-emetic,
  K(SbO)C4H4O6), and asparagine (C4H8N2O8·H2O).


  4. MONOCLINIC[5] SYSTEM

    (Oblique; Monosymmetric).

  In this system two of the angles between the crystallographic axes are
  right angles, but the third angle is oblique, and the axes are of
  unequal lengths. The axis which is perpendicular to the other two is
  taken as OY = b (fig. 62) and is called the ortho-axis or
  ortho-diagonal. The choice of the other two axes is arbitrary; the
  vertical axis (OZ = c) is usually taken parallel to the edges of a
  prominently developed prismatic zone, and the clino-axis or
  clino-diagonal (OX = a) parallel to the zone-axis of some other
  prominent zone on the crystal. The acute angle between the axes OX and
  OZ is usually denoted as ß, and it is necessary to know its magnitude,
  in addition to the axial ratios a : b : c, before the crystal is
  completely determined. As in other systems, except the cubic, these
  elements, a : b : c and ß, are characteristic of the substance. Thus
  for gypsum a : b : c = 0.6899 : 1 : 0.4124; ß = 80° 42´; for
  orthoclase a : b : c = 0.6585 : 1 : 0.5554; ß = 63° 57´; and for
  cane-sugar a : b : c = 1.2595 : 1 : 0.8782; ß = 76° 30´.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral; Prismatic).

  Here there is a single plane of symmetry perpendicular to which is a
  dyad axis; there is also a centre of symmetry. The dyad axis coincides
  with the ortho-axis OY, and the vertical axis OZ and the clino-axis OX
  lie in the plane of symmetry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 62.--Monoclinic Axes and Hemi-pyramid.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 63.--Crystal of Augite.]

  All the forms are open, being either pinacoids or prisms; the former
  consisting of a pair of parallel faces, and the latter of four faces
  intersecting in parallel edges and with a rhombic cross-section. The
  pair of faces parallel to the plane of symmetry is distinguished as
  the "clino-pinacoid" and has the indices {010}. The other pinacoids
  are all perpendicular to the plane of symmetry (and parallel to the
  ortho-axis); the one parallel to the vertical axis is called the
  "ortho-pinacoid" {100}, whilst that parallel to the clino-axis is the
  "basal pinacoid" {001}; pinacoids not parallel to the arbitrarily
  chosen clino- and vertical axes may have the indices {101}, {201},
  {102} ... {hol} or {1´01}, {2´01}, {1´02} ... {h´ol}, according to
  whether they lie in the obtuse or the acute axial angle. Of the
  prisms, those with edges (zone-axis) parallel to the clino-axis, and
  having indices {011}, {021}, {012} ... {okl}, are called
  "clino-prisms"; those with edges parallel to the vertical axis, and
  with the indices {110}, {210}, {120} ... {hko}, are called simply
  "prisms." Prisms with edges parallel to neither of the axes OX and OY
  have the indices {111}, {221}, {211}, {321} ... {hkl} or {1´11} ...
  {h´kl}, and are usually called "hemi-pyramids" (fig. 62); they are
  distinguished as negative or positive according to whether they lie in
  the obtuse or the acute axial angle ß.

  Fig. 63 represents a crystal of augite bounded by the clino-pinacoid
  (l), the ortho-pinacoid (r), a prism (M), and a hemi-pyramid (s).

  The substances which crystallize in this class are extremely numerous:
  amongst minerals are gypsum, orthoclase, the amphiboles, pyroxenes and
  micas, epidote, monazite, realgar, borax, mirabilite (Na2SO4.10 H2O),
  melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) and many others; amongst artificial products
  are monoclinic sulphur, barium chloride (BaCl2.2H2O), potassium
  chlorate, potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6.3H2O), oxalic acid
  (C2O4H2.2H2O), sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2.3H2O) and naphthalene.

    HEMIMORPHIC CLASS

    (Sphenoidal).

  In this class the only element of symmetry is a single dyad axis,
  which is polar in character, being dissimilar at the two ends.

  The form {010} perpendicular to the axis of symmetry consists of a
  single plane or pedion; the parallel face is dissimilar in character
  and belongs to the pedion {01´0}. The pinacoids {100}, {001}, {hol}
  and {h´ol} parallel to the axis of symmetry are geometrically the
  same in this class as in the holosymmetric class. The remaining forms
  consist each of only two planes on the same side of the axial plane
  XOZ and equally inclined to the dyad axis (e.g. in fig. 62 the two
  planes XYZ and X´YZ´); such a wedge-shaped form is sometimes called a
  sphenoid.

  [Illustration: FIG. 64.--Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid.]

  Fig. 64 shows two crystals of tartaric acid, a a right-handed crystal
  of dextro-tartaric acid, and b a left-handed crystal of laevo-tartaric
  acid. The two crystals are enantiomorphous, i.e. although they have
  the same interfacial angles they are not superposable, one being the
  mirror image of the other. Other examples are potassium
  dextro-tartrate, cane-sugar, milk-sugar, quercite, lithium sulphate
  (Li2SO4.H2O); amongst minerals the only example is the hydrocarbon
  fichtelite (C5H8).

    CLINOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Hemihedral; Domatic).

  Crystals of this class are symmetrical only with respect to a single
  plane. The only form which is here geometrically the same as in the
  holosymmetric class is the clino-pinacoid {010}. The forms
  perpendicular to the plane of symmetry are all pedions, consisting of
  single planes with the indices {100}, {1´00}, {001}, {001´}, {hol},
  &c. The remaining forms, {hko}, {okl} and {hkl}, are domes or
  "gonioids" ([Greek: gonia], an angle, and [Greek: eidos], form),
  consisting of two planes equally inclined to the plane of symmetry.

  Examples are potassium tetrathionate (K2S4O6), hydrogen trisodium
  hypophosphate (HNa3P2O6.9H2O); and amongst minerals, clinohedrite
  (H2ZnCaSiO4) and scolectite.


  5. ANORTHIC SYSTEM

    (Triclinic).

  In the anorthic (from [Greek: an], privative, and [Greek: orthos],
  right) or triclinic system none of the three crystallographic axes are
  at right angles, and they are all of unequal lengths. In addition to
  the parameters a : b : c, it is necessary to know the angles, [alpha],
  ß, and [gamma], between the axes. In anorthite, for example, these
  elements are a : b : c = 0.6347 : 1 : 0.5501; [alpha] = 93° 13´, ß =
  115° 55´, [gamma] = 91° 12´.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral; Pinacoidal).

  Here there is only a centre of symmetry. All the forms are pinacoids,
  each consisting of only two parallel faces. The indices of the three
  pinacoids parallel to the axial planes are {100}, {010} and {001};
  those of pinacoids parallel to only one axis are {hko}, {hol} and
  {okl}; and the general form is {hkl}.

  [Illustration: FIG. 65.--Crystal of Axinite.]

  Several minerals crystallize in this class; for example, the
  plagioclastic felspars, microcline, axinite (fig. 65), cyanite,
  amblygonite, chalcanthite (CuSO4·5H2O), sassolite (H3BO3); among
  artificial substances are potassium bichromate, racemic acid
  (C4H6O6·2H2O), dibrom-para-nitrophenol, &c.

    ASYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Hemihedral, Pediad).

  Crystals of this class are devoid of any elements of symmetry. All the
  forms are pedions, each consisting of a single plane; they are thus
  hemihedral with respect to crystals of the last class. Although there
  is a total absence of symmetry, yet the faces are arranged in zones on
  the crystals.

  Examples are calcium thiosulphate (CaS2O3·6H2O) and hydrogen strontium
  dextro-tartrate ((C4H4O6H)2Sr·5H2O); there is no example amongst
  minerals.


  6. HEXAGONAL SYSTEM

  Crystals of this system are characterized by the presence of a single
  axis of either triad or hexad symmetry, which is spoken of as the
  "principal" or "morphological" axis. Those with a triad axis are
  grouped together in the rhombohedral or trigonal division, and those
  with a hexad axis in the hexagonal division. By some authors these two
  divisions are treated as separate systems; or again the rhombohedral
  forms may be considered as hemihedral developments of the hexagonal.
  On the other hand, hexagonal forms may be considered as a combination
  of two rhombohedral forms.

  Owing to the peculiarities of symmetry associated with a single triad
  or hexad axis, the crystallographic axes of reference are different in
  this system from those used in the five other systems of crystals. Two
  methods of axial representation are in common use; rhombohedral axes
  being usually used for crystals of the rhombohedral division, and
  hexagonal axes for those of the hexagonal division; though sometimes
  either one or the other set is employed in both divisions.

  Rhomobohedral axes are taken parallel to the three sets of edges of a
  rhombohedron (fig. 66). They are inclined to one another at equal
  oblique angles, and they are all equally inclined to the principal
  axis; further, they are all of equal length and are interchangeable.
  With such a set of axes there can be no statement of an axial ratio,
  but the angle between the axes (or some other angle which may be
  calculated from this) may be given as a constant of the substance.
  Thus in calcite the rhombohedral angle (the angle between two faces of
  the fundamental rhombohedron) is 74° 55´, or the angle between the
  normal to a face of this rhombohedron and the principal axis is 44°
  36½´.

  Hexagonal axes are four in number, viz. a vertical axis coinciding
  with the principal axis of the crystal, and three horizontal axes
  inclined to one another at 60° in a plane perpendicular to the
  principal axis. The three horizontal axes, which are taken either
  parallel or perpendicular to the faces of a hexagonal prism (fig. 71)
  or the edge of a hexagonal bipyramid (fig. 70), are equal in length
  (a) but the vertical axis is of a different length (c). The indices of
  planes referred to such a set of axes are four in number; they are
  written as {hikl}, the first three (h + i + k = 0) referring to the
  horizontal axes and the last to the vertical axis. The ratio a : c of
  the parameters, or the axial ratio, is characteristic of all the
  crystals of the same substance. Thus for beryl (including emerald) a :
  c = 1 : 0.4989 (often written c = 0.4989); for zinc c = 1.3564.


  _Rhombohedral Division._

  In the rhomobohedral or trigonal division of the hexagonal system
  there are seven symmetry-classes, all of which possess a single triad
  axis of symmetry.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral; Ditrigonal scalenohedral).

  In this class, which presents the commonest type of symmetry of the
  hexagonal system, the triad axis is associated with three similar
  planes of symmetry inclined to one another at 60° and intersecting in
  the triad axis; there are also three similar dyad axes, each
  perpendicular to a plane of symmetry, and a centre of symmetry. The
  seven simple forms are:--

  [Illustration: FIG. 66.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 67.

  Direct and Inverse Rhombohedra.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 68.--Scalenohedron.]

  Rhombohedron (figs. 66 and 67), consisting of six rhomb-shaped faces
  with the edges all of equal lengths: the faces are perpendicular to
  the planes of symmetry. There are two sets of rhombohedra,
  distinguished respectively as direct and inverse; those of one set
  (fig. 66) are brought into the orientation of the other set (fig. 67)
  by a rotation of 60° or 180° about the principal axis. For the
  fundamental rhombohedron, parallel to the edges of which are the
  crystallographic axes of reference, the indices are {100}. Other
  rhombohedra may have the indices {211}, {41´1´}, {110}, {221´},
  {111´}, &c., or in general {hkk}. (Compare fig. 72; for figures of
  other rhombohedra see CALCITE.)

  Scalenohedron (fig. 68), bounded by twelve scalene triangles, and with
  the general indices {hkl}. The zig-zag lateral edges coincide with the
  similar edges of a rhombohedron, as shown in fig. 69; if the indices
  of the inscribed rhombohedron be {100}, the indices of the
  scalenohedron represented in the figure are {201´}. The scalenohedron
  {201´} is a characteristic form of calcite, which for this reason is
  sometimes called "dog-tooth-spar." The angles over the three edges of
  a face of a scalenohedron are all different; the angles over three
  alternate polar edges are more obtuse than over the other three polar
  edges. Like the two sets of rhombohedra, there are also direct and
  inverse scalenohedra, which may be similar in form and angles, but
  different in orientation and indices.

  Hexagonal bipyramid (fig. 70), bounded by twelve isosceles triangles
  each of which are equally inclined to two planes of symmetry. The
  indices are {210}, {412´}, &c., or in general (_hkl_), where h - 2k +
  l = 0.

  [Illustration: FIG. 69.--Scalenohedron with inscribed Rhombohedron.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 70.--Hexagonal Bipyramid.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 71.--Hexagonal Prism and Basal Pinacoid.]

  Hexagonal prism of the first order (21´1´), consisting of six faces
  parallel to the principal axis and perpendicular to the planes of
  symmetry; the angles between (the normals to) the faces are 60°.

  Hexagonal prism of the second order (101´), consisting of six faces
  parallel to the principal axis and parallel to the planes of symmetry.
  The faces of this prism are inclined to 30° to those of the last
  prism.

  Dihexagonal prism, consisting of twelve faces parallel to the
  principal axis and inclined to the planes of symmetry. There are two
  sets of angles between the faces. The indices are {32´1´}, {53´2´} ...
  {hk´l}, where h + k + l = 0.

  Basal pinacoid {111}, consisting of a pair of parallel faces
  perpendicular to the principal axis.

  [Illustration: FIG. 72.--Stereographic Projection of a Holosymmetric
  Rhombohedral Crystal.]

  Fig. 71 shows a combination of a hexagonal prism (m) with the basal
  pinacoid (c). For figures of other combinations see CALCITE and
  CORUNDUM. The relation between rhombohedral forms and their indices
  are best studied with the aid of a stereographic projection (fig. 72);
  in this figure the thicker lines are the projections of the three
  planes of symmetry, and on these lie the poles of the rhombohedra (six
  of which are indicated).

  Numerous substances, both natural and artificial, crystallize in this
  class; for example, calcite, chalybite, calamine, corundum (ruby and
  sapphire), haematite, chabazite; the elements arsenic, antimony,
  bismuth, selenium, tellurium and perhaps graphite; also ice, sodium
  nitrate, thymol, &c.

    DITRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-hemihedral).

  Here there are three similar planes of symmetry intersecting in the
  triad axis; there are no dyad axes and no centre of symmetry. The
  triad axis is uniterminal and polar, and the crystals are differently
  developed at the two ends; crystals of this class are therefore
  pyro-electric. The forms are all open forms:--

  [Illustration: FIG. 73.--Crystal of Tourmaline.]

  Trigonal pyramid {hkk}, consisting of the three faces which correspond
  to the three upper or the three lower faces of a rhombohedron of the
  holosymmetric class.

  Ditrigonal pyramid {hkl}, of six faces, corresponding to the six upper
  or lower faces of the scalenohedron.

  Hexagonal pyramid (hkl) where (h - 2k + l = 0), of six faces,
  corresponding to the six upper or lower faces of the hexagonal
  bipyramid.

  Trigonal prism {21´1´} or {2´11}, two forms each consisting of three
  faces parallel to principal axis and perpendicular to the planes of
  symmetry.

  Hexagonal prism {101´}, which is geometrically the same as in the last
  class.

  Ditrigonal prism {hk´l´} (where h + k + l = 0), of six faces parallel
  to the principal axis, and with two sets of angles between them.

  Basal pedion (111) or (1´1´1´), each consisting of a single plane
  perpendicular to the principal axis.

  Fig. 73 represents a crystal of tourmaline with the trigonal prism
  (21´1´), hexagonal prism (101´), and a trigonal pyramid at each end.
  Other substances crystallizing in this class are pyrargyrite,
  proustite, iodyrite (AgI), greenockite, zincite, spangolite, sodium
  lithium sulphate, tolylphenylketone.

    TRAPEZOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Trapezohedral-hemihedral).

  Here there are three similar dyad axes inclined to one another at 60°
  and perpendicular to the triad axis. There are no planes or centre of
  symmetry. The dyad axes are uniterminal, and are pyro-electric axes.
  Crystals of most substances of this class rotate the plane of
  polarization of a beam of light.

  FIG. 74.--Trigonal Trapezohedron.

  FIG. 75.--Trigonal Bipyramid.

  In this class the rhombohedra {hkk}, the hexagonal prism {21´1´}, and
  the basal pinacoid {111} are geometrically the same as in the
  holosymmetric class; the trigonal prism {101´} and the ditrigonal
  prisms are as in the ditrigonal pyramidal class. The remaining simple
  forms are:--

  Trigonal trapezohedron (fig. 74), bounded by six trapezoidal faces.
  There are two complementary and enantiomorphous trapezohedra, {hkl}
  and {hlk}, derivable from the scalenohedron.

  Trigonal bipyramid (fig. 75), bounded by six isosceles triangles; the
  indices are {hkl}, where h - 2k + l = 0, as in the hexagonal
  bipyramid.

  The only minerals crystallizing in this class are quartz (q.v.) and
  cinnabar, both of which rotate the plane of a beam of polarized light
  transmitted along the triad axis. Other examples are dithionates of
  lead (PbS2O6.4H2O), calcium and strontium, and of potassium (K2S2O6),
  benzil, matico-stearoptene.

    RHOMBOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Parallel-faced hemihedral).

  The only elements of symmetry are the triad axis and a centre of
  symmetry. The general form {hkl} is a rhombohedron, and is a
  hemihedral form, with parallel faces, of the scalenohedron. The form
  {hkl}, where h - 2k + l = 0, is also a rhombohedron, being the
  hemihedral form of the hexagonal bipyramid. The dihexagonal prism
  {hk´l´} of the holosymmetric class becomes here a hexagonal prism. The
  rhombohedra (hkk), hexagonal prisms {21´1´} and {101´}, and the basal
  pinacoid {111} are geometrically the same in this class as in the
  holosymmetric class.

  Fig. 76 represents a crystal of dioptase with the fundamental
  rhombohedron r {100} and the hexagonal prism of the second order m
  {101´} combined with the rhombohedron s {031´}.

  Examples of minerals which crystallize in this class are phenacite,
  dioptase, willemite, dolomite, ilmenite and pyrophanite: amongst
  artificial substances is ammonium periodate ((NH4)4I2O9·3H2O).

    TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-tetartohedral).

  Here there is only the triad axis of symmetry, which is uniterminal.
  The general form {hkl} is a trigonal pyramid consisting of three faces
  at one end of the crystal. All other forms, in which the faces are
  neither parallel nor perpendicular to the triad axis, are trigonal
  pyramids. All the prisms are trigonal prisms; and perpendicular to
  these are two pedions.

  [Illustration: FIG. 76.--Crystal of Dioptase.]

  The only substance known to crystallize in this class is sodium
  periodate (NaIO4·3H2O), the crystals of which are circularly
  polarizing.

    TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS

  Here there is a plane of symmetry perpendicular to the triad axis. The
  trigonal pyramids of the last class are here trigonal bipyramids (fig.
  75); the prisms are all trigonal prisms, and parallel to the plane of
  symmetry is the basal pinacoid. No example is known for this class.

    DITRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS

  Here there are three similar planes of symmetry intersecting in the
  triad axis, and perpendicular to them is a fourth plane of symmetry;
  at the intersection of the three vertical planes with the horizontal
  plane are three similar dyad axes; there is no centre of symmetry.

  The general form is bounded by twelve scalene triangles and is a
  ditrigonal bipyramid. Like the general form of the last class, this
  has two sets of indices {hkl, p´q´r´}, (hkl) for faces above the
  equatorial plane of symmetry and (p´q´r´) for faces below: with
  hexagonal axes there would be only one set of indices. The hexagonal
  bipyramids, the hexagonal prism {101´} and the basal pinacoid {111}
  are geometrically the same in this class as in the holosymmetric
  class. The trigonal prism {21´1´} and ditrigonal prisms {hkl} are the
  same as in the ditrigonal pyramidal class.

  The only representative of this type of symmetry is the mineral
  benitoite (q.v.).

  [Illustration: FIG. 77.--Dihexagonal Bipyramid.]


  _Hexagonal Division._

  In crystals of this division of the hexagonal system the principal
  axis is a hexad axis of symmetry. Hexagonal axes of reference are
  used: if rhombohedral axes be used many of the simple forms will have
  two sets of indices.

    HOLOSYMMETRIC CLASS

    (Holohedral; Dihexagonal bipyramidal).

  Intersecting in the hexad axis are six planes of symmetry of two
  kinds, and perpendicular to them is an equatorial plane of symmetry.
  Perpendicular to the hexad axis are six dyad axes of two kinds and
  each perpendicular to a vertical plane of symmetry. The seven simple
  forms are:--

  Dihexagonal bipyramid, bounded by twenty-four scalene triangles (fig.
  77; v in fig. 80). The indices are {213´1}, &c., or in general {hikl}.
  This form may be considered as a combination of two scalenohedra, a
  direct and an inverse.

  [Illustration: FIG. 78. FIG. 79. FIG. 80.

  Combinations of Hexagonal forms.]

  Hexagonal bipyramid of the first order, bounded by twelve isosceles
  triangles (fig. 70; p and u in fig. 80); indices {101´1}, {202´1} ...
  (hoh´l). The hexagonal bipyramid so common in quartz is geometrically
  similar to this form, but it really is a combination of two
  rhombohedra, a direct and an inverse, the faces of which differ in
  surface characters and often also in size.

  Hexagonal bipyramid of the second order, bounded by twelve faces (s in
  figs. 79 and 80); indices {112´1}, {112´2} ... {h.h.2´h´.l}.

  Dihexagonal prism, consisting of twelve faces parallel to the hexad
  axis and inclined to the vertical planes of symmetry; indices {hiko}.

  Hexagonal prism of the first order {1010}, consisting of six faces
  parallel to the hexad axis and perpendicular to one set of three
  vertical planes of symmetry (m in figs. 71, 78-80).

  Hexagonal prism of the second order {112´0}, consisting of six faces
  also parallel to the hexad axis, but perpendicular to the other set of
  three vertical planes of symmetry (a in fig. 78).

  Basal pinacoid {0001}, consisting of a pair of parallel planes
  perpendicular to the hexad axis (c in figs. 71, 78-80).

  Beryl (emerald), connellite, zinc, magnesium and beryllium crystallize
  in this class.

    BIPYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Parallel-faced hemihedral).

  Here there is a plane of symmetry perpendicular to the hexad axis;
  there is also a centre of symmetry. All the closed forms are hexagonal
  bipyramids; the open forms are hexagonal prisms or the basal pinacoid.
  The general form {hikl} is hemihedral with parallel faces with respect
  to the general form of the holosymmetric class.

  Apatite (q.v.), pyromorphite, mimetite and vanadinite possess this
  degree of symmetry.

    DIHEXAGONAL PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-hemihedral).

  Six planes of symmetry of two kinds intersect in the hexad axis. The
  hexad axis is uniterminal and all the forms are open forms. The
  general form {hikl} consists of twelve faces at one end of the
  crystal, and is a dihexagonal pyramid. The hexagonal pyramids {hoh´l}
  and (h.h.2´h´.l) each consist of six faces at one end of the crystal.
  The prisms are geometrically the same as in the holosymmetric class.
  Perpendicular to the hexad axis are the pedions (0001) and (0001´).

  Iodyrite (AgI), greenockite (CdS), wurtzite (ZnS) and zincite (ZnO)
  are often placed in this class, but they more probably belong to the
  hemimorphic-hemihedral class of the rhombohedral division of this
  system.

    TRAPEZOHEDRAL CLASS

    (Trapezohedral-hemihedral).

  Six dyad axes of two kinds are perpendicular to the hexad axis. The
  general form {hikl} is the hexagonal trapezohedron bounded by twelve
  trapezoidal faces. The other simple forms are geometrically the same
  as in the holosymmetric class. Barium-anti-monyldextro-tartrate +
  potassium nitrate (Ba(SbO)2(C4H4O6)2·KNO3) and the corresponding lead
  salt crystallize in this class.

    HEXAGONAL PYRAMIDAL CLASS

    (Hemimorphic-tetartohedral).

  No other element is here associated with the hexad axis, which is
  uniterminal. The pyramids all consist of six faces at one end of the
  crystal, and prisms are all hexagonal prisms; perpendicular to the
  hexad axis are the pedions.

  Lithium potassium sulphate, strontium-antimonyl dextro-tartrate, and
  lead-antimonyl dextro-tartrate are examples of this type of symmetry.
  The mineral nepheline is placed in this class because of the absence
  of symmetry in the etched figures on the prism faces (fig. 92).

  (g) _Regular Grouping of Crystals._

Crystals of the same kind when occurring together may sometimes be
grouped in parallel position and so give rise to special structures, of
which the dendritic (from [Greek: dendrou], a tree) or branch-like
aggregations of native copper or of magnetite and the fibrous structures
of many minerals furnish examples. Sometimes, owing to changes in the
surrounding conditions, the crystal may continue its growth with a
different external form or colour, e.g. sceptre-quartz.

Regular intergrowths of crystals of totally different substances such as
staurolite with cyanite, rutile with haematite, blende with
chalcopyrite, calcite with sodium nitrate, are not uncommon. In these
cases certain planes and edges of the two crystals are parallel. (See O.
Mügge, "Die regelmässigen Verwachsungen von Mineralien verschiedener
Art," _Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie_, 1903, vol. xvi. pp. 335-475).

But by far the most important kind of regular conjunction of crystals is
that known as "twinning." Here two crystals or individuals of the same
kind have grown together in a certain symmetrical manner, such that one
portion of the twin may be brought into the position of the other by
reflection across a plane or by rotation about an axis. The plane of
reflection is called the twin-plane, and is parallel to one of the
faces, or to a possible face, of the crystal: the axis of rotation,
called the twin-axis, is parallel to one of the edges or perpendicular
to a face of the crystal.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--Twinned Crystal of Gypsum.]

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--Simple Crystal of Gypsum.]

In the twinned crystal of gypsum represented in fig. 81 the two portions
are symmetrical with respect to a plane parallel to the ortho-pinacoid
(100), i.e. a vertical plane perpendicular to the face b. Or we may
consider the simple crystal (fig. 82) to be cut in half by this plane
and one portion to be rotated through 180° about the normal to the same
plane. Such a crystal (fig. 81) is therefore described as being twinned
on the plane (100).

An octahedron (fig. 83) twinned on an octahedral face (111) has the two
portions symmetrical with respect to a plane parallel to this face (the
large triangular face in the figure); and either portion may be brought
into the position of the other by a rotation through 180° about the
triad axis of symmetry which is perpendicular to this face. This kind of
twinning is especially frequent in crystals of spinel, and is
consequently often referred to as the "spinel twin-law."

In these two examples the surface of the union, or composition-plane, of
the two portions is a regular surface coinciding with the twin-plane;
such twins are called "juxtaposition-twins." In other juxtaposed twins
the plane of composition is, however, not necessarily the twin-plane.
Another type of twin is the "interpenetration twin," an example of which
is shown in fig. 84. Here one cube may be brought into the position of
the other by a rotation of 180° about a triad axis, or by reflection
across the octahedral plane which is perpendicular to this axis; the
twin-plane is therefore (111).

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--Spinel-twin.]

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--Interpenetrating Twinned Cubes.]

Since in many cases twinned crystals may be explained by the rotation of
one portion through two right angles, R. J. Haüy introduced the term
"hemitrope" (from the Gr. [Greek: hêmi]-, half, and [Greek: tropos], a
turn); the word "macle" had been earlier used by Romé d'Isle. There are,
however, some rare types of twins which cannot be explained by rotation
about an axis, but only by reflection across a plane; these are known as
"symmetric twins," a good example of which is furnished by one of the
twin-laws of chalcopyrite.

Twinned crystals may often be recognized by the presence of re-entrant
angles between the faces of the two portions, as may be seen from the
above figures. In some twinned crystals (e.g. quartz) there are,
however, no re-entrant angles. On the other hand, two crystals
accidentally grown together without any symmetrical relation between
them will usually show some re-entrant angles, but this must not be
taken to indicate the presence of twinning.

Twinning may be several times repeated on the same plane or on other
similar planes of the crystal, giving rise to triplets, quartets and
other complex groupings. When often repeated on the same plane, the
twinning is said to be "polysynthetic," and gives rise to a laminated
structure in the crystal. Sometimes such a crystal (e.g. of corundum or
pyroxene) may be readily broken in this direction, which is thus a
"plane of parting," often closely resembling a true cleavage in
character. In calcite and some other substances this lamellar twinning
may be produced artificially by pressure (see below, Sect. II. (a),
_Glide-plane_).

Another curious result of twinning is the production of forms which
apparently display a higher degree of symmetry than that actually
possessed by the substance. Twins of this kind are known as
"mimetic-twins or pseudo-symmetric twins." Two hemihedral or hemimorphic
crystals (e.g. of diamond or of hemimorphite) are often united in
twinned position to produce a group with apparently the same degree of
symmetry as the holosymmetric class of the same system. Or again, a
substance crystallizing in, say, the orthorhombic system (e.g.
aragonite) may, by twinning, give rise to pseudo-hexagonal forms: and
pseudo-cubic forms often result by the complex twinning of crystals
(e.g. stannite, phillipsite, &c.) belonging to other systems. Many of
the so-called "optical anomalies" of crystals may be explained by this
pseudo-symmetric twinning.

  (h) _Irregularities of Growth of Crystals; Character of Faces._

Only rarely do actual crystals present the symmetrical appearance shown
in the figures given above, in which similar faces are all represented
as of equal size. It frequently happens that the crystal is so placed
with respect to the liquid in which it grows that there will be a more
rapid deposition of material on one part than on another; for instance,
if the crystal be attached to some other solid it cannot grow in that
direction. Only when a crystal is freely suspended in the mother-liquid
and material for growth is supplied at the same rate on all sides does
an equably developed form result.

[Illustration: FIG. 85.]

[Illustration: FIG. 86.

Misshappen Octahedra.]

Two misshapen or distorted octahedra are represented in figs. 85 and 86;
the former is elongated in the direction of one of the edges of the
octahedron, and the latter is flattened parallel to one pair of faces.
It will be noticed in these figures that the edges in which the faces
intersect have the same directions as before, though here there are
additional edges not present in fig. 3. The angles (70° 32´ or 109° 28´)
between the faces also remain the same; and the faces have the same
inclinations to the axes and planes of symmetry as in the equably
developed form. Although from a geometrical point of view these figures
are no longer symmetrical with respect to the axes and planes of
symmetry, yet crystallographically they are just as symmetrical as the
ideally developed form, and, however much their irregularity of
development, they still are regular (cubic) octahedra of
crystallography. A remarkable case of irregular development is presented
by the mineral cuprite, which is often found as well-developed
octahedra; but in the variety known as chalcotrichite it occurs as a
matted aggregate of delicate hairs, each of which is an individual
crystal enormously elongated in the direction of an edge or diagonal of
the cube.

The symmetry of actual crystals is sometimes so obscured by
irregularities of growth that it can only be determined by measurement
of the angles. An extreme case, where several of the planes have not
been developed at all, is illustrated in fig. 87, which shows the actual
shape of a crystal of zircon from Ceylon; the ideally developed form
(fig. 88) is placed at the side for comparison, and the parallelism of
the edges between corresponding faces will be noticed. This crystal is a
combination of five simple forms, viz. two tetragonal prisms (a and m,)
two tetragonal bipyramids (e and p), and one ditetragonal bipyramid (x,
with 16 faces).

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--Actual Crystal.]

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--Ideal Development.

Crystal of Zircon (clinographic drawings and plans).]

The actual form, or "habit," of crystals may vary widely in different
crystals of the same substance, these differences depending largely on
the conditions under which the growth has taken place. The material may
have crystallized from a fused mass or from a solution; and in the
latter case the solvent may be of different kinds and contain other
substances in solution, or the temperature may vary. Calcite (q.v.)
affords a good example of a substance crystallizing in widely different
habits, but all crystals are referable to the same type of symmetry and
may be reduced to the same fundamental form.

When crystals are aggregated together, and so interfere with each
other's growth, special structures and external shapes often result,
which are sometimes characteristic of certain substances, especially
amongst minerals.

Incipient crystals, the development of which has been arrested owing to
unfavourable conditions of growth, are known as crystallites (q.v.).
They are met with in imperfectly crystallized substances and in glassy
rocks (obsidian and pitchstone), or may be obtained artificially from a
solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide rendered viscous by the
addition of Canada-balsam. To the various forms H. Vogelsang gave, in
1875, the names "globulites," "margarites" (from [Greek: margaritês], a
pearl), "longulites," &c. At a more advanced stage of growth these
bodies react on polarized light, thus possessing the internal structure
of true crystals; they are then called "microlites." These have the form
of minute rods, needles or hairs, and are aggregated into feathery and
spherulitic forms or skeletal crystals. They are common constituents of
microcrystalline igneous rocks, and often occur as inclusions in larger
crystals of other substances.

Inclusions of foreign matter, accidentally caught up during growth, are
frequently present in crystals. Inclusions of other minerals are
specially frequent and conspicuous in crystals of quartz, and crystals
of calcite may contain as much as 60% of included sand. Cavities, either
with rounded boundaries or with the same shape ("negative crystals") as
the surrounding crystal, are often to be seen; they may be empty or
enclose a liquid with a movable bubble of gas.

The faces of crystals are rarely perfectly plane and smooth, but are
usually striated, studded with small angular elevations, pitted or
cavernous, and sometimes curved or twisted. These irregularities,
however, conform with the symmetry of the crystal, and much may be
learnt by their study. The parallel grooves or furrows, called "striae,"
are the result of oscillatory combination between adjacent faces, narrow
strips of first one face and then another being alternately developed.
Sometimes the striae on crystal-faces are due to repeated lamellar
twinning, as in the plagioclase felspars. The directions of the
striations are very characteristic features of many crystals: e.g. the
faces of the hexagonal prism of quartz are always striated horizontally,
whilst in beryl they are striated vertically. Cubes of pyrites (fig. 89)
are striated parallel to one edge, the striae on adjacent faces being at
right angles, and due to oscillatory combination of the cube and the
pentagonal dodecahedron (compare fig. 36); whilst cubes of blende (fig.
90) are striated parallel to one diagonal of each face, i.e. parallel to
the tetrahedron faces (compare fig. 31). These striated cubes thus
possess different degrees of symmetry and belong to different
symmetry-classes. Oscillatory combination of faces gives rise also to
curved surfaces. Crystals with twisted surfaces (see DOLOMITE) are,
however, built up of smaller crystals arranged in nearly parallel
position. Sometimes a face is entirely replaced by small faces of other
forms, giving rise to a drusy surface; an example of this is shown by
some octahedral crystals of fluorspar (fig. 2) which are built up of
minute cubes.

[Illustration: FIG. 89.--Striated Cube of Pyrites.]

[Illustration: FIG. 90.--Striated Cube of Blende.]

The faces of crystals are sometimes partly or completely replaced by
smooth bright surfaces inclined at only a few minutes of arc from the
true position of the face; such surfaces are called "vicinal faces," and
their indices can be expressed only by very high numbers. In apparently
perfectly developed crystals of alum the octahedral face, with the
simple indices (111), is usually replaced by faces of very low
triakis-octahedra, with indices such as (251·251·250); the angles
measured on such crystals will therefore deviate slightly from the true
octahedral angle. Vicinal faces of this character are formed during the
growth of crystals, and have been studied by H. A. Miers (_Phil.
Trans._, 1903, Ser. A. vol. 202). Other faces with high indices, viz.
"prerosion faces" and the minute faces forming the sides of etched
figures (see below), as well as rounded edges and other surface
irregularities, may, however, result from the corrosion of a crystal
subsequent to its growth. The pitted and cavernous faces of artificially
grown crystals of sodium chloride and of bismuth are, on the other hand,
a result of rapid growth, more material being supplied at the edges and
corners of the crystal than at the centres of the faces.

  (i) _Theories of Crystal Structure._

The ultimate aim of crystallographic research is to determine the
internal structure of crystals from both physical and chemical data. The
problem is essentially twofold: in the first place it is necessary to
formulate a theory as to the disposition of the molecules, which
conforms with the observed types of symmetry--this is really a
mathematical problem; in the second place, it is necessary to determine
the orientation of the atoms (or groups of atoms) composing the
molecules with regard to the crystal axes--this involves a knowledge of
the atomic structure of the molecule. As appendages to the second part
of our problem, there have to be considered: (1) the possibility of the
existence of the same substance in two or more distinct crystalline
forms--polymorphism, and (2) the relations between the chemical
structure of compounds which affect nearly identical or related crystal
habits--isomorphism and morphotropy. Here we shall discuss the modern
theory of crystal structure; the relations between chemical composition
and crystallographical form are discussed in Part III. of this article;
reference should also be made to the article CHEMISTRY: _Physical_.


  Haüy.

The earliest theory of crystal structure of any moment is that of Haüy,
in which, as explained above, he conceived a crystal as composed of
elements bounded by the cleavage planes of the crystal, the elements
being arranged contiguously and along parallel lines. There is, however,
no reason to suppose that matter is continuous throughout a crystalline
body; in fact, it has been shown that space does separate the molecules,
and we may therefore replace the contiguous elements of Haüy by
particles equidistantly distributed along parallel lines; by this
artifice we retain the reticulated or net-like structure, but avoid the
continuity of matter which characterizes Haüy's theory; the permanence
of crystal form being due to equilibrium between the intermolecular (and
interatomic) forces. The crystal is thus conjectured as a
"space-lattice," composed of three sets of parallel planes which enclose
parallelopipeda, at the corners of which are placed the constituent
molecules (or groups of molecules) of the crystal.


  Frankenheim; Bravais.

The geometrical theory of crystal structure (i.e. the determination of
the varieties of crystal symmetry) is thus reduced to the mathematical
problem: "in how many ways can space be partitioned?" M. L. Frankenheim,
in 1835, determined this number as fifteen, but A. Bravais, in 1850,
proved the identity of two of Frankenheim's forms, and showed how the
remaining fourteen coalesced by pairs, so that really these forms only
corresponded to seven distinct systems and fourteen classes of crystal
symmetry. These systems, however, only represented holohedral forms,
leaving the hemihedral and tetartohedral classes to be explained.
Bravais attempted an explanation by attributing differences in the
symmetry of the crystal elements, or, what comes to the same thing, he
assumed the crystals to exhibit polar differences along any member of
the lattice; for instance, assume the particles to be (say) pear-shaped,
then the sharp ends point in one direction, the blunt ends in the
opposite direction.


  Sohncke.

A different view was adopted by L. Sohncke in 1879, who, by developing
certain considerations published by Camille Jordan in 1869 on the
possible types of regular repetition in space of identical parts, showed
that the lattice-structure of Bravais was unnecessary, it being
sufficient that each molecule of an indefinitely extended crystal,
represented by its "point" (or centre of gravity), was identically
situated with respect to the molecules surrounding it. The problem then
resolves itself into the determination of the number of "point-systems"
possible; Sohncke derived sixty-five such arrangements, which may also
be obtained from the fourteen space-lattices of Bravais, by
interpenetrating any one space-lattice with one or more identical
lattices, with the condition that the resulting structure should conform
with the homogeneity characteristic of crystals. But the sixty-five
arrangements derived by Sohncke, of which Bravais' lattices are
particular cases, did not complete the solution, for certain of the
known types of crystal symmetry still remained unrepresented. These
missing forms are characterized as being enantiomorphs consequently,
with the introduction of this principle of repetition over a plane, i.e.
mirror images. E. S. Fedorov (1890), A. Schoenflies (1891), and W.
Barlow (1894), independently and by different methods, showed how
Sohncke's theory of regular point-systems explained the whole thirty-two
classes of crystal symmetry, 230 distinct types of crystal structure
falling into these classes.

By considering the atoms instead of the centres of gravity of the
molecules, Sohncke (_Zeits. Kryst. Min._, 1888, 14, p. 431) has
generalized his theory, and propounded the structure of a crystal in the
following terms: "A crystal consists of a finite number of
interpenetrating regular point-systems, which all possess like and
like-directed coincidence movements. Each separate point-system is
occupied by similar material particles, but these may be different for
the different interpenetrating partial systems which form the complex
system." Or we may quote the words of P. von Groth (_British Assoc.
Rep._, 1904): "A crystal--considered as indefinitely extended--consists
of n interpenetrating regular point-systems, each of which is formed of
similar atoms; each of these point-systems is built up from a number of
interpenetrating space-lattices, each of the latter being formed from
similar atoms occupying parallel positions. All the space-lattices of
the combined system are geometrically identical, or are characterized by
the same elementary parallelopipedon."

  A complete résumé, with references to the literature, will be found in
  "Report on the Development of the Geometrical Theories of Crystal
  Structure, 1666-1901" (_British Assoc. Rep._, 1901).


II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALS.

Many of the physical properties of crystals vary with the direction in
the material, but are the same in certain directions; these directions
obeying the same laws of symmetry as do the faces on the exterior of the
crystal. The symmetry of the internal structure of crystals is thus the
same as the symmetry of their external form.

  (a) _Elasticity and Cohesion._

The elastic constants of crystals are determined by similar methods to
those employed with amorphous substances, only the bars and plates
experimented upon must be cut from the crystal with known orientations.
The "elasticity surface" expressing the coefficients in various
directions within the crystal has a configuration symmetrical with
respect to the same planes and axes of symmetry as the crystal itself.
In calcite, for instance, the figure has roughly the shape of a rounded
rhombohedron with depressed faces and is symmetrical about three
vertical planes. In the case of homogeneous elastic deformation,
produced by pressure on all sides, the effect on the crystal is the same
as that due to changes of temperature; and the surfaces expressing the
compression coefficients in different directions have the same higher
degree of symmetry, being either a sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid. When
strained beyond the limits of elasticity, crystalline matter may suffer
permanent deformation in one or other of two ways, or may be broken
along cleavage surfaces or with an irregular fracture. In the case of
plastic deformation, e.g. in a crystal of ice, the crystalline particles
are displaced but without any change in their orientation. Crystals of
some substances (e.g. para-azoxyanisol) have such a high degree of
plasticity that they are deformed even by their surface tension, and the
crystals take the form of drops of doubly refracting liquid which are
known as "liquid crystals." (See O. Lehmann, _Flüssige Kristalle_,
Leipzig, 1904; F. R. Schenck, _Kristallinische Flüssigkeiten und
flüssige Krystalle_, Leipzig, 1905.)

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--Glide-plane of Calcite.]

In the second, and more usual kind of permanent deformation without
fracture, the particles glide along certain planes into a new (twinned)
position of equilibrium. If a knife blade be pressed into the edge of a
cleavage rhombohedron of calcite (at b, fig. 91) the portion abcde of
the crystal will take up the position a´b´cde. The obtuse solid angle at
a becomes acute (a´), whilst the acute angle at b becomes obtuse (b´);
and the new surface a'ce is as bright and smooth as before. This result
has been effected by the particles in successive layers gliding or
rotating over each other, without separation, along planes parallel to
cde. This plane, which truncates the edge of the rhombohedron and has
the indices (110), is called a "glide-plane." The new portion is in
twinned position with respect to the rest of the crystal, being a
reflection of it across the plane cde, which is therefore a plane of
twinning. This secondary twinning is often to be observed as a repeated
lamination in the grains of calcite composing a crystalline limestone,
or marble, which has been subjected to earth movements. Planes of
gliding have been observed in many minerals (pyroxene, corundum, &c.)
and their crystals may often be readily broken along these directions,
which are thus "planes of parting" or "pseudo-cleavage." The
characteristic transverse striae, invariably present on the cleavage
surfaces of stibnite and cyanite are due to secondary twinning along
glide-planes, and have resulted from the bending of the crystals.

One of the most important characters of crystals is that of "cleavage";
there being certain plane directions across which the cohesion is a
minimum, and along which the crystal may be readily split or cleaved.
These directions are always parallel to a possible face on the crystal
and usually one prominently developed and with simple indices, it being
a face in which the crystal molecules are most closely packed. The
directions of cleavage are symmetrically repeated according to the
degree of symmetry possessed by the crystal. Thus in the cubic system,
crystals of salt and galena cleave in three directions parallel to the
faces of the cube {100}, diamond and fluorspar cleave in four directions
parallel to the octahedral faces {111}, and blende in six directions
parallel to the faces of the rhombic dodecahedron {110}. In crystals of
other systems there will be only a single direction of cleavage if this
is parallel to the faces of a pinacoid; e.g. the basal pinacoid in
tetragonal (as in apophyllite) and hexagonal crystals; or parallel (as
in gypsum) or perpendicular (as in mica and cane-sugar) to the plane of
symmetry in monoclinic crystals. Calcite cleaves in three directions
parallel to the faces of the primitive rhombohedron. Barytes, which
crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, has two sets of cleavages, viz.
a single cleavage parallel to the basal pinacoid {001} and also two
directions parallel to the faces of the prism {110}. In all of the
examples just quoted the cleavage is described as perfect, since
cleavage flakes with very smooth and bright surfaces may be readily
detached from the crystals. Different substances, however, vary widely
in their character of cleavage; in some it can only be described as good
or distinct, whilst in others, e.g. quartz and alum, there is little or
no tendency to split along certain directions and the surfaces of
fracture are very uneven. Cleavage is therefore a character of
considerable determinative value, especially for the purpose of
distinguishing different minerals.

Another result of the presence in crystals of directions of minimum
cohesion are the "percussion figures," which are produced on a
crystal-face when this is struck with a sharp point. A percussion figure
consists of linear cracks radiating from the point of impact, which in
their number and orientation agree with the symmetry of the face. Thus
on a cube face of a crystal of salt the rays of the percussion figure
are parallel to the diagonals of the face, whilst on an octahedral face
a three-rayed star is developed. By pressing a blunt point into a
crystal face a somewhat similar figure, known as a "pressure figure," is
produced. Percussion and pressure figures are readily developed in
cleavage sheets of mica (q.v.).

Closely allied to cohesion is the character of "hardness," which is
often defined, and measured by, the resistance which a crystal face
offers to scratching. That hardness is a character depending largely on
crystalline structure is well illustrated by the two crystalline
modifications of carbon: graphite is one of the softest of minerals,
whilst diamond is the hardest of all. The hardness of crystals of
different substances thus varies widely, and with minerals it is a
character of considerable determinative value; for this purpose a scale
of hardness is employed (see MINERALOGY). Various attempts have been
made with the view of obtaining accurate determinations of degrees of
hardness, but with varying results; an instrument used for this purpose
is called a sclerometer (from [Greek: sklêros], hard). It may, however,
be readily demonstrated that the degree of hardness on a crystal face
varies with the direction, and that a curve expressing these relations
possesses the same geometrical symmetry as the face itself. The mineral
cyanite is remarkable in having widely different degrees of hardness on
different faces of its crystals and in different directions on the same
face.

Another result of the differences of cohesion in different directions is
that crystals are corroded, or acted upon by chemical solvents, at
different rates in different directions. This is strikingly shown when a
sphere cut from a crystal, say of calcite or quartz, is immersed in
acid; after some time the resulting form is bounded by surfaces
approximating to crystal faces, and has the same symmetry as that of the
crystal from which the sphere was cut. When a crystal bounded by faces
is immersed in a solvent the edges and corners become rounded and
"prerosion faces" developed in their place; the faces become marked all
over with minute pits or shallow depressions, and as these are extended
by further solution they give place to small elevations on the corroded
face. The sides of the pits and elevations are bounded by small faces
which have the character of vicinal faces. These markings are known as
"etched figures" or "corrosion figures," and they are extremely
important aids in determining the symmetry of crystals. Etched figures
are sometimes beautifully developed on the faces of natural crystals,
e.g. of diamond, and they may be readily produced artificially with
suitable solvents.

[Illustration: FIG. 92.--Nepheline.]

[Illustration: FIG. 93.--Calcite.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94.--Beryl.

Etched Figures on Hexagonal Prisms.]

As an example, the etched figures on the faces of a hexagonal prism and
the basal plane are illustrated in figs. 92-94 for three of the several
symmetry-classes of the hexagonal system. The classes chosen are those
in which nepheline, calcite and beryl (emerald) crystallize, and these
minerals often have the simple form of crystal represented in the
figures. In nepheline (fig. 92) the only element of symmetry is a hexad
axis; the etched figures on the prism are therefore unsymmetrical,
though similar on all the faces; the hexagonal markings on the basal
plane have none of their edges parallel to the edges of the face;
further the crystals being hemimorphic, the etched figures on the basal
planes at the two ends will be different in character. The facial
development of crystals of nepheline give no indication of this type of
symmetry, and the mineral has been referred to this class solely on the
evidence afforded by the etched figures. In calcite there is a triad
axis of symmetry parallel to the prism edges, three dyad axes each
perpendicular to a pair of prism edges and three planes of symmetry
perpendicular to the prism faces; the etched figures shown in fig. 93
will be seen to conform to all these elements of symmetry. There being
in calcite also a centre of symmetry, the equilateral triangles on the
basal plane at the lower end of the crystal will be the same in form as
those at the top, but they will occupy a reversed position. In beryl,
which crystallizes in the holosymmetric class of the hexagonal system,
the etched figures (fig. 94) display the fullest possible degree of
symmetry; those on the prism faces are all similar and are each
symmetrical with respect to two lines, and the hexagonal markings on the
basal planes at both ends of the crystal are symmetrically placed with
respect to six lines. A detailed account of the etched figures of
crystals is given by H. Baumhauer, _Die Resultate der Ätzmethode in der
krystallographischen Forschung_ (Leipzig, 1894).

  (b) _Optical Properties._

The complex optical characters of crystals are not only of considerable
interest theoretically, but are of the greatest practical importance. In
the absence of external crystalline form, as with a faceted gem-stone,
or with the minerals constituting a rock (thin, transparent sections of
which are examined in the polarizing microscope), the mineral species
may often be readily identified by the determination of some of the
optical characters.

According to their action on transmitted plane-polarized light (see
POLARIZATION OF LIGHT) all crystals may be referred to one or other of
the five groups enumerated below. These groups correspond with the six
systems of crystallization (in the second group two systems being
included together). The several symmetry-classes of each system are
optically the same, except in the rare cases of substances which are
circularly polarizing.

(1) Optically isotropic crystals--corresponding with the cubic system.

(2) Optically uniaxial crystals--corresponding with the tetragonal and
hexagonal systems.

(3) Optically biaxial crystals in which the three principal optical
directions coincide with the three crystallographic axes--corresponding
with the orthorhombic system.

(4) Optically biaxial crystals in which only one of the three principal
optical directions coincides with a crystallographic axis--corresponding
with the monoclinic system.

(5) Optically biaxial crystals in which there is no fixed and definite
relation between the optical and crystallographic
directions--corresponding with the anorthic system.

_Optically Isotropic Crystals._--These belong to the cubic system, and
like all other optically isotropic (from [Greek: isos], like, and
[Greek: tropos], character) bodies have only one index of refraction for
light of each colour. They have no action on polarized light (except in
crystals which are circularly polarizing); and when examined in the
polariscope or polarizing microscope they remain dark between crossed
nicols, and cannot therefore be distinguished optically from amorphous
substances, such as glass and opal.

_Optically Uniaxial Crystals._--These belong to the tetragonal and
hexagonal (including rhombohedral) systems, and between crystals of
these systems there is no optical distinction. Such crystals are
anisotropic or doubly refracting (see REFRACTION: _Double_); but for
light travelling through them in a certain, single direction they are
singly refracting. This direction, which is called the optic axis, is
the same for light of all colours and at all temperatures; it coincides
in direction with the principal crystallographic axis, which in
tetragonal crystals is a tetrad (or dyad) axis of symmetry, and in the
hexagonal system a triad or hexad axis.

For light of each colour there are two indices of refraction; namely,
the ordinary index ([omega]) corresponding with the ordinary ray, which
vibrates perpendicular to the optic axis; and the extraordinary index
([epsilon]) corresponding with the extraordinary ray, which vibrates
parallel to the optic axis. If the ordinary index of refraction be
greater than the extraordinary index, the crystal is said to be
optically negative, whilst if less the crystal is optically positive.
The difference between the two indices is a measure of the strength of
the double refraction or birefringence. Thus in calcite, for sodium (D)
light, [omega] = 1.6585 and [epsilon] = 1.4863; hence this substance is
optically negative with a relatively high double refraction of [omega] -
[epsilon] = 0.1722. In quartz [omega] = 1.5442, [epsilon] = 1.5533 and
[epsilon] - [omega] = 0.0091; this mineral is therefore optically
positive with low double refraction. The indices of refraction vary, not
only for light of different colours, but also slightly with the
temperature.

The optical characters of uniaxial crystals are symmetrical not only
with respect to the full number of planes and axes of symmetry of
tetragonal and hexagonal crystals, but also with respect to all vertical
planes, i.e. all planes containing the optic axis. A surface expressing
the optical relations of such crystals is thus an ellipsoid of
revolution about the optic axis. (In cubic crystals the corresponding
surface is a sphere.) In the "optical indicatrix" (L. Fletcher, _The
Optical Indicatrix and the Transmission of Light in Crystals_, London,
1892), the length of the principal axis, or axis of rotation, is
proportional to the index of refraction, (i.e. inversely proportional to
the velocity) of the extraordinary rays, which vibrate along this axis
and are transmitted in directions perpendicular thereto; the equatorial
diameters are proportional to the index of refraction of the ordinary
rays, which vibrate perpendicular to the optic axis. For positive
uniaxial crystals the indicatrix is thus a prolate spheroid
(egg-shaped), and for negative crystals an oblate spheroid
(orange-shaped).

In "Fresnel's ellipsoid" the axis of rotation is proportional to the
velocity of the extraordinary ray, and the equatorial diameters
proportional to the velocity of the ordinary ray; it is therefore an
oblate spheroid for positive crystals, and a prolate spheroid for
negative crystals. The "ray-surface," or "wave-surface," which
represents the distances traversed by the rays during a given interval
of time in various directions from a point of origin within the crystal,
consists in uniaxial crystals of two sheets; namely, a sphere,
corresponding to the ordinary rays, and an ellipsoid of revolution,
corresponding to the extraordinary rays. The difference in form of the
ray-surface for positive and negative crystals is shown in figs. 95 and
96.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.--Section of the Ray-Surface of a Positive
Uniaxial Crystal.]

[Illustration: FIG. 96.--Section of the Ray-Surface of a Negative
Uniaxial Crystal.]

When a uniaxial crystal is examined in a polariscope or polarizing
microscope between crossed nicols (i.e. with the principal planes of the
polarizer or analyser at right angles, and so producing a dark field of
view) its behaviour differs according to the direction in which the
light travels through the crystal, to the position of the crystal with
respect to the principal planes of the nicols, and further, whether
convergent or parallel polarized light be employed. A tetragonal or
hexagonal crystal viewed, in parallel light, through the basal plane,
i.e. along the principal axis, will remain dark as it is rotated between
crossed nicols, and will thus not differ in its behaviour from a cubic
crystal or other isotropic body. If, however, the crystal be viewed in
any other direction, for example, through a prism face, it will, except
in certain positions, have an action on the polarized light. A
plane-polarized ray entering the crystal will be resolved into two
polarized rays with the directions of vibration parallel to the
vibration-directions in the crystal. These two rays on leaving the
crystal will be combined again in the analyser, and a portion of the
light transmitted through the instrument; the crystal will then show up
brightly against the dark field. Further, owing to interference of these
two rays in the analyser, the light will be brilliantly coloured,
especially if the crystal be thin, or if a thin section of a crystal be
examined. The particular colour seen will depend on the strength of the
double refraction, the orientation of the crystal or section, and upon
its thickness. If now, the crystal be rotated with the stage of the
microscope, the nicols remaining fixed in position, the light
transmitted through the instrument will vary in intensity, and in
certain positions will be cut out altogether. The latter happens when
the vibration-directions of the crystal are parallel to the
vibration-directions of the nicols (these being indicated by cross-wires
in the microscope). The crystal, now being dark, is said to be in
position of extinction; and as it is turned through a complete rotation
of 360° it will extinguish four times. If a prism face be viewed
through, it will be seen that, when the crystal is in a position of
extinction, the cross-wires of the microscope are parallel to the edges
of the prism: the crystal is then said to give "straight extinction."

In convergent light, between crossed nicols, a very different phenomenon
is to be observed when a uniaxial crystal, or section of such a crystal,
is placed with its optic axis coincident with the axis of the
microscope. The rays of light, being convergent, do not travel in the
direction of the optic axis and are therefore doubly refracted in the
crystal; in the analyser the vibrations will be reduced to the same
plane and there will be interference of the two sets of rays. The result
is an "interference figure" (fig. 97), which consists of a number of
brilliantly coloured concentric rings, each showing the colours of the
spectrum of white light; intersecting the rings is a black cross, the
arms of which are parallel to the principal planes of the nicols. If
monochromatic light be used instead of white light, the rings will be
alternately light and dark. The number and distance apart of the rings
depend on the strength of the double refraction and on the thickness of
the crystal. By observing the effect produced on such a uniaxial
interference figure when a "quarter undulation (or wave-length)
mica-plate" is superposed on the crystal, it may be at once decided
whether the crystal is optically positive or negative. Such a simple
test may, for example, be applied for distinguishing certain faceted
gem-stones: thus zircon and phenacite are optically positive, whilst
corundum (ruby and sapphire) and beryl (emerald) are optically negative.

[Illustration: FIG. 97.--Interference Figure of a Uniaxial Crystal.]

_Optically Biaxial Crystals._--In these crystals there are three
principal indices of refraction, denoted by [alpha], ß and [gamma]; of
these [gamma] is the greatest and [alpha] the least ([gamma] > ß >
[alpha]). The three principal vibration-directions, corresponding to
these indices, are at right angles to each other, and are the directions
of the three rectangular axes of the optical indicatrix. The indicatrix
(fig. 98) is an ellipsoid with the lengths of its axes proportional to
the refractive indices; OC = [gamma], OB = ß, OA = [alpha], where OC >
OB > OA. The figure is symmetrical with respect to the principal planes
OAB, OAC, OBC.

In Fresnel's ellipsoid the three rectangular axes are proportional to
1/[alpha], 1/ß, and 1/[gamma], and are usually denoted by a, b and c
respectively, where a > b > c: these have often been called "axes of
optical elasticity," a term now generally discarded.

[Illustration: FIG. 98.--Optical Indicatrix of a Biaxial Crystal.]

[Illustration: FIG. 99.--Ray-Surface of a Biaxial Crystal.]

The ray-surface (represented in fig. 99 by its sections in the three
principal planes) is derived from the indicatrix in the following
manner. A ray of light entering the crystal and travelling in the
direction OA is resolved into polarized rays vibrating parallel to OB
and OC, and therefore propagated with the velocities 1/ß and 1/[gamma]
respectively: distances Ob and Oc (fig. 99) proportional to these
velocities are marked off in the direction OA. Similarly, rays
travelling along OC have the velocities 1/[alpha] and 1/ß, and those
along OB the velocities 1/[alpha] and 1/[gamma]. In the two directions
Op1 and Op2 (fig. 98), perpendicular to the two circular sections P1P1
and P2P2 of the indicatrix, the two rays will be transmitted with the
same velocity 1/ß. These two directions are called the optic axes
("primary optic axis"), though they have not all the properties which
are associated with the optic axis of a uniaxial crystal. They have very
nearly the same direction as the lines Os1 and Os2 in fig. 99, which are
distinguished as the "secondary optic axes." In most crystals the
primary and secondary optic axes are inclined to each other at not more
than a few minutes, so that for practical purposes there is no
distinction between them.

The angle between Op1 and Op2 is called the "optic axial angle"; and the
plane OAC in which they lie is called the "optic axial plane." The angles
between the optic axes are bisected by the vibration-directions OA and
OC; the one which bisects the acute angle being called the "acute
bisectrix" or "first mean line," and the other the "obtuse bisectrix" or
"second mean line." When the acute bisectrix coincides with the greatest
axis OC of the indicatrix, i.e. the vibration-direction corresponding
with the refractive index [gamma] (as in figs. 98 and 99), the crystal is
described as being optically positive; and when the acute bisectrix
coincides with OA, the vibration-direction for the index [alpha], the
crystal is negative. The distinction between positive and negative
biaxial crystals thus depends on the relative magnitude of the three
principal indices of refraction; in positive crystals ß is nearer to
[alpha] than to [gamma], whilst in negative crystals the reverse is the
case. Thus in topaz, which is optically positive, the refractive indices
for sodium light are [alpha] = 1.6120, ß = 1.6150, [gamma] = 1.6224; and
for orthoclase which is optically negative, [alpha] = 1.5190, ß = 1.5237,
[gamma] = 1.5260. The difference [gamma] - [alpha] represents the
strength of the double refraction.

Since the refractive indices vary both with the colour of the light and
with the temperature, there will be for each colour and temperature
slight differences in the form of both the indicatrix and the
ray-surface: consequently there will be variations in the positions of
the optic axes and in the size of the optic axial angle. This phenomenon
is known as the "dispersion of the optic axes." When the axial angle is
greater for red light than for blue the character of the dispersion is
expressed by [rho] > [upsilon], and when less by [rho] < [upsilon]. In
some crystals, e.g. brookite, the optic axes for red light and for blue
light may be, at certain temperatures, in planes at right angles.

[Illustration: FIG. 100.]

[Illustration: FIG. 101.

Interference Figures of a Biaxial Crystal.]

The type of interference figure exhibited by a biaxial crystal in
convergent polarized light between crossed nicols is represented in
figs. 100 and 101. The crystal must be viewed along the acute bisectrix,
and for this purpose it is often necessary to cut a plate from the
crystal perpendicular to this direction: sometimes, however, as in mica
and topaz, a cleavage flake will be perpendicular to the acute
bisectrix. When seen in white light, there are around each optic axis a
series of brilliantly coloured ovals, which at the centre join to form
an 8-shaped loop, whilst further from the centre the curvature of the
rings is approximately that of lemniscates. In the position shown in
fig. 100 the vibration-directions in the crystal are parallel to those
of the nicols, and the figure is intersected by two black bands or
"brushes" forming a cross. When, however, the crystal is rotated with
the stage of the microscope the cross breaks up into the two branches of
a hyperbola, and when the vibration-directions of the crystal are
inclined at 45° to those of the nicols the figure is that shown in fig.
101. The points of emergence of the optic axes are at the middle of the
hyperbolic brushes when the crystal is in the diagonal position: the
size of the optic axial angle can therefore be directly measured with
considerable accuracy.

In orthorhombic crystals the three principal vibration-directions
coincide with the three crystallographic axes, and have therefore fixed
positions in the crystal, which are the same for light of all colours
and at all temperatures. The optical orientation of an orthorhombic
crystal is completely defined by stating to which crystallographic
planes the optic axial plane and the acute bisectrix are respectively
parallel and perpendicular. Examined in parallel light between crossed
nicols, such a crystal extinguishes parallel to the crystallographic
axes, which are often parallel to the edges of a face or section; there
is thus usually "straight extinction." The interference figure seen in
convergent polarized light is symmetrical about two lines at right
angles.

In monoclinic crystals only one vibration-direction has a fixed position
within the crystal, being parallel to the ortho-axis (i.e. perpendicular
to the plane of symmetry or the plane (010)). The other two
vibration-directions lie in the plane (010), but they may vary in
position for light of different colours and at different temperatures.
In addition to dispersion of the optic axes there may thus, in crystals
of this system, be also "dispersion of the bisectrices." The latter may
be of one or other of three kinds, according to which of the three
vibration-directions coincides with the ortho-axis of the crystal. When
the acute bisectrix is fixed in position, the optic axial planes for
different colours may be crossed, and the interference figure will then
be symmetrical with respect to a point only ("crossed dispersion"). When
the obtuse bisectrix is fixed, the axial planes may be inclined to one
another, and the interference figure is symmetrical only about a line
which is perpendicular to the axial planes ("horizontal dispersion").
Finally, when the vibration-direction corresponding to the refractive
index ß, or the "third mean line," has a fixed position, the optic axial
plane lies in the plane (010), but the acute bisectrix may vary in
position in this plane; the interference figure will then be symmetrical
only about a line joining the optic axes ("inclined dispersion").
Examples of substances exhibiting these three kinds of dispersion are
borax, orthoclase and gypsum respectively. In orthoclase and gypsum,
however, the optic axial angle gradually diminishes as the crystals are
heated, and after passing through a uniaxial position they open out in a
plane at right angles to the one they previously occupied; the character
of the dispersion thus becomes reversed in the two examples quoted. When
examined in parallel light between crossed nicols monoclinic crystals
will give straight extinction only in faces and sections which are
perpendicular to the plane of symmetry (or the plane (010)); in all
other faces and sections the extinction-directions will be inclined to
the edges of the crystal. The angles between these directions and edges
are readily measured, and, being dependent on the optical orientation of
the crystal, they are often characteristic constants of the substance
(see, e.g., PLAGIOCLASE).

In anorthic crystals there is no relation between the optical and
crystallographic directions, and the exact determination of the optical
orientation is often a matter of considerable difficulty. The character
of the dispersion of the bisectrices and optic axes is still more
complex than in monoclinic crystals, and the interference figures are
devoid of symmetry.

_Absorption of Light in Crystals: Pleochroism._--In crystals other than
those of the cubic system, rays of light with different
vibration-directions will, as a rule, be differently absorbed; and the
polarized rays on emerging from the crystal may be of different
intensities and (if the observation be made in white light and the
crystal is coloured) differently coloured. Thus, in tourmaline the
ordinary ray, which vibrates perpendicular to the principal axis, is
almost completely absorbed, whilst the extraordinary ray is allowed to
pass through the crystal. A plate of tourmaline cut parallel to the
principal axis may therefore be used for producing a beam of polarized
light, and two such plates placed in crossed position form the polarizer
or analyser of "tourmaline tongs," with the aid of which the
interference figures of crystals may be simply shown. Uniaxial
(tetragonal and hexagonal) crystals when showing perceptible differences
in colour for the ordinary and extraordinary rays are said to be
"dichroic." In biaxial (orthorhombic, monoclinic and anorthic) crystals,
rays vibrating along each of the three principal vibration-directions
may be differently absorbed, and, in coloured crystals, differently
coloured; such crystals are therefore said to be "trichroic" or in
general "pleochroic" (from [Greek: pleôn], more, and [Greek: chroa],
colour). The directions of maximum absorption in biaxial crystals have,
however, no necessary relation with the axes of the indicatrix, unless
these have fixed crystallographic directions, as in the orthorhombic
system and the ortho-axis in the monoclinic. In epidote it has been
shown that the two directions of maximum absorption which lie in the
plane of symmetry are not even at right angles.

[Illustration: FIG. 102.--Dichroscope.]

The pleochroism of some crystals is so strong that when they are viewed
through in different directions they exhibit marked differences in
colour. Thus a crystal of the mineral iolite (called also dichroite
because of its strong pleochroism) will be seen to be dark blue, pale
blue or pale yellow according to which of three perpendicular directions
it is viewed. The "face colours" seen directly in this way result,
however, from the mixture of two "axial colours" belonging to rays
vibrating in two directions. In order to see the axial colours
separately the crystal must be examined with a dichroscope, or in a
polarizing microscope from which the analyser has been removed. The
dichroscope, or dichroiscope (fig. 102), consists of a cleavage
rhombohedron of calcite (Iceland-spar) p, on the ends of which glass
prisms w are cemented: the lens l is focused on a small square aperture
o in the tube of the instrument. The eye of the observer placed at e
will see two images of the square aperture, and if a pleochroic crystal
be placed in front of this aperture the two images will be differently
coloured. On rotating this crystal with respect to the instrument the
maximum difference in the colours will be obtained when the
vibration-directions in the crystal coincide with those in the calcite.
Such a simple instrument is especially useful for the examination of
faceted gem-stones, even when they are mounted in their settings. A
single glance suffices to distinguish between a ruby and a
"spinel-ruby," since the former is dichroic and the latter isotropic and
therefore not dichroic.

The characteristic absorption bands in the spectrum of white light which
has been transmitted through certain crystals, particularly those of
salts of the cerium metals, will, of course, be different according to
the direction of vibration of the rays.

_Circular Polarization in Crystals._--Like the solutions of certain
optically active organic substances, such as sugar and tartaric acid,
some optically isotropic and uniaxial crystals possess the property of
rotating the plane of polarization of a beam of light. In uniaxial
(tetragonal and hexagonal) crystals it is only for light transmitted in
the direction of the optic axis that there is rotatory action, but in
isotropic (cubic) crystals all directions are the same in this respect.
Examples of circularly polarizing cubic crystals are sodium chlorate,
sodium bromate, and sodium uranyl acetate; amongst tetragonal crystals
are strychnine sulphate and guanidine carbonate; amongst rhombohedral
are quartz (q.v.) and cinnabar (q.v.) (these being the only two mineral
substances in which the phenomenon has been observed), dithionates of
potassium, lead, calcium and strontium, and sodium periodate; and
amongst hexagonal crystals is potassium lithium sulphate. Crystals of
all these substances belong to one or other of the several
symmetry-classes in which there are neither planes nor centre of
symmetry, but only axes of symmetry. They crystallize in two
complementary hemihedral forms, which are respectively right-handed and
left-handed, i.e. enantiomorphous forms. Some other substances which
crystallize in enantiomorphous forms are, however, only "optically
active" when in solution (e.g. sugar and tartaric acid); and there are
many other substances presenting this peculiarity of crystalline form
which are not circularly polarizing either when crystallized or when in
solution. Further, in the examples quoted above, the rotatory power is
lost when the crystals are dissolved (except in the case of strychnine
sulphate, which is only feebly active in solution). The rotatory power
is thus due to different causes in the two cases, in the one depending
on a spiral arrangement of the crystal particles, and in the other on
the structure of the molecules themselves.

The circular polarization of crystals may be imitated by a pile of mica
plates, each plate being turned through a small angle on the one below,
thus giving a spiral arrangement to the pile.

_"Optical Anomalies" of Crystals._--When, in 1818, Sir David Brewster
established the important relations existing between the optical
properties of crystals and their external form, he at the same time
noticed many apparent exceptions. For example, he observed that crystals
of leucite and boracite, which are cubic in external form, are always
doubly refracting and optically biaxial, but with a complex internal
structure; and that cubic crystals of garnet and analcite sometimes
exhibit the same phenomena. Also some tetragonal and hexagonal crystals,
e.g. apophyllite, vesuvianite, beryl, &c., which should normally be
optically uniaxial, sometimes consist of several biaxial portions
arranged in sectors or in a quite irregular manner. Such exceptions to
the general rule have given rise to much discussion. They have often
been considered to be due to internal strains in the crystals, set up as
a result of cooling or by earth pressures, since similar phenomena are
observed in chilled and compressed glasses and in dried gelatine. In
many cases, however, as shown by E. Mallard, in 1876, the higher degree
of symmetry exhibited by the external form of the crystals is the result
of mimetic twinning, as in the pseudo-cubic crystals of leucite (q.v.)
and boracite (q.v.). In other instances, substances not usually regarded
as cubic, e.g. the monoclinic phillipsite (q.v.), may by repeated
twinning give rise to pseudo-cubic forms. In some cases it is probable
that the substance originally crystallized in one modification at a
higher temperature, and when the temperature fell it became transformed
into a dimorphous modification, though still preserving the external
form of the original crystal (see BORACITE). A summary of the literature
is given by R. Brauns, _Die optischen Anomalien der Krystalle_ (Leipzig,
1891).

  (c) _Thermal Properties._

[Illustration: FIG. 103.--Conductivity of Heat in Quartz.]

The thermal properties of crystals present certain points in common with
the optical properties. Heat rays are transmitted and doubly refracted
like light rays; and surfaces expressing the conductivity and dilatation
in different directions possess the same degree of symmetry and are
related in the same way to the crystallographic axes as the ellipsoids
expressing the optical relations. That crystals conduct heat at
different rates in different directions is well illustrated by the
following experiment. Two plates (fig. 103) cut from a crystal of
quartz, one parallel to the principal axis and the other perpendicular
to it, are coated with a thin layer of wax, and a hot wire is applied to
a point on the surface. On the transverse section the wax will be melted
in a circle, and on the longitudinal section (or on the natural prism
faces) in an ellipse. The isothermal surface in a uniaxial crystal is
therefore a spheroid; in cubic crystals it is a sphere; and in biaxial
crystals an ellipsoid, the three axes of which coincide, in orthorhombic
crystals, with the crystallographic axes.

With change of temperature cubic crystals expand equally in all
directions, and the angles between the faces are the same at all
temperatures. In uniaxial crystals there are two principal coefficients
of expansion; the one measured in the direction of the principal axis
may be either greater or less than that measured in directions
perpendicular to this axis. A sphere cut from a uniaxial crystal at one
temperature will be a spheroid at another temperature. In biaxial
crystals there are different coefficients of expansion along three
rectangular axes, and a sphere at one temperature will be an ellipsoid
at another. A result of this is that for all crystals, except those
belonging to the cubic system, the angles between the faces will vary,
though only slightly, with changes of temperature. E. Mitscherlich found
that the rhombohedral angle of calcite decreases 8´ 37´´ as the crystal
is raised in temperature from 0° to 100° C.

As already mentioned, the optical properties of crystals vary
considerably with the temperature. Such characters as specific heat and
melting-point, which do not vary with the direction, are the same in
crystals as in amorphous substances.

  (d) _Magnetic and Electrical Properties._

Crystals, like other bodies, are either paramagnetic or diamagnetic,
i.e. they are either attracted or repelled by the pole of a magnet. In
crystals other than those belonging to the cubic system, however, the
relative strength of the induced magnetization is different in different
directions within the mass. A sphere cut from a tetragonal or hexagonal
(uniaxial) crystal will if freely suspended in a magnetic field (between
the poles of a strong electro-magnet) take up a position such that the
principal axis of the crystal is either parallel or perpendicular to the
lines of force, or to a line joining the two poles of the magnet. Which
of these two directions is taken by the axis depends on whether the
crystal is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, and on whether the principal
axis is the direction of maximum or minimum magnetization. The surface
expressing the magnetic character in different directions is in uniaxial
crystals a spheroid; in cubic crystals it is a sphere. In orthorhombic,
monoclinic and anorthic crystals there are three principal axes of
magnetic induction, and the surface is an ellipsoid, which is related to
the symmetry of the crystal in the same way as the ellipsoids expressing
the thermal and optical properties.

Similarly, the dielectric constants of a non-conducting crystal may be
expressed by a sphere, spheroid or ellipsoid. A sphere cut from a
crystal will when suspended in an electro-magnetic field set itself so
that the axis of maximum induction is parallel to the lines of force.

The electrical conductivity of crystals also varies with the direction,
and bears the same relation to the symmetry as the thermal conductivity.
In a rhombohedral crystal of haematite the electrical conductivity along
the principal axis is only half as great as in directions perpendicular
to this axis; whilst in a crystal of bismuth, which is also
rhombohedral, the conductivities along and perpendicular to the axis are
as 1.6 : 1.

Conducting crystals are thermo-electric: when placed against another
conducting substance and the contact heated there will be a flow of
electricity from one body to the other if the circuit be closed. The
thermo-electric force depends not only on the nature of the substance,
but also on the direction within the crystal, and may in general be
expressed by an ellipsoid. A remarkable case is, however, presented by
minerals of the pyrites group: some crystals of pyrites are more
strongly thermo-electrically positive than antimony, and others more
negative than bismuth, so that the two when placed together give a
stronger thermo-electric couple than do antimony and bismuth. In the
thermo-electrically positive crystals of pyrites the faces of the
pentagonal dodecahedron are striated parallel to the cubic edges, whilst
in the rarer negative crystals the faces are striated perpendicular to
these edges. Sometimes both sets of striae are present on the same face,
and the corresponding areas are then thermo-electrically positive and
negative.

The most interesting relation between the symmetry of crystals and their
electrical properties is that presented by the pyro-electrical phenomena
of certain crystals. This is a phenomenon which may be readily observed,
and one which often aids in the determination of the symmetry of
crystals. It is exhibited by crystals in which there is no centre of
symmetry, and the axes of symmetry are uniterminal or polar in
character, being associated with different faces on the crystal at their
two ends. When a non-conducting crystal possessing this hemimorphic type
of symmetry is subjected to changes of temperature a charge of positive
electricity will be developed on the faces in the region of one end of
the uniterminal axis, whilst the faces at the opposite end will be
negatively charged. With rising temperature the pole which becomes
positively charged is called the "analogous pole," and that negatively
charged the "antilogous pole": with falling temperature the charges are
reversed. The phenomenon was first observed in crystals of tourmaline,
the principal axis of which is a uniterminal triad axis of symmetry. In
crystals of quartz there are three uniterminal dyad axes of symmetry
perpendicular to the principal triad axis (which is here similar at its
two ends): the dyad axes emerge at the edges of the hexagonal prism,
alternate edges of which become positively and negatively charged on
change of temperature. In boracite there are four uniterminal triad
axes, and the faces of the two tetrahedra perpendicular to them will
bear opposite charges. Other examples of pyro-electric crystals are the
orthorhombic mineral hemimorphite (called also, for this reason,
"electric calamine") and the monoclinic tartaric acid and cane-sugar,
each of which possesses a uniterminal dyad axis of symmetry. In some
exceptional cases, e.g. axinite, prehnite, &c., there is no apparent
relation between the distribution of the pyro-electric charges and the
symmetry of the crystals.

The distribution of the electric charges may be made visible by the
following simple method, which may be applied even with minute crystals
observed under the microscope. A finely powdered mixture of red-lead and
sulphur is dusted through a sieve over the cooling crystal. In passing
through the sieve the particles of red-lead and sulphur become
electrified by mutual friction, the former positively and the latter
negatively. The red-lead is therefore attracted to the negatively
charged parts of the crystal and the sulphur to those positively
charged, and the distribution of the charges over the whole crystal
becomes mapped out in the two colours red and yellow.

Since, when a crystal changes in temperature, it also expands or
contracts, a similar distribution of "piezo-electric" (from [Greek:
piezein], to press) charges are developed when a crystal is subjected to
changes of pressure in the direction of a uniterminal axis of symmetry.
Thus increasing pressure along the principal axis of a tourmaline
crystal produces the same electric charges as decreasing temperature.


III. RELATIONS BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE FORM AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.

That the general and physical characters of a chemical substance are
profoundly modified by crystalline structure is strikingly illustrated
by the two crystalline modifications of the element carbon--namely,
diamond and graphite. The former crystallizes in the cubic system,
possesses four directions of perfect cleavage, is extremely hard and
transparent, is a non-conductor of heat and electricity, and has a
specific gravity of 3.5; whilst graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal
system, cleaves in a single direction, is very soft and opaque, is a
good conductor of heat and electricity, and has a specific gravity of
2.2. Such substances, which are identical in chemical composition, but
different in crystalline form and consequently in their physical
properties, are said to be "dimorphous." Numerous examples of dimorphous
substances are known; for instance, calcium carbonate occurs in nature
either as calcite or as aragonite, the former being rhombohedral and the
latter orthorhombic; mercuric iodide crystallizes from solution as red
tetragonal crystals, and by sublimation as yellow orthorhombic crystals.
Some substances crystallize in three different modifications, and these
are said to be "trimorphous"; for example, titanium dioxide is met with
as the minerals rutile, anatase and brookite (q.v.). In general, or in
cases where more than three crystalline modifications are known (e.g. in
sulphur no less than six have been described), the term "polymorphism"
is applied.

On the other hand, substances which are chemically quite distinct may
exhibit similarity of crystalline form. For example, the minerals
iodyrite (AgI), greenockite (CdS), and zincite (ZnO) are practically
identical in crystalline form; calcite (CaCO3) and sodium nitrate
(NaNO3); celestite (SrSO)4 and marcasite (FeS2); epidote and azurite;
and many others, some of which are no doubt only accidental
coincidences. Such substances are said to be "homoeomorphous" (Gr.
[Greek: homoios], like, and [Greek: morphê], form).

Similarity of crystalline form in substances which are chemically
related is frequently met with and is a relation of much importance:
such substances are described as being "isomorphous." Amongst minerals
there are many examples of isomorphous groups, e.g. the rhombohedral
carbonates, garnet (q.v.), plagioclase (q.v.); and amongst crystals of
artificially prepared salts isomorphism is equally common, e.g. the
sulphates and selenates of potassium, rubidium and caesium. The
rhombohedral carbonates have the general formula R´´CO3, where R´´
represents calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt or lead,
and the different minerals (calcite, ankerite, magnesite, chalybite,
rhodochrosite and calamine (q.v.)) of the group are not only similar in
crystalline form, cleavage, optical and other characters, but the angles
between corresponding faces do not differ by more than 1° or 2°.
Further, equivalent amounts of the different chemical elements
represented by R" are mutually replaceable, and two or more of these
elements may be present together in the same crystal, which is then
spoken of as a "mixed crystal" or isomorphous mixture.

In another isomorphous series of carbonates with the same general
formula R´´CO3, where R´´ represents calcium, strontium, barium, lead or
zinc, the crystals are orthorhombic in form, and are thus dimorphous
with those of the previous group (e.g. calcite and aragonite, the other
members being only represented by isomorphous replacements). Such a
relation is known as "isodimorphism." An even better example of this is
presented by the arsenic and antimony trioxides, each of which occurs as
two distinct minerals:--

  As2O3, Arsenolite (cubic); Claudetite (monoclinic).
  Sb2O3, Senarmontite (cubic); Valentinite (orthorhombic).

Claudetite and valentinite though crystallizing in different systems
have the same cleavages and very nearly the same angles, and are
strictly isomorphous.

Substances which form isodimorphous groups also frequently crystallize
as double salts. For instance, amongst the carbonates quoted above are
the minerals dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) and barytocalcite (CaBa(CO3)2).
Crystals of barytocalcite (q.v.) are monoclinic; and those of dolomite
(q.v.), though closely related to calcite in angles and cleavage,
possess a different degree of symmetry, and the specific gravity is not
such as would result by a simple isomorphous mixture of the two
carbonates. A similar case is presented by artificial crystals of silver
nitrate and potassium nitrate. Somewhat analogous to double salts are
the molecular compounds formed by the introduction of "water of
crystallization," "alcohol of crystallization," &c. Thus sodium sulphate
may crystallize alone or with either seven or ten molecules of water,
giving rise to three crystallographically distinct substances.

A relation of another kind is the alteration in crystalline form
resulting from the replacement in the chemical molecule of one or more
atoms by atoms or radicles of a different kind. This is known as a
"morphotropic" relation (Gr. [Greek: morphê], form, [Greek: tropos],
habit). Thus when some of the hydrogen atoms of benzene are replaced by
(OH) and (NO2) groups the orthorhombic system of crystallization remains
the same as before, and the crystallographic axis a is not much
affected, but the axis c varies considerably:--

                                  a   : b :   c
  Benzene, C6H6                 0.891 : 1 : 0.799
  Resorcin, C6H4(OH)2           0.910 : 1 : 0.540
  Picric acid, C6H2(OH)(NO2)3   0.937 : 1 : 0.974

A striking example of morphotropy is shown by the humite (q.v.) group of
minerals: successive additions of the group Mg2SiO4 to the molecule
produce successive increases in the length of the vertical
crystallographic axis.

In some instances the replacement of one atom by another produces little
or no influence on the crystalline form; this happens in complex
molecules of high molecular weight, the "mass effect" of which has a
controlling influence on the isomorphism. An example of this is seen in
the replacement of sodium or potassium by lead in the alunite (q.v.)
group of minerals, or again in such a complex mineral as tourmaline,
which, though varying widely in chemical composition, exhibits no
variation in crystalline form.

For the purpose of comparing the crystalline forms of isomorphous and
morphotropic substances it is usual to quote the angles or the axial
ratios of the crystal, as in the table of benzene derivatives quoted
above. A more accurate comparison is, however, given by the "topic
axes," which are calculated from the axial ratios and the molecular
volume; they express the relative distances apart of the crystal
molecules in the axial directions.

The two isomerides of substances, such as tartaric acid, which in
solution rotate the plane of polarized light either to the right or to
the left, crystallize in related but enantiomorphous forms.

  REFERENCES.--An introduction to crystallography is given in most
  text-books of mineralogy, e.g. those of H. A. Miers and of E. S. Dana
  (see MINERALOGY). The standard work treating of the subject generally
  is that of P. Groth, _Physikalische Kristallographie_ (4th ed.,
  Leipzig, 1905). A condensed summary is given by A. J. Moses, _The
  Characters of Crystals_ (New York, 1899).

  For geometrical crystallography, dealing exclusively with the external
  form of crystals, reference may be made to N. Story-Maskelyne,
  _Crystallography, a Treatise on the Morphology of Crystals_ (Oxford,
  1895) and W. J. Lewis, _A Treatise on Crystallography_ (Cambridge,
  1899). Theories of crystal structure are discussed by L. Sohncke,
  _Entwickelung einer Theorie der Krystallstruktur_ (Leipzig, 1879); A.
  Schoenflies, _Krystallsysteme und Krystallstructur_ (Leipzig, 1891);
  and H. Hilton, _Mathematical Crystallography and the Theory of Groups
  of Movements_ (Oxford, 1903).

  The physical properties of crystals are treated by T. Liebisch,
  _Physikalische Krystallographie_ (Leipzig, 1891), and in a more
  elementary form in his _Grundriss der physikalischen Krystallographie_
  (Leipzig, 1896); E. Mallard, _Traité de cristallographie,
  Cristallographie physique_ (Paris, 1884); C. Soret, _Éléments de
  cristallographie physique_ (Geneva and Paris, 1893).

  For an account of the relations between crystalline form and chemical
  composition, see A. Arzruni, _Physikalische Chemie der Krystalle_
  (Braunschweig, 1893); A. Fock, _An Introduction to Chemical
  Crystallography_, translated by W. J. Pope (Oxford, 1895); P. Groth,
  _An Introduction to Chemical Crystallography_, translated by H.
  Marshall (London, 1906); A. E. H. Tutton, _Crystalline Structure and
  Chemical Constitution_, 1910. Descriptive works giving the
  crystallographic constants of different substances are C. F.
  Rammelsberg, _Handbuch der krystallographisch-physikalischen Chemie_
  (Leipzig, 1881-1882); P. Groth, _Chemische Krystallographie_ (Leipzig,
  1906); and of minerals the treatises of J. D. Dana and C. Hintze.
       (L. J. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] From the Greek letter [delta], [Delta]; in general, a
    triangular-shaped object; also an alternative name for a trapezoid.

  [2] Named after pyrites, which crystallizes in a typical form of this
    class.

  [3] From [Greek: plagios], placed sideways, referring to the absence
    of planes and centre of symmetry.

  [4] From [Greek: gyros], a ring or spiral, and [Greek: eidos], form.

  [5] From [Greek: monos], single, and [Greek: klinein], to incline,
    since one axis is inclined to the plane of the other two axes, which
    are at right angles.



CRYSTAL PALACE, THE, a well-known English resort, standing high up in
grounds just outside the southern boundary of the county of London, in
the neighbourhood of Sydenham. The building, chiefly of iron and glass,
is flanked by two towers and is visible from far over the metropolis. It
measures 1608 ft. in length by 384 ft. across the transepts, and was
opened in its present site in 1854. The materials, however, were mainly
those of the hall set up in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851.
The designer was Sir Joseph Paxton. In the palace there are various
permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to
time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments. In the
extensive grounds there is accommodation for all kinds of games: the
final tie of the Association Football Cup and other important football
matches are played here, and there are also displays of fireworks and
other attractions.



CSENGERY, ANTON (1822-1880), Hungarian publicist, and a historical
writer of great influence on his time, was born at Nagyvárad on the 2nd
of June 1822. He took, at an early date, a very active part in the
literary and political movements immediately preceding the Hungarian
Revolution of 1848. He and Baron Sigismund Kemény may be considered as
the two founders of high-class Magyar journalism. After 1867 the
greatest of modern Hungarian statesmen, Francis Deák, attached Csengery
to his personal service, and many of the momentous state documents
inspired or suggested by Deák were drawn up by Csengery. In that manner
his influence, as represented by the text of many a statute regulating
the relations between Austria and Hungary, is one of an abiding
character. As a historical writer he excelled chiefly in brilliant and
thoughtful essays on the leading political personalities of his time,
such as Paul Nagy, Bertalan, Szemere and others. He also commenced a
translation of Macaulay's _History_. He died at Budapest on the 13th of
July 1880.



CSIKY, GREGOR (1842-1891), Hungarian dramatist, was born on the 8th of
December 1842 at Pankota, in the county of Arad. He studied Roman
Catholic theology at Pest and Vienna, and was professor in the Priests'
College at Temesvár from 1870 to 1878. In the latter year, however, he
joined the Evangelical Church, and took up literature. Beginning with
novels and works on ecclesiastical history, which met with some
recognition, he ultimately devoted himself to writing for the stage.
Here his success was immediate. In his _Az ellenállhatatlan_
("L'Irrésistible"), which obtained a prize from the Hungarian Academy,
he showed the distinctive features of his talent--directness, freshness,
realistic vigour, and highly individual style. In rapid succession he
enriched Magyar literature with realistic _genre_-pictures, such as _A
Proletárok_ ("Proletariate"), _Buborckok_ ("Bubbles"), _Két szerelem_
("Two Loves"), _A szégyenlös_ ("The Bashful"), _Athalia_, &c., in all of
which he seized on one or another feature or type of modern life,
dramatizing it with unusual intensity, qualified by chaste and
well-balanced diction. Of the latter, his classical studies may, no
doubt, be taken as the inspiration, and his translation of Sophocles and
Plautus will long rank with the most successful of Magyar translations
of the ancient classics. Among the best known of his novels are
_Arnold_, _Az Atlasz család_ ("The Atlas Family"). He died at Budapest
on the 19th of November 1891.



CSOKONAI, MIHALY VITEZ (1773-1805), Hungarian poet, was born at
Debreczen in 1773. Having been educated in his native town, he was
appointed while still very young to the professorship of poetry there;
but soon after he was deprived of the post on account of the immorality
of his conduct. The remaining twelve years of his short life were passed
in almost constant wretchedness, and he died in his native town, and in
his mother's house, when only thirty-one years of age. Csokonai was a
genial and original poet with something of the lyrical fire of Petöfi,
and wrote a mock-heroic poem called _Dorottya or the Triumph of the
Ladies at the Carnival_, two or three comedies or farces, and a number
of love-poems. Most of his works have been published, with a life, by
Schedel (1844-1847).



CSOMA DE KÖRÖS, ALEXANDER (c. 1790-1842), or, as the name is written in
Hungarian, KÖRÖSI CSOMA SÁNDOR, Hungarian traveller and philologist,
born about 1790 at Körös in Transylvania, belonged to a noble family
which had sunk into poverty. He was educated at Nagy-Enyed and at
Göttingen; and, in order to carry out the dream of his youth and
discover the origin of his countrymen, he divided his attention between
medicine and the Oriental languages. In 1820, having received from a
friend the promise of an annuity of 100 florins (about £10) to support
him during his travels, he set out for the East. He visited Egypt, and
made his way to Tibet, where he spent four years in a Buddhist monastery
studying the language and the Buddhist literature. To his intense
disappointment he soon discovered that he could not thus obtain any
assistance in his great object; but, having visited Bengal, his
knowledge of Tibetan obtained him employment in the library of the
Asiatic Society there, which possessed more than 1000 volumes in that
language; and he was afterwards supported by the government while he
published a Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar (both of which
appeared at Calcutta in 1834). He also contributed several articles on
the Tibetan language and literature to the _Journal of the Asiatic
Society of Bengal_, and he published an analysis of the _Kah-Gyur_, the
most important of the Buddhist sacred books. Meanwhile his fame had
reached his native country, and procured him a pension from the
government, which, with characteristic devotion to learning, he devoted
to the purchase of books for Indian libraries. He spent some time in
Calcutta, studying Sanskrit and several other languages; but, early in
1842, he commenced his second attempt to discover the origin of the
Hungarians, but he died at Darjiling on the 11th of April 1842. An
oration was delivered in his honour before the Hungarian Academy by
Eötvös, the novelist.



CTENOPHORA, in zoology, a class of jelly-fish which were briefly
described by Professor T. H. Huxley in 1875 (see ACTINOZOA, _Ency.
Brit._ 9th ed. vol. i.) as united with what we now term Anthozoa to
form the group Actinozoa; but little was known of the intimate structure
of those remarkable and beautiful forms till the appearance in 1880 of
C. Chun's Monograph of the Ctenophora occurring in the Bay of Naples.
They may be defined as Coelentera which exhibit both a radial and
bilateral symmetry of organs; with a stomodaeum; with a mesenchyma which
is partly gelatinous but partly cellular; with eight meridianal rows of
vibratile paddles formed of long fused or matted cilia; lacking
nematocysts (except in one genus). An example common on the British
coasts is furnished by _Hormiphora_ (_Cydippe_). In outward form this is
an egg-shaped ball of clear jelly, having a mouth at the pointed (oral)
pole, and a sense-organ at the broader (aboral) pole. It possesses eight
meridians (costae) of iridescent paddles in constant vibration, which
run from near one pole towards the other; it has also two pendent
feathery tentacles of considerable length, which can be retracted into
pouches. The mouth leads into an ectodermal stomodaeum ("stomach"), and
the latter into an endodermal funnel (infundibulum); these two are
compressed in planes at right angles to one another, the sectional long
axis of the stomodaeum lying in the so-called sagittal (stomodaeal or
gastric) plane, that of the funnel in the transverse (tentacular or
funnel) plane. From the funnel, canals are given off in three
directions; (a) a pair of paragastric (stomachal, or stomodaeal) canals
run orally, parallel to the stomodaeum, and end blindly near the mouth;
(b) a pair of perradial canals run in the transverse plane towards the
equator of the animal; each of these becomes divided into two short
canals at the base of the tentacle sheath which they supply, but has
previously given off a pair of short interradial canals, which again
bifurcate into two adradial canals; all these branches lie in the
equatorial plane of the animal, but the eight adradial canals then open
into eight meridianal canals which run orally and aborally under the
costae; (c) a pair of aboral vessels which run towards the sense-organ,
each of which bifurcates; of the four vessels thus formed, two only open
at the sides of the sense-organ, forming the so-called excretory
apertures. These three sets of structures, with the funnel from which
they rise, make up the endodermal coelenteron, or gastro-vascular
system. The generative organs are endodermal by origin, borne at the
sides of the meridianal canals as indicated by the signs [male]
[female]. There exists a subepithelial plexus with nerve cells and
fibres, similar to that of jelly-fishes. The sense-organ of the aboral
pole is complex, and lies under a dome of fused cilia shaped like an
inverted bell-jar; it consists of an otolith, formed of numerous
calcareous spheroids, which is supported on four plates of fused cilia
termed balancers, but is otherwise free. The ciliated ectoderm below the
organ is markedly thickened, and perhaps functionally represents a
nerve-ganglion: from it eight ciliated furrows radiate outwards, two
passing under each balancer as through an archway, and diverge each to
the head of a meridianal costa. These ciliated furrows stain deeply with
osmic acid, and nervous impulses are certainly transmitted along them.
Locomotion is effected by strokes of the paddles in an aboral direction,
driving the animal mouth forwards through the water: each paddle or comb
(Gr. [Greek: kteis]; hence Ctenophora) consists of a plate of fused or
matted cilia set transversely to the costa. The myoepithelial cells
(formerly termed neuro-muscular cells), characteristic of other
Coelentera, are not to be found in this group. On the other hand there
are well-marked muscle fibres in definite layers, derived from special
mesoblastic cells in the embryo, which are embedded in a jelly; these in
their origin and arrangement are quite comparable to the mesoderm of
Triploblastica, and, although the muscle-cells of some jelly-fish
exhibit a somewhat similar condition, nothing so highly specialized as
the mesenchyme of Ctenophora occurs in any other Coelenterate. The
nematocysts being nearly absent from their group, their chief function
is carried out by adhesive lasso-cells.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Schematic drawing of a Cydippid from the side.
(After Chun.)

  A, Adradial canals.
  F, Infundibulum.
  I, Interradial canal.
  M, Meridianal canal lying under a costa.
  N, Ciliated furrow from sense pole to costa.
  Pg, Paragastric canal.
  SO, Sense-organ.
  St, Stomodaeum.
  Subs, Subsagittal costa.
  Subt, Subtentacular costa.
  T, Tentacle.
  Ts, Boundaries of tentacle-sheath.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Schematic drawing of a Cydippid from the aboral
pole. (After Chun.)

  T (centrally), Tentacular canal, and (distally) tentacle.
  [male], Position of testes.
  [female], Position of ovaries; other letters in fig. 1. The stomodaeum
    lies in the sagittal plane, the funnel and tentacles in the
    transverse or tentacular plane.]

The Ctenophora are classified as follows:--

    Sub-class  i. Tentaculata, Order 1. CYDIPPIDEA, _Hormiphora_.
                                 "   2. LOBATA,     _Deiopea_.
                                 "   3. CESTOIDEA,  _Cestus_.
        "     ii. Nuda,          "                  _Beroë_.

  The Tentaculata, as the name implies, may be recognized by the
  presence of tentacles of some sort. The CYDIPPIDEA are generally
  spherical or ovoid, with two long retrusible pinnate tentacles: the
  meridianal and paragastric canals end blindly. An example of these has
  already been briefly described. The LOBATA are of the same general
  type as the first Order, except for the presence of four circumoral
  auricles (processes of the subtransverse costae) and of a pair of
  sagittal outgrowths or lobes, on to which the subsagittal costae are
  continued. Small accessory tentacles lie in grooves, but there is no
  tentacular pouch; the meridianal vessels anastomose in the lobes. In
  the CESTOIDEA the body is compressed in the transverse plane,
  elongated in the sagittal plane, so as to become riband-like: the
  subtransverse costae are greatly reduced, the subsagittal costae
  extend along the aboral edge of the riband. The subsagittal canals lie
  immediately below their costae aborally, but continuations of the
  subtransverse canals round down the middle of the riband, and at its
  end unite, not only with the subsagittal but also with the paragastric
  canals which run along the oral edge of the riband. The tentacular
  bases and pouches are present, but there is no main tentacle as in
  Cydippidea; fine accessory tentacles lie in four grooves along the
  oral edge. The sub-class Nuda have no tentacles of any kind; they are
  conical or ovoid, with a capacious stomodaeum like the cavity of a
  thimble. There is a coelenteric network formed by anastomoses of the
  meridianal and paragastric canals all over the body.

  The embryology of _Callianira_ has been worked out by E. Mechnikov.
  Segmentation is complete and unequal, producing macromeres and
  micromeres marked by differences in the size and in yolk-contents.
  The micromeres give rise to the ectoderm; each of the sixteen
  macromeres, after budding off a small mesoblast cell, passes on as
  endoderm. A gastrula is established by a mixed process of embole and
  epibole. The mesoblast cells travel to the aboral pole of the embryo,
  and there form a cross-shaped mass, the arms of which lie in the
  sagittal and transverse planes (perradii).

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Schematic Drawing of Cestus. (After Chun.)

  Subs, Subsagittal costae.
  Subt, Much reduced subtentacular costae.
  Subt, Branch of the subtentacular canal which runs along the centre of
    the riband.
  Pg, Continuation of the paragastric canal at right angles to its
    original direction along the lower edge of the riband. At the
    right-hand end the last two are seen to unite with the subsagittal
    canal.]

There can be but little question of the propriety of including
Ctenophora among the Coelentera. The undivided coelenteron
(gastro-vascular system) which constitutes the sole cavity of the body,
the largely radial symmetry, the presence of endodermal generative
organs on the coelenteric canals, the subepithelial nerve-plexus, the
mesogloea-like matrix of the body--all these features indicate affinity
to other Coelentera, but, as has been stated in the article under that
title, the relation is by no means close. At what period the Ctenophora
branched off from the line of descent, which culminated in the
Hydromedusae and Scyphozoa of to-day, is not clear, but it is
practically certain that they did so before the point of divergence of
these two groups from one another. The peculiar sense-organ, the
specialization of the cilia into paddles with the corresponding
modifications of the coelenteron, the anatomy and position of the
tentacles, and, above all, the character and mode of formation of the
mesenchyme, separate them widely from other Coelentera.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Schematic Drawing of _Beröe_. (After Chun.)]

The last-named character, however, combined with the discovery of two
remarkable organisms, _Coeloplana_ and _Ctenoplana_, has suggested
affinity to the flat-worms termed Turbellaria. _Ctenoplana_, the best
known of these, has recently been redescribed by A. Willey (_Quart.
Journ. Micr. Sci._ xxxix., 1896). It is flattened along the axis which
unites sense-organ and mouth, so as to give it a dorsal (aboral) surface,
and a ventral (oral) surface on which it frequently creeps. Its costae
are very short, and retrusible; its two tentacles are pinnate and are
also retrusible. Two crescentic rows of ciliated papillae lie in the
transverse plane on each side of the sense-organ. The coelenteron
exhibits six lobes, two of which Willey identifies with the stomodaeum of
other Ctenophora; the other four give rise to a system of anastomosing
canals such as are found in _Beroë_ and Polyclad Turbellaria. An aboral
vessel embraces the sense-organ, but has no external opening.
_Ctenoplana_ is obviously a Ctenophoran flattened and of a creeping
habit. _Coeloplana_ is of similar form and habit, with two Ctenophoran
tentacles: it has no costae, but is uniformly ciliated. These two forms
at least indicate a possible stepping-stone from Ctenophora to
Turbellaria, that is to say, from diploblastic to triploblastic Metazoa.
By themselves they would present no very weighty argument for this line
of descent from two-layered to three-layered forms, but the coincidences
which occur in the development of Ctenophora and Turbellaria,--the
methods of segmentation and gastrulation, of the separation of the
mesoblast cells, and of mesenchyme formation,--together with the marked
similarity of the adult mesenchyme in the two groups, have led many to
accept this pedigree. In his Monograph on the Polyclad Turbellaria of the
Bay of Naples, A. Lang regards a Turbellarian, so to say, as a
Ctenophora, in which the sensory pole has rotated forwards in the
sagittal plane through 90° as regards the original oral-aboral axis, a
rotation which actually occurs in the development of _Thysanozoon_
(Müller's larva); and he sees, in the eight lappets of the preoral
ciliated ring of such a larva, the rudiments of the costal plates.
According to his view, a simple early Turbellarian larva, such as that of
_Stylochus_, most nearly represents for us to-day that ancestor from
which Ctenophora and Turbellaria are alike derived. For details of this
brilliant theory, the reader is referred to the original monograph.

  LITERATURE.--G. C. Bourne, "The Ctenophora," in Ray Lankester's
  _Treatise on Zoology_ (1900), where a bibliography is given; G.
  Curreri, "Osservazioni sui ctenofori," _Boll. Soc. Zool. Ital._ (2),
  i. pp. 190-193 et ii. pp. 58-76; A. Garbe, "Untersuchungen über die
  Entstehung der Geschlechtsorgane bei den Ctenophoren.," _Zeitschr.
  Wiss. Zool._ lxix. pp. 472-491; K. C. Schneider, _Lehrbuch der
  vergleich. Histologie_ (1902).     (G. H. Fo.)



CTESIAS, of Cnidus in Caria, Greek physician and historian, flourished
in the 5th century B.C. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes
Mnemon, whom he accompanied (401) on his expedition against his brother
Cyrus the Younger. Ctesias was the author of treatises on rivers, and on
the Persian revenues, of an account of India (which is of value as
recording the beliefs of the Persians about India), and of a history of
Assyria and Persia in 23 books, called _Persica_, written in opposition
to Herodotus in the Ionic dialect, and professedly founded on the
Persian royal archives. The first six books treated of the history of
Assyria and Babylon to the foundation of the Persian empire; the
remaining seventeen went down to the year 398. Of the two histories we
possess abridgments by Photius, and fragments are preserved in
Athenaeus, Plutarch and especially Diodorus Siculus, whose second book
is mainly from Ctesias. As to the worth of the _Persica_ there has been
much controversy, both in ancient and modern times. Being based upon
Persian authorities, it was naturally looked upon with suspicion by the
Greeks and censured as untrustworthy.

  For an estimate of Ctesias as a historian see G. Rawlinson's
  _Herodotus_, i. 71-74; also the edition of the fragments of the
  _Persica_ by J. Giimore (1888, with introduction and notes and list of
  authorities).



CTESIPHON, a large village on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite to
Seleucia, of which it formed a suburb, about 25 m. below Bagdad. It is
first mentioned in the year 220 by Polybius v. 45. 4. When the Parthian
Arsacids had conquered the lands east of the Euphrates in 129 B.C., they
established their winter residence in Ctesiphon. They dared not stay in
Seleucia, as this city, the most populous town of western Asia, always
maintained her Greek self-government and a strong feeling of
independence, which made her incline to the west whenever a Roman army
attacked the Parthians. The Arsacids also were afraid of destroying the
wealth and commerce of Seleucia, if they entered it with their large
retinue of barbarian officials and soldiers (Strabo xvi. 743, Plin. vi.
122, cf. Joseph. _Ant._ xviii. 9, 2). From this time Ctesiphon increased
in size, and many splendid buildings rose; it had the outward appearance
of a large town, although it was by its constitution only a village.
From A.D. 36-43 Seleucia was in rebellion against the Parthians till at
last it was forced by King Vardanes to yield. It is very probable that
Vardanes now tried to put Ctesiphon in its place; therefore he is called
founder of Ctesiphon by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxiii. 6. 23), where King
Pacorus (78-110) is said to have increased its inhabitants and built its
walls. Seleucia was destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 164. When Ardashir
I. founded the Sassanian empire (226), and fixed his residence at
Ctesiphon, he built up Seleucia again under the name of Veh-Ardashir.
Later kings added other suburbs; Chosroes I. in 540 established the
inhabitants of Antiochia in Syria, whom he had led into captivity, in a
new city, "Chosrau-Antioch" (or "the Roman city") near his residence.
Therefore the Arabs designate the whole complex of towns which lay
together around Seleucia and Ctesiphon and formed the residence of the
Sassanids by the name Madain, "the cities,"--their number is often given
as seven. In the wars between the Roman and Persian empires, Ctesiphon
was more than once besieged and plundered, thus by Odaenathus in 261,
and by Canis in 283; Julian in 363 advanced to Ctesiphon, but was not
able to take it (Ammianus xxiv. 7). After the battle of Kadisiya
(Qadisiya) Ctesiphon and the neighbouring towns were taken and plundered
by the Arabs in 637, who brought home an immense amount of booty (see
CALIPHATE). From then, these towns decayed before the increasing
prosperity of the new Arab capitals Basra and Bagdad. The site is marked
only by the ruins of one gigantic building of brick-work, called Takhti
Khesra, "throne of Khosrau" (i.e. Chosroes). It is a great vaulted hall
ornamented with pilasters, the remainder of the palace and the most
splendid example of Sassanian architecture (see ARCHITECTURE, vol. ii.
p. 558, for further details and illustration).     (Ed. M.)



CUBA (the aboriginal name), a republic, the largest and most populous of
the West India Islands, included between the meridians of 74° 7´ and 84°
57´ W. longitude and (roughly) the parallels of 19° 48´ and 23° 13´ N.
latitude. It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two
passages of nearly equal width,--the Strait of Florida, about 110 m.
wide between Capes Hicacos in Cuba and Arenas in Florida (Key West being
a little over 100 m. from Havana); and the Yucatan Channel, about 130 m.
wide between Capes San Antonio and Catoche. On the N.E., E. and S.E.,
narrower channels separate it from the Bahamas, Haiti (50 m.) and
Jamaica (85 m.). In 1908, by the opening of a railway along the Florida
Keys, the time of passage by water between Cuba and the United States
was reduced to a few hours.

The island is long and narrow, somewhat in the form of an irregular
crescent, convex toward the N. It has a decided pitch to the S. Its
length from Cape Maisí to Cape San Antonio along a medial line is about
730 m.; its breadth, which averages about 50 m., ranges from a maximum
of 160 m. to a minimum of about 22 m. The total area is estimated at
41,634 sq. m. without the surrounding keys and the Isle of Pines (area
about 1180 sq. m.), and including these is approximately 44,164. The
geography of the island is still very imperfectly known, and all figures
are approximate only. The coast line, including larger bays, but
excluding reefs, islets, keys and all minute sinuosities, is about 2500
m. in length. The N. littoral is characterized by bluffs, which grow
higher and higher toward the east, rising to 600 ft. at Cape Maisí. They
are marked by distinct terraces. The southern coast near Cape Maisí is
low and sandy. From Guantánamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments,
and W. of Santiago, where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea,
there is a very high abrupt shore. To the W. of Manzanillo it sinks
again, and throughout most of the remaining distance to Cape San Antonio
is low, with a sandy or marshy littoral; at places sand hills fringe the
shore; near Trinidad there are hills of considerable height; and the
coast becomes high and rugged W. of Point Fisga, in the province of
Pinar del Rio. On both the N. and the S. side of the island there are
long chains of islets and reefs and coral keys (of which it is estimated
there are 1300), which limit access to probably half of the coast, and
on the N. render navigation difficult and dangerous. On the S. they are
covered with mangroves. A large part of the southern littoral is subject
to overflow, and much more of it is permanently marshy. The Zapata Swamp
near Cienfuegos is 600 sq. m. in area; other large swamps are the
Majaguillar, E. of Cárdenas, and the Ciénaga del Buey, S. of the Cauto
river. The Isle of Pines in its northern part is hilly and wooded; in
its southern part, very low, level and rather barren; a tidal swamp
almost cuts the island in two. A remarkable feature of the Cuban coast
is the number of excellent anchorages, roadsteads and harbours. On the
N. shore, beginning at the W., Bahía Honda, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas,
Nuevitas and Nipe; and on the S. shore running westward Guantánamo,
Santiago and Cienfuegos, are harbours of the first class, several of
them among the best of the world. Mariel, Cabañas, Banes, Sagua la
Grande and Baracoa on the N., and Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Batabanó and
Trinidad on the S. are also excellent ports or anchorages. The peculiar
pouch-shape of almost all the harbours named (Matanzas being a marked
exception) greatly increases their security and defensibility. These
pouch harbours are probably "drowned" drainage basins. The number of
small bays that can be utilized for coast trade traffic is
extraordinary.

[Illustration: Map of Cuba.]

In popular language the different portions of the island are
distinguished as the Vuelta Abajo ("lower turn"), W. of Havana; the
Vuelta Arriba ("upper turn"), E. of Havana to Cienfuegos--Vuelta Abajo
and Vuelta Arriba are also used colloquially at any point in the island
to mean "east" and "west"--Las Cinco Villas--i.e. Villa Clara, Trinidad,
Remedios, Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus--between Cienfuegos and Sancti
Spiritus; and Tierra Adentro, referring to the region between Cienfuegos
and Bayamo. These names are extremely common. The province and city of
Puerto Príncipe are officially known as Camagüey, their original Indian
name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.

Five topographic divisions of the island are fairly marked. Santiago
(now Oriente) province is high and mountainous. Camagüey is
characterized by rolling, open plains, slightly broken, especially in
the W., by low mountains. The E. part of Santa Clara province is
decidedly rough and broken. The W. part, with the provinces of Matanzas
and Havana, is flat and rolling, with occasional hills a few hundred
feet high. Finally, Pinar del Rio is dominated by a prominent mountain
range and by outlying piedmont hills and mesas. There are mountains in
Cuba from one end of the island to the other, but they are not derived
from any central mass and are not continuous. As just indicated there
are three distinctively mountainous districts, various minor groups
lying outside these. The three main systems are known in Cuba as the
occidental, central and oriental. The first, the Organ mountains, in
Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.
The crest runs near the N. shore, leaving various flanking spurs and
foothills, and a coastal plain which at its greatest breadth on the S.
is some 20 m. wide. The plain on the N. is narrower and higher. The
southern slope is smooth, and abounds in creeks and rivers. The portion
of the southern plain between the bays of Cortés and Majana is the most
famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region. The mountain range is
capriciously broken at points, especially near Bejucal. The highest part
is the Pan de Guajaibón, near Bahía Honda, at the W. end of the chain;
its altitude has been variously estimated from 2500 to 1950 ft. The
central system has two wings, one approaching the N. coast, the other
covering the island between Sancti Spiritus and Santa Clara. It
comprehends a number of independent groups. The highest point, the Pico
Potrerillo, is about 2900 ft. in altitude. The summits are generally
well rounded, while the lower slopes are often steep. Frequent broad
intervals of low upland or low level plain extend from sea to sea
between and around the mountains. Near the coast runs a continuous belt
of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the
lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and
mountains.

The oriental mountain region includes the province of Oriente and a
portion of Camagüey. In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and
in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three
systems. Almost all the mountains are very bold. They are imperfectly
known. There are two main ranges, the Sierra Maestra, and a line of
various groups along the N. shore. The former runs from Cape Santa Cruz
eastward along the coast some 125 m. to beyond the river Baconao. The
Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a
general elevation of about 3000 ft. Monte Turquino, 7700-8320 ft. in
altitude, is the highest peak of the island. Gran Piedra rises more than
5200 ft., the Ojo del Toro more than 3300, the Anvil de Baracoa is
somewhat lower, and Pan de Matanzas is about 1267 ft. The western
portions of the range rise abruptly from the ocean, forming a bold and
beautiful coast. A multitude of ravines and gullies, filled with
torrential streams or dry, according to the season of the year, and
characterized by many beautiful cascades, seam the narrow coastal plain
and the flanks of the mountains. The spurs of the central range are a
highly intricate complex, covered with dense forests of superb woods.
Many points are inaccessible, and the scenery is wild in the extreme.
The mountains beyond Guantánamo are locally known by a variety of names,
though topographically a continuation of the Sierra Maestra. The same is
true of the chains that coalesce with these near Cape Maisí and diverge
northwesterly along the N. coast of the island. The general character of
this northern marginal system is much the same as that of the southern,
save that the range is much less continuous. A dozen or more groups
from Nipe in the E. to the coast N. of Camagüey in the W. are known only
by individual names. The range near Baracoa is extremely wild and
broken. The region between the lines of the two coastal systems is a
much dissected plateau, imperfectly explored. The Cauto river, the only
one flowing E. or W. and the largest of Cuba, flows through it westward
to the southern coast near Manzanillo. The scenery in the oriental
portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and
tropical forests. In the central part there are extensive prairies. In
the west there are swelling hills and gentle valleys, with the royal
palm the dominating tree. The valley of the Yumurí, near Matanzas, a
small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to
the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.

A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the
limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface. The caves
of Cotilla near Havana, of Bellamar near Matanzas, of Monte Libano near
Guantánamo, and those of San Juan de los Remedios, are the best known,
but there are scores of others. Many streams are "disappearing," part of
their course being through underground tunnels. Thus the Rio San Antonio
suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Baños; the cascades of the
Jatibónico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the
Moa cascade (near Guantánamo) drops 300 ft. into a cavern and its waters
later reissue from the earth; the Jojo river disappears in a great
"sink" and later issues with violent current at the edge of the sea. The
springs of fresh water that bubble up among the keys of the S. coast are
also supposedly the outlets of underground streams.

The number of rivers is very great, but almost without exception their
courses are normal to the coast, and they are so short as to be of but
slight importance. The Cauto river in Oriente province is exceptional;
it is 250 m. long, and navigable by small vessels for about 75 m. Inside
the bar at its mouth (formed by a storm in 1616) ships of 200 tons can
still ascend to Cauto. In Camagüey province the Jatibónico del Sur; in
Oriente the Salado, a branch of the Cauto; in Santa Clara the Sagua la
Grande (which is navigable for some 20 m. and has an important traffic),
and the Damuji; in Matanzas, the Canimar; and in Pinar del Rio the
Cuyaguateje, are important streams. The water-parting in the four
central provinces is very indefinite. There are few river valleys that
are noteworthy--those of the Yumurí, the Trinidad and the Güines. At
Guantánamo and Trinidad are other valleys, and between Mariel and Havana
is the fine valley of Ariguanabo. Of lakes, there are a few on the
coast, and a very few in the mountains. The finest is Lake Ariguanabo,
near Havana, 6 sq. m. in area. Of the almost innumerable river cascades,
those of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, and in particular the Moa
cascade, have already been mentioned. The Guamá cascade in Oriente
province and the Hanabanilla Fall near Cienfuegos (each more than 300
ft. high), the Rosario Fall in Pinar del Rio, and the Almendares cascade
near Havana, may also be mentioned.

  _Geology._--The foundation of the island is formed of metamorphic and
  igneous rocks, which appear in the Sierra Maestra and are exposed in
  other parts of the island wherever the comparatively thin covering of
  later beds has been worn away. A more or less continuous band of
  serpentine belonging to this series forms the principal watershed,
  although it nowhere rises to any great height. It is in this band that
  the greater part of the mineral wealth of Cuba is situated. These
  ancient rocks have hitherto yielded no fossils and their age is
  therefore uncertain, but they are probably pre-Cretaceous at least.
  Fossiliferous Cretaceous limestones containing _Rudistes_ have been
  found in several parts of the island (Santiago de los Baños, Santa
  Clara province, &c.). At the base there is often an arkose, composed
  largely of fragments of serpentine and granite derived from the
  ancient floor. At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara
  province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary
  limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar
  position. The latter, like the similar deposits in other West Indian
  islands, is probably of Oligocene age. It is the Tertiary limestones
  which form the predominant feature in the geology of Cuba. Although
  they do not exceed 1000 ft. in thickness, they probably at one time
  covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra,
  where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a
  height of 2300 ft. They contain corals, but are not coral reefs. The
  shells which have been found in them indicate that they belong for
  the most part to the Oligocene period. They are frequently very much
  disturbed and often strongly folded. Around the coast there is a
  raised shelf of limestone which was undoubtedly a coral reef. But it
  is of recent date and does not attain an elevation of more than 40 or
  50 ft.

  Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in
  sufficient quantity to be industrially important. Traditions of gold
  and silver, dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, still
  endure, but these metals are in fact extremely rare. Oriente province
  is distinctively the mineral province of the island. Large copper
  deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near
  the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
  Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in
  considerable amount in Camagüey and Santa Clara, and copper in
  Camagüey and Pinar del Rio provinces. The iron ores mined at Daiquiri
  near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron,
  with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture. The copper deposits
  are mainly in well-marked fracture planes in serpentine; the ore is
  pyrrhotite, with or without chalcopyrite. Manganese occurs especially
  along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run
  above 50%. Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to
  exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.
  Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils
  resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances,
  occur in all parts of the island. Much of the bituminous deposits is
  on the dividing line between asphalt and coal. There is an endless
  amount of stone, very little of which is hard enough to be good for
  building material, the greatest part being a soft coralline limestone.
  The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white
  limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and
  slightly darkening with age. There are extensive and valuable deposits
  of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near
  Santiago. The Organ Mountains contain a hard blue limestone; and
  sandstones occur on the N. coast of Pinar del Rio province. Clays of
  all qualities and colours abound. Mineral waters, though not yet
  important in trade, are extremely abundant, and a score of places in
  Cuba and the Isle of Pines are already known as health resorts. Those
  near San Diego, Guanabacoa and Santa Maria del Rosario (near Havana)
  and Madruga (near Güines) are the best known.

  The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly
  alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature. In
  the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral
  growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial
  evidences in the island of former volcanic activity. Noteworthy
  earthquakes are rare. They have been most common in Oriente province.
  Those of 1776, 1842 and 1852 were particularly destructive, and of
  earlier ones those of 1551 and 1624 at Bayamo and of 1578 and 1678 at
  Santiago. Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though
  Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation, they occur in all
  parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end. Notable
  seismic disturbances in Cuba have coincided with similar activity in
  Central America so often as to make some connexion apparent.

  _Flora._--The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora
  of splendid richness. All the characteristic species of the West
  Indies, the Central American and Mexican and southern Florida
  seaboard, and nearly all the large trees of the Mexican tropic belt,
  are embraced in it. As many as 3350 native flowering species were
  catalogued in 1876. The total number of species of the island flora
  was estimated in 1892 by a writer in the _Revista Cubana_ (vol. xv.
  pp. 5-16) to be between 5000 and 6000, but hardly one-third of this
  number had then been gathered into a herbarium, and all parts of the
  island had not then been explored. It was estimated officially in 1904
  that the wooded lands of the island comprised 3,628,434 acres, of
  which one-third were in Oriente province, another third in Camagüey,
  and hardly any in Havana province. Much of this area is of primeval
  forest; somewhat more than a third of the total, belonging to the
  government, was opened to sale (and speculative exspoliation) in 1904.
  The woods are so dense over large districts as to be impenetrable,
  except by cutting a path foot by foot through the close network of
  vines and undergrowth. The jagüey (_Ficus_ sp.), which stifles in its
  giant coils the greatest trees of the forest, and the copei (_Clusia
  rosea_) are remarkable parasitic lianas. Of the palm there are more
  than thirty species. The royal palm is the most characteristic tree of
  Cuba. It attains a height of from 50 to 75 ft., and sometimes of more
  than 100 ft. Alone, or in groups, or in long aisles, towering above
  the plantations or its fellow trees of the forest, its beautiful crest
  dominates every landscape. Every portion, from its roots to its
  leaves, serves some useful purpose. From it the native draws lumber
  for his hut, utensils for his kitchen, thatch for his roof, medicines,
  preserved delicacies, and a long list of other articles. The corojo
  palm (_Cocos crispa_) rivals the royal palm in beauty and utility;
  oil, sugar, drink and wood are derived from it. The coco palm (_Cocos
  nucifera_) is also put to varied uses. The mango is planted with the
  royal palm along the avenues of the plantations. The beautiful ceiba
  (_Bombax ceiba_ L., _Ceiba pentandra_) or silk cotton tree is the
  giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150
  ft. with enormous girth. The royal piñon (_Erythrina velatina_) is
  remarkable for the magnificent purple flowers that cover it. The
  tamarind and banyan are also noteworthy. Utilitarian trees and plants
  are legion. There are at least forty choice cabinet and building
  woods. Of these, ebonies, mahogany (for the bird's-eye variety such
  enormous prices are paid as $1200 to $1800 per thousand board-feet),
  cullá (or cuyá, _Bumelia retusa_), cocullo (cocuyo, _Bumelia nigra_),
  ocuje (_Callophyllum viticifolia_, _Ornitrophis occidentalis_, _O.
  cominia_), jigüe (jique, _Lysiloma sabicu_), mahagua (_Hibiscus
  tiliaceus_), granadillo (_Brya ebenus_), icaquillo (_Licania incania_)
  and agua-baría (_Cordia gerascanthes_) are perhaps the most beautiful.
  Other woods, beautiful and precious, include guayacan (Guaiacum
  sanctum), baría (varía, _Cordia gerascanthoides_)--the fragrant,
  hard-wood Spanish elm--the quiebra-hacha (_Copaifera hymenofolia_),
  which three are of wonderful lasting qualities; the jiquí (_Malpighia
  obovata_), acana (_Achras disecta_, _Bassia albescens_), caigarán (or
  caguairan, _Hymenaea floribunda_), and the dagame (_Calicophyllum
  candidissimum_), which four, like the cullá, are all wonderfully
  resistant to humidity; the caimatillo (_Chrysophyllum oliviforme_),
  the yaya (or yayajabico, yayabito: _Erythalis fructicosa_, _Bocagea
  virgata_, _Guateria virgata_, _Asimina Blaini_), a magnificent
  construction wood; the maboa (_Cameraria latifolia_) and the jocuma
  (jocum: _Sideroxylon mastichodendron_, _Bumelia saticifolia_), all of
  individual beauties and qualities. Many species are rich in gums and
  resins; the calambac, mastic, copal, cedar, &c. Many others are
  oleaginous, among them, peanuts, sun-flowers, the bene seed (sesame),
  corozo, almond and palmachristi. Others (in addition to some already
  mentioned) are medicinal; as the palms, calabash, manchineel, pepper,
  fustic and a long list of cathartics, caustics, emetics, astringents,
  febrifuges, vermifuges, diuretics and tonics. Then, too, there are
  various dyewoods; rosewood, logwood (or campeachy wood), indigo,
  manajú (_Garcinia Morella_), Brazil-wood and saffron. Textile plants
  are extremely common. The majagua tree grows as high as 40 ft.; from
  its bark is made cordage of the finest quality, which is scarcely
  affected by the atmosphere. Strong, fine, glossy fibres are yielded by
  the exotic ramie (_Boehmeria nivea_), whose fibre, like that of the
  majagua, is almost incorruptible; by the maya or rat-pineapple
  (_Bromelia Pinguin_), and by the daquilla (or daiguiya--_Lagetta
  lintearia_, _L. valenzuelana_), which like the maya yields a
  brilliant, flexible product like silk; stronger cordage by the corojo
  palms, and various henequén plants, native and exotic (especially
  _Agave americana_, _A. Cubensis_); and various plantains, the exotic
  _Sansevieria guineensis_, okra, jute, _Laportea_, various lianas, and
  a great variety of reeds, supply varied textile materials of the best
  quality. The yucca is a source of starch. For building and
  miscellaneous purposes, in addition to the rare woods above named,
  there are cedars (used in great quantities for cigar boxes); the pine,
  found only in the W., where it gives its name to the Isle of Pines and
  the province of Pinar del Rio; various palms; oaks of varying hardness
  and colour, &c. The number of alimentary plants is extremely great.
  Among economic plants should be mentioned the coffee, cacao, citron,
  cinnamon, cocoanut and rubber tree. Wheat, Indian corn and many
  vegetables, especially tuberous, are particularly important. Plantain
  occurs in several varieties; it is in part a cheap and healthful
  substitute for bread, which is also made from the bitter cassava,
  after the poison is extracted. The sweet cassava yields tapioca.
  Bread-trees are fairly common, but are little cared for. White and
  sweet potatoes, yams, sweet and bitter yuccas, sago and okra, may also
  be mentioned.

  Fruits are varied and delicious. The pineapple is the most favoured by
  Cubans. Four or five annual crops grow from one plant, but not more
  than three can be marketed, unless locally, as the product
  deteriorates. The better ("purple") varieties are mainly consumed in
  the island, and the smaller and less juicy "white" varieties exported.
  The tamarind is everywhere. Bananas are grown particularly in the
  region about Nipe, Gibara and Baracoa, whence they are exported in
  large quantities, though there is a tendency to lessen their culture
  in these parts in favour of sugar. Mangoes, though exotic, are
  extremely common, and in the E. grow wild in the forests. They are the
  favourite fruit of the negroes. Oranges are little cultivated,
  although they offer apparently almost unlimited possibilities; their
  culture decreased steadily after 1880, but after about 1900 was again
  greatly extended. Lemons yield continuously through the year, but like
  oranges, not much has yet been done with them commercially.
  Pomegranates are as universally used in Cuba as apples in the United.
  States. Figs and grapes degenerate in Cuba. Dates grow better, but
  nothing has been done with them. The coco-nut palm is most abundant in
  the vicinity of Baracoa. Among the common fruits are various
  anonas--the custard apple (_Anona cherimolia_), sweet-sop (_A.
  squamosa_), sour-sop (_A. muricata_), mamón (_A. reticulata_), and
  others,--the star-apple (_Chrysophyllum cainito_, _C. pomiferum_),
  rose-apple (_Eugenia jambos_), pawpaw, the sapodilla (_Sapota
  achras_), the caniste (_Sapota Elongata_), jagua (_Genipa americana_),
  alligator pear (_Persea gratissima_), the yellow mammee (_Mammea
  americana_) and so-called "red mammee" (_Lucuma mammosa_) and limes.

  _Fauna._--The fauna of Cuba, like the flora, is still imperfectly
  known. Collectively it shows long isolation from the other Antilles.
  Only two land mammals are known to be indigenous. One is the hutía
  (agouti) or Cuban rat, of which three species are known (_Capromys
  Fournieri_, _C. melanurus_ and _C. Poey_). It lives in the most
  solitary woods, especially in the eastern hills. The other is a
  peculiar insectivore (_Solenodon paradoxus_), the only other
  representatives of whose family are found in Madagascar. Various
  animals, apparently indigenous, that are described by the early
  historians of the conquest, have disappeared. An Antillean rabbit is
  very abundant. Bats in prodigious numbers, and some of them of
  extraordinary size, inhabit the many caves of the island; more than
  twenty species are known. Rats and mice, especially the guayabita
  (_Mus musculus_), an extremely destructive rodent, are very abundant.
  The manatee, or sea-cow, frequents the mouths of rivers, the sargasso
  drifts, and the regions of submarine fresh-water springs off the
  coast. Horses, asses, cows, deer, sheep, goats, swine, cats and dogs
  were introduced by the early Spaniards. The last three are common in a
  wild state. Deer are not native, and are very rare; a few live in the
  swamps.

  Of birds there are more than 200 indigenous species, it is said, and
  migratory species are also numerous. Waders are represented by more
  than fifty species. Vultures are represented by only one species, the
  turkey buzzard, which is the universal scavenger of the fields, and
  until recent years even of the cities, and has always been protected
  by custom and the Laws of the Indies. Falcons are represented by a
  score of species, at least, several of them nocturnal. Kestrels are
  common. The gallinaceous order is rich in _Columbidae_. Trumpeters are
  notably represented, and climbers still more so. Among the latter are
  species of curious habits and remarkable colouring. Woodpeckers
  (_Coloptes auratus_), macaws, parrakeets and other small parrots, and
  trogons, these last of beautifully resplendent plumage, deserve
  particular mention. The Cuban mocking-bird is a wonderful songster. Of
  humming-birds there are said to be sixty species, probably only one
  indigenous. Of the other birds mere mention may be made of the wild
  pigeon, raven, indigo-bird, English lady-bird and linnet.

  Reptiles are numerous. Many tortoises are notable. The crocodile and
  cayman occur in the swampy littoral of the south. Of lizards the
  iguana (_Cyclura caudata_) is noteworthy. Chameleons are common.
  Snakes are not numerous, and it is said that none is poisonous or
  vicious. There is one enormous boa, the maja (_Epicrates angulifer_),
  which feeds on pigs, goats and the like, but does not molest man.

  Fishes are present in even greater variety than birds. Felipa Poey, in
  his _Ictiologia Cubana_, listed 782 species of fish and crustaceans,
  of which 105 were doubtful; but more than one-half of the remainder
  were first described by Poey. The fish of Cuban waters are remarkable
  for their metallic colourings. The largest species are found off the
  northern coast. Food fishes are relatively not abundant, presumably
  because the deep sea escarpments of the N. are unfavourable to their
  life. Shell fish are unimportant. Two species of blind fish, of
  extreme scientific interest, are found in the caves of the island. Of
  the "percoideos" there are many genera. Among the most important are
  the robalo (_Labrax_), an exquisite food fish, the tunny, eel, Spanish
  sardine and mangua. Of the sharks the genus _Squalus_ is represented
  by individuals that grow to a length of 26 to 30 ft. The hammer-head
  attains a weight at times of 600 lb. The saw-fish is common. Of
  fresh-water fish the lisa, dogro, guayácón and viajocos (_Chromis
  fuscomaculatus_) are possibly the most noteworthy.

  Molluscs are extraordinarily numerous; and many, both of water and
  land, are rarities among their kind for size and richness of colour.
  Of crustaceans, land-crabs are remarkable for size and number.
  Arachnids are prodigiously numerous. Insect life is abundant and
  beautiful. The bite of the scorpion and of the numerous spiders
  produces no serious effects. The nigua, the Cuban jigger, is a pest of
  serious consequence, and the mal de nigua (jigger sickness) sometimes
  causes the death of lower animals and men. Sand-flies and biting gnats
  are lesser nuisances. Lepidoptera are very brilliant in colouring. The
  cucujo or Cuban firefly (_Pyrophorus noctilucus_) gives out so strong
  a light that a few of them serve effectively as a lantern. The
  _Stegomyia_ mosquito is the agent of yellow fever inoculation. Sponges
  grow in great variety.

_Climate._--The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in
characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature. There
are two distinct seasons: a "dry" season from November to April, and a
hotter, "wet" season. About two-thirds of the total precipitation falls
in the latter. Droughts, extensive in area and in duration, are by no
means uncommon. At Havana the mean temperature is about 76° F., with
extreme monthly oscillations ranging on the average from 6° to 12° F.
for different months, and with a range between the means of the coldest
and warmest months of 10° (70° to 80°); temperatures below 50° or above
90° being rare. The mean rainfall at Havana is about 40.6 in. (sometimes
over 80), and the mean absolute humidity of different months ranges from
70 to 80%. These figures represent fairly well the conditions of much of
the northern coast. In the N.E. the rainfall is much greater. The
equability of heat throughout the day is masked and relieved by the
afternoon sea breezes. The trades are steady through the year, and in
the dry season the western part of the island enjoys cool "northers."
Despite this the interior is somewhat cooler than the coast, and in the
uplands frost is not uncommon. The southern littoral is also (except in
sheltered points such as Santiago, which is one of the hottest cities of
the island) somewhat cooler than the northern.

More than eight or ten years rarely pass without tornadoes or hurricanes
of local severity at least. Notably destructive ones occurred in 1768,
1774, 1842, 1844, 1846, 1865, 1870, 1876, 1885 and 1894. Those of 1842
and 1844 caused extreme distress in the island. In 1846, 300 vessels and
2000 houses were destroyed at Havana; in 1896 the banana groves of the
N.E. coast were ruined and the banana industry prostrated; and in 1906
Havana suffered damage. The autumn months, particularly October and
November, are those in which such storms most frequently occur.

_Health._--Convincing evidence is offered by the qualities of the
Spanish race in Cuba that white men of temperate lands can be perfectly
acclimatized in this tropical island. As for diseases, some common to
Cuba and Europe are more frequent or severe in the island, others rarer
or milder. There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent
fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in
tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere,
mainly responsible for their existence. Yellow fever (which first
appeared in Cuba in 1647) was long the only epidemic disease, Havana
being an endemic focus. Aside from the recurrent loss of life, the
pecuniary loss from such epidemics was enormous, and the interference
with commerce and social intercourse with other countries extremely
vexatious. The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and
the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work
of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this
disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures,
based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be
eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the
_Stegomyia_ mosquito. Since then yellow fever has ceased to be a scourge
in Cuba. Small-pox was the cause of a greater mortality than yellow
fever even before the means of combating the latter had been
ascertained. The remarkable sanitary work begun during the American
occupation and continued by the republic of Cuba, has shown that the
ravages of this and other diseases can be greatly diminished. Leprosy is
rather common, but seemingly only slightly contagious. Consumption is
very prevalent.

_Agriculture._--Soils are of four classes: calcareous-ferruginous,
alluvial, argillous and silicious. Calcareous lands are predominant,
especially in the uplands. Deep residual clay soils derived from
underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the
predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the
plains. A red-black soil known as "mulatto" or tawny is perhaps the best
fitted for general cultivation. Tobacco is most generally cultivated on
loose red soils, which are rich in clays and silicates; and sugar-cane
preferably on the black and mulatto soils; but in general, contrary to
prevalent suppositions, colour is no test of quality and not a very
valuable guide in the setting of crops. Almost without exception the
lands throughout the island are of extreme fertility. The lowlands about
Cienfuegos, Trinidad, Mariel and Matanzas are noted for their richness.
The census of 1899 showed that farm lands occupied three-tenths of the
total area; the cultivated area being one-tenth of the farms or 3% of
the whole. At the end of 1905 it was officially estimated that 16% was
in cultivation. In 1902 it was officially estimated that the public land
available for permanent agrarian cultivation, including forest lands,
was only 186,967 hectares (416,995 acres), almost wholly in the province
of Oriente. The average size of a farm in 1899 was 143 acres. More than
85% of all cultivated lands were then occupied by whites; and somewhat
more than one-half (56.6%) of all occupiers were renters. Holdings of
more than 32 acres constituted only 7% of the total. As regards crops,
47% of the cultivated area was given over to sugar, 11% to sweet
potatoes, 9% to tobacco and almost 9% to bananas. But owing to the
disturbed conditions created by the war it is probable that these
figures by no means represent normal conditions. The actual sugar crop
of 1899-1900, for example, was not a quarter of that of 1894. With the
establishment of peace in 1898 and the influx of American and other
capital and of a heavy immigration, great changes took place in
agriculture as in other industrial conditions.


  Sugar.

Sugar has been the dominant crop since the end of the 18th century.
Before the Civil War of 1895-1898 the capital invested in sugar estates
was greater by half than that represented by tobacco and coffee
plantations, live-stock ranches and other farms. Since that time fruit
and live-stock interests have increased. The dependence of the island on
one crop has been an artificial economic condition often of grave
momentary danger to prosperity; but generally speaking, the progress of
the industry has been steady. The competition of the sugar-beet has been
felt severely. During and after the war of 1868-1878, when many Cuban
estates were confiscated, many families emigrated, and many others were
ruined, the ownership of plantations largely passed from the hands of
Cubans to Spaniards. Under the conditions of free labour, the
development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in
cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet,
and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to
survive without radical betterment of methods. About 1885 began an
immense development of centralization (the tendency having been evident
many years before this). Plantations have increased greatly in size (and
also diminished in number), greater capital is involved, bagasse
furnaces have been introduced, double grinding mills have increased by
more than a half the yield of juice from a given weight of cane, and
extractive operations instead of being carried on on all plantations
have been (since 1880) concentrated in comparatively few "centrals" (168
in Feb. 1908). Three-fourths of all are in the jurisdictions of
Cienfuegos, Cárdenas, Havana, Matanzas and Sagua la Grande, which are
the great sugar centres of the island (three-fourths of the crop coming
from Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces). Caibarién, Guantánamo and
Manzanillo are next in importance. A comparatively low cost of labour,
the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of
unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized
organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the
remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil
and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the
United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop,
have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to
compete with the bounty-fed beet. The methods of cultivation, however,
are still distinctly extensive, and the returns are much less than they
would be (and in some other cane countries are) under more intensive and
scientific methods of cultivation. Indeed, conditions were relatively
primitive so late as 1880, if compared with those of other
sugar-producing countries. More than four-fifths of the total area sown
to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas
and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds
of the area and three-fourths of the crop. The majority of the sugar
estates are of an area less than 3000 acres, and the most common area is
between 1500 and 2000 acres; but the extremes range from a very small
size to 60,000 acres. Only a part of the great estates is ever planted
in any one season. The most profitable unit is calculated to be a daily
consumption of 1500 tons of cane, or 150,000 in a grinding season of 100
days, which implies a feeding area not above 6000 acres. In the season
of 1904-1905, which may be taken as typical, 179 estates, with a planted
area of 431,056 acres, produced 11,576,137 tons of cane, and yielded--in
addition to alcohol, brandy and molasses--1,089,814 tons of sugar. Of
this amount 416,862 tons were produced by 24 estates yielding more than
11,000 tons each, including one (planting 28,050 acres) that yielded
33,609, and 4 others more than 22,000 tons each. The production of the
island from 1850 to 1868 averaged 469,934 tons yearly, rising from
223,145 to 749,000; from 1869 to 1886 (continuing high during the
period of the Ten Years' War), 632,003 tons; from 1887 to 1907--omitting
the five years 1896-1900 when the industry was prostrated by
war,--909,827 tons (and including the war period, 758,066); and in the
six harvests of 1901-1906, 1,016,899 tons. Prior to 1902 the million
mark, was reached only twice--in 1894 and 1895. Following the
resuscitation of the industry after the last war, the island's crop rose
steadily from one-sixth to a full quarter of the total cane sugar output
of the world, its share in the world's product of sugar of all kinds
ranging from a tenth to an eighth. Of this enormous output, from 98.3%
upward went to the United States;[1] of whose total importation of all
sugars and of cane sugar the proportion of Cuban cane--steadily
rising--was respectively 49.8 and 53.7% in the seasons of 1900-1901 and
1904-1905.


  Tobacco.

If sugar is the island's greatest crop, tobacco is her most renowned in
the markets of the world. Three-fourths of the tobacco of Cuba comes
from Pinar del Rio province; the rest mainly from the provinces of
Havana and Santa Clara,--the description _de partido_ being applied to
the leaf not produced in Havana and Pinar del Rio provinces, and
sometimes to all produced outside the _vuelta abajo_. This district,
including the finest land, is on the southern slope of the Organ
Mountains between the Honda river and Mantua; bananas are cultivated
with the tobacco. "Vegas" (tobacco fields) of especially good repute are
also found near Trinidad, Remedios, Yara, Mayarí and Vicana. The tobacco
industry has been uniformly prosperous, except when crippled by the
destruction of war in 1868-1878 and 1895-1898. Even in the time of
slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires
intelligent labour and intensive care. In recent years the growth of the
leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly
proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable--lighter in
colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of
wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of
cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins. In these respects the finest Cuban
tobacco crops, produced in the sun, hardly rival the finest Sumatra
product; but produced under cheese-cloth they do. "Cuban tobacco" does
not mean to-day, as a commercial fact, what the words imply; for the
original _Nicotiana Tabacum_, variety _havanensis_, can probably be
found pure to-day only in out-of-the-way corners of Pinar del Rio. After
the Ten Year's War seed of Mexican and United States tobaccos was in
great demand to re-seed the ruined vegas, and was introduced in great
quantities; and although by a later law the destruction of these exotic
species was ordered, that destruction was in fact quite impossible.
"Lusty growers and coarser than the genuine old-time Cuban ... Mexican
tobaccos (_Nicotiana Tabacum_, variety _macrophyllum_) are to-day
predominant in a large part of Cuban vegas.... Ordinary commercial Cuban
seed of to-day is largely, and often altogether, Mexican tobacco."
Though improved in the Cuban environment, the foreign tobaccos
introduced after the Ten Years' War did not lose their exotic character,
but prevailed over the indigenous forms: "Tobaccos with exactly the
character of the introduced types are now the prevalent forms"
(quotation from Bulletin of the _Estación Central Agronómica_, Feb.
1908). In the markets of the world Cuban tobacco has always suffered
less competition than Cuban sugar, and still less has been done than in
the case of sugar cane in the study of methods of cultivation, which in
several respects are far behind those of other tobacco-growing
countries. The crop of 1907 was 201,512 bales (109,562,400 lb. Sp.).


  Coffee.

Coffee-raising was once a flourishing and very promising industry. It
first attained prominence with the settlement in eastern Cuba, late in
the 18th century, of French refugee immigrants from San Domingo. Some
"cafetales" were established by the newcomers near Havana, but the
industry has always been almost exclusively one of Oriente province;
with Santa Clara as a much smaller producer. Before the war of
1868-1878 the production amounted to about 25,000,000 lb. yearly. The
war of 1895-1898 still further diminished the vitality of the industry.
In 1907 the crop was 6,595,700 lb. The berries are of fine quality, and
despite the competition of Brazil there is no (agricultural) reason why
the home market at least should not be supplied from Cuban estates.

  Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest
  importance--bananas (which are planted about once in three years),
  pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges,
  &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region
  about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease
  not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa,
  threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well. Yams and
  sweet-potatoes, yuccas, malangas, cacao, rice--which is one of the
  most important foods of the people, but which is not yet widely
  cultivated on a profitable basis--and Indian corn, which grows
  everywhere and yields two crops yearly, may be mentioned also. In very
  recent years gardening has become an interest of importance,
  particularly in the province of Pinar del Rio. Save on the coffee,
  tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has
  compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba
  is still very primitive. The wooden ploughstick, for instance--taking
  the country as a whole--has never been displaced. A central
  agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the
  government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural
  college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and
  improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.

  Stock-breeding is a highly important interest. It was the
  all-important one in the early history of the island, down to about
  the latter part of the 18th century. Grasses grow luxuriantly, and the
  savannahs of central Cuba are, in this respect, excellent cattle
  ranges. The droughts to which the island is recurrently subject are,
  however, a not unimportant drawback to the industry; and though the
  best ranges, under favourable conditions, are luxuriant, nevertheless
  the pastures of the island are in general mediocre. Practically
  nothing has yet been done in the study of native grasses and the
  introduction of exotic species. The possibilities of the stock
  interest have as yet by no means been realized. The civil wars were
  probably more disastrous to it than to any other agricultural interest
  of the island. It has been authoritatively estimated, for example,
  that from 90 to 95% of all horses, neat cattle and hogs in the entire
  island were lost in the war years of 1895-1898. In the decade after
  1898 particularly great progress was made in the raising of
  live-stock. The fishing and sponge industries are important. Batabanó
  and Caibarién are centres of the sponge fisheries.

_Manufactures._--The manufacturing industries of Cuba have never been
more than insignificant as compared with what they might be. In 1907
48.5% of all wage-earners were engaged in agriculture, fishing and
mining, 16.3 in manufactures, and 17.7 in trade and transportation. Such
manufactures as are of any consequence are mostly connected with the
sugar and tobacco industries. Forest resources have been but slightly
touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany, which
goes to the United States, and cedar, which is used to box the tobacco
products of the island, much going also to the United States. The value
of forest products in 1901-1902 amounted to $320,528. There are some
tanneries, some preparation of preserves and other fruit products, and
some old handicraft industries like the making of hats; but these have
been of comparatively scant importance. Despite natural advantages for
all meat industries, canned meats have generally been imported. The
leading manufactures are cigars and cigarettes, sugar, rum and whisky.
The tobacco industries are very largely concentrated in Havana, and
there are factories in Santiago de las Vegas and Bejucal. The yearly
output of cigars was locally estimated in 1908 at about 500,000,000, but
this is probably too high an estimate. In 1904-1906 the yearly average
sent to the United Stat