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Title: The Harlot's Progress, The Rake's Progress - (MS., CA. 1778-1780)
Author: Cibber, Theophilus, 1703-1758, Anonymous, Klinger, Mary F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                      THE AUGUSTAN REPRINT SOCIETY

                                 _THE_
                           HARLOT'S PROGRESS

                           THEOPHILUS CIBBER
                                (_1733_)

                                 _and_

                                 _THE_
                            RAKE'S PROGRESS

                         (_MS., Ca. 1778-1780_)


                           _Introduction by_
                            MARY F. KLINGER


                        PUBLICATION NUMBER _181_
                 WILLIAM ANDREWS CLARK MEMORIAL LIBRARY
                 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
                                 _1977_



        GENERAL EDITORS
    William E. Conway, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
    George Robert Guffey, University of California, Los Angeles
    Maximillian E. Novak, University of California, Los Angeles
    David Stuart Rodes, University of California, Los Angeles


        ADVISORY EDITORS
    James L. Clifford, Columbia University
    Ralph Cohen, University of Virginia
    Vinton A. Dearing, University of California, Los Angeles
    Arthur Friedman, University of Chicago
    Louis A. Landa, Princeton University
    Earl Miner, Princeton University
    Samuel H. Monk, University of Minnesota
    Everett T. Moore, University of California, Los Angeles
    Lawrence Clark Powell, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
    James Sutherland, University College, London
    H. T. Swedenberg, Jr., University of California, Los Angeles
    Robert Vosper, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library


        CORRESPONDING SECRETARY
    Beverly J. Onley, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library


        EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
    Frances M. Reed, University of California, Los Angeles



                              INTRODUCTION


The prints and engraved sequences of William Hogarth (1697-1764)
inspired a wide range of dramatic entertainments throughout the
eighteenth century. The types include comedy of manners (_The
Clandestine Marriage_, 1766), burletta with _tableau vivant_ (_Ut
Pictura Poesis!_ 1789), specialty act (_A Modern Midnight Conversation_,
1742), cantata (_The Roast Beef of Old England_, ca. 1759), ballad opera
(_The Decoy_),[1] pantomime (_The Jew Decoy'd_ and _The Harlot's
Progress_, 1733), and a morality ballad opera (_The Rake's Progress_,
ca. 1778-1780). Two of these are reprinted here. Theophilus Cibber's
"Grotesque Pantomime Entertainment" of Hogarth's six-scene series "A
Harlot's Progress" (1732), entitled _THE HARLOT'S PROGRESS_; or The
Ridotto Al'Fresco," was first published 31 March 1733 for its Drury Lane
debut as an afterpiece.[2] Less familiar is the anonymous "Dramatised
Version" of Hogarth's eight-print sequence "A Rake's Progress" (1735),
British Library Add. MS. 25997, entitled The Rake's Progress.[3]

Of critical interest in looking at the engravings along with the dramas
they inspired is the evidence provided of significant visual-verbal
reciprocities in the period. In particular, it shows one aspect of the
interrelationship operative between (1) creation of the prints, with the
artist often relying perceptibly on dramatic literature and theatrical
sets,[4] and (2) inspiration from print to theater, as playwrights
generated new stage pieces based on the graphic works. Moreover, these
two dramas underscore the importance of music in eighteenth century
theater where the use of songs in pantomimes and new lyrics for old
tunes in ballad opera were alike commonplace by mid-century.[5] The
plays lend support to Bertrand Bronson's observation that, in an age
which "thought Man the proper study of Mankind," it is not surprising
that the "major emphasis (and accomplishment) in music should be
dramatic and, in a broad sense, social."[6] These dramas add visual and
musical insights to literary concerns of the time.

In "A Harlot's Progress" (1732) Hogarth's six prints recount a few years
in the young life of "M. Hackabout" from her innocent arrival in London
(from Yorkshire) through debauchery, prostitution, and theft to death
from venereal disease at the age of 23. Hogarth's engraved sequence
shows about 12 characters, including Moll's child and supernumerary
harlots at her funeral. The stage piece by Colley Cibber's son entitled
_The Harlot's Progress_ consists solely of stage directions and verses
set to six "Airs." It has 27 characters, including a "little Harlequin
Dog." The harlot's new name, "Kitty," probably refers to the actress
(Mrs. Raftor, later Kitty Clive) who initially played this role. The
music for the songs seems to be lost, though many tunes can be
identified.[7] Furthermore, Roger Fiske reports that later in 1733 this
work was offered at Bartholomew Fair with a band that included "oboes,
bassoons, horns, trumpets, drums and strings." Though traditionally _The
Harlot's Progress_ has been treated as pantomime, Fiske considers it a
"mixture of masque, ballad opera and pantomime."[8] Actually Cibber's
piece, with its concluding "Masque," more closely fits Paul Sawyer's
definition of pantomime as "a mixture of comic (sometimes called
grotesque) elements" concerning the love adventures and misadventures of
Harlequin and Columbine, "largely in dumb show," but "occasionally
interspersed with songs and dances."[9] In addition, Sawyer notes, there
is a "serious part," usually drawn from mythology, featuring dancing,
recitative, song, and some dialogue. In the present case, this would be
the masque of "The Judgment of Paris" which concludes _The Harlot's
Progress_ (p. 12).

On the stage, Cibber shifts the Hogarthian tone from an ineluctable
moral formula (the wages of sin equal death) to one that transforms
social and moral punishment into lyrical pageantry. To accomplish this,
he uses the mechanical humor of harlequinade and omits three grim
occasions portrayed by Hogarth: Hackabout's apprehension by Sir John
Gonson in a garret (Pl. 4), her early death from venereal disease (Pl.
5), and her funeral with its morally dubious mourners (Pl. 6). Cibber
replaces the potential moral commentary of these three prints with stage
antics and dance. Cibber's harlot "Kitty" is sent to Bridewell like
Hogarth's Moll Hackabout (Pl. 4), but her punishment there turns
magically into a dance.

The "Keeper" forces her and other women to beat hemp, but the blocks
suddenly disappear; in their stead appear her lover Harlequin, with
Scaramouch and others, and all "dance off" to the "Ridotto al'Fresco,"
while the Keeper "runs away frighted." The threat of punishment vanishes
with the blocks. At the "Ridotto," in a stage set depicting a Vauxhall
scene, people appear in masquerade, and a grand "Comic Ballad" is
performed to various musical tunes. But this is not the end of the
pantomime, for yet to come is "The Judgment of Paris," John Weaver's
"Dramatic Entertainment" after the "Manner of the Ancient Greeks and
Romans," which had premiered in February 1733.[10]

Though he was quite consciously imitating Hogarth's "Celebrated
Designs," Cibber's directions do not specify that costuming duplicate
Hogarth's contemporary London figures such as the notorious Mother
Needham, Colonel Charteris (Pl. 1), Justice Gonson (Pl. 4), or the
quarreling doctors Misaubin and Rock at Moll's deathbed (Pl. 5).[11] In
addition to changing the name "M. Hackabout" to "Kitty" the "Country
Girl," Cibber dubs his Charteris character "Old Debauchee," Needham
"Madame Decoy," and the Jew who keeps Kitty, "Beau Mordecai."

The comic element asserts itself in the first stage scene as Harlequin
hides in Kitty's trunk and then disguises himself as a cadet, imitating
Hackabout's lover in Hogarth's second print. During this stage trick,
Madame Decoy sings new verses to an eighteenth century ballad
celebrating the innocent beauties of rural poverty (Air I, "What tho' I
am a Country Lass"). Clearly, audiences familiar with the more biting
pictorial scenes of a harlot's life would be easily diverted, even
relieved, by the elaborate mixture of Greek and Italian elements, and
the flourish of songs in the parodic ballad opera tradition. Cibber of
course capitalized on the occasion, popularity, and familiarity of
Hogarth's six prints in 1733, but his theatrical realization clarifies
the quality of pantomimic entertainment with its numerous contemporary
graphic allusions, revealing an aborted moral embellished by a splay of
music and masque.

Theophilus Cibber's entertainment was quite successful on the London
stage, having a good run at the patent theaters and the fairs in 1733
and for a while thereafter.[12] Furthermore, it is related to an
important event in Drury Lane history. Cibber seceded with a group of
actors in May of 1733 from that theater because of management disputes.
After playing at the fairs, the protesting actors performed at the
Little Theatre in the Haymarket until the spring of 1734 when they
returned to Drury Lane. In a letter to patentee John Highmore, Cibber
wrote of the _Harlot's Progress_: "This entertainment (for which I am
indebted to Mr. Hogarth's designs) the Town were pleased to approve of
and encourage." But, he adds, it might have been performed "three months
sooner than it was, but for the Obstructions I met with from my
Partners."[13] This theatrical quarrel created much public discussion in
the first decade of the century (_LS_, 3, 1, "Introduction," _passim_).
Hogarth included in his print "Southwark Fair" (which came out after
August 1733) a showcloth of John Laguerre's engraving "The Stage
Mutiny," a print that in turn had been inspired by the actors'
secession. Hogarth's additions to the Laguerre print demonstrate his
close touch with these events (_HGW_, I, 156-7).[14] _The Harlot's
Progress_ provides us with a good example of the genre "Grotesque
Pantomime," and throws much light on the London stage entertainment
stream of an evening that included Hogarth, harlequin, Venus and Paris,
as well as dancing and singing.

Hogarth's eight prints of "A Rake's Progress" of 1735[15] provided the
subject--the rise and fall of a libertine--for a morality ballad opera
more than forty years later. The 15-scene stage piece, entitled _The
Rake's Progress_, elaborates visually and musically the formula: follow
virtue and avoid vice. The author clearly counted on audience
familiarity with the graphic scenes many years after their appearance,
and on an increased receptivity to explicit moralizing. This manuscript
was submitted by the unknown playwright to Drury Lane sometime between
September 1778 and June 1780. The possible date is most clearly focused
in the Sheridans' joint management. Richard assumed the management in
1776 and held it to at least 1809, but his father Thomas managed it with
his son only for the seasons 1778-1779 and 1779-1780.[16] I think it is
therefore possible to suggest a date for the manuscript between
September 1778 when Thomas Sheridan came to Drury Lane, and the end of
the 1779-1780 theatrical season, when he left at the age of 61.[17] The
piece was not performed.

Like the Cibber work, the text consists of stage directions and songs.
Allusions to Hogarth appear in title, characters, plot, and specific
scenes. Moreover, a "transparency" introduces the artist in a literal
stage portrait. This device praises Hogarth and reminds the audience of
the graphic correspondences in dramatic form to come.

_The Rake's Progress_ makes significant changes in the content of
Hogarth's series, expanding characters and scenes, and altering the
denouement somewhat from madness to suicide. New elements of music and
clowning change his lugubrious didacticism to a lyrical warning in a
form I call "morality ballad opera." The morality and masque features
appear in such characters as "Virtue" and "Vice" who frame the piece,
and "Liberty" and "Benevolence" who descend and ascend on a cloud, at
the end taking Virtue with them. Not included in the theater version is
Hogarth's depiction of the harsh realities of Bethlehem Hospital, or
Bedlam, where spectators pay to gawk at the inmates, and where
Rakewell's libertine journey ends dismally (Pl. 8). On the boards, the
didacticism is even more emphatic. Rakewell shoots himself to background
music which slows in tempo until it is "render'd as dismal as possible"
and Virtue proclaims a triumph over the demonstrated "baneful influence
of Vice."

In "A Rake's Progress" (1735), Hogarth depicts an inverse relationship
between morality and the misuse of money. In the first of the eight
prints, young Tom Rakewell inherits wealth from his miserly father and
misspends it for the remainder of his life in copying the lifestyle of
an aristocrat. His moral poverty is evident as he offers money to the
mother of pregnant Sarah Young, his former girlfriend, who stands
disconsolately poising a wedding ring. Letters containing his false
promises to her clarify the situation. Material wealth is the
cornerstone of this series as we next see the rake being measured by a
tailor for new clothes while a lawyer pilfers cash; and an upholsterer's
hammering to ready the room for mourning results in a shower of
previously hidden gold coins (Pl. 1). The levee (Pl. 2) shows Rakewell
in a fashionable morning gown, courted by a gardener, huntsman, and
others, while a list of gifts from the nobility to opera star Farinelli
includes a snuff box from Rakewell. His nocturnal taste shows in the
Rose Tavern where he carouses and is himself raked by harlots (Pl. 3).
As part of this debauched ambiance, a pregnant woman sings the bawdy
ballad "Black Joke." In daylight, the faithful Sarah saves Rakewell from
street arrest while a group of gamblers fills out the visual exposition
of the rake's dissipation (Pl. 4). Saved by the middle class girl he
ruined, Rakewell next weds a rich widow to recoup his losses. Sarah, her
mother, and Rakewell's infant offspring unsuccessfully try to abort this
clandestine wedding (Pl. 5). Rakewell's marriage of convenience cannot
meet his needs, and he soon rails despairingly in a Covent Garden
gambling house (Pl. 6). The juggernaut of vice presses on as he is
jailed for debt in Fleet Street prison where he runs up more bills. A
prisoner drops a "Scheme for paying y^{e} Debts of y^{e} Nation" to the
floor as Sarah faints away and Rakewell's wife scolds (Pl. 7). The
social nadir of Bedlam illumines darkly Rakewell's last loss--his
reason--and this graphic anti-progress concludes, as it began, with
Sarah's sorrow (Pl. 8).

What did the playwright do with Hogarth's harsh comment on the
misappropriation of inherited wealth? He seems to have enhanced
entertainment values and emphasized instruction at the same time. The
drama embellishes the series by (a) adding stage links only imaginable
by spectators of the print sequences, (b) framing the progress with a
morality masque starring Virtue and Vice, and (c) replacing Hogarth's
serious ironic tone with slapstick and songs drawn from stage musical
fare, such as the burletta _Poor Vulcan!_ by Charles Dibdin, which
premiered in February 1778 (_LS_, 5, I, 109). Basically, Hogarth's eight
prints of 1735 are transformed in part into a series of _tableaux
vivants_ which served, with variations, in the late 1770's as strong
visual reminders for an audience already familiar with the original
pictorial sequence.

For example, directions for the second scene attempt to put on the
boards the initial print, adding music and slapstick as "money from the
raftor falls into Clown's mouth." The play invites the spectator to
follow Sarah and her mother after they leave Rakewell and listen to
their duet, sung to the music of Air I of _The Beggar's Opera_. The
lyrics change, so that Peachum's cynical comment "Through all the
employments of life/Each neighbor abuses his brother" becomes "His vows,
ah! Why did'st thou believe?/He ne'er meant a promise to keep," with the
new association of Sarah's being cast off by Rakewell.

The drama closely follows the series for the rake's levee, where
professionals "pay Court" to Rakewell. A new character, "Van Butchel,"
who sings in dialect, is added. The opportunism of those proffering
services to the young man becomes clear in their musical medley when
they announce they will "plunder him as fast as we can agree." At the
Rose Tavern, stage directions for Rakewell state "the actor must let his
intoxication gradually increase." Before Rakewell's arrest, the bailiff
sings a solo. Sarah saves her lover, as in the sequence, but a small
revelation of his character not in the print marks the incident: he
"kisses her hand" before returning to his sedan chair.

The stage piece exploits the potential emotional element in such
gestures to the point of sentimentality. For instance, Sarah's lament
following Rakewell's marriage to the rich "Old Woman" shows grief
driving her to despair; she sings "The Grave will extinguish my
woes/Then Sarah--prepare thee to die" to the music of the seventeenth
century ballad tune "Mary's Lamentation." The drama also exploits the
sensational as the smoking fire in a Covent Garden gambling house
(Hogarth's Pl. 5) becomes a public catastrophe with fire engines and
furniture being carried into the street and "Confusion kept up as long
as necessary."

In the jail scene, the rake turns out of his breeches a "Scheme to Pay
the National Debt," a specific verbal echo of the Fleet Street print,
and the prisoners sing a familiar tune ("Welcome, Brother Debtor") as
musical background to his off-stage suicide. Then Virtue returns to
ascend with "Liberty and Benevolence" on a cloud, able to relax now that
Vice's influence has run its destructive course.

_The Rake's Progress_ is an essentially uneven dramatic work. The
playwright colors the didacticism of Hogarth's prints with music and
farce, yet underscores it by adding Virtue and Vice and the melodrama of
Rakewell's suicide and Sarah's probable death. The author capitalizes on
the suspense of choice, characteristic of the morality play, by
dramatizing it in conflicts between Vice and Virtue. Yet the effect
remains unbalanced. This palpable form of Hogarth's visual satire loses
much of its impact without a balance of serious, comic, and musical
ingredients. Furthermore, the musical elements are so haphazardly
distributed that they often contribute to a patchwork effect, as when
the bailiff sings a solo prior to making an arrest.

Although _The Rake's Progress_ purports to imitate Hogarth's "Comedy,"
where a "biginning, middle & an End/ Are Aptly join'd; where parts on
parts depend,/ Each made for each, as Bodies for their Soul," the 15
scenes alternate too erratically between humor and melodrama to convey
the artistic unity and moral conviction evident in the pictorial
sequence. But this stage piece does demonstrate the persistence of
Hogarth's visual presence in later eighteenth-century life along with
the adaptability of his graphic scenes for the London theater.

Clearly Theophilus Cibber's comical, lyrical exploitation in _The
Harlot's Progress_ of Hogarth's designs exhibits a more coherent
dramatic structure than the tentative, disjointed medley of music and
moralism in _The Rake's Progress_. Further, Cibber's piece adds literary
insight to our concept of the hardly dumb genre of pantomime, with its
musical and masque components. The added melodrama and sentimentality in
_The Rake's Progress_ can help to index theatrical taste in the later
period. For students of the century, both works demonstrate clearly an
aspect of the reliance on Hogarth's art by playwrights. They also show
the flexibility of the London stage in the use of elements of music and
dance to link separate print scenes, and so attempt a bridge between the
forms of art and drama. These two examples of the lively interplay
operative between stage and print in the early and late decades heighten
appreciation of the expectancies of cultural experiences of different
audiences in the eighteenth century.


                               THE TUNES

_The Harlot's Progress_ and _The Rake's Progress_ are alike interesting
for the parodic ballad opera pattern of setting new words to familiar
tunes. Though neither work includes the music, some songs indicate
familiar melodies such as "Let us take the road" from _The Beggar's
Opera_. In _The Harlot's Progress_, the six "Airs" come from varied
sources, with new lyrics by Theophilus Cibber. Of the approximately 24
unnumbered tunes and catches in _The Rake's Progress_, the most
outstanding in connection with the print sequence is "Black Joke,"
Richard Leveridge's bawdy tune shown by Hogarth in the Rose Tavern print
being sung by a pregnant woman (Pl. 5). In the stage piece, this song is
part of a medley sung to Rakewell by the various professionals who
compete for his money. The most important tunes are those from _Poor
Vulcan!_ the burletta by Charles Dibdin (February 1778), supporting my
1778-1780 date for _The Rake's Progress_ manuscript.

The sources used to trace the musical airs include Claude Simpson's _The
British Broadside Ballad and Its Music_ (New Brunswick: Rutgers
University Press, 1966); Minnie Sears' _Song Index_ (and _Supplement_)
(New York: Wilson Company, 1926 and 1934); Edythe N. Backus: _Catalogue
of Music Printed Before 1801_ (San Marino, Cal.: The Huntington Library,
1949), and William Barclay Squire, "An Index of Tunes in the
Ballad-Operas," _The Musical Antiquary_, II (October 1910), 1-17.[18]
E. V. Roberts points out that "the lack of a ballad designation for a
ballad-opera air usually means that the tune in question was composed
specially for that ballad opera" and that, because most "unnamed tunes
were unknown outside their ballad operas," they were "neither copied nor
printed, and simply do not turn up in the collections."[19] The catches
in _The Rake's Progress_ are not traceable. The numbering for songs in
_The Rake's Progress_ is my own. Airs from both plays give us some idea
of the rich musical treasure English stagewriters could draw upon for
theatrical offerings in the eighteenth century.[20]


                         THE HARLOT'S PROGRESS

_Air I_: "What tho I am a Country Lass" is an eighteenth century ballad
    by Martin Parker printed in _Orpheus Calendonius; or, A Collection
    of Scots Songs Set to Music by W[illiam] Thomson_, II (London 1733),
    p. 85. Its first two lines are "Although I be but a Country Lass/Yet
    a lofty Mind I bear-a." It was used by Theophilus Cibber (as Air
    XII) in his 1732 one-act version of Charles Coffey's _The Devil to
    Pay_ where the transformed cobbler's wife Nell sings: "Tho late I
    was a Cobler's Wife,/In cottage most obscure-a" (pp. 20-21). In _The
    Harlot's Progress_, this air, sung by Madame Decoy, is clearly
    appropriate for seducing Kitty-Moll into the world of bawds and
    prostitutes, with its theme of magical change and the conquest of
    innocence by vice.

_Air II_: "Brisk Tom and Jolly Kate" is Air IX of Lacy Ryan's _The
    Cobler's Opera_ (London 1729), which has tunes by Leveridge,
    Purcell, and others. The lyrics in Ryan's piece allude to Bridewell:
    "Pray; Sir, did I not give to you a Passage free/When Hemp did
    threaten," (pp. 14-15).

_Air III_: "Maggy Lawther" is a tune used by Theophilus Cibber (Air IX)
    in _Patie and Peggy ... A Scotch Ballad Opera_ (London 1730), p. 10.

_Air IV_: "Oh! what Pleasures will abound" is Air VII of Henry
    Fielding's _The Lottery_ (London 1732). Johann Pepusch composed the
    music for this air in collaboration with Lewis Theobald for the
    pantomime opera _Perseus and Andromeda_ (1730). Fielding's name for
    the tune was "In Perseus and Andromeda."

_Air V_: "Lads a Dunce." The music is preserved in British Library Add.
    MS. 29371, fol. 30a, no. 45, and printed in Fielding's _The
    Grub-Street Opera_ as Air II (ed. Edgar V. Roberts, Lincoln:
    University of Nebraska Press, 1968), p. 92. Its composer is not
    known.

_Air VI_: "Maidens fresh as a Rose" appears as Air VI in Ebenezer
    Forrest's ballad opera _Momus turn'd fabulist; or, Vulcan's
    Wedding_, a work translated from the French of Fuzelier and Le Grand
    (London 1729), p. 12. It also could be the song in D'Urfey's _Wit
    and Mirth: or, Pills to Purge Melancholy_ (1719), with a slightly
    different title, "Maiden fresh as a Rose," though the syllabic
    pattern does not seem to match: "Young buxome and full of
    jollity,/Take no Spouse among Beaux," (I, p. 57).


                          THE RAKE'S PROGRESS

_Airs I-III_ are not traceable ("From Virue's sluggish Rules be free,"
    "Mary's Dream" and "Alteration").

_Air IV_: "Duett" to the tune "An Old Woman Cloathed in Gray" is the
    familiar first tune of John Gay's _The Beggar's Opera_, ed. Edgar V.
    Roberts (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969), pp. 94-95.

_Air V_: Van Butchel's song ("See Martin dus his goods display") is not
    in the songbooks. Prof. Roberts suggests the lyrics could fit the
    music of "Lillibullero," sometimes used for songs in dialect. Henry
    Purcell wrote or arranged this Irish burden which was used in 12
    ballad operas, including Fielding's _Don Quixote in England_ (1733).
    Simpson (p. 454) gives one example in dialect: "By Creist my dear
    Morish vat makes de sho'shad" (ca. 1689).

_Air VI_: "Shelah O'Sudds" (to the tune "The Siege of Troy") is not
    traceable.

_Air VII_: "Medley. Tune, 'Petition Poor Vulcan'" is from Charles
    Dibdin's burletta _Poor Vulcan!_ (London 1778) which begins: "The
    humble prayer and petition/Of Vulcan, who his sad condition" (I, 1,
    p. 7).

_Air VIII_: "Tune. Hunting Chorus, 'Poor Vulcan'" is the "Chorus and
    Air" from Dibdin's _Poor Vulcan!_ It begins: "Blacksmith: 'Strike,
    strike, ton, ton ton, ron'/Huntsman: 'Sound, Sound, tan, ran, ran,
    tan'" (I, ii, p. 10).

_Air IX_: "Tune: 'Finale 1st act _Poor Vulcan!_'" seems to be the song
    "Pike; 'Pooltroon! Damnation! Zounds, unhand me;/ Either you
    villain, eat that word,'" (_Poor Vulcan!_ I, p. 23).

_Air X_: "Medley. Tune, 'Black Joke'" is Leveridge's song of 1730. See
    E. V. Roberts, ed. Henry Fielding, _The Grub-Street Opera_ (p. 105)
    and Charles Wood's _The Author's Farce_ (Lincoln: University of
    Nebraska Press, 1966), p. 116.

_Air XI_: "Welcome, Brother Debtor" appears in many eighteenth-century
    song collections, including Henry Roberts' _Calliope; or, English
    Harmony, a collection of ... English and Scots tunes_ (London,
    1739-1749), p. 315.

_Airs XII_, _XIII_ _and XIV_ are not traceable. ("Medley tunes 'Stoney
    Batter,' 'Tyburn Tree,' and 'Ballance a Straw.'")

_Air XV_: "Bailiff's Song" has no tune and is not traceable.

_Air XVI_: "Mind the Golden Rule" is not identifiable.

_Air XVII_: "Tune 'Mary's Lamentation'" is the old ballad (set to the
    music of "Crimson Velvet"), the "lamentable complaint" of Queen Mary
    for the "unkind departure" of King Philip, "in whose absence she
    fell sick, and died," which begins "Mary doth complain;/Ladies be
    you moved," and appears in Richard Johnson's _Crown Garland of
    Roses_ (1659), ed. Chappell, 1895. Though popular in the seventeenth
    century, it may have been written soon after Queen Mary's death in
    1558 (Simpson, p. 141). Verses similar to Air XVII ("I Sigh and
    lament me in vain,/These Walls can but echo my moan,") appeared in
    Signior Giordani's "Queen Mary's Lamentation," printed in Domenico
    Corri's _Select Collection_ of 1779 (III, No. 71).

_Air XVIII_: The "Clown's Song" seems to have been specially composed
    for this work.

_Air XIX_: "Tune: 'Let us take the Road'" is the famous "March in
    Rinaldo" by Handel. See Air XX, _The Beggar's Opera_ (Act II, ed.
    Roberts, pp. 130-131).

_Air XX_: "Ballad Tune: 'The Race Horse'" with the title "The Rake's
    Progress." Thomas D'Urfey's tune is called "The Race Horse," and
    begins "To Horse, brave Boys of Newmarket, to Horse," and is "set to
    an excellent Scotch tune" called "Cock up thy Beaver" (Simpson, p.
    112). It was first published with the music in D'Urfey's _Choice New
    Songs_ (1684) and appears as an untitled air in Kane O'Hara's comic
    opera _Midas_ (1764; ARS 167). It is also called "Newmarket," or
    "Newmarket Horse Race," Air XXII of the 1730 and 1750 versions of
    Fielding's _The Author's Farce_. The music is printed in Woods's
    edition of _The Author's Farce_, p. 133.

California State University
Northridge



                       NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION


[1]: There are at least three dramatic pieces other than the _Theophilus
    Cibber_ work reprinted here which were inspired by William Hogarth's
    "A Harlot's Progress." Ronald Paulson reports one announced in the
    _Daily Advertiser_ (13 November 1732) by Charlotte Charke entitled
    _The Harlot_. It had been printed by Curll; but there is no record
    of performance (_Hogarth: His Life, Art, and Times_, I, London and
    New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, p. 290). Paulson also
    mentions the publication announcement in the _Daily Advertiser_ (5
    February 1732/3) of: "_The Decoy_, or _The Harlot's Progress_ (on
    February 14 called _The Jew Decoy'd_), a new ballad opera, said to
    be performed at Goodman's Fields" (p. 290). _The Jew Decoy'd_, a
    work never performed and discussed at length by Robert E. Moore
    (_Hogarth's Literary Relationships_, Minneapolis: University of
    Minnesota Press, 1948, pp. 34-36) as being published in 1733, is a
    different piece than _The Decoy; or, The Harlot's Progress, A New
    Ballad Opera_ [By Henry Potter] (_The London Stage_, ed. Arthur
    Scouten, Part 3, Vol. I, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University
    Press, 1962-68, pp. 269-270, abbreviated in later citations as
    "_LS_" followed by part, volume and page number.) The title page of
    Potter's piece reads: "_The Decoy. An Opera. As it is Acted at the
    New Theatre in Goodman's Fields_. London, 1733, with the
    "Dedication" signed by Potter. This three-act piece contains 52
    songs, three of which also appear in Cibber's "The Harlot's
    Progress." The "Introduction" alludes to Hogarth's series as the
    source ("the Sketch is now in Print"), but it has many links to John
    Gay's _The Beggar's Opera_, and, like Cibber's piece, only follows
    the first three plates. Potter's small theater in the Haymarket
    opened in 1720 but no organized company had produced legitimate
    drama there by 1728 (_LS_, 3, I, cxxxix). The run was successful for
    Potter: he had a benefit on 8 February, with the comment "On account
    of the great Demand for Places, the Pit and Boxes will be laid
    together at 5s each" (_LS_ 3, I, 270). Hogarth had advertised the
    subscription for "A Harlot's Progress" as early as 8 March 1731.
    (See Ronald Paulson, _Hogarth's Graphic Works_, I, Rev. Ed., New
    Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1970, p. 141. Citations in
    my text are abbreviated _HGW_ followed by volume and page number.)
    This piece appears in Baker's _Biographia Dramatica_ (Vol. II, p.
    157) without comment, while he lists "_The Jew Decoy'd; or The
    Progress of an Harlot_," 8vo. 1733 "as never being performed, but
    founded on the Hogarth series." _The Jew Decoy'd_ discussed by Moore
    has the title page: "London: Printed for E: Rayner ... 1733,"
    published on 14 February (p. 34). The Henry E. Huntington Library
    has a copy, "Printed by W: Rayner ... 1735" but does not have the
    frontispiece Moore describes. For engravings, see Vol. II of
    Paulson's _Hogarth's Graphic Works_.

[2]: Reprinted here with permission of the Henry E. Huntington Library
    (No. 151783). There are two other extant copies of the first
    edition: one in the Boston Public Library and the other in the
    British Library. The British Library copy has two inserted engraved
    portraits (Theophilus Cibber in his role of Pistol, and Hogarth
    seated at an easel studying a cartoon of a goddess, probably based
    on "Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse" of 1758). Yale University has a
    photostat facsimile of the Boston Public Library edition. I thank
    David Rodes for looking at the British Library copy.

[3]: Reprinted here in typescript form from a manuscript difficult to
    reproduce legibly. The work is anonymous. The typescript appeared as
    "Appendix I" of my unpublished New York University dissertation on
    William Hogarth with permission of the Trustees of the British
    Library. I have discussed it in "_The Rake's Progress_: A New
    Dramatic Version of William Hogarth's Prints," in _Notes and
    Queries_ (October 1972), 381-383. The theatrical career of the
    author, Theophilus Cibber (1703-1758), has not been fully assessed.
    He did know Hogarth: they both belonged to John Rich's group, the
    "Sublime Society of Beef Steaks," which met in the scene-painting
    loft over the Covent Garden stage. Cibber joined the group in
    September 1739, and Hogarth was a charter member in 1735 (_HGW_, I,
    188). Cibber himself played an active role in the creation of the
    position of stage manager or "under-manager" (_LS_, 3, I, xcvi).

[4]: See my essay concerning such connections, in "William Hogarth and
    London Theatrical Life," _Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture,
    Vol. 5_, ed. R. Rosbottom (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press,
    1975), 11-31.

[5]: See my "Music and Theatre in Hogarth," The _Musical Quarterly_, 57
    (July 1971), 409-426.

[6]: "Some Aspects of Music and Literature," repr. _Facets of the
    Enlightenment_ (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968),
    p. 92.

[7]: See "The Tunes" at end of Introduction.

[8]: _English Theatre Music in the Eighteenth Century_ (London: Oxford
    University Press, 1973), p. 108.

[9]: "The Popularity of Various Types of Entertainment at Lincoln's Inn
    Fields and Covent Garden Theatres, 1720-1733," _Theatre Notebook_,
    XXIV: 4 (Summer 1970), 156.

[10]: The complete title is "_The Judgment of Paris. A Dramatic
    Entertainment In Dancing and Singing, After the Manner of the
    Ancient Greeks and Romans. As it is Perform'd at the Theatre-Royal
    in Drury Lane_," with words by Congreve, music by Seedo and
    "Compos'd by J. Weaver, Dancing-Master." This work had its Drury
    Lane debut 6 February 1733, and _The London Stage_ entry for 31
    March 1733 reads: "John Banks's _The Albion Queens_ ... Also _The
    Harlot's Progress; or, the Triumph of Beauty_" (_LS_, 3, I, 283).
    Many actors and actresses doubled (e.g., Mrs. Raftor is one of the
    "Graces" in the masque). No doubt the concluding "Masque" of _The
    Harlot's Progress_ is Weaver's piece (p. 12).

[11]: Paulson (_HGW_, I, 148) describes these two doctors, "well known
    for their quack cures for venereal disease." Dr. Rock's name was
    added by Hogarth in a later state of the print.

[12]: Cibber's piece may have opened as early as 12 March 1733 in the
    pantomime house at Sadler's Wells, which had been reconstructed from
    a seventeenth century Music Room (see _LS_, 3, I, xxxix). Cibber's
    _The Harlot's Progress_ had a successful run at Drury Lane in the
    spring of 1733, from 31 March until 28 May, when the actor-manager
    dispute led to a closing of the playhouse (see _LS_, 3, I, 304). It
    played as an afterpiece to such works as _Cato_ and _The Provok'd
    Husband_, and on 26 April a playbill announced the "Royal Family
    expected to attend" (_LS_, 3, I, 293). Thereafter it had a career at
    the fairs, beginning with the Lee-Harper-Petit Booth on Tottenham
    Court on 30 August 1733 (_LS_, 3, I, 310), moving on 23 August to
    Bartholomew Fair and on 28 September to Mile End Green, where the
    harlot's name is listed as "Moll Hackabout" (_LS_, 3, I, 321). On 27
    October 1733 it had a command performance at Drury Lane (_LS_, 3, I,
    330). It played frequently during that winter and in the spring, on
    26 April, the seceding actors returned to Drury Lane to perform in
    _The Conscious Lovers_ and _The Harlot's Progress_. The cast list is
    the same as that in the text reprinted here (_LS_, 3, I, 390). The
    successful run continued through October 1734; after that it was
    only played a couple of times before the 1736 season (_LS_, 3, I,
    _passim_). Scouten observes: "a remarkable feature" is that this
    piece "places a Jewish merchant in a favorable light, treating him
    not with sympathy but with respect as a pillar of trade" (_LS_, 3,
    I, xcvi).

[13]: "A Letter from Theo. Cibber, Comedian, To John Highmore, Esq."
    (London 1733).

[14]: Hogarth reversed Laguerre's print, adding the banner "We eat," the
    label "Pistol's alive" under Theophilus Cibber's feet and the phrase
    "Quiet and Snug" under Colley Cibber. For descriptions of the
    rebellion, see John Genest, _Some Account of the English Stage from
    the Restoration in 1660 to 1830_, III, Bath: 1832, pp. 415-416,
    Richard H. Barker, _Mr. Cibber of Drury Lane_ (New York: Columbia
    University Press, 1939), pp. 168-171, and Arthur Scouten, _LS_, 3,
    I, lxxxix-xciii.

[15]: For exposition of the eight prints of "A Rake's Progress" (1735)
    see Paulson's _HGW_, I, 158-170. The subscription was announced in
    late 1733, but the paintings were not completed until mid-1734.

[16]: Esther K. Sheldon, _Thomas Sheridan of Smock-Alley_ (Princeton,
    N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 284-285, and Raymond C.
    Rhodes, _Harlequin Sheridan: The Man and the Legend_ (Oxford: B.
    Blackwell, 1933), p. 79.

[17]: Sheldon, p. 301.

[18]: I am indebted to Prof. Edgar V. Roberts for pointing out this
    source to me, and for his help in identifying many of the tunes.

[19]: "Mr. Seedo's London Career and His Work with Henry Fielding,"
    _Philological Quarterly, XLV_ (January 1966), 185 and 189.

[20]: See Bronson's article (above, n. 6) _passim_, where he mentions
    many of the songbooks.



                          BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE


The facsimile of _The Harlot's Progress_ (1733) is reproduced from the
copy (Shelf Mark: 151783) in the Henry E. Huntington Library. The total
type-page (p. 9) measures 155 x 115 mm. _The Rake's Progress_ (ca.
1778-1780) is presented in type from a manuscript (Additional MS. 25997)
in the British Library. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation have
been preserved, but colons and doubled colons used to indicate word
divisions have been silently emended to hyphens or closed, and free-form
brackets for stage directions have been standardized to parentheses.



                                  THE
                           HARLOT'S PROGRESS;
                                OR, THE
                         _RIDOTTO AL' FRESCO_:


                                   A
                   Grotesque Pantomime Entertainment.


       As it is perform'd by his Majesty's Company of Comedians
                                 AT THE
                     THEATRE-ROYAL in _Drury-Lane_.

             Compos'd by Mr. _Theophilus Cibber_, Comedian.

           The SONGS made (to old Ballad Tunes) by a Friend.


        Printed for the Benefit of _Richard Cross_ the Prompter;
           and Sold at the Theatre. 1733. [Price Six Pence.]



                                  THIS
                             ENTERTAINMENT

                     Is Dedicated to the Ingenious
                          Mr. _H O G A R T H_,

                               (On Whose
                   Celebrated Designs it is Plan'd,)

                               _By his Well-wisher,_
                                    _and obliged_
                                         _Humble Servant_,

                                         Theo. Cibber.

_Saturday, March_
_31st, 1733._



Persons in the Harlot's Progress.

    Harlequin,                          Mr. _Le Brun_.
    Beau _Mordecai_,                    Mr. _Stoppelaer_.
    Old Debauchee,                      Mr. _Berry_.
    Justice _Mittimus_,                 Mr. _Mullart_.
    Mons. _Poudre_,                     Mr. _Oates_.
    Constable,                          Mr. _Jones_.
    Keeper,                             Mr. _Burnet_.
    Porter,                             Mr. _Peploe_.
    _Pompey_,                           Y. _Grace_.
    Beadles,                           {Mr. _Gray_.
                                       {Mr. _Wright_.
    Miss _Kitty_,                       Miss _Raftor_.
    Madam _Decoy_,                      Mrs. _Mullart_.
    _Jenny_,                            Mrs. _Grace_.
    Bess _Brindle_,                     Mr. _Leigh_.


Persons in the _Ridotto al' Fresco_.

_Les Capricieux_ by Mr. _Essex_ and Miss _Robinson_.
The _Hungarians_ by Mr. _Houghton_ and Mrs. _Walter_.
The _Fingalians_ by Mr. _Lally_ Sen. and Miss _Mears_.
_Scaramouch_, _Pierot_, and _Mezetin_ by Mr. _Lally_, Junior, Mr.
    _Tench_, and Mr. _Stoppelaer_.
Ladies of Pleasure by Miss _Mann_, Miss _Atherton_ and Miss _Price_.
The Marquis _de Fresco_ by Monsieur _Arlequin en Chien_.



                                  THE
                           HARLOT'S PROGRESS;
                                OR, THE
                         _RIDOTTO AL' FRESCO_:


AFTER the Overture, the Curtain rises;--the Scene represents an Inn; The
Bawd, the Country Girl, the _Debauchee_ and the Pimp, all rang'd as they
are in the _first Print_.--The Parson on the Right Hand, reading the
Letter, soon goes off----while the Bawd is persuading the Girl to go
along with her, Harlequin appears at the Window, and seeing the Country
Girl, jumps down, and gets into a Trunk which belongs to her, while the
Bawd sings.


                 AIR I. What tho' I am a Country Lass.

    _Let Country Damsels plainly nice,
        In Home-spun Russet go, Sir;
    While, Frolick we, chearful as wise,
        More pleasing Transports know, Sir.
                They dull and coy,
                Refuse the Joy,
        All bashful void of Skill-a:
                We gay and free
                To each fond He
        Yield up our selves at Will-a._

    _At last our Youth and Charms decay'd,
        Like old experienc'd Sinners,
    We follow the procuring Trade,
        And train up young Beginners.
                Thus ample Gains,
                Reward our Pains;
        Then mock not our Profession,
                Like Courtiers we,
                Secure the Fee,
        And laugh at the Transgression._

After the Song, the Bawd beckons a Porter, orders him to take up the
Trunk and follow her and the Girl, which he does, with Harlequin in
it.--Then the _Debauchee_ comes forward, who seems to be enamour'd with
the Girl; the Pimp assures him he can procure her for him, upon which
the _Debauchee_ seems rejoic'd and sings in Praise of Women and Wine.


                  AIR II. _Brisk_ Tom _and Jolly_ Kate.

    _Brisk Wine and Women are,
        The Sum of all our Joy;
    A Brimmer softens every Care,
        And Beauty ne'er can cloy:
    Then let us Drink and Love,
        While still our Hearts are gay,
    Women and Wine, by turns shall prove,
        Our Blessings Night and Day._

After the Song he follows her--the Pimp struts about and sings.


                       AIR III. _Maggy Lawther._

    _Pimping is a Science, Sir,
        The only Mode and Fashion,
    To Virtue bids Defiance, Sir,
        'Tis the Glory of the Nation.
    In City, Country, or in Court,
        It is the Coup d'Grace, Sir;
    If you your Patron's Vice support,
        You need not fear a Place, Sir._

    _The Lawyer pimps to gain a Coif,
        While Porters pimp for Hire;
    Kind_ Betty _serves his Worship's Wife,
        The Page pimps for the Squire,
    'Tis pimping gains a large Estate,
        Makes Valets wear their Swords, Sir,
    For Pimps oft look as big and great,
        As any Duke or Lord, Sir._

After the Song he follows the Debauchee.--The Scene changes to the
Street; the Debauchee having found Harlequin in Company with Miss
_Kitty_, turns her out of Doors, and the Pimp kicks out Harlequin;
_Kitty_ goes out in the greatest Distress--Harlequin by his Action
signifies he's in Love, and is in doubt whether to hang or drown
himself, or cut his Throat, _&c_. At length he resolves to follow her,
and determines to dress himself like a smart _Cadet_, in order to
address her: To accomplish which he strikes the Ground, and there rises
a Dressing-Table fix'd in a Cloud, furnish'd with all necessary
Appurtenances.----After he is drest, the Table vanishes and he goes out.
The Scene changes to the Lodging that Beau _Mordecai_ has provided for
_Kitty_, whom he has just taken into high Keeping. (This Scene is taken
from _the Second Print_) she is discovered lolling upon a _Settée_,
attended by her Maid and Black-Boy, admiring the Grandeur of which she
is possess'd, and then sings.


                AIR IV. Oh! what Pleasures will abound.

    _Who wou'd not a Mistress be,
        Kept in Splendor thus like me?
    Deckt in golden rich Array,
    Sparkling at each Ball and Play!
            Gaily toying,
            Sweets enjoying
    Foreign to that thing a Wife,
            Flirting, flaunting,
            Jilting, jaunting,
    Oh the Charming happy Life!_

After the Song Harlequin creeps from under her Toilet, in the Habit of
the _Cadet_, and courts Miss _Kitty_; she appears Coy at first, but at
length yields to him.--Then sings.


                        AIR V. _Lad's a Dunce._

                  _Thus finely set out,
                  I'll make such a Rout,
    And top all the Rantipole Girls of the Town;
                  With Glances so bright,
                  Lords and Dukes I'll delight,
    And make all the Rakes with their Ready come down,
                  The Stock-jobbing Cit,
                  For a hundred I'll hit,
    While me he is rifling, I'll riflle his Purse;
                  With Saint-like Smile
                  I'll Zealots beguile,
    And make the fond Hypocrite freely disburse._

                  _Thus, thus in full Pow'r,
                  I'll sweeten, I'll sour,
    I'll whindle, I'll bluster, I'll wheedle, I'll cant,
                  I'll bubble, I'll blind,
                  Make Fools of Mankind,
    Each Cully shall think he's my only Gallant,
                  With such Supplies
                  To Grandeur I'll rise,
    And revel in Pleasure, in Plenty and Ease,
                  While in the dark,
                  A favourite Spark,
    I'll keep at my Call to enjoy when I please._

After the Song they retire to the Bed; immediately is heard a knocking
at the Door; the Maid looks out and perceives it to be the _Jew_, upon
which she runs and tells her Mistress, who comes out with Harlequin in
the utmost Confusion.--But she advises him to retire to the Bed, which
he does; she sits down upon the _Settée_, and orders the Maid to let
_Mordecai_ in--when he enters he seems angry that she made him wait so
long at the Door, but is soon pacify'd when he sees _Kitty_ alone.--He
sits down by her, and is very fond of her; then orders the Maid to get
Tea, which she does--while they are drinking it, _Kitty_ appears in
Confusion, and makes Signs to the Maid to let Harlequin out; but while
he is attempting to steal away, he accidentally drops his Sword and
Cane, which surprizes the _Jew_, who turning about perceives Harlequin,
upon which Miss _Kitty_ in a Passion over-sets the Tea-Table.--The _Jew_
enrag'd, runs to secure the Door, and is in the greatest Passion with
her, she laughs at him, and they sing the following _Duette_.


                 AIR VI. _Maidens as fresh as a Rose._

            Kitty.  _Farewell, good Mr._ Jew;
                      _Now I hate your tawny Face;
                    I'll have no more to do
                      With you or any of your Race._

            Jew.    _Begone, you saucy Jade,
                      I will ne'er believe thee more;
                    Follow the_ Drury _Trade,
                      Thou shalt ne'er deceive me more._

            Kitty.  _Then take your self away,
                      Since I have chous'd you well, you Cull;
                    But come another Day,
                      When you have got your Pockets full._

            Jew.    _Be not so pert, my Dear,
                      This Pride may shortly have a Fall,
                    Soon shall I see or hear,
                      Madam,_ in Bridewell, _milling Doll._

            Repeat.     _Soon shall I see or hear_, &c.
She repeats with him.   _Ne'er more will I come near,_
                        _Such a pitiful pimping Fool._

After the Song he turns her and her Maid out of Doors, then pursues
Harlequin.--A Picture falls down, Harlequin jumps thro' the Hangings,
and the Picture returns to its place and conceals him.--The Subject of
the Picture, which was before an Historical Story, is now chang'd to a
Representation of the _Jew_ with Horns upon his Head.--While he stands
in astonishment the other Picture changes likewise, and represents
Harlequin and _Kitty_ embracing--upon which the _Jew_ runs out in the
greatest surprize. Scene changes to the Street. Harlequin meets the
_Jew_, who immediately draws; Harlequin catches him by the Leg, and
throws him down, jumps over him, and runs off, the _Jew_ pursues
him.----The Scene changes to a poor Apartment in _Drury-Lane_. (This is
taken from the Third Print) _Kitty_ is discover'd sitting disconsolate
by the Bedside, drinking of Tea, attended by _Bess Brindle_ (a Runner to
the Ladies of Pleasure) Harlequin jumps in at the Window; she seems
overjoy'd to see him--just as they are going to sit down to drink Tea,
they hear a Noise without--Harlequin looks thro' the Key-hole, and
discovers it to be the Justice, Constable, Watch, &c. He is very much
surpris'd, and jumps into a Punch-Bowl that stands upon a Table, to hide
himself--Justice _Mittimus_ enters with the Constable, &c. the Watch
seize _Kitty_ and the Runner, and carry 'em off.--The Constable stays
behind to pilfer what he can, during which, Harlequin creeps from under
the Table; the Constable seeing him, goes to seize him, but he jumps
thro' the Window and escapes--the Constable runs off.--The Scene changes
to the Street. A melancholy Tune is play'd, while several Ladies of
Pleasure (alias _unfortunate Women_) are led cross the Stage as going to
_Bridewell_, with _Kitty_ and her Maid, the Bawd, &c. Three Justices
bring up the Rear.--Scene changes to _Bridewell_. The Women are
discover'd all leaning in an indolent manner upon their Blocks.--The
Keeper enters, and seeing them so idle, threatens to beat 'em--as they
take up their Hammers and Beetles, and are going to beat, the Blocks all
vanish, and in their stead appear Harlequin, Scaramouch, _Pierrot_, and
_Mezetin_, each takes out his Lady to dance, and signify they'll go to
the _Ridotto al Fresco_; the Keeper runs away frighted, they all dance
off.--Scene changes to the Street. A great Number of People pass over
the Stage, as going to the _Ridotto_, among whom appears the Marquiss
_ae Fresco_, perform'd by the little Harlequin Dog.

The Scene changes to the _Ridotto al Fresco_, illuminated with several
Glass Lustres, (the Scene taken from the place at _Vaux-Hall_) Variety
of People appear in Masquerade, and a grand Comic Ballad is perform'd by
different Characters to _English_, _Scotch_, _Irish_ and _French_ Tunes,
which concludes the whole.

                               * * * * *

Then follows the Masque of the _Judgment of Paris_, &C.


                              _F I N I S._



            The
Rake's Progress.


            from W. Shaw.

                The Rake's Progress.

          ("Hogarth's Series of Pictures Dramatised." P.G.P.)

                                25,997                    British Museum



                         _The Rake's Progress_

_Before the Curtain--Prefaratory Address._


    To wake the Soul by tender strokes of Art
    To raise the Genius & to mend the Heart
    To make mankind in conscious virtue bold
    Was Hogarth's wish while Rakewell's Tale he told,
    And strongly painted in gradations nice,
    The pomp of Folly, & the Shame of Vice,
    Reach'd thro' the laughing Eye--the mended Mind,
    And moral humour sportive art beguil'd;
    The Walks of humour were his cast of style,
    Which probing to the quick, yet makes us smile;
    'Twas Comedy, his natural road to fame,
    (Nor let me call it by a meaner name).
    Where a biginning, middle & and End
    Are aptly Join'd; where parts on parts depend,
    Each made for each, as Bodies for their Soul,
    So as to form one true & perfect whole,
    Where a plain story to the Eye is told,
    Which we conceive the moment we behold;
    This _we_ adopt, your Feelings to engage,
    And bring his glowing Portraits on the Stage,
    In action tell the workings of the mind
    And paint the Various follies of Mankind,
    Nor criticism the Attempt destroy,
    If with pure Gold we mingle an alloy,
    And his great Scenes where nature's self is shewn
    Connect with trifling sketches of our own
    Nor (to the moral Tale give ample Vigour)
    Deny the aid of allegoric Figure;
    But Vice & Virtue see this Mansion tread,
    And in preludium tow'rds the Story lead,
    Attentive view each action of our Rake,
    And 'plaud the actor for the Painter's Sake.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 1^{st}_

                             _Enter Vice._

_Recitative._ Deck'd in the gaieties of thoughtless Joy
                Let jocund Laughter in each orbit beam
              In mirth alone I passing time Employ
                Attune my Voice & Pleasure is the Theme.
              The Flowery maze of Pleasure is divine
                And Mortals bow at Vice's dazzling Shrine.

        Air.--From Virue's sluggish Rules be free,
                Ye mortals who my Shrine adore,
              Dance, Laugh & Quaff, & sing like me,
                And dissipate the tasteless hour:
              In frolic, pastime, Sport & Play
              Revel in Joys your Lives away.

                            _Enter Virtue._

                             _Recitative._

_Vice._ But Virtue comes!--Offends my sickening Eye!

(Virtue touches the Scene & a Transparency of _Hogarth_ appears with a
Scrool in his hand on which is inscribed "_The Rake's Progress_.")

          And Hogarth!--Moral Painter too I see!
        In dark oblivion shall thy Semblance lie,
          Hogarth & Virtue're enemies to me

              (_Approaches to Destroy the Transparency._)

                             _Recitative._

        _Virtue._ Forbear, forbear--by Hogarth is pourtray'd
    The Fate of those thy precepts have betray'd,
    As in a Mirror's seen each impious Joy,
    That Courts the Victim only to destroy.
    And look--(_Vice goes off._) Appall'd Vice trembles at the Sound
    In virtue only is true Pleasure found.      (_Exit._)

                               * * * * *

_Before the Drop--Enter Virtue._

                      _Air. Tune, "Mary's Dream."_

    Beware--nor lur'd by Vice's Arts,
        A moment listen to her wiles,
    He who from Virtue's path departs
        In seas of trouble she beguiles;
    This Hogarth's living pictures shew
        View thoughtless man, by Vice undone,
    A warning 'tis design'd for you,
        Behold--& baneful pleasure Shun.      (_Exit_)

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 2^{nd}_      (_No Music._)

     A Loud knocking at Street Door

Enter _Starved Maid_ O.P.--She goes across so slow that the Knocking
increases; just before she gets to the Door it is burst open by
_Rake_ (a Youth from College) follow'd by _attorney_, _Upholsterer_ &
_Clown Servant_. _Rake_ flourishes about, kicks against Closet Door,
breaks it open. (Tune "Alteration") takes Keys from thence--Opens an
Iron chest, assisted by _Clown_--_Rake_ scatters Cash about from out
of Bags--Lawyer having sat down & produced a Paper with the Word
"Inventory" written at Top, begins to count Cash, pocketing some at
opportunities; _Upholsterer_ fetches a Ladder & goes to work to take
down Tapestry. _Rake_ breaks open Bureau, throws parchments about;
seeming to look for one in particular. _Clown_ having observed the
_Lawyer_ pocke[ts] some Cash, places himself so near _Lawyer_, that he
puts the money into _Clown's_ pocket, supposing to have put it into his
own. A Knocking at the Door obliges _Clown_ to go. _Taylor_, with a Roll
of Black Cloth, is introduced by _Clown_, much ceremony between _Taylor_
& _Clown_.--_Taylor_ proceeds & measures _Rake_. _Clown_ gets his
fingers snipp'd for interfering. The Door having been left open--Enter
_Starv'd Maid_ with wood; & goes to the Fireplace; _Clown_ then looking
at _Upholsterer_ at Work, the money from the raftor falls into _Clown's_
mouth, at which he Spits & makes a piece of work as if hurt, puts his
hand to his mouth & finding it is money Returns & holds up the flap of
his coat to catch more. Enter P.S. _Mother & Daughter_, at sight of whom
_Rake_ stands aghast.--Girl approaches him. _Rake_ turns from her--She
retreats in Tears--_Mother_ enraged shews Letters--_Girl_ shews a
Ring--_Rake_ takes a handful of Guineas, offers _mother_--who rejects
them, striking his hand, scatters them on the Ground; _Lawyer_ Turns
_Mother & Daughter_ out, placing _Clown_ with his back against the Door.
_Rake_ in great agitation, walks about, _Taylor_ following him to finish
measuring him: Lawyer picking up the money & pocketing some.--_Clown_
points to _Rake_--who, on seeing _Lawyer_ at it, takes Rolls of
Parchment & beats _Lawyer_ about the Head--upon which _Clown_ takes the
Roll of Black Cloth & knocks it about _Taylor's_ head, _Taylor_ resists,
_Upholsterer_ on his Ladder Laughs--The Scuffle increases, in which they
knock down the Ladder, _Upholsterer_ falls--_Rake_ & _Clown_ turn them
all out.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 3^{d}_

                     _Enter Mother & Daughter_

            _Duett_--Tune--"An Old Woman Cloathed in Grey."

    _Mother._  His Vows, ah! Why did'st thou believe?
      He ne'er meant a promise to keep,
    He talk'd but of Love to decieve,
      Then Leave plunder'd Virtue to weep.
    Yet Tears my Sad Chidings disarm,
      For thy fault Pity pleadingly moves
    In her Bosom Affection Shall warm
      The Daughter she tenderly loves.

    _Daughter._ Dear Parent, oh! Cease to complain
      And heedfully hear thy lost Child
    Go tell the false ear of my Swain
      How deeply his Vows have beguil'd;--
    Go tell him what sorrow I bear,
      See yet if his heart feel my woe,
    'Tis now he must heal my despair,
      Or death will make pity too slow.      _Exeunt._

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 4^{th}_

Discovers all the _Characters_ in Waiting at Rake's Levee. _Italian_
Singing &c--_Clown_ introduces _Van Butchel_, who displays a variety of
his Articles.--_Van Butchel_ Sings.

Song--  See Martin dus his goods display--
        "Advice Two Guineas"--vat you say?
        "Big Ben--John Hunter--Duc d'Orleans--
        "Knows vat my regulations means;
        "De Gent I make of de aukward ninny,
        "But first to be sure I must touch de Guinea,
        "Den De Lame I vil make go dance de hay
        "And de old & decripid go jump away.

        "Beware De Counterfiet if they should
        "Be imitate, as are all things good--
        "On de Guinea--for to abash bad men
        "I have write my name wid de author's Pen.
        "They'll cure you be sure if them once you lap on
        "Of all de complainings dat ever may happen,
        "De blind they'll make see to go dance the Hay,
        "And de Old & decripid vill jump away.

Enter _Rakewell_ to whom they all pay Court &c

                               _Medley._

_Poet._ To Rakewell, whose enlivening Features         (Tune
        Pronounce him first of happy creatures         Petition
        By wealth a Croesus 'self Created,             _Poor Vulcan_)
        This fair Epistle's Dedicated

_Dance^{g} Mas^{r}_   Look! Look! Look! (Spoke.)
                      With my tun'd little Kit         (Tune
                      Every fancy I hit
                      And merrily prance it            _Black Joke_.)
                      And caper & Dance it
                      With Ease, Elegance & Grace

_Fenc.^{g} Mas^{r}_   Ha! ha!--there I had him
                            Carte & Fierce my Blade    (Tune
                      La! La!--there I bled him--
                            Damme!--See, he's dead.    _Stoney Batter_.)
                      Tol lol lol do

_Van But_:    Since 'mong your Friends I have gain'd me a place
              All who Gallows her vant, vy, I'll presently trace
              Not you (_to Bully_) for the Gallows is mark in your Face
              Vish you can't deny.
                                            (Tune _Tyburn Tree_)

_Bully._        You Reptile! Scoundrel! Death! Damnation! (Tune
                Say that again, & by my Soul              Finale
_Gard.^{n.}_    My Garden plan I here unroll              1^{st} act
_Bully._        I'll crush to atoms--Damme, Sirrah!       _Poor Volcan_)
_French.^{n.}_  While the Horn shall sound Ta, ran, tan,  (Hunting
                    ta ra                                 Chorus
_Jockey_.       And Whip & Spur wins you the Bowl.--      _Poor Vulcan_)

                   _Chorus._ Tune--"Ballance a Straw"

_To Rake._--    In us, noble Sir, your best Friends you behold
_To each other_ Who will smile in your Face while we pocket your Gold
_To Rake._--    We'll write,  -Sing, -Fence, Dance, Fight, Run,
                    hunt,--all for thee
(To each Other  And plunder him fast as we can agree.
Shaking
hands.--)

                                                        _Exeunt._

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 5^{th}_

_Link Boys &c &c. The Characters in next Scene to pass from_ P.S. to
O.P.

_Rakewell_--Well--but not full dup'd--_Chairmen_ take great notice of
him bowing very low &c--_Clown_--loiters behind--seems well acquainted
with _Constables_--_Chairmen Girls_ &c. _Clown_ treats _Constables_ with
Beer & while drinking with them has his pocket picked.--During the Whole
Scene the following Catch is Sung.

_Catch._--"See Bob, See, the play is done."

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 6^{th}_

    _Some Ladies discoverd--One President._

_Rake_: Enters they all get up & greet him, some kiss him (a _Black Girl
& waiter_ on)--After much Ceremony they sit Other _Ladies & Gentlemen_
Enter--When all are Seated

_Omnes._ A Song! A Song!--                  (NB: Plenty of Bottles &
                                                _Glasses on_.--)

                         _Ladies Sing a Duett._

_Rake_: Drinks freely during the Duett--When Ended

_Omnes._ Bravo! Bravo!

_Rake._ Continues drinking freely--the actor must let his intoxication
gradually increase. They all Sing.

_a Catch._ Ladies & Gentlemen, Silence,
           Tomorrow night this play again
           I say no more--Encore--Encore

during the Catch--_Ballad Singer_ Enters & Joins them, Singing--"I say
no more" &c--The Catch Ended the Scene Closes.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 7^{th}_

                      _Enter Bailiff & Follower._

                            _Song, Bailiff._

    Tim Touch behold, as smart a Blade
      As ere a writ expos'd to view
    Who so genteely knows my Trade
      That I nabs my man, with a "How do you do"?
    A Lodging Strong vil soon procure
      A Cage vere each may chaunt his lay,
    From rambling keep your Rake Secure,
      Because I has such a taking Vay.

                                  (2.)

    E'en Ma'am, so proud of grand Parade
      Who at the Race-course makes her Bett
    Or runs to Ball & Masquerade
      'Till she runs herself o'er Ears in debt
    Tho 'my devoirs don't please her much,
      We meet, I every art essay
    She's mine by a Necromantic touch
      Because I has such a taking Vay.

                                  (3.)

    Box-lobby Loungers to my will
      Obedient Yield, I change their Song
    From bullying Bass to Treble Shrill
      E'en Dammes tremble on their Tongue;
    I mimicry too; practice much,
      In taking off great Art display
    I'm quite at home by a single touch,
      Because I has such a taking Vay.  (_They Retire._)

Enter _Sarah Young_ & her _Servant Girl_, with a Box--on which is
written "Sarah Young"--_Bailiffs_, come forward, look pryingly
about--The Chair comes on P.S. _Bailiff_ stops _Rake_ and arrests
him,--_Boy_ Steals his Cane--_Sarah Young_ pays the money for _Rake_, he
kisses her hand, returns into Chair & is carried back: She goes off O.P.
supported by her _Girl_; having left the Contents of her Box on the
Ground--The Shoe-Boy is picking them up, when _Clown_ Enters, who reads,
& recollects the name, disputes with _Boy_ about the Contents of the
Box, & seeing his Master's Cane claims it--a Scuffle ensues.--Whenever
_Clown_ attempts to Strike _Boy_--_Boy_ throws his Stool in _Clown's_
way over which he breaks his Shins--_Clown_ has already a great Leak in
his Hat, & finding a Muff in the Box, wears it, & apes the _Welchman_
who is going to Court.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 8^{th}_

    _Bells Ringing--Marrow Bones & Cleavers &c &c_

_Rake & Old Woman._ Richly dress'd coming from Church. _Men Servants_ in
Rich Liveries--_Clown._--_old Lady's maid Serv^{t.}_ &c all in
favours.--_Parish Clerk_ Bows very low--_Old Lady_ Stops & makes him a
present--_Marrow Bones & Cleavers_ beg of _Rake_ who throws money on the
Ground, they Scramble for it. Company go off.--Tune during the Whole
time--"Mind the Golden Rule." _Sarah Young_, on coming out of Church,
faints against a Monument: Recovers to see them go off--Looks after
them.--pause--Sings

                  _Air.--Tune--"Mary's Lamentation."_

    I sigh, I lament me in vain
      The Chill wind Re-echo's my moan;
    Alas, what can equal my pain--
      When I think that for ever he's gone.

    My Eyes, when they're raised above,
      View Birds as they wanton in Air
    Sweet Birds!--Ye are coupled by Love
      I weep & I sink in despair.

    Tho' Affection be all turn'd to hate
      And that Hate be the Sum of my woes
    My fears will arrise for his Fate,
      I cannot divest me of those.

    Base Man! know in Ages to come,
      Thy falsehood detested Shall be
    And when I am Cold in my tomb
      Some Heart still shall sorrow for me.  (_Bell Tolls._)

    What Visions now crowd on my Sight!
      White Rob'd--with Eyes bent on the ground!
    Ah! me--'tis a Funeral Rite--
      I hear the deep Bell's solemn sound.

    It tells me my Sorrows will close,
      On Care's softest pillow all lye
    The Grave will extinguish my woes
      Then Sarah--prepare thee to die!

                                                           (_Exit._)

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 9^{th}_

_Servants_ attending--Enter _Rake_ follow'd by _Clown_, who is
ridiculously dress'd--_Rake_ gives Orders to _Servants_ and
Exit--_Clown_ follows a little way--then conceitedly returns & Sings to
Servants.

                             _Song. Clown._

    Quite a Clod I came up my Shoes tied with a thong,
    Lookd foolish--quite mulish I trudg'd it along,
    And gaz'd like an Oaf at the wonderful throng,
        That here so gay smart & brave are;
    A ninny--the Twaddle--Lord quite a mere Hic
    A terrible bore--quite a Thing--a Queer Stick--
    But now, I'm the tippee--the dandy--the kick--
        "Look here--here again--here again--here"      (_Spoke_)
        Tol de rol, de rol, la rol lol, la rol, lal la
        Oh, Damme! I'm devilish clever.

                                  (2.)

    For Band Regulations to Butchells I pop
    My ankles just hid by a Natty Boot-top,
    Pig-tails are a Bore so I mount the neat Crop
        To appear the clean thing's my Endeavour
    My negligent coat-cape proclaims me the Beau
    Ease & Elegance always are habited so
    I'm the tippee--the dandy--the kick too--heigho!
        "Look here &c &c &c

                                  (3.)

    The Girls all admire me--each fancy I please,
    To one give a leer, tip the other a Squeeze,
    Blow a kiss to the Third--for you see I'm all ease
        And each Whispers thanks for the favour
    Boh--Damme!--an oath I so pleasantly swear
    And for Duels--Bounce--Bang--let them fight me who dare
    I'm the tippee--the Dandy--the Kick too--look there--
        There again &c &c--            _Exit_

Noise without. Enter _Porter_ with a _Washing Machine_, puts it
down--Enter Beat'em, pursued by Washerwomen, who beat him & break his
washing machine--Tear his Bills &c &c two or three of the _Women_ hold
him, while an _Irish Washerwoman_ sings the following _Song_.

            _Song Shelah O'Sudds--Tune "The Siege of Troy."_

    Och! Mr. Acrostic I hate your big notes,
    In op'ning your Mouth, why you'd stop all our Thoats;
    Wid Natty Men Milliners, Och! You'd be even,
    And Starve all the Fair-Sex wid Men-Washer-Women.
    But leave off such Nonsense 'tis better, my Joy,
    Than let Shelah O'Sudds be widout her Employ;
    We'll beat all your Beat'ems but give us fair-play
    While wid Elbows & Fists we lather away.

_Chorus._ Sing Latherum, whack!--boderation, my Joy,
          Let Shelah O'Sudds pray now have her employ
          She'll beat all your Beat'ems but give her fair play
          While wid Elbows & fists She Lather'd away.

                                  (2.)

    Wid your Saving & Soaping you make such a fuss,
    But you save what is Ours for you steal it from us
    'Bout your Beauty & Elegance, always are teizing,
    By my Soul it's too pleasant, for long to be pleasing.
    So leave off &c--

                                  (3.)

    To destroy our Endeavours to live is't you mean?
    It's a black, dirty Job, tho' you do it so Clean
    But a Wipe we must give you; agree, my dear Jewel--
    And an Irish Shilaleh shall serve as the Towel.
    So leave off &c

_Exeunt--beating him off._

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 10^{th}_

                     _One O'Clock in The Morning._

Two or More _Chairmen_ playing at All-fours & Singing--

    _Catch._--"Agree, Agree, if not d'ye see."

Piano & Forte, according to the distance of the Watchman who calls the
Hour, & when the Watchmen Enter they cover their Lanthorn with a
Coat-Flap, & resume the Game when Watchman is gone. During this time the
_Gamblers_ who are in the next Scene, are to pass from P.S. to O.P.
Sculkingly. _Rake_ passes,--Stops,--pulls out his purse, shakes it, and
Shutting one Eye--Signifies he had it from his One Ey'd Wife. _Catch
Continues_--"Agree Agree" &c--Scene Closes.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 11^{th}_

              Discovers _Gamblers_ at play. _Rake_ Seated.

_Catch_--"Pass the Box, come pass it faster."--
                 or--"Rattle Dice, Rattle."--

_Rake_ looses all his Cash--then his Watch--Sword Knee-Buckles
--Snuff-Box--Ring--Everything. _A Man_ Stands at his Back--supplies him
with money on them 'till all is gone--When he Kneels.--Smoke is issuing
thro' the Pannel, which does not alarm Gamblers in the least. Enter
Watchmen--They continue playing & Singing--Scene Closes.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 12^{th}_

_Red Blinds waved Sometimes Quick Down then rais'd again._ Watchmens
Rattles heard, all bustle & noise at a little Distance. Enter some
_Loosers_ with _Characters of Suspicious look_--they produce Pistols to
the Chagrin'd _Loosers_.--The _Loosers_ take the Pistols.--Tune--"Let us
take the Road."--They go off. Enter _watchmen_ with Rattles. _Beadle_,
_Mob_ with Fire Engine (_Covent Garden or Hadley._) Furniture carried
across from the Gaming Room. Enter _Fire Men_.--Hose & Pipe conveyed
across. Variety of _Characters_ alarmed by Fire. _A Boy_ carries a
Feather-bed across--he falls down--Some _Characters_ fall on it. NB:
Confusion kept up as long as Necessary.

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 13^{th}_

_Rake_--is inhumanly dragg'd off by Bailiffs P.S.

_Wife_ follows in great Agitation.

                         _Enter Ballad-Singer_

          A Ballad Entitled & Call'd--"The Rake's Progress"--

                    _Ballad. Tune "The Race-Horse."_

    See the Massy Chests Open'd, with Riches replete,
    Plate, Jewels, & Rent-Rolls an ample Estate;
    Bonds, Mortgages, Leases long buried are found,
    Lawyers Servants & Tradesmen Attending around:
    While with heart quite 'Elated, cheeks glowing with health,
    Discarding his love, gazing pleas'd at his wealth,
    Resolv'd each dull thought in gay pleasure to drown,
    The Libertine Rakewell--first starts on the Town.

                                  (2.)

    His Levee attended by Bully & Sot
    (Plighted vows to his fair Rustic Charmer forgot)
    Poets, Dancers, Musicians, his Mansion Resort;
    Boxers--Jockies, & Huntsmen, his patronage Court.
    And now, in a Brothel, mid nymphs void of Fame,
    Whom depravity's Render'd long Callous to Shame
    He squanders his Fortune to infamy meet
    And the Libertine Rakewell's the Dupe of Deceit.

                                  (3.)

    Now poverty Steals on her victim apace
    And the gripe of Stern Law calls up dread in his Face,
    'Till resolv'd to retrieve by his wants basely led [?]
    He for Riches consents to deformity wed;
    Then hurries to gaming to drive away thought,
    Where Soon's dissipated the Wealth that she brought
    For by Sharpers Surrounded--Each planning his Fall
    The Libertine Rakewell's depriv'd of his all.

                                  (4.)

    And now in each feature we penury trace,
    No longer health in his once blooming face,
    Reproach in a Prison's dread gloom must he bear,
    While discord & want drive the wretch to despair;
    'Till of life fully Sated, pale, meagre, oppress'd,
    By Friendship forsaken, All hell in his breast;
    By Suicides aid from the world he retires
    And the Libertine Rakewell unpitied Expires.  (_Exit_)

                               * * * * *

    _Scene 14^{th}_

_Chymist_--Discover'd. _Tune "Welcome, Brother Debtor."_
Enter _Goaler_ O.P. Introducing _Rake_ & _Old Wife_ He Sits P.S.
Enter _Men & Women Prisoners-OP._--_All Sing_.

    Welcome, Welcome, Brother Debtor
      To this poor but merry place;
    Where No Bailiff--Dun--or Setter,
      Dares to shew his frightful face.
    But, kind Sir, as you're a Stranger
      Down your Garnish you must pay,
    Or your Coat will be in Danger
      You must either Strip or pay.

_Rake_ Strips his Coat off & turns out his Breeches Pockets;--At this
Period _Financer_ drops his paper; it is picked up by another
_Prisoner_, who holds it so to Read that the audience may Read also.
"Scheme to Pay the National Debt."--

During the above Business--They all Sing--

    Ne'er repine at your Confinement
      For your Children or your Wife
    Wisdom lies in true Resignment,
      Thro' the various Scenes of life;
    Every Island is a prison
      Strongly guarded by the Sea
    Kings & Princes for that Reason
      Prisoners are as well as we.

Tune continues; but is Slower & Slower, till render'd as Dismal as
possible. _Rake_ takes a Pistol from his Pocket, which only the Audience
observe--he in great agitation of Mind goes off, & the Report of a
Pistol is heard--at which they all stand aghast.--Pause awhile.--

                            _Enter Virtue._

_Recitative._

    Thus does the baneful influence of Vice
    Onward to sure destruction man Entice;
    In time be warn'd--Hope liberty to see
    Benevolence & Pity'll set you free.

                         _Chorus of Prisoners._

    This let the Captive's Supplication be,
    May Virtue & Benevolence soon set us free,
    May we taste smiling liberty & tread her happy plain
    Where Virtue & Benevolence in Concord reign.

                         _Recitative. Virtue._

    Then Vice discard & follow Virtue's train
    View her Retreat & join her Sacred Strain.

                            _Scene Changes._

    _Scene 15^{th}_

Cloud Descends: _Liberty_ seated in the Center, with her Attributes; on
her left hand a Vacant Seat which Virtue ascends, on her Right hand
Benevolence, over whose head is a _Medalion_ of _The King_--over that of
_Virtue_ one of the _Queen_.

                            _Aerial Chorus._

        Tho' Beauty & wealth may Unite,
          To dispell from each Bosom dull care
        'Tis in vain to expect true delight,
          Unless Virtue's a Resident there.

                         _Recitative. Virtue._

    By Heav'n approv'd--by Liberty caress'd,
    The Truly Virtuous are the truly bless'd.

                             _Full Chorus._

    This let the Captives &c--


                                 Finis

                               * * * * *



                         WILLIAM ANDREWS CLARK
                            MEMORIAL LIBRARY
                _UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES_


                             [Illustration]


                      The Augustan Reprint Society
                         PUBLICATIONS IN PRINT



                     =The Augustan Reprint Society=
                         PUBLICATIONS IN PRINT


                              =1948-1950=

16. Henry Nevil Payne, _The Fatal Jealousie_ (1673).

18. "Of Genius," in _The Occasional Paper_, Vol. III. No. 10 (1719), and
    Aaron Hill, _Preface to The Creation_ (1720).

19. Susanna Centlivre, _The Busie Body_ (1709).

22. Samuel Johnson, _The Vanity of Human Wishes_ (1749), and two
    _Rambler_ papers (1750).

23. John Dryden, _His Majesties Declaration Defended_ (1681).


                              =1951-1953=

26. Charles Macklin, _The Man of the World_ (1792).

31. Thomas Gray, _An Elegy Wrote in a Country Churchyard_ (1751), and
    _The Eton College Manuscript_.

41. Bernard Mandeville, _A Letter to Dion_ (1732).


                              =1964-1965=

110. John Tutchin, _Selected Poems_ (1685-1700).

111. _Political Justice_ (1736).

113. T. R., _An Essay Concerning Critical and Curious Learning_ (1698).


                              =1965-1967=

115. Daniel Defoe and others, _Accounts of the Apparition of Mrs. Veal_
     (1705, 1706, 1720, 1722).

116. Charles Macklin, _The Covent Garden Theatre_ (1752).

117. Sir Roger L'Estrange, _Citt and Bumpkin_ (1680).

120. Bernard Mandeville, _Aesop Dress'd or a Collection of Fables_
     (1740).

124. _The Female Wits_ (1704).


                              =1968-1969=

133. John Courtenay, _A Poetical Review of the Literary and Moral
     Character of the Late Samuel Johnson_ (1786).

136. Thomas Sheridan, _A Discourse Being Introductory to His Course of
     Lectures on Elocution and the English Language_ (1759).

137. Arthur Murphy, _The Englishman from Paris_ (1756).


                              =1969-1970=

138. [Catherine Trotter] _Olinda's Adventures_ (1718).

139. John Ogilvie, _An Essay on the Lyric Poetry of the Ancients_
     (1762).

140. _A Learned Dissertation on Dumpling_ (1726) and _Pudding and
     Dumpling Burnt to Pot or a Compleat Key to the Dissertation on
     Dumpling_ (1727).

141. Sir Roger L'Estrange, Selections from _The Observator_ (1681-1687).

142. Anthony Collins, _A Discourse Concerning Ridicule and Irony In
     Writing_ (1729).

143. _A Letter From a Clergyman to His Friend, with an Account of the
     Travels of Captain Lemuel Gulliver_ (1726).

144. _The Art of Architecture, A Poem_ (1742).


                              =1970-1971=

145-146. Thomas Shelton. _A Tutor to Tachygraphy, or Short-writing_
     (1642) and _Tachygraphy_ (1647).

147-148. _Deformities of Dr. Samuel Johnson_ (1782).

149. _Poeta de Tristibus: or the Poet's Complaint_ (1682).

150. Gerard Langbaine, _Momus Triumphans: or the Plagiaries of the
     English Stage_ (1687).


                              =1971-1972=

151-152. Evan Lloyd, _The Methodist. A Poem_ (1766).

153. _Are These Things So?_ (1740), and _The Great Man's Answer to Are
     These Things So?_ (1740).

154. Arbuthnotiana: _The Story of the St. Alb-ns Ghost_ (1712), and _A
     Catalogue of Dr. Arbuthnot's Library_ (1779).

155-156. A Selection of Emblems from Herman Hugo's _Pia Desideria_
     (1624), with English Adaptations by Francis Quarles and Edmund
     Arwaker.


                              =1972-1973=

157. William Mountfort. _The Life and Death of Doctor Faustus_ (1697).

158. Colley Cibber, _A Letter from Mr. Cibber to Mr. Pope_ (1742).

159. [Catherine Clive] _The Case of Mrs. Clive_ (1744).

160. [Thomas Tryon] _A Discourse ... of Phrensie, Madness or
     Distraction_ from _A Treatise of Dreams and Visions_ [1689].

161. Robert Blair, _The Grave. A Poem_ (1743).

162. [Bernard Mandeville] _A Modest Defence of Publick Stews_ (1724).


                              =1973-1974=

163. [William Rider] _An Historical and Critical Account of the Lives
     and Writings of the Living Authors of Great Britain_ (1762).

164. Thomas Edwards, _The Sonnets of Thomas Edwards_ (1765, 1780).

165. Hildebrand Jacob, _Of the Sister Arts: An Essay_ (1734).

166. _Poems on the Reign of William III_ [1690, 1696, 1699, 1702].

167. Kane O'Hara, _Midas: An English Burletta_ (1766).

168. [Daniel Defoe] _A Short Narrative History of the Life and Actions
     of His Grace John, D. of Marlborough_ (1711).


                              =1974-1975=

169-170. Samuel Richardson, _The Apprentice's Vade-Mecum_ (1734).

171. James Bramston, _The Man of Taste_ (1733).

172-173. Walter Charleton, _The Ephesian Matron_ (1668).

174. Bernard Mandeville, _The Mischiefs That Ought Justly to be
     Apprehended From a Whig-Government_ (1714).

174X. John Melton, _Astrologaster_ (1620).


                              =1975-1976=

175. _Pamela Censured_ (1741).

176. William Gilpin, _Dialogue upon the Gardens ... at Stowe_ (1748).

177. James Bramston, _Art of Politicks_ (1729).

178. James Miller, _Harlequin-Horace or the Art of Modern Poetry_
     (1731).

179. [James Boswell] _View of the Edinburgh Theatre during the Summer
     Season, 1759_ (1760).

180. Satires on Women: Robert Gould, _Love Given O're_ (1682); Sarah
     Fige, _The Female Advocate_ (1686); and Richard Ames, _The Folly of
     Love_ (1691).


Publications of the first eighteen years of the society (numbers 1-108)
are available in paperbound units of six issues at $16.00 per unit, from
Kraus Reprint Company, Route 100, Millwood, New York 10546.

Publications in print are available at the regular membership rate of
$5.00 for individuals and $8.00 for institutions per year. Prices of
single issues may be obtained upon request. Subsequent publications may
be checked in the annual prospectus.


                 _Make check or money order payable to_

              THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

                             _and send to_

               The William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
          2520 Cimarron Street, Los Angeles, California 90018



                          Transcriber's Notes

Passages in italics were indicated by _underscores_.

Passages in bold were indicated by =equal signs=.

Small caps were replaced with ALL CAPS.

Throughout the document, the oe ligature was replaced with "oe".

Throughout the document, the superscripted letters are preceeded by a
carot and are enclosed by curly brackets. Thus, the word "y^{e}"
represents a word where the "y" is normal and the "e" is superscripted;
and the word "1^{st}" represents a word where the "1" is normal and the
"st" is superscripted. In the ordinal numbers (e.g., 1^{st}) the
supercripted numbers where underlined by dotted lines. These dotted
lines also appeared under some other (but not all) of the superscripted
letters.

Throughout the dialogues, there were words used to mimic accents of the
speakers. Those words were retained as-is.

Errors in punctuations and inconsistent hyphenation were not corrected
unless otherwise noted. For instance, sometimes there were spaces after
slashes ("/") and sometimes there were no spaces after slashes.
Sometimes there were mismatched quotation marks, where it was less than
clear where the missing quotation marks should go.

Some words appear to be misspelled, but they were not corrected since
this book is so old (1733) and spellings have changed over the
centuries.

The acute accent for Settee was changed to Settée throughout the text.

On the second page 1 "& and End" was replaced with "& an End".

On the second page 5 (yes, there are two pages 5), "rake" was replaced
with "Rake".

On the second page 5 the word "Clown" was italizied to make it it
consistent with other instances of the word.

On the second Page 6 "PS and OP" were replaced with "P.S. and O.P."

On the second page 8 a period was added after "coming from Church".

On the second page 11, "SCENE 12" was replaced with "Scene 12".

On the second page 12, the word "Mansion", which was crossed out in the
book was deleted.





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