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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 100, September 27, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 100, September 27, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. In the Niniveh inscriptions character frequency list the
Hebrew letters "Resh" and "Gimel" seem to be missing, while characters
marked with [?] may have been used more than once. Characters with
macrons have been marked in brackets with an equal sign, as [=e] for a
letter e with a macron on top. Underscores have been used to indicate
_italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has
been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 100. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 27. 1851.

Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7_d._



      Our Hundredth Number                                       217


      Notes on the Calendar, by Professor de Morgan              218

      Inedited Letters of Swift                                  218

      Nineveh Inscriptions, by T. J. Buckton                     220

      Inedited Letter of Alfieri                                 222

      Stanzas in Childe Harold                                   223

      Notes on Oxford Edition of Jewel                           225

      Anagrams, by Henry H. Breen                                226

      Folk Lore:--Cure for Hooping Cough--Cure for the
      Toothache--Medical Use of Pigeons--Obeism                  227

      Notes on Julin, No. II., by K. R. H. Mackenzie             228

      Minor Notes:--Curious Epitaph in Dalkeith Churchyard--Device
      of SS.--Lord Edward Fitzgerald--The Michaelmas
      Goose--Gravesend Boats--Scullcups                          230


      Minor Queries:--Equestrian Figure of Elizabeth--Indian
      Ants--Passage in George Herbert--The King's-way,
      Wilts--Marriages within ruined Churches--Fees
      for Inoculation--"Born in the Eighth Climate"--Aubrey
      de Montdidier's Dog--Sanford's Descensus--Parish
      Registers--Briefs for Collections--Early Printing
      Presses--Bootikins--Printers' Privilege--Death of
      Pitt--"A Little Bird told me"--Baroner--William III.
      at Exeter--History of Hawick--Johannes Lychtenberger
      --Lestourgeon the Horologist--Physiological Query--De
      Grammont's Memoirs--"Frightened out of his Seven
      Senses"--Fides Carbonaria--Bourchier Family--Warnings
      to Scotland--Herschel anticipated--Duke of Wellington      231

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--An Early Printer--"Nimble
      Ninepence"--Prince Rupert's Balls--Knock
      under--Freemasons                                          234


      Conquest of Scotland                                       234

      Borough-English                                            235

      Pendulum Demonstration                                     235

      Lord Mayor not a Privy Councillor                          235

      Collars of SS.                                             236

      Written Sermons                                            237

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Authoress of "A Residence on
      the Shores of the Baltic"--Winifreda--Querelle
      d'Alleman--Coins of Constantius II.--Proverb, what
      constitutes one?--Dr. Matthew Sutcliffe--Pope's
      Translations of Horace--M. Lominus, Theologus--Corpse
      passing makes a Right of Way--Horology--Curfew--"Going
      the whole Hog"--John Bodley--Language of Ancient
      Egypt--William Hone--Bensley--John Lilburne--School
      of the Heart--Sir W. Raleigh in Virginia--Siege
      of Londonderry--Cowper Law--Decretorum Doctor--Nightingale
      and Thorn--Carli the Economist--Tale of a Tub--Wyle
      Cop--Visiting Cards--Absalom's Hair--MS. Book of
      Sentences--The Winchester Execution--Locke's MSS.--Peal of
      Bells--Pope's "honest Factor"--Bells in Churches--Passage
      from Virgil--Duke of Berwick--Nullus and
      Nemo--Grimsdyke--Coke, how pronounced--Marcus Ælius
      Antoninus                                                  237


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     245

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               245

      Notices to Correspondents                                  246

      Advertisements                                             246


  It is the privilege of age to be garrulous; and as we have this
  week reached our Hundredth Number--an age to which comparatively
  few Periodicals ever attain--we may be pardoned if, on thus
  completing our first _Century of Inventions_, we borrow a few
  words from the noble author of that well-known work, and beg you,
  Gentle Reader, "to cast your gracious eye over this summary
  collection and there to pick and choose:" and when you have done
  so, to admit that, thanks to the kind assistance of our friends
  and correspondents, we have not only (like Master Lupton)
  presented you with _A Thousand Notable Things_, but fulfilled the
  objects which we proposed in the publication of "NOTES AND

  During the hundred weeks our paper has existed we have received
  from Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Holland, Belgium, and France--from
  the United States--from India--from Australia--from the West
  Indies--from almost every one of our Colonies--letters expressive
  of the pleasure which the writers (many of them obviously scholars
  "ripe and good," though far removed from the busy world of
  letters), derive from the perusal of "_Notes and Queries_;" and it
  is surely a good work to put to students so situated,

          "---- all the learning that our time
      Can make them the receivers of."

  And, on the other hand, our readers cannot but have noticed how
  many a pertinent Note, suggestive Query, and apt Reply have
  reached us from the same remote quarters.

  Our columns have, however, not only thus administered to the
  intellectual enjoyment of our brethren abroad, but they have
  rendered good service to men of letters here at home: and We could
  set forth a goodly list of works of learning and research--from
  Mr. Cunningham's _Handbook of London Past and Present_, published
  when we had been but a few months in existence, down to Wyclyffe's
  _Three Treatises on the Church_, recently edited by the Rev. Dr.
  Todd--in which the utility of "NOTES AND QUERIES" is publicly
  recognised in terms which are highly gratifying to us.

  We do not make these statements in any vainglorious spirit. We
  believe our success is due to the manner in which, thanks to the
  ready assistance of zealous and learned Friends and
  Correspondents, we have been enabled to supply a want which all
  literary men have felt more or less: and believing that the more
  we are known, and the wider our circulation, the greater will be
  our usefulness, and the better shall we be enabled to serve the
  cause we seek to promote. We feel we may fairly invite increased
  support for "NOTES AND QUERIES" on the grounds of what it has
  already accomplished.

  And so, wishing ourselves many happy returns of this
  Centenary--and that you, Gentle Reader, may be spared to enjoy
  them, We bid you heartily Farewell!



What every one learns from the almanac, over and above Easter and its
consequences for the current year, is that what happens this year is no
index at all to what will happen next year. And even those who preserve
their almanacs, and compare them in long series, never have been able,
so far as I know, to lay hands upon any law connecting the Easters of
different years, without having had recourse to the very complicated law
on which the whole calendar is constructed.

Nevertheless there does exist a simple relation which reduces the
uncertainty in the proportion of five to two; so that by means of one
past almanac, we may name _two_ Sundays, one or the other of which must
be Easter Sunday. I have never seen this relation noticed, though I have
read much (for these days) on the calendar: has any one of your readers
ever met with it?

Let us make a _cycle_ of the days on which Easter day can fall, so that
when we come to the last (April 25), we begin again at the first (March
22). Thus, six days in advance of April 23, comes March 25; seven days
behind March 24, comes April 21.

The following is the _rule_, after which come two cases of

Take any year which is _not_ leap year, then, by passing over _eleven_
years, we either leave Easter day unaltered, or throw it back a week;
and it is nearly three to one that we have to leave it unaltered. Thus
1941 is not leap year, and eleven years more give 1952; both have April
13 for Easter day; but of 1943 and 1954, the first gives April 25, the
second April 18.

Take any year which _is_ leap year, then, by passing over _eleven_
years, we either throw Easter one day forward, or six days back; and it
is about three to two that it will be thrown forward. Thus 1852 (leap
year) gives April 11, but 1863 gives April 5.

But when, in passing over eleven years, we pass over 1700, 1800, or any
Gregorian omission of leap year, the common year takes the rule just
described for leap year; while, if we begin with leap year, the passage
over eleven years throws Easter _two_ days forward, or _five_ days back.
There is another class of single exceptions, occurring at long
intervals, which it is hardly worth while to examine. The only case
which occurs between 1582 and 2000, is when the first year is 1970.

Any number of instances may be taken from my _Book of Almanacs_, and the
general rule may be easily seen to belong also to the old style. Those
who understand the construction of the calendar will very easily find
the explanation of the whole.



  [By the great kindness of a correspondent who has placed at our
  disposal two hitherto inedited letters written by Swift, we are
  enabled to present the following literal copies of them to our

  They are obviously addressed to Frances Lady Worsley, only
  daughter of Thomas Lord Viscount Weymouth, and wife of Sir Robert
  Worsley, Baronet, and the mother of Lady Carteret. In Sir Walter
  Scott's edition of Swift's _Works_ (vol. xvii. p. 302.) will be
  found one letter from the Dean of St. Patrick to Lady Worsely; and
  in vol. xviii. p. 26. is the letter from that lady to the Dean
  which accompanied the escritoire alluded to in the second of the
  two letters which we now print. This appears from Swift's
  endorsement of it--"Lady Worsley, with a present of a writing-box
  japanned by herself."]

"Madam,--It is now three years and a half since I had the Honor to see
Your Ladyship, and I take it very ill that You have not finished my Box
above a Month. But this is allways the way that You Ladyes treat your
adorers in their absence. However upon Mrs. Barber's account I will
pardon You, because she tells me it is the handsomest piece of work she
ever saw; and because you have accepted the honor to be one of her
protectors, and are determined to be one of her principall recommenders
and encouragers. I am in some doubt whether envy had not a great share
in your work, for you were I suppose informed that my Lady Carteret had
made for me with her own hands the finest box in Ireland; upon which you
grew jealous, and resolved to outdo her by making for me the finest box
in England; for so Mrs. Barber assures me. In short, I am quite
overloaden with favors from Your Ladyship and your Daughter; and what is
worse, those loads will lye upon my Shoulders as long as I live. But I
confess my self a little ungrateful, because I cannot deny Your Ladyship
to have been the most constant of all my Goddesses, as I am the most
constant of all your Worshippers. I hope the Carterets and the Worsleys
are all happy and in health, and You are obliged to let Sir Robert
Worsley know that I am his most humble Servant; but You need say nothing
of my being so long his Rival. I hear my friend Harry is returning from
the fiery Zone, I hope with more money than he knows what to do with;
but whether his vagabond Spirit will ever fix is a question. I beg your
Ladyship will prevail on S'r Robert Worsley to give me a Vicarage in the
Isle of Wight; for I am weary of living at such a distance from You. It
need not be above forty pounds a year.

"As to Mrs. Barber, I can assure you she is but one of four Poetesses in
this town, and all Citizens' wives; but she has the vogue of being the
best: yet one of them is a Scholar, and hath published a new edition of
Tacitus, with a Latin dedication to My Lord Carteret.

"I require that Your Ladyship shall still preserve me some little corner
in your memory; and do not think to put me off onely with a Box, which I
can assure you will not contribute in the least to[1] ... my esteem and
regard for Your Ladyship.... I have been always, and shall ever remain,


      "Your Lady ...

      "Obedient and ...
      humble ...

"Dublin, May 1're, 1731."

  [Footnote 1: A small portion of the original letter has been lost.]

  [As Lady Worsley's letter serves to explain several allusions in
  Swift's letters, and is obviously the one to which the second
  letter we print is the reply, we here insert it.]

"August 6th, 1732.

"Sir,--I flatter myself, that if you had received my last letter,
you would have favoured me with an answer; therefore I take it for
granted it is lost.

"I was so proud of your commands, and so fearful of being supplanted by
my daughter, that I went to work immediately, that her box might not
keep her in your remembrance, while there was nothing to put you in mind
of an old friend and humble servant. But Mrs. Barber's long stay here
(who promised me to convey it to you) has made me appear very negligent.
I doubt not but you think me unworthy of the share (you once told me) I
had in your heart. I am yet vain enough to think I deserve it better
than all those flirting girls you coquet with. I will not yield (even)
to _dirty Patty_, whom I was the most jealous of when you were last
here. What if I am a great-grandmother, I can still distinguish your
merit from all the rest of the world; but it is not consistent with your
good-breeding to put one in mind of it, therefore I am determined not to
use my interest with Sir Robert for a living in the Isle of Wight[2],
though nothing else could reconcile me to the place. But if I could make
you Archbishop of Canterbury, I should forget my resentments, for the
sake of the flock, who very much want a careful shepherd. Are we to have
the honour of seeing you, or not? I have fresh hopes given me; but I
dare not please myself too much with them, lest I should be again
disappointed. If I had it as much in my power as my inclination to serve
Mrs. Barber, she should not be kept thus long attending; but I hope her
next voyage may prove more successful. She is just come in, and tells me
you have sprained your foot, which will prevent your journey till next
summer; but assure yourself the Bath is the only infallible cure for
such an accident. If you have any regard remaining for me, you will shew
it by taking my advice; if not, I will endeavour to forget you, if I
can. But, till that doubt is cleared, I am as much as ever, the Dean's

      "Obedient humble Servant,

      "F. WORSLEY."

  [Footnote 2: Where her husband, Sir Robert Worsley, possessed the
  estate of Appuldercombe.]

"Madam,--I will never tell, but I will always remember how many years
have run out since I had first the honor and happiness to be known to
Your Ladyship, which however I have a thousand times wished to have
never happened, since it was followed by the misfortune of being
banished from You for ever. I believe you are the onely Lady in England
that for a thousand years past hath so long remembered a useless friend
in absence, which is too great a load of favor for me and all my
gratitude to support.

"I can faithfully assure your Ladyship that I never received from You
more than one letter since I saw you last; and that I sent you a long
answer. I often forget what I did yesterday, or what passed half an hour
ago; and yet I can well remember a hundred particulars in Your
Ladyship's company. This is the memory of those who grow old. I have no
room left for new Ideas. I am offended with one passage in Your
Ladyship's letter; but I will forgive You, because I do not believe the
fact, and all my acquaintance here joyn with me in my unbelief. You make
excuses for not sooner sending me the most agreeable present that ever
was made, whereas it is agreed by all the curious and skilfull of both
sexes among us, that such a piece of work could not be performed by the
most dextrous pair of hands and finest eyes in Christendom, in less than
a year and a half, at twelve hours a day. Yet Mrs. Barber, corrupted by
the obligations she hath to you, would pretend that I over reckon six
months, and six hours a day. Be that as it will, our best virtuosi are
unanimous that the Invention exceeds, if possible, the work itself. But
to all these praises I coldly answer, that although what they say be
perfectly true, or indeed below the truth, yet if they had ever seen or
conversed with Your Ladyship as I have done, they would have thought
this escritoire a very poor performance from such hands, such eyes, and
such an imagination. To speak my own thoughts, the work itself does not
delight me more than the little cares you were pleased to descend to in
contriving ways to have it conveyed so far without damage, whereof it
received not the least from without; what there was came from within;
for one of the little rings that lifts a drawer for wax, hath touched a
part of one of the Pictures, and made a mark as large as the head of a
small pin; but it touches onely an end of a cloud; and yet I have been
carefull to twist a small thread of silk round that wicked ring, who
promiseth to do so no more.

"Your Ladyship wrongs me in saying that I twitted you with being a
great-grandmother. I was too prudent and carefull of my own credit to
offer the least hint upon that head, while I was conscious that I might
have been great-grandfather to you.

"I beg you, Madam, that there may be no quarrells of jealousy between
Your Ladyship and My Lady Carteret: I set her at work by the authority I
claymed over her as your daughter. The young woman showed her
readynesse, and performed very well for a new beginner, and deserves
encouragement. Besides, she filled the Chest with Tea, whereas you did
not send me a single pen, a stick of wax, or a drop of Ink; for all
which I must bear the charge out of my own pocket. And after all if Your
Ladyship were not by I would say that My Lady Carteret's Box (as you
disdainfully call it instead of a Tea-chest) is a most beautiful piece
of work, and is oftener used than yours, because it is brought down for
tea after dinner among Ladyes, whereas my escritoire never stirrs out of
my closet, but when it is brought for a sight. Therefore I again desire
there may be no family quarrells upon my account.

"As to Patty Blount, you wrong her very much. She was a neighbor's
child, a good Catholick, an honest Girl, and a tolerable Courtier at
Richmond. I deny she was dirty, but a little careless, and sometimes
wore a ragged gown, when she and I took long walks. She saved her money
in summer onely to be able to keep a Chair at London in winter: this is
the worst you can say; and she might have a whole coat to her back if
her good nature did not make her a fool to her mother and sanctifyed
sister Teresa. And she was the onely Girl I coquetted in the whole half
year that I lived with Mr. Pope in Twitenham, whatever evil tongues
might have informed your Ladyship, in hopes to set you against me. And
after this usage, if I accept the Archbishoprick of Canterbury from your
Ladyship's hands, I think you ought to acknowledge it as a favor.

"Are you not weary, Madam? Have you patience to read all this? I am
bringing back past times; I imagine myself talking with you as I used to
do; but on a sudden I recollect where I am sitting, banished to a
country of slaves and beggars; my blood soured, my spirits sunk,
fighting with Beasts like St. Paul, not at Ephesus, but in Ireland.

"I am not of your opinion, that the flocks (in either Kingdom) want
better Shepherds; for, as the French say, 'à tels brebis tel pasteur:'
and God be thanked that I have no flock at all, so that I neither can
corrupt nor be corrupted.

"I never saw any person so full of acknowledgment as Mrs. Barber is for
Your Ladyship's continued favors to her, nor have I known any person of
a more humble and gratefull spirit than her, or who knows better how to
distinguish the Persons by whom she is favored. But I will not honor
myself so far, or dishonor you so much, as to think I can add the least
weight to your own naturall goodness and generosity.

"You must, as occasion serves, Present my humble respects to My Lord and
Lady Carteret, and my Lady Dysert, and to S'r Robert Worsley.

"I am, and shall be ever, with the truest respect, esteem, and


      "Your Ladyship's most obedient
          and most humble Servant,


"Dublin, Nov. 4're, 1732.

"I know not where my old friend Harry Worsley is, but I am his most
humble servant."

  [On the back of the Letter is the following Postscript.]

"Madam,--I writ this Letter two months ago, and was to send it by Mrs.
Barber; but she falling ill of the gout, and I deferring from day to
day, expecting her to mend, I was at last out of patience. I have sent
it among others by a private hand.

  "I wish Your Ladyship and all your family many happy new years.

"Jan. 8'e, 1732."


The accumulation of these treasures in London and Paris, leads to the
belief that they will soon be decyphered. The following remarks are
offered in promotion of so desirable an object. It must be premised that
a printer, when requiring type from the type-founder for English books,
does not order the same quantity for each letter; but, according to a
scale adapted to the requirements of printing, he orders only so many of
each letter as he is likely to use. That scale may be nearly represented
in the following way: the letter _z_ being the one least used in
English, he will require

      Twice the number of letter z for letter x
      Twice also     --              --       j
       2-1/2 times   --              --       q
       4      "      --              --       k
       6      "      --              --       v
       8      "      --              --       b
       8-1/2  "      --              --       p
       8-1/2  "      --              --       g
      10      "      --              --       y
      10      "      --              --       w
      15      "      --              --       m
      15      "      --              --       c
      17      "      --              --       u
      20-1/2  "      --              --       l
      21      "      --              --       f
      22      "      --              --       d
      31      "      --              --       r
      32      "      --              --       h
      40      "      --              --       s
      40      "      --              --       n
      40      "      --              --       o
      41-1/2  "      --              --       i
      42-1/2  "      --              --       a
      45      "      --              --       t
      60      "      --              --       e

Suppose now a person to write English in cypher, using unknown
characters for the well-known letters; it would be easy to decypher his
writing, _if of sufficient length_ to make the general rule acted on in
the printing trade applicable. The decypherer, by selecting each
distinct unknown character, and numbering them respectively, would find
that the character oftenest occurring was _e_, the next oftenest _t_,
and so on to the character having the lowest number, being least used,
which would of course be _z_. Persons accustomed to decypher European
correspondence for diplomatic purposes, will pronounce best on the
practicability of this method for the decyphering of modern languages.

It is proposed then to apply the same method in the several languages
_supposed_ nearest of kin to that of the Nineveh inscriptions. Without
entering into the reasons for that opinion, it may suffice, for the
present purpose of illustration, to assume that the language of these
inscriptions is Chaldee. To apply this method the numbers of each letter
occurring in the Targum of Onkelos on Genesis, or the whole Pentateuch,
should be taken. This enumeration has been made as regards the Hebrew
(see Bagster's _Family Bible_, at the end of Deuteronomy). The readiest
mode of effecting such enumeration would be to employ twenty-two persons
knowing the Chaldee letters, and to assign a letter to each, calling out
to them each letter as it occurred in Onkelos, whilst each person kept
count of his own letter on a tally, and summing up the total gave in the
result to the reader _at the end of each chapter_. This would be
necessary with a view to ascertain what _quantity_ of unknown
inscription was required to evolve the rule, as the proposed method is
clearly inapplicable when the quantity of matter to be decyphered is

Having gone over sufficient ground to satisfy himself of the certainty
of the rule, the decypherer would next count the numbers of each
distinct character in all the cuneiform inscriptions accessible to him,
making allowance for final letters, also for vowel points which may be
attached to the character, as in Ethiopic. Assuming the rule in Chaldee
to be the same as in Hebrew (it is in fact very different), he would
find the character oftenest occurring in the Nineveh inscriptions to be
ו, the next מ, the rest in the following order as to frequency of
occurrence, ט , ס , ע , צ , [?] ד , פ , ז , ק , [?] ח , [?] ב , ש , [?]
ד , [?] ב , ל , נ , א , ה , כ , ת , י , the first letter, ו, vau,
occurring nearly seven times as often as ט, teth. The order of the
letters would, in fact, vary much from this in Chaldee; the servile
letters being different would alone much disturb the assumed order,
actually ascertained nevertheless, as respects the Hebrew letters, in
the five books of Moses. One word as to the order in which the several
languages should be experimented on. The Chaldee would be the first, and
next in succession, (2) the Syriac, (3) the Ethiopic, (4) the Arabic,
(5) the Hebrew (die jungste Schwester),[3] and (6) the Pehlvi. The
Indo-European languages would, in case of failure in the above, claim
next attention: of these first the Zend, next (2) the Sanscrit, then (3)
the Armenian, &c. &c.

  [Footnote 3: Adelung in _Mithridates_.]

The resemblance of many of the characters on the Babylonian bricks, as
well as on the stones of Nineveh, is very great to the characters known
in our Bibles as Hebrew, but which are in fact not Hebrew but Chaldee,
and were introduced by the Jews subsequent to their Babylonish
captivity: the original Hebrew character was that still existing on
coins, and nearly approximates in many respects to the Samaritan
character. In some MSS. collated by Kennicott, he found the
tetragrammaton "Jehovah" written in this ancient character, whilst the
rest was Chaldee. The characteristic of the unknown letters is their
resemblance to nails, to arrow-heads, and to wedges, from which, indeed,
they are commonly designated. In the Chaldee (the Hebrew of our Bibles)
this is also strikingly visible, notwithstanding the effect of time in
wearing down the arridges: thus, in the oftenest recurring letter, ו, in
the left leg of the ת, in ע, in צ, in ט, in נ, in מ, and especially in
ש, the cuneiform type is most clearly traceable. One of the unknown
characters, [Shin-like symbol], seems almost identical with ש, allowance
being made for the cursive form which written characters assume after
centuries of use.

The horn is very conspicuous on the heads of men in the Nineveh (Asshur)
sculptures, still, as a fashion, retained in Ethiopia (Cush,
Abyssinia[4]), the origin of the Chaldeans, through Nimrod the Cushite
(Gen. x. 8.), who probably derived their chief sustenance from the river
Tigris (Hiddekel). Subsistence from (1) fishing, (2) hunting (_e.g._
Nimrod), (3) grazing, and (4) agriculture, seems to have succeeded in
the order named. The repeated appearance of _fish_ on the same
sculptures, is in allusion, doubtless, to the name Nineveh (= fish +
habitation); and their worship of the half-man, half-fish (the fabulous
mermaid or merman), to which many of the _Cetaceæ_ bear a close
resemblance (the sea-horse for example), common with them and the
Phoenicians (in the latter tongue named Dagon), is probably allusive, in
their symbolic style, to the abstract notion of _fecundity_, so general
an element of veneration in all the known mythological religions of
ancient and modern times. See Nahum _passim_.

  [Footnote 4: Alexander the Great adopted the horns as Jupiter
  Ammon. See Vincent's _Periplus of the Erythrean Sea_, and
  frontispiece. The women of Lebanon have, it appears, retained the
  fashion. See _Pict. Bible_ on Zech. i. 18.]

From an attentive examination of these monuments in the British Museum,
it appears highly probable that the writing is from left to right, as in
the Ethiopic and Coptic, and in the Indo-European family generally, and
is the reverse of all the other Shemitic tongues. This inference is
derived from the fact that each line (with few exceptions) ranges with
those above and below, as in a printed book, perpendicularly on the
_left_, and breaks off on the _right_ hand, as at the termination of a
sentence, whilst some of the characters seem to stretch beyond the usual
line of limit to the right, as if the sculptor had made the common error
of not having _quite_ space enough for a word not divisible.

The daguerreotype might be advantageously used in copying all the
inscriptions yet discovered, of each of which three or four copies
should be taken, to obviate mistakes and accidents. These being brought
to England and carefully examined by the microscope, should be legibly
engraved and stereotyped, and sent to all the linguists of Europe and
elsewhere, and copies should also be deposited in all public libraries.

A comparison of the twelve cursive letters in Mr. Layard's _Nineveh_,
vol. ii. p. 166., with Büttner's tables at the end of the first volume
of Eichhorn's _Einleitung in das Alte Testament_ (Leipzic, 1803), has
led to an unexpected result. The particular table with which the
comparison was instituted, is No. II. Class i. Phoenician, col. 2.,
headed "Palæstinæ in nummis;" any person therefore can verify it. This
result is the following reading in the proper Chaldee character:—



The meaning is "Rabbi (Mr.) Kalbeno"—"And six"—"Judge." Perhaps Kalbeno
should be Albeno, the initial letter being obscure. The above is put
forth as a curious coincidence, not by any means with the certainty
which a much more extended examination than a dozen letters can afford.

    T. J. BUCKTON.



  [The circumstances which led to Alfieri's hasty retreat from
  England in 1771, and to Lord Ligonier's successful application for
  a divorce, are doubtless familiar to all who have read the very
  amusing Autobiography of the Italian poet. At all events we must
  presume so, as they are scarcely of a nature to be reproduced in
  "NOTES AND QUERIES." Twenty years after that even, when about to
  embark for the Continent with the Countess of Albany, Alfieri, as
  he was stepping on board the packet, saw again for the first time
  since 1771 Lady Ligonier, who was on the quay. They recognised
  each other, but that was all.

  Alfieri, after describing this event in the 21st chapter of his
  Autobiography, proceeds:--"Si arrivo a Calais; di dove io molto
  colpito di quella vista cosi inespettata le volli scrivere per
  isfogo del cuore, e mandai la mia lettera al Banchiere de Douvres,
  che glie la rimettesse in proprie mani, e me ne trasmettesse poi
  la risposta a Bruxelles, dove sarei stato fra pochi giorni. _La
  mia lettera, di cui mi spiace di non aver serbato copia_ era
  certamente piena d' affetti, non gia d' amore, ma di una vera e
  profonda commozione di vederla ancora menare una vita errante e si
  poco decorosa al suo stato e nascita, e di dolore che io ne
  sentiva tanto più pensando di esserne io stato ancorche
  innocentement o li cagione o li pretesto."

  The original letter of Alfieri (which we presume he would have
  inserted in his Autobiography, had he kept a copy of it, seeing
  that he has there printed Lady Ligonier's reply) is in the
  possession of a nobleman, a relative of the unfortunate lady; and
  we are enabled by the kindness of a correspondent to lay before
  our readers the following copy of it.

  How far it bears out the writer's description of it we do not stop
  to ask; but certainly if the reader will take the trouble to turn
  to the conclusion of the chapter to which we have referred, we
  think he cannot fail to be struck with the difference between the
  terms in which the quondam lover writes _of_ the lady, and those
  which he addresses _to_ her in the following Epistle.[5]]

  [Footnote 5: In the only edition of the _Vita_ (12mo. 1809) to
  which we have an opportunity of referring, this event is
  represented as occurring in 1791: it will be seen that it really
  took place in 1792. The lady's reply is there dated (tom. ii. p.
  193.) "Dover, 25th _April_," instead of 24th _August_.]

  "Calais, Mercredi, 24 Aout, 1792.

"Madam,--Mon silence en vous revoyant après vingt années d'absence, a
été le fruit de l'étonnement, et non pas de l'indifférence. C'est un
sentiment qui m'est inconnu pour les personnes qui m'ont intéressé une
fois, et pour vous surtout, dont j'ai à me reprocher toute ma vie
d'avoir été la principale cause de toutes vos vicissitudes. Si j'avois
eu le courage de m'approcher de vous, ma langue n'auroit certainement
jamais retrouvé d'expression pour vous rendre tous les mouvemens
tumultueux de mon âme et de mon coeur à cette apparition si subite et si
momentanée. Je n'aurois trouvé que des larmes pour vous dire tout ce que
je sentais; et en vous le traçant confusement sur ce papier, elles
viennent encore m'interrompre. Ce n'est pourtant pas de l'amour qui me
parle pour vous, mais c'est un mélange de sentimens si tendres, de
souvenirs, de regrets, et d'inquiétude pour votre sort présent et
future, que vous pouvez seule comprendre ou diviner. Je n'ai dans le
cours de ces vingt ans jamais sçu au juste de vos nouvelles. Un mariage
d'inclination que j'appris que vous aviez fait, devoit faire votre
bonheur. J'apprends à présent que cela n'a pas rempli vos espérances: je
m'en afflige pour vous. Au nom de Dieu, faites-moi seulement sçavoir si
vous êtes heureuse au moins; c'est là l'objet de mes voeux les plus
ardents. Je ne vous parle point de moi; je ne sçais pas si mon sort peut
vous intéresser de même; je vous dirai seulement que l'âge ne me corrige
point du défaut de trop sentir; que, malgré cela, je suis aussi heureux
que je puis l'être, et que rien ne manqueroit à ma félicité, si je vous
sçavois contente et heureuse. Mais au cas que cela ne soit pas,
adoucissez-moi du moins l'amertume de cette nouvelle en me disant
expressément que ce n'est point moi qui en ai été la cause, et que vous
ne désespérez pas d'être encore heureuse et d'accord avec vous-même.

"Je finis, parce que j'aurois trop de choses à vous dire, et que ma
lettre deviendroit plustôt celle d'un père, que celle d'un ancien amant.
Mais la cause de mes paroles étant dans le sensibilité de mon coeur, je
ne doute point que la sensibilité du vôtre, dont j'ai été convaincu, ne
les reçoive avec indulgence, et avec un reste d'affection que je n'ai
pas mérité de perdre de votre part. Si vous voulez donc me dire quelque
chose de vous, et que ma lettre ne vous a point déplu, vous pouvez
addresser votre réponse à Bruxelles, poste restante. Si vous ne jugez
point à-propos de me répondre, faites seulement sçavoir à la personne
qui vous fera remettre celle-ci, que vous l'avez reçue. Cela me
consolera un peu de la douleur que m'a causé le rétracement subit de vos
infortunes, que votre vue a toute réveillées dans mon âme. Adieu, donc,



There is a famous passage in one of Lord Byron's most famous poems,
which I am ashamed to confess that, though I am English born, and a
constant reader of poetry, I cannot clearly understand. It seems to
present no difficulties to anybody else, for it has been quoted a
thousand times over and over, without any intimation that it is not as
clear as light. It is in the sublime Address to the Ocean at the end of
Canto IV. of _Childe Harold_, stanza 182.:

      "Thy shores are empires, changed in all save thee--
      Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage, what are they?
      Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since; their shores obey
      The stranger, slave, or savage; their decay
      Has dried up realms to deserts:--not so thou,
      Unchangeable save to thy wild waves' play--
      Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow--
      Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now."

I have copied out to the end of the stanza; for in fact it is not easy
to stop the pen when copying such stanzas as these: but my business is
with the fourth and fifth lines only. In the fourth line, as you will
observe, a semicolon is inserted after the word "since." I find it there
in the first edition of the fourth canto of _Childe Harold_, published
in 1818; it is there in the standard edition of Lord Byron's _Works_,
issued by Murray about 1832; it is there in the splendid illustrated
edition of _Childe Harold_ published by Murray in 1841,--one of the
finest books of the kind, if not the finest, that has yet done honour to
the English press. This punctuation is found, therefore, in the earliest
edition that was issued, and in those on which the most care has been
bestowed. Yet what is the sense which the lines thus punctuated present?

      "Thy waters wasted them [_i. e._ the empires] while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since."

They waters wasted many a tyrant? How, in the name of wonder? What sort
of an occupation is this to assign to the majestic ocean? Does the poet
mean to assert that anciently it wasted empires, and now it only wastes
individuals. Absurd! Yet such is the only meaning, as far as I see,
that can be assigned to the lines as they stand.

If the punctuation be altered, that is, if the semicolon after "since"
be removed, and a comma placed at the end of the line, the whole becomes

      "Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
      And many a tyrant since their shores obey."

That is (I beg pardon if I am unnecessarily explanatory), "The waters
wasted these empires while they were free, and since they have been
enslaved,"--an apt illustration of that indifference to human affairs
which the poet is attributing to the ocean. The words, "the stranger,
slave, or savage," which follow in the next line, are to be taken in
connexion with the phrase "many a tyrant," and as an enumeration of the
different sorts of tyrants to which these unhappy empires have been

This is my view of the sense of this famous passage: if any of your
correspondents can point out a better, I can only say "candidus
imperti," &c.

There was a very elaborate article on Lord Byron's Address to the Ocean
in _Blackwood's Magazine_ for October, 1848; but the writer, who
dissects it almost line by line, has somehow, as is the wont of
commentators, happened to pass over the difficulty which stands right in
his way. To make up for this, however, he contrives to find new
difficulties of his own. The following is a specimen:

  "Recite," he says, "the stanza beginning,

      'Thy shores are empires, changed in all save thee;'

  and when the sonorous roll has subsided, try to understand it. You
  will find some difficulty, if we mistake not, in knowing who or
  what is the apostrophized subject. Unquestionably the world's
  ocean, and not the Mediterranean. The very last verse we were far
  in the Atlantic:

      'Thy shores are empires.'

  "The shores of the world's ocean are empires. There are, or have
  been, the British empire, the German empire, the Russian empire,
  and the empire of the Great Mogul, the Chinese empire, the empire
  of Morocco, the four great empires of antiquity, the French
  empire, and some others. The poet does not intend names and things
  in this very strict way, however," &c.

What empires the poet _did_ mean there is surely no difficulty in
discovering, for those who wish to understand rather than to cavil. The
very next line to that quoted is--

      "_Assyria_, _Greece_, _Rome_, _Carthage_, what are they?"

and it would require some hardihood to assert that these empires were
not on the shores of the Mediterranean.

After all, the best commentators are translators: they are obliged to
take the difficulties by the horns. I find, in a translation of Byron's
_Works_ published at Pforzheim in 1842, the lines thus rendered by Dr.

      "Du bleibst, ob Reiche schwinden an den Küsten,--
      Assyrien, Hellas, Rom, Carthago--schwand,
      Die _freien_ könnte Wasserfluth verwüsten
      Wie die Tyrannen; es gehorcht der Strand
      Dem Fremdling, Sclaven, Wilden," &c.

Duttenhofer has here taken the text as he found it, and has given it as
much meaning as he could; but alas for those who are compelled to take
their notion of the poetry of _Childe Harold_ from his German, instead
of the original English! There is one passage in which the reader finds
this reflection driven hard upon him. Who is there that does not know
Byron's stanza on the Dying Gladiator, when, speaking of

      "The inhuman shout which hail'd the wretch who won,"

he adds, in lines which will be read _till_ Homer and Virgil are

      "He heard it, but he heeded not--his eyes
      Were with his heart, and that was far away;
      He reck'd not of the life he lost nor prize,
      But where his rude hut by the Danube lay,
      _There_ were his young barbarians all at play,
      _There_ was their Dacian mother--he, their sire,
      Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday--
      All this gush'd with his blood--shall he expire
      And unavenged? Arise, ye Goths! and glut your ire!"

There are two phrases in this stanza which seem to me to have never been
surpassed: "young barbarians," and "all this _gushed with his blood_."
How inimitable is "young barbarians!" The "curiosa felicitas" of Horace
never carried him farther,--or perhaps so far. Herr Duttenhofer contents
himself by saying--

                        "fern am Donaustrand
      Sind seine Kinder, freuend sich am Spiel."

"Afar on the shore of the Danube are _his children_, diverting
themselves at play." Good heavens! is this translation, and German
translation too, of which we have heard so much? Again:

                          "wie sein Blut
      Hinfliesst, denkt er an dies."

"As his blood flows away, he thinks of this!" What could Herr
Duttenhofer be thinking of?

To my surprise, on turning to the passage this moment in Byron's poems,
I find it stands--

      "All this _rush'd_ with his blood,"

instead of "_gush'd_." It is so in the original edition, in the _Works_,
and in the splendid edition of 1841, all three. Can there be any doubt
of the superiority of "gush'd?" To me there seems none; and, singularly
enough, it so happens that twice in conversation with two of the most
distinguished writers of this age--one a prosaist and the other a poet,
whose names I wish I were at liberty to mention--I have had occasion to
quote this passage, and they both agreed with me in ascribing the
highest degree of poetical excellence to the use of this very word. I
wish I could believe myself the author of such an improvement; but I
have certainly somewhere seen the line printed as I have given it; very
possibly in Ebenezer Elliott the Corn-law Rhymer's _Lectures on Poetry_,
in which I distinctly remember that he quoted the stanza.

      T. W.


I send, with some explanation, a few Notes, taken from among others that
I had marked in my copy of the edition of Bishop Jewel's Works, issued
by the Oxford university press, 8 vols. 8vo. 1848.

Vol. ii. p. 352., l. 6., has, in Jewel's _Reply to Harding's Answer_,
Article v., "Of Real Presence," seventh division, the following: "And
therefore St. Paul saith, 'That I live now, I live in the flesh of the
Son of God.'" To this the following is appended by the Oxford editor:

  "[Galatians ii. 20 '... And the life which I now live in the flesh
  I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave
  himself for me?' It cannot be denied that Jewel is here guilty, to
  say the least, of very unjustifiable carelessness.]"

The true state of the case is, that Bishop Jewel, in the original _Reply
to Harding_, published in his lifetime, 1565, had given the text with
entire correctness--"That I live now in the flesh, I live in the faith
of the Son of God:" but this, long after the Bishop's death, was
misprinted in the editions of 1609 and 1611. The Oxford Jewel, moreover,
of 1848 does not even profess to follow the editions of 1609 and 1611;
and it is stated, vol. i. p. 130., that "this edition of the Reply in
passing through the press has been collated with the original one of
1565." Still in this vital case, where the very question was, what Jewel
himself had written, it is plain that the early edition of 1565 was
never consulted. The roughness of the censure might surely in any case
have been spared. It may be noted (vol. viii. p. 195. Oxf. edit.), that
Jewel in 1568 wrote to Archbishop Parker: "I beseech your grace to give
strait orders that the Latin Apology be not printed again in any case,
before either your grace or some other have well perused it. _I am
afraid of printers: their tyranny is intolerable._"

In vol. iv. p. 92., l. 1. _et seq._, in the _Recapitulation of Jewel's
Apology_, the words of the original Latin, "quid de Spiritu sancto,"
marked in the following extract by Italics, are omitted in the Oxford
edition "Exposuimus tibi universam rationem religionis nostræ, quid de
Deo Patre, quid de ejus unico Filio Jesu Christo, _quid de Spiritu
sancto_, quid de ecclesia, quid de sacramentis ... sentiamus." And in
vol. vi. p. 523., l. 6., where Bishop Jewel gives that passage as
rendered by Lady Bacon, namely: "We have declared at large unto you the
very whole manner of our religion, what our opinion is of God the
Father, and of his only Son Jesus Christ, _of the Holy Ghost_, of the
church, of the sacrament," the following is appended:--

  "[In the Latin Apology no words occur here relating to the Third
  Person of the Blessed Trinity.]"

A similar notice is also given in vol. viii. p. 385.--The fact is, that
the words "quid de Spiritu sancto" do occur in the Latin Apology, 1562,
which was the first edition of that work, and, so far as I am aware, the
only edition printed in Jewel's life, from which too the Oxford reprint
professes to be taken, and a copy of which any one can consult in the
British Museum. Those words will also be found, within six or eight
pages of the end, in the various later editions, as for example those of
Vautrollier, London, 1581; Forster, Amberg, 1606; Boler, London, 1637;
and Dring, London, 1692 (which are in my own possession); as also in the
editions of Bowier, 1584; Chard, 1591; and Hatfield, London, 1599. The
editions of Jewel's works printed in 1609 and 1611, edited by Fuller,
under the sanction of Archbishop Bancroft, did not contain the Latin
Apology. There is not a shadow of authority for the omission. All the
modern reprints too, with which I am acquainted, only excepting a small
edition printed at Cambridge, 1818, p. 140., give the words in question.
It would seem that the Oxford editor must have used the very inaccurate
reprint of 1818, for supplying copy for the printer[6]; and reference
either to that first edition of 1562, which the reprint of 1848
professes to follow, or to any early edition, even in this case, where
the context clearly requires the omitted words, was neglected.

  [Footnote 6: I have observed another error in the Cambridge
  edition, 1818, p. 115., last line but five, "domum manere" instead
  of the original and classical reading, "domi manere." That
  misprint of 1818 is followed by the Oxford edition of 1848, vol.
  iv. p. 77. l. 12., Apol. pars vi. cap. 8. div. 1.]

I have said that the Oxford Jewel of 1848 professes to follow the Latin
Apology of 1562, as a copy of the Latin title, with the date 1562, is
prefixed to the Oxford edition, vol. iv. p. 1.: but the colophon
appended to that reprint, p. 95., is strangely dated 1567. Was there any
Latin edition of the Apology printed in that year? And, if so, why are
different dates given for the title and colophon of the Oxford reprint?
One can only conclude that the date 1567 is itself an error.

The following is printed in vol. viii. p. 290., l. 11., from Lady
Bacon's translation of Jewel's Apology, 1564, part ii. ch. 7. div. 5.:
"As touching the Bishop of Rome, for all his parasites state and ringly
sing those words in his ears, 'To thee will I give the keys of the
kingdom of heaven,'" &c. This case is different from those mentioned
above, in the respect that the words "state and ringly" do occur in the
printed edition of 1564; but it scarcely need be observed that the words
"state & ringly" are a misprint for "flatteringly," when it is added
that Jewel himself, in his revised edition of Lady Bacon's translation,
in the _Defence of the Apology_, 1567 and 1570, reads: "for all that his
flattering parasites sing these words in his ears." The original Latin
is "quamvis illi suaviter cantilentur illa verba a parasitis suis."

There are also various errors and several omissions in the Oxford Jewel,
in the verification of the numerous references. Among various notes (I
would however add) which are inaccurate, and several that appear to me
superfluous, there are some which are most useful, as, for example, that
in vol. ii. p. 195., on the Gloss in the Canon Law, "Our Lord God the



You have now completed the third volume of "NOTES AND QUERIES," and, to
the no small surprise of all lovers of "jeux de mots," not a single
specimen of the genus Anagram has found its way into your columns. To
what are we to ascribe such a circumstance? The ancients were not
ashamed to indulge in this intellectual pastime, and their anagrams,
says Samuel Maunder, occasionally contained some happy allusion. The
moderns have given unequivocal proofs of their fecundity in the same
line, and the anagrammatic labours of the French nation alone would form
several volumes. Indeed, to that nation belongs the honour of having
introduced the anagram; and such is the estimation in which "the art"
was held by them at one time, that their kings were provided with a
salaried Anagrammatist, as ours are with a pensioned Laureate. How comes
it then that a species of composition, once so popular, has found no
representative among the many learned correspondents of your popular
periodical? Has the anagram become altogether extinct, or is it only
awaiting the advent of some competent genius to restore it to its proper
rank in the republic of letters?

To me it is clear that the real cause of the prevailing dearth of
anagrams is the great difficulty of producing good ones. Good anagrams
are, to say the least of it, quite as scarce as good epic poems; for, if
it be true that the utmost efforts of the human intellect have not given
birth to more than six good epic poems, it is no less true that the
utmost exertion of human ingenuity has not brought forth more than half
a dozen good anagrams. Some critics are of opinion that we do possess
six good epic poems. Now, where shall we find six good anagrams? If they
exist, let them be _exhibited_ in the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES."

Indeed, it may be said that the anagram and the epic poem are the alpha
and omega of literature. I am aware that by thus placing them in
juxtaposition the contrast may have the effect of disparaging the
anagram. The epic poem will naturally enough suggest the idea of the
sublime, and the anagram, as naturally, that of the ridiculous: and then
it will be said that between the two there is but a step. But let any
gentleman make the experiment, and he will find that, instead of a step,
the intermediate space will present to his astonished legs a surface
co-extensive with the wide field of modern mediocrity. As for myself, I
have ransacked in search of anagrams every hole and corner in ancient
and modern literature, and have found very few samples worthy of the
name. Reserving the ancients for future consideration, let us see what
the moderns have to boast of in this respect.

And first, what says Isaac Disraeli? Anagrams being literary
curiosities, one would naturally expect to meet with some respectable
samples of them in that writer's _Curiosities of Literature_. Yet, what
do we find? Among about a score which he quotes, there is not one that
can be reckoned a tolerable anagram, while by far the greater number are
no anagrams at all. An anagram is the change of a word or sentence into
another word or sentences by an _exact_ transposition of the letters.
Where a single letter is either omitted or added, the anagram is
incomplete. Of this description are the following, cited by Disraeli:--

      "Thomas Overburie,
      "O! O! base murther."

      "Charles James Stewart,
      "Claims Arthur's Seat."

      "Martha Nicholson,
      "Soon calm at heart."

I next turned to Samuel Maunder and his _Scientific and Literary
Treasury_, little suspecting that, in a repertory bearing so ambitious a
title, I should fail to discover the object of my search. True, he
quotes the anagram made by Dr. Burney after the battle of the Nile:

        "Horatio Nelson,
      "Honor est a Nilo."

And this, it must be confessed, is one of the best on record. The
transposition is complete, and the allusion most apposite. But with that
exception, what does this pretended _Treasury_ disclose? A silly attempt
to anagrammatise the name of our beloved queen; thus:

      "Her most gracious Majesty Alexandrina Victoria,
      "Ah! my extravagant joco-serious radical Minister!"

coupled with the admission that nothing can be more ridiculous or
inapplicable, and that one-half of the anagrams in existence are not a
whit less absurd. And yet, for this piece of absurdity, as well as for
another of the same calibre, on--

      "His Grace the Duke of Wellington,
      "Well fought, K--! no disgrace in thee,"

Mr. Maunder claims the merit of originality. In other words (which are
no other than his own), he claims merit for being "puerile,"
"ridiculous," and "absurd." Alas! for the credit of anagrams! Alas! for
the reputation of Galileo, Newton, and other philosophers, who could
make great discoveries, and resort to anagrams to announce them to the
world, but who were incapable of discovering that an anagram was an

Finding matters at so low an ebb in our own literature, and that English
anagrams are little better than Irish bulls, I directed my attention to
the literary records of the French, among whom the anagrammatic bump is
very prominent. From its character, and the process of its formation,
the anagram is peculiarly adapted to the genius of that people. It is
light and airy: so are they. It is conceited and fantastical: so are
they. It seems to be what it is not: so do they. Its very essence is
transposition, involution; what one might call a sort of
Jump-Jim-Crow-ism: and so is theirs. Hence the partiality which they
have always shown for the anagram: their Rebuses, Almanacs, Annuaires,
and collections of trifles are full of them. One-half of the disguises
adopted by their anonymous writers are in the shape of anagrams, formed
from their names; and one of them has gone the length of composing and
publishing a poem of 1200 lines, every line of which contains an
anagram. The name assumed by the author (Gabriel Antoine Joseph Hécart)
is L'Anagramme d'Archet; and the book bears the title of _Anagramméana,
Poëme en VIII Chants, XCVe Edition, à Anagrammatopolis, l'An XIV de
l'Ere anagrammatique_. But it so happens that out of the 1200 anagrams
not a single one is worth quoting. Quérard describes this poem, not
inaptly, as a "débauche d'esprit;" and the author himself calls it "une
ineptie;" to which I may add the opinion of Richelet, that "l'anagramme
est une des plus grandes inepties de l'esprit humain: il faut être sot
pour s'en amuser, et pis que sot pour en faire."

With such an appreciation of the value of anagrams, is it surprising
that the French should have produced so few good ones? M. de Pixérécourt
mentions two which he deems so unexceptionable, that they might induce
us to overlook the general worthlessness of that kind of composition.
They are as follows:




      "Bien sot."

Now, the first is only true in France, where true liberty was never
understood: and the second is true nowhere. _Benoist_ is merely a vulgar
name, and the adoption of it does not necessarily imply that the bearer
is a "sot." M. De Pixérécourt might have quoted some better samples; the
famous one, for instance, on the assassin of Henri III.:--

      "Frère Jacques Clement,
      "C'es l'enfer qui m'a créé."

Or the following Latin anagrams on the names of two of his most
distinguished countrymen:--

      "De la Monnoi,
      "A Delio nomen."

      "O alte vir!"

I was on the point of relinquishing in despair my search for anagrams,
when an accidental circumstance put me in possession of one of the best
specimens I have met with. Some time ago, in an idle mood, I took up a
newspaper for the purpose of glancing at its contents, and as I was
about to read, I discovered that I held the paper by the wrong end.
Among the remarkable headings of news there was one which I was desirous
of decyphering before I restored the paper to its proper position, and
this happened to be the word "[inverted: DNALERI]". Instead, however, of
making out the name from letters thus inverted, I found the anagram--

      "Daniel R."

My first impression, on ascertaining this result, was one of horror at
the treasonable "jeu de mots" I had so unwittingly perpetrated.
Remembering, however, that Daniel O'Connell is dead, and that Irish
loyalty has nothing to fear from Daniel the Second, I resolved to give
the public the benefit of the discovery by sending it to you for "NOTES


  St. Lucia, August, 1851.


_Cure for Hooping Cough._--It is said by the inhabitants of the forest
of Bere, East Hants, that new milk drank out of a cup made of the wood
of the variegated holly is a cure for the hooping cough.

    [Arrow symbol]

_Cure for the Toothache._--In the village of Drumcondra, about a mile
and half on the northern side of Dublin, there is an old churchyard,
remarkable as the burying-place of Gandon the architect, Grose the
antiquary, and Thomas Furlong the translator of Carolan's Remains. On
the borders of this churchyard there is a well of beautiful water, which
is resorted to by the folks of the village afflicted with toothache,
who, on their way across the graves pick up an old skull, which they
carry with them to drink from, the doing of which they assert to be an
infallible cure. Others merely resort to the place for the purpose of
pulling a tooth from a skull, which they place on or over the hole or
stump of the grown tooth, and they affirm that by keeping it there for a
certain time the pain ceases altogether. There is a young woman at this
instant in the employment of my mother, who has practised these two
remedies, and who tells me she knows several others who have done the

    C. HOEY.

  Near Drumcondra, County Dublin.

_Medical Use of Pigeons._--

      "Spirante columba
      Suppositu pedibus, revocantur adima vapores."

  "'They apply pigeons to draw the vapours from the head.'"--Dr.
  Donne's "Devotions upon Emergent Occasions," _Works_, vol. iii. p.
  550. Lond. 1839.

Mr. Alford appends to the above-cited passage the following note:

  "After a careful search in Pliny, Burton's _Anatomy of
  Melancholy_, and Sir Thomas Browne's _Vulgar Errors_, I can find
  no mention of this strange remedy."

I am inclined to suspect that the application of pigeons was by no means
an uncommon remedy in cases particularly of fever and delirium. To quote
one passage from Evelyn:

  "Neither the cupping nor the _pidgeons_, those last of remedyes,
  wrought any effect."--_Life of Mr. Godolphin_, p. 148. Lond. 1847.

Some of your correspondents may possibly be able to furnish additional
information respecting this custom; for I am confident of having seen it
alluded to, though at the moment I cannot remember by whom.



_Obeism._--In the _Medical Times_ of 30th Sept. there is a case of a
woman who fancied herself under its influence, in which the name (in a
note) is derived from Obi, the town, district, or province in Africa
where it was first practised; and there is appended to it the following
description of one of the superstitions as given by a witness on a

  "Do you know the prisoner to be an Obeah man?--Ees, massa; shadow
  catcher true.

  "What do you mean by shadow catcher?--Him hab coffin [a little
  coffin was here produced]; him set to catch dem shadow.

  "What shadow do you mean?--When him set Obeah for somebody him
  catch dem shadow, and dem go dead."

The derivation of the name from a place is very different from the
supposition so cleverly argued in the Third Vol. connecting it with Ob;
but I cannot find in any gazetteer to which I at present have had
access, any place in Africa of the name, or a similar name. I do not
remember in the various descriptions I have read of the charms
practised, that one of catching the shadow mentioned.

    E. N. W.


(Vol. ii., pp. 230. 282. 379. 443.; Vol. iv., p. 171.)

I resume the chain of evidence where I left off in my last

The account given by Pomerania's best and most trusty historian, Thomas
Kanzow, Kantzow, Kamzow, Kansow, Kahnsow, Kantzouw, or Cantzow[7] (born
1505; died 25th September, 1542), of Stralsund, in his _Pomerania_ (ed.
Meden, p. 405., 1841, W. Dietze, Anclam.), of Wollin, only previously
alluded to by your correspondents, is as follows:

  "_Of Wollin._--Wollin was before, as it appears from heretofore
  written histories, a powerful city; and one yet finds far about
  the town foundations and tokens that the city was once very great;
  but it has since been destroyed, and numbers now scarcely 300 to
  400 citizens.[8] It has a parish church and nunnery
  (_jungfrauenkloster_), and a ducal government. It lies on a piece
  of marshland, on the Dievenow, called the Werder. The citizens are
  customed like the other Pomeranians, but they are considered
  somewhat awkwarder (_unhandlicher_ = unhandier). It is a curious
  custom of this land and city that generally more inhuman things
  take place there than anywhere else; and that I may relate
  something, I will tell of a dreadful occurrence that lately
  happened there.[9] Of Wollyn there is nothing more to be written,
  except that the revered Master Doctor Joannes Buggenhagen was born
  in this city, who is no insignificant ornament both of the holy
  New Testament and of his fatherland."

  [Footnote 7: The publication of whose works in English I strongly

  [Footnote 8: In later times, however, the population has become

  [Footnote 9: Not to be found.]

On Vineta he writes (_High German Chronicle_, ed. Meden, lib. ii. pp.

    "Not long after this Schwenotto threw off Christianity, and set
  himself against his father Harald, king in Denmark, and drove him
  from the kingdom. So Harald fled to Wollyn, in Pomerania. There
  the Wends, notwithstanding that he was a Christian, and they still
  of the ancient faith, received him kindly, and, together with the
  other Wends and Pomeranians, fitted out ships and an armament, and
  brought him with force back into his kingdom, and fought the whole
  day with Schweno, so that it was uncertain who had or had not won
  there. Then the next day they arose and made a smiting[10], and in
  the fray Harald was shot by a Dane, and perhaps by his son's
  command. Then brought the Wollyners him to their ships, and
  carried him away to their city that there they might doctor
  (_artzten_) him. But he died of the wound, and was buried there,
  after he had reigned about fifty years, about the thousandth year
  after the birth of Christ. So writeth Saxo. But Helmold writes,
  that he came to Vineta: these holp him into his kingdom again,
  and when he was shot in the skirmish, they brought him back to
  their town, where he died[11] and was buried. And that I myself
  believe; for though Wollyn was a mighty state at that time, still
  Vineta was much mightier; and it is therefore to be concluded that
  he fled to Vineta, rather than to Wollyn, and that Vineta was on
  that account afterwards destroyed: and as we are come to Vineta,
  we will say what Helmold writes thereof, which is this:--

  [Footnote 10: I have in the translation adopted the phrase of Holy
  Writ, "made a smiting."]

  [Footnote 11: This shows that the MSS. of Helmold were corrupted
  at a very early period. I have seen one uncorrupted. A list of
  them would be a thing desirable.]

  "Vineta has been a powerful city, with a good harbour for the
  surrounding nations; and after so much has been told of the city
  which is totally (_schyr_ = sheerly) incredible, I will relate
  this much. It is said to have been as great a city as any which
  Europe contained at that time, and it was promiscuously inhabited
  by Greeks, Slavonians, Wends, and other nations. The Saxons, also,
  upon condition of not openly practising Christianity, were
  permitted to inhabit with them; for all the citizens were
  idolaters down to the final destruction and fall of the city. Yet
  in customs, manners, and hospitality there is not a more worthy
  nation, or so worthy a one, to be found. The city was full of all
  sorts of merchandise (_kaufwahr_) from all countries, and had
  everything which was curious, luxurious (_lustig_ = lustful), and
  necessary; and a king of Denmark destroyed them a great fleet of
  war. The ruins and recollection of the town remain even to this
  day, and the island on which it lay is flowed round by three
  streams, of which one is of a green colour, the other greyish, and
  the third dashes and rushes by reason of storm and wind. And so
  far Helmold, who wrote about 400 years ago.

  "And it is true that the remains exist at the present day: for
  when one desires to go from Wolgast over the Pene, in the country
  of Usedom, and comes by a village called Damerow, which is by
  [about] two miles[12] from Wolgast, so sees one about a long
  quarter way into the sea (for the ocean has encroached upon the
  land so much since then), great stones and foundations. So have I
  with others rowed thither, and have carefully looked at it. But no
  brickwork is there now; for it is so many hundred years since the
  destruction of the city, that it is impossible that it can have
  remained so long in the stormy sea. Yet the great
  foundation-stones are there still, and lie in a row, as they are
  usually disposed under a house, one by the other; and in some
  places others upon them. Among these stones are some so great, in
  three or four places, that they reach ell high above the water; so
  that it is conjectured that their churches or assembly-houses
  stood there. But the other stones, as they still lie in the order
  in which they lay under the buildings (_geben_), show also
  manifestly how the streets went through the length and breadth
  (_in die lenge und übers quer_) of the city. And the fishermen of
  the place told us that still whole paving-stones of the streets
  lay there, and were covered with moss[13] (_übermoset_), so that
  they could not be seen; yet if one pricked therein with a
  sharp-pointed pole or lance, they were easily to be felt. And the
  stones lay somehow after that manner: and as we rowed backward and
  forward over the foundations, and remarked the fashion of the
  streets, saw we that the town was built lengthways from east to
  west. But the sea deepens the farther we go, so that we could not
  perceive the greatness of the city fully; but what we could see,
  made us think that it was very probably of about the size of
  Lübeck: for it was about a short quarter[14] long, and the breadth
  broader than the city Lübeck. By this one may guess what was the
  size of the part we could not see. And according to my way of
  thinking, when this town was destroyed, Wisbu in Gottland was

  [Footnote 12: German, answering to about eight English.]

  [Footnote 13: I have translated _übermoset_ as above, though
  nothing at the bottom could be covered with moss. I suspect the
  true lection to be _übermodert_, as _moder_ exists in the present
  German, answering to our word "mother."]

  [Footnote 14: This expression, as well as a previous one, alludes
  to the distance. "Of a mile" is, in both cases, to be understood.]

Wisby, _en passant_, may be described as a merchant town of great
importance in the mediæval period, and whence we have derived our
navigation laws. It has now about 4000 inhabitants, and has many ruined
buildings and sculptured marble about it.

So far Kantzow in the _High German Chronicle_: in the _Low German
Chronicle_ (ed. Böhmer, Greifswald, 1832), I find nothing bearing on the

Indistinct and wavering is Kantzow in his account, but thus much is to
be gathered from it.

1. That the _soi-disant_ Vineta lay east and west; Julin or Wollin lies
north and south.

2. That the destruction of Wollin ensued on its aiding an enemy against

3. That in the mind of Kantzow the two towns were not confounded, and
that he had heard both legends, but had not sufficient critical sagacity
to disentangle the mess.

The oldest MSS. of Helmold have not this error. I have myself, as
previously stated, seen one uncorrupted. The closing words of Kantzow
seem to make it necessary to search for the date of the rebuilding of
Wisby, which I have not at present the means of doing, though I will
take an early opportunity of settling this, oddly enough, contested

Von Raumer emphatically brands the legend of Vineta as a fable; as also
my friend M. de Kaiserling. And I myself am forcibly reminded of an old
Irish legend I read long ago somewhere or other, of the disappearance of
a city in the Lake of Killarney, of which, my authority stated, the
towers were occasionally to be perceived. Another legend, of which the
scene was laid in Mexico, I recollect, was to the same effect; and in
this I am confirmed by a friend, who has traveled much in that country.
I must myself totally deny the existence of Vineta, except as the
capital city of the Veneti, when I would place it in Rügen.

I may as well add that M. de Kaiserling dug up his coins in the
north-western corner of Wollin, near the Rathhaus.

The Salmarks are in the neighbourhood of the town, the Greater one to
the north, the Lesser to the south.

I will now close the paper, already too long, and hope for elucidations
and remarks from abler pens.


  September 25, 1851.

Minor Notes.

_Curious Epitaph in Dalkeith Churchyard._--The following inscription is
on the tombstone of one Margaret Scott, who died in the town of
Dalkeith, February 9, 1738, aged 125 years:--

      "Stop passenger, until my life you read:
      The living may get knowledge by the dead.
      Five times five years I lived a virgin's life:
      Ten times five years I was a virtuous wife:
      Ten times five years I lived a widow chaste;
      Now, weary'd of this mortal life, I rest.
      Between my cradle and my grave have been
      Eight mighty kings of Scotland and a queen.
      Four times five years the Commonwealth I saw;
      Ten times the subjects rose against the law.
      Twice did I see old Prelacy pull'd down;
      And twice the cloak was humbled by the gown.
      An end of Stuart's race I saw: nay, more!
      My native country sold for English ore.
      Such desolations in my life have been,
      I have an end of all perfection seen."

I thought that the above instance of what might be termed "historical
longevity" was worthy of a place in your pages, along with others
proving how "traditions from remote periods may come through few hands."


_Device of SS._--However doubtful may be the derivation of our English
"Collar of Esses," there is a pretty explanation given of a similar
device granted to a Spanish nobleman.

It is said that Gatierre de Cardenas was the first person who announced
to the young Princess Isabella of Castile the approach of her future
husband, Ferdinand of Aragon (after his romantic journey to Valladolid
in 1469), exclaiming, "Esse es, esse es,"--"This is he!" He obtained
permission to add to his escutcheon the letters SS. to commemorate this

    O. P. Q.

_Lord Edward Fitzgerald._--Having seen in "NOTES AND QUERIES" a remark
about Lord Edward Fitzgerald, I wish to add the following.

The body of Lord Edward Fitzgerald has never been removed by his
relatives, but has lain in an outside vault or passage, under the parish
church of St. Werburgh, Dublin, until very lately, when (I believe
within the last year) Lady Campbell, widow of General Sir Guy Campbell,
Bart., and daughter of Pamela, caused it to be placed in an oak coffin,
the old one being greatly decayed. It is now removed into what is called
the chancel vault.

    L. M. M.

_The Michaelmas Goose._--Why it is that here in England--

            "---- by custom (right divine)
      Geese are ordained to bleed at Michael's shrine,"

is a mystery still unsolved by English antiquaries. For, even if the
story that Queen Elizabeth was eating a goose on Michaelmas Day when she
received the news of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, rested on
unquestionable authority, it would not explain the origin of the custom,
since Brand has shown, by a reference to Blount's _Jocular Tenures_,
that it existed as early as the tenth year of Edward IV. If we seek an
illustration from the practice of our continental neighbours, we shall
fail; or only learn that we have transferred to the Feast of St. Michael
a practice which is observed abroad on that of St. Martin, the 11th
November: indeed, St. Martin's Bird is a name by which the goose is
known among many of the continental nations. In the Runic Calendar the
11th November is marked by a goose. In the old _Bauern Practica_ (ed.
1567), _Wintermonat_ or November boasts, in one of the Rhymes of the

      "Fat geese unto the rich I sell."

And in the curious old Story Book of Peter Leu, reprinted by von der
Hagen in his _Narrenbuch_, one of the adventures commences:

      "It fell upon St. Martin's Day,
      When folks are wont goose-feasts to keep."

A learned German, however, Nork (_Festkalender_, s. 567.), sees in our
Michaelmas Goose the last traces of the goose offered of old to
Proserpina, the infernal goddess of death (on which account it is that
the figure of this bird is so frequently seen on monumental remains);
and also of the offerings (among which the goose figured) formerly made
to Odin at this season, a pagan festival which on the introduction of
Christianity was not abolished, but transferred to St. Michael.


_Gravesend Boats_ (Vol. ii., p. 209.).--In a letter from Sir Thomas
Heneage to Sir Christopher Hatton, dated 2nd May, 1585, given in
Nicolas's _Memoir of the Life and Times of Sir Christopher Hatton_ (p.
426.), is this passage:

  "Her Highness thinketh your house will shortly be like a Gravesend
  barge, never without a knave, a priest, or a thief," &c.

"Her Highness" was Queen Elizabeth, and the purport of the letter was to
convey "her Highness's pleasure" touching one Isaac Higgins, then in
the custody of Sir Christopher Hatton.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept. 19. 1851.

_Skull-cups._--There are so very few consecutive and methodical readers
left, that it is not surprising that Mr. Blackwell, the editor of Bohn's
_Mallet_, should have adopted the groundless charge of one Magnusen
against Olaus Wormius, who understood Ragnar's death-song much better
than certain ironical dilettanti of Cockneyland. Charlemagne's
secretary, Paul Warnefrid, the Lombard deacon of Aquileia, swears that,
about 200 years after the event, King Ratchis had shown him _the cup
made out of Cunimund's skull_, in which Queen Rosamund, his daughter,
refused to drink, in the year 574.[15] (_Paul. Diac._ ii. 8.) Open the
_Acta Sanctorum_ for the 1st of May, and they will tell you that the
monks of Triers had enchased in silver the skull of St. Theodulf, out of
which they administered fever-drink to the sick. Moreover, when, in the
year 1465, Leo von Rozmital came to Neuss, he saw a costly tomb wherein
lay the blessed Saint Quirinus, and he drank out of his skull-cup. St.
Sebastian's skull at Ebersberg, and St. Ernhart's at Ratisbonne, had
also been converted into chalices.

  [Footnote 15: See Grotius's valuable Collection of Gothic and
  Lombard Historians.]

I refer the reader to Jacob Grimm's _Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache_,
pp. 143. 146., for further details: he shows that to drink ale out of
_buigvîdum hausa_, can only mean out of "hollow skulls," literally
"_vacuitas_ curva."

To prove the antiquity of the custom, Grimm alleges likewise a passage
of the Vilkinasaga, in which Völundr, the smith, our Belenger[16], or
Will o' the Wisp, enchases in silver the amputated skulls of Nidads' two

  [Footnote 16: Foeu _Bélenger_, in one of the dialects of the
  Low-Norman Isles.]



Minor Queries.

168. _Elizabeth, Equestrian Figure of._--Doubtless many of your readers
have seen in the Exhibition a large equestrian figure of Elizabeth; it
is in the N.W. gallery, in one of the large plate cases. Now the horse
is described as pacing, which the explanation states was a step taught
the horses belonging to the ladies of that period. Query, where a
description of pacing, or rules for teaching horses to pace, amble, &c.,
may be found? for what appears so extraordinary in the figure is that
the fore and hind legs of the same side of the horse are extended
together, or simultaneously. I have in the _Graphic Illustrator_ a
picture of Elizabeth hawking (the figure in the Exhibition may have been
copied from the original), where the horse is in the same attitude. I
feel anxious to know if that unnatural gait is possible, or whether it
is a part or the whole of the pacing step.


  Ashby de la Zouch.

169. _Indian Ants._--Is there any foundation for Pliny's account of the
Indian ants, which were, according to Herodotus, "not so large as a dog,
but bigger than a fox?"

    A. C. W.

170. _Passage in Geo. Herbert._--What is the meaning of the following?
(Herbert's _Poems_, "Charms and Knots," ver. 8.):--

      "Take one from ten, and what remains?
      Ten still: if sermons go for gains."

    H. T. G.

171. _"The King's-way," Wilts._--Mention of this road, in the
neighbourhood of Malmsbury, occurs in two charters of the Saxon kings
Athelstan and Eadwig, Nos. 355. & 460. Cod. Dipl. Aevi. Sax. The road is
said to be known in Wiltshire as King Athelstan's Way. Can any of your
correspondents oblige me by pointing out its course, and the immediate
purpose for which it was constructed? There is a King's-way Field
(Cyngwey-ffeld) mentioned in the ancient terriers of Bampton, Oxon, and
still known there.

    B. W.

172. _Marriages within ruined Churches._--I have heard of marriages
solemnized within _ruined_ churches in Ireland within the last twenty
years. What is the origin of this custom; was it general, and is it
still observed?

    R. H.

173. _Fees for Inoculation._--In an old Account Book of a Sussex county
gentleman I find the following items:--

  "1780. I paid for the inoculation of William and Polly Parker, £5
  15_s._ 6_d._"

and again in 1784:

  "Paid towards R. Stephen's inoculation, £1 11_s._ 0_d._"

from which it would appear that the process was a very expensive one in
those days. I should feel obliged to any of your correspondents to give
me some information on this point.

    R. W. B.

174. "_Born in the Eighth Climate._"--Can any of your readers explain
the allusion contained in the following extract from Sir Thomas Browne?

  "_I was born in the eighth climate_, but seem for to be framed and
  constellated unto all."--_Religio Medici_, ii. 1.

Will the notions of astrology throw any light upon it?

    N. H.

175. _Aubry de Montdidier's Dog._--Who was the King of France that
subjected the Chevalier Macaire to the ordeal by combat with this famous
dog? In some of the authorities it is said to be Charles VI., and in
others "Le Roi Jean," meaning, I presume, John II.


  St. Lucia.

176. _Sanford's Descensus._--Can any of your correspondents say if
Sanford's _Descensus_ has ever been published separately? It is spoken
of in the 2nd vol. of Gale's _Court of the Gentiles_, and was published
in the works of a bishop who survived him. A copy of that prelate's
works is in the Bodleian Library, and contains the _Descensus_. What is
the bishop's name?


177. _Parish Registers--Briefs for Collection._--What acts of parliament
since the reign of George I. affect parish registers?

On what authority were collections made in churches _by brief_; in what
year was that mode of collection decreed; and when did it cease?

    J. B. (A Subscriber.)

178. _Early Printing Presses, Sticks, and Chases._--I am a compositor,
and have read with great interest the "Notes" on Caxton and Printing in
your valuable publication. May I venture to put a Query which has often
crossed my mind, especially when I went to see Mr. Maclise's great
painting at the Royal Academy. What kind of press did Caxton and his
successors use? Also, is anything known of the shape of their "sticks"
and "chases?" Mr. Maclise seems to have taken a modern pattern for all
of these, especially the two last.

    EM QUAD.

179. _Bootikins._--Horace Walpole speaks in many of his letters of the
great benefit he had experienced from the use of _bootikins_ in his
attacks of gout. In a letter to George Montagu, Esq., dated July 31,
1767, he says:

  "Except one day's gout, which I cured with the _bootikins_, I have
  been quite well since I saw you."

Eight years afterwards his expectations of _cure_ from them were not so
high. In a letter to the Rev. Mr. Cole, dated June 5, 1775, he remarks:

  "I am perfectly well, and expect to be so for a year and a half. I
  desire no more of my _bootikins_ than to curtail my fits."

Dr. E. J. Seymour (_Thoughts on the Nature and Treatment of several
severe Diseases of the Human Body_, i. 107.: London, 1847), says that--

  "The _bootikins_ were simply a glove, with a partition for the
  thumb, but no separate ones for the fingers, like an infant's
  glove, made of oiled silk."

Can any of your readers shed light on this matter?

    R. D.


180. _Printers' Privilege._--I have heard it confidently stated that
printers have the privilege, if they are disposed to use it, to wear on
all occasions a sword dangling at their sides. If it be so, whence does
it arise? I have heard two explanations, one, bearing _primâ facie_
evidence of incorrectness, a special grant as a mark of favour; the
other, which is the only reasonable way of accounting for such a totally
unsuitable privilege, that when the act passed forbidding arms to be
commonly worn, all kinds and manner of people were mentioned by the name
of their trades, businesses, &c., except printers, who were accidently
omitted. How much of truth might there be in all this? What is the act
alluded to?

    TEE BEE.

181. _Death of Pitt._--What authority is there for the accompanying
statement respecting the death of Mr. Pitt?

  "Among the anecdotes of statesmen few are more interesting than
  that which records the death of Pitt. The hand which had so long
  sustained the sceptre of this country found no hand to clasp it in
  death. By friends and by servants he was alike deserted; and a
  stranger wandering on from room to room of a deserted house, came
  at last by chance to a chamber untended but not unquiet, in which
  the great minister lay, alone and dead."--See _Edinburgh Review_
  for July, 1851, p. 78., on the _Poems and Memoir of Hartley


182. "_A little Bird told me._"--C. W. wishes to know if any of the
readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" can tell him the origin of the proverb,
"A little bird told me."

C. W. has an idea that the origin is from the _Koran_, where is an
account of all the birds being summoned before Solomon. The lapwing
absents himself. Upon being questioned why he did not immediately obey,
he says he has been at the court of the Queen of Sheba, who has resolved
upon visiting Solomon. On the hint, Solomon prepares for the queen's
reception. The lapwing sets off to Ethiopia, and tells the Queen that
Solomon wishes to see her. The meeting, as we know, took place.

Not having the _Koran_, C. W. cannot refer to it to see if it is right
or wrong.

183. _Baroner._--At page 105. of the volume of _Bury Wills_ published by
the Camden Society, is the will of William Place, priest, Master of the
Hospital of St. John Evangelist without the south gate of Bury St.
Edmunds, dated 21st July, 1504, whereby he willed that "Damp" William
Carsey (elsewhere in the same will called Karsey), "Baroner" of the
Monastery of Bury St. Edmunds, should assign two children to say _De
profundis_ at his grave for his soul every day from his burying day till
his thirtieth day be past, and they to have each day for their labour
one penny betwixt them. Mr. Tymms's notes to the above publication are
copious and valuable, but he omits to explain the term "Baroner;" and
the object of this Query is to ascertain if he, or any of your numerous
correspondents, can do so. I conjecture that the Baroner was the master
of the children (or song school), but I am not aware of any other
instance of the use of the word as denoting a monastic officer.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept 19. 1851.

184. _William the Third at Exeter--History of Hawick._--1. Mr. Macaulay,
in describing the entrance of William of Orange into Exeter, mentions
that he was preceded, amongst others, by three hundred gentlemen of
English birth. Can any of your correspondents inform me whether the
names of these gentlemen are known, and, if so, where the roll may be
met with?

2. I remember to have read an extract from a work called the _History of
Hawick_ in Teviotdale, but I have never met with any one acquainted with
the work. Is the book now extant, and, if so, where can it be seen? If
any of your correspondents should have seen this volume, perhaps he can
inform me whether it narrates an altercation between the abbot of
Melrose and a neighbouring baron, which ended in the death of the

    H. L.

  Maen-twrog, North Wales.

185. _Johannes Lychtenberger._--The "Pronosticatio," or "prophecies,"
which bear this name, have been often reprinted since what I believe to
be the first edition was published in the year 1488. In giving an
account of the copies of it in the Lambeth Library, I stated that I knew
of no other copy of this edition, except one in the Douce collection in
the Bodleian. Eight years have elapsed since that time, and I have not
heard of any; and as circumstances have lately led to my being engaged
about the book, I shall be glad if you will allow me to ask whether any
of your many learned correspondents know of a _prior_ edition, or of any
other copies of _this_ one of 1488?



186. _Lestourgeon the Horologist._--I have in my possession an
apparently very old, though very elegant and very excellent, eight-day
clock, with the maker's name on its face, _Thomas Lestourgeon, London_.
Some years ago there was found among the apparatus of the Natural
Philosophy class, in the University of Edinburgh, what is called in the
inventory "an old watch, maker's name Lestourgeon, London." Can any of
your readers tell me when that excellent horologist flourished? I know
the history of the clock for about a century, but how much older it may
be I should like to know.


187. _Physiological Query._--Can any of your correspondents mention the
work of any physiologist in which the _cause_ is given why all
herbivorous animals suck in what they drink, and all carnivorous animals
lap it up by the action of the tongue? Also, what naturalists have
specified that broad distinction, and whether it has been mentioned in
any other work?


188. _De Grammont's Memoirs._--Is there an earlier edition of De
Grammont's _Memoirs_ than that in 12mo. printed at Cologne in 1713?


189. "_Frightened out of his seven Senses._"--Can this expression be met
with in any author; or what is its origin?

Is it simply synonymous to the more usual phrase, "To be frightened out
of one's wits?"

Is there any other passage in the language where the possession of more
than _five_ senses is implied?

    G. T. H.


190. _Fides Carbonaria._--What is the _origin_ of a phrase known to
readers of a certain Latinity, "Fides Carbonaria?" The French have an
expression apparently equivalent, "Foi de Charbonnier;" but _what_
originated either?


191. _Bourchier Family._--I would be very much obliged to any
correspondent who could tell me either the inscriptions on any monuments
to the "Bourchier" family, or in what church they are to be found. I
believe there are some in Northamptonshire.

    L. M. M.


192. _Warnings to Scotland._--

  "Warnings to Scotland, of the Eternal Spirit, to the City of
  Edinburgh, in Scotland, by the mouths of Thomas Dutton, Guy Nutt,
  John Glover, in their Mission by the Spirit to the said City, as
  they were delivered in the year 1709, and faithfully taken down in
  writing as they were spoken. London printed in the year 1710."

The trio also gave "warnings" to the sinful city of Glasgow, &c.

I would be glad if any of your correspondents could give me any
information regarding this _agitation_, and if it produced any sensation
at the time?


193. _Herschel anticipated._--Can one of your correspondents mention the
name, and any other particulars, of the man who anticipated Herschel
relative to the sun's motion; and was declared to be mad for
entertaining such opinions?


194. _Duke of Wellington._--Where can a copy of the petition, presented
by the Lord Mayor and Common Council, setting forth the insufficiency of
the Duke of Wellington as a general, and his obvious incapacity, and
begging his immediate recall, be obtained, and the date of it? It is a
droll historical document, which should not sink into oblivion.


Minor Queries Answered.

_An early Printer._--I have seen an old black-letter book of homilies in
Latin, with the following imprint:--

   "Sermones Michaelis de Ungaria prædicabiles per totū annum licet
  breves. Et sic est finis sit laus et gloria trinis Impressū
  suburbiis sācti germani de praetis per Petrū Leuet, anno dn̅i
  millesimo quadringēte sino nonagesimo septimo primo die vero.
  xiij. Novembris."

I should be glad if any of your correspondents could furnish any
information regarding the printer.


  [Petrus Levet was one of the early Paris printers, and several of
  the works printed by him are noticed in Gresswell's _Annals of
  Parisian Typography_, pp. 96. 100. 104. At p. 178. will be found
  his device, copied from the _Destructorium Vitiorum_, anno 1497.]

_Nimble Ninepence._--What is the origin of this expression?

    P. S. KG.

  ["A nimble ninepence is better than a slow shilling."--_Old

_Prince Rupert's Balls._--Why are the glass balls filled with floating
bubbles called Rupert balls? Was the prince a glass-blower?

    [Arrow symbol]

  [The earliest experiments upon glass tears were made in 1656, both
  in London and Paris; but it is not certain in what country they
  were invented. They were first brought to England by Prince
  Rupert, and experiments were made upon them by the Right Hon. Sir
  Robert Moray, in 1661, by the command of his Majesty. An account
  of these experiments is to be found in the Registers of the Royal
  Society, of which he was one of the founders. See _Edinburgh
  Encyclopædia_, vol. x. p. 319.]

_Knock under._--To _knock under_, in the sense of succumb, yield: _unde


  ["From the submission expressed among good fellows by knocking
  under the table."--_Johnson._]

_Freemasons._--Where can be found a good account of the origin of
freemasons? And is there any truth in the story that Lord Doneraile made
his daughter, the Honorable Miss E. St. Leger, a freemason?

    [Arrow symbol]

  [For a circumstantial account of the origin of Freemasons, see a
  curious pamphlet published in 1812, entitled _Jachin and Boaz; or
  an authentic Key to the Door of Freemasonry, both Ancient and
  Modern_, &c.; also, Oliver's _Antiquities of Freemasonry_. A very
  interesting historico-critical inquiry into the origin of the
  Rosicrucians and Freemasons, from the pen of the English
  Opium-eater, who in it has abstracted, arranged, and in some
  respects re-arranged the German work of J. G. Buhle, _Ueber den
  Ursprung und die vornehmsten Schicksale der Orden der Rosenkreuzer
  und Freymaurer_, will be found in the _London Magazine_ for
  January and February, 1824.

  We believe it is perfectly true that the Hon. Miss E. St. Leger
  was made a mason, and that she always accompanied her lodge in its



(Vol. iv., p. 165.)

In an article of A. C. in "NOTES AND QUERIES" for 30th August last,
under the head "Plowden of Plowden" from Burke's _Landed Gentry_, I find
this paragraph:

  "The names of the followers of William the Conqueror are often
  alluded to; but the 'comers over' at the CONQUEST of Wales,
  SCOTLAND, and Ireland are but seldom thought of, though they lend
  to their descendants' pedigree a degree of historical interest."

I do not read this paragraph without pain, mingled with indignation. Who
ever before heard of the conquest of Scotland? It is true, that, on
repeated occasions, the English made successful inroads into that
kingdom, sometimes of a larger, sometimes of a less extensive character;
but the Scottish nation never did "lie at the proud foot of a

Though Edward I., by means of intrigues unworthy of his high character,
did for a short period, during the interregnum consequent on the death
of the Maid of Norway, assume the government of the Scottish realm, and
put to death some of the most distinguished of her defenders, yet his
successor paid the penalty of this unjust assumption in the battle of
Bannockburn; a battle having justice on the side of the victorious
party, and regarded by all Scotsmen as to be ranked in military prowess
with those of Cressy, Poictiers, and Agincourt.

It is not generally known, that upon the marriage of Mary to the Dauphin
in 1558, Scotsmen were naturalised in France by an _ordonnance_ of Henry
II.; and that, in like manner, by an act of the parliament of Scotland,
all Frenchmen were naturalised in that country. The ordonnance granting
these privileges to Scotsmen within the realm of France, is printed in
the Scottish statute-book along with the Scottish act granting similar
privileges to Frenchmen within Scotland.

One of the most distinguished writers on the law of Scotland, when
dedicating his work to King Charles II., reminds him of the inscription
on the palace of Holyrood: "Nobis hæc invicta miserunt centum sex

When, in 1707, Scotland treated of an incorporating union with the realm
of England, she treated as an independent and sovereign power, and the
Treaty of Union was concluded with her in that character: a treaty which
was at least as beneficial to England as it was to Scotland, by
precluding in all time to come the intrigues of France with the Scottish
sovereign and nation.

That Scotland was able for so many centuries to defend her liberties and
independence against the powerful kingdom of England, does her great
honour. There is no problem of more difficult solution than this: What
might have happened, if some other great event had happened otherwise
than it did? When England had overcome the kingdom of France, if
Scotland had not afforded the means of annoyance to England, the seat of
government might have been removed to France, and the great English
nation have been absorbed in that country: but Providence ruled
otherwise; England lost her dominion in France, and Scotland remained



(Vol. iv., p. 133.)

W. FRAZER'S Query, which are the towns or districts in England in which
Borough-English prevails, or has prevailed, and whether there are any
instances on record of its being carried into effect in modern times,
would require more knowledge than any individual can be expected to
possess of local customs throughout the country to give a full answer
to; but if all your legal correspondents would contribute their quotas
of information on the subject, a very fair list might be made, which
would not be uninteresting as illustrative of this peculiar custom. I do
not know any work in which the places where the custom prevails are
collected together. But I send you a short list of such manors and
places as I know of and have been able to collect, in which the custom
of Borough-English is the rule of descent, hoping that other
correspondents will add to the list which I have only made a
commencement of:--

      _Manors and Places where the Custom of Borough-English

      The Manor of Lambeth     }
            "      Kennington  } Surrey.
            "      Hoo (qy.)     Kent.

      Reve v. Maltster, Croke's _Reports, Trin.
      Term_, 11 Chas. I.

      The Manor of Tottenham   }
            "      Edmonton    } Middlesex.

      _Termes de la Ley_, Kitchin, fo. 102.

      Turnham Green              Middlesex.

      Forester's _Equity Reports_, 276.

      The Manor of Bray          Berks.

      _Co. Litt._ Sec. 211.

I am informed that the custom also prevails in some of the Duchy manors
in Cornwall, but I cannot at present give you the names.

I may be able to add to this list in a future communication, and I hope
to see in your pages some considerable additions to this list from other

As to the continuance of the custom to modern times, nothing can alter
it but an act of parliament; so that where the custom has prevailed, it
is still the law of descent: and I have had under my notice a descent of
copyhold property, in the manors of Lambeth and Kennington, to the
youngest brother within the present century.

    G. R. C.

There is a farm of about a hundred acres in the parish of Sullescombe in
Sussex, which is held by this tenure; but whether the adjoining land is
so, I am not aware. In case of the owner dying intestate, the land would
go to the younger son; but I am not aware of an instance of this having

    E. H. Y.


(Vol. iv., pp. 129. 177.)

Your correspondent A. E. B. appears, by his suggestion regarding
Foucault's theory, to have rendered confusion worse confounded, mystery
more mysterious. He says:

  "If the propounders of this theory had from the first explained,
  that they do not claim for the plane of oscillation an exemption
  from the general rotation of the earth, but only the difference of
  rotation due to the excess of velocity with which one extremity of
  the line of oscillation may be affected more than the other, it
  would have saved a world of fruitless conjecture and

This supposition makes an effect, which it is difficult to believe in,
into one utterly impossible to conceive. It is hard enough to credit the
theory, that the plane of oscillation of a pendulum is partially
independent of the rotatory motion of the earth, but still not
impossible, considering that the effect of the presumed cause is not
inconsistent with the results of _à priori_ calculation. For instance,
during the swing of a two-seconds pendulum, the angular motion of the
earth will have been 1', or thereabouts, which, supposing the
oscillation to be independent, would produce an appreciable angle on an
index circle placed concentric with the pendulum, and at right angles to
its plane of oscillation.

But as to A. E. B.'s theory, which supposes the variation of the
pendulum's plane to be "due to the excess of velocity with which one
extremity of the line of oscillation may be affected more than the
other," it appears to me quite untenable for a moment. Let him reduce it
to paper, and find what difference of velocity there is on the earth's
surface at the two ends of a line of ten feet, the assumed length of the
arc of a two-seconds pendulum,--a larger one, I presume, than that used
by Foucault in his cellar,--and I believe he will find it to be
practically nothing.

I confess I have had no faith in this theory from the first; the effect,
if any and constant, I believe to be magnetic. The results of
experiments have been stated from the first very loosely, and the theory
itself has been put forth very indistinctly, and not supported by any
name of eminence, except that of Professor Powell.

In the meantime, and until some competent authority has pronounced on
the point, I propose that such of your readers as are interested in the
question make experiments for themselves, dividing them into four
classes, viz., with the plane of oscillation E. and W., N. and S., N.E.
and S.W., N.W. and S.E.; take the mean of a great many, and communicate
them to the editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES;" and I venture to say that
such a collection will do more towards confirming or disproving the
theory absolutely, than all the papers we have yet seen on the subject.

I am myself about to make experiments with a twenty-five feet pendulum.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford, Sept. 8. 1851.


(Vol. iv., pp. 9. 137. 180.)

In p. 180. I find some observations respecting the rank of the Lord
Mayor of London, which seem to require further elucidation. But I should
not trouble you except for one passage, which leads me to think that the
writer is under some little mistake. He seems to think that upon the
occasion of a new king's accession, only Privy Councillors are summoned.
This is not so. I remember upon the accession of George IV., that I
received a summons, being then a member of the House of Commons and
holding an official appointment; and some other private gentlemen were
also summoned. I _think_ that the summonses were issued from the Home
Office, but of this I am not certain; nor do I know if the same practice
has been adopted upon the subsequent accessions. I remember that we all
met at Carlton House; that we all signed some document, recognising the
new sovereign, which I apprehend to be the authority for the
proclamation; but that the _Privy Councillors only_ went in to the

I understand that the theory for summoning me and others was that some
persons of various ranks and grades of society should concur in placing
the new king upon the throne.

All this is, however, mere speculation of my own. The _fact_ of my
summons is certain. As to the Lord Mayor being Right Honorable, why need
we look for other authority than usage? Usage only gives the title of
Right Honorable to a Privy Councillor being a Commoner. Usage only gives
that title to a Peer. Excuse this gossip.



(Vol. iv., p. 147.)

I have the pleasure to add to the early examples of the collar of SS.
given by MR. EDWARD FOSS, the names of some personages whose monuments
are either represented or described in Blore's _Monumental Remains_,
Dugdale's _History of St. Paul's_, Gough's _Sepulchral Monuments_, and
Stothard's _Monumental Effigies_.

1. On the effigy of Sir Simon Burley, engraved by Hollar for Dugdale, is
a collar apparently marked, but very indistinctly, with SS. Sir Simon
was a Knight of the Garter, Chamberlain to Richard II., and was beheaded
in 1388.

2 and 3. Sir Robert Waterton and his wife, in Methley church, Yorkshire.
The collar was issued to this knight, when he was an esquire, out of the
great wardrobe of Henry Earl of Derby, in the 20th year of Richard II.

4. Sir William Ryther, in Harwood church, Yorkshire: he lived in the
time of Richard II.

5. John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, in the cathedral at Canterbury. He
was Chamberlain of England, and Captain of Calais in the reign of Henry
IV., and died in 1410.

6. Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, in Arundel church, Sussex; Chief
Butler of England at the coronation of Henry IV., who with his queen was
present at the earl's wedding in 1404; temporary Marshal of England in
1405. Died in 1416, the 4th of Henry V.

7 and 8. Sir Edmund de Thorpe and his wife, in Ashwell-Thorpe church,
Norfolk. Two persons of this name, Mon' Esmond Thorp and Mon' Esmon de
Thorp̅,were summoned to a great council held at Westminster in the 2nd
of Henry IV. It is considered that this Sir Edmund is the person called
Lord Thorpe, who was slain in Normandy in 1418; that his wife is Joan,
daughter of Sir Robert Norwood, and widow of Roger Lord Scales; and that
she is the Lady Thorpe who died in 1415.

9. Thomas Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV., President of the
Council, and Lieutenant General of the Forces. He died in 1421. Monument
in Canterbury cathedral.

10, 11, and 12. Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, and his two wives, in
Staindrop church, co. Durham. He was created Earl of Westmorland by
Richard II., made Earl Marshal of England by Henry IV., present at the
battle of Agincourt with Henry V., and died in the 4th of Henry VI.,

Margaret, his first wife, was the daughter of Hugh Earl of Stafford; and
his second wife was Joan de Beaufort, only daughter of John of Ghent,
Duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swinford.

13. John Fitz-Alan, Lord Maltravers and Earl of Arundel, in the church
at Arundel, Sussex. He distinguished himself by the capture of many
towns and fortresses in Normandy in the year of his death, 1434.

14. William Phelip Lord Bardolf, in Dennington church, Suffolk.
Treasurer of the household of Henry V., Knight of the Garter, and
Chamberlain to Henry VI. Died in the 19th year of this reign, 1440.

15 and 16. John Beaufort Duke of Somerset, and his wife, in Wimborne
Minster, Dorset, Knight of the Garter, created Duke of Somerset and Earl
of Kendal, and at the same time made Lieutenant and Captain-General of
Aquitaine, France and Normandy. Died in 1444.

17. Robert Lord Hungerford, who served in the wars in France and
Guienne, and died in 1453. His effigy is drawn by Stothard (_Mon. Eff._
p. 98.).

18. Sir John Nevill, in Harwood church, Yorkshire. Died 22nd Edward IV.,

I presume that MR. EDWARD FOSS would refer to the curious passage in the
printed _Rolls of Parliament_, vol. iii. p. 313., wherein it appears
that Richard II., in the 20th year of his reign, formally declared that
he _assumed_, bore, and used, and that by his leave and wish persons of
his retinue also bore and used, the livery of the collar of his uncle,
the Duke of Lancaster.

Mr. John Gough Nichols, in the _Gent. Mag._ for 1842, quotes the
principal part of this passage, and produces some interesting evidence
in favour of the view that the livery of the collar of the Duke of
Lancaster was the collar of SS.



(Vol. iii., pp. 478. 526.; Vol. iv., pp. 8. 41.)

The statement that the reading of sermons did not prevail in the early
ages of Christianity not having been called in question, although
irreconcileable with the practice of the Fathers, as ascertained from
their own writings, I am induced to observe that in _Ferrarius de Ritu
Sac. Concionum_, evidence is adduced that extemporaneous preaching was
occasionally superseded by more elaborate and written discourses,
sometimes committed to memory, sometimes recited, that is, read.

  "Narrat Gregorius (Hom. 21. ex Libro Quadraginta Homiliarum)
  solemne ibi fuisse dum Concionem haberet, per Dictatum loqui;
  additque, Ob languentem stomachum jam _legere_ se non posse quæ
  dictaverat; ac proinde velle se Evangelicæ Lectionis explanationem
  non amplius per Dictatum, sed per familiares collocutiones
  pronunciare. Per Dictatum autem loqui nihil aliud fuit Gregorio
  quam de scripto dicere ex eo perspicuum fit, quod verbo Dictare
  pro Scribere passim usi sunt Veteres Auctores, Sidonius Epistola
  septima Libri primi, undecima quarti, ultima septimi, sexta
  octavi, tertia noni; Aldhelmus _de Laudibus Virginitatis_, cap.
  vii., Gregorius Magnus, lib. x. _Epistolarum_, Ep. xxii. "ad
  Joannem Ravennæ Subdiaconum," et "Epistola ad Leonardum;" quæ
  præmittitur Expositioni in Job, et alii: usu nimirum ex prisco
  more petito quo Auctores olim, ut est apud Plinium in Epistolis
  non uno loco, Notariis dictare consueverant. Vox præterea Legere
  qua usus est Gregorius hoc ipsum aperte confirmat; ea enim
  dumtaxat legere possumus quaæ scripta sunt et ante oculos
  posita."--Ferrarius, _ut suprà_, lib ii. 15.

Fabricius, in his _Bibliothecaria Antiquaria_ (cap. xi., De Concionibus
Christianorum), thus refers to this passage:

  "Conciones plerasque dictas ex memoria, quasdam etiam de scripto
  recitatas, observatum Ferrario, lib. ii. cap. 15."

It may therefore be inferred that he knew of no other testimony equally
pertinent, but surely we may surmise that other fathers, _e.g._ Gregory
Nazianzen (who, in the words of Bellarmine, "sapientiam mirificè cum
eloquentia copulavit") occasionally were unable to commit to memory the
numerous discussions which they had so diligently prepared.

I have been requested by the Rev. Richard Bingham, Jun., to state that
he has in his possession autograph sermons by his illustrious ancestor,
in some of which are notes only or heads of subjects, and which are
therefore unfavourable to the suspicion expressed (p. 42.), that the
author of the _Antiquities of the Christian Church_ was prejudiced
against extempore preaching.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Authoress of "A Residence on the Shores of the Baltic"_ (Vol. iv.,
p. 113.).--As in a publication such as "NOTES AND QUERIES" the most
precise correctness, even in matters of secondary importance, is, above
all things, to be desiderated, I am sure J. R. will be glad to be
corrected in a statement made by him, in the concluding sentence of his
interesting communication, "Traditions from remote Periods through few
Hands," concerning the above accomplished lady. This elegant writer was
not "one of _four_ congenital children," though it is quite true that
such a birth occurred in her family. The following account of so unusual
an occurrence is taken from Matchett's _Norfolk and Norwich Remembrancer
and Vade Mecum_, a work compiled principally from the columns of _The
Norfolk Chronicle_, of which Mr. Matchett was for many year a
co-proprietor and assistant editor:--

  "August 15, 1817. At Dr. R.'s house, at Framingham (a small
  village four miles from Norwich), Mrs. R., who in 1804 had first
  brought him twins, was safely delivered of four living children,
  three sons and a daughter, who were privately baptized by the
  names of Primus John, Secundus Charles Henry, Tertius Robert
  Palgrave, and Quarta Caroline. They were weighed with their shirts
  on by Dr. Hamel, physician to the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia,
  who paid Dr. R. a visit a few days after the quadruple birth, and
  were found to be 21 lbs. 2 oz. One lived eighteen days; the other
  three from eight to ten weeks. Dr. R. being a grandfather at the
  time, the children were born great-uncles and a great-aunt."

They are buried in Framingham Earl churchyard, where is a table monument
over their remains, setting forth the above particulars in full, with
the respective periods of their deaths.

Dr. R. was Mayor of Norwich in 1805, and, as J. R. states, an eminent
physician of that city. He was the author of _An Essay on Animal Heat_,
_On the Agriculture of Framingham and Holkham_, and of other works on
Midwifery, Medicine, and Agriculture. He died Oct. 27, 1821, aged
seventy-three years.


_Winifreda_ (Vol. iii., p. 27.; Vol. iv., p. 196.).--Notwithstanding the
MS. note referred to by DR. RIMBAULT in a recent number, I cannot think
that G. A. Stevens was the author of "Winifreda," as he had barely
attained his sixteenth year when that song was first printed in 1726.
Neither is it easy to imagine that the commonplace lines quoted in
Reed's _Biographia Dramatica_, vol. i. p. 687., from Stevens's poem
called "Religion, or the Libertine Repentant," and "Winifreda," could
have been the production of the same person. We learn also from Reed,
that, owing to a pirated edition of Stevens's songs being published at
Whitehaven, he in 1772 printed a genuine collection of them at Oxford.
This book I never met with. Should it contain Winifreda, I shall be
satisfied: if not, we may still say of the mysterious author, "Non est


_Querelle d'Alleman_ (Vol. iii, p. 495.), not _d'Allemand_, as your
correspondent MR. BREEN has written it; this saying deriving its origin
from the _Allemans_, a powerful family of the Dauphiné, in the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and having no reference whatever to
the national character of the Germans, as will appear by the following
extract from the _Revue Historique de la Noblesse, voce_ ALLEMAN:--

  "Durant le 13e et le 14e siècle, la région montagneuse qui s'élève
  entre le Drac et l'Isère était presque en totalité le domaine
  d'une immense famille de seigneurs qui portaient tous le nom
  _d'Alleman_.... Jamais souche féodale ne produisit plus de
  rameaux, et nulle part les membres d'une même famille ne se
  groupèrent autour de leurs chefs avec un soin plus jaloux.... Ils
  se mariaient entre eux, jugeaient entre eux leurs différends, et
  en toute circonstance se pretaient les uns aux autres un
  infaillible appui. Malheur à l'imprudent voisin qui eût troublé
  dans son héritage ou dans son honneur le plus humble des
  _Alleman_. Sur la plainte de l'offensé, un conseil de famille
  était réuni, la guerre votée par acclamations, et l'on voyait
  bientôt déboucher dans la plaine de Grenoble les bandes armées qui
  guidaient au châtiment de l'agresseur les bannières d'Uriage et de

Hence, from the ardour with which this family avenged the smallest
injury, came the saying, "_Faire une querelle d'Alleman_;" to which
Oudin, in his _Curiosités Françoises_, gives the following

  "_Querelle d'Alleman_, fondée sur peu de sujet et facile à

Having reference to the same family was also the proverb, known in the
Dauphiné, "_Gare la queue des Alleman_," applied to those entering upon
some difficult enterprise; in other words, "mind the consequences."

In Le Roux de Lincy's _Livres des Proverbes Français_, vol. ii. p. 15.,
I find the following:

      "Arces, Varces, Granges et Comiers,
      Tel les regarde qui ni les ose ferier,
      Mais gare la queue d'Alleman et des Brangiers."


_Coins of Constantius II._ (Vol. ii., pp. 42. 254.).--Not being exactly
satisfied with my former reply to MR. WITTON on this subject, I have
made further search on the subject in numismatic works, and I would
refer him to the following note in Banduri, vol. ii. p. 418.:--

  "Galli numismata Antiquarii olim cum nummis Constantii Augusti
  confundebant; sed Erud. Harduinus numismata omnia Constantii
  Cæsaris (Galli) in quibus FEL. TEMP. REPARATIO. item ea in quibus
  CONSTANTIVS. IVN. appellatur, aut FL. CL. CONSTANTIVS, ad Gallum
  nostrum pertinere ostendit; in quibus omnibus cum eadem effigies
  expressa sit a Constantii Augusti effigie plurimum diversa, et
  caput nudum semper sit; omnia numismata in quibus et caput nudum,
  et idem qui in cæteris vultus conspicitur, ad eundem Gallum
  retulimus, tametsi eorum numismatum nonnulla FL. IVL. Constantium
  appellant. Haud dissimulandum tamen descripta ab Occone fuisse
  numismata duo Constantii Augusti, in quibus FL. CL. Constantius
  nominatur, quæ inter numismata illius Principis ex ære incerti
  moduli exhibuimus suprà. Cæterum hujus Principis nummi omnes ex
  argento rari sunt, et desiderantur in Mediobarbo, excepto hoc,
  quem perperam (licet ex Tristano) inter æreos recenset laudatus
  Mediobarbus, et duobus sequentibus."

On the whole, therefore, I conclude, that we may more safely assign to
Gallus the _bare_ head; the legends "CONSTANTIVS IVN." and "FL. CL.
CONSTANTIVS," and the _diademed_ head, and the legends, "FL. IVL.
CONSTANTIVS," and "CONSTANTIVS AVG.," to Constantius II. Those with "FL.
VAL. CONSTANTIVS" would seem more properly to belong to Constantius
Chlorus. I may add, that all those coins of Constantius which bear an A
behind the portrait, certainly belong to Gallus.

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Proverb; what constitutes one?_ (Vol. iv., p. 191.).--There can be no
doubt that, according to modern usage, any short sentence which is
commonly used, whether by way of enunciating a principle, foretelling a
consequence, describing a situation, or recommending a course of action,
&c., is a proverb. Brevity is an essential: that is, we apply the term
_proverb_ to nothing but apophthegms. In truth, nothing but what is said
in few words can be frequently said by all. Accordingly a proverb, in
the nineteenth century, is a commonly known and frequently cited
apophthegm. But it was not always so. The _proverb_ was only _one_ of a
class which we may cite under the name of _adage_, because the various
folio collections of them generally have this word in the title, as
descriptive of all. These works contain proverbs properly so called,
sentences (_sententiæ_, pieces of _sententiousness_), parables,
apologues, aphorisms, witticisms, apophthegms, &c. &c., many of the
instances having a right to two or more of these names. According to
Erasmus, all the definitions which he had met with of the _paroemia_ or
_proverb_ might be contained under one or other of the following:--

  "Proverbium est sermo ad vitæ rationem conducibilis, moderata
  quadam obscuritate multam in sese continens utilitatem."

  "Proverbium est sermo, rem manifestam obscuritate tegens."

The old proverb then has a soul of utility, and a body of obscurity: the
modern one has a soul of brevity, and a body of notoriety. This
distinction will be held obscure enough for an old proverb, but not
brief enough for a new one.


_Dr. Matthew Sutcliffe_ (Vol. iv., p. 152.).--Your learned correspondent
MR. CROSSLEY is right in his conjecture that this celebrated
controversialist was of a family settled at Mayroyd in the parish of
Halifax in Yorkshire. According to a pedigree certified in 1624 by Sir
William Segar, Garter, he was the second son of John Sutcliffe of
Melroyd, in the county of York, gent., by his wife Margaret, daughter of
---- Owlsworth of Ashley in the same county. The Doctor married Ann,
daughter of John Bradley of Louth, co. Lincoln, Esq., and had issue an
only daughter Ann, the wife of Mr. Halls or Halse, of the county of
Devon. The Doctor had four brothers, viz. Adam, Solomon, Luke, and John.
Adam, the eldest, lived at Grimsby, co. Lincoln, and had an only
daughter, Judith. Solomon was of Melroyd and of Grimsby; he married
Elizabeth, daughter of John Bradley of Louth, Esq., by Frances his wife,
daughter of ---- Fairfax of Denton, co. York, and had issue four
daughters, and also one son, viz. John Sutcliffe, one of the esquires of
the body to King James. His wife was Alice, daughter of Luke Woodhouse
of Kimberley, co. Norfolk, Esq., and he had issue one daughter, Susan.
Segar granted arms to this gentleman in 1624. Of the other brothers of
the Dean, Luke died unmarried, and John married a daughter of Jo. Kirton
of Lincolnshire.

    F. R. R.

  Milnrow Parsonage.

_Pope's Translations, or Imitations of Horace_ (Vol. i., p. 230.; Vol.
iv., pp. 58. 122. 139.).--Having every wish to accede to the request of
your correspondent C., I have made a search, but am unable to lay my
hand at present on the publication by Curll. There can be no doubt that
I shall ultimately meet with it; and when I do, it will be quite at his
service. Having compared it not very long ago with the folio edition by
Boreman of this Imitation, which I suppose was the first in its complete
state, I can be under no mistake as to the existence of the prior
publication. It occurs in a thin 8vo. published by Curll in 1716,
containing poetical miscellanies, which in my copy are bound up with
other tracts. It is headed "By Mr. P----e," and contains only a portion
of that subsequently printed. Curll afterwards reprinted the Imitation,
as published by Boreman, in one of the volumes, I think the third of the
collection, which he styles "Letters of Mr. Pope."

That the Imitation is by Pope, though I am not aware of any express
acknowledgment of it by him, there can be no doubt, and as little that
it found its way to the press, as published by Boreman, with his
privity. Curll even says, if any weight be due to the assertions of such
a miscreant, that Pope received a sum of money for it from Boreman. But
I do not consider that Pope can be deemed to have affiliated it by its
publication in Dodsley's edition in 1738; which is, as far as I have
always understood, a mere bookseller's collection. The only collection
of his works which can be called his own, and for which he is fairly
responsible, is that in 2 vols., folio and 4to., 1717-35, to each volume
of which a preface or notice by him is prefixed; and in the latter of
these volumes, though previously published, he has not included this
Imitation, which seems to indicate that he did not feel disposed to
acknowledge it publicly, and indeed he had good reason to be ashamed of


_M. Lominus, Theologus_ (Vol. iv., p. 193.).--The exact title of the
work inquired for is, _Blackloanæ Hæresis, olim in Pelagio et Manichæis
damnatæ, nunc denuo renascentis, Historia et Confutatio_. This 4to.
volume consists of 332 pages, exclusive of the dedicatory epistle and
the appendix; and a "printed account" of the author may be seen in Sir
James Ware's _Writers of Ireland_ (ed. Harris, pp. 191-3), and in Dodd's
_Church History of England_, vol. iii. pp. 284-5.: Brussels, 1742. It is
to be hoped that in the Bodleian Catalogue something further has been
stated respecting this curious and very rare book than that it was
written by "M. Lominus, Theologus," who was merely an imaginary divine.
The real author was the famous PETER TALBOT, brother of "Lying Dick
Talbot" (the Duke of Tyrconnel and Viceroy of Ireland), almoner to
Catharine, queen of Charles II., and titular Archbishop of Dublin.

    R. G.

The work referred to, entitled _Blackloanæ Hæresis, olim in Pelagio et
Manichæis damnatæ, nunc denuo renascentis, Historia et Confutatio_,
Gand. 1675, 4to., I have a copy of. It is written against the
Blackloists, the leaders of whom were Thomas White, the follower of Sir
Kenelm Digby, and John Sargeant, the voluminous Roman Catholic writer.
The real author of the book was Peter Talbot, the brother of Richard
Talbot, Duke of Tyrconnel. He also published the _History of Manicheism
and Pelagianism, in which it is shown that Thomas White and his
Adherents have revived those Heresies_: Paris, 1674, 8vo.


_Corpse passing makes a Right of Way_ (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 507. 519.;
Vol. iv., p. 124.).--This belief is common in East Anglia, and such
paths are called _Bierways_. When the common lands at Alby in Norfolk
were enclosed, much difficulty was experienced in stopping one road, on
account of its being an ancient bierway. In Norwich the passage through
a part of the city called the Bull Close, is accounted public for this
reason; and a very few years since a gentleman at Whittlesey, in
Cambridgeshire, prevented a funeral from taking a shorter road through
his grounds, through fear of its being afterwards esteemed a public

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Horology_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--H. C. K. will probably find all he
requires in the _Penny Cyclopædia_ (Articles "Horology" and "Pendulum"),
or in a two-shilling volume published by Weale last year, Denison _on
Clocks, Chimes, &c._, or in the other works enumerated below:--Ellicott
_on regulating Clocks_, 4to., 1753; Vulliamy's _Considerations on Public
Clocks_, 4to., 1828; Derham's _Artificial Clock Maker_, 12mo., 1734;
Berthoudi's _Essai sur l'Horlogerie_, 4to., 2 vols. 1763.

    H. T. E.

  Clyst St. George.

_Curfew_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--In Charleston, the capital of the state
of South Carolina, a bell is tolled twice every evening, at eight and
ten o'clock in summer, and at seven and nine in winter: this custom
dates from early times. At the ringing of the _second_ bell the watch
for the night is set, and our servants are prohibited from being abroad
after that hour without a permit from their masters; the first bell
subserves no purpose, and is merely rung in conformity to ancient usage.
I am inclined to think that our ancestors had this bell rung in order to
keep up the old custom of the curfew bell of their cherished
mother-country. It is still a custom when "the first bell rings" for the
younger children of the family to say "Good night," and retire to bed.
This is the only practical use to which this early ringing is put, and a
capital custom it is, though rather distasteful to the young folks when
they are anxious to sit up a little longer.

    H. H. B.

  Monte Cavallo, South Carolina.

"_Going the whole Hog_" (Vol. iii., p. 250.).--A querist asks
information as to the origin of the American figure of speech "to go the
whole hog." I apprehend its parentage belongs less to America than to
Ireland, where a "hog" is still the synonym for a shilling, and a
"tester" or "taster" for a sixpence. Previously to the assimilation of
the currency of the two countries in 1825, a "white hog" meant the
English shilling or twelve pence, and a "black hog" the Irish shilling,
of thirteen pence. To "go the whole hog" is a convivial determination
_to spend the whole shilling_, and the prevalence of the expression,
with an extension of its applications in America, can be readily traced
to its importation by the multitudes of emigrants from Ireland.

    M. R***SON.


_John Bodley_ (Vol. iv., p. 59.).--"---- Burleigh, M.A." who is
mentioned by S. S. S. as one of the translators of the Bible in 1611,
must have been a different person to John Bodley, the father of the
celebrated Sir Thomas Bodley. In the very interesting "History of
English Translations and Translators" prefixed to Bagster's _English
Hexapla_, "Mr. Burgley of Stretford" is mentioned as one, with this

  "In the Lambeth MS. it is 'Mr. Henry Burleigh.' It is added, one
  of that name was B.D. in 1594, and D.D. in 1607."--P. 104.

Townley, however, in his _Illustrations of Biblical Literature_, 1821,
vol. iii. p. 293, supposes him to have been the Francis Burleigh, D.D.,
who, according to Newcourt, became vicar of Stortford, or Bishop
Stortford, in 1590. See _Repertorium_, vol. i. p. 896.


Among my matches in and about London (which I shall always be glad to
search for your correspondents) is the following:

  "23 July 1608, _John Bodleigh_, Aldgate, printer B. 34, free of
  the stationers and a freeman; and _Elizabeth Hemp_ of Paul's
  Wharf, Sp. 30. St. Brides."

    J. S. B.

_Ancient Egypt, Language of_ (Vol. iv., p. 152.).--In Adelung's
_Mithridates_ the titles of the best works explanatory of this language
will be found. To these must be added those of Dr. Thomas Young and
Champollian Junior. There are some recent German works on the subject;
your correspondent will, however, be very little benefited after
mastering all the writers, for they have really but little to tell. The
method to be pursued with a feasible prospect of success is, to acquire
the Coptic-Egyptian language from the New Testament and De Woide, with
the special object of mastering the roots, about 200 in number, of that
language. Next, some knowledge of the Chinese language should be
obtained, so far at least as is necessary to comprehend the
_hieroglyphic principle_, whereby 214 letter-keys are made to do duty in
representing 5000, or more, distinct ideas. The next matter, which
admits of a very simple explanation, is to ascertain how the Chinese
_dissevers_ the _idea_ of a character (hieroglyphic) from its _sound_,
and makes his ideas (hieroglyphic characters) stand for syllables alone,
by prefixing the character _more_ (mouth) to indicate that the
characters next following are to be read as _sounds_ and not as _ideas_.
In the Egyptian hieroglyphic such characters (representing the names of
places and persons) are inclosed in a sort of lozenge or parallelogram.
Having found out certain _sounds_ in the Egyptian hieroglyphic, _e. g._
_Cle-o-pa-tra_, turn to the _Coptic Lexicon_ and ascertain what _idea_
(thing) _cle_ represents in Coptic, and so on with _o_, with _pa_, &c.,
and all other with syllable sounds. Here Champollian Junior stuck fast,
and little has been done since his day in the way of _translation_; and
the reason is evident--the separate characters representing sounds found
in these lozenges are too few in number to give any hope that the
Egyptian hieroglyphics will ever be rendered generally intelligible;
their object, however, has been far more effectually secured by the
paintings and representations of objects and actions, which supply an
infinitely better means of knowing what was interesting in Egypt than
mere words, sounds, or ideas (hieroglyphics) could convey.



_The late William Hone_ (Vol. iii., p. 477., Vol. iv., pp. 105,
106.).--If E. V. will take the trouble to apply to the Rev. Thomas
Binney, of the Weigh House Chapel, London, he will be in the way of
receiving the most authentic information concerning the happy
conversion, and triumphant death, of William Hone, who adorned the
doctrine of God his Saviour for some years previous to his decease in
communion with a congregation of Protestant Dissenters.

    O. T. D.

The interesting letter of the late William Hone, published in Vol. iv.,
pp. 105, 106., scarcely throws any discredit upon an anecdote I often
have heard as to the means of his _first awakening_ to a better mind,
somewhat as follows:--that, asking a drink of milk of a little child,
and observing a book in her hand, he inquired what it was? She answered,
"A Bible:" and, in reply to some depreciatory remarks of his, added, "I
thought everybody loved their Bible, Sir." I hope that this may not be
contradicted, but confirmed.

    C. W. B.

_Bensley_ (Vol. iv., p. 115.).--The "Bensley tragedy" was no doubt the
sudden death, in April or May, 1765, by a fall from his horse, of _James
Bensley_, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn; probably an early acquaintance of Hill
and Cowper. The melancholy death of another friend of theirs, poor Lloyd
(which Southey also calls a _tragedy_), had happened three or four
months earlier.


_John Lilburne_ (Vol. iv., p. 134.).--The name of John Lilburne occurs
in Cleveland's _Poems_ more than once, _e. g._ "The General Eclipse:"--

      "Thus 'tis a general eclipse,
      And the whole world is _al-a-mort_;
      Only the House of Commons trips
      The stage in a Triumphant sort,
      Now e'en _John Lilburn_ take 'em for't."

      _Works_, p. 57. Lond. 1687.

And again, "On the Inundation of the River Trent," p. 294.:

      "One herd and flock in one kind hill found mercy,
      Like _Lilburn_ (and his wool) in the Isle of _Jersey_."



_School of the Heart_ (Vol. iii., p. 390. Vol. iv., p. 141.).--Is your
correspondent aware of Benedict Haeften's _Schola Cordis_, from which
Harvey's _School of the Heart_ was imitated? It was published at Antwerp
in 1635. The copy I now have before me is dated 1699, but I will give
its full title:

  "Schola Cordis, sive aversi a Deo Cordis ad eumdem reductio, et
  instructio. Auctore Benedicto Haefteno, Reformati Monast.
  Affligeminsis, Ordinis S. Benedicti, præposito. Antverpiæ, apud
  Henricum et Cornelium Verdurrin, MDCXCIX."

P. S. The _emblems_ are fifty-five in number.



_Sir W. Raleigh in Virginia_ (Vol. iv., p. 190.).--That Mr. Hallam
should have forgotten to correct an incidental allusion is natural
enough; and that Raleigh in person discovered Virginia _was_ commonly
believed. Sir Walter Scott, for instance, believed it, as appears by a
passage at the end of _Kenilworth_. But the very title-page of Hariot's
account of the discovery of Virginia (whether in the English of 1588, or
the Frankfort Latin of 1590), negatives the idea of Raleigh assisting in
person. And the _Biographia Britannica_, or, I believe, any similar work
of authority, will show that no biographer of note has affirmed it. It
was an expedition _fitted out_ by Raleigh which discovered Virginia.


It appears by the _Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia_, by
Strachey, so ably edited by Mr. Major for the Hakluyt Society, that Sir
Walter Raleigh sent out his first expedition to Virginia in 1584, under
Captain Amadas; in 1585 a fleet under Sir R. Grenville, which he
intended to have commanded in person, but jealousy at court prevented
him. In 1587 a second fleet was sent to Roanoak under Captain White, in
1590 supplies by Captain White, and in 1602 he sent Samuel Mace. Neither
Oldys nor Cayley mention his having gone there; and as they carry on the
events of his life pretty clearly year by year, I think, in reply to the
Query of MR. BREEN, that there is pretty good evidence to show that he
never was there.

    E. N. W.


_Siege of Londonderry_ (Vol. iv., p. 162.).--Can B. G. give any
information respecting the list of persons who received grants of land
in the county of Londonderry after the conclusion of the war in 1691?
Also, whether he knows of an old ballad (cotemporary I believe) called
"The Battle of the Boyne?" I have an old history of the siege of Derry,
by Mr. George Walker, 1689. I should be glad to know what the pamphlet
contains, and whether the family of Downing are mentioned in it.

    A. C. L.

_Cowper Law_ (Vol. iv., p. 101.).--For the satisfaction of your
correspondent C. DE D., I transcribe from Jamieson's _Dictionary_ the

  "COWPER JUSTICE, trying a man after execution: the same with
  _Jeddart_, or _Jedburgh justice_[17] [See JEDDART JUSTICE.]

      "'Yet let the present swearing trustees
      Know they give conscience _Cowper Justice_,
      And by subscribing it in gross,
      Renounces every solid gloss.--
      And if my judgement be not scant,
      Some lybel will be relevant,
      And all the process firm and fast,
      To give the counsel _Jedburgh cast_.'

      "Cleland's _Poems_, pp. 109, 110.

  "This phrase is said to have had its rise from the conduct of a
  Baron-bailie in _Coupar_-Angus, before the abolition of heritable

  [Footnote 17: Also "_Jedwood_ Justice." See Scott's _Fair Maid of
  Perth_, vol. xliii. p. 304.]


  Cambridge, Sept. 8. 1851.

_Decretorum Doctor_ (Vol. iv., p. 191.).--The precise meaning of this
term is Doctor of the Canon Law. A doctor of laws was a doctor of _both
the laws_ (that is, the Civil Law _and_ the Canon Law). The University
of Cambridge was forbidden to grant degrees in Canon Law in 1535; and
soon afterwards these degrees were discontinued in Oxford, in
consequence of the repudiation of the Papal authority, although three or
more persons took the degree of Bachelor of Decrees there in the reign
of Queen Mary. Further details respecting the Canon Law, and the
graduates in that faculty, will be found in Fuller's _History of the
University of Cambridge_, ed. Priskett and Wright, pp. 220. 225.; Wood's
_History and Antiq. of the University of Oxford_, ed. Gutch, vol. i. pp.
63. 359.; vol. ii. pp. 67. 79. 768, 769, 770. 902.; Hallam's _Middle
Ages_, 9th ed. vol. ii. p. 2.; _Peacock on Statutes of the University of
Cambridge_, Appendix A. xlix. n. 1.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept. 13. 1851.

_Nightingale and Thorn_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.), by A. W. H.:--

      "Every thing did banish moan,
      Save the nightingale alone:
      She, poor bird, as all forlorn,
      Leaned her breast up-till a thorn,
      And there sung the dolefull'st ditty,
      That to hear it was great pity."

      Shakspeare: _Passionate Pilgrim_, xix.



The earliest allusion to this fable, that I know of, occurs in the
_Passionate Pilgrim_, Sect. xix.

Ovid, in his version of the fable of Tereus, does not introduce the
thorn; so probably the allusion is not classical.

Apollodorus also gives this myth, but I have him not to refer to.

    H. E. H.

_Carli the Economist_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--ALPHA will find in a very
excellent work, entitled _Storia della Economia Pubblica in Italia, &c.,
di Giuseppe Pecchio_, Lugano, 1829, 8vo., the information he requires
regarding the first work on political economy, by an Italian writer, who
seems to have been Gasparo Scaruffi; and also learn that Gian Rinaldo
Carli died in 1795.

    F. R. A.

_Tale of a Tub_ (Vol. i., p. 326.; Vol. iii., p. 28.).--It is no wonder
that Henry VIII.'s chancellor Sir Thomas More should have heard of an
extraordinary tale about a tub, since its earliest form--the model of so
many copies--is in Apuleius, at the beginning of the 9th book. It forms
likewise the argument of the second novel of Boccacio's _Seventh Day,
ove_ "Peronella mette un suo amante in un doglio." Girolamo Morlino told
the same objectionable story in Latin; and Agnolo Firenzuola, the
Italian translator of Apuleius, seems to have adopted the witty
Florentine's imagery, forgetting the original which he professed to
follow. See Manni, _Istoria del Decamerone_, Firenze, 1742, pp. 466.
472. "Tale of a tub," like Conte de peau d'âne, Conte de la Cigogne,
Conte de la Mère Oie, denotes a marvellous or cock and bull story--Conte
gras, Conte pour rire. There is no doubt that Jean-Jaques' miniature
French opera, _Le Tonnelier_, was founded, though through certain
strainers well refined, on the wicked Milesian fiction of the African

      "Un tonnelier vieux et jaloux
        Aimait une jeune bergère:
      Il voulait être son époux,
        Mais il n'avait pas su lui plaire:
          Travaillez, travaillez, bon tonnelier!
          Raccommodez votre cuvier!"


_Wyle Cop_ (Vol. iv., p. 116.).--May not Wyle Cop be derived from the
Anglo-Saxon _wylle_, well or fountain, and _cop_, head or top? SALOPIAN
can perhaps judge whether "_Fountain Hill_" or "_Well Head_" would be at
all applicable to the Wyle Cop in Shrewsbury.


  Ashby de la Zouch.

_Visiting Cards_ (Vol. iv., pp. 133. 195.).--"Marriage à-la-Mode," Plate
IV., supplies an additional proof of playing cards having done duty as
Visiting Cards and Cards of Invitation during the middle of the last
century. There are several lying on the floor, in the right-hand corner
of the picture. One is inscribed--"Count Basset begs to no how Lade
Squander sleapt last nite."

    C. FORBES.


_Absalom's Hair_ (Vol. iv., p. 131.).--Your correspondent P. P. remarks
in the number of "NOTES AND QUERIES" for August 23, that "Absalom's long
hair had nothing to do with his death; his head itself, and not the hair
upon it, having been caught in the boughs of the tree." Even allowing
the silence of Scripture upon the matter, the tradition has certainly
the basis of respectable antiquity to rest on. Bishop J. Taylor thus
writes in his _Second Sermon upon St. Matthew_, xvi. 26. _ad finem_:--

  "The Doctors of the Jews report that when _Absalom hanged among
  the oaks by the hair of the head_, he seemed to see under him Hell
  gaping wide ready to receive him; and he _durst not cut off the
  hair that intangled him_, for fear he should fall into the horrid
  Lake, whose portion is flames and torment, but chose to protract
  his miserable life a few minutes in that pain of posture, and to
  abide the stroke of his pursuing enemies. His condition was sad
  when his arts of remedy were so vain."


  Warmington, Sept. 3, 1851.

_MS. Book of Sentences_ (Vol. iv., p. 188.).--The name of the Durham
monk referred to by W. S. W. is more probably "Swallwell" than
"Wallwell," because the former is the name of a township or vill in
Durham county.

    E. S.

_The Winchester Execution_ (Vol. iv., p. 191.).--The narrative related
from memory of M. W. B. bears on its face strong indications of fiction:
according to that statement a sheepstealer was "some years ago"
condemned to death; a "warrant" for his execution was made out, but
mislaid, by whom does not appear. After the lapse of years, during which
the prisoner had been employed in "executing commissions in distant
places" for the gaoler, and in obtaining a high character for his
amiable and moral conduct, the fatal warrant arrives, and is "forwarded
to the high sheriff, and to the delinquent himself," who is forthwith

Any one acquainted with the course of practice at assizes at the period
to which this anecdote refers, must be aware that no "warrant," in the
sense in which the word is here used, was ever made out in such cases.
The prisoner is legally in the custody of the sheriff when sentence is
passed in court, and he leaves the court in that same custody. The
judgment so pronounced is itself the warrant, though a short memorandum
or note of it is officially made at the time; unless the judge reprieves
or suspends the sentence, no sheriff waits for any further authority,
and as for the unfortunate delinquent, no judge, sheriff, or gaoler ever
supposed that any copy of a warrant was to be handed to the prisoner
himself! During the interval between sentence and execution, if there be
no reprieve or release from imprisonment by the authority of the
executive, the prisoner is, and always has been, kept by the sheriff _in
salvâ et arctâ custodiâ_ in the county gaol. The idea of an employment
for years in rambling about the country on the gaoler's errands, is a
preposterous figment, composed by some novelist who was unacquainted
with the needful machinery for giving an air of verisimilitude to his
story. The legend seems to be a version of the fate of Sir W. Raleigh
adapted to low life; as in his case the scene is laid at Winchester, but
the machinery and decorations are not contrived with a due regard to

      "Quodcunque essendis mihi sic, incredulus odi."

    E. S.

_Locke's MSS._ (Vol. iii., p. 337.).--A good account of Locke's MSS. is
to be found in Blakey's _History of Metaphysics_. They were in the
possession of the Forster family, whose representative, Dr. Forster,
M.D., is now, or was very lately, residing at Bruges.


_Peal of Bells_ (Vol. i., p. 154.).--The definition of a _peal_, viz.,
"a performance of above 5,000 changes," was recently confirmed to me by
the two following inscriptions, which I read in the belfry of the curfew
tower at Windsor:--

  "Feb. 21, 1748, was rung in this steeple a complete 5,040 of union
  trebles, never performed here before."

  "College Youths.--This society rung in this steeple, Tuesday,
  April 10, 1787, _a true and complete peal_ of 5,040 grandsire
  triples in three hours and fourteen minutes."

A stone tablet in the bell chamber of Ecclesfield church records, that a
few months ago "was rung in this tower _a peal_ of Kent treble bob
major, consisting of 5,024 changes in three hours and five minutes."


_Pope's "honest Factor"_ (Vol. iv., p. 6.).--If any one ever made a
rational guess at who this _factor_ may have been, he must have been
still more likely to have known who was meant by _Sir Balaam_, at whose
identity I have never yet heard a guess. I suppose that both _factor_
and _knight_ were fancy characters.


_Bells in Churches_ (Vol. iv., p. 165.).--The judgment stated to have
been given by Lord Chief Justice _Campbell_, was given by Lord Chief
Justice _Jervis_.

    C. H. COOPER.


_Virgil, Passage from_ (Vol. iii., p. 499.).--The line of Virgil
(_Georg._, lib. iv. 87.) quoted,

      "Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescunt,"

and the preceding line,

      "Hi motus animorum atque hæc certamina tanta,"

have been happily applied to the contrasted quiescence of
_Ash_-Wednesday immediately succeeding the tumultuous carnival in Roman
Catholic countries, when the cross marked by _ashes_ on the forehead
lulls to quiet the turbulent spirits of the previous weeks.

    J. R.

_Duke of Berwick_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.).--The Duke of Berwick, born in
1671, and so created the 19th of March, 1687, by his father (natural)
James II., was indeed a Spanish grandee, which he was made by Philip V.,
after his victory of Almanza, in 1707; but the title was Liria, not
Alva, which belonged to the great house of Toledo, and was rendered
famous (or infamous) by its bearer under Philip II. Berwick, however,
transferred this Spanish title of Liria to his son James, by his first
wife Honera de Burgh, daughter of William, seventh Earl of Clanrickard,
with the annexed territory, or _majorat_. She was the widow of Patrick
Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, who conducted 14,000 Irish refugees to France
in 1691, after the surrender of Limerick to Ginkle. She died of
consumption, still young, at Montpelier, in 1698. The Duke of St. Simon,
in his _Mémoires_, tome ii. p. 92., describes her as "belle, faite à
peindre, touchante--une nymphe enfin;" but, though personally acquainted
with her, he names her the daughter, instead of the widow, of Lucan.
Berwick afterwards married Miss Buckley, one of the Queen Mary d'Este's
maids of honour, by whom he had several children, who assumed the name
of Fitz-James. Their descendants were colonels or proprietaires of the
Irish Brigade regiment, called, after their founder, Berwick. The
Spanish branch still maintains its rank and estates. Berwick was killed
at the siege of Philpsburg, in Baden, the 12th June, 1734. His military
talents were of acknowledged superiority; so far more resembling his
uncle Marlborough than his father, whose dastardly flight at the Boyne
he indignantly witnessed. His _Mémoires_, in two volumes 12mo., were
published from his manuscript by his grandson, the Duke of Fitz-James,
in 1778.

    J. R.


_Nullus and Nemo_ (Vol. iv., p. 153.).--The interpretation of "M.'s"
woodcut will be found in Ulrich von Hutten's elegiac verses, which are
exhibited in his ΟΥΤΙΣ, NEMO. Your correspondent's amusing conjecture
about "nobody's child" was quite correct, as these lines prove:

      "Quærendus puero pater est: Nemo obtigit. At tu,
      Si me audis, alium stulta require patrem."

I suspect that "M.'s" old 4to. tracts bear a somewhat earlier date than
1520-30; but probably, this matter might be determined by Burckhard's
_Commentarius de Ulrici ab Hutten fatis et meritis_, or by his
_Analecta_ (Cf. Freytag, _Adpar. Lit._ iii. 519.), or by means of
Münck's collection of De Hutten's works. I happen to have copies of two
editions of the _Nemo_, which, though they are undated, must appertain
to the year 1518. This was not, however, the period of the first
publication of the poem; for the author, in a letter addressed to
Erasmus in October, 1516, mentions it as having then appeared (Niceron,
_Mémoires_, xv. 266.): but the original impression of this satirical
performance is without the prefatory epistle to Crotus Rubianus [Johan
Jager], who is believed to have had no inconsiderable share in the
composition of the celebrated _Epistolæ obscurorum Virorum_.

    R. G.

_Grimsdyke_ (Vol. iv., p. 192.).--I can mention at all events one other
earthwork named Grimsdyke in England--the great earthwork, viz., south
of Salisbury, which is called Grimsdyke. Mr. Guest has stated his belief
that it was not a Belgic work, but a boundary line made by the Welsh
after the treaty of the Mons Badonicus.

    W. S. G.


_Coke, how pronounced_ (Vol. iv., pp. 24. 93. 138.).--Respecting the
pronunciation of the name of Coke at page 138., I recollect having some
discussion on it in 1812 with the late Mr. Andrew Lynch, Master in
Chancery, then a student at the Temple, when he corrected me for calling
it _Cooke_, which he maintained should be called _Coake_. We happened to
dine that day at Mr. Charles Butler's, his future father-in-law, and
agreed to refer the matter to him who had been associated with Hargrave
in publishing Sir Edward Coke's _Commentaries on Littleton_ (1809, 7
vols. 8vo.). Mr. Butler at once decided the question in my favour,
adding that he had never heard the name otherwise pronounced, and that
_Coake_ was quite a novelty, which he should never adopt--indeed, I am
sure it is so, though now I find it generally prevalent.

    J. R.


_Marcus Ælius Antoninus_ (Vol. iv., p. 152.).--I think that your
correspondent will not readily ascertain the owner of this pseudonyme;
but, in the presumed absence of any opposing evidence, I would suggest
that the mask may belong to Marc-Antonio Flaminio. Melancthon's
excellent _Responsio ad scriptum quorundam delectorum à Clero secundario
Coloniæ Agrippinæ_, 4to., Francfurdiæ, 1543, is now before me, but it
does not allude to the _Querela_ set forth in the same year. It is said
that the framer of the Cologne _Judicium_ against Bucer was the
Carmelite Eberhardus Billicus; and TYRO may be assured that he is
fortunate if he be a possessor of the tract by the fictitious Antoninus;
for, in the words of Seckendorf,--

  "Ex scriptis reliquis, occasione Reformationis Coloniensis tunc
  publicatis, plurima in oblivionem fere venerunt, nec facile hodie
  inveniuntur, typis licet olim excusa."--_Comm. de Luther._ lib.
  iii. sect. 27. § cvii. p. 437. Francof. 1692.

    R. G.



The sculptures which have been preserved with comparatively little
injury for upwards of six centuries on the western front of the
venerable cathedral of Wells have long excited the wonder and curiosity,
as well as admiration, of all who looked upon them. All have been ready
to recognise in them the expression of some grand design; but it has
been reserved for Professor Cockerell to penetrate, through the
quaintness of the style and the dilapidations of centuries, into their
noble aim and purpose, and to describe at length this "extensive but
hitherto unedited commentary in living sculpture of the thirteenth
century, upon our earliest dynasties, our churchmen, and religious
creed." This he has done in a handsome and richly illustrated volume,
lately published by Mr. Parker under the title of _Iconography of the
West Front of Wells Cathedral, with an Appendix on the Sculptures of
other Mediæval Churches in England_: and the work will be found of the
highest interest, not only for its valuable illustration of this
"kalender for unlearned men," which we owe to the piety and love of art
of Bishop Trotman, and which Flaxman speaks of as "_the earliest
specimen_ of such magnificent and varied sculpture united in a series of
sacred history that is to be found in western Europe," but also for the
light it throws upon the history of art in this country. For not only
have we in these pages the results of Professor Cockerell's studies of
the extensive and important series of sculptures which form the
immediate subject of them; but also his criticisms and remarks upon the
cognate objects to be found at Exeter, Norwich, Malmesbury, Canterbury,
Rochester, York, Beverley, Lichfield, Worcester, Lincoln, Gloucester,
Salisbury, Peterborough, Croyland, and Bath. And who can speak with
greater authority upon such points? whose opinion would be received with
greater respect?

Surely Rome must have been styled the _Eternal City_ because there is no
end to the books which are published respecting it:

  "For every year and month sends forth a new one;"

yet the subject never seems exhausted. Now it is a high churchman who
gives a picture of this "Niobe of nations," tinted _couleur de rose_;
now a low churchman, who talks of nothing but abominations of a deeper
dye; now some classical student tells how--

      "The Goth, the Christian, time, war, flood, and fire
      Have dealt upon the seven hill'd city's pride;"

now some worshipper of art, who unfolds the treasures garnered within
its walls; now a politician loud in his praises of Young Italy, or his
condemnation of foreign interference. The Chevalier de Chatelaine is
none of these, or rather, he is almost all of them by turns; and
consequently his _Rambles though Rome, descriptive of the Social,
Political, and Ecclesiastical Condition of the City and its
Inhabitants_, is a volume of pleasant gossip, more amusing to the reader
than flattering to the character of the Roman people or those who govern

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the city of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September 27, 1851.

      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 100, September 27, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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