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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 4 of 4: S-Z and supplements)
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 4 of 4: S-Z and supplements)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *

In this version [=e] signifies "e macron"; [)e] "e breve"; [.e] "e with dot
above"; and so forth.




LONDON: 47 Paternoster Row
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street


THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORDS.--Every word is given in its _alphabetical_
order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after
and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has
its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are
also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its
meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the
signification of the affix: thus the meanings of _Darkness_ are obtained by
prefixing the meaning of _ness_, _state of being_, to those of _Dark_.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not
yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at
the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

THE PRONUNCIATION.--The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word,
by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used
has its ordinary unvarying sound, _no consonant being employed that has
more than one sound_. The same sounds are always represented by the same
letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No
consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of _th_,
which is printed in common letters when sounded as in _thick_, but in
italics when sounded as in _th_en. _Unmarked vowels_ have always their
short sounds, as in _lad_, _led_, _lid_, _lot_, _but_, _book_. The _marked
vowels_ are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of
each page:--

f[=a]te, fär; m[=e], h[.e]r; m[=i]ne; m[=o]te; m[=u]te; m[=oo]n; _th_en.

The vowel _u_ when marked thus, _ü_, has the sound heard in Scotch _bluid_,
_gude_, the French _du_, almost that of the German _ü_ in _Müller_. Where
more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first
is more accepted.

THE SPELLING.--When more than one form of a word is given, that which is
placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our
modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but
rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally
speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German.
The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the
representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern
English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional
forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the
present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise
of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an
enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling
reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise
moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without
unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the
superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of
progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A.
H. Murray:--the dropping of the final or inflexional silent _e_; the
restoration of the historical _-t_ after breath consonants; uniformity in
the employment of double consonants, as in _traveler_, &c.; the discarding
of _ue_ in words like _demagogue_ and _catalogue_; the uniform levelling of
the agent _-our_ into _-or_; the making of _ea = [)e]_ short into _e_ and
the long _ie_ into _ee_; the restoration of _some_, _come_, _tongue_, to
their old English forms, _sum_, _cum_, _tung_; a more extended use of _z_
in the body of words, as _chozen_, _praize_, _raize_; and the correction of
the worst individual monstrosities, as _foreign_, _scent_, _scythe_,
_ache_, _debt_, _people_, _parliament_, _court_, _would_, _sceptic_,
_phthisis_, _queue_, _schedule_, _twopence-halfpenny_, _yeoman_, _sieve_,
_gauge_, _barque_, _buoy_, _yacht_, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be
established in good usage, by the adoption of _-or_ for _-our_, as _color_,
_labor_, &c.; of _-er_ for _-re_, as _center_, _meter_, &c.; _-ize_ for
_-ise_, as _civilize_, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an
unaccented vowel, as _traveler_ for _traveller_; the adoption of _e_ for
_oe_ or _æ_ in _hemorrhage_, _diarrhea_, &c.

THE MEANINGS.--The current and most important meaning of a word is usually
given first. But in cases like _Clerk_, _Livery_, _Marshal_, where the
force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the
original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage

THE ETYMOLOGY.--The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings,
within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given
elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the
etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, BAN, BASE, the student is
referred to it; also that here the sign--is always to be read as meaning
'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or
correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are
inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the
rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its
Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose
that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon
are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed
from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given,
though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is
referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.

       *       *       *       *       *


  _aor._                    aorist.
  _abbrev._                 abbreviation.
  _abl._                    ablative.
  _acc._                    according.
  _accus._                  accusative.
  _adj._                    adjective.
  _adv._                    adverb.
  _agri._                   agriculture.
  _alg._                    algebra.
  _anat._                   anatomy.
  _app._                    apparently.
  _arch._                   archaic.
  _archit._                 architecture.
  _arith._                  arithmetic.
  _astrol._                 astrology.
  _astron._                 astronomy.
  _attrib._                 attributive.
  _augm._                   augmentative.
  _B._                      Bible.
  _biol._                   biology.
  _book-k._                 book-keeping.
  _bot._                    botany.
  _c._ (_circa_)            about.
  _c._, _cent._             century.
  _carp._                   carpentry.
  _cf._                     compare.
  _chem._                   chemistry.
  _cog._                    cognate.
  _coll._, _colloq._        colloquially.
  _comp._                   comparative.
  _conch._                  conchology.
  _conj._                   conjunction.
  _conn._                   connected.
  _contr._                  contracted.
  _cook._                   cookery.
  _corr._                   corruption.
  _crystal._                crystallography.
  _dat._                    dative.
  _demons._                 demonstrative.
  _der._                    derivation.
  _dial._                   dialect, dialectal.
  _Dict._                   Dictionary.
  _dim._                    diminutive.
  _dub._                    doubtful.
  _eccles._                 ecclesiastical history.
  _e.g._                    for example.
  _elect._                  electricity.
  _entom._                  entomology.
  _esp._                    especially.
  _ety._                    etymology.
  _fem._                    feminine.
  _fig._                    figuratively.
  _fol._                    followed; following.
  _fort._                   fortification.
  _freq._                   frequentative.
  _fut._                    future.
  _gen._                    genitive.
  _gener._                  generally.
  _geog._                   geography.
  _geol._                   geology.
  _geom._                   geometry.
  _ger._                    gerundive.
  _gram._                   grammar.
  _gun._                    gunnery.
  _her._                    heraldry.
  _hist._                   history.
  _hort._                   horticulture.
  _hum._                    humorous.
  _i.e._                    that is.
  _imit._                   imitative.
  _imper._                  imperative.
  _impers._                 impersonal.
  _indic._                  indicative.
  _infin._                  infinitive.
  _inten._                  intensive.
  _interj._                 interjection.
  _interrog._               interrogative.
  _jew._                    jewellery.
  _lit._                    literally.
  _mach._                   machinery.
  _masc._                   masculine.
  _math._                   mathematics.
  _mech._                   mechanics.
  _med._                    medicine.
  _metaph._                 metaphysics.
  _mil._                    military.
  _Milt._                   Milton.
  _min._                    mineralogy.
  _mod._                    modern.
  _Mt._                     Mount.
  _mus._                    music.
  _myth._                   mythology.
  _n._, _ns._               noun, nouns.
  _nat. hist._              natural history.
  _naut._                   nautical.
  _neg._                    negative.
  _neut._                   neuter.
  _n.pl._                   noun plural.
  _n.sing._                 noun singular.
  _N.T._                    New Testament.
  _obs._                    obsolete.
  _opp._                    opposed.
  _opt._                    optics.
  _orig._                   originally.
  _ornith._                 ornithology.
  _O.S._                    old style.
  _O.T._                    Old Testament.
  _p._, _part._             participle.
  _p.adj._                  participial adjective.
  _paint._                  painting.
  _paleog._                 paleography.
  _paleon._                 paleontology.
  _palm._                   palmistry.
  _pa.p._                   past participle.
  _pass._                   passive.
  _pa.t._                   past tense.
  _path._                   pathology.
  _perf._                   perfect.
  _perh._                   perhaps.
  _pers._                   person.
  _pfx._                    prefix.
  _phil._, _philos._        philosophy.
  _philol._                 philology.
  _phon._                   phonetics.
  _phot._                   photography.
  _phrenol._                phrenology.
  _phys._                   physics.
  _physiol._                physiology.
  _pl._                     plural.
  _poet._                   poetical.
  _pol. econ._              political economy.
  _poss._                   possessive.
  _Pr.Bk._                  Book of Common
  _pr.p._                   present participle.
  _prep._                   preposition.
  _pres._                   present.
  _print._                  printing.
  _priv._                   privative.
  _prob._                   probably.
  _Prof._                   Professor.
  _pron._                   pronoun;
  _prop._                   properly.
  _pros._                   prosody.
  _prov._                   provincial.
  _q.v._                    which see.
  _R.C._                    Roman Catholic.
  _recip._                  reciprocal.
  _redup._                  reduplication.
  _refl._                   reflexive.
  _rel._                    related; relative.
  _rhet._                   rhetoric.
  _sculp._                  sculpture.
  _Shak._                   Shakespeare.
  _sig._                    signifying.
  _sing._                   singular.
  _spec._                   specifically.
  _Spens_.                  Spenser.
  _subj._                   subjunctive.
  _suff._                   suffix.
  _superl._                 superlative.
  _surg._                   surgery.
  _term._                   termination.
  _teleg._                  telegraphy.
  _Tenn._                   Tennyson.
  _Test._                   Testament.
  _theat._                  theatre; theatricals.
  _theol._                  theology.
  _trig._                   trigonometry.
  _ult._                    ultimately.
  _v.i._                    verb intransitive.
  _voc._                    vocative.
  _v.t._                    verb transitive.
  _vul._                    vulgar.
  _zool._                   zoology.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Amer.       American.
  Ar.         Arabic.
  A.S.        Anglo-Saxon.
  Austr.      Australian.
  Bav.        Bavarian.
  Beng.       Bengali.
  Bohem.      Bohemian.
  Braz.       Brazilian.
  Bret.       Breton.
  Carib.      Caribbean.
  Celt.       Celtic.
  Chal.       Chaldean.
  Chin.       Chinese.
  Corn.       Cornish.
  Dan.        Danish.
  Dut.        Dutch.
  Egypt.      Egyptian.
  Eng.        English.
  Finn.       Finnish.
  Flem.       Flemish.
  Fr.         French.
  Fris.       Frisian.
  Gael.       Gaelic.
  Ger.        German.
  Goth.       Gothic.
  Gr.         Greek.
  Heb.        Hebrew.
  Hind.       Hindustani.
  Hung.       Hungarian.
  Ice.        Icelandic.
  Ind.        Indian.
  Ion.        Ionic.
  Ir.         Irish.
  It.         Italian.
  Jap.        Japanese.
  Jav.        Javanese.
  L.          Latin.
  Lith.       Lithuanian.
  L. L.       Low or Late Latin.
  M. E.       Middle English.
  Mex.        Mexican.
  Norm.       Norman.
  Norw.       Norwegian.
  O. Fr.      Old French.
  Pers.       Persian.
  Peruv.      Peruvian.
  Pol.        Polish.
  Port.       Portuguese.
  Prov.       Provençal.
  Rom.        Romance.
  Russ.       Russian
  Sans.       Sanskrit.
  Scand.      Scandinavian.
  Scot.       Scottish.
  Singh.      Singhalese.
  Slav.       Slavonic.
  Sp.         Spanish.
  Sw.         Swedish.
  Teut.       Teutonic.
  Turk.       Turkish.
  U.S.        United States.
  W.          Welsh.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

S the nineteenth letter in our alphabet, its sound that of the hard open
sibilant: as a medieval Roman numeral--7--also 70; [=S]--70,000.--COLLAR OF
SS, a collar composed of a series of the letter _s_ in gold, either linked
together or set in close order.

SAB, sab, _n._ (_Scot._) a form of _sob_.

SABADILLA, sab-a-dil'a, _n._ a Mexican plant, whose seeds yield an
officinal alkaloid, _veratrine_, employed chiefly in acute febrile diseases
in strong healthy persons.--Also CEBADILL'A, CEVADILL'A.

SABAISM, s[=a]'b[=a]-izm. Same as SABIANISM.--Also S[=A]'BÆISM,

SA'BAL, s[=a]'bal, _n._ a genus of fan-palms.

SABALO, sab'a-l[=o], _n._ the tarpon. [Sp.]

SABAOTH, sa-b[=a]'oth, _n.pl._ armies, used only in the B. phrase, 'the
Lord of Sabaoth': erroneously for Sabbath. [Heb. _tseb[=a][=o]th_, pl. of
_ts[=a]b[=a]_, an army--_ts[=a]b[=a]_, to go forth.]

SABBATH, sab'ath, _n._ among the Jews, the seventh day of the week, set
apart for the rest from work: among Christians, the first day of the week,
in memory of the resurrection of Christ, called also _Sunday_ and the
_Lord's Day:_ among the ancient Jews, the seventh year, when the land was
left fallow: a time of rest.--_adj_. pertaining to the Sabbath.--_n._
SABBAT[=A]'RIAN, a very strict observer of the Sabbath: one who observes
the seventh day of the week as the Sabbath.--_adj_. pertaining to the
Sabbath or to Sabbatarians.--_ns._ SABBAT[=A]'RIANISM; SABB'ATH-BREAK'ER,
one who profanes the Sabbath; SABB'ATH-BREAK'ING, profanation of the
Sabbath.--_adjs._ SABB'ATHLESS (_Bacon_), without Sabbath or interval of
rest: without intermission of labour; SABBAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or
resembling, the Sabbath: enjoying or bringing rest.--_n._ SABBAT'ICAL-YEAR,
every seventh year, in which the Israelites allowed their fields and
vineyards to lie fallow.--_adj._ SABB'ATINE, pertaining to the
Sabbath.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ SABB'ATISE, to keep the Sabbath: to convert
into a Sabbath.--_n._ SABB'ATISM, rest, as on the Sabbath: intermission of
labour.--SABBATH-DAY'S JOURNEY, the distance of 2000 cubits, or about five
furlongs, which a Jew was permitted to walk on the Sabbath, fixed by the
space between the extreme end of the camp and the ark (Josh. iii. 4);
of Satan with witches, devils, and sorcerers for unhallowed orgies and the
travestying of divine rites. [L. _Sabbatum_, gener. in pl. _Sabbata_--Gr.
_Sabbaton_--Heb. _Shabb[=a]th_, rest.]

SABBATIA, sa-b[=a]'ti-a, _n._ a genus of small North American herbaceous
plants of the gentian family. [From _Sabbati_, an 18th-cent. Italian

SABBATON, sab'a-ton, _n._ a strong, armed covering for the foot, worn in
the 16th century. [_Sabot._]

SABEAN, s[=a]-b[=e]'an, _n._ an Arabian, native of Yemen.--_adj._
pertaining to _Saba_ in Arabia.

SABELINE, sab'e-lin, _adj._ pertaining to the sable.--_n._ the skin of the

SABELLA, s[=a]-bel'ä, _n._ a genus of tubiculous annelids or
sea-worms.--_ns._ SABELL[=A]'RIA; SABELLAR[=I]'IDÆ.

SABELLIAN, s[=a]-bel'i-an, _n._ a follower of _Sabellius_, a 3d-century
heretic, banished from Rome by Callistus.--_adj._ pertaining to Sabellius
or his heresy.--_n._ SABELL'IANISM, the heresy about the distinction of
Persons in God held by Sabellius and his school--the Trinity resolved into
a mere threefold manifestation of God to man, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
not distinct subsistences, but merely one and the same person in different

SABER=_Sabre_ (q.v.).

SABIAN, s[=a]'bi-an, _n._ a worshipper of the host of heaven--sun, moon,
and stars--also TS[=A]'BIAN.--_ns._ S[=A]'BIANISM, S[=A]'BAISM, the worship
of the host of heaven, an ancient religion in Persia and Chaldea: the
doctrines of the Sabians or Mandæans (see MANDÆAN). [Heb. _ts[=a]b[=a]_, a

SABINE, s[=a]'b[=i]n, _n._ one of an ancient people of central Italy,
ultimately subjected by Rome, 241 B.C.

SABLE, s[=a]'bl, _n._ a Siberian species of Marten, with lustrous
dark-brown or blackish fur: its fur: a fine paint-brush made of sable: the
colour black: (_pl._) black clothes, mourning clothes.--_adj._ of the
colour of the sable's fur: blackish, dark-brown: made of the fur of the
sable.--_v.t._ to sadden.--_adjs._ S[=A]'BLE-STOLED; S[=A]'BLE-VEST'ED. [O.
Fr. _sable_--Russ. _sabol[)i]._]

SABLIÈRE, sab-li-[=a]r', _n._ a sand-pit. [Fr.]


SABOT, sä-b[=o]', _n._ a wooden shoe, worn by the French peasantry: a piece
of soft metal attached to a projectile to take the groove of the
rifling.--_n._ SABOTIER', a wearer of wooden shoes: a Waldensian. [Fr.
_sabot_--Low L. _sabbatum_, a shoe.]

SABRE, s[=a]'b[.e]r, _n._ a heavy one-edged sword, slightly curved towards
the point, used by cavalry.--_v.t._ to wound or kill with a sabre.--_ns._
S[=A]'BRE-BILL, a South American bird: a curlew; S[=A]'BRE-FISH, the
hair-tail or silver eel.--_adj._ S[=A]'BRE-TOOTHED, having extremely long
upper canine teeth.--_n._ S[=A]'BRE-WING, a humming-bird. [Fr.
_sabre_--Ger. _säbel_, prob. from the Hung. _szablya_.]

SABRE-TACHE, s[=a]'b[.e]r-tash, _n._ an ornamental leather case worn by
cavalry officers at the left side, suspended from the sword-belt.--Also
S[=A]'BRE-TASH. [Fr. _sabre-tache_--Ger. _säbeltasche_, _säbel_, a sabre,
Ger. _tasche_, a pocket.]

SABRINA-WORK, sa-br[=i]'na-wurk, _n._ a variety of appliqué

SABULOUS, sab'[=u]-lus, _adj._ sandy, gritty.--_n._ SABULOS'ITY, sandiness,
grittiness. [L. _sabulum_, sand.]

SABURRA, s[=a]-bur'ä, _n._ a foulness of the stomach.--_adj._
SABURR'AL.--_n._ SABURR[=A]'TION, sand-baking: the application of a hot

SAC, sak, _n._ (_bot._, _zool._) a sack or bag for a liquid.--_adjs._
SAC'C[=A]TE, -D, pouched: pouch-like; SAC'CULAR, like a sac, sacciform;
SAC'CULATE, -D, formed in a series of sac-like expansions: encysted.--_ns._
SACCUL[=A]'TION, the formation of a sac: a series of sacs; SAC'CULE,
SAC'CULUS, a small sac:--_pl._ SAC'CULI. [Fr.,--L. _saccus_, a bag.]

SAC, sak, _n._ (_law_) the privilege of a lord of manor of holding courts.
[A.S. _sacu_, strife.]

SACCADE, sa-k[=a]d', _n._ a violent twitch of a horse by one pull: a firm
pressure of the bow on the violin-strings so that two are sounded at once.

SACCATA, sa-k[=a]'tä, _n._ the molluscs as a branch of the animal kingdom.

SACCHARILLA, sak-a-ril'a, _n._ a kind of muslin.

SACCHARINE, sak'a-rin, _adj._ pertaining to, or having the qualities of,
sugar.--_n._ SAC'CHAR[=A]TE, a salt of a saccharic acid.--_adjs._
SACCHAR'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from, sugar and allied substances;
SACCHARIF'EROUS, producing sugar, as from starch.--_v.t._ SAC'CHARIFY, to
convert into sugar.--_ns._ SACCHARIM'ETER, SACCHAROM'ETER, an instrument
for measuring the quantity of saccharine matter in a liquid;
slightly soluble in cold water, odourless, but intensely sweet;
SACCHARIN'ITY.--_v.t._ SAC'CHARISE, to convert into sugar:--_pr.p._
sac'char[=i]sing; _pa.p._ sac'char[=i]sed.--_adjs._ SAC'CHAROID, -AL,
having a texture resembling sugar, esp. loaf-sugar.--_n._ SAC'CHAROSE, the
ordinary pure sugar of commerce.--_adj._ SAC'CHAROUS.--_n._ SAC'CHARUM, a
genus of grasses, including the sugar-cane. [Fr. _saccharin_--L.
_saccharum_, sugar.]

SACCHARITE, sak'a-r[=i]t, _n._ a fine granular variety of feldspar.

SACCHAROCOLLOID, sak-a-r[=o]-kol'oid, _n._ one of a large group of the

SACCHAROMYCES, sak-a-r[=o]-m[=i]'s[=e]z, _n._ a genus of the yeast fungi.
[Low L. _saccharum_, sugar, Gr. _myk[=e]s_, a mushroom.]

SACCIFORM, sak'si-form, _adj._ having the form of a sac: baggy.--_adj._

SACCOBRANCHIA, sak-[=o]-brang'ki-a, _n.pl._ a division of tunicates with
saccate gills.--_adj._ and _n._ SACCOBRANCH'I[=A]TE. [Gr. _sakkos_, a sack,
_brangchia_, gills.]

SACCOLABIUM, sak-[=o]-l[=a]'bi-um, _n._ a genus of orchids. [L. _saccus_, a
sack, _labium_, a lip.]

SACCOMYOID, sak-[=o]-m[=i]'oid, _adj._ having cheek-pouches. [Gr. _sakkos_,
sack, _mys_, a mouse.]

SACCOPHARYNGIDÆ, sak-o-f[=a]-rin'ji-d[=e], _n._ a family of lyomerous
fishes, including the bottle-fish, noted for swallowing fishes larger than

SACCOS, sak'os, _n._ a tight sleeveless vestment worn by Oriental
patriarchs and metropolitans during divine service, corresponding to the
Western dalmatic. [Gr. _sakkos_, a sack.]

SACELLUM, s[=a]-sel'um, _n._ a little sanctuary, a small uncovered place
consecrated to a divinity: a canopied altar-tomb:--_pl._ SACELL'A. [L.,
dim. of _sacrum_, neut. of _sacer_, consecrated.]

SACERDOTAL, sas-[.e]r-d[=o]'tal, _adj._ priestly.--_v.t._
SACERD[=O]'TALISE, to render sacerdotal.--_ns._ SACERD[=O]'TALISM, the
spirit of the priesthood: devotion to priestly interests, priestcraft: the
belief that the presbyter is a priest in the sense of offering a sacrifice
in the eucharist; SACERD[=O]'TALIST, a supporter of sacerdotalism.--_adv._
SACERD[=O]'TALLY. [L. _sacerdos_, a priest--_sacer_, sacred, _d[)a]re_, to

SACHEM, s[=a]'chem, _n._ a chief of a North American Indian tribe, a
sagamore: one of the Tammany leaders.--_ns._ S[=A]'CHEMDOM, S[=A]'CHEMSHIP.

SACHET, sa-sh[=a], _n._ a bag of perfume. [Fr.]

SACK, sak, _n._ a large bag of coarse cloth for holding grain, flour, &c.:
the contents of a sack: (also SACQUE) a woman's gown, loose at the back, a
short coat rounded at the bottom: a measure of varying capacity.--_v.t._ to
put into a sack: (_slang_) to dismiss.--_ns._ SACK'-BEAR'ER, any bombycid
moth of the family _Psychidæ_; SACK'CLOTH, cloth for sacks: coarse cloth
formerly worn in mourning or penance.--_adj._ SACK'CLOTHED.--_ns._
SACKED'-FR[=I]'AR, a monk who wore a coarse upper garment called a
_saccus_; SACK'ER, a machine for filling sacks; SACK'-FIL'TER, a
bag-filter; SACK'FUL, as much as a sack will hold; SACK'-HOIST, a
continuous hoist for raising sacks in warehouses; SACK'ING, coarse cloth or
canvas for sacks, bed-bottoms, &c.; SACK'-PACK'ER, in milling, a machine
for automatically filling a flour-sack; SACK'-RACE, a race in which the
legs of competitors are encased in sacks.--GET THE SACK, to be dismissed or
rejected; GIVE THE SACK, to dismiss. [A.S. _sacc_--L. _saccus_--Gr.
_sakkos_--Heb. _saq_, a coarse cloth or garment, prob. Egyptian.]

SACK, sak, _v.t._ to plunder: to ravage.--_n._ the plunder or devastation
of a town: pillage.--_ns._ SACK'AGE; SACK'ING, the storming and pillaging
of a town.--_adj._ bent on pillaging.--SACK AND FORK (_Scot._), the power
of drowning and hanging. [Fr. _sac_, a sack, plunder (_saccager_, to
sack)--L. _saccus_, a sack.]

SACK, sak, _n._ the old name of a dry Spanish wine of the sherry genus, the
favourite drink of Falstaff.--_n._ SACK'-POSS'ET, posset made with
sack.--BURNT SACK, mulled sack. [Fr. _sec_ (Sp. _seco_)--L. _siccus_, dry.]

SACKBUT, sak'but, _n._ a kind of trumpet, the predecessor of the trombone:
(_B._) a kind of stringed instrument resembling the guitar. [Fr.
_saquebute_--Sp. _sacabuche_--_sacar_, to draw out, _buche_, the maw or
stomach, prob. Old High Ger. _b[=u]h_ (Ger. _bauch_), the belly.]

SACK-DOODLE, sak-d[=oo]d'l, _v.i._ to play on the bagpipe.

SACKLESS, sak'les, _adj._ (_Scot._) guiltless: innocent: guileless. [A.S.
_sacleás_, without strife, _sacu_, strife, _-leás_, -less.]

SACODES, s[=a]-k[=o]'d[=e]z, _n._ a genus of beetles of the family
_Cyphonidæ_. [Gr. _sakos_, a shield, _eidos_, form.]

SACQUE, sak. See SACK (1).

SACRA, s[=a]'kra, _n._ a sacral artery:--_pl._ S[=A]'CRÆ (-KR[=E]).

SACRAL, s[=a]'kral, _adj._ See SACRUM.

SACRAMENT, sak'ra-ment, _n._ an holy ordinance instituted by Christ as an
outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace (_Baptism_ and
the _Lord's Supper_--amongst Roman Catholics, also _Confirmation_,
_Penance_, _Holy Orders_, _Matrimony_, and _Extreme Unction_): the Lord's
Supper specially: an oath of obedience taken by Roman soldiers on
enlistment: any solemn obligation: materials used in a sacrament.--_v.t._
to bind by an oath.--_adj._ SACRAMEN'TAL, belonging to or constituting a
sacrament.--_ns._ SACRAMEN'TALISM, the attachment of excessive importance
to the sacraments: the doctrine that there is in the sacraments themselves
a special direct spiritual efficacy to confer grace; SACRAMEN'TALIST, one
who holds this view.--_adv._ SACRAMEN'TALLY.--_ns._ SACRAMENT[=A]'RIAN, one
who holds a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments:
(_obs._) one who rejects the doctrine of the real presence in the sacrament
of the Lord's Supper; SACRAMENT[=A]'RIANISM, the holding of extreme views
with regard to the efficacy of sacraments.--_adj._ SACRAMEN'TARY,
pertaining to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or to the
sacramentarians.--_n._ a book containing all the prayers and ceremonies
used at the celebration of the R.C. sacraments: a sacramentarian. [L.
_sacramentum_, a sacred thing--_sacr[=a]re_, to consecrate--_sacer_,

SACRARIUM, s[=a]-kr[=a]'ri-um, _n._ the part of a church where the altar
is, the sanctuary: in ancient Rome, any sacred place, the place where the
Penates were stored.--_n._ SAC'RARY (_obs._), a holy place.--_v.t._
S[=A]'CRATE (_obs._), to consecrate.

SACRARIUM, s[=a]-kr[=a]'ri-um, _n._ the complex sacrum of any bird.


SACRED, s[=a]'kred, _adj._ set apart or dedicated, esp. to God: made holy:
proceeding from God: religious: entitled to respect or veneration:
inviolable: devoted to destruction: opposed to _secular_, as sacred music
or history: not liable to punishment.--_adv._ S[=A]'CREDLY.--_n._
S[=A]'CREDNESS.--SACRED APE, the hanuman of India; SACRED BEETLE, an
Egyptian scarab; SACRED CAT, the house cat of Egypt, sacred to Pasht;
SACRED FISH, one of the fresh-water fishes of the Nile; SACRED HEART
(R.C.), the physical heart of Christ, adored with special devotion since
the 18th century. [O. Fr. _sacrer_--L. _sacr[=a]re_--L. _sacer_, sacred.]

SACRIFICATI, sak-ri-fi-k[=a]'t[=i], _n.pl._ in the early church, those who
sacrificed to idols in persecution, but returned as penitents afterwards.

SACRIFICE, sak'ri-f[=i]s, _v.t._ to offer up, esp. on the altar of a
divinity: to destroy or give up for something else: to devote or destroy
with loss or suffering: to kill.--_v.i._ to make offerings to God.--_n._
the fundamental institution of all natural religions, primarily a
sacramental meal at which the communicants are a deity and his worshippers,
and the elements the flesh and blood of a sacred victim: the act of
sacrificing or offering to a deity, esp. a victim on an altar: that which
is sacrificed or offered: destruction or loss of anything to gain some
object: that which is given up, destroyed, or lost for some end: mere loss
of profit.--_n._ SACRIF'ICANT, one who offers a sacrifice.--_adj._
SACRIF'IC[=A]TORY, offering sacrifice.--_n._ SAC'RIFICER, a priest.--_adj._
SACRIFI'CIAL, relating to, or consisting in, sacrifice: performing
sacrifice.--_adv._ SACRIFI'CIALLY.--SACRIFICE HIT, in base-ball, a hit to
enable another player to score or to gain a base.--EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE,
the supposed constant renewal of the sacrifice of Christ in the mass. [O.
Fr.,--L. _sacrificium_--_sacer_, sacred, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SACRILEGE, sak'ri-lej, _n._ profanation of a sacred place or thing: the
breaking into a place of worship and stealing therefrom.--_n._ SAC'RILEGER
(_obs._).--_adj._ SACRIL[=E]'GIOUS, polluted with sacrilege: profane:
violating sacred things.--_adv._ SACRIL[=E]'GIOUSLY.--_ns._
SACRIL[=E]'GIOUSNESS; SAC'RIL[=E]GIST, one guilty of sacrilege. [Fr.
_sacrilège_--L. _sacrilegium_--_sacer_, sacred, _leg[)e]re_, to gather.]

SACRIST, s[=a]'krist, _n._ a sacristan: a person in a cathedral who copies
out music for the choir and takes care of the books.--_ns._ S[=A]'CRING,
consecration; S[=A]'CRING-BELL, in R.C. churches, a small bell rung to call
attention to the more solemn parts of the service of the mass; SAC'RISTAN,
an officer in a church who has charge of the sacred vessels and other
movables: a sexton; SAC'RISTY, an apartment in a church where the sacred
utensils, vestments, &c. are kept: vestry. [Low L. _sacristia_, a vestry,
_sacristanus_, _sacrista_, a sacristan--L. _sacer_.]

SACROSANCT, sak'r[=o]-sangkt, _adj._ very sacred or inviolable.--_n._
SACROSANC'TITY. [L. _sacrosanctus_--_sacer_, sacred, _sanctus_, pa.p. of
_sanc[=i]re_, to hallow.]

SACRUM, s[=a]'krum, _n._ a triangular bone situated at the lower part of
the vertebral column (of which it is a natural continuation), and wedged
between the two innominate bones, so as to form the keystone to the pelvic
arch.--_adj._ S[=A]'CRAL.--_n._ S[=A]CRAL'GIA, pain in the region of the
sacrum.--_adjs._ S[=A]CROCOS'TAL, connected with the sacrum and having the
character of a rib (also _n._); S[=A]CROIL'IAC, pertaining to the sacrum
and ilium; S[=A]CROLUM'BAR, pertaining to sacral and lumbar vertebræ;
S[=A]CROP[=U]'BIC, pertaining to the sacrum and to the pubes;
S[=A]CROREC'TAL, pertaining to the sacrum and the rectum; S[=A]CROSCIAT'IC,
pertaining to the sacrum and the hip; S[=A]CROVER'TEBRAL, pertaining to the
sacrum and that part of the vertebral column immediately anterior to it.
[L. _sacrum_ (_os_, bone), sacred.]

SAD, sad (comp. SAD'DER, superl. SAD'DEST), _adj._ sorrowful: serious: cast
down: calamitous: weary: sombre: stiff: doughy: dejected: troublesome:
sober, dark-coloured: (_obs._) ponderous, heavy.--_v.t._ to grieve.--_v.t._
SAD'DEN, to make sad: to render heavy: to grow hard.--_v.i._ to grow
sad.--_adjs._ SAD'-EYED (_Shak._), having an expression of sadness in the
eyes; SAD'-FACED (_Shak._), having an expression of sadness in the face;
SAD'-HEART'ED (_Shak._), having the heart full of sadness.--_adv._
SAD'LY.--_n._ SAD'NESS. [A.S. _sæd_, sated, weary; cf. Dut. _zat_, Ger.
_satt_; L. _sat_, _satis_.]

SADDENING, sad'n-ing, _n._ a method of applying mordants in dyeing and
printing cloths, so as to give duller shades to the colours employed.

SADDLE, sad'l, _n._ a seat or pad, generally of leather, for a horse's
back: anything like a saddle, as a saddle of mutton, veal, or venison--a
butcher's cut, including a part of the backbone with the ribs on one side:
a part of the harness used for drawing a vehicle: the seat on a bicycle:
(_naut._) a block of wood fastened to some spar, and shaped to receive the
end of another spar.--_v.t._ to put a saddle on, to load: to
encumber.--_n._ SADD'LE-BACK, a hill or its summit when shaped like a
saddle: a raccoon oyster: the great black-backed gull: the harp-seal: a
variety of domestic geese: the larva of the bombycid moth: (_archit._) a
coping thicker in the middle than at the edges.--_adj._ SADD'LE-BACKED,
having a low back and an elevated head and neck.--_ns._ SADD'LE-BAG, one of
two bags united by straps for carrying on horseback; SADD'LE-BAR, a bar for
sustaining glass in a stained-glass window; SADD'LE-BLANK'ET, a small
blanket folded under a saddle; SADD'LE-BOW, the arched front of a saddle
from which the weapon often hung; SADD'LE-CLOTH, the housing or cloth
placed under a saddle.--_n.pl._ SADD'LE-FEATH'ERS, the long slender
feathers which droop from the saddle or rump of the domestic cock.--_ns._
SADD'LE-GIRTH, a band passing round the body of a horse to hold the saddle
in its place; SADD'LE-HORSE, a horse suitable for riding; SADD'LE-JOINT, a
joint made in plates of sheet-iron so that the margins interlock: (_anat._)
a joint admitting movement in every direction except axial rotation;
SADD'LE-LAP, the skirt of a saddle; SADD'LE-PLATE, the bent plate which
forms the arch of the furnace in locomotive steam-boilers; SADD'LE-QUERN,
an ancient quern for grinding grain; SADD'LER, a maker of saddles: the
harp-seal; SADD'LE-ROCK, a variety of the oyster; SADD'LE-ROOF, a roof
having two gables; SADD'LER-COR'PORAL, a non-commissioned officer in the
household cavalry, with the charge of the saddles; SADD'LER-SER'GEANT, a
sergeant in the cavalry who has charge of the saddlers: (_U.S._) a
non-commissioned staff-officer of a cavalry regiment; SADD'LERY, occupation
of a saddler: materials for saddles: articles sold by a saddler.--_adjs._
SADD'LE-SHAPED, shaped like a saddle: (_bot._) bent down at the sides:
(_geol._) bent down at each side of a ridge; SADD'LE-SICK, galled with much
riding.--_ns._ SADD'LE-TREE, the frame of a saddle.--PUT THE SADDLE ON THE
RIGHT HORSE, to impute blame where it is deserved. [A.S. _sadol_, _sadel_;
cf. Dut. _zadel_, Ger. _sattel_.]

SADDUCEE, sad'[=u]-s[=e], _n._ one of a Jewish sceptical school or party of
aristocratic traditionists in New Testament times.--adj. SADD[=U]C[=E]'AN,
of or relating to the Sadducees.--_ns._ SADD[=U]CEE'ISM, SADD'[=U]CISM,
scepticism. [Gr. _Saddoukaios_--Heb. _Tsed[=u]q[=i]m_, from their supposed
founder _Zadok_, or from the race of the _Zadokites_, a family of priests
at Jerusalem since the time of Solomon.]

SADINA, sa-d[=e]'na, _n._ a clupeoid fish resembling a sardine. [Sp.

SAD-IRON, sad'-[=i]'urn, _n._ a smoothing-iron: a box-iron.

SADR, sad'r, _n._ the lote-bush.

SAD-TREE, sad'-tr[=e], _n._ the night jasmine.

SAE, s[=a], _adv._ the Scotch form of _so_.

SAFE, s[=a]f, _adj._ unharmed: free from danger or injury: secure: securing
from danger or injury: no longer dangerous: clear: trusty: sound:
certain.--_n._ a chest or closet for money, &c., safe against fire,
thieves, &c., generally of iron: a chest or cupboard for meats: (_coll._) a
safety-bicycle.--_v.t._ to safeguard.--_v.t._ SAFE'-CONDUCT'
(_Spens._).--_ns._ SAFE'-CON'DUCT, a writing, passport, or guard granted to
a person to enable him to travel with safety; SAFE'-DEPOS'IT, a safe
storage for valuables; SAFE'GUARD, he who, or that which, guards or renders
safe: protection: a guard, passport, or warrant to protect a traveller: a
rail-guard at railway switches: (_zool._) a monitor lizard.--_v.t._ to
protect.--_n._ SAFE'-KEEP'ING, preservation from injury or from
escape.--_adv._ SAFE'LY, in a safe manner.--_ns._ SAFE'NESS; SAFE'-PLEDGE,
a surety for one's appearance at a day assigned; SAFE'TY, freedom from
danger or loss: close custody: a safeguard: SAFE'TY-ARCH (_archit._), an
arch built in the body of a wall to relieve the pressure, as over a door or
window; SAFE'TY-BELT, a belt made of some buoyant material, or capable of
being inflated, for helping a person to float; SAFE'TY-B[=I]'CYCLE, a
low-wheeled bicycle; SAFE'TY-BUOY, a buoy for helping a person to float: a
life-preserver; SAFE'TY-CAGE (_mining_), a cage by which a fall would be
prevented in case of the breakage of the rope by means of safety-catches;
SAFE'TY-CHAIN, a check-chain of a car-truck: a safety-link; SAFE'TY-FUSE, a
waterproof woven tube enclosing an inflammable substance which burns at a
regular rate; SAFE'TY-HOIST, a hoisting-gear so arranged as to prevent its
load being thrown precipitately down in case of accident; SAFE'TY-LAMP, a
lamp surrounded by wire-gauze, used for safety in mines on account of the
inflammable gases; SAFE'TY-LOCK, a lock that cannot be picked by ordinary
means: in firearms, a lock with some device for preventing accidental
discharge; SAFE'TY-MATCH, a match which can be ignited only on a surface
specially prepared for the purpose; SAFE'TY-P[=A]'PER, a paper so prepared
as to resist alteration by chemical or mechanical means; SAFE'TY-PIN, a pin
in the form of a clasp with a guard covering its point; SAFE'TY-PLUG, a
plug of soft metal in an opening in a steam-boiler, so as to melt when the
temperature rises to its fusing-point, and allow of an escape of steam;
SAFE'TY-REIN, a rein for preventing a horse from running away;
SAFE'TY-STOP, a contrivance for preventing accidents in machinery;
SAFE'TY-TUBE, a tube used in chemical operations to prevent the bursting of
vessels by gas, and for other purposes; SAFE'TY-VALVE, a valve in the top
of a steam-boiler, which lets out the steam when the pressure is too great
for safety. [O. Fr. _sauf_--L. _salvus_; prob. allied to _solus_.]

SAFFIAN, saf'i-an, _n._ a name applied to skins tanned with sumac and dyed
in bright colours. [Russ.]

SAFFLOWER, saf'flow-[.e]r, _n._ an annual herbaceous composite plant,
cultivated all over India for its red dye--_Carthamine_. [O. Fr. _saflor_,
through It. from Ar. _usf[=u]r_--_safr[=a]_, yellow.]

SAFFO, saf'[=o], _n._ (_obs._) a bailiff: a catchpole. [It.]

SAFFRON, saf'run, _n._ a bulbous plant of the crocus kind with deep-yellow
flowers: a colouring substance prepared from its flowers.--_adj._ having
the colour of saffron: deep yellow.--_adj._ SAFF'RONY.--_n._ SAF'RANINE, a
coal-tar producing yellowish colour used in dyeing. [O. Fr. _safran_ (It.
_zafferano_)--Ar. _za`far[=a]n_--_safr[=a]_, yellow.]

SAG, sag, _v.i._ to bend, sink, or hang down: to yield or give way as from
weight or pressure: to hang heavy: to make leeway.--_n._ a droop.--_adj._
loaded. [M. E. _saggen_, from Scand.; Sw. _sacka_, to sink down; cf. Ger.
_sacken_, to sink.]

SAGA, sä'ga, _n._ a tale, historical or fabulous, in the old prose
literature of Iceland.--_n._ SÄ'GAMAN, a narrator of sagas. [Ice. _saga_,
pl. _sögur_--_segja_, say.]

SAGACIOUS, sa-g[=a]'shus, _adj._ keen or quick in perception or thought:
acute: discerning and judicious: wise.--_adv._ SAG[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._
SAG[=A]'CIOUSNESS, SAGAC'ITY, acuteness of perception or thought: acute
practical judgment: shrewdness. [L. _sagax_, _sagacis_--_sag[=i]re_, to
perceive quickly.]

SAGAMORE, sag'a-m[=o]r, _n._ a chief among some tribes of American
Indians--prob. conn. with _sachem_.

SAGAPENUM, sag-a-p[=e]'num, _n._ a fetid gum-resin, the concrete juice of a
Persian species of _Ferula_, formerly used in hysteria, &c. [Gr.

SAGATHY, sag'a-thi, _n._ (_obs._) a woollen stuff. [Fr. _sagatis_--L.
_saga_, a mantle.]

SAGE, s[=a]j, _n._ any plant of genus _Salvia_, of the mint family, esp.
Common or Garden Sage, used for flavouring meats.--_ns._ SAGE'-APP'LE, a
gall formed on a species of sage; SAGE'-BREAD, bread baked from dough mixed
with a strong infusion of sage in milk; SAGE'-BRUSH, a collective name of
various shrubby species of Artemisia in the western United States;
SAGE'-COCK, -GROUSE, a large North American grouse; SAGE'-GREEN, a gray
slightly mixed with pure green; SAGE'-RABB'IT, a small hare or rabbit
abounding in North America; SAGE'-ROSE, a plant of the genus Cistus: an
evergreen shrub of tropical America; SAGE'-SPARR'OW, a fringilline bird
characteristic of the sage-brush of North America; SAGE'-THRESH'ER, the
mountain mocking-bird of west North America; SAGE'-WILL'OW, a dwarf
American willow.--_adj._ S[=A]'GY, full of, or seasoned with,
sage.--APPLE-BEARING SAGE, a native of southern Europe, with large reddish
or purple bracts, and bearing on its branches large gall-nuts; MEADOW SAGE,
or _Meadow clary_, a common ornament of meadows in the south of England,
with bluish-purple flowers; OIL OF SAGE, an essential oil, yielded by the
sage, once much used in liniments against rheumatism. [O. Fr. _sauge_ (It.
_salvia_)--L. _salvia_--_salvus_, safe.]

SAGE, s[=a]j, _adj._ discriminating, discerning, wise: well judged.--_n._ a
wise man: a man of gravity and wisdom.--_adv._ SAGE'LY.--_n._
SAGE'NESS.--SEVEN SAGES, or WISE MEN (see SEVEN). [Fr. _sage_ (It.
_saggio_, _savio_), from a L. _sapius_ (seen in _ne-sapius_),
wise--_sap[)e]re_, to be wise.]

SAGENE, s[=a]'j[=e]n, _n._ a fishing-net. [L.,--Gr. _sag[=e]n[=e]_.]

SAGENE, s[=a]'j[=e]n, _n._ a Russian unit of long measure, of seven English

SAGENITE, s[=a]j'en-[=i]t, _n._ acicular crystals of rutile occurring in
reticulated forms embedded in quartz.--_adj._ SAGENIT'IC. [Gr.
_sag[=e]n[=e]_, a drag-net.]

SAGERETIA, saj-e-r[=e]'ti-a, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants belonging
to the buckthorn order. [Named from Aug. _Sageret_, 1763-1852.]

SAGESSE, sazh-es', _n._ wisdom. [Fr.]

SAGGAR, SAGGER, sag'ar, -[.e]r, _n._ a box of hard pottery in which
porcelain is enclosed for baking--also _v.t._--_ns._ SAGG'ARD;
SAGG'AR-HOUSE, a house in which unbaked vessels are put into saggars.

SAGINA, sa-j[=i]'na, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants of the pink
family.--_v.t._ SAG'INATE, to pamper: to fatten.--_n._ SAGIN[=A]'TION. [L.
_sagin[=a]re_, to fatten.]

SAGITTA, saj'it-a, _n._ a northern constellation--the Arrow: a genus of
small pelagic worms.--_adj._ SAG'ITTAL, arrow-shaped: (_anat._) straight,
pertaining to the sagittal suture.--_adv._ SAG'ITTALLY.--_ns._
SAGITT[=A]'RIA, a genus of aquatic plants, some species with sagittate
leaves and white flowers; SAGITT[=A]'RIUS, the Archer, one of the signs of
the zodiac; SAG'ITTARY, a centaur: a public building in Venice.--_adj._ of
or like an arrow.--_adjs._ SAG'ITT[=A]TE, -D, Shaped like an arrow-head, as
a leaf; SAGITTILING'UAL, having a long slender tongue, as a woodpecker. [L.
_sagitta_, an arrow.]

SAGO, s[=a]'go, _n._ a nutritive farinaceous substance produced from the
pith of several East Indian palms.--_n._ S[=A]'GO-PALM. [Malay _s[=a]gu_.]

SAGRA, s[=a]'gra, _n._ a genus of phytophagous beetles of brilliant

SAGUARO, sa-gwar'[=o], _n._ the giant cactus.

SAGUIN, sag'win, _n._ a South American monkey.--Also SAG'OIN, SAG'OUIN.

SAGUINUS, sag-[=u]-[=i]'nus, _n._ a genus of South American marmosets.

SAGUM, s[=a]'gum, _n._ a military cloak worn by ancient Roman soldiers.
[L., prob. of Celt. origin.]

SAHIB, sä'ib, _n._ a term of respect given in India to persons of rank and
to Europeans. [Hind. _s[=a]hib_--Ar. _s[=a]hib_.]

SAHLITE, sä'l[=i]t, _n._ a variety of augite, from the silver-mines of
_Sahla_ in Sweden.

SAI, sä'i, _n._ a South American monkey. [Braz.]

SAIBLING, s[=a]b'ling, _n._ the char.

SAIC, sä'ik, _n._ a Turkish or Grecian vessel common in the Levant. [Fr.
_saïque_--Turk. _sh[=a][=i]qa_.]

SAID, sed, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _say_: the before-mentioned, as the said

SAIGA, s[=i]'gä, _n._ a west Asian antelope. [Russ.]


SAIL, s[=a]l, _n._ a sheet of canvas, &c., spread to catch the wind, by
which a ship is driven forward: a ship or ships: a trip in a vessel: a
fleet: arm of a windmill: speed: a journey.--_v.i._ to be moved by sails:
to go by water: to begin a voyage: to glide or float smoothly
along.--_v.t._ to navigate: to pass in a ship: to fly through.--_adj._
SAIL'ABLE, navigable.--_n._ SAIL'-BOAT, a boat propelled by a
sail.--_adjs._ SAIL'-BORNE; SAIL'-BROAD (_Milt._), broad or spreading like
a sail.--_n._ SAIL'-CLOTH, a strong cloth for sails.--_adj._ SAILED, having
sails set.--_ns._ SAIL'ER, a sailor: a boat or ship with respect to its
mode of sailing, or its speed; SAIL'-FISH, the basking shark: the
quill-back; SAIL'-FLUKE, the whiff; SAIL'-HOOP, a mast-hoop; SAIL'ING, act
of sailing: motion of a vessel on water: act of directing a ship's course:
the term applied to the different ways in which the path of a ship at sea,
and the variations of its geographical position, are represented on paper,
as _great circle sailing_, _Mercator's sailing_, _middle latitude sailing_,
_oblique sailing_, _parallel sailing_, _plane sailing_; SAIL'ING-ICE, an
ice-pack through which a sailing-vessel can force her way.--_n.pl._
SAIL'ING-INSTRUC'TIONS, written directions by the officer of a convoy to
the masters of ships under his care.--_n._ SAIL'ING-MAS'TER, a former name
for the navigating officer of a war-ship.--_adj._ SAIL'LESS, destitute of
sails.--_ns._ SAIL'-LIZ'ARD, a large lizard having a crested tail;
SAIL'-LOFT, a loft where sails are cut out and made; SAIL'-M[=A]K'ER, a
maker of sails: in the United States navy, an officer who takes charge of
the sails; SAIL'OR, one who sails in or navigates a ship: a seaman;
SAIL'OR-FISH, a sword-fish; SAIL'OR-MAN, a seaman; SAIL'OR-PLANT, the
strawberry geranium; SAIL'OR'S-CHOICE, the pin-fish: the pig-fish;
SAIL'OR'S-PURSE, an egg-pouch of rays and sharks; SAIL'-ROOM, a room in a
vessel where sails are stowed.--_adj._ SAIL'Y, like a sail.--_n._
SAIL'-YARD, the yard on which sails are extended.--_n.pl._ STAY'-SAILS,
triangular sails, suspended on the ropes which stay the masts upon the
foresides--from the jib-boom, bowsprit, and deck in the case of the
foremast, and from the deck in the case of the mainmast.--SAIL CLOSE TO THE
WIND, to run great risk; SAILORS' HOME, an institution where sailors may
lodge, or aged and infirm sailors be permanently cared for.--AFTER SAIL,
the sails carried on the mainmast and mizzen-mast; FORE-AND-AFT SAILS,
those set parallel to the keel of a ship, as opp. to SQUARE SAILS, those
set across the ship; FULL SAIL, with all sails set; MAKE SAIL, to spread
more canvas, in sailing; SET SAIL, to spread the sails, to begin a voyage;
SHORTEN SAIL, to reduce its extent; STRIKE SAIL, to lower the sail or
sails: (_Shak._) to abate one's pretensions of pomp or superiority; TAKE
THE WIND OUT OF ONE'S SAILS, to deprive one of an advantage; UNDER SAIL,
having the sails spread. [A.S. _segel_, cf. Dut. _zeil_, Ger. _segel_.]

SAIMIRI, s[=i]'mi-ri, _n._ a squirrel monkey.

SAIN, s[=a]'in (_Shak._), _pa.p._ of _say_.

SAIN, s[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to bless so as to protect from evil. [A.S.
_segnian_--L. _sign[=a]re_--_signum_, mark.]

SAINFOIN, s[=a]n'foin, _n._ a leguminous fodder-plant.--Also SAINT'FOIN.
[Fr., _sain_, wholesome, _foin_, hay--L. _sanum foenum_.]

SAINT, s[=a]nt, _n._ a sanctified or holy person: one eminent for piety:
one of the blessed dead: one canonised by the R.C. Church: an image of a
saint: an angel: (_pl._) Israelites as a people: Christians
generally.--_v.t._ to salute as a saint.--_adj._ SAINT'ED, made a saint:
holy: sacred: gone to heaven: canonised.--_n._ SAINT'HOOD.--_adj._
SAINT'ISH, somewhat saintly, or affectedly so.--_n._ SAINT'ISM, the
character or quality of a saint: sanctimoniousness.--_adjs._ SAINT'-LIKE,
SAINT'LY, like or becoming a saint.--_adv._ SAINT'LILY.--_n._
SAINT'LINESS.--_adj._ SAINT'-SEEM'ING, appearing like a saint.--_n._
SAINT'SHIP, the character of a saint.--SAINT'S DAY, a day set apart for the
commemoration of a particular saint; ST AGNES'S FLOWER, the snowflake; ST
ANDREW'S CROSS, a North American shrub; ST ANDREW'S DAY, 30th November; ST
ANTHONY'S FIRE, erysipelas; ST ANTHONY'S NUT, the pig-nut or hawk-nut; ST
AUDREY'S NECKLACE, a string of holy stones; ST BARBARA'S CRESS, the yellow
rocket; ST BARNABY'S THISTLE, the English star-thistle; ST BENNET'S HERB,
the herb bennet; ST BERNARD, a kind of dog; ST BLASE'S DISEASE, quinsy; ST
CASSIAN BEDS, a division of the Triassic series; ST CRISPIN'S DAY, 25th
October; ST DAVID'S DAY, 1st March; ST DOMINGO DUCK, a West Indian duck; ST
DOMINGO GREBE, the smallest grebe in America; ST ELMO'S FIRE (see ELMO'S
FIRE); ST GEORGE'S DAY, 23d April; ST GEORGE'S ENSIGN, the distinguishing
flag of the British navy, a red cross on a white field; ST HUBERT'S
DISEASE, hydrophobia; ST JOHN'S BREAD, the carob bean: ergot of rye; ST
JOHN'S DAY, 27th December; ST JOHN'S HAWK, a blackish variety of the
rough-legged buzzard; ST JULIEN, an esteemed red Bordeaux wine from the
Médoc region; ST LEGER, the name of a race run at Doncaster, so called
since 1778 from Col. _St Leger_; ST LUKE'S SUMMER, a period of pleasant
weather about the middle of October; ST MARTIN'S EVIL, drunkenness; ST
MARTIN'S SUMMER, a season of mild, damp weather in late autumn; ST
NICHOLAS'S DAY, 6th December; ST PATRICK'S DAY, 17th March; ST PETER'S
FINGER, a belemnite; ST PETER'S FISH, the dory; ST PETER'S WORT, a name of
several plants; ST PIERRE GROUP, a thick mass of shales in the upper
Missouri region; ST SWITHIN'S DAY, 15th July; ST VALENTINE'S DAY, 14th
February; ST VITUS'S DANCE, chorea.--ALL-SAINTS' DAY, a feast observed by
the Latin Church on 1st November, in the Greek Church on the first Sunday
after Pentecost; COMMUNION OF THE SAINTS, the spiritual fellowship of all
true believers, the blessed dead as well as the faithful living, mystically
united in each other in Christ; INTERCESSION, PERSEVERANCE, OF SAINTS (see
themselves; PATRON SAINT, a saint who is regarded as a protector, as St
George of England, St Andrew of Scotland, St Patrick of Ireland, St David
of Wales, St Denis of France, St James of Spain, St Nicholas of Russia, St
Stephen of Hungary, St Mark of Venice, &c. [Fr.,--L. _sanctus_, holy.]

SAINT-SIMONISM, s[=a]nt-s[=i]'mon-izm, _n._ the socialistic system founded
by the Comte de _Saint-Simon_ (1760-1825).--_ns._ SAINT-SIM[=O]'NIAN (also

SAIR, s[=a]r, _adj._ (_Scot._) sore.--_adv._ SAIR'LY.

SAIR, s[=a]r, _v.t._ to serve: to fit: to satisfy: to give alms.--_n._
SAIR'ING, as much as serves the turn: enough.

SAITH, seth, _v.t._ and _v.i._ 3d pers. sing. pres. indic. of _say_.

SAITH, s[=a]th, _n._ (_Scot._) the coalfish. [Gael. _savidhean._]

SAIVA, s[=i]'va, _n._ a votary of _Siva_.--_n._ SAI'VISM.

SAJOU, sa-j[=oo]', _n._ a South American monkey.

SAKE, sak'e, _n._ a Japanese fermented liquor made from rice: a generic
name for all spirituous liquors.

SAKE, s[=a]k, _n._ cause: account: regard, as 'for my sake': contention:
fault: purpose.--FOR OLD SAKE'S SAKE, for the sake of old times, for auld
langsyne. [A.S. _sacu_, strife, a lawsuit; Dut. _zaak_, Ger. _sache;_ A.S.
_sacan_, to strive, Goth. _sakan._ _Seek_ is a doublet.]

SAKER, s[=a]'k[.e]r, _n._ a species of falcon: a species of cannon.
[Fr.,--Low L. _falco sacer_, sacred falcon.]

SAKI, sak'i, _n._ a genus of long-tailed South American monkeys.

SAKIEH, sak'i-e, _n._ a Persian wheel used in Egypt for raising
water.--Also SAK'IA, [Ar. _saqieh._]

SAL, sal, _n._ a large gregarious timber tree of north India, with hard,
dark-brown, coarse-grained, durable wood. [Hind. _s[=a]l._]

SAL, sal, _n._ salt, used in chemistry and pharmacy with various
adjectives, as SAL'-ALEM'BROTH, a solution of equal parts of corrosive
sublimate and ammonium chloride--also _Salt of wisdom;_ SAL'-AMM[=O]'NIAC,
chloride of ammonium, with a sharp, saline taste; SAL'-SEIGNETTE', Rochelle
salt; SAL'-VOLAT'ILE, a solution of carbonate of ammonia in alcohol--a
common remedy for faintness. [L.]

SALAAM, SALAM, sa-läm', _n._ a word of salutation in the East, chiefly
among Mohammedans: homage.--_v.i._ to perform the salaam. [Ar. _sal[=a]m,_
peace; Heb. _shal[=a]m,_ to be safe.]


SALACIOUS, sal-[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ lustful: lecherous.--_adv._
SAL[=A]'CIOUSLY, lustfully: lecherously.--_ns._ SAL[=A]'CIOUSNESS,
SALAC'ITY, lust, lecherousness. [L. _salax_--_sal[=i]re,_ to leap.]

SALAD, sal'ad, _n._ a preparation of raw herbs (lettuce, endive, chicory,
celery, mustard and cress, water-cress, onions, radishes, tomatoes,
chervil, &c.) cut up and seasoned with salt, vinegar, &c.: a dish of some
kind of meat, chopped, seasoned, and mixed with a salad.--_ns._
SALAD-BUR'NET, the common burnet, used as a salad; SAL'ADING, herbs for
salads: the making of salads; SAL'AD-OIL, olive-oil, used in dressing
salads; SAL'AD-PLATE, a small plate for salad; SAL'AD-ROCK'ET, the garden
rocket; SAL'AD-SPOON, a large and long-handled spoon for stirring and
mixing salads, made of wood or other material not affected by
vinegar.--SALAD DAYS, days of youthful inexperience. [Fr. _salade_--Old It.
_salata_--_salare,_ to salt--L. _sal,_ salt.]

SALAGRAMMA, sä-lä-grä'mä, _n._ a stone sacred to Vishnu.

SALAL-BERRY, sal'al-ber'i, _n._ a berry-like plant of California, about the
size of a common grape.


SALAMANDER, sal'a-man-d[.e]r, _n._ a genus of tailed Amphibians, nearly
related to the newts, harmless, but long dreaded as poisonous, once
supposed able to live in fire: (_her._) a four-legged creature with a long
tail surrounded by flames: a poker used red-hot for kindling fires: a hot
metal plate for browning meat, &c.--_adjs._ SALAMAN'DRIFORM; SALAMAN'DRINE,
like a salamander: enduring fire; SALAMAN'DROID--also _n._ [Fr.
_salamandre_--L.,--Gr. _salamandra;_ of Eastern origin.]

SALAMBA, sa-lam'ba, _n._ a contrivance for fishing used at Manila and
elsewhere in the East.

SALAMIS, sal'a-mis, _n._ a genus of lepidopterous insects.

SALANGANE, sal'ang-g[=a]n, _n._ a Chinese swift which constructs edible

SALARY, sal'a-ri, _n._ a recompense for services: wages.--_v.t._ to pay a
salary.--_adj._ SAL'ARIED, receiving a salary. [O. Fr. _salarie_ (Fr.
_salaire_, It. _salario_)--L. _salarium_, salt-money, _sal_, salt]

SALDA, sal'da, _n._ a genus of true bugs.

SALE, s[=a]l, _n._ act of selling: the exchange of anything for money:
power or opportunity of selling: demand: public showing of goods to sell:
auction.--_adj._ SALE'ABLE, that may be sold: in good demand.--_n._
SALE'ABLENESS.--_adv._ SALE'ABLY.--_ns._ SALE'ROOM, an auction-room;
SALES'MAN, a man who sells goods:--_fem._ SALES'WOMAN.--_adj._
SALE'-TONGUED, mercenary.--_n.pl._ SALE'WARES, merchandise.--_n._
SALE'WORK, work or things made for sale, or merely for sale: work
carelessly done.--FORCED SALE, a sale compelled by a creditor; TERMS OF
SALE, the conditions imposed on a purchaser. [Scand., Ice. _sala_.]

SALE, s[=a]l, _n._ (_Spens._) a kind of basket-like net, made of sallows or
willows. [A.S. _sealh_, willow.]

SALEBROUS, sal'[=e]-brus, _adj._ rough, rugged.--_n._ SALEBROS'ITY.
[Fr.,--L. _salebrosus_, rough.]

SALEP, sal'ep, _n._ the dried tubers of _Orchis mascula_: the food prepared
from it.--Also SAL'OP. [Ar.]

SALERATUS, sal-e-r[=a]'tus, _n._ sodium bicarbonate, used in
baking-powders.--Also SALÆR[=A]'TUS. [L. _sal aeratus_, aerated salt.]

SALEWE, sal-[=u]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to salute. [_Salute_.]

SALIAN, s[=a]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to a tribe of Franks on the lower
Rhine.--_n._ one of this tribe.--_adj._ SAL'IC, denoting a law among the
Salian Franks limiting the succession of certain lands to males--extended
in the 14th century to the succession to the crown of France. [Fr.
_salique_--Low L. _Lex salica_.]

SALIAN, s[=a]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Salii_ or priests of Mars in
ancient Rome.--SALIAN HYMNS, songs sung by these, with dances, &c.

SALIANT, s[=a]l'i-ant, _adj._ Same as SALIENT.

SALIAUNCE, sal-i-äns', _n._ (_Spens._). See SALIENCE.

SALICETUM, sal-i-s[=e]'tum, _n._ a thicket of willows:--_pl._

SALICIN, -E, sal'i-sin, _n._ a bitter crystalline glucoside, obtained from
the bark of willows and poplars.--_n._ SAL'ICYL[=A]TE, a salt of salicylic
acid.--_adjs._ SAL'ICYL[=A]TED, combined with salicylic acid; SALICY'LIC,
obtained from the willow.--SALICYLATE OF SODIUM, a product occurring in
small white crystals, used very largely in acute rheumatism. [L. _salix_,
_salicis_, a willow.]

SALICORNIA, sal-i-kor'ni-a, _n._ a genus of apetalous plants--the
_glass-wort_, _marsh-samphire_. [Fr.,--L. _sal_, salt, _cornu_, a horn.]

SALIENT, s[=a]'li-ent, _adj._ leaping or springing: (_fort._) projecting
outwards, as an angle: prominent: striking: (_geom._) denoting any angle
less than two right angles: (_her._) of a beast of prey nearly
rampant.--_n._ S[=A]'LIENCE, the quality or condition of being salient:
projection: (_Spens._) a leaping, assaulting, onslaught.--_adv._
S[=A]'LIENTLY. [Fr.,--L. _saliens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _sal[=i]re_, to

SALIÈRE, sa-ly[=a]r', _n._ a saltcellar. [Fr.]

SALIFEROUS, s[=a]-lif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing salt.--SALIFEROUS SYSTEM,
the Triassic, from its rich deposits. [L. _sal_, _salis_, salt, _ferre_, to

SALIFY, sal'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to combine with an acid in order to make a
salt:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sal'ified.--_adj._ SALIF[=I]'ABLE.--_n._
SALIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of salifying.

SALINE, s[=a]'l[=i]n, or s[=a]-l[=i]n', _adj._ consisting of, or
containing, salt: partaking of the qualities of salt.--_n._ an effervescent
powder used as a gentle aperient: a salt-spring.--_ns._ SAL[=I]'NA,
salt-works; SALIN[=A]'TION, the act of washing in salt liquor; SAL'INE,
SAL'IN, a salt, reddish substance obtained from the ashes of potato-leaves;
SALINOM'ETER,  SALIM'ETER, a hydrometer for measuring the amount of salt in
any given solution.--_adj._ SAL[=I]'NO-TERRENE', composed of salt and
earth.--_v.t._ SAL'ITE, to season with salt.--_n._ SAL'ITRAL, a place where
saltpetre occurs. [Fr.,--L. _salinus_--_sal_, salt.]

SALIQUE, sal'ik, or sa-l[=e]k'. Same as SALIC (see SALIAN).

SALIVA, sa-l[=i]'va, _n._ the spittle, one of the digestive fluids, mainly
the product of the salivary glands.--_adjs._ SAL[=I]'VAL, SAL'IVANT,
producing salivation.--_n._ SAL[=I]'VA-PUMP, a device for carrying off the
accumulating saliva.--_adj._ SA'LIVARY, pertaining to, secreting, or
containing saliva.--_n._ that which produces salivation.--_v.t._
SAL'IV[=A]TE, to produce an unusual amount of saliva.--_n._ SALIV[=A]'TION,
an unusual flow of saliva.--_adj._ SAL'IVOUS, like spittle. [Fr.,--L.,
allied to Gr. _sialon_, saliva.]

SALIX, s[=a]'liks, _n._ a genus of apetalous trees and shrubs, the willows.

SALLEE-MAN, sal'[=e]-man, _n._ a Moorish pirate.--Also SALL'EE-R[=O]'VER.
[_Sallee_, on the coast of Morocco.]

SALLET, sal'et, _n._ a light kind of helmet of the 15th century, with
projection behind, used by foot-soldiers. [O. Fr. _salade_, through It.
_celata_, a helmet, from L. _cælata_, figured--_cæl[=a]re_, to engrave.]

SALLIE, sal'i, _n._ (_Scot._) a hired mourner at a funeral.

SALLOW, sal'[=o], _n._ a tree or low shrub of the willow kind--(_Scot._)
SAUCH.--_adj._ SALL'OWY, abounding in sallows. [A.S. _sealh_; Ger. _sahl_.]

SALLOW, sal'[=o], _adj._ of a pale, yellowish colour.--_v.t._ to tinge with
a sallow colour.--_adj._ SALL'OWISH, somewhat sallow.--_ns._
SALL'OW-KITT'EN, a kind of puss-moth; SALL'OW-MOTH, a British moth of a
pale-yellow colour; SALL'OWNESS.--_adj._ SALL'OWY. [A.S. _salo_, _salu_;
cf. Dut. _zaluw_, and Old High Ger. _salo_.]

SALLY, sal'i, _n._ a leaping or bursting out: a sudden rushing forth of
troops to attack besiegers: excursion: outburst of fancy, wit, &c.: levity:
a projection.--_v.i._ to rush out suddenly: to mount:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
sall'ied.--_n._ SALL'Y-PORT, a passage by which a garrison may make a
sally: a large port for the escape of a crew when a fire-ship is set on
fire. [Fr. _saillie_--_saillir_ (It. _salire_)--L. _salire_, to leap.]

SALLY, sal'i, _n._ a kind of stone-fly: a wren.--_n._ SALL'YPICK'ER, one of
several different warblers.

SALLY-LUNN, sal'i-lun, _n._ a sweet spongy tea-cake. [From the name of a
girl who sold them in the streets of Bath about the close of the 18th

SALLY-WOOD, sal'i-w[=oo]d, _n._ willow-wood.

SALMAGUNDI, sal-ma-gun'di, _n._ a dish of minced meat with eggs, anchovies,
vinegar, pepper, &c.: a medley, miscellany.--Also SALMAGUN'DY. [Fr.
_salmigondis_--It. _salami_, pl. of _salame_, salt meat--L. _sal_, salt,
_conditi_, pl. of _condito_, seasoned--L. _cond[=i]re_, _-[=i]tum_, to

SALMI, SALMIS, sal'mi, _n._ a ragout of roasted woodcocks, &c., stewed with
wine, morsels of bread, &c. [Fr. _salmis_--It. _salame_, salt meat.]

SALMIAC, sal'mi-ak, _n._ sal-ammoniac.

SALMON, sam'un, _n._ a large fish, brownish above, with silvery sides, the
delicate flesh reddish-orange in colour--ascending rivers to spawn: the
upper bricks in a kiln which receive the least heat.--_ns._ SAL'M[=O], the
leading genus of _Salmonidæ_; SALM'ON-COL'OUR, an orange-pink; SALM'ONET, a
young salmon; SALM'ON-FISH'ERY, a place where salmon-fishing is carried on;
SALM'ON-FLY, any kind of artificial fly for taking salmon; SALM'ON-FRY,
salmon under two years old; SALM'ONING, the salmon industry, as canning;
SALM'ON-KILL'ER, a sort of stickleback; SALM'ON-LEAP, -LADD'ER, a series of
steps to permit a salmon to pass up-stream.--_adj._ SALM'ONOID.--_ns._
SALM'ON-PEAL, -PEEL, a grilse under 2 lb.; SALM'ON-SPEAR, an instrument
used in spearing salmon; SALM'ON-SPRING, a smolt or young salmon of the
first year; SALM'ON-TACK'LE, the rod, line, and fly with which salmon are
taken; SALM'ON-TROUT, a trout like the salmon, but smaller and thicker in
proportion; SALM'ON-WEIR, a weir specially designed to take salmon.--BLACK
SALMON, the great lake trout; BURNETT SALMON, a fish with reddish flesh
like a salmon; CALVERED SALMON, pickled salmon; CORNISH SALMON, the
pollack; KELP SALMON, a serranoid fish; KIPPERED SALMON, salmon salted and
smoke-dried; QUODDY SALMON, the pollack; SEA SALMON, the pollack; WHITE
SALMON, a carangoid Californian fish. [O. Fr. _saulmon_--L. _salmo_, from
_sal[=i]re_, to leap.]

SALNATRON, sal-n[=a]'tron, _n._ crude sodium carbonate.


SALON, sa-long', _n._ a drawing-room: a fashionable reception, esp. a
periodic gathering of notable persons, in the house of some social queen:
the great annual exhibition of works by living artists at the Palais des
Champs Elysées in Paris. [Fr.]

SALOON, sa-l[=oo]n', _n._ a spacious and elegant hall or apartment for the
reception of company, for works of art, &c.: a main cabin: a drawing-room
car on a railroad: a liquor-shop.--_ns._ SALOON'IST, SALOON'-KEEP'ER, one
who retails liquor. [Fr. _salon_--_salle_; Old High Ger. _sal_, a dwelling,
Ger. _saal_.]

SALOOP, sa-l[=oo]p', _n._ a drink composed of sassafras tea, with sugar and
milk. [_Salep_.]


SALOPIAN, sal-[=o]'pi-an, _adj._ pertaining to Shropshire (L. _Salopia_),
as the ware, a name given to Roman pottery found in Shropshire.

SALPA, sal'pa, _n._ a remarkable genus of free-swimming Tunicates.--_adjs._

SALPICON, sal'pi-kon, _n._ stuffing, chopped meat. [Fr.]

SALPIGLOSSIS, sal-pi-glos'is, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants, native
to Chili, with showy flowers resembling petunias, [Gr. _salpingx_, a
trumpet, _gl[=o]ssa_, tongue.]

SALPINCTES, sal-pingk'tes, _n._ the rock-wrens. [Gr. _salpingkt[=e]s_, a

SALPINGITIS, sal-pin-j[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of a Fallopian
tube.--_adjs._ SALPINGIT'IC, SALPIN'GIAN, pertaining to a Fallopian or to a
Eustachian tube.--_n._ SAL'PINX, a Eustachian tube or syrinx. [Gr.
_salpingx_, a trumpet.]

SALPORNIS, sal-por'nis, _n._ a genus of creepers inhabiting Asia and
Africa. [Gr. _salpingx_, a trumpet, _ornis_, a bird.]

SALSAGINOUS, sal-saj'i-nus, _adj._ saltish: growing in brackish places.

SALSAMENTARIOUS, sal-sa-men-t[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ (_obs._) salted.

SALSE, sals, _n._ a mud volcano: a conical hillock of mud. [Fr.,--L.
_salsus_, _sal[=i]re_, to salt.]

SALSIFY, sal'si-fi, _n._ a biennial plant growing in meadows throughout
Europe, whose long and tapering root has a flavour resembling
asparagus--also SAL'SAFY--often called _Oyster-plant_.--BLACK SALSIFY, the
related scorzonera. [Fr.,--It. _sassefrica_, goat's-beard--L. _saxum_, a
rock, _fric[=a]re_, to rub.]

SALSILLA, sal-sil'a, _n._ one of several species of _Bomarea_, with edible
tubers. [Sp., dim. of _salsa_, sauce.]

SALSOLA, sal's[=o]-la, _n._ a genus of plants, including the _salt-wort_
and _prickly glass-wort_.--_adj._ SALSOL[=A]'CEOUS. [L.
_salsus_--_sal[=i]re_, to salt.]

SALT, sawlt, _n._ chloride of sodium, or common salt, a well-known
substance used for seasoning, found either in the earth or obtained by
evaporation from sea-water: anything like salt: seasoning: piquancy:
abatement, modification, allowance: an experienced sailor: that which
preserves from corruption: an antiseptic: (_chem._) a body composed of an
acid and a base united in definite proportions, or of bromine, chlorine,
fluorine, or iodine, with a metal or metalloid: (_obs._) lust.--_v.t._ to
sprinkle or season with salt: to fill with salt between the timbers for
preservation.--_adj._ containing salt: tasting of salt: overflowed with, or
growing in, salt-water: pungent: lecherous: (_coll._) costly,
expensive--_ns._ SALT'-BLOCK, a salt-evaporating apparatus; SALT'-BOTT'OM,
a flat piece of ground covered with saline efflorescences: SALT'-BUSH, an
Australian plant of the goose-foot family; SALT'-CAKE, the crude sodium
sulphate occurring as a by-product in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid;
SALT'-CAT, a mixture given as a digestive to pigeons; SALT'ER, one who
salts, or who makes, sells, or deals in salt, as in _Drysalter_: a trout
leaving salt-water to ascend a stream; SAL'TERN, salt-works; SALT'-FOOT, a
large saltcellar marking the boundary between the superior and inferior
guests; SALT'-GAUGE, an instrument for testing the strength of brine;
SALT'-GLAZE, a glaze produced upon ceramic ware by putting common salt in
the kilns after they have been fired.--_adj._ SALT'-GREEN (_Shak._),
sea-green.--_ns._ SALT'-GROUP, a series of rocks containing salt, as the
Onondaga salt-group; SALT'-HOLD'ER, a saltcellar; SALT'-HORSE, salted beef;
SALT'IE, the salt-water fluke or dab; SALT'ING, the act of sprinkling with
salt: the celebration of the Eton 'Montem.'--_adj._ SALT'ISH, somewhat
salt.--_adv._ SALT'ISHLY, so as to be moderately salt.--_ns._ SALT'ISHNESS,
a moderate degree of saltness; SALT'-JUNK, hard salt beef for use at
sea.--_adj._ SALT'LESS, without salt: tasteless.--_n._ SALT'-LICK, a place
to which animals resort for salt.--_adv._ SALT'LY.--_ns._ SALT'-MARSH, land
liable to be overflowed by the sea or the waters of estuaries; SALT'-MARSH
CAT'ERPILLAR, the hairy larva of an arctiid moth; SALT'-MARSH HEN, a
clapper-rail; SALT'-MARSH TERR'APIN, the diamond-backed turtle; SALT'-MINE,
a mine where rock-salt is obtained; SALT'NESS, impregnation with salt;
SALT'-PAN, a pan, basin, or pit where salt is obtained or made; SALT'-PIT,
a pit where salt is obtained; SALT'-RHEUM, a cutaneous eruption; SALTS,
Epsom salt or other salt used as a medicine.--_adj._ SALT'-SLIV'ERED,
slivered and salted, as fish for bait.--_ns._ SALT'-SPOON, a small spoon
for serving salt at table; SALT'-SPRING, a brine-spring; SALT'-WA'TER,
water impregnated with salt, sea-water; SALT'-WORKS, a place where salt is
made; SALT'-WORT, a genus of plants of many species, mostly natives of
salt-marshes and sea-shores, one only being found in Britain, the Prickly
S., which was formerly burned for the soda it yielded.--_adj._ SALT'Y (same
as SALTISH).--SALT A MINE, to deposit ore in it cunningly so as to deceive
persons who inspect it regarding its value; SALT OF LEMON, or SORREL, acid
potassium oxalate, a solvent for ink-stains; SALT OF SODA, sodium
carbonate; SALT OF TARTAR, a commercial name for purified potassium
carbonate; SALT OF VITRIOL, sulphate of zinc; SALT OF WORMWOOD, carbonate
of potash.--ABOVE THE SALT, at the upper half of the table, among the
guests of distinction; ATTIC SALT, wit; BELOW THE SALT, at the lower half
of the table; BE NOT WORTH ONE'S SALT, not to deserve even the salt that
gives relish to one's food; BRONZING SALT, used in burning gun-barrels;
EPSOM SALTS, magnesium sulphate, a cathartic; ESSENTIAL SALTS, those
produced from the juices of plants by crystallisation; GLAUBER'S SALT, or
HORSE SALTS, a well-known cathartic, used in woollen dyeing; LAY SALT ON
THE TAIL OF, to catch; NEUTRAL SALT, a salt in which the acid and the base
neutralise each other; ROCHELLE SALT, sodium potassium tartrate, a
laxative; SPIRITS OF SALT, the old name for muriatic or hydrochloric acid;
TAKE WITH A GRAIN OF SALT, to believe with some reserve. [A.S. _sealt_; cf.
Ger. _salz_, also L. _sal_, Gr. _hals_.]

SALTANT, sal'tant, _adj._ leaping: dancing: (_her._) salient.--_v.i._
SAL'T[=A]TE, to dance.--_n._ SALT[=A]'TION, a leaping or jumping: beating
or palpitation: (_biol._) an abrupt variation.--_n.pl._ SALTAT[=O]'RIA, a
division of orthopterous insects including grass-hoppers, locusts, and
crickets.--_adjs._ SALTAT[=O]'RIAL, SALTAT[=O]'RIOUS; SAL'TATORY, leaping:
dancing: having the power of, or used in, leaping or dancing. [L.
_saltans_, pr.p. of _salt[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, inten. of _sal[=i]re_, to

SALTARELLO, sal-ta-rel'[=o], _n._ a lively Italian dance in triple time,
diversified with skips, for a single couple--also the music for such: an
old form of round dance. [It.,--L. _salt[=a]re_, to dance.]

SALTCELLAR, sawlt'sel-ar, _n._ a small table vessel for holding salt. [For
_salt-sellar_, the last part being O. Fr. _saliere_--L. _salarium_--_sal_,

SALTIERRA, sal-tyer'a, _n._ a saline deposit in the inland lakes of Mexico.
[Sp.,--L. _sal_, salt, _terra_, land.]

SALTIGRADE, sal'ti-gr[=a]d, _adj._ formed for leaping, as certain
insects.--_n._ one of a certain tribe of spiders which leap to seize their
prey. [L. _saltus_, a leap, _gradi_, to go.]

SALTIMBANCO, sal-tim-bangk'[=o], _n._ (_obs._) a mountebank: a quack. [It.]

SALTIRE, SALTIER, sal't[=e]r, _n._ (_her._) an ordinary in the form of a St
Andrew's Cross.--_adj._ SAL'TIERWISE. [O. Fr. _saultoir_, _sautoir_--Low L.
_saltatorium_, a stirrup--L. _salt[=a]re_, to leap.]

SALTPETRE, sawlt-p[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ the commercial name for nitre.--_adj._
SALTP[=E]'TROUS. [O. Fr. _salpestre_--Low L. _salpetra_--L. _sal_, salt,
_petra_, a rock.]

SALTUS, sal'tus, _n._ a break of continuity in time: a leap from premises
to conclusion. [L., a leap.]

SALUBRIOUS, sa-l[=u]'bri-us, _adj._ healthful: wholesome.--_adv._
_salubris_--_salus_, _salutis_, health.]

SALUE, sal-[=u]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to salute.

SALUTARY, sal'[=u]-tar-i, _adj._ belonging to health: promoting health or
safety: wholesome: beneficial.--_n._ SAL[=U]DADOR' (_obs._), a quack who
cures by incantations.--_adv._ SAL'[=U]TARILY, in a salutary manner:
favourably to health.--_n._ SAL'[=U]TARINESS.--_adj._ SAL[=U]TIF'EROUS,
health-bearing.--_adv._ SAL[=U]TIF'EROUSLY. [L. _salutaris_--_salus_,

SALUTE, sal-[=u]t', _v.t._ to address with kind wishes: to greet with a
kiss, a bow, &c.: to honour formally by a discharge of cannon, striking
colours, &c.--_n._ act of saluting: the position of the hand, sword, &c. in
saluting: greeting: a kiss: a complimentary discharge of cannon, dipping
colours, presenting arms, &c., in honour of any one.--_ns._
SAL[=U]T[=A]'TION, act of saluting: that which is said in saluting, any
customary or ceremonious form of address at meeting or at parting, or of
ceremonial on religious or state occasions, including both forms of speech
and gestures: (_obs._) quickening, excitement: the ANGELIC SALUTATION (see
AVE); SAL[=U]TAT[=O]'RIAN, in American colleges, the member of a graduating
class who pronounces the salutatory oration.--_adv._
SAL[=U]'TATORILY.--_adj._ SAL[=U]'TATORY, pertaining to salutation.--_n._ a
sacristy in the early church in which the clergy received the greetings of
the people: an oration in Latin delivered by the student who ranks
second.--_n._ SAL[=U]'TER. [L. _salut[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_salus_,

SALVAGE, sal'v[=a]j, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as SAVAGE.

SALVAGE, sal'v[=a]j, _n._ compensation made by the owner of a ship or cargo
in respect of services rendered by persons, other than the ship's company,
in preserving the ship or cargo from shipwreck, fire, or capture: the goods
and materials so saved.--_n._ SALVABIL'ITY, the possibility or condition of
being saved.--_adj._ SAL'VABLE.--_n._ SAL'VABLENESS.--_adv._ SAL'VABLY.
[Fr.,--L. _salv[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to save.]

SALVATION, sal-v[=a]'shun, _n._ act of saving: means of preservation from
any serious evil: (_theol._) the saving of man from the power and penalty
of sin, the conferring of eternal happiness: (_B._) deliverance from
enemies.--_v.t._ to heal, to cure: to remedy: to redeem: to gloss
organisation for the revival of evangelical religion amongst the masses,
founded by William Booth about 1865, reorganised on the model of a military
force in 1878; SALVATION SALLY, a girl belonging to the Salvation Army.

SALVATORY, sal'va-t[=o]-ri, _n._ (_obs._) a repository: a safe.

SALVE, säv, _n._ (_B._) an ointment: anything to cure sores.--_v.t._ to
heal, help.--_ns._ SALV'ER, a quacksalver, a pretender; SALV'ING, healing,
restoration. [A.S. _sealf_; Ger. _salbe_, Dut. _zalf_.]

SALVE, sal'v[=e], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to salute.--SALVE REGINA (_R.C._), an
antiphonal hymn to the Blessed Virgin said after Lauds and Compline, from
Trinity to Advent--from its opening words. [L. _salve_, God save you, hail!
imper. of _salv[=e]re_, to be well.]

SALVELINUS, sal-ve-l[=i]'nus, _n._ a genus of _Salmonidæ_, the chars.
[Prob. Latinised from Ger. _salbling_, a small salmon.]

SALVER, sal'v[.e]r, _n._ a plate on which anything is presented.--_adj._
SAL'VER-SHAPED, in the form of a salver or tray. [Sp. _salva_, a salver,
_salvar_, to save--Low L. _salv[=a]re_, to save.]

SALVIA, sal'vi-a, _n._ a large genus of gamopetalous Labiate plants,
including the sage.

SALVINIA, sal-vin'i-a, _n._ a genus of heterosporous ferns--formerly called
_Rhizocarpeæ_ or _Pepperworts_.

SALVO, sal'v[=o], _n._ an exception: a reservation. [L., in phrase, _salvo
jure_, one's right being safe.]

SALVO, sal'v[=o], _n._ a military or naval salute with guns: a simultaneous
discharge of artillery: the combined cheers of a multitude:--_pl._ SALVOS
(sal'v[=o]z). [It. _salva_, a salute--L. _salve_, hail!]

SAL-VOLATILE, sal'-vo-lat'i-le. See SAL.

SALVOR, sal'vor, _n._ one who saves a cargo from wreck, fire, &c. [See

SAM, sam, _adv._ (_Spens._) together.--_v.t._ to collect, to curdle milk.
[A.S. _samnian_--_samen_, together.]

SAMARA, s[=a]-mar'a, or sam'-, _n._ a dry indehiscent, usually one-sided
fruit, with a wing, as in the ash, elm, and maple--the last a double
samara.--_adjs._ SAM'ARIFORM; SAM'AROID. [L.]

SAMARE, sa-mär', _n._ an old form of women's long-skirted jacket.

SAMARITAN, sa-mar'i-tan, _adj._ pertaining to _Samaria_ in Palestine.--_n._
an inhabitant of Samaria, esp. one of the despised mixed population planted
therein after the deportation of the Israelites: the language of Samaria,
an archaic Hebrew, or rather Hebrew Aramaic, dialect: a charitable
person--from Luke, x. 30-37.--_n._ SAMAR'ITANISM, charity,
benevolence.--SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH, a recension of the Hebrew Pentateuch,
in use amongst the Samaritans, and accepted by them as alone canonical.

SAMAVEDA, sä-ma-v[=a]'da, _n._ the name of one of the four Vedas. [Sans.]

SAMBO, sam'b[=o], _n._ a negro: properly the child of a mulatto and a
negro. [Sp. _zambo_--L. _scambus_, bow-legged.]

SAMBUCUS, sam-b[=u]'kus, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous trees and shrubs of
the honeysuckle family--the elders. [L.]

SAMBUKE, sam'b[=u]k, _n._ an ancient musical instrument, probably a
harp.--Also SAMB[=U]'CA. [Gr. _sambyk[=e]_--Heb. _sabeka_.]

SAMBUR, sam'bur, _n._ the Indian elk.--Also SAM'BOO. [Hind. _sambre_.]

SAME, s[=a]m, _adv._ (_Spens._). Same as SAM.

SAME, s[=a]m, _adj._ identical: of the like kind or degree: similar:
mentioned before.--_adj._ SAME'LY, unvaried.--_n._ SAME'NESS, the being the
same: tedious monotony.--ALL THE SAME, for all that; AT THE SAME TIME,
still, nevertheless. [A.S. _same_; Goth. _samana_; L. _similis_, like, Gr.

SAMIA, s[=a]'mi-a, _n._ a genus of bombycid moths, belonging to North

SAMIAN, s[=a]'mi-an, _adj._ pertaining to, or from, the island of _Samos_,
in the Greek Archipelago.--_n._ (also S[=A]'MIOT, S[=A]'MIOTE) a native of
Samos.--SAMIAN EARTH, an argillaceous astringent earth; SAMIAN STONE, a
goldsmiths' polishing-stone; SAMIAN WARE, an ancient kind of pottery,
brick-red or black, with lustrous glaze.

SAMIEL, s[=a]'mi-el, _n._ the simoom. [Turk. _samyeli_--Ar. _samm_, poison,
Turk. _yel_, wind.]

SAMISEN, sam'i-sen, _n._ a Japanese guitar.

SAMITE, sam'it, _n._ a kind of heavy silk stuff. [O. Fr. _samit_--Low L.
_examitum_--Gr. _hexamiton_, _hex_, six, _mitos_, thread.]

SAMLET, sam'let, _n._ a parr: a salmon of the first year. [Prob.

SAMMY, sam'i, _v.t._ to moisten skins with water.--_n._ a machine for doing

SAMNITE, sam'n[=i]t, _adj._ and _n._ pertaining to an ancient Sabine people
of central Italy, crushed by the Romans after a long struggle: a Roman
gladiator armed with shield, sleeve on right arm, helmet, shoulder-piece,
and greave.

SAMOAN, sa-m[=o]'an, _adj._ and _n._ pertaining to _Samoa_ in the
Pacific.--SAMOAN DOVE, the tooth-billed pigeon.

SAMOLUS, sam'[=o]-lus, _n._ a genus of herbaceous plants of the primrose
family. [L.]

SAMOSATENIAN, sam-[=o]-sa-t[=e]'ni-an, _n._ a follower of Paul of
_Samosata_, bishop of Antioch, the Socinus of the 3d century.

SAMOTHRACIAN, sam-[=o]-thr[=a]'si-an, _adj._ belonging to the island of
_Samothrace_ in the Ægean Sea.

SAMOVAR, sam'[=o]-vär, _n._ a tea-urn used in Russia, commonly of copper,
the water in it heated by charcoal in a tube extending from top to bottom.
[Russ. _samovar[)u]_, prob. Tartar.]

SAMOYED, sa-m[=o]'yed, _n._ one of a Ural-Altaic race between the Obi and
the Yenisei.--_adj._ SAMOYED'IC.

SAMP, samp, _n._ Indian corn coarsely ground: a kind of hominy, also
porridge made from it.


SAMPAN, sam'pan, _n._ a small boat used in China and Japan.--Also SAN'PAN.
[Chin. _san_, _sam_, three, _pan_, a board.]

SAMPHIRE, sam'f[=i]r, or sam'f[.e]r, _n._ an herb found chiefly on rocky
cliffs near the sea, used in pickles and salads. [Corr. from Fr. _Saint
Pierre_, Saint Peter.]

SAMPI, sam'p[=i], _n._ a character, [sampi] representing a sibilant in
early Greek use, later obsolete except as a numeral sign for 900.

SAMPLE, sam'pl, _n._ a specimen: a part to show the quality of the whole:
an example.--_v.t._ to make up samples of: to place side by side with: to
match: to test by examination.--_ns._ SAM'PLER, one who makes up samples
(in compounds, as _wool-sampler_); SAM'PLE-ROOM, a room where samples are
shown: (_slang_) a grog-shop; SAM'PLE-SCALE, an accurately balanced
lever-scale for weighing ten-thousandths of a pound. [Short for _esample_,
from O. Fr. _essample_--L. _exemplum_, example.]

SAMPLER, sam'pl[.e]r, _n._ a pattern of work: a piece of ornamental
embroidery, worsted-work, &c., containing names, figures, texts, &c.--_n._
SAM'PLARY (_obs._), a pattern, an example. [Formed from L. _exemplar_.]

SAMPSUCHINE, samp-s[=oo]'ch[=e]n, _n._ (_obs._) sweet marjoram.

SAMSHOO, SAMSHU, sam'sh[=oo], _n._ an ardent spirit distilled by the
Chinese from rice: any kind of spirits. [Chin. _san_, _sam_, three, _shao_,
to fire.]

SAMSON-POST, sam'son-p[=o]st, _n._ a strong upright stanchion or post for
various uses on board ship.

SAMURAI, sam'[=oo]-r[=i], _n. sing._ (also _pl._) a member of the military
class in the old feudal system of Japan, including both daimios, or
territorial nobles, and their military retainers: a military retainer, a
two-sworded man. [Jap.]

SAMYDA, sam'i-da, _n._ a genus of shrubs, native to the West Indies. [Gr.
_s[=e]myda_, the birch.]

SANABLE, san'a-bl, _adj._ able to be made sane or sound: curable.--_ns._
SANABIL'ITY, SAN'ABLENESS, capability of being cured; SAN[=A]'TION
(_obs._), a healing or curing.--_adj._ SAN'ATIVE, tending, or able, to
heal: healing.--_ns._ SAN'ATIVENESS; SANAT[=O]'RIUM (see SANITARY).--_adj._
SAN'ATORY, healing: conducive to health. [L. _sanabilis_--_san[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to heal.]

SANBENITO, san-be-n[=e]'t[=o], _n._ a garment grotesquely decorated with
flames, devils, &c., worn by the victims of the Inquisition--at an
_auto-de-fe_--for public recantation or execution. [Sp., from its
resemblance in shape to the garment of the order of _St Benedict_--Sp. _San

SANCHO, sang'k[=o], _n._ a musical instrument like the guitar, used by

SANCHO-PEDRO, sang'k[=o]-p[=e]'dr[=o], _n._ a game of cards--the nine of
trumps called _Sancho_, the five _Pedro_.

SANCTIFY, sangk'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make sacred or holy: to set apart to
sacred use: to free from sin or evil: to consecrate: to invest with a
sacred character: to make efficient as the means of holiness: to secure
from violation:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sanc'tif[=i]ed.--_n._ SANCTANIM'ITY,
holiness of mind.--_v.t._ SANCTIF'IC[=A]TE.--_n._ SANCTIFIC[=A]'TION, act
of sanctifying: state of being sanctified: that work or process of God's
free grace whereby the new principle of spiritual life implanted in
regeneration is developed until the whole man is renewed in the image of
God: consecration.--_adj._ SANC'TIFIED, made holy: sanctimonious.--_adv._
SANCTIF[=I]'EDLY, sanctimoniously.--_n._ SANC'TIFIER, one who sanctifies:
the Holy Spirit.--_adv._ SANC'TIFYINGLY.--_adj._ SANCTIM[=O]'NIOUS, having
sanctity: holy, devout: affecting holiness.--_adv._
devoutness, show of sanctity; SANC'TITUDE, holiness, goodness, saintliness:
affected holiness; SANC'TITY, quality of being sacred or holy: purity:
godliness: inviolability: a saint, any holy object.--_v.t._ SANC'TUARISE
(_Shak._), to shelter by sacred privileges, as in a sanctuary.--_ns._
SANC'T[=U]ARY, a sacred place: a place for the worship of God: the most
sacred part of the Temple of Jerusalem: the Temple itself: the part of a
church round the altar: an inviolable asylum, refuge, a consecrated place
which gives protection to a criminal taking refuge there: the privilege of
taking refuge in such a consecrated place; SANC'TUM, a sacred place: a
private room; SANC'TUS, the ascription, 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of
Hosts,' from Isa. vi.: a musical setting of the same.--SANCTUM SANCTORUM,
the Holy of Holies: any specially reserved retreat or room.--ODOUR OF
SANCTITY, the aroma of goodness. [Fr.,--L. _sanctific[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_sanctus_, sacred, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SANCTION, sangk'shun, _n._ act of ratifying, or giving authority to:
confirmation: support: a decree, a law.--_v.t._ to give validity to: to
authorise: to countenance.--_adjs._ SANC'TIONABLE; SANC'TIONARY. [Fr.,--L.

SAND, sand, _n._ fine particles of crushed or worn rocks, used in founding:
force of character: (_pl._) lands covered with sand: a sandy beach: moments
of time, from the use of sand in the hour-glass.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with
sand.--_ns._ SAND'-BAG (_fort._), a canvas bag filled with sand or earth,
forming a ready means of giving cover against an enemy's fire, or of
tamping the charge in a mine: an engraver's leather cushion, &c.;
SAND'-BAG'GER, a robber who uses a sand-bag to stun his victims;
SAND'-BALL, a ball of soap mixed with fine sand for the toilet; SAND'-BAND,
a guard-ring to keep sand from working into the axle-box; SAND'-BANK, a
bank of sand formed by tides and currents; SAND'-BATH, a vessel of hot sand
for heating vessels without direct exposure to the fire: a bath in which
the body is covered with warm sea-sand: saburration; SAND'-BEAR, the Indian
badger; SAND'-BED, the bed into which the iron from the blast-furnace is
run; SAND'-BIRD, a sandpiper: a shore bird; SAND'-BLAST, sand driven by a
blast of air or steam for cutting and engraving figures on glass or
metal.--_adj._ SAND'-BLIND, afflicted with partial blindness, in which
particles of sand seem to float before the eyes.--_ns._ SAND'-BLIND'NESS;
SAND'-BLOW'ER, a sand bellows; SAND'-BOX, a box with a perforated top for
sprinkling sand on writing, a contrivance formerly used by way of
blotting-paper: a box with sand to prevent the wheels of a rail from
slipping; SAND'-BRAKE, a device for stopping trains automatically;
SAND'-BUG, a burrowing crustacean: a digger-wasp; SAND'-BUR, a weed found
in the plains of the western United States; SAND'-CANAL', the stone canal
of an echinoderm; SAND'-CHERR'Y, the dwarf cherry; SAND'-COCK, the
redshank; SAND'-CRAB, the lady-crab; SAND'-CRACK, a crack in a horse's
hoof: a crack in a moulded brick before burning; SAND'-CRICK'ET, a name
applied to certain large crickets in the western United States; SAND'-DAB,
a kind of plaice; SAND'-DART, a British noctuid moth; SAND'-DART'ER,
-DIV'ER, a small etheostomine fish of the Ohio valley; SAND'-DOLL'AR, a
flat sea-urchin; SAND'-DRIFT, a mound of drifted sand; SAND'-DUNE, a ridge
of loose sand drifted by the wind.--_adj._ SAND'ED (_Shak._), marked with
yellow spots: sprinkled with sand: short-sighted.--_ns._ SAND'-EEL, a small
eel-like fish, which buries itself in the sand when the tide retires;
SAND'ERLING, a genus of birds of the snipe family, characterised by the
absence of a hind-toe, common on the coast, eating marine worms, small
crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs; SAND'-FENCE, a barrier in a stream of
stakes and iron wire; SAND'-FISH, a fish of the genus Trichodon;
SAND'-FLAG, sandstone which splits up into flagstones; SAND'-FLEA, the
chigoe or jigger; SAND'-FLOOD, a moving mass of desert sand;
SAND'-FLOUN'DER, a common North American flounder; SAND'-FLY, a small New
England biting midge; SAND'-GLASS, a glass instrument for measuring time by
the running out of sand; SAND'-GRASS, grass that grows by the sea-shore;
SAND'-GROUSE, a small order of birds, quite distinct from the true grouse,
having two genera, _Pterocles_ and _Syrrhaptes_, with beautiful plumage,
heavy body, long and pointed wings, very short legs and toes; SAND'-HEAT,
the heat of warm sand in chemical operations; SAND'-HILL, a hill of sand;
SAND'-HILL CRANE, the brown crane of North America; SAND'-HILL'ER, one of
the poor whites living in the sandy hills of Georgia; SAND'-HOP'PER, a
small crustacean in the order _Amphipoda_, often seen on the sandy
sea-shore, like swarms of dancing flies, leaping up by bending the body
together, and throwing it out with a sudden jerk: a sand-flea;
SAND'-HORN'ET, a sand-wasp; SAND'INESS, sandy quality, esp. as regards
colour; SAND'ING, the process of testing the surface of gilding, after it
has been fired, with fine sand and water: the process of burying oysters in
sand.--_adj._ SAND'ISH (_obs._).--_ns._ SAND'-JET (see SAND'-BLAST);
SAND'-LARK, a wading-bird that runs along the sand: a sandpiper;
SAND'-LIZ'ARD, a common lizard; SAND'-LOB, the common British lug or lob
worm; SAND'-MAR'TIN, the smallest of British swallows, which builds its
nest in sandy river-banks and gravel-pits; SAND'-M[=A]'SON, a common
British tube-worm; SAND'-MOLE, a South African rodent; SAND'-MOUSE, the
dunlin: a sandpiper; SAND'-NATT'ER, a sand-snake; SAND'-P[=A]'PER, paper
covered with a kind of sand for smoothing and polishing; SAND'-PEEP, the
American stint: the peetweet; SAND'-PERCH, the grass-bass; SAND'PIPER, a
wading-bird of the snipe family, which frequents sandy river-banks,
distinguished by its clear piping note.--_n.pl._ SAND'-PIPES, perpendicular
cylindrical hollows, tapering to a point, occurring in chalk deposits, and
so called from being usually filled with sand, gravel, or clay.--_ns._
SAND'-PIT, a place from which sand is extracted; SAND'-PLOV'ER, a
ring-necked plover; SAND'-PRIDE, a very small species of lamprey found in
the rivers of Britain; SAND'-PUMP, a long cylinder with valved piston for
use in drilling rocks--a SAND'-SLUDG'ER: a sand-ejector, modified from the
jet-pump, used in caissons for sinking the foundations of bridges;
SAND'-RAT, a geomyoid rodent, esp. the camass rat; SAND'-REED, a shore
grass; SAND'-REEL, a windlass used in working a sand-pump; SAND'-RIDGE, a
sand-bank; SAND'-ROLL, a metal roll cast in sand; SAND'-RUN'NER, a
sandpiper; SAND'-SAU'CER, a round mass of agglutinated egg-capsules of a
naticoid gasteropod, found on beaches; SAND'-SCOOP, a dredge for scooping
up sand; SAND'-SCREEN, a sand-sifter; SAND'-SCREW, an amphipod which
burrows in the sand; SAND'-SHARK, a small voracious shark; SAND'-SHOT,
small cast-iron balls cast in sand; SAND'-SHRIMP, a shrimp; SAND'-SKINK, a
European skink found in sandy places; SAND'-SKIP'PER, a beach flea;
SAND'-SNAKE, a short-tailed boa-like serpent; SAND'-SNIPE, the sandpiper;
SAND'-SPOUT, a moving pillar of sand; SAND'STAR, a starfish: a brittle
star; SAND'-STONE, a rock formed of compacted and more or less indurated
sand (OLD RED SANDSTONE, a name given to a series of strata--along with the
parallel but nowhere coexisting _Devonian_--intermediate in age between the
Silurian and Carboniferous systems); SAND'-STORM, a storm of wind carrying
along clouds of sand; SAND'-SUCK'ER, the rough dab; SAND'-THROW'ER, a tool
for throwing sand on newly sized or painted surfaces; SAND'-TRAP, a device
for separating sand from running water; SAND'-V[=I]'PER, a hog-nosed snake;
SAND'-WASHER, an apparatus for separating sand from earthy substances;
SAND'-WASP, a digger-wasp.--_v.t._ SAND'-WELD, to weld iron with
sand.--_ns._ SAND'-WORM, a worm that lives in the sand; SAND'-WORT, any
plant of the genus _Arenaria_.--_adj._ SAND'Y, consisting of, or covered
with, sand: loose: of the colour of sand.--_n._ a nick-name for a Scotsman
(from _Alexander_).--_ns._ SAND'Y-CAR'PET, a geometrid moth;
SAND'Y-LAV'EROCK (_Scot._), a sand-lark. [A.S. _sand_; Dut. _zand_, Ger.
_sand_, Ice. _sand-r_.]

SANDAL, san'dal, _n._ a kind of shoe consisting of a sole bound to the foot
by straps: a loose slipper: a half-boot of white kid: a strap for fastening
a slipper: an india-rubber shoe.--_adj._ SAN'DALLED, wearing sandals:
fastened with such. [Fr.,--L. _sandalium_--Gr. _sandalon_, prob. from

SANDAL, san'dal, _n._ a long narrow boat used on the Barbary coast. [Ar.]

SANDALWOOD, san'dal-w[=oo]d, _n._ a compact and fine-grained tropical wood,
remarkable for its fragrance. [Fr. _sandal_--Low L. _santalum_--Late Gr.

SANDARAC, san'da-rak, _n._ a friable, dry, almost transparent, tasteless,
yellowish-white resin, imported from Mogador, Morocco: red sulphuret of
arsenic--also SAN'DARACH.--_n._ SAN'DARAC-TREE, a native of the mountains
of Morocco. [Fr. _sandaraque_--L. _sandaraca_--Gr. _sandarak[=e]_--Sans.
_sind[=u]ra_, realgar.]

SANDEMANIAN, san-de-m[=a]'ni-an, _n._ a follower of Robert _Sandeman_
(1718-71), a Glassite (q.v.).

SANDIVER, san'di-v[.e]r, _n._ the saline scum which forms on glass during
its first fusion: glass-gall: product of glass-furnaces.--Also SAN'DEVER.
[O. Fr. _suin de verre_, _suint de verre_--_suin_, grease, _de_, of,
_verre_, glass--L. _vitrum_.]

SANDIX, san'diks, _n._ red lead.--Also SAN'DYX. [L.,--Gr. _sandix_,

SANDWICH, sand'wich, _n._ two slices of bread with ham, &c., between, said
to be named from the fourth Earl of _Sandwich_ (1718-92), who had such
brought to him at the gaming-table that he might play on without
stopping.--_v.t._ to lay or place between two layers, to fit tight between
two objects.--_n._ SAND'WICH-MAN, a man who perambulates the streets
between two advertising boards.

SANE, s[=a]n, _adj._ sound in mind or body: healthy: not disordered in
intellect.--_adv._ SANE'LY.--_n._ SANE'-NESS. [L. _sanus_; akin to Gr.
_saos_, _s[=o]s_, sound.]

SANG, sang, _pa.t._ of _sing_.--_n._ a Scotch form of _song_.

SANG, sang, _n._ blood, in heraldic use.--_adj._ SANG'LANT, bloody or
dropping blood.--_n._ SANG-DE-BOEUF, a deep-red colour peculiar to Chinese

SANG, sang, _n._ a Chinese wind-instrument.

SANGAR, sang'gar, _n._ a stone breastwork: a low wall of loose stones, used
as cover for soldiers. [Hindi sangar, war, entrenchment; from the

SANGAREE, sang-ga-r[=e]', _n._ a West Indian beverage, of wine, sugar or
syrup, water, and nutmeg, drunk cold.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make or drink
such. [Sp. _Sangría_.]

SANG-FROID, sang-frwo', _n._ coolness, indifference, calmness. [Fr.,
_sang_, blood, _froid_, cold.]

SANGLIER, sang'li-[.e]r, _n._ (_her._) a wild boar used as a bearing. [Fr.,
orig. _porc sanglier_--Low L. _singularis_ (_porcus_), the wild boar.]

SANGRAAL, san-gr[=a]l', _n._ in medieval legends, the holy cup supposed to
have been used at the Last Supper.--Also SANG'REAL. [Cf. _Grail_.]

SANGRADO, san-grä'do, _n._ one who lets blood--from the leech in _Gil

SANGUINE, sang'gwin, _adj._ abounding with blood, bloody: bloodthirsty:
ruddy, red: ardent, hopeful, confident: characterised by a fullness of
habit.--_n._ the colour of red.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to stain with blood.--_n._
SANG'SUE, a leech--also SANG'UISUGE.--_adjs._ SANGUIC'OLOUS, living in the
blood, as a parasite; SANGUIF'EROUS, receiving and conveying blood,
circulatory.--_ns._ SANGUIFIC[=A]'TION; SAN'GUIFIER.--_adj._ SANGUIF'LUOUS,
flowing with blood.--_v.i._ SAN'GUIFY, to make blood.--_v.t._ to convert
into blood.--_n._ SANGUIN[=A]'RIA, a genus of the poppy family, one
species, the Blood-root or Puccoon of North America, much used by the
Indians for staining.--_adv._ SAN'GUINARILY.--_n._ SAN'GUINARINESS.--_adj._
SAN'GUINARY, bloody: attended with much blood-shed: bloodthirsty.--_n._ the
yarrow: the blood-root.--_adj._ SAN'GUINELESS, destitute of blood.--_adv._
SAN'GUINELY, hopefully, confidently.--_n._ SAN'GUINENESS, sanguine
character, ardour: ruddiness: plethora.--_adj._ SANGUIN'EOUS, sanguine:
resembling or constituting blood.--_ns._ SANGUIN'ITY, sanguineness;
sanguine.--_ns._ SANGUISORB[=A]'CEÆ, SANGUISOR'BEÆ, a sub-order of
_Rosaceæ_, containing about 150 species; SANGUIS[=U]'GA, a genus of
leeches.--_adjs._ SANGUIS[=U]'GENT, SANGUIS[=U]'GOUS, blood-sucking;
SANGUIV'OLENT, bloodthirsty; SANGUIV'OROUS, feeding on blood, as a
vampire--also SANGUINIV'OROUS. [Fr.,--L. _sanguineus_--_sanguis_,
_sanguinis_, blood.]

SANHEDRIM, SANHEDRIN, san'h[=e]-drim, -drin, _n._ the supreme
ecclesiastical and judicial tribunal of the Jews down to 425 A.D.: any
similar assembly, a parliament. [Heb. _sanhedrin_--Gr. _synedrion_--_syn_,
together, _hedra_, a seat.]

SANHITÂ, san'hi-ta, _n._ the name of that portion of the Vedas which
contains the Mantras or hymns.

SANICLE, san'ik'l, _n._ a plant of the genus _Sanicula_, the common
wood-sanicle long supposed to have healing power. [Fr.,--L. _san[=a]re_, to

SANIDINE, san'i-din, _n._ a clear glassy variety of orthoclase. [Gr.
_sanis_, _sanidos_, a board.]

SANIES, s[=a]'ni-[=e]z, _n._ a thin discharge from wounds or sores.--_adj._
S[=A]'NIOUS. [L.]

SANIFY, san'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make healthy. [L. _sanus_, sound,
_fac[)e]re_ to make.]

SANITARY, san'i-tar-i, _adj._ pertaining to, tending, or designed to
promote health.--_n._ SANIT[=A]'RIAN, a promoter of sanitary
reforms.--_adv._ SAN'ITARILY.--_ns._ SAN'ITARY-WARE, coarse-glazed
earthenware for sewer-pipes; SANIT[=A]'TION, the science of sanitary
conditions and of preserving health, synonymous with Hygiene--usually
restricted, however, to the methods and apparatus for making and
maintaining houses healthy; SANIT[=O]'RIUM (incorrectly, SANIT[=A]'RIUM), a
health station, particularly for troops.--SANITARY SCIENCE, such science as
conduces to the preservation of health.

SANITY, san'i-ti, _n._ state of being sane: soundness of mind or body. [L.
_sanitas_--_sanus_, sane.]

SANJAK, san'jak, _n._ an administrative subdivision of a Turkish vilayet or
eyalet.--Also SAN'JAK[=A]TE. [Turk.]

SANK, sangk, _pa.t._ of sink.

SANKHYA, san'kyä, _n._ one of the six great systems of orthodox Hindu

SANNUP, san'up, _n._ the husband of a squaw: a brave.--Also SANN'OP. [Amer.

SANS, sanz, _prep._ (_Shak._) without, wanting.--_n._ SANS'-APPEL', a
person from whose decision there is no appeal.--SANS NOMBRE (_her._),
repeated often, and covering the field; SANS SOUCI, without care: free and
easy. [O. Fr. _sans_, _senz_--L. _sine_, without.]

SANSA, san'sa, _n._ a musical instrument of percussion, a tambourine.

SANSCULOTTE, sanz-k[=oo]-lot', _n._ a name given in scorn, at the beginning
of the French Revolution, by the court party to the democratic party in
SANSCULOT'TIST. [Fr. _sansculotte_, _sans_, without--L. _sine_, without,
_culotte_, breeches, _cul_, breech--L. _culus_, the breech.]

SANSEVIERIA, san-sev-i-[=e]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of monocotyledonous plants
of the order _Hæmodoraceæ_, native to southern Africa and the East Indies,
yielding _bowstring-hemp_. [Named after the Neapolitan Prince of
_Sanseviero_ (1710-71).]

SANSKRIT, sans'krit, _n._ the ancient literary language of India, the
easternmost branch of the great Indo-Germanic (Indo-European, Aryan) stock
of languages.--_n._ SANS'KRITIST, one skilled in Sanskrit. [Sans.
_samskrita_, perfected, polished, from Sans. _sam_, together, _krita_,
done, perfected, from _kri_, cog. with L. _cre[=a]re_, to create.]

SANTA CLAUS, san'ta klawz, _n._ a famous nursery hero, a fat rosy old
fellow who brings presents to good children on Christmas Eve.

SANTALACEÆ, san-ta-l[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n._ an order of apetalous plants, the
sandalwood family.--_adjs._ SANTAL[=A]'CEOUS; SANTAL'IC, pertaining to
sandalwood.--_ns._ SAN'TALIN, the colouring matter of red sandalwood;
SAN'TALUM, the type genus of the sandalwood family.

SANTIR, san't[.e]r, _n._ a variety of dulcimer used in the East.--Also

SANTOLINA, san-t[=o]-l[=i]'na, _n._ a genus of composite plants, of the
Mediterranean region, of tribe _Anthemideæ_, including the common

SANTON, san'ton, _n._ an Eastern dervish or saint. [Sp. _santon_--_santo_,
holy--L. _sanctus_, holy.]

SANTONINE, son'to-nin, _n._ a colourless crystalline poisonous compound
contained in _Santonica_. [Gr. _santonicon_, a wormwood found in the
country of the _Santones_ in Gaul.]

SAP, sap, _n._ the vital juice of plants: (_bot._) the part of the wood
next to the bark: the blood: a simpleton: a plodding student.--_v.i._ to
play the part of a ninny: to be studious.--_ns._ SAP'-BEE'TLE a beetle
which feeds on sap; SAP'-COL'OUR, a vegetable juice inspissated by slow
evaporation, for the use of painters.--_adj._ SAP'FUL, full of sap.--_ns._
SAP'-GREEN, a green colouring matter from the juice of buckthorn berries;
SAP'HEAD, a silly fellow.--_adj._ SAP'LESS, wanting sap: not juicy.--_ns._
SAP'LING, a young tree, so called from being full of sap: a young greyhound
during the year of his birth until the end of the coursing season which
commences in that year; SAP'LING-CUP, an open tankard for drinking new ale;
SAP'PINESS.--_adj._ SAP'PY, abounding with sap: juicy: silly.--_ns._
SAP'-TUBE, a vessel that conveys sap; SAP'-WOOD, the outer part of the
trunk of a tree, next the bark, in which the sap flows most freely:
albumen.--CRUDE SAP, the ascending sap. [A.S. _sæp_; Low Ger. _sapp_,
juice, Ger. _saft_.]

SAP, sap, _v.t._ to destroy by digging underneath: to undermine: to impair
the constitution.--_v.i._ to proceed by undermining:--_pr.p._ sap'ping;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sapped.--_n._ a narrow ditch or trench by which
approach is made from the foremost parallel towards the glacis or
covert-way of a besieged place.--_n._ SAP'PER, one who saps. [O. Fr.
_sappe_--Low L. _sapa_, a pick, prob. from Gr. _skapan[=e]_, a hoe.]

SAPAJOU, sap'a-zh[=oo], _n._ a name sometimes applied to all that division
of American monkeys which have a prehensile tail, and sometimes limited to
those of them which are of a slender form, as the genera _Ateles_ or
spider-monkey, _Cebus_, &c.--Also SAJOU'.

SAPERDA, s[=a]-p[.e]r'da, _n._ a genus of long-horned beetles, mostly
wood-borers. [Gr. _saperd[=e]s_, a fish.]

SAPHENOUS, sa-f[=e]'nus, _adj._ prominent, as a vein of the leg.--_n._
SAPH[=E]'NA, a prominent vein or nerve. [Gr. _saph[=e]n[=e]s_, plain.]

SAPID, sap'id, _adj._ well-tasted: savoury: that affects the taste.--_n._
SAPID'ITY, savouriness.--_adj._ SAP'IDLESS, insipid.--_n._ SAP'IDNESS.
[Fr.,--_L. sapidus_--_sap[)e]re_, to taste.]

SAPIENCE, s[=a]'pi-ens, _n._ discernment: wisdom: knowledge:
reason.--_adjs._ S[=A]'PIENT, wise: discerning: sagacious, sometimes used
ironically; S[=A]PIEN'TIAL.--_adv._ S[=A]'PIENTLY. [L. _sapiens_,
_sapientis_, pr.p. of _sap[)e]re_, to be wise.]

SAPINDUS, s[=a]-pin'dus, _n._ a genus of polypetalous trees, as
_Soapberry_. [L. _sapo Indicus_, Indian soap.]

SAPIUM, s[=a]'pi-um, _n._ a genus of apetalous plants belonging to the
_Euphorbiaceæ_, including the Jamaica milkwood or gum-tree, &c.

SAPI-UTAN, sap'i-[=oo]'tan, _n._ the wild ox of Celebes.--Also
SAP'I-OU'TAN. [Malay, _sapi_, cow, _[=u]t[=a]n_, woods.]

SAPO, s[=a]'p[=o], _n._ the toad-fish. [Sp., a toad.]

SAPODILLA, sap-[=o]-dil'a, _n._ a name given in the West Indies to the
fruit of several species of Achras, the seeds aperient and diuretic, the
pulp subacid and sweet. [Sp. _sapotilla_--_sapota_, the sapota-tree.]

SAPONACEOUS, sap-o-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ soapy: soap-like.--_n._
SAP[=O]N[=A]'RIA, a genus of polypetalous plants, including the
soapwort.--_adj._ SAPON'IF[=I]ABLE.--_n._ SAPONIFIC[=A]'TION, the act or
operation of converting into soap.--_v.t._ SAPON'IFY, to convert into
soap:--_pr.p._ sapon'ifying; _pa.p._ sapon'ified.--_n._ SAP'ONIN, a
vegetable principle, the solution of which froths when shaken, obtained
from soapwort, &c. [L. _sapo_, _saponis_, soap.]

SAPORIFIC, sap-o-rif'ik, _adj._ giving a taste.--_ns._ S[=A]'POR;
SAPOROS'ITY.--_adj._ SAP'[=O]ROUS. [L. _sapor_, _saporis_, taste,
_fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SAPOTACEÆ, sap-o-t[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n._ a natural order of trees and
shrubs, often abounding in milky juice, including the gutta-percha
tree--one species yields the star-apple, another the Mammee-Sapota or
American marmalade. [_Sapodilla._]

SAPPAN-WOOD, sa-pan'-w[=oo]d, _n._ the wood of Cæsalpinia sappan, used in

SAPPER, sap'[.e]r, _n._ a soldier employed in the building of
fortifications, &c.

SAPPHIC, saf'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Sappho_, a passionate Greek lyric
poetess of Lesbos (_c._ 600 B.C.): denoting a kind of verse said to have
been invented by Sappho.--_ns._ SAPPH'IC-STAN'ZA, a metre of Horace, the
stanzas of four verses each, three alike, made up of four trochees, with a
dactyl in the third place; SAPPH'ISM, unnatural passion between women;
SAPPH'[=O], a humming-bird.

SAPPHIRE, saf'[=i]r, or saf'ir, _n._ a highly transparent and brilliant
precious stone, a variety of Corundum, generally of a beautiful blue
colour--the finest found in Ceylon: (_her._) a blue tincture.--_adj._ deep
pure blue.--_n._ SAPPH'IRE-WING, a humming-bird.--_adj._ SAPPH'IRINE, made
of, or like, sapphire.--GREEN SAPPHIRE, the Oriental emerald; RED SAPPHIRE,
the Oriental ruby; VIOLET SAPPHIRE, the Oriental amethyst. [Fr.,--L.
_sapphirus_--Gr. _sappheiros_--Heb. _sapp[=i]r_, sapphire.]

SAPPING, sap'ing, _n._ the act of excavating trenches.

SAPPLES, sap'lz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) soapsuds.

SAPREMIA, sap-r[=e]'mi-a, _n._ a condition of blood-poisoning.--_adjs._
SAPR[=E]'MIC, SAPRÆ'MIC. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _haima_, blood.]

SAPROGENOUS, sap-roj'e-nus, _adj._ engendered in putridity.--Also
SAPROGEN'IC. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _-gen[=e]s_, producing.]

SAPROHARPAGES, sap-r[=o]-här'pa-j[=e]z, _n._ a group of vultures. [Gr.
_sapros_, rotten, _harpax_, a vulture.]

SAPROLEGNIA, sap-r[=o]-leg'ni-a, _n._ a genus of fungi, causing a
destructive salmon-disease. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _legnon_, an edge.]

SAP-ROLLER, sap'-r[=o]l'[.e]r, _n._ a gabion employed by sappers in the

SAPROMYZA, sap-r[=o]-m[=i]'za, _n._ a large group of reddish-yellow flies.
[Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _myzein_, to suck.]

SAPROPHAGOUS, sap-rof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on decaying matter.--_n._
SAPROPH'AGAN, one of the saprophagous beetles. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten,
_phagein_, to eat.]

SAPROPHYTE, sap'r[=o]-f[=i]t, _n._ a plant that feeds upon decaying
vegetable matter.--_adjs._ SAPROPHYT'IC, SAPROPH'ILOUS.--_adv._
SAPROPHYT'ICALLY.--_n._ SAP'ROPHYTISM. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _phyton_, a

SAPROSTOMOUS, sap-ros't[=o]-mus, _adj._ having a foul breath. [Gr.
_sapros_, rotten, _stoma_, mouth.]

SAP-ROT, sap'-rot, _n._ dry-rot in timber.

SAPSAGO, sap's[=a]-g[=o], _n._ a greenish Swiss cheese. [Ger.

SAP-SHIELD, sap'-sh[=e]ld, _n._ a steel plate for shelter to the sapper.

SAP-SUCKER, sap'-suk'[.e]r, _n._ the name in the United States of all the
small spotted woodpeckers.--_adj._ SAP'-SUCK'ING.

SAPUCAIA, sap-[=oo]-k[=i]'a, _n._ a Brazilian tree, whose urn-shaped fruit
contains a number of finely-flavoured oval seeds or nuts.

SAPYGA, s[=a]-p[=i]'ga, _n._ a genus of digger-wasps.

SARABAND, sar'a-band, _n._ a slow Spanish dance, or the music to which it
is danced; a short piece of music, of deliberate character, and with a
peculiar rhythm, in ¾-time, the accent being placed on the second crotchet
of each measure. [Sp. _zarabanda;_ from Pers. _sarband_, a fillet for the

SARACEN, sar'a-sen, _n._ a name variously employed by medieval writers to
designate the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine, the Arabs generally, or
the Arab-Berber races of northern Africa, who conquered Spain and Sicily
and invaded France.--_adjs._ SARACEN'IC, -AL.--_n._ SAR'ACENISM.--SARACENIC
ARCHITECTURE, a general name for Mohammedan architecture. [O. Fr.
_sarracin_, _sarrazin_--Low L. _Saracenus_--Late Gr. _Sarak[=e]nos_--Ar.
_sharkeyn_, eastern people, as opposed to _maghribe_, 'western
people'--i.e. the people of Morocco.]

SARAFAN, sar'a-fan, _n._ a gala-dress. [Russ.]

SARANGOUSTY, sar-an-g[=oo]s'ti, _n._ a material used as a preservative of
walls, &c., from damp.

SARBACAND, sar'ba-känd, _n._ a blow-gun.--Also SAR'BACANE.

SARCASM, sär'kazm, _n._ a bitter sneer: a satirical remark in scorn or
contempt: irony: a gibe.--_adjs._ SARCAS'TIC, -AL, containing sarcasm:
bitterly satirical.--_adv._ SARCAS'TICALLY. [Fr.,--L. _sarcasmus_--Gr.
_sarkasmos_--_sarkazein_, to tear flesh like dogs, to speak
bitterly--_sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh.]

SARCEL, sär'sel, _n._ the pinion of a hawk's wing.--_adjs._ SAR'CELLED
(_her._), cut through the middle--also SAR'CELÉ, SAR'CELLÉE;
DEM'I-SAR'CELED, -SAR'CELLED, partly cut through. [O. Fr. _cercel_--L.
_circellus_, dim. of _circulus_, a circle.]

SARCELLE, sar-sel', _n._ a long-tailed duck, a teal.

SARCENCHYME, sar-seng'k[=i]m, _n._ one of the soft tissues of
sponges.--_adj._ SARCENCHYM'ATOUS. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _enchyma_, an


SARCINA, sar-s[=i]'na, _n._ a genus of schizomycetous fungi, in which the
cocci divide in three planes forming cubical clumps:--_pl._ SARC[=I]'NÆ
(-n[=e]).--_adjs._ SARC[=I]'NÆFORM, SARCIN'IC.--_n._ SARCIN'[=U]LA. [L.
_sarcina_, a package.]

SARCINE, sär'sin, _n._ a nitrogenous substance obtained from the muscular
tissue of the horse, ox, hare, &c.--same as _Hypoxanthine_. [Gr. _sarx_,
_sarkos_, flesh.]

SARCIOPHORUS, sär-si-of'[=o]-rus, _n._ a genus of spur-winged plovers,
including the crested wattled lapwings, &c. [Gr. _sarkion_, a piece of
flesh, _sarx_, flesh, _pherein_, to bear.]

SARCITIS, sar-s[=i]'tis, _n._ myositis. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh.]

SARCOBASIS, sär-kob'a-sis, _n._ a fruit consisting of many dry indehiscent
cells. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _basis_, a base.]

SARCOBATUS, sär-kob'a-tus, _n._ an anomalous genus of North American shrubs
of the goose-foot family--the only species the _greasewood_ of the western
United States. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _batis_, samphire.]

SARCOBLAST, sär'k[=o]-blast, _n._ the germ of sarcode.--_adj._
SARCOBLAS'TIC. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _blastos_, a germ.]

SARCOCARP, sär'k[=o]-karp, _n._ (_bot._) the fleshy part of a drupaceous
pericarp or a stone-fruit. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _karpos_, fruit.]

SARCOCELE, sär'k[=o]-s[=e]l, _n._ a fleshy tumour of the testicle. [Gr.
_sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _k[=e]l[=e]_, tumour.]

SARCOCEPHALUS, sär-k[=o]-sef'-a-lus, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of
the natural order _Rubiaceæ_, native to the tropics of Asia and
Africa--including the _country-fig_, _Guinea peach_, _African cinchona_,
&c. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _kephal[=e]_, the head.]

SARCOCOL, sär'k[=o]-kol, _n._ a semi-transparent resin or gum imported from
Arabia.--_n._ SARC[=O]COL'LA, a genus of apetalous shrubs of the order
_Penæaceæ_, native to South Africa. [Gr., a Persian gum.]

SARCOCYSTIS, sär-k[=o]-sis'tis, _n._ a genus of parasitic sporozoa or
_Gregarinida_, common but apparently harmless in butcher-meat.--_n._
SARCOCYSTID'IA, the division of sporozoa including the foregoing.--_adj._
SARCOCYSTID'IAN. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _kystis_, the bladder.]

SARCODE, sär'k[=o]d, _n._ another term for _protoplasm_.--_n._
SARC[=O]'DES, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of the order
_Monotropeæ_; including the Californian _snow-plant_.--_adjs._ SARCOD'IC,
SAR'CODOUS; SAR'COID, resembling flesh. [Gr. _sarkod[=e]s_, from _sarx_,
flesh, _eidos_, resemblance.]

SARCOLEMMA, sär-k[=o]-lem'a, _n._ a membrane which invests striped muscular
tissue.--_adj._ SARCOLEMM'IC. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _lemma_, a

SARCOLEMUR, sär'k[=o]-l[=e]-mur, _n._ a genus of extinct Eocene mammals
found in North America. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, and _lemur_.]

SARCOLOBE, sär'k[=o]-l[=o]b, _n._ a thick fleshy cotyledon, as of the bean.
[Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _lobos_, a lobe.]

SARCOLOGY, sär-kol'o-ji, _n._ the division of anatomy which treats of the
soft parts of the body.--_adjs._ SARCOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ SARCOL'OGIST. [Gr.
_sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _logos_, discourse.]

SARCOMA, sär-k[=o]'ma, _n._ a tumour or group of tumours, often malignant:
any fleshy excrescence: (_bot._) a fleshy disc:--_pl._ SARC[=O]'MATA.--_n._
SARCOMAT[=O]'SIS, sarcomatous degeneration.--_adj._ SARCOM'ATOUS. [Gr.
_sark[=o]ma_--_sarx_, flesh.]

SARCOPHAGA, sär-kof'a-ga, _n._ a genus of dipterous insects, the
flesh-flies: a former division of marsupials.--_adjs._ SARCOPH'AGAL,
flesh-devouring; SARCOPH'AGOUS, feeding on flesh.--_n._ SARCOPH'AGY.

SARCOPHAGUS, sär-kof'a-gus, _n._ a kind of limestone used by the Greeks for
coffins, and so called because it was thought to consume the flesh of
corpses: any stone receptacle for a corpse: an 18th-century form of
wine-cooler:--_pl._ SARCOPH'AG[=I], SARCOPH'AGUSES. [L.,--Gr.
_sarkophagos_--_sarx_, flesh, _phagein_, eat.]

SARCOPHILUS, sär-kof'i-lus, _n._ a genus of carnivorous marsupials
containing the Tasmanian devil.--_n._ SAR'COPHILE, any animal of this
genus.--_adj._ SARCOPH'ILOUS, fond of flesh. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh,
_philein_, to love.]

SARCOPHYTE, sär-kof'i-t[=e], _n._ a monotypic genus of parasitic and
apetalous plants native to South Africa. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh,
_phyton_, a plant.]

SARCOPSYLLA, sär-kop-sil'a, _n._ a genus of American insects, including the
jigger or chigoe. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _psylla_, a flea.]

SARCOPTES, sär-kop't[=e]z, _n._ the itch-mites.--_adj._ SARCOP'TIC. [Gr.
_sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _koptein_, to cut.]

SARCOSEPTUM, sär-k[=o]-sep'tum, _n._ a soft septum. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_,
flesh, and _septum_.]

SARCOSIS, sär-k[=o]'sis, _n._ flesh formation: a fleshy tumour. [Gr.

SARCOSTEMMA, sär-k[=o]-stem'a, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of the
order _Asclepiadeæ_, native to Africa, Asia, and Australia--including the
_flesh crown-flower_. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh, _stemma_, wreath.]

SARCOSTIGMA, sär-k[=o]-stig'ma, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants of the
order _Olacineæ_--including the _odal-oil plant_. [Gr. _sarx_, flesh,
_stigma_, a point.]

SARCOSTYLE, sär'k[=o]-st[=i]l, _n._ the mass of sarcode in the sarcotheca
of a coelenterate. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _stylos_, a pillar.]

SARCOTHECA, sär-k[=o]-th[=e]'ka, _n._ the cup of a thread-cell: a cnida or
nematophore. [Gr. _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh, _th[=e]k[=e]_, a sheath.]

SARCOTIC, sär-kot'ik, _adj._ causing flesh to grow.--_adj._ SAR'COUS,
fleshy. [Gr. _sark[=o]tikos_--_sarkousthai_, to produce flesh--_sarx_,

SARD, särd, _n._ a variety of quartz, differing from cornelian only in its
very deep-red colour, blood-red by transmitted light.--_n._ SAR'DACH[=A]TE,
a kind of agate containing layers of sard. [Gr. _sardios_ (_lithos_), the
Sardian (stone)--_Sardeis_, Sardis, in Lydia.]

SARDA, sär'da, _n._ a genus of scombroid fishes, the bonitos. [Gr.
_sard[=e]_, a fish.]

SARDEL, SARDELLE, sär'del, _n._ a slender herring-like fish. [O. Fr.
_sardelle_--L. _sarda_.]

SARDINE, sär-d[=e]n', _n._ a small fish of the herring family, abundant
about the island of _Sardinia_, potted with olive-oil for export, the
pilchard: a petty character. [Fr., (It. _sardina_)--L. _sarda_,
_sardina_--Gr. _sard[=e]n[=e]_.]

SARDINE, sär'din, _n._ the same as SARD.--Also SAR'DIUS. [O. Fr.

SARDONIC, sär-don'ik, _adj._ forced, heartless, or bitter, said of a forced
unmirthful laugh--(_obs._) SARD[=O]'NIAN.--_adv._ SARDON'ICALLY. [Fr.
_sardonique_--L. _sardonius_, _sardonicus_--Gr. _sardanios_, referred to
_sardonion_, a plant of Sardinia (Gr. _Sard[=o]_), which was said to screw
up the face of the eater, but more prob. from Gr. _sairein_, to grin.]

SARDONYX, sär'd[=o]-niks, _n._ a variety of onyx consisting of layers of
light-coloured chalcedony alternating with reddish layers of cornelian or
sard: (_her._) a tincture of sanguine colour when the blazoning is done by
precious stones. [Gr. _sardonyx_--_Sardios_, Sardian, _onyx_, a nail.]

SARGASSO, sär-gas'o, _n._ a genus of seaweeds, of which two species are
found floating in immense quantities in some parts of the Atlantic,
Pacific, and Indian Oceans--gulf-weed.--_n._ SARGASS'UM. [Sp.]

SARGUS, sär'gus, _n._ a genus of sparoid fishes of the sub-family SARGI'NA.
[Gr. _sargos_, a mullet.]

SARI, sär'i, _n._ a Hindu woman's chief garment, consisting of a long piece
of silk or cotton cloth wrapped round the middle: any long scarf. [Hind.]

SARIGUE, sa-r[=e]g', _n._ a South American opossum. [Fr.,--Braz.]

SARK, särk, _n._ a shirt or chemise: the body garment. [A.S. _syrce_; Ice.

SARKING, sär'king, _n._ (_Scot._) thin boards for lining, the boarding on
which slates are laid.

SARKINITE, sär'ki-n[=i]t, _n._ a hydrous arseniate of manganese. [Gr.
_sarkinos_, fleshy, _sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh.]

SARLAK, sär'lak, _n._ the yak.--Also SAR'LAC, SAR'LYK.

SARMATIAN, sär-m[=a]'shi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the race who spoke the
same language as the Scythians, and who are believed to have been of Median
descent and so Iranian in stock, though some authorities think they
belonged to the Ural-Altaic family: Polish, the term _Sarmatia_ being
sometimes rhetorically applied to Poland.

SARMATIER, sär-ma-ti-[=a]', _n._ a dark-coloured polecat of eastern Europe.

SARMENT, sär'ment, _n._ (_bot._) a prostrate filiform stem or runner, as of
a strawberry.--_adjs._ SARMEN'TOSE, SARMEN'TOUS, having sarmenta or
runners.--_n._ SARMEN'TUM, a runner. [L. _sarmentum_, a twig--_sarp[)e]re_,
to prune.]

SARN, särn, _n._ a pavement. [W. _sarn_.]

SAROH, sar'[=o], _n._ an Indian musical instrument with three metal

SARONG, sa-rong', _n._ a garment covering the lower half of the body.

SAROS, s[=a]'ros, _n._ a Babylonian numeral=3600: an astronomical cycle of
6585 days and 8 hours.

SAROTHRUM, sa-r[=o]'thrum, _n._ a brush of stiff hairs on the leg of a
bee:--_pl._ SAR[=O]'THRA. [Gr. _sar[=o]tron_, a broom.]

SARPLAR, sär'plär, _n._ (_obs._) packing-cloth: a large bale of wool
containing 2240 pounds.--Also SAR'PLER, SAR'PLIER. [O. Fr.
_serpilliere_--Low L. _serapellinus_--L. _xerampelinæ_ (_vestes_), of the
colour of dead vine-leaves, dark-red (clothes)--Gr. _x[=e]rampelinos_,
_x[=e]ros_, dry, _ampelinos_--_ampelos_, a vine.]

SARRACENIA, sär-a-s[=e]'ni-a, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants--the
_side-saddle flower_, _pitcher-plant_. [Named from Dr _Sarrazin_, who first
sent them to Europe from Quebec.]

SARRASIN, sär'a-sin, _n._ a portcullis.--Also SAR'ASIN.

SARRAZIN, sär'a-zin, _n._ buckwheat--_Saracen_ wheat.

SARRUSOPHONE, sa-rus'[=o]-f[=o]n, _n._ a musical instrument of the oboe
class. [From the inventor, a French bandmaster named _Sarrus_.]

SARSAPARILLA, sär-sa-pa-ril'a, _n._ the dried root of several species of
_Smilax_, native to tropical America, yielding a medicinal decoction.--Also
SAR'SA. [Sp.,--_zarza_, bramble (prob. Basque, _sartzia_), _parilla_, a
dim. of _parra_, a vine.]

SARSEN, sär'sen, _n._ a local name for the old inhabitants who worked the
tin-mines in Cornwall and Devonshire--(the piles of old mining refuse are
called _attal-Sarsen_ and _Jews' leavings_).--Also SARS'DEN-STONE,
SAR'ACEN'S-STONE, a name given to the Greywethers of Cornwall.

SARSENET, särs'net, _n._ a thin tissue of fine silk, plain or twilled, used
for ladies' dresses and for linings, said to have been introduced from the
East in the 13th century.--Also SAR'CENET, SARS'NET. [O. Fr.
_sarcenet_--Low L. _Saracenatus_, and _Saracenicus_ (_pannus_), Saracen
(cloth)--_Saracenus_, _Saracen_.]

SARSIA, sär'si-a, _n._ a genus of jelly-fishes. [Named from Professor
_Sars_ of Christiania.]

SARTAGE, sär't[=a]j, _n._ the clearing of woodland for agricultural
purposes.--_n._ SART, a strip of such.

SARTORIUS, sär-t[=o]'ri-us, _n._ the muscle of the thigh by which the one
leg is thrown across the other.--_n._ SAR'TOR, a tailor.--_adj._
SART[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to a tailor or tailoring. [L. _sartor_, a

SASH, sash, _n._ a band, ribbon, or scarf, worn as a badge or ornament, or
a badge of distinction worn by officers--also _v.t._--_n._ SASH'ERY, sashes
collectively. [Pers. _shast_, a turban.]

SASH, sash, _n._ a case or frame for panes of glass.--_v.t._ to furnish
with sashes.--_ns._ SASH'-DOOR, a door having panes of glass; SASH'-FRAME,
the frame in which the sash of a window is suspended; SASH'-WINDOW, a
glazed window in which the glass is set in a sash.--FRENCH SASH, a casement
swinging on hinges. [Fr. _châsse_--L. _capsa_, a case.]

SASIA, s[=a]'si-a, _n._ a genus of Indian pigmy woodpeckers.

SASIN, sas'in, _n._ the common Indian antelope.

SASINE, s[=a]'sin, _n._ (_Scots law_) the act of giving legal possession of
feudal property, infeftment: a form of seizin. [Fr. _saisine_--_saisir_,

SASS, sas, _n._ (_coll._) impudence: vegetables used in making
sauces.--_v.i._ to be insolent in replies.

SASSABY, sas'a-bi, _n._ the bastard hartebeest of South Africa.

SASSAFRAS, sas'a-fras, _n._ a tree of the laurel family, common in North
America; also the bark of its root, a powerful stimulant.--SASSAFRAS OIL, a
volatile aromatic oil distilled from the sassafras. [Fr. _sassafras_--Sp.
_sasafras_--L. _saxifraga_--_saxum_, a stone, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

SASSANID, sas'a-nid, _n._ one of the Sassanidæ, the dynasty which ruled
Persia from 218 A.D. to 639.--_adj._ SASS[=A]'NIAN.


SASSE, sas, _n._ a sluice on a navigable river. [Dut.]

SASSENACH, sas'e-nah, _n._ a Saxon: an Englishman: a Lowlander. [Gael.

SASSOLIN, sas'[=o]-lin, _n._ native boracic acid--first found near _Sasso_
in Florence.--Also SASS'OLITE.

SASSOROL, sas'[=o]-rol, _n._ the rock-pigeon.--Also SASSOROL'LA.

SAT, sat, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _sit_.

SATAN, s[=a]'tan, _n._ the enemy of men: the devil: the chief of the fallen
angels.--_adjs._ S[=A]TAN'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or like, Satan:
devilish.--_adv._ S[=A]TAN'ICALLY, diabolically: with malice or wickedness
suiting the devil.--_ns._ S[=A]TAN'ICALNESS, the quality of being
fiendishly malicious or wicked; S[=A]'TANISM, the devilish disposition;
S[=A]TANOPH'ANY, an appearance or incarnation of Satan;
S[=A]TANOPH[=O]'BIA, fear of the devil; S[=A]TH'ANAS, Satan; S[=A]TAN'ITY.
[O. Fr. _Sathan_, _Sathanas_--Low L. _Satan_, _Satanas_--Heb.
_s[=a]t[=a]n_, enemy--_s[=a]tan_, to be adverse.]

SATARA, sat'a-ra, _n._ a ribbed, hot-pressed, and lustred woollen cloth.

SATCHEL, sach'el, _n._ a small sack or bag, esp. for papers, books, &c.
[Older form _sachel_--O. Fr. _sachel_--L. _saccellus_, dim. of _saccus_.]

SATE, s[=a]t, _v.t._ to satisfy or give enough: to glut.--_adj._ SATE'LESS,
insatiable. [L. _sati[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_satis_, enough.]

SATE, sat. Same as SAT, _pa.t._ of _sit_.

SATEEN, sa-t[=e]n', _n._ a glossy worsted, cotton, or even woollen
fabric.--Also SATTEEN'.

SATELLITE, sat'el-l[=i]t, _n._ an obsequious follower: one of the small
members of the solar system, attendant on the larger planets, by which
their motions are controlled.--_ns._ SAT'ELLITE-SPHINX, a large hawk-moth;
SAT'ELLITE-VEIN, a vein accompanying an artery; SATELLI'TIUM, an escort.
[Fr.,--L. _satelles_, _satellitis_, an attendant.]

SATIATE, s[=a]'shi-[=a]t, _v.t._ to satisfy or give enough: to gratify
fully: to glut.--_adj._ glutted.--_n._ S[=A]TIABIL'ITY.--_adj._
S[=A]'TIABLE, that may be satiated.--_ns._ S[=A]TI[=A]'TION;
S[=A]T[=I]'ETY, state of being satiated: surfeit. [L. _sati[=a]ra_,
_-[=a]tum_--_satis_, enough.]

SATIN, sat'in, _n._ a closely woven silk with a lustrous and unbroken
surface, sometimes figured.--_adj._ made of satin: resembling
satin.--_v.t._ to make smooth and glossy like satin.--_ns._ SAT'IN-BIRD,
the satin bower-bird; SAT'IN-CAR'PET, a particular kind of moth;
SAT'IN-DAM'ASK, a satin with an elaborate flower or arabesque pattern,
sometimes raised in velvet pile; SAT'IN-DE-LAINE', a thin glossy woollen
fabric, a variety of cassimere; SAT'INET, a thin species of satin: a cloth
with a cotton warp and woollen weft; SAT'INET-LOOM, a loom used for heavy
goods, as twills, satinets, &c.; SAT'IN-FIN'ISH, a finish resembling satin:
a lustrous finish produced on silver by the scratch-brush, by the process
called _Satining_; SAT'INING-MACHINE', a machine for giving a smooth
surface to paper; SAT'IN-LEAF, the common alum-root; SAT'IN-LISSE, a cotton
dress-fabric with satiny surface, usually printed with delicate patterns;
SAT'IN-P[=A]'PER, a fine, glossy writing-paper; SAT'IN-SHEET'ING, twilled
cotton fabric with a satin surface; SAT'IN-SPAR, a variety of calcite with
a pearly lustre when polished; SAT'IN-SPARR'OW, an Australian fly-catcher;
SAT'IN-STITCH, an embroidery stitch, flat or raised, repeated in parallel
lines, giving a satiny appearance and making both sides alike;
SAT'IN-STONE, a fibrous gypsum used by lapidaries; SAT'INWOOD, a beautiful
ornamental wood from East and West Indies, having a smooth, satiny
texture.--_adj._ SAT'INY, like, or composed of, satin. [Fr. _satin_ (It.
_setino_)--Low. L. _setinus_, adj.--L. _seta_, hair.]

SATINÉ, sat-i-n[=a]', _n._ a reddish hard wood of French Guiana.

SATIRE, sat'[=i]r, or sat'ir, _n._ a literary composition, orig. in verse,
essentially a criticism of man and his works, whom it holds up either to
ridicule or scorn--its chief instruments, irony, sarcasm, invective, wit
and humour: an invective poem: severity of remark, denunciation:
ridicule.--_adjs._ SATIR'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or conveying, satire:
sarcastic: abusive.--_adv._ SATIR'ICALLY.--_n._ SATIR'ICALNESS, the state
or quality of being satirical.--_v.t._ SAT'IR[=I]SE, to make the object of
satire: to censure severely.--_n._ SAT'IRIST, a writer of satire. [Fr.,--L.
_satira_, _satura_ (_lanx_, a dish), a full dish, a medley.]

SATISFY, sat'is-f[=i], _v.t._ to give enough to: to supply fully: to please
fully: to discharge: to free from doubt: to convince.--_v.i._ to give
content: to supply fully: to make payment:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
sat'isfied.--_n._ SATISFAC'TION, state of being satisfied: gratification:
comfort: that which satisfies: amends: atonement: payment, quittance:
conviction: repairing a wrong, as by a duel.--_adj._ SATISFAC'TIVE
(_obs._).--_adv._ SATISFAC'TORILY.--_n._ SATISFAC'TORINESS.--_adjs._
SATISFAC'TORY, satisfying: giving contentment: making amends or payment:
atoning: convincing; SATISF[=I]'ABLE, capable of being satisfied.--_n._
SAT'ISF[=I]ER.--_adj._ SAT'ISFYING, satisfactory.--_adv._
SAT'ISFYINGLY.--SATISFACTION THEORY (of the Atonement), the ordinary theory
of Catholic orthodoxy that Christ made satisfaction to Divine justice for
the guilt of human sin by suffering as the human representative, and that
thus Divine forgiveness was made possible. [Fr. _satisfaire_--L.
_satisfac[)e]re_, _satis_, enough, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SATIVE, s[=a]'tiv, _adj._ sown as in a garden. [L. _sativus_--_ser[)e]re_,
to sow.]

SATRAP, s[=a]'trap, or sat'rap, _n._ a Persian viceroy or ruler of one of
the greater provinces:--_fem._ S[=A]'TRAPESS.--_adjs._ SAT'RAPAL, relating
to a satrap or to a satrapy; S[=A]'TRAP-CROWNED, crested, like the
golden-crested wren of North America.--_n._ SAT'RAPY, the government of a
satrap. [Gr. _satrap[=e]s_, from Old Pers. _khshatrap[=a]_ or Zend
_sh[=o]ithra-paiti_--ruler of a region--_sh[=o]ithra_, a region, _paiti_, a

SATURATE, sat'[=u]-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to fill: to unite with till no more can
be received: to fill to excess: to soak: (_opt._) to render pure, or of a
colour free from white light.--_adjs._ SAT'[=U]RABLE, that may be
saturated; SAT'[=U]RANT, saturating; SAT'[=U]RATE, saturated: (_entom._)
very intense, as 'saturate green.'--_ns._ SAT'[=U]R[=A]TER;
SAT[=U]R[=A]'TION, act of saturating: state of being saturated: the state
of a body when quite filled with another. [L. _satur[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_--_satur_, full, akin to _satis_, enough.]

SATURDAY, sat'ur-d[=a], _n._ the seventh or last day of the week, dedicated
by the Romans to Saturn: the Jewish Sabbath. [A.S. _Sæter-dæg_,
_Sætern-dæg_, day of Saturn--L. _Saturnus_.]

SATUREIA, sat-[=u]-r[=e]'i-a, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of the
order _Labiatæ_--savory.

SATURN, sat'urn, or s[=a]'-, _n._ the ancient Roman god of agriculture: one
of the planets: (_her._) a tincture, in colour black.--_n.pl._
SATURN[=A]'LIA, the annual festival in honour of Saturn, a time of
unrestrained license and enjoyment.--_adjs._ SATURN[=A]'LIAN, pertaining to
the Saturnalia: riotously merry: dissolute; SATUR'NIAN, pertaining to
Saturn, whose fabulous reign was called 'the golden age:' happy: pure:
simple: denoting the verse in which the oldest Latin poems were written;
SAT'URNINE, grave: gloomy: phlegmatic--those born under the planet Saturn
being so disposed: pertaining to lead.--_n._ SAT'URNIST (_obs._), a gloomy
person.--SATURN'S RING, a ring round and near the planet; SATURN'S TREE, an
arborescent deposit of lead from a solution of lead acetate.
[_Saturnus_--_ser[)e]re_, _satum_, to sow.]

SATURNIA, s[=a]-tur'ni-a, _n._ a genus of bombycid moths.

SATURNIA, s[=a]-tur'ni-a, _n._ lead poisoning, plumbism.

SATURNITE, sat'ur-n[=i]t, _n._ a mineral substance containing lead.

SATYR, sat'[.e]r, or s[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ a silvan deity, represented as part
man and part goat, and extremely wanton: a very lecherous person: a species
of butterfly.--_ns._ SAT'YRAL (_her._), a monster with a human head and the
limbs of different animals; SATYR[=I]'ASIS, morbid lasciviousness in men,
corresponding to nymphomania in women--also SATYROM[=A]'NIA.--_adjs._
SATYR'IC, -AL, pertaining to satyrs.--_ns._ SATYR[=I]'NÆ, the argus
butterflies; SATYR'IUM, a genus of small flowered orchids; SAT'YRUS, the
genus of orangs--simia. [L. _satyrus_--Gr. _satyros_.]

SAUBA-ANT, saw'ba-ant, _n._ a South American leaf-carrying ant.

SAUCE, saws, _n._ a liquid seasoning for food, consisting of salt, &c.:
fruit stewed with sugar: a relish: impudence.--_v.t._ to put sauce in to
relish: to make poignant: to gratify the palate: to treat with bitter or
pert language: to make suffer.--_ns._ SAUCE'-ALONE', a cruciferous plant
with a strong garlic smell, Jack-by-the-hedge; SAUCE'-BOAT, a vessel with a
spout for holding sauce; SAUCE'-BOX, an impudent person; SAUCE'-CRAY'ON, a
soft, black pastel used for backgrounds; SAUCE'PAN, a pan in which sauce or
any small thing is boiled; SAUCE'PAN-FISH, the king-crab.--POOR MAN'S
SAUCE, hunger; SERVE ONE WITH THE SAME SAUCE, to requite one injury with
another, to make to suffer. [Fr. _sauce_--L. _salsa_, neut. pl. of
_salsus_, pa.p. of _sal[=i]re_, _salsum_, to salt--_sal_, salt.]

SAUCER, saw's[.e]r, _n._ the shallow platter for a tea or coffee cup:
anything resembling a saucer, as a socket of iron for the pivot of a
capstan: (_orig._) a small vessel to hold sauce.--_adj._ SAU'CER-EYED,
having large round eyes. [O. Fr. _saussiere_--Low L. _salsarium_--L.
_salsa_, sauce.]

SAUCH, SAUGH, sawh, _n._ (_Scot._) the willow. [_Sallow_.]

SAUCISSE, s[=o]-s[=e]s', _n._ a bag filled with powder for use in
mines.--Also SAUCISSON'. [Fr.]

SAUCY, saw'si, _adj._ (_comp._ SAU'CIER, _superl._ SAU'CIEST) sharp:
pungent: insolent: overbearing: wanton: impudent, pert.--_adv._
SAU'CILY.--_n._ SAU'CINESS. [_Sauce_.]

SAUER-KRAUT, sour'-krout, _n._ a German dish consisting of cabbage sliced
fine and suffered to ferment in a cask with salt, juniper-berries,
cumin-seed, caraway-seeds, &c. [Ger.]

SAUFGARD, sawf'gärd, _n._ (_Spens._). _Safeguard_.

SAUGER, saw'g[.e]r, _n._ the smaller American pike-fish.

SAUL, a Scotch form of _soul_.

SAULGE, sawlj, _adj._ (_Spens._) sage.

SAULIE, saw'li, _n._ (_Scot._) a hired mourner.--Also SALL'IE.

SAULT, sawlt, _n._ (_obs._) a leap: an assault.

SAULT, s[=o], _n._ a rapid in some Canadian rivers. [Fr.]

SAUNT, a Scotch form of _saint_.

SAUNTER, sawn't[.e]r, _v.i._ to wander about idly: to loiter: to lounge: to
stroll: to dawdle.--_n._ a sauntering: a place for sauntering: a leisurely
ramble.--_ns._ SAUN'TERER; SAUN'TERING.--_adv._ SAUN'TERINGLY. [M. E.
_saunteren_--Anglo-Fr. _sauntrer_, to adventure out. Cf. _Adventure_.
Sometimes erroneously explained as from Fr. _sainte terre_, holy land, from

SAURIAN, saw'ri-an, _n._ a reptile or animal covered with scales, as the
lizard.--_adj._ pertaining to, or of the nature of, a saurian.--_n.pl._
SAU'RIA, a division of reptiles formerly including lizards, crocodiles,
dinosaurians, pterodactyls, &c.: a scaly reptile with legs, a lacertilian:
one of the sauropsida.--_n._ SAURAN'ODON, a genus of toothless reptiles,
whose fossil remains are found in the Rocky Mountains.--_adj._
SAURAN'ODONT.--_ns._ SAURICH'NITE, the fossil track of a saurian;
SAUR'[=O]DON, a genus of fossil fishes of the Cretaceous age.--_adj._
SAUR'OID, resembling the lizard: reptilian.--_n._ SAUROM'ALUS, a genus of
plump lizards, including the alderman-lizard.--_n.pl._ SAUROP'ODA, an order
of lizards containing gigantic dinosaurs.--_adj._ SAUROP'ODOUS.--_n.pl._
SAUROP'SIDA, the monocondyla, including birds and reptiles.--_adj._
SAUROP'SIDAN.--_n.pl._ SAUROPTERYG'IA, an order of fossil saurians, usually
called _Plesiosauria_.--_adj._ SAUROPTERYG'IAN. [Gr. _saura_, _sauros_, the

SAURLESS, sawr'les, _adj._ (_Scot._) savourless: tasteless.

SAUROGNATHÆ, saw-rog'n[=a]-th[=e], _n.pl._ a family of birds containing the
woodpeckers and their allies.--_n._ SAUROG'N[=A]THISM, the peculiar
arrangement of the bones of their palates.--_adj._ SAUROG'N[=A]THOUS. [Gr.
_sauros_, a lizard, gnathos, the jaw.]

SAUROPHAGOUS, saw-rof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on reptiles. [Gr. _sauros_, a
lizard, _phagein_, to eat.]

SAUROTHERINÆ, saw-r[=o]-th[=e]-r[=i]'n[=e], _n.pl._ the ground-cuckoos, a
sub-family of _Cuculidæ_, the typical genus SAUROTH[=E]'RA. [Gr. _sauros_,
a lizard, _th[=e]r_, a beast.]

SAURURÆ, saw-r[=oo]'r[=e], _n.pl._ a sub-class or order of Aves, of
Jurassic age, based upon the genus _Archæopteryx_--also called
SAUROR'NITHES.--_adj._ SAURU'ROUS, lizard-tailed, as the foregoing birds.

SAURURUS, saw-r[=oo]'rus, _n._ a genus of apetalous plants of the order
_Piperaceæ_.--_n.pl._ SAURU'R[=E]Æ, a family of these. [Gr. _sauros_, a
lizard, _oura_, a tail.]

SAURUS, saw'rus, _n._ the genus of lizard-fishes.

SAURY, saw'ri, _n._ the skipper, a species of the family _Scomberesocidæ_,
with elongated body and head, the jaws produced into a sharp beak.

SAUSAGE, saw's[=a]j, _n._ a gut stuffed with chopped meat salted and
seasoned.--_n._ SAU'SAGE-POI'SONING, poisoning by spoiled sausages. [Fr.
_saucisse_--Low L. _salcitia_--L. _salsus_, salted.]

SAUSSUREA, saw-s[=u]'r[=e]-a, _n._ a genus of composite plants of the order
_Cynaroideæ_. [Named after the Swiss botanists, H. B. de _Saussure_
(1740-99), and his son, Nic. Théodore de _Saussure_ (1767-1845).]

SAUSSURITE, saw-s[=u]'r[=i]t, _n._ a fine-grained compact mineral, of
grayish colour.--_adj._ SAUSSURIT'IC.

SAUT, sawt, a Scotch form of _salt_.

SAUTER, s[=o]-t[=a]', _v.t._ to fry lightly and quickly. [Fr.]

SAUTEREAU, s[=o]-te-r[=o]', _n._ the jack or hopper of a pianoforte, &c.

SAUTERELLE, s[=o]-te-rel', _n._ an instrument for tracing angles. [Fr.]

SAUTERNE, s[=o]-t[.e]rn', _n._ an esteemed white wine produced at Sauterne,
in the Gironde, France.

SAUTOIRE, SAUTOIR, s[=o]-twor', _n._ (_her._) a ribbon worn diagonally.

SAUVAGESIA, saw-v[=a]-j[=e]'si-a, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants of
the violet family. [Named from the French botanist P. A. Boissier de la
Croix de _Sauvages_ (1710-95).]

SAUVEGARDE, s[=o]v'gärd, _n._ a monitor-lizard: a safeguard. [Fr.]

SAVAGE, sav'[=a]j, _adj._ wild: uncivilised: fierce: cruel: brutal:
(_her._) nude: naked.--_n._ a human being in a wild state: a brutal,
fierce, or cruel person: a barbarian.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make savage, to
play the savage.--_n._ SAV'AGEDOM, a savage state: savages
collectively.--_adv._ SAV'AGELY.--_ns._ SAV'AGENESS; SAV'AGERY, fierceness:
ferocity: wild growth of plants; SAV'AGISM. [O. Fr. _salvage_--L.
_silvaticus_, pertaining to the woods--_silva_, a wood.]

SAVANNA, SAVANNAH, sa-van'a, _n._ a tract of level land, covered with low
vegetation: a treeless plain.--_ns._ SAVANN'A-FLOW'ER, a genus of the
milk-weed family, West Indies; SAVANN'A-SPARR'OW, the sparrow common
through North America; SAVANN'A-WATT'LE, a name of certain West Indian
trees, also called _Fiddlewood_. [Sp. _savana_, _sabana_, a sheet, a
meadow--Low L. _sabanum_--Gr. _sabanon_, a linen cloth.]

SAVANT, sav-ang', _n._ a learned man. [Fr., pr.p. of _savoir_, to know.]

SAVE, s[=a]v, _v.t._ to bring safe out of evil: to rescue: to reserve: to
spare: to deliver from the power of sin and from its consequences: to
husband: to hoard: to be in time for: to obviate, to prevent something
worse.--_v.i._ to be economical.--_prep._ except.--_adjs._ SAV'ABLE,
SAVE'ABLE.--_ns._ SAV'ABLENESS; SAVE'-ALL, a contrivance intended to save
anything from being wasted.--_v.t._ SAVE'GUARD (_Spens._), to
protect.--_ns._ S[=A]'VER, one who saves; SAVE'-REV'ERENCE, or
_Sir-reverence_, an apologetic phrase in conversation to cover anything
offensive.--_adj._ S[=A]'VING, disposed to save or be economical: incurring
no loss: preserving from wrong: frugal: implying a condition, as a saving
clause: exceptional: (_theol._) securing salvation.--_prep._
excepting.--_n._ that which is saved: (_pl._) earnings.--_adv._
S[=A]'VINGLY, so as to secure salvation.--_ns._ S[=A]'VINGNESS;
S[=A]'VINGS-BANK, a bank for the receipt of small deposits by poor persons,
and their accumulation at compound interest.--SAVE APPEARANCES, to keep up
an appearance of wealth, comfort, or propriety. [Fr. _sauver_--L.
_salv[=a]re_--_salvus_, safe.]

SAVELOY, sav'e-loi, _n._ a kind of sausage made of meat chopped and
seasoned, orig. of brains. [Fr. _cervelat_, _cervelas_, a saveloy--It.
_cervelata_--_cervello_, brain--L. _cerebellum_, dim. of _cerebrum_, the

SAVIGNY, sa-v[=e]'nyi, _n._ a red wine of Burgundy.

SAVIN, SAVINE, sav'in, _n._ a low much-branched and widely-spreading shrub
(_Juniperus Sabina_), with very small imbricated evergreen leaves, its
fresh tops yielding an irritant volatile oil, anthelmintic and
abortifacient: the American red cedar. [O. Fr. _sabine_--L. _sabina_
(_herba_), Sabine herb.]

SAVIOUR, s[=a]'vyur, _n._ one who saves from evil: a deliverer, a title
applied to Jesus Christ, who saves men from the power and penalty of sin.

SAVOIR-FAIRE, sav-wor-f[=a]r', _n._ the faculty of knowing just what to do
and how to do it: tact. [Fr.]

SAVOIR-VIVRE, sav-wor-v[=e]'vr, _n._ good breeding: knowledge of polite
usages. [Fr.]

SAVONETTE, sav-[=o]-net', _n._ a kind of toilet soap: a West Indian tree
whose bark serves as soap.

SAVORY, s[=a]'vor-i, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Labiatæ_,
nearly allied to thyme. The Common Savory gives an aromatic pungent flavour
to viands. [_Savour._]

SAVOUR, SAVOR, s[=a]'vur, _n._ taste: odour: scent: (_B._) reputation:
characteristic property: pleasure.--_v.i._ to have a particular taste or
smell: to be like: to smack.--_v.t._ to smell: to relish: to
season.--_adv._ S[=A]'VOURILY.--_n._ S[=A]'VOURINESS.--_adjs._
S[=A]'VOURLESS, wanting savour; S[=A]'VOURLY, well seasoned: of good taste;
S[=A]'VOURY, having savour or relish: pleasant: with gusto: morally
pleasant. [Fr. _saveur_--L. _sapor_--_sap[)e]re_, to taste.]

SAVOY, sa-voi', _n._ a cultivated winter variety of cabbage, forming a
large close head like the true cabbage, but having wrinkled
leaves--originally from _Savoy_.--_ns._ SAVOY'ARD, a native of Savoy, since
1860 part of France; SAVOY'-MED'LAR, a tree related to the June-berry or

SAVVY, SAVVEY, sav'i, _v.t._ to know: to understand.--_v.i._ to possess
knowledge.--_n._ general ability. [Sp. _sabe_--_saber_, to know--L.
_sap[)e]re_, to be wise.]

SAW, saw, _pa.t._ of _see_.

SAW, saw, _n._ an instrument for cutting, formed of a blade, band, or disc
of thin steel, with a toothed edge.--_v.t._ to cut with a saw.--_v.i._ to
use a saw: to be cut with a saw:--_pa.t._ sawed; _pa.p._ sawed or
sawn.--_ns._ SAW'-BACK, the larva of an American bombycid moth; SAW'-BONES,
a slang name for a surgeon; SAW'DUST, dust or small pieces of wood, &c.,
made in sawing; SAW'ER; SAW'-FILE, a three-cornered file used for
sharpening the teeth of saws; SAW'-FISH, a genus of cartilaginous fishes
distinguished by the prolongation of the snout into a formidable weapon
bordered on each side by sharp teeth; SAW'-FLY, the common name of a number
of hymenopterous insects, injurious to plants; SAW'-FRAME, the frame in
which a saw is set; SAW'-GRASS, a marsh plant of the southern states of the
American Union, with long slender leaves; SAW'-HORN, any insect with
serrate antennæ; SAW'MILL, a mill for sawing timber; SAW'PIT, a pit where
wood is sawed; SAW'-SET, an instrument for turning the teeth of saws
alternately right and left; SAW'-SHARP'ENER, the greater titmouse;
SAW'-T[=A]'BLE, the platform of a sawing-machine; SAW'-TEM'PERING, the
process by which the requisite hardness and elasticity are given to a
saw.--_adj._ SAW'-TOOTHED, having teeth like those of a saw: (_bot._)
having tooth-like notches, as a leaf.--_ns._ SAW'-WHET, the Acadian owl;
SAW'-WHET'TER, the marsh titmouse; SAW'YER, one who saws timber: a stranded
tree in a river in America: any wood-boring larva: the bowfin fish. [A.S.
_saga_; Ger. _säge_.]

SAW, saw, _n._ a saying: a proverb: a degree: a joke. [A.S.
_sagu_--_secgan_, to say.]

SAW, saw, _n._ (_Scot._) salve.

SAWDER, saw'd[.e]r, _n._ flattery, blarney.

SAWNEY, SAWNY, saw'ni, _n._ a Scotchman. [For _Sandy_ from _Alexander_.]

SAX, saks, _n._ a knife, a dagger: a slate-cutter's hammer. [A.S. _seax_, a

SAX, a Scotch form of _six_.

SAXATILE, sak'sa-til, _adj._ rock inhabiting. [L. _saxatilis_--_saxum_, a

SAXE, saks, _n._ (_phot._) a German albuminised paper.

SAXHORN, saks'horn, _n._ a brass wind-instrument having a long winding tube
with bell opening, invented by Antoine or Adolphe _Sax_, of Paris, about

SAXICAVA, sak-sik'a-va, _n._ a genus of bivalve molluscs.--_adj._
SAXIC'AVOUS. [L. _saxum_, a rock, _cavus_, hollow.]

SAXICOLA, sak-sik'[=o]-la, _n._ the stone-chats: the wheat-ear.--_adjs._
SAXIC'[=O]LINE, SAXIC'[=O]LOUS, living among rocks. [L. _saxum_, a rock,
_col[)e]re_, inhabit.]

SAXIFRAGE, sak'si-fr[=a]j, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order
_Saxifrageæ_ or _Saxifragaceæ_, its species chiefly mountain and rock
SAXIF'R[=A]GOUS.--_n._ SAXIF'R[=A]GINE, a gunpowder in which barium nitrate
takes the place of sulphur.--_adj._ SAXIG'ENOUS, growing on rocks.--BURNET
SAXIFRAGE, the _Pimpinella Saxifraga_, whose leaves are eaten as a salad;
GOLDEN SAXIFRAGE, a low half-succulent herb with yellow flowers. [Fr.,--L.
_saxum_, a stone, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

SAXON, saks'un, _n._ one of the people of North Germany who conquered
England in the 5th and 6th centuries: the language of the Saxons: one of
the English race: a native or inhabitant of Saxony in its later German
sense: a Lowlander of Scotland: modern English.--_adj._ pertaining to the
Saxons, their language, country, or architecture.--_n._ SAX'ONDOM, the
Anglo-Saxon world.--_adj._ SAXON'IC.--_v.t._ SAX'ONISE, to impregnate with
Saxon ideas.--_ns._ SAX'ONISM, a Saxon idiom; SAX'ONIST, a Saxon
scholar.--SAXON ARCHITECTURE, a style of building in England before the
Norman Conquest, marked by the peculiar 'long and short' work of the
quoins, the projecting fillets running up the face of the walls and
interlacing like woodwork, and the baluster-like shafts between the
openings of the upper windows resembling the turned woodwork of the period;
SAXON BLUE, a deep liquid blue used in dyeing; SAXON GREEN, a green colour;
SAXON SHORE (_Litus Saxonicum_), in Roman times, the coast districts of
Britain from Brighton northwards to the Wash, peculiarly exposed to the
attacks of the Saxons from across the North Sea, and therefore placed under
the authority of a special officer, the 'Count of the Saxon Shore.' [A.S.
_Seaxe_--_seax_, Old High Ger. _sahs_, a knife, a short sword.]

SAXONY, sak'sni, _n._ a woollen material: flannel.

SAXOPHONE, sak's[=o]-f[=o]n, _n._ a brass wind-instrument, with about
twenty finger-keys, like the clarinet. [_Sax_, the inventor--Gr.
_ph[=o]n[=e]_, the voice.]

SAY, s[=a], _v.t._ to utter in words: to speak: to declare: to state: to
answer: to rehearse: to recite: to take for granted.--_v.i._ to speak: to
relate: to state:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ said (sed).--_n._ something said: a
remark: a speech: a saw.--_ns._ SAY'ER, one who says: a speaker: one who
assays; SAY'ING, something said: an expression: a maxim; SAY'-SO, an
authoritative declaration: a rumour, a mere report.--SAY TO, to think
of.--IT IS SAID, or THEY SAY, it is commonly reputed; IT SAYS, equivalent
to 'it is said;' THAT IS TO SAY, in other words. [A.S. _secgan_ (sægde,
gesægd); Ice. _segja_, Ger. _sagen_.]

SAY, s[=a], _n._ (_Spens._) assay, proof, temper (of a sword): (_Shak._)
taste, relish: a sample: trial by sample.--_v.t._ to assay, to try.--_n._
SAY'MASTER, one who makes proof. [A contr. of _assay_.]

SAY, s[=a], _n._ a thin kind of silk: a kind of woollen stuff.--_adj._
(_Shak._) silken. [O. Fr. _saie_--Low L. _seta_, silk--L. _seta_, a

SAY, s[=a], _n._ (_Scot._) a strainer for milk.

SAYETTE, s[=a]-et', _n._ a kind of serge: a woollen yarn. [Fr. _sayette_,
dim. of _saye_, serge.]

SAYNAY, s[=a]'n[=a], _n._ a lamprey.

SAYON, s[=a]'on, _n._ a medieval peasant's sleeveless jacket. [O.
Fr.,--_saye_, serge.]

SAYORNIS, s[=a]-or'nis, _n._ the pewit fly-catchers. [Thomas _Say_, an
American ornithologist.]

SBIRRO, sbir'r[=o], _n._ an Italian police-officer:--_pl._ SBIRRI
(sbir'r[=e]). [It.]

'SBLOOD, sblud, _interj._ an imprecation. [_God's blood_.]

SCAB, skab, _n._ a crust formed over a sore: a disease of sheep resembling
the mange: a disease of potatoes, or a fungous disease of apples, &c.: a
mean fellow: a workman who refuses to join a trades-union or to take part
in a strike, or who takes the place of a man out on strike.--_v.i._ to heal
over, to cicatrise: to form a new surface by encrustation.--_n._ (_print._)
a scale-board.--_adj._ SCAB'BED, affected or covered with scabs: diseased
with the scab: vile, worthless.--_ns._ SCAB'BEDNESS; SCAB'BINESS.--_adj._
SCAB'BY, scabbed: injured by the attachment of barnacles to the carapace of
a shell: (_print._) of matter that is blotched or uneven.--_n._ SCAB'-MITE,
the itch-mite. [A.S _scæb_ (Dan. _scab_, Ger. _schabe_)--L.
_scabies_--_scab[)e]re_, to scratch.]

SCABBARD, skab'ard, _n._ the case in which the blade of a sword is kept: a
sheath.--_v.t._ to provide with a sheath.--_n._ SCABB'ARD-FISH, a fish of
the family _Lepidopodidæ_. [M. E. _scauberk_, prob. an assumed O. Fr.
_escauberc_--Old High Ger. _scala_, a scale, _bergan_, to protect.]

SCABBLE, skab'l, _v.t._ to hew a stone to a level surface without making it
smooth.--Also SCAPP'LE. [Prob. A.S. _scafan_, to shave.]

SCABELLUM, sk[=a]-bel'um, _n._ an ancient musical appliance, consisting of
plates of metal, &c., fastened to the feet to be struck together. [L., also
_scabillum_, dim. of _scamnum_, a bench.]

SCABERULOUS, sk[=a]-ber'[=u]-lus, _adj._ (_bot._) slightly roughened.

SCABIES, sk[=a]'bi-[=e]z, _n._ the itch. [L.,--_scab[)e]re_, to scratch.]

SCABIOSA, sk[=a]-bi-[=o]'sa, _n._ a genus of herbaceous plants of the
teasel family, as the _Devil's-bit scabious_, the _Sweet scabious_,
&c.--the former long thought efficacious in scaly eruptions.

SCABIOUS, sk[=a]'bi-us, _adj._ scabby: scurfy: itchy.--_n._ SCABRED'ITY,
roughness: ruggedness.--_adj._ SC[=A]'BRID, rough.--_n._ SCABRIT'IES, a
morbid roughness of the inner surface of the eyelid.--_adj._ SC[=A]'BROUS,
rough to the touch, like a file: rugged: covered with little points: harsh:
unmusical.--_n._ SC[=A]'BROUSNESS. [L. _scabiosus_--_scabies_, the itch.]

SCAD, skad, _n._ a carangoid fish, also called _Horse-mackerel_: (_Scot._)
the ray. [Prob. _shad_.]

SCAD, a Scotch form of _scald_.

SCADDLE, skad'l, _adj._ (_prov._) mischievous, hurtful.--_n._ hurt.--Also
SCATH'EL, SKADD'LE. [_Scathe_.]

SCÆAN, s[=e]'an, _adj._ western, from the _Scæan_ gate in Troy. [Gr.
_skaios_, left.]

SCAFF, skaf, _n._ (_Scot._) food of any kind.

SCAFFOLD, skaf'old, _n._ a temporary platform for exhibiting or for
supporting something, and esp. for the execution of a criminal: a
framework.--_v.t._ to furnish with a scaffold: to sustain.--_ns._
SCAFF'OLDAGE (_Shak._), a scaffold, a stage, the gallery of a theatre;
SCAFF'OLDER, a spectator in the gallery: one of the 'gods;' SCAFF'OLDING, a
scaffold of wood for supporting workmen while building: materials for
scaffolds: (_fig._) a frame, framework: disposing of the bodies of the dead
on a scaffold or raised platform, as by the Sioux Indians, &c. [O. Fr.
_escafaut_ (Fr. _échafaud_, It. _catafalco_); from a Romance word, found in
Sp. _catar_, to view--L. _capt[=a]re_, to try to seize, _falco_ (It.
_palco_), a scaffold--Ger. _balke_, a beam. Doublet _catafalque_.]

SCAFF-RAFF, skaf'-raf, _n._ (_Scot._) refuse: riff-raff.

SCAGLIA, skal'ya, _n._ an Italian calcareous rock, corresponding to the
chalk of England.

SCAGLIOLA, skal-y[=o]'la, _n._ a composition made to imitate the more
costly kinds of marble and other ornamental stones.--Also SCAL'IOLA. [It.
_scagliuola_, dim. of _scaglia_, a scale, a chip of marble or stone.]

SCAITH, sk[=a]th, _n._ (_Scot._) damage.--_adj._ SCAITH'LESS. [_Scathe_.]

SCALA, sk[=a]'la, _n._ (_surg._) an instrument for reducing dislocation: a
term applied to any one of the three canals of the cochlea:--_pl._
SC[=A]'LÆ.--_adj._ SC[=A]'LABLE, that may be scaled or climbed.--_ns._
SC[=A]LADE', an assault, as an escalade--also SCALÄ'DO; SC[=A]'LAR
(_math._), in the quaternion analysis, a quantity that has magnitude but
not direction.--_adj._ of the nature of a scalar.--_n.pl._ SCAL[=A]'RIA,
the ladder-shells or wentle-traps.--_adjs._ SC[=A]LAR'IFORM, shaped like a
ladder; SC[=A]'LARY, formed with steps. [L., a ladder.]

SCALAWAG, SCALLAWAG, skal'a-wag, _n._ an undersized animal of little value:
a scamp: a native Southern Republican, as opposed to a carpet-bagger,
during the period of reconstruction after the American Civil War. [From
_Scalloway_ in the Shetland Islands, in allusion to its small cattle.]

SCALD, skawld, _v.t._ to burn with hot liquid: to cook slightly, as fruit,
in hot water or steam: to cleanse thoroughly by rinsing with very hot
water.--_n._ a burn caused by hot liquid.--_ns._ SCALD'ER, one who scalds
vessels: a pot for scalding; SCALD'-FISH, a marine flat fish; SCALD'ING,
things scalded; SCALD'-RAG, a nickname for a dyer.--SCALDING HOT, so hot as
to scald. [O. Fr. _escalder_ (Fr. _échauder_)--Low L. _excald[=a]re_, to
bathe in warm water--_ex_, from, _calidus_, warm, hot.]

SCALD, SKALD, skald, _n._ one of the ancient Scandinavian poets.--_adj._
SCALD'IC, relating to, or composed by, the Scalds. [Ice. _skáld_.]

SCALD, skawld, _n._ scurf on the head.--_adj._ scurfy, paltry, poor.--_ns._
SCALD'BERRY, the blackberry; SCALD'-CROW, the hooded crow; SCALD'-HEAD, a
fungous parasitic disease of the scalp, favus. [_Scall._]

SCALDINO, skal-d[=e]'n[=o], _n._ an Italian earthenware brazier:--_pl._

SCALE, sk[=a]l, _n._ a ladder: series of steps: a graduated measure:
(_mus._) a series of all the tones ascending or descending from the keynote
to its octave, called the gamut: the order of a numeral system: gradation:
proportion: series.--_v.t._ to mount, as by a ladder: to ascend: to draw in
true proportion: to measure logs: to decrease proportionally, as every
part.--_v.i._ to lead up by steps: (_Scot._) to disperse, to spill, to
spread as manure.--_ns._ SCALE'-BOARD (_print._), a thin slip of wood for
extending a page to its true length, making types register, securing
uniformity of margin, &c.; SCALE'-PIPETTE', a tubular pipette with a
graduated scale for taking up definite quantities of liquid;
SCAL'ING-LADD'ER, a ladder used for the escalade of an enemy's fortress: a
fireman's ladder: (_her._) a bearing representing a ladder, with two hooks
and two ferrules. [L. _scala_, a ladder--_scand[)e]re_, to mount.]

SCALE, sk[=a]l, _n._ one of the small, thin plates on a fish or reptile: a
thin layer: a husk: the covering of the leaf-buds of deciduous trees: a
piece of cuticle that is squamous or horny: a flake: an encrustation on the
side of a vessel in which water is heated.--_v.t._ to clear of scales: to
peel off in thin layers.--_v.i._ to come off in thin layers.--_ns._
SCALE'-ARM'OUR, armour consisting of scales of metal overlapping each
other: plate-mail; SCALE'-BACK, a marine worm covered with scales.--_adjs._
SCALE'-BEAR'ING, having scales, as the sea-mice; SCALED, having scales:
covered with scales.--_ns._ SCALE'-DOVE, an American dove having the
plumage marked as with scales; SCALE'-FISH, a dry cured fish, as the
haddock; SCALE'-FOOT, the scabbard-fish; SCALE'-IN'SECT, any insect of the
homopterous family _Coccidæ_.--_adj._ SCALE'LESS, without scales, as the
scaleless amphibians.--_n._ SCALE'-MOSS, certain plants which resemble
moss.--_adj._ SCALE'-PATT'ERN, having a pattern resembling scales.--_ns._
SCALE'-QUAIL, an American quail having scale-like markings of the plumage;
SC[=A]'LER, one who makes a business of scaling fish: an instrument used by
dentists in removing tartar.--_adjs._ SCALE'-TAILED, having scales on the
under side of the tail; SCALE'-WINGED, having the wings covered with minute
scales, as a butterfly.--_ns._ SCALE'-WORK, scales lapping over each other;
SCALE'-WORM, a scale-back: SCAL'INESS, the state of being scaly: roughness;
SCAL'ING, the process of removing scales from a fish, or encrustations from
the interior of a boiler; SCAL'ING-FUR'NACE, a furnace in which plates of
iron are heated for the purpose of scaling them, as in tinning.--_adj._
SCAL'Y, covered with scales: like scales: shabby: (_bot._) formed of
scales. [A.S. _sceale_, _scale_, the scale of a fish; Ger. _schale_,

SCALE, sk[=a]l, _n._ the dish of a balance: a balance, as to turn the
scale--chiefly in _pl._: (_pl._) Libra, one of the signs of the
zodiac.--_v.t._ to weigh, as in scales: to estimate.--_ns._ SCALE'-BEAM,
the beam or lever of a balance; SCALE'-MICROM'ETER, in a telescope, a
graduated scale for measuring distances; SC[=A]L'ING, the process of
adjusting sights to a ship's guns.--BEAM AND SCALES, a balance; GUNTER'S
SCALE, a scale for solving mechanically problems in navigation and
surveying. [A.S. _scále_, a balance; Dut. _schaal_, Ger. _schale_; allied
to preceding word.]

SCALENE, sk[=a]-l[=e]n', _adj._ (_geom._) having three unequal sides;
(_anat._) obliquely situated and unequal-sided.--_n._ a scalene triangle:
one of several triangular muscles.--_ns._ SC[=A]LENOH[=E]'DRON, a pyramidal
form under the rhombohedral system, enclosed by twelve faces, each a
scalene triangle; SC[=A]L[=E]'NUM, a scalene triangle; SC[=A]L[=E]'NUS, a
scalene muscle. [Fr.,--L. _scalenus_--Gr. _skal[=e]nos_, uneven.]

SCALIOLA=_Scagliola_ (q.v.).

SCALL, skawl, _n._ (_B._) a scab: scabbiness: in mining, loose
ground.--_adj._ mean.--_adjs._ SCALLED, SCALD, scabby: mean. [Ice.
_skalli_, bald head.]

SCALLION, skal'yun, _n._ the shallot: the leek: the onion. [L. _Ascalonia_
(_cæpia_), Ascalon (onion).]

SCALLOP, skol'up, _n._ a bivalve having a sub-circular shell with sinuous
radiating ridges: one of a series of curves in the edge of anything: a
shallow dish in which oysters, &c., are cooked, baked, and browned.--_v.t._
to cut the edge or border into scallops or curves: to cook in a scallop
with crumbs of bread, &c.--_p.adj._ SCALL'OPED, having the edge or border
cut into scallops or curves.--_ns._ SCALL'OP MOTH, a name applied to
several geometrid moths; SCALL'OP-SHELL, a scallop, or the shell of one,
the badge of a pilgrim. [O. Fr. _escalope_--Old Dut. _schelpe_, a shell;
cf. Ger. _schelfe_, a husk.]

SCALMA, skal'ma, _n._ a disease of horses. [Old High Ger. _scalmo_,
pestilence; cf. _Schelm_.]

SCALOPS, sk[=a]'lops, _n._ a genus of American shrew-moles. [Gr. _skalops_,
a mole--_skallein_, to dig.]

SCALP, skalp, _n._ the outer covering of the skull or brain-case, including
the skin, the expanded tendon of the occipito-frontalis muscle, with
intermediate cellular tissue and blood-vessels: the skin on which the hair
grows: the skin of the top of the head, together with the hair, torn off as
a token of victory by the North American Indians: the skin of the head of a
noxious wild animal: (_her._) the skin of the head of a stag with the horns
attached: a bed of oysters or mussels (Scot. _Scaup_).--_v.t._ to cut the
scalp from: to flay: to lay bare: to deprive of grass: to sell at less than
recognised rates: to destroy the political influence of.--_ns._ SCAL'PER,
one who scalps; a machine for removing the ends of grain, as wheat or rye,
or for separating the different grades of broken wheat, semolina, &c.: one
who buys and sells railroad tickets, &c., at less than the official rates,
a ticket-broker: an instrument used by surgeons for scraping carious bones
(also SCAL'PING-[=I]'RON); SCAL'PING-KNIFE, a knife, formerly a sharp
stone, used by the Indians of North America for scalping their enemies;
SCAL'PING-TUFT, a scalp-lock.--_adj._ SCALP'LESS, having no scalp,
bald.--_n._ SCALP'-LOCK, a long tuft of hair left by the North American
Indians as a challenge. [Old Dut. _schelpe_, a shell; cf. Ger. _schelfe_, a
husk; a doublet of _scallop_.]

SCALPEL, skalp'el, _n._ a small surgical knife for dissecting and
operating.--_n._ SCALPEL'LUM, one of the four filamentous organs in the
proboscis of hemipterous insects:--_pl._ SCALPEL'LA.--_adj._ SCAL'PRIFORM,
chisel-shaped, specifically said of the incisor teeth of rodents. [L.
_scalpellum_, dim. of _scalprum_, a knife--_scalp[)e]re_, to cut.]

SCAMBLE, skam'bl, _v.i._ (_obs._) to scramble: to sprawl.--_v.t._ to
mangle: to squander.--_ns._ SCAM'BLER, a meal-time visitor; SCAM'BLING, a
hasty meal.--_n.pl._ SCAM'BLING-DAYS, days in which meat is scarce.--_adv._
SCAM'BLINGLY, strugglingly. [Ety. dub.; prob. related to _shamble_.]

SCAMEL, SCAMMEL, skam'el, _n._ a bar-tailed godwit.

SCAMILLUS, sk[=a]-mil'us, _n._ a second plinth under a column:--_pl._
SCAMILL'I ([=i]). [L.]

SCAMMONY, skam'o-ni, _n._ a cathartic gum-resin obtained from a species of
convolvulus in Asia Minor.--_adj._ SCAMM[=O]'NIATE, made with scammony.
[Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _skamm[=o]nia_; prob. Persian.]

SCAMP, skamp, _n._ a vagabond: a mean fellow.--_v.i._ SCAM'PER, to run with
speed and trepidation.--_n._ a rapid run.--_adj._ SCAM'PISH, rascally. [O.
Fr. _escamper_, to flee--It. _scampare_, to escape--L. _ex_, out, campus, a

SCAMP, skamp, _v.t._ to do work in a dishonest manner without
thoroughness--also SKIMP.--_n._ SCAM'PER. [Prob. Ice. _skamta_, to dole
out, to stint.]

SCAN, skan, _v.t._ to count the feet in a verse: to examine carefully: to
scrutinise.--_v.i._ to agree with the rules of metre:--_pr.p._ scan'ning;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ scanned.--_ns._ SCAN'NING; SCAN'SION, act of counting
the measures in a verse. [Fr. _scander_, to scan--L. _scand[)e]re_,
_scansum_, to climb.]

SCAND, skand, _pa.t._ of _v.i._ (_Spens._) climbed.

SCANDAL, skan'dal, _n._ something said which is false and injurious to
reputation: disgrace: opprobrious censure.--_v.t._ to defame, to
aspire.--_ns._ SCAN'DAL-BEAR'ER, a propagator of malicious gossip;
SCANDALIS[=A]'TION, defamation.--_v.t._ SCAN'DALISE, to give scandal or
offence to: to shock: to reproach: to disgrace: to libel.--_n._
SCAN'DAL-MONG'ER, one who deals in defamatory reports.--_adj._ SCAN'DALOUS,
giving scandal or offence: calling forth condemnation: openly vile:
defamatory.--_adv._ SCAN'DALOUSLY.--_ns._ SCAN'DALOUSNESS;
SCAN'DALUM-MAGN[=A]'TUM, speaking slanderously of high personages, abbrev.
_Scan. Mag._ [Fr. _scandale_--L. _scandalum_--Gr. _skandalon_, a

SCANDALISE, skan'da-l[=i]z, _v.t._ to trice up the tack of the spanker in a
square-rigged vessel, or the mainsail in a fore-and-aft rigged one.

SCANDENT, skan'dent, _adj._ climbing, as a tendril.

SCANDINAVIAN, skan-di-n[=a]'vi-an, _adj._ of _Scandinavia_, the peninsula
divided into Norway and Sweden, but, in a historical sense, applying also
to Denmark and Iceland.--_n._ a native of Scandinavia. [L. _Scandinavia_,

SCANDIUM, skan'di-um, _n._ an element discovered in 1879 in the
Scandinavian mineral euxenite.

SCANDIX, skan'diks, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous plants, including
shepherd's purse, Venus's comb, &c. [L.,--Gr., chervil.]


SCANSORES, skan-s[=o]'r[=e]z, _n.pl._ an old order of birds generally
characterised by having two toes before opposed by two behind, by which
they are enabled to climb.--_adj._ SCANS[=O]'RIAL, habitually climbing, as
a bird: formed for climbing.--_n._ SCANS[=O]'RIUS, a muscle passing from
the ilium to the femur in some vertebrata. [Low L., pl. of _scansor_,
_scansoris_, a climber--L. _scand[)e]re_, _scansum_, to climb.]

SCANT, skant, _adj._ not full or plentiful; scarcely sufficient:
deficient.--_n._ scarcity: lack.--_adv._ scarcely: scantily.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ to limit: to stint: to begrudge.--_adv._ SCAN'TILY.--_ns._
SCAN'TINESS; SCAN'-TITY (_obs._).--_adv._ SCANT'LY, not fully or
sufficiently, scarcely: narrowly: penuriously: scantily.--_ns._ SCANT'NESS,
the condition or quality of being scant: smallness: insufficiency;
SCANT'-OF-GRACE, a good-for-nothing fellow: a scapegrace.--_adj._ SCANT'Y,
scant, not copious or full: hardly sufficient: wanting extent: narrow:
small. [Ice. _skamt_, short, narrow, neut. of _skammr_, short.]

SCANTLE, skan'tl, _v.t._ to divide into pieces: to partition.--_ns._
SCANT'LET, a small pattern; SCANT'LING, a little piece: a piece or quantity
cut for a particular purpose: a certain proportion.--SCANTLING NUMBER, a
number computed from the known dimensions of a ship. [O. Fr.
_eschantillon_, a small cantle, _escanteler_, to break into
cantles--_es_--L. _ex_, out, _cantel_, _chantel_, a cantle.]

SCANTLE, skan'tl, _v.i._ to fail: to be deficient.--_n._ a gauge by which
slates are measured. [Prob. _scant_.]

SCAPANUS, skap'a-nus, _n._ a genus of North American shrew-moles. [Gr.
_skapan[=e]_, a mattock.]

SCAPE, sk[=a]p, _n._ an escape: a freak or fault.--_v.t._ to escape from:
to miss: to shun.--_ns._ SCAPE'GALLOWS, one who deserves hanging: a
villain; SCAPE'GRACE, a graceless hare-brained fellow. [A contr. of

SCAPE, sk[=a]p, _n._ (_bot._) a long, naked, radical peduncle: (_entom._)
the basal joint of antennæ: (_ornith._) the stem of a feather: (_archit._)
the shaft of a column.--_adjs._ SCAPE'LESS (_bot._), wanting a scape;
SCAP'IFORM, scape-like; SCAPIG'EROUS, scape-bearing. [L., _scapus_, Gr.
_skapos_, a shaft; cf. _sk[=e]ptron_, a staff.]

SCAPE, sk[=a]p, _n._ the cry of the snipe when flushed: the snipe itself.
[Prob. imit.]

SCAPEGOAT, sk[=a]p'g[=o]t, _n._ a goat on which, once a year, the Jewish
high-priest laid symbolically the sins of the people, and which was then
allowed to escape into the wilderness (Levit. xvi.): one who is made to
bear the misdeeds of another. [_Escape_ and _goat_.]

SCAPEMENT, sk[=a]p'ment, _n._ the same as ESCAPEMENT.--_n._ SCAPE'-WHEEL,
the wheel which drives the pendulum of a clock. [_Escapement_.]

SCAPHA, sk[=a]'fa, _n._ the scaphoid fossa of the helix of the ear. [L., a

SCAPHANDER, sk[=a]-fan'd[.e]r, _n._ a diver's water-tight suit; a genus of
gasteropods. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a boat, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

SCAPHARCA, sk[=a]-far'ka, _n._ a genus of bivalve molluscs. [L. _scapha_, a

SCAPHIDIUM, sk[=a]-fid'i-um, _n._ a genus of clavicorn beetles. [Gr.
_skaphidion_, dim. of _skaph[=e]_, a skiff.]

SCAPHIOPOD, skaf'i-[=o]-pod, _adj._ spade-footed.--_n._ a spade-footed
toad. [Gr. _skaphion_, a spade, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

SCAPHIRHYNCHUS, skaf-i-ring'kus, _n._ a genus of tyrant-flycatchers: the
shovel-heads or shovel-nosed sturgeons. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a skiff,
_rhyngchos_, snout.]

SCAPHISM, skaf'izm, _n._ a Persian punishment by which the victim was
fastened in a hollow tree, and smeared over with honey to attract wasps,
&c. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, anything hollowed out.]

SCAPHITES, sk[=a]-f[=i]'tez, _n._ a genus of fossil cephalopods of the
ammonite family. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a boat.]

SCAPHIUM, sk[=a]'fi-um, _n._ the keel of papilionaceous flowers: a genus of
coleopterous insects. [L.,--Gr. _skaphion_, a basin.]

SCAPHOCEPHALIC, skaf-[=o]-se-fal'ik, _adj._ boat-shaped, a term applied to
a certain kind of deformed skull. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a boat, _kephal[=e]_, a

SCAPHOID, skaf'oid, _adj._ boat-like in form, noting two bones, one in the
wrist and the other in the foot. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a boat, _eidos_, form.]

SCAPHOPOD, skaf'[=o]-pod, _adj._ having the foot fitted for burrowing, as a
mollusc. [Gr. _skaph[=e]_, a boat, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

SCAPINADE, skap-i-n[=a]d', _n._ a process of trickery--from the name of the
tricky valet in Molière's comedy, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_.

SCAP-NET, skap'-net, _n._ a net for catching minnows, &c. [Same as

SCAPOLITE, skap'[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a silicate of alumina and lime, occurring
in long rod-like crystals. [Gr. _skapos_, a rod, _lithos_, a stone.]

SCAPPLE, skap'l, _v.t._ to work without finishing, as stone before leaving
the quarry. [_Scabble_.]

SCAPULA, skap'[=u]-la, _n._ the shoulder-blade.--_adj._ SCAP'[=U]LAR,
pertaining to the shoulder.--_n._ a bandage for the shoulder-blade:
(_ornith._) the shoulder feathers: a long strip of cloth worn by some
orders: two little pieces of cloth tied together by strings passing over
the shoulders, worn by lay persons in token of devotion: a short cloak with
a hood, a monastic working dress.--_adj._ SCAP'[=U]LARY, in form like a
scapular.--_n._ a scapular.--_adj._ SCAP'[=U]LATED, having the scapular
feathers notable in size or colour, as the scapulated crow.--_n._
SCAP'[=U]LIMANCY. divination by means of shoulder-blades.--_adj._
SCAPULIMAN'TIC. [L. _scapulæ_, the shoulder-blades, prob. cog. with
_scapus_, a shaft.]

SCAPUS, sk[=a]'pus, _n._ (_archit._) the shaft of a column: (_ornith._) the
scape of a feather: a genus of Coelenterates:--_pl._ SC[=A]'PI ([=i]). [L.,
a shaft.]

SCAR, skär, _n._ the mark left by a wound or sore: any mark or blemish: a
cicatrice: (_fig._) any mark resulting from injury, material or moral:
(_bot._) a mark on a stem after the fall of a leaf: in shells, an
impression left by the insertion of a muscle: in founding, an imperfect
place in a casting: a disfigurement.--_v.t._ to mark with a scar.--_v.i._
to become scarred:--_pr.p._ scar'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
scarred.--_adjs._ SCAR'LESS, without scars: unwounded; SCARRED. [O. Fr.
_escare_--L. _eschara_--Gr. _eschara_, a scar produced by burning.]

SCAR, skär, _n._ a precipitous bank or rock: a bare rocky place on the side
of a hill.--_n._ SCAR'-LIME'STONE, a mass of calcareous rock crowded with
marine fossils. [Scand., Ice. _sker_--_skera_, to cut.]

SCARAB, skar'ab, _n._ an insect with wing-sheaths, a beetle: a gem, usually
emerald, cut in the form of a beetle--also SCARABÆ'US, SCAR'ABEE.--_n._
SCAR'ABOID, an imitation scarab.--_adj._ like a scarab. [L. _scarabæus_;
Gr. _karabos_.]

SCARAMOUCH, skar'a-mowch, _n._ a buffoon: a bragging, cowardly fellow.
[Fr.,--It. _Scaramuccia_, a famous Italian zany of the 17th century.]

SCARBROITE, skär'br[=o]-[=i]t, _n._ a hydrous silicate of aluminium--from

SCARCE, sk[=a]rs, _adj._ not plentiful: not equal to the demand: rare: not
common: parsimonious: deficient: short: scanty.--_adj._ SCARCE'-BEARD'ED
(_Shak._), having a scanty beard.--_adv._ SCARCE'LY, SCARCE (_B._), hardly,
barely.--_ns._ SCARCE'MENT (_archit._), a plain set-off or projection in a
wall; SCARCE'NESS; SCARC'ITY, state of being scarce: deficiency: rareness:
niggardliness: want: famine.--MAKE ONE'S SELF SCARCE, to decamp. [O. Fr.
_escars_ (Fr. _échars_), niggardly--Low L. _scarpsus_=_ex-carpsus_, for L.
_excerptus_, pa.p. of _excerp[=e]re_--_ex_, out of, _carp[=e]re_, to pick.]

SCARD, skärd, _n._ a shard or fragment.

SCARDAFELLA, skär-da-fel'a, _n._ an American genus containing the

SCARE, sk[=a]r, _v.t._ to drive away by frightening: to strike with sudden
terror: to startle, to affright.--_n._ an imaginary alarm: a sudden
panic.--_adj._ lean, scanty.--_ns._ SCARE'-BABE, a bugbear; SCARE'-BUG;
SCARE'CROW, anything set up to scare away crows or other birds: a vain
cause of terror: a person meanly clad: the black tern; SCARE'-FIRE, a
fire-alarm: a conflagration. [M. E. _skerren_--_skerre_, frightened--Ice.
_skjarr_, timid.]

SCARF, skärf, _n._ a light decorative piece of dress worn loosely on the
shoulders or as a band about the neck: a light handkerchief for the neck: a
cravat:--_pl._ SCARFS, SCARVES (_obs._).--_v.t._ to cover, as if with a
scarf.--_adj._ SCARFED, decorated with pendants.--_ns._ SCARF'-PIN, an
ornamental pin worn in a scarf; SCARF'-RING, an ornamental ring through
which the ends or a scarf are drawn. [A.S. _scearfe_, a piece; Dut.
_scherf_, a shred.]

SCARF, skärf, _v.t._ to join two pieces of timber endwise, so that they may
appear to be used as one: to flay the skin from a whale.--_n._ in
carpentry, a joint whose ends are united so as to form a continuous
piece.--_ns._ SCAR'FING; SCARF'ING-MACHINE', a machine for shaving the ends
of leather belting to a feather edge; SCARF'-JOINT, a joint made by
overlapping two pieces of timber that will fit each other; SCARF'-LOOM, a
figure loom for weaving fabrics. [Scand., Sw. _skarf_, Norw. _skarv_, a
joint; cf. Ger. _scherben_, to cut small; conn. with _shear_, v.]

SCARF, skärf, _n._ the cormorant--(_Scot._) SCART, SKART. [Ice. _skarfr_.]

SCARFSKIN, skärf'skin, _n._ the surface skin. [_Scurf_.]

SCARIDÆ, skar'i-d[=e], _n.pl._ a family of fishes including the
parrot-fish.--Also SC[=A]'RUS. [Gr. _skaros_.]

SCARIFY, skar'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to scratch or slightly cut the skin, to make
small cuts with a lancet, so as to draw blood: to loosen and stir together
the soil: to harrow the feelings:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
scar'if[=i]ed.--_ns._ SCARIFIC[=A]'TION, act of scarifying;
SCARIFIC[=A]'TOR, an instrument with several lancets for scarifying or
making slight incisions in the operation of cupping; SCAR'IFIER, one who
scarifies: an instrument used for scarifying the soil, esp. a grubber with
prongs. [Fr. _scarifier_--L. _scarific[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--Gr.
_skariphasthai_--skariphos, an etching tool.]

SCARIOUS, sk[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ (_bot._) thin, dry, membranaceous: (_zool._)
scaly, scurfy.

SCARITID, skär'i-tid, _adj._ pertaining to carabid beetles of _Scarites_ or
related genera.

SCARLATINA, skär-la-t[=e]'na, _n._ a dangerous and highly-contagious fever,
so named from the scarlet rash or eruption which accompanies it--also

SCARLET, skär'let, _n._ a bright-red colour: scarlet cloth.--_adj._ of the
colour called scarlet: dressed in scarlet.--_v.t._ to redden.--_ns._
SCAR'LET-AD'MIRAL, the red-admiral, a butterfly; SCAR'LET-BEAN, the
scarlet-runner; SCAR'LET-F[=E]'VER, a contagious febrile disease (see
scarlet lychnis: the red valerian; SCAR'LET-RUN'NER, a bean with scarlet
flowers which runs up any support; SCAR'LET-SNAKE, a bright-red harmless
snake of the southern states of the American Union; SCAR'LET-T[=I]'GER, a
British moth; SCAR'LET-WOM'AN, the woman referred to in Rev. xvii. 4,
5--Pagan Rome, Papal Rome, or a personification of the World in its
anti-Christian sense. [O. Fr. _escarlate_ (Fr. _écarlate_), through Low L.
_scarlatum_--Pers. _saqal[=a]t_, scarlet cloth.]

SCARMAGE, skär'm[=a]j, _n._ (_Spens._) same as Skirmish.--Also SCAR'MOGE.

SCARN-BEE, skärn'-b[=e], _n._ (prov.) a dung-beetle. [Sharn.]

SCARP, skärp, _n._ (_her._) a diminutive of the bend sinister, half its
width: (_obs._) a shoulder-belt. [O. Fr. _escarpe_, escharpe: cf. _Scarf_

SCARP, skärp, _n._ (_fort._) any steep slope (same as Escarp).--_v.t._ to
cut down a slope so as to render it impassable.--_adj._ SCARPED. [O. Fr.
_escarpe_--It. _scarpa_--Old High Ger. _scharf_; cf. _Sharp_.]

SCARPINES, skär'pinz, _n.pl._ an instrument of torture resembling the boot.
[Fr. _escarpins_, shoes.]

SCARRED, skärd, _adj._ marked by scars.--_n._ SCAR'RING, a scar: a
mark.--_adj._ SCAR'RY, bearing or pertaining to scars: having scars.

SCART, skärt, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to scratch: to scrape.--_n._ a slight wound:
a dash or stroke: a niggard: a poor-looking creature.--_adj._ SCART'-FREE.

SCARUS, sk[=a]'rus, _n._ a genus of fishes including the parrot-wrasses.

SCARY, sk[=a]r'i, _adj._ causing fright: timid: fluttered.

SCAT, SCATT, skat, _n._ a tax in the Shetland Islands.--_ns._ SCAT'HOLD,
open ground for pasture; SCAT'LAND, land which paid duty for rights of
pasture and peat. [A.S. _sceat_, a coin; Dut. _schat_, Ger. _schatz_.]

SCAT, skat, _interj._ be off!--_v.t._ to scare away.

SCAT, skat, _n._ (_prov._) a brisk shower of rain.--_adj._ SCAT'TY,
showery. [Prob. conn. with _scud_.]

SCATCH, skach, _n._ a bit for bridles. [Fr. _escache_.]

SCATCHES, skach'ez, _n.pl._ stilts used for walking in dirty places. [O.
Fr. _eschace_--Old Flem. _schætse_, a high shoe; Dut. _schaats_, pl.
_schaatsen_, skates.]

SCATE. Same as _Skate_, a fish.

SCATH, SCATHE, sk[=a]th, _n._ damage, injury: waste.--_v.t._ to
injure.--_adj._ SCATHE'FUL, destructive.--_n._ SCATHE'FULNESS,
disadvantage: destructiveness.--_adj._ SC[=A]'THING, damaging; blasting:
scorching.--_adv._ SC[=A]'THINGLY.--_adjs._ SC[=A]TH'LESS, without injury;
SC[=A]'THY (_Scot._), mischievous: dangerous. [A.S. _sceathu_; Ger.
_schade_, injury.]

SCATOLOGY, sk[=a]-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the knowledge of fossil excrement or
coprolites: knowledge of the usages of primitive peoples about excrements,
human and other.--_adj._ SCATOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ SCAT'OMANCY, SCATOS'COPY,
divination of disease by inspection of excrement; SCATOPH'AGA, the
dung-flies.--_n.pl._ SCATOPHAG'IDÆ, a family of acanthopterygian
fishes.--_adj._ SCATOPH'AGOUS, feeding on excrement. [Gr. _sk[=o]r_,
skatos, dung, logia--legein, to speak; manteia, divination; skopein, to
view; phagein, to eat.]

SCATTER, skat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to disperse in all directions: to throw loosely
about: to strew: to sprinkle: to dispel: to put to flight: to drop: to
throw shot too loosely.--_v.i._ to be dispersed or dissipated.--_n._
SCATT'ERBRAIN, a thoughtless, giddy person.--_adjs._ SCATT'ER-BRAINED,
giddy; SCATT'ERED, widely separated: wandering: distracted:
irregular.--_ns._ SCATT'ERER, one who or that which scatters;
SCATT'ER-GOOD, a spendthrift; SCATT'ER-GUN, a shot-gun; SCATT'ERING,
something scattered: dispersion: that which has been scattered: the
irregular reflection of light from a surface not perfectly smooth.--_adj._
dispersing: rare, sporadic: diversified.--_adv._ SCATT'ERINGLY, in a
dispersed manner: here and there.--_ns._ SCATT'ERLING (_Spens._), one who
has no fixed abode: a vagabond; SCATT'ERMOUCH, any Latin or Levantine, in
Pacific slang.--_adj._ SCATT'ERY, dispersed: sparse: few and far between.
[A.S. _scateran_, scaterian; cf. _Shatter_.]

SCATURIENT, sk[=a]-t[=u]'ri-ent, _adj._ gushing like water from a fountain.
[L. _scatur[=i]re_, to gush out.]

SCAUD, skäd, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to scald: to scold.

SCAUP, skawp, _n._ a sea-duck of genus Aythya, of northern regions, related
to the pochard. [Ice. _skálp_--in _skálp-hæna_.]

SCAUPER, skaw'p[.e]r, _n._ a tool with semicircular face, used by
engravers. [Prob. scalper.]

SCAUR, skär, a Scotch form of scare.

SCAUR, skawr, _n._ a precipitous bank or rock.--Also SCAR. [_Scar_.]

SCAURY, skä'ri, _n._ a young gull in Shetland. [Scand., Sw. _skiura_.]

SCAVAGE, skav'[=a]j, _n._ a duty or toll anciently exacted by mayors, &c.,
on goods exposed for sale.

SCAVENGER, skav'en-j[.e]r, _n._ one who cleans the streets: an animal which
feeds on carrion: a child employed to pick up loose cotton from the floor
in a cotton-mill.--_ns._ SCAV'AGERY, street-cleansing; SCAV'AGING.--_v.t._
SCAV'ENGE, to cleanse.--_ns._ SCAV'ENGER-BEE'TLE, a beetle which acts as a
scavenger; SCAV'ENGER-CRAB, any crab which feeds on decaying animal matter;
instrument of torture by pressure with an iron hoop, invented by Sir W.
Skevington, Lieutenant of the Tower under Henry VIII. [Orig. _scavager_, an
inspector of goods for sale, and also of the streets; from _scavage_, duty
on goods for sale--A.S. _sceawian_, to inspect; cf. _Show_.]

SCAVERNICK, skav'[.e]r-nik, _n._ (_Cornish_) a hare.

SCAVILONES, skav'i-l[=o]nz, _n.pl._ men's drawers worn in the sixteenth
century under the hose.

SCAZON, sk[=a]'zon, _n._ in ancient prosody, a metre, the rhythm of which
is imperfect toward the close of the line or period. [Gr. _skaz[=o]n_,

SCELERATE, sel'e-r[=a]t, _adj._ (_obs._) wicked, villainous.--_n._ a
villain--also SCEL'ERAT.--_adjs._ SCEL'EROUS, SCELES'TIC. [O. Fr.--L.
_sceleratus_--_scelus_, crime.]

SCELIDES, sel'i-d[=e]z, _n.pl._ the posterior limbs of a mammal.--_n._
SCEL'IDOSAUR, a dinosaur of the genus Scelidosaurus.--_adjs._
mailed dinosaurs.--_ns._ SCELIDOSAU'RUS, the typical genus of
Scelidosauridæ; SCELIO (s[=e]'li-[=o]), a genus of hymenopterous insects
parasitic in the eggs of grasshoppers and locusts; SCELOP'ORUS (_U.S._),
the common brown fence-lizard. [Gr. _skelis_, _skelidos_, a leg.]

SCELP, skelp, _n._ long strips of iron used in forming a gun-barrel.--Also

SCENA, s[=e]'na, _n._ the stage of an ancient theatre (_pl._ SCENÆ,
s[=e]'n[=e]): an elaborate dramatic solo (It., pron. sh[=a]'nä; pl.
SCE'NE).--_n._ SCENARIO (she-nä'ri-[=o]), a skeleton libretto of a dramatic
work. [L.]

SCEND, send, _n._ the upward angular displacement of a vessel--opposed to
_Pitch_, the correlative downward movement.--_v.i._ to heave upward. [A
corr. of _send_, influenced by _ascend_.]

SCENE, s[=e]n, _n._ a picture of the place of an action: a large painted
view: place of action, occurrence, or exhibition: the part of a play acted
without change of place: (_orig._) the stage of a theatre on which the
actors perform: a series of landscape events connected and exhibited: a
number of objects presented to the view at once: spectacle: view: any
unseemly or ill-timed display of strong feeling between persons.--_v.t._ to
exhibit: to display.--_ns._ SCENE'-DOCK, the space in a theatre adjoining
the stage, where scenery is stored when not in use; SCENE'-MAN, one who
manages the scenery in a theatre; SCENE'-PAINT'ER, one whose employment it
is to paint scenery for theatres; SC[=E]'NERY, the painted representation
on a stage: the appearance of anything presented to the eye: general aspect
of a landscape; SCENE'-SHIFT'ER (same as SCENE-MAN).--_adjs._ SC[=E]'NIC,
-AL, pertaining to scenery: dramatic: theatrical.--_adv._
SC[=E]'NICALLY.--_adjs._ SC[=E]NOGRAPH'IC, -AL, drawn in
perspective.--_adv._ SC[=E]NOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ SC[=E]NOG'RAPHY, the art
of perspective: representation in perspective.--BEHIND THE SCENES, at the
back of the visible stage; MAKE A SCENE, to make a noisy or otherwise
unwelcome exhibition of feeling. [L. _scena_--Gr. _sk[=e]n[=e]_, a covered
place, a stage.]

SCENT, sent, _v.t._ to discern by the sense of smell: to perfume: to have
some suspicion of.--_v.i._ to become odoriferous: to smell.--_n._ a
perfume: odour: sense of smell: chase followed by the scent: course of
pursuit: scraps of paper strewed on the ground by the pursued in the boys'
game of hare and hounds.--_ns._ SCENT'-BAG, the pouch of an animal which
secretes an odoriferous substance; SCENT'-BOTT'LE, a small bottle for
holding perfume; SCENT'-BOX.--_adjs._ SCENT'ED, perfumed; SCENT'FUL, highly
odoriferous: quick of scent: having a good nose, as a dog.--_n._
SCENT'-GLAND, a glandular organ which secretes such substances as musk or
castoreum.--_adv._ SCENT'INGLY, allusively: not directly.--_adj._
SCENT'LESS, having no scent or smell: destructive of scent.--_ns._
SCENT'-OR'GAN, a scent-gland; SCENT'-VASE, a vessel with a pierced cover
designed to contain perfumes. [Fr. _sentir_--L. _sent[=i]re_, to feel.]

SCEPTIC, -AL, SKEPTIC, -AL, skep'tik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to the
philosophical school in ancient Greece of Pyrrho and his successors:
doubting: hesitating to admit the certainty of doctrines or principles:
(_theol._) doubting or denying the truth of revelation.--_ns._ SCEP'SIS,
SKEP'SIS, philosophic doubt; SCEP'TIC, one who is sceptical: (_theol._) one
who doubts or denies the existence of God or the truths of
revelation.--_adv._ SCEP'TICALLY.--_n._ SCEP'TICALNESS.--_v.i._
SCEP'TICISE, to act the sceptic.--_n._ SCEP'TICISM, that condition in which
the mind is before it has arrived at conclusive opinions: doubt: the
doctrine that no facts can be certainly known: agnosticism: (_theol._)
doubt of the existence of God or the truth of revelation. [L.
_scepticus_--Gr. _skeptikos_, thoughtful, _skeptesthai_, to consider.]

SCEPTRE, sep't[.e]r, _n._ the staff or baton borne by kings as an emblem of
authority: royal power.--_v.t._ to invest with royal power.--_adjs._
SCEP'TRAL, regal; SCEP'TRED, bearing a sceptre: regal.--_n._ SCEP'TREDOM,
reign.--_adjs._ SCEP'TRELESS, powerless, as a sceptreless king; SCEP'TRY,
bearing a sceptre, royal. [L. _sceptrum_--Gr. _sk[=e]ptron_--_sk[=e]ptein_,
to lean.]

SCERNE, s[.e]rn, _v.t._ (_obs._) to discern. [_Discern_.]

SCEUOPHYLACIUM, sk[=u]-[=o]-fi-l[=a]'shi-um, _n._ (_Gr. Church_) the
repository of the sacred vessels.--_n._ SCEUOPH'YLAX, a sacristan, church
treasurer. [Gr. _skeuos_, a vessel, _phylax_, a watcher.]

SCHÆFFERIA, shef-f[=e]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants, the
yellow-wood. [Named from _Schaeffer_, an 18th-cent. German botanist.]

SCHALENBLENDE, shä'len-blend, _n._ a variety of native zinc-sulphide.
[Ger., _schale_, shell, _blende_, blende.]

SCHAPPE, shap'pe, _n._ a fabric woven from spun silk.

SCHEDIASM, sk[=e]'di-azm, _n._ cursory writing on a loose sheet. [Gr.
_schediasma_--_schedon_, near.]

SCHEDULE, shed'[=u]l, _n._ a piece of paper containing some writing: a
list, inventory, or table.--_v.t._ to place in a schedule or list. [O. Fr.
_schedule_ (Fr. _cédule_)--L. _schedula_, dim. of _scheda_, a strip of
papyrus--L. _scind[)e]re_, to cleave; or from Gr. _sched[=e]_, a leaf.]

SCHEELITE, sh[=e]'l[=i]t, _n._ native calcium tungstate. [From the Swedish
chemist, K. W. _Scheele_ (1742-86).]


SCHELLY, shel'i, _n._ a white fish.

SCHELM, skelm, _n._ (_Scot._) a rascal.--Also SCHEL'LUM, SHELM, SKEL'LUM.
[O. Fr. _schelme_--Old High Ger. _scalmo_, plague; cf. Ger. _schelm_, a

SCHELTOPUSIK, shel'to-p[=u]-sik, _n._ a Russian lizard.

SCHEMA, sk[=e]'ma, _n._ the image of the thing with which the imagination
aids the understanding in its procedure: scheme, plan, outline generally: a
diagrammatic outline or synopsis of anything: (_Gr. Church_) the monastic
habit.--_adj._ SCHEMAT'IC.--_v.t._ SCH[=E]'MATISE, to arrange in
outline.--_v.i._ to make a plan in outline.--_ns._ SCH[=E]'MATISM, form or
outline of a thing: (_astrol._) the combination of the heavenly bodies;
SCH[=E]'MATIST, a projector.

SCHEME, sk[=e]m, _n._ plan: something contrived to be done: purpose: plot:
a combination of things by design: a specific organisation for some end: an
illustrative diagram: a system: a statement in tabular form: a
representation of the aspect of the heavenly bodies at a given
time.--_v.t._ to plan: to contrive.--_v.i._ to form a plan.--_n._
SCHEME'-ARCH, an arch less than a semicircle.--_adj._ SCHEME'FUL.--_n._
SCH[=E]'MER.--_adj._ SCH[=E]'MING, given to forming schemes:
intriguing.--_adv._ SCH[=E]'MINGLY, by scheming.--_n._ SCH[=E]'MIST, a
schemer: an astrologer.--_adj._ SCH[=E]'MY, cunning: intriguing. [L.
_schema_--Gr. _sch[=e]ma_, form--_echein_, _sch[=e]sein_, to hold.]

SCHEPEN, sk[=a]'pen, _n._ a Dutch magistrate. [Dut.]

SCHEROMA, ske-r[=o]'ma, _n._ inflammation of the eye without discharge.
[Gr. _x[=e]ros_, dry.]

SCHERZO, sker'ts[=o], _n._ (_mus._) a passage or movement of a lively
character, forming part of a musical composition of some length, as a
symphony, quartette, or sonata.--_adj._ SCHERZAN'DO, playful. [It.
_scherzo_, a jest, _scherzare_, to play--Teut.; Mid. High Ger. _scherz_
(Ger. _scherz_, Dut. _scherts_), jest.]

SCHESIS, sk[=e]'sis, _n._ habitude.--_adj._ SCHET'IC, constitutional:
habitual. [Gr.,--_echein_, to have.]

SCHIAVONE, ski-a-v[=o]'ne, _n._ a backed, hilted broadsword of the 17th
century. [It., the Doge's bodyguard, the _Schiavoni_ or Slavs being armed
with it.]

SCHIEDAM, sk[=e]-dam', _n._ Hollands gin, named from the town near
Rotterdam where it is chiefly made.

SCHILLER, shil'[.e]r, _n._ the peculiar bronze-like lustre observed in
certain minerals, as hypersthene, &c., due to internal reflection.--_ns._
SCHILLERIS[=A]'TION, the process by which microscopic crystals have been
developed in other minerals so as to give a submetallic sheen by internal
reflection; SCHILL'ERITE, or SCHILL'ER-SPAR rock, enstatite schillerised.

SCHINDYLESIS, skin-di-l[=e]'sis, _n._ an articulation formed by the fitting
of one bone into a groove in another, as in the sphenoid bone and
vomer.--_adj._ SCHINDYLET'IC. [Gr.,--_schindylein_; to cleave, _schizein_,
to cleave.]

SCHINUS, sk[=i]'nus, _n._ a genus of South American trees, of order
_Anacardiaceæ_, the leaves yielding abundantly a fragrant, resinous, or
turpentine-like fluid. [Gr. _schinos_, the mastic-tree.]

SCHIPPERKE, ship'p[.e]r-ke, _n._ a breed of dogs of the same group as the
Eskimo and Pomeranian dog, but with almost no tail, favourites of the
Belgian bargees. [Flem., 'little skipper.']

S-CHISEL, es-chiz'el, _n._ a cutting tool in well-boring.

SCHISIOPHONE, skiz'i-[=o]-f[=o]n, _n._ an induction balance for detecting
flaws in iron rails. [Gr. _schisis_, a cleaving, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, sound.]

SCHISM, sizm, _n._ a separation in a church, from diversity of opinion or
discipline, breach of unity without justifiable cause, also the tendency
towards such.--_ns._ SCHIS'MA (_mus._), the difference between a pure and
an equally tempered fifth; SCHISMAT'IC, one who separates from a church on
account of difference of opinion.--_adjs._ SCHISMAT'IC, -AL, tending to, or
of the nature of, schism.--_adv._ SCHISMAT'ICALLY.--_n._
SCHISMAT'ICALNESS.--_v.i._ SCHIS'MATISE, to practise schism: to make a
breach in the communion of the church:--_pr.p._ schis'mat[=i]sing; _pa.p._
schis'mat[=i]sed.--GREAT, or GREEK, SCHISM, the separation of the Greek
Church from the Latin, finally completed in 1054; WESTERN SCHISM, the
division in the Western Church on the appointment by the Romans of Urban
VI. to the papal chair in 1378, while the French cardinals elected Clement
VII.--healed on the election of Martin V. by the Council of Constance in
1417. [L. _schisma_--Gr. _schizein_, to split.]

SCHIST, shist, _n._ a term properly applied to crystalline rocks with a
foliated structure, as mica-schist, hornblende-schist, &c.--indurated
clay-rocks with a fissile structure are sometimes erroneously described as
schists.--_adjs._ SCHIST[=A]'CEOUS, slate-gray; SCHIST'IC, SCHIST'OUS,
SCHIST'OSE, like schist: slaty.--_n._ SCHISTOS'ITY, quality of being
schistose. [Fr. _schiste_--Gr. _schistos_--_schizein_, to split.]

SCHIZÆA, sk[=i]-z[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of ferns, with sporangia ovate,
sessile, and arranged in spikes or panicles. [Gr. _schizein_, to split.]

SCHIZOCARP, skiz'[=o]-kärp, _n._ a dry fruit which splits at maturity into
several closed one-seeded portions.--_adj._ SCHIZOCAR'POUS. [Gr.
_schizein_, to cleave, _karpos_, fruit.]

SCHIZOCEPHALY, skiz-[=o]-sef'a-li, _n._ the practice of preserving the
heads of warriors among Maoris, &c. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave,
_kephal[=e]_, the head.]

SCHIZOCOELE, skiz'[=o]-s[=e]l, _n._ a term applied to the perivisceral
cavity of the _Invertebrata_, when formed by a splitting of the
mesoblast.--_adj._ SCHIZOCOE'LOUS. [Gr, _schizein_, to cleave, _koilia_, a

SCHIZODON, skiz'[=o]-don, _n._ a genus of South American octodont rodents.
[Gr. _schizein_, to cleave, _odous_, odontos, a tooth.]

SCHIZOGENESIS, skiz-[=o]-jen'e-sis _n._ reproduction by fission.--_adjs._
cleave, _genesis_, production.]

SCHIZOGNATHOUS, sk[=i]-zog'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ having the maxillo-palatine
bones separate from each other and from the vomer, as in the gulls,
plovers, &c.--_n.pl._ SCHIZOG'N[=A]THÆ, a subdivision of the carinate
birds.--_n._ SCHIZOG'N[=A]THISM. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave, _gnathos_, the

SCHIZOMYCETES, skiz-[=o]-m[=i]-s[=e]'t[=e]z, _n._ a botanical term for
Bacteria, in reference to their commonest mode of reproduction--by
transverse division. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave, _myk[=e]s_ (pl.
_myk[=e]tes_), a mushroom.]

SCHIZONEMERTEA, skiz-[=o]-n[=e]-mer't[=e]-a, _n.pl._ the sea-worms which
have the head fissured.--_adjs._ SCHIZONEMER'TEAN, SCHIZONEMER'TINE.

SCHIZONEURA, skiz-[=o]-n[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of plant lice. [Gr.
_schizein_, to cleave, _neuron_, a nerve.]

SCIZOPHORA, sk[=i]-zof'[=o]-ra, _n.pl._ a division of dipterous insects.
[Gr. _schizein_, cleave, _pherein_, bear.]

SCHIZOPODA, sk[=i]-zop'[=o]-da, _n.pl._ a group of crustaceans, having the
feet cleft or double, including the opossum-shrimps and their
allies.--_adj._ and _n._ SCHIZ'OPOD. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave, _pous_,
_podos_, the foot.]

SCHIZORHINAL, skiz-[=o]-r[=i]'nal, _adj._ having the nasal bones separate:
having the anterior nostrils prolonged in the form of a slit. [Gr.
_schizein_, to cleave, _rhis_, _rhinos_, the nose.]

SCHIZOTHECAL, skiz-[=o]-th[=e]'kal, _adj._ having the tarsal envelope
divided, as by scutella--opp. to _Holothecal_. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave,
_th[=e]k[=e]_, a case.]

SCHIZOTROCHOUS, sk[=i]-zot'r[=o]-kus, _adj._ with a divided disc, as a
rotifer.--_n.pl._ SCHIZOT'ROCHA. [Gr. _schizein_, to cleave, _trochos_, a

SCHLÄGER, shl[=a]'g[.e]r, _n._ the modern duelling-sword of German
university students. [Ger.,--_schlagen_, to beat.]

SCHEGALIA, shle-g[=a]'li-a, _n._ a genus of birds of Paradise. [Named from
the Dutch ornithologist Hermann _Schlegel_ (1805-84).]

SCHLICH, shlik, _n._ the finer portions of crushed ore, separated by water.

SCHMELZE, schmel'tse, _n._ glass used in decorative work. [Ger. _schmelz_,

SCHNAPPS, SCHNAPS, shnaps, _n._ Holland gin, Hollands. [Ger. _schnapps_, a

SCHNEIDERIAN, shn[=i]-d[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the mucous membrane
of the nose--first described by the German anatomist C. V. _Schneider_

SCHOENUS, sk[=e]'nus, _n._ a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the sedge
family. [Gr. _schoinos_, a rush.]

SCHOLAR, skol'ar, _n._ a pupil: a disciple: a student: one who has received
a learned education: a man of learning: a savant: in the English
universities, an undergraduate partly supported from the revenues of a
college.--_ns._ SCHOL'ARCH, the head of a school of philosophy;
SCHOL'ARISM, the affectation of scholarship.--_adjs._ SCHOL'AR-LIKE,
SCHOL'ARLY, like or becoming a scholar.--_n._ SCHOL'ARSHIP, the character
of a scholar: learning: maintenance for a scholar, a benefaction, the
annual proceeds of a bequest permanently invested for this purpose.--_adj._
SCHOLAS'TIC, pertaining to a scholar or to schools: scholar-like:
pertaining to the schoolmen: excessively subtle: pedantic.--_n._ one who
adheres to the method or subtleties of the schools of the middle
ages.--_adv._ SCHOLAS'TICALLY, in a scholastic manner: according to the
methods of the schools of philosophy.--_n._ SCHOLAS'TICISM, the aims,
methods, and products of thought which constituted the main endeavour of
the intellectual life of the middle ages: the method or subtleties of the
schools of philosophy: the collected body of doctrines of the schoolmen.
[Low L. _scholaris_--L. _schola_.]

SCHOLIAST, sk[=o]'li-ast, _n._ one of a class of ancient grammarians,
mostly anonymous, who wrote short notes on the margins of the MSS. of
ancient Greek and Roman classics, a writer of scholia: an annotator: a
commentator.--_adj._ SCHOLIAS'TIC, pertaining to a scholiast or to
scholia.--_ns._ SCH[=O]'LION, SCH[=O]'LIUM, one of the marginal notes of
the old critics on the ancient classics: (_math._) an explanation tion
added to a problem:--_pl._ SCH[=O]'LIA, SCH[=O]'LIUMS. [Gr.
_scholiast[=e]s_--_scholion_, a scholium.]

SCHOOL, sk[=oo]l, _n._ a place for instruction: an institution of learning,
esp. for children: the pupils of a school: exercises for instruction: the
disciples of a particular teacher, or those who hold a common doctrine: a
large number of fish migrating together, a shoal: a system of training: any
means of knowledge, esp. (_mus._) a treatise teaching some particular
branch of the art: a large hall in English universities, where the
examinations for degrees, &c., are held--hence, one of these examinations
(gen. _pl._) also the group of studies taken by a man competing for honours
in these: a single department of a university: (_pl._) the body of masters
and students in a college.--_v.t._ to educate in a school: to instruct: to
admonish, to discipline.--_adj._ SCHOOL'ABLE, of school age.--_ns._
SCHOOL'-BOARD, a board of managers, elected by the ratepayers, whose duty
it is to see that adequate means of education are provided for the children
of a town or district; SCHOOL'-BOY, a boy attending a school: one learning
the rudiments of a subject; SCHOOL'-CLERK, one versed in the learning of
schools; SCHOOL'-CRAFT, learning; SCHOOL'-DAME, a schoolmistress.--_n.pl._
SCHOOL'-DAYS, the time of life during which one goes to school.--_ns._
SCHOOL'-DIVINE'; SCHOOL'-DIVIN'ITY, scholastic or seminary theology;
SCHOOL'-DOC'TOR, a schoolman; SCHOOL'ERY (_Spens._), something taught,
precepts; SCHOOL'-FELL'OW, one taught at the same school: an associate at
school; SCHOOL'GIRL a girl attending school.--_n.pl._ SCHOOL'-HOURS, time
spent at school in acquiring instruction.--_ns._ SCHOOL'-HOUSE, a house of
discipline and instruction: a house used as a school: a schoolmaster's
house; SCHOOL'ING, instruction in school: tuition: the price paid for
instruction: reproof, reprimand; SCHOOL'-INSPEC'TOR, an official appointed
to examine schools; SCHOOL'-MA'AM, a schoolmistress; SCHOOL'-MAID, a
school-girl; SCHOOL'MAN, one of the philosophers and theologians of the
second half of the middle ages; SCHOOL'MASTER, the master or teacher of a
school, a pedagogue:--_fem._ SCHOOL'MISTRESS, a woman who teaches or who
merely governs a school; SCHOOL'-MATE, one who attends the same school;
SCHOOL'-NAME, an abstract term, an abstraction; SCHOOL'-PENCE, a small sum
paid for school-teaching; SCHOOL'-POINT, a point for scholastic
disputation; SCHOOL'-ROOM, a room for teaching in: school accommodation;
SCHOOL'-SHIP, a vessel used for teaching practical navigation.--_adj._
SCHOOL'-TAUGHT, taught at school or in the schools.--_ns._
SCHOOL'-TEACH'ER, one who teaches in a school; SCHOOL'-TEACH'ING;
SCHOOL'-TIME, the time at which a school opens; SCHOOL'-WHALE, one of a
school of whales; BOARD'-SCHOOL, a school under the control of a
school-board.--GRAMMAR SCHOOL, HIGH SCHOOL, a school of secondary
instruction, standing between the primary school and the university;
NATIONAL SCHOOLS, those schools in Ireland which are under the
commissioners of national education; OXFORD SCHOOL, a name given to that
party which adopted the principles contained in the _Tracts for the Times_
(cf. _Tractarianism_); PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, in Scotland, schools in every
parish for general education; PRIMARY SCHOOL, a school for elementary
instruction; PUBLIC SCHOOL, an elementary or primary school: a school under
the control of a school-board: an endowed classical school for providing a
liberal education for such as can pay high for it--Eton, Harrow, Rugby,
Winchester, Westminster, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse, St Paul's, and Merchant
Taylors', &c.; RAGGED SCHOOL, a free school for destitute children's
education and often maintenance, supported by voluntary efforts; SUNDAY
SCHOOL, a school held on Sunday for religious instruction; TÜBINGEN SCHOOL,
a rationalistic school of theologians founded by F. C. Baur (1792-1860),
which explained the origin of the Catholic Church as due to the gradual
fusion of an antagonistic Judaistic and Gentile party, the various stages
of fusion being capable of being traced in the extant documents.--THE
SCHOOLMASTER IS ABROAD, a phrase of Brougham's implying that education and
intelligence are now widely spread. [L. _schola_--Gr. _schol[=e]_, leisure,
a school.]


SCHOONER, sk[=oo]n'[.e]r, _n._ a sharp-built, swift-sailing vessel,
generally two-masted, rigged either with fore-and-aft sails on both masts,
or with square top and topgallant sails on the foremast: an old form of
covered emigrant-wagon: a large drinking-glass.--_n._ SCHOON'ER-SMACK, a
sharp-bowed schooner. [Coined in New England from the prov. Eng. _scoon_
(Scot. _scon_), to make a flat stone skip along the surface of water; A.S.

SCHORL, shorl, _n._ black tourmaline--also SHORL.--_adjs._
SCHORL[=A]'CEOUS, SCHOR'LOUS, SCHOR'LY. [Ger. _schörl_, prob. from Sw.
_skör_, brittle.]

SCHOTTISCHE, sho-t[=e]sh', _n._ a dance resembling a polka, danced by a
couple: music adapted for the dance.--Also SCHOTTISH'. [Ger., 'Scottish.']

SCHOUT, skout, _n._ a municipal officer in the North American Dutch
colonies. [Dut.]

SCHRANKIA, shrang'ki-a, _n._ a genus of leguminous plants, whose six
species are all American--including the _sensitive-briar_. [Named from the
German naturalist F. von Paula _Schrank_ (1747-1835).]

SCHUCHIN, skuch'in, _n._ an obsolete form of _escutcheon_.

SCHWEINITZIA, shw[=i]-nit'zi-a, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants of the
Indian-pipe family, including the sweet pine-sap or Carolina beech-drops.
[The Amer. botanist L. D. von _Schweinitz_ (1780-1834).]

SCHWENKFELDER, shwengk'fel-d[.e]r, _n._ a member of a religious sect,
founded by Caspar von _Schwenkfeld_ (1490-1561), still found in
Pennsylvania.--Also SCHWENK'FELDIAN.

SCIADIACEÆ, s[=i]-ad-i-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n._ a family of fresh-water algæ,
its typical genus _Sciadium_.

SCIAGRAPHY, s[=i]-ag'ra-fi, _n._ the art of casting and delineating shadows
as they fall in nature: (_archit._) the vertical section of a building to
show its interior structure: the art of dialling.--_ns._ SC[=I]'AGRAPH;
SC[=I]AG'RAPHER.--_adjs._ SC[=I]AGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._
SC[=I]AGRAPH'ICALLY. [Gr. _skiagraphia_--_skia_, a shadow, _graphein_, to

SCIAMACHY, s[=i]-am'a-ki, _n._ Same as SCIOMACHY.

SCIAMETRY, s[=i]-am'e-tri, _n._ the doctrine of eclipses. [Gr. _skia_,
shadow, _metrein_, to measure.]

SCIARA, s[=i]'a-ra, _n._ a genus of gnats or midges. [Gr. _skiaros_,
shady--_skia_, a shadow.]

SCIATH, s[=i]'ath, _n._ an oblong shield of wicker-work formerly used in
Ireland. [Ir. _sciath_.]

SCIATHERIC, -AL, s[=i]-a-ther'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to a sundial. [Gr.
_skiath[=e]ron_--_skia_, shadow, _theran_, catch.]

SCIATICA, s[=i]-at'i-ka, _n._ a neuralgic affection of the great sciatic
nerve.--_adjs._ SCIAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or affecting, the hip,
ischiac.--_adv._ SCIAT'ICALLY. [Low L. _sciatica_--Gr. _ischion_.]

SCIENCE, s[=i]'ens, _n._ knowledge systematised: truth ascertained: pursuit
of knowledge or truth for its own sake: knowledge arranged under general
truths and principles: that which refers to abstract principles, as
distinguished from 'art:' pre-eminent skill: trade: a department of
knowledge.--_n._ SCIB'ILE, something capable of being known.--_adjs._
SC[=I]'ENCED, versed, learned; SC[=I]'ENT, knowing; SCIEN'TIAL (_Milt._),
producing science: skilful; SCIENTIF'IC, -AL (_obs._), producing or
containing science: according to, or versed in, science: used in science:
systematic: accurate.--_adv._ SCIENTIF'ICALLY.--_ns._ SC[=I]'ENTISM, the
view of scientists; SC[=I]'ENTIST, one who studies science, esp. natural
science.--_adjs._ SCIENTIS'TIC.--_adv._ SC[=I]'ENTLY, knowingly.--_n._
SCIENT'OLISM, false science, superficial knowledge.--SCIENTIFIC FRONTIER, a
term used by Lord Beaconsfield in 1878 in speaking of the rectification of
the boundaries between India and Afghanistan, meaning a frontier capable of
being occupied and defended according to the requirements of the science of
strategy, in opposition to 'a hap-hazard frontier.'--ABSOLUTE SCIENCE,
knowledge of things in themselves; APPLIED SCIENCE, when its laws are
exemplified in dealing with concrete phenomena; DISMAL SCIENCE, political
economy; GAY SCIENCE, a medieval name for belles-lettres and poetry
generally, esp. amatory poetry; INDUCTIVE SCIENCE (see INDUCT); LIBERAL
SCIENCE, a science cultivated from love of knowledge, without view to
profit; MENTAL SCIENCE, mental philosophy, psychology; MORAL SCIENCE,
ethics, the science of right and wrong, moral responsibility; OCCULT
SCIENCE, a name applied to the physical sciences of the middle ages, also
to magic, sorcery, witchcraft, &c.; SANITARY SCIENCE (see SANITARY); THE
EXACT SCIENCES, the mathematical sciences; THE SCIENCE, the art of boxing;
THE SEVEN LIBERAL SCIENCES, grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music,
geometry, and astronomy--these were the seven TERRESTRIAL SCIENCES, as
opposed to the seven CELESTIAL SCIENCES, civil law, Christian law,
practical theology, devotional theology, dogmatic theology, mystic
theology, and polemical theology. [Fr.,--L. _scientia_--_sciens_, _-entis_,
pr.p. of _sc[=i]re_, to know.]

SCIL, an abbreviation of _scilicet_.

SCILICET, sil'i-set, _adv._ to wit, namely, videlicet.

SCILLA, sil'a, _n._ a genus of liliaceous plants, as the squill. [L.,--Gr.
_skilla_, a sea-onion.]

SCILLOCEPHALUS, sil-[=o]-sef'a-lus, _n._ a person with a conical
cranium.--_adjs._ SCILLOCEPH'ALOUS. [Gr. _skilla_, a squill, _kephal[=e]_,
a head.]

SCIMITAR, sim'i-tar, _n._ a short, single-edged curved sword, broadest at
the point end, used by the Turks and Persians.--_n._ SCIM'ITAR-POD, a
strong, shrubby climber of the tropics. [O. Fr. _cimeterre_--Old It.
_cimitara_--Turk.,--Pers. _shimsh[=i]r_ (perh. 'lion's claw,' _sham_, a
claw, _sh[=i]r_, _sher_, a lion); or perh. through Sp. _cimitarra_, from
Basque _cimeterra_, something 'with a fine edge.']

SCINCOID, sing'koid, _n._ one of a family of saurian reptiles, the typical
genus of which is the SCIN'CUS or skink.--_adjs._ like a skink. [L.
_scincus_--Gr. _skingkos_, a kind of lizard, _eidos_, form.]

SCINDAPSUS, sin-dap'sus, _n._ a genus of climbing plants.

SCINTILLA, sin-til'a, _n._ a spark: a glimmer: the least particle: a trace:
a genus of bivalve molluscs: a genus of lepidopterous insects.--_adjs._
SCIN'TILLANT; SCIN'TILLANTE (_mus._), brilliant.--_v.i._ SCIN'TILLATE, to
throw out sparks: to sparkle.--_n._ SCINTILL[=A]'TION, act of throwing out
sparks: shining with a twinkling light.--_adj._ SCINTILLES'CENT,
scintillating feebly.--_n._ SCINTILLOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring
the intensity of scintillation of the stars. [L., a spark.]

SCIOGRAPHY, s[=i]-og'ra-fi, _n._ Same as SCIAGRAPHY.

SCIOLISM, s[=i]'[=o]-lizm, _n._ superficial knowledge.--_n._ SC[=I]'OLIST,
one who knows anything superficially: a pretender to science.--_adjs._
SC[=I]OLIS'TIC, pertaining to, or partaking of, sciolism: pertaining to, or
resembling, a sciolist; SC[=I]'OLOUS. [L. _sciolus_, dim. of _scius_,
knowing--_sc[=i]re_, to know.]

SCIOLTO, shi-ol't[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) free, unrestrained. [It.]

SCIOMACHY, s[=i]-om'a-ki, _n._ a battle or fighting with shadows: imaginary
or futile combat.--Also SCIAM'ACHY. [Gr. _skiamachia_,
_skiomachia_--_skia_, shadow, _mach[=e]_, battle.]

SCIOMANCY, s[=i]'[=o]-man-si, _n._ divination by means of the shades of the

SCION, s[=i]'on, _n._ a cutting or twig for grafting: a young member of a
family: a descendant. [O. Fr. _sion_, _cion_--L. _section-em_, a
cutting--_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SCIOPTIC, s[=i]-op'tik, _adj._ noting a certain optical arrangement for
forming images in a darkened room, consisting of a globe with a lens fitted
to a camera, and made to turn like the eye--also SCIOP'TRIC.--_ns._
SCIOP'TICON; SCIOP'TICS. [Gr. _skia_, shadow, _optikos_, pertaining to

SCIOTHEISM, s[=i]'[=o]-th[=e]-izm, _n._ ancestor-worship.


SCIOUS, sc[=i]'us, _adj._ (_obs._) knowing.

SCIRE FACIAS, s[=i]'re f[=a]'shi-as, _n._ (_law_) a writ to enforce the
execution of judgments, or to quash them.

SCIRPUS, sir'pus, _n._ a genus of monocotyledonous plants, including the
bulrushes. [L., a rush.]

SCIRRHUS, skir'us, or sir'us, _n._ (_med._) a hardened gland forming a
tumour: a hardening, esp. that preceding cancer.--_adjs._ SCIRR'HOID,
resembling scirrhus; SCIRR'HOUS, hardened, proceeding from scirrhus.
[L.,--Gr. _skirros_, _skiros_, a tumour.]

SCIRTOPOD, sir't[=o]-pod, _adj._ having limbs fitted for leaping.--_n.pl._
SCIRTOP'ODA, an order of saltatorial rotifers. [Gr. _skirtan_, leap,
_pous_, foot.]

SCISCITATION, sis-i-t[=a]'shun, _n._ (_obs._) the act of inquiry: demand.
[L.,--_sciscit[=a]ri_, to inquire--_scisc[)e]re_, to seek to
know--_sc[=i]re_, to know.]

SCISSEL, sis'el, _n._ the clippings of various metals: scrap--also
SCISS'IL. [O. Fr. _cisaille_--_ciseler_--_cisel_, a chisel (q.v.). The
spelling has been adapted in the interests of a fancied connection with L.
_scind[)e]re_, _scissum_, to divide.]

SCISSORS, siz'orz, _n.pl._ a cutting instrument consisting of two blades
fastened at the middle: shears.--_v.i._ SCISE, s[=i]z (_obs._), to cut: to
penetrate.--_adjs._ SCISS'IBLE, SCISS'ILE, capable of being cut.--_ns._
SCIS'SION, the act of cutting: division: splitting; SCISSIPAR'ITY,
reproduction by fission.--_v.t._ SCISS'OR, to cut with scissors.--_ns._
SCISS'OR-BILL, a skimmer; SCISS'OR-TAIL, an American bird, the
scissor-tailed fly-catcher; SCISS'OR-TOOTH, the sectorial tooth of a
carnivore which cuts against its fellow; SCISS[=U]'RA (_anat._), a fissure,
a cleft; SCIS'SURE, a cleft: a fissure: a rupture: a division;
SCISSUREL'LA, a genus of gasteropods with a shell deeply cut. [Formerly
written _cisors_--O. Fr. _cisoires_, conn. with Fr. _ciseaux_, scissors,
from Late L. _cisorium_, a cutting instrument--L. _cæd[)e]re_, _cæsum_, to

SCIURIDÆ, s[=i]-[=u]'ri-d[=e], _n._ a family of rodent mammals containing
the squirrels and their allies.--_adjs._ SC[=I]'[=U]RINE,
SC[=I]'[=U]ROID.--_ns._ SCI[=U]ROP'TERUS, one of two genera of flying
squirrels; SCI[=U]'RUS, a genus of _Sciuridæ_, the arboreal squirrels. [Gr.

SCLATE, skl[=a]t, _n._ an obs. or prov. form of _slate_.


SCLERA, skl[=e]'ra, _n._ the sclerotic coat of the eye-ball.--_n._
SCL[=E]'RAGOGY, severe discipline.--_adj._ SCL[=E]'RAL.--_ns._
SCL[=E]RAN'THUS, a genus of apetalous plants, including the knawel or
German knot-grass; SCLERE, in sponges, a skeletal element;
SCL[=E]RENCH'YMA, the hard parts of corals or plants.--_adj._
SCLERENCHYM'ATOUS.--_ns._ SCL[=E]'RIA, a genus of monocotyledonous plants,
of the sedge family; SCLER[=I]'ASIS, sclerodermia; SCL[=E]'RITE, any hard
part of the integument of arthropods.--_adj._ SCLERIT'IC.--_n._
SCL[=E]'ROBASE, a dense corneous mass, as in red coral.--_adj._
SCLEROB[=A]'SIC.--_ns._ SCL[=E]ROBR[=A]'CHIA, an order of brachiopods;
SCL[=E]'RODERM, hardened integument or exo-skeleton, esp. of a coral: a
madrepore.--_n.pl._ SCLERODER'MATA, the scaly reptiles: the
madrepores.--_n._ SCL[=E]RODER'MIA, a chronic non-inflammatory affection of
the skin, which becomes thick and rigid.--_adjs._ SCLERODER'MIC,
thickening matter of woody cells, as in walnut-shells, &c.--_adjs._
SCLEROG'ENOUS, producing sclerous tissue: mail-cheeked, as a fish;
SCL[=E]'ROID, hard, scleritic.--_ns._ SCL[=E]R[=O]'MA, sclerosis;
SCL[=E]ROM[=E]'NINX, the dura mater; SCL[=E]ROM'ETER, an instrument for
measuring the hardness of a mineral.--_adjs._ SCL[=E]R[=O]'SAL,
SCL[=E]'ROSED.--_ns._ SCL[=E]R[=O]'SIS, a hardening: (_bot._) the
induration of a tissue; SCL[=E]ROS'TOMA, a genus of nematode worms;
SCL[=E]R[=O]'TAL, a bone of the eye-ball.--_adj._ relating to such.--_adj._
SCL[=E]ROT'IC, hard, firm, applied esp. to the outer membrane of the
eye-ball: pertaining to sclerosis: relating to ergot.--_n._ the outermost
membrane of the eye-ball.--_ns._ SCL[=E]ROT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the
sclerotic; SCL[=E]R[=O]'TIUM, a hard, multicellular tuber-like body formed
towards the end of the vegetative season by the close union of the ordinary
mycelial filaments of Fungi.--_adjs._ SCL[=E]'ROUS, hard or indurated:
ossified or bony; SCL[=E]RUR'INE, having stiff, hard tail-feathers, as a
bird of the genus _Sclerurus_. [Gr. _skl[=e]ros_, hard.]

SCOAT, sk[=o]t, _v.t._ to prop, to block, to scotch, as a wheel.--Also
SCOTE. [O. Fr. _ascouter_--_ascot_, a branch--Teut., Old High Ger. _scuz_,
a shoot; Ger. _schuss_.]

SCOBBY, skob'i, _n._ the chaffinch.--Also SC[=O]'BY.

SCOBS, skobz, _n._ sawdust: shavings: dross of metals.--_adj._ SCOB'IFORM,
resembling sawdust or raspings.--_n._ SCOB[=I]'NA, the pedicle of the
spikelets of grasses. [L. _scobis_--_scab[)e]re_, to scrape.]

SCOFF, skof, _v.t._ to mock: to treat with scorn.--_v.i._ to show contempt
or scorn: to deride, taunt, gibe.--_n._ an expression of scorn or contempt:
an object of scoffing.--_n._ SCOFF'ER.--_adv._ SCOFF'INGLY, in a scoffing
manner: with mockery or contempt. [Old Fris. _schof_; Ice. _skaup_, cf. Old
Dut. _schoppen_, to scoff.]

SCOGANISM, sk[=o]'gan-izm, _n._ a scurrilous jesting. [From _Scogan_, the
name of a famous jester.]

SCOGIE, sk[=o]'ji, _n._ (_Scot._) a kitchen drudge.

SCOLD, sk[=o]ld, _v.i._ to rail in a loud and violent manner: to find
fault.--_v.t._ to chide rudely: to rebuke in words.--_n._ a rude, clamorous
woman: a termagant.--_ns._ SCOLD'ER; SCOLD'ING, railing: a rating;
SCOLD'ING-STOOL, a cucking-stool. [Old Dut. _scheldan_; Ger. _schelten_, to
brawl, to scold.]

SCOLECIDA, sk[=o]-les'i-da, _n._ a class of worms consisting of the
wheel-animalcules, turbellarians, trematode worms, &c.--_adj._
SCOLEC'IFORM.--_ns._ SCOLEC[=I]'NA, a group of annelids typified by the
earth-worm--also SCOLE[=I]'NA; SCOL'EC[=I]TE, a hydrous silicate of
aluminium and calcium.--_adjs._ SCOL[=E]'COID, like a scolex;
SCOL[=E]COPH'AGOUS, worm-eating, as a bird.--_n._ SCOLECOPH'AGUS, a genus
of birds including the maggot-eaters or rusty grackles.--_n.pl._
SCOLECOPHID'IA, a division of angiostomous serpents.--_adj._
SCOLECOPHID'IAN, worm-like, as a snake.--_n._ SC[=O]'LEX, the embryo of an
entozoic worm. [Gr. _sk[=o]l[=e]x_, a worm.]

SCOLIA, sk[=o]-li-a, _n._ a genus of fossorial hymenopterous insects. [Gr.
_sk[=o]los_, a prickle.]

SCOLIODON, sk[=o]-l[=i]'[=o]-don, _n._ the genus containing the
oblique-toothed sharks. [Gr. _skolios_, oblique, _odous_, _odontis_, a

SCOLISOIS, skol-i-[=o]'sis, _n._ lateral curvature of the spinal
column.--_adj._ SCOLIOT'IC. [Gr.,--_skolios_, oblique.]

SCOLITE, sk[=o]'l[=i]t, _n._ a fossil worm or its trace. [Gr. _skolios_,


SCOLOPACEOUS, skol-[=o]-p[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ resembling a snipe.--_n.pl._
SCOLOPAC'IDÆ, a family of wading-birds containing snipes, &c.--_adjs._
SCOL'OPACINE, SCOL'OPACOID.--_n._ SCOL'OPAX. [L. _scolopax_, a snipe.]

SCOLOPENDRA, skol-[=o]-pen'dra, _n._ a genus of _Myriapoda_, having a long,
slender, depressed body, protected by coriaceous plates, and having at
least twenty-one pairs of legs: (_Spens._) an imaginary fish or
sea-monster.--_adj._ SCOLOPEN'DRIFORM, SCOLOPEN'DRINE.--_n._
SCOLOPEN'DRIUM, a genus of asplenioid ferns, generally called
_Hart's-tongue_. [L.,--Gr. _skolopendra_, a milliped.]

SCOLYTUS, skol'i-tus, _n._ typical genus of SCOLYT'IDÆ, a family of bark
beetles.--_adj._ SCOL'YTOID. [Gr. _skolyptein_, to strip.]

SCOMBER, skom'b[.e]r, _n._ a genus of acanthopterygian fishes typical of
the family _Scombridæ_, to which belong mackerel, tunnies, bonitos,
&c.--_ns._ SCOMBER'ESOX, the mackerel pikes, saury pikes, or sauries;
SCOMBEROM'ORUS, the Spanish mackerel and related species.--_adjs._
SCOM'BRIFORM, SCOM'BRID, -AL, SCOM'BROID. [L.,--Gr. _skombros_, a

SCOMFISH, skom'fish, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to suffocate by bad air: to nauseate:
to discomfit.--_v.i._ to be suffocated. [A corr. of obs.

SCOMM, skom, _n._ (_obs._) a flout: a buffoon. [L. _scomma_--Gr.
_sk[=o]mma_, a jest.]

SCONCE, skons, _n._ a bulwark: a small fort: a protective headpiece, hence
the head, the skull, brains, wits: a covered stall: a fine: a seat in an
old-fashioned open chimney-place, a chimney-seat: a fragment of an
icefloe.--_v.t._ to fortify: to tax, to fine lightly, at Oxford and
Cambridge, for some irregularity. [O. Fr. _esconcer_, to conceal--L.
_abscond[)e]re_, _absconsum_.]

SCONCE, skons, _n._ the part of a candlestick for the candle: a hanging
candlestick with a mirror to reflect the light: a lantern. [O. Fr.
_esconse_--Low L. _absconsa_, a dark-lantern--_abscond[)e]re_, to hide.]


SCONE, sk[=o]n, _n._ (_Scot._) a soft cake fired on a griddle. [Perh. Gael.
_sgonn_, a shapeless mass.]

SCOON, sk[=oo]n, _v.t._ to skim along like a vessel: (_Scot._) to skip flat
stones on the surface of water. [_Scun_.]

SCOOP, sk[=oo]p, _v.t._ to lift up, as water, with something hollow: to
empty with a ladle: to make hollow: to dig out: to dredge for grain: to get
before a rival newspaper in publishing some important piece of news.--_n._
anything hollow for scooping: a large hollow shovel or ladle: a banker's
shovel: a coal-scuttle: a haul of money made in speculation: a place
hollowed out: a sweeping stroke: (_Scot._) the peak of a cap: the act of
beating another newspaper in publishing some news.--_ns._ SCOOP'ER, an
engraver's tool; SCOOP'ING, the action of the right whale in feeding;
SCOOP'-NET, a hand-net; SCOOP'-WHEEL, a wheel having buckets attached to
its circumference, used for raising water. [Prob. Scand., Sw. _skopa_, a
scoop; or Old Dut. _schoepe_, a shovel, Ger. _schüppe_, a shovel.]

SCOOT, sk[=oo]t, _v.i._ to make off with celerity.--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to
squirt.--_n._ a sudden flow of water: a squirt. [A variant of _shoot_.]

SCOPA, sk[=o]'pa, _n._ (_entom._) a mass of stiff hairs like a brush.--_n._
SCOP[=A]'RIA, a genus of pyralid moths: a genus of gamopetalous plants--the
West Indian _sweet bromweed_.--_adjs._ SCOP[=A]'RIOUS, scopiform;
SC[=O]'PATE, covered with stiff hairs; SC[=O]PIF'EROUS, brushy;
SC[=O]'PIFORM, broom-shaped.--_ns._ SCOP'ULA (_entom._), a small brush-like
organ; SCOPUL[=A]'RIA, in a sponge, the besom-shaped spicule.--_adjs._
SCOP'[=U]LATE, broom-shaped; SCOP'[=U]LIFORM, scopiform; SCOP'[=U]LIPED,
SC[=O]'PIPED, having brushy feet, as solitary bees. [L. _scopa_, twigs.]

SCOPE, sk[=o]p, _n._ that which one sees, space as far as one can see: room
or opportunity for free outlook: space for action: the end before the mind:
intention: length of cable at which a vessel rides at liberty: a
target.--_adjs._ SCOPE'FUL, with a wide prospect; SCOPE'LESS, purposeless,
useless. [It. _scopo_--Gr. _skopos_--_skopein_, to view.]

SCOPE, sk[=o]p, _n._ (_obs._) a bundle, as of twigs. [L. _scopa_, twigs.]

SCOPELIDÆ, sk[=o]-pel'i-d[=e], _n.pl._ a family of deep-water teleostean
fishes, the typical genus SCOP'ELUS. [Gr. _skopelos_, a rock.]

SCOPIDÆ, skop'i-d[=e], _n.pl._ an African family of wading-birds, as the
shadow-birds, the typical genus SC[=O]'PUS.

SCOPIOUS, sk[=o]'pi-us, _adj._ (_obs._) spacious.

SCOPPERIL, skop'e-ril, _n._ a top: teetotum: the bone-foundation of a
button. [Ice. _skoppa_, to spin.]

SCOPS, skops, _n._ the screech-owl. [Gr. _sk[=o]ps_.]

SCOPTIC, skop'tik, _adj._ mocking: jesting. [_Scomm_.]

SCOPULOUS, skop'[=u]-lus, _adj._ full of rocks. [L. _scopulus_--Gr.
_skopelos_, a high rock.]

SCORBUTIC, -AL, skor-b[=u]'tik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to, resembling, or
diseased with scurvy. [Low L. _scorbutus_, scurvy, prob. from Old Low Ger.
_schorbock_, scurvy, Old Dut. _scheurbuyck_, scurvy. Prob. orig. meaning
'rupture of the belly,' for Old Dut. _scheuren_, to tear, _buyck_ (mod.
Dut. _buik_), the belly.]

SCORCH, skorch, _v.t._ to burn slightly: to roast highly: to affect
painfully with heat: to singe: to attack with virulence.--_v.i._ to be
burned on the surface: to be dried up: (_slang_) to ride a bicycle
furiously on a public highway.--_ns._ SCORCHED'-CAR'PET, -WING, British
geometrid moths; SCORCH'ER, anything that scorches, a very caustic rebuke,
criticism, &c.: one who rides a bicycle furiously on a road;
SCORCH'ING.--_p.adj._ burning superficially: bitterly sarcastic,
scathing.--_adv._ SCORCH'INGLY.--_n._ SCORCH'INGNESS. [O. Fr. _escorcher_,
from Low L. _excorticare_--L. _ex_, off, _cortex_, _corticis_, bark; or
prob. Scand., Norw. _skrekka_, to shrink.]

SCORDATO, sk[=o]r-dä't[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) put out of tune.--_n._
SCORDAT[=U]'RA, in stringed musical instruments, an intentional departure
from the normal tuning. [It.]

SCORE, sk[=o]r, _n._ a mark or notch for keeping count: a line drawn: the
number twenty, once represented by a larger notch: a reckoning: a debt: the
register of the various points of play in a game: account: reason: the
original draught of a musical composition with all the parts, or its
transcript.--_v.t._ to mark with notches or lines: to furrow: to set down:
to charge: to engrave: to braid: to note: to enter: to make points, &c., in
certain games.--_v.i._ to keep, or to run up, a score: to succeed in making
points, &c., in a game.--_ns._ SC[=O]R'ER, one who keeps the marks in a
game; SC[=O]R'ING, the act of one who, or that which, scores: a deep groove
made by glacial action: the act of repeatedly bringing a racer and his
rider to the starting-point, so as to get a fair start.--GO OFF AT SCORE,
to make a spirited start; PAY OFF OLD SCORES, to repay old grudges; RUN UP
A SCORE, to run up a debt. [A.S. _scor_--_sceran_ (pa.p. _scoren_), to

SCORIA, sk[=o]'ri-a, _n._ dross or slag left from metal or ores after being
under fire: a genus of geometrid moths:--_pl._ SC[=O]'RIÆ, volcanic
ashes.--_adjs._ SC[=O]'RIAC, SCORI[=A]'CEOUS.--_ns._ SCORIFIC[=A]'TION, the
act or operation of reducing a body to scoria: a method of assaying by
fusing the ore with metallic lead and borax in a scorifier; SCOR'IF[=I]ER,
a flat dish used in such a form of assaying.--_adj._ SC[=O]'RIFORM, like
scoria.--_v.t._ SC[=O]'RIFY, to reduce to slag.--_adj._ SC[=O]'RIOUS.
[L.,--Gr. _sk[=o]ria_.]

SCORN, skorn, _n._ disdain caused by a mean opinion of anything: extreme
contempt: object of contempt.--_v.t._ to hold in extreme contempt: to
disdain: to make a mock of.--_v.i._ to scoff: to jeer.--_n._ SCOR'NER, one
who scorns: (_B._) one who scoffs at religion: a scoffer.--_adj._
SCORN'FUL, full of scorn: contemptuous: disdainful.--_adv._
deride; THINK SCORN, to disdain or despise. [O. Fr. _escarn_, mockery--Old
High Ger. _skern_, mockery.]

SCORODITE, skor'[=o]-d[=i]t, _n._ a hydrous arseniate of iron.--Also
SKOR'ODITE. [Gr. _skorodon_, _skordon_, garlic.]

SCORPÆNA, skor-p[=e]'na, _n._ a genus of fishes, the typical genus of
SCORPÆ'NIDÆ, a family including the rose-fish, the Californian rock-fish,
and their allies. [L.,--Gr. _skorpaina_, a fish.]

SCORPER, skor'p[.e]r, _n._ a gouging-chisel [For _scauper_.]

SCORPION, skor'pi-un, _n._ a name applicable to any member of the family
_Scorpionidæ_, included along with spiders, mites, &c. in the heterogeneous
class _Arachnida_--they have an elongated body, claws like the lobster, and
a poisonous sting in the tail: one of the signs of the zodiac: (_B._) a
whip with points like a scorpion's tail: an old military engine: any person
of virulent hatred or animosity.--_n._ SCOR'PIO, a scorpion: (_astron._) a
constellation and the eighth sign of the zodiac.--_adj._ SCOR'PIOID, curled
like the tail of a scorpion.--_n._ SCOR'PION-BUG, a large predacious
water-beetle.--_n.pl._ SCORPI[=O]'NES, true scorpions, a sub-order of
_Arachnida_.--_ns._ SCOR'PION-FISH, a sea-scorpion; SCOR'PION-FLY, an
insect having its abdomen curled like a scorpion; SCOR'PION-GRASS, the
forget-me-not: the mouse-ear; SCORPION'IDA, an order of _Arachnida_,
containing the Scorpiones or true scorpions; SCOR'PION-LOB'STER, a
long-tailed crustacean; SCOR'PION-PLANT, a Javan orchid with large creamy
flower supposed to resemble a spider; SCOR'PION-SHELL, a gasteropod
distinguished by long, channelled spines; SCOR'PION-SP[=I]'DER, a
whip-scorpion; SCOR'PION-WORT, a leguminous plant native of southern
Europe; SCORPI[=U]'RUS, a genus of leguminous plants named scorpion's tail.
[Fr.,--L. _scorpio_--Gr. _skorpios_.]

SCORSE. Same as SCOURSE (2).

SCORTATORY, skor'ta-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ pertaining to lewdness. [L.
_scortator_, a fornicator--_scortum_, a whore.]

SCORZA, skor'za, _n._ a variety of epidote. [It.]

SCORZONERA, skor-z[=o]-n[=e]'ra, _n._ a genus of Old World herbs of the
Aster family--_Viper's Grass_. [It., _scorza_, bark, _nera_, black, fem. of
_nero_--L. _niger_, black.]

SCOT, skot, _n._ a payment, esp. a customary tax--also SHOT.--_adj._
SCOT'-FREE, free from scot or payment: untaxed: unhurt, safe.--SCOT AND
LOT, an old legal phrase embracing all parochial assessments for the poor,
the church, lighting, cleansing, and watching. [A.S. _scot_,
_sceot_--_scéotan_, to shoot.]

SCOT, skot, _n._ a native of _Scotland_: one of the Scoti or Scots, a
Celtic race who migrated from Ireland--the original _Scotia_--before the
end of the 5th century.--_n._ SC[=O]'TIA, Scotland.--SCOTS GREYS, a famous
regiment of dragoons, established in 1683; SCOTS GUARDS, the Scottish force
which served the kings of France from 1418 down to the battle of Minden
(1759), nominally retained, however, down to 1830: a well-known regiment of
Guards in the British army, formerly Scots Fusiliers.--POUND SCOTS, 1s. 8d.
[A.S. _Scottas_, the Scots. Further ety. quite uncertain, whether Gael.
_sguit_, a wanderer, Gr. _Skyth[=e]s_, a Scythian, &c.]

SCOTCH, skoch, _adj._ pertaining to _Scotland_, its people, language,
customs, products, &c.--also SCOT'TISH, SCOTS.--_n._ the dialect of English
spoken in Lowland Scotland: (_coll._) Scotch whisky.--_ns._ SCOTCH'-HOP, a
child's game: hop-scotch; SCOTCH'MAN, SCOTS'MAN, a native of
Scotland.--SCOTCH AMULET, a British geometrid moth; SCOTCH AND ENGLISH, the
boys' game of prisoner's base; SCOTCH BARLEY, pot or hulled barley; SCOTCH
BLUEBELL, the harebell; SCOTCH BONNETS, the fairy-ring mushroom; SCOTCH
BROTH, broth made with pot-barley and plenty of various vegetables chopped
small; SCOTCH CAP, the wild black raspberry; SCOTCH CATCH, or SNAP, the
peculiarity in Scotch music of the first of two tones played to the same
beat being the shorter; SCOTCH CURLIES, a variety of kale; SCOTCH FIR, or
PINE, the only species of pine indigenous to Britain, valuable for its
timber, turpentine, tar, &c.; SCOTCH KALE, a variety of kale; SCOTCH MIST,
a mist like fine rain; SCOTCH PEBBLES, varieties of agate and jasper;
SCOTCH THISTLE, the national emblem of Scotland.

SCOTCH, skoch, _v.t._ to cut or wound slightly: to notch.--_n._ a notch,
scratch.--_n._ SCOTCH'ING, a method of dressing stone with a
pick.--SCOTCHED-COLLOPS, or (erroneously) SCOTCH-COLLOPS, beef-steaks fried
with onions. [Related to _scutch_, _scratch_.]

SCOTCH, skoch, _n._ a strut or drag for a wheel.--_v.t._ to prop or block
with such.--_n._ SCOTE, a prop.--_v.t._ to stop or block.

SCOTER, sk[=o]'t[.e]r, _n._ a genus of northern sea-ducks, with bill
gibbous at the base. [Prob. Ice. _skoti_--_skjóta_, to shoot.]

SCOTIA, sk[=o]'ti-a, _n._ a concave moulding, as the base of a pillar. [Gr.
_skotia_,--_skotos_, darkness.]

SCOTICE, skot'i-s[=e], _adv._ in the Scotch language or manner.--_n._

SCOTISM, sk[=o]'tizm, _n._ the metaphysical system of Johannes Duns
_Scotus_, a native of Dunstane in Northumberland, Dun or Down in the north
of Ireland, or Dunse in Berwickshire (1265 or 1274-1308), the great
assailant of the method of Aquinas in seeking in speculation instead of in
practice the foundation of Christian theology--his theological descendants
were the Franciscans, in opposition to the Dominicans, who followed
Aquinas.--_n._ SC[=O]'TIST, a follower of Duns Scotus.--_adj._ SCOTIS'TIC.

SCOTOGRAPH, skot'[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for writing in the dark, or
for the use of the blind.--_ns._ SCOT[=O]'MA, a defect in the vision
(_obs._ SCOT'OMY); SCOT'OPHIS, a genus of carinated serpents of North
America; SCOTOR'NIS, a genus of African birds with very long tails;
SCOT'OSCOPE, a night-glass. [Gr. _skotos_, darkness, _graphein_, to write.]

SCOTTICISM, skot'i-sizm, _n._ a Scotch idiom.--_v.t._ SCOTT'ICISE.--_n._
SCOTTIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SCOTT'IFY (_coll._), to give Scotch character

SCOUNDREL, skown'drel, _n._ a low worthless fellow: a rascal: a man without
principle.--_ns._ SCOUN'DRELDOM, scoundrels collectively; SCOUN'DRELISM,
baseness, rascality.--_adv._ SCOUN'DRELLY. [For _scunner-el_, one who
scunners, or who causes scunnering--A.S. _scunian_, to shun.]

SCOUP, skowp, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to run: to scamper. [Related to _skip_.]

SCOUR, skowr, _v.t._ to clean by rubbing with something rough: to cleanse
from grease or dirt: to remove by rubbing: to cleanse by a current: to
search thoroughly by scrubbing: to cleanse by brushing: to purge
drastically.--_n._ the action of a strong current in a narrow channel:
violent purging.--_ns._ SCOUR'AGE, refuse water after scouring; SCOUR'ER,
drastic cathartic; SCOUR'ING, in angling, the freshening of angle-worms for
bait by putting them in clean sand; SCOUR'ING-BALL, a ball composed of
soap, &c., for removing stains of grease.--_n.pl._ SCOUR'ING-DROPS, a
mixture of oil of turpentine and oil of lemon used for removing
stains.--_ns._ SCOUR'ING-RUSH, one of the horse-tails; SCOUR'ING-STOCK, in
woollen manufacture, an apparatus in which cloths are treated to remove the
oil and to cleanse them in the process of manufacture. [O. Fr.
_escurer_--L. _excur[=a]re_, to take great care of.]

SCOUR, skowr, _v.i._ to run with swiftness: to scurry along.--_v.t._ to run
quickly over.--_n._ SCOUR'ER, a footpad. [O. Fr. _escourre_--L.
_excurr[)e]re_, to run forth.]

SCOURGE, skurj, _n._ a whip made of leather thongs: an instrument of
punishment: a punishment: means of punishment.--_v.t._ to whip severely: to
punish in order to correct.--_n._ SCOUR'GER, a flagellant. [O. Fr.
_escorgie_ (Fr. _écourgée_)--L. (_scutia_) _excoriata_, (a whip) made of
leather--_corium_, leather.]

SCOURSE, sk[=o]rs, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to run: to hurry. [O. Fr.
_escourser_--L. _excurr[)e]re_, _excursum_, to run out.]

SCOURSE, sk[=o]rs, _v.t._ to barter, exchange.--_v.i._ to make an
exchange.--_n._ (_Spens._) discourse.--Also SCORSE, SCOSS. [Prob.

SCOUT, skowt, _n._ one sent out to bring in tidings, observe the enemy,
&c.: a spy: a sneak: in cricket, a fielder: the act of watching: a bird of
the auk family: a college servant at Oxford, the same as _gyp_ in Cambridge
and _skip_ in Dublin.--_v.t._ to watch closely.--_n._ SCOUT'-MAS'TER, an
officer who has the direction of army scouts. [O. Fr. _escoute_--escouter
(It. _ascoltare_)--L. _auscult[=a]re_, to listen--auris, the ear.]

SCOUT, skowt, _v.t._ to sneer at: to reject with disdain.--_adv._
SCOUT'INGLY, sneeringly. [Scand.,--Ice. _skúta_, _skúti_, a
taunt--_skjóta_, to shoot.]

SCOUT, skowt, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to pour forth a liquid forcibly, esp.
excrement.--_n._ the guillemot.

SCOUTER, skowt'[.e]r, _n._ a workman who uses jump-drills, wedges, &c. to
scale off large flakes of stone.

SCOUTH, skowth, _n._ (_Scot._) room: scope, plenty.

SCOUTHER, skow'th[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to scorch: to fire hastily, as on
a gridiron.

SCOVAN, sk[=o]'van, _n._ a Cornish name for a vein of tin.

SCOVE, sk[=o]v, _v.t._ to cover with clay so as to prevent the escape of
heat in burning.

SCOVED, sk[=o]vd, _adj._ (_prov._) smeared or blotched.--Also SC[=O]'VY.

SCOVEL, skuv'l, _n._ (_prov._) a mop for sweeping ovens.

SCOW, skow, _n._ a flat-bottomed boat: a ferry-boat. [Dut. _schouw_.]

SCOWL, skowl, _v.i._ to wrinkle the brows in displeasure: to look sour or
angry: to look gloomy.--_n._ the wrinkling of the brows when
displeased.--_p.adj._ SCOW'LING.--_adv._ SCOW'LINGLY. [Scand., Dan.
_skule_, to scowl; Low Ger. _schulen_, to look slyly.]

SCOWL, skowl, _n._ (_prov._) old workings of iron ore.

SCOWTHER, SCOUTHER, skow'th[.e]r, _n._ (_prov._) a flying shower.

SCRAB, skrab, _n._ a crab-apple.

SCRABBLE, skrab'l, _v.i._ to scrape or make unmeaning marks, to scrawl: to
scramble or crawl along with difficulty.--_v.t._ to gather hastily.--_n._ a
scramble.--_v.t._ SCRAB, to scratch, to scrape.--SCRABBED EGGS, a dish of
hard-boiled eggs chopped up and seasoned. [A form of _scrapple_, freq. of

SCRAFFLE, skraf'l, _v.i._ to scramble: to wrangle: to be industrious: to
shuffle. [A form of _scrabble_ or _scramble_.]

SCRAG, skrag, _n._ anything thin or lean and rough: the bony part of the
neck.--_v.t._ to put to death by hanging.--_adjs._ SCRAG'GED, SCRAG'GY,
lean and rough: uneven, rugged.--_ns._ SCRAG'GEDNESS, SCRAG'GINESS.--_adv._
SCRAG'GILY.--_adjs._ SCRAG'GLY, rough-looking; SCRAG'-NECKED, having a
long, thin neck.--_n._ SCRAG'-WHALE, a finner whale, having the back
scragged. [Scand., Sw. prov. _shraka_, a tall tree or man, _shrokk_,
anything shrivelled--Norw. _skrekka_, to shrink.]

SCRAICH, SCRAIGH, skr[=a]h, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to scream hoarsely: to
screech, to shriek.--_n._ SCRAICH. [Gael. _sgreach_.]

SCRAMB, skramb, _v.t._ (_prov._) to scrape together with the hands. [A
variant of _scramp_.]

SCRAMBLE, skram'bl, _v.i._ to struggle to seize something before others: to
catch at or strive for rudely: to wriggle along on all-fours.--_v.t._ to
throw down to be scrambled for: to advance or push.--_n._ act of
scrambling: a struggle for office.--_n._ SCRAM'BLER.--_adj._ SCRAM'BLING,
confused and irregular.--_adv._ SCRAM'BLINGLY, in a scrambling manner:
irregularly: unceremoniously. [Prov. Eng. _scramb_, to rake together with
the hands, or _scramp_, to snatch at; nearly allied to _scrabble_ and

SCRAMP, skramp, _v.t._ to catch at, snatch. [_Scramble_.]

SCRAN, skran, _n._ broken victuals: refuse--also SKRAN.--_n._ SCRAN'NING,
the act of begging for food.--BAD SCRAN TO YOU! bad fare to you! an Irish
imprecation. [Prob. Ice. _skran_, rubbish.]

SCRANCH, skransh, _v.t._ to grind with the teeth: to crunch.--Also
SCRAUNCH, SCRUNCH. [Prob. Dut. _schransen_, to eat heartily.]

SCRANKY, skrank'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) scraggy: lank.

SCRANNEL, skran'l, _adj._ (_Milt._) producing a weak, screeching noise:
thin: squeaking.

SCRANNY, skran'i, _adj._ (_prov._) lean and thin.

SCRAP, skrap, _n._ a small piece: a remnant: a picture suited for
preservation in a scrap-book: wrought-iron clippings: an unconnected
extract.--_v.t._ to consign to the scrap-heap.--_ns._ SCRAP'-BOOK, a blank
book for scraps or extracts, prints, &c.; SCRAP'-HEAP, a place where old
iron is collected; SCRAP'-[=I]'RON, old iron accumulated for reworking;
SCRAP'-MET'AL, scraps or fragments of any kind of metal, which are only of
use for remelting.--_adv._ SCRAP'PILY, in fragments, desultorily.--_n._
SCRAP'PINESS, fragmentariness, disconnectedness.--_adj._ SCRAP'PY.--GO TO
THE SCRAP-HEAP, to go to ruin. [Scand., Ice. _skrap_, scraps--_skrapa_, to

SCRAP, skrap, _n._ (_slang_) a fight, scrimmage.

SCRAP, skrap, _n._ a snare for birds.

SCRAPE, skr[=a]p, _v.t._ to make a harsh or grating noise on: to rub with
something sharp: to remove by drawing a sharp edge over: to collect by
laborious effort: to save penuriously: to erase.--_v.i._ to grub in the
ground: to rub lightly: to draw back the foot in making obeisance: to play
on a stringed instrument.--_n._ a perplexing situation: difficulty: a
shave.--_adj._ SCRAPE'-GOOD, miserly, stingy.--_ns._ SCRAPE'-PENN'Y, a
miser; SCRAP'ER, an instrument used for scraping, esp. the soles of shoes
outside the door of a house: a hoe: a tool used by engravers and others: a
fiddler; SCRAP'ING, that which is scraped off, as the scrapings of the
street: shavings, hoardings; SCRAP'ING-PLANE, a plane used by workers in
metal and wood.--SCRAPE ACQUAINTANCE WITH, to get on terms of acquaintance.
[Scand., Ice. _skrapa_, to scrape; Dut. _schrapen_; A.S. _scearpian_.]

SCRAPPLE, skrap'l, _v.i._ to grub about.--_n._ a mixture of meat-scraps,
herbs, &c. stewed, pressed in cakes, sliced and fried. [Dim. of _scrap_.]

SCRAT, skrat, _n._ a devil.--Also OLD SCRATCH, the devil. [Cf. Ger.
_schratt_, Ice. _skratti_, a goblin.]

SCRATCH, skrach, _v.t._ to mark the surface with something pointed, as the
nails: to tear or to dig with the claws: to write hurriedly: to
erase.--_v.i._ to use the claws in tearing or digging: to delete a name on
a voting-paper.--_n._ a mark or tear made by scratching: a slight wound:
the line in a prize-ring up to which boxers are led--hence test, trial, as
in 'to come up to the scratch:' (_pl._) a disease in horses: the time of
starting of a player: in billiards, a chance stroke which is successful: a
kind of wig, a scratch-wig: a scrawl.--_adj._ taken at random, as a
'scratch crew:' without handicap, or allowance of time or distance.--_ns._
SCRATCH'-BACK, a kind of toy, which, when drawn over a person's back, makes
a sound as if his coat was torn; SCRATCH'-BRUSH, a name given to various
forms of brushes; SCRATCH'-COAT, the first coat of plaster; SCRATCH'ER, a
bird which scratches for food.--_adv._ SCRATCH'INGLY.--_n.pl._
SCRATCH'INGS, refuse matter strained out of fat when melted.--_ns._
SCRATCH'-WEED, the goose-grass; SCRATCH'-WIG, a wig that covers only part
of the head; SCRATCH'-WORK, a kind of wall decoration.--_adj._ SCRATCH'Y,
ragged: scratching: of little depth.--SCRATCH OUT, to erase. [Explained by
Skeat as due to the confusion of M. E. _skratten_, to scratch, with M. E.
_cracchen_, to scratch: _skratten_ standing for _skarten_, an extended form
from Ice. _sker-a_, to shear; _cracchen_, again, stands for _kratsen_--Sw.
_kratsa_, to scrape.]

SCRATTLE, skrat'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to scuttle.

SCRAW, skraw, _n._ a turf, a sod. [Gael. _scrath_.]

SCRAWL, skrawl, _n._ (_U.S._) brushwood.

SCRAWL, skrawl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to scrape, mark, or write irregularly or
hastily.--_n._ irregular or hasty writing: bad writing: a broken branch of
a tree: the young of the dog-crab.--_n._ SCRAWL'ER.--_adj._ SCRAWL'Y,
ill-formed. [A contr. of _scrabble_.]

SCRAWM, skrawm, _v.t._ (_prov._) to tear, to scratch. [Prob. Dut.
_schrammen_, _schram_, a rent.]

SCRAWNY, skraw'ni, _adj._ wasted: raw-boned.--_n._ SCRAW'NINESS.

SCRAY, skr[=a], _n._ the sea-swallow. [W. _ysgräell_.]

SCREAK, skr[=e]k, _v.t._ to scream: to creak.--_n._ a screech.

SCREAM, skr[=e]m, _v.i._ to cry out with a shrill cry, as in fear or pain:
to shriek.--_n._ a shrill, sudden cry, as in fear or pain: a shriek.--_n._
SCREAM'ER, one who screams: a genus of South American birds about the size
of the turkey, with loud, harsh cry: (_U.S. slang_) a bouncer.--SCREAMING
FARCE, one highly ludicrous. [Scand., Ice. _skræma_, Sw. _skrämma_, to
fear; cf. _Screech_, _Shriek_.]

SCREE, skr[=e], _n._ débris at the base of a cliff.--Also SCREES. [Ice.
_skritha_, a landslip--_skrítha_, creep.]

SCREE, skr[=e], _n._ (_Scot._) a coarse sieve.

SCREECH, skr[=e]ch, _v.i._ to utter a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.--_n._
a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.--_ns._ SCREECH'ER, the swift;
SCREECH'-HAWK, the night-jar; SCREECH'-MAR'TIN, the swift; SCREECH'-OWL, a
kind of screeching owl: the missel-thrush: the barn-owl; SCREECH'-THRUSH,
the missel-thrush.--_adj._ SCREECH'Y, shrill and harsh, like a screech:
loud-mouthed. [M. E. _scriken_--Scand., Ice. _shrækja_, to shriek; cf.
Gael. _sgreach_, to shriek.]

SCREED, skr[=e]d, _n._ a piece torn off: a shred: a long tirade: (_Scot._)
a strip of mortar: a rent, a tear.--_v.t._ to repeat glibly. [A.S.
_screáde_, a shred.]

SCREEN, skr[=e]n, _n._ that which shelters from danger or observation, that
which protects from heat, cold, or the sun: (_Scot._) a large scarf: an
enclosure or partition of wood, stone, or metal work, common in churches,
shutting off chapels from the nave, separating the nave from the choir,
&c.: a coarse riddle for sifting coal, &c.--_v.t._ to shelter or conceal:
to pass through a coarse riddle.--_n._ SCREEN'ING-MACHINE', an apparatus
for sifting coal.--_n.pl._ SCREEN'INGS, the refuse matter after sifting.
[O. Fr. _escren_ (Fr. _écran_), from Old High Ger. _scranna_, a court; Ger.
_schranne_, a bench.]

SCREEVER, skr[=e]v'[.e]r, _n._ one who writes begging letters.--_v.t._
SCREEVE, to write such.--_n._ SCREEV'ING, the writing of begging letters:
drawing with coloured chalks on the pavement for coppers.

SCREW, skr[=oo], _n._ a cylinder with a spiral groove or ridge on either
its outer or inner surface, used as a fastening and as a mechanical power:
a screw-propeller: a turn or twist to one side: a penny packet of tobacco
put up in a paper twisted at both ends: a stingy fellow, an extortioner, a
skinflint: a broken-winded horse: pressure: (_U.S. slang_) a professor who
requires students to work hard: salary, [Illustration] wages.--_v.t._ to
apply a screw to: to press with a screw: to twist: to oppress by extortion:
to force: to squeeze.--_ns._ SCREW'-BOLT, a bolt threaded at one end for a
nut; SCREW'-CUT'TER, a hand-tool for cutting screws; SCREW'-DRIV'ER, an
instrument for driving or turning screw-nails.--_adj._ SCREWED (_slang_),
tipsy, tight.--_ns._ SCREW'-EL'EVATOR, a dentist's instrument: a surgeon's
instrument for forcing open the jaws; SCREW'ER.--_adj._ SCREW'ING,
exacting: close.--_ns._ SCREW'-JACK (same as JACKSCREW); SCREW'-KEY, a
lever for turning the nut of a screw; SCREW'-MACHINE', a machine for making
screws; SCREW'-NAIL, a nail made in the form of a screw; SCREW'-PILE, a
pile forced into the ground, and held there by a peculiar kind of screw at
the lower extremity; SCREW'-PINE, a plant of the tropical genus _Pandanus_,
or of the screw-pine family--from the screw-like arrangement of the
clustered leaves; SCREW'-PLATE, a plate of steel in which are a
[Illustration] graduated series of holes, with internal screws used in
forming external screws; SCREW'-POD, the screw-bean SCREW'-PRESS, a press
in which the force is applied by means of a screw; SCREW'-PROPEL'LER, a
screw or spiral-bladed wheel at the stern of steam-vessels for propelling
them: a steamer so propelled; SCREW'-RUDD'ER, an application of the screw
for the purpose of steering; SCREW'-STAIR, a spiral staircase: a hanging
stair; SCREW'-STEAM'ER, a steamer propelled by a screw; SCREW'STONE, a
wheelstone: a fossil screw; SCREW'-THREAD, the spiral ridge on the cylinder
of a male screw, or on the inner surface of a female screw; SCREW'-VALVE, a
stop-cock opened and shut by means of a screw instead of a spigot;
SCREW'-VEN'TILATOR, a ventilating [Illustration] apparatus; SCREW'-WORM,
the larva of a blow-fly; SCREW'-WRENCH, a tool for grasping the flat sides
of the heads of large screws.--_adj._ SCREW'Y, exacting: close:
worthless.--A SCREW LOOSE, something defective. [Earlier _scrue_. O. Fr.
_escrou_, prob. L. _scrobem_, accus. of _scrobs_, a hole; or Low Ger.
_schruve_, Dut. _schroef_, Ice. _skrufa_, Ger. _schraube_.]

SCRIBBET, skrib'et, _n._ a painter's pencil.

SCRIBBLE, skrib'l, _v.t._ to scratch or write carelessly: to fill with
worthless writing.--_v.i._ to write carelessly: to scrawl.--_n._ careless
writing: a scrawl.--_ns._ SCRIBB'LER, a petty author; SCRIBB'LING, the act
of writing hastily or carelessly.--_adv._ SCRIBB'LINGLY.--_n.pl._
SCRIBB'LINGS. [A freq. of _scribe_.]

SCRIBBLE, skrib'l, _v.t._ to card roughly, as wool.--_ns._ SCRIBB'LER, a
machine for doing this, or a person who tends such; SCRIBB'LING, the first
carding of wool or cotton; SCRIBB'LING-MACHINE', a coarse form of
carding-machine. [Scand., Sw. _skrubbla_, to card.]

SCRIBBLE-SCRABBLE, skrib'l-skrab'l, _n._ an ungainly fellow. [Reduplicated
from _scrabble_.]

SCRIBE, skr[=i]b, _n._ a writer: a public or official writer: a clerk,
amanuensis, secretary: (_B._) an expounder and teacher of the Mosaic and
traditional law: a pointed instrument to mark lines on wood, &c.--_v.t._ to
write: to record: to mark.--_adjs._ SCR[=I]'BABLE, capable of being written
upon; SCRIB[=A]'CIOUS, given to writing.--_n._ SCRIB[=A]'CIOUSNESS.--_adj._
SCR[=I]'BAL, pertaining to a scribe.--_ns._ SCR[=I]'BING;
SCR[=I]'BING-COM'PASS, an instrument used in saddlery and cooper-work;
SCR[=I]'BISM. [Fr.,--L. _scriba_--_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

SCRIEVE, skr[=e]v, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to glide swiftly along. [Scand., Ice.
_skrefa_--_skref_, a stride.]

SCRIGGLE, skrig'l, _v.i._ to writhe: to wriggle.--_n._ a wriggling. [Prob.
Ice. _shrika_, to slip; Ger. _schrecken_, Dut. _schrikken_, to terrify.]

SCRIKE, skr[=i]k, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to shriek.

SCRIM, skrim, _n._ cloth used for linings.

SCRIME, skr[=i]m, _v.i._ to fence.--_n._ SCR[=I]'MER (_Shak._), a fencer.
[Fr. _escrimer_, to fence; cf. _Skirmish_.]

SCRIMMAGE, skrim'[=a]j, _n._ a skirmish: a general fight: a tussle. [Prob.
a corr. of _skirmish_.]

SCRIMP, skrimp, _v.t._ to make too small or short: to limit or shorten: to
straiten.--_adj._ short, scanty.--_adj._ SCRIMP'ED, pinched.--_adv._
SCRIMP'LY, hardly: scarcely.--_n._ SCRIMP'NESS.--_adj._ SCRIMP'Y, scanty.
[A.S. _scrimpan_; allied to _scrimman_, to shrink, and _scrincan_, to
shrivel up.]

SCRIMSHAW, skrim'shaw, _v.t._ to engrave fanciful designs on shells,
whales' teeth, &c.--_n._ any shell or the like fancifully engraved.

SCRINE, skr[=i]n, _n._ (_Spens._) a cabinet for papers, a shrine. [O. Fr.
_escrin_--L. _scrinium_, a shrine.]

SCRINGE, skrinj, _v.i._ to cringe. [A form of _shrink_.]

SCRIP, skrip, _n._ that which is written: a piece of paper containing
writing: a certificate of stock or shares in any joint-stock company
subscribed or allotted.--_ns._ SCRIP'-COM'PANY, a company having shares
which pass by delivery; SCRIP'-HOLD'ER, one whose title to stock is a
written certificate. [A variant of _script_--L. _scrib[)e]re_, _scriptum_,
to write.]

SCRIP, skrip, _n._ a small bag: a satchel: a pilgrim's pouch: (_her._) a
bearing representing a pouch.--_n._ SCRIP'PAGE (_Shak._), contents of a
scrip. [Ice. _skreppa_, a bag; Ger. _scherbe_, a shred.]

SCRIPT, skript, _n._ (_print._) type like written letters: a writing:
(_law_) an original document: handwriting.--_n._ SCRIP'TION, a handwriting.
[O. Fr. _escript_--L. _scriptum_--_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

SCRIPTORIUM, skrip-t[=o]'ri-um, _n._ a writing-room, esp. that in a
monastery.--_adj._ SCRIP'TORY, written.

SCRIPTURE, skrip't[=u]r, _n._ sacred writing: the Bible: a writing: a deed:
any sacred writing.--_adj._ SCRIP'TURAL, contained in Scripture: according
to Scripture: biblical: written.--_ns._ SCRIP'TURALISM, literal adherence
to the Scriptures; SCRIP'TURALIST, a literalist in his obedience to the
letter of Scripture, a student of Scripture.--_adv._ SCRIP'TURALLY.--_ns._
SCRIP'TURALNESS; SCRIP'TURE-READ'ER, an evangelist who reads the Bible in
cottages, barracks, &c.; SCRIP'TURIST, one versed in Scripture.--THE
SCRIPTURES, the Bible. [L. _scriptura_--_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

SCRITCH, skrich, _n._ a screech or shrill cry: a thrush. [A variant of

SCRIVANO, skriv-ä'n[=o], _n._ a writer: a clerk. [It.]

SCRIVE, skr[=i]v, _v.t._ to describe: to draw a line with a pointed tool.

SCRIVENER, skriv'en-[.e]r, _n._ a scribe: a copyist: one who draws up
contracts, &c.: one who receives the money of others to lay it out at
interest.--_n._ SCRIV'ENERSHIP. [O. Fr. _escrivain_ (Fr. _écrivain_)--Low
L. _scribanus_--L. _scriba_, a scribe.]

SCROBE, skr[=o]b, _n._ a groove in the rostrum of weevils or curculios, or
on the outer side of the mandible.--_adjs._ SCROBIC'ULATE, -D, having
numerous shallow depressions.--_n._ SCROBIC'ULUS (_anat._), a pit or
depression. [L. _scrobis_, a ditch.]

SCROD, skrod, _v.t._ to shred.--_n._ a young codfish.--_n._ SCROD'GILL, an
instrument for taking fish. [_Shred_.]

SCRODDLE, skrod'l, _v.t._ to variegate, as pottery in different
colours.--SCRODDLED WARE, mottled pottery.

SCROFULA, skrof'[=u]-la, _n._ a disease with chronic swellings of the
glands in various parts of the body, esp. the neck, tending to suppurate:
the king's evil.--_adjs._ SCROFULIT'IC, SCROF'ULOUS, pertaining to,
resembling, or affected with scrofula.--_adv._ SCROF'ULOUSLY.--_n._
SCROF'ULOUSNESS. [L. _scrofulæ_--_scrofula_, a little pig, dim. of
_scrofa_, a sow.]

SCROG, skrog, _n._ (_Scot._) a stunted bush: a thicket: brushwood: (_her._)
a branch.--_adjs._ SCROG'GIE, SCROG'GY, covered with underwood. [_Scrag_.]

SCROLL, skr[=o]l, _n._ a roll of paper or parchment: a writing in the form
of a roll: a rough draft of anything: a schedule: a flourish added to a
person's signature as a substitute for a seal: in hydraulics, a spiral
water-way placed round a turbine to regulate the flow of water: (_anat._) a
turbinate bone: (_archit._) a spiral ornament, the volute of the Ionic and
Corinthian capitals.--_v.t._ to draft: to write in rough outline.--_adj._
SCROLLED, formed into a scroll: ornamented with scrolls.--_ns._
SCROLL'-HEAD, an ornamental piece at the bow of a vessel; SCROLL'-WHEEL, a
cog-wheel in the form of a scroll; SCROLL'-WORK, ornamental work of
scroll-like character. [O. Fr. _escroue_, acc. to Skeat from Old Dut.
_schroode_, a shred.]

SCROOP, skr[=oo]p, _v.i._ to emit a harsh sound: to creak.--_n._ any crisp
sound like that made when a bundle of yarn is tightly twisted. [Imit.]

SCROPHULARIA, skrof-[=u]-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ the _figwort_ genus of herbs,
type of the _Scrophulariaceæ_ or _Scrophularineæ_, a natural order
containing almost 2000 known species, chiefly herbaceous and half-shrubby
plants--_Digitalis_ or _Fox-glove_, _Calceolaria_, _Mimulus_, _Antirrhinum_
or _Snap-dragon_, _Veronica_ or _Speedwell_, and _Euphrasia_ or
_Eye-bright_, &c.

SCROTUM, skr[=o]'tum, _n._ the bag which contains the testicles.--_adjs._
SCR[=O]'TAL, relating to the scrotum; SCR[=O]'TIFORM, formed like a double
bag.--_ns._ SCROT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the scrotum; SCR[=O]'TOCELE, a
scrotal hernia. [L.]

SCROUGE, skrowj, _v.t.._ to squeeze: to crowd--also SCROOGE, SCRUDGE.--_n._
SCROU'GER, a whopper: something large. [Variant forms of _shrug_.]

SCROW, skrow, _n._ a roll: a scroll: a writing: clippings from hides.

SCROYLE, skroil, _n._ (_Shak._) a scabby fellow: a mean fellow. [O. Fr.
_escrouelles_, scrofula--L. _scrofulæ_.]

SCRUB, skrub, _v.t.._ to rub hard, esp. with something rough.--_v.i._ to be
laborious and penurious:--_pr.p._ scrub'bing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
scrubbed.--_n._ one who works hard and lives meanly: anything small or
mean: a worn-out brush: low underwood: a bush: a stunted shrub: a worthless
horse.--_p.adj._ SCRUBBED (_Shak._)=_Scrubby_.--_ns._ SCRUB'BER, in
Australia, an animal which breaks away from the herd: a machine for washing
leather after the tanpit; SCRUB'BING; SCRUB'BING-BOARD, a wash-board;
SCRUB'BING-BRUSH, a brush with short, stiff bristles; SCRUB'-BIRD, an
Australian bird.--_adj._ SCRUB'BY, laborious and penurious: mean: small:
stunted in growth: covered with scrub.--_ns._ SCRUB'-GRASS, the
scouring-rush; SCRUB'-OAK, a name of three low American oaks;
SCRUB'-RID'ER, one who rides in search of cattle that stray from the herd
into the scrub; SCRUB'-ROB'IN, a bird inhabiting the Australian scrub;
SCRUB'STONE, a species of calciferous sandstone; SCRUB'-TUR'KEY, a
mound-bird; SCRUB'-WOOD, a small tree. [A.S. _scrob_, a shrub.]

SCRUFF, skruf, _n._ the nape of the neck.--Also SKRUFF. [A variant of
_scuff_, _scuft_.]

SCRUFFY, skruf'i, _adj._ Same as SCURFY.

SCRUMPTIOUS, skrump'shus, _adj._ (_slang_) nice: fastidious: delightful.

SCRUNCH, skrunsh, _v.t.._ to crunch: to crush.--_n._ a harsh, crunching
sound. [A variant of _crunch_.]

SCRUNT, skrunt, _n._ (_Scot._) a niggardly person.

SCRUPLE, skr[=oo]'pl, _n._ a small weight--in apothecaries' weight, 20 troy
grains, 1/3 drachm, 1/24 ounce, and 1/288 of a troy pound: a very small
quantity: reluctance to decide or act, as from motives of conscience:
difficulty.--_v.i._ to hesitate in deciding or acting.--_n._
SCRU'PLER.--_adj._ SCRU'PULOUS, having scruples, doubts, or objections:
conscientious: cautious: exact: captious.--_adv._ SCRU'PULOUSLY.--_ns._
SCRU'PULOUSNESS, SCRUPULOS'ITY, state of being scrupulous: doubt: niceness:
precision. [Fr. _scrupule_--L. _scrupulus_, dim. of _scrupus_, a sharp
stone, anxiety.]

SCRUTINY, skr[=oo]'ti-ni, _n._ careful or minute inquiry: critical
examination: an examination of the votes given at an election for the
purpose of correcting the poll: in the early Church, the examination in
Lent of the Catechumens: (_R.C._) one of the methods of electing a pope,
the others being _acclamation_ and _accession_.--_adj._ SCRU'TABLE.--_ns._
SCRUT[=A]'TION, scrutiny; SCRUT[=A]'TOR, a close examiner.--_v.t.._
SCRU'TINATE, to examine: to investigate.--_n._ SCRUTINEER', one who makes a
scrutiny, or minute search or inquiry.--_v.t.._ SCRU'TINISE, to search
minutely or closely: to examine carefully or critically: to
investigate.--_n._ SCRU'TINISER.--_adj._ SCRU'TINOUS.--_adv._
SCRU'TINOUSLY.--SCRUTIN-DE-LISTE, a method of voting for the French Chamber
of Deputies, in which the voter casts his ballot for the whole number of
deputies allotted to his department, choosing the candidates in any
combination he pleases--opp. to SCRUTIN D'ARRONDISSEMENT, in which method
the voter votes only for his local candidate or candidates, the
arrondissement being the basis of representation. [O. Fr. _scrutine_--L.
_scrutinium_--_scrut[=a]ri_, to search even to the rags--_scruta_, rags,

SCRUTO, skr[=oo]'t[=o], _n._ a movable trap in theatres.

SCRUTOIRE=_Escritoire_ (q.v.).

SCRUZE, skr[=oo]z, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to squeeze. [_Scrouge_.]

SCRY, skr[=i], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to descry:--_pa.t._ scryde. [Formed by
aphæresis from _descry_.]

SCRY, skr[=i], _v.t._ (_Scot._) to proclaim.--_n._ a cry: a flock of

SCUD, skud, _v.i._ to run quickly: (_naut._) to run before the wind in a
gale: (_Scot._) to throw flat stones so as to skip along the water.--_v.t._
to skelp: (_Scot._) to slap:--_pr.p._ scud'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
scud'ded.--_n._ act of moving quickly: loose, vapoury clouds driven swiftly
along: a swift runner: a beach flea: a form of garden hoe: a slap, a sharp
stroke.--_n._ SCUD'DER, one who, or that which, scuds. [Scand., Dan.
_skyde_, to shoot; cf. A.S. _scé[=o]tan_, to shoot.]

SCUDDICK, skud'ik, _n._ (_slang_) anything of small value: a
shilling.--Also SCUTT'OCK.

SCUDDLE, skud'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to drudge.--_v.t._ to cleanse: to
wash.--_n._ SCUD'LER, a scullion.

SCUDO, sk[=oo]'d[=o], _n._ an Italian silver coin of different values,
usually worth about 4s.: the space within the outer rim of the bezel of a
ring:--_pl._ SCU'DI. [It.,--L. _scutum_, a shield.]

SCUFF, skuf, _n._ (_prov._) a form of _scruff_ or _scuft_.

SCUFF, skuf, _v.i._ to shuffle along the ground.--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to graze
slightly. [Sw. _skuffa_, to shove.]

SCUFF, skuf, _n._ a scurf: a scale.

SCUFFLE, skuf'l, _v.i._ to struggle closely: to fight confusedly.--_n._ a
struggle in which the combatants grapple closely: any confused
contest.--_n._ SCUFF'LER, one who, or that which, scuffles. [A freq. of Sw.
_skuffa_, to shove, _skuff_, a blow.]

SCUFFY, skuf'i, _adj._ having lost the original freshness: shabby, out of
elbows, seedy.

SCUFT, skuft, _n._ (_prov._) the nape of the neck.--Also SCUFF, SCRUFF.
[Ice. _skopt_, _skoft_, the hair.]

SCULDUDDERY, skul-dud'e-ri, _n._ (_Scot._) grossness, obscenity,
bawdry.--_adj._ bawdy.


SCULL, skul, _n._ a short, light, spoon-bladed oar: a small boat: a
cock-boat.--_v.t._ to propel a boat with a pair of sculls or light oars by
one man--in fresh water: to drive a boat onward with one oar, worked like a
screw over the stern.--_ns._ SCULL'ER, one who sculls: a small boat rowed
by two sculls pulled by one man; SCULL'ING. [Scand.; Ice. _scál_, a hollow,
Sw. _skålig_, concave.]

SCULL, skul, _n._ (_Milt._) a shoal of fish. [_Shoal_.]

SCULLERY, skul'[.e]r-i, _n._ the place for dishes and other kitchen
utensils. [Skeat explains as _sculler-y_, _sculler_ being a remarkable
variant of _swiller_, due to Scand. influence. Others refer to O. Fr.
_escuelier_--Low L. _scutellarius_--L. _scutella_, a tray.]

SCULLION, skul'yun, _n._ a servant in the scullery: a servant for
drudgery-work: a mean fellow.--_adj._ SCULL'IONLY (_Milt._), like a
scullion: low, base. [Not allied to _scullery_. O. Fr. _escouillon_, a
dish-clout--L. _scopa_, a broom.]

SCULP, skulp, _v.t._ to carve: to engrave: to flay.--SCULP'SIT, he engraved
or carved it--often abbreviated to SC.

SCULPIN, skul'pin, _n._ (_slang_) a mischief-making fellow: a name given to
the Dragonet, and also in the United States to various marine species of
Cottus or Bull-head.--Also SKUL'PIN.

SCULPTURE, skulp't[=u]r, _n._ the act of carving figures in wood, stone,
&c.: carved-work: an engraving.--_v.t._ to carve: to form, as a piece of
sculpture.--_n._ SCULP'TOR, one who carves figures:--_fem._
SCULP'TRESS.--_adj._ SCULP'T[=U]RAL, belonging to sculpture.--_adv._
SCULP'T[=U]RALLY.--_adjs._ SCULP'T[=U]RED, carved, engraved: (_bot._,
_zool._) having elevated marks on the surface; SCULPT[=U]RESQUE',
chiselled: clean cut: statue-like. [Fr.,--L. _sculptura_--_sculp[)e]re_,
_sculptum_, to carve.]

SCULSH, skulsh, _n._ rubbish: lollypops.

SCUM, skum, _n._ foam or froth: the extraneous matter rising to the surface
of liquids, esp. when boiled or fermented: refuse: offscourings,
dregs.--_v.t._ to take the scum from: to skim:--_pr.p._ scum'ming; _pa.t._
and _pa.p._ scummed.--_n._ SCUM'MER, an implement used in
skimming.--_n.pl._ SCUM'MINGS, skimmings.--_adj._ SCUM'MY, covered with
scum. [Scand., Dan. _skum_, froth; Ger. _schaum_, foam.]

SCUMBER, skum'b[.e]r, _v.i._ to defecate, a hunting term applied to
foxes.--_n._ fox-dung.--Also SCOM'BER. [Prob. O. Fr. _escumbrier_, to

SCUMBLE, skum'bl, _v.t._ to apply opaque or semi-opaque colours very thinly
over other colours, to modify the effect.--_n._ SCUM'BLING, a mode of
obtaining a softened effect in painting by overlaying too bright colours
with a very thin coating of a neutral tint. [Freq. of _scum_.]

SCUN, skun, _v.i._ to skim, as a stone thrown aslant on the water.--_v.t._
to cause to skip.--Also SCON, SCOON. [Scand., prob. _skunna_; Dan.
_skynde_, to hasten.]

SCUNNER, skun'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to become nauseated: to feel
loathing.--_n._ a loathing, any fantastic prejudice. [A.S. _scunian_, to

SCUP, skup, _n._ (_Amer._) a swing.--_v.i._ to swing. [Dut. _schop_, a
swing; Ger. _schupf_, a push.]

SCUP, skup, _n._ a sparoid fish, the porgy.

SCUPPER, skup'[.e]r, _n._ a hole in the side of a ship to carry off water
from the deck (often _pl._).--_ns._ SCUPP'ER-HOLE, a scupper;
SCUPP'ER-HOSE, a pipe of leather, &c., attached to the mouth of a scupper
on the outside, to let the water run out and keep water from entering;
SCUPP'ER-PLUG, a plug to stop a scupper. [O. Fr. _escopir_, to spit out--L.
_exspu[)e]re_--_ex-_, out, _spu[)e]re_, to spit; or prob. from Dut.
_schoppen_, to scoop away.]

SCUPPERNONG, skup'[.e]r-nong, _n._ a cultivated variety of the muscadine,
bullace, or southern fox-grape of the United States. [Amer. Ind.]

SCUPPET, skup'et, _n._ a shovel.--Also SCOPP'ET.

SCUR, skur, _v.t._ to graze, to jerk: to scour over.--_v.i._ to flit
hurriedly.--Also SKIRR. [A variant of scour.]

SCUR, skur, _n._ (_Scot._) a stunted horn.

SCURF, skurf, _n._ the crust or flaky matter formed on the skin: anything
adhering to the surface: scum: a gray bull trout.--_n._
SCURF'INESS.--_adj._ SCURF'Y, having scurf: like scurf. [A.S.
_scurf_--_sceorfan_, to scrape; cf. Ger. _schorf_.]

SCURRILOUS, skur'ril-us, _adj._ using scurrility or language befitting a
vulgar buffoon: indecent: vile: vulgar: opprobrious: grossly
abusive.--_adjs._ SCUR'RIL, SCUR'RILE, buffoon-like: jesting: foul-mouthed:
low.--_n._ SCURRIL'ITY, buffoonery: low or obscene jesting: indecency of
language: vulgar abuse.--_adv._ SCUR'RILOUSLY.--_n._ SCUR'RILOUSNESS. [L.
_scurrilis_--_scurra_, a buffoon.]

SCURRIT, skur'it, _n._ (_prov._) the lesser tern.

SCURRY, skur'i, _v.i._ to hurry along: to scamper.--_n._ a flurry--also
SKURR'Y.--_n._ HURR'Y-SCURR'Y, heedless haste. [An extended form of

SCURVY, skur'vi, _adj._ scurfy: affected with scurvy: scorbutic: shabby:
vile, vulgar, contemptible.--_n._ a disease marked by livid spots on the
skin and general debility, due to an improper dietary, and particularly an
insufficient supply of fresh vegetable food.--_adv._ SCUR'VILY, in a scurvy
manner: meanly, basely.--_ns._ SCUR'VINESS, state of being scurvy:
meanness; SCUR'VY-GRASS, a genus of cruciferous plants, efficacious in
curing scurvy. [_Scurf_.]

SCUSE, sk[=u]s, _n._ and _v._=_Excuse_.

SCUT, skut, _adj._ having a short tail like a hare's.

SCUTAGE, sk[=u]'t[=a]j, _n._ a tax, instead of personal service, which a
vassal or tenant owed to his lord, sometimes levied by the crown in feudal
times.--Also ES'CUAGE. [O. Fr. _escuage_--L. _scutum_, shield.]

SCUTATE, sk[=u]t'[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) shaped like a round shield:
(_zool._) having the surface protected by large scales. [L.
_scut[=a]tus_--_scutum_, shield.]

SCUTCH, skuch, _v.t._ to beat: to separate from the core, as flax.--_n._ a
coarse tow that separates from flax in scutching.--_ns._ SCUTCH'ER, one who
dresses hedges: an implement used in scutching, esp. a beater in a
flax-scutching machine, &c.; SCUTCH'ING-SWORD, a beating instrument in
scutching flax by hand. [Prob. O. Fr. _escousser_, to shake off--Low L.
_excuss[=a]re_--L. _excut[)e]re_, to shake off.]

SCUTCHEON, SCUTCHIN, skuch'un, -in, _n._ (_Spens._) escutcheon, shield,
device on a shield. [_Escutcheon_.]

SCUTE, sk[=u]t, _n._ a shield: (_zool._) a large scale, a plate, as the
dermal scutes of a ganoid fish, a turtle, &c. [O. Fr. _escut_--L. _scutum_,
a shield.]

SCUTELLA, sk[=u]-tel'a, _n._ a genus of flat sea-urchins.--_adj._
SC[=U]'TELLAR.--_n._ SCUTELL[=A]'RIA, a genus of gamopetalous plants, known
as skullcaps.--_adjs._ SC[=U]'TELLATE, -D, noting the foot of a bird when
it is provided with the plates called scutella.--_ns._ SCUTELL[=A]'TION;
SCUTELL'ERA, a group-name for the true bugs (_Scutelleridæ_).--_adjs._
SCUTELL'IFORM, scutellate; SCUTELLIG'EROUS, provided with a scutellum;
SCUTELLIPLAN'TAR, having the back of the tarsus scutellate.--_n._
SCUTELL'UM (_bot._, _entom._), a little shield:--_pl._ SCUTELL'A.--_n.pl._
SCUTIBRANCHI[=A]'TA, an order of gasteropod mollusca.--_n._ SC[=U]'TIFER, a
shield-bearer.--_adjs._ SCUTIF'EROUS, bearing a shield: (_zool._)
scutigerous; SC[=U]'TIFORM, having the form of a shield.--_n._ SCUTIG'ERA,
a common North American species of centipede.--_adjs._ SCUTIG'EROUS,
provided with a scute or scuta; SC[=U]'TIPED, having the shanks scaly, of
birds. [L., dim. of _scutra_, a platter.]

SCUTTER, skut'[.e]r, _v.i._ to run hastily: to scurry.--_n._ a hasty run.
[A variant of _Scuttle_ (3).]

SCUTTLE, skut'l, _n._ a shallow basket: a vessel for holding coal. [A.S.
_scutel_--L. _scutella_, a salver, dim. of _scutra_, a dish.]

SCUTTLE, skut'l, _n._ the openings or hatchways of a ship: a hole through
the hatches or in the side or bottom of a ship.--_v.t._ to cut holes
through any part of a ship: to sink a ship by cutting holes in it.--_ns._
SCUTT'LE-BUTT, -CASK, a cask with a hole cut in it for the cup or dipper,
for holding drinking-water in a ship; SCUTT'LE-FISH, a cuttle-fish. [O. Fr.
_escoutille_, a hatchway (Sp. _escotilla_), from Dut. _schoot_, the lap;
Ger. _schoss_, bosom, a lap.]

SCUTTLE, skut'l, _v.i._ to scud or run with haste: to hurry.--_n._ a quick
run: a mincing gait.--Also SCUDD'LE, SKUTT'LE. [_Scud_.]

SCUTTLER, skut'l[.e]r, _n._ the striped lizard.


SCUTULUM, sk[=u]'t[=u]-lum, _n._ one of the shield-shaped crusts of favus.
[L., dim. of _scutum_, a shield.]

SCUTUM, sk[=u]'tum, _n._ a shield belonging to the heavy-armed Roman
legionaries: a penthouse: (_anat._) the knee-pan: (_zool._) a large scale.

SCYE, s[=i], _n._ the armhole of a garment. [Prob. _sey_--O. Fr. _sier_, to
cut--L. _sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SCYLLA, sil'a, _n._ a six-headed monster who sat over a dangerous rock on
the Italian side of the Straits of Messina, over against the whirlpool of
CHARYB'DIS on the Sicilian side.--_n._ SCYLLÆA (sil-[=e]'a), a genus of
nudibranchiate gasteropods.--_n.pl._ SCYLLAR'IDÆ (-d[=e]), a family of
long-tailed, ten-footed marine crustaceans.

SCYLLIDÆ, sil'i-d[=e], _n.pl._ a family of selachians, the typical genus
_Scyllium_, including the dog-fish. [Gr. _skylion_, a dog-fish.]

SCYMNIDÆ, sim'ni-d[=e], _n.pl._ the sleeper-sharks.--_n._ SCYM'NUS, a genus
of lady-birds: a genus of sharks. [Gr. _skymnos_, a whelp.]

SCYPHIDIUM, sif-id'i-um, _n._ a genus of ciliate infusorians. [Gr.
_skyphos_, a cup.]

SCYPHOMEDUSÆ, sif-o-med'[=u]-s[=e], _n.pl._ a prime division of hydrozoans
or a sub-class of Hydrozoa.

SCYPHUS, s[=i]f'us, _n._ in Greek antiquities, a large drinking-cup:
(_bot._) a cup-shaped appendage to a flower.--_adj._ SCYPH'IFORM.

SCYTALE, sit'a-l[=e], _n._ in Greek antiquities, a strip of parchment used
for secret messages: the name of a coral snake.--_n._ SCYTAL[=I]'NA, a
remarkable genus of eel-like fishes. [Gr. _skytal[=e]_, a staff.]

SCYTHE, s[=i]th, _n._ a kind of sickle: an instrument with a large curved
blade for mowing grass, &c.--_v.t._ to cut with a scythe, to mow.--_adj._
SCYTHED, armed with scythes.--_ns._ SCYTHE'MAN, one who uses a scythe;
SCYTHE'-STONE, a whet for scythes. [A.S. _síthe_; Ice. _sigdhr_. Low Ger.

SCYTHIAN, sith'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to an ancient nomadic race in the
northern parts of Asia.--_n._ one belonging to this race.--_adj._ SCYTH'IC.

SCYTHROPS, s[=i]'throps, _n._ a genus of Australian horn-billed cuckoos.
[Gr. _skythros_, angry, _[=o]ps_, face.]

SCYTODEPSIC, sk[=i]-t[=o]-dep'sik, _adj._ pertaining to tanning. [Gr.
_skytos_, skin, _depsein_, to soften.]

SCYTODERMATOUS, sk[=i]-t[=o]-der'ma-tus, _adj._ having a tough, leathery
integument. [Gr. _skytos_, hide, _derma_, skin.]

SCYTODES, sk[=i]-t[=o]'dez, _n._ a genus of spiders.--_adj._ SCYT[=O]'DOID.
[Gr. _skytos_, skin, _eidos_, form.]

SCYTONEMA, s[=i]-t[=o]-n[=e]'ma, _n._ a genus of fresh-water algæ.--_adj._
SCYTONEM'ATOID. [Gr. _skytos_, skin, _n[=e]ma_, a thread.]

SCYTOSIPHON, s[=i]-t[=o]-s[=i]f'n, _n._ a genus of marine algæ. [Gr.
_skytos_, skin, _siph[=o]n_, a tube.]

SDAIN, SDEIGN, sd[=a]n, _n._ and _v.t._ (_Spens._) same as DISDAIN.--_adj._

'SDEATH, sdeth, _interj._ an exclamation of impatience--for _God's death_.

SEA, s[=e], _n._ the great mass of salt water covering the greater part of
the earth's surface: any great expanse of water less than an ocean: the
ocean: the swell of the sea in a tempest: a wave: any widely extended mass
or quantity, a flood: any rough or agitated place or element.--_ns._
SEA'-[=A]'CORN, a barnacle; SEA'-ADD'ER, the fifteen-spined stickle-back;
SEA'-AN'CHOR, a floating anchor used at sea in a gale; SEA'-ANEM'ONE, a
kind of polyp, like an anemone, found on rocks on the seacoast; SEA'-APE,
the sea-otter; SEA'-[=A]'PRON, a kind of kelp; SEA'-ARR'OW, a flying squid:
an arrow-worm; SEA'-ASPAR'AGUS, a soft-shelled crab; SEA'-BANK, the
seashore; an embankment to keep out the sea; SEA'-BAR, the sea-swallow or
tern; SEA'-BARR'OW, the egg-case of a ray or skate; SEA'-BASS, a name
applied to some perch-like marine fishes, many common food-fishes in
America--black sea-bass, bluefish, &c.; SEA'-BAT, a genus of Teleostean
fishes allied to the Pilot-fish, and included among the _Carangidæ_ or
horse-mackerels--the name refers to the very long dorsal, anal, and ventral
fins; SEA'-BEACH, the seashore; SEA'-BEAN, the seed of a leguminous
climbing plant: a small univalve shell: the lid of the aperture of any
shell of the family _Turbinidæ_, commonly worn as amulets; SEA'-BEAR, the
polar bear: the North Pacific fur-seal; SEA'-BEAST (_Milt._), a monster of
the sea.--_adjs._ SEA'-BEAT, -EN, lashed by the waves.--_n._ SEA'-BEAV'ER,
the sea-otter.--_n.pl._ SEA'-BELLS, a species of bindweed.--_ns._
SEA'-BELT, the sweet fucus plant; SEA'-BIRD, any marine bird;
SEA'-BIS'CUIT, ship-biscuit; SEA'-BLUBB'ER, a jelly-fish; SEA'-BOARD, the
border or shore of the sea; SEA'-BOAT, a vessel considered with reference
to her behaviour in bad weather.--_adjs._ SEA'-BORN, produced by the sea;
SEA'-BORNE, carried on the sea.--_ns._ SEA'-BOTT'LE, a seaweed; SEA'-BOY
(_Shak._), a boy employed on shipboard: a sailor-boy; SEA'-BRANT, the brent
goose; SEA'-BREACH, the breaking of an embankment by the sea; SEA'-BREAM,
one of several sparoid fishes: a fish related to the mackerel; SEA'-BREEZE,
a breeze of wind blowing from the sea toward the land, esp. that from about
10 a.m. till sunset; SEA'-BUCKTHORN, or SALLOW-THORN, a genus of large
shrubs or trees with gray silky foliage and entire leaves; SEA'-BUM'BLEBEE,
the little auk; SEA'-BUN, a heart-urchin; SEA'-BUR'DOCK, clotbur;
SEA'-CABB'AGE, sea-kale; SEA'-CALF, the common seal, so called from the
supposed resemblance of its voice to that of a calf; SEA'-CAN[=A]'RY, the
white whale; SEA'-CAP (_Shak._), a cap worn on shipboard: a basket-shaped
sponge; SEA'-CAP'TAIN, the captain of a ship, as distinguished from a
captain in the army; SEA'-CARD, the card of the mariners' compass: a map of
the ocean; SEA'-CARN[=A]'TION, a sea-pink; SEA'-CAT, a name of various
animals, as the wolf-fish, the chimæra, any sea-cat-fish;
SEA'-CAT'ERPILLAR, a scale-back; SEA'-CAT'-FISH, a marine siluroid fish;
SEA'-CAT'GUT, a common seaweed--sea-lace; SEA'-CAUL'IFLOWER, a polyp;
SEA'-CEN'TIPED, one of several large marine annelids; SEA'-CHANGE
(_Shak._), a change effected by the sea; SEA'-CHART, a chart or map of the
sea, its islands, coasts, &c.; SEA'-CHEST'NUT, a sea-urchin;
SEA'-CHICK'WEED, a seaside species of sandwort; SEA'-CLAM, the surf clam
used for food: a clamp for deep-sea sounding-lines; SEA'-COAL, coal brought
by sea, as distinguished from charcoal; SEA'COAST, the coast or shore of
the sea: the land adjacent to the sea; SEA'-COB, a sea-gull; SEA'-COCK, a
gurnard: the sea-plover: a valve communicating with the sea through a
vessel's hull: a sea-rover or viking; SEA'-COL'ANDER, a large olive
seaweed; SEA'-COLE'WORT, sea-kale; SEA'-COM'PASS, the mariners' compass;
SEA'-COOK, a cook on shipboard; SEA'-COOT, a black sea-duck;
SEA'-COR'MORANT, a sea-crow; SEA'-CORN, the string of egg-capsules of the
whelk or similar gasteropod--also SEA'-RUFF'LE, SEA'-HON'EYCOMB,
SEA'-NECK'LACE, &c.; SEA'-COW, the walrus: the rhytina: the dugong or
manatee: the hippopotamus; SEA'-CRAB, a marine crab; SEA'-CRAFT, skill in
navigation; SEA'-CRAW'FISH, a prawn or shrimp; SEA'-CROW, a name of various
birds, as the common skua, the chough, the coot, &c.; SEA'-C[=U]'CUMBER,
trepang or bêche-de-mer; SEA'-DACE, a sea-perch: the common English bass;
SEA'-DAFF'ODIL, a plant producing showy, fragrant flowers; SEA'-DAI'SY, the
lady's cushion; SEA'-DEV'IL, a name of various fishes, as the ox-ray, the
angel-fish, &c.; SEA'-DOG, the harbour-seal: the dog-fish: an old sailor: a
pirate: (_her._) a bearing representing a beast nearly like a talbot;
SEA'-DOTT'EREL, the turnstone; SEA'-DOVE, the little auk; SEA'-DRAG'ON, a
flying sea-horse; SEA'-DRAKE, a sea-crow; SEA'-DUCK a duck often found on
salt waters, having the hind-toe lobate: the eider-duck; SEA'-EA'GLE, the
white-tailed eagle: the bald eagle: the osprey: the eagle-ray; SEA'-EAR, a
mollusc, an ormer or abalone; SEA'-EEL, a conger-eel; SEA'-EGG, a
sea-urchin: a sea-hedgehog: a whore's egg; SEA'-EL'EPHANT, the largest of
the seal family, the male about 20 feet long, an inhabitant of the southern
seas; SEA'-FAN, an alcyonarian polyp with a beautiful much-branched
fan-like skeleton; SEA'F[=A]RER, a traveller by sea, a sailor.--_adj._
SEA'F[=A]RING, faring or going to sea: belonging to a seaman.--_ns._
SEA'-FEATH'ER, a polyp, a sea-pen; SEA'-FENN'EL, samphire; SEA'-FIGHT, a
battle between ships at sea; SEA'-FIR, a sertularian polyp; SEA'-FIRE,
phosphorescence at sea; SEA'-FISH, any salt-water or marine fish;
SEA'-FOAM, the froth of the sea: meerschaum; SEA'-FOG, a fog, occurring
near the coast.--_n.pl._ SEA'-FOLK, seafaring people.--_ns._ SEA'-FOWL, a
sea-bird; SEA'-FOX, or _Fox-shark_, the thresher, the commonest of the
larger sharks occasionally seen off British coasts, over 12 feet long,
following shoals of herrings, pilchards, &c.; SEA'FRONT, the side of the
land, or of a building, which looks toward the sea; SEA'-FROTH, the foam of
the sea, seaweeds; SEA'-GAGE, -GAUGE, the depth a vessel sinks in the
water: an instrument for determining the depth of the sea.--_n.pl._
SEA'-GATES, a pair of gates in a tidal basin as a safeguard against a heavy
sea.--_ns._ SEA'-GHER'KIN, a sea-cucumber; SEA'-GILL'IFLOWER, the common
thrift; SEA'-GIN'GER, millipore coral.--_adj._ SEA'-GIRT, girt or
surrounded by the sea.--_ns._ SEA'-GOD, one of the divinities ruling over
or inhabiting the sea:--_fem._ SEA'-GOD'DESS.--_adj._ SEA'-G[=O]'ING,
sailing on the deep sea, as opposed to coasting or river vessels.--_ns._
SEA'-GOOSE, a dolphin: a phalarope; SEA'-GOWN (_Shak._), a short-sleeved
garment worn at sea; SEA'-GRAPE, a genus of shrubby plants of the natural
order _Gnetaceæ_, closely allied to the Conifers, and sometimes called
Joint-firs: a glasswort: the clustered egg-cases of sepia and some other
cuttle-fish; SEA'-GRASS, the thrift: grasswrack: a variety of cirrus
cloud.--_adj._ SEA'-GREEN, green like the sea.--_ns._ SEA'-GROVE, a grove
in the bottom of the sea; SEA'-GULL (same as GULL); SEA'-HAAR (_Scot._), a
chilling, piercing mist arising from the sea; SEA'-HALL, a hall in the
bottom of the sea; SEA'-HARE, a name given to the genus _Aplysia_ of
nudibranch gasteropods; SEA'-HAWK, a rapacious, gull-like bird: a skua;
SEA-HEDGE'HOG, a sea-urchin: a globe-fish: a sea-egg: a porcupine-fish;
SEA'-HEN (_Scot._), the common guillemot: the great skua: the piper
gurnard; SEA'-HOG, a porpoise; SEA'-HOLL'Y, the eryngo; SEA'-HOLM, a small
uninhabited island: sea-holly; SEA'HORSE, the walrus: the hippopotamus or
river-horse: the hippocampus; SEA'-HOUND, the dog-fish; SEA'-ISLAND
COTT'ON, a fine long-stapled variety grown on the islands off the coast of
South Carolina and Georgia; SEA'-JELL'Y, a sea-blubber; SEA'KALE, a
perennial plant with large, roundish, sinuated sea-green leaves, found on
British seashores, the blanched sprouts forming a favourite esculent;
SEA'-KID'NEY, a polyp of the genus Renilla, so called from its shape;
SEA'-KING, a name sometimes given to the leaders of the early Scandinavian
piratical expeditions; SEA'-KITT'IE, a kittiwake; SEA'-LACE, a species of
algæ--sea-catgut; SEA'-LAM'PREY, a marine lamprey; SEA'-LARK, a sandpiper,
as the dunlin: a ring-plover, as the ring-dotterel: the sea-titling;
SEA'-LAV'ENDER, a salt-marsh plant: marsh rosemary; SEA'-LAW'YER, a
captious sailor, an idle litigious 'long-shorer, more given to question
orders than to obey them: the mangrove snapper: a tiger-shark; SEA'-LEECH,
a marine suctorial annelid.--_n.pl._ SEA'-LEGS, ability to walk on a ship's
deck when it is pitching or rolling.--_ns._ SEA'-LEM'ON, a doridoid;
SEA'-LEN'TIL, the gulf-weed; SEA'-LEOP'ARD, a seal of the southern seas,
with spotted fur; SEA'-LETT'ER, -BRIEF, a document of description that used
to be given to a ship at the port where she was fitted out; SEA'-LEV'EL,
the level or surface of the sea, generally the mean level between high and
low water.--_adj._ SEA'-LIKE, like or resembling the sea.--_ns._
SEA'-LIL'Y, a lily-star: a living crinoid; SEA'-LINE, the line where sky
and sea seem to meet: lines used for fishing in deep water; SEA'-LIN'TIE
(_Scot._), the sea-titling: a sea-lark: the rock-lintie; SEA'-L[=I]'ON, a
species of otary--from its barking-roar and the mane of the male: (_her._)
a monster consisting of the upper part of a lion combined with the tail of
a fish; SEA'-LIQ'UOR, brine; SEA'-LIZ'ARD, a nudibranchiate gasteropod: a
fossil reptile; SEA'-LOACH, a gadoid fish, a Motella; SEA'-LONG'WORM, a
nemertean worm; SEA'-LOUSE, a parasitic isopod crustacean: the horse-shoe
crab; SEA'-LUCE, the hake; SEA'-LUNGS, a comb-jelly; SEA'-MAG'PIE, a
sea-pie: the oyster-catcher; SEA'MAID (_Shak._), a mermaid: a sea-nymph;
SEA'-MALL a sea-gull; SEA'MAN, a man below the rank of officer, employed in
the navigation of a ship at sea: a sailor: a merman.--_adjs._ SEA'MAN-LIKE,
showing good seamanship; SEA'MANLY, characteristic of a seaman.--_ns._
SEA'MANSHIP, the art of navigating ships at sea; SEA'-MAN'TIS, a squill;
SEA'-MARGE, the marge or shore of the sea; SEA'MARK, any mark or object on
land serving as a guide to those at sea: a beacon; SEA'-MAT, a very common
genus of polyzoa; in the wrack of the seashore--also _Hornwrack_;
SEA'-MEL'ON, a pedate holothurian; SEA'-MEW, the common gull, any
gull--also SEA'-MAW (_Scot._); SEA'-MILE, a geographical mile, 6080 feet in
length; SEA'-MINK, a kind of American whiting; SEA'-MONK, the monk-seal;
SEA'-MON'STER, any huge marine animal; SEA'-MOSS, a kind of compound
polyzoan: Irish moss, or carrageen; SEA'-MOUSE, a genus of Chætopod worms,
covered with iridescent silky hairs; SEA'-MUD, a rich saline deposit from
salt-marshes; SEA'-MUSS'EL, a marine bivalve; SEA'-NEED'LE, the garfish;
SEA'-NETT'LE, any of the stinging species of acalephæ; SEA'-NURSE, a shark;
SEA'-NYMPH, a goddess of the sea, esp. one of the Oceanids; SEA'-ON'ION,
the officinal squill; SEA'-OOZE, sea-mud; SEA'-OR'ANGE, a large, globose,
orange-coloured holothurian; SEA'-ORB, a globe-fish; SEA'-OTT'ER, a marine
otter; SEA'-OWL, the lump-fish or lump-sucker; SEA'-OX, the walrus;
SEA'-OX'EYE, a fleshy seashore plant; SEA'-PAD, a star-fish; SEA'-PAN'THER,
a South African fish, brown with black spots; SEA'-PARR'OT, a puffin: an
auk; SEA'-PARS'NIP, an umbelliferous plant; SEA'-PAR'TRIDGE, the English
conner, a labroid fish; SEA'-PASS, a passport, or document carried by
neutral merchant-vessels to secure them against molestation; SEA'-PEA, the
beach-pea; SEA'-PEACH, a sea-squirt or ascidian; SEA'-PEAR, a sea-squirt;
SEA'-PEN, one of the radiate zoophytes somewhat resembling a quill;
SEA'-PERCH, a sea-dace: a bass: the red-fish or rose-fish; SEA'-PERT, the
opah; SEA'-PHEAS'ANT, the pintail or sprigtail duck; SEA'-PIE, a sailor's
dish made of salt-meat, vegetables, and dumplings baked: the oyster-catcher
or sea-magpie: (_her._) a bearing representing such a bird; SEA'-PIECE, a
picture representing a scene at sea; SEA'-PIG, a porpoise: the dugong;
SEA'-PI'GEON, the black guillemot; SEA'-PIKE, an edible American fish found
on the Florida and Texas coasts, allied to the perches: the garfish or
belone: the hake; SEA'-PIN'CUSHION, the mermaid's purse: a star-fish;
SEA'-PINK, a sea-carnation; SEA'-PLANT, an alga; SEA'-POACH'ER, the armed
bull-head; SEA'-POR'CUPINE, any fish of the genus _Diodon_, whose body is
covered with spines; SEA'-PORK, an American compound ascidian; SEA'PORT, a
port or harbour on the seashore: a town near such a harbour; SEA'-PUDD'ING,
a sea-cucumber; SEA'-PUMP'KIN, a sea-melon; SEA'-PURSE, a sea-barrow: a
skate-barrow; SEA'-QUAIL, the turnstone; SEA'-RAT, the chimera: a pirate;
SEA'-R[=A]'VEN, the cormorant: the North American bull-head; SEA'-REED, the
mat grass; SEA'-REEVE, an officer in maritime towns; SEA'-RISK, hazard of
injury by sea; SEA'-ROB'BER, a pirate; SEA'-ROB'IN, a common American name
for fishes of the genus _Prionotus_, which represents in America the
European gurnards: the red-breasted merganser; SEA'-ROCK'ET, a cruciferous
plant of genus _Cakile_; SEA'-ROD, a kind of sea-pen, a polyp; SEA'-ROLL, a
holothurian; SEA'-ROOM, room or space at sea for a ship to be navigated
without running ashore; SEA'-ROSE, a sea-anemone; SEA'-ROSE'MARY,
sea-lavender; SEA'-R[=O]'VER, a pirate: a vessel employed in cruising for
plunder; SEA'-R[=O]'VING, piracy; SEA'-RUFF, a sea-bream; SEA'-SALT, common
salt obtained from sea-water by evaporation; SEA'SCAPE, a sea-piece;
SEA'-SCOR'PION, a scorpion-fish: a cottoid-fish; SEA'-SER'PENT, an enormous
marine animal of serpent-like form, frequently seen and described by
credulous sailors, imaginative landsmen, and common liars: a name applied
to various marine venomous serpents; SEA'-SERV'ICE, service on board ship;
SEA'-SHARK, the man-eater shark; SEA'-SHELL, a marine shell; SEA'SHORE, the
land adjacent to the sea: (_law_) the ground between high-water mark and
low-water mark; SEA'-SHRUB, a sea-fan.--_adj._ SEA'SICK, affected with
sickness through the rolling of a vessel at sea.--_ns._ SEA'SICKNESS;
SEA'SIDE, the land beside the sea; SEA'-SKIM'MER, the skimmer bird;
SEA'-SL[=A]T'ER, the rock-slater; SEA'-SLEEVE, a cuttle-fish; SEA'-SLUG, a
nudibranch, as a doridoid: a marine gasteropod with the shell absent or
rudimentary; SEA'-SNAIL, a fish of the genus _Liparis_, the sucker, the
periwinkle; SEA'-SNAKE, a sea-serpent; SEA'-SNIPE, a sandpiper: the
snipe-fish; SEA'-SOL'DIER, a marine; SEA'-SP[=I]'DER, a spider-crab;
SEA'-SPLEEN'WORT, a fern--_Asplenium marinum_; SEA'-SQUID, a cuttle-fish;
SEA'-SQUIRT, any tunicate or ascidian--also SEA'-PERCH, SEA'-PEAR,
SEA'-PORK; SEA'-STICK, a herring cured at sea at once; SEA'-STOCK, fresh
provisions for use at sea; SEA'-STRAW'BERRY, a kind of polyp;
SEA'-SUN'FLOWER, a sea-anemone; SEA'-SUR'GEON, one of a family of
spiny-rayed Teleostean fishes living in tropical seas, esp. near
coral-reefs--the name refers esp. to the members of the genus _Acanthurus_,
characterised by a lancet-like spine ensheathed on each side of the tail;
SEA'-SWALL'OW, a tern: the stormy petrel; SEA'-SWINE, a porpoise: the
sea-hog: the ballan-wrasse; SEA'-TANG, sea-tangle; SEA'-TAN'GLE, one of
several species of seaweeds, esp. of genus _Laminaria_; SEA'-TENCH, the
black sea-bream; SEA'-TERM, a word used by sailors or peculiar to ships or
sailing; SEA'-THONG, a cord-like seaweed; SEA'-TIT'LING, the shore-pipit or
sea-lark; SEA'-TOAD, the sea-frog: the sculpin: the great spider-crab;
SEA'-TOR'TOISE, a sea-turtle.--_adj._ SEA'-TOST (_Shak._), tossed upon or
by the sea.--_ns._ SEA'-TROUT, a popular name for various species of the
genus _Salmo_, but esp. for the common _Salmo trutta_; SEA'-TRUM'PET, a
medieval musical instrument similar to the monochord: (_bot._) a large
seaweed; SEA'-TURN, a gale from the sea; SEA'-TUR'TLE, the sea-pigeon: a
tortoise; SEA'-UMBRELL'A, a pennatulaceous polyp; SEA'-[=U]'NICORN, the
narwhal; SEA'-UR'CHIN, one of a class of Echinoderms, some with the body
symmetrical and nearly globular (_Echinus_), others heart-shaped
(_Spatangus_), others shield-shaped and flattened (_Clypeaster_)--in all
cases the body walled in by continuous plates of lime; SEA'-VAM'PIRE, a
devil-fish or manta; SEA'VIEW, a picture of a scene at sea; SEA'-WALL, a
wall to keep out the sea.--_adj._ SEA'-WALLED, surrounded by the sea.--_n._
SEA'-WANE, wampum.--_adj._ SEA'WARD, towards the sea.--_adv._ towards or in
the direction of the sea.--_adjs._ SEA'WARD-BOUND, outward-bound, as a
vessel leaving harbour; SEA'WARD-GAZ'ING, gazing or looking towards the
sea.--_n._ SEA'-WARE, that which is thrown up by the sea on the shore, as
seaweed, &c.--_n.pl._ SEA'-WASH'BALLS, the egg-cases of the common
whelk.--_ns._ SEA'-WA'TER, water from the sea; SEA'-WAY, progress made by a
vessel through the waves; SEA'WEED, a general and popular name applied to a
vast collection of lower plant-forms growing on the seacoast from
high-water mark (or a little above that limit) to a depth of from 50 to 100
fathoms (rarely deeper), and all belonging to the sub-class of the
_Thallophyta_, to which the name _Algæ_ has been given; SEA'-WHIP, any
alcyonarian like black coral; SEA'-WHIP'CORD, a common form of seaweed,
sea-thong; SEA'-WHIS'TLE, the seaweed whose bladders are used by children
as whistles; SEA'-WIFE, a kind of wrasse; SEA'-WILL'OW, a polyp with
slender branches like the osier; SEA'-WING, a wing-shell: a sail;
SEA'-WITH'-WIND, a species of bindweed; SEA'-WOLD, an imaginary tract like
a wold under the sea; SEA'-WOLF, the wolf-fish: the sea-elephant: a viking,
a pirate; SEA'-WOOD'COCK, the bar-tailed godwit; SEA'-WOOD'LOUSE, a
sea-slater: a chiton; SEA'-WORM, a marine annelid; SEA'-WORM'WOOD, a saline
plant found on European shores.--_adj._ SEA'WORTHY, fit for sea, able to
endure stormy weather.--_ns._ SEA'WORTHINESS; SEA'-WRACK, coarse seaweeds
of any kind.--AT FULL SEA, at full tide; AT SEA, away from land: on the
ocean: astray; GO TO SEA, to become a sailor; HALF-SEAS OVER, half-drunk;
HEAVY SEA, a sea in which the waves run high; HIGH SEAS, the open ocean; IN
A SEA-WAY, in the position of a vessel when a heavy sea is running; MAIN
SEA, the ocean; MOLTEN SEA, the great brazen laver of 1 Kings, vii. 23-26;
SHIP A SEA, to have a large wave washing in; SHORT SEA, a sea in which the
waves are choppy, irregular, and interrupted; THE FOUR SEAS, those bounding
Great Britain. [A.S. _s['æ]_; Dut. _zee_, Ger. _see_, Ice. _sær_, Dan.

SEAH, s[=e]'a, _n._ a Jewish dry-measure containing nearly fourteen pints.

SEAL, s[=e]l, _n._ an engraved stamp for impressing the wax which closes a
letter, &c.: the wax or other substance so impressed: that which makes fast
or secure: that which authenticates or ratifies: assurance: the water left
standing in the trap of a drain or sewer, preventing the upward flow of
gas: the sigil or signature of a plant, &c., in medieval medicine: the sign
of the cross, baptism, confirmation, the ineffaceable character supposed to
be left on the soul by some sacraments.--_v.t._ to fasten with a seal: to
set a seal to: to mark with a stamp: to make fast: to confirm: to keep
secure: to close the chinks of: to secure against an escape of air or gas
by means of a dip-pipe: to accept: to sign with the cross, to baptise or
confirm.--_adj._ SEALED, certified by a seal: inaccessible.--_ns._
SEAL'-ENGRAV'ING, the art of engraving seals; SEAL'ER, one who seals: an
inspector of stamps; SEAL'ING, confirmation by a seal; SEAL'ING-DAY
(_Shak._), a day for sealing anything; SEAL'ING-WAX, wax for sealing
letters, &c.--also SEAL'-WAX; SEAL'-PIPE, a dip-pipe; SEAL'-PRESS, a stamp
bearing dies for embossing any device upon paper or lead; SEAL'-RING
(_Shak._), a signet-ring; SEAL'-WORT, Solomon's seal.--SEAL OF THE
FISHERMAN, the papal privy seal impressed on wax, representing St Peter
fishing.--GREAT SEAL, the state seal of the United Kingdom; LEADEN SEAL, a
disc of lead pierced with two holes through which are passed the ends of a
twisted wire; PRIVY SEAL, the seal appended to grants, and in Scotland
authenticating royal grants of personal rights; SET ONE'S SEAL TO, to give
one's authority or assent to; UNDER SEAL, authenticated. [O. Fr. _seel_--L.
_sigillum_, dim. of _signum_, a mark.]

SEAL, s[=e]l, _n._ the name commonly applied to all the _Pinnipedia_ except
the morse or walrus--carnivorous mammals adapted to a marine existence; the
two great families are _Phocidæ_ (without external ears) and _Otariidæ_
(having distinct though small external ears): (_her._) a bearing
representing a creature something like a walrus.--_v.t._ to hunt
seals.--_ns._ SEAL'-BIRD, the slender-billed shear-water; SEAL'ER, a man or
a ship engaged in the seal-fishery; SEAL'ERY, a seal-fishing station:
seal-fishery; SEAL'-FLOW'ER, the bleeding heart; SEAL'ING, SEAL'-FISH'ING,
the act of catching seals; SEAL'-ROCK'ERY, a place where many seals breed;
SEAL'SKIN, the prepared fur of the fur-seal used for women's jackets, a
garment made of this.--SEALSKIN CLOTH, a cloth made of mohair with a nap,
and dyed to resemble the fur of the seal. [A.S. _seolh_; Ice. _selr_, Sw.

SEAM, s[=e]m, _n._ (_Shak._) grease, hog's lard.--_v.t._ to grease. [O. Fr.
_sain_--L. _sagina_, grease.]

SEAM, s[=e]m, _n._ that which is sewed: a piece of plain sewing: the line
formed by the sewing together of two pieces: a line of union: a vein or
stratum of metal, ore, coal, &c.: a suture: (_geol._) a thin layer between
thicker strata.--_v.t._ to unite by a seam: to sew: to make a seam
in.--_ns._ SEAM'ER, one who seams; SEAM'ING-LACE, a galloon, braiding, gold
lace, &c. to sew upon seams in upholstery; SEAM'ING-MACHINE', a power-tool
for bending sheet-metal as required: a machine used to join fabrics
lengthwise preparatory to printing, &c.--_adj._ SEAM'LESS, without a seam:
woven throughout.--_ns._ SEAM'-PRESS'ER, an implement used to press down
the newly-ploughed furrow: a goose or iron used by tailors to flatten the
seams of cloth; SEAM'-RENT, a rent along a seam; SEAM'-ROLL'ER, in
leather-working, a rubber for flattening down the edges of seams;
SEAM'-RUBB'ER; SEAM'-SET, a grooved punch used by tinmen; SEAM'STER, one
who sews:--_fem._ SEAM'STRESS; SEAM'STRESSY (_Sterne_), sewing.--_adj._
SEAM'Y, having a seam or seams.--_n._ SEAM'Y-SIDE, the worst side or view
of anything.--WHITE SEAM (_Scot._), underclothing in the process of making.
[A.S. _séam_--_síwian_, to sew; Dut. _zoom_, Ger. _saum_.]

SEAM, s[=e]m, _n._ a load for a pack-horse, eight bushels of grain. [A.S.
_séam_, a burden--L. _sagma_--Gr. _sagma_, a pack-saddle.]

SEAMED, s[=e]md, _adj._ in falconry, not in good condition. [Prob. related
to _Seam_ (1).]

SEAN, s[=e]n, _n._ a drag-net: a seine. [_Seine_.]

SÉANCE, s[=a]'ängs, _n._ a sitting, as of some public body: a sitting for
consideration or inquiry, esp. a meeting of spiritualists for the
consultation of spirits. [Fr.,--L. _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEANNACHIE, sen'a-h[=e], _n._ a bard among the Scottish Highlanders who
recited the traditions of a clan.--Also SEANN'ACHY, SENN'ACHIE. [Gael.

SEAR, s[=e]r, _n._ the catch in a gun-lock by which it is held at cock or
half-cock: a part of a gun-lock.--_n._ SEAR'-SPRING, a spring in a
gun-lock. [O. Fr. _serre_--L. _sera_, a bar.]

SEAR, s[=e]r, _v.t._ to dry up: to burn to dryness on the surface: to
scorch: to cauterise: to render callous or insensible.--_adj._ dry,
withered.--_adj._ SEARED, dried up: burned: hardened.--_ns._ SEARED'NESS,
hardness, insensibility; SEAR'NESS, dryness; SEAR'WOOD, wood dry enough to
burn. [A.S. _seár_, dry, _seárian_, to dry up; Low Ger. _soor_, Dut.

SEARCE, sers, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to sift through a sieve.--_n._ a sieve.

SEARCH, s[.e]rch, _v.t._ to look round to find: to seek; to examine: to
inspect: to explore: to put to the test: to probe.--_v.i._ to seek for: to
make inquiry.--_n._ the act of seeking or looking for: examination:
inquiry: investigation: pursuit.--_adj._ SEARCH'ABLE, capable of being
searched.--_ns._ SEARCH'ABLENESS, the state or quality of being searchable;
SEARCH'ER, a seeker: an inquirer or examiner: a custom-house officer: an
officer who formerly apprehended idlers on the street during church hours
in Scotland: a sieve or strainer.--_adj._ SEARCH'ING, looking over closely:
penetrating: trying: severe.--_adv._ SEARCH'INGLY.--_n._ SEARCH'INGNESS,
the quality of being searching, penetrating, or severe.--_adj._
SEARCH'LESS, unsearchable.--_ns._ SEARCH'-LIGHT, an electric arc-light used
on board ship and in military operations; SEARCH'-WARR'ANT, a legal warrant
authorising a search for stolen goods, &c.--RIGHT OF SEARCH, the right
claimed by one nation to authorise the commanders of their cruisers to
search private merchant-vessels for articles contraband of war. [O. Fr.
_cercher_ (Fr. _chercher_)--L. _circ[=a]re_, to go about--_circus_, a

SEASE, s[=e]z, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to seize.

SEASON, s[=e]'zn, _n._ one of the four periods of the year: the usual or
proper time for anything: any particular time: any period of time, esp. of
some continuance, but not long: seasoning, relish.--_v.t._ to mature: to
prepare for use: to accustom or fit for use by any process: to fit for the
taste: to give relish to: to mingle: to moderate, temper, or qualify by
admixture: to inure, imbue, tinge, or taint: to preserve from
decay.--_v.i._ to become seasoned or matured: to grow fit for use: to
become inured.--_adj._ SEA'SONABLE, happening in due season: occurring in
good, suitable, or proper time: timely, opportune.--_n._
SEA'SONABLENESS.--_adv._ SEA'SONABLY.--_adj._ SEA'SONAL.--_adv._
SEA'SONALLY.--_n._ SEA'SONER, one who, or that which, seasons: a sailor,
&c., who hires for the season: a loafer, a beach-comber.--SEASON TICKET
(see TICKET).--CLOSE SEASON, close time; IN SEASON, ripe, fit and ready for
use: allowed to be killed, fit to be eaten, edible; IN SEASON AND OUT OF
SEASON, at all times; OUT OF SEASON, inopportune; THE FOUR SEASONS, the
ember or fast days of the Church on days set apart in each of the four
seasons. [O. Fr. _seson_ (Fr. _saison_)--L. _satio_, _-onis_, seedtime.]

SEASONING, s[=e]'zn-ing, _n._ that which is added to food to give it
greater relish: anything added to increase enjoyment: in diamond-cutting,
the charging of the laps or wheels with diamond dust and oil.--_n._
SEA'SONING-TUB, a trough in which dough is set to rise.--_adj._
SEA'SONLESS, without relish: insipid.

SEAT, s[=e]t, _n._ that on which one sits: a chair, bench, &c.: the place
or room where one sits, as in church, at a theatre, &c.: site: a place
where anything is settled or established: post of authority: station:
abode: a mansion: that part of the body or of a garment on which one sits:
posture or situation on horseback: a right to sit: membership:
sitting-room: a sitting: a sitting of eggs.--_v.t._ to place on a seat: to
cause to sit down: to place in any situation, site, &c.: to establish: to
fix: to assign a seat to: to furnish with seats: to fit accurately: to
repair by making a seat new.--_v.i._ to lie down.--_ns._ SEAT'-BACK, a
loose ornamental covering for the back of a sofa or chair; SEAT'-EARTH, in
coal-mining, the bed of clay by which many coal-seams are
underlain.--_p.adj._ SEAT'ED, fixed, confirmed, located.--_ns._
SEAT'-FAS'TENER, in a wagon, the screw-clamp for securing the seat to the
body; SEAT'ING, the act of furnishing with seats: haircloth: in
shipbuilding, that part of the floor which rests on the keel; SEAT'-LOCK,
the lock of a reversible seat in railroad cars; SEAT'-RAIL, a cross-piece
between the legs, below the seat, of a chair, &c.; SEAT'-WORM, a
pin-worm.--SEAT OF THE SOUL, the sensorium.--TAKE A SEAT, to sit down.
[A.S. _s['æ]t_, an ambush--_sittan_, to seat; or more prob. Ice. _sæti_, a
seat--_sat_, pa.t. of _sitja_, to sit.]

SEAVE, s[=e]v, _n._ a wick made of rush.--_adj._ SEAV'Y, overgrown with

SEAX, s[=e]'aks, _n._ a curved, one-edged sword, used by Germanic and
Celtic peoples: (_her._) a bearing representing a weapon like the seax.
[A.S. _seax_.]

SEBACEOUS, s[=e]-b[=a]'shus, _adj._ pertaining to or secreting fat or fatty
matter: (_bot._) like tallow or wax, as the secretions of certain
plants.--_adj._ S[=E]BAC'IC, pertaining to or obtained from fat.--_n._
S[=E]'B[=A]TE, a salt formed by the combination of sebacic acid with a
base.--_adj._ S[=E]BIF'EROUS, sebaceous.--_n._ S[=E]BORRH[=E]'A, a disease
of the sebaceous glands with excessive secretion--also
S[=E]BORRHOE'A.--_adj._ S[=E]BORRH[=E]'IC.--_n._ S[=E]'BUM, the secretion
of the sebaceous glands. [Low L. _sebaceus_--_sebum_, tallow.]

SE-BAPTIST, s[=e]-bap'tist, _n._ one who baptises himself.

SEBASTOMANIA, s[=e]-bas-t[=o]-m[=a]'ni-a, _n._ religious insanity. [Gr.
_sebastos_, reverenced, _mania_, madness.]

SEBAT, s[=e]-bat', _n._ the fifth month of the Jewish civil year, and the
eleventh of the ecclesiastical year, falling in part of January and

SEBESTEN, s[=e]-bes'ten, _n._ a tree with plum-like fruit.--Also SEBES'TAN.

SEBILLA, s[=e]-bil'a, _n._ in stone-cutting, a wooden bowl for holding the
water used in sawing, &c. [Fr.]

SEBUNDY, s[=e]-bun'di, _n._ a native soldier or local militiaman in
India.--Also SEBUN'DEE. [Hind.]

SEC, sek, _adj._ dry, of wines. [Fr.]

SEC., sek, _n._ an abbreviation of _secretary_, _secant_, _second_; also of
_secundum_, according to.

SECABILITY, sek-a-bil'i-ti, _n._ capability of being divided. [L.
_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SECALE, s[=e]-k[=a]'l[=e], _n._ a genus of grasses including rye.

SECAMONE, sek-a-m[=o]'n[=e], _n._ a genus of shrubby climbers.

SECANT, s[=e]'kant, _adj._ cutting: dividing.--_n._ a line that cuts
another: a straight line from the centre of a circle to one extremity of an
arc, produced till it meets the tangent to the other extremity.--_n._
S[=E]'CANCY. [L. _secans_, _secantis_, pr.p. _of sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SECCO, sek'k[=o], _n._ (_mus._) unaccompanied: plain. [It.]

SECEDE, s[=e]-s[=e]d', _v.i._ to go away: to separate one's self: to
withdraw from fellowship or association.--_ns._ SEC[=E]'DER, one who
secedes: one of a body of Presbyterians who seceded from the Church of
Scotland about 1733; SECES'SION, the act of seceding: withdrawal:
departure; SECES'SIONISM, the doctrine of secession; SECES'SIONIST, one who
maintains the principle of secession.--WAR OF SECESSION, in United States
history, the civil war (1860-65) which resulted from the attempted
withdrawal of eleven Southern States from the United States. [L.
_seced[)e]re_, _secessum_--_se-_, away, _ced[)e]re_, to go.]

SECERN, s[=e]-sern', _v.i._ and _v.t._ to separate: to distinguish: to
secrete.--_adj._ SECER'NENT.--_n._ SECERN'MENT. [L. _secern[)e]re_,
_secretum_, to separate.]

SECESH, s[=e]-sesh', _n._ and _adj._ (_U.S. slang_) secessionist.--_n._

SECESSIVE, s[=e]-ses'iv, _adj._ set apart: isolated.

SECHIUM, s[=e]'ki-um, _n._ a genus of gourds. [Prob. Gr. _s[=e]kos_, an

SECKEL, sek'el, _n._ a variety of pear.

SECLUDE, s[=e]-kl[=oo]d', _v.i._ to shut apart: to keep apart.--_adj._
S[=E]CLUD'ED, retired: withdrawn from observation.--_adv._
S[=E]CLUD'EDLY.--_ns._ S[=E]CLU'SION, the act of secluding: a shutting out:
the state of being secluded or apart: separation: retirement: privacy:
solitude; S[=E]CLU'SIONIST.--_adj._ S[=E]CLU'SIVE. [L. _seclud[)e]re_,
_seclusum_--_se-_, apart, _claud[)e]re_, to shut.]

SECOHM, sek'[=o]m, _n._ the practical unit of electrical
self-induction--now more commonly _Henry_.--_n._ SEC'OHMM[=E]TER, an
instrument for measuring the coefficient, of electrical self-induction.
[_Sec_ (_ond_) and _ohm_, the unit of resistance.]

SECOND, sek'und, _adj._ immediately following the first: the ordinal of
two: next in position: inferior: other: another: favourable.--_n._ one who,
or that which, follows or is second: one who attends another in a duel or a
prize-fight: a supporter: the 60th part of a minute of time, or of a
degree.--_v.t._ to follow: to act as second: to assist: to encourage: to
support the mover of a question or resolution: (_mus._) to sing second to:
to put into temporary retirement in the army, as an officer when holding
civil office (usually s[=e]cond').--_n._ SEC'OND-AD'VENTIST, one who lives
in expectation of a second coming of Christ to establish a personal kingdom
on earth, a premillenarian.--_adv._ SEC'ONDARILY, in a secondary manner or
degree: (_B._) secondly.--_n._ SEC'ONDARINESS.--_adj._ SEC'ONDARY,
following or coming after the first: second in position: inferior:
subordinate: deputed.--_n._ a subordinate: a delegate or deputy.--_adjs._
SEC'OND-BEST, next to the best: best except one--(COME OFF SECOND-BEST, to
get the worst of a contest); SEC'OND-CLASS, inferior to the first, as a
second-class carriage.--_ns._ SEC'ONDER, one who seconds or supports;
SEC'OND-FLOUR, flour of a coarser quality, seconds.--_adj._ SEC'OND-HAND,
received as it were from the hand of a second person: not new: that has
been used by another.--_n._ a hand for marking seconds on a clock or
watch.--_adv._ SEC'ONDLY, in the second place.--_ns._ SEC'OND-MARK, the
character " as the mark in mathematics for a second of arc, in architecture
for inches, and as a sign for a second of time; SECON'DO, the lower part in
a duet.--_adj._ SEC'OND-RATE, being second in power, size, rank, quality,
or value.--_ns._ SEC'OND-SIGHT (see SIGHT); SEC'ONDS-PEN'DULUM, a pendulum
which makes one oscillation per second of mean time.--SECONDARY EDUCATION,
that which is higher than primary or elementary; SECONDARY FORMATION,
ROCKS, STRATA, the Mesozoic strata; SECONDARY PLANET, a moon or satellite;
SECONDARY SCHOOL, a school for higher education; SECOND CHILDHOOD, a
condition of mental weakness often accompanying old age; SECOND COMING, the
second coming of Christ, or Second Advent; SECOND COUSIN, the child of a
cousin; SECOND ESTATE, the House of Lords; SECOND GUARD, an additional
guard to a sword; SECOND STORY, in America, the second range of rooms from
the first level, called in England the first floor; SECOND THOUGHTS,
reconsideration. [Fr.,--L. _secundus_--_sequi_, _secutus_, to follow.]

SECRET, s[=e]'kret, _adj._ concealed from notice: removed from sight:
unrevealed: hidden: secluded: retired: private: keeping secrets:
reserved.--_n._ that which is concealed: anything unrevealed or unknown:
privacy: the key or principle by which something is made clear: a form of
steel skull-cap: one of the prayers in the Mass, immediately following the
'Orate, fratres,' said inaudibly by the celebrant: (_pl._) any prayers said
secretly and not aloud: the parts of the body which are concealed.--_ns._
S[=E]'CRECY, the state of being secret: separation: concealment:
retirement: privacy: fidelity to a secret: the keeping of secrets;
S[=E]'CRETAGE, a process in dressing furs.--_adj._ S[=E]'CRET-FALSE
(_Shak._), secretly false, while apparently sincere.--_adv._ S[=E]'CRETLY,
in a secret manner: privately: unknown to others: inwardly.--_n._
S[=E]'CRETNESS, the state of being secret.--SECRET SERVICE, a department of
government service.--OPEN SECRET, a secret which all may inquire into.
[Fr.,--L. _secretus_--_secern[)e]re_, _secretum_--_se-_, apart,
_cern[)e]re_, to separate.]

SECRETARY, sek'r[=e]-t[=a]-ri, _n._ one employed to write for another: a
public officer entrusted with the affairs of a department of government, or
of a company, &c.: a piece of furniture for writing, with drawers,
pigeon-holes, &c. (also SECRETAIRE').--_adj._ SECRET[=A]'RIAL, pertaining
to a secretary or his duties.--_ns._ SECRET[=A]'RIATE, the official
position of secretary; SEC'RETARY-BIRD a raptorial serpent-eating bird
resembling the crane, found in South Africa and the East--from the tufts of
feathers at the back of its head like pens stuck behind the ear;

SECRETE, s[=e]-kr[=e]t', _v.t._ to make secret: to hide: to conceal: to
produce from the circulating fluids, as the blood in animals, the sap in
vegetables.--_adj._ separate, distinct.--_n.pl._ S[=E]CR[=E]'TA, the
products of secretion.--_n._ S[=E]CR[=E]'TION, the act of secreting or
separating from a circulating fluid: that which is so secreted.--_adj._
S[=E]CR[=E]'TIONAL.--_n._ S[=E]'CRETIST, a dealer in secrets.--_adjs._
S[=E]CRETI'TIOUS, produced by secretion; S[=E]CR[=E]'TIVE, tending to, or
causing, secretion: given to secrecy or to keeping secrets.--_adv._
S[=E]CR[=E]'TIVELY.--_ns._ S[=E]CR[=E]'TIVENESS, a phrenological organ
supposed to indicate a turn for secrecy and concealment; S[=E]CR[=E]'TOR, a
secreting organ.--_adj._ S[=E]CR[=E]'TORY, performing the office of
secretion.--SECRETING GLANDS, true glands; SECRETING ORGANS, certain
specialised organs of plants. [L. _secern[)e]re_, _secretum_.]

SECT, sekt, _n._ a body of men who unite in holding some particular views,
esp. in religion and philosophy: those who dissent from an established
church: a denomination: a school of philosophy: a party: faction: apparel:
a part cut off.--_adj._ SECT[=A]'RIAN, pertaining to, or peculiar to, a
sect: bigotedly devoted to the interests of a sect, narrow, exclusive (also
SECT[=A]'RIAL).--_n._ one of a sect: one strongly imbued with the
characteristics of a sect.--_v.t._ SECT[=A]'RIANISE.--_ns._
SECT[=A]'RIANISM, quality or character of a sectarian: excessive devotion
to a sect; SEC'TARIST; SEC'TARY, one of a sect: a dissenter; SECT[=A]'TOR
(_obs._), an adherent of a school or party; SEC'TIST; SECT'-MAS'TER, the
leader of a sect.--SECTARIAL MARKS, emblems marked on the foreheads of the
different sects in India. [Fr. _secte_--L. _secta_, a school of
philosophy--_sec[=a]re_, _sectum_, to cut off.]

SECTANT, sek'tant, _n._ a portion of space cut off from the rest by three
planes, but extending to infinity.

SECTION, sek'shun, _n._ act of cutting: a division: a portion: a distinct
part of a book: the plan of any object cut through, as it were, to show its
interior: the line formed by the intersection of two surfaces: the surface
formed when a solid is cut by a plane: one of the squares, each containing
640 acres, into which the public lands of the United States are divided:
(_zool._) a group: the sign §, as a mark of reference.--_v.t._ to divide
into sections, as a ship; to reduce to the degree of thinness required for
study with the microscope.--_adjs._ SEC'TILE, SEC'TIVE, capable of being
cut.--_n._ SECTIL'ITY.--_adj._ SEC'TIONAL, pertaining to a section or
distinct part: local.--_n._ SEC'TIONALISM, the spirit of a class,
commercial or political.--_adv._ SEC'TIONALLY.--_ns._ SEC'TION-BEAM, in
warping, a roller which receives the yarn from the spools;
SEC'TION-CUT'TER, an instrument used for making sections for microscopic
work.--_v.t._ SEC'TIONISE, to render sectional in scope or spirit.--_ns._
SEC'TION-LIN'ER, a draftsman's instrument for ruling parallel lines;
SEC'TION-PLANE, a cut surface; SEC'TIOPLANOG'RAPHY, a method of laying down
the sections of engineering work in railways; SEC'TIUNCLE, a petty sect.

SECTOR, sek'tur, _n._ that which cuts: that which is cut off: a portion of
the circle between two radii and the intercepted arc: a mathematical
instrument for finding a fourth proportional: an astronomical instrument:
(_mech._) a toothed gear, the face of which is the arc of a
circle.--_adjs._ SEC'TORAL; SECT[=O]'RIAL, adapted or intended for
cutting.--_n._ a scissor-tooth. [L. _sector_--_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SECULAR, sek'[=u]-lar, _adj._ pertaining to an age or generation: coming or
observed only once in a century: permanent: lay or civil, as opposed to
clerical: (_geol._) gradually becoming appreciable in the course of ages:
pertaining to the present world, or to things not spiritual: not bound by
monastic rules.--_n._ a layman: an ecclesiastic, as a parish priest, not
bound by monastic rules.--_n._ SECULARISA'TION, the state of being
secularised.--_v.t._ SEC'ULARISE, to make secular: to convert from
spiritual to common use.--_ns._ SEC'ULARISM; SEC'ULARIST, one who,
discarding religious belief and worship, applies himself exclusively to the
things of this life: one who holds that education should be apart from
religion; SECULAR'ITY, state of being secular or worldly:
worldliness.--_adv._ SEC'ULARLY.--_n._ SEC'ULARNESS. [L.
_secularis_--_seculum_, an age, a generation.]

SECUND, s[=e]'kund, _n._ (_bot._, _zool._) unilateral.

SECUNDARIUS, sek-un-d[=a]'ri-us, _n._ a lay-vicar.

SECUNDATE, s[=e]-kun'd[=a]t, _v.t._ to make prosperous.--_n._

SECUNDINE, sek'un-din, _n._ the afterbirth: (_bot._) inner coat of an
ovule, within the primine.

SECUNDOGENITURE, s[=e]-kun'do-jen'i-t[=u]r, _n._ the right of inheritance
pertaining to a second son.

SEOUNDUM, s[=e]-kun'dum, _prep._ according to.--SECUNDUM ARTEM,
artificially: skilfully: professionally; SECUNDUM NATURAM, naturally;
SECUNDUM QUID, in some respects only; SECUNDUM VERITATEM, universally

SECURE, s[=e]-k[=u]r', _adj._ without care or anxiety, careless (_B._):
free from fear or danger: safe: confident: incautious: in safe keeping: of
such strength as to ensure safety.--_v.t._ to make safe: to guard from
danger: to seize and confine: to get hold of: to make one's self master of:
(_obs._) to plight or pledge: to render certain: to guarantee: to
fasten.--_adj._ SEC[=U]R'ABLE, that may be secured.--_n._ SECUR'ANCE,
assurance, confirmation.--_adv._ SEC[=U]RE'LY.--_ns._ SEC[=U]RE'MENT;
SEC[=U]RE'NESS; SEC[=U]R'ER, one who, or that which, secures or protects;
SEC[=U]R'ITAN, one who dwells in fancied security; SEC[=U]R'ITY, state of
being secure: freedom from fear: carelessness: protection: certainty: a
pledge: (_pl._) bonds or certificates in evidence of debt or
property.--SECURE ARMS, to guard the firearms from becoming wet. [L.
_securus_--_se-_ (for _sine_), without, _cura_, care.]

SECURICULA, sek-[=u]'-rik'[=u]-la, _n._ a little ax, a votive offering in
this form.

SECURIFER, s[=e]-k[=u]'ri-f[.e]r, _n._ a sawfly.--_adjs._ SEC[=U]RIF'EROUS;
SEC[=U]'RIFORM, axe-shaped.

SECURIGERA, sek-[=u]-rij'e-ra, _n._ a genus of leguminous plants--the
_hatchet-vetch_, _axe-fitch_.

SECURIPALPI, s[=e]-k[=u]r-i-pal'p[=i], _n._ a group of beetles.

SECURITE, sek'[=u]r-[=i]t, _n._ a modern high explosive in the form of a
yellowish powder.

SED, sed, _n._ a line fastening a fish-hook: a snood.


SEDAN, s[=e]-dan', _n._ a covered chair for one, carried on two poles,
generally by two bearers: a hand-barrow for fish. [Invented at _Sedan_, in

SEDATE, s[=e]-d[=a]t', _adj._ quiet: serene: serious.--_adv._
SED[=A]TE'LY.--_n._ SED[=A]TE'NESS, composure: tranquillity.--_adj._
SED'ATIVE, tending to make sedate: moderating: allaying irritation or
pain.--_n._ a medicine that allays irritation or pain. [L. _sed[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, to seat, akin to _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SE DEFENDENDO, s[=e] d[=e]-fen-den'd[=o], _n._ the plea of a person charged
with slaying another, that it was in his own defence.

SEDENTARIA, sed-en-t[=a]'ri-a, _n.pl._ the tubicolous worms: the sedentary

SEDENTARY, sed'en-t[=a]-ri, _adj._ sitting much: passed chiefly in sitting:
requiring much sitting: inactive: (_zool._) not migratory: not errant:
lying in wait, as a spider: not free-swimming: motionless, as a
protozoan.--_adj._ S[=E]'DENT, at rest.--_adv._ SED'ENTARILY.--_n._
SED'ENTARINESS. [L. _sedentarius_--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEDERUNT, s[=e]-d[=e]'runt, _n._ in Scotland, the sitting of a court.--ACTS
OF SEDERUNT, ordinances of the Scottish Court of Session. [L., 'they
sat'--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEDES IMPEDITA, s[=e]'dez im-p[=e]-d[=i]'ta, a term for a papal or
episcopal see when there is a partial cessation by the incumbent of his
episcopal duties.--SEDES VACANS (s[=e]-dez v[=a]'kanz), a term of canon law
to designate a papal or episcopal see when vacant.

SEDGE, sej, _n._ a kind of flag or coarse grass growing in swamps and
rivers.--_adj._ SEDGED, composed of sedge or flags.--_ns._ SEDGE'-HEN, a
marsh-hen; SEDGE'-WAR'BLER, a reed-warbler, the sedge-wren.--_adj._ SEDG'Y,
overgrown with sedge. [Older form _seg_--A.S. _secg_; cf. Low Ger.

SEDGE, sej, _n._ a flock of herons, bitterns, or cranes. [A variant of

SEDIGITATED, s[=e]-dij'i-t[=a]-ted, _adj._ having six fingers on one hand.


SEDILIUM, s[=e]-dil'i-um, _n._ one of a row of seats in a Roman
amphitheatre: a seat in the chancel of a church near the altar for the
officiating clergyman--sometimes S[=E]D[=I]'LE:--_pl._ S[=E]DIL'IA. [L.]

SEDIMENT, sed'i-ment, _n._ what settles at the bottom of a liquid:
dregs.--_adj._ SEDIMEN'TARY, pertaining to, consisting of, or formed by
sediment.--_n._ SEDIMENT[=A]'TION. [L. _sedimentum_--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEDITION, s[=e]-dish'un, _n._ insurrection: any offence against the State
next to treason.--_n._ S[=E]DI'TIONARY, an inciter to sedition.--_adj._
SEDI'TIOUS, pertaining to, or exciting, sedition: turbulent.--_adv._
S[=E]DI'TIOUSLY.--_n._ SEDI'TIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _seditio_--_se-_, away,
_[=i]re_, _[=i]tum_, to go.]

SEDUCE, s[=e]-d[=u]s', _v.t._ to draw aside from rectitude: to entice: to
corrupt: to cause a woman to surrender her chastity through persuasion,
entreaty, under promise of marriage, &c.--_ns._ S[=E]D[=U]CE'MENT, act of
seducing or drawing aside: allurement; S[=E]D[=U]'CER.--_adj._
S[=E]D[=U]'CIBLE.--_adv._ S[=E]D[=U]'CINGLY.--_n._ S[=E]DUC'TION, act of
seducing or enticing from virtue, any enticement to evil: the act of
fraudulently depriving an unmarried woman of her chastity.--_adj._
S[=E]DUC'TIVE, tending to seduce or draw aside: assiduous.--_adv._
S[=E]DUC'TIVELY.--_ns._ S[=E]DUC'TIVENESS; S[=E]DUC'TOR, one who leads
astray. [L. _seduc[)e]re_--_se-_, aside, _duc[)e]re_, _ductum_, to lead.]

SEDULOUS, sed'[=u]-lus, _adj._ diligent: constant.--_ns._ S[=E]D[=U]'LITY,
SED'ULOUSNESS.--_adv._ SED'ULOUSLY. [L. _sedulus_--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEDUM, s[=e]'dum, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants, as stone-crop. [L.,
a house-leek.]

SEE, s[=e], _n._ the seat or jurisdiction of a bishop or archbishop: a
throne.--HOLY SEE, the papal court. [O. Fr. _se_, _siet_--L.
_sedes_--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEE, s[=e], _v.t._ to perceive by the eye: to observe: to discover: to
remark: to bring about as a result: to wait upon, escort: to receive: to
consult for any particular purpose: to suffer, experience: to meet and
accept by staking a similar sum: to visit: to discern: to
understand.--_v.i._ to look or inquire: to be attentive: to apprehend: to
consider:--_pa.t_. saw; _pa.p._ seen.--_interj._ look! behold!--_adj._
SEE'ABLE, capable of being seen.--_n._ S[=E]'ER, one who sees or who
foresees, a prophet.--SEE ABOUT A THING, to consider it; SEE ONE THROUGH,
to aid in accomplishing or doing, esp. something difficult or dangerous;
SEE OUT, to see to the end: to outdo; SEE THROUGH ONE, to understand one
thoroughly; SEE TO, to look after: (_B._) to behold; SEE TO IT, look well
to it.--HAVE SOON ONE'S BEST DAYS, to be now on the decline; LET ME SEE, a
phrase employed to express consideration. [A.S. _séon_; Ger. _sehen_, Dut.

SEE-BRIGHT, s[=e]'-br[=i]t, _n._ the common clary.

SEE-CATCHIE, s[=e]'-kach'i, _n._ the male fur-seal.

SEE-CAWK, s[=e]'-kawk, _n._ the common American skunk.

SEED, s[=e]d, _n._ the thing sown: the male fecundating fluid, semen,
sperm, milt, spat, the substance produced by plants and animals from which
new plants and animals are generated: first principle: original:
descendants: children: race: red-seed: a small bubble formed in imperfectly
fused glass.--_v.i._ to produce seed: to grow to maturity.--_v.t._ to sow:
to plant: to graft.--_ns._ SEED'-BAG, a bag for seeds; SEED'-BED, a piece
of ground for receiving seed; SEED'-BIRD, the water-wagtail; SEED'-BUD, the
bud or germ of the seed; SEED'-CAKE, a sweet cake containing aromatic
seeds; SEED'-COAT, the exterior coat of a seed; SEED'-COD, a basket for
holding seed; SEED'-COR'AL, coral in small and irregular pieces;
SEED'-CORN, corn to be used for sowing; SEED'-CRUSH'ER, an instrument for
crushing seeds to express the oil; SEED'-DOWN, the down on cotton, &c.;
SEED'-DRILL, a machine for sowing seed in rows; SEED'-EAT'ER, a granivorous
bird.--_adj._ SEED'ED, bearing seed, full-grown: sown: (_her._) having the
stamens indicated.--_ns._ SEED'-EMBROI'DERY, embroidery in which seeds form
parts of the design; SEED'ER, a seed-drill: an apparatus for removing seeds
from fruit: a seed-fish; SEED'-FIELD, a field in which seed is raised;
SEED'-FINCH, a South American finch; SEED'-FISH, roe or spawn; SEED'-FOWL,
a bird that feeds on grain.--_adj._ SEED'FUL, rich in promise.--_ns._
SEED'-GALL, a small gall; SEED'-GRAIN, corn for seed.--_adv._
SEED'ILY.--_ns._ SEED'INESS, the state of being seedy: shabbiness:
exhaustion; SEED'ING; SEED'ING-MACHINE', an agricultural machine for
sowing; SEED'ING-PLOUGH, a plough fitted with a hopper from which seed is
automatically deposited; SEED'-LAC (see LAC, 2); SEED'-LEAF, a cotyledon;
SEED'-LEAP, a seed-basket.--_adj._ SEED'LESS, having no seeds.--_ns._
SEED'LING a plant reared from the seed--also _adj._; SEED'-LOBE, a
cotyledon or seed-leaf; SEED'NESS (_Shak._), seedtime; SEED'-OIL, oil
expressed from seeds.--_ns.pl._ SEED'-OY'STERS, very young oysters;
SEED'-PEARLS, very small or imperfect pearls strung together on horse-hair
and attached to mother-of-pearl, &c., for ornament--used also in the
composition of electuaries, &c.--_ns._ SEED'-PLANT'ER, a seeder for
planting seed on hills; SEED'-PLOT, a piece of nursery-ground, a hot-bed;
SEED'-SHEET, the sheet containing the seed of the sower; SEEDS'MAN, one who
deals in seeds: a sower:--_pl._ SEEDS'MEN; SEED'-SOW'ER, a broadcast
seeding-machine; SEED'-STALK, the funiculus; SEED'-TICK, a young tick;
SEED'TIME, the time or season for sowing seed; SEED'-VESS'EL, the pericarp
which contains the seeds; SEED'-WEEV'IL, a small weevil which infests
seeds; SEED'-WOOL, cotton-wool from which the seeds have not been
removed.--_adj._ SEED'Y, abounding with seed: run to seed: having the
flavour of seeds: worn out: out of sorts, looking or feeling unwell:
shabby.--_n._ SEED'Y-TOE, a diseased condition of a horse's foot. [A.S.
_s['æ]d_--_sáwan_, to sow; Ice. _sádh_, Ger. _saat_.]

SEEING, s[=e]'ing, _n._ sight: vision.--_conj._ since: because: taking into
account.--_n._ SEE'ING-STONE (_obs._), a looking-glass, a divining crystal.

SEEK, s[=e]k, _v.t._ to go in search of: to look for: to try to find or
gain: to ask for: to solicit: to pursue: to consult.--_v.i._ to make search
or inquiry: to try: to use solicitation: (_B._) to resort to:--_pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ sought.--_ns._ SEEK'ER, an inquirer: one of a sect in the time of
Cromwell: (_anat._) tracer; SEEK'-NO-FAR'THER, a reddish winter apple;
SEEK'-SORR'OW (_obs._), a self-tormentor.--SOUGHT AFTER, in demand,
desired; To seek, to be sought: at a loss, without knowledge or resources,
helpless. [A.S. _sécan_; cf. Dut. _zoeken_, Ger. _suchen_.]

SEEL, s[=e]l, _v.t._ to close the eyes of by sewing the eyelids together,
as a hawk: to blind, hoodwink. [O. Fr. _siller_, _ciller_--_cil_--L.
_cilium_, eyelash.]

SEEL, s[=e]l, _n._ (_prov._) good fortune, happiness: opportunity,
season.--_n._ SEEL'INESS.--_adj._ SEEL'Y (_Spens._), silly, innocent:
fortunate, happy, good: simple: trifling.--_n._ good fortune: bliss:
(_Scot._) opportunity. [A.S. _s['æ]l_, time--_s['æ]l_, propitious.]

SEEL, s[=e]l, _v.i._ to lean to one side, to pitch or roll.--_n._ a roll of
a ship. [Prob. related to _sail_.]

SEELDE, s[=e]ld, _adv._ (_Spens._) seldom.

SEEM, s[=e]m, _v.i._ to appear: to have a show: to look: to pretend, to
assume an air: to appear to one's self.--_v.t._ (_B._) to befit: to
become.--_n._ SEEM'ER.--_adj._ SEEM'ING, apparent: specious:
ostensible.--_n._ appearance: semblance: a false appearance: way of
thinking.--_adv._ SEEM'INGLY.--_n._ SEEM'INGNESS.--_adj._ SEEM'LESS
(_Spens._), unseemly: indecorous.--_n._ SEEM'LINESS.--_adj._ SEEM'LY
(_comp._ SEEM'LIER, superl. SEEM'LIEST), becoming: suitable: decent:
handsome.--_adv._ in a decent or suitable manner.--_n._ SEEM'LYHED
(_Spens._), decent comely appearance.--IT SEEMS, it appears: it seems to
me. [A.S. _séman_, to satisfy, to suit; or prob. direct from Scand., Ice.
_sæma_, to honour, conform to.]

SEEN, s[=e]n, _pa.p._ of _see_.

SEEN, s[=e]n, _adj._ skilled, experienced: manifest.

SEEP, s[=e]p, _v.i._ to ooze gently: to trickle: to drain off.--_n._
SEEP'AGE.--_adj._ SEEP'Y. [_Sipe._]

SEER, s[=e]r, _n._ one who foresees events: a prophet: a soothsayer.--_n._

SEER-FISH, s[=e]r'-fish, _n._ a longish scombroid fish, valuable for
food.--Also SEIR'-FISH.

SEERSUCKER, s[=e]r-suk'[.e]r, _n._ a thin East Indian linen fabric.

SEESAW, s[=e]'saw, _n._ motion to and fro, as in the act of sawing: a play
among children, in which two seated at opposite ends of a board supported
in the centre move alternately up and down.--_adj._ moving up and down, or
to and fro: reciprocal.--_v.i._ to move backwards and forwards. [Prob. a
redup. of _saw_.]

SEETHE, s[=e]th, _v.t._ to boil: to cook in hot liquid: to soak.--_v.i._ to
be boiling: to be hot:--_pa.t._ seethed or sod; _pa.p._ seethed or
sodd'en.--_n._ SEETH'ER. [A.S. _seóthan_; Ice. _sjótha_, Ger. _sieden_.]

SEETULPUTTY, s[=e]'tul-put-i, _n._ a Bengalese grass mat for sleeping on.

SEG, seg, _n._ a castrated bull.

SEG, seg, _n._ sedge: the yellow flower-de-luce.--_n._ SEG'GAN (_Scot._).

SEGGAR, seg'ar, _n._ a case of clay in which fine pottery is enclosed while
baking in the kiln. [_Saggar_.]

SEGGROM, seg'rom, _n._ the ragwort.

SEGHOL, se-g[=o]l', _n._ a vowel-point in Hebrew with sound of _e_ in
_pen_, placed under a consonant, thus [seghol].--_n._ SEGH'[=O]L[=A]TE, a
dissyllabic noun form with tone-long vowel in the first and a short seghol
in the second syllable.

SEGMENT, seg'ment, _n._ a part cut off: a portion: (_geom_.) the part of a
circle cut off by a straight line: the part of a sphere cut off by a plane:
a section: one of the parts into which a body naturally divides itself:
(_her._) a bearing representing one part only of a rounded object.--_v.t._
and _v.i._ to divide or become divided.--_adj._ SEGMEN'TAL, being a
segment: in embryology, noting the rudimental venal organs.--_adv._
the act of cutting into segments.--_adj._ SEGMEN'TED.--_ns._ SEG'MENT-GEAR,
a gear extending over an arc only of a circle, providing a reciprocating
motion; SEG'MENT-RACK, a rack having a cogged surface; SEG'MENT-SAW, a
circular saw used for cutting veneers; SEG'MENT-SHELL, a modern form of
projectile for artillery. [L. _segmentum_--_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SEGNITUDE, seg'ni-t[=u]d, _n._ sluggishness, inactivity, [L. _segnitia_,
slowness, _segnis_, slow.]

SEGNO, s[=a]'ny[=o], _n._ (_mus._) a sign to mark the beginning or end of
repetitions--abbreviated [segno]. [It.,--L. _signum_, a mark.]

SEGO, s[=e]'g[=o], _n._ a showy plant of the United States.

SEGREANT, seg'r[=e]-ant, _adj._ an epithet of the griffin: (_her._)
equivalent to rampant and salient.

SEGREGATE, seg'r[=e]-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to separate from others.--_adj._
separate from others of the same kind: (_geol._) separate from a mass and
collected together along lines of fraction.--_n._ SEGREG[=A]'TION. [L.
_segreg[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_se-_, apart, _grex_, _gregis_, a flock.]

SEGUIDILLA, seg-i-d[=e]l'yä, _n._ a lively Spanish dance for two: music for
such a dance.

SEICHE, s[=a]sh, _n._ a remarkable fluctuation of the level observed on the
Lake of Geneva and other Swiss lakes, probably due to local variations in
the barometric pressure. [Fr.]

SEIDLITZ, s[=e]d'litz, _adj._ saline water of or from _Seidlitz_ in
northern Bohemia, also a saline aperient powder.

SEIGNIOR, SEIGNEUR, s[=e]'nyor, _n._ a title of honour and address in
Europe to elders or superiors: the lord of a manor.--_ns._ SEIGN'IORAGE,
SEIGN'ORAGE, a royalty: a share of profit: a percentage on minted bullion;
SEIGNIORAL'TY, the authority or the territory of a seignior or
lord.--_adjs._ SEIGNIORIAL (s[=e]-ny[=o]'ri-al), SEIGNEU'RIAL,
SIGN[=O]'RIAL, manorial.--_v.t._ SEIGN'IORISE, to lord it over.--_ns._
SEIGN'IORY, SEIGN'ORY, the power or authority of a seignior or lord: a
domain, a lordship without a manor, or that of manor whose lands were held
by free tenants: the elders forming the municipal council in a medieval
Italian republic.--GRAND SEIGNIOR, the Sultan of Turkey. [Fr.
_seigneur_--L. _senior_--_senex_, old. In Late. L. _senior_ is sometimes
equivalent to _dominus_, lord.]

SEIL, s[=i]l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to strain.--_n._ a strainer. [_Sile._]

SEINE, s[=a]n, or s[=e]n, _n._ a large net for catching fish.--_v.t._ to
catch with such.--_ns._ SEINE'-BOAT; SEINE'-EN'GINE, a steam-engine used in
hauling seines; SEINE'-GANG, a body of men engaged in seining, with their
boats and other gear; SEIN'ER, one who seines: a vessel engaged in
purse-seining for mackerel; SEIN'ING, the art of using the seine. [Fr.,--L.
_sagena_--Gr. _sag[=e]n[=e]_, a fishing-net.]

SEIROSPORE, s[=i]'r[=o]-sp[=o]r, _n._ one of the non-sexual spores arranged
in a chain in certain florideous algæ.--_adj._ SEIROSPOR'IC.

SEISED, s[=e]zd, _adj._ (_Spens._) taken possession of.--_n._ SEIS'IN
(_Spens._), possession.

SEISMOGRAPH, s[=i]s'm[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for registering the
shocks and concussions of earthquakes, a seismometer.--_adjs._ SEIS'MAL;
SEIS'MIC, belonging to an earthquake.--_ns._ SEIS'MOGRAM, the record made
by a seismometer; SEISMOG'RAPHER.--_adjs._ SEISMOGRAPH'IC, -AL, connected
with the seismograph.--_n._ SEISMOG'RAPHY, the study of earthquake
phenomena.--_adjs._ SEISMOLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ SEISMOL'OGIST, a student of
earthquake phenomena; SEIS'MOLOGUE, a catalogue of earthquake observations;
SEISMOL'OGY, the science of earthquakes and volcanoes; SEISMOM'ETER, an
instrument for measuring shakings, tremors, and tiltings of the
earth.--_adjs._ SEISMOM'ETRIC, -AL.--_ns._ SEISMOM'ETRY, the measuring the
phenomena of earthquakes; SEIS'MOSCOPE, a name of the simpler form of
seismometer.--_adj._ SEISMOSCOP'IC. [Gr. _seismos_, an earthquake,
_graphein_, to write.]

SEISON, s[=i]'son, _n._ a genus of parasitic leech-like rotifers.

SEISURA, s[=i]-s[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of Australian fly-catchers.

SEITY, s[=e]'i-ti, _n._ something peculiar to one's self.

SEIURUS, s[=i]-[=u]'rus, _n._ the genus of birds including the American

SEIZE, s[=e]z,--_v.t._ to take possession of forcibly: to take hold of: to
grasp: to apprehend by legal authority: to come upon suddenly: to lash or
make fast.--_v.i._ to lay hold of with the claws: in metallurgy, to
cohere.--_adj._ SEIZ'ABLE.--_ns._ SEIZ'ER; SEIZ'ING, the act of taking
hold: (_naut._) the operation of lashing with several turns of a cord. [O.
Fr. _saisir_ (Prov. _sazir_, to take possession of)--Old High Ger.
_sazzan_, to set, Ger. _setzen_, Eng. _set_.]

SEIZIN, SEISIN, s[=e]'zin, _n._ the taking possession of an estate as of
freehold: the thing possessed--the same as _Sasine_ (q.v.).--_n._ SEIZ'OR,
one who takes legal possession.

SEIZURE, s[=e]'zh[=u]r, _n._ act of seizing: capture: grasp: the thing
seized: a sudden attack.

SEJANT, SEJEANT, s[=e]'jant, _adj._ (_her._) sitting. [Fr. _séant_, pr.p.
of _seoir_--L. _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SEJOIN, s[=e]-join', _v.t._ (_obs._) to separate.--_n._ SEJUNC'TION,

SEJUGOUS, s[=e]'j[=oo]-gus, _adj._ (_bot._) having six pairs of leaflets.
[L. _sejugis_--_sex_, six, _jugum_, a yoke.]

SEKOS, s[=e]'kos, _n._ in Greek antiquities, any sacred enclosure, a
sanctuary, cella of the temple.

SEL, sel, _n._ (_Scot._) self.

SELACHE, sel'a-k[=e], _n._ a genus of sharks.--_adjs._ SEL[=A]'CHIAN,
SEL'ACHIOID. [Gr. _selachos_, a sea-fish.]

SELAGINELLA, s[=e]-laj-i-nel'a, _n._ a genus of heterosporous cryptogams,
allied to club-moss.

SELAH, s[=e]'lä, _n._ in the Psalms, a transliterated Hebrew word
(connected by Gesenius with _s[=a]l[=a]h_, rest), supposed to be a
direction in the musical rendering of a passage, probably meaning 'pause.'

SELANDRIA, s[=e]-lan'dri-a, _n._ a genus of saw-flies.

SELASPHORUS, s[=e]-las'f[=o]-rus, _n._ the genus of lightning hummers.

SELCOUTH, sel'k[=oo]th, _adj._ (_Spens._) rarely known, uncommon.--_adv._
SEL'COUTHLY. [A.S. _selcúth_ for _seldcúth_--_seld_, seldom, _cúth_--known,
_cunnan_, to know.]

SELD, seld, _adj._ (_Spens._) rare, uncommon.--_adv._ seldom,
rarely.--_adjs._ SELD'SEEN, rarely seen; SELD'-SHOWN (_Shak._), rarely
shown. [_Seldom_.]

SELDOM, sel'dum, _adv._ rarely: not often.--_n._ SEL'DOMNESS.--_adv._
SEL'DOM-TIMES. [A.S. _seldum_, _seldan_--_seld_ (adj.), rare; Ger.

SELECT, s[=e]-lekt', _v.t._ to pick out from a number by preference: to
choose: to cull.--_adj._ picked out: nicely chosen: choice:
exclusive.--_adj._ SELEC'TED.--_adv._ SELEC'TEDLY.--_ns._ SELEC'TEDNESS;
SELEC'TION, act of selecting: things selected: a book containing select
pieces.--_adj._ SELEC'TIVE.--_adv._ SELEC'TIVELY, by selection.--_ns._
SELECT'MAN, in New England towns, one of a board of officers chosen
annually to manage various local concerns; SELECT'NESS; SELECT'OR.--SELECT
MEETING, in the Society of Friends, a meeting of ministers and
elders.--NATURAL SELECTION, the preservation of some forms of animal and
vegetable life and the destruction of others by the ordinary operation of
natural causes. [L. _selig[)e]re_, _selectum_--_se-_, aside, _leg[)e]re_,
to choose.]

SELENE, s[=e]-l[=e]'n[=e], _n._ (_Gr. myth._) the goddess of the moon, the
Latin _Luna_--also _Phoebe_: a genus of carangoid fishes, the
moon-fishes.--_n._ SEL[=E]'NISCOPE, an instrument for observing the
moon.--_adj._ SEL[=E]NOCEN'TRIC, having relation to the centre of the
moon.--_ns._ SEL[=E]'NOGRAPH, a delineation of the moon; SEL[=E]NOG'RAPHER,
a student of selenography.--_adjs._ SEL[=E]NOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_ns._
SEL[=E]NOG'RAPHIST, a selenographer; SEL[=E]NOG'RAPHY, description of the
moon.--_adj._ SEL[=E]NOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to the physiography of the
moon.--_ns._ SEL[=E]NOL'OGIST, a selenographer; SEL[=E]NOL'OGY,
selenography.--_adj._ SEL[=E]N[=O]TROP'IC, turning to the moon.--_ns._
SEL[=E]NOT'ROPISM, SEL[=E]NOT'ROPY. [Gr. _sel[=e]n[=e]_.]

SELENITE, sel'en-[=i]t, _n._ a transparent and beautiful variety of gypsum:
a salt of selenium: a supposed inhabitant of the moon.--_adjs._ SELENIT'IC;
SELENITIF'EROUS. [Gr. _sel[=e]nit[=e]s_ (_lithos_, stone),
moon-like--_sel[=e]n[=e]_, the moon.]

SELENITES, sel-[=e]-n[=i]'tez, _n.pl._ a genus of coleopterous insects.

SELENIUM, s[=e]-l[=e]'ni-um, _n._ an element discovered by Berzelius in the
refuse of a sulphuric-acid factory in 1817.--_n._ SEL'[=E]NATE, a compound
of selenic acid with a base.--_adjs._ SELEN'IC, SEL[=E]'NIOUS.--_n._
SEL'ENIDE, a compound of selenium with one other element or radical--also
selenium. [Gr. _s[=e]l[=e]ne_, the moon.]

SELENODONT, s[=e]-l[=e]'n[=o]-dont, _adj._ having crescentic ridges on the
crown, as molar teeth.

SELEUCIDÆ, se-l[=u]'si-d[=e], _n.pl._ the descendants of _Seleucus_ I.,
surnamed Nicator, who governed Syria from 312 B.C. to 65 B.C.

SELEUCIDES, se-l[=u]'si-d[=e]z, _n._ a genus containing the twelve-wired
bird of Paradise.

SELF, self, _n._ one's own person: one's personal interest: one's own
personal interest, selfishness: a flower having its colour uniform as
opposed to variegated:--_pl._ SELVES (selvz).--_adj._ very: particular:
one's own: simple, plain, unmixed with any other.--_ns._
SELF'-ABAN'DONMENT, disregard of self; SELF'-ABASE'MENT, abasement through
consciousness of unworthiness.--_adj._ SELF'-ABSORBED', absorbed in one's
own thoughts.--_ns._ SELF'-ABUSE', the abuse of one's own person or powers:
self-pollution; SELF'-ACCUS[=A]'TION, the act of accusing one's
self.--_adjs._ SELF'-ACCUS'ATORY; SELF'-ACT'ING, acting of, or by, itself,
specially denoting a machine or mechanism which does of itself something
that is ordinarily done by manual labour.--_n._ SELF'-ACTIV'ITY, an
inherent power of acting.--_adj._ SELF'-ADJUST'ING, requiring no external
adjustment.--_n._ SELF'-ADMIS'SION (_Shak._), admission of one's
self.--_n.pl._ SELF'-AFFAIRS' (_Shak._), one's own affairs.--_adjs._
SELF'-AFFECT'ED (_Shak._), affected well towards one's self;
SELF'-AFFRIGHT'ED (_Shak._), frightened at one's self.--_n._
SELF'-APPLAUSE', applause of one's self.--_adjs._ SELF'-APPOINT'ED,
nominated by one's self; SELF'-APPROV'ING, implying approval of one's own
conduct; SELF'-ASSERT'ING, given to asserting one's opinion: putting one's
self forward.--_n._ SELF'-ASSER'TION.--_adj._ SELF'-ASSUMED', assumed by
one's own act.--_n._ SELF'-ASSUMP'TION, conceit.--_adj._ SELF'-BEGOT'TEN,
generated or originated by one's own powers.--_n._ SELF'-BIND'ER, the
automatic binding apparatus attached to some reaping-machines.--_adj._
SELF'-BLIND'ED, led astray by one's self.--_n._ SELF'-BLOOD' (_obs._),
direct progeny: suicide.--_adj._ SELF'-BORN', born or produced by one's
self.--_n._ SELF'-BOUN'TY (_Shak._), native goodness.--_adj._
SELF'-CEN'TRED, centred in self.--_n._ SELF'-CHAR'ITY (_Shak._), love of
one's self.--_adjs._ SELF'-CL[=O]'SING, shutting automatically;
SELF'-COLLECT'ED, self-possessed: self-contained; SELF'-COL'OURED, of the
natural colour: dyed in the wool: coloured with a single tint: (_hort._)
uniform in colour.--_ns._ SELF'-COMMAND', self-control;
SELF'-COMPL[=A]'CENCY, satisfaction with one's self, or with one's own
performances.--_adj._ SELF'-COMPL[=A]'CENT, pleased with one's self:
self-satisfied.--_n._ SELF'-CONCEIT', an over-high opinion of one's self,
one's own abilities, &c.: vanity.--_adj._ SELF'-CONCEIT'ED, having a high
opinion of one's self, of one's own merits, abilities, &c.: vain.--_ns._
SELF'-CONCEIT'EDNESS; SELF'-CONDEMN[=A]'TION, condemnation by one's own
conscience: a self-condemning.--_adjs._  SELF'-CONDEMNED';
SELF'-CONDEMN'ING.--_n._ SELF'-CON'FIDENCE, confidence in, or reliance on,
one's own powers: self-reliance.--_adj._ SELF'-CON'FIDENT, confident of
one's own powers: in the habit of relying on one's own powers.--_adv._
SELF'-CON'FIDENTLY.--_adj._ SELF'-CONF[=I]'DING, relying on one's own
powers.--_n._ SELF'-CONGRATUL[=A]'TION, the act of felicitating one's
self.--_adjs._ SELF'-CON'JUGATE, conjugate to itself; SELF'-CON'SCIOUS,
conscious of one's acts or states as originating in one's self: conscious
of being observed by others.--_n._ SELF'-CON'SCIOUSNESS, the act or state
of being self-conscious: consciousness of being observed by others.--_adj._
SELF'-CONSID'ERING, considering in one's own mind, deliberating.--_n._
SELF'-CONSIST'ENCY, consistency with one's self, or principles.--_adjs._
SELF'-CONSIST'ENT; SELF'-CON'STITUTED, constituted by one's self;
SELF'-CONS[=U]'MING, consuming one's self, or itself: SELF'-CONTAINED',
wrapped up in one's self, reserved: of a house, not approached by an
entrance common to others: complete in itself.--_ns._ SELF'-CONTEMPT',
contempt for one's self; SELF'-CONTENT', self-complacency;
SELF'-CONTRADIC'TION, the act or fact of contradicting one's self: a
statement of which the terms are mutually contradictory.--_adj._
SELF'-CONTRADICT'ORY.--_n._ SELF'-CONTROL', control or restraint exercised
over one's self: self-command.--_adj._ SELF'-CONVICT'ED, convicted by one's
own inner consciousness, or avowal.--_n._ SELF'-CONVIC'TION.--_adjs._
SELF'-CORRESPOND'ING, corresponding to itself; SELF'-COV'ERED, clothed in
one's native semblance.--_ns._ SELF'-CRE[=A]'TION, the act of coming into
existence by the vitality of one's own nature; SELF'-CRIT'ICISM, criticism
of one's self; SELF'-CULT'URE, culture or education of one's self without
the aid of teachers; SELF'-D[=A]N'GER (_Shak._), danger from one's self;
SELF'-DECEIT', deception respecting one's self; SELF'-DECEIV'ER, one who
deceives himself; SELF'-DECEP'TION, the act of deceiving one's own self;
SELF'-DEFENCE', the act of defending one's own person, property, &c. (ART
OF SELF-DEFENCE, boxing, pugilism); SELF'-DEL[=A]'TION, accusation of one's
self; SELF'-DEL[=U]'SION, delusion respecting one's self; SELF'-DEN[=I]'AL,
the denial of one's self: the non-gratifying of one's own appetites or
desires.--_adj._ SELF'-DENY'ING.--_adv._ SELF'-DENY'INGLY.--_n._
SELF'-DEPEND'ENCE, reliance on one's self.--_adj._ SELF'-DEPEND'ENT.--_n._
SELF'-DEPRECI[=A]'TION, depreciation of one's self.--_adj._
SELF'-DEPR[=E]'CI[=A]TIVE.--_ns._ SELF'-DESPAIR', a despairing view of
one's prospects, &c.; SELF'-DESTRUC'TION, the destruction of one's self:
suicide.--_adj._ SELF'-DESTRUC'TIVE.--_n._ SELF'-DETERMIN[=A]'TION,
determination by one's self without extraneus impulse.--_adjs._
spontaneous development.--_adj._ SELF'-DEV[=O]'TED.--_n._
SELF'-DEV[=O]'TION, self-sacrifice.--_adj._ SELF'-DEVOUR'ING, devouring
one's self.--_ns._ SELF'-DISPAR'AGEMENT, disparagement of one's self;
SELF'-DISPRAISE', censure of one's self; SELF'-DISTRUST', want of
confidence in one's own powers.--_adjs._ SELF'-ED'UCATED, educated by one's
own efforts alone; SELF'-ELECT'IVE, having the right to elect one's
self.--_n._ SELF-END' (_obs._), an end for one's self alone.--_adj._
SELF'-ENDEARED', self-loving.--_ns._ SELF'-ENJOY'MENT, internal
satisfaction; SELF'-ESTEEM', the esteem or good opinion of one's self;
itself or without proof: that commands assent.--_adv._
SELF'-EV'IDENTLY.--_ns._ SELF'-EVOL[=U]'TION, development by inherent
power; SELF'-EXALT[=A]'TION, the exaltation of self; SELF'-EXAM'INANT, one
who examines himself; SELF'-EXAMIN[=A]'TION, a scrutiny into one's own
state, conduct, &c., esp. with regard to one's religious feelings and
duties; SELF'-EXAM'PLE, one's own example.--_adj._ SELF'-EX'ECUTING,
needing no legislation to enforce it.--_n._ SELF'-EXIST'ENCE.--_adjs._
SELF'-EXIST'ENT, existing of or by himself or itself, independent of any
other cause; SELF'-EXPLAN'ATORY, obvious, bearing its meaning in its own
face.--_n._ SELF'-EXPLIC[=A]'TION, the power of explaining one's
self.--_adjs._ SELF-FACED', undressed or unhewn; SELF-FED', fed by one's
self.--_n._ SELF'-FEED'ER, a self-feeding apparatus.--_adj._
SELF'-FEED'ING, feeding automatically.--_ns._ SELF'-FERTILIS[=A]'TION;
SELF'-FERTIL'ITY, ability to fertilise itself.--_adjs._ SELF'-FIG'URED,
figured or described by one's self; SELF'-FLATT'ERING, judging one's self
too favourably.--_n._ SELF'-FLATT'ERY, indulgence in reflections too
favourable to one's self.--_adjs._ SELF'-FOC'USING, focusing without
artificial adjustment; SELF'-FORGET'FUL, devoted to others, and forgetful
of one's own interests.--_adv._ SELF'-FORGET'FULLY.--_adjs._
SELF'-GATH'ERED, wrapped up in one's self; SELF-GLAZED', covered with glass
of a single tint; SELF'-GL[=O]'RIOUS, springing from vainglory or vanity:
boastful; SELF'-GOV'ERNING.--_ns._ SELF'-GOV'ERNMENT, self-control:
government by the joint action of the mass of the people: democracy;
SELF'-GRATUL[=A]'TION, congratulation of one's self.--_adj._
SELF'-HARM'ING, injuring one's self.--_n._ SELF-HEAL', prunella: the burnet
saxifrage.--_adj._ SELF'-HEAL'ING, having the power of healing
itself.--_ns._ SELF-HELP', working for one's self; SELF'HOOD, existence as
a separate person: conscious personality.--_adj._ SELF'-[=I]'DOLISED,
regarded with extreme complacency by one's self.--_n._ SELF'-IMPORT'ANCE, a
high estimate of one's own importance: egotism: pomposity.--_adjs._
SELF'-IMPORT'ANT; SELF'-IMPOSED', taken voluntarily on one's self;
SELF'-IM'POTENT (_bot._), unable to fertilise itself.--_n._
SELF'-INDUL'GENCE, undue gratification of one's appetites or
desires.--_adj._ SELF'-INDUL'GENT.--_n._ SELF'-INFEC'TION, infection of the
entire organism from a local lesion.--_adj._ SELF'-INFLICT'ED, inflicted by
one's self.--_n._ SELF'-IN'TEREST, private interest: regard to one's
self.--_adj._ SELF'-IN'TERESTED.--_n._ SELF'-INVOL[=U]'TION, mental
abstraction.--_adjs._ SELF'-INVOLVED', wrapped up in one's self; SELF'ISH,
chiefly or wholly regarding one's own self: void of regard to others
(SELFISH THEORY OF MORALS, the theory that man acts from the consideration
of what will give him the most pleasure).--_adv._ SELF'ISHLY.--_ns._
one's self.--_adjs._ SELF'-KIN'DLED, kindled of itself; SELF'-KNOW'ING,
knowing of one's own self: possessed of self-consciousness.--_n._
SELF'-KNOWL'EDGE, the knowledge of one's own character, abilities, worth,
&c.--_adjs._ SELF-LEFT', left to one's self; SELF'LESS, having no regard to
self, unselfish.--_ns._ SELF'LESSNESS, freedom from selfishness;
SELF-LIFE', a life only for one's own gratification.--_adjs._ SELF'-LIKE,
exactly similar; SELF'-LIM'ITED (_path._), tending to spontaneous recovery
after a certain course.--_n._ SELF-LOVE', the love of one's self: tendency
to seek one's own welfare or advantage: desire of happiness.--_adjs._
SELF'-LOV'ING, full of self-love; SELF'-LUM'INOUS, possessing the property
of emitting light; SELF-MADE', made by one's self; denoting a man who has
risen to a high position from poverty or obscurity by his own
exertions.--_ns._ SELF'-MAS'TERY, self-command: self-control; SELF'-MET'TLE
(_Shak._), mettle or spirit which is natural to one, and not artificially
inspired; SELF'-M[=O]'TION, spontaneous motion.--_adj._ SELF-MOVED', moved
spontaneously from within.--_ns._ SELF'-MUR'DER, the killing of one's self:
suicide; SELF'-MUR'DERER; SELF'-NEGLECT'ING (_Shak._), the neglecting of
one's self; SELF'NESS, egotism: personality; SELF'-OFFENCE', one's own
offence; SELF'-OPIN'ION, the tendency to form one's own opinion
irrespective of that of others.--_adjs._ SELF'-OPIN'IONATED, obstinately
adhering to one's own opinion; SELF'-ORIG'INATING, springing from one's
self.--_ns._ SELF'-PARTIAL'ITY, overestimate of one's own worth;
SELF'-PERCEP'TION, the faculty of immediate perception of the soul by
itself.--_adjs._ SELF'-PERPLEXED', perplexed by one's own thoughts;
SELF'-P[=I]'OUS, hypocritical.--_n._ SELF'-PIT'Y, pity for one's
self.--_adjs._ SELF-PLEACHED' (_Tenn._), interwoven by natural growth;
SELF'-PLEAS'ING, gratifying one's own wishes; SELF-POISED', kept well
balanced by self-respect.--_n._ SELF'-POLL[=U]'TION, self-abuse,
masturbation.--_adj._ SELF'-POSSESSED', calm or collected in mind or
manner: undisturbed.--_ns._ SELF'-POSSES'SION, the possession of one's self
or faculties in danger: calmness; SELF-PRAISE', the praise of one's self;
SELF'-PRESERV[=A]'TION, the preservation of one's self from injury,
self-esteem; SELF'-PROF'IT, self-interest.--_adj._ SELF'-PROP'AGATING,
propagating one's self or itself.--_ns._ SELF'-PROTEC'TION, self-defence;
SELF'-REALIS[=A]'TION, the attainment of such development as one's mental
and moral nature is capable of.--_adjs._ SELF'-RECIP'ROCAL, self-conjugate;
SELF'-RECORD'ING, making, as an instrument, a record of its own
state.--_n._ SELF'-REGARD', regard for one's own self.--_adjs._
SELF'-REGARD'ING; SELF'-REG'ISTERING, registering itself: denoting an
instrument or machine having a contrivance for recording its own
operations; SELF'-REG'ULATED, regulated by one's self or itself;
SELF'-REG'ULATING, regulating itself; SELF'-REG'ULATIVE.--_n._
SELF'-REL[=I]'ANCE, reliance on one's own abilities.--_adj._
SELF'-REL[=I]'ANT.--_n._ SELF'-RENUNCI[=A]'TION, self-abnegation.--_adj._
SELF'-REPEL'LING, repelling by its own inherent power.--_ns._
SELF'-REPRES'SION, the keeping of one's self in the background;
SELF'-REPROACH', the act of reproaching or condemning one's self.--_adj._
SELF'-REPROACH'ING, reproaching one's self.--_adv._
SELF'-REPROACH'INGLY.--_n._ SELF'-REPROOF', the reproof of one's own
conscience.--_adjs._ SELF'-REPROV'ING, reproving one's self, from conscious
guilt; SELF'-REPUG'NANT, self-contradictory: inconsistent.--_n._
SELF'-RESPECT', respect for one's self or one's character.--_adjs._
one's own will.--_ns._ SELF'-RESTRAINT', a restraint over one's appetites
or desires: self-control; SELF'-REV'ERENCE, great self-respect.--_adjs._
SELF'-REV'ERENT; SELF'-RIGHT'EOUS, righteous in one's own estimation:
pharisaical.--_n._ SELF'-RIGHT'EOUSNESS, reliance on one's supposed
righteousness: sense of one's own merit or goodness, esp. if
overestimated.--_adjs._ SELF'-RIGHT'ING, that rights itself when capsized;
SELF'-ROLLED', coiled on itself.--_n._ SELF'-SAC'RIFICE, the act of
yielding up one's life, interests, &c. for others.--_adjs._
SELF'-SAC'RIFICING, yielding, or disposed to yield, up one's life,
interests, &c.; SELF'-SAME, the very same.--_ns._ SELF'-SAME'NESS, sameness
as regards self or identity; SELF'-SATISFAC'TION, satisfaction with one's
self.--_adjs._ SELF'-SAT'ISFIED, satisfied with the abilities,
performances, &c. of one's self; SELF'-SAT'ISFYING, giving satisfaction to
one's self.--_ns._ SELF-SCORN', a mood in which one entertains scorn for a
former mood of self; SELF'-SEEK'ER, one who looks only to his own
interests.--_adj._ SELF'-SEEK'ING, seeking unduly one's own interest or
happiness.--_n._ the act of doing so.--_adj._ SELF'-SHIN'ING,
self-luminous.--_n._ SELF'-SLAUGH'TER (_Shak._), the slaughter of one's
self: suicide.--_adjs._ SELF'-SLAUGH'TERED, killed by one's self;
SELF'-STER'ILE (_bot._), unable to fertilise itself; SELF-STYLED', called
by one's self: pretended; SELF'-SUBDUED' (_Shak._), subdued by one's own
power; SELF'-SUBSTAN'TIAL (_Shak._), composed of one's own substance.--_n._
SELF'-SUFFI'CIENCY.--_adjs._ SELF'-SUFFI'CIENT, confident in one's own
sufficiency: haughty: overbearing; SELF'-SUFFIC'ING.--_ns._
SELF'-SUGGES'TION, determination by causes inherent in the organism;
SELF'-SUPPORT', the maintenance of one's self.--_adjs._ SELF'-SUPPORT'ED;
SELF'-SUPPORT'ING.--_n._ SELF'-SURREN'DER, the yielding up of one's self to
another.--_adj._ SELF'-SUSTAINED', sustained by one's own power.--_ns._
SELF'-SUS'TENANCE, self-support; SELF-SUSTENT[=A]'TION.--_adjs._
SELF'-TAUGHT, taught by one's self; SELF'-THINK'ING, forming one's own
opinions: of independent judgment; SELF'-TOR'TURABLE (_Shak._), capable of
being tortured by one's self.--_ns._ SELF'-TOR'TURE; SELF-TRUST',
self-reliance; SELF-VIEW', regard for one's own interest;
SELF'-V[=I]'OLENCE, violence inflicted upon one's self; SELF-WILL',
obstinacy.--_adj._ SELF-WILLED', governed by one's own will.--_ns._
SELF'-WILLED'NESS; SELF'-WOR'SHIP, the idolising of one's self;
SELF'-WOR'SHIPPER; SELF-WRONG' (_Shak._), wrong done by a person to
himself.--BE BESIDE ONE'S SELF (see BESIDE); BE ONE'S SELF, to be in full
possession of one's powers; BY ONE'S SELF, or ITSELF, apart, alone: without
aid of another person or thing. [A.S. _self_, _seolf_, _sylf_; Dut. _zelf_,
Ger. _selbe_, Goth. _silba_.]

SELICTAR, s[=e]-lik'tär, _n._ the sword-bearer of a Turkish chief. [Turk.
_silihd[=a]r_--Pers. _silahd[=a]r_--Ar. _sil[=a]h_, arms, pl. of _silh_, a

SELINUM, s[=e]-l[=i]'num, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous
plants--_milk-parsley_. [Gr. _selinon_, parsley.]

SELION, sel'yon, _n._ a ridge of land rising between two furrows. [O. Fr.
_seillon_, Fr. _sillon_, a furrow.]

SELJUK, sel-j[=oo]k', _n._ a member of a Turkish family which, under Togrul
Beg, grandson of a chief named _Seljuk_, overthrew the Abbaside califs of
Bagdad about 1050, and gave way before the Osmanli or Ottoman
princes.--_adj._ SELJU'KIAN.

SELL, sel, _n._ a seat, a throne: (_Spens._) a saddle: a saddler.--_adj._
SELL'IFORM, saddle-shaped. [O. Fr. _selle_--L. _sella_, for _sedula_, dim.
of _sedes_, a seat.]

SELL, sel, _v.t._ to deliver in exchange for something paid as equivalent:
to betray for money: to impose upon, cheat.--_v.i._ to have commerce: to be
sold, to be in demand for sale:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ s[=o]ld.--_n._ a
deception.--_adj._ SELL'ABLE, that can be sold.--_n._ SELL'ER, a furnisher:
a vender: a small vessel for holding salt.--SELL ONE'S LIFE DEARLY, to do
great injury to the enemy before one is killed; SELL ONE UP, to sell a
debtor's goods; SELL OUT, to dispose entirely of: to sell one's commission.
[A.S. _sellan_, to hand over; cf. Ice. _selja_, Goth. _saljan_.]

SELLANDERS, sel'an-d[.e]rs, _n._ an eruption in the tarsus of the horse.
[Fr. _solandre_.]

SELTZER, selt'z[.e]r, _n._ an effervescing alkaline mineral water brought
from Nieder-Selters in Prussia.--_n._ SELT'ZOGENE, a gazogene (q.v.).

SELVAGE, sel'v[=a]j, _n._ that part of cloth which forms an edge of itself
without hemming: a border: in mining, that part of a lode adjacent to the
walls on either side: the edge-plate of a lock--also SEL'VEDGE.--_adjs._
SEL'VAGED, SEL'VEDGED.--_n._ SELVAG[=EE]', an untwisted skein of rope-yarn
marled together. [Old Dut. _selfegge_, self, _self_, _egge_, edge.]

SELVES, selvz, _pl._ of _self_.

SEMANTRON, s[=e]-man'tron, _n._ in the Greek Church, a long bar of wood
struck with a mallet to summon worshippers. [Gr.,--_s[=e]mainein_, to give
a signal.]

SEMAPHORE, sem'a-f[=o]r, _n._ a contrivance for conveying signals,
consisting of a mast with arms turned on pivots by means of cords or
levers.--_adjs._ SEMAPHOR'IC, -AL, telegraphic--_adv._ SEMAPHOR'ICALLY.
[Gr. _s[=e]ma_, a sign, _pherein_, to bear.]

SEMASIOLOGY, s[=e]-m[=a]-si-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the development
of the meanings of words. [Gr. _s[=e]masia_--_s[=e]mainein_, to signify,
_legein_, to speak.]

SEMASPHERE, sem'a-sf[=e]r, _n._ an aerostatic signalling apparatus. [Gr.
_s[=e]ma_, a sign, _sphaira_, a ball.]

SEMATIC, s[=e]-mat'ik, _adj._ significant: indicative, as of danger:
ominous.--_n._ SEMATOL'OGY, the science of verbal signs in the operations
of thinking and reasoning. [Gr. _s[=e]ma_, a sign.]

SEMATROPE, sem'a-tr[=o]p, _n._ an adaptation of the heliotrope for
transmitting military signals. [Gr. _s[=e]ma_, a sign, _trepein_, to turn.]

SEMBLABLE, sem'bla-bl, _adj._ (_Shak._) resembling, similar, like.--_n._
likeness, resemblance.--_adv._ SEM'BLABLY (_Shak._) in like manner.--_n._
SEM'BLANCE, likeness: appearance: figure.--_adj._ SEM'BLANT, resembling,
like.--_n._ (_Spens._) resemblance, figure.--_adj._ SEM'BLATIVE (_Shak._),
resembling, fit, suitable.--_v.i._ SEM'BLE (_obs._), to appear: to
dissemble: to practise the art of imitation.--_adj._ like.
[Fr.,--_sembler_, to seem, to resemble--L. _similis_, like.]

SEMÉ, se-m[=a]', _adj._ (_her._) strewn or scattered over with small
bearings, powdered. [Fr., sown, _semer_--L. _semin[=a]re_, to sow.]

SEMEIOLOGY, SEMIOLOGY, s[=e]-m[=i]-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the sum of knowledge of
the signs and symptoms of morbid conditions, symptomatology: the science of
gesture or sign-language.--_n._ SEMEIOG'RAPHY, the description of the signs
or symptoms of disease.--_adjs._ SEMEIOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to
semeiology; SEMEIOT'IC, relating to signs, symptomatic.--_n._ SEMEIOT'ICS,
the science of signs: semeiology or symptomatology. [Gr. _s[=e]meion_, a
mark, _legein_, to say.]

SEMEION, s[=e]-m[=i]'on, _n._ in ancient prosody, the unit of time: one of
the two divisions of a foot: a mark in paleography indicating metrical or
other divisions:--_pl._ SEMEI'A. [Gr. _s[=e]meion_, a mark.]

SEMELE, sem'e-l[=e], _n._ a genus of bivalves. [Gr. _Semel[=e]_, the mother
of Bacchus.]

SEMEN, s[=e]'men, _n._ the impregnating fluid of male animals, usually
whitish, viscid, containing innumerable spermatozoa. [L.]

SEMENCINE, s[=e]'men-sin, _n._ santonica.

SEMESE, se-m[=e]s', _adj._ half-eaten. [L. _semesus_, half-eaten, _semi-_,
half, _esus_--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]

SEMESTER, s[=e]-mes't[.e]r, _n._ one of the half-year courses in German
universities.--_adj._  SEMES'TRAL. [L. _semestris_--_sex_, six, _mensis_, a

SEMI-, sem'i, a prefix of Latin origin, meaning 'half,' and also less
accurately 'partly,' 'incompletely.'--_n._ and _adj._ SEMIAC'ID, half-acid,
sub-acid.--_n._ SEM'IANGLE, the half of a given angle.--_adj._
SEMI-AN'NUAL, half-yearly.--_adv._ SEM'I-AN'NUALLY, once every six
months.--_adj._ SEMIAN'NULAR, semicircular.--_ns._ SEM'I-AN'THRACITE, coal
intermediate between anthracite and semi-bituminous coal; SEM'I-APE, a
lemur.--_adjs._ SEM'I-AQUAT'IC (_zool._, _bot._), entering the water, but
not necessarily existing by it; SEM'I-[=A]'RIAN, relating to the
Christology of the so-called Semi-Arians (Eusebius of Cæsarea, &c.) who
held a middle ground between the Arian _hetero-ousia_ and the orthodox
_homo-ousia_ or co-equality of the Son with the Father, asserting the
_homoi-ousia_, or similarity of essence.--_n._ SEM'I-[=A]'RIANISM.--_adjs._
SEM'I-ARTIC'ULATE, loose-jointed; SEM'I-ATTACHED', partially bound by
affection or interest; SEMIBARB[=A]'RIAN, half-barbarian or savage:
partially civilised.--_n._ [Illustration] SEMIBAR'BARISM.--_adj._
SEM'I-BIT[=U]'MINOUS, partly bituminous, as coal.--_ns._ SEM'IBR[=E]VE, a
musical note, half the length of a breve = 2 minims or 4 crotchets;
SEM'IBULL, a bull issued by a pope between the time of his election and
that of his coronation.--_adjs._ SEM'ICALC[=A]'REOUS, partly chalky;
SEM'I-CAL'CINED, half-calcined; SEMICARTILAG'INOUS, gristly;
SEMICENTENN'IAL, occurring at the completion of fifty years.--_n._ a
celebration at the end of fifty years.--_adj._ SEMICH[=O]'RIC.--_ns._
SEMICH[=O]'RUS, a small number of selected singers; SEM'ICIRCLE, half a
circle: the figure bounded by the diameter of a circle and half the
circumference.--_adjs._ SEM'ICIRCLED; SEMICIR'CULAR.--_adv._
SEMICIR'CULARLY.--_ns._ SEMICIRCUM'FERENCE, half of the circumference of a
circle; SEM'ICIRQUE, a semicircular hollow; SEMICL[=O]'SURE, half-closure;
SEM'ICOLON, the point (;) marking a division greater than the comma;
SEMIC[=O]'LON-BUTT'ERFLY, a butterfly with a silver mark on the under side;
SEM'I-COL'UMN, a half-column.--_adjs._ SEM'I-COLUM'NAR, flat on one side
and rounded on the other; SEM'I-COMPLETE' (_entom._), incomplete;
SEM'I-CON'FLUENT (_path._), half-confluent; SEM'I-CON'JUGATE, conjugate and
halved; SEM'I-CON'SCIOUS, half or imperfectly conscious; SEM'I-CONVER'GENT,
convergent as a series, while the series of moduli is not convergent.--_n._
SEM'ICOPE, an outer garment worn by some of the monastic clergy in the
Middle Ages.--_adjs._ SEM'ICOR'NEOUS, partly horny; SEMICOR'ONATE.--_n._
SEM'ICOR'ONET (_entom._), a line of spines half surrounding a
part.--_adjs._ SEM'I-COSTIF'EROUS, half-bearing a rib; SEMICRIT'ICAL,
related to a differential equation and its criticoids.--_n._ SEM'ICROME
(_mus._), a sixteenth note.--_adjs._ SEM'ICRUST[=A]'CEOUS, half-hard;
SEMICRYS'TALLINE, imperfectly crystallised.--_n._ SEMIC[=U]'BIUM, a
half-bath.--_adjs._ SEMICYLIN'DRICAL, resembling a cylinder divided
longitudinally; SEMIDEF'INITE, half-definite: SEM'I-DEPEND'ENT,
half-dependent; SEM'IDES'ERT, half-desert; SEM'IDETACHED', partly
separated: noting one of two houses joined by a party-wall, but detached
from other buildings.--_ns._ SEM'I-DIAM'ETER, half the diameter of a
circle: a radius; SEM'I-DIAP[=A]'SON, a diminished octave;
SEM'I-DIAPHAN[=E]'ITY, half-transparency.--_adj._ SEMI'-DIAPH'ANOUS,
half-transparent.--_n._ SEMIDIUR'NA, a group of lepidopterous insects
including the hawk-moth.--_adj._ SEMIDIUR'NAL, accomplished in half a day:
(_entom._) flying in twilight.--_n._ SEM'I-DOME', half a dome, esp. as
formed by a vertical section.--_adj._ SEM'IDOUB'LE, having the outermost
stamens converted into petals.--_n._ a festival on which half the antiphon
is repeated before and the whole antiphon after the psalm.--_n._
SEM'I-EF'FIGY, a representation of a figure seen at half-length
only.--_adj._ SEM'I-ELLIP'TICAL, having the form of an ellipse which is cut
transversely.--_ns._ SEM'I-F[=A]'BLE, a mixture of truth and fable;
SEM'I-FAIENCE', pottery having a transparent glaze instead of the opaque
enamel of true faience; SEM'I-FIG'URE, a partial human figure in ornamental
design.--_v.t._ SEM'I-FLEX, to half-bend.--_n._ SEM'I-FLEX'ION.--_adj._
SEM'I-FLOS'CULAR.--_n._ SEM'I-FLOS'CULE, a floret with a strap-shaped
corolla.--_adjs._ SEM'I-FLOS'CUL[=O]SE, SEM'I-FLOS'CULOUS, having the
corolla split, flattened out, and turned to one side, as in the ligular
flowers of composites; SEMIFLU'ID, half or imperfectly fluid; SEM'I-FORMED,
half-formed.--_n._ SEM'I-FR[=A]'TER, a secular benefactor of a religious
house, having a share in its intercessory prayers and masses.--_adjs._
SEM'I-FUSED', half-melted; SEMIGL[=O]'B[=O]SE, SEMIGLOB'ULAR, having the
shape of half a sphere.--_adv._ SEMIGLOB'ULARLY.--_ns._ SEM'I-GOD, a
demi-god; SEM'I-INDEPEND'ENCE.--_adjs._ SEM'I-INDEPEND'ENT, not fully
independent; SEM'I-IN'FINITE, limited at one end and extending to infinity;
SEM'I-LIG'NEOUS, partially woody: (_bot._) having a stem woody at the base
and herbaceous at the top; SEMI-LIQ'UID, half-liquid.--_n._
SEMI-LIQUID'ITY.--_adjs._ SEM'I-LOG'ICAL, half-logical, partly logical;
SEM'I-L[=U]'CENT, half-transparent; SEMI-L[=U]'NAR, half-moon shaped, as
the semi-lunar bone of the wrist; SEM'I-L[=U]'NATE, having the form of a
half-moon; SEM'I-MALIG'NANT, not very malignant, said of tumours;
SEM'I-MAT[=U]RE', half-ripe.--_n._ SEMIMEMBRAN[=O]'SUS, a long muscle of
the back of the thigh.--_adjs._ SEMIMEM'BRANOUS (_anat._), partly
membranous; SEM'I-MEN'STRUAL, half-monthly, esp. of an inequality of the
tide.--_n._ SEM'I-MET'AL, in old chemistry, a metal that is not malleable,
as zinc.--_adjs._ SEM'I-METAL'LIC; SEM'I-MONTH'LY, occurring twice a
month.--_n._ SEMI-M[=U]TE', one who, having lost the faculty of hearing,
has also lost the faculty of speech--also _adj._--_adj._ SEM'I-N[=U]DE',
half-naked.--_n._ SEM'INYMPH, the pupa of an insect which undergoes only
semi-metamorphosis.--_adjs._ SEM'I-OBSCURE', noting the wings of insects
when deeply tinged with brownish-gray, but semi-transparent;
SEM'I-OFFIC'IAL, partly official.--_adv._ SEM'I-OFFIC'IALLY.--_n._
SEM'I-[=O]'PAL, a variety of opal not possessing opalescence.--_adj._
SEM'I-OPAQUE', partly opaque.--_n._ SEM'I-OP'TERA, a genus of birds--the
standard-wings.--_adj._ SEM'I-ORBIC'ULAR, having the shape of half a
sphere.--_n._ SEM'I-OR'DINATE, half a chord bisected by the transverse
diameter of a conic.--_adjs._ SEM'I-OSS'EOUS, partly bony; SEMI[=O]'VAL,
having the form of an oval; SEMIOVIP'AROUS, imperfectly viviparous;
SEMIPAL'MATE, half-webbed, as the toes of a bird.--_ns._ SEMIPALM[=A]'TION;
SEMIPARAB'OLA, one branch of a parabola being terminated at the principal
vortex of the curve; SEM'IPED, in prose, a half-foot.--_adjs._ SEM'IPEDAL;
SEM'I-PEL[=A]'GIAN, relating to the theology of the Semi-Pelagians (John
Cassianus, &c.), who tried to find a middle course between the Augustinian
doctrine of predestination and the Pelagian doctrine of the free-will of
man.--_n._ SEM'I-PEL[=A]'GIANISM.--_adjs._ SEM'I-PELL[=U]'CID, imperfectly
transparent; SEM'IPEN'NIFORM, half-penniform; SEM'I-PER'FECT, nearly
perfect; SEM'I-PIS'CINE, half-fish; SEM'I-PLANT'IGRADE, incompletely
plantigrade: partly digitigrade; SEM'I-PLAS'TIC, imperfectly
plastic.--_ns._ SEMIPLOT[=I]'NA, a group or sub-family of cyprinoid fishes;
SEM'IPLUME, a feather of partly downy structure; [Illustration]
SEMIQUAD'RATE, an aspect of two planets when distant from each other 45
degrees; SEM'IQU[=A]VER, a musical note, half the length of a quaver:
something of short duration.--_adjs._ SEM'I-RECON'DITE, half-hidden;
SEM'I-R[=E]'FLEX, involuntarily performed, but not entirely independent of
the will; SEM'I-REG'ULAR, pertaining to a quadrilateral having four equal
sides, but only pairs of equal angles; SEM'I-RETRAC'TILE, retractile to
some extent.--_n._ SEM'I-RING, a bronchial half-ring.--_adjs._
SEM'I-SAG'ITTATE (_entom._), shaped like the barbed end of a fish-hook;
SEM'I-SAV'AGE, semi-barbarian; SEM'I-SAX'ON, early Middle English (c.
1150-1250); SEM'I-SEP'TATE, half-partitioned.--_ns._ SEM'I-SEX'TILE, the
position of planets when they are distant from each other the twelfth part
of a circle, or 30°; SEM'I-SMILE, a faint smile.--_adjs._ SEM'I-SOLID,
partially solid; SEMISPHER'ICAL, having the figure of a half-sphere.--_ns._
SEM'I-SPIN[=A]'LIS, a deep muscular layer of the back; SEM'I-SQUARE, an
aspect of two planets when 45 degrees from each other; SEM'I-STEEL, puddled
steel.--_adjs._ SEM'I-SUPERNAT'URAL, half-divine and half-human;
SEM'I-S[=U]'PINATED, placed between supination and pronation.--_ns._
SEM'I-TAN'GENT, the tangent of half an arc; SEM'I-TENDIN[=O]'SUS, a
fusiform muscle on the back of the thigh.--_adjs._ SEMITEN'DINOUS,
tendinous for half its length; SEMIT[=E]R[=E]'TE, half-round; SEMITER'TIAN,
partly tertian and partly quotidian.--_n._ SEM'ITONE, half a tone: one of
the lesser intervals of the musical scale, as from B to C.--_adj._
half or imperfectly transparent; SEM'I-TROP'ICAL, subtropical;
SEM'I-T[=U]'BULAR, like the half of a tube divided longitudinally;
SEM'I-TYCHON'IC, approximating to Tycho Brahe's astronomical system;
SEM'I-UN'CIAL, intermediate between uncial and minuscule.--_n._ a method of
writing Latin and Greek in use in the sixth and seventh centuries.--_adjs._
SEMIVIT'REOUS, partially vitreous; SEMIVIT'RIFIED, half-vitrified;
SEM'IVIVE (_obs._) half-alive; SEM'I-V[=O]'CAL, pertaining to a semivowel:
imperfectly sounding.--_n._ SEMIVOW'EL, a half-vowel, a letter possessing
the character of both a vowel and a consonant, usually only _w_ and _y_,
but sometimes including also the liquids _l_ and _r_ and the nasals _m_ and
_n_.--_adj._ SEM'I-WEEK'LY, issued twice a week.--SEMICYLINDRICAL LEAF, a
leaf elongated, flat on one side, round on the other.

SEMINAL, sem'in-al, _adj._ pertaining to seed: radical: rudimentary.--_n._
(_obs._) a seed.--_n._ SEMINAL'ITY, the germinating principle.--_v.t._
SEM'IN[=A]TE, to sow: to propagate: to disseminate.--_n._ SEMIN[=A]'TION,
act of sowing: natural dispersion of seed: propagation.--_adjs._
SEMINIF'EROUS, seed-bearing: producing seed; SEMINIF'IC, producing
seed.--_ns._ SEMINIFIC[=A]'TION; SEM'INIST, one who holds that the
admixture of the male and female seed originates the new individual. [L.
_semen_, _seminis_, seed--_ser[)e]re_, to sow.]

SEMINARY, sem'in-ar-i, _n._ the original place whence anything is derived,
a nursery: a place of education, esp. in branches of knowledge to be
afterwards applied in practice, as theology, &c.: a group of advanced
students working in some specific subject of study under a teacher--also
and more commonly SEMINÄR' (the German name): a seminary priest.--_n._
SEM'INARIST, a student at a seminary: a R.C. priest educated in a foreign

SEMINOLE; sem'i-n[=o]l, _n._ one of a tribe of American Indians, originally
a vagrant branch of the Creeks, now mostly confined to the Indian


SEMIOTELLUS, s[=e]-mi-[=o]-tel'us, _n._ a widely distributed genus of
hymenopterous parasites.

SEMIS, s[=e]'mis, _n._ a bronze coin of the ancient Roman republic, half
the value of an as.

SEMISPATA, sem-i-sp[=a]'ta, _n._ a Frankish dagger. [L. _semi-_, half,
_spatha_, a sword.]

SEMITA, sem'i-ta, _n._ a fasciole of the spatangoid sea-urchins.--_adj._
SEM'ITAL. [L., a path.]

SEMITAUR, sem'i-tawr, _n._ a fabulous animal, half-bull, half-man. [L.
_semi-_, half, _taurus_, a bull.]

SEMITIC, sem-it'ik, _adj._ pertaining to the _Semites_, or supposed
descendants of Shem, or their language, customs, &c.--also
SHEMIT'IC.--_ns._ SEM'ITE; SEMITIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SEM'ITISE, to render
Semitic in language or religion.--_ns._ SEM'ITISM, a Semitic idiom;
SEM'ITIST, a Hebrew scholar.--SEMITIC LANGUAGES, Assyrian, Aramean, Hebrew,
Phoenician, together with Arabic and Ethiopic. [Applied by J. G. Eichhorn
in 1817 to the closely allied peoples represented in Gen. x. as descended
from _Shem_.]

SEMMIT, sem'it, _n._ (_Scot._) an undershirt. [_Samite_.]

SEMNOPITHECINÆ, sem-n[=o]-pith-[=e]-s[=i]'n[=e], _n._ a sub-family of
catarrhine monkeys.--_adjs._ SEMNOPITH'ECINE, SEMNOPITH'ECOID.--_n._
SEMNOPITH[=E]'CUS, the typical genus of the foregoing sub-family, the
sacred monkeys of Asia. [Gr. _semnos_, honoured, _pith[=e]kos_, an ape.]

SEMOLINA, sem-[=o]-l[=e]'na, _n._ the particles of fine, hard wheat which
do not pass into flour in milling: an article of food consisting of
granules of the floury part of wheat.--Also SEM'[=O]LA, SEM[=O]LI'N[=O].
[It. _semola_--L. _simila_, the finest wheat flour.]

SEMOSTOMÆ, s[=e]-mos't[=o]-m[=e], _n.pl._ a sub-order of _Discomedusæ_,
containing jelly-fishes.--_adj._ S[=E]MOS'TOMOUS, having long oral
processes. [Gr. _s[=e]ma_, a mark, _stoma_, mouth.]

SEMOTED, s[=e]-m[=o]'ted, _adj._ (_obs._) separated: remote.

SEMOTILUS, s[=e]-mot'i-lus, _n._ an American genus of leuciscine fishes,
including the chub and dace. [Gr. _s[=e]ma_, a mark, _ptilon_, a feather.]

SEMPER IDEM, sem'p[.e]r [=i]'dem, always the same. [L.]

SEMPERVIRENT, sem-p[.e]r-v[=i]'rent, _adj._ evergreen. [L. _semper_,
always, _virens_--_vir[=e]re_, to be green.]

SEMPER VIVUM, sem'p[.e]r v[=i]'vum, _n._ a genus of polypetalous plants,
including the house-leek. [L.]

SEMPITERNAL, sem-pi-t[.e]r'nal, _adj._ everlasting: endless--also
SEMP'ITERN.--_v.t._ SEMPITER'NISE, to perpetuate.--_n._
SEMPITER'NITY.--_adj._ SEMPITER'NOUS.--_n._ SEMPITER'NUM, a durable twilled
woollen material. [L. _sempiternus_--_semper_, ever, _æternus_, eternal.]

SEMPLE, sem'pl, _adj._ a Scotch form of simple, esp. meaning of low birth,
the opposite of _Gentle_.

SEMPLICE, sem'pl[=e]-che, _adj._ (_mus._) simple, without embellishments.

SEMPRE, sem'pre, _adv._ (_mus._) in the same style throughout. [It.,--L.
_semper_, always.]

SEMPSTER, sem'st[.e]r, SEMPSTRESS, sem'stres, _n._ a woman who sews.

SEMUNCIA, s[=e]-mun'shi-a, _n._ a Roman coin of four drachmas weight, the
twenty-fourth part of the Roman pound.--_adj._ SEMUN'CIAL.

SEN., s[=e]n, an abbreviation of _Senior_.

SEN, sen, _n._ a Japanese copper coin the hundredth part of a yen or

SEÑAL, se-nyal', _n._ (_Amer._) a landmark. [Sp.]

SENARY, sen'ar-i, _adj._ containing six: of or belonging to six.--_n._
SEN[=A]'RIUS, in Latin prosody, a verse of six feet. [L.
_senarius_--_seni_, six each--_sex_, six.]

SENATE, sen'[=a]t, _n._ a legislative or deliberative body, esp. the upper
house of a national legislature, as of France, the United States, &c.: a
body of venerable or distinguished persons: the governing body of the
University of Cambridge.--_ns._ SEN'ATE-HOUSE, a house in which a senate
meets; SEN'ATOR, a member of a senate: in Scotland, the lords of session
pertaining to, or becoming, a senate or a senator.--_adv._
SENAT[=O]'RIALLY, with senatorial dignity.--_ns._ SEN'ATORSHIP;
SEN[=A]'TUS, a governing body in certain universities.--SEN[=A]TUS
ACADEMICUS, the governing body of a Scotch university, consisting of the
principal and professors; SEN[=A]TUS CONSULT, a decree of the senate of
ancient Rome. [L. _senatus_--_senex_, _senis_, an old man.]

SENCE, sens, _n._ an obsolete form of sense.

SENCH, sensh, _v.t._ to cause to sink.

SENCION, sen'shi-on, N. (_obs._) groundsel. [L. _senecio_.]

SEND, send, _v.t._ to cause to go: to cause to be conveyed: to despatch: to
forward: to compel: to throw: to hurl: to authorise: to grant: to drive: to
dismiss: to commission: to diffuse: to bestow.--_v.i._ to despatch a
message or messenger: (_naut._) to pitch into the trough of the
sea:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sent.--_n._ (_Scot._) a messenger, esp. one sent
for the bride: a present: the impulse of a wave on a ship.--_ns._ SEN'DER,
one who sends: (_teleg._) the instrument by which a message is transmitted;
SEN'DING, despatching: pitching bodily into the trough of the sea;
SEND'-OFF, a start as on a journey.--SEND FOR, to require by message to
come or be brought; SEND FORTH, or OUT, to give, put, or bring forth; SEND
TO COVENTRY, to cut: to exclude from society. [A.S. _sendan_; Ice. _senda_,
Goth. _sandjan_, Ger. _senden_.]

SENDAL, sen'dal, _n._ a thin silk or linen. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _cendalum_--L.
_sindon_--Gr. _sind[=o]n_.]

SENECA-OIL, sen'[=e]-kä-oil, _n._ crude petroleum.--SENECA'S MICROSCOPE, a
glass globe filled with water.

SENECIO, s[=e]-n[=e]'si-o, _n._ a genus of composite plants--ragwort,
&c.--_adj._ SEN[=E]'CIOID.

SENEGA, sen'[=e]-ga, _n._ the seneca snakeroot, the dried root of _Polygala
Senega_, good for snake-bites.

SENEGAL, sen'[=e]-gal, _n._ a small African blood-finch, the fire-bird.

SENESCENCE, s[=e]-nes'ens, _n._ the state of growing old or decaying: decay
by time.--_n._ SENEC'TITUDE.--_adj._ SENES'CENT, growing old: decaying with
the lapse of time. [L. _senescens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _senesc[)e]re_, to
grow old--_senex_, old.]

SENESCHAL, sen'e-shal, _n._ a steward: a major-domo.--_n._ SEN'ESCHALSHIP.
[O. Fr., (Fr. _sénéchal_)--_sin-s_, old, _skalks_, a servant.]

SENEX, s[=e]'neks, _n._ a South American hawk: a Brazilian swift.

SENG-GUNG, seng'-gung, _n._ the teledu or Javan badger.

SENGREEN, sen'gr[=e]n, _n._ the house-leek: (_her._) a figure resembling
it. [A.S. _singrene_; Ger. _singrün_.]

SENHOR, se-ny[=o]r', _n._ the Portuguese form corresponding to the Spanish
_señor_ and Italian _signor_.

SENILE, s[=e]'nil, _adj._ pertaining to old age or attendant on it:
aged.--_n._ SENIL'ITY, old age: the imbecility of old age. [L.
_senilis_--_senex_, _senis_, old.]

SENIOR, s[=e]n'yor, _adj._ elder: older in office.--_n._ one older than
another, the elder of two persons in one family bearing the same name: one
older in office: an aged person: one of the older fellows of a college, a
student in the fourth year of the curriculum.--_v.i._ S[=E]'NIORISE, to
lord it over.--_n._ S[=E]NIOR'ITY, priority of birth, or of service: a body
of seniors--also S[=E]'NIORY (_Shak._). [L., comp. of _senex_.]

SENNA, sen'a, _n._ the purgative dried leaflets of several species of
cassia. [Fr.,--Ar. _sena_.]

SENNET, sen'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a particular set of notes on the trumpet or

SENNIGHT, sen'n[=i]t, _n._ a week. [_Seven night_.]

SENNIT, sen'it, _n._ a sort of flat, braided cordage.--Also SINN'ET.

SENOCULAR, s[=e]-nok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ having six eyes.

SENONIAN, s[=e]-n[=o]'ni-an, _n._ (_geol._) a division of the upper
Cretaceous in France and Belgium.

SEÑOR, se-ny[=o]r', _n._ a gentleman: in address, sir: as a title,
Mr:--_fem._ SEÑORA (se-ny[=o]'ra), a lady: in address, madam: as a title,
Mrs.--_n._ SEÑORITA (sen-y[=o]-r[=e]'ta), a young lady: in address, miss:
as a title, Miss. [Sp.]

SENS, sens, _adv._ (_Spens._) since.

SENSATION, sen-s[=a]'shun, _n._ perception by the senses: the change in
consciousness which results from the transmission of nervous impulses to
the brain, feeling excited by external objects, by the state of the body,
or by immaterial objects: a state of excited feeling.--_adjs._ SEN'S[=A]TE,
-D, perceived by the senses; SENS[=A]'TIONAL, pertaining to sensation:
having sensation: intended as a literary work to excite violent emotions:
adhering to a philosophical sensationalism.--_ns._ SENS[=A]'TIONALISM, the
doctrine that our ideas originate solely in sensation, and that there are
no innate ideas: sensualism: sensational writing; SENS[=A]'TIONALIST, a
believer in sensationalism: a sensational writer.--_adj._
SENSAT[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to sensation.--SENSATION NOVELS, novels that
deal in violent effects, strained emotion, and usually improbable

SENSE, sens, _n._ a faculty by which objects are perceived: perception:
discernment: understanding: power or soundness of judgment: reason:
opinion: conviction: import: immediate consciousness.--_ns._ SENSE'-BOD'Y,
a sense-organ in acalephs supposed to have a visual or an auditory
function; SENSE'-CAP'SULE, a receptive chamber for sensory perception,
connected with the ear, eye, and nose; SENSE'-CEN'TRE, a centre of
sensation.--_adj._ SENSED, chosen as to sense or meaning.--_ns._
SENSE'-EL'EMENT, an external sensation, as an element of perception;
SENSE'-FIL'AMENT, a filament having the function of an organ of
sense.--_adjs._ SENSE'FUL (_Spens._), full of sense or meaning, reasonable,
judicious, perceptive; SENSE'LESS, without sense: incapable of feeling:
wanting sympathy: foolish: unreasonable.--_adv._ SENSE'LESSLY.--_ns._
SENSE'LESSNESS; SENSE'-OR'GAN, any organ of sense, as the eye, ear, or
nose; SENSE'-PERCEP'TION, perception by means of the senses; SENSE'-RHYTHM,
Hebrew parallelism; SENSE'-SKEL'ETON, the framework of a sense-organ;
SENSIBIL'ITY, state or quality of being sensible: actual feeling: capacity
of feeling: susceptibility: acuteness of feeling: delicacy: mental
receptivity.--_adj._ SEN'SIBLE, capable of being perceived by the senses or
by the mind: capable of being affected: easily affected: delicate:
intelligent, marked by sense, judicious: cognisant: aware: appreciable:
sensitive: amenable to.--_n._ SEN'SIBLENESS.--_adv._ SEN'SIBLY.--_adjs_
SENSIF[=A]'CIENT, producing sensation; SENSIF'EROUS, SENSIF'IC,
SENSIFIC[=A]'TORY; SENSIG'ENOUS, giving rise to sensation; SEN'SILE,
capable of affecting the senses.--_ns_ SEN'SION, the becoming aware of
being affected from without in sensation; SEN'SISM, sensualism in
philosophy; SEN'SIST, a sensationalist.--_n._ SENSITIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
SEN'SITISE, to render sensitive, to render capable of being acted on by
actinic rays of light.--_n._ SEN'SITISER.--_adj._ SEN'SITIVE, having sense
or feeling: susceptible to sensations: easily affected: pertaining to, or
depending on, sensation.--_adv._ SEN'SITIVELY.--_ns_ SEN'SITIVENESS,
SEN'SITIVITY, the state of being sensitive: keen sensibility: the state of
being delicately adjusted, as a balance: (_chem._) the state of being
readily affected by the action of appropriate agents; SENSITOM'ETER, an
apparatus for testing the degrees of sensitiveness of photographic
films.--_adjs_ SENS[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to the sensorium, sensory;
SENSORIDIGEST'IVE, partaking of digestive functions and those of touch, as
the tongue of a vertebrate animal.--_ns_ SENS[=O]'RIUM, SEN'SORY, the organ
which receives the impressions made on the senses: the nervous centre to
which impressions must be conveyed before they are received: the whole
sensory apparatus of the body, the nervous system, &c.--_adj._ SEN'SUAL,
pertaining to, affecting, or derived from the senses, as distinct from the
mind: not intellectual or spiritual: given to the pleasures of sense:
voluptuous: lewd: carnal: worldly.--_n._ SENSUALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
SEN'SUALISE, to make sensual: to debase by carnal gratification.--_ns_
SEN'SUALISM, sensual indulgence: the doctrine that all our knowledge is
derived originally from sensation: the regarding of the gratification of
the senses as the highest end; SEN'SUALIST, one given to sensualism or
sensual indulgence: a debauchee: a believer in the doctrine of
sensualism.--_adj._ SENSUALIST'IC, sensual: teaching the doctrines of
sensualism.--_n._ SENSUAL'ITY, indulgence in sensual pleasures:
lewdness.--_adv._ SEN'SUALLY, in a sensual manner.--_ns_ SEN'SUALNESS;
SEN'SUISM; SEN'SUIST.--_adj._ SEN'SUOUS, pertaining to sense: connected
with sensible objects: easily affected by the medium of the senses.--_adv._
SEN'SUOUSLY.--_n._ SEN'SUOUSNESS.--SENSITIVE FLAMES, flames easily affected
by sounds; SENSITIVE PLANT, one of certain species of Mimosa--from the
peculiar phenomena of irritability which their leaves exhibit when touched
or shaken; SENSUOUS COGNITION, cognition through the senses.--A SENSITIVE
PERSON, one sensitive to mesmeric influence; THE SENSES, or FIVE SENSES,
sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. [Fr.,--L. _sensus_--_sent[=i]re_,
to feel.]

SENT, sent, _n._ (_Spens._) scent, perception.

SENT, sent, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _send_.

SENTENCE, sen'tens, _n._ opinion: a judgment pronounced on a criminal by a
court or judge: a maxim: (_gram._) a number of words containing a complete
thought: sense: meaning: matter.--_v.t._ to pronounce judgment on: to
condemn.--_n._ SEN'TENCER, one who sentences.--_adj._ SENTEN'TIAL,
pertaining to a sentence: comprising sentences.--_adv._
SENTEN'TIALLY.--_adj._ SENTEN'TIOUS, abounding with sentences or maxims:
short and pithy in expression: bombastic, or affected in speech.--_adv._
SENTEN'TIOUSLY.--_n._ SENTEN'TIOUSNESS, brevity with strength.--MASTER OF
THE SENTENCES, the great 12th-century schoolman, Peter Lombard (died 1160),
from his work _Sententiarum Libri IV._, an arranged collection of sentences
from Augustine, &c. [Fr.,--L. _sententia_--_sent[=i]re_, to feel.]

SENTIENT, sen'shi-ent, _adj._ discerning by the senses: having the faculty
of perception and sensation: (_phys._) noting those parts which on
stimulation give rise to sensation.--_n._ the mind as capable of
feeling.--_ns_ SEN'TIENCE, SEN'TIENCY.--_adv._ SEN'TIENTLY, in a sentient
or perceptive manner.

SENTIMENT, sen'ti-ment, _n._ a thought occasioned by feeling: opinion:
judgment: sensibility: feeling: a thought expressed in words: a maxim: a
toast: emotion: an exhibition of feeling, as in literature or art: (_pl.,
phren._) the second division of the moral faculties.--_adj._ SENTIMEN'TAL,
having or abounding in sentiments or reflections: having an excess of
sentiment or feeling: affectedly tender.--_v.t._ SENTIMEN'TALISE, to talk
sentiment.--_ns_ SENTIMEN'TALISM, SENTIMENTAL'ITY, quality of being
sentimental: affectation of fine feeling; SENTIMEN'TALIST, one who affects
sentiment or fine feeling: one guided by mere sentiment: one who regards
sentiment as more important than reason.--_adv._ SENTIMEN'TALLY.
[Fr.,--Late L.,--L. _sent[=i]re_, to feel.]

SENTINE, sen't[=e]n, _n._ (_obs._) a sink. [L. _sentina_.]

SENTINEL, sen'ti-nel, _n._ a soldier or soldier-marine at a point with the
duty of watching for the approach of an enemy, or guarding the gun-park,
camp, magazine, or other locality: a sentry.--_adj._ acting as a
sentinel.--_v.t._ to watch over, as a sentinel.--_adj._ SEN'TINELLED,
furnished with a sentinel.--SENTINEL CRAB, a crab of the Indian Ocean with
long eye-stalks. [Fr. _sentinelle_--It. _sentinella_, a watch, prob. the L.
_sentinator_, one who pumps bilge-water out of a ship--_sentina_, the hold
of a ship. Others explain Fr. _sentinelle_ as a dim. of _sentier_, a
path--Low L. _semitarius_--L. _semita_, a footpath.]

SENTISECTION, sen-ti-sek'shun, _n._ painful vivisection--opp. to

SENTRY, sen'tri, _n._ a sentinel: a soldier on guard to observe the
approach of danger: a watch-tower.--_ns_ SEN'TRY-BOX, a box to shelter a
sentry; SEN'TRY-GO, any active military duty. [Prob. a corr. of
_sentinel_--Low L. _semitarius_--L. _semita_, a path.]

SENVY, sen'vi, _n._ (_obs._) mustard-seed. [O. Fr. _seneve_--L.
_sinapi_--Gr. _sinapi_, mustard.]

SENZA, sen'tsa, _prep._ (_mus._) without. [It.]

SEP, sep, an abbreviation for _sepal_.


SEPAL, sep'al, or s[=e]'pal, _n._ a leaf or division of the calyx of a
flower.--_adjs._ SEP'ALINE, SEP'ALOID, SEP'ALOUS.--_n._ SEPAL'ODY, change
of petals into sepals. [Fr. _sépale_--L. _separ_, separate.]

SEPARATE, sep'a-r[=a]t, _v.t._ to divide: to part: to withdraw: to set
apart for a certain purpose: to sever.--_v.i._ to part: to withdraw from
each other: to become disunited.--_adj._ separated: divided: apart from
another: distinct.--_n._ SEPARABIL'ITY.--_adj._ SEP'ARABLE, that may be
separated or disjointed.--_n._ SEP'ARABLENESS.--_advs._ SEP'ARABLY;
cutting a space between teeth; SEPAR[=A]'TION, act of separating or
disjoining: state of being separate: disunion: chemical analysis: divorce
without a formal dissolution of the marriage-tie; SEPAR[=A]'TIONIST;
SEP'ARATISM, act of separating or withdrawing, esp. from an established
church; SEP'ARATIST, one who separates or withdraws, esp. from an
established church, a dissenter: a name applied by the Unionists to those
Liberals in favour of granting Home Rule to Ireland.--_adj._
SEP'AR[=A]TIVE, tending to separate.--_ns._ SEP'AR[=A]TOR, one who, or that
which, separates: a divider; SEP'AR[=A]TORY, a chemical vessel for
separating liquids of different specific gravities; SEP'AR[=A]TRIX, the
line separating light from shade on any partly illuminated surface;
SEPAR[=A]'TUM, a separate copy of a paper which has been published in the
proceedings of a scientific society.--SEPARATE ESTATE, property of a
married woman over which her husband has no right of control; SEPARATE
MAINTENANCE, a provision made by a husband for the sustenance of his wife
where they decide to live apart. [L. _separ[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_se-_,
aside, _par[=a]re_, to put.]

SEPAWN=_Supawn_ (q.v.).

SEPHARDIM, se-fär'd[=e]m, _n.pl._ the Spanish-Portuguese Jews, descended
from those expelled from Spain in 1492--as distinguished from _Ashkenazim_,
or German-Polish Jews.--_adj._ SEPHAR'DIC.

SEPHEN, sef'en, _n._ a sting-ray of the Indian Ocean, valued for shagreen.

SEPHIROTH, sef'i-roth, _n._ in the cabbala, the first ten numerals
identified with Scripture names of God.

SEPIA, s[=e]'pi-a, _n._ a fine, brown pigment used as a water-colour--from
the ink-bag of a few species of cuttle-fish: Indian or China ink: a genus
of cuttle-fishes.--_n.pl._ S[=E]PI[=A]'CEA, a group of cephalopods, same as
S[=E]PIIDÆ.--_n._ S[=E]PIAD[=A]'RIUM, a genus of cuttles.--_adjs._
S[=E]'PIC, done in sepia, as a drawing.--_ns._ S[=E]'PIOST, SEPIOSTAIRE',
S[=E]'PIUM, cuttle-bone. [L.,--Gr. _s[=e]pia_, the cuttle-fish.]

SEPIMENT, sep'i-ment, _n._ a hedge, a fence. [L. _sæpimentum_, a hedge.]

SEPOSE, s[=e]-p[=o]z', _v.t._ (_obs._) to set apart.--_v.i._ to go
apart.--_n._ S[=E]POSI'TION.

SEPOY, s[=e]'poi, _n._ a native soldier, whether Hindu or Mohammedan, in
the British army in India. [Hind. _sip[=a]h[=i]_, a soldier--Pers.
_sip[=a]h[=i]_, a horseman.]

SEPPUKU, sep-puk'[=oo], _n._ the hara-kiri. [Jap.]

SEPS, seps, _n._ a genus of scincoid lizards. [Gr.]

SEPSIS, sep'sis, _n._ putridity, rot: a genus of dipterous insects. [Gr.
_s[=e]psis_, putrefaction.]

SEPT, sept, _n._ in Ireland, a subdivision of a tribe: an enclosure, a
railing.--_adj._ SEP'TAL, belonging to a sept: partitional. [Probably a
corr. of _sect_.]

SEPT.=_Septuagint_; _September_.

SEPTAN, sep'tan, _adj._ recurring every seventh day.

SEPTANGLE, sep'tang-gl, _n._ a figure with seven angles and seven
sides.--_adj._ SEPTANG'[=U]LAR, having seven angles. [L. _septem_, seven,
_angulus_, angle.]

SEPTARIA, sep-t[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of shipworms--_Teredo_.

SEPTARIUM, sep-t[=a]'ri-um, _n._ an ovate flattened nodule of argillaceous
limestone or ironstone--turtle-stone:--_pl._ SEPT[=A]'RIA.--_adj._

SEPTATE, -D, sep't[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ divided into compartments.

SEPTEMBER, sep-tem'b[.e]r, _n._ the ninth month of the year.--_adj._
SEPTEM'BRAL.--_n._ SEPTEM'BRIST, one of the perpetrators of the atrocious
massacres in the prisons of Paris, Sept. 2-7, 1792.--SEPTEMBER THORN, a
British geometrid moth. [L. _septem_, seven.]

SEPTEMPARTITE, sep-tem-pär't[=i]t, _adj._ divided into seven parts.

SEPTEMVIR, sep-tem'vir, _n._ one of a board of seven men associated for
certain duties.--_n._ SEPTEM'VIRATE, the office of septemvir.

SEPTENARIUS, sep-te-n[=a]'ri-us, _n._ in Latin prosody, a verse consisting
of seven feet.

SEPTENARY, sep'te-n[=a]-ri, _adj._ consisting of seven: lasting seven
years: occurring once in seven years.--_n.pl._ SEP'TENARIES, the number
seven, the heptad. [L. _septenarius_--_septem_, seven.]

SEPTENATE, sep'te-n[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having seven parts.

SEPTENNIAL, sep-ten'i-al, _adj._ lasting seven years: happening every seven
years.--_n._ SEPTENN'ATE, a period of seven years.--_adv._
SEPTENN'IALLY.--_n._ SEPTENN'IUM.--SEPTENNIAL ACT, a statute of 1716 fixing
the existence of a parliament at seven years. [L. _septennis_--_septem_,
seven, _annus_, a year.]

SEPTENTRION, sep-ten'tri-on, _n._ (_Shak._) the north.--_adjs._
SEPTEN'TRION, -AL, northern.--_adv._ SEPTEN'TRIONALLY.--_n.pl._
SEPTENTRI[=O]'NES, the constellation of the Great Bear, or the seven stars
near the north pole-star, called Charles's Wain.

SEPTET, SEPTETTE, sep-tet', _n._ a work for seven voices or instruments: a
company of seven musicians.

SEPT-FOIL, sept'-foil, _n._ a plant, the roots of which are used in
medicine, tanning, &c.: a figure of seven equal segments of a circle used
in the R.C. Church as a symbol of her seven sacraments, the seven gifts of
the Holy Spirit, &c. [Fr. _sept_--L. _septem_, seven, _foil_--L. _folium_,
a leaf.]

SEPTICEMIA, sep-ti-s[=e]'mi-a, _n._ sepsis, blood-poisoning--also
SEPTICÆ'MIA.--_n._ SEP'TIC, a substance that promotes the putrefaction of
bodies.--_adjs._ SEP'TIC, -AL, promoting putrefaction.--_adv._
SEP'TICALLY.--_adj._ SEPTIC[=E]'MIC.--_n._ SEPTIC'ITY, tendency to promote
putrefaction.--_adj._ SEPTIF'EROUS, conveying putrid poison. [Formed from
Gr. _s[=e]ptikos_, putrefying, _haima_, blood.]

SEPTICIDAL, sep-ti-s[=i]'dal, _adj._ dividing the partitions, as when fruit
splits asunder--also SEP'TICIDE.--_adv._ SEP'TICIDALLY. [L. _sæptum_, a
fence, _cæd[)e]re_, to cut.]

SEPTIFARIOUS, sep-ti-f[=a]'ri-us, _adj._ turned seven different ways.

SEPTIFEROUS, sep-tif'e-rus, _adj._ having a septum or septa, septate.

SEPTIFLUOUS, sep-tif'l[=oo]-us, _adj._ flowing in seven streams.

SEPTIFOLIOUS, sep-ti-f[=o]'li-us, _adj._ seven-leaved.

SEPTIFORM, sep'ti-form, _adj._ sevenfold, having seven parts: like a
septum, septal.

SEPTIFRAGAL, sep-tif'r[=a]-gal, _adj._ (_bot._) breaking away from the
partitions, said of the valves of a pod. [L. _septum_, a partition,
_frang[)e]re_, _fractum_, to break.]

SEPTILATERAL, sep-ti-lat'[.e]r-al, _adj._ having seven sides. [L. _septem_,
seven, _latus_, _lateris_, a side.]

SEPTILLION, sep-til'yun, _n._ the product of a million raised to the
seventh power, or a unit with forty-two ciphers affixed: in the United
States, France, &c., the eighth power of a thousand.

SEPTIMANARIAN, sep-ti-m[=a]-n[=a]'ri-an, _n._ a monk on duty for a week.
[L. _septimanus_--_septem_, seven.]

SEPTIME, sep't[=e]m, _n._ the seventh position assumed by a fencer after
drawing his weapon from the scabbard. [L. _septimus_, seventh--_septem_,

SEPTIMOLE, sep'ti-m[=o]l, _n._ a group of seven notes to be played in the
time of four or six: sign [septimole].--Also SEP'T[=O]LE.

SEPTINSULAR, sept-in's[=u]-lar, _adj._ consisting of seven islands. [L.
_septem_, seven, _insula_, island.]

SEPTISYLLABLE, sep'ti-sil-a-bl, _n._ a word of seven syllables.

SEPTOMAXILLARY, sep-t[=o]-mak'si-l[=a]-ri, _adj._ combining characters of a
nasal septum and a maxillary bone.--_n._ a bone in some birds uniting the
maxillopalatines of opposite sides.

SEPTONASAL, sep-t[=o]-n[=a]'zal, _adj._ forming a nasal septum.--_n._ a
bone of this kind.

SEPTUAGENARIAN, sep-t[=u]-aj-e-n[=a]'ri-an, _n._ a person seventy years
old.--_adj._ SEPT[=U]AG'ENARY, consisting of seventy.--_n._ one seventy
years old. [L. _septuagenarius_--_septuageni_, seventy each--_septem_,

SEPTUAGESIMA, sep-t[=u]-a-jes'i-ma, _n._ the third Sunday before Lent--the
seventieth day before Easter (the common but dubious explanation).--_adj._
SEPTUAGES'IMAL, consisting of seventy: counted by seventies. [L.
_septuagesimus_--_septem_, seven. The name, like _Quinquagesima_ and
_Sexagesima_, was most probably adopted on a false analogy with
_Quadragesima_, the Latin name of Lent.]

SEPTUAGINT, sep't[=u]-a-jint, _n._ the version in Hellenistic Greek of the
Old Testament, said to have been made by 72 translators at Alexandria by
command of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-247 B.C.)--usually expressed by
LXX.--_adj._ SEPTUAGIN'TAL. [L. _septuaginta_--_septem_, seven.]

SEPTUARY, sep't[=u]-[=a]-ri, _n._ (_obs._) something composed of seven.


SEPTUM, sep'tum, _n._ (_bot._, _anat._) a partition separating two
cavities: one of the radial plates of a coral:--_pl._ SEP'TA.--_adj._
SEP'TULATE, having imperfect or spurious septa.--_n._ SEP'TULUM, a little
septum or small partition. [L.,--_sæp[=i]re_, _sep[=i]re_, to enclose.]

SEPTUPLE, sep't[=u]-pl, _adj._ sevenfold.--_v.t._ to make sevenfold: to
multiply by seven.--_n._ SEP'T[=U]PLET, a septimole. [Low L.
_septuplus_--_septem_, seven; on the analogy of quadruple.]

SEPULCHRE, sep'ul-k[.e]r, _n._ a place of burial: tomb: a burial vault: a
recess in some early churches in which the reserved sacrament, &c., were
laid from Good Friday till Easter.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to place in a
sepulchre: to bury or entomb.--_adj._ SEPUL'CHRAL, pertaining to a
sepulchre, or to monuments erected for the dead: (_fig._) deep, hollow in
tone.--_n._ SEP'ULTURE, act of burying the dead: interment: burial.--_v.t._
to entomb. [Fr.,--L. _sepulchrum_--_sepel[=i]re_, _sepultum_, to bury.]

SEPURTURE, sep'ur-t[=u]r, _adj._ (_her._) raised above the back and opened,
of a bird's wings.

SEQUACIOUS, s[=e]-kw[=a]'shus, _adj._ inclined to follow a leader:
attendant: manageable: pliant: observing logical sequence or
consistence.--_ns._ SEQU[=A]'CIOUSNESS, SEQUAC'ITY, disposition to follow.
[L. _sequax_, _sequacis_--_sequi_, to follow.]

SEQUEL, s[=e]'kwel, _n._ that which follows, the succeeding part: result,
consequence: (_obs._) descendants: (_Scots law_) thirlage. [Fr.,--L.
_sequela_--_sequi_; Gr. _hepesthai_, to follow.]

SEQUELA, s[=e]-kw[=e]'la, _n._ that which follows: an inference, a
corollary:--_pl._ S[=E]'QUELÆ.

SEQUENCE, s[=e]'kwens, _n._ state of being sequent or following: order of
succession: a series of things following in a certain order, as a set of
three or more cards in order of value: that which follows: consequence:
(_mus._) a regular succession of similar chords: in liturgics, a hymn in
rhythmical prose, sung after the gradual and before the gospel.--_adjs._
S[=E]'QUENT, following, succeeding; S[=E]QUEN'TIAL.--_n._
S[=E]QUENTIAL'ITY.--_adv._ S[=E]QUEN'TIALLY. [Fr.,--L. _sequens_, pr.p. of
_sequi_, to follow.]

SEQUESTER, s[=e]-kwes't[.e]r, _v.t._ to separate: to withdraw from society:
to seclude: to set apart: (_law_) to place anything contested into the
hands of a third person till the dispute is settled: to hold the property
of another till the profits pay the demands: to take possession of the
estate of a bankrupt in order to distribute it among the creditors: to
confiscate.--_v.i._ to renounce any interest in the estate of a
husband.--_n._ (_Shak._) the act of sequestering: an umpire.--_adjs._
S[=E]QUES'TERED, retired, secluded; SEQUES'TRABLE.--_v.t._ S[=E]QUES'TRATE
(_law_), to sequester.--_ns._ S[=E]QUESTR[=A]'TION, the Scotch legal term
for bankruptcy: the act of sequestering, esp. the seizure of any one's
property for the use of the state during dispute, or for the benefit of
creditors: state of being separated: seclusion from society;
S[=E]QUESTR[=A]'TOR, one who sequesters another's property: one to whom
property is committed during dispute. [O. Fr. _sequestrer_--Low L.
_sequestr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--L. _sequester_, a depositary--_sequi_, to

SEQUESTRUM, s[=e]-kwes'trum, _n._ a necrosed section of bone.--_n._
SEQUESTROT'OMY, the operation of removing such.

SEQUIN, s[=e]'kwin, _n._ a gold Venetian coin of the 13th century=9s. 4d.
[Fr.,--It. _zecchino_--_zecca_, the mint; of Ar. origin.]

SEQUOIA, s[=e]-kwoi'a, _n._ a small genus of gigantic evergreen coniferous
trees belonging to California--Wellingtonia. [A Latinised form of the name
of the Cherokee chief _Sequoiah_.]

SERA, s[=e]'ra, _n._ a lock of any kind:--_pl._ S[=E]'RÆ. [L.]

SÉRAC, s[=a]-rak', _n._ a name for the cuboidal masses into which the névé
breaks when passing down a steep incline. [Swiss Fr.]

SERAGLIO, se-ral'y[=o], _n._ the ancient residence of the Sultan at
Constantinople, enclosing within its walls a variety of mosques, gardens,
and large edifices, the chief of which is the Harem: a place where women
are kept, a place of licentious pleasure: an enclosure. [It.
_serraglio_--Low L. _ser[=a]re_, to lock up, from L. _sera_, a door-bar.
The word was confused with Pers. _serai_, a palace.]

SERAI, se-rä'i, _n._ a khan, a caravansary: a seraglio for women. [Pers.
_serai_, a palace.]

SERALBUMIN, s[=e]r-al-b[=u]'min, _n._ albumin of the blood.

SERANG, se-rang', _n._ the skipper of a small East Indian vessel, the
boatswain of a lascar crew. [Pers. _sarhang_, a commander.]

SERAPE, se-rä'pe, _n._ a Mexican shawl worn by men, often gay-coloured.

SERAPEUM, SERAPEIUM, ser-a-p[=e]'um, _n._ a temple of _Serapis_, esp. that
near Memphis.

SERAPH, ser'af, _n._ an angel of the highest rank in the traditional
angelology of the church, due to Dionysius the Areopagite, who places the
seraphim at the head of the nine choirs of angels, the first rank being
formed by the seraphim, cherubim, and _throni_:--_pl._ SERAPHS (ser'afs),
SERAPHIM (ser'af-im), celestial beings on either side of the throne of
Jehovah, seen in prophetic vision by Isaiah, and by him alone (vi. 2-6): a
geometrid moth.--_adjs._ SERAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or becoming, a
seraph: angelic: pure: sublime: refined.--_adv._ SERAPH'ICALLY. [Heb.
_Ser[=a]ph[=i]m_--_s[=a]raph_, to burn.]

SERAPHINE, ser'a-f[=e]n, _n._ a coarse-toned musical reed-instrument,
played with a key-board--the precursor of the harmonium.

SERAPIAS, se-r[=a]'pi-as, _n._ a genus of orchids.

SERAPIS, ser-[=a]'pis, _n._ Apis honoured by the Romans under the
attributes of Osiris: a genus of gasteropods: a genus of hymenopterous

SERASKIER, ser-as'k[=e]r, _n._ a Turkish general, esp. the
commander-in-chief or the minister of war.--_n._ SERAS'KIERATE, the office
of a seraskier. [Turk.,--Pers. _sar_, _ser_, head, Ar. _`asker_, army.]

SERB, serb, _adj._ Servian.--_n._ a Servian.

SERBONIAN, ser-b[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ relating to a dangerous bog in Egypt,
hence to any difficult situation.

SERDAB, ser'dab, _n._ a secret chamber within the masonry of an ancient
Egyptian tomb in which images of the deceased were stored. [Ar.

SERE. Same as SEAR.

SERE, s[=e]r, _adj._ (_obs._) separate, several, many.

SERE, s[=e]r, _n._ (_obs._) a claw.

SEREIN, se-rang', _n._ a fine rain which falls from a cloudless sky. [Fr.]

SERENA, s[=e]-r[=e]'na, _n._ the damp, unwholesome air of evening.

SERENADE, ser-e-n[=a]d', _n._ evening music in the open air, esp. given by
a lover to his mistress under her window at night: a piece of music
suitable for such an occasion.--_v.t._ to entertain with a serenade.--_ns._
SEREN[=A]'DER, one who serenades; SERENÄ'TA, an instrumental work for
performance in the open air; SER'EN[=A]TE (_Milt._), a serenade. [Fr.,--It.
_serenata_, _sereno_, serene--L. _serenus_.]

SERENE, s[=e]-r[=e]n', _adj._ calm: unclouded: unruffled: an adjunct to the
titles of certain German princes--a translation of _Durchlaucht_.--_v.t._
to tranquillise.--_n._ the chilly damp of evening: blight.--_adv._
SER[=E]NE'LY, calmly, coolly.--_ns._ SER[=E]NE'NESS; SEREN'ITUDE;
SEREN'ITY, state or quality of being serene, calmness, peace.--_v.t._
SERENISE', to make bright: to glorify. [L. _serenus_, clear.]

SERENOA, s[=e]-r[=e]'n[=o]-a, _n._ a genus of dwarf palms in Florida.

SERF, s[.e]rf, _n._ a slave attached to the soil and sold with it: a
labourer rendering forced service in Russia: a menial.--_ns._ SERF'AGE,
SERF'DOM, condition of a serf. [Fr.,--L. _servus_, a slave.]

SERGE, s[.e]rj, _n._ a strong twilled fabric, once of silk, now usually of
worsted.--_n._ SERGETTE', a thin serge. [Fr.,--L. _serica_, silk--_Seres_,
the Chinese.]

SERGEANT, SERJEANT, sär'jent, _n._ a non-commissioned officer of the army
and marines next above a corporal, overlooking the soldiers in barracks,
and assisting the officers in all ways in the field: a bailiff: a
constable: a servant in monastic offices: a police-officer of superior
rank.--_ns._ SER'GEANCY, SER'GEANTCY, SER'GEANTSHIP, office of a sergeant;
SER'GEANT-AT-ARMS, an officer of a legislative body for keeping order, &c.;
SER'GEANT-FISH, the cobra, so called from the lateral stripes;
SER'GEANT-M[=A]'JOR, the highest non-commissioned officer, employed to
assist the adjutant: the cow-pilot, a fish; SER'GEANTRY, SER'GEANTY, a kind
of feudal tenure on condition of service due to the king only;
SER'JEANT-AT-ARMS, an officer who attends upon the Lord Chancellor with the
mace, and who executes various writs of process in the course of a Chancery
suit: a similar officer who attends on each House of Parliament, and
arrests any person ordered by the House to be arrested; SER'JEANT-AT-LAW,
formerly in England the highest degree of barrister, once with exclusive
audience in the Court of Common Pleas, their proper dress a violet-coloured
robe with a scarlet hood, and a black coif, represented in modern times by
a patch of silk at the top of the wig.--GRAND SERGEANTY, a tenure of lands
by special honorary service to the king; PETIT SERGEANTY, a tenure of lands
by a rent or tender. [Fr. _sergent_--L. _serviens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of
_serv[=i]re_, to serve.]

SERIAL, s[=e]'ri-al, _adj._ pertaining to, or consisting of, a series:
appearing periodically.--_n._ a tale or other composition appearing in
successive parts, as in a periodical: a publication issued in successive
numbers, a periodical.--_n._ S[=E]RIAL'ITY.--_advs._ S[=E]'RIALLY,
S[=E]'RIATELY, in a series or regular order.--_adj._ S[=E]'RI[=A]TE,
arranged in a series.--_adv._ S[=E]'RI[=A]TIM, one after another.--_n._

SERIAN, s[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ Chinese--also SER'IC.--_ns._ SER'ICA, a genus
of melolonthine beetles; SERIC[=A]'RIA, a genus of bombycid moths,
containing the mulberry silkworm.--_adjs._ SER'ICATE, -D, silky, covered
with silky down; SERICEOUS (s[=e]rish'i-us), pertaining to, or consisting
of, silk: (_bot._) covered with soft silky hairs, as a leaf.--_n.pl._
SERIC'IDES, a section of melolonthine beetles.--_ns._ SER'ICIN, the
gelatinous substance of silk; SER'ICITE, a variety of potash mica.--_adj._
SERICIT'IC.--_ns._ SERICOCAR'PUS, a genus of composite plants of the United
States; SERICOS'T[=O]MA, the typical genus of caddis-flies;
SERICT[=E]'RIUM, a spinning gland; SER'ICULTURE, the breeding of
silkworms--also SER'ICICULTURE; SERICUL'TURIST. [Gr. _S[=e]res_, the Seres,
an Asiatic people who supplied the Greeks and Romans with their silk.]

SERICON, ser'i-kon, _n._ in the jargon of alchemy, a red tincture--opp. to
_Bufo_, a black.

SERIEMA, ser-i-[=e]'ma, _n._ a long-legged, crested Brazilian bird.--Also

SERIES, s[=e]'ri-[=e]z, _n.sing._ and _pl._ a succession of things
connected by some likeness: sequence: order: (_math._) a progression of
numbers or quantities according to a certain law.--ARITHMETICAL SERIES, a
series whose terms progress by the addition or subtraction of a constant
difference; GEOMETRICAL SERIES, a series whose successive terms progress by
a constant multiplier or divisor--the _common ratio_; RECIPROCAL SERIES, a
series each of whose terms is the reciprocal of the corresponding term of
another series. [L.,--_ser[)e]re, sertum_, to join.]

SERIF, ser'if, _n._ the short cross-line at the ends of unconnected Roman
types, as in H, l, d, y, &c.--Also CER'IPH and SER'IPH.

SERIFORM, s[=e]'ri-form, _adj._ noting a section of the Altaic family of
languages, comprising Chinese, &c.

SERILOPHUS, s[=e]-ril'[=o]-fus, _n._ an Indian genus of broadbills. [Gr.
_s[=e]rikos_, silky, _lophos_, a crest.]

SERIN, ser'in, _n._ a small fringilline bird like the canary.--_n._
SERINETTE', a bird-organ. [Fr.,--L. _citrinus_, _citrine_, yellow.]

SERINGA, se-ring'gä, _n._ a name of several Brazilian trees yielding
india-rubber. [Port.]

SERINGHI, ser-ing-g[=e]', _n._ a musical instrument of the viol class used
in India.

SERINUS, s[=e]-r[=i]'nus, _n._ a genus of birds of the fringilline family,
including canaries. [Fr. _serin_.]

SERIOLA, s[=e]-r[=i]'[=o]-la, _n._ a genus of carangoid fishes, the amber

SERIOUS, s[=e]'ri-us, _adj._ solemn: in earnest: important: attended with
danger: weighty: professedly religious.--_adjs._ S[=E]'RIO-COM'IC, -AL,
partly serious and partly comical.--_adv._ S[=E]'RIOUSLY, gravely, deeply:
without levity.--_n._ S[=E]'RIOUSNESS. [Fr. _serieux_--L. _serius_, akin to
_severus_, severe.]



SERMOCINATION, ser-mos-i-n[=a]'shun, _n._ (_obs._) speech-making: (_rhet._)
a form of prosopopoeia in which one answers a question he has himself

SERMON, s[.e]r'mon, _n._ a discourse on a text of Scripture delivered
during divine service: any serious address, any serious counsel,
admonition, or reproof.--_v.t._ to tutor, to lecture.--_ns._ SERMOL'OGUS, a
volume containing sermons by the Church fathers; SERMONEER', a sermoniser;
SER'MONER, a preacher; SER'MONET, a little sermon.--_adjs._ SERMON'IC, -AL,
having the character of a sermon.--_n._ SER'MONING, the act of preaching: a
homily.--_v.i._ SER'MONISE, to compose or preach sermons: to lecture: to
lay down the law.--_v.t._ to preach a sermon to.--_ns._ SERMON[=I]'SER, one
who preaches or writes sermons; SERM[=O]'NIUM, a historical play, formerly
acted by the inferior orders of the Roman Catholic clergy; SERMUN'CLE, a
little sermon. [L. _sermo_, _sermonis_--_ser[)e]re_, to join.]

SEROON, se-r[=oo]n', _n._ a crate or hamper in which Spanish and Levantine
figs, raisins, &c. are usually packed.--_n._ SER'ON, a bale of about 200
lb. of Paraguay tea wrapped in hide. [Sp. _seron_.]

SEROPURULENT, s[=e]-r[=o]-p[=u]'r[=oo]-lent, _adj._ composed of serum mixed
with pus.--_adj._ SEROSANGUIN'OLENT, pertaining to bloody serum.

SEROTINE, ser'[=o]-tin, _n._ a small reddish vespertilionine bat. [L.
_serotinus_--_sero_, late.]

SEROTINOUS, s[=e]-rot'i-nus, _adj._ (_bot._) appearing late the season. [L.
_serotinus_--sero, late.]

SEROUS, s[=e]'rus, _adj._ resembling serum, thin, watery: secreting
serum.--_n._ SEROS'ITY. [_Serum_.]

SERPENT, s[.e]r'pent, _n._ any member of the genus _Ophidia_, more
popularly known as snakes--any reptile without feet which moves by means of
its ribs and scales: a snake: a person treacherous or malicious: one of the
constellations in the northern hemisphere: (_mus._) a bass musical
wind-instrument, entirely obsolete except in a few Continental churches, a
tapered leather-covered wooden tube 8 feet long, twisted about like a
serpent.--_v.i._ to wind along: to meander.--_v.t._ to girdle, as with the
coils of a serpent.--_ns._ SERPENT[=A]'RIA, the Virginia snakeroot;
SERPENT[=A]'RIUS, the secretary-birds: the constellation _Ophiuchus_;
SER'PENT-CHARM'ER, one who charms or has power over serpents;
SER'PENT-CHARM'ING, the art of charming or governing serpents;
SER'PENT-C[=U]'CUMBER, a long-fruited variety of the musk-melon;
SER'PENT-D[=E]'ITY, the god of the Ophites, Abraxas; SER'PENT-EAT'ER, the
secretary-bird: a wild goat in India and Cashmere; SER'PENTEAU, an iron
circle with spikes to which squibs are attached, used in a breach.--_n.pl._
SERPENT'ES, the second order of the third class of limbless
reptiles.--_ns._ SER'PENT-FISH, the snake-fish; SER'PENT-GRASS, the alpine
bistort.--_adjs._ SERPENT'IFORM, ophidian in structure: snake-like;
SER'PENTINE, resembling a serpent: winding, tortuous: spiral:
crooked.--_n._ a kind of firework: a 16th-cent. form of cannon: a mineral
composed of silica and manganese, generally occurring massive, colour some
shade of green, also red and brownish-yellow.--_v.i._ to wind or wriggle
like a serpent.--_adv._ SER'PENTINELY.--_adjs._ SERPENTIN'IC,
SER'PENTINOUS.--_adv._ SERPENT[=I]'NINGLY, with a serpentine
motion.--_v.t._ SER'PENTINISE, to convert into serpentine.--_v.i._
SER'PENTISE, to wind: meander.--_adj._ SER'PENT-LIKE, like a
serpent.--_ns._ SER'PENT-LIZ'ARD, a lizard of the genus _Seps_;
SER'PENT-MOSS, a greenhouse plant from the West Indies; SER'PENTRY,
serpentine motion: a place infested by serpents: serpents collectively;
SER'PENT-STAR, a brittle star; SER'PENT-STONE, snake-stone, adder-stone;
SER'PENT'S-TONGUE, the adder's-tongue fern; SER'PENT-TUR'TLE, an
enaliosaur; SER'PENT-WITHE, a twining plant of tropical America;
SER'PENT-WOOD, an East Indian shrub; SER'PENT-WOR'SHIP, one of the most
ancient and widespread forms of primitive religion, and still existing
amongst many savage peoples; SEA'-SER'PENT (see SEA).--SERPENTINE VERSE, a
verse which begins and ends with the same word.--THE OLD SERPENT, Satan.
[L. _serpens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _serp[)e]re_, to creep; akin to Gr.

SERPET, ser'pet, _n._ (_obs._) a basket.

SERPETTE, s[.e]r-pet', _n._ a hooked pruning-knife. [Fr.]

SERPIGO, s[.e]r-p[=i]'go, _n._ (_Shak._) a skin eruption, herpes.--_adj._
SERPIG'INOUS (-pij'-). [L. _serp[)e]re_, to creep.]

SERPLATH, ser'plath, _n._ (_Scot._) 80 stone weight.

SERPOLET, ser'p[=o]-let, _n._ the wild thyme. [Fr.]

SERPULA, ser'p[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of sedentary Chætopod worms, living in
twisted calcareous tubes fastened to shells and rocks in the sea, or even
to other animals, such as crabs.--_adj._ SERP[=U]'LIAN.--_n._ SER'PULITE, a
fossil of the family _Serpulidæ_.--_adjs._ SERPULIT'IC, SER'PULOID. [L.
_serp[)e]re_, to creep.]

SERR, ser, _v.t._ (_obs._) to crowd or press together.

SERRA, ser'a, _n._ a saw, or saw-like part [L.]

SERRADILLA, ser-a-dil'a, _n._ a Port. bird's-foot clover.

SERRANUS, ser-r[=a]'nus, _n._ the genus containing sea-perches or
sea-bass.--_n.pl._ SERRAN'IDÆ, the family of fishes containing among its
genera Sea-bass, Rockfish, &c. [L. _serra_, a saw.]

SERRASALMO, ser-a-sal'mo, _n._ a genus of characinoid fishes, with
compressed belly fringed with projecting scales. [L. _serra_, a saw,
_salmo_, a salmon.]

SERRATE, -D, ser'r[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ notched or cut like a saw: (_bot._)
having small sharp teeth along the margin.--_n._ SERR[=A]'TION, state of
being serrated.--_adj._ SERRATIROS'TRAL, saw-billed, as a bird.--_ns._
SER'R[=A]TURE, a notching like that between the teeth of a saw;
SERR[=A]'TUS, one of several muscles of the thorax.--_adj._ SER'RICORN,
having separate antennæ.--_n.pl._ SERRIF'ERA, a group of insects, including
the sawflies and horntails.--_adjs._ SERRIF'EROUS, having a serra or
serrate organ; SER'RIFORM, toothed like a saw; SER'RIPED, having the feet
serrate; SERRIROS'TRATE, having the bill serrated with tooth-like
processes.--_n._ SER'RO-M[=O]'TOR, a steam reversing-gear, in marine
engines.--_adj._ SER'ROUS, like the teeth of a saw: rough.--_n._ SER'RULA,
one of the serrated appendages of the throat of the mudfish:--_pl._
SER'RULÆ.--_adjs._ SER'RULATE, -D, finely serrate.--_ns._ SERRUL[=A]'TION,
the state of being serrulate; SERRURERIE', ornamental wrought-metal work.
[L. _serratus_--_serra_, a saw.]

SERRIED, ser'rid, _adj._ crowded: pressed together.--_v.t._ SER'RY, to
crowd. [Fr. _serrer_, to crowd--L. _sera_, a door-bar.]

SERTULARIA, ser-t[=u]-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a common genus of Hydroids in which
the branched horny investment of the plant-like colony forms a sessile cup
around each polyp.--_adj._ SERTUL[=A]'RIAN. [L. _ser[)e]re_, _sertum_, to

SERUM, s[=e]'rum, _n._ the watery part of curdled milk, whey: the thin
fluid which separates from the blood when it coagulates. [L.]

SERVAL, s[.e]r'val, _n._ a South African animal of the cat tribe, yellowish
with black spots, valued for its fur--the _Bush-cat_, _Tiger-cat_. [Ger.]

SERVANT, s[.e]r'vant, _n._ one who is in the service of another: a
labourer: a domestic: one dedicated to God: (_B._) a slave: one of low
condition or spirit: a professed lover: a word of mere civility, as in
'your humble' or 'obedient servant' in letters, petitions, &c.--_v.t._ to
subject.--_ns._ SER'VANT-GIRL, SER'VANT-MAID, a female domestic servant;
SER'VANT-MAN, a male servant; SER'VANTRY, servants collectively;
SER'VANTSHIP, position or relation of a servant.--SERVANT OUT OF LIVERY, a
servant of a higher grade, as a major-domo or butler; SERVANTS' CALL, a
whistle to call attendants; SERVANTS' HALL, the room in a house where the
servants eat together. [Fr., pr.p. of _servir_, to serve--L. _serv[=i]re_,
to serve.]

SERVATORY, s[.e]r'va-tor-i, _n. (obs.)_ that which preserves.

SERVE, s[.e]rv, _v.t._ to be a servant to, to work for and obey: to attend
or wait upon: to work for: to obey: to be subservient or subordinate to: to
wait upon at table, &c.: to do duty for: to treat, behave towards: to
render worship to: to aid by good offices: to minister to a priest at mass:
to comply with: to requite: to handle, manipulate: to furnish: (_naut._) to
bind with small cord: (_law_) to deliver or present formally: to furnish:
to cover, of stallions, &c.: to deliver the ball in tennis.--_v.i._ to be
employed as a servant, to discharge any regular duty: to be in subjection:
to suffice, to avail, to be suitable or favourable.--_n._ in tennis, the
act of the first player in striking the ball, or the style in which this is
done.--_ns._ SER'VAGE (_obs._), servitude: the service of a lover; SER'VER,
one who serves: an attendant on the priest at the celebration of the
Eucharist: the player who strikes the tennis-ball first: a salver, any
utensil for distributing or helping at table.--SERVE AN OFFICE, to
discharge the duties of an office; SERVE A PROCESS or WRIT, to formally
communicate a process or writ to the person to whom it is addressed; SERVE
AN ATTACHMENT, to levy such a writ on the person or goods by seizure; SERVE
AN EXECUTION, to levy an execution on the person or goods by seizure; SERVE
A SENTENCE, to undergo the punishment prescribed by a judicial sentence;
SERVE ONE A TRICK, to play a trick on one; SERVE ONE OUT, to take revenge
on some one; SERVE ONE RIGHT, to treat one as he deserves; SERVE ONE'S
TIME, to complete one's apprenticeship; SERVE OUT, to deal or distribute;
SERVE THE PURPOSE OF, to answer adequately an end for which something else
is designed; SERVE THE TURN, to suffice for one's immediate purpose or
need; SERVE TIME, to undergo a period of imprisonment, &c.; SERVE UP, to
bring to table. [Fr. _servir_--L. _serv[=i]re_, to serve.]

SERVIAN, ser'vi-an, _n._ a native of _Servia_: the language of Servia,
belonging to the southern division of the Slav tongues, its nearest
congeners Bulgarian, Slovenian, and Russian.

SERVICE, s[.e]r'vis, _n._ condition or occupation of a servant: a working
for another: duty required in any office: military or naval duty: any
liturgical form or office, public religious worship, religious ceremonial:
a musical composition for devotional purposes: labour, assistance, or
kindness to another: benefit: profession of respect: order of dishes at
table, or a set of them: official function, use, employment: that which is
furnished: a tree of rarely more than 30 feet high, with leaves and flowers
like the Rowan-tree, but the former downy beneath--also _Sorb_.--_ns._
serve: advantageous: useful: capable of rendering long service,
durable.--_adv._ SER'VICEABLY.--_ns._ SER'VICE-BERR'Y, a berry of the
service-tree: (_Scot._) the fruit of the white beam: a North American
shrub, the shadbush; SER'VICE-BOOK, a book of forms of religious service: a
prayer-book; SER'VICE-BOX, a form of expansion joint, used in street-mains
of steam-heating systems; SER'VICE-CLEAN'ER, a portable air-compressing
pump and receiver for service-pipes; SER'VICE-LINE, one of two lines drawn
across the court twenty-one feet from the net, in lawn-tennis;
SER'VICE-MAG'AZINE, a magazine for storing ammunition for immediate use;
SER'VICE-PIPE, a smaller pipe from a main-pipe to a dwelling;
SER'VICE-TREE, a tree of the pear family, with close-grained wood and an
edible fruit; SER'VING-MALL'ET, a piece of wood having a groove on one side
to fit the convexity of a rope; DIN'NER-SER'VICE, a full set of dishes for
dinner; T[=A]'BLE-SER'VICE, a set of utensils for the table;
WILD'-SER'VICE, a small species of service-tree, cultivated in England for
its fruit and wood.--SERVICE OF AN HEIR (_Scots law_), a proceeding before
a jury to determine the heir of a person deceased.--ACTIVE SERVICE, service
of a soldier, &c., in the field, against an enemy; AT YOUR SERVICE, a
phrase of civility; HAVE SEEN SERVICE, to have been in active military
service: to have been put to hard use; PLAIN SERVICE, in Anglican usage, an
office which is simply read. [Fr.,--L. _servitium_.]

SERVIENT, ser'vi-ent, _adj._ subordinate.

SERVIETTE, ser-vi-et', _n._ a table-napkin. [Fr.]

SERVILE, s[.e]r'v[=i]l, _adj._ pertaining to a slave or servant: slavish:
meanly submissive: cringing: obedient: (_gram._) secondary or
subordinate.--_n._ a slave, a menial.--_adv._ SER'VILELY.--_ns._
SER'VILISM, the spirit of a servile class; SERVIL'ITY (_obs._
SER'VILENESS), state or quality of being servile: slavery: obsequiousness;
SER'VING-MAID, a female domestic servant; SER'VING-MAN, a male servant: a
professed lover.--_adj._ SER'VIOUS, obsequious.--_ns._ SER'V[=I]TE, one of
a mendicant order of monks and nuns founded in Italy in the 13th century;
SERVIT'IUM (_law_), service; SER'VITOR, one who serves: a servant: a
follower or adherent: a male servant, a menial: soldier: formerly in
Oxford, an undergraduate partly supported by the college, his duty to wait
on the fellows and gentlemen commoners at table; SER'VITORSHIP, the office
or condition of a servitor; SER'VIT[=U]DE, state of being a slave: slavery:
state of slavish dependence: menial service: compulsory servitude: (_law_)
a burden affecting land or other heritable subjects, by which the
proprietor is either restrained from the full use of his property or is
obliged to suffer another to do certain acts upon it: service rendered in
the army or navy: (_obs._) servants collectively; SER'VIT[=U]RE (_Milt._),
servants collectively.--_v.i._ SER'VULATE.

SESAME, ses'a-m[=e], _n._ an annual herbaceous plant of Southern Asia,
whose seed yields the valuable _gingili-oil_.--_adjs._ SES'AMOID, -AL,
denoting certain small bones found in the substance of the tendons at the
articulations of the great toes, and in other parts of the body.--_n._
SES'AMUM, the genus to which sesame belongs.--OPEN SESAME, the charm by
which the door of the robbers' cave flew open in the tale of 'Ali Baba and
the Forty Thieves' in the _Arabian Nights_. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.]

SESBAN, ses'ban, _n._ a shrub of the bean family, with yellow flowers,
native to Egypt.--Also _Jyntee_. [Fr.,--Ar. _seiseb[=a]n_.]

SESELI, ses'el-i, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous plants, usually perennial,
with erect branching stems--including the mountain _meadow-saxifrage_.

SESHA, s[=a]'sha, _n._ the king of the serpents in Hindu mythology, having
a thousand heads, the buttresses of the world.

SESIA, s[=e]'shi-a, _n._ a genus of clear-winged moths. [Gr. _s[=e]s_,
_seos_, a moth.]

SESQUIALTERAL, ses-kwi-al'te-ral, _adj._ one and a half more--also
interval of a perfect fifth, having the ratio of 2 to 3: a rhythm in which
three minims are made equal to a preceding two. [L. _sesquialter_.]

SESQUIDUPLE, ses-kwi-d[=u]'pl, _adj._ of two and a half times.--_adj._
SESQUID[=U]'PLICATE, being in the ratio of 2½ to 1, or 5 to 2.

SESQUIPEDALIAN, ses-kwi-p[=e]-d[=a]'li-an, _adj._ containing a foot and a
half: often humorously said of a very long word--also SES'QUIPEDAL.--_ns._
SESQUIPED[=A]'LIANISM, SESQUIPEDAL'ITY. [L. _sesquipedalis_--_sesqui_,
one-half more, _pes_, _ped-is_, a foot.]

SESQUIPLICATE, ses-kwip'li-k[=a]t, _adj._ noting the ratio of a cube to a

SESQUITERTIA, ses-kwi-ter'shi-a, _n._ (_mus_.) a perfect fourth, an
interval having the ratio of 1 to 1-1/3, or 3 to 4.--_adjs._

SESQUITONE, ses'kwi-t[=o]n, _n._ (_mus_.) a minor third, an interval equal
to a tone and a half.

SESS, ses, _n._ Same as CESS.

SESSA, ses'a, _interj._ (_Shak._) prob. a cry to urge to swiftness in


SESSILE, ses'il, _adj._ (_bot._) growing directly from the stem, without a
foot-stalk, as some leaves. [L. _sessilis_, low--_sed[=e]re_, _sessum_, to

SESSION, sesh'un, _n._ the sitting of a court or public body: the time it
sits: the period of time between the meeting and prorogation of Parliament:
the act of sitting, esp. the enthronement of Christ at the right hand of
God the Father: (_Scot._) the lowest Presbyterian church court, the
kirk-session.--_adj._ SES'SIONAL, pertaining or belonging to a session or
sessions.--_n._ SES'SION-CLERK, the official who officially records the
transactions of a kirk-session.--COURT OF SESSION, the supreme civil court
of Scotland. [Fr.,--L. _sessio_, _sessionis_--_sed[=e]re_, _sessum_, to


SESTERTIUS, ses-t[.e]r'shi-us, _n._ a Roman silver coin, a quarter
denarius, worth 2½ asses: a brass coin under the Empire, worth 4
asses--also SES'TERCE:--_pl._ SESTER'TII.--_n._ SESTER'TIUM, a money of
account equal to 1000 sestertii. [L., 'two-and-a-half'--_semis_, half,
_tertius_, third.]

SESTET, SESTETTE, ses'tet, _n._ the last six lines of a sonnet forming two
stanzas of three lines each: (_mus_.) same as SEXTET. [It.
_sestetto_--_sesto_--L. _sextus_, sixth.]

SESTINA, ses-t[=e]'na, _n._ an old French form of verse, originally
consisting of six stanzas of six unrhymed lines, with a final triplet, the
same terminal words being used in each stanza, but arranged differently.
Modern sestinas are written on two or three rhymes.--Also SES'TINE.
[It.,--L. _sextus_, sixth.]

SESTOLE, ses't[=o]l, _n._ (_mus_.) same as _Sextuplet_ (q.v.).--Also

SET, set, _v.t._ to make to sit: to place: to fix: to put in a condition
for use, to make ready, to arrange, prepare, furnish, draw up: to render
motionless: to determine beforehand: to obstruct: to plant, place so as to
promote growth: to place a brooding fowl on a nest containing eggs: to fix
in metal: to put and fix in its proper place, as a broken limb, &c.: to
assign, as a price: to sharpen: to spread, as sails: to pitch, as a tune:
to adapt music to: to frame, mount, or adorn with something fixed: to stud:
to point, as a dog: to accompany part or the whole of the way: (_Scot._) to
let to a tenant: to compose, put into type: (_prov._) to become, as a
dress, &c.--_v.i._ to sink below the horizon: to decline: to become fixed:
to congeal: to begin the growth of fruit: to have a certain direction in
motion: to acquire a set or bend: to point out game: to apply (one's
self):--_pr.p._ set'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ set.--_n._ SET'-BACK, a check
to progress: an overflow.--_adj._ SET-BY' (_Scot._), proud,
reserved.--_ns._ SET'-DOWN, a rebuke, snubbing; SET'-OFF, a claim set up
against another: a counterbalance: an ornament; SET'-OUT, preparations: a
display of dishes, dress, &c.: a company, clique; SET'-TO, a conflict in
boxing, argument, &c.; SET'-UP, bearing of a person.--_adj._ hilarious,
tipsy.--SET ABOUT, to begin; SET ABROACH, to tap and leave running: to give
publicity to; SET AGAINST, to oppose; SET AGOING, to make begin to move;
SET APART, to separate from the rest, to reserve: (_B._) to promote; SET
ASIDE, to put away, to omit or reject; SET AT EASE, to quiet, content; SET
AT NAUGHT (see NAUGHT); SET AT WORK, to put to a task; SET BEFORE, to put
in front of one; SET BY, to put aside: (_B._) to value or esteem; SET BY
THE COMPASS, to note the bearing by the compass; SET DOWN, to lay on the
ground: to put down in writing: to fix in one's mind: to attribute, charge:
to lay down authoritatively: to give a severe rebuke to; SET EYES ON, to
see, fix one's eyes on; SET FORTH, to exhibit, display: to praise,
recommend: to publish: (_B._) to set off to advantage: to set out on a
journey; SET FORWARD (_B._), to further, promote; SET FREE, to release, put
at liberty; SET IN, to put in the way: to begin; SET IN ORDER, to adjust or
arrange; SET LITTLE, MUCH, &c., BY, to regard, esteem little, much, &c.;
SET OFF, to adorn: to place against as an equivalent; SET ON (_B._), to
attack; SET ON, or upon, to instigate: to employ: to fix upon: (_B._) to
attack; SET ONE'S FACE, to turn one's self resolutely towards; SET ONE'S
HAND TO, to sign; SET ONE'S SELF, to bend one's energies toward anything;
SET ONE'S SELF AGAINST, to discountenance, oppose; SET ONE'S TEETH, to set
one's teeth together, as in a strong resolution; SET ON FIRE, to apply
fire; SET ON FOOT, to set agoing, to start; SET OUT, to mark off, to
assign: (_Bacon_) to publish, to adorn: to equip, to furnish: to recommend:
to prove: to start; SET OVER, to appoint as ruler over; SET SAIL (see
SAIL); SET THE FASHION, to lead or establish the fashion; SET THE TEETH ON
EDGE (see EDGE); SET TO, to affix: to apply one's self; SET UP, to erect,
to exalt: to begin: to enable to begin: to place in view: (_print._) to put
in type: to begin a new course: to make pretensions. [A.S. _settan_; cog.
with Ger. _setzen_, Ice. _setja_, Goth. _satjan_; _settan_ is the weak
causative of _sittan_, to sit.]

SET, set, _adj._ fixed: firm: determined: regular: established: having
reached the full growth: (_B._) seated.--_n._ a number of things similar or
suited to each other, set or used together: a group of games played
together: the full number of eggs set under a hen: the couples that take
part in a square dance, also the movements in a country-dance or quadrille:
a number of persons associated: direction, drift, tendency: act of setting:
a young plant ready for setting out, a cutting, slip: the appearance of
young oysters in a district in any season: a mine or set of mines on lease,
a distance set off for excavation, a system of pumps in a mine (also SETT):
a tool for dressing forged iron: any permanent change of shape or bias of
mind: fit, way in which a dress hangs: the pattern of a tartan, &c.:
bearing, carriage, build.--_n._ SET'-SQUARE, a triangular piece of wood
having one of its angles a right angle, used in mechanical drawing.--SET
FAIR, a barometric indication of steady, fair weather; SET PIECE, a piece
of theatrical scenery with a supporting framework, as distinguished from a
side-scene or drop-scene; SET SPEECH, a speech carefully premeditated.

SETA, s[=e]'tä, _n._ a bristle, stiff hair, a prickle.--_adj._
S[=E]T[=A]'CEOUS, consisting of bristles: bristle-shaped.--_n._
SET[=A]'RIA, a genus of grasses with flat leaves and tail-like bristly
spikes.--_adjs._ S[=E]TIF'EROUS; S[=E]'TIFORM, having the form of a
bristle; S[=E]TIG'EROUS (tij'), bearing bristles; S[=E]TIP'AROUS, producing
bristles; S[=E]TOSE', S[=E]'TOUS, bristly. [L. _seta_, a bristle.]

SETON, s[=e]'tn, _n._ (_surg._) an artificially produced _sinus_ or
channel, through which some substance, as a skein of cotton or silk, or a
long flat piece of india-rubber or gutta-percha, is passed so as to excite
suppuration, and to keep the artificially formed openings patent: also the
inserted material. [Fr. _séton_ (It. _setone_)--Low L. _seto_--L. _seta_, a

SETTEE, se-t[=e]', _n._ a long seat with a back, esp. a sofa for two.
[Prob. a variant of _settle_ (3).]

SETTEE, se-t[=e]', _n._ a single-decked Mediterranean vessel with long prow
and lateen sails. [Prob. It. _saettia_.]

SETTER, set'[.e]r, _n._ one who sets, as music to words: a dog which
crouches when it scents the game: one who finds out the victims for
thieves.--SETTER FORTH, one who proclaims or promotes anything; SETTER OFF,
one who decorates; SETTER ON, an instigator; SETTER OUT, one who expounds;
SETTER UP, one who establishes.

SETTER, set'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_prov._) to cut an ox's dewlap, and treat with a
seton.--_ns._ SETT'ERING, the foregoing process; SETT'ER-WORT, the fetid

SETTIMA, set'ti-ma, _n._ (_mus._) the interval of a seventh--(_obs._)
SET'TIMO. [It.,--L. _septem_.]

SETTING, set'ing, _n._ act of setting: direction of a current of wind: the
hardening of plaster: that which holds, as the mounting of a jewel: the
mounting of a play, &c., for the stage: act of adapting to music.

SETTLE, set'l, _v.t._ to set or place in a fixed state: to fix: to
establish in a situation or business: to render quiet, clear, &c.: to
decide: to free from uncertainty: to quiet: to compose: to fix by gift or
legal act: to adjust: to liquidate or pay: to colonise.--_v.i._ to become
fixed or stationary: to fix one's residence or habits of life (often with
_down_): to grow calm or clear: to sink by its own weight: to sink to the
bottom: to cease from agitation.--_adj._ SETT'LED, fixed, firmly seated or
decided: quiet, sober.--_ns._ SETT'LEDNESS; SETT'LEMENT, act of settling:
state of being settled: payment: arrangement: a colony newly settled: a
subsidence or sinking of a wall, &c.: a sum newly settled on a woman at her
marriage; SETT'LER, one who settles: a colonist; SETT'LING, the act of
making a settlement: the act of subsiding: the adjustment of differences:
sediment: dregs; SETT'LING-DAY, a date fixed by the Stock Exchange for the
completion of transactions--in consols, once a month; in all other stocks,
twice a month, each settlement occupying three days (_contango-day_,
_name-day_, and _pay-day_). [A.S. _setlan_, to fix--_setl_, a seat.]

SETTLE, set'l, _v.t._ to decide, conclude: to fix, appoint: regulate: to
pay, balance: to restore to good order.--_v.i._ to adjust differences or
accounts: to meet one's pecuniary obligations fully. [A.S. _sahtlian_, to
reconcile, _saht_, reconciliation--_sacan_, to contend. Confused in both
form and meaning with the preceding.]

SETTLE, set'l, _n._ a long high-backed bench for sitting on: (_B._) also, a
platform lower than another part.--_n._ SETT'LE-BED, a bed which is folded
or shut up so as to form a seat by day. [A.S. _setl_--_sittan_, to sit;
Ger. _sessel_.]

SETULE, set'[=u]l, _n._ a setula or little bristle.--_adjs._

SETWALL, set'wawl, _n._ the common European valerian. [O. Fr.
_citoual_--Low L. _zedoaria_--Pers. _zadwar_.]

SETWORK, set'wurk, _n._ in plastering, two-coat work on lath: boat-building
in which the strakes are placed edge to edge and secured by inside battens.

SEVEN, sev'n, _adj._ and _n._ six and one.--_adj._ SEV'EN-FOLD, folded
seven times: multiplied seven times.--_n._ SEV'EN-NIGHT, seven days and
nights: a week, the time from one day of the week to the same again--also
contr. SENNIGHT (sen'n[=i]t).--_adj._ SEV'ENTH, last of seven, next after
the sixth.--_n._ one of seven equal parts.--_adv._ SEV'ENTHLY.--SEVEN
CHRISTENDOM, St George for England, St Andrew for Scotland, St Patrick for
Ireland, St David for Wales, St Denis for France, St James for Spain, St
Anthony for Italy; SEVEN DEADLY SINS, pride, covetousness, lust, anger,
gluttony, envy, and sloth; SEVEN DOLOURS OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY (see
understanding, counsel, ghostly strength or fortitude, knowledge,
godliness, and the fear of the Lord; SEVEN SAGES, or wise men, Solon of
Athens, Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mitylene, Bias of Priene in Caria,
Chilon of Sparta, Cleobulus tyrant of Lindus in Rhodes, and Periander
tyrant of Corinth; SEVEN SLEEPERS, seven Christian youths at Ephesus who
took refuge in a cave about 250 A.D. in the persecution of Decius, were
walled up by their pursuers, fell into a deep sleep, and only awoke in 447
under Theodosius II.; SEVEN STARS, the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars,
Jupiter, and Saturn: the constellation Ursa Major: the Pleiades; SEVEN WISE
MASTERS, the most common title given to a famous medieval collection of
stories grouped round a central story of the birth, education, and trials
of a young prince. Accused like Joseph, he is sentenced to death, but each
one of the seven viziers gains a day, out of the fated seven during which
the prince may not open his mouth, by two tales against women. At the end
of the seventh day the prince is free to speak, and quickly clears his
character; SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD, the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging
(i.e. terraced) Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, the
Statue of Jupiter at Athens by Phidias, the Mausoleum, erected by Artemisia
at Halicarnassus, the Colossus at Rhodes, and the Pharos of Alexandria;
SEVEN YEARS' WAR (1756-63), the third and severest struggle for the
possession of Silesia between Frederick the Great and the Empress Maria
Theresa, together with the allies on both sides; it gave Silesia to
Frederick, and to England the mastery of North America and India. [A.S.
_seofon_; Dut. _zeven_, Ger. _sieben_, Goth. _sibun_, Gr. _hepta_, L.

SEVENTEEN, sev'n-t[=e]n, _adj._ and _n._ seven and ten.--_adj._ and _n._
SEV'ENTEENTH, the seventh after the tenth. [A.S. _seofontíene_--_seofon_,
_tíen_, ten.]

SEVENTY, sev'n-ti, _adj._ and _n._ seven times ten.--_adj._ SEV'ENTIETH,
last of seventy: the ordinal of 70.--_n._ a seventieth part.--THE SEVENTY,
the Jewish sanhedrim: the disciples sent out in Luke x.: the authors of the
Septuagint--often LXX. [A.S. _seofontig_--_seofon_, seven; Dut. _zeventig_,
Ger. _siebenzig_.]

SEVER, sev'[.e]r, _v.t._ to separate with violence: to cut apart: to
divide: (_B._) to keep distinct.--_v.i._ to make a separation, to act
independently: to be rent asunder.--_adj._ SEV'ERABLE.--_n._ SEV'ERANCE,
act of severing: separation. [Fr. _sevrer_, to wean--L. _separ[=a]re_, to

SEVERAL, sev'[.e]r-al, _adj._ distinct: particular: different: various:
consisting of a number: sundry.--_n._ a woman's loose outer garment,
capable of being worn as a shawl, or in other forms.--_adv._
SEV'ERALLY.--_n._ SEV'ERALTY, sole tenancy of property. [O. Fr.,--L.
_separ[=a]re_, to separate.]

SEVERE, s[=e]-v[=e]r', _adj._ serious: grave: austere: strict: not mild:
strictly adhering to rule: free from florid ornamentation, simple: sharp:
distressing: inclement: searching: difficult to be endured.--_adv._
S[=E]V[=E]RE'LY.--_ns._ S[=E]V[=E]RE'NESS; S[=E]VER'ITY, quality of being
severe: gravity: harshness: exactness: inclemency. [Fr. _sévère_--L.

SÈVRES, s[=a]'vr, _n._ Sèvres porcelain.

SEW, s[=o], _v.t._ to join or fasten together with a needle and
thread.--_v.i._ to practise sewing.--_ns._ SEW'ER; SEW'ING;
SEW'ING-COTT'ON, cotton thread for sewing; SEW'ING-MACHINE', a machine for
sewing and stitching upon cloth, leather, &c., operated by any power.--SEW
UP ONE'S STOCKING, to put one to silence.--BE SEWED, or SEWED UP, to be
stranded, of a ship: (_coll._) to be brought to a stand-still, to be
ruined: to be tipsy. [A.S. _síwian_, _séowian_; Old High Ger. _siwan_,
Goth. _siujan_.]

SEW, s[=u], _v.t._ (_Spens._) to follow, to solicit. [_Sue_.]

SEWEL, s[=u]'el, _n._ a scarecrow.--Also SHEW'EL. [Prob. related to _shy_.]

SEWER, s[=u]'[.e]r, _n._ an officer who set down and removed the dishes at
a feast. [O. Fr. _asseour_--_asseoir_, to set down--L. _ad_, to,
_sed[=e]re_, to sit. Skeat makes it from M. E. _sewen_, to set meat, _sew_,
pottage--A.S. _seaw_, juice.]

SEWER, s[=u]'[.e]r, _n._ an underground passage for draining off water and
filth.--_ns._ SEW'AGE, refuse carried off by sewers; SEW'ERAGE, the whole
sewers of a city: drainage by sewers; SEW'ER-GAS, the contaminated air of
sewers.--OPEN SEWER, a sewer of which the channel is exposed to the air.
[O. Fr. _seuwiere_, a canal--L. _ex_, out, _aqua_, water.]

SEX, seks, _n._ the distinction between male and female: the
characteristics by which an animal or plant is male or female, gender: the
female sex, women generally, usually with the definite article.--_adj._
SEX'LESS, having no sex.--_n._ SEX'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SEX'[=U]AL, pertaining
to sex: distinguished or founded on the sex: relating to the distinct
organs of the sexes.--_v.t._ SEX'[=U]ALISE, to distinguish as sexed.--_ns._
SEX'[=U]ALIST, one who classifies plants according to the differences of
the sexes; SEX[=U]AL'ITY, state or quality of being sexual.--_adv._
SEX'[=U]ALLY.--SEXUAL AFFINITY, the instinctive attraction of one sex for
another; SEXUAL ORGANS, the organs of generation; SEXUAL SELECTION, that
province of natural selection in which sex comes into play. [Fr. _sexe_--L.
_sexus_--_sec[=a]re_, to cut.]

SEXAGENARIAN, sek-sa-je-n[=a]'ri-an, _n._ a person sixty years old.--_adj._
SEXAG'ENARY, designating the number sixty.--_n._ a sexagenarian: something
containing sixty.--_ns._ SEX'AGENE, an arc or angle of 60°; SEXAGES'IMA,
the second Sunday before Lent (see SEPTUAGESIMA).--_adj._ SEXAGES'IMAL,
pertaining to the number sixty: proceeding by sixties.--_adv._
SEXAGES'IMALLY. [L. _sexagenarius_--_sexaginta_, sixty.]

SEXANGLE, sek'sang-gl, _n._ a figure with six angles, a hexagon.--_adjs._

SEXCENTENARY, sek-sen'te-n[=a]-ri, _n._ that which consists of 600: a 600th
anniversary.--Also _adj._

SEXDIGITATE, seks-dij'i-t[=a]t, _adj._ having six fingers or toes.--_n._

SEXENNIAL, seks-en'yal, _adj._ lasting six years: happening once in six
years--also SEXTENN'IAL.--_adv._ SEXENN'IALLY. [L. _sex_, six, _annus_, a

SEXFID, seks'fid, _adj._ (_bot._) six-cleft.

SEXFOIL, seks'foil, _n._ a plant or flower with six leaves.

SEXISYLLABIC, sek-si-si-lab'ik, _adj._ having six syllables.--_n._
SEX'ISYLLABLE, a word of six syllables.

SEXIVALENT, sek-siv'a-lent, _adj._ (_chem._) having an equivalent of six.
[L. _sex_, six, _valens_--_val[=e]re_, to have strength.]

SEXLOCULAR, seks-lok'[=u]-lär, _adj._ six-celled.

SEXPARTITE, seks'pär-t[=i]t, _adj._ divided into six parts. [L. _sex_, six,
_partitus_, divided.]

SEXT, SEXTE, sekst, _n._ (_eccles._) the office of the sixth hour,
originally said at midday: (_mus._) the interval of a sixth.--_adj._
SEX'TAN, recurring every sixth day. [L. _sextus_, sixth--_sex_, six.]

SEXTAIN, seks't[=a]n, _n._ a stanza of six lines.

SEXTANS, seks'tanz, _n._ an ancient Roman bronze coin, worth one-sixth of
the as.--_adjs._ SEX'TANTAL; SEX'TIC, of the sixth degree. [L.,--_sex_,


SEXTANT, seks'tant, _n._ (_math._) the sixth part of a circle: an optical
instrument having an arc=the sixth part of a circle, and used for measuring
angular distances.

SEXTET, SEXTETTE, seks-tet', _n._ (_mus._) a work for six voices or
instruments: a musical company of six.

SEXTILE, seks'til, _n._ the position of two planets when at the distance of
the sixth part of a circle (60°), marked thus *. [L.,--_sex_, six.]

SEXTILLION, seks-til'yun, _n._ a million raised to the sixth power,
expressed by a unit with 36 ciphers attached: 1000 raised to the seventh

SEXTO, seks'to, _n._ a size of book made by folding a sheet of paper into
six leaves.--_n._ SEX'TO-DEC'IMO, a size of book made by folding a sheet of
paper into sixteen leaves: a book of this size.

SEXTON, seks'tun, _n._ an officer who has charge of a church, attends the
clergyman, digs graves, &c.: a burying-beetle.--_ns._ SEX'TON-BEE'TLE, a
coleopterous insect of the genus _Necrophorus_; SEX'TONSHIP, the office of
a sexton. [A corr. of _sacristan_.]

SEXTUPLE, seks't[=u]-pl,--_adj._ sixfold: (_mus._) having six beats to the
measure.--_v.t._ to multiply by six.--_n._ SEX'T[=U]PLET (_mus._), a note
divided into six parts instead of four.

'SFOOT, sf[=oo]t, _interj._ (_Shak._) a minced imprecation. [Abbrev. from
_God's foot_. Cf. _'sblood_.]

SFORZANDO, sfor-tsän'd[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) forced, with sudden emphasis.
Abbrev. _sf._ and _sfz._, or marked [horizontal sforzando], [vertical
sforzando].--Also SFORZATO (sfor-tsä't[=o]). [It., pr.p. of _sforzare_, to
force--L. _ex_, out, Low L. _fortia_, force.]

SGRAFFITO, sgraf-f[=e]'t[=o], _n._ (same as _Graffito_, q.v.): a kind of
decorative work in pottery and superimposed metals, in which clays, &c., of
different colours are laid one upon another, and the pattern is produced by
cutting away the outer layers:--_pl._ SGRAFFI'TI.

SHABBY, shab'i,--_adj._ threadbare or worn, as clothes: having a look of
poverty: mean in look or conduct: low: paltry.--_adv._ SHABB'ILY.--_n._
SHABB'INESS.--_adj._ SHABB'Y-GENTEEL', keeping up or affecting an
appearance of gentility, though really shabby. [An adj. formed from _shab_,
an old by-form of _scab_--thus a doublet of _scabby_.]

SHABRACK, shab'rak, _n._ a trooper's housing or saddle-cloth. [Fr.,--Ger.
_shabracke_--Pol. _czaprak_.]

SHACK, shak, _v.i._ to tramp or wander about.--_n._ a tramp, a vagabond.

SHACK, shak, _v.i._ to shed or fall out, as ripe grain from the ear: to
feed on stubble: (_U.S._) to hibernate, to go into winter quarters.--_n._
grain, &c., fallen on the ground: liberty of winter pasturage: a
hastily-built cabin, a rickety house.--_ns._ SHACK'-BAIT, such bait as may
be picked up at sea; SHACK'LE, stubble. [_Shake_.]

SHACKLE, shak'l, _n._ a curved bar, as of iron: a link or staple: a link
securing two ankle-rings or two wrist-rings together, and so (_pl._)
fetters, manacles: a hinderance.--_v.t._ to fetter: to tie the limbs of: to
confine.--_ns._ SHACK'LE-BOLT, a bolt having a shackle on the end: (_her._)
a bearing representing a fetlock for hobbling a horse; SHACK'LE-JOINT, a
peculiar kind of articulation seen in the exoskeleton of some fishes. [A.S.
_sceacul_, _scacul_, a shackle--_sceacan_, to shake; cog. with Old Dut.
_schakel_, a link of a chain, Ice. _skökull_, the pole of a cart.]

SHAD, shad, _n._ a fish of the herring kind, but having the upper jaw
deeply notched, and ascending rivers to spawn.--_adj._ SHAD'-BELL'IED,
flat-bellied--opp. to _Pot-bellied_: sloping away gradually in front, cut
away.--_ns._ SHAD'-BIRD, the common American snipe: the sandpiper;
SHAD'-BUSH, the June-berry or service-berry; SHAD'-FLY, a May-fly;
SHAD'-FROG, a large and very agile American frog; SHAD'-WAIT'ER, the
pilot-fish or round-fish. [A.S. _sceadda_.]

SHADDOCK, shad'ok, _n._ a tree of the same genus as the orange, having
larger leaves, flowers, and fruit. [Named from Captain _Shaddock_, who
introduced it to the West Indies from China about 1810.]

SHADE, sh[=a]d, _n._ partial darkness: interception of light: obscurity: a
shady place: protection: shelter: a screen: degree of colour: a very minute
change: (_paint._) the dark part of a picture: the soul separated from the
body: a ghost: (_obs._, _poet._) a bodily shadow: (_pl._) the departed
spirits, or their unseen abode, Hades.--_v.t._ to screen from light or
heat: to shelter: to mark with gradations of colour: to darken: (_Spens._)
to foreshadow, represent.--_adjs._ SH[=A]'DED, marked with gradations of
colour: sheltered; SHADE'FUL, shady; SHADE'LESS, without shade.--_n._
SH[=A]'DER.--_adv._ SH[=A]'DILY.--_ns._ SH[=A]'DINESS; SH[=A]'DING, the act
of making a shade: the effect of light and shade, as in a picture;
SH[=A]'DING-PEN, a pen with a broad flat nib.--_adj._ SH[=A]'DY, having, or
in, shade: sheltered from light or heat: (_coll._) not fit to bear the
light, of dubious honesty or morality. [A.S. _sceadu_--_scead_, shade.]

SHADINE, sha-d[=e]n', _n._ the menhaden, or American sardine.

SHADOOF, sha-d[=oo]f', _n._ a contrivance for raising water by means of a
long rod pivoted near one end, the shorter arm weighted to act as the
counterpoise of a lever, the longer carrying a bucket which is lowered into
the water--much used on the Nile for irrigation purposes.--Also SHADUF'.
[Ar. _sh[=a]d[=u]f_.]

SHADOW, shad'[=o], _n._ shade caused by an object: darkness: shelter:
security: favour: the dark part of a picture: an inseparable companion: a
mystical representation: faint appearance: a ghost, spirit: something only
in appearance.--v.t to shade: to cloud or darken: to shade, as a painting:
to represent faintly: to hide, conceal: (_coll._) to attend like a shadow,
watch continuously and carefully.--_ns._ SHAD'OW-FIG'URE, a silhouette;
SHAD'OWINESS, the state of being shadowy or unsubstantial; SHAD'OWING,
shading: gradation of light and colour.--_adj._ SHAD'OWLESS.--_n._
SHAD'OW-STITCH, in lace-making, a very delicate kind of ladder-stitch used
in fine open-work.--_adj._ SHAD'OWY, full of shadow: dark: obscure:
typical: unsubstantial: (_rare_) indulging in fancies.--SHADOW OF DEATH,
approach of death: terrible disaster. [A.S. _sceadu_; cog. with Old High
Ger. _scato_, and perh. Gr. _skotos_, darkness, _skia_, shadow.]

SHAFIITE, shaf'i-[=i]t, _n._ a member of one of the four principal sects of
the Sunnites, or orthodox Muslims. [Ar. _Sh[=a]fi'[=i]_, the name of the

SHAFT, shaft, _n._ anything long and straight, as the stem of an arrow,
&c.: a long arrow, anything like an arrow in form or effect: the part of a
column between the base and capital: the stem of a feather: the pole or
thill of a carriage: the handle of a tool of any kind.--_adj._ SHAFT'ED,
having a shaft or handle.--_ns._ SHAFT'-HORSE, the horse that is harnessed
between the shafts of a carriage; SHAFT'ING (_mach._), the system of shafts
connecting machinery with the prime mover.--MAKE A SHAFT OR A BOLT OF IT
(_Shak._), to take the risk and make the best of it--the shaft and the bolt
being the arrows of the long-bow and the cross-bow respectively. [A.S.
_sceaft_; prob. orig. pa.p. of _scafan_, to shave.]

SHAFT, shaft, _n._ a well-like excavation sunk into a mine for pumping,
hoisting, &c.: the tunnel of a blast-furnace. [Prob. in this sense from
Ger. _schacht_, a shaft; cog. with foregoing.]

SHAG, shag, _n._ woolly hair: cloth with a rough nap: a kind of tobacco cut
into shreds.--_adj._ rough, hairy.--_v.t._ to roughen, make shaggy.--_v.i._
(_Spens._) to hang in shaggy clusters.--_adjs._ SHAG'-EARED (_Shak._),
having shaggy or rough ears; SHAG'GED, shaggy, rough.--_n._
covered with rough hair or wool: rough: rugged; SHAG'-HAIRED, having long,
rough hair. [A.S. _sceacga_, a head of hair; Ice. _skegg_, beard, _skagi_,
cape (in Shetland, _skaw_).]

SHAGREEN, sha-gr[=e]n', _n._ the skin of various sharks, rays, &c., covered
with small nodules, used for covering small caskets, boxes, cigar and
spectacle cases, &c.: a granular leather prepared by unhairing and scraping
the skin of horses, asses, &c.--formerly CHAGRIN'.--_adj._ (also
SHAGREENED') made of, or covered with, shagreen. [Fr. _chagrin_--Turk.
_s[=a]ghr[=i]_, the back of a horse.]

SHAH, shä, _n._ the monarch of Persia. [Pers.]

SHAHEEN, sha-h[=e]n', _n._ a peregrine falcon. [Pers. _sh[=a]h[=i]n_.]

SHAHI, shä'i, _n._ a Persian copper coin. [Pers. _sh[=a]h[=i]_, royal.]

SHAIRL, sh[=a]rl, _n._ a fine cloth woven from the hair of a Tibetan
variety of the Cashmere goat.

SHAIRN, sh[=a]rn, _n._ (_Scot._) cow-dung.

SHAITAN, sh[=i]'tan, _n._ the devil, any evil spirit or devilish person.

SHAKAL, shak'al, _n._ the same as JACKAL.

SHAKE, sh[=a]k, _v.t._ to move with quick, short motions: to agitate: to
make to tremble: to threaten to overthrow: to cause to waver: to give a
tremulous note to.--_v.i._ to be agitated: to tremble: to shiver: to lose
firmness:--_pa.t._ shook, (_B._) sh[=a]ked; _pa.p._ sh[=a]k'en,--_n._ a
rapid tremulous motion: a trembling or shivering: a concussion: a rent in
timber, rock, &c.: (_mus._) a rapid repetition of two notes: (_slang_) a
brief instant.--_n._ SHAKE'DOWN, a temporary bed, named from the original
shaking down of straw for this purpose.--_adj._ SH[=A]K'EN, weakened,
disordered.--_ns._ SH[=A]K'ER, one of a small communistic religious sect
founded in Manchester about the middle of the 18th century, so nicknamed
from a peculiar dance forming part of their religious service; SHAKE'-RAG
(_obs._), a ragged fellow; SH[=A]K'ERISM.--_adv._ SH[=A]K'ILY.--_n._
SH[=A]K'INESS.--_adj._ SH[=A]K'Y, in a shaky condition: feeble: (_coll._)
wavering, undecided: of questionable ability, solvency, or integrity:
unsteady: full of cracks or clefts.--SHAKE DOWN, or TOGETHER, to make more
compact by shaking; SHAKE HANDS, to salute by grasping the hand: (_with_)
to bid farewell to; SHAKE OFF THE DUST FROM ONE'S FEET, to renounce all
intercourse with; SHAKE THE HEAD, to move the head from side to side in
token of reluctance, disapproval, &c.; SHAKE TOGETHER (_coll._), to get
friendly with; SHAKE UP, to restore to shape by shaking: (_Shak._) to
upbraid.--GREAT SHAKES (_coll._), a thing of great account, something of
value (usually 'No great shakes'). [A.S. _sceacan_, _scacan_.]

SHAKESPEARIAN, sh[=a]k-sp[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to, or in the style
of, _Shakespeare_, or his works--also SHAKESP[=E]'RIAN, SHAKSPEAR'EAN,
SHAKSP[=E]'RIAN.--_n._ a student of Shakespeare (1564-1616).--_n.pl._
SHAKESPEARI[=A]'NA, details or learning connected with Shakespeare and his
writings.--_n._ SHAKESPEA'RIANISM, anything peculiar to Shakespeare.

SHAKO, shak'[=o], _n._ a military cap of cylindrical shape, worn mostly by
infantry, and generally plumed. [Hung. _csako_.]

SHALE, sh[=a]l, _n._ clay or argillaceous material, splitting readily into
thin laminæ.--_adj._ SH[=A]'LY. [Ger. _schale_, a scale.]

SHALE, sh[=a]l, _n._ a shell or husk. [A.S. _sceale_.]

SHALL, shal, _v.t._ (_obs._) to be under obligation: now only auxiliary,
used in the future tense of the verb, whether a _predictive_ or a
_promissive_ future (in the first person implying mere futurity; in the
second and third implying authority or control on the part of the speaker,
and expressing promise, command, or determination, or a certainty about the
future. In the _promissive_ future 'will' is used for the first person, and
'shall' for the second and third). [A.S. _sceal_, to be obliged; Ger.
_soll_, Goth. _skal_, Ice. _skal_, to be in duty bound.]

SHALLI, shal'i, _n._ a soft cotton stuff made in India, mostly red.

SHALLOON, sha-l[=oo]n', _n._ a light kind of woollen stuff for
coat-linings, &c., said to have been first made at _Châlons-sur-Marne_ in

SHALLOP, shal'op, _n._ a light boat or vessel, with or without a mast. [O.
Fr. _chaluppe_; Ger. _schaluppe_; prob. of East Ind. origin.]

SHALLOT, sha-lot', _n._ a species of onion with a flavour like that of
garlic.--Also SHALOT'. [O. Fr. _eschalote_, formed from _eschalone_,
_escalone_, whence Eng. _scallion_ (q.v.).]

SHALLOW, shal'[=o], _n._ a sandbank: a place over which the water is not
deep: a shoal.--_adj._ not deep: not profound: not wise: trifling.--_v.t._
to make shallow.--_v.i._ to grow shallow.--_adjs._ SHALL'OW-BRAINED,
-P[=A]'TED, weak in intellect; SHALL'OW-HEART'ED, not capable of deep
feelings.--_adv._ SHALL'OWLY (_Shak._), simply, foolishly.--_n._
SHALL'OWNESS. [Scand., Ice. _skjálgr_, wry; cf. Ger. _scheel_.]

SHALM. Same as _Shawm_ (q.v.).

SHALT, shalt, 2d pers. sing. of _shall_.

SHAM, sham, _n._ a pretence: that which deceives expectation:
imposture.--_adj._ pretended: false.--_v.t._ to pretend: to feign: to
impose upon.--_v.i._ to make false pretences:--_pr.p._ sham'ming; _pa.t._
and _pa.p._ shammed.--_ns._ SHAM'-FIGHT, a fight in imitation of a real
one; SHAM'MER, one who shams.--SHAM ABRAHAM (see ABRAHAM-MAN). [_Shame_.]

SHAMANISM, sham'an-izm, _n._ a name applied loosely to the religion of the
Turanian races of Siberia and north-eastern Asia, based essentially on
magic and sorcery.--_n._ SHAM'AN, a wizard priest.--_adj._ SHAMAN'IC.--_n._
SHAM'ANIST.--_adj._ SHAMANIS'TIC. [Perh. Hind. _shaman_, idolater.]

SHAMBLE, sham'bl, _v.i._ to walk with an awkward, unsteady gait.--_n._ a
shambling gait.--_adj._ SHAM'BLING. [Skeat refers to Dut. _schampelen_--O.
Fr. _s'escamper_, to decamp.]

SHAMBLES, sham'blz, _n.pl._ stalls on which butchers exposed their meat for
sale, hence a flesh-market: a slaughter-house. [A.S. _scamel_ (Ger.
_schämel_), a stool--Low L. _scamellum_, for L. _scabellum_, dim. of
_scamnum_, a bench.]

SHAME, sh[=a]m, _n._ the feeling caused by the exposure of that which ought
to be concealed, or by a consciousness of guilt: the cause of shame, a
person or thing to be ashamed of: disgrace, dishonour: (_B._) the parts of
the body which modesty requires to be concealed.--_v.t._ to make ashamed:
to cause to blush: to cover with reproach: to drive or compel by
shame.--_adj._ SHAME'FACED (properly SHAME'FAST, A.S. _sceam-fæst_), very
modest or bashful.--_adv._ SHAME'FACEDLY.--_ns._ SHAME'FACEDNESS,
SHAME'FASTNESS, modesty.--_adj._ SHAME'FUL, disgraceful.--_adv._
SHAME'FULLY.--_n._ SHAME'FULNESS.--_adj._ SHAME'LESS, immodest: done
without shame: audacious.--_adv._ SHAME'LESSLY.--_n._
SHAME'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SHAME'-PROOF (_Shak._), insensible to shame.--_ns._
SH[=A]'MER, one who, or that which, makes ashamed; SHAME'-REEL, the first
dance after the celebration of marriage, the bride being the best man's
partner, the best maid the bridegroom's.--FOR SHAME, an interjectional
phrase, signifying 'you should be ashamed!'--PUT TO SHAME, to cause to feel
shame. [A.S. _sceamu_, _scamu_, modesty; Ice. _skömm_, a wound, Ger.

SHAMMATHA, sha-mä'tha, _n._ the severest form of excommunication among the
ancient Jews. [Heb.]

SHAMMY, sham'i, same as CHAMOIS.--_v.t._ SHAM'OY, to prepare leather by
working oil into the skin.--_n._ SHAM'OYING.

SHAMPOO, sham-p[=oo]', _v.t._ to squeeze and rub the body, in connection
with the hot bath: to wash thoroughly with soap and water.--_ns._ SHAMPOO';
SHAMPOO'ER. [Hind. _ch[=a]mpn[=a]_, squeeze.]

SHAMROCK, sham'rok, _n._ the national emblem of Ireland, a leaf with three
leaflets, or plant having such leaves, sometimes supposed to be the
Wood-sorrel, but the name is more frequently applied to some species of
Clover, or to some common plant of some of the nearly allied genera, as the
Bird's Foot Trefoil or the Black Medick. The Lesser Yellow Trefoil is the
plant usually sold in Dublin on St Patrick's Day. [Ir. _seamrog_, Gael.
_seamrag_, trefoil, dim. of _seamar_, trefoil.]

SHAN, shan, _adj._ pertaining to the _Shans_, a number of tribes of common
origin, who live on the borders of Burma, Siam, and China.

SHAND, shand, _n._ (_obs._) shame: (_Scot._) base coin.--_adj._ worthless.
[A.S. _sceand_, scand.]

SHANDRYDAN, shan'dri-dan, _n._ a light two-wheeled cart: any rickety
conveyance.--Also SHAN'DRY. [Ir.]

SHANDYGAFF, shan'di-gaf, _n._ a mixture of bitter ale or beer with
ginger-beer. [Ety. dub.]

SHANGHAI, shang-h[=i]', _n._ a long-legged hen with feathered shanks, said
to have been introduced from _Shanghai_ in China: (_U.S._) a tall
dandy.--_v.t._ (_naut._ ) to hocus a sailor and ship him while insensible:
(_U.S._) to get a person by some artifice into a jurisdiction where he can
lawfully be arrested.

SHANGIE, shang'i, _n._ (_Scot._) a shackle.

SHANGTI, shang't[=e]', _n._ a Christian name in China for God. [Chin.
_shang_, high, _ti_, ruler.]

SHANK, shangk, _n._ the leg below the knee to the foot: the long part of
any instrument, as of an anchor between the arms and ring: the part of a
tool connecting the handle with the acting part: the part of a shoe
connecting the sole with the heel.--_v.i._ to be affected with disease of
the footstalk: to take to one's legs (with it).--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to
despatch unceremoniously.--_adj._ SHANKED, having a shank: affected with
disease of the shank or footstalk.--_ns._ SHANK'-[=I]'RON, a shaping-tool
for shoe-shanks: an iron plate inserted as a stiffening between the leather
parts of a shank; SHANK'-PAINT'ER, a painter or small rope for fastening
the shank of an anchor, when catted, to a ship's side. [A.S. _sceanca_,
leg--_sceacan_, to shake; Dut. _schonk_, Low Ger. _schake_.]

SHANKER, shangk'[.e]r, _n._ the same as CHANCRE.

SHANNY, shan'i, _n._ the smooth blenny.

SHA'N'T, shant (_coll._), a contraction of _shall not_.

SHANTY, shant'i, _n._ a mean dwelling or hut, a temporary house: a
grog-shop. [Perh. from Ir. _sean_, old, _tig_, a house; others derive
through Fr. _chantier_, a timber-yard, from L. _cantherius_, a rafter.]

SHANTY, shant'i, _n._ a song with boisterous drawling chorus, sung by
sailors while heaving at the capstan, or the like--also CHANT'Y,
CHANT'IE.--_n._ SHANT'YMAN, the leader of such a chorus. [Prob. from Fr.
_chanter_, to sing.]

SHAPE, sh[=a]p, _v.t._ to form: to fashion: to adapt to a purpose: to
regulate: to direct: to conceive.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to take shape, to
become fit:--_pa.p._ sh[=a]ped, (_B._) sh[=a]p'en.--_n._ form or figure:
external appearance: that which has form or figure: an appearance:
particular nature: expression, as in words: a pattern: (_cook._) a dish of
rice, jelly, or the like cast in a mould and turned out when it has grown
firm.--_adjs._ SH[=A]'PABLE, SHAPE'ABLE; SHAPED, having a varied ornamental
form; SHAPE'LESS, having no shape or regular form: (_Shak._) effecting
nothing.--_ns._ SHAPE'LESSNESS; SHAPE'LINESS.--_adj._ SHAPE'LY, having
shape or regular form: symmetrical.--_ns._ SH[=A]'PER, a metal planing
machine, the tool with reciprocating motion; SH[=A]'PING, representation,
imagination.--TAKE SHAPE, to assume a definite form or plan. [A.S.
_sceapan_, _scapan_, to form, make; Ice. _skapa_, Ger. _schaffen_.]

SHARD, shärd, _n._ dung. [Ety. dub.]

SHARD, shärd, _n._ (_Spens._) a boundary, division: (_obs._) the leaves of
the artichoke whitened. [Perh. from Ice. _skardh_ (Ger. _scharte_, a
notch), and ult. conn. with A.S. _sceran_, to divide.]

SHARD, shärd, _n._ a fragment, as of an earthen vessel: the wing-case of a
beetle.--_adjs._ SHARD'-BORNE (_Shak._), borne on shards, as beetles;
SHAR'DED (_Shak._), provided with elytra or wing-cases. [A.S. _sceard_, a
fragment--_sceran_, to divide.]

SHARE, sh[=a]r, _n._ a part cut off: a portion: dividend: one of a number
of equal portions of anything: a fixed and indivisible section of the
capital of a company.--_v.t._ to divide into parts: to partake with
others.--_v.i._ to have a part: to receive a dividend.--_ns._
SHARE'-BROK'ER, a broker or dealer in shares of railways, &c.;
SHARE'HOLDER, one who holds or owns a share in a joint fund or property;
SHARE'-LIST, a list of the prices of shares of railways, banks, &c.;
DEFER); GO SHARES, to divide equally; ORDINARY SHARES, shares forming the
common stock of a company. [A.S. _scearu_--_sceran_, to shear.]

SHARE, sh[=a]r, _n._ the iron blade of a plough which cuts the
ground.--_v.t._ to cut, cleave.--_n._ SHARE'-BEAM, the part of the plough
to which the share is fixed. [A.S. _scear_--_sceran_, to shear.]

SHARK, shärk, _n._ a common name for most of the Elasmobranch fishes
included in the sub-order _Selachoidei_--voracious fishes, mostly
carnivorous, with large sharp teeth on the jaws--most numerous in the
tropics. [Perh. L. _carcharus_--Gr. _karcharos_, jagged.]

SHARK, shärk, _n._ a sharper, a cheat or swindler: an extortionate
rogue.--_v.i._ to live like a swindler.--_v.t._ to pick up (with _up_ or
_out_).--_ns._ SHARK'ER; SHARK'ING. [Prob. from preceding word.]

SHARN, shärn, _n._ (_Scot._) dung of cattle. [A.S. _scearn_; cf. Ice.


SHARP, shärp, _adj._ having a thin cutting edge or fine point: peaked or
ridged: affecting the senses as if pointed or cutting: severe: keen, keenly
contested: alive to one's interests, barely honest: of keen or quick
perception: vigilant, attentive: pungent, biting, sarcastic: eager: fierce:
impetuous: shrill: (_phon._) denoting a consonant pronounced with breath
and not voice, surd--as the sharp mutes, _p_, _t_, _k_.--_n._ an acute or
shrill sound: (_mus._) a note raised a semitone in the scale, also the
character directing this: a long and slender sewing-needle--opp. to a
_blunt_ and a _between_: a small sword or duelling sword: a sharper, cheat:
(_pl._) the hard parts of wheat, middlings: an oysterman's boat--also
SHARP'IE, SHARP'Y.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to sharpen.--_v.i._ to play the
sharper, cheat.--_adj._ SHARP'-CUT, cut sharply or definitely:
well-defined: clear.--_v.t._ SHARP'EN, to make sharp or keen, pungent or
painful, active or acute.--_v.i._ to grow sharp.--_ns._ SHAR'PENER, one who
sharpens; SHARP'ER, a trickster: a swindler: a cheat.--_adjs._ SHARP'-EYED,
sharp-sighted; SHARP'-GROUND, ground to a sharp edge; SHARP'-LOOK'ING
(_Shak._), hungry-looking.--_adv._ SHARP'LY, quickly: to the moment:
(_mus._) above the true pitch.--_n._ SHARP'NESS.--_adjs._ SHARP'-NOSED,
having a pointed nose: keen of scent, as a dog; SHARP'-SET,
ravenous.--_ns._ SHARP'-SHOOT'ER, an old term applied in the army to
riflemen when skirmishing or specially employed as marksmen;
SHARP'-SHOOT'ING.--_adjs._ SHARP'-SIGHT'ED, having acute sight: shrewd;
SHARP'-VIS'AGED, having a thin face; SHARP'-WIT'TED, having an acute
wit.--LOOK SHARP, to show eagerness, to act quickly. [A.S. _scearp_; Ice.
_skarpr_, Gr. _scharf_.]

SHASTER, shas't[.e]r, _n._ a text-book, an authoritative religious and
legal book among the Hindus.--Also SHAS'TRA. [Sans. _ç[=a]stra_--_ç[=a]s_,
to teach.]

SHATTER, shat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to break or dash to pieces: to crack: to
disorder: to render unsound.--_v.i._ to break into fragments.--_n._ a
fragment: impaired state.--_adjs._ SHATT'ER-BRAINED, -P[=A]'TED, disordered
in intellect; SHATT'ERY, brittle. [_Scatter_.]

SHAUCHLE, shawh'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to walk with shuffling, loose
gait.--_v.t._ to distort, deform. [Perh. conn. with Ice. _skjálgr_, wry,

SHAVE, sh[=a]v, _v.t._ to cut off the hair with a razor: to pare closely:
to make smooth by paring: to cut in thin slices: to skim along the surface:
to strip, swindle.--_v.i._ to remove hair by a razor:--_pa.p._ sh[=a]ved or
sh[=a]'ven.--_n._ the act of shaving: a paring: a narrow miss or escape: a
piece of financial knavery.--_ns._ SHAVE'-GRASS, the scouring-rush;
SHAVE'LING, a monk or friar, from his shaven crown; SH[=A]'VER, one who
shaves: a barber: a sharp or extortionate dealer: (_coll._) a chap,
youngster; SH[=A]'VING, the act of shaving: that which is shaved or pared
off; SH[=A]'VING-B[=A]'SIN, -BOWL, -BRUSH, a basin, bowl, brush, used by
persons shaving.--CLOSE, or NEAR, SHAVE, a very narrow escape. [A.S.
_sceafan_, _scafan_; Dut. _schaven_, Ger. _schaben_, L. _scab[)e]re_, to
scrape, Gr. _skaptein_, to dig.]

SHAVIE, sh[=a]'vi, _n._ (_Scot._) a trick or prank.--Also SK[=A]'VIE.
[Perh. Dan. _skæv_, crooked; cf. Ger. _schief_, oblique.]

SHAW, shaw, _n._ a thicket, a small wood: (_Scot._) a stem with the leaves,
as of a potato. [A.S. _scaga_; Ice. _skógr_, Dan. _skov_.]

SHAWL, shawl, _n._ a wrap made of wool, cotton, silk, or hair, used
particularly by women as a loose covering for the shoulders: a kind of
mantle.--_v.t._ to wrap in a shawl.--_ns._ SHAWL'-DANCE, a graceful
Oriental dance in which the dancer waves a scarf; SHAWL'-MAT[=E]'RIAL, a
textile of silk and wool, soft and flexible, usually with Oriental designs,
employed for dresses and parts of dresses for women; SHAWL'-PATT'ERN, a
coloured pattern, supposed to resemble an Eastern shawl, and applied to
material of plainer design; SHAWL'-PIN, a pin used for fastening a shawl;
SHAWL'-STRAP, a pair of leather straps, fitted to a handle, used for
carrying shawls, rugs, &c.; SHAWL'-WAIST'COAT, a vest or waistcoat with a
large staring pattern like that of a shawl. [Pers. _sh[=a]l_.]

SHAWM, SHALM, _shawm_, _n._ a musical instrument of the oboe class, having
a double reed enclosed in a globular mouthpiece. [O. Fr. _chalemie_--L.
_calamus_, a reed-pipe.]

SHAY, _n._ See CHAY.

SHAYAK, sha'yak, _n._ a coarse Tripoli woollen cloth.

SHAYA-ROOT, sh[=a]'ä-r[=oo]t, _n._ the root of the so-called Indian madder,
yielding a red dye.--Also CHÉ-ROOT, CHOY-ROOT. [Tamil _chaya_.]

SHE, sh[=e], _pron. fem._ the female understood or previously mentioned:
sometimes used as a noun for a woman or other female. [Orig. the fem. of
the def. art. in A.S.--viz. _seó_, which in the 12th century began to
replace _heó_, the old fem. pron.]

SHEA, sh[=e]'ä, _n._ the tree yielding the Galam butter or
shea-butter.--Also SH[=E]'A-TREE and _Karite_.

SHEADING, sh[=e]'ding, _n._ one of the six divisions or districts of the
Isle of Man. [_Shed_.]

SHEAF, sh[=e]f, _n._ a quantity of things, esp. the stalks of grain, put
together and bound: a bundle of arrows, usually 24 in number: any bundle or
collection:--_pl._ SHEAVES (sh[=e]vz).--_v.t._ to bind in sheaves.--_v.i._
to make sheaves.--_adj._ SHEAF'Y. [A.S. _sceáf_--A.S. _scúfan_, to shove;
Ger. _schaub_, Dut. _schoof_.]

SHEAL, sh[=e]l, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to shell, as peas.--_n._ SHEAL'ING, the
shell, pod, or husk, as of peas. [_Shell_.]

SHEAL, SHIEL, sh[=e]l, _n._ (_Scot._) a hut used by shepherds, sportsmen,
&c.: a shelter for sheep.--_ns._ SHEAL'ING, SHEEL'ING, SHIEL'ING. [Either
Ice. _skáli_, a hut, or Ice. _skjól_, a shelter; both cog. with sky,

SHEAR, sh[=e]r, _v.t._ to cut or clip: to clip with shears or any other
instrument: (_Scot._) to reap with a sickle.--_v.i._ to separate, cut,
penetrate: in mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal:--_pa.t._ sheared,
(_obs._) shore; _pa.p._ sheared or shorn.--_n._ a shearing or clipping: a
strain where compression is answered by elongation at right angles: curve,
deviation.--_ns._ SHEAR'-BILL, the scissor-bill, cut-water, or black
skimmer; SHEAR'ER; SHEAR'-HOG, a sheep after the first shearing; SHEAR'ING,
the act or operation of cutting with shears: what is cut off with shears:
(_Scot._) the time of reaping: the process of preparing shear-steel:
(_geol._) the process by which shear-structure (q.v.) has been produced;
SHEAR'LING, a sheep only once sheared; SHEAR'MAN, one whose occupation is
to shear cloth; SHEARS (_pl._ and _sing._), an instrument for shearing or
cutting, consisting of two blades that meet each other: a hoisting
apparatus (see SHEERS): anything resembling shears, as even a pair of wings
(_Spens._); SHEAR'-STEEL, steel suitable for the manufacture of shears and
other edge-tools; SHEAR'-STRUC'TURE (_geol._), a structure often seen in
volcanic rocks, due to the reciprocal compression and elongation of various
parts under great crust movements; SHEAR'-WA'TER, a genus of oceanic birds
allied to the petrels, and varying from 8½ to 14 inches in length. [A.S.
_sceran_; Ice. _skera_, to clip, Ger. _scheren_, to shave.]

SHEAT-FISH, sh[=e]t'-fish, _n._ a fish of the family _Siluridæ_, the great
catfish of central Europe.

SHEATH, sh[=e]th, _n._ a case for a sword or other long instrument: a
scabbard: any thin defensive covering: a membrane covering a stem or
branch: the wing-case of an insect.--_v.t._ SHEATHE (_th_), to put into a
sheath: to cover with a sheath or case: to enclose in a lining.--_adj._
SHEATHED (_th_), provided with, or enclosed in, a sheath: (_bot._, _zool._,
and _anat._) having a sheath, vaginate.--_ns._ SHEATH'ING (_th_), that
which sheathes, esp. the covering of a ship's bottom; SHEATH'-KNIFE, a
knife carried in a sheath from the waist.--_adjs._ SHEATH'LESS;
SHEATH'-WINGED, having the wings encased in elytra: coleopterous; SHEATH'Y,
sheath-like.--SHEATHE THE SWORD, to put an end to war. [A.S. _scéth_,
_sc['æ]th_; Ger. _scheide_, Ice. _skeithir_.]

SHEAVE, sh[=e]v, _n._ the wheel of a pulley over which the rope runs: a
sliding scutcheon for covering a keyhole.--_n._ SHEAVE'-HOLE. [_Shive_.]

SHEAVED, sh[=e]vd, _adj._ (_Shak._) made of straw.

SHEBANG, sh[=e]-bang', _n._ (_Amer._) a place, a store, a saloon, a
gaming-house: a brothel.

SHEBEEN, she-b[=e]n', _n._ a place where intoxicating drinks are privately
and unlawfully sold.--_ns._ SHEB[=EE]'NER, one who keeps a shebeen;

SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ Same as SHEKINAH.

SHECKLATON, shek'la-ton, _n._ Same as CHECKLATON.

SHED, shed, _v.t._ to part, separate: to scatter, cast off: to throw out:
to pour: to spill.--_v.i._ to let fall, cast:--_pr.p._ shed'ding; _pa.t._
and _pa.p._ shed.--_n._ a division, parting, as of the hair, and in
watershed.--_ns._ SHED'DER; SHED'DING. [A.S. _sceádan_, to separate; Ger.

SHED, shed, _n._ a slight erection, usually of wood, for shade or shelter:
an outhouse: a large temporary open structure for reception of goods.


SHEEN, sh[=e]n, _n._ brightness or splendour.--_adj._ (_obs._) bright,
shining.--_v.i._ (_arch._) to shine, glitter.--_adj._ SHEEN'Y, shining,
beautiful. [A.S. _scéne_, _scýne_, fair; Dut. _schoon_, Ger. _schön_,
beautiful; prob. from the root of A.S. _sceáwian_, to look at.]

SHEENY, sh[=e]n'i, _n._ (_slang_) a sharp fellow, a cheat, a Jewish
dealer.--_adj._ cheating.


SHEEP, sh[=e]p, _n.sing._ and _pl._ the well-known ruminant mammal covered
with wool: leather made from sheep-skin: a silly and timid fellow.--_ns._
SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ER (_Shak._), one who practises petty thefts;
SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ING, robbing those under one's care, like an ill-trained
shepherd-dog; SHEEP'-COTE, an enclosure for sheep; SHEEP'-DOG, a dog
trained to watch sheep: (_slang_) a chaperon.--_adj._ SHEEP'-FACED,
sheepish, bashful.--_ns._ SHEEP'-FARM'ER, SHEEP'-FOLD, a fold or enclosure
for sheep: a flock of sheep; SHEEP'-HEAD, SHEEP'S'-HEAD, a fool, a stupid
and timid person: an American fish of the family _Sparidæ_, allied to the
perches, so called from the shape and colour of the head; SHEEP'-HOOK, a
shepherd's crook.--_adj._ SHEEP'ISH, like a sheep: bashful: foolishly
diffident.--_adv._ SHEEP'ISHLY.--_ns._ SHEEP'ISHNESS; SHEEP'-LOUSE, a
parasitic dipterous insect; SHEEP'-MAR'KET, a place where sheep are sold;
SHEEP'-MAS'TER, a master or owner of sheep; SHEEP'-PEN, an enclosure for
sheep; SHEEP'-PEST, the sheep-tick; SHEEP'-POX, a contagious eruptive
disease of sheep, variola ovina; SHEEP'-RUN, a tract of grazing country for
sheep; SHEEP'S'-EYE, a modest, diffident look: a loving, wishful glance;
SHEEP'S'-FOOT, a printer's tool with a claw at one end for prizing up
forms; SHEEP'-SHANK (_Scot._), the shank of a sheep--hence something
slender and weak: a nautical knot for temporarily shortening a rope;
kind of shears used for shearing sheep; SHEEP'-SIL'VER, money formerly paid
by tenants for release from the service of washing the lord's sheep;
SHEEP'-SKIN, the skin of a sheep: leather prepared from the skin of a
sheep: a deed engrossed on sheep-skin parchment; SHEEP'-STEAL'ER;
SHEEP'-STEAL'ING; SHEEP'S'-WOOL, a valuable Florida sponge; SHEEP'-TICK, an
insect which attacks the sheep, sucking its blood and raising a tumour;
SHEEP'WALK, the place where the sheep pasture; SHEEP'-WASH, a lotion for
vermin on the sheep, or to preserve its wool--also SHEEP'-DIP;
SHEEP'-WHIS'TLING, tending sheep.--BLACK SHEEP, the disreputable member of
a family or group. [A.S. _sceáp_; Ger. _schaf_.]

SHEER, sh[=e]r, _adj._ pure: unmingled: simple: without a break,
perpendicular.--_adv._ clear: quite: at once. [Ice. _skærr_, bright; Ice.
_skírr_, A.S. _scír_.]

SHEER, sh[=e]r, _v.i._ to deviate from the line of the proper course, as a
ship: to turn aside.--_n._ the deviation from the straight line, or the
longitudinal curve or bend of a ship's deck or sides.--_ns._ SHEER'-HULK,
an old dismasted ship with a pair of sheers mounted on it for masting
ships; SHEER'-LEG, one of the spars.--_n.pl._ SHEERS, an apparatus for
hoisting heavy weights, having usually two legs or spars spread apart at
their lower ends, and bearing at their tops, where they are joined,
hoisting-tackle. [Perh. Dut. _scheren_, to cut, withdraw.]

SHEET, sh[=e]t, _n._ a large, thin piece of anything: a large, broad piece
of cloth in a bed: a large, broad piece of paper: a sail: the rope fastened
to the leeward corner of a sail to extend it to the wind.--_v.t._ to cover
with, or as with, a sheet: to furnish with sheets: to form into
sheets.--_ns._ SHEET'-COPP'ER, -[=I]'RON, -LEAD, -MET'AL, copper, iron,
lead, metal in thin sheets.--_adj._ SHEET'ED, with a white band or
belt.--_ns._ SHEET'-GLASS, a kind of crown-glass made at first in the form
of a cylinder, cut longitudinally, and opened out into a sheet; SHEET'ING,
cloth used for bed-sheets: the process of forming into sheets;
SHEET'-LIGHT'NING, lightning appearing in sheets or having a broad
appearance; SHEET'-WORK, press-work.--A SHEET (or THREE SHEETS) IN THE
WIND, fuddled, tipsy; IN SHEETS (_print._), not folded, or folded but not
bound. [A.S. _scéte_, _scýte_, a sheet--_sceótan_ (pa.t. _sceát_), to
shoot, project.]

SHEET-ANCHOR, sh[=e]t'-angk'ur, _n._ the largest anchor of a ship, shot or
thrown out in extreme danger: chief support: last refuge. [_Shoot_ and

SHEIK, SHEIKH, sh[=e]k, _n._ a man of eminence, a lord, a chief: a title of
learned or devout me _n._ [Ar. _sheikh_--_sh[=a]kha_, to be old.]

SHEILING, sh[=e]l'ing, _n._ Same as SHEALING.

SHEKEL, shek'l, _n._ a Jewish weight (about half-an-ounce avoirdupois) and
coin (about 2s. 6d. sterling): (_pl._) money (_slang_). [Heb. from
_sh[=a]qal_, to weigh.]

SHEKINAH, SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ the Divine presence which rested
like a cloud or visible light over the mercy-seat. [Heb.,--_sh[=a]khan_, to

SHELDRAKE, shel'dr[=a]k, _n._ a genus of birds of the Duck family
_Anatidæ_, having the hind-toe free:--_fem._ SHEL'DUCK. [A.S. _scyld_, a
shield, and _drake_.]

SHELF, shelf, _n._ a board fixed on a wall, &c., for laying things on: a
flat layer of rock: a ledge: a shoal: a sandbank:--_pl._ SHELVES
(shelvz).--_adj._ SHELF'Y.--PUT, LAY, ON THE SHELF, to put aside from duty
or service. [A.S. _scylfe_, a plank, Ice. _skjálf_, a bench.]

SHELL, shel, _n._ a term applied to the hard outer covering or skeleton of
many animals, to the internal skeleton of some invertebrates, and to the
outer covering-of the eggs of various animals: any framework: the outer
ear: a testaceous mollusc: any frail structure: a frail boat: a rough kind
of coffin: an instrument of music: a bomb: a hollow projectile containing a
bursting charge of gunpowder or other explosive ignited at the required
instant by means of either time or percussion fuses: the thin coating of
copper on an electrotype: an intermediate class in some schools.--_v.t._ to
break off the shell: to remove the shell from: to take out of the shell: to
throw shells or bombs upon, to bombard.--_v.i._ to fall off like a shell:
to cast the shell.--_ns._ SHELLAC (she-lak', shel'ak), SHELL'-LAC, lac
prepared in thin plates for making varnish, &c.--_v.t._ to coat with
shellac.--_ns._ SHELL'-BACK, an old sailor, a barnacle; SHELL'-BARK, either
of two North American hickories.--_adj._ SHELLED, having a shell,
testaceous.--_ns._ SHELL'ER, one who shells or husks; SHELL'FISH, a popular
term for many aquatic animals not fishes, esp. oysters, clams and all
molluscs, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters; SHELL'-GUN, a cannon
used for throwing shells, esp. horizontally: SHELL'-HEAP, a prehistoric
accumulation of shells, &c., pointing back to a race that lived on
shellfish; SHELL'-ICE, ice no longer supported by the water beneath;
SHELL'-JACK'ET, an undress military jacket; SHELL'-LIME, lime procured from
the shells of shellfish by burning; SHELL'-LIME'STONE, a limestone largely
consisting of shells; SHELL'-MARL, a white earthy deposit, resulting from
the accumulation of fragments of shells; SHELL'-MOUND, a shell-heap;
SHELL'-OR'NAMENT, decoration in which any shell-form is prominent.--_adj._
SHELL'PROOF, proof against, or able to resist, shells or bombs.--_ns._
SHELL'-ROOM, a magazine on board ship where shells are stored; SHELL'-SAND,
sand consisting in great part of fragments of shells, and often containing
a small proportion of organic matter, a very useful manure for clay soils,
heavy loams, and newly-reclaimed bogs; SHELL'WORK, work composed of or
adorned with shells.--_adj._ SHELL'Y, consisting of a shell:
testaceous.--SHELL OUT, (_slang_), to hand over, as money. [A.S. _scell_,
_scyl_; Dut. _schel_, Ice. _skel_.]

SHELTA, shel'ta, _n._ a secret jargon of great antiquity spoken by Irish
tinkers, beggars, and pipers.--Also _Shelr[=u]_, _Cainnt cheard_, _Gam
cant_, _Bog-latin_. [_Shelr[=u]_, a perversion of the Irish _béulra_,

SHELTER, shel't[.e]r, _n._ that which shields or protects: a refuge: a
retreat, a harbour: protection.--_v.t._ to cover or shield: to defend: to
conceal.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_n._ SHEL'TERER.--_adjs._ SHEL'TERLESS;
SHEL'TERY, affording shelter. [Orig. _sheltron_--A.S. _scyld-truma_,
shield-troop--_scyld_, shield, _truma_, troop--_trum_, firm.]

SHELTY, SHELTIE, shel'ti, _n._ a Shetland pony. [Perh. a dim. of _Shetland

SHELVE, shelv, _v.t._ to furnish with shelves: to place on a shelf; to put
aside.--_n._ SHEL'VING, the furnishing with shelves: the act of placing on
a shelf: shelves or materials for shelves.

SHELVE, shelv, _v.i._ to slope, incline.--_n._ a ledge.--_n._ SHEL'VING, a
shelving place: (_rare_) a bank.--_adj._ SHEL'VY, sloping, shallow. [Prob.
ult. from Ice. _skelgja-sk_, to come askew--_skjálgr_, wry.]


SHEND, shend, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to disgrace, to reproach, to blame, also to
overpower, to surpass:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shent. [A.S. _scendan_, to
disgrace--A.S. _scand_, _sceand_ (Ger. _schande_), shame.]

SHE-OAK, sh[=e]'-[=o]k, _n._ one of several shrubs of the Australian genus

SHEOL, sh[=e]'[=o]l, _n._ the place of departed spirits. [Heb. _she'[=o]l_,
a hollow place--_sh[=a]'al_, to dig out.]

SHEPHERD, shep'[.e]rd, _n._ one who herds sheep: a swain: a pastor:--_fem._
SHEP'HERDESS.--_v.t._ to tend as a shepherd: to watch over, protect the
interests of, or one's own interests in.--_ns._ SHEP'HERDISM, pastoral
life; SHEP'HERDLING, a little shepherd; SHEP'HERD'S-CROOK, a long staff,
its upper end curved into a hook; SHEP'HERD'S-DOG, a dog specially trained
to help in tending sheep, the collie or Scotch sheep-dog, &c.;
SHEP'HERD'S-FLUTE, a flageolet or the like; SHEP'HERD'S-NEE'DLE, an annual
plant, called also Venus's comb; SHEP'HERD'S-PLAID, -TAR'TAN, a woollen
cloth made with black and white checks: this form of pattern itself;
SHEP'HERD'S-POUCH, -PURSE, an annual cruciferous plant, with compressed,
somewhat heart-shaped seed-vessel; SHEP'HERD'S-ROD, -STAFF, a small kind of
teasel.--SHEPHERD KINGS (see HYKSOS).--THE GOOD SHEPHERD, a title of Jesus
Christ (John, x. 11); THE SHEPHERDS, a sect of fanatical shepherds in
France about 1251 A.D., eager to deliver the imprisoned Louis IX. [A.S.
_sceáp-hyrde_. _Sheep_ and _herd_.]

SHEPPY, SHEPPEY, shep'i, _n._ (_prov_.) a sheep-cote.

SHERBET, sh[.e]r'bet, _n._ a drink of water and fruit juices, sweetened and
flavoured. [Through Turk. from Ar. _sharbat_, a drink--_shariba_, he

SHERD, sh[.e]rd, _n._ See SHARD.

SHERIF, SHEREEF, she-r[=e]f', _n._ a descendant of Mohammed through his
daughter Fatima: a prince or ruler: the chief magistrate of Mecca. [Ar.
_shar[=i]f_, noble, lofty.]

SHERIFF, sher'if, _n._ the governor of a shire: (_English law_) the chief
officer of the crown in every county or shire, his duties being chiefly
ministerial rather than judicial: (_Scots law_) the chief magistrate and
judge of the county: in the United States the office of sheriff is mainly
ministerial, his principal duties to maintain peace and order, attend
courts, guard prisoners, serve processes, and execute judgments.--_ns._
SHER'IFFALTY, SHER'IFFDOM, SHER'IFFSHIP, the office or jurisdiction of a
sheriff; SHER'IFF-CLERK, in Scotland the registrar of the sheriff's court,
who has charge of the records of the court; SHER'IFF-DEP'UTE (_Scot._), the
sheriff proper, so called since the abolition of the heritable
jurisdictions in 1748 to distinguish him from the earlier heritable
SHER'IFF-PRIN'CIPAL, whose title is now merged in that of the
Lord-lieutenant; SHER'IFF-OFF'ICER, in Scotland, an officer connected with
the sheriff's court, who is charged with arrests, the serving of processes,
&c.; SHER'IFF-SUB'STITUTE, the acting sheriff in a Scotch county or city,
like the sheriff-depute appointed by the crown, but unlike the
sheriff-depute forced to reside within his judicial district, and forbidden
to take other employment; UN'DER-SHER'IFF, the deputy of an English sheriff
who performs the execution of writs. [A.S. _scir-geréfa_--_scir_ (Eng.
_shire_), _geréfa_, a governor; cog. with Ger. _graf_, a count.]

SHERRIS, sher'is, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as SHERRY.

SHERRY, sher'i, _n._ a name derived from _Xeres_ or _Jerez_ de la Frontera,
near Cadiz, and applied to the better kind of white wines grown in the
neighbourhood of Xeres.--SHERRY COBBLER, a cobbler made with
sherry.--NATURAL SHERRY, a sherry having from two to four per cent. of
spirit added to make it keep.

SHET, shet, _adj._ (_U.S._) freed from.

SHETLANDER, shet'land-[.e]r, _n._ a native or inhabitant of
_Shetland_.--SHETLAND LACE, an open-work ornamental trimming made with
woollen yarn for shawls, &c.; SHETLAND PONY, a small sturdy and shaggy
horse, usually nine to ten hands high, a shelty; SHETLAND WOOL, a thin but
strong undyed worsted, spun from the wool of the sheep in the Shetland
Islands, much used for knitting fine shawls, &c.

SHEUCH, SHEUGH, sh[=oo]h, or shyuh, _n._ (_Scot._) a ditch.

SHEVA, she-vä', _n._ a Hebrew point (:) written below its consonant, and
indicating properly the absence of a vowel (_simple sheva_). It is either
unsounded, as at the close of a syllable (_silent sheva_), or given a short
breathing or neutral sound, as at the beginning of a syllable (_vocal
sheva_). Sometimes it is compounded with the short vowels, forming
_compound shevas_.

SHEW, sh[=o]. Same as SHOW.

SHEWBREAD, sh[=o]'bred. Same as SHOWBREAD.

SHIAH, sh[=e]'ä, _n._ a member of that Mohammedan sect which maintains that
Ali, first cousin of Mohammed and husband of his daughter Fatima, was the
first legitimate successor of the Prophet, rejecting the three califs of
their opponents the Sunnis, as usurpers.--_n._ SHIISM (sh[=e]'izm). [Ar.
_sh[=i]'a_, sect.]

SHIBBOLETH, shib'b[=o]-leth, _n._ (_B._) a test-word used by the Gileadites
under Jephthah to detect the fleeing Ephraimites, who could not pronounce
the _sh_ (Judges, xii. 4-6): the criterion or watchword of a party. [Heb.,
an ear of corn, or a stream.]


SHIELD, sh[=e]ld, _n._ a broad plate worn for defence on the left arm:
anything that protects: defence: a person who protects: the shield-shaped
escutcheon used for displaying arms.--_v.t._ to defend: (_Shak._) to
forfend, avert.--_v.i._ to be a shelter.--_ns._ SHIEL'DER; SHIELD'-FERN, a
fern, so called from its shape.--_adj._ SHIELD'LESS, defenceless.--_adv._
[A.S. _scyld_; Ger. _schild_, Ice. _skiöldr_, protection.]


SHIFT, shift, _v.t._ to change in form or character: to put out of the way:
to dress in fresh clothes.--_v.i._ to change about: to remove: to change
one's clothes: to resort to expedients for some purpose: in violin-playing,
to move the left hand from its original position next to the nut.--_n._ a
change: in violin-playing, any position of the left hand except that
nearest the nut: a squad or relay of men: a contrivance: an artifice: last
resource: a chemise or woman's undermost garment (orig. signifying a change
of body-linen).--_adj._ SHIFT'ABLE, capable of being shifted.--_ns._
SHIFT'ER, one who shifts: a trickster; SHIFT'INESS, the character of being
shifty.--_adj._ SHIFT'ING, unstable: shifty.--_adv._ SHIFT'INGLY.--_adj._
SHIFT'LESS, destitute of shifts or expedients: unsuccessful, for want of
proper means.--_adv._ SHIFT'LESSLY.--_n._ SHIFT'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SHIFT'Y,
full of, or ready with, shifts, contrivances, or expedients.--SHIFT ABOUT,
to vacillate: to turn quite round to the opposite point; SHIFT FOR ONE'S
SELF, to provide for one's self; SHIFT OF CROPS, rotation of crops; SHIFT
OFF, to defer: to put away.--MAKE SHIFT, to find ways and means of doing
something, contrive. [A.S. _sciftan_, to divide, Ice. _skipta_.]

SHIITE, sh[=e]'[=i]t, _n._ the same as SHIAH (q.v.).--_adj._ SHIIT'IC.

SHIKAR, shi-kär', _n._ in India, hunting, sport.--_ns._ SHIKAR'EE,
SHIKAR'I, a hunter. [Hind.]

SHIKO, shik'[=o], _n._ a posture of prostration in Burma.

SHILLALAH, shi-l[=a]'la, _n._ an oak sapling, the oak or blackthorn cudgel
of the conventional Irishman.--Also SHILLE'LAH, SHILL[=A]'LY. [Prob.
_Shillelagh_, an oak-wood in County Wicklow.]

SHILLING, shil'ing, _n._ an English silver coin=12 pence.--TAKE THE
SHILLING, to enlist as a soldier by accepting the recruiting-officer's
shilling--discontinued since 1879. [A.S. _scilling_; Ger. _schilling_.]

SHILLY-SHALLY, shil'i-shal'i, _adv._ in silly hesitation.--_n._ foolish
trifling: irresolution.--_v.i._ to hesitate.--_n._ SHILL'Y-SHALL'IER, an
irresolute person. [A reduplication of '_Shall I?_']

SHILPIT, shil'pit, _adj._ (_Scot._) weak, washy: feeble-looking. [Ety.

SHILY, same as SHYLY. See SHY.

SHIM, shim, _n._ (_mach._) a thin slip used to fill up space caused by
wear.--_v.t._ to wedge up. [Ety. dub.]

SHIMMER, shim'[.e]r, _v.i._ to gleam tremulously, to glisten.--_ns._
SHIMM'ER, SHIMM'ERING, a tremulous gleam. [A.S. _scimrian_--_scíman_, to
shine; Ger. _schimmern_.]

SHIN, shin, _n._ the large bone of the leg or the forepart of it: a bird's
shank.--_v.i._ to climb a tree (with _up_): to tramp, trudge.--_v.t._ to
climb a tree by swarming up it: to kick on the shins.--_ns._ SHIN'-BONE,
the tibia; SHIN'-PIECE, a piece of armour defending the forepart of the
leg; SHIN'-PLAS'TER (_U.S._), a patch of brown-paper steeped in vinegar,
&c., laid on a sore: a small paper note or promise to pay. [A.S. _scina_,
the shin (esp. in the compound _scin-bán_, shin-bone); Dut. _scheen_, Ger.

SHIN, shin, _n._ a god, or the gods: the term used by Protestant
missionaries in Japan and China for the Supreme Being.

SHINDY, shin'di, _n._ the game of shinty, shinny, bandy-ball, or hockey:
(_slang_) a row, disturbance.--KICK UP A SHINDY, to make a disturbance.

SHINE, sh[=i]n, _v.i._ to beam with steady radiance: to glitter: to be
bright or beautiful: to be eminent.--_v.t._ to cause to shine:--_pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ shone (shon), (_B._) sh[=i]ned.--_adj._ (_Spens._) bright.--_n._
brightness: splendour: fair weather: (_slang_) disturbance, row, a
trick.--_n._ SH[=I]'NER, that which shines: (_slang_) a coin, esp. a
sovereign: a small American fresh-water fish.--_adj._ SH[=I]'NING.--_adv._
SH[=I]'NINGLY.--_n._ SH[=I]'NINGNESS.--_adj._ SH[=I]'NY, clear, unclouded:
glossy.--CAUSE, or MAKE, THE FACE TO SHINE (_B._), to be propitious; TAKE
THE SHINE OUT OF (_slang_), to outshine, eclipse. [A.S. _scínan_; Ger.

SHINGLE, shing'gl, _n._ wood sawed or split thin, used instead of slates or
tiles, for roofing houses: (_U.S._) a small sign-board or plate.--_v.t._ to
cover with shingles: to crop the hair very close.--_adjs._ SHING'LED,
SHING'LE-ROOFED, having the roof covered with shingles.--_ns._ SHING'LER;
SHING'LING. [Low L. _scindula_, a wooden tile--L. _scind[)e]re_, to split.]

SHINGLE, shing'gl, _n._ the coarse gravel on the shores of rivers or of the
sea.--_adj._ SHING'LY. [Orig. _single_--Norw. _singel_, _singling_,
shingle--_singla_, freq. of _singa_, to ring.]

SHINGLES, shing'glz, _n._ popular name for the disease _Herpes zoster_. [A
corr. of L. _cingulum_, a belt or girdle--_cing[)e]re_, to gird.]

SHINNY, shin'i, _n._ the game of bandy-ball or hockey. [Prob. Gael,
_sinteag_, a bound.]

SHINTI-YAN, shin'ti-yan, _n._ the loose drawers worn by Moslem women.--Also

SHINTO, shin't[=o], _n._ the system of nature and hero worship forming the
indigenous religion of Japan.--_ns._ SHIN'T[=O]ISM; SHIN'T[=O]IST.
[Jap.,=Chin. _shin tao_--_shin_, god, _tao_, way, doctrine.]

SHINTY, shin'ti, _n._ Same as SHINNY.

SHIP, ship, _n._ a vessel having three masts, with tops and yards to each:
generally, any large sea-going vessel.--_v.t._ to put on board a ship: to
engage for service on board a ship: to transport by ship: to fix in its
place.--_v.i._ to engage for service on shipboard:--_pr.p._ ship'ping;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shipped.--_ns._ SHIP'-BIS'CUIT, hard biscuit for use on
shipboard; SHIP'BOARD, the deck or side of a ship; SHIP'-BOY, a boy that
serves on board a ship; SHIP'-BREAK'ER, one who breaks up vessels no longer
fit for sea; SHIP'-BROK'ER, a broker who effects sales, insurance, &c. of
ships; SHIP'BUILDER, one whose occupation is to construct ships;
SHIP'BUILDING; SHIP'-CANAL', a canal large enough to admit the passage of
sea-going vessels; SHIP'-CAP'TAIN, one who commands a ship;
SHIP'-CAR'PENTER, a carpenter who works at shipbuilding; SHIP'-CHAND'LER, a
dealer in cordage, canvas, and other ship furniture or stores;
SHIP'-CHAND'LERY, the business wares of a ship-chandler; SHIP'-F[=E]'VER,
typhus fever, as common on board crowded ships; SHIP'FUL, as much or as
many as a ship will hold; SHIP'-HOLD'ER, a ship-owner; SHIP'-LETT'ER, a
letter sent by a vessel which does not carry mails; SHIP'-LOAD, the load or
cargo of a ship; SHIP'MAN, a sailor:--_pl._ SHIP'MEN; SHIP'MASTER, the
captain of a ship; SHIP'MATE, a companion in the same ship; SHIP'MENT, act
of putting on board ship: embarkation: that which is shipped; SHIP'-MON'EY,
a tyrannical tax imposed by the king on seaports, revived without
authorisation of parliament by Charles I. in 1634-37; SHIP'-OF-THE-LINE,
before steam navigation, a man-of-war large enough to take a place in a
line of battle; SHIP'-OWN'ER, the owner of a ship or ships.--_adj._ SHIPPED
(_Shak._), furnished with a ship or ships.--_ns._ SHIP'PER; SHIP'PING,
ships collectively: tonnage: (_Shak._) a voyage; SHIP'PING-[=A]G'ENT, the
agent of a vessel or line of vessels to whom goods are consigned for
shipment.--_n.pl._ SHIP'PING-ART'ICLES, articles of agreement, between the
captain and his crew.--_ns._ SHIP'PING-BILL, invoice of goods embarked;
SHIP'PING-MAS'TER, the official who witnesses signature by the sailors of
the articles of agreement; SHIP'PING-OFF'ICE, the office of a
shipping-agent, or of a shipping-master; SHIP'-POUND, a unit of weight in
the Baltic ports; SHIP'-RAIL'WAY, a railway by means of which vessels can
be carried overland from one body of water to another.--_adjs._
SHIP'-RIGGED (_naut._), rigged like a ship, having three masts with square
sails and spreading yards; SHIP'SHAPE, in a seaman-like manner: trim, neat,
proper.--_ns._ SHIP'S'-HUS'BAND, the owner's agent in the management of a
ship; SHIP'-TIRE (_Shak._), a sort of head-dress, whether from its
streamers or its general likeness to a ship; SHIP'-WAY, the supports
forming a sliding-way for the building, repairing, and launching of
vessels; SHIP'-WORM, a genus (_Teredo_) of worm-like molluscs which
perforate and live in timber, lining the cavity or tube with a calcareous
encrustation; SHIP'WRECK, the wreck or destruction of a ship:
destruction.--_v.t._ to destroy on the sea: to make to suffer wreck.--_ns._
SHIP'WRIGHT, a wright or carpenter who constructs ships; SHIP'YARD, a yard
where ships are built or repaired.--SHIP A SEA, to have a wave come aboard;
SHIP'S PAPERS, documents required for the manifestation of the property of
a ship and cargo; SHIP THE OARS (see OAR).--ABOUT SHIP! an exclamation to
pull in the sheet preparatory to changing a ship's course during a tack;
MAKE SHIPWRECK OF, to ruin, destroy; ON SHIPBOARD, upon or within a ship;
TAKE SHIP, or SHIPPING, to embark. [A.S. _scip_--_scippan_, to
make--_scapan_, to shape; Goth. _skip_, Ice. _skip_, Ger. _schiff_.]

SHIPPEN, ship'n, _n._ (_prov._) a stable.--Also SHIP'PON.

SHIPPO, ship-p[=o]', _n._ Japanese enamel, cloisonné.

SHIPTON, ship'ton, _n._ usually 'Mother Shipton,' a famous prophetess of
popular English tradition, born near Knaresborough in 1488.

SHIRAZ, sh[=e]-räz', _n._ a Persian wine. [_Shiraz_.]

SHIRE, sh[=i]r, shir (in county-names), _n._ a county, one of the larger
divisions of England for political purposes--originally a division of the
kingdom under a sheriff, the deputy of the ealdorman: a term also surviving
as applied to certain smaller districts in England, as Richmondshire and
Hallamshire.--_ns._ SHIRE'MAN, a sheriff; SHIRE'-MOOT, SHIRE'-MOTE,
formerly in England a court of the county held periodically by the sheriff
together with the bishop or the ealdorman. [A.S. _scir_, _scire_, a county,
_sciran_, a secondary form of _sceran_, to cut off.]

SHIRK, sh[.e]rk, _v.t._ to avoid, get off or slink away from.--_n._
SHIR'KER.--_adj._ SHIR'KY. [A form of _shark_.]

SHIRL, sh[.e]rl, _v.i._ (_prov._) to slide.

SHIRR, SHIR, sh[.e]r, _n._ a puckering made in a fabric by parallel
gathering-threads.--_v.t._ to produce such.--_adj._ SHIRRED, having lines
or cords inserted between the threads, as in certain elastic
fabrics.--_ns._ SHIRR'ING, decorative-shirred needlework; SHIRR'ING-STRING,
a cord used to gather the threads together in shirred-work. [Ety. dub.]

SHIRT, sh[.e]rt, _n._ a short garment worn next the body by men: an
interior lining in a blast-furnace.--_v.t._ to cover as with a
shirt.--_ns._ SHIRT'-FRILL, a fine cambric frill worn in the early years of
the 19th century on the breast of the shirt; SHIRT'-FRONT, that part of the
shirt which is open and covers the breast, generally of finer material,
starched stiffly; SHIRT'ING, cloth for shirts: shirts collectively.--_adj._
SHIRT'LESS, without a shirt.--_ns._ SHIRT'-SLEEVE, the sleeve of a shirt;
SHIRT'-WAIST, a woman's overgarment or blouse, coming to the waist and
belted there.--BLOODY SHIRT, a blood-stained shirt, as the symbol of
murder; BOILED SHIRT, a white shirt clean washed; IN ONE'S SHIRT-SLEEVES,
without the coat. [Scand.; Ice. _skyrta_--_skortr_, shortness.]

SHIST, &c. See SCHIST, &c.

SHITEPOKE, sh[=i]t'p[=o]k, _n._ the North American small green heron.

SHITTAH, shit'a, _n._ a tree whose durable wood--SHITTIM WOOD--was used in
the construction of the Jewish Tabernacle and its furniture--prob. the
_Acacia seyal_. [Heb. _shittah_, pl. _shitt[=i]m_.]

SHIVAREE, shiv'a-r[=e], _v.t._ (_U.S._) to give a mock serenade to.--Also
_n._ [A corr. of _charivari_.]

SHIVE, sh[=i]v, _n._ (_Shak._) a slice, as of bread: a small bung for
closing a wide-mouthed bottle. [Scand., Ice. _skífa_, a slice; Dut.
_schijf_, Ger. _scheibe_.]

SHIVER, shiv'[.e]r, _n._ a splinter, or small piece into which a thing
breaks by sudden violence.--_v.t._ to shatter.--_v.i._ to fall into
shivers.--_n._ SHIV'ER-SPAR, a slaty calcite or calcium carbonate.--_adj._
SHIV'ERY, brittle.--SHIVER MY TIMBERS, a nautical imprecation. [Skeat
explains _shiver_ as a dim. of the foregoing _shive_, a thin slice, the
same as prov. Eng. _sheave_, a thin disc of wood, wheel of a pulley--Ice.
_skífa_, a slice; Dut. _schijf_, Ger. _scheibe_.]

SHIVER, shiv'[.e]r, _v.i._ to shake or tremble: to shudder.--_v.t._ to
cause to shake in the wind, as sails.--_n._ SHIV'ERING.--_adv._
SHIV'ERINGLY, with shivering or trembling.--_adj._ SHIV'ERY, inclined to
shiver.--THE SHIVERS (_coll._), the ague, chills. [M. E. _chiveren_, a
softened form of _kiveren_, supposed by Skeat to be a Scand. form of
_quiver_, and a freq. of Ice. _kippa_, to pull, the spelling with sh being
due to confusion with _shiver_ (_n._).]

SHIZOKU, sh[=e]-z[=o]'k[=oo], _n._ the two-sworded men of Japan, the gentry

SHOAL, sh[=o]l, _n._ a great multitude of fishes swimming together.--_v.i._
to crowd.--_adv._ SHOAL'WISE, in shoals. [A.S. _scólu_, company--L.
_schola_, school.]

SHOAL, sh[=o]l, _n._ a shallow: a place where the water of a river, sea, or
lake is not deep: a sandbank.--_adj._ shallow.--_v.i._ to grow shallow: to
come upon shallows.--_ns._ SHOAL'ER, a coasting vessel; SHOAL'INESS;
SHOAL'ING, filling up with shoals; SHOAL'-MARK, a mark set up to indicate
shoal-water; SHOAL'NESS, shallowness.--_adj._ SHOAL'Y, full of shoals or
shallows: not deep. [Scand.; Ice. _skálgr_, oblique; cf. _Shallow_.]

SHOCK, shok, _n._ a violent shake: a sudden dashing of one thing against
another: violent onset: an offence: a condition of prostration of voluntary
and involuntary functions caused by trauma, a surgical operation, or
excessive sudden emotional disturbance: (_coll._) a sudden attack of
paralysis, a stroke: an electrical stimulant to sensory nerves, &c.: any
very strong emotion.--_v.t._ to shake by violence: to offend: to disgust:
to dismay.--_v.i._ to collide with violence.--_n._ SHOCK'ER (_coll._), a
very sensational tale.--_adj._ SHOCK'ING, offensive, repulsive.--_adv._
SHOCK'INGLY.--_n._ SHOCK'INGNESS. [Prof. Skeat explains M. E. _schokken_,
to shock, as from O. Fr. _choc_, a shock, _choquer_, to give a shock--Old
High Ger. _scoc_, a shock, shaking movement. Cf. A.S. _scóc_, pa.t. of
_sceacan_, to shake.]

SHOCK, shok, _n._ a heap or pile of sheaves of corn.--_v.t._ to make up
into shocks or stooks.--_n._ SHOCK'ER. [M. E. _schokke_--Old Dut.

SHOCK, shok, _n._ a dog with long, shaggy hair: a mass of shaggy
hair.--_n._ SHOCK'-DOG, a rough-haired dog, a poodle.--_adjs._ SHOCK'-HEAD,
-ED, having a thick and bushy head of hair. [A variant of _shag_.]

SHOD, shod, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _shoe_.

SHODDY, shod'i, _n._ (_orig._) the waste arising from the manufacture of
wool: now applied to the wool of old woven fabrics reduced to the state in
which it was before being spun and woven, and thus fit for remanufacture:
the inferior cloth made from this substance: worthless goods: (_coll._)
pretence, sham, vulgar and baseless assumption.--_adj._ made of shoddy:
inferior, trashy: pretentious, sham, counterfeit: ambitious by reason of
newly-acquired wealth.--_n._ SHODD'YISM. [_Shed_, to part--A.S. _sceádan_,
to part.]

SHOE, sh[=oo], _n._ a covering for the foot, not coming above the ankle: a
rim of iron nailed to the hoof of an animal to keep it from injury:
anything in form or use like a shoe:--_pl._ SHOES (sh[=oo]z).--_v.t._ to
furnish with shoes: to cover at the bottom:--_pr.p._ shoe'ing; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ shod.--_ns._ SHOE'-BILL, the whalehead (_Balæniceps_); SHOE'BLACK,
one who blacks and cleans shoes or boots; SHOE'-BLACK'ING, blacking for
boots and shoes; SHOE'-BOY, a boy who cleans shoes; SHOE'-BRUSH, a brush
for cleaning boots or shoes; SHOE'-BUCK'LE, a buckle for fastening the shoe
on the foot, by means of a latchet passing over the instep; SHOE'-HAMM'ER,
a broad-faced hammer for pounding leather and for driving pegs, &c.;
SHOE'HORN, a curved piece of horn or metal used in putting on a shoe;
SHOE'ING-HORN, a shoehorn: (_obs._) anything by which a transaction is
facilitated; SHOE'-LACE, a shoe-string; SHOE'-LATCH'ET, a thong for holding
a shoe, sandal, &c. on the foot; SHOE'-LEATH'ER, leather for shoes: shoes
or shoeing generally.--_adj._ SHOE'LESS, destitute of shoes.--_ns._
SHOE'MAKER, one whose trade or occupation is to make shoes or boots;
SHOE'MAKING; SHOE'-PEG, a small peg of wood or metal for fastening
different parts of a shoe together; SHO'ER, one who furnishes shoes, a
horse-shoer; SHOE'-STRETCH'ER, a last having a movable piece for distending
the leather of the shoe in any part; SHOE'-STRING, a string used to draw
the sides of the shoe or boot together; SHOE'-TIE, a cord or string for
lacing a shoe: (_Shak._) a traveller; SHOE'-WORK'ER, one employed in a
shoe-factory.--ANOTHER PAIR OF SHOES (_coll._), quite a different matter;
BE IN ONE'S SHOES, or BOOTS, to be in one's place; DIE IN ONE'S SHOES, to
die by violence, esp. by hanging; PUT THE SHOE ON THE RIGHT FOOT, to lay
the blame where it rightly belongs. [A.S. _sceó_; Goth. _skohs_, Ger.

SHOG, shog, _v.i._ to shake, jog, move on, be gone.--_v.t._ to shake.--_n._
a jog, shock. [Celt., W. _ysgogi_, to wag, _ysgog_, a jolt.]

SHOGUN, sh[=o]'g[=oo]n, _n._ the title of the commander-in-chief of the
Japanese army during the continuance of the feudal system in Japan.--_adj._
SH[=O]'GUNAL.--_n._ SH[=O]'GUNATE. [Jap.,--_sho_, to hold, _gun_, army.]

SHONE, shon, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _shine_.

SHOO, sh[=oo], _interj._ off! away! to scare away fowls, &c.--_v.i._ to cry
'Shoo!'--_v.t._ to drive away by calling 'Shoo!' [Cf. Fr. _chou_, Gr.

SHOOK, shook, _pa.t._ of _shake_.

SHOOL, sh[=oo]l, _v.i._ to saunter about, to beg.

SHOOLDARRY, sh[=oo]l-där'i, _n._ a small tent with steep sloping roof and
low sides. [Hind.]

SHOON, sh[=oo]n, an old _pl._ of _shoe_.

SHOOT, sh[=oo]t, _v.t._ to dart: to let fly with force: to discharge from a
bow or gun: to strike with a shot: to thrust forward: to pass rapidly
through: to lay out, place in position: to hunt over, to kill game in or
on: to send forth new parts, as a plant.--_v.i._ to perform the act of
shooting: to variegate, to colour in spots or threads: to be driven along:
to fly, as an arrow: to jut out: to germinate: to advance or grow rapidly:
to hunt birds, &c., with a gun:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shot.--_n._ act of
shooting: a match at shooting, shooting-party: a young branch: (_Shak._) a
sprouting horn: a passage-way in a mine for letting one down: a sloping
trough used for discharging articles or goods from a height: a river-fall,
rapid.--_adj._ SHOOT'ABLE, that may be shot, or shot over.--_ns._ SHOOT'ER,
one who, or that which, shoots; SHOOT'ING, act of discharging firearms or
an arrow: sensation of a quick pain: act or practice of killing game: right
to kill game with firearms on a certain area: the district so limited;
SHOOT'ING-BOX, a small house in the country for use in the shooting season;
SHOOT'ING-GALL'ERY, a long room used for practice in the use of firearms;
SHOOT'ING-[=I]'RON (_slang_), a revolver; SHOOT'ING-JACK'ET, a short kind
of coat for shooting in; SHOOT'ING-RANGE, a place for practising shooting
at targets at measured distances; SHOOT'ING-STAR, a meteor or falling star;
SHOOT'ING-STICK, a printer's tool of wood or metal, to be struck with a
mallet, for driving quoins.--SHOOT AHEAD, to get to the front among a set
of competitors; SHOOT OVER, to go out shooting: to hunt upon.--I'LL BE SHOT
(_slang_), a mild imprecation. [A.S. _sceótan_; Dut. _schieten_, Ger.
_schiessen_, to dart.]

SHOP, shop, _n._ a building in which goods are sold by retail: a place
where mechanics work, or where any kind of industry is pursued: one's own
business or profession, also talk about such.--_v.i._ to visit shops for
the purpose of buying.--_v.t._ (_slang_) to imprison:--_pr.p._ shop'ping;
_pa.p._ shopped.--_ns._ SHOP'-BELL, a small automatic bell hung to give
notice of the opening of a shop-door; SHOP'-BOARD, a bench on which work,
esp. that of tailors, is done; SHOP'-BOY, -GIRL, a boy or girl employed in
a shop; SHOP'-KEEPER, one who keeps a shop for the sale of goods by retail;
SHOP'KEEPING, the business of keeping a shop; SHOP'-LIFT'ER;
SHOP'-LIFT'ING, lifting or stealing anything from a shop; SHOP'MAN, one who
serves in a shop: a shopkeeper; SHOPOC'RACY, shopkeepers collectively;
SHOP'PING, the act of visiting shops to see and buy goods.--_adj._ SHOP'PY,
commercial: abounding in shops: given to talking shop: concerning one's own
pursuit.--_ns._ SHOP'-WALK'ER, one who walks about in a shop and sees the
customers attended to; SHOP'WOMAN, a woman employed in a shop.--_adj._
SHOP'-WORN, somewhat tarnished by being exposed in a shop.--FANCY SHOP, a
shop where fancy goods are sold.--SHUT UP SHOP (_coll._), to abandon any
enterprise; THE OTHER SHOP (_slang_), a rival institution or establishment;
THE WHOLE SHOP (_slang_), entirely; TALK SHOP (_coll._), to converse
unseasonably about one's own profession. [A.S. _sceoppa_, a treasury
(influenced by O. Fr. _eschoppe_, a stall.)]

SHORE, sh[=o]r, _pa.t._ of _shear_.

SHORE, sh[=o]r, _n._ the coast or land adjacent to the sea, to a river, or
lake.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to set on shore.--_ns._ SHOR'AGE, duty on goods
when brought on shore from a ship; SHORE'-ANCH'OR, the anchor lying towards
the shore; SHORE'-CLIFF, a cliff at the water's edge; SHORE'-LAND, land
bordering on a shore.--_adj._ SHORE'LESS, having no coast: indefinite or
unlimited.--_n._ SHORES'MAN, a fisherman along shore: a sole or part owner
of a vessel: a longshoreman.--_adv._ SHORE'WARD, towards the shore.--_n._
SHORE'-WH[=A]L'ING, the pursuit of the whale near the shore. [A.S.
_score_--_sceran_, to shear.]

SHORE, sh[=o]r, _n._ a prop or support for the side of a building, or to
keep a vessel in dock steady on the slips.--_v.t._ to prop (often with
_up_).--_ns._ SH[=O]R'ER; SH[=O]R'ING, the act of supporting with props: a
set of props. [Skeat refers to Ice. _skortha_, a prop, esp. under a
boat--_skor-inn_, pa.p. of _skera_, to shear.]

SHORE, sh[=o]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to warn, threaten: to offer. [Perh. a form
of _score_, or another form of _sure_, equivalent to _assure_.]


SHORN, shorn, _pa.p._ of shear.--_n._ SH[=O]R'LING, SH[=O]RE'LING, a
newly-shorn sheep.

SHORT, short, _adj._ (_comp._ SHORT'ER, _superl._ SHORT'EST) not long in
time or space: not tall: near at hand, early in date: scanty, lacking,
insufficient: in error, deficient in wisdom, grasp, memory, &c.: narrow:
abrupt, curt, sharp, uncivil: brittle, crumbling away readily: not
prolonged in utterance, unaccented: (_coll._) undiluted with water, neat:
falling below a certain standard (with _of_): of stocks, &c., not having in
possession when selling, not able to meet one's engagements, pertaining to
short stocks or to those who have sold short.--_adv._ not long.--_n._ a
summary account: a short time or syllable: whatever is deficient in number,
quantity, &c.: a short sale, one who has made such: (_pl._) small clothes,
knee-breeches: the bran and coarse part of meal, in mixture.--_ns._
SHORT'AGE, deficiency; SHORT'-ALLOW'ANCE, less than the regular allowance;
SHORT'-AND, the character '&,' the ampersand.--_adj._ SHORT'-ARMED, having
short arms, not reaching far.--_ns._ SHORT'-BILL, one having less than ten
days to run; SHORT'-CAKE, a rich tea-cake made short and crisp with butter
or lard and baked--also SHORT'-BREAD (_Scot._): (_U.S._) a light cake,
prepared in layers with fruit between, served with cream; SHORT'-CIR'CUIT
(_electr._), a path of comparatively low resistance between two points of a
circuit.--_n.pl._ SHORT'-CLOTHES, small clothes, the dress of young
children after the first long clothes.--_v.t._ SHORT'-COAT, to dress in
short-coats.--_n.pl._ SHORT'-COATS, the shortened skirts of a child when
the first long clothes are left off.--_n._ SHORT'COMING, act of coming or
falling short of produce or result: neglect of, or failure in,
duty.--_n.pl._ SHORT'-COMM'ONS (see COMMON).--_n._ SHORT'-CROSS, the short
cross-bar of a printer's chase.--_adjs._ SHORT'-CUT, cut short instead of
in long shreds--of tobacco, &c.--also _n._; SHORT'-D[=A]T'ED, having short
or little time to run from its date, as a bill.--_n._ SHORT'-DIVI'SION, a
method of division with a divisor not larger than 12--opp. to
_Long-division_.--_v.t._ SHORT'EN, to make short: to deprive: to make
friable.--_v.i._ to become short or shorter: to contract.--_n._
SHORT'-GOWN, a loose jacket with a skirt, worn by women, a
bed-gown.--_adj._ SHORT'-GRASSED (_Shak._), provided or covered with short
grass.--_n._ SHORT'HAND, an art by which writing is made shorter and
easier, so as to keep pace with speaking.--_adj._ SHORT'-HAND'ED, not
having the proper number of servants, work-people, &c.--_ns._ SHORT'HANDER,
a stenographer; SHORT'-HORN, one of a breed of cattle having very short
horns--_Durham_ and _Teeswater_.--_adj._ SHORT'-HORNED.--_n._ SHORT'-HOSE,
the stockings of the Highland dress, reaching to the knee, as opposed to
the long hose formerly worn by Englishmen.--_adjs._ SHORT'-JOINT'ED, short
between the joints: having a short pastern; SHORT'-LEGGED (_Shak._), having
short legs; SHORT'-LIVED, living or lasting only for a short time.--_adv._
SHORT'LY, in a short time: in a brief manner: quickly: soon.--_ns._
SHORT'-M[=E]'TRE (see METRE); SHORT'NESS; SHORT'-PULL, a light impression
on a hand-press; SHORT'-RIB, one of the lower ribs, not reaching to the
breast-bone, a false or floating rib.--_adj._ SHORT'-SIGHT'ED, having sight
extending but a short distance: unable to see far: of weak intellect:
heedless.--_adv._ SHORT'-SIGHT'EDLY.--_n._ SHORT'-SIGHT'EDNESS.--_adjs._
SHORT'-SP[=O]'KEN, sharp and curt in speech; SHORT'-ST[=A]'PLE, having the
fibre short.--_n._ SHORT'-STOP, the player at base-ball between the second
and third base.--_adjs._ SHORT'-TEM'PERED, easily put into a rage;
SHORT'-WIND'ED, affected with shortness of wind or breath; SHORT'-WIT'TED,
having little wit, judgment, or intellect.--AT SHORT SIGHT, meaning that a
bill is payable soon after being presented; BE TAKEN SHORT (_coll_.), to be
suddenly seized with a desire to evacuate fæces; COME, CUT, FALL, SHORT
(see COME, CUT, FALL); IN SHORT, in a few words; MAKE SHORT WORK OF, to
settle some difficulty or opposition promptly; TAKE UP SHORT, to check or
to answer curtly; THE LONG AND SHORT, the whole. [A.S. _sceort_; Old High
Ger. _scurz_; the Dut. and Sw. _kort_, Ger. _kurz_, are borrowed from L.

SHOT, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _shoot_.

SHOT, shot, _adj._ (_Spens._) advanced in years.--_n._ a young pig. [Perh.
pa.p. of _shoot_.]

SHOT, shot, _n._ act of shooting: a marksman: a missile: flight of a
missile, or the distance passed by it: small globules of lead: (_gun_.)
solid projectiles generally: a small pellet, of which there are a number in
one charge: range of shot, reach: one cast or set of fishing-nets: the act
of shooting, one who shoots, a marksman: a plot of land, a square furlong:
a stroke in billiards, &c.--_v.t._ to load with shot:--_pr.p._ shot'ting;
_pa.p._ shot'ted.--_ns._ SHOT'-BELT, a belt with a pouch for carrying shot;
SHOT'-CART'RIDGE, a cartridge containing small shot; SHOT'-GAUGE, an
instrument for measuring the size of round-shot; SHOT'-GUN, a smooth-bore
gun for small shot, a fowling-piece; SHOT'-HOLE, a hole made by a shot or
bullet: a blasting-hole ready for a blast; SHOT'-OF-A-C[=A]'BLE, a length
of rope as it comes from the rope-walk; SHOT'-POUCH, a pouch for small
shot.--_adjs._ SHOT'-PROOF, proof against shot; SHOT'TED, loaded with ball
and powder: having a shot or weight attached.--_ns._ SHOT'-TOW'ER, a place
where small shot is made by dropping molten lead through a colander in
rapid motion from a considerable height into water; SHOT'-WIN'DOW, a
projecting window in the staircases of old Scotch wooden houses.--A BAD
SHOT, a wrong guess; A SHOT IN THE LOCKER, a last reserve of money, food,

SHOT, shot, _adj._ having a changeable colour, chatoyant, as silk, alpaca,

SHOT, shot, _n._ a reckoning, a share of a tavern-bill, &c.--_adj._
SHOT'-FREE (_Shak._), exempted from paying one's share of the reckoning or
of expense. [_Scot._]

SHOTTEN, shot'n, _p.adj._ (_Shak._) having ejected the spawn: shooting out
into angles: dislocated, as a bone. [From _shoot_.]

SHOUGH, shok, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as _Shock_, a dog.

SHOULD, shood, _pa.t._ of _shall_. [A.S. _sceolde_, _pa.t._ of _sceal_; cf.


SHOULDER, sh[=o]l'd[.e]r, _n._ the part of the trunk between the neck and
the free portion of the arm or fore-limb, the region about the scapula: the
upper joint of the foreleg of an animal cut for market: anything resembling
the shoulder, a rising part, a prominence: that which sustains, support,
the whole might or effort: the whole angle of a bastion between the face
and flank.--_v.t._ to push with the shoulder or violently: to take upon the
shoulder: to fashion with a shoulder or abutment.--_v.i._ to force one's
way forward.--_ns._ SHOUL'DER-BELT, a belt that passes across the shoulder;
SHOUL'DER-BLADE, the broad, flat, blade-like bone (_scapula_) of the
shoulder; SHOUL'DER-BLOCK, a pulley-block left nearly square at the upper
end and cut away towards the sheave; SHOUL'DER-BONE, the humerus,
shoulder-blade; SHOUL'DER-CLAP'PER (_Shak._), one who claps another on the
shoulder or uses great familiarity, a bailiff.--_adj._ SHOUL'DERED, having
shoulders of a specified kind.--_ns._ SHOUL'DER-KNOT, a knot worn as an
ornament on the shoulder, now confined to servants in livery;
SHOUL'DER-PIECE, a strap passing over the shoulder and joining the front
and back part of a garment; SHOUL'DER-SLIP, a sprain of the
shoulder.--_adjs._ SHOUL'DER-SLIPPED, SHOUL'DER-SHOT'TEN (_Shak._), having
the shoulder-joint dislocated.--_n._ SHOUL'DER-STRAP, a strap worn on or
over the shoulder: (_U.S._) a narrow strap of cloth edged with gold-lace
worn on the shoulder to indicate military and naval
rank.--SHOULDER-OF-MUTTON SAIL, a kind of triangular sail of peculiar form,
used mostly in boats, very handy and safe, particularly as a mizzen;
SHOULDER TO SHOULDER, with hearty and united action or effort.--GIVE, SHOW,
WHEEL, to give personal help heartily; WITH ONE SHOULDER, with one consent.
[A.S. _sculder_, _sculdor_; Ger. _schulter_, Dut. _schouder_.]

SHOUT, showt, _n._ a loud and sudden outcry expressing strong emotion, or
to attract attention.--_v.i._ to utter a shout: (_slang_) to order drink
for others by way of treat.--_v.t._ to utter with a shout.--_n._
SHOUT'ER.--_adv._ SHOUT'INGLY. [Ety. unknown.]

SHOUT, showt, _n._ (_prov_.) a light flat-bottomed boat used in

SHOVE, shuv, _v.t._ to drive along by continuous pressure: to push before
one.--_v.i._ to push forward: to push off.--_n._ act of shoving: a strong
push, a forward movement of packed river-ice.--SHOVE OFF, to push off a
boat with oar or boat-hook. [A.S. _scofian_; Dut. _schuiven_, Ger.

SHOVEL, shuv'l, _n._ an instrument consisting of a broad blade or scoop
with a handle, used for lifting loose substances.--_v.t._ to lift up and
throw with a shovel: to gather in large quantities.--_v.i._ to use a
shovel:--_pr.p._ shov'elling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shov'elled.--_ns._
SHOV'EL-BOARD, SHOVE'-GROAT, SHUFF'LE-BOARD, a game in which a piece of
money or metal is driven with the hand toward a mark on a board: the board
used in the game; SHOV'ELFUL, as much as a shovel will hold:--_pl._
SHOV'ELFULS; SHOV'EL-HAT, a hat with a broad brim, turned up at the sides,
and projecting in front--affected by Anglican clergy; SHOV'EL-HEAD, the
bonnet-headed shark: the shovel-headed sturgeon; SHOV'ELLER, one who
shovels: a genus of ducks, with mandibles very broad at the end;
SHOV'EL-NOSE, a sturgeon with broad, depressed, shovel-shaped snout. [A.S.
_scofl_, from _scúfan_, to shove; Ger. _schaufel_.]

SHOW, sh[=o], _v.t._ to present to view: to enable to perceive or know: to
inform: to teach: to guide: to prove: to explain: to bestow.--_v.i._ to
appear, come into sight: to look:--_pa.p._ sh[=o]wn or sh[=o]wed.--_n._ act
of showing: display: a sight or spectacle: parade: appearance:
plausibility, pretence: a sign, indication.--_ns._ SHOW'-BILL, a bill for
showing or advertising the price, merits, &c. of goods; SHOW'-BOX, a
showman's box out of which he takes his materials; SHOW'BREAD, among the
Jews, the twelve loaves of bread shown or presented before Jehovah in the
sanctuary; SHOW'-CARD, a placard with an announcement: a card of patterns;
SHOW'-CASE, a case with glass sides in which articles are exhibited in a
museum, &c.; SHOW'-END, that end of a piece of cloth which is on the
outside of the roll for exhibition to customers; SHOW'ER; SHOW'ING,
appearance: a setting forth, representation; SHOW'MAN, one who exhibits
shows; SHOW'-PLACE, a place for exhibition: a gymnasium: (_Shak._) a place
where shows are exhibited; SHOW'-ROOM, a room where a show is exhibited: a
room in a warehouse, &c., where goods are displayed to the best advantage,
a room in a commercial hotel where travellers' samples are exhibited.--SHOW
A LEG (_vul_.), to get out of bed; SHOW FIGHT, to show a readiness to
resist; SHOW FORTH, to give out, proclaim; SHOW OFF, to display
ostentatiously; SHOW OF HANDS, a raising of hands at a meeting to show
approval of any proposal; SHOW ONE'S HAND (see HAND); SHOW ONE THE DOOR, to
dismiss a person from one's house or presence; SHOW UP, to expose to blame
or ridicule. [A.S. _scéawian_; Dut. _schouwen_, Ger. _schauen_, to behold.]

SHOWER, show'[.e]r, _n._ a fall of rain or hail, of short duration: a
copious and rapid fall: a liberal supply of anything.--_v.t._ to wet with
rain: to bestow liberally.--_v.i._ to rain in showers.--_ns._ SHOW'ER-BATH,
a bath in which water is showered upon one from above: the apparatus for
giving a bath by showering water on the person; SHOW'ERINESS, the state of
being showery.--_adjs._ SHOW'ERLESS, without showers; SHOW'ERY, abounding
with showers. [A.S. _scúr_; Ice. _skúr_, Ger. _schauer_.]

SHOWY, sh[=o]'i, _adj._ making a show: cutting a dash: ostentatious:
gay.--_adv._ SHOW'ILY.--_n._ SHOW'INESS.

SHRAB, shrab, _n._ sherbet, liquor generally, spirits. [Hind. _shar[=a]b_,

SHRANK, shrangk, _pa.t._ of _shrink_.


SHRAPNEL, shrap'nel, _n._ a shell filled with musket-balls--from General
_Shrapnel_ (died 1842).

SHRED, shred, _n._ a long, narrow piece cut or torn off: a strip, fragment,
particle.--_v.t._ to cut or tear into shreds.--_n._ SHRED'DING, the act of
cutting into shreds: a shred.--_adjs._ SHRED'DY, consisting of shreds,
ragged; SHRED'LESS.--_n._ SHRED'-PIE, mince-pie. [A.S. _screáde_; Ger.
_schrot_, Scot. _screed_.]

SHREW, shr[=oo], _n._ a brawling, troublesome woman: a scold: a family of
insectivorous mammals closely resembling, in general form and appearance,
the true mice and dormice--the head long, muzzle long and pointed.--_adj._
SHREWD, of an acute judgment: biting, keen: sly, malicious, wicked,
cunning, vixenish.--_adv._ SHREWD'LY.--_n._ SHREWD'NESS.--_adj._ SHREW'ISH,
having the qualities of a shrew: peevish and troublesome:
clamorous.--_adv._ SHREW'ISHLY.--_ns._ SHREW'ISHNESS; SHREW'-MOLE, a genus
of insectivorous mammals of the family _Talpidæ_, very closely allied to
the moles.--_adj._ SHREW'-STRUCK, poisoned or blasted by a shrew. [A.S.
_screáwa_, a shrew-mouse, its bite having been supposed venomous; cf. Ger.
_scher-maus_, a mole.]

SHRIEK, shr[=e]k, _v.i._ to utter a shriek: to scream.--_v.t._ to utter
shriekingly.--_n._ the shrill outcry caused by terror or
anguish--(_Spens._) SCHRIECH, SHRIGHT, SHRIKE.--_ns._ SHRIEK'ER;
SHRIEK'-OWL (same as SCREECH-OWL). [_Screech_.]

SHRIEVE, shr[=e]v, _v.t._ (_Spens._) same as SHRIVE.--_n._ SHRIEV'ALTY
(same as SHERIFFALTY).

SHRIFT, shrift, _n._ a confession made to a priest: absolution--esp. of a
dying man. [A.S. _scrift_--_scrífan_, to shrive.]

SHRIKE, shr[=i]k, _n._ a genus of passerine birds which prey on insects and
small birds, impaling its prey on thorns--hence called the _Butcher-bird_.
[Ice. _skríkja_; cf. _Shriek_.]

SHRILL, shril, _adj._ piercing: sharp: uttering an acute sound.--_adjs._
SHRILL'-GORGED (_Shak._), shrill-throated; SHRILL'ING (_Spens._), sounding
(_Shak._), having a shrill voice; SHRILL'Y, somewhat shrill.--_adv._
SHRILL'Y. [Skeat explains M. E. _shril_ (Scotch _skirl_) as from Scand.,
Norw. _skryla_, _skräla_, to cry shrilly; cf. Low Ger. _schrell_.]

SHRIMP, shrimp, _n._ a genus of edible crustaceans, of the order
_Decapoda_, allied to lobsters, crayfish, and prawns: a little wizened or
dwarfish person.--_v.i._ to catch shrimps.--_ns._ SHRIMP'ER, one who
catches shrimps; SHRIMP'ING, the act of catching shrimps; SHRIMP'-NET, a
small-meshed net, on a hoop and pole, for catching shrimps. [Parallel to
_shrink_; cf. Scotch _scrimpit_, pinched.]

SHRINE, shr[=i]n, _n._ a case or reliquary for relics: a sacred place: an
altar: anything hallowed by its associations.--_v.t._ to enshrine.--_adj._
SHR[=I]'NAL. [A.S. _scrín_--L. _scrinium_--_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

SHRINK, shringk, _v.i._ to contract: to wither: to occupy less space: to
become wrinkled by contraction: to recoil, as from fear, disgust,
&c.--_v.t._ to cause to shrink or contract: to withdraw:--_pa.t._ shrank,
shrunk; _pa.p._ shrunk.--_n._ act of shrinking: contraction: withdrawal or
recoil.--_adj._ SHRINK'ABLE.--_ns._ SHRINK'AGE, a contraction into a less
compass: the extent of the reduction of anything in bulk by shrinking,
evaporation, &c.; SHRINK'ER.--_adv._ SHRINK'INGLY, in a shrinking manner:
by shrinking. [A.S. _scrincan_; akin to Ger. _schränken_, to place

SHRIVE, shr[=i]v, _v.t._ to hear a confession from and give absolution
to.--_v.i._ to receive confession: to make such:--_pa.t._ shr[=o]ve or
shr[=i]ved; _pa.p._ shriv'en.--_ns._ SHR[=I]'VER, one who shrives: a
confessor; SHR[=I]'VING (_Spens._), shift, confession; SHR[=I]VING-TIME
(_Shak._), time for confession. [A.S. _scrífan_, to write, to prescribe
penance--L. _scrib[)e]re_.]

SHRIVEL, shriv'l, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to contract into wrinkles: to
blight:--_pr.p._ shriv'elling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shriv'elled. [Perh.
conn. with Old Northumbrian _screpa_, to become dry; cf. Norw. _skrypa_, to

SHROFF, shrof, _n._ a banker or money-changer in India.--_v.t._ to inspect
the quality of coins.--_n._ SHROFF'AGE, such examination. [Hind.
_sarr[=a]f_--Ar. _sarr[=a]f_.]

SHROUD, shrowd, _n._ the dress of the dead, a winding-sheet: that which
clothes or covers: any underground hole, a vault, burrow, &c.: (_pl._) a
set of ropes from the mast-heads to a ship's sides, to support the
masts.--_v.t._ to enclose in a shroud: to cover: to hide: to
shelter.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_adjs._ SHROUD'LESS, without a shroud;
SHROUD'Y, giving shelter. [A.S. _scrúd_; Ice. _skrúdh_, clothing.]

SHROUD, shrowd, _v.t._ (_prov._) to lop the branches from, as a tree.--_n._
a cutting, a bough or branch, the foliage of a tree. [A variant of

SHROVE-TIDE, shr[=o]v'-t[=i]d, _n._ the name given to the days immediately
preceding Ash-Wednesday, preparatory to Lent--given up to football,
cock-fighting, bull-baiting, &c.--_ns._ SHROVE'-CAKE, a pancake for
SHROVE-TIDE; SHROVE'-TUES'DAY, the day before Ash-Wednesday. [A.S.
_scrífan_, to shrive.]

SHROW, shr[=o], _n._ (_Shak._). Same as SHREW.

SHRUB, shrub, _n._ a woody plant with several stems from the same root: a
bush or dwarf tree.--_v.t._ (_prov._) to win all a man's money at
play.--_adj._ SHRUB'BERIED, abounding in shrubbery.--_ns._ SHRUB'BERY, a
plantation of shrubs; SHRUB'BINESS, the state or quality of being
shrubby.--_adjs._ SHRUB'BY, full of shrubs: like a shrub: consisting of
shrubs; SHRUB'LESS. [A.S. _scrob_; prov. Eng. _shruff_, light rubbish

SHRUB, shrub, _n._ a drink prepared from the juice of lemons, currants,
raspberries, with spirits, as rum. [A variant of _shrab_.]

SHRUFF, shruf, _n._ (_prov._) refuse wood. [_Shrub_.]

SHRUG, shrug, _v.t._ to draw up: to contract.--_v.i._ to draw up the
shoulders, expressive of doubt, surprise, indifference, &c.:--_pr.p._
shrug'ging; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shrugged.--_n._ an expressive drawing up of
the shoulders. [Scand., Dan. _skrugge_, to stoop.]

SHRUNK, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of shrink.

SHUCK, shuk, _n._ a husk, shell, or pod.--_v.t._ to remove such, to strip
off.--_ns._ SHUCK'ER, one who shucks; SHUCK'ING, the act of taking off the
shuck: a shucking-bee.--_interj._ SHUCKS (_slang_), expressive of contempt
or disappointment.

SHUDDER, shud'[.e]r, _v.i._ to tremble from fear or horror.--_n._ a
trembling from fear or horror.--_adj._ SHUDD'ERING, trembling,
tremulous.--_adv._ SHUDD'ERINGLY. [Cf. Old Dut. _schudden_; Ger.
_schaudern_, to shudder.]

SHUFFLE, shuf'l, _v.t._ to change the positions of: to confuse: to remove
or introduce by purposed confusion.--_v.i._ to change the order of cards in
a pack: to shift ground: to evade fair questions: to move by shoving the
feet along.--_n._ act of shuffling: an evasion or artifice.--_n._
SHUFF'LER.--_p.adj._ SHUFF'LING, evasive, as an excuse.--_adv._
SHUFF'LINGLY, in a shuffling manner: with an irregular gait: evasively.--TO
SHUFFLE OFF, to thrust aside, put off. [A by-form of _scuffle_, thus conn.
with _shove_ and _shovel_.]

SHUG, shug, _v.i._ (_prov._) to crawl, to shrug.

SHUN, shun, _v.t._ to avoid: to keep clear of: to neglect:--_pr.p._
shun'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shunned.--_adj._ SHUN'LESS (_Shak._), not
able to be shunned: unavoidable.--_ns._ SHUN'NER; SHUN'PIKE, a byroad.
[A.S. _scunian_; Ice. _skunda_, to speed.]

SHUNT, shunt, _v.t._ to turn aside, to turn off upon a side-rail: to shove
off, free one's self from.--_v.i._ to turn aside: to use a switch or shunt
in railways and electrics.--_n._ a short side-rail for allowing the
main-line to be kept free: (_electr._) a conductor joining two points of a
circuit, through which a part of the current is diverted.--_ns._  SHUN'TER;
SHUN'TING. [A.S. _scyndan_, to hasten. Skeat derives from Ice. _skunda_, to

SHUT, shut, _v.t._ to close, as a door: to forbid entrance into: to
contract, close, or bring together the parts of: to confine: to catch in
the act of shutting something.--_v.i._ to close itself: to be
closed.--_pr.p._ shut'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shut.--_p.adj._ made fast,
closed: not resonant, dull: formed by closing the mouth and nose passages
completely, said of consonants, as _t_, _d_, _p_: having the sound cut off
sharply by a succeeding consonant, as the _i_ in _pin_, &c.: freed from
(with _of_).--_ns._ SHUT'DOWN, a discontinuance of work in a factory, &c.;
SHUT'TER, one who, or that which, shuts: a close cover for a window or
aperture: (_phot._) a device for opening and closing a lens.--_v.t._ to
cover with shutters.--_n._ SHUT'TER-DAM, a form of movable dam having large
gates opened and closed by a turbine.--SHUT DOWN, to stop working; SHUT IN,
to enclose, to confine: to settle down, or fall (said, e.g., of evening);
SHUT OFF, to exclude; SHUT OUT, to prevent from entering; SHUT UP, to
close, to confine: (_coll._) to cease speaking, to make one do so, to make
it impossible to answer. [A.S. _scyttan_, to bar--_sceótan_, to shoot.]

SHUTTLE, shut'l, _n._ an instrument used for shooting the thread of the
woof between the threads of the warp in weaving.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to move
to and fro, like a shuttle.--_n._ SHUTT'LECOCK, a rounded cork stuck with
feathers, driven with a battledore: the game itself.--_adv._ SHUTT'LEWISE,
in the manner of a shuttle.--_adj._ SHUTT'LE-WIT'TED, flighty. [From base
of A.S. _sceótan_, shoot; Dan. and Sw. _skyttel_.]

SHWANPAN, shwän'pan, _n._ the Chinese abacus or reckoning board.--Also

SHY, sh[=i], _adj._ timid: reserved: cautious: suspicious: elusive, hard to
find.--_v.i._ to start aside, as a horse from fear.--_v.t._ to
avoid:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sh[=i]ed.--_n._ a sudden swerving
aside.--_advs._ SHY'LY, SHI'LY.--_ns._ SHY'NESS, SH[=I]'NESS (_obs._);
SHY'STER, a tricky lawyer.--FIGHT SHY OF (see FIGHT); LOOK SHY AT, or on,
to regard with distrust. [A.S. _sceóh_; Ger. _scheu_, Dan. _sky_.]

SHY, sh[=i], _v.t._ to fling, throw, toss.--_v.i._ to jerk.--_n._ a throw,
a fling: a gibe, sneer: a trial.

SI, s[=e], _n._ the syllable used for the seventh tone of the scale, or the
leading tone.

SIALOGOGUE, s[=i]-al'o-gog, _n._ a drug which increases the secretion of
saliva--also SIAL'AGOGUE.--_adjs._ SIALOGOG'IC (-goj'-); S[=I]'ALOID.--_n._
SIALORRH[=E]'A, excessive flow of saliva. [Gr. _sialon_, saliva,
_ag[=o]gos_, leading--_agein_, to lead.]

SIAMANG, s[=e]'a-mang, _n._ the largest of the gibbons, found in Sumatra
and Malacca. [Malay.]

SIAMESE, s[=i]-am-[=e]z', _adj._ pertaining or belonging to _Siam_, a
country of Asia.--_n._ a native of Siam.--SIAMESE TWINS, two famous Siamese
men (1811-74), joined from their birth by a cartilaginous band.

SIB, SIBBE, sib, _adj._ (_Spens._) related by blood, akin.--_n._ a blood
relation: a close ally. [A.S. _sibb_, relationship; Gr. _sippe_.]

SIBERIAN, s[=i]-b[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Siberia_, a country of
Asia.--_n._ a native of Siberia.--_n._ SIB[=E]'RITE, rubellite from

SIBILANCE, sib'i-lans, _n._ a hissing sound--also SIB'ILANCY.--_adj._
SIB'ILANT, making a hissing sound.--_n._ a sibilant letter, as _s_ and
_z_.--_v.t._ SIB'IL[=A]TE, to pronounce with a hissing sound.--_n._
SIBIL[=A]'TION, a hissing sound.--_adjs._ SIB'ILATORY, SIB'ILOUS, hissing,
sibilant. [L. _sibil[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to hiss.]

SIBYL, sib'il, _n._ in ancient mythology, one of certain women possessing
powers of divination and prophecy: a prophetess, an old sorceress.--_adjs._
SIBYL'LIC, SIB'YLLINE, pertaining to, uttered, or written by sibyls:
prophetical.--_n._ SIB'YLLIST, a believer in the so-called sibylline
prophecies.--SIBYLLINE ORACLES, a series of pretended prophecies in Greek
hexameters, written by Alexandrian Jews and Christians, and supposed to
date from the 2d century B.C. down to the 3d century A.D., or, according to
Ewald, even the 6th. [L.,--Gr. _sibylla_, not 'she who reveals the will of
Zeus,' _Dios boul[=e]_. The root is _sib-_, as in L. _per-sibus_, acute,
Gr. _sophos_, wise.]

SIC, sik, _adv._ so, thus--printed within brackets in quoted matter to show
that the original is being correctly reproduced, even though incorrect or
wrong.--SIC PASSIM, so throughout.

SIC, sik, SICCAN, sik'an, _adj._ Scotch forms of _such_.--_adj._ SIC'-LIKE,
for _such-like_, of the same kind.

SICAMBRIAN, si-kam'bri-an, _n._ one of a powerful ancient German tribe.

SICANIAN, si-k[=a]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Sicanians_, an
aboriginal pre-Aryan race in Sicily.

SICCA, sik'a, _adj._ newly coined. [Hind.]

SICCATE, sik'[=a]t, _v.t._ to dry.--_n._ SICC[=A]'TION.--_adj._ SICC'ATIVE,
drying: causing to dry.--_n._ SICCITY (sik'si-ti), dryness. [L.
_sicc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_siccus_, dry.]

SICE, s[=i]s, _n._ the number six at dice.

SICE, SYCE, s[=i]s, _n._ a groom, a mounted attendant.--Also SAICE. [Hind,
_s[=a]is_--Ar. _s[=a]is_.]

SICELIOT, si-sel'i-ot, _adj._ pertaining to the _Siceliots_, the colonies
of immigrant Greeks in Sicily, who gradually became assimilated with the
native _Siculi_--also SIKEL'IOT.--_n._ a Greek settler in Sicily: a

SICH, sich, _adj._ (_Spens._) such.

SICILIAN, si-sil'yan, _adj._ of or pertaining to Sicily, an island south of
Italy.--_n._ a native of Sicily.--_ns._ SICILIÄ'NO, a Sicilian popular
dance in slow movement, also the music for such; SICILIENNE', a ribbed silk
fabric.--SICILIAN VESPERS, the massacre of the French in Sicily on Easter
Monday 1282--at the first stroke of the vesper-bell.

SICK, sik, _adj._ affected with disease: ill: inclined to vomit: disgusted:
infirm: disordered: pining: depressed: indicating sickness: poor in
quality: out of repair.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to grow sick.--_ns._ SICK'-BAY,
-BERTH, a compartment on a troop-ship, &c., for sick and wounded;
SICK'-BED, a bed on which a person lies sick.--_adj._ SICK'-BRAINED,
mentally deranged.--_v.t._ SICK'EN, to make sick: to disgust: to make weary
of anything.--_v.i._ to become sick: to be disgusted: to become disgusting
or tedious: to become weakened.--_n._ SICK'ENER, any cause of
disgust.--_adj._ SICK'ENING, causing sickness or disgust, loathsome.--_n._
a scum which forms on the surface of mercury from grease, sulphides,
arsenides, &c.--_adv._ SICK'ENINGLY.--_adj._ SICK'-FALL'EN (_Shak._),
struck down with sickness.--_ns._ SICK'-FLAG, a yellow flag indicating
disease on board a ship; SICK'-HEAD'ACHE, headache accompanied with
nausea.--_adj._ SICK'ISH, somewhat sick.--_adv._ SICK'ISHLY.--_ns._
SICK'ISHNESS; SICK'-LEAVE, leave of absence from duty owing to
sickness.--_adj._ SICK'LIED (_Shak._), tainted with the hue of sickness or
disease.--_adv._ SICK'LILY, in a sickly manner.--_ns._ SICK'LINESS, the
state of being sickly, or of appearing so; SICK'-LIST, a list containing
the names of the sick.--_adjs._ SICK'-LISTED, entered on the sick-list;
SICK'LY, inclined to sickness: unhealthy: somewhat sick: weak: languid:
producing disease: mawkish: feeble, mentally weak.--_adv._ in a sick
manner: feebly.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to make sickly or sickly-looking.--_ns._
SICK'NESS, state of being sick, disease: disorder of the stomach: an
enfeebled state of anything; SICK'-REPORT', a return regularly made of the
state of the sick; SICK'-ROOM, a room to which a person is confined by
sickness.--_adj._ SICK'-THOUGHT'ED (_Shak._), love-sick. [A.S. _seóc_; Ger.
_siech_, Dut. _ziek_.]

SICK, sik, _v.t._ to set upon, chase: to incite to attack. [A variant of

SICKER, sik'[.e]r, _adj._ (_Scot._) sure, certain, firm.--_adv._ (_Spens._)
surely, certainly--also SICC'AR.--_n._ SICK'ERNESS (_Spens._), the state of
being sicker or certain. [A.S. _siker_--L. _securus_; Ger. _sicher_.]

SICKLE, sik'l, _n._ a hooked instrument for cutting grain.--_n._
SIC'KLE-BILL, a name applied to various birds with sickle-shaped
bill.--_adj._ SIC'KLED, bearing a sickle.--_ns._ SIC'KLE-FEATH'ER, one of
the sickle-shaped middle feathers of the domestic cock; SIC'KLEMAN, one who
uses a sickle, a reaper.--_adj._ SIC'KLE-SHAPED.--_n._ SIC'KLE-WORT, the
self-heal. [A.S. _sicol_, _sicel_--L. _secula_, a sickle--_sec[=a]re_, to

SICSAC, sik'sak, _n._ the Egyptian courser, crocodile-bird, or black-headed
plover.--Also _Ziczac_.

SICULIAN, si-k[=u]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Siculi_, an ancient and
most probably Aryan race of southern Italy who colonised Sicily.--_adjs._

SICYOS, sis'i-os, _n._ a genus of plants of the order _Cucurbitaceæ_, the
gourd family.

SIDA, s[=i]'da, _n._ a large genus of downy herbs of the mallow family.

SIDDHA, sid'da, _n._ one who has attained to SID'DHI, accomplishment or
perfection.--_n._ SIDDHAR'TA, an epithet of Buddha. [Sans.]

SIDDOW, sid'[=o], _adj._ (_prov._) soft, pulpy.

SIDE, s[=i]d, _n._ the edge or border of anything: the surface of a solid:
a part of a thing as seen by the eye: region, part: the part of an animal
between the hip and shoulder: any party, interest, or opinion opposed to
another: faction: line of descent: at billiards, a certain bias or kind of
spinning motion given to a ball by striking it sidewise: (_slang_) a
pretentious and supercilious manner, swagger.--_adj._ being on or toward
the side: lateral: indirect.--_v.i._ to embrace the opinion or cause of one
party against another.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to be on the same side with, to
support: to cut into sides: to push aside, to set aside.--_n.pl._
SIDE'ARMS, arms or weapons worn on the side, as a sword or bayonet.--_ns._
SIDE'-BEAM, either of the working-beams of a marine engine, placed below
the crank-shaft, on each side of the cylinder, instead of a central beam
above the crank-shaft; SIDE'BOARD, a piece of furniture on one side of a
dining-room for holding dishes, &c.: (_pl._) side-whiskers, stiff standing
collars (_slang_).--_n.pl._ SIDE'-BONES, enlargements situated above the
quarters of a horse's feet, resulting from the conversion into bone of the
elastic lateral cartilages.--_ns._ SIDE'BOX, a box or seat at the side of a
theatre; SIDE'-CHAP'EL, a chapel in an aisle or at the side of a church;
SIDE'-COMB, a small comb used to keep a lock of hair in place at the side
of a woman's head; SIDE'-COUS'IN, a distant relative; SIDE'-CUT, a cut from
the side, an indirect attack; SIDE'-CUT'TING, an excavation of earth along
the side of a railway or canal to obtain material for an
embankment.--_adj._ SID'ED, having a side: flattened on one or more
sides.--_ns._ SIDE'-DISH, any supplementary dish at a dinner, &c.,
specially flavoured; SIDE'-DRUM, a small double-headed drum in military
bands; SIDE'-GLANCE, a glance to one side; SIDE'-IS'SUE, a subordinate
issue aside from the main business; SIDE'LIGHT, light coming from the side,
any incidental illustration: a window, as opposed to a sky-light, a window
above or at the side of a door: one of the red or green lights carried on
the side of a vessel under way at night; SIDE'-LINE, a line attached to the
side of anything: any additional or extra line of goods sold by a
commercial traveller: (_pl._) the ropes binding the fore and hind feet on
the same side of a horse.--_adj._ SIDE'LING, inclining to a side,
sloping.--_adv._ sidewise, aslant.--_n._ SIDE'LOCK, a separate lock of hair
worn at the side of the head.--_adj._ SIDE'LONG, oblique: not
straight.--_adv._ in the direction of the side: obliquely.--_n._ the slope
of a hill.--_ns._ SIDE'-NOTE, a marginal note on a page, as opposed to a
foot-note; SIDE'-PART'NER (_U.S._), one who shares a duty or employment
with another alongside or alternately; SID'ER, a partisan: one living in
any particular quarter of a city; SIDE'-ROD, a coupling-rod of a
locomotive: either of the rods of a side-beam engine connecting the
cross-head on the piston-rod with the working-beam: either of the rods of a
side-beam engine connecting the working-beams with the cross-head of the
air-pump; SIDE'SADD'LE, a saddle for women sitting, not astride, but with
both feet on one side; SIDE'SADDLE-FLOWER, a name sometimes given to a
plant of the genus _Sarracenia_; SIDE'-SCREW, a screw on the front edge of
a carpenter's bench to hold the work fast: one of the screws fastening the
lockplate of a gun to the stock; SIDE'-SCRIP'TION (_Scots law_), an old
method of authenticating deeds written on several sheets of paper pasted
together, by signing the name across each junction; SIDE'-SEAT, a seat in a
vehicle with the back against its side; SIDE'-SHOW, an exhibition
subordinate to a larger one; SIDE'-SLEEVE (_Shak._), a loose hanging
sleeve; SIDE'-SLIP, an oblique offshoot: a bastard; SIDES'MAN, a deputy
churchwarden: (_Milt._) a partisan.--_adj._ SIDE'-SPLIT'TING, affecting the
sides convulsively, as in boisterous laughter.--_ns._ SIDE'-STROKE, a
stroke given sideways; SIDE'-T[=A]'BLE, a table placed usually against the
wall; SIDE'-VIEW, a view on or from one side; SIDE'-WALK, a foot-walk
beside a street or road.--_advs._ SIDE'WAYS, SIDE'WISE, toward or on one
side.--_adj._ SIDE'-WHEEL, having side or paddle wheels.--_ns._ SIDE'-WIND,
a wind blowing laterally: any indirect influence or means; S[=I]D'ING, a
short line of rails on which wagons are shunted from the main-line.--_v.i._
S[=I]'DLE, to go or move side-foremost.--_v.t._ to cause to move
sideways.--SIDE BY SIDE, placed with sides near each other.--CHOOSE SIDES,
to pick out opposing parties to contend with each other; RIGHT, or WRONG,
SIDE, the side of anything (cloth, leather, &c.) intended to be turned
outward or inward respectively; TAKE A SIDE, to join one party in
opposition to another; TAKE SIDES, to range one's self with one or other of
contending parties; TO ONE SIDE, having a lateral inclination: out of
sight. [A.S. _síde_; Ger. _seite_, Dut. _zijde_.]

SIDE, s[=i]d, _adj._ (_Scot._) wide, large: far. [A.S. _síd_, spacious.]

SIDEREAL, s[=i]-d[=e]'r[=e]-al, _adj._ relating to a star or stars: starry:
(_astron._) measured by the apparent motion of the stars.--_adj._ SID'ERAL
(_Milt._), relating to the stars: baleful, from astrology.--_n._
SIDER[=A]'TION, a sudden deprivation of sense, as a stroke of apoplexy: a
blast of plants.--SIDEREAL DAY, the time between two successive upper
culminations of a fixed star or of the vernal equinox, shorter than a solar
day; SIDEREAL YEAR (see YEAR). [L. _sidus_, _sideris_, a star.]

SIDERITE, sid'[.e]r-[=i]t, _n._ the lodestone: native iron
protocarbonate--also _Chalybite_, _Spathic_ or _Sparry iron_, _Junckerite_.
[L. _sideritis_, the lodestone--Gr. _sid[=e]rit[=e]s_, of
iron--_sid[=e]ros_, iron.]

SIDEROGRAPHY, sid-[.e]r-og'ra-fi, _n._ steel-engraving.--_adjs._
SIDEROGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ SIDEROG'RAPHIST. [Gr. _sid[=e]ros_, iron,
_graphein_, engrave.]

SIDEROLITE, sid'e-r[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a meteorite composed chiefly of iron.
[Gr. _sid[=e]ros_, iron, _lithos_, stone.]

SIDEROMANCY, sid'[.e]r-[=o]-mans-i, _n._ divination by burning straws, &c.,
on a red-hot plate of iron. [Gr. _sid[=e]ros_, iron, _manteia_,

SIDEROSCOPE, sid'[.e]r-o-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for detecting minute
degrees of magnetism by means of a combination of magnetic needles. [Gr.
_sid[=e]ros_, iron, _skopein_, to view.]

SIDEROSTAT, sid'e-r[=o]-stat, _n._ a heliostat adapted to sidereal
time.--_adj._ SIDEROSTAT'IC. [L. _sidus_, _sideris_ a star, Gr. _statos_,

SIEGE, s[=e]j, _n._ a sitting down with an army round or before a fortified
place in order to take it by force: a continued endeavour to gain
possession: (_Shak._) a seat, throne, station: (_Shak._) excrement: the
floor of a glass-furnace: a workman's bench.--_v.t._ to lay siege
to.--_ns._ SIEGE'-PIECE, a coin, generally of unusual shape and rude
workmanship, issued in a besieged place during stress of siege;
SIEGE'-TRAIN, the materials carried by an army for the purpose of laying
siege to a place.--STATE OF SIEGE, a condition of things in which civil law
is suspended or made subordinate to military law; MINOR STATE OF SIEGE, a
modification of the more severe rule in cases of merely domestic trouble.
[O. Fr. _sege_ (Fr. _siège_), seat--Low L. _assedium_=L. _obsidium_, a
siege--_sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

SIELD, s[=e]ld (_Spens._). Cieled.

SIENESE, si-e-n[=e]z', _adj._ pertaining to _Siena_, or _Sienna_, in
central Italy, or its school of painting in the 13th and 14th centuries.


SIENNA, si-en'a, _n._ a fine orange-red pigment used in oil and
water-colour painting. [It. _terra di Siena_, Sienna earth.]

SIERRA, s[=e]-er'ra, _n._ a ridge of mountains: a scombroid fish. [Sp.,
usually derived from L. _serra_, a saw. Some suggest Ar. _sehrah_, a desert
place, whence also _Sahara_.]

SIESTA, si-es'ta, _n._ a short sleep taken about midday or after dinner.
[Sp.,--L. _sexta_ (_hora_), the _sixth_ (hour) after sunrise, the hour of

SIEUR, sièr, _n._ a French title of respect, obsolete except in law-courts.
[Fr.,--L. _senior_.]

SIEVE, siv, _n._ a vessel with a bottom of woven hair or wire to separate
the fine part of anything from the coarse: a person who cannot keep a
secret.--_v.t._ to put through a sieve: to sift. [A.S. _sife_; Ger.

SIFFLE, sif'l, _n._ a sibilant râle.--_v.i._ to whistle, hiss.--_ns._
SIFF'LET, a theatrical whistle; SIFF'LEUR, a whistler. [Fr. _siffler_--L.

SIFT, sift, _v.t._ to separate with, or as with, a sieve: to examine
closely.--_n._ SIFT'ER, one who, or that which, sifts. [A.S.
_siftan_--_sife_, a sieve.]

SIGH, s[=i], _v.i._ to inhale and respire with a long, deep, and audible
breathing, as in love or grief: to sound like sighing.--_v.t._ to express
by sighs.--_n._ a long, deep, audible respiration.--_n._ SIGH'ER.--_adj._
SIGH'FUL.--_adv._ SIGH'INGLY. [A.S. _sícan_; Sw. _sucka_.]

SIGHT, s[=i]t, _n._ act of seeing: view: faculty of seeing: that which is
seen: a spectacle: an object of especial interest: space within vision:
examination: a small opening for looking through at objects: a metal pin on
the top of a barrel of a gun to guide the eye in taking aim: (_slang_) a
great many or a great deal.--_v.t._ to catch sight of: to present to sight
or put under notice.--_adjs._ SIGHT'ED, having sight of some special
character, as short-sighted: fitted with a sight, as a firearm; SIGHT'LESS,
wanting sight: blind: (_Shak._) invisible: (_Shak._) unsightly,
ugly.--_adv._ SIGHT'LESSLY.--_ns._ SIGHT'LESSNESS; SIGHT'LINESS.--_adjs._
SIGHT'LY, pleasing to the sight or eye: comely; SIGHT'-OUTRUN'NING
(_Shak._), running faster than the eye can follow.--_ns._ SIGHT'-READ'ER,
one who reads at sight, as musical notes, passages in a foreign tongue,
&c.; SIGHT'-READING; SIGHT'-SEE'ING, the act of seeing sights: eagerness to
see novelties or curiosities; SIGHT'-S[=E]'ER, one who is eager to see
novelties or curiosities; SIGHTS'MAN, a local guide; SEC'OND-SIGHT, a gift
of prophetic vision, long supposed in the Scottish Highlands and elsewhere
to belong to particular persons.--AT SIGHT, without previous study or
practice; AT SIGHT, AFTER SIGHT, terms applied to bills or notes payable
on, or after, presentation; LOSE SIGHT OF, to cease to see: to overlook;
OUT OF SIGHT, too far away to be seen: not in sight: (_coll._) beyond
comparison; PUT OUT OF SIGHT, to remove from vision: (_slang_) to consume,
as food. [A.S. _siht_, _ge-siht_--_ge-segen_, pa.p. of _seón_, to see; Ger.

SIGHT, s[=i]t (_Spens._)=_Sighed._

SIGIL, sij'il, _n._ a seal: a signature: an occult or magical
mark.--_adjs._ SIG'ILLARY, pertaining to a seal; SIG'ILLATE, decorated, as
pottery, with impressed patterns: (_bot._) marked with seal-like
scars.--_ns._ SIGILL[=A]'TION; SIGILLOG'RAPHY, knowledge of seals.--_n.pl._
SIG'LA, abbreviations of names, &c., on seals. [L. _sigillum_, dim. of
_signum_, sign.]

SIGILLARIA, sij-il-[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a family of fossil lycopods, abundant in
Carboniferous strata, with pillar-like trunks, the columnar stems ribbed
and fluted longitudinally, the fluting marked by rows or whorls of scars
left by fallen leaves.--_adjs._ SIGILL[=A]'RIAN, SIG'ILLAROID,
SIGILL[=A]'RIOID. [L. _sigillum_, a seal.]

SIGMA, sig'ma, _n._ the Greek letter corresponding to our _s_--written
[Sigma] (capital), [sigma] (small initial) or [sigmaf] (small
final).--_adjs._ SIG'MATE, SIGMAT'IC.--_ns._ SIGM[=A]'TION, the adding of
_s_ at the end of a word or syllable; SIG'MATISM, repetition of _s_ or the
s-sound: defective pronunciation of this sound.--_adjs._ SIG'MOID, -AL,
formed like _s_.

SIGN, s[=i]n, _n._ mark, token: proof: that by which a thing is known or
represented: a word, gesture, symbol, or mark, intended to signify
something else: a remarkable event: an omen: a miraculous manifestation: a
memorial: something set up as a notice in a public place: (_math._) a mark
showing the relation of quantities or an operation to be performed:
(_med._) a symptom: (_astron._) one of the twelve parts of the zodiac, each
comprising 30 degrees of the ecliptic.--_v.t._ to represent or make known
by a sign: to attach a signature to.--_v.i._ to give one's signature: to
make a particular sign.--_adj._ SIGN'ABLE, capable of being, or requiring
to be, signed.--_ns._ SIGN'BOARD, a board with a sign telling a man's
occupation or articles for sale; SIGN'ER; SIG'NET, the privy-seal: (_B._) a
seal.--_adj._ SIG'NETED, stamped or marked with a signet.--_n._
SIG'NET-RING, a ring with a signet or private seal.--_adj._ SIGN'LESS,
making no sign.--_ns._ SIGN'-MAN'UAL, the royal signature, usually only the
initial of the sovereign's name, with R. for _Rex_ or _Regina_;
SIGN'-PAINT'ER, one who paints signs for shops, &c.; SIGN'POST, a post on
which a sign is hung: a direction-post. [Fr. _signe_--L. _signum._]

SIGNAL, sig'nal, _n._ a sign for giving notice, generally at a distance:
token: the notice given: any initial impulse.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make
signals to: to convey by signals:--_pr.p._ sig'nalling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
sig'nalled.--_adj._ having a sign: remarkable: notable: eminent.--_ns._
SIG'NAL-BOOK, a book containing a system of signals; SIG'NAL-BOX, -CAB'IN,
&c., a small house in which railway-signals are worked: the alarm-box of a
police or fire-alarm system; SIG'NAL-CODE, a code or system of arbitrary
signals, esp. at sea, by flags or lights; SIG'NAL-FIRE, a fire used for a
signal; SIG'NAL-FLAG, a flag used in signalling, its colour, shape,
markings, and combinations indicating various significations; SIG'NAL-GUN,
a gun fired as a signal.--_v.t._ SIG'NALISE, to make signal or eminent: to
signal.--_ns._ SIG'NAL-LAMP, a lamp by which signals are made by glasses or
slides of different colours, &c.; SIG'NALLING, the means of transmitting
intelligence to a greater or less distance by the agency of sight or
hearing.--_adv._ SIG'NALLY.--_ns._ SIG'NALMAN, one who makes signals and
who interprets those made; SIG'NALMENT, the act of communicating by
signals: description by means of marks; SIG'NAL-POST, a pole on which
movable flags, arms, lights, are displayed as signals; SIG'NAL-SER'VICE,
the department in the army occupied with signalling. [Fr.,--L. _signalis_,

SIGNATURE, sig'na-t[=u]r, _n._ a sign or mark: the name of a person written
by himself: (_mus._) the flats and sharps after the clef to show the key: a
sheet after being folded, the figure or letter at the foot of the page
indicating such.--_adj._ SIG'N[=A]TE, designate: bearing spots resembling
letters.--_ns._ SIGN[=A]'TION, anything used as a sign, an emblem;
SIG'NATORY, SIG'NATARY, SIG'NITARY, one bound by signature to some
agreement.--_adj._ having signed, bound by signature.--DOCTRINE OF
SIGNATURES, an inveterate belief in early medicine that plants and minerals
bore certain symbolical marks which indicated the diseases for which nature
had intended them as special remedies. [Fr.,--Low L. _signatura_--L.
_sign[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to sign.]

SIGNIEUR, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as SEIGNIOR.

SIGNIFY, sig'ni-f[=i], _v.t._ to make known by a sign or by words: to mean:
to indicate or declare: to have consequence.--_v.i._ to be of
consequence:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sig'nif[=i]ed.--_adj._ SIG'NIFIABLE, that
may be signified or represented by symbols.--_n._ SIGNIF'ICANCE, that which
is signified: meaning: importance: moment--also SIGNIF'ICANCY.--_adj._
SIGNIF'ICANT, signifying: expressive of something: standing as a
sign.--_adv._ SIGNIF'ICANTLY.--_ns._ SIGNIF'ICATE, in logic, one of several
things signified by a common term; SIGNIFIC[=A]'TION, act of signifying:
that which is signified: meaning.--_adj._ SIGNIF'IC[=A]TIVE, signifying:
denoting by a sign: having meaning: expressive.--_adv._
SIGNIF'IC[=A]TIVELY, in a significative manner: so as to betoken by an
external sign.--_ns._ SIGNIF'IC[=A]TIVENESS, the quality of being
significative; SIGNIF'IC[=A]TOR, one who signifies: (_astrol._) a planet
ruling a house.--_adj._ SIGNIF'ICATORY. [L. _signific[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_,
_signum_, a sign, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SIGNOR, s[=e]'nyor, _n._ an Italian word of address equivalent to Mr--also
SIGNIOR.--_ns._ SIGNORA (s[=e]-ny[=o]'ra), feminine of signor; SIGNORINA
(s[=e]-ny[=o]-r[=e]'na), the Italian equivalent of Miss; SIG'NORY,
SIG'NIORY (same as SEIGNIORY). [It. _signore_.]

SIKE, s[=i]k, _n._ (_Scot._) a small stream of water.--Also SYKE. [Ice.
_sík_, _síki_, a ditch.]

SIKH, s[=e]k, _n._ one of a religious sect of northern India, which became
a great military confederacy--founded by Baba Nának (born 1469).--_n._
SIKH'ISM. [Hind. _Sikh_, lit. follower or disciple.]

SIL, sil, _n._ a yellowish pigment of ancient painters.

SILAGE, s[=i]'laj, _n._ the term applied to fodder which has been preserved
by ensilage in a silo.

SILE, s[=i]l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to strain.--_n._ a sieve, a strainer or
colander. [Low Ger. _silen_; Ger. _sielen_, to filter.]

SILENCE, s[=i]'lens, _n._ state of being silent: absence of sound or
speech: muteness: cessation of agitation: calmness: oblivion.--_v.t._ to
cause to be silent: to put to rest: to stop.--_interj._ be silent!--_adj._
S[=I]'LENT, free from noise: not speaking: habitually taciturn: still: not
pronounced: of distilled spirit, without flavour or odour.--_n._
SILEN'TIARY, one who keeps order in an assembly.--_adv._
S[=I]'LENTLY.--_n._ S[=I]'LENTNESS=_Silence_. [L. _sil[=e]re_, to be

SILENE, s[=i]-l[=e]'n[=e], _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order
_Caryophyllaceæ_--the _Bladder Campion_, whose young shoots eat like
asparagus--the _Catchfly_, a general name for many British species.

SILENUS, s[=i]-l[=e]'nus, _n._ the foster-father of Bacchus, a little
pot-bellied old man, bald-headed and snub-nosed, generally astride of an
ass, drunk, and attended by a troop of satyrs.

SILESIA, si-l[=e]'shi-a, _n._ a thin brown holland for window-blinds, &c.:
a thin twilled cotton.--_adj._ SIL[=E]'SIAN, pertaining to _Silesia_.

SILEX, s[=i]'leks, _n._ silica, as found in nature, occurring as flint,
quartz, rock-crystal, &c. [L. _silex_, _silicis_, flint.]


SILHOUETTE, sil-[=oo]-et', _n._ a shadow-outline of the human figure or
profile filled in of a dark colour.--_v.t._ to represent in silhouette: to
bring out a shaded profile or outline view of. [Étienne de _Silhouette_
(1709-67), French minister of finance for four months in 1759, after whom
everything cheap was named, from his excessive economy. According to
Littré, the making of such shadow-portraits was a favourite pastime of his;
hence the name.]

SILICA, sil'i-ka, _n._ silicon dioxide, or silicic anhydride, a white or
colourless substance, the most abundant solid constituent of our globe,
existing both in the crystalline and in the amorphous form, the best
examples of the former being rock-crystal, quartz, chalcedony, flint,
sandstone, and quartzose sand; of the latter, opal.--_n._ SIL'ICATE, a salt
of silicic acid.--_adjs._ SIL'IC[=A]TED, combined or impregnated with
silica; SILIC'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from, silica; SILICIF'EROUS,
producing or containing silica.--_n._ SILICIFIC[=A]'TION, conversion into
silica.--_v.t._ SILIC'IFY, to convert into silica: to render
silicious.--_v.i._ to become silicious or flinty:--_pr.p._ silic'ifying;
_pa.p._ silic'if[=i]ed.--_adjs._ SILIC'IOUS, SILIC'EOUS, pertaining to,
containing, or resembling silica.--_n._ SIL'ICON, or SILIC'IUM, the base of
silica, a non-metallic elementary substance, obtainable in three different
forms, the amorphous, the graphitoid, and the crystalline. [L. _silex_,
_silicis_, flint.]


SILICLE, sil'i-kl, _n._ (_bot_.) a seed-vessel shorter and containing fewer
seeds than a silique--also SIL'ICULE, SILIC'ULA.--_adj._ SILIC'UL[=O]SE
(_bot_.), having, pertaining to, or resembling silicles: husky.--_ns._
(_bot_.) SILIQUE (si-l[=e]k'), SIL'IQUA, the two-valved elongated
seed-vessel of the _Cruciferæ_.--_adjs._ SIL'IQUIFORM, SIL'IQUOSE,
SIL'IQUOUS (_bot_.), pertaining to, resembling, or bearing siliques. [L.
_silicula_, dim. of _siliqua_, a pod.]

SILK, silk, _n._ the delicate, soft thread produced by the larvæ of certain
bombycid moths which feed on the leaves of the mulberry, &c.: thread or
cloth woven from it: anything resembling silk, the styles of maize, the
silky lustre in the ruby, &c.--_adj._ pertaining to, or consisting of,
silk.--_n._ SILK'-COTT'ON, the silky seed-covering of various species of
_Bombax_.--_adjs._ SILK'EN, made of silk: dressed in silk: resembling silk:
soft: delicate; SILK'-FIG'URED, having the ornamental pattern in
silk.--_ns._ SILK'-GOWN, or THE SILK, the robe of a queen's or king's
counsel, instead of the stuff-gown of the ordinary barrister--hence 'to
take silk'=to be appointed Q.C.; SILK'-GRASS, Adam's needle, or bear-grass;
SILK'INESS; SILK'-MAN (_Shak._), a dealer in silks; SILK'-MER'CER, a mercer
or dealer in silks; SILK'-MILL, a mill for the manufacture of silks;
SILK'-PA'PER, tissue-paper; SILK'-REEL, a machine in which raw silk is
unwound from the cocoons, and wound into a thread; SILK'-THROW'ER,
-THROW'STER, one who manufactures _thrown-silk_ or organzine, silk thread
formed by twisting together two or more threads or singles; SILK'-WEAV'ER,
a weaver of silk stuffs; SILK'WORM, the bombycid moth whose larva produces
silk; SILK'WORM-GUT, a material used by anglers for dressing the hook-end
of the fishing-line, consisting of the drawn-out glands of the silkworm
when these are fully distended.--_adj._ SILK'Y, like silk in texture: soft:
smooth: glossy. [A.S. _seolc_--L. _sericum_--Gr. _s[=e]rikon_, neut. of
adj. _S[=e]rikos_, pertaining to the _S[=e]res_--_S[=e]r_, a native of

SILL, sil, _n._ the timber or stone at the foot of a door or window: the
lowest piece in a window-frame: (_fort_.) the inner edge of the bottom of
an embrasure: the floor of a mine-passage, also a miner's term for bed or
stratum. [A.S. _syl_; Ice. _sylla_, Ger. _schwelle_.]

SILLADAR, sil'a-där, _n._ a member of a troop of irregular cavalry. [Hind.]

SILLAGO, sil'a-g[=o], _n._ a genus of acanthopterygian fishes.

SILLERY, sil'e-ri, _n._ a celebrated still white wine produced near
Rheims--one of the most esteemed champagnes. [_Sillery_ in Marne.]

SILLIBUB, sil'i-bub, _n._ a dish made of wine or cider mixed with milk into
a curd, flavoured, whipped into a froth, or made solid by gelatine and
water, and boiling.--Also SILL'ABUB.

SILLOGRAPH, sil'[=o]-graf, _n._ a satirist. [From the _Silloi_ of Timon of
Phlius, _c._ 280 B.C.]

SILLOMETER, si-lom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the speed of
a ship without a log-line. [Fr. _siller_, to make way, Gr. _metron_, a

SILLON, sil'on, _n._ (_fort_.) a. work raised in the middle of a very wide
ditch, an envelope. [Fr.]

SILLSALLAT, sil'sal-at, _n._ a salad of pickled herring, with morsels of
meat, eggs, onion, and beet. [Sw.]

SILLY, sil'i, _adj._ simple: harmless: foolish: witless: imprudent: absurd:
stupid.--_n._ a silly person.--_adv._ SILL'ILY.--_ns._ SILL'INESS;
SILL'Y-HOW, a caul. [Orig. 'blessed,' and so 'innocent,' 'simple,' A.S.
_s['æ]lig_, _gesælig_, timely--_s['æ]l_, time; Ger. _selig_, blest, happy,
Goth. _sels_, good.]

SILO, s[=i]'l[=o], _n._ a pit for packing and storing green crops for
fodder in the state known as ensilage.--_v.t._ to preserve in a silo.
[Sp.,--L. _sirus_--Gr. _siros_, a pit.]

SILPHA, sil'fa, _n._ a genus of clavicorn beetles, the carrion-beetles.
[Gr. _silph[=e]_, a beetle.]

SILPHIUM, sil'fi-um, _n._ a genus of American composites with resinous
juice--_prairie-dock_, _cup-plant_, _rosin-weed_: an umbelliferous plant
whose juice the ancient Greeks used--the Latin _laserpitium_.

SILPHOLOGY, sil-fol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of larval forms. [Gr.
_silph[=e]_, a beetle, _logia_--_legein_, to say.]

SILT, silt, _n._ that which is left by straining: sediment: the sand, &c.,
left by water.--_v.t._ to fill with sediment (with _up_).--_v.i._ to
percolate through pores: to become filled up.--_adj._ SILT'Y, full of, or
resembling, silt. [Prov. Eng. _sile_, allied to Low Ger. _sielen_, Sw.
_sila_, to let water off, to strain.]

SILURIAN, si-l[=u]'ri-an, _adj._ belonging to Siluria, the country of the
_Silures_, the ancient inhabitants of the south-eastern part of South
Wales: applied by Murchison in 1835 to a series of rocks well developed in
the country of the Silures, a subdivision of the Palæozoic, containing
hardly any vertebrates and land plants.--_adjs._ SIL[=U]'RIDAN,
SIL[=U]'RINE, SIL[=U]'ROID.--_ns._ SIL[=U]'RIST, a Silurian, a name applied
to the poet Henry Vaughan (1621-95); SIL[=U]'RUS, SIL[=U]RE', the typical
genus of _Siluridæ_, a family of physostomous fishes--the cat-fishes, &c.

SILVAN, sil'van, _adj._ pertaining to woods, woody: inhabiting
woods.--_ns._ SIL'VA, SYL'VA, the forest-trees collectively of any region.
[Fr.,--L. _silva_.]

SILVER, sil'v[.e]r, _n._ a soft white metal, capable of a high polish:
money made of silver: anything having the appearance of silver.--_adj._
made of silver: resembling silver: white: bright: precious: gentle: having
a soft and clear tone: of high rank, but still second to the
highest.--_v.t._ to cover with silver: to make like silver: to make smooth
and bright: to make silvery.--_v.i._ to become silvery.--_ns._ SIL'VER-BATH
(_phot_.), a solution of silver-nitrate for sensitising collodion-plates
for printing; SIL'VER-BEAT'ER, one who beats out silver into thin
foil.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-BLACK, black silvered over with white;
SIL'VER-BRIGHT (_Shak._), as bright as silver; SIL'VER-BUS'KINED, having
buskins adorned with silver.--_ns._ SIL'VER-FIR, a coniferous tree of the
genus _Abies_, whose leaves show two silvery lines on the under side;
SIL'VER-FISH, a name given to the atherine, to artificially bred gold-fish,
the sand-smelt, the tarpon: any species of _Lepisma_, a thysanurous
insect--also _Bristletail_, _Walking-fish_, _Silver-moth_, _Shiner_, &c.;
SIL'VER-FOX, a species of fox found in northern regions, having a rich and
valuable fur; SIL'VER-GLANCE, native silver sulphide; SIL'VER-GRAIN, the
medullary rays in timber.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-GRAY, having a gray or
bluish-gray colour; SIL'VER-HAIRED, having white or lustrous gray hair;
SIL'VER-HEAD'ED, having a silver head: with white hair.--_ns._
SIL'VERINESS, the state of being silvery; SIL'VERING, the operation of
covering with silver: the silver so used.--_v.t._ SIL'VERISE, to coat or
cover with silver:--_pr.p._ sil'ver[=i]sing; _pa.p._ sil'ver[=i]sed.--_ns._
SIL'VERITE, one who opposes the demonetisation of silver; SIL'VER-LEAF,
silver beaten into thin leaves; SIL'VERLING (_B._), a small silver
coin.--_adv._ SIL'VERLY (_Shak._), with the appearance of silver.--_adjs._
SIL'VERN, made of silver; SIL'VER-PL[=A]'TED, plated with silver.--_n._
SIL'VER-PRINT'ING, the production of photographic prints by the use of a
sensitising salt of silver.--_adj._ SIL'VER-SHAFT'ED, carrying silver
arrows, as Diana.--_ns._ SIL'VERSMITH, a smith who works in silver;
SIL'VER-STICK, an officer of the royal palace--from his silvered
wand.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-TONGUED, plausible, eloquent; SIL'VER-VOICED
(_Shak._), having a clear, sweet voice like the sound of a silver musical
instrument; SIL'VER-WHITE (_Shak._), white like silver; SIL'VERY, covered
with silver: resembling silver: white: clear, soft, mellow. [A.S. _silfer_,
_seolfor_; Ice. _silfr_, Ger. _silber_.]

SIMAR, SIMARRE, si-mär', _n._ a woman's robe: a scarf. [Fr. _simarre_--O.
Fr. _chamarre_--Sp. _chamarra_, a sheep-skin coat, prob. Basque.]

SIMARUBACEÆ, sim-a-r[=oo]-b[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n.pl._ a natural order of
tropical trees and shrubs--bitter, used in dysentery, &c.--including
_quassia_, _bitterwood_, and _ailanto_.--_adj._ SIMARUB[=A]'CEOUS.

SIMBIL, sim'bil, _n._ a shortish-legged African stork.

SIMEONITE, sim'[=e]-on-[=i]t, _n._ a follower of the famous Cambridge
evangelical preacher Charles _Simeon_ (1759-1836), whose influence is
perpetuated by the _Simeon Trust_, established for purchasing advowsons: a
low-churchman--often SIM.

SIMIA, sim'i-a, _n._ an anthropoid ape: a monkey generally: the typical
genus of _Simiidæ_, containing the orang-utans--the _Simiidæ_ includes the
anthropoid apes; _Simiinæ_ is the higher of the two sub-families of
Simiidæ, comprising the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orang.--_adjs._ SIM'IAL,
SIM'IAN, SIM'IOUS, like an ape: anthropoid. [L.]

SIMILAR, sim'i-lar, _adj._ like: resembling: uniform: (_geom._) exactly
corresponding in shape, without regard to size.--_n._ SIMILAR'ITY.--_adv._
SIM'ILARLY.--_n._ SIMIL'ITUDE, the state of being similar or like:
resemblance: comparison: simile: (_B._) a parable.--_adj._
SIMILIT[=U]'DINARY. [Fr.,--L. _similis_, like.]

SIMILE, sim'i-le, _n._ something similar: similitude: (_rhet._) a
comparison to illustrate anything.--_n.pl._ SIMIL'IA, things alike.--_v.t._
SIM'ILISE, to liken, compare.--_v.i._ to use similitudes.--_adv._
SIMIL'LITER, in like manner. [L., neut. of _similis_, like.]

SIMILOR, sim'i-l[=o]r, _n._ a yellow alloy used for cheap jewellery.
[Fr.,--L. _similis_, like, _aurum_, gold.]

SIMITAR. Same as _Scimitar_ (q.v.).

SIMKIN, sim'kin, _n._ the usual Anglo-Indian word for champagne.--Also

SIMMER, sim'[.e]r, _v.i._ to boil with a gentle, hissing sound: to be on
the point of boiling out, as into anger.--_n._ a gentle heating. [Imit.;
cf. Sw. dial. _summa_, to hum, Ger. _summen_.]

SIMNEL, sim'nel, _n._ a sweet cake of fine flour for Christmas, Easter, or
Mothering Sunday.--Also SIM'LIN. [O. Fr. _simenel_--L. _simila_, fine

SIMON-PURE, s[=i]'mon-p[=u]r, _adj._ authentic, genuine. [From _Simon
Pure_, a character in Mrs Centlivre's comedy, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_,
who is counterfeited by an impostor.]

SIMONY, sim'on-i, _n._ the crime of buying or selling presentation to a
benefice, so named from _Simon_ Magus, who thought to purchase the gift of
the Holy Spirit with money (Acts, viii.).--_n._ SIM[=O]'NIAC, one guilty of
simony.--_adjs._ SIMON[=I]'ACAL, SIM[=O]'NIOUS (_obs._), pertaining to,
guilty of, or involving simony.--_adv._ SIMON[=I]'ACALLY.--_n._
S[=I]'MONIST, one who practises or defends simony.

SIMOOM, si-m[=oo]m', _n._ a hot suffocating wind which blows in northern
Africa and Arabia and the adjacent countries from the interior
deserts.--Also SIMOON'. [Ar. _samûm_--_samm_, to poison.]

SIMORHYNCHUS, sim-[=o]-ring'kus, _n._ a genus of small North Pacific birds,
the snub-nosed auklets. [Gr. _simos_, flat-nosed, _hryngchos_, snout.]

SIMOUS, s[=i]'mus, _adj._ flat or snub nosed: concave.--_n._ SIMOS'ITY.

SIMPAI, sim'p[=i], _n._ the black-crested monkey of Sumatra.

SIMPER, sim'p[.e]r, _v.i._ to smile in a silly, affected manner.--_n._ a
silly or affected smile.--_n._ SIM'PERER, one who simpers.--_adj._
SIMP'ERING.--_adv._ SIM'PERINGLY, in a simpering manner: with a foolish
smile. [Prob. Scand.; Norw. _semper_, smart.]

SIMPLE, sim'pl, _adj._ single: undivided: resisting decomposition:
elementary, undeveloped: plain, single, entire: homogeneous: open:
unaffected: undesigning: true: clear: straightforward: artless: guileless:
unsuspecting: credulous: not cunning: weak in intellect: silly: of mean
birth--opposed to _Gentle_.--_n._ something not mixed or compounded: a
medicinal herb: a simple feast--opposed to a _double_ or
_semidouble_.--_v.i._ to gather simples or medicinal plants.--_adjs._
SIM'PLE-HEART'ED, having a simple heart: guileless; SIM'PLE-MIND'ED, having
a simple mind: unsuspecting: undesigning.--_ns._ SIM'PLE-MIND'EDNESS, the
state or quality of being simple-minded: artlessness; SIM'PLENESS, the
state or quality of being simple: artlessness: simplicity: folly; SIM'PLER,
a gatherer of simples; SIM'PLESS (_Spens._), simplicity; SIM'PLETON, a weak
or foolish person.--_adv._ SIMPLIC'ITER, simply, not relatively.--_ns._
SIMPLIC'ITY, the state or quality of being simple: singleness: want of
complication: openness: clearness: freedom from excessive adornment:
plainness: sincerity: artlessness: credulity, silliness, folly;
SIMPLIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making simple.--_adj._
SIM'PLIFIC[=A]TIVE.--_n._ SIM'PLIFIC[=A]TOR, one who simplifies.--_v.t._
SIM'PLIFY, to make simple: to render less difficult: to make
plain:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sim'plified.--_ns._ SIM'PLISM, affected
simplicity; SIM'PLIST, one skilled in simples.--_adj._ SIMPLIS'TIC.--_adv._
SIM'PLY, in a simple manner: artlessly: foolishly: weakly: plainly:
considered by itself: alone: merely: solely. [Fr.,--L. _simplex_, the
same--_sim-_ (L. _semel_), root of _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

SIMSON, SIMPSON, sim'son, _n._ (_prov._) groundsel. [Earlier _sencion_--O.
Fr. _senecion_--L. _senecio_.]

SIMULACRUM, sim-[=u]-l[=a]'krum, _n._ an image, unreal phantom: a formal
sign:--_pl._ SIMUL[=A]'CRA. [L.]

SIMULATE, sim'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to imitate: to counterfeit: to pretend:
to assume the appearance of without the reality.--_adjs._ SIM'ULANT,
simulating: replacing, or having the form or appearance of, esp. in
biology; SIM'ULAR, counterfeit, feigned.--_n._ one who pretends to be what
he is not.--_ns._ SIMUL[=A]'TION, the act of simulating or putting on what
is not true: imitation in form of one word by another: resemblance,
similarity; SIM'UL[=A]TOR, one who simulates.--_adj._ SIM'UL[=A]TORY. [L.
_simul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to make (something) similar to (another
thing)--_similis_, like.]

SIMULTANEOUS, sim-ul-t[=a]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ acting, existing, or happening
at the same time: (_math._) satisfied by the same values of the variables
or unknown quantities--of a set of equations.--_ns._ SIMULTAN[=E]'ITY,
SIMULT[=A]'NEOUSNESS.--_adv._ SIMULT[=A]'NEOUSLY. [Low L. _simultaneus_--L.
_simul_, at the same time.]

SIMURG, si-m[=oo]rg', _n._ a monstrous bird of Persian fable.--Also

SIN, sin, _adv._ (_Spens._) since. [_Since_.]

SIN, sin, _n._ wilful violation of law: neglect of duty: neglect of the
laws of morality and religion, any want of conformity unto, or
transgression of, the law of God: wickedness, iniquity.--_v.i._ to commit
sin: to violate or neglect the laws of morality or religion: to do
wrong:--pr.p sin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sinned.--_adjs._ SIN'-BORN, born
of sin; SIN'-BRED, produced by sin.--_ns._ SIN'-EAT'ER, one of a class of
men formerly employed in Wales to eat a piece of bread and drink a cup of
ale placed on a bier, and so symbolically take upon themselves the sins of
the deceased--due to the notion of the Levitical _scapegoat_ (Levit. xvi.
21, 22); SIN'-EAT'ING.--_adj._ SIN'FUL, full of, or tainted with, sin:
iniquitous: wicked: depraved: criminal: unholy.--_adv._ SIN'FULLY.--_n._
SIN'FULNESS.--_adj._ SIN'LESS, without sin: innocent: pure:
perfect.--_adv._ SIN'LESSLY.--_ns._ SIN'LESSNESS; SIN'NER, one who sins: an
offender or criminal: (_theol._) an unregenerate person.--_v.i._ (_Pope_)
to act as a sinner (with indefinite _it_).--_n._ SIN'-OFF'ERING, an
offering for, or sacrifice in expiation of, sin.--_adjs._ SIN'-SICK,
morally sick from sin; SIN'-WORN, worn by sin.--LIKE SIN (_slang_), very
much, very hard; MORTAL, or DEADLY, SIN, such as wilfully violates the
divine law and separates the soul from God--seven deadly sins, _pride_,
_covetousness_, _lust_, _anger_, _gluttony_, _envy_, and _sloth_; ORIGINAL
SIN, the innate depravity and corruption of the whole nature due to the sin
of Adam as federal representative of the human race, and transmitted by
ordinary generation to all his posterity; VENIAL SIN, any transgression due
to inadvertence, not alienating the friendship of God. [A.S. _syn_, _sinn_;
Ice. _syn-d_, Ger. _sünde_, L. _sons_.]

SINAITIC, s[=i]-na-it'ik, _adj._ pertaining to, made, or given at Mount
Sinai.--Also SIN[=A]'IC.

SINAPIS, si-n[=a]'pis, _n._ the officinal name of mustard.--_n._ SIN'APISM,
a mustard-plaster. [L.,--Gr. _sinapi_.]

SINCE, sins, _adv._ from the time that: past: ago.--_prep._ after: from the
time of.--_conj._ seeing that: because: considering. [M. E. _sins_,
_sithens_--A.S. _síth-thám_, lit. 'after that,' from _síth_, late (Ger.
_seit_), and _thám_, dat. of _thæt_, that.]

SINCERE, sin-s[=e]r', _adj._ clean: pure: (_B._) unadulterated: being in
reality what it is in appearance: unfeigned: frank: honest: true,
virtuous.--_adv._ SINC[=E]RE'LY.--_ns._ SINC[=E]RE'NESS, SINCER'ITY, state
or quality of being sincere: honesty of mind: freedom from pretence.
[Fr.,--L. _sincerus_, clean, generally derived from _sine_, without,
_cera_, wax; better from _sin-_, single, _-cerus_ for an assumed _scerus_,

SINCIPUT, sin'si-put, _n._ the forepart of the head from the forehead to
the vertex.--_adj._ SINCIP'ITAL. [L., _semi-_; half, _caput_, the head.]

SIND, s[=i]nd, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to rinse.--Also Synd.

SINDON, sin'don, _n._ (_Bacon_) a wrapper. [L.,--Gr. _sind[=o]n_, fine
Indian cloth, muslin, a garment, prob. from _India_, or _Sinde_ in India.]

SINE, s[=i]n, _n._ a straight line drawn from one extremity of an arc
perpendicular to the diameter that passes through the other extremity. [L.
_sinus_, a curve.]

SINE, SYNE, s[=i]n, _adv._ (_Scot._) after that: ago.--_conj._ since.

SINE, s[=i]'ne, _prep._ without, as in SINE DIE, without day, of an
adjournment; SINE QUÂ NON, an indispensable condition, &c. [L.]

SINECURE, s[=i]'n[=e]-k[=u]r (or sin'-), _n._ an ecclesiastical benefice
without the cure or care of souls: an office with salary but without
work.--_adj._ pertaining to such an office.--_ns._ S[=I]'NECURISM, the
state of having a sinecure; S[=I]'NECURIST, one who holds a sinecure. [L.
_sine_, without, _cura_, care.]

SINEW, sin'[=u], _n._ that which joins a muscle to a bone, a tendon:
muscle, nerve: that which supplies vigour.--_v.t._ to bind as by sinews: to
strengthen.--_adj._ SIN'EWED, furnished with sinews: (_Shak._) strong,
vigorous.--_n._ SIN'EWINESS, the state or quality of being sinewy.--_adjs._
SIN'EWLESS, having no sinews: without strength or power; SIN'EW-SHRUNK,
applied to a horse which has become gaunt-bellied from being overdriven;
SIN'EWY, SIN'EWOUS, furnished with sinews: consisting of, belonging to, or
resembling sinews: strong: vigorous.--SINEWS OF WAR, money. [A.S. _sinu_;
Ice. _sin_, Ger. _sehne_.]

SINFONIA, sin-f[=o]-n[=e]'a, _n._ symphony. [It.]

SING, sing, _v.i._ to utter melodious sounds in musical succession: to make
a small, shrill sound: to relate in verse: to squeal: to ring: to be
capable of being sung.--_v.t._ to utter musically: to chant: to celebrate:
to attend on: to effect by singing: to celebrate or relate in
verse:--_pa.t._ sang or sung; _pa.p._ sung.--_adj._ SING'ABLE.--_ns._
SING'ABLENESS; SING'ER, one who sings: one whose occupation is to sing;
SING'ING, the act or art of singing; SING'ING-BIRD, a bird that sings, a
songster; SING'ING-BOOK, a song-book; SING'ING-GALL'ERY, a gallery occupied
by singers; SING'ING-HINN'Y, a currant cake baked on a girdle.--_adv._
SING'INGLY.--_ns._ SING'ING-MAN (_Shak._), one employed to sing, as in a
cathedral; SING'ING-MAS'TER, a master who teaches singing; SING'ING-SCHOOL,
a place where singing is taught; SING'ING-VOICE, the voice as used in
singing; SING'ING-WOM'AN, a woman employed to sing.--SING ANOTHER SONG, or
TUNE, to change one's tone or attitude, esp. to a humbler manner; SING OUT,
to call out distinctly, to shout; SING SMALL, to assume a humble tone: to
play a minor part. [A.S. _singan_; Ger. _singen_, Goth. _siggwan_.]

SINGE, sinj, _v.t._ to burn on the surface: to scorch:--_pr.p._ singe'ing;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ singed.--_n._ a burning of the surface: a slight
burn.--SINGED CAT, a person who is better than he looks. [A.S. _besengan_,
the causative of _singan_, to sing, from the singing noise produced by


SINGLE, sing'gl, _adj._ consisting of one only: individual, unique:
separate, private: alone: unmarried: not combined with others: unmixed:
having one only on each side: straightforward: sincere: simple, normal:
pure.--_v.t._ to separate: to choose one from others: to select from a
number.--_adjs._ SING'LE-ACT'ING, acting effectively in one direction
only--of any reciprocating machine or implement; SING'LE-BREAST'ED, with a
single row of buttons or loops only, of a coat, corsage, &c.--_n._
SINGLE-EN'TRY, a system of book-keeping in which each entry appears only
once on one side or other of an account.--_adj._ SING'LE-EYED, having but
one eye: devoted, unselfish.--_ns._ SING'LE-FLOW'ER, a flower containing a
single set of petals, as a wild rose; SING'LE-FOOT, a gait of horses, the
amble.--_adjs._ SING'LE-HAND'ED, by one's self: unassisted: having only one
workman; SING'LE-HEART'ED, having a single or sincere heart: without
duplicity.--_adv._ SING'LE-HEART'EDLY.--_adj._ SING'LE-MIND'ED, having a
single or sincere mind: upright.--_ns._ SING'LE-MIND'EDNESS; SING'LENESS,
state of being single or alone: freedom from deceit: sincerity:
simplicity.--_adj._ SING'LE-SOLED, having a single sole, as a shoe:
poor.--_ns._ SING'LE-STICK, a stick or cudgel for one hand: a fight or game
with singlesticks; SING'LET, an undershirt or waistcoat; SING'LETON, in
whist, a hand containing one card only of some suit; SING'LETREE (the same
as SWINGLETREE); SING'LE-WOM'AN, an unmarried woman: (_obs._) a
whore.--_adv._ SING'LY, one by one: particularly: alone: by one's self:
honestly: sincerely. [O. Fr.,--L. _sin-gulus_, one to each, separate, akin
to _sem-el_, once, Gr. _ham-a_.]

SINGSONG, sing'song, _n._ bad singing: drawling: a convivial meeting where
every one must sing.--_adj._ monotonously rhythmical, drawling.--_v.t._ and
_v.i._ to make songs: to chant monotonously.

SINGSPIEL, sing'sp[=e]l, _n._ a semi-dramatic representation in which a
series of incidents are set forth in alternate dialogue and song, now a
kind of opera in which the music is subordinated to the words. [Ger.,
_singen_, to sing, _spiel_, play.]

SINGULAR, sing'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ alone: (_gram._) denoting one person or
thing: single: not complex or compound: standing alone, rare, unusual,
uncommon: of more than common value or importance: unique, extraordinary,
strange, odd: (_B._) particular.--_n._ that which is singular: (_logic_)
that which is not general, that which is here and now, that which is
determinate in every respect.--_n._ SINGULARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
SING'ULARISE, to make singular.--_ns._ SING'ULARIST, one who affects
singularity; SINGULAR'ITY, the state of being singular: peculiarity:
anything curious or remarkable: particular privilege or distinction:
(_math._) an exceptional element or character of a continuum.--_adv._
SING'ULARLY, in a singular manner: peculiarly: strangely: so as to express
one or the singular number. [Fr.,--L. _singularis_.]

SINGULT, sin'gult, _n._ a sigh.--_adjs._ SINGUL'TIENT, SINGUL'TOUS,
affected with hiccup.--_n._ SINGUL'TUS, a hiccup. [L. _singultus_, a sob.]

SINHALESE, sin'ha-l[=e]z, _n._ and _adj._ the same as CINGALESE and

SINIC, sin'ik, _adj._ Chinese.--_adj._ SIN'IAN, a widely spread series of
rocks in China, containing many trilobites and brachiopods.--_ns._
SIN'ICISM, Chinese manners and customs; SIN'ISM, customs of China
generally, esp. its ancient indigenous religion. [L. _Sina_, China, _Sinæ_,
the Chinese, Gr. _Sinai_, the Chinese.]

SINICAL, sin'ik-al, _adj._ pertaining to, employing, or founded upon sines.

SINISTER, sin'is-t[.e]r, _adj._ left: on the left hand: evil: unfair:
dishonest: unlucky: inauspicious, malign.--_adj._ SIN'ISTER-HAND'ED,
left-handed.--_advs._ SIN'ISTERLY; SINIS'TRA (_mus._), with the left hand;
SIN'ISTRAD, towards the left.--_adj._ SIN'ISTRAL, belonging or inclining to
the left: reversed.--_n._ SINISTRAL'ITY.--_adv._ SIN'ISTRALLY.--_n._
SINISTR[=A]'TION, a turning to the left.--_adj._ SIN'ISTROUS, on the left
side: wrong: absurd: perverse.--_adv._ SIN'ISTROUSLY. [L.]

SINISTRORSE, sin'is-trors, _adj._ rising from left to right, as a spiral
line.--Also SINISTRORS'AL. [L. _sinistrorsus_, _sinistroversus_, towards
the left side--sinister, left, _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]

SINK, singk, _v.i._ to fall to the bottom: to fall down: to descend lower:
to fall gradually: to fall below the surface: to enter deeply: to be
impressed: to be overwhelmed: to fail in strength.--_v.t._ to cause to
sink: to put under water: to keep out of sight: to suppress: to degrade: to
cause to decline or fall: to plunge into destruction: to make by digging or
delving: to pay absolutely: to lower in value or amount: to
lessen:--_pa.t._ sank, sunk; _pa.p._ sunk, sunk'en.--_n._ a drain to carry
off dirty water: a box or vessel connected with a drain for receiving dirty
water: an abode of degraded persons: a general receptacle: an area in which
a river sinks and disappears: a depression in a stereotype plate: a stage
trap-door for shifting scenery: in mining, an excavation less than a
shaft.--_ns._ SINK'ER, anything which causes a sinking, esp. a weight fixed
to a fishing-line; SINK'-HOLE, a hole for dirty water to run through;
SINK'ING, a subsidence: a depression.--_adj._ causing to sink.--_n._
SINK'ING-FUND, a fund formed by setting aside income every year to
accumulate at interest for the purpose of paying off debt.--_adj._
SINK'ING-RIPE (_Shak._), dead-ripe, about to fall off.--_n._ SINK'ROOM, a
scullery. [A.S. _sincan_; Ger. _sinken_, Dut. _zinken_.]

SINK-A-PACE, singk'-a-p[=a]s, _n._ (_Shak._)=_Cinquepace_.

SINOLOGUE, sin'[=o]-log, _n._ one versed in Chinese.--_adj._ SINOLOG'ICAL
(-loj'-).--_ns._ SINOL'OGIST; SINOL'OGY.

SINOPLE, sin'[=o]-pl, _n._ a ferruginous clay yielding the fine red pigment
SIN[=O]'PIA or SIN[=O]'PIS. [Gr. _sin[=o]pis_, a red earth brought from

SINSYNE, sin-s[=i]n', _adv._ (_Scot._) since, ago.

SINTER, sin't[.e]r, _n._ a name given to rocks precipitated in a
crystalline form from mineral waters. [Ger.]

SINTO, SINTOISM=_Shinto_, _Shintoism_.

SINTOC, sin'tok, _n._ a Malayan tree with aromatic bark.--Also SIN'DOC.

SINUATE, -D, sin'[=u]-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ curved: (_bot._) with a waved
margin.--_v.t._ to bend in and out.--_ns._ SINU[=A]'TION; SINUOS'ITY,
quality of being sinuous: a bend or series of bends and turns.--_adjs._
SIN'UOUS, SIN'U[=O]SE, bending in and out, winding, undulating: morally
crooked.--_adv._ SIN'UOUSLY. [L. _sinuatus_, _pa.p._ of _sinu[=a]re_, to

SINUPALLIATE, sin-[=u]-pal'i-[=a]t, _adj._ having a sinuous pallial margin
on the shell along the line of attachment of the mantle.--Also
SINUPALL'IAL. [L. _sinus_, a fold, pallium, a mantle.]

SINUS, s[=i]'nus, _n._ a bending: a fold: an opening: a bay of the sea: a
recess on the shore: (_anat._) a cavity or hollow of bone or other tissue,
one of the air-cavities contained in the interior of certain bones: a
channel for transmitting venous blood: a narrow opening leading to an
abscess, &c.--_n._ S[=I]'NUSOID, the curve of sines in which the abscisses
are proportional to an angle, and the ordinates to its sine.--_adj._
SINUSOI'DAL.--_adv._ SINUSOI'DALLY. [L. _sinus_, a curve.]

SIOUX, s[=oo], _n._ (_pl._ SIOUX, s[=oo] or s[=oo]z) the principal tribe of
the Dakota family of American Indians in South Dakota and Nebraska--also
_adj._--Also SIOUAN (s[=oo]'an).

SIP, sip, _v.t._ to sup or drink in small quantities: to draw into the
mouth: to taste: to drink out of.--_v.i._ to drink in small quantities: to
drink by the lips:--_pr.p._ sip'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sipped.--_n._ the
taking of a liquor with the lips: a small draught.--_n._ SIP'PER. [A.S.
_syppan_ (assumed), _sipian_, to soak. Related to _súpan_, to sup, taste.]

SIPE, s[=i]p, _v.i._ (_prov._) to soak through.--Also SEEP. [A.S. _sipian_,
to soak; Dut. _zijpen_, to drop.]

SIPHILIS. Same as SYPHILIS (q.v.).


SIPHON, s[=i]'fun, _n._ a bent tube for drawing off liquids from one vessel
into another.--_v.t._ to convey by means of a siphon.--_n._
pertaining to, or resembling, a siphon.--_n._ S[=I]'PHON-BOTT'LE, a glass
bottle for containing aerated liquid, fitted with a glass tube reaching
nearly to the bottom and bent like a siphon at the outlet.--_adjs._
mouth.--_ns._ S[=I]'PHONOSTOME, a siphonostomatous animal, as a fish-louse;
S[=I]'PHUNCLE, the siphon or funnel of tetrabranchiate cephalopods: a
nectary.--_adjs._ S[=I]'PHUNCLED, SIPHUNC'ULAR, SIPHUNC'ULATE, -D.--_ns._
SIPHUNC'ULUS; SIPUNC'ULUS, a genus of worms belonging to the class
_Gephyrea_. [Fr.,--Gr., _siph[=o]n_--_siphlos_, hollow.]

SIPPET, sip'et, _n._ a small sop: (_pl._) morsels of bread served in broth,
&c.--_v.i._ SIPP'LE, to sup in sips.

SIPYLITE, sip'i-l[=i]t, _n._ a niobite of erbium. [From Gr. _Sipylos_, one
of the children of Niobe.]

SIR, s[.e]r, _n._ a word of respect used in addressing a man: a gentleman:
the title of a knight or baronet, used along with the Christian name and
surname, as 'Sir David Pole:' formerly a common title of address for the
clergy as a translation of L. _dominus_, the term used for a bachelor of
arts, originally in contradistinction from the _magister_, or master of
arts--hence SIR JOHN=a priest.--_v.t._ to address as 'sir.' [O. Fr. _sire_,
through O. Fr. _senre_, from L. _senior_, an elder, comp. of _senex_, old.
Cf. the parallel forms _Sire_, _Senior_, _Seignior_, _Signor_.]

SIRCAR, s[.e]r-kär', _n._ a Hindu clerk.--Also SIRKAR', CIRCAR'. [Hind.
_sark[=a]r_, a superintendent--_sar_, head, _k[=a]r_, Sans. _kara_, work.]

SIRDAR, s[.e]r-där', _n._ a chief or military officer. [Hind.
_sard[=a]r_--_sar_, head, _-d[=a]r_, holding.]

SIRE, s[=i]r, _n._ one in the place of a father, as a sovereign: an elder,
a progenitor: the male parent of a beast, esp. of a horse: (_pl._)
ancestors (_poetry_).--_v.t._ to beget, used of animals. [_Sir_.]

SIREDON, s[=i]-r[=e]'don, _n._ a larval salamander:--_pl._ SIR[=E]'DONES.

SIREN, s[=i]'ren, _n._ (_Gr. myth._) one of certain sea-nymphs who sat on
the shores of an island between Circe's isle and Scylla, near the
south-western coast of Italy, and sang with bewitching sweetness songs that
allured the passing sailor to draw near, only to meet with death: a
fascinating woman, any one insidious and deceptive: an instrument which
produces musical sounds by introducing a regularly recurring discontinuity
into an otherwise steady blast of air: an instrument for demonstrating the
laws of beats and combination tones: an eel-like, amphibious animal, with
only one pair of feet, inhabiting swamps in the southern states of North
America.--_adj._ pertaining to, or like, a siren: fascinating.--_n._
SIR[=E]'NIA, an order of aquatic mammals now represented by the dugong
(_Halicore_) and the manatee (_Manatus_).--_adj._ SIR[=E]'NIAN.--_v.i._
S[=I]'RENISE, to play the siren. [L. _siren_--Gr. _seir[=e]n_, prob.
_seira_, a cord.]

SIRGANG, s[.e]r'gang, _n._ the Asiatic green jackdaw.

SIRIH, sir'i, _n._ the betel-leaf. [Malay.]

SIRIUS, sir'i-us, _n._ the Dogstar or Canicula, the brightest star in the
heavens, situated in the constellation of _Canis Major_, or the Great
Dog.--_n._ SIR[=I]'ASIS, sunstroke. [L.,--Gr. _seirios_.]

SIRLOIN, s[.e]r'loin, _n._ the loin or upper part of the loin of beef. [Fr.
_surlonge_--_sur_ (--L. _super_, above) and _longe_ (cf. _Loin_). The first
syllable has been modified by confusion with Eng. _sir_, and an absurd
etymology constructed to suit.]

SIRNAME, s[.e]r'n[=a]m, _n._ a corr. of _surname_.

SIROCCO, si-rok'o, _n._ a name given in Italy to a dust-laden dry wind
coming over sea from Africa; but also applied to any south wind, often
moist and warm, as opposed to the _Tramontana_ or north wind, from the
hills.--Also SIR'OC. [It. _sirocco_ (Sp. _siroco_)--_scharq_, the east.]

SIROP, sir'op, _n._ a form of syrup: a kettle used in making sugar by the
open-kettle process.

SIRRAH, s[.e]r'a, _n._ sir, used in anger or contempt. [An extension of

SIR-REVERENCE, s[.e]r-rev'e-rens, _n._ a corr. of _save-reverence_.


SIRVENTE, sir-vont', _n._ a satirical song of the 12th-13th century
trouvères and troubadours. [Fr.]

SIS, sis, _n._ a girl, a sweetheart.--Also SIS'SY. [From _Cicely_.]

SISAL-GRASS, sis'al-gras, _n._ the prepared fibre of the agave or American
aloe, supplying cordage.--Also SIS'AL-HEMP.

SISCOWET, sis'k[=o]-et, _n._ a Lake Superior variety of the great lake
trout.--Also SIS'KIWIT, SIS'KOWET.

SISERARY, sis'e-r[=a]-ri, _n._ a stroke, blow, originally a legal writ
transferring a cause to a higher court.--WITH A SISERARY, with suddenness
or vehemence. [A corr. of _certiorari_.]

SISKIN, sis'kin, _n._ a genus of perching birds belonging to the family
_Fringillidæ_, the true finches. [Dan. _sisgen_, Sw. _siska_, Ger.

SIST, sist, _v.t._ (_Scots law_) to present at the bar: cause to appear,
summon: to delay, stop.--_n._ the act of staying diligence or execution on
decrees for civil debts. [L. _sist[)e]re_, to make to stand.]


SISTER, sis't[.e]r, _n._ a female born of the same parents: a female
closely allied to or associated with another.--_adj._ closely related,
akin.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to resemble closely: to be a sister to: to be
allied.--_ns._ SIS'TERHOOD, state of being a sister, the duty of a sister:
a society of females, a community of women living together under a
religious rule, and with a common object for their united life;
SIS'TER-HOOK, in a ship's rigging, one of a pair of hooks fitting closely
together and working on the same axis--also _Clip-hook_ and _Clove-hook_;
SIS'TER-IN-LAW, a husband's or wife's sister, or a brother's wife.--_adjs._
SIS'TERLESS, having no sister; SIS'TER-LIKE, SIS'TERLY, like or becoming a
sister: kind: affectionate. [A.S. _sweostor_; Dut. _zuster_, Ger.

SISTINE, sis'tin, _adj._ pertaining to a pope of the name of _Sixtus_, esp.
Sixtus IV. (1471-84) and Sixtus V. (1585-90)--also SIX'TINE.--SISTINE
CHAPEL, the Pope's chapel in the Vatican, built in 1473 by Sixtus IV.,
covered with magnificent frescoes by Michael Angelo and the great
Florentine masters; SISTINE MADONNA, or MADONNA OF SAN SISTO, a famous
painting by Raphael Santi, now at Dresden, representing the Virgin and
Child in glory, St Sixtus on the left, St Barbara on the right, and two
cherubs below.

SISTRUM, sis'trum, _n._ a form of rattle used in ancient Egypt in
connection with the worship of Isis.

SISYPHEAN, sis-i-f[=e]'an, _adj._ relating to Sisyphus: incessantly
recurring. [From _Sisyphus_, a king of Corinth, who was condemned in
Tartarus to roll to the top of a hill a huge stone, which constantly rolled
down again, making his task incessant.]

SIT, sit, _v.i._ to rest on the haunches: to perch, as birds: to rest: to
remain, abide: to brood: to occupy a seat, esp. officially: to be
officially engaged: to blow from a certain direction, as the wind: to be
worn, to fit, to be becoming: to take an attitude of readiness, or for any
special purpose: to hold a deliberative session.--_v.t._ to keep a seat, or
good seat, upon: to seat, place on a seat:--_pr.p._ sit'ting; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ sat.--_n._ a subsidence of the roof of a coal-mine: (_slang_) a
situation.--_adj._ SIT'-FAST, fixed, stationary.--_n._ a callosity of the
skin under the saddle, often leading to ulcer.--_ns._ SIT'TER; SIT'TING,
state of resting on a seat: a seat, a special seat allotted to a
seat-holder, at church, &c.; also the right to hold such: the part of the
year in which judicial business is transacted: the act or time of resting
in a posture for a painter to take a likeness: an official meeting to
transact business: uninterrupted application to anything for a time: the
time during which one continues at anything: a resting on eggs for
hatching, the number hatched at one time; SIT'TING-ROOM, the parlour or
most commonly used room in many houses.--SIT DOWN, to take a seat: to
pause, rest: to begin a siege; SIT LOOSE, or LOOSELY, to be careless or
indifferent; SIT ON, or UPON, to hold an official inquiry regarding:
(_slang_) to repress, check; SIT OUT, to sit, or to sit apart, during: to
await the close of; SIT UNDER, to be in the habit of hearing the preaching
of; SIT UP, to raise the body from a recumbent to a sitting position: to
keep watch during the night (_with_). [A.S. _sittan_; Ger. _sitzen_, L.

SITAR, sit'ar, _n._ an Oriental form of guitar.

SITE, s[=i]t, _n._ the place where anything is set down or fixed:
situation: a place chosen for any particular purpose: posture.--_adj._
S[=I]'TED (_Spens._), placed, situated. [Fr.,--L. _situs_--_situm_, pa.p.
of _sin[)e]re_, to set down.]

SITH, sith, _adv._, _prep._, and _conj._ since--(_obs._) SITH'ENCE,
SITH'ENS. [M. E. _sithen_--A.S. _síth thám_, after that, also written
_siththan_. Cf. _Since_.]

SITHE, s[=i]th, _n._ (_Spens._) time. [A.S. _síth_, time.]

SITHE, s[=i]th, _n._ (_Shak._) a scythe.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to cut with a

SITHE, s[=i]th, _n._ (_Spens._) a sigh.

SITOLOGY, s[=i]-tol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the regulation of
diet.--Also SITIOL'OGY. [Gr. _sitos_, food, _logia_--_legein_, to say.]

SITOPHOBIA, s[=i]-t[=o]-f[=o]'bi-a, _n._ morbid aversion to food. [Gr.
_sitos_, food, _phobia_, fear.]

SITTA, sit'a, _n._ the genus of nut-hatches.--_adj._ SIT'TINE. [Gr.
_sitt[=e]_, a woodpecker.]

SITUATE, -D, sit'[=u]-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ set or permanently fixed: placed
with respect to other objects: residing.--_ns._ SITU[=A]'TION, the place
where anything is situated: position: temporary state: condition: any group
of circumstances, a juncture: a critical point in the action of a play or
the development the plot of a novel: office, employment; S[=I]'TUS, site:
the proper place of an organ, &c.: locality in law. [Low L. _situatus_--L.
_situ[)e]re_, to place.]

SITZ-BATH, sitz'-bäth, _n._ a hip-bath: a tub adapted for such. [Ger.

SIUM, s[=i]'um, _n._ a genus of umbelliferous plants--the water-parsnips.
[Gr. _sion_.]

SIVA, s[=e]'va, _n._ the third god of the Hindu Trimúrti or triad,
representing the principle of destruction and of reproduction.--_adj._
SIVAIST'IC.--_n._ SI'VAITE. [Sans. _çiva_, happy.]

SIVAN, siv'an, _n._ the third month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year,
answering to part of May and June. [Heb.]

SIVATHERIUM, siv-a-th[=e]'ri-um, _n._ a very large fossil ruminant found in

SIX, siks, _adj._ and _n._ five and one: a figure denoting six units (6, or
vi.): a playing-card with six spots, the face of a die bearing six spots,
or that die itself: beer sold at six shillings a barrel, small beer:
(_pl._) in hymnology, a quatrain in trochaic measure, the lines of three
feet or six syllables.--_adj._ SIX'FOLD, folded or multiplied six
times.--_ns._ SIX'FOOTER, a person six feet high; SIX'PENCE, a silver
coin=six pence.--_adj._ SIX'PENNY, worth sixpence: cheap, worthless.--_ns._
SIX'-SHOOT'ER, a six-chambered revolver; SIXTE, a parry in which the hand
is on guard opposite the right breast, the point of the sword raised and
moved a little to the right.--_adjs._ and _ns._ SIX'TEEN, six and ten;
SIX'TEENTH, the sixth after the tenth.--_adj._ SIXTH, the last of six: the
ordinal of six.--_n._ the sixth part: (_mus._) an interval of four tones
and a semitone, or six intervals.--_adv._ SIXTH'LY, in the sixth
place.--SIXTH HOUR, noon-tide.--BE AT SIXES AND SEVENS, to be in disorder;
LONG SIXES, candles weighing six to the pound, about 8 inches long; SHORT
SIXES, candles weighing six to the pound, about 4 inches long. [A.S.
_siex_; Ger. _sechs_, Gael. _se_; also L. _sex_, Gr. _hex_, Sans. _shash_.]

SIXTEENMO=_Sexto-decimo_ (q.v.).

SIXTY, siks'ti, _adj._ and _n._ six times ten.--_adj._ and _n._ SIX'TIETH,
the sixth tenth: the ordinal of sixty. [A.S. _sixtig_.]

SIZAR, s[=i]'zar, _n._ the name of an order of students at Cambridge and
Dublin--from the allowance of victuals made to them from the college
buttery.--_n._ S[=I]'ZARSHIP. [_Size_, fixed quantity.]

SIZE, s[=i]z, _n._ extent of volume or surface: magnitude: an allotted
portion: (_pl._) allowances (_Shak._).--_v.t._ to arrange according to
size: at Cambridge, to buy rations at a certain fixed rate: to
measure.--_v.i._ to increase in size.--_adjs._ S[=I]'ZABLE, SIZE'ABLE, of
suitable size: of considerable size or bulk; SIZED, having a particular
size.--_ns._ S[=I]'ZER, one who, or that which, sizes or measures, a kind
of gauge; S[=I]'ZING, act of sorting articles according to size, esp.
crushed or stamped ores in mining: an order for extra food from a college
buttery.--SIZE UP, to measure, consider carefully. [Contr. of _assize_

SIZE, s[=i]z, SIZING, s[=i]'zing, _n._ a kind of weak glue, used as
varnish: any gluey substance.--_v.t._ to cover with size.--_adj._ SIZED,
having size in its composition.--_n._ S[=I]'ZINESS.--_adj._ S[=I]'ZY,
size-like: glutinous.

SIZEL=_Scissel_ (q.v.).

SIZZLE, siz'l, _v.i._ to make a sound as if frying.--_n._ a hissing sound;
extreme heat.--_n._ SIZZ'LING, a hissing.

SKAIN=_Skein_ (q.v.).

SKAINSMATE, sk[=a]nz'm[=a]t, _n._ (_Shak._) a companion, a scapegrace.

SKALD, _n._=_Scald_, a poet.

SKAT, skat, _n._ a game played with thirty-two cards as in Piquet, and said
to have been invented in 1817 in Altenburg. Each of three players receives
ten cards, the two others being laid aside (hence the name from O. Fr.
_escart_, laying aside).

SKATE, sk[=a]t, _n._ a kind of sandal or frame of wood on a steel blade for
moving on ice.--_v.i._ to slide on, skates.--_ns._ SK[=A]'TER; SK[=A]'TING;
SK[=A]'TING-RINK. [Dut. _schaats_; cf. also Dan. _sköite_.]

SKATE, sk[=a]t, _n._ the popular name of several species of Ray, esp. those
of the family _Raiidæ_ and genus _Raia_, with greatly extended pectoral
fins. [Ice. _skata_--Low L. _squatus_--L. _squatina_; cf. _Shad_.]


SKAW, skä, _n._ a promontory.--Also SCAW. [Ice. _skagi_--_skaga_, to jut

SKEAN, sk[=e]n, _n._ a dagger.--_n._ SKEAN-DHU (sk[=e]n'-d[=oo]), the knife
stuck in the stocking of the Highland dress. [Gael, _sgian_, a knife.]

SKEARY, sk[=e]'ri, a dial. form of _scary_.

SKEDADDLE, sk[=e]-dad'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to spill, scatter.--_v.i._
(_coll._) to scamper off.--_n._ a scurrying off. [Ety. unknown. Prob. conn.
somehow with _shed_--A.S. _sceádan_, to pour.]

SKEE, sk[=e], _n._ a wooden runner for sliding down a declivity.--_v.i._ to
slide on skees. [Dan. _ski_--Ice. _skídh_.]

SKEEL, sk[=e]l, _n._ (_Scot._) a milking-pail, a washing-tub. [Scand., Ice.

SKEELY, sk[=e]'li, _adj._ (_Scot._) skilful.

SKEESICKS, sk[=e]'ziks, _n._ (_U.S._) a rascal.

SKEETER, sk[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ a mosquito.

SKEG, skeg, _n._ a stump, branch: the after-part of a ship's keel.

SKEG, skeg, _n._ a wild-plum.

SKEIN, sk[=a]n, _n._ a knot or number of knots of thread or yarn. [O. Fr.
_escagne_, from Celt.; cf. Ir. _sgainne_, a skein.]

SKELDER, skel'd[.e]r, _v.i._ and _v.t._ to practise begging: to swindle.

SKELETON, skel'e-tun, _n._ the bones of an animal separated from the flesh
and preserved in their natural position: the framework or outline of
anything: a very lean and emaciated person: a very thin form of light-faced
type.--_adj._ pertaining to a skeleton--also SKEL'ETAL.--_ns._ SKELETOG'ENY
(-toj'-); SKELETOG'RAPHY; SKELETOL'OGY.--_v.t._ SKEL'ETONISE, to reduce to
a skeleton.--_n._ SKEL'ETON-KEY, a key for picking locks, without the inner
bits.--SKELETON IN THE CUPBOARD, CLOSET, HOUSE, &c., some hidden domestic
source of sorrow or shame. [Gr. _skeleton_ (_s[=o]ma_), a dried
(body)--_skeletos_, dried--_skellein_, to dry, to parch.]

SKELLOCH, skel'oh, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to cry out with a shrill voice.--_n._ a

SKELLUM, skel'um, _n._ (_Scot._) a ne'er-do-well. [Dut. _schelm_, a rogue.]

SKELLY, skel'i, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to squint. [Cf. Dan. _skele_, Sw. _skela_,
Ger. _schielen_, to squint.]

SKELP, skelp, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to slap.--_v.i._ to move briskly along, to
bound along.--_n._ a slap: a heavy fall of pelting rain: a large
portion.--_adj._ SKELP'ING, very big or full. [Gael. _sgealp_, a slap.]

SKELTER, skel't[.e]r, _v.i._ to hurry or dash along.

SKEP, skep, _n._ a grain-basket, or beehive made of straw or
wicker-work.--_n._ SKEP'FUL, as much as a skep will hold. [A.S.
_scep_--Scand., Ice. _skeppa_.]

SKEPTIC=_Sceptic_; SKEPSIS=_Scepsis_.

SKERRY, sker'i, _n._ a rocky isle. [Ice. _sker_.]

SKETCH, skech, _n._ a first draft of any plan or painting: an outline, a
short and slightly constructed play, essay, &c.: a short dramatic scene for
representation by two persons: an artist's preliminary study of a work to
be elaborated.--_v.t._ to make a rough draft of: to draw the outline: to
give the principal points of.--_v.i._ to practise sketching.--_adj._
SKETCH'ABLE, capable of being sketched effectively.--_ns._ SKETCH'BOOK, a
blank book used for sketching by an artist or writer: a printed volume of
literary sketches; SKETCH'ER, one who sketches.--_adv._ SKETCH'ILY.--_n._
SKETCH'INESS.--_adj._ SKETCH'Y, containing a sketch or outline: incomplete,
slight. [Dut. _schets_, It. _schizzo_--L. _schedium_--_schedius_, made
off-hand--Gr. _schedios_, sudden.]

SKEW, sk[=u], _adj._ oblique: intersecting a road, river, &c. not at right
angles, as a bridge.--_adv._ awry: obliquely.--_v.t._ to turn aside.--_n._
a deviation, a mistake: a squint: (_archit._) the sloping top of a buttress
slanting off against a wall.--_ns._ SKEW'-ARCH, an arch standing obliquely
on its abutments; SKEW'-BACK (_archit._), the course of masonry on the top
of an abutment with a slope for the base of the arch to rest
against.--_adj._ SKEW'-BALD, spotted irregularly, piebald.--_n._
SKEW'-BRIDGE, a bridge having its arch or arches set obliquely on its
abutments, as when a railway crosses a road, &c., at an oblique
angle.--_adjs._ SKEWED, distorted; SKEW-GEE' (_coll._), crooked.--_n._
SKEW'-WHEEL, a bevel-wheel with teeth formed obliquely on the rim. [Old
Dut. _sch[=u]wen_ (Dut. _schuwen_); Ger. _scheuen_, to shun; cf. _Shy_.]

SKEWER, sk[=u]'[.e]r, _n._ a pin of wood or iron for keeping meat in form
while roasting.--_v.t._ to fasten with skewers. [Prov. Eng. _skiver_, prob.
the same as _shiver_, a splinter of wood.]

SKIASCOPY, sk[=i]'a-sk[=o]-pi, _n._ the shadow-test for measuring the
refraction of an eye.--Also SC[=I]'ASCOPY. [Gr. _skia_, a shadow,
_skopein_, to view.]

SKID, skid, _n._ a piece of timber hung against a ship's side to protect it
from injury: a sliding wedge or drag to check the wheel of a wagon on a
steep place: a slab put below a gun to keep it off the ground.--_v.t._ to
check with a skid.--_v.i._ to slide along without revolving.--_n._
SKID'DER, one who uses a skid. [Scand., Ice. _skídh_; A.S. _scíd_, a piece
split off.]

SKIEY, sk[=i]'i, _adj._ Same as SKYEY.

SKIFF, skif, _n._ a small light boat. [A doublet of _ship_.]

SKIFF, skif, _adj._ (_prov._) distorted: awkward.

SKILL, skil, _n._ knowledge of anything: dexterity in practice.--_v.i._ to
understand, to be dexterous in: to make a difference, to signify.--_adj._
SKIL'FUL, having or displaying skill: dexterous.--_adv._ SKIL'FULLY.--_n._
SKIL'FULNESS.--_adjs._ SKILLED, having skill: skilful: expert; SKIL'LESS
(_Shak._), wanting skill, artless. [Scand., as Ice. _skil_, a distinction,
_skilja_, to separate.]

SKILLET, skil'et, _n._ a small metal vessel with a long handle, used for
boiling water, in cooking, &c. [Prob. from O. Fr. _escuellette_, dim of
_escuelle_ (Fr. _écuelle_)--L. _scutella_, dim. of _scutra_, a dish.]

SKILLIGALEE, skil-i-ga-l[=e]', _n._ thin watery soup.--Also SKILLIGOLEE',
SKILL'Y. [Ety. dub.]

SKILLING, skil'ing, _n._ a small coin formerly current in North Germany and
Scandinavia, in value from ¼d. to 1d. [Dan.]

SKILTS, skilts, _n.pl._ short loose trousers.

SKILVINGS, skil'vingz, _n.pl._ (_prov._) the rails of a cart.

SKIM, skim, _v.t._ to clear off scum: to take off by skimming: to brush the
surface of lightly.--_v.i._ to pass over lightly: to glide along near the
surface: to become coated over:--_pr.p._ skim'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
skimmed.--_n._ the act of skimming: what is skimmed off.--_ns._ SKIM'MER, a
utensil for skimming milk: a bird that skims the water; SKIM'-MILK, skimmed
milk: milk from which the cream has been skimmed; SKIM'MING, the act of
taking off that which floats on the surface of a liquid, as cream: that
which is taken off, scum.--_adv._ SKIM'MINGLY, by skimming along the
surface. [_Scum_.]

SKIMBLE-SKAMBLE, skim'bl-skam'bl, _adj._ wandering, wild, rambling,
incoherent.--_adv._ in a confused manner. [A reduplication of _scamble_.]

SKIMMINGTON, skim'ing-ton, _n._ a burlesque procession intended to ridicule
a henpecked husband: a riot generally.--Also SKIM'INGTON, SKIM'MERTON,
SKIM'ITRY. [Ety. unknown.]

SKIMP, skimp, _v.t._ to give scanty measure, to stint: to do a thing
imperfectly.--_v.i._ to be parsimonious.--_adj._ scanty, spare.--_adj._
SKIM'PING, sparing: meagre: done inefficiently.--_adv._
SKIM'PINGLY.--_adj._ SKIM'PY. [A variant of _scamp_.]

SKIN, skin, _n._ the natural outer covering of an animal body: a hide: the
bark or rind of plants, &c.: the inside covering of the ribs of a ship: a
drink of whisky hot.--_v.t._ to cover with skin: to cover the surface of:
to strip the skin from, to peel: to plunder, cheat: to answer an
examination paper, &c., by unfair means.--_v.i._ to become covered with
skin: to sneak off:--_pr.p._ skin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
skinned.--_adj._ SKIN'-DEEP, as deep as the skin only: superficial.--_ns._
SKIN'FLINT, one who takes the smallest gains: a very niggardly person;
SKIN'FUL, as much as one can hold, esp. of liquor.--_adj._ SKIN'LESS,
having no skin, or a very thin one.--_ns._ SKIN'NER; SKIN'NINESS.--_adjs._
SKIN'NY, consisting of skin or of skin only: wanting flesh; SKIN'-TIGHT,
fitting close to the skin.--_n._ SKIN'-WOOL, wool pulled from the skin of a
dead sheep.--BY, or WITH, THE SKIN OF ONE'S TEETH, very narrowly; CLEAN
SKINS, unbranded cattle; SAVE ONE'S SKIN, to escape without injury. [A.S.
_scinn_; Ice. _skinn_, skin, Ger. _schinden_, to flay.]

SKINK, skingk, _n._ drink.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to serve drink.--_n._
SKINK'ER, one who serves drink, a tapster.--_adj._ SKINK'ING (_Scot._),
thin, watery. [A.S. _scencan_, to pour out drink; Ger. _schenken_.]

SKINK, skingk, _n._ an African lizard. [L. _scincus_--Gr. _skingkos_, the

SKINK, skingk, _n._ (_Scot._) a shin-bone of beef, soup made from such.
[Cf. Dut. _schonk_, a bone; cf. _Shank_.]

SKIO, sky[=o], _n._ in Orkney, a fisherman's hut.--Also SKEO. [Norw.
_skjaa_, a shed.]

SKIP, skip, _v.i._ to leap: to bound lightly and joyfully: to pass
over.--_v.t._ to leap over: to omit:--_pr.p._ skip'ping; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ skipped.--_n._ a light leap: a bound: the omission of a part: the
captain of a side at bowls and curling: a college servant.--_ns._
SKIP'JACK, an impudent fellow: the blue-fish, saurel, &c.; SKIP'-KEN'NEL,
one who has to jump the gutters, a lackey; SKIP'PER, one who skips: a
dancer: (_Shak._) a young thoughtless person: a hesperian
butterfly.--_adj._ SKIP'PING, flighty, giddy.--_adv._ SKIP'PINGLY, in a
skipping manner: by skips or leaps.--_n._ SKIP'PING-ROPE, a rope used in
skipping. [Either Celt., according to Skeat, from Ir. _sgiob_, to snatch,
Gael. _sgiab_, to move suddenly, W. _ysgipio_, to snatch away; or Teut.,
conn. with Ice. _skopa_, to run.]

SKIP, skip, _n._ an iron box for raising ore running between guides, or in
inclined shafts fitted with wheels to run on a track, a mine-truck.

SKIPETAR, skip'e-tär, _n._ an Albanian: the Albanian language. [Albanian
_skipetar_, a mountaineer.]

SKIPPER, skip'[.e]r, _n._ the master of a merchant-ship.--SKIPPER'S
DAUGHTERS, white-topped waves. [Dut. _schipper_; Dan. _skipper_.]

SKIPPER, skip'[.e]r, _n._ a barn, a shed in which to shelter for the
night.--_v.i._ to shelter in such a place.--_n._ SKIPP'ER-BIRD, a tramp.
[Prob. W. _ysguber_, a barn.]

SKIPPET, skip'et, _n._ (_Spens._) a small boat. [Dim. of A.S. _scip_,

SKIPPET, skip'et, _n._ a round flat box for holding a seal, which used to
be attached to the parchment by ribbons passing through the lid.

SKIRL, skirl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Scot._) to shriek shrilly.--_n._ a shrill
cry.--_n._ SKIR'LING, a shrill sound.

SKIRMISH, sk[.e]r'mish, _n._ an irregular fight between two small parties:
a contest.--_v.i._ to fight slightly or irregularly.--_ns._ SKIR'MISHER, a
soldier belonging to troops dispersed to cover front or flank, and prevent
surprises; SKIR'MISHING. [O. Fr. _escarmouche_--Old High Ger. _skerman_,
_scirman_, to fight.]

SKIRR, sk[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to ramble over, to scour.--_v.i._ to run
in haste. [_Scurry_.]

SKIRRET, skir'et, _n._ an edible water-parsnip: a perennial plant, native
to China and Japan. [_Sugar-root_.]

SKIRT, sk[.e]rt, _n._ the part of a garment below the waist: a woman's
garment like a petticoat: the edge of any part of the dress: border:
margin: extreme part.--_v.t._ to border: to form the edge of.--_v.i._ to be
on the border: to live near the extremity.--_ns._ SKIRT'-DANC'ING, a form
of ballet-dancing in which the flowing skirts are waved about in the hands;
SKIR'TER, a huntsman who dodges his jumps by going round about; SKIR'TING,
strong material made up in lengths for women's skirts: skirting-board;
SKIR'TING-BOARD, the narrow board next the floor round the walls of a
room.--DIVIDED SKIRT, a skirt in the form of loose trousers. [Scand., Ice.
_skyrta_, a shirt. A doublet of _shirt_.]

SKIT, skit, _n._ any sarcastic squib, lampoon, or pamphlet. [Ice. _skúti_,
a taunt.]

SKITE, sk[=i]t, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to glide or slip--also SKYTE.--_n._ a
sudden blow: a trick.--_vs.i._ SKIT, to leap aside: to caper; SKIT'TER, to
skim lightly over: to void thin excrement: to draw a baited hook along the
surface of water. [Scand., Sw. _skutta_, to leap, _skjuta_, to shoot.]

SKITTISH, skit'ish, _adj._ unsteady, light-headed, easily frightened:
hasty, volatile, changeable: wanton.--_adv._ SKITT'ISHLY.--_n._

SKITTLES, skit'lz, _n.pl._ a game of ninepins in which a flattened ball or
thick rounded disc is thrown to knock down the pins--played in a
SKITT'LE-ALL'EY, or -GROUND. In American Bowls, the game is played with ten
pins arranged in the form of a triangle, the missile being rolled along a
carefully constructed wooden floor.--_v.t._ SKITT'LE, to knock down.--n
SKITT'LE-BALL, the ball thrown in playing at skittles. [A variant of
_shittle_ or _shuttle_.]

SKIVER, sk[=i]'v[.e]r, _n._ a kind of leather made of split sheep-skins,
used for bookbinding, &c.--_n._ a machine for skiving leather.--_v.t._
SKIVE, to cut, pare off.--_n._ SK[=I]'VING, the act of skiving: a piece
skived off--of leather, usually on the flesh side. [From root of _shive_,

SKIVER, sk[=i]'v[.e]r, _v.t._ (_prov._) to run through, to skewer.

SKIVIE, skiv'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) deranged: askew.

SKLENT, a Scotch form of _slant_.

SKOAL, sk[=o]l, _interj._ hail! a friendly exclamation of salutation before
drinking, &c. [Ice. _skál_; Norw. _skaal_, a bowl, Sw. _skål_.]

SKOLION, sk[=o]'li-on, _n._ a short drinking-song in ancient Greece, taken
up by the guests in turn:--_pl._ SK[=O]'LIA. [Gr.]


SKRYER, skr[=i]'[.e]r, _n._ one who uses the divining-glass.

SKUA, sk[=u]'a, _n._ a bird of the family _Laridæ_, esp. the Great Skua
(_Stercorarius catarrhactes_), a rapacious bird about two feet long, the
plumage predominantly brown, breeding in the Shetlands.--_n._
SK[=U]'A-GULL. [Norw.]

SKUE, sk[=u], an obsolete form of _skew_.

SKUG, SCUG, skug, _n._ (prov.) shelter.--_v.t._ to shelter: to
expiate.--_n._ SKUG'GERY, SCUG'GERY, secrecy.--_adjs._ SKUG'GY, SCUG'GY,
shady. [Ice. _skuggi_, a shade.]

SKUG, skug, _n._ (_prov._) a squirrel.


SKULK, skulk, _v.i._ to sneak out of the way: to lurk.--_ns._ SKULK,
SKULK'ER, one who skulks.--_adv._ SKULK'INGLY.--_n._ SKULK'ING-PLACE.
[Scand., as in Dan. _skulke_, to sneak; conn. with Ice. _skjöl_, cover,
hiding-place; also with Eng. _scowl_.]

SKULL, skul, _n._ the bony case that encloses the brain: the head, the
sconce, noddle: a crust formed on the ladle, &c., by the partial cooling of
molten metal: in armour, the crown of the head-piece: (_Scot._) a shallow,
bow-handled basket.--_n._ SKULL'CAP, a cap which fits closely to the head:
the sinciput.--_adj._ SKULL'-LESS.--SKULL AND CROSS-BONES, a symbolic
emblem of death and decay. [Ice. _skál_, a shell; conn. with _shell_ and
_scale_, a thin plate.]


SKUNK, skungk, _n._ a small North American carnivorous quadruped allied to
the otter and weasel, defending itself by emitting an offensive fluid: a
low fellow: (_U.S._) a complete defeat.--_v.t._ to inflict such.--_ns._
SKUNK'-BIRD, -BLACK'BIRD, the male bobolink in full plumage. [Indian

SKUPSHTINA, skoopsh'ti-na, _n._ the national assembly of Servia, having one
chamber and 178 deputies, three-fourths elected and one-fourth nominated by
the crown.--GREAT SKUPSHTINA, specially elected for discussing graver


SKY, sk[=i], _n._ the apparent canopy over our heads: the heavens: the
weather: the upper rows of pictures in a gallery.--_v.t._ to raise aloft,
esp. to hang pictures above the line of sight.--_adjs._ SKY'-BLUE, blue
like the sky; SKY'-BORN, of heavenly birth.--_n._ SKY'-COL'OUR, the colour
of the sky.--_adjs._ SKY'-COL'OURED, blue, azure; SKYED, surrounded by sky;
SKY'EY, like the sky: ethereal; SKY'-HIGH, very high; SKY'ISH (_Shak._),
like or approaching the sky, lofty.--_n._ SKY'LARK, a species of lark that
mounts high towards the sky and sings on the wing.--_v.i._ to engage in any
kind of boisterous frolic.--_ns._ SKY'LARKING, running about the rigging of
a ship in sport: frolicking; SKY'-LIGHT, a window in a roof or ceiling
towards the sky for the admission of light; SKY'LINE, the horizon;
SKY'-PAR'LOUR, a lofty attic; SKY'-P[=I]'LOT, a clergyman.--_adj._
SKY'-PLANT'ED, placed in the sky.--_n._ SKY'-ROCK'ET, a rocket that ascends
high towards the sky and burns as it flies.--_v.i._ to move like a
sky-rocket, to rise and disappear as suddenly.--_ns._ SKY'SAIL, the sail
above the royal; SKY'SCAPE, a view of a portion of the sky, or a picture of
the same; SKY'-SCR[=A]P'ER, a sky-sail of a triangular shape: anything
shooting high into the sky.--_adj._ SKY'-TINC'TURED, of the colour of the
sky.--_adv._ SKY'WARD, toward the sky. [Ice. _ský_, a cloud; akin to A.S.
_scúa_, Gr. _skia_, a shadow.]

SKYE, sk[=i], _n._ for Skye terrier. [See _Terrier_.]

SKYR, skir, _n._ curds. [Ice.]

SKYRIN, sk[=i]'rin, _adj._ (_Scot._) shining, showy.

SLAB, slab, _n._ a thin slip of anything, esp. of stone, having plane
surfaces: a piece sawed from a log.--_v.t._ to cut slabs from, as a
log.--_adj._ SLAB'-SID'ED, having long flat sides, tall and lank.--_n._
SLAB'STONE, flagstone. [Scand., Ice. _sleppa_, to slip, Norw. _sleip_, a
slab of wood.]

SLAB, slab, _adj._ thick.--_n._ mud.--_adj._ SLAB'BY, muddy. [Celt., Ir.,
and Gael. _slaib_, mud.]

SLABBER, slab'[.e]r, _v.i._ to slaver: to let the saliva fall from the
mouth: to drivel.--_v.t._ to wet with saliva.--_n._ SLABB'ERER.--_adj._
SLABB'ERY.--_n._ SLABB'INESS.--_adj._ SLABB'Y. [Allied to Low Ger. and Dut.
_slabbern_; imit. Doublet _slaver_.]

SLACK, slak, _adj._ lax or loose: not firmly extended or drawn out: not
holding fast, weak: not eager or diligent, inattentive: not violent or
rapid, slow.--_adv._ in a slack manner: partially: insufficiently.--_n._
that part of a rope, belt, &c. which is slack or loose: a period of
inactivity: a slack-water haul of a net.--_vs.i._ SLACK, SLACK'EN, to
become loose or less tight: to be remiss: to abate: to become slower: to
fail or flag.--_v.t._ to make less tight: to loosen: to relax: to remit: to
abate: to withhold: to use less liberally: to check: (_B._) to
delay.--_v.t._ SLACK'-BAKE, to half-bake.--_adj._--SLACK'-HAND'ED,
remiss.--_n._ SLACK'-JAW (_slang_), impudent talk.--_adv._ SLACK'LY.--_n._
SLACK'NESS.--_adj._--SLACK'-SALT'ED, insufficiently salted.--_n._
SLACK'-WA'TER, ebb-tide: slow-moving water, as that above a dam.--_adj._
pertaining to slack-water.--SLACK AWAY, to ease off freely; SLACK-IN-STAYS,
slow in going about, of a ship; SLACK OFF, to ease off; SLACK UP, to ease
off: to slow. [A.S. _sleac_; Sw. _slak_, Ice. _slakr_.]

SLACK, slak, _n._ coal-dross. [Ger. _schlacke_.]

SLACK, slak, _n._ (_Scot._) a cleft between hills: a common: a boggy place.
[Scand., Ice. _slakki_, a hill-slope.]

SLADE, sl[=a]d, _n._ a little valley or dell; a piece of low, moist ground.
[A.S. _slæd_, a plain; prob. Celt., Ir. _slad_.]

SLADE, sl[=a]d, _n._ a peat-spade.

SLAE, a Scotch form of sloe.

SLAG, slag, _n._ vitrified cinders from smelting-works, &c.: the scoriæ of
a volcano.--_v.i._ to cohere into slag.--_adj._ SLAG'GY, pertaining to, or
like, slag. [Sw. _slagg_; cf. Ger. _schlacke_, dross.]

SLAIN, sl[=a]n, _pa.p._ of slay.

SLAISTER, sl[=a]s't[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._) a slobbery mess, slovenly
work.--_v.t._ to bedaub.--_v.i._ to slabber: to move about in a dirty,
slovenly manner.--_adj._ SLAIS'TERY. [Prob. Sw. _slaska_, to dabble, slask,

SLAKE, sl[=a]k, _v.t._ to quench: to extinguish: to mix with water: to make
slack or inactive.--_v.i._ to go out: to become extinct.--_adj._
SLAKE'LESS, that cannot be slaked: inextinguishable. [A.S. _sleacian_, to
grow slack--_sleccan_, to make slack--_sleac_, slack.]

SLAKE, sl[=a]k, _n._ a channel through a swamp or morass: slime. [Ice.
_slakki_, a hill-slope.]

SLAKE, sl[=a]k, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to besmear.--_n._ a slabbery daub. [Prob.
conn. with Ice. _sleikja_, to lick; Ger. _schlecken_, to lick.]

SLAM, slam, _v.t._ or _v.i._ to shut with violence and noise: to throw down
with violence: to win all the tricks in a card-game:--_pr.p._ slam'ming;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slammed.--_n._ the act of slamming: the sound so made:
the winning of all the tricks at whist, &c. [Scand., Norw. _slemma_, Ice.

SLAM, slam, _n._ an old card-game.

SLAM, slam, _n._ a shambling fellow. [Cf. Dut. _slomp_, Ger. _schlampe_.]

SLAMKIN, slam'kin, _n._ a loose 18th-century women's morning-gown.--Also

SLANDER, slan'd[.e]r, _n._ a false or malicious report: malicious
defamation by words spoken: calumny.--_v.t._ to defame: to
calumniate.--_n._ SLAN'DERER.--_adj._ SLAN'DEROUS, given to, or containing,
slander: calumnious.--_adv._ SLAN'DEROUSLY.--_n._ SLAN'DEROUSNESS, the
state or quality of being slanderous. [O. Fr. _esclandre_--L.
_scandalum_--Gr. _skandalon_.]

SLANG, slang, _n._ a conventional tongue with many dialects, which are, as
a rule, unintelligible to outsiders, such as Gypsy, Canting or Flash,
Back-slang, and Shelta or Tinkers' Talk: any kind of colloquial and
familiar language serving as a kind of class or professional
shibboleth.--_adj._ pertaining to slang.--_v.i._ to use slang, and esp.
abusive language.--_v.t._ to scold.--_adv._ SLANG'ILY.--_n._
SLANG'INESS.--_adj._ SLANG'ULAR, slangy.--_v.i._ SLANG'-WHANG, to talk
slangily or boisterously.--_n._ SLANG'-WHANG'ER, an abusive and wordy
fellow.--_adj._ SLANG'Y. [Explained by Skeat as Scand., Norw. _sleng_, a
slinging, a device, a burthen of a song, _slengja_, to sling. Leland boldly
makes it Romany, and orig. applied to everything relating to shows--in
Hindustani, _Swangi_, also often _Slangi_.]

SLANG, slang, _n._ a narrow strip of land.--Also SLANK'ET. SLANG, slang,
_n._ (_slang_) a counterfeit weight or measure: a travelling show, or a
performance of the same: a hawker's license: a watch-chain: (_pl._)
convicts' leg-irons.

SLANT, slant, _adj._ sloping: oblique: inclined from a direct line--also
SLAN'TING.--_n._ a slope: a gibe: (_slang_) a chance.--_v.i._ to turn in a
sloping direction.--_v.i._ to slope, to incline towards: (_Scot._) to
exaggerate, to lie.--_adj._ SLANTENDIC'[=U]LAR, oblique: indirect.--_advs._
SLAN'TINGLY, in a slanting direction: with a slope or inclination;
SLANT'LY, SLANT'WISE, in a sloping, oblique, or inclined
manner.--SLANT-OF-WIND, a transitory breeze of favourable wind. [Scand.,
Sw. _slinta_, to slide.]

SLAP, slap, _n._ a blow with the hand or anything flat.--_v.t._ to give a
slap to:--_pr.p._ slap'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slapped.--_adv._ with a
slap: suddenly, violently.--_adj._ (_slang_) first-rate.--_adv._
SLAP'-BANG, violently, all at once.--_adj._ dashing, violent.--_n._ a cheap
eating-house.--_adv._ SLAP'-DASH, in a bold, careless way.--_adj._
off-hand, rash.--_n._ rough-cast harling: carelessly done work.--_v.t._ to
do anything in a hasty, imperfect manner: to rough-cast with mortar.--_n._
SLAP'PER (_slang_), anything big of its kind.--_adjs._ SLAP'PING, very
large; SLAP'-UP, excellent, very grand. [Allied to Low Ger. _slapp_, Ger.
_schlappe_; imit.]

SLAP, slap, _n._ (_Scot._) a gap in a fence: a narrow cleft between
hills.--_v.t._ to break an opening in.

SLAPE, sl[=a]p, _adj._ (_prov._) slippery, crafty. [Ice. _sleipr_, sleppr,
slippery--slípa, to be smooth.]

SLAPJACK=_Flapjack_ (q.v.).

SLASH, slash, _v.t._ to cut by striking with violence and at random: to
make long cuts: to ornament by cutting slits in the cloth in order to show
some fine material underneath.--_v.i._ to strike violently and at random
with an edged instrument: to strike right and left: to move rapidly.--_n._
a long cut: a cut at random: a cut in cloth to show colours underneath: a
stripe on a non-commissioned officer's sleeve: a clearing in a
wood.--_adj._ SLASHED, cut with slashes: gashed.--_ns._ SLASH'ER, anything
which slashes; SLASH'ING, a slash in a garment: the felling of trees as a
military obstacle, also the trees so felled.--_adj._ cutting mercilessly,
unsparing: dashing: very big, slapping. [O. Fr. _eslecher_, to
dismember--Old High Ger. _sl[=i]zan_, to split.]

SLASH, slash, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to work in wet.--_n._ a large quantity of
watery food, as broth, &c.--_adj._ SLASH'Y, dirty, muddy. [Sw. _slaska_,
dabble--_slask_, wet.]

SLAT, slat, _v.t._ to strike, beat.--_v.i._ to flap violently.--_n._ a
sudden sharp blow. [Scand., Ice. _sletta_, to slap, Norw. _sletta_, to

SLAT, slat, _n._ a thin piece of stone, a slate: a strip of wood.--_adj._
made of slats.--_adj._ SLAT'TED, covered with slats. [O. Fr. _esclat_--Old
High Ger. _sl[=i]zan_, to slit.]

SLATCH, slach, _n._ the slack of a rope: an interval of fair weather: a
short breeze. [SLACK.]

SLATE, sl[=a]t, _n._ a highly metamorphosed argillaceous rock, fine-grained
and fissile, and of a dull blue, gray, purple, or green colour--used in
thin slabs of small size for ordinary roofs, and in larger slabs for
dairy-fittings, wash-tubs, cisterns, tables, &c., and when polished for
writing-slates and 'black-boards:' a piece of slate for roofing, or for
writing upon: a preliminary list of candidates before a caucus.--_adj._
bluish-gray, slate-coloured.--_v.t._ to cover with slate: to enter on a
slate.--_ns._ SLATE'-AXE, a slater's tool, a sax; SLATE'-CLAY, a fissile
shale.--_adjs._ SL[=A]'TED, covered with slates; SLATE'-GRAY, of a light
slate colour.--_ns._ SLATE'-PEN'CIL, a cut or turned stick of soft slate,
or of compressed moistened slate-powder, for writing on slate; SL[=A]'TER;
SL[=A]'TINESS, the quality of being slaty; SL[=A]'TING, the act of covering
with slates: a covering of slates: materials for slating.--_adj._
SL[=A]'TY, resembling slate: having the nature or properties of slate. [O.
Fr. _esclat_--Old High Ger. _sl[=i]zan_, Ger. _schleissen_, to split.]

SLATE, sl[=a]t, _v.t._ to abuse, criticise severely: (_prov._) to set a dog
at.--_n._ SL[=A]'TING, a severe criticism. [A.S. _slítan_, to slit.]

SLATER, sl[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ a terrestrial oniscid isopod, as the common
_Porcellio scaber_.

SLATHER, slath'[.e]r, _n._ (_slang_) a large quantity.

SLATTERN, slat'[.e]rn, _n._ a woman negligent of her dress: an untidy
woman.--_v.i._ SLATT'ER (_prov._), to be untidy or slovenly.--_n._
SLATT'ERNLINESS.--_adj._ SLATT'ERNLY, like a slattern: negligent of person:
slovenly: dirty: sluttish.--_adv._ negligently: untidily.--_adj._ SLATT'ERY
(_prov._) wet. [From _slatter_, a freq. of _slat_, to strike (q.v.).]

SLAUGHTER, slaw't[.e]r, _n._ a killing: a great destruction of life:
carnage: butchery.--_ns._ SLAUGH'TERER; SLAUGH'TERHOUSE, a place where
beasts are killed for the market; SLAUGH'TERMAN, a man employed in killing
or butchering animals.--_adj._ SLAUGH'TEROUS, given to slaughter:
destructive: murderous.--_adv._ SLAUGH'TEROUSLY. [Prob. Ice. _slátr_,
butchers' meat, whence _slátra_, to slaughter cattle. The A.S. is
_sleaht_--_sleán_, to slay.]

SLAV, SLAVE, släv, _n._ one belonging to any of the Slavonic groups of
Aryans--Bulgarians, Czechs, Poles, Russians, Servians, Wends, &c.--_adj._
SLAV'IC. [_Slovene_ or _Slovane_, from Polish _slovo_, a word, thus meaning
the people who spoke intelligibly, as distinguished from their neighbour,
_Niemets_, the German, lit. the dumb man. Miklosich considers both to be
tribal names.]

SLAVE, sl[=a]v, _n._ a captive in servitude: any one in bondage: a serf:
one who labours like a slave: a drudge: one wholly under the will of
another: one who has lost all power of resistance.--_v.i._ to work like a
slave: to drudge.--_adj._ SLAVE'-BORN, born in slavery.--_ns._
SLAVE'-DR[=I]'VER, one who superintends slaves at their work; SLAVE'-FORK,
a long and heavy branch into the forked end of which a slave's neck is
fixed to prevent his escaping from the slave-trader's gang.--_adj._
SLAVE'-GROWN, grown on land worked by slaves.--_ns._ SLAVE'-HOLD'ER, an
owner of slaves; SLAVE'-HOLD'ING; SLAVE'-HUNT, a hunt after runaway slaves;
SL[=A]'VER, a ship employed in the slave-trade; SL[=A]'VERY, the state of
being a slave: serfdom: the state of being entirely under the will of
another: bondage: drudgery; SLAVE'-SHIP, a ship used for transporting
slaves.--_n.pl._ SLAVE'-STATES, those states of the American Union which
maintained domestic slavery before the Civil War--Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee.--_ns._
SLAVE'-TRADE, the trade of buying and selling slaves; SLAVE'-TR[=A]'DER, a
trader in slaves; SL[=A]'VEY (_slang_), a domestic drudge, a
maid-servant.--_adj._ SL[=A]'VISH, of or belonging to slaves: becoming
slaves: servile: mean: base: laborious.--_adv._ SL[=A]'VISHLY.--_ns._
SL[=A]'VISHNESS; SL[=A]VOC'RACY, slave-owners collectively, or their
interests, &c.; SL[=A]'VOCRAT, a member of the slavocracy. [O. Fr.
_esclave_--Mid. High Ger. _slave_ (Ger. _sclave_), from _Slav_, above.]

SLAVER, slav'[.e]r, _n._ spittle or saliva running from the mouth.--_v.i._
to let the saliva run out of the mouth.--_v.t._ to smear with saliva.--_n._
SLAV'ERER.--_adv._ SLAV'ERINGLY, in a slavering manner.--_adj._ SLAV'ERY,
slabbery. [_Slabber_.]

SLAVONIC, sla-von'ik, _adj._ of or belonging to the _Slavs_, or their
language--also SCLAVON'IC, SLAV[=O]'NIAN, SCLAV[=O]'NIAN.--_vs.t._
SLAVON'ICISE, SLAV'ONISE, to render Slavonic in character, language,
&c.--_ns._ SLAV'OPHIL, one devoted to promoting the interests of the
Slavonic peoples; SLAV'OPHILISM, Slavophil feelings and aims;
SLAV'OPH[=O]BIST, one who dreads the growth of Slav influence.

SLAW, slaw, _n._ sliced cabbage eaten as a salad. [Dut. _slaa_.]

SLAY, sl[=a], _v.t._ to strike: to kill: to put to death: to
destroy:--_pa.t._ slew (sl[=oo]); _pa.p._ slain (sl[=a]n).--_n._ SLAY'ER.
[A.S. _sleán_; Ice. _slá_, Goth. _slahan_, Ger. _schlagen_, to strike.]

SLEAVE, sl[=e]v, _n._ the ravelled, knotty part of silk thread: (_Shak._)
floss-silk.--_v.t._ to separate, as threads:--_pr.p._ sleav'ing; _pa.p._
sleaved. [Cf. Dan. _slöife_, a loose knot, Sw. _slejf_, a knot of ribbon,
Ger. _schleife_, a loop.]

SLEAZY, sl[=a]'zi, or sl[=e]'zi, _adj._ thin and flimsy.--_n._ SLEA'ZINESS.
[Prob. Ger. _schleissig_, worn out, readily split--schleissen, to split.]

SLED, sled, SLEDGE, slej, _n._ a carriage with runners made for sliding
upon snow: a sleigh: anything dragged without wheels along the
ground.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to convey, or to travel, in a sled.--_p.adj._
SLED'DED (_Shak._), sledged.--_ns._ SLED'DING, the act of transporting on a
sled; SLEDGE'-CHAIR, a chair mounted on runners for ice. [Ice. _sledhi_;
from a root seen in A.S. _slídan_, to slide.]

SLEDGE, slej, _n._ an instrument for striking: a large heavy hammer used
chiefly by ironsmiths. [A.S. _slecg_--_sleán_, to strike, slay (cf. Ger.
_schlägel_, a beater--schlagen).]

SLEEK, sl[=e]k, _adj._ smooth: glossy: soft, not rough: insinuating,
plausible: dexterous.--_v.t._ to make smooth or glossy: to calm or
soothe.--_v.i._ to glide.--_advs._ SLEEK, SLICK, neatly.--_v.t._ SLEEK'EN,
to make smooth or sleek.--_ns._ SLEEK'ER, SLICK'ER, a tool for dressing the
surface of leather.--_adj._ SLEEK'-HEAD'ED, having a smooth head.--_n._
SLEEK'ING, the act of making smooth.--_adj._ SLEEK'IT (_Scot._), having a
smooth skin: sly, cunning, fair-spoken.--_adv._ SLEEK'LY.--_ns._
SLEEK'NESS; SLEEK'-STONE, a smooth stone used for polishing
anything.--_adj._ SLEEK'Y, smooth: sly, untrustworthy. [Scand., Ice.
_slíkr_, sleek; cf. Dut. _slijk_, Ger. _schlick_, grease.]

SLEEP, sl[=e]p, _v.i._ to take rest by relaxation: to become unconscious:
to slumber: to rest: to be motionless or inactive: to remain unnoticed: to
live thoughtlessly: to be dead: to rest in the grave:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
slept.--_n._ the state of one who, or that which, sleeps: slumber: rest:
the dormancy of some animals during winter: (_bot._) nyctitropism.--_n._
SLEEP'ER, one who sleeps: a horizontal timber supporting a weight, rails,
&c.--_adv._ SLEEP'ILY.--_n._ SLEEP'INESS.--_p.adj._ SLEEP'ING, occupied
with, or for, sleeping: dormant.--_n._ the state of resting in sleep:
(_Shak._) the state of being at rest or in abeyance.--_ns._ SLEEP'ING-CAR,
-CARRIAGE, a railway-carriage in which passengers have berths for sleeping
in; SLEEP'ING-DRAUGHT, a drink given to bring on sleep; SLEEP'ING-PART'NER
(see PARTNER).--_adj._ SLEEP'LESS, without sleep: unable to sleep.--_adv._
SLEEP'LESSLY.--_ns._ SLEEP'LESSNESS; SLEEP'-WALK'ER, one who walks while
asleep: a somnambulist; SLEEP'-WALKING.--_adj._ SLEEP'Y, inclined to sleep:
drowsy: dull: lazy.--_n._ SLEEP'YHEAD, a lazy person.--ON SLEEP (_B._),
asleep. [A.S. _sl['æ]pan_--_sl['æ]p_; Ger. _schlaf_, Goth. _sleps_.]

SLEET, sl[=e]t, _n._ rain mingled with snow or hail.--_v.i._ to hail or
snow with rain mingled.--_n._ SLEET'INESS.--_adj._ SLEET'Y. [Scand., Norw.
_sletta_, sleet.]

SLEEVE, sl[=e]v, _n._ the part of a garment which covers the arm: a tube
into which a rod or other tube is inserted.--_v.t._ to furnish with
sleeves.--_ns._ SLEEVE'-BAND (_Shak._), the wristband; SLEEVE'-BUTT'ON, a
button or stud for the wristband or cuff.--_adjs._ SLEEVED, furnished with
sleeves; SLEEVE'LESS, without sleeves.--_ns._ SLEEVE'-LINK, two buttons,
&c., joined by a link for holding together the two edges of the cuff or
wristband; SLEEVE'-NUT, a double-nut for attaching the joint-ends of rods
or tubes; SLEEVE'-WAIST'COAT, SLEEVED'-WAIST'COAT, a waistcoat with long
sleeves, worn by porters, boots, &c.--HANG ON THE SLEEVE, to be dependent
on some one; HAVE IN ONE'S SLEEVE, to have in readiness for any emergency;
LAUGH IN ONE'S SLEEVE, to laugh behind one's sleeve, to laugh privately or
unperceived; LEG-OF-MUTTON SLEEVE, a woman's sleeve full in the middle,
tight at arm-hole and wrist. [A.S. _sléfe_, _sléf_, a sleeve--_slúpan_, to
slip; cog. with Ger. _schlauf_.]

SLEEZY=_Sleazy_ (q.v.).

SLEIDED, sl[=a]d'ed, _adj._ (_Shak._) unwoven. [_Sley_.]

SLEIGH, sl[=a], _n._ same as SLED.--_ns._ SLEIGH'-BELL, a small bell
attached to a sleigh or its harness; SLEIGH'ING, the act of riding in a
sleigh or sled.

SLEIGHT, sl[=i]t, _n._ cunning: dexterity: an artful trick.--_n._
SLEIGHT'-OF-HAND, legerdemain. [Ice. _slægth_, cunning, _slægr_, sly.]

SLENDER, slen'd[.e]r, _adj._ thin or narrow: feeble: inconsiderable:
simple: meagre, inadequate, poorly furnished.--_adv._ SLEN'DERLY.--_n._
SLEN'DERNESS. [Old Dut. _slinder_, thin, _slinderen_, to drag; cf. Ger.
_schlendern_, to saunter.]

SLEPT, slept, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _sleep_.

SLEUTH-HOUND, sl[=oo]th'-hownd, _n._ a dog that tracks game by the scent, a
blood-hound. [_Slot_.]

SLEW, sl[=oo], _pa.t._ of _slay_.

SLEY, sl[=a], _n._ the reed of a weaver's loom. [A.S. _sl['æ]_--_sleán_, to

SLICE, sl[=i]s, _v.t._ to slit or divide into thin pieces.--_n._ a thin
broad piece: a broad knife for serving fish.--_n._ SL[=I]'CER, one who, or
that which, slices: a broad, flat knife. [O. Fr. _esclice_--Old High Ger.
_sl[=i]zan_, to split.]

SLICK, slik, _adj._ smooth: smooth-tongued: dexterous in movement or
action.--_adv._ in a smooth manner, deftly. [_Sleek_]

SLICK, slik, _n._ ore finely powdered. [Ger. _schlich_.]

SLICKENSIDES, slik'en-s[=i]dz, _n._ the smooth, polished, or striated, and
generally glazed surfaces of joints and faults in rocks, considered to have
been produced by the friction of the two surfaces during the movement of
the rock.--_adj._ SLICK'ENSIDED. [_Sleek_.]

SLID, slid, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _slide_.

SLIDDEN, slid'n, _pa.p._ of _slide_.

SLIDDER, slid'[.e]r, _v.i._ to slip, slide.--_adj._ SLIDD'ERY, slippery.
[A.S. _sliderian_, to slip, _slidor_, slippery:--_slídan_, to slide.]


SLIDE, sl[=i]d, _v.i._ to slip or glide: to pass along smoothly: to fall:
to slip away quietly, to disappear: (_slang_) to slope, slip away from the
police, &c.--_v.t._ to thrust along: to slip:--_pa.t._ slid; _pa.p._ slid
or slidd'en.--_n._ a smooth passage: the fall of a mass of earth or rock: a
smooth declivity: anything, as a lid, that slides, a glass that slides in a
frame in front of a magic-lantern, bearing the picture to be thrown on the
screen, that part of a photographic plate-holder which serves to cover and
uncover the negative: (_mus._) a melodic embellishment, two notes sliding
into each other: (_slang_) a biscuit covered with ice-cream.--_adj._
SL[=I]'DABLE, capable of sliding or of being slid.--_ns._ SL[=I]'DER, one
who, or that which, slides: the part of an instrument or machine that
slides; SLIDE'-REST, an apparatus adapted to a turning-lathe for carrying
the cutting-tool; SLIDE'-VALVE, a valve in a steam-engine, made to slide
backward and forward to cover and uncover the openings through which steam
enters the cylinder; SL[=I]'DING, act of one who slides: falling:
backsliding.--_p.adj._ slippery: movable, changing.--_ns._
SL[=I]'DING-KEEL, an oblong frame let down vertically through the bottom of
a vessel in order to deepen the draught and sustain against a side-wind;
SL[=I]'DING-RULE (see RULE); SL[=I]'DING-SCALE, a scale of duties which
slide or vary according to the value or market prices: a sliding-rule;
SL[=I]'DING-SEAT, a kind of seat for racing-boats, moving with the swing of
the rower's body; SL[=I]DOM'ETER, an instrument indicating the strain put
on a railway-carriage by sudden stoppage. [A.S. _slídan_, to slide; Dut.
_slidderen_, to slip.]

SLIGHT, sl[=i]t, _adj._ weak: slender: of little value: trifling: small:
negligent: not decided, superficial, cursory: slighting,
disdainful.--_v.t._ to disregard, as of little value: to neglect: (_obs._)
to demolish, smooth.--_n._ neglect: disregard, an act of
discourtesy.--_advs._ SLIGHT'INGLY; SLIGHT'LY.--_n._ SLIGHT'NESS. [Old Low
Ger. _slicht_, plain; Dut. _slecht_, bad, Ger. _schlecht_, straight.]

SLIGHT, sl[=i]t, _n._ (_Spens._), sleight, device, trick.

SLILY, sl[=i]'li, _adv._ See under SLY.

SLIM, slim, _adj._ (_comp._ SLIM'MER, _superl._ SLIM'MEST) very thin, weak,
slender: slight, trivial, unsubstantial: delicate: crafty.--_adv._
SLIM'LY.--_adj._ SLIM'MISH, somewhat slim.--_n._ SLIM'NESS.--_adj._ SLIM'SY
(_U.S._), frail, flimsy. [Old Low Ger. _slim_, crafty; Dan. _slem_,
worthless, Ger. _schlimm_, bad.]

SLIME, sl[=i]m, _n._ glutinous mud: (_B._) probably bitumen.--_n._
SLIME'-PIT, a pit of slime or viscous mire.--_adv._ SL[=I]M'ILY.--_n._
SL[=I]M'INESS.--_adj._ SL[=I]M'Y, abounding with, or consisting of, slime:
glutinous. [A.S. _slím_; Ger. _schleim_.]

SLINESS, sl[=i]'nes, _n._ Same as SLYNESS.

SLING, sling, _n._ a strap or pocket with a string attached to each end,
for hurling a stone: a throw: a hanging bandage for a wounded limb: a rope
with hooks, used in hoisting and lowering weights: a sweep or swing: a
stroke as from a missile thrown from a sling.--_v.t._ to throw with a
sling: to hang so as to swing: to move or swing by means of a rope: to
cast.--_v.i._ to bound along with swinging steps: (_slang_) to blow the
nose with the fingers:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slung.--_ns._ SLING'ER;
SLING'STONE, a stone to be thrown from a sling. [A.S. _slingan_, to turn in
a circle; Ger. _schlingen_, to move or twine round.]

SLING, sling, _n._ toddy with grated nutmeg.

SLINK, slingk, _v.i._ to creep or crawl away, as if ashamed: to
sneak:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slunk. [A.S. _slincan_, to creep; Low Ger.
_sliken_, Ger. _schleichen_.]

SLINK, slingk, _v.t._ to cast prematurely, as a calf.--_v.i._ to
miscarry.--_n._ a calf prematurely born: the flesh of such: a bastard
child.--_adj._ prematurely born: unfit for food: lean, starved:
mean.--_ns._ SLINK'-BUTCH'ER, one who kills and dresses for sale the
carcasses of diseased animals; SLINK'SKIN, the skin of a slink, or leather
made from it.--_adj._ SLINK'Y, lean.

SLIP, slip, _v.i._ to slide or glide along: to move out of place: to
escape: to err: to slink: to enter by oversight.--_v.t._ to cause to slide:
to convey secretly: to omit: to throw off: to let loose: to escape from: to
part from the branch or stem:--_pr.p._ slip'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
slipped.--_n._ act of slipping: that on which anything may slip: an error,
a fault, a slight transgression: an escape: a twig: a strip, a narrow piece
of anything: a leash: a smooth inclined plane, sloping down to the water,
on which a ship is built: anything easily slipped on: (_print._) a long
galley-proof before being made up into pages.--_ns._ SLIP'-BOARD, a board
sliding in grooves; SLIP'-DOCK, a dock having a floor that slopes so that
the lower end is submerged; SLIP'-KNOT, a knot which slips along the rope
or line round which it is made; SLIP'PER, a loose shoe easily slipped
on.--_adj._ (_Spens._) slippery.--_adj._ SLIP'PERED, wearing
slippers.--_adv._ SLIP'PERILY, in a slippery manner.--_ns._ SLIP'PERINESS,
SLIP'PINESS.--_adjs._ SLIP'PERY, SLIP'PY, apt to slip away: smooth: not
affording firm footing or confidence: unstable: uncertain; SLIP'SHOD, shod
with slippers, or shoes down at the heel like slippers: careless.--_n._
SLIP'STITCH.--SLIP OFF, to take off noiselessly or hastily; SLIP ON, to put
on loosely or in haste; SLIP ONE'S BREATH, or wind, to die; SLIP THE LEASH,
to disengage one's self from a noose.--GIVE A PERSON THE SLIP, to escape
stealthily from him. [A.S. _slípan_; Sw. _slippa_, Dut. _slippen_, to
glide, Ger. _schliefen_.]

SLIPE, sl[=i]p, _n._ in mining, a skip or sledge without wheels.

SLIPSLOP, slip'slop, _adj._ slipshod, slovenly.--_n._ thin, watery food: a
blunder.--_v.i._ to slip loosely about.--_adj._ SLIP'SLOPPY, slushy,

SLISH, slish, _n._ (_Shak._) a cut. [A corr. of _slash_.]

SLIT, slit, _v.t._ to cut lengthwise: to split: to cut into
strips:--_pr.p._ slit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slit.--_n._ a long cut: a
narrow opening.--_n._ SLIT'TER, anything which slits, a slitting-shears for
sheet-metal.--_adj._ SLIT'TERED, cut into strips with square ends.--_n._
SLIT'TING-MILL, an establishment in which metal plates are cut into strips
for nail-making: a rotating disc used by gem-cutters for slitting: a
gang-saw used for resawing lumber for blind-slats, fence-pickets, &c. [A.S.
_slítan_; Ger. _schleissen_.]

SLITHER, sli_th_'[.e]r, _v.i._ to slide.--_adj._ slippery.--_n._ a
limestone rubble.--_adjs._ SLITH'ERING, slow, deceitful; SLITH'ERY,
slippery. [A variant of _slidder_.]

SLIVER, sliv'[.e]r, or sl[=i]'v[.e]r, _v.t._ to split, to tear off
lengthwise, to slice.--_n._ a piece cut or rent off, a slice: a continuous
strand of loose untwisted wool or other fibre.--_v.i._ SLIVE, to slide,
skulk. [A.S. _slífan_, to cleave.]

SLOAM, sl[=o]m, _n._ (_prov._) in coal-mining, the under-clay.

SLOAT, sl[=o]t, _n._ Same as SLOT (1) and (2).

SLOBBER, slob'[.e]r, same as SLABBER.--_n._ SLOB, mire, muddy land.--_adj._
SLOBB'ERY, moist, wet.

SLOCKEN, slok'n, _v.t._ to quench, extinguish.--Also SLOK'EN. [Ice.
_slokna_, to go out.]

SLOE, sl[=o], _n._ the blackthorn, producing white flowers before the
leaves, the shoots making excellent walking-sticks: the austere fruit, a
good preserve. [A.S. _slá_; Dut. _slee_, a sloe.]

SLOG, slog, _v.i._ to hit hard.--_n._ SLOG'GER, a hard hitter.

SLOGAN, sl[=o]'gan, _n._ a war-cry among the ancient Highlanders of
Scotland. [Gael., contracted from _sluagh-gairm_, an army-cry.]

SLOID=_Sloyd_ (q.v.).

SLOMBRY, slom'bri, _adj._ (_Spens._) sleepy.--_v.i._ SLOOM (_prov._), to
slumber.--_adj._ SLOOM'Y, lazy, inactive.


SLOOP, sl[=oo]p, _n._ a light boat: a one-masted cutter-rigged vessel,
differing from a cutter, according to old authorities, in having a fixed
bowsprit and somewhat smaller sails in proportion to the hull.--_n._
SLOOP'-OF-WAR, formerly a vessel, of whatever rig, between a corvette and a
gun-vessel, constituting the command of a commander, carrying from ten to
eighteen guns. [Dut. _sloep_, prob. O. Fr. _chaloupe_, shallop.]

SLOP, slop, _n._ water carelessly spilled: a puddle: mean liquor or liquid
food: (_pl._) dirty water.--_v.t._ to soil by letting a liquid fall
upon:--_pr.p._ slop'ping; _pa.p._ slopped.--_ns._ SLOP'-B[=A]'SIN, -BOWL, a
basin for slops, esp. for the dregs of tea and coffee cups at table;
SLOP'-DASH, weak cold tea, &c.: SLOP'-PAIL, a pail for collecting slops;
SLOP'PINESS.--_adj._ SLOP'PY, wet: muddy. [A.S. _sloppe_, _slyppe_,
cow-droppings--_slúpan_, to slip.]

SLOPE, sl[=o]p, _n._ any incline down which a thing may slip: a direction
downward.--_v.t._ to form with a slope, or obliquely.--_v.i._ to be
inclined, to slant: (_slang_) to decamp, disappear.--_adv._ in a sloping
manner.--_adv._ SLOPE'WISE, obliquely.--_p.adj._ SL[=O]'PING, inclining
from a horizontal or other right line.--_adv._ SL[=O]'PINGLY, in a sloping
manner: with a slope.--_adj._ SL[=O]'PY, sloping, inclined: oblique. [A.S.
_slípan_, pa.t. _sláp_, to slip.]

SLOPS, slops, _n.pl._ any loose lower garment that slips on easily, esp.
trousers: ready-made clothing, &c.--_ns._ SLOP'-SELL'ER, one who sells
cheap ready-made clothes; SLOP'-SHOP, a shop where ready-made clothes are
sold; SLOP'-WORK, the making of cheap cloth, any work superficially done;
SLOP'-WORK'ER, one who does slop-work. [Scand., Ice. _sloppr_, a long
robe--_sleppa_, to slip.]

SLOSH, slosh, _n._ a watery mess.--_v.i._ to flounder in slush: to go about
in an easy way.--_adj._ SLOSH'Y. [A form of _slush_.]

SLOT, slot, _n._ a bar or bolt: a broad, flat, wooden bar which holds
together larger pieces. [Allied to Low Ger. _slot_, Dut. _slot_, a lock.]

SLOT, slot, _n._ a hollow, narrow depression, to receive some corresponding
part in a mechanism: a ditch, the continuous opening between the rails in a
cable tramway along which the shank of the grip moves.--_n._
SLOT'TING-MACHINE', a machine for cutting slots or square grooves in metal.

SLOT, slot, _n._ the track of a deer. [Ice. _slóth_, track, path; Scot.
_sleuth_, track by the scent.]

SLOTH, sl[=o]th, or sloth, _n._ laziness, sluggishness: a sluggish arboreal
animal of tropical America, of two genera (_Choloepus_, the two-toed sloth,
and _Bradypus_, the three-toed sloth).--_adj._ SLOTH'FUL, given to sloth:
inactive: lazy.--_adv._ SLOTH'FULLY.--_n._ SLOTH'FULNESS. [A.S.
_sl['æ]wth_--_sláw_, slow.]

SLOTTER, slot'[.e]r, _n._ filth.--_v.t._ to foul.--_adj._ SLOTT'ERY, foul.

SLOUCH, slowch, _n._ a hanging down loosely of the head or other part:
clownish gait: a clown.--_v.i._ to hang down: to have a clownish look or
gait.--_v.t._ to depress.--_n._ SLOUCH'-HAT, a soft broad-brimmed
hat.--_p.adj._ SLOUCH'ING, walking with a downcast, awkward manner: hanging
down.--_adj._ SLOUCH'Y, somewhat slouching. [Scand., Ice. _slókr_, a
slouching fellow; _slakr_, slack.]

SLOUGH, slow, _n._ a hollow filled with mud: a soft bog or marsh.--_adj._
SLOUGH'Y, full of sloughs: miry. [A.S. _slóh_, a hollow place; perh. from
Ir. _sloc_--_slugaim_, to swallow up.]

SLOUGH, sluf, _n._ the cast-off skin of a serpent: the dead part which
separates from a sore.--_v.i._ to come away as a slough (with _off_): to be
in the state of sloughing.--_v.t._ to cast off, as a slough.--_adj._
SLOUGH'Y, like, or containing, slough. [Scand.; Sw. dial. _slug_; cf. Ger.
_slauch_, a skin.]

SLOVAK, sl[=o]-vak', _adj._ pertaining to the _Slovaks_, a branch of the
Slavs in the mountainous districts of N.W. Hungary, their language little
more than a dialect of Czech.--_n._ one of this race, or his
language.--_adjs._ SLOVAK'IAN, SLOVAK'ISH.

SLOVEN, sluv'n, _n._ a man carelessly or dirtily dressed:--_fem._
SLUT.--_n._ SLOV'ENLINESS.--_adj._ SLOV'ENLY, like a sloven: negligent of
neatness or cleanliness: disorderly: done in an untidy manner.--_adv._
negligently.--_n._ SLOV'ENRY (_Shak._), slovenliness. [Old Dut. _slof_,
sloef, Low Ger. _sluf_, slow, indolent.]

SLOVENIAN, sl[=o]-v[=e]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Slovenes_, a
branch of the South Slavonic stock to which the Serbs and Croats belong.

SLOW, sl[=o], _adj._ not swift: late: behind in time: not hasty: not ready:
not progressive.--_v.t._ to delay, retard, slacken the speed of.--_v.i._ to
slacken in speed.--_n._ SLOW'BACK, a lazy lubber.--_p.adj._ SLOW'-GAIT'ED
(_Shak._), accustomed to walk slowly.--_ns._ SLOW'-HOUND, sleuth-hound;
SLOW'ING, a lessening of speed.--_adv._ SLOW'LY.--_ns._ SLOW'-MATCH,
generally rope steeped in a solution of saltpetre and lime-water, used for
firing guns before the introduction of friction tubes, and sometimes for
firing military mines, now superseded by _Bickford's fuse_, a train of
gunpowder enclosed in two coatings of jute thread waterproofed;
SLOW'NESS.--_adj._ SLOW'-SIGHT'ED, slow to discern; SLOW'-WINGED, flying
slowly.--_n._ SLOW'-WORM, a scincoid lizard, same as Blind-worm--by popular
etymology '_slow-_worm,' but, according to Skeat, really '_slay-_worm,'
A.S. _slá-wyrm_. [A.S. _sláw_; Dut. _slee_, Ice. _sljór_.]

SLOYD, SLOID, sloid, _n._ the name given to a certain system of manual
instruction which obtains in the schools of Finland and Sweden, the word
properly denoting work of an artisan kind practised not as a trade or means
of livelihood, but in the intervals of other employment. [Sw. _slöjd_,

SLUB, slub, _v.t._ to twist after carding to prepare for spinning.

SLUBBER, slub'[.e]r, _v.t._ to stain, to daub, slur over.--_n._
SLUBB'ER-DEGULL'ION, a wretch.--_adv._ SLUBB'ERINGLY. [Dut. _slobberen_, to
lap, Low Ger. _slubbern_.]

SLUDGE, sluj, _n._ soft mud or mire: half-melted snow.--_adj._ SLUDG'Y,
miry: muddy. [A form of _slush_.]

SLUE, SLEW, sl[=u], _v.t._ (_naut._) to turn anything about its axis
without removing it from its place: to turn or twist about.--_v.i._ to turn
round:--_pr.p._ sl[=u]'ing; _pa.p._ sl[=u]ed.--_n._ the turning of a body
upon an axis within its figure.--_adj._ SLUED, tipsy. [Scand., Ice. _snua_,
to turn.]

SLUG, slug, _n._ a heavy, lazy fellow: a name for land-molluscs of order
Pulmonata, with shell rudimentary or absent--they do great damage to garden
crops: any hinderance.--_ns._ SLUG'-A-BED (_Shak._), one who is fond of
lying in bed, a sluggard; SLUG'GARD, one habitually idle or
inactive.--_v.t._ SLUG'GARDISE (_Shak._), to make lazy.--_adj._ SLUG'GISH,
habitually lazy: slothful: having little motion: having little or no
power.--_adv._ SLUG'GISHLY.--_n._ SLUG'GISHNESS. [Scand., Dan. _slug_,
_sluk_, drooping, Norw. _sloka_, to slouch; Low Ger. _slukkern_, to be
loose; allied to slack.]

SLUG, slug, _n._ a cylindrical or oval piece of metal for firing from a
gun: a piece of crude metal. [Prob. from slug above, or _slug_=_slog_, to
hit hard.]

SLUGGA, slug'a, _n._ a deep cavity formed by the action of subterranean
streams common in some limestone districts of Ireland. [Ir. _slugaid_, a

SLUGHORN, slug'horn, _n._ a word used to denote a kind of horn, but really
a corruption of slogan.

SLUICE, sl[=oo]s, _n._ a sliding gate in a frame for shutting off or
regulating the flow of water: the stream which flows through it: that
through which anything flows: a source of supply: in mining, a board trough
for separating gold from placer-dirt carried through it by a current of
water: the injection-valve in a steam-engine condenser.--_v.t._ to wet or
drench copiously: to wash in or by a sluice: to flush or clean out with a
strong flow of water.--_adj._ SLUIC'Y, falling in streams, as from a
sluice. [O. Fr. _escluse_ (Fr. _écluse)_--Low L. _exclusa_ (_aqua_), a
sluice (water) shut out, _pa.p._ of L. _ex-clud[)e]re_, to shut out.]

SLUM, slum, _n._ a low street or neighbourhood.--_v.i._ to visit the slums
of a city, esp. from motives of curiosity.--_ns._ SLUM'MER, one who slums;
SLUM'MING, the practice of visiting slums.

SLUMBER, slum'b[.e]r, _v.i._ to sleep lightly: to sleep: to be in a state
of negligence or inactivity.--_n._ light sleep: repose.--_ns._ SLUM'BERER;
SLUM'BERING.--_adv._ SLUM'BERINGLY, in a slumbering manner.--_n._
SLUM'BERLAND, the state of slumber.--_adjs._ SLUM'BERLESS, without slumber:
sleepless; SLUM'BEROUS, SLUM'BROUS, inviting or causing slumber; sleepy;
SLUM'BERY, sleepy: drowsy. [With intrusive _b_ from M. E. _slumeren_--A.S.
_sluma_, slumber; cog. with Ger. _schlummern_.]

SLUMP, slump, _v.i._ to fall or sink suddenly into water or mud: to fail or
fall through helplessly.--_n._ a boggy place: the act of sinking into
slush, &c., also the sound so made: a sudden fall or failure.--_adj._
SLUMP'Y, marshy. [Cf. Dan. _slumpe_, to stumble upon by chance; Ger.
_schlumpen_, to trail.]

SLUMP, slump, _v.t._ to throw into a lump or mass, to lump.--_n._ a gross
amount, a lump.--_n._ SLUMP'-WORK, work in the lump. [Cf. Dan. _slump_, a
lot, Dut. _slomp_, a mass.]

SLUNG, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _sling_.--_n._ SLUNG'-SHOT, a weight attached
to a cord, used as a weapon.

SLUNK, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _slink_.--_adj._ SLUNK'EN (_prov._),

SLUR, slur, _v.t._ to soil; to contaminate: to disgrace: to pass over
lightly: to conceal: (_mus._) to sing or play in a gliding manner.--_v.i._
(_print._) to slip in making the impression, causing the printing to be
blurred:--_pr.p._ slur'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ slurred.--_n._ a stain:
slight reproach or disparagement: (_mus._) a mark showing that notes are to
be sung to the same syllable.--_p.adj._ SLURRED (_mus._), marked with a
slur, performed in a gliding style like notes marked with a slur. [Old Dut.
_slooren_, sleuren, Low Ger. _slüren_, to drag along the ground.]

SLURRY, slur'i, _n._ any one of several semi-fluid mixtures, esp. of
ganister, used to make repairs in converter-linings.

SLUSH, slush, _n._ liquid mud: melting snow: a mixture of grease for
lubrication: the refuse of the cook's galley in a ship.--_v.t._ to apply
slush to, to grease: to wash by throwing water upon: to fill spaces in
masonry with mortar (with up): to coat with a mixture of white-lead and
lime the bright parts of machinery.--_adj._ SLUSH'Y. [Cf. _Slosh_.]

SLUT, slut, _n._ (_fem._ of SLOVEN) a dirty, untidy woman: a wench, a jade:
a bitch.--_adj._ SLUT'TISH, resembling a slut: dirty: careless.--_adv._
SLUT'TISHLY.--_ns._ SLUT'TISHNESS, SLUT'TERY. [Scand., Ice. _slöttr_, a
dull fellow--_slota_, to droop.]

SLY, sl[=i], _adj._ dexterous in doing anything so as to be unobserved:
cunning: wily: secret: done with artful dexterity: illicit.--_n._
SLY'BOOTS, a sly or cunning person or animal.--_advs._ SLY'LY,
SL[=I]'LY.--_ns._ SLY'NESS, SL[=I]'NESS.--ON THE SLY, slyly, secretly.
[Prob. from Ice. _slæg-r_; cf. Ger. _schlau_.]

SLYPE, sl[=i]p, _n._ a. covered passage from the transept of a cathedral to
the chapter-house, &c. [_Slip_.]

SMACK, smak, _n._ taste: flavour: a pleasing taste: a small quantity: a
flavour of something.--_v.i._ to have a taste: to have a quality. [A.S.

SMACK, smak, _n._ a generic name for small decked or half-decked coasters
and fishing-vessels, most rigged as cutters, sloops, or yawls. [Dut.
_smak_; Ger. _schmacke_, Ice. _snekja_.]

SMACK, smak, _v.t._ to strike smartly, to slap loudly: to kiss roughly and
noisily.--_v.i._ to make a sharp noise with, as the lips by
separation.--_n._ a sharp sound: a crack: a hearty kiss.--_adv._ sharply,
straight.--_p.adj._ SMACK'ING, making a sharp, brisk sound, a sharp noise,
a smack. [Prob. imit., Dut. _smakken_, to smite, Ger. _schmatzen_, to

SMALL, smawl, _adj._ little in quantity or degree: minute: not great:
unimportant: ungenerous, petty: of little worth or ability: short: having
little strength: gentle: little in quality or quantity.--_adv._ in a low
tone; gently.--_ns._ SMALL'-ALE, ale with little malt and unhopped;
SMALL'-AND-EARL'Y (_coll._) an informal evening-party.--_n.pl._
SMALL'-ARMS, muskets, rifles, pistols, &c., including all weapons that can
be actually carried by a man.--_n._ SMALL'-BEER, a kind of weak
beer.--_adj._ inferior generally.--_n.pl._ SMALL'-CLOTHES, knee-breeches,
esp. those of the close-fitting 18th-century form.--_ns._ SMALL'-COAL, coal
not in lumps but small pieces; SMALL'-CRAFT, small vessels
generally.--_n.pl._ SMALL'-DEBTS, a phrase current in Scotland to denote
debts under £12, recoverable in the Sheriff Court.--_n._ SMALL'-HAND,
writing such as is ordinarily used in correspondence.--_n.pl._
SMALL'-HOURS, the hours immediately following midnight.--_adj._ SMALL'ISH,
somewhat small.--_ns._ SMALL'NESS; SMALL'-P[=I]'CA (see PICA); SMALL'POX,
or _Variola_, a contagious, febrile disease, of the class known as
_Exanthemata_, characterised by small pocks or eruptions on the skin;
SMALLS, the 'little-go' or previous examination: small-clothes;
SMALL'-TALK, light or trifling conversation.--_n.pl._ SMALL'-WARES (see
WARE).--IN A SMALL WAY, with little capital or stock: unostentatiously.
[A.S. _smæl_; Ger. _schmal_.]

SMALLAGE, smawl'[=a]j, _n._ celery. [_Small_, Fr. _ache_--L. _apium_,

SMALT, smawlt, _n._ glass melted, tinged blue by cobalt, and pulverised
when cold.--_n._ SMAL'TINE, an arsenide of cobalt, often containing nickel
and iron. [Low L. _smaltum_--Old High Ger. _smalzjan_ (Ger. _schmelzen_),
to melt.]

SMARAGDINE, sma-rag'din, _adj._ of an emerald green.--_n._ SMARAG'DITE, a
peculiar variety of Amphibole, light grass-green in colour, with a
foliated, lamellar or fibrous structure--occurring as a constituent of the
rock called _Eklogite_. [L. _smaragdinus_--smaragdus--Gr. _smaragdos_, the

SMART, smärt, _n._ quick, stinging pain of body or mind: smart-money: a
dandy.--_v.i._ to feel a smart: to be punished.--_adj._ causing a smart:
severe: sharp: vigorous, brisk: acute, witty, pert, vivacious:
well-dressed, fine, fashionable: keen in business: creditable,
up-to-the-mark.--_v.t._ SMART'EN, to make smart, to brighten (with
_up_).--_adv._ SMART'LY.--_ns._ SMART'-MON'EY, money paid by a recruit for
his release before being sworn in: money paid for escape from any
unpleasant situation or engagement: excessive damages: money allowed to
soldiers and sailors for wounds; SMART'NESS; SMART'-TICK'ET, a certificate
granted to one entitled to smart-money; SMART'-WEED, a name given to some
of the Milkworts from their acrid properties, esp. _Polygonum Hydropiper_,
or Waterpepper; SMART'Y, a would-be smart fellow. [A.S. _smeortan_; Dut.
_smarten_, Ger. _schmerzen_.]

SMASH, smash, _v.t._ to break in pieces violently: to crush: to dash
violently.--_v.i._ to act with crushing force: to be broken to pieces: to
be ruined, to fail: to dash violently.--_n._ act of smashing, destruction,
ruin, bankruptcy.--_ns._ SMASH'ER, one who smashes: (_slang_) one who
passes bad money, bad money itself: anything great or extraordinary;
SMASH'ING.--_adj._ crushing: dashing.--_n._ SMASH'-UP, a serious smash.
[Prob. Sw. dial. _smaske_, to smack.]

SMATCH, smach, _n._ (_Shak._) taste or tincture.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to have
a taste. [_Smack_.]

SMATTER, smat'[.e]r, _v.i._ to talk superficially: to have a superficial
knowledge.--_ns._ SMATT'ERER; SMATT'ERING, a superficial knowledge.--_adv._
SMATT'ERINGLY, in a smattering manner. [M. E. _smateren_, to rattle, to
chatter--Sw. _smattra_, to clatter; Ger. _schnattern_.]

SMEAR, sm[=e]r, _v.t._ to overspread with anything sticky or oily, as
grease: to daub.--_n._ SMEAR'INESS.--_adj._ SMEAR'Y, sticky: showing
smears. [A.S. _smeru_, fat, grease; Ger. _schmeer_, grease, Ice. _smjör_,

SMECTITE, smek't[=i]t, _n._ a greenish clay. [Gr.
_sm[=e]ktis_--_sm[=e]chein_, to rub.]

SMECTYMNUUS, smek-tim'n[=u]-us, _n._ a name compounded of the initials of
the five Puritan divines--Stephen Marshall, Edmund Calamy, Thomas Young,
Matthew Newcomen, and William Spurstow, joint authors of _An Answer_ (1641)
to Bishop Hall's _Humble Remonstrance to the High Court of Parliament_
(1641) in defence of the liturgy and episcopal government.

SMEDDUM, smed'um, _n._ fine powder: sagacity, spirit, mettle: ore small
enough to go through the sieve. [A.S. _smedema_, fine flour.]

SMEE, sm[=e], _n._ the pochard: widgeon: pintail-duck.--Also SMEATH.

SMEGMA, smeg'ma, _n._ a sebaceous secretion, esp. that under the prepuce:
an unguent.--_adj._ SMEGMAT'IC. [Gr. _sm[=e]gma_.]

SMELL, smel, _v.i._ to affect the nose: to have odour: to use the sense of
smell.--_v.t._ to perceive by the nose:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ smelled or
smelt.--_n._ the quality of bodies which affects the nose: odour: perfume:
the sense which perceives this quality.--_ns._ SMELL'ER; SMELL'-FEAST, a
greedy fellow; SMELL'ING, the sense by which smells are perceived;
SMELL'ING-BOTT'LE, a bottle containing smelling-salts, or the like;
SMELL'ING-SALTS, a preparation of ammonium carbonate with lavender, &c.,
used as a stimulant in faintness, &c.; SMELL'-TRAP, a drain-trap.--_adj._
SMELL'Y, having a bad smell.--SMELL A RAT (see RAT); SMELL OUT, to find out
by prying. [Allied to Low Ger. _smelen_, Dut. _smeulen_, to smoulder.]

SMELT, smelt, _n._ a fish of the salmon or trout family, having a
cucumber-like smell and a delicious flavour. [A.S. _smelt_.]

SMELT, smelt, _v.t._ to melt ore in order to separate the metal.--_ns._
-HOUSE, -WORKS. [Scand., Sw. _smälta_, to smelt.]

SMERKY, sm[.e]rk'i, _adj._ (_Spens._) neat. [_Smirk_.]

SMEW, sm[=u], _n._ a bird of the family _Anatidæ_, in the same genus as the
goosander and mergansers.

SMICKER, smik'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_obs._) to look amorously.--_n._ SMICK'ERING,
an inclination for a woman.--_adv._ SMICK'LY, amorously.

SMICKET, smik'et, _n._ a smock.

SMIDDY, smid'i, _n._ a smithy.

SMIDGEN, smij'en, _n._ (_U.S._) a small quantity, a trifle.

SMIFT, smift, _n._ a piece of touchwood, &c., formerly used to ignite the
train in blasting.--Also SNUFF.

SMIGHT, sm[=i]t, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to smite.

SMILAX, sm[=i]'laks, _n._ a genus of liliaceous plants, type of the tribe
_Smilaceæ_--the roots of several species yield sarsaparilla.

SMILE, sm[=i]l, _v.i._ to express pleasure by the countenance: to express
slight contempt: to look joyous: to be favourable.--_n._ act of smiling:
the expression of the features in smiling: favour: (_slang_) a drink, a
treat.--_ns._ SM[=I]'LER, one who smiles; SM[=I]'LET (_Shak._), a little
smile.--_adj._ SM[=I]'LING, wearing a smile, joyous.--_adv._ SM[=I]'LINGLY,
in a smiling manner: with a smile or look of pleasure.--_n._
SM[=I]'LINGNESS, the state of being smiling. [Scand., Sw. _smila_, to

SMIRCH, smirch, _v.t._ to besmear, dirty: to degrade in fame, dignity,
&c.--_n._ a stain. [A weakened form of _smer-k_, from M. E. _smeren_, to

SMIRK, sm[.e]rk, _v.i._ to smile affectedly: to look affectedly soft.--_n._
an affected smile.--_adjs._ SMIRK (_obs._), SMIRK'Y, smart. [A.S.
_smercian_; akin to smile.]

SMIT, smit, obsolete _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _smite_.

SMIT, smit, _v.t._ (_prov._) to infect.--_n._ a stain: infection.--_v.t._
SMIT'TLE, to infect.--_adj._ infectious.--_n._ infection. [A.S. _smittian_,
to spot, _smitta_, a spot, an intens. of _smítan_, to smite.]

SMITCH, smich, _n._ a particle: dust.--_n._ (_dim._) SMITCH'EL.

SMITE, sm[=i]t, _v.t._ to strike with the fist, hand, or weapon: to beat:
to kill: to overthrow in battle: to affect with feeling: (_B._) to blast:
to afflict.--_v.i._ to strike:--_pa.t._ sm[=o]te; _pa.p._ smitt'en.--_n._
SM[=I]'TER.--SMITE OFF, to cut off; SMITE OUT, to knock out; SMITE WITH THE
TONGUE (_B._), to reproach, to revile. [A.S. _smítan_; Dut. _smijten_, Ger.

SMITH, smith, _n._ one who forges with the hammer: a worker in metals: one
who makes anything.--_ns._ SMITH'ERY, the workshop of a smith: work done by
a smith--also SMITH'ING; SMITH'Y, the workshop of a smith; SMITH'Y-COAL, a
kind of small coal much used by smiths. [A.S. _smith_; Ger. _schmied_.]

SMITHEREENS, smith-[.e]r-[=e]nz', _n.pl._ (_coll._) small fragments.

SMITHSONIAN, smith-s[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to James Macie _Smithson_
(1765--1829), founder of a great institution at Washington for ethnological
and scientific investigations, organised by Congress in 1846.

SMITTEN, smit'n, _pa.p._ of _smite_.

SMOCK, smok, _n._ a woman's shift: a smock-frock.--_v.t._ to clothe in a
smock or smock-frock.--_adj._ SMOCK'-FACED, pale-faced.--_ns._
SMOCK'-FROCK, an outer garment of coarse white linen worn over the other
clothes in the south of England; SMOCK'-RACE, a race for the prize of a
smock. [A.S. _smoc_, perh. from A.S. _smeógan_, to creep into.]

SMOKE, sm[=o]k, _n._ the vapour from a burning body--a common term for the
volatile products of the imperfect combustion of such organic substances as
wood or coal.--_v.i._ to emit smoke: to smoke out instead of upward, owing
to imperfect draught: to draw in and puff out the smoke of tobacco: to
raise smoke by moving rapidly: to burn, to rage: to suffer, as from
punishment.--_v.t._ to apply smoke to: to dry, scent, or medicate by smoke:
to inhale the smoke of: to use in smoking: to try to expel by smoking: to
scent out, discover: to quiz, ridicule: to thrash.--_ns._ SMOKE'-BLACK,
lampblack; SMOKE'-BOARD, a board suspended before the upper part of a
fireplace to prevent the smoke coming out into the room; SMOKE'-BOX, part
of a steam-boiler where the smoke is collected before passing out at the
chimney; SMOKE'-CONS[=U]'MER, an apparatus for burning all the smoke from a
fire.--_adj._ SMOKE'-DRIED.--_v.t._ SMOKE'-DRY, to cure or dry by means of
smoke.--_ns._ SMOKE'-HOUSE, a building where meat or fish is cured by
smoking, or where smoked meats are stored; SMOKE'-JACK, a contrivance for
turning a jack by means of a wheel turned by the current of air ascending a
chimney.--_adj._ SMOKE'LESS, destitute of smoke.--_adv._
SMOKEL'ESSLY.--_ns._ SMOKE'LESSNESS; SM[=O]'KER, one who smokes tobacco: a
smoking-carriage: one who smoke-dries meat: an evening entertainment at
which smoking is permitted; SMOKE'-SAIL, a small sail hoisted between the
galley-funnel and the foremast when a vessel rides head to the wind;
SMOKE'-SHADE, a scale of tints ranging from 0 to 10, for comparison of
different varieties of coal, according to the amount of unburnt carbon in
their smoke; SMOKE'-STACK, an upright pipe through which the
combustion-gases from a steam-boiler pass into the open air.--_adj._
SMOKE'-TIGHT, impervious to smoke.--_ns._ SMOKE'-TREE, an ornamental shrub
of the cashew family, with long light feathery or cloud-like fruit-stalks;
SMOKE'-WASH'ER, an apparatus for removing soot and particles of unburnt
carbon from smoke by making it pass through water; SMOKE'-WOOD, the
virgin's bower (_Clematis Vitalba_), whose porous stems are smoked by
boys.--_adv._ SM[=O]'KILY.--_ns._ SM[=O]'KINESS; SM[=O]'KING, the act of
emitting smoke: the act or habit of drawing into the mouth and emitting the
fumes of tobacco by means of a pipe or cigar--a habit of great sedative
value: a bantering; SM[=O]'KING-CAP, -JACK'ET, a light ornamental cap or
jacket often worn by smokers; SM[=O]'KING-CARR'IAGE, -ROOM, a
railway-carriage, -room, supposed to be set apart for smokers.--_adj._
SM[=O]'KY, giving out smoke: like smoke: filled, or subject to be filled,
with smoke: tarnished or noisome with smoke: (_obs._) suspicious.--ON A
SMOKE (_B._), smoking, or on fire. [A.S. _smocian_, _smoca_; Ger.

SMOLDER=_Smoulder_ (q.v.).

SMOLT, sm[=o]lt, _n._ a name given to young river salmon when they are
bluish along the upper half of the body and silvery along the sides.

SMOOTH, sm[=oo]th, _adj._ having an even surface: not tough: evenly spread:
glossy: gently flowing: easy: regular: unobstructed: bland: mild,
calm.--_v.t._ to make smooth: to palliate: to soften: to calm: to ease:
(_Shak._) to exonerate.--_v.i._ to repeat flattering words.--_n._ (_B._)
the smooth part.--_adj._ SMOOTH'-BORE, not rifled.--_n._ a gun with
smooth-bored barrel.--_adjs._ SMOOTH'-BROWED, with unwrinkled brow;
SMOOTH'-CHINNED, having a smooth chin: beardless; SMOOTH'-DIT'TIED, sweetly
sung, with a flowing melody.--v.t SMOOTH'EN, to make smooth.--_n._
SMOOTH'ER, one who, or that which, smooths: in glass-cutting, an
abrading-wheel for polishing the aces of the grooves cut by another wheel:
(_obs._) a flatterer.--_adj._ SMOOTH'-FACED, having a smooth air,
mild-looking.--_ns._ SMOOTH'ING-[=I]'RON, an instrument of iron for
smoothing clothes; SMOOTH'ING-PLANE, a small fine plane used for
finishing.--_adv._ SMOOTH'LY.--_n._ SMOOTH'NESS.--_adjs._ SMOOTH'-PACED,
having a regular easy pace; SMOOTH'-SHOD, having shoes without spikes;
SMOOTH'-SP[=O]'KEN, speaking pleasantly: plausible: flattering;
SMOOTH'-TONGUED, having a smooth tongue: flattering. [A.S. _smóthe_,
usually _sméthe_; Ger. _ge-schmeidig_, soft.]

SMORE, sm[=o]r, a Scotch form of _smother_.

SMOTE, sm[=o]t, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _smite_.

SMOTHER, smuth'[.e]r, _v.t._ to suffocate by excluding the air: to
conceal.--_v.i._ to be suffocated or suppressed: to smoulder.--_n._ smoke:
thick floating dust: state of being smothered: confusion.--_ns._
SMOTHER[=A]'TION, suffocation: a sailor's dish of meat buried in potatoes;
SMOTH'ERINESS.--_adv._ SMOTH'ERINGLY.--_adj._ SMOTH'ERY, tending to
smother: stifling. [M. E. _smorther_--A.S. _smorian_, to smother; cf. Ger.
_schmoren_, to stew.]

SMOUCH, smowch, _n._ a smack, a hearty kiss.--_v.t._ to kiss, to buss.

SMOUCH, smowch, _v.t._ to take advantage of, to chouse.

SMOUCHED, smowcht, _adj._ blotted, dirtied, smutched.

SMOULDER, sm[=o]l'd[.e]r, _v.i._ to burn slowly or without vent.--_adjs._
SMOUL'DRING, SMOUL'DRY. [M. E. _smolderen_--_smolder_=_smor-ther_, stifling
smoke; cf. _Smother_.]

SMOUSE, SMOUS, smows, _n._ a peddler, a German Jew.

SMOUT, smowt, _n._ (_slang_) a printer who gets chance jobs in various
offices.--_v.i._ to do occasional work.

SMUDGE, smuj, _n._ a spot, a stain: a choking smoke--_v.t._ to stifle: to
fumigate with smoke.--_n._ SMUD'GER, one who smudges: a plumber.--_adj._
SMUD'GY, stained with smoke. [Scand., Sw. _smuts_, dirt, Dan. _smuds_,
smut; Ger. _schmutz_.]

SMUG, smug, _adj._ neat, prim, spruce: affectedly smart: well satisfied
with one's self.--_n._ a self-satisfied person.--_adj._ SMUG'-FACED, prim
or precise-looking.--_adv._ SMUG'LY.--_n._ SMUG'NESS. [Dan. _smuk_,
handsome; cf. Ger. _schmuck_, fine.]

SMUG, smug, _v.t._ to seize without ceremony, to confiscate: (_slang_) to
hush up.

SMUGGLE, smug'l, _v.t._ to import or export without paying the legal duty:
to convey secretly.--_ns._ SMUGG'LER, one who smuggles: a vessel used in
smuggling; SMUGG'LING, defrauding the government of revenue by the evasion
of custom-duties or excise-taxes. [Low Ger. _smuggeln_, cog. with Ger.
_schmuggeln_; Dut. _smuigen_, to eat secretly.]

SMUGGLE, smug'l, _v.t._ to fondle, cuddle.

SMUR, smur, _n._ (_Scot._) fine misty rain.--_v.i._ to drizzle.--_adj._

SMUT, smut, _n._ a spot of dirt, soot, &c.: foul matter, as soot: _Bunt_,
sometimes also _Dust-brand_, the popular name of certain small fungi which
infest flowering land-plants, esp. the grasses, the name derived from the
appearance of the spores, which are nearly black and very numerous: obscene
language.--_v.t._ to soil with smut: to blacken or tarnish.--_v.i._ to
gather smut: to be turned into smut:--_pr.p._ smut'ting; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ smut'ted.--_n._ SMUT'-BALL, a fungus of genus _Tilletia_: a
puff-ball.--_adj._ SMUT'TIED, made smutty.--_adv._ SMUT'TILY.--_n._
SMUT'TINESS.--_adj._ SMUT'TY, stained with smut: affected with smut or
mildew: obscene, filthy. [Scand., Sw. _smuts_; Ger. _schmutz_, prob. from
root of _smite_.]

SMUTCH, smuch, _v.t._ to blacken, as with soot.--_n._ a dirty mark. [A form
of _smut_.]

SMYRNIOT, -E, sm[.e]r'niot, -[=o]t, _n._ a native or inhabitant, of
_Smyrna_.--_adj._ of or pertaining to Smyrna.

SMYTERIE, SMYTRIE, smit'ri, _n._ (_Scot._) a large number of individuals of
small size.

SNABBLE, snab'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to plunder: to kill.--_v.i._ to gobble

SNABBY, snab'i, _n._ (_Scot._) the chaffinch.

SNACK, snak, _n._ a share: a slight, hasty meal.--_v.t._ to snatch, to
bite: to share. [A form of _snatch_.]

SNAFFLE, snaf'l, _n._ a bridle which crosses the nose and has a slender
mouth-bit without branches.--_v.t._ to bridle: to clutch by the
bridle.--_ns._ SNAFF'LE-BIT, a kind of slender bit; SNAFF'LING-LAY, the
trade of highwayman. [Dut. _snavel_, the muzzle; cf. _Snap_.]

SNAG, snag, _n._ a sharp protuberance: a short branch: a projecting tooth
or stump: a tree lying in the water so as to impede navigation--hence any
stumbling-block or obstacle.--_v.t._ to catch on a snag: to entangle: to
fill with snags, or to clear from such.--_n._ SNAG'BOAT, a steamboat with
appliances for removing snags.--_adjs._ SNAG'GED, SNAG'GY, full of snags.
[Akin to Gael. and Ir. _snaigh_, to cut.]

SNAG, snag, _v.t._ to lop superfluous branches from a tree.--_n._ SNAG'GER,
the tool for this.

SNAIL, sn[=a]l, _n._ a term for the species of terrestrial _Gasteropoda_
which have well-formed spiral shells--the more typical snails belonging to
the genus _Helix_, of the family _Helicidæ_, having the shell of many
whorls, globose, depressed, or conical.--_ns._ SNAIL'-CLOV'ER,
-TR[=E]'FOIL, a species of medic; SNAIL'-FISH, a fish of genus _Liparis_,
sticking to rocks; SNAIL'-FLOW'ER, a twining bean.--_adjs._ SNAIL'-LIKE
(_Shak._), in the manner of a snail, slowly; SNAIL'-PACED (_Shak._), as
slow-moving as a snail; SNAIL'-SLOW, as slow as a snail.--_n._
SNAIL'-WHEEL, in some striking time-pieces, a rotating piece with a spiral
periphery having notches so arranged as to determine the number of strokes
made on the bell.--SNAIL'S PACE, a very slow pace. [A.S. _snegl_, _snægl_;
Ger. _schnecke_.]

SNAKE, sn[=a]k, _n._ a serpent--SNAKES (_Ophidia_) form one of the classes
of reptiles, in shape limbless and much elongated, embracing tree-snakes,
the water-snakes, and the very venomous sea-snakes (_Hydrophidæ_), the
burrowing-snakes (_Typhlopidæ_) and the majority, which may be called
ground-snakes.--_ns._ SNAKE'-BIRD, a darter: the wryneck; SNAKE'-EEL, a
long Mediterranean eel, its tail without a tail-fin.--_adj._ SNAKE'-LIKE
(_Tenn._), like a snake.--_ns._ SNAKE'-ROOT, the popular name of various
plants of different genera, whose roots are considered good for
snake-bites; SNAKE'S'-HEAD, the guinea-hen flower; SNAKE'-STONE, a small
rounded piece of stone or other hard substance, popularly believed to be
efficacious in curing snake-bites; SNAKE'-WEED, the bistort; SNAKE'WOOD
(same as LETTER-WOOD).--_adjs._ SNAK'ISH, having the qualities of a snake:
cunning, deceitful; SNAK'Y (_Spens._), belonging to, or resembling, a
serpent: (_Milt._) cunning, deceitful: covered with, or having, serpents.
[A.S. _snaca_, prob. from _snícan_, to creep; Ice. _snák-r_.]

SNAP, snap, _v.t._ to break short or at once: to bite, or catch at
suddenly: to crack: to interrupt sharply (often with _up_): to shut with a
sharp sound: to take an instantaneous photograph of, esp. with a hand
camera.--_v.i._ to break short: to try to bite: to utter sharp words (with
at): to flash:--_pr.p._ snap'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ snapped.--_n._ act
of snapping, or the noise made by it: a small catch or lock: a hasty
repast, a snack: a crack, the spring-catch of a bracelet, &c., an earring:
a crisp kind of gingerbread nut or cake: crispness, pithiness, epigrammatic
point or force: vigour, energy: (_slang_) a brief theatrical engagement, an
easy and profitable place or task: a sharper, a cheat: a riveter's tool,
also a glass-moulder's tool: the act of taking a snapshot.--_adj._ sudden,
unpremeditated, without preparation.--_ns._ SNAP'DRAGON, a plant, so called
because the lower lip of the corolla when parted shuts with a snap like a
dragon's jaw: a Christmas pastime in which raisins are snatched out of a
dish in which brandy is burning, in a room otherwise dark--also the raisins
so taken; SNAP'PER; SNAP'PER-UP (_Shak._), one who snaps up;
SNAP'PING-TUR'TLE, a large fresh-water tortoise of the United States--from
its habit of snapping at things.--_adjs._ SNAP'PISH, SNAP'PY, inclined to
snap: eager to bite: sharp in reply.--_adv._ SNAP'PISHLY, in a snappish
manner: peevishly: tartly.--_ns._ SNAP'PISHNESS; SNAP'SHOT, an
instantaneous photograph. [Dut. _snappen_, to snap; Ger. _schnappen_.]

SNAPHANCE, snaf'ans, _n._ a term originally applied to the spring-lock of a
gun or pistol, but afterwards applied to the gun itself, a Dutch firelock
of the 17th century: a snappish retort.--Also SNAPH'AUNCE. [Dut.
_snaphaan_--_snappen_, to snap, _haan_, a cock.]

SNAR, snär, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to snarl.

SNARE, sn[=a]r, _n._ a running noose of string or wire, &c., for catching
an animal: a trap: that by which any one is entrapped: a cord, esp. that
stretched across the lower head of a drum: a surgical instrument for
removing tumours, &c., by an ever-tightening loop.--_v.t._ same as
_Ensnare_ (q.v.).--_v.i._ to use snares.--_n._ SN[=A]R'ER.--_adj._
SN[=A]R'Y. [A.S. _snear_; Dut. _snaar_.]

SNARL, snärl, _v.i._ to growl, as a surly dog: to speak in a surly
manner.--_v.t._ to utter snarlingly.--_n._ a growl, a jealous quarrelsome
utterance.--_n._ SNAR'LER.--_adjs._ SNAR'LING, growling, snappish; SNAR'LY.
[Prob. imit.; Low Ger. _snarren_, Ger. _schnarren_; conn. with Eng.

SNARL, snärl, _v.t._ to twist, entangle, confuse.--_v.i._ to become
entangled.--_n._ a knot or any kind of complication: a squabble.--_adj._
SNARLED, twisted.--_ns._ SNAR'LING-[=I]'RON, -TOOL, a curved tool for
snarling or fluting hollow metal-ware, &c.

SNASH, shash, _n._ (_Scot._) insolence, abusive language.--_v.i._ to talk


SNATCH, snach, _v.t._ to seize quickly: to take without permission: to
seize and carry away.--_v.i._ to try to seize hastily.--_n._ a hasty
catching or seizing: a short time of exertion: a small piece or fragment: a
catching of the voice: a hasty snack of food: a quibble.--_ns._
SNATCH'-BLOCK, a kind of pulley-block, having an opening in the side to
receive the bight of a rope; SNATCH'ER, one who snatches.--_adv._
SNATCH'INGLY.--_adj._ SNATCH'Y, irregular. [M. E. _snacchen_; cog. with
Dut. _snakken_, Prov. Eng. _sneck_, a bolt; also conn. with _snap_.]

SNATHE, sn[=a]th, _n._ the curved handle of a scythe. [A variant of

SNEAD, sn[=e]d, _n._ the handle of a scythe, a snathe. [A.S.
_sn['æ]d_--_sníthan_, to cut.]

SNEAK, sn[=e]k, _v.i._ to creep or steal away privately or meanly: to
behave meanly.--_v.t._ (_slang_) to steal.--_n._ a mean, servile fellow: a
mean thief.--_ns._ SNEAK'-CUP (_Shak._), one who balks his glass: a
cowardly, insidious scoundrel; SNEAK'ER.--_adj._ SNEAK'ING, mean,
crouching: secret, underhand, not openly avowed.--_adv._
SNEAK'INGLY.--_ns._ SNEAK'INGNESS, SNEAK'INESS, the quality of being
sneaking: meanness; SNEAKS'BY (_obs._), a sneak.--_adj._ SNEAK'Y, somewhat
sneaking. [A.S. _snícan_, to creep; Dan. _snige_. Cf. _Snake_.]

SNEAP, sn[=e]p, _v.t._ to check, to rebuke: to nip.--_n._ a check, a
reprimand, taunt, sarcasm.--Also SNAPE.

SNEB, a form of _snib_, _snub_.

SNECK, snek, _n._ (_Scot._) the catch of a door or a lid.--_v.t._ to latch
or shut a door.--_n._ SNECK'-DRAW'ER, one who lifts the latch for thievish
ends, a mean thief.--_adjs._ SNECK'-DRAW'ING, SNECK'-DRAWN, crafty,
cunning.--_interj._ SNECK-UP' (_Shak._), go hang! [Prob. _snack_, to

SNECK, snek, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to cut [_Snick_.]

SNEE, sn[=e], _n._ a large knife. [Dut. _snee_, _snede_, a slice; Ger.
_schneide_, edge.]

SNEER, sn[=e]r, _v.i._ to show contempt by the expression of the face, as
by turning up the nose: to insinuate contempt.--_v.t._ to utter
sneeringly.--_n._ an indirect expression of contempt.--_n._
SNEER'ER.--_adj._ SNEER'ING.--_adv._ SNEER'INGLY. [Scand., Dan. _snærre_,
to grin like a dog; cf. _Snarl_.]

SNEESHING, sn[=e]sh'ing, _n._ (_Scot._) snuff, or a pinch of snuff.

SNEEZE, sn[=e]z, _v.i._ to make a sudden and involuntary violent
expiration, preceded by one or more inspirations, the fauces being
generally closed so that the current of air is directed through the
nose.--_n._ a sneezing.--_ns._ SNEEZE'WEED, any species of _Helenium_;
SNEEZE'WOOD, the durable wood of a small South African tree whose sawdust
causes sneezing: SNEEZE'WORT, the white hellebore: the _Achillea Ptarmica_;
SNEEZ'ING.--NOT TO BE SNEEZED AT, not to be despised, of very considerable
value or importance. [M. E. _snesen_, _fnesen_--A.S. _fneósan_, to sneeze;
Dut. _fniezen_.]

SNELL, snel, _adj._ (_Scot._) keen, sharp, severe. [A.S. _snel_, _snell_,
active; Ger. _schnell_, swift.]

SNIB, snib, _n._ (_Spens._) a check or reprimand. [_Snub_.]

SNIB, snib, _n._ (_Scot._) the bolt of a door.--_v.t._ to bolt.

SNICK, snik, _v.t._ to cut, snip, nick.--_n._ a small cut: a knot in yarn
when too tightly twisted.--_n._ SNICK'ERSNEE, a knife.--SNICK AND SNEE, a
fight with knives, also a knife. [Ice. _snikka_, to nick, cut.]

SNICKER, snik'[.e]r, _v.i._ to laugh, to giggle in a half-suppressed
way.--_v.t._ to say gigglingly.--_n._ a giggle, a half-smothered laugh.
[Low Ger. _snukken_, to sob, Dut. _snikken_, to gasp; cf. _Neigh_ and Scot.
_nicker_; all imit.]

SNIDE, sn[=i]d, _adj._ (_slang_) sharp, dishonest.--_n._ a sharper, a

SNIFF, snif, _v.t._ to draw in with the breath through the nose.--_v.i._ to
snuff or draw in air sharply through the nose: to snuff.--_n._ perception
of smell: a short sharp inhalation, or the sound made by such.--_v.i._
SNIF'FLE, to snuffle.--_n._ SNIF'FLER, a slight breeze.--_adj._ SNIF'FY,
inclined to be disdainful.--_vs.i._ SNIFT, to sniff, snivel; SNIFT'ER, to
sniff.--_n._ a sniff: (_pl._) stoppage of the nasal passages in catarrh:
(_slang_) a dram: (_U.S._) a severe storm.--_n._ SNIFT'ING-VALVE, an
air-valve connecting with a steam-cylinder, as in a condensing engine--also
_Tail-valve_, _Blow-valve_.--_adj._ SNIFT'Y (_slang_), having a tempting
smell. [Scand.; Dan. _snive_, snuff; Ger. _schnieben_.]

SNIG, snig, _v.t._ (_prov._) to cut.

SNIGGER, snig'[.e]r, _v.i._ to laugh in a half-suppressed, broken
manner.--_n._ a half-suppressed laugh. [Imit.]

SNIGGLE, snig'l, _v.i._ to fish for eels by thrusting the bait into their
hiding-places.--_v.t._ to catch by this means: to ensnare.--_n._ SNIG
(_prov._), an eel.

SNIP, snip, _v.t._ to cut off at once with scissors: to cut off the nib of:
to cut off: to make signs with, as the fingers:--_pr.p._ snip'ping; _pa.t._
and _pa.p._ snipped.--_n._ a single cut with scissors: a clip or small
shred: a share, snack: a tailor.--_ns._ SNIP'PER, one who snips, a tailor;
SNIP'PER-SNAP'PER, a little trifling fellow; SNIP'PET, a little piece
snipped off.--_adj._ SNIP'PETY, trivial, fragmentary.--_n._ SNIP'PING, a
clipping.--_adj._ SNIP'PY, fragmentary: stingy.--_n.pl._ SNIPS, a pair of
strong hand-shears for sheet-metal.--_n._ SNIP'-SNAP, tart dialogue with
quick replies.--_adj._ (_Shak._) quick, short. [Dut. _snippen_; Ger.
_schnippen_; closely conn. with _snap_.]

SNIPE, sn[=i]p, _n._ the name of a genus (_Gallinago_) and of a family
(_Scolopacidæ_) of birds, order _Grallæ_, having a long straight flexible
bill, frequenting marshy places all over Europe: a fool: a simpleton:
(_U.S._) a half-smoked cigar picked up on the street: a long bill or
account. [Scand., Ice. _snípa_; Dut. _snip_, _snep_, Ger. _schnepfe_.]

SNIPE, sn[=i]p, _v.i._ to pick off stealthily by a long rifle-shot, as from
the surrounding hills into a camp, &c.--_n._ SN[=I]P'ING, the foregoing

SNIRT, snirt, _n._ a smothered laugh.--_v.i._ SNIRT'LE, to snicker. [A
variant of _snortle_.]

SNITCHER, snich'[.e]r, _n._ (_slang_) an informer: a handcuff.

SNIVEL, sniv'l, _v.i._ to run at the nose: to cry, as a child:--_pr.p._
sniv'elling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sniv'elled.--_n._ snot: cant, an affected
tearful state.--_n._ SNIV'ELLER, one prone to snivelling: one who cries for
slight causes.--_adjs._ SNIV'ELLING, snotty: weakly tearful; SNIV'ELLY,
snotty, whining. [A.S. _snofel_, mucus from the nose; akin to _sniff_,

SNOB, snob, _n._ a vulgar person, esp. one who apes gentility, a
tuft-hunter: a shoemaker: a workman who works for lower wages than his
fellows, a rat, one who will not join a strike: a townsman, as opposed to a
gownsman, in Cambridge slang.--_n._ SNOB'BERY, the quality of being
snobbish.--_adj._ SNOB'BISH.--_adv._ SNOB'BISHLY.--_ns._ SNOB'BISHNESS;
SNOB'BISM.--_adj._ SNOB'BY.--_ns._ SNOB'LING, a little snob; SNOBOC'RACY,
snobs as a powerful class; SNOBOG'RAPHER; SNOBOG'RAPHY, the description of
snobs and snobbery. [Prob. prov. _snap_, a boy, from Ice. _snápr_, a dolt;
Sw. dial. _snopp_, a boy.]

SNOD, snod, _adj._ (_Scot._) neat, trim.--_v.t._ to trim, set in order
(with up). [Conn. with A.S. _sn['æ]dan_, to cut, prune.]

SNOOD, sn[=oo]d, _n._ the fillet which binds a maiden's hair: the
hair-line, gut, &c. by which a fish-hook is fixed to the line.--_adj._
SNOOD'ED, having, or wearing, a snood. [A.S. _snód_; cf. Ice. _snúa_, Sw.
_sno_, to twist.]

SNOOK, sn[=oo]k, _v.i._ to lurk, prowl about: to smell out--(_Scot._)
SNOUK. [Low Ger. _snoken_, to search for; Ice. _snaka_, to snuff about.]

SNOOK, sn[=oo]k, _n._ one of several fishes--the cobia, a robalo, a
garfish, a Cape carangoid fish. [Dut. _snoek_, a pike.]

SNOOKER, sn[=oo]k'[.e]r, _n._ a variety of the game of 'pool.'

SNOOL, sn[=oo]l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to submit tamely to wrong or
oppression.--_n._ one who does so. [Contr. of _snivel_.]

SNOOP, sn[=oo]p, _v.i._ to go about sneakingly. [_Snook_.]

SNOOZE, sn[=oo]z, _v.i._ to doze.--_n._ a nap.--_n._ SNOOZ'ER. [Prob. the
same as snore, influenced by sneeze.]

SNOOZE, sn[=oo]z, _v.i._ to doze: to slumber.--_n._ a quiet nap.--_n._
SNOOZ'ER. [Prob. the same as _snore_, influenced by _sneeze_.]

SNORE, sn[=o]r, _v.i._ to breathe roughly and hoarsely in sleep.--_n._ a
noisy breathing in sleep.--_ns._ SN[=O]R'ER; SN[=O]'RING, an abnormal and
noisy mode of respiration produced by deep inspirations and expirations
through the nose and open mouth, the noise being caused by the vibration of
the soft palate and uvula. [A.S. _snora_, a snore; allied to _snarl_.]

SNORT, snort, _v.i._ to force the air with violence and noise through the
nostrils, as horses: to laugh boisterously.--_v.t._ to express by a snort:
to force out, as by a snort.--_ns._ SNORT'ER; SNORT'ING.--_adv._
SNORT'INGLY. [Scand., Dan. _snorke_, to snort; Dut. _snorken_, Ger.

SNOT, snot, _n._ mucus of the nose: a mean fellow.--_v.i._ to blow the
nose.--_v.i._ SNOT'TER, to breathe through an obstruction in the nostrils,
to sob, cry.--_n._ the wattles of a turkey-cock: (_Scot._) snot.--_n._
SNOT'TERY, snot, filthiness.--_adv._ SNOT'TILY.--_n._ SNOT'TINESS.--_adjs._
SNOT'TY; SNOT'TY-NOSED. [M. E. _snotte_; cf. Dut. _snot_; allied to

SNOTTER, snot'[.e]r, _n._ (_naut._) the lower support of the sprit.

SNOUT, snowt, _n._ the projecting nose of a beast, as of a swine: any
similar projecting proboscis, beak, &c.--_v.t._ to furnish with a
snout.--_adjs._ SNOUT'ED; SNOUT'Y. [Scand., Sw. _snut_; Ger. _schnauze_,
Dut. _snuit_.]

SNOW, sn[=o], _n._ the crystalline form into which the excess of vapour in
the atmosphere is condensed when the temperature is below freezing: a
snowfall: a winter: (_her._) white argent.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to fall in
snow, to cover with snow.--_n._ SNOW'BALL, a ball made of snow pressed hard
together: a shrub bearing a round white flower, the guelder-rose: a round
pudding of rice with an apple in the centre, a mass of boiled rice shaped
in a cup: white of egg beaten stiff and placed on the surface of a
custard.--_v.t._ to throw snowballs at.--_v.i._ to throw snowballs.--_ns._
SNOW'-BER'RY, a bushy, deciduous shrub, bearing white berries; SNOW'-BIRD,
a North American bird of the Finch family, the upper parts lead-colour, the
lower parts white.--_adj._ SNOW'-BLIND, affected with
snow-blindness.--_ns._ SNOW'-BLIND'NESS, amblyopia caused by the reflection
of light from snow; SNOW'-BLINK, a peculiar reflection arising from fields
of snow, like ice-blink; SNOW'-BOOT, a boot made to protect the feet while
walking in snow; SNOW'-BOX, a theatrical apparatus for representing a
snowfall; SNOW'-BREAK, a melting of snow; SNOW'-BROTH, snow and water
mixed, any very cold liquid; SNOW'-BUNT'ING, SNOW'-FLICK, a bird of the
Finch family, Bunting sub-family, abounding in the Arctic regions.--_adjs._
SNOW'-CAPPED, -CAPT, covered with snow; SNOW'-COLD, as cold as snow.--_ns._
SNOW'-DRIFT, a bank of snow drifted together by the wind; SNOW'DROP, a
genus of plants of the natural order _Amaryllis_, with bell-shaped flower
arising from a spathe, bulbous root, two leaves and one single-flowered
leafless stem.--_ns.pl._ SNOW'-EYES, -GOGG'LES, an Eskimo contrivance to
prevent snow-blindness.--_n._ SNOW'FALL, a quiet fall of snow: the amount
falling in a given time.--_adj._ SNOW'-FED, begun or increased by melted
snow, as a stream.--_ns._ SNOW'FIELD, a wide range of snow, esp. where
permanent; SNOW'-FINCH, the stone- or mountain-finch; SNOW'FLAKE, a
feathery flake of snow: the snow-bunting: a bulbous-rooted garden flower,
resembling the snowdrop, but larger; SNOW'-FLY, a perlid insect or kind of
stone-fly found leaping on the snow; SNOW'-ICE, ice formed from freezing
slush.--_adv._ SNOW'ILY.--_n._ SNOW'INESS.--_adjs._ SNOW'ISH, resembling
snow; SNOW'LESS; SNOW'-LIKE; SNOW'-LIMBED, with limbs white as snow.--_ns._
SNOW'LINE, the line upon a mountain that marks the limit of [Illustration]
perpetual snow; SNOW'-OWL, the great white owl of northern regions;
SNOW'-PLOUGH, a machine for clearing roads and railways from snow;
SNOW'SHOE, a great flat shoe worn to prevent sinking in the snow.--_v.i._
to walk or travel on such.--_ns._ SNOW'-SLIP, a mass of snow which slips
down a mountain's side; SNOW'STORM, a storm accompanied with falling
snow.--_adj._ SNOW'-WHITE, as white as snow: very white.--_n._ SNOW'-WREATH
(_Scot._), a snowdrift.--_adj._ SNOW'Y, abounding or covered with snow:
white, like snow: pure. [A.S. _snáw_; Ger. _schnee_, L. _nix_, _nivis_.]

SNOW, sn[=o], _n._ a vessel once much in use, differing only from a brig in
having the boom-mainsail traversing on the trysail-mast, instead of hooped
to the mainmast. [Dut. _snaauw_, a boat.]

SNUB, snub, _v.t._ to check, to reprimand: to slight intentionally, to
rebuff by a cutting remark or retort:--_pr.p._ snub'bing; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ snubbed.--_n._ an act of snubbing, any deliberate slight.--_adjs._
SNUB, flat and broad, with the end slightly turned up; SNUB'BISH, inclined
to snub or check; SNUB'BY, somewhat snub.--_n._ SNUB'-NOSE, a short or flat
nose.--_adj._ SNUB'-NOSED.--_ns._ SNUB'-, SNUB'BING-POST, a post round
which a rope is wound to check the motion of a horse or boat.--SNUB A
CABLE, to check it suddenly in running out. [Scand., Dan. _snibbe_, to
reprove, Sw. _snubba_.]

SNUDGE, snuj, _v.i._ (_obs._) to be snug and quiet.

SNUDGE, snuj, _v.i._ to save in a miserly way.--_n._ a mean stingy fellow.

SNUFF, snuf, _v.i._ to draw in air violently and noisily through the nose:
to sniff: to smell at anything doubtfully: to take snuff into the
nose.--_v.t._ to draw into the nose: to smell, to examine by
smelling.--_n._ a powdered preparation of tobacco or other substance for
snuffing, a pinch of such: a sniff: resentment, huff.--_ns._ SNUFF'-BOX, a
box for snuff; SNUFF'-DIP'PING, the habit of dipping a wetted stick into
snuff and rubbing it on the gums; SNUFF'ER, one who snuffs; SNUFF'INESS,
state of being snuffy.--_v.i._ SNUF'FLE, to breathe hard through the
nose.--_n._ the sound made by such: a nasal twang: cant.--_n._ SNUF'FLER,
one who snuffles or speaks through his nose when obstructed.--_n.pl._
SNUF'FLES, nasal catarrh and consequent stoppage of the nose.--_ns._
SNUFF'LING; SNUFF'-MILL, a machine for grinding tobacco into snuff;
SNUFF'-MULL, a snuff-box; SNUFF'-SPOON, a spoon for taking snuff from a
snuff-box; SNUFF'-T[=A]K'ER, one who snuffs habitually;
SNUFF'-T[=A]KING.--_adj._ SNUFF'Y, soiled with, or smelling of,
snuff.--TAKE A THING IN SNUFF (_Shak._), to take offence; UP TO SNUFF,
knowing, not likely to be taken in. [Dut. _snuffen_, _snuf_; Ger.
_schnaufen_, to snuff.]


SNUFF, snuf, _v.t._ to crop or pinch the snuff from, as a burning
candle.--_n._ the charred portion of a candle or lamp-wick: a candle almost
burnt out.--_ns.pl._ SNUFF'-DISHES (_B._), dishes for the snuff of the
lamps of the tabernacle; SNUFF'ERS, an instrument for taking the snuff off
a candle.--SNUFF OUT, to extinguish by snuffing, to end by a sudden stroke.
[M. E. _snuffen_, for _snuppen_--Scand., Sw. dial. _snóppa_, to snip off,
Dan. _snubbe_, to nip off.]

SNUG, snug, _adj._ lying close and warm: comfortable: not exposed to view
or notice: being in good order: compact: fitting close.--_v.i._ to move so
as to lie close.--_v.t._ to make smooth.--_n._ SNUG'GERY, a cosy little
room.--_v.i._ SNUG'GLE, to cuddle, nestle.--_v.t._ SNUG'IFY (_Lamb_), to
make snug.--_adv._ SNUG'LY.--_n._ SNUG'NESS. [Scand., Ice. _snögg-r_,

SNUZZLE, snuz'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to rub the nose against and snuff.

SNY, sn[=i], _n._ a gentle bend in timber, curving upwards. [Prob. Ice.
_snúa_, to turn.]

SO, s[=o], _adv._ in this manner or degree: thus: for like reason: in such
manner or degree: in a high degree: as has been stated: on this account: an
abbrev. for Is it so? be it so.--_conj._ provided that: in case
that.--_interj._ stand as you are! steady! stop! by way of command.--_adj._
SO'-CALLED, generally styled thus--usually implying doubt.--SO AND SO, an
undetermined or imaginary person; SO AS, in such a manner as, with such a
purpose as: if only, on condition that; SO FAR, to that extent, degree, or
point; SO FORTH, denoting more of the same or a like kind; SO MUCH, as much
as is implied or mentioned: such an amount not determined or stated; SO
MUCH AS, to whatever extent; SO ON, so forth; SO SO, only thus, only
tolerably; SO THAT, with the purpose that: with the result that: if only;
SO THEN, thus then it is, therefore; SO TO SAY, or SPEAK, to use that
expression.--OR SO, or thereabouts; QUITE SO, just as you have said,
exactly. [A.S. _swá_; Ice. _svá_, Goth. _swa_, Ger. _so_.]

SOAK, s[=o]k, _v.t._ to steep in a fluid: to wet thoroughly: to drench: to
draw in by the pores.--_v.i._ to be steeped in a liquid: to enter into
pores: to drink to excess, to guzzle.--_n._ process or act of soaking: a
hard drinker, a carouse.--_ns._ SOAK'AGE, act of soaking: the amount soaked
in; SOAK'ER, a habitual drunkard.--_p.adj._ SOAK'ING, that wets thoroughly:
drenching, as rain.--_adv._ SOAK'INGLY.--_adj._ SOAK'Y, steeped, wet. [A.S.
_súcan_, to suck, pa.t. _seác_, pa.p. _socen_.]

SOAP, s[=o]p, _n._ a compound of oils or fats with soda (_hard soaps_) or
potash (_soft soaps_), used in washing: (_slang_) soft words, flattery:
(_U.S. slang_) money used for bribery and other secret political
purposes.--_v.t._ to rub or wash with soap: to flatter.--_ns._ SOAP'-BALL,
soap made into a ball, often with starch, as an emollient; SOAP'BERRY, the
fruit of several species of trees belonging to the genus _Sapindus_,
containing a pulp useful as a substitute for soap in washing;
SOAP'-BOIL'ER, one whose occupation is to make soap; SOAP'-BOIL'ING, the
occupation of making soap; SOAP'-BUB'BLE, a bubble made from soap-suds by
blowing through a pipe; SOAP'INESS; SOAP'-LOCK, a lock of hair brushed
apart from the rest: a rowdy; SOAP'-PAN, a large tank for boiling the
ingredients in soap-making; SOAP'-PLANT, a plant the bulb of which makes a
thick lather when rubbed on clothes, and is used as soap; SOAP'-STONE, a
soft kind of magnesian rock having a soapy feel, also called Steatite;
SOAP'-SUDS (s. and _pl._), soapy water, esp. when worked into a foam;
SOAP'-TEST, a test for determining the degree of hardness of water;
SOAP'-WORKS, a place where soap is made; SOAP'WORT, a genus of plants, some
of the species of which have very beautiful flowers, and the root and
leaves of which contain saponin, and hence are sometimes used in
washing.--_adj._ SOAP'Y, like soap: having the qualities of soap: covered
with soap: flattering, or pertaining to flattery. [A.S. _sápe_; Dut.
_zeep_, Ger. _seife_.]

SOAR, s[=o]r, _v.i._ to mount into the air: to fly aloft: to rise to a
height, also mentally or morally.--_n._ act of soaring: the height reached
in soaring.--_adjs._ SOAR'ANT (_her._), flying aloft; SOAR'ING.--_adv._
SOAR'INGLY, having an upward direction. [O. Fr. _essorer_, to expose to
air--L. _ex_, out of, aura, air.]

SOB, sob, _v.i._ to sigh in a convulsive manner, with tears: to weep with
convulsive catchings of the breath, due to contractions of the diaphragm,
accompanied by a closure of the glottis, preventing the entrance of air
into the lungs.--_v.t._ to utter with sobs:--_pr.p._ sob'bing; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ sobbed.--_n._ a short, convulsive sigh, any similar sound.--_n._
SOB'BING.--_adv._ SOB'BINGLY. [Conn. with A.S. _seófian_, to sigh; Ger.

SOBEIT, s[=o]-b[=e]'it, _conj._ if it be so.

SOBER, s[=o]'b[.e]r, _adj._ not wild or passionate: self-possessed: sedate:
grave: calm: regular: simple in colour, sombre: not drunk: temperate, esp.
in the use of liquors: (_Scot._) poor, feeble.--_v.t._ to make sober: to
free from intoxication.--_adj._ S[=O]'BER-BLOOD'ED, cool.--_v.t._
S[=O]'BERISE, to make sober.--_adv._ S[=O]'BERLY.--_adj._
S[=O]'BER-MIND'ED, habitually calm and temperate.--_ns._
S[=O]'BER-MIND'EDNESS, the state of being sober-minded: freedom from
inordinate passion: calmness; S[=O]'BERNESS; S[=O]'BERSIDES, a sedate and
solemn person.--_adj._ S[=O]'BER-SUIT'ED, dressed in a suit of sad-coloured
clothes.--_n._ S[=O]BR[=I]'ETY, state or habit of being sober: calmness:
gravity. [Fr. _sobre_--L. _sobrius_--_se_, apart, not, _ebrius_, drunk.]

SOBOL, s[=o]'bol, _n._ the Russian sable. [Polish.]

SOBOLES, sob'[=o]-l[=e]z, _n._ (_bot._) a shoot or sucker.--_adj._
SOBOLIF'EROUS. [L. _suboles_--_sub_, under, _ol[=e]re_, to grow.]

SOBRANJE, s[=o]-brän'ye, _n._ the national assembly of Bulgaria.--Also
SOBRAN'YE. [Bulg.]

SOBRIQUET, s[=o]-br[=e]-k[=a]', _n._ a contemptuous nickname: an assumed
name.--Also SOUBRIQUET'. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _soubzbriquet_, a chuck under the
chin, _soubz_, _sous_--L. _sub_, under, _briquet_, breast; cf. _Brisket_.]

SOCAGE, SOCCAGE, sok'[=a]j, _n._ the tenure of lands by service fixed and
determinate in quality.--_ns._ SOC'AGER, SOC'MAN, a tenant by socage;
SOC'MANRY, tenure by socage. [A.S. _sóc_, a right of holding a
court--_sóc_, _pa.t._ of _sacan_, to contend.]

SO-CALLED, s[=o]'-kawld, _adj._ See under SO.

SOCIABLE, s[=o]'sha-bl, _adj._ inclined to society: fit for company:
companionable: affording opportunities for intercourse.--_n._ a
four-wheeled open carriage with seats facing: a tricycle for two persons
side by side: a couch with a curved S-shaped back: (_U.S._) an informal
party, a social church meeting.--_ns._ S[=O]CIABIL'ITY, S[=O]'CIABLENESS,
quality of being sociable: good-fellowship.--_adv._ S[=O]'CIABLY.--_adj._
S[=O]'CIAL, pertaining to society or companionship: relating to men united
in a society: inclined for friendly intercourse: consisting in mutual
converse: convivial: associating together, gregarious: growing in
patches.--_v.t._ S[=O]'CIALISE, to reduce to a social state: to render
social.--_ns._ S[=O]'CIALISM, the name given to any one of various schemes
for regenerating society by a more equal distribution of property, and esp.
by substituting the principle of association for that of competition;
S[=O]'CIALIST, an adherent of socialism.--_adj._ SOCIALIST'IC.--_ns._
SOCIAL'ITY, S[=O]'CIALNESS.--_adv._ S[=O]'CIALLY.--_adjs._
S[=O]'CI[=A]TIVE, expressing association; SOCIET[=A]'RIAN, SOC[=I]'ETARY,
of or pertaining to society.--_ns._ SOC[=I]'ETY, fellowship, companionship:
a number of persons associated for a common interest: a community or
partnership: the civilised body of mankind, those who are recognised as the
leaders in fashionable life, the fashionable world generally: persons who
associate: any organised association for purposes literary, scientific,
philanthropic, or ecclesiastical; SOC[=I]'ETY-HOUSE, a printing office
which conforms to the rules of a trade-union; SOC[=I]'ETY-VERSE, poetry
light and entertaining, treating of the topics of society so
called.--SOCIAL SCIENCE, sociology, esp. the branch treating of the
existing institutions of men as members of society, the science which
treats of social relations; SOCIAL War, the war (90-88 b.c.) in which the
Italian tribes known as the allies (_Socii_) fought for admission into
Roman citizenship.--SOCIALISM OF THE CHAIR, a term first applied about 1872
in ridicule to the doctrines of a school of political economists in Germany
whose aim was mainly to better the condition of the working-classes through
remedial state-legislation, by factory-acts, savings-banks, insurances
against sickness and old age, shortening the hours of labour, sanitation,
&c.--also called PROFESSORIAL SOCIALISM, and having much the same ends and
methods as the STATE SOCIALISM of Bismarck.--CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM, a
movement for applying Christian ethics to social reform, led by Maurice,
Kingsley, and others about 1848-52.--THE SOCIETIES, bodies that began to be
organised in 1681 for the maintenance of Presbyterian worship in the face
of persecution--ultimately forming the Reformed Presbyterian Church.
[Fr.,--L. _sociabilis_--_soci[=a]re_, to associate--_socius_, a companion.]

SOCINIAN, s[=o]-sin'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Socinus_, the name of two
celebrated heresiarchs, uncle and nephew, who in the 16th century denied
the doctrine of the Trinity, the deity of Christ, &c.--_n._ a follower of
Lælius and Faustus Socinus, one who refuses to accept the divinity of
Christ, a Unitarian.--_n._ SOCIN'IANISM, the doctrines of SOCINUS.

SOCIOLOGY, s[=o]-shi-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science that treats of man as a
social being, in the origin, organisation, and development of human society
and human culture, esp. on the side of social and political institutions,
including ethics, political economy, &c.--_ns._ SOCIOG'ENY, the science of
the origin of society; SOCIOG'RAPHY, the branch of sociology devoted to
noting and describing the results of observation.--_adjs._ SOCIOLOG'IC,
-AL.--_adv._ SOCIOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ SOCIOL'OGIST, one devoted to the study
of sociology; S[=O]'CIUS, an associate: a fellow of an academy, &c. [A
hybrid from L. _socius_, a companion, and Gr. _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

SOCK, sok, _n._ a kind of half-stocking: comedy, originally a low-heeled
light shoe, worn by actors of comedy. [A.S. _socc_--L. _soccus_.]

SOCK, sok, _n._ a ploughshare. [O. Fr. _soc_--Celt., Bret. _souc'h_, Gael.

SOCK, sok, _v.t._ (_prov._ and _slang_) to throw: to strike hard, to give a

SOCKDOLOGER, sok-dol'[=o]-j[.e]r, _n._ (_Amer. slang_) a conclusive
argument: a knock-down blow: anything very big, a whopper: a form of
fish-hook. [A corr. of _doxology_ as the closing act of a service.]

SOCKET, sok'et, _n._ a hollow into which something is inserted, the
receptacle of the eye, &c.: a hollow tool for grasping and lifting tools
dropped in a well-boring: the hollow of a candlestick: a steel apparatus
attached to the saddle to protect thighs and legs.--_v.t._ to provide with
or place in a socket.--_n._ SOCK'ET-BOLT, a bolt for passing through a
thimble placed between the parts connected by the bolt.--_p.adj._
SOCK'ETED, provided with, placed in, or received in a socket. [A dim. of

SOCLE, s[=o]'kl, _n._ (_archit._) a plain, square, flat member used instead
of a pedestal to support a column, &c.: a plain face or plinth at the foot
of a wall. [Fr.--It. _zoccolo_--L. _socculus_, dim. of _soccus_, a
high-heeled shoe, as if a support.]

SOCRATIC, -AL, s[=o]-krat'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to _Socrates_, a
celebrated Greek philosopher (469-399 B.C.), to his philosophy, or to his
manner of teaching, which was an art of inducing his interlocutors to
discover their own ignorance and need of knowledge by means of a series of
simple questions.--_adv._ SOCRAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ SOC'RATISM, the philosophy

SOD, sod, _n._ any surface of earth grown with grass, &c.: turf.--_adj._
consisting of sod.--_v.t._ to cover with sod.--_adj._ SOD'DY, covered with
sod: turfy.--THE OLD SOD, one's native soil. [Low Ger. _sode_; Ger. _sode_;
perh. conn. with A.S. _seáth_, a well--seóthan (pa.p. _soden_), to boil.]

SOD, sod, obsolete _pa.t._ of _seethe_.

SODA, s[=o]'da, _n._ oxide of sodium, or its hydrate: the alkali obtained
from the ashes of marine vegetables, or by decomposing sea-salt: (_coll._)
soda-water.--_ns._ S[=O]'DA-ASH, sodium carbonate; S[=O]'DA-CRACK'ER, a
biscuit made of flour and water, with salt, bicarbonate of soda, and cream
of tartar; S[=O]'DA-FOUNT'AIN, a metal or marble case for holding water
charged with carbonic-acid gas.--_adj._ SOD[=A]'IC, pertaining to, or
containing, soda.--_ns._ S[=O]'DA-LIME, a mixture of caustic soda and
quicklime; S[=O]'DALITE, a mineral composed chiefly of soda, along with
silica, alumina, and hydrochloric acid; S[=O]'DA-P[=A]'PER, a paper
saturated with sodium carbonate; S[=O]'DA-SALT, a salt having soda for its
base; S[=O]'DA-WA'TER, water containing soda charged with carbonic acid;
S[=O]'DIUM, a yellowish-white metal, the base of soda. [It. _soda_--L.
_solida_, firm.]

SODALITY, s[=o]-dal'i-ti, _n._ a fellowship or fraternity. [L.
_sodalitas_--sodalis, a comrade.]

SODDEN, sod'n, _pa.p._ of _seethe_, boiled: soaked thoroughly: boggy:
doughy, not well baked: bloated, saturated with drink.--_n._
SOD'DENNESS.--_adj._ SOD'DEN-WIT'TED (_Shak._), heavy, stupid.

SODOMY, sod'om-i, _n._ unnatural sexuality, so called because imputed to
the inhabitants of _Sodom_.--_n._ SOD'OMITE, an inhabitant of SODOM: one
guilty of sodomy.--_adj._ SODOMIT'ICAL.--_adv._ SODOMIT'ICALLY.

SOEVER, s[=o]-ev'[.e]r, _adv._ generally used to extend or render
indefinite the sense of _who_, _what_, _where_, _how_, &c.

SOFA, s[=o]'fa, _n._ a long seat with stuffed bottom, back and
arms--formerly S[=O]'PHA.--_n._ S[=O]'FA-BED, a piece of furniture serving
as a sofa by day, capable of being made into a bed at night. [Fr.,--Ar.
_suffah_--_saffa_, to arrange.]

SOFFIT, sof'it, _n._ a ceiling, now generally restricted to the ornamented
under-sides of staircases, entablatures, archways, &c.; also the larmier or
drip. [Fr.,--It.,--L. _suffixa_, pa.p. of _suffig[)e]re_, to fasten
beneath--_sub_, under, _fig[)e]re_, to fix.]


SOFT, soft, _adj._ easily yielding to pressure: easily cut or acted upon:
malleable: not rough to the touch: smooth: pleasing or soothing to the
senses: easily yielding to any influence: mild: sympathetic: gentle:
effeminate: gentle in motion: easy: free from lime or salt, as water:
bituminous, as opposed to _anthracitic_, of coal: unsized, of paper: wet,
rainy: warm enough to melt ice, thawing: (_phon._) pronounced with a
somewhat sibilant sound, not guttural or explosive: vocal or sonant: not
bony, cartilaginous, not spinous: soft-rayed, soft-shelled: of silk, having
the natural gum cleaned or washed off--opp. to _Hard_.--_n._ a silly
person, a fool.--_adv._ gently: quietly.--_interj._ hold! not so
fast!--_adjs._ SOFT'-BOD'IED, having a soft body; SOFT'-CON'SCIENCED,
having a sensitive conscience.--_v.t._ SOFT'EN, to make soft or softer: to
mitigate: to tone down, make less glaring, make smoother in sound.--_v.i._
to grow soft or softer.--_ns._ SOFT'ENER; SOFT'ENING.--_adjs._ SOFT'-EYED,
having gentle or tender eyes; SOFT'-FINNED, having no fin-spines.--_n.pl._
SOFT'-GOODS, cloth, and cloth articles, as opposed to _hardware_,
&c.--_adjs._ SOFT'-HAND'ED, having soft hands, unused to work, slack in
discipline; SOFT'-HEAD'ED, of weak intellect; SOFT'-HEART'ED, kind-hearted:
gentle: meek.--_n._ SOFT-HEART'EDNESS.--_adj._ SOFT'ISH, rather
soft.--_adv._ SOFT'LY.--_n._ SOFT'NESS.--_v.t._ SOFT'-SAW'DER (_U.S._), to
flatter, blarney.--_n._ flattery.--_v.t._ SOFT'-SOAP, to flatter for some
end.--_n._ flattery.--_adj._ SOFT-SP[=O]'KEN, -VOICED, having a mild or
gentle voice: mild, affable.--_n._ SOFT'Y, a silly person, a weak fool.--A
soft thing, a snug place where the pay is good and the work light. [A.S.
_sófte_, _séfte_; Dut. _zacht_, Ger. _sanft_.]

SOFTA, sof'ta, _n._ a Moslem theological student, attached to a mosque.

SOGER, s[=o]'j[.e]r, _n._ (_naut._) one who skulks his work.--_v.i._ to
shirk one's work.

SOGGY, sog'i, _adj._ soaked with water.--_n._ SOG, a bog.

SO-HO, s[=o]-h[=o]', _interj._ (_Shak._) a form of call from a distance, a
sportsman's halloo.

SOI-DISANT, swo-d[=e]-zong', _adj._ self-styled, pretended. [Fr.]

SOIL, soil, _n._ the ground: the mould on the surface of the earth which
nourishes plants: country.--_adj._ SOIL'-BOUND, attached to the soil.--_n._
SOIL'-CAP, the covering of soil on the bed-rock.--_adj._ SOILED, having
soil. [O. Fr. _soel_, _suel_, _sueil_--Low L. _solea_, soil, ground, L.
_solea_, sole, allied to L. _solum_, ground, whence Fr. _sol_, soil.]

SOIL, soil, _n._ dirt: dung: foulness: a spot or stain: a marshy place in
which a hunted boar finds refuge.--_v.t._ to make dirty: to stain: to
manure.--_v.i._ to take a soil: to tarnish.--_n._ SOIL'INESS, stain:
foulness.--_adj._ SOIL'LESS, destitute of soil.--_ns._ SOIL'-PIPE, an
upright discharge-pipe which receives the general refuse from
water-closets, &c., in a building; SOIL'URE (_Shak._), stain: pollution.
[O. Fr. _soil_, _souil_ (Fr. _souille_), wallowing-place--L. _suillus_,
piggish--_sus_, a pig, a hog.]

SOIL, soil, _v.t._ to feed at the stall for the purpose of fattening. [O.
Fr. _saouler_--_saol_, _saoul_--L. _satullus_--_satur_, full.]

SOIRÉE, swä-r[=a]', _n._ an evening party: an evening social meeting with
tea, &c. [Fr.,--_soir_, evening (Prov. _sera_)--L. _serus_, late.]

SOJOURN, s[=o]'jurn, _v.t._ to stay for a day: to dwell for a time.--_n._ a
temporary residence.--_ns._ S[=O]'JOURNER; S[=O]'JOURNING, S[=O]'JOURNMENT,
the act of dwelling in a place for a time. [O. Fr. _sojourner_--L. _sub_,
under, _diurn[=a]re_, to stay--Low L. _jornus_--L. _diurnus_, relating to
day--_dies_, a day.]

SOKE, s[=o]k, _n._ the same as _Soc_ (_q.v._).--_ns._ SOKE'MAN=_Socman_;
S[=O]'KEN, a district held by tenure of socage: a miller's right to the
grinding of all the corn within a certain manor.

SOL, sol, _n._ the sun, Phoebus: (_her._) a tincture, the metal or, or
gold, in blazoning by planets. [L.]

SOL, sol, _n._ an old French coin, 1/20th of a livre, equal to 12 deniers,
now superseded by the sou. [O. Fr. _sol_--L. _solidus_, solid.]

SOLA, s[=o]-lä', _interj._ a cry to a person at a distance.

SOLA, s[=o]'lä, _n._ the hat-plant or sponge-wood, also its pith.--Also
S[=O]'LAH. [Hind. _shol[=a]_.]

SOLACE, sol'[=a]s, _n._ consolation, comfort in distress: relief: (_obs._)
pleasure, amusement.--_v.t._ to comfort in distress: to console: to
allay.--_n._ SOL'ACEMENT, the act of solacing: the state of being
solaced.--_adj._ SOL[=A]'CIOUS (_obs._), affording pleasure. [O. Fr.
_solas_--L. _solatium_--_sol[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to comfort in distress.]

SOLANDER, s[=o]-lan'd[.e]r, _n._ a case or box, usually in the form of a
book, opening on the side or front with hinges, for holding prints,
drawings, or pamphlets--named from the inventor, Daniel _Solander_

SOLAN-GOOSE, s[=o]'lan-g[=oo]s, _n._ the gannet.--Also S[=O]'LAND. [Ice.

SOLANO, s[=o]-lä'no, _n._ a hot south-east wind which occasionally visits
Spain. [Sp.,--L. _solanus_ (_ventus_), the east wind--_sol_, the sun.]

SOLANUM, s[=o]-l[=a]'num, _n._ a genus of plants of the order _Solanaceæ_
or _Solaneæ_, the nightshade family--almost all the species containing a
poisonous alkaloid, SOL'ANINE.--_adjs._ SOLAN[=A]'CEOUS, belonging to the
_Solanaceæ_; SOL'ANOID, potato-like, said of cancers. [L. _solanum_, the

SOLAR, s[=o]'lar, _adj._ pertaining to the sun: measured by the progress of
the sun: produced by the sun.--_n._ S[=O]LARIS[=A]'TION, exposure to the
action of the sun's rays: the effect in photography of
over-exposure.--_v.t._ S[=O]'LARISE, to injure by exposing too long to the
sun's light in a camera.--_v.i._ to take injury by too long exposure to the
sun's light in a camera:--_pr.p._ s[=o]'lar[=i]sing; _pa.p._
s[=o]'lar[=i]sed.--_ns._ S[=O]'LARISM, excessive use of solar-myths in the
explanation of mythology; S[=O]'LARIST, one addicted to solarism;
S[=O]L[=A]'RIUM, a sun-dial: a place suited to receive the sun's rays--in a
hospital or sanatorium; S[=O]'LAR-M[=I]'CROSCOPE, an apparatus for
projecting upon a screen by means of sunlight an enlarged view of any
object--essentially the same as the combination of lenses used in the
magic-lantern taken in conjunction with a heliostat; S[=O]'LAR-MYTH, a myth
allegorising the course of the sun, by some mythologists constantly invoked
to explain the problems of mythology; S[=O]'LAR-PRINT, a photographic print
made in a solar camera from a negative; S[=O]'LAR-SYS'TEM, the planets and
comets which circle round the sun--also called _Planetary-system_.--SOLAR
FLOWERS, flowers which open and shut daily at certain hours; SOLAR
SPOTS=_Sun-spots_ (see SUN); SOLAR TIME (see TIME); SOLAR YEAR (see YEAR).
[L. _sol_, the sun, _solaris_, pertaining to the sun.]

SOLASTER, s[=o]-las't[.e]r, _n._ the typical genus of _Solasteridæ_, a
family of star-fishes, having more than five rays. [L. _sol_, the sun,
_aster_, a star.]

SOLATIUM, s[=o]-l[=a]'shi-um, _n._ any compensation, a sum legally awarded,
over and above actual damages, by way of compensation for wounded feelings.

SOLD, s[=o]ld, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _sell_.

SOLD, sold, _n._ (_Spens._) pay, remuneration. [Fr. _solde_--L. _solidus_,
a piece of money.]

SOLDADO, s[=o]l-dä'd[=o], _n._ a soldier. [Sp.]

SOLDAN, s[=o]l'dan, _n._ (_Milt._). Same as SULTAN.

SOLDANEL, sol'da-nel, _n._ a plant of the genus _Soldanella_, of the order
_Primulaceæ_--the blue moonwort.

SOLDATESQUE, sol-da-tesk', _adj._ soldier-like, [Fr.,--_soldat_, a

SOLDER, sod'[.e]r, or sol'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to unite two metallic surfaces by
a fusible metallic cement: to cement.--_n._ a fusible alloy for uniting
metals.--_ns._ SOL'DERER; SOL'DERING; SOL'DERING-BOLT, -[=I]'RON, a tool
with pointed or wedge-shaped copper bit for use in soldering. [O. Fr.
_soudre_, _souldure_--_souder_, _soulder_, to consolidate--L.
_solid[=a]re_, to make solid.]

SOLDIER, s[=o]l'j[.e]r, _n._ a man engaged in military service: a private,
as distinguished from an officer: a man of much military experience or of
great valour: a soldier-ant, beetle, hermit-crab, &c.: (_slang_) a red
herring.--_v.i._ to serve as a soldier: to bully: to shirk one's work or
duty: (_slang_) to take a mount on another man's horse.--_ns._
SOL'DIER-CRAB, a hermit-crab; SOL'DIERING, the state of being a soldier:
the occupation of a soldier.--_adjs._ SOL'DIER-LIKE, SOL'DIERLY, like a
soldier: martial: brave.--_ns._ SOL'DIER-OF-FOR'TUNE, one ready to serve
anywhere for pay or his own advancement; SOL'DIERSHIP, state or quality of
being a soldier: military qualities: martial skill; SOL'DIERY, soldiers
collectively: the body of military men; FRESH'WATER-SOL'DIER, the
_Stratiotes aloides_, a European aquatic plant with sword-shaped
leaves.--COME THE OLD SOLDIER OVER ONE, to impose on any one.--OLD SOLDIER,
a bottle emptied at a sitting: a cigar-stump. [O. Fr. _soldier_ (Fr.
_soldat_)--L. _solidus_, a piece of money, the pay of a soldier.]

SOLDO, sol'd[=o], _n._ an Italian coin, 1/20th of the lira, a sol or
sou:--_pl._ SOL'DI. [It.]

SOLE, s[=o]l, _n._ the lowest part or under-side of the foot: the foot: the
bottom of a boot or shoe: the bottom of anything.--_v.t._ to furnish with a
sole.--_adj._ SOL[=E]'IFORM, slipper-shaped.--_ns._ SOLE'-LEATH'ER, strong
leather for the soles of boots and shoes; SOLE'-TILE, a form of tile for
the bottoms of sewers, &c.; S[=O]L[=E]'US, a flat muscle of the calf of the
leg beneath the gastrocnemius. [A.S. _sole_--L. _solea_--_solum_, bottom.]

SOLE, s[=o]l, _n._ a genus (_Solea_) of flat-fish, elongate-oval in form,
with flesh firm, white, and excellently flavoured. [Fr. _sole_--L.

SOLE, s[=o]l, _adj._ alone: only: being or acting without another: single:
(_law_) unmarried.--_advs._ SOLE; SOLE'LY, alone: only: singly.--_n._
SOLE'NESS. [Fr.,--L. _solus_, alone.]

SOLECISM, sol'[=e]-sizm, _n._ a breach of syntax: any absurdity or
impropriety: any incongruity, prodigy.--_v.i._ SOL'[=E]CISE, to commit
solecisms.--_n._ SOL'[=E]CIST, one who commits solecisms.--_adjs._
SOL[=E]CIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or involving, a solecism: incorrect:
incongruous.--_adv._ SOL[=E]CIST'ICALLY. [Fr. _solécisme_--L.
_soloecismus_--Gr. _soloikismos_--_soloikos_, speaking incorrectly,
awkward; dubiously said to come from the corruption of the Attic dialect
among the Athenian colonists of _Soloi_ in Cilicia.]

SOLEIN, sol'[=a]n, _adj._ (_Spens._) sad. [_Sullen_.]

SOLEMN, sol'em, _adj._ attended with religions ceremonies, pomp, or
gravity, originally taking place every year, said esp. of religious
ceremonies: impressing with seriousness: awful: devout: having the
appearance of gravity: devotional: attended with an appeal to God, as an
oath: serious: sober, gloomy, black.--_n._ SOLEMNIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._
SOL'EMNISE, to perform religiously or solemnly once a year, or
periodically: to celebrate with due rites: to render grave.--_ns._
SOL'EMNISER; SOLEM'NITY, a solemn religious ceremony: a ceremony adapted to
inspire with awe: reverence: seriousness: affected gravity.--_adv._
sol'emnly.--_n._ SOL'EMNNESS. [O. Fr. _solempne_, _solemne_ (Fr.
_solennel_)--L. _sollemnis_, _solennis_--_sollus_, all, every, _annus_, a

SOLEN, s[=o]'len, _n._ a genus of bivalve molluscs--Razor-shell and
Razor-fish.--_adjs._ SOLAN[=A]'CEAN, SOLAN[=A]'CEOUS.--_n._ SOL'ENITE, a
fossil razor-shell. [Gr. _s[=o]l[=e]n_, a channel.]

SOLENOID, s[=o]-l[=e]'noid, _n._ a helix of copper wound in the form of a
cylinder, longitudinally magnetised with an intensity varying inversely as
the area of the normal section in different parts.--_adj._
SOL[=E]NOI'DAL.--_adv._ SOL[=E]NOI'DALLY. [Gr. _s[=o]l[=e]n_, a pipe,
eidos, form.]

SOLENOSTOMOUS, sol-[=e]-nos't[=o]-mus, _adj._ having a tubular or fistulous
snout.--_n._ SOLENOS'TOMUS, the typical genus of the SOLENOSTOMIDÆ, a
family of solenostomous lophobranchiate fishes. [Gr. _s[=o]l[=e]n_, a pipe,
_stoma_, mouth.]

SOLERT, sol'ert, _adj._ (_obs._) subtle.--_n._ SOLER'TIOUSNESS. [L.
_sollers_, crafty, _sollertia_, skill.]


SOL-FA, sol'-fa, _v.i._ to sing the notes of the scale in their proper
pitch, using the syllables _do_ (or _ut_), _re_, _mi_, _fa_, _sol_, _la_,
_si_;--_pr.p._ sol-faing (sol'-fa-ing); _pa.p._ sol-faed (sol'-fad).--_ns._
SOL'FAÏSM, singing by syllables, solmisation; SOL'FAÏST, a teacher or
advocate of solmisation; SOLFEG'GIO, an exercise on the notes of the scale,
as represented by _do_, _re_, _mi_, &c. [It.]

SOLFATARA, sol-fä-tä'ra, _n._ a volcanic region no longer violently active,
but emitting from crevices gases, steam, and chemical vapours, chiefly of
sulphurous origin--Fr. _soufrière_, Ger. _schwefelgrube_ or _schwefelsee_.
[It.,--_solfo_, sulphur.]

SOLFERINO, sol-fe-r[=e]'n[=o], _n._ the colour of rosaniline--from the
French victory at _Solferino_ in Italy (1859).

SOLICIT, s[=o]-lis'it, _v.t._ to ask earnestly: to petition: to seek or try
to obtain: to disturb.--_n._ solicitation.--_ns._ SOLIC'ITANT, one who
solicits; SOLICIT[=A]'TION, a soliciting: earnest request: invitation;
SOLIC'ITING (_Shak._), solicitation; SOLIC'ITOR, one who asks earnestly:
one who is legally qualified to act for another in a court of law, esp. a
court of equity: a lawyer who prepares deeds, manages cases, instructs
counsel in the superior courts, and acts as an advocate in the inferior
courts; SOLIC'ITOR-GEN'ERAL, in England, the law-officer of the crown next
in rank to the attorney-general--in Scotland, to the lord-advocate;
SOLIC'ITORSHIP.--_adj._ SOLIC'ITOUS, soliciting or earnestly asking or
desiring: very desirous: anxious: careful.--_adv._ SOLIC'ITOUSLY.--_ns._
SOLIC'ITOUSNESS, SOLIC'ITUDE, state of being solicitous: anxiety or
uneasiness of mind: trouble. [Fr. _solliciter_--L.
_sollicit[=a]re_--_sollicitus_--_sollus_, whole, _citus_,
aroused--_ci[=e]re_, to cite.]

SOLID, sol'id, _adj._ having the parts firmly adhering: hard: compact: full
of matter: not hollow: strong: having length, breadth, and thickness
(opposed to a mere surface): cubic: substantial, reliable, worthy of
credit, satisfactory: weighty: of uniform undivided substance: financially
sound, wealthy: unanimous, smooth, unbroken, unvaried.--_n._ a substance
having the parts firmly adhering together: a firm, compact body--opp. to
_Fluid_.--_ns._ SOLID[=A]'GO, a genus of composite plants, the goldenrods;
SOLIDARE, sol'id[=a]r (_Shak._), a small piece of money; SOLIDAR'ITY, the
being made solid or compact: the being bound: a consolidation or oneness of
interests.--_adj._ SOL'IDARY, marked by solidarity, jointly
responsible.--_v.t._ SOL'IDATE, to make solid or firm.--_adj._
SOLID'IFIABLE.--_n._ SOLIDIFIC[=A]'TION, act of making solid or
hard.--_v.t._ SOLID'IFY, to make solid or compact.--_v.i._ to grow solid:
to harden:--_pa.p._ solid'ified.--_ns._ SOL'IDISM, the doctrine that refers
all diseases to alterations of the solid parts of the body; SOL'IDIST, a
believer in the foregoing; SOLID'ITY, the state of being solid: fullness of
matter: strength or firmness, moral or physical: soundness: (_geom._) the
solid content of a body.--_adv._ SOL'IDLY.--_n._ SOL'IDNESS.--SOLID COLOUR,
a colour covering the whole of an object: a uniform colour; SOLID MATTER
(_print._), matter set without leads between the lines.--BE SOLID FOR
(_U.S._), to be hearty or unanimous in favour of; BE SOLID WITH (_U.S._),
to have a firm footing with. [Fr.,--L. _solidus_, solid.]

SOLIDUM, sol'i-dum, _n._ (_archit._) the die of a pedestal: (_Scots law_) a
complete sum. [L.]

SOLIDUNGULAR, sol-id-ung'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ having hoofs solid, that are not
cloven, denoting a certain tribe of mammalia.--Also SOLIDUNG'ULOUS,
SOLIDUNG'ULATE. [L. _solidus_, solid, _ungula_, a hoof.]

SOLIDUS, sol'i-dus, _n._ a Roman gold coin introduced by Constantine in
place of the _aureus_, known later as the bezant: a sign (/) denoting the
English shilling, representing the old lengthened form of _s_--£ s. d.
(_libræ_, _solidi_, _denarii_), pounds, shillings, pence.

SOLIFIDIAN, sol-i-fid'i-an, _n._ one who holds that faith alone is what is
necessary for justification.--_adj._ holding this view.--_n._
SOLIFID'IANISM. [L. _solus_, only, _fides_, faith.]

SOLILOQUY, s[=o]-lil'[=o]-kwe, _n._ a talking when solitary or to one's
self: a discourse of a person, not addressed to any one.--_v.i._
SOLIL'OQUISE, to speak to one's self or utter a soliloquy. [L.
_soliloquium_--_solus_, alone, _loqui_, to speak.]

SOLIPED, sol'i-ped, _n._ an animal with a single or uncloven hoof on each
foot.--_adjs._ SOL'IPED, SOLIP'EDOUS. [L. _solus_, alone, _pes_, _pedis_, a

SOLIPSISM, sol'ip-sizm, _n._ the theory that self-existence is the only
certainty, absolute egoism--the extreme form of subjective idealism.--_n._
SOL'IPSIST, one who believes in this.--_adj._ SOLIPSIS'TIC. [L. _solus_,
alone, _ipse_, self.]

SOLISEQUIOUS, sol-i-s[=e]'kwi-us, _adj._ following the sun, as the
sunflower. [L. _sol_, the sun, _sequi_, to follow.]

SOLITAIRE, sol-i-t[=a]r', _n._ a recluse or one who lives alone: a game
played by one person with a board and balls: a card-game for one--patience:
an ornament worn singly on the neck or wrist: a black silk tie fixed to the
bag of the wig behind, worn in the 18th century.

SOLITARY, sol'i-tar-i, _adj._ being the sole person present: alone or
lonely: single, separate, simple: living alone, not social or gregarious:
without company: remote from society: retired, secluded: gloomy.--_n._ one
who lives alone: a recluse or hermit--(_obs._) SOLIT[=A]'RIAN.--_adv._
SOL'ITARILY.--_n._ SOL'ITARINESS. [Fr. _solitaire_--L.
_solitarius_--_solus_, alone.]

SOLITO, sol'i-t[=o], _adv._ (_mus._) in the usual manner. [It.]

SOLITUDE, sol'i-t[=u]d, _n._ a being alone: a lonely life: want of company:
a lonely place or desert. [Fr.,--L. _solitudo_--_solus_, alone.]

SOLIVAGOUS, s[=o]-liv'a-gus, _adj._ wandering alone.--Also SOLIV'AGANT.
[L., _solus_, alone, _vagus_, wandering.]

SOLIVE, so-l[=e]v', _n._ a joist or beam of secondary importance. [Fr.,--L.
_sublev[=a]re_, to support.]

SOLLAR, sol'ar, _n._ a platform in a mine: an upper gallery or balcony, a
garret, loft.--Also SOLL'ER. [O. Fr. _soler_, solier--L. _solarium_, a
terrace or flat roof--_sol_, the sun.]

SOLLERET, sol'[.e]r-et, _n._ the steel shoe worn in medieval armour. [O.
Fr. _soler_, a slipper, _sole_, a sole.]

SOL-LUNAR, sol'-l[=u]'nar, _adj._ pertaining to, or due to the influence
of, both sun and moon. [L. _sol_, sun, _luna_, moon.]

SOLMISATION, sol-mi-z[=a]'shun, _n._ sol-faïng: a recital of the notes of
the gamut, _do_, _re_, _mi_, &c.

SOLO, s[=o]'l[=o], _n._ a musical piece performed by only one voice or
instrument:--_pl._ S[=O]'L[=O]S.--_adj._ S[=O]'L[=O], unconcerted.--_n._
S[=O]'L[=O]IST. [It.,--L. _solus_, alone.]

SOLOGRAPH, sol'[=o]-graf, _n._ a sun-print. [L. _sol_, the sun, Gr.
_graphein_, to write.]

SOLOMON, sol'o-mon, _n._ a person of unusual wisdom, from SOLOMON, king of
Israel (see 1 Kings, iii. 5-15).--_adj._ SOLOMON'IC.--_n._ SOL'OMON'S-SEAL,
any one of several species of perennial herbs, of the lily family, genus
Polygonatum, with simple stems bearing small greenish flowers: a symbol
formed of two triangles interlaced or superposed, forming a six-pointed

SO-LONG, s[=o]-long', _interj._ good-bye! [Not _salaam_.]

SOLONIAN, s[=o]-l[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Athenian lawgiver
_Solon_ (c. 640-c. 558 B.C.), or to his legislation.--Also SOLON'IC.

SOLPUGA, sol-p[=u]'ga, _n._ the typical genus of _Solpugida_, an order of

SOLSTICE, sol'stis, _n._ that point in the ecliptic at which the sun is
farthest from the equator, and where it is consequently at the
turning-point of its apparent course--the _summer solstice_, where it
touches the tropic of Cancer; the _winter solstice_, where it touches that
of Capricorn: the time when the sun reaches these two points in its orbit,
21st June and about 21st December.--_adj._ SOLSTI'TIAL, pertaining to, or
happening at, a solstice, esp. at the north one. [Fr.,--L.
_solstitium_--_sol_, the sun, _sist[)e]re_, to make to stand--_st[=a]re_,
to stand.]

SOLUBLE, sol'[=u]-bl, _adj._ capable of being solved or dissolved in a
fluid.--_ns._ SOLUBIL'ITY, SOL'UBLENESS, capability of being dissolved in a
fluid. [L. _solubilis_--_solv[)e]re_, to solve.]

SOLUM, s[=o]'lum, _n._ ground, a piece of ground. [L., the ground.]

SOLUS, s[=o]'lus, _adj._ alone, in dramatic directions--feminine form
S[=O]'LA. [L., alone.]

SOLUTION, sol-[=u]'shun, _n._ act of solving or dissolving, esp. a solid by
a fluid: the separating of the parts of any body: the preparation resulting
from dissolving a solid in a liquid: explanation: removal of a doubt:
construction or solving of a problem: the crisis of a disease.--_adj._
SOL[=U]TE', loose, free: merry, cheerful: (_bot._) not adhering.--_v.t._
(_Bacon_) to dissolve.--_adj._ SOL'[=U]TIVE, tending to dissolve:
loosening.--SOLUTION OF CONTINUITY (_surg._), the separation of parts
normally continuous, by fracture, &c. [L. _solutio_--_solv[)e]re_,
_solutum_, to loosen.]

SOLVE, solv, _v.t._ to loosen or separate the parts of: to clear up or
explain: to remove.--_ns._ SOLVABIL'ITY, SOL'VABLENESS, capacity of being
solved.--_adj._ SOL'VABLE, capable of being solved or explained: capable of
being paid.--_n._ SOL'VENCY, state of being solvent, or able to pay all
debts.--_adj._ SOL'VENT, having power to solve or dissolve: able to pay all
debts.--_n._ anything that dissolves another.--_n._ SOL'VER, one who
solves. [O. Fr. _solver_--L. _solv[)e]re_, to loosen, prob. from _se-_,
aside, _lu[)e]re_, to loosen.]

SOMA, s[=o]'ma, _n._ a certain plant, most prob. of the milkweed family,
and its juice used for the preparation of an intoxicating
drink--personified and worshipped, esp. in connection with the god Indra,
the _Jupiter pluvius_ of the Vedic pantheon. [Sans. _soma_ (Zend _haoma_,
juice)--root _su_ (cf. Gr. [Greek: huô]), to press out, distil, extract.]

SOMATIST, s[=o]'ma-tist, _n._ one who admits the existence of corporeal
beings only.--_n._ S[=O]'MA, the trunk of an animal: the body as
distinguished from the _psyche_ or soul and the _pneuma_ or
spirit.--_adjs._ S[=O]MAT'IC, -AL, physical, corporeal: parietal:
pertaining to the body cavity.--_n._ S[=O]'MATISM, materialism.--_adjs._
S[=O]MATOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to somatology, corporeal, physical.--_ns._
S[=O]MATOL'OGY, the doctrine or science of bodies or material substances,
human anatomy and physiology; S[=O]'MATOME, one of the homologous serial
segments of which the body of a vertebrate is theoretically
composed.--_adj._ S[=O]MATOPLEU'RAL, pertaining to the SOMAT'OPLEURE, the
outer one of two divisions of the mesoderm of a four-layered germ.--_n._
S[=O]MATOT'OMY, the dissection of a body.--_adj._ S[=O]MATOTROP'IC, showing
SOMATOT'ROPISM, any stimulative influence exerted upon growing organs by
the substratum on which they grow. [Gr. _s[=o]ma_, the body.]

SOMBRE, som'b[.e]r, _adj._ dull: gloomy: melancholy--also
SOM'BROUS.--_adv._ SOM'BRELY, in a sombre or gloomy manner.--_n._
SOM'BRENESS.--_adv._ SOM'BROUSLY.--_n._ SOM'BROUSNESS. [Fr. _sombre_ (Sp.
_sombra_, a shade)--L. _sub_, under, _umbra_, a shade. So Diez; others
explain, on analogy of O. Fr. _essombre_, a shady place, as from L. _ex_,
out, _umbra_, a shade.]

SOMBRERITE, som-br[=a]'r[=i]t, _n._ a hard impure calcium phosphate--called
also _Rock-guano_, _Osite_, and loosely _Apatite_. [_Sombrero_ in the

SOMBRERO, som-br[=a]'r[=o], _n._ a broad-brimmed hat, generally of felt,
much worn in Mexico and the south-western United States. [Sp.,--_sombre_, a

SOME, sum, _adj._ denoting an indefinite number or quantity: certain, in
distinction from others: moderate or in a certain degree: about.--_adv._
(_prov._) somewhat, in some degree.--_n._ SOME'BODY, some or any body or
person: a person of importance.--_advs._ SOME'DEAL, SOME'DELE (_Spens._),
in some degree, somewhat; SOME'GATE (_Scot._), somewhere, somehow;
SOME'HOW, in some way or other.--_adj._ SOME'-SUCH, somewhat of that
kind.--_n._ SOME'THING, an indefinite thing or event: a portion, an
indefinite quantity.--_adv._ in some degree.--_advs._ SOME'TIME, at a time
not fixed: once: at one time or other; SOME'TIMES, at certain times: now
and then: at one time: (_B._) once, formerly.--_n._ SOME'WHAT, an unfixed
quantity or degree.--_adv._ in some degree.--_advs._ SOME'WHEN, some time
or other; SOME'WHERE, in some place: in one place or another; SOME'WHILE,
sometimes, at times; SOME'WHITHER, to some place. [A.S. _sum_; Goth.
_sums_, Ice. _sumr_.]

SOMERSAULT, sum'[.e]r-sawlt, _n._ a leap in which a person turns with his
heels over his head.--Also SOM'ERSET. [Corr. of Fr. _soubresaut_ (It.
_soprasalto_)--L. _supra_, over, _saltus_, a leap--_sal[=i]re_, to leap.]

SOMITE, s[=o]'m[=i]t, _n._ a segment of the body of an articulated or
vertebrate animal: an arthromere or metamere.--_adjs._ S[=O]'MITAL,

SOMNAMBULATE, som-nam'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to walk in sleep.--_adj._
SOMNAM'B[=U]LANT, sleep-walking.--_n._ SOMNAMB[=U]L[=A]'TION.--_adj._
SOMNAM'B[=U]LIC.--_ns._ SOMNAM'BULISM, act or practice of walking in sleep;
SOMNAM'B[=U]LIST, SOMNAM'B[=U]LATOR, a sleep-walker.--_adj._
SOMNAMB[=U]LIS'TIC, pertaining to a somnambulist or to somnambulism:
affected by somnambulism. [L. _somnus_, sleep, _ambul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_,
to walk.]

SOMNIFEROUS, som-nif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bringing or causing sleep.--_adjs._
SOM'NIAL, pertaining to dreams; SOM'NI[=A]TIVE, SOM'NI[=A]TORY, relating
to, or producing, dreams.--_n._ SOMNIF[=A]'CIENT, a soporific.--_adjs._
SOMNIF[=A]'CIENT, SOMNIF'IC, causing, or tending to induce, sleep.--_ns._
SOMNIL'OQUENCE, SOMNIL'OQUISM, the act of talking in sleep; SOMNIL'OQUIST,
one who talks in his sleep.--_adj._  SOMNIL'OQUOUS, apt to talk in
sleep.--_ns._ SOMNIL'OQUY, a talking in one's sleep; SOMNIP'ATHY, a
hypnotic sleep; SOMNIV'OLENCY, any soporific. [L. _somnus_, sleep, _ferre_,
to bring, _loqui_, to speak, _velle_, to will.]

SOMNOLENCE, som'n[=o]-lens, _n._ sleepiness: inclination to sleep--also
SOM'NOLENCY.--_adj._ SOM'NOLENT, sleepy or inclined to sleep.--_adv._
SOM'NOLENTLY, in a somnolent or sleepy manner: drowsily.--_adj._
SOMNOLES'CENT, half-asleep.--_ns._ SOM'NOLISM, the state of mesmeric sleep;
SOM'NUS, sleep personified. [L. _somnolentia_--_somnus_, sleep.]

SON, sun, _n._ a male child or descendant: any young male person spoken of
as a child: a term of affection generally: a disciple: a native or
inhabitant: the produce of anything.--_n._ SON'-IN-LAW, the husband of
one's daughter.--_adj._ SON'LESS, without a son.--_ns._ SON'NY, a little
son; SON'SHIP, state or character of a son.--SON OF MAN, Christ as the
promised Messiah, the ideal man; THE SON, Christ, as the second person in
the Trinity. [A.S. _sunu_; Dut. _zoon_, Ger. _sohn_.]

SONANT, s[=o]'nant, _adj._ sounding: pertaining to sound: uttered with
sound, instead of breath alone, as certain alphabetic sounds.--_ns._
S[=O]'NANCE (_Shak._), a call; S[=O]'NANCY, sonant character. [L. _sonans_,
_-antis_, pr.p. of _son[=a]re_, to sound.]

SONATA, s[=o]-nä'ta, _n._ a musical composition usually of three or more
movements or divisions, designed chiefly for a solo instrument.--_n._
SONATINA (s[=o]-nä-t[=e]'na), a short or simplified sonata. [It.,--L.
_son[=a]re_, to sound.]

SONDELI, son'de-li, _n._ the musk-rat, or rat-tailed shrew of India.

SONG, song, _n._ that which is sung: a short poem or ballad, adapted for
singing, or set to music: the melody to which it is adapted: a poem, or
poetry in general: the notes of birds: a mere trifle: (_B._) an object of
derision.--_ns._ SONG'-BIRD, a bird that sings; SONG'BOOK, a collection of
songs: a hymn-book; SONG'CRAFT, the art of making songs, skill in
such.--_adjs._ SONG'FUL, full of song: disposed to sing; SONG'LESS, wanting
the power of song.--_ns._ SONG'MAN (_Shak._), a singer; SONG'-SPARR'OW, the
hedge-sparrow; SONG'STER, a singer, or one skilled in singing, esp. a bird
that sings:--_fem._ SONG'STRESS; SONG'-THRUSH, the mavis or throstle.--SONG
SONG (see OLD). [A.S. _sang_--_singan_, to sing; Dut. _zang_, Ger.
_gesang_, Goth. _saggws_, Ice. _söngr_.]

SONG, song (_Spens._), _pa.t._ of _sing_.

SONIFEROUS, son-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ giving or conveying sound. [L. _sonus_,
sound, ferre, to bring.]

SONNED, sund (_Spens._). Same as SUNNED.

SONNET, son'et, _n._ a poem in a stanza mostly iambic in movement, properly
decasyllabic or hendecasyllabic in metre, always in fourteen
lines--originally composed of an octave and a sestet--properly expressing
two successive phases of one thought.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to celebrate in
sonnets.--_adj._ SONN'ETARY.--_n._ SONNETEER', a composer of
sonnets.--_v.i._ SONN'ETISE, to compose sonnets.--_v.t._ to celebrate in a
sonnet.--_n._ SONN'ETIST (_Shak._), a sonneteer. [Fr.,--It. _sonetto_, dim.
of _son[=a]re_, a sound, song--L. _sonus_, a sound.]

SONNITE=_Sunnite_ (_q.v._).

SONOMETER, s[=o]-nom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring sounds or
their intervals by means of a sounding-board with strings stretched above
it, movable bridges, and weights for varying the tension. [L. _sonus_, a
sound, Gr. _metron_, a measure.]

SONOROUS, s[=o]-n[=o]'rus, _adj._ sounding when struck: giving a clear,
loud sound: high-sounding.--_n._ S[=O]N[=O]RES'CENCE, the property
possessed by hard rubber of emitting sound under intermittent radiant heat
or light.--_adj._ S[=O]N[=O]RIF'IC, making sound.--_ns._ S[=O]NOR'ITY,
sonorousness; S[=O]N[=O]'R[=O]PHONE, a kind of bombardon.--_adv._
S[=O]N[=O]'ROUSLY.--_n._ S[=O]N[=O]'ROUSNESS, sonorous quality or
character. [L. _sonorus_--_sonor_, _sonus_, a sound--_son[=a]re_, to

SONSY, SONCY, son'si, _adj._ (_Scot._) plump, buxom, good-natured.--Also

SONTAG, son'tag, _n._ a woman's knitted cape, tied down round the waist.
[From the famous German singer, Henrietta SONTAG (1806-54).]

SONTY, son'ti, _n._ (_Shak._) sanctity--generally in plural, as in the
oath, 'By God's sonties!'

SOOCHONG=_Souchong_ (q.v.).

SOON, s[=oo]n, _adv._ immediately or in a short time: without delay: early:
readily, willingly.--_adj._ SOON'-BELIEV'ING (_Shak._), believing
readily.--SOON AT (_Shak._), about; SOONER OR LATER, at some time in the
future.--AS SOON AS, immediately after; NO SOONER THAN, as soon as. [A.S.
_sóna_; Goth. _suns_.]

SOOP, s[=oo]p, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to sweep.--_n._ SOOP'ING, sweeping.

SOOT, soot, _n._ the black powder condensed from smoke.--_ns._ SOOT'ERKIN,
a fabulous birth induced by the Dutch women sitting huddled over their
stoves--hence anything fruitless or abortive; SOOT'FLAKE, a smut of soot;
SOOT'INESS.--_adj._ SOOT'Y, consisting of, or like, soot. [A.S. _sót_; Dan.

SOOTE, s[=oo]t. _adv._ (_Spens._) sweetly.

SOOTH, s[=oo]th, _n._ truth, reality.--_adj._ true: pleasing.--_adv._
indeed.--_adj._ SOOTH'FAST, truthful, honest, faithful.--_adv._
(_Spens._), truly, indeed.--_v.i._ SOOTH'SAY, to foretell, to
divine.--_ns._ SOOTH'SAYER, one who divines, esp. a pretender to the power;
SOOTH'SAYING, divination, prediction. [A.S. _sóth_, true; Ice. _sannr_,

SOOTHE, s[=oo]_th_, _v.t._ to please with soft words: to flatter: to
soften, allay.--_ns._ SOOTH'ER, one who, or that which, soothes: (_Shak._)
one who gains by blandishments, a flatterer; SOOTH'ING (_Shak._), flattery
(also _adj._).--_adv._ SOOTH'INGLY. [A.S. _gesóthian_, to confirm as
true--_sóth_, true.]

SOP, sop, _n._ anything dipped or soaked, esp. in soup, to be eaten:
anything given to satisfy or quieten.--_v.t._ to steep in liquor: to take
up by absorption (with up).--_v.i._ to soak in, percolate: to be
soaked:--_pr.p._ sop'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sopped.--_n._ SOP-, SOPS-,
IN-WINE (_Spens._), a flower resembling a carnation. [A.S. _sop_ (in
_sópcuppa_, a dish), from _súpan_, to sip; Ice. _soppa_, soup.]

SOPH, sof, _n._ an abbreviation of _sophister_ (q.v.)--also of _sophomore_

SOPHERIM, s[=o]'fe-rim, _n.pl._ the scribes, the expounders of the Jewish
oral law.--_adj._ S[=O]'PHERIC. [Heb.]

SOPHI, s[=o]'fi, _n._ (_Milt._) a title of the king of Persia. [Pers.
_sufi_, wise, pious.]

SOPHIC, -AL, sof'ik, -al, _adj._ teaching wisdom, pertaining to
wisdom.--_adv._ SOPH'ICALLY.

SOPHISM, sof'izm, _n._ a specious fallacy..--_n._ SOPH'IST, one of a class
of public teachers of rhetoric, philosophy, &c. in Greece in the 5th
century B.C.: a captious or fallacious reasoner--also SOPH'ISTER (_Shak._):
a student at an English university in his second or third year, the
students in these years being called junior and senior sophister
respectively.--_adjs._ SOPHIS'TIC, -AL, pertaining to a sophist or to
sophistry: fallaciously subtle.--_adv._ SOPHIS'TICALLY.--_n._
SOPHIS'TICALNESS, the state or quality of being sophistical.--_v.t._
SOPHIS'TIC[=A]TE, to render sophistical or unsound: to corrupt by
mixture.--_adj._ SOPHIS'TIC[=A]TED, adulterated: impure: not
genuine.--_ns._ SOPHISTIC[=A]'TION, act of sophisticating, adulterating, or
injuring by mixture; SOPHIS'TIC[=A]TOR, one who sophisticates or
adulterates; SOPHIS'TICISM, the philosophy or the methods of the sophists;
SOPH'ISTRESS, a she-sophist; SOPH'ISTRY, specious but fallacious reasoning.
[Fr. _sophisme_--Gr. _sophisma_--_sophizein_, to make wise--_sophos_,

SOPHOCLEAN, sof-[=o]-kl[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Sophocles_, Athenian
tragic poet (496-405 B.C.).

SOPHOMORE, sof'[=o]-m[=o]r, _n._ (_U.S._) a second-year student.--_adj._
pertaining to such.--_adjs._ SOPHOMOR'IC, -AL, [Gr. _sophos_, wise,
_m[=o]ros_, foolish.]

SOPHORA, s[=o]-f[=o]'ra, _n._ a genus of leguminous plants, natives of warm
regions of both the Old and New World, with highly ornamental white,
yellow, or violet flowers--_Sophora Japonica_ is the Japanese or Chinese
pagoda-tree. [Ar. _sof[=a]ra_--_asfar_, yellow.]

SOPHROSYNE, s[=o]-fros'i-n[=e], _n._ soundness of mind. [Gr.]

SOPIENT, s[=o]'pi-ent, _n._ a soporific.

SOPITE, s[=o]'p[=i]t, _v.t._ to put to rest: to quash.--_n._ SOPI'TION,

SOPORIFIC, s[=o]-p[=o]-rif'ik, _adj._ making or causing sleep.--_n._
anything that causes sleep.--_adj._ SOPORIF'EROUS, bringing, causing, or
tending to cause sleep: sleepy.--_adv._ SOPORIF'EROUSLY.--_n._
SOPORIF'EROUSNESS.--_adjs._ S[=O]'POR[=O]SE, S[=O]'POROUS, sleepy, causing
sleep. [Fr. _soporifique_--L. _sopor_, sleep, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SOPPY. sop'i, _adj._ sopped or soaked in liquid.

SOPRA, s[=o]'pra, _adv._ (_mus._) above. [It.]

SOPRANO, s[=o]-prä'no, _n._ the highest variety of voice, treble: a singer
with such a voice:--_pl._ SOPRA'NOS, SOPRA'NI.--_n._ SOPRA'NIST, a singer
of soprano. [It., from _sopra_--L. _supra_ or _super_, above.]

SORA, s[=o]'ra, _n._ a North American short-billed rail.--Also S[=O]'REE.

SORAGE, s[=o]r'[=a]j, _n._ the time between a hawk's being taken from the
aerie and her mewing her feathers. [See SORE (2).]

SORASTRUM, s[=o]-ras'trum, _n._ a genus of fresh-water algæ. [Gr.
_s[=o]ros_, a heap; _astron_, a star.]

SORB, sorb, _n._ the mountain-ash or service-tree.--_ns._ SORB'-APPLE, the
fruit of the service-tree; SOR'B[=A]TE, SOR'BIN or SOR'BINE,
SOR'BITE.--_adj._ SOR'BIC, pertaining to, or from, the sorb. [Fr.,--L.

SORB, sorb, _n._ one of a Slavonic race in Saxony and the neighbouring
parts of Prussia.--Also _Wend_, or _Lusatian Wend_.--_adj._ SOR'BIAN,
pertaining to the Sorbs or their language.--_n._ a Sorb, or the Sorbian
tongue.--_adj._ and _n._ SOR'BISH.

SORBEFACIENT, sor-be-f[=a]'shent, _adj._ producing absorption.--_n._ a
medicine which produces absorption.--_n._ SOR'BENT, an absorbent. [L.
_sorb[)e]r_e, to suck in, _faciens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _fac[)e]re_, to

SORBET, sor'bet, _n._ sherbet: water-ice.

SORBONNE, sor-bon', _n._ the earliest and the most famous of all the
colleges of the medieval university of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert of
_Sorbon_, in the diocese of Rheims. Exclusively devoted to theology, till
the close of the 15th century it controlled by its teaching and its
dogmatic decisions the intellectual life of Europe.--_adj._
SORBON'ICAL.--_n._ SOR'BONIST, a doctor of the Sorbonne.

SORCERY, sor's[.e]r-i, _n._ divination by the assistance of evil spirits:
enchantment: magic: witchcraft.--_n._ SOR'CERER, one who practises sorcery:
an enchanter: a magician:--_fem._ SOR'CERESS, a witch.--_adj._ SOR'CEROUS,
using sorcery. [O. Fr. _sorcerie_--Low L. _sortiarius_, one who tells
fortunes by lots--L. _sort[=i]ri_, to cast lots--_sors_, _sortis_, a lot.]

SORD, s[=o]rd, _n._ (_Milt._) a form of sward.

SORDAMENTE, sor-da-men'te, _adv._ (_mus._) in a muffled manner, softly.

SORDID, sor'did, _adj._ dirty, squalid: of a dull colour: morally foul,
vile: mean: meanly avaricious.--_n._ SOR'DES, filth, foul accretions on the
teeth in low forms of fever.--_adv._ SOR'DIDLY.--_ns._ SOR'DIDNESS, state
of being sordid; SOR'DOR, filth, dregs. [Fr. _sordide_--L.
_sordidus_--_sord[=e]re_, to be dirty.]

SORDINE, sor'din, _n._ a mute, damper, or other device to soften or deaden
the sound of a stringed instrument.--_advs._ SOR'DO, SOR'DA, damped with a
mute.--_n._ SORD[=O]'NO, a musical instrument of the oboe family. [It.
_sordina_--L. _surdus_, deaf.]

SORE, s[=o]r, _n._ a wounded or diseased spot on an animal body: an ulcer
or boil: (_B._) grief, affliction.--_adj._ wounded: tender: susceptible of
pain: easily pained or grieved: bringing sorrow or regret: severe, violent,
intense: wretched.--_adv._ painfully: grievously: severely,
thoroughly.--_n._ SORE'HEAD (_U.S._), a person discontented with the reward
for his political services.--_adj._ SORE'HEADED.--_adv._ SORE'LY, in a sore
manner: grievously.--_n._ SORE'NESS. [A.S. _sár_; Ger. _sehr_, very, Ice.
_sárr_, sore.]

SORE, s[=o]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a hawk of the first year: (_Shak._) a buck of
the fourth year. [O. Fr. _saur_, _sor_, sorrel, reddish.]

SOREDIUM, s[=o]-r[=e]'di-um, _n._ one or more algal cells in a lichen with
enveloping fungus-threads, a brood-bud:--_pl._ SOR[=E]'DIA.--_adjs._

SOREHON, s[=o]r'hon, _n._ an ancient Irish exaction of a lord from a
freeholder or tenant.

SOREX, s[=o]'reks, _n._ the typical genus of the family _Soricidæ_ and
sub-family _Soricinæ_, one of this genus, a shrew.--_adjs._ SORIC'IDENT,
having teeth like the shrew; SOR'ICINE, pertaining to the shrew-mouse;
SOR'ICOID, soricine. [L.,--Gr. _hyrax_, a shrew-mouse.]

SORGHUM, sor'gum, _n._ a genus of grasses, also called _Durra millet_ and
_Indian millet_, or _Sorgho grass_. It is closely allied to sugar-cane and
beard-grass. [Sp. _sorgo_--Low L. _sorgum_, _surgum_, _suricum_, prob. an
East Ind. word.]

SORITES, s[=o]-r[=i]'t[=e]z, _n._ an argument composed of an indeterminate
number of propositions, so arranged that the predicate of the first becomes
the subject of the second, and so on till the conclusion is reached, which
unites the subject of the first with the predicate of the last.
[Gr.,--_s[=o]ros_, a heap.]

SORN, sorn, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to obtrude one's self on another as an
uninvited guest.--_n._ SOR'NER, one who takes food and lodging by force or
threats. [Prob. _sojourn_.]

SORORICIDE, sor-or'i-s[=i]d, _n._ the murder, or the murderer, of a sister.
[L. _soror_, a sister, _cæd[)e]re_, to kill.]

SORORISE, s[=o]'ror-[=i]z, _v.i._ to associate as sisters.--_adj._
SOR[=O]'RAL.--_adv._ SOR[=O]'RIALLY, in a sisterly manner.

SOROSIS, s[=o]-r[=o]'sis, _n._ a compound fleshy fruit, resulting from many
flowers, as the pine-apple. [Gr. _s[=o]ros_, a heap.]

SOROTROCHOUS, s[=o]-rot'r[=o]-kus, _adj._ having the wheel-organ compound,
as a rotifer. [Gr. _s[=o]ros_, a heap, trochos, a wheel.]

SORREL, sor'el, _n._ one of several species of the genus _Rumex_, allied to
the dock, the leaves impregnated with oxalic acid--the Scotch _Sourock_.
The Wood-sorrel belongs to the genus _Oxalis_. [O. Fr. _sorel_ (Fr.
_surelle_)--_sur_, sour; from Old High Ger. _s[=u]r_ (Ger. _sauer_), sour.]

SORREL, sor'el, _adj._ of a reddish-brown colour.--_n._ a reddish-brown
colour. [O. Fr. _sor_ (Fr. _saure_), sorrel, from Low Ger. _soor_, dried,

SORROW, sor'[=o], _n._ pain of mind: grief: affliction: lamentation: the
devil (Irish _Sorra_).--_v.i._ to feel sorrow or pain of mind: to
grieve.--_p.adj._ SORR'OWED. (_Shak._), accompanied with sorrow.--_adj._
SORR'OWFUL, full of sorrow: causing, showing, or expressing sorrow: sad:
dejected.--_adv._ SORR'OWFULLY.--_n._ SORR'OWFULNESS.--_adj._ SORR'OWLESS,
free from sorrow. [A.S. _sorg_, _sorh_; Ger. _sorge_, Ice. _sorg_.]

SORRY, sor'i, _adj._ grieved for something past: melancholy: poor:
worthless.--_adj._ SORR'IEST (_Shak._), most sorrowful.--_adv._
SORR'ILY.--_n._ SORR'INESS. [A.S. _sárig_, wounded--sár, pain; Dut.

SORT, sort, _n._ a number of persons or things having like qualities:
class, kind, or species: order or rank: manner.--_v.t._ to separate into
lots or classes: to put together: to select: to procure, adapt: to geld:
(_Scot._) to adjust, put right, dispose, fix: to punish.--_v.i._ to be
joined with others of the same sort: to associate: to suit.--_adj._
SORT'ABLE, capable of being sorted: (_Bacon_) suitable, befitting.--_ns._
SORT'ANCE (_Shak._), suitableness, agreement; SORT'ER, one who separates
and arranges, as letters; SORT'ES, lots used in divination by passages
selected by hazard from the Bible, Homer, Virgil, &c.; SORT'ILEGE, the act
or practice of divination by drawing lots; SORTI'TION, the casting of lots;
SORT'MENT, act of sorting.--IN A SORT (_Shak._), in a manner; IN SORT,
inasmuch as; OUT OF SORTS, out of order, unwell: (_print._) with some sorts
of type in the font exhausted. [O. Fr. _sorte_--L. _sors_, _sortis_, a
lot--_ser[)e]re_, to join.]

SORTIE, sor't[=e], _n._ the issuing of a body of troops from a besieged
place to attack the besiegers. [Fr.,--_sortir_, to go out, to issue--L.
_surg[)e]re_, to rise up.]

SORUS, s[=o]'rus, _n._ a heap:--_pl._ S[=O]'RI.--_adj._ S[=O]'ROSE, bearing
sori. [Gr. _s[=o]ros_, a heap.]

SO-SO, s[=o]'-s[=o], _adj._ neither very good nor very bad: tolerable:

SOSS, sos, _n._ a mess, a puddle: a heavy fall.--_v.t._ to dirty: to throw
carelessly about.--_v.i._ to tumble into a chair, &c.--_adv._
plump.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ SOS'SLE, to dabble. [Prob. Gael. _sos_, a

SOSTENUTO, sos-te-n[=oo]'t[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) sustained, prolonged. [It.]

SOSTRUM, sos'trum, _n._ a reward given for saving one's life, a physician's
fee. [Gr., _s[=o]zein_, to save.]

SOT, sot, _n._ one stupefied by drinking: a habitual drunkard.--_v.i._ to
play the sot, to tipple.--_adj._ SOT'TISH, like a sot: foolish: stupid with
drink.--_adv._ SOT'TISHLY.--_n._ SOT'TISHNESS. [O. Fr. _sot_, perh. of
Celt. origin; Bret. _sod_, stupid.]

SOTADEAN, sot-a-d[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Sotades_, a lascivious
Greek poet at Alexandria about 276 B.C. His _Cinoedi_ were malicious and
indecent satires and travesties of mythology written in Ionic dialect and
in a peculiar metre.--_n._ SOTAD'IC, a sotadean verse.

SOTERIOLOGY, s[=o]-t[=e]-ri-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ (_theol._) the doctrine of
salvation by Jesus Christ.--_adjs._ SOT[=E]'RIAL, pertaining to redemption;
SOT[=E]RIOLOG'ICAL. [Gr. _s[=o]t[=e]rios_, saving--_s[=o]t[=e]r_, saviour,
_logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

SOTHIC, s[=o]'thik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the dog-star _Sothis_ or
Sirius.--SOTHIC CYCLE, or period, a period of 1460 years; SOTHIC YEAR, the
ancient Egyptian fixed year, according to the heliacal rising of Sirius.

SOTTO, sot't[=o], _adv._ under, below, as in SOTTO VOCE, in an undertone,
aside. [It.,--L. _subter_, under.]

SOU, s[=oo], _n._ a French copper coin, the five-centime piece=1/20th of a
franc. [Fr. _sou_ (It. _soldo_)--L. _solidus_, a coin.]

SOUARI, sow-ä'ri, _n._ a tree of British Guiana yielding a durable timber
and edible nuts.

SOUBISE, s[=oo]-b[=e]z', _n._ an 18th-cent. men's cravat. [Fr.]

SOUBRETTE, s[=oo]-bret', _n._ a maid-servant in a comedy, conventionally
pert, coquettish, and intriguing. [Fr.]

SOUCHONG, s[=oo]-shong', _n._ a fine sort of black tea. [Fr.,--Chin.
_siao_, small, _chung_, sort.]

SOUFFLE, s[=oo]'fl, _n._ a murmuring sound. [Fr.]

SOUFFLÉ, s[=oo]-fl[=a]', _n._ a light dish, consisting of the whites of
eggs, with chocolate, cheese, vanilla, &c., whisked into a creamy
froth.--_adj._ prepared in this way. [Fr., _souffler_, to blow--L.
_suffl[=a]re_, to blow.]

SOUGH, sow, suf, or, as Scot., s[=oo]h, _v.i._ to sigh, as the
wind.--_v.t._ to whine out cantingly.--_n._ a sighing of the wind: a vague
rumour: a whining tone of voice.--KEEP A CALM SOUGH, to keep quiet. [Prob.
Ice. _súgr_, a rushing sound, or A.S. _swógan_, to rustle.]

SOUGH, suf, _n._ a drain, sewer, mine-adit.--_n._ SOUGH'ING-TILE, a
drain-tile. [Prob. W. _soch_, a drain.]

SOUGHT, sawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _seek_.

SOUL, s[=o]l, _n._ that part of man which thinks, feels, desires, &c.: the
seat of life and intellect: life: essence: internal power: energy or
grandeur of mind: a human being, a person.--_ns._ SOUL'-BELL, the passing
bell; SOUL'-C[=U]R'ER (_Shak._), a parson.--_adjs._ SOULED, full of soul or
feeling; SOUL'-FEAR'ING (_Shak._), soul-terrifying; SOUL'FUL, expressive of
elevated feeling.--_adv._ SOUL'FULLY.--_n._ SOUL'FULNESS.--_adj._
SOUL'LESS, without nobleness of mind, mean, spiritless.--_ns._
SOUL'LESSNESS; SOUL'-SHOT, -SCOT, a funeral payment.--_adj._ SOUL'-SICK,
morally diseased.--ALL-SOULS' DAY, the 2d November, when the souls of the
faithful departed are commemorated. [M. E. _saule_--A.S. _sáwol_; Ger.

SOUM, SOWM, sowm, _n._ (_Scot._) the proportion of sheep or cattle suitable
for any pasture: pasture for a certain number of sheep or cattle.--_v.i._
to determine such. [A form of _sum_.]

SOUND, sownd, _adj._ safe, whole, entire: perfect: healthy, strong:
profound: correct: orthodox: weighty.--_adv._ soundly, completely fast, as
in sleep.--_adv._ SOUND'LY.--_n._ SOUND'NESS. [A.S. _gesund_; Ger.
_gesund_, and perh. L. _sanus_, sound.]

SOUND, sownd, _n._ a narrow passage of water: a strait. [A.S. _sund_, a
narrow arm of the sea, from _swimman_, to swim; Ger. _sund_, a strait.]

SOUND, sownd, _n._ the air or swimming bladder of a fish. [A.S. _sund_,

SOUND, sownd, _v.i._ to make a noise: to utter a voice: to spread or be
spread: to appear on narration.--_v.t._ to cause to make a noise: to utter
audibly: to direct by a sound or audible signal: to examine by percussion:
to publish audibly.--_n._ the impression produced on the ear by the
vibrations of air: noise, particular quality of tone: report,
hearing-distance: empty or meaningless noise.--_p.adj._ SOUND'ING, making a
sound or noise: having a magnificent sound.--_ns._ SOUND'ING-BOARD,
SOUND'-BOARD, the thin plate of wood or metal which increases and
propagates the sound of a musical instrument: the horizontal board or
structure over a pulpit, reading-desk, &c., carrying the speaker's voice
towards the audience; SOUND'ING-POST, SOUND'-POST, a support set under the
bridge of a violin, for propagating the sounds to the body of the
instrument.--_adj._ SOUND'LESS, without sound, silent: not capable of being
sounded, unfathomable. [M. E. _sounen_--O. Fr. _soner_--L. _son[=a]re_, to
sound, _sonus_, a sound.]

SOUND, sownd, _v.t._ to measure the depth of, esp. with a line and plummet:
to probe: to try to discover a man's secret thoughts, wishes, &c.: to test:
to introduce an instrument into the bladder to examine it.--_v.i._ to use
the line and lead in ascertaining the depth of water.--_n._ a probe, an
instrument to discover stone in the bladder.--_ns._ SOUND'ING, the
ascertaining the depth of water: (_pl._) any part of the ocean where a
sounding-line will reach the bottom; SOUND'ING-LEAD, the weight at the end
of a sounding-line; SOUND'ING-LINE, a line with a plummet at the end for
soundings; SOUND'ING-ROD, a rod for measuring water in a ship's hold. [O.
Fr. _sonder_, to sound; acc. to Diez, from Low L. _subund[=a]re_--L. _sub_,
under, _unda_, a wave.]

SOUND, sownd, _n._ (_Spens._) swoon.

SOUNDER, sown'd[.e]r, _n._ a herd of swine, a young boar. [A.S. _sunor_, a
herd of swine.]

SOUP, s[=oo]p, _n._ the nutritious liquid obtained by boiling meat or
vegetables in stock--named from the chief ingredient, as pea-, tomato-,
vermicelli-, hare-, oxtail-soup, &c.--_ns._ SOUP'ER, a convert for the sake
of material benefits; SOUP'-KITCH'EN, a place for supplying soup to the
poor gratis or at a nominal price; SOUP'-MAI'GRE, a thin fish or vegetable
soup, originally for fast-days; SOUP'-TICK'ET, a ticket authorising the
holder to receive soup at a soup-kitchen.--_adj._ SOUP'Y. [O. Fr.
_soupe_--Old Dut. _sop_, _zop_, broth, _soppe_, _zoppe_, a sop.]

SOUPÇON, soop-song', _n._ a suspicion--hence a very small quantity, as of
spirits. [Fr.]

SOUPLE, s[=oo]p'l, _adj._ a provincial form of _supple_--denoting raw silk
deprived of its silk-glue.

SOUR, sowr, _adj._ having a pungent, acid taste: turned, as milk: rancid:
crabbed or peevish in temper: bitter: cold and wet, as soil.--_v.t._ to
make sour or acid: to make cross, peevish, or discontented.--_v.i._ to
become sour or acid: to become peevish or crabbed.--_n._ SOUR'-CROUT (see
SAUER-KRAUT).--_adj._ SOUR'-EYED, morose-looking.--_ns._ SOUR'-GOURD, the
cream-of-tartar tree; SOUR'ING, vinegar: the crab-apple: the process in
bleaching fabrics that follows the treatment with bleaching-powder,
consisting in treatment of the fabric with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid,
so as to wash out the lime.--_adj._ SOUR'ISH, somewhat sour.--_adv._
SOUR'LY, in a sour manner: with acidity: with acrimony:
discontentedly.--_ns._ SOUR'NESS, the state of being sour: acidity:
peevishness: discontent; SOUR'-SOP, a tree of tropical America and its
fruit, closely allied to the custard-apple: (_prov._) an ill-natured
person. [A.S. _súr_; Ger. _sauer_, Ice. _súrr_.]

SOURCE, s[=o]rs, _n._ that from which anything rises or originates: origin:
the spring from which a stream flows. [O. Fr. _sorse_ (Fr. _source_), from
_sourdre_ (It. _sorgere_)--L. _surg[)e]re_, to raise up, to rise.]

SOURDELINE, s[=oo]r'de-l[=e]n, _n._ a small bagpipe. [Fr.]

SOURDINE, s[=oo]r-d[=e]n', _n._ a stop on the harmonium. [Fr.,--It.
_sordino_, _sordo_, deaf--L. _surdus_, deaf.]

SOUROCK, s[=oo]'rok, _n._ (_Scot._) the common sorrel.

SOUS. Same as SOU.

SOUSE, sows, _v.t._ to strike with sudden violence, as a bird its
prey.--_v.i._ to rush with speed, as a bird on its prey.--_n._ violent
attack, as of a bird striking its prey.--_adj._ (_Shak._) sudden,
violent.--_adv._ with sudden violence, with swift descent downwards.

SOUSE, sows, _n._ pickle made of salt: anything steeped in pickle: the ear,
feet, &c. of swine pickled.--_v.t._ to steep in pickle: to plunge into
water. [Written also _souce_, a form of _sauce_.]

SOUT, sowt, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as SOOT.

SOUTACHE, s[=oo]-tash', _n._ a narrow braid. [Fr.]

SOUTANE, s[=oo]-t[=a]n', _n._ a cassock. [Fr.,--Low L. _subtana_--L.
_subtus_, beneath.]

SOUTER, s[=oo]'t[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._) a shoemaker, a cobbler--also SOW'TER,
SOU'TAR.--_adv._ SOU'TERLY. [A.S. _sútere_ (Ice. _sútari_)--L.
_sutor_--_su[)e]re_, to sew.]

SOUTH, sowth, _n._ the direction in which the sun appears at noon to the
people north of the Tropic of Cancer: any land opposite the north: the
Southern States in U.S. history: the side of a church on the right hand of
one facing the altar.--_adj._ lying towards the south.--_adv._ towards the
south.--_v.i._ to veer towards the south: to cross the meridian of a
place.--_n._ SOUTH'-EAST', the direction equally distant from the south and
east.--_adjs._ SOUTH'-EAST', SOUTH'-EAST'ERLY, SOUTH'-EAST'ERN, pertaining
to, in the direction of, or coming from the south-east.--_n._
SOUTH'-EAST'ER, a wind from the south-east.--_advs._ SOUTH'-EAST'WARD, -LY,
toward the south-east.--_n._ SOUTHER (sow_th_'-), a wind from the
south.--_v.i._ to veer toward the south.--_adj._ SOUTHERING (su_th_'-),
turned toward the south, having a southern exposure.--_n._ SOUTHERLINESS
(su_th_'-), the condition of being southerly.--_adjs._ SOUTHERLY
(su_th_'-), SOUTHERN (su_th_'-), pertaining to, situated in, or proceeding
from or towards the south:--_superls._ SOUTHERMOST (su_th_'-), SOUTHERNMOST
(su_th_'-), SOUTH'MOST, most southern, farthest towards the south.--_n._
SOUTHERNER (su_th_'-), an inhabitant of the south, esp. of the Southern
States of America.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ SOUTHERNISE (su_th_'-), to render
southern in qualities or character, or to become such.--_n._ SOUTHERNISM
(su_th_'-), a form of expression peculiar to the south, esp. the Southern
States of America.--_adv._ SOUTHERNLY (su_th_'-), towards the south.--_ns._
SOUTHERNWOOD (su_th_'-), an aromatic plant of southern Europe, closely
allied to wormwood; SOUTHING (sow_th_'-), tendency or motion to the south:
the time at which the moon passes the meridian; SOUTH'LAND, the south (also
_adj._).--_adv._ SOUTH'LY.--_n._ SOUTH'NESS, tendency of a magnetic needle
to point toward the south.--_adj._ SOUTHRON (su_th_'-), southern, esp.
English.--_n._ a native or inhabitant of a southern country or district: an
Englishman.--_advs._ SOUTH'WARD (also su_th_'ard), toward the south (also
_n._ and _adj._); SOUTH'WARDLY (also _adj._); SOUTH'WARDS.--_n._
SOUTH'-WEST', the direction equally distant from the south and
west--_adjs._ SOUTH'-WEST', SOUTH'-WEST'ERLY, SOUTH'-WEST'ERN, pertaining
to, proceeding from, or lying in the direction of the south-west.--_n._
SOUTH'-WEST'ER, a storm or gale from the south-west: a painted canvas hat
with a broad flap behind for the neck (often SOU'WEST'ER).--SOUTH SEA, the
Pacific Ocean. [A.S. _súth_; Ger. _süd_, Ice. _sudhr_.]

SOUTHCOTTIAN, sowth'kot-i-an, _n._ a follower of Joanna _Southcott_
(1750-1814), whose dropsy was taken by many, and perhaps herself, for the
gestation of a second Shiloh or Prince of Peace.

SOUTHDOWN, sowth'down, _adj._ pertaining to the _South Downs_ in Hampshire,
the famous breed of sheep so named, or their mutton.--_n._ this breed of
sheep, a sheep of the same, or its mutton.

SOUTHSAY, SOUTHSAYER, s[=oo]th'-. Same as SOOTHSAY, &c.

SOUVENIR, s[=oo]-ve-n[=e]r', _n._ a remembrancer, a keepsake.--_n._
SOUV'ENANCE (_Spens._), remembrance, memory. [Fr.,--L. _subven[=i]re_, to
come up, to come to mind--_sub_, under, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

SOVEREIGN, suv'r[=a]n, or sov'e-r[=a]n, _adj._ supreme: possessing supreme
power or dominion: superior to all others: utmost: most
efficacious--(_Milt._) SOV'RAN.--_n._ a supreme ruler: a monarch: a gold
coin=20s.--_v.t._ to rule over as a sovereign.--_adj._ SOV'EREIGNEST
(_Shak._), most effectual.--_adv._ SOV'EREIGNLY, in a sovereign manner: in
the highest degree: supremely.--_n._ SOV'EREIGNTY, supreme power: dominion.
[O. Fr. _sovrain_--Low L. _superanus_--L. _super_, _supra_, above.]

SOW, sow, _n._ a female pig: the metal solidified in parallel grooves or
_pigs_, the iron of these being _pig-iron_: a movable shed for protecting
the men using a battering-ram.--_ns._ SOW'BACK, a low ridge of sand or
gravel; SOW'-BREAD, a genus of plants, allied to the primrose, natives of
the south of Europe, the tubers of which are eaten by swine; SOW'-BUG, an
air-breathing oniscoid isopod, a pill-bug, slater.--_adj._ SOW'-DRUNK
(_prov._), beastly drunk.--_ns._ SOW'-GELD'ER, one who spays sows;
SOW'-THIS'TLE, a genus of plants, the tender tops of which are used in the
north of Europe as greens. [A.S. _sú_, _sugu_; Ger. _sau_, Ice. _sýr_; L.
_sus_, Gr. _hys_.]

SOW, s[=o], _v.t._ to scatter seed that it may grow: to plant by strewing:
to scatter seed over: to spread, disseminate.--_v.i._ to scatter seed for
growth:--_pa.p._ sown and sowed.--_ns._ SOW'ER; SOW'ING; SOW'ING-MACHINE',
a hand or horse-power seed-planting machine: a broadcast sower. [A.S.
_sáwan_; Ger. _säen_, Ice. _sá_, Goth. _saian_.]

SOWAR, s[=o]-är', _n._ a native horse-soldier in the British Indian army, a
mounted attendant. [Hind. _saw[=a]r_, a horseman.]

SOWENS, s[=o]'enz, _n.pl._ (_Scot._) a dish made from the farina remaining
among the husks of oats, flummery.--Also SOW'ANS.

SOWL, SOWLE, sowl, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to pull by the ears.

SOWND, sownd, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to wield.

SOWND, sownd, _n._ (_Spens._)=swound, the same as SWOON.

SOWNE, sown, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as SOUND.

SOWSE, sows, _v._ and _n._ (_Spens._). Same as _Souse_, to strike.

SOWTH, sowth, _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Scot._) to whistle softly, to whistle
over a tune.

SOY, soi, _n._ a thick and piquant sauce made from the seeds of the soy
bean or pea, a native of China, Japan, and the Moluccas.--Also SOO'JA.
[Jap. _si-yan_, Chin. _shi-yu_.]

SOYLE, soil, _n._ (_Spens._) prey.

SOZZLE, soz'l, _v.t._ to make wet or muddy.--_n._ disorder.--_adj._
SOZZ'LY, sloppy.

SPA, spaw, _n._ a place where there is a mineral spring of water. [From
_Spa_ in Belgium.]

SPACE, sp[=a]s, _n._ extension as distinct from material substances: room:
largeness: distance between objects: interval between lines or words in
books: quantity of time: distance between two points of time: opportunity,
leisure: a short time: interval.--_v.t._ to make or arrange intervals
between.--_ns._ SP[=A]'CER, one who, or that which, spaces: an instrument
by which to reverse a telegraphic current, esp. in a marine cable, for
increasing the speed of transmission: a space-bar; SPACE'-WRIT'ER, in
journalism, one paid for his articles according to the space they occupy
when printed; SP[=A]'CING, the act of dividing into spaces, placing at
suitable intervals, as in printing, &c.: the space thus made: spaces
collectively.--_adj._ SP[=A]'CIOUS, having large space: large in extent:
roomy: wide.--_adv._ SP[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_n._ SP[=A]'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.
_espace_--L. _spatium_; Gr. _sp[=a]n_.]

SPACIAL=_Spatial_ (q.v.).

SPADASSIN, spad'a-sin, _n._ a swordsman, a bravo. [Fr.,--It.
_spadaccino_--_spada_, a sword.]

SPADE, sp[=a]d, _n._ a broad blade of iron with a handle, used for digging:
a playing-card of one of the two black suits, shaped like a heart with a
triangular handle.--_v.t._ to dig with a spade.--_ns._ SPADE'-BONE, the
scapula; SPADE'-FOOT, a scaphiopod or spade-footed toad; SPADE'FUL, as much
as a spade will hold; SPADE'-GUIN'EA, a guinea coined 1787-99, so called
from the shield on the reverse side having the shape of the spade in
playing-cards.--CALL A SPADE A SPADE, to call things by their plain names,
without softening: to speak out plainly. [A.S. _spadu_, _spædu_; L.
_spatha_--Gr. _spath[=e]_, any broad blade.]

SPADE, sp[=a]d, _n._ a eunuch: a gelding.--Also SP[=A]'DO. [Gr.
_spad[=o]n_, a eunuch.]

SPADILLE, spa-dil', _n._ the ace of spades in the games of ombre and
quadrille.--Also SPADIL'IO. [Fr.,--Sp. _espadilla_, dim. of _espada_, the
ace of spades.]

SPADIX, sp[=a]'diks, _n._ (_bot._) a fleshy spike of flowers, usually
covered by a leaf called a spathe:--_pl._ SP[=A]D[=I]'CES.--_adjs._

SPADONE, spa-d[=o]'n[=e], _n._ a long heavy sword for both hands.--Also

SPAE, sp[=a], _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Scot._) to foretell, divine--also
SPAY.--_ns._ SPAE'MAN; SP[=A]'ER; SPAE'WIFE, [Scand., Ice. _spá_; Ger.
_spähen_, to spy.]

SPAGHETTI, spa-get'ti, _n._ an Italian cord-like paste intermediate in size
between macaroni and vermicelli. [It., _pl._ of _spaghetto_, dim. of
_spago_, a cord.]

SPAGIRIC, -AL, spa-jir'ik, -al, _adj._ chemical, according to the chemistry
of Paracelsus and his followers.--_n._ SPAGIR'IST, a follower of
Paracelsus. [Gr. _span_, to tear, _ageirein_, to bring together.]

SPAHI, spä'h[=e], _n._ one of the irregular cavalry of the Turkish armies
before the reorganisation of 1836.--Also SPA'HEE. [_Sepoy_.]

SPAIRGE, sp[=a]rj, _v.t._ (_Scot._) a form of _sparge_, to sprinkle.

SPAKE, sp[=a]k, old _pa.t._ of _speak_.

SPALAX, sp[=a]'laks, _n._ the typical genus of mole-rats. [Gr., _spalax_,
_sphalax_, a mole.]

SPALE, sp[=a]l, _n._ (_Scot._) a splinter of wood--also SPAIL: in
shipbuilding, a temporary brace, cross-band--also SP[=A]'LING.

SPALL, spawl, _n._ (_Spens._) the shoulder.--Also SPALD. [O. Fr.
_espaule_--L. _spatula_, a broad blade.]

SPALL, spawl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to split, splinter, to chip.--_n._ a chip
or splinter thrown off.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ SPALT, to split off
splinters.--_adj._ brittle.

SPALPEEN, spal'p[=e]n, _n._ a rascal, a mischievous fellow. [Ir.

SPALT, spalt, _n._ a scaly whitish mineral, used as a flux for metals.
[Ger. _spalt-stein_--_spalten_, to split.]

SPAN, span, _n._ the space from the end of the thumb to the end of the
little-finger when the fingers are extended: nine inches: the spread of an
arch between its abutments: a space of time, the full duration of anything:
extent of stretch, as the spread of a man's arms, in measuring trees,
&c.--_v.t._ to measure by spans: to measure: to embrace:--_pr.p._
span'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spanned.--_ns._ SPAN'-COUN'TER,
SPAN'-FAR'THING, a game played by one throwing a coin or counter on the
ground, and another trying to throw his so near it that he can span the
distance between the two.--_adjs._ SPAN'LESS, that cannot be spanned or
measured; SPAN'-LONG, of the length of a span.--_n._ SPAN'NER, one who
spans: an iron tool or lever used to tighten the nuts of screws. [A.S.
_span_--_spannan_; Ger. _spanne_--_spannen_.]

SPAN, span, _n._ a yoke of horses or oxen. [Borrowed from Dut.; from the
same root as above word.]

SPAN, span, _adv._ wholly--in SPAN'-NEW, SPICK'-AND-SPAN.

SPANCEL, span'sel, _n._ a tether for a cow's legs.--_v.t._ to fasten a cow
with such.--_adj._ SPAN'CELED (_her_.), hobbled. [Old Dut. _spansel_.]


SPANDREL, span'drel, _n._ the irregular triangular space between the curve
of an arch and the enclosing right angle.--Also SPAN'DRIL. [Ety. dub.;
prob. conn. with _span_.]

SPANDY, span'di, _adv._ Same as SPAN (3).

SPANE, SPEAN, sp[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to wean. [A.S. _spanan_; Ger.

SPANEMIA, spa-n[=e]'mi-a, _n._ poverty of blood--also SPANÆ'MIA.--_adjs._
SPAN[=E]'MIC, SPANÆ'MIC. [Gr. _spanos_, scarce, _haima_, blood.]

SPANG, spang, _n._ a spangle, shining ornament.

SPANG, spang, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to leap.--_v.t._ to set in violent motion,
to hurl.--_n._ a springing up: a sudden blow.

SPANGLE, spang'gl, _n._ a small, thin plate or boss of shining metal:
anything sparkling and brilliant, like a spangle.--_v.t._ to adorn with
spangles.--_v.i._ to glitter.--_adjs._ SPANG'LED, SPANG'LY.--_n._
SPANG'LER. [A.S. _spange_; Ger. _spange_, Ice. _spöng_.]

SPANGOLITE, spang'g[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a rare mineral found in hexagonal
green crystals along with cuprite in Arizona. [Norman _Spang_ of

SPANIARD, span'yard, _n._ a native of _Spain_.

SPANIEL, span'yel, _n._ a kind of dog, usually liver-and-white coloured, or
black-and-white, with large pendent ears.--_adj._ (_Shak._) like a spaniel,
fawning, mean.--_n._ SPAN'IELSHIP, obsequious attention.--BLENHEIM SPANIEL,
red-and-white, established by the Duke of Marlborough; CLUMBER SPANIEL,
handsome lemon-and-white, short in leg, long in body, with a coat like a
setter, and massive head with large, drooping ears; KING CHARLES SPANIEL,
black-and-tan, first brought into notice by Charles II.; SUSSEX SPANIEL,
like the Clumber, golden-liver or brown. [O. Fr. _espagneul_ (Fr.
_épagneul_)--Sp. _Español_, Spanish.]

SPANISH, span'ish, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Spain_.--_n._ the language
of Spain.--_n._ SPAN'IARD, a native or citizen of Spain.--SPANISH BAYONET,
any one of several species of yucca with straight sword-shaped leaves;
SPANISH BROOM, a hardy deciduous Mediterranean shrub with showy yellow
fragrant flowers; SPANISH CHALK, a variety of talc; SPANISH CRESS, a
species of peppergrass; SPANISH FLY, a blister-beetle, a cantharid
possessing a strong blistering principle, cantharidine: a preparation of
cantharides used as a vesicant; SPANISH FOWL, a breed of the domestic
hen--also _White-faced black Spanish_; SPANISH GRASS, esparto; SPANISH
JUICE, extract of liquorice-root; SPANISH MAIN, a name given to the north
coast of South America from the Orinoco to Darien, and to the shores of the
former Central American provinces of Spain contiguous to the Caribbean
Sea--the name is often popularly applied to the Caribbean Sea itself:
SPANISH SHEEP, a merino; SPANISH SOAP, Castile soap.--WALK SPANISH, to be
compelled to walk on tiptoe through being lifted up by the collar and the
seat of the trousers--hence to proceed or act under compulsion.

SPANK, spangk, _v.i._ to move with speed or spirit.--_n._ SPANK'ER, one who
walks with long strides: a fast-going horse: any person or thing
particularly striking, a dashing person.--_adj._ SPANK'ING, spirited, going
freely: striking, beyond expectation, very large. [Cf. Dan. _spanke_, to

SPANK, spangk, _v.i._ to strike with the flat of the hand, to slap.--_n._ a
loud slap, esp. on the backside.

SPANKER, spang'k[.e]r, _n._ the after-sail of a ship or barque, so called
from its flapping in the breeze.

SPAN-ROOF, span'-r[=oo]f, _n._ a roof having two equal inclined planes or

SPAR, spär, _n._ a rafter: a general term for masts, yards, booms, and
gaffs, &c.--_n._ SPAR'-DECK, the upper deck of a vessel. [The A.S.
_spearra_ is assumed from the verb _sparrian_, to fasten with a bar; cf.
Ice. _sparri_, Dut. _spar_.]

SPAR, spär, _n._ a term applied by miners to any bright crystalline
mineral, and adopted by mineralogists in the names of a number of
minerals--_calcareous spar_, _fluor spar_, _Iceland spar_, &c.--_adj._
SPAR'RY, resembling spar, spathic. [A.S. _spær_(_-stán_), gypsum; cf. Ger.

SPAR, spär, _v.i._ to box with the hands: to fight with showy action: to
dispute:--_pr.p._ spar'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sparred.--_n._ a
preliminary sparring, boxing-match, or cock-fight.--_ns._ SPAR'RER;
SPAR'RING. [O. Fr. _esparer_ (Fr. _éparer_), to kick out, most prob. Teut.;
Low Ger. _sparre_, a struggling.]

SPARABLE, spar'a-bl, _n._ a small nail used by shoemakers.--Also
SPER'RABLE. [_Sparrow-bill_.]

SPARADRAP, spar'a-drap, _n._ a cerecloth, a plaster. [Fr.]

SPARE, sp[=a]r, _v.t._ to use frugally: to do without: to save from any
use: to withhold from: to forbear from harming, to treat tenderly: to part
with willingly.--_v.i._ to be frugal: to forbear: to be tender: to be
forgiving.--_adj._ sparing: frugal: scanty: lean: superfluous.--_n._ that
which has been saved or stored away: in American bowling, a point made by
overturning all the pins with the first two balls.--_adv._ SPARE'LY, in a
spare manner: sparingly.--_ns._ SPARE'NESS; SP[=A]R'ER, one who spares or
avoids expense; SPARE'RIB, a piece of pork consisting of ribs with the meat
adhering to them.--_adj._ SP[=A]'RING, scarce: scanty: saving: merciful,
forgiving.--_adv._ SP[=A]R'INGLY, frugally: not abundantly: with
abstinence: seldom: cautiously.--_n._ SP[=A]R'INGNESS, the quality of being
sparing: want of liberality: caution. [A.S. _sparian_, to spare--_spær_,
spare; Ger. _spärlich_, frugal.]

SPARGANIUM, spär-g[=a]'ni-um, _n._ a genus of plants of the order
_Typhaceæ_:, the bur-reeds. [Gr.]

SPARGE, spärj, _v.t._ to sprinkle--(_Scot._) SPAIRGE.--_n._ SPAR'GER, a
sprinkler. [L. _sparg[)e]re_, to sprinkle.]

SPARGOSIS, spär-g[=o]'sis, _n._ great distention of the breasts with
milk.--Also SPARGAN[=O]'SIS. [Gr. _sparg[=o]sis_--_spargan_, to swell.]

SPAR-HAWK, spär'-hawk, _n._=_Sparrow-hawk_.

SPARK, spärk, _n._ a small ignited particle shot off from a burning body:
any small shining body or light: a small portion of anything active or
vivid: a gay sprightly person, a lover, a beau.--_v.i._ to emit sparks: to
play the gallant.--_adj._ SPARK'ISH, gay, jaunty, showy. [A.S. _spearca_, a
spark; Dut. _spark_.]

SPARKE, spärk, _n._ (_Spens._) a battle-axe. [Perh. an error for

SPARKLE, spärk'l, _n._ a little spark: lustre, brilliance: the presence of
carbon dioxide, as in a wine, causing effervescence: the emission of
sparks.--_v.i._ to emit sparks: to shine, glitter: to effervesce with
glittering bubbles, or to contain much carbon dioxide, as certain
wines.--_v.t._ to throw out sparklingly.--_n._ SPARK'LER, one who, or that
which, sparkles.--_adj._ SPARK'LESS, not giving out sparks.--_adv._
SPARK'LESSLY.--_n._ SPARK'LET, a small spark.--_adj._ SPARK'LING, giving
out sparks: glittering: brilliant: lively.--_adv._ SPARK'LINGLY, in a
sparkling manner: with vivid and twinkling lustre.--_n._ SPARK'LINGNESS,
the quality of being sparkling: vivid and twinkling lustre. [A freq. of

SPARLING, spär'ling, _n._ the smelt.--Also SPIR'LING.

SPARRE, spär, _n._ (_Spens._) a bolt, a bar. [_Spar_.]

SPARRER. See under SPAR (3).

SPARROW, spar'[=o], _n._ an Old World genus of birds of fringilline
family.--_ns._ SPARR'OW-BILL, a small shoe-nail, so called from its
shape--also SPAR'ABLE; SPARR'OW-GRASS, asparagus; SPARR'OW-HAWK, a genus of
long-legged, short-winged falcons, like the goshawks, but smaller.--_adj._
SPARR'OW-TAIL (see SWALLOW-TAIL). [A.S. _spearwa_; Goth. _sparwa_, Ice.
_spörr_, Ger. _sper-ling_.]

SPARRY, spär'i, _adj._ consisting of, or like, spar.--_n._
SPARR'Y-[=I]'RON, a carbonite of iron, siderite.

SPARSE, spärs, _adj._ thinly scattered: scanty.--_adv._ SPARSE'LY.--_n._
SPARSE'NESS.--_adj._ SPAR'SILE.--_n._ SPAR'SITY. [L. _sparsum_, pa.p. of
_sparg[)e]re_, to scatter; Gr. _speirein_, to sow.]

SPARTAN, spär'tan, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Sparta_ in Greece: hardy,
rigorously severe: fearless.

SPARTERIE, spär't[.e]r-i, _n._ articles made from esparto--mats, nets,
ropes, &c.

SPARTH, -E, sparth, _n._ a halberd, mace.

SPASM, spazm, _n._ an irregular and violent contraction of muscular
parts--involuntary even when the voluntary muscles are concerned. When
persistent it is _tonic spasm_ or _cramp_, _catalepsy_, _tetanus_; when the
relaxations alternate with the contractions, it is _clonic spasm_, as in
_epilepsy_, _convulsive hysteria_, _chorea_, &c.--_n._ SPASMOD'IC, a
medicine for removing spasms.--_adjs._ SPASMOD'IC, -AL, relating to, or
consisting in, spasms: convulsive.--_adv._ SPASMOD'ICALLY, in a spasmodic
manner: in fits.--_ns._ SPAS'MODIST; SPASMOL'OGY, scientific knowledge of
spasms.--_adj._ SPAS'TIC, relating to spasms, spasmodic.--_adv._
SPAS'TICALLY.--_n._ SPASTIC'ITY, tendency to spasm.--SPASMODIC SCHOOL, a
group of English poets, including P. J. Bailey, Sydney Dobell, and
Alexander Smith, marked by overstrained and unnatural sentiment and
expression. [Fr. _spasme_--L. _spasmus_--Gr. _spasmos_--_spaein_, to draw.]

SPAT, spat, _pa.t._ of _spit_, to throw from the mouth.

SPAT, spat, _n._ the spawn of shellfish.--_v.i._ to shed spawn. [From root
of _spit_.]

SPAT, spat, _n._ a slap: a large drop, as of rain: a petty quarrel.--_v.t._
to slap, to strike lightly.--_v.i._ to engage in a petty quarrel.

SPAT, spat, _n._ a gaiter or legging--usually in _pl._ [_Spatter-dashes_.]

SPATANGUS, sp[=a]-tang'gus, _n._ the typical genus of _Spatangidæ_, a
family of irregular sea-urchins, the heart-urchins.--_n.pl._ SPATANG'IDA,
the spatangoid sea-urchins.--_adj._ SPATANG'OID, like a cordate
urchin.--_n._ one of these.--_ns.pl._ SPATANGOI'DA, SPATANGOI'D[=E]A, the
_Spatangidæ_, an order of petalostichous sea-urchins, generally excluding
the clypeastroids or flat sea-urchins. [Gr. _spatang[=e]s_, a sea-urchin.]

SPATCH-COCK, spach'-kok, _n._ a fowl killed and immediately roasted or
broiled for some sudden occasion. [Prob. a corr. of _despatch_ and _cock_.]

SPATE, SPAIT, sp[=a]t, _n._ a sudden flood, as in a stream after heavy
rain. [Prob. Ir. _speid_.]

SPATHE, sp[=a]th, _n._ (_bot_.) a sheathing bract, which encloses one or
more flowers, as in the narcissus.--_adjs._ SPATH[=A]'CEOUS,
spathe-bearing; SP[=A]THED, having a spathe.--_n._ SPATHIL'LA, a secondary
or diminutive spathe.--_adjs._ SP[=A]'THOSE, SP[=A]'THOUS (_bot_.), having
a spathe or sheath-like bract, bursting longitudinally. [L. _spatha_--Gr.
_spath[=e]_, a broad blade.]

SPATHIC, spath'ik, _adj._ (_min._) foliated, lamellar.--_adj._ SPATH'IFORM,
spathic. [Ger. _spath_, spar.]

SPATHURA, sp[=a]-th[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of humming-birds with peculiar
tail-feathers expanding into a spatule at the end, and leg-muffs. [Gr.
_spath[=e]_, a blade, _oura_, a tail.]

SPATIAL, sp[=a]'shal, _adj._ relating to space.--_n._
SP[=A]TIAL'ITY.--_adv_. SP[=A]'TIALLY.

SPATILOMANCY, sp[=a]-til'[=o]-man-si, _n._ divination by means of animal
excrements. [Gr. _spatil[=e]_, excrement, _manteia_, divination.]


SPATTER, spat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to throw out or scatter upon: to scatter about:
to sprinkle with dirt or anything moist: to defame.--_n._ the act of
spattering: what is spattered.--_n.pl._ SPATT'ER-DASH'ES, coverings for the
legs, to keep them clean from water and mud, a kind of gaiters.--_n._
SPATT'ER-WORK, a method of producing designs by covering the surface with
the pattern and then spattering colouring matter on the parts exposed. [A
freq. of _spot_.]

SPATULA, spat'[=u]-la, SPATTLE, spat'l, _n._ a little spade: a broad kind
of knife for spreading plasters.--_n._ SPAT'ULAMANCY, a method of
divination by a sheep's shoulder-blade.--_adj._ SPAT'UL[=A]TE, shaped like
a spatula.--_n._ SPAT'ULE, a spatulate formation.--_adjs._ SPAT'ULIFORM,
SPATULIG'EROUS. [L. _spatula_, _spathula_, dim. of _spatha_--Gr.

SPAVIN, spav'in, _n._ a disease of horses occurring under two different
forms--_bog-spavin_, in which the hock-joint is distended with
dark-coloured synovia or joint-oil, and _bone-spavin_, in which a bony
enlargement occurs towards the inside of the hock, at the head of the
shank-bone, or between some of the small bones of the hock.--_adj._
SPAV'INED, affected with spavin. [O. Fr. _esparvain_ (Fr. _éparvin_)--Old
High Ger. _sparo_, _sparwe_, a sparrow.]

SPAWL, spawl, _n._ spittle, slaver.--_v.i._ to eject saliva.

SPAWN, spawn, _n._ the eggs of fish or frogs when ejected:
offspring.--_adj._ containing spawn.--_v.t._ to produce, as fishes and
frogs do their eggs: to bring forth.--_v.i._ to deposit eggs, as fishes or
frogs: to issue, as offspring.--_ns._ SPAWN'ER, the female fish from which
the spawn is ejected; SPAWN'ING; SPAWN'ING-BED, -GROUND, a bed made in the
bottom of a stream on which fish deposit their spawn. [O. Fr. _espandre_,
to shed--L. _expand[)e]re_, to spread out.]

SPAY, sp[=a], _v.t._ to make an animal barren by destroying its
ovaries.--Also SP[=A]VE. [L. _spado_--Gr. _spad[=o]n_, a eunuch--Gr.
_spaein_, draw out.]

SPEAK, sp[=e]k, _v.i._ to utter words or articulate sounds: to say: to
talk: to converse: to sound: to give expression by any means, to intimate,
to hint.--_v.t._ to pronounce: to converse in: to address: to declare: to
express by signs:--_pa.t._ spoke or sp[=a]ke; _pa.p._ sp[=o]'ken.--_adj._
SPEAK'ABLE, capable of being spoken: (_Milt._) having the power of
speech.--_ns._ SPEAK'-EAS'Y (_U.S._), an illicit dram-shop, shebeen;
SPEAK'ER, one who speaks or proclaims: the person who presides in a
deliberative or legislative body, as the House of Commons; SPEAK'ERSHIP,
the office of Speaker; SPEAK'ING, the act of expressing ideas in words:
discourse.--_adj._ seeming to speak: natural: used to assist the
voice.--_adv._ SPEAK'INGLY.--_ns._ SPEAK'ING-TRUM'PET, an instrument for
enabling the sound of the voice to be conveyed to a greater distance;
SPEAK'ING-TUBE, a tube communicating from one room to another for speaking
through; SPEAK'ING-VOICE, the kind of voice used in speaking.--SPEAK A
SHIP, to hail and speak to some one on board her; SPEAK FAIR, to address
one in conciliatory terms; SPEAK FOR, to speak on behalf of: to be a proof
of: to bespeak, engage; SPEAKING TERMS, a relationship between two persons
not extending beyond the courtesy of verbal salutation, &c.; SPEAK OF, to
talk about: to mention, or to be worth mentioning; SPEAK ONE'S MIND, to say
frankly what one thinks; SPEAK OUT, to assert boldly or loudly; SPEAK TO,
to reprove: to attest, testify to; SPEAK UP, to speak out; SPEAK WELL FOR,
to witness favourably to.--SO TO SPEAK, as one might put it, as it were.
[A.S. _specan_ (for _sprecan_); Dut. _spreken_, Ger. _sprechen_.]

SPEAL-BONE, sp[=e]l'-b[=o]n, _n._ the shoulder-blade.

SPEAR, sp[=e]r, _n._ a long weapon used in war and hunting, made of a pole
pointed with iron: a lance with barbed prongs used for catching
fish.--_v.t._ to pierce or kill with a spear.--_ns._ SPEAR'-FISH, a kind of
carp-sucker--also _Sail-fish_ and _Skimback_: the bill-fish, a
histiophoroid fish related to the swordfish; SPEAR'-FOOT, the off or right
hind-foot of a horse; SPEAR'-GRASS, a name applied to various grasses, esp.
those known as meadow-grass, the Kentucky blue-grass: either of two New
Zealand plants of the parsley family with long spinous leaflets;
SPEAR'-HEAD, the iron point of a spear; SPEAR'-LIL'Y, a plant of one of the
species of the Australian genus _Doryanthes_ of the _Amaryllideæ_, with
sword-shaped leaves; SPEAR'MAN, a man armed with a spear; SPEAR'MINT, the
common garden-mint; SPEAR'-THIS'TLE, the common thistle; SPEAR'-WOOD, one
of two Australian trees whose wood makes good spear-shafts; SPEAR'-WORT,
the name of several species of Ranunculus with lance-shaped leaves. [A.S.
_spere_; Ger. _speer_, L. _sparus_; cf. _Spar_.]

SPEC, a colloquial abbrev. of _speculation_.

SPECIAL, spesh'al, _adj._ of a species or sort; particular: distinctive:
uncommon: designed for a particular purpose: confined to a particular
subject or application.--_n._ any special or particular person or thing:
any person or thing set apart for a particular duty--a constable, a
railway-tram, &c.: a newspaper extra, a despatch from a special
correspondent.--_n._ SPECIALIS[=A]'TION, the act or process of
specialising: differentiation, as of organs, functions, &c.--_v.t._
SPEC'IALISE, to make specifically distinct, to limit to a particular kind
of action or use.--_v.i._ to act in some particular way, to take a
particular direction, as to devote one's self especially to some particular
branch of study.--_ns._ SPEC'IALISM, devotion to some particular study or
pursuit; SPEC'IALIST, one who devotes himself to a special subject.--_adj._
SPECIALIST'IC.--_n._ SPECIAL'ITY, the particular characteristic of a person
or thing: a special occupation or object of attention.--_adv._
SPEC'IALLY.--_ns._ SPEC'IALTY, something special or distinctive: any
special product, article of sale or of manufacture: any special pursuit,
department of study, &c.: a special contract for the payment of money;
SPECIE (sp[=e]'shi), gold and silver coin, metallic money (abl. of L.
_species_, kind); SP[=E]'CIES, a group of individuals having common marks
or characteristics, specialised from others of the same _genus_ to which it
is subordinate: a group under a higher class, a kind or sort, a distinct
constituent part, an element: an appearance to the senses, an image of an
external object presented to the eye or the mind; SP[=E]'CIES-MONG'ER, one
who busies himself with classifications only, indifferent to wider
biological relations, one who makes distinctions for distinction's sake;
SP[=E]CIF'IC, a remedy which has a special power in a particular disease:
an infallible remedy.--_adjs._ SP[=E]CIF'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or
constituting, a species: that specifies: peculiar to: produced by some
special cause: precise: infallible.--_adv._ SP[=E]CIF'ICALLY.--_ns._
SP[=E]CIF'ICALNESS, SP[=E]CIF'ICNESS, the state or quality of being
VERDICT).--SPECIFIC DENSITY, the mass of any given substance contained in
unit volume; SPECIFIC GRAVITY, the weight of any given substance as
compared with the weight of an equal bulk or volume of water or other
standard substance at the same temperature and pressure; SPECIFIC HEAT (see

SPECIFY, spes'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to mention particularly: to set down as a
requisite:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spec'if[=i]ed.--_v.t._ SPECIF'ICATE, to
specify.--_n._ SPECIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of specifying: any point or
particular specified: the description of his invention presented by an
applicant for a patent.--LOGICAL SPECIFICATION is the counterpart of
generalisation--implying that beings the most like or homogeneous disagree
or are heterogeneous in some respect. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _specific[=a]re_--L.
_species_, kind, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SPECILLUM, sp[=e]-sil'um, _n._ a surgical probe: a lens, eyeglass.
[L.,--_spec[)e]re_, to look.]

SPECIMEN, spes'i-men, _n._ a portion of anything to show the kind and
quality of the whole: a sample, a typical individual: a preparation in
natural history, &c., exemplifying anything noticeable in a species or
other group. [L. _specimen_--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECIOUS, sp[=e]'shus, _adj._ that looks well at first sight: showy:
plausible: appearing actual, not merely imaginary.--_ns._ SP[=E]CIOS'ITY,
SP[=E]'CIOUSNESS, plausible appearance.--_adv._ SP[=E]'CIOUSLY. [Fr.,--L.
_speciosus_, showy--_species_, form--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECK, spek, _n._ a spot: a blemish: a mark betokening decay: a separate
piece or particle, an atom, the least morsel or quantity: a percoid fish of
the United States, a darter.--_v.t._ to spot. [A.S. _specca_; Low Ger.
_spakig_, spotted with wet.]

SPECK, spek, _n._ fat, lard.--_n._ SPECKTIONEER', the chief harpooner in
whale-fishing. [A.S. _spic_, bacon; Ger. _speck_, Dut. _spek_, fat.]

SPECKLE, spek'l, _n._ a little speck or spot in anything different in
substance or colour from the thing itself: (_Scot._) kind, sort.--_v.t._ to
mark with speckles.--_adj._ SPECK'LED, variegated, piebald.--_n._
SPECK'LEDNESS.--_adjs._ SPECK'LESS, spotless, perfectly clean; SPECK'Y,
partially spotted.

SPECTACLE, spek'ta-kl, _n._ a sight: show, a pageant, exhibition: (_pl._) a
pair of lenses mounted in frames to assist the sight, aids to mental
vision: a marking resembling spectacles, as in the cobra.--_adjs._
SPEC'TACLED, wearing spectacles: marked like spectacles, as the bear,
cobra, &c.; SPECTAC'ULAR, marked by display.--_n._ SPECTACULAR'ITY.--_adv._
SPECTAC'ULARLY. [L. _spectaculum_--_spect[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, intens. of
_spec[)e]re_, to look at.]

SPECTANT, spek'tant, _adj._ looking forward.--_v.t._ SPEC'T[=A]TE, to
survey.--_n._ SPEC'T[=A]TION. [L. _spectans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of

SPECTATOR, spek-t[=a]'tor, _n._ one who looks on:--_fem._ SPECT[=A]'TRESS,
SPECT[=A]'TRIX.--_adj._ SPECTAT[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ SPECT[=A]'TORSHIP, the
office or quality of a spectator: (_Shak._) the act of beholding.

SPECTRE, spek't[.e]r, _n._ a ghost.--_adj._ SPEC'TRAL, relating to, or
like, a spectre.--_n._ SPECTRAL'ITY, the state of being spectral, a
spectral object.--_adv._ SPEC'TRALLY.--_n._ SPEC'TRE-BAT, a South American
leaf-nosed bat or vampire. [L. _spectrum_, a vision--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECTRUM, spek'trum, _n._ the image of something seen continued after the
eyes are closed: the colours of light separated by a prism, and exhibited
as spread out on a screen:--_pl._ SPEC'TRA.--_n._ SPEC'TROGRAPH, an
apparatus for photographing a spectrum.--_adjs._ SPECTROGRAPH'IC,
-AL.--_n._ SPECTROG'RAPHY, the art of using the spectrograph.--_adj._
division of physical science that embraces spectrum analysis: demonology;
SPECTROM'ETER, an instrument like a spectroscope, by means of which the
angular deviation of a ray of light in passing through a prism can be
accurately measured.--_adj._ SPECTROMET'RIC.--_n._ SPEC'TROPH[=O]NE, an
adaptation of the spectroscope, in which, on the principle of the
radiophone, perception of a succession of sounds takes the place of
observation by the eye.--_adj._ SPECTROPHON'IC.--_ns._
SPEC'TRO-POLAR'ISCOPE, a polariscope combined with a spectroscope;
SPEC'TROSCOPE, an instrument for forming and examining spectra of luminous
bodies, so as to determine their composition.--_adjs._ SPECTROSC[=O]P'IC,
-AL.--_adv._ SPECTROSC[=O]P'ICALLY.--_ns._ SPEC'TROSC[=O]PIST, one skilled
in spectroscopy; SPEC'TROSC[=O]PY, the use of the spectroscope and the
study of spectrum analysis. [L.,--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECULAR, spek'[=u]-lar, _adj._ resembling a speculum: having a smooth
reflecting surface: assisting vision, serving for inspection.--SPECULAR
IRON ORE, a variety of hematite, with a brilliant metallic lustre. [L.]

SPECULARIA, spek-[=u]-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of plants of the bellwort
family (_Campanulaceæ_), including the Venus's-looking-glass.

SPECULATE, spek'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to look at or into with the mind: to
consider: to theorise: to traffic for great profit.--_ns._ SPECUL[=A]'TION,
act of speculating: mental view: contemplation: theory: the buying goods,
&c., to sell them at an advance, any more or less risky investment of money
for the sake of unusually large profits; SPEC'UL[=A]TIST, a speculative
philosopher.--_adj._ SPEC'[=U]L[=A]TIVE, given to speculation or theory:
ideal: pertaining to speculation in business, &c.--_adv._
SPEC'UL[=A]TIVELY.--_ns._ SPEC'UL[=A]TIVENESS, the state of being
speculative; SPEC'UL[=A]TOR, one who engages in mental speculations, or who
practises speculation in trade or business of any kind.--_adj._
SPEC'[=U]L[=A]TORY, exercising speculation: adapted for spying or
viewing.--_n._ SPEC'UL[=A]TRIX, a female speculator. [L. _speculatus_,
_pa.p._ of _specul[=a]ri_--_specula_, a lookout--_spec[)e]re_, to look.]

SPECULUM, spek'[=u]-lum, _n._ (_opt._) a reflector usually made of polished
metal: (_surg._) an instrument for bringing into view parts otherwise
hidden: an ocellus or eye-spot, the mirror of a wing: a lookout
place:--_pl._ SPEC'ULA. [L.,--_spec[)e]re_, to look.]

SPED, sped, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _speed_.

SPEECH, sp[=e]ch, _n._ that which is spoken: language: the power of
speaking: manner of speech, oration: any declaration of thoughts: mention:
colloquy: conference.--_ns._ SPEECH'-CRAFT, the science of language: the
gift of speech; SPEECH'-CR[=I]'ER, one who hawked the broadsides containing
the dying speeches of persons executed, once common; SPEECH'-DAY, the
public day at the close of a school year.--_adj._ SPEECH'FUL,
loquacious.--_ns._ SPEECHIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making harangues;
SPEECH'IF[=I]ER.--_v.i._ SPEECH'IFY, to make speeches, harangue (implying
contempt).--_adj._ SPEECH'LESS, destitute or deprived of the power of
one accustomed to speak in public; SPEECH'-M[=A]K'ING, a formal speaking
before an assembly; SPEECH'-READ'ING, the art of following spoken words by
observing the speaker's lips, as taught to deaf-mutes. [A.S. _sp['æ]c_,
_spr['æ]c_; Ger. _sprache_.]

SPEED, sp[=e]d, _n._ quickness, velocity: success.--_v.i._ to move quickly,
to hurry: to succeed, to fare.--_v.t._ to despatch quickly: to hasten, as
to a conclusion: to cause to advance, to push forward: to give a certain
speed to, regulate the speed of: to send off, to put forth, to rid of, to
kill: to cause to be relieved (only in passive): to execute: to aid: to
make prosperous:--_pr.p._ speed'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sped.--_n._
SPEED'ER, one who, or that which, promotes speed.--_adj._ SPEED'FUL,
speedy.--_advs._ SPEED'FULLY; SPEED'ILY.--_ns._ SPEED'INESS, speed, haste;
SPEED'-PULL'EY, a pulley having different faces of different diameters
giving various speeds according to the face the belt passes over;
SPEED'WELL (_Veronica_), a genus of plants of the natural order
_Scrophulariaceæ_, with blue, white, or pink flowers, the leaves of some
species used medicinally.--_adj._ SPEED'Y, hasty: quick: nimble. [A.S.
_spéd_; Dut. _spoed_.]

SPEIR, SPEER, sp[=e]r, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Scot._) to ask. [A.S. _spyrian_,
to inquire after, _spor_, a trace.]

SPEISS, sp[=i]s, _n._ the product first obtained (an arsenide of the metal)
when arsenical ores are smelted. [Ger. _speise_.]

SPEKBOOM, spek'b[=o]m, _n._ a large South African shrub of the purslane
family. [Dut.]

SPELÆAN, SPELEAN, sp[=e]-l[=e]'an, _adj._ cave-dwelling. [L. _spelæum_--Gr.
_sp[=e]laion_, a cave.]

SPELD, speld, _n._ a chip, splinter.--Also SPEL'DER.

SPELDING, spel'ding, _n._ (_Scot._) a small fish split and dried in the

SPELIN, spe-lin', _n._ an artificial linguistic system devised by G. Bauer
in 1888 for universal use.

SPELK, spelk, _n._ (_prov._) a rod, switch.--_v.t._ to use a spelk in or

SPELL, spel, _n._ any form of words supposed to possess magical power:
fascination.--_v.t._ to tell or name the letters of: to name, write, or
print the proper letters of.--_v.i._ to form words with the proper letters:
to study:--_pr.p._ spell'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spelled, spelt.--_adjs._
SPELL'ABLE, capable of being spelled; SPELL'-BOUND, SPELL'-STOPPED
(_Shak._), entranced, fascinated.--_ns._ SPELL'ER, one who spells: one
skilled in spelling; SPELL'ING, act of spelling or naming the letters of
words: orthography; SPELL'ING-BEE, a competition in spelling;
SPELL'ING-BOOK, a book for teaching to spell; SPELL'-WORK, that which is
wrought by spells or charms: power of magic.--SPELL BACKWARD, to spell,
repeat, or arrange in reverse order: to understand in a contrary sense: to
turn wrong-side out, misconstrue one's qualities; SPELL BAKER, to do
something difficult, that word being one of the earliest dissyllables in
children's books. [A.S. _spell_, a narrative; Goth. _spill_, Ice. _spjall_,
a tale.]

SPELL, spel, _v.t._ to take another's place at work:--_pr.p._ spell'ing;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spelled.--_n._ a turn at work: a short period
indefinitely: an interval of rest: a bad turn. [A.S. _spelian_, to act for
another; cf. Dut. _spelen_, Ger. _spielen_, to play.]

SPELT, spelt, _n._ a kind of wheat, probably only a race of common wheat,
still grown in the mountainous parts of Europe and elsewhere--also called
German wheat. [A.S. _spelt_--Low L. _spelta_.]

SPELTER, spel't[.e]r, _n._ zinc. [Allied to Dut. _spiauter_.]

SPENCE, spens, _n._ (_prov._) a place where provisions are kept: a larder:
a pantry.--Also SPENSE. [O. Fr. _despense_, a buttery--_despendre_--L.

SPENCER, spens'[.e]r, _n._ a short over-jacket worn by men or women, named
after Earl _Spencer_ (1782-1845).

SPENCER, spens'[.e]r, _n._ (in ships and barques) a fore-and-aft sail abaft
the fore and main masts.

SPENCERIAN, spen-s[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the philosophy of
Herbert _Spencer_ (b. 1820).--_n._ a follower of Spencer.--_n._
SPENC[=E]'RIANISM, the system of evolutionary cosmology propounded by
Herbert Spencer--the so-called synthetic philosophy.

SPEND, spend, _v.t._ to expend or weigh out: to give for any purpose: to
consume: to waste: to pass, as time.--_v.i._ to make expense: to be lost,
wasted, or dissipated: to emit milt, semen, &c.:--_pr.p._ spend'ing;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spent.--_adj._ SPEN'DABLE, that may be spent.--_ns._
SPEND'ALL, a spendthrift; SPEN'DER; SPEN'DING; SPENSE=_Spence_
(q.v.).--_adj._ SPENT, exhausted: impotent: of fish, exhausted by spawning.
[A.S. _spendan_--L. _expend[)e]re_ or _dispend[)e]re_, to weigh out.]

SPENDTHRIFT, spend'thrift, _n._ one who spends the savings of thrift: a
prodigal.--_adj._ excessively lavish. [_Spend_ and _thrift_.]

SPENSERIAN, spen-s[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to Edmund _Spenser_
(1552-1599) or his versification, esp. his stanza in _The Faerie Queene_, a
strophe of eight decasyllabic lines and an Alexandrine, having three
rhymes, the 1st and 3d, the 2d, 4th, 5th, and 7th, and the 6th, 8th, and

SPENT, spent, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of spend.

SPEOS, sp[=e]'os, _n._ a grotto-temple or tomb. [Gr.]

SPER, sp[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to bolt, to shut, as a gate.

SPERABLE, sp[=e]'ra-bl, _adj._ (_Bacon_) that may be hoped.--_adj._
SP[=E]'RATE, hoped for. [L. _sperabilis_--_sper[=a]re_, to hope.]

SPERGULA, sper'g[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of polypetalous annuals belonging to
the _Caryophyllaceæ_, with small white or pink flowers--_spurry_ or
_sandweed_.--_n._ SPERGUL[=A]'RIA, an allied genus, the sand-spurry. [L.
_sparg[)e]re_, to scatter.]

SPERKET, sp[.e]r'ket, _n._ a hooked peg for hanging harness upon.--Also

SPERM, sp[.e]rm, _n._ animal seed: spawn of fishes or frogs:
spermaceti.--_ns._ SPER'MADUCT, a spermatic duct; SPER'MAPHORE (_bot._), a
placenta; SPER'MARY, the male germ-gland; SPERMATH[=E]'CA, a spermatic case
or sheath--also SPERMATOTH[=E]'CA.--_adjs._ SPERMATH[=E]'CAL; SPERMAT'IC,
-AL, pertaining to, or consisting of, sperm or seed, seminal: connected
with the male function, testicular.--_v.i._ SPER'MATISE, to yield or to
discharge semen.--_ns._ SPER'MATISM=_Spermism_; SPER'MATIST=_Spermist_;
SPERM[=A]'TIUM, a minute spore within a spermogonium:--_pl._
SPERM[=A]'TIA.--_adj._ SPERMAT[=O]'AL, pertaining to a spermatoon.--_n._
SPER'MATOBLAST, the germ of a spermatozoon.--_adj._
SPERMATOBLAS'TIC.--_ns._ SPER'MATOCELE, swelling of the testicle;
SPER'MATOCYST, a seminal vesicle; SPERMATOCYS'TIS, inflammation of the
seminal vesicles.--_adj._ SPERMATOCY'TAL.--_ns._ SPER'MATOCYTE, a
mother-cell from which spermatozoids are developed; SPERMATOGEM'MA, a mass
of spermatocytes; SPERMATOGEN'ESIS, the formation of spermatozoa.--_adjs._
spermatozoa; SPERMATOG[=O]'NIUM, one of the primitive seminal cells that by
division form the spermatocytes.--_adjs._ SPER'MATOID, sperm-like;
SPERMATOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to spermatology.--_ns._ SPERMATOL'OGIST, one
versed in spermatology; SPERMATOL'OGY, the knowledge of the facts about
semen; SPERMAT[=O]'ON, the nucleus of a spermatozoon; SPERMAT'[=O]PH[=O]RE,
a case which in some Invertebrata encloses the spermatozoa.--_adj._
SPERMATOPH'OROUS.--_ns._ SPERMATORRH[=E]'A, involuntary seminal discharge;
SPERMAT[=O]'VUM, a fecundated ovum; SPERMATOZ[=O]'ID, SPERMATOZ[=O]'ON, one
of the male reproductive cells of animals, the physiological complements of
the egg-cells or ova:--_pl._ SPERMATOZ[=O]'A; SPERM'-CELL, a spermatozoon:
a spermatoblast or a spermatocyte.--_adj._ SPER'MIC=_Spermatic_--_ns._
SPER'MISM, a seminal discharge: the theory that the male sperm holds the
whole germ of the future animal; SPER'MIST, one who holds the theory of
spermism; SPERM'-N[=U]'CLEUS, the nucleus of a spermatozoon; SPER'MODERM,
the whole integument of a seed; SPERMOG[=O]'NIUM, the cavity in which,
spermatia are produced; SPERM'-OIL, oil from the sperm-whale;
SPORMOL'OGY=_Spermatology_; SPERMOPH'[=O]RUM, a seminal vesicle.--_n.pl._
SPERMOPH'YTA, one of the four divisions of the vegetable kingdom including
flowering plants.--_ns._ SPERM'[=U]LE, a sperm-cell; SPERM'-WHALE, the
cachalot, a species of whale from which spermaceti is obtained. [Fr.,--L.
_sperma_--Gr. _sperma_, _spermatos_--_speirein_, to sow.]

SPERMACETI, sper-ma-set'i, or-s[=e]'t[=i], _n._ a waxy matter obtained
mixed with oil from the head of the sperm-whale--purified by draining off
the oil and repeatedly washing with hot water and weak boiling
potash-lye.--_adj._ derived from, or yielding, spermaceti.--_n._
SPERMACET'I-WHALE, the sperm-whale. [L. _sperma_, _c[=e]tus_, a whale--Gr.

SPERMOPHILE, sper'm[=o]-f[=i]l, _n._ a rodent of the genus _Spermophilus_,
a ground-squirrel. [Gr. _sperma_, seed, _philein_, to love.]

SPERRE, sper, _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as SPER. [_Spar_.]

SPERRYLITE, sper'i-l[=i]t, _n._ an arsenide of platinum discovered in 1888
in the province of Ontario, Canada.

SPERSE, sp[.e]rs, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to disperse.

SPET, spet, _v.i._ (_Milt._) a form of _spit_.

SPETCH, spech, _n._ a piece of skin used in making glue. [_Speck_.]

SPEW, SPUE, sp[=u], _v.t._ and _v.i._ to vomit: to eject with
loathing.--_ns._ SPEW'ER; SPEW'INESS, moistness.--_adj._ SPEW'Y, boggy.
[A.S. _spíwan_; Dut. _spuwen_, Ger. _speien_; also L. _spu[)e]re_, Gr.

SPHACELUS, sfas'e-lus, _n._ gangrene.--_adjs._ SPHAC'ELATE, -D,
necrosed.--_ns._ SPHACEL[=A]'TION, SPHACELIS'MUS, necrosis; SPHACEL[=O]'MA,
a genus of fungi containing _anthracnose_. [Gr. _sphakelos_.]

SPHÆRIDIUM, sf[=e]-rid'i-um, _n._ one of the minute spheroidal bodies
attached to the ambulacral plates of sea-urchins:--_pl._ SPHÆRID'IA. [Gr.
_sphairidion_, dim. of _sphaira_, a sphere.]

SPHÆRISTERIUM, sf[=e]-ris-t[=e]'ri-um, _n._ a tennis-court.
[Gr.,--_sphaira_, a ball.]

SPHÆRITE, sf[=e]'r[=i]t, _n._ a hydrous phosphate of aluminium.

SPHAGNUM, sfag'num, _n._ a genus of mosses--peat or bog-moss, belonging to
the order _Sphagnaceæ_.--_ns._ SPHAGNOL'OGIST, one who has studied the
foregoing; SPHAGNOL'OGY, the study of the same.--_adj._ SPHAG'NOUS. [Gr.
_sphagnos_, moss.]

SPHECIUS, sf[=e]'shi-us, _n._ a genus of digger-wasps. [Gr. _sph[=e]x_, a

SPHENDONE, sfen'd[=o]-n[=e], _n._ an ancient Greek form of women's
head-band: an elliptical or semi-elliptical auditorium. [Gr., a sling.]

SPHENE, sf[=e]n, _n._ titanite. [Fr.,--Gr. _sph[=e]n_, wedge.]

SPHENIC, sf[=e]'nik, _adj._ wedge-like. [Gr. _sph[=e]n_, a wedge.]

SPHENISCUS, sf[=e]-nis'kus, _n._ a genus of penguins, of the family
_Spheniscidæ_, the jackass-penguins.

SPHENODON, sf[=e]'n[=o]-don, _n._ a genus of South American fossil sloths;
a genus of extinct New Zealand lizards.--_adj._ SPH[=E]'NODONT. [Gr.
_sph[=e]n_, a wedge, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]

SPHENOID, -AL, sf[=e]'noid, -al, _adj._ wedge-shaped: inserted like a
wedge, denoting a bone at the base of the skull.--_adjs._ SPHENETH'MOID,
pertaining to the sphenoid and the ethmoid bone; SPH[=E]'N[=O]-FRON'TAL,
-M[=A]'LAR, -PAL'ATINE, -PAR[=I]'ETAL, -TEM'PORAL, pertaining to the
sphenoid and frontal, malar, palatine, parietal, and temporal bones
respectively.--_n._ SPH[=E]'NOGRAM, a cuneiform character.--_adjs._
SPH[=E]NOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ SPH[=E]NOG'RAPHY, the art of writing or
deciphering cuneiform inscriptions.--_adjs._ SPH[=E]NOT'IC, pertaining to
the sphenoid bone and the otic capsule; SPH[=E]'NO-TUR'BINAL, sphenoidal
and turbinated or whorled. [Gr. _sph[=e]n_, _sph[=e]nos_, a wedge, _eidos_,

SPHERE, sf[=e]r, _n._ a ball or globe: an orb or circle: circuit of motion:
province or duty: definite range: rank, position in society: (_geom._) a
surface every point of which is equidistant from one and the same point,
called the centre.--_adjs._ SPH[=E]R'AL; SPHERE'LESS.--_ns._ SPHERE'-MET'AL
(_Milt._), metal like that of which the celestial spheres were anciently
supposed to be made; SPHERE'-M[=U]'SIC, the music of the spheres.--_adjs._
SPHER'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or like, a sphere.--_n._
state or quality of being spherical: roundness; SPHER'ICLE, a little
sphere; SPHER'ICS, the geometry and trigonometry of the sphere;
SPH[=E]'ROID, a body or figure nearly spherical, but not quite so--a
species of ellipsoid (_prolate_ spheroid, a slightly lengthened sphere;
_oblate_ spheroid, a slightly flattened sphere).--_adj._ SPH[=E]ROI'DAL,
having the form of a spheroid.--_ns._ SPH[=E]ROIDI'CITY, SPH[=E]ROID'ITY,
the state of being spheroidal; SPH[=E]'ROM[=E]RE, one of the symmetrical
segments of a radiate; SPH[=E]ROM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the
sphericity of portions of spherical surfaces--for example, lenses;
SPH[=E]'ROSID'ERITE, the name given to impure or earthy and frequently
concretionary varieties of carbonate of iron.--_adj._ SPHER'[=U]LAR.--_ns._
SPHER'[=U]LE, a little sphere; SPHER'[=U]LITE, a radiating spherical group
of minute acicular crystals common in silicious volcanic rocks.--_adjs._
SPHER[=U]LIT'IC; SPH[=E]'RY, spherical, round: belonging to the celestial
spheres. [Fr.,--L. _sphæra_--Gr. _sphaira_.]

SPHEX, sfeks, _n._ a genus of hymenopterous insects of the family
_Sphegidæ_, closely allied to the true wasps (_Vespidæ_). [Gr. _sph[=e]x_,
a wasp.]

SPHINCTER, sfingk't[.e]r, _n._ (_anat._) a muscle that contracts or shuts
an orifice or opening which it surrounds--around the anus, &c.--_adjs._
SPHINC'TER[=A]TE, provided with a sphincter, contracted as if by a
sphincter; SPHINCT[=E]'RIAL, SPHINCTER'IC, relating to a sphincter or its
function.--_n._ SPHINCTEROT'OMY, the operation of cutting a sphincter. [Gr.
_sphingkt[=e]r_,--_sphinggein_, to bind tight.]

SPHINX, sfingks, _n._ a monster of Greek mythology, with the head of a
woman and the body of a lioness, that proposed riddles to travellers, and
strangled those who could not solve them: an enigmatic or inscrutable
person: a hawk-moth: the Guinea baboon. [Gr.,--_sphinggein_, to throttle.]

SPHRAGISTICS, sfr[=a]-jis'tiks, _n._ knowledge about seals, their age,
history, &c. [Gr. _sphragistikos_, pertaining to seals--_sphragis_, a

SPHRIGOSIS, sfri-g[=o]'sis, _n._ in fruit-trees, excessive growth in wood
and leaves at the expense of fruit. [Gr. _sphrigan_, to be vigorous.]

SPHYGMOGRAPH, sfig'm[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for ascertaining and
recording the form, force, and frequency of the pulse-beat, and the changes
it undergoes in certain morbid states.--_adj._ SPHYG'MIC, pertaining to the
pulse.--_n._ SPHYG'MOGRAM, the record made by a sphygmograph.--_adj._
SPHYGMOGRAPH'IC.--_n._ SPHYGMOG'RAPHY, the act of taking
pulse-tracings.--_adj._ SPHYG'MOID, pulse-like.--_ns._ SPHYGMOL'OGY, the
science of the pulse; SPHYGM[=O]M[=A]NOM'ETER, SPHYGMOM'ETER, an instrument
for measuring the tension of blood in an artery; SPHYG'MOPHONE, an
instrument by means of which a pulse-beat makes a sound:
SPHYG'M[=O]SC[=O]PE, an instrument for making arterial pulsations visible;
SPHYG'MUS, the pulse. [Gr. _sphygmos_, the pulse, _graphein_, to write.]

SPHYRNA, sf[.e]r'na, _n._ a genus of hammer-headed sharks.--_adj._
SPHYR'NINE. [Gr. _sphyra_, a hammer.]

SPIAL, sp[=i]'al, _n._ (_obs._) espial: a spy, a scout.

SPICA, sp[=i]'ka, _n._ a spiral bandage with reversed turns: (_ornith._) a
spur.--_adjs._ SP[=I]'CAL, SP[=I]'C[=A]TE, -D, arranged in, or having the
form of, a spike.--_n._ SPIC[=A]'TUM, in ancient masonry, herring-bone
work. [L. _spicatus_, pa.p. of _spic[=a]re_--_spica_, ear.]

SPICE, sp[=i]s, _n._ an aromatic and pungent vegetable substance used as a
condiment and for seasoning food--pepper, cayenne pepper, pimento, nutmeg,
mace, vanilla, ginger, cinnamon, cassia, &c.: a characteristic touch or
taste, smack, flavour: anything that adds piquancy or interest: an aromatic
odour.--_v.t._ to season with spice: to tincture, vary, or
diversify.--_ns._ SPICE'-BOX, an ornamental box for keeping spices:
(_coll._) a hot-tempered person; SPICE'-BUSH, an aromatic American shrub of
the laurel family; SPICE'-CAKE, a cake flavoured with spice of some
kind.--_adjs._ SPICED, impregnated with a spicy odour: over-scrupulous;
SPICE'FUL, aromatic.--_ns._ SP[=I]'CER, one who seasons with spice;
SP[=I]'CERY, spices in general: a repository of spices: spiciness;
SPICE'-TREE, an evergreen tree of the Pacific United States, yielding a
fine hard wood--the _Mountain-laurel_, _California-laurel_, _Olive-_ or
_Bay-tree_, and _Cajeput_; SPICE'-WOOD, the spice-bush. [O. Fr. _espice_
(Fr. _épice_)--Late L. _species_, kinds of goods, spices--L. _species_, a
particular kind, &c.]


SPICK, spik, _n._ a nail, a spike.--_adj._ tidy, fresh.--_adj._
SPICK'-AND-SPAN, new and fresh, brand-new.--SPICK-AND-SPAN NEW, i.e. as new
as a spike just made and a chip just split. [_Spike_, nail.]

SPICKNEL, spik'nel, _n._ the baldmoney.--Also SPIG'NEL. [Prob.

SPICY, sp[=i]'si, _adj._ producing or abounding with spices: fragrant:
pungent: piquant, pointed, racy: showy.--_adv._ SP[=I]'CILY.--_n._

SPIDER, sp[=i]'d[.e]r, _n._ an arachnid of the order _Araneida_, the body
divided into two distinct parts--an unsegmented cephalo-thorax, bearing six
pairs of appendages, and a soft unsegmented abdomen, at the end of which
are the spinnerets from each of which numerous 'spinning-spools' ooze forth
the viscid fluid which hardens into the silken thread: a frying-pan with
feet, a trivet.--_ns._ SP[=I]'DER-CATCH'ER, the wall-creeper;
SP[=I]'DER-CRAB, a spider-like crab, or sea-spider with long thin legs;
SP[=I]'DER-D[=I]V'ER, the little grebe, or dabchick; SP[=I]'DERDOM, spiders
collectively.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DERED, cobwebbed.--_n._ SP[=I]'DER-FLY, a
pupiparous fly, as a bird-louse, &c.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DER-LIKE, like a
spider.--_ns._ SP[=I]'DERLING, a young spider; SP[=I]'DER-MON'KEY, an
American platyrrine monkey, with long slender legs and tail;
SP[=I]'DER-STITCH, a stitch in lace or netting in which threads are carried
diagonally and parallel to each other; SP[=I]'DER-WASP, a pompilid wasp
which fills its nest with spiders for its young; SP[=I]'DER-WEB, the snare
spun by the spider; SP[=I]'DER-WHEEL, in embroidery, a circular pattern
with radiating lines; SP[=I]'DER-WORK, lace worked by spider-stitch;
SP[=I]'DER-WORT, any plant of the genus _Tradescantia_, esp. _T.
virginica_, an American perennial with deep-blue or reddish-violet
flowers.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DERY, spider-like. [M. E. _spither_--A.S.
_spinnan_, to spin; cf. Dan. _spinder_, Ger. _spinne_.]

SPIE, sp[=i], _n._ (_Spens._) a keen glance, the eye. [_Spy_.]

SPIEGELEISEN, sp[=e]'gl-[=i]-zen, _n._ a white cast-iron containing from
eight to fifteen per cent. of manganese, largely used in the manufacture of
steel by the Bessemer process. [Ger.,--_spiegel_--L. _speculum_, a mirror,
Ger. _eisen_, iron.]

SPIFFY, spif'i, _adj._ (_slang_) smart, spruce, well-dressed.

SPIFLICATE, spif'li-k[=a]t, _v.t._ (_slang_) to suffocate, kill: to beat
severely, to confound.--_n._ SPIFLIC[=A]'TION.

SPIGELIA, sp[=i]-j[=e]'li-a, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order
_Loganiaceæ_, containing the _Worm-grass_ and _Carolina-pink_, the
root--_Pink-root_--being purgative, narcotic, and poisonous, a powerful
vermifuge.--_adj._ SPIG[=E]'LIAN, denoting the _lobulus spigelii_, one of
the lobes of the liver. [From the Belgian Ad. van der _Spiegel_

SPIGHT, sp[=i]t, v. and _n._ (_Spens._). Same as SPITE.

SPIGOT, spig'ut, _n._ a plug for stopping a small hole in a cask. [Gael.
_spiocaid_, W. _ysbigod_--L. _spica_.]

SPIKE, sp[=i]k, _n._ an ear of corn: (_bot._) an inflorescence in which
sessile flowers, or flowers having very short stalks, are arranged around
an axis: a small pointed rod: a large nail.--_v.t._ to set with spikes: to
stop the vent of with a cast-iron spike driven in hard and then broken off,
as by soldiers obliged to abandon their own guns or unable to remove those
of the enemy which they have captured.--_adjs._ SP[=I]'CATE, SP[=I]'COSE,
SP[=I]'COUS, having spikes or ears, like corn; SPICIF'EROUS, bearing
spikes: having spurs; SP[=I]'CIFORM, having the form of a spike.--_n._
SPICOS'ITY, state of being spicous or eared.--_adjs._ SPIC'[=U]LAR,
resembling a dart: in the shape of, or having, sharp points; SPIC'[=U]LATE,
covered with, or divided into, minute points.--_n._ SPIC'[=U]LE (_bot._), a
little spike--also SPIC'[=U]LA: a minute, slender granule or
producing spicules; SPIC'[=U]L[=O]SE, SPIC'[=U]LOUS, having
spicules.--_ns._ SPIC'[=U]LUM, a spicule; SPIKE'BILL, a merganser, a
sawbill: the marbled godwit.--_p.adj._ SPIKED, furnished, fastened, or
stopped with spikes.--_ns._ SPIKE'-EXTRACT'OR, an apparatus for drawing out
spikes, as from railway-ties; SPIKE'-FISH, a kind of sail-fish;
SPIKE'-GRASS, one of several American grasses with conspicuous spikelets of
flowers; SPIKE'LET, a little spike; SPIKE'-NAIL, a spike; SPIKE'-OIL, the
oil of spike, a species of lavender; SPIKE'-PLANK, a platform before the
mizzen-mast of a vessel, used in Arctic voyages.--_adj._ SP[=I]'KY,
furnished with spikes: having a sharp point. [L. _spica_, an ear of corn.]

SPIKENARD, sp[=i]k'närd, _n._ an aromatic oil or balsam yielded by an
Indian plant, the _Nardus_, closely allied to valerian: the plant itself.
[L. _spica nardi_.]

SPILE, sp[=i]l, _n._ a wooden plug serving as a spigot, a wooden pin or
wedge: a spout driven into a sugar-maple tree, a tapping-gouge: a pile, or
large timber driven into the ground for a foundation.--_v.t._ to pierce and
provide with a spile: to drive piles into.--_n._ SP[=I]'LING,
building-piles: the edge-curve of a plank or of a strake in a vessel's
hull. [Cf. _Spill_ (2).]

SPILL, spil, _v.t._ to allow to run out of a vessel: to shed: to waste:
(_coll._) to throw from a vehicle or the saddle: to empty the belly of a
sail of wind for reefing.--_v.i._ to be shed: to be allowed to fall, be
lost, or wasted:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spilled, spilt.--_n._ a fall, a
throw: a downpour.--_ns._ SPILL'ER; SPILL'ING-LINE, a rope for spilling the
wind out of a square sail to facilitate reefing or furling; SPILL'-STREAM,
a stream formed by overflow water, a bayou; SPILL'WAY, a passage for
overflow-water from a dam. [A.S. _spillan_; Dut. _spillen_, Ice. _spilla_,
to destroy.]

SPILL, spil, _n._ a small peg or pin to stop a hole: a thin strip of wood
or twisted paper for lighting a candle, a pipe, &c.--_n._ SPILL'IKIN, one
of a number of small pieces of wood, ivory, &c. for playing a game with:
the game played--also SPIL'KIN. [A.S. _speld_, a torch; cf. Ger. _spalten_,
to cleave, Dut. _speld_, a splinter.]

SPILOMA, spi-l[=o]'ma, _n._ a birth-mark, a nævus. [Gr.]

SPILOSITE, spil'o-s[=i]t, _n._ a greenish schistose rock spotted with
chlorite, occurring in the Harz--the German _Fleckenschiefer_. [Gr.
_spilos_, a spot.]

SPILOTES, sp[=i]-l[=o]'t[=e]z, _n._ a genus of colubrine serpents.

SPILT, spilt, _p.adj._ (_Spens._) pieced, inlaid.

SPILTH, spilth, _n._ spilling, anything spilt or poured out lavishly,
excess of supply.

SPILUS, sp[=i]'lus, _n._ a nævus or birth-mark. [Gr. _spilos_, a spot.]

SPIN, spin, _v.t._ to draw out and twist into threads: to draw out a thread
as spiders do: to draw out tediously: to cause to whirl rapidly: to fish
with a swivel or spoon-bait: to reject at an examination.--_v.i._ to
practise the art or trade of spinning, to perform the act of spinning: to
issue in a small or thread-like current: to whirl, to go fast:--_pr.p._
spin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spun.--_n._ a rapid revolving motion, a
spurt at high speed.--_ns._ SPIN'NER, one who spins: (_Shak._) a spider: a

SPIN'NERET, an organ, or one of the organs, with which insects form their
webs.--_adj._ SPINNER'ULAR.--_ns._ SPIN'NERULE, one of the tubules of a
spinneret; SPIN'NERY, a spinning-mill.--_adj._ SPIN'NING, used in
spinning.--_ns._ SPIN'NING-HOUSE, a place of correction where lewd and
incorrigible women were made to spin; SPIN'NING-JENN'Y, a machine by which
a number of threads can be spun at the same time; SPIN'NING-MILL, a factory
where thread is spun; SPIN'NING-WHEEL, a machine for spinning yarn,
consisting of a wheel driven by the hand or by a treadle, which drives one
or two spindles.--SPIN A YARN, to tell a long story; SPIN OUT, to prolong
tediously. [A.S. _spinnan_; Ger. _spinnen_.]

SPINACH, SPINAGE, spin'[=a]j, _n._ an esculent vegetable whose thick
succulent young leaves are boiled and seasoned, or fried with butter,
forming a wholesome dish.--_adj._ SPIN[=A]'CEOUS. [It. _spinace_--Low L.
_spin[=a]ceus_--_spina_, a thorn.]

SPINAL, sp[=i]n'al, _adj._ pertaining to the spine or backbone.--_n._
SP[=I]'NA, a spine, the backbone: one of the quills of a spinet: a barrier
dividing the Roman hippodrome longitudinally.--_adj._ SPIN'[=A]TE, covered
with spines or spine-like processes.--SPINAL COLUMN, the backbone; SPINAL
CORD, MARROW, the main neural axis of every vertebrate.

SPINDLE, spin'dl, _n._ the pin from which the thread is twisted: a pin on
which anything turns: the fusee of a watch: anything very slender.--_v.i._
to grow long and slender.--_adjs._ SPIN'DLE-LEGGED, -SHANKED, having long
slender legs, like spindles.--_ns.pl._ SPIN'DLE-LEGS, -SHANKS, long slim
legs--hence an over-long and slender person.--_adj._ SPIN'DLE-SHAPED,
shaped like a spindle: thickest in the middle and tapering to both
ends.--_ns._ SPIN'DLE-SHELL, a spindle-shaped shell; SPIN'DLE-TREE, a shrub
whose hard-grained wood was formerly used for making musical instruments
and for spindles, and is now for skewers, &c.; SPIN'DLING, a person or
thing too long and slender: a slender shoot.--_adj._ long and
slender.--_adj._ SPIN'DLY, disproportionally long and slender. [A.S.
_spinl_--_spinnan_, to spin; Ger. _spindel_.]

SPINDRIFT, spin'drift, _n._ the spray blown from the crests of waves.--Also

SPINE, sp[=i]n, _n._ a thorn: a thin, pointed spike, esp. in fishes: the
backbone of an animal: any ridge extending lengthways: the heart-wood of
trees.--_adjs._ SPINED, having spines; SPINE'LESS, having no spine, weak;
SPINES'CENT, somewhat spiny; SP[=I]NIF EROUS, bearing spines or thorns;
SP[=I]'NIFORM, shaped like a spine or thorn; SP[=I]NIG'EROUS, bearing
spines, as a hedgehog; SP[=I]'NIGRADE, moving by means of spines, as an
echinoderm.--_n._ SP[=I]'NINESS.--_adjs._ SP[=I]NIREC'TOR, erecting the
spine of the muscles of the back; SP[=I]NISPIR'ULAR, spiny and somewhat
spiral.--_ns._ SP[=I]N[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the spinal cord in the
horse, &c; SPIN'NEY, SPIN'NY, a small thicket with underwood.--_adjs._
SP[=I]'NOSE, SP[=I]'NOUS, full of spines: thorny.--_ns._ SPINOS'ITY,
thorniness; SPIN'[=U]LA, SPIN'[=U]LE, a minute spine.--_adjs._
SPIN'[=U]L[=A]TE, SPIN'[=U]L[=O]SE, SPIN'[=U]LOUS, covered with spinules or
minute spines; SP[=I]'NY, full of spines: thorny: troublesome: perplexed.
[O. Fr. _espine_ (Fr. _épine_)--L. _spina_, a thorn.]

SPINEL, spin'el, or spi-nel', _n._ a mineral composed chiefly of magnesia
and alumina, and crystallising in octahedra--_ruby_, or _magnesia spinel_,
reddish; _pleonaste_, dark green to black; _picotite_, or _chrome spinel_,
black; _gahnite_, or _zinc spinel_, green to brown; _hercynite_, or _iron
spinel_, black. [Low L. _spinellus_, dim. of _spina_, a thorn.]

SPINET, spin'et, _n._ (_mus._) an old-fashioned keyed instrument like the
harpsichord. [O. Fr. _espinette_--It. _spinetta_, dim. of _spina_--L.
_spina_, a thorn.]

SPINIFEX, spin'i-feks, _n._ porcupine-grass, a very coarse, hard, and spiny
grass which grows in tussocks, and in some interior parts of Australia
covers hundreds of square miles together.

SPINK, spingk, _n._ the chaffinch.

SPINK, spingk, _n._ the primrose, the lady's-smock.

SPINNAKER, spin'[=a]-k[.e]r, _n._ a jib-headed sail sometimes carried on
the side opposite the mainsail by racing yachts. [Prob. formed from


SPINODE, sp[=i]'n[=o]d, _n._ (_geom._) a cusp or stationary point of a

SPINOZISM, spi-n[=o]z'izm, _n._ the doctrine of Benedict _Spinoza_
(1632-1677), who taught that God is not only the creator, but also the
original matter of the universe, which consists of and is a development of
Himself.--_n._ SPIN[=O]'ZIST, a follower of Spinoza.--_adj._

SPINSTER, spin'st[.e]r, _n._ an unmarried female: an old maid: (_obs._) a
woman of loose character, fit for the spinning-house.--_ns._ SPIN'STERDOM,
the world of old maids collectively; SPIN'STERHOOD, SPIN'STERSHIP, the
state of being a spinster; SPIN'STRESS, one who spins. [Orig. one who

SPINTEXT, spin'tekst, _n._ a lengthy preacher.

SPIRACLE, spir'a-kl, _n._ a breathing-hole: any minute passage.--_adjs._
SPIRAC'ULUM:--_pl._ SPIRAC'ULA. [L. _spiraculum_, formed as a double dim.
from _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

SPIRÆA, sp[=i]-r[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order
_Rosaceæ_, containing many species of herbaceous plants and low deciduous
shrubs--_Dropwort_, _Meadow-sweet_, &c. [L.,--Gr. _speiraia_,
meadow-sweet--_speira_, a coil.]

SPIRAL, sp[=i]'ral, _adj._ pertaining to, or like, a spire: winding like
the thread of a screw.--_n._ a spiral line: a curve which continually
recedes from a centre about which it revolves: a screw.--_n._
SPIRAL'ITY.--_adv._ SP[=I]'RALLY, in a spiral form or direction.--_adj._
SPIR[=A]'TED, spiral, whorled.

SPIRANT, sp[=i]'rant, _n._ a consonant which is fricative or
continuable--opp. to explosive, esp. _v_ and _f_, _th_, _dh_; by others
made to include the sibilants, and the semi-vowels _w_ and _y_.

SPIRANTHY, sp[=i]-ranth'i, _n._ the spiral distortion sometimes occurring
in the parts of a flower.--_adj._ SPIRANTH'IC. [Gr. _speira_, a spire,
_anthos_, a flower.]

SPIRASTER, sp[=i]-ras't[.e]r, _n._ in sponges, a short curved axial
rod-like spicule with thick spines. [Gr. _speira_, spire, _ast[=e]r_,

SPIRATION, sp[=i]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ a breathing: (_theol._) the procession
of the Holy Ghost.

SPIRE, sp[=i]r, _n._ a winding line like the threads of a screw: a curl: a
wreath: a tapering body, a slender stalk, a shoot or sprout: any one of
various tall grasses, rushes, or sedges--the _Marram_, _Reed canary-grass_,
&c.: the top or summit of anything: a very acute pyramidal roof in common
use over the towers of churches.--_v.i._ to sprout, shoot up.--_v.t._ to
furnish with a spire.--_adjs._ SP[=I]RED, having a spire; SPIR'ULATE,
spiral in form or arrangement; SP[=I]'RY, of a spiral form: wreathed:
tapering like a spire or a pyramid: abounding in spires. [Fr.,--L. _spira_;
Gr. _speira_, anything wound round or upon a thing; akin to _eirein_, to
fasten together in rows.]

SPIRIC, sp[=i]'rik, _adj._ like a tore or anchor-ring.--_n._ a curve, the
plane section of a tore.--_n._ SPIR'ICLE, one of those threads in the hairs
on the surface of certain seeds and achenes which uncoil when wet.

SPIRIFER, spir'i-f[.e]r, _n._ a brachiopod of the Carboniferous
system.--_adjs._ SP[=I]RIF'ERINE; SP[=I]RIF'EROID; SP[=I]RIF'EROUS. [L.
_spira_, a spire, _ferre_, to bear.]

SPIRILLUM, sp[=i]-ril'um, _n._ a genus of bacteria with cylindrical
spirally twisted cells:--_pl._ SPIRILL'A.

SPIRIT, spir'it, _n._ vital force: the soul: a ghost: mental disposition:
enthusiasm, animation, courage, mettle: real meaning: essence, chief
quality: a very lively person: any volatile, inflammable liquid obtained by
distillation, as brandy: (_pl._) intellectual activity: liveliness: persons
with particular qualities of mind: mental excitement: spirituous
liquors.--_v.t._ to inspirit, encourage, cheer: to convey away secretly, to
kidnap.--_ns._ SPIR'IT-BLUE, an aniline blue obtained from coal-tar;
SPIR'IT-DUCK, the buffle-head, from its rapid diving.--_adj._ SPIR'ITED,
full of spirit, life, or fire: animated.--_adv._ SPIR'ITEDLY.--_n._
SPIR'ITEDNESS.--_adj._ SPIR'ITFUL.--_n._ SPIR'ITING, the office of a spirit
or sprite; SPIR'ITISM=_Spiritualism_; SPIR'ITIST=_Spiritualist_;
SPIR'IT-LAMP, a lamp in which alcohol is burned, generally used for
heating.--_adj._ SPIR'ITLESS, without spirit, cheerfulness, or courage:
dejected: dead.--_adv._ SPIR'ITLESSLY.--_ns._ SPIR'ITLESSNESS, the state of
being spiritless: want of animation or energy; SPIR'IT-LEV'EL, in
surveying, a cylindrical glass tube, slightly convex on one side, and so
nearly filled with alcohol that only a small bubble of air remains
inside--from the position of the bubble the amount of variation from
perfect levelness is determined.--_adj._ SPIR'ITOUS, of the nature of
spirit, pure: ardent, spirituous.--_ns._ SPIR'ITOUSNESS; SPIR'IT-RAP'PER,
one to whom spirits convey intelligence by raps or knocks;
SPIR'IT-RAP'PING.--_adjs._ SPIR'IT-STIR'RING, rousing the spirit;
SPIR'IT[=U]AL, consisting of spirit: having the nature of a spirit:
immaterial: relating to the mind: intellectual: pertaining to the soul:
holy: divine: relating to sacred things: not lay or temporal.--_n._
SPIRITUALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SPIR'IT[=U]ALISE, to make spiritual: to imbue
with spirituality: to refine: to free from sensuality: to give a spiritual
meaning to.--_ns._ SPIR'ITUALISER; SPIR'ITUALISM, a being spiritual: the
philosophical doctrine that nothing is real but soul or spirit: the
doctrine that spirit has a real existence apart from matter: the name
applied to a varied series of abnormal phenomena purporting to be for the
most part caused by spiritual beings acting upon specially sensitive
persons or mediums; SPIR'IT[=U]ALIST, one who has a regard only to
spiritual things: one who holds the doctrine of spiritualism or
spiritism.--_adj._ SPIRIT[=U]ALIST'IC, relating to, or connected with,
spiritualism.--_n._ SPIRIT[=U]AL'ITY, state of being spiritual: essence
distinct from matter.--_adv._ SPIR'IT[=U]ALLY.--_ns._
SPIR'IT[=U]AL-MIND'EDNESS, the state of having holy affections;
SPIR'IT[=U]ALNESS, the state or quality of being spiritual.--_adj._
SPI'RIT[=U]ELLE, showing great grace and delicacy.--_n._ SPIRIT[=U]OS'ITY,
spirituous character: immateriality.--_advs._ SPIRIT-U[=O]'SO,
SPIRIT[=O]'SO (_mus._), with spirit or animation.--_adj._ SPIR'IT[=U]OUS,
possessing the qualities of spirit: containing much alcohol:
volatile.--_ns._ SPIR'IT[=U]OUSNESS, the quality of being spirituous:
stimulating quality: ardour: activity; SPIR'ITUS, a breathing, an aspirate:
any spirituous preparation; SPIR'ITWORLD, the world of disembodied
spirits.--_adj._ SPIR'ITY (_Scot._), full of spirit, spirited.--SPIRIT OF
WINE, alcohol; SPIRITUAL COURT, an ecclesiastical court; SPIRITUS ASPER, a
rough breathing; SPIRITUS LENIS, a soft or smooth breathing.--ANIMAL
SPIRITS, constitutional liveliness of spirits; HOLY SPIRIT (see under
HOLY); THE SPIRIT, the Holy Spirit: the human spirit under the influence of
the Holy Spirit. [L. _spiritus_, a breath--_spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

SPIRKET, spir'ket, _n._ a space forward and aft between
floor-timbers.--_n._ SPIR'KETTING, quick-work.

SPIROMETER, sp[=i]-rom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
capacity of the lungs, or the quantity of air that one can breathe out
after a forced inspiration.--_n._ SP[=I]'ROGRAPH, an instrument for marking
down the breathing movement.--_adj._ SP[=I]ROMET'RIC.--_ns._
SP[=I]ROM'ETRY; SP[=I]'ROPHORE, an apparatus for inducing artificial
respiration by means of an air-tight case for the body and an air-pump;
SP[=I]ROPH'YTON, a genus of fossil algæ found in the Devonian in New York
state; SP[=I]ROZ[=O]'OID, the filamentous defensive zooid of certain
hydroids, coiled spirally when not in action. [L. _spir[=a]re_, to breathe,
Gr. _metron_, a measure.]

SPIRT, sp[.e]rt. Same as SPURT.

SPIRTLE=_Spurtle_ (q.v.).

SPIRULA, spir'[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of sepioid cuttle-fishes. [L.
_sp[=i]ra_, a spire.]


SPISSATED, spis'[=a]-ted, _adj._ inspissated, thickened.--_n._
SPISS'IT[=U]DE, density. [L. _spiss[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, thicken.]

SPIT, spit, _n._ an iron prong on which meat is roasted: a long piece of
land or a narrow shoal running into the sea: a wire or spindle holding a
spool in a shuttle.--_v.t._ to pierce with a spit: to string on a stick and
hang up to dry:--_pr.p._ spit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spit'ted.--_p.adj._
SPIT'TED, put upon a spit, impaled: shot out to a point.--_n._ SPIT'TER,
one who puts meat on a spit: a young deer whose antlers have shot out but
not branched. [A.S. _spitu_; Dut. _spit_, Ger. _spitze_.]

SPIT, spit, _v.t._ to throw out from the mouth: to eject with
violence.--_v.i._ to throw out saliva from the mouth: to fall in scattered
drops, as rain at the beginning of a shower: to make a spitting sound, like
an angry cat:--_pr.p._ spit'ting; _pa.t._ spit, spat; _pa.p._ spit.--_n._
saliva, spume: a light fall of rain or snow.--_ns._ SPIT'-BOX, a spittoon;
SPIT'-CURL (_coll._), a soap-lock; SPIT'FIRE, a hot-tempered person;
SPIT'POISON, a venomous calumniator.--_pa.p._ SPIT'TED (_B._), thrown out
from the mouth.--_ns._ SPIT'TER, one who spits; SPIT'TING, the act of one
who or that which spits: an appearance on the surface of melted silver or
platinum allowed to cool slowly, jets of oxygen forming small cones and
sometimes throwing up drops of molten metal--also called SPROUT'ING;
SPIT'TLE, the moist matter thrown from the mouth: saliva; SPITTOON', a
vessel for the convenience of such smokers as spit. [A.S. _spittan_, also
_sp['æ]tan_; Ice. _spýta_, Ger. _spützen_.]

SPITAL, spit'al, _n._ Same as HOSPITAL.

SPITCH-COCK, spich'-kok, _n._ an eel split and broiled.--_v.t._ to split
and broil, as an eel. [_Spatch-cock_.]

SPITE, sp[=i]t, _n._ grudge: lasting ill-will: hatred.--_v.t._ to vex: to
thwart: to hate.--_adj._ SPITE'FUL, full of spite: desirous to vex or
injure: malignant.--_adv._ SPITE'FULLY.--_n._ SPITE'FULNESS.--IN SPITE OF,
in opposition to all efforts of, in defiance of, in contempt of. [Short for

SPITZ, spitz, _n._ a Pomeranian dog. [Ger.]

SPIZA, sp[=i]'za, _n._ a genus of fringilline birds, including the United
States dickcissel or black-throated bunting, &c.--_adj._ SPIZ'INE. [Gr., a

SPIZELLA, spi-zel'a, _n._ a genus of small American finches or sparrows,
the chipping-sparrows.--_adj._ SPIZELL'INE.

SPLACHNUM, splak'num, _n._ a genus of bryaceous mosses. [Gr.]

SPLANCHNIC, splangk'nik, _adj._ relating to the viscera, intestinal.--_ns._
SPLANCH'NOCOELE, a visceral cavity; SPLANCHNOG'RAPHY, descriptive
splanchnology; SPLANCHNOL'OGY, the knowledge of the viscera;
SPLANCH'NO-SKEL'ETON, the visceral skeleton; SPLANCHNOT'OMY, the anatomy of
the viscera. [Gr. _splangchnon_ (pl. _splangchna_), bowels.]

SPLASH, splash, _v.t._ to spatter with water or mud.--_v.i._ to dabble in
water, to dash about water or any liquid.--_n._ water or mud thrown on
anything: a spot of dirt, a daub: a complexion powder.--_ns._ SPLASH'BOARD,
a guard to keep those in a vehicle from being splashed with mud; SPLASH'ER,
one who, or that which, splashes.--_adj._ SPLASH'Y, splashing: wet and
muddy: full of dirty water. [_Plash_.]

SPLATTER, splat'[.e]r, _v.i._ to spatter water or the like about.--_n._
SPLATT'ER-DASH, an uproar, commotion.--_adj._ SPLATT'ER-FACED, flat-faced.

SPLAY, spl[=a], _v.t._ (_archit._) to slope or slant: to dislocate, as the
shoulder-bone.--_adj._ turned outward, as in _splay-foot_, awkward.--_n._
SPLAY'-FOOT, a flat foot turned outward.--_adj._ SPLAY'-FOOTED.--_n._
SPLAY'-MOUTH, a wide mouth, a mouth stretched out in grinning.--_adj._
SPLAY'-MOUTHED. [_Display_.]

SPLEEN, spl[=e]n, _n._ a soft, pulpy, blood-modifying gland near the large
extremity of the stomach, supposed by the ancients to be the seat of anger
and melancholy--hence spite: ill-humour: melancholy.--_adj._ SPLEEN'FUL,
displaying spleen, angry, fretful.--_adv._ SPLEEN'FULLY.--_adj._
SPLEEN'ISH, affected with spleen, fretful, peevish.--_adv._ SPLEEN'ISHLY,
in a spleenish manner.--_ns._ SPLEEN'ISHNESS, the state of being spleenish;
SPLEEN'-STONE, jade or nephrite; SPLEEN'WORT, any fern of the genus
_Asplenium_.--_adj._ SPLEEN'Y (_Shak._), spleenish.--_ns._ SPL[=E]NAL'GIA,
pain in the region of the spleen; SPLEN'CULE, SPLEN'C[=U]LUS, a
supplementary spleen; SPL[=E]NEC'TOMIST, one who excises the spleen;
SPL[=E]NEC'TOMY, excision of the spleen; SPL[=E]NECT[=O]'PIA, displacement
of the spleen; SPL[=E]N'ETIC, a splenetic person.--_adjs._ SPL[=E]NET'IC,
-AL, affected with spleen: peevish: melancholy.--_adv._
SPL[=E]NET'ICALLY.--_adj._ SPLEN'IC, pertaining to the spleen.--_n._
SPL[=E]NIS[=A]'TION, a diseased condition of the lung, in which its tissue
resembles that of the spleen, in softness, &c.--_adj._ SPL[=E]NIT'IC.--_n._
SPL[=E]N[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the spleen.--_adj._ SPLEN'ITIVE, full of
spleen, passionate, irritable.--_ns._ SPLEN'OCELE, a splenic tumour;
SPL[=E]NOG'RAPHY, the description of the spleen.--_adjs._ SPL[=E]'NOID,
like the spleen; SPL[=E]NOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ SPL[=E]NOL'OGY, knowledge about
the spleen; SPL[=E]NOP'ATHY, disease of the spleen; SPL[=E]NOT'OMY,
splenological anatomy.--SPLENIC FEVER (see ANTHRAX). [L. _splen_--Gr.

SPLENDID, splen'did, _adj._ magnificent: famous: illustrious:
heroic.--_adj._ SPLEN'DENT, splendid, bright.--_adv._ SPLEN'DIDLY.--_ns._
SPLEN'DIDNESS; SPLEN'DOUR, the appearance of anything splendid: brilliance:
magnificence. [L. _splendidus_--_splend[=e]re_, to shine.]

SPLENIAL, spl[=e]'ni-al, _adj._ acting like a splint: pertaining to the
splenium or the splenius.--_ns._ SPL[=E]'NIUM, the round pad-like posterior
border of the _corpus callosum_; SPL[=E]'NIUS, a large thick muscle on the
back of the neck. [Gr. _spl[=e]nion_, bandage.]

SPLENT=_Splint_ (q.v.).

SPLEUCHAN, spl[=oo]h'an, _n._ a pouch, a tobacco-pouch.--Also SPLEUGH'AN.
[Gael. _spliuchan_.]


SPLICE, spl[=i]s, _v.t._ to unite two ends of a rope by interweaving the
strands: to join together two pieces of timber by overlapping.--_n._ act of
splicing: joint made by splicing.--SPLICE THE MAINBRACE (_nautical slang_),
to serve out an allowance of spirits, to fall to drinking. [Old Dut.
_splissen_--_splitsen_, _splijten_; cf. _Split_, and Ger. _splissen_.]

SPLINE, spl[=i]n, _n._ in machines, the slot to receive a feather, the
feather itself: a long flexible strip of wood or rubber used by draftsmen
in laying out railway-curves, &c.--_v.t._ to fit with a spline.

SPLINT, splint, _n._ a small piece of wood split off: a thin piece of
padded wood, &c., for keeping a fractured limb in its proper position: a
bony enlargement on the horse's leg, between the knee and the fetlock,
usually appearing on the inside of one or both forelegs, frequently
situated between the large and small canon bones, depending upon
concussion--also SPLENT.--_v.t._ to confine with splints.--_ns._
SPLINT'AGE, use of splints; SPLINT'-ARM'OUR, armour made of splints or
narrow overlapping plates; SPLINT'-COAL, cannel-coal of slaty structure;
SPLINT'ER, a piece of wood, &c., split off.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to split
into splinters.--_ns._ SPLINT'ER-BAR, the cross-bar of a coach, supporting
the springs; SPLINT'ER-BONE, the fibula.--_adjs._ SPLINT'ER-PROOF, proof
against the splinters of bursting shells; SPLINT'ERY, made of, or like,
splinters: apt to splinter. [Sw. _splint_--_splinta_, to splinter; cf.

SPLIT, split, _v.t._ to cleave lengthwise: to tear asunder violently: to
divide: to throw into discord.--_v.i._ to divide or part asunder: to be
dashed to pieces: to divulge secrets: to vote for candidates of opposite
parties: to burst with laughter:--_pr.p._ split'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
split.--_n._ a crack or rent lengthwise: a schism: a half-bottle of aerated
water, a half-glass of spirits: (_pl._) the acrobatic feat of going down to
the floor with the legs spread out laterally.--_adj._ SPLIT'-NEW (_Scot._),
brand-new.--_n.pl._ SPLIT'-PEASE, husked pease split for making pea-soup,
&c.--_n._ SPLIT'TER, one who, or that which, splits: one who splits hairs
in argument, &c.: (_U.S._) a wheaten cake split and buttered when
hot.--_adj._ SPLIT'TING, very severe: very rapid.--SPLIT ON A ROCK, to meet
some unforeseen and disastrous difficulty, to go to ruin; SPLIT ONE'S
SIDES, to laugh immoderately; SPLIT THE DIFFERENCE, to divide equally the
sum or matter in dispute, to take the mean. [Scand., Dan. _splitte_, to
split; Dut. _splijten_; Ger. _spleissen_.]

SPLORE, spl[=o]r, _n._ (_Scot._) a frolic, a spree.

SPLOTCH, sploch, _n._ a large spot, a stain.--_adj._ SPLOTCH'Y.

SPLURGE, splurj, _n._ any boisterous display.--_v.i._ to make such a
display.--_adj._ SPLUR'GY, given to such.

SPLUTTER, splut'[.e]r, _v.i._ to eject drops of saliva while speaking: to
scatter ink upon a paper, as a bad pen.--_n._ bustle.--_n._ SPLUTT'ERER,
one who splutters. [For _sprutter_, a freq. of _sprout_, orig. form of

SPODIUM, sp[=o]'di-um, _n._ a powder obtained from calcination, as
ivory-black, &c.--_n._ SPODE, animal or bone charcoal, of which ornaments
may be made.

SPODOGENOUS, sp[=o]-doj'e-nus, _adj._ caused by waste-products, applied
esp. to an enlargement of the spleen caused by waste red blood-corpuscles.
[Gr. _spodos_, ashes, _gen[=e]s_, producing.]

SPODOMANCY, spod'[=o]-man-si, _n._ divination by means of ashes.--_adj._
SPODOMAN'TIC. [Gr. _spodos_, ashes, _manteia_, divination.]

SPODUMENE, spod'[=u]-m[=e]n, _n._ a silicate of aluminium and lithium. [Gr.
_spodoun_, to burn to ashes, _spodos_, ashes.]

SPOFFISH, spof'ish, _adj._ fussy, officious--also SPOFF'Y.--_v.i._
SPOFF'LE, to fuss or bustle.

SPOIL, spoil, _v.t._ to take by force: to plunder.--_v.i._ to practise
robbery.--_n._ prey, plunder: pillage: robbery.--_n._ SPOIL'ER, one who
spoils, a plunderer.--_n.pl._ SP[=O]'LIA OP[=I]'MA, the most valued
spoils--taken by a Roman commander from the enemy's commander in single
combat; hence supreme rewards or honours generally. [O. Fr. _espoille_--L.
_spolium_, spoil.]

SPOIL, spoil, _v.t._ to corrupt: to mar: to make useless.--_v.i._ to decay:
to become useless.--_ns._ SPOIL'ER, a corrupter; SPOIL'-FIVE, a round game
of cards played with the whole pack, each one of the three to ten players
receiving five cards.--_adj._ SPOIL'FUL (_Spens._), wasteful,
rapacious.--_n._ SPOILS'MAN, one who looks for profit out of politics.
[Same as above word.]

SPOKE, sp[=o]k, _pa.t._ of _speak_.

SPOKE, sp[=o]k, _n._ one of the bars from the nave to the rim of a
wheel.--PUT A SPOKE IN ONE'S WHEEL, to thwart a person by some impediment.
[A.S. _spáca_; Dut. _speek_, Ger. _speiche_.]

SPOKEN, sp[=o]k'n, _pa.p._ of _speak_, used as _adj._ in 'civil-spoken,'


SPOKESHAVE, sp[=o]k'sh[=a]v, _n._ a carpenter's tool having a plane-bit
between two bandies for curved work, &c.

SPOKESMAN, sp[=o]ks'man, _n._ one who speaks for another, or for others, an

SPOLE, sp[=o]l, _n._ the small wheel near the distaff in the
spinning-wheel. [A variant of _spool_.]

SPOLIATE, sp[=o]'li-[=a]t, _v.t._ to spoil, to plunder, to pillage.--_v.i._
to practise robbery.--_ns._ SP[=O]'LIARY, the place in a Roman amphitheatre
where the bodies of slaughtered gladiators were dragged to be stripped;
SPOLI[=A]'TION, act of spoiling: robbery.--_adj._ SP[=O]'LI[=A]TIVE,
serving to take away or diminish.--_n._ SP[=O]'LI[=A]TOR, one who
spoliates.--_adj._ SP[=O]'LI[=A]TORY, tending to spoil: destructive.--_n._
SP[=O]'LIUM, the property of a beneficed ecclesiastic not transmissible by
will. [L. _spoliatus_, _pa.p._ of _spoli[=a]re_--_spolium_, spoil.]

SPONDEE, spon'd[=e], _n._ in classical poetry, a foot of two long
syllables, as _f[=a]t[=o]_.--_adjs._ SPOND[=A]'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or
consisting of, spondees. [Fr.,--L. _spond[=e]us_ (_pes_)--Gr. _spondeios_
(_pous_), (a foot) of two syllables, so called because much used in the
slow solemn hymns sung at a _spond[=e]_ or drink-offering--_spendein_, to
pour out, make a libation.]

SPONDYL, -E, spon'dil, _n._ a joint, joining.--_ns._ SPONDYLAL'GIA, pain in
the spine; SPONDYL[=I]'TIS, arthritis of a vertebra.--_adj._ SPON'DYLOUS,
vertebral. [Gr. _spondylos_, a joint.]

SPONGE, spunj, _n._ a fixed, usually marine, animal with pores in the
body-wall and without tentacles: the fibrous framework of such, remarkable
for its power of sucking up water: any sponge-like substance, as dough
before it is kneaded and formed: any cringing hanger-on or parasite, a
drunken fellow: an instrument for cleaning cannon after a discharge: the
heel of a horse's shoe.--_v.t._ to wipe with a sponge: to wipe out, absorb
up, with a sponge: to wipe out completely: to destroy.--_v.i._ to suck in,
as a sponge: to gain by mean tricks, to live on others by some mean
subterfuge or other.--_ns._ SPONGE'CAKE, a very light sweet cake of flour,
eggs, and sugar; SPONGE'LET, a little sponge.--_adjs._ SPONGE'OUS,
SPON'GI[=O]SE, SPONGIOLIT'IC.--_n._ SPONG'ER, one who uses a sponge: a
person or vessel engaged in fishing for sponges: an apparatus for sponging
cloth by means of a perforated adjustable cylinder: a sponge or
parasite.--_adjs._ SPONGIC'OLOUS, inhabiting sponges; SPONG'IFORM,
resembling a sponge: porous.--_ns._ SPONG'INESS, porous quality;
SPONG'ING-HOUSE, a bailiff's lodging-house for debtors in his custody
before their committal to prison; SPON'GI[=O]LE, the spongy tissue of a
root-tip; SPON'GIOLITE, a fossil sponge spicule.--_adj._ SPONGOID
(spong'goid).--_ns._ SPONGOLOGIST (spong-gol'[=o]-jist), one devoted to the
study of sponges; SPONGOLOGY (spong-gol'[=o]-ji), the knowledge about
sponges.--_adj._ SPONG'Y, like a sponge, absorptive: of open texture,
porous: wet and soft: drunken.--SET A SPONGE, to leaven a small mass of
dough with which to leaven a large quantity; THROW UP THE SPONGE, to
acknowledge defeat by throwing into the air the sponge with which a boxer
is rubbed down between rounds: to give up any contest. [O. Fr.
_esponge_--L. _spongia_--Gr. _sponggia_.]

SPONSAL, spon'sal, _adj._ pertaining to a betrothal, a marriage, or a
spouse.--_n._ SPON'SION, the act of becoming surety for another.--_adj._
SPON'SIONAL. [L.,--_spond[=e]re_, _sponsum_, to promise.]

SPONSIBLE, spon'si-bl, _adj._ (_Scot._) reliable: respectable.

SPONSON, spon'son, _n._ the curve of the timbers and planking towards the
outer part of the wing, before and abaft each of the paddle-boxes of a
steamer.--Also SPON'SING. [Ety. dub.]

SPONSOR, spon'sur, _n._ one who promises solemnly for another: a surety: a
godfather or godmother.--_adj._ SPONS[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ SPON'SORSHIP.
[L.,--_spond[=e]re_, _sponsum_, to promise.]

SPONTANEOUS, spon-t[=a]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ of one's free-will: involuntary:
acting by its own impulse or natural law: produced of itself or without
interference.--_ns._ SPONTAN[=E]'ITY, SPONT[=A]'NEOUSNESS, the state or
quality of being spontaneous.--_adv._ SPONT[=A]'NEOUSLY.--SPONTANEOUS
COMBUSTION, a phenomenon that occasionally manifests itself in mineral and
organic substances; SPONTANEOUS GENERATION, a term applied to the real or
imaginary development of lowly organisms from non-living matter. [L.
_spontaneus_--_sponte_, of one's own accord.]

SPONTOON, spon-t[=oo]n', _n._ a weapon somewhat like a halberd, which used
to be carried by certain officers of foot. [Fr. _sponton_--It.
_spontone_--_spuntare_, to break off the point--_puntone_--_punto_, a
point--L. _pung[)e]re_, _punctum_, to point.]

SPOOK, sp[=oo]k, _n._ a ghost.--_v.i._ to play the spook.--_adjs._
SPOOK'ISH, SPOOK'Y, like a ghost, haunted by ghosts: sensitive to the dread
of ghosts, suggesting the presence of ghosts. [Dut. _spook_; Ger. (obs.)
_spuch_, Sw. _spöke_; not related to _puck_.]

SPOOL, sp[=oo]l, _n._ a hollow cylinder for winding yarn, &c.,
upon.--_v.t._ to wind on spools. [Low Ger. _spole_, Dut. _spoel_; Ger.

SPOOM, sp[=oo]m, _v.i._ to scud before the wind.--_adj._ SPOOM'ING
(_Keats_), foaming.

SPOON, sp[=oo]n, _n._ an instrument with a shallow bowl and handle for use
in preparing, serving, or in eating food: anything like a spoon or its
bowl, as an oar: in golf, a wooden-headed club of varying length, having
the face more or less spooned, used in approaching the holes from varying
distances.--_v.t._ to use a spoon upon: to lie spoon fashion with.--_v.i._
to fish with a spoon-hook: in croquet, to shove or scoop with the mallet:
to be foolishly fond, to indulge in endearments openly.--_ns._ SPOON'-BAIT,
a revolving metallic lure attached to a fishing-line by a swivel, used in
trolling for fish; SPOON'BILL, a family of birds (_Plataleidæ_) allied to
the _Ibididæ_, and more distantly to the storks, with a bill long, flat,
and broad throughout, and much dilated in a spoon form at the tip;
SPOON'-DRIFT, light spray borne on a gale; SPOON'FUL, as much as fills a
spoon: a small quantity:--_pl._ SPOON'FULS.--_adv._ SPOON'ILY, in a spoony
or silly way.--_n._ SPOON'MEAT, food taken with a spoon, such as is given
to young children.--_adv._ SPOON'WAYS, applied to a way of packing slaves
in ships very closely together.--_adjs._ SPOON'Y, SPOON'EY, silly, weakly
affectionate, foolishly fond.--_n._ a simple fellow: one foolishly fond of
EUCHARISTIC SPOON, the cochlear or labis; TABLESPOON (see TABLE).--BE
SPOONS ON, to be silly in the manifestation of one's love for a woman.
[A.S. _spón_; Ger. _span_, a chip, Ice. _spánn_, a chip, a spoon.]

SPOOR, sp[=oo]r, _n._ track or trail of an animal, esp. when hunted as
game.--_n._ SPOOR'ER, one who tracks game by the spoor. [Dut. _spoor_, a
track; cf. Ger. _spur_, Ice. _spor_, a track, Scot. _speir_, to ask.]

SPORADIC, -AL, sp[=o]-rad'ik, -al, _adj._ scattered--a term specially
applied to any disease usually epidemic or contagious, when it attacks only
a few persons in a district and does not spread in its ordinary
manner.--_adv._ SPORAD'ICALLY.--_n._ SPORAD'ICALNESS. [Gr.
_sporadikos_--_sporas_, _sporados_, scattered--_speirein_, to sow.]

SPORE, sp[=o]r, _n._ the reproductive body in flowerless plants like the
fern, analogous to the seeds of ordinary flowering plants, but containing
no embryo: a germ, a seed, a source of being generally.--_adjs._
sporangium.--_ns._ SPORANG[=I]'OLUM, a small sporangium;
SPORAN'GIOPH[=O]RE, the receptacle which bears the sporangia;
SPORAN'GIOSP[=O]RE, one of the peculiar spores of the _Myxomycetes_;
SPORAN'GIUM (_pl._ SPORAN'GIA), a spore-case, the sac in which the spores
are produced endogenously--also SPORE'-CASE; SP[=O]'RIDESM (_bot._), a
pluricellular body which becomes free like a simple spore, and in which
every cell is capable of germinating; SPORID[=I]'OLUM, a secondary
sporidium; SPORID'IUM, a secondary spore borne on a promycelium: an
ascospore; SPORIFIC[=A]'TION, spore-production; SPORIPAR'ITY, reproduction
by means of spores.--_adj._ SPORIP'AROUS.--_ns._ SP[=O]'ROCARP, a
many-celled form of fruit produced in certain lower cryptogams in
consequence of a sexual act; SP[=O]'ROCYST, the cyst or capsule developed
in the process of sporular encystment.--_adj._ SPOROCYST'IC.--_ns._
SP[=O]'RODERM, the wall or covering of a spore; SPOROGEN'ESIS, reproduction
by means of spores--also SPOROG'ENY.--_adj._ SPOROG'ENOUS.--_n._
SPOROG[=O]'NIUM, the sporocarp, capsule or so-called 'moss-fruit' in
mosses.--_adj._ SP[=O]'ROID, like a spore.--_ns._ SPOROL'OGIST, a botanist
who emphasises the spores in classification; SP[=O]'ROPHORE, the part of
the thallus which bears spores: the placenta in flowering plants: a
sporophyte.--_adjs._ SPOROPHOR'IC, SPOROPH'OROUS.--_ns._ SP[=O]'ROPHYL, the
leaf bearing the spores or spore receptacles; SP[=O]'ROPHYTE, the
spore-bearing stage in the life-cycle of a plant.--_adj._
SPOROPHYT'IC.--_ns._ SP[=O]'ROSAC, one of the gonophores of certain
hydrozoans in which the medusoid structure is not developed: a redia or
spiro-cyst, in Vermes; SPOROST[=E]'GIUM, the so-called fruit of plants in
the _Characeæ_, consisting of the hard brownish spirally-twisted shell or
covering of the spore.--_adjs._ SP[=O]'ROUS; SP[=O]'RULAR.--_ns._
SPORUL[=A]'TION, conversion into spores or sporules--also SPOR[=A]'TION;
SP[=O]'RULE, a small spore.--_adjs._ SPORULIF'EROUS, SPOR'ULOID. [Gr.
_sporos_, a sowing, seed--_speirein_, to sow.]


SPORRAN, spor'an, _n._ an ornamental pouch worn in front of the kilt by the
Highlanders of Scotland. [Gael, _sporan_.]

SPORT, sp[=o]rt, _v.i._ to play: to frolic: to practise field diversions:
to trifle.--_v.t._ to amuse: to make merry: to represent playfully: to
spend in sport or display.--_n._ that which amuses or makes merry: play:
mirth: jest: contemptuous mirth: anything for playing with: a toy: idle
jingle: field diversion: an animal or plant, or one of its organs, that
varies singularly and spontaneously from the normal type.--_n._ SPORT'ER,
one who sports: a sportsman.--_adj._ SPORT'FUL, full of sport: merry: full
of jesting.--_adv._ SPORT'FULLY.--_n._ SPORT'FULNESS.--_adj._ SPORT'ING,
relating to, or engaging in, sports.--_adv._ SPORT'INGLY.--_adj._
SPORT'IVE, inclined to sport: playful: merry: amorous, wanton.--_adv._
SPORT'IVELY.--_n._ SPORT'IVENESS.--_adj._ SPORT'LESS, without sport or
mirth: sad.--_n._ SPORTS'MAN, one who practises, or one skilled in,
field-sports.--_adj._ SPORTS'MAN-LIKE.--_ns._ SPORTS'MANSHIP, practice or
skill of a sportsman; SPORTS'WOMAN, a she-sportsman.--SPORT ONE'S OAK (see
OAK). [Formed by aphæresis from _disport_.]

SPOSH, sposh, _n._ slush.--_adj._ SPOSH'Y.

SPOT, spot, _n._ a mark made by a drop of wet matter: a blot: a discoloured
place: a small part of a different colour: a small extent of space: any
particular place: one of the marked points on a billiard-table, from which
balls are played (for _Centre-spot_, _Pyramid-spot_, &c., see BILLIARDS):
one of the dark places on the surface of the sun, &c.: something that
soils: a stain on character or reputation.--_v.t._ to mark with drops of
wet: to stain: to discolour: to taint: to tarnish, as reputation: to note
or recognise by some point, to detect: to indicate, name:--_pr.p._
spot'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spot'ted.--_adj._ SPOT'LESS, without a spot:
untainted: pure.--_adv._ SPOT'LESSLY.--_ns._ SPOT'LESSNESS; SPOT'-STROKE, a
stroke in billiards when the player pockets the red ball from the 'spot,'
leaving his own ball in position to repeat the stroke.--_adjs._ SPOT'TED,
SPOT'TY, marked with spots or discoloured places.--_ns._ SPOT'TEDNESS, the
state of being spotted; SPOT'TER, one who spots or detects; SPOT'TINESS,
state of being spotty.--SPOT-BARRED GAME, a game at billiards when the
spot-stroke is forbidden to be played more than twice consecutively. [Cf.
Dut. _spat_, Dan. _spætte_; prob. conn. with _spit_.]

SPOUSE, spowz, _n._ a husband or wife.--_adj._ SPOUS'AL, pertaining to a
spouse, or to marriage: nuptial: matrimonial.--_n._ usually in _pl._
nuptials: marriage.--_adj._ SPOUSE'LESS, destitute of a spouse: unmarried.
[O. Fr. _espouse_ (Fr. _époux_, fem. _épouse_)--L. _sponsus_, pa.p. of
_spond[=e]re_, to promise in marriage.]

SPOUT, spowt, _v.t._ to throw out, as from a pipe: to utter volubly: to
pawn, pledge.--_v.i._ to issue with violence, as from a pipe: to speak
volubly, to speechify.--_n._ the projecting mouth of a vessel from which a
stream issues: a pipe for conducting a liquid: a term applied to the
blowing or breathing of whales and other cetaceans.--_ns._ SPOUT'ER, one
who, or that which, spouts: a speechifier: a South Sea whale, a skilful
whaler; SPOUT'-HOLE, an orifice for discharging a liquid, a whale's
spiracle.--_adj._ SPOUT'LESS, wanting a spout. [Skeat explains that
_spout_, like _speak_, has lost an _r_, thus standing for _sprout_, the _r_
being preserved in _spurt_, with nearly the same sense as _spout_. Sw.
_sputa_ for _spruta_, to squirt; Dut. _spuiten_.]

SPRACK, sprak, _adj._ vigorous, sprightly.--Also SPRAG. [Ice. _sprækr_,
_sparkr_, sprightly.]

SPRACKLE, sprak'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to clamber up with difficulty.--Also
SPRACH'LE, SPRAUCH'LE. [Ice. _spraukla_, to sprawl.]

SPRAD, sprad (_Spens._). Same as SPREAD.

SPRAG, sprag, _n._ a piece of wood used to lock a wheel: a punch-prop in
mining.--_v.t._ to prop, or to stop, by a sprag.

SPRAG, sprag, _n._ (_prov._) a young salmon.

SPRAICH, spr[=a]h, _n._ (_Scot._) a shriek, cry.--_v.i._ to shriek.

SPRAID, spr[=a]d, _adj._ (_prov._) chapped with cold.--Also SPRAYED.

SPRAIN, spr[=a]n, _v.t._ to overstrain the muscles of a joint.--_n._ a term
employed in surgery to designate a violent stretching of tendinous or
ligamentous parts with or without rupture of some of their fibres. [O. Fr.
_espreindre_ (Fr. _épreindre_), to press--L. _exprim[)e]re_, to press out.]

SPRAINT, spr[=a]nt, _n._ the dung of an otter.

SPRANG, _pa.t._ of _spring_.

SPRANGLE, sprang'gl, _v.i._ to sprawl, struggle.

SPRAT, sprat, _n._ a fish of the family _Clupeidæ_, like the herring, but
much smaller.--_n._ SPRAT'-WEATH'ER, the dark days of November and
December. [Dut. _sprot_; Ger. _sprotte_.]

SPRATTLE, sprat'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to scramble.

SPRAWL, sprawl, _v.i._ to toss or kick about the limbs: to stretch the body
carelessly when lying: to spread ungracefully.--_n._ a sprawling
posture.--_n._ SPRAWL'ER. [There is an A.S. _spréawlian_, to move
convulsively; but the word is most probably for _sprattle_ or
_sprottle_--Sw. _sprattla_, to sprawl; cf. Dan. _sprælle_, to toss about
the limbs.]

SPRAY, spr[=a], _n._ small particles of water driven by the wind, as from
the top of waves, &c.--_adj._ SPRAY'EY, consisting of spray. [Skeat
suggests that the word is from Dut. _spreiden_, to spread, scatter.]

SPRAY, spr[=a], _n._ a small shoot of a tree.--_adj._ SPRAY'EY, branching.
[Akin to Ice. _sprek_, a twig, Dan. _sprag_; Doublet _sprig_.]

SPREAD, spred, _v.t._ to scatter abroad or in all directions: to stretch:
to extend: to overlay: to shoot out, as branches: to circulate, as news: to
cause to affect numbers, as a disease: to diffuse: to set with provisions,
as a table.--_v.i._ to extend or expand in all directions: to be extended
or stretched: to be propagated or circulated:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
spread.--_n._ extent: compass: expansion of parts: that which is spread
out, a feast: a cover for a bed or a table.--_adj._ having a broad surface:
shallower than the standard.--_adj._ SPREAD'-EA'GLE, like an eagle with the
wings stretched out, bombastic, boastful.--_n._ (_naut._) a person seized
in the rigging, a passenger thus made to pay his entrance forfeit.--_ns._
SPREAD'-EA'GLEISM, a bombastic and frothy patriotism; SPREAD'ER, one who,
or that which, spreads, one who publishes or extends: any machine or
implement for helping to scatter.--_p.adj._ SPREAD'ING.--_adv._
SPREAD'INGLY, increasingly.--SPREAD A FLEET, to keep more open order. [A.S.
_spr['æ]dan_; Dut. _spreiden_, Ger. _spreiten_.]

SPREAGH, spreh, _n._ plunder.--_n._ SPREAGH'ERY, cattle-lifting. [Gael.
_spreidh_, cattle.]

SPRECKLED, sprek'ld, _adj._ speckled.

SPRED, spred, _pa.p._ and _n._ an obsolete form of _spread_.--Also

SPREE, spr[=e], _n._ a merry frolic: a drunken bout.--_v.i._ to carouse.
[Prob. Ir. _spre_, a spark, _spraic_, vigour.]

SPRENT, sprent, _adj._ sprinkled. [M. E. _sprengen_ (pa.t. _sprente_)--A.S.
_sprengan_, to cause to spring.]

SPRIG, sprig, _n._ a small shoot or twig: a scion, a young person: an
ornament like a spray: one of various small pointed implements, a headless
nail: one of the separate pieces of lace fastened on a ground in appliqué
lace.--_v.t._ to embroider with representations of twigs:--_pr.p._
sprig'ging; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sprigged.--_adj._ SPRIG'GY, full of sprigs
or young branches. [Cf. Ice. _sprek_, a stick.]

SPRIGHT, spr[=i]t, _n._ the same as _Sprite_ (q.v.).--_adj._ SPRIGHT'FUL
(_Shak._), full of spirit: brisk, gay.--_adv._ SPRIGHT'FULLY, in a
sprightful manner, briskly, vigorously.--_n._ SPRIGHT'FULNESS, the quality
of being sprightful, briskness, liveliness.--_adj._ SPRIGHT'LESS, destitute
of spirit or life: dull: sluggish.--_n._ SPRIGHT'LINESS.--_adj._
SPRIGHT'LY, airy: full of life: lively: brisk. [_Spright_=_sprite_.]

SPRING, spring, _v.i._ to bound: to leap: to rush hastily: to move suddenly
by elastic force: to start up suddenly: to break forth: to appear: to
issue: to come into existence: (_B._) to rise, as the sun.--_v.t._ to cause
to spring up: to start: to produce quickly, cause to act suddenly: to leap
over: to explode, as a mine: to open, as a leak: to crack, as a mast: to
bend by force, strain: (_archit._) to start from an abutment, &c.: to set
together with bevel-joints:--_pa.t._ sprang, sprung; _pa.p._ sprung.--_n._
a leap: a flying back with elastic force: elastic power: an elastic body:
any active power: that by which action is produced: cause or origin: a
source: an outflow of water from the earth: (_B._) the dawn: the time when
plants begin to spring up and grow, the vernal season--March, April, May: a
starting of a plank in a vessel: a crack in a mast.--_ns._ SPRING'AL,
SPRING'ALD, an active springy young man, a youth; SPRING'-BACK, an inner
false joint on a bound book, springing upward from the true or outer back
when the book is opened flat; SPRING'-BAL'ANCE, an instrument for
determining the weight of a body by the elasticity of a spiral spring;
SPRING'-BEAM, a beam of considerable span, without central support, the
tie-beam of a truss; in a steamer, a fore-and-aft beam for connecting the
two paddle-beams: an elastic bar at the top of a tilt-hammer, jig-saw, &c.;
SPRING'-BEAU'TY, the _Claytonia Virginica_; SPRING'-BED, a mattress formed
of spiral springs set in a wooden frame; SPRING'-BEE'TLE, an elater;
SPRING'-BOARD, a board fastened on elastic supports, used to spring from in
performing feats of agility; SPRING'BOK, a beautiful South African
antelope, larger than a roebuck [Dut.]; SPRING'-BOX, a box or barrel in
which a spring is coiled: the frame of a sofa, &c., in which the springs
are set; SPRING'-CARR'IAGE, a wheel-carriage mounted on springs;
SPRING'-CART, a light cart mounted upon springs; SPRING'ER, a kind of dog
of the spaniel class, useful for springing game in copses: one who springs:
the bottom stone of an arch; SPRING'-GUN, a gun having wires connected with
its trigger, and so fixed and planted as to be discharged when trespassers
stumble against the wire; SPRING'-HALT, a jerking lameness in which a horse
suddenly twitches up his leg or legs; SPRING'-HAMM'ER, a machine-hammer in
which the blow is delivered or augmented by the force of a spring;
SPRING'-HEAD, a fountain-head, source: a head or end-piece for a
carriage-spring.--_adj._ SPRING'-HEAD'ED (_Spens._), having heads springing
afresh.--_ns._ SPRING'-HEELED JACK, one supposed capable of leaping a great
height or distance in carrying out mischievous or frolicsome tricks;
SPRING'-HOOK, an angler's snap-hook or spear-hook: a latch or door-hook
with a spring-catch for keeping it fast in the staple: in a locomotive, a
hook fixing the driving-wheel spring to the frame; SPRING'-HOUSE, a house
for keeping meat in, or a dairy, built for coolness over a spring or brook;
SPRING'INESS; SPRING'ING, the act of springing, leaping, arising, or
issuing: (_B._) growth, increase: (_archit._) the lowest part of an arch on
both sides; SPRING'-JACK, a device for inserting a loop in a main electric
line-circuit, a plug being forced between two spring contacts;
SPRING'-LATCH, a latch that snaps into the keeper whenever the door is
shut; SPRING'LET, a little spring: a small stream; SPRING'-LIG'AMENT, the
inferior calcaneoscaphoid ligament of the sole of the foot; SPRING'-LOCK, a
lock which fastens by a spring; SPRING'-MAT'TRESS=_Spring-bed_;
SPRING'-NET, a net that closes with a spring; SPRING'-PAD'LOCK, a padlock
that snaps itself shut; SPRING'-POLE, a pole whose elasticity serves as a
spring; SPRING'-SAD'DLE, a bent iron bar of [Spring-saddle] form on the top
of a railway carriage journal-box, surrounding the arch-bar and supporting
the spring; SPRING'-SEARCH'ER, a steel-pronged tool to search for defects
in the bore of a gun; SPRING'-SHACK'LE, a shackle closed by a spring: a
shackle joining one spring of a vehicle with another or with a rigid piece;
SPRING'-STAY (_naut._), a smaller stay, placed above the stays as a
duplicate if needed; SPRING'-STUD, a rod passed through the axis of a
coil-spring to keep it in place; SPRING'-TAIL, one of an order of primitive
wingless insects (_Collembola_), so called popularly from a peculiar
springing fork usually present on the abdomen; SPRING'-TIDE, the periodical
excess of the elevation and depression of the tide, after new and full
moon, when both sun and moon act in the same direction; SPRING'-TIDE,
-TIME, the season of spring; SPRING'-TOOL, any tool bearing a spring, as a
glass-blower's tongs; SPRING'-TRAP, a trap worked by a spring, a
mouse-trap, &c.; SPRING'-VALVE, a valve fitted with a spring: a
safety-valve connected with a spring-balance; SPRING'-WA'TER, water issuing
from a spring; SPRING'-WHEAT, wheat sown in the spring, rather than autumn
or winter; SPRING'-WORT, a plant which draws down lightning--perh. the
caperspurge.--_adj._ SPRING'Y, pertaining to, or like, a spring, elastic,
nimble: abounding with springs.--SPRING A LEAK, to commence leaking; SPRING
A MINE, to cause it to explode--often used figuratively; SPRING A RATTLE,
to cause a rattle to sound; SPRING AT, to leap at; SPRING FORTH, to come
forward with a leap: to shoot up rapidly; SPRING ON, or UPON, to attack
with violence. [A.S. _springan_; Ger. _springen_.]

SPRINGE, sprinj, _n._ a snare with a spring-noose: a gin.--_v.t._ to catch
in a springe. [Prov. Eng. _springle_--_spring_; cf. Ger.

SPRINKLE, spring'kl, _v.t._ to scatter in small drops or particles: to
scatter on: to baptise with a few drops of water: to purify.--_v.i._ to
scatter in drops.--_n._ an aspersorium or utensil for sprinkling.--_ns._
SPRIN'KLE, SPRIN'KLING, a small quantity sprinkled: in book-binding, the
mottling of the edges of trimmed leaves by scattering a few drops of colour
on them; SPRIN'KLER. [Freq. formed from A.S. _sprengan_, the causal of
_springan_, to spring; cf. Ger. _sprenkeln_.]

SPRINT, sprint, _n._ a short-distance race at full speed.--_v.i._ to run at
full speed--also SPRENT.--_ns._ SPRIN'TER, a short-distance runner in


SPRIT, sprit, _n._ (_naut._) a spar set diagonally to extend a fore-and-aft
sail. [A.S. _spreót_, a pole; Dut. and Ger. _spriet_, a bowsprit; conn.
with _sprout_.]

SPRITE, spr[=i]t, _n._ a spirit: a shade: a  ghost: (_obs._) frame of mind,
disposition.--Also SPRIGHT. [A doublet of _spirit_.]


SPROCKET, sprok'et, _n._ a projection on the periphery of a wheel or
capstan for engaging the chain.

SPROD, sprod, _n._ (_prov._) a second-year salmon.

SPRONG, sprong (_Spens._), _pa.t._ of _spring_.

SPROUT, sprowt, _n._ a germ or young shoot: (_pl._) young shoots from old
cabbages.--_v.i._ to shoot: to push out new shoots.--_adj._ SPROUT'ED,
budded.--BRUSSELS SPROUTS (see BRUSSELS). [According to Skeat, not from
A.S. _spreótan_, nor _sprýtan_, but from Old Friesic _spruta_, to sprout,
Low Ger. _spruten_, Dut. _spruiten_, Ger. _spriessen_.]

SPRUCE, spr[=oo]s, _adj._ smart: neat, dapper: over-fastidious,
finical.--_n._ Prussian leather.--_v.t._ to smarten.--_v.i._ to become
spruce or smart.--_n._ SPRUCE'-FIR, or merely SPRUCE, any tree of the genus
_Picea_ of the pine family (_Coniferæ_), or the wood of such a
tree.--_adv._ SPRUCE'LY.--_n._ SPRUCE'NESS.--_v.t._ SPRU'CIFY, to smarten.
[O. Fr. _Pruce_--Late L. _Prussia_, Ger. _Preussen_.]

SPRUCE-BEER, spr[=oo]s'-b[=e]r, _n._ beer flavoured with a decoction of the
young shoots of the spruce-fir. [Ger. _sprossen-bier_, _sprossen_, young
shoots, Englished as _Pruce-beer_, i.e. Prussian beer.]

SPRUE, spr[=oo], _n._ in casting, one of the passages leading to the mould,
also the metal which solidifies in it--_deadhead_.--_n._ SPRUE'-HOLE,
ingate or pouring-hole in a mould.

SPRUG, sprug, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_prov._) to smarten, to dress neatly.

SPRUG, sprug, _n._ (_prov._) a sparrow.

SPRUIT, spr[=oo]'it, _n._ a small head-stream, a stream flowing through a
village, dry in summer. [S. Afr. Dut.]

SPRUNG, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _spring_.--_adj._ (_coll._) tipsy, tight.

SPRUNNY, sprun'i, _adj._ (_prov._) neat.--_n._ a sweetheart.

SPRUNT, sprunt, _v.i._ to spring up: sprout, germinate.--_n._ a steep bit
in a road: a rebellious curl, &c.--_adv._ SPRUNT'LY, gaily,
bravely.--SPRUNT UP, to bristle up.

SPRY, spr[=i], _adj._ vigorous, lively, gay, pert. [Scand.; Sw. prov.
_sprygg_, very active.]

SPUD, spud, _n._ a small narrow spade with a short handle: any short thick
thing, a baby's hand, a potato, &c.--_adj._ SPUD'DY, short and fat. [Prob.
Scand., Dan. _spyd_, a spear.]

SPUE. Same as SPEW.

SPULZIE, SPUILZIE, spül'y[=e], _n._ (_Scot._) spoil.--Also SPUL'YE,
SPUL'YIE. [_Spoil_.]

SPUME, sp[=u]m, _n._ scum or froth thrown up by liquid: foam.--_v.i._ to
throw up scum: to foam.--_adj._ SP[=U]'M[=E]OUS, frothy.--_n._
SP[=U]MES'CENCE, frothiness.--_adjs._ SP[=U]MES'CENT, foaming;
SP[=U]MIF'EROUS, producing foam.--_n._ SP[=U]'MINESS, the quality of being
spumy or frothy.--_adjs._ SP[=U]'MOUS, SP[=U]'MY, consisting of froth:
frothy: foamy. [L. _spuma_--_spu[)e]re_ to spew.]

SPUN, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of spin.--_adj._ SPUN'-OUT, unduly
lengthened.--_n._ SPUN'-YARN, rope-yarn twisted into a cord.

SPUNGE, spunj, v. and _n._ a form of _sponge_.

SPUNK, spungk, _n._ touchwood, tinder, a fungus from which tinder is made,
punk, amadou: (_Scot._) a small fire, a fiery spark, a lucifer-match:
mettle, spirit, pluck.--_v.i._ to take fire, flame up.--_adj._ SPUNK'Y,
spirited: fiery-tempered. [Cf. Ir. _sponc_, tinder, sponge--L. _spongia_, a
sponge--Gr. _sponggia_.]

SPUR, spur, _n._ an instrument on a horseman's heels, with sharp points for
goading the horse: that which goads or instigates: something projecting:
the hard projection on a cock's leg: a small range of mountains extending
laterally from a larger range.--_v.t._ to urge on with spurs: to urge
onward: to impel: to put spurs on.--_v.i._ to press forward: to travel in
great haste:--_pr.p._ spur'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spurred.--_v.t._
SPUR'-GALL (_Shak._), to gall or wound with a spur.--_ns._ SPUR'-GEAR,
-GEAR'ING, gearing in which spur-wheels are used.--_adj._ SPUR'-HEELED,
having a long straight hind-claw.--_n._ SPUR'-LEATH'ER, the strap by which
the spur is fastened to the foot.--_p.adj._ SPURRED, wearing spurs: having
shoots like spurs: affected with ergot, as rye.--_ns._ SPUR'RER, one who,
or that which, spurs; SPUR'RIER, one who makes spurs; SPUR'-ROY'AL, an
ancient English coin, worth fifteen shillings, so called from having a star
on one side resembling the rowel of a spur; SPUR'-WAY, a bridle-road;
SPUR'-WHANG=_Spur-leather_; SPUR'-WHEEL (_mech._), a wheel with the cogs on
the face of the edge like a spur.--_adj._ SPUR'-WINGED, with a horny spur
on the pinion, as with the plovers, &c. [A.S. _spora_; Ice. _spori_, Ger.

SPURGE, spurj, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Euphorbiaceæ_,
all the species containing a resinous milky juice mostly very acrid.--_n._
SPURGE'-LAU'REL, a European evergreen shrub, with yellowish-green flowers,
thick leaves, and poisonous berries. [O. Fr. _espurge_ (Fr. _épurge_)--L.
_expurg[=a]re_, to purge--_ex_, off, _purg[=a]re_, to clear.]

SPURIÆ, sp[=u]'ri-[=e], _n.pl._ the bastard quills forming the alula in

SPURIOUS, sp[=u]r'i-us, _adj._ illegitimate: bastard: not genuine: false:
resembling an organ, but without its function, or having the functions of
an organ while morphologically different.--_adv._ SP[=U]R'IOUSLY.--_n._
SP[=U]R'IOUSNESS. [L. _spurius_, false.]

SPURLING=_Sparling_ (q.v.).

SPURN, spurn, _v.t._ to drive away as with the foot: to kick: to reject
with disdain.--_n._ disdainful rejection.--_n._ SPURN'ER, one who spurns.
[A.S. _speornan_; cog. with _spur_.]

SPURNE, spurn, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to spur.

SPURRY, spur'i, _n._ a plant of the genus _Spergula_. [O. Fr. _sporrie_, of
Teut. origin; cf. Ger. _spörgel_.]

SPURT, spurt, _v.t._ to spout, or send out in a sudden stream, as
water.--_v.i._ to gush out suddenly in a small stream: to flow out forcibly
or at intervals.--_n._ a sudden or violent gush of a liquid from an
opening: a jet: a sudden short effort, a special exertion of one's self for
a short time, in running, rowing, &c. [Formerly _spirt_--Ice. _sprettr_, a
spurt--_spretta_, to start, to sprout.]

SPURTLE, spur'tl, _n._ (_Scot._) a short stick for stirring porridge,
broth, &c.--_n._ SPUR'TLE-BLADE, a sword.

SPUTTER, sput'[.e]r, _v.i._ to spit in small drops, as in rapid speaking:
to throw out moisture in scattered drops: to speak rapidly and
indistinctly, to jabber.--_v.t._ to throw out with haste and noise: to
utter hastily and indistinctly.--_n._ moist matter thrown out in
particles.--_n._ SPUTT'ERER, one who sputters. [The freq. of _spout_

SPUTUM, sp[=u]'tum, _n._ spittle, the matter expectorated:--_pl._
SP[=U]'TA. [L.,--_spu[)e]re_, to spit.]

SPY, sp[=i], _n._ one sent into an enemy's country or camp to find out
their strength, &c.: one who keeps a watch on others: one who secretly
conveys information.--_v.t._ to see: to discover, generally at a distance:
to discover by close search: to inspect secretly:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
spied.--_ns._ SPY'AL=_Spial_; SPY'-CRAFT, SPY'ISM, the art or practice of
spying; SPY'GLASS, a small hand-telescope; SPY'-HOLE, a peep-hole;
SPY'-MON'EY, money paid for secret intelligence. [O. Fr. _espier_--Old High
Ger. _speh[=o]n_; L. _spec[)e]re_.]

SPYRE, sp[=i]r, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to shoot forth. [L. _spir[=a]re_, to

SQUAB, skwob, _adj._ fat, clumsy: curt, abrupt: unfledged, newly hatched:
shy, coy.--_n._ a young pigeon, the young of other animals before the hair
or feathers are grown: a short stumpy person: a thickly-stuffed cushion, a
sofa padded throughout, an ottoman.--_v.t._ to stuff thickly and sew
through, the stitches being concealed by buttons, &c.--_v.i._ to fall
heavily.--_adv._ flat: heavily, as a fall.--_adjs._ SQUAB'BISH, thick,
heavy; SQUAB'BY, squat.--_ns._ SQUAB'-CHICK, a fledgling; SQUAB'-PIE, a pie
made of strips of mutton, onions, and slices of apple. [Prob. Scand.; cf.
Sw. dial. _sqvapp_, a word imitative of a splash, _sqvabb_, loose flesh,
_sqvabbig_, flabby.]

SQUABASH, skwa-bash', _v.t._ to crush, smash.

SQUABBLE, skwob'l, _v.i._ to dispute in a noisy manner: to wrangle.--_n._ a
noisy, petty quarrel: a brawl.--_n._ SQUABB'LER. [Scand., Sw. dial.
_skvabbel_, a dispute.]

SQUACCO, skwak'[=o], _n._ a small crested African heron.

SQUAD, skwod, _n._ a small body of men assembled for drill, any small group
or company of men.--_n._ SQUAD'RON, a body of cavalry, consisting of two
troops, or 120 to 200 men: a body of soldiers drawn up in a square: any
regularly ranked body, or a group: section of a fleet, commanded by a
flag-officer.--_p.adj._ SQUAD'RONED, formed into squadrons.--AWKWARD SQUAD,
a body of recruits not yet competent in drill, &c. [O. Fr. _esquadre_--It.
_squadra_, and L. _exquadr[=a]re_, to make square.]

SQUADDY, skwad'i, _adj._ squabby.

SQUAIL, skw[=a]l, _n._ a disc or counter used in the game of squails:
(_pl._) a parlour-game in which small discs are snapped from the edge of
the table to a centre mark called the _process_: the game of
ninepins.--_v.i._ to throw a stick, &c., at any object.--_v.t._ to pelt
with sticks, &c.--_n._ SQUAIL'ER, a throwing-stick. [A variant of _kail_.]

SQUALID, skwol'id, _adj._ filthy, foul.--_n._ SQUALID'ITY, the state of
being squalid: filthiness.--_adv._ SQUAL'IDLY.--_ns._ SQUAL'IDNESS;
SQUAL'OR, state of being squalid: dirtiness: filthiness. [L.
_squalidus_--_squal[=e]re_, to be stiff; akin to Gr. _skellein_, to dry.]

SQUALL, skwawl, _v.i._ to cry out violently.--_n._ a loud cry or scream: a
violent gust of wind.--_n._ SQUALL'ER.--_adj._ SQUALL'Y, abounding or
disturbed with squalls or gusts of wind: gusty, blustering: threatening a
squall.--WHITE SQUALL, a tropical whirlwind, coming on without warning
other than a small white cloud. [Scand., Sw. _sqvala_, to gush out.]

SQUALLY, skwawl'i, _adj._ irregularly woven: having bare patches, of a
field of corn, &c. [Prob. the same as _scally_. Cf. _Scall_.]

SQUALOID, skw[=a]'loid, _adj._ resembling a SQU[=A]'LUS or shark.--_n._
SQU[=A]'LID, one of the _Squalidæ_, a family of sharks.--_adj._
SQU[=A]'LIFORM, having the form of a shark. [L. _squalus_, a shark.]

SQUAMA, skw[=a]'ma, _n._ a scale: the bractea of a deciduous spike, any
scaly bracted leaf:--_pl._ SQU[=A]'MÆ.--_n.pl._ SQU[=A]M[=A]'TA, a division
of reptiles, including lizards and serpents.--_adjs._ SQU[=A]'MATE,
SQU[=A]'MOUS, SQUAM[=A]'CEOUS, SQU[=A]'MOSE, covered with, or consisting
of, scales: scaly.--_ns._ SQU[=A]ME, a scale or squama; SQU[=A]MEL'LA, a
small scale.--_adjs._ SQU[=A]MIF'EROUS, SQU[=A]MIG'EROUS, bearing squamæ or
scales; SQU[=A]'MIFORM, SQU[=A]'MOID, like a scale.--_ns._
SQU[=A]M[=O]'SAL, the squamous portion of the temporal bone; SQUAM'ULA, a
very small scale--also SQUAM'ULE.--_adjs._ SQUAM'ULATE, SQUAM'ULIFORM. [L.
_squamosus_--_squama_, a scale.]

SQUANDER, skwon'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to spend lavishly or wastefully: to waste
money or powers.--_n._ SQUAN'DERER.--_adv._ SQUAN'DERINGLY, in a
squandering manner, by squandering. [Skeat explains as a nasalised form of
Lowland Scotch _squatter_, to splash water about, prov. Eng. _swatter_, to
throw water about. These are frequentatives from Dan. _sqvatte_, to splash,
spurt, squander; Sw. _sqvätta_, to squirt, _Ice_. _skvetta_, to squirt out

SQUARE, skw[=a]r; _adj._ having four equal sides and angles: forming a
right angle: having a straight front or an outline formed by straight
lines: exact suitable, fitting: true, that does equal justice, fair,
honest: even, leaving no balance, settled, as accounts: directly opposed,
complete, unequivocal: solid, full, satisfying.--_n._ that which is square:
a square figure: a four-sided space enclosed by houses: a square body of
troops: the length of the side of any figure squared: an instrument for
measuring right angles: (_arith_.) the product of a quantity multiplied by
itself: due proportion, order, honesty, equity, fairness.--_v.t._ to form
like a square: to form with four equal sides and angles: (_arith_.) to
multiply by itself: to reduce to any given measure or standard, to adjust,
regulate: (_naut_.) to place at right angles with the mast or keel.--_v.i._
to suit, fit: to accord or agree: to take an attitude of offence and
defence, as a boxer.--_adj._ SQUARE'-BUILT, of a square build or
shape.--_adv._ SQUARE'LY, in a square form or manner.--_ns._
SQUARE'-MEAS'URE, [Illustration] a system of measures applied to surfaces,
of which the unit is the square of the lineal unit; SQUARE'NESS.--_adj._
SQUARE'-PIERCED (_her_.), designating a charge perforated with a square
opening so as to show the field.--_n._ SQU[=A]'RER, one who, or that which,
squares: (_Shak._) a fighting, quarrelsome person.--_adj._ SQUARE'-RIGGED,
having the chief sails square, and extended by yards suspended by the
middle at right angles to the masts--opposed to _Fore-and-aft_.--_ns._
SQUARE'-ROOT, that root which being multiplied into itself produces the
given number or quantity; SQUARE'-SAIL, a four-sided sail extended by yards
suspended by the middle at right angles to the mast.--_adj._
SQUARE'-TOED.--_n._ SQUARE'-TOES, an old-fashioned, punctilious
person.--_adj._ SQU[=A]'RISH.--SQUARE THE CIRCLE, to determine the area of
a circle in square measure.--ON THE SQUARE, honestly. [O. Fr. _esquarre_
(Fr. _équerre_)--L. _ex-quadr[=a]re_, to square--_quadrus_, conn. with
_quatuor_, four.]

SQUARROSE, skwär'[=o]s, _adj._ rough, with projecting or deflexed
scales.--_adj._ SQUARR'ULOSE, diminutively squarrose.

SQUARSON, skwär'sn, _n._ one who is both a beneficed clergyman and a squire
or land-owner in a parish.--_n._ SQUAR'SONAGE, the residence of such.

SQUASH, skwosh, _v.t._ to press into pulp: to crush flat.--_v.i._ to form a
soft mass as from a fall: to make a noise similar to such.--_n._ a sudden
fall or shock of soft bodies: anything soft and easily crushed, anything
soft or unripe, as a peascod.--_ns._ SQUASH'ER; SQUASH'INESS, state of
being squashy.--_adj._ SQUASH'Y, like a squash: muddy. [O. Fr. _esquacher_
(Fr. _écacher_), to crush--L. _ex_, out, _coact[=a]re_, to
restrain--_cog[)e]re_, _coactum_, to drive together.]

SQUASH, skwosh, _n._ a term loosely used, esp. in the United States, for
two or three kinds of gourd, including the pumpkin. [Amer. Ind. _asquash_
(pl. of _asq_), green.]

SQUAT, skwot, _v.i._ to sit down upon the hams or heels: to cower, as an
animal: to settle on new land without title:--_pr.p._ squat'ting; _pa.t._
and _pa.p._ squat'ted.--_adj._ short and thick, dumpy, clumsy.--_ns._
SQUATOC'RACY, the squatters of Australia collectively; SQUAT'TER, a settler
on new land without title: one who leases pasture-land from the government;
SQUAT'TINESS.--_v.i._ SQUAT'TLE (_Scot._), to squat down.--_adj._ SQUAT'TY,
very short and thick. [O. Fr. _esquatir_, to crush--L. _ex-_, _coactus_,
pa.p. of _cog[)e]re_, to drive together.]

SQUATTER, skwot'[.e]r, _v.i._ to plunge through water.

SQUAW, skwaw, _n._ an American Indian woman, esp. a wife.--_n._ SQUAW'MAN,
a white man with an Indian wife.

SQUEAK, skw[=e]k, _v.i._ to utter a shrill and usually short cry.--_n._ a
sudden, shrill cry.--_v.i._ SQUAWK, to utter a harsh cry: (_U.S._) to back
out in a mean way.--_n._ a loud squeak.--_n._ SQUEAK'ER, one who squeaks: a
young bird.--_adv._ SQUEAK'INGLY.--A NARROW SQUEAK, a narrow escape.
[Imit.; cf. Sw. _sqväka_, to croak, Ger. _quieken_, to squeak.]

SQUEAL, skw[=e]l, _v.i._ to utter a shrill and prolonged sound: to turn
informer.--_n._ a shrill loud cry.--_n._ SQUEAL'ER, a young pigeon: an
informer. [Scand.; Sw. dial. _sqväla_, to cry out.]

SQUEAMISH, skw[=e]m'ish, _adj._ sickish at stomach: easily disgusted or
offended: fastidious in taste.--_adv._ SQUEAM'ISHLY.--_n._ SQUEAM'ISHNESS.
[Scand.; Ice. _sveimr_, stir; prob. also influenced by qualmish.]

SQUEEGEE, skw[=e]'j[=e], _n._ a wooden implement edged with rubber for
clearing water away from decks, floors, windows, &c.: a photographer's
roller for squeezing the moisture from a print--also SQUIL'GEE.--_v.t._ to
smooth down with a squeegee.

SQUEEZE, skw[=e]z, _v.t._ to crush or press between two bodies: to embrace
closely: to force through a small hole: to cause to pass: to extort,
oppress, harass.--_v.i._ to push between close bodies: to press: to
crowd.--_n._ act of squeezing: pressing between bodies: an impression of an
inscription, &c., made by taking a rubbing.--_n._ SQUEEZABIL'ITY.--_adj._
SQUEEZ'ABLE.--_ns._ SQUEEZ'ER, one who, or that which, squeezes: (_pl._)
playing-cards having the number of spots marked in the right-hand corner of
each; SQUEEZ'ING, the act of exerting pressure.--_adj._ SQUEEZ'Y,
suggesting squeezing, small, contracted. [M. E. _queisen_--A.S. _cwísan_.]

SQUELCH, skwelch, _n._ a heavy blow or a heavy fall.--_v.t._ to crush down.

SQUIB, skwib, _n._ a paper tube filled with combustibles, thrown up into
the air burning and bursting: a petty lampoon.--_v.t._ to aim squibs at: to
lampoon.--_v.i._ to write lampoons: to use squibs: to sound like a squib
exploding. [Scand.; Ice. _svipa_, to flash.]

SQUID, skwid, _n._ a kind of cuttle-fish or calamary: a lure used in
trolling for fish.--_v.i._ to fish with a squid or spoon-bait.

SQUIGGLE, skwig'l, _v.i._ (_U.S._) to squirm, wriggle: (_prov_.) to rinse
out the mouth with a liquid.


SQUILL, skwil, _n._ a genus of bulbous-rooted plants of order _Liliaceæ_,
with radical leaves, and flowers in terminal racemes or loose corymbs--the
officinal Squill is diuretic and expectorant.--_adj._ SQUILLIT'IC. [Fr.
_squille_--L. _squilla_, _scilla_--Gr. _skilla_.]

SQUINCH, skwinch, _n._ a small stone arch, or series of arches, across an
interior angle of a square tower to support the sides of an octagonal

SQUINNY, skwin'i, _v.i._ (_Shak._) to look asquint.

SQUINT, skwint, _adj._ looking obliquely: having the vision
distorted.--_v.i._ to look obliquely: to have the vision distorted.--_v.t._
to cause to squint.--_n._ act or habit of squinting: an oblique look:
distortion of vision: a hagioscope, a narrow aperture cut in the wall of a
church (generally about two feet wide) to enable persons standing in the
side-chapels, &c., to see the elevation of the host at the
high-altar.--_n._ SQUINT'-EYE, an eye that squints.--_adj._ SQUINT'-EYED,
looking obliquely: oblique, malignant.--_n._ SQUINT'ING, technically
_Strabismus_, a common deformity which may be defined as a want of
parallelism in the visual axes, when the patient endeavours to direct both
eyes to an object at the same time.--_adv._ SQUINT'INGLY. [Scand.; Sw.
_svinka_, to shrink, a nasalised form of _svika_, to fail.]

SQUIRE, skw[=i]r, _n._ an esquire, a knight's attendant: a beau or gallant:
a country gentleman, an owner of land in England, esp. if of old family:
(_U.S._) one who has been a justice of the peace, &c.--_ns._ SQUIRE'AGE,
SQUIRE'ARCHY, landed gentry collectively.--_adj._ SQUIRE'ARCHAL.--_ns._
SQUIREEN', a gentleman farmer, one almost a squire; SQUIRE'HOOD, the state
or rank of a squire--also SQUIRE'SHIP.--_adjs._ SQUIRE'-LIKE, SQUIRE'LY,
like or becoming a squire.--_ns._ SQUIRE'LING, a squire of small
possessions; SQUIREOC'RACY, government by the landed classes; SQU[=I]R'ESS,
a squire's wife. [_Esquire_.]

SQUIRE, skw[=i]r, _n._ (_Shak._) a square. [_Square_.]

SQUIRM, skwirm, _v.i._ to wriggle or writhe, to climb by wriggling up: to
escape with any awkward evasion or lie. [A variant of _squir_=_whir_.]

SQUIRREL, skwir'el, _n._ a nimble, reddish-brown, rodent little animal with
hairy tail and large eyes, mainly of arboreal habit.--_ns._ SQUIRR'EL-FISH,
a holocentroid tropical fish; SQUIRR'EL-TAIL, any one of several grasses of
the genus _Hordeum_, with long hair-like awns: a cap of squirrel-skins,
with a tail hanging down behind. [O. Fr. _escurel_--Low L. _scurellus_,
dim. of L. _sciurus_--Gr. _skiouros_--_skia_, shade, _oura_, tail.]

SQUIRT, skw[.e]rt, _v.t._ to throw out water in a stream from a narrow
opening.--_n._ a small instrument for squirting: a small, quick
stream.--_n._ SQUIRT'ER. [Skeat says the _r_ appears to be intrusive;
allied to prov. Eng. _squitter_, to squirt, and _squitter_, diarrhoea. From
Sw. dial. _skvittär_, to sprinkle all round, freq. of _skwitta_, to squirt,
Sw. _sqvätta_, to squirt; cf. Dan. _sqvatte_, to splash.]

SQUITCH, skwich, _n._ quitch-grass.

SRADDHA, srä'da, _n._ the offering of rice and flowers to the manes of a
deceased ancestor. [Sans.]

STAB, stab, _v.t._ to wound with a pointed weapon: to wound: to injure
secretly, or by slander: to roughen a brick wall with a pick so as to hold
plaster: to pierce folded sheets, near their back edges, for the passage of
thread or wire.--_v.i._ to give a stab or a mortal wound:--_pr.p._
stab'bing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stabbed.--_n._ a wound with a pointed
weapon: an injury given secretly.--_n._ STAB'BER, one who stabs.--_adv._
STAB'BINGLY. [Gael. _stob_, a stake.]

STABAT MATER, st[=a]'bat m[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ a Latin hymn on the seven
dolours of the Virgin, ascribed to Jacopone da Todi, a 13th-cent. Minorite:
a musical setting of this sequence. [Its opening words.]

STABLE, st[=a]'bl, _adj._ that stands firm: firmly established: durable:
firm in purpose or character: constant, unchangeable.--_ns._ STABIL'ITY,
state of being stable: steadiness; ST[=A]'BLENESS.--_adv._ ST[=A]'BLY.
[Fr.,--L. _stabilis_--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STABLE, st[=a]'bl, _n._ a building for horses and cattle.--_v.t._ to put or
keep in a stable.--_v.i._ to dwell in a stable.--_ns._ ST[=A]'BLE-BOY,
-MAN, a boy, or man, who attends in a stable; ST[=A]'BLER, a stable-keeper;
ST[=A]'BLE-ROOM, room for stabling horses or cattle; ST[=A]'BLING, act of
putting into a stable: accommodation for horses and cattle. [O. Fr.
_estable_ (Fr. _étable_)--L. _stabulum_--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STABLISH, stab'lish, _v.t._ old form of _establish_.--_n._

STACCATO, stak-kä'to, _adj._ (_mus._) with the notes to be played in an
abrupt, disconnected manner--opp. to _Legato_: marked by abrupt emphasis:
giving a clear distinct sound to each note.--_adj._ STACCATIS'SIMO, as
staccato as possible. [It., from _staccare_, for _distaccare_, to

STACHYS, st[=a]'kis, _n._ a genus of _Labiatæ_, containing the
Hedge-nettle, the Woundwort, and according to some botanists the Common
Betony or Wood Betony. [L.,--Gr. _stachys_, an ear of corn.]

STACK, stak, _n._ a large pile of bay, corn, wood, &c.: a number of
chimneys standing together: a pyramid formed by a number of muskets with
fixed bayonets interlocked and the stocks spread widely apart.--_v.t._ to
pile into a stack: to make up cards for cheating.--_ns._ STACK'-STAND, a
frame of wood, iron, or stone, supported on short props, for building a
stack upon; STACK'YARD, a yard for stacks. [Scand.; Ice. _stakkr_, a stack
of hay.]

STACTE, stak'te, _n._ a Jewish spice, liquid myrrh.

STACTOMETER, stak-tom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a tube with a small hole at the bottom
for measuring a liquid in drops.--Also STALAGMOM'ETER. [Gr. _staktos_,
dropping, _metron_, a measure.]

STADDA, stad'a, _n._ a double-bladed hand-saw for cutting the teeth of

STADDLE, stad'l, _n._ anything that serves for support: a staff or crutch:
a stack-stand: a small tree. [A.S. _stathol_, foundation; Ger. _stadel_.]

STADE=_Stadium_ (q.v.).

STADIA, st[=a]'di-a, _n._ a temporary surveying station: an instrument for
measuring distances.--_n._ STADIOM'ETER, a self-recording theodolite.

STADIUM, st[=a]'di-um, _n._ a Greek measure of length, 600 podes=582
English feet, the Greek foot being .971 of an English foot:--_pl._

STADTHOLDER, stad-h[=o]l'd[.e]r, _n._ a barbarous English form of the Dutch
_Stadhouder_, 'stead-holder,' of which the French _lieu-tenant_ is a
literal translation, _Statthalter_ being the corresponding German.

STAFF, staf, _n._ a stick carried for support or defence: a prop: a long
piece of wood: pole: a flagstaff: the long handle of an instrument: a stick
or ensign of authority: the five lines and spaces on which music is
written: a stanza (the previous meanings have _pl._ STAFFS or STAVES,
st[=a]vz): a body of skilled officers whose duty it is, under orders from
the commanding officers of various grades, to arrange the movements and
supply of the various bodies which go to make up an army: a similar body of
persons in any undertaking, acting under a manager or chief (the last two
meanings have _pl._ STAFFS, stafs).--_ns._ STAFF'-CAPTAIN, the senior grade
in the navigating branch in the British navy; STAFF'-COLL'EGE, a college
where military officers are trained in the higher branches of professional
knowledge, and prepared for holding staff-appointments; STAFF'-CORPS, a
body of intelligent officers and men who performed engineering and siege
duties, made reconnaissances, &c. during the wars of Wellington; (INDIAN) a
body of British officers serving on the permanent Indian establishment,
appointed from it to do duty with native regiments, &c.; STAFF'-D[=U]'TY,
the occupation of an officer who serves on a staff, having been detached
from his regiment; STAFF'-NOT[=A]'TION, musical notation in which a staff
is used, as opposed to the tonic-solfa system; STAFF'-SUR'GEON, a navy
surgeon of senior grade; STAFF'-SYS'TEM, a block-system in use on
single-line railways in which the station-master gives the engine-driver a
staff authorising him to proceed over a given portion. [A.S. _stæf_; Ice.
_stafr_, Ger. _stab_.]

STAG, stag, _n._ the male deer, esp. one of the red deer:--_fem._ _Hind_: a
speculator who applies for shares or stock in new concerns quoted at a
premium, hoping to obtain an allotment and secure a profit without holding
the stock, one who sells new securities quoted at a premium before
allotment.--_v.t._ to follow, to dog, to shadow.--_v.i._ to act as a stag
on the stock-exchange.--_ns._ STAG'-BEE'TLE, a genus of Lamellicorn
beetles, nearly allied to the Scarabees, the males with large projecting
mandibles; STAG'-DANCE, -PART'Y, a dance or party of men only; STAG'HOUND,
a name applied both to the buck-hound and the Scottish deer-hound. [Ice.
_steggr_, a male animal, _stiga_, to mount.]

STAGE, st[=a]j, _n._ an elevated platform, esp. in a theatre: the theatre:
theatrical representations, the theatrical calling: any place of exhibition
or performance: a place of rest on a journey or road: distance between
places: degree of progress.--_v.t._ to represent or place for
representation on the stage.--_ns._ STAGE'-COACH, a coach that runs
regularly with passengers from stage to stage; STAGE'-CRAFT, skill in
putting a play on the stage; STAGE'-DOOR, the actors' entrance to a
theatre; STAGE'-DRIV'ER, one who drives a stage; STAGE'-EFFECT', theatrical
effect; STAGE'-F[=E]'VER, a passion to go on the stage; STAGE'-FRIGHT,
nervousness before an audience, esp. for the first time; STAGE'-MAN'AGER,
one who superintends the production of plays, and has general charge of
everything behind the curtain; STAGE'-PLAY, a play for representation on a
stage; STAGE'-PLAY'ER, a player on the stage; ST[=A]'GER, a stage-horse:
one who has had much experience in anything.--_adj._ STAGE'-STRUCK, sorely
smitten with stage-fever.--_ns._ STAGE'-WAG'ON, a wagon for conveying goods
and passengers at fixed times; STAGE'-WHIS'PER, a loud whisper, as that of
an actor meant to be heard by the audience.--_adjs._ ST[=A]'GEY, ST[=A]'GY,
suggesting the stage, theatrical.--_ns._ ST[=A]'GINESS; ST[=A]'GING, a
structure for workmen in building. [O. Fr. _estage_ (Fr. _étage_), a story
of a house, through a L. form _staticus_, from _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STAGGER, stag'[.e]r, _v.i._ to reel from side to side: to begin to give
way: to begin to doubt: to hesitate.--_v.t._ to cause to reel: to cause to
doubt or hesitate: to shock.--_adv._ STAGG'ERINGLY.--_n._ STAGG'ERS, a
popular term applied to several diseases of horses.--GRASS, or STOMACH,
STAGGERS, an acute indigestion; MAD, or SLEEPY, STAGGERS, an inflammation
of the brain. [Ice. _stakra_, to push, freq. of _staka_, to push.]

STAGIRITE, STAGYRITE, staj'i-r[=i]t, _adj._ pertaining to _Stageira_ in
Macedonia.--_n._ a native or inhabitant thereof, esp. Aristotle (384-322

STAGNANT, stag'nant, _adj._ stagnating: not flowing: motionless: impure
from being motionless: not brisk: dull.--_n._ STAG'NANCY, the state of
being stagnant.--_adv._ STAG'NANTLY.--_v.i._ STAG'NATE, to cease to flow:
to become dull or motionless.--_n._ STAGN[=A]'TION, act of stagnating:
state of being stagnant or motionless: dullness. [L. _stagnans_, _-antis_,
pr.p. of _stagn[=a]re_.]

STAHLIANISM, stäl'i-an-izm, _n._ the doctrines of Georg Ernst _Stahl_, a
German physician (1660-1734), who held that there exists a mysterious force
residing in, but independent of, matter, not only forming the body, but
directing it in all its functions--also STAHL'ISM.--_adj._ STAHL'IAN.

STAID, st[=a]d, _adj._ steady: sober: grave.--_adv._ STAID'LY.--_n._
STAID'NESS. [For _stayed_--_stay_.]

STAIG, st[=a]g, _n._ (_Scot._) a young horse, a stallion.

STAIN, st[=a]n, _v.t._ to tinge or colour: to give a different colour to:
to impregnate, as a tissue, with some substance whose reaction colours some
parts but not others, thus making form or structure plainly visible: to
dye: to mark with guilt or infamy: to bring reproach on: to sully: to
tarnish.--_v.i._ to take or impart a stain.--_n._ a discoloration: a spot:
taint of guilt: cause of reproach: shame.--_n._ STAIN'ER, one who stains or
blots: a dyer.--_adj._ STAIN'LESS, without or free from stain.--_adv._
certain pigments fused into its surface. [Short for _distain_--O. Fr.
_desteindre_--L. _dis-_, away, _ting[)e]re_, to dye.]

STAIR, st[=a]r, _n._ a series of steps for ascending to a higher level: one
of such steps: a flight of steps, only in _pl._: (_Spens._) a
degree.--_ns._ STAIR'-CAR'PET, carpet suitable for stairs; STAIR'CASE, a
flight of stairs with balusters, &c.; STAIR'-ROD, one of a number of
metallic rods for holding a stair-carpet in its place.--_adv._ DOWN'STAIRS,
in the lower part of a house--opp. to _Upstairs_.--BACK-STAIRS, adjectively
for secret, underhand; BELOW STAIRS, in a lower story, in the basement.
[A.S. _st['æ]ager_--_stígan_, to ascend; Ger. _steigen_, to climb, Ice.
_stegi_, a step.]

STAITH, STATHE, st[=a]th, _n._ (_prov._) the extremity of a line of rails
laid on a platform, for discharging coals, &c., into vessels. [A.S.
_stæth_, _steth_, bank.]

STAKE, st[=a]k, _n._ a strong stick pointed at one end: one of the upright
pieces of a fence: a post to which an animal is tied, esp. that to which a
martyr was tied to be burned: martyrdom: a tinsmith's anvil: anything
pledged in a wager: a prize, anything to gain or lose.--_v.t._ to fasten,
or pierce with a stake: to mark the bounds of with stakes (often with off
and out): to wager, to hazard.--_ns._ STAKE'-HOLD'ER, the person with whom
the stakes in a wager are deposited; STAKE'-NET, a form of fishing-net hung
on stakes.--AT STAKE, hazarded, in danger. [A.S. _staca_, a stake.]

STALACTITE, sta-lak't[=i]t, _n._ a deposit of carbonate of lime, hanging
like an icicle from the roof of a cavern, formed by the dripping of
water.--_adjs._ STALAC'TIC, -AL, STALACTIT'IC, -AL, having the form or
properties of a stalactite; STALAC'TIFORM, like a stalactite. [Gr.
_stalaktos_--_stalazein_, to drip.]

STALAGMITE, sta-lag'm[=i]t, _n._ a deposit of carbonate of lime, &c., on
the floor of a cavern, usually cylindrical or conical in form, caused by
the dripping from the roof of water holding some substance in solution; it
is the counterpart to a _Stalactite_, and both are often fused together,
forming a _Stalactitic column_.--_adjs._ STALAGMIT'IC, -AL, having the form
of stalagmites.--_adv._ STALAGMIT'ICALLY. [Gr. _stalagmos_, a
dropping--_stalazein_, to drip.]

STAL'D, st[=a]ld, _pa.p._ (_Spens._) stolen, taken. [_Steal_.]

STALDER, stal'd[.e]r, _n._ (_prov._) a pile of wood: a cask-stand.

STALE, st[=a]l, _adj._ too long kept: tainted: vapid or tasteless from age,
as beer: not new: worn out by age: decayed: no longer fresh, trite: in
athletics, over-trained, hence unfit, as in 'gone stale.'--_n._ anything
become stale: urine of cattle, &c.: (_Shak._) a whore.--_v.t._ to render
insipid, to make common.--_v.i._ to make water, as beasts.--_adv._
STALE'LY.--_n._ STALE'NESS. [Prov. Eng. _stale_, conn. with Old Dut.
_stel_, old. Skeat makes _stale_ that which reminds one of the stable,
tainted, &c.--Sw. _stalla_, to put into a stall, also to stale (as
cattle)--Sw. _stall_, a stable.]

STALE, st[=a]l, _n._ something offered or exhibited as an allurement to
draw others to any place or purpose: (_Spens._) a decoy, a gull: (_Shak._)
a dupe, laughing-stock.--_n._ STALL, a thief's assistant. [A.S. _stalu_,
theft--_stelan_, to steal.]

STALE, st[=a]l, _n._ the handle of anything, a stalk. [A.S. _stæl_, _stel_,
a stalk.]

STALEMATE, st[=a]l'm[=a]t, _n._ in chess-playing, the position of the king
when he cannot move without being placed in check.--_v.t._ to put into a
condition of stalemate: to bring to a standstill.

STALK, stawk, _n._ the stem of a plant: the stem on which a flower or fruit
grows: the stem of a quill: the handle of anything, the stem: a tall
chimney.--_p.adj._ STALKED, having a stalk.--_adjs._ STALK'-EYED,
podophthalmous, as a crustacean; STALK'LESS, having no stalk; STALK'Y, hard
as a stalk: resembling a stalk. [An extension of A.S. _stæl_, _stel_ (cf.
Ice. _stilkr_, Dan. _stilk_); cog. with Ger. _stiel_, which is allied to,
perh. borrowed from, L. _stilus_, a stake.]

STALK, stawk, _v.i._ to walk as on stilts: to walk with long, slow steps:
to walk behind a stalking-horse: to pursue game by approaching behind
covers.--_v.t._ to approach secretly in order to kill, as deer.--_n._ a
stately step: the pursuit of game by stealthy approach.--_ns._ STALK'ER,
one who stalks, as a deer-stalker: a kind of fishing-net: (_pl._) the
Gradatores; STALK'ING, the act of approaching game warily or behind a
cover; STALK'ING-HORSE, a horse behind which a sportsman hides while
stalking game: a mask or pretence. [A.S. _stælcan_, to walk cautiously,
_stealc_, high; Dan. _stalke_, to walk with long steps.]

STALKOES, staw'k[=o]z, _n.pl._ walking gentlemen. [Ir. _stalcaire_, a


STALL, stawl, _n._ a place where a horse or other animal stands and is fed:
a division of a stable for a single animal: a stable: a bench or table on
which articles are exposed for sale: one of the seats in churches reserved
for the clergy and choir, usually lining the choir or chancel on both
sides, also an office entitling one to such a seat, or its stipend: a
reserved seat in a theatre, usually one of those in the front division of
the parquet--_orchestra stalls_.--_v.t._ to put or keep in a stall.--_v.i._
to inhabit.--_n._ STALL'AGE, liberty of erecting stalls in a fair or
market: rent paid for this liberty.--_adj._ STALLED, kept or fed in a
stall, fatted.--_v.t._ STALL'-FEED, to feed and fatten in a stall or
stable.--_ns._ STALL'ING (_Tenn._) stabling; STALL'INGER (_prov._), a
keeper of a stall; STALL'MAN, one who keeps a stall for the sale of any
article; STALL'-READER, one who stands and reads books at a bookstall.
[A.S. _steal_; Ice. _stallr_, Ger. _stall_.]

STALLION, stal'yun, _n._ an uncastrated male horse, esp. one kept for
breeding. [O. Fr. _estalon_ (Fr. _étalon_)--Late L. _equus ad stallum_, a
horse at stall.]

STALWART, stawl'wart, _adj._ stout, strong, sturdy: determined in one's
partisanship.--_n._ a resolute person.--(_arch._) STAL'WORTH.--_adv._
_stalworth_--A.S. _stæl-wyrthe_, serviceable. Prob. _stathol_,foundation,
_weorth_, good, worth.]

STAM, stam, _v.t._ (_prov._) to confound.--_n._ confusion.


STAMEN, st[=a]'men, _n._ one of the male organs of a flower which produce
the pollen:--_pl._ ST[=A]'MENS.--_adj._ ST[=A]'MENED, having stamens.--_n._
STAM'INA (prop. _pl._), the principal strength of anything: the firm part
of a body which supports the whole.--_adjs._ STAM'INAL, STAMIN'[=E]OUS,
consisting of or possessing stamens: pertaining to, or attached to, the
stamen: apetalous, as certain flowers; STAM'INATE, -D, having or producing
stamens; STAMINIF'EROUS, STAMINIG'EROUS, bearing or having stamens.--_ns._
STAM'INODE, STAMIN[=O]'DIUM, an abortive stamen; STAM'INODY, a condition of
flowers in which sepals, pistils, &c. are metamorphosed into stamens. [L.
_stamen_ (pl. _stamina_)--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STAMMEL, stam'el, _n._ a kind of woollen cloth, dull red in colour: red
colour.--_adj._ made of stammel, or like it in colour. [Earlier
_stamin_--O. Fr. _estamine_--Low L. _stamina_--L. _stamineus_, _stamen_, a

STAMMEL, stam'el, _n._ (_prov._) a stumbling horse: a bouncing girl.

STAMMER, stam'[.e]r, _v.i._ to halt in one's speech, the result of failure
in co-ordinate action of certain muscles and their appropriate nerves: to
falter in speaking: to stutter.--_v.t._ to utter with hesitation.--_n._
hesitation in speech: defective utterance.--_ns._ STAMM'ERER;
STAMM'ERING.--_adv._ STAMM'ERINGLY. [A.S. _stamor_; Dut. _stameren_.]

STAMNOS, stam'nos, _n._ an ancient Greek short-necked, two-handled
wine-vase. [Gr.]

STAMP, stamp, _v.t._ to strike with the sole of the foot, by thrusting it
down: to impress with some mark or figure: to imprint: to fix deeply: to
coin: to form: to pound, bray, crush, bruise.--_v.i._ to step or plant the
foot firmly down.--_n._ the act of stamping: the mark made by pressing
something on a soft body: an instrument for making impressions on other
bodies: that which is stamped: an official mark put on things chargeable
with duty, as proof that the duty is paid: an instrument for cutting
materials into a certain shape by a downward pressure: cast, form,
character: distinguishing mark, imprint, sign, evidence: a species of heavy
pestle, raised by water or steam power, for crushing and pulverising ores:
(_pl._) stamp-duties: (_slang_) money, esp. paper money.--_ns._ STAMP'-ACT,
an act for regulating stamp-duties; STAMP'-COLLECT'OR, an officer who
collects stamp-duties: one who makes a collection of postage or other
stamps; STAMP'-D[=U]'TY, a tax imposed on the paper on which legal
documents are written; STAMP'ER; STAMP'ING; STAMP'ING-MACHINE', a machine
used for stamping coins, in the stamping of brass-work, or in crushing
metallic ores; STAMP'-, STAMP'ING-MILL, a crushing-mill for ores;
STAMP'-NOTE, a certificate from a custom-house officer for goods to be
loaded as freight of a ship; STAMP'-OFF'ICE, an office where stamp-duties
are received and stamps issued.--STAMP OUT, to extinguish, extirpate. [A.S.
_stempan_; Ger. _stampfen_.]

STAMPEDE, stam-p[=e]d', _n._ a sudden fright seizing a herd of horses or
other cattle, causing them to run: flight, or any sudden confused movement
of a multitude, caused by panic.--_v.i._ to scamper off in panic. [Sp.
_estampido_, a crash--_estampar_, to stamp.]

STANCE, stans, _n._ (_Scot._) a station, site, stand.

STANCH, stänsh, _v.t._ to stop the flowing of, as blood: to quench,
allay.--_v.i._ (_B._) to cease to flow.--_adj._ constant: trusty: zealous:
sound, strong, firm.--_n._ STANCH'ER.--_adj._ STANCH'LESS (_Shak._), that
cannot be stanched or stopped.--_adv._ STANCH'LY.--_n._ STANCH'NESS. [O.
Fr. _estancher_ (Fr. _étancher_)--Low L. _stanc[=a]re_, to stanch--L.
_stagn[=a]re_, to be or make stagnant.]

STANCH, stänsh, _adj._ Same as STAUNCH.

STANCHION, stan'shun, _n._ an upright iron bar of a window or screen:
(_naut._) an upright beam used as a support.--_v.t._ to fasten by means of
or to a stanchion.--A Scotch form is STAN'CHEL. [O. Fr.
_estançon_--_estancer_, to stop, _estance_--Low L. _stantia_--L.
_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STAND, stand, _v.i._ to cease to move: to be stationary: to occupy a
certain position: to stagnate: to be at rest: to be fixed in an upright
position, to be erect, to be on the feet--as opposed to _sit_, _lie_,
_kneel_, &c.: to become or remain erect: to have a position or rank: to be
in a particular state, to be with relation to something else: to maintain
an attitude: to be fixed or firm: to keep one's ground: to remain
unimpaired: to endure, to be consistent: to consist: to depend or be
supported: to offer one's self as a candidate: to have a certain direction:
to hold a course at sea.--_v.t._ to endure: to sustain: to suffer: to abide
by: to be at the expense of, to offer and pay for:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._
stood.--_ns._ STAND'ER; STAND'ER-BY (_Shak._), a spectator; STAND'ER-UP,
one who stands up or who takes a side.--_adj._ STAND'ING, established:
settled: permanent: fixed: stagnant: being erect.--_n._ continuance:
existence: place to stand in: position in society: a right or capacity to
sue or maintain an action.--_n._ STAND'ING-GROUND, a place on which to
stand, any basis or principle on which one rests.--_n.pl._
STAND'ING-OR'DERS, the name given to permanent regulations made by either
House of Parliament for the conduct of its proceedings, and enduring from
parliament to parliament unless rescinded.--_ns._ STAND'ING-POOL (_Shak._),
a pool of stagnant water; STAND'ING-RIG'GING, the ropes in a ship that
remain fixed; STAND'ING-ROOM, place in which to stand.--_n.pl._
STAND'ING-STONES, monoliths of unhewn stone, erected singly or in
groups.--_n._ STAND'ISH, a standing dish for pen and ink.--_adj._
STAND'-OFF, holding others off, reserved--also STAND'-OFF'ISH.--_ns._
STAND'-OFF'ISHNESS, a distant, reserved, and haughty manner; STAND'-PIPE, a
vertical pipe at a reservoir, into which the water is pumped up so as to
give it a head: a small pipe inserted into an opening in a water-main: a
pipe permitting expansion, as of hot water: a pipe sufficiently high for
its contents to be forced into a boiler against the steam-pressure;
STAND'-POINT, a station or position from which objects are viewed: a basis
or fundamental principle according to which things are compared and judged;
STAND'STILL, a standing without moving forward: a stop.--_adj._ STAND'-UP,
standing erect: done standing, noting a fair boxing-match.--STAND AGAINST,
to resist; STAND BY, to support; STAND FAST, to be unmoved; STAND FIRE, to
remain steady under the fire of an enemy--also figuratively; STAND FOR, to
be a candidate for: (_naut._) to direct the course towards; STAND FROM, to
direct the course from; STAND IN, to cost; STAND IN WITH, to have a secret
understanding with, as policemen with publicans; STAND LOW (_print._), to
fall short of the standard height; STAND OFF, to keep at a distance: to
direct the course from: (_Shak._) to forbear compliance or intimacy; STAND
OFF AND ON, to sail away from shore and then towards it; STAND ON, to
continue on the same tack or course: (_Shak._) to be satisfied or convinced
of; STAND ONE'S GROUND, to maintain one's position; STAND OUT, to project,
to be prominent: not to comply, to refuse to yield; STAND TO, to agree to,
adhere to, abide by, maintain; STAND TOGETHER, to agree, to be consistent
with; STAND TRIAL, not to give up without trial; STAND UNDER (_Shak._), to
undergo, to sustain; STAND UP, to rise from a sitting posture; STAND UP
FOR, to support or attempt to defend; STAND UPON (_B._), to attack; STAND
UP TO, to meet face to face, to fulfil manfully; STAND UP WITH, to dance
with as a partner; STAND WITH, to be consistent. [A.S. _standan_; Goth.
_standan_, Ger. _stehen_; cf. Gr. _histanai_, to place, L. _st[=a]re_, to

STAND, stand, _n._ a place where one stands or remains for any purpose: a
place beyond which one does not go, the highest or ultimate point: an
erection for spectators at races, &c.: the place of a witness in court:
something on which anything rests, a frame for glasses, &c.: a stop,
obstruction, rest, quiescence: a state of cessation from action, motion, or
business: a state of perplexity or hesitation: a difficulty,
resistance.--BE AT A STAND, to stop on account of doubt or difficulty: to
hesitate, to be perplexed; MAKE A STAND, to halt and offer resistance; PUT
TO A STAND, to stop, arrest.

STANDARD, stand'ard, _n._ that which stands or is fixed, as a rule: the
upright post of a truss: that which is established as a rule or model: a
grade of classification in English elementary schools: a staff with a flag:
an ensign of war: one of the two flags of a heavy cavalry regiment:
(_hort._) a standing shrub or tree, not supported by a wall.--_adj._
according to some standard: legal: usual: having a fixed or permanent
value.--_n._ STAND'ARD-BEAR'ER, the soldier or junior officer who carries
the colours: the spokesman or representative of a movement. [O. Fr.
_estandart_--Old High Ger. _standan_, to stand, with suff. _-art._]

STANG, stang, _n._ a wooden bar, a pole.--RIDING THE STANG, a popular
manner of punishing an unpopular man by carrying him astride of a stang.
[A.S. _stæng_, a pole; Dut. _stang_.]

STANG, stang, _v.i._ (_prov._) to throb with pain--also a Scotch form of

STANHOPE, stan'h[=o]p, _n._ a light open one-seated carriage without a top,
formerly with two wheels, now usually with four.

STANIEL, stan'yel, _n._ the kestrel or windhover.--Also STAN'NEL, STAN'YEL.
[A.S. _stángella_.]

STANK, stangk, _pa.t._ of stink.

STANK, stangk, _n._ (_Scot._) a ditch, a pool, a tank. [O. Fr. _estang_, a
pond--L. _stagnum_, a stagnant pool.]

STANNARY, stan'ar-i, _adj._ of or relating to tin mines or works.--_n._ a
tin-mine.--_n._ STANN'ATE, a salt formed with stannic acid and a
base.--_adjs._ STANN'IC, pertaining to, or procured from, tin;
STANNIF'EROUS, producing or containing tin.--_n._ STANN'INE, a mineral of a
grayish-black colour, consisting chiefly of sulphur, tin, copper, and
iron.--_adj._ STANN'OUS, containing tin.--STANNARY COURTS, courts in
Cornwall for the tin-miners. [L. _stannum_, tin.]

STANZA, stan'za, _n._ a series of lines or verses connected with and
adjusted to each other in a fixed order of sequence as regards length and
metrical form: a division of a poem containing every variation of measure
in the poem.--_adj._ STANZ[=A]'IC. [It. _stanza_, a stop--Low L.
_stantia_--L. _st[=a]re_, stand.]

STAPELIA, sta-p[=e]'li-a, _n._ a genus of showy fleshy African plants of
the milkweed family. [From J. B. van _Stapel_.]

STAPES, st[=a]'p[=e]z, _n._ the inmost of the three auditory ossicles,
situated in the tympanum.--_adjs._ STAP[=E]'DIAL, stirrup-shaped:
pertaining to the stapes; STAPEDIF'EROUS, having a stapes.--_n._
STAP[=E]'DIUS, a stapedial muscle. [Low L. _stapes_, a stirrup--Old High
Ger. _stapf_, a step.]

STAPHYLINE, staf'i-lin, _adj._ of the form of a bunch of grapes.--_ns._
STAPH'YLE, the uvula; STAPHYL[=O]'MA, STAPHYL[=O]'SIS, a protrusion of any
of the coats of the eye.--_adjs._ STAPHYLOMAT'IC;
STAPHYL[=O]'MATOUS.--_ns._ STAPH'YLOPLASTY, the operation for replacing the
soft palate; STAPHYLOR'APHY, the operation of uniting a cleft palate;
STAPHYLOT'OMY, the amputation of the uvula. [Gr. _staphyl[=e]_, a bunch of
grapes, the uvula.]

STAPLE, st[=a]'pl, _n._ a settled mart or market: the principal production
or industry of a district or country: the principal element: the thread of
textile fabrics: unmanufactured material.--_adj._ established in commerce:
regularly produced for market.--_n._ ST[=A]'PLER, a dealer. [O. Fr.
_estaple_--Low Ger. _stapel_, a heap.]

STAPLE, st[=a]'pl, _n._ a loop of iron, &c., for holding a bolt, &c.: the
metallic tube to which the reed is fastened in the oboe, &c. [A.S.
_stapel_, a prop--_stapan_, step; cf. Ger. _stapel_.]

STAR, stär, _n._ one of the bright bodies in the heavens, except the sun
and moon: one of the heavenly bodies shining by their own light, and which
keep the same relative position in the heavens: anything star-like or
star-shaped: a representation of a star worn as a badge of rank or honour:
a person of brilliant or attractive qualities: the chief actor or actress
in a dramatic company: (_print._) an asterisk (*).--_v.t._ to set with
stars: to bespangle.--_v.i._ to shine, as a star: to attract attention: to
appear as a star-actor (TO STAR IT, esp. on a provincial tour):--_pr.p._
star'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ starred.--_ns._ STAR'-AP'PLE, the fruit of
the West Indian tree _Chrysophyllum Cainito_; STAR'-BLAST'ING, the noxious
influence of the stars.--_adjs._ STAR'-BLIND, so blind as not to see the
stars: half-blind; STAR'-BROI'DERED (_Tenn._), embroidered with figures in
the shape of stars.--_ns._ STAR'-BUZZ'ARD, an American goshawk;
STAR'-CAT'ALOGUE, a list of stars, with their places, magnitudes,
&c.--_adj._ STAR'-CROSSED, not favoured by the stars.--_ns._ STAR'-DRIFT, a
common proper motion of a number of fixed stars in the same region of the
heavens; STAR'-DUST, cosmic dust, matter in fine particles falling upon the
earth from some outside source, like meteorites; STAR'-FINCH, the redstart;
STAR'FISH (_Asteroidea_), an Echinoderm, nearly allied to the Brittle-stars
(_Ophiuroidea_) and to the Sea-urchins (_Echinoidea_); STAR'-FLOW'ER, one
of various plants with bright star-shaped flowers, the Star-of-Bethlehem:
chickweed; STAR'-FORT, a fort surrounded with projecting angles, like the
points of a star; STAR'-FRUIT, a small water-plant of southern Europe, with
long-pointed radiating carpels; STAR'-G[=A]Z'ER, an astrologer: an
astronomer; STAR'-G[=A]Z'ING, astrology; STAR'-GRASS, a grass-like plant,
with star-shaped, yellow flowers; STAR'-HY'ACINTH, a bulbous-rooted plant,
a species of squill, with pinkish purple flowers, found on the coast in the
south of England; STAR'-JELL'Y, the common species of nostoc.--_adj._
STAR'LESS, having no stars visible: having no light from stars.--_n._
STAR'LIGHT, light or lustre of the stars.--_adjs._ STAR'-LIKE, resembling a
star: radiated like a star: bright, illustrious; STAR'LIT, lighted by the
stars.--_ns._ STAR'-NOSE, a North American mole; STAR'-OF-BETH'LEHEM, a
garden plant of the lily family, with bright white star-like flowers: the
miraculous star of the Nativity (Matt. ii. 2, 9, 10).--_adj._ STAR'-PROOF
(_Milt._), impervious to starlight.--_n._ STAR'-READ (_Spens._), knowledge
of the stars, astrology.--_adj._ STARRED, adorned or studded with
stars.--_ns._ STAR'-REED, a South American plant used in Peru against
dysentery, &c.; STAR'RINESS.--_adj._ STAR'RY, abounding or adorned with
stars: consisting of, or proceeding from, the stars: like, or shining like,
the stars.--_n._ STARS'-AND-STRIPES, the flag of the United States of
America, with thirteen stripes alternately red and white, and a blue field
containing as many stars as there are states.--_adj._ STAR'-SPANG'LED,
spangled or studded with stars.--_n._ STAR'-STONE, a variety of corundum
which, when cut in a particular way, exhibits a reflection of light in the
form of a star.--_adj._ STAR'-STROWN (_Tenn._), strewn or studded with
stars.--_ns._ STAR'-THIS'TLE, a species of centaury, so called from its
star-like flowers; STAR'-WHEEL, a spur-wheel with V-shaped teeth;
STAR'WORT, a genus of plants nearly allied to the Asters, with star-like
flowers. [A.S. _steorra_; Ger. _stern_, L. _stella_ (for _sterula_), Gr.

STARBOARD, stär'b[=o]rd, _n._ the right-hand side of a ship, to one looking
toward the bow.--_adj._ pertaining to, or lying on, the right side of a
ship. [A.S. _steórbord_--_steór_, a rudder, _bord_, a board, the side of a
ship. Cf. _Board_ and _Larboard_.]

STARCH, stärch, _n._ the pure fecula or white farinaceous matter of
vegetables, yielding a translucent jelly used for stiffening clothes in the
laundry: stiffness, formality.--_adj._ stiff, rigid, formal.--_adj._
STARCHED, stiffened with starch: formal.--_adv._ STARCH'EDLY.--_ns._
hyacinth, so called from the smell of the flower.--_adv._ STARCH'ILY, in a
starch or stiff manner: formally.--_ns._ STARCH'INESS, the state or quality
of being starchy: stiffness of manner: formality; STARCH'-SU'GAR,
glucose.--_adj._ STARCH'Y, consisting of, or like, starch: stiff: precise.
[A special use of adj. _stark_; cf. Ger. _stärke_, starch--_stark_,

STAR-CHAMBER, stär'-ch[=a]m'b[.e]r, _n._ a tribunal with a civil and
criminal jurisdiction, which met in the old council chamber of the palace
of Westminster, abolished in the reign of Charles I. [Probably named from
the gilt _stars_ on the ceiling, hardly from the Jewish bonds (called
_starrs_, from Heb. _shetar_) kept in the council-room.]

STARE, st[=a]r, _v.i._ to look at with a fixed gaze, as in horror,
astonishment, &c.: to look fixedly.--_v.t._ to influence in some way by
staring.--_n._ a fixed look.--_ns._ ST[=A]R[=EE]', one who is stared at;
ST[=A]'RER, one who stares or gazes; ST[=A]'RING, the act of
staring.--_adv._ ST[=A]'RINGLY, in a staring manner: with a fixed look.
[A.S. _starian_, from a Teut. root seen in Ger. _starr_, rigid; also in
Eng. _stern_.]

STARK, stärk, _adj._ stiff: gross: absolute: entire: naked, an abbreviation
of STARK'-N[=A]'KED, quite naked, which is really a corr. of M. E.
_start-naked_=tail-naked (A.S. _steort_, a tail).--_adv._ absolutely:
completely.--_v.t._ to make stark, as in death.--_v.t._ STARK'EN, to
stiffen, to make obstinate.--_adv._ STARK'LY.--_n._ STARK'NESS, the state
or quality of being stark: stiffness; stoutness. [A.S. _stearc_, hard,
strong; cog. Ice. _sterk-r_, Ger. _stark_.]

STARLING, stärling, _n._ a genus _Sturnus_ and family _Sturnidæ_ of
Passerine birds: (_archit._) a ring of piles supporting the pier of a
bridge. [Dim. from obs. _stare_--A.S. _stær_; Ger. _staar_, L. _sturnus_.]

STAROST, stär'ost, _n._ a Polish noble holding a STAR'OSTY or domain by
grant of life-estate from the crown. [Pol. _starosta_, elder--_stary_,


START, stärt, _v.i._ to move suddenly aside: to wince: to deviate: to
begin: to proceed: to give way somewhat.--_v.t._ to cause to move suddenly:
to disturb suddenly: to rouse suddenly from concealment: to set in motion:
to call forth: to invent or discover: to move suddenly from its place: to
loosen: to empty: to pour out.--_n._ a sudden movement: a sudden motion of
the body: a sudden rousing to action: an unexpected movement: a sally: a
sudden fit: a quick spring: the first motion from a point or place: the
outset.--_n._ START'ER, one who starts.--_adj._ START'FUL, apt to
start.--_adv._ START'INGLY (_Shak._), by fits or starts.--_ns._
START'ING-POINT, the point from which anything starts, or from which motion
begins; START'ING-POST, the post or barrier from which the competitors in a
race start or begin the race.--_adj._ START'ISH, apt to start,
skittish.--_ns._ START'-UP (_Shak._), an upstart; START'UPPE (_Spens._), a
kind of high shoe or half-boot.--START AFTER, to set out after, to pursue;
START UP, to rise suddenly, to come suddenly into notice.--GET, or HAVE,
THE START, to begin before another, to obtain an advantage over another.
[M. E. _sterten_; closely akin to Dut. and Low Ger. _storten_, to plunge,
Ger. _stürzen_.]

STARTLE, stärt'l, _v.i._ to start or move suddenly: to feel sudden
alarm.--_v.t._ to excite suddenly: to shock: to frighten.--_n._ sudden
alarm or surprise.--_n._ START'LER.--_adj._ START'LING, such as to strike
with astonishment or alarm.--_adv._ START'LINGLY.--_adj._ START'LISH, apt
to start. [Extension of _start_.]

STARVE, stärv, _v.i._ to die of hunger or cold: to suffer extreme hunger or
want: to be in want of anything necessary, to deteriorate for want of
anything essential.--_v.t._ to kill with hunger or cold: to destroy by
want: to deprive of power.--_n._ STARV[=A]'TION, act of starving: state of
being starved.--_adj._ STARVE'LING, hungry: lean: weak.--_n._ a thin, weak,
pining animal or plant. [A.S. _steorfan_, to die; Dut. _sterven_, Ger.
_sterben_, to die.]

STASIDION, sta-sid'i-on, _n._ a stall in a Greek church.

STASIMON, stas'i-mon, _n._ an ode sung by the whole chorus, after the
parode:--_pl._ STAS'IMA. [Gr.]

STASIMORPHY, stas'i-mor-fi, _n._ any deviation from the normal form of a
bodily organ due to arrested development [Gr. _stasis_, standing.]

STASIS, st[=a]'sis, _n._ the arrest of the blood in its circulation: one of
the sections of a cathisma or portion of the psalter. [Gr.]

STATANT, st[=a]'tant, _adj._ (_her._) standing with all the feet on the
ground. [L. _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STATE, st[=a]t, _n._ position: condition: situation: circumstances at any
time: the whole body of people under one government: the public: the civil
power: estate, one of the orders or classes of men forming the body politic
(as nobles, clergy, commonalty): a body of men united by profession: rank,
quality: pomp: dignity: style of living: stability, continuance: (_pl._)
the bodies constituting the legislature of a country: (_obs._) a seat of
dignity: a stage, condition, as of an etched or engraved plate at one
particular stage of its progress.--_adj._ belonging to the state: public:
royal: ceremonial: pompous: magnificent.--_v.t._ to set forth: to express
the details of: to set down fully and formally: to narrate: to set in
order: to settle.--_adj._ ST[=A]T'ABLE, capable of being stated.--_ns._
STATE'-CRAFT, the art of managing state affairs; STATE'-CRIM'INAL, one who
commits an offence against the state, as treason.--_adj._ ST[=A]T'ED,
settled: established: fixed: regular.--_adv._ ST[=A]T'EDLY.--_ns._
STATE'-HOUSE, the building in which the legislature of a state holds its
sittings; ST[=A]TE'LINESS.--_adj._ ST[=A]TE'LY, showing state or dignity:
majestic: grand.--_adv._ majestically: (_Milt._) loftily.--_ns._
ST[=A]TE'MENT, the act of stating: that which is stated: a narrative or
recital; STATE'-P[=A]'PER, an official paper or document relating to
affairs of state; STATE'-PRIS'ON; STATE'-PRIS'ONER, a prisoner confined for
offence against the state; STATE'-RELIG'ION, the establishment or endowment
by the government of a country of some particular form of religion;
STATE'ROOM, a stately room in a palace or mansion: principal room in the
cabin of a ship; STATES'-GEN'ERAL, the name given to the representative
body of the three orders (nobility, clergy, burghers) of the French
kingdom; STATES'MAN, a man acquainted with the affairs of government: one
skilled in government: one employed in public affairs: a politician: one
who farms his own estate, a small landholder.--_adj._ STATES'MAN-LIKE, like
a statesman.--_adv._ STATES'MANLY, in a manner becoming a statesman.--_n._
STATES'MANSHIP.--STATE SOCIALISM, a scheme of government which would
entrust to the state the carrying on of the great enterprises of private
industry; STATES OF THE CHURCH, the former temporal possessions of the
popes. [O. Fr. _estat_ (Fr. _état_)--L. _status_, from _st[=a]re_,
_st[=a]tum_, to stand.]

STATER, st[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ the standard gold coin of ancient Greece.

STATIC, -AL, stat'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to statics: pertaining to
bodies at rest or in equilibrium: resting: acting by mere weight.--_adv._
STAT'ICALLY.--_n._ STAT'ICS, the science which treats of the action of
force in maintaining rest or preventing change of motion. [Gr. _statik[=e]_
(_epist[=e]m[=e]_, 'science,' being understood)--_hist[=e]mi_.]

STATION, st[=a]'shun, _n._ the place where a person or thing stands: post
assigned: position: office: situation: occupation, business: state: rank:
condition in life: the place where railway trains come to a stand in order
to take up and set down passengers and goods, the buildings erected at such
a place for railway business: a regular stopping-place: a stock farm in
Australia: a district or branch police-office: the place in India where the
group of English officials or the officers of a garrison reside: a recess
in a mine-shaft or passage for a pumping-machine: (_pl._) in R.C. usage,
applied to certain places of reputed sanctity, appointed to be visited as
places of prayer, any one of the fourteen (fifteen, or even eleven) images
or pictures ranged round a church, starting from one side of the high altar
and ending at the other, representing the several stages of the
Passion--the whole series the Way of Calvary.--_v.t._ to assign a station
to: to set: to appoint to a post, place, or office.--_adj._
ST[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ ST[=A]'TIONARINESS.--_adj._ ST[=A]'TIONARY, pertaining
to a station: standing: fixed: settled: acting from, or in, a fixed
position (as an engine): not progressing or retrogressing: not
improving.--_n._ ST[=A]'TIONER, one who sells paper and other articles used
in writing.--_adj._ ST[=A]'TIONERY, belonging to a stationer.--_n._ the
articles sold by a stationer.--_ns._ ST[=A]'TION-HOUSE, a temporary place
of arrest; ST[=A]'TION-MAS'TER, one who has charge of a station, esp. on a
railway.--STATIONERS' HALL, the hall in London belonging to the Company of
the Stationers, who enjoyed until the passing of the Copyright Act in 1842
an absolute monopoly of printing and publishing; STATIONERY OFFICE, an
office in London for providing books, stationery, &c. to the government
offices at home and abroad, and for making contracts for the printing of
government reports and other public papers. [Fr.,--L. _statio_--_st[=a]re_,
to stand.]

STATIST, st[=a]'tist, _n._ a statesman, a politician.

STATISTICS, sta-tist'iks, _n._ a collection of facts and figures regarding
the condition of a people, class, &c.: the science which treats of the
collection and arrangement of facts bearing on the condition--social,
moral, and material--of a people.--_adjs._ STATIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to,
or containing, statistics.--_adv._ STATIST'ICALLY.--_n._ STATISTIC'IAN, one
skilled in statistics. [Coined (as if from a form _statistik[=e]_) from Gr.
_statizein_, to set up.]

STATIVE, st[=a]'tiv, _adj._ standing still, pertaining to a permanent camp:
indicating a physical state or reflex action, of certain Hebrew verbs.

STATUE, stat'[=u], _n._ a likeness of a human being or animal carved out of
some solid substance: an image--(_obs._) STAT'UA.--_n._ STAT'[=U]ARY, the
art of carving statues: a statue or a collection of statues: one who makes
statues: a dealer in statues.--_adj._ STAT'UED, furnished with
statues.--_n._ STATUETTE', a small statue. [Fr.,--L.
_statua_--_statu[)e]re_, to cause lo stand--_st[=a]re_.]

STATUESQUE, stat-[=u]-esk', _adj._ like a statue.--_adv._ STATUESQUE'LY.

STATURE, stat'[=u]r, _n._ the height of any animal.--_adj._ STAT'URED,
having a certain specified stature. [L. _statura_.]

STATUS, st[=a]'tus, _n._ state: condition: rank. [L.]

STATUTE, stat'[=u]t, _n._ a law expressly enacted by the legislature (as
distinguished from a customary law or law of use and wont): a written law:
the act of a corporation or its founder, intended as a permanent rule or
law.--_adj._ STAT'[=U]TABLE, made by statute: according to statute.--_adv._
STAT'[=U]TABLY.--_ns._ STAT'UTE-BOOK, a record of statutes or enacted laws;
STAT'UTE-CAP (_Shak._), a kind of cap enjoined to be worn by a statute
passed in 1571 in behalf of the cap-makers; STAT'UTE-ROLL, an enrolled
statute.--_adj._ STAT'[=U]TORY, enacted by statute: depending on statute
for its authority. [L. _statutum_, that which is set up--_statu[)e]re_.]

STAUNCH, stawnsh, _adj._ firm in principle, pursuit, or support: trusty,
hearty, constant, zealous.--_adv._ STAUNCH'LY.--_n._ STAUNCH'NESS.

STAUROLITE, stawr'[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a silicate of alumina with ferrous
oxide, magnesia, and water, crystallising in trimetric forms, common as
twinned cruciform crystals in certain states.--_adj._ STAUROLIT'IC.

STAVE, st[=a]v, _n._ one of the pieces of which a cask is made: a staff or
part of a piece of music: a stanza.--_v.t._ to break a stave or the staves
of: to break: to burst: to drive off, as with a staff: to delay:--_pa.t._
and _pa.p._ st[=a]ved or st[=o]ve. [By-form of _staff_.]

STAVES, st[=a]vz, plural of _staff_ and of _stave_.

STAVESACRE, st[=a]vz'[=a]-k[.e]r, _n._ a tall larkspur whose seeds yield
delphinin for destroying lice. [O. Fr. _stavesaigre_--Low L.
_staphisagria_--Gr. _staphis_, dried grapes, _agrios_, wild.]

STAW, staw, _v.i._ (_prov._) to stand still, become fixed.--_v.t._
(_Scot._) to surfeit, to scunner at.--_n._ a surfeit.

STAW, staw, a Scotch form of _stole_.

STAY, st[=a], _v.i._ to remain: to abide for any time: to continue in a
state: to wait: to cease acting: to dwell: to trust.--_v.t._ to cause to
stand: to stop: to restrain: to delay: to prevent from falling: to prop: to
support, rest, rely:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stayed, staid.--_n._ continuance
in a place: abode for a time: stand: stop: a fixed state: a standstill:
suspension of a legal proceeding: prop, support: (_pl._) a kind of stiff
inner waistcoat worn by women.--_ns._ STAY'-AT-HOME, one who keeps much at
home--also _adj._; STAY'-BOLT, a bolt or rod binding together opposite
plates; STAY'ER, one who, or that which, stops, holds, or supports: a
person or animal of good lasting or staying qualities for a race, &c.;
STAY'-LACE, a lace for fastening a bodice; STAY'-M[=A]'KER, one whose
occupation is to make stays.--STAY THE STOMACH, to allay the cravings of
hunger for the time. [O. Fr. _estayer, estaye_--Old Dut. _stade_, a stay.]

STAY, st[=a], _n._ a large strong rope running from the head of one mast to
another mast ('fore-and-aft' stay), or to the side of the ship
('back'-stay): the transverse piece in a chain-cable link.--_v.t._ to
support or to incline to one side by means of stays: to put on the other
tack, to cause to go about.--_v.i._ to change tack, to go about, to be in
stays.--_ns._ STAY'SAIL, a sail extended on a stay; STAY'-TACK'LE, a large
hoisting tackle fixed by a pendant to the mainstay of a ship.--MISS STAYS
(see MISS). [A.S. _stæg_; Dut. _stag_, Ger. _stag_.]

STAYED, st[=a]d, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as _Staid_, constant.

STAYNE, st[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to dim, deface, or disparage. [A form of

STAYRE, st[=a]r, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as _Stair_, a step.

STEAD, sted, _n._ the place which another had or might have: a fixed place
of abode: use, help, service, as in 'To stand in good stead.'--_n._
STEADING, the barns, stables, &c. of a farm. [A.S. _stede_, place; Ger.
_stadt, statt_, place, Dut. _stad_, a town.]

STEADFAST, sted'fast, _adj._ firmly fixed or established: firm: constant:
resolute: steady.--_adv._ STEAD'FASTLY.--_n._ STEAD'FASTNESS. [A.S.
_stedefæst, stede_, a place, _fæst_, firm, fast.]

STEADY, sted'i, _adj._ (_comp._ STEAD'IER, _superl._ STEAD'IEST) firm in
standing or in place: fixed: stable: constant: resolute: consistent:
regular: uniform: sober, industrious.--_v.t._ to make steady: to make or
keep firm:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stead'ied.--_n._ a rest or support, as for
the hand, a tool, or a piece of work.--_adv._ STEAD'ILY.--_n._
STEAD'INESS.--_adj._ STEAD'Y-G[=O]'ING, of steady habits or action. [A.S.
_stæ_ðð_ig_--_stæ_ð, stead, bank; Ger. _stätig_, continual.]

STEAK, st[=a]k, _n._ a slice of meat (esp. beef) broiled, or for broiling.
[Prob. Ice. _steik, steikja_, to broil.]

STEAL, st[=e]l, _v.t._ to take by theft or feloniously: to take away
without notice: to gain or win by address, insidiously, or by gradual
means: to snatch: in golf, to hole a long putt by a stealthy stroke--the
opposite of _Gobble._--_v.i._ to practise theft: to take feloniously: to
pass secretly: to slip in or out unperceived:--_pa.t._ st[=o]le; _pa.p._
st[=o]len.--_ns._ STEAL'ER; STEAL'ING, the act of taking another's property
without his knowledge or consent: stolen property.--_adv._
STEAL'INGLY.--STEAL A MARCH ON, to gain an advantage unperceived. [A.S.
_stelan_; Ger. _stehlen_, Dut. _stelen_.]

STEAL, st[=e]l, _n._ (_Spens._) a handle.

STEALTH, stelth, _n._ the act of stealing: a secret manner of bringing
anything to pass.--_adv._ STEALTH'ILY.--_n._ STEALTH'INESS.--_adj._
STEALTH'Y, done by stealth: unperceived: secret.

STEAM, st[=e]m, _n._ the vapour of water--when dry, invisible and
transparent like air, and not to be confused with the semi-liquid cloud
which comes from the chimney of a locomotive; when superheated, changing
the characteristics of a vapour for those belonging to what is known as a
'perfect gas:' the mist formed by condensed vapour: any vaporous
exhalation: energy, force, spirit.--_v.i._ to rise or pass off in steam or
vapour: to move by steam.--_v.t._ to expose to steam.--_ns._ STEAM'BOAT,
STEAM'SHIP, STEAM'-VESS'EL, a boat, ship, or vessel propelled by steam;
STEAM'-BOIL'ER, a boiler for generating steam; STEAM'-CARRIAGE, a carriage
moved by steam on common roads; STEAM'-CHEST, -DOME, a chamber above a
steam-boiler serving as a reservoir for steam; STEAM'-CRANE, a crane worked
by a steam-engine; STEAM'-DIG'GER, a machine for digging the soil by means
of steam-power, the soil being thereby much more thoroughly pulverised than
by ploughing; STEAM'-EN'GINE, an engine or machine which changes heat into
useful work through the medium of steam; STEAM'ER, a vessel moved by steam:
a road-locomotive, &c.: a vessel in which articles are steamed;
STEAM'-GAUGE, an instrument for measuring the pressure of steam in a
boiler; STEAM'-GOV'ERNOR, the governor of a steam-engine; STEAM'-GUN, a gun
projecting a missile by means of steam; STEAM'-HAMM'ER, a hammer consisting
of a steam cylinder and piston placed vertically over an anvil, the hammer
moved by the action of the steam; STEAM'INESS, the quality of being
vaporous or misty; STEAM'-JACK'ET, a hollow casing surrounding any vessel
and into which steam may be admitted; STEAM'-LAUNCH (see LAUNCH);
STEAM'-NAVIG[=A]'TION, the propulsion of vessels by steam; STEAM'-NAV'VY,
an excavator operated by steam in the making of docks, canals, &c.;
STEAM'-PACK'ET, a steam-vessel plying between certain ports; STEAM'-PIPE, a
pipe for conveying steam; STEAM'-PLOUGH, a plough or gang of ploughs worked
by a steam-engine; STEAM'-POW'ER, the force of steam when applied to
machinery; STEAM'-PRESS, a printing-press worked by steam;
STEAM'-PRINT'ING, printing in which the presses are operated by steam;
STEAM'-TRAP, a contrivance for allowing the passage of water while
preventing the passage of steam; STEAM'-TUG, a small steam-vessel used in
towing ships; STEAM'-WHIS'TLE, an apparatus attached to a steam-engine
through which steam is discharged, producing a sound in the manner of a
common whistle.--_adj._ STEAM'Y, consisting of, or like, steam: full of
steam or vapour.--_n._ STEAM'-YACHT, a yacht propelled by steam. [A.S.
_steám_; cog. with Dut. _stoom_.]

STEAN, STEEN, st[=e]n, _n._ a stone or earthenware vessel.--_n._ STEAN'ING,
the stone or brick lining of a well, &c. [A.S. _stæn_, stone.]

STEARE, st[=e]r, _n._ (_Spens._) a steer or ox.

STEARINE, st[=e]'a-r[=i]n, _n._ one of the fats occurring in animals and
plants, the chief constituent of the more solid fats, such as mutton
suet.--_n._ ST[=E]'AR[=A]TE, a salt formed by the combination of stearic
acid with a base.--_adj._ ST[=E]AR'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from,
stearine.--_n._ ST[=E]ARRH[=E]'A, an abnormal increase of secretion from
the oil-glands of the skin.--STEARIC ACID, an acid abundant in fats. [Gr.
_stear_, _steatos_, suet--_histanai_, to make to stand, to fix.]

STEATITE, st[=e]'a-t[=i]t, _n._ soapstone, a compact or massive variety of
talc, a hydrous silicate of magnesia, white or yellow, soft and greasy to
the touch--used by tailors for marking cloth, and called _Briançon Chalk_,
_French Chalk_, and _Venice Talc_.--_adj._ ST[=E]ATIT'IC.--_ns._
ST[=E]AT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the fatty tissue; ST[=E]'ATOCELE, a fatty
tumour in the scrotum; ST[=E]AT[=O]'MA, a fatty encysted tumour.--_adj._
ST[=E]ATOM'ATOUS.--_n._ ST[=E]ATOP'YGA, an accumulation of fat on the
buttocks of the Bushmen women.--_adj._ ST[=E]ATOP'YGOUS,
fat-buttocked.--_n._ ST[=E]AT[=O]'SIS, fatty degeneration of an organ, as
the heart. [Gr. _steatit[=e]s_--_stear_, _steatos_, suet.]

STEBOY, ste-boi', _interj._ a cry in setting on a dog.--Also HIST'ABOY.


STEED, st[=e]d, _n._ a horse or stallion, esp. a spirited horse. [A.S.
_stéda_, from _stód_, a stud; Ger. _stute_, a stud-mare, _ge-stüte_, a

STEEDY, st[=e]d'i, _adj._ (_Spens._) steady.

STEEK, st[=e]k, _n._ (_Scot._) a stitch.--_v.t._ to pierce, to stitch: to

STEEL, st[=e]l, _n._ iron combined in varying proportions with carbon for
making edged tools: any instrument or weapon of steel: an instrument of
steel for sharpening knives on: a strip of steel for stiffening a corset: a
piece of steel for striking fire from a flint: extreme hardness: a
chalybeate medicine.--_adj._ made of steel: hard, unfeeling.--_v.t._ to
overlay or edge with steel: to harden: to make obdurate.--_adj._
STEEL'-CLAD, clad with steel-mail.--_ns._ STEEL'-ENGRAVING, the art of
engraving pictures on steel plates from which impressions may be taken, the
impression or print so taken; STEEL'INESS, state of being steely, great
hardness; STEEL'ING, the welding of a steel edge on a cutting instrument;
STEEL'-PEN, a pen-nib made of steel; STEEL'-PLATE, a plate of steel: a
plate of polished steel on which a design is engraved, the print taken from
such.--_adj._ STEEL'-PL[=A]T'ED, plated with steel.--_n.pl._ STEEL'-TOYS,
small articles of steel as buttons, buckles, &c.--_n._ STEEL'-WARE,
articles made of steel collectively.--_adj._ STEEL'Y, made of steel:
steel-like. [A.S. _stýle_; Ger. _stahl_.]

STEELBOW, st[=e]l'b[=o], _n._ (_Scots law_) a term for goods, such as corn,
cattle, straw, and implements of husbandry delivered by the landlord to his
tenant, by means of which the latter is enabled to stock and labour the
farm, and in consideration of which he becomes bound to return articles
equal in quantity and quality at the expiration of the lease.

STEELYARD, st[=e]l'yärd, _n._ the Roman balance, an instrument for
weighing, consisting of a lever with unequal arms, in using which a single
weight or counterpoise is employed, being moved along a graduated beam.
[Orig. the _yard_ in London where _steel_ was sold by German merchants.]

STEEM, st[=e]m (_Spens._). Same as ESTEEM.


STEENBOK, st[=a]n'bok, _n._ one of several small African antelopes. [Dut.,
_steen_, stone, _bok_, buck.]

STEENKIRK, st[=e]n'kerk, _n._ a lace cravat loosely worn, so named from the
defeat of William III. by Luxembourg at _Steenkerke_, August 3, 1692.

STEEP, st[=e]p, _adj._ rising or descending with great inclination:
precipitous: difficult, excessive, exorbitant.--_n._ a precipitous place: a
precipice.--_adj._ STEEP'-DOWN (_Shak._), deep and precipitous.--_v.i._
STEEP'EN, to become steep.--_ns._ STEEP'INESS, STEEP'NESS, the state or
quality of being steep.--_adv._ STEEP'LY.--_adj._ STEEP'Y, steep. [A.S.
_steáp_; Ice. _steypthr_.]

STEEP, st[=e]p, _v.t._ to dip or soak in a liquid: to imbue.--_n._
something steeped or used in steeping: a fertilising liquid for seed:
rennet.--_n._ STEEP'ER, a vessel in which articles are steeped. [Scand.,
Ice. _steypa_, to make to stoop, pour out, causal of _stúpa_, to stoop.]

STEEPLE, st[=e]p'l, _n._ a tower of a church or building, ending in a
point: the high head-dress of the 14th century.--_adj._ STEEP'LED,
furnished with a steeple: adorned with, or as with, steeples or
towers.--_ns._ STEEP'LE-HAT, a high and narrow-crowned hat; STEEP'LE-HOUSE,
an old Quaker name for the building in which believers meet for worship;
STEEP'LEJACK, one who climbs steeples and chimney-stalks to make repairs.
[A.S. _stýpel_, _stepel_--_steáp_, steep.]

STEEPLECHASE, st[=e]p'l-ch[=a]s, _n._ a horserace run across the open
country, over hedges, ditches, walls, and other obstacles.--_n._
STEEP'LECH[=A]SER, one who rides such.

STEER, st[=e]r, _n._ a young ox, esp. a castrated one from two to four
years old.--_n._ STEER'LING, a little or young steer. [A.S. _steór_; Ger.

STEER, st[=e]r, _v.t._ to direct with the helm: to guide: to
govern.--_v.i._ to direct a ship in its course: to be directed: to
move.--_ns._ STEER'AGE, act or practice of steering: the effect of a rudder
on the ship: an apartment in the fore-part of a ship for passengers paying
a lower rate of fare; STEER'AGE-WAY, sufficient movement of a vessel to
enable it to be controlled by the helm; STEER'ER, STEERS'MAN, a man who
steers a ship; STEER'ING; STEER'ING-WHEEL, the wheel by which the rudder of
a ship is turned. [A.S. _steóran_, _stýran_, to steer; Ger. _steuern_.]

STEER, st[=e]r, _n._ a Scotch form of _stir_.

STEEVE, st[=e]v, _n._ a spar with a block at the end for packing close
certain kinds of cargo: the angle which the bowsprit of a ship makes with
the horizon or the line of her keel.--Also STEEV'ING.

STEEVE, st[=e]v, _adj._ (_Scot._) stiff, firm.--_adv._ STEEVE'LY.

STEEVE, st[=e]v, _v.t._ to stuff, pack close.--_n._ STEEV'ING.

STEGANOGRAPHY, steg-an-og'ra-fi, _n._ the art of writing in cipher or
secret characters.--_n._ STEGANOG'RAPHIST, one who writes in cipher. [Gr.
_steganos_, concealed--_stegein_, to cover, _graphein_, to write.]

STEGANOPUS, ste-gan'[=o]-pus, _n._ a genus of phalaropes with long slender
bill.--_adjs._ STEG'ANOPOD, STEGANOP'ODOUS, having all four toes webbed,
totipalmate.--_n.pl._ STEGANOP'ODES, an order of swimming birds, with all
four toes webbed and a gular pouch--cormorants, frigate-birds, pelicans,
gannets. [Gr. _steganos_, covered, _pous_, _podos_, foot.]

STEGNOSIS, steg-n[=o]'sis, _n._ constriction of the pores and vessels:
constipation.--_adj._ STEGNOT'IC.

STEGOCEPHALOUS, steg-[=o]-sef'a-lus, _adj._ with the head mailed, loricate,
cataphract. [Gr. _stegein_, to cover, _kephal[=e]_, the head.]

STEGOGNATHOUS, ste-gog'n[=a]-thus, _adj._ having a jaw composed of
imbricated plates. [Gr. _stegein_, to cover, _gnathos_, the jaw.]

STEGOPTEROUS, ste-gop'te-rus, _adj._ roof-winged, keeping the wings
deflexed when at rest. [Gr. _stegein_, to cover, _pteron_, a wing.]

STEGOSAURIAN, steg-[=o]-saw'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the STEGOSAU'RIA,
an order or suborder of dinosaurs, represented by the families
_Stegosauridæ_ and _Scelidosauridæ_.--_n._ STEGOSAU'RUS, the typical genus
of _Stegosauridæ_, with enormous bucklers and spines. [Gr. _stegein_, to
cover, _sauros_, a lizard.]

STEINBERGER, st[=i]n-ber'g[.e]r, _n._ an esteemed Rhenish white wine,
produced near Wiesbaden.

STEINBOCK, STEENBOK, st[=e]n'bok, _n._ the name given in German Switzerland
to the ibex of the Alps. [Ger. _stein_, stone, rock, _bock_, _buck_,

STELE, st[=e]'l[=e], _n._ an upright stone slab or tablet, either
sepulchral or on which laws, decrees, &c. are inscribed--also
ST[=E]'LA.--_adj._ ST[=E]'LENE.--_n._ STELOG'RAPHY, the practice of writing
on steles. [L.,--Gr. _st[=e]l[=e]_--_histanai_, to set, stand.]

STELECHITE, stel'e-k[=i]t, _n._ a fine variety of storax.

STELL, stel, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to place, set.


STELLAR, stel'ar, STELLARY, stel'ar-i, _adj._ relating to the stars:
starry.--_n._ STELL[=A]'RIA, a genus of tufted plants of the pink
family--the chickweeds or starworts.--_adjs._ STELL'[=A]TE, -D, like a
star: radiated; STELLED (_Milt._), starry: (_Shak._) set or fixed;
STELLIF'EROUS, thickly abounding with stars; STELL'IFORM, star-shaped;
STELL'ULAR, formed like little stars; STELL'ULATE (_bot._), like a little
star. [L. _stellaris_--_stella_, a star.]

STELLION, stel'yun, _n._ an agamoid lizard.

STELTHS, stelths, _n.pl._ (_Spens._) thefts.

STEM, stem, _n._ the ascending axis of a plant, which usually bears leaves
and flowers, and maintains communication between the roots and the leaves:
the little branch supporting the flower or fruit: a race or family: branch
of a family.--_n._ STEM'-LEAF, a leaf growing from the stem.--_adj._
STEM'LESS (_bot._), wanting a stem, or having it so little developed as to
seem to be wanting.--_ns._ STEM'LET, a little or young stem; STEM'MA, a
pedigree or family tree: an ocellus.--_adjs._ STEM'MATOUS; STEMMED. [A.S.
_stæfn_, _stefn_, _stemn_, from _stæf_, a staff; Ger. _stab_.]

STEM, stem, _n._ the prow of a ship: a curved piece of timber at the prow
to which the two sides of a ship are united.--_v.t._ to cut, as with the
stem: to resist or make progress against: to stop, to check:--_pr.p._
stem'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stemmed.--FROM STEM TO STERN, from one end
of a vessel to the other: completely, throughout. [Same word as above.]

STEME, st[=e]m, _v.t._ an obsolete form of _steam_.

STEMPEL, stem'pel, _n._ a timber helping to support a platform.--Also

STEMSON, stem'sun, _n._ an arching piece of compass-timber behind the apron
of a vessel, and supporting its scarfs.

STENCH, stensh, _n._ stink: a strong bad odour or smell.--_adj._ STENCH'Y.
[A.S. _stenc_; Ger. _stank_.]

STENCIL, sten'sil, _n._ a plate of metal, &c., with a pattern cut out,
which is impressed upon a surface by drawing a brush with colour over
it.--_v.t._ to print or paint by means of a stencil:--_pr.p._ sten'cilling;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sten'cilled.--_ns._ STEN'CILLER, one who does
stencil-work; STEN'CILLING, a method of printing letters or designs, the
pattern cut out on a thin plate, and brushed over so as to mark the surface
below. [O. Fr. _estinceller_, _estincelle_--L. _scintilla_, a spark.]

STEND, stend, _v.i._ (_prov._) to rear, leap, walk with long strides.--_n._
a leap.

STENOCHROME, sten'[=o]-kr[=o]m, _n._ a print from a series of
pigment-blocks arranged.--_n._ STEN'OCHROMY, the art of printing in several
colours at one impression. [Gr. _stenos_, narrow, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

STENOGRAPHY, sten-og'ra-fi, _n._ art of writing very quickly by means of
abbreviations: shorthand.--_n._ STEN'OGRAPH, a character used in
stenography: a stenographic machine.--_v.i._ to represent by means of
stenography.--_ns._ STENOG'RAPHER, STENOG'RAPHIST.--_adjs._ STENOGRAPH'IC,
-AL. [Gr. _stenos_, narrow, _graphein_, to write.]

STENOPAIC, sten-[=o]-p[=a]'ik, _adj._ having a narrow opening. [Gr.
_stenos_, narrow, _op[=e]_, an opening.]

STENOSIS, sten-[=o]'sis, _n._ constriction of the pores and vessels:
constipation.--_adjs._ STENOSED', contracted morbidly; STENOT'IC,
abnormally contracted. [Gr., _stenos_, narrow.]

STENOTYPY, sten'o-t[=i]p-i, _n._ a system of shorthand representing by
ordinary letters shortened signs of words or phrases.--_n._ STEN'OTYPE,
such a symbolic letter or combination of letters.--_adj._ STENOTYP'IC.

STENT, stent, _v.t._ (_prov._) to stint, restrain.--_n._ extent, limit,
amount of work required. [_Stint_.]

STENTOR, stent'or, _n._ a very loud-voiced herald in the Iliad, hence any
person with a remarkably loud voice: the ursine howler.--_adj._
STENT[=O]'RIAN, very loud or powerful. [Gr.]

STEP, step, _n._ a pace: the distance crossed by the foot in walking or
running: a small space: degree: one remove in ascending or descending a
stair: round of a ladder: footprint: manner of walking: proceeding: action:
the support on which the lower end of a mast, or staff, or a wheel rests:
(_pl._) walk, direction taken in walking: a self-supporting ladder with
flat steps.--_v.i._ to advance or retire by pacing: to walk: to walk slowly
or gravely: to walk a short distance: to move mentally.--_v.t._ to set, as
a foot: to fix, as a mast:--_pr.p._ step'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
stepped.--_ns._ STEP'PER, one who steps; STEP'PING-STONE, a stone for
stepping on to raise the feet above the water or mud; STEP'STONE, a
door-step.--STEP ASIDE, to walk to a little distance, as from company: to
err; STEP IN, or INTO, to enter easily or unexpectedly; STEP OUT, to go out
a little way: to increase the length of the step and so the speed; STEP
SHORT, to shorten the length of one's step. [A.S. _stæpe_--_stapan_, to go;
Dut. _stap_, Ger. _stapfe_.]

STEP-CHILD, step'-ch[=i]ld, _n._ one who stands in the relation of a child
through the marriage of a parent--also STEP'-BAIRN. So STEP'-BROTH'ER;
STEP'-SON.--_n._ STEP'-COUN'TRY, an adopted country. [A.S. _steóp-_, as in
_steóp-módor_; Ger. _stieb-_; orig. an _adj._ sig. _bereft_.]

STEPHANE, stef'a-n[=e], _n._ an ancient Greek head-dress like a coronet.
[Gr.,--_stephein_, to crown.]

STEPHANITE, stef'a-n[=i]t, _n._ a metallic iron-black silver
sulph-antimonite.--Also _Brittle silver ore_ and _Sulph-antimonite of

STEPHANOTIS, stef-a-n[=o]'tis, _n._ a genus of shrubby twining plants of
the milkweed family. [Gr. _stephanos_, a crown, _ous_, _[=o]tos,_ the ear.]

STEPPE, step, _n._ one of the vast uncultivated plains in the south-east of
Europe and in Asia. [Russ. _stepe_.]

STERCORAL, ster'ko-ral, _adj._ pertaining to excrement--also STER'CORARY,
that the sacramental bread was digested and evacuated like other food;
STERCOR[=A]'RIANISM; STERCOR[=A]'RIUS, a genus of _Laridæ_, the
dung-hunters or skuas.--_v.t._ STER'CORATE, to manure.

STERCULIA, ster-k[=u]'li-a, _n._ the typical genus of _Sterculiaceæ_, a
family of large trees and shrubs, with mucilaginous and demulcent
properties--Gum-tragacanth, &c. [L. _stercus_, dung.]

STERE, st[=e]r, _n._ a cubic unit of metric measure--a cubic mètre,
equivalent to 35.3156 English cubic feet.--_Decastère_=10 steres;
_Decistère_=1/10 stere. [Fr. _stère_--Gr. _stereos_, solid.]

STEREO, ster'[=e]-[=o], _adj._ and _n._ a contr. of _stereotype_.

STEREOBATE, ster'[=e]-[=o]-b[=a]t, _n._ the substructure on which a
building is based.--_adj._ STEREOBAT'IC. [Gr. _stereos_, solid, _batos_,
verbal of _bainein_, to go.]

STEREOCHROMY, ster'[=e]-[=o]-kr[=o]-mi, _n._ a process of painting on stone
or plaster-work, the colours rendered permanent by a solution of fluoric
acid.--_n._ ST[=E]'REOCHROME, a picture of this kind.--_adj._
STEREOCHR[=O]'MIC.--_adv._ STEREOCHR[=O]'MICALLY. [Gr. _stereos_, hard,
_chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

STEREOELECTRIC, ster'[=e]-[=o]-[=e]-lek'trik, _adj._ pertaining to electric
currents produced when two solids are brought together at different

STEREOGRAPH, st[=e]'r[=e]-[=o]-graf, _n._ a double photograph for viewing
in a stereoscope--also ST[=E]'R[=E][=O]GRAM.--_adjs._ STER[=E]OGRAPH'IC,
-AL, pertaining to stereography: made according to stereography: delineated
on a plane.--_adv._ STER[=E]OGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ STER[=E]OG'RAPHY, the art
of showing solids on a plane. [Gr. _stereos_, hard, _graphein_, to write.]

STEREOMETER, st[=e]-re-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
specific gravity of bodies solid and liquid.--_adjs._ STER[=E]OMET'RIC,
-AL.--_adv._ STER[=E]OMET'RICALLY.--_n._ STER[=E]OM'ETRY, the art of
measuring the solid contents of solid bodies. [Gr. _stereos_, hard,
_metron_, measure.]

STEREOPTICON, ster-[=e]-op'ti-kon, _n._ a double magic-lantern, by means of
which the one picture appears to dissolve gradually into the other.

STEREOSCOPE, ster'[=e]-[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument in which each of
two pictures is examined by a separate lens, and the two lenses are
inclined so as to shift the images towards one another, and thus to ensure
or to facilitate the blending of the two images into one, standing out in
relief with solidity.--_adjs._ STER[=E]OSCOP'IC, -AL, pertaining to the
stereoscope.--_adv._ STER[=E]OSCOP'ICALLY.--_ns._ ST[=E]'R[=E]OSCOPIST;
STER[=E]OS'COPY. [Gr. _stereos_, solid, _skopein_, see.]

STEREOTOMY, ster-[=e]-ot'[=o]-mi, _n._ the art of cutting solids into
figures by certain sections.--_adjs._ STER[=E]O TOM'IC, -AL. [Gr.
_stereos_, solid, _temnein_, to cut.]

STEREOTROPE, ster'[=e]-[=o]-tr[=o]p, _n._ an optical contrivance by which
an object is brought into relief and made to appear as if in motion. [Gr.
_stereos_, solid, _trop[=e]_, a turning.]

STEREOTYPE, st[=e]'r[=e]-[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a solid metallic plate for
printing, cast from an impression of movable types, taken on some plastic
substance: art of fabricating solid casts in type-metal from pages of
movable type.--_adj._ pertaining to, or done with, stereotypes.--_v.t._ to
make a stereotype of: to print with stereotypes.--_p.adj._ ST[=E]'REOTYPED,
transferred as letterpress from set-up movable type to a mould, and thence
to a metal plate: fixed; unchangeable, as opinions.--_ns._ ST[=E]'REOTYPER,
ST[=E]'REOTYPIST, one who makes stereotype plates.--_adj._
ST[=E]REOTYP'IC.--_ns._ STER[=E]OTYPOG'RAPHER, a stereotype printer;
ST[=E]REOTYPOG'RAPHY, the art, practice, or business of printing from
stereotype plates; ST[=E]'REOTYPY, the art or employment of making
stereotype plates. [Gr. _stereos_, solid, and _type_.]

STERIGMA, st[=e]-rig'ma, _n._ (_bot._) a stalk or support.--_adj._
STERIGMAT'IC. [Gr. _st[=e]rigma_, a prop.]

STERILE, ster'il, _adj._ unfruitful: barren: (_bot._) producing no pistil,
or no spores: destitute of ideas or sentiment.--_n._ STERILIS[=A]'TION, act
of sterilising.--_v.t._ STER'ILISE, to cause to be fruitless: to destroy
bacteria or other micro-organisms in.--_ns._ STER'ILISER, anything which
sterilises; STERIL'ITY, quality of being sterile: unfruitfulness,
barrenness, in regard to reproduction. [O. Fr.,--L. _sterilis_, barren.]

STERLET, st[.e]r'let, _n._ a small sturgeon.

STERLING, st[.e]r'ling, _adj._ a designation of British money--pure,
genuine, of good quality--also generally, of value or excellence,
authoritative. [Orig. the name of a penny; prob. from the Hanse merchants
or _Easterlings_ ('men from the east'), from North Germany, who had
probably the privilege of coining money in England in the 13th century.]

STERN, st[.e]rn, _adj._ severe of countenance, manner, or feeling: austere:
harsh: unrelenting: steadfast.--_adv._ STERN'LY.--_n._ STERN'NESS. [A.S.

STERN, st[.e]rn, _n._ the hind-part of a vessel: the rump or tail of an
animal.--_v.t._ to back a boat, to row backward.--_ns._ STERN'AGE
(_Shak._), the steerage or stern of a ship; STERN'BOARD, backward motion of
a ship: loss of way in tacking; STERN'-CHASE, a chase in which one ship
follows directly in the wake of another; STERN'-CH[=A]S'ER, a cannon in the
stern of a ship.--_adj._ STERNED, having a stern of a specified
kind.--_ns._ STERN'-FAST, a rope or chain for making fast a ship's stern to
a wharf, &c.; STERN'-FRAME, the sternpost, transoms, and fashion-pieces of
a ship's stern.--_adj._ STERN'MOST, farthest astern.--_ns._ STERN'PORT, a
port or opening in the stern of a ship; STERN'POST, the aftermost timber of
a ship which supports the rudder; STERN'SHEETS, the part of a boat between
the stern and the rowers; STERN'SON, the hinder extremity of a ship's
keelson, to which the sternpost is bolted; STERN'WAY, the backward motion
of a vessel; STERN'-WHEEL'ER (_U.S._), a small vessel with one large
paddle-wheel at the stern. [Ice. _stjórn_, a steering.]

STERNUM, st[.e]r'num, _n._ the breast-bone.--_adj._ STER'NAL.--_n._
STERNAL'GIA, pain about the breast-bone, esp. angina pectoris.--_adjs._
STERNAL'GIC; STER'NEBRAL, pertaining to the STER'NEBRA or serial segments
of which the sternum of a vertebrate is composed.--_n._ STER'NITE, the
ventral portion of the somite of an arthropod.--_adjs._ STERNIT'IC;
STERNOCOST'AL, pertaining to, or connected with, the sternum and ribs:
denoting those ribs and muscles attached to the sternum. [Gr. _sternon_,

STERNUTATION, st[.e]r-n[=u]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of sneezing.--_adjs._
STERN[=U]'T[=A]TIVE, STERN[=U]'TATORY, that causes sneezing.--_n._ a
substance that causes sneezing. [L. _sternutatio_--_sternut[=a]re_,
_-[=a]tum_, inten. of _sternu[)e]re_, _-utum_, to sneeze.]

STERTOROUS, st[.e]r't[=o]-rus, _adj._ snoring.--_adv._ STER'TOROUSLY.--_n._
STER'TOROUSNESS. [L. _stert[)e]re_, to snore.]

STERVE, st[.e]rv, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to starve, to die.--Also STER'VEN.

STET, stet, _v.t._ to restore--generally on proof-sheets, in imperative,
with a line of dots under the words to be retained. [L., 'let it stand,' 3d
sing. pres. subj. of _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STETHIÆUM, steth-i-[=e]'um, _n._ the anterior half of a bird--opp. to
_Uræum_.--_n._ STETHID'IUM, in insects, the thorax. [Gr., _st[=e]thos_, the

STETHOMETER, steth-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the
relative mobility of the different sides of the chest in respiration.--_n._
STETH'OGRAPH, an instrument for marking the respiratory movements of the
thorax.--_adj._ STETHOGRAPH'IC. [Gr. _st[=e]thos_, chest, _metron_,

STETHOSCOPE, steth'[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for auscultation,
consisting of a tubular piece of wood to be applied to the patient's
body--in the _binaural_ form with tubes of rubber, &c., to convey the
sounds to the physician's ears.--_adjs._ STETHOSCOP'IC, -AL, pertaining to,
or performed by, the stethoscope.--_adv._ STETHOSCOP'ICALLY.--_ns._
STETH'OSCOPIST; STETH'OSCOPY. [Gr. _st[=e]thos_, the breast, _skopein_, to

STEVEDORE, st[=e]v'e-d[=o]r, _n._ one who loads and unloads vessels. [A
corr. of Sp. _estivador_, a wool-packer--_estivar_, to stow--L.
_stip[=a]re,_ to press.]

STEVEN, st[=e]'vn, _n._ (_Spens._) a cry, a loud clamour. [A.S. _stefn_,
the voice.]

STEW, st[=u], _v.t._ to simmer or boil slowly with little moisture.--_v.i._
to be boiled slowly and gently: (_slang_) to be in a state of worry or
agitation: to read hard for an examination.--_n._ meat stewed: mental
agitation: worry: (_slang_) one who reads hard: a room for bathing
purposes: (_pl._) a brothel.--_ns._ STEW'-PAN, -POT, a pan, pot, used for
stewing. [O. Fr. _estuve_ (_étuve_), a stove--Old High Ger. _stup[=a]_
(Ger. _stube_), a heated room.]

STEW, st[=u], _n._ an artificial oyster-bed: a vivarium.

STEWARD, st[=u]'ard, _n._ one who manages the domestic concerns of a family
or institution: one who superintends another's affairs, esp. an estate or
farm: the manager of the provision department, &c., at sea: a manager at
races, games, &c.: the treasurer of a congregation, a guild or society,
&c.--_ns._ STEW'ARDESS, a female steward: a female who waits on ladies on
shipboard; STEW'ARDSHIP, STEW'ARDRY, office of a steward: management;
STEW'ARTRY (_Scot._), a stewardship, or the extent of a stewardship--still
applied esp. to the county of Kirkcudbright.--LORD HIGH STEWARD, one of the
great officers of state, and anciently the first officer of the crown in
England. [A.S. _stíg-weard_--_stigo_, a sty, _weard_, a ward.]

STHENIC, sthen'ik, _adj._ attended with increased action of the heart:
strong, robust: inspiring.--_n._ STHEN[=I]'A, strength. [Gr. _sthenos_,

STIBBLER, stib'l[.e]r, _n._ one who cuts the handfuls left by the reaper: a
clerical locum tenens.

STIBIUM, stib'i-um, _n._ antimony.--_adj._ STIB'IAL, like antimony.--_n._
STIB'IALISM, poisoning by antimony.--_adj._ STIB'I[=A]TED, impregnated with
antimony.--_n._ STIB'NITE, native antimony trisulphide. [Gr.]

STIBOGRAM, stib'[=o]-gram, _n._ a graphic record of footprints. [Gr.
_stibos_, a track, _gramma_, a letter.]

STICH, stik, _n._ a verse or line of poetry, of whatever measure--used in
composition: a row of trees.--_ns._ STICH[=A]'RION, a Greek vestment like
the Western alb; STICH[=E]'RON, a troparion.--_adj._ STICH'IC, pertaining
to a verse.--_n._ STICH'OMANCY, divination by the assumed meaning of a
verse, text of Scripture, or literary passage taken at random.--_adjs._
STICHOMET'RIC, -AL, pertaining to stichom'etry, stating the number of
lines.--_ns._ STICHOM'ETRY, measurement of manuscript by lines: a list
stating such; STICHOMYTH'IA, dialogue in alternate lines; STICH'OS, a line
of ordinary length in measuring a manuscript: a verse or versicle in the
usage of the Greek Church. [Gr. _stichos_, a row--_steichein_, to ascend.]

STICK, stik, _v.t._ to stab: to thrust in: to fasten by piercing: to fix
in: to set with something pointed: to cause to adhere.--_v.i._ to hold to:
to remain: to stop: to be hindered: to hesitate, to be embarrassed or
puzzled: to adhere closely in affection:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stuck.--_ns._
STICK'ER, one who kills pigs, &c.: one who sticks to anything; STICK'ING,
the act of stabbing; STICK'ING-PLACE, the point at which a thing sticks or
stays; STICK'ING-PLAS'TER, an adhesive plaster for closing wounds;
STICK'-IN-THE-MUD, an old fogy; STICK'IT-MIN'ISTER (_Scot._), a licentiate
who never gets a pastoral charge.--STICK AT, to hesitate: to persist at;
STICK BY, to be firm in supporting, to adhere closely to; STICK OUT, to be
prominent, project; STICK PIGS, to hunt wild hogs on horseback and transfix
them with the spear; STICK TO, to persevere in holding to; STICK UP, to
stand up: to waylay and plunder, as a mail-coach by bushrangers; STICK UP
FOR, to speak or act in defence of.--BE STUCK ON (_U.S._), to be enamoured
of; STUCK UP, conceited. [A.S. _stecan_ (assumed); Ger. _stechen_, Dut.
_steken_; also A.S. _stician_, Ger. _stecken_, to set, stick fast.]

STICK, stik, _n._ a small shoot or branch cut off a tree: a staff or
walking-stick: anything in the form of a stick, a cudgel: a piece of
printers' furniture used to lock up a form in a chase, a printer's
composing-stick: a stiff, stupidly obstinate person.--_v.t._ to furnish or
set with sticks: to arrange in a composing-stick.--_n._ STICK'-IN'SECT, a
walking-stick or phasmid insect. [A.S. _sticca_; Ice. _stika_.]

STICKLE, stik'l, _v.i._ to interpose between combatants: to contend
obstinately: to hesitate.--_n._ a sharp point, a prickle, a spine.--_ns._
STICK'LEBACK, a small river-fish so called from the spines on its back;
STICK'LER, a second or umpire in a duel: an obstinate contender, esp. for
something trifling.--_adj._ STICK'LER-LIKE (_Shak._), in the manner of a
stickler. [A dim. of _stick_ (n.).]

STICKLE, stik'l, _adj._ high, rapid.--_n._ a current below a waterfall.
[A.S. _sticol_, steep.]

STICKY, stik'i, _adj._ that sticks or adheres: adhesive: glutinous.--_n._
STICK'INESS. [_Stick_.]

STIE, st[=i], _v.i._ (_Spens._) to ascend. [A.S. _stígan_.]

STIFF, stif, _adj._ not easily bent: rigid: not liquid: rather hard than
soft: not easily overcome: obstinate: not natural and easy: constrained:
formal: hard to overcome, difficult: firm, of prices, &c.: dead, rigid in
death: (_naut._) keeping upright.--_n._ (_slang_) a corpse: negotiable
paper: forged paper.--_v.t._ STIFF'EN, to make stiff.--_v.i._ to become
stiff: to become less impressible or more obstinate.--_ns._ STIFF'ENER, one
who, or that which, stiffens; STIFF'ENING, something used to make a
substance more stiff.--_adj._ STIFF'-HEART'ED (_B._), obstinate,
stubborn.--_adv._ STIFF'LY.--_n._ STIFF'-NECK, cervical myalgia, true
torticollis.--_adj._ STIFF'-NECKED, obstinate, hard to move.--_ns._
STIFF'-NECK'EDNESS; STIFF'NESS.--DO A BIT OF STIFF, to accept or discount a
bill. [A.S. _stíf_, stiff; Dut. _stijf_, Dan. _stiv_.]

STIFLE, st[=i]'fl, _v.t._ to stop the breath of by foul air or other means:
to suffocate, smother: to extinguish: to suppress the sound of: to destroy:
to suppress, conceal.--_v.i._ to suffocate.--_adj._ ST[=I]'FLING, close,
oppressive. [Scand., Ice. _stífla_, to choke up; Norw. _stivla_.]

STIFLE, st[=i]'fl, _n._ the knee-joint on a horse's hind-leg, a disease of
his knee-pan. [Perh. _stiff_.]

STIGMA, stig'ma, _n._ a brand: a mark of infamy: (_bot._) the top of a
pistil: any special mark: a place on the skin which bleeds
periodically:--_pl._ STIG'MAS or STIG'MATA.--_n._ STIGM[=A]'RIA, the root
of the fossil plant sigillaria, found in the coal-measures.--_n.pl._
STIG'MATA, the marks of the wounds on Christ's body, or marks resembling
them, claimed to have been miraculously impressed on the bodies of certain
persons, as Francis of Assisi in 1224.--_adjs._ STIGMAT'IC, -AL, marked or
branded with a stigma: giving infamy or reproach.--_adv._
STIGMAT'ICALLY.--_adj._ STIGMATIF'EROUS (_bot._), stigma-bearing.--_n._
STIGMATIS[=A]'TION, the operation or effect of producing bleeding spots
upon the body, as by hypnotism.--_v.t._ STIG'MATISE, to brand with a
stigma.--_n._ STIG'MATIST, one impressed with the stigmata.--_adj._
STIG'MATOSE, stigmatic: stigmatised.--_n._ STIGMAT[=O]'SIS, a form of
inflammation of the skin, occurring in spots.--_adj._ STIGMATYP'IC,
pertaining to the making of impressions by means of scorching-hot
plates.--_ns._ STIG'MATYPY, a species of printing with points, that
consists of their arrangement in pictures; STIG'M[=E] (_Gr. paleog._), a
dot used as a punctuation mark, esp. at the top of the line, equivalent to
a period. [L.,--Gr.,--_stizein_, to mark.]

STILBITE, stil'b[=i]t, _n._ a pearly and foliated variety of zeolite. [Gr.
_stilbein_, to shine.]

STILE, st[=i]l, _n._ a step, or set of steps, for climbing over a wall or
fence. [A.S. _stigel_, a step--_stígan_; cf. Ger. _steigen_, to mount.]

STILE, st[=i]l, _n._ the pin of a dial. [_Style_.]

STILETTO, sti-let'[=o], _n._ a dagger with a slender and narrow blade: a
pointed instrument for making eyelet-holes:--_pl._ STILETT'OS.--_v.t._ to
stab with a stiletto:--_pr.p._ stilett'oing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
stilett'oed. [It., dim. of _stilo_, a dagger--L. _stilus_, a stake.]

STILL, stil, _adj._ silent: motionless: calm, subdued: not sparkling or
effervescing: constant.--_v.t._ to quiet: to silence: to appease: to
restrain.--_adv._ always, constantly: nevertheless, for all that: even yet:
after that.--_n._ calm.--_n._ STILL'-BIRTH, the state of being still-born:
anything born without life.--_adj._ STILL'-BORN, dead when born.--_ns._
STILL'ER, one who stills or quiets; STILL'-LIFE, the class of pictures
representing inanimate objects; STILL'NESS; STILL'-ROOM, an apartment where
liquors, preserves, and the like are kept, and where tea, &c., is prepared
for the table: a housekeeper's pantry; STILL'-STAND (_Shak._), absence of
motion.--_adj._ STILL'Y, still: quiet: calm.--_adv._ silently: gently.
[A.S. _stille_, firm; Dut. _stil_, Ger. _still_.]

STILL, stil, _v.t._ to cause to fall by drops: to distil.--_n._ an
apparatus for distillation, consisting essentially of a vessel in which the
liquid to be distilled is placed, the vapour being conducted by means of a
head or neck to the condenser or worm, where it is cooled by water or other
means, and again forms liquid.--_adj._ STILL'IFORM, drop-shaped. [L.
_still[=a]re_, to cause to drop--_stilla_, a drop, or simply a contr. for
_distil_, like _sport_ from _disport_.]

STILLAGE, stil'[=a]j, _n._ a frame on which things are laid.--_n._
STILL'ING, a stand.

STILLICIDE, stil'i-s[=i]d, _n._ an urban servitude among the Romans, where
a proprietor was not allowed to build to the extremity of his estate, but
must leave a space regulated by the charter by which the property was held,
so as not to throw the eavesdrop on the land of his neighbour--same as
_Eavesdrip_.--_n._ STILLICID'IUM, a morbid trickling. [L.]

STILP, stilp, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to go on crutches.--_n.pl._ STILP'ERS,

STILT, stilt, _n._ one of a pair of props or poles with steps or supports
at a sufficient distance from the lower end to allow a man standing on the
steps to walk clear of the ground and with longer strides: a widely
distributed genus (_Himantopus_) of wading-birds belonging to the Snipe
family, having long slender bills and very long wings and legs--also
STILT'-BIRD, -PLOV'ER.--_v.t._ to raise on stilts: to elevate by unnatural
means.--_adjs._ STILT'ED, STILT'Y, elevated as if on stilts: pompous.--_n._
STILT'EDNESS.--STILTED ARCH, an arch that does not spring directly from the
impost, but from horizontal courses of masonry resting on it. [Scand., Sw.
_stylta_; Dut. _stelt_, a stilt.]

STILTON, stil'ton, _n._ a rich white cheese--from _Stilton_ in

STIME, st[=i]m, _n._ (_Scot._) a ray of light, a glimmer.--Also STYME.
[A.S. _scima_, a light.]

STIMULANT, stim'[=u]-lant, _adj._ stimulating: increasing or exciting vital
action.--_n._ anything that stimulates or excites: a stimulating medicine
that increases the activity of the vital functions generally, or of one
system or organ.--_v.t._ STIM'UL[=A]TE, to prick with anything sharp: to
incite: to instigate: (_physiol._) to produce increased action in.--_n._
STIMUL[=A]'TION, act of stimulating, or condition of being
stimulated.--_adj._ STIM'UL[=A]TIVE, tending to stimulate.--_n._ that which
stimulates or excites.--_ns._ STIM'UL[=A]TOR, one who stimulates:--_fem._
STIM'UL[=A]TRESS; STIM'ULISM, the practice of treating diseases by
stimulation; STIM'[=U]LUS, a goad: anything that rouses the mind, or that
excites to action: a stimulant:--_pl._ STIM'UL[=I]. [L. _stimulus_ (for
_stigmulus_)--Gr. _stizein_, to prick.]

STING, sting, _v.t._ to stick anything sharp into, to pain acutely.--_v.i._
to have a sting: to give pain:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stung.--_n._ the
sharp-pointed weapon of some animals: the thrust of a sting into the flesh:
anything that causes acute pain: any stimulus or impulse: the point in the
last verse of an epigram.--_n._ STING'ER, one who, or that which,
stings.--_adv._ STING'INGLY, with stinging.--_adj._ STING'LESS, having no
sting.--_n._ STING'-RAY, a genus of cartilaginous fishes, of the order of
Rays, and family _Trygonidæ_, the long tail bearing dorsally a long
bi-serrated spine capable of giving an ugly wound. [A.S. _stingan_; Ice.

STINGO, sting'g[=o], _n._ strong malt liquor.

STINGY, stin'ji, _adj._ niggardly: avaricious.--_adv._ STIN'GILY.--_n._
STIN'GINESS, [Merely _sting-y_.]

STINK, stingk, _v.i._ to give out a strong, offensive smell: to have a bad
reputation:--_pa.t._ stank; _pa.p._ stunk.--_n._ a disagreeable
smell.--_ns._ STINK'ARD, one who stinks: a base fellow: the stinking badger
of Java; STINK'-BALL, -POT, a ball or jar filled with a stinking,
combustible mixture, used in boarding an enemy's vessel; STINK'ER, one who,
or that which, stinks; STINK'ING.--_adv._ STINK'INGLY, in a stinking
manner: with an offensive smell.--_ns._ STINK'STONE, a variety of limestone
remarkable for the fetid urinous odour which it emits when rubbed;
STINK'-TRAP, a contrivance to prevent effluvia from drains; STINK'-WOOD,
the wood of a Cape tree, remarkable for its strong offensive smell,
durable, taking an excellent polish resembling walnut. [A.S. _stincan_.]

STINT, stint, _v.t._ to shorten: to limit: to restrain.--_v.i._ to cease,
stop: to be saving.--_n._ limit: restraint, restriction: proportion
allotted, fixed amount: one of several species of sandpiper, the
dunlin.--_adj._ STINT'ED, limited.--_ns._ STINT'EDNESS; STINT'ER.--_adv._
STINT'INGLY.--_adjs._ STINT'LESS; STINT'Y. [A.S. _styntan_--_stunt_,

STIPA, st[=i]'pa, _n._ a genus of grasses, the feather-grasses. [L.
_stipa_, tow.]

STIPE, st[=i]p, _n._ (_bot._) the base of a frond of a fern: also a stalk,
as of a pistil, of a fungus or mushroom, of the leaf of a fern, or even the
trunk of a tree.--_n._ ST[=I]'PEL, the stipule of a leaflet.--_adj._
ST[=I]'PELLATE, having stipels.--_n._ ST[=I]'PES, a stipe: a stalk or
stem.--_adjs._ ST[=I]'PIFORM, STIP'ITATE, STIPIT'IFORM. [Fr.,--L. _stipes_,
a stem.]

STIPEND, st[=i]'pend, _n._ a salary paid for services, esp. to a clergyman
in Scotland: settled pay.--_adj._ STIPEND'IARY, receiving stipend.--_n._
one who performs services for a salary, esp. a paid magistrate.--_v.t._
STIPEN'DIATE, to provide with a salary. [L. _stipendium_--_stips_,
donation, _pend[)e]re_, weigh.]

STIPPLE, stip'l, _v.t._ to engrave or form by means of dots or small
points, as distinguished from line-engraving:--_pr.p._ stipp'ling; _pa.p._
stipp'led.--_n._ a mode of execution in engraving and miniature-painting,
in which the effect is produced by dots instead of lines: in
colour-decoration, a gradation or combination of tones or tints serving as
a transition between decided colours.--_adj._ STIPP'LED.--_ns._ STIPP'LER,
one who stipples: a coarse brush for stippling; STIPP'LING, stippled work
of any kind. [Dut. _stippelen_, dim. of _stippen_, to dot.]

STIPULATE, stip'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to contract: to settle terms.--_ns._
STIPUL[=A]'TION, act of stipulating: a contract; STIP'UL[=A]TOR. [L.
_stipul[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, prob. from old L. _stipulus_, firm, conn. with
_stip[=a]re_, to press firm.]

STIPULE, stip'[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) an appendage or lobe at the base of
certain leaves, resembling a small leaf: also, a small appendage at the
base of petioles, usually softer than the latter--also
STIP'[=U]LED. [L. _stipula_, a stalk, dim. of _stipes_.]

STIR, st[.e]r, _v.t._ to move: to rouse: to instigate.--_v.i._ to move
one's self: to be active: to draw notice:--_pr.p._ stir'ring; _pa.p._ and
_pa.t._ stirred.--_n._ tumult: bustle.--_n._ STIR'ABOUT, one who makes
himself active: oatmeal porridge.--_adj._ busy, active.--_adj._ STIR'LESS,
without stir.--_n._ STIR'RER.--_p.adj._ STIR'RING, putting in motion:
active: accustomed to a busy life: animating, rousing.--STIR UP, to
instigate the passions of: to put into motion or action: to enliven: to
disturb. [A.S. _styrian_; Dut. _storen_, Ger. _stören_, to drive.]

STIR, st[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to steer, to direct.

STIRK, st[.e]rk, _n._ (_Scot._) a yearling ox or cow. [A.S. _stirc_, a
heifer--_steór_, a steer.]

STIRP, st[.e]rp, _n._ (_Bacon_) a family, generation, or race:--_pl._
STIR'PES. [L. _stirps_, _stirpis_.]

STIRRUP, stir'up, _n._ a ring or hoop suspended by a rope or strap from the
saddle, for a horseman's foot while mounting or riding: a rope secured to a
yard, having a thimble in its lower end for reeving a foot-rope.--_ns._
STIRR'UP-CUP, a cup taken by one who is departing on horseback;
STIRR'UP-[=I]'RON, the ring of iron attached to the stirrup-leather to
receive the foot; STIRR'UP-LEATH'ER, -STRAP, the strap of leather that
supports a stirrup. [A.S. _stigeráp_--_stígan_, to mount, ráp, a _rope_.]

STITCH, stich, _n._ a pass of a needle and thread, the part of the thread
left in the fabric, a single loop or link: the kind of work produced by
stitching--buttonhole-_stitch_, cross-_stitch_, &c.: the space between two
double furrows: a fastening, as of thread or wire, through the back of a
book to connect the leaves: an acute pain, a sharp spasmodic pain, esp. in
the intercostal muscles: a bit of clothing, a rag.--_v.t._ to sew so as to
show a regular line of stitches: to sew or unite.--_v.i._ to practise
stitching.--_ns._ STITCH'ER; STITCH'ERY (_Shak._), needle-work; STITCH'ING,
the act of one who stitches: needle-work done in such a way that a
continuous line of stitches appears on the surface; STITCH'WORT, a genus of
slender plants, including the chickweed, so called because once believed to
cure 'stitch' in the side. [A.S. _stice_, a prick; Ger. _sticken_, to
embroider; conn. with _stick_.]

STITHY, stith'i, _n._ an anvil: a smith's shop.--_v.t._ to forge on an
anvil. [Ice. _stethi_; Sw. _städ_, an anvil.]

STIVE, st[=i]v, _v.i._ (_prov._) to stew, to be stifled.--_adj._ ST[=I]'VY,
close, stuffy.

STIVER, st[=i]'v[.e]r, _n._ a Dutch coin, worth one penny sterling: any
small coin. [Dut. _stuiver_.]

STOA, st[=o]'a, _n._ a portico or covered colonnade round a house,
market-place, &c.

STOAT, st[=o]t, _n._ a kind of weasel, called the ermine when in its winter
dress.--Also STOTE. [_Stot_.]

STOB, stob, _n._ a small post for supporting paling: a wedge in
coal-mining. [A variant of _stub_.]

STOCCADE, stok-[=a]d', STOCCADO, stok-[=a]'do, _n._ a thrust in
fencing--(_Shak._) STOCCA'TA. [It. _stoccata_, a thrust--_stocco_, a
rapier--Ger. _stock_, a stick.]

STOCK, stok, _n._ something stuck or thrust in: the stem of a tree or
plant: the trunk which receives a graft: a post, a log: anything fixed
solid and senseless: a stupid person: the crank-shaped handle of a
centre-bit: the wood in which the barrel of a firearm is fixed: the
cross-piece of timber into which the shank of an anchor is inserted: the
part to which others are attached: the original progenitor: family: a fund,
capital, shares of a public debt: store: the cattle, horses, and other
useful animals kept on a farm: the liquor or broth obtained by boiling
meat, the foundation for soup: a stiff band worn as a cravat, often
fastened with a buckle at the back: (_pl._) an instrument in which the legs
of offenders were confined: the frame for a ship while building: the public
funds.--_v.t._ to store: to supply: to fill: to supply with domestic
animals or stock: to refrain from milking cows for 24 hours or more
previous to sale.--_adj._ kept in stock, standing.--_ns._ STOCK'BREED'ER,
one who raises live-stock; STOCK'BROKER, a broker who deals in stocks or
shares; STOCK'BROKING, the business of a stockbroker; STOCK'-DOVE, the wild
pigeon of Europe; STOCK'-EP'ITHET, any ordinary and conventional epithet;
STOCK'-EXCHANGE', the place where stocks are bought and sold: an
association of sharebrokers and dealers; STOCK'-FARM'ER, a farmer who rears
live-stock, as cattle, &c.; STOCK'-FEED'ER, one who feeds or fattens
live-stock; STOCK'HOLDER, one who holds stocks in the public funds, or in a
company; STOCK'-IN-TRADE, the whole goods a shopkeeper keeps on sale: a
person's mental resources; STOCK'-JOB'BER; STOCK'-JOB'BERY, -JOB'BING,
speculating in stocks; STOCK'-LIST, a list of stocks and current prices
regularly issued; STOCK'MAN, a herdsman who has the charge of stock on a
sheep-run in Australia; STOCK'-MAR'KET, a market for the sale of stocks,
the stock-exchange; STOCK'-POT, the pot in which the stock for soup is
kept; STOCK'-RID'ER, a herdsman on an Australian station; STOCK'-SADD'LE, a
saddle with heavy tree and iron horn; STOCK'-ST[=A]'TION, a station where
stock and cattle are reared; STOCK'-WHIP, a whip with short handle and long
lash for use in herding; STOCK'WORK, a deposit in which the ore is
distributed all over it; STOCK'YARD, a large yard with pens, stables, &c.
where cattle are kept for slaughter, market, &c.--TAKE STOCK, to make an
inventory of goods on hand: to make an estimate of; TAKE STOCK IN, to take
a share in, to put confidence in. [A.S. _stocc_, a stick; Ger. _stock_.]

STOCK, stok, _n._ a favourite garden-flower. [Orig. called
_stock-gillyflower_, to distinguish it from the stemless clove-pink, called
the _gillyflower_.]

STOCKADE, stok-[=a]d', _n._ a breastwork formed of stakes fixed in the
ground.--_v.t._ to fortify with such. [Fr. _estocade_--_estoc_--Ger.
_stock_, stick.]

STOCKFISH, stok'fish, n, a commercial name of salted and dried cod and
other fish of the same family, esp. ling, hake, and torsk.

STOCK-GILLYFLOWER, stok'-jil'i-flow-[.e]r, _n._ a genus of herbaceous or
half-shrubby plants of the natural order _Cruciferæ_, having their flowers
in racemes, and generally beautiful and fragrant. [_Stock_, wood, and

STOCKING, stok'ing, _n._ a close covering for the foot and lower
leg.--_ns._ STOCKINET', an elastic knitted fabric for under-garments;
STOCK'INGER, one who knits stockings; STOCK'ING-FRAME, a knitting-machine.
[From _stock_, the stockings being the _nether-stocks_ when the long hose
came to be cut at the knee.]

STOCKISH, stok'ish, _adj._ (_Shak._) like a stock, stupid.--_n._
STOCK'ISHNESS, stupidity.--_adj._ STOCK'-STILL, still as a stock or post.

STOCK-TACKLE, stok'-tak'l, _n._ tackle used in hoisting an anchor on board
ship to keep its stock clear of the ship's side.

STOCK-TAKING, stok'-t[=a]k'ing, _n._ a periodical inventory made of the
stock or goods in a shop or warehouse.

STOCKY, stok'i, _adj._ short and stout, thick-set: having a strong
stem.--_adv._ STOCK'ILY.

STODGY, stoj'i, _adj._ heavy, lumpy: ill put together:
indigestible.--_v.t._ STODGE, to stuff, cram.--_n._ STODG'INESS.

STOG, stog, _v.t._ (_prov._) to plunge in mire: to probe a pool with a
pole. [Related to _stock_.]

STOIC, st[=o]'ik, _n._ a disciple of the philosopher Zeno (340-260 B.C.),
who opened his school in a colonnade called the _Stoa Poikil[=e]_ ('painted
porch') at Athens--later Roman Stoics were Cato the Younger, Seneca, Marcus
Aurelius: one indifferent to pleasure or pain.--_adjs._ ST[=O]'IC, -AL,
pertaining to the Stoics, or to their opinions; indifferent to pleasure or
pain.--_adv._ ST[=O]'ICALLY.--_ns._ ST[=O]'ICALNESS; ST[=O]'ICISM, the
doctrines of the Stoics, a school of ancient philosophy strongly opposed to
Epicureanism in its views of life and duty: indifference to pleasure or
pain. [L. _Stoicus_--Gr. _St[=o]ïkos_--_stoa_, a porch.]

STOKE, st[=o]k, _v.i._ to stir or tend a fire.--_ns._ STOKE'-HOLE, the
space about the mouth of a furnace: the space allotted to the stokers: a
hole in a reverberatory furnace for introducing a stirring-tool;
ST[=O]K'ER, one who, or that which, feeds a furnace with fuel.
[Dut.,--_stoken_, to light a fire, _stok_, a stick.]

STOLE, st[=o]l, _pa.t._ of _steal_.

STOLE, st[=o]l, _n._ a long robe reaching to the feet: a narrow vestment,
usually black silk, fringed at the ends, sometimes coloured according to
the seasons, worn by bishops and priests in the Latin Church during
mass.--_n._ ST[=O]'LA, the outer garment of the Roman matron: a chorister's
surplice: (_her._) a bearing showing a fringed scarf. [L. _stola_--Gr.
_stol[=e]_, a robe--_stellein_, to array.]

STOLEN, st[=o]l'en, _pa.p._ of _steal_.

STOLID, stol'id, _adj._ dull: heavy: stupid: foolish.--_n._ STOLID'ITY,
STOL'IDNESS, state of being stolid: dullness of intellect.--_adv._
STOL'IDLY. [L. _stolidus_.]

STOLON, st[=o]'lon, _n._ a shoot from the root of a plant: a
sucker.--_adjs._ ST[=O]'LONATE, ST[=O]L[=O]NIF'EROUS. [L. _stolo_, a twig.]

STOMA, st[=o]'ma, _n._ (_bot._) one of the minute openings in the epidermis
of leaves and tender green stems of plants, subserving the purpose of
respiration: (_zool._) one of the breathing-holes in the bodies of certain
of the articulata:--_pl._ ST[=O]'MATA.--_adjs._ STOMAT'IC;
STOMATIF'EROUS.--_n._ STOMAT[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the interior of the
mouth.--_adj._ ST[=O]'MATODE, having a stoma.--_ns._ STOMATOL'OGY, the
scientific knowledge of the mouth; ST[=O]'MATOSCOPE, an instrument for
examining the interior of the mouth. [Gr. _stoma_, a mouth.]

STOMACH, stum'ak, _n._ the strong muscular bag into which the food passes
when swallowed, and where it is principally digested: the cavity in any
animal for the digestion of its food: appetite, relish for food,
inclination generally: disposition, spirit, courage, pride, spleen.--_v.t._
to brook or put up with: to turn the stomach of: to resent.--_adj._
STOM'ACHAL.--_ns._ STOM'ACHER, a part of the dress covering the front of
the body, generally forming the lower part of the bodice in front,
sometimes richly ornamented: a large brooch; STOMACH'IC, a medicine for the
stomach.--_adjs._ STOMACH'IC, -AL, pertaining to the stomach: strengthening
or promoting the action of the stomach; STOM'ACHOUS (_Spens._), angry,
stout, obstinate.--_ns._ STOM'ACH-PUMP, a syringe with a flexible tube for
withdrawing fluids from the stomach, or injecting them into it;
STOM'ACH-STAG'GERS, a disease in horses due to a paralytic affection of the
stomach. [O. Fr. _estomac_--L. _stomachus_--Gr. _stomachos_, the throat,
stomach--_stoma_, a mouth.]

STOMATOPOD, st[=o]'ma-to-pod, _n._ one of the STOMATOP'ODA, an order of
marine crustaceans, having most of their seven or eight pair of legs near
the mouth. [Gr. _stoma_, mouth, _pous_, _podos_, foot.]

STOND, stond, _n._ (_Spens._) station: also=_stound_.

STONE, st[=o]n, _n._ a hard mass of earthy or mineral matter, the hard
material of which rock consists: a piece of rock of a certain size or form,
or for a particular purpose, as grind_stone_, mill_stone_, &c.: a precious
stone or gem, a crystal mirror: a tombstone: a concretion formed in the
bladder: a hard shell containing the seed of some fruits: a standard weight
of 14 lb. avoirdupois (other stones occur, as that of 24 lb. for wool, 22
lb. for hay, 16 lb. for cheese, &c.): torpor and insensibility.--_adj._
made of stone, or of stoneware.--_v.t._ to pelt with stones: to free from
stones: to wall with stones.--_n._ STONE'-AGE, the condition of a people
using stone as the material for the cutting-tools and weapons which, in a
higher condition of culture, were made of metals.--_adj._ STONE'-BLIND, as
blind as a stone, perfectly blind.--_ns._ STONE'-BOIL'ING, a primitive
method of making water boil by putting hot stones in it; STONE'-BOW, a
crossbow for shooting stones: a children's catapult; STONE'-BRASH, a soil
made up of finely-broken rock; STONE'-BREAK, the meadow-saxifrage;
STONE'-BREAK'ER, one who, or that which, breaks stones, a stone-crushing
machine; STONE'-BRUISE, a bruise caused by a stone, esp. on the sole of the
foot from walking barefooted; STONE'-CAST, STONE'S'-CAST, STONE'-SHOT,
STONE'S'-THROW, the distance which a stone may be thrown by the hand;
STONE'CHAT, STONE'CHATTER, STONE'CLINK, one of the most common of the
British _Turdidæ_, smaller than the redbreast--the Wheat-ear is the true
stonechat.--_n.pl._ STONE'-CIR'CLES, or Circles of Standing Stones,
popularly but erroneously called _Druidical Circles_ in Britain, and
_Cromlechs_ in France, consist of unhewn stones set up at intervals round
the circumference of a circular area usually of level ground.--_n._
STONE'-COAL, mineral coal, as opposed to charcoal: any hard coal,
anthracite.--_adj._ STONE'-COLD, cold as a stone.--_n._ STONE'-COL'OUR, the
colour of stone, grayish.--_adj._ STONE'-COL'OURED.--_ns._ STONE'-COR'AL,
massive coral, as distinguished from branching or tree coral; STONE'CROP,
the wall-pepper, _Sedum acre_; STONE'-CURLEW, a large species of plover;
STONE'-CUT'TER, one whose occupation is to hew stone; STONE'-CUT'TING, the
business of hewing and carving stones for walls, monuments, &c.--_adjs._
STONED, containing stones; STONE'-DEAD, lifeless; STONE'-DEAF, quite
deaf.--_ns._ STONE'-DRESS'ER, one who prepares stones for building;
STONE'-FAL'CON, a species of hawk or falcon which builds its nest among the
rocks; STONE'-FLY, a genus of insects typical of the order
_Plecoptera_--several species are native to Britain, and furnish good lures
to anglers; STONE'-FRUIT, a fruit whose seeds are enclosed in a hard
kernel; STONE'-HAM'MER, a hammer for breaking stones.--_adjs._ STONE'-HARD
(_Shak._), as hard as a stone; STONE'-HEART'ED (_Shak._), hard-hearted,
cruel, pitiless.--_ns._ STONE'HORSE, a stallion; STONE'-LIL'Y, the popular
name of an _Encrinite_; STONE'-M[=A]'SON, a mason who works with stone;
STONE'-MILL, a machine for breaking stone; STONE'-OIL, rock-oil, petroleum;
STONE'-PINE, a Mediterranean nut-pine; STONE'-PLOV'ER, the stone-curlew;
ST[=O]'NER, one who strikes or kills with stones; STONE'-RAG, -RAW, a
lichen, _Parmelia saxatilis_; STONE'-SNIPE, the greater tell-tale or
long-legged tattler, a common North American bird.--_adj._ STONE'-STILL
(_Shak._), as still as a stone, motionless.--_ns._ STONE'WARE, a coarse
kind of potter's ware baked hard and glazed; STONE'-WORK,
mason-work.--_adv._ ST[=O]'NILY.--_n._ ST[=O]'NINESS, the state of being
stony or abounding with stones: hardness of heart or mind.--_adjs._
ST[=O]'NY, made of, or resembling, stone: abounding with stones: hard:
pitiless: obdurate: (_B._) rocky; ST[=O]'NY-HEART'ED, hard-hearted, cruel,
pitiless.--LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED, to do everything that can be done in
order to secure the effect desired; MARK WITH A WHITE STONE, to mark as
particularly fortunate. [A.S. _stán_; Ger. _stein_, Dut. _steen_.]

STONIED, ston'id, _adj._ (_Spens._) astonished, alarmed.

STOOD, stood, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _stand_.

STOOK, stook, _n._ (_Scot._) a full shock of corn-sheaves, generally
twelve, as set up in the field.--_v.t._ to set up in stooks, as
sheaves--also STOUK.--_n._ STOOK'ER, one who sets up the corn in stooks.
[Cf. Low Ger. _stuke_, a bundle.]

STOOL, st[=oo]l, _n._ a seat without a back: a low bench for the feet or
for kneeling on: the seat used in evacuating the bowels: the act of
evacuating the bowels, also that which is evacuated: a root of any kind
from which sprouts shoot up: a portable piece of wood to which a pigeon is
fastened as a decoy for wild birds.--_n._ STOOL'-PI'GEON, a decoy-pigeon: a
gambler's decoy.--STOOL OF REPENTANCE, same as _Cutty-stool_ (q.v.).--FALL
BETWEEN TWO STOOLS, to lose both of two things between the choice of which
one was hesitating. [A.S. _stól_, Ger. _stuhl_; cf. Ger. _stellen_, to

STOOP, st[=oo]p, _v.i._ to bend the body: to lean forward: to submit: to
descend from rank or dignity: to condescend: to swoop down on the wing, as
a bird of prey.--_v.t._ to cause to incline downward.--_n._ the act of
stooping: inclination forward: descent: condescension: a swoop.--_adj._
STOOPED, having a stoop, bent.--_n._ STOOP'ER, one who stoops.--_p.adj._
STOOP'ING.--_adv._ STOOP'INGLY. [A.S. _stúpian_; Old Dut. _stuypen_, Ice.

STOOP, st[=oo]p, _n._ (_Shak._) a vessel of liquor, a flagon: liquor for
drinking: a basin for holy water. [A.S. _stoppa_, a cup--_steáp_, a cup;
Low Ger. _stoop_.]

STOOP, st[=oo]p, _n._ an open platform before the entrance of a house.
[Dut. _stoep_.]

STOOP, st[=oo]p, _n._ a prop, support, a patron.

STOOR, st[=oo]r, _adj._ (_obs._) great, formidable: stiff, harsh,
austere.--Also STOUR. [A.S. _stór_, great.]

STOOR, st[=oo]r, _n._ dust in motion--hence commotion, bustle: a gush of
water.--_v.t._ to stir up, to pour out.--_adj._ STOOR'Y, dusty. [A.S.
_stýrian_, to stir.]

STOP, stop, _v.t._ to stuff or close up: to obstruct: to render impassable:
to hinder from further motion, progress, effect, or change: to restrain,
repress, suppress, suspend: to intercept: to apply musical stops to: to
regulate the sounds of a stringed instrument by shortening the strings with
the fingers: (_naut._) to make fast.--_v.i._ to cease going forward: to
cease from any motion or action, to stay, tarry: to leave off: to be at an
end: to ward off a blow:--_pr.p._ stop'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._
stopped.--_n._ act of stopping: state of being stopped: hinderance:
obstacle: interruption: (_mus._) one of the vent-holes in a wind
instrument, or the place on the wire of a stringed instrument, by the
stopping or pressing of which certain notes are produced: a mark used in
punctuation: an alphabetic sound involving a complete closure of the
mouth-organs: a wooden batten on a door or window-frame against which it
closes: a stop-thrust in fencing.--_ns._ STOP'-COCK, a short pipe in a
cask, &c., opened and stopped by turning a cock or key; STOP'-GAP, that
which fills a gap or supplies a deficiency, esp. an expedient of emergency;
STOP'-M[=O]'TION, a mechanical arrangement for producing an automatic stop
in machinery, as for shutting off steam, &c.; STOP'PAGE, act of stopping:
state of being stopped: an obstruction; STOP'PER, one who stops: that which
closes a vent or hole, as the cork or glass mouthpiece for a bottle:
(_naut._) a short rope for making something fast.--_v.t._ to close or
secure with a stopper.--_ns._ STOP'PING, that which fills up, material for
filling up cracks, &c., filling material for teeth: STOP'PING-OUT, the
practice in etching of covering certain parts with a composition impervious
to acid, to keep the acid off them while allowing it to remain on the other
parts to mark them more; STOP'-WATCH, a watch whose hands can be stopped to
allow of time that has elapsed being calculated more exactly, used in
timing a race, &c. [M. E. _stoppen_--O. Fr. _estouper_ (Ice. _stoppa_, Ger.
_stopfen_, to stuff); all from L. _stupa_, the coarse part of flax, tow.]

STOPE, st[=o]p, _v.t._ to excavate, to remove the contents of a vein.--_n._
an excavation for this purpose.--_n._ ST[=O]'PING.

STOPPLE, stop'l, _n._ that which stops or closes the mouth of a vessel: a
cork or plug.--_v.t._ to close with a stopple.

STORAX, st[=o]'raks, _n._ a resin resembling benzoin, obtained from the
stem of _Styrax officinalis_, a native of Greece and the Levant, formerly
used as a stimulating expectorant.--LIQUID STORAX, liquidambar. [L.,--Gr.

STORE, st[=o]r, _n._ a hoard or quantity gathered: abundance: a storehouse:
any place where goods are sold: (_pl._) supplies of provisions, ammunition,
&c. for an army or a ship.--_v.t._ to gather in quantities: to supply: to
lay up in store: to hoard: to place in a warehouse.--_adj._ ST[=O]'RABLE,
capable of being stored.--_ns._ ST[=O]'RAGE, the placing in a store: the
safe-keeping of goods in a store: the price paid or charged for keeping
goods in a store; STORE'-FARM (_Scot._), a stock-farm, a cattle-farm;
STORE'-FARM'ER; STORE'HOUSE, a house for storing goods of any kind: a
repository: a treasury; STORE'-KEEP'ER, a man who has charge of a store:
one who owns a store: (_U.S._) any unsaleable article; ST[=O]'RER, one who
stores; STORE'ROOM, a room in which things are stored: a room in a store;
STORE'-SHIP, a vessel used for transporting naval stores.--IN STORE
(_Shak._), in hoard for future use, ready for supply; SET STORE BY, to
value greatly. [O. Fr. _estor_, _estoire_--L. _instaur[=a]re_, to provide.]

STOREY, st[=o]'ri, _n._ Same as STORY.

STORGE, stor'j[=e], _n._ natural affection. [Gr.]


STORK, stork, _n._ a long-necked and long-legged wading-bird nearly allied
to the heron, spoonbill, and ibis--the COMMON STORK or WHITE STORK
(_Ciconia alba_) about 3½ feet long, migratory in habit, common in Holland
and northern Germany, often semi-domesticated, nesting on the tops of
houses, &c.--_n._ STORK'S'-BILL, any plant of the genus _Erodium_, esp. the
heron's-bill: a plant of the genus _Pelargonium_. [A.S. _storc_; Ger.

STORM, storm, _n._ a violent commotion of the atmosphere producing wind,
rain, &c.: a tempest: a fall of snow, a prolonged frost: an outbreak of
anger, or the like: violent agitation of society: commotion: tumult:
calamity: (_mil._) an assault.--_v.i._ to raise a tempest: to blow with
violence: to be in a violent passion.--_v.t._ to attack by open force: to
assault.--_n._ STORM'-[=A]'REA, the area covered by a storm.--_adjs._
STORM'-BEAT, -BEAT'EN, beaten or injured by storms.--_ns._ STORM'-BELT, a
belt of maximum storm frequency; STORM'-BIRD, a petrel.--_adj._
STORM'BOUND, delayed by storms.--_ns._ STORM'-CARD, a sailors' chart
showing from the direction of the wind the ship's position in relation to a
storm-centre, and accordingly the proper course to be shaped;
STORM'-CEN'TRE, the position of lowest pressure in a cyclonic storm;
STORM'-COCK, the fieldfare: the mistle-thrush; STORM'-CONE, a cone of
canvas stretched on a frame 3 feet high as a storm-signal; STORM'-DOOR, an
outer supplementary door to shelter the interior of a building;
STORM'-DRUM, a canvas cylinder extended on a hoop 3 feet high by 3 feet
wide, hoisted in conjunction with the cone as a storm-signal.--_adj._
STORM'FUL, abounding with storms.--_ns._ STORM'FULNESS; STORM'-GLASS, a
tube containing a solution of camphor, the amount of the precipitate
varying with the weather; STORM'-HOUSE, a temporary shelter for men working
on a railway, &c.; STORM'INESS; STORM'ING-PAR'TY, the party of men who
first enter the breach or scale the walls in storming a fortress.--_adj._
STORM'LESS, without storms.--_ns._ STORM'-SAIL, a sail of the strongest
canvas, for stormy weather; STORM'-SIG'NAL, a signal displayed on
seacoasts, &c., to intimate the approach of a storm by the cone and drum,
or by flags and lanterns in the United States; STORM'-STAY, a stay on which
a storm-sail is set.--_adjs._ STORM'-STAYED, hindered from proceeding by
storms; STORM'-TOSSED, tossed about by storms: much agitated by conflicting
passions.--_ns._ STORM'-WIND, a wind that brings a storm, a hurricane;
STORM'-WIN'DOW, a window raised above the roof, slated above and at the
sides.--_adj._ STORM'Y, having many storms: agitated with furious winds:
boisterous: violent: passionate. [A.S. _storm_; Ice. _stormr_; from root of

STORNELLO, stor-nel'[=o], _n._ an Italian kind of improvised
folk-song:--_pl._ STORNELL'I. [It.]

STORTHING, st[=o]r'ting, _n._ the legislative assembly of Norway. [Norw.
_stor_, great, _thing_, assembly.]

STORY, st[=o]'ri, _n._ history or narrative of incidents in their sequence:
an account, report, statement: an anecdote: the plot of a novel or drama: a
lie, a fib, a fictitious narrative.--_v.t._ to tell or describe
historically, to relate: to adorn with sculptured or painted scenes from
history.--_v.i._ to relate.--_adjs._ STORI[=A]'TED, decorated with
elaborate ornamental designs; ST[=O]'RIED, told or celebrated in a story:
having a history: interesting from the stories belonging to it: adorned
with scenes from history.--_ns._ STORIOL'OGIST, one learned in the
comparative study of folk-tales; STORIOL'OGY, the scientific study of
folk-tales; ST[=O]'RY-BOOK, a book of stories or tales true or fictitious;
ST[=O]'RY-TELL'ER, one who relates tales, a liar; ST[=O]'RY-TELL'ING, act
of relating stories: lying. [A short form of _history_.]

STORY, STOREY, st[=o]'ri, _n._ a division of a house reached by one flight
of stairs: a set of rooms on the same floor.--THE UPPER STORY, the brain.
[O. Fr. _estoree_--_estorer_--L. _instaur[=a]re_, to build.]

STOSH, stosh, _n._ fish-offal, pomace.

STOT, stot, _n._ a young ox, a steer. [Ice. _stútr_, a bull.]

STOT, stot, _v.i._ (_prov._) to stumble.--Also STOT'TER.

STOUND, stownd, _n._ (_Spens._) a stunning influence, a blow, amazement: a
shooting pain: a noise: sorrow, grief, mishap: effort.--_v.t._ to stun,
astound. [A contr. of _astound_.]

STOUND, stownd, _n._ (_Spens._) a moment of time: time, season, hour. [A.S.

STOUND, stownd (_Spens._). Same as STUNNED.

STOUP, stowp, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as STOOP (2).

STOUR, stowr, _n._ a tumult, battle, assault: a paroxysm. [O. Fr. _estour_,

STOUT, stowt, _adj._ strong: robust: corpulent: resolute: proud: (_B._)
stubborn.--_n._ extra strong porter.--_adj._ STOUT'-HEART'ED, having a
brave heart.--_adv._ STOUT'-HEART'EDLY.--_n._ STOUT'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adv._
STOUT'LY.--_n._ STOUT'NESS (_B._), stubbornness. [O. Fr. _estout_,
bold--Old Dut. _stolt_, stout; Ger. _stolz_, bold.]

STOUTHRIEF, stowth'r[=e]f, _n._ (_Scots law_) theft attended with
violence--also STOUTH'RIE.--_n._ STOUTH'-AND-ROUTH (_Scot._), plenty,

STOVE, st[=o]v, _n._ an apparatus with a fire for warming a room, cooking,
&c.: a pottery-kiln: an oven for heating the blast of a blast-furnace: a
drying-room.--_v.t._ to heat or keep warm.--_ns._ STOVE'-PIPE, a metal pipe
for carrying smoke from a stove to a chimney-flue; STOVE'PIPE-HAT, a high
silk hat; STOVE'-PLANT, a plant cultivated in a stove; STOVE'-PLATE, a lid
or plate covering one of the holes in a cooking-stove. [A.S. _stofa_; Ger.

STOVE, st[=o]v, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _stave_.

STOVER, st[=o]v'[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) fodder for cattle. [O. Fr. _estover_,
necessity--_estover_, _estoveir_, to fit.]

STOW, st[=o], _v.t._ to place: to arrange: to fill by packing things in:
(_slang_) to put away out of sight: to be silent about.--_ns._ STOW'AGE,
act of placing in order: state of being laid up: room for articles to be
laid away: money paid for stowing goods; STOW'AWAY, one who hides himself
in an outward-bound vessel in order to get a passage for nothing;
STOW'DOWN, the process of stowing down in a ship's hold; STOW'ER, one who
stows; STOW'ING, in mining, rubbish thrown into the cavities out of which
the ore, coal, &c. have been taken. [M. E. _stowen_, to place--A.S. _stów_,
a place; cf. Dut. _stuwen_, to stow, to push, Ger. _stauen_, to pack.]

STOW, stow, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to cut off, crop.

STOWLINS, st[=o]'linz, _adv._ (_Scot._) stealthily.

STOWN, stown, a Scotch form of _stolen_.

STRABISMUS, str[=a]-bis'mus, _n._ squint.--_adjs._ STRABIS'MAL,
measuring strabismus; STRABOT'OMY, the surgical operation for the cure of
squinting, by the division of the muscle or muscles that distort the
eyeball. [Gr.,--_strabos_, squinting--_strephein_, to twist.]

STRADDLE, strad'l, _v.i._ to stride or part the legs wide: to stand or walk
with the legs far apart: to seem favourable to both sides in any question
that divides opinion into parties, to trim with regard to any
controversy.--_v.t._ to stand or sit astride of.--_n._ act of straddling:
an attempt to fill a non-committal position: a stock-transaction in which
the buyer obtains the privilege of either a _put_ or a _call_: a vertical
mine-timber supporting a set.--_adv._ astride.--_adj._ STRADD'LE-LEGGED,
having the legs wide apart. [A freq. from A.S. _str['æ]d_, _pa.t._ of
_strídan_, stride.]

STRADIVARIUS, strad-i-v[=a]'ri-us, _n._ a violin, esp. one made by the
famous Antonio _Stradivari_ (1649-1737) of Cremona.

STRAE, str[=a], _n._ (_Scot._) straw.--STRAE DEATH, death in one's bed from
natural causes, as opposed to death by accident, by violence, by the rope,

STRAGGLE, strag'l, _v.i._ to wander from the course: to ramble: to stretch
beyond proper limits: to be dispersed.--_ns._ STRAGG'LER, one who straggles
from the course: a wandering fellow: a vagabond: a migratory animal found
away from its usual range; STRAGG'LE-TOOTH, a misshapen or misplaced
tooth.--_adv._ STRAGG'LINGLY, in a straggling manner.--_n._
STRAGGL'ING-MON'EY, money paid for apprehending deserters and men absent
without leave: money deducted from the wages of such absentees.--_adj._
STRAGG'LY, straggling, spread out. [For _strackle_, freq. of M. E.
_straken_--A.S. _strícan_, to go.]

STRAGULUM, strag'[=u]-lum, _n._ the mantle or pallium in ornithology. [L.,
a cover.]

STRAIGHT, str[=a]t, _adj._ direct: being in a right line: not crooked:
nearest: upright: free from disorder: honourable, fair: unqualified,
out-and-out: consisting of a sequence at poker: (_slang_) undiluted, neat,
as a dram of whisky, &c., direct, authoritative, reliable.--_adv._
immediately: in the shortest time.--_v.t._ to straighten.--_n._
STRAIGHT'-ARCH, an arch in the form of two sides of an isosceles
triangle.--_adjs._ STRAIGHT'AWAY, straight forward; STRAIGHT'-CUT, cut
lengthwise of the leaf, of tobacco.--_n._ STRAIGHT'-EDGE, a narrow board or
piece of metal having one edge perfectly straight for applying to a surface
to ascertain whether it be exactly even.--_v.t._ STRAIGHT'EN, to make
straight.--_ns._ STRAIGHT'ENER, one who, or that which, straightens;
STRAIGHT'-FACE, a sober, unsmiling face.--_adv._ STRAIGHT'FORTH directly:
henceforth.--_adj._ STRAIGHTFOR'WARD, going forward in a straight course:
honest: open: downright.--_adv._ STRAIGHTFOR'WARDLY.--_n._
STRAIGHTFOR'WARDNESS, direction in a straight course: undeviating
rectitude.--_adv._ STRAIGHT'LY, tightly: closely.--_n._ STRAIGHT'NESS,
narrowness: tightness.--_adjs._ STRAIGHT'-OUT, out-and-out; STRAIGHT'-PIGHT
(_Shak._), straight, erect.--_adv._ STRAIGHT'WAY, directly: immediately:
without loss of time. [A.S. _streht_, pa.p. of _streccan_, to stretch.]

STRAIK, str[=a]k, _n._ a Scotch form of _stroke_.

STRAIN, str[=a]n, _v.t._ to stretch tight: to draw with force: to exert to
the utmost: to injure by overtasking: to make tight: to constrain, make
uneasy or unnatural: to press to one's self, to embrace: to pass through a
filter.--_v.i._ to make violent efforts: to filter.--_n._ the act of
straining: a violent effort: an injury inflicted by straining, esp. a
wrenching of the muscles: a note, sound, or song, stretch of imagination,
&c.: any change of form or bulk of a portion of matter either solid or
fluid, the system of forces which sustains the strain being called the
_stress_: mood, disposition.--_ns._ STRAIN'ER, one who, or that which,
strains: an instrument for filtration: a sieve, colander, &c.; STRAIN'ING,
a piece of leather for stretching as a base for the seat of a
saddle.--STRAIN A POINT, to make a special effort: to exceed one's duty;
STRAIN AT, in Matt. xxiii. 24, a misprint for STRAIN OUT. [O. Fr.
_straindre_--L. _string[)e]re_, to stretch tight. Cf. _String_ and

STRAIN, str[=a]n, _n._ race, stock, generation: descent: natural tendency,
any admixture or element in one's character.--_n._ STRAIN'ING-BEAM, a
tie-beam uniting the tops of the queen-posts. [M. E. _streen_--A.S.
_gestréon_, gain; confused in M. E. with the related M. E. _strend_--A.S.
_strynd_, lineage.]

STRAINT, str[=a]nt, _n._ (_Spens._) violent tension.

STRAIT, str[=a]t, _adj._ difficult: distressful: (_obs._ strict, rigorous:
narrow, so in _B._).--_n._ a narrow pass in a mountain, or in the ocean
between two portions of land: difficulty, distress.--_v.t._ to stretch,
tighten: to distress.--_v.t._ STRAIT'EN, to make strait or narrow: to
confine: to draw tight: to distress: to put into difficulties.--_adjs._
STRAIGHT'-HEART'ED, stingy; STRAIT'-LACED, rigid or narrow in
opinion.--_adv._ STRAIT'LY, narrowly: (_B._) strictly.--_ns._ STRAIT'NESS,
state of being strait or narrow: strictness: (_B._) distress or difficulty;
STRAIT'-WAIST'COAT, STRAIT'-JACK'ET, a dress made with long sleeves, which
are tied behind, so that the arms are confined. [O. Fr. _estreit_,
_estrait_ (Fr. _étroit_)--L. _strictus_, _pa.p._ of _string[)e]re_, to draw

STRAKE, str[=a]k, obsolete _pa.t._ of _strike_.

STRAKE, str[=a]k, _n._ one breadth of plank in a ship, either within or
without board, wrought from the stem to the sternpost: the hoop or tire of
a wheel; (_obs._) a bushel: the place where ore is assorted on a mine
floor.--Also STRAIK. [A variant of _streak_.]

STRAMASH, stra-mash', _n._ (_Scot._) a tumult, disturbance.--_v.t._ to
beat, destroy.

STRAMMEL, stram'el, _n._ straw.--_adj._ STRAMIN'EOUS, strawy, light like

STRAMONIUM, str[=a]-m[=o]'ni-um, _n._ a common narcotic weed of the
Nightshade family, called also the _Thorn-apple_, _Stink-weed_, and
_Jimson-weed_--_Datura Stramonium_: a drug prepared from its seeds and
leaves, resembling belladonna, good in asthma.--Also STRAM'ONY.

STRAND, strand, _n._ the margin or beach of the sea or of a lake: (_Scot._)
a rivulet, a gutter.--_v.t._ to run aground: to be stopped.--_v.i._ to
drift or be driven ashore.--_p.adj._ STRAND'ED, driven on shore: left
helpless without further resource. [A.S. _strand_; Ger. _strand_, Ice.
_strönd_, border.]

STRAND, strand, _n._ one of the strings or parts that compose a
rope.--_v.t._ to break a strand: to form by uniting strands. [Dut.
_streen_, a skein; Ger. _strähne_.]

STRANGE, str[=a]nj, _adj._ foreign: belonging to another country: not
formerly known, heard, or seen: not domestic: new: causing surprise or
curiosity, marvellous: unusual, odd: estranged, reserved: unacquainted
with, unversed: not lawfully belonging to one.--_adv._ STRANGE'LY.--_ns._
STRANGE'NESS; STR[=A]N'GER, a foreigner: one from homed: one unknown or
unacquainted: a guest or visitor: one not admitted to communion or
fellowship: a popular premonition of the coming of a visitor by a bit of
stalk in a cup of tea, guttering in a candle, &c.--STRANGE WOMAN, a whore.
[O. Fr. _estrange_ (Fr. _étrange_)--L. _extraneus_--_extra_, beyond.]

STRANGLE, strang'gl, _v.t._ to compress the throat so as to prevent
breathing and destroy life: to choke: to hinder from birth or appearance:
to suppress.--_n._ STRANG'LER.--_n.pl._ STRANG'LES, a contagious eruptive
disorder peculiar to young horses.--_n._ STRANG'LE-WEED, the dodder, the
broom-rape.--_v.t._ STRANG'ULATE, to strangle: to compress so as to
suppress or suspend function.--_p.adj._ STRANG'ULATED, having the function
stopped by compression: constricted, much narrowed.--_n._
STRANGUL[=A]'TION, act of strangling: compression of the throat and partial
suffocation: the state of a part abnormally constricted. [O. Fr.
_estrangler_ (Fr. _étrangler_)--L. _strangul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--Gr.
_strangaloein_, to strangle, _strangos_, twisted.]

STRANGURY, strang'g[=u]-ri, _n._ painful retention of, or difficulty in
discharging, urine.--_adj._ STRANG[=U]'RIOUS. [L. _stranguria_--Gr.
_strangx_, a drop, from _stranggein_, to squeeze, _ouron_, urine.]

STRAP, strap, _n._ a narrow strip of cloth or leather: a razor-strop: an
iron plate secured by screw-bolts, for connecting two or more timbers:
(_naut._) a piece of rope formed into a circle, used to retain a block in
its position: (_slang_) credit, esp. for liquor.--_v.t._ to beat or bind
with a strap: to strop, as a razor: (_Scot._) to hang:--_pr.p._ strap'ping;
_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ strapped.--_n._ STRAP'-GAME, the swindling game better
known as _Prick-the-garter_, _Fast-and-loose_.--_n.pl._ STRAP'-MOUNTS, the
buckles, &c., fitted on leather straps.--_ns._ STRAP'-OIL, a thrashing;
STRAP'PER, one who works with straps, esp. one who harnesses horses:
something big, a tall large person; STRAP'PING, the act of fastening with a
strap: materials for straps: a thrashing.--_adj._ tall, handsome.--_adj._
STRAP'-SHAPED, shaped like a strap, ligulate.--_n._ STRAP'-WORK
(_archit._), ornamentation consisting of crossed and interlaced fillets or
bands. [Orig. _strop_, from A.S. _stropp_--L. _struppus_; cf. Gr.
_strophos_, a twisted band.]

STRAPPADO, strap-[=a]'do, _n._ (_Shak._) a punishment which consisted in
pulling the victim to the top of a beam and letting him fall so as to break
his bones.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to torture or punish by the strappado. [It.
_strappata_--_strappare_, to pull.]

STRASS, stras, _n._ paste for making false gems. [J. _Strasser_.]

STRATA, str[=a]'ta, _pl._ of _stratum_.

STRATAGEM, strat'a-jem, _n._ an artifice, esp. in war: a plan for deceiving
an enemy or gaining an advantage: any artifice generally.--_adjs._
STRATEGET'IC, -AL, STRATEG'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or done by,
generalship, or the art of conducting a campaign and manoeuvring an army:
artifice or finesse generally.--_adv._ STRATEG'ICALLY.--_n._ STRAT'EGIST,
one skilled in strategy. [Fr.,--L. _stratagema_--Gr.
_strat[=e]g[=e]ma_--_strat[=e]gos_, a general--_stratos_, an army, _agein_,
to lead.]

STRATH, strath, _n._ in Scotland, an extensive valley through which a river
runs. [Gael. _srath_, a valley--L. _strata_, a street.]

STRATHSPEY, strath'sp[=a], _n._ a Scotch dance, allied to and danced
alternately with the reel, differing from it in being slower, and abounding
in the jerky motion of dotted notes and semiquavers (when the latter
precede the former it constitutes the _Scotch snap_), while the reel is
almost entirely in smooth, equal, gliding motion: the music for a
strathspey, or its movement. [_Strathspey_, valley of the _Spey_.]

STRATIFY, strat'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to form or lay in strata or
layers:--_pr.p._ strat'ifying; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ strat'if[=i]ed.--_adj._
STRATIC'ULATE, arranged in thin layers.--_n._ STRATIFIC[=A]'TION, act of
stratifying: state of being stratified: process of being arranged in
layers.--_adj._ STRAT'IFORM, in the form of strata. [Fr. _stratifier_--L.
_stratum_, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

STRATIOTES, strat'i-[=o]-t[=e]z, _n._ the water-soldier. See under SOLDIER.
[Gr. _strati[=o]tes_, a soldier.]

STRATOCRACY, str[=a]-tok'ra-si, _n._ military despotism. [Gr. _stratos_, an
army, _kratein_, to rule.]

STRATOGRAPHY, str[=a]-tog'ra-fi, _n._ description of an army and whatever
pertains to it.--_adjs._ STRATOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ STRATOGRAPH'ICALLY.
[Gr. _stratos_, an army, _graphein_, to write.]

STRATUM, str[=a]'tum, _n._ a bed of earth or rock formed by natural causes,
and consisting usually of a series of layers: any bed or layer:--_pl._
STR[=A]'TA.--_adj._ STRAT'IFORM, formed like strata.--_ns._ STRATIG'RAPHER,
STRATIG'RAPHIST, a student of stratigraphical geology.--_adjs._
STRATIGRAPH'IC, -AL, concerned with the relative position of the strata
forming the earth's crust.--_adv._ STRATIGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ STRATIG'RAPHY,
the order and position of the stratified groups: the study or description
of these, descriptive geology.--_adj._ STR[=A]'TOSE, arranged in layers,
stratified.--_n.pl._ STRAT'[=U]LA. thin layers in rock-strata. [L.
_stratum_--_stern[)e]re_, _stratum_, to spread out.]

STRATUS, str[=a]'tus, _n._ the fall or night-cloud, the lowest of clouds, a
widely-extended horizontal sheet, of varied thickness.--_ns._
STR[=A]'TO-C[=U]'MULUS, better CUMULO-STRATUS (see CUMULUS). [L. _stratus_,
a coverlet--_stern[)e]re_, _stratum_, to spread.]

STRAUGHT, strawt, obsolete _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _stretch_.

STRAUNGE, strawnj. _adj._ (_Spens._), same as STRANGE: foreign, borrowed.

STRAVAIG, stra-v[=a]g', _v.i._ (_Scot._) to wander about idly.--_n._
STRAVAIG'ER. [Cf. _Extravagant_.]

STRAW, straw, _n._ the stalk on which corn grows, and from which it is
thrashed: a quantity of these when thrashed: anything worthless, the least
possible thing.--_ns._ STRAW'BERRY, the delicious and fragrant fruit of any
of the species of the genus _Fragaria_, the plant itself; STRAW'BERRY-LEAF,
a symbolic ornament on the coronets of dukes, marquises, and earls--in
_pl._ a dukedom; STRAW'BERRY-MARK, a soft reddish nævus or birth-mark;
STRAW'BERRY-TREE, a species of Arbutus, which produces a fruit resembling
the strawberry; STRAW'-BOARD, a kind of mill-board or thick card-board,
made of straw after it has been boiled with lime or soda to soften it;
STRAW'-COL'OUR, the colour of dry straw, a delicate yellow.--_adj._
STRAW'-COL'OURED, of the colour of dry straw, of a delicate yellowish
colour.--_ns._ STRAW'-CUT'TER, an instrument for chopping straw for fodder;
STRAW'-EMBROI'DERY, embroidery done by sewing straw on net; STRAW'-HOUSE, a
house for holding thrashed straw; STRAW'ING (_slang_), the sale of straws
on the streets in order to cover the giving to the purchaser of things
forbidden to be sold, as indecent books, &c.; STRAW'-PLAIT, a narrow band
of plaited wheat-straw, used in making straw hats, bonnets, &c.;
STRAW'-STEM, the fine stem of a wine-glass pulled out from the material of
the bowl, instead of being attached separately: a wine-glass having such a
stem.--_adj._ STRAW'Y, made of, or like, straw.--MAN OF STRAW (see under
MAN). [A.S. _streaw_; Ger. _stroh_, from the root of _strew_.]

STRAWED (_B._), for strewed, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _strew_.

STRAY, str[=a], _v.i._ to wander: to go from the enclosure, company, or
proper limits: to err: to rove: to deviate from duty or rectitude.--_v.t._
(_Shak._) to cause to stray.--_n._ a domestic animal that has strayed or is
lost: a straggler, a waif, a truant: the act of wandering.--_adj._ STRAYED,
wandering, astray.--_ns._ STRAY'ER, one who strays, a wanderer; STRAY'LING,
a little waif or stray. [O. Fr. _estraier_, to wander--_estree_, a
street--L. _strata_, a street.]

STRAYNE, str[=a]n, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to stretch out, to embody or express
in strains. [_Strain_.]

STRAYT, str[=a]t, _n._ (_Spens._) a street.

STREAK, str[=e]k, _n._ a line or long mark different in colour from the
ground, a band of marked colour of some length, a stripe: a slight
characteristic, a trace, a passing mood: (_min._) the appearance presented
by the surface of a mineral when scratched: a strake or line of planking: a
short piece of iron forming one section of a pieced tire on the wheel of an
artillery-carriage.--_v.t._ to form streaks in: to mark with
streaks.--_adj._ STREAKED, streaky, striped: (_U.S._) confused.--_n._
STREAK'INESS.--_adj._ STREAK'Y, marked with streaks, striped: uneven in
quality. [A.S. _strica_, a stroke--_strícan_, to go, Ger. _strich_; cf.
_Strike_. Skeat makes it Scand., Sw. _strek_, Dan. _streg_, a dash.]

STREAK, str[=e]k, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to lay out a corpse for burial.--_v.i._
to stretch out.

STREAK, str[=e]k, _v.i._ (_U.S._) to run swiftly.

STREAM, str[=e]m, _n._ a current of water, air, or light, &c.: anything
flowing out from a source: anything forcible, flowing, and continuous:
drift, tendency.--_v.i._ to flow in a stream: to pour out abundantly: to be
overflown with: to issue in rays: to stretch in a long line.--_v.t._ to
discharge in a stream: to wave.--_ns._ STREAM'ER, an ensign or flag
streaming or flowing in the wind: a luminous beam shooting upward from the
horizon; STREAM'-GOLD, placer-gold, the gold of alluvial districts;
STREAM'-ICE, pieces of drift ice swept down in a current; STREAM'INESS,
streamy quality; STREAM'ING, the working of alluvial deposits for the ores
contained.--_adj._ STREAM'LESS, not watered by streams.--_ns._ STREAM'LET,
STREAM'LING, a little stream; STREAM'-TIN, disintegrated tin-ore found in
alluvial ground.--_adj._ STREAM'Y, abounding in streams: flowing in a
stream. [A.S. _streám_; Ger. _straum_, Ice. _straumr_.]

STREET, str[=e]t, _n._ a road in a town lined with houses, broader than a
lane: those who live in a street: the part of the street for vehicles: the
body of brokers.--_ns._ STREET'AGE, toll for the use of a street;
STREET'CAR, a passenger-car on the streets of a city, drawn by horses,
cable traction, or electricity; STREET'-DOOR, the door of a house which
opens upon a street; STREET'-RAIL'ROAD, a railroad or tramway constructed
on a public street; STREET'-SWEEP'ER, one who, or that which, sweeps the
streets clean; STREET'-WALK'ER, a whore who prowls about the streets;
STREET'-WARD, an officer who formerly took care of the streets;
STREET'-WAY, the roadway. [A.S. _str['æ]t_ (Dut. _straat_, Ger. _strasse_,
It. _strada_)--L. _strata_ (_via_), a paved (way), from _stern[)e]re_,
_stratum_, to strew.]

STREIGHT, str[=a]t, _adj._ (_Spens._) narrow, strict, close.--_adv._
strictly, closely.--_n._ same as STRAIT.--_adv._
STREIGHT'LY=_Straitly_.--_n._ STREIGHT'NESS=_Straitness_.

STRELITZ, strel'its, _n._ one of the ancient Muscovite guards, a kind of
hereditary standing army, abolished by Peter the Great.

STRELITZIA, strel-it'si-a, _n._ a genus of South African plants of the
banana family, with large showy flowers--_Strelitzia Reginæ_, also
_Queen-plant_, _Bird-of-Paradise flower_--with fine orange and purple
flowers. [From Queen Charlotte, wife of George III., of the house of

STRENE, str[=e]n, _n._ (_obs._) race, offspring. [_Strain_.]

STRENGTH, strength, _n._ quality of being strong: power of any kind, active
or passive: force, vigour, violence: solidity or toughness: power to resist
attack: excellence, boldness of conception or treatment: the required
consistency or degree of the essential element in any compound: intensity:
brightness: validity: vigour of style or expression: security: amount of
force: potency of liquors: available force or support: a fortification,
stronghold.--_v.t._ STRENGTH'EN, to make strong or stronger: to confirm: to
encourage: to increase in power or security.--_v.i._ to become
stronger.--_n._ STRENGTH'ENER, one who, or that which, supplies
strength.--_adjs._ STRENGTH'ENING, invigorating; STRENGTH'LESS, without
strength.--ON THE STRENGTH, on the muster-rolls of; ON, or UPON, THE
STRENGTH OF, in reliance upon.--PROOF-STRENGTH (see under PROOF). [A.S.
_strengthu_--_strang_, strong.]

STRENUOUS, stren'[=u]-us, _adj._ active: vigorous: urgent: zealous: bold:
necessitating exertion.--_n._ STRENUOS'ITY, strenuousness: a straining
after effect.--_adv._ STREN'UOUSLY.--_n._ STREN'UOUSNESS. [L. _strenuus_,
akin to Gr. _str[=e]n[=e]s_, strong.]

STREPENT, strep'ent, _adj._ (_rare_) noisy. [L. _strep[)e]re_, to make a

STREPERA, strep'e-ra, _n._ an Australian genus of corvine passerine birds,
the crow-shrikes.--_adj._ STREP'ERINE. [L. _strep[)e]re_, to make a noise.]

STREPHON, stref'on, _n._ a love-sick shepherd in Sir Philip Sidney's
_Arcadia_, hence a love-sick swain generally.--_n._ STREPH'ONADE, a

STREPITANT, strep'i-tant, _adj._ loud, noisy.

STREPITOSO, strep-i-t[=o]'z[=o], _adv._ (_mus._) in a loud, boisterous

STRESS, stres, _n._ force: pressure: urgency: strain: violence, as of the
weather: the relative loudness or emphasis with which certain syllables are
pronounced, accent: weight, importance: (_mech._) force exerted in any
direction or manner between two bodies--the greatest stress which a
substance will bear without being torn asunder being its ultimate
strength.--_v.t._ to constrain: lay stress on: to emphasise. [O. Fr.
_estrecir_, from L. _strictus_, _string[)e]re_, to draw tight.]

STRESS, stres, _n._ distress: legal distraining.

STRETCH, strech, _v.t._ to extend: to draw out: to expand: to reach out: to
exaggerate, strain, or carry further than is right: to cause to lie at full
length: (_slang_) to hang.--_v.i._ to be drawn out: to be extended: to
extend without breaking: to exaggerate.--_n._ act of stretching: effort:
struggle: reach: extension: state of being stretched: utmost extent of
meaning: course: one single uninterrupted sitting, turn, &c.: (_slang_) a
year's imprisonment.--_ns._ STRETCH'ER, anything used for stretching, as
gloves, hats, &c.: a frame on which a painter's canvas is stretched by
means of wedges forced into the corners: a frame for carrying the sick or
dead: a footboard for a rower; STRETCH'ER-BOND, a method of building in
which bricks or stones are laid lengthwise in successive courses, the
joints of the one falling at the middle of that above and below;
STRETCH'ING-COURSE, a course of bricks or stones having all the faces
outward; STRETCH'ING-FRAME, a machine for stretching cotton rovings before
being spun into yarn: a frame on which starched fabrics are dried;
STRETCH'ING-[=I]'RON, a currier's tool for dressing leather.--_adj._
STRETCH'Y, apt to stretch too much: liable to stretch one's self from
weariness. [A.S. _streccan_--_strec_, _stræc_, strong; cf. Ger. _strack_,

STREW, str[=oo], _v.t._ to spread by scattering: to scatter
loosely:--_pa.p._ strewed or strewn.--_ns._ STREW'ING, act of scattering or
spreading over: anything fit to be strewed: (_Shak._) litter for cattle;
STREW'MENT (_Shak._), anything strewed or scattered in decoration. [A.S.
_streowian_; Ger. _streuen_, L. _stern[)e]re_.]

STRIA, str[=i]'a, _n._ a stripe or streak, a small channel or thread-like
line running parallel to another: (_archit._) one of the fillets between
the flutes of columns, &c.:--_pl._ STR[=I]'Æ ([=e]).--_v.t._
STR[=I][=A]TE', to score, stripe.--_adjs._ STR[=I]'[=A]TE, -D, marked with
striæ or small parallel channels.--_ns._ STR[=I][=A]'TION; STR[=I][=A]'TUM,
the _corpus striatum_, the great ganglion of the fore-brain; STR[=I]'ATURE,
mode of striation. [L. _stria_, a streak, _stri[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to

STRICH, STRICK, strik, _n._ (_Spens._) the screech-owl. [L. _strix_,

STRICKEN, strik'n (_B._), _pa.p._ of strike.--STRICKEN IN YEARS, advanced
in years.--A STRICKEN HOUR, an hour as marked by the clock.

STRICKLE, strik'l, _n._ a straight-edge for levelling the top of a measure
of grain: a template.--Also STRICK'LER.

STRICT, strikt, _adj._ exact: extremely nice: observing exact rules,
regular: severe: restricted, taken strictly: thoroughly accurate: tense,
stiff: closely intimate: absolute, unbroken: constricted.--_n._
STRIC'TION.--_adv._ STRICT'LY, narrowly, closely, rigorously,
exclusively.--_ns._ STRICT'NESS; STRICT'URE (_surg._), an unnatural
contraction, either congenital or acquired, of a mucous canal, such as the
urethra, oesophagus, or intestine: an unfavourable criticism: censure:
critical remark. [L. _strictus_, pa.p. of _string[)e]re_, to draw tight.
Cf. _Strain_ and _Stringent_.]

STRIDDLE, strid'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to straddle.

STRIDE, str[=i]d, _v.i._ to walk with long steps: to straddle.--_v.t._ to
pass over at a step: to bestride, ride upon:--_pa.t._ str[=o]de (_obs._
strid); _pa.p._ strid'den.--_n._ a long step, the space passed over in
such. [A.S. _strídan_, to stride; Ger. _streiten_, strive.]

STRIDENT, str[=i]'dent, _adj._ creaking, grating, harsh.--_adv._
STR[=I]'DENTLY.--_n._ STR[=I]'DOR, a harsh sound.--_adj._ STRID'[=U]LANT,
strident.--_n.pl._ STRID[=U]LAN'TIA, a group of hemipterous insects, the
cicadas.--_v.i._ STRID'[=U]LATE, to make a stridulous sound.--_ns._
STRID[=U]L[=A]'TION, the act of stridulating; STRID'[=U]L[=A]TOR, an insect
which emits such a sound.--_adjs._ STRID'[=U]L[=A]TORY, stridulant;
STRID'[=U]LOUS, emitting a harsh creaking sound. [L. _stridens_, _-entis_,
pr.p. of _strid[=e]re_, to creak.]

STRIFE, str[=i]f, _n._ contention for superiority: struggle for victory:
contest: discord.--_adj._ STRIFE'FUL (_Spens._), full of strife,
contentious, discordant--also STRIF'FUL. [M. E. _strif_--O. Fr.
_estrif_--Scand., Ice. _strith_, strife; Ger. _streit_, Dut. _strijd_,

STRIG, strig, _n._ the footstalk of a flower or leaf.--_v.t._ to strip this

STRIGA, str[=i]'ga, _n._ (_bot_.) a sharp bristle or hair-like scale: a
stripe, stria: the flute of a column:--_pl._ STR[=I]'GÆ.--_adjs._
STR[=I]'GATE, STR[=I]'GOSE, having strigæ: streaked; STRIG'ILOSE, minutely
strigose. [L. _striga_, a furrow--_string[)e]re_, to contract.]

STRIGES, str[=i]'jez, _n.pl._ the owls or _Strigidæ_, a sub-order of
_Raptores_.--_adj._ STRIG'INE, owl-like. [L. _strix_, _strigis_, an owl.]

STRIGIL, strij'il, _n._ a flesh-scraper. [L. _strigilis_, a
scraper--_string[)e]re_, to contract.]

STRIGILIS, strij'i-lis, _n._ an organ for cleaning the antennæ on the first
tarsal-joint of a bee's foreleg.

STRIGOPS, str[=i]'gops, _n._ a genus containing the kakapo or nocturnal New
Zealand parrot, the owl-parrots. [L. _strix_, _strigis_, owl, Gr. _[=o]ps_,

STRIKE, str[=i]k, _v.t._ to give a blow to: to hit with force, to smite: to
pierce: to dash: to stamp: to coin: to thrust in: to cause to sound: to let
down, as a sail: to ground upon, as a ship: to punish: to affect strongly:
to affect suddenly with alarm or surprise: to make a compact or agreement,
to ratify: to take down and remove: to erase (with _out_, _off_): to come
upon unexpectedly: to occur to: to appear to: to assume: to hook a fish by
a quick turn of the wrist: (_slang_) to steal: (_B._) to stroke.--_v.i._ to
give a quick blow: to hit: to dash: to sound by being struck: to touch: to
run aground: to pass with a quick effect: to dart: to take root: to lower
the flag in token of respect or surrender: to give up work in order to
secure higher wages or the redress of some grievance: (_U.S._) to do menial
work for an officer: to become saturated with salt: to run, or fade in
colour:--_pa.t._ struck; _pa.p._ struck (_obs._ strick'en).--_n._ act of
striking for higher wages: (_geol_.) the direction of the outcrop of a
stratum--the line which it makes when it appears at the surface of the
earth, always being at right angles to the dip of the bend: (_U.S._) any
dishonest attempt to extort money by bringing in a bill in the hope of
being bought off by those interested: full measure, esp. of malt: the whole
coinage made at one time: an imperfect matrix for type: the metal plate
into which a door-latch strikes as the door closes: the crystalline
appearance of hard soaps.--_ns._ STRIKE'-PAY, an allowance paid by a
trades-union to men on strike; STR[=I]K'ER, one who, or that which,
strikes: a green-hand on shipboard.--_adj._ STR[=I]K'ING, affecting:
surprising: forcible: impressive: exact.--_adv._ STR[=I]K'INGLY.--_n._
STR[=I]K'INGNESS, quality of being striking, or of affecting or
surprising.--STRIKE A BALANCE, to bring out the relative state of a debtor
and creditor account; STRIKE A TENT, to take it down; STRIKE DOWN, to
prostrate by a blow or by illness; STRIKE FOR, to start suddenly for;
STRIKE FROM, to remove with a stroke; STRIKE HANDS (_B._), to become surety
for any one; STRIKE HOME, to strike right to the point aimed at; STRIKE IN,
to enter suddenly: to interpose; STRIKE INTO, to enter upon suddenly, to
break into; STRIKE OFF, to erase from an account, to deduct: to print: to
separate by a blow; STRIKE OIL, to find petroleum when boring for it: to
make a lucky hit; STRIKE OUT, to efface: to bring into light: to direct
one's course boldly outwards: to strike from the shoulder: to form by
sudden effort; STRIKE SAIL, to take in sail: to stop; STRIKE UP, to begin
to beat, sing, or play; STRIKE WORK, to cease work. [A.S. _strícan_; Ger.
_streichen_, to move, to strike.]

STRING, string, _n._ a small cord or slip of anything for tying, small
cord, twine: a ribbon: nerve, tendon, a vegetable fibre: the chord (slender
piece of wire or catgut stretched) of a musical instrument: (_pl._)
stringed instruments collectively: a cord on which things are filed, a
succession or series of things: a drove of horses: in billiards, the
buttons strung on a wire by which the score is kept, the score itself: an
expedient, object in view or of pursuit: the highest range of planks in a
ship's ceiling.--_v.t._ to supply with strings: to put in tune: to put on a
string: to make tense or firm: to take the strings off.--_v.i._ to stretch
out into a long line: to form itself into strings: at billiards, to drive
the ball against the end of the table and back, in order to determine which
player is to open the game:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ strung.--_ns._
STRING'-BAND, a band composed chiefly of stringed instruments;
STRING'-BOARD, a board which faces the well-hole of a staircase, and
receives the ends of the steps; STRING'-COURSE, a projecting horizontal
course or line of mouldings running quite along the face of a
building.--_adj._ STRINGED, having strings.--_ns._ STRING'ER, one who, or
that which, strings: a lengthwise timber on which a rail is fastened
resting on a transverse cross-tie or sleeper: any main lengthways timber in
a bridge or other building: a small screw-hook to which piano-strings are
sometimes attached: (_naut._) a shelf-piece, an inside horizontal plank,
supporting beam-ends, any heavy timber similarly carried round a vessel to
strengthen her for special heavy service, as whaling, &c.;
STRING'INESS.--_adj._ STRING'LESS, having no strings.--_ns._
STRING'-OR'GAN, a reed-organ having a graduated set of vibrators or free
reeds connected by rods which cause to vibrate corresponding wires or
strings stretched over a sounding-board; STRING'-PEA, a pea with edible
pods; STRING'-PIECE, a supporting timber forming the edge of the framework
of a floor or staircase, &c.; STRING'-PLATE; a metal plate bearing the
spring-block of a pianoforte.--_adj._ STRING'Y, consisting of strings or
small threads: fibrous: capable of being drawn into strings.--_n._
STRING'Y-BARK, one of a class of Australian gum-trees with very fibrous
bark.--HARP UPON ONE STRING (see under HARP); HAVE ONE ON A STRING, to gain
complete influence or control over some one: to place a person under great
anxiety; HAVE TWO STRINGS TO ONE'S BOW, to have more than one expedient for
attaining the object in view. [A.S. _strenge_, cord--_strang_, strong; Dut.
_streng_, Ice. _strengr_, Ger. _strang_; conn. with L. _string[)e]re_, to
draw tight.]

STRINGENT, strin'jent, _adj._ binding strongly: urgent.--_n._ STRIN'GENCY,
state or quality of being stringent: severe pressure.--_advs._ STRINGEN'DO
(_mus._) hastening the time; STRIN'GENTLY, in a stringent manner.--_n._
STRIN'GENTNESS. [L. _stringens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _string[)e]re_.]

STRINGHALT, string'hawlt, _n._ a peculiar catching up of a horse's limbs,
usually of one or both hind-limbs, a variety of chorea or St Vitus's dance.

STRINKLE, string'kl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Scot._) to sprinkle
sparingly.--_n._ STRINK'LING. [_Sprinkle_.]

STRIP, strip, v.t to pull off in strips or stripes: to tear off: to deprive
of a covering: to skin, to peel, to husk: to make bare: to expose: to
remove the overlying earth from a deposit: to deprive: to impoverish or
make destitute: to plunder: to press out the last milk at a milking: to
press out the ripe roe or milt from fishes, for artificial fecundation: to
separate the leaves of tobacco from the stems.--_v.i._ to undress: to lose
the thread, as a screw: to come off:--_pr.p._ strip'ping; _pa.t._ and
_pa.p._ stripped.--_n._ a long narrow piece of anything (cf.
_Stripe_).--_ns._ STRIP'LEAF, tobacco which has been stripped of the stalks
before packing; STRIP'PER, one who, or that which, strips.--_n.pl._
STRIP'PINGS, the last milk drawn from a cow at a milking.--STRIP OFF, to
pull or take off: to cast off. [A.S. _strýpan_; Ger. _streifen_.]

STRIPE, str[=i]p, _n._ a blow, esp. one made with a lash, rod, &c.: a wale
or discoloured mark made by a lash or rod: a line, or long narrow division
of a different colour from the ground: kind, particular sort: striped
cloth.--_v.t._ to make stripes upon: to form with lines of different
colours.--_adjs._ STR[=I]PED, having stripes of different colours;
STR[=I]'PY, stripelike. [Old Dut. _strijpe_, a stripe in cloth; Dut.
_streep_, Low Ger. _stripe_, Ger. _streif_.]

STRIPLING, strip'ling, _n._ a youth: one yet growing. [Dim. of _strip_.]

STRIVE, str[=i]v, _v.i._ to make efforts (with _with_, _against_, _for_):
to endeavour earnestly: to labour hard: to struggle, to fight: to contend:
to aim:--_pa.t._ str[=o]ve; _pa.p._ striv'en.--_ns._ STR[=I]V'ER;
STR[=I]V'ING.--_adv._ STR[=I]V'INGLY, with striving, struggles, or earnest
efforts. [O. Fr. _estriver_--_estrif_, strife--Scand., Ice. _strídh_,

STRIX, striks, _n._ a genus typical of _Strigidæ_. [L. _strix_--Gr.
_strix_, a screech-owl.]

STROAM, str[=o]m, _v.i._ (_prov._) to wander idly about.