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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 101, October 4, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 101, October 4, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_
fonts, or _emphasis_ in Greek. A list of volumes and pages in
"Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 101. SATURDAY, OCTOBER 4. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition, 4_d._




      The Battle of Brunanburgh, by Dr. Thurnam                  249

      The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney                        250

      Accuracy Of Printing                                       250

      Folk Lore:--Discovering the Bodies of the Drowned--Tom
      Chipperfeild--East Norfolk Folk Lore                       251

      Sermon of Bishop Jeremy Taylor, by James Crossley          251

      Cowley and Gray, No. 11.                                   252

      Minor Notes:--Remains of Sir Hugh Montgomery--Westminster
      Hall--Meaning of "Log-ship"--Locusts of the New Testament  254


      Coinage of Vabalathus, Prince of Palmyra, by the Rev.
      E. S. Taylor                                               255

      Minor Queries:--Chaucer, how pronounced--The Island of
      Ægina--Statute of Limitations Abroad--Tapestry Story of
      Justinian--Praed's Works--Folietani--Berlin Mean
      Time--Defoe's House at Stoke Newington--Oxford
      Fellowships--Leonard Fell and Judge Fell--"Cleanliness
      is next to Godliness"--Davies Queries                      255

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Poet referred to by Bacon--The
      Violin--Sir Thomas Malory, Knt.--Archbishop of
      Spalatro--Play of "The Spaniards in Peru"--Selion          257


      Prophecies of Nostradamus                                  258

      Borough-English                                            259

      Passage in Virgil                                          260

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Ell-rake--Freedom from
      Serpents--Nao, for Naw, for Ship--De Grammont--The
      Termination "-ship"--The Five Fingers--Marriages within
      ruined Churches--Death of Cervantes--Story referred to
      by Jeremy Taylor--Gray's Obligations to Jeremy
      Taylor--Blessing by the Hand--Sacre Cheveux--Pope and
      Flatman--Linteamina and Surplices                          260


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     263

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               263

      Notices to Correspondents                                  263

      Advertisements                                             264



It is remarkable that the site of this great battle, the effects of
which were so important to the Anglo-Saxon power, remains to this day

The several chroniclers who describe it give various names to the
locality, though modern authors generally adopt the name of Brunanburgh
or "Town of the Fountains." Not however to insist on such variations in
the name as Brunandune, Bruneberik, Bruneford, and Brumby, Simeon of
Durham describes the battle as occurring at a place named Wendune,
otherwise Weondune, to which moreover he assigns the further name of
Ethrunnanwerch. The locality has been sought for in most improbable
places,--in Northumberland and Cheshire. There can, however, be little
or no doubt that this Waterloo of the Anglo-Saxons, as it has been
called, is really to be found in the immediate neighbourhood of the
Humber; though, whether on the northern or southern bank of that river
seems quite uncertain: so far at least as the evidence hitherto adduced
affords us the means of judging. In the Winchester volume of the British
Archæological Association, MR. HESLEDEN states his belief that he has
traced the site of this battle on the south of the Humber, near Barton
in Lincolnshire; but the evidence on which he grounds this opinion,
whilst demanding for this locality further consideration, seems to me
far from conclusive. MR. HESLEDEN describes some curious earth-works in
this situation, and thinks he has discovered the site of Anlaff's camp
at Barrow, and that of Athelstan at Burnham (formerly, as he informs us,
written "Brunnum"), where is an eminence called "Black Hold," which he
thinks was the actual seat of the battle. At Barrow are places called
"_Barrow Bogs_" and "_Blow Wells_." Does MR. HESLEDEN think we have here
any reference to the "fountains" giving their name to Brunanburgh?

It is very desirable, in a topographical and historical point of view,
that the site of this remarkable contest between the Anglo-Saxons and
the allied Scandinavians and British _reguli_ under Anlaff, should be
determined on satisfactory data; and the allusion to it by MR. HESLEDEN,
in a recent communication to "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. iv., p. 180.),
induces me to call the attention of your readers, and of that gentleman
in particular, to some mention of this battle, topographically not
unimportant, which is to be found in Egil's _Saga_; the hero of which
was himself a combatant at Brunanburgh, under the standard of Athelstan,
and which appears to have escaped the observation of those who have
discussed the probable site of this deadly encounter. The circumstantial
account to be found in the _Saga_, chap. lii. and liii., has not been
overlooked by Sharon Turner, who however does not quote the passages
having a special topographical interest. It is remarkable that the name
of Wendune, for which among Anglo-Saxon writers there appears the single
authority of Simeon of Durham, is confirmed by the testimony of the
_Saga_: at least there can be little doubt, that the _Vinheida_ of the
_Saga_ is but a Norse form for the Wendun or Weondune of the Anglo-Saxon
chronicler. The natural and other features of the locality are not
neglected by the author of the _Saga_, who describes it as a wild and
uncultivated spot, surrounded by woods, having the town of _Vinheida_
not far distant on the north. These particulars I take from the Latin of
the _Saga_; but the reader of the Icelandic would possibly find more
minute characteristics, which may have been lost in the process of
translation. As, by his residence in the neighbourhood, MR. HESLEDEN is
favourably situated for the further prosecution of this inquiry, I
should be glad to find whether his conclusion as to the site of the
battle received confirmation, or otherwise, from the passages of the
_Saga_ to which I have now ventured to direct attention.

I may here observe, that if we consider the situation of _Jorvik_, or
York, the capital of the then Norse kingdom of Northumbria, we shall
perhaps conclude that it was on the Yorkshire rather than on the
Lincolnshire side of the Humber, that--

          "Athelstan, king,
          of earls the Lord,
      of heroes the bracelet-giver,
          And his brother eke,
          Edmund etheling,
            in battle won
        with edges of swords
            near Brumby."

This conclusion is to some extent confirmed, when we connect with the
above the tradition or historical fact, whichever we regard it, that it
was after this battle that Athelstan, in redemption of a previous vow,
made various costly offerings on the altar of St. John of Beverley, and
endowed that church with great privileges, the memory of which exists to
the present day. It must however be admitted, that such a presumption is
anything but conclusive in regard to a topographical question of this
description. In conclusion, I would suggest that the Domesday Book for
Yorkshire and Lincolnshire should be carefully examined, in order to
ascertain whether the place in question, under any of the names assigned
to it, is there to be found.




  "Sans titres on fait des romans; pour écrire l'histoire il faut
  des preuves authentiques, des monumens certains."--J. J. Oberlin,
  _Annales de la vie de Jean Gutenberg_.

Gratified by the approbation with which my suggestion of a _Caxton
memorial_ has been received, both publicly and privately, and acquiring
fresh confidence in its success, it is my intention to make a second
appeal to the lovers of literature when the excitement of the present
year shall have passed away, and home-subjects shall re-assume their
wonted powers of attraction.

In the mean time, I recommend an assemblage of notes on the life and
works of Caxton, designed to correct current errors; to expose baseless
conjectures; to indicate probable sources of information, or to furnish
such novel information as research may produce; and to assist in
establishing the principles on which such a memorial as that suggested
should be prepared and edited.

In justification of this advice, I must express my belief that there
have been few men of celebrity on whose life and labours so many
erroneous statements, and inadmissible conjectures, have been published
in works of general repute.

Requesting the favour of contributions to _The Caxton coffer_ from such
persons as may take an interest in the success of the enterprise, I now
proceed to set an example:--

  "I have a great number of books printed by Caxton, and in very
  good condition, except a very few. I think the number is
  forty-two. Have you any notes relating to that good honest man? I
  think he deserves those titles, and if I may add industrious
  too."--Edward, earl of Oxford, to Thomas Hearne, 1731.

  "In Osborne's shop-catalogue for 1749, No. 5954, occurs the
  'Catalogue of the late E. of Oxford's library, as it was
  purchased, (being the original) inlaid with royal paper, in 16
  vols. 4to. with the prices prefixed to each book--pr. 10. 10.
  0.--N.B. There never was any other copy of this catalogue with the
  prices added to it.'--The same article, at the sane price, is
  repeated in his cat. for 1750, No. 6583, and for 1751, No.
  6347--after which, being discontinued in his subsequent cats. it
  was probably sold. Qu'y. to whom and where is it now?"--Richard
  Heber, c. 1811.

The first of the above notes is copied from _Letters written by eminent
persons_, London [Oxford], 1813. 8o. The second note, which concludes
with a _query_, forms part of some manuscript memoranda, now in my
possession, on the matchless library to which it refers.



Much of the _copy_ forwarded by the contributors to "NOTES AND QUERIES"
contains quotations from old books; which I presume are accurately
given, without alteration of spelling or punctuation. The difficulty is
this; that the printer, or perhaps even the editor, may sometimes alter
what he supposes to be a _contributor's_ error of copying. Thus, in
Query 93. (Vol. iv., p. 151.), there is _medulla grammaticæ_, where I
wrote _grammatice_, as in my authority: but the vile punctuation of the
subsequent extract (which is also that of the original) is duly
preserved. It would be desirable to have some symbol by which to call
attention to the fact that some glaring error is real quotation, and is
to be preserved in printing. For example, an indented line (~~~~) drawn
under the words in question, or at the side, would warn the printer that
he is not to correct any error, however gross. If you would suggest
this, or any other method, and request your contributors generally to
adopt it, an increased degree of confidence in the quotations would

      "Nec [sic] intersit nisi dignus vindice nodus


  [We are quite alive to the importance of our correspondent's
  suggestion. The excuse for such corrections by compositors and
  readers is, that copy frequently comes into their hands in such a
  state, that if they did not exercise a power somewhat beyond the
  strict limit of their duty, they would commit greater sins, and
  give more of offence both to writers and readers. It may be feared
  that some compositors would not know what was meant by an indented
  line, and would (especially if it was not carefully made) take it
  as a direction for _Italics_. The object may, however, probably be
  attained by the writer's placing in the margin, or in the line, or
  between the lines, so as to be either above or below the
  particular word or phrase to which it is meant to refer, the word
  "sic," with a line completely round it. All persons concerned in
  the practical part of printing understand, that "matter" which is
  thus circumscribed or circumlineated, is not to be printed, but is
  a private communication for the benefit of such readers of the
  written copy as it may concern. If there are many lines which
  require this caution, it will generally be enough to mark one or
  two of the first instances, for that will suffice to show that the
  writer knows that he is doing, and means to do, what looks as if
  it wanted correction.

  We are inclined to add one suggestion, for which this seems to be
  a good opportunity, because it is peculiarly inapplicable to the
  correspondent who has drawn from us these remarks. It is this,
  that as those who know that they are telling a story which is
  likely to excite doubt, take more than usual care to put on a
  grave and honest countenance, so those who know that they are
  writing what is bad or questionable in grammar, spelling, &c.,
  should use the precaution of being peculiarly legible.]


_Discovering the bodies of the Drowned_ (Vol. iv., p. 148.). It is
curious that a similar practice to that of discovering the bodies of the
drowned by loading a loaf with mercury, and putting it afloat on the
stream, extracted from the _Gent. Mag._, seems to exist among the North
American Indians. Sir James Alexander, in his account of Canada
(_L'Acadie_, 2 vols., 1849), says, p. 26.:--

  "The Indians imagine that in the case of a drowned body, its place
  may be discovered by floating a chip of cedar wood, which will
  stop and turn round over the exact spot: an instance occurred
  within my own knowledge, in the case of Mr. Lavery of Kingston
  Mill, whose boat overset, and the person was drowned near Cedar
  Island; nor could the body be discovered until this experiment was
  resorted to."


  Liverpool, Sept. 1851.

_Tom Chipperfeild, &c._--In Herrick's _Works_ (W. and C. Tait,
Edinburgh, 1823), p. 216., are the following lines:

      "_To his Booke._

      "The dancing frier, tatter'd in the bush,
      Those monstrous lies of little Robin Rush;
      _Tom Chipperfeild_, and pritty lisping _Ned_,
      That doted on a maide of gingerbread.
      The _flying pilcher_, and the _frisking dace_,
      With all the rabble of _Tim Trundell's_ race,
      Bred from the dunghils and adulterous rhimes,
      Shall live, and thou not superlast all times?"

Can any of your correspondents versed in the folk lore of the West of
England give me any explanation of _Tom Chipperfeild_ and Co.?



_East Norfolk Folk Lore_ (Vol. iv., p. 53.).--Cure for Ague. The cure
mentioned by MR. E.S. TAYLOR above, I have just learnt has been
practised with much success by some lady friends of mine for some years
past amongst the poor of the parishes in which they have lived. From the
number of cures effected by them, I have sent the same application (with
the exception of using ginger instead of honey) to a relative of mine in
India, who has been suffering from ague acutely, and am anxiously
waiting to hear the result. It would be satisfactory to have the medical
nature of the remedy, as well as its effects, accounted for; but I fear
this would be considered as out of your province.



I have a 12mo. volume entitled--

  "Christ's Yoke an easy Yoke, and yet the Gate to Heaven a straight
  Gate: in two excellent Sermons, well worthy the serious Perusal of
  the strictest Professors. By a Learned and Reverend Divine. Heb.
  xi. 4.: _Who being dead yet speaketh_. London, printed for F.
  Smith, at the Elephant and Castle, near the Royal Exchange in
  Cornhill, 1675."

Pp. 92., Exclusive of Preface.

Facing the title-page is a portrait of Bishop Taylor, engraved by Van
Hove. The Preface, without mentioning the author's name, informs the
reader that the two sermons following, "by means of a person of Honour
yet living, are now come into the press for public use and benefit." The
first sermon is on Matt. xi. 30.: "For my Yoke is easy, and my Burthen
is light;" and is contained in Taylor's _Life of Christ_ (Eden's edit.
of his _Works_, vol. ii. pp. 515-528.). The second sermon is on Luke
xiii. 23, 24., and begins "The life of a Christian is a perpetual
contention for mastery;" and ends, "If we strive according to his holy
Injunctions, we shall certainly enter, according to his holy promises,
but else upon condition." This sermon does not appear, as far as I have
been able to discover, in any collection of Taylor's Works, nor amongst
his Sermons in the new edition; nor do I find the volume itself noticed
by any of his biographers. It would be extraordinary if, when so much
has been printed as part of his works which did not belong to him, a
sermon indisputably his should have been omitted by all his various
editors; a sermon, too, which every reader will allow to be a fine one.
Perhaps the rev. editor of the new edition of Taylor's _Works_ can
explain the reason of this omission. I shall be glad to be corrected if
I have overlooked the sermon in any part of the Bishop's collected



Gray, when alluding to Shakspeare, in his Pindaric ode on "The Progress
of Poesy," had probably Cowley in memory:

          "Far from the sun and summer gale,
      In thy green lap was Nature's Darling laid,
      What time, where lucid Avon stray'd.
        To him the mighty mother did unveil
      Her awful face: _the dauntless child
      Stretch'd forth his little arms and smil'd_."

Wakefield, in one of his notes, remarks on this--

   "An allusion perhaps, to that verse of Virgil,

      "'Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem.'"

Instead of Virgil, I suspect that Gray was thinking of the first Nemean
Ode of Pindar, wherein the infant Hercules is described as strangling
the snakes sent to destroy him by Juno:

      "ὁ δ' ὀρθὸν
      μὲν ἄντεινεν κάρα,
      πειρᾶτο δὲ πρῶτον μάχας,
      δισσαῖσι δοιοὺς αὐχένων
      μάρψας ἀφύκτοις χερσὶν ἑαῖς ὄφιας."

Let me give a portion of Cowley's translation:

      "The big-limb'd babe in his huge cradle lay,
      Too weighty to be rock'd by nurse's hands,
          Wrapt in purple swaddling bands;
      When, lo! by jealous Juno's fierce commands,
          Two dreadful serpents come.

      "All naked from her bed the passionate mother lept
          To save, or perish with her child,
      She trembled, and she cry'd; the mighty infant smiled:
          The mighty infant seem'd well pleased
              At his gay gilded foes,
      And as their spotted necks up to the cradle rose,
      _With his young warlike hands on both he seiz'd_."

The stretching forth of the child's hands he found in Pindar and Cowley;
his "smiling" in Cowley alone, for there is no trace of it in the
original. While speaking of Gray, one scarcely likes alluding to that
great _whetstone_, Dr. Johnson; for certainly the darkest shade on his
well-merited literary reputation arises from his unjust, ill-natured,
and unscholarlike criticisms upon a poet whose sole transgression was to
have been his cotemporary. But Johnson eulogises Shakspeare, as did
Gray, and I cannot help thinking that he, as well as Gray, was indebted
to Cowley: _e.g._ Johnson writes:

      "When Learning's triumph o'er her barb'rous foes
      First rear'd the stage, immortal Shakspeare rose;
      Each change of many-colour'd life he drew,
      Exhausted worlds, and then imagin'd new:
      Existence saw him spurn her bounded reign,
      _And panting Time toil'd after him in vain_."

  _Prologue spoken by Mr. Garrick at the opening of the Theatre
  Royal, Drury Lane, 1747._

      "He did the utmost bounds of knowledge find;
      He found them not so large as was his mind,
      But, like the large Pellaean youth, did mone
      Because that art had no more worlds than one.
      And when he saw that he through all had past,
      He dy'd, lest he should idle grow at last."

  Cowley, _On the Death of Sir Henry Wooton_, page 6.: Lond. 1668,

And with Dr. Johnson's sixth line--

      "Panting Time toil'd after him in vain,"

we may, I think, compare Cowley's description of King David's earlier

      "Bless me! how swift and growing was his wit!
      _The wings of Time flag'd dully after it_."

  _Davideis_, lib. iii. p. 92.

But to return to Gray, Ode VI. "The Bard:"

      "With haggard eyes the poet stood,
      Loose his beard, and hoary hair
      _Stream'd, like a meteor, to the troubled air_."

Wakefield quotes _Paradise Lost_, lib. i. 535.:

      "The imperial ensign, which full high advanc'd,
      Shone _like a meteor streaming to the wind_."

Campbell, in _The Pleasures of Hope_, Part I., _does_ borrow from Milton
in the above passage:

      "Where Andes, giant of the western star,
      With _meteor standard to the winds unfurl'd_;"

but Gray is alluding to _hair_, and not to a standard; to the original
derivation of the word _comet_ (κόμη), and possibly to a
different passage in Milton, viz. _Par. Lost_, ii. 706.:

                            "on the other side,
      Incens'd with indignation, Satan stood
      Unterrified: and like a _comet_ burned,
      That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge,
      In the arctic sky, and from his horrid _hair_
      Shakes pestilence and war."

Or as Virgil before him, _Æneid_, lib. x. 270.:

      "_Ardet apex capiti, cristisque a vertici flamma_
      Funditur, et vastos umbo vomit aureus ignes:
      Non secus, ac liquida si quando nocti _cometæ_
      Sanguinei lugubre rubent, aut Sirius ardor," &c.

One of the meanings of κόμη is "the luminous tail of a comet;"
and Suidas mentions from the LXX, καὶ ἕσπερον τὸν ἀστέρα ἐπὶ
_κόμης_ αὐτοῦ ἄξεις αὐτον] (Job xxxviii. 32.). See Scott and Liddell's
_Lexicon_ at the words Κόμη, and Πώγων and Πωγωνίας,
which latter words are used in reference to the _beard_ of a

Gray must now speak for himself. He says in a note:

  "The image was taken from a well-known picture of Raphael,
  representing the Supreme Being in the Vision of Ezekiel. There are
  two of these paintings, both believed originals, one at Florence,
  the other at Paris."

And Mr. Mason adds, in a note to his edition of Gray, vol. i. p. 75.
Lond. 1807:

  "Moses breaking the Tables of the Law, by Parmegiano, was a figure
  which Mr. Gray used to say came still nearer to his meaning than
  the picture of Raphael."

I cannot help thinking that Cowley too was not forgotten. Speaking of
the angel Gabriel, he says:

      "An harmless flaming _meteor_ shone for _haire_,
      And fell adown his shoulders with loose care."

Indeed, I must give the entire passage, however fantastic or unconnected
with my purpose; for the last four lines, which describe the angel's
_wings_, appear beyond measure dreamy and beautiful:

      "When Gabriel (no blest spirit more kind or fair)
      Bodies and cloathes himself with thicken'd air,
      All like a comely youth in life's fresh bloom;
      Rare workmanship, and wrought by heavenly loom!
      He took for skin a cloud most soft and bright,
      That ere the mid day sun pierc'd through with light:
      Upon his cheeks a lively blush he spread,
      Wash't from the morning's beauties deepest red.
      An harmless flaming meteor shone for haire
      And fell adown his shoulders with loose care.
      He cuts out a silk mantle from the skies,
      Where the most sprightly azure pleas'd the eyes.
      This he with starry vapours spangles all,
      Took in their prime ere they grow ripe and fall.
      Of a new rainbow ere it fret or fade,
      The choicest piece took out, a scarf is made.
      _Small streaming clouds he does for wings display_,
      _Not virtuous lovers' sighs more soft than they_.
      _These he gilds o'er with the sun's richest rays_,
      _Caught gliding o'er pure streams on which he plays._"

  _Davideis_, lib. ii. ad finem.

Again, in a verse which was inserted in the _Elegy_ as it originally
stood (and the subsequent rejection of which we must ever grieve over,
as it almost surpasses any verse of the entire poem; and besides would
have saved it from the imputation of having been written as a heathen
poet would have written it), the words "sacred calm" occur, which are
not unfrequent in Cowley:

      "Hark how the _sacred calm_ that breathes around
      Bids every fierce tumultuous passion cease;
      In still small accents whispering from the ground,
      A grateful earnest of eternal peace."--


      "They came, but a new spirit their hearts possest,
      Scattering a _sacred calm_ through every breast."

  _Davideis_, lib. i. ad finem.

      "All earth-bred fears and sorrows take their flight;
      In rushes joy divine, and hope, and rest;
      A _sacred calm_ shines through his peaceful breast."

  _Davideis_, lib. ii. ad finem.

Again, does not Mr. Gray's _Ode to Spring_--

      "Methinks I hear," &c.

remind one a little of Cowley's "Anacreontic to the Grasshopper?"

      "To thee of all things upon earth,
      Life is no longer than thy mirth.
      Happy insect, happy thou,
      _Dost neither age nor winter know_.
      But when thou'st drunk, and danc'd, and sung
      Thy fill, the flowery leaves among
      (Voluptuous and wise withal, Epicurean animal!)
      Sated with thy summer feast
      Thou retir'st to endless rest."

or the following lines

      "Their raptures now that wildly flow,
      _No yesterday nor morrow know_;
      Tis man alone that joy descries
      With forward, and reverted eyes."

  Gray's _Ode on the Pleasure arising from Vicissitude_.

In his notes to "Spring," Wakefield gets quite pathetic at the words--

      "Poor moralist, and what art thou?
          A solitary fly," &c.

I have always believed that Gray was imitating Bishop Jeremy Taylor:

  "Marriage is the mother of the world, and preserves kingdoms, and
  fills cities, and churches, and heaven itself. _Celibate, like the
  fly in the heart of an apple_, dwells in a perpetual sweetness,
  but sits alone, and is confined and dies in singularity."--Sermon
  XVII. _The Marriage Ring_, Part I.

If these random notes be interesting to any of your readers, they are
only a portion out of many I could send; and any one who doubts Gray's
partiality for Cowley may compare his second verse of the "Ode to
Spring" with Cowley's lines on "Solitude," found amongst his _Essays_,
especially verses 4. and 5.:

      "Here let me careless and unthoughtful lying
        Hear the soft winds above me flying,
        With all their wanton boughs dispute,
      And the more tuneful birds to both replying,
          Nor be my self too mute.

      "A silver stream shall roll his waters near;
        Gilt with the sunbeams here and there,
        On whose enamel'd bank I'll walk,
      And see how prettily they smile, and hear
          How prettily they talk."


      "Soft-footed winds with tuneful voices there
        Dance through the perfumed air,
      There silver rivers through enamel'd meadows glide,
        And golden trees enrich their side."

  _Translation of Pindar's Second Olympic Ode._

Or let him compare Gray's Latin and English verses upon the death of his
friend Mr. West with Cowley's upon the death of Mr. William Harvey and
Mr. Crashaw:

      "Hail, Bard Triumphant! and some care bestow
      On us the Poets Militant below," &c.

      Cowley _on Mr. Crashaw_.

      "At Tu, sancta anima, et nostri non indiga luctus," &c.


To these lines on Crashaw Pope is indebted for a sentiment which in his
hands assumes a very infidel form:

      "For modes of faith let senseless bigots fight;
      His can't be wrong whose life is in the right."

Crashaw had become a Roman Catholic, and was a canon of Loretto when he
died; but Cowley's Protestant feelings could not blind him to his worth,
and he says:

      "His _Faith_ perhaps in some nice tenets might
      Be wrong; his _Life_, his soul were _in the Right_."

How much the two last-mentioned poems of Gray's owe to Milton's "Lines
to Mansus" and his "Epitaphium Damonis," any one acquainted with them
may remember. I have only been alluding to Gray's reproductions of



Minor Notes.

_Remains of Sir Hugh Montgomery_ (Vol. iv., p. 206.)--Allusion has been
made to the following stanza from "Chevy Chase:"--

      "Against Sir Hugh Montgomery,
        So right his shaft he set,
      The grey goose wing that was thereon
        In his heart's blood was wet."

Having lately visited the sea-bathing town of Largs, my attention was
attracted to a building in the churchyard forming the present burying
ground. In this building, bearing date of erection 1636 by Sir Robert
Montgomery (ancestor of the present Earl of Eglinton), there is an
elaborately carved tomb of mason work, beneath which is a strongly
arched stone vault, where, besides the founder and others, tradition has
placed the remains of the brave Sir Hugh Montgomery. It is difficult to
reconcile this with the long prior date of the battle of Chevy Chase,
unless the vault, which has certainly a very ancient look, can be
substantiated to have existed before the above building. Taking matters
as they go, the remains of the warrior now appear in the most
humiliating condition--reduced to a hard, dry bony skeleton deprived of
legs and thighs, with the singular appearance of the skull having been
cloven (most likely) by a battle-axe, the skull being held together by
some plate or substance and rude stitching. The body is said to have
been originally embalmed, and enclosed in a lead coffin, which was
barbarously torn off some forty years ago, as sinks for fishing nets.
The building, tomb, and vault, taken altogether, present perhaps one of
the finest specimens of this species of architecture in Scotland, and
are additionally curious from the cone roof of the building being highly
ornamented with descriptive paintings in a tolerable state of
preservation. It is understood that some historical notices of the whole
have been privately printed by a Scotch antiquarian, of which some of
your learned readers may be aware, and may furnish more ample details
than the foregoing.


  Glasgow, Sept. 23, 1851.

_Westminster Hall._--The following extract from the _Issue Roll of
Michaelmas Term_, 9 Hen. VII. 1493, may be interesting to some of your
readers, and will perhaps lead to a speculation on the nature of "the
disguisyings" alluded to:--

  "To Richard Daland, for providing certain spectacles, or theatres,
  commonly called scaffolds, in the great hall at Westminster, for
  performance of 'the disguisyings,' exhibited to the people on the
  night of the Epiphany, as appears by a book of particulars; paid
  to his own hands, £28, 3_s._ 5-3/4_d._"--Devon's _Issue Roll_,

Possibly the next entry, which is in Michaelmas in the following year,
of a payment of five marks yearly "to John Englissh, Edward Maye,
Richard Gibson, and John Hamond, 'lusoribus Regis' otherwise called in
English the players of the king's interludes, for their fees,"--has some
connexion with "the disguisyings."


_Meaning of "Log-ship."_--If you have a spare corner, can you grant it
to me for the origin of a word which describes an article used in every
sailing and steam vessel in the world, and yet perhaps not one sailor in
a thousand knows whence it is derived. I allude to the word "log-ship,"
the name of the little wooden float (quadrant-shaped) by which, with a
line attached, the vessel's speed is ascertained. Before the invention
of the line with "knots" on it, a "chip," or floating-scrap, was thrown
overboard forward, and the "master," or whoever it might be, walked aft
at the rate which the vessel passed the "chip," judging of his pace from
experience. Hence the term "log-ship," or "chip," which is its true

    A. L.

  West Indies, Aug. 11. 1851.

_The Locusts of the New Testament._--While in Greece last year, I was
talking one day with a highly intelligent person on the English
translation of the New Testament. In the course of our conversation he
said, that in the third chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel we had got an
entirely wrong meaning for the verse in which we are told the food of
St. John the Baptist, viz. "locusts and wild honey." I have not at this
moment a Testament in ancient Greek by me but in the Romaic the
paragraph alluded to runs thus:

  Verse 4. ... "Καὶ ἡ τροφὴ του ἦτον ἀκρίδες, καὶ μέλι ἄγριον."

He said that the word ἀκρίδες, which we have translated
"locusts," means rather the "young and tender parts of plants." Since
that time I have looked into various Lexicons and Dictionaries both of
the ancient and modern Greek, but have been unable to find anything to
assist me in fixing this meaning. In that of Hedericus, it is thus
given: "Ἀκρὶς, ίδος, ἡ, Locusta." There is also, however,
"Ἄκρις, ιος, ἡ, Summitas, cacumen montis. Ab ἄκρος,
summus." Whether there may be any confusion between these two words I
know not; and here, possibly, I may be assisted by some obliging reader.
I have consulted, along with a clergyman who is well skilled in Greek
literature, and who is perfectly acquainted with Romaic, many
commentaries; but in every one we found this passage either entirely
passed over, or very unsatisfactorily noticed.




A great boon would be conferred on numismatists if some of your
correspondents would endeavour to elucidate the puzzling legend
sometimes found on coins of this prince.

Vabalathus, or Vhabalathus, Athenodorus (which Mionnet and Akerman make
to be the Greek translation of Vabalathus), was the son of the
celebrated Zenobia, by an Arab prince, and was raised to the imperial
dignity by his mother. His sway extended over some parts of Syria and
Egypt, A.D. 266-273.

Aurelian gave to Vabalathus a petty province of Armenia, of which he
made him king, though perhaps this arose from the mistake of Occo and
Salmasius (_in Vopisc._ p. 380.) in reading ΑΡΜΕΝΙΑϹ for
ΑΥΓ . ΕΡΜΙΑϹ on his Egyptian coins (Vide infra).

His portrait appears on the reverse of coins of Aurelian, with the
legend VABALATHVS. VCRIMDR. Frölich and Corsini have unsuccessfully
attempted the interpretation of this word. Père Hardouin, considering,
VCRIMOR as the correct reading, divides it V. C. R. IM. OR., i.e. _Vice
Cæsaris Rector Imperii Orientis_; but, as Banduri rightly observes, the
existence of this legend is extremely doubtful, VCRIMDR being the
authorised one, and is undoubtedly so in a specimen in my cabinet; and
though the worthy Jesuit remarks, "Barbaram vocem aliquam arbitrari sub
hisce Notis Latinis latere, frigidum genus exceptionis est, ac
desperantium," I am inclined to think that the true interpretation is to
be sought in the Syriac, or some of the Oriental languages.

I have two others in my collection, of the rude third brass of the
Egyptian mint: Obv. AURELIAN, &c.


The first and three final letters of this last legend are very
indistinct, and I should much like a correct reading of it, as it is, I
believe, inedited. Other legends are given by Banduri: VABALATHVS . alii

    E. S. TAYLOR.

Minor Queries.

195. _Chaucer, how pronounced._--What is, or was, the original
pronunciation of the name of the poet Chaucer? Was, or was not, the _ch_
in his day a guttural? And was not the name _Hawker_ or _Howker_?


196. _The Island of Ægina._--Having occasion to make some inquiry about
the island of Ægina, in Greece, I have been sadly perplexed by the
discrepancies of the modern authorities I have had an opportunity of
consulting. The principal of these relates to the site of the temple of
Jupiter, or Zeus Panhellenios, which Dr. Smith's _Classical Dictionary_,
and M'Culloch's and Fullerton's _Gazetteers_, place in the N.E. part of
the island; Fullerton, however, saying also that Mount St. Elias lies in
_the south part_, though he does not say that the temple is built on
that mount. But Blaikie's _Gazetteer_ says that the temple stands on
_Mount St. Elias_, which, according to Fullerton, is in the _south_.
With this agrees the map in the _Topographisch-historisch Atlas von
Hellas_, &c. von H. Kiepert, Berlin, 1846, which distinctly places the
"Tempel von Zeus Panhellenios" in the _south_ part of the island while
the temple in the _north-east_ is called "Tempel von Athena." The Atlas
to Anacharsis' _Travels_ places it also in the _south_. Which of these
authorities is right? or, can any of your readers tell me, from personal
knowledge, in what part of the island the said Temple of Zeus
Panhellenios really stands?


197. _Statute of Limitations Abroad._--With so many foreigners
sojourning among us, I should be glad if you could, by throwing out a
hint in your paper, obtain from them what is the statute of limitations
of the several countries to which they belong.


198. _Tapestry Story of Justinian._--There is a series of ancient
tapestries in Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, representing certain
events in the life of the emperor Justinian. One of these exhibits him
in the act of making his celebrated Digest of Law, surrounded by his
lawyers; in a second, he is manumitting slaves before the temple of
Janus, at the time, I presume, when he proclaimed the _eternal peace_,
which lasted two years; in a third, he appears crowned, on his knees,
swearing, it should seem, to observe the _Lex Romana_, which is held up
to him in an open book by two lictors; in the fourth, he is seen in a
wild country, with a hunting spear in his hand, coming, as it were by
surprise, and in great alarm, upon two hounds in the agonies of death. A
dish, from which they may have taken poison, lies on the foreground; and
a stream, which may possibly have been poisoned, gushes from a
neighbouring rock. Figures in the background seem to be slinking away
from the scene here represented.

I shall be much obliged to any of your correspondents who can point out
to me the ancient author in whose writings the circumstance alluded to
in the last-mentioned picture is detailed.

    W. N. DARNELL.

199. _Praed's Works._--Can any reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES" inform me
if there be a collected edition of the works of Praed? Many of your
readers are familiar with his fugitive pieces published in Knight's
_Quarterly Magazine_, _The Etonian_, and other periodicals. And all, I
am sure, who are acquainted with him, would be glad to see his graceful
and elegant productions published in a collected form.

    K. S.

200. _Folietani._--Who founded the order of _Folietani_, or leaf-eaters
(to the exclusion of all grain and meat)? where and when? What Pope
dissolved the order, and is the Bull extant?

    A. N.

201. _Berlin Mean Time._--In the _Nautical Almanac_ the day is supposed
to commence at noon according to the custom of English astronomers.
Foreigners, however, ordinarily commence the astronomical day at
midnight, at least those of France, Germany, Italy, and Spain do. But
can you or any of your correspondents tell me whether it is from the
midnight succeeding, or the midnight preceding our noon of the same
number? For instance, taking the longitude of Berlin to be 0h 53m 35s .5
East, would the present moment, which is September 17, 3h 40m 30s
Greenwich mean time, if expressed in Berlin mean time, be September 17,
16h 34m 5s .5, or would it be September 16, 16h 34m 5s .5? (I have
reckoned to days by ordinals, as, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, &c., without a 0-day,
which, however, the foreigners generally use, employing a cardinal
number, the hours minutes, and seconds being considered as a fraction to
be added.) I ask this question because so many things now are announced
in Berlin mean time.


202. _De Foe's House at Stoke Newington._--About the year 1722 De Foe
built here a large and handsome house for his own residence. Is it still
standing, and where? Many mansions in the neighbourhood appear to have
been erected about that time.


203. _Oxford Fellowships._--

  "Upon this occasion I might repeat what I have observed before,
  page 33. of these _Annals_, where the highest fellowships in
  Oxford in 1534 or 1535 did not exceed 6_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._, nor the
  lowest fall under 3_l._, and that was in Brazen Nose College; at
  which time New College fellowships were but rated at 3_l._ 9_s._
  4_d._, nor any of Magdalen fellowships (_except two for Yorkshire
  that were obliged to go and preach in the countries abroad_) above
  3_l._ 15_s._ 4_d._, as may be found in Mr. Twine's MS."--Smith's
  _Annals of Univ. Coll._ p. 372.

Can any of your correspondents throw any light upon the parenthetical
clause printed in Italics?

    E. H. A.

204. _Leonard Fell and Judge Fell._--Mr. Josiah Marsh, in _A popular
Life of George Fox_, 8vo., London, 1847, p. 83., mentions "Leonard Fell
of Becliff, a brother of the judge."

I shall be obliged by a reference to the authority on which this
statement rests. George Fox frequently mentions both Leonard Fell and
Judge Fell; but I cannot find in his _Journal_ the slightest hint that
they were in any way connected. Fell is a common name in the north of
Lancashire. Leonard Fell was one of the preachers who sometimes
accompanied George Fox in his wanderings. Judge Fell was a staunch
member of the Church of England.


205. "_Cleanliness is next to Godliness._"--Will you, or one of your
correspondents, have the goodness to inform me whence is derived the
quotation "Cleanliness is next to Godliness?"


206. _Davies Queries._--I shall feel much obliged by a correct
description of the monument erected to Sir John Davys, Davis, or Davies,
the celebrated lawyer and poet, in St. Martin's church, London, and
particularly of the arms, crest, and motto (if any) which are on it.

I wish to know also the _correct blazon_ of the following coats of arms:
Thos. Davies, a fess inter three elephants' heads erazed; and Davis of
London, on a bend cotissed inter six battle-axes three daggers: there is
some mention of these arms in the Har. MSS., but I wish to know the
correct colours of the shields and their charges?


Minor Queries Answered.

_Poet referred to by Bacon._--To what poet does Bacon refer in the
following passage of the _Advancement of Learning_?--

  "The invention of one of the late poets is proper, and doth well
  enrich the ancient fiction: for he feigneth that at the end of the
  thread or web of every man's life there was a little medal
  containing the person's name, and that Time waited upon the
  shears; and as soon as the thread was cut, caught the medals, and
  carried them to the river of Lethe; and about the bank there were
  many birds flying up and down that would get the medals, and carry
  them in their beak a little while, and then let them fall into the
  river," &c.--Vol. ii. p. 112. in B. Montagu's edition of Bacon.


  [We are inclined to think that Bacon's reference was to the
  _Mirror for Magistrates_, and will probably be found in connexion
  with the following lines:

      "A little wren in beake with laurell greene that flew,
      Foreshew'd my dolefull death, as after all men knew."]

_The Violin._--Which is the best work hitherto published on the history
and construction of the violin?


  [Certainly the best work on the history of this favourite
  instrument is the amusing little volume published by Mr. George
  Dubourg, in 1836, under the title of _The Violin, being an Account
  of that leading Instrument, and its most eminent Professors, from
  its earliest Date to the present Time: including Hints to
  Amateurs, &c._]

_Sir Thomas Malory, Knt._--I should feel obliged if any of your
correspondents could give me any information relative to Sir Thomas
Malory, Knt., who translated into English _The most Ancient and Famous
History of the renowned Prince Arthur, King of Britaine_? Also any
particulars relative the original author of that work?

    M. P. S.


  [Consult Herbert's edition of Ames's _Typographical Antiquities_,
  vol. i. pp. 59-61. 134.; Dibdin's _Typographical Antiquities_,
  vol. i. pp. 241-255.; and Wharton's _History of English Poetry_.]

_Archbishop of Spalatro._--In a note to the account of Chelsea College,
in Lysons' _Environs of London_, which contains a list of the first
fellows of the college, called by Archbishop Laud "Controversy College,"
of which Dr. Sutcliffe was founder and provost, I read--

  "Many vacancies having occurred by the promotion of some of the
  fellows above-mentioned to bishoprics, and by the death of others,
  King James, by his letters patent, Nov. 14, 1622, substituted
  others in their room, among whom was _the celebrated Archbishop of
  Splalato, then Dean of Windsor_."

I wish to ask who this archbishop was? and should be glad to learn any
further particulars respecting him, especially as to whether he ever
acted as a bishop in England? _Splalato_ is, I presume, an error of the
press for _Spalatro_.

    W. FRAZER.

  [Mark Antony de Dominis, born about 1561, was educated among the
  Jesuits, and was Bishop of Segni, and afterwards Archbishop of
  Spalatro. Bishop Bedell met with him at Venice, and corrected,
  previous to publication, his celebrated work _De Republica
  Ecclesiastica_. When Bedell returned to England, Dominis came over
  with him. Here he preached and wrote against the Romanists, and
  the king gave him the Deanery of Windsor, the Mastership of the
  Savoy, and the rich living of West Ildesley in Berkshire. De
  Dominis's wish seems to have been to re-unite the Romish and
  English churches. He returned to Rome in 1622, where he abjured
  his errors, but on the discovery of a correspondence which he held
  with some Protestants, he was thrown into prison, where he died in
  1625. He was a man of great abilities and learning, although
  remarkable for a fickleness in religious matters. He was author of
  a work entitled _De Radiis Visus et Lucis in Vitris Perspectivis
  et Iride Tractatus_, and was the first person, according to Sir
  Isaac Newton, who had explained the phenomena of the colours of
  the rainbow. We are also indebted to him for Father Paul's
  _History of the Council of Trent_, the manuscript of which he
  procured for Archbishop Abbot.--See Chalmers's _Biographical
  Dictionary_, _s.v._ DOMINIS.]

_Play of "The Spaniards in Peru."--John Heywood._--Who was the author of
_The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru, expresst by Instrumentall and
Vocall Musick, and by Art of Perspective in Scenes_, &c., said to have
been represented in the Cock Pit, in Drury Lane, at three in the
afternoon punctually, 1658? Thus it stands in Jacob, but is not
mentioned by Langbaine. The author of the _British Theatre_, however,
mentions a remarkable circumstance in regard to it, which is, that
Oliver Cromwell, who had prohibited all theatrical representations, not
only allowed this piece to be performed, but even himself actually read
and approved of it.

Also, what are the exact dates of the birth and death of John Heywood,
in Henry VIII.'s time?


  [Sir William Davenant was the author of _The Spaniards in Peru_,
  which was subsequently incorporated  in his piece, _Playhouse to
  be Let_. See his _Works_, fol. 1673, p. 103.; also Genest's
  _Account of the English Stage_, vol. i. p. 38.]

_Selion._--I have frequently met with the word "selion" in deeds
relating to property in various parts of the Isle of Axholme, co.
Lincoln. The term is used in the description of property; for instance,
"All that _selion_ piece or parcel of land situate, &c." It does not
signify any particular quantity, for I have known it applied to fields
of all sizes, from five acres down to a quarter of an acre. Will some of
your numerous correspondents furnish an explanation of the word, and
from whence derived?

    L. L. L.

  North Lincolnshire.

  [Selion of land, or _selio terræ_, is derived from the French
  _seillon_, a ridge of land, or ground arising between two furrows,
  and contains no certain quantity, but sometimes more or less.
  Therefore Crompton says, that a selion of land cannot be in
  demand, because it is a thing uncertain.]



(Vol. iv., pp. 86. 140.)

Mr. H. C. DE ST. CROIX may be assured that the first edition of the
Prophecies of Nostradamus is not only in the National Library, but in
several others, both in Paris and elsewhere. It is now, however, very
rare, though until lately little valued; for at the Duc de la Vallière's
sale, in 1783, it produced no more than seven livres ten sols,--not
quite seven shillings. De Bure makes no mention of it: nor was it in the
library of M. Gaignat, or various other collectors; so little sought for
was it then. Printed at Lyons "chès Macé Bonhomme, M:D:L:V.," it thus
closes--"Achevé d'imprimer le iiii iour de Mai, M.D.L.V." It is a small
octavo of 46 leaves, as we learn from Brunet, and was republished the
following year at Avignon, still limited to four centuries; nor was a
complete edition, which extended to ten centuries, with two imperfect
ones, published till 1568, at Troyes (en Champagne), in 8vo. Numerous
editions succeeded, in which it is well known that every intervenient
occurrence of moment was sure to be introduced, always preceded by the
date of impression, so as to establish the claim of prophecy. I have
before me that of J. Janson, Amsterdam, 1668, 12mo., which is usually
associated with the Elzevir collection of works, though not proceeding
from the family's press either in Leyden or Amsterdam. Several attempts
at elucidating these pretended prophecies have been made, such as
_Commentaires sur les Centuries de Nostradamus_, par Charigny, 1596,
8vo.; _La Clef de Nostradamus_, 1710, 12mo.; and one so late as 1806, by
Théodore Bouys, 8vo. The distich "Nostra damus," &c. was the playful
composition, according to La Monnoye, of the celebrated Genevan reformer
Théodore de Béze. By others it is attributed to the poet Jodelle: but
the author is still uncertain. Nostradamus, born in Provence, died in
July, 1566, aged sixty-eight. His second son published the Lives of the
Poets of his native province in 1575, 8vo.

Among those impositions on public credulity, one of the most famous is
that referred to by Bacon, in his twenty-fifth Essay, and which he, as
was then the prevalent belief, attributed to the astronomer John Müller,
usually known as Regiomontanus, of the fifteenth century, and so
denominated by Bacon. Its first application was to the irruption of the
French king, Charles VIII., into Naples, in 1488, when the impetuosity
of the invasion was characterised by the epithet, ever since so well
sustained, of "La Furia Francese." Again, in 1588 it was interpreted as
predictive of the Spanish attack on England by the misnomed "Invincible
Armada;" and the English Revolution of 1688 was similarly presumed to
have been foretold by it, which always referred to the special year
_eighty-eight_ of each succeeding century; while the line expressive of
the century was correspondingly adjusted in the text. It was thus made
applicable to the great French Revolution, of which the unmistakeable
elements were laid in 1788, by the royal edict convoking the
States-General for the ensuing year, when it burst forth with dread
explosion. Its prediction, with the sole alteration of the century from
the original lines, was then thus expressed:--

      "Post mille expletos a partu Virginis annos,
      Et septingentos rursus ab orbe datos
      Octogessimus octavus mirabilis annus
      Ingruet: is secum tristia fata trahet.

      "Si non hoc anno totus malus occidet orbis
      Si non in nihilum terra fretumque ruant,
      Cuncta tamen mundi sursum ibunt atque deorsum
      Imperia; et luctus undique grandis erit."

Though long ascribed to Regiomontanus, whose death preceded its first
appearance, and therefore made its application to posterior events
appear prophetic, the real author, according to the astronomer Delambre,
was a German named Bruschius, of the sixteenth century, who pretended to
have discovered it on a tomb (we may suppose that of Regiomontanus) in
Bohemia, that learned man's country. Many other similar prophecies have
deluded the world, of which the most celebrated were those of the
Englishman Merlin. An early edition, printed in 1528, fetched sixteen
guineas in 1812 at the Roxburgh sale, though preceded by three or four.
It is in French, and at Gaignat's sale, in 1769, brought only thirty-one
livres. It was No. 2239. of the Catalogue.

    J. R.

  Cork, Sept. 17.


(Vol. iv., p. 133.)

Since my former communication I have collected the following list of
places where this custom prevails:--

In Surrey:

  Battersea.--Lysons' _Environs_, vol. i. p. 30.

  Wimbledon (Archbishop of Canterbury's Manor).--Lysons' _Environs_,
  vol. i. p. 523.

  Streatham (Manor of Leigham Court).--Lysons' _Environs_, vol. i.
  p. 481.

  Richmond, Ham, Peterham.--Lysons' _Environs_.

  Croydon (Archbishop of Canterbury's Manor).--Clement _v._
  Scudamore, 6 _Mod. Rep._ 102.; Steinman's _Croydon_, p. 9.

In Essex:

  Maldon.--_Blount's Tenures_ by Beckwith.

In Suffolk:

  Lavenham.--_Blount's Tenures_ by Beckwith.

In Gloucestershire:

  The county of the city of Gloucester.--_1st Report of Real
  Property Commissioners_, 1839, app. 98.

In Middlesex:

  Islington (Manor of St. John of Jerusalem).--Nelson's _Islington_.

  Isleworth.--Lysons' _Environs_, vol. iii. p. 96.

In Cornwall:

  Clymesloud.--_Blount's Tenures_ by Beckwith, p. 407.

In Nottinghamshire:

  Southwell.--_Comp. Cop._ 506.; _Blount's Tenures_ by Beckwith.

In Northamptonshire:

  Brigstock.--_Beauties of England and Wales_, vol. ii. p. 201.

In Warwickshire:

  Balshall.--_Pat. 20 R. 2. m. 2._; _Blount's Tenures_ by Beckwith,
  p. 629.

In Lincolnshire:

  Stamford.--_Camd. Brit._ tit. _Lincolnshire_; _Blount's Tenures_
  by Beckwith, p. 416.

There are some variances in the custom in these several places; the
particulars would be too long for an article in "NOTES AND QUERIES;" but
the principle of descent to the youngest son prevails in all.

It would be very desirable to complete this list as far as can be done,
and I hope some others of your correspondents will give their aid to do

The origin of this custom, so contrary to the general law of descent by
the common law, is also a subject worthy of more investigation than it
has yet received. What is stated on the subject in the law books is very
unsatisfactory. It might tend to throw some light on this point if any
of your correspondents would communicate information as to any nations
or tribes where the law of descent to the youngest son prevails, or did
prevail, according to ancient or still existing custom.

I have also received the following list of places where the custom of
Borough-English prevails, from Charles Sandys, Esq., F.S.A., of
Canterbury. It is taken from notes to the third edition of Robinson's
valuable work on Gavelkind, p. 391. note _a._, and p. 393. n. _c._ This
list had escaped me, as my edition of Robinson is an old one.

  "It appears by communications from the stewards to the late Mr.
  Sawkins, that in the following manors, lands are descendible after
  the custom of Borough-English:--


      St. John of Jerusalem, in Islington
      Sutton Court


      Weston Gumshall, in Albury
      Colley, in Reigate
      Sutton next Woking, in Woking
      Little Bookham, in Little Bookham and Effingham
      Wotton, Abinger, Paddington, Paddington Pembroke: in the parishes
          of Wotton, Abinger, Ewhurst, and Cranley
      Gumshall Tower Hill, Gumshall Netley; Shere Vachery, and Cranley;
          Shere Eborum: in the parishes of Shere Ewhurst and Cranley
      Dunsford, in the parish of Wandsworth
      Compton Westbury
      Brockham, in Betchworth


      Boxted Hall


      Battell, a small part of the freehold and copyhold lands in
      Somersham, with the Soke, the copyhold lands in Alconbury, with
          Weston Huntingdonshire.

  "It appears by the communications from the stewards of the late
  Mr. Sawkins, that his customary descent is extended to younger
  brothers in the manors of--


      Dorking, in Dorking and Capel-Milton and Westcott, in the parishes
          of Dorking Capel and Ockley

  "To all collateral males in the manors of--


      Isleworth Syon
      Ealing, otherwise Zealing

  "To females, as well as males, lineal and collateral, in the
  manors of--


      Wimbledon, including Putney, Mortlake, Rochampton, and Sheen


      Battersea and Wandsworth




      Much Hadham."

    G. R. C.

  Southwark, Sept. 24, 1851.

The accompanying extract is from the History of the borough of Stafford,
in White's _Directory and Gazetteer of Staffordshire_, which is just

  "The ancient custom of _Borough-English_ formerly prevailed here,
  by which the youngest son succeeded to property, as heir-at-law,
  in preference to the elder children. The origin of this part of
  our common law is not very well ascertained, but it is generally
  supposed to have arisen from the ancient system of _vassalage_,
  which gave the lord of the manor certain rights over his _vassal's
  bride_, and thus rendered the legitimacy of the eldest born
  uncertain; or perhaps it may have originated in the natural
  presumption, that the youngest child was least capable of
  providing for itself."

    F. J. M.


(Vol. iv., pp. 24. 88.)

Permit me to make a few remarks on the passage of Virgil, "Viridesque
secant," &c., and its attempted elucidation, Vol. iv., pp. 88, 89.

It is stated that the translation is not correct, and also that Servius
was a very illiterate, ignorant, and narrow-minded man, &c.

In the short notice of Servius and his works in the _Penny Cyclopædia_,
we have a very different character of him. Which is to be believed, for
both cannot be right?

Harles, in his _Introd. in Notitiam Lit. Rom._, speaks thus of the
_Commentaries of Servius_:

  "Quæ in libris Virgilii sub nomine Servii circumferuntur Scholia,
  eorum minima pars pertinet ad illum; sed farrago est ex
  antiquioribus commentariis Cornuti, Donati, &c., et aliorum; immo
  vero ex recentioris ætatis interpretibus multa adjecta sunt et

Thus condemning the interpolations, but leaving intact the matter really
belonging to Servius.

For a refutation of the impertinent comparison with a Yorkshire hedge
schoolmaster, and the erroneous appreciation of the _Commentaries_, I
must refer to the above-mentioned notice in the _Penny Cyclopædia_.

In the next place, with respect to the meaning of the passage:--the word
_seco_, when applied to the movements of ships, is usually rendered by
"sulco;" _e.g._:

      "Jamque fretum Minyæ Pegasæâ puppe secabant."

      Ovid, _Met._ vii. 1.

See also lib. xi. 479. "Travel along" would be insufficient to express
the meaning in these instances; and _sulco_ agrees with the modern
phrase, "ploughing the deep," &c.

Moreover, I submit that the interpretation of _seco_ is governed by the
context, inasmuch as its application to both land and water travelling
demands a different construction in the two cases. If this be allowed,
then comparison cannot be made between the line in question and "viam
secat ad naves;" for this refers to Æneas's leaving the infernals, after
his visit there; or "secuit sub nubibus arcum," which refers to cleaving
the air. Heyne's note is "secuit ... arcum; secando aerem fecit arcum;
incessit per arcum."

The clearness or muddiness of the river has no connexion with the
translation; for the words "placido æquore" clearly and definitely
express the state of the _surface_ of the river, and it is such as is
required to favour the reflection of the trees, through whose images the
ships ploughed their way; and, to make the sense perfect, the words
"variis teguntur arboribus" are all that is required as showing the
position of the trees with respect to the river.

  P.S. I have not alluded to the special meaning of active verbs
  with accusative (Qy. objective) cases after them, &c.


The Query of your correspondent ERYX has elicited two conflicting
opinions as to the meaning of the words "Viridesque secant placido
æquore silvas." Perhaps the following suggestion may help to set the
matter at rest.

If by these words is meant the cleaving of the shadows on the water, how
could they, with any propriety, be applied to a voyage that was
prosecuted during the darkness of the night as well as by the light of

      "Olli remigio _noctemque_ diemque fatigant."

    W. B. R.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Ell-rake_ (Vol. iv., p. 192.).--VASHTI inquires the derivation of
_ell-rake_ or _hell-rake_. In this district (the Cotswolds) we generally
suppose the derivation to be from the rake being an ell in width. In the
vale, however (_i.e._ about Tewkesbury), they are called _heel-rakes_,
from their being drawn at the heel of the person using them, instead of
being used in front, as rakes ordinarily are.

    C. H. N.


_Heel-rake_, _Ell-rake_, or _Hell-rake_, is a large rake, which upon
being drawn along the ground the teeth run close to the heels of the
person drawing it. This has given it the name of _heel-rake_, its right
name. In Shropshire (and probably in other counties also) this has
become contracted into _ell-rake_.


_Freedom from Serpents_ (Vol. iii., p. 490.).--Ireland is not the only
country supposed to be inimical to reptiles. I may perhaps be allowed to
add to the "Note" of your correspondent as to Ireland, that the Maltese
declare that St. Paul after his shipwreck cursed all the venomous
reptiles of the island, and banished them for ever, just as St. Patrick
is said to have afterwards treated those of his favourite isle. Whatever
be the cause of it, the fact is alleged by travellers to be certain,
that there are _no venomous animals in Malta_. "They assured us" (says
Brydone in his _Tour through Sicily and Malta_, vol. ii. p. 35.) "that
vipers have been brought from Sicily, and died almost immediately on
their arrival."

Although perhaps more strictly coming under the head of folk lore, I may
here advert to the traditions found in several parts of England, that
venomous reptiles were banished by saints who came to live there. I have
read that Keynsham--the hermitage of Keynes, a Cambrian lady, A.D.
490--was infested with serpents, which were converted by her prayers
into the "Serpent-stones"--the _Cornua Ammonis_--that now cover the
land. A similar story is told at Whitby, where these fine fossils of the
Lias are called "St. Hilda's Serpent-stones;" and so, too, St. Godric,
the famous hermit of Finchale, near Durham, is said to have destroyed
the native race of serpents.

    W. S. G.


_Nao, for Naw, for Ship_ (Vol. iv., pp. 28. 214.).--I am obliged to
GOMER for his reference to Davies. In the cited passages from Taliesin
and Meigant, _heb naw_ means without being able to swim. The word _nawv_
drops its final letter in order to furnish the rhyme. That appears, not
only from the rejection of the word by all lexicographers, but from one
of the manuscripts of Meigant, which actually writes it _nawv_. I esteem
Davies's translation to be Daviesian.

By way of a gentle pull at the torques, I will observe, that I am not in
the habit of proving that people "did _not_ possess" a thing, but of
inquiring for the evidence that they did. And when I find that tattooed
and nearly naked people used coracles, and do not find that they used
anything grander, I am led to suspect they did not.

My answer to the Query, whether it be probable that British warriors
went over to Gaul in coracles is, "Yes, highly so." Rude canoes of
various sorts convey the expeditions of savage islanders in all seas.
And the coracle rendered the Scots of Erin formidable to the Roman
shores of Gaul and Britain. I do not see that the Dorsetshire folk being
"water-dwellers" (if so be they were such) proved them to have used
proper ships, any more than their being "water-drinkers" would prove
them to have used glasses or silver tankards.

No doubt the name ναῦς is of the remotest heroic antiquity, and
the first osier bark covered with hides, or even the first excavated
alder trunk, may have been so termed; in connexion with the verbal form
_nao_, contract. _no_, _nas_, pret. _navi_, to float or swim. But to
"advance that opinion" as to Britain, because two revolted Roman
subjects in this province used the word in the sixth and seventh
centuries after Christ, would be late and tardy proof of the fact; even
supposing that the two bards in question had made use of such a noun,
which I dispute.

    A. N.

  [This communication should have preceded that in No. 99., p. 214.]

_De Grammont_ (Vol. iv., p. 233.).--On the united authority of messieurs
Auger and Renouard, editors of the works of le comte Antoine Hamilton,
it may be affirmed that there is no edition of the _Mémoires du comte de
Grammont_ anterior to that of 1713. M. Renouard thus expresses himself:
"En 1713 parurent les _Mémoires_, sans nom d'auteur, en un vol. in-12,
imprimé en Hollande sous la date de Cologne."


_The Termination "-ship"_ (Vol. iv., p. 153.).--The termination "-ship"
is the Anglo-Saxon _scipe_, _scype_, from verb _scipan_, to create,
form; and hence as a termination of nouns denotes _form_, _condition_,
_office_, _dignity_.


  Ashbey de la Zouch.

_The Five Fingers_ (Vol. iv., pp. 150. 193.).--With something like
compunction for lavishing on Macrobius and his prosy compeers so many
precious hours of a life that is waning fast, permit me to refer you to
his _Saturnalia_, vii. 13., ed. Gryph. 1560, p. 722., for the nursery
names of the five fingers. They nearly coincide with those still
denoting those useful implements in one of the Low-Norman isles, to wit,
_Gros det_, _ari det (hari det?)_, _longuedon_ or _mousqueton_, _Jean
des sceas_, _courtelas_. The said _Jean des sceas_ is, of course, "John
of the Seals," the "annularis" or ring-finger of Macrobius and the
Anglican Office-Book. Among the Hebrews אצבע אלהים, "the
finger of God," denoted His power; and it was the forefinger, among the
gods of Greece and Italy, which wore the ring, the emblem of divine

    G. M.

_Marriages within ruined Churches_ (Vol. iv., p. 231.).--The beautiful
old church of St. John in the Wilderness, near Exmouth, is in ruins.
Having in 1850 asked the old man who points out its battered beauties,
why there were still books in the reading desks, he informed me that
marriages and funeral services were still performed there. This,
however, is my only authority on the subject.


_Death of Cervantes_ (Vol. iv., p. 116.).--No doubt now exists that the
death of Cervantes occurred on the 23rd of April, 1616, and not the 20th
of that month, which Smollett represents as the received date. In the
Spanish Academy's edition, the magnificent one of 1780, as well as in
that of 1797, it is so affirmed. In the former we read that on the 18th
he received the sacrament of extreme unction with great calmness of
spirit. It then adds:

  "Igual serenidad mantuvo haste el último punto de la vida. Otorgó
  testamento dexando por albaceas á su muger Doña Catalina de
  Salazar, y al Licenciado Francisco Nuñez, que vivia en la misma
  casa: mandó que le sepultasen en las Monjas Trinitarias; y murió á
  23 del expresado mes de Abril, de edad de 68 años, 6 meses, y 14

The coincidence, however, of the renowned Spaniard's death with that of
our Shakspeare, who certainly died apparently on the same day, the 23rd
of April, 1616, on which, at a singularity, Mr. Frere, with others,
dwells, wholly fails; for, in fact, that day in Spain corresponded not
with the 23rd, but the 13th, in England. It is forgotten that the
Gregorian or Reformed Calendar was then adopted in Spain, and that
between it and the unreformed style of England a difference in that
century existed of ten days:--thus, the execution of Charles I., in our
writers, and in the Book of Common Prayer, is always dated on the 30th
of January, while on the continent it is represented as on the 9th of
February. The Reformed Calendar was adopted and promulgated by Pope
Gregory XIII. in 1582, while rejected by England, though acknowledged to
be correct, until 1751, because coming from Rome. This disgraceful
submission to prejudice in repudiation of a demonstrated scientific
truth, practically sanctioned by a Napier, a Newton, a Halley, &c., is
still pursued in the Greek church and Russian empire, where the present
day, the 17th of September, is the 5th.

    J. R.

  Cork, Sept. 17.

_Story referred to by Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. iv., p. 208.).--Although
unable to point out the source whence Jeremy Taylor derived the story to
which A. TR. alludes, I may be excused for referring your correspondent
to _Don Quixote_, Part II. book III. chap. xiii., where the story,
somewhat amplified, is given; but with this difference, that the staff
is not broken by the injured person, but by Signor Don Sancho Panza,
Governor of Barataria, before whom the case is brought for adjudication.
That the story was founded on an older one may be well inferred, from
its being stated that "Sancho had heard such a story told by the curate
of his village; and his memory was so tenacious, in retaining everything
he wanted to remember, that there was not such another in the whole

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept. 20. 1851.

_Gray's Obligations to Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. iv., p. 204.).--I perfectly
agree with RT. in his admiration for Gray; but, to my shame be it
spoken, am not very well read in Jeremy Taylor. RT. would oblige me, as
well as other admirers of "the sweet Lyrist of Peter-house," by
furnishing an example or two of the latter's obligations to the bishop.

RT. will excuse me if I fail to perceive any great degree of similarity
between his two last quoted passages from Gray and those from Cowley,
which he adduces as parallel. This refers especially to the last
instance, in which I trace scarcely any similarity beyond that of a
place of education and a river being commemorated in each. Would RT.
supply us with a few more examples of borrowing from Cowley?

With RT.'s wish for a new edition of Gray, "with the parallel passages
annexed," I cordially coincide. However, failing this new edition, he
will allow me to recommend to his notice (if indeed he has not seen it)
the Eton edition of the poet, with introductory stanzas of great
elegance and beauty, by another of Eton's bards, the Rev. J. Moultrie,
author of that most pathetic little poem "My Brother's Grave."

    K. S.

_Blessing by the Hand_ (Vol. iv., p. 74.).--An impression of the stamp
on the bread used in the Eucharist in Greece (mentioned in the above
Note) may be seen in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. It was cut off a loaf
in the remarkable monastery of Megaspelion in the Morea, by


_Sacre Cheveux_ (Vol. iv., p. 208.).--This is a literal translation into
heraldic language of the name of the family which uses it for a motto:
_Halifax_ = _holy-hair_, from the Anglo Saxon _hali_, or _halig_, and
_fax_ or _feax_. Tradition connects the origin of the Yorkshire town of
that name with a head of singular length and beauty of hair, found at or
near the place where the Halifax gibbet used to stand.


_Pope and Flatman_ (Vol. iv., p. 210.).--E. V. has entirely overlooked
the very material circumstance that Flatman's poem was cited in your
periodical (Vol. iv., p. 132.) from a book published in 1688,
twenty-four years before the date he assigns to the composition of
Pope's ode. Flatman died 8th December, 1688, and Pope was born 22d May,
1688; so that he was little more than six months old at the time of
Flatman's death. I have now before me the 4th edition of Flatman's
_Poems and Songs_, London, 8vo., 1686; "A Thought of Death" occurs at p.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge, Sept. 20. 1851.

_Linteamina and Surplices_ (Vol. iv., p. 192.).--In Goar's _Rituale
Græcorum_, the most complete account is given of the ancient vestments
of the priesthood, from which, or rather from the same source, those of
the Romish and English churches have been derived. The names of these
vestments are στοιχάριον, ὡραρίον,
ἐπιμανίκια, ἐπιτραχήλιον, ζώνη,
ὑπογονάτιον, φελώνιον, and ἐπιγονάτιον.

These were put on and taken off in the presence of the congregation, and
a form of prayer appropriate to each vestment was repeated
(μυστικῶς) by the priest and deacon. In the notes of Goar and the
accompanying plates, ample information is afforded of the symbolic
meaning of these garments, both in respect of form and colour.

This meaning, lost to considerable extent by the Romish church, is
recoverable by reference to the Greek rituals, which have retained,
probably with little alteration, the ancient services of the early
Christians. An explanation will therein be found of other matters
besides linteamina and surplices by those who are curious in rituology,
as of the δίσκον σφραγίδος, λόγχη, ἁστηρίσκον, κάλυμμα, ἀέρα,
ἀπόλυσις, ἱερατεῖον, ναὸν, βῆμα, "σοφία, ὀρθοί," εἰλητόν, ῥιπιδίον,
ζεόν, ζέσις, &c.

    T. J. BUCKTON.




By all who are interested in the study of early German Poetry and
Literature, the name of Von der Hagen must be gratefully remembered for
the many curious and valuable works which he has published, sometimes
under his sole editorship, at others, in conjunction with Busching,
Primisser, &c. But far exceeding in interest any which he has before
given to the press, especially to English readers, is one which we
received some time since from Messrs. Williams and Norgate, but have
only recently had an opportunity of examining. It is in three thick and
closely printed octavos, and is entitled _Gesammtabentheuer: Hundert
altdeutsche Erzählungen, Ritter-und Pfaffen-Mären, Stadt-und
Dorfgeschichten, Schwänke, Wundersagen und Legenden, meist zum erstenmal
gedruckt_, &c. This collection embraces, as the title accurately enough
describes, a hundred early German Stories of every possible kind,
Stories of Knights and Friars, of Cities and Villages, Merry Jests,
Tales of Wonder, and Legends; and resembles in many respects the popular
collections of French Fabliaux edited by Barbazan, Le Grand d'Aussy, &c.
These are for the most part now printed for the first time; and besides
the illustrations they afford of that love of humour, a characteristic
of the German mind the existence of which it has been too much the
fashion to deny, and to which we owe _Owlglas_ and the _Schildburger_,
these "hundred merry Tales" are of no small importance for the light
they throw upon the history of Fiction--a subject which, in spite of the
labour bestowed upon it by Dunlop, Walter Scott, Palgrave, and
Keightley, is yet very far from being fully developed.

The new part of _The Traveller's Library_ contains Mr. Macaulay's
brilliant essays on Ranke's _History of the Popes_, and Gladstone _On
Church and State_.

Messrs. Longman having become the sole proprietors of that valuable
series of works _The Cabinet Cyclopædia_, have announced a re-issue of
them at the reduced price of three shillings and sixpence per volume,
instead of six shillings, at which they were originally published.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--John Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No.
29. of Books Old and New; Sotheran, Son and Draper's (Tower Street,
Eastcheap) Book Reporter No. 3. Miscellaneous Catalogue of Old and New
Books; W. S. Lincoln's (Cheltenham House, Westminster Road)
Seventy-third Catalogue of Cheap Second-hand Books; B. Quaritch's (16.
Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 34. of Oriental
Literature, &c.









PLATO. Vols. VIII. X. XI. of the Bipont Edition.


ATHENÆUM. Oct. and Nov. 1848. parts CCL., CCLI.


HAYMANN. Bonn, 1833.

Bonn, 1833.

Johnson. London, 1790.

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. Folio. London, 1624.

THE APOLOGETICS OF ATHENAGORAS, Englished by D. Humphreys. London, 1714.


KUINOEL'S NOV. TEST. Tom. I. THE FRIEND, by Coleridge. Vol III.

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  Dissenting bodies. Together with a complete List of all the
  Foundation and Grammar Schools, with an Account of the
  Scholarships and Exhibitions attached to them; to which is added
  an Appendix, containing an Account of the Committee of Council on
  Education, and of the various Training Institutions for Teachers;
  mostly compiled from original sources.

  contain a Diary, with Table of Lessons, Collects, &c., and full
  directions for Public Worship for every day in the year, with
  blank spaces for Memoranda: A List of all the Bishops and other
  Dignitaries of the Church, arranged under the order of their
  respective Dioceses; Bishops of the Scottish and American
  Churches; and Particulars respecting the Roman Catholic and Greek
  Churches; Together with Statistics of the various Religious Sects
  in England; Particulars of the Societies connected with the
  Church; of the Universities, &c. Members of both Houses of
  Convocation, of both Houses of Parliament, the Government, Courts
  of Law, &c. With Instructions to Candidates for Holy Orders; and a
  variety of information useful to all Clergymen. Forming a most
  complete and convenient Pocket-book for Clergymen.

  JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

LONDON LIBRARY, 12. St. James's Square.--Patron--His Royal Highness
Prince ALBERT.

  This Institution now offers to its members a collection of 60,000
  volumes, to which additions are constantly making, both in English
  and foreign literature. A reading room is also open for the use of
  the members, supplied with the best English and foreign

  Terms of admission--entrance fee, 6_l._; annual subscription,
  2_l._; or entrance fee and life subscription, 26_l._

        By order of the Committee.
        J. G. COCHRANE, Secretary and Librarian.

  September, 1851.

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186, Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October 4. 1851.

      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No. 91  | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No. 92  | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No. 93  | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No. 94  | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No. 95  | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No. 96  | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 101, October 4, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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