Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 8 - "Cube" to "Daguerre, Louis"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 8 - "Cube" to "Daguerre, Louis"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE CUCKOO: "The best-known species (C. ani) is found
      throughout the Antilles and on the opposite continent." 'found'
      amended from 'foud'.

    ARTICLE CUCURBITACEAE: "Fig. 1.--Bryonia dioica, Bryony. 1, part of
      corolla of male flower with attached stamens; 2, female flower
      after removal of calyx and corolla; 3, berries; 1, 2, 3 about nat.
      size." 'corolla' amended from 'carolla'.

    ARTICLE CURIA: "It is more probable that the curiae were not purely
      artificial creations, but represent natural associations of
      families, artificially regulated and distributed to serve a
      political purpose." 'families' amended from 'familief'.

    ARTICLE CURTEA DE ARGESH: "Above this comes a row of circular
      shields, adorned with intricate arabesques, while bands and wreaths
      of lilies are everywhere sculptured on the windows, balconies,
      tambours and cornices, adding lightness to the fabric."
      'sculptured' amended from 'scupltured'.

    ARTICLE CURVE: "For an acnodal cubic the six imaginary inflections
      disappear, and there remain three real inflections lying in a
      line." 'imaginary' amended from 'imaginery'.

    ARTICLE CURVE: "... and a curve of any order deficiency = or > 3
      can be rationally transformed into a curve of the order D + 3,
      deficiency D." 'deficiency' amended from 'deficience'.

    ARTICLE CURVE: "The extension to curves of any given deficiency D
      was made in the memoir of Cayley, 'On the correspondence of two
      points on a curve,'--Proc. Lond. Math. Soc...." 'Proc' amended from
      'Porc'.

    ARTICLE CUXHAVEN: "The harbour is good and secure, and is much
      frequented by vessels delayed in the Elbe by unfavourable weather."
      'unfavourable' amended from 'unfavourbale'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME VII, SLICE VIII

          Cube to Daguerre, Louis



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  CUBE                              CURWEN, JOHN
  CUBEBS                            CURZOLA
  CUBICLE                           CURZON OF KEDLESTON, GEORGE NATHANIEL
  CUBITT, THOMAS                    CUSANUS, NICOLAUS
  CUBITT, SIR WILLIAM               CUSH
  CUCHULINN                         CUSHING, CALEB
  CUCKOO                            CUSHING, WILLIAM BARKER
  CUCKOO-SPIT                       CUSHION
  CUCUMBER                          CUSHMAN, CHARLOTTE SAUNDERS
  CUCURBITACEAE                     CUSP
  CUDDALORE                         CUSTARD APPLE
  CUDDAPAH                          CUSTER, GEORGE ARMSTRONG
  CUDWORTH, RALPH                   CUSTINE, ADAM PHILIPPE
  CUENCA (city of Ecuador)          CUSTOM
  CUENCA (province of Spain)        CUSTOMARY FREEHOLD
  CUENCA (city of Spain)            CUSTOM-HOUSE
  CUESTA                            CUSTOM DUTIES
  CUEVAS DE VERA                    CUSTOS ROTULORUM
  CUFF                              CUSTOZZA
  CUIRASS                           CÜSTRIN
  CUIRASSIERS                       CUTCH
  CUJAS, JACQUES                    CUTCH, GULF OF
  CULDEES                           CUTCH, RUNN OF
  CULEBRA                           CUTHBERT, SAINT
  CULLEN, PAUL                      CUTLASS
  CULLEN, WILLIAM                   CUTLER, MANASSEH
  CULLEN                            CUTLERY
  CULLERA                           CUTTACK
  CULLINAN                          CUTTLE-FISH
  CULLODEN                          CUTTS OF GOWRAN, JOHN CUTTS
  CULM                              CUVIER, GEORGES LÉOPOLD DAGOBERT
  CULMINATION                       CUVILLES, FRANÇOIS DE
  CULPRIT                           CUXHAVEN
  CULROSS                           CUYABÁ
  CULTIVATOR                        CUYAPO
  CUMAE                             CUYP
  CUMANÁ                            CUZA, ALEXANDER JOHN
  CUMBERLAND, DUKES AND EARLS OF    CUZCO
  CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (English philosopher)  CYANAMIDE
  CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (English dramatist)    CYANIC ACID AND CYANATES
  CUMBERLAND, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS      CYANIDE
  CUMBERLAND (county of England)    CYANITE
  CUMBERLAND (Maryland, U.S.A.)     CYANOGEN
  CUMBERLAND (Rhode Island, U.S.A.) CYAXARES
  CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS              CYBELE
  CUMBERLAND RIVER                  CYCLADES
  CUMBRAES, THE                     CYCLAMEN
  CUMIN                             CYCLE
  CUMMERBUND                        CYCLING
  CUMMING, JOSEPH GEORGE            CYCLOID
  CUMNOCK AND HOLMHEAD              CYCLOMETER
  CUNARD, SIR SAMUEL                CYCLONE
  CUNAS                             CYCLOPEAN MASONRY
  CUNDINAMARCA                      CYCLOPES
  CUNEIFORM                         CYCLOSTOMATA
  CUNEO                             CYCLOSTYLE
  CUNEUS                            CYGNUS
  CUNITZ, MARIA                     CYLINDER
  CUNNINGHAM, ALEXANDER             CYLLENE
  CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN                 CYMA
  CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM (Scottish theologian)  CYMBALS
  CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM (English economist)    CYNEGILS
  CUP                               CYNEWULF (king of Wessex)
  CUPAR                             CYNEWULF (Old-English poet)
  CUPBOARD                          CYNICS
  CUPID                             CYNOSURE
  CUPOLA                            CYPERACEAE
  CUPPING                           CY-PRÈS
  CUPRA                             CYPRESS
  CUPRITE                           CYPRIAN, SAINT
  CUPULIFERAE                       CYPRINODONTS
  CURAÇAO                           CYPRUS
  CURAÇOA                           CYPRUS, CHURCH OF
  CURASSOW                          CYPSELUS
  CURATE                            CYRANO DE BERGERAC, SAVINIEN
  CURATOR                           CYRENAICA
  CURCI, CARLO MARIA                CYRENAICS
  CUREL, FRANÇOIS                   CYRENE
  CURÉLY, JEAN NICOLAS              CYRIL (bishop of Jerusalem)
  CURES                             CYRIL (bishop of Alexandria)
  CURETES                           CYRIL (apostle of the Slavs)
  CURETON, WILLIAM                  CYRILLIC
  CURETUS                           CYRILLUS
  CURFEW                            CYRTO-STYLE
  CURIA                             CYRUS
  CURIA REGIS                       CYSTOFLAGELLATA
  CURIA ROMANA                      CYSTOLITH
  CURICÓ                            CYTHERA
  CURIE, PIERRE                     CYTISINE
  CURIO, GAIUS SCRIBONIUS           CYTOLOGY
  CURITYBA                          CYZICENUS
  CURLEW                            CYZICUS
  CURLING, THOMAS BLIZARD           CZARNIECKI, STEPHEN
  CURLING                           CZARTORYSKI, ADAM GEORGE
  CURLL, EDMUND                     CZARTORYSKI, FRYDERYK MICHAL
  CURRAGH                           CZECH
  CURRAN, JOHN PHILPOT              CZENSTOCHOWA
  CURRANT                           CZERNOWITZ
  CURRICLE                          CZERNY, KARL
  CURRIE, SIR DONALD                D
  CURRIE, JAMES                     DACCA
  CURRY                             DACE
  CURSOR, LUCIUS PAPIRIUS           DACH, SIMON
  CURSOR MUNDI                      DACIA
  CURTAIN                           DACIER, ANDRÉ
  CURTANA                           DACITE
  CURTEA DE ARGESH                  DACOIT
  CURTESY                           DA COSTA, ISAAK
  CURTILAGE                         DACTYL
  CURTIN ANDREW GREGG               DAEDALUS
  CURTIS, GEORGE TICKNOR            DAFFODIL
  CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM            DAFYDD AB GWILYM
  CURTIUS, ERNST                    DAGGER
  CURTIUS, MARCUS                   DAGHESTAN
  CURTIUS RUFUS, QUINTUS            DAGO
  CURULE                            DAGOBERT I.
  CURVE                             DAGON
  CURVILINEAR                       DAGUERRE, LOUIS JACQUES MANDÉ
  CURWEN, HUGH



CUBE (Gr. [Greek: kubos], a cube), in geometry, a solid bounded by six
equal squares, so placed that the angle between any pair of adjacent
faces is a right angle. This solid played an all-important part in the
geometry and cosmology of the Greeks. Plato (_Timaeus_) described the
figure in the following terms:--"The isosceles triangle which has its
vertical angle a right angle ... combined in sets of four, with the
right angles meeting at the centre, form a single square. Six of these
squares joined together formed eight solid angles, each produced by
three plane right angles: and the shape of the body thus formed was
cubical, having six square planes for its surfaces." In his cosmology
Plato assigned this solid to "earth," for "'earth' is the least mobile
of the four (elements--'fire,' 'water,' 'air' and 'earth') and most
plastic of bodies: and that substance must possess this nature in the
highest degree which has its bases most stable." The mensuration of the
cube, and its relations to other geometrical solids are treated in the
article POLYHEDRON; in the same article are treated the Archimedean
solids, the truncated and snub-cube; reference should be made to the
article CRYSTALLOGRAPHY for its significance as a crystal form.

A famous problem concerning the cube, namely, to construct a cube of
twice the volume of a given cube, was attacked with great vigour by the
Pythagoreans, Sophists and Platonists. It became known as the "Delian
problem" or the "problem of the duplication of the cube," and ranks in
historical importance with the problems of "trisecting an angle" and
"squaring the circle." The origin of the problem is open to conjecture.
The Pythagorean discovery of "squaring a square," i.e. constructing a
square of twice the area of a given square (which follows as a corollary
to the Pythagorean property of a right-angled triangle, viz. the square
of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares on the sides), may have
suggested the strictly analogous problem of doubling a cube.
Eratosthenes (c. 200 B.C.), however, gives a picturesque origin to the
problem. In a letter to Ptolemy Euergetes he narrates the history of the
problem. The Delians, suffering a dire pestilence, consulted their
oracles, and were ordered to double the volume of the altar to their
tutelary god, Apollo. An altar was built having an edge double the
length of the original; but the plague was unabated, the oracles not
having been obeyed. The error was discovered, and the Delians applied to
Plato for his advice, and Plato referred them to Eudoxus. This story is
mere fable, for the problem is far older than Plato.

Hippocrates of Chios (c. 430 B.C.), the discoverer of the square of a
lune, showed that the problem reduced to the determination of two mean
proportionals between two given lines, one of them being twice the
length of the other. Algebraically expressed, if x and y be the required
mean proportionals and a, 2a, the lines, we have a : x :: x : y :: y :
2a, from which it follows that x³ = 2a³. Although Hippocrates could not
determine the proportionals, his statement of the problem in this form
was a great advance, for it was perceived that the problem of trisecting
an angle was reducible to a similar form which, in the language of
algebraic geometry, is to solve geometrically a cubic equation.
According to Proclus, a man named Hippias, probably Hippias of Elis (c.
460 B.C.), trisected an angle with a mechanical curve, named the
quadratrix (q.v.). Archytas of Tarentum (c. 430 B.C.) solved the
problems by means of sections of a half cylinder; according to Eutocius,
Menaechmus solved them by means of the intersections of conic sections;
and Eudoxus also gave a solution.

All these solutions were condemned by Plato on the ground that they were
mechanical and not geometrical, i.e. they were not effected by means of
circles and lines. However, no proper geometrical solution, in Plato's
sense, was obtained; in fact it is now generally agreed that, with such
a restriction, the problem is insoluble. The pursuit of mechanical
methods furnished a stimulus to the study of mechanical loci, for
example, the locus of a point carried on a rod which is caused to move
according to a definite rule. Thus Nicomedes invented the conchoid
(q.v.); Diocles the cissoid (q.v.); Dinostratus studied the quadratrix
invented by Hippias; all these curves furnished solutions, as is also
the case with the trisectrix, a special form of Pascal's limaçon (q.v.).
These problems were also attacked by the Arabian mathematicians; Tobit
ben Korra (836-901) is credited with a solution, while Abul Gud solved
it by means of a parabola and an equilateral hyperbola.

In algebra, the "cube" of a quantity is the quantity multiplied by
itself twice, i.e. if a be the quantity a × a × a (= a³) is its cube.
Similarly the "cube root" of a quantity is another quantity which when
multiplied by itself twice gives the original quantity; thus a^(1/3) is
the cube root of a (see ARITHMETIC and ALGEBRA). A "cubic equation" is
one in which the highest power of the unknown is the cube (see
EQUATION); similarly, a "cubic curve" has an equation containing no term
of a power higher than the third, the powers of a compound term being
added together.

In mensuration, "cubature" is sometimes used to denote the volume of a
solid; the word is parallel with "quadrature," to determine the area of
a surface (see MENSURATION; INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS).



CUBEBS (Arab. _kabábah_), the fruit of several species of pepper
(_Piper_), belonging to the natural order Piperaceae. The cubebs of
pharmacy are produced by _Piper Cubeba_, a climbing woody shrub
indigenous to south Borneo, Sumatra, Prince of Wales Island and Java. It
has round, ash-coloured, smooth branches; lanceolate, or ovate-oblong,
somewhat leathery, shining leaves, 4 to 6½ in. long and 1½ to 2 in.
broad. Male and female flowers are borne on distinct plants. The fruits
are small, globose, about 1/5 in. in diameter, and not so large as white
pepper; their contracted stalk-like bases are between 1/3 and ½ in. in
length; and from forty to fifty of them are borne upon a common stem.
The cubeb is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, the fruits are gathered
before they are ripe, and carefully dried. Commercial cubebs consist of
the dried berries, usually with their stalks attached; the pericarp is
greyish-brown, or blackish and wrinkled; and the seed, when present, is
hard, white and oily. The odour of cubebs is agreeable and aromatic; the
taste, pungent, acrid, slightly bitter and persistent. About 15% of a
volatile oil is obtained by distilling cubebs with water; after
rectification with water, or on keeping, this deposits rhombic crystals
of camphor of cubebs, C15H26O; cubebene, the liquid portion, has the
formula C15H24. Cubebin, CH2[O]2C6H3·CH:CH·CH2OH, is a crystalline
substance existing in cubebs, discovered by Eugène Soubeiran and
Capitaine in 1839; it may be prepared from cubebene, or from the pulp
left after the distillation of the oil. The drug, along with gum, fatty
oils, and malates of magnesium and calcium, contains also about 1% of
cubebic acid, and about 6% of a resin.

The dose of the fruit is 30 to 60 grains, and the British Pharmacopoeia
contains a tincture with a dose of ½ to 1 drachm. The volatile
oil--oleum cubebae--is also official, and is the form in which this drug
is most commonly used, the dose being 5 to 20 minims, which may be
suspended in mucilage or given after meals in a cachet. The drug has the
typical actions of a volatile oil, but exerts some of them in an
exceptional degree. Thus it is liable to cause a cutaneous erythema in
the course of its excretion by the skin; it has a marked diuretic
action; and it is a fairly efficient disinfectant of the urinary
passages. Its administration causes the appearance in the urine of a
salt of cubebic acid which is precipitated by heat or nitric acid, and
is therefore liable to be mistaken for albumin, when these two most
common tests for the occurrence of albuminuria are applied. Cubebs is
frequently used in the form of cigarettes for asthma, chronic
pharyngitis and hay-fever. A small percentage of cubebs is also commonly
included in lozenges designed for use in bronchitis, in which the
antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful. But the
most important therapeutic application of this drug is in gonorrhoea,
where its antiseptic action is of much value. As compared with copaiba
in this connexion cubebs has the advantages of being less disagreeable
to take and somewhat less likely to disturb the digestive apparatus in
prolonged administration. The introduction of the drug into medicine is
supposed to have been due to the Arabian physicians in the middle ages.
Cubebs were formerly candied and eaten whole, or used ground as a
seasoning for meat. Their modern employment in England as a drug dates
from 1815. "Cubebae" were purchased in 1284 and 1285 by Lord Clare at
2s. 3d. and 2s. 9d. per lb. respectively; and in 1307 1 lb. for the
king's wardrobe cost 9s., a sum representing about £3, 12s. in present
value (Rogers, _Hist. of Agriculture and Prices_, i. 627-628, ii. 544).

A closely allied species, _Piper Clusii_, produces the African cubebs or
West African black-pepper, the berry of which is smoother than that of
common cubebs and usually has a curved pedicel. In the 14th century it
was imported into Europe from the Grain Coast, under the name of pepper,
by merchants of Rouen and Lippe.



CUBICLE (Lat. _cubiculum_), a small chamber containing a couch or a bed.
The small rooms opening into the atrium of a Pompeian house are known as
cubicula. In modern English schools "cubicle" is the term given to the
separate small bedrooms into which the dormitories are divided, as
opposed to the system of large open dormitories.



CUBITT, THOMAS (1788-1855), English builder, was born at Buxton, near
Norwich, on the 25th of February 1788. Few men have exhibited greater
self-reliance in early life in the pursuit of a successful career. In
his nineteenth year, when he was working as a journeyman carpenter, his
father died, and he tried to better his position by going on a voyage to
India, as captain's joiner. He returned to London, two years after, in
the possession of a small capital, and began business as a carpenter.
The growth of his establishment was steady and rapid. He was one of the
first to combine several trades in a "builder's" business; and this very
much increased his success. One of the earlier works which gave him
reputation was the London Institution in Finsbury Circus; but it is from
1824 that the vast building operations date which identify his name with
many splendid ranges of London houses, such as Tavistock, Gordon,
Belgrave and Lowndes Squares, and the district of South Belgravia. While
these and similar extensive operations were in progress, a financial
panic, which proved ruinous to many, was surmounted in his case by a
determined spirit and his integrity of character. He took great interest
in sanitary measures, and published, for private circulation, a pamphlet
on the general drainage of London, the substance of which was afterwards
embodied in a letter to _The Times_; the plan he advocated was
subsequently adopted by the conveyance of the sewage matter some
distance below London. He advocated the provision of open spaces in the
environs of London as places of public recreation, and was one of the
originators of Battersea Park, the first of the people's parks. At a
late period he received professionally the recognition of royalty, the
palace at Osborne being erected after his designs, and under his
superintendence; and in the _Life of the Prince Consort_ he is described
by Queen Victoria as one "than whom a better and kinder man did not
exist." In 1851, although he was not identified with the management of
the Great Exhibition, he showed the warmest sympathy with its objects,
and aided its projectors in many ways, especially in the profitable
investment of their surplus funds. Cubitt, when he rose to be a
capitalist, never forgot the interests and well-being of his workpeople.
He was elected president of the Builders' Society some time before his
death, which took place at his seat Denbies, near Dorking, on the 20th
of December 1855.

His son, George Cubitt (1828-   ), who had a long and useful
parliamentary career, as Conservative member for West Surrey (1860-1865)
and Mid-Surrey (1885-1892), was in 1892 raised to the peerage as Baron
Ashcombe.



CUBITT, SIR WILLIAM (1785-1861), English engineer, was born in 1785 at
Dilham in Norfolk, where his father was a miller. After serving an
apprenticeship of four years (1800-1804) as a joiner and cabinetmaker at
Stalham, he became associated with an agricultural-machine maker, named
Cook, who resided at Swanton. In 1807 he patented self-regulating sails
for windmills, and in 1812 he entered the works of Messrs Ransome of
Ipswich, where he soon became chief engineer, and ultimately a partner.
Meanwhile, the subject of the employment of criminals had been much in
his thoughts; and the result was his introduction of the treadmill about
1818. In 1826 he removed to London, where he gained a very large
practice as a civil engineer. Among his works were the Oxford canal, the
Birmingham & Liverpool Junction Canal, the improvement of the river
Severn, the Bute docks at Cardiff, the Black Sluice drainage and its
outfall sluice at Boston harbour, the Middlesborough docks and coal
drops in the Tees, and the South-Eastern railway, of which he was chief
engineer. The Hanoverian government consulted him about the harbour and
docks at Harburg; the water-works of the city of Berlin were constructed
under his immediate superintendence; he was asked to report on the
construction of the Paris & Lyons railway; and he was consulting
engineer for the line from Boulogne to Amiens. Among his later works
were two floating landing stages at Liverpool, and the bridge for
carrying the London turnpike across the Medway at Rochester. In 1851,
when he was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, he was
knighted for his services in connexion with the buildings erected in
Hyde Park for the exhibition of that year. He retired from active work
in 1858, and died on the 13th of October 1861 at his house on Clapham
Common, London. His son, Joseph Cubitt (1811-1872), was trained under
him, and was engineer of various railways, including the Great Northern,
London, Chatham & Dover, and part of the London & South-Western.



CUCHULINN (_Cuchúlinn_; pronounced "Coohoollin"), the chief warrior in
the Conchobar-Cuchulinn or older heroic (Ulster) cycle of Ireland. The
story of his origin is very obscure. The god Lug is represented as
having been swallowed in a draught of wine by his mother Dechtire,
sister of Conchobar, who was king of Ulster. But it is not unlikely that
this story was invented to supersede the account of the incestuous union
of Conchobar with his sister, which seems to be hinted at on various
occasions. Usually, however, he is styled son of Sualdam, an Ulster
warrior who plays a very inferior part in the cycle. His earliest name
was Setanta, and he was brought up at Dun Imbrith (Louth). When he was
six years of age he announced his intention of going to Conchobar's
court at Emain Macha (Navan Rath near Armagh) to play with the boys
there. He defeats all the boys in marvellous fashion and is received as
one of their number. Shortly after he kills Culann, the smith's hound, a
huge watch-dog. The smith laments that all his property is of no value
now that his watchman is slain, whereupon the young hero offers to guard
his domains until a whelp of the hound's has grown. From this the boy
received the name of Cu Chulinn or Culann's Hound. The next year
Cuchulinn receives arms, makes his first foray, and slays the three sons
of Necht, redoubtable hereditary foes of the Ulstermen, in the plain of
Meath. The men of Ulster decide that Cuchulinn must marry, as all the
women of Ireland are in love with him. Chosen envoys fail to find a
bride worthy of him after a year's search, but the hero goes straight to
Emer, the daughter of Forgall the Wily, at Lusk (county Dublin). The
lady is promised to him if he will go to learn chivalry of Domnall the
Soldierly and the amazon Scathach in Alba. After enduring great
hardships he goes through the course and leaves a son Connlaech behind
in Scotland by another amazon, Aife. On his return he carries off and
weds Emer. He is represented as living at Dun Delgan (Dundalk). The
greatest of all the hero's achievements was the defence of the frontier
of Ulster against the forces of Medb, queen of Connaught, who had come
to carry off the famous Brown Bull of Cualnge (Cooley). The men of
Ulster were all suffering from a strange debility, and Cuchulinn had to
undertake the defence single-handed from November to February. This was
when he was seventeen years of age. The cycle contains a large number of
episodes, such as the gaining of the champion's portion and the tragical
death by the warrior's hand of his own son Connlaech. When he was
twenty-seven he met with his end at the hands of Lugaid, son of Curoi
MacDaire, the famous Munster warrior, and the children of Calatin Dana,
in revenge for their father's death (see CELT: _Irish Literature_).

Medieval Christian synchronists make Cuchulinn's death take place about
the beginning of the Christian era. It is not necessary to regard
Cuchulinn as a form of the solar hero, as some writers have done. Most,
if not all, of his wonderful attributes may be ascribed to the Irish
predilection for the grotesque. It is true that Cuchulinn seems to stand
in a special relation to the Tuatha De Danann leader, the god Lug, but
in primitive societies there is always a tendency to ascribe a divine
parentage to men who stand out pre-eminently in prowess beyond their
fellows.

  See A. Nutt, _Cuchulainn, the Irish Achilles_ (London, 1900); E. Hull,
  _The Cuchullin Saga_ (London, 1898).     (E. C. Q.)



CUCKOO, or CUCKOW, as the word was formerly spelt, the common name of a
well-known and often-heard bird, the _Cuculus canorus_ of Linnaeus. In
some parts of the United Kingdom it is more frequently called gowk, and
it is the Gr. _[Greek: kokkux]_, the Ital. _cuculo_ or _cucco_, the Fr.
_coucou_, the Ger. _Kuckuk_, the Dutch _koekkoek_, the Dan. _kukker_ or
_gjög_, and the Swed. _gök._ The oldest English spelling of the name
seems to have been _cuccu_.

No single bird has perhaps so much occupied the attention both of
naturalists and of those who are not naturalists, or has had so much
written about it, as the common cuckoo, and of no bird perhaps have more
idle tales been told. Its strange and, according to the experience of
most people, its singular habit of entrusting its offspring to
foster-parents is enough to account for much of the interest which has
been so long felt in its history; but this habit is shared probably by
many of its Old World relatives, as well as in the New World by birds
which are not in any degree related to it. The cuckoo is a summer
visitant to the whole of Europe, reaching even far within the Arctic
circle, and crossing the Mediterranean from its winter quarters in
Africa at the end of March or beginning of April. Its arrival is at once
proclaimed by the peculiar and in nearly all languages onomatopoeic cry
of the cock--a true song in the technical sense of the word, since it is
confined to the male sex and to the season of love. In a few days the
cock is followed by the hen, and amorous contests between keen and
loud-voiced suitors are to be commonly noticed, until the respective
pretensions of the rivals are decided. Even by night they are not
silent; but as the season advances the song is less frequently heard,
and the cuckoo seems rather to avoid observation as much as possible,
the more so since whenever it shows itself it is a signal for all the
small birds of the neighbourhood to be up in its pursuit, just as though
it were a hawk, to which indeed its mode of flight and general
appearance give it an undoubted resemblance--a resemblance that misleads
some into confounding it with the birds of prey, instead of recognizing
it as a harmless if not a beneficial destroyer of hairy caterpillars.
Thus pass away some weeks. Towards the middle or end of June its
"plain-song" cry alters; it becomes rather hoarser in tone, and its
first syllable or note is doubled. Soon after it is no longer heard at
all, and by the middle of July an old cuckoo is seldom to be found in
the British Islands, though a stray example, or even, but very rarely,
two or three in company, may occasionally be seen for a month longer. Of
its breeding comparatively few have any personal experience. Yet a
diligent search for and peering into the nests of several of the
commonest little birds--more especially the pied wagtail (_Motacilla
lugubris_), the titlark (_Anthus pratensis_), the reed-wren
(_Acrocephalus streperus_), and the hedge-sparrow (_Accentor
modularis_)--will be rewarded by the discovery of the egg of the
mysterious stranger which has been surreptitiously introduced, and those
who wait till this egg is hatched may be witnesses (as was Edward Jenner
in the 18th century) of the murderous eviction of the rightful tenants
of the nest by the intruder, who, hoisting them one after another on his
broad back, heaves them over to die neglected by their own parents, of
whose solicitous care he thus becomes the only object. In this manner he
thrives, and, so long as he remains in the country of his birth his
wants are anxiously supplied by the victims of his mother's dupery. The
actions of his foster-parents become, when he is full grown, almost
ludicrous, for they often have to perch between his shoulders to place
in his gaping mouth the delicate morsels he is too indolent or too
stupid to take from their bills. Early in September he begins to shift
for himself, and then follows the seniors of his kin to more southern
climes.

So much caution is used by the hen cuckoo in choosing a nest in which to
deposit her egg that the act of insertion has been but seldom witnessed.
The nest selected is moreover often so situated, or so built, that it
would be an absolute impossibility for a bird of her size to lay her egg
therein by sitting upon the fabric as birds commonly do; and there have
been a few fortunate observers who have actually seen the deposition of
the egg upon the ground by the cuckoo, who, then taking it in her bill,
introduces it into the nest. Of these, the earliest in Great Britain
seem to have been two Scottish lads, sons of Mr Tripeny, a farmer in
Coxmuir, who, as recorded by Macgillivray (_Brit. Birds_, iii. 130, 131)
from information communicated to him by Mr Durham Weir, saw most part of
the operation performed, June 24, 1838. But perhaps the most
satisfactory evidence on the point is that of Adolf Müller, a forester
at Gladenbach in Darmstadt, who says (_Zoolog. Garten_, 1866, pp. 374,
375) that through a telescope he watched a cuckoo as she laid her egg on
a bank, and then conveyed the egg in her bill to a wagtail's nest.
Cuckoos, too, have been not unfrequently shot as they were carrying a
cuckoo's egg, presumably their own, in their bill, and this has probably
given rise to the vulgar, but seemingly groundless, belief that they
suck the eggs of other kinds of birds. More than this, Mr G. D. Rowley,
who had much experience of cuckoos, declares (_Ibis_, 1865, p. 186) his
opinion to be that traces of violence and of a scuffle between the
intruder and the owners of the nest at the time of introducing the egg
often appear, whence we are led to suppose that the cuckoo ordinarily,
when inserting her egg, excites the fury (already stimulated by her
hawk-like appearance) of the owners of the nest by turning out one or
more of the eggs that may be already laid therein, and thus induces the
dupe to brood all the more readily and more strongly what is left to
her. Of the assertion that the cuckoo herself takes any interest in the
future welfare of the egg she has foisted on her victim, or of its
product, there is no good evidence.

But a much more curious assertion has also been made, and one that at
first sight appears so incomprehensible as to cause little surprise at
the neglect it long encountered. To this currency was first given by
Salerne (_L'Hist. nat._ &c., Paris, 1767, p. 42), who was, however,
hardly a believer in it, and it is to the effect, as he was told by an
inhabitant of Sologne, that the egg of a cuckoo resembles in colour that
of the eggs normally laid by the kind of bird in whose nest it is
placed. In 1853 the same notion was prominently and independently
brought forward by Dr A. C. E. Baldamus (_Naumannia_, 1853, pp.
307-325), and in time became known to English ornithologists, most of
whom were naturally sceptical as to its truth, since no likeness
whatever is ordinarily apparent in the very familiar case of the
blue-green egg of the hedge-sparrow and that of the cuckoo, which is so
often found beside it.[1] Dr Baldamus based his notion on a series of
eggs in his cabinet,[2] a selection from which he figured in
illustration of his paper, and, however the thing may be accounted for,
it seems impossible to resist, save on one supposition, the force of the
testimony these specimens afford. This one supposition is that the eggs
have been wrongly ascribed to the cuckoo, and that they are only
exceptionally large examples of the eggs of the birds in the nests of
which they were found, for it cannot be gainsaid that some such abnormal
examples are occasionally to be met with. But it is well known that
abnormally large eggs are not only often deficient in depth of colour,
but still more often in stoutness of shell. Applying these rough
criteria to Dr Baldamus's series, most of the specimens stood the test
very well.

There are some other considerations to be urged. For instance, Herr
Braune, a forester at Greiz in the principality of Reuss (_Naumannia,
tom. cit._ pp. 307, 313), shot a hen cuckoo as she was leaving the nest
of an icterine warbler (_Hypolais icterina_). In the oviduct of this
cuckoo he found an egg coloured very like that of the warbler, and on
looking into the nest he found there an exactly similar egg, which there
can be no reasonable doubt had just been laid by that very cuckoo.
Moreover, Herr Grunack (_Journ. für Orn._, 1873, p. 454) afterwards
found one of the most abnormally coloured specimens, quite unlike the
ordinary egg of the cuckoo, to contain an embryo so fully formed as to
show the characteristic zygodactyl feet of the bird, thus proving
unquestionably its parentage.

On the other hand, we must bear in mind the numerous instances in which
not the least similarity can be traced--as in the not uncommon case of
the hedge-sparrow already mentioned, and if we attempt any explanatory
hypothesis it must be one that will fit all round. Such an explanation
seems to be this. We know that certain kinds of birds resent
interference with their nests much less than others, and among them it
may be asserted that the hedge-sparrow will patiently submit to various
experiments. She will brood with complacency the egg of a redbreast
(_Erithacus rubecula_), so unlike her own, and for aught we know to the
contrary may even be colour-blind. In the case of such a species there
would be no need of anything further to ensure success--the terror of
the nest-owner at seeing her home invaded by a hawk-like giant, and some
of her treasures tossed out, would be enough to stir her motherly
feelings so deeply that she would without misgiving, if not with joy
that something had been spared to her, resume the duty of incubation so
soon as the danger was past. But with other species it may be, and
doubtless is, different. Here assimilation of the introduced egg to
those of the rightful owner may be necessary, for there can hardly be a
doubt as to the truth of Dr Baldamus's theory as to the object of the
assimilation being to render the cuckoo's egg "less easily recognized by
the foster-parents as a substituted one." It is especially desirable to
point out that there is not the slightest ground for imagining that the
cuckoo, or any other bird, can voluntarily influence the colour of the
egg she is about to lay. Over that she can have no control, but its
destination she can determine. It would seem also impossible that a
cuckoo, having laid an egg, should look at it, and then decide from its
appearance in what bird's nest she should put it. That the colour of an
egg-shell can be in some mysterious way affected by the action of
external objects on the perceptive faculties of the mother is a notion
too wild to be seriously entertained. Consequently, only one explanation
of the facts can here be suggested. Every one who has sufficiently
studied the habits of animals will admit the influence of heredity. That
there is a reasonable probability of each cuckoo most commonly putting
her eggs in the nest of the same species of bird, and of this habit
being transmitted to her posterity, does not seem to be a very violent
supposition. Without attributing any wonderful sagacity to her, it does
not seem unlikely that the cuckoo which had once successfully foisted
her egg on a reed-wren or a titlark should again seek for another
reed-wren's or another titlark's nest (as the case may be), when she had
another egg to dispose of, and that she should continue her practice
from one season to another. It stands on record (_Zoologist_, 1873, p.
3648) that a pair of wagtails built their nest for eight or nine years
running in almost exactly the same spot, and that in each of those years
they fostered a young cuckoo, while many other cases of like kind,
though not perhaps established on so good authority, are believed to
have happened. Such a habit could hardly fail to become hereditary, so
that the daughter of a cuckoo which always put her egg into a
reed-wren's, titlark's or wagtail's nest would do as did her mother.
Furthermore it is unquestionable that, whatever variation there may be
among the eggs laid by different individuals of the same species, there
is a strong family likeness between the eggs laid by the same
individual, even at the interval of many years, and it can hardly be
questioned that the eggs of the daughter would more or less resemble
those of her mother. Hence the supposition may be fairly credited that
the habit of laying a particular style of egg is also likely to become
hereditary. Combining this supposition with that as to the cuckoo's
habit of using the nest of the same species becoming hereditary, it will
be seen that it requires only an application of the principle of natural
selection to show the probability of this principle operating in the
course of time to produce the facts asserted by the anonymous Solognot
of the 18th century, and by Dr Baldamus and others since. The particular
_gens_ of cuckoo which inherited and transmitted the habit of depositing
in the nest of any particular species of bird eggs having more or less
resemblance to the eggs of that species would prosper most in those
members of the _gens_ where the likeness was strongest, and the other
members would (_ceteris paribus_) in time be eliminated. As already
shown, it is not to be supposed that all species, or even all
individuals of a species, are duped with equal ease. The operation of
this kind of natural selection would be most needed in those cases where
the species are not easily duped--that is, in those cases which occur
the least frequently. Here it is we find it, for observation shows that
eggs of the cuckoo deposited in nests of the red-backed shrike (_Lanius
collurio_), of the bunting (_Emberiza miliaria_), and of the icterine
warbler approximate in their colouring to eggs of those species--species
in whose nests the cuckoo rarely (in comparison with others) deposits
eggs. Of species which are more easily duped, such as the hedge-sparrow,
mention has already been made.

More or less nearly allied to the British cuckoo are many other forms of
the genus from various parts of Africa, Asia and their islands, while
one even reaches Australia. In some cases the chief difference is said
to lie in the diversity of voice--a character only to be appreciated by
those acquainted with the living birds, and though of course some regard
should be paid to this distinction, the possibility of birds using
different "dialects" according to the locality they inhabit must make it
a slender specific diagnostic. All these forms are believed to have
essentially the same habits as the British cuckoo, and, as regards
parasitism the same is to be said of the large cuckoo of southern Europe
and North Africa (_Coccystes glandarius_), which victimizes pies (_Pica
mauritanica_ and _Cyanopica cooki_) and crows (_Corvus cornix_). True it
is that an instance of this species, commonly known as the great spotted
cuckoo, having built a nest and hatched its young, is on record, but the
later observations of others tend to cast doubt on the credibility of
the ancient report. It is worthy of remark that the eggs of this bird so
closely resemble those of one of the pies in whose nest they have been
found, that even expert zoologists have been deceived by them, only to
discover the truth when the cuckoo's embryo had been extracted from the
supposed pie's egg. This species of cuckoo, easily distinguishable by
its large size and long crest, has more than once made its appearance as
a straggler in the British Isles. Equally parasitic are many other
cuckoos, belonging chiefly to genera which have been more or less
clearly defined as _Cacomantis_, _Chrysococcyx_, _Eudynamis_,
_Oxylophus_, _Polyphasia_ and _Surniculus_, and inhabiting parts of the
Ethiopian, Indian and Australian regions;[3] but there are certain
aberrant forms of Old World cuckoos which unquestionably do not shirk
parental responsibilities. Among these especially are the birds placed
in or allied to the genera _Centropus_ and _Coua_--the former having a
wide distribution from Egypt to New South Wales, living much on the
ground and commonly called lark-heeled cuckoos; the latter bearing no
English name, and limited to the island of Madagascar. These build a
nest, not perhaps in a highly finished style of architecture, but one
that serves its end.

Respecting the cuckoos of America, the evidence, though it has been
impugned, is certainly enough to clear them from the charge which
attaches to so many of their brethren of the Old World. There are two
species very well known in parts of the United States and some of the
West Indian Islands (_Coccyzus Americanus_ and _C. erythrophthalmus_),
and each of them has occasionally visited Europe. They both build
nests--remarkably small structures when compared with those of other
birds of their size--and faithfully incubate their delicate sea-green
eggs. In the south-western states of the Union and thence into Central
America is found another curious form of cuckoo (_Geococcyx_)--the
chaparral-cock of northern and paisano of southern settlers. The first
of these names it takes from the low brushwood (_chaparral_) in which it
chiefly dwells, and the second is said to be due to its pheasant-like
(_faisan_ corrupted into _paisano_, properly a countryman) appearance as
it runs on the ground. Indeed, one of the two species of the genus was
formerly described as a _Phasianus_. They both have short wings, and
seem never to fly, but run with great rapidity. Returning to arboreal
forms, the genera _Neomorphus_, _Diplopterus_, _Saurothera_ and _Piaya_
(the last two commonly called rain-birds, from the belief that their cry
portends rain) may be noticed--all of them belonging to the Neotropical
region; but perhaps the most curious form of American cuckoos is the ani
(_Crotophaga_), of which three species inhabit the same region. The
best-known species (_C. ani_) is found throughout the Antilles and on
the opposite continent. In most of the British colonies it is known as
the black witch, and is accused of various malpractices--it being, in
truth, a perfectly harmless if not a beneficial bird. As regards its
propagation this aberrant form of cuckoo departs in one direction from
the normal habit of birds, for several females, unite to lay their eggs
in one nest. It is evident that incubation is carried on socially, since
an intruder on approaching the rude nest will disturb perhaps half a
dozen of its sable proprietors, who, loudly complaining, seek safety
either in the leafy branches of the tree that holds it, or in the
nearest available covert, with all the speed that their feeble powers of
flight permit.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] An instance to the contrary has been recorded by Mr A. C. Smith
    (_Zoologist_, 1873, p. 3516) on Mr Brine's authority.

  [2] This series was seen in 1861 by the writer.

  [3] Evidence tends to show that the same is to be said of the curious
    channel-bill (_Scythrops novae-hollandiae_), though absolute proof
    seems to be wanting.



CUCKOO-SPIT, a frothy secretion found upon plants, and produced by the
immature nymphal stage of various plant-lice of the familiar
_Cercopidae_ and _Jassidae_, belonging to the homopterous division of
the Hemiptera, which in the adult condition are sometimes called
frog-hoppers.



CUCUMBER (_Cucumis sativus_, Fr. _concombre_, O. Fr. _coucombre_, whence
the older English spelling and pronunciation "cowcumber," the standard
in England up to the beginning of the 18th century), a creeping plant of
the natural order Cucurbitaceae. It is widely cultivated, and originated
probably in northern India, where Alphonse de Candolle affirms (_Origin
of Cultivated Plants_) that it has been cultivated for at least three
thousand years. It spread westward to Europe and was cultivated by the
ancient Greeks under the name [Greek: sikuos]; it did not reach China
until two hundred years before the Christian era. It is an annual with a
rough succulent trailing stem and stalked hairy leaves with three to
five pointed lobes; the stem bears branched tendrils by means of which
the plant can be trained to supports. The short-stalked, bell-shaped
flowers are unisexual, but staminate and pistillate are borne on the
same plant; the latter are recognized by the swollen warty green ovary
below the rest of the flower. The ovary develops into the "cucumber"
without fertilization, and unless seeds are wanted, it is advisable to
pinch off the male flowers.

There are a great many varieties of cucumber in cultivation, which may
be grouped under the two headings (1) forcing, (2) field varieties.

1. The former are large-leaved strong-growing plants, not suited to
outdoor culture, with long smooth-rinded fruit; there are many excellent
varieties such as Telegraph, Sion House, duke of Edinburgh, &c. The
plants are grown in a hot-bed which is prepared towards the end of
February from rich stable manure, leaves, &c. A rich turfy loam with a
little well-decomposed stable manure forms a good soil. The seeds are
sown singly in rich, sandy soil in small pots early in February and
plunged in a bottom heat. After they have made one or two foliage-leaves
the seedlings are transferred to larger pots, and ultimately about the
middle of March to the hot-bed. Each plant is placed in the centre of a
mound of soil about a foot deep and well watered with tepid water. The
plants should be well watered during their growing period, and the
foliage sprinkled or syringed two or three times a day. In bright
sunshine the plants are lightly shaded. When grown in frames the tops of
the main stems are pinched off when the stems are about 2 ft. long; this
causes the development of side shoots on which fruits are borne. When
these have produced one or two fruits, they are also stopped at the
joint beyond the fruit. When grown in greenhouses the vines may be
allowed to reach the full length of the house before they are stopped.
To keep the fruits straight they may be grown in cylindrical glass tubes
about a foot long, or along narrow wooden troughs. If seeds are required
one or more female flowers should be selected and pollen from male
flower placed on their stigmas.

2. The outdoor varieties are known as hill or ridge cucumbers. They may
be grown in any good soil. A warm, sheltered spot with a south aspect
and a mound of rich, sandy loam with a little leaf-mould placed over a
hot-bed of dung and leaves is recommended. The mounds or ridges should
be 4 to 5 ft. apart, and one plant is placed in the centre of each. The
seeds are sown in March in light, rich soil in small pots with gentle
heat. The seedlings are repotted and well hardened for planting out in
June. The plants must be well watered in and, until established, shaded
by a hand-light from bright sunshine. When the leading shoots are from
1½ to 2 ft. long the tips are pinched off to induce the formation of
fruit-bearing side-shoots. If seed is required a pistillate flower is
selected and pollinated. There are numerous varieties distinguished by
size and the smooth or prickly rind. King of the Ridge has smooth fruits
a foot or more long; gherkin, a short, prickly form, is much used for
pickling.

Cucumber is subject to the attacks of green fly, red spider and thrips;
for the two latter, infected leaves should be sponged with soapy water;
for green fly careful fumigating is necessary.

The Sikkim cucumber, _C. sativus var. sikkimensis_, is a large fruited
form, reaching 15 in. long by 6 in. thick, grown in the Himalayas of
Sikkim and Nepal. It was discovered by Sir Joseph Hooker in the eastern
Himalayas in 1848. He says "so abundant were the fruits, that for days
together I saw gnawed fruits lying by the natives' paths by thousands,
and every man, woman and child seemed engaged throughout the day in
devouring them." The fruit is reddish-brown, marked with yellow, and is
eaten both raw and cooked.

The West India gherkin is _Cucumis Anguria_, a plant with small, slender
vines, and very abundant small ellipsoid green fruit covered with warts
and spines. It is used for pickling.

Cucumbers were much esteemed by the ancients. According to Pliny, the
emperor Tiberius was supplied with them daily, both in summer and
winter. The kishuim or cucumbers of the scriptures (Num. xi. 5; Isa. i.
8) were probably a wild form of _C. Melo_, the melon, a plant common in
Egypt, where a drink is prepared from the ripe fruit. Peter Forskäl, one
of the early botanical writers on the country, describes its
preparation. The pulp is broken and stirred by means of a stick thrust
through a hole cut at the umbilicus of the fruit; the hole is then
closed with wax, and the fruit, without removing it from its stem, is
buried in a little pit; after some days the pulp is found to be
converted into an agreeable liquor (see _Flora aegyptiaco-arabica_, p.
168, 1775). The squirting cucumber, _Ecballium Elaterium_, the [Greek:
Sikuos agrios] of Theophrastus, furnishes the drug elaterium (q.v.).

  See Naudin in _Annal. des sci. nat._ ser. 4 (Botany), t. xi. (1859);
  G. Nicholson, _Dictionary of Gardening_ (1885); L. H. Bailey,
  _Cyclopaedia of American Horticulture_ (1900).



CUCURBITACEAE, a botanical order of dicotyledons, containing 87 genera
and about 650 species, found in the temperate and warmer parts of the
earth but especially developed in the tropics. The plants are generally
annual herbs, climbing by means of tendrils and having a rapid growth.
The long-stalked leaves are arranged alternately, and are generally
palmately lobed and veined. The flowers or inflorescences are borne in
the leaf-axils, in which a vegetative bud is also found, and at the side
of the leaf-stalk is a simple or branched tendril. There has been much
difference of opinion as to what member or members the tendril
represents; the one which seems most in accordance with facts regards
the tendril as a shoot, the lower portion representing the stem, the
upper twining portion a leaf. The flowers are unisexual, and strikingly
epigynous, the perianth and stamens being attached to a bell-shaped
prolongation of the receptacle above the ovary. The five narrow pointed
sepals are followed by five petals which are generally united to form a
more or less bell-shaped corolla. There are five stamens in the male
flowers; the anthers open towards the outside, are one-celled, with the
pollen-sacs generally curved and variously united. The carpels, normally
three in number, form an ovary with three thick, fleshy, bifid placentas
bearing a large number of ovules on each side, and generally filling the
interior of the ovary with a juicy mass. The short thick style has
generally three branches each bearing a fleshy, usually forked stigma.
The fruit is a fleshy many-seeded berry with a tough rind (known as a
_pepo_), and often attains considerable size. The embryo completely
fills the seed.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Bryonia dioica_, Bryony. 1, part of corolla of
male flower with attached stamens; 2, female flower after removal of
calyx and corolla; 3, berries; 1, 2, 3 about nat. size.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.

  1, Male flower of cucumber (_Cucumis_).
  2, Same, in vertical section, slightly enlarged.
  3, Stamens, after removal of calyx and corolla.
  4, Female flower.
  5, Horizontal plan of male flower.
  6, Transverse section of fruit.

  1 and 4 nat. size.]

The order is represented in Britain by bryony (_Bryonia dioica_), (fig.
1) a hedge-climber, perennial by means of large fleshy tubers which send
up each year a number of slender angular stems. The leaves are
heart-shaped with wavy margined lobes. The flowers are greenish, ½ to ¾
in. in diameter; the fruit, a red several-seeded berry, is about ¼ in.
in diameter.

Many genera are of economic importance; _Cucumis_ (fig. 2) affords
cucumber (q.v.) and melon (q.v.) _Cucurbita_, pumpkin and marrow;
_Citrullus vulgaris_ is water-melon, and _C. Colocynthis_, colocynth;
_Ecballium Elaterium_ (squirting cucumber) is medicinal; _Sechium edule_
(chocho), a tropical American species, is largely cultivated for its
edible fruit; it contains one large seed which germinates in situ.
_Lagenaria_ is the gourd (q.v.). The fruits of _Luffa aegyptiaca_ have a
number of closely netted vascular bundles in the pericarp, forming a
kind of loose felt which supplies the well-known loofah or bath-sponge.



CUDDALORE, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of
Madras, on the coast 125 m. S. of Madras by rail. Pop. (1901) 52,216,
showing an increase of 10% in the decade. It lies low, but is regarded
as exceptionally healthy, and serves as a kind of sanatorium for the
surrounding district. The principal exports are sugar, oil-seeds and
indigo. There are two colleges and two high schools. In the
neighbourhood are the ruins of Fort St David situated on the river
Gadilam, which has as stirring a history as any spot in the Presidency.
As a small fort built by a Hindu merchant it fell into the hands of the
Mahrattas after the capture of Gingi by Sivaji in 1677. From them it was
purchased by the English in 1690, the purchase including not only the
fort but the adjacent towns and villages "within ye randome shott of a
piece of ordnance." A great gun was fired to different points of the
compass and all the country within its range, including the town of
Cuddalore, passed into the possession of the English. The villages thus
obtained are still spoken of as "cannon ball villages." From 1725
onwards the fortifications were greatly strengthened. In 1746 Fort St
David became the British headquarters for the south of India, and
Dupleix' attack was successfully repulsed. Clive was appointed its
governor in 1756; in 1758 the French captured it, but abandoned it two
years later to Sir Eyre Coote. In 1782 they again took it and restored
it sufficiently to withstand a British attack in 1783. In 1785 it
finally passed into British possession.



CUDDAPAH, a town and district of British India, in the Madras
Presidency. The town is 6 m. from the right bank of the river Pennar,
and 161 m. by rail from Madras. Pop. (1901) 16,432. It is now a poor
place, but has some trade in cotton and indigo, and manufactures of
cotton cloth. Hills surround it on three sides, and it has a bad
reputation for unhealthiness.

The DISTRICT OF CUDDAPAH has an area of 8723 sq. m. It is in shape an
irregular parallelogram, divided into two nearly equal parts by the
range of the Eastern Ghats, which intersects it throughout its entire
length. The two tracts thus formed possess totally different features.
The first, which constitutes the north, east and south-east of the
district, is a low-lying plain; while the other, which comprises the
southern and south-western portion, forms a high table-land from 1500 to
2500 ft. above sea-level. The chief river is the Pennar, which enters
the district from Bellary on the west, and flows eastwards into Nellore.
Though a large and broad river, and in the rains containing a great
volume of water, in the hot weather months it dwindles down to an
inconsiderable stream. Its principal tributaries are the Kundaur,
Saglair, Cheyair, and Papagni rivers. One of the most interesting
antiquities in the district is the ancient fort of Gurramkonda. The fort
is supposed to have been built by the Golconda sultans; it stands on a
hill 500 ft. high, three sides of which consist of almost perpendicular
precipices. According to a local legend the name Gurramkonda, meaning
"horse hill," was derived from the fact that a horse was supposed to be
guardian of the fort and that the place was impregnable so long as the
horse remained there. The story goes that a Mahratta chief at length
succeeded in scaling the precipice and in carrying off the horse, and
although the thief was captured before reaching the base of the hill,
the spell was broken and the fort, when next attacked, fell. The
population of the district in 1901 was 1,291,267. The principal crops
are millet, rice, other food grains, pulse, oil-seeds, cotton and
indigo. The two last are largely exported. There are several steam
factories for pressing cotton, and indigo vats. The district is served
by lines of the Madras and the South Indian railways.



CUDWORTH, RALPH (1617-1688), English philosopher, was born at Aller,
Somersetshire, the son of Dr Ralph Cudworth (d. 1624), rector of Aller,
formerly fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. His father died in 1624,
and his mother then married the Rev. Dr Stoughton, who gave the boy a
good home education. Cudworth was sent to his father's college, was
elected fellow in 1639, and became a successful tutor. In 1642 he
published _A Discourse concerning the true Notion of the Lord's Supper_,
and a tract entitled _The Union of Christ and the Church_. In 1645 he
was appointed master of Clare Hall and the same year was elected Regius
professor of Hebrew. He was now recognized as a leader among the
remarkable group known as the Cambridge Platonists (q.v.). The whole
party were more or less in sympathy with the Commonwealth, and Cudworth
was consulted by John Thurloe, Cromwell's secretary of state, in regard
to university and government appointments. His sermons, such as that
preached before the House of Commons, on the 31st of March 1647,
advocate principles of religious toleration and charity. In 1650 he was
presented to the college living of North Cadbury, Somerset. From the
diary of his friend John Worthington we learn that Cudworth was nearly
compelled, through poverty, to leave the university, but in 1654 he was
elected master of Christ's College, whereupon he married. On the
Restoration he contributed some Hebrew verses to the _Academiae
Cantabrigiensis_ [Greek: Sôstra], a congratulatory volume addressed to
the king. In 1662 he was presented to the rectory of Ashwell, Herts. In
1665 he almost quarrelled with his fellow-Platonist, Henry More, because
the latter had written an ethical work which Cudworth feared would
interfere with his own long-contemplated treatise on the same subject.
To avoid clashing, More brought out his book, the _Enchiridion ethicum_,
in Latin; Cudworth's never appeared. In 1678 he published _The True
Intellectual System of the Universe: the first part, wherein all the
reason and philosophy of atheism is confuted and its impossibility
demonstrated_ (imprimatur dated 1671). No more was published, perhaps
because of the theological clamour raised against this first part.
Cudworth was installed prebendary of Gloucester in 1678. He died on the
26th of June 1688, and was buried in the chapel of Christ's. His only
surviving child, Damaris, a devout and talented woman, became the second
wife of Sir Francis Masham, and was distinguished as the friend of John
Locke. Much of Cudworth's work still remains in manuscript; _A Treatise
concerning eternal and immutable Morality_ was published in 1731; and _A
Treatise of Freewill_, edited by John Allen, in 1838; both are connected
with the design of his _magnum opus_, the _Intellectual System_.

The _Intellectual System_ arose, so its author tells us, out of a
discourse refuting "fatal necessity," or determinism. Enlarging his
plan, he proposed to prove three matters: (a) the existence of God; (b)
the naturalness of moral distinctions; and (c) the reality of human
freedom. These three together make up the intellectual (as opposed to
the physical) system of the universe; and they are opposed respectively
by three false principles, atheism, religious fatalism which refers all
moral distinctions to the will of God, and thirdly the fatalism of the
ancient Stoics, who recognized God and yet identified Him with nature.
The immense fragment dealing with atheism is all that was published by
its author. Cudworth criticizes two main forms of materialistic atheism,
the atomic, adopted by Democritus, Epicurus and Hobbes; and the
hylozoic, attributed to Strato, which explains everything by the
supposition of an inward self-organizing life in matter. Atomic atheism
is by far the more important, if only because Hobbes, the great
antagonist whom Cudworth always has in view, is supposed to have held
it. It arises out of the combination of two principles, neither of which
is atheistic taken separately, i.e. atomism and corporealism, or the
doctrine that nothing exists but body. The example of Stoicism, as
Cudworth points out, shows that corporealism may be theistic. Into the
history of atomism Cudworth plunges with vast erudition. It is, in its
purely physical application, a theory that he fully accepts; he holds
that it was taught by Pythagoras, Empedocles, and in fact, nearly all
the ancient philosophers, and was only perverted to atheism by
Democritus. It was first invented, he believes, before the Trojan war,
by a Sidonian thinker named Moschus or Mochus, who is identical with the
Moses of the Old Testament. In dealing with atheism Cudworth's method is
to marshal the atheistic arguments elaborately, so elaborately that
Dryden remarked "he has raised such objections against the being of a
God and Providence that many think he has not answered them"; then in
his last chapter, which by itself is as long as an ordinary treatise, he
confutes them with all the reasons that his reading could supply. A
subordinate matter in the book that attracted much attention at the time
is the conception of the "Plastic Medium," which is a mere revival of
Plato's "World-Soul," and is meant to explain the existence and laws of
nature without referring all to the direct operation of God. It
occasioned a long-drawn controversy between Pierre Bayle and Le Clerc,
the former maintaining, the latter denying, that the Plastic Medium is
really favourable to atheism.

No modern reader can endure to toil through the _Intellectual System_;
its only interest is the light it throws upon the state of religious
thought after the Restoration, when, as Birch puts it, "irreligion began
to lift up its head." It is immensely diffuse and pretentious, loaded
with digressions, its argument buried under masses of fantastic,
uncritical learning, the work of a vigorous but quite unoriginal mind.
As Bolingbroke said, Cudworth "read too much to think enough, and
admired too much to think freely." It is no calamity that natural
procrastination, or the clamour caused by his candid treatment of
atheism and by certain heretical tendencies detected by orthodox
criticism in his view of the Trinity, made Cudworth leave the work
unfinished.

A much more favourable judgment must be given upon the short _Treatise
on eternal and immutable Morality_, which deserves to be read by those
who are interested in the historical development of British moral
philosophy. It is an answer to Hobbes's famous doctrine that moral
distinctions are created by the state, an answer from the standpoint of
Platonism. Just as knowledge contains a permanent intelligible element
over and above the flux of sense-impressions, so there exist eternal and
immutable ideas of morality. Cudworth's ideas, like Plato's, have "a
constant and never-failing entity of their own," such as we see in
geometrical figures; but, unlike Plato's, they exist in the mind of God,
whence they are communicated to finite understandings. Hence "it is
evident that wisdom, knowledge and understanding are eternal and
self-subsistent things, superior to matter and all sensible beings, and
independent upon them"; and so also are moral good and evil. At this
point Cudworth stops; he does not attempt to give any list of Moral
Ideas. It is, indeed, the cardinal weakness of this form of intuitionism
that no satisfactory list can be given and that no moral principles have
the "constant and never-failing entity," or the definiteness, of the
concepts of geometry. Henry More, in his _Enchiridion ethicum_, attempts
to enumerate the "_noemata moralia_"; but, so far from being
self-evident, most of his moral axioms are open to serious controversy.

  The _Intellectual System_ was translated into Latin by J. L. Mosheim
  and furnished with notes and dissertations which were translated into
  English in J. Harrison's edition (1845). Our chief biographical
  authority is T. Birch's "Account," which appears in editions of the
  _Works_. There is a good chapter on Cudworth in J. Tulloch's _Rational
  Theology_, vol. ii. Consult also P. Janet's _Essai sur le médiateur
  plastique_ (1860), W. R. Scott's _Introduction to Cudworth's
  "Treatise,"_ and J. Martineau's _Types of Ethical Theory_, vol. ii.
       (H. St.)



CUENCA, a city and the capital of the province of Azuay, Ecuador, about
190 m. S. of Quito and 70 m. S.E. of Guayaquil. Pop. (1908 estimate)
30,000 (largely Indians), including the suburb of Ejido. Cuenca stands
at the northern end of a broad valley, or basin, of the Andes, lying
between the transverse ridges of Azuay and Loja, and is about 8640 ft.
above sea-level. Near by is the hill of Tarqui which the French
astronomers chose for their meridian in 1742. Communication with the
coast is difficult. Cuenca is the third most important city of Ecuador,
being the seat of a bishopric, and having a college, a university
faculty, a cathedral, and several churches, and a considerable
industrial and commercial development. It manufactures sugar, woollen
goods and pottery, and exports Peruvian bark (cinchona), hats, cereals,
cheese, hides, &c. It was founded in 1557 on the site of a native town
called Tumibamba, and was made an episcopal see in 1786.



CUENCA, a province of central Spain bounded on the N. by Guadalajara,
N.E. by Teruel, E. by Valencia, S. by Albacete, S.W. by Ciudad Real, W.
by Toledo and N.W. by Madrid. Pop. (1900) 249,696; area, 6636 sq. m.
Cuenca occupies the eastern part of the ancient kingdom of New Castile,
and slopes from the Serrania de Cuenca (highest point the Cerro de San
Felipe, on the north-eastern border of the province, 5905 ft.), down
into the great southern Castilian plain watered by the upper streams of
the Guadiana. The lowlands bordering on Ciudad Real belong to the wide
plain of La Mancha (q.v.). The rocky and bare highland of Cuenca on the
north and east includes the upper valley of the Jucar and its tributary
streams, but in the north-west the province is watered by tributaries of
the Tagus. The forests are proverbial for their pine timber, and rival
those of Soria; considerable quantities of timber are floated down the
Tagus to Aranjuez and thence taken to Madrid for building purposes.
Excessive droughts prevail; the climate of the hills and of the high
plateaus is harsh and cold, but the valleys are excessively hot in
summer. The soil, where well watered, is fertile, but little attention
is paid to agriculture, and three-fourths of the area is left under
pasture. The rearing of cattle, asses, mules and sheep is the principal
employment of the people; olive oil, nuts, wine, wheat, silk, wax and
honey are the chief products. Iron, copper, alum, saltpetre, jasper and
agates are found, but in 1903 all the workings had been abandoned except
three salt mines; and there are few manufactures except the weaving of
coarse cloth. The roads are in such a backward condition that they
cripple not only the mining interests but also the exports of timber,
and at the beginning of the 20th century there was no railway except a
branch line which passed westwards from Aranjuez through Tarancon to
Cuenca, the capital (pop. 1900, 10,756). No other town has as many as
6000 inhabitants, and no other Spanish province is so thinly populated
as Cuenca. In 1900 there were only 37.6 inhabitants per sq. m. Education
is backward, and extreme poverty almost universal among the peasantry.
See also CASTILE.



CUENCA, the capital of the Spanish province of Cuenca; 125 m. by rail E.
by S. of Madrid. Pop. (1900) 10,756. Cuenca occupies a height of the
well-wooded Serrania de Cuenca, at an elevation of 2960 ft., overlooking
the confluence of the rivers Jucar and Huecar. A fine bridge, built in
1523, crosses the Jucar to the convent of San Pablo. Among several
interesting churches in the city, the most noteworthy is the
13th-century Gothic cathedral, celebrated for the beautiful carved
woodwork of its 16th-century doorway, and containing some admirable
examples of Spanish sculpture. The city has a considerable trade in
timber, and was long the headquarters of the provincial wool industry;
the loss of which, in modern times, has partly been compensated by the
development of soap, paper, chocolate, match and leather manufactures.
Cuenca was captured from the Moors by Alphonso VIII. of Castile in 1177,
and shortly afterwards became an episcopal see. In 1874 it offered a
prolonged and gallant resistance to the Carlist rebels.



CUESTA, a name of Spanish origin used in New Mexico for low ridges of
steep descent on one side and gentle slope on the other. It has been
proposed as a term for the land form which consists of the two elements
of a steep scarp or "strike" face, and an inclined plain or gentle "dip"
slope.



CUEVAS DE VERA, a town of south-eastern Spain, in the province of
Almería; on the right bank of the river Almanzora, 8 m. W. of the
Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1900) 20,562. Cuevas de Vera is built at the
eastern extremity of the Sierra de los Filabres (6823 ft.), which
isolate it from the railway system of Almería. It is, however, the chief
market for the rich agricultural districts towards the south and for the
argentiferous lead and other mines among the mountains. In appearance it
is modern, with wide streets, two fine squares, and a parish church in
Doric style, dating from 1758. But in reality the town is of
considerable antiquity. One of the towers in the Moorish palace owned by
the marquesses of Villafranca is probably of Roman origin.



CUFF. (1) (Of uncertain origin), the lower edge of a sleeve turned back
to show an ornamental border, or with an addition of lace or trimming;
now used chiefly of the stiff bands of linen worn under the coat-sleeve
either loose or attached to the shirt. (2) Also uncertain in origin, but
with no connexion, probably, with (1), a blow with the hand either open
or closed, as opposed to the use of weapons.



CUIRASS (Fr. _cuirasse_, Lat. _coriaceus_, made of leather, from
_corium_, the original breastplate being of leather), the plate armour,
whether formed of a single piece of metal or other rigid material or
composed of two or more pieces, which covers the front of the wearer's
person. In a suit of armour, however, since this important piece was
generally worn in connexion with a corresponding defence for the back,
the term cuirass commonly is understood to imply the complete
body-armour, including both the breast and the back plates. Thus this
complete body-armour appears in the middle ages frequently to have been
described as a "pair of plates." The _corslet_ (Fr. _corselet_,
diminutive of the O. Fr. _cors_, body), a comparatively light cuirass,
is more strictly a breast-plate only. As parts of the military equipment
of classic antiquity, cuirasses and corslets of bronze, and at later
periods also of iron or some other rigid substance, were habitually in
use; but while some special kind of secondary protection for the breast
had been worn in earlier times by the men-at-arms in addition to their
mail hauberks and their "cotes" armed with splints and studs, it was not
till the 14th century that a regular body-defence of plate can be said
to have become an established component of medieval armour. As this
century continued to advance, the cuirass is found gradually to have
come into general use, in connexion with plate defences for the limbs,
until, at the close of the century, the long familiar interlinked
chain-mail is no longer visible in knightly figures, except in the
camail of the bassinet and at the edge of the hauberk. The prevailing,
and indeed almost the universal, usage throughout this century was that
the cuirass was worn covered. Thus, the globose form of the
breast-armour of the Black Prince, in his effigy in Canterbury
cathedral, 1376, intimates that a cuirass as well as a hauberk is to be
considered to have been covered by the royalty-emblazoned jupon of the
prince. The cuirass, thus worn in the 14th century, was always made of
sufficient length to rest on the hips; otherwise, if not thus supported,
it must have been suspended from the shoulders, in which case it would
have effectually interfered with the free and vigorous action of the
wearer. Early in the 15th century, the entire panoply of plate,
including the cuirass, began to be worn without any surcoat; but in the
concluding quarter of the century the short surcoat, with full short
sleeves, known as the tabard, was in general use over the armour. At the
same time that the disuse of the surcoat became general, small plates of
various forms and sizes (and not always made in pairs, the plate for the
right or sword-arm often being smaller and lighter than its companion),
were attached to the armour in front of the shoulders, to defend the
otherwise vulnerable points where the plate defences of the upper-arms
and the cuirass left a gap on each side. About the middle of the
century, instead of being formed of a single plate, the breast-plate of
the cuirass was made in two parts, the lower adjusted to overlap the
upper, and contrived by means of a strap or sliding rivet to give
flexibility to this defence. In the second half of the 15th century the
cuirass occasionally was superseded by the "brigandine jacket," a
defence formed of some textile fabric, generally of rich material, lined
throughout with overlapping scales (resembling the earlier "imbricated"
form) of metal, which were attached to the jacket by rivets, having
their heads, like studs, visible on the outside. In the 16th century,
when occasionally, and by personages of exalted rank, splendid surcoats
were worn over the armour, the cuirass--its breast-piece during the
first half of the century, globular in form--was constantly reinforced
by strong additional plates attached to it by rivets or screws. About
1550 the breast-piece of the cuirass was characterized by a vertical
central ridge, called the "tapul" having near its centre a projecting
point; this projection, somewhat later, was brought lower down, and
eventually the profile of the plate, the projection having been carried
to its base, assumed the singular form which led to this fashion of the
cuirass being distinguished as the "peascod cuirass."

Corslets provided with both breast and back pieces were worn by
foot-soldiers in the 17th century, while their mounted comrades were
equipped in heavier and stronger cuirasses; and these defences continued
in use after the other pieces of armour, one by one, had gradually been
laid aside. Their use, however, never altogether ceased, and in modern
armies mounted cuirassiers, armed as in earlier days with breast and
back plates, have in some degree emulated the martial splendour of the
body-armour of the era of medieval chivalry. Some years after Waterloo
certain historical cuirasses were taken from their repose in the Tower
of London, and adapted for service by the Life Guards and the Horse
Guards. For parade purposes, the Prussian _Gardes du Corps_ and other
corps wear cuirasses of richly decorated leather.



CUIRASSIERS, a kind of heavy cavalry, originally developed out of the
men-at-arms or gendarmerie forming the heavy cavalry of feudal armies.
Their special characteristic was the wearing of full armour, which they
retained long after other troops had abandoned it. Hence they became
distinguished as cuirassiers. The first Austrian corps of _kyrissers_
was formed in 1484 by the emperor Maximilian and was 100 strong. In 1705
Austria possessed twenty regiments of cuirassiers. After the war of
1866, however, the existing regiments were converted into dragoons.
Russia has likewise in modern times abolished all but a few guard
regiments of cuirassiers. The Prussian cuirassiers were first so called
under Frederick William I., and in the wars of his successor Frederick
the Great they bore a conspicuous part. After the Seven Years' War they
ceased to wear the cuirass on service, but after 1814 these were
reintroduced, the spoils taken from the French cuirassiers being used to
equip the troops. The cuirass is now worn only on ceremonial parades. In
France the cuirassiers date from 1666, when a regiment, subsequently
numbered 8th of the line, was formed. During the first Empire many
regiments were created, until in 1812 there were fourteen. The number
was reduced after the fall of Napoleon, but in modern times it has been
again increased. The French regiments alone in Europe wear the cuirass
on all parades and at manoeuvres.



CUJAS (or CUJACIUS), JACQUES (or as he called himself, JACQUES DE CUJAS)
(1520-1590), French jurisconsult, was born at Toulouse, where his
father, whose name was Cujaus, was a fuller. Having taught himself Latin
and Greek, he studied law under Arnoul Ferrier, then professor at
Toulouse, and rapidly gained a great reputation as a lecturer on
Justinian. In 1554 he was appointed professor of law at Cahors, and
about a year after L'Hôpital called him to Bourges. Duaren, however, who
also held a professorship at Bourges, stirred up the students against
the new professor, and such was the disorder produced in consequence
that Cujas was glad to yield to the storm, and accept an invitation he
had received to the university of Valence. Recalled to Bourges at the
death of Duaren in 1559, he remained there till 1567, when he returned
to Valence. There he gained a European reputation, and collected
students from all parts of the continent, among whom were Joseph
Scaliger and de Thou. In 1573 Charles IX. appointed Cujas counsellor to
the parlement of Grenoble, and in the following year a pension was
bestowed on him by Henry III. Margaret of Savoy induced him to remove to
Turin; but after a few months (1575) he once more took his old place at
Bourges. But the religious wars drove him thence. He was called by the
king to Paris, and permission was granted him by the parlement to
lecture on civil law in the university of the capital. A year after,
however, he finally took up his residence at Bourges, where he remained
till his death in 1590, in spite of a handsome offer made him by Gregory
XIII. in 1584 to attract him to Bologna.

The life of Cujas was altogether that of a scholar and teacher. In the
religious wars which filled all the thoughts of his contemporaries he
steadily refused to take any part. _Nihil hoc ad edictum praetoris_,
"this has nothing to do with the edict of the praetor," was his usual
answer to those who spoke to him on the subject. His surpassing merit as
a jurisconsult consisted in the fact that he turned from the ignorant
commentators on Roman law to the Roman law itself. He consulted a very
large number of manuscripts, of which he had collected more than 500 in
his own library; but, unfortunately, he left orders in his will that his
library should be divided among a number of purchasers, and his
collection was thus scattered, and in great part lost. His emendations,
of which a large number were published under the title of
_Animadversiones et observationes_, were not confined to lawbooks, but
extended to many of the Latin and Greek classical authors. In
jurisprudence his study was far from being devoted solely to Justinian;
he recovered and gave to the world a part of the Theodosian Code, with
explanations; and he procured the manuscript of the _Basilica_, a Greek
abridgment of Justinian, afterwards published by Fabrot (see BASILICA).
He also composed a commentary on the _Consueludines Feudorum_, and on
some books of the Decretals. In the _Paratitla_, or summaries which he
made of the Digest, and particularly of the Code of Justinian, he
condensed into short axioms the elementary principles of law, and gave
definitions remarkable for their admirable clearness and precision. His
lessons, which he never dictated, were continuous discourses, for which
he made no other preparation than that of profound meditation on the
subjects to be discussed. He was impatient of interruption, and upon the
least noise he would instantly quit the chair and retire. He was
strongly attached to his pupils, and Scaliger affirms that he lost more
than 4000 livres by lending money to such of them as were in want.

  In his lifetime Cujas published an edition of his works (Neville,
  1577). It is beautiful and exact, but incomplete; it is now very
  scarce. The edition of Colombet (1634) is also incomplete. Fabrot,
  however, collected the whole in the edition which he published at
  Paris (1658), in 10 vols. folio, and which was reprinted at Naples
  (1722, 1727), in 11 vols. folio, and at Naples and at Venice (1758),
  in 10 vols. folio, with an index forming an eleventh volume. In the
  editions of Naples and Venice there are some additions not to be found
  in that of Fabrot, particularly a general table, which will be found
  very useful, and interpretations of all the Greek words used by Cujas.

  See Papire-Masson, _Vie de Cujas_ (Paris, 1590); Terrasson, _Histoire
  de la jurisprudence romaine_, and _Mélanges d'histoire, de
  littérature, et de jurisprudence_; Bernardi, _Éloge de Cujas_ (Lyons,
  1775); Hugo, _Civilistisches Magazin_; Berriat Saint Prix, _Mémoires
  de Cujas_, appended to his _Histoire du droit romain; Biographie
  universelle_; Gravina, _De ortu et progressu juris civilis_;
  Spangenberg, _Cujacius und seine Zeitgenossen_ (Leipzig, 1882).



CULDEES, an ancient monastic order with settlements in Ireland and
Scotland. It was long fondly imagined by Protestant and especially by
Presbyterian writers that they had preserved primitive Christianity free
from Roman corruptions in one remote corner of western Europe, a view
enshrined in Thomas Campbell's _Reullura_:

  "Peace to their shades. The pure Culdees
   Were Albyn's earliest priests of God,
   Ere yet an island of her seas
   By foot of Saxon monk was trod."

Another view, promulgated like the above by Hector Boece in his Latin
history of Scotland (1516), makes them the direct successors in the 9th
to the 12th century of the organized Irish and Iona monasticism of the
6th to the 8th century. Both these views were disproved by William
Reeves (1815-1892), bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore.

As found in the Irish MSS. the name is _Céle Dé_, i.e. God's comrade or
sworn ally. It was latinized as _Coli dei_, whence Boece's _culdei_. The
term seems, like the Latin _vir dei_, to have been applied generally to
monks and hermits. There are very few trustworthy ancient sources of
information, but it seems probable that the Rule of Chrodegang,[1]
archbishop of Metz (d. 766), was brought by Irish monks to their native
land from the monasteries of north-eastern Gaul, and that Irish
anchorites originally unfettered by the rules of the cloister bound
themselves by it. In the course of the 9th century we find mention of
nine places in Ireland (including Armagh, Clonmacnoise, Clones, Devenish
and Sligo) where communities of these Culdees were established as a kind
of annexe to the regular monastic institutions. They seem especially to
have had the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the
musical part of worship. Meanwhile in Scotland the Iona monks had been
expelled by the Pictish king Nechtan in 717, and the vacancies thus
caused were by no means filled by the Roman monks who thronged into the
north from Northumbria. Into the gap, towards the end of the 8th
century, came the Culdees from Ireland. The features of their life in
Scotland, which is the most important epoch in the history of the order,
seem to resemble closely those of the secular canons of England and the
continent. From the outset they were more or less isolated, and, having
no fixed forms or common head, tended to decay. In the 12th century the
Celtic Church was completely metamorphosed on the Roman pattern, and in
the process the Culdees also lost any distinctiveness they may formerly
have had, being brought, like the secular clergy, under canonical rule.
The pictures that we have of Culdee life in the 12th century vary
considerably. The chief houses in Scotland were at St Andrews, Dunkeld,
Lochleven, Monymusk in Aberdeenshire, Abernethy and Brechin. Each was an
independent establishment controlled entirely by its own abbot and
apparently divided into two sections, one priestly and the other lay and
even married. At St Andrews about the year 1100 there were thirteen
Culdees holding office by hereditary tenure and paying more regard to
their own prosperity and aggrandizement than to the services of the
church or the needs of the populace. A much-needed measure of reform,
inaugurated by Queen Margaret, was carried through by her sons Alexander
I. and David I.; gradually the whole position passed into the hands of
Turgot and his successors in the bishopric. Canons Regular were
instituted and some of the Culdees joined the new order. Those who
declined were allowed a life-rent of their revenues and lingered on as a
separate but ever-dwindling body till the beginning of the 14th century,
when, excluded from voting at the election of the bishop, they disappear
from history. At Dunkeld, Crinan, the grandfather of Malcolm Canmore,
was a lay abbot, and tradition says that even the clerical members were
married, though like the priests of the Eastern Church, they lived apart
from their wives during their term of sacerdotal service. The Culdees of
Lochleven lived on St Serf's Inch, which had been given them by a
Pictish prince, Brude, about 850. In 1093 they surrendered their island
to the bishop of St Andrews in return for perpetual food and clothing,
but Robert, who was bishop in 1144, handed over all their vestments,
books,[2] and other property, with the island, to the newly founded
Canons Regular, in which probably the Culdees were incorporated. There
is no trace of such partial independence as was experienced at St
Andrews itself, possibly because the bishop's grant was backed up by a
royal charter. In the same fashion the Culdees of Monymusk, originally
perhaps a colony from St Andrews, became Canons Regular of the
Augustinian order early in the 13th century, and those of Abernethy in
1273. At Brechin, famous like Abernethy for its round tower, the Culdee
prior and his monks helped to form the chapter of the diocese founded by
David I. in 1145, though the name persisted for a generation or two.
Similar absorptions no doubt account for the disappearance of the
Culdees of York, a name borne by the canons of St Peter's about 925, and
of Snowdon and Bardsey Island in north Wales mentioned by Giraldus
Cambrensis (c. 1190) in his _Speculum Ecclesiae_ and _Itinerarium_
respectively. The former community was, he says, sorely oppressed by the
covetous Cistercians. These seem to be the only cases where the Culdees
are found in England and Wales. In Ireland the Culdees of Armagh endured
until the dissolution in 1541, and enjoyed a fleeting resurrection in
1627, soon after which their ancient property passed to the vicars
choral of the cathedral.

  See W. Reeves, _The Culdees of the British Islands_ (Dublin, 1864); W.
  F. Skene, _Celtic Scotland_ (1876-1880), especially vol. ii.; W.
  Beveridge, _Makers of the Scottish Church_ (1908). The older view will
  be found in J. Jamieson's _Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees_
  (1811).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Devised originally for the clergy of Chrodegang's cathedral, it
    was largely an adaptation of St Benedict's rule to secular clergy
    living in common. In 816 it was confirmed, with certain
    modifications, by the synod of Aix-la-Chapelle, and became the law
    for collegiate and cathedral churches in the Frankish empire. See
    CANON.

  [2] The list of these in the deed of transfer is the oldest Scottish
    library catalogue.



CULEBRA, the smaller of two islands lying in the Virgin Passage
immediately E. of Porto Rico and known as the Islas de Passaje. It is
about 18 m. distant from Cape San Juan and rises from the same submerged
plateau with the larger islands of the Antilles. Its extreme dimensions
are 3 by 6 m., and its surface is low and comparatively uniform, which
gives the prevailing winds an unbroken sweep across it. For this reason
the rainfall is limited to a short season, and the population is
compelled to store rainwater in cisterns for drinking purposes. Its soil
is fertile, and cattle, poultry, vegetables and small fruits are
produced. The island has been a dependency of Porto Rico since 1879,
when its colonization was formally undertaken, and it is now described
as a ward of the Vieques district of the department of Humacao. In 1902
the American naval authorities selected the Playa Sardinas harbour on
the S. side of Culebra as a rendezvous of the fleet and marine
encampments were located on shore. The strategic position of the island,
its healthiness and its continued use as a naval station have given it
considerable importance. Its population was 704 in 1899, which had
increased to nearly 1200 in 1903.



CULLEN, PAUL (1803-1878), cardinal and archbishop of Dublin, was born
near Ballytore, Co. Kildare, and educated first at the Quaker school at
Carlow and afterwards at Rome, where he joined the Urban College of the
Propaganda and, after passing a brilliant course, was ordained in 1829.
He then became vice-rector, and afterwards rector, of the Irish National
College in Rome; and during the Mazzini revolution of 1848 he was rector
of the Urban College, saving the property under the protection of the
American flag. In 1849, on the strong recommendation of Archbishop John
MacHale of Tuam, Cullen was nominated as successor to the primatial see
of Armagh; and, on his return to Ireland, presided as papal delegate at
the national council of Thurles in the August of 1850. Taking a strong
line on the educational question which was then agitating Ireland, he
took a leading part in the national movement of 1850-1852, and at first
supported the Tenant Rights League. In May 1852 he was translated to
Dublin, and soon a divergence of opinion broke out between him and the
more ardent Nationalists under Archbishop MacHale. When the Irish
university was started, with Newman, appointed by Cullen, at its head,
the scheme was wrecked by the personal opposition to the archbishop of
Dublin. As time went on, his distrust of the national movement grew
deeper; and in 1853 he sternly forbade his clergy to take part publicly
in politics, and for this he was denounced by the _Tablet_ newspaper.
His own political opinion had best be told in his own words. "For thirty
years I have studied the revolution on the continent, and for nearly
thirty years I have watched the Nationalist movement in Ireland. It is
tainted at its sources with the revolutionary spirit. If any attempt is
made to abridge the rights and liberties of the Catholic Church in
Ireland, it will not be by the English government nor by a 'No Popery'
cry in England, but by the revolutionary and irreligious Nationalists of
Ireland" (Purcell's _Life of Manning_, ii. 610). Cullen, therefore,
while an ardent patriot, was consistently an opponent of Fenianism. He
was made cardinal in 1866, being the first Irish cardinal. Energetic as
an administrator, churches and schools rose throughout his diocese; and
the excellent Mater Misericordiae Hospital and the seminary at Clonlife
are lasting memorials of his zeal. He took part in the Vatican Council
as an ardent infallibilist. In 1873 he was defendant in a libel action
brought against him by the Rev. R. O'Keeffe, parish priest of Callan, on
account of two sentences of ecclesiastical censure pronounced by the
cardinal as papal delegate. The damages were laid at £10,000. Three of
the four judges allowed the defence of the cardinal to be valid; but it
was held that the papal rescript upon which he relied for his
extraordinary powers as delegate was illegal under statute; and the lord
chief justice decided that the plaintiff could not renounce his natural
and civil liberty. After several days' trial, during which Cullen was
submitted to a very close examination, the verdict was given for the
plaintiff with ¼d. damages. The cardinal died in Dublin on the 24th of
October 1878.     (E. Tn.)



CULLEN, WILLIAM (1710-1790), Scottish physician and medical teacher, was
born at Hamilton, Lanarkshire, on the 15th of April 1710. He received
his early education at the grammar-school of Hamilton, and he appears to
have subsequently attended some classes at the university of Glasgow. He
began his medical career as apprentice to John Paisley, a Glasgow
surgeon, and after completing his apprenticeship he became surgeon to a
merchant vessel trading between London and the West Indies. On his
return to Scotland in 1732 he settled as a practitioner in the parish of
Shotts, Lanarkshire, and in 1734-1736 studied medicine at Edinburgh,
where he was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society. In 1736
he began to practise in Hamilton, where he rapidly acquired a high
reputation. From 1737 to 1740 William Hunter was his resident pupil, and
at one time they proposed to enter into partnership. In 1740 Cullen took
the degree of M.D. at Glasgow, whither he removed in 1744. During his
residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice,
he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and
especially of chemistry. On coming to Glasgow he appears to have begun
to lecture in connexion with the university, the medical school of which
was as yet imperfectly organized. Besides the subjects of theory and
practice of medicine, he lectured systematically on botany, materia
medica and chemistry. His great abilities, enthusiasm and power of
conveying instruction made him a successful and highly popular teacher,
and his classes increased largely in numbers. At the same time he
diligently pursued the practice of his profession. Chemistry was the
subject which at this time seems to have engaged the greatest share of
his attention. He was himself a diligent investigator and experimenter,
and he did much to encourage original research among his pupils, one of
whom was Dr Joseph Black. In 1751 he was appointed professor of
medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was
elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew
Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was
conferred on Cullen. This chair he held for ten years--his classes
always increasing in numbers. He also practised his profession as a
physician with eminent success. From 1757 he delivered lectures on
clinical medicine in the Royal Infirmary. This was a work for which his
experience, habits of observation, and scientific training peculiarly
fitted him, and in which his popularity as a teacher, no less than his
power as a practical physician, became more than ever conspicuous. On
the death of Charles Alston in 1760, Cullen at the request of the
students undertook to finish his course of lectures on materia medica;
he delivered an entirely new course, which were published in an
unauthorized edition in 1771, but which he re-wrote and issued as _A
Treatise on Materia Medica_ in 1789.

On the death of Robert Whytt (1714-1766), the professor of the
institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time
resigning that of chemistry. In the same year he had been an
unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of the practice of physic,
but subsequently an arrangement was made between him and John Gregory,
who had gained the appointment, by which they agreed to deliver
alternate courses on the theory and practice of physic. This arrangement
proved eminently satisfactory, but it was brought to a close by the
sudden death of Gregory in 1773. Cullen was then appointed sole
professor of the practice of physic, and he continued in this office
till a few months before his death, which took place on the 5th of
February 1790.

As a lecturer Cullen appears to have stood unrivalled in his day. His
clearness of statement and power of imparting interest to the most
abstruse topics were the conspicuous features of his teaching, and in
his various capacities as a scientific lecturer, a physiologist, and a
practical physician, he was ever surrounded with large and increasing
classes of intelligent pupils, to whom his eminently suggestive mode of
instruction was specially attractive. Living at the time he did, when
the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme
extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid
structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a
doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal
results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids
and very little to that of the fluids of the body. His chief works were
_First Lines of the Practice of Physic_ (1774); _Institutions of
Medicine_ (1770); and _Synopsis Nosologicae Medicae_ (1785), which
contained his classification of diseases into four great classes--(1)
Pyrexiae, or febrile diseases, as typhus fever; (2) Neuroses, or nervous
diseases, as epilepsy; (3) Cachexiae, or diseases resulting from bad
habit of body, as scurvy; and (4) Locales, or local diseases, as cancer.

Cullen's eldest son Robert became a Scottish judge in 1796 under the
title of Lord Cullen, and was known for his powers of mimicry.

  The first volume of an account of _Cullen's Life, Lectures and
  Writings_ was published by Dr John Thomson in 1832, and was reissued
  with the second volume (completing the work) by Drs W. Thomson and D.
  Craigie in 1859.



CULLEN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland.
Pop. (1901) 1936. It is situated on Cullen Bay, 11½ m. W. by N. of Banff
and 66½ m. N.W. of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland railway.
Deskford Burn, after a course of 7½ m., enters the sea at Cullen, which
it divides into two parts, Seatown, the older, and Newtown, dating only
from 1822. St Mary's, the parish church, a cruciform structure, was
founded by Robert Bruce, whose second wife died at Cullen. The
industries include rope and sail making, boat-building, brewing and
fishing. The harbour, constructed between 1817 and 1834, though
artificial, is one of the best on this coast. About 1 m. to the S. is
Cullen House, a seat of the earl of Seafield, which contains some fine
works of art. A mile and a half to the W. is the picturesque fishing
village of Port Knockie with a deep-sea harbour, built in 1891. On the
cliffs, 2 m. to the E., stand the ruins of Findlater Castle, fortified
in 1455. From 1638 to 1811, when the title expired, it gave the title of
earl to the Ogilvies, whose name was adopted in addition to his own by
Sir Lewis Alexander Grant, when he succeeded, as 5th earl of Seafield,
to the surviving dignities. Five miles to the E. of Cullen is the
thriving fishing town of Portsoy, with a small, safe harbour and a
station on the Great North of Scotland railway. Besides the fisheries
there is fish-curing and a distillery; and the quarrying of a
pink-coloured variety of granite and of Portsoy marble is carried on.
Good limestone is also found in the district. Pop. (1901) 2061.



CULLERA, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia; on the
Mediterranean Sea, at the mouth of the river Jucar, and at the southern
terminus of the Valencia-Silla-Cullera railway. Pop. (1900) 11,947.
Cullera is a walled town, containing a ruined Moorish citadel, large
barracks, several churches and convents and a hospital. It occupies the
Jucar valley, south of the Sierra de Zorras, a low range of hills which
terminates eastward in Cape Cullera, a conspicuous headland surmounted
by a lighthouse. To the south and west extends a rich agricultural
district, noted for its rice. Besides farming and fishing, the
inhabitants carry on a coasting trade with various Mediterranean ports.
In 1903 the harbour was entered by 66 vessels of about 25,000 tons,
engaged in the exportation of grain, rice and fruit, and the importation
of guano. The town of Sueca (q.v.) is 4 m. W.N.W. by rail.



CULLINAN, a town of the Transvaal, 36 m. by rail E. by N. of Pretoria.
It grew up round the Premier diamond mine and dates from 1903, being
named after T. Cullinan, the purchaser of the ground on which the mine
is situated. Here was discovered in January 1905 a diamond--the largest
on record--weighing 3025¾ carats. This diamond was in 1907 presented by
the Transvaal government to Edward VII. and was subsequently cut into
two stones, one of 516½ carats, the other of 309 carats, intended to
ornament the sceptre and crown of England. The "chippings" yielded
several smaller diamonds (see DIAMOND).



CULLODEN, a desolate tract of moorland, Inverness-shire, Scotland. It
forms part of the north-east of Drummossie Muir, and is situated about 6
m. by road E. of Inverness, and ½ m. from Culloden Muir station on the
Highland railway from Aviemore to Inverness via Daviot. It is celebrated
as the scene of the battle of the 16th of April 1746 (see CUMBERLAND,
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, DUKE OF, and MURRAY, LORD GEORGE), by which the fate
of the house of Stuart was decided. By Highlanders the battle is more
generally described as the battle of Drummossie. Memorial stones bearing
the names of the clans engaged in the conflict were erected in 1881 at
the head of each trench where the clansmen--about 1000 in number--were
buried. A monumental cairn, 20 ft. high, marks the chief scene of the
fight, and the Cumberland Stone, a huge boulder, indicates the spot
where the English commander took up his position. A mile to the north is
Culloden House, which belonged to Duncan Forbes, the president of the
Court of Session. The _Culloden Papers_, a number of historical
documents ranging from 1625 to 1748, were discovered in this mansion in
1812 and published in 1815 by Duncan George Forbes. On the death of the
10th laird, the collection of Jacobite relics and works of art was sold
by auction in 1897. About 1 m. to the south of the field, on the right
bank of the Nairn, is the plain of Clava, containing several stone
circles, monoliths, cairns and other prehistoric remains. The circles,
some apparently never completed, vary in circumference from 12 yds. to
140 yds.



CULM, in geology, the name applied to a peculiar local phase of the
Carboniferous system. In 1837 A. Sedgwick and R. I. Murchison classified
into two divisions the dark shales, grits and impure limestones which
occupy a large area in Devonshire and extend into the neighbouring
counties of Somerset and Cornwall. These two divisions were the Upper
and Lower Culm Measures, so named from certain impure coals, locally
called "culm,"[1] contained within the shales near Bideford.
Subsequently, these two geologists, when prosecuting their researches in
Germany and Austria, applied the same name to similar rocks which
contained, amongst others, _Posidonomya Becheri_, common to the phase of
sedimentation in both areas.

The Culm measures of the Devonshire district are folded into a broad
syncline with its axis running east and west; but within this major fold
the rocks have been subjected to much compression accompanied by minor
folding. This circumstance, together with the apparent barrenness of the
strata, has always made a correct interpretation of their position and
relationships a matter of difficulty; and for long they were regarded as
an abnormal expression of the Lower Carboniferous, with the uppermost
beds as doubtful equivalents of the Millstone Grit of other parts of
Britain. The labours of W. A. E. Ussher and of G. J. Hinde and H. Fox
have resulted in the differentiation of the following subdivisions in
the Devonshire Culm:--(1) _Upper Culm Measures_ or Eggesford grits; (2)
_Middle Culm Measures_, comprising the Morchard, Tiverton and Ugbrooke
lithological types overlying the Exeter type; (3) _Lower Culm_, the
_Posidonomya_ limestone and shale overlying the Coddon Hill beds with
radiolaria. Ussher's subdivisions were introduced to satisfy the
exigencies of geological mapping, but, as he pointed out, while they are
necessary in some parts of the district and convenient in others, the
lithological characters upon which they are founded are variable and
inconstant. More recently E. A. N. Arber (1904-1907) clearly
demonstrated that no palaeontological subdivision of the Upper Culm
(Middle and Upper) is possible, and that these strata, on the evidence
of the fossil plants, represent the Middle Coal Measures of other parts
of the country. Wheelton Hind has called attention to the probability
that the _Posidonomya_ limestone and shale may represent the Pendleside
group of Lancashire, Derbyshire, &c. The Coddon Hill beds may belong to
this or to a lower horizon. Thus the English Culm measures comprise an
Upper Carboniferous and a Lower Carboniferous group, while in Germany,
Austria and elsewhere, as it is important to bear in mind, the Culm, or
"Kulm," stage is shown by its contained fossils to belong to the lower
division alone.

The typical Carboniferous limestone of the Franco-Belgian area changes
as it is traced towards the east and south into the sandy, shaly Culm
phase, with the characteristic "Posidonia" (_Posidonomya_) schists. This
aspect of the Culm is found in Saxony, where there are workable coals,
in Bohemia, Thuringia, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz, where the beds are
traversed by mineral veins, and in Moravia and Silesia. In the
last-mentioned region the thickness of the Culm formation has been
estimated by D. Stur at over 45,000 ft. In the east and south of the
Schiefergebirge (a general term for the slaty mountains of the Hundsrück
and Taunus range, the Westerwald and part of the Eifel district), the
Culm shales pass upwards into a coarser deposit, the "Culm-grauwacke,"
which attains a considerable thickness and superficial extent. Culm
fossils appear in the Carnic Alps, in the Balkans and parts of Spain,
also in Spitzbergen and part of New Guinea.

The most characteristic fossil is of course _Posidonomya Becheri_;
others are _Glyphioceras sphaericum_, _Rhodea patentissima_,
_Asterocalamites scrobiculatus_ (Schloth), _Lepidodendron
veltheimianum_, _Gastrioceras carbonarium_.

  See E. A. N. Arber, "On the Upper Carboniferous Rocks of West Devon
  and North Cornwall," _Q.J.G.S._ lxiii. (1907), which contains a
  bibliography of the English Culm; E. Holzapfel, _Paläont. Abhandl._
  Bd. v. Heft i. (1889); H. Potonié, _Abhandl. preuss. geol.
  Landesanst._, Neue Folge, 36 (1901); D. Stur, "Die Culm Flora,"
  _Abhandl. k.k. geol. Reichsanst._ viii. (Vienna, 1875).
       (J. A. H.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This word is possibly connected with _col_, coal; distinguish
    "culm," the stem of a plant, Lat. _culmus_.



CULMINATION (from Lat. _culmen_, summit), the attainment of the highest
point. In astronomy the term is given to the passage of a heavenly body
over the meridian of a place. Two culminations take place in the course
of the day, one above and the other below the pole. The first is called
the upper, the second the lower. Either or both may occur below the
horizon and therefore be invisible.



CULPRIT, properly the prisoner at the bar, one accused of a crime; so
used, generally, of one guilty of an offence. In origin the word is a
combination of two Anglo-French legal words, _culpable_, guilty, and
_prit_ or _prist_, i.e. prest, Old French for prêt, ready. On the
prisoner at the bar pleading "not guilty," the clerk of the crown
answered "culpable," and stated that he was ready (_prest_) to join
issue. The words _cul. prist_ (or _prit_) were then entered on the roll
as showing that issue had been joined. When French law terms were
discontinued the words were taken as forming one word addressed to the
prisoner. The formula "Culprit, how will you be tried?" in answer to a
plea of "not guilty," is first found in the trial for murder of the 7th
earl of Pembroke in 1678.



CULROSS (locally pronounced _Coo-rus_), a royal and police burgh,
Fifeshire, Scotland, 6½ m. W. by S. of Dunfermline and 2½ m. from East
Grange station on the North British railway company's line from
Dunfermline to Stirling. Pop. 348. Until 1890 it belonged to the
detached portion of Perthshire. Attractively situated on a hillside
sloping gently to the Forth, its placid old-world aspect is in keeping
with its great antiquity. Here St Serf carried on his missionary
labours, and founded a church and cemetery, and here he died and was
buried. For centuries the townsfolk used to celebrate his day (July 1st)
by walking in procession bearing green boughs. Kentigern, the apostle to
Cumbria and first bishop of Glasgow, was born at Culross, his mother
having been driven ashore during a tempest, and was adopted by St Serf
as his son. These religious associations, coupled with the fertility of
the soil, led to the founding of a Cistercian abbey in 1217. Of this
structure the only remains are the western tower and the choir, which,
greatly altered as well as repaired early in the 19th century, now forms
the parish church. It is supposed that a chapel of which some traces
exist in the east end of the town was dedicated to Kentigern. James VI.
made Culross a royal burgh in 1588. In 1808 there was discovered in the
abbey church, embalmed in a silver casket, still preserved there,
bearing his name and arms, the heart of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss,
who was killed in August 1613 near Bergen-op-Zoom in a duel with Sir
Edward Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset. Robert Pont (1524-1606),
the Reformer, was born at Shirresmiln, or Shiresmill, a hamlet in
Culross parish. Nearly all its old industries--the coal mines, salt
works, linen manufacture, and even the making of iron girdles for the
baking of scones--have dwindled, but its pleasant climate and
picturesqueness make it a holiday resort. Dunimarle Castle, a handsome
structure on the sea-shore, adjoins the site of the castle where,
according to tradition, Macbeth slew the wife and children of Macduff.
Culross belongs to the Stirling district group of parliamentary burghs.



CULTIVATOR,[1] also called SCUFFLER, SCARIFIER or GRUBBER, an
agricultural implement employed in breaking up land or in stirring it
after ploughing. The first all-iron cultivator, known as Finlayson's
grubber, was a large harrow with curved teeth carried on wheels, and was
brought out about 1820. It was designed to meet the need for some
implement of intermediate character between the plough and harrow, which
should stir the soil deeply and expeditiously without reversing it, and
bring the weeds unbroken to the surface. The chief modern improvement
has been the imparting of vibratory movement and hence greater stirring
capacity to the tines, either by making them of spring steel or by
fitting springs to the point of attachment of the tine to the framework
of the machine. In its modern form the implement consists of a framework
fitted with rows of curved stems or tines, which may be raised clear of
the ground or lowered into work by means of a lever, and differs from
the harrow in that it is provided with two wheels, which prevent the
tines from embedding themselves too deeply in the soil. The stems may be
fitted either with chisel-points or with broad shares, according as it
is required to merely stir the soil or to bring up weeds and clean the
surface. In the disk cultivator revolving disks take the place of tines.
The implement is usually provided with a seat for the driver and is
drawn by horses, but steam power is also commonly applied to it, the
speed of the operation in that case increasing its effectiveness. The
method is the same as that of steam-ploughing (see PLOUGH).

[Illustration: Ransome's Spring Tine Cultivator.]


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] From Late Lat. _cultivare_, through _cultivus_, from _colere_, to
    till, cultivate; whence _cultus_, worship, form of religion, cult.



CUMAE (Gr. [Greek: Kymê]), an ancient city of Campania, Italy, about 12
m. W. of Neapolis, on the W. coast of Campania, on a volcanic eminence,
overlooking the plain traversed by the Volturno.

There are many legends as to its foundation, but even the actual period
of its colonization by the Greeks is so early (ancient authorities give
it as 1050 B.C.) that there is some doubt as to who established it,
whether Chalcidians from Euboea or Aeolians from [Greek: Kymê] (Cyme),
and it should probably be regarded as a joint settlement. It was
certainly, as Strabo says, the oldest of the Greek colonies on the
mainland of Italy or in Sicily. Livy tells us (viii. 22) that the
settlers first landed on Pithecusae (Ischia) and thence transferred
their position to the mainland, which seems a probable story. We find it
in 721 B.C. founding Zancle (Messina) in Sicily jointly with Chalcis,
and it extended its power gradually over the coast of the Gulf of
Puteoli and the harbours of the promontory of Misenum. Puteoli itself
under the name Dicaearchia was probably founded by Cumae. In the 7th
century, according to the legends, Parthenope, whither the demos of
Cumae had taken refuge after an unsuccessful rising against the
aristocracy, was attacked by the latter and destroyed, but soon rebuilt
under the name of Neapolis (New City, the present Naples).[1] The most
fertile portion of the Campanian plain was also under its dominion; the
name "fossa Graeca" still lingered on in 205 B.C. to testify to its
ancient limits. Cumae was now at the height of its power, and many fine
coins testify to its prosperity. In 524 B.C. it was the object of a
joint attack by the Etruscans of Capua, the Daunians of the district of
Nola, and the Aurunci of the Mons Massicus. A brilliant victory was,
however, won in the hilly district outside the town, largely owing to
the bravery of Aristodemus, who then led a force to the relief of
Aricia, which was being attacked by the Etruscans, and, returning at the
head of his victorious army, overturned the aristocracy and made himself
tyrant, but was ultimately murdered by the aristocrats. These were
unable to repel a renewed Etruscan attack without the help of Hiero of
Syracuse, who in the battle of Cumae of 474 B.C. drove the Etruscan
fleet from the sea, and broke their power in Campania.

The Samnites finally destroyed the Etruscan supremacy by the capture of
Capua in the latter half of the 5th century (see CAPUA; CAMPANIA), and
the Greeks of Cumae were overwhelmed by the same invasion, either in 420
B.C. (Livy iv. 44) or in 421 (Diodor. Sic. xii. 76), if his statement is
drawn from Greek sources, 428 if it is to be dated by the Roman consuls
to whose year he ascribes it. This catastrophe brought to an end the
beautiful series of Greek coins from the town (B. V. Head, _Historia
Numorum_, p. 31), and Oscan became its language, though in many respects
the Greek character of the town survived (Strabo v. 4. 3, and the other
references given by R. S. Conway, Italic _Dialects_, p. 84). One or two
inscriptions in Oscan survive (id. ib. 88-92), one of which is a Iovila
or heraldic dedication. The date of the general disuse of Oscan in the
town appears to be fixed about 180 B.C. by the request (Livy xl. 44)
which the Cumaeans addressed to Rome that they might be allowed to use
Latin for public purposes. Cumae now ceased to have any independent
history. It came under the supremacy of Rome in 343 (or 340) as Capua
did, obtained the _civitas sine suffragio_ and was governed after 318 by
the _praefecti Capuam Cumas_.     (R. S. C.)

In the Hannibalic wars it remained faithful to Rome. It probably
acquired civic rights in the Social War and remained a _municipium_
until Augustus established a colony here. Under the empire it is spoken
of as a quiet country town, in contrast to the gay and fashionable
Baiae, which, however, with the _lacus Avernus_ and _lacus Lucrinus_,
formed a part of its territory. Cicero's villa on the east bank of the
latter, for example, which he called the Academia, was also known as
Cumanum. In the Gothic wars the acropolis of Cumae was, except Naples,
the only fortified town in Campania, and it retained its military
importance until it was destroyed by the Neapolitans in 1205, since,
which time it has been deserted.

The acropolis hill (269 ft. above sea-level), a mass of trachyte which
has broken through the surrounding tufa, lies hardly 100 yds. from the
low sandy shore. It is traversed by caves, which are at three different
levels with many branches. Some of them may belong to a remote date,
while others may be quarries, but they have not been thoroughly
investigated. They are famous in legend as the seat of the oracle of the
Cumaean Sibyl.

The acropolis has only one approach, on the south-east; on all other
sides it falls away steeply. Remains of fortifications of all ages run
round the edge of the hill; some of the original Greek work, in finely
hewn rectangular tufa blocks, exists on the east. The medieval line
follows the ancient, except on the N.E., where it takes in a larger
area.

Within the acropolis stood the temple of Apollo, erected, according to
tradition, by Daedalus himself, the remains of which, restored in Roman
times, were discovered in 1817, on the eastern and lower summit. On the
higher western summit stood another temple, excavated in 1792, but now
covered up again. This may be that of the Olympian Zeus (Liv. xxvii.
23).

There are also various remains of buildings of the imperial period, and
these are far more frequent on the site of the lower town (now occupied
by vineyards) which lies below the acropolis to the south. The line of
the city walls can be traced both on the E. and on the W., though the
remains on the E. are insignificant, and on the W. (the seaward side)
only the scarping of the hill remains. To the S. of the town, just
outside the wall, is the amphitheatre. To the N. of it is the point
where the roads from Liternum (the Via Domitiana running along the sandy
coast), Capua (a branch of the Via Campana), Misenum and Puteoli meet.
The last passes through the Arco Felice, an arch of brick-faced concrete
63 ft. high which spans a cutting through the Monte Grillo, made by
Domitian to shorten the course of the road, which had hitherto run
farther north. The Grotto della Pace leads to the shores of Avernus. On
the E. side of Cumae are considerable remains of the Roman period, among
them those of the temple of Demeter, as restored by the family of the
Lucceii.

The cemeteries of Cumae extended on all sides of the ancient city,
except towards the sea, but the most important lay on the north, between
this temple and the Lago di Licola. Excavations during the 19th century
in Greek, Samnite and Roman graves have produced many important objects,
now in the various museums of Europe, but especially at Naples. Recent
discoveries in this necropolis (including that of a circular archaic
tomb with a conical roof) have led to considerable discussion as to the
true date of the foundation of Cumae, and have made it clear that, in
any case, a pre-Hellenic indigenous settlement existed here--a result of
great importance.

  See J. Beloch, _Campanien_ (Breslau, 1890), 145 seq.; G. Pellegrini,
  _Monumenti dei Lincei_, xiii. (1903); G. Patroni, _Atti del Congresso
  di Scienze Storiche_ (1904), vol. v. p. 215 seq.     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Mommsen, however (Corpus Inscrip. Latin. x., Berlin, 1883, p.
    170), rightly throws considerable doubt on the existence of
    Parthenope and even of Palaeopolis, of which there is some mention in
    Roman annals; under both he is inclined to trace Cumae itself.



CUMANÁ, a city and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez,
situated on the Manzanares river about 1 m. above its mouth, 52 ft.
above sea-level and 180 m. E. of Caracas. It is the oldest existing
European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded
by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo. The city was
almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1766, and again in 1797.
Slight shocks are very frequent, some of them severe enough to cause
considerable damage to the buildings. The mean annual temperature is 83°
F. and the climate is enervating. In colonial times the city was rich
and prosperous and enjoyed a lucrative trade with the mother country,
its population at that time being estimated at 30,000, but much of its
prosperity has disappeared and its population is now estimated at
10,000. Excellent fruits are produced in its vicinity, and its exports
include cacáo, coffee, sugar, hides, tobacco and sundry products in
small quantities. A tramway connects the city with its port at the mouth
of the Manzanares.



CUMBERLAND, DUKES AND EARLS OF. The earldom of Cumberland was held by
the family of Clifford (q.v.) from 1525 to 1643, when it became extinct
by the death of Henry, the 5th earl. The 1st earl of Cumberland was
Henry, 11th Lord Clifford (1493-1542), a son of Henry, 10th Lord
Clifford (c. 1454-1523). Created an earl by Henry VIII. in 1525, Henry
remained loyal during the great rising in the north of England in 1536,
and died on the 22nd of April 1542. His son and successor, Henry, the
2nd earl (c. 1517-1570), married Eleanor (d. 1547), a daughter of
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and Mary, daughter of King Henry VII.;
he had the tastes of a scholar rather than a soldier, and died early in
1570. By his first wife, Eleanor, he left an only daughter Margaret
(1540-1596), who married Henry Stanley, 4th earl of Derby, and who in
1557 was regarded by many as the rightful heiress to the English throne.
By his second wife he left two sons and a daughter; his elder son George
succeeding to the earldom in 1570, and his younger son Francis
succeeding his brother in 1605. George, 3rd earl of Cumberland
(1558-1605), was born on the 8th of August 1558, and married Margaret
(c. 1560-1616), daughter of his guardian, Francis, 2nd earl of Bedford.
Although interested in mathematics and geography he passed his early
years in dissipation and extravagance; then he took to the sea,
commanded the "Bonaventure" against the Spanish Armada, and from this
time until his death on the 30th of October 1605 was mainly engaged in
fitting out and leading plundering expeditions, some of which,
especially the one undertaken in 1589, gained a large amount of booty.
The earl left no sons, and his barony was claimed by his only daughter
Anne (1590-1676), the wife successively of Richard Sackville, 3rd earl
of Dorset, and of Philip Herbert, 4th earl of Pembroke and Montgomery;
while his earldom was inherited by his brother Francis (1559-1641). A
long law-suit between the new earl and the countess Anne over the
possession of the family estates was settled in 1617. The 5th earl was
Francis's only son Henry (1591-1643), who was born on the 28th of
February 1591, and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a
supporter of Charles I. during his two short wars with the Scots, and
also during the Civil War until his death on the 11th of December 1643.
He left no sons; his earldom became extinct; his new barony of Clifford,
created in 1628, passed to his daughter Elizabeth (1618-1691), wife of
Richard Boyle, earl of Cork and Burlington; and the Cumberland estates
to his cousin Anne, countess of Dorset and Pembroke.

In 1644 the English title of duke of Cumberland was created in favour of
Rupert, son of Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, and nephew
of Charles I. Having lapsed on Rupert's death without legitimate issue
in 1682, it was created again in 1689 to give an English title to
George, prince of Denmark, who had married the lady who afterwards
became Queen Anne. It again became extinct when George died in 1708, but
was revived in 1726 in favour of William Augustus, third son of George
II. As this duke was never married the title lapsed on his death in
1765, but was revived in the following year in favour of Henry Frederick
(1745-1790), son of Frederick, prince of Wales, and brother of George
III. Having again become extinct on Henry Frederick's death, the title
of duke of Cumberland was created for the fifth time in favour of Ernest
Augustus, who was made duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in 1799. In
1837 Ernest (q.v.) became king of Hanover, and on his death in 1851 the
title descended with the kingdom of Hanover to his son King George V.
(q.v.), and on George's death in 1878 to his grandson Ernest Augustus
(b. 1845). In 1866 Hanover was annexed by Prussia, but King George died
without renouncing his rights. His son Ernest, while maintaining his
claim to the kingdom of Hanover, is generally known by his title of duke
of Cumberland.



CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (1632-1718), English philosopher and bishop of
Peterborough, the son of a citizen of London, was born in the parish of
St Ann, near Aldersgate. He was educated in St Paul's school, and at
Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship. He took
the degree of B.A. in 1653; and, having proceeded M.A. in 1656, was next
year incorporated to the same degree in the university of Oxford. For
some time he studied medicine; and although he did not adhere to this
profession, he retained his knowledge of anatomy and medicine. He took
the degree of B.D. in 1663 and that of D.D. in 1680. Among his
contemporaries and intimate friends were Dr Hezekiah Burton, Sir Samuel
Morland, who was distinguished as a mathematician, Sir Orlando
Bridgeman, who became keeper of the great seal, and Samuel Pepys. To
this academical connexion he appears to have been in a great measure
indebted for his advancement in the Church. When Bridgeman was appointed
lord keeper, he nominated Cumberland and Burton as his chaplains, nor
did he afterwards neglect the interest of either. Cumberland's first
preferment, bestowed upon him in 1658 by Sir John Norwich, was the
rectory of Brampton in Northamptonshire. In 1661 he was appointed one of
the twelve preachers of the university. The lord keeper, who obtained
his office in 1667, invited him to London, and soon afterwards bestowed
upon him the rectory of Allhallows at Stamford, where he acquired new
credit by the fidelity with which he discharged his duties. In addition
to his ordinary work he undertook the weekly lecture. This labour he
constantly performed, and in the meantime found leisure to prosecute his
scientific and philological studies.

At the age of forty he published his earliest work, entitled _De legibus
naturae disquisitio philosophica, in qua earum forma, summa capita,
ordo, promulgatio, el obligatio e rerum natura investigantur; quin etiam
elementa philosophiae Hobbianae, cum moralis tum civilis, considerantur
et refutantur_ (London, 1672). It is dedicated to Sir Orlando Bridgeman,
and is prefaced by an "Alloquium ad Lectorem," contributed by Dr Burton.
It appeared during the same year as Pufendorf's _De jure naturae et
gentium_, and was highly commended in a subsequent publication by
Pufendorf, whose approbation must have had the effect of making it known
on the continent. Having thus established a solid reputation, Cumberland
next prepared a work on a very different subject--_An Essay towards the
Recovery of the Jewish Measures and Weights, comprehending their Monies;
by help of ancient standards, compared with ours of England: useful also
to state many of those of the Greeks and Romans, and the Eastern
Nations_ (London, 1686). This work, dedicated to Pepys, obtained a
copious notice from Leclerc, and was translated into French.

About this period he was depressed by apprehensions respecting the
growth of Popery; but his fears were dispelled by the Revolution, which
brought along with it another material change in his circumstances. One
day in 1691 he went, according to his custom on a post-day, to read the
newspaper at a coffee-house in Stamford, and there, to his surprise, he
read that the king had nominated him to the bishopric of Peterborough.
The bishop elect was scarcely known at court, and he had resorted to
none of the usual methods of advancing his temporal interest.

  "Being then sixty years old," says his great-grandson, "he was with
  difficulty persuaded to accept the offer, when it came to him from
  authority. The persuasion of his friends, particularly Sir Orlando
  Bridgeman, at length overcame his repugnance; and to that see, though
  very moderately endowed, he for ever after devoted himself, and
  resisted every offer of translation, though repeatedly made and
  earnestly recommended. To such of his friends as pressed an exchange
  upon him he was accustomed to reply, that Peterborough was his first
  espoused, and should be his only one."

He discharged his new duties with energy and kept up his episcopal
visitations till his eightieth year. His charges to the clergy are
described as plain and unambitious, the earnest breathings of a pious
mind. When Dr Wilkins (David Wilke) published the New Testament in
Coptic he presented a copy to the bishop, who began to study the
language at the age of eighty-three. "At this age," says his chaplain,
"he mastered the language, and went through great part of this version,
and would often give me excellent hints and remarks, as he proceeded in
reading of it." He died in 1718, in the eighty-seventh year of his age;
he was found sitting in his library, in the attitude of one asleep, and
with a book in his hand.[1] His great-grandson was Richard Cumberland,
the dramatist.

Bishop Cumberland was distinguished by his gentleness and humility. He
could not be roused to anger, and spent his days in unbroken serenity.
The basis of his ethical theory is Benevolence, and is the natural
outcome of his temperament. He was a man of a sound understanding,
improved by extensive learning, and left behind him several monuments of
his talents and industry. His favourite motto was that a man had better
"wear out than rust out."

The philosophy of Cumberland is expounded in the treatise _De legibus
naturae_. The merits of the work are almost confined to its speculative
theories; its style is destitute of strength and grace, and its
reasoning is diffuse and unmethodical. Its main design is to combat the
principles which Hobbes had promulgated as to the constitution of man,
the nature of morality, and the origin of society, and to prove that
self-advantage is not the chief end of man, that force is not the source
of personal obligation to moral conduct nor the foundation of social
rights, and that the state of nature is not a state of war. The views of
Hobbes seem to Cumberland utterly subversive of religion, morality and
civil society, and he endeavours, as a rule, to establish directly
antagonistic propositions. He refrains, however, from denunciation, and
is a fair opponent up to the measure of his insight.

Laws of nature are defined by him as "immutably true propositions
regulative of voluntary actions as to the choice of good and the
avoidance of evil, and which carry with them an obligation to outward
acts of obedience, even apart from civil laws and from any
considerations of compacts constituting government." This definition, he
says, will be admitted by all parties. Some deny that such laws exist,
but they will grant that this is what ought to be understood by them.
There is thus common ground for the two opposing schools of moralists to
join issue. The question between them is, Do such laws exist or do they
not? In reasoning thus Cumberland obviously forgot what the position
maintained by his principal antagonist really was. Hobbes must have
refused to accept the definition proposed. He did not deny that there
were laws of nature, laws antecedent to government, laws even in a sense
eternal and immutable. The virtues as means to happiness seemed to him
to be such laws. They precede civil constitution, which merely perfects
the obligation to practise them. He expressly denied, however, that
"they carry with them an obligation to outward acts of obedience, even
apart from civil laws and from any consideration of compacts
constituting governments." And many besides Hobbes must have felt
dissatisfied with the definition. It is ambiguous and obscure. In what
sense is a law of nature a "proposition"? Is it as the expression of a
constant relation among facts, or is it as the expression of a divine
commandment? A proposition is never in itself an ultimate fact although
it may be the statement of such a fact. And in what sense is a law of
nature an "immutably true" proposition? Is it so because men always and
everywhere accept and act on it, or merely because they always and
everywhere ought to accept and act on it? The definition, in fact,
explains nothing.

The existence of such laws may, according to Cumberland, be established
in two ways. The inquirer may start either from effects or from causes.
The former method had been taken by Grotius, Robert Sharrock (1630-1684)
and John Selden. They had sought to prove that there were universal
truths, entitled to be called laws of nature, from the concurrence of
the testimonies of many men, peoples and ages, and through generalizing
the operations of certain active principles. Cumberland admits this
method to be valid, but he prefers the other, that from causes to
effects, as showing more convincingly that the laws of nature carry with
them a divine obligation. It shows not only that these laws are
universal, but that they were intended as such; that man has been
constituted as he is in order that they might be. In the prosecution of
this method he expressly declines to have recourse to what he calls "the
short and easy expedient of the Platonists," the assumption of innate
ideas of the laws of nature. He thinks it ill-advised to build the
doctrines of natural religion and morality on a hypothesis which many
philosophers, both Gentile and Christian, had rejected, and which could
not be proved against Epicureans, the principal impugners of the
existence of laws of nature. He cannot assume, he says, that such ideas
existed from eternity in the divine mind, but must start from the data
of sense and experience, and thence by search into the nature of things
discover their laws. It is only through nature that we can rise to
nature's God. His attributes are not to be known by direct intuition.
He, therefore, held that the ground taken up by the Cambridge Platonists
could not be maintained against Hobbes. His sympathies, however, were
all on their side, and he would do nothing to diminish their chances of
success. He would not even oppose the doctrine of innate ideas, because
it looked with a friendly eye upon piety and morality. He granted that
it might, perhaps, be the case that ideas were _both_ born with us and
afterwards impressed upon us from without.

Cumberland's ethical theory (see ETHICS) is summed up in his principle
of universal Benevolence, the one source of moral good. "No action can
be morally good which does not in its own nature contribute somewhat to
the happiness of men." The theory is important in comparison (1) with
that of Hobbes, and (2) with modern utilitarianism.

1. Cumberland's Benevolence is, deliberately, the precise antithesis to
the Egoism of Hobbes. To this fact it owes its existence and also its
extravagance. Feeling that the most forcible method of attacking Hobbes
was to assert the opposite in the same form, he maintained that the
whole-hearted pursuit of the good of all contributes to the good of each
and brings personal happiness; that the opposite process involves misery
to individuals including the self. If, then, Hobbes went to the one
extreme of postulating selfishness as the sole motive of human action,
Cumberland was equally extravagant as regards Benevolence. The testimony
of history shows, _prima facie_ at least, that both motives have
operated throughout, and just as self-interest has been increasingly
modified by conscious benevolence, so benevolence alone does not explain
all personal virtue nor love to God. But it is essential to notice that
Cumberland never appealed to the evidence of history, although he
believed that the law of universal benevolence had been accepted by all
nations and generations; and he carefully abstains from arguments
founded on revelation, feeling that it was indispensable to establish
the principles of moral right on nature as a basis. His method was the
deduction of the propriety of certain actions from the consideration of
the character and position of rational agents in the universe. He argues
that all that we see in nature is framed so as to avoid and reject what
is dangerous to the integrity of its constitution; that the human race
would be an anomaly in the world had it not for end its conservation in
its best estate; that benevolence of all to all is what in a rational
view of the creation is alone accordant with its general plan; that
various peculiarities of man's body indicate that he has been made to
co-operate with his fellow men and to maintain society; and that certain
faculties of his mind show the common good to be more essentially
connected with his perfection than any pursuit of private advantage. The
whole course of his reasoning proceeds on, and is pervaded by, the
principle of final causes.

2. To the question, What is the foundation of rectitude?, he replies,
the greatest good of the universe of rational beings. He may be regarded
as the founder of English utilitarianism, but his utilitarianism is
distinct from what is known as the selfish system; it goes to the
contrary extreme, by almost absorbing individual in universal good. Nor
does it look merely to the lower pleasures, the pleasures of sense, for
the constituents of good, but rises above them to include especially
what tends to perfect, strengthen and expand our true nature. Existence
and the extension of our powers of body and mind are held to be good for
their own sakes without respect to enjoyment. Cumberland's views on this
point were long abandoned by utilitarians as destroying the homogeneity
and self-consistency of their theory; but J. S. Mill and some recent
writers have reproduced them as necessary to its defence against charges
not less serious than even inconsistency.

The answer which Cumberland gives to the question, Whence comes our
obligation to observe the laws of nature?, is that happiness flows from
obedience, and misery from disobedience to them, not as the mere results
of a blind necessity, but as the expressions of the divine will. Reward
and punishment, supplemented by future retribution, are, in his view,
the sanctions of the laws of nature, the sources of our obligation to
obey them. To the other great ethical question, How are moral
distinctions apprehended?, he replies that it is by means of right
reason. But by right reason he means merely the power of rising to
general laws of nature from particular facts of experience. It is no
peculiar faculty or distinctive function of mind; it involves no
original element of cognition; it begins with sense and experience; it
is gradually generated and wholly derivative. This doctrine lies only in
germ in Cumberland, but will be found in full flower in Hartley,
Mackintosh and later associationists.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Editions of the _De legibus naturae_ (Lübeck, 1683 and
  1694); English versions by John Maxwell, prebendary of Connor, _A
  Treatise of the Laws of Nature_ (London, 1727), and John Towers
  (Dublin, 1750); French translation by Jean Barbeyrac (Amsterdam,
  1744); James Tyrrell (1642-1718), grandson of Archbishop Ussher,
  published an abridgment of Cumberland's views in _A Brief Disquisition
  of the Laws of Nature according to the Principles laid down in the
  Rev. Dr Cumberland's Latin Treatise_ (London, 1692; ed. 1701). For
  biographical details see Squier Payne, _Account of the Life and
  Writings of R. Cumberland_ (London, 1720); Cumberland's _Memoirs_
  (1807), i. 3-6; Pepys's _Diary_. For his philosophy, see E. Albee,
  _Philosophical Review_, iv. 3 (1895), pp. 264 and 371; F. E.
  Spaulding, _R. Cumberland als Begründer der englischen Ethik_
  (Leipzig, 1894); and text-books on ethics.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The care of his posthumous publications devolved upon his
    domestic chaplain and son-in-law, Squier Payne, who soon after the
    bishop's death edited "_Sanchoniato's Phoenician History_, translated
    from the first book of Eusebius, _De praeparatione evangelica_: with
    a continuation of Sanchoniato's history of Eratosthenes Cyrenaeus's
    Canon, which Dicaearchus connects with the first Olympiad. These
    authors are illustrated with many historical and chronological
    remarks, proving them to contain a series of Phoenician and Egyptian
    chronology, from the first man to the first Olympiad, agreeable to
    the Scripture accounts" (London, 1720). The preface contains an
    account of the life, character and writings of the author, which was
    likewise published in a separate form, and exhibits a pleasing
    picture of his happy old age. A German translation appeared under the
    title of _Cumberlands phönizische Historie des Sanchoniathons,
    übersetzt von Joh. Phil. Cassel_ (Magdeburg, 1755). The sequel to the
    work was likewise published by Payne--_Origines gentium
    antiquissimae; or Attempts for discovering the Times of the First
    Planting of Nations: in several Tracts_ (London, 1724).



CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (1732-1811), English dramatist, was born in the
master's lodge of Trinity College, Cambridge, on the 19th of February
1732. He was the great-grandson of the bishop of Peterborough; and his
father, Dr Denison Cumberland, became successively bishop of Clonfert
and of Kilmore. His mother was Joanna, the youngest daughter of the
great scholar Richard Bentley, and the heroine of John Byrom's once
popular little eclogue, _Colin and Phoebe_. Of the great master of
Trinity his grandson has left a kindly account; he afterwards collected
all the pamphlets bearing on the _Letters of Phalaris_ controversy, and
piously defended the reputation of his ancestor in his _Letter_ to
Bishop Lowth, who had called Bentley "aut caprimulgus aut fossor."
Cumberland was in his seventh year sent to the grammar-school at Bury St
Edmunds, and he relates how, on the head-master Arthur Kinsman
undertaking, in conversation with Bentley, to make the grandson as good
a scholar as the grandfather himself, the latter retorted: "Pshaw,
Arthur, how can that be, when I have forgot more than thou ever
knewest?" Bentley died during his grandson's Bury schooldays; and in
1744 the boy, who, while rising to the head of his school, had already
begun to "try his strength in several slight attempts towards the
drama," was removed to Westminster, then at the height of its reputation
under Dr Nicholls. Among his schoolfellows here were Warren Hastings,
George Colman (the elder), Lloyd, and (though he does not mention them
as such) Churchill and Cowper. From Westminster Cumberland passed, in
his fourteenth year, to Trinity College, Cambridge, where in 1750 he
took his degree as tenth wrangler. His account of his degree
examination, as well as that for a fellowship at his college, part of
which he underwent in the "judges' chamber," where he was born, is
curious; he was by virtue of an alteration in the statutes elected to
his fellowship in the second year of his degree.

Meanwhile his projects of work as a classical scholar had been
interspersed with attempts at imitating Spenser--whom, by his mother's
advice, he "laid upon the shelf"--and a dramatic effort (unprinted) on
the model of Mason's _Elfrida_, called _Caractacus_. He had just begun
to read for his fellowship, when he was offered the post of private
secretary by the earl of Halifax, first lord of trade and plantations in
the duke of Newcastle's ministry. His family persuaded him to accept the
office, to which he returned after his election as fellow. It left him
abundant leisure for literary pursuits, which included the design of a
poem in blank verse on India. He resigned his Trinity fellowship on his
marriage--in 1759--to his cousin Elizabeth Ridge, to whom he had paid
his addresses on receiving through Lord Halifax "a small establishment
as crown-agent for Nova Scotia." In 1761 he accompanied his patron (who
had been appointed lord-lieutenant) to Ireland as Ulster secretary; and
in acknowledgment of his services was afterwards offered a baronetcy. By
declining this he thinks he gave offence; at all events, when in 1762
Halifax became secretary of state, Cumberland in vain applied for the
post of under-secretary, and could only obtain the clerkship of reports
at the Board of Trade under Lord Hillsborough. While he takes some
credit to himself for his incorruptibility when in Ireland, he showed
zeal for his friend and secured a bishopric for his father. On the
accession to office of Lord George Germaine (Sackville) in 1775,
Cumberland was appointed secretary to the Board of Trade and
Plantations, which post he held till the abolition of that board in 1782
by Burke's economical reform. Before this event he had, in 1780, been
sent on a confidential mission to Spain, to negotiate a separate treaty
of peace with that power; but though he was well received by King
Charles III. and his minister Floridablanca, the question of Gibraltar
proved a stumbling-block, and the Gordon riots at home a most untoward
occurrence. He was recalled in 1781, and was refused repayment of the
expenses he had incurred, towards which only £1000 had been advanced to
him. He thus found himself £4500 out of pocket: in vain, he says, "I
wearied the door of Lord North till his very servants drove me from it";
his memorial remained unread or unnoticed either by the prime minister
or by secretary Robinson, through whom the original promise had been
made. Soon after this experience he lost his office, and had to retire
on a compensation allowance of less than half-pay. He now took up his
residence at Tunbridge Wells; but during his last years he mostly lived
in London, where he died on the 7th of May 1811. He was buried in
Westminster Abbey, a short oration being pronounced on this occasion by
his friend Dean Vincent.

Cumberland's numerous literary productions are spread over the whole of
his long life; but it is only by his contributions to the drama, and
perhaps by his _Memoirs_, that he is likely to be remembered. The
collection of essays and other pieces entitled _The Observer_ (1785),
afterwards republished together with a translation of _The Clouds_,
found a place among _The British Essayists_. For the accounts given in
_The Observer_ of the Greek writers, especially the comic poets,
Cumberland availed himself of Bentley's MSS. and annotated books in his
possession; his translations from the Greek fragments, which are not
inelegant but lack closeness, are republished in James Bailey's
_Comicorum Graecorum_ (part i., 1840) and _Hermesianactis, Archilochi,
et Pratinae fragmenta_. Cumberland further produced _Anecdotes of
Eminent Painters in Spain_ (1782 and 1787); a _Catalogue of the King of
Spain's Paintings_ (1787); two novels--_Arundel_ (1789), a story in
letters, and _Henry_ (1795), a "diluted comedy" on the construction and
polishing of which he seems to have expended great care; a religious
epic, _Calvary, or the Death of Christ_ (1792); his last publication was
a poem entitled _Retrospection_. He is also supposed to have joined Sir
James Bland Burges in an epic, the _Exodiad_ (1807), and in _John de
Lancaster_, a novel. Besides these he wrote the _Letter to the Bishop of
O[xfor]d_ in vindication of Bentley (1767); another _to the Bishop of
Llandaff_ (Richard Watson) on his proposal for equalizing the revenues
of the Established Church (1783); a _Character of the late Lord
Sackville_ (1785), whom in his _Memoirs_ he vindicates from the stigma
of cowardice; and an anonymous pamphlet, _Curtius rescued from the
Gulf_, against the redoubtable Dr Parr. He was also the author of a
version of fifty of the Psalms of David; of a tract on the evidences of
Christianity; and of other religious exercises in prose and verse, the
former including "as many sermons as would make a large volume, some of
which have been delivered from the pulpits." Lastly, he edited, in 1809,
a short-lived critical journal called _The London Review_, intended to
be a rival to the _Quarterly_, with signed articles.

Cumberland's _Memoirs_, which he began at the close of 1804, and
concluded in September 1805, were published in 1806, and a supplement
was added in 1807. This narrative, which includes a long account of his
Spanish mission, contains some interesting reminiscences of several
persons of note--more especially Bubb Dodington, Single-Speech Hamilton,
and Lord George Sackville among politicians, and of Garrick, Foote and
Goldsmith; but the accuracy of some of the anecdotes concerning the
last-named is not beyond suspicion. The book exhibits its author as an
amiable egotist, careful of his own reputation, given to prolixity and
undistinguished by wit, but a good observer of men and manners. The
uneasy self-absorption which Sheridan immortalized in the character of
Sir Fretful Plagiary in _The Critic_ is apparent enough in this
autobiography, but presents itself there in no offensive form. The
incidental criticisms of actors have been justly praised.

Cumberland was hardly warranted in the conjecture that no English author
had yet equalled his list of dramas in point of number; but his plays,
published and unpublished, have been computed to amount to fifty-four.
About 35 of these are regular plays, to which have been added 4 operas
and a farce; and about half of the whole list are comedies. The best
known of them belong to what he was pleased to term "legitimate comedy,"
and to that species of it known as "sentimental." The essential
characteristic of these plays is the combination of plots of domestic
interest with the rhetorical enforcement of moral precepts, and with
such small comic humour as the author possesses. These comedies are
primarily, to borrow Cumberland's own phraseology, designed as "attempts
upon the heart." He takes great credit to himself for weaving his plays
out of "homely stuff, right British drugget," and for eschewing "the
vile refuse of the Gallic stage"; on the other hand, he borrowed from
the sentimental fiction of his own country, including Richardson,
Fielding and Sterne. The favourite theme of his plays is virtue in
distress or danger, but safe of its reward in the fifth act; their most
constant characters are men of feeling and young ladies who are either
prudes or coquettes. Cumberland's comic power--such as it was--lay in
the invention of comic characters taken from the "outskirts of the
empire," and professedly intended to vindicate from English prejudice
the good elements in the Scotch, the Irish and the colonial character.
For the rest, patriotic sentiment liberally asserts itself by the side
of general morality. If Cumberland's dialogue lacks brilliance and his
characters reality, the construction of the plots is as a rule, skilful,
and the situations are contrived with what Cumberland indisputably
possessed--a thorough insight into the secrets of theatrical effect. It
should be added that, though Cumberland's sentimentality is often
wearisome, his morality is generally sound; that if he was without the
genius requisite for elevating the national drama, he did his best to
keep it pure and sweet; and that if he borrowed much, as he undoubtedly
did, it was not the vicious attractions of other dramatists of which he
was the plagiary.

His début as a dramatic author was made with a tragedy, _The Banishment
of Cicero_, published in 1761 after its rejection by Garrick; this was
followed in 1765 by a musical drama, _The Summer's Tale_, subsequently
compressed into an afterpiece _Amelia_ (1768). Cumberland first essayed
sentimental comedy in _The Brothers_ (1769). The theme of this comedy is
inspired by Fielding's _Tom Jones_; its comic characters are the jolly
old tar Captain Ironsides, and the henpecked husband Sir Benjamin Dove,
whose progress to self-assertion is genuinely comic, though not
altogether original. Horace Walpole said that it acted well, but read
ill, though he could distinguish in it "strokes of Mr Bentley." The
epilogue paid a compliment to Garrick, who helped the production of
Cumberland's second comedy _The West-Indian_ (1771). The hero of this
comedy, which probably owes much to the suggestion of Garrick, is a
young scapegrace fresh from the tropics, "with rum and sugar enough
belonging to him to make all the water in the Thames into punch,"--a
libertine with generous instincts, which in the end prevail. This early
example of the modern _drame_ was received with the utmost favour; it
was afterwards translated into German by Boden, and Goethe acted in it
at the Weimar court. _The Fashionable Lover_ (1772) is a sentimental
comedy of the most pronounced type. _The Choleric Man_ (1774), founded
on the _Adelphi_ of Terence, is of a similar type, the comic element
rather predominating, but philanthropy being duly represented by a
virtuous lawyer called Manlove. Among his later comedies may be
mentioned _The Natural Son_ (1785), in which Major O'Flaherty who had
already figured in _The West-Indian_, makes his reappearance; _The
Impostors_ (1789), a comedy of intrigue; _The Box Lobby Challenge_
(1794), a protracted farce; _The Jew_ (1794), a serious play, highly
effective when the character of Sheva was played by the great German
actor Theodor Döring; _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1795), in which John
Kemble found a celebrated part in the misanthropist Penruddock, who
cannot forget but learns to forgive (a character declared by Kotzebue to
have been stolen from his _Menschenhass und Reue_), while the lawyer
Timothy Weasel was made comic by Richard Suett; _First Love_ (1795);
_The Last of the Family_ (1795); _False Impressions_ (1797); _The
Sailor's Daughter_ (1804); and a _Hint to Husbands_ (1806), which,
unlike the rest, is in blank verse. The other works printed during his
lifetime include _The Note of Hand_ (1774), a farce; the songs of his
musical comedy, _The Widow of Delphi_ (1780); his tragedies of _The
Battle of Hastings_ (1778); and _The Carmelite_ (1784), a romantic
domestic drama in blank verse, in the style of Home's _Douglas_,
furnishing some effective scenes for Mrs Siddons and John Kemble as
mother and son; and the domestic drama (in prose) of _The Mysterious
Husband_ (1783). His posthumously printed plays (published in 2 vols. in
1813) include the comedies of _The Walloons_ (acted in 1782); _The
Passive Husband_ (acted as _A Word for Nature_, 1798); _The Eccentric
Lover_ (acted 1798); and _Lovers' Resolutions_ (once acted in 1802); the
serious quasi-historic drama _Confession_; the drama _Don Pedro_ (acted
1796); and the tragedies of _Alcanor_ (acted as _The Arab_, 1785);
_Torrendal_; _The Sibyl, or The Elder Brutus_ (afterwards amalgamated
with other plays on the subject into a very successful tragedy for
Edmund Kean by Payne); _Tiberius in Capreae_; and _The False Demetrius_
(on a theme which attracted Schiller). Cumberland translated the
_Clouds_ of Aristophanes (1797), and altered for the stage Shakespeare's
_Timon of Athens_ (1771), Massinger's _The Bondman_ and _The Duke of
Milan_ (both 1779).

  In 1806-1807 appeared _Memoirs of R. Cumberland, written by himself_.
  Cumberland's novel, _Henry_, was printed in Ballantyne's Novelists'
  Library (1821), with a prefatory notice of the author by Sir Walter
  Scott. A so-called _Critical Examination_ of Cumberland's works and a
  memoir of the author based oh his autobiography, with the addition of
  some more or less feeble criticisms, by William Madford, appeared in
  1812. An excellent account of Cumberland is included in "George
  Paston's" _Little Memoirs of the Eighteenth Century_ (1901). Hettner
  well characterizes Cumberland's position in the history of the English
  drama in _Litteraturgesch. d. 18. Jahrhunderts_ (2nd ed., 1865), i.
  520. Cumberland's portrait by Romney (whose talent he was one of the
  first to encourage) is in the National Portrait Gallery.     (A. W. W.)



CUMBERLAND, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, DUKE OF (1721-1765), son of King George
II. and Queen Caroline, was born on the 15th of April 1721, and when
five years of age was created duke of Cumberland. His education was well
attended to, and his courage and capacity in outdoor exercises were
notable from his early years. He was intended by the king and queen for
the office of lord high admiral, and in 1740 he sailed as a volunteer in
the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris; but he quickly became
dissatisfied with the navy, and early in 1742 he began a military
career. In December 1742 he was made a major-general, and in the
following year he first saw active service in Germany. George II. and
the "martial boy" shared in the glory of Dettingen (June 27), and
Cumberland, who was wounded in the action, displayed an energy and
valour, the report of which in England founded his military popularity.
After the battle he was made lieutenant-general. In 1745, having been
made captain-general of the British land forces at home and in the
field, the duke was again in Flanders as commander-in-chief of the
allied British, Hanoverian, Austrian and Dutch troops. Advancing to the
relief of Tournay, which was besieged by Marshal Saxe, he engaged that
great general in the battle of Fontenoy (q v.) on the 11th of May. It
cannot now be doubted that, had the duke been supported by the allies in
his marvellously courageous attack on the superior positions of the
French army, Fontenoy would not have been recorded as a defeat to the
British arms. He himself was in the midst of the heroic column which
penetrated the French centre, and his conduct of the inevitable retreat
was unusually cool and skilful.

Notwithstanding the severity of his discipline, the young duke had the
power to inspire his men with a strong attachment to his person and a
very lively _esprit de corps_. As a general his courage and resolution
were not sufficiently tempered with sagacity and tact; but he displayed
an energy and power in military affairs which pointed him out to the
British people as the one commander upon whom they could rely to put a
decisive stop to the successful career of Prince Charles Edward in the
rebellion of 1745-1746. John (Earl) Ligonier wrote of him at this time:
"Ou je suis fort trompé ou il se forme là un grand capitaine."

He was recalled from Flanders, and immediately proceeded with his
preparations for quelling the insurrection. He joined the midland army
under Sir John Ligonier, and was at once in pursuit of his swift-footed
foe. But the retreat of Charles Edward from Derby disconcerted his
plans; and it was not till they had reached Penrith, and the advanced
portion of his army had been repulsed on Clifton Moor, that he became
aware how hopeless an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders
would then be. Carlisle having been retaken, he retired to London, till
the news of the defeat of Hawley at Falkirk roused again the fears of
the English people, and centred the hopes of Britain on the royal duke.
He was appointed commander of the forces in Scotland.

Having arrived in Edinburgh on the 30th of January 1746, he at once
proceeded in search of the young Pretender. He diverged, however, to
Aberdeen, where he employed his time in training the well-equipped
forces now under his command for the peculiar nature of the warfare in
which they were about to engage. What the old and experienced generals
of his time had failed to accomplish or even to understand, the young
duke of Cumberland, as yet only twenty-four years of age, effected with
simplicity and ease. He prepared to dispose his army so as to withstand
with firmness that onslaught on which all Highland successes depended;
and he reorganized the forces and restored their discipline and
self-confidence in a few weeks.

On the 8th of April 1746 he set out from Aberdeen towards Inverness, and
on the 15th he fought the decisive battle of Culloden, in which, and in
the pursuit which followed, the forces of the Pretender were completely
destroyed. He had become convinced that the sternest measures were
needed to break down the Jacobitism of the Highlanders. He told his
troops to take notice that the enemy's orders were to give no quarter to
the "troops of the elector," and they took the hint. No trace of such
orders remains (see MURRAY, LORD GEORGE), and it is probable that
Cumberland had merely received word of wild talk in the enemy's camp,
which he credited the more easily as he thought that those who were
capable of rebellion were capable of any crime. On account of the
merciless severity with which the fugitives were treated, Cumberland
received the nickname of the "Butcher." That the implied taunt was
unjust need not be laboured. It was used for political purposes in
England, and his own brother, the prince of Wales, encouraged, it
appears, the virulent attacks which were made upon the duke. In any case
there is a marked similarity between Cumberland's conduct in Scotland
and that of Cromwell in Ireland. Both dared to do acts which they knew
would be cast against them for the rest of their lives, and terrorized
an obstinate and unyielding enemy into submission. How real was the
danger of a protracted guerrilla warfare in the Highlands may be judged
from the explicit declarations of Jacobite leaders that they intended to
continue the struggle. As it was, the war came to an end almost at once.
Here, as always, Cumberland preserved the strictest discipline in his
camp. He was inflexible in the execution of what he deemed to be his
duty, without favour to any man. At the same time he exercised his
influence in favour of clemency in special cases that were brought to
his notice. Some years later James Wolfe spoke of the duke as "for ever
doing noble and generous actions."

The relief occasioned to Britain by the duke's victorious efforts was
acknowledged by his being voted an income of £40,000 per annum in
addition to his revenue as a prince of the royal house. The duke took no
part in the Flanders campaign of 1746, but in 1747 he again opposed the
still victorious Marshal Saxe; and received a heavy defeat at the battle
of Lauffeld, or Val, near Maestricht (2nd of July 1747). During the ten
years of peace Cumberland occupied himself chiefly with his duties as
captain-general, and the result of his work was clearly shown in the
conduct of the army in the Seven Years' War. His unpopularity, which had
steadily increased since Culloden, interfered greatly with his success
in politics, and when the death of the prince of Wales brought a minor
next in succession to the throne the duke was not able to secure for
himself the contingent regency, which was vested in the princess-dowager
of Wales. In 1757, the Seven Years' War having broken out, Cumberland
was placed at the head of a motley army of allies to defend Hanover. At
Hastenbeck, near Hameln, on the 26th of July 1757, he was defeated by
the superior forces of D'Estrées (see SEVEN YEARS' WAR). In September of
the same year his defeat had almost become disgrace. Driven from point
to point, and at last hemmed in by the French under Richelieu, he
capitulated at Klosterzeven on the 8th of the month, agreeing to disband
his army and to evacuate Hanover. His disgrace was completed on his
return to England by the king's refusal to be bound by the terms of the
duke's agreement. In chagrin and disappointment he retired into private
life, after having formally resigned the public offices he held. In his
retirement he made no attempt to justify his conduct, applying in his
own case the discipline he had enforced in others. For a few years he
lived quietly at Windsor, and subsequently in London, taking but little
part in politics. He did much, however, to displace the Bute ministry
and that of Grenville, and endeavoured to restore Pitt to office. Public
opinion had now set in his favour, and he became almost as popular as he
had been in his youth. Shortly before his death the duke was requested
to open negotiations with Pitt for a return to power. This was, however,
unsuccessful. On the 31st of October 1765 the duke died.

  A Life of the duke of Cumberland by Andrew Henderson was published in
  1766, and anonymous (Richard Rolt) _Historical Memoirs_ appeared in
  1767. See especially A. N. Campbell Maclachlan, _William Augustus,
  Duke of Cumberland_ (1876).



CUMBERLAND, the north-westernmost county of England, bounded N. by the
Scottish counties of Dumfries and Roxburgh, E. by Northumberland, S. by
Westmorland and Lancashire, and W. by the Irish Sea. Its area is 1520.4
sq m. In the south the county includes about one-half of the celebrated
LAKE DISTRICT (q.v.), with the highest mountain in England, Scafell Pike
(3210 ft.), and the majority of the principal lakes, among which are
Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite, Buttermere and Crummock Water,
Ennerdale, Wastwater, and, on the boundary with Westmorland, Ullswater.
From this district valleys radiate north, west and south to a flat
coastal belt, the widest part of which (about 8 m.) is found in the
north in the Solway Plain, bordering Solway Firth, which here intervenes
between England and Scotland. The valley of the Eden, opening upon this
plain from the south-east, separates the mountainous Lake District from
the straight westward face of a portion of the Pennine Chain (q.v.),
which, though little of it lies within this county, reaches its highest
point within it in Cross Fell (2930 ft.). A well-marked pass, called the
Tyne Gap, at the water-parting between the rivers Irthing and South
Tyne, traversed by the Newcastle & Carlisle railway, intervenes between
these hills and their northward continuation in the hills of the
Scottish border. Besides the waters of the Eden, Solway Firth receives
those of the Esk, which enter Cumberland from Scotland. Liddel Water,
joining this river from the north east from Liddisdale, forms a large
part of the boundary with Scotland. The Eden receives the Irthing from
the east, and from the Lake District the Caldew, rising beneath Skiddaw
and joining the main river at Carlisle, and the Eamont, draining
Ullswater and forming part of the boundary with Westmorland. The
principal streams flowing east and south from the Lake District are the
Derwent, from Borrowdale and Derwentwater, the Eden from Ennerdale, the
Esk from Eskdale, and the Duddon, forming the greater part of the
boundary with Lancashire. There are valuable salmon fisheries in the
Eden, and trout are taken in many of the streams and lakes.

  _Geology._--The mountainous portion of Cumberland is built up of two
  different types of rock. The older, a sedimentary slaty series of
  Ordovician age, the Skiddaw slates, surrounds Bassenthwaite,
  Saddleback, Crummock Water, Keswick and Cockermouth and the western
  end of Ennerdale Water. The same formation is found in the northern
  flanks of Ullswater also north and east of Whitbeck. The other type of
  rock is volcanic; it gives a more rugged aspect to the scenery, as may
  be seen in comparing the rough outlines of Scafell and Honister Crags
  or Helvellyn with the smoother form of Saddleback or Skiddaw. These
  volcanic rocks, owing to much alteration, are often slaty; they have
  been called the "green slates and porphyries" or the Borrowdale
  Series. The Skiddaw slates are usually separated from the newer green
  slates above them by a plane of differential movement, for both have
  been thrust by earth-pressures from south to north, but the former
  rocks have travelled farther than the latter which have lagged behind;
  hence Messrs Marr and Harker describe the plane of separation as a
  "lag-fault." Much general faulting and folding have resulted from the
  movement; the thrusting took place in Devonian times. About the same
  period great masses of granitic rock were intruded into the slates in
  the form of laccolites, which often lie along the lag planes. Such
  rocks are the granophyre hills of Buttermere and Ennerdale, the
  microgranite patches on either side of the Vale of St John, and the
  great mass of Eskdale granite which reaches from Wastwater to the
  flanks of Black Combe. At Carrock Fell, N.E. of Skiddaw, is an
  extremely interesting complex of volcanic rocks, and in many other
  places are diabase and other forms, e.g. the well-known rock at Castle
  Head, Keswick.

  From Pooley Bridge, Ullswater, on the east, by Udale round to Egremont
  on the west, the mountainous region just described, is surrounded by
  the Carboniferous Limestone series, with a conglomerate at the base.
  Upon these rocks the coalfield of Whitehaven rests and extends as far
  as Maryport. The coal seams are worked for some distance beneath the
  sea. The vale of Eden between Penrith, Hornsby and Wreay is occupied
  by Permian sandstone, usually bright red in colour. Red Triassic rocks
  form a strip about 4 m. broad east of the Permian outcrop; a similar
  strip forms a coastal fringe from St Bees Head to Duddon Sands. The
  same formations are spread out round Carlisle, Brampton, Longtown,
  Wigton and Aspatria. East of Carlisle they are covered by an outlier
  of Lias. A great dislocation, the Pennine Fault, runs along the
  eastern side of the vale of Eden; it throws up the Lower Carboniferous
  limestones with their associated shales and sandstones to form the
  elevated ground in the north and north-east of the county. Several
  basic intrusions penetrate the limestone series, the best known being
  the Whin Sill, which may be traced for a number of miles northward
  from Crossfell. Evidences of glacial action are abundant; till with
  sands and gravel lie on the lower ground; striated rocks and _roches
  moutonnées_ are common; perched blocks are found on the plateau by
  Sprinkling Tarn and elsewhere. Moraine mounds are quite numerous in
  the valleys, and have frequently been the cause of small lakes.

_Climate and Agriculture._--The climate is generally temperate, but in
the higher parts bleak, snow sometimes lying fully six months of the
year on Cross Fell and the mountains of the Lake District. As regards
rainfall, the physical configuration makes for contrast. At Carlisle, on
the Solway plain, the mean annual fall is 30.6 in. At Penrith, on the
north-eastern flank of the Lake District, it is 31.67; on the western
flank 42.3 in. are recorded at Ravenglass, close to the coast, and 51.78
at Cockermouth, some miles inland. In the heart of the district,
however, the fall is as a rule much heavier, in fact, the heaviest
recorded in the British Isles (see LAKE DISTRICT). Somewhat less than
three-fifths of the total area of the county is under cultivation, the
proportion being higher than that of the neighbouring counties of
Northumberland and Westmorland, but still much below the average of the
English counties. Black peaty earth is the most prevalent soil in the
mountainous districts; but dry loams occur in the lowlands, and are well
adapted to green crops, grain and pasture. Wheat and barley are
practically neglected, but large crops of oats are grown. Turnips and
swedes form the bulk of the green crops. Hill pasture amounts to nearly
270,000 acres, and a good number of cattle are reared, but the principal
resource of the farmer is sheep-breeding. The sheep on the lowland farms
are generally of the Leicester class or cross-bred between the Leicester
and Herdwick, with a few Southdowns. Throughout the mountainous
districts the Herdwicks have taken the place of the smaller black-faced
heath variety of sheep once so commonly met with on the sheep farms.
They are peculiar to this part of England; the ewes and wethers and many
of the rams are polled, the faces and legs are speckled, and the wool is
finer and heavier in fleece than that of the heath breed. They
originally came from the neighbourhood of Muncaster in the Duddon and
Esk district, and tradition ascribes their origin variously to
introduction by Scandinavian settlers, or to parents that escaped from a
wrecked ship of the Spanish Armada. In general they belong to the
proprietors of the sheep-walks, and have been farmed out with them from
time immemorial, from which circumstance it is said they obtained the
name of "Herdwicks." Long after the Norman Conquest Cumberland remained
one of the most densely forested regions of England, and much of the
low-lying land is still well wooded, the Lake District in particular
displaying beautiful contrasts between bare mountain and tree-clad
valley. The oak, ash and birch are the principal natural trees, while
sycamores have been planted for shelter round many farmsteads.
Plantations of larch are also numerous, and the holly, yew, thorn and
juniper flourish locally.

Landed property was formerly much divided in this county, and the
smaller holdings were generally occupied by their owners, who were known
as "statesmen," i.e. "estatesmen," a class of men long noted for their
sturdy independence and attachment to routine husbandry. Most of these
estates were held of the lords of manors under customary tenure, which
subjected them to the payments of fines and heriots on alienation as
well as on the death of the lord or tenant. According to the
_Agricultural Survey_ printed in 1794, about two-thirds of the county
was held by this tenure, in parcels worth from £15 to £30 rental. On
large estates, also, the farms were in general rather small, few then
reaching £200 a year, held on verbal contracts, or very short leases,
and burdened like the small estates with payments or services over and
above a money rent. In modern times these conditions have changed, the
"statesmen" gradually becoming extinct as a class, and many of the small
holdings falling into the hands of the larger landed proprietors.

_Other Industries._--Carlisle is the seat of a variety of manufactures;
there are also in the county cotton and woollen industries, pencil mills
at Keswick, and iron shipbuilding yards at Whitehaven. But the mining
industry is the most important, coal being raised principally in the
district about Whitehaven, Workington and Maryport. Side by side with
this industry much iron ore is raised, and there is a large output of
pig-iron, and ore is also found in the south, in the neighbourhood of
Millom. Gypsum, zinc and some lead are mined. Copper was formerly worked
near Keswick, and there was a rich deposit of black lead at the head of
Borrowdale. Granite and limestone are extensively quarried. Stone is
very largely used even for housebuilding, a fine green slate being often
employed. Shap and other granites are worked for building and
roadstones.

_Communications._--The chief ports of Cumberland are Whitehaven,
Workington, Maryport, Harrington and Silloth. The London & North-Western
railway enters the county near Penrith, and terminates at Carlisle,
which is also served by the Midland. The Caledonian, North British and
Glasgow & South-Western lines further serve this city, which is thus an
important junction in through communications between England and
Scotland. The North-Eastern railway connects Carlisle with Newcastle.
The Maryport & Carlisle, the Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith, and the
Cleator & Workington Junction lines serve the districts indicated by
their names, while the Furness railway passes along the west coast from
the district of Furness in Lancashire as far north as Whitehaven, also
serving Cleator and Egremont. The Ravenglass & Eskdale light railway
gives access from this system to Boot in Eskdale. Coaches and motor cars
maintain passenger communications in the Lake District where the
railways do not penetrate.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient and the
administrative county is 973,086 acres, with a population in 1891 of
266,549 and in 1901 of 266,933. The county contains five wards,
divisions which in this and neighbouring counties correspond to
hundreds, and also appear in Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire in Scotland.
The municipal boroughs are Carlisle (pop. 45,480), a city and the county
town, Whitehaven (19,324), and Workington (26,143). The other urban
districts are Arlecdon and Frizington (5341), Aspatria (2885), Cleator
Moor (8120), Cockermouth (5355), Egremont (5761), Harrington (3679),
Holme Cultram (4275), Keswick (4451), Maryport (11,897), Millom
(10,426), Penrith (9182), Wigton (3692). Of these all except Keswick,
Millom and Penrith are in the industrial district of the west and
north-west. The urban district of Holme Cultram includes the port of
Silloth. Among lesser towns may be mentioned St Bees (1236), on the
coast south of Whitehaven, until 1897 the seat of a Church of England
theological college. The grammar school here, founded in 1533, is
liberally endowed, with scholarships and exhibitions. Cumberland is in
the northern circuit, and assizes are held at Carlisle. It has one court
of quarter sessions and 12 petty sessional divisions. The city of
Carlisle has a separate commission of the peace and court of quarter
sessions. There are 213 civil parishes. Cumberland is in the diocese of
Carlisle, with a small portion in that of Newcastle. There are 167
ecclesiastical parishes or districts within the county. There are four
parliamentary divisions, the Northern or Eskdale, Mid or Penrith,
Cockermouth and Western or Egremont, each returning one member; while
the parliamentary boroughs of Carlisle and Whitehaven each return one
member.

_History._--After the withdrawal of the Romans (of whose occupation
there are various important relics in the county) little is known of the
region which is now Cumberland, until the great battle of Ardderyd in
573 resulted in its consolidation with the kingdom of Strathclyde. About
670-680 the western district between the Solway and the Mersey was
conquered by the Angles of Northumbria and remained an integral portion
of that kingdom until the Danish invasion of the 9th century. In 878 the
kingdom of the Cumbri is referred to, but without any indication of its
extent, and the first mention of Cumberland to denote a geographical
area occurs in 945 when it was ceded by Edmund to Malcolm of Scotland.
At this date it included the territory north and south of the Solway
from the Firth of Forth to the river Duddon. The Scottish supremacy was
not uninterrupted, for the district at the time of its invasion by
Ethelred in 1000 was once more a stronghold of the Danes, whose
influence is clearly traceable in the nomenclature of the Lake District.
At the time of the Norman invasion Cumberland was a dependency of the
earldom of Northumbria, but its history at this period is very obscure,
and no notice of it occurs in the Domesday Survey of 1086; Kirksanton,
Bootle and Whicham, however, are entered under the possessions of the
earl of Northumbria in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The real Norman
conquest of Cumberland took place in 1092, when William Rufus captured
Carlisle, repaired the city, built the castle, and after sending a
number of English husbandmen to till the land, placed the district under
the lordship of Ranulf Meschines. The fief of Ranulf was called the
Power or Honour of Carlisle, and a sheriff of Carlisle is mentioned in
1106. The district was again captured by the Scots in the reign of
Stephen, and on its recovery in 1157 the boundaries were readjusted to
include the great barony of Coupland. At this date the district was
described as the county of Carlisle, and the designation county of
Cumberland is not adopted in the sheriff's accounts until 1177. The five
present wards existed as administrative areas in 1278, when they were
termed bailiwicks, the designation ward not appearing until the 16th
century, though the bailiwicks of the Forest of Cumberland are termed
wards in the 14th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries each of the
five wards was under the administration of a chief constable.

Owing to its position on the Border Cumberland was the scene of constant
warfare from the time of its foundation until the union of England and
Scotland, and families like the Tilliols, the Lucies, the Greystokes,
and the Dacres were famous for their exploits in checking or avenging
the depredations of the Scots. During the War of Independence in the
reign of Edward I. Carlisle was the headquarters of the English army. In
the Wars of the Roses the prevailing sympathy was with the Lancastrian
cause, which was actively supported by the representatives of the
families of Egremont, Dacre and Greystoke. In 1542 the Scottish army
under James V. suffered a disastrous defeat at Solway Moss. After the
union of the crowns of England and Scotland in 1603, the countries
hitherto known as "the Borders" were called "the Middle Shires," and a
period of comparative peace ensued. On the outbreak of the Civil War of
the 17th century the northern counties associated in raising forces for
the king, and the families of Howard, Dalston, Dacre and Musgrave
rendered valuable service to the royalist cause. In 1645 Carlisle was
captured by the parliamentary forces, but in April 1648 it was retaken
by Sir Philip Musgrave and Sir Thomas Glenham, and did not finally
surrender until the autumn of 1648. Cumberland continued, however, to
support the Stuarts; it was one of the first counties to welcome back
Charles II.; in 1715 it was associated with the rising on behalf of the
Pretender, and Carlisle was the chief seat of operations in the 1745
rebellion.

In 685 Carlisle and the surrounding district was annexed by Ecgfrith
king of Northumbria to the diocese of Lindisfarne, to which it continued
subject, at least until the Danish invasion of the 9th century. In 1133
Henry I. created Carlisle (q.v.) a bishopric. The diocese included the
whole of modern Cumberland (except the barony of Coupland and the
parishes of Alston, Over-Denton and Kirkandrews), and also the barony of
Appleby in Westmorland. The archdeaconry of Carlisle, co-extensive with
the diocese, comprised four deaneries. Coupland was a deanery in the
archdeaconry of Richmond and diocese of York until 1541, when it was
annexed to the newly created diocese of Chester. In 1856 the area of the
diocese of Carlisle was extended, so as to include the whole of
Cumberland except the parish of Alston, the whole of Westmorland, and
the Furness district of Lancashire. In 1858 the deaneries were made to
number eighteen, and in 1870 were increased to twenty.

The principal industries of Cumberland have been from earliest times
connected with its valuable fisheries and abundant mineral wealth. The
mines of Alston and the iron mines about Egremont were worked in the
12th century. The Keswick copper mines were worked in the reign of Henry
III., but the black-lead mine was not worked to any purpose until the
18th century. Coal-mining is referred to in the 15th century, and after
the revival of the mining industries in the 16th century, rose to great
importance. The saltpans about the estuaries of the Esk and the Eden
were a source of revenue in the 12th century.

Cumberland returned three members for the county to the parliament of
1290, and in 1295 returned in addition two members for the city of
Carlisle and two members each for the boroughs of Cockermouth and
Egremont. The boroughs did not again return members until in 1640
Cockermouth regained representation. Under the Reform Act of 1832,
Cumberland returned four members for two divisions, and Whitehaven
returned one member. The county now returns six members to parliament;
one each for the four divisions of the county, Egremont, Cockermouth,
Eskdale and Penrith, one for the city of Carlisle and one for the
borough of Whitehaven.

_Antiquities._--Very early crosses, having Celtic or Scandinavian
characteristics, are seen at Gosforth, Bewcastle and elsewhere. In
ecclesiastical architecture Cumberland is not rich as a whole, but it
possesses Carlisle cathedral, with its beautiful choir, and certain
monastic remains of importance. Among these are the fine remnants of
Lanercost priory (see BRAMPTON). Calder Abbey, near Egremont, a
Cistercian abbey founded in 1134, has ruins of the church and cloisters,
of Norman and Early English character, and is very beautifully situated
on the Calder. The parish Church of St Bees, with good Norman and Early
English work, belonged to a Benedictine priory of 1120; but according to
tradition the first religious house here was a nunnery founded c. 650 by
St Bega, who became its abbess. Among the parish churches there are a
few instances of towers strongly fortified for purposes of defence; that
at Burgh-on-the-Sands, near Carlisle, being a good illustration.
Castles, in some cases ruined, in others modernized, are fairly
numerous, both near the Scottish border and elsewhere. Naworth Castle
near Brampton is the finest example; others are at Bewcastle, Carlisle,
Kirkoswald, Egremont, Cockermouth and Millom. Among many notable country
seats, Rose Castle, the palace of the bishops of Carlisle; Greystoke
Castle and Armathwaite Hall may be mentioned.

  See J. Nicolson and R. Burn, _History and Antiquities of the Counties
  of Westmorland and Cumberland_ (London, 1777); W. Hutchinson, _History
  of Cumberland_ (Carlisle, 1794); S. Jefferson, _History and
  Antiquities of Cumberland_ (Carlisle, 1840-1842); S. Gilpin, _Songs
  and Ballads of Cumberland_ (London, 1866); W. Dickinson, _Glossary of
  Words and Phrases of Cumberland_ (London, English Dialect Society,
  1878, with a supplement, 1881); Sir G. F. Duckett, _Early Sheriffs of
  Cumberland_ (Kendal, 1879); J. Denton, "Account of Estates and
  Families in the County of Cumberland, 1066-1603," in _Antiquarian
  Society's Transactions_ (1887); R. S. Ferguson, _History of
  Cumberland_ (London, 1890); "Archaeological Survey of Cumberland," in
  Archaeologia, vol. liii. (London, 1893); W. Jackson, _Papers and
  Pedigrees relating to Cumberland_ (2 vols., London, 1892); T. Ellwood,
  _The Landnama Book of Iceland as it illustrates the Dialect and
  Antiquities of Cumberland_ (Kendal, 1894); _Victoria County History,
  Cumberland_; and _Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland
  Antiquarian and Archaeological Society_.



CUMBERLAND, a city and the county-seat of Allegany county, Maryland,
U.S.A., on the Potomac river, about 178 m. W. by N. of Baltimore and
about 153 m. S. by E. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1890) 12,729; (1900) 17,128,
of whom 1113 were foreign-born and 1100 were of negro descent; (1910)
21,839. Cumberland is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Western
Maryland, the Pennsylvania, the Cumberland & Pennsylvania (from
Cumberland to Piedmont, Virginia), and the George's Creek & Cumberland
railways, the last a short line extending to Lonaconing (19 m.); by an
electric line extending to Western Port, Maryland; and by the Chesapeake
& Ohio Canal, of which it is a terminus. The city is about 635 ft. above
sea-level, and from a distance appears to be completely shut in by lofty
ranges of hills, which are cut through to the westward by a deep gorge
called "The Narrows," making a natural gateway of great beauty.
Cumberland has a large trade in coal, which is mined in the vicinity. As
a manufacturing centre it ranked in 1905 second in the state, the chief
products being iron, steel, bricks, flour, cement, silk and leather;
there is also a large dyeing and cleaning establishment. The value of
the city's factory products increased from $2,900,267 in 1900 to
$4,595,023 in 1905, or 58.4%. Cumberland is an important jobbing centre
also. The municipality owns and operates its water-works and electric
lighting plant. The first settlement of the place was made in 1750; in
1754 Fort Cumberland was erected within what are now the city limits,
and in the year following this fort was occupied by General Edward
Braddock. Cumberland was laid out in 1763, but there was little growth
until 1787, and it was not incorporated as a town until 1815; it was
chartered as a city in 1850.



CUMBERLAND, a township of Providence county, Rhode Island, U.S.A., in
the N.E. part of the state, about 6 m. N. of Providence and having the
Blackstone river for most of its W. boundary. Pop. (1890) 8090; (1900)
8925, of whom 3473 were foreign-born; (1910) 10,107; area, 27.5 sq. m.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway. Within its
borders are the villages of Cumberland Hill, Diamond Hill, Arnold Mills,
Abbott Run, Berkeley, Robin Hollow, Happy Hollow, East Cumberland, and
parts of Manville, Ashton, Lonsdale and Valley Falls. The surface of the
township is generally hilly and rocky. In the N. part is a valuable
granite quarry; and limestone, and some coal, iron and gold are also
found. Cumberland has been called the "mineral pocket of New England."
The Blackstone and its tributaries provide considerable water power; and
there are various manufactures, including cotton goods, silk goods, and
horse-shoes and other iron ware. The value of the township's factory
product in 1905 was $3,171,318, an increase of 80.6% since 1900, this
ratio of increase being greater than that shown by any other
"municipality" in the state having a population in 1900 of 8000 or more.
At Lonsdale, William Blackstone (c. 1595-1675), the first permanent
white settler within the present limits of Rhode Island, built his
residence, "Study Hall," about 1635. Cumberland was originally a part of
Rehoboth, and then of Attleborough, Massachusetts, and for many years
was called, like other sparse settlements, the Gore, or Attleborough
Gore. In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory
formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode
Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being
adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland. In 1867 a
part of Cumberland was set off to form the township of Woonsocket.



CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS (or more correctly the Cumberland Plateau or
Highlands), the westernmost of the three great divisions of the
Appalachian uplift in the United States, composed of many small ranges
of mountains (of which Cumberland Mountain in eastern Kentucky is one).
It extends from Pennsylvania to Alabama, attaining its greatest height
(about 4000 ft.) in Virginia. The plateau is rich in a variety of
mineral products, of which special mention may be made of coal, which
occurs in many places, and of the beautiful marbles quarried in that
portion of the plateau which lies between Virginia and Kentucky and
crosses Tennessee. The plateau has an abrupt descent, almost an
escarpment, into the great Appalachian Valley on its E., while the W.
slope is deeply and roughly broken. The whole mass is eroded in Virginia
into a maze of ridges. Cumberland Mountain parts the waters of the
Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. This range and the other ranges about
it are perhaps the loveliest portion of the whole plateau. The peaks
here and in the Blue Ridge to the E. are the highest of the Appalachian
system. Forest-filled valleys, rounded hills and rugged gorges afford in
every part scenery of surpassing beauty. The Cumberland Valley between
the Cumberland range and the Pine range is one of special fame. In the
former range there are immense caverns and subterranean streams.
Cumberland Gap, crossing the ridge at about 167 ft. above the sea, where
Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee meet, is a gorge about 500 ft. deep,
with steep sides that barely give room in places for a roadway. The
mountains, river and gap were all discovered by a party of Virginians in
1748, and named in honour of the victor of Culloden, William, duke of
Cumberland. Afterwards the gap gained a place in American history as one
of the main pathways by which emigrants crossed the mountains to
Kentucky and Tennessee. During the Civil War it was a position of great
strategic importance, as it afforded an entrance to eastern and central
Tennessee from Kentucky, which was held by the Union arms; and it was
repeatedly occupied in alternation by the opposing forces.

The mountaineers of Kentucky and Tennessee are a strange stock, who
retain in their customs and habits the primitive conditions of a life
that has elsewhere long since disappeared. They have been pictured in
the novels of Miss Murfree and John Fox, Junr. They are a tall,
straight, angular folk, of fine physical development; the volunteers for
the Union army from Kentucky and Tennessee during the Civil War--most of
whom came from the non-slave-holding mountain region--exceeded in
physical development the volunteers from all other states. For the
education of these mountaineers Major-General Oliver Otis Howard founded
in 1895 at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, the Lincoln Memorial University
(co-educational; non-sectarian; opened in 1897), which has collegiate,
normal training and industrial courses, and an affiliated school of
medicine, Tennessee Medical College, at Knoxville. The university had in
1907-1908 14 instructors and 570 students. Berea College in Kentucky was
a pioneer institution for the education of mountaineers.



CUMBERLAND RIVER, a large southern branch of the Ohio river, U.S.A.,
rising in the highest part of the Cumberland plateau in south-east
Kentucky, and emptying into the Ohio in Kentucky (near Smithland) after
a devious course of 688 m. through that state and Tennessee. It drains a
basin of somewhat more than 18,000 sq. m., and is navigable for
light-draught steamers through about 500 m. under favourable
conditions--Burnside, Pulaski county, 518 m. from the mouth, is the head
of navigation--and through 193 m.--to Nashville--all the year round; for
boats drawing not more than 3 ft. the river is navigable to Nashville
for 6 to 8 months. At the Great Falls, in Whitley county, Kentucky, it
drops precipitously 63 ft. Above the falls it is a mountain stream, of
little volume in the dry months. It descends rapidly at its head to the
highland bench below the mountains and traverses this to the falls, then
flows in rapids (the Great Shoals) for some 10 m. through a fine gorge
with cliffs 300-400 ft. high, and descends between bluffs of decreasing
height and beauty into its lower level. Save in the mountains its
gradient is slight, and below the falls, except for a number of small
rapids, the flow of the stream is equable. Timbered ravines lend charm
to much of its shores, and in the mountains the scenery is most
beautiful. Below Nashville the stream is some 400 to 500 ft. wide, and
its high banks are for the most part of alluvium, with rocky bluffs at
intervals. At the mouth of the river lies Cumberland Island, in the
Ohio. During low water of the latter stream the Cumberland discharges
around both ends of the island, but in high water of the Ohio the
gradient of the Cumberland is so slight that its waters are held back,
forming a deep quiet pool that extends some 20 m. up the river. A system
of locks and dams below Nashville was planned in 1846 by a private
company, which accomplished practically nothing. Congress appropriated
$155,000 in 1832-1838; in the years immediately after 1888 $305,000 was
expended, notably for deepening the shoals at the junction of the
Cumberland and the Ohio; in 1892 a project was undertaken for 7 locks
and dams 52 ft. wide and 280 ft. long below Nashville. Above Nashville
$346,000 was expended on the open channel project (of 1871-1872) from
Nashville to Cumberland Ford (at Pineville); in 1886 a canalization
project was undertaken and 22 locks and dams below Burnside and 6 above
Burnside were planned, but by the act of 1907 the project was
modified--$2,319,000 had been appropriated up to 1908 for the work of
canalization. During the Civil War Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, and
Fort Henry near by on the Tennessee were erected by the Confederates,
and their capture by Flag-officer A. H. Foote and General Grant (Feb.
1862) was one of the decisive events of the war, opening the rivers as
it did for the advance of the Union forces far into Confederate
Territory.



CUMBRAES, THE, two islands forming part of the county of Bute, Scotland,
lying in the Firth of Clyde, between the southern shores of Bute and the
coast of Ayrshire. GREAT CUMBRAE ISLAND, about 1½ m. W.S.W. of Largs, is
3¾ m. long and 2 m. broad, and has a circumference of 10 m. and an area
of 3200 acres or 5 sq. m. Its highest point is 417 ft. above the sea.
There is some fishing and a little farming, but the mainstay of the
inhabitants is the custom of the visitors who crowd every summer to
Millport, which is reached by railway steamer from Largs. This town
(pop. 1901, 1663) is well situated at the head of a fine bay and has a
climate that is both warm and bracing. Its chief public buildings
include the cathedral, erected in Gothic style on rising ground behind
the town, the college connected with it, the garrison, a picturesque
seat belonging to the marquess of Bute, who owns the island, the town
hall, a public hall, library and reading room, the Lady Margaret fever
hospital, and a marine biological station. The cathedral, originally the
collegiate church, was founded in 1849 by the earl of Glasgow and opened
in 1851. In 1876 it was constituted the cathedral of Argyll and the
Isles. Millport enjoys exceptional facilities for boating and bathing,
and there is also a good golf-course. Pop. (1901) 1754, of whom 1028
were females, and 59 spoke both English and Gaelic. LITTLE CUMBRAE
ISLAND lies to the south, separated by the Tan, a strait half a mile
wide. It is 1¾ m. long, barely 1 m. broad, and has an area of almost a
square mile. Its highest point is 409 ft. above sea-level. On the bold
cliffs of the west coast stands a lighthouse. Robert II. is said to have
built a castle on the island which was demolished by Cromwell's soldiers
in 1653.

  The strata met with in the Great and Little Cumbrae belong to the
  Upper Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous systems. The former,
  consisting of false-bedded sandstones and conglomerates, are confined
  to the larger island. The Carboniferous rocks of the Cumbrae belong to
  the lower part of the Calciferous Sandstone series with the
  accompanying volcanic zone. In the larger island these sediments,
  comprising sandstones, red, purple and mottled clays with occasional
  bands of nodular limestone or cornstone, occupy a considerable area on
  the north side of Millport Bay. In the Little Cumbrae they appear on
  the east side, where they underlie and are interbedded with the lavas.
  The interesting geological feature of these islands is the development
  of Lower Carboniferous volcanic rocks. They cover nearly the whole of
  the Little Cumbrae, where they give rise to marked terraced features
  and are arranged in a gentle synclinal fold. The flows are often
  scoriaceous at the top and sometimes display columnar structure, as in
  the crags at the lighthouse. Those rocks examined microscopically
  consist of basalts which are often porphyritic. In Great Cumbrae the
  intrusive rocks mark four periods of eruption, three of which may be
  of Carboniferous age. The oldest, consisting of trachytes, occur as
  sheets and dikes trending generally E.N.E., and are confined chiefly
  to the Upper Old Red Sandstone. They seem to be of older date than the
  Carboniferous lavas of Little Cumbrae and south Bute. Next come dikes
  of olivine basalt of the type of the Lion's Haunch on Arthur's Seat,
  which, though possessing the same general trend as the trachytes, are
  seen to cut them. The members of the third group comprise dikes of
  dolerite or basalt with or without olivine, which have a general east
  and west trend, and as they intersect the two previous groups they
  must be of later date. They probably belong to the east and west
  quartz dolerite dikes which are now referred to late Carboniferous
  time. Lastly there are representatives of the basalt dikes of Tertiary
  age with a north-west trend.



CUMIN, or CUMMIN (_Cuminum Cyminum_), an annual herbaceous plant, a
member of the natural order Umbelliferae and probably a native of some
part of western Asia, but scarcely known at the present time in a wild
state. It was early cultivated in Arabia, India and China, and in the
countries bordering the Mediterranean. Its stem is slender and
branching, and about a foot in height; the leaves are deeply cut, with
filiform segments; the flowers are small and white. The fruits, the
so-called seeds, which constitute the cumin of pharmacy, are fusiform or
ovoid in shape and compressed laterally; they are two lines long, are
hotter to the taste, lighter in colour, and larger than caraway seeds,
and have on each half nine fine ridges, overlying as many oil-channels
or vittae. Their strong aromatic smell and warm bitterish taste are due
to the presence of about 3% of an essential oil. The tissue of the seeds
contains a fatty oil, with resin, mucilage and gum, malates and
albuminous matter; and in the pericarp there is much tannin. The
volatile oil of cumin, which may be separated by distillation of the
seed with water, is mainly a mixture of cymol or cymene, C10H14, and
cumic aldehyde, C6H4(C3H7)COH. Cumin is mentioned in Isaiah xxviii. 25,
27, and Matthew xxiii. 23, and in the works of Hippocrates and
Dioscorides. From Pliny we learn that the ancients took the ground seed
medicinally with bread, water or wine, and that it was accounted the
best of condiments as a remedy for squeamishness. It was found to
occasion pallor of the face, whence the expression of Horace, _exsangue
cuminum_ (_Epist._ i. 19), and that of Persius, _pallentis grana cumini_
(_Sat._ v. 55). Pliny relates the story that it was employed by the
followers of Porcius Latro, the celebrated rhetorician, in order to
produce a complexion such as bespeaks application to study (xx. 57). In
the middle ages cumin was one of the commonest spices of European
growth. Its average price per pound in England in the 13th and 14th
centuries was 2d. or, at present value, about 1s. 4d. (Rogers, _Hist. of
Agric. and Prices_, i. 631). It is stimulant and carminative, and is
employed in the manufacture of curry powder. The medicinal use of the
drug is now confined to veterinary practice. Cumin is exported from
India, Mogador, Malta and Sicily.



CUMMERBUND, a girdle or waistbelt (Hindostani _kamar-band_, a
loin-band). In the East the principle of health is to keep the head cool
and the stomach warm; the turban protects the one from the sun, and the
cummerbund ensures the other against changes of temperature. In India
the cummerbund consists of many folds of muslin or bright-coloured
cloth.



CUMMING, JOSEPH GEORGE (1812-1868), English geologist and archaeologist,
was born at Matlock in Derbyshire on the 15th of February 1812. He was
educated at Oakham grammar school, and Emmanuel College, Cambridge,
taking the degree of M.A., and entering holy orders in 1835. In 1841 he
was appointed vice-principal of King William's College, Castletown, in
the Isle of Man, and this position he held until 1856. During this
period his leisure time was devoted to a study of the geology and
archaeology of the island. The results were published in a classic
volume _The Isle of Man; its History, Physical, Ecclesiastical, Civil
and Legendary_ (1848). In 1856 he became master of King Edward's grammar
school at Lichfield, in 1858 warden and professor of classical
literature and geology in Queen's College, Birmingham, in 1862 rector of
Mellis, in Suffolk, and in 1867 vicar of St John's, Bethnal Green,
London. He died in London on the 21st of September 1868.



CUMNOCK AND HOLMHEAD, a police burgh of Ayrshire, Scotland, on the
Lugar, 33¾ m. S. of Glasgow by road, with two stations (Cumnock and Old
Cumnock) on the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 3088. It
lies in the parish of Old Cumnock (pop. 5144), and is a thriving town,
with a town hall, cottage hospital, public library and an athenaeum.
Coal and ironstone are extensively mined in the neighbourhood, and the
manufactures include woollens, tweeds, agricultural implements and
pottery. When Alexander Peden (1626-1686), the persecuted Covenanter,
died, he was buried in the Boswell aisle of Auchinleck church; but his
corpse was borne thence with every indignity by a company of dragoons to
the foot of the gallows at Cumnock, where they intended to hang it in
chains. This proving to be impracticable they buried it at the
gallows-foot. After the Revolution the inhabitants out of respect for
the "Prophet's" memory abandoned their then burying-ground and turned
the old place of execution into the present cemetery. Five miles S.E.
lies the parish of New Cumnock (pop. 5367) at the confluence of Afton
Water and the Nith. It is rich in minerals, iron, coal, limestone and
freestone, and has a station on the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Two
miles N.W. of Cumnock is Auchinleck (pronounced Affleck), with a station
on the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Coal and iron mining and farming
are important industries. It is the seat of the Boswell family, three
generations of which abbreviated greatness--Lord Auchinleck, the judge
(who dubbed Dr Johnson "Ursa Major"), his son James, the biographer, and
his grandson Sir Alexander, the author of "Gude nicht and joy be wi' you
a'," "Jenny's Bawbee," "Jenny dang the weaver," and other songs and
poems, who perished miserably in a duel. Pop. of Auchinleck parish
(1901) 6605.



CUNARD, SIR SAMUEL, Bart. (1787-1865), British civil engineer, founder
of the Cunard line of steam-ships, was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on
the 21st of November 1787. He was the son of a merchant, and was himself
trained for the pursuits of commerce, in which, by his abilities and
enterprising spirit, he attained a conspicuous position. When, in the
early years of steam navigation, the English government made known its
desire to substitute steam vessels for the sailing ships then employed
in the mail service between England and America, Cunard heartily entered
into the scheme, came to England, and accepted the government tender for
carrying it out. In conjunction with Messrs Burns of Glasgow and Messrs
MacIver of Liverpool, proprietors of rival lines of coasting steamers
between Glasgow and Liverpool, he formed a company, and the first voyage
of a Cunard steamship was successfully made by the "Britannia" from
Liverpool to Boston, U.S.A., between July 4 and 19, 1840 (see STEAMSHIP
LINES). In acknowledgment of his energetic and successful services
Cunard was, in 1859, created a baronet. He died in London on the 28th of
April 1865.



CUNAS, a tribe of Central American Indians. Their home is the Isthmus of
Panama, from the Chagres to the Atrato. They are sometimes called Darien
or San Blas Indians. They are a small active people, with remarkably
light complexions.



CUNDINAMARCA, till 1909 a department of the eastern plateau of Colombia,
South America, having the departments of Quesada and Tundama on the N.,
Tolima on the W. and S., and the Meta territory on the S.E. and E. The
territorial redistribution of 1905 deprived Cundinamarca of its
territories on the eastern plains, and a part of its territory in the
Eastern Cordillera out of which Quesada and the Federal district were
created--its area being reduced from 79,691 to 5060 sq. m., and its
estimated population from 500,000 to 225,000. A considerable part of its
area consists of plateaus enjoying a temperate climate and producing the
fruits and cereals of the temperate zone, and another important part
lies in the valley of the Magdalena and is tropical in character. The
district of Fusagasuga in the southern part of this region is celebrated
for the excellence of its coffee. The capital of the department was
Facatativá (est. population, 7500), situated on the western margin of
the _sabana_ of Bogotá, 25 m. N.W. from that capital by rail. Other
important towns are Caqueza, Sibaté, La Meza and Tocaima.



CUNEIFORM (from Lat. _cuneus_, a wedge), a form of writing, extensively
used in the ancient world, especially by the Babylonians and Assyrians.
The word "cuneiform" was first applied in 1700 by Thomas Hyde, professor
of Hebrew in the university of Oxford, in the expression "dactuli
pyramidales seu cuneiformes," and it has found general acceptance,
though efforts have been made to introduce the expression "arrow-headed"
writing. The name "cuneiform" is fitting, for each character or sign is
composed of a wedge ([symbol] or [symbol]), or a combination of wedges
([symbol]), written from left to right. The wedge is always pointed
towards the right ([symbol]) or downwards ([symbol]) or aslant
([symbol]), or two may be so combined as to form an angle ([symbol])
called by German Assyriologists a _Winkelhaken_, a word now sometimes
adopted by English writers on the subject. The word cuneiform has passed
into most modern languages, but the Germans use _Keilschrift_ (i.e.
wedge-script) and the Arabs _mismari_ ([Arabic: mismari]) or
nail-writing.

[Illustration]


  Discovery and decipherment.

In Persia, 40 m. N.E. of Shiraz, is a range of hills, Mount Rachmet, in
front of which, in a semicircular form, rises a vast terrace-like
platform. It is partly natural, but was walled up in front, levelled off
and used as the base of great temples and palaces. The earliest
European, at present known to us, who visited the site was a wandering
friar Odoricus (about A.D. 1320), who does not seem to have noticed the
inscriptions cut in the stone. These were first observed by Josaphat
Barbaro, a Venetian traveller, about 1472. In 1621 the ruins were
visited by Pietro della Valle, who was the first to copy a few of the
signs, which he sent in a letter to a friend in Naples. His copy was not
well made, but it served the useful purpose of directing attention to an
unknown script which was certain to attract scholars to the problem of
its decipherment. To this end it was necessary that complete
inscriptions and not merely separate signs should be made accessible to
European scholars. The first man to attempt to satisfy this need was Sir
John Chardin, in whose volumes of travels published at Amsterdam in 1711
one of the small inscriptions found at the ruins of Persepolis was
carefully and accurately reproduced. It was now plainly to be seen, as
indeed others had surmised, that these inscriptions at Persepolis had
been written in three languages, distinguished each from other by an
increasing complexity in the signs with which they were written. The
three languages have since been determined as Persian, Susian and
Babylonian. But before the decipherment could begin it was necessary
that all the available material should be copied and published. The
honour of performing this great task fell to Carsten Niebuhr, who
visited Persepolis in March 1765, and in three weeks and a half copied
all the texts, so well that little improvement has been made in them
since. When Niebuhr returned to Denmark he studied carefully the little
inscriptions and convinced himself that the guesses of some of his
predecessors were correct, and that the inscriptions were to be read
from left to right. He observed that three systems of writing were
discernible, and that these were always kept distinct in the
inscriptions. He did not, however, draw the natural conclusion that they
represented three languages, but supposed that the proud builders of
Persepolis had written their inscriptions in threefold form. He divided
the little inscriptions into three classes, according to the manner of
their writing, calling them classes I., II. and III. He then arranged
all those he had copied that belonged to class I., and by careful
comparison decided that in them there were employed altogether but
forty-two signs. These he copied out and set in order in one of his
plates. This list of signs was so nearly complete and accurate that
later study has made but slight changes in it. When Niebuhr had made
his list of signs he naturally enough decided that this language,
whatever it might be, was written in alphabetic characters, a conclusion
which later investigation has not overthrown. Beyond this Niebuhr was
not able to go, and not even one sign revealed its secret to his
inquiry. When, however, he had published his copies (in 1777) there were
other scholars ready to take up the difficult task. Two scholars
independently, Olav Tychsen of Rostock and Friedrich Münter of
Copenhagen, began work upon the problem. Tychsen first observed that
there occurred at irregular intervals in the inscriptions of the first
class a wedge that pointed neither directly to the right nor downward,
but inclined diagonally. This he suggested was the dividing sign used to
separate words. This very simple discovery later became of great
importance in the hands of Münter. Tychsen also correctly identified the
alphabetic signs for "_a_," "_d_," "_u_" and "_s_," but he failed to
decipher an entire inscription, chiefly perhaps because, through an
error in history, he supposed that they were written during the Parthian
dynasty (246 B.C.-A.D. 227). Münter was more fortunate than Tychsen in
his historical researches, and this made him also more successful in
linguistic attempts. He rightly identified the builders of Persepolis
with the Achaemenian dynasty, and so located in time the authors of the
inscriptions (538-465 B.C.). Independently of Tychsen he identified the
oblique wedge as a divider between words, and found the meaning of the
sign for "b." These may appear to be small matters, but it must be
remembered that they were made without the assistance of any bilingual
text, and were indeed taken bodily out of the gloom which had settled
upon these languages centuries before. They did not, however, bring us
much nearer to the desired goal of a reading of any portion of the
inscriptions. The whole case indeed seemed now perilously near a
stalemate. New methods must be found, and a new worker, with patience,
persistence, power of combination, insight, the historical sense and the
feeling for archaeological indications.

In 1802 Georg Friedrich Grotefend (q.v.) was persuaded by the librarian
of Göttingen University to essay the task. He began with the assumption
that there were three languages, and that of these the first was ancient
Persian, the language of the Achaemenians, who had erected these palaces
and caused these inscriptions to be written. For his first attempts at
decipherment he chose two of these old Persian inscriptions and laid
them side by side. They were of moderate length, and the frequent
recurrence of the same signs in them seemed to indicate that their
contents were similar. The method which he now pursued was so simple,
yet so sure, as he advanced step by step, that there seemed scarcely a
chance of error. Münter had observed in all the Persian texts a word
which occurred in two forms, a short and a longer form. This word
appeared in Grotefend's two texts in both long and short forms. Münter
had suggested that it meant "king" in the short form and "kings" in the
longer, and that when the two words occurred together the expression
meant "king of kings." But further, this word occurred in both
inscriptions in the first line, and in both cases was followed by the
same word. This second word Grotefend supposed to mean "_great_," the
combined expression being "king great," that is, "great king." All this
found support in the phraseology of the lately deciphered Sassanian
inscriptions, and it was plausible in itself. It must, however, be
supported by definite facts, and furthermore each word must be separated
into its alphabetic parts, every one of them identified, and the words
themselves be shown to be philologically possible by the production of
similar words in related languages. In other words, the archaeological
method must find support in a philological method. To this Grotefend now
devoted himself with equal energy. His method was as simple as before.
He had made out to his own satisfaction the titles "great king, king of
kings." Now, in the Sassanian inscriptions, the first word was always
the king's name, followed immediately by "great king, king of kings,"
and Grotefend reasoned that this was probably true in his texts. But if
true, then these two texts were set up by two different kings, for the
names were not the same at the beginning. Furthermore the name with
which his text No. I. began appears in the third line of text No. II.,
but in a somewhat longer form, which Grotefend thought was a genitive
and meant "of N." It followed the word previously supposed to be "king"
and another which might mean son (N king son), so that the whole
expression would be "son of N king." From these facts Grotefend surmised
that in these two inscriptions he had the names of three rulers,
grandfather, father and son. It was now easy to search the list of the
Achaemenian dynasty and to find three names which would suit the
conditions, and the three which he ventured to select were Hystaspes,
Darius, Xerxes. According to his hypothesis the name at the beginning of
inscription I. was Darius, and he was ready to translate his texts in
part as follows:--

   I. Darius, great king, king of kings ... son of Hystaspes....
  II. Xerxes, great king, king of kings ... son of Darius king.

The form which he provisionally adopted for Darius was Darheush; later
investigation has shown that it ought really to be read as Daryavush,
but the error was not serious, and he had safely secured at least the
letters D, A, R, SH. It was a most wonderful achievement, the importance
of which he did not realize, for in it was the key to the decipherment
of three ancient languages. To very few men has it been given to make
discoveries so important both for history and for philology.

To Grotefend it was, however, not given to translate a whole text, or
even to work out all the words whose meaning he had surmised. Rasmus
Christian Rask (1787-1832), who followed him, found the plural ending in
Persian, which had baffled him; and Eugène Burnouf (1801-1852), by the
study of a list of Persian geographical names found at Naksh-i-Rustam,
discovered at a single stroke almost all the characters of the Persian
alphabet, and incidentally confirmed the values already determined by
his predecessors.

At the same time as Burnouf, the eminent Sanskrit scholar Professor
Christian Lassen (1800-1876), of Bonn, was studying the same list of
names; and his results were published at the same time. The controversy
which resulted as to priority of discovery may be here passed over while
we sum up the results in general conclusions. Lassen may certainly claim
in the final court of history that he discovered independently of
Burnouf the values of at least six and possibly of eight signs. But in
another respect he made very definite progress over Burnouf. He
discovered that, if the system of Grotefend were rigidly followed, and
to every sign were given the value Grotefend had assigned, some words
would be left wholly or almost wholly without vowels; and therefore
unpronounceable. As instances of such words he mentioned ÇPRD, THTGUS,
KTPTUK, FRAISJM. This situation led Lassen to a very important
discovery, towards which his knowledge of the Sanskrit alphabet did much
to bring him. He came, in short, to the conclusion that the ancient
Persian signs were not entirely alphabetic, but were at least partially
syllabic, that is, that certain signs were used to represent not merely
an alphabetic character like "b," but also a syllable such as "ba," "bi"
or "bu." He claimed that he had successfully demonstrated that the sign
for "a" was only used at the beginning of a word, or before a consonant,
or before another vowel, and that in every other case it was included in
the consonant sign. Thus in the inscription No I. in the second line the
signs should be read VA-ZA-RA-KA. This was a most important discovery,
and may be said to have revolutionized the study of these long puzzling
texts.

During the entire time of this slow process of decipherment, from the
first essays of Grotefend in 1802 until the publication of Lassen's book
in 1836, there were more sceptics than believers in the results of the
deciphering process. Indeed the history of all forms of decipherment of
unknown languages shows that scepticism concerning them is far more
prevalent than credulity or even a too ready acceptance. There was need
for a man of another people, of different training and a fresh and
unbiased mind, to put the capstone upon the decipherment, and he was
already at work when Lassen's important researches appeared.

Major (afterward Sir) Henry Rawlinson had gone out to India, in the
service of the East India Company, while still a boy. There he had
learned Persian and several of the Indian vernaculars. That was not the
sort of training that had prepared Grotefend, Burnouf or Lassen, but it
was the kind that the early travellers and copyists had enjoyed. In 1833
young Rawlinson went to Persia, to work with other British officers in
the reorganization of the Persian army. While engaged in this service
his attention was drawn to the ancient Persian cuneiform inscriptions.
In 1835 he copied with great care the texts at Hamadan, and began their
decipherment. Of all the eager work which had been going on in Europe he
knew little. It is no longer possible to ascertain when he gained his
first information of Grotefend's work, for Norris, the secretary of the
Royal Asiatic Society, has left us no record of when he began to send
notices of the German's work. Whenever it was, there seems to be no
doubt that Rawlinson worked independently for a time. His method was
strikingly like Grotefend's. He had copied two trilingual inscriptions,
and recognized at once that he had three languages before him. In 1839
(_Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_, x. pp. 5, 6) he thus wrote of
his method: "When I proceeded ... to compare and interline the two
inscriptions (or rather the Persian columns of the two inscriptions,
for, as the compartments exhibiting the inscription in the Persian
language occupied the principal place in the tablets, and were engraved
in the least complicated of the three classes of cuneiform writing, they
were naturally first submitted to examination) I found that the
characters coincided throughout, except in certain particular groups,
and it was only reasonable to suppose that the grounds which were thus
brought out and individualized must represent proper names. I further
remarked that there were but three of these distinct groups in the two
inscriptions; for the group which occupied the second place in one
inscription, and which, from its position, suggested the idea of its
representing the name of the father of the king who was there
commemorated, corresponded with the group which occupied the first place
in the other inscription, and thus not only served determinately to
connect the two inscriptions together, but, assuming the groups to
represent proper names, appeared also to indicate a genealogical
succession. The natural inference was that in these three groups of
characters I had obtained the proper names belonging to three
consecutive generations of the Persian monarchy; and it so happened that
the first three names of Hystaspes, Darius and Xerxes, which I applied
at hazard to the three groups, according to the succession, proved to
answer in all respects satisfactorily and were, in fact, the true
identification."

Rawlinson's next work was the copying of the great inscription of Darius
on the rocks at Behistun (q.v.). He had first seen it in 1835, and as it
was high up on the rocky face, and apparently inaccessible, he had
studied it by means of a field-glass. He was not able to copy the whole
of the Persian text, but in 1837, when he was more skilled in the
script, he secured more of it. In the next year he forwarded to the
Royal Asiatic Society of London his translation of the first two
paragraphs of the Persian text, containing the name, titles and
genealogy of Darius. This was little less than a _tour de force_, for it
must be remembered that this had been accomplished without the knowledge
of other ancient languages which his European competitors had enjoyed.
The translation, received in London on the 14th of March, made a
sensation, and a transcript sent in April to the Asiatic Society of
Paris secured him an honorary membership in that distinguished body. He
was now known, and many made haste to send him copies of everything
important which had been published in Europe. The works of Burnouf,
Niebuhr, le Brun and Porter came to his hands, and with such assistance
he made rapid progress, and in the winter of 1838-1839 his alphabet of
ancient Persian was almost complete. In 1839 he was in Bagdad, his work
written out and almost ready for publication. But he delayed, hoping for
more light, and revising sign by sign with exhaustless patience. He
expected to publish his preliminary memoir in the spring of 1840, when
he was suddenly sent to Afghanistan as political agent at Kandahar. Here
he was too busily engaged in war administration to attend to his
favourite studies, which were not renewed until 1843 when he returned to
Bagdad. There he received fresh copies and corrections of the Persepolis
inscriptions which had been made by Westergaard, and later made a
journey to Behistun to perfect his own copies of the texts which had
formed the basis of his own first study. At last, after many delays and
discouragements, he published, in 1846, in the _Journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society_, his memoir, or series of memoirs, on the ancient
Persian inscriptions, in which for the first time he gave a nearly
complete translation of the Persian text of Behistun. In this one
publication Rawlinson attained imperishable fame in Oriental research.
His work had been carried on under greater difficulties than those in
the path of his European colleagues, but he had surpassed them all in
the making of an intelligible and connected translation of a long
inscription. He had indeed not done it without assistance from the work
of Burnouf, Grotefend and Lassen, but when all allowance is made for
these influences his fame is not diminished nor the extent of his
services curtailed. His method was adopted before he knew of Lassen's
work. That two men of such different training and of such opposite types
of mind should have lighted upon the same method, and by it have
attained the same results, confirmed in the eyes of many the truth of
the decipherment.

The work of the decipherment of the old Persian texts was now complete
for all practical purposes. But in 1846 there appeared a paper read
before the Royal Irish Academy by the Rev. Edward Hincks of Killyleagh,
County Down, Ireland, whose keen criticisms of Lassen's work, and
original contributions to the definite settlement of syllabic values,
may be regarded as closing the period of decipherment of Persian
cuneiform writing.

The next problem in the study of cuneiform was the decipherment of the
second language in each of the trilingual groups. The first essay in
this difficult task was made in 1844 by Niels Louis Westergaard. His
method was very similar to that used by Grotefend in the decipherment of
Persian. He selected the names of Darius, Hystaspes, Persians and
others, and compared them with their equivalents in the Persian texts.
By this means he learned a number of signs, and sought by their use in
other words to spell out syllables or words whose meanings were then
ascertained by conjecture or by comparison. He estimated the number of
characters at eighty-two or eighty-seven, and judged the writing to be
partly alphabetic and partly syllabic. The language he called Median,
and classified it in "the Scythian, rather than in the Japhetic family."
The results of Westergaard were subjected to incisive criticism by
Hincks, who made a distinct gain in the problem. It next passed to the
hands of de Saulcy, who was able to see further than either. But the
matter moved with difficulty because the copied texts were not accurate.
By the generosity of Sir Henry Rawlinson his superb copies of the
Behistun text, second column, were placed in the hands of Mr Edwin
Norris, who was able in 1852 to present a paper to the Royal Asiatic
Society deciphering nearly all of it. Mordtmann followed him, naming the
language Susian, which was met with general acceptance and was not
displaced by the name Amardian, suggested by A. H. Sayce in two papers
which otherwise made important contributions to the subject. With his
contributions the problem of decipherment of Susian may be considered as
closed. The latter workers could only be builders on foundations already
laid.

The decipherment of the third of the three languages found at Persepolis
and Behistun followed quickly on the success with Susian. The first
worker was Isadore Löwenstern, who made out the words for "king" and
"great" and the sign for the plural, but little more. The first really
great advance was made by Hincks in 1846 and 1847. In these he
determined successfully the values of several signs, settled the
numerals, and was apparently on the high-road toward the translation of
an entire Assyrian text. He was, however, too cautious to proceed so
far, and the credit of first translating a short Assyrian text belongs
to Longpérier, who in 1847 published the following as the translation of
an entire text: "Glorious is Sargon, the great king, the (...) king,
king of kings, king of the land of Assyria." It was nearly all correct,
but it advanced our knowledge but slightly because it did not give the
forms of the words--because (to put it in another way) he was not able
to transliterate the Assyrian words. This was the great problem. In the
Persian texts there were but forty-four signs, but in the third column
of the Persepolis texts Grotefend had counted one hundred and thirty
different characters, and estimated that in all the Babylonian texts
known to him there were about three hundred different signs, while Botta
discovered six hundred and forty-two in the texts found by him at
Khorsabad. That was enough to make the stoutest heart quail, for a
meaning must be found for every one of these signs. There could not be
so many syllables, and it was, therefore, quite plain that the
Babylonian language must have been written in part at least in
ideograms. But in 1851 Rawlinson published one hundred and twelve lines
of the Babylonian column from Behistun, accompanied by an interlinear
transcription into Roman characters, and a translation into Latin. That
paper, added to Hinck's still more acute detail studies, brought to an
end the preliminary decipherment of Babylonian. There were still
enormous difficulties to be surmounted in the full appreciation of the
complicated script, but these would be solved by the combined labours of
many workers.


  Origin.

The cuneiform script had its origin in Babylonia and its inventors were
a people whom we call the Sumerians. Before the Semitic Babylonians
conquered the land it was inhabited by a people of unknown origin
variously classified, by different scholars, with the Ural-altaic or
even with the Indo-European family, or as having blood relationship with
both. This people is known to us from thousands of cuneiform
inscriptions written entirely in their language, though our chief
knowledge of them was for a long time derived from Sumerian inscriptions
with interlinear translations in Assyrian. Their language is called
Sumerian (li-sa-an Su-me-ri) by the Assyrians (Br. Mus. 81-7-27, 130),
and its characteristics are being slowly developed by the elaborate
study of the immense literature which has come down to us. In 1884
Halévy denied the existence of the Sumerian language, and claimed that
it was merely a cabalistic script invented by the priests of the
Semites. His early success has not been sustained, and the vast majority
of scholars have ceased to doubt the existence of the language.

The Sumerians developed their script from a rude picture-writing, some
early forms of which have come down to us. In course of time they used
the pictures to represent sounds, apart from ideas. They wrote first on
stone, and when clay was adopted soon found that straight lines in soft
clay when made by a single pressure of the stylus tend to become wedges,
and the pictures therefore lost their character and came to be mere
conventional groups of wedges. Some of these wedge-shaped signs are of
such character that we are still able to recognize or re-construct the
original picture from which they came. The Assyrian sign [symbol], which
means heaven, appears in early texts in the form [symbol] in which its
star-like form is quite evident (star = heaven) and from which the
linear form [symbol] may be not improbably pre-supposed. A number of
other cases were enumerated by the Assyrians themselves (see _Cuneiform
Texts from Bab. Tab. in Brit. Museum_, vol. v., 1898), and there can be
no reasonable doubt that this is the origin of the script.


  Development and characteristics.

The number of the original picture-signs cannot have been great, but the
development of new signs never ceased till the cuneiform script passed
wholly from use. The simplest form of development was doubling, to
express plurality or intensity. After this came the working of two signs
into one; thus [symbol] "water," when placed in [symbol] "mouth" gave
the new sign [symbol] "to drink," and many others. Other signs were
formed by the addition of four lines, either vertically or horizontally,
to intensify the original meaning. Thus, for instance, the old linear
sign [symbol] means dwelling, but with four additional signs, thus
[symbol], it means "great house." This sign gradually changed in form
until it came to be [symbol]. This method of development was called by
the Sumerians _gunu_, and signs thus formed are now commonly called by
us, _gunu_ signs. They number hundreds and must be reckoned with in our
study of the script development, though perhaps recent scholars have
somewhat exaggerated their importance. The process of development is
obscure and must always remain so.

The script as finally developed and used by the Assyrians is cumbrous
and complicated, and very ill adapted to the sounds of the Semitic
alphabet. It has (1) simple syllables, consisting of one vowel and a
consonant, or a vowel by itself, thus [symbol] "a," [symbol] ab,
[symbol] ib, [symbol] ub, [symbol] ba, [symbol] bi, [symbol] bu. In
addition to these the Assyrian had also (2) compound syllables, such as
[symbol] bit, [symbol] bal, and (3) ideograms, or signs which express an
entire word, such as [symbol] _beltu_, lady, [symbol] _abu_, father. The
difficulty of reading this script is enormously increased by the fact
that many signs are polyphonous, i.e. they may have more than one
syllabic value and also be used as an ideogram. Thus the sign [symbol]
has the ideographic values of _matu_, land, _shadu_, mountain,
_kashadu_, to conquer, _napachu_, to arise (of the sun), and also the
syllabic values _kur_, _mad_, _mat_, _shad_, _shat_, _lat_, _nad_,
_nat_, _kin_ and _gin_. This method of writing must lead to ambiguity,
and this difficulty is helped somewhat by (4) determinatives, which are
signs intended to indicate the class to which the word belongs. Thus,
the [symbol] is placed before names of persons, and [symbol] (the
ideogram for _matu_, country, and _shadu_, mountain) is placed before
names of countries and mountains, and [symbol] (_ilu_, god) before the
names of gods.


  History.

The cuneiform writing, begun by the Sumerians in a period so remote that
it is idle to speculate concerning it, had a long and very extensive
history. It was first adopted by the Semitic Babylonians, and as we have
seen was modified, developed, nay almost made over. Their inscriptions
are written in it from _circa_ 4500 B.C. to the 1st century B.C. From
their hands it passed to the Assyrians, who simplified some characters
and conventionalized many more, and used the script during the entire
period of their national existence from 1500 B.C. to 607 B.C. From the
Babylonian by a slow process of evolution the much simplified Persian
script was developed, and with the Babylonian is also to be connected
the Susian, less complicated than the Babylonian, but less simple than
the Persian. The Chaldians (not Chaldaeans), who lived about Lake Van,
also adopted the cuneiform script with values of their own, and
expressed a considerable literature in it. The discovery in 1887 of the
Tell-el-Amarna tablets in upper Egypt showed that the same script was in
use in the 15th century B.C., from Elam to the Mediterranean and from
Armenia to the Persian Gulf for purposes of correspondence. There is
good reason to expect the discovery of its use by yet other peoples. It
was one of the most widely used of all the forms of ancient writing.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The history of the decipherment may be further studied
  in R. W. Rogers, _History of Babylonia and Assyria_, vol. i. (N.Y. and
  London, 1900); and in A. J. Booth, _The Discovery and Decipherment of
  the Trilingual Cuneiform Inscriptions_ (London, 1902), which is very
  exhaustive and accurate. The Sumerian question may best be studied in
  F. H. Weissbach, _Die Sumerische Frage_ (Leipzig, 1898), and Charles
  Fossey, _Manuel d'Assyriologie_, tome i. (Paris, 1904). For
  development and characteristics, see Friedrich Delitzsch, _Die
  Entstehung des ältesten Schriftsystems_ (Leipzig, 1897); Paul
  Toscanne, _Les Signes sumériens dérivés_ (Paris, 1905).     (R. W. R.)



CUNEO (Fr. _Coni_), a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, the
capital of the province of Cuneo, 55 m. by rail S. of Turin, 1722 ft.
above sea-level. Cuneo lies on the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia,
which farther on passes under the Col di Tenda (tunnel 5 m. long). It is
also a junction for Mondovi and Saluzzo, and has steam tramways to Borgo
S. Dalmazzo, Boves, Saluzzo and Dronero. Pop. (1901) 15,412 (town),
26,879 (commune). Its name ("wedge") is due to its position on a hill
between two streams, the Stura and the Gesso, with fine views of the
mountains. The Franciscan church, now converted into a military
storehouse, belongs to the 12th century, but there are no other
buildings of special interest. The fortifications have been converted
into promenades. Cuneo was founded about 1120 by refugees from local
baronial tyranny, who, after the destruction of Milan by Barbarossa,
were joined by Lombards. In 1382 it swore fealty to Amedeus VI., duke of
Savoy. It was an important fortress, and was ceded by the treaty of
Cherasco (1796), with Ceva and Tortona, to the French. In 1799 it was
taken after ten days' bombardment by the Austrian and Russian armies,
and, in 1800, after the victory of Marengo, the French demolished the
fortifications.



CUNEUS (Latin for "wedge"; plural, _cunei_), the architectural term
applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by
the _scalae_ or stairways; see Vitruvius v. 4.



CUNITZ, MARIA (c. 1610-1664), Silesian astronomer, was the eldest
daughter of Dr Heinrich Cunitz of Schweinitz, and the wife (1630) of Dr
Elias von Löven, of Pitschen in Silesia--both of them men of learning
and distinction. From her universal accomplishments she was called the
"Silesian Pallas," and the publication of her work, _Urania propitia_
(Oels, 1650), a simplification of the Rudolphine Tables, gained her a
European reputation. It was composed at the village of Lugnitz, close by
the convent of Olobok (Posen), where, with her husband, she had taken
refuge at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, and was dedicated to
the emperor Frederick III. The author became a widow in 1661, and died
at Pitschen on the 24th of August 1664.

  See A. G. Kästner, _Geschichte der Mathematik_, iv. 430 (1800); N.
  Henelii, _Silesiographia renovata_, cap. vi. p. 684; J. C. Eberti's
  _Schlesiens wohlgelehrtes Frauenzimmer_, p. 25 (Breslau, 1727);
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (Schimmelpfenning); &c.



CUNNINGHAM, ALEXANDER (c. 1655-1730), Scottish classical scholar and
critic, was born in Ayrshire. Very little is known of his uneventful
life. It is probable that he completed his education at Leiden or
Utrecht. He was tutor to the son of the first duke of Queensberry,
through whose influence he was appointed professor of civil law in the
university of Edinburgh. In 1710, the Edinburgh magistrates, regarding
the university patronage as their privilege, appointed another
professor, ignoring the appointment of Cunningham, who had been
installed in the office for at least ten years. Cunningham thereupon
left England for the Hague, where he resided until his death. He is
chiefly known for his edition of Horace (1721) with notes, mostly
critical, which included a volume of _Animadversiones_ upon Richard
Bentley's notes and emendations. They marked him as one of the most able
critics of Bentley's (in many cases) rash and tasteless conjectural
alterations of the text. Cunningham also edited the works of Virgil and
Phaedrus (together with the _Sententiae_ of Publilius Syrus and others).
He had also been engaged for some years in the preparation of an edition
of the Pandects and of a work on Christian evidences.

  Life by D. Irving in _Lives of Scottish Writers_ (1839).

The above must not be confused with Alexander Cunningham, British
minister to Venice (1715-1720), a learned historian and author of _The
History of Great Britain_ (from 1688 to the accession of George I.),
originally written in Latin and published in an English translation
after his death.



CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN (1784-1842), Scottish poet and man of letters, was
born at Keir, Dumfriesshire, on the 7th of December 1784, and began life
as a stone mason's apprentice. His father was a neighbour of Burns at
Ellisland, and Allan with his brother James visited James Hogg, the
Ettrick shepherd, who became a friend to both. Cunningham contributed
some songs to Roche's _Literary Recreations_ in 1807, and in 1809 he
collected old ballads for Robert Hartley Cromek's _Remains of Nithsdale
and Galloway Song_; he sent in, however, poems of his own, which the
editor inserted, even though he may have suspected their real
authorship. In 1810 Cunningham went to London, where he supported
himself chiefly by newspaper reporting till 1814, when he became clerk
of the works in the studio of Francis Chantrey, retaining this
employment till the sculptor's death in 1841. He meanwhile continued to
be busily engaged in literary work. Cunningham's prose is often spoiled
by its misplaced and too ambitious rhetoric; his verse also is often
over-ornate, and both are full of mannerisms. Some of his songs,
however, hold a high place among British lyrics. "A Wet Sheet and a
Flowing Sea" is one of the best of our sea-songs, although written by a
landsman; and many other of Cunningham's songs will bear comparison with
it. He died on the 30th of October 1842.

He was married to Jean Walker, who had been servant in a house where he
lived, and had five sons and one daughter. JOSEPH DAVEY CUNNINGHAM
(1812-1851) entered the Bengal Engineers, and is known by his _History
of the Sikhs_ (1849). SIR ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM (1814-1893) also entered
the Bengal Engineers, attaining the rank of major-general; he was
director general of the Indian Archaeological Survey (1870-1885), and
wrote an _Ancient Geography of India_ (1871) and _Coins of Medieval
India_ (1894). PETER CUNNINGHAM (1816-1869) published several
topographical and biographical studies, of which the most important are
his _Handbook of London_ (1849) and _The Life of Drummond of
Hawthornden_ (1833). FRANCIS CUNNINGHAM (1820-1875) joined the Indian
army, and published editions of Ben Jonson (1871), Marlowe (1870) and
Massinger (1871).

  The works of Allan Cunningham include _Lives of the Most Eminent
  British Painters, Sculptors and Architects_ (1829-1833); _Sir
  Marmaduke Maxwell_ (1820), a dramatic poem; _Traditionary Tales of the
  Peasantry_ (1822), several novels (_Paul Jones, Sir Michael Scott,
  Lord Roldan_); the _Maid of Elwar_, a sort of epic romance; the _Songs
  of Scotland_ (1825); _Biographical and Critical History of the
  Literature of the Last Fifty Years_ (1833); an edition of _The Works
  of Robert Burns_, with notes and a life containing a good deal of new
  material (1834); _Biographical and Critical Dissertations_ affixed to
  Major's _Cabinet Gallery of Pictures_; and _Life, Journals and
  Correspondence of Sir David Wilkie_, published in 1843. An edition of
  his _Poems and Songs_ was issued by his son, Peter Cunningham, in
  1847.



CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM (1805-1861), Scottish theologian and ecclesiastic,
was born at Hamilton, in Lanarkshire, on the 2nd of October 1805, and
educated at the university of Edinburgh. He was licensed to preach in
1828, and in 1830 was ordained to a collegiate charge in Greenock, where
he remained for three years. In 1834 he was transferred to the charge of
Trinity College parish, Edinburgh. His removal coincided with the
commencement of the period known in Scottish ecclesiastical history as
the Ten Years' Conflict, in which he was destined to take a leading
share. In the stormy discussions and controversies which preceded the
Disruption the weight and force of his intellect, the keenness of his
logic, and his firm grasp of principle made him one of the most powerful
advocates of the cause of spiritual independence; and he has been
generally recognized as one of three to whom mainly the existence of the
Free Church is due, the others being Chalmers and Candlish. On the
formation of the Free Church in 1843, Cunningham was appointed professor
of church history and divinity in the New College, Edinburgh, of which
he became principal in 1847 in succession to Thomas Chalmers. His career
was very successful, his controversial sympathies combined with his
evident desire to be rigidly impartial qualifying him to be an
interesting delineator of the more stirring periods of church history,
and a skilful disentangler of the knotty points in theological polemics.
In 1859 he was appointed moderator of the General Assembly. He had
received the degree of D.D. from the university of Princeton in 1842. He
died on the 14th of December 1861. He was one of the founders of the
Evangelical Alliance. A theological lectureship at the New College,
Edinburgh, was endowed in 1862, to be known as the Cunningham
lectureship.

  A _Life of Cunningham_, by Rainy and Mackenzie, appeared in 1871.



CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM (1849-   ), English economist, was born at Edinburgh
on the 29th of December 1849. Educated at Edinburgh Academy and
University and Trinity College, Cambridge, he graduated 1st class in the
Moral Science tripos in 1873, and in the same year took holy orders. He
was university lecturer in history from 1884 to 1891, in which year he
was appointed professor of economics at King's College, London, a post
which he held until 1897. He was lecturer in economic history at Harvard
University (1899), and Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge (1885). He became
vicar of Great St Mary's, Cambridge, in 1887, and was made a fellow of
the British Academy. In 1906 he was appointed archdeacon of Ely. Dr
Cunningham's _Growth of English Industry and Commerce during the Early
and Middle Ages_ (1890; 4th ed., 1905) and _Growth of English Industry
and Commerce in Modern Times_ (1882; 3rd ed., 1903) are the standard
works of reference on the industrial history of England. He also wrote
_The Use and Abuse of Money_ (1891); _Alien Immigration_ (1897);
_Western Civilization in its Economic Aspect in Ancient Times_ (1898),
and _in Modern Times_ (1900), and _The Rise and Decline of Free Trade_
(1905). Dr Cunningham's eminence as an economic historian gave special
importance to his attitude as one of the leading supporters of Mr
Chamberlain from 1903 onwards in criticizing the English free-trade
policy and advocating tariff reform.



CUP (in O. E. _cuppe_; generally taken to be from Late Lat. _cuppa_, a
variant of Lat. _cupa_, a cask, cf. Gr. [Greek: kypellon]), a drinking
vessel, usually in the form of a half a sphere, with or without a foot
or handles. The footless type with a single handle is preserved in the
ordinary tea-cup. The cup on a stem with a base is the usual form taken
by the cup as used in the celebration of the eucharist, to which the
name "chalice" (Lat. _calix_, Gr. [Greek: kylix], a goblet) is generally
given. (See DRINKING VESSELS and PLATE.)



CUPAR, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and capital of the county of
Fifeshire, Scotland, 11 m. W. by S. of St Andrews by the North British
railway. Pop. (1901) 4511. It is situated on the left bank of the Eden,
in the east of the Howe (Hollow) of Fife, and is sometimes written
Cupar-Fife to distinguish it from Coupar-Angus in Perthshire. Among the
chief buildings are the town hall, county buildings, corn exchange,
Duncan Institute, cottage hospital, Union Street Hall and the
Bell-Baxter school. The school, formerly called the Madras Academy, was
originally endowed (1832) by Dr Bell, founder of the Madras system of
education, but, having been enriched at a later date by a bequest of Sir
David Baxter (1873), it was afterwards called the Bell-Baxter school.
The Mercat Cross stands at "the Cross" in the main street, where it was
set up in 1897, having been removed from Hilltarvit, an eminence in the
neighbourhood of Cupar, on the western slope of which, at Garliebank,
the truce was signed between Mary of Guise and the lords of the
Congregation. In the parish, but at a distance from the town, are the
Fife and Kinross asylum and the Adamson institute, a holiday home for
poor children from Leith. The town received its charter in 1356 from
David II., and, being situated between Falkland and St Andrews, was
constantly visited by Scottish sovereigns, James VI. holding his court
there for some time in 1583. The site of the 12th-century castle, one of
the strongholds of the Macduffs, thanes or earls of Fife, is occupied by
a public school. On the esplanade in front of Macduff Castle, still
called the Playfield, took place in 1552 one of the first recorded
performances of Sir David Lindsay's _Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits_
(1540); his _Tragedy of the Cardinal_ (1547), referring to the murder of
Beaton, being also performed there. Sir David sat in the Scottish
parliament as commissioner for Cupar, his place, the Mount, being within
3 m. north-west of the town. Lord Chancellor Campbell (1799-1861) was a
native of Cupar.

Cupar is an agricultural and legal centre. Its chief industry is the
manufacture of linen, and tanning is carried on. At Cupar Muir, 1½ m. to
the west, there are a sandstone quarry and brick works. The town has
also some repute for the quality of its printing, both in black and
colour. This was largely due to the Tullis press, which produced about
the beginning of the 19th century editions of Virgil, Horace and other
classical writers, under the recension of Professor John Hunter of St
Andrews, which were highly esteemed for the accuracy of their
typography. Cupar belongs to the St Andrews district group of burghs for
returning one member to parliament, the other constituents being Crail,
the two Anstruthers, Kilrenny, Pittenweem and St Andrews.

There are several interesting places within a few miles. To the
north-east is the parish of Dairsie, where one of the few parliaments
that ever met in Fife assembled in 1335. The castle in which the senate
sat was also the residence for a period of Archbishop Spottiswood, who
founded the parish church in 1621. Two miles and a half north of Dairsie
is situated Kilmany, which was the first charge of Thomas Chalmers. He
was ordained to it in May 1803 and held it for twelve years. David
Hackston, the Covenanter, who was a passive assister at the
assassination of Archbishop Sharp, belonged to this parish, his place
being named Rathillet. After his execution at Edinburgh (1680) one of
his hands was buried at Cupar, where a monument inscription records the
circumstances of his death. To the west of Kilmany lies Creich, where
Alexander Henderson (1583-1646), the Covenanting divine and diplomatist,
and John Sage (1652-1711), the non-juring archbishop of Glasgow, were
born. Henderson took a keen interest in education and gave the school at
Creich a small endowment. Some 3 m. to the south-west of Cupar is Cults,
where Sir David Wilkie, the painter, was born. His father was minister
of the parish, and Pitlessie, the fair of which provided the artist with
the subject of the first picture in which he showed distinct promise,
lies within a mile of the manse. In the sandstone of Dura Den, a ravine
on Ceres Burn, 2½ m. E. of Cupar, have been found great quantities of
fossils of ganoid fishes. The rocks belong to the Upper Old Red
Sandstone.



CUPBOARD, a fixed or movable closet usually with shelves. As the name
suggests, it is a descendant of the credence or buffet, the
characteristic of which was a series of open shelves for the reception
of drinking vessels and table requisites. After the word lost its
original meaning--and down to the end of the 16th century we still find
the expression "on the cupboard"--this piece of furniture was, as it to
some extent remains, movable, but it is now most frequently a fixture
designed to fill a corner or recess. Throughout the 18th century the
cupboard was a distinguished domestic institution, and the housewife
found her chief joy in accumulating cupboards full of china, glass and
preserves. With the exception of a very few examples of fine
ecclesiastical cupboards which partook chiefly of the nature of the
armoire in that they were intended for the storage of vestments, the
so-called court-cupboard is perhaps the oldest form of the contrivance.
The derivation of the expression is somewhat obscure, but it is
generally taken to refer to the French word _court_, short. This
particular type was much used from the Elizabethan to the end of the
Carolinian period. It was really a sideboard with small square doors
below, and a recessed superstructure supported upon balusters. Of these
many examples remain. Less frequent is the livery cupboard, the meaning
of which may be best explained by the following quotation from Spenser's
_Account of the State of Ireland_:--"What livery is we by common use in
England know well enough, namely, that it is an allowance of horse-meat,
as they commonly use the word stabling, as to keep horses at livery; the
which word I guess is derived of livering or delivering forth their
nightly food; so in great houses the livery is said to be served up for
all night--that is, their evening allowance for drink." The livery
cupboard appears usually to have been placed in bedrooms, so that a
supply of food and drink was readily available when a very long interval
separated the last meal of the evening from the first in the morning.
The livery cupboard was often small enough to stand upon a sideboard or
cabinet, and had an open front with a series of turned balusters. It was
often used in churches to contain the loaves of bread doled out to poor
persons under the terms of ancient charities. They were then called dole
cupboards; there are two large and excellent examples in St Alban's
Abbey. The butter, or bread and cheese cupboard, was a more ordinary
form, with the back and sides bored with holes, sometimes in a
geometrical pattern, for the admission of air to the food within. The
corner cupboard, which is in many ways the most pleasing and artistic
form of this piece of furniture, originated in the 18th century, which
as we have seen was the golden age of the cupboard. It was often of oak,
but more frequently of mahogany, and had either a solid or a glass
front. The older solid-fronted pieces are fixed to the wall half-way up,
but those of the somewhat more modern type, in which there is much
glass, usually have a wooden base with glazed superstructure. Most
corner cupboards are attractive in form and treatment, and many of
them, inlaid with satinwood, ebony, holly or box, are extremely elegant.



CUPID (_Cupido_, "desire"), the Latin name for the god of love, Eros
(q.v.). Cupid is generally identical with Amor. The idea of the god of
love in Roman poetry is due to the influence of Alexandrian poets and
artists, in whose hands he degenerated into a mischievous boy with
essentially human characteristics. His usual attribute is the bow. For
the story of Cupid and Psyche, see under PSYCHE.



CUPOLA (Ital., from Lat. _cupula_, small cask or vault, _cupa_, tub), a
term, in architecture, for a spherical or spheroidal covering to a
building, or to any part of it. In fortification the word is used of a
form of armoured structure, in which guns or howitzers are mounted. It
is a low flat turret resembling an overturned saucer and showing little
above the ground except the muzzles of the guns. See for details and
illustrations FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT; also ORDNANCE.



CUPPING. The operation of cupping is one of the methods that have been
adopted by surgeons to draw blood from an inflamed part in order to
relieve the inflammation. The skin is washed and dried; a glass cup with
a rounded edge is then firmly applied, after the air in it has been
heated; the cooling of the air causes the formation of a partial vacuum,
and the blood is thus drawn from the neighbouring parts to the skin
under the cup. Either the blood is drawn from the patient's body through
a number of small wounds which are made in the skin, with a special
instrument, before the cup is applied; or the cup is simply applied to
the unbroken skin and the blood drawn into the subcutaneous tissue
within the circumference of the cup. The result of both methods is the
same,--namely, a withdrawal of blood locally from the inflamed part. The
former is called moist cupping, the latter dry cupping. This operation
has naturally declined in vogue with the obsolescence of blood-letting
as a remedy.



CUPRA, the name of two ancient Italian _municipia_ in Picenum.

1. Cupra Maritima (Civita di Marano near the modern Cupra Marittima), on
the Adriatic coast, 48 m. S.S.E. of Ancona, erected in the neighbourhood
of an ancient temple of the Sabine goddess Cupra, which was restored by
Hadrian in A.D. 127, and probably (though there is some controversy on
the point) occupied the site of the church of S. Martino, some way to
the south, in which the inscription of Hadrian exists. At Civita the
remains of what was believed to be the temple were more probably those
of the forum of the town, as is indicated by the discovery of fragments
of a calendar and of a statue of Hadrian. Some statuettes of Juno were
also among the finds. An inscription of a water reservoir erected in 7
B.C. is also recorded. But the more ancient Picene town appears to have
been situated near the hill of S. Andrea, a little way to the south,
where pre-Roman tombs have been discovered.

  See C. Hülsen in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_ (Stuttgart, 1901),
  iv. 1760; G. Speranza, _Il Piceno_ (Ascoli Piceno, 1900), i. 119 seq.

2. Cupra Montana, 10 m. S.W. of Aesis (mod. Jesi) by road. The village,
formerly called Massaccio, has resumed the ancient name. Its site is
fixed by inscriptions--cf. Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscrip. Lat._ ix.
(Berlin, 1883), p. 543; and various ruins, perhaps of baths, and remains
of subterranean aqueducts have been discovered near the church of S.
Eleuterio.

  See F. Menicucci in G. Colucci, _Antichità Picene_, xx. (1793).



CUPRITE, a mineral consisting of cuprous oxide, Cu2O, crystallizing in
the cubic system, and forming an important ore of copper, of which
element cuprite contains 88.8%. The name cuprite (from Lat. _cuprum_,
copper) was given by W. Haidinger in 1845; earlier names are red copper
ore and ruby copper, which at once distinguish this mineral from the
other native copper oxide--cupric oxide--known as black copper ore or
melaconite. Well-developed crystals are of common occurrence; they
usually have the form of the regular octahedron, sometimes in
combination with the cube and the rhombic dodecahedron. A few Cornish
crystals have been observed with faces of a form {_hkl_} known as the
pentagonal icositetrahedron, since it is bounded by twenty-four
irregular pentagons. In this class of cubic crystals there are no planes
or centre of symmetry, but the full number (thirteen) of axes of
symmetry; it is known as the trapezohedral hemihedral class, and cuprite
affords the best example of this type of symmetry. The etching figures
do not, however, conform to this lower degree of symmetry, nor do
crystals of cuprite rotate the plane of polarization of plane-polarized
light. The colour of the mineral is cochineal-red, and the lustre
brilliant and adamantine to sub-metallic in character; crystals are
often translucent, and show a crimson-red colour by transmitted light.
On prolonged exposure to light the crystals become dull and opaque. The
streak is brownish-red. Hardness 3½; specific gravity 6.0; refractive
index 2.85.

[Illustration]

Compact to granular masses also occur, and there are two curious
varieties--chalcotrichite and tile-ore--which require special mention.
Chalcotrichite (from Gr. [Greek: chalkos], copper, and [Greek: thrix],
[Greek: trichos], hair) or "plush copper ore" is a capillary form with a
rich carmine colour and silky lustre; the delicate hairs are loosely
matted together, and each one is an individual crystal enormously
elongated in the direction of the diagonal or the edge of the cube.
Tile-ore (Ger. _Ziegelerz_) is a soft earthy variety of a brick-red to
brownish-red colour; it contains admixed limonite, and has been formed
by the alteration of chalcopyrite (copper and iron sulphide).

Cuprite occurs in the upper part of copper-bearing lodes, and is of
secondary origin, having been produced by the alteration of copper
sulphides. Beautifully crystallized specimens were formerly found in
Wheal Gorland and Wheal Unity at Gwennap, and in Wheal Phoenix near
Liskeard in Cornwall; they also occur in the copper mines of the Urals,
and in Arizona. Isolated crystals bounded by faces on all sides, and an
inch or more in diameter, are found embedded in a soft white clay at
Chessy near Lyons; they are usually altered on the surface, or
throughout, to malachite. Chalcotrichite comes from Wheal Phoenix and
Fowey Consols mine in Cornwall, and from Morenci in Arizona; tile-ore
from Bogoslovsk in the Urals, Atacama in South America, and other
localities. Small crystals of cuprite, together with malachite, azurite
and cerussite, are sometimes found encrusting ancient objects of copper
and bronze, such as celts and Roman coins, which have for long periods
remained buried in the soil. Artificially formed crystals have been
observed in furnace products.     (R. W. R.)



CUPULIFERAE, a botanical order, or, in recent arrangements, group of
orders, containing several familiar trees. The plants are trees or
shrubs with simple leaves alternately arranged and small unisexual
flowers generally arranged in catkins and pollinated by wind-agency. The
generally one-seeded nut-like fruit is associated with the persistent
often hardened or greatly enlarged bracts forming the so-called cupule
which gives the name to the group. The group is subdivided as follows,
and these subdivisions are now generally regarded either as distinct
natural orders or the first two as sub-orders of one natural order.

_Betuleae_ or _Betulaceae_. Female flowers arranged, two to three
together on scale-like structures formed by the union of bracts, in
catkins; ovary two-celled; fruit small, flattened, protected between the
ripened scales of the catkin. Includes _Betula_ (birch) and _Alnus_
(alder).

_Coryleae_ or _Corylaceae_. Female flowers in pairs, the bracts
enlarging in the fruit to form a membranous cup (hazel), or a flat
three-lobed structure (hornbeam). Ovary two-celled. Includes _Corylus_
(hazel) and _Carpinus_ (hornbeam).

_Fagaceae_ (Cupuliferae in a restricted sense). Bracts forming a fleshy
or hard cupule which envelops the one to several fruits. Ovary
three-celled. Includes _Quercus_ (oak), _Fagus_ (beech), _Castanea_
(sweet-chestnut).

  Detailed accounts of the trees will be found under separate headings.



CURAÇAO, or CURAÇOA, an island in the Dutch West Indies. It lies 40 m.
from the north coast of Venezuela, in 12° N. and 69° W., being 40 m.
long from N.W. to S.E., with an average width of 10 m. and an area of
212 sq. m. The surface is generally flat, but in the south-west there
are hills attaining an elevation of 1200 ft. The shores are in places
deeply indented, forming several natural harbours, the chief of which is
that of St Anna on the south-west coast. Curaçao consists of eruptive
rocks, chiefly diorite and diabase, and is surrounded by coral reefs.
Streams are few and the rainfall is scanty, averaging only 16 in. per
annum. Although the plains are for the most part arid wastes, sugar,
aloes, tobacco and divi-divi are produced with much toil in the more
fertile glens. Salt, phosphates and cattle are exported. The commerce is
mainly with the United States, and there is a large carrying trade with
Venezuela. The famous Curaçoa liqueur (see below) was originally made on
the island from a peculiar variety of orange, the _Citrus Aurantium
curassuviensis_. Willemstad (pop. about 8000), on the harbour of St.
Anna, is the principal town. It bears a strong resemblance to a Dutch
town, for the houses are built in the style of those of Amsterdam, and
the narrow channel separating it from its western suburb of Overzijde
and the waters of the Waigat, which intersect it, recall the canals. The
narrow entrance leading to the Schottegat or Inner Harbour is protected
by forts. The negroes of the island speak a curious dialect called
_Papaimento_, composed of Spanish, Dutch, English and native words.
Curaçao gives name to the government of the Dutch West Indies, which
consists of Aruba, an island lying W. of Curaçao, with an area of 69 sq.
m. and a population of 9591; Buen Ayre, lying 20 m. N.E., with an area
of 95 sq. m. and a population of 4926; together with St Eustatius, Saba
and part of St Martin. The governor is assisted by a council of four
members and a colonial council of eight members nominated by the crown.
The island of Curaçao has a population of 30,119; and altogether the
Dutch West Indies have a population of 51,693.

Curaçao was discovered by Hojeda about 1499 and occupied by the
Spaniards in 1527. In 1634 it fell into the hands of the Dutch, who have
held it ever since, except during the year 1798 and from 1806 to 1814
when it passed into the possession of Great Britain.

  See Wynmalen, "Les Colonies néerlandaises dans les Antilles," _Revue
  colon. internat._ (1887), ii. p. 391; K. Martin, _West-Indische
  Skizzen_ (Leiden, 1887); De Veer, _La Colonie de Curaçoa_ (Les Pays
  Bas, 1898). Also several articles on all the islands in _Tijdschrift
  v. h. Ned. Aardr. Genootschap_ (1883-1886).



CURAÇOA, a liqueur, chiefly manufactured in Holland. It is relatively
simple in composition, the predominating flavour being obtained from the
dried peel of the Curaçoa orange. The method of preparation is in
principle as follows. The peel is first softened by maceration; then a
part of the softened peel is distilled with spirit and water, and the
remainder is macerated in a portion of the distillate so obtained. After
two or three days the infusion is strained and added to the remainder of
the original distillate. This simple method is subject to variations in
manufacture, and the addition of a small quantity of Jamaica rum, in
particular, is said to much improve the flavour. Dry Curaçoa contains
about 39%, the sweet variety about 36% of alcohol. A lighter variety of
Curaçoa, made with fine brandy, is known as "Grand Marnier."



CURASSOW (_Cracinae_), a group of gallinaceous birds forming one of the
subfamilies of _Cracidae_, the species of which are among the largest
and most splendid of the game birds of South America, where they may be
said to represent the pheasants of the Old World. They are large, heavy
birds, many of them rivalling the turkey in size, with short wings, long
and broad tail, and strong bill. In common with the family to which they
belong, they have the hind toe of the foot placed on a level with the
others, thus resembling the pigeons, and unlike the majority of
gallinaceous birds. With the exception of a single species found north
of Panama, the curassows are confined to the tropical forests of South
America, east of the Andes, and not extending south of Paraguay. They
live in small flocks, and are arboreal in their habits, only
occasionally descending to the ground, while always roosting and
building their nests on the branches of trees. Their nests are neat
structures, made of slender branches interlaced with stems of grass, and
lined internally with leaves. They feed on fruits, seeds and insects.
They are often tamed in several parts of South America, but have never
been thoroughly domesticated anywhere. Large numbers of these birds
were, according to K. J. Temminck, brought to Holland from Dutch Guiana
towards the end of the 18th century, and got so completely acclimatized
and domesticated as to breed in confinement like ordinary poultry; but
the establishments in which these were kept were broken up during the
troubles that followed on the French Revolution. Their flesh is said to
be exceedingly white and delicate, and this, together with their size
and the beauty of their plumage, would make the curassows an important
gain to the poultry yards of Europe, if they were not such bad breeders.
The subfamily of curassows contains four genera and twelve species, all
confined to South America, with the exception of _Crax globicera_--a
Central American species, which extends northward into Mexico. This bird
is about 3 ft. in length, of a glossy black colour over the whole body,
excepting the abdomen and tail coverts, which are white. In common with
the other species of this genus its head bears a crest of feathers
curled forward at the tips, which can be raised or depressed at will.
The female is of a reddish-brown colour, although varying greatly in
this respect, and was formerly described as a separate species--the red
curassow. In another species, _Crax incommoda_, the greater part of the
black plumage is beautifully varied with narrow transverse bars of
white. The galeated curassow (_Pauxi galeata_) is peculiar in having a
large blue tubercle, hard and stony externally, but cellular within, and
resembling a hen's egg in size and shape, situated at the base of the
hill. It only appears after the first moulting, and is much larger in
the male than in the female.



CURATE (from the Lat. _curare_, to take care of), properly a presbyter
who has the cure of souls within a parish. The term is used in this
general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer,
in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual
curates. So, on the continent of Europe, it is applied in this sense to
parish priests, as the Fr. _curé_, Ital. _curato_, Span. _cura_, &c. In
a more limited sense it is applied in the Church of England to the
incumbent of a parish who has no endowment of tithes, as distinguished
from a perpetual vicar, who has an endowment of small tithes, which are
for that reason sometimes styled vicarial tithes. The origin of such
unendowed curacies is traceable to the fact that benefices were
sometimes granted to religious houses _pleno jure_, and with liberty for
them to provide for the cure; and when such appropriations were
transferred to lay persons, being unable to serve themselves, the
impropriators were required to nominate a clerk in full orders to the
ordinary for his licence to serve the cure. Such curates, being not
removable at the pleasure of the impropriators, but only on due
revocation of the licence of the ordinary, came to be entitled perpetual
curates. The term "curate" in the present day is almost exclusively used
to signify a clergyman who is assistant to a rector or vicar, by whom he
is employed and paid; and a clerk in deacon's orders is competent to be
licensed by a bishop to the office of such assistant curate. The
consequence of this misuse of the term "curate" was that the title of
"perpetual curate" fell into desuetude in the Anglican Church, and an
act of parliament (1868) was passed to authorize perpetual curates to
style themselves vicars (see VICAR). The term is in use in the Roman
Catholic Church in Ireland to designate an assistant clergyman, and also
to a certain extent in the American Episcopal Church, though "assistant
minister" is usually preferred.



CURATOR (Lat. for "one who takes care," _curare_, to take care of), in
Roman law the "caretaker" or guardian of a spendthrift (_prodigus_) or
of a person of unsound mind (_furiosus_), and, more particularly, one
who takes charge of the estate of an _adolescens_, i.e. of a person _sui
juris_, above the age of a _pupillus_, fourteen or twelve years,
according to sex, and below the full age of twenty-five. Such persons
were known as "minors," i.e. _minores viginti quinque annis_. While the
tutor, the guardian of the _pupillus_, was said to be appointed for the
care of the person, the curator took charge of the property. The term
survives in Scots law for the guardian of one in the second stage of
minority, i.e. below twenty-one, and above fourteen, if a male, and
twelve, if a female. Under the Roman empire the title of curator was
given to several officials who were in charge of departments of public
administration, such as the _curatores annonae_, of the public supplies
of corn and oil, or the _curatores regionum_, who were responsible for
order in the fourteen _regiones_ or districts into which the city of
Rome was divided, and who protected the citizen from exaction in the
collection of taxes; the _curatores aquarum_ had the charge of the
aqueducts. Many of these curatorships were instituted by Augustus. In
modern usage "curator" is applied chiefly to the keeper of a museum, art
collection, public gallery, &c., but in many universities to an official
or member of a board having a general control over the university, or
with the power of electing to professorships. In the university of
Oxford "curators" are nominated to administer certain departments, such
as the University Chest.



CURCI, CARLO MARIA (1810-1891), Italian theologian, was born at Naples.
He joined the Jesuits in 1826, and for some time was devoted to
educational work and the care of the poor and prisoners. He became one
of the first editors of the Jesuit organ, the _Civiltà Cattolica_; but
then came under the influence of Gioberti, Rosmini and other advocates
for reform. He wrote a preface to Gioberti's _Primato_ (1843), but
dissented from his _Prolegomena_. After the events of 1870, Curci, at
Florence, delivered a course on Christian philosophy; and in 1874 began
to publish several Scriptural works. In his edition of the New Testament
(1879-1880) he makes some severe remarks on the neglect of the study of
Scripture amongst the Italian clergy. In the meantime he began to attack
the political action of the Vatican, and in his _Il Moderno Dissidio tra
la Chiesa e l'Italia_ (1878) he advocated an understanding between the
church and state. This was followed by _La Nuova Italia ed i Vecchi
Zelanti_ (1881), another attack on the Vatican policy; and by his
_Vaticano Regio_ (1883), in which he accuses the Vatican of trafficking
in holy things and declares that the taint of worldliness came from the
false principles accepted by the Curia. His former work at Naples drew
him also in the direction of Christian Socialism. He was condemned at
Rome, and in a letter to _The Times_ (10th of September 1884) declares
that it was on account of his disobedience to the decrees of the Roman
Congregation: "I am a dutiful son of the Church who hesitates to obey an
order of his mother because he does not see clear enough the maternal
authority in it." He was cast out of the Society of Jesus and suspended,
and during this time Cardinal Manning put his purse at Curci's disposal.
Finally he accepted the decrees against him and retracted "all that he
said contrary to the faith, morals and discipline of the Church." He
passed the remainder of his life in retirement at Florence, and, a few
months before his death, was readmitted to the Jesuit Society. He died
on the 8th of June 1891.     (E. Tn.)



CUREL, FRANÇOIS, VICOMTE DE (1854-   ), French dramatist, was born at
Metz on the 10th of June 1854. He was educated at the École Centrale as
a civil engineer, the family wealth being derived from smelting works.
He began his literary career with two novels, _L'Été des fruits secs_
(1885) and _Le Sauvetage du grand duc_ (1889). In 1891 three pieces were
accepted by the Théâtre Libre. The list of his plays includes _L'Envers
d'une sainte_ (1892); _Les Fossiles_ (1892), a picture of the prejudices
of the provincial nobility; _L'Invitée_ (1893), the story of a mother
who returns to her children after twenty years' separation; _L'Amour
brode_ (1893), which was withdrawn by the author from the Théâtre
Français after the second representation; _La Figurante_ (1896); _Le
Repas du lion_ (1898), dealing with the relations between capital and
labour; _La Fille sauvage_ (1902), the history of the development of the
religious idea; _La Nouvelle Idole_ (1899), dealing with the worship of
science; and _Le Coup d'aile_ (1906).

  See also _Contemporary Review_ for August 1903.



CURÉLY, JEAN NICOLAS (1774-1827), French cavalry leader, was the son of
a poor peasant of Lorraine. Joining, in 1793, a regiment of hussars, he
served with great distinction as private and as _sous-officier_ in the
Rhine campaigns from 1794 to 1800. He was, however, still a
non-commissioned officer of twelve years' service, when at Afflenz (12th
of November 1805) he attacked and defeated, with twenty-five men, a
whole regiment of Austrian cavalry. This brilliant feat of arms won him
the grade of _sous-lieutenant_, and the reputation of being one of the
men of the future. The next two campaigns of the _Grande Armée_ gained
him two more promotions, and as a captain of hussars he performed, in
the campaign of Wagram, a feat of even greater daring than the affair of
Afflenz. Entrusted with despatches for the viceroy of Italy, Curély,
with forty troopers, made his way through the Austrian lines,
reconnoitred everywhere, even in the very headquarters-camp of the
archduke John, and finally accomplished his mission in safety. This
exploit, only to be compared to the famous raids of the American Civil
War, and almost unparalleled in European war, gained him the grade of
_chef d'escadrons_, in which for some years he served in the Peninsular
War. Under Gouvion St Cyr he took part in the Russian War of 1812, and
in 1813 was promoted colonel. In the campaign of France (1814) Curély,
now general of brigade, commanded a brigade of "improvised" cavalry, and
succeeded in infusing into this unpromising material some of his own
daring spirit. His regiments distinguished themselves in several
combats, especially at the battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. The Restoration
government looked with suspicion on the most dashing cavalry leader of
the younger generation, and in 1815 Curély, who during the Hundred Days
had rallied to his old leader, was placed on the retired list.
Withdrawing to the little estate of Jaulny (near Thiaucourt), which was
his sole property, he lived in mournful retirement, which was saddened
still further when in 1824 he was suddenly deprived of his rank. This
last blow hastened his death. Curély, had he arrived at high command
earlier, would have been ranked with Lasalle and Montbrun, but his
career, later than theirs in beginning, was ended by the fall of
Napoleon. His devoted friend, De Brack, in his celebrated work _Light
Cavalry Outposts_, considers Curély incomparable as a leader of light
cavalry, and the portrait of Curély to be found in its pages is justly
ranked as one of the masterpieces of military literature. The general
himself left but a modest manuscript, which was left for a subsequent
generation to publish.

  See also Thoumas, _Le Général Curély: itinéraires d'un Cavalier léger,
  1793-1815_ (Paris, 1887).



CURES, a Sabine town between the left bank of the Tiber and the Via
Salaria, about 26 m. from Rome. According to the legend, it was from
Cures that Titus Tatius led to the Quirinal the Sabine settlers, from
whom, after their union with the settlers on the Palatine, the whole
Roman people took the name Quirites. It was also renowned as the
birthplace of Numa, and its importance among the Sabines at an early
period is indicated by the fact that its territory is often called
simply _ager Sabinus_. At the beginning of the imperial period it is
spoken of as an unimportant place, but seems to have risen to greater
prosperity in the 2nd century. It appears as the seat of a bishop in the
5th century, but seems to have been destroyed by the Lombards in A.D.
589. The site consists of a hill with two summits, round the base of
which runs the Fosso Corese: the western summit was occupied by the
necropolis, the eastern by the citadel, and the lower ground between the
two by the city itself. A temple, the forum, the baths, &c., were
excavated in 1874-1877.

  See T. Ashby in _Papers of the British School at Rome_, iii. 34.
       (T. As.)



CURETES (Gr. [Greek: Kourêtes] and [Greek: Kourêtes]). (1) A legendary
people mentioned by Homer (_Il._ ix. 529 ff.) as taking part in the
quarrel over the Calydonian boar. They were identified in antiquity as
either Aetolians or Acarnanians (Strabo 462, 26), and were also
represented by a stock in Chalcis in Euboea. (2) In mythology
(unconnected with the above), the attendants of Rhea. The story went
that they saved the infant Zeus from his father Cronus in Crete by
surrounding his cradle and with clashing of sword and shield preventing
his cries from being heard, and thus became the body-guard of the god
and the first priests of Zeus and Rhea. In historic times the cult of
the Curetes was widely known in Greece in connexion with that of Rhea
(q.v.). Its ceremonies consisted principally in the performance of the
Pyrrhic dance to the accompaniment of hymns and flute music, by the
priests, who represented and thus commemorated the original act of the
Curetes themselves. The dance was originally distinguished from that of
the Corybantes by its comparative moderation, and took on the full
character of the latter only after the cult of the Great Mother, Cybele,
to which it belonged, spread to Greek soil. The origin of the dance may
have lain in the supposed efficacy of noise in averting evil.

The Curetes are represented in art with shield and sword performing the
sacred dance about the infant Zeus, sometimes in the presence of a
female figure which may be Rhea. Their number in art is usually two or
three, but in literature is sometimes as high as ten. Of their names the
following have survived: Kures, Kres, Biennos, Eleuther, Itanos,
Labrandos, Panamoros, Palaxos; but no complete list of names is possible
because of their confusion with the names of the Corybantes and other
like deities. Their origin is variously related: they were earth-born,
sprung of the rain, sons of Zeus and Hera, sons of Apollo and Danais,
sons of Rhea, of the Dactyli, contemporary with the Titans (Diod. Sic.
v. 66). Rationalism made them the mortal sons of a mortal Zeus, or
originators of the Pyrrhic dance, inventors of weapons, fosterers of
agriculture, regulators of social life, &c. A plausible theory is that
of Georg Kaibel (_Göttinger Nachrichten_, 1901, pp. 512-514), who sees
in them, together with the Corybantes, Cabeiri, Dactyli, Telchines,
Titans, &c., only the same beings under different names at different
times and in different places. Kaibel holds that they all had a phallic
significance, having once been great primitive deities of procreation,
and that having fallen to an indistinct, subordinate position in the
course of the development and formalization of Greek religion, they
survive in historic times only as half divine, half demonic beings,
worshipped in connexion with the various forms of the great nature
goddess. The resemblances, especially between Rhea and her Curetes and
the Great Mother and her Corybantes (q.v.), were so striking that their
origins were inextricably confused even in the minds of the ancients:
e.g. Demetrius of Scepsis (Strabo 469, 12) derives the Curetes and Rhea
from the cult of the Great Mother in Asia, while Virgil (_Aen._ iii.
111) looks upon the latter and the Corybantes as derivations from the
former. The worship of both was akin in nature to that of the Dactyli,
the Cabeiri, and even of Dionysus, the special visible bond being the
orgiastic character of their rites.

  Consult Immisch in Roscher's _Lexicon_, s.v. "Kureten."     (G. Sn.)



CURETON, WILLIAM (1808-1864), English Orientalist, was born at Westbury,
in Shropshire. After being educated at the free grammar school of
Newport, and at Christ Church, Oxford, he took orders in 1832, became
chaplain of Christ Church, sub-librarian of the Bodleian, and, in 1837,
assistant keeper of MSS. in the British Museum. He was afterwards
appointed select preacher to the university of Oxford, chaplain in
ordinary to the queen, rector of St Margaret's, Westminster, and canon
of Westminster. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society and a
trustee of the British Museum, and was also honoured by several
continental societies. He died on the 17th of June 1864.

  Cureton's most remarkable work was the edition with notes and an
  English translation of the Epistles of Ignatius to Polycarp, the
  Ephesians and the Romans, from a Syriac MS. that had been found in the
  monastery of St Mary Deipara, in the desert of Nitria, near Cairo. He
  held that the MS. he used gave the truest text, that all other texts
  were inaccurate, and that the epistles contained in the MS. were the
  only genuine epistles of Ignatius that we possess--a view which
  received the support of F. C. Baur, Bunsen, and many others, but which
  was opposed by Charles Wordsworth and by several German scholars, and
  is now generally abandoned (see IGNATIUS). Cureton supported his view
  by his _Vindiciae Ignatianae_ and his _Corpus Ignatianum,--a Complete
  Collection of the Ignatian Epistles, genuine, interpolated and
  spurious_. He also edited a partial Syriac text of the _Festal Letters
  of St Athanasius_, which was translated into English by Henry Burgess
  (1854), and published in the _Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic
  Church_; _Remains of a very Ancient Recension of the Four Gospels in
  Syriac, hitherto unknown in Europe_; _Spicilegium Syriacum, containing
  Remains of Bardesan, Meliton, Ambrose, Mara Bar Serapion_; _The third
  Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John, Bishop of Ephesus_, which
  was translated by Payne Smith; _Fragments of the Iliad of Homer from a
  Syriac Palimpsest_; an Arabic work known as the _Thirty-first Chapter
  of the Book entitled The Lamp that guides to Salvation_, written by a
  Christian of Tekrit; _The Book of Religious and Philosophical Sects_,
  by Muhammed al Sharastani; a _Commentary on the Book of Lamentations_,
  by Rabbi Tanchum; and the _Pillar of the Creed of the Sunnites_.
  Cureton also published several sermons, among which was one entitled
  _The Doctrine of the Trinity not Speculative but Practical_. After his
  death Dr W. Wright edited with a preface the _Ancient Syriac Documents
  relative to the earliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa and
  the neighbouring Countries, from the Year of our Lord's Ascension to
  the beginning of the Fourth Century; discovered, edited and annotated
  by the late W. Cureton_.



CURETUS, a tribe of South American Indians, inhabiting the country
between the rivers of Japura and Uaupés, north-western Brazil. They are
short but sturdy, wear their hair long, and paint their bodies. Their
houses are circular, with walls of thatch and a high conical roof. They
are a peaceable people, living in small villages, each of which is
governed by a chief.



CURFEW, CURFEU or COUVRE-FEU, a signal, as by tolling a bell, to warn
the inhabitants of a town to extinguish their fires or cover them up
(hence the name) and retire to rest. This was a common practice
throughout Europe during the middle ages, especially in cities taken in
war. In the law Latin of those times it was termed _ignitegium_ or
_pyritegium_. In medieval Venice it was a regulation from which only the
Barbers' Quarter was exempt, doubtless because they were also surgeons
and their services might be needed during the night. The curfew
originated in the fear of fire when most cities were built of timber.
That it was a most useful and practical measure is obvious when it is
remembered that the household fire was usually made in a hole in the
middle of the floor, under an opening in the roof through which the
smoke escaped. The custom is commonly said to have been introduced into
England by William the Conqueror, who ordained, under severe penalties,
that at the ringing of the curfew-bell at eight o'clock in the evening
all lights and fires should be extinguished. But as there is good reason
to believe that the curfew-bell was rung each night at Carfax, Oxford
(see Peshall, _Hist. of Oxford_), in the reign of Alfred the Great, it
would seem that all William did was to enforce more strictly an existing
regulation. The absolute prohibition of lights after the ringing of the
curfew-bell was abolished by Henry I. in 1100. The practice of tolling a
bell at a fixed hour in the evening, still extant in many places, is a
survival of the ancient curfew. The common hour was at first seven, and
it was gradually advanced to eight, and in some places to nine o'clock.
In Scotland ten was not an unusual hour. In early Roman times curfew may
possibly have served a political purpose by obliging people to keep
within doors, thus preventing treasonable nocturnal assemblies, and
generally assisting in the preservation of law and order. The ringing of
the "prayer-bell," as it is called, which is still practised in some
Protestant countries, originated in that of the curfew-bell. In 1848 the
curfew was still rung at Hastings, Sussex, from Michaelmas to Lady-Day,
and this was the custom too at Wrexham, N. Wales.



CURIA, in ancient Rome, a section of the Roman people, according to an
ancient division traditionally ascribed to Romulus. He is said to have
divided the people into three tribes, and to have subdivided each of
these into ten _curiae_, each of which contained a number of families
(_gentes_). It is more probable that the _curiae_ were not purely
artificial creations, but represent natural associations of families,
artificially regulated and distributed to serve a political purpose. The
local names of _curiae_ which have come down to us suggest a local
origin for the groups; but as membership was hereditary, the local tie
doubtless grew weak with successive generations. Each _curia_ was
organized as a political and religious unit. As a political corporation
it had no recognized activities beyond the command of a vote in the
_Comitia Curiata_ (see COMITIA), a vote whose nature was determined by a
majority in the votes of the individual members (_curiales_). But as a
religious unit the _curia_ had more individual activity. There were, it
is true, ceremonies (_sacra_) performed by all the _curiae_ to _Juno
Curis_ in which each _curia_ offered its part in a collective rite of
the whole people; but each _curia_ had also its peculiar _sacra_ and its
own special place of worship. The religious affairs of each were
conducted by a priest called _curio_ assisted by a _flamen curialis_.
The thirty _curiae_ must always have comprised the whole Roman people;
for citizenship depended on membership of a _gens_ (_gentilitas_) and
every member of a _gens_ was _ipso facto_ attached to a _curia_. They
therefore included plebeians as well as patricians (q.v.) from the date
at which plebeians were recognized as free members of the body politic.
But, just as enjoyment of the full rights of _gentilitas_ was only very
gradually granted to plebeians, so it is probable that a plebeian did
not, when admitted through a _gens_ into a _curia_, immediately exercise
all the rights of a _curialis_. It is unlikely, for instance, that
plebeians voted in the Comitia Curiata at the early date implied by the
authorities; but it is probable that they acquired the right early in
the republican period, and certain that they enjoyed it in Cicero's
time. A plebeian was for the first time elected _curio maximus_ in 209
B.C. The _curia_ ceased to have any importance as a political
organization some time before the close of the republican period. But
its religious importance survived during the principate; for the two
festivals of the Fornacalia and the Fordicidia were celebrated by the
_Curiales_ (Ovid, _Fasti_, ii. 527, iv. 635).

The term _curia_ seems often to have been applied to the common shrine
of the _curiales_, and thus to other places of assembly. Hence the
ancient senate house at Rome was known as the Curia Hostilia. The
_curia_ was also adopted as a state division in a large number of
municipal towns; and the term was often applied to the senate in
municipal towns (see DECURIO), probably from the name of the old senate
house at Rome.

  AUTHORITIES.--Mommsen, _Römisches Staatsrecht_, iii. p. 89 ff.
  (Leipzig, 1887); _Römische Forschungen_ i. p. 140 ff. (Berlin, 1864,
  &c.); Clason, "Die Zusammensetzung der Curien und ihrer Comitien"
  (_Kritische Erörterungen_ i., Rostock, 1871); Karlowa, _Römische
  Rechtsgeschichte_, i. p. 382 ff. (Leipzig, 1885); E. Hofmann,
  _Patricische und plebeische Curien_ (Wien, 1879); for the
  _Fornacalia_, &c., Marquardt, _Staatsverwaltung_, iii. p. 197
  (Leipzig, 1885); for local names of curiae, Pauly-Wissowa,
  _Realencyclopädie_, iv. p. 1822 (new edition, 1893, &c.); O. Gilbert,
  _Geschichte und Topographie der Stadt Rom_ (Leipzig, 1883); for
  municipal _curiae_, Mommsen, in _Ephemeris epigraphica_, ii. p. 125;
  Schmidt, in _Rheinisches Museum_, xlv. (1890) p. 599 ff. On the Roman
  comitia in general see also G. W. Botsford, _Roman Assemblies_ (1909).
       (A. M. Cl.)

In medieval Latin the word _curia_ was used in the general sense of
"court." It was thus used of "the court," meaning the royal household
(_aula_); of "courts" in the sense of solemn assemblies of the great
nobles summoned by the king (_curiae solennes_, &c.); of courts of law
generally, whether developed out of the imperial or royal _curia_ (see
CURIA REGIS) or not (e.g. _curia baronis_, Court Baron, _curia
christianitatis_, Court Christian). Sometimes _curia_ means
jurisdiction, or the territory over which jurisdiction is exercised;
whence possibly its use, instead of _cortis_, for an enclosed space, the
court-yard of a house, or for the house itself (cf. the English "court,"
e.g. Hampton Court, and the Ger. _Hof_). The word Curia is now only used
of the court of Rome, as a convenient term to express the sum of the
organs that make up the papal government (see CURIA ROMANA).

  See Du Cange, _Gloss. med. et inf. Lat._ (1883), s.v. "Curia."



CURIA REGIS, or AULA REGIS, a term used in England from the time of the
Norman Conquest to about the end of the 13th century to describe a
council and a court of justice, the composition and functions of which
varied considerably from time to time. Meaning in general the "king's
court," it is difficult to define the _curia regis_ with precision, but
it is important and interesting because it is the germ from which the
higher courts of law, the privy council and the cabinet, have sprung. It
was, at first the general council of the king, or the _commune
concilium_, i.e. the feudal assembly of the tenants-in-chief; but it
assumed a more definite character during the reign of Henry I., when its
members, fewer in number, were the officials of the royal household and
other friends and attendants of the king. It was thus practically a
committee of the larger council, and assisted the king in his judicial
work, its authority being as undefined as his own. About the same time
the _curia_ undertook financial duties, and in this way was the parent
of the court of exchequer (_curia regis ad scaccarium_). The members
were called "justices," and in the king's absence the chief justiciar
presided over the court. A further step was taken by Henry II. In 1178
he appointed five members of the _curia_ to form a special court of
justice, and these justices, unlike the other members of the _curia_,
were not to follow the king's court from place to place, but were to
remain in one place. Thus the court of king's bench (_curia regis de
banco_) was founded, and the foundation of the court of common pleas was
provided for in one of the articles of Magna Carta. The court of
chancery is also an offshoot of the _curia regis_. About the time of
Edward I. the executive and advising duties of the _curia regis_ were
discharged by the king's secret council, the later privy council, which
is thus connected with the _curia regis_, and from the privy council has
sprung the cabinet.

  In his work _Tractatus de legibus Angliae_, Ranulf de Glanvill treats
  of the procedure of the _curia regis_ as a court of law. See W.
  Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. i. (Oxford, 1883); R. Gneist,
  _Englische Verfassungsgeschichte_, English translation by P. A.
  Ashworth (London, 1891); A. V. Dicey, _The Privy Council_ (London,
  1887); and the article PRIVY COUNCIL.     (A. W. H.*)



CURIA ROMANA, the name given to the whole body of administrative and
judicial institutions, by means of which the pope carries on the general
government of the Church; the name is also applied by an extension of
meaning to the persons who form part of it, and sometimes to the Holy
See itself. Rome is almost the only place where the word _curia_ has
preserved its ancient form; elsewhere it has been almost always replaced
by the word court (_cour_, _corte_), which is etymologically the same.
Even at Rome, however, the expression "papal court" (_corte romana_) has
acquired by usage a sense different from that of the word _curia_; as in
the case of royal courts it denotes the whole body of dignitaries and
officials who surround and attend on the pope; the pope, however, has
two establishments: the civil establishment, in which he is surrounded
by what is termed his "family" (_familia_); and the religious
establishment, the members of which form his "chapel" (_capella_). The
word curia is more particularly reserved to the tribunals and
departments which actually deal with the general business of the Church.


  General remarks.

I. In order to understand the organization of the various constituent
parts of the Roman Curia, we must remember that the modern principle of
the separation of powers is unknown to the Church; the functions of each
department are limited solely by the extent of the powers delegated to
it and the nature of the business entrusted to it; but each of them may
have a share at the same time in the legislative, judicial and
administrative power. Similarly, the necessity for referring matters to
the pope in person, for his approval or ratification of the decisions
arrived at, varies greatly according to the department and the nature of
the business. But on the whole, all sections of the Curia hold their
powers direct from the pope, and exercise them in his name. Each of
them, then, has supreme authority within its own sphere, while the
official responsibility belongs to the pope, just as in all governments
it is the government that is responsible for the acts of its
departments. Of these official acts, however, it is possible to
distinguish two categories: those emanating directly from the heads of
departments are generally called Acts of the Holy See (and in this sense
the Holy See is equivalent to the Curia); those which emanate direct
from the pope are called Pontifical Acts. The latter are actually the
Apostolic Letters, i.e. those documents in which the pope speaks in his
own name (bulls, briefs, encyclicals, &c.) even when he does not sign
them, as we shall see. The Apostolic Letters alone may be _ex cathedra_
documents, and may have the privilege of infallibility, if the matter
admit of it. There are also certain differences between the two sorts of
documents with regard to their penal consequences. But in all cases the
disciplinary authority is evidently the same; we need only note that
acts concerning individuals do not claim the force of general law; the
legal decisions serve at most to settle matters of jurisprudence, like
the judgments of all sovereign courts.


  Division.

The constituent parts of the Roman Curia fall essentially into two
classes: (1) the tribunals and offices, which for centuries served for
the transaction of business and which continue their activity; (2) the
permanent commissions of cardinals, known by the name of the Roman
Congregations. These, though more recent, have taken precedence of the
former, the work of which they have, moreover, greatly relieved; they
are indeed composed of the highest dignitaries of the church, the
cardinals (q.v.), and are, as it were, subdivisions of the consistory
(q.v.), a council in which the whole of the Sacred College takes part.


  Roman Congregations.

II. _The Roman Congregations._--The constitution of all of these is the
same; a council varying in numbers, the members of which are cardinals,
who alone take part in the deliberations. One of the cardinals acts as
president, or prefect, as he is called; the congregation is assisted by
a secretary and a certain number of inferior officials, for secretarial
and office work. They have also consultors, whose duty it is to study
the subjects for consideration. Their deliberations are secret and are
based on prepared documents bearing on the case, written, or more often
printed, which are distributed to all the cardinals about ten days in
advance. The deliberations follow a simplified procedure, which is
founded more on equity than on the more strictly legal forms, and
decisions are given in the shortest possible form, in answer to
carefully formulated questions or _dubia_. The cardinal prefect, aided
by the secretariate, deals with the ordinary business, only important
matters being submitted for the consideration of the general meeting. To
have the force of law the acts of the congregations must be signed by
the cardinal prefect and secretary, and sealed with his seal.
Practically the only exception is in the cases of the Holy Office, and
of the Consistorial Congregation of which the pope himself is prefect;
the acts of the first are signed by the "notary," and the acts of the
second by the assessor.

We may pass over those temporary congregations of cardinals known also
as "special," the authority and existence of which extend only to the
consideration of one particular question; and also those which had as
their object various aspects of the temporal administration of the papal
states, which have ceased to exist since 1870. We deal here only with
the permanent ecclesiastical congregations, the real machinery of the
papal administration. Some of them go quite far back into the 16th
century; but it was Sixtus V. who was their great organizer; by his bull
_Immensa_ of the 22nd of January 1587, he apportioned all the business
of the Church (including that of the papal states) among fifteen
Congregations of cardinals, some of which were already in existence, but
most of which were established by him; and these commissions, or those
of them at least which are concerned with spiritual matters, are still
working. A few others have been added by his successors. Pius X., by the
constitution _Sapienti Consilio_ of the 29th of June 1908, proceeded to
a general reorganization of the Roman Curia: Congregations, tribunals
and offices. In this constitution he declared that the competency of
these various organs was not always clear, and that their functions were
badly arranged; that certain of them had only a small amount of business
to deal with, while others were overworked; that strictly judicial
affairs, with which the Congregations had not to deal originally, had
developed to an excessive extent, while the tribunals, the Rota and the
Signatura, had nothing to do. He consequently withdrew all judicial
affairs from the Congregations, and handed them over to the two
tribunals, now revived, of the Rota and the papal Signatura; all affairs
concerning the discipline of the sacraments were entrusted to a new
Congregation of that name; the competency of the remaining Congregations
was modified, according to the nature of the affairs with which they
deal, and certain of them were amalgamated with others; general rules
were laid down for the expedition of business and regarding _personnel_;
in short, the work of Sixtus V. was repeated and adapted to later
conditions. We will now give the nomenclature of the Roman
Congregations, as they were until 1908, and mentioning the modifications
made by Pius X.


  The Holy Office.

(1) The Holy Inquisition, Roman and universal, or Holy Office (_Sacra
Congregatio Romanae et universalis Inquisitionis seu Sancti Officii_),
the first of the Congregations, hence called the supreme. It is composed
of twelve cardinals, assisted by a certain number of officials: the
assessor, who practically fulfils the functions of the secretary, the
commissary general, some consultors and the qualificators, whose duty it
is to determine the degree of theological condemnation deserved by
erroneous doctrinal propositions (_haeretica_, _erronea_, _temeraria_,
&c.). The presidency is reserved to the pope, and the cardinal of
longest standing takes the title of secretary. This Congregation,
established in 1542 by Paul III., constitutes the tribunal of the
Inquisition (q.v.), of which the origins are much older, since it was
instituted in the 13th century against the Albigenses. It deals with all
questions of doctrine and with the repression of heresy, together with
those crimes which are more or less of the character of heresy. Its
procedure is subject to the strictest secrecy. Pius X. attached to it
all matters concerning indulgences; on the other hand, he transferred to
the Congregation of the Council matters concerning the precepts of the
Church such as fasting, abstinence and festivals. The choosing of
bishops, which had in recent times been entrusted to the Holy Office,
was given to the Consistorial Congregation, and dispensations from
religious vows to the Congregation of the Religious Orders. The Holy
Office continues, however, to deal with mixed marriages and marriages
with infidels.


  Consistorial.

(2) The Consistorial Congregation (_Sacra Congregatio Consistorialis_),
established by Sixtus V., has as its object the preparation of business
to be dealt with and decided in secret consistory (q.v.); notably
promotions to cathedral churches and consistorial benefices, the
erection of dioceses, &c. To this congregation is also subject the
administration of the common property of the college of cardinals. Pius
X. restored this Congregation to a position of great importance; in the
first place he gave it the effective control of all matters concerning
the erection of dioceses and chapters and the appointment of bishops,
except in the case of countries subject to the Propaganda, and save that
for countries outside Italy it has to act upon information furnished by
the papal secretary of state. He further entrusted to this Congregation
everything relating to the supervision of bishops and of the condition
of the dioceses, and business connected with the seminaries. It has also
the duty of deciding disputes as to the competency of the other
Congregations. The pope continues to be its prefect, and the cardinal
secretary of the Holy Office and the secretary of state are _ex officio_
members of it; the cardinal who occupies the highest rank in it, with
the title of secretary, is chosen by the pope; he is assisted by a
prelate with the title of assessor, who is _ex officio_ secretary of the
Sacred College. The assessor of the Holy Office and the secretary for
extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs are _ex officio_ consultors.

(3) The Pontifical Commission for the reunion of the dissident Churches,
established by Leo XIII. in 1895 after his constitution _Orientalium_.
The pope reserved the presidency for himself; its activity is merely
nominal. It was attached by Pius X. to the Congregation of the
Propaganda.


  The Visitation.

(4) The Congregation of the Apostolic Visitation (_Sacra Congregatio
Visitationis apostolicae_). The Visitation is the personal inspection of
institutions, churches, religious establishments and their _personnel_,
to correct abuses and enforce the observation of rules. Through this
Congregation the pope, as bishop of Rome, made the inspection of his
diocese; it is for this reason that he was president of this commission,
the most important member of which was the cardinal vicar. He takes the
place of the pope in the administration of the diocese of Rome; he has
his own offices and diocesan assistants as in other bishoprics. The
Congregation of the Visitation was suppressed by Pius X. as a separate
Congregation, and was reduced to a mere commission which is attached,
as before, to the Vicariate.

(5) The Congregation on the discipline of the sacraments (_Sacra
Congregatio de Disciplina Sacramentorum_), established by Pius X., thus
comes to occupy the third rank. With the reservation of those questions,
especially of a dogmatic character, which belong to the Holy Office, and
of purely ritual questions, which come under the Congregation of Rites,
this Congregation brings under one authority all disciplinary questions
concerning the sacraments, which were formerly distributed among several
Congregations and offices. It deals with dispensations for marriages,
ordinations, &c., concessions with regard to the mass, the communion,
&c.


  Bishops and Regulars.

(6) The Congregation of the Bishops and Regulars, of which the full
official title was, Congregation for the Affairs and Consultations of
the Bishops and Regulars (_Sacra Congregatio super negotiis Episcoporum
et Regularium_; now _Sacra Congregatio negotiis religiosorum sodalium
praeposita_). It is the result of the fusion of two previous
commissions; that for the affairs of bishops, established by Gregory
XIII., and that for the affairs of the regular clergy, founded by Sixtus
V.; the fusion dates from Clement VIII. (1601). This congregation was
very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary
matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the
form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the
exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and
congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it
examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and
controversies between the secular and regular clergy. On the 26th of May
1906, Pius X. incorporated in this Congregation two others having a
similar object: that on the discipline of the regular clergy
(_Congregatio super Disciplina Regularium_), founded by Innocent XII. in
1695, and that on the condition of the regular clergy (_Congregatio
super Statu Regularium_), established by Pius IX. in 1846. In 1908 Pius
X. withdrew from this Congregation all disciplinary matters affecting
the secular clergy, and limited its competency to matters concerning the
religious orders, both as regards their internal affairs and their
relations with the bishops.


  Council.

(7) The Congregation of the Council (_Sacra Congregatio Cardinalium
Concilii Tridentini interpretum_), i.e. a number of cardinals whose duty
it is to interpret the disciplinary decrees of the council of Trent, was
instituted by Pius IV. in 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its
mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to
give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes
arising out of them. Pius X. in 1908 entrusted to this Congregation the
supervision of the general discipline of the secular clergy and the
faithful laity, empowering it to deal with matters concerning the
precepts of the Church, festivals, foundations, church property,
benefices, provincial councils and episcopal assemblies. Proceedings for
annulling marriages, which used to be reserved to it, were transferred
to the tribunal of the Rota; reports on the condition of the dioceses
were henceforth to be addressed to the Consistorial Congregation, which
involved the suppression of the commission which had hitherto dealt with
them. The other commission, formerly charged with the revision of the
decrees of provincial councils, was merged in the Congregation itself.
The Congregation of Immunity (_Sacra Congregatio Jurisdictionis et
Immunitatis ecclesiasticae_) was created by Urban VIII. (1626) to watch
over the immunities of the clergy in respect of person or property,
whether local or general. This, having no longer any object, was also
attached to the Congregation of the Council, and is now amalgamated with
it.


  Propaganda.

(8) The Congregation of the Propaganda (_Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda
Fide_) was established by Gregory XV. in 1622, and added to by Urban
VIII., who founded the celebrated College of the Propaganda for the
education of missionaries, and his polyglot press for printing the
liturgical books of the East. It had charge of the administration of the
Catholic churches in all non-Catholic countries, for which it discharged
the functions of all the Congregations, except in doctrinal and
strictly legislative matters. Its sphere was very wide; it administered
all non-European countries, except Latin America and the old colonies of
the Catholic countries of Europe; in Europe it had also charge of the
United Kingdom and the Balkan States. But the constitution "_Sapienti_"
of 1908 withdrew from the Propaganda and put under the common law of the
Church most of those parts in which the episcopal hierarchy had been
re-established, i.e. in Europe, the United Kingdom, Holland and
Luxemburg; in America, Canada, Newfoundland and the United States.
Further, even for those countries which it continues to administer, the
Propaganda has to submit to the various Congregations all questions
affecting the Faith, marriage and rites. The missions begin by
establishing apostolic prefectures under the charge of priests; the
prefecture is later transformed into an apostolic vicariate, having at
its head a bishop; finally, the hierarchy, i.e. the diocesan episcopate,
is established in the country, with residential sees. Thus the hierarchy
was re-established in England in 1850 by Pius IX., in 1878 by Leo XIII.
in Scotland, in 1886 in India, in 1891 in Japan. It is also the work of
the Propaganda to appoint the bishops for the countries it administers.
Under the same cardinal prefect is found that section of the Propaganda
which deals with matters concerning oriental rites (_Congregatio
specialis pro negotiis ritus Orientalis_), the object of which is
indicated by its name. To the former were attached two commissions, one
for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote
themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of
the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent
in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
With the latter is connected the commission for the examination of the
liturgical books of the East (_Commissio pro corrigendis libris
ecclesiae Orientalis_). Finally, the popes have devoted to the missions
the income arising from the Chamber of Spoils (_Camera Spoliorum_), i.e.
that portion of the revenue from church property which cannot be
bequeathed by the holders of benefices as their own property; this
source of income, however, has decreased greatly.


  Index.

(9) The Congregation of the Index (_Congregatio indicis librorum
prohibitorum_), founded by St Pius V. in 1571 and reorganized by Sixtus
V., has as its object the examination and the condemnation or
interdiction of bad or dangerous books which are submitted to it, or,
since the constitution "_Sapienti_," of those which it thinks fit to
examine on its own initiative (see INDEX).


  Rites.

(10) The Congregation of Rites (_Congregatio sacrorum Rituum_), founded
by Sixtus V., has exclusive charge of the liturgy and liturgical books;
it also deals with the proceedings in the beatification and canonization
of saints. Of late years there have been added to it a Liturgical
Commission, a Historico-liturgical Commission, and a Commission for
church song, the functions of which are sufficiently indicated by their
names.


  Ceremonial.

(11) The Ceremonial Congregation (_Sacra Congregatio caeremonialis_),
the prefect of which is the cardinal dean, was instituted by Sixtus V.;
its mission is to settle questions of precedence and etiquette,
especially at the papal court; it is nowadays but little occupied.


  Indulgences.

(12) The Congregation of Indulgences and Relics (_Sacra Congregatio
Indulgentiarum et Sacrarum Reliquiarum_), founded in 1669 by Clement
IX., devoted itself to eradicating any abuses which might creep into the
practice of indulgences and the cult of relics. It had also the duty of
considering applications for the concession of indulgences and of
interpreting the rules with regard to them. In 1904 Pius X. attached
this Congregation to that of Rites, making the _personnel_ of both the
same, without suppressing it. In 1908, however, it was suppressed, as
stated above, and its functions as to indulgences were transferred to
the Holy Office, and those as to relics to the Congregation of Rites.


  Fabric of St Peter's.

(13) The Congregation of the Fabric of St Peter's (_Sacra Congregatio
reverendae Fabricae S. Petri_) is charged with the upkeep, repairs and
temporal administration of the great basilica; in this capacity it
controls the famous manufacture of the Vatican mosaics. It also formerly
enjoyed certain spiritual powers for the reduction of the obligations
imposed by pious legacies and foundations, the objects of which, for
want of funds or any other reason, could not be fully carried out, and
for the condonation of past omission of such obligations, e.g. of
priests to celebrate the foundation masses of their benefices. In 1908
these powers were taken away from it by Pius X., and transferred to the
Congregation of the Council, which already exercised some of them.

(14) The Congregation of Loretto (_Congregatio Lauretana_) discharged
the same functions for the sanctuary of that name; its temporal
administration was latterly very much reduced, and in 1908 it was united
by Pius X. with the Congregation of the Council.


  Extraordinary affairs.

(15) The Congregation for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs (_Sacra
Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticis extraordinariis_), established
by Pius VI. at the end of the 18th century to study the difficult
questions relative to France, was afterwards definitively continued by
Pius VII.; and there has been no lack of fresh extraordinary matters. It
also dealt with the administration of the churches of Latin America, not
to mention certain European countries, such as Russia, under the same
conditions as the Propaganda in countries under missions. Since the
constitution _Sapienti_, its competency has been confined to the
examination, at the request of the secretary of state, of questions
which are submitted to it, and especially those arising from civil laws
and concordats.


  Studies.

(16) The Congregation of Studies (_Congregatio pro Universitate studii
Romani, Congregazione degli Studi_), founded by Sixtus V. to act as a
higher council for the Roman university of La Sapienza, had ceased to
have any functions when in 1824 it was re-established by Leo XII. to
supervise education in Rome and the Papal States; since 1870 it has been
exclusively concerned with the Catholic universities, so far as the
sacred sciences are concerned. With this should be connected the
commission for historical studies, instituted in 1883 by Leo XIII., at
the same time as he threw the Vatican archives freely open to scholars.


  Tribunals and offices.

III. _The Tribunals and Offices._--Though it has been relieved of the
functions allotted to the Congregations of cardinals, the old machinery
of the ecclesiastical administration has not been abolished; and the
process of centralization which has been accentuated in the course of
the last few centuries, together with the facility of communication,
ensured for them a fresh activity, new offices having even been added.
The chief thing to be observed is that the prelates who were formerly at
the head of these departments have almost all been replaced by
cardinals. The following is the list of the tribunals and offices,
including the changes introduced by the reorganization of the Curia by
Pius X. in 1908. The tribunals are three in number: one for the _forum
internum_, the Penitentiary; the other two for judicial matters _in foro
externo_, the Rota and the papal Signatura.


  Penitentiary.

(1) The Penitentiary (_Sacra poenitentiaria Apostolica_) is the tribunal
having exclusive jurisdiction in matters of conscience (_in foro
interno_), e.g. dispensations from secret impediments and private vows,
the absolution of reserved cases. These concessions are applied for
anonymously. It also had, previously to the constitution _Sapienti_, a
certain jurisdiction _in foro externo_, such as over matrimonial
dispensations for poor people. Its concessions are absolutely
gratuitous. Since the 12th century, the papal court had already had
officials known as penitentiaries (_poenitentiarii_) for matters of
conscience; the organization of the Penitentiary, after several
modifications, was renewed by Benedict XIV. in 1748. At the head of it
is the cardinal grand penitentiary (_major poenitentiarius_), assisted
by the _regens_ (It. _regente_) and various other functionaries and
officials.


  Rota.

(2) The court of the Rota (_Sacra Rota Romana_) used to be the supreme
ecclesiastical tribunal for civil affairs, and its decisions had great
authority. This tribunal goes back at least as far as the 14th century,
but its activity had been reduced as a result of the more expeditious
and summary, and less costly, procedure of the Congregations. The
constitution _Sapienti_ restored the Rota to existence and activity: it
is now once more the ecclesiastical court of appeal for both civil and
criminal cases. Pius X. also made special regulations for it, by which
its ancient usages are adapted to modern circumstances. The tribunal of
the Rota consists of ten judges called auditors (_uditori_), of whom the
most senior is president with the title of dean. Each judge has an
auxiliary; to the tribunal are attached a _promotor fiscalis_, charged
with the duty of securing the due application of the law, and an
official charged with the defence of marriage and ordination; there is
also a clerical staff (notaries, scribes) attached to the court. Cases
are judged by three auditors, who succeed each other periodically (_per
turnum_) according to the order in which the cases are entered, and in
exceptional cases by all the auditors (_videntibus omnibus_). Under the
jurisdiction of the Rota, in addition to cases of first instance
submitted to it by the pope, are such judgments of episcopal courts as
are strictly speaking subject to appeal; for petitions against
non-judicial decisions are referred to the Congregations. Appeal is
sometimes allowed from one "turn" to another; if the second sentence of
the Rota confirms the first, it is definitive; if not, a third may be
obtained.


  Signatura.

(3) The supreme tribunal of the papal Signatura (_Signatura
Apostolica_). There were formerly two sections: the Signatura Justitiae
and the Signatura Gratiae; by the constitution _Sapientis_ they were
suppressed and amalgamated into one body, the Signatura Apostolica,
which is the exact equivalent of other modern courts of cassation. This
tribunal is composed of six cardinals, one of whom is the prefect,
assisted by a prelate secretary, consultors and the necessary inferior
officials. It judges cases in which auditors of the Rota are concerned,
such as personal objections, but especially objections (_querelae_)
lodged against sentences of the Rota, with a view to their being
annulled or revised (_restitutio in integrum_).

Next come the offices, now reduced to six in number.


  Chancery.

  Bull.

(1) The Chancery (_Cancellaria Apostolica_), the department from which
are sent out the papal letters, has for a long time drawn up only those
letters written in solemn form known as bulls. The bull, so called from
the leaden seal (_bulla_), is written on thick parchment; the special
writing known as Lombard, which used to be used for bulls, was abolished
by Leo XIII., and the leaden seal reserved for the more important
letters; on the others it has been replaced by a red ink stamp bearing
both the emblems represented on the leaden seal: the two heads, face to
face, of St Peter and St Paul, and the name of the reigning pope. Bulls
are written in the name of the pope, who styles himself "(_Pius_)
_Episcopus servus servorum Dei_; (Pius), bishop, servant of the servants
of God." They were formerly dated by kalends and from the era of the
Incarnation, which begins on the 25th of March, but in 1908 Pius X.
ordered them to be dated according to the common era. It is practically
only bulls of canonization which are signed by the pope and all the
cardinals present in Rome; the signature of the pope is then "(_Pius_)
_Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae_," while his ordinary signature bears
only his name and number, "Pius PP. X." Ordinary bulls are signed by
several officials of the chancery, and a certain number only by the
cardinal at its head, who until 1908 was styled vice-chancellor, because
the chancellor used formerly to be a prelate, not a cardinal; but since
the constitution _Sapienti_ has been entitled chancellor. He is assisted
by several officials, beginning with the regens of the chancery. To the
chancery were attached the _abbreviatores de parco majori vel minori_
(see ABBREVIATORS), formerly charged with the drawing up or "extension"
of bulls; they were suppressed by Pius X., and their functions
transferred to the _Protonotarii apostolici participantes_ (i.e.
active). Further, Pope Pius confined the functions of the chancery to
the sending out of bulls under the leaden seal (_sub plumbo_), for the
erection of dioceses, the provision of bishoprics and consistorial
benefices, and other affairs of importance, these bulls being sent out
by order of the Consistorial Congregation.


  Dataria Apostolica.

(2) The Apostolic Dataria is the department dealing with matters of
grace, e.g. the concession of privileges, nominations to benefices and
dispensations _in foro externo_, especially matrimonial ones; but its
functions have been greatly reduced by the reforms of Pius X.; the
matrimonial section has been suppressed, dispensations for marriages now
belonging to the Congregation for the discipline of the sacraments; the
section dealing with benefices, which is the only one preserved, deals
with non-consistorial benefices reserved to the Holy See; it examines
the claims of the candidates, draws up and sends out the letters of
collation, gives dispensations, when necessary, in matters concerning
the benefices, and manages the charges (i.e. pensions to incumbents who
have resigned, &c.) imposed on the benefices by the pope. It has at its
head a cardinal formerly called the _pro-datarius_, the _datarius_
having formerly been a prelate; and now _datarius_, since the reform by
Pius X. The cardinal is assisted by a prelate called the _sub-datarius_,
and other officials.


  Apostolic chamber.

(3) The Apostolic Chamber (_Reverenda Camera Apostolica_) was before the
abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance,
at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic
Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states. Although it is
necessarily diminished in importance, it has retained the administration
of the property of the Holy See, especially during a vacancy. At its
head is the cardinal camerlengo (_Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalis
Camerarius_), who, as we know, exercises the external authority during
the vacancy of the Holy See.


  Secretaryship of State.

  Briefs.

(4) Next come the palatine secretariates, the first and principal of
which is the secretariate of state (_Secretaria status_). The cardinal
secretary of state is as it were the pope's prime minister, gathering
into one centre the internal administration and foreign affairs, by
means of the nunciatures and delegations depending on his department.
The secretary of state is the successor of what was called in the 17th
century the cardinal nephew; his functions and importance have increased
more and more. The secretariate of state is the department dealing with
the political affairs of the Church. To it belongs the internal
administration of the apostolic palaces, with the library, archives,
museums, &c. In 1908 Pius X. divided the departments of the secretariate
of state into three sections, under the authority of the cardinal
secretary. The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical
affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the
same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a
substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the
concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen;
the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto formed a separate
secretariate. It is this department which sends out, at the command of
the secretary of state or the various Congregations, those papal letters
which are written in less solemn form, _brevi manu_, hence the word
"brief." They are written in the pope's name, but he only takes the less
solemn style of: "Pius PP. X." The brief is written on thin parchment,
and dated by the ordinary era and the day of the month; they were
formerly signed only by the cardinal secretary of briefs or his
substitute, but now by the cardinal secretary of state or the head of
the office, called the chancellor of Briefs (_cancellarius Brevium_).
The seal is that of the fisherman's ring, hence the formula of
conclusion, "_Datum Romae, sub annulo Piscatoris_." The "Fisherman's
ring" is a red ink stamp representing St Peter on a boat casting out his
nets, with the name of the reigning pope.


  Other offices.

The reform of Pius X. maintained untouched the two offices called the
secretariate of briefs to princes, and the secretariate of Latin
Letters, the names of which are sufficient indication of their
functions. The secretariate of memorials (_Secretaria Memorialium_),
through which pass requests addressed to the pope for the purpose of
obtaining certain favours, was formerly of great importance; it is now
suppressed and the requests are addressed to the proper departments.
Finally, the pope has his special secretary, his _auditor_, with his
offices, as well as the papal almonry, the officials of which administer
the papal charities.


  The pontifical "family."

IV. The pontifical "family" (_familia_) forms the pope's civil court.
First come the palatine cardinals, i.e. those who, on account of their
office, have the right of living in the papal palaces. These were
formerly four in number: the _pro-datarius_ (now _datarius_), the
secretary of state, the secretary of briefs, and the secretary of the
memorials; the two last of these were suppressed in 1908. Next come the
four palatine prelates, the majordomo, the superintendent of the
household and its staff, and successor of the ancient _vicedominus_; the
master of the chamber, who presides over the arrangement of audiences;
the _auditor_, or private secretary; and finally the master of the
sacred palace (_magister sacri palatii_), a kind of theological adviser,
always a Dominican, whose special duty is nowadays the revision of books
published at Rome. Other prelates rank with the above, but in a lower
degree, notably the almoner and the various secretaries. All
ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious
concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called
domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title
conferred on many priests not resident in Rome. The external service of
the palace is performed by the Swiss Guard and the _gendarmerie_; the
service of the ante-chamber by the lay and ecclesiastical chamberlains;
this service has also given rise to certain honorary titles both for
ecclesiastics, e.g. honorary chamberlain, and for laymen, e.g. secret
chamberlain (_cameriere segreto_). (See CHAMBERLAIN.)


  Pontifical chapel.

V. The pontifical "chapel" (_capella_) is the papal court for purposes
of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals
according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops
attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and
by all the clergy both secular and regular. Among the prelates we should
mention the protonotaries, the successors of the old notaries or
officials of the papal chancery in the earliest centuries; the seven
_protonotarii participantes_ were restored by Pope Pius X. to the
chancery, as noted above, but they have kept important honorary
privileges; this is yet another source of distinctions conferred upon a
great number of priests outside of Rome, the protonotaries of different
classes. In a lower degree there are also the chaplains of honour. Since
1870 the great pontifical ceremonies have lost much of their splendour.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_La Gerarchia cattolica_, an annual directory published
  at Rome; Lunadoro, _Relazione della corte di Roma_ (Rome, 1765);
  Moroni, _Dizionario di erudizione_, under the various headings; Card.
  De Luca, _Relatio curiae romanae_ (Cologne, 1683); Bouix, _De curia
  romana_ (Paris, 1859); Ferraris, _Prompta bibliotheca_ (addit.
  _Cassinenses_), s.v. _Congregatio_; Grimaldi, _Les Congrégations
  romaines_ (Sienna, 1891); _Dictionnaire de théologie catholique_, s.v.
  _Cour romaine_ (Paris, 1907); Publications of the acts of the Roman
  Congregations: Bishops and regulars--Bizzarri, _Collectanea in usum
  Secretariae_ (Rome, 1866, 1885). Council: the _Thesaurus resolutionum_
  has published all business since 1700; a volume is issued every year,
  and the contents have been published in alphabetical order by Zamboni
  (4 vols., Rome, 1812; Arras, 1860) and by Pallottini (18 vols., Rome,
  1868, &c.). Immunity: Ricci, _Synopsis, decreta et resolutiones_
  (Palestrina, 1708). Propaganda: De Martinis, _Juris pontificii de
  Propaganda Fide_, &c. (Rome, 1888, &c.); _Collectanea S. C. de Prop.
  Fide_ (2nd ed., Rome, 1907). Index: _Index librorum prohibitorum_
  (Rome, 1900). Rites: _Decreta authentica_ (Rome, 1898). Indulgences:
  _Decreta authentica_ (Regensburg, 1882); _Rescripta authentica_ (ib.,
  1885).     (A. Bo.*)



CURICÓ, a province of central Chile, lying between the provinces of
Colchagua and Talca and extending from the Pacific to the Argentine
frontier; area, 2978 sq. m.; pop. (1895) 103,242. The eastern and
western sections are mountainous, and are separated by the fertile
valley of central Chile. The mineral resources are undeveloped, but are
said to include copper, gold and silver. Cattle, wheat and wine are the
principal products, but Indian corn and fruit also are produced. On the
coast are important salt-producing industries. The climate is mild and
the rainfall more abundant than at the northern part of the valley, and
the effects of this are to be seen in the better pasturage. Irrigation
is used to a large extent. The province was created in 1865 by a
division of Colchagua. The capital is Curicó, on the Mataquito river, in
lat. 34° 58´ S. long. 71° 19´ W., 114 m. S. of Santiago by the Chilean
Central railway, which crosses the province. The city stands on the
great central plain, 748 ft. above sea-level, and in the midst of a
comparatively well-cultivated district. It was founded in 1742 by José
de Manso, and is one of the more cultured and progressive provincial
towns of Chile. Pop. (1895) 12,669. Vichiquen, on a tide-water lake on
the coast, is a prosperous town, the centre of the salt trade.



CURIE, PIERRE (1859-1906), French physicist, was born in Paris on the
15th of May 1859, and was educated at the Sorbonne, where he
subsequently became professor of physics. Although he had previously
published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic
properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was
chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife,
Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.
After the discovery of the radioactive properties of uranium by Henri
Becquerel in 1896, it was noticed that some minerals of uranium, such as
pitchblende, were more active than the element itself, and this
circumstance suggested that such minerals contained small quantities of
some unknown substance or substances possessing radioactive properties
in a very high degree. Acting on this surmise M. and Mme Curie subjected
a large amount of pitchblende to a laborious process of fractionation,
with the result that in 1898 they announced the existence in it of two
highly radioactive substances, polonium and radium. In subsequent years
they did much to elucidate the remarkable properties of these two
substances, one of which, polonium, came to be regarded as one of the
transformation-products of the other (see RADIOACTIVITY). In 1903 they
were awarded the Davy medal of the Royal Society in recognition of this
work, and in the same year the Nobel prize for physics was divided
between them and Henri Becquerel. Professor Curie, who was elected to
the Academy of Sciences in 1905, was run over by a dray and killed
instantly in Paris on the 19th of April 1906.

His elder brother, PAUL JACQUES CURIE, born at Paris on the 29th of
October 1856, published an elaborate memoir on the specific inductive
capacities of crystalline bodies (_Ann. Chim. Phys._ 1889, 17 and 18).



CURIO, GAIUS SCRIBONIUS, Roman statesman and orator, son of a
distinguished orator of the same name, flourished during the 1st century
B.C. He was tribune of the people in 90 B.C., and afterwards served in
Sulla's army in Greece against Archelaus, general of Mithradates, and as
his legate in Asia, where he was commissioned to restore order in the
kingdoms abandoned by Mithradates. In 76 he was consul, and as governor
of Macedonia carried on war successfully against the Thracians and
Dardanians, and was the first Roman general who penetrated as far as the
Danube. On his return he was granted the honour of a triumph. During the
discussion as to the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators he
supported Cicero, but he spoke in favour of P. Clodius (q.v.) when the
latter was being tried for the Bona Dea affair. This led to a violent
attack on the part of Cicero, but it does not appear to have interfered
with their friendship. Curio was a vehement opponent of Caesar, against
whom he wrote a political pamphlet in the form of a dialogue. He was
pontifex maximus in 57, and died in 53. His reputation as an orator was
considerable, but according to Cicero he was very illiterate, and his
only qualifications were brilliancy of style and the purity of his
Latin. He was nicknamed Burbuleius (after an actor) from the way in
which he moved his body while speaking.

  Orelli, _Onomasticon_ to Cicero; Florus iii. 4; Eutropius vi. 2; Val.
  Max. ix. 14, 5; Quintilian, _Instit._, vi. 3, 76; Dio Cassius xxxviii.
  16.

His son, GAIUS SCRIBONIUS CURIO, was first a supporter of Pompey, but
after his tribuneship (50 B.C.) went over to Caesar, by whom he was said
to have been bribed. But, while breaking off relations with Pompey,
Curio desired to keep up the appearance of impartiality. When it was
demanded that Caesar should lay down his imperium before entering Rome,
Curio proposed that Pompey should do the same, adding that, if the
rivals refused to do so, they ought both to be declared public enemies.
His proposal was carried by a large majority, but a report having spread
that Caesar was on the way to attack Rome, the consuls called upon
Pompey to undertake the command of all the troops stationed in Italy.
Curio's appeal to the people to prevent the levying of an army by Pompey
was disregarded; whereupon, feeling himself in danger, he fled to
Ravenna to Caesar. He was commissioned by Caesar, who was still
unwilling to proceed to extremities, to take a message to the senate.
But Curio's reception was so hostile that he hurriedly returned during
the night to Caesar. It was now obvious that civil war would break out.
Curio collected troops in Umbria and Etruria for Caesar, who sent him to
Sicily as propraetor in 49. After having fought with considerable
success there against the Pompeians, Curio crossed over to Africa, where
he was defeated and slain by Juba, king of Numidia. Curio, although a
man of profligate character, possessed conspicuous ability, and was a
distinguished orator. In spite of his faults, Cicero, as an old friend
of his father, took a great interest in him and did his utmost to reform
him. Seven of Cicero's letters (_Ad. Fam._ ii. 1-7) are addressed to
him. There can be no doubt that Curio's behaviour in regard to the
laying down of the imperium by Caesar and Pompey in great measure
contributed to the outbreak of civil war. The first amphitheatre in Rome
was erected by him (50), for the celebration of the funeral games in
honour of his father.

  Orelli, _Onomasticon_ to Cicero; Livy, _Epit._ 109, 110; Caesar,
  _Bell. Civ._, ii. 23, for Curio's African campaign; Appian, _Bell.
  Civ._, ii. 26-44; Vell. Pat. ii. 48.



CURITYBA (also CORITYBA and CURITIBA), capital of the state of Paraná,
Brazil, situated on an elevated plateau (2916 ft. above sea-level) 68 m.
W. of its seaport Paranaguá, with which it is connected by a railway
remarkable for the engineering difficulties overcome and for the
beautiful scenery through which it passes. Pop. (1890) 22,694; of the
municipality, 24,553. There is a large foreign element in the
population, the Germans preponderating. The city has a temperate,
healthy climate, and is surrounded by a charming _campo_ country, which,
however, is less fertile than the forested river valleys. Maté is the
principal export.



CURLEW (Fr. _Courlis_ or _Corlieu_), a name given to two birds, of whose
cry it is an imitation, both belonging to the group _Limicolae_, but
possessing very different habits and features.

1. The long-billed curlew, or simply curlew of most British writers, the
_Numenius arquata_ of ornithologists, is one of the largest of the
family _Scolopacidae_, or snipes and allied forms. It is common on the
shores of the United Kingdom and most parts of Europe, seeking the
heaths and moors of the interior and more northern countries in the
breeding-season, where it lays its four brownish-green eggs, suffused
with cinnamon markings, in an artless nest on the ground. In England it
has been ascertained to breed in Cornwall and in the counties of Devon,
Dorset, Salop, and Derby--though sparingly. In Yorkshire it is more
numerous, and thence to the extreme north of Scotland, as well as
throughout Ireland, it is, under the name of whaup, familiar to those
who have occasion to traverse the wild and desolate tracts that best
suit its habits. So soon as the young are able to shift for themselves,
both they and their parents resort to the sea-shore or mouths of rivers,
from the muddy flats of which they at low tide obtain their living, and,
though almost beyond any other birds wary of approach, form an object of
pursuit to numerous gunners. While leading this littoral life the food
of the curlew seems to consist of almost anything edible that presents
itself. It industriously probes the mud or sand in quest of the worms
that lurk therein, and is also active in seeking for such crustaceans
and molluscs as can be picked up on the surface, while vegetable matter
as well has been found in its stomach. During its summer-sojourn on the
moorlands insects and berries, when they are ripe, enter largely into
its diet. In bulk the curlew is not less than a crow, but it looks
larger still from its long legs, wings and neck. Its bill, from 5 to 7
in. in length, and terminating in the delicate nervous apparatus common
to all birds of its family, is especially its most remarkable feature.
Its plumage above is of a drab colour, streaked and mottled with very
dark brown; beneath it is white, while the flight-quills are of a
brownish black.

Nearly allied to the curlew, but smaller and with a more northern range,
is the whimbrel (_N. phaeopus_), called in some parts jack-curlew, from
its small size; May-fowl, from the month in which it usually arrives;
and titterel, from one of its cries.[1] This so much resembles the
former in habit and appearance that no further details need be given of
it. In the countries bordering on the Mediterranean occurs a third
species (_N. tenuirostris_). Some fifteen other species, or more, have
been described, but it is probable that this number is too great. The
genus _Numenius_ is almost cosmopolitan. In North America three very
easily recognized species are found--the first (_N. longirostris_)
closely agreeing with the European curlew, but larger and with a longer
bill; the second (_N. hudsonicus_) representing the British whimbrel;
and the third (_N. borealis_), which has several times found its way to
Britain, very much less in size--indeed the smallest of the genus. All
these essentially agree with the species of the Old World in habit; but
it is remarkable that the American birds can be easily distinguished by
the rufous colouring of their axillary feathers--a feature which is also
presented by the American godwits (_Limosa_).

2. The curlew of inlanders, or stone-curlew--called also, by some
writers, from its stronghold in England, the Norfolk plover, and
sometimes the thick-knee--is usually classed among the _Charadriidae_,
but it offers several remarkable differences from the more normal
plovers. It is the _Charadrius oedicnemus_ of Linnaeus, the _C.
scolopax_ of Sam. Gottl. Gmelin, and the _Oedicnemus crepitans_ of K. J.
Temminck. With much the same cry as that of the _Numenii_, only uttered
in a far sweeter tone, it is as fully entitled to the name of curlew as
the bird most commonly so called. In England it is almost solely a
summer visitor, though an example will occasionally linger throughout a
mild winter; and is one of the few birds whose distribution is affected
by geological formation, since it is nearly limited to the
chalk-country--the open spaces of which it haunts, and its numbers have
of late years been sensibly diminished by their inclosure. The most
barren spots in these districts, even where but a superficial coating of
light sand and a thin growth of turf scarcely hide the chalk below,
supply its needs; though at night (and it chiefly feeds by night) it
resorts to moister and more fertile places. Its food consists of snails,
coleopterous insects, and earth-worms, but larger prey, as a mouse or a
frog, is not rejected. Without making the slightest attempt at a nest,
it lays its two eggs on a level spot, a bare fallow being often chosen.
These are not very large, and in colour so closely resemble the sandy,
flint-strewn surface that their detection except by a practised eye is
difficult. The bird, too, trusts much to its own drab colouring to elude
observation, and, on being disturbed, will frequently run for a
considerable distance and then squat with outstretched neck so as to
become almost invisible. In such a case it may be closely approached,
and its large golden eye, if it do not pass for a tuft of yellow lichen,
is perhaps the first thing that strikes the searcher. As autumn advances
the stone-curlew gathers in large flocks, and then is as wary as its
namesake. Towards October these take their departure, and their
survivors return, often with wonderful constancy, to their beloved
haunts. In size this species exceeds any other European plover, and
looks even still larger than it is. The bill is short, blunt, and stout;
the head large, broad, and flat at the top; the wings and legs long--the
latter presenting the peculiarity of a singular enlargement of the upper
part of the tarsus, whence the names _Oedicnemus_ and Thick-knee have
been conferred. The toes are short and fleshy, and the hind-toe is
wanting. This bird seems to have been an especial favourite with Gilbert
White, in whose classical writings mention of it is often made. Its
range extends to North Africa and India. Five other species of
_Oedicnemus_ from Africa have also been described as distinct.
Australia possesses a very distinct species (_O. grallarius_), and the
genus has two members in the Neotropical Region (_O. bistriatus_ and _O.
superciliaris_). An exaggerated form of _Oedicnemus_ is found in
_Aesacus_, of which two species have been described, one (_A.
recurvirostris_) from the Indian, and the other (_A. magnirostris_) from
the northern parts of the Australian region.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The name spowe (cf. Icelandic _Spói_) also seems to have been
    anciently given to this bird (see Stevenson's _Birds of Norfolk_, ii.
    201).



CURLING, THOMAS BLIZARD (1811-1888), British surgeon, was born in London
in 1811. Through his uncle, Sir William Blizard, he became
assistant-surgeon to the London hospital in 1833, becoming full surgeon
in 1849. After filling other important posts in the College of Surgeons,
he was appointed president in 1873. In 1843 he won the Jacksonian prize
for his investigations on tetanus; and he became famous for his skill in
treating diseases of the testes and rectum, his published works on which
went through many editions. He died on the 4th of March 1888.



CURLING, a game in which the players throw large rounded stones upon a
rink or channel of ice, towards a mark called the tee. Where the game
originated is not precisely known; but it has been popular in Scotland
for three centuries at least. Some writers, looking to the name and
technical terms of the game, trace its invention to the Netherlands;
thus "curl" may have been derived from the Ger. _kurzweil_, a game;
"tee" from the Teutonic _tighen_, to point out; "bonspiel," a district
curling competition, from the Belgic _bonne_, a district, and _spel_,
play; the further supposition that "rink" is merely a modification of
the Saxon _hrink_, a strong man, seems scarcely tenable. Curling is
called "kuting" in some parts of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire, and very much
resembles quoiting on the ice, so that the name may have some connexion
with the Dutch _coete_, a quoit; while Cornelis Kiliaan (1528-1607) in
his _Teutonic Dictionary_ gives the term _khuyten_ as meaning a pastime
in which large globes of stone like the quoit or discus are thrown upon
ice. Possibly some of the Flemish merchants who settled in Scotland
towards the close of the 16th century may have brought the game to the
country. Unfortunately, however, for the theory that assigns to it a
far-away origin, we find no early mention of it in the literature of the
continent; while Camden, when describing the Orkney Islands in 1607,
tells us that one of them supplies "plenty of excellent stones for the
game called curling"; and incidental references to it as a game played
in Scotland are made by several authors during the first half of the
same century.

If the game be not indigenous to Scotland it certainly owes its
development to that country, and in the course of time it has come to be
the national sport. It was played at first with very rude
engines--random whin boulders fashioned by nature alone, or misshapen
granite blocks, bored through to let in the thumb of the player, having
been the primitive channel stones. In course of years the rough block
was superseded by a symmetrical object usually made of whinstone or
granite, beautifully rounded, brilliantly polished, and supplied with a
convenient handle.

Although curling boasts a literature of its own and songs innumerable,
yet it has received but the scantiest notice from such important
Scottish writers as Scott and Burns, or from contemporary literature in
general. In 1834 an "Amateur Curling Club of Scotland" was formed, but
this "mutual admiration amateur society came to nothing, as might be
expected." Far more businesslike were the methods of the men who set
afoot the "Grand Caledonian Curling Club," which began its existence on
the 15th of November 1838, and which, under its present title of "The
Royal Caledonian Curling Club," is regarded in all parts of the world as
the mother-club and legislative body, even in Canada, where, however,
curling conditions differ widely from those of Scotland; devotion to the
mother-club does not by any means imply submission. Starting with 28
allied clubs the Royal Club grew so rapidly that there were 500 such in
1880 and 720 in 1903. It was under the auspices of the Royal Caledonian
that a body of Scottish curlers visited Canada and the United States in
the winter of 1902-1903, and, while a slight margin of victory remained
with the home players under their own climatic conditions, the visit
did much to bring together the lovers of the game on both sides of the
Atlantic. The assumption of the title "Royal" in place of "Grand" was
due to the visit of Queen Victoria and the prince consort to Scotland in
1842, on which occasion they were initiated into the mysteries of the
game on the polished floor of the drawing-room in the Palace of Scone;
and the prince consort, who was presented with a pair of curling-stones,
consented to become patron of the club. On his death he was succeeded by
the prince of Wales, who, as Edward VII., still continued his patronage.
The Club's main duties are to further the interests of the game, to
revise the laws and to arrange the important matches, especially the
grand match, played annually between the Scottish clubs north of the
Forth & Clyde Canal and those south of it. In the first of these matches
(1847) only twelve "rinks" were played; in 1903 there were no fewer than
286. During this time the southern clubs were usually victorious.
Curlers claim to be a united brotherhood within which peer and peasant
are equal "on the ice." To the same end the laws of the club are framed
with a due regard to economy, not forgetting conviviality in the matter
of "beef and greens," the curler's traditional dish, washed down with
whisky. A formal freemasonry exists among curlers, who must be initiated
into the mysteries and instructed in the grip, password and ceremony,
being liable at any moment to be examined in these essentials and fined
for lapses of memory. Betting, excepting for the smallest stakes, is
discountenanced.

  _Glossary._--As curling has a language which contains many curious
  terms, puzzling to the uninitiated, the English equivalents of some of
  them are here given. _Baugh ice_, rough or soft ice. _Bias_, a slope
  on the ice. _Boardhead_ (also house or parish), the large circle round
  the tee. _Bonspiel_, a match between two clubs. _Break an egg on a
  stone_, touch it very slightly. _Broughs_, the small circles round the
  tee. _Chipping_, striking a stone of which a small part can be seen.
  _Core_, old name for rink. _Cowe_ or _kowe_, a besom made of
  broom-twigs. _Draw_, to play gently. _Drive_, to play hard. _Drug
  ice_, soft bad ice. _Fill the port_, to block the interval between two
  stones. _Gogsee_, tee. _Guard_, a stone that covers and protects
  another. _Hack_, a hollow cut in the ice for the player's foot, used
  in place of a crampit. _Hands up!_ stop sweeping. _Hog_, a stone that
  stops short of the _hog-score_, a line drawn one-sixth of the length
  of the rink from the tee. _Head_, an innings, both sides delivering
  all their stones once. _Howe_, the middle of the rink, gradually
  hollowed by stones. _In-ringing_, gaining a good position by
  rebounding off another stone. _In-wick_, the same. _Lie shot_, the
  stone resting nearest the tee. _Mar_, to interfere with a stone while
  running. _Out-Turn_, to make the stone twist to the left. _In-Turn_,
  to make one turn to the right. _Out-wick_, to strike a stone on the
  edge so as to drive it towards the tee. _Pat-lid_, a stone that lies
  on the tee. _Pittycock_, the oldest form of curling-stone. _Raise_, to
  drive a "friendly" stone nearer the tee. _Rebut_, to deliver the stone
  with great force, so as to scatter the stones on the boardhead. _Red
  the ice_, clear away the opponents' stones. _Rink_, the space in which
  the game is played; also the members of a side. _Sole_, the under part
  of the stone; also to deliver the stone. _Soop_, to sweep. _Souter_,
  to win without allowing the opponents to score at all; a term derived
  from a famous team of cobblers (souters) of Lochmaben, whose opponents
  seldom or never scored a point. _Spiel_, a match between members of
  the same club. _Spend the stone_, to waste a shot by playing wide
  intentionally. _Stug_, a fluke. _Tee_, the mark in the centre of the
  boardhead, against which it is the curler's object to lay the stone.
  The tee may be any kind of a mark; a small iron plate with a spike in
  it is often used. _Tozee_, tee. _Tramp_, _crampit_, _trigger_ or
  _tricker_, an iron plate fitted with spikes which the player stands
  upon to deliver the stone. _Wittyr_, tee.

_The Rink and Implements._--The rink is marked out in the ice, which
should be very hard and smooth, in curling language "keen and clear." To
keep it swept every curler carries a broom, sometimes a mere bundle of
broom-twigs, more often an ordinary housemaid's broom. Good "sooping,"
or sweeping, is part of the curler's art, and is performed subject to
strict rules and under the direction of the skip, or captain; its
importance lying in the fact that the progress of a stone is retarded by
the ice-dust caused by the play, the sweeping of which in front of a
running stone consequently prolongs its course. Apart from the broom and
the crampit, the "roarin' game," as curlers love to call it, requires no
further implement than the stone, a flattened, polished disk, fitted
with a handle. In weight it must not exceed 44 lb., 35 to 40 lb. being
usual. It must not exceed 36 in. in circumference or be less in height
than one-eighth of the circumference. The two flat sides, or soles, are
so shaped that one is serviceable for keen ice and the other for ice
that is soft, rough or "baugh." The handle can be fitted to either side,
as the case demands. The cost of a pair of stones is not less than £2,
generally more. In the intense cold of Canada and the United States iron
is found more serviceable than stone, and the irons weigh from 60 to 70
lb. Even these are light compared with the earlier rough boulder-stones,
some of which weighed over 115 lb., although the very early ones were
much lighter. The modern stone took shape at the beginning of the 19th
century. The ancient stones had no handles, but notches were hewn in
them for finger and thumb, and, as their weight varied from 5 to 25 lb.,
it is probable that they were thrown after the manner of quoits.
Channel-stones, stones rounded by the action of water in a river-bed,
were the favourites, while the shape was a matter of individual taste,
oblong and triangular stones having been common. The soles were
artificially flattened. During the next period we find the heavy
boulder-stones, unhewn blocks fitted with handles and probably used at
shorter distances, 70 or 80 lb. being no uncommon weight. The rounded
stone, made on scientific principles, did not appear until about 1800.
Even then it was of all shapes and sizes, with and without handles, and
not uncommonly made of wood. The stones of to-day are named after the
places in which they are quarried, Ailsa Craigs, Burnocks, Carsphairn
Reds and Crawfordjohns being some of the best-known varieties. The
stones are quarried and never blasted, as the shock of the explosion is
apt to strain or split the rock.

_The Game._--Curling is practically bowls played on the ice, the place
of the "jack" being taken by a fixed mark, as at quoits, called the tee,
to which the curler aims his stone; every stone that finally lies nearer
than any of the opposing stones counting a point or "shot." As each side
has four players, each playing two stones, it is possible for one side
to score eight points at a "head" or innings; but in practice it is
found wiser, when a good shot has been made, to play some or all
following stones to such positions as will prevent opposing stones from
disturbing the stone lying near the tee. Stones thus placed are called
"guards." Strategic matters like this are decided by the skip, or
captain, of the rink, who plays last, and who is an autocrat whose will
is law. The "lead," or first player, is expected to play quietly up the
rink, leaving his stone as close to the tee as possible, but on no
account beyond it. He is followed by the "lead" of the other side, who,
instructed by his skip, will either try to drive away the first stone,
if well placed, or put his own stone in a better position. When the
skip's turn comes he is "skipped," or directed, by another player,
appointed by himself, usually the third player. When all sixteen stones
have been delivered the players cross over, the scores are counted, and
the game proceeds from the other end of the rink. If a stone fails to
cross the "hog-score" it is a "hog" and is removed from the rink, unless
it has struck another stone in position. Stones that pass the back-score
or touch the swept snow on either side are also removed. By a cleverly
imparted twist a stone may be made to curve round a guard and either
drive away an opposing winner or find a favourable lie for itself. This,
the equivalent of "bias" in the game of bowls, is the height of
scientific play. If the situation seems desperate a very hard throw, a
"thunderin' cast," may succeed in clearing away the opponents' stones
from the neighbourhood of the tee. Different methods are adopted in
delivering the stone, but in all of them a firm stand should be taken on
the crampit, and the stone swung, either quietly, or, if the skip calls
for a "thunderin' cast," vigorously; but care must be taken to avoid
striking the ice with the stone so as to crack or "star" the ice. All
matches are for a certain number of "heads" or of points, or for all
that can be made within a certain time limit, as may be agreed.

  _Abridged Rules._--Tees shall be 38 yds. apart, and with the tee as
  centre a circle having a radius of 7 ft. shall be drawn. In alignment
  with the tees, lines, to be called Central Lines, are drawn from the
  tees to points 4 yds. behind each tee, and at these points Foot Scores
  18 in. long shall be drawn at right angles, on which, at 6 in. from
  Central Line, the heel of the Crampit shall be placed. All matches
  shall be of a certain number of heads, or shots, or by time, as
  agreed. Every rink of players shall be composed of four a side. No
  shoes likely to break the ice may be worn.

  The skips opposing each other shall settle by lot, or in any other way
  they may agree upon, which party shall lead at the first head, after
  which the winning party shall do so.

  All curling stones shall be of a circular shape. No stone shall be of
  a greater weight than 44 lb. imperial, or of greater circumference
  than 36 in., or of less height than one-eighth part of its greatest
  circumference.

  No stone, or side of a stone, shall be changed after a match has been
  begun, or during its continuance, unless by consent.

  Should a stone happen to be broken, the largest fragment shall be
  considered in the game for that end--the player being entitled
  afterwards to use another stone or another pair.

  If a played stone rolls over, or stops, on its side or top, it shall
  be put off the ice. Should the handle quit the stone in delivery, the
  player must keep hold of it, otherwise he shall not be entitled to
  replay the shot.

  Players, during the course of each end, to be arranged along the sides
  of the rink, anywhere skips may direct; and no party, except when
  sweeping according to rule, shall go upon the middle of the rink, or
  cross it, under any pretence whatever. Skips alone to stand at or
  about the tee--that of the playing party having the choice of place,
  and not to be obstructed by the other.

  If a player should play out of turn, the stone so played may be
  stopped in its progress, and returned to the player. Should the
  mistake not be discovered till the stone be at rest, or has struck
  another stone, the opposite skip shall have the option of adding one
  to his score, allowing the game to proceed, or declaring the end null
  and void. But if a stone be played before the mistake has been
  discovered, the head must be finished as if it had been properly
  played from the beginning.

  The sweeping shall be under the direction and control of the skips.
  The player's party may sweep the ice anywhere from the centre line to
  the tee, and behind it,--the adverse party having liberty to sweep
  behind the tee, and in front of any of their own stones when moved by
  another, and till at rest. Skips to have full liberty to clean and
  sweep the ice behind the tee at any time, except when a player is
  being directed by his skip.

  If in sweeping or otherwise, a _running_ stone be marred by any of the
  party to which it belongs, it may, at the option of the opposite skip,
  be put off the ice; if by any of the adverse party, it may be placed
  where the skip of the party to which it belongs shall direct. If
  otherwise marred, it shall be replayed.

  Every player to be ready to play when his turn comes, and not to take
  more than a reasonable time to play. Should he play a wrong stone, any
  of the players may stop it while running; but if not stopped till at
  rest, the one which ought to have been played shall be placed instead,
  to the satisfaction of the opposing skip.

  No measuring of shots allowable previous to the termination of the
  end. Disputed shots to be determined by the skips, or, if they
  disagree, by the umpire, or, when there is no umpire, by some neutral
  person chosen by the skips. All measurements to be taken from the
  centre of the tee, to that part of the stone which is nearest it. No
  stone shall be considered without a circle, or over a line, unless it
  clear it;--and in every case, this is to be determined by placing a
  square on the ice, at the circle or line.

  Skips shall have the exclusive regulation and direction of the game
  for their respective parties, and may play last stone, or in what part
  of it they please; and, when their turn to play comes, they may name
  one of their party to take charge for them.

  If any player shall speak to, taunt or interrupt another, not being of
  his own party, while in the act of delivering his stone, one shot
  shall be added to the score of the party so interrupted.

  If from any change of weather after a match has been begun, or from
  any other reasonable cause, one party shall desire to shorten the
  rink, or to change to another one, and, if the two skips cannot agree,
  the umpire shall, after seeing one end played, determine whether the
  rink shall be shortened, and how much or whether it shall be changed,
  and his decision shall be final.

  See _Annual_ of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, Edinburgh.



CURLL, EDMUND (1675-1747), English bookseller, was born in 1675 in the
west of England. His parents were in humble circumstances. After being
apprenticed to an Exeter bookseller he came to London and started
business on his own account, advertising himself by a system of
newspaper quarrels. His connexion with the anonymously-published _Court
Poems_ in 1716 led to the long quarrel with Pope, who took his revenge
by immortalizing Curll in the _Dunciad_. Curll became notorious for his
indecent publications, so much so that "Curlicism" was regarded as a
synonym for literary indecency. In 1716 and again in 1721 he had to
appear at the bar of the House of Lords for publishing matter concerning
its members. In 1725 he was convicted of publishing obscene books, and
fined in 1728 for publishing _The Nun in her Smock_ and _De Usu
Flagrorum_, while his _Memories of John Ker of Kersland_ cost him an
hour in the pillory. When Curll in 1735 announced the forthcoming
publication of "_Mr Pope's Literary Correspondence_," his stock, at
Pope's instigation, was seized. It has since been proved that the
publication was really instigated by Pope, who wanted an excuse to print
his letters, as he actually did (1737-1741). In his forty years of
business Curll published a great variety of books, of which a very large
number, fortunately, were quite free from "Curlicisms." A list of his
publications contains, indeed, 167 standard works. He died on the 11th
of December 1747.

  For Curll's relations with Pope, see the _Life of Pope_, by Sir Leslie
  Stephen in the English Men of Letters series.



CURRAGH, a level stretch of open ground in Co. Kildare, Ireland, famous
for its race-course and its military camp. It has an area of upwards of
4800 acres; and its soft natural sward, which has never been broken by
the plough, affords excellent pasture for sheep. From the peculiarity of
its herbage, the district is known in the neighbourhood as "the short
grass"; and the young men of Kildare are jocularly distinguished as the
"boys of the short grass." The land is the property of the crown, which
appoints a special officer as the ranger of the Curragh; but the right
of pasturage is possessed by the landowners of the vicinity. The oldest
mention of the Curragh occurs in the _Liber Hymnorum_ (the manuscript of
which probably dates from the 10th century) in connexion with St
Bridget, who is said to have received a grant of the district from the
king of Leinster, and is popularly credited with the honour of having
turned it into a common. It is evident, however, that long before the
days of the saint the downs of Kildare had afforded a regular place of
assembly for the people of the south of Ireland. The word _cuirrech_,
cognate with the Lat. _cursus_, signifies a race-course, and
chariot-races are spoken of as taking place on the Curragh as early as
the 1st century A.D. The _Aenach Colmain_ (Curragh fair), also called
_Aenach Lifè_ (the fair on the plain of the Liffey), is frequently
mentioned in the Irish annals, and both racing and other sports were
carried on at this, the principal meeting of its kind in southern
Ireland, and the plain appears from time to time as the scene of hostile
encounters between the kings of Meath, Leinster and Offaly. In 1234 the
earl of Pembroke was defeated here by the viceroy of Ireland, Lord
Geoffrey de Monte Marisco; and in 1406 the Irish under the prior of
Connell were routed by the English. In 1789 the Curragh was the great
rendezvous for the volunteers, and in 1804 it saw the gathering of
30,000 United Irishmen. The camp was established at the time of the
Crimean War, and is capable of accommodating 12,000 men. The races are
held in April, June, September and October.

  See W. M. Hennessy, in _Proceedings of Royal Irish Acad._, 1866.



CURRAN, JOHN PHILPOT (1750-1817), Irish politician and judge, was born
on the 24th of July 1750, at Newmarket, Cork, where his father, a
descendant of one of Cromwell's soldiers, was seneschal to the
manor-court. He was educated at Middleton, through the kind help of a
friend, the Rev. Nathaniel Boyse, and at Trinity College, Dublin; and in
1773, having taken his M.A. degree, he entered the Middle Temple. In
1774 he married a lady who brought him a small dowry; but the marriage
proved unhappy, and Mrs Curran finally eloped from her husband.

In 1775 Curran was called to the Irish bar, where he very soon obtained
a practice. On his first rising in court excessive nervousness prevented
him from even reading distinctly the few words of a legal form, and when
requested by the judge to read more clearly he became so agitated as to
be totally unable to proceed. But, his feelings once roused, all
nervousness disappeared. His effective and witty attack upon a judge who
had sneered at his poverty, the success with which he prosecuted a
nobleman for a disgraceful assault upon a priest, the duel which he
fought with one of the witnesses for this nobleman, and other similar
exploits, gained him such a reputation that he was soon the most popular
advocate in Ireland.

In 1783 Curran was appointed king's counsel; and in the same year he was
presented to a seat in the Irish House of Commons. His conduct in
connexion with this affair displays his conduct in a most honourable
light; finding that he differed radically in politics from the gentleman
from whom he had received his seat, he expended £1500 in buying another
to replace that which he occupied. In his parliamentary career Curran
was throughout sincere and consistent. He spoke vigorously on behalf of
Catholic emancipation, and strenuously attacked the ministerial bribery
which prevailed. His declamations against the government party led him
into two duels--the first with John Fitzgibbon, then attorney-general,
afterwards Lord Clare; the second with the secretary of state, Major
Hobart, afterwards earl of Buckinghamshire. The Union caused him the
bitterest disappointment; he even talked of leaving Ireland, either for
America or for England.

Curran's fame rests most of all upon his speeches on behalf of the
accused in the state trials that were so numerous between 1794 and 1803;
and among them may be mentioned those in defence of Hamilton Rowan, the
Rev. William Jackson, the brothers John and Henry Sheares, Peter
Finnerty, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Wolfe Tone and Owen Kirwan. Another of
his most famous and characteristic speeches is that against the marquis
of Headfort, who had eloped with the wife of a clergyman named Massey.
On the arrest of Robert Emmet, who had formed an attachment to his
daughter, Curran was himself under suspicion; but, on examination before
the privy council, nothing was brought forward to implicate him in the
intended rebellion.

In 1806, on the death of Pitt and the formation of the Fox ministry,
Curran received the post of master of the rolls, with a seat in the
privy council, much to his disappointment, for he had desired a position
of greater political influence. For eight years, however, he held this
office. He then retired on a pension of £3000; and the three remaining
years of his life were spent in London, where he became one of the most
brilliant members of the society which included Sheridan, Erskine,
Thomas Moore, and William Godwin. He died at his house in Brompton on
the 14th of October 1817.

Curran's legal erudition was never profound; and though he was capable
of the most ingenious pleading, his appeal was always to the emotions of
his audience. His best speeches are one fiery torrent of invective,
pathos, national feeling and wit. His diction was lofty and sonorous. He
was, too, a most brilliant wit and of wonderful quickness in repartee.
To his personal presence he owed nothing; for he was short, slim and
boyish-looking, and his voice was thin and shrill.

  See _Curran and his Contemporaries_, a most entertaining work, by
  Charles Phillips, a personal friend of Curran's (1818), and the _Life
  of Curran_, by his son, W. H. Curran (1819), and with additions by Dr
  Shelton Mackenzie, New York, (1855), both of which contain numerous
  samples of Curran's eloquence. See also _Curran's Speeches_ (1805,
  1808, 1845); _Memoirs of Curran_, by Wm. O'Regan (1817); Letters to
  Rev. H. Weston (1819); T. Moore's _Memoirs_ (1853).



CURRANT. (1) The dried seedless fruit of a variety of the grape-vine,
_Vitis vinifera_, cultivated principally in Zante, Cephalonia and
Ithaca, and near Patras, in the Morea (see GREECE). Currants were
brought originally from Corinth, whence their name; in the 13th and 14th
centuries they were known as _raisins de Corauntz_. In the Ionian
Islands the currant-vine is grown on the sides of the lower hills, or in
the valleys, the grape-vine occupying the higher and less open and rich
ground. Gypseous marls, or calcareous marls containing a little gypsum,
are preferred to limestone soils, as they allow of deep penetration of
the roots of the vines. The most favourable situations are those where a
good supply of water can be obtained for the irrigation of the
plantations. This is carried on from the end of October to the close of
the year, after which all that is necessary is to keep the ground moist.
The vines are planted in rows 3 or 4 ft. apart. Propagation is effected
by grafting on stocks of the grape-vine, or by planting out in spring
the young, vigorous shoots obtained at the end of the previous year from
old currant-vines that have been cut away below the ground. The grafts
bear fruit in three years, the slips in about double that time. The vine
stock for grafting is cut down to the depth of a foot below the surface
of the soil; two or three perpendicular incisions are made near the bark
with a chisel; and into these are inserted shoots of the last year's
growth. The engrafted part then receives an application of moist marls,
is wrapped in leaves and bound with rushes, and is covered with earth,
two or three eyes of the shoots being left projecting above ground. In
December the currant plantations are cleared of dead and weak wood. In
February the branches are cut back, and pruned of median shoots, which
are said to prevent the lateral ones proceeding from the same bud from
bearing fruit. In order effectually to water the trees, the earth round
about them is in February and March hoed up so as to leave them in a
kind of basin, or is piled up against their stems. In March, when the
leaves begin to show, the ground is thoroughly turned, and if requisite
manured, and is then re-levelled. By the middle of April the leaves are
fully out, and in June it is necessary to break back the newly-formed
shoots. The fruit begins to ripen in July, and in the next month the
vintage takes place. At this season rain is greatly dreaded, as it
always damages and may even destroy the ripe fruit. The plantations,
which are commonly much exposed, are watched by dogs and armed men. In
Cephalonia the currant-grape is said to ripen at least a week earlier
than in Zante. To destroy the oïdium, a fungal pest that severely
injures the plantations, the vines are dusted, at the time the fruit is
maturing, with finely-ground brimstone. The currants when sufficiently
ripe are gathered and placed on a drying ground, where they are exposed
to the sun in layers half an inch thick; from time to time they are
turned and swept into heaps, until they become entirely detached from
stalk. They are then packed in large butts for exportation. The wine
made from the currant-grape is inferior in quality, but is said to be
capable of much improvement. The fresh fruit is luscious and highly
flavoured, but soon cloys the palate.

(2) The currants of British kitchen-gardens--so called from a
resemblance to the foregoing--are the produce of _Ribes nigrum_ and _R.
rubrum_, deciduous shrubs of the natural order _Ribesiaceae_, indigenous
to Britain, northern and central Europe, Siberia and Canada. The former
species bears the black, the latter the red currant. White currants are
the fruit of a cultivated variety of _R. rubrum_. Both red and black
currants are used for making tarts and pies, jams, jellies and wine; the
latter are also employed in lozenges, popularly supposed to be of value
in relieving a sore throat, are occasionally preserved in spirits, and
in Russia are fermented with honey to produce a strong liquor.

Currants will flourish in any fairly good soil, but to obtain large
crops and fine fruit a good rich loam is desirable; with an annual
dressing of farmyard manure or cowdung, after the winter pruning, for
established trees. The plants are best propagated by cuttings, which
should consist of strong well-ripened young shoots taken off close to
the old wood. These should be planted as soon as possible after the wood
is matured in autumn about 6 in. apart. The plants are grown with the
best results as bushes, but may also be trained against a wall or
trellis. In the matter of pruning it must be borne in mind that red and
white currants form their fruit buds on wood two to three years old, and
the main shoots and side branches may therefore be cut back. Black
currants on the other hand form fruit buds on the new wood of the
previous year, hence the old wood should be cut away and the young left.

The black currant is subject to the attacks of a mite, _Phytoptus
ribis_, which destroys the unopened buds. The buds, when attacked,
recognized by their swollen appearance, should be picked off and burned.
The attacks of the caterpillars of the gooseberry and other moths may be
met by dusting the bushes with lime and soot when the plants are moist
with dew or after syringing.

The following forms are recommended for cultivation:--_Black_: Lee's
Prolific, Baldwin's or Carter's Champion and Black Naples; _Red_:
Cherry, Raby Castle, Red Dutch and Comet; _White_: White Dutch. A kind
of black currant (_Ribes magellanicum_), bearing poor and acid fruit, is
indigenous to Tierra del Fuego.



CURRICLE (Lat. _curriculum_, a small car), a light two-wheeled vehicle,
generally for driving with two horses.



CURRIE, SIR DONALD (1825-1909), British shipowner, was born at Greenock
on the 17th of September 1825. At a very early age he was employed in
the office of a shipowner in that port, but at the age of eighteen left
Scotland for Liverpool, where shipping business offered more scope. By a
fortunate chance he attracted the notice of the chief partner in the
newly started Cunard steamship line, who found him a post in that
company. In 1849 the Cunard Company started a service between Havre and
Liverpool to connect with their transatlantic service. Currie was
appointed Cunard agent at Havre and Paris, and secured for his firm a
large share of the freight traffic between France and the United States.
About 1856 he returned to Liverpool, where till 1862 he held an
important position at the Cunard Company's headquarters. In 1862 he
determined to strike out for himself, and leaving the Cunard established
the "Castle" line of sailing-ships between Liverpool and Calcutta.
Business prospered, but in 1864 Currie found it profitable to substitute
London for Liverpool as the home port of his vessels, and himself
settled in London. In 1872 he came to the conclusion, after a careful
study of all the circumstances, that the development of Cape Colony
justified the starting of a new line of steamers between England and
South Africa. The result of this decision was the founding of the
successful Castle line of steamers (see under Steamship Lines), which
after 1876 divided the South African mail contract with the older Union
line, and was finally amalgamated with the latter under the title Union
Castle line in 1900. Currie's intimate knowledge of South African
conditions and persons was on several occasions of material service to
the British government. His acquaintance with Sir John Brand, the
president of what was then the Orange Free State, caused him to be
entrusted by the home government with the negotiations in the dispute
concerning the ownership of the Kimberley diamond-fields, which were
brought to a successful conclusion. He introduced the two Transvaal
deputations which came to England in 1877 and 1878 to protest against
annexation, and though his suggestions for a settlement were disregarded
by the government of the day, the terms on which the Transvaal was
subsequently restored to the Boers agreed, in essentials, with those he
had advised. The first news of the disaster of Isandhlwana in the Zulu
War was given to the home government through his agency. At that time
there was no cable between England and South Africa, and the news was
sent by a Castle liner to St Vincent, and telegraphed thence to Currie.
At the same time by diverting his outward mail-boat then at sea from its
ordinary course to St Vincent, he enabled the government to telegraph
immediate instructions to that island for conveyance thence by the mail,
thus saving serious delay, and preventing the annihilation of the
British garrison at Eshowe. The present arrangement under which the
British admiralty is enabled to utilize certain fast steamers of the
mercantile marine as armed cruisers in war-time was suggested and
strongly urged by Currie in 1880. In the same year he was returned to
parliament as Liberal member for Perthshire, but, though a strong
personal friend of W. E. Gladstone, he was unable to follow that
statesman on the Home Rule question, and from 1885 to 1900 he
represented West Perthshire as a Unionist. In 1881 his services in
connexion with the Zulu War were rewarded with knighthood, and in 1897
he was created G.C.M.G. He died at Sidmouth on the 13th of April 1909.



CURRIE, JAMES (1756-1805), Scottish physician and editor of Burns, son
of the minister of Kirkpatrick-Fleming, in Dumfriesshire, was born there
on the 31st of May 1756. Attracted by the stories of prosperity in
America he went in 1771 to Virginia, where he spent five hard years,
much of the time ill and always in unprofitable commercial business. The
outbreak of war between the Colonies and England ended any further
chance of success, and sailing for home in the spring of 1776 after many
delays he reached England a year later. He then proceeded to study
medicine at Edinburgh, and after taking his degree at Glasgow he settled
at Liverpool in 1780, where three years later he became physician to the
infirmary. He died at Sidmouth on the 31st of August 1805. Among other
pamphlets Currie was the author of _Medical Reports on the Effects of
Water, Cold and Warm, as a Remedy in Fevers and Febrile Diseases_
(1797), which had some influence in promoting the use of cold water
affusion, and contains the first systematic record in English of
clinical observations with the thermometer. But he is best known for his
edition (1800), long regarded as the standard, of Robert Burns, which he
undertook in behalf of the family of the poet. It contained an
introductory criticism and an essay on the character and condition of
the Scottish peasantry.

  See the _Memoir_ by W. W. Currie, his son (1831).



CURRY. (1) (Through the O. Fr. _correier_, from Late Lat. _conredare_,
to make ready, prepare; a later form of the French is _courroyer_, and
modern French is _corroyer_), to dress a horse by rubbing down and
grooming with a comb; to dress and prepare leather already tanned. The
currier pares off roughnesses and inequalities, makes the leather soft
and pliable, and gives it the necessary surface and colour (see
LEATHER). The word "currier," though early confused in origin with "to
curry," is derived from the Late Lat. _coriarius_, a leather dresser,
from _corium_, hide. The phrase "to curry favour," to flatter or cajole,
is a 16th century corruption of "to curry favel," i.e. a chestnut horse.
This older phrase is an adaptation of an Old French proverbial
expression _estriller fauvel_, and is paralleled in German by the
similar _den fahlen Hengst streichen_. A chestnut or fallow horse seems
to have been taken as typical of deceit and trickery, at least since the
appearance of a French satirical beast romance the _Roman de fauvel_
(1310), the hero of which is a counterpart of Reynard the Fox (q.v.).

(2) A name applied to a great variety of seasoned dishes, especially
those of Indian origin. The word is derived from the Tamil _kari_, a
sauce or relish for rice. In the East, where the staple food of the
people consists of a dish of rice, wheaten cakes, or some other cereal,
some kind of relish is required to lend attraction to this insipid food;
and that is the special office of curry. In India the following are
employed as ingredients in curries: anise, coriander, cumin, mustard and
poppy seeds; allspice, almonds, assafoetida, butter or ghee, cardamoms,
chillies, cinnamon, cloves, cocoa-nut and cocoanut milk and oil, cream
and curds, fenugreek, the tender unripe fruit of _Buchanania
lancifolia_, cheroonjie nuts (the produce of another species, _B.
latifolia_), garlic and onions, ginger, lime-juice, vinegar, the leaves
of _Bergera Koenigii_ (the curry-leaf tree), mace, mangoes, nutmeg,
pepper, saffron, salt, tamarinds and turmeric.

The cumin and coriander seeds are generally used roasted. The various
materials are cleaned, dried, ground, sifted, thoroughly mixed and
bottled. In the East the spices are ground freshly every day, which
gives the Indian curry its superiority in flavour over dishes prepared
with the curry-powders of the European market.



CURSOR, LUCIUS PAPIRIUS, Roman general, five times consul and twice
dictator. In 325 he was appointed dictator to carry on the second
Samnite War. His quarrel with Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, his _magister
equitum_, is well known. The latter had engaged the enemy against the
orders of Cursor, by whom he was condemned to death, and only the
intercession of his father, the senate and the people, saved his life.
Cursor treated his soldiers with such harshness that they allowed
themselves to be defeated; but after he had regained their good-will by
more lenient treatment and lavish promises of booty, they fought with
enthusiasm and gained a complete victory. After the disaster of the
Caudine Forks, Cursor to some extent wiped out the disgrace by
compelling Luceria (which had revolted) to surrender. He delivered the
Roman hostages who were held in captivity in the town, recovered the
standards lost at Caudium, and made 7000 of the enemy pass under the
yoke. In 309, when the Samnites again rose, Cursor was appointed
dictator for the second time, and gained a decisive victory at Longula,
in honour of which he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Cursor's
strictness was proverbial; he was a man of immense bodily strength,
while his bravery was beyond dispute. He was surnamed Cursor from his
swiftness of foot.

  Livy viii., ix.; Aurelius Victor, _De viris illustribus_, 31;
  Eutropius ii. 8. 9.

His son of the same name, also a distinguished general, completed the
subjection of Samnium (272). He set up a sun-dial, the first of its kind
in Rome, in the temple of Quirinus.

  Livy x. 39-47; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._, vii. 60.



CURSOR MUNDI, an English poem in the Northern dialect dating from the
13th century. It is a religious epic of 24,000 lines "over-running" the
history of the world as related in the Old and New Testaments. "Cursur o
werld man aght it call, For almast it over-rennes all." The author
explains in his prologue his reasons for undertaking the work. Men
desire to read old romances of Alexander, Julius Caesar, Greece, Troy,
Brut, Arthur, of Tristram, Sweet Ysoude and others. But better than
tales of love is the story of the Virgin who is man's best lover,
therefore in her honour he will write this book, founded on the
steadfast ground of the Holy Trinity. He writes in English for the love
of English people of merry England, so that those who know no French may
understand. The history is treated under seven ages. The first four
include the period from the creation of the world to the successors of
Solomon, the fifth deals with Mary and the birth and childhood of Jesus,
the sixth with the lives of Christ and the chief apostles, and with the
finding of the holy cross, and the seventh with Doomsday. Four short
poems follow, more in some MSS. The bulk of the poem is written in
rhyming couplets of short lines of four accents, and maintains a fair
level throughout. The narrative is enlivened by many legends and much
entertaining matter drawn from various sources; and the numerous
transcripts of it prove that it was able to hold its own against profane
romance.

The chief sources of the compilation have been identified by Dr
Haenisch. For the Old Testament history the author draws largely from
the _Historia scholastica_ of Peter Comestor; for the history of the
Virgin he often translates literally from Wace's _Établissement de la
fête de la conception Notre Dame_; the parables of the king and four
daughters, and of the castle of Love and Grace, are taken from "Sent
Robert bok" (1.9516), that is, from the _Chasteau d'Amour_ of Robert
Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln; other sources are the apocryphal gospels
of Matthew and Nicodemus, a southern English poem on the Assumption of
Our Lady, attributed by the writer of _Cursor mundi_ to Edmund Rich of
Pontigny, the Vulgate, the _Legenda aurea_ of Jacobus de Voragine, and
the _De vita et morte sanctorum_ of Isidore of Seville. The original of
the section on the invention of the holy cross is still to seek. In its
general plan the work is similar to the _Livre de sapience_ of Herman de
Valenciennes.

Of the author nothing is known. In the Cotton MS. Vespasian (A III.) the
name of the owner William Cosyn is given (for particulars of this
family, which is mentioned in Lincolnshire records as early as 1276, see
Dr H. Hupe in the E.E.T.S. ed. of _Cursor mundi_, vol. i. p. 124 *). The
date of the book was placed by Dr J. A. H. Murray (_The Dialect of the
Southern Counties of Scotland_, 1873, p. 30) in the last quarter of the
13th century, and the place of writing near Durham. Dr Hupe (_loc. cit._
p. 186 *) gives good reasons for believing that the author was a
Lincolnshire man, who wrote between 1260 and 1290, although the Cotton
MS. probably belongs to the late 14th century. In the Göttingen MS.
there are lines (17099-17110) desiring the reader to pray for John of
Lindbergh, "that this bock gart dight," and cursing anybody who shall
steal it. Lindberg is probably Limber Magna, near Ulceby, in north
Lincolnshire. Dr Hupe hazards an identification of the author with this
John of Lindberg, who may have been a member of the Cistercian Abbey of
Lindberg; but this is improbable.

  _Cursor mundi_ was edited for the Early English Text Society in
  1874-1893 by Dr Richard Morris in parallel columns from four
  MSS.:--Cotton Vespasian A III., British Museum; Fairfax MS. 14, in the
  Bodleian library, Oxford; MS. theol. 107 at Göttingen; and MS. R. 3.8
  in Trinity College, Cambridge. The edition includes a "Preface" by the
  editor, "An Inquiry into the Sources of the _Cursor mundi_" (1885),
  by Dr Haenisch, an essay "On the Filiation and the Text of the MSS. of
  _Cursor mundi_" (1885), by Dr H. Hupe, "Cursor Studies and Criticisms
  on the Dialects of its MSS." (1888), by Dr Hupe and a glossary by Dr
  Max Kaluza.



CURTAIN, a screen of any textile material, running by means of rings
fixed to a rod or pole. Curtains are now used chiefly to cover windows
and doors, but for many centuries every bed of importance was surrounded
by them, and sometimes, as in France, the space thus screened off was
much larger than the actual bed and was called the _ruelle_. The curtain
is very ancient--indeed the absence of glass and ill-fitting windows
long made it a necessity. Originally single curtains were used; it would
appear that it was not until the 17th century that they were employed in
pairs. Curtains are made in an infinite variety of materials and styles;
when placed over a door they are usually called _portières_. In
fortification the "curtain" is that part of the enceinte which lies
between two bastions, towers, gates, &c.

The word comes into English through the O. Fr. _cortine_ or _courtine_
from the Late Lat. _cortina_. According to Du Cange (_Glossarium_, s.v.
"Cortis") this is a diminutive of _cortis_, an enclosed space, a court.
It is used in the various senses of the English "curtain." Classical
Latin had also a word _cortina_, meaning a caldron or round kettle. It
was very rarely applied to round objects generally. In the Vulgate
_cortina_ is used of the curtains of the tabernacle (Exodus xxvi). There
is some difficulty in connecting the classical and the Late Latin words.
The earliest use in English is, according to the _New English
Dictionary_, for the hangings of a bed.



CURTANA (a latinized form of the A.-Fr. _curtein_, from Lat. _curtus_,
shortened), the pointless sword of mercy, known also as Edward the
Confessor's sword, borne at the coronation of the kings of England
between the two pointed swords of temporal and spiritual justice (see
REGALIA).



CURTEA DE ARGESH (Rumanian, _Curtea de Arges_; also written _Curtea
d'Argesh_, _Curtea d'Ardges_, _Argish_ and _Ardjish_), the capital of
the department of Argesh, Rumania; situated on the right bank of the
river Argesh, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians;
and on the railway from Pitesci to the Rothenthurm Pass. Pop. (1900)
4210. The city is one of the oldest in Rumania. According to tradition
it was founded early in the 14th century by Prince Radu Negru,
succeeding Câmpulung as capital of Walachia. Hence its name _Curtea_,
"the court." It contains a few antique churches, and was created a
bishopric at the close of the 18th century.

The cathedral of Curtea de Argesh, by far the most famous building in
Rumania, stands in the grounds of a monastery, 1½ m. N. of the city. It
resembles a very large and elaborate mausoleum, built in Byzantine
style, with Moorish arabesques. In shape it is oblong, with a many-sided
annexe at the back. In the centre rises a dome, fronted by two smaller
cupolas; while a secondary dome, broader and loftier than the central
one, springs from the annexe. Each summit is crowned by an inverted
pear-shaped stone, bearing a triple cross, emblematic of the Trinity.
The windows are mere slits; those of the tambours, or cylinders, on
which the cupolas rest, are curved, and slant at an angle of 70°, as
though the tambours were leaning to one side. Between the pediment and
the cornice a thick corded moulding is carried round the main building.
Above this comes a row of circular shields, adorned with intricate
arabesques, while bands and wreaths of lilies are everywhere sculptured
on the windows, balconies, tambours and cornices, adding lightness to
the fabric. The whole is raised on a platform 7 ft. high, and encircled
by a stone balustrade. Facing the main entrance is a small open shrine,
consisting of a cornice and dome upheld by four pillars. The cathedral
is faced with pale grey limestone, easily chiselled, but hardening on
exposure. The interior is of brick, plastered and decorated with
frescoes. Close by stands a large royal palace, Moorish in style. The
archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but
several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left. One tablet
records that the founder was Prince Neagoe Bassarab (1512-1521); another
that Prince John Radu completed the work in 1526. A third describes the
repairs executed in 1681 by Prince Sherban Cantacuzino; a fourth, the
restoration, in 1804, by Joseph, the first bishop. Between 1875 and 1885
the cathedral was reconstructed; and in 1886 it was reconsecrated. Its
legends have inspired many Rumanian poets, among them the celebrated V.
Alexandri (1821-1890). One tradition describes how Neagoe Bassarab,
while a hostage in Constantinople, designed a splendid mosque for the
sultan, returning to build the cathedral out of the surplus materials.
Another version makes him employ one Manole or Manoli as architect.
Manole, being unable to finish the walls, the prince threatened him and
his assistant with death. At last Manole suggested that they should
follow the ancient custom of building a living woman into the
foundations; and that she who first appeared on the following morning
should be the victim. The other masons warned their families, and Manole
was forced to sacrifice his own wife. Thus the cathedral was built
except the roof. So arrogant, however, did the masons become, that the
prince bade remove the scaffolding, and all, save Manole, perished of
hunger. He fell to the ground, and a spring of clear water, which issued
from the spot, is still called after him.



CURTESY (a variant of "courtesy," q.v.), in law, the life interest which
a husband has in certain events in the lands of which his wife was in
her lifetime actually seised for an estate of inheritance. As to the
historical origin of the custom and the meaning of the word there is
considerable doubt. It has been said to be an interest peculiar to
England and to Scotland, hence called the "curtesy of England" and the
"curtesy of Scotland"; but this is erroneous, for it is found also in
Germany and France. The _Mirroir des Justices_ ascribes it to Henry I.
K. E. Digby (_Hist. Real Prop._ chap. iii.) says that it is connected
with curia, and has reference either to the attendance of the husband as
tenant of the lands at the lord's court, or to mean simply that the
husband is acknowledged tenant by the courts of England (_tenens per
legem Angliae_). The requisites necessary to make tenancy by the curtesy
are: (1) a legal marriage; (2) an estate in possession of which the wife
must have been actually seised; (3) issue born alive and during the
mother's existence, though it is immaterial whether the issue live or
die, or whether it is born before or after the wife's seisin; in the
case of gavelkind lands the husband has a right to curtesy, whether
there is issue born or not; but the curtesy extends only to a moiety of
the wife's lands and ceases if the husband marries again. The issue must
have been capable of inheriting as heir to the wife, e.g. if a wife were
seised of lands in tail male the birth of a daughter would not entitle
the husband to a tenancy by curtesy; (4) the title to the tenancy vests
only on the death of the wife. The Married Women's Property Act 1882 has
not affected the right of curtesy so far as relates to the wife's
undisposed-of realty (_Hope_ v. _Hope_, 1892, 2 Ch. 336), and the
Settled Land Act 1884, s. 8, provides that for the purposes of the
Settled Land Act 1882 the estate of a tenant by curtesy is to be deemed
an estate arising under a settlement made by the wife.

  See Pollock and Maitland, _Hist. Eng. Law_; K. E. Digby, _Hist. Real
  Prop._; Goodeve, _Real Property_.



CURTILAGE (Med. Lat. _curtilagium_, from _curtile_ or _cortile_, a court
or yard, cf. "court"), the area of land which immediately surrounds a
dwelling-house and its yard and outbuildings. In feudal times every
castle with its dependent buildings was protected by a surrounding wall,
and all the land within the wall was termed the curtilage; but the
modern legal interpretation of the word, i.e. what area is enclosed by
the curtilage, depends upon the circumstances of each individual case,
such as the terms of the grant or deed which passes the property, or
upon what is held to be a convenient amount of land for the occupation
of the house, &c. The importance of the word in modern law depends on
the fact that the curtilage marks the limit of the premises in which
housebreaking can be committed.



CURTIN ANDREW GREGG (1817-1894), American political leader, was born at
Bellefonte, Centre county, Pennsylvania, on the 22nd of April 1817, the
son of a native of Ireland who was a pioneer iron manufacturer in
Pennsylvania. He graduated from the law department of Dickinson College
in 1837, was admitted to the bar in 1839, and successfully practised his
profession. Entering politics as a Whig, he was chairman of the Whig
state central committee in 1854, and from 1855 to 1858 was secretary of
the commonwealth. In this capacity he was also _ex officio_ the
superintendent of common schools, and rendered valuable services to his
state in perfecting and expanding the free public school system, and in
establishing state normal schools. Upon the organization of the
Republican party he became one of its leaders in Pennsylvania, and in
October 1860 was chosen governor of the state on its ticket, defeating
Henry D. Foster, the candidate upon whom the Douglas and Breckinridge
Democrats and the Constitutional Unionists had united, by 32,000 votes,
after a spirited campaign which was watched with intense interest by the
entire country as an index of the result of the ensuing presidential
election. During the Civil War he was one of the closest and most
constant advisers of President Lincoln, and one of the most efficient,
most energetic and most patriotic of the "war governors" of the North.
Pennsylvania troops were the first to reach Washington after the
president's call, and from first to last the state, under Governor
Curtin's guidance, furnished 387,284 officers and men to the Northern
armies. One of his wisest and most praiseworthy acts Was the
organization of the famous "Pennsylvania Reserves," by means of which
the state was always able to fill at once its required quota after each
successive call. In raising funds and equipping and supplying troops the
governor showed great energy and resourcefulness, and his plans and
organizations for caring for the needy widows and children of
Pennsylvania soldiers killed in battle, and for aiding and removing to
their homes the sick and wounded were widely copied throughout the
North. He was re-elected governor in 1863 and served until January 1867.
He was United States minister to Russia from 1869 until 1872, when he
returned to America and took part in the Liberal Republican revolt
against President U. S. Grant. In 1872-1873 he was a member of the state
constitutional convention. Subsequently he joined the Democratic party
and was a representative in Congress from 1881 to 1887. He died at his
birthplace, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, on the 7th of October 1894.

  See William H. Egle's _Life and Times of Andrew Gregg Curtin_
  (Philadelphia, 1896), which contains chapters written by A. K.
  McClure, Jno. Russell Young, Wayne McVeagh, Fitz John Porter and
  others.



CURTIS, GEORGE TICKNOR (1812-1894), American lawyer, legal writer and
constitutional historian, was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, on the
28th of November 1812. He graduated at Harvard in 1832, was admitted to
the bar in 1836, and practised in Worcester, Boston, New York and
Washington, appearing before the United States Supreme Court in many
important cases, including the Dred Scott case, in which he argued the
constitutional question for Scott, and the "legal tender" cases. In
Boston he was for many years the United States commissioner, and in this
capacity, despite the vigorous protests of the abolitionists and his own
opposition to slavery, ordered the return to his owner of the famous
fugitive slave, Themas Sims, in 1852. He was the nephew and close friend
of George Ticknor, the historian of Spanish literature, and his
association with his uncle was influential in developing his scholarly
tastes; while his other personal friendships with eminent Bostonians
during the period of conservative Whig ascendancy in Massachusetts
politics were of direct influence upon his political opinions and
published estimates. He is best known as the author of _A History of the
Origin, Formation and Adoption of the Constitution of the United States,
with Notices of its principal Framers_ (1854), republished, with many
additions, as _The Constitutional History of the United States from
their Declaration of Independence to the Close of their Civil War_ (2
vols., 1889-1896). This history, which had been watched in its earlier
progress by Daniel Webster, may be said to present the old Federalist or
"Webster-Whig" view of the formation and powers of the Constitution; and
it was natural that Curtis should follow it with a voluminous _Life of
Daniel Webster_ (2 vols., 1870), the most valuable biography of that
statesman. Both these works are characterized by solidity and
comprehensiveness rather than by rhetorical attractiveness or literary
perspective. In his later years Mr Curtis, like so many of the followers
of Webster, turned towards the Democratic party; and he wrote, among
other works of minor importance, an exculpatory life of President James
Buchanan (2 vols., 1883) and two vindications of General George B.
McClellan's career (1886 and 1887). He died in New York on the 28th of
March 1894.

  In addition to the works above mentioned he published: _Digest of the
  English and American Admiralty Decisions_ (1839); _Rights and Duties
  of Merchant Seamen_ (1841), which elicited the hearty praise of
  Justice Joseph Story; _Law of Patents_ (1849); _Equity Precedents_
  (1850); _Commentaries on the Jurisprudence, Practice and Peculiar
  Jurisdiction of the Courts of the United States_ (1854-1858);
  _Creation or Evolution: A Philosophical Inquiry_ (1887); and a novel,
  _John Chambers: A Tale of the Civil War in America_ (1889).

His brother, BENJAMIN ROBBINS CURTIS (1809-1874), also an eminent
jurist, was born on the 4th of November 1809, in Watertown,
Massachusetts, graduated at Harvard in 1829, studied law at Cambridge
and at Northfield, Mass., where, after his admission to the bar in 1832,
he practised law for two years, and then in Boston in 1834-1851. In
1851, being then a member of the lower house of the Massachusetts
legislature, he was on the 22nd of September appointed to the Supreme
Court of the United States, where he gained his greatest fame in 1857 by
his dissenting opinion in the Dred Scott case, in which he argued that
the Missouri Compromise was constitutional, and that negroes could
become citizens. His argument was immediately published as an
anti-slavery document. On the 1st of September 1857 he resigned from the
Supreme Court and resumed his private practice. In 1868 he was one of
the counsel for President Andrew Johnson in his impeachment trial, and
opened for the defence in a remarkable two-days' speech. He died at
Newport, Rhode Island, on the 15th of September 1874. He prepared
_Decisions of the Supreme Court_ (22 vols.) and a _Digest_ of its
decisions down to 1854.

  _A Memoir of Benjamin Robbins Curtis, with Some of his Professional
  and Miscellaneous Papers_, edited by his son Benjamin R. Curtis, was
  published at Boston in 1879, the _Memoir_ being by George Ticknor
  Curtis.



CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM (1824-1892), American man of letters, was born in
Providence, Rhode Island, on the 24th of February 1824, of old New
England stock. His mother died when he was two years old. At six he was
sent with his elder brother to school in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts,
where he remained for five years. Then, his father having again married
happily, the boys were brought home to Providence, where they stayed
till, in 1839, their father removed to New York. Three years later,
Curtis, being allowed to determine for himself his course of life, and
being in sympathy with the spirit of the so-called Transcendental
movement, became a boarder at the community of Brook Farm. He was
accompanied by his brother, James Burrill Curtis, whose influence upon
him was strong and helpful. He remained there for two years, brought
into stimulating and serviceable relations with many interesting men and
women. Then came two years, passed partly in New York, partly in Concord
in order mainly to be in the friendly neighbourhood of Emerson, and then
followed four years spent in Europe, Egypt and Syria.

Curtis returned from Europe in 1850, handsome, attractive, accomplished,
ambitious of literary distinction. He instantly plunged into the whirl
of life in New York, obtained a place on the staff of the _Tribune_,
entered the field as a popular lecturer, set himself to work on a volume
published in the spring of 1851, under the title of _Nile Notes of a
Howadji_, and became a favourite in society. He wrote much for _Putnam's
Magazine_, of which he was associate editor; and a number of volumes,
composed of essays written for that publication and for _Harper's
Monthly_, came in rapid succession from his pen. The chief of these were
the _Potiphar Papers_ (1853), a satire on the fashionable society of the
day; and _Prue and I_ (1856), a pleasantly sentimental, fancifully
tender and humorous study of life. In 1855 he married Miss Anna Shaw.
Not long after his marriage he became, through no fault of his own,
deeply involved in debt owing to the failure of _Putnam's Magazine_; and
his high sense of honour compelled him to devote the greater part of his
earnings for many years to the discharge of obligations for which he had
become only by accident responsible, and from which he might have freed
himself by legal process. In the period just preceding the Civil War
other interests became subordinate to those of national concern. Curtis
made his first important speech on the questions of the day at Wesleyan
University in 1856; he engaged actively in the presidential campaign of
that year, and was soon recognized not only as an effective public
speaker, but also as one of the ablest, most high-minded, and most
trustworthy leaders of public opinion. In 1863 he became the political
editor of _Harper's Weekly_, and no other journal exercised during the
war and after it a more important part in shaping public opinion. His
writing was always clear, direct, forcible; his fairness of mind and
sweetness of temper were invincible. He never became a mere partisan,
and never failed to apply the test of moral principle to political
measures. From month to month he contributed to _Harper's Monthly_,
under the title of "The Easy Chair," brief essays on topics of social
and literary interest, charming in style, touched with delicate humour
and instinct with generous spirit. His service to the Republican party
was such, that more than once he was offered nominations to office of
high distinction, and might have been sent as minister to England; but
he refused all offers of the kind, feeling that he could render more
essential service to the country as editor and public speaker.

In 1871 he was appointed by President Grant chairman of the commission
to report on the reform of the civil service. The report which he wrote
was the foundation of every effort since made for the purification and
regulation of the service and for the destruction of political
patronage. From that time till his death Curtis was the leader in this
reform, and to his sound judgment, his vigorous presentation of the
evils of the corrupt prevailing system, and his untiring efforts, the
progress of the reform is mainly due. He was president of the National
Civil Service Reform League and of the New York Civil Service Reform
Association. In 1884 he refused to support the nomination of James G.
Blaine as candidate for the presidency, and thus broke with the
Republican party, of which he had been one of the founders and leaders.
From that time he stood as the typical independent in politics. In April
1892 he delivered at Baltimore his eleventh annual address as president
of the National Civil Service Reform League, and in May he appeared for
the last time in public, to repeat in New York an admirable address on
James Russell Lowell, which he had first delivered in Brooklyn on the
22nd of the preceding February, the anniversary of Lowell's birth. On
the 31st of the following August he died. He was a man of consistent
virtue, whose face and figure corresponded with the traits and stature
of his soul. The grace and charm of his manner were the expression of
his nature. Of the Americans of his time few were more widely beloved,
and the respect in which he was held was universal.

  See _George William Curtis_, by Edward Cary, in the "American Men of
  Letters" series (Boston, 1894), an excellent biography; "An Epistle to
  George William Curtis," by James Russell Lowell (1874-1887), in
  Lowell's _Poems; George William Curtis_, a Commemorative Address
  delivered before The Century Association, 17th December 1892, by Parke
  Godwin (New York, 1893); _Orations and Addresses by George William
  Curtis_, edited by Charles Eliot Norton (3 vols. New York, 1894).
       (C. E. N.)



CURTIUS, ERNST (1814-1896), German archaeologist and historian, was born
at Lübeck on the 2nd of September 1814. On completing his university
studies he was chosen by C. A. Brandis to accompany him on a journey to
Greece for the prosecution of archaeological researches. Curtius then
became Otfried Müller's companion in his exploration of the Peloponnese,
and on Müller's death in 1840 returned to Germany. In 1844 he became an
extraordinary professor at the university of Berlin, and in the same
year was appointed tutor to Prince Frederick William (afterwards the
Emperor Frederick III.)--a post which he held till 1850. After holding a
professorship at Göttingen and undertaking a further journey to Greece
in 1862, Curtius was appointed (in 1863) ordinary professor at Berlin.
In 1874 he was sent to Athens by the German government, and concluded an
agreement by which the excavations at Olympia (q.v.) were entrusted
exclusively to Germany. Curtius died at Berlin on the 11th of July 1896.
His best-known work is his _History of Greece_ (1857-1867, 6th ed.
1887-1888; Eng. trans. by A. W. Ward, 1868-1873). It presented in an
attractive style what were then the latest results of scholarly
research, but was criticized as wanting in erudition. It is now
superseded (see GREECE: _History, Ancient_, § Bibliography). His other
writings are chiefly archaeological. The most important are: _Die
Akropolis von Athen_ (1844); _Naxos_ (1846); _Peloponnesos, eine
historisch-geographische Beschreibung der Halbinsel_ (1851); _Olympia_
(1852); _Die Ionier vor der ionischen Wanderung_ (1855); _Attische
Studien_ (1862-1865); _Ephesos_ (1874); _Die Ausgrabungen zu Olympia_
(1877, &c.); _Olympia und Umgegend_ (edited by Curtius and F. Adler,
1882); _Olympia; Die Ergebnisse der von dem deutschen Reich
veranstalteten Ausgrabung_ (with F. Adler, 1890-1898); _Die
Stadtgeschichte von Athen_ (1891); _Gesammelte Abhandlungen_ (1894). His
collected speeches and lectures were published under the title of
_Altertum und Gegenwart_ (5th ed., 1903 foll.), to which a third volume
was added under the title of _Unter drei Kaisern_ (2nd ed., 1895).

  A full list of his writings will be found in L. Gurlitt, _Erinnerungen
  an Ernst Curtius_ (Berlin, 1902); see also article by O. Kern in
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_, xlvii. (1903), to which may be added
  _Ernst Curtius. Ein Lebensbild in Briefen_, by F. Curtius (1903); T.
  Hodgkin, _Ernest Curtius_ (1905).

His brother, GEORG CURTIUS (1820-1885), philologist, was born at Lübeck
on the 16th of April 1820. After an education at Bonn and Berlin he was
for three years a schoolmaster in Dresden, until (in 1845) he returned
to Berlin University as _privat-docent_. In 1849 he was placed in charge
of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was
appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University. In 1854
he removed from Prague to a similar appointment at Kiel, and again in
1862 from Kiel to Leipzig. He died at Hermsdorf on the 12th of August
1885. His philological theories exercised a widespread influence. The
more important of his publications are: _Die Sprachvergleichung in ihrem
Verhältniss zur classischen Philologie_ (1845; Eng. trans. by F. H.
Trithen, 1851); _Sprachvergleichende Beiträge zur griechischen und
lateinischen Grammatik_ (1846); _Grundzüge der griechischen Etymologie_
(1858-1862, 5th ed. 1879); _Das Verbum der griechischen Sprache_ (1873).
The last two works have been translated into English by A. S. Wilkins
and E. B. England. From 1878 till his death Curtius was general editor
of the _Leipziger Studien zur classischen Philologie_. His _Griechische
Schulgrammatik_, first published in 1852, has passed through more than
twenty editions, and has been edited in English. In his last work, _Zur
Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung_ (1885), he attacks the views of the
"new" school of philology.

  _Opuscula_ of Georg Curtius were edited after his death by E. Windisch
  (_Kleine Schriften von E. C._, 1886-1887). For further information
  consult articles by R. Meister in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_,
  xlvii. (1903), and by E. Windisch in C. Bursian's _Biographisches
  Jahrbuch für Alterthumskunde_ (1886).



CURTIUS, MARCUS, a legendary hero of ancient Rome. It is said that in
362 B.C. a deep gulf opened in the forum, which the seers declared would
never close until Rome's most valuable possession was thrown into it.
Then Curtius, a youth of noble family, recognizing that nothing was more
precious than a brave citizen, leaped, fully armed and on horseback,
into the chasm, which immediately closed again. The spot was afterwards
covered by a marsh called the Lacus Curtius. Two other explanations of
the name Lacus Curtius are given: (1) a Sabine general, Mettius (or
Mettus) Curtius, hard pressed by the Romans under Romulus, leaped into a
swamp which covered the valley afterwards occupied by the forum, and
barely escaped with his life; (2) in 445 B.C. the spot was struck by
lightning, and enclosed as sacred by the consul, Gaius Curtius. It was
marked by an altar which was removed to make room for the games in
celebration of Caesar's funeral (Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xv. 77), but
restored by Augustus (cf. Ovid, _Fasti_, vi. 403), in whose time there
was apparently nothing but a dry well. The altar seems to have been
restored early in the 4th century A.D. In April 1904, on the N. side of
the Via Sacra and 20 ft. N.W. of the Equus Domitiani, remains of the
buildings were discovered.

  See Livy i. 12, vii. 6; Dion Halic. ii. 42; Varro, _De lingua Latina_,
  v. 148; Ch. Hülsen, _The Roman Forum_ (Eng. trans. of 2nd ed., J. B.
  Carter, 1906); O. Gilbert, _Geschichte und Topographie der Stadt Rom
  im Altertum_, i. (1883), 334-338.



CURTIUS RUFUS, QUINTUS, biographer of Alexander the Great. Of his
personal history nothing is known, nor can his date be fixed with
certainty. Modern authorities regard him as a rhetorician who flourished
during the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54). His work (_De Rebus gestis
Alexandri Magni_) originally consisted of ten books, of which the first
two are entirely lost, and the remaining eight are incomplete. Although
the work is uncritical, and shows the author's ignorance of geography,
chronology and military matters, it is written in a picturesque style.

  There are numerous editions: (text) T. Vogel (1889), P. H. Damste
  (1897), E. Hedicke (1908); (with notes), T. Vogel (1885 and later), M.
  Croiset (1885), H. W. Reich (1895), C. Lebaigue (1900), T. Stangl
  (1902). There is an English translation by P. Pratt (1821). See S.
  Dosson, _Étude sur Quinte-Curce, sa vie, et ses oeuvres_ (1887) a
  valuable work; F. von Schwarz, _Alexander des Grossen Feldzüge in
  Turkestan_ (1893), a commentary on Arrian and Curtius based upon the
  author's personal knowledge of the topography; C. Wachsmuth,
  _Einleitung in das Studium der alten Geschichte_ (1895), p. 574, cf.
  p. 567, note 2; Schwarz, "Curtius Rufus" No. 31 in Pauly-Wissowa
  (1901).



CURULE (Lat. _currus_, "chariot"), in Roman antiquities, the epithet
applied to the chair of office, _sella curulis_, used by the "curule" or
highest magistrates and also by the emperors. This chair seems to have
been originally placed in the magistrate's chariot (hence the name). It
was inlaid with ivory or in some cases made of it, had curved legs but
no back, and could be folded up like a camp-stool. In English the word
is used in the general sense of "official." (See CONSUL, PRAETOR and
AEDILE.)



CURVE (Lat. _curvus_, bent), a word commonly meaning a shape represented
by a line bending continuously out of the straight without making an
angle, but only properly to be defined in its geometrical sense in the
terms set out below. This subject is treated here from an historical
point of view, for the purpose of showing how the different leading
ideas were successively arrived at and developed.

1. A curve is a line, or continuous singly infinite system of points. We
consider in the first instance, and chiefly, a plane curve described
according to a law. Such a curve may be regarded geometrically as
actually described, or kinematically as in the course of description by
the motion of a point; in the former point of view, it is the locus of
all the points which satisfy a given condition; in the latter, it is the
locus of a point moving subject to a given condition. Thus the most
simple and earliest known curve, the circle, is the locus of all the
points at a given distance from a fixed centre, or else the locus of a
point moving so as to be always at a given distance from a fixed centre.
(The straight line and the point are not for the moment regarded as
curves.)

Next to the circle we have the conic sections, the invention of them
attributed to Plato (who lived 430-347 B.C.); the original definition of
them as the sections of a cone was by the Greek geometers who studied
them soon replaced by a proper definition _in plano_ like that for the
circle, viz. a conic section (or as we now say a "conic") is the locus
of a point such that its distance from a given point, the focus, is in a
given ratio to its (perpendicular) distance from a given line, the
directrix; or it is the locus of a point which moves so as always to
satisfy the foregoing condition. Similarly any other property might be
used as a definition; an ellipse is the locus of a point such that the
sum of its distances from two fixed points (the foci) is constant, &c.,
&c.

The Greek geometers invented other curves; in particular, the conchoid
(q.v.), which is the locus of a point such that its distance from a
given line, measured along the line drawn through it to a fixed point,
is constant; and the cissoid (q.v.), which is the locus of a point such
that its distance from a fixed point is always equal to the intercept
(on the line through the fixed point) between a circle passing through
the fixed point and the tangent to the circle at the point opposite to
the fixed point. Obviously the number of such geometrical or kinematical
definitions is infinite. In a machine of any kind, each point describes
a curve; a simple but important instance is the "three-bar curve," or
locus of a point in or rigidly connected with a bar pivoted on to two
other bars which rotate about fixed centres respectively. Every curve
thus arbitrarily defined has its own properties; and there was not any
principle of classification.

2. _Cartesian Co-ordinates._--The principle of classification first
presented itself in the _Géometrie_ of Descartes (1637). The idea was to
represent any curve whatever by means of a relation between the
co-ordinates (x, y) of a point of the curve, or say to represent the
curve by means of its equation. (See GEOMETRY: _Analytical_.)

Any relation whatever between (x, y) determines a curve, and conversely
every curve whatever is determined by a relation between (x, y).

Observe that the distinctive feature is in the _exclusive_ use of such
determination of a curve by means of its equation. The Greek geometers
were perfectly familiar with the property of an ellipse which in the
Cartesian notation is x²/a² + y²/b² = 1, the equation of the curve; but
it was as one of a number of properties, and in no wise selected out of
the others for the characteristic property of the curve.

3. _Order of a Curve._--We obtain from the equation the notion of an
algebraical as opposed to a transcendental curve, viz. an algebraical
curve is a curve having an equation F(x, y) = 0 where F(x, y) is a
rational and integral function of the co-ordinates (x, y); and in what
follows we attend throughout (unless the contrary is stated) only to
such curves. The equation is sometimes given, and may conveniently be
used, in an irrational form, but we always imagine it reduced to the
foregoing rational and integral form, and regard this as the equation of
the curve. And we have hence the notion of a curve of a _given order_,
viz. the order of the curve is equal to that of the term or terms of
highest order in the co-ordinates (x, y) conjointly in the equation of
the curve; for instance, xy - 1 = 0 is a curve of the second order.

It is to be noticed here that the axes of co-ordinates may be any two
lines at right angles to each other whatever; and that the equation of a
curve will be different according to the selection of the axes of
co-ordinates; but the order is independent of the axes, and has a
determinate value for any given curve.

We hence divide curves according to their order, viz. a curve is of the
first order, second order, third order, &c., according as it is
represented by an equation of the first order, ax + by + c = 0, or say
(*() x, y, 1) = 0; or by an equation of the second order, ax² + 2hxy +
by² + 2fy + 2gx + c = 0, say (*() x, y, 1)² = 0; or by an equation of
the third order, &c.; or what is the same thing, according as the
equation is linear, quadric, cubic, &c.

A curve of the first order is a right line; and conversely every right
line is a curve of the first order. A curve of the second order is a
conic, and is also called a quadric curve; and conversely every conic is
a curve of the second order or quadric curve. A curve of the third order
is called a cubic; one of the fourth order a quartic; and so on.

A curve of the order m has for its equation (*() x, y, 1)^m = 0; and
when the coefficients of the function are arbitrary, the curve is said
to be the general curve of the order m. The number of coefficients is
½(m + 1)(m + 2); but there is no loss of generality if the equation be
divided by one coefficient so as to reduce the coefficient of the
corresponding term to unity, hence the number of coefficients may be
reckoned as ½(m + 1)(m + 2) - 1, that is, ½m(m + 3); and a curve of the
order m may be made to satisfy this number of conditions; for example,
to pass through ½m(m + 3) points.

It is to be remarked that an equation may _break up_; thus a quadric
equation may be (ax + by + c)(a´x + b´y + c´) = 0, breaking up into the
two equations ax + by + c = 0, a´x + b´y + c´ = 0, viz. the original
equation is satisfied if either of these is satisfied. Each of these
last equations represents a curve of the first order, or right line; and
the original equation represents this pair of lines, viz. the pair of
lines is considered as a quadric curve. But it is an _improper_ quadric
curve; and in speaking of curves of the second or any other given order,
we frequently imply that the curve is a proper curve represented by an
equation which does not break up.

4. _Intersections of Curves._--The intersections of two curves are
obtained by combining their equations; viz. the elimination from the two
equations of y (or x) gives for x (or y) an equation of a certain order,
say the resultant equation; and then to each value of x (or y)
satisfying this equation there corresponds in general a single value of
y (or x), and consequently a single point of intersection; the number of
intersections is thus equal to the order of the resultant equation in x
(or y).

Supposing that the two curves are of the orders m, n, respectively, then
the order of the resultant equation is in general and at most = mn; in
particular, if the curve of the order n is an arbitrary line (n = 1),
then the order of the resultant equation is = m; and the curve of the
order m meets therefore the line in m points. But the resultant equation
may have all or any of its roots imaginary, and it is thus not always
that there are m real intersections.

The notion of imaginary intersections, thus presenting itself, through
algebra, in geometry, must be accepted in geometry--and it in fact plays
an all-important part in modern geometry. As in algebra we say that an
equation of the _m_th order has m roots, viz. we state this generally
without in the first instance, or it may be without ever, distinguishing
whether these are real or imaginary; so in geometry we say that a curve
of the _m_th order is met by an arbitrary line in m points, or rather we
thus, through algebra, obtain the proper geometrical definition of a
curve of the _m_th order, as a curve which is met by an arbitrary line
in m points (that is, of course, in m, and not more than m, points).

The theorem of the m intersections has been stated in regard to an
_arbitrary_ line; in fact, for particular lines the resultant equation
may be or appear to be of an order less than m; for instance, taking m =
2, if the hyperbola xy - 1 = 0 be cut by the line y = ß, the resultant
equation in x is ßx - 1 = 0, and there is apparently only the
intersection (x = 1/ß, y = ß); but the theorem is, in fact, true for
every line whatever: a curve of the order m meets every line whatever in
precisely m points. We have, in the case just referred to, to take
account of a point at infinity on the line y = ß; the two intersections
are the point (x = 1/ß, y = ß), and the point at infinity on the line y
= ß.

It is, moreover, to be noticed that the points at infinity may be all or
any of them imaginary, and that the points of intersection, whether
finite or at infinity, real or imaginary, may coincide two or more of
them together, and have to be counted accordingly; to support the
theorem in its universality, it is necessary to take account of these
various circumstances.

5. _Line at Infinity._--The foregoing notion of a point at infinity is a
very important one in modern geometry; and we have also to consider the
paradoxical statement that in plane geometry, or say as regards the
plane, infinity is a right line. This admits of an easy illustration in
solid geometry. If with a given centre of projection, by drawing from it
lines to every point of a given line, we project the given line on a
given plane, the projection is a line, i.e. this projection is the
intersection of the given plane with the plane through the centre and
the given line. Say the projection is _always_ a line, then if the
figure is such that the two planes are parallel, the projection is the
intersection of the given plane by a parallel plane, or it is the system
of points at infinity on the given plane, that is, these points at
infinity are regarded as situate on a given line, the line infinity of
the given plane.[1]

Reverting to the purely plane theory, infinity is a line, related like
any other right line to the curve, and thus intersecting it in m points,
real or imaginary, distinct or coincident.

Descartes in the _Géométrie_ defined and considered the remarkable
curves called after him the ovals of Descartes, or simply Cartesians,
which will be again referred to. The next important work, founded on the
_Géométrie_, was Sir Isaac Newton's _Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis_
(1706), establishing a classification of cubic curves founded chiefly on
the nature of their infinite branches, which was in some details
completed by James Stirling (1692-1770), Patrick Murdoch (d. 1774) and
Gabriel Cramer; the work also contains the remarkable theorem (to be
again referred to), that there are five kinds of cubic curves giving by
their projections every cubic curve whatever. Various properties of
curves in general, and of cubic curves, are established in Colin
Maclaurin's memoir, "De linearum geometricarum proprietatibus
generalibus Tractatus" (posthumous, say 1746, published in the 6th
edition of his _Algebra_). We have in it a particular kind of
_correspondence_ of two points on a cubic curve, viz. two points
correspond to each other when the tangents at the two points again meet
the cubic in the same point.

6. _Reciprocal Polars. Intersections of Circles. Duality. Trilinear and
Tangential Co-ordinates.--The Géométrie descriptive_, by Gaspard Monge,
was written in the year 1794 or 1795 (7th edition, Paris, 1847), and in
it we have stated, _in plano_ with regard to the circle, and in three
dimensions with regard to a surface of the second order, the fundamental
theorem of reciprocal polars, viz. "Given a surface of the second order
and a circumscribed conic surface which touches it ... then if the conic
surface moves so that its summit is always in the same plane, the plane
of the curve of contact passes always through the same point." The
theorem is here referred to partly on account of its bearing on the
theory of imaginaries in geometry. It is in Charles Julian Brianchon's
memoir "Sur les surfaces du second degré" (_Jour. Polyt._ t. vi. 1806)
shown how for any given position of the summit the plane of contact is
determined, or reciprocally; say the plane XY is determined when the
point P is given, or reciprocally; and it is noticed that when P is
situate in the interior of the surface the plane XY does not cut the
surface; that is, we have a real plane XY intersecting the surface in
the imaginary curve of contact of the imaginary circumscribed cone
having for its summit a given real point P inside the surface.

Stating the theorem in regard to a conic, we have a real point P (called
the pole) and a real line XY (called the polar), the line joining the
two (real or imaginary) points of contact of the (real or imaginary)
tangents drawn from the point to the conic; and the theorem is that when
the point describes a line the line passes through a point, this line
and point being polar and pole to each other. The term "pole" was first
used by François Joseph Servois, and "polar" by Joseph Diez Gergonne
(_Gerg._ t. i. and iii., 1810-1813); and from the theorem we have the
method of reciprocal polars for the transformation of geometrical
theorems, used already by Brianchon (in the memoir above referred to)
for the demonstration of the theorem called by his name, and in a
similar manner by various writers in the earlier volumes of Gergonne. We
are here concerned with the method less in itself than as leading to the
general notion of duality.

Bearing in a somewhat similar manner also on the theory of imaginaries
in geometry (but the notion presents itself in a more explicit form),
there is the memoir by L. Gaultier, on the graphical construction of
circles and spheres (_Jour. Polyt._ t. ix., 1813). The well-known
theorem as to radical axes may be stated as follows. Consider two
circles partially drawn so that it does not appear whether the circles,
if completed, would or would not intersect in real points, say two arcs
of circles; then we can, by means of a third circle drawn so as to
intersect in two real points each of the two arcs, determine a right
line, which, if the complete circles intersect in two real points,
passes through the points, and which is on this account regarded as a
line passing through two (real or imaginary) points of intersection of
the two circles. The construction in fact is, join the two points in
which the third circle meets the first arc, and join also the two points
in which the third circle meets the second arc, and from the point of
intersection of the two joining lines, let fall a perpendicular on the
line joining the centre of the two circles; this perpendicular
(considered as an indefinite line) is what Gaultier terms the "radical
axis of the two circles"; it is a line determined by a real construction
and itself always real; and by what precedes it is the line joining two
(real or imaginary, as the case may be) intersections of the given
circles.

The intersections which lie on the radical axis are two out of the four
intersections of the two circles. The question as to the remaining two
intersections did not present itself to Gaultier, but it is answered in
Jean Victor Poncelet's _Traité des propriétés projectives_ (1822), where
we find (p. 49) the statement, "deux circles placés arbitrairement sur
un plan ... ont idéalement deux points imaginaires communs à l'infini";
that is, a circle _qua_ curve of the second order is met by the line
infinity in two points; but, more than this, they are the same two
points for any circle whatever. The points in question have since been
called (it is believed first by Dr George Salmon) the circular points at
infinity, or they may be called the circular points; these are also
frequently spoken of as the points I, J; and we have thus the circle
characterized as a conic which passes through the two circular points at
infinity; the number of conditions thus imposed upon the conic is = 2,
and there remain three arbitrary constants, which is the right number
for the circle. Poncelet throughout his work makes continual use of the
foregoing theories of imaginaries and infinity, and also of the
before-mentioned theory of reciprocal polars.

Poncelet's two memoirs _Sur les centres des moyennes harmoniques_ and
_Sur la théorie générale des polaires réciproques_, although presented
to the Paris Academy in 1824, were only published (_Crelle_, t. iii. and
iv., 1828, 1829) subsequent to the memoir by Gergonne, _Considérations
philosophiques sur les élémens de la science de l'étendue_ (_Gerg._ t.
xvi., 1825-1826). In this memoir by Gergonne, the theory of duality is
very clearly and explicitly stated; for instance, we find "dans la
géométrie plane, à chaque théorème il en répond nécessairement un autre
qui s'en déduit en échangeant simplement entre eux les deux mots
_points_ et _droites_; tandis que dans la géométrie de l'espace ce sont
les mots _points_ et _plans_ qu'il faut échanger entre eux pour passer
d'un théorème à son corrélatif"; and the plan is introduced of printing
correlative theorems, opposite to each other, in two columns. There was
a reclamation as to priority by Poncelet in the _Bulletin universel_
reprinted with remarks by Gergonne (_Gerg._ t. xix., 1827), and followed
by a short paper by Gergonne, _Rectifications de quelques théorèmes,
&c._, which is important as first introducing the word _class_. We find
in it explicitly the two correlative definitions: "a plane curve is said
to be of the _m_th degree (order) when it has with a line m real or
ideal intersections," and "a plane curve is said to be of the _m_th
class when from any point of its plane there can be drawn to it m real
or ideal tangents."

It may be remarked that in Poncelet's memoir on reciprocal polars, above
referred to, we have the theorem that the number of tangents from a
point to a curve of the order m, or say the class of the curve, is in
general and at most = m(m - 1), and that he mentions that this number is
subject to reduction when the curve has double points or cusps.

The theorem of duality as regards plane figures may be thus stated: two
figures may correspond to each other in such manner that to each point
and line in either figure there correspond in the other figure a line
and point respectively. It is to be understood that the theorem extends
to all points or lines, drawn or not drawn; thus if in the first figure
there are any number of points on a line drawn or not drawn, the
corresponding lines in the second figure, produced if necessary, must
meet in a point. And we thus see how the theorem extends to curves,
their points and tangents; if there is in the first figure a curve of
the order m, any line meets it in m points; and hence from the
corresponding point in the second figure there must be to the
corresponding curve m tangents; that is, the corresponding curve must be
of the class m.

Trilinear co-ordinates (see GEOMETRY: _Analytical_) were first used by
E. E. Bobillier in the memoir _Essai sur un nouveau mode de recherche
des propriétés de l'étendue_ (_Gerg._ t. xviii., 1827-1828). It is
convenient to use these rather than Cartesian co-ordinates. We represent
a curve of the order m by an equation (*() x, y, z)^m = 0, the function
on the left hand being a homogeneous rational and integral function of
the order m of the three co-ordinates (x, y, z); clearly the number of
constants is the same as for the equation (*() x, y, 1)^m = 0 in
Cartesian co-ordinates.

The theorem of duality is considered and developed, but chiefly in
regard to its metrical applications, by Michel Chasles in the _Mémoire
de géométrie sur deux principes généraux de la science, la dualité et
l'homographie_, which forms a sequel to the _Aperçu historique sur
l'origine et le développement des méthodes en géométrie_ (_Mém. de
Brux._ t. xi., 1837).

We now come to Julius Plücker; his "six equations" were given in a short
memoir in _Crelle_ (1842) preceding his great work, the _Theorie der
algebraischen Curven_ (1844). Plücker first gave a scientific dual
definition of a curve, viz.; "A curve is a locus generated by a point,
and enveloped by a line--the point moving continuously along the line,
while the line rotates continuously about the point"; the point is a
point (ineunt.) of the curve, the line is a tangent of the curve. And,
assuming the above theory of geometrical imaginaries, a curve such that
m of its points are situate in an arbitrary line is said to be of the
order m; a curve such that n of its tangents pass through an arbitrary
point is said to be of the class n; as already appearing, this notion of
the order and class of a curve is, however, due to Gergonne. Thus the
line is a curve of the order 1 and class 0; and corresponding dually
thereto, we have the point as a curve of the order 0 and class 1.

Plücker, moreover, imagined a system of line-co-ordinates (tangential
co-ordinates). (See GEOMETRY: _Analytical_.) The Cartesian co-ordinates
(x, y) and trilinear co-ordinates (x, y, z) are point-co-ordinates for
determining the position of a point; the new co-ordinates, say ([xi],
[eta], [zeta]) are line-co-ordinates for determining the position of a
line. It is possible, and (not so much for any application thereof as in
order to more fully establish the analogy between the two kinds of
co-ordinates) important, to give independent quantitative definitions of
the two kinds of co-ordinates; but we may also derive the notion of
line-co-ordinates from that of point-co-ordinates; viz. taking [xi]x +
[eta]y + [zeta]z = 0 to be the equation of a line, we say that ([xi],
[eta], [zeta]) are the line-co-ordinates of this line. A linear relation
a[xi] + b[eta] + c[zeta] = 0 between these co-ordinate determines a
point, viz. the point whose point-co-ordinates are (a, b, c); in fact,
the equation in question a[xi] + b[eta] + c[zeta] = 0 expresses that the
equation [xi]x + [eta]y + [zeta]z = 0, where (x, y, z) are current
point-co-ordinates, is satisfied on writing therein x, y, z = a, b, c;
or that the line in question passes through the point (a, b, c). Thus
([xi], [eta], [zeta]) are the line-co-ordinates of any line whatever;
but when these, instead of being absolutely arbitrary, are subject to
the restriction a[xi] + b[eta] + c[zeta] = 0, this obliges the line to
pass through a point (a, b, c); and the last-mentioned equation a[xi] +
b[eta] + c[zeta] = 0 is considered as the line-equation of this point.

A line has only a point-equation, and a point has only a line-equation;
but any other curve has a point-equation and also a line-equation; the
point-equation (*() x, y, z)^m = 0 is the relation which is satisfied by
the point-co-ordinates (x, y, z) of each point of the curve; and
similarly the line-equation (*() [xi], [eta], [zeta])^n = 0 is the
relation which is satisfied by the line-co-ordinates ([xi], [eta],
[zeta]) of each line (tangent) of the curve.

There is in analytical geometry little occasion for any explicit use of
line-co-ordinates; but the theory is very important; it serves to show
that in demonstrating by point-co-ordinates any purely descriptive
theorem whatever, we demonstrate the correlative theorem; that is, we do
not demonstrate the one theorem, and then (as by the method of
reciprocal polars) deduce from it the other, but we do at one and the
same time demonstrate the two theorems; our (x, y, z.) instead of
meaning point-co-ordinates may mean line-co-ordinates, and the
demonstration is then in every step of it a demonstration of the
correlative theorem.

7. _Singularities of a Curve. Plücker's Equations._--The above dual
generation explains the nature of the singularities of a plane curve.
The ordinary singularities, arranged according to a cross division, are

                                 _Proper._                _Improper._

  Point-singularities-- / 1. The stationary point,   2. The double point
                        \      cusp or spinode;           or node;

  Line-singularities--  / 3. The stationary tangent  4. The double
                        \      or inflection;             tangent;

arising as follows:--

  1. The cusp: the point as it travels along the line may come to rest,
  and then reverse the direction of its motion.

  3. The stationary tangent: the line may in the course of its rotation
  come to rest, and then reverse the direction of its rotation.

  2. The node: the point may in the course of its motion come to
  coincide with a former position of the point, the two positions of the
  line not in general coinciding.

  4. The double tangent: the line may in the course of its motion come
  to coincide with a former position of the line, the two positions of
  the point not in general coinciding.

It may be remarked that we cannot with a real point and line obtain the
node with two imaginary tangents (conjugate or isolated point or
acnode), nor again the real double tangent with two imaginary points of
contact; but this is of little consequence, since in the general theory
the distinction between real and imaginary is not attended to.

The singularities (1) and (3) have been termed proper singularities, and
(2) and (4) improper; in each of the first-mentioned cases there is a
real singularity, or peculiarity in the motion; in the other two cases
there is not; in (2) there is not when the point is first at the node,
or when it is secondly at the node, any peculiarity in the motion; the
singularity consists in the point coming twice into the same position;
and so in (4) the singularity is in the line coming twice into the same
position. Moreover (1) and (2) are, the former a proper singularity, and
the latter an improper singularity, _as regards the motion of the
point_; and similarly (3) and (4) are, the former a proper singularity,
and the latter an improper singularity, _as regards the motion of the
line_.

But as regards the representation of a curve by an equation, the case is
very different.

First, if the equation be in point-co-ordinates, (3) and (4) are in a
sense not singularities at all. The curve (*() x, y, z)^m = 0, or
general curve of the order m, has double tangents and inflections; (2)
presents itself as a singularity, for the equations d_x(*() x, y, z)^m =
0, d_y(*() x, y, z)^m = 0, d_z(*() x, y, z)^m = 0, implying (*() x, y,
z)^m = 0, are not in general satisfied by any values (a, b, c) whatever
of (x, y, z), but if such values exist, then the point (a, b, c) is a
node or double point; and (1) presents itself as a further singularity
or sub-case of (2), a cusp being a double point for which the two
tangents becomes coincident.

In line-co-ordinates all is reversed:--(1) and (2) are not
singularities; (3) presents itself as a sub-case of (4).

The theory of compound singularities will be referred to farther on.

In regard to the ordinary singularities, we have

  m,      the  order,
  n        " class,
  [delta]  " number of double points,
  [kappa]  "     "     cusps,
  [tau]    "     "     double tangents,
  [iota]   "     "     inflections;

and this being so, Plücker's "six equations" are

  (1) n       = m(m - 1) - 2[delta] - 3[kappa],
  (2) [iota]  = 3m(m - 2) - 6[delta] - 8[kappa],
  (3) [tau]   = ½m(m - 2)(m² - 9) - (m² - m - 6)(2[delta] + 3[kappa])
                  + 2[delta]([delta] - 1)
                  + 6[delta][kappa] + (9/2)[kappa]([kappa] - 1),
  (4) m       = n(n - 1) - 2[tau] - 3[iota],
  (5) [kappa] = 3n(n - 2) - 6[tau] - 8[iota],
  (6) [delta] = ½n(n - 2)(n² - 9) - (n² - n - 6)(2[tau] + 3[iota])
                  + 2[tau]([tau] - 1) + 6[tau][iota]
                  + (9/2)[iota]([iota] - i).

It is easy to derive the further forms--

  (7)      [iota] - [kappa]             = 3(n - m),
  (8)      2([tau] - [delta])           = (n - m)(n + m - 9),
  (9)      ½m(m + 3) - [delta]-2[kappa] = ½n(n + 3) - [tau] - 2[iota],
  (10)     ½(m - 1)(m - 2) - [delta] - [kappa]
                          = ½(n - 1)(n - 2) - [tau] - [iota],
  (11, 12) m² - 2[delta] - 3[kappa]     = n² - 2[tau] - 3^[iota],
                          = m + n,--

the whole system being equivalent to three equations only; and it may be
added that using a to denote the equal quantities 3m + [iota] and 3n +
[kappa] everything may be expressed in terms of m, n, a. We have

    [kappa]  = a - 3n,
    [iota]   = a - 3m,
    2[delta] = m² - m + 8n - 3a.
    2[tau]   = n² - n + 8m - 3a.

  It is implied in Plücker's theorem that, m, n, [delta], [kappa],
  [tau], [iota] signifying as above in regard to any curve, then in
  regard to the reciprocal curve, n, m, [tau], [iota], [delta], [kappa]
  will have the same significations, viz. for the reciprocal curve these
  letters denote respectively the order, class, number of nodes, cusps,
  double tangent and inflections.

  The expression ½m(m + 3) - [delta] - 2[kappa] is that of the number of
  the disposable constants in a curve of the order m with [delta] nodes
  and [kappa] cusps (in fact that there shall be a node is 1 condition,
  a cusp 2 conditions) and the equation (9) thus expresses that the
  curve and its reciprocal contain each of them the same number of
  disposable constants.

  For a curve of the order m, the expression ½m(m - 1) - [delta] -
  [kappa] is termed the "deficiency" (as to this more hereafter); the
  equation (10) expresses therefore that the curve and its reciprocal
  have each of them the same deficiency.

  The relations m² - 2[delta] - 3[kappa] = n² - 2[tau] - 3[iota] = m +
  n, present themselves in the theory of envelopes, as will appear
  farther on.

With regard to the demonstration of Plücker's equations it is to be
remarked that we are not able to write down the equation in
point-co-ordinates of a curve of the order m, having the given numbers
[delta] and [kappa] of nodes and cusps. We can only use the general
equation (*() x, y, z)^m = 0, say for shortness u = 0, of a curve of the
_m_th order, which equation, so long as the coefficients remain
arbitrary, represents a curve without nodes or cusps. Seeking then, for
this curve, the values, n, [iota], [tau] of the class, number of
inflections, and number of double tangents,--first, as regards the
class, this is equal to the number of tangents which can be drawn to the
curve from an arbitrary point, or what is the same thing, it is equal to
the number of the points of contact of these tangents. The points of
contact are found as the intersections of the curve u = 0 by a curve
depending on the position of the arbitrary point, and called the "first
polar" of this point; the order of the first polar is = m - 1, and the
number of intersections is thus = m(m - 1). But it can be shown,
analytically or geometrically, that if the given curve has a node, the
first polar passes through this node, which therefore counts as two
intersections, and that if the curve has a cusp, the first polar passes
through the cusp, touching the curve there, and hence the cusp counts as
three intersections. But, as is evident, the node or cusp is not a point
of contact of a proper tangent from the arbitrary point; we have,
therefore, for a node a diminution 2, and for a cusp a diminution 3, in
the number of the intersections; and thus, for a curve with [delta]
nodes and [kappa] cusps, there is a diminution 2[delta] + 3[kappa], and
the value of n is n = m(m - 1) - 2[delta] -3[kappa].

Secondly, as to the inflections, the process is a similar one; it can be
shown that the inflections are the intersections of the curve by a
derivative curve called (after Ludwig Otto Hesse who first considered
it) the Hessian, defined geometrically as the locus of a point such that
its conic polar (§8 below) in regard to the curve breaks up into a pair
of lines, and which has an equation H = 0, where H is the determinant
formed with the second differential coefficients of u in regard to the
variables (x, y, z); H = 0 is thus a curve of the order 3(m - 2), and
the number of inflections is = 3m(m - 2). But if the given curve has a
node, then not only the Hessian passes through the node, but it has
there a node the two branches at which touch respectively the two
branches of the curve; and the node thus counts as six intersections; so
if the curve has a cusp, then the Hessian not only passes through the
cusp, but it has there a cusp through which it again passes, that is,
there is a cuspidal branch touching the cuspidal branch of the curve,
and besides a simple branch passing through the cusp, and hence the cusp
counts as eight intersections. The node or cusp is not an inflection,
and we have thus for a node a diminution 6, and for a cusp a diminution
8, in the number of the intersections; hence for a curve with [delta]
nodes and [kappa] cusps, the diminution is = 6[delta] + 8[kappa], and
the number of inflections is [iota] = 3m(m - 2) - 6[delta] - 8[kappa].

Thirdly, for the double tangents; the points of contact of these are
obtained as the intersections of the curve by a curve [Pi] = 0, which
has not as yet been geometrically defined, but which is found
analytically to be of the order (m - 2)(m² - 9); the number of
intersections is thus = m(m - 2)(m² - 9); but if the given curve has a
node then there is a diminution = 4(m² - m - 6), and if it has a cusp
then there is a diminution = 6(m² - m - 6), where, however, it is to be
noticed that the factor (m² - m - 6) is in the case of a curve having
only a node or only a cusp the number of the tangents which can be drawn
from the node or cusp to the curve, and is used as denoting the number
of these tangents, and ceases to be the correct expression if the number
of nodes and cusps is greater than unity. Hence, in the case of a curve
which has [delta] nodes and [kappa] cusps, the apparent diminution 2(m²
- m - 6)(2[delta] + 3[kappa]) is too great, and it has in fact to be
diminished by 2{2[delta]([delta] - 1) + 6[delta][kappa] +
(9/2)[kappa]([kappa] - 1)}, or the half thereof is 4 for each pair of
nodes, 6 for each combination of a node and cusp, and 9 for each pair of
cusps. We have thus finally an expression for 2[tau], = m(m - 2)(m² - 9)
- &c.; or dividing the whole by 2, we have the expression for [tau]
given by the third of Plücker's equations.

It is obvious that we cannot by consideration of the equation u = 0 in
point-co-ordinates obtain the remaining three of Plücker's equations;
they might be obtained in a precisely analogous manner by means of the
equation v = 0 in line-co-ordinates, but they follow at once from the
principle of duality, viz. they are obtained by the mere interchange of
m, [delta], [kappa], with n, [tau], [iota] respectively.

[Illustration]

To complete Plücker's theory it is necessary to take account of compound
singularities; it might be possible, but it is at any rate difficult, to
effect this by considering the curve as in course of description by the
point moving along the rotating line; and it seems easier to consider
the compound singularity as arising from the variation of an actually
described curve with ordinary singularities. The most simple case is
when three double points come into coincidence, thereby giving rise to a
triple point; and a somewhat more complicated one is when we have a cusp
of the second kind, or node-cusp arising from the coincidence of a node,
a cusp, an inflection, and a double tangent, as shown in the annexed
figure, which represents the singularities as on the point of
coalescing. The general conclusion (see Cayley, _Quart. Math. Jour._ t.
vii., 1866, "On the higher singularities of plane curves"; _Collected
Works_, v. 520) is that every singularity whatever may be considered as
compounded of ordinary singularities, say we have a singularity =
[delta]´ nodes, [kappa]´ cusps, [tau]´ double tangents and [iota]´
inflections. So that, in fact, Plücker's equations properly understood
apply to a curve with any singularities whatever.

By means of Plücker's equations we may form a table--

  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  |   m   |   n   |[delta]|[kappa]| [tau] | [iota]|
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
  |   0   |   1   |   -   |   -   |   0   |   0   |
  |   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   -   |   -   |
  |   2   |   2   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |
  |   3   |   6   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   9   |
  |   "   |   4   |   1   |   0   |   0   |   3   |
  |   "   |   3   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   1   |
  |   4   |  12   |   0   |   0   |  28   |  24   |
  |   "   |  10   |   1   |   0   |  16   |  18   |
  |   "   |   9   |   0   |   1   |  10   |  16   |
  |   "   |   8   |   2   |   0   |   8   |  12   |
  |   "   |   7   |   1   |   1   |   4   |  10   |
  |   "   |   6   |   0   |   2   |   1   |   8   |
  |   "   |   6   |   3   |   0   |   4   |   6   |
  |   "   |   5   |   2   |   1   |   2   |   4   |
  |   "   |   4   |   1   |   2   |   1   |   2   |
  |   "   |   3   |   0   |   3   |   1   |   0   |
  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

The table is arranged according to the value of m; and we have m = 0, n
= 1, the point; m = 1, n = 0, the line; m = 2, n = 2, the conic; of m =
3, the cubic, there are three cases, the class being 6, 4 or 3,
according as the curve is without singularities, or as it has 1 node or
1 cusp; and so of m = 4, the quartic, there are ten cases, where observe
that in two of them the class is = 6,--the reduction of class arising
from two cusps or else from three nodes. The ten cases may be also
grouped together into four, according as the number of nodes and cusps
([delta] + [kappa]) is = 0, 1, 2 or 3.

The cases may be divided into sub-cases, by the consideration of
compound singularities; thus when m = 4, n = 6, [delta] = 3, the three
nodes may be all distinct, which is the general case, or two of them may
unite together into the singularity called a tacnode, or all three may
unite together into a triple point or else into an oscnode.

We may further consider the inflections and double tangents, as well in
general as in regard to cubic and quartic curves.

The expression for the number of inflections 3m(m - 2) for a curve of
the order m was obtained analytically by Plücker, but the theory was
first given in a complete form by Hesse in the two papers "Über die
Elimination, u.s.w.," and "Über die Wendepuncte der Curven dritter
Ordnung" (_Crelle_, t. xxviii., 1844); in the latter of these the points
of inflection are obtained as the intersections of the curve u = 0 with
the Hessian, or curve [Delta] = 0, where [Delta] is the determinant
formed with the second derived functions of u. We have in the Hessian
the first instance of a covariant of a ternary form. The whole theory of
the inflections of a cubic curve is discussed in a very interesting
manner by means of the canonical form of the equation x³ + y³ + z³ +
6lxyz = 0; and in particular a proof is given of Plücker's theorem that
the nine points of inflection of a cubic curve lie by threes in twelve
lines.

It may be noticed that the nine inflections of a cubic curve represented
by an equation with real coefficients are three real, six imaginary; the
three real inflections lie in a line, as was known to Newton and
Maclaurin. For an acnodal cubic the six imaginary inflections disappear,
and there remain three real inflections lying in a line. For a crunodal
cubic the six inflections which disappear are two of them real, the
other four imaginary, and there remain two imaginary inflections and one
real inflection. For a cuspidal cubic the six imaginary inflections and
two of the real inflections disappear, and there remains one real
inflection.

A quartic curve has 24 inflections; it was conjectured by George Salmon,
and has been verified by H. G. Zeuthen that at most eight of these are
real.

The expression ½m(m - 2)(m² - 9) for the number of double tangents of a
curve of the order m was obtained by Plücker only as a consequence of
his first, second, fourth and fifth equations. An investigation by means
of the curve [Pi] = 0, which by its intersections with the given curve
determines the points of contact of the double tangents, is indicated by
Cayley, "Recherches sur l'élimination et la théorie des courbes"
(_Crelle_, t. xxxiv., 1847; _Collected Works_, vol. i. p. 337), and in
part carried out by Hesse in the memoir "Über Curven dritter Ordnung"
(_Crelle_, t. xxxvi., 1848). A better process was indicated by Salmon in
the "Note on the Double Tangents to Plane Curves," _Phil. Mag._, 1858;
considering the m - 2 points in which any tangent to the curve again
meets the curve, he showed how to form the equation of a curve of the
order (m - 2), giving by its intersection with the tangent the points in
question; making the tangent touch this curve of the order (m - 2), it
will be a double tangent of the original curve. See Cayley, "On the
Double Tangents of a Plane Curve" (_Phil. Trans._ t. cxlviii., 1859;
_Collected Works_, iv. 186), and O. Dersch (_Math. Ann._ t. vii., 1874).
The solution is still in so far incomplete that we have no properties of
the curve [Pi] = 0, to distinguish one such curve from the several other
curves which pass through the points of contact of the double tangents.

A quartic curve has 28 double tangents, their points of contact
determined as the intersections of the curve by a curve [Pi] = 0 of the
order 14, the equation of which in a very elegant form was first
obtained by Hesse (1849). Investigations in regard to them are given by
Plücker in the _Theorie der algebraischen Curven_, and in two memoirs by
Hesse and Jacob Steiner (_Crelle_, t. xlv., 1855), in respect to the
triads of double tangents which have their points of contact on a conic
and other like relations. It was assumed by Plücker that the number of
real double tangents might be 28, 16, 8, 4 or 0, but Zeuthen has found
that the last case does not exist.

8. _Invariants and Covariants. Polar Curves._--The Hessian [Delta] has
just been spoken of as a covariant of the form u; the notion of
invariants and covariants belongs rather to the form u than to the curve
u = 0 represented by means of this form; and the theory may be very
briefly referred to. A curve u = 0 may have some invariantive property,
viz. a property independent of the particular axes of co-ordinates used
in the representation of the curve by its equation; for instance, the
curve may have a node, and in order to this, a relation, say A = 0, must
exist between the coefficients of the equation; supposing the axes of
co-ordinates altered, so that the equation becomes u´ = 0, and writing
A´ = 0 for the relation between the new coefficients, then the relations
A = 0, A´ = 0, as two different expressions of the same geometrical
property, must each of them imply the other; this can only be the case
when A, A´ are functions differing only by a constant factor, or say,
when A is an invariant of u. If, however, the geometrical property
requires two or more relations between the coefficients, say A = 0, B =
0, &c., then we must have between the new coefficients the like
relations, A´ = 0, B´ = 0, &c., and the two systems of equations must
each of them imply the other; when this is so, the system of equations,
A = 0, B = 0, &c., is said to be invariantive, but it does not follow
that A, B, &c., are of necessity invariants of u. Similarly, if we have
a curve U = 0 derived from the curve u = 0 in a manner independent of
the particular axes of co-ordinates, then from the transformed equation
u´ = 0 deriving in like manner the curve U´ = 0, the two equations U =
0, U´ = 0 must each of them imply the other; and when this is so, U will
be a covariant of u. The case is less frequent, but it may arise, that
there are covariant systems U = 0, V = 0, &c., and U´ = 0, V´ = 0, &c.,
each implying the other, but where the functions U, V, &c., are not of
necessity covariants of u.

If we take a fixed point (x´, y´, z´) and a curve u = 0 of order m, and
suppose the axes of reference altered, so that x´, y´, z´ are linearly
transformed in the same way as the current x, y, z, the curves
[x´([dP]/[dP]x) + y´([dP]/[dP]y) + z´([dP]/[dP]z)]^(r)u = 0, (r = 1, 2,
... m - 1) have the covariant property. They are the polar curves of the
point with regard to u = 0.

The theory of the invariants and covariants of a ternary cubic function
u has been studied in detail, and brought into connexion with the cubic
curve u = 0; but the theory of the invariants and covariants for the
next succeeding case, the ternary quartic function, is still very
incomplete.

9. _Envelope of a Curve._--In further illustration of the Plückerian
dual generation of a curve, we may consider the question of the
_envelope_ of a variable curve. The notion is very probably older, but
it is at any rate to be found in Lagrange's _Théorie des fonctions
analytiques_ (1798); it is there remarked that the equation obtained by
the elimination of the parameter a from an equation f(x, y, a) = 0 and
the derived equation in respect to a is a curve, the envelope of the
series of curves represented by the equation f(x, y, a) = 0 in question.
To develop the theory, consider the curve corresponding to any
particular value of the parameter; this has with the consecutive curve
(or curve belonging to the consecutive value of the parameter) a certain
number of intersections and of common tangents, which may be considered
as the tangents at the intersections; and the so-called envelope is the
curve which is at the same time generated by the points of intersection
and enveloped by the common tangents; we have thus a dual generation.
But the question needs to be further examined. Suppose that in general
the variable curve is of the order m with [delta] nodes and [kappa]
cusps, and therefore of the class n with [tau] double tangents and
[iota] inflections, m, n, [delta], [kappa], [tau], [iota] being
connected by the Plückerian equations,--the number of nodes or cusps may
be greater for particular values of the parameter, but this is a
speciality which may be here disregarded. Considering the variable curve
corresponding to a given value of the parameter, or say simply the
variable curve, the consecutive curve has then also [delta] and [kappa]
nodes and cusps, consecutive to those of the variable curve; and it is
easy to see that among the intersections of the two curves we have the
nodes each counting twice, and the cusps each counting three times; the
number of the remaining intersections is = m² - 2[delta] - 3[kappa].
Similarly among the common tangents of the two curves we have the double
tangents each counting twice, and the stationary tangents each counting
three times, and the number of the remaining common tangents is = n² -
2[tau] - 3[iota] (= m² - 2[delta] - 3[kappa], inasmuch as each of these
numbers is as was seen = m + n). At any one of the m² - 2[delta] -
3[kappa] points the variable curve and the consecutive curve have
tangents distinct from yet infinitesimally near to each other, and each
of these two tangents is also infinitesimally near to one of the n² -
2[tau] - 3[iota] common tangents of the two curves; whence, attending
only to the variable curve, and considering the consecutive curve as
coming into actual coincidence with it, the n² - 2[tau] - 3[iota] common
tangents are the tangents to the variable curve at the m² - 2[delta] -
3[kappa] points respectively, and the envelope is at the same time
generated by the m² - 2[delta] - 3[kappa] points, and enveloped by the
n² - 2[tau] - 3[iota] tangents; we have thus a dual generation of the
envelope, which only differs from Plücker's dual generation, in that in
place of a single point and tangent we have the group of m² - 2[delta] -
3[kappa] points and n² - 2[tau] - 3[iota] tangents.

The parameter which determines the variable curve may be given as a
point upon a given curve, or say as a parametric point; that is, to the
different positions of the parametric point on the given curve
correspond the different variable curves, and the nature of the envelope
will thus depend on that of the given curve; we have thus the envelope
as a derivative curve of the given curve. Many well-known derivative
curves present themselves in this manner; thus the variable curve may be
the normal (or line at right angles to the tangent) at any point of the
given curve; the intersection of the consecutive normals is the centre
of curvature; and we have the evolute as at once the locus of the centre
of curvature and the envelope of the normal. It may be added that the
given curve is one of a series of curves, each cutting the several
normals at right angles. Any one of these is a "parallel" of the given
curve; and it can be obtained as the envelope of a circle of constant
radius having its centre on the given curve. We have in like manner, as
derivatives of a given curve, the caustic, catacaustic or diacaustic as
the case may be, and the secondary caustic, or curve cutting at right
angles the reflected or refracted rays.

10. _Forms of Real Curves._--We have in much that precedes disregarded,
or at least been indifferent to, reality; it is only thus that the
conception of a curve of the _m_-th order, as one which is met by every
right line in m points, is arrived at; and the curve itself, and the
line which cuts it, although both are tacitly assumed to be real, may
perfectly well be imaginary. For real figures we have the general
theorem that imaginary intersections, &c., present themselves in
conjugate pairs; hence, in particular, that a curve of an even order is
met by a line in an even number (which may be = 0) of points; a curve of
an odd order in an odd number of points, hence in one point at least; it
will be seen further on that the theorem may be generalized in a
remarkable manner. Again, when there is in question only one pair of
points or lines, these, if coincident, must be real; thus, a line meets
a cubic curve in three points, one of them real, and other two real or
imaginary; but if two of the intersections coincide they must be real,
and we have a line cutting a cubic in one real point and touching it in
another real point. It may be remarked that this is a limit separating
the two cases where the intersections are all real, and where they are
one real, two imaginary.

Considering always real curves, we obtain the notion of a branch; any
portion capable of description by the continuous motion of a point is a
branch; and a curve consists of one or more branches. Thus the curve of
the first order or right line consists of one branch; but in curves of
the second order, or conics, the ellipse and the parabola consist each
of one branch, the hyperbola of two branches. A branch is either
re-entrant, or it extends both ways to infinity, and in this case, we
may regard it as consisting of two legs (_crura_, Newton), each
extending one way to infinity, but without any definite separation. The
branch, whether re-entrant or infinite, may have a cusp or cusps, or it
may cut itself or another branch, thus having or giving rise to crunodes
or double points with distinct real tangents; an acnode, or double point
with imaginary tangents, is a branch by itself,--it may be considered as
an indefinitely small re-entrant branch. a branch may have inflections
and double tangents, or there may be double tangents which touch two
distinct branches; there are also double tangents with imaginary points
of contact, which are thus lines having no visible connexion with the
curve. A re-entrant branch not cutting itself may be everywhere convex,
and it is then properly said to be an oval; but the term oval may be
used more generally for any re-entrant branch not cutting itself; and we
may thus speak of a once indented, twice indented oval, &c., or even of
a cuspidate oval. Other descriptive names for ovals and re-entrant
branches cutting themselves may be used when required; thus, in the
last-mentioned case a simple form is that of a figure of eight; such a
form may break up into two ovals or into a doubly indented oval or
hour-glass. A form which presents itself is when two ovals, one inside
the other, unite, so as to give rise to a crunode--in default of a
better name this may be called, after the curve of that name, a limaçon
(q.v.). Names may also be used for the different forms of infinite
branches, but we have first to consider the distinction of hyperbolic
and parabolic. The leg of an infinite branch may have at the extremity a
tangent; this is an asymptote of the curve, and the leg is then
hyperbolic; or the leg may tend to a fixed direction, but so that the
tangent goes further and further off to infinity, and the leg is then
parabolic; a branch may thus be hyperbolic or parabolic as to its two
legs; or it may be hyperbolic as to one leg and parabolic as to the
other. The epithets hyperbolic and parabolic are of course derived from
the conic hyperbola and parabola respectively. The nature of the two
kinds of branches is best understood by considering them as projections,
in the same way as we in effect consider the hyperbola and the parabola
as projections of the ellipse. If a line [Omega] cut an arc aa´ at b, so
that the two segments ab, ba´ lie on opposite sides of the line, then
projecting the figure so that the line [Omega] goes off to infinity, the
tangent at b is projected into the asymptote, and the arc ab is
projected into a hyperbolic leg touching the asymptote at one extremity;
the arc ba´ will at the same time be projected into a hyperbolic leg
touching the same asymptote at the other extremity (and on the opposite
side), but so that the two hyperbolic legs may or may not belong to one
and the same branch. And we thus see that the two hyperbolic legs belong
to a simple intersection of the curve by the line infinity. Next, if the
line [Omega] touch at b the arc aa´ so that the two portions ab, ba´ lie
on the same side of the line [Omega], then projecting the figure as
before, the tangent at b, that is, the line [Omega] itself, is projected
to infinity; the arc ab is projected into a parabolic leg, and at the
same time the arc ba´ is projected into a parabolic leg, having at
infinity the same direction as the other leg, but so that the two legs
may or may not belong to the same branch. And we thus see that the two
parabolic legs represent a contact of the line infinity with the
curve,--the point of contact being of course the point at infinity
determined by the common direction of the two legs. It will readily be
understood how the like considerations apply to other cases,--for
instance, if the line [Omega] is a tangent at an inflection, passes
through a crunode, or touches one of the branches of a crunode, &c.;
thus, if the line [Omega] passes through a crunode we have pairs of
hyperbolic legs belonging to two parallel asymptotes. The foregoing
considerations also show (what is very important) how different branches
are connected together at infinity, and lead to the notion of a complete
branch or circuit.

The two legs of a hyperbolic branch may belong to different asymptotes,
and in this case we have the forms which Newton calls inscribed,
circumscribed, ambigene, &c.; or they may belong to the same asymptote,
and in this case we have the serpentine form, where the branch cuts the
asymptote, so as to touch it at its two extremities on opposite sides,
or the conchoidal form, where it touches the asymptote on the same side.
The two legs of a parabolic branch may converge to ultimate parallelism,
as in the conic parabola, or diverge to ultimate parallelism, as in the
semi-cubical parabola y² = x³, and the branch is said to be convergent,
or divergent, accordingly; or they may tend to parallelism in opposite
senses, as in the cubical parabola y = x³. As mentioned with regard to a
branch generally, an infinite branch of any kind may have cusps, or, by
cutting itself or another branch, may have or give rise to a crunode,
&c.

11. _Classification of Cubic Curves._--We may now consider the various
forms of cubic curves as appearing by Newton's _Enumeratio_, and by the
figures belonging thereto. The species are reckoned as 72, which are
numbered accordingly 1 to 72; but to these should be added 10^a, 13^a,
22^a and 22^b. It is not intended here to consider the division into
species, nor even completely that into genera, but only to explain the
principle of classification. It may be remarked generally that there are
at most three infinite branches, and that there may besides be a
re-entrant branch or oval.

The genera may be arranged as follows:--

  1,2,3,4 redundant hyperbolas
      5,6 defective hyperbolas
      7,8 parabolic hyperbolas
        9 hyperbolisms of hyperbola
       10    "     "   ellipse
       11    "     "   parabola
       12 trident curve
       13 divergent parabolas
       14 cubic parabola;

and thus arranged they correspond to the different relations of the line
infinity to the curve. First, if the three intersections by the line
infinity are all distinct, we have the hyperbolas; if the points are
real, the redundant hyperbolas, with three hyperbolic branches; but if
only one of them is real, the defective hyperbolas, with one hyperbolic
branch. Secondly, if two of the intersections coincide, say if the line
infinity meets the curve in a onefold point and a twofold point, both of
them real, then there is always one asymptote: the line infinity may at
the twofold point touch the curve, and we have the parabolic hyperbolas;
or the twofold point may be a singular point,--viz., a crunode giving
the hyperbolisms of the hyperbola; an acnode, giving the hyperbolisms of
the ellipse; or a cusp, giving the hyperbolisms of the parabola. As
regards the so-called hyperbolisms, observe that (besides the single
asymptote) we have in the case of those of the hyperbola two parallel
asymptotes; in the case of those of the ellipse the two parallel
asymptotes become imaginary, that is, they disappear; and in the case of
those of the parabola they become coincident, that is, there is here an
ordinary asymptote, and a special asymptote answering to a cusp at
infinity. Thirdly, the three intersections by the line infinity may be
coincident and real; or say we have a threefold point: this may be an
inflection, a crunode or a cusp, that is, the line infinity may be a
tangent at an inflection, and we have the divergent parabolas; a tangent
at a crunode to one branch, and we have the trident curve; or lastly, a
tangent at a cusp, and we have the cubical parabola.

It is to be remarked that the classification mixes together non-singular
and singular curves, in fact, the five kinds presently referred to: thus
the hyperbolas and the divergent parabolas include curves of every kind,
the separation being made in the species; the hyperbolisms of the
hyperbola and ellipse, and the trident curve, are nodal; the
hyperbolisms of the parabola, and the cubical parabola, are cuspidal.
The divergent parabolas are of five species which respectively belong to
and determine the five kinds of cubic curves; Newton gives (in two short
paragraphs without any development) the remarkable theorem that the five
divergent parabolas by their shadows generate and exhibit all the cubic
curves.

The five divergent parabolas are curves each of them symmetrical with
regard to an axis. There are two non-singular kinds, the one with, the
other without, an oval, but each of them has an infinite (as Newton
describes it) _campaniform_ branch; this cuts the axis at right angles,
being at first concave, but ultimately convex, towards the axis, the two
legs continually tending to become at right angles to the axis. The oval
may unite itself with the infinite branch, or it may dwindle into a
point, and we have the crunodal and the acnodal forms respectively; or
if simultaneously the oval dwindles into a point and unites itself to
the infinite branch, we have the cuspidal form. (See PARABOLA.) Drawing
a line to cut any one of these curves and projecting the line to
infinity, it would not be difficult to show how the line should be drawn
in order to obtain a curve of any given species. We have herein a better
principle of classification; considering cubic curves, in the first
instance, according to singularities, the curves are non-singular, nodal
(viz. crunodal or acnodal), or cuspidal; and we see further that there
are two kinds of non-singular curves, the complex and the simplex. There
is thus a complete division into the five kinds, the complex, simplex,
crunodal, acnodal and cuspidal. Each singular kind presents itself as a
limit separating two kinds of inferior singularity; the cuspidal
separates the crunodal and the acnodal, and these last separate from
each other the complex and the simplex.

The whole question is discussed very fully and ably by A. F. Möbius in
the memoir "Ueber die Grundformen der Linien dritter Ordnung" (_Abh. der
K. Sachs. Ges. zu Leipzig_, t. i., 1852). The author considers not only
plane curves, but also cones, or, what is almost the same thing, the
spherical curves which are their sections by a concentric sphere. Stated
in regard to the cone, we have there the fundamental theorem that there
are two different kinds of sheets; viz., the single sheet, not separated
into two parts by the vertex (an instance is afforded by the plane
considered as a cone of the first order generated by the motion of a
line about a point), and the double or twin-pair sheet, separated into
two parts by the vertex (as in the cone of the second order). And it
then appears that there are two kinds of non-singular cubic cones, viz.
the simplex, consisting of a single sheet, and the complex, consisting
of a single sheet and a twin-pair sheet; and we thence obtain (as for
cubic curves) the crunodal, the acnodal and the cuspidal kinds of cubic
cones. It may be mentioned that the single sheet is a sort of wavy form,
having upon it three lines of inflection, and which is met by any plane
through the vertex in one or in three lines; the twin-pair sheet has no
lines of inflection, and resembles in its form a cone on an oval base.

In general a cone consists of one or more single or twin-pair sheets,
and if we consider the section of the cone by a plane, the curve
consists of one or more complete branches, or say circuits, each of them
the section of one sheet of the cone; thus, a cone of the second order
is one twin-pair sheet, and any section of it is one circuit composed,
it may be, of two branches. But although we thus arrive by projection at
the notion of a circuit, it is not necessary to go out of the plane, and
we may (with Zeuthen, using the shorter term _circuit_ for his _complete
branch_) define a circuit as any portion (of a curve) capable of
description by the continuous motion of a point, it being understood
that a passage through infinity is permitted. And we then say that a
curve consists of one or more circuits; thus the right line, or curve of
the first order, consists of one circuit; a curve of the second order
consists of one circuit; a cubic curve consists of one circuit or else
of two circuits.

A circuit is met by any right line always in an even number, or always
in an odd number, of points, and it is said to be an even circuit or an
odd circuit accordingly; the right line is an odd circuit, the conic an
even circuit. And we have then the theorem, two odd circuits intersect
in an odd number of points; an odd and an even circuit, or two even
circuits, in an even number of points. An even circuit not cutting
itself divides the plane into two parts, the one called the internal
part, incapable of containing any odd circuit, the other called the
external part, capable of containing an odd circuit.

We may now state in a more convenient form the fundamental distinction
of the kinds of cubic curve. A non-singular cubic is simplex, consisting
of one odd circuit, or it is complex, consisting of one odd circuit and
one even circuit. It may be added that there are on the odd circuit
three inflections, but on the even circuit no inflection; it hence also
appears that from any point of the odd circuit there can be drawn to the
odd circuit two tangents, and to the even circuit (if any) two tangents,
but that from a point of the even circuit there cannot be drawn (either
to the odd or the even circuit) any real tangent; consequently, in a
simplex curve the number of tangents from any point is two; but in a
complex curve the number is four, or none,--four if the point is on the
odd circuit, none if it is on the even circuit. It at once appears from
inspection of the figure of a non-singular cubic curve, which is the odd
and which the even circuit. The singular kinds arise as before; in the
crunodal and the cuspidal kinds the whole curve is an odd circuit, but
in an acnodal kind the acnode must be regarded as an even circuit.

12. _Quartic Curves._--The analogous question of the classification of
quartics (in particular non-singular quartics and nodal quartics) is
considered in Zeuthen's memoir "Sur les différentes formes des courbes
planes du quatrième ordre" (_Math. Ann._ t. vii., 1874). A non-singular
quartic has only even circuits; it has at most four circuits external to
each other, or two circuits one internal to the other, and in this last
case the internal circuit has no double tangents or inflections. A very
remarkable theorem is established as to the double tangents of such a
quartic: distinguishing as a double tangent of the first kind a real
double tangent which either twice touches the same circuit, or else
touches the curve in two imaginary points, the number of the double
tangents of the first kind of a non-singular quartic is = 4; it follows
that the quartic has at most 8 real inflections. The forms of the
non-singular quartics are very numerous, but it is not necessary to go
further into the question.

We may consider in relation to a curve, not only the line infinity, but
also the circular points at infinity; assuming the curve to be real,
these present themselves always conjointly; thus a circle is a conic
passing through the two circular points, and is thereby distinguished
from other conics. Similarly a cubic through the two circular points is
termed a circular cubic; a quartic through the two points is termed a
circular quartic, and if it passes twice through each of them, that is,
has each of them for a node, it is termed a bicircular quartic. Such a
quartic is of course binodal (m = 4, [delta] = 2, [kappa] = 0); it has
not in general, but it may have, a third node or a cusp. Or again, we
may have a quartic curve having a cusp at each of the circular points:
such a curve is a "Cartesian," it being a complete definition of the
Cartesian to say that it is a bicuspidal quartic curve (m = 4, [delta] =
0, [kappa] = 2), having a cusp at each of the circular points. The
circular cubic and the bicircular quartic, together with the Cartesian
(being in one point of view a particular case thereof), are interesting
curves which have been much studied, generally, and in reference to
their _focal_ properties.

13. _Foci._--The points called _foci_ presented themselves in the theory
of the conic, and were well known to the Greek geometers, but the
general notion of a focus was first established by Plücker (in the
memoir "Über solche Puncte die bei Curven einer höheren Ordnung den
Brennpuncten der Kegelschnitte entsprechen" (_Crelle_, t. x., 1833). We
may from each of the circular points draw tangents to a given curve; the
intersection of two such tangents (belonging of course to the two
circular points respectively) is a focus. There will be from each
circular point [lambda] tangents ([lambda], a number depending on the
class of the curve and its relation to the line infinity and the
circular points, = 2 for the general conic, 1 for the parabola, 2 for a
circular cubic, or bicircular quartic, &c.); the [lambda] tangents from
the one circular point and those from the other circular point intersect
in [lambda] real foci (viz. each of these is the only real point on each
of the tangents through it), and in [lambda]² - [lambda] imaginary foci;
each pair of real foci determines a pair of imaginary foci (the
so-called antipoints of the two real foci), and the ½[lambda]([lambda] -
1) pairs of real foci thus determine the [lambda]² - [lambda] imaginary
foci. There are in some cases points termed centres, or singular or
multiple foci (the nomenclature is unsettled), which are the
intersections of improper tangents from the two circular points
respectively; thus, in the circular cubic, the tangents to the curve at
the two circular points respectively (or two imaginary asymptotes of the
curve) meet in a centre.

14. _Distance and Angle. Curves described mechanically._--The notions of
_distance_ and of lines _at right angles_ are connected with the
circular points; and almost every construction of a curve by means of
lines of a determinate length, or at right angles to each other, and (as
such) mechanical constructions by means of linkwork, give rise to curves
passing the same definite number of times through the two circular
points respectively, or say to circular curves, and in which the fixed
centres of the construction present themselves as ordinary, or as
singular, foci. Thus the general curve of three bar-motion (or locus of
the vertex of a triangle, the other two vertices whereof move on fixed
circles) is a tricircular sextic, having besides three nodes (m = 6,
[delta] = 3 + 3 + 3 = 9), and having the centres of the fixed circles
each for a singular focus; there is a third singular focus, and we have
thus the remarkable theorem (due to S. Roberts) of the triple generation
of the curve by means of the three several pairs of singular foci.

Again, the normal, _qua_ line at right angles to the tangent, is
connected with the circular points, and these accordingly present
themselves in the before-mentioned theories of evolutes and parallel
curves.

15. _Theories of Correspondence._--We have several recent theories which
depend on the notion of _correspondence_: two points whether in the same
plane or in different planes, or on the same curve or in different
curves, may determine each other in such wise that to any given position
of the first point there correspond [alpha]´ positions of the second
point, and to any given position of the second point a positions of the
first point; the two points have then an ([alpha], [alpha])
correspondence; and if [alpha], [alpha] are each = 1, then the two
points have a (1, 1) or rational correspondence. Connecting with each
theory the author's name, the theories in question are G. F. B. Riemann,
the rational transformation of a plane curve; Luigi Cremona, the
rational transformation of a plane; and Chasles, correspondence of
points on the same curve, and united points. The theory first referred
to, with the resulting notion of "Geschlecht," or _deficiency_, is more
than the other two an essential part of the theory of curves, but they
will all be considered.

Riemann's results are contained in the memoirs on "Abelian Integrals,"
&c. (_Crelle_, t. liv., 1857), and we have next R. F. A. Clebsch, "Über
die Singularitäten algebraischer Curven" (_Crelle_, t. lxv., 1865), and
Cayley, "On the Transformation of Plane Curves" (_Proc. Lond. Math.
Soc._ t. i., 1865; _Collected Works_, vol. vi. p. 1). The fundamental
notion of the rational transformation is as follows:--

  Taking u, X, Y, Z to be rational and integral functions (X, Y, Z all
  of the same order) of the co-ordinates (x, y, z), and u´, X´, Y´, Z´
  rational and integral functions (X´, Y´, Z´, all of the same order) of
  the co-ordinates (x´, y´, z´), we transform a given curve u = 0, by
  the equations of x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z, thereby obtaining a
  transformed curve u´ = 0, and a converse set of equations x : y : z =
  X´ : Y´ : Z´; viz. assuming that this is so, the point (x, y, z) on
  the curve u = 0 and the point (x´, y´, z´) on the curve u´ = 0 will be
  points having a (1, 1) correspondence. To show how this is, observe
  that to a given point (x, y, z) on the curve u = 0 there corresponds a
  single point (x´, y´, z´) determined by the equations x´ : y´ : z´ = X
  : Y : Z; from these equations and the equation u = 0 eliminating x, y,
  z, we obtain the equation u´ = 0 of the transformed curve. To a given
  point (x´, y´, z´) not on the curve u´ = 0 there corresponds, not a
  single point, but the system of points (x, y, z) given by the
  equations x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z, viz., regarding x´, y´, z´ as
  constants (and to fix the ideas, assuming that the curves X = 0, Y =
  0, Z = 0, have no common intersections), these are the points of
  intersection of the curves X : Y : Z, = x´ : y´ : z´, but no one of
  these points is situate on the curve u = 0. If, however, the point
  (x´, y´, z´) is situate on the curve u´ = 0, then one point of the
  system of points in question is situate on the curve u = 0, that is,
  to a given point of the curve u´ = 0 there corresponds a single point
  of the curve u = 0; and hence also this point must be given by a
  system of equations such as x : y : z = X´ : Y´ : Z´.

It is an old and easily proved theorem that, for a curve of the order
m, the number [delta] + [kappa] of nodes and cusps is at most = ½(m -
1)(m - 2); for a given curve the deficiency of the actual number of
nodes and cusps below this maximum number, viz. ½(m - 1)(m - 2) -
[delta] - [kappa], is the "Geschlecht" or "deficiency," of the curve,
say this is = D. When D = 0, the curve is said to be unicursal, when =
1, bicursal, and so on.

The general theorem is that two curves corresponding rationally to each
other have the same deficiency. [In particular a curve and its
reciprocal have this rational or (1, 1) correspondence, and it has been
already seen that a curve and its reciprocal have the same deficiency.]

A curve of a given order can in general be rationally transformed into a
curve of a lower order; thus a curve of any order for which D = 0, that
is, a unicursal curve, can be transformed into a line; a curve of any
order having the deficiency 1 or 2 can be rationally transformed into a
curve of the order D + 2, deficiency D; and a curve of any order
deficiency = or > 3 can be rationally transformed into a curve of the
order D + 3, deficiency D.

  Taking x´, y´, z´ as co-ordinates of a point of the transformed curve,
  and in its equation writing x´ : y´ : z´ = 1 : [theta] : [phi] we have
  [phi] a certain irrational function of [theta], and the theorem is
  that the co-ordinates x, y, z of any point of the given curve can be
  expressed as proportional to rational and integral functions of
  [theta], [phi], that is, of [theta] and a certain irrational function
  of [theta].

  In particular if D = 0, that is, if the given curve be unicursal, the
  transformed curve is a line, [phi] is a mere linear function of
  [theta], and the theorem is that the co-ordinates x, y, z of a point
  of the unicursal curve can be expressed as proportional to rational
  and integral functions of [theta]; it is easy to see that for a given
  curve of the order m, these functions of [theta] must be of the same
  order m.

  If D = 1, then the transformed curve is a cubic; it can be shown that
  in a cubic, the axes of co-ordinates being properly chosen, [phi] can
  be expressed as the square root of a quartic function of [theta]; and
  the theorem is that the co-ordinates x, y, z of a point of the
  bicursal curve can be expressed as proportional to rational and
  integral functions of [theta], and of the square root of a quartic
  function of [theta].

  And so if D = 2, then the transformed curve is a nodal quartic; [phi]
  can be expressed as the square root of a sextic function of [theta]
  and the theorem is, that the co-ordinates x, y, z of a point of the
  tricursal curve can be expressed as proportional to rational and
  integral functions of [theta], and of the square root of a sextic
  function of [theta]. But D = 3, we have no longer the like law, viz.
  [phi] is not expressible as the square root of an octic function of
  [theta].

Observe that the radical, square root of a quartic function, is
connected with the theory of elliptic functions, and the radical, square
root of a sextic function, with that of the first kind of Abelian
functions, but that the next kind of Abelian functions does not depend
on the radical, square root of an octic function.

It is a form of the theorem for the case D = 1, that the co-ordinates x,
y, z of a point of the bicursal curve, or in particular the co-ordinates
of a point of the cubic, can be expressed as proportional to rational
and integral functions of the elliptic functions snu, cnu, dnu; in fact,
taking the radical to be [root] [1 - [theta]²·1 - k²[theta]²], and
writing [theta] = snu, the radical becomes = cnu, dnu; and we have
expressions of the form in question.

It will be observed that the equations x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z before
mentioned do not of themselves lead to the other system of equations x :
y : z = X´ : Y´ : Z´, and thus that the theory does not in anywise
establish a (1, 1) correspondence between the points (x, y, z) and (x´,
y´, z´) of two planes or of the same plane; this is the correspondence
of Cremona's theory.

  In this theory, given in the memoirs "Sulle trasformazioni geometriche
  delle figure piani," _Mem. di Bologna_, t. ii. (1863) and t. v.
  (1865), we have a system of equations x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z which
  _does_ lead to a system x : y : z = X´ : Y´ : Z´, where, as before, X,
  Y, Z denote rational and integral functions, all of the same order, of
  the co-ordinates x, y, z, and X´, Y´, Z´ rational and integral
  functions, all of the same order, of the co-ordinates x´, y´, z´, and
  there is thus a (1, 1) correspondence given by these equations between
  the two points (x, y, z) and (x´, y´, z´). To explain this, observe
  that starting from the equations of x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z, to a
  given point (x, y, z) there corresponds one point (x´, y´, z´), but
  that if n be the order of the functions X, Y, Z, then to a given point
  x´, y´, z´ there would, if the curves X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 had no
  common intersections, correspond n² points (x, y, z). If, however, the
  functions are such that the curves X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 have k common
  intersections, then among the n² points are included these k points,
  which are fixed points independent of the point (x´, y´, z´); so that,
  disregarding these fixed points, the number of points (x, y, z)
  corresponding to the given point (x´, y´, z´) is = n² - k; and in
  particular if k = n² - 1, then we have one corresponding point; and
  hence the original system of equations x´ : y´ : z´ = X : Y : Z must
  lead to the equivalent system x : y : z = X´ : Y´ : Z´; and in this
  system by the like reasoning the functions must be such that the
  curves X´ = 0, Y´ = 0, Z´ = 0 have n´² - 1 common intersections. The
  most simple example is in the two systems of equations x´ : y´ : z´ =
  yz : zx : xy and x : y : z = y´z´ : z´x´ : x´y´; where yz = 0, zx = 0,
  xy = 0 are conics (pairs of lines) having three common intersections,
  and where obviously either system of equations leads to the other
  system. In the case where X, Y, Z are of an order exceeding 2 the
  required number n² - 1 of common intersections can only occur by
  reason of common multiple points on the three curves; and assuming
  that the curves X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 have [alpha]1 + [alpha]2 +
  [alpha]3 ... + [alpha]_(n-1) common intersections, where the [alpha]1
  points are ordinary points, the [alpha]2 points are double points, the
  [alpha]3 points are triple points, &c., on each curve, we have the
  condition

    [alpha]1 + 4[alpha]2 + 9[alpha]3 + ... (n - 1)²[alpha]_(n-1)
      = n² - 1;

  but to this must be joined the condition

    [alpha]1 + 3[alpha]2 + 6[alpha]3 ... + ½n(n - 1)[alpha]_(n-1)
      = ½n(n + 3) - 2

  (without which the transformation would be illusory); and the
  conclusion is that [alpha]1, [alpha]2, ... [alpha]_(n-1) may be any
  numbers satisfying these two equations. It may be added that the two
  equations together give

    [alpha]2 + 3[alpha]3 ... + ½(n - 1)(n - 2)[alpha]_(n-1)
      = ½(n - 1)(n - 2),

  which expresses that the curves X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 are unicursal. The
  transformation may be applied to any curve u = 0, which is thus
  rationally transformed into a curve u´ = 0, by a rational
  transformation such as is considered in Riemann's theory: hence the
  two curves have the same deficiency.

Coming next to Chasles, the principle of correspondence is established
and used by him in a series of memoirs relating to the conics which
satisfy given conditions, and to other geometrical questions, contained
in the _Comptes rendus_, t. lviii. (1864) et seq. The theorem of united
points in regard to points in a right line was given in a paper,
June-July 1864, and it was extended to unicursal curves in a paper of the
same series (March 1866), "Sur les courbes planes ou à double courbure
dont les points peuvent se déterminer individuellement--application du
principe de correspondance dans la théorie de ces courbes."

  The theorem is as follows: if in a unicursal curve two points have an
  ([alpha], ß) correspondence, then the number of united points (or
  points each corresponding to itself) is = [alpha] + ß. In fact in a
  unicursal curve the co-ordinates of a point are given as proportional
  to rational and integral functions of a parameter, so that any point
  of the curve is determined uniquely by means of this parameter; that
  is, to each point of the curve corresponds one value of the parameter,
  and to each value of the parameter one point on the curve; and the
  ([alpha], ß) correspondence between the two points is given by an
  equation of the form (*() [theta], 1)^[alpha]([Phi], 1)^ß = 0 between
  their parameters [theta] and [phi]; at a united point [phi] = [theta],
  and the value of [theta] is given by an equation of the order [alpha]
  + ß. The extension to curves of any given deficiency D was made in the
  memoir of Cayley, "On the correspondence of two points on a
  curve,"--_Proc. Lond. Math. Soc._ t. i. (1866; _Collected Works_, vol.
  vi. p. 9),--viz. taking P, P´ as the corresponding points in an
  ([alpha], [alpha]´) correspondence on a curve of deficiency D, and
  supposing that when P is given the corresponding points P´ are found
  as the intersections of the curve by a curve [Theta] containing the
  co-ordinates of P as parameters, and having with the given curve k
  intersections at the point P, then the number of united points is a =
  [alpha] + [alpha]´ + 2kD; and more generally, if the curve [Theta]
  intersect the given curve in a set of points P´ each p times, a set of
  points Q´ each g times, &c., in such manner that the points (P, P´)
  the points (P, Q´) &c., are pairs of points corresponding to each
  other according to distinct laws; then if (P, P´) are points having an
  ([alpha], [alpha]´) correspondence with a number = a of united points,
  (P, Q´) points having a (ß, ß´) correspondence with a number = b of
  united points, and so on, the theorem is that we have

    p(a - [alpha] - [alpha]´) + q(b - ß - ß') + ... = 2kD.

The principle of correspondence, or say rather the theorem of united
points, is a most powerful instrument of investigation, which may be
used in place of analysis for the determination of the number of
solutions of almost every geometrical problem. We can by means of it
investigate the class of a curve, number of inflections, &c.--in fact,
Plücker's equations; but it is necessary to take account of special
solutions: thus, in one of the most simple instances, in finding the
class of a curve, the cusps present themselves as special solutions.

  Imagine a curve of order m, deficiency D, and let the corresponding
  points P, P´ be such that the line joining them passes through a given
  point O; this is an (m - 1, m - 1) correspondence, and the value of k
  is = 1, hence the number of united points is = 2m - 2 + 2D; the united
  points are the points of contact of the tangents from O and (as
  special solutions) the cusps, and we have thus the relation n +
  [kappa] = 2m - 2 + 2D; or, writing D = ½(m - 1)(m - 2) - [delta]
  -[kappa], this is n = m(m - 1) - 2[delta] - 3[kappa], which is right.

The principle in its original form as applying to a right line was used
throughout by Chasles in the investigations on the number of the conics
which satisfy given conditions, and on the number of solutions of very
many other geometrical problems.

There is one application of the theory of the ([alpha], [alpha]´)
correspondence between two planes which it is proper to notice.

  Imagine a curve, real or imaginary, represented by an equation
  (involving, it may be, imaginary coefficients) between the Cartesian
  co-ordinates u, u´; then, writing u = x + iy, u´ = x´ + iy´, the
  equation determines real values of (x, y), and of (x´, y´),
  corresponding to any given real values of (x´, y´) and (x, y)
  respectively; that is, it establishes a real correspondence (not of
  course a rational one) between the points (x, y) and (x´, y´); for
  example in the imaginary circle u² + u´² = (a + bi)², the
  correspondence is given by the two equations x² - y² + x´² - y´² = a²
  - b², xy + x´y´ = ab. We have thus a means of geometrical
  representation for the portions, as well imaginary as real, of any
  real or imaginary curve. Considerations such as these have been used
  for determining the series of values of the independent variable, and
  the irrational functions thereof in the theory of Abelian integrals,
  but the theory seems to be worthy of further investigation.

16. _Systems of Curves satisfying Conditions._--The researches of
Chasles (_Comptes Rendus_, t. lviii., 1864, et seq.) refer to the conics
which satisfy given conditions. There is an earlier paper by J. P. E.
Fauque de Jonquières, "Théorèmes généraux concernant les courbes
géométriques planes d'un ordre quelconque," _Liouv._ t. vi. (1861),
which establishes the notion of a system of curves (of any order) of the
index N, viz. considering the curves of the order n which satisfy ½n(n +
3) - 1 conditions, then the index N is the number of these curves which
pass through a given arbitrary point. But Chasles in the first of his
papers (February 1864), considering the conics which satisfy four
conditions, establishes the notion of the two characteristics (µ, [nu])
of such a system of conics, viz. µ is the number of the conics which
pass through a given arbitrary point, and [nu] is the number of the
conics which touch a given arbitrary line. And he gives the theorem, a
system of conics satisfying four conditions, and having the
characteristics (µ, [nu]) contains 2[nu] - µ line-pairs (that is,
conics, each of them a pair of lines), and 2µ - [nu] point-pairs (that
is, conics, each of them a pair of points,--coniques infiniment
aplaties), which is a fundamental one in the theory. The characteristics
of the system can be determined when it is known how many there are of
these two kinds of degenerate conics in the system, and how often each
is to be counted. It was thus that Zeuthen (in the paper _Nyt Bydrag_,
"Contribution to the Theory of Systems of Conics which satisfy four
Conditions" (Copenhagen, 1865), translated with an addition in the
_Nouvelles Annales_) solved the question of finding the characteristics
of the systems of conics which satisfy four conditions of contact with a
given curve or curves; and this led to the solution of the further
problem of finding the number of the conics which satisfy five
conditions of contact with a given curve or curves (Cayley, _Comptes
Rendus_, t. lxiii., 1866; _Collected Works_, vol. v. p. 542), and "On
the Curves which satisfy given Conditions" (_Phil. Trans._ t. clviii.,
1868; _Collected Works_, vol. vi. p. 191).

It may be remarked that although, as a process of investigation, it is
very convenient to seek for the characteristics of a system of conics
satisfying 4 conditions, yet what is really determined is in every case
the number of the conics which satisfy 5 conditions; the characteristics
of the system (4p) of the conics which pass through 4p points are (5p),
(4p, 1l), the number of the conics which pass through 5 points, and
which pass through 4 points and touch 1 line: and so in other cases.
Similarly as regards cubics, or curves of any other order: a cubic
depends on 9 constants, and the elementary problems are to find the
number of the cubics (9p), (8p, 1l), &c., which pass through 9 points,
pass through 8 points and touch 1 line, &c.; but it is in the
investigation convenient to seek for the characteristics of the systems
of cubics (8p), &c., which satisfy 8 instead of 9 conditions.

The elementary problems in regard to cubics are solved very completely
by S. Maillard in his _Thèse_, _Recherche des caractéristiques des
systèmes élémentaires des courbes planes du troisième ordre_ (Paris,
1871). Thus, considering the several cases of a cubic

                                No. of consts.
  1. With a given cusp                5
  2.   "  cusp on a given line        6
  3.   "  cusp                        7
  4.   "  a given node                6
  5.   "  node on given line          7
  6.   "  node                        8
  7. non-singular                     9

he determines in every case the characteristics (µ, [nu]) of the
corresponding systems of cubics (4p), (3p, 1l), &c. The same problems,
or most of them, and also the elementary problems in regard to quartics
are solved by Zeuthen, who in the elaborate memoir "Almindelige
Egenskaber, &c.," _Danish Academy_, t. x. (1873), considers the problem
in reference to curves of any order, and applies his results to cubic
and quartic curves.

The methods of Maillard and Zeuthen are substantially identical; in each
case the question considered is that of finding the characteristics (µ,
[nu]) of a system of curves by consideration of the special or
degenerate forms of the curves included in the system. The quantities
which have to be considered are very numerous. Zeuthen in the case of
curves of any given order establishes between the characteristics µ,
[nu], and 18 other quantities, in all 20 quantities, a set of 24
equations (equivalent to 23 independent equations), involving (besides
the 20 quantities) other quantities relating to the various forms of the
degenerate curves, which supplementary terms he determines, partially
for curves of any order, but completely only for quartic curves. It is
the discussion and complete enumeration of the special or degenerate
forms of the curves, and of the supplementary terms to which they give
rise, that the great difficulty of the question seems to consist; it
would appear that the 24 equations are a complete system, and that
(subject to a proper determination of the supplementary terms) they
contain the solution of the general problem.

17. _Degeneration of Curves._--The remarks which follow have reference
to the analytical theory of the degenerate curves which present
themselves in the foregoing problem of the curves which satisfy given
conditions.

  A curve represented by an equation in point-co-ordinates may break up:
  thus if P1, P2, ... be rational and integral functions of the
  co-ordinates (x, y, z) of the orders m1, m2 ... respectively, we have
  the curve P1^([alpha]1)P2^([alpha]2) ... = 0, of the order m, =
  [alpha]1m1 + [alpha]2m2 + ..., composed of the curve P1 = 0 taken
  [alpha]1 times, the curve P2 = 0 taken [alpha]2 times, &c.

  Instead of the equation P1^([alpha]1)P2^([alpha]2) ... = 0, we may
  start with an equation u = 0, where u is a function of the order m
  containing a parameter [theta], and for a particular value say [theta]
  = 0, of the parameter reducing itself to
  P1^([alpha]1)P2^([alpha]2).... Supposing [theta] indefinitely small,
  we have what may be called the penultimate curve, and when [theta] = 0
  the ultimate curve. Regarding the ultimate curve as derived from a
  given penultimate curve, we connect with the ultimate curve, and
  consider as belonging to it, certain points called "summits" on the
  component curves P1 = 0, P2 = 0 respectively; a summit [Sigma] is a
  point such that, drawing from an arbitrary point O the tangents to the
  penultimate curve, we have O[Sigma] as the limit of one of these
  tangents. The ultimate curve together with its summits may be regarded
  as a degenerate form of the curve u = 0. Observe that the positions of
  the summits depend on the penultimate curve u = 0, viz. on the values
  of the coefficients in the terms multiplied by [theta], [theta]², ...;
  they are thus in some measure arbitrary points as regards the ultimate
  curve P1^([alpha]1)P2^([alpha]2) ... = 0.

  It may be added that we have summits only on the component curves P1 =
  0, of a multiplicity [alpha]1 > 1; the number of summits on such a
  curve is in general = ([alpha]1² - [alpha]1)m1². Thus assuming that
  the penultimate curve is without nodes or cusps, the number of the
  tangents to it is = m² - m, = ([alpha]1m1 + [alpha]2m2 + ...)² -
  ([alpha]1m1 + [alpha]2m2 + ...). Taking P1 = 0 to have [delta]1 nodes
  and [kappa]1 cusps, and therefore its class n1 to be = m1² - m1 -
  2[delta]1 - 3[kappa]1, &c., the expression for the number of tangents
  to the penultimate curve is

    = ([alpha]1² - [alpha]1)m1² + ([alpha]2² - [alpha]2)m2² +
      + ... + 2[alpha]1[alpha]2m1m2 + [alpha]1(n1 + 2[delta]1 +
      + 3[kappa]1) + [alpha]2(n2 + 2[delta]2 + 3[kappa]2) + ...

  where a term 2[alpha]1[alpha]2m1m2 indicates tangents which are in the
  limit the lines drawn to the intersections of the curves P1 = 0, P2 =
  0 each line 2[alpha]1[alpha]2 times; a term [alpha]1(n1 + 2[delta]1 +
  3[kappa]1) tangents which are in the limit the proper tangents to P1
  = 0 each [alpha]1 times, the lines to its nodes each 2[alpha]1 times,
  and the lines to its cusps each 3[alpha]1, times; the remaining terms
  ([alpha]1² - [alpha]1)m1² + ([alpha]2² - [alpha]2)m2² + ... indicate
  tangents which are in the limit the lines drawn to the several
  summits, that is, we have ([alpha]1² - [alpha]1)m1² summits on the
  curve P1 = 0, &c.

  There is, of course, a precisely similar theory as regards
  line-co-ordinates; taking [Pi]1, [Pi]2, &c., to be rational and
  integral functions of the co-ordinates ([xi], [eta], [zeta]) we
  connect with the ultimate curve [Pi]1^([alpha]1)[Pi]2^([alpha]2) ... =
  0, and consider as belonging to it, certain lines, which for the
  moment may be called "axes" tangents to the component curves [Pi]1 =
  01, [Pi]2 = 0 respectively. Considering an equation in
  point-co-ordinates, we may have among the component curves right
  lines, and if in order to put these in evidence we take the equation
  to be L1^([gamma]1) ... P1^([alpha]1) ... = 0, where L1 = 0 is a right
  line, P1 = 0 a curve of the second or any higher order, then the curve
  will contain as part of itself summits not exhibited in this equation,
  but the corresponding line-equation will be 1[Lambda]^([delta]1) ...
  [Pi]1^([alpha]1) = 0, where [Lambda]1 = 0,... are the equations of the
  summits in question, [Pi]1 = 0, &c., are the line-equations
  corresponding to the several point-equations P1 = 0, &c.; and this
  curve will contain as part of itself axes not exhibited by this
  equation, but which are the lines L1 = 0,... of the equation in
  point-co-ordinates.

18. _Twisted Curves._--In conclusion a little may be said as to curves
of double curvature, otherwise twisted curves or curves in space. The
analytical theory by Cartesian co-ordinates was first considered by
Alexis Claude Clairaut, _Recherches sur les courbes à double courbure_
(Paris, 1731). Such a curve may be considered as described by a point,
moving in a line which at the same time rotates about the point in a
plane which at the same time rotates about the line; the point is a
point, the line a tangent, and the plane an osculating plane, of the
curve; moreover the line is a generating line, and the plane a tangent
plane, of a developable surface or torse, having the curve for its edge
of regression. Analogous to the order and class of a plane curve we have
the order, rank and class of the system (assumed to be a geometrical
one), viz. if an arbitrary plane contains m points, an arbitrary line
meets r lines, and an arbitrary point lies in n planes, of the system,
then m, r, n are the order, rank and class respectively. The system has
singularities, and there exist between m, r, n and the numbers of the
several singularities equations analogous to Plücker's equations for a
plane curve.

It is a leading point in the theory that a curve in space cannot in
general be represented by means of two equations U = 0, V = 0; the two
equations represent surfaces, intersecting in a curve; but there are
curves which are not the complete intersection of any two surfaces; thus
we have the cubic in space, or skew cubic, which is the residual
intersection of two quadric surfaces which have a line in common; the
equations U = 0, V = 0 of the two quadric surfaces represent the cubic
curve, not by itself, but together with the line.

  AUTHORITIES.--In addition to the copious authorities mentioned in the
  text above, see Gabriel Cramer, _Introduction à l'analyse des lignes
  courbes algébriques_ (Geneva, 1750). Bibliographical articles are
  given in the _Ency. der math. Wiss._ Bd. iii. 2, 3 (Leipzig,
  1902-1906); H. C. F. von Mangoldt, "Anwendung der Differential- und
  Integralrechnung auf Kurven und Flächen," Bd. iii. 3 (1902); F. R. v.
  Lilienthal, "Die auf einer Fläche gezogenen Kurven," Bd. iii. 3
  (1902); G. W. Scheffers, "Besondere transcendente Kurven," Bd. iii. 3
  (1903); H. G. Zeuthen, "Abzahlende Methoden," Bd. iii. 2 (1906); L.
  Berzolari, "Allgemeine Theorie der höheren ebenen algebraischen
  Kurven," Bd. iii. 2 (1906). Also A. Brill and M. Noether, "Die
  Entwicklung der Theorie der algebraischen Funktionen in älterer und
  neuerer Zeit" (_Jahresb. der deutschen math. ver._, 1894); E. Kötter,
  "Die Entwickelung der synthetischen Geometrie" (_Jahresb. der
  deutschen math. ver._, 1898-1901); E. Pascal, _Repertorio di
  matematiche superiori_, ii. "Geometrìa" (Milan, 1900); H. Wieleitner,
  _Bibliographie der höheren algebraischen Kurven für den Zeitabschnitt
  von 1890-1894_ (Leipzig, 1905).

  _Text-books_:--G. Salmon, _A Treatise on the Higher Plane Curves_
  (Dublin, 1852, 3rd ed., 1879); translated into German by O. W.
  Fiedler, _Analytische Geometrie der höheren ebenen Kurven_ (Leipzig,
  2te Aufl., 1882); L. Cremona, _Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica
  delle curve piane_ (Bologna, 1861); J. H. K. Durège, _Die ebenen
  Kurven dritter Ordnung_ (Leipzig, 1871); R. F. A. Clebsch and C. L. F.
  Lindemann, _Vorlesungen über Geometrie_, Band i. and i2 (Leipzig,
  1875-1876); H. Schroeter, _Die Theorie der ebenen Kurven dritter
  Ordnung_ (Leipzig, 1888); H. Andoyer, _Leçons sur la théorie des
  formes et la géométrie analytique supérieure_ (Paris, 1900);
  Wieleitner, _Theorie der ebenen algebraischen Kurven höherer Ordnung_
  (Leipzig, 1905).     (A. Ca.; E. B. El.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In solid geometry infinity is a plane--its intersection with any
    given plane being the right line which is the infinity of this given
    plane.



CURVILINEAR, in architecture, that which is formed by curved or flowing
lines; the roofs over the domes and vaults of the Byzantine churches
were generally curvilinear. The term is also given to the flowing
tracery of the Decorated and the Flamboyant styles.



CURWEN, HUGH (d. 1568), English ecclesiastic and statesman, was a native
of Westmorland, and was educated at Cambridge, afterwards taking orders
in the church. In May 1533 he expressed approval of Henry VIII.'s
marriage with Anne Boleyn in a sermon preached before the king. In 1541
he became dean of Hereford, and in 1555 Queen Mary nominated him to the
archbishopric of Dublin, and in the same year he was appointed lord
chancellor of Ireland. He acted as one of the lords justices during the
absence from Ireland of the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, in 1557. On
the accession of Elizabeth, Curwen at once accommodated himself to the
new conditions by declaring himself a Protestant, and was continued in
the office of lord chancellor. He was accused by the archbishop of
Armagh of serious moral delinquency, and his recall was demanded both by
the primate and the bishop of Meath. In 1567 Curwen resigned the see of
Dublin and the office of lord chancellor, and was appointed bishop of
Oxford. He died on the 1st of November 1568.

  See John Strype, _Life and Acts of Archbishop Parker_ (3 vols.,
  Oxford, 1824), and _Memorials of Thomas Cranmer_ (2 vols., Oxford,
  1840); John D'Alton. _Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin_ (Dublin,
  1838).



CURWEN, JOHN (1816-1880), English Nonconformist minister and founder of
the Tonic Sol-Fa system of musical teaching, was born at Heckmondwike,
Yorkshire, of an old Cumberland family. His father was a Nonconformist
minister, and he himself adopted this profession, which he practised
till 1864, when he gave it up in order to devote himself to his new
method of musical nomenclature, designed to avoid the use of the stave
with its lines and spaces. He adapted it from that of Miss Sarah Ann
Glover (1785-1867) of Norwich, whose Sol-Fa system was based on the
ancient gamut; but she omitted the constant recital of the alphabetical
names of each note and the arbitrary syllable indicating key
relationship, and also the recital of two or more such syllables when
the same note was common to as many keys (e.g. "C, Fa, Ut," meaning that
C is the subdominant of G and the tonic of C). The notes were
represented by the initials of the seven syllables, still in use in
Italy and France as their names but in the "Tonic Sol-Fa" the seven
letters refer to key relationship and not to pitch. Curwen was led to
feel the importance of a simple way of teaching how to sing by note by
his experiences among Sunday-school teachers. Apart from Miss Glover,
the same idea had been elaborated in France since J. J. Rousseau's time,
by Pierre Galin (1786-1821), Aimé Paris (1798-1866) and Emile Chevé
(1804-1864), whose method of teaching how to read at sight also depended
on the principle of "tonic relationship" being inculcated by the
reference of every sound to its tonic, by the use of a _numeral_
notation. Curwen brought out his _Grammar of Vocal Music_ in 1843, and
in 1853 started the Tonic Sol-Fa Association; and in 1879, after some
difficulties with the education department, the Tonic Sol-Fa College was
opened. Curwen also took to publishing, and brought out a periodical
called the _Tonic Sol-fa Reporter_, and in his later life was occupied
in directing the spreading organization of his system. He died at
Manchester on the 26th of May 1880. His son John Spencer Curwen (b.
1847), who became principal of the Tonic Sol-Fa College, published
_Memorials of J. Curwen_ in 1882. The Sol-Fa system has been widely
adopted for use in education, as an easily teachable method in the
reading of music at sight, but its more ambitious aims, which are
strenuously pushed, for providing a superior method of musical notation
generally, have not recommended themselves to musicians at large.



CURZOLA (Serbo-Croatian _Korcula_ or _Karkar_), an island in the
Adriatic Sea, forming part of Dalmatia, Austria; and lying west of the
Sabionicello promontory, from which it is divided by a strait less than
2 m. wide. Its length is about 25 m.; its average breadth, 4 m. Curzola
(_Korcula_), the capital and principal port, is a fortified town on the
east coast, and occupies a rocky foreland almost surrounded by the sea.
Besides the interesting church (formerly a cathedral), dating from the
12th or 13th century, the _loggia_ or council chambers, and the palace
of its former Venetian governors, it possesses the noble mansion of the
Arnieri, and other specimens of the domestic architecture of the 15th
and 16th centuries, together with the massive walls and towers, erected
in 1420, and the 15th-century Franciscan monastery, with its beautiful
Venetian Gothic cloister. The main resources of the islanders are
boat-building (for which they are celebrated throughout the Adriatic),
fishing and sea-faring, the cultivation of the vine, corn and olives,
and breeding of mules. Pop. (1900) of island, 17,377; of capital (town
and commune), 6486. Prehistoric grave-mounds are common on the hills of
the interior, and in later times Curzola may have been a Phoenician
settlement. Its early history is very obscure, but it was certainly
colonized by Greeks from Cnidus. The present name is a corruption of the
Gr. [Greek: Kerkyra Melaina], or Lat. _Corcyra Nigra_, "Black Corcyra";
and is perhaps due to the dark pines which still partly cover the
island. In 998 Curzola first came under Venetian suzerainty. During the
12th century it was ruled by Hungary and Genoa in turn, and enjoyed a
brief period of independence; but after 1255 its hereditary counts again
submitted to Venice. The Roman Catholic see of Curzola, created in 1301,
was only suppressed in 1806. Curzola surrendered to the Hungarians in
1358, was purchased by Ragusa (1413-1417), and finally declared itself
subject to Venice in 1420. In 1571 it defended itself so gallantly
against the Turks that it obtained the designation _fidelissima_. From
1776 to 1797 it succeeded Lesina as the main Venetian arsenal in this
region. During the Napoleonic wars it was ruled successively by
Russians, French and British, ultimately passing to Austria in 1815.



CURZON OF KEDLESTON, GEORGE NATHANIEL, 1ST BARON (1859-   ), English
statesman, eldest son of the 4th baron Scarsdale, rector of Kedleston,
Derbyshire, was born on the 11th of January 1859, and was educated at
Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. At Oxford he was president of the
Union, and after a brilliant university career was elected a fellow of
All Souls College in 1883. He became assistant private secretary to Lord
Salisbury in 1885, and in 1886 entered parliament as member for the
Southport division of S.W. Lancashire. He was appointed under secretary
for India in 1891-1892 and for foreign affairs in 1895-1898. In the
meantime he had travelled in Central Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, the
Pamirs, Siam, Indo-China and Korea, and published several books
describing central and eastern Asia and the political problems connected
with those regions. In 1895 he married Mary Victoria Leiter (d. 1906),
daughter of a Chicago millionaire. In January 1899 he was appointed
governor-general of India, where his extensive knowledge of Asiatic
affairs showed itself in the inception of a strong foreign policy, while
he took in hand the reform of every department of Indian administration.
He was created an Irish peer on his appointment, the creation taking
this form, it was understood, in order that he might remain free during
his father's lifetime to re-enter the House of Commons. Reaching India
shortly after the suppression of the frontier risings of 1897-98, he
paid special attention to the independent tribes of the north-west
frontier, inaugurated a new province called the North West Frontier
Province, and carried out a policy of conciliation mingled with firmness
of control. The only trouble on this frontier during the period of his
administration was the Mahsud Waziri campaign of 1901. Being mistrustful
of Russian methods he exerted himself to encourage British trade in
Persia, paying a visit to the Persian Gulf in 1903; while on the
north-east frontier he anticipated a possible Russian advance by the
Tibet Mission of 1903, which rendered necessary the employment of
military force for the protection of the British envoys. The mission,
which had the ostensible support of China as suzerain of Tibet,
penetrated to Lhasa, where a treaty was signed in September 1904. In
pursuance of his reforming policy Lord Curzon appointed a number of
commissions to inquire into Indian education, irrigation, police and
other branches of administration, on whose reports legislation was
based during his second term of office as viceroy. With a view to
improving British relations with the native chiefs and raising the
character of their rule, he established the Imperial Cadet corps,
settled the question of Berar with the nizam of Hyderabad, reduced the
salt tax, and gave relief to the smaller income-tax payers. Lord Curzon
exhibited much interest in the art and antiquities of India, and during
his viceroyalty took steps for the preservation and restoration of many
important monuments and buildings of historic interest. In January 1903
he presided at the durbar held at Delhi in honour of the coronation of
King Edward VII. It was attended by all the leading native princes and
by large numbers of visitors from Europe and America; and the
magnificence of the spectacle surpassed anything that had previously
been witnessed even in the gorgeous ceremonial of the East. On the
expiration of his first term of office, Lord Curzon was reappointed
governor-general. His second term of office was marked by the passing of
several acts founded on the recommendations of his previous commissions,
and by the partition of Bengal (1905), which roused bitter opposition
amongst the natives of that province. A difference of opinion with the
commander-in-chief, Lord Kitchener, regarding the position of the
military member of council in India, led to a controversy in which Lord
Curzon failed to obtain support from the home government. He resigned
(1904) and returned to England. In 1904 he was appointed lord warden of
the Cinque Ports; in the same year he was given the honorary degree of
D.C.L. by Oxford University, and in 1908 he was elected chancellor of
the university. In the latter year he was elected a representative peer
for Ireland, and thus relinquished any idea of returning to the House of
Commons. In 1909-1910 he took an active part in defending the House of
Lords against the Liberals. Lord Curzon's publications include _Russia
in Central Asia_ (1889); _Persia and the Persian Question_ (1892);
_Problems of the Far East_ (1894; new ed., 1896).

  See Caldwell Lipsett, _Lord Curzon in India_, 1898-1903 (1906); and C.
  J. O'Donnell, _The Failure of Lord Curzon_ (1903).



CUSANUS, NICOLAUS (NICHOLAS OF CUSA) (1401-1464), cardinal, theologian
and scholar, was the son of a poor fisherman named Krypffs or Krebs, and
derived the name by which he is known from the place of his birth, Kues
or Cusa, on the Moselle, in the archbishopric of Trier (Treves). In his
youth he was employed in the service of Count Ulrich of Manderscheid,
who, seeing in him evidence of exceptional ability, sent him to study at
the school of the Brothers of the Common Life at Deventer, and
afterwards at the university of Padua, where he took his doctor's degree
in law in his twenty-third year. Failing in his first case he abandoned
the legal profession, and resolved to take holy orders. After filling
several subordinate offices he became archdeacon of Liége. He was a
member of the council of Basel, and dedicated to the assembled fathers a
work entitled _De concordantia Catholica_, in which he maintained the
superiority of councils over popes, and assailed the genuineness of the
False Decretals and the Donation of Constantine. A few years later,
however, he had reversed his position, and zealously defended the
supremacy of the pope. He was entrusted with various missions in the
interests of Catholic unity, the most important being to Constantinople,
to endeavour to bring about a union of the Eastern and Western churches.
From 1440 to 1447 he was in Germany, acting as papal legate at the diets
of 1441, 1442, 1445 and 1446. In 1448, in recognition of his services,
Nicholas V. raised him to the cardinalate; and in 1450 he was appointed
bishop of Brixen against the wish of Sigismund, archduke of Austria, who
opposed the reforms the new bishop sought to introduce into the diocese.
In 1451 he was sent to Germany and the Netherlands to check
ecclesiastical abuses and bring back the monastic life to the original
rule of poverty, chastity and obedience--a mission which he discharged
with well-tempered firmness. Soon afterwards his dispute with the
archduke Sigismund in his own diocese was brought to a point by his
claiming certain dues of the bishopric, which the temporal prince had
appropriated. Upon this the bishop was imprisoned by the archduke, who,
in his turn, was excommunicated by the pope. These extreme measures
were not persisted in; but the dispute remained unsettled at the time of
the bishop's death, which occurred at Lodi in Umbria on the 11th of
August 1464. In 1459 he had acted as governor of Rome during the absence
of his friend Pope Pius II. at the assembly of princes at Milan; and he
wrote his _Crebratio Alcorani_, a treatise against Mahommedanism, in
support of the expedition against the Turks proposed at that assembly.
Some time before his death he had founded a hospital in his native place
for thirty-three poor persons, the number being that of the years of the
earthly life of Christ. To this institution he left his valuable
library.

Although one of the great leaders in the reform movement of the 15th
century, Nicholas of Cusa's interest for later times lies in his
philosophical much more than in his political or ecclesiastical
activity. As in religion he is entitled to be called one of the
"Reformers before the Reformation," so in philosophy he was one of those
who broke with scholasticism while it was still the orthodox system. In
his principal work, _De docta ignorantia_ (1440), supplemented by _De
conjecturis libri_ duo published in the same year, he maintains that all
human knowledge is mere conjecture, and that man's wisdom is to
recognize his ignorance. From scepticism he escapes by accepting the
doctrine of the mystics that God can be apprehended by intuition
(_intuitio, speculatio_), an exalted state of the intellect in which all
limitations disappear. God is the absolute maximum and also the absolute
minimum, who can be neither greater nor less than He is, and who
comprehends all that is or that can be ("deum esse omnia, ut non possit
esse aliud quam est"). Cusanus thus laid himself open to the charge of
pantheism, which did not fail to be brought against him in his own day.
His chief philosophical doctrine was taken up and developed more than a
hundred years later by Giordano Bruno, who calls him the divine Cusanus.
In mathematical and physical science Cusanus was much in advance of his
age. In a tract, _Reparatio Calendarii_, presented to the council of
Basel, he proposed the reform of the calendar after a method resembling
that adopted by Gregory. In his _De Quadratura Circuli_ he professed to
have solved the problem; and in his _Conjectura de novissimis diebus_ he
prophesied that the world would come to an end in 1734. Most noteworthy,
however, in this connexion is the fact that he anticipated Copernicus by
maintaining the theory of the rotation of the earth.

  The works of Cusanus were published in a complete form by Henri Petrie
  (1 vol. fol., Basel, 1565). See F. A. Scharpff's _Der Kardinal und
  Bischof Nikolaus von Cusa als Reformator in Kirche, Reich, und Philos.
  des 15. Jahrhund_. (Tübingen, 1871); J. M. Düx, _Der deutsche Kard.
  Nicolaus von Cusa und die Kirche seiner Zeit_ (Regensburg, 1848); R.
  Falckenberg, _Grundzüge d. Philos. d. Nikolaus Cusanus_ (Breslau,
  1880) and _Aufgabe und Wesen d. Erkenntniss bei Nikolaus von Kues_
  (Breslau, 1880); T. Stumpf, _Die politischen Ideen des Nikolaus von
  Cues_ (Cologne, 1865); M. Glossner, _Nikolaus von Cusa und Marius
  Nizolius als Vorläufer der neueren Philosophie_ (Münster, 1891); F.
  Fiorentino, _Il Risorgimento filosofico nel quattro cento_ (Naples,
  1885); Axel Herrlin, _Studier i Nicolaus af Cues' Filosofi_ (Lund,
  1892); H. Höffding, _Hist. of Mod. Phil._ (Eng. trans., 1900), bk. i.
  chap. x.; F. J. Clemens, _Giordano Bruno und Nikolaus Cusanus_ (Bonn,
  1847); R. Zimmermann, _Der Card. Nikolaus Cusanus als Vorläufer
  Leibnitzens_ (Vienna, 1852); J. Übinger, Philosophie des Nikolaus
  Cusanus (Würzburg, 1881); art. by R. Schmid in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyk._ s.v. "Cusanus"; see also MYSTICISM.



CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, in the Bible, from whom seems to have been
derived the name of the "Land of Cush," commonly rendered "Ethiopia" by
the Septuagint and by the Vulgate. The locality of the land of Cush has
long been a much-vexed question. Bochart maintained that it was
exclusively in Arabia; Schulthess and Gesenius held that it should be
sought for nowhere but in Africa (see ETHIOPIA). Others again, like
Michaelis and Rosenmüller, have supposed that the name Cush was applied
to tracts of country both in Arabia and in Africa, but the defective
condition of the ancient knowledge of countries and peoples, as also the
probability of early migrations of "Cushite" tribes (carrying with them
their name), will account for the main facts. The existence of an
African Cush cannot reasonably be questioned, though the term is
employed in the Old Testament with some latitude. The African Cush
covers Upper Egypt, and extends southwards from the first cataract
(Syene, Ezek. xxix. 10). That the term was also applied to parts of
Arabia is evident from Gen. x. 7, where Cush is the "father" of certain
tribal and ethnical designations, all of which point very clearly to
Arabia, with the very doubtful exception of Seba, which Josephus (_Ant._
ii. 10. 2) identifies with Meroë.[1] Even in the 5th century A.D. the
Himyarites, in the south of Arabia, were styled by Syrian writers
Cushaeans and Ethiopians. Moreover, the Babylonian inscriptions mention
the Kashshi, an Elamite race, whose name has been equated with the
classical [Greek: Kossaioi], [Greek: Kissioi], and it has been held that
this affords a more appropriate explanation of Cush (perhaps rather
Kash), the ancestor of (the Babylonian) Nimrod in Gen. x. 8. Although
decisive evidence is lacking, it seems extremely probable that several
references to Cush in the Old Testament cannot refer to Ethiopia,
despite the likelihood that considerable confusion existed in the minds
of early writers. The Cushite invasion in 2 Chron. xiv. (see ASA) is
intelligible if the historical foundation for the story be a raid by
Arabians, but in xvi. 8 the inclusion of Libyans shows that the enemy
was subsequently supposed to be African. In several passages the
interpretation is bound up with that of Mizraim (q.v.), and depends in
general upon the question whether Ethiopia at a given time enjoyed the
prominence given to it.

  On Num. xii. I see JETHRO; and consult H. Winckler, _Keil. u. das alte
  Test._, 3rd ed., p. 144 sq., and _Im Kampfe um den alten Orient_, ii.
  pp. 36 seq., and the literature cited under MIZRAIM.     (S. A. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For Seba, see SABAEANS, and cf. generally the commentaries on
    Gen. x. 7. In Hab. iii. 7 Cushan (obviously a related form) is
    parallel to Midian.



CUSHING, CALEB (1800-1879), American political leader and lawyer, was
born in Salisbury, Massachusetts, on the 17th of January 1800. He
graduated at Harvard in 1817, was tutor in mathematics there in
1820-1821, was admitted to practice in the court of common pleas in
December 1821, and began the practice of law in Newburyport, Mass., in
1824. After serving, as a Democratic-Republican, in the state house of
representatives in 1825, in the state senate in 1826, and in the house
again in 1828, he spent two years, from 1829 to 1831, in Europe, again
served in the state house of representatives in 1833 and 1834, and in
the latter year was elected by the Whigs a representative in Congress.
He served in this body from 1835 until 1843, and here the marked
inconsistency which characterized his public life became manifest; for
when John Tyler had become president, had been "read out" of the Whig
party, and had vetoed Whig measures (including a tariff bill), for which
Cushing had voted, Cushing first defended the vetoes and then voted
again for the bills. In 1843 President Tyler nominated him for secretary
of the treasury, but the senate refused to confirm him for this office.
He was, however, appointed later in the same year commissioner of the
United States to China, holding this position until 1845, and in 1844
negotiating the first treaty between China and the United States. In
1847, while again a representative in the state legislature, he
introduced a bill appropriating money for the equipment of a regiment to
serve in the Mexican War; although the bill was defeated, he raised the
necessary funds privately, and served in Mexico first as colonel and
afterwards as brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1847 and again in 1848
the Democrats nominated him for governor of Massachusetts, but on each
occasion he was defeated at the polls. He was again a representative in
the state legislature in 1851, became an associate justice of the
supreme court of Massachusetts in 1852, and during the administration
(1853-1857) of President Pierce, was attorney-general of the United
States. In 1858, 1859, 1862 and 1863 he again served in the state house
of representatives. In 1860 he presided over the National Democratic
Convention which met first at Charleston and later at Baltimore, until
he joined those who seceded from the regular convention; he then
presided also over the convention of the seceding delegates, who
nominated John C. Breckinridge for the presidency. During the Civil War,
however, he supported the National Administration. At the Geneva
conference for the settlement of the "Alabama" claims in 1871-1872 he
was one of the counsel for the United States. In 1873 President Grant
nominated him for chief justice of the United States, but in spite of
his great learning and eminence at the bar, his ante-war record and the
feeling of distrust experienced by many members of the senate on account
of his inconsistency, aroused such vigorous opposition that his
nomination was soon withdrawn. From 1874 to 1877 Cushing was United
States minister to Spain. He died at Newburyport, Mass., on the 2nd of
January 1879. He published _History and Present State of the Town of
Newburyport, Mass._ (1826); _Review of the late Revolution in France_
(1833); _Reminiscences of Spain_ (1833); _Oration on the Growth and
Territorial Progress of the United States_ (1839); _Life and Public
Services of William H. Harrison_ (1840); and _The Treaty of Washington_
(1873).



CUSHING, WILLIAM BARKER (1842-1874), American naval officer, was born in
Delafield, Wisconsin, on the 4th of November 1842. He entered the Naval
Academy from New York in 1857, but resigned in March 1861. When,
however, the Civil War began, he volunteered into the navy, was rated
acting master's mate, and became a midshipman in October 1861, and a
lieutenant in July 1862, serving in the North Atlantic blockading
squadron. The work of blockade, and of harassing the Confederates on the
coast and the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard, called for much service
in boats, and entailed a great deal of exposure. Cushing was
distinguished by his readiness to volunteer, his indefatigability, and
by his good fortune, the reward of vigilance and intelligence. The feat
by which he will be remembered was the destruction of the Confederate
ironclad "Albemarle" in the Roanoke river on the 27th of October in
1864. The vessel had done much damage to the Federal naval forces, and
her destruction was greatly desired. She was at anchor surrounded by
baulks of timber, and a cordon of boats had been stationed to row guard
against an expected Federal attack. Lieutenant Cushing undertook the
attack on her with a steam launch carrying a spar-torpedo and towing an
armed cutter. He eluded the Confederate lookout and reached the
"Albemarle" unseen. When close to he was detected, but he had time to
drive the steam launch over the baulks and to explode the torpedo
against the "Albemarle" with such success that a hole was made in her
and she sank. Cushing's own launch was destroyed. He and the few men
with him were compelled to take to the water; one was killed, another
was drowned, Cushing and one other escaped, and the rest were captured.
Cushing himself swam to the swamps on the river bank, and after wading
among them for hours reached a Federal picket boat. For destroying the
"Albemarle" he was thanked by Congress and was promoted to be
lieutenant-commander. On the 15th of January 1865 he took a conspicuous
part in the land attack on the sea-front wall of Fort Fisher. After the
war he commanded the "Lancaster" (1866-1867) and the "Maumee"
(1868-1869) in the Asiatic Squadron. In 1872 he was promoted commander
at what was an exceptionally early age, but he died on the 17th of
December 1874 of brain fever. He had suffered extreme pain for years
before his death, and in fact broke down altogether under disease
contracted in the discharge of his duty.



CUSHION (from O. Fr. _coisson_, _coussin_; according to the _New English
Dict._, from Lat. _coxa_, a hip; others say from Lat. _culcita_, a
quilt), a soft bag of some ornamental material, stuffed with wool, hair,
feathers, or even paper torn into fragments. It may be used for sitting
or kneeling upon, or to soften the hardness or angularity of a chair or
couch. It is a very ancient article of furniture, the inventories of the
contents of palaces and great houses in the early middle ages constantly
making mention of it. It was then often of great size, covered with
leather, and firm enough to serve as a seat, but the steady tendency of
all furniture has been to grow smaller. It was, indeed, used as a seat,
at all events in France and Spain, at a very much later period, and in
Saint-Simon's time we find that at the Spanish court it was still
regarded as a peculiarly honourable substitute for a chair. In France
the right to kneel upon a cushion in church behind the king was
jealously guarded and strictly regulated, as we may learn again from
Saint-Simon. This type of cushion was called a _carreau_ or square.
When seats were rude and hard the cushion may have been a necessity; it
is now one of the minor luxuries of life.

The term "cushion" is given in architecture to the sides of the Ionic
capital. It is also applied to an early and simple form of the
Romanesque capitals of Germany and England, which consist of cubical
masses, square at the top and rounded off at the four corners, so as to
reduce the lower diameter to a circle of the same size as the shaft.



CUSHMAN, CHARLOTTE SAUNDERS (1816-1876), American actress, was born in
Boston, Massachusetts, on the 23rd of July 1816. Her father, a West
India merchant, left his family in straitened circumstances, and
Charlotte, who had a fine contralto voice, went on the operatic stage.
In 1835 she successfully appeared at the Tremont theatre as the countess
Almaviva in _The Marriage of Figaro_. But her singing voice failing her
she entered the drama, and played Lady Macbeth in the same year. She
then engaged herself as a stock actress, but was soon given leading
parts. In 1842 she managed and played in the Walnut Street theatre in
Philadelphia. She accompanied Macready on an American tour, winning a
great reputation in tragedy, and in 1845 and in 1854-1855 she fulfilled
successful engagements in London. She was a keen student, and acquired a
large range of classic rôles. Her best parts were perhaps Lady Macbeth
and Queen Katherine, her most popular Meg Merrilies, in a dramatization
of Scott's _Guy Mannering_. Her figure was commanding and her face
expressive, and she was animated by a temperament full of vigour and
fire. These qualities enabled her to play with success such male parts
as Romeo and Cardinal Wolsey. During her later years Miss Cushman worked
hard as a dramatic reader, in which capacity she was much appreciated.
Her last appearance on the stage took place on the 15th of May 1875, at
the Globe theatre, Boston, in which city she died on the 18th of
February 1876.

  See Emma Stebbins's _Charlotte Cushman, her Letters and Memories of
  her Life_ (Boston, 1878); H. A. Clapp's _Reminiscences of a Dramatic
  Critic_ (Boston, 1902); and W. T. Price, _A Life of Charlotte Cushman_
  (New York, 1894).



CUSP (Lat. _cuspis_, a spear, point), a projecting point, or pointed
end. In architecture (Fr. _feuille_, Ital. _cuspide_, Ger. _Knöpfe_), a
cusp is the point where the foliations of tracery intersect. The
earliest example of a plain cusp is probably that at Pythagoras school,
at Cambridge,--of an ornamented cusp at Ely cathedral, where a small
roll, with a rosette at the end, is formed at the termination of a cusp.
In the later styles the terminations of the cusps were more richly
decorated; they also sometimes terminate not only in leaves or foliages,
but in rosettes, heads and other fanciful ornaments. The term
"feathering" is used of the junction of the foliated cusps in window
tracery, but is usually restricted to those cases where it is ornamented
with foliage, &c.



CUSTARD[1] APPLE, a name applied to the fruit of various species of the
genus _Anona_, natural order _Anonaceae_. The members of this genus are
shrubs or small trees having alternate, exstipulate leaves, and flowers
with three small sepals, six petals arranged in a double row and
numerous stamens. The fruit of _A. reticulata_, the common custard
apple, or "bullock's heart" of the West Indies, is dark brown in colour,
and marked with depressions, which give it a quilted appearance; its
pulp is reddish-yellow, sweetish and very soft (whence the name); the
kernels of the seeds are said to be poisonous. The sour-sop is the fruit
of _A. muricata_, native of the West Indies. The plant, which is a small
tree, has become naturalized in some parts of India where it is
extensively cultivated, as elsewhere in the tropics. It is covered with
soft prickles, is of a light-greenish hue, and has a peculiar but
agreeable sour taste, and a scent resembling that of black currants. The
sweet-sop is produced by _A. squamosa_, also a native of the West Indies
and widely cultivated in the tropics. It is known as the custard apple
by Europeans in India. It is an egg-shaped fruit, with a thick rind and
luscious pulp. An acrid principle, fatal to insects, is contained in its
seeds, leaves and unripe fruits, which, powdered and mixed with the
flour of gram (_Cicer arietinum_), are used to destroy vermin. _A.
Cherimolia_ yield the Peruvian cherimoyer, which is held to be a fruit
of very superior flavour, and is much esteemed by the creoles. _A.
palustris_, alligator apple, or cork-wood, a native of South America and
the West Indies, is valued for its wood, which serves the same purposes
as cork; the fruit, commonly known as the alligator-apple, is not eaten,
being reputed to contain a dangerous narcotic principle.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The term "custard," now given to a dish made with eggs beaten up
    with milk, &c., and either served in liquid form or baked to a stiff
    consistency, originally denoted a kind of open pie. It represents the
    older form "crustade," Fr. _croustade_, Ital. _crostata_, from
    _crostare_, to encrust.



CUSTER, GEORGE ARMSTRONG (1839-1876), American cavalry soldier, was born
in New Rumley, Harrison county, Ohio, on the 5th of December 1839. He
graduated from West Point in 1861, and was at once sent to the theatre
of war in Virginia, joining his regiment on the battlefield of Bull Run.
Afterwards he served on the staff of General Kearny, and on that of
General W. F. Smith in the Peninsular Campaign. His daring and energy,
and in particular a spirited reconnaissance on the Chickahominy river,
brought him to the notice of General McClellan, who made him an
aide-de-camp on his own staff, with the rank of captain. A few hours
afterwards Custer attacked a Confederate picket post and drove back the
enemy. He continued to serve with McClellan until the general was
relieved of his command, when Custer returned to duty with his regiment
as a lieutenant. Early in 1863 General Pleasonton selected him as his
aide-de-camp, and in June 1863 Custer was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general of volunteers. He distinguished himself at the head of
the Michigan cavalry brigade in the battle of Gettysburg, and frequently
did good service in the remaining operations of the campaign of 1863.
When the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac was reorganized under
Sheridan in 1864, Custer retained his command, and took part in the
various actions of the cavalry in the Wilderness and Shenandoah
campaigns. At the end of September 1864, he was appointed to command a
division, and on the 9th of October fought, along with General Merritt,
the brilliant cavalry action called the battle of Woodstock. Soon
afterwards he was made brevet-major-general, U.S.V., having already won
the brevets of major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel U.S.A., for his
services at Gettysburg, Yellow Tavern and Winchester. His part in the
decisive battle of Cedar Creek (q.v.) was most conspicuous. He served
with Sheridan in the last great cavalry raid, won the action of
Waynesboro, and in the final campaign added to his laurels by his
conduct at Dinwiddie and Five Forks, and in other operations. At the
close of the war he received the brevets of brigadier and major-general
in the regular army, and was promoted major-general of volunteers. In
1866 Custer was made lieutenant-colonel of the 7th U.S. Cavalry, and
took part under General Hancock in the expedition against the Cheyenne
Indians, upon whom he inflicted a crushing defeat at Washita river on
the 27th of November 1868. In 1873 he was sent to Dakota Territory to
serve against the Sioux.

In 1876 an expedition, of which Custer and his regiment formed part, was
made against the Sioux and their allies. As the advanced guard of the
troops under General Terry, Custer's force arrived at the junction of
Big Horn and Little Big Horn rivers, in what is now the state of
Montana, on the night of June 24; the main body was due to join him on
the 26th. Unfortunately, the presence of what was judged to be a small
isolated force of Indians was reported to the general. On the 25th,
dividing his regiment into three parties, he moved forward to surround
this force. But instead of meeting only a small force of Indians, the
7th were promptly attacked by the full forces of the enemy. The flanking
columns maintained themselves with difficulty until Terry came up.
Custer and 264 men of the centre column rode into the midst of the enemy
and were slaughtered to a man.

The general's wife, ELIZABETH BACON CUSTER, who accompanied him in many
of his frontier expeditions, wrote _Boots and Saddles, Life with General
Custer in Dakota_ (1885), _Tenting on the Plains_ (1887) and _Following
the Guidon_ (1891). General Custer himself wrote _My Life on the Plains_
(1874).

  See F. Whittaker, _Life of General George A. Custer_ (1876).

His brother THOMAS WARD CUSTER (1845-1876), in spite of his youth,
fought in the early campaigns of the Civil War. Becoming aide-de-camp to
General Custer, he accompanied him throughout the latter part of the
war, distinguishing himself by his daring on all occasions, and winning
successively the brevets of captain, major and lieutenant-colonel,
though he was barely twenty years of age when the war ended. He was
first lieutenant in the 7th cavalry when he fell with his brother at the
Little Big Horn.



CUSTINE, ADAM PHILIPPE, COMTE DE (1740-1793), French general, began his
military career in the Seven Years' War. He next served with distinction
against the English in the War of American Independence. In 1789 he was
elected to the states-general by the _bailliage_ of Metz. In October
1791 he again joined the army, with the rank of lieutenant-general and
became popular with the soldiers, amongst whom he was known as "_général
moustache_." General-in-chief of the army of the Vosges, he took Spires,
Worms, Mainz and Frankfort in September and October 1792. He carried on
the revolutionary propaganda by proclamations, and levied heavy taxes on
the nobility and clergy. During the winter a Prussian army forced him to
evacuate Frankfort, re-cross the Rhine and fall back upon Landau. He was
accused of treason, defended by Robespierre, and sent back to the army
of the north. But he dared not take the offensive, and did nothing to
save Condé, which the Austrians were besieging. Sent to Paris to justify
himself, he was found guilty by the Revolutionary Tribunal of having
intrigued with the enemies of the republic, and guillotined on the 28th
of August 1793. (See FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS.)

  See A. Rambaud, _Les Français sur le Rhin_ (Paris, 1880); A. Chuquet,
  _Les Guerres de la Révolution_ (1886-1895; vol. vi. "L'Expédition de
  Custine").



CUSTOM (from O. Fr. _custume_, _costume_ or _coustume_; Low Lat.
_costuma_, a shortened form of _consuetudo_), in general, a habit or
practice. Thus a tradesman calls those who deal with him his
"customers," and the trade resulting as their "custom." The word is also
used for a toll or tax levied upon goods; there was at one time a
distinction between the tax on goods exported or imported, termed _magna
custuma_ (the great custom), and that on goods taken to market within
the realm, termed _parva custuma_ (the little custom), but the word is
now used in this sense only in the plural, to signify the duties levied
upon imported goods. It is also used as a name for that department of
the public service which is employed in levying the duty.

In law, such long-continued usage as has by common consent become a rule
of conduct is termed custom. Jessel, M. R. (_Hammerton_ v. _Honey_, 24
W. R. 603), has defined it as "local common law. It is common law
because it is not statute law; it is local law because it is the law of
a particular place, as distinguished from the general common law. Local
common law is the law of the country (i.e. particular place) as it
existed before the time of legal memory." There has been much discussion
among jurists as to whether custom can properly be reckoned a source of
law (see JURISPRUDENCE). As to the distinction between prescription
(which is a personal claim) and custom, see PRESCRIPTION. The adoption
of local customs by the judiciary has undoubtedly been the origin of a
great portion of the English common law. Blackstone divides custom into
(1) general, which is the common law properly so called, and (2)
particular, which affects only the inhabitants of particular districts.
The requisites necessary to make a particular custom good are: (1) it
must have been used so long that the memory of man runneth not to the
contrary; (2) it must have been continued, and (3) enjoyed peaceably;
(4) it must be reasonable, and (5) certain; (6) it must be compulsory,
and not left to the option of every man whether he will use it or no;
(7) it must be consistent with other customs, for one custom cannot be
set up in opposition to another. Customs may be of various kinds, for
example, customs of merchants, customs of a certain district (such as
gavelkind and borough English), customs of a particular manor, &c. The
word custom is also generally employed for the _usage_ of a particular
trade or market; for a trade custom to be established to the
satisfaction of the law it must be a uniform and universal practice so
well defined and recognized that contracting parties must be assumed to
have had it in their minds when they contracted (Russell, C. J.,
_Fox-Bourne_ v. _Vernon_, 10 _Times_ Rep. 649).

In the history of France the term "custom" was given to those special
usages of different districts which had grown up into a body of local
law, as the "custom of Paris," the "custom of Normandy" (see FRANCE:
_Law and Institutions_).



CUSTOMARY FREEHOLD, in English law, a species of tenure which may be
described as a variety of copyhold. It is also termed privileged
copyhold or copyhold of frank tenure. It is a tenure by copy of court
roll, but not expressed to be at the will of the lord. It is, in fact,
only a superior kind of copyhold, and the freehold is in the lord. It is
subject to the general law of copyholds, except where the law may be
varied by the custom of the particular manor. (See COPYHOLD.)



CUSTOM-HOUSE, the house or office appointed by a government where the
taxes or duties (if any) are collected upon the importation and
exportation of commodities; where duties, bounties or drawbacks payable
or receivable upon exportation or importation are paid or received, and
where vessels are entered and cleared. In the United Kingdom there is
usually a custom-house established at every port or harbour to which any
considerable amount of shipping resorts, the officer in charge being
called "collector of customs"; in the minor ports the officer is usually
termed "superintendent of customs" or "principal coast officer."



CUSTOM DUTIES, the name given to taxes on the import and export of
commodities. They rank among the most ancient, as they continue to
prevail as one of the most common modes, in all countries, of levying
revenue for public purposes. In an insular country like the United
Kingdom customs duties came in process of time to be levied only or
chiefly in the seaports, and thus applied only to the foreign commerce,
where they may be brought under the control of fair and reasonable
principles of taxation. But this simplification of customs duties was
only reached by degrees; and during a long period special customs were
levied on goods passing between England and Scotland; and the trade of
Ireland with Great Britain and with foreign countries was subjected to
fiscal regulations which could not now stand in the light of public
reason. The taxes levied, on warrant of some ancient grant or privilege,
upon cattle or goods at a bridge or a ferry or other point of passage
from one county or province to another, of which there are some
lingering remains even in the United Kingdom, and those levied at the
gates of cities on the produce of the immediate country--a not uncommon
form of municipal taxation on the European continent--are all of the
nature of customs dues. It is from the universality of this practice
that the English term "customs" appears to have been derived.

  See TAXATION; PROTECTION; TARIFF.



CUSTOS ROTULORUM, the keeper of the English county records, and by
virtue of that office the highest civil officer in the county. The
appointment until 1545 lay with the lord chancellor, but is now
exercised by the crown under the royal sign-manual, and is usually held
by a person of rank, most frequently the lord-lieutenant of the county.
He is one of the justices of the peace. In practice the records are in
the custody of the clerk of the peace. This latter official was, until
1888, appointed by the _custos rotulorum_, but since the passing of the
Local Government Act of that year, the appointment is made by the
standing joint-committee of the county council. Lambarde described the
_custos rotulorum_ as a "man for the most part especially picked out
either for wisdom, countenance or credit."



CUSTOZZA, a village of Italy, in the province of Verona, 11 m. S.W. of
Verona, famous as the scene of two battles between the Austrians and the
Italians in the struggle for Italian unity. The first battle of Custozza
was fought on the 23rd-25th of July 1848, the Austrians commanded by
Field-Marshal Radetzky being victorious over the Piedmontese army under
King Charles Albert. The second battle was fought on the 24th of June
1866, and resulted in the complete victory of the Austrians under the
archduke Albert, over the Italian army of King Victor Emmanuel I. (See
ITALIAN WARS, 1848-1870.)



CÜSTRIN, or KÜSTRIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, a
fortress of the first rank, at the confluence of the Oder and Warthe, 18
m. N.E. from Frankfort-on-Oder and 51 m. N.E. of Berlin by rail. Pop.
(1900) 16,473 (including the garrison). It consists of the town proper
within the strong fortifications, a suburb on the left bank of the Oder,
and one on the right bank of the Warthe. There are three Evangelical
churches and one Roman Catholic, and a handsome town hall. There are
bridges over both rivers. Cüstrin has some manufactories of potato-meal,
machinery, pianos, furniture, cigars, &c., and there is a considerable
river trade.

About 1250 a town was erected on the site of Cüstrin, where a fishing
village originally stood. From 1535 till 1571 it was the residence of
John, margrave of Brandenburg-Cüstrin, who died without male heirs in
1571. Cüstrin was the prison of Frederick the Great when crown-prince,
and the scene of the execution of his friend Hans Hermann von Katte on
the 6th of November 1730.



CUTCH, or KACH, a native state of India within the Gujarat division of
Bombay, with an area of 7616 sq. m. It is a peninsular tract of land,
enclosed towards the W. by the eastern branch of the Indus, on the S. by
the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Cutch, and on the N. and E. towards the
interior, by the great northern Runn, a salt morass or lake. The
interior of Cutch is studded with hills of considerable elevation, and a
range of mountains runs through it from east to west, many of them of
the most fantastic shapes, with large isolated masses of rock scattered
in all directions. The general appearance of Cutch is barren and
uninteresting. The greater part is a rock destitute of soil, and
presenting the wildest aspect; the ground is cold, poor and sterile; and
the whole face of the country bears marks of volcanic action. From the
violence of tyranny, and the rapine of a disorderly banditti, by which
this district long suffered, as well as from shocks of earthquakes, the
villages have a ruinous and dilapidated appearance; and, with the
exception of a few fields in their neighbourhood, the country presents a
rocky and sandy waste, with in many places scarcely a show of
vegetation. Water is scarce and brackish, and is chiefly found at the
bottom of low ranges of hills, which abound in some parts; and the
inhabitants of the extensive sandy tracts suffer greatly from the want
of it. Owing to the uncertainty of the periodical rains in Cutch, the
country is liable to severe famines, and it has suffered greatly from
plague.

The temperature of Cutch during the hot season is high, the thermometer
frequently rising to 100° or 105° F.; and in the months of April and May
clouds of dust and sand, blown about by hurricanes, envelop the houses,
the glass windows scarcely affording any protection. The influence of
the monsoon is greatly moderated before it reaches this region, and the
rains sometimes fail altogether. Bhuj, the capital of the state, is
situated inland, and is surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills, some of
which approach within 3 or 4 m. of the city. The hill of Bhuja, on which
the fort is situated, rises to the height of 500 ft. in the middle of
the plain, and is detached from other high ground. The residency is 4 m.
distant in a westerly direction. There are many mountain streams, but no
navigable rivers. They contain scarcely any water except in the rainy
season, when they are very full and rapid, and discharge themselves into
the Runn, all along the coast of which the wells and springs are more or
less impregnated with common salt and other saline ingredients.

Various causes have contributed to thin the population of this country.
In 1813 it was ravaged by a famine and pestilence, which destroyed a
great proportion of its inhabitants,--according to some accounts, nearly
one-half. This, joined to the tyranny and violence of the government
until the year 1819, and subsequently to a succession of unfavourable
seasons, forced many of the cultivators to remove to Sind and other
countries. The inhabitants numbered 488,022 in 1901, being a decrease of
13% during the decade, due to the famines of 1899-1900. One-third are
Mahommedans and the remainder Hindus of various castes. The Jareja
Rajputs form a particular class, being the aristocracy of the country;
and all are more or less connected with the family of the rao or prince.
There are in Cutch about 200 of these Jareja chiefs, who all claim their
descent from a prince who reigned in Sind about 1000 years ago. From him
also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege
lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for
services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of
their relationship to the family. They are all termed the brotherhood of
the rao or Bhayad, and supposed to be his hereditary advisers, and their
possessions are divided among their male children. To prevent the
breaking down of their properties, the necessary consequence of this law
of inheritance, there is no doubt that infanticide was common among
them, and that it extended to the male as well as the female progeny,
but it has been put down by the Infanticide Rules, which provide for the
registration of Jareja children. The Jarejas have a tradition that when
they entered Cutch they were Mahommedans, but that they afterward
adopted the customs and religion of the Hindus. It is certain, indeed,
that they still retain many Mahommedan customs. They take oaths equally
on the Koran or on the Shastras; they employ Mussulman books; they eat
from their hands; the rao, when he appears in public, alternately
worships God in a Hindu pagoda and a Mahommedan mosque; and he fits out
annually at Mandvi a ship for the conveyance of pilgrims to Mecca, who
are maintained during the voyage chiefly by the liberality of the
prince. The Mahommedans in Cutch are of the same degenerate class as
those usually found in the western parts of India. The natives are in
general of a stronger and stouter make, and even handsomer, than those
of western India; and the women of the higher classes are also handsome.
The peasants are described as intelligent, and the artizans are justly
celebrated for their ingenuity and mechanical skill. The palace at
Mandvi, and a tomb of one of their princes at Bhuj, are fair specimens
of their architectural skill. The estimated gross revenue is £126,322.
There are special manufactures of silver filigree-work and embroidery.
The maritime population supplies the best sailors in India. There are
cotton presses and ginning factories.

The country of Cutch was invaded about the 13th century by a body of
Mahommedans of the Summa tribe, who under the guidance of five brothers
emigrated from Sind, and who gradually subdued or expelled the original
inhabitants, consisting of three distinct races. Cutch continued
tranquil under their sway for many years, until some family quarrel
arose, in which the chief of an elder branch of the tribe was murdered
by a rival brother. His son Khengayi fled to Ahmedabad to seek the
assistance of the viceroy, who reinstated him in the sovereignty of
Cutch, and Morvi in Káthiáwár, and in the title of rao, about the year
1540. The succession continued in the same line from the time of this
prince until 1697, when a younger brother, Pragji, murdered his elder
brother and usurped the sovereignty. This line of princes continued till
1760 without any remarkable event, when, in the reign of Rao Ghodji, the
country was invaded four times by the Sinds, who wasted it with fire and
sword. The reign of this prince, as well as that of his son Rao Rayadan,
by whom he was succeeded in 1778, was marked by cruelty and blood. The
latter prince was dethroned, and, being in a state of mental
derangement, was during his lifetime confined by Fateh Mahommed, a
native of Sind, who continued, with a short interval (in which the party
of the legal heir, Bhaiji Bawa, gained the ascendancy), to rule the
country until his death in 1813. It was in the reign of Fateh Mahommed
that a communication first took place with the British government.
During the contests for the sovereignty between the usurper and the
legal heir, the leader of the royal party, Hansraj, the governor of
Mandvi, sought the aid of the British. But no closer connexion followed
at that time than an agreement for the suppression of piracy, or of
inroads of troops to the eastward of the Runn or Gulf of Cutch. But the
gulf continued notwithstanding to swarm with pirates, who were openly
encouraged or connived at by the son of Hansraj, who had succeeded his
father, as well as by Fateh Mahommed. The latter left several sons by
different wives, who were competitors for the vacant throne. Husain
Miyan succeeded to a considerable portion of his father's property and
power. Jugjevan, a Brahman, the late minister of Fateh Mahommed, also
received a considerable share of influence; and the hatred of these two
factions was embittered by religious animosities, the one being Hindu
and the other Mahommedan. The deceased rao had declared himself a
Mahommedan, and his adherents were preparing to inter his body in a
magnificent tomb, when the Jarejas and other Hindus seized the corpse
and consigned it to the flames, according to Hindu custom.

The administration of affairs was nominally in the hands of Husain Miyan
and his brother Ibrahim Miyan. Many sanguinary broils now ensued, in the
course of which Jugjevan was murdered, and the executive authority was
much weakened by the usurpations of the Arabs and other chiefs. In the
meantime Ibrahim Miyan was assassinated; and after various other scenes
of anarchy, the rao Bharmulji, son of Rao Rayadan, by general consent,
assumed the chief power. But his reign was one continued series of the
grossest enormities; his hostility to the British became evident, and
accordingly a force of 10,500 men crossed the Runn in November 1815, and
were within five miles of Bhuj, the capital of the country, when a
treaty was concluded, by which the rao Bharmulji was confirmed in his
title to the throne, on agreeing, among other stipulations, to cede
Anjar and its dependencies in perpetuity to the British. He was,
however, so far from fulfilling the terms of this treaty that it was
determined to depose him; and an army being sent against him, he
surrendered to the British, who made a provision for his maintenance,
and elevated his infant son Desalji II. to the throne (1819).

In 1822 the relations subsisting between the ruler of Cutch and the
British were modified by a new treaty, under which the territorial
cessions made by the rao in 1816 were restored in consideration of an
annual payment. The sum fixed was subsequently thought too large, and in
1832 the arrears, amounting to a considerable sum, were remitted, and
all future payments on this account relinquished. From that time the rao
has paid a subsidy of £13,000 per annum to the British for the
maintenance of the military force stationed within his dominions.

Rao Desalji II. did much to suppress infanticide, suttee and the slave
trade in his state. His successor Maharao Pragmalji in recognition of
his excellent administration was in 1871 honoured with the title of
knight grand commander of the Star of India. During his rule harbour
works were built at Mandvi, an immense reservoir for rain water in the
Chadwa hills was constructed, and many schools and colleges were
endowed. In 1876 he was succeeded by Maharaja Rao Khengarji III., who
was also a keen advocate for education and especially the education of
women. He founded museums, libraries and schools, and inaugurated
scholarships and a fund from which deserving scholars desirous of
studying in England and America could obtain their expenses.



CUTCH, GULF OF, an inlet of the sea on the coast of western India. It
lies between the peninsula of Kathiawar and that of Cutch, leading into
the Runn of Cutch.



CUTCH, RUNN OF, or RANN OF KACH, a salt morass on the western coast of
India in the native state of Cutch. From May to October it is flooded
with salt water and communicates, at its greatest extent, with the Gulf
of Cutch on the west and the Gulf of Cambay on the east, these two gulfs
being united during the monsoon. It varies in breadth from five to
eighty miles across, and during the rains is nearly impassable for
horsemen. The total area of this immense morass is estimated at about
8000 sq. m., without including any portion of the Gulf of Cutch, which
is in parts so shallow as to resemble a marshy fen rather than an arm of
the sea. The Runn is said to be formed by the overflow of the rivers
Pharan, Luni, Banas and others, during the monsoon; but in December it
is quite dry, and in most places hard, but in some moist and muddy. The
soil is impregnated with salt, and the Runn is an important source for
the supply of salt. The present condition of the Runn is probably the
result of some natural convulsion, but the exact method of its formation
is disputed. The wild ass is very common on the borders of this lake,
being seen in herds of 60 or 70 together.



CUTHBERT, SAINT (d. 687), bishop of Lindisfarne, was probably a
Northumbrian by birth. According to the extant _Lives_ he was led to
take the monastic vows by a vision at the death of bishop Aidan, and the
date of his entry at Melrose would be 651. At this time Eata was abbot
there, and Boisel, who is mentioned as his instructor, prior, in which
office Cuthbert succeeded him about 661, having previously spent some
time at the monastery of Ripon with Eata. Bede gives a glowing picture
of his missionary zeal at Melrose, but in 664 he was transferred to act
as prior at Lindisfarne. In 676 he became an anchorite on the island of
Farne, and it is said that he performed miracles there. In 684 at the
council of Twyford in Northumberland, Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria,
prevailed upon him to give up his solitary life and become a bishop. He
was consecrated at York in the following year as bishop of Hexham, but
afterwards he exchanged his see with Eata for that of Lindisfarne. In
687 he retired to Farne, and died on the island on the 20th of March
687, the same day as his friend Hereberht, the anchorite of
Derwentwater. He was buried in the island of Lindisfarne, but his
remains were afterwards deposited at Chester-le-Street, and then at
Durham.

Another Cuthbert was bishop of Hereford from 736 to about 740, and
archbishop of Canterbury from the latter date until his death in October
758.

  There are several lives of St Cuthbert, the best of which is the prose
  life by Bede, which is published in Bede's _Opera_, edited by J.
  Stevenson (1841). See also C. Eyre, _The History of St Cuthbert_
  (1887); and J. Raine, _St Cuthbert_ (1828).



CUTLASS, the naval side-arm, a short cutting sword with a slightly
curved blade, and a solid basket-shaped guard (see SWORD). The word is
derived from the Fr. _coutelas_, or _coutelace_, a form of _coutel_,
modern _couteau_, a knife, from Lat. _cultellus_, diminutive of
_culter_, a ploughshare, or cutting instrument. Two variations appear in
English: "curtelace," where the _r_ represents probably the _l_ of the
original Latin word, or is a further variant of the second variation;
and "curtelaxe," often spelled as two words, "curtal axe," where the
prefix _curtal_ is confused with various English words such as "curtan,"
"curtal" and "curtail," which all mean "shortened," and are derived from
the Lat. _curtus_; the word thus wrongly derived has been supposed to
refer to some non-existent form of battle-axe. In every case the weapon
to which these various forms apply is a broad cutting or slashing sword.



CUTLER, MANASSEH (1742-1823), American clergyman, was born in Killingly,
Connecticut, on the 13th of May 1742. He graduated at Yale College in
1765, and after being a school teacher and a merchant, and occasionally
appearing in the courts as a lawyer, he decided to enter the ministry,
and from 1771 until his death was pastor of the Congregational church at
what is now Hamilton, but until 1793 was a parish of Ipswich,
Massachusetts. During the War of Independence he was for several months
in 1776 chaplain to the regiment of Colonel Ebenezer Francis, raised for
the defence of Boston; and in 1778, as chaplain to the brigade of
General Jonathan Titcomb (1728-1817), he took part in General John
Sullivan's expedition to Rhode Island. Soon after his return from this
expedition he fitted himself for the practice of medicine, in order to
supplement the scanty income of a minister, and in 1782 he established a
private boarding school, which he conducted for about a quarter of a
century. In 1786 he became interested in the settlement of western
lands, and in the following year, as agent of the Ohio Company (q.v.),
which he had taken a prominent part in organizing, he made a contract
with Congress, whereby his associates, former soldiers in the War of
Independence, might purchase, with the certificates of indebtedness
issued to them by the government for their services, 1,500,000 acres of
land in the region north of the Ohio at the mouth of the Muskingum
river. He also took a leading part in drafting the famous Ordinance of
1787 for the government of the Northwest Territory, the instrument as it
was finally presented to Congress by Nathan Dane (1752-1835), a
Massachusetts delegate, probably being largely Cutler's work. From 1801
to 1805 he was a Federalist representative in Congress. He died at
Hamilton, Massachusetts, on the 28th of July 1823. A versatile man,
Cutler was one of the early members of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences, and besides being proficient in the theology, law and medicine
of his day, conducted painstaking astronomical and meteorological
investigations, and was one of the first Americans to make researches of
a real scientific value in botany. In 1789 the degree of doctor of laws
was conferred upon him by Yale.

  See William P. and Julia P. Cutler, _The Life, Journals, and
  Correspondence of Manasseh Cutler_ (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1888); and an
  article, "The Ordinance of 1787 and Dr Manasseh Cutler," by W. F.
  Poole, in vol. 122 of the _North American Review_.



CUTLERY (Fr. _coutellerie_, from the Lat. _cultellus_, a little knife),
a branch of industry which originally embraced the manufacture of all
cutting instruments of whatever form or material. The progress of
manufacturing industry has, however, detached from it the fabrication of
several kinds of edge-tools, saws and similar implements, the
manufacture of which is now regarded as forming distinct branches of
trade. On the other hand modern cutlery includes a great number of
articles which are not strictly cutting instruments, but which, owing to
their more or less intimate relation to table or pocket cutlery, are
classed with such articles for convenience' sake. A steel table or
carving fork, for example, is an important article of cutlery, although
it is not a cutting tool.

The original cutting instruments used by the human race consisted of
fragments of flint, obsidian, or similar stones, rudely flaked or
chipped to a cutting edge; and of these tools numerous remains yet
exist. Stone knives and other tools must have been employed for a long
period by the prehistoric races of mankind, as their later productions
show great perfection of form and finish. In the Bronze period, which
succeeded the Stone Age, the cutlery of our ancestors was fabricated of
that alloy. The use of iron was introduced at a later but still remote
period; and it now, in the form of steel, is the staple article from
which cutlery is manufactured.

From the earliest period in English history the manufacture of cutlery
has been peculiarly associated with the town of Sheffield, the
prominence of which in this manufacture in his own age is attested by
Chaucer, who says of the miller of Trumpington--

  "A Sheffeld thwitel baar he in his hose."

That town still retains a practical monopoly of the ordinary cutlery
trade of Great Britain, and remains the chief centre of the industry for
the whole world. Its influence on methods of production has also been
widely extended; for instance, many Sheffield workmen emigrated to the
United States of America to take part in the manufacture of
pocket-knives when it was started in Connecticut towards the middle of
the 19th century.

The thwitel or whittle of Chaucer's time was a very poor rude implement,
consisting of a blade of bar steel fastened into a wooden or horn
handle. It was used for cutting food as well as for the numerous
miscellaneous duties which now fall to the pocket-knife. To the whittle
succeeded the Jack knife,--the Jacques-de-Liége, or Jock-te-leg of the
Scottish James VI.,--which formed the prototype of the modern
clasp-knife, inasmuch as the blade closed into a groove in the handle.
About the beginning of the 17th century, the pocket-knife with spring
back was introduced, and no marked improvement thereafter took place
till the early part of the 19th century. In 1624, two centuries after
the incorporation of the Cutlers' Company of London, the cutlers of
Hallamshire--the name of the district of which Sheffield is the
centre--were formed into a body corporate for the protection of the
"industry, labour, and reputation" of the trade, which was being
disgraced by the "deceitful and unworkmanlike wares of various persons."
The act of incorporation specifies the manufacture of "knives, scissors,
shears, sickles and other cutlery," and provides that all persons
engaged in the business shall "make the edge of all steel implements
manufactured by them of steel, and steel only, and shall strike on their
wares such mark, and such only, as should be assigned to them by the
officers of the said company." Notwithstanding these regulations, and
the pains and penalties attached to their infringement, the corporation
was not very successful in maintaining the high character of Sheffield
wares. Most manufacturers made cutlery to the order of their customers,
on which the name of the retailer was stamped, and very inferior
malleable or cast iron blades went forth to the public with "London
made," "best steel," and other falsehoods stamped on them to order. The
corporate mark and name of a few firms, among which Joseph Rodgers &
Sons stand foremost, are a guarantee of the very highest excellence of
material and finish; and such firms decline to stamp any name or mark
other than their own on their manufactures. In foreign markets, however,
the reputation of such firms is much injured by impudent forgeries; and
so far was this system of fraud carried that inferior foreign work was
forwarded to London to be transhipped and sent abroad ostensibly as
English cutlery. To protect the trade against frauds of this class the
Trades Mark Act of 1862 was passed chiefly at the instigation of the
Sheffield chamber of commerce.

The variety of materials which go to complete any single article of
cutlery is very considerable; and as the stock list of a cutler embraces
a vast number of articles different in form, properties and uses, the
cutlery manufacturer must have a practical knowledge of a wide range of
substances. The leading articles of the trade include carving and table
knives and forks, pocket or clasp knives, razors, scissors, daggers,
hunting knives and similar articles, surgical knives and lancets,
butchers' and shoemakers' knives, gardeners' pruning-knives, &c. The
blades or cutting portions of a certain number of these articles are
made of shear steel, and for others crucible cast steel is employed.
Sometimes the cutting edge alone is of steel, backed or strengthened
with iron, to which it is welded. The tang, or part of the blade by
which it is fastened to the handles, and other non-cutting portions, are
also very often of iron. Brass, German silver, silver, horn,
tortoise-shell, ivory, bone, mother-of-pearl, and numerous fancy woods
are all brought into requisition for handles and other parts of cutlery,
each demanding special treatment according to its nature. The essential
processes in making a piece of steel cutlery are (1) forging, (2)
hardening and tempering, (3) grinding, (4) polishing, and (5) putting
together the various pieces and finishing the knife, the workmen who
perform these last operations being the only ones known in the trade as
"cutlers."

The following outline of the stages in the manufacture of a razor will
serve to indicate the sequence of operations in making an article which,
though simple in form, demands the highest care and skill. The first
essential of a good razor is that it be made of the finest quality of
cast steel. The steel for razors is obtained in bars the thickness of
the back of the instrument. Taking such a bar, the forger heats one end
of it to the proper forging temperature, and then dexterously fashions
it upon his anvil, giving it roughly the required form, edge and
concavity. It is then separated from the remainder of the bar, leaving
only sufficient metal to form the tang, if that is to be made of steel.
The tang of the "mould," as the blade in this condition is termed, is
next drawn out, and the whole "smithed" or beaten on the anvil to
compact the metal and improve the form and edge of the razor. At this
stage the razor is said to be "forged in the rough," and so neatly can
some workmen finish off this operation that a shaving edge may be given
to the blade by simple whetting. The forged blade is next "shaped" by
grinding on the dry stone; this operation considerably reduces its
weight, and removes the oxidized scale, thereby allowing the hardening
and tempering to be done with certainty and proper effect. The shaped
razor is now returned to the forge, where the tang is file-cut and
pierced with the joint-hole, and into the blade is stamped either the
name and corporate mark of the maker, or any mark and name ordered by
the tradesman for whom the goods are being manufactured. The hardening
is accomplished by heating the blade to a cherry-red heat and suddenly
quenching it in cold water, which leaves the metal excessively hard and
brittle. To bring it to the proper temper for a razor, it is again
heated till the metallic surface assumes a straw colour, and after being
plunged into water, it is ready for the process of wet grinding. The wet
grinding is done on stones which vary in diameter from 1½ to 12 in.
according to the concavity of surface desired ("hollow-ground," "half
hollow-ground," &c.). "Lapping," which is the first stage in polishing,
is performed on a wheel of the same diameter as the wet-grinding stone.
The lap is built up of segments of wood having the fibres towards the
periphery, and covered with a metallic alloy of tin and lead. The lap is
fed with a mixture of emery powder and oil. "Glazing" and "polishing,"
which follow, are for perfecting the polish on the surface of the razor,
leather-covered wheels with fine emery being used; and the work is
finished off with crocus. The finished blade is then riveted into the
scales or handle, which may be of ivory, bone, horn or other material;
and when thereafter the razor is set on a hone it is ready for use.

The processes employed in making a table-knife do not differ essentially
from those required for a razor. Table-knife blades are forged from
shear and other steels, and, if they are not in one piece, a bit of
malleable iron sufficient for the bolster or shoulder and tang is welded
to each, often by machinery, especially in the case of the cheaper
qualities. The bolster is formed with the aid of a die and swage called
"prints," and the tang is drawn out. The tang is variously formed,
according to the method by which it is to be secured in the haft, and
the various processes of tempering, wet grinding and polishing are
pursued as described above. Steel forks of an inferior quality are cast
and subsequently cleaned and polished; but the best quality are forged
from bar steel, and the prongs are cut or stamped out of an extended
flattened extremity called the mould or "mood." In the United States of
America machinery has been extensively adopted for performing the
various mechanical operations in forging and fitting table cutlery, and
in Sheffield it is employed to a great extent in the manufacture of
table and pocket knife blades, scissors and razors. The cutler of the
18th century was an artisan who forged and ground the blades and fitted
them in the hafts ready for sale; to-day the division of labour is
carried to an extreme degree. In the making of a common pocket-knife
with three blades not fewer than one hundred separate operations are
involved, and these may be performed by as many workmen composed of five
distinct classes--the scale and spring makers (the scale being the metal
lining which is covered by the handle proper), the blade forgers, the
grinders, the cutters of the coverings of ivory, horn, &c., that form
the handles, and the hafters or cutlers proper. Grinders are divided
into three classes--dry, wet and mixed grinders, according as they work
at dry or wet stones. This branch of trade is, in Sheffield, conducted
in distinct establishments called "wheels," which are divided up into
separate apartments or "hulls," the dry grinding being as much as
possible separated from the wet grinding. Dry grinding, such as is
practised in the shaping of razors described above, the "humping" or
rounding of scissors, and other operations, used to be a process
especially dangerous to health, lung diseases being induced by the fine
dust of silica and steel with which the atmosphere was loaded; but a
great improvement has been effected by resorting to wet grinding as much
as possible, by arranging fans to remove the dust by suction, and by
general attention to sanitary conditions.



CUTTACK, a city and district of British India in the Orissa division of
Bengal. The city is situated at the head of the delta of the Mahanadi.
Pop. (1901) 51,364. It is the centre of the Orissa canal system, and an
important station on the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta. It
contains the government college, named after Mr Ravenshaw, a former
commissioner; a high school, a training school, a survey school, a
medical school and a law school. The city formed one of the five royal
strongholds of ancient Orissa and was founded by a warlike Hindu prince,
Makar Kesari, who reigned from 953 to 961. Native kings protected it
from the rivers by a masonry embankment several miles long, built of
enormous blocks of hewn stone, and in some places 25 ft. high. A
fortress defended the north-west corner of the town, and was captured by
the English from the Mahrattas in October 1803. It is now abandoned as a
place of defence.

The DISTRICT OF CUTTACK lies in the centre of Orissa, occupying the
deltas of the Mahanadi and Brahmani, together with a hilly tract inland.
Its area is 3654 sq. m. It consists of three physical divisions: first,
a marshy woodland strip along the coast, from 3 to 30 m. in breadth;
second, an intermediate stretch of rice plains; third, a broken hilly
region, which forms the western boundary of the district. The marshy
strip along the coast is covered with swamps and malaria-breeding
jungles. Towards the sea the solid land gives place to a vast network of
streams and creeks, whose sluggish waters are constantly depositing
silt, and forming morasses or quicksands. Cultivation does not begin
till the limits of this dismal region are passed. The intermediate rice
plains stretch inland for about 40 m. and occupy the older part of the
delta between the sea-coast strip and the hilly frontier. They are
intersected by three large rivers, the Baitarani, Brahmani and Mahanadi.
These issue in magnificent streams through three gorges in the frontier
hills. The Cuttack delta is divided into two great valleys, one of them
lying between the Baitarani and the Brahmani, the other between the
Brahmani and the Mahanadi. The rivers having, by the silt of ages,
gradually raised their beds, now run along high levels. During floods
they pour over their banks upon the surrounding valleys, by a thousand
channels which interlace and establish communication between the main
streams. After numerous bifurcations they find their way into the sea by
three principal mouths. Silt-banks and surf-washed bars render the
entrance to these rivers perilous. The best harbour in Cuttack district
is at False Point, on the north of the Mahanadi estuary. It consists of
an anchorage, land-locked by islands or sand-banks, and with two fair
channels navigable towards the land. The famine commissioners in 1867
reported it to be the best harbour on the coast of India from the Hugli
to Bombay.

The intermediate tract is a region of rich cultivation, dotted with
great banyan trees, thickets of bamboos, exquisite palm foliage and
mango groves. The hilly frontier separates the delta of British Orissa
from the semi-independent tributary states. It consists of a series of
ranges, 10 to 15 m. in length, running nearly due east and west, with
densely-wooded slopes and lovely valleys between. The timber, however,
is small, and is of little value except as fuel. The political character
of these three tracts is as distinct as are their natural features. The
first and third are still occupied by feudal chiefs, and have never been
subjected to a regular land-settlement, by either the Mussulman or the
British government. They pay a light fixed tribute. The intermediate
rice plains, known as the Mogholbandi, from their having been regularly
settled by the Mahommedans, have yielded to the successive dynasties and
conquerors of Orissa almost the whole of the revenues derived from the
province. The deltaic portions are of course a dead level; and the
highest hills within the district in the western or frontier tract do
not exceed 2500 ft. They are steep, and covered with jungle, but can be
climbed by men. The most interesting of them are the Assa range, with
its sandal trees and Buddhist remains; Udayagiri (Sunrise-hill), with
its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruins; and Assagiri,
with its mosque of 1719. The Mahavinayaka peak, visible from Cuttack,
has been consecrated for ages to Siva-worship by ascetics and pilgrims.

The population of the district in 1901 was 2,062,758, showing an
increase of 6% in the preceding decade. The aboriginal tribes here, as
elsewhere, cling to their mountains and jungles. They chiefly consist of
the Bhumij, Tala, Kol and Savara peoples, the Savaras being by far the
most numerous, numbering 14,775. They are regarded by the orthodox
Hindus as little better than the beasts of the wildernesses which they
inhabit. Miserably poor, they subsist for the most part by selling
firewood or other products of their jungle; but a few of them have
patches of cultivated land, and many earn wages as day labourers to the
Hindus. They occupy, in fact, an intermediate stage of degradation
between the comparatively well-to-do tribes in the tributary states
(the stronghold and home of the race), and the Pans, Bauris, Kandras and
other semi-aboriginal peoples on the lowlands, who rank as the basest
castes of the Hindu community. The great bulk of the Indo-Aryan or Hindu
population consists of Uriyas, with a residue of immigrant Bengalis,
Lala Kayets from Behar and northern India, Telingas from the Madras
coast, Mahrattas from central and western India, a few Sikhs from the
Punjab and Marwaris from Rajputana. The Mahommedans are chiefly the
descendants of the Pathans who took refuge in Orissa after the
subversion of their kingdom in Bengal by the Moguls in the 16th century.

Rice forms the staple product of the district; its three chief varieties
are _biali_ or early rice, _sarad_ or winter rice, and _dalua_ or spring
rice. The other cereal crops consist of _mandua_ (a grass-like plant
producing a coarse grain resembling rice), wheat, barley, and _china_, a
rice-like cereal. _Suan_, another rice-like cereal, not cultivated,
grows spontaneously in the paddy fields. Pulses of different sorts,
oilseeds, fibres, sugar-cane, tobacco, spices and vegetables also form
crops of the district. The cultivators consist of two classes--the
resident husbandmen (_thani_) and the non-resident or migratory
husbandmen (_pahe_).

The Orissa canal system, which lies mainly within Cuttack district, is
used both for irrigation and transport purposes. The railway across the
district towards Calcutta, a branch of the Bengal-Nagpur system, was
opened in 1899. Considerable trade is carried on at the mouth of the
rivers along the coast.



CUTTLE-FISH. The more familiar and conspicuous types of the molluscan
class Cephalopoda (q.v.) are popularly known in English as cuttle-fish,
squid, octopus and nautilus. The first of these names (from the A.S.
_cudele_) is applied more particularly to the common _Sepia_ (fig. 1),
characterized by its internal calcareous shell, sometimes known as
cuttle-bone, and its ink-sac, the contents of which have been long in
use as a pigment (sepia). The term squid is employed among fishermen for
the ten-armed Cephalopods in which the shell is represented by an
uncalcified flexible structure somewhat resembling a pen. Hence in
Italian a squid is called _calamaio_, from _calamus_ a reed or pen, and
in English the similar term calamary is sometimes used. Like the
_Sepia_, squids also possess the ink-sac, whence they have sometimes
been called pen and ink fish, and in German both _Sepia_ and squid and
their allies are known as _Tinten-fische_. The squids have generally
softer and more watery tissues than the _Sepia_, but the former term is
not in general use, and the distinction not generally understood. The
term cuttle-fishes is sometimes extended to include all the Cephalopoda,
but as the peculiarities of the remarkable shell of the true nautilus,
and those of the shell-less Octopoda are widely known, we shall consider
the name here as applying only to those forms which have ten arms, an
ink-sac, an internal shell-rudiment, and only one pair of gills in the
mantle cavity. Technically these form the sub-order Decapoda, of the
order Dibranchia.

The cuttle-fishes are characteristically swimming animals, in contrast
with the octopods, which creep about by means of their suckers among the
rocks, and lurk in holes. In _Sepia_ the integument is produced
laterally into two muscular fins, rather narrow and of uniform breadth
running the whole length of the body, but separated by a notch behind.
There are four pairs of short non-retractile arms surrounding the mouth,
and furnished with suckers on their oral surface, and between the third
and fourth of these arms on each side is a much longer tentacular arm,
which is usually kept entirely withdrawn into a pocket of the skin. The
mantle cavity is on the posterior side of the body, which is the lower
side in the swimming position, and the funnel is a tube open at both
ends and connected with the body within the mouth of the mantle cavity.
The mantle during life performs regular respiratory movements by which
water is drawn into the cavity, passing between mantle and funnel, and
is expelled through the funnel. In swimming the short arms are directed
forwards, the fins undulate, and the motion is slow and deliberate; but
if the animal is threatened or alarmed it swims suddenly and rapidly
backwards by expelling water forcibly from the mantle cavity through
the funnel, at the same time expelling a cloud of ink from its ink-sac.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Sepia officinalis_, L., about ½ natural size,
as seen when dead, the long prehensile arms being withdrawn from the
pouches at the side of the head, in which they are carried during life
when not actually in use. a, Neck; b, lateral fin of the mantle-sac; c,
the eight shorter arms of the fore-foot; d, the two long prehensile
arms; e, the eyes.]

The _Sepia_ feeds principally on Crustacea, and in aquaria has been
observed to pursue and capture prawns. The method in which it secures
its prey has been carefully observed and described by the present
writer, who studied the living animal in the aquarium of the biological
laboratory at Plymouth. The prawns support themselves on their long
slender legs on convenient points of the rockwork, and the _Sepia_
stalks them with great caution and determination, the rapid play of its
chromatophores giving evidence of its excitement. When it has arrived
within striking distance, the two tentacular arms are shot out with
great rapidity, and the prawn is seized between the two expanded ends,
drawn within the circle of short arms, and devoured; unless, as
sometimes happens, the prawn springs away and the _Sepia_ misses its
aim.

Two species of _Sepia_ occur in British and European waters, including
the Mediterranean, namely, _S. elegans_ and _S. officinalis_. The usual
length of the body is about 9 or 10 in. They live mostly between ten and
forty fathoms, coming into shallower water in July and August to deposit
their eggs, which are about as large as black currants and of somewhat
similar colour, and are connected by elongated stalks into a cluster
attached to the sea-bottom. Other species occur in various parts of the
world, e.g. _S. cultrata_, which is common on the coasts of Australia.
The _Sepiidae_ form the only family of cuttle-fishes in which the shell
is calcified. They belong to the tribe Myopsida, characterized by the
complete closure of the external corneal covering of the eye outside the
iris and the lens.

_Sepiola_ and _Rossia_ belong to another family of the Myopsida. Both
are British genera living in shallow water, and entering estuaries. The
animals of both genera are small, not more than 2 or 3 in. in length,
with the body rounded at the aboral end, and the fins short and rounded,
inserted in the middle of the body length, instead of extending from end
to end. _Sepiola_, although it swims by means of its fins and funnel
when active, spends much of its time buried in the sand for concealment.
_Rossia_ has similar habits. The shell is chitinous and shorter than the
body. In other genera of the _Sepiolidae_ the shell is entirely absent.
_Idiosepius_ is the smallest of the Cephalopoda, only 1.5 in. in length.
It inhabits the Indian Ocean. The body is elongated and the fins
rudimentary. In the _Sepiadariidae_ also the shell is absent. The body
is short and the mantle united with the head dorsally. The two genera
_Sepiadarium_ and _Sepioloidea_ occur in the Pacific Ocean. The common
squid _Loligo_ is the type of the only remaining family of the Myopsida.
In this species the shell is a well-developed chitinous pen or gladius
with a thickened axis narrowing to a point behind, but bearing
posteriorly a wide thin plate on each side. The shape closely resembles
that of a quill pen with the quill in front. The fins are large and
triangular, extending over rather more than half of the length of the
body aborally. The tentacular arms are only partly retractile. The body
is elongated and conical, and reaches about a foot in length. The squid
is gregarious, and forms a favourite food of the larger fishes,
especially of conger. All the Myopsida are more or less littoral in
habit, and the British forms are familiar in consequence of their
frequent capture in the nets of fishermen. The shell, or "bone" as it is
commonly called, of the common _Sepia_ frequently occurs in abundance on
the shore among the sea-weed and other refuse left by the tide.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--A, _Loligo vulgaris_; a, arms; t, tentacles. B,
Pen of the same reduced in size. C, Side-view of one of the suckers,
showing the horny hooks surrounding the margin. D, View of the head from
in front, showing the arms (a), the tentacles (t), the mouth (m), and
the funnel (f).]

The Oigopsida, or cuttle-fishes in which the corneal covering of the eye
is perforated, are on the whole more oceanic than littoral, and many of
the species are abyssal. _Ommatostrephes sagittatus_ is one of the forms
that occurs off the British coasts, especially the more northern, e.g.
in the Firth of Forth. In general appearance it resembles the common
squid, but the fins are broader and shorter, not extending to the middle
of the body. The shell is similar to that of _Loligo_, but ends
aborally in a little hollow cone. The suckers bear chitinous rings which
are toothed along the outer edge. The tentacular arms are rather short
and thick. Two specimens of allied species have been taken on British
coasts, one of which, captured off Salcombe in Devonshire in 1892, had a
body 66 cm. (22 in.) long, and tentacular arms 64 cm. long, or nearly
the same length as the body. Most of the species of _Ommatostrephes_ are
naturally gregarious and oceanic, and occur in the open seas in all
latitudes, swimming near the surface and often leaping out of the water.
They are largely devoured by albatrosses and other marine birds, and by
Cetacea. They are used as bait in the Newfoundland cod fishery.

Some of the oceanic cuttle-fishes reach a very large size, and the
stories of these ocean monsters which are narrated by the older writers,
though to some extent exaggerated, are now known to be founded on fact.
The figure given by one author of a gigantic Cephalopod rising from the
surface of the ocean and embracing with its arms a full-rigged ship does
not accurately represent an actual occurrence, but on the other hand
there are authentic instances on record of fishermen in small boats on
the banks of Newfoundland being in great peril in consequence of large
squids throwing their arms across their boats. In November 1874 a
specimen was brought ashore at St John's, Newfoundland, which had been
caught in herring nets. Its body was 7 ft. long, its fins 22 in. broad,
and its tentacular arms 24 ft. long. Several others have been recorded,
taken in the same region, which were as large or larger, the total
length of the body and tentacles together varying from 30 to 52 ft., and
the estimated weight of one of them being 1000 lb.

In April 1875 one of these large squids occurred off Boffin's Island on
the Irish coast. The crew of a curragh rowed out to it and attacked it,
cutting off two of its arms and its head. The shorter arms measured 8
ft. in length and 15 in. in circumference; the tentacular arms are said
to have been 30 ft. long. In the Natural History Museum in London there
is one of the shorter arms of a specimen; this arm is 9 ft. in length
and 11 in. in circumference, and the total length of the specimen,
including body and tentacles, is stated to have been 40 ft. The maximum
known length of these giant squids is stated to be 18 metres or about
58½ ft. All these gigantic specimens belong, so far as at present known,
to one genus called _Architeuthis_, referred to the same family as
_Ommatostrephes_. They are the largest known invertebrates.

These huge cuttle-fishes as well as those of various other oceanic
species form the food of the cachalot or sperm whale, and F. T. Bullen,
in his _Cruise of the Cachalot_ and other writings, has graphically
described contests which came under his own observation between the
cachalot and its prey. The prince of Monaco in his yacht the "Princess
Alice" was fortunate enough to be able to make a very complete
scientific investigation in the case of one specimen of the cachalot,
which not only confirmed the most important of Mr Bullen's statements,
but added considerably to our knowledge of oceanic cuttle-fishes. Off
the Azores in July 1895 the prince in his yacht witnessed the killing of
a cachalot 13.70 metres long (about 45 ft. 8 in.) by the crew of a
whaler. The animal in its death-agony vomited the contents of its
stomach, most of which were carefully collected and preserved, and
afterwards examined by Professor Joubin. On the lips of the whale were
found impressions several centimetres wide which corresponded exactly to
the toothed suckers of the largest cuttle-fish arms obtained from its
stomach. The contents of the stomach consisted entirely of cuttle-fish
or parts of cuttle-fish, including the giant _Architeuthis_, and among
them was the body, without the head, of a form new to science,
distinguished by a condition of the external surface which occurs in no
other species of the group. The surface of the skin was divided into
small angular flat projections like scales, arranged in a regular spiral
like the scales of a pine cone. From this character the new genus was
called _Lepidoteuthis_. The body, without the head, of the specimen
obtained was 86 cm. (nearly 3 ft.) in length.

The family _Onychoteuthidae_ is remarkable for the formidable chitinous
hooks borne on the arms. These hooks are special modifications of the
toothed chitinous ring which covers the sucker-rim in the Decapoda
generally. The teeth of the ring are often unequal in size, and in the
_Onychoteuthidae_ one tooth is enormously developed. The maximum
development occurs in _Veranya_, found in the Mediterranean, where the
suckers have lost their function and are merely fleshy projections
bearing the hooks at their extremities. _Onychoteuthis_ reaches a large
size, the length of the body without the arms being in one specimen from
the Pacific coast of America 8 ft. Figures of this and several of the
following genera are given in the article CEPHALOPODA.

In the family _Cheiroteuthidae_ many of the species occur at abyssal
depths of the ocean, and exhibit curious modifications of structure. In
_Cheiroteuthis_ itself the tentacular arms are very long and slender,
and are not capable of retraction into pockets. In several species of
this genus the suckers are no longer organs of adhesion, but are simple
cups containing a network of filaments resembling a fishing net. In
_Histioteuthis_ and _Histiopsis_, as in some Octopods, the six dorsal
arms are more or less completely united by a web, which also probably
serves for capturing fish. In these two genera and in _Calliteuthis_ the
skin bears luminous organs. _Cheiroteuthis_ has been taken at 2600 fms.,
_Calliteuthis_ at 2200, _Histiopsis_ at nearly 2000. _Bathyteuthis_,
placed in the same family as _Ommatostrephes_, has been taken at 1700
fms.

The _Cranchiidae_ are remarkable for their small size, the shortness of
the ordinary arms, and the protuberance of the eyes, which in _Taonius_
are actually on the ends of stalk-like outgrowths of the body.
_Cranchia_ is a deep-sea form taken at 1700 fms. Its body is
pear-shaped, swollen posteriorly and quite narrow at the neck.

_Spirula_ is distinguished from all other existing Cephalopods by the
structure of its coiled shell, which in many respects resembles those of
the extinct Ammonites, and is not completely internal. In the structure
of the body the animal is a true cuttle-fish in the sense in which the
term is here used, having ten arms and a perforated cornea. Three
species are distinguished, and their empty shells occur abundantly on
the shores of the tropical regions of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian
Oceans. In German the shells are known from their shape as
_Posthörnchen_. They are common on the shores of the Azores. But the
animal has very rarely been obtained; only a few specimens occur in
museum collections. One specimen was taken by the "Challenger" in a
deep-sea trawl, at a depth between 300 and 400 fathoms off Banda Neira
in the Molluccas. Dr Willemoes Suhm, in describing the capture, stated
that the specimen seemed to have been in the stomach of a fish, as its
surface was slightly digested, and he thought it must have habits of
concealment which usually prevent its capture, and that it was secured
on this occasion only by the capture of the fish which had swallowed it.
The fact that the shells are washed ashore in such large numbers is not
fully explained. Possibly when freed from the animal the air in the
chambers of the shell causes it to float, and in that case it would
naturally be sooner or later washed ashore.     (J. T. C.)



CUTTS OF GOWRAN, JOHN CUTTS, BARON (1661-1707), British soldier and
author, came of an Essex family. After a short university career at
Catherine Hall, Cambridge, he came into the enjoyment of the family
estates, but evinced a decided preference for the life of court and
camp. The double ambition for military and literary fame inspired his
first work, which appeared in 1685 under the name _La Muse de cavalier,
or An Apology for such Gentlemen as make Poetry their Diversion not
their Business_. The next year saw Cutts serving as a volunteer under
Charles of Lorraine in Hungary, and it is said that he was the first to
plant the imperialist standard on the walls at the storm of Buda (July
1686). In 1687 he published a book of verse entitled _Poetical
Exercises_, and the following year we find him serving as
lieutenant-colonel in Holland. General Hugh Mackay describes Cutts about
this time as "pretty tall, lusty and well shaped, an agreeable companion
with abundance of wit, affable and familiar, but too much seized with
vanity and self-conceit."

Lieutenant-Colonel Cutts was one of William's companions in the English
revolution of 1688, and in 1690 he went in command of a regiment of foot
to the Irish war. He served with distinction at the battle of the
Boyne, and at the siege of Limerick (where he was wounded), and King
William created him Baron Cutts of Gowran in the kingdom of Ireland. In
1691 he succeeded to the command of the brigade of the prince of Hesse
(wounded at Aughrim), and on the surrender of Limerick was appointed
commandant of the town. Next year he served again in Flanders as a
brigadier, his brigade of Mackay's division being one of those almost
destroyed at Steinkirk. At this battle Cutts himself was wounded. For
some time after this, Lord Cutts was lieutenant-governor of the Isle of
Wight, but he returned to active service in 1694, holding a command in
the disastrous Brest expedition. He was one of Carmarthen's companions
in the daring reconnaissance of Camaret Bay, and was soon afterwards
again wounded. He succeeded Talmash, the commander of the expedition
(who died of his wounds), as colonel of the Coldstream Guards. Next
year, after serving as a commissioner for settling the bank of Antwerp,
he distinguished himself once more at the famous siege of Namur, winning
for himself the name of "Salamander" by his indifference to the heaviest
fire. Henceforward court service and war service alternated. He was deep
in the confidence of William III., and acted as a diplomatic agent in
the negotiations which ended in the peace of Ryswick. On the occasion of
the great fire in Whitehall (1698) Cutts, at the head of the
Coldstreams, earned afresh the honourable nickname of "the Salamander."
A little later we find Captain Richard Steele acting as his private
secretary. In 1702, now a major-general, Cutts was serving under
Marlborough in the opening campaign of the War of the Spanish
Succession, and at the siege of Venloo, conspicuous as usual for
romantic bravery, he led the stormers at Fort Saint Michael. His
enemies, and even the survivors of the assault, were amazed at the
success of a seemingly hare-brained enterprise. Probably, however,
Cutts, who was now a veteran of great and varied experience, measured
the factors of success and failure better than his critics. It was on
this occasion that Swift lampooned the lieutenant-general in his _Ode to
a Salamander_. He made the campaign of 1703 in Flanders, and in 1704,
after a visit to England, he rejoined Marlborough on the banks of the
Danube. At Blenheim he was third in command, and it was his division
that bore the brunt of the desperate fighting at the village which gave
its name to the battle.

Blenheim was Cutts's last battle. His remaining years were spent at
home, and, at the time of his death, he was the holder of eight distinct
political and military offices. He sat in five parliaments for the
county of Cambridge, and in Queen Anne's first Parliament he was
returned for Newport in the Isle of Wight, for which he sat until the
time of his death. He was twice married, but left no issue.



CUVIER, GEORGES LÉOPOLD CHRÉTIEN FRÉDÉRIC DAGOBERT, BARON (1769-1832),
French naturalist, was born on the 23rd of August 1769 at Montbéliard,
and was the son of a retired officer on half-pay belonging to a
Protestant family which had emigrated from the Jura in consequence of
religious persecution. He early showed a bent towards the investigation
of natural phenomena, and was noted for his studious habits and
marvellous memory. After spending four years at the Academy of
Stuttgart, he accepted the position of tutor in the family of the Comte
d'Héricy, who was in the habit of spending the summer near Fécamp. It
thus came about that he made the acquaintance of the agriculturist, A.
H. Tessier, who was then living at Fécamp, and who wrote strongly in
favour of his protégé to his friends in Paris--with the result that
Cuvier, after corresponding with the well-known naturalist E. Geoffroy
Saint-Hilaire, was appointed in 1795 assistant to the professor of
comparative anatomy at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. The National
Institute was founded in the same year and he was elected a member. In
1796 he began to lecture at the École Centrale du Panthéon, and at the
opening of the National Institute in April, he read his first
palaeontological paper, which was subsequently published in 1800 under
the title _Mémoires sur les espèces d'éléphants vivants et fossiles_. In
1798 was published his first separate work, the _Tableau élémentaire de
l'histoire naturelle des animaux_, which was an abridgment of his course
of lectures at the École du Panthéon, and may be regarded as the
foundation and first and general statement of his natural classification
of the animal kingdom.

In 1799 he succeeded L. J. M. Daubenton as professor of natural history
in the Collège de France, and in the following year he published the
_Leçons d'anatomie comparée_, a classical work, in the production of
which he was assisted by A. M. C. Dumeril in the first two volumes, and
by G. L. Duvernoy in three later ones. In 1802 Cuvier became titular
professor at the Jardin des Plantes; and in the same year he was
appointed commissary of the Institute to accompany the inspectors-general
of public instruction. In this latter capacity he visited the south of
France; but he was in the early part of 1803 chosen perpetual secretary
of the National Institute in the department of the physical and natural
sciences, and he consequently abandoned the appointment just mentioned
and returned to Paris.

He now devoted himself more especially to three lines of inquiry--one
dealing with the structure and classification of the mollusca, the
second with the comparative anatomy and systematic arrangement of the
fishes, and the third with fossil mammals and reptiles primarily, and
secondarily with the osteology of living forms belonging to the same
groups. His papers on the mollusca began as early as 1792, but most of
his memoirs on this branch were published in the _Annales du muséum_
between 1802 and 1815; they were subsequently collected as _Mémoires
pour servir à l'histoire et à l'anatomie des mollusques_, published in
one volume at Paris in 1817. In the department of fishes, Cuvier's
researches, begun in 1801, finally culminated in the publication of the
_Histoire naturelle des poissons_, which contained descriptions of 5000
species of fishes, and was the joint production of Cuvier and A.
Valenciennes, its publication (so far as the former was concerned)
extending over the years 1828-1831. The department of palaeontology
dealing with the Mammalia may be said to have been essentially created
and established by Cuvier. In this region of investigation he published
a long list of memoirs, partly relating to the bones of extinct animals,
and partly detailing the results of observations on the skeletons of
living animals specially examined with a view of throwing light upon the
structure and affinities of the fossil forms. In the second category
must be placed a number of papers relating to the osteology of the
_Rhinoceros Indicus_, the tapir, _Hyrax Capensis_, the hippopotamus, the
sloths, the manatee, &c. In the former category must be classed an even
greater number of memoirs, dealing with the extinct mammals of the
Eocene beds of Montmartre, the fossil species of hippopotamus, the
_Didelphys gypsorum_, the _Megalonyx_, the _Megatherium_, the
cave-hyaena, the extinct species of rhinoceros, the cave-bear, the
mastodon, the extinct species of elephant, fossil species of manatee and
seals, fossil forms of crocodilians, chelonians, fishes, birds, &c. The
results of Cuvier's principal palaeontological and geological
investigations were ultimately given to the world in the form of two
separate works. One of these is the celebrated _Recherches sur les
ossements fossiles de quadrupèdes_, published in Paris in 1812, with
subsequent editions in 1821 and 1825; and the other is his _Discours sur
les révolutions de la surface du globe_, published in Paris in 1825.

But none of his works attained a higher reputation than his _Règne
animal distribué d'après son organisation_, the first edition of which
appeared in four octavo volumes in 1817, and the second in five volumes
in 1829-1830. In this classical work Cuvier embodied the results of the
whole of his previous researches on the structure of living and fossil
animals. The whole of the work was his own, with the exception of the
Insecta, in which he was assisted by his friend P. A. Latreille.

Apart from his own original investigations in zoology and palaeontology
Cuvier carried out a vast amount of work as perpetual secretary of the
National Institute, and as an official connected with public education
generally; and much of this work appeared ultimately in a published
form. Thus, in 1808 he was placed by Napoleon upon the council of the
Imperial University, and in this capacity he presided (in the years
1809, 1811 and 1813) over commissions charged to examine the state of
the higher educational establishments in the districts beyond the Alps
and the Rhine which had been annexed to France, and to report upon the
means by which these could be affiliated with the central university.
Three separate reports on this subject were published by him. In his
capacity, again, of perpetual secretary of the Institute, he not only
prepared a number of _éloges historiques_ on deceased members of the
Academy of Sciences, but he was the author of a number of reports on the
history of the physical and natural sciences, the most important of
these being the _Rapport historique sur le progrès des sciences
physiques depuis 1789_, published in 1810. Prior to the fall of Napoleon
(1814) he had been admitted to the council of state, and his position
remained unaffected by the restoration of the Bourbons. He was elected
chancellor of the university, in which capacity he acted as interim
president of the council of public instruction, whilst he also, as a
Lutheran, superintended the faculty of Protestant theology. In 1819 he
was appointed president of the committee of the interior, and retained
the office until his death. In 1826 he was made grand officer of the
Legion of Honour; and in 1831 he was raised by Louis Philippe to the
rank of peer of France, and was subsequently appointed president of the
council of state. In the beginning of 1832 he was nominated to the
ministry of the interior, but on the 13th of May he died in Paris after
a brief illness.

  See P. J. M. Flourens, _Éloge historique de G. Cuvier_, published as
  an introduction to the _Éloges historiques_ of Cuvier; _Histoire des
  travaux de Georges Cuvier_ (3rd ed., Paris, 1858); A. P. de Candolle,
  "Mort de G. Cuvier," _Bibliothèque universelle_ (1832, 59, p. 442); C.
  L. Laurillard, "Cuvier," _Biographie universelle_, supp. vol. 61
  (1836); Sarah Lee, _Memoirs of Cuvier_, translated into French by T.
  Lacordaire (1833).



CUVILLES, FRANÇOIS DE (1698-c. 1767), French architect and engraver. He
helped to carry the French rococo taste to Germany--he was summoned
about 1720 to Cologne by the elector James Clement; in 1738 he became
architect to the elector of Bavaria, and afterwards occupied the same
position towards the emperor Charles VII. His style, while essentially
thin, is often painfully elaborate and bizarre. He designed mirrors and
consoles, balustrades for staircases, ceilings and fireplaces, and in
furniture, beds and commodes especially. He also laid out parks and
gardens. He wrote several treatises on artistic and decorative subjects,
which were edited by his son, François de Cuvilles the younger, who
succeeded his father at the court of Munich.



CUXHAVEN, or KUXHAVEN, a seaport town of Germany, belonging to the state
of Hamburg, and situated at the extremity of the west side of the mouth
of the Elbe, 71 m. by rail N.W. from Hamburg. Pop. (1900) 6898. The
harbour is good and secure, and is much frequented by vessels delayed in
the Elbe by unfavourable weather. A new harbour was made in 1891-1896,
having a depth of 26¼ ft., with a fore port 1000 ft. long by 800 ft.
wide; and it is now the place of departure and arrival of the mail
steamers of the Hamburg-American Steamship Company, who in 1901
transferred here a part of their permanent staff. The port is free, i.e.
outside the customs union (_Zollverein_), the imports being principally
coals, bricks and timber, and the exports fish. There is a fishing
fleet, for which a new harbour was opened in 1892. Though lying on a
bare strand, the town is much frequented as a bathing place by
Hamburgers. It is strongly fortified, and there are a lighthouse, and
lifeboat and pilot stations. The town only dates from 1873, having been
formed by uniting the villages of Ritzebüttel and Cuxhaven, which had
belonged to Hamburg since 1394.



CUYABÁ, or CUIABÁ, capital of the inland state of Matto Grosso, Brazil,
about 972 m. N.W. of Rio de Janeiro, on the Cuyabá river near its
discharge into the São Lourenço, the principal Brazilian tributary of
the Paraguay. Pop. (1890) 14,507; of the municipality, 17,815. The
surrounding country is thickly populated. Cuyabá has uninterrupted
steamer communication with Montevideo, about 2500 m. distant, but has no
land communication with the national capital, except by telegraph. The
climate is hot and malaria is prevalent. Cuyabá was founded in 1719 by
Paulista gold hunters, and its gold-washings, now apparently exhausted,
yielded rich results in the 18th century. It is the see of a bishopric
and headquarters of an important military district, having an arsenal
and military barracks.



CUYAPO, a town of the province of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, Philippine
Islands, 28 m. N.N.W. of San Isidro, the capital. Pop. (1903) 16,292.
Rice is grown here. In 1907 the town of Nampicuan was formed from part
of Cuyapo.



CUYP, the name of a Dutch family which produced two generations of
painters. The Cuyps were long settled at Dordrecht, in the neighbourhood
of which they had a country house, where Albert Cuyp (the most famous)
was born and bred.

The eldest member of the family who acquired fame was JACOB GERRITSZ
CUYP, born it is said at Dordrecht in 1575, and taught by Abraham
Bloemaert of Utrecht. He is known to have been alive in 1649, and the
date of his death is obscure. J. G. Cuyp's pictures are little known.
But he produced portraits in various forms, as busts and half-lengths
thrown upon plain backgrounds, or groups in rooms, landscapes and
gardens. Solid and clever as an imitator of nature in its ordinary garb,
he is always spirited, sometimes rough, but generally plain, and quite
as unconscious of the sparkle conspicuous in Frans Hals as incapable of
the concentrated light-effects peculiar to Rembrandt. In portrait busts,
of which there are signed examples dated 1624, 1644, 1646 and 1649, in
the museums of Berlin, Rotterdam, Marseilles, Vienna and Metz, his
treatment is honest, homely and true; his touch and tone firm and
natural. In portraying children he is fond of introducing playthings and
pets--a lamb, a goat or a roedeer; and he reproduces animal life with
realistic care. In a family scene at the Amsterdam Museum we have
likenesses of men, women, boys and girls with a cottage and park. In the
background is a coach with a pair of horses. These examples alone give
us a clue to the influences under which Albert Cuyp grew up, and explain
to some extent the direction which his art took as he rose to manhood.

ALBERT CUYP (1620-1691), the son of Jacob Gerritsz by Grietche
Dierichsdochter (Dierich's daughter), was born at Dordrecht. He married
in 1658 Cornelia Bosman, a rich widow, by whom he had an only daughter.
By right of his possessions at Dordwyck, Cuyp was a vassal of the county
of Holland, and privileged to sit in the high court of the province. As
a citizen he was sufficiently well known to be placed on the list of
those from whom William III., stadtholder of the Netherlands, chose the
regency of Dordrecht in 1672. His death, and his burial on the 7th of
November 1691 in the church of the Augustines of Dordrecht, are
historically proved. But otherwise the known facts concerning his life
are few. He seldom dates his pictures, but it appears probable that he
ceased to paint about 1675. It has been said that Albert was the pupil
of his father. The scanty evidence of Dutch annalists to this effect
seems confirmed by a certain coincidence in the style and treatment of
father and son. That he was a pupil of van Goyen has been surmised on
the strength of the style of his early works. It has been likewise
stated that Albert was skilled, not only in the production of portraits,
landscapes and herds, but in the representation of still life. His works
are supposed to be divisible into such as bear the distinctive marks C.
or A. C. in cursive characters, the letters A. C. in Roman capitals, and
the name "A. Cuyp" in full. A man of Cuyp's acknowledged talent may have
been versatile enough to paint in many different styles. But whether he
was as versatile as some critics have thought is a question not quite
easy to answer. It is to be observed that pieces assigned to Cuyp
representing game, shell-fish and fruit, and inscribed A. C. in Roman
capitals (Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Berlin museums), though cleverly
executed, are not in touch or treatment like other pictures of less
dubious authenticity, signed either with C. or A. C. or "A. Cuyp" in
cursive letters. The panels marked C. and A. C. in cursive are portraits
or landscapes, with herds, and interiors of stables or sheds, in which
there are cows, horses and poultry. The subjects and their handling are
akin to those which strike us in panels bearing the master's full
signature, though characterized, as productions of an artist in the
first phase of his progress would naturally be, by tones more uniform,
touch more flat, and colour more deep than we find in the delicate and
subtle compositions of the painter's later time. Generally speaking, the
finished examples of Cuyp's middle and final period all bear his full
signature. They are all remarkable for harmonies attained by certain
combinations of shade in gradations with colours in contraposition.

Albert Cuyp, a true child of the Netherlands, does not seem to have
wandered much beyond Rotterdam on the one hand or Nijmwegen on the
other. His scenery is that of the Meuse or Rhine exclusively; and there
is little variety to notice in his views of water and meadows at
Dordrecht, or the bolder undulations of the Rhine banks east of it,
except such as results from diversity of effect due to change of weather
or season or hour. Cuyp is to the river and its banks what Willem
Vandevelde is to calm seas and Hobbema to woods. There is a poetry of
effect, an eternity of distance in his pictures, which no Dutchman ever
expressed in a similar way. His landscapes sparkle with silvery sheen at
early morning, they are bathed in warm or sultry haze at noon, or glow
with heat at eventide. Under all circumstances they have a peculiar
tinge of auburn which is Cuyp's and Cuyp's alone. Bürger truly says van
Goyen is gray, Ruysdael is brown, Hobbema olive, but Cuyp "is blond."
The utmost delicacy may be observed in Cuyp's manner of defining
reflections of objects in water, or of sight from water on ship's sides.
He shows great cleverness in throwing pale-yellow clouds against clear
blue skies, and merging yellow mists into olive-green vegetation. He is
also very artful in varying light and shade according to distance,
either by interchange of cloud-shadow and sun-gleam or by gradation of
tints. His horses and cattle are admirably drawn, and they relieve each
other quite as well if contrasted in black and white and black and red,
or varied in subtler shades of red and brown. Rich weed-growth is
expressed by light but marrowy touch, suggestive of detail as well as of
general form. The human figure is given with homely realism in most
cases, but frequently with a charming elevation, when, as often occurs,
the persons represented are meant to be portraits. Whatever the theme
may be it remains impressed with the character and individuality of
Cuyp. Familiar subjects of the master's earlier period are stables with
cattle and horses (Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Petersburg and Brussels
museums). Occasionally he painted portraits in the bust form familiar to
his father, one of which is dated 1649, and exhibited in the National
Gallery, London. More frequently he produced likenesses of ladies and
gentlemen on horseback, in which the life and dress of the period and
the forms of horses are most vividly represented (Buckingham Palace,
Bridgewater Gallery, Louvre and Dresden Museum). Later on we find him
fondest of expansive scenery with meadows and cattle and flocks, or
rivers and barges in the foreground and distances showing the towers and
steeples of Dordrecht. Cuyp was more partial to summer than to winter,
to noon than to night, to calm than to storm. But some of his best
groups are occasionally relieved on dark and gusty cloud (Louvre and
Robarts's collection). A few capital pieces show us people sledging and
skating or netting ice-holes (Yarborough, Neeld and Bedford
collections). A lovely "Night on the Banks of a River," in the Grosvenor
collection, reminds us that Cuyp's friend and contemporary was the
painter of moonlights, Aart van der Neer, to whom he was equal in the
production of these peculiar effects and superior in the throw of
figures. Sometimes Cuyp composed fancy subjects. His "Orpheus charming
the Beasts," in the Bute collection, is judiciously arranged with the
familiar domestic animals in the foreground, and the wild ones, to which
he is a comparative stranger, thrown back into the distance. One of his
rare gospel subjects is "Philip baptizing the Eunuch" (Marchmont House,
Berwickshire), described as a fine work by Waagen. The best and most
attractive of Cuyp's pieces are his Meuse and Rhine landscapes, with
meadows, cattle, flocks and horsemen, and occasionally with boats and
barges. In these he brought together and displayed--during his middle
and final period--all the skill of one who is at once a poet and a
finished artist; grouping, tinting, touch, harmony of light and shade,
and true chords of colours are all combined. Masterpieces of
acknowledged beauty are the "Riders with the Boy and Herdsman" in the
National Gallery; the Meuse, with Dordrecht in the distance, in three or
four varieties, in the Bridgewater, Grosvenor, Holford and Brownlow
collections; the "Huntsman" (Ashburton); "Herdsmen with Cattle,"
belonging to the marquess of Bute; and the "Piper with Cows," in the
Louvre. The prices paid for Cuyp's pictures in his own time were
comparatively low. In 1750, 30 florins was considered to be the highest
sum to which any one of his panels was entitled. But in more recent
times the value of the pictures has naturally risen very largely. At the
sale of the Clewer collection at Christie's in 1876 a small "Hilly
Landscape in Morning Light" was sold for £5040, and a view on the Rhine,
with cows on a bank, for £3150.     (J. A. C.)

  John Smith's _Catalogue raisonné_ of the Dutch and Flemish painters,
  in 9 vols. (1840), enumerated 335 of Albert Cuyp's works, of which in
  1877 Sir J. A. Crowe wrote in this encyclopaedia that "it would be
  difficult now to find more than a third of them." In C. Hofstede de
  Groot's _Catalogue raisonné_, vol. ii. (1909), revising Smith's, the
  number is extended to nearly 850, but he accepts too readily the
  attributions of sale catalogues; the work is, however, the best modern
  authority on the painter.



CUZA (or COUZA), ALEXANDER JOHN [_Alexandru Joan_] (1820-1873), first
prince of Rumania, was born on the 20th of March 1820, at Galatz in
Moldavia, and belonged to an ancient _boiar_, or noble, family. He was
educated at Jassy, Pavia, Bologna and Athens; and, after a brief period
of military service, visited Paris from 1837 to 1840 for a further
course of study. In 1845 he married the daughter of another boiar, Elena
Rosetti, who in 1862 founded the Princess Elena refuge for orphans, at
Bucharest. Cuza was imprisoned by the Russian authorities for taking
part in the Rumanian revolution of 1848, but escaped to Vienna. On his
return, in 1850, he was appointed prefect of Galatz. In 1857 he rejoined
the army, and within a few months rose to the rank of colonel. He became
minister of war in 1858, and represented Galatz in the Assembly which
was elected in the same year to nominate a prince for Moldavia. Cuza was
a prominent speaker in the critical debates which ensued when the
assembly met at Jassy, and strongly advocated the union of the two
Danubian principalities, Moldavia and Walachia. In default of a foreign
prince, he was himself elected prince of Moldavia by the assembly at
Jassy (17th Jan. 1859), and prince of Walachia by the assembly at
Bucharest (5th Feb.). He thus became ruler of the united principalities,
with the title Prince Alexander John I.; but as this union was forbidden
by the congress of Paris (18th Oct. 1858), his authority was not
recognized by his suzerain, the sultan of Turkey, until the 23rd of
December 1861, when the union of the principalities under the name of
Rumania was formally proclaimed. For a full account of Cuza's reign see
Rumania. The personal vices of the prince, and the drastic and
unconstitutional reforms which he imposed on all classes, alienated his
subjects, although many of these reforms proved to be of lasting
excellence. Financial distress supervened, and the popular discontent
culminated in revolution. At four o'clock on the morning of the 22nd of
February 1866, a band of military conspirators broke into the palace,
and compelled the prince to sign his abdication. On the following day
they conducted him safely across the frontier. Prince Alexander spent
the remainder of his life chiefly in Paris, Vienna and Wiesbaden. He
died at Heidelberg on the 15th of May 1873.



CUZCO, an inland city of southern Peru, capital of an Andean department
of the same name, about 360 m. E.S.E. of Lima, in lat. 13° 31´ S., long.
73° 03´ W. The population, largely composed of Indians and _mestizos_,
was estimated at 30,000 in 1896, but according to the official estimate
of 1906, it was then about 25% less. The city stands at the head of a
small valley, 11,380 ft. above sea-level, and is nearly enclosed by
mountains of considerable elevation. The valley itself is 9 m. in length
and extends S.E. to the valley of Vilcamayu. Overlooking the city from
the N. is the famous hill of Sacsahuaman, crowned by ruins of the
cyclopean fortress of the Incas and their predecessors, and separated
from adjacent heights by the deep ravines of two streams, called the
Huatenay and Rodadero. The principal part of the city lies between these
two streams, with its great _plaza_ in the centre. On the W. side of the
Huatenay are two more fine squares, called the Cabildo and San
Francisco. The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls
commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned
with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles. The streets
cross each other at right angles and afford fine vistas on every side.
The principal public buildings are the cathedral, which is classed among
the best in South America, the convent of San Domingo, which partly
occupies the site of the great Temple of the Sun of the Incas, the
_cabildo_ or government-house, a university founded in 1598, a college
of science and arts, a public library, hospital, mint and museum of
Incarial antiquities. Cuzco was made the see of a bishopric soon after
it was occupied by the Spaniards. The Church has always exercised a
dominating influence in this region, and the city has many churches and
religious establishments. There are a number of small manufacturing
industries in Cuzco, including the manufacture of cotton and woollen
fabrics, leather, beer, embroidery and articles of gold and silver. Its
trade is not large, however, owing to the costs of transportation. The
climate is cool and bracing, and the products of the vicinity include
many of the temperate zone. A railway from Juliaca (a station on the
line from Mollendo to Puno) to Cuzco was virtually completed early in
1908. This railway gives Cuzco an outlet to the coast, and also direct
connexion with La Paz, the Bolivian capital. A branch of the Callao &
Oroya railway is also projected southward to Cuzco, and reached Huancayo
in 1908. Cuzco was the capital of a remarkable empire ruled by the Incas
previous to the discovery of Peru, and it was one of the largest and
most civilized of the native cities of the New World. It was captured by
Pizarro in 1533, and it is said that its size and the magnificence of
its principal edifices filled the Spaniards with surprise. It was for
many years an object of contention among the Spanish factions, but
ultimately the greater attractions of Lima and its own isolation
diminished its importance.

The department of Cuzco is the second largest in Peru, having an area of
156,317 sq. m., and a population, according to a reduced official
estimate of 1906, of only 328,980. It occupies an extremely mountainous
region on the frontier of Bolivia, E. of the departments of Junin,
Ayacucho and Apurimac, and extends from Loreto on the N. to Puno and
Arequipa on the S. Its area, however, includes a large district E. of
the Andes which is claimed by Bolivia, and the settlement of the dispute
may materially diminish its size. The elevation of a large part of the
department gives it a temperate climate and permits the cultivation of
cereals and other products of the temperate zone. Cattle and sheep are
produced in large numbers in some of the provinces, while in others
mining forms the chief industry. On the eastern forested slopes and in
the lower valleys tropical conditions prevail. The population is chiefly
composed of Indians who form a sturdy, docile labouring class, but are
in great part strongly disinclined to accept the civilization of the
dominant white race.



CYANAMIDE, NC·NH2, the amide of normal cyanic acid, obtained by the
action of ammonia on cyanogen chloride, bromide or iodide, or by the
desulphurization of thio-urea with mercuric oxide; it is generally
prepared by the latter process. It forms white crystals, which melt at
40° C., and are readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether. Heated
above its melting point it polymerizes to di-cyandiamide (CN2H2)2, which
at 150° C. is transformed into the polymer _n_-tri-cyantriamide or
melamine (CN2H2)3, the mass solidifying. Nascent hydrogen reduces
cyanamide to ammonia and methylamine. It gives mono-metallic salts of
the type NC·NHM when treated with aqueous or alcoholic solutions of
alkalis. Di-metallic salts are obtained by heating cyanates alone, e.g.
calcium, or cyanides in a current of nitrogen, e.g. barium.

Calcium cyanamide has assumed importance in agriculture since the
discovery of its economic production in the electric furnace, wherein
calcium carbide takes up nitrogen from the atmosphere to form the
cyanamide with the simultaneous liberation of carbon. It may also be
produced by heating lime or chalk with charcoal to 2000° in a current of
air. The commercial product (which is known in Germany as
"_Kalkstickstoff_") contains from 14 to 22% of nitrogen, which is
liberated as ammonia when the substance is treated with water; to this
decomposition it owes its agricultural value. It appears that with soils
which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide
is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium
nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils
containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing
or for storing.



CYANIC ACID AND CYANATES. Cyanic acid, CN·OH, was discovered by F.
Wöhler in 1824, and may be obtained by distilling its polymeride,
cyanuric acid, in a current of carbon dioxide (F. Wöhler and J. v.
Liebig, _Berzelius Jahresberichte_, 1827, 11, p. 84), the vapours which
distil over being condensed in a freezing mixture. It is a very volatile
liquid of strong acid reaction, and is only stable below 0° C. It has a
smell resembling that of acetic acid. At 0° C. it is rapidly converted
into a mixture of cyanuric acid, C3N3O3H3, and another polymer,
cyamelide (CNOH)x; this latter substance is a white amorphous powder,
insoluble in water. An aqueous solution of cyanic acid is rapidly
hydrolysed (above 0° C.) into a mixture of carbon dioxide and ammonia.
Cyanogen chloride, CNCl, may be regarded as the chloride of cyanic acid.
It may be prepared by the action of chlorine on hydrocyanic acid or on
mercury cyanide. It is a very poisonous volatile liquid, which boils at
15.5° C. It polymerizes readily to cyanuric chloride, C3N3Cl3. Caustic
alkalis hydrolyse it readily to the alkaline chloride and cyanate.

The salts of cyanic acid are known as the cyanates, the two most
important being potassium cyanate (KOCN) and ammonium cyanate (NH4OCN).
Potassium cyanate may be prepared by heating potassium cyanide with an
oxidizing agent, or by heating potassium ferrocyanide with manganese
dioxide, potassium carbonate or potassium dichromate (J. v. Liebig,
_Ann._, 1841, 38, p. 108; C. Lea, _Jahresb._, 1861, p. 789; L.
Gattermann, _Ber._, 1890, 23, p. 1224), the fused mass being extracted
with boiling alcohol. It crystallizes in flat plates and is readily
soluble in cold water. It is a somewhat important reagent, and has been
used by Emil Fischer in various syntheses in the uric acid group (see
PURIN). Ammonium cyanate possesses considerable theoretical importance
since the first synthetical production of an organic from inorganic
compounds was accomplished by warming its aqueous solution for some
time, urea being formed (F. Wöhler, _Berzelius Jahresberichte_, 1828,
12, p. 266). J. Walker and J. K. Wood (_Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1900, 77, p.
24) prepared pure ammonium cyanate by the union of gaseous ammonia and
cyanic acid, special precautions being taken to keep the temperature
below the point at which the salt is transformed into urea. It
crystallizes in fine needles, which melt suddenly at about 80° C., then
resolidify, and melt again at about 128° to 130° C. (this temperature
being that of the melting point of urea). Substituted ammonias were also
made to combine with cyanic acid, and it was found that the substituted
ammonium cyanates produced pass much more readily into the corresponding
ureas than ammonium cyanate itself. (On the constitution of cyanic acid
see F. D. Chattaway and J. M. Wadmore, _Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1902, 81, p.
191.)

Esters of normal cyanic acid are not known, but those of isocyanic acid
(HN·CO) may be prepared by the action of alkyl halides on silver
cyanate, or by oxidizing the isonitriles with mercuric oxide. They are
volatile liquids which boil without decomposition, and possess a
nauseating smell. When hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, they yield
primary amines (this reaction determines their constitution). C2H5NCO +
H2O = C2H5NH2 + CO2. When heated with water they yield carbon dioxide
and symmetrical dialkyl ureas; with ammonia and amines they form alkyl
ureas; and with acid anhydrides they yield tertiary amides.

Ethyl isocyanate, C2H5NCO, was first prepared by A. Wurtz (_Ann. chim._,
1854 (3), 42, p. 43) by distilling a mixture of potassium ethyl
sulphate and potassium cyanate. It is a colourless liquid which boils at
60° C.

_Cyanuric acid_, H3C3N3O3, was obtained by Wöhler and Liebig by heating
urea, and by A. Wurtz by passing chlorine into melting urea. It forms
white efflorescent crystals. Treatment with phosphorus pentachloride
gives cyanuric chloride, C3N3Cl3, which is also formed by the
combination of anhydrous chlorine and prussic acid in the presence of
sunlight. These substances contain a ring of three carbon and three
nitrogen atoms, i.e. they are symmetrical triazines.



CYANIDE, in chemistry, a salt of prussic of hydrocyanic acid, the name
being more usually restricted to inorganic salts, i.e. the salts of the
metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles. The
preparation, properties, &c., of cyanides are treated in the article
PRUSSIC ACID; reference should also be made to the articles on the
particular metals. The most important cyanide commercially is potassium
cyanide, which receives application in the "cyanide process" of gold
extraction (see GOLD).



CYANITE, a native aluminium silicate, Al2SiO5, crystallizing in the
anorthic system. It has the same percentage chemical composition as
andalusite and sillimanite, but differs from these in its
crystallographic and physical characters. P. Groth writes the formula as
a metasilicate (AlO)2SiO3. The name cyanite was given by A. G. Werner in
1789, from [Greek: kyanos], blue, in allusion to the characteristic
colour of the mineral; the form kyanite is also in common use, and the
name disthène, proposed by R. J. Haüy in 1801, is used by French
writers.

[Illustration]

Distinctly developed crystals with terminal planes are rare, the mineral
being commonly found as lamellar cleavage masses or long blade-shaped
crystals embedded in crystalline rocks. The colour is usually a pale
sky-blue, but may be white, greenish or yellowish; it varies in
intensity in different bands, so that the crystals usually present a
more or less striped appearance. There is a perfect cleavage parallel to
the broad face m (100), and a less perfect one parallel to t (010): the
basal plane p (001), oblique to the prism zone, is a gliding plane on
which secondary twinning is produced by pressure, giving rise to
characteristic horizontal striations on the cleavage face m. The
accompanying figure represents a crystal twinned on the plane m (100). A
negative biaxial optic figure is seen in convergent polarized light
through the cleavage plane m, the axial plane being inclined at about
30° to the edge between m and t. A remarkable feature of cyanite is the
great difference in hardness on different faces of the same crystal and
in different directions on the same face: on the face m in a direction
parallel to the edge between m and p the hardness is 7, whilst in a
direction parallel to the edge between m and t it is 4½. The name
disthène, from [Greek: dis], two, and [Greek: sthenos], strong, has
reference to these differences in hardness.

Analyses of cyanite often show the presence of a small amount (usually
less than 1%) of ferric oxide and sometimes traces of copper, and to
these constituents the blue or green colour of the mineral is doubtless
due. The mineral is infusible before the blowpipe, and is not decomposed
by acids. At a high temperature, about 1350° C., it becomes transformed
into sillimanite, changing in specific gravity from 3.6 to 3.2.

Cyanite is a characteristic mineral of the metamorphic crystalline
rocks--gneiss, schist, granulite and eclogite--and is often associated
with garnet and staurolite. A typical occurrence is in the white,
fine-scaled paragonite-schist of Monte Campione, near St Gotthard in
Switzerland, where long transparent crystals of a fine blue colour are
abundant. In the gneiss of the Pfitscher Tal near Sterzing in Tirol a
white variety known as rhaetizite is found. It occurs at several places
in Scotland, for instance, at Botriphnie in Banffshire, with muscovite
in a quartz-vein. Fine specimens are found in mica-schist at
Chesterfield in Massachusetts, and at several other localities in the
United States. It is found in the gold-washings of the southern Urals
and in the diamond-washings of Brazil. As minute crystal fragments it is
met with in many sands and sandstones.

When of sufficient transparency and depth of colour (deep
cornflower-blue) the mineral has a limited application as a gem-stone;
it is usually cut _en cabochon_.     (L. J. S.)



CYANOGEN (Gr. [Greek: kyanos], blue [Greek: gennan], to produce), C2N2,
in chemistry, a gas composed of carbon and nitrogen. The name was
suggested by Prussian blue, the earliest known compound of cyanogen. It
was first isolated in 1815 by J. Gay-Lussac, who obtained it by heating
mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical
importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical." It
may also be prepared by heating ammonium oxalate; by passing induction
sparks between carbon points in an atmosphere of nitrogen (see H. von
Wartenburg, _Abs. J.C.S._, 1907, i. p. 299), or by the addition of a
concentrated solution of potassium cyanide to one of copper sulphate,
the mixed solutions being then heated. It also occurs in blast-furnace
gases. When cyanogen is prepared by heating mercuric cyanide, a residue
known as para-cyanogen, (CN)_x, is left; this is to be regarded as a
polymer of cyanogen. It is a brownish amorphous solid, which is
insoluble in water. Cyanogen is a colourless gas, possessing a peculiar
characteristic smell, and is very poisonous. It burns with a purple
flame, forming carbon dioxide and nitrogen; and may be condensed (by
cooling to -25° C.) to a colourless liquid, and further to a solid,
which melts at -34.4° C. (M. Faraday, _Ann._, 1845, 56, p. 158). It
dissolves readily in water and the aqueous solution decomposes on
standing; a dark-brown flocculent precipitate of azulmic acid, C4H5N5O,
separating whilst ammonium oxalate, urea and hydrocyanic acid are found
in the solution. In many respects it resembles chlorine in its chemical
behaviour, a circumstance noted by Gay-Lussac; it combines directly with
hydrogen (at 500° to 550° C.) to form hydrocyanic acid, and with
chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur, to form cyanogen chloride, &c.;
it also combines directly with zinc, cadmium and iron to form cyanides
of these metals. It combines with sulphuretted hydrogen, in the presence
of water, to form the compound C2N2·H2S, and in the presence of alcohol,
to form the compound C2N2·2H2S. Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts
it into oxamide. Potash solution converts it into a mixture of potassium
cyanide and cyanate. When heated with hydriodic acid (specific gravity
1.96) it forms amino-acetic acid, and with tin and hydrochloric acid it
yields ethylene diamine.



CYAXARES (Pers. _Uvakhshatra_), king of Media, reigned according to
Herodotus (i. 107) forty years, about 624-584 B.C. That he was the real
founder of the Median empire is proved by the fact that in Darius's time
a Median usurper, Fravartish, pretended to be his offspring (Behistun
inscr. 2. 43); but about his history we know very little. Herodotus
narrates (i. 103 ff.) that he renewed the war against the Assyrians, in
which his father Phraortes had perished, but was, while he besieged
Nineveh, attacked by a great Scythian army under Madyas, son of
Protothyes, which had come from the northern shores of the Black Sea in
pursuit of the Cimmerians. After their victory over Cyaxares, the
Scythians conquered and wasted the whole of western Asia, and ruled
twenty-eight years, till at last they were made drunk and slain by
Cyaxares at a banquet (cf. another story about Cyaxares and a Scythian
host in Herod, i. 73). As we possess scarcely any contemporary documents
it is impossible to find out the real facts. But we know from the
prophecies of Jeremiah and Zephaniah that Syria and Palestine were
really invaded by northern barbarians in 626 B.C., and it is probable
that this invasion was the principal cause of the downfall of the
Assyrian empire (see MEDIA and PERSIA: _Ancient History_).

After the destruction of the Scythians Cyaxares regained the supremacy,
renewed his attack on Assyria, and in 606 B.C. destroyed Nineveh and the
other capitals of the empire (Herod. i. 106; Berossus _ap._ Euseb.
_Chron._ i. 29, 37, confirmed by a stele of Nabonidus found in Babylon:
Scheil in _Recueil de travaux_, xviii.; Messerschmidt, "Die Inschrift
der Stele Nabonaids," in _Mitteilungen der vorderasiatischen
Gesellschaft_, i., 1896). According to Berossus he was allied with
Nabopolassar of Babylon, whose son Nebuchadrezzar married Amyitis, the
daughter of the Median king (who is wrongly called Astyages). The
countries north and east of the Tigris and the northern part of
Mesopotamia with the city of Harran (Carrhae) became subject to the
Medes. Armenia and Cappadocia were likewise subdued; the attempt to
advance farther into Asia Minor led to a war with Alyattes of Lydia. The
decisive battle, in the sixth year, was interrupted by the famous solar
eclipse on the 28th of May 585 predicted by Thales. Syennesis of Cilicia
and Nebuchadrezzar (in Herodotus named Labynetus) of Babylon interceded
and effected a peace, by which the Halys was fixed as frontier between
the two empires, and Alyattes's daughter married to Cyaxares's son
Astyages (Herod. i. 74). If Herodotus's dates are correct, Cyaxares died
shortly afterwards.

In a fragmentary letter from an Assyrian governor to King Sargon (about
715 B.C.) about rebellions of Median chieftains, a dynast Uvakshatar
(i.e. Cyaxares) is mentioned as attacking an Assyrian fortress
(Kharkhar, in the chains of the Zagros). Possibly he was an ancestor of
the Median king.     (Ed. M.)



CYBELE, or CYBEBE (Gr. [Greek: Knbelê], [Greek: Knbêbê]), a goddess
native to Asia Minor and worshipped by most of the peoples of the
peninsula, was known to the Romans most commonly as the GREAT MOTHER OR
THE GODS (q.v.), or the Great Idaean Mother of the Gods--_Magna Deum
Mater, Mater Deum Magna Idaea_. She was known by many other names, such
as _Mater Idaea_, Dindymene, Sipylene, derived from famous seats of
worship, and Mountain Mother, &c., in token of her character, but Cybele
is the name by which she is most frequently known in literature. Her
cult became centralized in Phrygia, had found its way into Greece, where
it never flourished greatly, as early as the latter 6th century B.C.,
and was introduced at Rome in 204 B.C. Under the Empire it attained to
great importance, and was one of the last pagan cults to die. Cybele was
usually worshipped in connexion with Attis (q.v.), as Aphrodite with
Adonis, the two being a duality interpreted by the philosophers as
symbolic of Mother Earth and her vegetation.     (G. Sn.)



CYCLADES, a compact group of islands in the Greek Archipelago, forming a
cluster around the island of Syra (Syros), the principal town of which,
now officially known as Hermoupolis, is the capital of a department.
Population of the group (1907) 130,378. The islands, though seldom
visited by foreigners, are for the most part highly interesting and
picturesque, notwithstanding their somewhat barren appearance when
viewed from the sea; many of them bear traces of the feudal rule of
Venetian families in the middle ages, and their inhabitants in general
may be regarded as presenting the best type of the Greek race. To the
student of antiquity the most interesting are: Delos (q.v.), one of the
greatest centres of ancient religious, political and commercial life,
where an important series of researches has been carried out by French
archaeologists; Melos (q.v.), where, in addition to various buildings of
the Hellenic and Roman periods, the large prehistoric stronghold of
Phylakopi has been excavated by members of the British school at Athens;
and Thera (see SANTORIN), the ancient capital of which has been explored
by Baron Hiller von Gaertringen. Thera is also of special interest to
geologists owing to its remarkable volcanic phenomena. Naxos, the
largest and most fertile island of the group, contains the highest
mountain in the Cyclades (Zia, 3290 ft.); the island annually exports
upwards of 2000 tons of emery, a state monopoly the proceeds of which
are now hypothecated to the foreign debt. The oak woods of Ceos (Zeá)
and Ios furnish considerable supplies of valonia. Kimolos, which is
absolutely treeless, produces fuller's-earth. The famous marble quarries
of Paros have been practically abandoned in modern times; the marble of
Tenos is now worked by a British syndicate. The mineral wealth of the
Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from
Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement
(pozzolana) from Santorin. Other articles of export are wine, brandy,
hides and tobacco. Cythnos, Melos and other islands possess hot springs
with therapeutic qualities. The prosperity of Syra, formerly an
important distributing centre for the whole Levant, has been declining
for several years.

  Population (1907):--Syra 31,939 (communes, Hermoupolis 18,132, Mykonos
  4589, Syra 9218); Andros 18,035 (Andros 8536, Arni 2166, Gaurio 2897,
  Corthion 4436); Thera 19,597 (Thera 4226, Egiale 1513, Amorgos 2627,
  Anaphe 579, Emporium 2172, Therasia 679, Ios 2090, Kalliste 3519, Oea
  2192); Ceos 11,032 (Ceos 3817, Dryopis 1628, Cythnos 1563, Seriphos
  4024); Melos, 12,774 (Melos 4864, Adamas 529, Siphnos 3777, Kimolos
  2015, Pholegandros 962, Sikinos 627); Naxos 25,185 (Naxos 2064,
  Apiranthe 2421, Vivlos 4343, Coronis 3205, Marpessa 1313, Naoussa
  1670, Paros 3586, Tragea 4661, Hyrie 1922); Tenos 11,816 (Tenos 4697,
  Panorme 2658, Peree 2801, Sosthenion 1660).



CYCLAMEN, in botany, a genus belonging to the natural order Primulaceae,
containing about ten species native in the mountains of central Europe
and the Mediterranean region. _C. europaeum_ (Sow-bread) is found as an
introduced plant in copses in Kent and Sussex. The plants are
low-growing herbs with large tuberous rootstocks, from the surface of
which spring a number of broad, generally heart-shaped or kidney-shaped,
long-stalked leaves, which in cultivated forms are often beautifully
marbled, ribbed or splashed. The flowers are nodding, and white, pink,
lilac or crimson in colour. The corolla has a short tube and five large
reflexed lobes. After flowering the stalk becomes spirally coiled,
drawing the fruit down to the soil. Cyclamen is a favourite winter and
spring flowering plant. _C. persicum_ is probably the best known. It is
a small-growing kind bearing medium-sized leaves and numerous flowers.
_C. giganteum_ is a large, strong-growing species; not quite so free
flowering as _C. persicum_, but in all other respects superior to it
when well grown. _C. papilio_ differs in the fringed character of the
petals. It has been obtained by selection from _C. persicum_. There is
also a very beautiful crested race, probably derived from _C.
giganteum_.

The plants are raised from seed, and, with good cultivation, flower in
fifteen to eighteen months from date of sowing. Seed should be sown as
soon as ripe, in July or August, in pots or pans, filled up to 2½ in. of
the rim with broken crocks for drainage. The soil should consist of
fibrous yellow loam, leaf-mould in flakes, and coarse silver-sand, in
equal parts. Sow the seed thinly--¼ in. to ½ in. apart--and cover with a
very thin sprinkling of the soil. Protect with a square of glass covered
with a piece of brown paper for shade, and place on a shelf in a warm
greenhouse. The soil should never be allowed to get dry.

When the seedlings appear, remove the covering, care being taken that
they do not suffer for want of shade, water or a moist atmosphere. As
soon as the third leaf appears, repot singly into thumb-pots in slightly
coarser soil, so that the crowns of the little plants are just above the
level of the soil. In December transfer into a little richer soil,
consisting of two parts fibrous loam broken into small bits by hand and
the fine particles rejected, one part flaked leaf-mould, passed through
a half-inch sieve, half a part of plant ash from the burnt refuse heap
and half a part of coarse silver-sand. Keep through the winter in a
moist atmosphere at a temperature not below 50° Fahr., and as near the
glass as possible. In March they should be ready for their next shift
into 5-in. pots. The potting compost should be the same as for the last
shift, with the addition of half a part of well-sweetened manure, such
as a spent mushroom bed. Keep in a warm moist atmosphere and shade from
strong sunlight. In June remove to cold frames and stand them on
inverted pots well clear of one another. Slugs show a marked partiality
for the succulent young leaves and should be excluded by dusting round
the frames occasionally with newly slaked lime. The inverted pots serve
as traps. The frames may thus be frequently syringed without keeping the
plants unduly wet. Shade heavily from direct sunlight, but afford as
much diffused light as practicable. Ventilate on all favourable
occasions, and close the frames early after copious syringing.

By the end of the month they will be ready for the final shift into
7-in. pots. Much care must be used in handling them, the leaves being
large, tender and numerous. The soil is as for the last potting. The
frames should be kept close and heavily shaded for a few days after
potting; then gradually reduce shade and increase ventilation. By the
end of July the elegance of the foliage alone should well repay the care
bestowed on them. From this time onwards very little shading will be
needed, the object of the cultivator being to harden the growth already
made. With the advent of cool weather in September, remove to flowering
quarters in a warm greenhouse. Flowering will begin in November and will
continue through the winter and spring. The damping off of the
flower-buds may occasionally prove troublesome during winter. This may
generally be traced to checks, such as sudden changes in temperature,
too low a temperature, careless watering, &c. During spring plants that
are flowering freely will require weak manure water about twice a week.

Plants selected to bear seed should be set aside for that purpose, and
as soon as the capsules are found to be developing properly they should
be reduced to six or seven per plant, and all flower-buds picked off as
soon as they are large enough to handle. The production of strong seeds
is of the utmost importance.

Plants grown for market purposes, either for decoration or for seed, are
sown later than the above, are kept cooler, and during summer receive
more ventilation and less shade. This results in the production of
plants with much smaller and more erect leaves, which travel well. They
are flowered in spring and early summer. The species grown for this
purpose is _C. persicum_.

A few species are hardy in dry sheltered positions, such as rockeries,
under walls and old trees, provided the positions are well drained. Such
are _C. europaeum_, with reddish-purple flowers in summer; _C.
hederifolium_ in autumn; and _C. neapolitanum_, with large leaves
marbled with silver and rosy-pink flowers.



CYCLE (Gr. [Greek: kuklos], a circle), in astronomy, a period of time at
the end of which some aspect or relation of the heavenly bodies recurs.
The more important cycles are discussed in the articles CALENDAR and
ECLIPSE. In physics, the term is applied to a series of operations
which, performed upon a system, brings it back to its original state;
"Carnot's Cycle" is an example (see THERMODYNAMICS). From the use of the
word for any period at the end of which the same events recur in the
same order or for any complete series of phenomena, it is used loosely
of any long period of time. The name [Greek: ho épikòs kuklos], the epic
cycle, was given to the poems which complete the Homeric account of the
Trojan War (see below). It is this use which has given rise to the
application of the term "cycle" to a series of prose or poetical
romances which have for a centre one subject, whether a person, as in
the Alexander, Arthurian or Charlemagne cycles, or an object, such as
the ring of the Nibelungenlied. In music "Song-cycle" (Ger.
_Liederkreis_) is similarly used of a series of songs written round one
subject or set to poems by the same author. Beethoven's _An die ferne
Geliebte_ (Op. 98), published in 1816, is the earliest instance.
Schubert's _Die schöne Müllerin_, Schumann's _Dichterliebe_ and Brahms's
_Magelone-Lieder_ are well-known instances.

_Epic Cycle._--This is a collection or corpus of lays written about
776-580 B.C. by poets of the Ionian School, introductory or
complementary to the Homeric poems, dealing with the legends of the
Trojan and Theban wars. At a later date they were arranged so as to form
a continuous narrative (the _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ included), perhaps
after certain alterations had been made, to fill up gaps and remove
inconsistencies and repetitions. By whom, and when, they were so
arranged, cannot be decided; it is possible that it was the work of
Zenodotus of Ephesus, who had the care of the epic section of the
Alexandrian library. In order to furnish the general reader with a
comprehensive sketch of mythological history, Proclus--according to
Welcker and Valesius (Valois), not the neo-Platonist, but an unknown 2nd
or 3rd century grammarian, perhaps Eutychius Proclus of Sicca[1] in
Africa, one of the tutors of Marcus Aurelius (see PROCLUS)--compiled a
prose summary ([Greek: Grammatkê chrêstomatheia]) of the contents of
the poems, to serve as a sort of primer to Greek literature. Extracts
from this are preserved in the Codex Venetus of Homer and Photius (cod.
239), according to which the epic cycle began with the union of Uranus
and Ge and ended with the death of Odysseus on his return to Ithaca at
the hands of his son Telegonus. The cycle was in existence in his
(Proclus's) time, and was in request not so much for its artistic merit,
as for the "sequence of the events described in it." Further light is
thrown on the subject by pictorial representations, intended for school
use during the Roman imperial period, the most famous of which is the
_Tabula Iliaca_ in the Capitoline museum.

The expression "epic cycle" in the sense of a poetical collection does
not occur before the Christian era; the word [Greek: kyklos] ("cycle,"
"circle") is used of a special kind of short poem and also of a prose
abstract of mythological history; the adjective has the general sense of
"hackneyed," "conventional," and is applied contemptuously (by
Callimachus and Horace) to a particular Alexandrian school of poetry.

The most important poems of the Trojan legendary cycle are the _Cypria
of Stasinus_ (q.v.); the _Aethiopis_ and _Iliou Persis_ (Sack of Troy)
of Arctinus (q.v.); the _Little Iliad_ of Lesches (q.v.); the _Nosti_ of
Hagias or Agias; the _Telegonia_ of Eugammon. To the Theban cycle
belong: the _Thebais_ or _Expedition of Amphiaraus_ and the _Epigoni_ of
Antimachus. The _Oechalias Halosis_ (capture of _Oechalia_) of
Creophylus (q.v.); the _Phocais_ (or _Minyas_) of Prodicus; and the
_Danais_ of Cercops, although belonging to the old Homeric epos, cannot
with certainty be included in the epic cycle. The names of the authors
are in several cases exceedingly doubtful.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The standard work on the subject is F. G. Welcker, _Der
  epische Cyclus_ (1865-1882); see also T. W. Allen, "The Epic Cycle,"
  in _Classical Quarterly_, Jan. and April 1908 (summary of sources and
  authorities); Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, _Homerische Untersuchungen_
  (1884), who regards the traditional names and personalities of the
  poets of the cycle with great scepticism; D. B. Monro, _Journal of
  Hellenic Studies_, iv. (1883), appendix to his edition of the
  _Odyssey_, xiii.-xxiv. (1900), and on the Codex Venetus fragment of
  Proclus; J. E. Sandys, _Hist. of Class. Schol._ (2nd ed., 1906), vol.
  i. ch. 2; J. B. Bury, _Ancient Greek Historians_ (1909), pp. 2-8 on
  the epics as history; articles by H. Flach in Ersch and Gruber,
  _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_, and by E. Schwartz and others in
  Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] An objection to this view is that according to the Augustan
    historian Capitolinus (_Antoninus_, 2) Eutychius of Sicca was a Latin
    not a Greek grammarian.



CYCLING, the clipped term now given comprehensively to the sport or
exercise of riding a bicycle (q.v.) or tricycle (q.v.).


  History.

Suggestions of vehicles having two or more wheels and propelled by the
muscular effort of the rider or riders are to be found in very early
times, even on the bas-reliefs of Egypt and Babylon and the frescoes of
Pompeii; but though sporadic examples of such contrivances are recorded
in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was apparently not till the beginning
of the 19th century that they were used to any considerable extent. A
"velocipede" invented by Blanchard and Magurier, and described in the
_Journal de Paris_ on the 27th of July 1779, differed little from the
_célérifère_ proposed by another Frenchman, de Sivrac, in 1690; it
consisted of a wooden bar rigidly connecting two wheels placed one in
front of the other, and was propelled by the rider, seated astride the
bar, pushing against the ground with his feet. The next advance was made
in the _draisine_ of Freiherr Karl Drais von Sauerbronn (1785-1851),
described in his _Abbildung und Beschreibung seiner neu erfundenen
Laufmaschine_ (Nuremberg, 1817). In this the front wheel was pivoted on
the frame so that it could be turned sideways by a handle, thus serving
to steer the machine (figs. 1 and 2). A similar machine, the
"celeripede," also with a movable front wheel, is said to have been
ridden by J. N. Niepce in Paris some years before. In England the
draisine achieved a great, though temporary, vogue under various names,
such as velocipede, patent accelerator, bivector, bicipedes, pedestrian
curricle (patented by Dennis Johnson in 1818), dandy horse, hobby horse,
&c., and for a time it was popular in America also. The propulsion of
the draisine by pushing with the feet being alleged to give rise to
diseases of the legs, arrangements were soon suggested, as by Louis
Gompertz in England in 1821, by which the front wheel could be rotated
by the hands with the aid of a system of gearing, but the idea of
providing mechanical connexions between the feet and the wheels was
apparently not thought of till later. Pedals with connecting rods
working on the rear axle are said to have been applied to a tricycle in
1834 by Kirkpatrick McMillan, a Scottish blacksmith of Keir,
Dumfriesshire, and to a draisine by him in 1840, and by a Scottish
cooper, Gavin Dalzell, of Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, about 1845. The
draisine thus fitted had wooden wheels, with iron tires, the leading one
about 30 in. in diameter and the driving one about 40 in., and thus it
formed the prototype, though not the ancestor, of the modern rear-driven
safety bicycle.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Gentleman's Hobby Horse.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Lady's Hobby Horse.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--The Boneshaker, 1868.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--The "Phantom," 1869.]

For the next 20 years little was done, and then began the evolution of
the high "ordinary" bicycle with a large driving wheel in front and a
small trailing one behind. About 1865 Pierre Lallement in Paris
constructed a bicycle in which the front wheel was driven by pedals and
cranks attached directly to its axle, but it is doubtful whether the
origin of this idea must be attributed to him or to Ernest Michaux, the
son of his employer, who was a carriage repairer. Lallement took his
machine to the United States, and in 1866 was granted a patent which had
an important influence on the subsequent course of the cycle industry in
that country. This machine, consisting of a wooden frame supported on
two wooden wheels (fig. 3), soon became popular in England, as well as
in France and America, and came to be called bicycle (or bysicle) by
those who took it seriously and "boneshaker" by those who did not.
Improvements quickly followed, chiefly in England, for in America the
popularity of the machine was short-lived, and in France the industry
was checked by the Franco-German war. Rubber tires, in place of iron
ones, appeared in 1868, and in two or three years were made very large,
2 in. or more in width. Suspension wheels, with wire spokes in tension,
were seen at the Crystal Palace, London, on the "Phantom" (fig. 4) of W.
F. Reynolds and J. A. Mays in 1869, and early in the same year the
manufacture of bicycles, at first for export to France, was begun in
England by the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, till then makers of
sewing machines. There was a rapid growth in the size of the front
wheel, which in the boneshaker normally measured 36 or 38 in. in
diameter, with a corresponding shrinkage in the rear wheel (fig. 5),
until by 1874, the date of the invention of the tangent wheel by J. K.
Starley 54-in. wheels were being made. The high bicycle was now fairly
established in form, and the changes made in the subsequent 10 or 15
years during which it retained its supremacy were chiefly in the
details of construction, such as the adoption of steel tubing for the
frames, the use of hollow rims in the wheels and the application first
of cone and then of ball bearings to points of friction. The weight of a
54-in. bicycle, which in 1874-1875 exceeded 50 or even 60 lb., was thus
reduced to well under 40 lb. in machines intended for use on ordinary
roads, and to not much over 20 lb. in the case of racers.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Humber's "Spider," 1872.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Rudge Racing Ordinary, 1887.]

The high "ordinary" bicycle (fig. 6) gave unquestionable pleasure to
many riders, and very fast times were made with it both on the road and
on the racing path. In 1882 H. L. Cortis rode 20 m. 300 yds. in one
hour, and in April 1884 Thomas Stevens started from San Francisco to
ride round the world, a feat which he accomplished in December 1886. But
it had various disadvantages. The vibration set up by the small back
wheel was very trying, and in spite of the size of the front one the
rider had to move his pedals at an uncomfortably rapid rate if he wished
to maintain a good speed. Moreover his seat was placed in such a
position that he was liable to be pitched over the handlebar if his
wheel encountered a comparatively small obstacle. Attempts were made to
remedy these inconveniences in various ways. From the early 'eighties
much attention was devoted to tricycles, and these were produced in
innumerable designs, whether for a single rider, or for two in the form
of "sociables," in which the riders sat side by side, or of "tandems,"
in which one sat behind the other. But their weight, and consequently
the exertion of propelling them, was necessarily greater than in the
case of the bicycle, and by the end of the decade, the demand for them
had fallen off, though they are still made to a certain extent, chiefly
for carrying purposes. The two-track dicycle (fig. 7), invented by E. C.
F. Otto about 1879, in which the rider balanced himself between two
equal wheels placed abreast, also failed to secure lasting success.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Otto Dicycle, 1879.]

The improvement of the high bicycle was attempted in two directions. On
the one hand it was modified by placing the rider farther back, his
position "over his work" being ensured by arranging the pedals
immediately below him and connecting them to the front wheel, which was
usually reduced in size, by levers and cranks or by chain-gearing, often
with a multiplying action. On the other, the rear wheel was enlarged and
made the driving wheel. The "'Xtraordinary" (fig. 8), "Facile" (fig. 9)
and "Kangaroo" were examples of the former kind, which were often spoken
of as "dwarf-safeties"; but though a good many of them were used about
1880 and following years, both they and the "ordinary" bicycle
ultimately disappeared before machines of the second kind, which
developed into the modern rear-driven safety. There are numerous
claimants for the invention--or rather the reinvention--of this type,
but it appears that the credit for its practical and commercial
introduction in substantially its present form is due to J. K. Starley
in England. His "Rover" (fig. 10), brought out late in 1885, had two
nearly equal wheels, the driving wheel 30 in. in diameter and the
steering 32 in., and the rider sat so far back that he could not be
thrown forward over the handles. The motion imparted by the pedals to a
sprocket wheel mounted between the wheels was transmitted by an endless
chain to the rear wheel, and by sufficiently increasing the size of this
sprocket wheel the machine could be made to travel as far or farther
than the "ordinary" for each complete revolution of the pedals. From
about 1890 the "safety" monopolized the field. At first it was fitted
with the narrow rubber tires customary at the time, but these gave way
to pneumatic tires, invented in 1888 by J. B. Dunlop, a veterinary
surgeon of Belfast, whose idea, however, had been anticipated in the
English patent taken out by R. W. Thomson in 1845. The result was a
great gain in comfort, due to reduction of vibration, and a remarkable
increase of speed or, alternatively, decrease of exertion. Subsequent
progress was mainly in the details of design and manufacture, tending to
secure lightness combined with adequate strength, and such was the
success attained, by the application of scientific principles and of
improved methods and materials to the construction of the frames and
other parts, that while the weight of the original "Rover" was about 50
lb. that of its successors 20 years later with 28-in. wheels was reduced
by 35 or 45%, or even 60% in the case of racing machines. The beginning
of the 20th century saw the introduction of two innovations: one was the
"free-wheel," a device which allows the driving wheel to rotate
independently of the chain and pedals, so that the rider, controlling
his speed with powerful brakes, can "coast" down a hill using the
stationary pedals as foot-rests; and the other was the motor-cycle, in
which a petrol-engine relieves him, except at starting, from all
personal exertion, though at the cost of considerable vibration. A third
contrivance, which, however, was an idea of considerably older date,
also began to find favour about the same period in the shape of
two-speed and three-speed gears, enabling the rider at will to alter the
ratio between the speed of revolution of his pedals and of his driving
wheel, and thereby accommodate himself to the varying gradients of the
road he is traversing (see also BICYCLE, TRICYCLE and TIRE).

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Singers' "'Xtraordinary," 1879.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--The "Facile," 1879.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Starley's "Rover," 1885.]

The safety bicycle, with pneumatic tires, rendered cycling universally
popular, not merely as a pastime but as a convenient means of locomotion
for everyday use. Made with a drop-frame, it also enabled women to cycle
without being confined to a heavy tricycle or compelled to assume
"rational dress." In consequence there was an enormous expansion in the
cycle industry. In England the demand for machines had become so great
by 1895 that the makers were unable to cope with it. Numbers of new
factories were started, small shops grew into large companies, and the
capital invested advanced by millions of pounds. The makers who had
devoted their mechanical skill to perfecting the methods of
cycle-construction were swallowed up by company promoters and
adventurers, bent simply upon filling their own pockets. The march of
mechanical invention and improvement was arrested, and machines, instead
of being built by mechanics proud of their work, in many cases were
merely put together in the shortest possible time and in a few standard
patterns. For these the world clamoured, and for a year they could not
be produced fast enough. Then the demand fell off, the British market
became over-stocked, and as the British makers declined to consider the
wants of foreign customers, their store-rooms remained crowded with
machines that could not be sold. Speculative finance, such as was
exemplified in 1896 by the flotation for £5,000,000 of the Dunlop tire
company, which had been started in 1889 with a capital of £25,000, had
its natural effects. There ensued widespread and continuing
disorganization of the trade, which had to be met by extensive
reconstructions of over-capitalized companies. English makers too had
lost the commanding international position they once enjoyed, when they
supplied almost the entire demand for bicycles in many parts of the
world, including the United States. In America the manufacture of
bicycles was not begun until about 1878, when it was introduced by A. A.
Pope (1843-1909), and even by 1890 the value of the products barely
exceeded 2½ million dollars, while for several years later much of the
steel tubing required for bicycle manufacture continued to be imported
from Great Britain. The industry, however, thanks to automatic machinery
and perfect organization, grew rapidly, and in 1900 the value of its
products was nearly 32 million dollars. In the two years 1897 and 1898
the exports of cycles and cycle parts alone were worth nearly 14 million
dollars, though they fell off in subsequent years, and English makers
had to contend with an American invasion in addition to their domestic
troubles. But the competition was short-lived. The American makers sent
over machines with single tube tires and wooden rims which did not
secure the approval of the British purchaser, and so they too lost their
hold. In the opening years of the 20th century the industry in Great
Britain gradually recovered itself. More attention was paid to the
production of cheap machines which were sound and trustworthy, and sales
were further stimulated by the introduction of systems of deferred
payments. In 1905 about 600,000 machines were made in Great Britain, and
47,604 were exported, the total value of the home-market for cycles and
their parts being about 3½ millions sterling, and of the export trade
about one million. In the same year the number of machines imported was
only 2345.


  Touring clubs.

Cycle tours were taken and cycle clubs established almost as soon as the
cycle appeared, the Pickwick Bicycle Club in London, founded in 1870,
being the oldest in the world. The organization of these clubs is
chiefly of a social character, and a few possess well-appointed
club-houses. To a great extent they have been superseded by the large
touring organizations. The Cyclists' Touring Club, organized in 1878 as
the Bicycle Touring Club, has members scattered through Europe, America
and even the East. Many other countries possess national clubs, as for
instance the League of American Wheelmen, founded in 1880, and the
Touring Club de France, founded in 1895, of whose objects cycling is
only one, though the chief. The aim of these national associations,
which have formed an international touring league, is the promotion of
cycle touring. To this end they publish roadbooks, maps and journals;
they recommend hotels, with fixed tariffs, in their own and other
countries; they appoint representatives to aid their members when
touring; and they have succeeded in inducing most governments to allow
their members to travel freely across frontiers without paying duty on
their machines. In all countries they have erected warning-boards at
dangerous places; in France the best route is suggested by a sign-post,
and cyclists who meet with accidents in lonely places find repair
outfits provided for their free use. Another important part of the work
of these clubs, either directly or indirectly, is the improvement of the
roads. France has done more for the cyclist than any other country,
owing to the fact that she possesses the best roads, kept up to a
certain extent by the cycle tax, whereby the cyclist acquires a certain
official position and right; moreover cycles accompanied by their owners
are conveyed without extra charge on the railways, and aid is given to
the sport and pastime from public funds. In Belgium the cycle has worked
a veritable revolution in the national life. The surface of the greater
part of the country being loose and sandy, the roads have been paved,
and this paving is so bad as to be impossible for light traffic. The
cycle tax has consequently been devoted, first, to the construction of
paths on which cyclists have equal rights with pedestrians, and secondly
to the replacing of the paving by macadam. In this way alone cycling has
proved of inestimable benefit to Belgium and Luxembourg. In the United
States measures for securing good roads and side paths have been
introduced in various states, mainly at the instigation first of
cyclists and then of motorists, and in Great Britain the Roads
Improvement Association has worked for the same end.


  Racing.

Each country also possesses an organization for the government of cycle
racing; and although these unions, one object of which--usually the main
one--is the encouragement of cycle racing and cycle legislation, boast
an enormous membership, their membership is often composed of clubs and
not individuals. Among the most important are the National Cyclists'
Union of England and the Union Vélocipédique of France. These bodies are
also bound together by the International Cyclists' Association, which is
devoted mainly to the promotion of racing and legislation connected with
it all over the world. The National Cyclists' Union, originally the
Bicycle Union, which was the parent body of all, formed in February
1878, was the first to put up danger-boards, and also was early
instrumental, alone and with the C.T.C., in framing or suggesting laws
for the proper government and regulation of cycle traffic, notably in
establishing its position as a vehicle in securing universal rights, in
endeavouring, again in conjunction with the C.T.C., to increase
facilities for the carriage of cycles on the railways, in securing the
opening of parks, and in promoting many other equally praiseworthy
objects. For a number of years, however, it has been more prominent as
the ruling race-governing body. But cycle racing has fallen upon evil
days. At one time cycle racing attracted a large number of spectators,
but gradually it lost the public favour, or rather was ignored by the
public because it became mainly an advertisement for cycle makers. The
presence of the man, directly or indirectly, in the employ of, or aided
by a maker, and the consequent mixing up of trade and sport, lowered
racing not only in the public estimation, but in that of all genuine
amateurs. There have always been a few amateurs who have raced for the
love of the sport, but the greater number of prominent racing men have
raced for the benefit of a firm, so much so that, at one time, an entire
section of racing men were classed as "makers' amateurs." They did not
confine themselves to the race track, but appropriated the public roads
until they became a danger and a nuisance, and road-racing finally was
abolished, though record rides, as they are called, are still indulged
in, being winked at by the police and by the cycling authorities. The
makers' amateurs at least rode to win and to make the best time
possible. But the scandal was so great that a system of licensing riders
was adopted by the N.C.U., and if this did not effectively kill the
sport, the introduction of waiting races did. There probably is
considerable skill in riding two-thirds of a race as slowly as possible,
and only hurrying the last part of the last lap, but it does not amuse
the public, who want to see a fast race as well as a close finish. The
introduction of pacing by multicycles and motors next took from cycle
racing what interest was left. A motor race, in which the machines are
run at top speed, is more exciting than the spectacle of a motor being
driven at a rate which the cyclist can follow with the protection of a
wind-shield. In America this system of proving what cyclists can do with
racing machines was carried so far that in 1899 a board track was laid
down on the Long Island railway for about 2 m. between the metals, and a
cyclist named Murphy, followed a train, and protected by enormous
wind-shields, succeeded in covering a mile in less than a minute in the
autumn of 1900. Other cyclists have devoted themselves, at the
instigation of makers, to the riding of 100 m. a day every day for a
year. It would be difficult to say what advantage there is in these
trials and contests. They are not convincing records, and only prove
that some people are willing to take great personal risks for the
benefit of their employers. E. Hale, during 1899-1900, covered 32,496 m.
in 313 days. For many years also long-distance races, mostly of six
days' duration, have been promoted on covered tracks, and though
condemned by all cycling organizations, they find a great deal of
pecuniary support.


  Military.

The cycle has also been taken up for military purposes. For this idea
the British army is indebted to Colonel A. R. Savile, who in 1887
organized the first series of cycle manoevres in England. Since then
military cycling has undergone a great development, not only in the
country of its origin but in most others.


    Literature.

  Cycling has produced a literature of its own, both of the pastime and
  of the trade. Owing to the enormous profits which, for several years,
  were obtained by cycle makers, a trade press appeared which simply
  lived by, and out of, its advertisers; and though each country has one
  or more genuine trade journals, the large proportion of these sheets
  have been worth, in a business aspect, as little practically as from a
  literary standpoint. On the other hand a vast mass of practical and
  unpractical, scientific and medical, historical and touring treatises
  and records have appeared, but mostly of a rather ephemeral character.



CYCLOID (from Gr. [Greek: kúklos], circle, and [Greek: eidos], form), in
geometry, the curve traced out by a point carried on a circle which
rolls along a straight line. The name cycloid is now restricted to the
curve described when the tracing-point is on the circumference of the
circle; if the point is either within or without the circle the curves
are generally termed _trochoids_, but they are also known as the
_prolate_ and _curtate_ cycloids respectively. The cycloid is the
simplest member of the class of curves known as roulettes.

No mention of the cycloid has been found in writings prior to the 15th
century. Francis Schooten (_Commentary on Descartes_) assigns the
invention of the curve to René Descartes and the first publication on
this subject after Descartes to Marin Mersenne. Evangelista Torricelli,
in the first regular dissertation on the cycloid (_De dimensione
cycloidis_, an appendix to his _De dimensione parabolae_, 1644), states
that his friend and tutor Galileo discovered the curve about 1599. John
Wallis discussed both the history and properties of the curve in a tract
_De cycloide_ published at Oxford in 1659. He there shows that the
cycloid was investigated by Carolus Bovillus about 1500, and by Cardinal
Cusanus (Nicolaus de Cusa) as early as 1451. Honoré Fabri (_Synopsis
geometrica_, 1669) treated of the curve and enumerated many theorems
concerning it. Many other mathematicians have written on the
cycloid--Blaise Pascal, W. G. Leibnitz, the Bernoullis, Roger Cotes and
others--and so assiduously was it studied that it was sometimes named
the "Helen of Geometers." The determination of the area was the subject
of many investigations and much controversy. Galileo attempted the
evaluation by weighing the curve against the generating circle; this
rough method gave only an approximate value, viz., a little less than
thrice the generating circle. Torricelli, by employing the "method of
indivisibles," deduced that the area was exactly three times that of the
generating circle; this result had been previously established in 1640
in France by G. P. de Roberval, but his investigation was unknown in
Italy. Blaise Pascal determined the area of the section made by any line
parallel to the base and the volumes and centres of gravity of the
solids generated by revolving the curve about its axis and base. Before
publishing his results he proposed these problems for public competition
in 1658 under the assumed name of Amos Dettonville. John Wallis in
England, and A. la Louère in France, accepted the challenge, but the
former could only submit incorrect solutions, while the latter failed
completely. Having established his priority, Pascal published his
investigations, which occasioned a great sensation among his
contemporaries, and Wallis was enabled to correct his methods. Sir
Christopher Wren, the famous architect, determined the length of the arc
and its centre of gravity, and Pierre Fermat deduced the surface of the
spindle generated by its revolution. A famous period in the history of
the cycloid is marked by a bitter controversy which sprang up between
Descartes and Roberval. The evaluation of the area of the curve had made
Roberval famous in France, but Descartes considered that the value of
his investigation had been grossly exaggerated; he declared the problem
to be of an elementary nature and submitted a short and simple solution.
At the same time he challenged Roberval and Fermat to construct the
tangent; Roberval failed but Fermat succeeded. This problem was solved
independently by Vicenzo Viviani in Italy. The cartesian equation was
first given by Wilhelm Gottfried Leibnitz (_Acta eruditorum_, 1686) in
the form y = (2x - x²)½ + [int](2x - x²)½dx. Among other early writers
on the cycloid were Phillippe de Lahire (1640-1718) and François Nicole
(1683-1758).

The mechanical properties of the cycloid were investigated by Christiaan
Huygens, who proved the curve to be tautochronous. His enquiries into
evolutes enabled him to prove that the evolute of a cycloid was an equal
cycloid, and by utilizing this property he constructed the isochronal
pendulum generally known as the _cycloidal pendulum_. In 1697 John
Bernoulli proposed the famous problem of the _brachistochrone_ (see
MECHANICS), and it was proved by Leibnitz, Newton and several others
that the cycloid was the required curve.

  The method by which the cycloid is generated shows that it consists of
  an infinite number of cusps placed along the fixed line and separated
  by a constant distance equal to the circumference of the rolling
  circle. The name cycloid is usually restricted to the portion between
  two consecutive cusps (fig. 1, curve a); the fixed line LM is termed
  the base, and the line PQ which divides the curve symmetrically is the
  _axis_. The co-ordinates of any point R on the cycloid are expressible
  in the form x = a([theta] + sin [theta]); y = a(1 - cos [theta]),
  where the co-ordinate axes are the tangent at the vertex O and the
  axis of the curve, a is the radius of the generating circle, and
  [theta] the angle R´CO, where RR´ is parallel to LM and C is the
  centre of the circle in its symmetric position. Eliminating [theta]
  between these two relations the equation is obtained in the form x =
  (2ay - y²)½ + a vers-¹ y/a. The clumsiness of the relation renders it
  practically useless, and the two separate relations in terms of a
  single parameter [theta] suffice for the deduction of most of the
  properties of the curve. The length of any arc may be determined by
  geometrical considerations or by the methods of the integral calculus.
  When measured from the vertex the results may be expressed in the
  forms s = 4a sin ½[theta] and s = [root](8ay); the total length of the
  curve is 8a. The intrinsic equation is s = 4a sin [psi], and the
  equation to the evolute is s = 4a cos [psi], which proves the evolute
  to be a similar cycloid placed as in fig. 2, in which the curve QOP is
  the evolute and QPR the original cycloid. The radius of curvature at
  any point is readily deduced from the intrinsic equation and has the
  value [rho] = 4 cos ½[theta], and is equal to twice the normal which
  is 2a cos ½[theta].

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

  The _trochoids_ were studied by Torricelli and F. van Schooten, and
  more completely by John Wallis, who showed that they possessed
  properties similar to those of the common cycloid. The cartesian
  equation in terms similar to those used above is x = a[theta] + b sin
  [theta]; y = a - b cos [theta], where a is the radius of the
  generating circle and b the distance of the carried point from the
  centre of the circle. If the point is without the circle, i.e. if a <
  b, then the curve exhibits a succession of nodes or loops (fig. 1,
  curve b); if within the circle, i.e. if a > b, the curve has the form
  shown in fig. 1, curve c.

  The _companion to the cycloid_ is a curve so named on account of its
  similarity of construction, form and equation to the common cycloid.
  It is generated as follows: Let ABC be a circle having AB for a
  diameter. Draw any line DE perpendicular to AB and meeting the circle
  in E, and take a point P on DE such that the line DP = arc BE; then
  the locus of P is the companion to the cycloid. The curve is shown in
  fig. 3. The cartesian equation, referred to the fixed diameter and the
  tangent at B as axes may be expressed in the forms x = a[theta], y =
  a(1 - cos [theta]) and y - a = a sin (x/a - ½[pi]); the latter form
  shows that the locus is the harmonic curve.

  For epi- and hypo-cycloids and epi- and hypo-trochoids see EPICYCLOID.


  REFERENCES.--Geometrical constructions relating to the curves above
  described are to be found in T. H. Eagles, _Constructive Geometry of
  Plane Curves_. For the mechanical and analytical investigation,
  reference may be made to articles MECHANICS and INFINITESIMAL
  CALCULUS. A historical bibliography of these curves is given in
  Brocard, _Notes de bibliographie des courbes géométriques_ (1897). See
  also Moritz Cantor, _Geschichte der Mathematik_ (1894-1901).



CYCLOMETER (Gr. [Greek: kyklos], circle, and [Greek: métron], measure),
an instrument used especially by cyclists to determine the distance they
have traversed. In a common form a stud attached to one spoke of the
wheel engages with a toothed pinion and moves it on one tooth at each
revolution. The pinion is connected with a train of clockwork, the
gearing of which bears such a ratio to the circumference of the wheel
that the distance corresponding to the number of times it has revolved
is shown on a dial in miles or other units.



CYCLONE (Gr. [Greek: kyklôn], whirling, from [Greek: kyklos], a circle),
an atmospheric system where the pressure is lowest at the centre. The
winds in consequence tend to blow towards the centre, but being diverted
according to Ferrel's law they rotate spirally inwards at the surface of
the earth in a direction contrary to the movement of the hands of a
watch in the northern hemisphere, and the reverse in the southern
hemisphere. The whole system has a motion of translation, being usually
carried forward with the great wind-drifts like eddies upon a swift
stream. Thus their direction of movement over the British Islands is
usually from S.W. to N.E., though they may remain stationary or move in
other directions. The strength of the winds depends upon the atmospheric
gradients. (See METEOROLOGY.)



CYCLOPEAN MASONRY (from the Cyclopes, the supposed builders of the walls
of Mycenae), a term in architecture, used, in conjunction with Pelasgic,
to define the rude polygonal construction employed by the Greeks and the
Etruscans in the walls of their cities. In the earliest examples they
consist only of huge masses of rock, of irregular shape, piled one on
the other and trusting to their great size and weight for cohesion;
sometimes smaller pieces of rock filled up the interstices. The walls
and gates of Tiryns and Mycenae were thus constructed. Later, these
blocks were rudely shaped to fit one another. It is not always possible
to decide the period by the type of construction, as this depended on
the material; where stratified rocks could be obtained, horizontal
coursing might be adopted; in fact, there are instances in Greece, where
a later wall of cyclopean construction has been built over one with
horizontal courses.



CYCLOPES ([Greek: Kyklôpes], the round-eyed, plural of Cyclops), a type
of beings variously described in Greek mythology. In Homer they are
gigantic cave-dwellers, cannibals having only one eye, living a pastoral
life in the far west (Sicily), ignorant of law and order, fearing
neither gods nor men. The most prominent among them was Polyphemus. In
Hesiod (_Theogony_, 264) they are the three sons of Uranus and
Gaea--Brontes, Steropes and Arges,--storm-gods belonging to the family
of the Titans, who furnished Zeus with thunder and lightning out of
gratitude for his having released them from Tartarus. They were slain by
Apollo for having forged the thunderbolt with which Zeus slew Asclepius.
Later legend transferred their abode to Mt Aetna, the Lipari islands or
Lemnos, where they assisted Hephaestus at his forge. A third class of
Cyclopes are the builders of the so-called "Cyclopean" walls of Mycenae
and Tiryns, giants with arms in their belly, who were said to have been
brought by Proetus from Lycia to Argos, his original home (Pausanias ii.
16. 5; 25. 8). Like the Curetes and Telchines they are mythical types of
prehistoric workmen and architects, and as such the objects of worship.

  The standard work on these and similar mythological characters is M.
  Mayer, _Die Giganten und Titanen_ (1887); see also A. Boltz, _Die
  Kyklopen_ (1885), who endeavours to show that they were an historical
  people; W. Mannhardt, _Wald- und Feldkulte_ (1904); J. E. Harrison,
  _Myths of the Odyssey_ (1882); and article in Roscher's _Lexikon der
  Mythologie_ (bibliography).



CYCLOSTOMATA, or MARSIPOBRANCHII, a group of fishes including the
ordinary lampreys and hagfish, and so called from the wide permanently
gaping mouth which is without the hinged jaws characteristic of other
vertebrates (GNATHOSTOMATA). The class Cyclostomata consists of two
orders, the Myxinoids (or Hyperotreti) and the Petromyzontes (or
Hyperoartii), which, while showing sufficient resemblance in structure
to warrant their inclusion in the same class, are yet marked off by such
deep-seated differences as to indicate that they commenced to diverge
from one another far back in evolutionary time. The order Myxinoids
includes the hagfish (_Myxine_), common off the eastern, and occurring
also, though less commonly, off the western coasts of the north
Atlantic, and the genus _Bdellostoma_ (also known as _Homea_,
_Eptatretus_, in part--_Polistotrema_), including the "borers" of the
western American coast, New Zealand and the Cape of Good Hope. The order
Petromyzontes includes the widely distributed lampreys. The original
genus _Petromyzon_ (which it is now customary to subdivide into a number
of genera) includes the large sea lamprey (_P. marinus_) of the north
Atlantic coasts and the two fresh-water lampreys of European streams
(_P. fluviatilis_ and _P. planeri_, the latter of which is possibly only
a small-sized variety of the former species). In North America nine or
ten species of lampreys are known to occur, descriptions of which are
given by Jordan and Evermann (1). In the southern hemisphere occur the
two genera Mordacia (Chile, Tasmania) and _Geotria_ (Chile, Australia,
New Zealand) (2).

The Cyclostomes are remarkable among vertebrates in that they are
semiparasitic in habit. The lampreys--except some of the small
fresh-water forms--attach themselves to other fishes by their suctorial
mouth and proceed to rasp off the flesh by means of the horny teeth
carried by the highly-developed tongue. The Myxinoids have gone a step
further and actually bore their way right into the body of their prey,
devouring all the soft parts and leaving the skin behind as a mere
shell, empty but for the bones. Where the hagfish or borers are
abundant, as in certain localities off the east coast of Scotland and
off the west coast of California, they may do great damage to fisheries
from their habit of attacking fishes which are in difficulties through
being caught by a hook or in a net; the fish when drawn up being
frequently completely deprived of their flesh.

The Myxinoids retain the ancestral marine habitat, but the lampreys have
sought refuge from the struggle for existence by taking to fresh water
to a less or greater extent. Such a form as _Petromyzon marinus_ or
_Entosphenus tridentatus_ of the west coast of America is what is known
as anadromous in habit, i.e. it takes refuge in fresh water during the
breeding season, ascending rivers like the salmon for the purpose of
spawning. Certain species of lampreys, on the other hand, have
completely deserted the sea and spend their whole lives in fresh-water
streams or lakes. The lake lampreys show a reminiscence of their
ancestral migratory habits in leaving lakes and ascending streams in
order to deposit their spawn.

_Anatomy._--In structural features, the Cyclostomes show a curious
mixture of features which must be looked on as primitive with others
which are indicative of high specialization for their peculiar mode of
life. In general appearance they are "eel-like": they are elongated in
shape and adapted for swimming in eel fashion, i.e. the body is
propelled forward by the backward passage along it of waves of lateral
flexure. There are, however, certain conspicuous differences which at
once serve to distinguish a Cyclostome from any other fishes of eel-like
shape:--(1) the circular permanently open mouth, (2) the absence of all
trace of paired limbs, (3) the absence of paired external nasal
openings, and (4) the presence on the roof or at the tip of the head of
a conspicuous median opening--the pituitary opening.

  It will be convenient, in describing the structural features of the
  group, to take as a basis for the description the marine lamprey,
  _Petromyzon marinus_. A marine lamprey is an eel-like creature 70 to
  75 cm. in length. At the anterior end and situated somewhat ventrally
  is the circular widely gaping mouth or buccal cavity, its lining
  studded with sharply pointed thorn-like "teeth" and its edge fringed
  with numerous sensory papillae. On the dorsal side of the head is the
  conspicuous circular pituitary opening with prominent lips, while on
  the sides are seen the eyes, and behind these a row of somewhat
  rounded branchial openings or gill-clefts. At about the beginning of
  the posterior fourth of the body, and in the midventral line, is the
  anal opening, and immediately behind it is the prominent papilla
  carrying the opening of the urogenital sinus. The hinder portion of
  the body, in accordance with its function in locomotion, is flattened
  from side to side, while its surface is increased by the development
  of a median fin fold, divided, except in early stages of development,
  into three portions, known as the first and second dorsal fins and the
  caudal fin. The last mentioned is of the primitive protocercal type.
  The whole surface of the body--which shows a conspicuous dark
  marbling, especially dorsally, on a light ground--is covered with
  highly glandular epidermis. An important feature is the complete
  absence of all trace of the calcified placoid plates which are so
  characteristic of the Elasmobranchii.

  The Myxinoids differ from the lampreys in regard to several of the
  above-mentioned characters. The edges of the mouth carry tentacle-like
  barbels. The pituitary opening is close to the anterior edge of the
  mouth opening instead of being right up on the dorsal side of the
  head. The eyes are invisible, being greatly reduced and sunk far below
  the surface, and in _Myxine_, though not in _Bdellostoma_, the row of
  gill openings is represented by a single opening on each side nearly
  in the midventral line and situated at about the end of the first
  quarter of the body length. Ventrally the Myxinoid possesses on each
  side of the body a row of remarkable epidermal glands which can
  produce at will enormous quantities of glutinous slime. This
  secretion, which, no doubt, is of much value as a protection from
  attack, is composed of very fine threads, formed by the conversion of
  the protoplasm of certain cells of the epidermal glands ("thread
  cells") into an extremely fine, tightly coiled filament, which becomes
  unwound when discharged to the exterior.

  [Illustration: From D. Starr Jordan, _A Guide to the Study of Fishes_,
  by permission of A. Constable & Co., Ltd.

  FIG. 1.--The Marine Lamprey (_Petromyzon marinus_, L.).]

  _Pituitary Tube._--A remarkable peculiarity of the Cyclostomes lies in
  the fact that the pituitary ingrowth of ectoderm does not, as in other
  forms, become involved in the inpushing of ectoderm which forms the
  buccal cavity. On the contrary, it lies outside the edge of the
  stomodaeum, and in the case of the lampreys active growth takes place
  in the tissue between the pituitary and stomodaeal ingrowths, so that
  the two openings come to be widely separated, the pituitary opening
  being pushed back on to the dorsal side of the head. The pituitary
  opening remains patent throughout life, as is the case with
  Crossopterygians alone amongst Gnathostomata. In _Myxine_ a further
  remarkable peculiarity in regard to the hypophysis, probably adaptive
  in nature, occurs, inasmuch as the pituitary invagination develops an
  opening at its posterior end into the pharynx.

  _Nervous System._--The anterior end of the nervous tube is enlarged
  and differentiated to form a brain as in other Vertebrates, but this
  brain in the lampreys at least shows remarkably primitive features.
  The enlargement as compared with the spinal cord is seen to be
  comparatively slight: the brain is much elongated, and its various
  regions lie in a straight line one behind the other: the roof of the
  brain retains to a great extent the primitive epithelial condition. On
  each side anteriorly there is present a comparatively large olfactory
  lobe, and this is continued posteriorly into a small cerebral
  hemisphere.

  The lampreys are amongst those vertebrates in which there is an
  eye-like apparatus (3) connected with the roof of the
  thalamencephalon. There grow out from the roof of the thalamencephalon
  two processes, a posterior (the pineal process), and an anterior (the
  parapineal process). The pineal process grows forwards so as to
  overlie the parapineal process. Each of these projections from the
  roof of the thalamencephalon dilates to form a vesicle, and each
  vesicle shows certain eye-like characteristics, its deep wall forming
  a "retina" and its superficial wall being clear and translucent
  ("pellucida"). The retinal cells are packed in the case of the pineal
  organ with opaque white pigment: similar pigment occurs in smaller
  quantity in the parapineal organ. Definite sensory cells are also
  present with rod-like structures projecting into the lumen of the
  vesicle. Nerve fibres have been traced--from the pineal organ into the
  posterior commissure and possibly into the right habenular ganglion.
  As regards other parts of the brain, the chief point to note is that
  the cerebellum is in a most rudimentary condition, forming merely a
  slight transverse thickening of the hind-brain roof at its anterior
  end. In Myxinoids the brain is much larger as compared with the spinal
  cord, and it differs from that of the lampreys by being relatively
  much shorter in an anteroposterior direction. A remarkable negative
  feature lies in the complete absence of the pineal and parapineal
  organs so conspicuous in the lampreys. The olfactory organ of
  Cyclostomes is remarkable for two special characteristics, firstly,
  that the two olfactory organs of other vertebrates are here
  represented by a single median structure, and secondly, that the
  olfactory organ becomes sunk down beneath the surface through becoming
  involved in the ectodermal ingrowth which forms the pituitary tube. As
  a further consequence in the case of the lampreys the olfactory organ
  becomes transported to the roof of the head along with the pituitary
  opening, which latter functions as an external nostril. That the
  unpaired olfactory organ of existing Cyclostomes has passed through,
  in their ancestors, a paired condition such as exists in other
  vertebrates, is indicated by the fact that it retains a pair of
  olfactory nerves.

  The eyes in adult lampreys are of moderate size, while in the
  Myxinoids they are greatly reduced--sunk beneath the skin
  (_Bdellostoma_) or even in amongst the muscles of the head (_Myxine_).
  The lens is completely absent, also the ocular muscles. The otocyst or
  auditory organ is unique amongst craniate vertebrates in regard to the
  semicircular canals. In the lampreys there are only two instead of the
  normal three, while the Myxinoids have only one.

  _Alimentary Canal._--The widely gaping buccal funnel is
  morphologically an inpushing of the outer skin, i.e. it is stomodaeal
  in nature. The thorn-like teeth which stud its lining are formed
  simply by cornification of the epidermal cells (4) like the
  provisional horny teeth of a tadpole, and are not homologous with the
  true teeth of ordinary vertebrates. As to whether they represent the
  remnant of a once present system of epidermal scales, which may have
  preceded the coating of placoid elements in the evolution of the
  vertebrate, there is no evidence.

  [Illustration: Modified from T. J. Parker, _Zootomy_, fig. 4, by
  permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

  FIG. 2.--Median longitudinal section through anterior end of
  _Petromyzon_.

    a.v.o, Atrio-ventricular opening.
    br,    Brain.
    br.o,  Internal opening of gill sac.
    d.a,   Dorsal aorta.
    d.c,   Ductus cuvieri.
    h.v,   Hepatic vein.
    i.j.v, Inferior jugular vein.
    N,     Notochord.
    oes,   Oesophagus.
    olf,   Olfactory organ.
    pc,    Pericardium.
    p.c.v, Left posterior cardinal vein.
    pit,   Pituitary tube.
    V,     Ventricle.
    v,     Velum.]

  The pharyngeal region, closely associated with the respiratory
  function, possesses, on each side, a series of gill-sacs (six in
  _Myxine_: seven in _Petromyzon_, besides an anterior one which is laid
  down in the embryo but disappears later: up to as many as fourteen in
  _Bdellostoma_) opening on the one hand to the pharynx and on the other
  to the exterior. In _Bdellostoma_ and in the larva of _Petromyzon_ the
  gill-sacs open directly from the pharynx to the exterior, but in the
  adult lamprey and in _Myxine_ the original relations are modified. In
  _Myxine_, the external openings of the gill-sacs have migrated
  backwards along the side of the body and become coincident at a point
  slightly posterior to the last sac. It follows from this that each sac
  is connected with the common aperture by a tube, longest in the case
  of the first sac, shortest in the case of the last. In the adult
  lamprey a different modification is found. Here the dorsal portion of
  the pharynx has become nipped off as a narrow tube which functions as
  an oesophagus from the larger ventral portion, which forms an
  elongated saccular structure ending blindly at its hinder end and
  having in its lateral wall the internal openings of the gill-sacs.

  _Breathing._--The inspiratory current passes inwards by the mouth
  opening in the larval lamprey, by the pituitary tube in _Myxine_,
  while in the adult lamprey both expiration and inspiration takes place
  through the external gill-openings. In the case of the lampreys the
  elastic skeleton of the branchial region (see below) plays an
  important part in respiration. The branchial region shows rhythmic
  contraction through the agency of the transverse muscles--and
  expansion, through the elasticity of the branchial skeleton--in the
  adult lamprey. These rhythmic movements of the branchial region cause
  successive inflow and outflow through the branchial openings. In the
  larva, on the other hand, the respiratory current always passes in one
  direction--backwards. This is helped by the presence of a velar fold
  at the front end of the pharynx, which acts as a valve opening only
  backwards, and to the presence of membranous flaps projecting back
  from the anterior border of each gill-opening and acting as valves
  which open only outwards.

  Behind the pharynx comes the truly digestive part of the alimentary
  canal in the form of a straight tube showing little differentiation
  into special regions. The lining of the intestine is increased in area
  by an inwardly projecting fold, which is compared by some
  morphologists with the spiral valve of certain other groups. In the
  mature river lamprey the digestive tract becomes in great part
  degenerate.

  _Coelomic Organs._--The chief point of interest about the
  splanchnocoele or perivisceral cavity is that in the Myxinoids the
  adult shows a persistent embryonic condition in that the pericardiac
  portion never becomes isolated from the main body cavity.

  The renal organs are of special interest in the Myxinoids from their
  very simple character. The kidney duct is seen running along the roof
  of the coelom on either side. Into the duct open short segmentally
  arranged tubes, each possessing at its closed rounded extremity a
  Malpighian body. Each of these short tubes is morphologically a
  nephric tubule, which, however, in correlation with its shortness, is
  without the turns and twists so characteristic of such tubules
  generally. A further consequence of the short simple character of the
  tubules is that they are quite separate from one another, instead of
  being massed together to form a compact gland such as the kidney is
  elsewhere. In _Petromyzon_ the kidney has the ordinary compact form,
  and here also the Malpighian bodies are shut off from the
  splanchnocoele.

  The ovary or testis is a large unpaired structure hanging from the
  dorsal wall of the splanchnocoele and shedding its products into it;
  from the coelomic space the genital products pass into the urogenital
  sinus--formed by the fusion of the kidney ducts at their hinder
  ends--through a small opening, one at each side. This opening, which
  leads directly from coelom into urogenital sinus, is known as the
  genital pore. Its morphological significance is doubtful.

  _Skeleton._--The vertebral column of the lamprey is represented by a
  persistent notochord surrounded by a thick sheath, which shows no
  signs of invasion by cartilage cells or of segmentation. Resting on
  the sheath are paired dorsal arch elements, more numerous than the
  neuromuscular segments. In the tail region these are united into a
  continuous band of cartilage on each side: similar cartilaginous bands
  represent the ventral arch elements of the tail region. The skeleton
  of the head region consists of a cartilaginous cranium, into the
  formation of which enter typical parachordal and trabecular elements,
  together with olfactory and auditory capsules. In addition to these,
  there are a number of other cartilaginous pieces present in the head
  region, the homologies of which are doubtful.

  _Branchial Basket._--One of the most characteristic features of the
  skeleton of the lamprey is the remarkable cartilaginous "branchial
  basket," which supports the gill region. In an adult river lamprey the
  basketwork consists on each side of a series of eight vertical
  half-hoops of cartilage. The hoops of each side are connected together
  dorsally by a pair of longitudinal bars, lying ventral to the
  notochord, and ventrally by a similar pair of rods which are fused in
  the middle line. Slender cartilaginous projections arise from the
  anterior and posterior sides of the hoops, and certain of these
  meeting at their ends form additional longitudinal bars connecting
  together successive hoops. Connected with the basketwork posteriorly
  is a remarkable cup-shaped cartilage, which supports the hind wall of
  the pericardium. The series of cartilaginous half-hoops naturally
  suggest the half-hoops of cartilage which form the skeleton of the
  visceral arches in the Gnathostomata. They are, however, more
  superficial in position, and this has led many to doubt their actual
  homology with the cartilaginous visceral arches. Taking into account,
  however, our present knowledge of the development of the two sets of
  structures, it seems on the whole probable that a true homology exists
  and that the branchial basket of the lamprey represents merely a set
  of visceral arches modified in accordance with the peculiar breathing
  methods of the creature. In the Myxinoids the branchial basket is
  reduced to a few vestigial masses of cartilage.

  _Vascular System._--The heart (5) of the lamprey consists of an atrium
  and a single ventricle, the atrium on the left, the ventricle on the
  right. Into the atrium, on its right side, and behind the
  atrio-ventricular opening, there opens a nearly vertical chamber
  usually termed the sinus venosus (see below), the opening guarded by a
  pair of vertically placed valves. The ventricle passes anteriorly into
  what is clearly the homologue of the conus arteriosus of other forms.
  In its interior are present a pair of laterally placed longitudinal
  ridges similar to the ridges which occur in other forms in the conus.
  The opening from ventricle into conus is guarded by a pair of
  laterally placed pocket valves situated just within the boundary of
  the ventricle.

  The arterial system is of the ordinary piscine type. From the heart
  there passes forwards a ventral aorta, split into two separate vessels
  in its anterior half, and giving off on each side a series of efferent
  vessels to the gill-sacs, one passing between each two gill-sacs and
  an additional one to the front wall of the front sac and to the
  posterior wall of the last. The blood is collected from the walls of
  the gill-sacs by a series of efferent vessels which open into the
  dorsal aorta. It is to be noted that the dorsal aorta retains the
  probably primitive unpaired condition, except for a very short extent
  at its anterior end, where it is split so as to form two short aortic
  roots.

  _Venous System._--The main venous channels are like those in other
  fishes, though their connexion with the heart becomes modified in the
  adult. The two posterior cardinals--with their continuations forwards,
  the anterior cardinals--approach the median plane and undergo fusion
  in the region of their opening into the two ductus Cuvieri. The left
  ductus Cuvieri then atrophies so that all the blood from the cardinals
  reaches the heart by way of the originally right ductus Cuvieri. It
  is this right ductus Cuvieri which forms the dorsal part of what is
  usually termed the sinus venosus. The inferior jugular veins which
  return the blood from the ventral side of the head also become
  replaced in the adult by a median unpaired vein which opens
  posteriorly into the sinus venosus by what probably represents the
  hinder end of the original right inferior jugular. It is interesting
  to note that in _Polypterus_, one of the Crossopterygian ganoids,
  there is a somewhat similar asymmetrical condition of inferior
  jugulars and ductus Cuvieri.

  _Oviposition of Lamprey_ (6).--The lamprey chooses as spawning ground
  a part of the stream with fairly rapid current and where the bottom is
  composed of sand with scattered stones. By means of the suctorial
  mouth, stones are removed from more or less circular area so as to
  form a shallow excavation. The male and female frequently work
  together at the task of preparing the nest. When oviposition is about
  to take place, the male may be seen to suddenly attach himself to the
  dorsal surface of the head of the female which holds on to one of the
  stones at the upper margin of the nest. The urogenital opening of the
  male, with its specially prominent papilla, is approximated to that of
  the female, and with a peculiar quivering movement the eggs and sperms
  are emitted synchronously amidst clouds of sand stirred up by the
  movements of the tail. The eggs fertilized thus at the moment of exit
  are very sticky from their coating of albumen, and become weighted
  down by adherent grains of sand.

  _Development._--The development of the lamprey is of much
  morphological importance from the archaic nature of the creature and
  from the fact that the egg is comparatively small (about 1 mm. in
  diameter), so that development is not greatly modified by a large mass
  of yolk. It has been worked out so far only in the river lamprey (7).
  Segmentation is complete and unequal. It, as well as the process of
  gastrulation, agrees in its main features with the same phenomenon in
  _Amia_, Dipnoans and Urodele amphibians. The blastopore persists as
  the anal opening of the adult. The mesoderm arises in a manner closely
  comparable with that which occurs in _Amphioxus_, the chief difference
  being that the mesoderm segments are solid instead of hollow, except
  in the anterior head region, where they are true hollow enterocoelic
  pouches. The rudiment of the central nervous system has the form of a
  solid keel-like ingrowth of ectoderm along the mid-dorsal line, which
  only secondarily becomes hollowed out--just as happens in Teleostean
  fishes. The young lamprey, after completing its embryonic development,
  passes three or four years, in fact its whole life up to the time of
  sexual maturity, in a prolonged larval condition in which its
  structure shows important differences from that of the adult. This
  larval stage of the fresh-water lamprey of Europe was long supposed to
  be a separate genus of Cyclostomes and was called _Ammocoetes_. The
  _Ammocoetes_ lives in the mud and breathes and feeds by means of a
  current of water produced by ciliary action, which carries Flagellates
  and other microscopic organisms in through the mouth opening.
  Correlated with this mode of feeding the buccal cavity is without the
  teeth so characteristic of the adult. A number of complicated branched
  sensory processes grow into and nearly occlude the cavity, forming a
  kind of sieve with only narrow chinks through which the ingoing
  current passes. The water passes out by the gill openings, which in
  _Ammocoetes_ open direct from pharynx to exterior. Certain
  arrangements of the pharyngeal wall of _Ammocoetes_ show a remarkable
  resemblance to what is found in _Amphioxus_. The thyroid, which in the
  adult is a complicated ductless gland, has in the young _Ammocoetes_
  the form of a longitudinal groove of the ventral wall of the pharynx.
  This groove is lined by columnar cells, some carrying cilia, others
  being glandular and secreting sticky slime. These gland cells are
  arranged in four longitudinal bands. The thyroid is, in fact, in this
  stage in a condition corresponding exactly with the endostyle of
  _Amphioxus_. The agreement extends to function the secretion, forming
  sticky threads which entangle food particles. Anteriorly a pair of
  peripharyngeal bands pass dorsalwards, one on each side, to bend back
  suprapharyngeal bands which are continued to the hinder end of the
  pharynx. Here again the resemblance to what occurs in _Amphioxus_ is
  very close.

  The _Ammocoetes_ possesses a functional liver with bileduct, while in
  the adult river lamprey the alimentary canal is degenerate. It has no
  arch elements on its notochord. Its eyes are sunk beneath the surface
  and nonfunctional, and they retain to a great extent an embryonic
  character (8). There is a rapid process of metamorphosis from the
  larval to the adult condition, the details of which are by no means
  sufficiently known. After the metamorphosis the now mature lamprey
  accomplishes the act of reproduction and then apparently dies almost
  immediately. The development of the Myxinoids is much less well known
  than that of the lampreys. As regards the common hagfish (_Myxine
  glutinosa_), we are indeed still in complete ignorance in regard to
  its developmental history in spite of persistent efforts to obtain
  embryological material. It seems probable that during the breeding
  period the hagfishes retire into some particularly inaccessible
  habitat. Within the last few years, however, abundant material
  illustrating the developmental history of _Bdellostoma_ (9) has been
  obtained on the Californian coast, and this when fully worked out will
  give us a good idea of the general lines of Myxinoid development. The
  egg differs greatly from that of the lampreys. It is--as is that of
  _Myxine_--of large size, richly yolked and of a shortened-up sausage
  shape. It measures about 22 mm. by 8 mm. Surrounding the egg is a
  protective capsule of a yellow horny appearance. At one end a cap-like
  portion of this forms a detachable operculum, in the middle of which
  is a minute opening, the micropyle. Each end of the capsule is
  prolonged into a group of stiff processes with anchor-like expansions
  at their tips. Segmentation is, as in other richly yolked eggs,
  incomplete, confined to the germinal disk at the opercular pole. The
  central nervous system in _Bdellostoma_ develops by the overarching of
  medullary folds, not out of a solid keel as is the case with the
  lampreys.

  _History in Time._--The softness of the skeletal tissues and the
  absence of scales in Cyclostomata provide little opportunity for the
  preservation of fossil remains of this group, and no known fossils can
  be referred with certainty to the Cyclostomata. The Devonian
  _Palaeospondylus gunni_ has been regarded as a Cyclostome by some
  authors, but this relationship is at the least doubtful. Other authors
  have associated the Ostracoderms, the oldest known vertebrates, with
  this group.

  REFERENCES.--1. D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann, _Fishes of North and
  Middle America_ (Washington, 1896), part i. p. 8; 2. L. Plate, _SB.
  Ges. Naturf._ (Berlin, Jg. 1897), p. 137; 3. F. Studnicka in Oppel's
  _Lehrbuch der vergleichenden mikroskopischen Anatomie der Wirbeltiere_
  (Jena, 1905), Teil v. s. i.; 4. E. Warren, _Q. J. Micr. Sci._ xlv.
  (1902) p. 631; 5. L. Vialleton, _Arch. d'anat. micr._ T. vi. (1903) p.
  283; 6. H. A. Surface in D. S. Jordan's _Fishes_ (1905), vol. i. p.
  494; 7. A. E. Shipley, _Q. J. Micr. Sci._ xxvii. (1887), W. B. Scott,
  _Journ. Morphol._ i. (1887), C. Kupffer, _Arch. mikr. Anat._ xxxv.
  (1890), A. Goette, _Entwick. des Flussneunauges_ (Hamburg and Leipzig,
  1890); 8. C. Kohl, in _Bibliotheca zoologica_, Heft 13 (Cassel, 1892);
  9. Bashford Dean in Kupffer's _Festschrift_ (Jena, 1899).
       (J. G. K.)



CYCLOSTYLE (Gr. [Greek: kyklos], a circle, and [Greek: stylos], a
column), a term used in architecture. A structure composed of a circular
range of columns without a core is cyclostylar; with a core the range
would be peristyle. This is the species of edifice called by Vitruvius
monopteral.



CYGNUS ("The Swan"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.), and fabled by the Greeks to be the swan in the form of
which Zeus seduced Leda. Ptolemy catalogued 19 stars, Tycho Brahe 18,
and Hevelius 47. In this constellation ß _Cygni_ is a fine coloured
double star, consisting of a yellow star, magnitude 3, and a blue star,
magnitude 5½. The fine double star, µ _Cygni_, separated by Sir William
Herschel in 1779, has magnitudes 4 and 5; it has a companion, of
magnitude 7½, which, however, does not form part of the system. A double
star, _61 Cygni_, of magnitudes 5.3 and 5.9, was the first star whose
distance was determined; its parallax is 0´´.39, and it is therefore the
nearest star in the northern hemisphere with the exception of [sigma]
_Centauri_. A regular variable, [chi] _Cygni_, has extreme magnitudes of
5 to 13.5, and its period is 406 days. _Nova Cygni_ is a "new" star
discovered by Johann Schmidt in 1876. There is also an extended nebula
in the constellation.



CYLINDER (Gr. [Greek: kylindros], from [Greek: kylindein], to roll). A
cylindrical surface, or briefly a cylinder, is the surface traced out by
a line, named the generatrix, which moves parallel to itself and always
passes through the circumference of a curve, named the directrix; the
name cylinder is also given to the solid contained between such a
surface and two parallel planes which intersect a generatrix. A "right
cylinder" is the solid traced out by a rectangle which revolves about
one of its sides, or the curved surface of this solid; the surface may
also be defined as the locus of a line which passes through the
circumference of a circle, and is always perpendicular to the plane of
the circle. If the moving line be not perpendicular to the plane of the
circle, but moves parallel to itself, and always passes through the
circumference, it traces an "oblique cylinder." The "axis" of a circular
cylinder is the line joining the centres of two circular sections; it is
the line through the centre of the directrix parallel to the generators.
The characteristic property of all cylindrical surfaces is that the
tangent planes are parallel to the axis. They are "developable"
surfaces, i.e. they can be applied to a plane surface without crinkling
or tearing (see SURFACE).

Any section of a cylinder which contains the axis is termed a "principal
section"; in the case of the solids this section is a rectangle; in the
case of the surfaces, two parallel straight lines. A section of the
right cylinder parallel to the base is obviously a circle; any other
section, excepting those limited by two generators, is an ellipse. This
last proposition may be stated in the form:--"The orthogonal projection
of a circle is an ellipse"; and it permits the ready deduction of many
properties of the ellipse from the circle. The section of an oblique
cylinder by a plane perpendicular to the principal section, and inclined
to the axis at the same angle as the base, is named the "subcontrary
section," and is always a circle; any other section is an ellipse.

The mensuration of the cylinder was worked out by Archimedes, who showed
that the volume of any cylinder was equal to the product of the area of
the base into the height of the solid, and that the area of the curved
surface was equal to that of a rectangle having its sides equal to the
circumference of the base, and to the height of the solid. If the base
be a circle of radius r, and the height h, the volume is [pi]r²h and the
area of the curved surface 2[pi]rh. Archimedes also deduced relations
between the sphere (q.v.) and cone (q.v.) and the circumscribing
cylinder.

The name "cylindroid" has been given to two different surfaces. Thus it
is a cylinder having equal and parallel elliptical bases; i.e. the
surface traced out by an ellipse moving parallel to itself so that every
point passes along a straight line, or by a line moving parallel to
itself and always passing through the circumference of a fixed ellipse.
The name was also given by Arthur Cayley to the conoidal cubic surface
which has for its equation z(x² + y²) = 2mxy; every point on this
surface lies on the line given by the intersection of the planes y = x
tan [theta], z = m sin 2[theta], for by eliminating [theta] we obtain
the equation to the surface.



CYLLENE (mod. _Ziria_), a mountain in Greece, in the N.E. of Arcadia
(7789 ft.). It was specially sacred to Hermes, who was born in a cave on
the mountain, and had a temple and an ancient statue on its summit. The
name Cyllene belongs also to an ancient port town in Elis, and, owing to
doubtful identification with this, to a modern port at Glarentza, and
also to some mineral baths a little to the south of it.



CYMA (Gr. [Greek: kyma], wave), in architecture, a moulding of double
curvature, concave at one end, convex at the other. When the concave
part is uppermost, it is called a _cyma recta_; but if the convex
portion is at the top, it is called a _cyma reversa_. When the crowning
moulding of an entablature is of the cyma form, it is called a
"cymatium."



CYMBALS (Fr. _cymbales_; Ger. _Becken_; Ital. _piatti_ or _cinelli_), a
modern instrument of percussion of indefinite musical pitch, whereas the
small ancient cup-shaped cymbals sounded a definite note. Cymbals
consist of two thin round plates of an alloy containing 8 parts of
copper to two of tin, each having a handle-strap set in the little knob
surmounting the centre of the plate. The sound is obtained not by
clashing them against each other, but by rubbing their edges together by
a sliding movement. Sometimes a weird effect is obtained by suspending
one of the cymbals by the strap and letting a drummer execute a roll
upon it as it swings; or by holding a cymbal in the left hand and
striking it with the soft stick of the bass drum, which produces a sound
akin to that of the tam-tam. All gradations of _piano_ and _forte_ can
be obtained on the cymbals. The composer indicates his intention of
letting the cymbals vibrate by "Let them vibrate," and the contrary
effect by "Damp the sound." To stop the vibrations the performer presses
the cymbals against his chest, as soon as he has played a note. The
duration of the vibration is indicated by the _value_ of the note placed
upon the staff; the name signifies nothing, since the pitch of the
cymbals is indefinite. The instrument is played from the same part of
the score as the bass drum, unless otherwise indicated by _senza
piatti_, or _piatti soli_ if the bass drum is to remain silent. Although
cymbals are not often required they form part of every orchestra; their
chief use is for marking the rhythm and for producing weird, fantastic
effects or adding military colour, and their shrill notes hold their own
against a full orchestra playing _fortissimo_. Cymbals are specially
suited for suggesting frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as in the
Venus music in Wagner's _Tannhäuser_ and Grieg's _Peer Gynt_ suite.
Damping gives a suggestion of impending evil or tragedy. The _timbre_ of
the ancient cymbals is entirely different, more like that of small
hand-bells or of the notes of the keyed harmonica. They are not struck
full against each other, but by one of their edges, and the note given
out by them is higher in proportion as they are thicker and smaller.
Berlioz in _Romeo and Juliet_ scored for two pairs of cymbals, modelled
on some ancient Pompeian instruments no larger than the hand (some are
no larger than a crown piece), and tuned to [note] and [note].

  The origin of the cymbals must be referred to prehistoric times. The
  ancient Egyptian cymbals closely resembled our own. The British Museum
  possesses two pairs, 5(1/3) in. in diameter, one of which was found in
  the coffin of the mummy of Ankhhape, a sacred musician; they are shown
  in the same case as the mummy, and have been reproduced by Carl
  Engel.[1] Those used by the Assyrians were both plate- and cup-shaped.
  The Greek cymbals were cup- or bell-shaped, and are to be seen in the
  hands of fauns and satyrs innumerable in sculptures and on painted
  vases. The word cymbal is derived from [Greek: kymbê] (Lat. _cymba_),
  a hollow vessel, and [Greek: kymbala] = small cymbals. During the
  middle ages the word cymbal was applied to the _Glockenspiel_, or peal
  of small bells, and later to the dulcimer, perhaps on account of the
  clear bell-like tone produced by the hammers striking the wire
  strings. After the introduction or invention of the keyed dulcimer or
  clavichord, and of the spinet, the word clavicymbal was used in the
  Romance languages to denote the varieties of spinet and harpsichord.
  Ancient cymbals are among the instruments played by King David and his
  musicians in the 9th-century illuminated MS. known as the Bible of
  Charles the Bald in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _The Music of the Most Ancient Nations_, fig. 75, p. 227.



CYNEGILS (d. 643), king of the West Saxons, succeeded his uncle King
Ceolwulf in 611. With his son Cwichelm (d. 636), he defeated the
advancing Britons at Bampton in Oxfordshire in 614, and Cwichelm sought
to arrest the growing power of the Northumbrian king Eadwine by
procuring his assassination; the attempt, however, failed, and in 626
the West Saxons were defeated in battle and forced to own Eadwine's
supremacy. Cynegils' next struggle was with Penda of Mercia, and here
again he was worsted, the battle being fought in 628 at Cirencester, and
was probably compelled to surrender part of his kingdom to Mercia.
Cynegils was converted to Christianity through the preaching of Birinus,
and was baptized in 635 at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, where he founded a
bishopric. He was succeeded as king by his son Cenwalh.



CYNEWULF (d. 785), king of Wessex, succeeded to the throne in 757 on the
deposition of Sigeberht. He was constantly at war with the Welsh. In 779
Offa of Mercia defeated him and took Bensington. In 785 he was surprised
and killed, with all his thegns present, at Marten, Wilts (Merantune),
by Cyneheard, brother of the deposed Sigeberht.

  See Earle and Plummer's edition of the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, 755,
  779 (Oxford, 1892).



CYNEWULF, the only Old-English vernacular poet, known by name, of whom
any undisputed writings are extant. He is the author of four poems
preserved in two MSS., the _Exeter Book_ and the _Vercelli Book_, both
of the early 11th century. An epilogue to each poem contains the runic
characters answering to the letters _c_, _y_, _n_ (_e_), _w_, _u_, _l_,
_f_. The runes are to be read as the words that served as their names;
these words enter into the metre of the verse, and (except in one poem)
are significant in their context. The poems thus signed are the
following. (1) A meditation on _The Ascension_, which stands in the
_Exeter Book_ between two similar poems on the Incarnation and the Last
Judgment. The three are commonly known as _Cynewulf's Christ_, but the
runic signature attests only the second. (2) A version of the legend of
the martyr _St Juliana_, also in the _Exeter Book_. (3) _Elene_, in the
_Vercelli Book_, on the story of the empress Helena and the "Invention
of the Cross." (4) A short poem on _The Fates of the Apostles_, in the
same MS. The page containing the signature to this poem was first
discovered by Professor A. S. Napier in 1888, so that the piece is not
included in earlier enumerations of the poet's signed works.

In _Juliana_ and _Elene_ the name is spelt Cynewulf; in _The Ascension_
the form is Cynwulf. In _The Fates of the Apostles_ the page is defaced,
but the spelling Cynwulf is almost certain. The absence of the E in
_The Ascension_ can hardly be due to a scribal omission, for the name of
this letter (meaning "horse") would not suit the context; this, was
perhaps the motive for the choice of the shorter form. The orthography
(authenticated as the poet's own by the nature of his device) has
chronological significance. If the poems had been written before 740,
the spelling would almost certainly have been Cyniwulf. If it were safe
to judge from the scanty extant evidence, we should conclude that the
form Cynwulf came in about 800; and presumably the poet would not vary
his accustomed signature until the new form had become common. In
_Elene_ Cynewulf speaks of himself as an old man; and the presence of
the runic signature in the four works suggests that they are not far
apart in date. They may therefore be referred provisionally to the
beginning of the 9th century, any lower date being for linguistic and
metrical reasons improbable.

The MSS. of the poems are in the West-Saxon dialect, with occasional
peculiarities that indicate transcription from Northumbrian or Mercian.
Professor E. Sievers's arguments for a Northumbrian original have
considerable weight; for the Mercian theory no linguistic arguments have
been adduced, but it has been advocated on grounds of historical
probability which seem to be of little value.

Cynewulf's unquestioned poems show that he was a scholar, familiar with
Latin and with religious literature, and they display much metrical
skill and felicity in the use of traditional poetic language; but of the
higher qualities of poetry they give little evidence. There are pleasing
passages in _Elene_, but the clumsy and tasteless narration of the Latin
original is faithfully reproduced, and the added descriptions of battles
and voyages are strings of conventional phrases, with no real
imagination. In _The Ascension_ the genuine religious fervour imparts a
higher tone to the poetry; the piece has real but not extraordinary
merit. Of the other two poems no critic has much to say in praise. If
Cynewulf is to be allowed high poetic rank, it must be on the ground of
his authorship of other works than those which he has signed. At one
time or other nearly the whole body of extant Old English poetry
(including _Beowulf_) has been conjecturally assigned to him. Some of
the attributed works show many striking resemblances in style and
diction to his authentic writings. But it is impossible to determine
with certainty how far the similarities may be due to imitation or to
the following of a common tradition.

Until recently, it was commonly thought that Cynewulf's authorship of
the Riddles (q.v.) in the _Exeter Book_ was beyond dispute. The
monodramatic lyric _Wulf and Eadwacer_, imagined to be the first of
these Riddles, was in 1857 interpreted by Heinrich Leo as a charade on
the name Cynewulf. This absurd fancy was for about thirty years
generally accepted as a fact, but is now abandoned. Some of the Riddles
have been shown by Professor E. Sievers to be older than Cynewulf's
time; that he may have written some of the rest remains a bare
possibility.

The similarity of tone in the three poems known as the _Christ_ affords
some presumption of common authorship, which the counter arguments that
have been urged seem insufficient to set aside. Both _The Incarnation_
and _The Last Judgment_ contain many passages of remarkable power and
beauty. It is unlikely that the author regarded the three as forming one
work. The _Christ_ is followed in the MS. by two poems on _Saint
Guthlac_, the second of which is generally, and with much probability,
assigned to Cynewulf. The first Guthlac poem is almost universally
believed to be by another hand. Cynewulf's celebration of a midland
saint is the strongest of the arguments that have been urged against his
Northumbrian origin; but this consideration is insufficient to outweigh
the probability derived from the linguistic evidence.

Cynewulf's reputation can gain little by the attribution to him of
_Guthlac_, which is far inferior even to _Juliana_. Very different would
be the effect of the establishment of his much disputed claim to
_Andreas_, a picturesque version of the legend of the Apostle Andrew.
The poem abounds to an astonishing extent in "Cynewulfian" phrases, but
it is contended that these are due to imitation. If the author of
_Andreas_ imitated _Elene_ and _Juliana_, he bettered his model. The
question whether Cynewulf may not have been the imitator has apparently
never been discussed. The poem (so far agreeing with _The Fates of the
Apostles_) copies the style of the old heroic poetry.

Cynewulf's authorship has been asserted by some scholars for _The Dream
of the Rood_, the noblest example of Old English religious poetry. But
an extract from this poem is carved on the Ruthwell Cross; and,
notwithstanding the arguments of Prof. A. S. Cook, the language of the
inscription seems too early for Cynewulf's date. The similarities
between the _Dream_ and _Elene_ are therefore probably due to Cynewulf's
acquaintance with the older poem.

The only remaining attribution that deserves notice is that of the
_Phoenix_. The author of this fine poem was, like Cynewulf, a scholar,
and uses many of his turns of expression, but he was a man of greater
genius than is shown in Cynewulf's signed compositions.

Professor M. Trautmann, following J. Grimm and F. Dietrich, would
identify the poet with Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne, who died in 783.
This speculation conflicts with the chronology suggested in this
article, and is destitute of evidence. Cynewulf was indeed probably a
Northumbrian churchman, but it is unlikely that there were not many
Northumbrian churchmen bearing this common name; and as the bishop is
not recorded to have written anything, the identification is at best an
unsupported possibility. Professor A. S. Cook has suggested that our
Cynewulf may have been the "Cynulf," priest of Dunwich, whose name is
among those appended to a decree of the council of Clofesho in 803, and
of whom nothing else is known. This conjecture suits the probable date
of Cynewulf, but otherwise there is nothing in its favour.

  For the older literature relating to Cynewulf, see R. Wülker,
  _Grundriss der angelsächsischen Litteratur_ (1885). References to the
  most important later discussions will be found in M. Trautmann,
  _Kynewulf, der Bischof und Dichter_ (1898), and the introductions and
  notes to the editions of _Cynewulf's Christ_, by I. Gollancz (1892)
  and A. S. Cook (1900). For the arguments for Cynewulf's authorship of
  _Andreas_, see F. Ramhorst, _Andreas und Cynewulf_ (1885).     (H. Br.)



CYNICS, a small but influential school of ancient philosophers. Their
name is variously derived from the building in Athens called Cynosarges,
the earliest home of the school, and from the Greek word for a dog
([Greek: kyôn]), in contemptuous allusion to the uncouth and aggressive
manners adopted by the members of the school. Whichever of these
explanations is correct, it is noticeable that the Cynics agreed in
taking a dog as their common badge or symbol (see DIOGENES). From a
popular conception of the intellectual characteristics of the school
comes the modern sense of "cynic," implying a sneering disposition to
disbelieve in the goodness of human motives and a contemptuous feeling
of superiority.

As regards the members of the school, the separate articles on
ANTISTHENES, CRATES, DIOGENES and DEMETRIUS contain all biographical
information. We are here concerned only to examine the general
principles of the school in its internal and external relations as
forming a definite philosophic unit. The importance of these principles
lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in
the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics,
between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a
system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching
influence on medieval and modern ethics. From the time of Socrates in
unbroken succession up to the reign of Hadrian, the school was
represented by men of strong individuality. The leading earlier Cynics
were Antisthenes, Diogenes of Sinope, Crates of Thebes, and Zeno; in the
later Roman period, the chief names are Demetrius (the friend of
Seneca), Oenomaus and Demonax. All these men adhered steadfastly to the
principles laid down by Antisthenes.

Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the
fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of
existence. He was, therefore, in the forefront of that intellectual
revolution in the course of which speculation ceased to move in the
realms of the physical[1] and focused itself upon human reason in its
application to the practical conduct of life. "Virtue," says Socrates,
"is knowledge": in the ultimate harmony of morality with reason is to be
found the only true existence of man. Antisthenes adopted this principle
in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the
narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the
conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing
itself in the sphere of ordinary existence. Just as in logic the
inevitable result was the purest nominalism, so in ethics he was driven
to individualism, to the denial of social and national relations, to the
exclusion of scientific study and of almost all that the Greeks
understood by education. This individualism he and his followers carried
to its logical conclusion. The ordinary pleasures of life were for them
not merely negligible but positively harmful inasmuch as they
interrupted the operation of the will. Wealth, popularity and power tend
to dethrone the authority of reason and to pervert the soul from the
natural to the artificial. Man exists for and in himself alone; his
highest end is self-knowledge and self-realization in conformity with
the dictates of his reason, apart altogether from the state and society.
For this end, disrepute and poverty are advantageous, in so far as they
drive back the man upon himself, increasing his self-control and
purifying his intellect from the dross of the external. The good man
(i.e. the wise man) wants nothing: like the gods, he is [Greek:
autarkês] (self-sufficing); "let men gain wisdom--or buy a rope"; he is
a citizen of the world, not of a particular country (cf. Diogenes
Laërtius vi. 11 [Greek: monên te orthên politeian einai tên, en kosmô]).

It is not surprising that the pioneers of such a system were criticized
and ridiculed by their fellows, and this by no means unjustly. We learn
that Diogenes and Crates sought to force their principles upon their
fellows in an obtrusive, tactless manner. The very essence of their
philosophy was the negation of the graces of social courtesy; it was
impossible to "return to nature" in the midst of a society clothed in
the accumulated artificiality of evolved convention without shocking the
ingrained sensibilities of its members. Nor is it unjust to infer that
the sense of opposition provoked some of the Cynics to an overweening
display of superiority. At the same time, it is absurd to regard the
eccentricities of a few as the characteristics of the school, still more
as a condemnation of the views which they held.

In logic Antisthenes was troubled by the problem of the One and the
Many. A nominalist to the core, he held that definition and predication
are either false or tautological. Ideas do not exist save for the
consciousness which thinks them. "A horse," said Antisthenes, "I can
see, but horsehood I cannot see." Definition is merely a circuitous
method of stating an identity: "a tree is a vegetable growth" is
logically no more than "a tree is a tree."

Cynicism appears to have had a considerable vogue in Rome in the 1st and
2nd centuries A.D. Demetrius (q.v.) and Demonax are highly eulogized by
Seneca and Lucian respectively. It is probable that these later Cynics
adapted themselves somewhat to the times in which they lived and avoided
the crude extravagance of Diogenes and others. But they undoubtedly
maintained the spirit of Antisthenes unimpaired and held an honourable
place in Roman thought. This very popularity had the effect of
attracting into their ranks charlatans of the worst type. So that in
Rome also Cynicism was partly the butt of the satirist and partly the
ideal of the thinker.

Disregarding all the accidental excrescences of the doctrine, Cynicism
must be regarded as a most valuable development and as a real asset in
the sum of ethical speculation. With all its defective psychology, its
barren logic, its immature technique, it emphasized two great and
necessary truths, firstly, the absolute responsibility of the individual
as the moral unit, and, secondly, the autocracy of the will. These two
principles are sufficient ground for our gratitude to these "athletes of
righteousness" (as Epictetus calls them). Furthermore they are
profoundly important as the precursors of Stoicism. The closeness of
the connexion is illustrated by Juvenal's epigram that a Cynic differed
from a Stoic only by his cloak. Zeno was a pupil of Crates, from whom he
learned the moral worth of self-control and indifference to sensual
indulgence (see STOICS).

Finally it is necessary to point out two flaws in the Cynic philosophy.
In the first place, the content of the word "knowledge" is never
properly developed. "Virtue is knowledge"; knowledge of what? and how is
that knowledge related to the will? These questions were never properly
answered by them. Secondly they fell into the natural error of
emphasizing the purely animal side of the "nature," which was their
ethical criterion. Avoiding the artificial restraints of civilization,
they were prone to fall back into animalism pure and simple. Many of
them upheld the principle of community of wives (see Diogenes Laërtius
vi. 11); some of them are said to have outraged the dictates of public
decency. It was left to the Stoics to separate the wheat from the chaff,
and to assign to the words "knowledge" and "nature" a saner and more
comprehensive meaning.

For relation of Cynicism to contemporary thought, compare CYRENAICS,
MEGARIAN SCHOOL. See also ASCETICISM.

  See F. W. Mullach, _Fragmenta philosophorum Graecorum_ (Paris, 1867),
  ii. 261-438; H. Ritter and L. Preller, _Hist. phil. Graec. et Rom._
  ch. v.; histories of ancient philosophy, and specially Ed. Zeller,
  _Socrates and the Socratic Schools_, Eng. trans., O. J. Reichel (1868,
  2nd ed. 1877); Th. Gomperz, _Greek Thinkers_, Eng. trans., vol. ii.,
  G. G. Berry (1905); E. Caird, _Evolution of Theology in the Greek
  Philosophers_ (1904), ii. 44 seq., 55 seq., 62 seq.; arts. STOICS and
  SOCRATES.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY.



CYNOSURE (Lat. _cynosura_, Gr. [Greek: kynosoura], from [Greek: kynos],
genitive of [Greek: kyôn], a dog, and [Greek: oura], tail), the name
given by the Greeks and Romans to the constellation of the Little Bear,
Ursa Minor; the word is applied in English to the pole-star which
appears in that constellation, and hence to something bright which, like
a "guiding-star," draws all attention to it, as in Milton's "cynosure of
neighbouring eyes."



CYPERACEAE, in botany, a natural order of the monocotyledonous group of
seed-bearing plants. They are grass-like herbs, sometimes annual, but
more often persist by means of an underground stem from which spring
erect solitary or clustered, generally three-sided aerial stems, with
leaves in three rows. The minute flowers are arranged in spikelets
somewhat as in grasses, and these again in larger spike-like or panicled
inflorescences. The flower has in rare cases a perianth of six
scale-like leaves arranged in two whorls, and thus conforming to the
common monocotyledonous type of flower. Generally the perianth is
represented by hairs, bristles or similar developments, often indefinite
in number; in the two largest genera, _Cyperus_, (fig. 1) and _Carex_
(fig. 2), the flowers are naked. In a few cases two whorls of stamens
are present, with three members in each, but generally only three are
present; the pistil consists of three or two carpels, united to form an
ovary bearing a corresponding number of styles and containing one ovule.
The flowers, which are often unisexual, are wind-pollinated. The fruit
is one-seeded, with a tough, leathery or hard wall. There are nearly 70
genera containing about 3000 species and widely distributed throughout
the earth, chiefly as marsh-plants. In the arctic zone they form 10% of
the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid
to support grasses. The large genus _Cyperus_ contains about 400
species, chiefly in the warmer parts of the earth; _C. Papyrus_ is the
Egyptian Papyrus. _Carex_, the largest genus of the order, the sedges,
is widely distributed in the temperate, alpine and arctic regions of
both hemispheres, and is represented by 60 species in Britain. _Carex
arenaria_, the sea-bent, grows on sand-dunes and helps to bind the sand
with its long cord-like underground stem which branches widely. _Scirpus
lacustris_ (fig. 3, 1) the true bulrush, occurs in lakes, ditches and
marshes; it has a spongy, green, cylindrical stem, reaching nearly an
inch in thickness and 1 to 8 ft. high, which is usually leafless with a
terminal branched inflorescence. _Eriophorum_ (fig. 3), cotton grass, is
represented in Britain by several species in boggy land; they are small
tufted herbs with cottony heads due to the numerous hair-like bristles
which take the place of the perianth and become much elongated in the
fruiting stage.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Partial inflorescence of _Cyperus longus_
(Galingale), slightly reduced. 1, Spikelet of same; 2, flower.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Carex riparia_, the largest British sedge, from
3 to 5 ft. high. 1, Male flower of _Carex_; 2, female flower of _Carex_;
3, seed of _Carex_, cut lengthwise.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Inflorescence of Cotton-grass (_Eriophorum
polystachion_), about 2/3 nat. size. 1, Flower of true bulrush (_Scirpus
lacustris_).]



CY-PRÈS (A.-Fr. for "so near"), in English law, a principle adopted by
the court of chancery in dealing with trusts for charitable purposes.
When the charitable purpose intended by a testator cannot be carried
into effect, the court will apply the funds to some other purpose, as
near the original as possible (whence the name). For instance, a
testator having left a fund to be divided into four parts--one-fourth to
be used for "the redemption of British slaves in Turkey and Barbary,"
and the other three-fourths for various local charities--it was found
that there were no British slaves in Turkey or Barbary, and as to that
part of the gift therefore the testator's purpose failed. Instead of
allowing the portion of the fund devoted to this impossible purpose to
lapse to the next of kin, the court devoted it to the purposes specified
for the rest of the estate. This doctrine is only applied where "a
general intention of charity is manifest" in the will, and not where one
particular object only was present to the mind of the testator. Thus, a
testator having left money to be applied in building a church in a
particular parish, and that having been found to be impossible, the fund
will not be applied _cy-près_, but will go to the next of kin.

In the United States, charitable trusts have become more frequent as the
wealth of the country has progressed, and are regarded with increasing
favour by the courts. The _cy-près_ doctrine has been either expressly
or virtually applied to uphold them in several of the states, and in
some there has been legislation in the same direction. In others the
doctrine has been repudiated, e.g. in Michigan, Tennessee, Indiana and
Virginia. For many years the New York courts held that this doctrine was
not in force there, but in 1893 the legislature repealed the provisions
of the revised statutes on which these decisions rested and restored the
ancient law. Statutes passed in Pennsylvania have established the
doctrine there, and dissolved any doubt as to its being in force in that
state.



CYPRESS (_Cupressus_), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging
to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by
evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe,
western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and
north-eastern America, California and Mexico. The leaves of the
cypresses are scale-like, overlapping and generally in four rows; the
female catkins are roundish, and fewer than the male; the cones consist
of from six to ten peltate woody scales, which end in a curved point,
and open when the seeds are ripe; the seeds are numerous and winged. All
the species exude resin, but no turpentine.

_C. sempervirens_, the common cypress, has been well known throughout
the Mediterranean region since classic times; it may have been
introduced from western Asia where it is found wild. It is a tapering,
flame-shaped tree resembling the Lombardy poplar; its branches are
thickly covered with small, imbricated, shining-green leaves; the male
catkins are about 3 lines in length; the cones are between 1 and 1½ in.
in diameter, sessile, and generally in pairs, and are made up of large
angular scales, slightly convex exteriorly, and with a sharp point in
the centre. In Britain the tree grows to a height of 40 ft., in its
native soil to 70 or 90 ft. It thrives best on a dry, deep, sandy loam,
on airy sheltered sites at no great elevation above the sea. It was
introduced into Great Britain before the middle of the 16th century. In
the climate of the south of England its rate of growth when young is
between 1 and 1½ ft. a year. The seeds are sown in April, and come up in
three or four weeks; the plants require protection from frost during
their first winter.

The timber of the cypress is hard, close-grained, of a fine reddish hue,
and very durable. Among the ancients it was in request for poles,
rafters, joists, and for the construction of wine-presses, tables and
musical instruments; and on that account was so valuable that a
plantation of cypresses was considered a sufficient dowry for a
daughter. Owing to its durability the wood was employed for mummy cases,
and images of the gods; a statue of Jupiter carved out of cypress is
stated by Pliny to have existed 600 years without showing signs of
decay. The cypress doors of the ancient St Peter's at Rome, when removed
by Eugenius IV., were about 1100 years old, but nevertheless in a state
of perfect preservation. Laws were engraved on cypress by the ancients,
and objects of value were preserved in receptacles made of it; thus
Horace speaks of poems _levi servanda cupresso_.

The cypress, which grows no more when once cut down, was regarded as a
symbol of the dead, and perhaps for that reason was sacred to Pluto; its
branches were placed by the Greeks and Romans on the funeral pyres and
in the houses of their departed friends. Its supposed ill-boding nature
is alluded to in Shakespeare's _Henry VI._, where Suffolk desires for
his enemies "their sweetest shade, a grove of cypress trees." The
cypress was the tree into which Cyparissus, a beautiful youth beloved by
Apollo, was transformed, that he might grieve to all time (Ovid, _Met._
x. 3). In Turkish cemeteries the cypress--

  "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled,
   The only constant mourner o'er the dead"--

is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each
interment. The tree grows straight, or nearly so, and has a gloomy and
forbidding, but wonderfully stately aspect. With advancing age its
foliage becomes of a dark, almost black hue. William Gilpin calls the
cypress an architectural tree: "No Italian scene," says he, "is perfect
without its tall spiral form, appearing as if it were but a part of the
picturesquely disposed edifices which rise from the middle ground
against the distant landscape." The cypress of Somma, in Lombardy, is
believed to have been in existence in the time of Julius Caesar; it is
about 121 ft. in height, and 23 ft. in circumference. Napoleon, in
making the road over the Simplon, deviated from the straight line in
order to leave it standing. The cypress, as the olive, is found
everywhere in the dry hollows and high eastern slopes of Corfu, of the
scenery of which it is characteristic. As an ornamental tree in Britain
the cypress is useful to break the outline formed by round-headed low
shrubs and trees. The _berosh_, or _beroth_, of the Hebrew Scriptures,
translated "fir" in the authorized version, in 1 Kings v. 8 and vi. 15,
2 Chron. ii. 8 and many other passages, is supposed to signify the
cypress.

The common or tall variety of _C. sempervirens_ is known as _C.
fastigiata_; the other variety, _C. horizontalis_, which is little
planted in England, is distinguished by its horizontally spreading
branches, and its likeness to the cedar. The species _C. torulosa_ of
North India, so called from its twisted bark, attains an altitude of 150
ft.; its branches are erect or ascending, and grow so as to form a
perfect cone. In the Kulu and Ladakh country the tree is sacred to the
deities of the elements. It has been introduced into England, but does
not thrive where the winter is severe. The wood, which in Indian temples
is burnt as incense, is yellowish-red, close-grained, tough, hard,
readily worked, durable, and equal in quality to that of the deodar.
Another species, _C. lusitanica_ or _glauca_, the "cedar of Goa," is a
handsome tree, 50 ft. in height when full-grown, with spreading branches
drooping at their extremities; it has been much planted in Portugal,
especially in the neighbourhood of Cintra. Its origin is doubtful. It
was well established in Portugal before the middle of the 17th century,
and has since been cultivated generally in the south of Europe, but is
nowhere believed to be indigenous. The name "cedar of Goa" is
misleading, as no cypress is found wild anywhere near Goa. It was
cultivated in England in the 17th century, and the name _C. lusitanica_
was given by Philip Miller, the curator of the Chelsea Physick garden,
in 1768, in reference to its supposed Portuguese origin. Experience has
shown this cypress to be too tender for British climate generally,
though good specimens are to be found in the milder climate of the south
and west of England and in Ireland.

The species _G. Lawsoniana_, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south
Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of 100 ft., was
introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental
purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being
distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage. Other
Californian cypresses are _C. macrocarpa_, the Monterey cypress, which
is 60 ft. high when mature, with a habit suggesting that of cedar of
Lebanon, and _C. Joveniana_ and _C. Macnabiana_, smaller trees generally
from 20 to 30 ft. in height. _C. funebris_ is a native of the north of
China, where it is planted near pagodas. _C. nootkaensis_, the Nootka
Sound cypress or Alaska cedar, was introduced into Britain in 1850. It
is a hardy species, reaching a height of from 80 to 100 ft. Several
varieties are distinguished by habit and colour of foliage. _C. obtusa_,
a native of Japan, is a tall tree reaching 100 ft. in height, and widely
planted by the Japanese for its timber, which is one of the best for
interior construction. It is also cultivated by them as a decorative
plant, in many forms, including dwarf forms not exceeding a foot in
height.

The "deciduous cypress," "swamp cypress" or "bald cypress," _Taxodium
distichum_, is another member of the order Coniferae (tribe Taxodineae),
a native of the southern United States and Mexico. It is a lofty tree
reaching a height of 170 ft. or more, with a massive trunk 10 to 15 ft.
or more in diameter, growing in or near water or on low-lying land which
is subject to periodical flooding. The lower part of the trunk bears
huge buttresses, each of which ends in a long branching far-spreading
root, from the branches of which spring the peculiar knees which rise
above the level of the water. The knees are of a soft spongy texture and
act as breathing organs, supplying the roots with air, which they would
otherwise be unable to obtain when submerged. The stout horizontally
spreading branches give a cedar-like appearance; the foliage is light
and feathery; the leaves and the slender shoots which bear them fall in
the autumn. The cones, about the size of a small walnut, bear spirally
arranged imbricated scales which subtend the three-angled winged seeds.
The wood is light, soft, straight-grained and easily worked; it is very
durable in contact with the soil, and is used for railway-ties, posts,
fencing and for construction. The deciduous cypress was one of the first
American trees introduced into England; it is described by John
Parkinson in his _Herbal_ of 1640. It thrives only near water or where
the soil is permanently moist.



CYPRIAN, SAINT [_Caecilius Cyprianus_, called THASCIUS] (c. 200-258),
bishop of Carthage, one of the most illustrious in the early history of
the church, and one of the most notable of its early martyrs, was born
about the year 200, probably at Carthage. He was of patrician family,
wealthy, highly educated, and for some time occupied as a teacher of
rhetoric at Carthage. Of an enthusiastic temperament, accomplished in
classical literature, he seems while a pagan to have courted discussion
with the converts to Christianity. Confident in his own powers, he
entered ardently into what was no doubt the great question of the time
at Carthage as elsewhere. He sought to vanquish, but was himself
vanquished by, the new religious force which was making such rapid
inroads on the decaying paganism of the Roman empire. Caecilianus (or
Caecilius), a presbyter of Carthage, is supposed to have been the
instrument of his conversion, which seems to have taken place about 246.

Cyprian carried all his natural enthusiasm and brilliant powers into his
new profession. He devoted his wealth to the relief of the poor and
other pious uses; and so, according to his deacon Pontius, who wrote a
diffuse and vague account of his "life and passion," "realized two
benefits: the contempt of the world's ambition, and the observance of
that mercy which God has preferred to sacrifice." The result of his
charity and activity as a Christian convert was his unanimous call by
the Christian people to the head of the church in Carthage, at the end
of 248 or beginning of 249. The time was one of fierce persecution
directed against the Christians, and the bishop of Carthage became a
prominent object of attack. During the persecution of Decius (250-251)
Cyprian was exposed to imminent danger, and was compelled for a time to
seek safety in retreat. Under Gallus, the successor of Decius, the
persecution was relaxed, and Cyprian returned to Carthage. Here he held
several councils for the discussion of the affairs of the church,
especially for grave questions as to the rebaptism of heretics, and the
readmission into the church of the _lapsi_, or those who had fallen
away through fear during the heat of the persecution. Cyprian, although
inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and
inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially
heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the
episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed
towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith. He set himself
in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their
permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which
guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.
While in this question he went hand in hand with Cornelius, bishop of
Rome, his strict attitude in the matter of baptism by heretics brought
him into serious conflict with the Roman bishop Stephen. It would almost
have come to a rupture, since both parties held firmly to their
standpoint, had not a new persecution arisen under the emperor Valerian,
which threw all internal quarrels into the background in face of the
common danger. Stephen became a martyr in August 257. Cyprian was at
first banished to Curubis in Africa Proconsularis. But soon he was
recalled, taken into custody, and finally condemned to death. He was
beheaded on the 14th of September 258, the first African bishop to
obtain the martyr's crown.

All Cyprian's literary works were written in connexion with his
episcopal office; almost all his treatises and many of his letters have
the character of pastoral epistles, and their form occasionally betrays
the fact that they were intended as addresses. These writings bear the
mark of a clear mind and a moderate and gentle spirit. Cyprian had none
of that character which makes the reading of Tertullian, whom he himself
called his _magister_, so interesting and piquant, but he possessed
other qualities which Tertullian lacked, especially the art of
presenting his thoughts in simple, smooth and clear language, yet in a
style which is not wanting in warmth and persuasive power. Like
Tertullian, and often in imitation of him, Cyprian took certain
apologetic, dogmatic and pastoral themes as subjects of his treatises.
By far the best known of these is the treatise _De catholicae ecclesiae
unitate_, called forth in A.D. 251 by the schism at Carthage, but
particularly by the Novatian schism at Rome. In this is proclaimed the
doctrine of the one church founded upon the apostle Peter, whose
"tangible bond is her one united episcopate, an apostleship universal
yet only one--the authority of every bishop perfect in itself and
independent, yet not forming with all the others a mere agglomeration of
powers, but being a tenure upon a totality like that of a shareholder in
some joint property."

Attention must also be called to the treatise _Ad Donatum_ (_De gratia
dei_), in which the new life after regeneration with its moral effects
is set forth in a pure and clear light, as contrasted with the night of
heathendom and its moral degradation, which were known to the author
from personal experience. The numerous _Letters_ of Cyprian are not only
an important source for the history of church life and of ecclesiastical
law, on account of their rich and manifold contents, but in large part
they are important monuments of the literary activity of their author,
since, not infrequently, they are in the form of treatises upon the
topic in question. Of the eighty-two letters in the present collection,
sixty-six were written by Cyprian. In the great majority of cases the
chronology of their composition, as far as the year is concerned,
presents no difficulties; more precise assignments are mainly
conjectural. In the editions of the works of Cyprian a number of
treatises are printed which, certainly or probably, were not written by
him, and have therefore usually been described as pseudo-Cyprianic.
Several of them, e.g. the treatise on dice (_De aleatoribus_), have
attracted the attention of scholars, who are never weary of the attempt
to determine the identity of the author, unfortunately hitherto without
much success.

  The best, though by no means faultless, edition of Cyprian's works is
  that of W. von Hartel in the _Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum_ (3
  vols., Vienna, 1868-1871). There is an English translation in the
  _Library of the Ante-Nicene Fathers_. The most complete monograph is
  that by Archbishop E. W. Benson, _Cyprian, his Life, his Times, his
  Work_ (London, 1897). See also J. A. Faulkner, _Cyprian the Churchman_
  (Cincinnati and New York, 1906).



CYPRINODONTS. In spite of their name, the small fishes called
Cyprinodonts are in no way related to the Cyprinids, or carp family, but
are near allies of the pike, characterized by a flat head with
protractile mouth beset with cardiform, villiform, or compressed, bi- or
tri-cuspid teeth, generally large scales, and the absence of a
well-developed lateral line. About two hundred species are known, mostly
inhabitants of the fresh and brackish waters of America; only about
thirty are known from the old world (south Europe, south Asia, China and
Japan, and Africa). Several forms occur in the Oligocene and Miocene
beds of Europe. Many species are ovo-viviparous, and from their small
size and lively behaviour they are much appreciated as aquarium fishes.

In many species the sexes are dissimilar, the female being larger and
less brilliantly coloured, with smaller fins; the anal fin of the male
may be modified into an intromittent organ by means of which internal
fertilization takes place, the ova developing in a sort of uterus. In
the remarkable genus _Anableps_, from Central and South America, the
strongly projecting eyes are divided by a horizontal band of the
conjunctiva into an upper part adapted for vision in the air, and a
lower for vision in the water, and the pupil is also divided into two
parts by a constriction.

  The latest monograph of these fishes is by S. Garman in _Mem. Mus.
  Comp. Zool._ xix. (1895).

The _Amblyopsidae_, which include the remarkable blind cave fishes of
North America (Mammoth cave and others), are nearly related to the
_Cyprinodontidae_, and like many of them ovo-viviparous. _Chologaster_,
from the lowland streams and swamps of the south Atlantic states, has
the eyes well developed and the body is coloured. _Amblyopsis_ and
_Typhlichthys_, which are evidently derived from _Chologaster_, or from
forms closely related to it, but living in complete darkness, have the
eyes rudimentary and more or less concealed under the skin, and the body
is colourless.

  See F. W. Putnam, _Amer. Nat._ (1872), p. 6, and _P. Boston Soc._
  xvii. (1875), p. 222; and C. H. Eigenmann, _Archiv. für
  Entwickelungsmechanik der Organismen_, viii. (1899), p. 545.
       (G. A. B.)



CYPRUS, one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, nominally in
the dominion of Turkey, but under British administration, situated in
the easternmost basin of that sea, at roughly equal distance from the
coasts of Asia Minor to the north and of Syria to the east. The headland
of Cape Kormakiti in Cyprus is distant 44 m. from Cape Anamur in Asia
Minor, and its north-east point, Cape St Andrea, is 69 m. from Latakieh
in Syria. It lies between 34° 33´ and 35° 41´ N., and between 32° 20´
and 34° 35´ E., so that it is situated in almost exactly the same
latitude as Crete. Its greatest length is about 141 m., from Cape
Drepano in the west to Cape St Andrea in the north-east, and its
greatest breadth, from Cape Gata in the south to Cape Kormakiti in the
north, reaches 60 m.; while it retains an average width of from 35 to 50
m. through the greater part of its extent, but narrows suddenly to less
than 10 m. about 34° E., and from thence sends out a long narrow tongue
of land towards the E.N.E. for a distance of 46 m., terminating in Cape
St Andrea. The coast-line measures 486 m. Cyprus is the largest island
in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia. In 1885 a
trigonometrical survey and a map on the scale of 1 in. to 1 m. were made
by Captain (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, R.E., who worked out the area of
the island at 3584 sq. m., or a little more than the area of Norfolk and
Suffolk.

_Mountains._--Great part of the island is occupied by two mountain
ranges, both of which have a general direction from west to east. Of
these the most extensive, as well as the most lofty, is that which fills
up almost the whole southern portion of the island, and is generally
designated by modern geographers as Mount Olympus, though that name
appears to have been applied by the ancients only to one particular
peak. The highest summit is known at the present day as Mount Troödos,
and attains an elevation of 6406 ft. It sends down subordinate ranges or
spurs, of considerable altitude, on all sides, one of which extends to
Cape Arnauti (the ancient Acamas), which forms the north-west extremity
of the island, while others descend on both sides quite to the northern
and southern coasts. On the south-eastern slope are governmental and
military summer quarters. The main range is continued eastward by the
lofty summits known as Mount Adelphi (5305 ft.), Papoutsa (5124) and
Machaira or Chionia (4674), until it ends in the somewhat isolated peak
called Santa Croce (Stavrovouni or Oros Stavro), the Hill of the Holy
Cross (2260 ft.). This mountain, designated by Strabo Mount Olympus, is
a conspicuous object from Larnaca, from which it is only 12 m. distant,
and is well known from being frequented as a place of pilgrimage. The
northern range of mountains begins at Cape Kormakiti (the ancient
Crommyon) and is continued from thence in an unbroken ridge to the
eastern extremity of the island, Cape St Andrea, a distance of more than
100 m. It is not known by any collective name; its western part is
called the Kyrenia mountains, while the remainder has the name of
Carpas. It is inferior in elevation to the southern range, its highest
summit (Buffavento) attaining only 3135 ft., while in the eastern
portion the elevation rarely exceeds 2000 ft. But it is remarkable for
its continuous and unbroken character--consisting throughout of a narrow
but rugged and rocky ridge, descending abruptly to the south into the
great plain of Lefkosia, and to the north to a narrow plain bordering
the coast.

[Illustration: Map of Cyprus.]

_The Mesaoria._--Between the two mountain ranges lies a broad plain,
extending across the island from the bay of Famagusta to that of Morphou
on the west, a distance of nearly 60 m., with a breadth varying from 10
to 20 m. It is known by the name of the Mesaoria or Messaria, and is
watered by a number of intermittent streams from the mountains on either
hand. The chief streams are the Pedias and the Yalias, which follow
roughly parallel courses eastward. The greater part of the plain is open
and uncultivated, and presents nothing but barren downs; but corn is
grown in considerable quantities in the northern portions of it, and
there is no doubt that the whole is readily susceptible of cultivation.
It is remarkable that Cyprus was celebrated in antiquity for its
forests, which not only clothed the whole of its mountain ranges, but
covered the entire central plain with a dense mass, so that it was with
difficulty that the land could be cleared for cultivation. At the
present day the whole plain of the Mesaoria is naturally bare and
treeless, and it is only the loftiest and central summits of Mount
Olympus that still retain their covering of pine woods. The
disappearance of the forests (which has in a measure been artificially
remedied) naturally affected the rivers, which are mostly mere torrents,
dry in summer. Even the Pedias (ancient _Pediaeus_) does not reach the
sea in summer, and its stagnant waters form unhealthy marshes. In the
marshy localities malarial fever occurs but is rarely (in modern times)
of a severe type. The mean annual temperature in Cyprus is about 69° F.
(mean maximum 78°, and minimum 57°). The mean annual rainfall is about
19 ins. October to March is the cool, wet season. Earthquakes are not
uncommon.

  _Geology._--Cyprus lies in the continuation of the folded belt of the
  Anti-taurus. The northern coast range is formed by the oldest rocks in
  the island, consisting chiefly of limestones and marbles with
  occasional masses of igneous rock. These are supposed to be of
  Cretaceous age, but no fossils have been found in them. On both sides
  the range is flanked by sandstones and shales (the Kythraean series),
  supposed to be of Upper Eocene age; and similar rocks occur around the
  southern mountain mass. The Oligocene consists of grey and white marls
  (known as the Idalian series), which are distributed all over the
  island and attain their greatest development on the south side of the
  Troödos. All these rocks have been folded, and take part in the
  formation of the mountains. The great igneous masses of Troödos, &c.,
  consisting of diabase, basalt and serpentine, are of later date.
  Pliocene and later beds cover the central plain and occur at intervals
  along the coast. The Pliocene is of marine origin, and rests
  unconformably upon all the older beds, including the Post-oligocene
  igneous rocks, thus proving that the final folding and the last
  volcanic outbursts were approximately of Miocene age. The caves of the
  Kyrenian range contain a Pleistocene mammalian fauna.

_Population._--The population of Cyprus in 1901 was 237,022, an increase
of 27,736 since 1891 and of 51,392 since 1881. The people are mainly
Greeks and Turks. About 22% of the population are Moslems; nearly all
the remainder are Christians of the Orthodox Greek Church. The Moslem
religious courts, presided over by cadis, are strictly confined to
jurisdiction in religious cases affecting the Mahommedan population. The
island is divided into the six districts of Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limasol, Nicosia and Papho. The chief towns are Nicosia (pop. 14,752),
the capital, in the north central part of the island, Limasol (8298) and
Larnaca (7964) on the south-eastern coast. The other capitals of
districts are Famagusta on the east coast, Kyrenia on the north, and
Ktima, capital of Papho, on the south-west. Kyrenia, a small port, has a
castle built about the beginning of the 13th century, and notable,
through the troubled history of the island, as never having been
captured.

_Agriculture, &c._--The most important species of the few trees that
remain in the island are the Aleppo pine, the _Pinus laricio_, cypress,
cedar, carob, olive and _Quercus alnifolia_. Recent additions are the
eucalyptus, casuarina, _Pinus pinea_ and ailanthus. Some protection has
been afforded to existing plantations, and some attempt made to extend
their area; but the progress in both directions is slow. Agriculture is
the chief industry in the island, in spite of various disabilities. The
soil is extremely fertile, and, with a fair rainfall, say 13 in.,
between November and April, yields magnificent crops, but the
improvements in agriculture are scarcely satisfactory. The methods and
appliances used are extremely primitive, and inveterate prejudice debars
the average peasant from the use of new implements, fresh seed, or
manure; he generally cares nothing for the rotation of crops, or for the
cleanliness of his land. Modern improvements and the use of imported
machinery have, however, been adopted by some. A director of agriculture
was appointed in 1896, and leaflets are issued pointing out improvements
within the means of the villager, and how to deal with plant diseases
and insect pests. The products of the soil include grain, fruit,
including carob, olive, mulberry, cotton, vegetables and oil seeds.
Vineyards occupy a considerable area, and the native wines are pure and
strong, but not always palatable. The native practice of conveying wine
in tarred skins was deleterious to its flavour, and is now for the most
part abolished. A company has exploited and improved the industry. Large
sums have been expended on the destruction of locusts; they are now
practically harmless, but live locusts are diligently collected every
year, a reward being paid by the government for their destruction. Under
the superintendence of an officer lent by the government of Madras, two
great works of irrigation, from the lack of which agriculture had
seriously suffered, were undertaken in 1898 and 1899. The smaller
includes a reservoir at Syncrasi (Famagusta), with a catchment of 27 sq.
m. and a capacity of 70,000,000 cub. ft. It reclaims 360 acres, and was
estimated to irrigate 4320. The larger scheme includes three large
reservoirs in the Mesaoria to hold up and temporarily store the flood
waters of the Pedias and Yalias rivers. The estimate premised a cost of
£50,000, the irrigation of 42,000 acres, and the reclamation of 10,000.
These works were completed respectively in 1899 and 1901.

The rearing of live stock is of no little importance. A committee exists
"for the improvement of the breeds of Cyprus stock"; stallions of Arab
blood have been imported, and prizes are offered for the best donkeys.
Cattle, sheep, mules and donkeys are sent in large numbers to Egypt.
Cyprus mules have found favour in war in the Crimea, India, Uganda,
Eritrea and Egypt. The sea fisheries are not important, with the
exception of the sponge fishery, which is under the protection of the
administration. The manufactures of the island are insignificant.

_Minerals._--Next to its forests, which long supplied the Greek monarchs
of Egypt with timber for their fleets, Cyprus was celebrated among the
ancients for its mineral wealth, especially for its mines of copper,
which were worked from a very early period, and continued to enjoy such
reputation among both Greeks and Romans that the modern name for the
metal is derived from the term of Aes Cyprium or Cuprium by which it was
known to the latter. According to Strabo the most valuable mines were
worked at a place called Tamasus, in the centre of the island, on the
northern slopes of Mount Olympus, but their exact site has not been
identified. An attempt to work copper towards the close of the 19th
century was a failure, but some prospecting was subsequently carried on.
Besides copper, according to Strabo, the island produced considerable
quantities of silver; and Pliny records it as producing various kinds of
precious stones, among which he mentions diamonds and emeralds, but
these were doubtless nothing more than rock crystal and beryl. Salt,
which was in ancient times one of the productions for which the island
was noted, is still made in large quantities, and there are extensive
salt works in the neighbourhood of Larnaca and Limasol, where there are
practically inexhaustible salt lakes. Rock crystal and asbestos are
still found in the district of Paphos. Gypsum is exported unburnt from
the Carpas, and as plaster of Paris from Limasol and Larnaca. Statuary
marble has been found on the slopes of Buffavento in the northern range.
Excellent building stone exists throughout the island.

_Commerce._--A disability against the trade of Cyprus has been the want
of natural harbours, the ports possessing only open roadsteads; though
early in the 20th century the construction of a satisfactory commercial
harbour was undertaken at Famagusta, and there is a small harbour at
Kyrenia. Trade is carried on principally from the ports already
indicated among the chief towns. The various agricultural products,
cattle and mules, cheese, wines and spirits, silk cocoons and gypsum
make up the bulk of the exports. Barley and wheat, carobs and raisins
may be specially indicated among the agricultural exports. The annual
value of exports and of imports (which are of a general character) may
be set down as about £300,000 each. Good roads are maintained connecting
the more important towns, and when the harbour at Famagusta was
undertaken the construction of a railway from that port to Nicosia was
also put in hand. The Eastern Telegraph Co. maintains a cable from
Alexandria (Egypt) to Larnaca, and the greater part of the lines on the
island. The Imperial Ottoman Telegraph Co. has also some lines. The
British sovereign is the current gold coin, the unit of the bronze and
silver coinage being the _piastre_ (1(1/3) penny). Turkish weights and
measures are used. The oke, equalling 2.8 lb. avoirdupois, and the
_donum_, about ¼ of an acre, are the chief units.

_Constitution and Government._--Under a convention signed at
Constantinople on the 4th of June 1878, Great Britain engaged to join
the sultan of Turkey in defending his Asiatic possessions (in certain
contingencies) against Russia, and the sultan, "in order to enable
England to make necessary provision for executing her engagement,"
consented to assign the island of Cyprus to be occupied and administered
by England. The British flag was hoisted on the 12th of June, and the
conditions of the occupation were explained in an annex to the
convention, dated the 1st of July. An order in council of the 14th of
September, modified so far as related to legislation by another of the
30th of November, regulated the government of the island. The
administration was placed in the hands of a high commissioner with the
usual powers of a colonial governor. Executive and legislative councils
were established; and in each of the six districts into which, for
administrative and legal purposes, the island was divided, a
commissioner was appointed to represent the government. The executive
council consists of the high commissioner, the chief secretary, the
king's advocate, the senior officer in charge of the troops, and the
receiver-general, with, as "additional" members, two Christians and one
Mussulman. The legislative council consists of six non-elected members,
being office-holders, and twelve elected members, three being chosen by
the Moslems and nine by the non-Moslem inhabitants. British subjects and
foreigners, who have resided five years in Cyprus, can exercise the
franchise as well as Ottoman subjects. The qualification otherwise is
the payment of any of the taxes classed as Vergi Taxes (see below). The
courts in existence at the time of the occupation were superseded by the
following, constituted by an order in council dated the 30th of November
1882:--(1) a supreme court of criminal and civil appeal; (2) six assize
courts; (3) six district courts; (4) six magistrates' courts; and (5)
village courts. Actions are divided, according to the nationality of the
defendant, into "Ottoman" and "Foreign"; in the latter, the president of
the court alone exercises jurisdiction as a rule, so also in criminal
cases against foreigners. The law administered is that contained in the
Ottoman codes, modified by ordinances passed by the legislative council.

  _Finance._--The principal sources of revenue are:--

  (1) Vergi taxes, or taxes on house and land property, and trade
  profits and incomes (not including salaries); (2) military exemption
  tax, payable by Moslems and Christians alike, but not by foreigners,
  of 2s. 6d. a head on males between 18 and 60 years of age; (3) tithes.
  All tithes have been abolished, except those on cereals, carobs, silk
  cocoons, and, in the form of 10% _ad valorem_ export duties, those on
  cotton, linseed, aniseed and raisins (all other export duties and a
  fishing tax have been abolished); (4) sheep, goat, and pig tax; (5) an
  excise on wine, spirits and tobacco; (6) import duties; (7) stamps,
  court fees, royalties, licenses, &c.; (8) salt monopoly. Foreigners
  are liable to all the above taxes except the military exemption tax.
  The annual sum of £92,800, payable to Turkey as the average excess
  (according to the years 1873-1878) of revenue over expenditure, but
  really appropriated to the interest on the British guaranteed loan of
  1855, is a heavy burden. But if not lightened, taxation is at least
  better apportioned than formerly.

  _Instruction._--A general system of grants in aid of elementary
  schools was established in 1882. There are some 300 connected with the
  Greek Orthodox Church, and 160 elementary Moslem schools. Aid is also
  given to a few Armenian and Maronite schools. Among other schools are
  a Moslem high school (maintained entirely by government), a training
  college at Nicosia for teachers in the Orthodox Church schools, Greek
  high schools at Larnaca and Limasol, an English school for boys and a
  girls' school at Nicosia. By a law of 1895 separate boards of
  education for Moslem and Greek Christian schools were established, and
  in each district there are separate committees, presided over by the
  commissioner. An institution worthy of special notice is the home and
  farm for lepers near Nicosia, accommodating over a hundred inmates.


HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY DOWN TO THE ROMAN OCCUPATION

The Stone Age has left but few traces in Cyprus; no sites have been
found and even single implements are very rare. The "megalithic"
monuments of Agia Phaneromeni[1] and Halá Sultán Teké near Larnaca may
perhaps be early, like the Palestinian cromlechs; but the vaulted
chamber of Agia Katrína near Enkomi seems to be Mycenaean or later; and
the perforated monoliths at Ktima seem to belong to oil presses of
uncertain but probably not prehistoric date.

The Bronze Age, on the other hand, is of peculiar importance in an area
which, like Cyprus, was one of the chief early sources of copper. Its
remains have been carefully studied both on settlement sites at
Leondári Vounò and Kalopsída, and in tombs in more than thirty places,
notably at Agia Paraskevì, Psemmatisméno, Alámbra, Episkopì and Enkomi.
Throughout this period, which began probably before 3000 B.C. and ended
about 1000 B.C., Cyprus evidently maintained a large population, and an
art and culture distinct from those of Egypt, Syria and Cilicia. The
Cypriote temper, however, lacks originality; at all periods it has
accepted foreign innovations slowly, and discarded them even more
reluctantly. The island owes its importance, therefore, mainly to its
copious supply of a few raw materials, notably copper and timber.
Objects of Cypriote manufacture are found but rarely on sites abroad; in
the later Bronze Age, however, they occur in Egypt and South Palestine,
and as far afield as Thera (Santorin), Athens and Troy (Hissarlik).

The Bronze Age culture of Cyprus falls into three main stages. In the
first, the implements are rather of copper than of bronze, tin being
absent or in small quantities (2 to 3%); the types are common to Syria
and Asia Minor as far as the Hellespont, and resemble also the earliest
forms in the Aegean and in central Europe; the pottery is all hand-made,
with a red burnished surface, gourd-like and often fantastic forms, and
simple geometrical patterns incised; zoomorphic art is very rare, and
imported objects are unknown. In the second stage, implements of true
bronze (9 to 10% tin) become common; painted pottery of buff clay with
dull black geometrical patterns appears alongside the red-ware; and
foreign imports occur, such as Egyptian blue-glazed beads (XIIth-XIIIth
Dynasty, 2500-2000 B.C.),[2] and cylindrical Asiatic seals (one of
Sargon I., 2000 B.C.).[3]

In the third stage, Aegean colonists introduced the Mycenaean (late
Minoan) culture and industries; with new types of weapons, wheel-made
pottery, and a naturalistic art which rapidly becomes conventional; gold
and ivory are abundant, and glass and enamels are known. Extended
intercourse with Syria, Palestine and Egypt brought other types of
pottery, jewelry, &c. (especially scarabs of XVIIIth and XIXth
Dynasties, 1600-1200 B.C.), which were freely copied on the spot. There
is, however, nothing in this period which can be ascribed to
specifically "Phoenician" influence; the only traces of writing are in a
variety of the Aegean script. The magnificent tombs from Enkomi and
Episkopì illustrate the wealth and advancement of Cyprus at this
time.[4]

It is in this third stage that Cyprus first appears in history, under
the name _Asi_, as a conquest of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III. of Egypt
(XVIIIth Dynasty, c. 1500 B.C.),[5] yielding tribute of chariots,
horses, copper, blue-stone and other products. It was still in Egyptian
hands under Seti I., and under Rameses III. a list of Cypriote towns
seems to include among others the names of Salamis, Citium, Soli,
Idalium, Cerynia (Kyrenia), and Curium. Another Egyptian dependency,
Alasia, has by some been identified with Cyprus or a part of it (but may
perhaps be in North Syria). It sent copper, oil, horses and cattle,
ivory and timber; under Amenophis (Amenhotep) III. it exported timber
and imported silver; it included a town Sikra, traded with Byblus in
North Syria, and was exposed to piratical raids of _Lykki_ (? Lycians).

The decline of Egypt under the XXth Dynasty, and the contemporary fall
of the Aegean sea-power, left Cyprus isolated and defenceless, and the
Early Iron Age which succeeds is a period of obscurity and relapse.
Iron, which occurs rarely, and almost exclusively for ornaments, in a
few tombs at Enkomi, suddenly superseded bronze for tools and weapons,
and its introduction was accompanied, as in the Aegean, by economic, and
probably by political changes, which broke up the high civilization of
the Mycenaean colonies, and reduced them to poverty, isolation and
comparative barbarism. It is significant that the first iron swords in
Cyprus are of a type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic.
Gold and even silver become rare;[6] foreign imports almost cease;
engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal
seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (_fibulae_)
like those of south-eastern Europe. Representative art languishes,
except a few childish terra-cottas; decorative art becomes once more
purely geometrical, but shows only slight affinity with the contemporary
geometrical art of the Aegean.

Lingering thus in Cyprus (as also in some islands of the Aegean)
Mycenaean traditions came into contact with new oriental influences from
the Syrian coast; and these were felt in Cyprus somewhat earlier than in
the West. But there is at present no clear proof of Phoenician or other
Semitic activity in Cyprus until the last years of the 8th century.

No reference to Cyprus has been found in Babylonian or Assyrian records
before the reign of Sargon II. (end of 8th century B.C.), and the
occasional discovery of Mesopotamian cylinders of early date in Cyprus
is no proof of direct intercourse.[7] Isaiah (xxiii. 1, 12), writing
about this time, describes Kittim (a name derived from Citium, q.v.) as
a port of call for merchantmen homeward bound for Tyre, and as a shelter
for Tyrian refugees; but the Hebrew geographers of this and the next
century classify _Kittim_, together with other coast-lands and islands,
under the heading _Javan_, "Ionian" (q.v.), and consequently reckoned it
as predominantly Greek.

Sargon's campaigns in north Syria, Cilicia and south-east Asia Minor
(721-711) provoked first attacks, then an embassy and submission in 709,
from seven kings of _Yatnana_ (the Assyrian name for Cyprus); and an
inscription of Sargon himself, found at Citium, proves an Assyrian
protectorate, and records tribute of gold, silver and various timbers.
These kings probably represent that "sea-power of Cyprus" which precedes
that of Phoenicia in the Greek "List of Thalassocracies" preserved by
Eusebius. Under Sennacherib's rule, _Yatnana_ figures (as in Isaiah) as
the refuge of a disloyal Sidonian in 702; but in 668 ten kings of
Cypriote cities joined Assur-bani-pal's expedition to Egypt; most of
them bear recognizable Greek names, e.g. Pylagoras of Chytroi, Eteandros
of Paphos, Onasagoras of Ledroi. They are gazetted with twelve other
"kings of the Hatti" (S.E. Asia Minor). Citium, the principal Phoenician
state, does not appear by name; but is usually recognized in the list
under its Phoenician title _Karti-hadasti_, "new town."

Thus before the middle of the 7th century Cyprus reappears in history
divided among at least ten cities, of which some are certainly Greek,
and one at least certainly Phoenician: with this, Greek tradition
agrees.[8] The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from
Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos, from Arcadia; at Salamis,
from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica. The
settlements at Paphos and Salamis, and probably at Curium, were believed
to date from the period of the Trojan War, i.e. from the 13th century,
and the latter part of the Mycenaean age; the name of Teucer, the
legendary founder of Salamis, probably is a reminiscence of the
piratical Tikkara who harried the Egyptian coast under Rameses III. (c.
1200 B.C.), and the discovery of late Mycenaean settlements on these
sites, and also at Lapathus, suggests that these legends rest upon
history. The Greek dialect of Cyprus points in the same direction; it
shows marked resemblances with that of Arcadia, and forms with it a
"South Achaean" or "South Aeolic" group, related to the "Northern
Aeolic" of Thessaly and other parts of north Greece.[9] Further
evidence of continuity comes from the peculiar Cypriote script, a
syllabary related to the linear scripts of Crete and the south Aegean,
and traceable in Cyprus to the Mycenaean age.[10] It remained in regular
use until the 4th century; before that time the Greek alphabet occurs in
Cyprus only in a few inscriptions erected for visitors.[11] In Citium
and Idalium, on the other hand, a Phoenician dialect and alphabet were
in use from the time of Sargon onward.[12] Sargon's inscription at
Citium is cuneiform.[13]

The culture and art of Cyprus in this Graeco-Phoenician period are well
represented by remains from Citium, Idalium, Tamassus, Amathus and
Curium; the earlier phases are best represented round Lapathus, Soli,
Paphos and Citium; the later Hellenization, at Amathus and
Marion-Arsinoë. Three distinct foreign influences may be distinguished:
they originate in Egypt, in Assyria, and in the Aegean. The first two
predominate earlier, and gradually recede before the last-named. Their
effects are best seen in sculpture and in metal work, though it remains
doubtful whether the best examples of the latter were made in Cyprus or
on the mainland. Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,[14]
found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere
and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian
scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the
Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged
in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of
style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.[15] From its
intermediate position between the art of Phoenicia and its western
colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the
Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician. The same sequence
of phases is represented in sculpture by the votive statues from the
sanctuaries of Aphrodite at Dali and of Apollo at Vóni and Frángissa;
and by examples from other sites in the Cesnola collection; in painting
by a rare class of naïvely polychromic vases; and in both by the
elaborately coloured terra-cotta figures from the "Toumba" site at
Salamis. Gem-engraving and jewelry follow similar lines;
pottery-painting for the most part remains geometrical throughout, with
crude survivals of Mycenaean curvilinear forms. Those Aegean influences,
however, which had been predominant in the later Bronze Age, and had
never wholly ceased, revived, as Hellenism matured and spread, and
slowly repelled the mixed Phoenician orientalism. Imported vases from
the Aegean, of the "Dipylon," "proto-Corinthian" and "Rhodian" fabrics,
occur rarely, and were imitated by the native potters; and early in the
6th century appears the specific influence of Ionia, and still more of
Naucratis in the Egyptian delta. For the failure of Assyria in Egypt in
668-664, and the revival of Egypt as a phil-Hellene state under the
XXVIth Dynasty, admitted strong Graeco-Egyptian influences in industry
and art, and led about 560 B.C. to the political conquest of Cyprus by
Amasis (Ahmosi) II.;[16] once again Cypriote timber maintained a foreign
sea-power in the Levant.

The annexation of Egypt by Cambyses of Persia in 525 B.C. was preceded
by the voluntary surrender of Cyprus, which formed part of Darius's
"fifth satrapy."[17] The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and
organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500
B.C.;[18] but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal
to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less
than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes;[19] and in spite of the repeated
attempts of the Delian League to "liberate" the island, it remained
subject to Persia during the 5th century.[20] The occasion of the siege
of Idalium by Persians (which is commemorated in an important Cypriote
inscription) is unknown.[21] Throughout this period, however, Athens and
other Greek states maintained a brisk trade in copper, sending vases and
other manufactures in return, and bringing Cyprus at last into full
contact with Hellenism. But the Greek cities retained monarchical
government throughout, and both the domestic art and the principal
religious cults remained almost unaltered. The coins of the Greek
dynasts and autonomous towns are struck on a variable standard with a
stater of 170 to 180 grs.[22] The principal Greek cities were now
Salamis, Curium, Paphos, Marion, Soli, Kyrenia and Khytri. Phoenicians
held Citium and Amathus on the south coast between Salamis and Curium,
also Tamassus and Idalium in the interior; but the last named was little
more than a sanctuary town, like Paphos. At the end of the 5th century a
fresh Salaminian League was formed by Evagoras (q.v.), who became king
in 410, aided the Athenian Conon after the fall of Athens in 404, and
revolted openly from Persia in 386, after the peace of Antalcidas.[23]
Athens again sent help, but as before the Phoenician states supported
Persia; the Greeks were divided by feuds, and in 380 the attempt failed;
Evagoras was assassinated in 374, and his son Nicocles died soon after.
After the victory of Alexander the Great at Issus in 333 B.C. all the
states of Cyprus welcomed him, and sent timber and ships for his siege
of Tyre in 332.

After Alexander's death in 323 B.C. Cyprus, coveted still for its copper
and timber, passed, after several rapid changes, to Ptolemy I., king of
Egypt. Then in 306 B.C. Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon overran the
whole island, besieged Salamis, and utterly defeated there the Egyptian
fleet. Ptolemy, however, recovered it in 295 B.C. Under Ptolemaic rule
Cyprus has little history. Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the
royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus
(107-89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The
great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of
Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but
few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Vóni and Vitsáda,
and the frescoed tombstones from Amathus, only show how incapable the
Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and
beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote
fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean. It is in this period
that we first hear of Jewish settlements,[24] which later become very
populous.

In 58 B.C. Rome, which had made large unsecured loans to Ptolemy
Auletes, sent M. Porcius Cato to annex the island, nominally because its
king had connived at piracy, really because its revenues and the
treasures of Paphos were coveted to finance a corn law of P.
Clodius.[25] Under Rome Cyprus was at first appended to the province of
Cilicia; after Actium (31 B.C.) it became a separate province, which
remained in the hands of Augustus and was governed by a _legatus
Caesaris pro praetore_ as long as danger was feared from the East.[26]
No monuments remain of this period. In 22 B.C., however, it was
transferred to the senate,[27] so that Sergius Paulus, who was governor
in A.D. 46, is rightly called [Greek: anthypatos](proconsul).[28] Of
Paulus no coins are known, but an inscription exists.[29] Other
proconsuls are Julius Cordus and L. Annius Bassus who succeeded him in
A.D. 52.[30] The copper mines, which were still of great importance,
were farmed at one time by Herod the Great.[31] The persecution of
Christians on the mainland after the death of Stephen drove converts as
far as Cyprus; and soon after converted Cypriote Jews, such as Mnason
(an "original convert" ) and Joses the Levite (better known as
Barnabas), were preaching in Antioch. The latter revisited Cyprus twice,
first with Paul on his "first journey" in A.D. 46, and later with
Mark.[32] In 116-117 the Jews of Cyprus, with those of Egypt and Cyrene,
revolted, massacred 240,000 persons, and destroyed a large part of
Salamis. Hadrian, afterwards emperor, suppressed them, and expelled all
Jews from Cyprus.

For the culture of the Roman period there is abundant evidence from
Salamis and Paphos, and from tombs everywhere, for the glass vessels
which almost wholly supersede pottery are much sought for their (quite
accidental) iridescence; not much else is found that is either
characteristic or noteworthy; and little attention has been paid to the
sequence of style.

The Christian church of Cyprus was divided into thirteen bishoprics. It
was made autonomous in the 5th century, in recognition of the supposed
discovery of the original of St Matthew's Gospel in a "tomb of Barnabas"
which is still shown at Salamis. The patriarch has therefore the title
[Greek: makariôtatos] and the right to sign his name in red ink. A
council of Cyprus, summoned by Theophilus of Alexandria in A.D. 401,
prohibited the reading of the works of Origen (see CYPRUS, CHURCH OF).

Of the Byzantine period little remains but the ruins of the castles of
St Hilarion, Buffavento and Kantára; and a magnificent series of gold
ornaments and silver plate, found near Kyrenia in 1883 and 1897
respectively. Christian tombs usually contain nothing of value.

The Frank conquest is represented by the "Crusaders' Tower" at Kolossi,
and the church of St Nicholas at Nicosia; and, later, by masterpieces of
a French Gothic style, such as the church (mosque) of St Sophia, and
other churches at Nicosia; the cathedral (mosque) and others at
Famagusta (q.v.), and the monastery at Bella Pais; as well as by
domestic architecture at Nicosia; and by forts at Kyrenia, Limasol and
elsewhere.

The Turks and British have added little, and destroyed much, converting
churches into mosques and grain-stores, and quarrying walls and
buildings at Famagusta.

_History of Excavation._--Practically all the archaeological discoveries
above detailed have been made since 1877. A few chance finds of vases,
inscriptions and coins; of a hoard of silver bowls at Dali (anc.
_Idalium_)[33] in 1851; and of a bronze tablet with Phoenician and
Cypriote bilingual inscriptions,[34] also at Dali, and about the same
time, had raised questions of great interest as to the art and the
language of the ancient inhabitants. T. B. Sandwith, British consul
1865-1869, had laid the foundations of a sound knowledge of Cypriote
pottery;[35] his successor R. H. Lang (1870-1872) had excavated a
sanctuary of Aphrodite at Dali;[36] and at the time of the publication
of the 9th ed. of the _Ency. Brit._,[37] General Louis P. di Cesnola
(q.v.), American consul, was already exploring ancient sites, and
opening tombs, in all parts of the island, though his results were not
published till 1877.[38] But though his vast collection, now in the
Metropolitan Museum of New York, remains the largest series of Cypriote
antiquities in the world, the accounts which have been given of its
origin are so inadequate, and have provoked so much controversy,[39]
that its scientific value is small, and a large part of subsequent
excavation has necessarily been directed to solving the problems
suggested by its practically isolated specimens. From 1876 to 1878 Major
Alexander P. di Cesnola continued his brother's work, but the large
collection which he exhibited in London in 1880 was dispersed soon
afterwards.[40]

On the British occupation of Cyprus in 1878, the Ottoman law of 1874 in
regard to antiquities was retained in force. Excavation is permitted
under government supervision, and the finds are apportioned in thirds,
between the excavator, the landowner (who is usually bought out by the
former), and the government. The government thirds lie neglected in a
"Cyprus Museum" maintained at Nicosia by voluntary subscription. There
is no staff, and no effective supervision of ancient sites or monuments.
A catalogue of the collections was published by the Oxford University
Press in 1899.[41]

Since 1878 more than seventy distinct excavations have been made in
Cyprus, of which the following are the most important. In 1879 the
British government used the acropolis of _Citium_ (Larnaca) to fill up
the ancient harbour; and from the destruction a few Phoenician
inscriptions and a proto-Ionic capital were saved. In 1882 tombs were
opened by G. Hake at _Salamis_ and _Curium_ for the South Kensington
Museum, but no scientific record was made. In 1883 the Cyprus Museum was
founded by private enterprise, and on its behalf Max Ohnefalsch-Richter,
who had already made trial diggings for Sir Charles Newton and the
British Museum, excavated sanctuaries at Vóni and Kythréa (_Chytri_),
and opened tombs on some other sites.[42]

In 1885 Dr F. Dümmler opened tombs at Dali, Alámbra and elsewhere, and
laid the foundations of knowledge of the Bronze Age and Early Iron
Age;[43] and Richter, on behalf of officials and private individuals,
excavated parts of Frángissa (_Tamassus_), Episkopì and Dali.[44]

In the same year, 1885, and in 1886, a syndicate opened many tombs at
Póli-tis-Khrýsochou (_Marium_, _Arsinoë_), and sold the contents by
auction in Paris. From Richter's notes of this excavation, Dr P.
Herrmann compiled the first scientific account of Graeco-Phoenician and
Hellenistic Cyprus.[45] In 1886 also M. le vicomte E. de Castillon de St
Victor opened rich Graeco-Phoenician tombs at Episkopì, the contents of
which are in the Louvre.[46]

The successes of 1885-1886 led to the foundation of the Cyprus
Exploration Fund, on behalf of which (1) in 1888 the sanctuary of
Aphrodite at _Paphos_ (Kouklia) was excavated by Messrs E. Gardner, M.
R. James, D. G. Hogarth and R. Elsey Smith;[47] (2) in 1889-1890 more
tombs were opened at Póli by Messrs J. A. R. Munro and H. A. Tubbs;[48]
(3) in 1890-1891 extensive trials were made at _Salamis_, by the
same;[49] (4) minor sites were examined at Leondári Vounò (1888),[50]
Amargetti (1888),[51] and Limniti (1889);[52] (5) in 1888 Hogarth made a
surface-survey of the Karpass promontory;[53] and finally, (6) in 1894
the balance was expended by J. L. Myres in a series of trials, to settle
special points, at Agia Paraskevì, Kalopsída and Larnaca.[54] In 1894
also Dr Richter excavated round _Idalium_ and _Tamassus_ for the
Prussian government: the results, unpublished up to 1902, are in the
Berlin Museum.[55] Finally, a legacy from Miss Emma T. Turner enabled
the British Museum to open numerous tombs, by contract, of the
Graeco-Phoenician age, in 1894, at Palaeò-Lemessò (_Amathus_); and of
the Mycenaean age, in 1894-1895 at Episkopì, in 1895-1896 at Enkomi
(near _Salamis_), and in 1897-1899 on small sites between Larnaca and
Limasol.[56]

  For ancient Oriental references to Cyprus see E. Oberhummer, _Die
  Insel Cypern_, i. (Munich, 1903); for classical references, W. H.
  Engel, _Kypros_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1841); for culture and art, G.
  Perrot and C. Chipiez, _Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquité_, vol. iii.
  "Phénicie et Cypre" (Paris, 1885); L. P. di Cesnola, _A Descriptive
  Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypr. Antiquities in the
  Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York_ (3 vols., Boston, U.S.A.,
  1884-1886); M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, _Kypros, the Bible and Homer_ (2
  vols., London and Berlin, 1893); J. L. Myres and M.
  Ohnefalsch-Richter, _Cyprus Museum Catalogue_ (Oxford, 1899). The
  principal publications on special topics are given in the footnotes.
  For Cypriote coins see also NUMISMATICS. See further the general
  bibliography below.     (J. L. M.)


MODERN HISTORY

After the division of the Roman empire Cyprus naturally passed, with all
the neighbouring countries, into the hands of the Eastern or Byzantine
emperors, to whom it continued subject, with brief intervals, for more
than seven centuries. Until 644 the island was exceedingly prosperous,
but in that year began the period of Arab invasions, which continued
intermittently until 975. At the outset the Arabs under the caliph
Othman made themselves masters of the island, and destroyed the city of
Salamis, which until that time had continued to be the capital. The
island was recovered by the Greek emperors and, though again conquered
by the Arabs in the reign of Harun al-Rashid (802), it was finally
restored to the Byzantine empire under Nicephorus Phocas. Its princes
became practically independent, and tyrannized the island, until in 1191
Isaac Comnenus provoked the wrath of Richard I., king of England, by
wantonly ill-treating his crusaders. He thereupon wrested the island
from Isaac, whom he took captive. He then sold Cyprus to the Knights
Templars, who presently resold it to Guy de Lusignan, titular king of
Jerusalem.

Guy ruled from 1192 till his death in 1194; his brother Amaury took the
title of king, and from this time Cyprus was governed for nearly three
centuries by a succession of kings of the same dynasty, who introduced
into the island the feudal system and other institutions of western
Europe. During the later part of this period, indeed, the Genoese made
themselves masters of Famagusta--which had risen in place of Salamis to
be the chief commercial city in the island--and retained possession of
it for a considerable time (1376-1464); but it was recovered by King
James II., and the whole island was reunited under his rule. His
marriage with Caterina Cornaro, a Venetian lady of rank, was designed to
secure the support of the powerful republic of Venice, but had the
effect after a few years, in consequence of his own death and that of
his son James III., of transferring the sovereignty of the island to his
new allies. Caterina, feeling herself unable to contend alone with the
increasing power of the Turks, was induced to abdicate the sovereign
power in favour of the Venetian republic, which at once entered into
full possession of the island (1489).

The Venetians retained their acquisition for eighty-two years,
notwithstanding the neighbourhood of the Turks. Cyprus was now harshly
governed by a lieutenant, and the condition of the natives, who had been
much oppressed under the Lusignan dynasty, became worse. In 1570 the
Turks, under Selim II., made a serious attempt to conquer the island, in
which they landed an army of 60,000 men. The greater part of the island
was reduced with little difficulty; Nicosia, the capital, was taken
after a siege of 45 days, and 20,000 of its inhabitants put to the
sword. Famagusta alone made a gallant and protracted resistance, and
did not capitulate till after a siege of nearly a year's duration
(August 1571). The terms of the capitulation were shamefully violated by
the Turks, who put to death the governor Marcantonio Bragadino with
cruel torments. From that time Cyprus was under Turkish administration
until the agreement with Great Britain in 1878. Its history during that
period is almost a blank. A serious insurrection broke out in 1764, but
was speedily suppressed; and a few similar incidents are the only
evidence of the Turkish oppression of the Christian population of the
island, and the consequent stagnation of its trade.

  AUTHORITIES.--_An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus_, by C. D.
  Cobham (4th ed., Nicosia, 1900), registers over 700 works which deal
  with Cyprus. _A Handbook of Cyprus_, by Sir J. T. Hutchinson and C. D.
  Cobham (London), treats the island briefly from every standpoint. See
  also E. Oberhummer, _Die Insel Cypern_ (Munich, 1903 et seq.), a
  comprehensive work. The most interesting travels may be found under
  the names of Felix Faber, _Evagatorium_ (Stuttgart, 1843); de
  Villamont, Voyages (Arras, 1598); van Kootwyck, _Cotovici itinerarium_
  (Antwerp, 1619); R. Pococke, _Description of the East_ (London, 1743);
  A. Drummond, _Travels_ (London, 1754); E. D. Clarke, _Travels_
  (London, 1812); Sir S. Baker, _Cyprus in 1879_ (London, 1879); W. H.
  Mallock, _In an Enchanted Island_ (London, 1879). The geology of the
  island has been handled by A. Gaudry, _Géologie de l'île de Chypre_
  (Paris, 1862); C. V. Bellamy, _Notes on the Geology of Cyprus, to
  accompany a Geological Map of Cyprus_ (London, 1905); C. V. Bellamy
  and A. J. Jukes-Brown, _Geology of Cyprus_ (Plymouth, 1905). Its
  natural history by F. Unger and T. Kotschy, _Die Insel Cypern_ (Wien,
  1865). Numismatics by the Duc de Luynes, _Numismatique et inscriptions
  cypriotes_ (Paris, 1852); R. H. Lang, _Numism. Chronicle_, vol. xi.
  (1871); J. P. Six, _Rev. num._ pp. 249-374 (Paris, 1883); and E.
  Babelon, _Monnaies grecques_ (Paris, 1893). The coins of medieval date
  have been described by P. Lambros, _Monnaies inédites_ (Athens, 1876);
  and G. Schlumberger, _Num. de l'orient latin_ (Paris, 1878).
  Inscriptions in the Cypriote character have been collected by M.
  Schmidt, _Sammlung_ (Jena, 1876); and W. Deecke, _Die
  griechisch-kyprischen Inschriften_ (Göttingen, 1883); in Phoenician in
  the _C.I.P._ (Paris, 1881). J. Meursius, _Cyprus_ (Amsterdam, 1675),
  marshals the classical authorities; and W. Engel, _Kypros_ (Berlin,
  1841), gives a good summary of the ancient history of the island. For
  the Phoenician element, see F. Movers, _Die Phönizier_ (Bonn and
  Berlin, 1841-1856). L. Comte de Mas Latrie published between 1852 and
  1861 one volume of _History_ (1191-1291), and two of most precious
  documents in illustration of the reigns of the Lusignan kings. Fra
  Stefano Lusignano, _Chorograffia di Cipro_ (Bologna, 1573), and Bp.
  Stubbs, _Two Lectures_ (Oxford, 1878), are useful for the same period;
  and perhaps a score of contemporary pamphlets--the best of them by N.
  Martinengo, _Relatione di tutto il successo di Famagosta_ (Venezia,
  1572), and A. Calepio (in Lusignan's _Chorograffia_)--preserve details
  of the famous sieges of Nicosia and Famagusta. G. Mariti, _Viaggi_
  (Lucca, 1769; Eng. trans. C. D. Cobham, 2nd ed., 1909), and Cyprianos,
  _History_ (Venice, 1768), are the best authorities of Cyprus under
  Turkish rule. Medieval tombs and their inscriptions are recorded and
  illustrated in T. J. Chamberlayne, _Lacrimae nicossienses_ (Paris,
  1894); and C. Enlart's volumes, _L'Art gothique et la Renaissance en
  Chypre_ (Paris, 1899), deal with medieval architecture. For Cypriote
  pottery in Athens and Constantinople, see G. Nicole, _Bulletin de
  l'Institut Genevois_, xxxvii.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, _Arch. Zeitung_ (1881), p. 311, pl. xviii.
    The principal publications respecting this and all sites and phases
    of culture mentioned in this section are collected in Myres and
    Ohnefalsch-Richter, _Cyprus Museum Catalogue_ (Oxford, 1899), pp.
    1-35.

  [2] Myres, _Journ. Hellenic Studies_, xvii. p. 146.

  [3] Sayce, _Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch._ v. pp. 441-444. The exact
    provenance of these cylinders is not known, but there is every reason
    to believe that they were found in Cyprus.

  [4] British Museum, _Excavations in Cyprus_ (London, 1900). The
    official publication stands alone in referring these tombs to the
    Hellenic period (800-600 B.C.).

  [5] E. Oberhummer, _Die Insel Cypern_ (Munich, 1903), i. pp. 1-3 (all
    the Egyptian evidence).

  [6] A. J. Evans, _Journ. Anthrop. Inst._ xxx. p. 199 ff.; J. Naue,
    _Die vorrömischen Schwerter_ (Munich, 1903), p. 25.

  [7] E. Oberhummer, _l.c._ p. 5 ff. (all the Assyrian and biblical
    evidence).

  [8] W. H. Engel, _Kypros_ (Berlin, 1841) (all the Greek traditions).

  [9] Moriz Schmidt, _Z. f. vergl. Sprachw._ (1860), p. 290 ff., 361
    ff.; H. W. Smith, _Trans. Amer. Philol. Assoc._ xviii. (1887); R.
    Meister, _Zum eleischen, arkadischen u. kyprischen Dialekte_
    (Leipzig, 1890); O. Hoffmann, _Die griechischen Dialekte_, i.
    (Göttingen, 1891); C. D. Cobham, _Bibliography of Cyprus_, pp. 40-45.

  [10] G. Smith, _Tr. Soc. Bibl. Arch._ i. 129 ff.; Moritz Schmidt,
    _Monatsb. k. Ak. Wiss._ (Berlin, 1874), pp. 614-615; _Sammlung kypr.
    Inschriften_ (Jena, 1876); W. Deecke, _Ursprung der kypr.
    Sylbenschrift_ (Strassburg, 1877); cf. Deecke-Collitz, _Samml. d. gr.
    Dialektinschriften_, i. (Göttingen, 1884); cf. C. D. Cobham, l.c. On
    its Aegean origin, A. J. Evans, "Cretan Pictographs" (1895), _Journ.
    Hell. Studies_, xiv., cf. xvii.; British Museum, _Exc. in Cypr._
    (London, 1900), p. 27.

  [11] British Museum, _Exc. in Cypr._ (London, 1900), p. 95 (Ionic
    inscriptions of 5th century from Amathus).

  [12] M. de Voguë, _Mélanges d'archéologie orientale_ (Paris, 1869);
    J. Euting, _Sitzb. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss._ (1887), pp. 115 ff.; Ph.
    Berger, _C. R. Acad. Inscr._ (1887), pp. 155 ff., 187 ff., 203 ff.
    Cf. _Corpus Inscr. Semit._ (Paris, 1881), ii. 35 ff.

  [13] E. Schrader, _Abh. d. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss._ (1881).

  [14] G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, _Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquité_,
    iii. (Paris, 1885), interpret these and most other Cypriote materials
    without reserve as "Phoenician."

  [15] F. Halbherr and P. Orsi, _Antichità dell' antro di Zeus Ideo in
    Creta_ (Rome, 1888). Cf. H. Brunn, _Griechische Kunstgeschichte_
    (Munich, 1893), i. 90 ff.

  [16] Herod. ii. 182; see also EGYPT: _History_ (Dyn. XXVI.).

  [17] Herod. iii. 19. 91; see also PERSIA: _History_.

  [18] Herod. v. 108, 113, 115.

  [19] Herod. vii. 90.

  [20] Thuc. i. 94, 112.

  [21] M. Schmidt, _Die Inschrift von Idalion_ (Jena, 1874).

  [22] G. F. Hill, _Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins of Cyprus_ (London, 1904).
    Earlier literature in Cobham, _l.c._ p. 39.

  [23] H. F. Talbot, _Tr. Soc. Bibl. Arch._ v. 447 ff. (translation).
    For Evagoras and the place of Cyprus in later Greek history, see G.
    Grote, _History of Greece_ (Index, _s.v._), and W. H. Engel, _Kypros_
    (Berlin, 1841).

  [24] 1 Macc. xv. 23.

  [25] Livy, _Epit._ 104; Cic. _pro Sestio_, 26, 57.

  [26] Dio Cass. liii. 12; Strabo 683, 840.

  [27] Dio Cass. liv. 4; Strabo 685.

  [28] Acts xiii. 7.

  [29] D. G. Hogarth, _Devia Cypria_, pp. 114 ff. and app.

  [30] _Corp. Inscr. Lat._ 2631-2632.

  [31] Jos. _Ant._ 16. 4, 5; 19. 26, 28.

  [32] Acts iv. 36, xi. 19, 20, xiii. 4-13, xv. 39, xxi. 16.

  [33] De Longpérier, _Athenæum français_ (1853), pp. 413 ff.; _Musée
    Napoléon_, pls. x. xi.

  [34] De Luynes, _Numismatique et inscriptions chypriotes_ (1852).

  [35] _Archaeologia_, xlv. (1877), pp. 127-142.

  [36] _Trans. Roy. Soc. Literature_, 2nd ser. xi. (1878), pp. 30 ff.

  [37] Article "Cyprus" _ad. fin._

  [38] _Cyprus: its Cities, Tombs and Temples_ (London, 1877).

  [39] See Cobham, _An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus_ (4th ed.,
    Nicosia, 1900), Appendix, "Cesnola Controversy," p. 54.

  [40] _The Lawrence-Cesnola Collection_ (London, 1881); _Salaminia_,
    _id._ 1882.

  [41] Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter, _A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum,
    with a Chronicle of Excavations since the British Occupation, and
    Introductory Notes on Cypriote Archaeology_ (Oxford, 1899).

  [42] _Mitt. d. arch. Inst._ ii. (Athens, 1881).

  [43] _Mitt. d. arch. Inst._ vi. (Athens, 1886); _Bemerkungen z. ält
    Kunsthandwerk_, &c., ii. "Der kypr. geometrische Stil" (Halle, 1888).

  [44] Summarized in _Cyprus, the Bible and Homer_ (London and Berlin,
    1893).

  [45] _Das Gräberfeld von Marion_ (Berlin, 1888).

  [46] _Archives des missions scientifiques_, xvii. (Paris, 1891).

  [47] _Journal of Hellenic Studies_, ix. (London, 1888).

  [48] _Id._ xi. (1890); xii. (1891).

  [49] _Id._ xii. (1891).

  [50] _Id._ ix. (1888).

  [51] _Id._ ix. (1888).

  [52] _Id._ xi. (1890).

  [53] _Devia Cypria_ (Oxford, 1889).

  [54] _J.H.S._ xvii. (1897).

  [55] Summarized in _Cyprus Museum Catalogue_ (Oxford, 1899).

  [56] _Excavations in Cyprus_ (London, 1900).



CYPRUS, CHURCH OF. The Church of Cyprus is in communion and in doctrinal
agreement with the other Orthodox Churches of the East (see ORTHODOX
EASTERN CHURCH), but is independent and subject to no patriarch. This
position it has always claimed (see, however, W. Bright, _Notes on the
Canons_, on Ephesus 8). At any rate, its independence "by ancient
custom" was recognized, as against the claims of the patriarch of
Antioch, by the council of Ephesus, A.D. 431, by an edict of the emperor
Zeno (to whom the church had sent a cogent argument on its own behalf,
the alleged body of its reputed founder St Barnabas, then just
discovered at Salamis), and by the Trullan Council in 692. Attempts have
been made subsequently by the patriarchs of Antioch to claim authority
over it, the last as recently as 1600; but they came to nothing. And
excepting for the period during which Cyprus was in the hands of the
Lusignans and the Venetian Republic (1193-1571), the Church has never
lost its independence. It receives the holy ointment ([Greek: myron])
from without, till 1860 from Antioch and subsequently from
Constantinople, but this is a matter of courtesy and not of right. Of
old there were some twenty sees in the island. The bishop of the
capital, Salamis or Constantia, was constituted metropolitan by Zeno,
with the title "archbishop of all Cyprus," enlarged subsequently into
"archbishop of Justiniana Nova and of all Cyprus," after an enforced
expatriation to Justinianopolis in 688. Zeno also gave him the unique
privileges of wearing and signing his name in the imperial purple, &c.,
which are still preserved. A Latin hierarchy was set up in 1196 (an
archbishop at Nicosia with suffragans at Limasol, Paphos and Famagusta),
and the Greek bishops were made to minister to their flocks in
subjection to it. The sees were forcibly reduced to four, the
archbishopric was ostensibly abolished, and the bishops were compelled
to do homage and swear fealty to the Latin Church. This bondage ceased
at the conquest of the island by the Turks: the Latin hierarchy
disappeared (the cathedral at Nicosia is now used as a mosque), and the
native church emerged into comparative freedom. In 1821, it is true, all
the bishops and many of their flock were put to death by way of
discouraging sympathies with the Greeks; but successors were soon
consecrated, by bishops sent from Antioch at the request of the
patriarch of Constantinople, and on the whole the Church has prospered.
The bishops-elect required the _berat_ of the sultan; but having
received this, they enjoyed no little civil importance. Since 1878 the
_berat_ has not been given, and the bishops are less influential. The
suppressed sees have never been restored, but the four which survive
(now known as Nicosia, Paphos, Kition and Kyrenia) are of metropolitan
rank, so that the archbishop, whose headquarters, first at Salamis, then
at Famagusta, are now at Nicosia, is a primate amongst metropolitans.
There are several monasteries dating from the 11th century and onwards;
also an archiepiscopal school at Nicosia, founded in 1812 and raised to
the status of a "gymnasion" in 1893; and a high school for girls.

  AUTHORITIES.--Ph. Georgiou, [Greek: Eidêseis Historikai peri tês
  Ekklêsias tês Kyprou] (Athens, 1875); K. Kouriokurineos (Archbishop of
  Cyprus), [Greek: Historia chronologikê tês nêsou Kyprou] (Venice,
  1788); de Mas Latrie, _Histoire de l'île de Chypre sous les princes de
  la maison de Lusignan_ (Paris, 1852 f.); H. T. F. Duckworth, _The
  Church of Cyprus_(London, 1900); J. Hackett, _History of the Orthodox
  Church of Cyprus_ (1901).     (W. E. Co.)



CYPSELUS, tyrant of Corinth (c. 657-627 B.C.), was the son of Aeëtion
and Labda, daughter of Amphion, a member of the ruling family, the
Bacchiadae. He is said to have derived his name from the fact that when
the Bacchiadae, warned that he would prove their ruin, sent emissaries
to kill him in his cradle, his mother saved him by concealing him in a
chest (Gr. [Greek: kypselê]). The story was, of course, a subsequent
invention. When he was grown up, Cypselus, encouraged by an oracle,
drove out the Bacchiadae, and made himself master of Corinth. It is
stated that he first ingratiated himself with the people by his liberal
conduct when Polemarch, in which capacity he had to exact the fines
imposed by the law. In the words of Aristotle he made his way through
demagogy to tyranny. Herodotus, in the spirit of 5th-century Greeks,
which conventionally regarded the tyrants as selfish despots, says he
ruled harshly, but he is generally represented as mild, beneficent and
so popular as to be able to dispense with a bodyguard, the usual
attribute of a tyrannis. He pursued an energetic commercial and colonial
policy (see CORINTH), and thus laid the foundations of Corinthian
prosperity. He may well be compared with the Athenian Peisistratus in
these respects. He laid out the large sums thus derived on the
construction of buildings and works of art. At the same time he wisely
strove to gain the goodwill of the powerful priesthoods of the great
sanctuaries of Delphi and Olympia. At Delphi he built a treasure-house
for Corinthian votive offerings; at Olympia he dedicated a colossal
statue of Zeus and the famous "chest of Cypselus," supposed to be
identical with the chest of the legend, of which Pausanias (v. 17-19)
has given an elaborate description. It was of cedar-wood, gold and
ivory, and on it were represented the chief incidents in Greek
(especially Corinthian) mythology and legend. Cypselus was succeeded by
his son Periander.

  See CORINTH: _History_; histories of Greece; Herodotus v. 92;
  Aristotle, _Politics_, 1310b, 1315b; P. Knapp, _Die Kypseliden und die
  Kypseloslade_ (Tübingen, 1888); L. Preller, _Ausgewahlte Aufsatze_
  (1864); H. Stuart Jones, in _Journ. Hell. Stud._ (1894), 30 foll.



CYRANO DE BERGERAC, SAVINIEN (1620-1655), French romance-writer and
dramatist, son of Abel de Cyrano, seigneur de Mauvières et de Bergerac,
was born in Paris on the 6th of March 1619-1620. He received his first
education from a country priest, and had for a fellow pupil his friend
and future biographer, Henri Lebret. He then proceeded to Paris to the
collège de Beauvais, where he had for master Jean Grangier, whom he
afterwards ridiculed in his comedy _Le Pédant joué_ (1654). At the age
of nineteen he entered a corps of the guards, serving in the campaigns
of 1639 and 1640, and began the series of exploits that were to make of
him a veritable hero of romance. The story of his adventure
single-handed against a hundred enemies is vouched for by Lebret as the
simple truth. After two years of this life Cyrano left the service and
returned to Paris to pursue literature, producing tragedies cast in the
orthodox classical mode. He was, however, as a pupil of Gassendi,
suspected of thinking too freely, and in the _Mort d'Agrippine_ (1654)
his enemies even found blasphemy. The most interesting section of his
work is that which embraces the two romances _L'Histoire comique des
états du soleil_ (1662) and _L'Histoire comique des états de la lune_
(1656?). Cyrano's ingenious mixture of science and romance has furnished
a model for many subsequent writers, among them Swift and E. A. Poe. It
is impossible to determine whether he adopted his fanciful style in the
hope of safely conveying ideas that might be regarded as unorthodox, or
whether he simply found in romance writing a relaxation from the serious
study of physics. Cyrano spent a stormy existence in Paris and was
involved in many duels, and in quarrels with the comedian Montfleury,
with Scarron and others. He entered the household of the duc d'Arpajon
as secretary in 1653. In the next year he was injured by the fall of a
piece of timber, as he entered his patron's house. Arpajon, perhaps
alarmed by his reputation as a free-thinker, desired him to leave, and
he found refuge with friends in Paris. During the illness which followed
his accident, he is said to have been reconciled with the Church, and he
died in September 1655.

  M. Edmond Rostand's romantic play of _Cyrano de Bergerac_ (1897)
  revived interest in the author of the _Histoires comiques_. A modern
  edition of his _Oeuvres_ (2 vols.), by P. L. Jacob (Paul Lacroix),
  appeared in 1858, with the preface by H. Lebret originally prefixed to
  the _Histoire comique des états de la lune_ (1656?). For an
  interesting analysis of the romances see Garnet Smith in the
  _Cornhill_ for July 1898. See also P.A. Brun, _Savinien de Cyrano
  Bergerac_ (1894). Other studies of Cyrano are those of Charles Nodier
  (1841), F. Merilhon (Périgueux, 1856), Fourgeaud-Lagrèze (in _Le
  Périgord littéraire_, 1875) and of Théophile Gautier, in his
  _Grotesques_.



CYRENAICA, in ancient geography, a district of the N. African coast,
lying between the Syrtis Major and Marmarica, the western limit being
Arae Philaenorum, and the eastern a vague line drawn inland from the
head of the gulf of Platea (Bomba). On the south the limit was
undefined, but understood to be the margin of the desert, some distance
north of the oasis of Augila (Aujila). The northern half of this
district, which alone was fertile, was known as Pentapolis from its
possession of five considerable cities (1) Hesperides-Berenice
(Bengazi), (2) Barca (Merj), (3) Cyrene (Ain Shahat-Grenna), (4)
Apollonia (Marsa Susa), (5) Teucheira-Arsinoë (Tocra). In later times
two more towns rose to importance, Ptolemais (Tolmeita) and
Darnis-Zarine (Derna). These all lay on the coast, with the exception of
Barca and Cyrene, which were situated on the highland now called Jebel
Akhdar, a few miles inland. Cyrene was the first city to arise, being
founded among Libyan barbarians by Aristotle of Thera (later called
Battus) in the middle of the 7th century B.C. (see CYRENE). For about
500 years this district enjoyed great prosperity, owing partly to its
natural products, but more to its trade with interior Africa.

Under the Ptolemies, the inland cities declined in comparison with the
maritime ones, and the Cyrenaica began to feel the commercial
competition of Egypt and Carthage, whence easier roads lead into the
continent. After all N. Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself,
bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in
combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this
competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown
weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan
population. A great revolt of the Jewish settlers in the time of Trajan
settled the fate of Cyrene and Barca; the former is mentioned by
Ammianus Marcellinus in the 4th century A.D. as "urbs deserta," and
Synesius, a native, describes it in the following century as a vast ruin
at the mercy of the nomads. Long before this its most famous article of
export, the _silphium_ plant, a representation of which was the chief
coin-type of Cyrene, had come to an end. This plant, credited with
wonderful medicinal and aromatic properties, has not been certainly
identified with any existing species. The similar _Thapsia garganica_
(Arab. _drias_), which now grows freely in Cyrenaica, though it has
medicinal properties, has not those ascribed to silphium. Henceforward
till the Arab invasion (A.D. 641) Apollonia was the chief city, with
Berenice and Ptolemais next in order. After the conquest by Amr ibn
el-'Asi, inland Cyrenaica regained some importance, lying as it did on
the direct route between Alexandria and Kairawan, and Barca became its
chief place. But with the substitution of Ottoman for Arab empire,
resulting in the virtual independence of both Egypt and Tripoli, the
district lying between them relapsed to anarchy. This state of things
continued even after Mahmud II. had resumed direct control over Tripoli
(1835), and in the middle of the 19th century Cyrenaica was still so
free of the Turks that Sheik Ali bin-Senussi chose it as the
headquarters of his nascent dervish order. All over the district were
built Senussi convents (_zawia_), which still exist and have much
influence, although the headquarters of the order were withdrawn about
the year 1855 to Jarabub, and in 1895 to Kufra, still farther into the
heart of Africa. In 1875 the district, till then a sanjak of the vilayet
of Tripoli, was made to depend directly on the Ministry of the Interior
at Constantinople; and the Senussites soon ceased to be _de facto_
rulers of Cyrenaica. Their preserves have now been still further
encroached upon by a number of Cretan Moslem refugees (1901-1902). This
is not the first effort made by Turkey to colonize Cyrenaica. In 1869
Ali Riza Pasha of Tripoli tried to induce settlers to go to Bomba and
Tobruk; and in 1888 an abortive effort was made to introduce Kurds. To
protect the Cretans the Ottoman government has extended the civil
administration and created several small garrisoned posts. The district
is accordingly safer for Europeans than it was; but these still find
themselves ill received. The Ottoman officials discourage travel in the
interior, partly from fear of the Senussites, partly from suspicions,
excited by the lively interest manifested by Italy in Cyrenaica.

At the present day we understand by Cyrenaica a somewhat larger district
than of old, and include ancient Marmarica up to the head of the gulf of
Sollum (Catabathmus Magnus). The whole area is about 30,000 sq. m., and
has some 250,000 inhabitants, inclusive of nomads. Projecting like a
bastion into the Mediterranean at a very central point, Cyrenaica seems
intended to play a commercial part; but it does not do so to any extent
because of (1) lack of natural harbours, Bengazi and Derna having only
open and dangerous roads (this is partly due to coastal subsidence;
ancient ports have sunk); (2) the difficulty of the desert routes behind
it, wells being singularly deficient in this part of the Sahara. The
ivory and feather caravans from Wadai and Borku have latterly deserted
it altogether. Consequently Cyrenaica is still in a very backward and
barbarous state and largely given up to nomad Arabs. There are only two
towns, Bengazi and Derna, and not half a dozen settlements beside,
worthy to be called villages. In many districts the Senussi convents
supply the only settled element, and the local Bedouins largely belong
to the Order. There are no roads in the province, and very little
internal communication and trade; but a wireless telegraphic system has
been installed in communication with Rhodes: and there is a landline
from Bengazi to Tripoli.

Geologically and structurally Cyrenaica is a mass of Miocene limestone
tilted up steeply from the Mediterranean and falling inland by a gentle
descent to sea-level again at the line of depression, which runs from
the gulf of Sidra through Aujila to Siwa. This mass is divided into two
blocks, the higher being the western Jebel Akhdar, on which Cyrene was
built (about 1800 ft.): the lower, the eastern Jebel el-Akabah, the
ancient Marmaric highlands (700 ft.). There is no continuous littoral
plain, the longest strip running from the recess of the Syrtis round
past Bengazi to Tolmeita. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at
Marsa Susa and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. Jebel Akhdar, being
without "faults," has no deep internal valleys, and presents the
appearance of downs: but its seaward face is very deeply eroded, and
deep circular sinkings (swallow-holes) are common. There is much forest
on its northward slopes, and good red earth on the higher parts, which
bears abundant crops of barley, much desired by European maltsters.
Plenty of springs issue on the highlands, and wide expanses of grassy
country dotted with trees like an English park are met with. Here the
Bedouins (mostly Beni Hassa) pasture flocks and herds, amounting to
several million head. The climate is temperate and the rainfall usually
adequate, but one year in five is expected to be droughty. The southward
slopes fall through ever-thinning pasture lands to sheer desert about 80
m. inland. Jebel el-Akabah is much more barren than Jebel Akhdar, and
the desert comes right down to the sea in Marmarica, whose few
inhabitants are more concerned with salt-collecting and sponge fishing
than with agriculture. They have, however, the only good ports on the
whole coast, Bomba and Tobruk. Much might be made of Cyrenaica by
judicious colonization. All kinds of trees grow well, from the date palm
to the oak; and there are over 200,000 wild olives in the country. The
conditions in general are very like those of central Italy, and there is
ample room for new settlers.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(1) Ancient Cyrenaica: J. P. Thrige, _Historia Cyrenes_
  (1819); C. Ritter, _Erdkunde_, i. (1822); A. F. Gottschick, _Gesch.
  der Grundung und Blute des hell. Staates in Kyrenaika_ (1858).

  (2) Modern Cyrenaica: Paul Lucas, _Voyage_ (1712); T. Shaw, _Travels
  and Observations_ (1738); J. Bruce, _Travels_ (1790); P. della Cella,
  _Viaggio da Tripoli_, &c. (1819); G. F. Lyon, _Narrative of Travels_
  (1821); A. Cervelli, in _Recueil de voyages_, pub. by Soc. de Géog.,
  ii. (1825); J. R. Pacho, _Relation d'un voyage_ (1827); F. W. Beechey,
  _Proceedings of Expedition to explore N. Coast of Africa_ (1828); H.
  Barth, _Wanderungen_, &c. (1849); V. de Bourville, _Rapport_ (1850);
  J. Hamilton, _Wanderings in N. Africa_ (1856); R. M. Smith and E. A.
  Porcher, _Hist. of Discoveries_ (1864); G. Rohlfs, _Von Tripoli nach
  Alexandrien_ (1871); G. Haimann, _La Cirenaica_ (1882); M. Camperio,
  _Una Gita in Cirenaica_ (1881); H. Duveyrier, "La Confr. musulmane de
  Sidi Moh. Ben Ali es-Senousi" (_Bull. soc. géog._, 1884); H. W.
  Blundell in _Geog. Journ._ v. (1895) and _Annual Brit. Sch. at
  Athens_, ii. (1895); D. G. Hogarth in _Monthly Review_ (Jan. 1904); G.
  Hildebrand, _Cyrenaïka_, &c. (1904); G. de Martino, _Cirene e
  Cartagine_ (1908).

  (3) Maps: The best are that by P. Carlo, to illustrate Camperio and
  Haimann's Report, in Petermann's _Mitth._ (1881); and Sheet No. 2 of
  _Carte de l'Afrique_ (Service géog. de l'armée, 1892).     (D. G. H.)



CYRENAICS, a Greek school of philosophy, so called from Cyrene, the
birthplace of the founder, Aristippus (q.v.). It was one of the two
earliest Socratic schools, and emphasized one side only of the Socratic
teaching (cf. CYNICS). Socrates, although he held that virtue was the
only human good, admitted to a certain extent the importance of its
utilitarian side, making happiness at least a subsidiary end of moral
action (see ETHICS). Aristippus and his followers seized upon this, and
made it the prime factor in existence, denying to virtue any intrinsic
value. Logic and physical science they held to be useless, for all
knowledge is immediate sensation (see PROTAGORAS). These sensations are
motions ([Greek: kinêseis]) which (1) are purely subjective, and (2) are
painful, indifferent or pleasant, according as they are violent,
tranquil or gentle. Further they are entirely individual, and can in no
way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge. Feeling,
therefore, is the only possible criterion alike of knowledge and of
conduct. "Our modes of being affected ([Greek: pathê]) alone are
knowable." Thus Cyrenaicism goes beyond the critical scepticism of the
Sophists and deduces a single, universal aim for all men, namely
pleasure. Furthermore, all feeling is momentary and homogeneous. It
follows (1) that past and future pleasure have no real existence for us,
and (2) that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind,
but only of intensity. Socrates had spoken of the higher pleasures of
the intellect; the Cyrenaics denied the validity of this distinction and
said that bodily pleasures as being more simple and more intense are to
be preferred. Momentary pleasure ([Greek: monochronos hêdonê]),
preferably of a carnal kind, is the only good for man. Yet Aristippus
was compelled to admit that some actions which give immediate pleasure
entail more than their equivalent of pain. This fact was to him the
basis of the conventional distinction of right and wrong, and in this
sense he held that regard should be paid to law and custom. It is of the
utmost importance that this development of Cyrenaic hedonism should be
fully realized. To overlook the Cyrenaic recognition of social
obligation and the hedonistic value of altruistic emotion is a very
common expedient of those who are opposed to all hedonistic theories of
life. Like many of the leading modern utilitarians, they combined with
their psychological distrust of popular judgments of right and wrong,
and their firm conviction that all such distinctions are based solely on
law and convention, the equally unwavering principle that the wise man
who would pursue pleasure logically must abstain from that which is
usually denominated "wrong" or "unjust." This idea, which occupies a
prominent position in systems like those of Bentham, Volney, and even
Paley, was evidently of prime importance at all events to the later
Cyrenaics.

Developing from this is a new point of practical importance to the
hedonism of the Cyrenaics. Aristippus, both in theory and in practice,
insisted that true pleasure belongs only to him who is self-controlled
and master of himself. The truly happy man must have [Greek: phronêsis]
(prudence), which alone can save him from falling a prey to mere
passion. Thus, in the end, Aristippus, the founder of the purest
hedonism in the history of thought, comes very near not only to the
Cynics, but to the more cultured hedonism of Epicurus and modern
thinkers. Theodorus, held even more strongly that passing pleasure may
be a delusion, and that permanent tranquillity is a truer end of
conduct. Hegesias denied the possibility of real pleasure and advocated
suicide as ensuring at least the absence of pain. Anniceris, in whose
thought the school reached its highest perfection, declared that true
pleasure consists sometimes in self-sacrifice and that sympathy in
enjoyment is a real source of happiness. Other members of the school
were Arete, wife of Aristippus, Aristippus the younger (her son), Bio
and Euhemerus.

The Cyrenaic ideal was, of course, utterly alien to Christianity, and,
in general, subsequent thinkers found it an ideal of hopeless pessimism.
Yet in modern times it has found expression in many ethical and literary
works, and it is common also in other ancient non-Hellenic literature.
There are quatrains in the _Rubáiyát_ of Omar Khayyám and pessimistic
verses in Ecclesiastes which might have been uttered by Aristippus.
("Then I commended mirth, because a man hath no better thing than to eat
and to drink and to be merry; for that shall abide with him of his
labour the days of his life which God giveth him under the sun"). So in
Byron and Heine, and, in a sense, in Walter Pater (_Marius the
Epicurean_), there is the same tendency to seek relief from the
intellectual _cul-de-sac_ in frankly aesthetic satisfaction. Thus
Cyrenaicism did not entirely vanish with its absorption in Epicureanism.

  See HEDONISM, EPICURUS; histories of philosophy by Zeller, Windelband,
  Ueberweg; H. Sidgwick, _Methods of Ethics_ and _Outlines of the
  History of Ethics_; J. Watson, _Hedonistic Theories_ (1895); James
  Seth, Ethical Principles, c. i. (A), (1898); A. Wendt, _De philosophia
  Cyrenaica_ (1841); H. von Stein, _De philosophia Cyrenaica_ (1855); T.
  Gomperz, _Greek Thinkers_ (Eng. trans., vol. ii. bk. iv., _ad fin._,
  1905); Beare, _Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition_; G. van Lyng,
  _Om den Kyrenaiske skole_ (Christiania, 1868); and general ethical
  text-books.



CYRENE [mod. _Ain Shahat-Grenna_], the original capital of ancient
Cyrenaica (q.v.) and one of the greatest of Greek colonies. The Theraean
story of its foundation, as told by Herodotus, runs thus. Battus (whose
true Greek name seems to have been Aristoteles), a native of Thera
(Santorin), itself a Laconian colony, was bidden by the Delphic oracle,
if he wished to put an end to domestic dissensions, to lead a portion
of the citizens to Libya and build a city in a "place between waters."
(For other stories see BATTUS.) By this he understood an island, and
therefore established his followers on the barren islet of Platea in the
gulf of Bomba. The colony being unsuccessful made further application to
the oracle and was bidden to transfer itself to the mainland. The Libyan
barbarians reported that a fertile and well-watered district lay to the
west and were induced to act as guides. They brought the Greeks through
forests to high ground from various points of which issued springs, and
Battus, recognizing "a place between waters," began to build. This was
in the middle of the 7th century B.C.

The result was Cyrene, so called (it was said) from a local nymph, who
has been shown by Studniczka to have been a Nature goddess, like the
Greek Artemis. The point first occupied was probably the hill above the
"Apollo" fountain on the west; and there was erected the fortress-palace
of the Battiadae, who continued to rule the colony for eight
generations. The neighbouring Libyans were conciliated and given a
position similar to that of Laconian _perioeci_, and intermarriage
between them and Greeks became so frequent that the colony rapidly
assumed a somewhat hybrid character, and while being one of the centres
of Hellenic culture, showed barbarian characteristics of violence and
luxury. Battus I. reigned c. 630 to 590 B.C. and was succeeded by his
son Arcesilaus (c. 590-574) of whom nothing is known. The kings
henceforth bore alternately the names Battus and Arcesilaus, of which
the first is said to be simply the native Libyan word for "king": the
latter is, of course, Greek. This fact suggests that some compromise
with the natives had been come to, resulting, perhaps, in an alternation
of the supreme office. Under Battus II. (570 B.C.?) a fresh band of
settlers was invited from Greece, and the colony tended to become
henceforth more maritime and democratic. Its port, Apollonia (Marsa
Susa), now rose to importance: and a second (winter) port was created at
Naustathmos (Marsa Hilal) about 15 m. E. behind a sheltering cape. Fine
roads were cut through the rock connecting these harbours with the
capital. Trouble followed, however, with the Libyans, who saw themselves
robbed in favour of the new settlers, and they called in Egyptian help;
but the force sent by Apries was defeated near the spring Theste, and
presently Amasis of Egypt made peace and took a Battiad princess to
wife. Under Arcesilaus II. (c. 560-550) domestic dissensions and Libyan
revolt led to the founding of a rival inland city, Barca, and a severe
defeat and massacre. These misfortunes, coupled with the fact that
Battus III. was thought to have disgraced the house by his lameness,
prompted the Cyrenaeans to send to Delphi for more advice, and as a
result Demonax of Mantinea arrived as arbitrator and framed a
constitution limiting the monarchy and dividing the citizens tribally
according to the date of their settlement and their place of origin.
Further attempts of the Battiadae (e.g. of Pheretima, wife of Battus
III., and Arcesilaus his son) to annul this constitution, and bitter
family dissensions, brought about a Persian invasion and finally the
extinction of the dynasty about 450 B.C. A republic of more or less
Spartan type succeeded, but it was often interrupted by tyrannies; and
having made submission by embassy to Alexander in 331, Cyrene passed
under Ptolemaic domination ten years later. From this epoch dates a
decline which was due to economic causes (see CYRENAICA) and to the
Ptolemaic policy of favouring easily controlled harbour-towns rather
than an inland place like Cyrene, whose ancient factions still continued
to give trouble under the earlier Ptolemies. Apollonia and Berenice
gradually superseded Cyrene and Barca respectively, being more in touch
with Greece and less exposed to the hostile nomad Libyans, who increased
in boldness and power: but Cyrene continued to be a great city after it
had passed to Rome (96 B.C.), and up to the reign of Trajan, when a
Jewish revolt and the repressive measures taken by the imperial
government dealt it an irreparable blow. Ere Christianity became the
religion of the empire, it was largely a ruin, and henceforward to the
epoch of Arab conquest (A.D. 641) its Greek life gradually deserted it
for Apollonia. At its acme Cyrene is said to have had over 100,000
inhabitants. It was noted among the ancients for its intellectual life.
Its medical school was famous, and it numbered among its celebrities
Callimachus the poet, Carneades, the founder of the New Academy at
Athens, Aristippus, a pupil of Socrates and the founder of the so-called
Cyrenaics (q.v.), Eratosthenes the polyhistor, and Synesius, one of the
most elegant of the ancient Christian writers.

The first account of the site in modern times seems to be that of M. le
Maire, who was French consul at Tripoli from 1703 to 1708, and twice
visited Cyrene. Paul Lucas was there in 1710, and again in 1723, and Dr
Thomas Shaw in 1738; an Italian, Dr A. Cervelli, who was there in 1812,
furnished some information to the Société de Géographie of Paris; and P.
Della Cella published an account of his visit, made in 1817. In
1821-1822 important explorations were made by Lieutenant F. W. Beechey,
R.N.; and he was almost immediately followed by a French artist, M. J.
R. Pacho, whose pencil preserved a number of interesting monuments that
have since disappeared. L. Delaporte, French consul at Tangier, and
Vattier de Bourville come next in order of time. H. Barth, the famous
African traveller, published an account of his investigations in his
_Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer des Mittelmeers_, 1849, and James
Hamilton, who was there in 1851, described the place in his _Wanderings
in N. Africa_. In 1861 excavations were made on behalf of the British
Museum by Lieuts. R. Murdoch Smith, R.E., and E. A. Porcher, R.N., the
results of which are detailed in their valuable _Discoveries in Cyrene_
(London, 1864). Since that date, owing to the increase of Senussi
influence, and the consequent fears of the Ottoman authorities, the site
has been very seldom visited. The Italians, M. Camperio and G. Haimann,
leading commercial missions, were there in the eighties, and Mr H. W.
Blundell succeeded with a special _firman_ and a strong escort in
reaching the place in 1895, but had trouble with the local Senussi
Arabs. The prohibition of travel became thereafter more stringent, and
it has only been overcome by a party from Mr A. V. Armour's yacht
"Utowana," which marched up from Marsa Susa in April 1904, and stayed
one night. They found some fifty families of Cretan refugees established
at Ain Shahat and a _mudir_ with a small guard on the spot: but no
inhabited houses, except the Senussi convent and the _mudiria_. Cretans
and Arabs live in the ancient rock-tombs. An Italian senator, Chev. G.
de Martino, with two Italian residents at Derna, passed through the
place in 1907, and found it in Bedouin hands.

The site lies on the crest of the highland of Jebel Akhdar (about 1800
ft.) and 10 m. from the sea. The ground slopes very gradually south, and
being entirely denuded of trees, makes good corn land. The northward
slope falls more steeply in a succession of shelves, covered here and
there with forest. Ravines surround the site on three sides, and there
are at least four springs in its area, of which one, having great
volume, has been at all times the attraction and focus of the place.
This is the so-called "Fount of Apollo," which issues from a tunnel
artificially enlarged, and once faced with a portico. The acropolis was
immediately above this on the W., and the main entrance of the city,
through which came the sacred processions, passed it. The remains of
Cyrene itself are enclosed by a wall having a circuit of about 4 m., of
which little remains but the foundations and fragments of two towers;
but tombs and isolated structures extend far outside this area. The
local Arabs say it takes them six camel-hours to go from one end to the
other of the ruins, which they call generally "_Grenna_" (i.e. Kyrenna).
Within the city itself not very much is now to be seen. Below the Apollo
fountain on the N. lie a great theatre and the substructures of the main
temple of Apollo, both included now in the Senussi convent garden. Above
the fountain and by the main road is a smaller theatre. On the E., upon
the crown of the plateau, are the sites on which Smith and Porcher
placed temples of Bacchus, Venus and Augustus, but they are marked only
by rubbish heaps. Remains of a large Byzantine church and a much ruined
stadium lie to S.E. On the S. are immense covered tanks of Roman date,
with remains of the aqueducts which supplied them. On the W. a fine
fragment of a tower, the fortifications of the acropolis, and a
pedestal sculptured on four sides in good 3rd century style, are the
only things worth seeing. The Cretan occupation is fast obliterating
other traces. The great spectacle, however, which distinguishes the site
of Cyrene, is provided by its cemeteries, which for extent, variety and
preservation are unparalleled in the classic lands. There is one along
each of the approaches to the main gates, but the largest and most
splendid lies by the Apollonian road which winds by easy curves up the
northern buttresses of the plateau. Here the sepulchres rise in tiers
one above the other along fully a mile of the way. The most important
have pillared façades, Doric, Ionic, and even a hybrid mixture of both
orders. Within, they open out either into large halls, leading one out
of another with graves in recesses and pits in the floor; or into rock
corridors lined with _loculi_, disposed one above another like pigeon
holes. Most of the wall paintings, seen by Beechey and Pacho, have
perished or become black with the smoke of troglodytes' fires; but one
tomb below the road at about the middle of the cemetery still retains
its decoration comparatively fresh, and seems to be that specially
described by Smith and Porcher. The scenes are agonistic, i.e. represent
funeral games, in which both white and black persons take part, the
latter doubtless Libyan _perioeci_: but all wear Greek garments. Several
tombs are inscribed and on some external paintings are still faintly
visible. The commonest type of grave is a simple pit covered by a gabled
lid. These occur by hundreds. But not all the sepulchres are rock-cut:
altar tombs and other forms of _heroa_ are found built upon plinths of
rock. All visible tombs have long ago been violated, but it is probable
that there are others still virgin under the _talus_ of the hill side.
To discover these and determine the topography of the city, excavation
is urgently needed.

Many historical and artistic questions concerning Cyrene remain
unsettled, but since the discoveries made in Laconia in 1908, the much
disputed "Cyrenaic ware" has been ascribed to Sparta. A good deal of
Cyrenaic sculpture, all of comparatively late date, was sent to the
British Museum by Smith and Porcher. Nothing has yet been found on the
site belonging to the great age of the city's independence, the fine
vases sent to the British Museum in 1864, by Mr G. Dennis, having been
discovered not there, but near Berenice (Bengazi). The latter site, with
Ptolemais and Apollonia, has supplied most of the antiquities found
latterly in Cyrenaica.

  See authorities for CYRENAICA, and F. Studniczka, _Kyrene, eine
  alt-griechische Göttin_ (1890).     (D. G. H.)



CYRIL (c. 315-386), bishop of Jerusalem, where he was probably born, was
ordained a presbyter in 345, and had the instruction of the catechumens
entrusted to him. In 350 he was elevated to the see of Jerusalem, and
became deeply involved in the dogmatic controversies of his time. His
metropolitan, Acacius of Caesarea, inclined to Arianism, while Cyril
strongly espoused the Nicene creed and was, in consequence, deposed for
a time. On the death of the emperor Constantine he was restored; but on
the accession of Valens, an Arian emperor, he had once more to resign
his post till the accession of Theodosius permitted him to return
finally in peace in 379. He attended the second oecumenical council held
at Constantinople in 381, where he was received with grateful
acclamations for his sufferings in defence of orthodoxy. Cyril was even
more conspicuous as a pastor than as a controversialist, and this is
seen in his one important work--his twenty-three addresses to
catechumens delivered in A.D. 348. The first eighteen of these were
meant for candidates for baptism; they deal with general topics like
repentance and faith, and then expound in detail the baptismal creed of
the Jerusalem church. The remaining five addresses were spoken to the
newly-baptized in Easter week and explain the mysteries and ritual of
baptism, confirmation and the Eucharist. These lectures are said to be
"the first example of a popular compend of religion," and are
particularly interesting for the insight which they give us both into
the creed-forms of the early church and the various ceremonies of
initiation constituting baptism in the 4th century. The evidence which
Cyril supplies as to the Jerusalem use is supplemented by the _S.
Silviae peregrinatio_, dating from about a generation later. Other
tracts and homilies have been ascribed to Cyril of Jerusalem, but they
are of doubtful genuineness.

  EDITIONS.--A. A. Touttée (Paris, 1720); W. C. Reischl and J. Rupp
  (Munich, 1848-1860); Migne, _Patrol. Graeca._ xxxiii. Translation:
  _Catecheses_ ("Oxford Library of Fathers," vol. ii.). See
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyk._ (Förster); Delacroix, _St C. de Jérus., sa
  vie et ses oeuvres_ (Paris, 1865).



CYRIL (376-444), bishop of Alexandria, a more distinguished father of
the church than his namesake of Jerusalem, was born in 376, and died in
444. Becoming patriarch of Alexandria about 412, he soon made himself
known by the violence of his zeal against Jews, pagans and heretics or
supposed heretics alike. He had hardly entered upon his office when he
closed all the churches of the Novatians and seized their ecclesiastical
effects. He assailed the Jewish synagogues with an armed force, drove
the Jews in thousands from the city, and exposed their houses and
property to pillage. The prefect of Egypt, Orestes, who endeavoured to
withstand his furious zeal, was in turn denounced himself, and had
difficulty in maintaining his ground against the fury of the Christian
multitude. It was during one of the violent commotions kindled by the
strifes of these parties in Alexandria that the illustrious Hypatia,
famed for her beauty and her eloquent advocacy of the Neo-Platonic
philosophy in opposition to Christianity, was murdered. Her murder has
been attributed to the direct instigation of the patriarch himself; but
this charge is held to be baseless by others, although there can be no
doubt that "the perpetrators were officers of his church," and
undoubtedly drew encouragement from his own violent proceedings. Hypatia
was a friend of Orestes, and the hostility that existed betwixt the
prefect and the patriarch overflowed towards her, and undoubtedly led to
her destruction.

But Cyril's violence was not merely confined to those who might be
considered enemies of the church. He inherited from Theophilus, his
uncle and predecessor in the see of Alexandria, a strong aversion to
John Chrysostom, the noble bishop of Constantinople, and even after his
death opposed for a time all attempts to remove the unjust sentence of
condemnation which had been passed upon him. Afterwards he so far
yielded to remonstrances as to allow the name of Chrysostom to appear in
the list of distinguished martyrs and bishops mentioned in the prayers
of his church. These names were inserted in what were called "diptychs"
([Greek: diptycha nekrôn]), or two-leaved tablets preserved in the
churches--a usage which the Greek Church has continued to this day.

Cyril thus represents--though he differs largely from his
predecessors--the tendencies dominant at Alexandria in the 5th century,
and their antagonism to the Antiochene school. The story of his
opposition to Nestorius at the council of Ephesus in 431 is told
elsewhere (see NESTORIUS). He himself incurred the charge of heresy from
the oriental bishops. Satisfied, however, with the deprivation and exile
of his opponent, he returned to Alexandria in triumph as the great
champion of the faith, and thence continued, by the "unscrupulous use of
all the means at his command," the theological strife for years. He was
a bitter opponent of the great Antiochene expositor and apologist
Theodoret.

Altogether Cyril presents a character not only unamiable, but singularly
deficient in the graces of the Christian life. His style of writing is
as objectionable as his character and spirit. Yet he takes high rank as
a dogmatic theologian, and those who seek precise and rigid definitions
of orthodox belief conjoined with tenacity of conviction find him
indispensable. In addition to his _Twelve Anathematisms_ and the defence
of the same, he wrote five other books against Nestorius, _Thesaurus_--a
treatise in dialogue form on the Trinity, a book _On the Right Way_ and
another _On the Incarnation_. In other fields--mystical, exegetical and
apologetical--he was equally prolific and forceful. He wrote a tract "On
worshipping in spirit and in truth" to defend a spiritual interpretation
of the Mosaic law, several commentaries, festival-orations, and a reply
to the emperor Julian's attack on the church. His letters are valuable
sources to the student of the Nestorian controversy.

  LITERATURE.--The collected edition of J. Aubert (Paris, 1638) formed
  the basis of Migne's reprint in vols. 68-77 of the _Patr. Graec._ Many
  of the writings have been edited separately (see bibliography in
  Herzog-Hauck). For an account of his career and position in the
  history of dogma, see A. Harnack, vols. iii. and iv. _passim_; O.
  Bardenhewer's _Patrologie_ (Freiburg, 1894), pp. 335-343; R. L.
  Ottley's _Doctrine of the Incarnation_, ii. 80 ff.; A. Largent's
  _Études d'hist. ecclés.; St Cyrille d'Alexandrie et le concile
  d'Éphèse_ (Paris, 1892). See also Charles Kingsley's romance
  _Hypatia_.



CYRIL (827-869), apostle of the Slavs, amongst whom he worked in
conjunction with his elder brother Methodius (q.v.). Tradition says that
while in the Khazar country (where he combated Jewish and Mahommedan
influence) he found at Kherson the remains of Clement of Rome, which he
bore with him wherever he went, finally depositing them at Rome in 867.
His name is associated with the invention of the modified (Cyrillic)
form of the Greek alphabet, which largely superseded the ancient
Slavonic characters.



CYRILLIC, the alphabet used by the Orthodox Slavs. It is modelled on the
Greek Liturgical Uncial of the 9th century, and its invention is
traditionally, though in all probability wrongly, ascribed to the Greek
missionary Cyril (d. 869). For an account of its origin and development,
with a table of its letters, see Slavs.



CYRILLUS, Greek jurist of the 5th century, was professor in the ancient
law college of Berytus, and one of the founders of the oecumenical
school of jurists ([Greek: tês oikoumenês didaskaloi]) which preceded
the succession of Anastasius to the Eastern empire (A.D. 491), and paved
the way for Justinian's legislation. His reputation as a teacher of law
was very great; and from the fragments of his works which have been
preserved it may be inferred that his merit as a teacher consisted in
his going direct to the ancient sources of law, and in interpreting the
best writers, such as the commentary of Ulpian on the edict and the
Responsa Papiniani. He wrote a treatise on definitions ([Greek:
hupomnêma tôn dephinitôn]), in which, according to a statement of his
contemporary Patricius, the subject of contracts was treated with
superior precision and great method, and which has supplied the
materials for many important scholia appended to the first and second
titles of the eleventh book of the Basilica. He is generally styled "the
great," to distinguish him from a more modern jurist of the same name,
who lived after the reign of Justinian, and who compiled an epitome of
the Digest.



CYRTO-STYLE (Gr. [Greek: kyrtos], convex, and [Greek: stylos], column),
in architecture, a circular projecting portico with columns; like those
of the transept entrances of St Paul's cathedral and the western
entrance of St Mary-le-Strand, London.



CYRUS (Gr. [Greek: Kyros]; Pers. _Kuru-sh_; Babyl. _Kurash_; Hebr.
_Koresh_), the Latinized form of a Persian name borne by two prominent
members of the Achaemenid house.

1. CYRUS THE GREAT, the founder of the Persian empire, was the son of
Cambyses I. His family belonged to the clan of the Achaemenidae--in the
inscription on the pillars and columns of the palace of Pasargadae
(Murghab) he says: "I am Cyrus the king, the Achaemenid"--the principal
clan ([Greek: phrêtrê]) of the Persian tribe of the Pasargadae (q.v.).
But in his proclamation to the Babylonians (V.R. 35; Sir H. Rawlinson,
_Journal of the R. Asiat. Soc._, n.s., xii., 1880; Schrader,
_Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek_, iii. 2, 120 ff.; Hagen, in Delitzsch
and Haupt, _Beiträge zur Assyriologie_, ii., 1894, where the chronicle
of Nabonidus is also published anew with a much improved translation) he
calls his ancestors, Teispes, Cyrus I. and Cambyses I., "kings of
Anshan," and the same title is given to him in the inscriptions and in
the chronicle of Nabonidus of Babylon before his victory over Astyages.
Anshan is a district of Elam or Susiana, the exact position of which is
still subject to much discussion. As we know from Jeremiah xlix. 34 ff.
(cf. Ezekiel xxxii. 24 ff.) that the Elamites suffered a heavy defeat in
596 B.C., it is very probable that the Pasargadian dynast Teispes
conquered Anshan in this year. Modern authors have often supposed that
Cyrus and his ancestors were in reality Elamites; but this is contrary
to all tradition, and there can be no doubt that Cyrus was a genuine
Persian and a true believer in the Zoroastrian religion. In Herodotus
vii. 11 the genealogy of Cyrus is given in exactly the same way as in
the proclamation of Cyrus himself; Teispes is called here the son of the
eponym Achaemenes.

The Pasargadian kings of Anshan were vassals of the Median empire. Their
kingdom cannot have been of large extent, as Nabonidus in a contemporary
inscription (Cylinder from Abu Habba, VR. 64, Schrader, _Keilinschriftl.
Bibliothek_, iii. 2, 96), where he mentions his rebellion against
Astyages, calls Cyrus "king of Anshan, his (i.e. Astyages') small
servant (vassal)." From this inscription we learn that the rebellion of
Cyrus (who seems to have become king in 558 B.C., as Herod. i. 214 gives
him a reign of 29 years) began in 553 B.C., and from the annals that in
550 Astyages marched against Cyrus, but was defeated; his troops
revolted against him, he was taken prisoner, and Cyrus occupied and
plundered Ecbatana. The relation of Ctesias (preserved by Nic. Dam. fr.
66; Anaximenes of Lampsacus in Steph. Byz. s.v. [Greek: Pasargadai],
Strabo xv. p. 729; Polyaen. vii. 6. 1, 9, 45. 2) that Cyrus was three
times beaten by Astyages and that the decisive battle took place in the
mountains of Pasargadae, is certainly in the main historical although
Herodotus (i. 127 ff.) only mentions the treason of the Median general
Harpagus and the defeat and captivity of Astyages. In the rebellion the
Persian tribes of the Maraphians and Maspians joined the Pasargadae
(Herod. i. 125), while the other tribes appear not to have acknowledged
Cyrus till after his victory (see PERSIS). From then he calls himself
"king of the Persians."

The history of Cyrus very soon became involved and quite overgrown with
legends. Herodotus (i. 95) tells us that he knew four different
traditions about him. One makes him the son of Mandane, a daughter of
Astyages (originally evidently by a god), who is exposed in the
mountains by his grandfather on account of an oracle, but suckled by a
dog (a sacred animal of the Iranians) and educated by a shepherd; i.e.
the myth which we know from the stories of Oedipus, Perseus, Telephus,
Pelias and Neleus, Romulus, Sargon of Agade, Moses, the Indian hero
Krishna, and many others, has been transferred to the founder of the
Persian empire. At the same time, the rule of Cyrus and the Persians is
legitimated by his family connexion with Astyages. This account is
partly preserved in Justin i. 4. 10 (probably from Charon of Lampsacus)
and in Aelian, _Var. Hist._ xiv. 42, and alluded to by Herodotus i. 95
and 122. The second account, which Herodotus follows, is a rationalized
version of the first, where the dog is changed into a woman (the wife of
the shepherd) named Spako (bitch). In the later part of his story
Herodotus is dependent on the family traditions of Harpagus, whose
treason is justified by the cruelty with which Astyages had treated him
(the story of Atreus and Thyestes is transferred to them). Harpagus
afterwards stood in high favour with Cyrus, and commanded the army which
subdued the coasts of Asia Minor; his family seems to have been settled
in Lycia. In a third version, preserved from Ctesias in Nicolaus Damasc.
p. 66 (cf. Dinon ap. Athen. xiv. 633 C), Cyrus is the son of a poor
Mardian bandit Atradates (the Mardians are a nomadic Persian tribe,
Herod. i. 125), who comes as a voluntary slave to the court of Astyages,
and finds favour with the king. A Chaldaean sage prophesies to him his
future greatness, and another Persian slave, Oebares, becomes his
associate. He flies to Persia, evades the pursuers whom Astyages sends
after him, and begins the rebellion. After the victory Oebares kills
Astyages against the will of Cyrus, and afterwards kills himself to
evade the wrath of Cyrus. Parts of this story are preserved also in
Strabo xv. p. 729, and Justin i. 6. 1-3; 7. 1; cf. Ctesias _ap._ Photium
2-7; many traces of it were afterwards transferred to the story of
Ardashir I. (q.v.), the founder of the Sassanid empire. With this
version Ctesias and Nicolaus have connected another, in which Cyrus is
the son of a Persian shepherd who lives at Pasargadae, and fights the
decisive battle at this place. The didactic novel of Xenophon, the
_Cyropaedia_, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author,
based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by
Ctesias, without any independent traditional element. The account of
Aeschylus, _Pers._ 765 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few
oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his
nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the
gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia,
Ionia. Then comes his nameless son, then Mardos (i.e. Smerdis, to whom
the name of the Mardians is transferred) who is killed by Artaphrenes
(i.e. Artaphernes, Herod. iii. 78, one of the associates of Darius),
then Maraphis (eponym of the Maraphian tribe), then another Artaphrenes,
then Darius.

The principal events of the later history of Cyrus are in the main
correctly stated by Herodotus, although his account contains many
legendary traditions. The short excerpt from Ctesias, which Photius has
preserved, contains useful information, although we must always mistrust
him. Of great value are a short notice in the fragments of Berossus and
another in the Old Testament. The original sources are very scanty,
besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we
possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon. These
serve to fix the chronology, which is here as everywhere quite in
accordance with the dates of the canon of Ptolemy.

Soon after the conquest of the Median empire, Cyrus was attacked by a
coalition of the other powers of the East, Babylon, Egypt and Lydia,
joined by Sparta, the greatest military power of Greece. In the spring
of 546 Croesus of Lydia began the attack and advanced into Cappadocia,
while the other powers were still gathering their troops. But Cyrus
anticipated them; he defeated Croesus and followed him to his capital.
In the autumn of 546 Sardis was taken and the Lydian kingdom became a
province of the Persians. The famous story of Herodotus, that the
conqueror condemned Croesus to the stake, from which he was saved by the
intervention of the gods, is quite inconsistent with the Persian
religion (see CROESUS).

During the next years the Persian army under Harpagus suppressed a
rebellion of the Lydians under Pactyas, and subjugated the Ionian
cities, the Carians and the Lycians (when the town Xanthus resisted to
the utmost). The king of Cilicia (Syennesis) voluntarily acknowledged
the Persian supremacy. Why the war with Babylon, which had become
inevitable, was delayed until 539, we do not know. Here too Cyrus in a
single campaign destroyed a mighty state. The army of Nabonidus was
defeated; Babylon itself attempted no resistance, but surrendered on the
16th Tishri (10th of October) 539, to the Persian general Gobryas
(_Gaubaruva_, see the chronicle of the reign of Nabonidus; the name
Gobryas is preserved also by Xenophon, _Cyrop._ vii. 4. 24); it is
possible that the Chaldaean priests, who were hostile to Nabonidus,
betrayed the town. In a proclamation issued after his victory Cyrus
guarantees life and property to all the inhabitants and designates
himself as the favourite of Marduk, the great local god (Bel,
Bel-Merodak) of Babel. It is very odd that modern authors have
considered this proclamation as inconsistent with the Zoroastrian creed.

From the beginning of 538 Cyrus dates his years as "king of Babylon and
king of the countries" (i.e. of the world). With the capital, the
Babylonian provinces in Syria fell to the Persians; in 538 Cyrus granted
to the Jews, whom Nebuchadrezzar had transported to Babylonia, the
return to Palestine and the rebuilding of Jerusalem and its temple (see
JEWS, § 19). It is probable that Cyrus had fought more than one war
against the peoples of eastern Iran; according to Ctesias he had, before
the war with Croesus, defeated the Bactrians and the Sacae (in Ferghana;
their king Amorges is the eponym of the Amyrgian Sacae, Herod. vii. 64,
called by Darius _Haumavarka_); and the historians of Alexander mention
a march through Gedrosia, where he lost his whole army but seven men
(Arrian vi. 24. 2; Strabo xv. 722), a tribe Ariaspae on the Etymandros
(in Sijistan), who, on account of the support which they gave him
against the Scythians, were called Euergetae (Arrian iii. 27. 4; Diod.
xvii. 81; Curt. vii. 3. 1), and a town Cyropolis, founded by him on the
Jaxartes (Arrian iv. 2. 3; Curt. vii. 6. 16; Strabo xi. 517, called
Cyreskhata by Ptolem. vi. 12. 5). In 530, having appointed his son
Cambyses king of Babel, he set out for a new expedition against the
East. In this war he was killed (Herod.) or mortally wounded (Ctesias).
According to Herodotus he attacked the Massagetae beyond the Jaxartes;
according to Ctesias, the Derbices, a very barbarous tribe (cf. Strabo
xi. 520; Aelian, _Var. Hist._ iv. 1) on the border of the Caspian, near
the Hyrcanians (Strabo xi. 514; Steph. Byz.; Curt. vii. 2. 7; Dion.
Perieg. 734 ff.; Pomp. Mela iii. 5), or on the Oxus (Plin. vi. 48;
Ptolem. vi. 10. 2; _Tab. Peuting._). Berossus (_ap._ Euseb. _Chron._ i.
29) simply says that he fell against the Dahae, i.e. the nomads of the
Turanian desert. His death occurred in 528 B.C., as we have a Babylonian
tablet from the Adar of the tenth year of Cyrus, i.e. February 528; for
in Babylon the first year of Cyrus began in the spring of 538.

In his native district Cyrus had built a city with a palace, called
after his tribe Pasargadae (now Murghab), and here he was buried (see
PASARGADAE). In a short time he, the petty prince of an almost unknown
tribe, had founded a mighty empire, which extended from the Indus and
Jaxartes to the Aegaean and the borders of Egypt. This result shows that
Cyrus must have been a great warrior and statesman. Nor is his character
without nobility. He excels in the humanity with which he treated the
vanquished. He destroyed no town nor did he put the captive kings to
death; in Babylonia he behaved like a constitutional monarch; by the
Persians his memory was cherished as "the father of the people" (Herod.
iii. 89), and the Greek tradition preserved by Aeschylus (cf. above)
shows that his greatness was acknowledged also by his enemies. He
therefore deserves the homage which Xenophon paid to him in choosing him
as hero for his didactic novel.

2. CYRUS THE YOUNGER, son of Darius II. and Parysatis, was born after
the accession of his father in 424. When, after the victories of
Alcibiades, Darius II. decided to continue the war against Athens and
give strong support to the Spartans, he sent in 408 the young prince
into Asia Minor, as satrap of Lydia and Phrygia Major with Cappadocia,
and commander of the Persian troops, "which gather into the field of
Castolos" (Xen. _Hell._ i. 4. 3; _Anab._ i. 9. 7), i.e. of the army of
the district of Asia Minor. He gave strenuous support to the Spartans;
evidently he had already then formed the design, in which he was
supported by his mother, of gaining the throne for himself after the
death of his father; he pretended to have stronger claims to it than his
elder brother Artaxerxes, who was not born in the purple. For this plan
he hoped to gain the assistance of Sparta. In the Spartan general
Lysander he found a man who was willing to help him, as Lysander himself
hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian
prince. So Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the
Peloponnesian War, but denied them to his successor Callicratidas; by
exerting his influence in Sparta, he brought it about that after the
battle of Arginusae Lysander was sent out a second time as the real
commander (though under a nominal chief) of the Spartan fleet in 405
(Xen. _Hell._ ii. 1. 14). At the same time Darius fell ill and called
his son to his deathbed; Cyrus handed over all his treasures to Lysander
and went to Susa. After the accession of Artaxerxes II. in 404,
Tissaphernes denounced the plans of Cyrus against his brother (cf. Plut.
_Artax._ 3); but by the intercession of Parysatis he was pardoned and
sent back to his satrapy. Meanwhile Lysander had gained the battle of
Aegospotami and Sparta was supreme in the Greek world. Cyrus managed
very cleverly to gather a large army by beginning a quarrel with
Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, about the Ionian towns; he also pretended
to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians, a mountainous tribe in
the Taurus, which was never obedient to the Empire. Although the
dominant position of Lysander had been broken in 403 by King Pausanias,
the Spartan government gave him all the support which was possible
without going into open war against the king; it caused a partisan of
Lysander, Clearchus, condemned to death on account of atrocious crimes
which he had committed as governor of Byzantium, to gather an army of
mercenaries on the Thracian Chersonesus, and in Thessaly Menon of
Pharsalus, head of a party which was connected with Sparta, collected
another army.

In the spring of 401 Cyrus united all his forces and advanced from
Sardis, without announcing the object of his expedition. By dexterous
management and large promises he overcame the scruples of the Greek
troops against the length and danger of the war; a Spartan fleet of
thirty-five triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus
into Syria and conveyed to him a Spartan detachment of 700 men under
Cheirisophus. The king had only been warned at the last moment by
Tissaphernes and gathered an army in all haste; Cyrus advanced into
Babylonia, before he met with an enemy. Here ensued, in October 401, the
battle of Cunaxa. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites and 2500 peltasts, and
besides an Asiatic army under the command of Ariaeus, for which Xenophon
gives the absurd number of 100,000 men; the army of Artaxerxes he puts
down at 900,000. These numbers only show that he, although an
eyewitness, has no idea of large numbers; in reality the army of Cyrus
may at the very utmost have consisted of 30,000, that of Artaxerxes of
40,000 men. Cyrus saw that the decision depended on the fate of the
king; he therefore wanted Clearchus, the commander of the Greeks, to
take the centre against Artaxerxes. But Clearchus, a tactician of the
old school, disobeyed. The left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes
avoided a serious conflict with the Greeks; Cyrus in the centre threw
himself upon Artaxerxes, but was slain in a desperate struggle.
Afterwards Artaxerxes pretended to have killed the rebel himself, with
the result that Parysatis took cruel vengeance upon the slayer of her
favourite son. The Persian troops dared not attack the Greeks, but
decoyed them into the interior, beyond the Tigris, and tried to
annihilate them by treachery. But after their commanders had been taken
prisoners the Greeks forced their way to the Black Sea. By this
achievement they had demonstrated the internal weakness of the Persian
empire and the absolute superiority of the Greek arms.

  The history of Cyrus and of the retreat of the Greeks is told by
  Xenophon in his _Anabasis_ (where he tries to veil the actual
  participation of the Spartans). Another account, probably from
  Sophaenetus of Stymphalus, was used by Ephorus, and is preserved in
  Diodor. xiv. 19 ff. Further information is contained in the excerpts
  from Ctesias by Photius; cf. also Plutarch's life of Artaxerxes. The
  character of Cyrus is highly praised by the ancients, especially by
  Xenophon (cf. also his _Oeconomics_, c. iv.); and certainly he was
  much superior to his weak brother in energy and as a general and
  statesman. If he had ascended the throne he might have regenerated the
  empire for a while, whereas it utterly decayed under the rule of
  Artaxerxes II. (See also PERSIA: _Ancient History_.)     (Ed. M.)



CYSTOFLAGELLATA (so named by E. Haeckel), a group of Mastigophorous
Protozoa, distinguished from Flagellata by their large size (0.15-1.5
mm.), and their branched endoplasm, recalling that of _Trachelius_ among
Infusoria, within a firm ectosarc bounded by a strong cuticle. Nutrition
is holozoic, a deep groove leading down to a mouth and pharynx. A long
fine flagellum arises from the pharynx in _Noctiluca_ (E. Suriray)
_Leptodiscus_ and (R. Hertwig); and in the former genus, a second
flagellum, thick, long and transversely striated, rises farther out, in
the groove; this was likened by E. R. Lankester to a proboscis, whence
his name of Rhynchoflagellata, which we discard as unnecessary and
posterior to Haeckel's. _Noctiluca_ has thus the form of an apple with a
long stalk. _Leptodiscus_ (R. Hertwig) has the form of a medusa without
a proboscis--it is menisciform with the thin contractile margin produced
inwards like a velum on the concave side, while the mouth is on the
convex surface and the single flagellum springs from a blind tube on the
same surface. _Craspedotella_ (C. A. Kofoid), the third genus, is still
more medusiform, with a broad velum, and the mouth in a convex central
protrusion of the roof of the bell; and a thick flagellum springs from a
blind tube on the convex surface. All three genera are pelagic and
phosphorescent, this property being seated in the ectoplasm; _Noctiluca
miliaris_ is indeed the chief source of the phosphorescence of our
summer seas. O. Bütschli, like other writers, regards the
Cystoflagellates as closely allied to the Dinoflagellates, the small
flagellum corresponding to the longitudinal, the large flagellum to the
transverse flagellum of that group.

[Illustration: After E. Ray Lankester, _Ency. Brit._, 9th ed.

Cystoflagellate Protozoa.

  1 and 2, Young stages of _Noctiluca miliaris_.
    a, the big flagellum; the unlettered filament becomes the oral
         flagellum of the adult.
    n, nucleus.
    s, the so-called spine (superficial ridge of the adult).

  3 and 4, Two stages in the fission of _Noctiluca miliaris_, Suriray.
    n, nucleus.
    N, food-particles.
    t, muscular flagellum.

  5. _Noctiluca miliaris_, viewed from the aboral side (after Allman,
       _Quart. Jour. Mic. Sci._, 1872).
    a, entrance to atrium or flagellar fossa (= longitudinal groove of
         Dinoflagellata).
    c, superficial ridge.
    d, big flagellum (= flagellum of transverse groove of Dinoflagellata).
    h, nucleus.

  6. _Noctiluca miliaris_, acted upon by iodine solution, showing the
       protoplasm shrunk away from the structureless pellicle.
    a = entrance to atrium.

  7. Lateral view of _Noctiluca miliaris_.
    a, entrance to atrium.
    b, atrium.
    c, superficial ridge.
    d, big flagellum.
    e = mouth and gullet, in which is seen Krohn's oral flagellum (= the
          chief flagellum, or flagellum of the longitudinal groove of
          Dinoflagellata).
    f, broad process of protoplasm extending from the superficial ridge c
         to the central protoplasm.
    g, duplicature of pellicle in connexion with superficial ridge.
    h, nucleus.]

The reproduction of _Noctiluca_ has been fairly made out; in the adult
state it divides by fission down the oral groove; as a preliminary the
external differentiations disappear, and the nucleus divides by modified
mitosis; then the external organs are regenerated. Under circumstances
not well made out, conjugation between two adults takes place by their
fusion commencing at the oral region; flagella and pharynx disappear and
the nuclei fuse, while the cytoplasts condense into a sphere. The
nucleus undergoes broad division, the young nuclei pass to the surface,
which becomes imperfectly divided by grooves into as many rounded
prominences as there are nuclei (up to 128 or 256); and these become
constricted off from the residual useless cytoplasm as zoospores with
two unequal flagella, which were at first regarded as Dinoflagellates,
of which they have the form (figs. 5, 6). The metamorphosis of these
has not yet been observed.

  LITERATURE.--E. Suriray, _Magazin de zoologie_, 1836; G. J. Allman,
  _Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science_, n.s. xii., 1872; L.
  Cienkowsky, "Zoospore formation in Noctiluca," _Archiv f.
  mikroskopische Anatomie_, vii., 1871; R. Hertwig, "Leptodiscus,"
  _Jenaische Zeitschrift_, xi., 1877; C. Ischikawa, _Journal of the
  College of Science_ (Tokyo, 1894), xii., 1899; F. Doflein,
  "Conjugation of Noctiluca," _Zoologische Jahrbücher, Anatomie_, xiv.,
  1900; C. A. Kofoid, "Craspedotella," in _Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
  Harvard_, xlvi., 1905; O. Bütschli, "Mastigophora," in _Protozoa_
  (_Braun's Thierreich_, vol. i., _Protozoa_) (1883-1887).     (M. Ha.)



CYSTOLITH (Gr. [Greek: kystis], cavity, and [Greek: lithos], stone), a
botanical term for the inorganic concretions, usually of calcium
carbonate, formed in a cellulose matrix in special cells, generally in
the leaf of plants of certain families, e.g. _Ficus elastica_, the
india-rubber plant.



CYTHERA (mod. _Cerigo_, but still officially known as Cythera), one of
the Ionian islands, situated not less than 150 m. from Zante, but only
about 8 m. from Cape Malea on the southern coast of Greece. Its length
from N. to S. is nearly 20 m., and its greatest breadth about 12; its
area is 114 sq. m. The surface is rocky and broken, but streams abound,
and there are various parts of considerable fertility. Two caves, of
imposing dimensions, and adorned with stalactites of great beauty, are
the most notable among its natural peculiarities; one is situated at the
seaward end of the glen of the Mylopotamus, and the other, named Santa
Sophia, about two hours' ride from Capsali (Kapsali). Less of the ground
is cultivated and more of it is in pasture land than in any other of the
seven islands. Some wine and corn are produced, and the quality of the
olive oil is good. The honey is still highly prized, as it was in remote
antiquity; and a considerable quantity of cheese is manufactured from
the milk of the goat. Salt, flax, cotton and currants are also mentioned
among the produce. The people are industrious, and many of them seek
employment as labourers in the Morea and Asia Minor. Owing to
emigration, the population appears to be steadily diminishing, and is
now only about 6000, or less than half what it was in 1857.
Unfortunately the island has hardly a regular harbour on any part of the
coast; from its situation at the meeting, as it were, of seas, the
currents in the neighbourhood are strong, and storms are very frequent.
The best anchorage is at San Nicolo, at the middle of the eastern side
of the island. The principal village is Capsali, a place of about 1500
inhabitants, at the southern extremity, with a bishop, and several
convents and churches; the lesser hamlets are Modari, Potamo and San
Nicolo.

There are comparatively few traces of antiquity, and the identification
of the ancient cities has been disputed. The capital, which bore the
same name as the island, was at Paleo-Kastro, about 3 m. from the
present port of Avlemona. In the church of St Kosmas are preserved some
of the archaic Doric columns of the famous temple of Aphrodite of
Cythera, whose worship had been introduced from Syria, and ultimately
spread over Greece. According to the accepted story, it was here that
the goddess first landed when she emerged from the sea. At a very early
date Cythera was the seat of a Phoenician settlement, established in
connexion with the purple fishery of the neighbouring coast; it is said
that it was therefore called Porphyris (cf. Pliny iv. 18, 19). For a
time dependent on Argos, it became afterwards an important possession of
the Spartans, who annually despatched a governor named the Cytherodices.
In the Peloponnesian war, Nicias occupied the island, but in 421 it was
recovered by Sparta. Its modern history has been very much the same as
that of the other Ionian islands; but it was subject to Venice for a
much shorter period--from 1717 to 1797.

  See the works referred to under CEPHALONIA, and also Weil, in
  _Mittheil. d. deutsch. Inst. zu Athen_ (1880), pp. 224-243.



CYTISINE (_Ulexin_, _Sophorin_), C11H14N2O, an alkaloid discovered in
1818 by J. B. Chevreul in the seeds of laburnum (_Cytisus Laburnum_) and
isolated by A. Husemann and W. Marmé in 1865 (_Zeit. f. Chemie_, 1865,
i. p. 161). It is also found in the seeds of furze (_Ulex europaeus_),
_Sophora tormentosa_, and _Euchresta horsfieldii_. It is extracted from
the seeds by an alcoholic solution of acetic acid, and forms large
crystals which melt at 153° C., and are easily soluble in water, alcohol
and chloroform. It is a secondary and tertiary di-acid base, and is
strongly alkaline in its reaction. Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to
oxycytisine, C11H14N2O2, chromic acid to an acid, C11H9NO3, and
potassium permanganate to oxalic acid and ammonia. It acts as a violent
poison.

  See further, P. C. Plugge, _Arch. der Pharm._ (1891), 229, p. 48 et
  seq.; A. Partheil, _Ber._ (1890), 23, p. 3201, _Arch. der Pharm._
  (1892), 230, p. 448; M. Freund and A. Friedmann, _Ber._ (1901), 34, p.
  615; and J, Herzig and H. Meyer, _Monats. f. Chem._ (1897), 18, p.
  379.



CYTOLOGY (from [Greek: kytos], a hollow vessel, and [Greek: logos],
science), the scientific study of the "cells" or living units of
protoplasm (q.v.), of which plants and animals are composed. All the
higher, and the great majority of the lower, plants and animals are
composed of a vast number of these vital units or "cells." In the case
of many microscopic forms, however, the entire organism, plant or
animal, consists throughout life of a single cell. Familiar examples of
these "unicellular" forms are Bacteria and Diatoms among the plants, and
Foraminifera and Infusoria among the animals. In all cases, however,
whether the cell-unit lives freely as a unicellular organism or forms an
integral part of a multicellular individual, it exhibits in itself all
the phenomena characteristic of living things. Each cell assimilates
food material, whether this is obtained by its own activity, as in the
majority of the protozoa, or is brought, as it were, to its own door by
the blood stream, as in the higher Metazoa, and builds this food
material into its own substance, a process accompanied by respiration
and excretion and resulting in growth. Each cell exhibits in greater or
less degree "irritability," or the power of responding to stimuli; and
finally each cell, at some time in its life, is capable of reproduction.
It is evident therefore that in the multicellular forms all the complex
manifestations of life are but the outcome of the co-ordinated
activities of the constituent cells. The latter are indeed, as Virchow
has termed them, "vital units." It is therefore in these vital units
that the explanation of vital phenomena must be sought (see PHYSIOLOGY).
As Verworn[1] said, "It is to the cell that the study of every bodily
function sooner or later drives us. In the muscle cell lies the problem
of the heart beat and that of muscular contraction; in the gland cell
reside the causes of secretion; in the epithelial cell, in the white
blood corpuscle, lies the problem of the absorption of food, and the
secrets of the mind are hidden in the ganglion cell." So also the
problems of development and inheritance have shown themselves to be cell
problems, while the study of disease has produced a "cellular
pathology." The most important problems awaiting solution in biology are
cell problems.

_Historical._--The cell-theory ranks with the evolution theory in the
far-reaching influence it has exerted on the growth of modern biology;
and although almost entirely a product of the 19th century, the history
of its development gives place, in point of interest, to that of no
other general conception. The cell-theory--in a form, however, very
different from that in which we now know it--was originally suggested by
the study of plant structure; and the first steps to the formulation,
many years later, of a definite cell-theory, were made as early as the
later part of the 17th century by Robert Hooke, Marcello Malpighi and
Nehemiah Grew. Hooke (1665) noted and described the vesicular nature of
cork and similar vegetable substances, and designated the cavities by
the term "cells." A few years later Malpighi (1674) and Grew (1682),
still of course working with the low power lenses alone available at
that time, gave a more detailed description of the finer structure of
plant tissue. They showed that it consisted in part of little cell-like
cavities, provided with firm cell-walls and filled with fluid, and in
part of long tube-like vessels. A long time passed before the next
important step forward was made by C. L. Treviranus,[2] who, working on
the growing parts of young plants, showed that the tubes and vessels of
Malpighi and Grew arose from cells by the latter becoming elongated and
attached end to end, the intervening walls breaking down; a conclusion
afterwards confirmed by Hugo von Mohl (1830). It was not, however, until
the appearance of Matthias Jakob Schleiden's paper _Beiträge zur
Phytogenesis_ (1838) that we have a really comprehensive treatment of
the cell, and the formulation of a definite cell-theory for plants. It
is to the wealth of correlated observations and to the philosophic
breadth of the conclusions in this paper that the subsequent rapid
progress in cytology is undoubtedly to be attributed. Schleiden in this
paper attempted to solve the problem of the mode of origin of cells. The
nucleus (_vide infra_) of the cell had already been discovered by Robert
Brown (1831), who, however, failed to realize its importance. Schleiden
utilized Brown's discovery, and although his theory of phytogenesis is
based on erroneous observations, yet the great importance which he
rightly attached to the nucleus as a cell-structure made it possible to
extend the cell-theory to animal tissues also. We may indeed date the
birth of animal cytology from Schleiden's short but epoch-making paper.
Comparisons between plant and animal tissues had already been made by
several workers, among others by Johannes Müller (1835), and by F. G. J.
Henle and J. E. Purkinje (1837). But the first real step to a
comprehensive cell-theory to include animal tissues was made by Theodor
Schwann. This author, stimulated by Schleiden's work, published in 1830
a series of _Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Übereinstimmung in
der Structur und dem Wachstum der Tiere und Pflanzen_. This epoch-making
work ranks with that of Schleiden in its stimulating influence on
biological research, and in spite of the greater technical difficulties
in the way, raised animal cytology at one blow to the position already,
and so laboriously, acquired by plant cytology. In the animal cell it is
the nucleus and not the cell-wall that is most conspicuous, and it is
largely to the importance which Schwann, following the example of
Schleiden, attached to this structure as a cell constituent, that the
success and far-reaching influence of his work is due. Another feature
determining the success of Schwann's work was his selection of embryonic
tissue as material for investigation. He showed that in the embryo the
cells all closely resemble one another, only becoming later converted
into the tissue elements--nerve cells, muscle cells and so forth--as
development proceeded; just as a similar mode of investigation had
enabled Treviranus to trace the origin from typical cells of the
vascular tissue in plants more than 30 years previously. And just as
Treviranus showed that there was a union of cells to form the vessels in
plants, so Schwann now showed that a union of cells frequently occurred
in the formation of animal tissues.

So great was the stimulus given to cytological research by the work of
Schleiden and Schwann that these authors are often referred to as the
founders of the cell-theory. Their theory, however, differed very
greatly from that of the present time. Not only did they suppose new
cells to arise by a sort of "crystallization" from a formative "mother
liquor" or "cytoblastema" (_vide infra_), but they both defined the cell
as a "vesicle" provided with a firm cell-wall and with fluid contents.
The cell-wall was regarded as the essential cell-structure, which by its
own peculiar properties controlled the cell-processes. The work of
Schleiden and Schwann marks the close of the first period in the history
of the cell-theory--the period dominated by the cell-wall. The
subsequent history is marked by the gradual recognition of the
importance of the cell-contents. Schleiden had noticed in the plant cell
a finely granular substance which he termed "plant slime"
(_Pflanzenschleim_). In 1846 Hugo von Mohl applied to this substance the
term "protoplasm"; a term already used by Purkinje six years previously
for the formative substance of young animal embryos. Mohl showed that
the young plant cell was at first completely filled by the protoplasm,
and that only later, by the gradual accumulation of vacuoles in the
interior, did this substance come to form a thin layer on the inner
surface of the cell-wall. Mohl also described the spontaneous movement
of the protoplasm, a phenomenon already noted by Schleiden for his plant
slime, and originally discovered by Bonaventura Corti in 1772 for the
cells of _Chara_, and rediscovered in 1807 by Treviranus. Not only was
attention thus gradually directed to the importance of the
cell-contents, but observations were not lacking, even in the plant
kingdom, tending to weaken the importance hitherto attached to the
cell-wall. Among these may be mentioned Cohn's observation that in the
reproduction of Algal forms the protoplasm contracts away from the
cell-wall and escapes as a naked "swarm spore." Similarly in the animal
kingdom instances began to be noted in which no membrane appeared to be
present (Kolliker, 1845; Bischoff, 1842), and for some time it was hotly
debated whether these structures could be regarded as true cells. As a
result of the resemblance between the streaming movements in these
apparently naked cells (e.g. lymphocytes) and those seen in plant cells,
R. Remak was led (1852-1853) to apply Mohl's term "protoplasm" to the
substance of these animal cells also. Similarly Max Schultze (1863) and
H. A. de Bary (1859), as a result of the study of unicellular animals,
came to the conclusion that the substance of these organisms, originally
termed "Sarcode" by F. Dujardin, was identical with that of the plant
and animal cell. Numerous workers now began to realize the subordinate
position of the cell-wall (e.g. Nägeli, Alexander Braun, Leydig,
Kolliker, Cohn, de Bary, &c.), but it is to Max Schultze above all that
the credit is due for having laid the foundation of the modern
conception of the cell--a conception often referred to as the
_proto-plasmic-theory_ in opposition to the _cell_-theory of Schleiden
and Schwann. Max Schultze showed that one and the same substance,
protoplasm, occurred in unicellular forms and in the higher plants and
animals; that in plants this substance, though usually enclosed _within_
a cell membrane, was sometimes naked (e.g. swarm spores), while in many
animal tissues and in many of the unicellular forms the cell-membrane
was always absent. He therefore concluded that in all cases the
cell-membrane was unessential, and he redefined the "cell" of Schleiden
and Schwann as "a small mass of protoplasm endowed with the attributes
of life" (1861). In the same year the physiologist Brücke maintained
that the complexity of vital phenomena necessitated the assumption for
the cell-protoplasm itself of a complex structure, only invisible
because of the limitations of our methods of observation. The cell in
fact was to be regarded as being itself an "elementary organism." By
this time too it was realized that the formation of cells _de novo_,
postulated by Schleiden's theory of "phytogenesis," did not occur. Cells
only arose by the division of pre-existing cells,--as Virchow neatly
expressed it in his since famous aphorism, _omnis cellula e cellula_. It
was, however, many years before the details of this "cell-division" were
laid bare (see _Cell-Division_ below).

_General Morphology of the Cell._--In its simplest form the cell is a
more or less spherical mass of viscid, translucent and granular
protoplasm. In addition to the living protoplasm there is present in the
cell food-material in various stages of assimilation, which usually
presents the appearance of fine granules or spherules suspended in the
more or less alveolar or reticular mesh-work of the living protoplasm.
In addition there may be more or less obvious accumulations of waste
material, pigment, oil drops, &c.--products of the cell's metabolic
activity. All these relatively passive inclusions[3] are distinguished
from the living protoplasm by the term "metaplasm" (Hanstein), or
"paraplasm" (Kupffer), although in practice no very sharp distinction
can be drawn between them. The cell is frequently, but by no means
always, bounded by a cell-wall of greater or less thickness. In plants
this cell-wall consists of cellulose, a substance closely allied to
starch; in animals only very rarely is this the case. Usually the
cell-wall, when this is present, is a product of the cell's secretive
activity; sometimes, however, it appears to be formed by an actual
conversion of the surface layer of the protoplasm, and retains the power
of growth by "intussusception" like the rest of the protoplasm. Even
when a limiting membrane is present, however, evidence is steadily
accumulating to show that the cell is not an isolated physiological
unit, but that, in the vast majority of cases, there is a protoplasmic
continuity between the cells of the organism. This continuity, which is
effected by fine protoplasmic threads ("cell-bridges") piercing the
cell-wall and bridging the intercellular spaces when these are present,
is to be regarded as the morphological expression of the physiological
interdependence of the various--often widely separated--tissues of the
body.[4] It is probable that it is the specialization of this primitive
condition which has produced the cell-elements of the nervous system. In
many cases the cell-connexions are so extensive as to obliterate
cell-boundaries. A good example of such a "syncytial" tissue is provided
by the heart muscle of Vertebrates and the intestinal musculature of
Insects (Webber).[5]

In all multicellular, and in the great majority of unicellular,
organisms the protoplasm of the cell-unit is differentiated into two
very distinct regions,--a more or less central region, the _nucleus_,
and a peripheral region (usually much more extensive), the cell-body or
_cytoplasm_. This universal morphological differentiation of the
cell-protoplasm is accompanied by corresponding chemical differences,
and is the expression of a physiological division of labour of
fundamental importance. In some of the simpler unicellular organisms,
e.g. _Tetramitus_, the differentiated protoplasm is not segregated. Such
forms are said to have a "distributed" nucleus, and among the Protozoa
correspond to Haeckel's "Protista." It is probable that among plants the
Bacteria and Cyanophyceae have a similar distributed nucleus. In all the
higher forms, however, the segregation is well marked, and a "nuclear
membrane" separates the substance of the nucleus, or "karyoplasm"[6]
from the surrounding "cytoplasm." Within the nuclear membrane the
karyoplasm is differentiated into two very distinct portions, a clear
fluid portion, the "karyolymph," and a firmer portion in the form of a
coarser or finer "nuclear reticulum." This latter is again composed of
two parts, the "linin reticulum,"[7] and, embedded in the latter and
often irregularly aggregated at its nodal points, a granular substance,
the "chromatin,"[8] the latter being the essential constituent of the
nucleus. In addition to the chromatin there may be present in the
nucleus one or more, usually spherical, and as yet somewhat enigmatical
bodies, the "nucleoli." In addition to the nucleus and cytoplasm, a
third body, the "centrosome," has often been considered as a constant
cell-structure. It is a minute granule, usually lying in the cytoplasm
not far from the nucleus, and plays an important part in cell-division
and fertilization (see below).

_Cell-differentiation._--Both among unicellular and multicellular
individuals the cell assumes the most varied forms and performs the most
diverse functions. In all cases, however, whether we examine the
free-living shapeless and slowly creeping _Amoeba_, or the striped
muscle cell or spermatozoon of the Metazoa (fig. 1, b and c), the
constant recurrence of cytoplasm and nucleus show that we have to deal
in each case with a cell. The variation in the form and structure of the
cell is an expression of that universal economic law of nature,
"division of labour," with its almost invariable accompanying
"morphological differentiation"; the earliest and most fundamental
example being in the differentiation of the cell-protoplasm into
cytoplasm and nucleus. In multicellular individuals the division of
labour to which the structural complexity of the organism is due is
between the individual cell-units, some cells developing one aspect,
some another, of their vital attributes. Thus one cell specializes in,
say, secretion, another in contractility, another in receiving and
carrying stimuli, and so forth, so that we have the gland cell, the
muscle cell, and the nerve cell, each appropriately grouped with its
fellows to constitute the particular tissue or organ--gland, muscle or
brain--which has for its function that of its constituent cells. In
unicellular animals we also find division of labour and its accompanying
morphological differentiation, but here there is no subdivision of the
protoplasm of the organism into the semi-autonomous units which so
greatly facilitate division of labour in the Metazoa; instead, division
of labour must be between different regions of protoplasm in the single
cell. The sharply defined character of this regional differentiation in
the Protozoa, and the surprising structural complexity it may produce,
sufficiently clearly show that although multicellular structure has
greatly facilitated regional differentiation in the Metazoa, it is by no
means essential to this process (see below, _Present Position of the
Cell-theory_).

It is not within the scope of this article to attempt a comprehensive
review of the variety in structural complexity to which this division of
labour among the cells of the Metazoan and the regional differentiation
of the cell-bodies of the Protozoa has given rise. Some indication of
the wealth of variety may be best given by taking a general survey of
cell-modifications, grouped according to the cell-attributes the
expression of which they facilitate.

[Illustration: a and b from Schäfer's _Essentials of Histology_, by
permission of Longmans, Green & Co.

FIG. 1.--Types of Cells. a, Fat-cell enclosing a huge fat-globule. b,
Part of a Mammalian "striated" muscle-cell (diagrammatic). c,
Spermatozoa of mouse and bird.]

(a) _Structural Complexity facilitating Movement._--One of the most
striking, and hence earliest described, of the fundamental attributes of
protoplasm is its power of spontaneous movement. This is seen in the
walled cell of plant tissue and in the naked cell-body of _Amoeba_. In
the latter case the streaming movements of the naked protoplasm are
accompanied by the formation of "pseudopodia," and result in the highly
characteristic "amoeboid" creeping movement of this and similar
organisms (e.g. lymph corpuscles of the blood).[9] In these examples the
whole protoplasm participates in the movement,--there has been no
division of labour, and there is, therefore, no visible morphological
differentiation. In many cells, movement (either of the entire body or
of the surrounding medium) is by means of slender whip-like processes of
the protoplasm flagella or cilia. These represent modified pseudopodia,
and in the formation of the motile gametes of some of the lower forms,
e.g. Myxomycetes (de Bary, 1859), Rhizopods (R. Hertwig, 1874), &c., the
actual conversion of a pseudopodium into a flagellum can be witnessed.
These vibratile processes may be either one or few in number, and are
then large in size and move independently of one another; or they may be
very numerous, covering the free surface of the cell (fig. 2, a); they
are then very small and move strictly in unison. In the former case they
are termed "flagella," in the latter "cilia." In some cases the
flagellum is accompanied by an undulating membrane (e.g. Trypanosoma
among the protozoa and in many spermatozoa), and it may be situated
either at the front end (Euglena) or hind end (spermatozoa) of the body
during motion. The cilia may form a uniform coating to the free surface
of the cell, as in ciliated epithelium (fig. 2, a) and many infusoria,
or the cilia may be variously modified and restricted to special regions
of the body, e.g. the "undulating membrane" of the peristomial region in
many infusoria, the swimming combs of the Ctenophora (q.v.), and the
flame cells of the Platyelmia (q.v.). In one group of infusoria
(Hypotricha), the cilia, "cirri," have attained a high degree of
differentiation, and reach a considerable size. Both cilia and flagella
spring directly from the cell-protoplasm, piercing the cell-membrane,
when this is present. At the point where they become continuous with the
cell-body there is usually a deeply staining "basal granule." In some
cases the flagella are in direct connexion with the centrosome (see
below, _Cell-division_), e.g. Trypanosoma and spermatozoa, in some cases
even while the centrosome is functioning in mitosis (e.g. insect
spermatogenesis, Henneguy[10] and Meves[11] (fig. 3).

[Illustration: From A. Gurwitsch, _Morphologie und Biologie der Zelle_,
by permission of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 2.--Types of Cells. a, Ciliated epithelial cells. (After
Heidenhain.) b, Mucus-secreting "goblet"-cells. (After Gurwitsch.)]

[Illustration: From O. Hertwig, _Allgemeine Biologie_, by permission of
Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 3.--Spermatocytes of _Bombyx mori_, showing the precocious
appearance of the spermatozoon flagellum and its relation to the
centrosome. (After Henneguy.)]

In the ability of _Amoeba_ to contract into a spherical mass, and in the
presence in its protoplasm of the contractile vacuole, we see another
type of spontaneous movement--contractility--of the protoplasm. In the
"musculo-epithelial" cells of _Hydra_, the elongated basal portion of
the cell alone possesses this contractility. In the higher Metazoa the
whole cell--muscle cell--is specialized for contractility, and shows, as
a result of its specialization, a distinct fibrillation. This
fibrillation is foreshadowed in the contractile regions of many
Protozoa, e.g. in the cirri of hypotrichous Infusoria, the tentacle of
_Noctiluca_, and the myophane layer of Gregarines. In the quickly
contracting muscle cell of Vertebrates and insects, further
specialization has produced a structure of considerable complexity (fig.
1, b). Here also the cell is fibrillated, but the fibrillae
(sarcostyles) are much more distinct, and are segmented in a manner
which gives to the entire cell a "cross striated" appearance. Since
quick movement is usually (but not always) associated with voluntary
control, these striated muscle cells are often termed "voluntary" muscle
fibres. The great increase in length of these cells is accompanied by
the fragmentation of the originally single nucleus.

(b) _Cell-modification in Relation to Secretion._--Just as the complex
movements considered above were the result of a great development of the
power of spontaneous movement possessed by all protoplasm, so
cell-secretion is the result of a development of the metabolic processes
underlying all vital phenomena. But whereas specialization of the
protoplasm for movement resulted in a very obvious morphological
complexity, specialization for secretion results in molecular
complexity, and only rarely and indirectly results in morphological
differentiation. Usually indeed the specialization is only rendered
evident by the appearance of the formed secretion, e.g. mucus-secreting
epithelial cells (fig. 2, b), the ovarian ovum and the fat cell (fig. 1,
a). In some cases a distinct fibrillation of the cytoplasm accompanies
or precedes the appearance of the cell-secretion (Mathews, pancreas cell
of Amphibia). In many cases the internal secretion is no mere
accumulation, e.g. the internal skeleton of the Radiolaria, and the
nematocysts of the Coelentera. Frequently in animal tissues the
cell-secretions are accumulated in the intercellular spaces, and result
in the formation of the various "connective tissues," all of which are
characterized by the immense amount of intercellular substance, e.g.
fibrous tissue, cartilage and bone. Cell-modifications facilitating the
general metabolism, but not necessarily indicating specialized
secretion, also occur, e.g. the "gullet" of many Protozoa, the suctorial
tubules of the Acinetaria, and the "nutritive processes" of the ovarian
ova in many Lepidoptera. Mention may be made here of the network or
canal system of the cytoplasm, described for many cells by Golgi,
Holgren and others. An enigmatical structure, the "yolk-nucleus" of many
ova, has been frequently regarded as a structure of considerable
metabolic importance, e.g. Bambeke (1898) for _Pholcus_.[12]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Types of Nuclei.

From Prof. E. B. Wilson's The Cell in _Development and Inheritance_, by
permission of the author and of the Macmillan Co., New York.

  a, Permanent spireme-nuclei in cells from the intestinal epithelium of
  a dipterous larva, _Ptychoptera_. (After van Gehuchten.)

From Korschelt and Heider, _Lehrbuch der verg. Entwicklungsgeschichte
der wirbellosen Tiere_, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

  b, Branched nucleus of the "nutritive" cell, from a portion of an
  ovarial tube of _Forficula auricularia_.]

Striking modifications resulting from specialization in secretion are
frequently presented by the nucleus. In many secreting cells this
structure is extensively branched, e.g. many gland cells and ovarian
nutritive cells of insects (fig. 4, b). In some cases the nucleus of the
gland cell contains a persistent spireme thread (fig. 4, a); while
almost all actively secreting cells are characterized by the possession
of large or numerous nucleoli.

[Illustration: From Schäfer's _Essentials of Histology_, by permission
of Longmans, Green & Co.

FIG. 5.--Nervous and Sensory Cells.

  A and B, Ganglion cells from the cerebral cortex; in A the only
  slightly branched axon may extend the whole length of the spinal cord.
  (After Schäfer.)

  C, Body of a ganglion-cell showing "Nissl's granules."

  D, Sensory cells from olfactory epithelium. (After Schultze.)

  E, Diagrammatic representation of the sensory epithelium of retina
  (rod and cone layer). (After Schwalbe.)]

(c) _Specialization for the Reception and Conduction of Stimuli._--One
of the most striking of the fundamental attributes of living protoplasm
is its "irritability," that is to say, its power of responding to
external impressions, "stimuli," by movement, which, both in kind and
intensity, is wholly independent of the amount of energy expended by the
stimulus. The stimulus conveyed by the nerve fibre to the muscle is out
of all proportion to the amount of work it may cause the muscle to do.
Although protoplasmic irritability is thus incapable of a simple
mechanical explanation, science has rejected the assumption of a special
"vital force," and interprets protoplasmic response as being a long
series of chemico-physical changes,[13] initiated, but only initiated,
by the original stimulus; the latter thus standing in the same relation
to the response it produces as the pull on the trigger to the propulsion
of the rifle bullet. The function of receiving stimuli from the outer
world, originally possessed to a greater or less extent by all cells,
has, in the Metazoa, been relegated to one class of cells, the sensory
cells[14] (fig. 5, D and E). Another class of cells--the "ganglion
cells" or "neurones" (fig. 5, A and B), are concerned with the
conduction of the stimuli so received. The contractile elements in the
Metazoa are thus dependent for their stimuli on the nervous
elements--the sensory cells and neurones.

_Origin of Cells._--In the preceding sections we have considered the
structure of the cell in relation to the fundamental attributes of
cell-metabolism, irritability, and movement. We have now to consider
the cell in relation to yet another vital attribute, that of
reproduction. Just as we now know that the phenomena of assimilation,
respiration, excretion, response, movement and so forth, characteristic
of living things, are but the co-ordinated expressions of the
corresponding activities of the constituent cells, so we now know that
the reproduction of the organism is, in its ultimate analysis, a
cell-process. Our knowledge of the essential fact that cells only arise
by the division of pre-existing cells, now a fundamental axiom of
biology, and of the details of this process, have been acquired during
recent years by the strenuous efforts of numerous workers.[15] Matthias
Jakob Schleiden (1838) supposed that in plants the new cell arose from
the parent cell by a sort of "crystallizing" process from the cell fluid
or "cytoblastema"; the nucleolus appearing first, then the nucleus, and
finally the cell-body. Theodor Schwann (1839) extended Schleiden's
theory to animal tissues, with this yet greater error, that new cells
might arise, not only within the mother cell as Schleiden had supposed,
but also in the intercellular substance so common in animal tissues (to
which he also gave the term "cytoblastema"). By 1846, however, the
botanists, thanks mainly to the efforts of Hugo von Mohl and Nägeli,
recognized as a general law that cells only arise by the division of a
pre-existing cell. But it was long before the universal application of
this law was recognized by zoologists; the delay being largely due to
pathological phenomena. The work of Kölliker (1844-1845), Karl Bogislaus
Reichert (1841-1847), and Remak (1852-1855), however, finally enabled
Virchow in 1858 to maintain the law of the genetic continuity of cells
in the since famous aphorism _omnis cellula e cellula_. At this time,
however, nothing was known of the details of cell-division,--one school
(Reichert, L. Auerbach, and the majority of the botanists) maintaining
that the nucleus disappeared prior to cell-division, the other school
(von Baer, Remak, Leydig, Haeckel, &c.) maintaining that it took a
leading part in the process. It is not until the appearance of Anton
Schneider's work in 1873, followed by those of Fol, Auerbach,
Strasburger and many others, that we begin to gain an insight into the
process. In 1882 W. Flemming was able to extend Virchow's aphorism to
the nucleus also: _omnis nucleus e nucleo_.

_Outline of Cell-division._--There are two very distinct methods of
cell-division. The more general and also more complicated method is
accompanied by the formation of a complex fibrillar mechanism, and was
on this account termed "mitosis" ([Greek: mitos], a thread) by W.
Flemming (1882), and "karyokinesis" ([Greek: karyon], nut, nucleus, and
[Greek: kinêsis], change, movement) by W. Schleicher (1878). The other
method, "amitosis," or direct division, is unaccompanied by any visible
mechanism and is of relatively exceptional occurrence. In the more usual
method of cell-division, or "mitosis," we can distinguish two distinct
but parallel processes, the one undergone by the chromatin and resulting
in the "chromatic figure," the other usually only concerning the
cytoplasm and resulting in the "achromatic figure."[16]

[Illustration: a, b and c from Prof. E. B. Wilson's _The Cell in
Development and Inheritance_, by permission of the author and the
Macmillan Co., New York; d from A. Gurwitsch, _Morphologie u. Biologie
der Zelle_, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 6.--Diagram of Nuclear Division. a, Spireme stage; b, Spindle
formed; c, Spindle complete; equatorial plate formed; d, Division
completed.]

We will consider the chromatin changes first. The chromatin granules
lose their scattered arrangement on the nuclear reticulum, and become
instead arranged in a linear series to form a coiled and deeply staining
"spireme thread"[17] (fig. 6, a). As the thread contracts, its granular
origin becomes less evident, and at the same time the coils become fewer
in number; the "close" spireme of earlier stages becomes the "loose"
spireme of later stages. As the spireme thread contracts, it segments
into a number of short, and usually U-shaped, segments--the
"chromosomes" (Waldeyer, 1888). The number of these chromosomes is
always constant for the cells of any given species of plant or animal,
but varies greatly in number in different species. Thus in the
parasitic worm _Ascaris megalocephala_, var. _univalens_, there are only
two. In the crustacean _Artemia_ Bauer found 168, while in the amphibian
_Salamandra maculata_, as also in the lily, the number is 24. While
these changes have been proceeding in the nucleus, changes in the
cytoplasm have resulted in the formation of the achromatic figure. These
cytoplasmic changes are initiated by the division into two of a minute
body, the "centrosome," originally discovered by P. J. van Beneden in
1883,[18] and usually lying not far from the nucleus (fig. 6, a). The
daughter centrosomes separate from one another, travelling to opposite
poles of the nucleus. At the same time radiations extend out into the
cytoplasm from the centrosomes, and, as the nuclear membrane disappears,
invade the nuclear area (fig. 7, a). Some of the fibrillae in the latter
region become attached to the chromosomes and are termed "mantle
fibres"; others become continuous from one centrosome to the other and
constitute the "spindle fibres." The remaining radiations at the two
poles of the spindle are the "astral rays." (The details of the
formation of the achromatic figure vary considerably, some indication of
this is given in the next section in connexion with the question of the
origin of the mitotic mechanism.) The chromosomes now arrange themselves
in the "equatorial plate" of the spindle and each splits longitudinally
into two[19] (fig. 6, b and c). The sister chromosomes now pass to
opposite poles of the spindle (fig. 6, d), and there, returning to the
"resting" condition, constitute the daughter nuclei. Division of the
cell follows, usually, in animals, by simple constriction. Both Theodor
Boveri and van Beneden, in their papers of 1887, regarded the centrosome
as initiating, not only the division of the cell-body but that of the
chromatin also; Beneden even suggested that the pull of the mantle
fibres caused the division of the chromatin in the equatorial plate. W.
Pfitzner in 1882 was the first to show that the splitting of the
chromosomes in the equatorial plate was only the reappearance of a split
in the spireme thread and was due to a corresponding division into two
of each of the chromatin granules. In the spermatogenic cells of
_Ascaris_, A. Brauer has shown that the chromatin granules divide while
still scattered over the nuclear reticulum and before either the
formation of a spireme thread or the division of the centrosome. In many
other cases the reverse of this condition occurs, the centrosome
dividing long before there is any indication of division in the nucleus
(e.g. salamander spermatogenic cells, Meves, &c.). We must therefore,
with Boveri and Brauer, regard the division of the chromatin in mitosis
as a distinct reproductive act on the part of the chromatin granules,
the chromosomes being merely aggregates (temporary or permanent, _vide
infra_) of these self-propagating units.

For convenience of description it is usual to recognize four periods in
mitosis: (i.) Prophase, (ii.) Metaphase, (iii.) Anaphase, and (iv.)
Telophase (Strasburger, 1884). The prophase covers all changes up to the
completion of the mitotic figure. The metaphase is the parting of the
sister chromosomes in the equatorial plate; their passage to opposite
poles of the spindle constitutes the anaphase; and their reconstruction
to form the resting daughter nuclei, the telophase.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Centrosomes.

From Prof. E. B. Wilson's _The Cell in Development and Inheritance_, by
permission of the author and of The Macmillan Co., New York.

  a, Leucocyte from a Salamander, showing permanent aster and
  centrosome.

From A. Gurwitsch, _Morphologie u. Biologie der Zelle_, by permission of
Gustav Fischer.

  b, Sperm-mother cell of _Salamandra maculata_, showing Hermann's
  "central spindle."]

_The Achromatic Figure._--The mode of origin of the achromatic figure
varies greatly. In some cases a distinct and continuous spindle, the
"central spindle" of F. Hermann, is visible from the very first
separation of the daughter centrosomes (e.g. salamander spermatogenic
cell)[20] (fig. 7, b). In other cases the rays only invade the nuclear
area and become continuous in the equatorial plane after the centrosomes
have assumed their definitive positions at the two poles of the nucleus,
and may even appear to indent the disappearing nuclear membrane as they
invade the nuclear area.[21] In the salamander testis cell (fig. 7, b),
and in many other cases, the whole of the achromatic figure is obviously
of cytoplasmic origin. In many cases, however, it equally obviously
arises within the nucleus,[22] while in yet other cases[23] the spindle
fibres are of mixed origin. The question, therefore, of the cytoplasmic
or nuclear origin of the achromatic figure, at one time regarded as of
considerable importance, is wholly immaterial. Various elaborate
theories have been propounded to explain the mechanism of the mitotic
figure. H. Fol (1873) regarded the centrosomes as centres of attractive
forces, and compared the mitotic figure to the lines of force in the
magnetic field, a comparison made by numerous subsequent workers. E.
Klein's hypotheses of two opposing systems of contractile fibrillae,
elaborated by van Beneden (1883, 1887) and accepted by Boveri (1888),
was still further extended by R. Heidenhain in relation to the
leucocytes of the salamander, in which there is a permanent centrosome
and astral rays to which the contractile movements of the cell appear to
be due[24] (fig. 7, a). Hermann on the other hand confined the
contractility to the astral and mantle fibres; while L. Druner regarded
the spindle as exerting a pushing force, for not only do the interzonal
spindle fibres elongate during the anaphase, but they were often at this
period contorted, while on the other hand astral rays may be entirely
absent (e.g. Infusoria), and in some cases the spindle pole may be
caused to project at the surface of the cell. The futility of these
attempted mechanical explanations of mitosis is sufficiently clearly
shown, not only by the contradictory nature of the explanations
themselves, but by the fact that, in amitosis, nuclear and cytoplasmic
division occur without any fibrillar mechanism whatever.

_Centrosome._[25]--This minute body was first detected at the spindle
poles by Flemming in 1875, and independently by P. J. van Beneden in
1876. The important part played by the centrosome in fertilization,[26]
first described by van Beneden and Theodor Boveri in their papers of
1887-1888, together with the behaviour of this structure in mitosis, led
these authors to regard the centrosome not only as the dynamic centre of
the cell but as a permanent cell-organ, which, like the nucleus, passed
by division from one cell-generation to the next. This conclusion
appeared to receive considerable support from the recognition of the
centrosome in various kinds of resting cells,[27] and especially from
the relation this structure frequently shows to the locomotor apparatus
of the cell (e.g. its position in the centre of the radiating fibrillae
in the contractile lymph and pigment cells, and its relation to the
vibratile flagellum in spermatozoa and some protozoa, e.g.
Trypanosoma).[28] In almost all cases the centrosome of the resting
cell, when this can be detected, lies in the cytoplasm, and is often
already divided in preparation for the next mitotic division (e.g.
spermatogenic cells of the salamander; Meves). In some cases, however,
it resides in, or arises from, the nucleus (Brauer; spermatogenesis of
_Ascaris_, var. _univalens_). This indifferent nuclear or cytoplasmic
position for the centrosome is paralleled by the attraction sphere or
homologue of the centrosome in many Protozoa. Thus in many forms, e.g.
_Euglena_ (Keuten), it lies within the nucleus, while in other forms,
e.g. _Noctiluca_ (Ishikawa, 1894, 1898; Calkins, 1898) and _Paramoeba_
(F. Schaudinn, 1896), it lies in the cytoplasm, while in _Tetramitus_ it
coexists with a "distributed" nucleus. In the Heliozoa conditions are
exceptionally interesting; not only is the centrosome--here resembling
in appearance that of the higher forms--permanently visible and
extranuclear, lying at the centre of the radiations characteristic of
these forms, but there is the strongest possible evidence for its
formation _de novo_. For Schaudinn has shown in _Acanthocystis_ that, in
the formation of the swarm spores, the nucleus divides amitotically, the
centrosome remaining visible and unchanged at the centre of the
radiating processes. Yet a centrosome appears later in the nucleus of
the swarm spores and migrates into the cytoplasm. The experiments of T.
H. Morgan and E. B. Wilson, in which numerous centrosomes and asters
("cytasters") are caused to appear in unfertilized sea-urchin eggs by a
brief immersion in a 13% solution of magnesium chloride in
sea-water,[29] as also the possibility in many cases that even in normal
fertilization the cleavage centrosomes may arise _de novo_,[30] make it
no longer possible to regard the centrosome as a permanent
cell-structure.

_Significance of Mitosis._--Whatever may be the nature of the
chemico-physical changes occurring during cell-division, of which the
achromatic spindle and astral rays are the visible expression, it is
certain that the whole of this complicated process has for its function,
not the division of the chromatin, for that has already occurred on the
spireme thread or even earlier, but the distribution of the divided
chromatin granules to the two daughter nuclei. It is indeed usually
assumed that the mitotic mechanism is not merely for the distribution,
but for the _equal_ distribution, of the sister granules to the two
daughter nuclei. The conspicuous part the chromatin is seen to play in
the whole mechanism of heredity--in maturation, fertilization and
development--indicating as it does that the chromatin is the chief, if
not the only, bearer of the specific qualities of the organism,
sufficiently clearly emphasizes the importance of the equal distribution
of this substance between the daughter cells at successive
cell-divisions. There are, however, serious objections to the
interpretation of mitosis as an adaptation to ensure this equal
distribution of the chromatin. Not only does the occurrence of amitosis
show that the mitotic mechanism is not essential for either nuclear or
cytoplasmic division, but direct division may occur[31] in the
life-history of the germ cells, the very point at which it should not
occur had mitosis the significance usually attached to it. On the other
hand, the most elaborate mitosis occurs in cell-tissues (e.g. skin of
salamander larva) which can take no possible share in the reproduction
of the species. Moreover, we have no reason for supposing that the
division of the chromatin in amitosis is not as meristic, and its
subsequent distribution as equal, as is so visibly the case in
mitosis.[32] It is necessary, therefore, to seek for some other
explanation of the elaborate mechanism of mitosis than that which
assumes it necessary for the equal distribution of the divided chromatin
granules. The present writer believes the true explanation to be found
in that great economic law of nature, "division of labour." The same
economy which, working under the control of natural selection, has
produced the complexly differentiated tissues of the higher metazoa,
which has led to the sexual differentiation between the conjugating
gametes and thus to the sexual differentiation of the parents, has
resulted in the production of mitosis. Only here the economy finds
expression in division of labour, not in space, but in time. The work of
the self-propagating chromatin granules is so ordered that periods of
undisturbed metabolic activity alternate with periods of reproductive
activity. The brief space of time occupied by the latter process has
necessitated a more elaborate specialization of the forces--whatever
their nature--controlling cell-division; a specialization which has
resulted, just as a similar specialization in so many other cases has
resulted, in a visible differentiation of the cell-protoplasm. This
explanation is in harmony with the occurrence of typical mitosis in
active tissue cells on the one hand, and of amitosis in the relatively
quiescent primary germ cells on the other.

_Individuality of the Chromosomes._--The most striking feature in the
behaviour of the chromatin in mitosis is its resolution, at each
division, into a--for any particular species--constant number of
chromosomes. This constant recurrence of the specific number of
chromosomes at every cell-division is capable of explanation in two
radically different ways. One explanation assumes for the organism a
specific peculiarity determining the segmentation of the spireme thread
into a definite number of segments (Delage, 1899 and 1901).[33] The
other regards chromosomes as independent units of the cell, retaining
their identity between successive cell-divisions. The latter
"Individualitäts Hypothese" was originally put forward by Theodor Boveri
in 1887 as a result of C. Rabl's observation (1885) that in epidermal
cells of the salamander larva the chromosomes reappear in the mitosis of
the daughter cells with the same arrangement as they possessed in the
prophase of the mother cell--the angles of the U-shaped chromosomes
being all directed towards one pole (Rabl's "Poleseite") of the nucleus.
In the formation of the "resting" nucleus, the chromatin, becoming
metabolically active, flows out on to the linin reticulum, all trace of
the chromosomes being for the time lost. In _Ascaris_, Boveri (1888)
obtained similar but still more striking results. The thickened ends of
the four elongated chromosomes cause projections on the nuclear surface
throughout the resting period, and the ends of the reappearing
chromosomes always coincided with these protuberances; cf. also Sutton
(1902) on locust spermatagonia. Moreover, the arrangement of the
chromosomes must follow one of three well-marked groupings, and this is
determined for each individual in the cleavage spindle of the egg and
maintained throughout later development (fig. 8).

[Illustration: From Boveri's _Ergebnisse ü. d. Konstitution der
chromatischen Substanz des Zellkerns_, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 8.--Preparation for Mitosis. a, Nucleus of "½ blastomere" of
_Ascaris megalocephala bivalens_ in resting condition; b and c, nuclei
from sister ½ blastomeres in preparation for mitosis.]

In the same worm (var. _univalens_) Boveri (1888 and 1899) found that
occasional abnormalities in maturation resulted in the suppression of
the first polar body and the inclusion of its chromosomes in the second
maturation spindle; the egg-nucleus at the time of fertilization thus
having two chromosomes instead of one, while the spermatozoon nucleus
has only one. Three chromosomes instead of two reappear in subsequent
divisions. Boveri's "Individualitäts Hypothese" received striking
support from the work of Herla (1893), L. R. Zoja (1895) and O. zur
Strassen (1898). Herla and Zoja showed that if the egg of _Ascaris
megalocephala_ (var. _bivalens_), which possesses two chromosomes, be
fertilized with the spermatozoon of var. _univalens_, in which the germ
cell has only one chromosome and that smaller than either of the two in
the other variety, three chromosomes reappear, two large and one small,
in the cleavage divisions of the resulting hybrid embryo. Zur Strassen's
observations on the giant embryos of _Ascaris_ also support Boveri's
theory. These embryos arise by the fusion of eggs, either before or
after fertilization. The number of chromosomes in the subsequent
cleavage-figures is proportional to the number of nuclei that have fused
together. Similar results are given by Boveri's (1893-1895) and T. H.
Morgan's (1895) experiments on the fertilization of enucleated
sea-urchin egg-fragments; all the nuclei of the resulting embryo having
only half the number of chromosomes characteristic of the species (e.g.
in _Echinus_ 9 instead of 18). All the above facts point to the
conclusion that, as Boveri expressed it in his _Grundgesetz der
Zahlenkonstanz_ (1888), "the number of chromosomes arising from a
resting nucleus is solely dependent on the number which originally
entered into its composition."[34]

_Boveri's Law of Proportional Nuclear Growth._--The chromatin in the
nucleus is exactly halved at every cell-division. As the bulk of the
chromatin remains constant from one cell-generation to another, it must
double its bulk between successive divisions. That this proportional
growth of the chromatin is dependent solely on the chromatin mass, and
not on that of the cell, is very clearly indicated by cases where the
normal chromatin mass has been artificially increased or reduced,[35]
the chromatin in either case doubling its bulk between successive
cell-divisions, and neither the mass of the chromatin nor the number of
the chromosomes undergoing any readjustment. By double or partial
fertilization, different regions in the same embryo may show nuclei of
different sizes (Boveri). We must therefore distinguish in the cell
between "young" and "adult" chromatin. In other words the chromatin must
be regarded as being composed of individual units, each with a definite
constant structure and maximum growth (Boveri, 1904). This conclusion is
strongly suggested, not only by the evidence in favour of the
individuality of the chromosomes considered above, but also by the
independent reproductive activity of the chromatin granules in the
prophase of mitosis.

[Illustration: From Boveri's _Ergebnisse ü. d. Konstitution der
chromatischen Substanz des Zellkerns_, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 9.--Preparation for Mitosis. a, Spermatogonium of _Brachystola
magna_ with resting nucleus; b, Same with prophase for mitosis. (After
Sutton.)]

_Differentiation among the Chromosomes._--If we grant the assumption of
a persistent individuality for the chromosomes, then it becomes possible
to consider whether in one and the same nucleus these structures may not
take varying parts in controlling the cell's activity in development and
in inheritance. Such a differentiation among the chromosomes would be
due to independent ancestry rather than to the economy resulting from a
division of labour; nevertheless a division of labour of a sort would be
the result of this gradual divergence of the chromosomes from one
another, and we might therefore expect that, in some cases at least, a
_morphological_ would accompany the _physiological_ differentiation.
Examples of such a morphological differentiation do indeed occur in the
"accessory" chromosomes first described by H. Henking (1891) for the
spermatogonia of _Pyrrhocoris_, and since described for numerous other
insects, Arachnids and Myriapods. W. Sutton's work on the
spermatogenesis of _Brachystola magna_ is of especial interest in this
connexion. Not only does the "accessory chromosome" in this insect form
a resting nucleus independent, and obviously physiologically
differentiated from that formed from the remaining chromosomes (fig. 9,
a), but the latter are themselves differentiated by size, there being
one pair of chromosomes of each size (fig. 9, b), a point of
considerable interest when we remember that half the chromosomes in each
cell are necessarily derived from each parent.[36]

Although this morphological differentiation among the chromosomes is
undoubtedly to be regarded as indicating a corresponding physiological
differentiation, it by no means follows that the latter need always, or
even generally, be accompanied by the former. Since, however, the
specific characters of the organism must be due to the combined activity
of _all_ the chromosomes, any physiological differentiation among the
latter should result in abnormal development if the full complement of
chromosomes be not present.[37] Boveri,[38] utilizing Herbst's
method[39] for separating echinoderm blastomeres, has interpreted in
this manner the abnormal development which H. Driesch[40] found almost
invariably to follow the double fertilization of the sea-urchin egg. In
such eggs the first cleavage spindle is four-poled. The chromosomes are
half again as numerous as in normally fertilized eggs (54 instead of
36), but each is only divided once, so that in the distribution of the
resulting 108 chromosomes the four daughter nuclei receive each only 27
instead of 36 (assuming the distribution to be fairly equal, which is by
no means usually the case in four-poled mitosis). Driesch had already
(1900) shown that any one of the first four blastomeres of a normally
fertilized egg will, if isolated, develop normally. Boveri found that in
the case of the doubly fertilized egg the isolated "¼" blastomeres
develop very variously, a variability only to be accounted for by their
varying chromosome equipment. Occasionally a three-poled instead of a
four-poled figure resulted from double fertilization. In such cases
Driesch found, as we should expect from Boveri's interpretation, that
the percentage of approximately normal larvae was considerably greater;
for not only would the chances of an equal distribution of the
chromosomes be much greater, but the number received by each of the
three daughter cells would approximate to, or even equal, the normal.

_Reduction._--In all the Metazoa the prevailing, and in the higher forms
the only, method of reproduction is by the union (conjugation) of two
"sexually" differentiated germ-cells or "gametes"; a small motile
"microgamete" or spermatozoon and a large yolk-laden "macrogamete" or
ovum (see Reproduction). This differentiation between the germ-cells is
another example of the advantages of division of labour; for while the
onus of bringing about the union of the germ-cells is thrown entirely on
the spermatozoon, the egg devotes itself to the accumulation of
food-material (yolk) for the subsequent use of the developing embryo.
Far more yolk is thus secreted than would be possible by the combined
efforts of both the germ-cells had each of these at the same time to
preserve its motility. The fundamental physiological difference which
this division of labour has produced in the germ-cells is reflected on
to the general metabolism of the parents and underlies the sexual
differentiation of the latter.[41] Beyond this, however, sexual
differentiation does not go. The two germ nuclei which enter into the
formation of the first mitotic figure of the developing egg are not only
physiologically equivalent, but, at the time of their union in the egg,
are usually morphologically identical.[42] The essence of fertilization
is, therefore, the union of two germ nuclei only differing from one
another in that they are derived from separate individuals.[43] Since
the number of chromosomes appearing in mitosis is solely dependent on
the number which originally entered into the composition of the nucleus
(Boveri's Law of Chromosome-Constancy), it follows that, in the mitotic
figures of the developing embryo, the chromosomes will be half maternal,
half paternal in origin;[44] the germ nuclei thus necessarily possessing
only half the number of chromosomes characteristic of the ordinary
tissue cells of species, i.e. the somatic number.[45] The manner in
which this "reduction" in the number of chromosomes in the germ-cells is
brought about, and the significance to be attached to the process,
constitute the most hotly debated questions in cytology. In all the
metazoa the phenomenon of reduction is associated with the two last and,
usually, rapidly succeeding "maturation" divisions by which the
definitive germ-cells--ova or spermatozoa--are produced.[46]

Assuming the persistent individuality of the chromosomes, then there are
only three conceivable methods by which this numerical reduction can be
brought about (Boveri, 1904, p. 60). (1) One-half the chromosomes
degenerate. (2) The chromosomes are distributed entire, half to one
daughter cell, half to the other (reducing division of Weismann, 1887).
(3) The chromosomes fuse in pairs (_Conjugation of the Chromosomes_,
Boveri, 1892). The first possibility--that of an actual degeneration of
a part of the chromatin originally suggested by van Beneden and adopted
by August Weismann, Boveri and others, has been long abandoned, and a
steadily increasing bulk of evidence is tending to prove the general, if
not universal, occurrence of the second method--the distribution between
the daughter cells of undivided chromosomes. The occurrence of such a
"reducing division" was postulated on theoretical grounds by Weismann
(1887)[47] and by Boveri (1888); by the former as a result of his
adoption of de Vries's hypothesis of self-propagating and qualitatively
varying units for the chromatin; by the latter in relation to his theory
of chromosome individuality. The actual occurrence of this reducing
division was first demonstrated by Henking (1891) for _Pyrrhocoris_, and
afterwards by Häcker, vom Rath and many others, but especially by
Rückert (1894) for _Cyclops_ (fig. 10). In this latter type the
chromatin of the oocyte, as this prepares for the first maturation
division, resolves itself into 12 (instead of 24) longitudinally split
chromosomes (fig. 10, a). As these continue to thicken and contract a
transverse fission appears (fig. 10, c). This is to be regarded as a
belated segmentation of the spireme thread, and shows that the reduction
so far is only a "pseudo-reduction" (Rückert), the chromosomes being
really all present but temporally united in pairs, i.e. "bivalent"
(Häcker). A striking confirmation of this interpretation is provided by
Korschelt's description of reduction in the annelid _Ophryotrocha_. In
this type the full somatic number of split chromosomes (here only four)
appears, and these secondarily associate end to end in pairs, thus
forming split "diads" (i.e. tetrads), in every way similar to those
described by Rückert for _Cyclops_. In the latter type, at the first
maturation division, the sister diads are separated from one another, an
"equating" division thus taking place. At the second division the diads
are resolved into their constituent parts, and the "univalent"
chromosomes are distributed to the daughter cells (reducing division).
A similar process has since been described for numerous other types
(e.g. various arthropods, Häcker, 1895-1898; vom Rath, 1895; and by
Sutton for _Brachystola_, 1902-1903). In _Ophryotrocha_, as in
_Pyrrhocoris_ (Henking), _Anasa_ (Paulmeir), _Peripatus_ (Montgomery),
&c., reduction occurs at the first maturation division ("pre-reduction"
of Korschelt and Heider, 1900), instead of at the second division
(post-reduction) as in most Copepods and Orthoptera. In many cases the
tetrads (i.e. split chromosomes associated in pairs) have the form of
rings, the genesis of which was first clearly determined by vom Rath
(1892) in the mole cricket _Gryllotalpa_ (fig. 11). In this form the
sister diads remain united by their ends but widely separate in the
middle (fig. 11, b). As in _Cyclops_, the belated transverse
segmentation appears as the condensation of the chromatin proceeds (fig.
11, d), but the symmetrical tetrads which this process here produces
make it impossible to determine at which of the two divisions reduction
is effected. An essentially similar ring formation occurs in _Enchaeta_
and _Calanus_ (vom Rath), and in the Copepods _Heterocope_ and Diaptomus
(Rückert), and in other types.[48]

[Illustration: From Korschelt and Heider's _Lehrbuch d. vergl.
Entwicklungsgeschichte d. wirbellosen Tiere_, by permission of Gustav
Fischer.

FIG. 10.--Maturation Divisions. a-d, Formation of the tetrads in
_Cyclops_. (After Rückert.) e, 1st maturation division; separation of
the bivalent sister chromosomes. f, 2nd maturation division;
distribution of the univalent chromosomes.]

[Illustration: From Prof. E. B. Wilson's _The Cell in Development and
Inheritance_, by permission of the author and of the Macmillan Co., N.
Y.

FIG. 11.--Maturation Divisions. Origin of the tetrads by ring formation
in the spermatogenesis of the mole-cricket (_Gryllotalpa_) (vom Rath).
a, Primary spermatocyte with six split, bivalent chromosomes. b and c,
Split has opened out. d, Concentration of the chromatin has made visible
the belated transverse division. e and f, Grouping of the completed
tetrads in the equatorial plate of the first maturation division.]

[Illustration: From O. Hertwig, _Allgemeine Biologie_, by permission of
Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 12.--Heterotypical Mitosis. (Schematic, after Flemming.)]

All the above cases, in which the reduction is effected by the
distribution of entire chromosomes at one or other of the maturation
divisions, may be grouped together as "pseudomitotic" (Häcker, and
Korschelt & Heider). In sharp contrast to the pseudomitotic method is
the "Eumitotic" method, in which the chromosomes are longitudinally
divided at both divisions. Such a method not only robs the process of
any "reducing" value in Weismann's sense, but is in serious conflict
with the chromosome-individuality hypothesis. Nevertheless it is in this
sense that Boveri (1881) and van Beneden (1883-1887) described the
maturation of the egg, and at a later period Brauer (1893) that of the
spermatozoon, in _Ascaris_. In each case the tetrads are formed by the
double longitudinal splitting of the chromosomes, the latter appearing
in the prophase in the reduced number. Not only was the eumitotic method
of _Ascaris_ the first method to be described, but the descriptions are
fully equal in point of clearness to that of Hertwig for the
pseudomitotic maturation of _Cyclops_.[49] A similar eumitotic
maturation has been described for other types also, e.g. _Sagitta_ and
the Heteropods, but nowhere more frequently than in the Vertebrates
among animals and the Phanerogams among plants. In these two latter
groups the chromosomes of the reducing division only rarely have a ring
form comparable to that seen in _Gryllotalpa_, &c. When such rings do
occur their genesis is very obscure, and at no time do they present the
appearance of "tetrads." It is the characteristic appearance these
looped chromosomes give to the first maturation division in many
Vertebrates, and especially in the Amphibia (fig. 12), that originally
led Flemming (1887) to term this type of mitosis "heterotypical"; the
second division, lacking this peculiar appearance, being distinguished
as "homotypical." Until quite recently these looped chromosomes of the
heterotypical mitosis of Vertebrates (and plants) were described as
arising by the opening out of longitudinally split chromosomes, exactly
as this occurs in the early prophase of the maturation divisions in such
types as _Gryllotalpa_, _Diaptomus_, &c. In the heterotype mitosis,
however, no transverse segmentation appears, and the halves of the
rings, as they separate in the first division, show an obvious
longitudinal split in preparation for the second division.[50] Both
divisions were thus interpreted as equating divisions.[51] The more
recent works of Farmer and Moore (1903-1905), Montgomery (1903,
Amphibia), and (for plants) Strasburger (1903-1904) have shown, however,
that even for the higher plants and animals, a reducing division in
Weismann's sense occurs in an essentially similar manner to that so
convincingly described by Rückert, vom Rath and others, for
Invertebrate types. For the chromosomes of the heterotype mitosis arise
by the looping round, not opening out, of the bivalent chromosomes. The
first division is thus a reducing division, while the split appearing in
the anaphase of the heterotype and presumably reappearing in the
prophase of the homotype is the original split of the spireme thread.

The widespread, if not universal, formation of tetrads, i.e. the
temporary union in pairs of split chromosomes, in reduction, and the
relation this latter process always bears to _two_ rapidly succeeding
maturation divisions--those completing the gametogenic cycle in animals
and terminating the sporophytic generation in plants,--has received a
suggestive explanation at the hands of Boveri (1904). The growth of the
chromatin is an indispensable prelude to its reproduction (Boveri's Law
of Proportional Growth). The chromatin is therefore incapable of
undergoing reproductive fission in two successive mitotic divisions when
these are not separated by a resting (i.e. growth) period. In addition
to this, the "bipolar" condition of the adult chromosomes, which
determines its mode of attachment to mantle fibres from _both_ poles of
the spindle, is not possessed by the unripe chromatin. The undivided,
i.e. unripe, chromosomes are therefore incapable of utilizing the
mitotic mechanism for such a transverse fission as Weismann originally
postulated. The difficulty is, however, at once overcome if the unripe
chromosomes are associated in pairs in the equatorial plate, for the
bivalent chromosomes so produced are bipolar just as are the adult (i.e.
split) chromosomes in the ordinary and homotype mitosis.[52]

_Synopsis_ ([Greek: synaptein], to fuse together).--During the prophase
of the reducing or heterotype divisions the whole of the chromatin
becomes temporarily massed together at one pole of the nucleus (Moore,
1896, for Elasmobranchs). Montgomery (1901) has suggested that this is
to facilitate the temporary union in pairs, or "conjugation" of
homologous paternal and maternal chromosomes. In _Ascaris megalocephala_
var. _univalens_, where the somatic number is only two, the association
must necessarily be between homologous chromosomes. The assumption that
this "selective pairing" of equivalent chromosomes is universal is
supported by the behaviour of the "Heterochromosomes" (Montgomery) of
the Hemiptera. These chromosomes, distinguished by their size, are
paired before, and single after, the "pseudo-reduction" has taken place.
Even more convincing is Sutton's account of reduction in _Brachystola_
already referred to.[53] Boveri (1904) has suggested that this temporary
association of the chromosomes--presumably facilitated by the
synapsis--has a much deeper meaning than to ensure their correct
distribution between the daughter nuclei in the heterotype mitosis; the
associated chromosomes exchanging material in a manner analogous to
conjugation in _Paramoecium_.[54]

_Present Position of the Cell-theory._--Since the time of Schleiden and
Schwann a wealth of evidence has accumulated in support of the
"cell-theory"--the theory which regards the cell as the unit of organic
structure. "The organism consists morphologically, of cells, and
subsists, physiologically, by means of the 'reciprocal action' of the
cells,"--this was the cell standpoint of Schleiden and Schwann, and it
is no exaggeration to say that this same conception has dominated the
cell-theory almost to the present day.[55] The frequently striking
correlation between cell-division and cell-differentiation in
development has caused this process to be regarded as dependent on
cell-division, while a wholly exaggerated importance has been attached
to the distinction between "unicellular" and "multicellular"
organisms--between "intercellular" and "intracellular" organs. The
influence of the "cells" upon one another, the subordination of the
cell's growth, division and differentiation, to the requirements of the
whole organism--seen in normal growth, but nowhere more strikingly than
in development and regeneration,--is, however, very difficult of
explanation in terms of the cell-theory as this was, until quite
recently, generally understood. The very elaborate regional
differentiation of the protoplasm often seen in the Protozoa
sufficiently indicate that multicellular structure is no essential
condition for complex regional differentiation. That the regional
differentiation of the protoplasm in the Metazoa should usually
correspond with cell-limits is scarcely surprising. Nor is it to be
wondered at that, with so convenient a mechanism for segregation to hand
as cell-division, the progressive differentiation seen during
development should often appear to go hand in hand with this process. In
recent years, however, evidence has been steadily accumulating to show
that this association between cell-division and regional differentiation
of the protoplasm in development is a casual one--as casual, and as
natural, as the correspondence between cell limits and regional
differentiation in the formed tissues. The fact that the regional
differentiation may be foreshadowed in the egg before cleavage
begins,[56]--that as Driesch has shown, the mode of cleavage may be
artificially altered without affecting the ultimate organization of the
embryo,--and many other similar observations, tend to emphasize the
importance of the "organism" standpoint (C. O. Whitman, 1903, p. 642) in
contradistinction to the widely prevalent "cell" standpoint. The
occurrence of syncytial organs and organisms, and the increasing
frequency with which protoplasmic continuity is being demonstrated
between all kinds of cells, are facts tending in the same direction. In
the plant kingdom the growth of the _mass_ has been recognized as the
primary factor in development;[57] _die Pflanze bildet Zellen, nicht die
Zelle bildet Pflanzen_ (de Bary). For the animal kingdom this
"Inadequacy of the Cell-Theory of Development" has been maintained
amongst others by Whitman,[58] and by Adam Sedgwick.[59] The latter
author, mainly as the result of work on the development of _Peripatus_
and of Elasmobranch embryos, regards the developing embryo as a
continuous protoplasmic reticulum, for the nuclei of which the limiting
epithelial layers constitute as it were a breeding ground.
Differentiation is a regional specialization of this nucleated meshwork,
and is not to be regarded as the result of the proliferation and
subsequent specialization of cells predestined by cleavage for this end.

It is possible to suggest a mechanico-physical explanation of
multicellular structure which will deprive the cell of much of its
assumed significance as a unit of organization. The fact that surface
area becomes relatively less extensive as bulk increases would alone set
a limit to the size of "unicellular" organisms; for not only is there a
constant reaction between nucleus and cytoplasm through the nuclear
membrane, but the surface of the cell serves both for the intake of food
and the elimination of waste material. In addition to the limit thus
imposed upon the cytoplasmic area which can be effectually controlled by
the nucleus, and the necessity for a minimum surface area to the
protoplasmic mass, the advantages of the more or less complete
subdivision of the living substance into--as far as their metabolism is
concerned--semi-autonomous units, is indicated by the mechanical support
derived from the specialized cell walls and turgescent cells of the
plant, and the intercellular secretions of the animal tissues. It is
more than possible that these two conditions--i.e. surface area for
diffusion, and mechanical support--are alone responsible for the
_origin_ of multicellular structure, and that the sharply defined
character this now so generally possesses has been secondarily acquired
as a result of the facilities it undoubtedly offers for regional
specialization in the protoplasmic mass.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The special literature of cytology has grown to large
  dimensions. The following are the more important text-books and papers
  of general interest: E. B. Wilson, _The Cell in Development and
  Inheritance_ (2nd ed., 1900); A. Gurwitsch, _Morphologie und Biologie
  der Zelle_ (Jena, 1904); O. Hertwig, _Allgemeine Biologie_ (Jena,
  1906); Korschelt and Heider, _Lehrbuch der vergl.
  Entwicklungsgeschichte der wirbellosen Tiere_, Allgem. Teil, "The Germ
  Cells and Experimental Embryology" (Jena, 1903); Whitman, "The
  Inadequacy of the Cell Theory of Development," _Journ. Morph._ viii.,
  1893; Adam Sedgwick, "On the Inadequacy of the Cellular Theory of
  Development," _Quart. Journ. Micro. Science_, xxxvii.; G. C. Bourne,
  "A Criticism of the Cell Theory" (an answer to Sedgwick's paper),
  _Quart. Journ. Micro. Science_, xxxviii.; Th. Boveri, "Befruchtung,"
  _Merkel-Bonnets Ergebnisse der Anat. u. Entwicklungsgesch._ Bd. i.
  (1892), _Das Problem der Befruchtung_ (Jena, 1902), _Ergebnisse über
  die Konstitution der chromatischen Substanz des Zellkerns_ (Jena,
  1904); J. Rückert, "Die Chromatinreduktion bei der Reifung der
  Sexualzellen," _Merkel-Bonnets Ergebnisse_, Bd. iii. (1894); V.
  Häcker, "Die Reifungserscheinungen," _Ergebn. Anat. u.
  Entwicklungsgesch._ Bd. viii. (1898); F. Meves, "Zellteilung,"
  _Merkel-Bonnets Ergebnisse_, Bd. viii. (1898, 1899); W. Waldeyer, "Die
  Geschlechtszellen," in O. Hertwig's _Handbuch der vergleich. u.
  experiment. Entwicklungslehre d. Wirbeltiere_ (1901, 1903).
       (G. C. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Allgemeine Physiologie_, p. 53 (1895).

  [2] _Vom inwendigen Bau der Gewachse_ (1806).

  [3] The Chromoplastids of the vegetable cell come under a different
    category of cell-inclusions; see PLANTS: _Cytology_.

  [4] Cf. Pfeffer's classical experiments on the physiological
    significance of cell-continuity in plant tissues (_Über den Einfluss
    des Zellkerns auf die Bildung der Zellhaut_, 1896). The recent work
    in physiology on the influence substances secreted by certain tissues
    and circulating in the blood-stream exert upon other and widely
    different tissues, should not be lost sight of in this connexion.

  [5] The influence this protoplasmic continuity may have upon our
    conception of the cell as a unit of organization is referred to below
    (_Present Position of the Cell-theory_).

  [6] A term (from [Greek: karyon], kernel) suggested by Flemming to
    replace Strasburger's hybrid term "nucleoplasm" (1882). The earlier
    workers, e.g. Leydig, Schultze, Brücke, de Bary, &c., restricted the
    term protoplasm to the cell-body--the "Cytoplasm" of Strasburger, an
    example still followed by O. Hertwig.

  [7] From _linum_, a thread, Schwarz, 1887.

  [8] From [Greek: chrôma], colour, Flemming, 1879.

  [9] The formation of pseudopodia and accompanying changes in form of
    _Amoeba_ were observed as early as 1755 by Raesel von Rosenhof, who
    named it on this account the "little Proteus."

  [10] "Sur les rapports des cils vibratiles avec les centrosomes,"
    _Archives d'anatomie microscopique_ (1898).

  [11] "Über Zentralkörper in männlichen Geschlechtszellen von
    Schmetterlingen" (Anat. Anz. Bd. xiv., 1897). Cf. also the papers of
    Lenhossek (_Über Flimmerzellen_, 1898), Karl Peter (_Das Zentrum für
    die Flimm- und Giesselbewegung_, 1899) and Verworn (_Studien zur
    Physiologie der Flimmerbewegung_, 1899).

  [12] Cf., however, the present writer's interpretation of this
    structure in the oocyte of _Antedon_. _Phil. Trans. Royal Soc._
    (1906), B. 249.

  [13] Claude Bernard expressed the same conclusion in 1885. Rejecting
    both the view that vital phenomena were identical with
    chemico-physical phenomena, and that which regarded them as totally
    distinct, he suggested a third point of view: "l'élément ultime du
    phénomène est physique; l'arrangement est vital."

  [14] Many forms of response to stimulus involve no visible
    specialization, e.g. positive and negative heliotropism,
    chemiotropism, geotropism, &c., seen more especially in plants, but
    occurring also in the animal kingdom.

  [15] Prominent among these are: Schleiden (1873), Fol (1873-1877),
    Auerbach (1874), Bütschli (1876), Strasburger (1875-1888), O. Hertwig
    (1875-1890), R. Hertwig (1875-1877); Flemming (1879-1891), van
    Beneden (1883-1887), Rabl (1889), Boveri (1887-1903).

  [16] This distinction between the chromatic and achromatic portions
    of the mitotic figure is due to Flemming.

  [17] The genesis of the spireme thread was first described by E. G.
    Balbiani in 1876.

  [18] "Recherches sur la maturation de l'oeuf, la fécondation et la
    division cellulaire" (_Archives de biologie_, vol. iv.).

  [19] First discovered by Flemming in 1879 and confirmed by Retzius in
    1881.

  [20] The discovery by Hermann of the central spindle first clearly
    showed that two kinds of fibres must be recognized in the mitotic
    figure. Those of the central spindle correspond to the continuous
    spindle fibres of Flemming (1891) and Strasburger (1884), and the
    mantle fibres, i.e. half-spindle or _Polstrahlen_, of van Beneden
    (1887) and Boveri (1889-1890).

  [21] Planter, Watasé, Griffen and others.

  [22] e.g. _Euglypha_ (Schewiakoff, 1888), Infusoria (R. Hertwig,
    1898). So also Korschelt for _Ophryotrocha_, and many other cases.

  [23] e.g. Bauer, spermatogenic cells of _Ascaris univalens_.

  [24] Cf. also Watasé, Solger and Zimmermann.

  [25] This term is due to Boveri (_Zellenstudien_, ii., 1888, p. 68;
    _Jen. Zeit._ xxii.), but it was intended by him to include the region
    of modified cytoplasm or "centrosphere" often enclosing the
    centrosome proper, i.e. "centriole" of Boveri.

  [26] For outline of fertilization see article REPRODUCTION.

  [27] e.g. lymph and various epithelial and connective tissue cells of
    salamander larva (Flemming, 1891; Heidenhain, 1892); pigment cells of
    fishes (Solger, 1891); red blood corpuscles (Heidenhain, Eisen,
    1897); and numerous other cases.

  [28] For an interesting development of this subject see Watasé
    (1894). This author not only identifies the centrosome with the
    structures seen in lymph cells, &c., but compares it to the basal
    granules of ciliated cells and to the varicose swellings on the
    sarcostyles of striped muscle cells!

  [29] The force of this evidence is admitted by Boveri himself. Meves,
    however, maintains the possibility that the numerous centrosomes
    appearing in the egg arise by the rapid fragmentation of a centrosome
    already present.

  [30] Cf. especially the behaviour of the centrosomes in the
    fertilization of the egg of _Pleurophyllidia_ (MacFarland, 1897) and
    that of _Cerebratulus_ (Coe, 1901). Not only may the sperm
    centrosomes totally disappear before reaching the egg-nucleus, but in
    the latter type the definitive centrosomes appear while the last
    traces of the sperm asters are still visible.

  [31] e.g. Meves; Spermatagonia of Salamandra.

  [32] Cf. especially the artificial production of amitosis in
    _Spirogyra_; W. Pfeffer, 1899.

  [33] Cf. Boveri, 1904, p. 13. (For Boveri's criticism of Delage's
    views, cf. Boveri, 1901 and 1902.)

  [34] It should, however, be noted that the assumption that a
    particular group of characters remains always associated in a
    particular chromosome is one that is very difficult to reconcile with
    the mode of inheritance of Mendelian pairs of characters in the case
    of organisms with a relatively small chromosome number.

  [35] Boveri (1902), "Fertilization of enucleated _Echinus_-egg
    fragments," and M. Boveri (1903); by shaking the egg shortly after
    fertilization the sperm centrosome is prevented from dividing, and a
    monaster instead of a diaster results, the divided chromosomes
    remaining in the one nucleus.

  [36] Cf. especially in this connexion Häcker's paper _Über die
    Schicksale der elterlichen und grosselterlichen Kernanteile_ (1902).

  [37] Each nucleus contains a duplicate set of chromosomes, the one of
    maternal, the other of paternal origin, and either of these sets
    alone suffices for development. This is clearly shown by the
    experiments of Loeb (1899) and Wilson (1901) on the artificial
    parthenogenesis of the sea-urchin egg; and those of O. Hertwig (1889
    and 1895), Delage (1899) and Winkler (1901), on the fertilization of
    enucleated Echinoderm eggs (_Merogony_, Delage). The fact that in
    some forms, e.g. _Ascaris megalocephala_ var. _univalens_, only one
    chromosome is derived from each parent, originally led Boveri to
    conclude that _all_ chromosomes must necessarily be physiologically
    equivalent.

  [38] _Über mehrpolige Mitosen als Mittel zur Analyse des Zellkerns_
    (1902).

  [39] _Über das Auseinandergehen von Furchungs- und Gewebezellen in
    kalkfreien Medium_ (1900).

  [40] "Entwicklungsmechanische Studien V." (_Zeit. für wiss. Zool._,
    Bd. lv., 1892).

  [41] See Geddes and Thomson, _Sex_, esp. pp. 127, 137 and 139.

  [42] The equivalence of the germ nuclei in development is shown by
    the experiments on the fertilization of enucleated eggs and
    artificial parthenogenesis already referred to.

  [43] O. Hertwig, 1873; but esp. van Beneden, 1883.

  [44] Häcker, "Über die Selbstständigkeit der väterlichen und
    mütterlichen Kernbestandteile," _Arch. f. mikr. Anat._ Bd. xlvi.
    (1896).

  [45] First discovered by van Beneden (1883, 1887) for the egg of
    _Ascaris_.

  [46] In the case of the egg the whole of the yolk stored by the
    "oocyte" (cell-generation immediately preceding the maturation
    divisions) is handed on to only one of the four resulting cells--an
    obvious economy. The three yolkless cells are necessarily
    functionless--abortive ova--and are known as the "polar bodies"
    (Hertwig). In spermatogenesis the maturation divisions, though
    bearing the same relation to reduction as in oogenesis (Platner,
    1889; O. Hertwig, 1890), give rise to four functional germ-cells. The
    explanation of sexual differentiation given above, and that of polar
    body formation given here, render it needless to do more than mention
    the theories of Mimot (1877), van Beneden (1883) and others, by which
    "maturation" was regarded as removing the "male" element from the
    otherwise "hermaphrodite" egg.

  [47] Weismann postulated a transverse division of the chromosomes,
    not a distribution of entire chromosomes; but the result as far as
    the reduction in the number of hereditary qualities goes is the same.
    The inability of the mitotic mechanism to effect the transverse
    division of unsplit chromosomes is pointed out by Boveri (1904).

  [48] For an exhaustive account of reduction in Invertebrates see
    Korschelt and Heider, _Entwicklungsgeschichte_, Allgem. Teil ii.
    (Jena, 1903).

  [49] Nevertheless the possibility of a pseudomitotic interpretation
    of maturation in _Ascaris_ also has been maintained by O. Hertwig
    (1890), p. 277, Carnoy and Boveri (1904).

  [50] The partial or even complete reconstruction of the nucleus
    between the heterotype and homotype division in Vertebrates makes it
    difficult to determine the identity of the split seen in the anaphase
    of the heterotype with that reappearing in the prophase of the
    homotype.

  [51] e.g. Moore, 1895 (_Scyllium_); Flemming, 1897; Carnoy and
    Lebrun, 1899 (_Amphibia_); McGregor, 1899; Lenhossek, 1898 (mammals),
    and many others. So also for plants: Strasburger and Mottier, 1897;
    Dixon, 1896; Sargant, 1896-1897; Farmer and Moore, 1895; Gregoire,
    1899; Guignard, 1899, &c.

  [52] H. Henking (1899), T. Montgomery (1898) and F. C. Paulmeir
    (1899) describe the diverging bivalent halves of the tetrad as being
    united each by _two_ fibres with the corresponding spindle pole. At
    the next division, at which the diad is resolved into its constituent
    univalent chromosomes, the daughter chromosomes are attached to the
    spindle pole each by only one fibre; the two fibres now passing to
    opposite poles of the spindle being the same fibres which, in the
    preceding mitosis, were attached to one and the same pole.

  [53] Reference may be here made to Rosenberg's description (1904) of
    the heterotype mitosis in _Drosera_ hybrids. In the one parent (_D.
    rotundifolia_) the somatic number is 20, in the other (_D.
    longifolia_) 10; while the hybrid itself has a somatic number of 30.
    The reduced number in the hybrid, however, is not 15 but 20. Of these
    10 are large and 10 small, the latter presumably representing the
    supernumerary, and hence unpaired, chromosomes of the _D.
    rotundifolia_ parent.

  [54] In their 1905 paper J. B. Farmer and J. E. S. Moore describe two
    successive synaptic stages (e.g. Elasmobranchs), the first during the
    contraction of the spireme thread, the second during the looping up
    of the bivalent segments. (In this paper the authors suggest the term
    "Meiosis" or "Meiotic phase" for the nuclear changes accompanying the
    two maturation divisions in plants and animals ([Greek: meiôsis],
    reduction).

  [55] Whitman, _Jour. Morph._, 1903.

  [56] This "Precocious segregation" (Lankester, 1877) is well seen in
    the eggs of many Ctenophorae, Annelids, Gastropods and Nematodes. See
    the papers by Lillie (1901), Conklin (1902), &c., and especially
    Wilson on "Dentalium," _Journ. of Exp. Zool._, No. 1, 1904.

  [57] Hofmeister, de Bary, Sachs, &c.

  [58] _Loc. cit._

  [59] _Quart. Journ. Micro. Science_, 1894, vol. xxxvii.



CYZICENUS, the architectural term given by Vitruvius to the large hall,
used by the Greeks, which faced the north, with a prospect towards the
gardens; the windows of this hall opened down to the ground, so that the
green verdure could be seen by those lying on the couches.



CYZICUS, an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the
shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus),
which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmora,
and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic
times. It was, according to tradition, occupied by Thessalian settlers
at the coming of the Argonauts, and in 756 B.C. the town was founded by
Greeks from Miletus. Owing to its advantageous position it speedily
acquired commercial importance, and the gold _staters_ of Cyzicus were a
staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those
of Philip of Macedon. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)
Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately, and
at the peace of Antalcidas (387 B.C.), like the other Greek cities in
Asia, it was made over to Persia. The history of the town in Hellenistic
times is closely connected with that of the dynasts of Pergamum, with
whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was
held for the Romans against Mithradates in 74 B.C. till the siege was
raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension
of territory and other privileges. Still a nourishing centre in Imperial
times, the place appears to have been ruined by a series of
earthquakes--the last in A.D. 1063--and the population was transferred
to Artaki at least as early as the 13th century, when the peninsula was
occupied by the Crusaders. The site is now known as Bal-Kiz ([Greek:
Palaia Kuzikos]?) and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation.
The principal extant ruins are:--the walls, which are traceable for
nearly their whole extent, a picturesque amphitheatre intersected by a
stream, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian. Of this
magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the
ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444.
These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes by
the Turks.

  See J. Marquardt, _Cyzicus_ (Berlin, 1830); G. Perrot, _Exploration de
  la Galatie_ (Paris, 1862); F. W. Hasluck and A. E. Henderson in
  _Journal of Hellenic Studies_ (1904), 135-143.     (F. W. Ha.)



CZARNIECKI, STEPHEN (1590-1665), Polish general, learnt the science of
war under Stanislaw Koniecpolski in the Prussian campaigns against
Gustavus Adolphus (1626-1629), and under Wladislaus IV. in the Muscovite
campaign of 1633. On the 15th of April 1648 he was one of the many noble
Polish prisoners who fell into the hands of Chmielnicki at the battle of
"Yellow Waters," and was sent in chains to the Crimea, whence he was
ransomed in 1649. He took an active part in all the subsequent wars with
the Cossacks and received more disfiguring wounds than any other
commander. When Charles X. of Sweden invaded Poland in 1655, Czarniecki
distinguished himself by his heroic defence of Cracow, which he only
surrendered under the most honourable conditions. His energy and ability
as a leader of guerillas hampered Charles X. at every step, and though
frequently worsted he from time to time inflicted serious defeats upon
the Swedes, notably at Jaroslaw and at Kozienice in 1656. Under his
direction the popular rising against the invader ultimately proved
triumphant. It was he who brought King John Casimir back from exile and
enabled him to regain his lost kingdom. It was against his advice that
the great battle of Warsaw was fought, and his subsequent strategy
neutralized the ill effects of that national disaster. On the retirement
of the Swedes from Cracow and Warsaw, and the conclusion of the treaty
of Copenhagen with the Danes, he commanded the army corps sent to drive
the troops of Charles X. out of Jutland and greatly contributed to the
ultimate success of the Allies. On the conclusion of the Peace of Oliva,
which adjusted the long outstanding differences between Poland and
Sweden, Czarniecki was transferred to the eastern frontier where the war
with Muscovy was still raging. In the campaign of 1660 he won the
victories of Polonka and Lachowicza and penetrated to the heart of the
enemy's country. The diet of 1661 publicly thanked him for his services;
the king heaped honours and riches upon him, and in 1665 he was
appointed acting commander-in-chief of Poland, but died a few days after
receiving this supreme distinction. By his wife Sophia Kobierzycka he
left two daughters. Czarniecki is rightly regarded as one of the most
famous of heroic Poland's great captains, and to him belongs the chief
merit of extricating her from the difficulties which threatened to
overwhelm her during the disastrous reign of John Casimir. Czarniecki
raised partisan-warfare to the dignity of a science, and by his ubiquity
and tenacity demoralized and exhausted the regular armies to which he
was generally opposed.

  See Ludwik Jenike, _Stephen Czarniecki_ (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1891); Michal
  Dymitr Krajewski, _History of Stephen Czarniecki_ (Pol.), (Cracow,
  1859).



CZARTORYSKI, ADAM GEORGE, PRINCE (1770-1861), Polish statesman, was the
son of Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski and Isabella Fleming. After a
careful education at home by eminent specialists, mostly Frenchmen,[1]
he first went abroad in 1786. At Gotha he heard Goethe read his
_Iphigenie auf Tauris_, and made the acquaintance of the dignified
Herder and "fat little Wieland." In 1789 he visited England with his
mother, and was present at the trial of Warren Hastings. On a second
visit in 1793 he made many acquaintances among the English aristocracy
and studied the English constitution. In the interval between these
visits he fought for his country during the war of the second partition,
and would subsequently have served under Kosciuszko also had he not been
arrested on his way to Poland at Brussels by the Austrian government.
After the third partition the estates of the Czartoryskis were
confiscated, and in May 1795 Adam and his younger brother Constantine
were summoned to St Petersburg; later in the year they were commanded to
enter the Russian service, Adam becoming an officer in the horse, and
Constantine in the foot guards. Catherine was so favourably impressed by
the youths that she restored them part of their estates, and in the
beginning of 1796 made them gentlemen in waiting. Adam had already met
the grand duke Alexander at a ball at the princess Golitsuin's, and the
youths at once conceived a strong "intellectual friendship" for each
other. On the accession of the emperor Paul, Czartoryski was appointed
adjutant to Alexander, now Cesarevich, and was permitted to revisit his
Polish estates for three months. At this time the tone of the Russian
court was extremely liberal, humanitarian enthusiasts like Peter
Volkonsky and Nikolai Novosiltsov possessing great influence.

Throughout the reign of Paul, Czartoryski was in high favour and on
terms of the closest intimacy with the emperor, who in December 1798
appointed him ambassador to the court of Sardinia. On reaching Italy
Czartoryski found that the monarch to whom he was accredited was a king
without a kingdom, so that the outcome of his first diplomatic mission
was a pleasant tour through Italy to Naples, the acquisition of the
Italian language, and a careful exploration of the antiquities of Rome.
In the spring of 1801 the new emperor Alexander summoned his friend back
to St Petersburg. Czartoryski found the tsar still suffering from
remorse at his father's assassination, and incapable of doing anything
but talk religion and politics to a small circle of private friends. To
all remonstrances he only replied "There's plenty of time." The senate
did most of the current business; Peter Vasilevich Zavadovsky, a pupil
of the Jesuits, was minister of education. Alexander appointed
Czartoryski curator of the academy of Vilna (April 3, 1803) that he
might give full play to his advanced ideas. He was unable, however, to
give much attention to education, for from the beginning of 1804, as
adjunct of foreign affairs, he had the practical control of Russian
diplomacy. His first act was to protest energetically against the murder
of the due d'Enghien (March 20, 1804), and insist on an immediate
rupture with France. On the 7th of June the French minister Hédouville
quitted St Petersburg; and on the 11th of August a note dictated by
Czartoryski to Alexander was sent to the Russian minister in London,
urging the formation of an anti-French coalition. It was Czartoryski
also who framed the Convention of the 6th of November 1804, whereby
Russia agreed to put 115,000 and Austria 235,000 men in the field
against Napoleon. Finally, on the 11th of April 1805 he signed an
offensive-defensive alliance with England. But his most striking
ministerial act was a memorial written in 1805, but otherwise undated,
which aimed at transforming the whole map of Europe. In brief it
amounted to this. Austria and Prussia were to divide Germany between
them. Russia was to acquire the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora, the
Bosphorus with Constantinople, and Corfu. Austria was to have Bosnia,
Wallachia and Ragusa. Montenegro, enlarged by Mostar and the Ionian
Islands, was to form a separate state. England and Russia together were
to maintain the equilibrium of the world. In return for their
acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the
erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the
sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia. Fantastic as it
was in some particulars, this project was partly realized[2] in more
recent times, and it presented the best guarantee for the independent
existence of Poland which had never been able to govern itself. But in
the meantime Austria had come to an understanding with England as to
subsidies, and war had begun.

In 1805 Czartoryski accompanied Alexander both to Berlin and Olmütz as
chief minister. He regarded the Berlin visit as a blunder, chiefly owing
to his profound distrust of Prussia; but Alexander ignored his
representations, and in February 1807 he lost favour and was superseded
by Andrei Eberhard Budberg. But though no longer a minister Czartoryski
continued to enjoy Alexander's confidenc