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´╗┐Title: Clayton's Quaker Cook-Book - Being a Practical Treatise on the Culinary Art Adapted to - the Tastes and Wants of all Classes
Author: Clayton, H. J.
Language: English
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[Illustration: H. J. Clayton]

CLAYTON'S

Quaker Cook-Book,

BEING A

PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE CULINARY ART

ADAPTED TO THE TASTES AND WANTS

OF ALL CLASSES.

     With plain and easily understood directions for the preparation of
     every variety of food in the most attractive forms. Comprising the
     result of a life-long experience in catering to a host of highly
     cultivated tastes.

--BY--

[Illustration: H. J. Clayton]

San Francisco:
WOMEN'S CO-OPERATIVE PRINTING OFFICE.
1883.

Copyrighted according to Act of Congress, A. D. 1883, by H. J. Clayton.



PREFACE.


One of the sacred writers of the olden time is reported to have said:
"Of the making of many books, there is no end." This remark will, to a
great extent, apply to the number of works published upon the all
important subject of Cookery. The oft-repeated saying, attributed to old
sailors, that the Lord sends victuals, and the opposite party, the
cooks, is familiar to all.

Notwithstanding the great number and variety of so-called cookbooks
extant, the author of this treatise on the culinary art, thoroughly
impressed with the belief that there is ample room for one more of a
thoroughly practical and every day life, common sense character--in
every way adapted to the wants of the community at large, and looking
especially to the preparation of healthful, palatable, appetizing and
nourishing food, both plain and elaborately compounded--and in the
preparation of which the very best, and, at the same time, the most
economical material is made use of, has ventured to present this new
candidate for the public approval. The preparation of this work embodies
the result of more than thirty years personal and practical experience.
The author taking nothing for granted, has thoroughly tested the value
and entire correctness of every direction he has given in these pages.
While carefully catering to the varied tastes of the mass, everything of
an unhealthful, deleterious, or even doubtful character, has been
carefully excluded; and all directions are given in the plainest style,
so as to be readily understood, and fully comprehended by all classes of
citizens.

The writer having been born and brought up on a farm, and being in his
younger days of a delicate constitution, instead of joining in the
rugged work of the field, remained at home to aid and assist his mother
in the culinary labors of the household. It was in this home-school--in
its way one of the best in the world, that he acquired not only a
practical knowledge of what he desires to fully impart to others, but a
taste for the preparation, in its most attractive forms, of every
variety of palatable and health-giving food. It was his early training
in this homely school that induced him to make this highly important
matter an all-absorbing theme and the subject of his entire life study.
His governing rule in this department has ever been the injunction laid
down by the chief of the Apostles: "Try all things; prove all things;
and hold fast that which is good."



INTRODUCTORY.


A Brief History of the Culinary Art, and its Principal Methods.

Cooking is defined to be the art of dressing, compounding and preparing
food by the aid of heat. Ancient writers upon the subject are of opinion
that the practice of this art followed immediately after the discovery
of fire, and that it was at first an imitation of the natural processes
of mastication and digestion. In proof of the antiquity of this art,
mention is made of it in many places in sacred writ. Among these is
notably the memoirs of the Children of Israel while journeying in the
wilderness, and their hankering after the "flesh-pots of Egypt."

Among the most enlightened people of ancient times,--cooking, if not
regarded as one of the fine arts, certainly stood in the foremost rank
among the useful. It was a highly honored vocation, and many of the most
eminent and illustrious characters of Greece and Rome did not disdain to
practice it. Among the distinguished amateurs of the art, in these
modern times, may be mentioned Alexander Dumas, who plumed himself more
upon his ability to cook famous dishes than upon his world-wide
celebrity as the author of the most popular novels of his day.

In the state in which man finds most of the substances used for food
they are difficult of digestion. By the application of heat some of
these are rendered more palatable and more easily digested, and,
consequently, that assimilation so necessary to the sustenance of life,
and the repair of the constant waste attendant upon the economy of the
human system. The application of heat to animal and vegetable
substances, for the attainment of this end, constitutes the basis of the
science of cookery.

Broiling, which was most probably the mode first resorted to in the
early practice of this art, being one of the most common of its various
operations, is quite simple and efficacious. It is especially adapted to
the wants of invalids, and persons of delicate appetites. Its effect is
to coagulate, in the quickest manner, upon the surface the albumen of
the meat, effectually sealing up its pores, and thus retaining the rich
juices and delicate flavor that would otherwise escape and be lost.

Roasting comes next in order, and for this two conditions are
essentially requisite--a good, brisk fire, and constant basting. As in
the case of broiling, care should be taken at the commencement to
coagulate the albumen on the surface as speedily as possible. Next to
broiling and stewing, this is the most economical mode of cooking meats
of all kinds.

Baking meat is in very many respects objectionable--and should never be
resorted to when other modes of cooking are available, as it reverses
the order of good, wholesome cookery, in beginning with a slow and
finishing with a high temperature. Meats cooked in this manner have
never the delicate flavor of the roast, nor are they so easily digested.

Boiling is one of the easiest and simplest methods of cooking, but in
its practice certain conditions must be carefully observed. The fire
must be attended to, so as to properly regulate the heat. The utensils
used for this purpose, which should be large enough to contain
sufficient water to completely cover the meat, should be scrupulously
clean, and provided with a close-fitting cover. All scum should be
removed as fast as it rises, which will be facilitated by frequent
additions of small quantities of cold water. Difference of opinion
exists among cooks as to the propriety of putting meats in cold water,
and gradually raising to the boiling point, or plunging into water
already boiling. My own experience, unless in the preparation of soups,
is decidedly in favor of the latter. Baron Liebig, the highest authority
in such matters, decidedly favors this process. As in the case of
roasting, the application of boiling water coagulates the albumen, thus
retaining the juices of the meat that would be dissolved in the liquid.

Stewing is generally resorted to in the preparation of made dishes, and
almost every variety of meats are adapted to this method. The better the
quality of the meats, as a matter of course, the better the dish
prepared in this way; but, by careful stewing, the coarser and rougher
quality of meats can be rendered soft, tender and digestible, a
desirable object not generally attained in other modes. Add pieces of
meat, trimmings, scraps and bones, the latter containing a large amount
of palatable and nourishing gelatine, may be thus utilized in the
preparation of wholesome and appetizing dishes at a comparatively
trifling cost.


An Explanatory Word in Conclusion.

As a matter of strict justice to all parties concerned, the author of
this work deems it proper to explain his reasons for mentioning in the
body of some of the recipes given in this book, the places at which the
purest and best articles used are to be purchased. This recommendation
is, in every instance, based upon a thorough and complete personal test
of every article commended. In these degenerate days of wholesale
adulteration of almost every article of food and drink, it is eminently
just and proper that the public should be advised where the genuine is
to be procured. Without desiring to convert his book into a mere
advertising medium, the author deems it not out of place to give the
names of those dealers in this city of whom such articles as are
essential in the preparation of many of the recipes given in these pages
may be procured--of the most reliable quality, and at reasonable
rates.



INDEX.


  Soups.

  Stock                                                                1

  General Directions for making Soup                                   2

  Calf's-Head Soup                                                     3

  Ox-Tail Soup                                                         3

  Okra Soup                                                            3

  Chicken Gumbo                                                        4

  Fresh Oyster Soup                                                    4

  Fish Chowder                                                         5

  Clam Soup                                                            5

  Clam Chowder                                                         6

  Bean Soup                                                            6

  Dry Split-Pea Soup                                                   6

  Tomato Soup                                                          7

  Celery Soup                                                          7

  Pepper-Pot                                                           8

  Egg-Balls for Soup                                                   8

  Nudels                                                               8


  Fish.

  Boiled Fish                                                          9

  Fried Fish                                                          10

  Broiling Fish                                                       10

  Fried Oysters                                                       10

  Oysters in Batter                                                   10

  Oyster Patties                                                      11

  Stewed Lobsters or Crabs                                            11


  Roast, Boiled, Baked, Broiled and Fried.

  Retaining the Juices in Cooking Meats                               12

  Roast Pig                                                           13

  To Roast Turkeys and Chickens                                       13

  Roasting Beef                                                       15

  A good way to Roast a Leg of Mutton                                 15

  Clayton's Mode of Cooking Canvas-Back Ducks                         15

  Clayton's Mode of Cooking California Quail or Young Chickens        16

  To Cook Boned Turkey                                                17

  To Bone a Turkey                                                    18

  To Cook Ducks or Chickens, Louisiana Style                          18

  Breast of Lamb and Chicken, Breaded                                 19

  Scrapple or Haggis Loaf                                             19

  Pig's-Feet and Hocks                                                20

  To Cook a Steak California Style, 1849-50                           21

  A Good Way to Cook a Ham                                            21

  Beefsteak Broiled                                                   21

  Beefsteak with Onions                                               22

  Corned-Beef and how to Cook it                                      22

  Spiced Veal                                                         22

  Calves' Liver with Bacon                                            23

  Calves' or Lambs' Liver Fried                                       23

  Spiced Beef                                                         23


  Stews, Salads, and Salad-Dressing.

  Terrapin Stew                                                       24

  Stewed Chicken Cottage Style                                        25

  Stewed Tripe                                                        25

  Chicken-Salad                                                       25

  Clayton's Celebrated California Salad Dressing                      26

  Salad Flavoring                                                     27


  Eggs and Omelettes.

  Boiling Eggs                                                        27

  Scrambled Eggs                                                      27

  To Fry Eggs                                                         28

  Oyster Omelette                                                     28

  Ham Omelette                                                        28

  Cream Omelette                                                      28

  Spanish Omelette                                                    29

  Omelette for Dessert                                                29


  Vegetables.

  Beans, Baked [See Bean Soup]                                         6

  Baked Tomatoes                                                      30

  Raw Tomatoes                                                        30

  Cucumbers                                                           30

  Boiled Cabbage                                                      30

  To Cook Cauliflower                                                 31

  To Cook Young Green Peas                                            31

  A Good Way to Cook Beets                                            31

  Mashed Potatoes and Turnips                                         32

  Boiled Onions                                                       32

  Stewed Corn                                                         32

  Stewed Corn and Tomatoes                                            32

  Succotash                                                           33

  Saratoga Fried Potatoes                                             33

  Salsify or Oyster-Plant                                             34

  Egg-Plant                                                           34

  To Boil Green Corn                                                  35

  Boiled Rice                                                         35

  Stewed Okra                                                         35


  Bread, Cakes, Pies, Puddings and Pastry.
  Solid and Liquid Sauce.

  Quick Bread                                                         36

  Quick Muffins                                                       36

  Brown Bread                                                         36

  Graham Rolls                                                        36

  Mississippi Corn-Bread                                              37

  Nice Light Biscuit                                                  37

  Clayton's Corn-Bread                                                37

  Johnny Cake                                                         37

  Sweet Potato Pone                                                   38

  Ginger Bread                                                        38

  Molasses Ginger Bread                                               38

  Quaker Cake                                                         38

  Pound Cake                                                          38

  Chocolate Cake.--Jelly Cake                                         38

  Currant Cake                                                        39

  Cream Cup-Cake                                                      39

  Jumbles                                                             39

  Sweet Cake                                                          39

  Sponge Cake                                                         40

  Ginger Snaps                                                        40

  A Nice Cake                                                         40

  Icing for Cake                                                      40

  Chocolate Icing                                                     41

  Lemon Pie                                                           41

  English Plum Pudding                                                42

  Baked Apple Pudding                                                 42

  Bread Pudding                                                       42

  Baked Corn-Meal Pudding                                             42

  Corn-Starch Pudding                                                 43

  Delmonico's Pudding                                                 43

  Peach Ice-Cream                                                     43

  Apple Snow                                                          44

  Strawberry Sauce                                                    44

  Farina Pudding                                                      44

  Snow Pudding                                                        45

  Fruit Pudding                                                       45

  Charlotte-a-Russe                                                   46

  Solid Sauce                                                         46

  Liquid Sauce                                                        46

  Currant or Grape Jelly                                              46

  Calf's Foot Jelly                                                   47

  Ice Cream                                                           47

  Orange Ice                                                          48

  Lemon Jelly                                                         48

  Wine Jelly                                                          48

  Peach Jelly                                                         48

  Roman Punch                                                         49


  Miscellaneous.

  Butter and Butter-Making                                            49

  A Word of Advice to Hotel and Restaurant Cooks                      51

  Clayton's California Golden Coffee                                  53

  The very Best Way to Make Chocolate                                 54

  Old Virginia Egg-Nogg                                               55

  Clayton's Popular Sandwich Paste                                    55

  Welsh Rabbit                                                        56

  Delicate Waffles                                                    57

  Force-Meat Balls                                                    57

  Beef Tea                                                            57

  Crab Sandwich                                                       58

  Pork.--The kind to Select, and the best Mode of Curing              58

  Lard, Home-Made                                                     59

  Sausage, New Jersey                                                 60

  Pot-Pie                                                             60

  Curried Crab                                                        61

  To Toast Bread                                                      61

  Cream Toast                                                         61

  Fritters                                                            61

  Hash                                                                62

  Hashed Potato with Eggs                                             62

  Macaroni, Baked                                                     62

  Drawn Butter                                                        63

  Spiced Currants                                                     63

  Canning Fruits.--Best Mode of                                        63

  Quinces, Preparing for Canning or Preserving                        64

  Clayton's Monmouth Sauce                                            65

  Mustard.--To Prepare for the Table                                  65

  Mint Sauce                                                          65

  Eggs ought never be Poached                                         66

  Sunny-Side Roast                                                    66

  Clayton's Spanish Omelette                                          66

  Plain Omelette                                                      67

  Clam Fritters                                                       67

  Fried Tripe                                                         67

  Ringed Potatoes                                                     67

  New Potatoes, Boiled                                                67

  Fried Tomatoes                                                      68

  Squash and Corn.--Spanish Style                                     68

  Pickles                                                             68

  Nice Picklette                                                      69

  Pickled Tripe                                                       69

  To Cook Grouse or Prairie Chicken                                   69

  Brains and Sweet-Bread                                              70

  Stewed Spare-Ribs of Pork                                           70

  Broiled Oysters                                                     71

  Pumpkin or Squash Custard                                           71

  Fig Pudding                                                         71

  Fried Apples                                                        72

  Clayton's Oyster Stew                                               72

  Boiled Celery                                                       72

  Selecting Meats                                                     72

  Rice Pudding.--Rebecca Jackson's                                    73

  Bread and Butter Pudding                                            73

  Codfish Cakes                                                       73

  Pickled Grapes                                                      74

  Forced Tomatoes                                                     74

  Broiled Flounders or Smelts                                         74

  Onions                                                              75

  Singeing Fowls                                                      75

  Taste and Flavor.--Secret Tests of                                  75

  Ware for Ranges.--How to Choose                                     76

  Herbs.--Drying for Seasoning                                        76

  Roaches, Flies and Ants.--How to Destroy                            76

  Tinware.--To Clean                                                  77

  Iron Rust                                                           77

  Mildew                                                              77

  Oysters Roasted on Chafing-Dish                                     77

  Cod-Fish, Family Style                                              77

  Cod-Fish, Philadelphia Style                                        78


  Advertisements.

  Jersey Farm Dairy                                                   81

  W. T. Coleman & Co., Royal Baking Powder                            82

  Quade & Straut, Choice Family Groceries                             83

  J. H. McMenomy, Beef, Mutton, Veal                                  83

  Arpad Haraszthy & Co., California Wines and Brandies                84

  Will & Finck, Cutlers                                               85

  Wilton & Cortelyou, Dairy Produce                                   86

  John Bayle, Tripe, Calves' Heads, Feet                              87

  Palace Hotel, John Sedgwick, Manager                                88

  Deming Bros., Millers and Grain Dealers                             89

  E. R. Durkee & Co's Standard Aids to Good Cooking                   90

  Berlin & Lepori, Coffee, Tea and Spices                             91

  B. M. Atchinson & Co. Butter, Cheese, Eggs, Lard                    92

  Kohler & Frohling, California Wines and Brandies                    93

  Richards & Harrison, Agents for English Groceries                   94

  Robert F. Bunker, Hams, Bacon                                       95

  Edouart's Art Gallery                                               96

  E. R. Perrin's Quaker Dairy                                         97

  Hills Bros., Coffee, Teas and Spices                                98

  Emil A. Engelberg, German Bakery & Confectionery                    98

  A. W. Fink, Butter, Cheese, Eggs                                    99

  J. Gundlach & Co., California Wines and Brandies                   100

  Lebenbaum, Goldberg & Bowen, Grocers                               101

  Women's Co-operative Printing Office                               102

  W. W. Montague & Co., French Ranges                                103

  Mark Sheldon, Sewing Machines and Supplies                         104

[Illustration]



CLAYTON'S

Quaker Cook-Book.



SOUPS.


Stock.

The foundation--so to speak--and first great essential in compounding
every variety of appetizing, and at the same time wholesome and
nourishing soups, is the stock. In this department, as in some others,
the French cooks have ever been pre-eminent. It was said of this class
in the olden time that so constantly was the "stock"--as this foundation
has always been termed--replenished by these cooks, that their rule was
never to see the bottom of the soup kettle. It has long been a fixed
fact that in order to have good soup you must first have good stock to
begin with. To make this stock, take the liquor left after boiling fresh
meat, bones, (large or small, cracking the larger ones in order to
extract the marrow,) bones and meat left over from a roast or broil, and
put either or all of these in a large pot or soup kettle, with water
enough to cover. Let these simmer slowly--never allowing the water to
boil--taking care, however, to keep the vessel covered--stirring
frequently, and pouring in occasionally a cup of cold water, and
skimming off the scum. It is only where fresh meat is used that cold
water is applied at the commencement; for cooked meat, use warm. The
bones dissolved in the slow simmering, furnish the gelatine so essential
to good stock. One quart of water to a pound of meat is the average
rule. Six to eight hours renders it fit for use. Let stand over night;
skim off the fat; put in an earthen jar, and it is ready for use. Every
family should keep a jar of the stock constantly on hand, as by doing so
any kind of soup may be made from it in from ten to thirty minutes.


General Directions for Making Soup.

Having prepared your stock according to the foregoing directions, take a
sufficient quantity, when soup is required, and season, as taste may
dictate, with sweet and savory herbs--salpicant, celery salt, or any
other favorite seasoning--adding vegetables cut fine, and let the same
boil slowly in a covered vessel until thoroughly cooked. If preferred,
after seasoning the stock, it may be thickened with either barley, rice,
tapioca, sago, vermicelli, macaroni, farina or rice flour. A roast onion
is sometimes added to give richness and flavor. It is a well-known fact
that soups properly prepared improve in flavor and are really better on
the day after than when first made. By substituting different materials,
garnitures, flavorings and condiments, of which an endless variety is
available, the intelligent housewife may be able to furnish a different
soup for every day of the year. In following these, as in all other
directions for every department of cookery, experience will, after all,
be found the great teacher and most valuable aid and adjunct to the
learner of the art.


Calves'-Head Soup.

Take a calf's head of medium size; wash clean, and soak it an hour or
more in salted water; then soak a little while in fresh, and put to boil
in cold water; add a little salt and a medium-sized onion; take off the
scum as it rises, and as the water boils away add a little soup stock;
when quite tender take the meat from the bone, keeping the brain by
itself; strain the soup, and if you think there is too much meat, use a
portion as a side-dish dressed with brain sauce; do not cut the meat too
fine--and season the soup with allspice, cloves and mace, adding pepper
and salt to taste; put back the meat, and taking one-half the brain, a
lump of butter, and a spoonful of flour, work to a thin batter, stirring
in claret and sherry wines to taste, and last of all add a little
extract of lemon, and one hard-boiled egg, chopped not too fine; if
desirable add a few small force-meat balls.

[Turtle soup may be made in the same manner.]


Ox-Tail Soup.

Take one ox-tail and divide into pieces an inch long; 2 pounds of lean
beef cut in small pieces; 4 carrots; 3 onions sliced fine; a little
thyme, with pepper and salt to taste, and 4 quarts cold water; boil four
hours or more, according to size of the ox-tail, and when done add a
little allspice or cloves.


Okra Soup.

One large slice of ham; 1 pound of beef, veal or chicken, and 1 onion,
all cut in small pieces and fried in butter together until brown, adding
black or red pepper for seasoning, along with a little salt, adding in
the meantime, delicately sliced thin, sufficient okra, and put all in a
porcelain kettle. For a family of four use 30 pods of okra, with 2
quarts water, over a steady, but not too hot fire; boil slowly for 3 or
4 hours; when half done add 2 or 3 peeled tomatoes.


Chicken Gumbo.

[Mrs. E. A. Wilburn's Recipe.]

For the stock, take two chickens and boil in a gallon of water until
thoroughly done and the liquid reduced to half a gallon. Wipe off 1-1/2
pounds of green okra, or if the dry is used, 1/2 pound is sufficient,
which cut up fine and add to this stock while boiling; next add 1-1/2
pounds of ripe tomatoes, peeled and chopped fine, adding also 1/2 coffee
cupful of rice; let these boil for six hours, adding boiling water when
necessary; then take out the chickens, carve and fry them brown in clear
lard; into the fat put 1 large white onion, chopped fine, adding 2
tablespoonfuls of flour. Just before serving, put the chicken, boned and
chopped, with the gravy thus prepared, and add to the soup with salt and
pepper to taste.


Fresh Oyster Soup.

Take 25 or 30 small Eastern and 50 California oysters; wash clean, and
put into a kettle over the fire, with a little over a pint of water. As
soon as they open pour into a pan and take the oysters from the shells,
pouring the juice into a pitcher to settle. If the oysters are large,
cut in two once; return the juice to the fire, and when it boils put in
a piece of butter worked in flour; season with pepper and salt, and let
it boil slowly for two minutes; put in a cupful of rich milk and the
oysters, along with a sufficient quantity of chopped crackers, and let
the liquid boil up once. Should you need a larger quantity of soup, add
a can of good oysters, as they will change the flavor but little. In my
opinion nutmeg improves the flavor of the soup.


Fish Chowder.

Take 4 pounds of fresh codfish--the upper part of the fish is best; fry
plenty of salt pork cut in small strips; put the fat in the bottom of
the kettle, then a layer of the fried pork, next a layer of fish; follow
with a layer of potato sliced--not too thin--and a layer of sliced
onions, seasoned with plenty of salt and pepper; alternate these layers
as long as the material holds out, topping off with a layer of hard
crackers. Use equal parts of water and milk sufficient to cook, which
will not require more than three-quarters of an hour, over a good fire.
Great care should be taken not to scorch in the cooking.

[Clam Chowder may be made according to the foregoing formula,
substituting 3 pints of clams for the fish.]


Clam Soup.

Take 50 small round clams; rinse clean, and put in a kettle with a pint
of water; boil for a few minutes, or until the shells gape open; empty
into a pan, pick the meat from the shells, and pour the juice into a
pitcher to settle; chop the clams quite small; return the juice to the
fire, and as soon as hot, work in a good-sized lump of butter, with a
little flour, and juice of the clams; stir in a teacup of milk; season
with black pepper, and after letting this boil for two minutes, put in
the clams, adding at the same time chopped cracker or nudels, and before
taking up, a little chopped parsley.


Clam Chowder.

One hundred small clams chopped fine; 1/2 pound fat salt pork put in pot
and fried out brown; 2 small or 1 large onion, and 1 tomato chopped
fine. Put all in the pot with the clam juice and boil for two hours,
after which add rolled crackers and 1 pint hot milk, letting it boil up.
Season with salt and pepper, adding a little thyme if agreeable to
taste.


Baked Beans and Bean Soup.

Take three pints of white peas or army beans; wash very clean; soak
eight hours; rinse and put to boil with plenty of water, hot or cold,
with 1-1/2 pounds beef soup-meat and 1/2 pound of salt pork, letting
these boil slowly, and skimming as the scum rises. Stir frequently, as
the beans are apt to scorch when they begin to soften. When soft enough
to be easily crushed with the thumb and finger, season with plenty of
black pepper and salt; after five minutes have elapsed fill a nice
baking pan--such a one as will do to set on the table--pour in the
liquid until it nearly covers the beans, score the pork and put it
half-way down in the beans, and bake in a slow fire until nicely
browned.

When the remaining beans are boiled quite soft rub them through a
colander into the soup; add 1 pint of milk, and season with ground
cloves or mace. Just before taking up cut some toast the size of the end
of a finger and add to the soup. Pepper sauce gives a nice flavor.


Dry Split-Pea Soup.

Soak one quart dry or split peas ten or twelve hours, and put on to boil
in 1 gallon of water, with 1 pound soup-beef, and a small piece of the
hock end of ham, nicely skinned and trimmed, (but if you do not have
this at hand supply its place with a small piece of salt pork;) season
with salt, pepper and a little ground cloves, adding a little curry or
sweet marjoram; boil slowly until quite tender; rub the peas through a
colander, adding a little rich milk. This soup should be rather thick.
Cut bread in pieces the size of the little finger, fry in butter or
lard, and put in the tureen when taken up.


Tomato Soup.

To one gallon good beef stock add 1-1/2 dozen ripe tomatoes, or 1
two-pound can; 2 carrots, 2 onions and 1 turnip cut fine; boil all
together for an hour and a half, and run through a fine tin strainer;
take a stewpan large enough to hold the liquid, and put it on the fire
with 1/2 pound of butter worked in two tablespoonfuls of flour; after
mixing well together add a tablespoonful of white sugar; season with
salt and pepper to taste, stirring well until the liquor boils, when
skim and serve. The above quantity will provide sufficient for a large
family.


Celery Soup.

To make good celery soup take 2 or 3 pounds of juicy beef--the round is
best, being free from fat. Cover with cold water, and boil slowly for
three or four hours. An hour before taking from the fire take 1 pound or
more of celery, cut 4 or 5 inches long, taking also the root cut thin,
and salting to taste, boil until quite tender; then take out the celery,
dressing with pepper and salt or drawn butter. If you have some soup
stock put in a little, boil a few minutes and strain. This is a most
palatable soup, and the celery, acting as a sedative, is one of the best
things that can be used for quieting the nerves.


Pepper-Pot.

Take thick, fat and tender tripe; wash thoroughly in water in which a
little soda has been dissolved; rinse well, and cut in strips half the
length of your little finger; after boiling ten minutes, put in a
colander and rinse with a little hot water; then, adding good soup
stock, boil until tender; season with cayenne pepper and salt, a little
Worcestershire or Chutney sauce, and some small pieces of dough made as
for nudels. Should the soup not be thick enough add a little paste of
butter and flour; you may also add curry if you are fond of it.

This soup was popular in the Quaker City fifty years ago, and has never
decreased in favor among the intelligent inhabitants.


Egg-Balls for Soup.

Boil 3 eggs seven minutes, and mash the yolks with one raw egg, a
tablespoonful of flour and a little milk; season with pepper, salt, and
parsley or summer savory; make into balls and boil two or three minutes,
and put in the soup just before serving. Excellent for both pea and bean
soup.


Nudels.

Rich nudels undoubtedly form the best thickening for nice, delicate
soups, such as chicken, veal, oyster and clam. Nudels are made with
flour, milk and eggs, and a little salt, mixed to stiff dough, rolled as
thin as possible, and cut in fine shreds the length of the little
finger. In all soups where nudels are used, a little chopped parsley
should be added just before taking up.



FISH.


Fish.

The so-termed food fishes are to be found without number in all portions
of the world, civilized and savage, and a large portion of the
inhabitants of the globe are dependant upon this source for their
subsistence. Certain learned physiologists have put forth the theory
that food-fish is brain-producing, and adds to the mental vigor of those
who subsist upon it. While we are not disposed to controvert this
consoling idea--if the theory be true--the South Sea savages, who live
upon this aliment, both in the raw and cooked state--and the Esquimaux,
whose principal summer and winter diet is frozen fish--should be the
most intelligent people on earth.

The modes of preparing fish for the table are equally as numerous as the
species. The direction given by Mrs. Glass, in a cook-book of the olden
time, is at the same time the most original and most sensible. This lady
commences with: "First catch your fish."


Boiled Fish.

Fresh fish should never lie in water. As soon as cleaned, rinse off,
wipe dry, wrap carefully in a cotton cloth, and put into salted boiling
water. If cooked in this manner the juice and flavor will be fully
retained. Twenty minutes boiling will thoroughly cook a medium sized
fish.


Fried Fish.

In frying large-sized fish, cut the slices lengthwise instead of across,
for if cut against the grain the rich juices will be lost in the
cooking, rendering the fish hard, dry and tasteless. For this reason
fish are always better cooked whole, when this can be done. Beat up one
or two eggs, with two tablespoonfuls of milk, with salt to season. After
dipping the fish in this, dry in cracker dust--never use corn meal--and
fry in good lard.


Broiling Fish.

In broiling fish, cut large as in frying, grease the bars of the
gridiron. Harden both sides slightly, and baste with butter, seasoning
with pepper and salt.


Fried Oysters.

Take large oysters, drain the juice, and dry them with a cloth, and run
them in eggs, well beaten with a little milk; season with pepper and a
little salt, and after drying in cracker dust, fry in equal parts best
lard and butter, until a light brown.


Oysters in Batter.

Save all the juice of the oysters; beat two eggs with two or three
spoonfuls of milk or cream, seasoning with pepper; put this into the
juice, with the addition of as much flour as will make a rich batter.
When the fat is quite hot put into it a spoonful of the batter,
containing one oyster, and turn quickly in order that both sides may be
nicely done brown.


Oyster Patties.

Roll good puff-paste quite thin--and cut in round pieces 3-1/2 inches in
diameter, on which put a rim of dough, about 1 inch or less high, which
may be stuck on with a little beaten egg; next add a top-piece or
covering, fitting loosely, and bake in this until a light brown, and put
away until wanted. Stew oysters in their own juice, adding a little
butter and cream; fill the patties with this, put on the lid, and set in
the oven for five minutes, and send to the table. Can oysters, with a
rich gravy, make an excellent patty prepared in this way.


Stewed Lobsters or Crabs.

Take a two-pound can of lobster, or two large crabs, and cut as for
making salad, and season highly with prepared mustard, cayenne pepper,
curry powder, or sauce piquant, and salt to taste. Put in a porcelain
stewpan, with a little water, to prevent scorching, and, after letting
it boil up once, add butter the size of an egg, and one tablespoonful of
vinegar, or half a teacupful of white wine, and the juice of half a
lemon, and the moment this boils add half a teacupful of cream or good
milk, stirring at the same time. Set the stew aside, and heat up shortly
before sending to the table. Putting slices of toast in the bottom of
the dish before serving is a decided improvement.



Roast, Boiled, Baked, Broiled and Fried.


Retaining the Juices in Cooking Meats.

Too little attention is paid to one of the most important features of
the culinary art--particularly in roasting, boiling, and broiling--that
is the retention of the natural juices of various meats in cooking.
Existing, as these always do, in a liquid form, unless this is carefully
guarded against, these palatable and health-giving essences of all
animal food, both tame and game, are apt to be wasted and dissipated in
various forms, when the exercise of mature judgment and a little care
would confine them to these meats in the course of preparation. By way
of illustration, let us suppose that a fowl, a leg of mutton, or some of
the many kinds of fish frequently served up in this way, is to be boiled
in water. If put in cold water, and the heat gradually raised until it
reaches the boiling point, the health-giving albumen--with the juices
which give each its peculiar and pleasant flavor--are extracted from the
meat and dissolved and retained in the water, rendering the flesh and
fish insipid and in some cases almost tasteless. If, however, these are
plunged at once into boiling water, thereby on the instant coagulating
the albumen of the surface at least, and thereby closing the pores
through which the inside albuminous juices would otherwise exude and be
lost. Besides this albumen, there are other juices which are among the
most important constituent parts of every variety of animal food in
which are embodied much of its fine flavor and nutritive qualities, and
deprived of which such food becomes unpalatable and tasteless. All
meats, then, instead of being put into cold water, should at the start
be plunged into boiling hot water, as this prevents the escape of these
juices, and the retaining not only the delicate and fine flavor of the
meat, but confining and retaining its nutritive qualities where they
naturally and properly belong.


Roast Pig.

Take a sucking pig--one from three to five weeks old is best. When
properly dressed lay in salted water for half an hour; take out and wipe
dry inside and out; make a stuffing of bread and butter, mixing to a
proper consistency with milk and a well beaten egg; season with salt,
pepper and sage, with the addition of thyme or summer savory, and an
onion chopped fine and stewed in butter with flour. Sew up, and roast
for a long time in an oven not too hot, first putting a little water
with lard or dripping in the pan. Baste frequently until done, taking
care to keep the pan a little distance above the bottom of the range.


To Roast Turkeys and Chickens.

Turkeys and chickens for roasting should never be over a year old. After
being properly cleaned, cut the wings at the first joint from the
breast, pull the skin down the lower end of the neck, and cut off the
bone. Cut the necks, wings and gizzards into small pieces suitable for
giblet stew--which should be put on the fire before preparing the fowls
for roasting--which should be done by cutting off the legs at the first
joint from the feet. Make the stuffing of good bread, rubbed fine, with
butter, pepper and salt, and a teaspoonful of baking powder, seasoning
with thyme or summer savory, mixing to the consistency of dough, adding
eggs, well beaten, with good milk or cream. Fill the breast, and tie
over the neck-bone with strong twine, rubbing the sides of the fowl with
a dry cloth, afterwards filling quite full. Sew up tight, tie up the
legs, and encase the body with strong twine, wrapped around to hold the
wings to the body. After rubbing well with salt and dredging lightly
with flour, put the fowl in a pan, laying on top two or three thin
slices of fat pork, salt or fresh. Put a little water in the pan, and
baste frequently, but do not roast too rapidly; raise the pan at least
two inches from the bottom of the range. All white meat should
invariably be cooked well done, and turkey or chicken, to be eaten cold,
should be wrapped while warm in paper or cloth. When prepared in this
way they will always be found soft and tender when cooled.

When the giblets are stewed tender--which they must be in order to be
good--chop a handful of the green leaves of celery, adding pepper and
salt, and put in. Ten minutes before taking from the fire add a lump of
butter worked in with a tablespoonful of flour and the yolk of two
boiled eggs, letting simmer two or three minutes, then put in the whites
of the eggs, chopped fine, with the addition of a little good milk or
cream. Some of this stew, mixed with the drippings of the fowl, makes
the best possible gravy.


Roasting Beef.

Never wash meat; simply wipe with a damp cloth, rub with salt and dredge
with flour; put in the pan with a little of the suet chopped fine, and a
teacupful of water; set in a hot oven, two inches above the bottom. The
oven should be quite hot, in order to close the pores on the surface of
the meat as quickly as possible. As the meat hardens reduce the heat a
little, basting frequently. Turn two or three times during the roasting,
taking care not to let the gravy scorch. Meat cooked in this way will be
tender and juicy, and when done will be slightly red in the centre.
Should it prove too rare, carve thin and lay in a hot pan with a little
gravy for one minute. Beef will roast in from one and-half to two hours,
according to size. All meats may be roasted in the same way, taking care
in every case, that the albuminous juices do not escape.


A Good Way to Roast a Leg of Mutton.

Into a kettle, with hot water enough to cover, put a leg of mutton. Let
it boil half an hour, and the moment it is taken from the water, salt,
pepper, and dredge with flour, and put on to roast with one-half a
teacup of water in the pan. Baste frequently, first adding a
tablespoonful of lard. Cooked in this way the meat has none of the
peculiar mutton flavor which is distasteful to many.


Clayton's Mode of Cooking Canvas-back Ducks.

That most delicately flavored wild fowl, the canvas-back duck, to be
properly cooked, should be prepared in the following style:

The bird being properly dressed and cleaned, place in the opening, after
drawing, a tablespoonful of salt dissolved in water--some add a stick of
celery, or celery salt, to flavor, but this is not necessary. Sew up the
opening with strong thread; have your fire in the grate red hot--that
is, the oven almost red hot; place your duck therein, letting it remain
nineteen minutes--which will be amply sufficient time if your oven is at
the proper heat--but as tastes differ in this as in other matters of
cookery, some prefer a minute longer and others one less. Serve the duck
as hot as possible, with an accompanying dish of hominy, boiled, of
course; the only condiment to be desired is a little cayenne pepper;
some prefer a squeeze of lemon on the duck; others currant jelly; but
the simplest and most palatable serving is the directions given.


Clayton's Mode of Cooking California Quail, or Young Chickens.

Split the birds in the back, and wash, but do not let them remain in the
water any time; dry with a cloth; salt and pepper well, and put in a pan
with the inside up; also put in two or three slices of fresh or salt
pork, and a piece of butter about the size of an egg, with three or four
tablespoonfuls of water, and set the pan on the upper shelf of the range
when quite hot, and commence basting frequently the moment the birds
begin to harden on the top; and when slightly brown turn and serve the
under side the same way, until that is also a little brown, taking care
not to scorch the gravy. Having prepared a piece of buttered toast for
each bird, lay the same in a hot dish, place the birds thereon, and pour
the gravy over all. Birds cooked in this manner are always soft and
juicy--whereas, if broiled, all the juices and gravy would have gone
into the fire--and should you attempt cooking in that way, if not
thoroughly, constantly basted, they are liable to burn; and if basted
with butter it runs into the fire, smoking and destroying their rich
natural flavor.

I have been thus particular in the directions detailed in this recipe,
from the fact that many people have an idea that the quail of California
are not equal to that of the Atlantic States, when, from my experience
with both, which has been considerable, I find no difference in the
flavor and juiciness of the birds when cooked in the way I have
carefully laid down in the foregoing simple and easily understood
directions.


To Cook Boned Turkey.

For the filling of the turkey, boil, skin, trim, and cut the size of the
end of your finger, two fresh calves' tongues. At the same time boil for
half-an-hour in soup stock, or very little water, a medium-sized, but
not old, chicken; take all the meat from the bones, and cut as the
calves' tongues. Take a piece of ham, composed of fat and lean, and cut
small; also the livers of the turkey and the chicken, chopped fine,
along with a small piece of veal, mostly fat, cut as the chicken, and
half an onion chopped fine.

Put all these into a kettle with water to half cover, and stew until
tender. At the time of putting on the fire, season with salt and pepper,
ground mace, salpicant, celery salt and a little summer savory. Just
before taking from the fire stir in the yolks of two eggs, well beaten,
with three or four truffles chopped the size of a pea, and a teacupful
of sherry or white wine. When this mixture is cold put it in the turkey,
with the skin side out; draw it carefully around the filling, and sew
up with a strong thread; and after wrapping it very tightly with strong
twine, encase it in two or three thicknesses of cotton cloth, at the
same time twisting the ends slightly. These precautions are necessary to
prevent the escape of the fine flavor of this delicious preparation.
Boil slowly for four hours or longer, in good soup stock, keeping the
turkey covered with the liquid, and the vessel covered also. When taken
up lay on a level surface, with a weight, to flatten the two sides a
little, but not heavy enough to press out the juice. When quite cold
take off the wrapping and thread, and lay on a nice large dish,
garnishing with amber jelly cut the size of peas.


To Bone a Turkey.

Use a French boning knife, five inches in length and sharp at the point.
Commence by cutting off the wings at the first joint from the breast;
then the first joint from the drum-sticks, and the head, well down the
neck. Next place the bird firmly on the table, with the breast down, and
commence by cutting from the end of the neck, down the centre of the
back, through to the bone, until you reach the Pope's nose. Then skin or
peel the flesh as clean as possible from the frame, finishing at the
lower end of the breast-bone.

Chickens may be boned in the same manner.


To Cook Ducks or Chickens, Louisiana Style.

Carve the fowls at the joints, making three or four pieces of the
breast; wash nicely in salted water, and put on to boil with water
enough to cover, adding a little salt; boil slowly; carefully skimming
off the scum. When the meat begins to get tender and the water well
reduced, cook four onions, chopped fine, in a pan with pork fat and
butter, dredging in a little flour and seasoning with pepper and salt,
adding a little of the juice from the fowls. Next take up the pieces of
the meat and roll in browned flour or cracker-dust, and fry slightly. If
the butter is not scorched put in a little browned flour; stir in the
onion, and put it back in the kettle with the meat of the fowl,
simmering until the gravy thickens, and the meat is thoroughly tender.


Breast of Lamb and Chicken, Breaded.

Take the breast of lamb and one chicken--a year old is best--and after
taking off the thin skin of the lamb, wash it well in cold salted water;
then put on to boil, with sufficient cold slightly-salted water to cover
it, and boil until tender--the addition of a medium-sized onion improves
the flavor--then take up, and when quite cold, carve in nice pieces, and
season with black pepper and salt. Next, beat two eggs, with two or
three spoonfuls of milk or cream, and a spoonful of flour. After running
the meat through this, roll in cracker-dust or browned flour, and fry in
sweet lard and a little butter until a light brown. Next make a cream
gravy; take a little of the liquid from the chicken, and make a rich
thick drawn butter, and thinning it with cream, pour over the chicken
while it is hot.

[The liquid used in boiling the chicken will make any kind of rich soup
for dinner.]


Scrapple, or Haggis Loaf.

Take three or four pounds best fresh pork, mostly lean, with plenty of
bones--the latter making a rich liquid. Put these into a kettle, and
cover with hot or cold water, and let the mass boil slowly for two or
three hours, or until quite tender, carefully removing the scum as it
rises, after which take the meat out into a wooden bowl or tray. Pick
out the bones carefully, and strain the liquid. After letting these
stand for a few minutes, if in your opinion there is too much fat,
remove a portion, and then return the liquor to the kettle, adding
pepper and salt, and seasoning highly with summer savory. Next stir in
two parts fine white corn-meal and one part buckwheat flour (Deming &
Palmer's), until the whole forms quite a thick mush, after which,
chopping the meat the size of the end of the finger, stir thoroughly
into the mush. Next put the mixture into baking pans to the depth of
1-1/2 or 2 inches, and bake in a slow oven for two hours, or until the
top assumes a light brown--taking care not to bake too hard on the
bottom. Put in a cool place, and the next morning--when, after warming
the pan slightly--so that the scrapple may be easily taken out--cut in
slices of half-an-inch thick, which heat in a pan to prevent sticking,
and serve hot.

[A small hog's head or veal is equally good for the preparation of this
dish, which will be found a fine relish.]


Pigs' Feet and Hocks.

Have the feet nicely cleaned, and soaked for five or six hours, or over
night, in slightly salted water. Boil until tender, and the large bones
slip out easily, which will take from three to four hours. Take up, pull
out the large bones, and lay in a stone jar, sprinkling on each layer a
little salt and pepper, with a few cloves or allspice. After skimming
off the fat, take equal parts of the water in which the feet were
boiled, and good vinegar, and cover the meat in the jar.

This nice relish was known as "souse" fifty or sixty years ago, and is
good, both cold or hot, or cut in slices and fried in butter for
breakfast.


To Cook a Steak California Style of 1849-'50.

Cut a good steak an inch and an eighth thick. Heat a griddle quite hot,
and rub over with a piece of the fat from the steak, after which lay on
the steak for two or three minutes, or long enough to harden the under
side of the steak, after which turn the other side, treating in the same
way, thus preventing all escape of the rich juices of the meat. After
this, cut a small portion of the fat into small and thin pieces, to
which add sufficient butter to form a rich gravy, seasoning with pepper
and salt to taste. A steak cooked in this way fully equals broiling, and
is at the same time quite as juicy and tender.


A Good Way to Cook a Ham.

Boil a ten or twelve pound ham slowly for three hours; strip off the
skin; take a sharp knife and shave off the outer surface very thin, and
if quite fat take off a little, and spread over the fat part a thin
coating of sugar. Next put the ham in a baking-pan, with one-half pint
of white wine, and roast half-an-hour. Baste often, taking care that the
wine and juice of the ham do not scorch, as these form a nice gravy.
Whether eaten hot or cold the ham should be carved very thin.


Beefsteak Broiled.

Place the gridiron over a clear fire; rub the bars with a little of the
fat, to keep from sticking. The moment it hardens a little--which closes
the pores of the meat--turn it over, thus hardening both sides. You may
then moisten with butter, or a little of the fat of the steak, and
season with salt and pepper. Lay on a hot dish along with the best
butter, which, with the juices of the meat, makes the best of gravy, and
cooked in this style you have a most delicious steak.


Beefsteak with Onions.

Take five or six onions; cut fine, and put them in a frying-pan, with a
small cup of hot water, and two ounces best butter, pepper and salt;
dredge in a little flour, and let it stew until the onions are quite
soft. Next broil the steak carefully. Lay on a hot dish, and lay the
onions around, and not on top, of the steak, as that will create a
steam, which will wilt and toughen it. To be eaten quite hot.


Corned Beef, and How to Cook It.

Select a piece of corned beef that is fat. The plate or navel pieces are
best, and should only have been in salt five days. Put the piece in
boiling water in a pot just large enough to hold it, along with an onion
and a spoonful of cloves or allspice; let it boil slowly, skimming the
first half hour, if to be eaten cold. Take it up as soon as tender, and
when cool enough take out the bones and place the meat in a vessel just
large enough to hold it, and pour in the fat, with sufficient hot water
to cover it, letting it remain until quite cold.

[Beef tongues should be cooked in the same way, after laying in salt or
strong pickle from twenty-four to thirty-six hours.]


Spiced Veal.

Take three pounds lean veal, parboiled, and one-fourth pound salt pork,
each chopped fine; six soft crackers pounded; two eggs beaten; two
teaspoonfuls of salt, three peppers, one nutmeg and a little thyme or
summer savory. Mould up like bread, and place in a pan, leaving a space
all around, in which place some of the water in which the meat was
boiled. Bake until quite brown, and slice when cold.


Calves' Liver with Bacon.

Cut both liver and bacon in thin slices, and an inch long, taking off
the skin. Place alternately on a skewer, and broil or roast in a quick
oven. Dress with melted butter, pepper and juice of lemon.


Calves' or Lambs' Liver Fried.

Slice the liver thin, and season with salt and pepper. Beat an egg with
a spoonful of milk or cream. Coat the slices with this, and dry in fine
cracker dust. Fry in two parts lard and one of butter until a light
brown. If fried too much the liver will be hard and tasteless. Salt pork
fried brown is very nice with liver, and the fat from the pork will be
found excellent to fry the liver in.


Spiced Beef.

Take 3-1/2 pounds lean beef chopped small; six soda crackers rolled
fine; 3 eggs well beaten; 4 tablespoonfuls sweet cream; butter size of
an egg; 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls salt, and one of pepper. Mix thoroughly,
make into a loaf, and bake two hours, basting as you would roast beef.


Fried Oysters.

Take the largest-sized oysters; drain off the juice, and dry in a cloth;
beat two eggs in a spoonful of milk, adding a little salt and pepper.
Run the oysters through this, and fry in equal parts butter and sweet
lard to a light brown.



STEWS, SALADS and SALAD DRESSING.


Terrapin Stew.

Take six terrapins of uniform size. (The females, which are the best,
may be distinguished by the lower shell being level or slightly
projecting.) If the terrapins are large, use one pound of the best
butter; if small, less, and a pint of good sherry wine. After washing
the terrapins in warm water, put them in the kettle alive, and cover
with cold water, keeping the vessel covered tight. After letting them
boil until the shell cracks and you can crush the claws with the thumb
and finger, take them off the fire, and when cool enough, pull off the
shell and remove the dark, or scarf skin, next pulling the meat from the
trail and the liver--being careful not to break the gall, which would
render the liver uneatable. After breaking the meat in small pieces, lay
it in a porcelain kettle with a teacupful of water; put in the wine, and
one-half the butter, with 2 or 3 blades of mace, 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of
extract of lemon, 2 tablespoonfuls of Worcestershire or Challenge sauce;
little salt is required, and if pepper is needed, use cayenne. After
stewing for fifteen minutes, add the yolks of 6 hard-boiled eggs--worked
to a paste in the remainder of the butter--thinning with the juice of
the stew, adding at the same time a teacupful of sweet cream, and after
simmering for three minutes, chop the whites of the eggs fine, and add
to the mixture; then take from the fire, and make hot five minutes
before serving. If kept in a cool place this stew will remain perfectly
good for three days.


Stewed Chicken, Cottage Style, with White Gravy.

Take two chickens, one or two years old, and cut each in about fourteen
pieces, dividing each joint, and cutting the breast in two pieces; cut
the gizzard quite small, and put it and the liver with the chicken. When
the chicken is half done, cover with cold water, adding a good-sized
onion, and when it reaches a boil, skim carefully; and when the same is
about half cooked add sufficient salt and pepper, and also a handful of
the green leaves of celery chopped fine, which will give it the flavor
of oysters. Boil slowly until you can tear the chicken with a fork, when
turn it out in a dish. Next, take one half pound of good butter, the
yolks of three boiled eggs, and two tablespoonfuls of corn-starch or
flour, and, after working well together, so as to form a thin batter,
add the liquor from the chicken, return to the kettle, and, after
boiling for five minutes, return the chicken, season with nutmeg or
sal-piquant, adding at the same time a teacupful of cream or good milk,
also the whites of the eggs, chopped fine. Keep hot until served.


Stewed Tripe.

Cut and prepare the tripe as for pepper-pot; season highly; add a pint
of soup stock, and four spoonfuls of tomatoes, with a little butter, and
half an onion chopped fine. Cook until quite tender.


Chicken Salad.

Boil a good-sized chicken, not less than one year old, in as little
water as possible; if you have two calves' feet boil them at the same
time, salting slightly, and leaving them in after the chicken is cooked,
that they may boil to shreds. This liquid forms a jelly, which is
almost indispensable in making good salad. When the chicken becomes
cold, remove the skin and bones, after which chop or cut to the size of
a pea; cut celery and lettuce equally fine--after taking off the outer
fibre of the former--and mixing, add Clayton's Salad Dressing, (the
recipe for which will be found elsewhere); also incorporating four eggs,
which should be boiled eight minutes, cutting three as fine as the
chicken and celery, and leaving the fourth as a garnish on serving. Cold
roast turkey, chicken or tender veal make most excellent salad treated
in this way.


Clayton's Celebrated California Salad Dressing.

Take a large bowl, resembling in size and shape an ordinary wash-bowl,
and a wooden spoon, fitted as nearly as possible to fit the curve of the
bowl. First put in two or three tablespoonfuls of mixed mustard, quite
stiff. Pour on this, slowly, one-fourth of a pint of best olive oil,
stirring rapidly until thick; then break in two or three fresh eggs,
and, after mixing slightly, pour in, very slowly, the remaining
three-fourths of the pint of oil, stirring rapidly all the while until
the mixture forms a thick batter. Next, take a teacupful of the best
wine vinegar, to which the juice of one lemon has been added, along with
a small tablespoonful of salt, and another of white sugar, stirring
well, until the whole of these ingredients are thoroughly incorporated.
When bottled and tightly corked, this mixture will remain good for
months. Those who are not fond of the oil, will find that sweet cream,
of about sixty or seventy degrees in temperature, a good substitute; but
this mixture does not keep so well.


Salad Flavoring.

It will be found a good thing before ornamenting a salad, to take a
section of garlic, and, after cutting off the end, steeping it in salt,
and then rubbing the surface of the bowl, putting in at the same time,
small pieces of the crust of French or other bread, similarly treated.
Cover the bowl with a plate, and shake well. This gives the salad a
rich, nutty flavor.



Eggs and Omelettes.


Boiling Eggs.

Unless quite sure the eggs are fresh, never boil them, as the well known
remark that even to suspect an egg cooked in this style is undoubtedly
well-founded. Hard boiled eggs, to be eaten either hot or cold, must
never be boiled more than eight minutes, when they will be found tender
and of a fine flavor, whereas, if boiled for a longer time, they will
invariably prove leathery, tough, and almost tasteless, and dark-colored
where the whites and yolk are joined, giving them an unsightly and
anything but attractive appearance.

For soft boiled, three, and for medium, four minutes only, are
necessary.


Scrambled Eggs.

Beat well three eggs, with two tablespoonfuls of cream or milk; add salt
and pepper; put in the pan a lump of fresh butter, and, as soon as
melted, put in the eggs, stirring rapidly from the time they begin to
set; as in order to be tender they must be cooked quickly.


To Fry Eggs.

Put butter or lard in a hot pan, and then as many small, deep muffin
rings as eggs required. Drop the eggs in the rings. Cooked in this
manner the eggs are less liable to burn, look far nicer, and preserve
their fine flavor.


Oyster Omelette.

Stew a few oysters in a little butter, adding pepper for seasoning, and
when the omelette is cooked on the under side, put on the oysters, roll
over, and turn carefully. A good omelette may be made of canned oysters
treated in this way.


Ham Omelette.

Take a thin slice of the best ham--fat and lean--fry well done, and chop
fine. When the omelette is prepared, stir in the ham, and cook to a
light brown.


Cream Omelette.

Beat three eggs with two tablespoonfuls of cream, adding a little salt
and pepper. Put a lump of butter in the pan, but do not let it get too
hot before putting in the mixture. The pan should be about the
temperature for baking batter cakes. Fold and turn over quite soon. The
omelette should be a light brown, and be sent to the table hot. Should
you have sausage for breakfast, the bright gravy from the sausage is
preferable to butter in preparing the omelette.


Spanish Omelette.

Make in the same manner as the cream omelette, but before putting in the
pan have ready one-half an onion, chopped fine and fried brown, with a
little pepper and salt. When the omelette is cooked on one side, put the
mixture on, and turn the sides over until closed tight.


Omelette for Dessert.

Beat eight eggs thoroughly, with a teacup of rich milk or cream, a
tablespoonful of fine white sugar, and a very little salt. Stir well,
and make in two omelettes; lay side by side, and sift over a thin
coating of fine white sugar. In serving, pour over and around the
omelette a wine-glass of good California brandy, and set on fire.



VEGETABLES.


Baked Tomatoes.

Pick out large, fair tomatoes; cut a slice from the stem end, and,
placing them in a pan with the cut side up, put into each one-half
teaspoonful of melted butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and bake
until they shrivel slightly.


Raw Tomatoes.

Cut the skin from both ends; slice moderately thin, and, if you like,
add a small piece of onion chopped fine. Season with salt and pepper,
and pour over Durkee's or Clayton's salad dressing.


Cucumbers.

Take off a thick rind, as that portion between the seed and outer skin
is the unwholesome part. Slice, rather thin, into cold, salt water, and,
after half-an-hour, drain off, and dress with salt, pepper, wine
vinegar, and a little Chile pepper-sauce, covering slightly with
Durkee's or Clayton's salad dressing.


Boiled Cabbage.

Cut large cabbage in four; small in two pieces, and tie up in a bag or
cloth. Put in boiling water, with some salt, and boil briskly for
half-an-hour. A piece of charcoal in the pot will neutralize the odor
given out by the cabbage, boiled in the ordinary way. Cabbage should
never be cooked with corned-beef, as the fine flavor of the latter is
changed to the strong odor of the cabbage.


To Cook Cauliflower.

If the cauliflower is large, divide in three, if small, in two pieces;
tie up in a cloth, and put in boiling water with a little salt, and cook
not more than twenty minutes. Eat with melted butter, pepper and salt,
or nice drawn butter.

(Asparagus may be cooked in the same way, and eaten with similar
dressing. Both cauliflower and asparagus may be spoiled with too much
cooking. Care should be taken to drain the water from both as soon as
they are done.)


To Cook Young Green Peas.

The best mode of cooking this most delicate and finely-flavored
vegetable--put the peas in a porcelain-lined kettle, with just water
sufficient to cover, and let them boil slowly until tender. Add a lump
of butter, worked in a teaspoonful of flour, to the rich liquid, with
half a teacupful of rich milk or cream; season with salt and pepper.


A Good Way to Cook Beets.

Take beets of a uniform size; boil until tender; slip off the skin, and
slice into a dish or pan; season with salt and pepper, adding a little
butter, made hot, and the juice of one lemon. Pour this over the beets,
set in a hot oven for a few minutes, and send to the table hot.


Mashed Potatoes and Turnips.

Take equal quantities of boiled potatoes and turnips; mash together,
adding butter, salt and pepper, and mix thoroughly with a little good
milk, working all together until quite smooth.


Boiled Onions.

Take small white onions, if you have them; if large, cut and boil until
tender, in salted water. Pour off nearly all the water, and add a small
lump of butter, worked in a little flour, and a small cup of milk; add
pepper, and simmer for a few minutes.

[All the foregoing are desirable additions to roast turkey and chicken.]


Stewed Corn.

If canned corn is used, put a sufficient quantity in a stewpan, with two
or three spoonfuls of hot water, and, after adding pepper and salt to
taste, put in a good-sized lump of butter, into which a teaspoonful of
flour has been well worked, adding, at the same time, a cup of good,
sweet milk or rich cream, and let it cook three minutes. Corn cut fresh
from the cob should be boiled at least twenty minutes before adding the
milk and butter.


Stewed Corn and Tomatoes.

Take equal quantities of corn and tomatoes, and stew together
half-an-hour, with butter, pepper and salt; and when taken up place
slices of buttered toast in the dish in which it is served.


Succotash.

This is the original native American Indian name for corn and beans. In
compounding this most palatable and wholesome dish, take two or three
pounds of green, climbing, or pole beans--the pods of which are large,
and, at the same time, tender. Break these in pieces of something like
half-an-inch long, and let them lie in cold water about half-an-hour, at
which time drain this off. Put them in a porcelain-lined kettle,
covering them with boiling water, into which put a large tablespoonful
of salt. When the beans become tender, pour off the greater portion of
the water, replacing it with that which is boiling, and when the
beans become entirely tender, cut from the cob about half the amount of
corn you have of the beans, which boil for twenty minutes; but where
canned corn is used five minutes will suffice. About five minutes before
taking from the fire, take a piece of butter about the size of an egg,
worked with sufficient flour or corn-starch to form a stiff paste.
Season with plenty of black pepper and salt to taste, adding, at the
same time, a teacupful of rich milk or cream. Then, to keep warm, set
back from the fire, not allowing to boil, but simmering slowly. This
will be equally good the next day, if kept in a cool place, with an open
cover, which prevents all danger of souring. This is a simple,
healthful, and most appetizing dish, inexpensive and at the same time
easily prepared.


Saratoga Fried Potatoes.

The mode of preparing the world-renowned Saratoga fried potatoes is no
longer a secret. It is as follows:

Peel eight good-sized potatoes; slice very thin; use slicing-machine,
when available, as this makes the pieces of uniform thickness. Let them
remain half-an-hour in a quart of cold water, in which a tablespoonful
of salt has been dissolved, and lay in a sieve to drain, after which mop
them over with a dry cloth. Put a pound of lard in a spider or stewpan,
and when this is almost, but not quite, smoking hot, put in the
potatoes, stirring constantly to prevent the slices from adhering, and
when they become a light brown, dip out with a strainer ladle.

[If preferred, cut the potatoes in bits an inch in length, and of the
same width, treating as above.]


Salsify or Oyster Plant.

The best way I have yet found to cook this finely flavored and highly
delicious vegetable is: First, wash clean, but do not remove the skin.
Put the roots in more than enough boiling water to cover them; boil
until quite soft; remove the skin; mash; add butter, and season with
pepper and salt; make into the size of oysters, and dip in thin egg
batter; fry a light brown. If the plant is first put into cold water to
boil, and the skin scraped or removed, the delicate flavor of the
oyster--which constitutes its chief merit--will be entirely dissipated
and lost.


Egg Plant.

There is no more delicate and finely-flavored esculent to be found in
our markets than the egg plant, when cooked in the right manner.
Properly prepared, it is a most toothsome dish; if badly cooked, it is
anything but attractive. Of all the varieties, the long purple is
decidedly the best. Cut in slices, less than one-fourth an inch in
thickness; sprinkle with salt, and let the slices lie in a colander
half-an-hour or longer, to drain. Next parboil for a few minutes, and
drain off the water; season with salt and pepper, and dip in egg batter,
or beaten egg, and fry in sweet lard mixed with a little butter, until
the slices are a light brown. Serve hot.


To Boil Green Corn.

Green corn should be put in hot water, with a handful of salt, and
boiled slowly for half-an-hour, or five minutes longer. The minute the
corn is done, pour off the water and let it remain hot. All vegetables
are injured by allowing them to remain in the water after they are
cooked.


Boiled Rice.

American rice for all its preparations is decidedly preferable, the
grain being much the largest and most nutritious. In boiling, use two
measures of water to one of rice, and let them boil until the water is
entirely evaporated. Cover tightly; set aside, and let steam until every
grain is separated. When ready to serve, use a fork in removing the rice
from the cooking utensil.

[The foregoing recipe was given me by a lady of South Carolina, of great
experience in the preparation of this staple cereal product of the
Southern Atlantic seaboard.]


Stewed Okra.

Cut into pieces one quart of okra, and put to boil in one cup of water;
add a little onion and some tomatoes; salt and pepper to taste; and when
all is boiled tender, add a good lump of butter, worked in with a
spoonful of flour, and let stew five minutes, stirring frequently.



Bread, Cakes, Pies, Puddings and Pastry.

SOLID AND LIQUID SAUCES.


Quick Bread.

Mix 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder with quart of flour, adding 1
teaspoonful salt and sufficient milk or water to make a soft dough, and
bake at once in a hot oven. If eaten hot, break; use a hot knife in
cutting.


Quick Muffins.

Take 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls best lard or butter, 1 teaspoonful salt, 2
teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 tablespoonful sugar, 1 quart good milk,
and flour to make a moderately stiff batter, and bake at once in
muffin-rings.


Brown Bread.

3 cups of yellow corn-meal, 1 cup flour, 2 sweet, and 1/2 cup sour milk,
with 1/2 cup syrup, 1 teaspoonful soda, and a little salt. Bake 4 hours.


Graham Rolls.

Two cups graham and 1 of white flour, 1/2 cup of yeast or 1/3 cake
compressed yeast, 2 teaspoonfuls sugar; mix with warm milk or water, and
let stand upon range until light.


Mississippi River Corn-Bread.

One pint best yellow corn-meal, 1 pint of butter-milk, 2 tablespoonfuls
melted butter, 2 eggs and teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful saleratus;
mix well, and bake at a brisk fire.


Nice Light Biscuit.

Before sifting 1 quart of flour, put in 2 or 3 teaspoonfuls of best
baking powder, adding a little salt after sifting. Follow this with 3
tablespoonfuls of best lard, and with good milk, mix into soft
dough--working as little as possible. Roll full half-an-inch thick; cut
and bake in a hot oven until slightly browned on top and bottom.


Clayton's Corn-Bread.

Take 3 cups of good corn-meal--either yellow or white--and 1 cup of
flour; add a teaspoonful of baking powder, stirring well together. Next,
put into a vessel, 2 eggs, well beaten, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, a
little salt, a large tablespoonful of sweet lard or butter, and milk
enough to make a thick batter. Let these come to a boiling heat,
stirring well at the same time, then pour in the meal, and beat to a
stiff consistence. Turn into a baking pan, and bake until thoroughly
done, brown on top and bottom. Use hot milk in mixing, as, in my
opinion, it takes the raw taste from the corn-meal.


Johnny Cake.

Two spoonfuls of melted butter, 1 egg, well beaten, 2 teaspoonfuls
baking powder, 2 cups milk, 1/2 cup sugar or syrup, 2 cups each,
corn-meal and flour. Bake in a moderate oven until brown.


Sweet Potato Pone.

One large sweet potato grated, 1 cup yellow Indian meal, 2 eggs, 1
tablespoonful butter, 1/2 cup molasses, 1/2 cup sugar, salt and spice to
taste; add sufficient milk to make the usual thickness of cake.


Ginger-Bread.

One pint molasses, 1/2 pint of sour milk, 2 teaspoonfuls ginger, 1
teacup butter, 1 teaspoonful soda, 2 eggs--salt.


Molasses Ginger Bread.

One cup syrup, 1/2 cup sugar, 1/2 cup sweet milk, 2 tablespoonfuls
vinegar, 1/2 cup shortening; flour to make moderately thick, and large
teaspoonful baking powder.


Quaker Cake.

One cup butter, 3 teaspoonfuls ginger, 5 flour, 1/2 cup cider or any
spirits, 4 eggs, and a teaspoonful of saleratus, dissolved in a teacup
of sweet milk.


Pound Cake.

One cup sugar, 1/2 cup best butter, 1/2 cup of rich milk or cream, 3
eggs, well beaten, 1-1/2 cups flour, 1 large teaspoonful baking powder,
and a teaspoonful ground nutmeg; and beat the whole thoroughly before
baking.


Chocolate Cake.--Jelly Cake.

Two cups sugar, 1 cup butter, the yolks of 5 eggs, and whites of 2, 1
cup pure milk, 3-1/2 cups flour, 1 teaspoonful cream of tartar, 1/2
teaspoonful bi-carbonate soda, and stir thoroughly before baking.

The following is the mixture for filling.

Whites of 3 eggs, 1-1/2 cups sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls of grated
chocolate, and 1 teaspoonful extract vanilla. Beat well together, and
spread between each layer and on top the cake.

[Jelly cake may be made the same way, using jelly instead of chocolate.]


Currant Cake.

Three eggs, 2 cups sugar, 1 butter, 1 milk, 1/2 teaspoonful soda, 1 cup
currants, and a little citron, cut in thin slices, with flour to make a
stiff batter. Pour into pans, and bake medium quick.


Cream Cup-Cake.

Four cups of flour, 2 of sugar, 3 of sweet cream, 4 eggs; mix and bake
in square tins. When cold, cut in squares about two inches wide.


Jumbles.

Rub to a cream a pound of butter and a pound of sugar; mix with a pound
and a half of flour, 4 eggs and a little brandy; roll the cakes in
powdered sugar, lay in flat buttered tins, and bake in a quick oven.


Sweet Cake.

One cup of sugar, 1 cup sour cream, 1 cup butter, 1 egg, 1/2 teaspoonful
soda, 1/2 nutmeg grated fine, flour enough to make a stiff batter. Bake
in a slow oven.


Sponge Cake.

Five eggs, 2 cups sugar, 2 cups flour, 1/2 teacup cold water; mix well
and bake quickly.


Ginger Snaps.

Into 1 pint of molasses put 1 cup lard, 1 tablespoonful of ginger, 1
teaspoonful of soda, and a little salt; boil for a few minutes, and when
quite cool, add sufficient flour to make a stiff dough; roll very thin
and bake.


A Nice Cake.

One quart flour, 4 eggs, 1/2 cup butter, 1/2 cup sweet lard, 2
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, and 1 of salt. Beat the whites and yolks
of the eggs separately, until light. Sift the baking powder into the
flour. Melt the shortening in a cup of milk with the yolks of the
eggs--putting the whites in last. Work into a thick batter, and bake
steadily for three-quarters of an hour; to be eaten hot.


Icing for Cake.

There are a number of formulas for the preparation of icings for cake,
but the following will invariably be found the simplest, easiest
prepared, and the best:

Take the whites of 4 eggs, and 1 pound of best pulverized white sugar,
and any flavoring extract most agreeable to the taste. Break the whites
of the eggs into a broad, cool dish, and after throwing a small handful
of sugar upon them, begin whipping it in with long even strokes of the
beater. Beat until the icing is of a smooth, fine and firm texture. If
not stiff enough, put in more sugar, using at least a quarter of a pound
to each egg. Pour the icing by the spoonful on top of the cake, and
near the centre of the surface to be covered. If the loaf is so shaped
that the liquid will naturally settle to its place, it is best left to
do so. To spread it, use a broad-bladed knife, dipped in cold water; if
as thick with sugar as should be, one coat will be amply sufficient.
Leave in a moderate oven for three minutes. To color icing yellow, use
the rind of a lemon or orange, tied in a thin muslin bag, straining a
little of the juice through it and squeezing hard into the ice and
sugar; for red, use extract of cochineal.


Chocolate Icing.

Quarter of a cake of chocolate grated, 1/2 cup of sweet milk, 1
tablespoonful corn-starch; flavor with extract of vanilla. Mix these
ingredients, with the exception of the vanilla; boil two minutes, and
after it has fairly commenced to boil, flavor, and then sweeten to taste
with powdered sugar, taking care to have it sweet enough.


Lemon Pie.

Grated rind and juice of two lemons; 2 cups sugar; butter, the size of
an egg; 2 tablespoonfuls corn-starch; 4 eggs. Rub the butter and sugar
smooth in a little cold water; have ready 2 cups boiling water, in which
stir the corn-starch, until it looks clear; add to this the butter and
sugar, and, when nearly cold, the yolks of four eggs, and the white of
one, well beaten, and the rind and the juice of the lemons. After lining
two deep dishes with a delicate paste, and pouring in the mixture, beat
the remaining whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, adding two spoonfuls
of powdered sugar. Spread this over the pies when done, returning to the
oven to brown.


English Plum Pudding.

Three cups flour; 2 eggs; 1 cup milk; 1/2 cup brandy; 1 nutmeg; a
teaspoonful of salt; 5 teaspoonfuls baking powder; 1/2 pound currants;
1/2 pound raisins, stoned and chopped fine; 1/2 pound suet chopped fine;
1 cup sugar. Boil three hours.


Baked Apple Pudding.

Two cups oatmeal or cracked wheat; 2 eggs; 1 tablespoonful butter; 1
pint milk; three medium-sized apples; a little suet; cinnamon to flavor;
sweeten to taste. Beat sugar, eggs, and milk together; stir in the meal,
and then add the other ingredients, the apples last, after reducing to
small pieces. Bake until well set. To be eaten with or without sauce.


Bread Pudding.

One loaf of stale bread, soaked in a pint of milk, and when soft, beat
with an egg-beater until very fine. Pour into this the yolks of four
eggs, well beaten, a tablespoonful of butter, some flavoring, and a
little salt, beating all well together. After baking until well set, let
it cool, and spread a nice jelly over the top, and on this put the
whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, returning to the oven to
brown.


Baked Corn-Meal Pudding.

Into a large cup of corn-meal stir 1 pint scalded milk; a small cup
suet, chopped fine; two-thirds of a cup of syrup or molasses; salt to
taste, and when cold, add 1 pint milk, and 2 eggs, well beaten, 1
teaspoonful cinnamon, and 1 cup raisins. Bake three hours.


Corn-Starch Pudding (Baked).

Four tablespoonfuls corn-starch; 1 quart of milk; 2 eggs; 3/4 coffee-cup
white sugar; adding butter size of an egg, with flavoring to taste.
After dissolving the corn-starch in a little cold water, heat the milk
to boiling and stir this in, and boil three minutes, stirring the
mixture all the time; next, stir in the butter, and set away until cold.
Beat the eggs until very light, when add the sugar and seasoning, and
then stir into the corn-starch, beating thoroughly to a smooth custard.
Put into a buttered dish, and bake not more than half an hour. This
pudding is best eaten cold, with sauce made of cream and sugar, flavored
with nutmeg or cinnamon, or both, or plain powdered sugar, as tastes may
prefer.


Delmonico Pudding.

One quart of milk; 3 tablespoonfuls corn-starch; put in hot water until
it thickens; to the yolks of 5 eggs, add three tablespoonfuls white
sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls vanilla, and a little salt. Pour on the
corn-starch, stir thoroughly, and bake fifteen minutes, but not long
enough to whey. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth; add 3
tablespoonfuls of sugar; 1/2 teaspoonful vanilla; put on top, and let
brown.


Peach Ice-Cream.

Pare and cut in pieces 1 dozen peaches, or more, if desired, and boil
with 1/2 pound loaf sugar. When reduced to a marmalade press through a
fine sieve, and when cool, add 1 pint cream and freeze. Serve with
halves or quarters of fresh peaches, half frozen, around the cream.


Apple Snow.

Reduce half a dozen apples to a pulp; press them through a sieve; add
1/2 cup powdered sugar and a teaspoonful lemon extract; take whites of 6
eggs and whip several minutes, and sprinkle 2 tablespoonfuls powdered
sugar over them; beat the apple-pulp to a froth and add the beaten eggs.
Whip the mixture well until it breaks like stiff snow, then pile it high
in rough portions, in a glass dish--garnish with a spoonful of currant
jelly.


Strawberry Sauce.

A delicious sauce for baked pudding: Beat 1/2 cup butter and 1 of sugar,
to a cream; add, stiff beaten, white of 1 egg and a large cupful of ripe
strawberries, thoroughly crushed.


Ambrosia.

Have ready a grated cocoanut and some oranges, peeled and sliced; put a
large layer of oranges in your dish, and strew sugar over them; then a
layer of cocoanut, then orange, and sprinkle sugar; and so on until the
dish is full, having cocoanut for the last layer. Pine-apple may be
substituted for the orange.


Farina Pudding.

Two tablespoonfuls farina, soaked in a little milk for two hours; 1
quart of milk. Set in a kettle of boiling water; when the milk boils,
add the farina, stirring four minutes. Then stir in the yolks of 5 eggs,
well beaten, 1 cup sugar, and a little salt. After boiling three or four
minutes, pour into a dish to cool. Flavor, and stir in the whites of the
eggs beaten to a foam. To be eaten cold.


Baked Corn-Meal Pudding.

Take 1 large teacupful of corn-meal; scald 1 pint of milk, and stir the
meal in slowly and thoroughly. Add a small cup of suet, chopped fine;
2/3 of a cup of molasses, salt to taste, and when cool add 1 pint milk,
with 2 eggs, well beaten, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon and 1 cup of
raisins. Bake 3 hours.


Snow Pudding.

One box gelatine, 2 cups sugar, juice of 2 lemons, whites of 3 eggs, 1
quart of milk, 5 eggs, 5 tablespoonfuls sugar, and 1 vanilla. Dissolve
the gelatine in 1/4 pint of water and let stand for 2 hours; then add
1/4 pint of boiling water, the lemon juice, and sugar; strain and set
away to cool and thicken, and when quite stiff, add the whites of the 3
eggs, beaten to a stiff froth; stir these into the jelly until it looks
like snow--mould and set on ice.

For a similar custard; add 5 eggs, well beaten in a dish, with 5
tablespoonfuls white sugar.


Fruit Pudding.

One quart of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls yeast powder, a little salt, 1 cup
suet chopped fine, or a 1/4 pound butter or sweet lard; mix to soft
dough, and roll quite thin--spreading over any kind of cooked fruit,
sweetened to taste--rolling up nicely. This may be boiled, but is much
better steamed, as this makes it much lighter. This delicious pudding
should be eaten with brandy or wine sauce, liquid or solid.


Charlotte-a-Russe.

Take 1 pint rich milk, 1/2 ounce of gelatine, dissolved in a little hot
milk, the whites of 2 eggs beaten to a froth, and 1 cup sugar; flavoring
with vanilla. Mix the milk, eggs, sugar and flavoring; and when the
gelatine is cold, pour it in, stirring thoroughly. Line the dish or
mould with slices of sponge cake, fill with this mixture, and set on ice
to cool.


Solid Sauce.

Work well into 1/2 cup of the freshest butter, 1 cup of powdered white
sugar, adding the white of an egg, well beaten, and worked in with a
large spoonful of California brandy, or a couple of spoonfuls of good
sherry or California white-wine; working all of these well together,
that the ingredients may be thoroughly incorporated, and season with
nutmeg or cinnamon, or both, as may be preferred.


Liquid Sauce.

Take butter, the size of an egg, and sufficient flour or corn-starch,
and after adding boiling water to make thick drawn butter, boil two or
three minutes; add brandy, sherry or white-wine--according to
taste--with a little vinegar or juice of 1 lemon. Make quite sweet and
season to taste.


Currant, or Grape Jelly.

Wash the currants or grapes well in a pan of water; afterwards mash
thoroughly, and put in a preserving kettle, letting them simmer slowly
for fifteen or twenty minutes. Strain through a thin muslin bag, and,
for every pint of juice, add one pound of granulated sugar. Mix well
together, and boil five minutes, and put into glasses while warm. Cut
paper to fit the top, dip in brandy, and lay over the jelly, and when
quite cold tie a paper over the top, and put away in a dry, dark place.


Calves' Foot Jelly.

Boil 4 calves' feet in 4 or 5 quarts of water, until reduced to shreds;
strain, and let the liquid cool; after taking off the fat, put the jelly
in a kettle, with one pint of California sherry, or white wine, 3 cups
granulated sugar, the whites of 4 eggs, well beaten, the juice of 1
lemon, with half of the grated peel, 1 teaspoonful of ground cinnamon or
nutmeg; boil until clear, and strain into moulds or glasses.


Ice-Cream.

There are a thousand and one modes and recipes for making ice-cream.
But, after having tested the merits of a large number, I have found the
following formula, used by Mr. Piper, the former head cook of the
Occidental Hotel, of San Francisco, in all respects superior to any that
I have ever used:

One quart of Jersey, or best dairy milk, with the addition of a pint of
rich cream; 6 eggs, and 1 pound of best granulated white sugar,
thoroughly beaten and incorporated together; place the milk in a can,
set it in a vessel of boiling water, and let it come to a boiling heat,
stirring well at the same time. Then take from the fire, and add
vanilla, lemon, or such flavoring as you may prefer, after which set it
in ice-water to cool, and then freeze. Break the ice for the freezer of
a uniform size, mixing coarse salt with the mass. Stir the cream
constantly, and scrape thoroughly from the sides. The more the cream is
stirred, the more delicate the mixture will be.


Orange-Ice.

The juice of 6 oranges; after adding the grated rind of 1 mix the juice
of two lemons, and the grated rind of one; after adding 1 pint of
granulated white sugar, dissolved in a pint of cold water, freeze the
mixture the same as ice cream.


Lemon Jelly.

One pound sugar; 3 lemons, sliced, and put into the sugar; 1 ounce
gelatine, dissolved in cold water sufficient to cover; add a quart of
boiling water, and strain into moulds.


Wine Jelly.

One box Cox's gelatine, dissolved in a little warm water; add a large
goblet sherry wine, and 1-1/2 pints of boiling water; sweeten highly and
boil briskly. To be eaten with cream.


Peach Jelly.

Do not pare, but rub your peaches; place them in a porcelain lined
kettle, with just enough water to cover. Let them cook thoroughly--from
one to two hours--then strain through a jelly-bag. To every 4 cups of
juice, add 3 cups of sugar, and set on to boil again. Sometimes, when
the fruit is particularly fine and fresh, three-quarters of an hour or
less boiling is sufficient to make a jelly, but sometimes it takes
longer. To test it, drop some in a saucer and set on ice; if it does not
spread but remain rounded, it is done.


Roman Punch.

Take the juice of 4 oranges, and of the same number of lemons or limes.
Dissolve 1 pound of white sugar in a pint of water. Mix all these
together, and strain; after which add 1 pint of California champagne,
and 2 gills of good California brandy, if desirable. Freeze the same as
ice-cream.



MISCELLANEOUS.


Butter and Butter-Making.

With the exception of bread, which has been appropriately termed "the
staff of life," there is, perhaps, no other article of food more
universally used by mankind than butter. Notwithstanding this well
established fact, it is a lamentable reflection, that really good butter
is one of the rarest and most difficult articles to be procured.
Although the adulterations of this staple article of food are numerous,
the main cause of the quantities of bad butter with which the community
is burdened, is ignorance of the true methods, and slovenliness in the
preparation of this staple article, for which no reasonable excuse can
be urged. In the making of good butter, no process is more simple or
easily accomplished. The Quakers, living in the vicinity of
Philadelphia, more than a century ago, so thoroughly understood and
practised the art of making the best butter, that the products of their
dairies sold readily in that city for from five to eight cents per pound
more than that produced by any other class.

With these thrifty people, cleanliness was really regarded as "akin to
godliness," and the principal was thoroughly and practically carried out
in all their every day affairs. The most scrupulous attention being paid
to the keeping of all the utensils used scrupulously clean, and so
thoroughly work the mass, that every particle of milk is expelled. The
greatest evil to be guarded against, is the too free use of salt, which
for this purpose should be of the utmost purity and refined quality. I
am satisfied, from personal observation, that the butter made at the
Jersey Farm, at San Bruno, in the vicinity of San Francisco, in every
respect equals in quality the celebrated Darlington, Philadelphia.

For the keeping milk fresh and sweet, and the proper setting of the rich
cream, an old style spring-house is essentially requisite. Who that has
ever visited one of these clean, cool and inviting appendages of a well
conducted farm and well ordered household, at some home-farm of the
olden time, does not recall it in the mind's-eye, as vividly as did the
poet Woodworth when he penned that undying poem of ancient home-life,
"The Old Oaken Bucket that Hung in the Well."

Properly constructed, a spring-house should be built of stone, which is
regarded as the coolest--brick or concrete--with walls at least twelve
inches in thickness. The floor should be of brick, and not more than two
feet below the surface of the ground. The roof should be of some
material best adapted to warding off the heat, and keeping the interior
perfectly cool, while due attention should be paid to the allowance of a
free circulation of air, and provision be made for thorough ventilation;
only as much light as is actually necessary should be admitted, and
where glass is used for this purpose, it should invariably be shielded
from the sun. Walled trenches being constructed for this purpose, a
constant stream of cool running water should pass around the pans
containing the milk and cream, which, for the making of good butter,
should never be permitted to become sour. The shelving and other
furniture, and all wooden utensils used, should be of white ash, maple
or white wood, in order to avoid all danger of communicating distasteful
or deleterious flavors. As there is no liquid more sensitive to its
surroundings, or which more readily absorbs the flavor of articles
coming in contact with it, than pure milk, everything that has a
tendency to produce this deleterious result should be carefully
excluded. Neither paints or varnish should be used about the structure,
and the entire concern should be as utterly free from paint as the
inside of an old time Quaker meeting-house.

In making butter, the cream should be churned at a temperature of about
65 degrees. When the churning is finished, take up the lump and
carefully work out every particle of milk. Never wash or put your hands
in the mass. To each pound of butter work in a little less than an ounce
of the purest dairy salt. Set the butter away, and at the proper time
work the mass over until not a particle of milk remains.


A Word of Advice to Hotel and Restaurant Cooks.

I wish to say a word to the extensive brotherhood and ancient and
honorable guild constituting the Grand Army of Hotel and Restaurant
Cooks distributed throughout our country, on the all-important subject
of making coffee and heating milk. Some satirical writer has
sarcastically said that the way to make good coffee is to ascertain how
that beverage is prepared in leading hotels and restaurants, and then
make your coffee as they don't! There is no good reason why coffee
cannot be as well made in hotel and restaurant kitchens, as in private
families or anywhere else, if the berry is good, well-browned, and pains
are taken for the proper preparation of this popular beverage.

Twenty years ago the art of making coffee in large quantities, and of
properly heating milk for the same, was an unsolved problem--in fact, if
not numbered among the many lost arts, might be classed as among the
unknown in the culinary art. Twenty-one years ago, the late Mr.
Marden--a well-known citizen of San Francisco--and the author of this
work--produced, as the result of long practical experience, a form for
making a decoction of the ancient Arabian berry, which is now in general
use throughout the entire Union. True, attempts have been made to
improve upon the mode, which was the crowning triumph of the parties
alluded to, but they have invariably proved failures, and to-day Marden
& Clayton's coffee and milk urns stand pre-eminent in this important
department of cookery. These urns are simply two capacious stone-ware
jars, of equal capacity, and made precisely alike, with an orifice one
inch from the bottom, in which a faucet is firmly cemented. Each jar is
suspended in a heavy tin casing, affording an intervening space of two
inches, which is to be filled with hot, but not boiling water, as a too
high temperature would injure the flavor of the coffee, and detract from
the aroma of the fragrant berry. Suspend a thin cotton sack in the
centre, and half the height of the jar. After putting in this the
desired amount of coffee, pour on it sufficient boiling water to make
strong coffee. As soon as the water has entirely filtered through, draw
off the liquid through the stop-cock at the bottom of the jar, and
return it to the sack, passing it through, in the same manner, two or
three times. After five minutes raise the sack, pour in a cup of hot
water, and let it filter through, getting, in this manner, every
particle of the strength. Immediately after this remove the sack; for if
it is left remaining but a short time, the aroma will be changed for the
worse. Cover tightly, and keep the jar surrounded with hot, but not
boiling water. Next, put into the milk urn--also surrounded with hot
water--one-half the milk for the amount of coffee, and at the proper
time add the remaining half of the milk, having it, in this manner,
fresh, and not over-cooked. Should the milk become too hot, pour in a
cup of cold milk, stirring well at the same time.

The first of these urns for making coffee and heating milk, were those
used for the purpose at the opening of the Occidental Hotel of this
city--of which Mr. Piper was at that time the intelligent and
experienced head-cook. This mode of making coffee in large quantities is
still followed at this hotel, which, from the time of its opening to the
present, has maintained the reputation as one of the best of the
numerous excellent public houses of this city, and the entire Union.


Clayton's California Golden Coffee.

Let the coffee--which should be nicely browned, but not burned--be
ground rather fine, in order that you may extract the strength without
boiling--as that dissipates the aroma and destroys the flavor. Put the
coffee in a thin muslin sack--reaching less than half-way to the bottom
of the vessel--then place it in the pot, and pour over enough boiling
water to make strong coffee. Let it stand on the hot range two or three
minutes, when lift out the sack, pour the liquid in a vessel, and return
it through the sack the second time, after which, raising the sack
again, pour through a little hot water to extract all the strength from
the grounds. Next, pour into the liquid, cold, Jersey Dairy, or any
other pure country milk, until the coffee assumes a rich golden color,
and after it reaches a boiling-heat once more, set it back. Should the
milk be boiled separately, the richness, combined with its albumen, will
be confined to the top; whereas, if added cold, and boiled with the
coffee, it will be thoroughly incorporated with the liquid, adding
materially to its rich flavor and delicate aroma.

[Never substitute a woolen for the muslin strainer, as that fabric,
being animal should never come in contact with heat; while cotton or
linen, being of vegetable fibre, is easily washed clean and dried.
Neither should tin be used, as that lets the fine coffee through, and
clouds the liquid, which should be clear. To extract its full strength,
coffee should invariably be ground as fine as oatmeal or finely-ground
hominy, and protracted boiling dissipates the aroma and destroys its
fine flavor.]


The Very Best Way to Make Chocolate.

After grating through a coarse grater, put the chocolate in a stewpan
with a coffee-cup or more of hot water; let it boil up two or three
minutes, and add plenty of good rich country milk to make it of the
right consistency. Too much water tends to make this otherwise
delightful beverage insipid.

[Good Cocoa is made in the same manner.]


Old Virginia Egg-Nog.

Two dozen fresh eggs; 1 gallon rich milk; 1-1/2 pounds powdered sugar; 2
pints cognac brandy, or Santa Cruz rum--or 1/2 pint cognac and 1/2 pint
Jamaica, or Santa Cruz rum. Break the eggs carefully, separating the
whites from the yolks; add the sugar to the latter, and with a strong
spoon beat until very light, adding gradually 2 dessert spoonfuls of
powdered mace or nutmeg. Next, add the liquor, pouring in slowly,
stirring actively at the same time; after which add the milk in like
manner. Meanwhile--having whipped the whites of the eggs with an
egg-beater into a light froth--pour the egg-nog into a bowl, add the
white froth, and decorate with crimson sugar or nutmeg, and serve. The
foregoing proportions will be sufficient to make fourteen pints of very
superior egg-nog.


Clayton's Popular Sandwich Paste.

Take 2 pounds of Whittaker's Star ham, in small pieces--2/3 lean and 1/3
fat--the hock portion of the ham is best for this purpose. Have ready
two fresh calves tongues, boiled and skinned nicely, and cut like the
ham. Put these in a kettle, along with 2 good-sized onions, and cover
with cold water, boiling slowly until quite tender; when add 1 pound of
either fresh or canned tomatoes, stirring for half-an-hour, adding a
little hot water, if in danger of burning. Add to the mixture, at the
same time, these spices: plenty of best mustard, and a little ground
cloves, along with Worcestershire or Challenge sauce, allowing the
mixture to simmer five minutes. When cool enough, pour into a wooden
bowl, and after chopping fine, pound the mixture well, while it is warm,
with a potato-masher. After the mass has cooled it will spread like
butter. Should additional seasoning be desired, it can be worked in at
any desired time. If not rich enough to suit some palates, one-fourth of
a pound best butter may be worked in.

The bread used for the sandwiches must be quite cold and perfectly
fresh--cutting carefully in thin slices--using for this purpose a long,
thin-bladed and quite sharp knife. Take a thin shaving from the bottom
of the loaf, then from the top an inch-wide slice, after removing the
crust. Care must be taken to cut without either tearing or pressing the
bread. Spread on one side of each slice--as if using butter--and after
joining the slices, cut the same to suit the taste.

[As the best bread is the only kind to be used in making
sandwiches--without wishing to make invidious distinctions--I must say
that Engleberg furnishes from his bakery (on Kearney street), the best I
have ever used for this purpose, as it cuts without breaking, and does
not dry so soon as other breads I have made use of.]


Welsh Rabbit.

To prepare Welsh rabbit, or rare-bit--both names being used to designate
this popular and appetizing dish, which has ever been a favorite with
gourmands and good livers, both ancient and modern--take one-half pound
of best cheese--not, however, over nine months old--Davidson's, Gilroy,
California, or White's, Herkimer County, New York, and cut in small
pieces. Put over a slow fire, in a porcelain-lined kettle; when it
begins to melt pour in three tablespoonfuls rich milk or cream, and a
little good mustard. Stir from the time the cheese begins to melt, to
prevent scorching. Have ready a quite hot dish; cover the bottom with
toast, buttered upon both sides, upon which pour the melted cheese,
spreading evenly over. If you prefer, you may use as a condiment a
little mustard, pepper or any favorite sauce. This is a dish that must
be eaten as soon as taken from the fire.


Delicate Waffles.

Take 1/2 pound butter; 1/2 pound fine sugar; 9 eggs; 3 pints of milk;
1-1/2 ounces of best baking powder, and 2-1/4 pounds sifted flour. Beat
the butter and sugar to a cream; add the yolks of the eggs, the milk,
and half the flour; mix well, with the whites of the eggs, beaten to a
staunch snow, and add the remainder of the flour. Bake in waffle irons,
well greased and heated. When baked, the tops may be dusted well with
fine sugar, or with a mixture of sugar and powdered cinnamon.


Force-Meat Balls.

Mix, with 1 pound of chopped veal, or other meat, 1 egg, a little
butter, 1 cup, or less, of bread crumbs--moistening the whole with milk
or the juice of the stewed meat. Season with summer savory. Make into
small balls, and fry brown.


Beef-Tea.

Take 3 pounds of lean beef; chop as fine as coarse hominy, and put in a
vessel, covering the meat with cold water. Cover the vessel tightly, and
let boil for four hours, carefully keeping the beef just covered with
the water. Pass through a colander, pressing out all the juice with a
potato-masher, strain through a cotton cloth, and add a little salt. A
glass of sherry wine decidedly improves beef-tea.


Crab Sandwich.

Put 1/2 pound boiled crab meat in a mortar, and pound to a smooth paste,
adding the juice of a lemon. Season with pepper and salt, with a pinch
of curry powder, and mix the paste well with 6 ounces best butter. Cut
slices of bread rather thin, trim off the crust, and spread.


Something about Pork.--The Kind to Select, and Best Mode of Curing.

The best quality of pork, as a matter of course, is that fed and
slaughtered in the country. Corn, or any kind of grain-fed, or, more
especially, milk-fed pork, as every one knows, who is not of the Hebrew
faith, which entirely ignores this--when properly prepared,
well-flavored, oleaginous production--and is fond of pork, from the
succulent sucking pig, the toothsome and fresh spare-rib, unrivalled as
a broil, to the broiled or boiled ham, and side-meat bacon of the
full-grown porker, is vastly superior to the meat of the slop and
garbage-fed animal raised and slaughtered in the city--more especially
as the butchering of hogs in San Francisco is at this time entirely
monopolized by the Chinese population, who seem to have a warm side, in
fact a most devoted affection, for the hog, surpassing even that of the
bog-trotters of the "Ould Sod" for the traditional pet-pig that "ates,
drinks and slapes wid the ould man, the ould woman, and the childer."
Charles Lamb's account of the discovery of the delights of roast pig,
and invention of that luxury by the Chinaman whose bamboo hut was burned
down, in raking his pig, semi-cremated from the ashes, burned his
fingers--which, naturally clapping into his mouth to ease the
pain--which was changed to delight, causing John's torture-smitten
visage to assume in an instant a broad grin of satisfaction at the
discovery--is undoubtedly correct, or at least the love for the pork
exhibited by the "Heathen Chinee" cannot reasonably be accounted for in
any other way. In order, then, to get the best article of
pork--wholesome, toothsome, and, what is most important of all, entirely
free from any form of disease or taint, great care should be taken to
make selections from the small lots fed and slaughtered in the country,
and brought into the city most generally in the fall season, and which
are to be procured at the stall or shop of any reputable and reliable
dealer. Select a carcass of one hundred, or less, pounds, with flesh
hard and white, and thin skin. For salting, cut in pieces six by eight
inches, and, after having rubbed thoroughly in salt--neither too fine
nor too coarse--take a half-barrel, sprinkle the bottom well with salt,
and lay the pieces of pork in tightly; then add salt, and follow with
another layer of pork, until the whole is packed, with salt sprinkled on
top. Set in a cool place, and, after three or four days, make a brine of
boiling water with salt--which, when cool, should be sufficiently strong
to float an egg--stir in a half pound of brown sugar, pour over the meat
sufficient to cover, and place on top a stone heavy enough to keep the
pork weighted down.


Home-Made Lard.

Home-made lard is undoubtedly the best as well as cheapest. If leaf is
not to be had, take 10 lbs of solid white pork, as fat as possible,
which is quite as good, if not better; cut in pieces uniformly the size
of your finger, and put in a vessel with a thick bottom--one of iron is
preferable--and adding 1 pint of water, put on the range; keep tightly
covered until the water has evaporated in steam, when leave off the
cover, letting it cook slowly, until the scraps turn a light brown, when
take off, and while still quite warm, strain through a colander,
pressing the scraps hard with a potato-masher; pour the liquid into cans
and set away. The next day it will be found snow-white, solid and of a
fine and equal consistence; and for cooking purposes, quite as good as
fresh churned butter in making biscuits, any kind of pastry, or frying
eggs.

[In frying lard keep a careful watch and see that it does not scorch.]


New Jersey Sausage.

Take the very best pork you can get--one-third fat and two-thirds
lean--and chop on a block with a kitchen cleaver. When half chopped,
season with black pepper, salt and sage, rubbed through a sieve, and
then finish the chopping; but do not cut the meat too fine, as in that
case the juice of the meat will be lost. Make the mixture up into
patties, and fry on a common pan, placed in the oven of the stove,
taking care not to cook them hard. Veal is a good substitute for the
lean pork in making these sausages, which are much better if made one
day before cooking.


Pot-Pie.

The following I have found the best manner of making any kind of
pot-pie. White meat, such as chicken, quail or nice veal, is decidedly
the best for the purpose. Stew the meat until tender, in considerable
liquid as when you put into the paste much of that will be absorbed. In
making the paste take 1 quart of flour and 2 tablespoonfuls of baking
powder, rubbed well into the flour, 1/4 pound butter or sweet lard, and
a little salt; mix with milk or water into a soft dough; roll 1/2 an
inch thick; cut to size, and lay in a steamer for 15 minutes to make
light, then put in and around the stew; cooking slowly for ten minutes.


Curried Crab.

Put into a saucepan 1/4 pound butter with a little flour; cook together
and stir till cool; then add a gill of cream, a little cayenne pepper,
salt, and a dessert-spoonful of East India Curry Powder. Mix well
together, and add 1 pound boiled crab meat, chopped fine; stir well
together--make very hot and serve. The addition of a glass of white wine
adds to the flavor of this curry.


To Toast Bread.

Cut bread in slices 1/2 an inch thick; first taking a thin crust from
top, bottom and sides, or shave the loaf before cutting--otherwise the
crust will scorch before the soft part is sufficiently toasted.


Cream Toast.

To make a delicious cream toast, mix well a teaspoonful of corn-starch
with a little cold milk, and put in a stewpan with a piece of butter the
size of an egg. Pour in hot milk, and stir two minutes, adding a little
salt--a little sugar is also an improvement--and pour over the toast
while hot.


Fritters.

Four eggs, well beaten; 1 quart of milk; 1 quart of flour; 2
teaspoonfuls baking powder; one tablespoonful sugar, and a little salt.
Cook in best lard, and serve with hard or liquid sauce, highly flavored
with California brandy or white wine.


Hash.

It is a mistaken idea (labored under by many), that hash can be made of
waste material, that would otherwise be thrown away. This is a most
excellent and palatable dish if properly prepared. Take the shank, or
other parts of good beef you may have at hand, and boil, with as little
water as possible, until quite tender, and let stand until quite cold.
Then take of potatoes, that have been peeled before boiling, one-third
the amount of the meat used, and chop moderately fine, adding plenty of
pepper and salt, to taste. Next, chop two or three onions fine, and stew
them in some of the liquid in which the meat was boiled, dredging in a
little flour, and when thoroughly done, put in the hash, and chop and
mix thoroughly. If you think the mass requires moistening add a little
of the fat and juice. Put the whole in a pan, and bake in a quick oven
until slightly browned at top and bottom.

Should you have good corned-beef--not too salt--it is very nice made in
this manner. Use the marrow from the bones in making hash.


Hashed Potatoes with Eggs.

Chop fine 8 or 10 cold boiled potatoes; heat a pan (cast-iron is
preferable,) quite hot; put in butter the size of an egg, and as soon as
melted add the potatoes; salt and pepper; slightly stirring frequently,
and, when heated thoroughly, stir in four well-beaten eggs. Serve on a
hot dish.


Baked Macaroni.

Break the macaroni rather short; wash and put in salted water; boil
about twenty minutes. Drain off the water, replace it with a cup of good
milk and 1 tablespoonful of best butter, and as soon as boiling hot put
in a baking-dish. If you like cheese, grate over it the best California
article--old cheese should never be used--and bake to a light brown.

For stewed macaroni omit the baking and the cheese, if you like.


Drawn-Butter.

To make drawn-butter, take two tablespoonfuls of flour; good butter, the
size of an egg; a little milk, and make to a smooth paste. Then work in
slowly one-half pint of water, until the flour is cooked. Season to
taste. The foregoing will be found a good basis for nearly all hot
sauces, for fish, beet, and other vegetables, as well as for puddings.


Spiced Currants.

Two boxes of currants, washed and stemmed; 3 pounds sugar, 1
tablespoonful allspice, 1 tablespoonful of cloves, 1 tablespoonful
cinnamon; boil half-an-hour.


The Best Method of Canning Fruits.

There are various modes of canning fruits, almost every housekeeper
having a method of her own. For the benefit of those who are at loss in
this particular, we give the following mode--which we fully endorse as
the best within our knowledge--made use of by Mrs. George W. Ladd, of
Bradford, Massachusetts, whose fruits, prepared in this way, have
repeatedly taken the first premium at the Agricultural Fair, held in the
Old Bay State. This lady certainly deserves the thanks of all interested
in this important matter, for her liberality in giving the public the
benefit of her knowledge and experience in this line, as detailed in the
following, published in the _New York Graphic_ of August 15, 1883:

"As the season of ripe fruit advances, I prepare such quantities of
syrup as I think I may need, in this way: Three pounds of granulated
sugar to one gallon of water and boil twenty minutes; this I put in
glass jars, when cool, and set away for future use. Peaches, quinces,
pears, apples, plums, pine apples, rhubarb, crab apples, and, in fact,
all fruits of this kind, I peel, quarter and place in a dish of cold
water (to prevent discoloration), until I have prepared enough to fill a
jar: I then pack them solid as possible in a jar, and then fill the jar
with the syrup previously prepared. I then place a wire stand in the
bottom of my preserving kettle, on which to place the jar, then fill the
kettle with cold water until the jar is two-thirds covered; leave the
jar open, but cover the kettle and boil until the fruit is sufficiently
soft; have ready a little boiling syrup, if needed, to fill the jar full
to overflowing. Then place the rubber band around the neck of the jar
and screw the cover on as tightly as possible; then in from three to
five minutes give the cover another turn, in order to be sure it is air
tight, and you will have no mortal trouble with it. I use Mason's jars
with metallic porcelain covers."


Preparing Quinces for Canning or Preserving.

Quinces for canning or preserving should be kept in a dry place for
thirty days after taking from the trees, in order to give them richness
and flavor. Peel and cut to the proper size, carefully saving skins and
cores. Put the last named in a porcelain kettle and boil until quite
tender, when strain through a cotton-bag; afterwards put the juice back
in the kettle, and add sugar as directed in the directions for canning
fruit. Boil slowly for half-an-hour, taking off the scum as it rises,
then set away to cool, and can the fruit as directed in the receipt for
canning.


Clayton's Monmouth Sauce.

In making this delightful ketchup, take 25 pounds of fresh, or two 8 lb.
cans of tomatoes, and slice, not too thin, adding five medium sized
onions cut fine. Put these, with plenty of salt, in a porcelain kettle;
adding, with a handful of hot green peppers, or a less quantity, if
dried, 1 ounce of white ginger, chopped fine, 1 ounce of horse-radish,
and 1/2 ounce each of ground cloves and allspice, and 1 lemon, with
seeds removed and cut small. After letting these boil for three hours,
work through a sieve and return to the kettle along with a pint of wine
vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 2 of good mustard, a teacupful of
Challenge or Worcestershire Sauce, and let boil for 2 or 3 minutes, and
set off. To prevent fermentation, stir in a teacupful of high-proof
California brandy. If too thick, when cold reduce with vinegar.


To Prepare Mustard for the Table.

Take 1/2 pound best mustard and enough wine vinegar, mixed with 1/3
boiling water, 1 large teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of sugar,
juice of half a lemon, and mix to a thin batter, and put in a common
glass jar and keep stopped tight. If pure mustard is used, treated in
this way, it will keep good for months.

[If you desire the best article of mustard, I think E. R. Durkee & Co's
is the best I have ever used, although Colman's ranks equally high, if
you can get the genuine unadulterated article, which can be had by
procuring Crosse & Blackwell's London brand, for which Messrs. Richards
and Harrison are the San Francisco agents.]


Mint Sauce.

Into a teacupful of hot vinegar, in which has been dissolved sufficient
sugar to make slightly sweet, add a handful of mint chopped quite fine.
Serve hot.


Eggs Ought Never be Poached.

Poached eggs are always tasteless, and also unhealthy, owing to the
albumen going into the water into which they are dropped, giving it a
white and milky appearance--taking away a portion of the richness which
should remain in the egg, rendering it indigestible, and of course,
unwholesome.


Sunnyside Roast.

Select a good, tender piece either of beef or mutton--veal and pork can
also be nicely roasted in the same way--place in your iron saucepan or
pot one tablespoonful of good lard or half as much butter, and an onion,
cut fine; let your onion fry to a light brown, and put in your meat,
first having washed, dried and salted it. Put the cover on and let stand
until it is pretty well browned; then add water, unless in danger of
burning. Add only enough water, from time to time, to keep it from
burning; turn it frequently so that it may brown on all sides. When
tender, it will come forth brown and juicy. Just before serving, see
that there is enough water for gravy; if there is not, you can take out
the meat and add enough, but not too much, hot water, and then pour it
over the meat.


Clayton's Spanish Omelette.

Chop into dice 1/4 pound of breakfast bacon, a small tomato, 4
mushrooms, mince very fine a small onion; add pepper to taste, put in a
frying pan and cook slowly until the lean is done; take off and put in a
warm place to keep hot. This is sufficient for 6 eggs.


Plain Omelette.

Beat the yolks and white of 8 eggs separately until light, then beat
together; add a little salt and 1 tablespoonful cream. Have in the pan a
piece of butter, and when boiling hot pour in the omelette and shake
until it begins to stiffen; then let it brown. Fold double and serve
hot.


Clam Fritters.

Sift into an earthen dish 3 spoonfuls flour and 1/2 teaspoonful baking
powder; add to this a little of the clam juice, 1/2 a cup of cream and 2
eggs, well beaten. Mince a pint of clams and mix with the batter. Put 2
or 3 spoonfuls of lard into a frying-pan, and when boiling, drop in the
batter, by spoonfuls, to fry; after frying a minute, take from the pan,
drain and serve.


Fried Tripe.

If the tripe is boiled tender, cut in pieces 2 inches square, season
with salt and pepper and dip in a batter made of eggs, milk and flour,
and fry in sweet lard, or drippings from roast or corned beef.


Ringed Potatoes.

Peel large potatoes, cut them round and round as you would pare an
apple; fry in the best lard until a light brown; sprinkle with salt and
serve hot.


New Potatoes Boiled.

Wash and rub new potatoes with a coarse towel, drop in boiling water,
and boil until done, taking care that they are not over boiled. Have
ready, in a saucepan, some milk or cream with butter, a little chopped
parsley, pepper and salt; drain the potatoes, add them to the cream with
a teaspoonful of corn-starch, soaked in a little milk; let it come to a
simmer, and serve at once.


Fried Tomatoes.

Take large smooth tomatoes, cut them in slices 1/2 an inch thick, dip in
bread crumbs or cracker dust and fry a light brown, in half lard and
half butter.


Squash and Corn.--Spanish Style.

Take 3 small summer squashes and 3 ears of corn; chop the squashes and
cut the corn from the cobs. Put into a saucepan a spoonful of lard or
butter, and when very hot an onion; fry a little; add the corn and
squash, 1 tomato and 1 green pepper, cut small, and salt to taste. Cover
closely and stir frequently to prevent scorching.


Pickles.

To make mixed pickles, cut small cucumbers crosswise in about 4 pieces;
onions, if not very small, in 2, and peppers, if the ordinary size, in 4
pieces. Should you have green tomatoes, cut them small. Use a less
amount of onions and peppers than cucumbers; mix all together with a few
bay leaves. Next, take a tub or keg, and, having covered the bottom with
fine salt, put on a layer of pickles, adding alternate layers of each,
leaving that of salt on top. Cover with a cotton cloth, and lay on a
stone or wooden weight. Let them remain three days; then take out, rinse
in cold water, but do not soak, and put them in a basket or sack to
drain for twelve hours. Have ready plenty of California wine vinegar,
made hot, but not boiling, adding the following--cloves, allspice,
green ginger, and whole mustard seed, with 1 coffee-cup sugar. When the
vinegar is at scalding heat pour over the pickles and cover.


Nice Picklette.

Take 4 nice cabbages, chopped fine; 1 quart onions, chopped fine; 2
quarts--or sufficient to cover the mixture--best wine vinegar, adding
two tablespoonfuls each of ground mustard, black pepper, cinnamon,
celery salt, 1 of mace, and 1 coffee-cup sugar. Pack the cabbages and
onions in alternate layers, with a little fine salt between, and let
stand until next day; then scald the vinegar with the spices and sugar,
and pour over the cabbages and onions. Repeat this the next day; and on
the third, heat the whole scalding hot, let it cool, and put in jars,
when it is fit for use at once.


Pickled Tripe.

Pickled tripe is very nice--and that sold by John Bayle, in the
California Market, which is cleaned by steam process, and is quite
tender and unsalted is a superior article. To prepare for pickling, cut
in pieces about four inches square, say five or six pounds. Put into a
kettle; cover with boiling water, adding a handful of salt; let stand
fifteen minutes; take out and drain, keeping warm. Mix one-fourth water
with the best wine vinegar--to which add cloves, allspice and mace, with
1 teacupful sugar; heat, and pour over the tripe, and set away to cool.
Tripe prepared in this way is the best for broiling or frying.


To Cook Grouse or Prairie Chicken.

The best way I have found for cooking this delicious game bird is,
first, after cleaning, to cut off the wings and legs, as, with the
back, these parts are of little account; next, split the birds in the
centre, taking out the breast-bone, and you have two heavy pieces; if
the bird is large, divide again; do not wash, but wipe with a damp
cloth. Season with pepper and salt, and broil with butter quite rare;
then lay in a porcelain-lined pan, with butter and currant or grape
jelly, adding a little cayenne pepper, and a small quantity of port or
white wine.

[Venison steak may be cooked in the same manner.]


Brains and Sweet-Breads.

When properly prepared the brains of calves and sheep form a very
inviting dish. Lay fresh brains in cold, salted water for fifteen
minutes; then put them in boiling water, and parboil for ten minutes.
After cleaning off the outer membrane--for frying--split them, and
season with salt and pepper, and run them through egg, beaten with a
little milk; roll them in cracker-dust, and fry to a light brown in
equal parts of sweet lard and butter.

For stewed brains, cut half the size for frying and put in a stewpan,
with a lump of butter, pepper and salt, a little water or soup-stock,
and one-half an onion, chopped fine and stewed tender. Add this, and
cook slowly for a few minutes, when put in two or three spoonfuls of
milk or cream, and a little white wine or juice of lemon.

[Sweet-breads may be cooked in the same manner.]


Stewed Spare-Ribs of Pork.

Cut the ribs in pieces of a finger's length and the width of two
fingers. Put in the kettle with two onions, salt and pepper, and cover
with cold water. Let them stew slowly for two hours, and then put in 3
potatoes, 2 purple-top turnips, which have been peeled and cut, and left
in cold water at least two hours; also add two tomatoes. This stew must
have plenty of gravy, which can be made by working a little flour and
butter with a few spoonfuls of rich milk, cooking five minutes.

[An Irish stew may be made in the foregoing manner by substituting ribs
of mutton.]


Broiled Oysters.

In order to broil oysters properly, take those of the largest size,
drain, and dry in a cloth, and lay carefully on a nice wire gridiron
that will hold them tight; sprinkle slightly with salt and pepper, and
put them over a good clear fire for a short time, and turn, taking care
not to broil too much; serve with the best butter on a hot dish.


Pumpkin or Squash Custard.

Take enough pumpkin or squash to make 1 quart when cooked; and after it
is boiled or steamed, rub through a sieve, and work in 3 eggs well
beaten, with rich milk sufficient to make the proper consistence, adding
sugar to taste; season with ginger and allspice, and bake in cups or
dishes to a nice brown. May be eaten hot, but is better cold.


Fig Pudding.

Take 1 pint grated bread crumbs, 1 cup suet, 1 cup brown sugar, 2 eggs
and 1/2 pound of fresh figs. Wash the figs in warm water, and dry in a
cloth; chop the suet and figs together, and add the other ingredients,
also 1 nutmeg, grated. Put in a mould or floured bag, and boil 3 hours.
Serve with hard sauce.


Fried Apples.

Take 6 good cooking apples, cut in slices 1/4 of an inch thick; have a
pan of fresh hot lard ready, drop the slices in and fry brown; sprinkle
a little sugar over them and serve hot.


Clayton's Oyster Stew.

In my long experience I have found that the best way to stew oysters,
is, after having saved all the juice of the oysters, to put it in a stew
pan with a little boiling water, and a good lump of butter worked in a
little flour, adding pepper and salt. Let these boil for two minutes, or
long enough to cook the flour; then put in the oysters, and the moment
the stew boils up again add a little sweet cream or country milk, and
when it boils the stew is cooked and should be set away from a hot fire.
Cooked in this way, good oysters will never be tough and tasteless as is
too often the case.


Boiled Celery.

Cut the white stalks of celery the length of asparagus, boil in as
little salted water as possible until quite tender. The root, cut in
slices, is equally good. Dress with drawn butter made with the water in
which the celery was boiled. This vegetable is said to be a sedative and
antidote to nervous debility.


Selecting Meats.

For a roast of beef, select from the ribs nearest the point of the
shoulder-blade, running backward. For steaks, choose that with the
diamond bone on either side. For chops of mutton or lamb, select the
rib. For roasting, choose the loin or saddle; and for boiling, the leg
of mutton--but not of lamb, the latter being best roasted. For
corned-beef, select parts commonly known as the navel and plate pieces,
and next best to these, the brisket and rounds.


Rebecca Jackson's Rice Pudding.

Take 1 quart of rich milk; 3/4 of a coffee-cup of rice, well washed, and
a lump of butter the size of an egg, and 1 nutmeg. This pudding must be
made quite sweet, and without eggs. Bake three hours in a moderate oven,
stirring occasionally the first hour. Bake until the top is a dark
brown. To be eaten cold.

[This pudding--which was a common dish in the last century--was
generally baked on Saturday for Sunday's dessert.]


Bread-and-Butter Pudding.

To 1 quart of milk, add 3 or 4 eggs, well beaten, with sugar enough to
make rather sweet, and season with nutmeg or cinnamon. Put in a
baking-pan and cover with slices of nice bread, buttered on both sides.
Bake until the bread is nicely browned, taking care, however, not to
bake too much, which would make it watery. Good either hot or cold.


Codfish Cakes.

Pick boiled codfish in small bits, adding equal quantities of mashed
potato and fish, with two eggs, well beaten, seasoning with black
pepper, and roll in a little flour, the shape of a small cake. Fry in
sweet lard, or nice drippings, to a nice brown, but not hard.


Pickled Grapes.

Remove from ripe grapes all imperfect and broken berries; line an
earthen jar with grape leaves and fill with grapes. To 2 quarts vinegar
add 1 pint white sugar, 1/2 ounce ground cinnamon, and 1/4 ounce cloves.
Let vinegar and spices boil five minutes; then add the sugar, and, when
moderately cool, pour over the grapes.


Forced Tomatoes.

Peel and slice some large-sized tomatoes, and put in a colander to
drain. Cut in small pieces 1 pint of mushrooms, adding some minced
parsley, a slice of finely chopped ham, some summer savory, thyme, salt,
and cayenne pepper. Put all these in a saucepan with some butter, and
1/2 cup of water. Boil together ten or fifteen minutes, and set away to
cool. Have ready some fine bread crumbs, add to them seasoning, and the
yolks of 2 or 3 well-beaten eggs. Mix the mushrooms and tomatoes
together; pour into a baking-dish a portion of it; then sprinkle over it
a layer of the bread-crumbs and add the remainder of the tomatoes; cover
with bread-crumbs, and put some bits of butter on top. Bake half-an-hour
in a well heated oven.


Broiled Flounders or Smelts.

Have medium-sized flounders or smelts, cleaned with as little cutting as
possible; wash thoroughly in salted water, and dry on a towel; mix in a
saucer three tablespoonfuls of olive oil, and 1 of vinegar, with salt
and pepper; score the sides of the fish at intervals of an inch, with a
sharp knife, and rub all over with the mixture of oil, vinegar and
seasoning. Place them between the bars of a buttered gridiron, and broil
a light brown over a moderate fire.


Onions.

There is no more healthy vegetable or article of diet in general use
than onions. Taken regularly, they greatly promote the health of the
lungs and digestive organs. Used in a cooked--either fried, roasted or
boiled--or in a raw state, their virtues are marked and beneficial. They
are among the most popular of old-time remedies for colds, having the
advantage of always being readily procured, and it is said that
affections of the lungs and liver have been largely benefited, and even
cured, by a free use of this palatable esculent. They are also resorted
to as a sedative and remedy for sleeplessness.


Singeing Fowls.

The best mode I have ever followed for singeing fowls, is to put 2 or 3
tablespoonfuls of alcohol in a tin dish and light with a match, thus
making a large flame, without smoke--that is apt to injure the flavor of
the bird.


The Secret of Tests of Taste and Flavor.

The correct test of coffee or tea, is to make use of a thin china or
delf-ware cup, by which the lips are brought close together, while a
thicker cup would separate them widely apart. In testing the quality and
flavor of wines, the thinnest quality of glass is for the same reason
essentially requisite. Our grandmothers, who lived a hundred years ago,
understood the philosophy of this when they expressed the opinion, that
it was only possible to get the true taste, fine flavor, and delicate
aroma of tea, by drinking it out of a china cup.


How to Choose Ware for Ranges.

In selecting ware for a range, especial care should be taken to see that
the bottoms of all the cooking utensils are perfectly level, for if
convex, they will invariably burn in the centre. An iron grating or
gridiron--1/4 of an inch in depth--placed between the pan and the top of
the range, will be found highly useful while cooking, as this increases
the heat and lessens the liability of burning.


Drying Herbs for Seasoning.

All herbs should be gathered just before blossoming and dried in the
shade, or in a dark dry room, as exposure to the sun both takes away
flavor and color. When perfectly dry, put in a clean sack and hang in a
dry room or loft, and when wanted for use, rub through a sieve. Herbs
treated in this way, if left dry, will retain their strength and remain
perfectly good for years. As long as the outer membrane of the leaves
remains unbroken, the aroma cannot escape.


To Destroy Roaches, Flies and Ants.

Take 15 cents worth of powdered borax and a small bottle of Persian
Insect Powder, and mix thoroughly together. In order to use
successfully, take a feather from the wing of a turkey or goose, by the
quill, and dipping the feather end in the powder, spring the feather as
a bow; in this way you can thoroughly rid the room of flies. Before
using on roaches, set the doors wide open, as they will start for the
open air; generally, however, dying on the way. To rid cupboards or
closets of ants, sprinkle wherever these minute pests "most do
congregate." An easy and cheap remedy to rid pantries of cock-roaches is
said to be fresh cucumber parings laid in their haunts. We have never
tested this remedy, but can vouch for the efficacy of the above
mentioned compound.


To Clean Tin-Ware.

The best thing for cleaning tin-ware is common soda; dampen a cloth, dip
it in the soda, rub the ware briskly, after which wipe dry.


Iron Rust.

Iron rust may be removed by a little salt mixed with lemon-juice; put in
the sun, and if necessary use two applications.


Mildew.

An old time and effectual remedy for mildew is to dip the stained cloth
in butter-milk and lay in the sun.


Oysters Roasted on Chafing-Dish.

Take largest oysters, and put in a chafing-dish in their own liquor.
Season with red or black pepper, adding plenty of good butter, with a
little Worcestershire sauce or walnut catsup. After roasting--taking
care not to roast too much--serve on buttered toast.


Codfish, Family Style.

After the fish has been soaked twelve hours, boil slowly for twenty-five
or thirty minutes, or until it will break up nicely. Then pick all the
bones out, but do not pick the fish too fine. Have ready three
hard-boiled eggs; rub the yolks in plenty of good butter; put into the
kettle enough milk to heat the fish; when hot stir in the butter, with
the fish. At the same time have potatoes peeled and boiled. Cut, not too
small, with the whites of the eggs cut small; season with pepper. Serve
hot with buttered toast at the bottom of the dish.


Codfish in Philadelphia Style.

After soaking and boiling the fish, break up small, and picking out all
the bones, have ready potatoes, peeled and boiled, equal to the amount
of fish. Put them in a wooden bowl or tray. Pound or mash well with a
potato masher. Work to soft dough, with butter and well-beaten eggs, and
milk or cream. Season with pepper and salt, if salt is required. Put it
in a dish suitable to set on the table, and bake a few minutes, or until
light brown.



The Parting Hour.


    There's something in the parting hour
      Will chill the warmest heart,
    Yet kindred, comrades, lovers, friends,
      Are fated all to part.
    But, this I've seen, and many a pang has pressed it on my mind,
    The one who goes is happier than those he leaves behind.

    No matter what the journey be,
      Adventurous, dangerous, far;
    To the wild bleak or deep frontier,
      To solitude or war;
    Still fortune cheers the heart that dares, in all of human kind,
    And those who go are happier than those they leave behind.

    The bride goes to the bridegroom's home
      With doubtings and with tears,
    But, does not Hope her rainbow spread
      Across her cloudy fears?
    Alas! the mother who remains, what comfort can she find, but this:
    The one that's gone is happier than the one she leaves behind.

    Have you a friend, a comrade dear,
      An old and valued friend?
    Be sure your term of sweet concourse
      At length must have an end;
    And when you part, as part you will, oh! take it not unkind,
    If he, who goes, is happier than you he leaves behind.

    God wills it so! and so it is;
      The Pilgrims on their way,
    Though weak and worn, more cheerful are
      Than all the rest who stay.
    And when at last, poor man, subdued, lies down to death resigned,
    May he not still be happier far than those he leaves behind?


In School Days.

    Still sits the school-house by the road,
      A ragged beggar sunning;
    Around it still the sumachs grow,
      And blackberry vines are running.

    Within the master's desk is seen,
      Deep scarred by raps official;
    The warping floor, the battered seats,
      The jack-knife's carved initial.

    Long years ago, one winter's sun
      Shone over it at setting;
    Lit up the western window pane,
      And low eaves icy fretting.

    It shone upon the tangled curls,
      And brown eyes full of grieving,
    Of one who still her steps delayed,
      While all the school were leaving.

    For near her stood the little boy
      Her childish favor singled;
    His cap was pulled low on his brow,
      Where pride and shame were mingled.

    With restless foot he pushed the snow
      To right and left; he lingered;
    As restlessly her tiny hands
      The blue checked apron fingered.

    He saw her lift her eyes,
      He felt the soft hand's light caressing,
    He heard the trembling of her voice,
      As if a fault confessing.

    "I'm sorry that I spelt the word,
      I hate to go above you,"
    "Because"--the brown eyes lower fell--
      "Because, you see, I love you."

    Still, memory to a gray-haired man,
      That sweet child face is showing;
    Dear girl, the grasses o'er her grave
      Have forty years been growing;

    He lives to learn in Life's hard school
      How few who pass above him,
    Lament their triumph and his loss,
      Like her, because she loves him.


    Let fate do her worst! there are relics of joy,
      Bright dreams of a past, which she cannot destroy;
    Which came in the night-time of sorrow and care,
      And bring back the features that joy used to wear.
    Long be my heart with such memories filled,
      Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled;
    You may break, you may shatter that vase, if you will,
      But the scent of the roses will hang round it still!

    Thomas Moore.



  JERSEY
    FARM
      DAIRY,

SAN BRUNO, CAL.

City Depot, 837 Howard Street.

_The Milk from this Dairy is delivered to consumers =absolutely pure and
free from any adulteration whatever=, and has been for over eight years.
The Cows are largely Jersey Blood, and the milk will run on an average
14 per cent. in cream, and is becoming richer every year, by the
increase of the Jersey Blood. About five hundred cows are milked daily,
which ranks this Dairy the =largest in the world.=_

_The demand for this milk is larger than the supply, and has been for
two years past._

  R. G. SNEATH,

  _Proprietor._



ROYAL BAKING POWDER.

Absolutely Pure.

This powder never varies. A marvel of purity, strength and
wholesomeness. More economical than the ordinary kinds, and cannot be
sold in competition with the multitude of low test, short weight, alum
or phosphate powders. Sold only in cans. ROYAL BAKING POWDER CO., 106
Wall St., New York.

WM. T. COLEMAN & CO., Agents, San Francisco.



_QUADE & STRAUT_,

Successors to PETERSON & PALMER,

  Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
  Choice Family Groceries

  _716 MARKET STREET_,
  Opposite Third.                SAN FRANCISCO.



  _J. H. McMENOMY_,
  Stalls 8 & 9 California Market.
  SAN FRANCISCO

  Beef, Mutton, Veal,
  _Lamb and Corned Beef_.

  Nothing But The Best.



  ARPAD HARASZTHY.                HENRY EPSTEIN.

  ARPAD HARASZTHY & CO.

  Successors to I. Landsberger & Co.
  ESTABLISHED 1869.

  Producers of Champagnes by the Natural Process,

  AND GENERAL DEALERS IN

  California
  Wines and
  Brandies

  Fine Old Table Wines a Specialty.

  CLARET,
  ZINFANDEL,
  SHERRY,
  HOCK,
  GUTEDEL,
  PORT,
  RIESLING,
  BURGUNDY,
  ANGELICA.

  ----PROPRIETORS OF----

  Dr. Henley's Celebrated I X L Bitters.
  Wine Vaults, 714 to 726 Montgomery St.
  Office, 530 Washington St.        =SAN FRANCISCO.=

  P. O. BOX 1685.



  Julius Finck.                Sim Blum.

  WILL & FINCK,

  IMPORTING & MANUFACTURING

  CUTLERS,

  Locksmiths & Bell Hangers,

  769 Market Street.        SAN FRANCISCO.

  _Wholesale and Retail Dealers in_

  Carving Sets,
  Table Cutlery,
  Plated Ware,
  Knives of every description,
  Scissors,
  Button-hole Cutters,
  Kitchen Saws,
  Kitchen Cleavers,
  Corkscrews,
  Champagne Faucets,
  Champagne Stands,
  Champagne Cutters,
  Lime Squeezers,
  Dog Collars,
  Carpet Stretchers,
  Dumb Bells,
  Upholsterers' Hammers,
  Money Belts,
  Roller Skates,
  Door Plates,
  Door Numbers.

  Cutlery in all its Branches.

  Grinding, Repairing and Job Work Done at Short Notice.



  JOHN WILTON                P. L. CORTELYOU.

  WILTON & CORTELYOU,

  Wholesale and Retail Dealers in all kinds of

  Dairy Produce,

  Butter, Eggs, Cheese,

  LARD, HAM, ETC.

  Stalls 23 & 24 California Market,

  SAN FRANCISCO.

  AGENTS
  FOR THE

  [Illustration: B]

  CELEBRATED
  BIHLER'S BUTTER.

  Every Lady of delicate taste that cannot be suited
  elsewhere is invited to give the
  BIHLER BUTTER
  a trial.



John Bayle,

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in

Tripe, Calves' Heads, Feet

Tongues, Ox Tails, Sweet Bread, Brains, Etc.

Stall No. 7 California Market

SAN FRANCISCO.



Palace Hotel

_This Hotel, occupying an entire block in the centre of San Francisco,
is the_

Model Hotel of the World.

It has Double the Accommodation

_Of any other house in the City; is thoroughly_ FIRE and EARTHQUAKE
PROOF, _and has five broad, easy stair-cases and five elevators. Every
room is extra large, light and airy. The system of ventilation is
perfect. A bath and closet adjoin every room._

  Guests Entertained on either the
          American or European Plan.

_A restaurant is connected with the hotel and is the finest in the city.
People from the interior of the State visiting San Francisco, for
business or pleasure, will find the Palace centrally located, as it is
the pleasantest and most economical hotel in the city._

  _JOHN SEDGWICK_,

  Manager.



DEMING BROS.

Successors to Deming, Palmer & Co.

MILLERS and GRAIN DEALERS,

PROPRIETORS OF

Capitol Mills,

202 & 204 DAVIS STREET,

San Francisco.



E. R. DURKEE & CO'S

Standard Aids to Good Cooking.


_=Spices and Mustard, Flavoring Extracts, Baking Powder, Salad Dressing,
Celery Salt, Challenge Table Sauce, Curry Powder, Farina Tapioca,
Glutena, Etc.=_


These articles are guaranteed to be absolutely pure; prepared from the
very best materials procurable; and in all cases to be of strictly full
measure and weight. Do not be satisfied until you have given some one of
them a fair trial. If your regular grocer does not keep them in stock,
he can always get them for you, either at the address below, or from any
Wholesale Grocer.


  THOMAS COTREL, Jr.
  405 Front Street,                San Francisco.
  General Wholesale Agent for the Pacific Coast.



EAGLE

Coffee and Spice

STEAM MILLS,

BERTIN & LEPORI,

Manufacturers and Dealers in all kinds of

Coffee, Tea and Spices,

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF

Premium Extract of Coffee,

Eagle Baking Powder, Soda, Saleratus,

SUGAR OF LEMON, ETC.

We Recommend to the Public our Celebrated

_JAVA COFFEE_.

536 Commercial St., bet. Sansome and Montgomery,

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL



  B. M. Atchinson & Co.

  DEALERS IN
  BUTTER, CHEESE,
  EGGS, LARD,
  Hams, Bacon, Pickles, Honey and Cranberries.

  Nos. 16, 17, 28 & 30 CENTRE MARKET,
  Bet. Kearny and Dupont, Sutter and Post,        SAN FRANCISCO.

  Fresh Dairy Butter and Eggs Received Daily.

  Orders Called for and Delivered every day Free.

  _Country Orders and Orders by Telephone promptly attended to._



  _Pioneer Wine House
  Established in 1864.

  Vineyards in Sonoma
  and Los Angeles Cos.

  Kohler & Frohling,

  Growers of and Dealers in

  California Wines
    and Brandies,

  626 Montgomery St.
  San Francisco._



RICHARDS & HARRISON,

_Cor. Sansome and Sacramento Sts., S. F._

Agents for ENGLISH GROCERIES.

CROSSE & BLACKWELL'S

  Assorted and Oriental Pickles,
  Fine Lucca Salad Oil,
  Spanish Queen Olives,
  Assorted English Sauces,
  Mushroom and Walnut Catsups,
  Malt and Crystal Vinegars,
  Assorted Jams and Jellies,
  Orange and Lemon Marmalades,
  Citron, Orange and Lemon Peel,
  Potted Meats and Fish,
  Curry Powders and Chutnies,
  Cayenne and Black Peppers,
  Table Salt, in Bags and Glass,
  Dried Herrings and Bloaters,
  Metz Crystalized Fruits,
  Arrowroot, Groats and Barley,
  Christmas Plum Puddings,
  Stilton and Gloucester Cheese.

  J. & J. COLMAN'S Double Superfine Mustard.

  J. S. FRY & SON'S

  Prize Medal Chocolate,
  Homoepathic and Caracas Cocoas.


  ALSO

  Liebig Co's Extract of Beef,
  Epps' Homoepathic Cocoa,
  Dr. Wilson's Solidified Cacao,
  Van Houten's Soluble Cocoa,
  Day & Martin's Japan Blacking,
  Phillipp's Dandelion Coffee,
  Cox & Nelson's Gelatines,
  Indian Chutnies and Delicies,
  Fine Lucca Oil in Tins.


  Cup and Saucer Japanese Uncolored Tea.

  Neither Colored, Loaded, Scented or Doctored.
  Each Pound Paper Containing a Handsome Hand-Made and Painted Cup and
    Saucer.



ROBERT F. BUNKER,

Curer and Dealer in California Sugar-Cured

  HAMS, BACON,
  PORK, LARD, SMOKED TONGUES,
  BEEF, SAUSAGES, ETC.

CLUB SAUSAGES a specialty.

Agent for H. M. DUPEE & CO'S

CHICAGO HAMS AND BACON.

  74 & 75 California Market,        San Francisco.

Packing House, Brannan Street, Bet Fifth and Sixth.



  EDOUART'S
  ART GALLERY,
  No. 6 TURK STREET,

Junction of Mason and Market,

SAN FRANCISCO.

Enlargements from old pictures, whether Daguerreotype or Card, worked up
in Crayon, India Ink or Colors, at greatly reduced rates.

Perfect Satisfaction Warranted in All Cases.

TAKE THE ELEVATOR.--Elevator runs on Sundays from 9 to 4.



  E. R. PERRIN'S
  Quaker Dairy.

  First-Class Restaurant for Ladies and Gentlemen.

  The Oldest Established and Best Quaker Dairy
  on the Pacific Coast.

  114 Sutter Street,
  Bet. Kearny and Montgomery,        SAN FRANCISCO.

  E. R. PERRIN, Proprietor.



  ARABIAN
  COFFEE
  MILLS,

  HILLS BROS.

  JOBBERS IN
  COFFEE, TEAS AND SPICES,
  Office and Mills, 12 Fourth Street,
  SAN FRANCISCO.



  EMIL A. ENGELBERG,

  German Bakery & Confectionery
  _No. 416 Kearny Street_,
  _Bet. California & Pine Sts._        SAN FRANCISCO.



  _A. W. Fink_,

  DEALER IN
  Butter, Cheese, Eggs,

  PACIFIC HONEY DEPOT,

  Nos. 50 and 51 Washington Market,
  SAN FRANCISCO.

  Wild Game and Poultry
  _SOLD ON COMMISSION._

  _SOLE AGENT FOR_
  _L. K. BALDWIN'S DAIRY BUTTER._



  J. GUNDLACH.                C. BUNDSCHU.

  J. GUNDLACH & CO.
  GENERAL DEALERS IN

  California
  Wines and
  Brandies

  Cor. Market and Second Sts. San Francisco.

  _VINE GROWERS & DISTILLERS_
  OF
  Gundlach's Cognac Brandy.

_Gutedel, Riesling, Traminer, Hock, Zinfandel, Malvoisier, Burgundy,
Tokay, Angelica, Muscat, Madeira, Etc., Etc._



  Lebenbaum, Goldberg & Bowen,

  SUCCESSORS TO
  BOWEN BROS.

  Importers, Wholesale and Retail

  GROCERS,

  AND

  Wine Merchants,

  Nos. 430 and 432 PINE STREET,
  SAN FRANCISCO.



  WOMEN'S
  Co-operative Printing Office.

  _Mrs. L. S. Richmonds & Son_
  PROPRIETORS.

  420, 424 & 430 Montgomery St., (upper Floor,)
  (ELEVATOR ENTRANCE, 424.)
  _SAN FRANCISCO, CAL._

  Commercial Printing,
  Book Binding,
  Paper Ruling and
  Society Work

_Of all descriptions done at the above address._

Please give us a call if you are in need of Good Work and Fair Dealing
is an object to you.



W. W. Montague & Co.

FRENCH RANGES,

  ALL SIZES FOR
  Hotels, Boarding Houses,
  RESTAURANTS AND FAMILIES.

Chief Emporium on the Pacific Coast for Granite and Agate Iron-Ware AND
POLISHED IRON-WARE.

  MANUFACTURERS OF
  _Plain, Japanned AND Stamped_
  _TINWARE._

Everything Required to Fit up a Kitchen Complete.

  Nos. 309 to 317 MARKET STREET,
  SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.



  MARK SHELDON,

  Wholesale Dealer in
  Sewing Machines and Supplies,

  GENERAL AGENT FOR THE

  "New Davis,"    }
  "New Howe,"     }   FAMILY
  "Household,"    }   SEWING
  "Queen," and    }   MACHINES.
  "June Singer,"  }

  HOWE "A," "B," "C," and "D"

  AND

  Davis Manufacturing Machines,
  NATIONAL NEEDLE COMPANY,
  EXCELSIOR NEEDLE COMPANY,
  "Excelsior" Sewing Machine Oil,
  "Magic" Plaiting Boards, "Acme" Oil-Can Holders, Etc.

  ATTACHMENTS AND PARTS FOR ALL MACHINES.

  Nos. 9, 11 and 13 First Street,
  San Francisco, Cal.



[Transcriber's Notes:

Italics are noted by surrounding the italic section with _underscores_

Bold is noted by surrounding the bold section with +plusses+

Underlines are noted by surrounding the underlined section with =equals=

Small caps are not noted]





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